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Full text of "A Handbook Of Private Schools For American Boys And Girls An Annual Survey Twenty Second Edition"

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573 H23 1937/38 

ICanaaa (City 

This Volume is for 

















































































































































































































Music SCHOOLS 769 




























SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS, $725-81000 .... 843 



































































"UNIOR COLLEGES, $5254700 872 

UNIOR COLLEGES, $72541000 872 

UNIOR COLLEGES, $105041450 873 




















SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS, $105041450 . . . 879 




























SCHOOLS OF Music 891 


























































It was in the late spring of 1914, just twenty-four years 
ago, that we began this work to make private schools better 
known to their patrons and to each other. It was another 
year before the first edition of the Handbook appeared. One 
edition was lost during the War. 

In this quarter century we have produced 22 editions of the 
Handbook of Private Schools, 12 editions of the Handbook of 
Summer Camps, 13 volumes of Private School News, 6 editions 
of the Brief School and Summer Camp Guides, and 9 editions 
of the School and Camp Buyers Guides. About a score of mag- 
azine articles on educational subjects have also been printed, a 
total of some 40,000 pages, perhaps 20,000,000 words printed 
on private schools. 


Constant change, new schools established, spurts of growth 
in others, necessitate thousands of changes each year in this 
Handbook. The new born and the dying demand attention. 
So not only are annual editions necessary, but complete re- 
setting and remaking of each section of the book. 

In this 22nd edition, some forty-five schools, discontinued, 
have been omitted, and thirty-five of decreased importance re- 
moved from the critical text to the supplementary list. Some 
sixty new schools have been noted and introduced, twenty in 
the critical text and forty in the supplementary list, and twenty- 
five, increased in importance, have been moved to the critical 
text from the supplementary list. 

Junior colleges have in the last decade come to play so im- 
portant a part in the further education of our high school and 
private school graduates that more attention to these institu- 
tions has seemed necessary in this edition. About sixty junior 
colleges not heretofore included will be found in the critical 
text and in the supplementary lists. All this shows not merely 
change but healthy growth. 

The vast amount of information accumulated annually has 
made this book not only a guide for parents, as originally 
planned, but an important reference book, an essential desk 
tool, for school and college executives and all who deal with 
our elementary and secondary schools. 

In the colleges and universities these Handbooks are in gen- 
eral use by admissions committees, appointment bureaus, deans. 
In the great cities scores of each edition are in public and private 
libraries. Public school superintendents find use for the book. 



Information bureaus generally keep it at hand. It is found in 
the reading rooms of many hotels, clubs and steamships. But 
the most important distribution is direct to the homes of 
families of wealth and intellect, patrons of the private schools, 
for whom this book is primarily made. 


Information comes from every source, pupils, patrons, prin- 
cipals, trustees, teachers. Schools are given every opportunity 
to supply correct and uptodate information and statistics. Some 
fail to report. In other cases, where figures seem to indicate 
over-optimism on the part of the school head as to the actual 
enrollment, they are omitted. We endeavor to print just the 
information that a parent wants and ought to know, which is 
frequently of a kind that the school head cannot convincingly 
impart and sometimes would not willingly do so. One cannot 
blame the schools for attempting to put their best foot forward. 
Many that have fallen behind, in an effort to put up a good 
front try to make it apparent that things are as they always 
were. Others angle skilfully with honeyed words for similar re- 

The first intent is to give something of the history, traditions, 
and atmosphere of the school, and the personalities that have 
affected and control. Failing to understand this and wishing 
more recognition for himself, the head of one of the nations 
great schools writes, "Only two sentences in the article have 
anything to do with what we have accomplished in the last 
twelve years." Another school head's question, "May I ask why 
your critical attitude toward our school?" brought the response 
"My attitude toward every school is necessarily 'critical'." 

The brief geographical paragraphs are of interest to parents, 
showing as they do something of the atmosphere of the town 
and the environment in which the child will live. The usual real 
estate blurb is avoided, to which the Chambers of Commerce 
occasionally take exception. 

In a quarter of a century one would expect a book like this 
to become static, impersonal, but this edition, as its predecessors, 
it is hoped, shows evidence of considerable vitality. To see the 
parents' problem, the needs of the boy or the girl and to write 
of the schools from this point of view has made the book in- 
creasingly influential and has brought parents, more than a 
thousand a year, to write and come from all over the country 
to this office for further and specific information in connection 
with a particular child. 


Private Schools in the United States and Canada include 
what in England are known both as public schools and private 
schools. The great 'public schools' of England like Eton and 
Harrow correspond to our privately endowed schools like Exeter 
and Andover. 

In the United States "A Private School is one dependent on 
private initiative for its inception and maintenance, not wholly 
or in part dependent on public taxation." Scholastic and legal 
critics of this definition, given in the 1915 edition of this Hand- 
book, have failed to frame a better one. 

Private schools in America have been established by private 
initiative, individual or collective, for the benefit of certain 
groups of children. Usually the motive has been altruistic, the 
desire to serve youth or to demonstrate some new method of 
education or improvement or innovation in school procedure. 
As in all other fields of human endeavor, some abuses, com- 
petitive hostilities, self advertising sometimes cleverly concealed, 
have developed because of the profit motive. 

Education at the tax payers' expense has been so long avail- 
able that we Americans tend to forget that all the practices 
and methods of the public schools originated in schools under 
private initiative. 

The new idea, the new method originates with some one 
man. Sometimes an association or charitable organization takes 
it up. Our secondary school curriculum was largely worked out 
in the private academies which multiplied in the first half of 
the nineteenth century. They created a demand for secondary 
education, so that in the nineties public high schools, main- 
tained at the expense of the taxpayer, began to increase. 

Today in the United States 90% of the total school enroll- 
ment, 33,000,000, is in public educational institutions, 10% in 
private. And 90% of this private school enrollment is in 
Catholic parochial schools, according to the report of the U. S. 
Office of Education. 


The mass demand for education in our country has resulted 
in the almost complete socialization of our schools. Three billions 
of tax-raised money are annually spent to maintain our public 
schools, their million teachers, their tens of thousands of local 
school boards, many with their own system of graft or special 
privilege. The great majority of all our children of school age 
attend these public schools which are almost as completely 



socialized as our sewers. But one may still have a private school 
though one can't have a private sewer. 

There are great stretches of our country, especially west of 
the Alleghenies, where it is considered undemocratic to send 
one's children to a school that is not tax supported. Great uni- 
formity in the curriculum and outlook exists on the whole 
throughout the system. The great city schools and the small 
town schools differ in facilities and atmosphere, but the stand- 
ards are much the same, though there are differences in the 
degree which they are lived up to. There are differences in the 
amount of chromium in the cafeterias, in the elaborateness of 
the equipment in the manual training and athletic departments. 

Only occasionally is there a personality with whom the 
students come in contact whose individuality has not been 
wholly ironed out by the system of supervision and the tyranny 
of the school board. The public school system, however, isn't 
so much affected by the colleges as is the private preparatory 
school permeated by ancient traditions seeping down from 

The most constant thing about the private schools is their 
variety. No two are identical. Each has its distinguishing char- 
acteristics, determined by the tradition, custom, locality, 
clientele, and attitude of the head master or mistress, and the 
attitude and quality of the student body. But still private 
schools in their methods, curriculum, and public pronounce- 
ments remain for the most part conservative and too well 


Never before was there so great an opportunity for initiative, 
straight thinking, bold action in educational leadership. Fore- 
sight and vision is needed to a greater degree in these days 
when there is everywhere confusion of thinking and action. 
The private school has before it a great opportunity, and for- 
tunately, in places, this is being realized. 


The choice of a school is an important matter. Often it deter- 
mines the success or failure of the boy or girl for years if not for 
life. Practically all American parents are ambitious to provide 
the best possible schooling for their children. Discriminating 
parents are yearly corning to appreciate the difficulties and the 
niceties of making a wise selection. 

If during the past few generations parents had been able to 
provide just the right environment for their children, if the 
schools -had achieved complete adjustment for all their pupils, 
everyone about us would be perfectly attuned, adequately in- 
formed, happy and content, and at a maximum of usefulness 
and productivity. All would have right attitudes, good habits. 
And what a different world it would bel 


'Sending the child to school', that was the whole duty of 
parents a generation or so ago. Now parents have begun to 
realize that there's something more to it. The young have 
problems of their own. All we can do is help them, and some 
times we hinder more than we help. It is their world but they 
have to adjust themselves to it. Sometimes it is a difficult and 
serious problem for them. 

Adjustment is the problem of every living individual, plant 
or animal. Those that do not adjust themselves are not a success, 
do not continue to live usefully. A school is supposed to help a 
child to adjust himself to the life and world in which he is to 

The intentions of our parents were good. They were earnest, 
conscientious, ambitious for their children. They took, so far as 
their vision permitted, the best of what was afforded, but the 
results are not such that we can commend them highly. Few 
parents today can conscientiously and sincerely speak as did 
Marcus Aurelius, "I thank the gods that I had abundance of 
good masters for my children." Most parents' good intentions 
merely paved the road to the present hell in which we live, and 
we owe them little gratitude. In "This Is My Story" Mrs. 
Roosevelt, born and bred an aristocrat, tells us she derived little 
benefit from her formal education except for her two years in 
English schools. Logan Pearsall Smith, writing of his boyhood 
and youth, declares, "I got almost nothing of intellectual value 
from Harvard University." Yet he had as fellow students 
Santayana and Berenson, and sat under Royce, James and 




A shoe, however stylish and durable, is worse than useless, 
it's harmful unless it fits. It may cripple the foot. A school may 
be more harmful. It may cripple the brain, one's habits and 
attitudes toward life. 

Maladjustment we find everwhere about us. Maladjusted per- 
sonalities keep our police and psychiatrists busy. One reason 
for this is what we have done to the child. Instead of fitting 
the school to the child, we have attempted to fit the child to 
the school, a Procrustean process that has resulted in mutilating 
the personality. 

If all boys and girls were alike, then the same type of school 
and education would fit all equally well. But boys and girls 
continue to be born different, and in spite of our best efforts to 
make them conform, to mold them to our heart's desire, they 
continue to show individuality. Thank Heaven. 


There are thousands of private schools, over a thousand 
private boarding schools. There are perhaps half as many resi- 
dent secondary schools and junior colleges that may be worthy 
of consideration on the part of the discriminating. It is not easy 
for the earnest parent to select a school to which the boy or 
girl will look back in later years with more gratitude than 
do those who now write memoirs. With no restriction on expanse 
and with a real understanding of the boy or girl, it is still a 
difficult task. 

But with care and discrimination, a school can always be 
found that will meet the need of each child. After a long career 
in dealing with the product of the private school, I have for 
the last two decades been helping parents to find private schools 
in which their boys and girls can make the best adjustment 
toward their future lives. 

It is appalling how often well meaning parents and guardians 
send their children to expensive but inferior schools. Sometimes 
it is the result of false representation, of advertising lure or high 
pressure salesmanship that they are so defrauded. Too often 
the school is chosen on hearsay or on the recommendation of 
one who has no real knowledge. Later the children, feeling that 
time and money have been wasted, are resentful not only to- 
ward the school but toward their parents. 


Once the local minister was relied upon for guidance, educa- 
tional as well as spiritual. Today he is not so much called 
upon for up-to-date information. Of trustees and alumni one 


must also beware. Too often they may have a financial interest 
Most of the 'Associations', 'Bureaus' and free lances, mas- 
querading under high sounding titles, that used to take com- 
missions from schools for securing enrollments have abandoned 
the practice. But, astonishing as it may seem, commissions are 
still paid by schools, otherwise reputable, to some women agents. 
When a representative calls or endeavors to influence an en- 
rollment, it behooves a parent to ascertain how much of the 
tuition money will be paid for this effort. 

How, then, is one to select a school for a particular boy or 
girl that will not mutilate, fustrate, or pinch like an ill fitting 
shoe? There are only two ways of learning about a school 
from the outside and from the inside. 


Unfortunately many school catalogs are misleading. Some are 
deceiving. To a parent who studies a group of catalogs seriously 
they are often puzzling. Some of the long established schools 
publish no catalog, and it is only with the better schools that 
the catalog statements can be relied upon. The self-seeking, 
commercialized school will often publish an elaborate document. 
The catalog of a poor military school is usually bulky and 
pretentious. Too often school catalogs are sales advertisements. 

Many schools put up a good front which is found to be a 
hollow sham when seen from within or behind. Here is a school 
that makes a brave showing in its catalog, which offers every 
kind of course, every variety of outdoor activity. Even a cruise, 
all expenses paid, is thrown in. That it occupies a leased hotel 
doesn't appear as you drive up to it and see the beautifully 
landscaped grounds. Behind the scenes one learns that the 
man at the head has left -behind him a trail of unpaid rents, 
taxes, bankruptcies. Teachers are hired on small salaries, on 
short tenure. High pressure salesmen follow up leads brought 
by the advertising and are paid large commissions. 

Parents often get their first information in regard to a school 
from advertisements in newspapers and magazines. Many excel- 
lent and discriminating schools are still carrying announcements 
in some of the high class magazines, although the old blatant 
large space advertising has passed except for the highly com- 
mercialized southern military and finishing schools. In relying 
upon school advertising consideration must, of course, be given 
to the character of the magazine and the discrimination it uses 
in admitting schools to its columns. 


An outsider may learn something about a school by talking 
with the head. Too often it will be about fatuous theories 


vacuous aims and futile ideals never to be achieved. One may 
visit the school, see bricks, desks, and activities. The trained 
eye will see much that the unaccustomed will miss. Pupils and 
instructors together will inevitably reveal something of under- 
lying relations. One can usually detect whether the pupils are 
occupied in vital accomplishment or plodding doggedly through 
outworn, dry routine. 

It is from the inside that one gets the most valuable informa- 
tion. The disgruntled trustee, the retiring head master, the dis- 
missed teacher or the expelled boy, violently prejudiced as they 
may be, often give some true insight as to what is wrong, who 
pulls the strings, to what purpose, how much of a figure head 
or puppet the head master may be. 


It is safe to assume that all statements made about a school 
are in some degree colored or prejudiced. Only by comparing 
enough varying statements in which diverse prejudices neutral- 
ize each other may one arrive near the truth. 

For twenty years Mr. Sargent, assisted by a resident and 
visiting staff, has been using this comparative and scientific 
method of studying the schools. Everything that has been put 
forth by the schools has been studied and filed. Detailed reports 
by visitors and- parents on all the more important schools have 
had consideration. Information has come by word of mouth 
from teachers, trustees, parents, both the disgruntled and the 
pleased. And ail this information and testimony from scores 
of sources is sifted and weighed each year. 

In response to inquiries a blank is sent on which may be 
presented a detailed picture of the boy or girl, his past schooling 
and needs. Schools are then suggested for investigation, or 
when the parents wish more definite suggestions, photographs, 
letters, school records are requested and studied. This helps 
to an understanding of how the pupil will fit into a particular 
school environment. Where a positive recommendation is de- 
sired, an interview is necessary with the parents and the pupil 
separately, after which there is seldom any hesitancy in recom- 
mending the one school that will best fit the situation. 


Perhaps the most intense desire of American parents is to 
help their children to a better education than they themselves 
had. To this end they seek guidance, from ministers, priests, 
neighbors, college officials. Frequently they are referred to this 
Handbook. They find it, and eagerly scan it, in libraries, in- 
formation bureaus, college offices, bookstores. 

They look up the schools of which they have heard, using 
the Index. The Table of Contents points them to schools in 
the region they prefer. The Classified Lists help them to find 
schools to meet their particular needs. They write for catalogs 
and information or make a preliminary choice and visit the 
school. With perhaps a hundred thousand of these Handbooks 
available for consultation, the number of families thus aided 
each year must be considerable. Annually over a long period 
of years, an average of a thousand families have written, tele- 
phoned, or come to this office for additional information or 


In a lengthy review of the last edition of this Handbook in 
The Social Frontier, November, 1937, Thomas H. Briggs, pro- 
fessor of education at Teachers College, Columbia, remarks: 
Though no specific statement is made to that effect, the book 
is presumably intended to aid parents in selecting a private 
school for an offspring ... It is difficult to see how parents can 
get much help from the data presented when they are attempt- 
ing to select a school". Contrasting the account of Putney 
School, Vermont, and Farmington School, Connecticut, he infers 
that the difference in treatment is due to the fact that one 
school "advertises" and the other "does not advertise in the 

"The mischievous meddling by the people in school affairs" 
was deprecated by Professor Briggs in his Inglis Lecture at 
Harvard, January, 1930. In our review and comment on his 
published lecture, "The Great Investment, Secondary Educa- 
tion in a Democracy", in the 1929-30 edition of this Handbook, 
we pointed out that his one thesis was "that education should 
be considered as -a long term investment by the state that it 
may perpetuate its own interests", and added "Professor 
Briggs' conception of education is that of the pre-war Prussian 
Junker . . . The theme in the Inglis lecture which did most to 
get the headlines was his call for the suppression of every 
private school. He would even suppress Lincoln School of 



Teachers College. Perhaps he would suppress Teachers College 
and Columbia University which are privately, not tax, sup- 


How widespread is the use of the Handbook by parents seek- 
ing information about schools is evidenced from the letters that 
come to us from all these United States, Canada, European 
countries, Turkey, Syria, the Philippines, Hawaii, China and 

From Perugia, Italy, Mrs. F. M. Guardabassi writes, "At 
the American Consulate in Rome I saw your Handbook of 
Private Schools. I would be very much obliged if you will send 
me a copy." She has since called and consulted us a number of 
times about her children. 

Mrs. Lorrin A. Shepard, Istanbul, Turkey, writes, "Your 
Handbook of three or four years ago which helped us to select 
Dana Hall for our daughter and Deerfield for our son is perhaps 
too out of date to give us the essential assistance we need in 
finding the right school for our younger son ..." 

From Mexico, Mrs. S. B. Wright writes, "Your 'Private 
Schools' has long been used in our household along with the 
Bible, the Encyclopaedia, and the Dictionary as a sure reference 
and guide." From California, P. G. Rutherford, former Educa- 
tional Director of the U. S. Navy, " . . . enclosing check for 
your new Private School Directory . . . have used it for many 
years in selecting schools for the sons of naval officers." From 
Boston, Neal O'Hara, "The summary of boys' and girls' board- 
ing schools in America . . . has become a sort of Bible to my 
wife." M. B. Keenan writes from Cambridge, "I do not need to 
interview more masters of schools. I borrowed your Handbook 
and went through it thoroughly. It is a masterpiece. I could 
praise it by using other language, but the word I used includes 
everything that might be said of it." And from Connecticut, 
Judge E. B. Hamlin writes, "Miss Hall, whose school my daugh- 
ter attended four years, sent me your book ... I shall commend 
your publication to others, and have already done so to two 
families who are considering schools for next year." 

Mrs. Thurlow Gordon, New York City, who has consulted us 
over a period of ten years for schools for her children, asks, 
"When will your new Handbook be out? The only one we still 
have is the 1932-33 edition. We had a later one, of course, 
but someone has evidently borrowed it and not returned it. 
Please send me a copy as soon as it is published for I want to 
look up junior colleges for my daughter." 


What should education do? What should schools do to pre- 
pare children for their future? These introductions annually 
attempt to survey what is happening on the frontiers of knowl- 
edge that may affect the next generation. With better under- 
standing of what is doing in the world, with broader horizons, 
parents should be in a better position to decide what is best for 
their children, to evaluate what educational institutions offer. 

The responsibility is the parents'. They cannot escape, how- 
ever they may delegate their functions. Teachers in the last 
analysis are merely mothers helpers. Schools and colleges must 
supply what is demanded. 

Our blind faith has led us to accept education as offered 
without much thought of what it was doing to our children. As 
the disastrous result has become apparent, a more critical and 
discriminating attitude has developed. We are fed up with 
"philosophies of education" which too often are mere apologies 
or excuses for a traditional program, often as meaningless as the 
lazy boy's excuse, "I have a bone in my leg". 


But why should it be necessary to introduce here such a sur- 
vey? Isn't all this available elsewhere? There is an enormous 
output of writing on education. But little of it is helpful to the 
buyer or consumer, the parent or the child. Most of it is trade 
stuff, hardly more professional than that of the astrologer. 

There are hundreds of surveys, weary volumes, dealing with 
methodology and administrative detail. In his Surveys of 
American Higher Education, The Carnegie Foundation for the 
Advancement of Teaching, 1937, Walter Crosby Eells lists more 
than 600 surveys dealing with 1900 higher educational institu- 
tions. 233 of these have been published, totaling 40,000 pages, 
at a cost of $3,000,000. They were produced by salaried or sub- 
sidized "educators" at a cost twenty times as great. Further he 
refers us to Smith's bibliography of more than 2500 references to 
school surveys. 

This surveying of current methodology, financed chiefly by 
the great foundations, still goes on without throwing much light 
on what might be of significance for the next generation. As 
director of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Stand- 
ards, with an appropriation of $200,000, Mr. Eells in the past 
two years has studied 200 secondary schools with the purpose of 
determining "what are the characteristics of a good secondary 
school", "how does a good school develop into a better one". 



"The Advisory Committee on Education" of twenty-two lay 
members, appointed by President Hoover, under the chairman- 
ship of Floyd W. Reeves, is studying the "Federal relationship 
to State and local conduct of education". 


In the early editions of this Handbook, when education was 
more nearly static, the past was the thing to talk about. These 
introductions were then largely historical. With accelerating 
change and the shifting scene so confusing to many, it has 
seemed increasingly important to interpret the advanced 
thought of the day. 

In the edition of 1933-34 attention was given to the "in- 
creased freedom in bringing to light defects and pointing ways 
to better methods in the teaching of civics, history, economics 
and all that has to do with national and social welfare". The 
search was to discover "What Knowledge is of Most Worth" in 
this modern world. 

The changing world, education for a new social order, social 
reconstruction, were topics in the 1934-35 edition in which 
were recorded more changes than had taken place for many 
years past. 

Propaganda was coming to the consciousness of educators in 
1935-36. A great number of books had been published on the 
subject which led to some examination of "How We Get Our 
Ideas", "Why We Think So", "The Power of the Press". 

The keynote of the last edition was given by the Harvard 
Tercentenary and the meeting of the British Association. At 
both there was a new tendency to face realities, to challenge our 
culture, to adapt science to human needs. This led us to take 
account of stock of human resources and to study some the 
methods by which stupidity is perpetuated and teachers made 


This year the keynote is fear. Hope seems to have faded. 
Education lags. Serious minded men in high places look to edu- 
cation as the only means of saving our world. President Ray- 
mond Fosdick of the Rockefeller Foundation in "A Review for 
1936" wrote, "There can be but little question that a serious lag 
has developed between our rapid scientific advance and our 
stationary ethical development, a lag which has already found 
expression in the greatest tragedy of history". 

Listening in at commencements, inaugurals, annual conven- 
tions of professional and business leaders, we should be able to 
learn if their hope in education is justified. 



"The future of America is in the hands of two men the in- 
vestigator and the interpreter", writes Glenn Frank. "We shall 
never lack for the administrator, the third man needed to com- 
plete the trinity of social service. ... A dozen fields of thought 
are today congested with knowledge that the physical and social 
sciences have unearthed, and the whole tone and tempo of 
American life can be lifted by putting this knowledge into 
general circulation. But where are the interpreters with the 
training and willingness to think their way through this knowl- 
edge and translate it into the language of the street? I raise the 
recruiting trumpet for the interpreters". 

Reporting at its best makes clear the position of the reporter. 
Interpretation must be from a fixed and definite view point. So 
the reporter or the interpreter if honest will show a personal 
slant and reflect his own backgrounds, but will suppress his prej- 
udices and avoid giving opinions. Here it will be apparent it is a 
biologist speaking who sees all human problems as matters of 
development and growth, who with paleontological vision peers 
back over the long course of life on this planet. But reporter or 
interpreter must keep in mind those for whom he is working. 
He may be as superficial or profound as is necessary to hold 
their attention. 

University professors who know all the answers in their own 
specialty and dare not look over the fence into the next compart- 
ment will regard all this as superficial. If school masters find 
here ideas of interest they are welcome. 

These pages are for parents. They are written for the hundred 
thousand discriminating families who want the best for their 
children, who at some stage are patrons of private schools and 
colleges. They like to have their imagination stimulated and are 
capable of wider reading and deeper thought than is habitual 
with them. But they will not read this because of a sense of 
duty. They are not taking a college course. The academic style 
of writing, qualified and cautious, would not hold our readers. 
They have other things to do. 

There may be exaggeration. When attention is centered upon 
a thing its importance is magnified just as an object under a 
microscope is exaggerated. There may be distortion. Perspective 
makes objects at greater distance seem smaller, near at hand, 
larger. Perspective is to be desired. The important thing is to 
discover relationships, broad horizons, rather than the minutiae 
in which professors in their water tight compartments luxuriate. 

Relationships will become more apparent the broader our 
range of phenomena and the longer our vision. We may discover 
how things came to be as they are. When we know how an en- 


gine is put together we are in a better position to repair or im- 
prove it. If we knew more about children we could better direct 
their education. 

The raw data is here served up in a way to lead the reader to 
cerebrate. Opinions are of little value. Authority is a thing of the 
past. We must learn to use our own brains as well as our own 
feet. Most of the opinions that people cherish and defend are 
second-hand or inherited prejudices. Those who ooze opinions 
should be treated lightly. 


In his review, previously cited, Professor Briggs gives evi- 
dence that he values his own opinions. Perhaps others do. He 
writes of this Handbook, "The lengthy introduction is com- 
posed of expressions of opinion. . . . Certainly they cannot help 
parents. . . . Apparently they are included here because there is 
no other place for publication and the author likes to see his 
opinions in print. ... He is courageous, bold, or impudent, 
according to one's point of view, in condemning men in high 
places . . . dogmatic comment without obvious justification 
grows increasingly tiresome. . . . Fortunately nobody has to 
read the Introduction." 

Other critics protest his review. "Unkind, unfair." Thurman 
Arnold writes, "indignant at the silly, supercilious review on 
your book in the 'Social Frontier'." They fail to realize that for 
years we have been 'riding' Professor Briggs for his fascist atti- 
tude toward education and democracy. He was entitled to take a 
'swat' at us, and this is his first attempt at a comeback. 


"I especially enjoyed your opening remarks, and shall treasure 
the Handbook as I have two more daughters in the market for 
schools later on", writes Mrs. M. E. Harrison of San Francisco. 
"Please mail me a copy of the latest Handbook. I can't resist the 
temptation to read the Introduction", writes Mrs. J. C. Moore, 
Cambridge, Mass., who for ten years has consulted us about 
schools for her children. "If the 'Introductory' Chapters were 
less entertaining and their educational marrow less advanced 
and stimulating my old copy might appear stale and my struggle 
to get your new editions at the School of Education a hardship", 
writes Mrs. Charles Tirrell, Andover, Mass. "I have read with 
great relish and much profit your observations on the subject of 
schools and education in general, in the forepart of the book", 
writes R. J. Caldwell, New York City. 

"Stimulating reading ... a service to education", writes 


Professor Goodwin Watson of Teachers College, Columbia, who 
has frequently quoted from these introductions. "A beautiful 
job and one that ought to have a lot of influence", Professor 
Thurman Arnold of Yale calls them. "Should be read and 
pondered by every would-be intelligent parent who has a child 
to educate . . . invigorating and thought-provoking . . . deserve 
high praise for transforming what might seem a commercial ven- 
ture into a cultural event", is the way Professor E. A. Ross of the 
University of Wisconsin characterizes them. 

"Exciting reading", Robert M. Yerkes, Yale Laboratories of 
Primate Biology. "Most stimulating", E. A. Hooton, Harvard. 
"Encouraging words", B. Malinowski, London. "I like im- 
mensely the flavor", Kirtley F. Mather, Director of Harvard 
Summer School. "Strength to your arm", Oscar Riddle, Carne- 
gie Institution of Washington. "I can think of no better way of 
measuring the changes which have occurred in educational 
thought since leaving the United States, almost two years ago, 
than a glimpse into your Handbook", writes Margaret Mead 
from Bajoeng Gede, Bali, August, 1937. 

"Read with great approval and many a chuckle", Stuart 
Chase, New York City. "Read with delight and admiration", 
John R. Tunis, Rowayton, Conn. "Read it with interest", 
Eleanor Roosevelt, White House. "Invaluable source book of 
pregnant quotation, and an equally invaluable bibliography of 
liberal writing and thought ... I wish every parent could read 
it understandingly, and I would like to stand most university 
presidents and head masters of schools in a corner, dunce caps 
on their heads, and keep them there until they had learned your 
book by heart. A magnificent production", Struthers Burt, 
Jackson's Hole, Wyo. 

"Exceedingly stimulating ... its challenging liberal point of 
view is, in my opinion, all too seldom found among men inti- 
mately associated with education, and desperately needed", 
Alan R. Blackmer, Phillips Bulletin, Andover, Mass. "Contains 
a hot introduction telling the snobs where they belong. . . . 
Sargent wants a renaissance of leadership and praises the new 
spirit of educators who are demanding intellectual freedom", 
Harry Hansen, New York World-Telegram and syndicate. 
"Terrifying to the philistinic, paralysing to the prim", C. P. 
Ives, New Haven Courier. "Pithy, vigorous and illuminating", 
Clara G. Stillman, Brooklyn Daily Eagle. "Searching comments 
on the educational scene", Millicent J. Taylor, Christian Science 



"Have read the latest copy of Private Schools as usual with 
the keenest interest. ... It maintains the excellent standard 
set for it many years ago. ... I suspect that on most phases of 
education we think very much alike. ... At any rate, I am glad 
to imagine that this may be so", Claude M. Fuess, Phillips 
Academy, Andover, Mass. "From high Olympus you look 
upon the educational scene with a wider horizon than almost 
anybody else of whom I happen to know", Frank S. Hackett, 
Riverdale Country School, Riverdale, N. Y. "I have always 
read eagerly your understanding, fearless, and honest foreword 
as each new volume appears", J. M. Hubball, Great Neck 
Preparatory School, Long Island. "Enjoyed your crisp and 
pointed remarks on various phases of education", H. A. Nomer, 
Shady Side Academy, Pittsburgh. 

"Best thought-out and most constructive material on current 
educational problems . . . information that can be depended 
upon to answer in a responsible way the many questions which 
naturally come to the principal's desk", Stanley R. Yarnall, 
German town Friends School, Philadelphia. "The first one 
hundred and seventy pages . . . amazing . . . The one question 
is whether such a treatise on education and educators has a 
place in the book or should be published by itself", J. D. Allen, 
Polytechnic Preparatory School, Brooklyn. "You have cer- 
tainly brought together a vast amount of challenging infor- 
mation", Morton Snyder, Rye Country Day School, N. Y. 

"Parents are sending me the dipping on your new Handbook 
from the World-Telegram. You have stirred them into thinking. 
You have startled them . . . ", E. E. Langley, Edgewood 
School, Greenwich, Conn. "I have always enjoyed and ad- 
mired the freshness and daring of those front pages. I always 
find myself hoping that they are read and feel sure that they 
could not fail to prove stimulating", Mrs. Lewis D. Bement, 
Bement School, Deerfield, Mass. 


Turning his gaze toward the earth after a lapse of some 
million years and observing the bipeds swarming in spots in the 
valleys and at the river mouths, he queries "What has been 
doing?" A biped replies: 

The first million years have been the hardest, since we came 
down from the treetops. If you saw Martin Johnson's film 
"Borneo", the troops of monkeys in swift airplane flights from 
tree to tree, the three hundred pound orang swinging from a 
branch like a pendulum to get momentum for a sixty foot leap 
to another tree top, you will realize how great a success we had 
achieved in brachiation in our tree top life. 

But this swinging through the trees with the greatest of ease 
did not equip us to walk around on the hard old ground and we 
developed something of an inferiority complex before we became 
steady on our hind legs. 

Meantime we have seen ice ages come and go. In the eon that 
is past we have learned to master fire. We have split the atom 
into neutron and proton and may yet train the moron. We have 
devised a lot of things from bow and arrow to radio but more 
important we have invented a set of explanations which we have 
to keep changing as we find the old don't work. 


Now in 1938 we approach a maximum sixty-eight year period 
of sunspots, electrical storms which affect all life, we are told by 
Harlan True Stetson, research assistant at M. I. T., in Sunspoti 
And Their Effects, Whittlesey House, 1937. The cycle of sun- 
spots affects cycles in human activities, the quality of vintages, 
the number of Hudson Bay pelts, the volume of building, the 
price of stocks and other things Stetson shows. 

This sixty-eight year periodicity was worked out by H. H. 
Clayton, formerly of the Blue Hill Observatory "from a long 
and elaborate analysis of all the sunspot numbers available from 
1750 to 1910". From data sixty years old he has been able to 
prophesy the number of sunspots years in advance. 

Another record was broken in human observation March 26, 
1938, when observers at Mt. Wilson reported a fiery cloud of 
hydrogen and calcium gas that shot up from the surface of the 
sun 970,000 miles, two-fifths the distance to the moon. The 
greatest height previously observed in September, 1937, was 
only 625,000 miles. 

On the night of October 30, 1937, while the earth was speed- 


ing on its way, eighteen miles a second, we missed by five and a 
half hours, collision with another smaller and reckless planet 
going twenty miles a second. Previously unknown, it is now 
named Hermes. Had the young upstart fallen into mother 
earth's lap there would have been such earthquakes and such 
tidal waves as the earth has not known since the moon leaped 
from the Pacific basin, as W. H. Pickering first postulated in 1902. 
Perhaps it was this that broke up the crust so that the conti- 
nents, with their plant and animal life have been drifting as 
Alexander L. Du Toit tells in Our Wandering Continents: An 
Hypothesis of Continental Drifting, Oliver and Boyd, Edin- 
burgh, iQ37. It is fifty million years since the earthworms of 
South Africa and the southern tip of South America parted 
company, an average of less than five inches travel a year. 


Within a few years man for the first time has passed the two 
billion mark, the maximum number of the species yet attained. 
We have learned to increase food supply and lessen the death 
rate from disease. Thousands of other species have become ex- 
tinct. Man has played a part in killing off some of them but 
meantime has developed new ones. The Pekingese and the 
mastiff would be considered as such if found in nature. 

Cosmic rays, new to human consciousness, we find affect our 
genes and bring about new variations and perhaps species. 
Chemical hormones from our glands, and now made in the labo- 
ratory, change our behavior, and control human nature which 
we once believed unchangeable. Human breeding, now hap- 
hazard and aimless, will then perhaps be less disastrous to the 
race. At present tabus which prevent the more ignorant from 
limiting birth are resulting in a degradation of the quality and 
intelligence of the species. 


We are discovering tabus, previously unsuspected as such, 
which affect our everyday life. First discovered among the 
South Sea Islanders by Captain Cook a century and a half ago, 
we have only recently learned to what extent our own behavior 
is controlled by tabus. 

Folklore, too, we have learned is not confined to the primitive 
and ignorant peasants. Thurman Arnold in his "Folklore of 
Capitalism" within the year has shown how controlling a factor 
it is among our leaders in business, government, and education. 

Insanity in all its varieties has increased among the species. 
One in twenty now in our schools will be mentally or socially 
maladjusted, mental or criminal cases. Psychiatrists and se- 
manticists are just beginning to discover how far the old folk- 
ways and tabus still held are responsible. 

WAR 35 

Suppression, of natural tendencies and impulses, in which 
the schoolhouse plays a part, sends an increasing number to the 
bughouse. Violation, we still treat as delinquency or crime and 
route them to the 'pen'. With a cleaning up of the mental debris 
in the minds of those who control, these maladjustments may 
eventually be corrected. 


"The Proper Study of Mankind", Pope's eighteenth century 
slogan, within two years has been adopted by the Rockefeller 
Foundation as its program. "The Review for 1937", outlining 
the future program, plans to shift expenditure for research from 
the field of physical health to mental health. 

The Foundation has discovered that "medicine includes 
psychiatry" pointing out that until recently only "occasional 
leaders in medicine suspected . . . mental and nervous diseases 
... as diseases at all. Witchcraft . . . resulted in torture . . . 
admission was charged at Bedlam, the London madhouse, to 
those who wished to amuse themselves with the spectacle of the 
violently insane". 

So man's greatest mystery, man, is beginning to yield his 
secrets through patient study. 


Slavery and serfdom, the means of getting others to do the 
dirty and heavy work, under the lash, has passed recently. 
There have been no serfs in Germany since 1830, in Russia 
since 1860. In our own country indentured white servants knew 
the brand and the whip until the thirties, blacks until the sixties. 

Authority, divine right, supernatural rewards and threats no 
longer control. It is cheaper to fool 'em than to rule 'em. We use 
newspapers. "The omnipotence of the press is perhaps the most 
dangerous disease which infects free institutions today", writes 
Joy Elmer Morgan. "The intellectual classes have been debased 
by the immense spread of newspapers, cheap literature, radios 
and cinemas. Unintelligence is becoming m^re and more 
general", (Alexis Carrel, "Man the Unknown"). 

We fool 'em with modern fetishes, demDcracy, national 
honor, manifest destiny. Fuddled and fooled, the masses look to 
leaders whom the shrewd promote, then pull the strings. 


Our species is still predatory. The more aggressive accumulate 
the results of others' labors by force or personality or intellect. 
They take the products of the soil or the mind from others. 
Some intelligence, crafty, deprives. Some intelligence, inventive, 
bestows. Gladly we reward the intelligence that increases our 


productivity. When men, groups, or nations take more than 
they contribute, there is discontent, a feeling of injustice, that 
leads to rebellion, or war. Large portions of humanity are still 
held not by democratic plebiscites but by naked, brutal force. 
But war is not so lethal as when Caesar, in a day, destroyed by 
sword a whole tribe, 750,000, penned between two rivers. 
Again the world hears the sound of "ancestral voices pro- 
phesying war". Hungry and prolific peoples are challenging 
the formerly aggressive who conquered the more docile, seized 
their wealth and lands and are now fattening on the spoils. 


The white man for four centuries has strutted and imposed 
his inflated ego on the other races. Today Europeans are in re- 
treat from Asia, commercially, culturally, politically and terri- 
torially. Dr. No-Yong Park, Ph.D., Harvard, in his Retreat of 
the West, Hale, Cushman and Flint, 1937, with humor and 
liveliness tells the story. From the dawn of history the Asiatic 
overran Europe, bringing culture and religion. Rome comquered 
Asia Minor but was powerless before the Scythians of Asia 
Major. Asiatic hordes overran Europe and destroyed Rome and 
during the last thousand years they reached the plains of France 
through Spain and across Europe and later thundered at the 
gates of Vienna. But the European with his scientific advance in 
matters material should be able to give the Asiatic a large 
handicap, however he may excel in the esthetic and spiritual. 


Species have come and gone. For a hundred and forty million 
years dinosaurs in their might and power dominated the earth. 
The dam remains unchanged, a stand patter. Other species 
have reverted, gone back on their course, retreated from the sun- 
light to the caves, or underground. 

Our human species has come a long way in a hundred thou- 
sand years, but now in a time of inevitable change, when vision 
and guidance will count most, our leaders are confused, our 
loud speakers jittery. Our great universities, which should be 
sharpening the edge of youth to cut through the confusion in 
these times of change, have fallen down on the job. 

Craven leaders in panic are councilling retreat, back to 
medievalism, feudalism, to authority and obedience. Back, 
back, they cry, when the way is forward. 

Most bipeds feel the impetus forward and, rid of the sense os 
sin, the consciousness of guilt, the inferiority complex which haf 
held them down, they may yet attain that paradise, that heaven, 
long yearned for. 


The founders of our country knew, preached and wrote that 
democracy could be made to work only if we had a people edu- 
cated and trained for that purpose. But we have forgotten 
about that. We have not been faithful to the trust they pkced 
in us. Busy exploiting a continent, we ourselves have been 
stupidly exploited. Now the time of awakening is at hand. We 
must face reality or cease to be a democratic people. 

In the present state of the world, what we do with children 
and youth is vastly more important than in quiescent, normal 
times. With everything changing about us, the future will be- 
long to those who are prepared for it. What that preparation 
should be depends upon the immediate environment. 


In Japan a few, in order to perpetuate their control, sup- 
press thought as dangerous and cultivate the myth of the sun 
goddess and absolute obedience. In Russia the Soviets use edu- 
cation to build a pre-conceived social order and those trained in 
this system make the world safe for Stalin. Hitler has magnified 
the ego of depressed youth in his revised system of education and 
training and continues the inevitable century long process of 
unifying the German peoples. Mussolini, beginning with the six 
year old 'Wolves of Fascism' has 'dewopped the wops'. He has 
made poor Italy a first class power. 

In these autocratic countries youth have their chests out, their 
tails up. The training and conditioning process of youth accom- 
plishes its purpose. Education has become a first line of defense. 
The autocrats know that each child is an asset and must be 
successfully trained or they go under. 


In our free and democratic country objectives are not so 
clearly defined. We can still afford to indulge in platitudinous 
and hypocritical bunk. Prejudices, traditional practices, in- 
herited attitudes, programs, we parade as 'philosophies'. 

Our private schools for the elect have always been the pace 
setters. They have demonstrated the value of educational 
methods and created popular demand for them. Only after 
long battles were the tax payers forced to support universal 
public education. And so we have education free to all. 

But in our best private schools is education still free to grow, 
to change? It should be. It must be if it is to adapt itself and 
preparejyouth for a changing world. 




Pitiful are the sacrifices that parents make to enable their 
children to be subjected to the institutional processes which in 
apology we call education. Bitterly we are coming to doubt its 
value. President Hutchins at Chicago, June, 1937, said, 

"The community has had a child-like faith that from insti- 
tutions of learning some leadership might emerge. The results 
to date have hardly justified the ecstatic hopes. . . . Taking the 
country over there is little evidence that its college and univer- 
sity graduates as such have ever done, said, or even thought 
anything which suggested that they could be singled out to lead 
the way in improving the education, government, or character 
of our people. " 

Our educators don't know what to aim at. From twenty-five 
possible purposes of education, presidents of three hundred 
colleges and universities were asked to number in importance. 
Manners, personality and character ranked high. Mental disci- 
pline came twenty-second. A generation ago it would have been 
first. Actually, most go to college to get into the higher income 
tax brackets. 


"Helpless in the grip of economic and social forces too large 
and overwhelming for them individually to cope with, five 
million young people are out of school and jobless", Josephine 
Roche, then Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, told the 
Wellesley commencement gathering in 1937. Many "make a 
clean breast of adult failure and inability to make the world a 
fair and hopeful place" and admit, "We've made a mess of it". 

"We have no time to waste if our schools are not to go on de- 
livering year by year fresh hordes of ignorant, unbalanced and 
uncritical minds, at once suspicious and credulous, weakly gre- 
garious, easily baffled and easily misled into the monstrous re- 
sponsibilities and dangers of this present world. More cannon 
fodder and stuff for massacres and stampedes", H. G. Wells 
said at the British Association in 1937. 


"It may possibly be that we have gone too far already that 
nothing can restore the world to sanity." Surveying the sorry 
state of the world, the threat to our democratic dream, Head 
Master Fuess, in his commencement address, June, 1937, 
uttered these words to his departing Andover seniors. "But I 
am quite sure that our chief hope lies in arousing in young men a 
sense of community responsibility. Even education may not 
save the world, but if it cannot, nothing else can." 


This education that may 'save the world', what is its sum and 
substance, where may one hear a true confession as to its ideals 
and purposes? Perhaps at the commencements where after four 
years of guidance the great of the university are saying their last 
words of farewell, at such a time the last words imparted 
should be straightforward and revealing. 


The great preparatory schools like Andover and Exeter, even 
more than the lesser schools, reflect closely the ideals from 
above. But all are dominated by the standards imposed upon 
them. Head masters and teachers are college trained, stamped 
and branded with the essential degrees. 

Their pupils follow the pattern of studies laid down by the 
colleges for entrance. That there have been hundreds of changes 
in the pattern in the last three decades never shakes the confi- 
dence of the colleges and universities that they are now right, 
however wrong they may have been in the past. That the re- 
quirements of some other are different can only mean to the 
authorities of a particular one that the other is finical. 

Youth so selected, the colleges and universities hold for four 
years in the hollow of their hands. Theirs is the sacred task to 
transmit to the elect of the generation the best of our human 
heritage, the wisdom of the past, to prepare them for the future 
leadership of their fellows. 


The beacon light of learning, which had flickered murkily 
while Lowell was making Harvard safe for Back Bay youth, was 
at the Tercentenary blown into a mighty flame by President 
Conant. But at the 1937 commencement he wearily fell back on 
safe generalities. There was little attempt to revive the heroic 

Conspicuous in the Yard were the flaming, flaunting robes of 
Cardinal O'Connell, upon whom was conferred not the D.D. or 
the Litt. D., but the LL.D. This was but just reward for stand- 
ing so valiantly for years at legislative hearings against the Child 
Labor Amendment with President Emeritus Lowell and Bishop 
Emeritus Lawrence, in whose ancestral mills he labored as a 
child, as he tells so bitterly in his "Recollections". The following 
Sunday the Cardinal staged with military pomp another Roman 
Catholic spectacle in the Harvard stadium, state and city offi- 
cials attending. 



Of the commencement speakers, Dr. Edmund . Day, the 
new president of Cornell, attempting to buck up and reassure 
his hearers, said, "I venture to believe that . . . Harvard . . . 
will face its responsibilities . . . The American people will con- 
tinue to look confidently to the great universities of the country, 
and assuredly to this oldest of them all, to justify mankind's 
growing faith in intelligence, in its never-ending struggle with 
the forces of prejudice and passion". 

Dr. Walter Cannon, speaking somewhat apologetically for the 
Tercentenary Conference on Human Behavior, did not fail to 
hold the note there sounded of optimistic idealism. "What can 
be done to improve human behavior? Here, at last, we confront 
the most important frontier of all. Here is the supreme chal- 
lenge." We have "depended too largely on speculative thinking. 
. . . Certain it is that there exist potent biological factors which 
shape our ends, that theorists have not dreamed of". 

Former Governor Winant of New Hampshire, fresh from his 
social security labors at Washington, addressing the Phi Beta 
Kappa, also showed realistic awareness or the needs of the time 
and die functions of the university. "It is the task of our men of 
learning to explain the needs of the future to those who fear to 
lose the hard won gains of the past and to direct the building of 
those who would have only eyes for the future to rest their works 
on the solid foundations of the past . . . The great economic and 
social forces which have been sweeping over us in these last 
years ask more of us than of any previous generation." 


At Amherst, Chief Justice Hughes orated, "Democracy . . . 
must guard the fundamental blessings of freedom . . . Foremost 
is the need for truth which consists of thoroughness and pre- 
cision . . . Resistance to propaganda, demagogues and zealots 
of all kinds must be checked by a thorough training in emotional 
and moral stability and knowledge of the fundamentals of 

At Brown University, too, the words that fell from the lips 
of the Chief Justice were equally original, characterized by the 
same straight thinking and downright sincerity. To frustrated 
youths all over the land, from the mouths of a hundred orators, 
the same time worn phrases may have sounded like meaningless 
platitudes. Specific suggestions as to how to use democracy, how 
to make it work, which might stimulate youth to action, were 
avoided, as befits a scholarly atmosphere. It would not do to in- 
flame youths to enthusiasms that might interfere with some 
trustee's or donor's established rights and privileges. 

'Liberty* can always be used to stir the blood and stultify the 
brains of socially inferior students or laborers. "Liberty is a 


weasel word. In the first place it is never liberty but liberties. In 
the second place liberties, if they are more than empty phrases, 
are not negative; they are positive . . . The problem is one of the 
coordination of civil liberties with economic regimentation." No 
one said this at commencement. It comes from Dr. Joseph A. 
Leighton, head of the department of philosophy at Ohio State 
University, whose most recent book is Social Philosophies in 
Conflict, Appleton, 1938. 


From such a survey one comes back with few pearls among the 
handfuls of 'dead sea ashes'. Men heroic in their youth played 
safe in their commencement addresses, protecting pelf and 
privilege as if to prove that Henry Sloane Coffin, president of 
Union Theological Seminary, was right in saying at Wellesley, 
"Truth-seeking and truth-speaking are the luxuries of the safe". 

Fear of intelligence was voiced by Dr. Charles N. Arbuckle, 
pastor of the First Baptist Church, Newton Center, at the 
Northeastern University baccalaureate. He said, "If we give 
free play to our intelligence, untempered by wisdom and high 
idealism, we may produce only moral anarchy . . . Jesus may 
not have been qualified to graduate from any one of our modern 
colleges, but He brought something into the world without 
which the learning of all the colleges and universities in the 
world today is a menace rather than a hope". 

George E. Vincent gave the Amherst Alumni Council insight 
into one policy to be followed in choosing commencement speak- 
ers. "By associating only with like-minded people one has a 
sense of intellectual activity without encountering those con- 
flicts of ideas which might bring on an attack of reflection". 


"If we are not serious about training the mind, if we do not 
do this job well, we shall do no job well. A university that fails 
in this perpetrates a fraud upon society", eloquently declared 
President Dodds at Princeton. "And so Princeton provides for 
the undergraduate a miniature world in which he can learn to 
live, to lose, and to triumph". Some call it a country club. Evi- 
dently it's a self -admiration society. 

'Training the mind* is a good old standby to fall back on. 
Failure or success is so hard to prove, and such varying stand- 
ards can be applied. The researches of Dr. Learned in the 
Pennsylvania colleges fail to show that the college course in- 
creases the intelligence quotient or the fund of information. At 
the Phi Beta Kappa initiation at Tufts, Professor H. V. Neal in- 
formed them, "There are no better trained minds than those of 
Jesuit priests". 



At the Yale commencement President Angell declared, 
"Menacing shadows have already fallen athwart our path", 
liberty and democracy "are in peril in our land". "The dog- 
matic assurances of our political medicine men" failed to quiet 
his fears in regard to our "bastard democracy" and "the spawn 
of a decaying liberalism". Questioning the right of the majority 
to rule, he called for "protection of indefeasible human rights 
through . . . the courts". Compulsorily retired at sixty eight, he 
told the graduates he, too, dropping his "amateur academic 
standing", expected "to get a job after Commencement". 

His baccalaureate provided headlines for the newspapers on 
the "rape of the Constitution" and his "stern criticism of labor". 
He "expressed confidence in the fairness" of employers, and 
made a "stirring plea for the return of youth to the philosophy of 
Christ". But Bishop Lawrence almost simultaneously was hold- 
ing up Christ as a stimulus to youth. "Jesus calls us to blaze new 
trails and open up new areas of life as yet unknown". 


Few of these speakers were blazing 'new trails 1 or opening 
'new areas of life', though at the lesser colleges words of wisdom 
might have been heard. They in no way justified the implicit 
faith that the American people have placed in education. Some, 
it is true, realized that they had fallen down on their job, but 
most lost themselves in platitudes. These great educators are 
evidently intellectually starved or poisoned, reflecting preju- 
dices and hatreds, the propaganda fed by a controlled press to 
create public opinion. 

But does that mean that we shall give up the faith in educa- 
tion of the founding fathers, who looked to the schools to make 
democracy work? Or does it mean that we must repudiate our 
present education and educators and get something better? 
We must have vision, immediate worthy objectives, a revival of 
the heroic attitude, if we are to 'save the world'. 


Winnowing the commencement addresses yielded 'a few 
grains of corn, mother'. The fall crop of inaugurals, of new presi- 
dential hopes and ideals, produced a little more. 


This year sixty- three new college presidents were inaugurated. 
Nine of the forty New England college presidents were replaced, 
a turnover of 22.5%. To reduce this, trustees more than formerly 
select relatively young men. But some resign to preserve their 
self-respect, like Tyler Dennett, whose rugged and honest inde- 
pendence ruffled his finance minded trustees. 

Not long ago President Neilson advocated a "Be-Kind-To- 
College-Presidents Week", evidence that the president occupies 
no easy chair. Another, anonymously writing on "Prexy", 
Harper's, January, 1938, tells in a gossipy way, without scratch- 
ing deep enough to reveal underlying causes, well worn stories 
of the difficulties met with by a score of presidents. John R. 
Tunis, author of "Was College Worth While?", in "College 
President", Harper's, February, 1937, deals virilely with these 
forces. He presents a pitiful picture of a brave young president 
standing for what is sensible and right, and as a result thrown 
down and out. He leads us to pity the poor college president who 
prostitutes himself to prosper. 


"In the whole library of academic documents, none is more 
dangerous than the inaugural address", said Levering Tyson in 
his inaugural at Muhlenberg College. 

Clarence A. Dykstra, successful city manager of Cincinnati, 
and hero of the recent Ohio flood, who succeeded Glenn Frank 
as president of the University of Wisconsin, writes, "I gave no 
inaugural address at the University; first of all because we had 
no inauguration, at my request, and second because I do not 
know how to make a pronouncement on education. I did give a 
charge to the graduating class in June and 1 spoke for ten or 
fifteen minutes to the first meeting of the faculty the other day. 
Neither of these talks is an attempt to box the compass in edu- 

Against alumnae opposition, twenty-five trustees, mostly 
male, elected Roswell Gray Ham first male president of Mt. 
Holyoke. Though he had devoted his life to the study of Dryden, 
in his inaugural he tactfully went still farther away from the 
modern, confining his remarks to St. Paul and Plato, whom he 



links up with Mussolini and Hitler. Worrying about "Where 
exactly is the open mind to end?", he reminded us there is al- 
ways "an area that is verboten, where speech itself is suspect". 
Williams, Cornell, and Yale, on October 8 inaugurated new 
presidents, in impressive ceremonies, with the aid of prominent 
robed and becapped figures of the academic world. Speaking as 
though with one voice, they deplored the world situation, the 
dangers besetting their quiet, pleasant academic life. 

Dr. Edmund E. Day, in his inaugural at Cornell, where he 
succeeded the brave and beloved Livingston Farrand, safely 
generalized that the university should be the place where stu- 
dents may "improve their command of the difficult art of think- 
ing", and discussed the forces that today make it so difficult for 
the universities "to maintain the primacy of the intellectual 

Dr. Day, at Harvard the preceding June, on the occasion of 
receiving the honorary degree from Conant, had said, "Govern- 
ments come and go. ... The great -university survives and 
moves on". 

Conant, at the Cornell inauguration, prophesied the passing 
of the national selective university like Harvard, dependent upon 
the largesse of finance capitalists. "During the next century of 
academic history, university education in this republic will be 
largely in the hands of the tax-supported institutions. As they 
fare, so fares the cultural and intellectual life of the American 

at recalled that Jefferson had hoped that the university 
might develop an "aristocracy of talent and virtue", appreciat- 
ing "the necessity of culling from every condition of our people 
. . . and preparing it at the public expense for the care of the 
public concerns". Littauer's gif t to Harvard of two and a quarter 
millions for a School of Public Administration provides an oppor- 
tunity for Harvard to do this. "If the student bodies of the pri- 
vately endowed colleges and universities are true geographic 
cross-sections of the country, these institutions can fulfill a 
unique and vital function in American education. . . . The 
second and perhaps more important function of a privately 
endowed institution is to act as an innovator and pacemaker." 

At Williams, James Phinney Baxter III in his inaugural asked, 
"Will the members of this Class of 1941 leave this valley better 
equipped than were the members of the Class of 1914 to master 
the problems of the business cycle, of democracy, and of the 
maintenance of peace? My own college generation failed to 

' ON 'VERITAS' 45 

solve these problems, in part at least because we were inade- 
quately prepared. What can we do in our colleges and univer- 
sities now to help the next generation to do better?" 

He demanded that "the American student . . . familiarize 
himself to some degree with both the content and the methods 
of the whole range of the social sciences". He had returned to his 
alma mater from Harvard, where he had been professor of his- 
tory. How "Harvard Starves the Social Sciences" had been 
explained just a month before in The Nation, May 15, 1937, by 
Robert Keen Lamb, now on the economics faculty of Williams, 
who, disgruntled, had resigned the previous year from Harvard, 
where he had been director of publicity, and colleague of Sweezy 
and Walsh. 

Baxter espoused Justice Holmes' "principle of free thought 
not free thought for those who agree with us but freedom for the 
thought that we hate", and pointed out that in one year, 
1935, "seventy-five gag laws of various sorts were enacted by the 
legislatures of forty-four states and in two of these states the 
mere utterance of opinion was defined as criminal". 

"When one thinks of the cultural lag which is so striking a 
feature of modern society", he said, "it is clear that the tempo 
of intellectual life in American colleges and universities, already 
notably quickened, must become still faster". He quoted from 
President Eliot's inaugural address, "The notion that education 
consists in the authoritative inculcation of what the teacher 
deems true may be logical and appropriate in a convent, or a 
seminary for priests, but it is intolerable in universities and 
public schools, from primary to professional". He quoted Emer- 
son, "Colleges can only highly serve us when they . . . gather 
from far every ray of various genius to their hospitable halls, 
and by the concentrated fires, set the hearts of their youth on 

In February, 1938, Conant, receiving the LL.D. at Williams, 
was introduced by Baxter as "a chemist who sought to unlock 
the secret of plant growth; now the leader in a more difficult and 
more important quest; how to advance scholarship and main- 
tain liberty in 2oth century America". Reflecting stress, Conant 
emphasized the necessity for a "balance of power between those 
within the academic walls and those without". 

"We are consecrated to a scholarship that seeks the truth and 
illumines the truth with the light of freedom and spiritual faith. 
. . . 'To seek the truth' today is a dangerous occupation, and 
those who seek had best prepare themselves to endure the con- 
sequences. . . . The Yale atmosphere must be so completely 
impregnated with the sense of freedom that our students going 


from here will serve naturally and universally as its apostles. 11 
This frank confession and complete adherence to 'truth' made 
by President Charles Seymour at his inauguration at Yale, 
should have thrilled his hearers. Very much in his mind must 
have been the recent unpleasantness over the matter of the dis- 
missal of Professor Jerome Davis. "This action was taken upon 
recommendation of the Provost, Professor Charles Seymour, 
with the concurrence of the President", reported the special 
investigating committee to the Council of the American Asso- 
ciation of University Professors. 

Jerome Davis' "reappointment was refused, in part, because 
he accepted and expounded the views of Professor S. B. Fay on 
the origins of the World War in other words, because he had 
regard for the facts. At the same time, Professor Charles Sey- 
mour, whom many competent authorities regard as highly 
reluctant to accept these facts, was made president of the Uni- 
versity." (Harry Elmer Barnes, "History of Historical Writ- 
ing", p. 287). 


Thurman Arnold, professor in the Yale Law School, writes 
of Yale, "The academic life was different from practice in that 
the scholarly heroes were men who dug up little sections of 
truth for the love of it a purely monastic ideal. Yet this myth- 
ology was tempered and molded by the great overshadowing 
divinity, the American Businessman. Yale was doing what it 
could to search for truth in the same organized efficient way in 
which the United States Steel Corporation made steel." 

To the college president goes the millionaire to get degrees and 
decorations. From the millionaire the college president must 
extract funds. In between, the professor is pinched and must 
conform. But new broom or old, it must serve its purpose. 
"The Higher Learning", as Veblen sapiently observed, mani- 
fests that "serene and voluble loyalty to the current conven- 
tionalities and a conspicuously profound conviction that all 
things are working out for good, except for such untoward 
details as do not visibly conduce to the vested advantage of the 
well-to-do business men under the established law and order". 


It isn't 'big business', running a university, but nervous busi- 
ness for the cloister-bred, pulled from laboratory or study. The 
'little business men' of the college world meet in the Association 
of American Colleges, which counts 528 members. Three hun- 
dred representatives met at Chicago, January 20 and 21, 1938, 
and appealed to Congress to eliminate taxation on gifts, which 
have declined one-half in ten years. 

The exclusive American Association of Universities is limited 
to the thirty or so private and state institutions with the most 
money to spend. The three day annual meeting at Brown Uni- 
versity, November, 1037, developed more heat than light, and 
some foreboding shadows, but no suggestion as to how educa- 
tion might 'save the world'. Their interest was the rate of inter- 
est on their investments. 


The topics discussed were mostly inside stuff, shop talk, the 
effect of taxation on gifts, and how to invest money for higher 
yield. Some institutions have now put forty per cent of their 
endowment into common stocks. 

The passing of the private university, as prophesied by Presi- 
dent Conant, will be accelerated by the wasting away of en- 
dowments, and the diminishing return. Morgenthau and other 
wise men have set a new fashion of leaving their money to be 
spent, not hoarded. The Rockefeller Foundation, realizing the 
impermanence of investments in these changing times, is pro- 
viding that specific grants may be spent for other purposes after 
twenty -five years. But Rhodes, the Boston grocer, hopefully 
provided in his 1937 will that his estate shall accumulate. When, 
some centuries hence, the amount of the principal is $100,000,- 
ooo, the income is to go to the Gordon College of Theology and 
Missions. Such is the impotence of the dead hand. 

In "Endowments in Jeopardy," Atlantic, December, 1937, 
Edwin W. Kemmerer, Princeton economist, explains how in 
Germany all endowments were wiped out, in other countries 
diminished, and points to the dangers in this country. But he 
doesn't recognize with President Conant that all universities 
will eventually have to be tax supported. 

The Promises Men Live by, Random House, 1938, by Harry 
Scherman, president of the Book-of-the-Month Club, makes 
clear that our whole culture, all endowments, bonds, bank notes, 
are merely promises. He reminds us that government bonds are 
generally destined for repudiation. The total amount of all cor- 



porate and governmental promises to pay, in 1929 amounted to 
over 200 billions. Since then much of this has been wiped out 
through bankruptcies, repudiations, and reorganizations, and 
the value of the remaining debt scaled down by the reduction 
in the value of the dollar. How much of this debt incurred for 
former follies our grandchildren will pay, no man can figure out. 


President Seymour, in the presence of the President of Har- 
vard, which had just received two and a quarter millions from 
Lucius N. Littauer, the glove man, for a Graduate School of 
Public Administration, "warned against developing depart- 
ments of contemporary economics and political science at the 
expense of the classics, philosophy, literature and kindred sub- 
jects" (School and Society, November 20, 1937). 

"I know of no evidence", he said, "to indicate that a man will 
make a better Secretary of the Interior, or a better collector of 
customs, or a better citizen, as a result of having concentrated 
upon the study of Government than if he had concentrated on 
the Greek and Latin classics". Let us hope that Yale doesn't 
staff its cancer research, for which it has recently received ten 
millions, with those who have "concentrated on the Greek and 
Latin classics", nor that President Seymour patronizes a dentist 
who acquired his proficiency in the practice of blacksmithing. 

Some months later, Professor Cecil Driver of Yale, turning 
toward Harvard, made the same face. "Government workers 
should learn to govern within the government itself they 
should be apprentices." The Harvard Alumni Bulletin adds, "A 
few decades ago this was said of law, medicine, teaching, and 

But though Yale may continue to train future statesmen on 
Greek and Latin, Princeton, the Universities of Minnesota and 
Pennsylvania, New York University, Radcliffe, and the Na- 
tional Institute of Public Affairs, all provide for training in 
government administration and public management, generally 
in cooperation with local state and city government. 

But Seymour's attitude is common enough. Even Conant, the 
scientist, in his 1936 annual report had deplored the increased 
demand for the social sciences on the part of the students, who 
were deserting the classics. Hutchins, a Yale man now at Chi- 
cago, in his "The Higher Learning" had said, "All there is to 
journalism can be learned through a good education and news- 
paper work. All there is to teaching can be learned through a 
good education and being a teacher. All there is to public admin- 
istration can be discovered by getting a good education and 


being a public servant". He found comfort in quoting Aristotle's 
Politics, "The same education and the same habits will be found 
to make a good man and a good statesman and king". 

Light is thrown by the great British economist and sociologist, 
John Atkinson Hobson. Rewrites, "Where the elements of civics, 
politics and economics are introduced . . . care must be taken to 
keep them inoffensive by confining them to descriptive informa- 
tion, or, if any controversial issue is introduced, to a balanced 
statement of the pros and cons. While it is admitted by most 
thoughtful teachers that a living interest in history and in social 
institutions would be best evoked by an intelligible account of 
current happenings and the present-day working of these insti- 
tutions . . . this rational process is banned by its very merit of 

President Hutchins of Chicago was nominated for the presi- 
dency of the United States, according to an AP dispatch, Febru- 
ary 24, 1938, by Sinclair Lewis before a distinguished audience 
in Washington. "He is authentically a great man", the story 
teller said, "the kind of man who could face Stalin, Mussolini 
and Hitler and make them a little ashamed". The books Hut- 
chins prescribes for the students of today, Sinclair Lewis has 
remarked elsewhere, would be "a full cultural fare ... for a 

Hutchins is looking for authoritarian sanction. The Church is 
ready to receive him into its bosom, as it does those who would 
avoid the confusion of this world. He would be sure to get the 
Catholic vote. W. F. Cunningham in The Catholic Education 
Review, January, 1938, quotes with exultation Hutchins 1 words, 
"Without theology or metaphysics a university cannot exist", 
and continuing in the style of Hutchins, adds, "The aim of 
higher education is wisdom. Wisdom is knowledge of principles 
and causes. ... A Catholic university . . . places theology at 
the center of its whole intellectual system, but any theology 
worthy of the name must have a metaphysical basis." 

These college people dp a lot of talking. Some of it is warmed 
over and served up in print. Recent books by college presidents 
are mostly small talk about small business. 

Shaking the presidential dust of Yale from his feet, James 
Rowland Angell publishes in American Education, Yale Univer- 
sity Press, 1937, recent addresses and articles. He holds that the 
essence of a liberal education is "intellectual curiosity", but 
couldn't approve Jerome Davis' snooping about in the ways of 
"Capitalism and Its Culture", 1936. 


Dr. Butler of Columbia annually acquires a new crop of de- 
grees and produces a new crop of volumes. Always engaged in 
'the pursuit of truth', which for him is just around the corner, in 
The University in Action, Columbia University Press, 1937, he 
reprints his annual reports from 1902-1935. In his report of 1917 
he said, "There is no real reason to fear that academic freedom 
... is or ever has been in the slightest danger in the United 
States". That was the year he and his trustees, overcome by 
war hysteria, threw out Cattell and Dana and caused Beard and 
Robinson to withdraw. In The Family of Nations, Its Need and 
Its Problems, Scribner's, 193 7, Butler reprints thirty-one 
addresses and articles, and rejoices that the killing of the Child 
Labor Amendment shows what the 'democratic' people of the 
United States can accomplish when aroused. 

Recently coming from Lawrence College to the Brown presi- 
dential chair, Henry M. Wriston, in The Nature of a Liberal 
Education, Lawrence College Press, 1937, exclaims, "The curri- 
culum is the educational jungle", and gushes that a liberal edu- 
cation is an experience similar to that of love or religion. 

In The American State University: Its Relations to Democ- 
racy, University of North Carolina Press, 1937, Norman Foers- 
ter, of the University of Iowa, maintains that it "has progres- 
sively tended to subvert the higher interests of American 
democracy". Naturalistic science has depraved us. We must go 
back to the Middle Ages with Hutchins. Foerster as well as 
Hutchins conies in for much commendation and high praise from 
the Catholic Church. 

At the meeting of the Association of American Colleges, 
speaking for the little college, Foerster said, "If the large univer- 
sities continue to pander to the materialistic and humanitarian 
forces in our society, they may well give the small liberal colleges 
a wonderful opportunity . . . What they offer is only too similar 
to what, it is said, the public utilities should offer: cheap power, 
cheap service." 

The authors of the above books are strong for discipline. So is 
Hitler. All give lip service to 'academic freedom'. But Alvin 
Johnson, recently appointed professor at Yale, claims, "We have 
a right to demand of our leaders in government, business and 
labor, fair evidence that they are functioning like good mechan- 
ics, not chewing the rag on our time. But let us resolve not to 
look for miracles. " 

Many of these men who are running our greater universities, 
in their speeches and books seem out of contact with the modern 
world. They have little to offer to the youth of today, little to 
contribute to the future of our nation. While they guide educa- 
tion, aren't the results likely to disappoint Head Master Fuess? 


The man in the street wouldn't expect any very practical ad- 
vice from these college people on how to 'save the world'. He 
would advise us to look outside to those whom he is in the habit 
of paying for advice, doctors, lawyers. . . . They have had 
eight or more years of university training and should know 
what education can do. Each profession has its national associa- 
tion, which includes the higher up of its priestcraft. What do 
they talk about at their annual meetings? 


The American Medical Association is the voice of 106,000 
U. S. doctors. The 9200 members in attendance at the Atlantic 
City meeting in June, 1937, were confronted with a two volume 
survey prepared by Esther Everett Lape of the American 
Foundation, financed by Mrs. Mary Louise Curtis Bok. Carry- 
ing the recommendations of 2000 doctors for improving the state 
of medicine, it emphasized the importance of health to the state, 
and outlined a plan of federal cooperation. Fishbein, who domi- 
nates the association, roared opposition, referring to "the tra- 
dition of medicine since the earliest times". Two days and a 
night the convention wrangled, what would the doctors get 
out of this? 

Following the convention, 430 'renegades', leading hospital 
surgeons, led by Drs. Richard C. and Hugh Cabot and Dr. 
Henry A. Christian, signed a nine-point manifesto, embodying 
the reforms suggested by Dr. Hugh Cabot, "Let the Govern- 
ment pay school and hospital deficits, provide medical care for 
the indigent". (Time, Nov. 15, '37). This was inspired by the 
success of state medicine in Russia, as revealed by Dr. Henry 
Sigerist of Johns Hopkins, in Socialized Medicine in the Soviet 
Union, Norton, 1937, and by Michael L. Ravitch in The Ro- 
mance of Russian Medicine, Live right, 1937. 

The medical priestcraft has had many hard whacks recently. 
Medical men in "their dual role as priests and business men . . . 
the exclusiyeness of their craft . . . resistance to change . . . 
severe reprisals against 'renegades' " are dealt with, among the 
other professions, by Ellis Freeman in his "Social Psychology". 
"It is a very myopic medical science which works backward 
from the morgue, rather than forward from the cradle", Hooton, 
Harvard anthropologist, told a group of medical men, cf. 2ist 
edit., p. 71. 

"Splitting fees with shady colleagues, prescribing useless nos- 
trums and profiting from the numerous nursing homes which 



exist only to gouge wealthy hypochondriacs" (News-Week, 
September 13, 1937) is devastatingly dealt with in The Citadel, 
Little, Brown, 1937, by Dr. A. J. Cronin. The author writes, 
"Worst of all perhaps are the specialists typified by the word 
'Harley Street' who exploit the rich, scratch one another's 
backs to their mutual profit, in some cases make fortunes on the 
side by performing hush-hush abortions for careless socialites" 
(Time, September 13, 1937). 

Dr. Hugh Cabot, in a letter to the publishers of Cronin's 
book, writes, "There is no important situation which he draws, 
the counterpart of which cannot be found in this country and 
probably more frequently". And that goes double, Dr. Cabot 
adds, for the much discussed practice of fee splitting, "which I 
confidently believe is very much less common in England than it 
is here". 


"Once lawyers had clients, now corporations have lawyers." 
Verification of this came from the Kansas City meeting, Octo- 
ber, 1937, of the American Bar Association, where the leading 
men of the craft spent four days in venting their rage in dia- 
tribes. They bewailed the passing of the time when this country 
was "a government of lawyers and not of men". 

The association voted to let up on their long fight against the 
Child Labor Amendment. The rule against participating in 
economic and political controversies was honored in the breach, 
for, as Brooks Adams pointed out in 1913, if the Supreme Court 
should lose its power to pass on the constitutionality of legis- 
lation, the bar would lose half its income and three quarters of its 
importance. It could not be indifferent to such catastrophe. 

In an effort to "blow off some anti-New Deal steam" (News- 
Week, October n, 1937), President Stinchfield dwelt on Roose- 
velt's hatred for the bar, and ex-Senator Reed, who hates the 
president, ranted, "An honest fanatic ... is the most dangerous 
beast ever turned loose to curse the earth". Senator E. R. 
Burke wailed at "the welts of the lash on ... the lawyer . . . 
with back bared at the post". President Hutchins of Chicago 
"stripped the delegates of their self-respect and professional 
hocus-pocus" (The Nation, October 9, 1937). 

With little help from the professions or the college presidents, 
we turn to the universities in action to see what the faculty is 
doing with and to the undergraduates. 


"A release last April from the Harvard University news office 
announced, 'Dr. P. A. Sorokin, chairman of the Department of 
Sociology, has completed a survey of "the social and cultural 
movements of the last 2,500 years".' The publishers' blurb 
proclaimed it 'unrivaled for brilliant analysis, breadth of scope, 
fertility of ideas . . . startling in its originality . . . Sorokin, one 
of the greatest social philosophers of our day, holds the answers 
. . . Pitirim A. Sorokin emerges at 48 a sociologist worthy of the 
company of Comte, Spencer, Ranke, Pareto, Weber, and 

"With great expectations, we waded into Sorokin's three 
volumes, anticipating all the 'answers'. But like the lad who 
'Joined the navy to see the world, What did we see? We saw the 
sea.' 'Painstaking scholarship' there was, but instead of 'fertility 
of ideas' we found sterility, the 'interpretation' one of palsied 
fear, the 'startling . . . originality' a ratiocinated Oriental fatal- 
ism, the 'explanation of forces' an admission of defeat, a call to 


This and the following quotations are from an article in The 
Social Frontier, November, 1937, written at the suggestion of 
the editor, George W. Hartmann, who asked for "a straightfor- 
ward major article on ... the work and influence of ... Demi- 
ashkevich and Sorokin the latter is a particularly formidable 

"There are a number of these frustrated White Russians who 
with charm, brilliance, enormous erudition, and agile ratiocina- 
tion, are exerting a great influence in intellectual circles in this 
country. Nostalgic, men without a country, unable to appreci- 
ate what their former countrymen are achieving, all they most 
cherished has been swept away, their faith destroyed. Life for 
them holds no purport. Baffled, they have turned back to 
medievalism. Their pessimistic Oriental mysticism seems to 
make a strong appeal to some American youth and academic 
sophisticates who in the present confusion are unable to see any 
roads ahead." 

In the field of religion, Nicholas Berdyaev, writing on The 
Deitiny of Man, Scribner's, 1937, preaches the same mystical 
yearning for a return to medieval authority as in his, "The Fate 
of Man in the Modern World", two years before, and many 
others. His use of psychological and scientific terms deludes the 
fuzzy minded. He would lead us back into the confusing maze 



in which we wandered through the middle centuries of our era. 
Opening his last book at random one reads, "The spiritual, 
mystical church is the Christianized cosmos, the soul of the 
world endowed with Christian grace, and the state, like every- 
thing else, is a part of it, though a part the least gracious and 
Christianized, the most subject to the power of sin and therefore 
of law." 

In education there are the "essentialists", who seem to be re- 
verts with medieval minds. They "ganged up" at the N. E. A. 
meeting at Atlantic City, March i, 1938. John Dewey dis- 
missed them as "an imitation of the fundamentalists". William 
Heard Kilpatrick incisively said, "The astonishing thing is that 
the reaction of the essentialists is so small and comes from such 
inconspicuous people". Most articulate among them is the 
White Russian, Michael Demiashkevich, who gives courses in 
the Harvard Summer School. His Introduction to the Philoso- 
phy of Education, American Book Company, 1935, is an irritat- 
ing example of anachronistic and wasted cerebration. Contem- 
porary educational practices and processes are "viewed in the 
perspective of the history of philosophy", casting suspicion or 
contempt upon anything recent. In this case, philosophy seems 
to be a frustrated defense, a camouflage to hide his fear and con- 
fusion, an excuse for not facing what's ahead. 


In sociology Pitirim A. Sorokin manifests the same defeatism, 
the same prejudices, intense enough to be called hatreds, in 
Social and Cultural Dynamics, American Book Company, 
1937. It is an "enormous compilation of facts, marshaled in 
tables and graphs". A great number of collaborators, predomi- 
nantly Russian, assisted including students of Harvard and 
Radcliffe. All knowledge is classified as of three kinds, 
'sensate', derived through the senses, from observation, the 
material of science, which is later referred to as 'epicurean' or 
'sensualist' ; 'ideational', which is characterized by the preju- 
diced adjectives 'sublime', 'profound', 'unfathomable', the sort 
of knowledge that has been incorporated in most mystic and re- 
ligious beliefs, that doesn't depend upon our senses or observa- 
tion, that is intuitive, faith, 'the substance of things hoped 
for'; and third the 'idealistic', which is pictured as harmonizing 
the ideational and the sensate. 

"The cellophane of scientific method in which Sorokin wraps 
his classified data transparently reveals his pseudo-science. 
Facts have been searched out, selected, regimented, compressed, 
expanded, distorted to supply a prop for a predilection. Impos- 
ing tables and graphs are based on isolated sociological facts, 
single elements of human behavior. They are classified without 


consideration of what brought them into existence or what 
causes may have been modifying them at the time. He sees no 
great or dominating personalities (biological sports) stamping a 
period with the pattern of their own minds. He finds no causal 
explanation of social or cultural changes". (The Social Frontier, 
November, 1937.) 


"The reviewers are a little awed by the prestige of Sorokin's 
position, the money invested, the erudition, the labor. His col- 
league, Crane Brinton, with passing contempt for James Harvey 
Robinson, Charles Beard, and Arnold Toynbee, and with a con- 
descending word of praise for Spengler and Pareto, mildly re- 
bukes Sorokin that he 'sprinkles his three volumes with graphs 
and tables. in the traditional manner of the sociologist aping 
the physicist'. What the 'nineteenth century called scientific 
methods' and Sorokin regards as 'sensate degeneracy', Mr. Brin- 
ton contemplates with a superior disdain, although he admits 
'there really isn't any need nowadays ... to nourish hatred and 
scorn towards the scientist'. 

"Arthur Livingston, translator of Pareto, gingerly takes a 
swift sideswipe. . . . Lewis Mumford pours scorn upon the 
'insensate ideologue' whose 'blind vanity causes him to fall into 
a bigger hole of his own digging'. Ernest Sutherland Bates de- 
tects 'question-begging adjectives', distortion of chronology 
to make facts fit fluctuation. 'History, as pictured by Sorokin, 
resembles the spinning of a cosmic roulette wheel' ..." 


Undergraduates look to the social studies as a means of finding 
solutions to present problems. The more intelligent and mature, 
concentrating in these so-called social sciences, manifest great 
discontent with the futility of many of the courses, the timidity 
and pettiness of many of the professors. 

The Harvard Guardian, a journal of protest recently started by 
undergraduates, in its November, 1937, issue published reviews 
of Sorokin's work by three Harvard professors, which were 
written at the instigation of the Guardian. A. P. Usher, professor 
of economics speaks of "this vast treatise, ... in fact a singu- 
larly arbitrary and dogmatic interpretation . . . essentially anti- 
evolutionary". D. W. Prall, associate professor of philosophy, 
from the standpoint of art, points out that he "would confuse 
sensate mentality with empirically verifiable good sense. , . . 
Sorokin is all along pleading for faith in the manifestly incredi- 
ble". William Yandell Elliott, professor of government, says, 
"Even the most elementary knowledge of the dangers of statisti- 
cal methods would lead one to view with scepticism, if not with 


horror, the proof of his pudding". His "method is Procrustean . . 
Professor Sprokin's inspection, by a tabular method, of wars 
and revolutions does not give me, at least, the feeling that this 
method has any significance." 


One who knew Sorokin before he came to Harvard writes, "He 
is a very good man 'gone off on an impossible tack ... a man 
warped for life by his experiences in the Russian Revolution. . . . 
Instead of his warping diminishing with the lapse of time, it is 

And as if intent on proving the truth of the above, in a radio 
address, December 8, 1937, as reported in the Harvard Alumni 
Bulletin, Sorokin said we will be "more spiritual, more idealistic, 
more just, and more Godly", after passing through the terrors 
that lie ahead, "stern, bloody, and destructive". But first, our 
social values must become "less relative, more idealistic, and 
more absolute". Our trouble is that in "art, science, philosophy, 
religion, ethics, law, or social institutions", we are in "open 
revolt against the dominant forms and trends of the preceding 
centuries". The old Russian novelists depict perfectly horrible 
"trends" under the tsars. 

Vaughan Wilkins* And So Victoria, Macmillan, 1937, fails 
to give us an alluring picture of "trends" under the corrupt 
Hanoverians. His Endless Prelude, Routledge, London, 1937, is 
made up of quotations from private contemporary documents, 
letters and the like, beginning with Victoria and going back a 
thousand years, "the easier to accustom ourselves to those 
strange human animals that were our ancestors". It is a pro- 
gressively horrible picture, more 'stern and bloody*, less 'spir- 
itual, idealistic, Godly*. It is doubtful if Professor Sorokin, or 
any of us, would enjoy having dinner with our ancestors of even 
a few centuries back. 


How Sorokin 'got that way* is apparent from his writing. To a 
semantic psychiatrist he is 'sick*. His mind is confused, filled 
with fear, preoccupied with words and labels, as he shows in The 
Social Frontier, March, 1938. 

But Harvard is maintaining him in a position of influence 
where he is misguiding and frustrating American youth and 
academic sophisticates. The attitude of defeatism, of surrender, 
the failure to live up to a heroic role on the part of our university 
leaders, is the greatest threat to our immediate future, our civ- 
ilization, our culture. Harvard students need heroic leadership, 
the example of those who in this present apparent chaos will not 
turn their backs but march face forward. 


At the Harvard Tercentenary, President Conant declared, 
"Those of us who have faith in human reason believe that in the 
next hundred years we can build an educational basis for a uni- 
fied, coherent culture suited to a democratic country in a scien- 
tific age". 

Some day we may have a science of society. Science has a lot 
to tell us about societies of plants, corals, ants, and man. There 
is a growing science of man, biological, anthropological, archeo- 

"The so-called 'social sciences', which include education, are 
in their infancy. For example, there was not a single professor of 
economics in the United States before 1871. Consider how re- 
cently whole new vistas have been opened to our view and how 
little opportunity there has been as yet to explore these fields," 
Conant said to the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce Forum, 
February 22, 1938, the Harvard Alumni Bulletin reports. 

'Science' is a pretentious word for education and economics, 
which still show their origin from philosophy and theology, and 
still lack a large body of accurate observation and definite 
measurements. 'Social studies 1 would perhaps be more appropri- 


The very newness of these subjects, their possibilities, the fact 
that they deal with problems of which we know so little and 
should know so much, is reason enough for the increased demand 
in the schools and colleges for such knowledge as we have. The 
enormous literature on the subject is summarized in Teaching 
the Social Studies, Theory and Practice, Heath, 1937, by Edgar 
Bruce Wesley. It is largely based on the sixteen volumes of the 
Commission on Social Studies of the American Historical Asso- 

There is a new history, enlarged by the archeologist and the 
anthropologist. There is a new economics, enlarged by experi- 
ence and experiment, which destroys old theories. The demand 
for the new comes from below and without, and is opposed by 
the university history and economics teachers, who have their 
ideas set, their lecture notes prepared for the rest of their careers. 
The entrenched classicists and philosophers see the demand for 
their subjects diminishing. 

Even progressives, like the scientist president of Harvard and 
the historian president of Yale, side with the "gentlemen rank- 
ers" against the intruders. They deplore the desertion of the 



classics, which reflect life and its explanations of two thousand 
years ago, for these newer subjects which endeavor to tell us 
something about how we came to be as we are today. It is the 
teachers of the social sciences, the new heresies, that get the 
universities into all kinds of trouble with their finance minded 
trustees, possible donors, and hired editors and commentators. 
College presidents have to be careful, and so far as possible con- 
fine students to subjects which cannot "feed a spirit of criticism 
and discontent with the respected institutions of today, because 
the antiquity of these studies makes them 'safe'" (cf. 2ist edit., 

p. 38). 

But in the face of this, President Conant declared at the 
Tercentenary, "There can be no compromise; we are either 
afraid of heresy or we are not. If we are afraid, there will be no 
adequate discussion of the genesis of our national life; the door 
will be shut to the development of a culture which will satisfy 
our needs." 


When Harvard sought its first professor of 'political economy', 
which came out of 'moral philosophy', it took the editor of the 
Boston Advertiser, Charles F. Dunbar. The study of govern- 
ment is still more recent. President Seymour of Yale pours scorn 
on the study of what was once a divine right. In England that 
right has descended upon those, who wear the 'old school tie', 
have felt the cane, been nurtured on the classics. 

Harvard took the lead with courses in government under the 
history department and law faculty. A. Lawrence Lowell was 
first, appointed in 1897, to lecture on government alone. Lincoln 
Steffens and other 'muckrakers' stirred up interest in municipal 
government at the beginning of the century. In 1902 Harvard 
established a department, and in 1004 Professor William 
Bennett Munro began his course in municipal government. 

All this, as well as how sociology and psychology came out of 
moral philosophy, which came out of theology, is made clear 
by Samuel Eliot Morison in his Three Centuries of Harvard, 
1636-1936, Harvard University Press, 1936. It was the Rever- 
end Francis G. Peabody's social conscience that led him to give 
his 'Social Ethics' under the philosophy department. Out of this 
came a School of Social Workers. "The advance of Sociology as a 
science was making the religious approach somewhat difficult to 
maintain in a secular university." 

Dr. Richard C. Cabot's advanced stand on social injustices 
and his strictures on the ethics of the medical profession in 
Boston had made it more comfortable for him to cross the river, 
where he gave courses in 'Social Ethics'. When a more scientific 
treatment of sociology was pressed, Dr. Cabot is said to have re- 


marked, "You can find all you need to know about sociology in 
the scriptures." 

A faculty committee was set up to liquidate the old 'Social 
Ethics' department, and to bring into the Harvard world a new 
sociological baby. On the committee, which met weekly for 
several years, were members of the departments of psychology, 
history, economics, and anthropology. Burbank and his econom- 
ics department, 'Economics Club' it is called, didn't care much if 
the operation proved unsuccessful. 

Sorokin was discovered at the University of Minnesota. Ross, 
the Wisconsin sociologist, had brought him over to give a course 
of lectures, and he remained to study "the economic organiza- 
tions of American farmers" (E. C. Hayes). Called to Harvard, 
his erudition enormously impressed some of the committee. To 
others, his seminar in experimental methods, children in a 
sandpile, and voluntary contributions, was puerile bunk. 


So was born the unwanted babe, the new department of soci- 
ology, with Sorokin as chairman. Naturally the department has 
failed to develop normally, cannot hold its own with healthier 
departments in other universities. As an undergraduate concen- 
trator remarked, "The sociology department is the White 
Russian WPA". 

President Conant seems to appreciate the desirability of ex- 
ploring the field of social sciences. But considering the personnel 
of the sociology and economics departments, one can not much 
regret his "announcement some two years ago which reflected 
his despair: for an indefinite period of time the budgets in the 
departments of history, government, economics, and sociology 
were to be 'frozen'. . . . Thanks to the rule of giving permanent 
tenure to all of the status of associate professor and above, the 
over-crowded ranks of older professors cannot be thinned. But 
promotions must be given to as few men as possible. ... At the 
very moment when the largest number of Harvard under- 
graduates on record are demanding instruction in the social 
sciences, the university is limiting its offerings in these subjects. 
This is the policy of 'the student be damned'." (Robert Keen 
Lamb, The Nation, May 15, 1937). 

"The undergraduates don't amount to much out there. They 
fill the seats and pay the fees," remarked one of them, concen- 
trating in economics. 


"Appointing men to fill the posts of permanent tenure in the 
departments of the social sciences is President Conant's re- 
current nightmare . . , The real reason for the university's awfc- 


wardness in its public relations is clear even to those on the out- 
side. Harvard is trying to conceal from itself as well as from the 
public the disturbing fact that it is refusing the social sciences a 
chance to develop. 

"The responsibility falls first on President Conant. It is an 
open secret that he is not sympathetic with the social sciences in 
the university and is out of patience with the self-appointed ad- 
visers who have undertaken to steer him through the intricacies 
of current opinion in the field." 

President Conant 's "confusion as a scientist confronting a 
pseudo-science is increased by his newly acquired tenderness as 
the responsible head of one of the largest capitalist institutions 
in the country. Harvard nurses an investment of more than 
$125,000,000. The natural bias of Mr. Conant's fellow-members 
of the Harvard Corporation is that of five corporation lawyers 
and a fashionable physician. They regard themselves as ' trus- 
tees' for the university's benefactors, committed to keeping 
costs, and therefore wages, down, and avoiding 'unfavorable* 
publicity." (Robert K. Lamb, The Nation, May 15, 1937). 


Heresies today must be guarded against in the departments 
of economics and sociology as they once were in theological 
seminaries. They are best prevented by inbreeding and select- 
ing. The departments are so organized that when there is an 
autocrat at the head he can be very autocratic, so that only 
bootlickers get on. Of course, they want brilliant young men who 
will make good researchers. But when the young instructor fails 
to play cricket, he is usually led to resign. Seldom is there a mess 
as there was over Walsh and Sweezy, 

"The professors of today were the prematurely senile under- 
graduates of just yesterday, or the day before . . . For academic 
life is a system. Or a racket. Or a hierarchy. When it wants a pro- 
fessor Harvard doesn't often look out into the world for a bright 
young man who has 'done something'. Instead it breeds and 
raises its own. One becomes a professor not by being good, but 
by being a good boy. It is just that. I have seen it work, even in 
my time. You can watch it working now." This was written by 
undergraduate James Laughlin IV in The Harvard Advocate, 
December, 1937. 

A wise faculty member, reading it, remarks, "Really, the half 
baked lucubrations of undergraduates should not be taken too 
seriously. Frustrated tutors instigate them. Everything is al- 
ways wrong." Otherwise the tutors wouldn't have been frus- 
trated. It's part of the vicious circle that is higher education. 


It is the teaching, not the man, the effect on the undergradu- 
ate, on the schools, on their faculty, on the world, that we are 
interested in. It is Sorokin's teaching that is damaging. Intrins 1 '- 
cally an artist, mystic, scared, his personality and charm merely 
add to the misguidance and frustration of youth at a time when 
they need clarity of vision, inspiration, courage. 


The need to emphasize this point of view was widely appreci- 
ated. Arthur Livingston, translator of Pareto, wrote in regard to 
the Social Frontier article on Sorokin (cf. p. 53), "Your point of 
view is very sound, and very much to the point at this time, 
when the people at the higher levels of culture are surely show- 
ing signs of defeatism and bewilderment". 

Some of the more vigorous and independent members of the 
faculty at Harvard, who, however, should not be pilloried for 
their outspokenness, wrote: "Enjoyed hugely . . . Agree heart- 
ily with most of it." "I applaud warmly your critique of Soro- 
kin sociology. That you should have been admonished, by one 
whom you call an 'aggressive and progressive professor', against 
voicing your views only proves how necessary it was for you to 
speak forthrightly. Courage of utterance has an infectiousness 
of its own." "Your article was superb ... I chuckled and 
grinned with delight." 


But most faculty members showed great caution when infor- 
mation was sought. Those who knew most drew their skirts 
aside. One wrote, "You will recognize my desire not to become 
involved in public controversy". Another, "You are denying 
the right of freedom in teaching and so playing right into the 
hands of the fascist elements". 

The general feeling, on the part of Harvard professors who 
read the article, was that a colleague had been attacked and 
they must stand together. As Henry Adams observed, "The 
teaching profession is, like the church and the bankers, a vested 
interest. . . . The historians will fall on any one who threatens 
their stock in trade quite as virulently as do the bankers on the 
silver Men." 

A member of the Corporation writes, "Any comment on my 
part might be construed as an interference with freedom of 
teaching. ... I believe that criticism is more constructive when 
free from ill-natured criticism". Another writes, "I get some- 



what fed up with the frequent statements or insinuations to the 
effect that Harvard's educational policies are determined with 
one eye on what will make present or prospective donors 


To President Conant, as a matter of courtesy, advance proof 
of this article on the teaching of sociology at Harvard was sent, 
with a letter which read in part, "With the increased opportuni- 
ties that the Littauer and Nieman funds provide for sociology 
and economics, you will, I know, be intent on strengthening 
both of these departments. . . . With H. G. Wells I believe, and 
I think you do, too, that our universities have greater oppor- 
tunities for leadership and guidance of democracy than they 
have yet accepted." 

President Conant tactfully and politely wrote, "1 greatly 
appreciate your courtesy in sending me the advance proof of 
your article". With the heavy heritage he bears, it would per- 
haps have been inappropriate to express an opinion about an 
appointee under the regime of his predecessor. 


An active member of the Corporation writes, "Frankly I 
don't quite get your point clear. You criticise Sorokin's tone and 
doctrine but is it your thought that the Governing Boards at 
the University ought to try to call him off or dismiss him or 
what? There are all sorts of doctrines and points of view repre- 
sented in the faculty at Harvard, optimistic and pessimistic, 
highly conservative and very advanced, etc. This being so, 
there must naturally be a large amount of disagreement with the 
views expressed by members of the faculty. But is there any- 
thing that ought to be or can be done about it? So far as I can 
see, there is not, because the essence of the place is, or certainly 
ought to be, free inquiry and free expression." 

The above sets forth an ideal as to what should be, which has 
not been realized in the economics and sociology departments. 
The points made are problems of management, how to bring 
departments up to the ideal, with "all sorts of doctrines and 
points of view represented" and "free inquiry and free expres- 
sion" encouraged. 

The system makes it difficult for management. Once the full 
professorship is attained, a man may loaf or degenerate, and 
there is little chance for his removal. The younger men, not yet 
secure, as one of the older professors puts it, "are apprehensive 
lest they jeopardize their position by making statements which 
are reprehensible from the point of view of University adminis- 


At the Tercentenary President Conant's bold stand and 
brave words aroused great enthusiasm. For a quarter of a cen- 
tury, the more liberal alumni had looked back upon their old 
university as a safe retreat for moribund professors and the 
spoiled progeny of the Back Bay of that time. Now Harvard's 
young and liberal president was taking this great opportunity to 
commit the university to a forward course. No sales manager 
with announcement of new styles and models ever stimulated 
his customers more. 


It will be remembered he said, as quoted in the last edition of 
this Handbook, "We must examine the immediate origins of our 
political, economic, and cultural life . . . the forces of modern 
capitalism must be dissected as fearlessly as the geologist ex- 
amines the origin of rocks. . . . On this point there can be no 
compromise; we are either afraid of heresy or we are not." 

As the months passed, a change of tone, a more restrained 
attitude, became apparent. Soon he was making the same ges- 
tures as other New England college presidents, setting a pattern 
later to be followed all over the country, as if prescribed by the 
same drill master. His speeches, kept to 'safe' topics, harked 
back to JefTersonian ideals and advocated measures that some 
characterized as of fascist pattern. 

This change, reflected in the lecture halls and classrooms, 
undergraduate James Laughlin IV interpreted in The Harvard 
Advocate, December, 1937, as "Premature Intellectual Senility: 
Curse of Harvard". "Many must remember the sigh that rolled 
over the Tercentenary theatre when President Conant, with a 
slightly raised voice, declared that scholarship must probe the 
innards of the economic structure as well as the innards of the 
atom. That sigh represented much more than frightened selfish- 


What had happened to produce the change which the under- 
graduates sensed, and which was manifested by the faculty as 
either timidity or rebellion? 

The recalcitrant young members of the economics depart- 
ment, Walsh and Sweezy, when the last edition of this Hand- 
book went to press (cf. 2ist ed., p. 143), had been fired and all 
was well. Soon the rumble of protest began to swell. Headlines 
in the Boston newspapers and The Harvard Crimson kept the 



matter alive. At a meeting of the Cambridge Union of Univer- 
sity Teachers, April 14, with more than a hundred members 
present, the Harvard Alumni Bulletin reports, a resolution was 
adopted which stated: 

"Two of the leading members of the Cambridge Union of 
University Teachers, its president and one of the most active 
members of its executive council, have been simultaneously 
given notice of dismissal from Harvard. This action, we are in- 
formed, was taken by President Conant himself, in consultation 
with the Dean of the Faculty, overriding the recommendation 
of the Department of Economics that both men be reappointed 
to their present positions as three-year Faculty instructors. . . . 
In a press release of April 5, the University authorities stated 
that the dismissals had been made 'solely on grounds of teaching 
capacity and scholarly ability* ... A later statement of 
April 12, while implicitly denying the thesis of the earlier one, 
fails to repair the damage already done". 


The president on April 12 stated to the Overseers, "The de- 
cision . . . does not mean that they are not good teachers, but 
simply that in the opinion of those within the University best 
qualified to judge there are others among their contemporaries 
of greater potentialities", (Harvard Alumni Bulletin). 

A cursory examination of the forty-eight contributions to 
Explorations in Economics, McGraw-Hill, 1936, a volume in 
honor of Professor Taussig by his pupils, shows the two livest 
and most readable articles are by Walsh and Sweezy. They deal 
with things that seem of significance to the ordinary man of 
some intelligence. Walsh has since produced an outstanding 
book on the C.I.O., a live subject which demanded investiga- 
tion and exposition. 

It isn't disloyal to recognize that your university doesn't 
always have the best football team, professional coach, or 
economics department. A member of the Visiting Committee 
a year later, immediately after a meeting of the Economics De- 
partment, said privately, "They are all good men, but second 
raters. The chairman of the department is moribund. Econom- 
ics is much more alive at other great American universities." 

"The entire faculty of the Department of Economics is dedi- 
cated to a scholarly refusal to come to conclusions on any and 
all of the leading questions of modern economic life!" Robert 
Keen Lamb, a former member, tells us. But that is perhaps 
characteristic of university economists. Professor Arnold of 
Yale, not unacquainted with them, writes, "The American 
economic scholars meeting in Chicago every year have never 
been visited by observant men asking themselves the pertinent 


question: 'Why should such apparently intelligent men, when 
gathered in a group, attempt authoritatively to conceal the 
facts about political institutions?' " 

The university and its authorities are not infallible like the 
Pope. An influential member of the faculty, who knows, writing 
about the Tercentenary symposium on Human Behavior, to 
which, as stated in the last edition of this Handbook, chiefly 
minor men were invited, writes, "I read with much interest 
your characterization of the Tercentenary . . . The Committee 
did not pick the best men to deal with the subject, but such men 
(among those chosen to receive degrees) as might make perti- 
nent remarks. Ergo, the result". 


A former colleague of Walsh and Sweezy, Lamb, in The 
Nation, May 15, 1937, wrote: "Once more Harvard has fumbled 
the ball. Once more the university in its dismissal of two 
liberal economics instructors, has exasperated its friends and 
delighted its critics by a clumsy substitution of one impracti- 
cable subterfuge for another. The ball has been passed from 
Economics Department to dean to president and back again in 
an effort to minimize the potential value to the university of its 
two most popular economics teachers, the only men in the de- 
partment who have publicly shown sympathy for the labor 
movement. . . . No doubt Harvard's president considers him- 
self a liberal. He has, indeed, signed several verbal blank checks 
saying, 'Here at Harvard we regard it as essential that all sides 
of the controversies in the social sciences be represented*. His 
checks have come back. . . . 

"The incident illuminates the dilemma of the American uni- 
versity. . . . We 'feel' liberal, but we act tough toward liberals 
because we don't see how we can afford to act otherwise. . . . 
The university is being asked to face, publicly, the full implica- 
tions of these dismissals and to say whether it is any longer 
interested in retaining its ancient distinction as a liberal insti- 

Late in May an open letter to President Conant from a group 
of forty-two American Rhodes Scholars at Oxford, expressed 
"regret that Harvard has given cause ... to fear that liberty of 
opinion is being curtailed". At Oxford they distinguish between 
'academic freedom' and 'liberty of opinion'. 

As the result of a petition made late in May by 131 junior 
members of the teaching staff, President Conant dumped the 
whole matter in the lap of an investigating committee. To this 
he appointed the nine more liberal professors, Ralph Barton 
Perry, Chairman, Kenneth B. Murdock, Secretary, Arthur M. 
Schlesinger, Harlow Shapley, Samuel Eliot Morison, Felix 


Frankfurter, E. Merrick Dodd, Jr., Edmund M. Morgan, 

On the approach of commencement, the Harvard Corporation 
in place of the concluding appointments, granted Walsh and 
Sweezy two year appointments, without prejudice. Both have 
since resigned. 

In his baccalaureate, June 20, to the seniors, President 
Conant was reported in the Boston Herald to have said there 
have been "few periods in America's history" when it was 
"more difficult to avoid conformity". He emphasized that 
"failure to think independently, clearly and unemotionally . . . 
was a constant and insidious threat to liberty". 

To the Harvard Alumni Association on the 24th, avoiding 
direct mention of the Walsh-Sweezy affair, he said, "At each 
point in a man's career, when a decision in regard to him must 
be made, his reputation as a teacher and his published writings, 
if any, are merely to be considered as bits of evidence showing 
the quality of his mind". 


At this time he appointed to the Visiting Committee of the 
Department of Economics, then made up of corporation execu- 
tives and their acolytes, four new men, all independent liberals, 
Alvin Johnson, Roger N. Baldwin, Joseph P. Kennedy and 
John G. Winant. Soon after, it was made known that Alvin H. 
Hansen, outstanding economist, had been appointed Littauer 
professor of political economy in the Graduate School of Public 

The president got away from Cambridge immediately after 
the commencement. June 27 he and his family left for the high 
Sierras. "They spent some seven consecutive weeks in relative 
seclusion" (David McCord, Harvard Alumni Bulletin, Novem- 
ber 5, 1937), and before returning he had secured the support of 
the Western alumni in "thirteen speaking engagements, chiefly 
at Harvard Clubs ranging from San Francisco to Kansas City" 


When, at a hearing of the Massachusetts legislature early in 
iQ37, Raymond J. Walsh, Harvard economics instructor, ex- 
pressed his "shame" that the President Emeritus of Harvard 
should continue to line up with the Cardinal and the Bishop in 
opposition to the Child Labor Amendment, he opened up a 
larger issue. 


The committee of nine liberal professors appointed in May by 
President Conant, to report on the Walsh-Sweezy affair, had not 
been heard from until October. When it was announced that 
Professor William S. Ferguson had been appointed to take the 
place of Professor Samuel E. Morison, on leave, we wrote him 
October 2q: 

"What happens to Sweezy and Walsh doesn't so much matter. 
What happens to the professors that are left matters greatly. 
. . . There is more timidity and less freedom at Harvard today 
than there was under Eliot. It is for your committee to change 
this and win the gratitude of the intellectual world." 

No reply was received from Professor Ferguson, but copies to 
others of the committee brought from one reference to the preva- 
lent "academic passivity, like that of cows" Another replied: 
"It seems to me you put your finger on the most vital single 
aspect, to me at least, in the contemporary academic scene, 
namely, the caution and timidity of academics. . . . What you 
wrote to Professor Ferguson quite corresponds with my own 
observations and feelings, and I only wish that you had occasion 
to write what you wrote to Ferguson to President Conant. You 
may remember, in Henry James' Life of Eliot, the letter written 
to Eliot by Professor Emerton. It is good for the head of a great 
institution, who necessarily must have a restricted and limited 
view of the detailed forces which play about his institution, to 
have the benefit of a constant stream of informed critical out- 
side opinion." 


Following this suggestion and quoting the above comment, we 
wrote President Conant, November 12 : 

"Your bold challenge and fearless stand at the Tercentenary 
and straightforward utterances on your Western trip, in con- 
trast to the usual platitudes poured forth at university func- 
tions, commencements and inaugurals, are inspiriting. 

"Your appointment of a committee of liberal professors to re- 



port on the Walsh-Sweezy case, the nature of your recent 
appointments to the Visiting Committee of the Economics De- 
partment, give evidence of your awareness that the Depart- 
ments of Economics and Sociology at Harvard need strengthen- 
ing to maintain Harvard's standing in the academic world. 

"With the tremendous burden you carry and the opposition 
that you must meet from those fearful of change, we who are 
enthusiastically in sympathy with your forward moves should 
be heard from. Recent correspondence with members of the 
above committees and other interested alumni and faculty 
members, confirms me in this belief. . . . 

" 'It is going to be a long battle, against an opposition that 
extends far outside university circles', a nationally known mem- 
ber of a Visiting Committee writes, 'to get anything like the in- 
tellectual climate you and I regard as the only condition of 
health at Harvard. But if I am not mistaken Conant intends to 
create it' " 

President Conant's prompt reply was tactful. "I appreciate 
very much your taking the time and trouble to write me at 
some length about a number of matters concerned with Harvard 
University. I am always glad to receive letters from alumni, 
who manifest an interest in Harvard, and I read with pleasure 
their remarks whether they contain hostile criticism or friendly 
advice. It is a splendid thing for any university to have its 
graduates interested in the things that are going on along aca- 
demic lines even if this interest sometimes takes a sharp critical 


To give encouragement and support to the committee, with 
the prompting of other alumni we wrote to the Faculty Com- 
mittee on Academic Freedom, November 20: " 'The fear psy- 
chosis is the factor determining the course of civilization today', 
Clarence Cook Little, '10, outspoken Harvard man, told the 
New England Council in Boston, November 18. 

"As a somewhat detached observer of the educational scene 
and an annual reporter on trends in education, it is my job to 
review a wide range of what has been uttered, printed, and 
published. Under the titles, 'Keeping Teachers Timid', 'The 
Academic Mind', and 'The Control of Education', I reported in 
unacademic language on academic trends in the 2ist edition of 
my annual HANDBOOK OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS, (pages 161-174). 

"Lack of freedom to think and to speak will promote the fas- 
cist trends which some discern about us. Your committee has it 
within its power to make more difficult for those who would 
promote it in this country, the coming of fascism. 

"All this I have put before President Conant, with the co 


operation of a number of nationally known alumni, but wholly 
on my own responsibility. We believe he deserves and will wel- 
come support in his liberal tendencies. A copy of my last letter 
to President Conant is enclosed. 

"Your report should encourage a broader and more liberal 
attitude not only on the part of President Conant, but of other 
university officials everywhere. 

"So the eyes of many alumni and others throughout the world 
are upon your committee, their ears attuned for a report that 
will be outspoken, that will clear the atmosphere not only at 
Harvard but in other university centers, that will play its part in 
making the phrase 'academic freedom of speech' something 
more than a reminiscent platitude of times past." 


To the secretary of the committee, Professor Kenneth 
Murdock, enclosing the letter we wrote, l 'Expectation runs high 
as to the report your committee is to bring in. You occupy a 
strategic position and are capable of accomplishing great results. 
Let us hope that you will be courageously outspoken." He gra- 
ciously acknowledged: "Thank you very much for the letter and 
the enclosures which you were kind enough to send us. I can 
assure you that the Committee, of which I am Secretary, is tak- 
ing its task very seriously and appreciates your kindly interest 
in its work." 

Copies of the letter to the committee were sent to the Presi- 
dent, some members of the Corporation and Overseers, and 
Visiting Committee of the Department of Economics. 

Several members of the committee appreciatively responded. 
One wrote: "Your letter was read to the committee. Your com- 
ments on the job ahead of the Committee of Nine will be given 
consideration by the Committee, I am sure. There is a colossal 
amount of work ahead of us; it will be months before we have 
properly analyzed the accumulating material. Whether or not 
the final report will be generally accepted as of high value, it 
appears certain that the existence of the committee, and the 
questions and answers it has incited, have already been a suffi- 
cient justification". 


So there may be expected, after due academic consideration 
of this seemingly colossal task, a scholarly report on conditions 
of tenure, promotion, and advancement, resulting in a set of 
principles that may be influential not only at Harvard, but else- 

It is to be hoped, however, that the report will speak out 
boldly in support of President Conant's advanced stand at the 


Tercentenary, that it will encourage members of Harvard and 
other faculties to live up to what he said, "We must examine the 
immediate origins of our political, economic, and cultural life 
... as fearlessly as the geologist examines the origin of rocks". 

The president has taken an advanced stand. An alumnus close 
to him remarks, "The pressure on him can hardly be imagined". 
Another illustrious alumnus, very much in touch, writes, "I 
think that he has made some mistakes mistakes due to inex- 
perience rather than to wrong intent. After all, he is a young 
President and is in the process of being educated. My disposition 
is to support him now instead of criticizing him." 

Another influential member of the faculty, to whom this 
manuscript was submitted, writes, "I have read the manuscript 
with much interest. It is, of course, written with some intention 
of irritating readers, and inciting thought and perhaps change. 
It will undoubtedly succeed on all these points." The reply was, 
"Your prescience as to the intent of the manuscript is appreci- 
ated. Your prognosis as to the result is optimistic." 

The Corporation is made up of essentially liberal minded men. 
The Committee of Nine includes the most liberal of the faculty. 
These men on the firing line should receive support from the 
alumni, not passive but active. If only a few would speak out for 
boldness of thought and freedom to speak it, it might at this 
time have a very considerable effect. 

"When the actual world is not at variance with men's belief, 
it is unnecessary to write or think much about it. People are not 
troubled by doubt in such times; therefore doctrine is not 
needed", writes Professor Arnold of Yale in his "Folklore of 
Capitalism". "Anyone who actually struggled for the liberties 
of actual individuals, rather than idealized ones was greeted 
with the hostility that greets anyone who tears the veil away 
from a great symbol." 

An illustrious but sophisticated alumnus, familiar with the 
inner working of at least two great universities, wrote, "I am 
very much in sympathy with anything that can be done with 
reasonable hope of success to liberalize the attitude of those re- 
sponsible for our educational institutions. I am, however, of the 
opinion that letters written to men like President Conant or 
Murdock do not influence their opinion or action one iota." 

This is a defeatist attitude. The committee, officially repre- 
senting the faculty, must of course observe the institutional 
mores, the ethics of their priestcraft. Their findings will prob- 
ably be elaborated, bolstered and bulwarked. If they receive 
the support they deserve, they may boldly take the offensive. 
If in the great universities of the world we can't have freedom 
and courage, there is little 'hope for democracy'. Why leave bold, 
forward action to ignorant dictators? 


The whole trend of the American university under its present 
institutional organization, system of support and endowment, 
is to keep teachers in line. The procedure, suave or gauche, has 
that effect. What does it matter if a few scurvy fellows with 
wild ideas are thrown out? The important thing is to keep those 
who remain, in line, disciplined. 


Yale hath her troubles that Harvard cannot cure. Jerome 
Davis had apparently been completely dismissed from the Yale 
mind when the last edition of this Handbook went to press (cf . 
2ist ed., pp. 67, 169). But in May new troubles began to pile up. 
The American Federation of Teachers, in a comprehensive sixty- 
page report on the dismissal of Jerome Davis, had shown that 
President Angell had taken this action "upon recommendation 
of the Provost, Professor Charles Seymour, with the concur- 
rence of the President . . . President's attitude was influenced 
by alumni criticism of Dr. Davis' public speeches and other 
activities . . . Obligations of Yale University to Dr. Davis . . . 
not ... discharged . . .", the special committee reported to the 
Council of the American Association of University Professors, 
after five months investigation. The Council declared that 
Jerome Davis' dismissal "was not justified and should be 
deemed a violation of the principles of academic tenure which 
must be maintained if freedom of teaching, of research, and of 
expression of opinion ... is to be a reality. ..." 

While the Yale Corporation was in session on May 8, it was 
for the second time picketed by divinity students, protesting 
the dismissal of their beloved professor, joined by representa- 
tives of Dartmouth, Smith, Vassar, and other colleges, carrying 
forty large signs. A straight thinking member of the Corporation 
remarked, "Yale is no place to stage a frontal attack on capital- 

The National Education Association reported in June, 'The 
reasons given for the dismissal of Jerome Davis ... are un- 
warranted and contrary to the weight of evidence ... not 
valid. . . ." This was based on the investigation of the Tenure 
Committee, begun in November, which reported it had "re- 
ceived no cooperation . . . from either the president of Yale or 
the dean of the Divinity School". June 12 the Corporation 
meeting was again picketed by 250 teachers in cap and gown. 
Da vis ' salary was voted continued for another year. 




Freedom is something one becomes conscious of when it is 
denied him. Security, always threatened, is more often in mind. 
Not many college professors are conscious of being limited in 
what they write or say. Few have anything to say that anyone 
would want to restrict. 'Freedom' for them means freedom from 
worry, rather than 'freedom of speech'. They want 'security of 
tenure'. , 

"The average professor in an American college will look on at 
an act of injustice done to a brother professor by their college 
president, with the same unconcern as the rabbit who is not 
attacked watches the ferret pursue his brother up and down 

through the warren, to predestinate and horrible death The 

non-attacked rabbit would, of course, become suspect, and a 
marked man the moment he lifted up his voice in defense of 

It is the voice of John Jay Chapman speaking, in "Professorial 
Ethics", 1910. He goes on, "Let a man express an opinion at a 
party caucus, or at a railroad directors' meeting, or at a college 
faculty meeting, and he will find that he is speaking against a 
predetermined force. What shall we do with such a fellow? 
Well, if he is old and distinguished, you may suffer him to have 
his say, and then override him. But if he is young, energetic, and 
likely to give more trouble, you must eject him with as little fuss 
as the circumstances will permit." 


The giants of the good old days were autocrats, hiring and 
firing at pleasure. Someone once inquired of President Seelye of 

Smith College, "Where is Professor Mary ?" "Oh, I fired 

her the other day. She was impertinent to me." Nicholas 
Miraculous Butler, great peace advocate, under pressure from 
Wall Street trustees, when the war broke out, made no bones of 
firing his professors, Cattell, himself a crusty autocrat, and Dana, 
tender idealist, both of whom opposed the war, and making it so 
uncomfortable for others that they got out to maintain their 

Times have changed. "A subtler method than the old, crude 
procedure of summarily dismissing progressive teachers is em- 
ployed by conservative university trustees and executives. To- 
day the usual technique is to take every precaution that no 
realistic or 'dangerous' men shall be added to the faculties, what- 
ever their scholarly achievements or special capacity for efficient 
instruction. Thereupon, much ado is made about the complete 
freedom extended to this select and cautious teaching staff." 
(Harry E. Barnes, "Intellectual and Cultural History" p. 1142.) 



"The result is a great decline in the freshness, originality, 
vitality, and realism of instruction in institutions of higher 
learning. . . . Great educational endowments 'foundations' 
have cooperated in this effort to promote academic docility. 
Under the guise of ultra-scientific rigor, their directors extol the 
spirit of research and condemn as unscholarly professors who 
venture opinions on current economic, political, or social 

Carlyle delighted in satirizing the dry as dust professors and 
the pabulum they served up, as does Barnes above (op. cit.). 
Look at the lecture notes of the professors, yellowed, thumbed, 
used for thirty years, as they drone over their sacred script. 
They have tried them out, they are 'safe'. Why take chances? 
And you can't remove the dead wood because of this fetish 
'academic freedom' (security of tenure). 

So the colleges are filled with little men who went into teach- 
ing because they got good marks, sometimes by bootlicking; 
with soreheads, once precocious or brilliant youths now gone 
sour; with snubbed Rhodes scholars, outstanding in their teens, 
who now hide inferiority complexes behind Oxonian snobbery. 
All sorts of men, scared, tamed, 'sick', appear in Academic Pro- 
cession, Harcourt, Brace, 1938, in which James Reid Parker 
presents an anthropological study of Homo academiensis, 
among whom he evidently once went native. As at a faculty tea, 
we learn their patter, weaknesses, sillinesses, ponderous playful- 
ness and awful archness, display of erudition. He shows why the 
students get so little from most of these men. 

The little man with inferiority fears may blow himself up like 
the toad in the fable. One who has sat through many faculty 
meetings writes me, "The real trouble is that we are facing a 
situation in which dullards are in excelsis, in which a low cunning 
is mistaken for intellect. In faculty meetings, for instance, I am 
not so much discouraged by the timorous, as by those who are 
merely dominated by the desire for 'self expression', who are in 
fact nothing better than exhibitionists, trying to impress their 
colleagues with the fact that they really are damned clever and 
brainy men." 


Professors are timid, they don't want to be free, they want to 
be protected, Donald Slesinger tells us in "Professor's Free- 
dom", Harper's, October, 1937. He draws on his experience as a 
professor at Yale and Chicago, where "there was fear, all right, 
and there was jeopardy, but tenure was the object of both the 
fright and the danger. . . . The plain conclusion my own ex- 


perience forced on me was this: that, with few exceptions, the 
professors themselves were the greatest enemies of academic 
freedom. . . . 

"In 1930 there were almost five times as many teachers in our 
colleges and universities as there were in 1900. . . . By 1930 
university work was no longer a way of life; it was one of the 
easier methods of earning a living. The pursuit of truth became a 
search for security. . . . 

"Our graduate schools and summer institutes were and are 
filled with earnest, hardworking, dull folk who look forward to a 
comfortable routine tempered with the excitement of occasional 
academic processions in cap, gown, and hood, and the sense of 
power induced by petty tyranny over immature minds. . . . 

"There are no more stodgy defenders of the status quo than 
our university faculties. The word academic has come to have a 
derogatory connotation when applied to the arts, and the same 
connotation is appropriate to the academic intellectual life. 
Most of the professors in America are engaged in a tiresome 
elaboration of the obvious and fiercely resent any innovation of 
method or content." 

"They had better be timid!" a teacher writes in Harper's, 
December, 1937, responding to the preceding, and citing cases of 
those not timid enough, "deserted by their professional com- 
peers", thrown to the wolves, "families destitute". One "told his 
class there was a country called Russia", another advised his 
"students to read Hindus 7 'Red Bread' ". 

The fear of hunger, the 'food incentive 5 , is still the driving 
force of our civilization, as it was with our naked ancestors. For 
the timid there is no freedom, whether he is a professor or some 
other kind of animal. 

"Academic freedom is a monkey-shine", writes undergradu- 
ate James Laughlin IV in the December, 1937, Harvard Advo- 
cate. "They don't give you the job until they Ve made sure you 
won't try to be free." 


The alumni are the product of the university, but they in turn 
influence the university and its policies. It is a vicious circle, as 
Hutchins has remarked. 


The alumni aren't so "dumb" as one might gather from Tunis' 
study of his own class of 1911. He concluded, "We are a bunch 
of contented college cows . . . whose chief ambitions . . . are to 
vote the Republican ticket, to keep out of the bread line, and to 
break looatgolf" (cf. 2isted.,p. 173). 

Skulls aren't so thick, or heads so hard as might appear. Even 
"the people" is not "a stupid beast" as Alexander Hamilton 
claimed. Today you smile if you quote it. Hooton is safely scien- 
tific when he talks or writes about "Apes, Men and Morons". 

Yet one does not feel great elation at the alertness or aware- 
ness of his fellow alumni as manifested by the majority of letters 
in the Harvard Alumni Bulletin. The more intelligent snobbishly 
feel perhaps that any thought contribution on their part would 
be unappreciated by the average reader. 

To manufacture the alumni, the raw material was carefully 
chosen from the superior, the elect. If there is anything wrong 
with them, it is the way they have been educated. If they had 
not gone to college, their training and their inhibitions would be 


President Conant, scientist, has been obliged to see a great 
deal of alumni at Harvard Clubs, football games, and believes 
something should be done for future Harvard alumni. 

The university produces alumni, who fertilize the soil from 
which the university grows. They send their sons, they give 
their funds, and influence others to do likewise. "Look at a 
gathering of old Harvard grads, bald, jowled, dewlapped, stoop 
shouldered, pot-bellied. They are dulled, disillusioned. There is 
no sparkle, no fire. They are a tamed, dispirited lot, without 
zest for life." (Yankee, October, 1937). To this a faculty member 
retorts, "The B.A. didn't entitle them to drink perpetually of 
the fountain of youth. What do you think education is, a bio- 
logical miracle?" 

Under the inherited policy of making the college safe for 
'Back Bay youth', President Conant recognizes that not all of 
the best material conies to Harvard. So he has established 
national scholarships with no examinations and all expenses 



paid. Jealous college presidents have attacked him for raiding 
other universities, taking the best material. He would raise the 
quality of student material and reduce the enrollment. He be- 
lieves in an aristocracy of the intellect. And in this some of his 
critics see fascist tendencies. 


The uninspired quality of the teaching, "dull and lifeless . . . 
unattractive and dry" is of course appreciated by the president. 
But little can be done about it, because of what is called 'aca- 
demic freedom'. "Thanks to the rule giving permanent tenure 
to all of the status of associate professor and above, the over- 
crowded ranks of older professors can not be thinned." (Lamb, 
"Harvard Starves the Social Sciences"). 

So President Conant warns, "The first step in a liberal edu- 
cation can be acquired around the dinner table". He is en- 
deavoring to make the four year undergraduate course not 
without value, by encouraging the establishment of non-credit, 
hobby courses to enable undergraduates to "continue their in- 
tellectual and spiritual growth after completing their formal 
studies". The credit courses must be maintained to give employ- 
ment to the professors who have 'security of tenure'. The non- 
credit courses, it is hoped, may give students enduring intellec- 
tual interests. 


This is the prep schools' revenge. For generations the univer- 
sities have dominated these preparatory schools, have imposed 
upon them an arid and sterile course. Liege Prep School, faith- 
ful to Lord University, has not dared to protest at the un- 
nutritious chaff on which he has been obliged to feed his pupils. 

Some of the better preparatory schools in recent years have 
encouraged their students to develop hobbies. Groton, most 
faithful to the traditional curriculum, early introduced the 
printing plant, where composition, spelling, and punctuation 
became motor activities. The Hill has built a wonderful hobby 

Even before that, in the great .Public Schools of England, 
where the academic work is even more sterile, the better stu- 
dents have been encouraged to complete their preparatory work 
and continue with a year of specialization in some subject before 
entering the university. 

Now some thirty of the better schools, instigated by the 
Progressives, have forced upon the leading universities their 
pupils educated as they think best, instead of being 'prepared' 
by the stultifying college prescription. 

It is to be hoped that they will be informed and interested in 


the world about them, and have acquired habits of using their 
brains intensively. 


But why are the alumni "dumb"? The chosen of the land 
should be the yeast and ferment. Well, they were conditioned in 
the preparatory process, by "a combination of boredom and 
torture" (Kirtley Mather). "Teach him to think for himself? 
Goodness no! Teach him to think like other people." In college 
they were further conditioned, stupefied and stultified. 

One of the damaging effects of college on the ordinary under- 
graduate is the dampening of his originality, the suppression of 
his personality. James Laughlin IV, in The Harvard Advocate, 
December, 1937, speaks of "the observable tendency of the 
college's life to blight young thinking: individual thinking, 
original thinking. . . . Something ties them, or makes them tie 
themselves, in kiiots. . . . They give in, completing in a year the 
curve that should take thirty. In their minds, in their thoughts, 
they become middle-aged overnight." 

More damaging is the permanent feeling of inferiority. A 
reverence for the dead hand, what are awesomely spoken of 
as traditions, lies heavily on the college man. Still worse is the 
awe which the average undergraduate regards the letter men, 
the club men, the wire pulling, politically minded leaders. And 
this attitude persists among the alumni. 

Some graduate with the flame of youth still burning. But the 
prizes are so tempting, and nonconformity calls for so much 
abnegation, that they soon learn to play the game and take the 
prize. As tools and servants of finance capitalism, they advance 
rapidly, achieve worldly success, and are reverently looked up 
to by their classmates who have not taken the brass check, and 
feel an individual inferiority. 


Men who do things, who give time and money, service and 
loyalty to the university, come in for criticism from the do- 
nothing radicals and critics and cynics who stand on the side- 
lines. Among the most prominent and influential alumni, 
loyally present at commencements, always ready with a few 
hundred thousand for some genuine need, are such men as Jack 
Morgan, '89, LL.D. (Hon.) '23, not over-endowed son of a great 
father, and Tom Lamont, '92, LL.D. (Hon.) '31, "probably the 
single most influential individual in contemporary American 
journalism". His "duties as a Morgan partner and apostolic 
successor to George W. Perkins are varied, but among them 
journalistic concerns have played a very large part. . . . Usually 
when the New York newspapers, in editorial or news columns 


chastely allude to 'prominent banking opinion', 'impressions in 
financial circles', and 'the consensus among bankers', they refer 
only to Lamont." Walter Lippmann, '09, chairman of the Visit- 
ing Committee of the Department of Economics, consultant on 
the use of the Nieman fund "to promote and elevate the stand- 
ards of journalism in the United States", is "among the many 
Lamont literary and journalistic friends. . . . Lament's most im- 
portant editorial outlet". (Lundberg, pp. 312-319). Twenty 
years ago Lippmann, an outspoken socialist, was too radical to 
be admitted to the Harvard Liberal Club. 

Lamont has come up from a newspaper reporter. His brother, 
Hammond, was once an instructor in English at Harvard. One 
son is a radical and communist, the other is following in his 
father's footsteps. Lamont is a public-spirited, conscientious and 
useful citizen, and certainly a loyal son of Harvard. 

The control of higher education in America lies increasingly 
with the financially successful. Lawyers and bankers on boards of 
trustees of fifteen great private universities increased between 
1860 and 1930 from 48% to 74%. This is the trend as revealed 
by the Rockefeller-financed investigation in The Educational 


Head of the self -perpetuating but constantly changing Cor- 
poration, the President of Harvard is responsible to the Over- 
seers, but must hold the support of the alumni. The Corporation 
today is made up chiefly of men, in their youth of liberal ten- 
dencies, now restricted or inhibited by financial dependence 
upon alumni who serve and represent great corporations. To the 
Overseers are constantly elected liberals, who in their environ- 
ment soon conform to pattern, losing the qualities that gave 
them individuality. And so they begin to look like conserva- 
tives. Rarely do they become reactionaries who see good only in 
the past. 

"These men are products of an environment with which they 
are so successfully and intelligently integrated that it would 
take more than your or my suggestions by letter to have any 
effect on their decisions or actions", writes an alumnus and for- 
mer college president, who knows the ways of his fellows. 

Men of good will, they are playing the game according to the 
rules as they know them. They begin to feel a loss of curiosity, 
even a growing unwillingness to delight as does a scientist in 
facing new questions. Their joy no longer lies in discovering the 
whys and wherefores of what is generally accepted. They are 
turning their backs on reality. 


Snubbing and snobbing are the most powerful means of hold- 
ing men in control. England knows how to put it over on 'in- 
ferior' peoples, to maintain its caste system. On the other hand, 
English diplomats always put it over on their American col- 
leagues, take 'em right into camp. 


Rare are the alumni who remain free and fearless in their 
thinking. And these few are unknown to each other, unor- 
ganized. Few are bold enough in their thought to have anything 
to say, and of these, few independent enough to dare say it. 
Only occasionally is a lone, clear voice heard above the tumult 
of rah rahs. Though the more tolerant may listen, the more 
cynical smile. But in perspective they stand up as giants among 
the little men. 

Thoreau shook the dust of Cambridge from his feet, never to 
return. Emerson, its severest critic, for more than twenty years 
ostracized, avoided the college yard, though from Somerville 
and from the Theological Seminary he denounced the stultifying 
influences of his alma mater. Wendell Phillips was an outcast in 
his day. The mediocrities are much more comfortable to have 
around than the Socrates. 


Another free man cast in heroic mould, with a face like 
Michael Angelo, and an impetuosity and fieriness of tempera- 
ment akin, was magnanimously tolerated because of recognized 
charm of personality. He was in the Boston tradition of the 
greater Adamses, of whom the last was Brooks, of Wendell 
Phillips, and Garrison. Such men grow, like William Me Andrew, 
"the older, the bolder". 

In John Jay Chapman and His Letters, Houghton Mifflin, 
ig^y, Mark Antony DeWolfe Howe presents, a little apologeti- 
cally to his fellow Taverners and Boston alumni, this wildly free 
friend of his. And still he understands him, for his son Quincy 
Howe is like Chapman in his outspoken freedom, his refusal to 
remain dumb in the presence of hypocrisy. Too bad Chapman 
could not have lived in Boston rather than dissipating his in- 
fluence in New York. 

Holding himself in restraint, Mr. Howe tones down or omits 
significant episodes. He fails to tell us how Chapman, in protest 
at the commercialization of football, with gusto and satire pro- 
posed to an alumni meeting a contract with a bill posting con- 



cern, and so supply all the money they needed. Many of the 
colleges seem to have adopted the suggestion, but Chapman 
killed it for Harvard. 

Mr. Howe tells us, "It was not until Chapman became openly 
critical of Harvard that his alma mater began to recognize his 
existence. In a private letter he once tossed off the term 'alma- 
matriotism', to define an obnoxious sentiment." And Chapman 
is quoted, "It is with a kind of joy that I attack Harvard College 
knowing that Harvard supplies the light and liberalism hardly 
elsewhere to be seen in America by which I am permitted to 
proceed. I should grieve to have this freedom extinguished, as it 
would be if the alumni were forbidden to take a critical interest 
in the institution." 

As Fuess brings out in The Yale Review, Winter, 1038, "A 
proud spirit, who could not and would not be moulded into the 
conventional form, who was the inveterate hater of meanness 
and sham and dishonesty, of little men and women ... the two 
major targets for his satire were Harvard College, of which he 
was a graduate in the class of 1884, and the Roman Catholic 
Church " 


i Academic freedom' the university stands for, but no Free 
Speech and Plain Language, Morrow, 1937, such as Albert Jay 
Nock advocates. There is no niche in a university for such a 
seminal mind. So he remains a free man. Formerly editor of 
The Freeman, in these reprinted essays which have appeared in 
Harper's and Atlantic in the past seven years, Nock hits hard 
with great suavity. Contempt and revilement are placidly 
poured upon those who would attempt to control him, by 
government, law, or tabu, (cf. 2oth ed., pp. 39, 102-3). 


One of his best essays bears the above title. In England we all 
admire the ivy mantled ruins of the monastic establishments 
Henry VIII suppressed. H. G. Wells has held forth on the possi- 
bilities this method offers for our modern universities. Nock tells 
of a distinguished American artist who "when his ship came in 
. . . proposed to give magnificent endowments to Columbia, 
Harvard, Princeton and Yale on the sole condition that they 
should shut up shop and go out of business forever". This stimu- 
lated Nock to rush "into print with the suggestions that in 
addition to our present system of schools, colleges and universi- 
ties which are doing first-class work as training-schools, we 
ought to have a few educational institutions". This is exactly in 
line with President Conant's idea for hobby courses. 


Ecclesiastical and monastic paraphernalia that Oxford and 
Cambridge have inherited, American universities are obliged 
to manufacture to meet demand, like Yale's 'ancient' mace and 
the Pierre La Rose Tercentenary banners. The academic hood 
and gown derived from the cloistered monk, but the scheme of 
colored facings for the fifty-seven varieties of degree is a modern 


Commencement parades, pageantry, platitudes, and 'spreads 1 
still work with young and old. Sentimentalism still permeates 
our education. We revere useless loyalties. "Goodbye Mr. 
Chips" is a best seller. As the classes formed on the shadowed 
lawn under the elms, the old, halt and bowed leading, my heart 
used to come right up into my throat, my glands speeded up, 
my capillaries diffused. I could hardly keep back the tears. 

"Dear Old Wabash! How American youth have fought and 
bled for her in a thousand colleges. About them is a shifting 
world, a changing civilization, men from the slums sacrificing 
and dying for their enthusiasms. But the deepest emotion that 
has thrilled these poor young rich Americans has been the appeal 
of their cheer leaders at the annual game." ("The New Im- 
moralities", p. 63). 

The sports writer in the Boston Herald who wrote the follow- 
ing understood the importance of football over other under- 
graduate interests. "But Foley likes to study, and as a sopho- 
more last fall he took his studies more to heart than he did his 
football. He also was bothered by a hip injury. The result was 
that he spent last summer on the junior varsity. But Coach 
Dick Harlow never lost faith in Foley. During the season he 
often said, 'Frank Foley is a good football player, one of the 
better backs on our squad. One of these afternoons he will bring 
a grand victory to Harvard.' During last spring practice he 
[Foley] experienced a change of heart. Football became his 
major interest." 


Anthropologists, in the study of magic and secret societies 
among primitive tribes and other peoples, find just as strange 
business as the college degree, earned 'in course' or 'honoris 

That the magic of the degree is potent is evident from the 
increasing number of brands, more numerous than cattle brands 

(81 ) 


in the West. Few need remain mavericks except for lack of 
money. To earn two thousand dollars a year teaching today, 
one should have a degree in education, master or doctor. A 
generation ago there were no doctors degrees in education. From 
1918 to 1932 the annual number awarded increased from 53 to 
337, and during that period the number totalled 2,302. If human 
stupidity must increase at that rate, it is well to have it branded. 
The brand certifies that they know how to teach, but doesn't 
certify that they have anything to teach. 

"One thousand degree granting colleges and universities pro- 
vide a democratic U. S. equivalent of the British Honors List", 
proving Stanley Baldwin's remark, "The more democratic a 
country is, the larger its Honors List". 

"The Strange Business of the Honorary Degree" is dilated 
on by John Tunis in "Honoris Causa", Harper's, June, 1937. 
He points out some interesting bizarre facts. "Honorary de- 
grees are awarded with a canny eye for prestige, publicity, and 
good hard cash. . . . College trustees measure men by reputa- 
tion rather than by real achievement. . . . Harvard's record in 
twenty years between ign and 1031 shows that it recognized 
poetry only in the persons of John Masefield and Robert 
Bridges, both Poet Laureates of England." The shaman in 
charge of Harvard's magic, "head of the committee on honor- 
ary degrees", is Dr. Roger I. Lee, a Boston physician, and mem- 
ber of the Corporation. 

Some big chiefs are more branded than strayed or stolen 
cattle. Some like it. There are professional collectors, Hoover 
(27), Lowell (28), Finley (30). Butler now has to go to South 
and Central America to get additional degrees. 


Most colleges find honorary degrees "handy to pat one 
another approvingly on the back. President A grants an LL.D. 
to President B, and the next June President B awards a Litt.D. 
to President A." (John R. Tunis). 

"Of all these dodges the most diverting, as Erasmus says, is 
that practised by scholars who indulge in mutual laudations, re- 
turning admiration for admiration, in letters, verses, and 
eulogies." This is from The Charlatanry of the Learned, Knopf, 
1937, first published in Leipzig in 1715, by Johann Burkhard 
Mencken. The new edition has notes and introduction by a col- 
lateral descendant, H. L. Mencken. This, like Erasmus' "In 
Praise of Folly", 1509, two centuries before, was the best seller 
of the time, going through many editions in many languages. 


Any element of a culture changes with time and place. But 
change may come slowly in an isolated, unchanging environ- 
ment. The commencement exercises or puberty rites of the 
Aruntas of Central Australia have probably remained fixed 
these hundred thousand years. 

But in New England, immigrations of peoples and ideas have 
brought changes. The ways of conscientious parent or peda- 
gogue with children, of Harvard president with God or under- 
graduate, are not the same today as they were in 1920, 1820, 
1720. Once parent, pedagogue, and college president spent 
much of their time birching the young or bootlicking God. Those 
worthies of former days would not approve what they would 
find today. Customs change. There are academic fashions among 
the faculty, even among the undergraduates. Psychological atti- 
tudes are even more evanescent than sweaters and slacks. 


Our great universities are reservoirs where accumulations of 
the past, bookish and traditional, collect. They have their high 
and low levels. Like the conserving reservoir, and most con- 
servative bodies, a university may act as a retarding and steady- 
ing influence in times of change, or may discharge a stimulus 
upon a still and stagnant society. 

From the dead level of custom, under the impetus or pressure 
of some great force, a university may rise above its source. 
At the Tercentenary, President Conant, a scientist dragged from 
his researches, on the verge of great chlorophyl discoveries, gave 
such a stimulus. Though the jet of inspiration and enthusiasm 
could not be permanently maintained, he stirred a stagnant 
academic world, opened new vistas, prescribed new methods, 
and laid down new objectives. 

With the naivete and boldness of a scientist, Conant an- 
nounced a common sense program of examining with the detach- 
ment of a geologist into the stratification of our social system. 
Some evidently thought he went too far, that sacred cows were 
jostled. He found himself in a difficult and delicate position. In 
the months following, his words and acts showed the steadying 
and stabilizing influence of more conservative forces. And 
eventually there was subsidence to the dead level of mass alumni 


The great American goddess, Alma Mater, is worshipped from 


Orono to Pomona, with traditional ceremonies and seasonal 
spectacles to do her honor. The ritual is as absorbing to the 
votaries and as absurd to the unprejudiced onlooker as would 
be that of the Paphian Venus, the Ephesian Diana, the sinister 
Magna Mater. 

What a native Liberian distinguished as the essential ele- 
ments in the culture of such institutions as Harvard University 
and a typical church preparatory school, were made clear in the 
letter he wrote back to his black bishop in charge of education. 

"Now in Liberia The A. M. E. Church has a College, the 
Methodists have a college . . . The Episcopal Church . . . 
should start the first university of Liberia . . . modeled after 
Harvard University . . . Teach most everything . . . have the 
men's Glee Club ... let them dress collegiate with polo shirts 
and different college clothes. Have the boys cheer for the differ- 
ent games . . . have a large concrete swimming pool . . . Teach 
acting and dramatics . . . allow the Collegiates to have their 
automobiles . . . Teach them how to run business . . . teach 
playing jazz music. Have a beautiful modernistic chapel . . . 
Teach the students to be up to date . . . wearing caps and gowns 
. . . beautiful colorful uniforms . . . sweaters have words saying 
U. L. . . . take pictures of the teachers in caps and gowns . . . 
Send them to the New York Times . . . teach journalism . . . 
how to run business such as theatres, department stores . . . 
have college bands." He outlined, too, a plan for the feeder to 
the university, "the Episcopal school for boys . . . modern con- 
crete . . . square shaped buildings . . . teach all the boys to 
wear shoes, white duck pants . . . train athletes". 

The alumni of the universities and colleges are the selected 
seed of the nation. They control our universities, which control 
our schools, which control the pabulum or poison on which the 
best of our young are fed. They are the vital link in Hutchins' 
'vicious circle'. Why they think as they do, what determines 
their beliefs, what affects their attitudes, what makes them be- 
have as they do, is deserving of study. Moulded by their school- 
masters, cramped by material considerations, they have little 
impulse to freedom of thought or speech. Had they the heroic 
attitude they might free their universities from the pall of fear 
that overhangs. Alma Mater might then become an actual cen- 
ter of light and the desire to learn, to question, to investigate, 
rather than a center of dead learning. 

The faculties still retain some taint of ecclesiastical and monk- 
ish antecedents. Cloistered, timorous, contemptuous of the 
world about them, they inevitably tend to become a self-protec- 
tive priestcraft. Collectively and individually they generally 


show as little confidence about balancing their intellectual as 
their personal budgets. 

The undergraduates are supposed to listen with bated breath 
to talk of 'eternal verities', to acquire a veneration for some 
ghostlike impossible vision, 'The Truth', refusing to see the 
little bits of it that lie all about them. The London journal 
Truth, run by a faker and swindler who finally died in prison, 
used to carry on its cover a sexy, statuesque odalisque, hips ajar, 
torch aloft perhaps the undergraduate conception of 'Truth'. 
It is in the universities, where there is this perpetual steeple- 
chase in pursuit of 'Truth', that tabus and folklore curdle thick. 

Universities pride themselves on their traditions and ritual, 
blind to the fact that all is recent resuscitation of the primitive. 
Repetitive ritual, custom, and tradition are nowhere so fixed, 
unchanged for perhaps a hundred thousand years, as among the 
most primitive aborigines of Australia, where violators of folk- 
ways are hunted down and slain. Sir Baldwin Spencer, the 
Australian anthropoligist, who spent a lifetime studying their 
customs, describes in detail the elaborate corroborees attendant 
to the initiation of youth into adulthood. These "practices 
transmitted by the oldest members of the tribe transcend in in- 
tricacy the traditions of our eldest western educational institu- 
tions and the numerous prolonged conferences and meetings of 
the old men in preparation for each morrow's ceremony make 
the faculty meetings of our oldest universities planning a com- 
mencement exercise seem trivial", (cf. i3th ed., p. 35). 


In such an atmosphere, where tradition and ritual are wor- 
shipped, few may transcend the mores of the tribe, the ethics 
or the priestcraft. 

But let the college professor have something to say and speak 
it boldly, and he is in demand, he has a following. He is wanted 
as a speaker, his books sell, he has income, he is independent. 
He can thumb his nose at the university. The millionaire and the 
college president will lick his boots, because he has what they 
are both after, popular support. And if he has that rarest of all 
things in academic circles, a sense of humor, he can insult and 
browbeat his audience, he can talk to dentists, doctors, engi- 
neers, and tell them where they have fallen down, he can insult 
the Harvard Clubs in St. Louis or Kansas City, and they cheer 
him, love it and call for more. Just because he doesn't give a 
hoot, they recognize him as worth listening to. His feet are 
squarely under him, his head in the air, his tail up. 

Nothing can touch him except his colleagues, the greatest 
suppressing and repressing force of all. Their attitude of 'It 
isn't done', 'It isn't cricket', is sometimes crushing. 


If ever there was a man who was independent of such snob- 
bery and caste loyalty, independent because of worldwide pres- 
tige, because money flowed in from his books, it was William 
James. Yet so strong is the brotherhood in the teaching priest- 
craft that when he wrote John Jay Chapman criticizing two of 
his colleagues, he asked that the letter be burned. It takes a 
good man to stand up in a university, even at Harvard. 


In the past generation a new scientific method of examining 
peoples and their institutions has developed. From the curios of 
the missionaries and the whalers, from the collections of Indian 
arrowheads and skulls brought together in museums, patient 
workers have created a science of man. A Malinowski or a 
Margaret Mead, living the life of isolated islanders, speaking 
their language and thinking their thoughts, studying their 
mores and folklore, have given us a method whereby we may 
study and come to understand the behavior of those imme- 
diately about us. 

Why should the anthropologists and psychologists and psy- 
chiatrists today spend their talent on recognized criminals, the 
hopelessly insane, or island isolated primitives? A study of our 
all highest, our university presidents and their faculties, their 
behavior, mores, folklore, myths, would yield richer results 
than the study of the population of our penitentiaries. Such a 
survey would be of more immediate value to the world than any 
the scientists are likely to undertake. It is an absurdity that we 
should do for the criminal and the insane, the poorest and the 
least hopeful, what we deny our best. 

This may be a bold suggestion. But with tact it might be 
successfully undertaken. There would be a lot of sputtering and 
spilling, and a gloom of pessimism as to the results of such a 
study, a pessimism perhaps not wholly justified. To have faith 
that some good would come of this, one need not believe too 
fully in the possibility of the redemption of the educated, or that 
the philosophical could be turned to contemplation of reality, or 
that men of 'principles' would discard them. 


President Raymond B. Fosdick of the Rockefeller Foundation 
in "A Review for 1036" announced a new plan "to sharpen its 
program. 'The proper study of mankind is man'. For the time 
being at least, this dictum governs the policy of the Trustees." 
The Foundation is to promote research in mental hygiene, 
endocrinology, "the problem of human behavior". 

Nowhere could the Foundation find a more worthy field for 
study than in our universities. They are deserving of some scien- 
tific consideration. The cloistered scene would be found clut- 
tered with dead beliefs, antiquities of human cerebration, 
young and old engaged in archaic ritual, intense professors chas- 
ing their metaphysical tails, ambitious youth following pre- 
scribed gymnastics to strengthen flabby mental muscles. They 
would find a priestcraft "destined to end, as does all priestcraft, 
in superstition", as Lancelot Hogben writes in "Mathematics 
for the Million". "History shows that superstitions are not 
manufactured by the plain man. They are invented by neurotic 
intellectuals with too little to do." 


The Rockefeller researchers will find that pioneering scouts 
have preceded. Out of the West have come two young Lochin- 
vars, hard riding bunkum busters. There is something in the 
clear atmosphere of the high altitudes of Wyoming, something 
about the inspiration of the mountains, that stimulates a free 
and bold attitude. 

Here is the former mayor of Laramie, a Yale law professor, 
now the Administration's trust buster, Thurman Arnold. The 
beliefs and behavior of professors, corporation lawyers, business 
men, overlooked by the scientist, seem to him worthy of study 
and analysis. He has written about the "Symbols" they play 
with, the tabus that fetter them, the "Folklore" that uncon- 
sciously controls them. He finds that for them "The word 
'education' was simply a substitution for preaching in a more 
mystical age". 

Another Wyoming cowboy, dude rancher, reformed Phila- 
delphia socialite, aristocrat, traveler, novelist, author of "The 
Delectable Mountains", has made an anthropological study of 
the Eastern university alumnus. Struthers Burt spent a summer 
a few years ago innocently and naively along the New England 
coast, and came off bravely. There he discovered a race of aristo- 
cratic supermen, bronzed Vikings, living on their yachts or in 
seaside villas. Their ancestors developed the China trade, built 



the Western railroads. They are the select and elect of the 
nation, the product and patrons of our private schools, the 
leading alumni of our great universities. 

He found them "a race that at any time, if it will exhibit the 
brains and courage and patience that should be there, can as- 
sume, or rather regain, its leadership, lost for over a century, 
provided that leadership is honest, unselfish, and not in direct 
opposition to all intelligent modern thought". But today, 
trained on meaningless words, unable to face reality, they are 
without "the basic aristocratic ideal of noblesse oblige", with- 
out "a solitary plan that has for its basis patriotism or vision" 
(Scribner's, March, 1036). 


The world about us is evidence enough that the universities 
have fallen down on their job. The implicit and unbounded 
faith of American parents in education dominated by the uni- 
versities has been misplaced. They have failed us before, at the 
outbreak of the war. They failed us after the war, and in a more 
recent crisis. "There were the universities, great schools, galaxies 
of authorities, learned men, experts, teachers gowned, adorned, 
and splendid", writes H. G. Wells in Harper's, April, 1937. 
"This higher brain, this cerebrum, this gray matter of America 
was so entirely unco-ordinated that it had nothing really com- 
prehensive, searching, thought-out, and trustworthy to go 

There is no reason why our universities should continue to 
fail us. And they won't, if there is drive and demand on the part 
of their alumni that they turn about and face reality. At the 
Harvard Tercentenary President Conant got us all 'het up j over 
the possibilities, about what universities might do. Since, 
however, the heat has died down, and the light has flickered 
fitfully. The hope that education may 'save the world', expressed 
by Head Master Fuess at the Andover commencement, is not at 
present justified. At least, our tour of the universities fails to 
show that they have much to offer. 

At the Harvard commencement, Walter Cannon demanded 
that the universities help us to learn why man behaves as he 
does. Now the Rockefeller Foundation takes for its program 
Pope's old text "the proper study of mankind". Let the univer- 
sities examine their own folklore and tabus, get away from 
principles, philosophies, 'eternal verities', stop chasing that old 
harridan 'Truth'. It's time to be scientific and anthropological. 


The progress of the century has been in material things, in 
the creation of wealth. 'Industry' and 'finance' which came 
out of mercantilism have led. The bankers, manufacturers, the 
newspaper publishers, all have their national associations, an- 
nual conventions and loud speakers. Perhaps they will show us 
how to "save the world". 


The American Bankers Association, President Tom K. Smith 
reported at its meeting in Boston, October, 1937, "today repre- 
sents 13,009 banks . . . 72.98 per cent of all the banks in the 
country", a good comeback in six years since all the banks were 
closed after most had failed. 

Banks encourage thrift. The peoples' savings are the basis of 
their business. Frank P. Bennett, Jr., editor of The United States 
Investor told the meeting, "Government is a clumsy, blundering 
body . . . making a frontal attack with the postal savings banks 
and the Federal savings and loan associations, which represent 
a direct bid for funds that otherwise would go to banks ... It 
has deliberately created Federal savings and loan associations in 
New England and New York and other places where existing 
agencies for saving and for mortgage lending are adequate or 
more than adequate. The encroachment of the Federal Housing 
Administration in the savings field is a flank attack ... It 
would deprive banks of their best earning assets." 

President Smith told the meeting how the comeback had been 
fostered by the Association's advertising department by close 
contact "between the association and the press. This department 
supplies many special articles and material on banking for news- 
papers, encyclopedias, year books and writers in national mag- 
azines, all with the purpose of making a better presentation of 
banking to the public." 

The bankers' interest as in the past seems to be on getting 
people's sayings into their hands, using newspaper propaganda 
and resenting interference. The names of Wiggin, Mitchell, 
Harriman are tabu, as will be that of Richard Whitney, once 
the idol of the exchange and a member of the Visiting Commit- 
tee on the Department of Economics at Harvard. But bank 
? residents' secret profits are still reported, Time, December 13. 
t is doubtful if bankers now show more vision than in 1929. 


The American Newspaper Publishers Association, with 1800 


members, at its annual convention in Chicago, June, 1937, rallied 
to the slogan of * 'freedom of the press". Newly elected President 
Stahlman, of the Nashville Banner, answering the challenge of 
the American Newspaper Guild, which had met at St. Louis 
two weeks earlier, declared the closed shop "is a most serious 
threat to a free press, and consequently to the liberties of a 
free people. " 

"Freedom of the press includes the right to express even dis- 
torted opinions", the Washington Post asserts, referring to an 
article attacking the National Labor Relations Board's investi- 
gation of life in Weir's steel company town in Mill and Factory, 
October, 1937, published at the expense of the company, one 
infers, for Ayer's Newspaper Directory lists it as a trade organ 
having no paid circulation. 

Freedom of the press must not be restricted by child labor 
laws limiting age or hours of news boys on the streets at night. 
How a contract with a newspaper boy may be drawn so that he 
works "at his own risk and expense" and is not subject to com- 
pensation liability if run over, is fully explained in a publica- 
tion for the benefit of newspaper circulation managers, under the 
aegis of The Newspaper Boys of America, Inc., Indianapolis, 
1937. The title is The Newspaper Boy Merchant or Em- 
ployee? by Charles A. Rohleder, 120 pages, $5.00. 

How the "newsie" has been transformed by publishers, law- 
yers, into an "independent contractor", bearing full risk of col- 
lections and in many states excluded from the benefits of child 
labor and workmen's compensation laws, is told by Alfred 
McClung Lee in The Daily Newspaper in America: The Evolu- 
tion of a Social Instrument, Macmillan, 1937. 

"A newspaper is a private enterprise, owing nothing whatever 
to the public, which grants it no tranchise. It is therefore 
'affected' with no public interest. It is emphatically the property 
of the owner, who is selling a manufactured product at his own 
risk. . . . Editors, except where they own their own news- 
papers, take their policy from their employers. ... But for 
ridiculously obvious reasons, there are many newspaper owners 
willing enough to encourage the public in the delusion that it is 
the editor of a newspaper who dictates the selection of news and 
the expression of opinion." The preceding, from The Wall Street 
Journal in January 25, 1925, is equally true now. 


"Comparatively few papers give significant accounts of our 
basic economic conflicts", 86.6% of Washington correspondents 
report. "The publishers' cry of 'freedom of the press' in fighting 
the NRA code was a ruse", 63.8% assert. These figures are from 
a study of the leaders of the journalistic profession, who are 


more independent than most, The Washington Correspondents, 
by Leo C. Rosten, Harcourt Brace, 1937. 

In The Press and World Affairs, Appleton-Century, 1037, 
Robert W. Desmond, long time foreign correspondent, tells us, 
"Almost all that any person knows about public affairs is 
gleaned from newspapers. It is equally certain that what any 
person knows, or thinks he knows, determines how he behaves. 
His opinion and his behavior, multiplied by the opinions and 
behaviors of all those of his fellow-men, who are similarly in- 
fluenced, determines the history of the world.'' 

In the introduction Harold Laski writes, "Behind the corre- 
spondents is an immense machinery whose purpose is deliberate 
distortion. ... It is clear enough that the simple hopes of a 
'free* press as a source of right opinions, hopes with which 
Jeremy Bentham and his disciples started, are unlikely to be 
fulfilled in any period of time we can forsee." 


"Rich men and politicians have a fixed belief that if they can 
control the press they will be able to control public opinion", 
Aldous Huxley writes in "Notes on Propaganda", Harper's, 
December, 1036. 

The effectiveness of propaganda among school children has 
been investigated by experiments and tests by Professor Her- 
man H. Remmers of Purdue University, reported in Princeton 
University's Public Opinion Quarterly, Spring, 1038. The effect 
is equal on children of high or low I. Q. In two months some of 
the effect wears off, but much lasts six months. The implications 
for our democratic society Professor Remmers considers most 

The dishonest distortion of the news on Russia printed in the 
New York Times was investigated and reported on in The New 
Republic fifteen years ago. That resulted in a change of policy 
and the appointment of Walter Duranty to represent the Times 
in Russia. Walter Lippman, the author, was then a deluded 
socialist. Since then he has won the ear of 'business' and 'in- 
dustry', become wealthy and divorced, and the medium loud 
speaker of Thomas Lamont. He has been honored by Harvard 
by election as an overseer and appointment to many visiting 
committees. More recently with Ellery Sedgwick and John 
Stewart Bryan, publishers, he has been appointed to make the 
awards to newspaper men, recommended by their publishers. 
This Nieman bequest of one million "to promote and elevate the 
standards of journalism" will probably not be used for any such 
radical plan as Walter Lippman's earlier investigation. The free- 
dom of the press, "the hired man of industry" must be main- 



The business man, descendant of the trader, has always hoed 
a hard row. Taxed by governments, bled by the bankers, ab- 
sorbed or destroyed by corporations, he risks his savings on op- 
portunities or distributive projects he discovers, for profit or 
loss. The business man nearly always pays, Harry Scherman 
tells us in "The Promises Men Live By". Corporation paper and 
government paper is not always redeemed. The individual is 
honest, the combination may not be. The weak pay because the 
powerful can force them to. Once we could say, The woman 
always pays'. 

A History of the Business man, Macmillan, 1938, by Miriam 
Beard, daughter of the historians, Charles and Mary, and wife 
of Dr. Alfred Vagts, author of the monumental "History of 
Militarism", Norton, 1937, traces for the first time the devious 
way of the traders from the New Stone Age to the New Deal. 
An enormous amount of interesting information is brought to- 

Prehistoric merchants brought the Baltic amber to the 
Aegean. In Brittany four thousand years ago a * merchant of 
death' cached "four thousand standardized stone hatchets", 
recently dug up. The trader, our modern business man, is fol- 
lowed from Carthage to Chicago, the munitions men from 
Crassus to Krupp, business failures from John Law to the Van 
Sweringens. The Hanseatic League, the methods of the Fuggers, 
are familiarly compared with those of the Morgans and the 

Trade led to financing, dealing in promises and bills of ex- 
change. The finance capitalist today, the dealer in promises, 
stocks, bonds, bits of paper, the juggler in values, hiding behind 
the 'business man', serving the 'widows and orphans', de- 
termines the destinies of the millions. His will is made known 
through the Voice of business'. 

What boobs business men are Roger Babson appreciates. 
"Not even well versed in the fundamentals of business cycles 
. . . We are a nation of economic illiterates." The business man 
is the most abused and deluded and defrauded element in our 


Depicted in cartoons, as a workman in a square cap, 'Indus- 
try 1 is a newspaper euphemism for 'Big Business'. 'Manage- 
ment', the most important function in our social economy, is 
represented by long lists of vice presidents with salaries up to 
$300,000. They manage not only production, but labor es- 
pionage, public propaganda through newspapers, films, radio, 
and distribution through advertising and pressure sales. Their 
industrial plants and their puppets are pawns for shrewder men 
who sell 'securities'. The buyers hope for gain but are periodi- 
cally 'shaken out'. The mythology and folklore about 'Industry' 
consist of a mass of principles, 'fundamentals', and 'eternal 
verities', pronounced by economists, which all 'thinking men' 
devoutly believe. 


"Press agent for 'Industry'," Time calls it; "a perfect example 
of Bourbonism in full flower", The New Republic. Dominated by 
207 corporations, whose officers in 1936 drew salaries of 
$89,750,000 (The Nation, March 12, 1938), who bought 60% 
of all the tear gas sold in this country, 55 of these companies 
paid two and a quarter millions for spy service from 1933 to 
1937. It has 4000 members, many of them deluded little busi- 
ness men, about to be defrauded by their big competitors. The 
New York meeting of the N. A. M., December, 1937, was a con- 
tinuation of the program started when Hutton suggested that 
they "gang up" against the administration. 

Time in its issue of December 13, under "Business and 
Finance" printed a five-page story made up from the altruistic 
'handouts' on the 'American way'. News-Week cagily acknowl- 
edged receipt of propaganda and announced they would report 
after the event. The following week Time reported the meeting 
under "Industry" with the title "Worst Foot". 

W. B. Warner, head of the McCall Corporation, admitted, 
"Some will say that industry is selfish . . . that it seeks its 
own preservation. It does. But its preservation is essential to 
the happiness ... of 130,000,000 people." He regretted that, 
"In the last 29 years the amount expended on so-called non 
essentials, amusement, recreation . . . has increased 200 per 
cent while the population was increasing only 43 per cent . . . 
In 1929 labor's share of the national income was 54.5 per cent; 
in 1936 labor's share had risen to 66.5 per cent." But he failed 
to tell us that "In the single year of 1936 the big corporations 
of the United States had increased their profits six times as 



much as the workers have managed to increase their wages 
during the entire four years of the New Deal". 


"Business Finds Its Voice", three articles by S. H. Walker 
and Paul Sklar, in Harper's, January, February, and March, 
1938, tells of the tremendous propaganda machine that has 
been built up by the N. A. M., with an annual budget of 
$5,000,000, press service to 5000 small town newspapers, 
cartoons and editorial features to 300 dailies. 

How the great corporations are reaching millions of people 
by film and radio is detailed in full. They quote Paul Garrett, 
public relations director of General Motors, as telling his execu- 
tives, "Since IQ2Q nearly 17,000,000 young people have come 
of age ... If you are interested in the part youth is playing in 
the modern world, study the records of the dictators of Europe 
. . . Every day more than 28,000,000 'General Motors people' 
are casting a vote for or against us ... employees, stockholders, 
dealers, suppliers, product owners, together with their families." 
Garrett 's problem is how to control their votes. 

The great advertising agencies have been enlisted to "educate 
the public". "Management has been releasing a stream of 
printed and broadcast advertising, publicity, and commercial 
motion pictures for four years". In the new program, booklets 
will be sent out "at the rate of 1,000,000 every two weeks; and 
representatives of Nation's Business will conduct 500,000 inter- 
views with business men to urge on them 'the necessity for 
promoting sound thinking about businessamong theircustomers, 
employees, and associates". 

The story of 'Industry' is quickly told. In IQ2Q 'Industry' 
had received in exchange for pieces of paper, bonds, stocks, 
and notes, nearly $200,000,000,000. Three years later $15,500- 
000,000 would have bought all the 'securities' listed on the New 
York Stock Exchange. Since then the people through their Fed- 
eral Government have borrowed on their credit and spent 
$20,000,000,000 largely to keep alive those whom 'Industry' 
could not employ, and to conserve and repair damage to our 
land. This money increased purchasing power, primed the pump, 
stimulated 'Industry' and agriculture. 

April 6, IQ38, while the hullabaloo about the Reorganization 
Bill concealed the action, Congress authorized the RFC to ex- 
tend another billion and a half to business. Two-and-a-half bil- 
lions previously loaned by the RFC had been cancelled by 
legislative act less than two months before. 


This talk about 'capitalism' is foolish. Most of us are capital- 
ists and our ancestors have been since they first possessed two 
stone axes. Capital is something accumulated to make use of at 
some future time. It is the hangover from past effort that en- 
ables one to get something more easily than if he started from 
scratch. How can anyone oppose capitalism? The grasshopper 
has no capital, but the lyre bird has, though it isn't worth much. 


Our own folklore becomes a dead thing as soon as we are 
conscious of it. The folklore of the American people, the beliefs 
and practices that they devoutly hold have more to do with 
corporations, industry, and banks than with churches or even 
schools. It is of this and the practices of their high priests that 
Thurman Arnold tells us in his The Folklore of Capitalism, 
Yale University Press, 1937. 

The title is a little unfortunate. It may even suggest the red 
flag to some. The book deals with the folklore of the people 
about us, business man, banker, lawyer, thief. 

'The folklore of 1037", he says, "was expressed principally 
by the literature of law and economics ... Of course this litera- 
ture was not called folklore. No one thought of sound principles 
of law or economics as a religion. They were considered as in- 
escapable truths, as natural laws, as principles of justice, and as 
the only method of an ordered society. This is a characteristic 
of all vital folklore or religion." 


"Let me designate the heroes of a nation and I care not who 
writes its constitution. In the days of chivalry national heroes 
were princes of the Church or warriors seeking high adventure 
for a holy motive ... In the United States the mythology used 
to be very simple. The predominant figure was the American 
Businessman . . . The creed of the American Businessman was 
celebrated in our institutions of learning. Since the American 
Scholar was a minor divinity, some of his characteristics had 
to be assumed by the great industrial organization. Therefore 
colleges were endowed. . . 

"The American Businessman was independent of his fellows. 
No individual could rule him. Hence the 'rule of law above men. 
was symbolized by the Constitution. This meant that the Amer- 
ican Businessman was an individual who was free from the 
control of any other individual and owed allegiance only to the 



Constitution. However ... his employees were subject to the 
arbitrary control of this divinity." 


"One might think that anthropology might be a descriptive 
term for a study of modern religion and political forms. It will 
not serve, however, because the anthropologist stops at the 
solemn threshold of law and economics, convinced of his un- 
worthiness to proceed. He says in excuse, 'I am no economist or 
lawyer.' The Supreme Court of the United States has for years 
offered a more fascinating study in primitive ritualism than 
anything that the Malaysian tribes had to offer. The American 
Law Institute, composed of a group of men sitting around and 
doing responsive readings of the law, financed by the Carnegie 
Foundation, has never been adequately described." 

Like a Malinowski among the Trobriand Islanders, but with 
a keener sense of humor, he deals in a way that will delight 
the irreverent in the presence of the phony, with the Messianic 
mutterings of the prophets of 'right thinking' people, Walter 
Lippmann, Herbert Hoover, Alfred Sloan, Dorothy Thompson. 


The inevitable and useful corporation has gathered folklore 
thick about it. The mythical corporation has assumed all the 
rights and privileges of the 'rugged individual'. Ceremonies are 
administered by a priesthood of lawyers attended by retinues 
of economists and engineers and clerks. 

"The Ritual of Corporate Reorganization consists in the 
endless repetition in different forms of the notion that men must 
pay their debts, in a situation in which neither men nor debts 
in any real sense are involved. 

"As the symbolism got farther and farther from reality, it 
required more and more ceremony to keep it up. The business 
corporation built more elaborate cathedrals, and endowed 
greater colleges to keep its theology moving along the right 
lines. This, of course, was an unconscious process, just as the 
great era of cathedral buildings in the thirteenth century was 


Where this folklore is most alive and potent, Arnold's book 
has been received with perplexity, condemnation, or contempt. 
Raymond Moley, who stubbed his toe at the London Economic 
Conference and lost his job with Hull and Roosevelt, and now 
serves the estranged former yachting companion who financed 
Today for Moley and when it was bumped off bought into the 
News-Week to give him a front seat, though now he hangs on 


at the tailboard, makes a pretense of fury at "Professor Arnold", 
"the last of the jongleurs". In his exasperation at the role he 
now plays, he spits upon the "anthropological approach", and 
ends in a suppressed obscenity, hoping that the sore headed 
servitor's yapping may keep his master Astor happy. 

Henry Hazfitt, whose job is to 'soporify' conservative readers 
of the New York Times when a disturbing influence appears, 
pretends to be perplexed, and bewails that Arnold "ridicules 
the application of general principles on the ground that each 
event is unique" and that he treats law and economics as "part 
of the 'theology' of contemporary 'priests' ". He doesn't appreci- 
ate the 'satire'. He thinks Mr. Arnold 'rather pallid' and not 
'fair'. But dissatisfied with his inability to make a case he dis- 
misses him as "merely what used to be called a sophist and is 
now better known as a smart aleck". 


Those from whose eyes the scales have fallen hail this humor- 
ous, satirical, and always good natured revelation of our follies, 
with joy and delight. David L. Cohn in the Atlantic speaks of 
this as "Fun at the Operating Table", "a brilliant, witty, cor- 
rosively skeptical examination of some of the myths and illusions 
by which man lives". 

Clifton Fadiman finds it "one of the funniest examples of 
social satire since Voltaire", Ralph Thompson "one of the most 
penetrating and exciting political studies since Veblen". Alfred 
Bingham ranks it with Darwin's "Origin of Species". Stuart 
Chase calls him a new Machiavelli. 

The book is great fun for those who have a sense of humor 
and are not permanently warped. You learn what a boob you 
have been. Once having looked out through Arnold's eyeholes, 
life is larger, solemn things are funnier. He finds the behavior 
of his fellows absorbing and enlightening. He writes, December 
16, 1937: 

"-Whenever anyone claims that I am trying to destroy, I 
simply answer that I am describing, and whenever anyone 
accuses me of lack of enthusiasm for old institutions, I always 
insist that I am fond of them, and this is probably true. I like 
Yale with all its bourgeois characteristics. I like the jury trial 
in spite of the fact that it is not an investigation. I am probably 
one of the most thorough-going reactionaries in the United 
States. Unfortunately, no one seems to realize this." 


The 14,000,000 who work for 200 corporations don't want 
to accept the "open shop" and the nine anachronistic principles 
laid down by the National Association of Manufacturers at its 
last convention. They want to preserve such liberties as they 
have won, since a hundred years ago it was a prison offense to 
join a union or to strike. But then indentured servants were 
still gold. And forty years after, black slaves were sold and 
flogged in these United States. 

Sidton, despondent labor, with a smouldering sense of in- 
justicfc, Inay lead to aggressive and belligerent leadership. The 
fault Will lie not merely with labor or management, but with the 
indifferent citizen, the stock holder who derives income from 
labor and does not know or understand. 


Labor does not want espionage. Nine volumes of sworn testi- 
mony in the investigation of the LaFollette Committee, prose- 
cuted with scant funds, disclosed that labor espionage was a 
"common, almost universal practice in American industry . . . 
Large corporations rely on spies. No firm is too small to employ 

"Said the report, The example of General Motors Corp. is 
amazing and terrifying in the picture it presents of management 
caught in a hopeless mass of corruption and distrust/ In two- 
and-a-half years General Motors paid nearly $1,000,000 for 
spy service. The plant managers began by hiring spies for their 
own use. Over this was a superstructure of espionage built by 
personnel managers of Fisher Body and Chevrolet. Then the 
top general management contracted secretly for still another 
spy service. By this time even the Pinkerton officials were 
'bewildered'. But the payoff came when General Motors realized 
that the horde of spies had opened the corporation to leaks in 
trade and design secrets. Whereupon spy was set to spy on 
spy." (Time, January 3, 1938). 

"General Motors Corporation^ starting with one set of 
spies to report on unionization of its plants, felt compelled to 
employ a second set to report on the activities of the first 
group. Then, suspecting that trade secrets were being sold to 
commercial rivals by some of the spies to whom the company's 
records had been made available, a third outfit of spies was 
brought in to shadow the other two." (Boston Herald, December 
22, 1937). 

"No less than 304 Pinkerton operatives were admitted union 



members, about one-third union officials. One had bored his 
way to the vice-presidency of a national union, 14 were presidents 
of locals, eight were local vice presidents, 20 local secretaries . . . 
The Pinkertons were active in 93 national and international 
unions . . . 

"Said the LaFollette report: 'Not only is the worker's freedom 
of association nullified by employer's spies but his freedom of 
action, of speech and assembly is completely destroyed. Fear 
harries his every footstep, caution muffles his words. He is in 
no sense any longer a free American.'" (Time, January 3, 1938). 


The business of selling 'protection' to manufacturers is re- 
flected in a salesman's report to his head office on the sale to pri- 
vate firms of Green Band grenades, Jumper Repeaters, Tru- 
Flite shells, tear and emetic gas: "I am doing a lot of missionary 
work in anticipation of a strike this spring and I am in a position 
to send in some good orders if it will only mature. Wish a hell 
of a strike would get under way." 

Spy Overhead : The Story of Industrial Espionage, Harcourt, 
Brace, 1937, by Clinch Calkins, is unpleasant, but as interesting 
as a detective story. From the published report of the Senate 
investigation she gleans that General Motors paid $819,000 in 
two years and seven months from 1933 to 1935 for spies, more 
than half of which went to Pinkerton detective agencies. 
$80,000,000 a year was paid by industry for stool pigeons, so- 
called detective agencies, wearing such titles as Railway Audit 
and Inspection Company. 

The Labor Spy Racket, Modern Age Books, 1937, by Leo 
Huberman, is a 35ff volume of 200 pages summarizing the find- 
ings of the LaFollette Civil Liberties Committee of the Senate. 
Condensed, it lacks the dramatic quality of the preceding. 
The author becomes emotional in telling of slugging guards, 
brutal beatings, and cowardly murders incident to enforcing 
'Industry's' open shop and the much publicized 'American 
way'. The appendix lists 230 agencies, and others have since 
come to public attention, which supplied 100,000 spies to 
429 clients, listed with the amounts paid to named agencies. 

Labor Spy, by GT-99, Bobbs-Merrill, 1937, which Time called 
an "horrendous story", is anonymously published by this able 
man who after twenty-five years of service retired to live on a 
farm in Canada, where he is relatively safe from vengeance. 
GT-99 tells us how he was corrupted and how in turn he 'hooked 1 , 
others. He wrote the equivalent of eighty volumes of reports. 
He became a high official in the A. F. of L. At the instance of 


his employers he was effective in organizing several companies 
of the National Guard, anticipating that they might be needed 
for strike duty. It is a thrilling detective story, the more so 
because it carries evidence of being truthful though fictionalized. 


Thurman Arnold, Professor of Law at Yale, reviewing in 
The Yale Review, Winter, 1938, Robert R. R. Brooks' When 
Labor Organizes, Yale University Press, 1937, commends the 
author for a thoroughly academic study of labor problems, 
showing the causes that have led desperate labor to organize. 
Brooks, assistant professor of economics at Williams College, 
sometime fellow of Trumbull College, Yale, dispassionately 
discloses the technique of how the labor union is built by pro- 
fessional organizers, of how it is combatted by professional 
spies. The current methods of striker and strike breaker are 
concretely illustrated. Photographs show the Chicago police 
killing ten paraders and wounding a hundred in the spring of 
1937, and the gangster technique of Ford guards in action at 
the Dearborn plant. 

"The trials and investigations in the Black Legion murder 
cases showed that the Legion was an avowedly antiunion organ- 
ization, had had a hand in breaking automobile unions and 
strikes in 1934, and was related to the espionage systems of 
large automobile manufacturing concerns." 

The history of labor is rapidly summarized from Commons 1 
classic studies. The C. I. O. is briefly treated, perhaps, as 
Thurman Arnold says, because "the penalties imposed on a 
scholar for making a wrong guess are so drastic that one can 
scarcely blame Professor Brooks for declining to take a chance." 

C. I. O.: Industrial Unionism in Action, Norton, 1937, is by 
J. Raymond Walsh, former popular instructor in economics at 
Harvard, whose interest in the subject made him persona non 
grata. Written with the enthusiastic cooperation of his stu- 
dents, this is a lively, readable story, freshly and interestingly 
told, with flashbacks to the history of labor over a period of 
thirty years. 


British labor unions, Professor Brooks tells us, are not in- 
corporated, merely registered as benefit societies. He concludes 
that without incorporation "the American labor movement is 
probably no worse, perhaps better, than American business in 
the matter of financial reports and responsibility". 

In his "Folklore", Arnold remarks that if labor incorporates, 
it might raise money on capitalized future earning power, as 
do other corporations. 


"The fear psychosis is the factor determining the course 
of civilization today," Dr. Clarence Cook Little, former presi- 
dent of the University of Michigan, told financial and industrial 
leaders at the Boston meeting of the New England Council, 
November, 1937. They had no come back. They accepted it as 


John D. Rockefeller, Jr., a few evenings later at International 
House was telling a dinner gathering, "A glance at the world of 
today reveals the fact that fear stalks the earth like a specter 
in the night." 

"Many of the commencement addresses of 1937 have a note of 
misgiving and of fear," an editorial writer in the Boston Herald 
complained. "The uneasiness of these commencement speakers, 
who are not given to impulsive thinking or reckless talk, is not 
an isolated thing . . . The average citizen, too, has a vague 
feeling that all is not well." Teachers and college trustees, as 
we have seen, are jittery. 

"The church is afraid. It sees reason for fear in everything," 
writes Rollo Walter Brown in the December Harper's. "All 
over the country I hear clergy and official laity express to their 
adherents one great fear after another . . . priests of every sort 
express even more desperate fears . . . churchmen everywhere 
express the fear of a proletarian uprising that will have as a part 
of its program the suppression of the church." 

Labor and management fear each other. Vested interests fear 
government, and government fears them. The nations fear each 
other, and everywhere we hear "ancestral voices prophesying 


The fatuous twenties was a period of frivolity, of wild ex- 
travagance, until the bubble burst in '29. In the twenties we 
scorned the Soviets for bringing to Geneva a proposal for general 
disarmament. France, ignoring her part of the Versailles Treaty, 
increased her armament, bled Germany white, marched her 
troops into the Ruhr, requisitioned the daughters of the Rhine 
for their Senegalese troops, paralyzed German industry, and 
sowed the seeds of hatred. 

The greater part of the wealth tht is now produced by labor, 
we spend to the profit of a[few in preparation to kill and to pay 
for the pasttkiUings. Little wonder that we are jittery with fear. 


"The Frightened Thirties" this decade will be called, H. G. 
Wells predicted in his November lecture in Boston. 


The phlegmatic moron has fewer fears than the nervously 
organized and active minded. The clam is proverbially happy. 
Lacking the highly developed endocrine and sympathetic 
systems of the higher animals, its emotions are not so complex. 
It is not so excitable. It knows a lesser number of fears. 

Fear is conscious anticipation of impending catastrophe to 
one's body, possessions, or hopes. It is dependent upon gang- 
lionic storehouses of memory, interconnected by association 
tracts. With growing complexity of this neural and endocrine 
apparatus, hopes and fears have multiplied and may for another 
million years. Growth of altruistic attitudes, of social conscious- 
ness, increases our hopes and fears for others. 

In the last analysis, fear is anticipation and consequence of a 
negative tropism. A paramecium approaching a poisonous par- 
ticle with which it has had experience, halts, reverses its course 
and retreats. Fear has survival value. Those whose fear came 
early escaped the danger and survived. Those who did not 
react quickly enough were killed generations ago. Don't be 
fearless. When you see a cornice falling, be scared, move! 


"Partial ignorance and inability to control things and situa- 
tions produce fear . . . Fear, having been induced in the con- 
trollers of capital and industry, is through them created in 
those seeking political or social preferment. From these, fear is 
communicated . . . Insidious pressure and intimidation con- 
trol the teaching profession," wrote Dr. A. O. Bowden, Univer- 
sity of Southern California, in "Fear the Master Enemy", 
School and Society, January 9, 1937. 

When nothing is threatened it is easy to be individual and 
independent. In the face of impending disaster, filled with fear 
of violence and sudden death, our critical faculties are paralyzed. 
Like sheep we huddle together for collective action. Then there 
may be more danger from panic and stampede than from the 
wolves. Startled, we may respond to false leadership, and blind 
and insane from fright plunge over a cliff to destruction. 

Most of our leaders dare not face reality. They turn their 
backs on new facts, vainly hoping to escape trouble. Behind 
so called philosophies, excuses, wishful thinking, they attempt 
to hide or escape. For comfort they offer old sentimentalities 
and platitudes. They would retreat to the past. 

It is traditions and inherited attitudes, laid down hi former 
times, that keep us ignorant. The dead hand is heavy upon us. 


It shackles, enslaves, holds us back. It keeps us fearful, prevents 
us from investigating and learning. It denies to youth the joys 
of exploring, of discovering. 

So we kill divine curiosity. We deny youth the thrill of dis- 
covery. Frustrated, the world seems drab, so he longs for excite- 
ment. Even war is release. We leave the field open for the 
Hitlers and Mussolinis. And only a few clear sighted men are 
bold enough to speak up. 


11 Every new discovery which threatens to change the social 
order strikes terror in the heart of man. It threatens his estab- 
lished habits and his position in the community. Only the pure 
scientist, whose passion is great enough to block out the fear 
of newness, seems to escape," writes Leslie C. Barber in 'The 
Age of Schizophrenia', Harpers, December, 1937. 

"Modern man is still plagued with fears: the fear of economic 
collapse which will mean poverty, the fear of disease which will 
mean death or disability worse than death, the fear of war 
which gathers into and totals in itself all the other dreads. 
The only one of these fears that has been approached with any- 
thing approximating the scientific method is the second; and it 
is the only one in which any decided progress has been made," 
writes George W. Gray in "The Advancing Front of Science." 

We fear only the unknown. When we understand this, then 
fear may become a great driving force to solve the mysteries 
ahead, and so dispel fear. 

But most of us have only one fear, that we will lose our pos- 
sessions, something we have. If we had more fears, if we feared 
that we would fail to gain something ahead, then we would 
get on and the world would move faster. It was mere blind fear 
that sent the animal in retreat. From this negative tropism, 
the result of chemical reaction, our nervous systems have made 
it possible for us to anticipate and create the future. A time of 
change like the present holds the greatest promise for those who 
can understand and master their fears. 

"Nothing in life is to be feared," said Marie Curie, "it is 
only to be understood." 


Except for the dictators, the leaders of the nations are con- 
fused puppets. They don't know what to do, and so they sing 
the Gilbertian lines, "The world, in short, which never was 
extravagantly sane, developed all the signs of inflammation of 
the brain" (A. P. Herbert). "I think civilization has gone crazy," 
remarks Sir Evelyn Wrench, publisher of the London Spectator, 
and British propagandist in America, and Lord Horder, before 
the Royal Institution of Great Britain, says war is "the greatest 
of all modern diseases . . . primarily a disease of the mind." 


Even psychiatrists, and there is a fringe here, similarly 
misled, attribute diseases to nations, figments of our imagina- 
tion, as though they were real persons. "The world today is 
insane", writes S. H. Kraines, lecturer on mental diseases at the 
National Hospital for Diseases of the Nervous System, London, 
in Science, October 22, 1937. He characterizes the different 
nations as follows: "United States . . . typical manic-depressive 
psychosis . . . happy, elated, very active, dreaming great 
dreams, doing many things beyond its capacity and speaking 
loudly of the success which it is achieving . . . Following the 
crash in 1929 came the depressive episode . . . marked ebbing 
of energy . . . bad dreams, fears. 

"England, solid, settled, conservative, somewhat apprehen- 
sive. France, an elderly, fearful spinster suffering from an exces- 
sive emotionalism and apprehensiveness . . . unstable, brilliant 
but unreliable . . . excessively dependent on her brother, John 

"Germany, capable, full of energy, logical . . . depression 
chronic . . . paranoid ideas . . . feels that other peoples are to 
blame for her own inadequacy. Italy, feeble-minded person who 
has seen others grow great, who envies them . . . much blowing 
of the horn, beatings upon the chest. 

"Russia, strong young man, just passed through the throes 
of puberty . . . internal conflict with emotional discord. China, 
middle-aged, lazy, calm, philosophical . . . becoming irritable." 


Such an attitude is based on acceptance of the fallacy of the 
group mind. Nations, like corporations, we personify. The 
former are always feminine, to^be defended. That stimulates 
mob patriotism. We invest corporations with personal attributes 
to give them legal standing in our courts. 



It is the stupid, confused men in control who are responsible. 
It is the man who stands at the throttle who starts the engine. 
The engine doesn't go insane, but the engineer may. It isn't 
the nation that is sadistic, but the men who run it. But it 
protects them and relieves them of responsibility to promote 
such nationalistic myths. And so we say, "What will Italy do?" 
"England expects every man to do his duty". 

A simpler explanation than that the nations have gone crazy 
is that peoples long deprived are gaining strength to move 
against those that have. But to move even a depressed people 
requires a leader. If the intellectuals, the natural leaders, be- 
tray them, men like Mussolini and Hitler and Stalin will arise 
from lower classes. 

Italy, Germany and Japan have dense and increasing popu- 
lations, and lack territory, resources and food. Henry I. Harri- 
man, New England power magnate, returning from Europe, 
naively said out loud what almost no other has, that there can 
be no peace until the have-not nations are appeased. Hoover, 
six months later, missed this. 

Ambassador William E. Dodd, on his return to America, 
pointed out the selfish blunders of the nations since the war, 
twenty months of blockade of helpless Germany, deprived of 
food and necessities. 


But those who are in control will permit no such simple ex- 
planation, nor will their statesmen puppets or the diplomats 
who palaver for them. They foster folklore among the people. 
With the press kept in leash, they help to create from poor 
human material mythical heroes for the people to worship. 
Tabus are sustained or set up. 

Propaganda machines are organized which arouse animosity 
and create hatreds to conceal underlying purposes. In the con- 
fusion and waste resulting, shrewd Levantines like Zaharoff hope 
to win something now just beyond their reach. The stupid 
brutes can't see beyond their own selfish, immediate profit. 

Education in such hands becomes vicious. "The writers of 
texts impregnated with the spirit of intense nationalism are 
laying the psychological foundations, not of national security 
but of a new war," we quoted in the 1916-27 edition of this 
HANDBOOK from J. F. Scott's "The Menace of Nationalism in 

"Education today throughout the world is ... to convince 
the people of the merit of their rulers and to make them docile", 
write John K. and Margaret A. Norton after a 1937 trip around 
the world. (A. A. U.W. Journal, April, 1938.) 


The suppressed nations, deprived of territory and resources, 
have continued to breed and multiply, while in England and 
France the birth rate has declined. Their desire to expand, 
to get food, to continue to exist, has led to general rearmament. 
If wiser statesmen had granted them what they have and will 
seize, it would have been less costly. There would be less hatred 
and more security. Not in Denmark but elsewhere things are 
rotten. Trouble is brewing. Something must break. 


Lord Astor has patiently expounded the steps by which the 
democratic countries since the war killed democracy in re- 
publican Germany and socialist Austria. In 1931 the English 
Labor government and France "objected very strongly to the 
proposed customs union although both Germany and Austria 
were then democracies . . . Geneva and The Hague was invoked 
to stop the union . . . The outside world made Germany feel 
that she could only get redress of grievances by use of force . . . 
Two years ago, even one year ago, Germany was anxious to 
discuss and settle by negotiation certain outstanding questions. 
Britain and the outside world held back ... If past foreign 
secretaries had been more far-sighted, there would possibly not 
have been a dictatorship in Germany." (Boston Herald, April 3, 


"England is stamped with the symptoms of decay. The 
British empire is on the decline. Night has settled over Eng- 
land . . . foes gather . . . Britain looks to the United States for 
support", Charles Beard writes in Events, November, 1937, re- 
viewing Quincy Howe's England Expects Every American To 
Do His Duty, Simon and Schuster, 1937. 

Howe, virile and vigorous Boston scion, is a realist. He knows 
his England and loves it, but America more, and does not like 
to see us made fools or puppets. As editor of The Living Age he 
first exposed the collusion of the armament makers of France 
and Germany during the past war, which Fortune later exploited 
in their influential article "Arms and the Man", out of which 
grew Senator Nye's investigation of the munitions business. 

Howe understands with Pareto and Machiavelli that every 
country is controlled by "a small minority that devotes itself 
to the business of government," but that "never since the days 
of ancient Rome has so much power remained concentrated 



in so few hands for so long a period as in the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and its overseas Empire." He exposes British 
propaganda in high places, the universities, the New York Times, 
the Foreign Policy Association, and numerous other organiza- 
tions. He shows how our statesmen have usually been taken 
in by the British, and reveals the cultural and social propaganda 
constantly maintained in this country. 

Then there are the churches and the schools. Howe writes, 
"American governing classes . . . prefer to commune with their 
Maker in the exclusive atmosphere of the Episcopal Church 
which grew from England's official national church. The private 
boarding schools . . . are modeled on Eton, Harrow, and Win- 
chester. The cult of the gentleman and the gospel of 'fair play' 
originated in England." 


Howe's book was coldly received by reviewers and editorial 
writers, blinded or nose ringed by the British propaganda 
machine. He is too bold and dogmatic even for most Anglo- 
phobes. The Nation which now leans toward any influence that 
isn't anti-semitic editorializes it under the title "Anti-British 
Hysteria". Howe made a swift comeback to which The Nation 
entered protest that they were not reviewing, only soliloquizing. 
William MacDonald in the New York Times, Anglophile prop- 
aganda medium, characterizes it as "a curious mixture of fact, 
fear, exaggerated emphasis and unpleasant temper". 

Robert Morss Lovett in The New Republic reminds us of the 
"thesis of Mr. Alleyne Ireland that the United States has never 
been independent" and adds, "If cultural, financial and politi- 
cal forces are strong enough to keep us within the orbit of the 
British system, at least let us know dearly that we do so for 
our own reasons based on the kind of world we want. Never 
again must we surrender, as once before, the independence of 
the United States to the influence of British propaganda, the 
arrogance of British interference with our legislatures, courts 
and cabinets, the treachery of ambassadors, or the subservience 
of those whom Mr. Lament felicitously describes as 'the best 
people who lived along the Eastern seaboard'." Mr. Lament's 
Saturday Literary Review, abstaining from review and the 
literary, begins, "Mr. Howe suffers from an aggravated case of 
Anglophobia and has written this book to get it off his chest." 


In the ensuing months England and events have justified 
Howe's statements. British propagandists, courteous, generous, 
idealistic, have flooded Americans with flattery. Our Secretary 
of State has done everything to please Great Britain. Elliott 


Paul, American author of "The Life and Death of a Spanish 
Town", says "Cordell Hull is nothing but a catspaw of Britain's 
Downing Street. He is acting against the will and spirit of the 
American people, believers in their fellow democrats in Spain, 
who are being sold out after the most magnificent defense of 
national rights in modern history." (Boston Herald, November 

13, IQ37-) 

The Town Hall in New York, which Howe had challenged 
as dominated by British propaganda was obliged to ask him to 
speak, but saw to it that there were three British propagandists 
to oppose him, one a very able woman. In Boston, the Foreign 
Policy Association let him speak against somewhat lesser odds. 
Howe was obliged to put his neck out first, and again stated 
(Boston Herald, April 3, 1938) that England "faces either a 
peaceful surrender of its vast possessions or a violent war to 
keep them. If the present reactionary government stays in 
power, it will have to hand over the empire. If Eden wins over 
Chamberlain, you will find the British Liberals and Laborites 
defending the empire in a way with the United States expected 
to join." 


How the English system of snubbery and snobbery extends 
across the water so as to hold America true to British purposes 
is made dear with some heat by Howe. It is humiliating to him 
as an American to see the way a Balfour, Gray or Runciman 
puts it over on our American diplomats and statesmen. Our 
war Ambassador Page worked to bring us into a war for Britain. 
Our late Ambassador Bingham pictured Americans and Brit- 
ish fighting side by side in the next war. It remains to be seen 
what British savoir vivre and savoir faire will do to our Irish 
Catholic ambassador. No land is so beautiful, no people live 
so comfortably, none can overwhelm one so completely with 
interest and hospitality, but they never forget their main pur- 
pose. The subtlety and skill of English propaganda methods 
are only becoming apparent to us cruder Americans. 

Their more effective method of control we do not yet so well 
comprehend. The ruling class of England better than any other 
people understand how through snobbery and snubbery the 
caste system may be maintained. Their nabobs learned this in 
India. The nearer you get to London the more you appreciate 
how effective may be even a lifted eyebrow. It may do more 
than a sneer or the sword. 

So England maintains her supremacy over peoples whom she 
proves inferior, while with judicious propaganda and socialistic 
sops she keeps her middle and lower classes fooled and docile. 


From the English breed, the noblest the world has seen, still 
come men who can face indomitable odds with steadfast pur- 
pose, poets whose burning lines lead youth to aspiration or 
revolt. England's champions first shook the shackles from the 
slave. England's adventurous youth first opened the seas to 
trade. It was the English breed that planted all the western 


But on the playing fields of Eton, Harrow and the other 
Public Schools, and under the caning of their head masters, 
have been trained the hard bitten and polished snobs who fill 
the offices and play the puppets for those who have controlled 
the world's destinies. These shrewder men who derive the profit 
from England's imperialism, use the Public School puppets 
as their pawns. And so well are they trained to act their part 
that few suspect the men behind. 

England's Public Schools have supplied what the system 
wanted. Their by-product, failures, are remittance men, thrown 
on the imperial scrap heap. The great men of England, the 
thinkers, the scientists, the poets, have escaped the Public 
School. None have so strongly denounced the sadistic 'harden- 
ing 1 system of producing English leaders as those who have been 
through it (cf. this HANDBOOK, i5th ed. pp. 90. 91; ioth ed. 
pp. 89-92). Etonians of mental stature from William Pitt the 
elder to Aldous Huxley, hated the system. 

Laurence Housman, dramatist brother of the poet, in his 
autobiographical The Unexpected Years, Bobbs Merrill, 1936, 
tells us, "I am inclined to think that the divine right of imperial- 
ism to swagger through the world, exploiting subject races for 
their supposed benefit has very largely had its origin in the 
bullying and fagging which have been countenanced in our 
public schools . . . 

"Defenders of the Public School System as it existed in my 
days, and as they would like it to continue maintain that 
bullying of small boys is good for them, and has a healthy and 
hardening effect on their characters. It may be so; but what 
of its effect on those who do the bullying? It seems to me a 
cowardly and despicable thing for the strong to afflict the 
weak . . . 

"I now regard my school life as a miserable one a life beset 
with repressions, snubs, ignominy, and a general sense of un- 
fitness to my environment, and though it had in it horrid mo- 



ments of pain, apprehension, and paralysing fear, I am quite 
sure that I was not continuously miserable or even depressed. 
The young have infinite powers of evasion; disposing Fate 
stands over and claims them they are not the masters of it; 
but they often manage to dodge it, and belong again to them- 


The system of training and seeding has been modified from 
its monastic origins to meet the needs of rising mercantilism 
and imperialism. The selection is exclusive, dependent largely 
on birth or father's income, but those who undergo the train- 
ing, however low their I.Q., have income and position for life. 
If government and finance do not provide, the church will. 

The Very Rev. Philemon F. Sturges, dean of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, was reported in the Boston Transcript as saying, in 
speaking of the union of the American church with the Anglo- 
Catholic church in England, "The Anglican church enjoys an 
income of about fifteen and a half billion dollars a year from the 
vast properties acquired from the Church of Rome in the six- 
teenth century." 

Quincy Howe assures us that "you do not have to have at- 
tended one of Britain's exclusive public schools to become a 
bishop, a member of the House of Lords, an admiral, a perma- 
nent under-secretary for foreign affairs, a governor of the Bank 
of England, or a prime minister." But today twenty-five of the 
fifty-eight ministers, and an even larger proportion of the 
foreign service, parliamentarians, bank directors, are Public 
School men. "One-third of all Cabinet Ministers in the last 
hundred years have come from either Eton or Harrow . . . 
twelve of the nineteen Prime Ministers during the same period". 
Eton alone claims one-sixth of all the present members of Parlia- 
ment and ten of Britain's prime ministers. 

This 'badge of the ruling class', 'the old school tie', that 
"proclaims that its wearer is not, thank God, as other men", 
is interestingly explained by Edward Acheson in "The Old School 
Tie", Esquire, April, 1937. He tells us that Stanley Baldwin, 
when called to form a Government, expressed the hope that his 
"should be a Government of which Harrow should not be 
ashamed", and called to his ministry six old Harrovian school- 


Professor John Hilton of Cambridge University, England, in 
January, 1938, carried to Oxford his crusade inveighing against 
the caste system and the Public Schools. There he reported that 
52 of 56 bishops, 19 of 24 deans, 122 of 156 county court 


judges and recorders, 152 of 210 civil servants paid more than 
1000 annually, and 20 of 21 cabinet ministers are public school 
men. "To get a place in these 'reserved stalls'," he says, "you 
must have been at the right school and be entitled through 
life to wear the right school tie". 

In Understanding the English, Whittlesey House, 1937, 
James Howard Wellard, who has lived in America long enough 
to understand his countrymen, attempts to explain to Ameri- 
cans the major mysteries of the "old school tie", but warns them 
that they "will find it difficult to envisage a state in which 
some 95 per cent of the population receive no formal education 
at all". Of course, they have gone to school, but as they "have 
not attended an exclusive public school . . . they have not, in 
the English sense, acquired an education". They have not learned 
to "speak in a certain superior manner, dress with the passion- 
less formality which so impresses the outside world, and gen- 
erally conduct themselves with that formidable aloofness which, 
together with boiled shirts, upholds the empire in the most 
remote corners of the earth". 


"In the manipulation of information the British are past 
masters. They had a lot of experience in molding opinion as they 
built up the Empire. Every device to paint their own activities 
as commendable and the activities of others as abhorrent, was 
carefully studied out. Most of the African Empire was acquired 
under the device of abolishing slavery; but when Mussolini ffave 
that reason for the invasion of Ethiopia it was scorned and be- 
littled. The idea is to make mountains out of molehills and mole- 
hills out of mountains depending on whether Britain or some 
other nation commits an act likely to arouse public protest/' 

This is quoted from Looking Behind The Censorships, Lippin- 
cott, 1938, by Eugene J. Young, cable editor of The New York 
Times and a life long foreign news man. Adolph S. Ochs, former 
owner of The Times revealed how, at the Washington Arms Con- 
ference of 1921-22 it was arranged that Britain should police the 
Atlantic, America the Pacific, "our main fleet being kept in it 
as a restraint on the ambitious Japan. This arrangement also 
was intended to safeguard Canada, Australia and New Zealand 
and to keep China open for British trade and protect the vast 
British interests". 


New volumes are constantly appearing which record the old 
boy's adherence to and belief in the brutal crudities of the 
English Public School. The new head master at Eton won ap- 
plause demonstrating his vigor by personally flogging one 
hundred and ten boys in his first year. 


Our Great Public Schools: Their Traditions, Customs and 
Games, by Frederick A. M. Webster, Ward, Lock & Co., Ltd., 
1937, tells the ancient hallowed tales of two score of these 
schools, arranged in alphabetical order. 

In Changing Eton: A Survey of Conditions based on the 
History of Eton since the Royal Commission of 1862-64, Jona- 
than Cape, 1937, L. S. R. Byrne and E. L. Churchill sentimen- 
tally weep over the changes which must come faster if England 
is to be saved. But they show that education for them still 
means mere rote learning. "For . . . education . . . there are 
certain essentials. The first is thoroughness . . . The good 
teacher will . . . repeat the same thing in the same way for, 
not two or three but a dozen or more times." 

Ronald Gurney in I Chose Teaching, Dent, London, 1937, 
sat down to write of his life as a teacher, resolving "I will, for 
once, have no truck with platitude or convention or rationaliza- 
ation of motive". More of a dissenter than most, he still believes 
that school boys should 'fag', be 'hardened* with the cane by 
prefects and masters. 

In "A Headmaster Remembers" and now A Headmaster 
Reflects, Hodge, London, 1937, Guy Kendall, enlightened and 
liberal head for twenty years of the University College School, 
Hampstead, writes of the Montessori and Dalton innovations. 
He is critical of the absurdities of the Public School system, of 
the sex aberrations in the homosexual boarding schools. He 
believes in the use of the cane, but deplores the sadistic ten- 
dencies of so many masters. He sees some good in the 'hardening' 
system of 'bullying, fagging, and ragging', but condemns it on 
the whole. In England he is regarded as a liberal and a foe of 
the classics, but he attributes all he is to the study of the 
classics which constituted his sole education. 


In the popular story and play "The House Master" by Ian 
Hay the humor resides in the old primitive, sadistic, Aristophanic 
delight at seeing the helpless subjected to pain and obliged to 



take it with apparent gratitude, smouldering within, while the 
smug inflictor comforts himself with a sense of righteousness. 
The master was disappointed in love in his youth and lived a 
sex-starved life. 'She' died and leaves twin boy and girl orphans 
to his care. Famed for his strong right arm and accurate and 
steady eye, he has just finished 'caning the boy' when the twin 
sister and two of her girl friends arrive from Paris to stay with 

Here is an erotic complex of the kind that appeals to old men 
who collect curiosa and erotica and which seems especially to 
delight school masters. There is no great harm in such eroticism 
if one recognizes it for what it is. But when a people practice 
eroticism and sadism in the name of altruism and righteousness, 
they are hypocrites, mentally and morally deformed. Blind to 
his own defects the Public School boy to the Continentals repre- 
sents Albion which they dub perfidious. 

France followed closely in England's imperial footsteps in 
assuming 'the white man's burden' and British methods in 
Africa and Asia. The Italians have been slow to learn and apply 
Britain's methods in Ethiopia. Now the Japanese in China are 
proving apt pupils, using the same method and phraseology. 

This anachronistic education isn't very old. The antiquity 
of the Public Schools is greatly exaggerated. The oldest, at- 
tached to monasteries, were mere schools for clerks to teach 
the reading and writing of Latin, then essential. Most of the 
English Public Schools and universities, too, were at very low 
ebb, in a degraded condition, almost out of existence up to 
within two hundred years. Eton was established by Henry 
VIII for poor boys as a part of his reform-ation, after he had 
destroyed the monastic establishments which had become a 
burden on the country. Eton was the 'progressive school' of the 

"The Protestant Reformers appealed to the recognized 
authority of scripture to show that the priestly practices were 
innovations. They had to make the scriptures an open book 
. . . Instruction in Latin and Greek was a corollary of the 
doctrine of the open bible. This prompted the great educational 
imwyation of John Knox and abetted the more parsimonious 
founding of grammar schools in England." (Lancelot Hogben, 
"Mathematics for the Million"). 

The grammar schools of England which were copied in the 
American colonies, were innovations in response to the demand 
that Latin might be known to other than the priests. Later 
English grammar became of importance to the mercantile class 
that they might use their language to defend their prerogatives. 


Except for the dictators, the leaders of the nations are con- 
fused puppets. They don't know what to do, and so they sing 
the Gilbertian lines, "The world, in short, which never was 
extravagantly sane, developed all the signs of inflammation of 
the brain" (A. P. Herbert). "I think civilization has gone crazy," 
remarks Sir Evelyn Wrench, publisher of the London Spectator, 
and British propagandist in America, and Lord Horder, before 
the Royal Institution of Great Britain, says war is "the greatest 
of all modern diseases . . . primarily a disease of the mind." 


Even psychiatrists, and there is a fringe here, similarly 
misled, attribute diseases to nations, figments of our imagina- 
tion, as though they were real persons. "The world today is 
insane", writes S. H. Kraines, lecturer on mental diseases at the 
National Hospital for Diseases of the Nervous System, London, 
in Science, October 22, 1937. He characterizes the different 
nations as follows: "United States . . . typical manic-depressive 
psychosis . . . happy, elated, very active, dreaming great 
dreams, doing many things beyond its capacity and speaking 
loudly of the success which it is achieving . . . Following the 
crash in 1929 came the depressive episode . . . marked ebbing 
of energy . . . bad dreams, fears. 

"England, solid, settled, conservative, somewhat apprehen- 
sive. France, an elderly, fearful spinster suffering from an exces- 
sive emotionalism and apprehensiveness . . . unstable, brilliant 
but unreliable . . . excessively dependent on her brother, John 

"Germany, capable, full of energy, logical . . . depression 
chronic . . . paranoid ideas . . . feels that other peoples are to 
blame for her own inadequacy. Italy, feeble-minded person who 
has seen others grow great, who envies them . . . much blowing 
of the horn, beatings upon the chest. 

"Russia, strong young man, just passed through the throes 
of puberty . . . internal conflict with emotional discord. China, 
middle-aged, lazy, calm, philosophical . . . becoming irritable." 


Such an attitude is based on acceptance of the fallacy of the 
group mind. Nations, like corporations, we personify. The 
former are always feminine, defended. That stimulates 
mob patriotism. We invest corporations with personal attributes 
to give them legal standing in our courts. 



It is the stupid, confused men in control who are responsible. 
It is the man who stands at the throttle who starts the engine. 
The engine doesn't go insane, but the engineer may. It isn't 
the nation that is sadistic, but the men who run it. But it 
protects them and relieves them of responsibility to promote 
such nationalistic myths. And so we say, "What will Italy do?" 
"England expects every man to do his duty". 

A simpler explanation than that the nations have gone crazy 
is that peoples long deprived are gaining strength to move 
against those that have. But to move even a depressed people 
requires a leader. If the intellectuals, the natural leaders, be- 
tray them, men like Mussolini and Hitler and Stalin will arise 
from lower classes. 

Italy, Germany and Japan have dense and increasing popu- 
lations, and lack territory, resources and food. Henry I. Harri- 
man, New England power magnate, returning from Europe, 
naively said out loud what almost no other has, that there can 
be no peace until the have-not nations are appeased. Hoover, 
six months later, missed this. 

Ambassador William E. Dodd, on his return to America, 
pointed out the selfish blunders of the nations since the war, 
twenty months of blockade of helpless Germany, deprived of 
food and necessities. 


But those who are in control will permit no such simple ex- 
planation, nor will their statesmen puppets or the diplomats 
who palaver for them. They foster folklore among the people. 
With the press kept in leash, they help to create from poor 
human material mythical heroes for the people to worship. 
Tabus are sustained or set up. 

Propaganda machines are organized which arouse animosity 
and create hatreds to conceal underlying purposes. In the con- 
fusion and waste resulting, shrewd Levantines like Zaharoff hope 
to win something now just beyond their reach. The stupid 
brutes can't see beyond their own selfish, immediate profit. 

Education in such hands becomes vicious. "The writers of 
texts impregnated with the spirit of intense nationalism are 
laying the psychological foundations, not of national security 
but of a new war," we quoted in the 1916-27 edition of this 
HANDBOOK from J. F. Scott's "The Menace of Nationalism in 

"Education today throughout the world is ... to convince 
the people of the merit of their rulers and to make them docile", 
write John K. and Margaret A. Norton after a 1937 trip around 
the world. (A. A. U. W. Journal, April, 1938.) 


The suppressed nations, deprived of territory and resources, 
have continued to breed and multiply, while in England and 
France the birth rate has declined. Their desire to expand, 
to get food, to continue to exist, has led to general rearmament. 
If wiser statesmen had granted them what they have and will 
seize, it would have been less costly. There would be less hatred 
and more security. Not in Denmark but elsewhere things are 
rotten. Trouble is brewing. Something must break. 


Lord Astor has patiently expounded the steps by which the 
democratic countries since the war killed democracy in re- 
publican Germany and socialist Austria. In 1931 the English 
Labor government and France "objected very strongly to the 
proposed customs union although both Germany and Austria 
were then democracies . . . Geneva and The Hague was invoked 
to stop the union . . . The outside world made Germany feel 
that she could only get redress of grievances by use of force . . . 
Two years ago, even one year ago, Germany was anxious to 
discuss and settle by negotiation certain outstanding questions. 
Britain and the outside world held back ... If past foreign 
secretaries had been more far-sighted, there would possibly not 
have been a dictatorship in Germany." (Boston Herald, April 3, 


"England is stamped with the symptoms of decay. The 
British empire is on the decline. Night has settled over Eng- 
land . . . foes gather . . . Britain looks to the United States for 
support", Charles Beard writes in Events, November, 1937, re- 
viewing Quincy Howe's England Expects Every American To 
Do His Duty, Simon and Schuster, 1937. 

Howe, virile and vigorous Boston scion, is a realist. He knows 
his England and loves it, but America more, and does not like 
to see us made fools or puppets. As editor of The Living Age he 
first exposed the collusion of the armament makers of France 
and Germany during the past war, which Fortune later exploited 
in their influential article "Arms and the Man", out of which 
grew Senator Nye's investigation of the munitions business. 

Howe understands with Pareto and Machiavelli that every 
country is controlled by "a small minority that devotes itself 
to the business of government," but that "never since the days 
of ancient Rome has so much power remained concentrated 



in so few hands for so long a period as in the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and its overseas Empire." He exposes British 
propaganda in high places, the universities, the New York Times, 
the Foreign Policy Association, and numerous other organiza- 
tions. He shows how our statesmen have usually been taken 
in by the British, and reveals the cultural and social propaganda 
constantly maintained in this country. 

Then there are the churches and the schools. Howe writes, 
"American governing classes . . . prefer to commune with their 
Maker in the exclusive atmosphere of the Episcopal Church 
which grew from England's official national church. The private 
boarding schools . . . are modeled on Eton, Harrow, and Win- 
chester. The cult of the gentleman and the gospel of 'fair play 1 
originated in England." 


Howe's book was coldly received by reviewers and editorial 
writers, blinded or nose ringed by the British propaganda 
machine. He is too bold and dogmatic even for most Anglo- 
phobes. The Nation which now leans toward any influence that 
isn't anti-semi tic editorializes it under the title "Anti-British 
Hysteria". Howe made a swift comeback to which The Nation 
entered protest that they were not reviewing, only soliloquizing. 
William MacDonald in the New York Times, Anglophile prop- 
aganda medium, characterizes it as "a curious mixture of fact, 
fear, exaggerated emphasis and unpleasant temper". 

Robert Morss Lovett in The New Republic reminds us of the 
"thesis of Mr. Alleyne Ireland that the United States has never 
been independent" and adds, "If cultural, financial and politi- 
cal forces are strong enough to keep us within the orbit of the 
British system, at least let us know clearly that we do so for 
our own reasons based on the kind of world we want. Never 
again must we surrender, as once before, the independence of 
the United States to the influence of British propaganda, the 
arrogance of British interference with our legislatures, courts 
and cabinets, the treachery of ambassadors, or the subservience 
of those whom Mr. Lament felicitously describes as 'the best 
people who lived along the Eastern seaboard'." Mr. Lament's 
Saturday Literary Review, abstaining from review and the 
literary, begins, "Mr. Howe suffers from an aggravated case of 
Anglophobia and has written this book to get it off his chest." 


In the ensuing months England and events have justified 
Howe's statements. British propagandists, courteous, generous, 
idealistic, have flooded Americans with flattery. Our Secretary 
of State has done everything to please Great Britain. Elliott 


Paul, American author of "The Life and Death of a Spanish 
Town", says "Cordell Hull is nothing but a catspaw of Britain's 
Downing Street. He is acting against the will and spirit of the 
American people, believers in their fellow democrats in Spain, 
who are being sold out after the most magnificent defense of 
national rights in modern history." (Boston Herald, November 

13, IQ37-) 

. The Town Hall in New York, which Howe had challenged 
as dominated by British propaganda was obliged to ask him to 
speak, but saw to it that there were three British propagandists 
to oppose him, one a very able woman. In Boston, the Foreign 
Policy Association let him speak against somewhat lesser odds. 
Howe was obliged to put his neck out first, and again stated 
(Boston Herald, April 3, 1938) that England "faces either a 
peaceful surrender of its vast possessions or a violent war to 
keep them. If the present reactionary government stays in 
power, it will have to hand over the empire. If Eden wins over 
Chamberlain, you will find the British Liberals and Laborites 
defending the empire in a way with the United States expected 
to join." 


How the English system of snubbery and snobbery extends 
across the water so as to hold America true to British purposes 
is made clear with some heat by Howe. It is humiliating to him 
as an American to see the way a Balfour, Gray or Runciman 
puts it over on our American diplomats and statesmen. Our 
war Ambassador Page worked to bring us into a war for Britain. 
Our late Ambassador Bingham pictured Americans and Brit- 
ish fighting side by side in the next war. It remains to be seen 
what British savoir vivre and savoir faire will do to our Irish 
Catholic ambassador. No land is so beautiful, no people live 
so comfortably, none can overwhelm one so completely with 
interest and hospitality, but they never forget their main pur- 
pose. The subtlety and skill of English propaganda methods 
are only becoming apparent to us cruder Americans. 

Their more effective method of control we do not yet so well 
comprehend. The ruling class of England better than any other 
people understand how through snobbery and snubbery the 
caste system may be maintained. Their nabobs learned this in 
India. The nearer you get to London the more you appreciate 
how effective may be even a lifted eyebrow. It may do more 
than a sneer or the sword. 

So England maintains her supremacy over peoples whom she 
proves inferior, while with judicious propaganda and socialistic 
sops she keeps her middle and lower classes fooled and docile. 


From the English breed, the noblest the world has seen, still 
come men who can face indomitable odds with steadfast pur- 
pose, poets whose burning lines lead youth to aspiration or 
revolt. England's champions first shook the shackles from the 
slave. England's adventurous youth first opened the seas to 
trade. It was the English breed that planted all the western 


But on the playing fields of Eton, Harrow and the other 
Public Schools, and under the caning of their head masters, 
have been trained the hard bitten and polished snobs who fill 
the offices and play the puppets for those who have controlled 
the world's destinies. These shrewder men who derive the profit 
from England's imperialism, use the Public School puppets 
as their pawns. And so well are they trained to act their part 
that few suspect the men behind. 

England's Public Schools have supplied what the system 
wanted. Their by-product, failures, are remittance men, thrown 
on the imperial scrap heap. The great men of England, the 
thinkers, the scientists, the poets, have escaped the Public 
School. None have so strongly denounced the sadistic 'harden- 
ing' system of producing English leaders as those who have been 
through it (cf. this HANDBOOK, isth ed. pp. 90. 91; loth ed. 
pp. 89-92). Etonians of mental stature from William Pitt the 
elder to Aldous Huxley, hated the system. 

Laurence Housman, dramatist brother of the poet, in his 
autobiographical The Unexpected Years, Bobbs Merrill, 1936, 
tells us, "I am inclined to think that the divine right of imperial- 
ism to swagger through the world, exploiting subject races for 
their supposed benefit has very largely had its origin in the 
bullying and fagging which have been countenanced in our 
public schools ... 

"Defenders of the Public School System as it existed in my 
days, and as they would like it to continue maintain that 
bullying of small boys is good for them, and has a healthy and 
hardening effect on their characters. It may be so; but what 
of its effect on those who do the bullying? It seems to me a 
cowardly and despicable thing for the strong to afflict the 
weak . . . 

"I now regard my school life as a miserable one a life beset 
with repressions, snubs, ignominy, and a general sense of un- 
fitness to my environment, and though it had in it horrid mo- 


ments of pain, apprehension, and paralysing fear, I am quite 
sure that I was not continuously miserable or even depressed. 
The young have infinite powers of evasion; disposing Fate 
stands over and claims them they are not the masters of it; 
but they often manage to dodge it, and belong again to them- 


The system of training and seeding has been modified from 
its monastic origins to meet the needs of rising mercantilism 
and imperialism. The selection is exclusive, dependent largely 
on birth or father's income, but those who undergo the train- 
ing, however low their I.Q., have income and position for life. 
If government and finance do not provide, the church will. 

The Very Rev. Philemon F. Sturges, dean of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, was reported in the Boston Transcript as saying, in 
speaking of the union of the American church with the Anglo- 
Catholic church in England, "The Anglican church enjoys an 
income of about fifteen and a half billion dollars a year from the 
vast properties acquired from the Church of Rome in the six- 
teenth century." 

Quincy Howe assures us that "y u do not have to have at- 
tended one of Britain's exclusive public schools to become a 
bishop, a member of the House of Lords, an admiral, a perma- 
nent under-secretary for foreign affairs, a governor of the Bank 
of England, or a prime minister." But today twenty-five of the 
fifty-eight ministers, and an even larger proportion of the 
foreign service, parliamentarians, bank directors, are Public 
School men. "One-third of all Cabinet Ministers in the last 
hundred years have come from either Eton or Harrow . . . 
twelve of the nineteen Prime Ministers during the same period". 
Eton alone claims one-sixth of all the present members of Parlia- 
ment and ten of Britain's prime ministers. 

This 'badge of the ruling class', 'the old school tie', that 
"proclaims that its wearer is not, thank God, as other men", 
is interestingly explained by Edward Acheson in "The Old School 
Tie", Esquire, April, 1937. He tells us that Stanley Baldwin, 
when called to form a Government, expressed the hope that his 
"should be a Government of which Harrow should not be 
ashamed", and called to his ministry six old Harrovian school- 


Professor John Hilton of Cambridge University, England, in 
January, 1938, carried to Oxford his crusade inveighing against 
the caste system and the Public Schools. There he reported that 
52 of 56 bishops, 19 of 24 deans, 122 of 156 county court 


judges and recorders, 152 of 210 civil servants paid more than 
1000 annually, and 20 of 21 cabinet ministers are public school 
men. "To get a place in these 'reserved stalls'," he says, "you 
must have been at the right school and be entitled through 
life to wear the right school tie". 

In Understanding the English, Whittlesey House, 1937, 
James Howard Wellard, who has lived in America long enough 
to understand his countrymen, attempts to explain to Ameri- 
cans the major mysteries of the "old school tie", but warns them 
that they "will find it difficult to envisage a state in which 
some 95 per cent of the population receive no formal education 
at all". Of course, they have gone to school, but as they "have 
not attended an exclusive public school . . . they have not, in 
the English sense, acquired an education". They have not learned 
to "speak in a certain superior manner, dress with the passion- 
less formality which so impresses the outside world, and gen- 
erally conduct themselves with that formidable aloofness which, 
together with boiled shirts, upholds the empire in the most 
remote corners of the earth". 


"In the manipulation of information the British are past 
masters. They had a lot of experience in molding opinion as they 
built up the Empire. Every device to paint their own activities 
as commendable and the activities of others as abhorrent, was 
carefully studied out. Most of the African Empire was acquired 
under the device of abolishing slavery; but when Mussolini gave 
that reason for the invasion of Ethiopia it was scorned and be- 
littled. The idea is to make mountains out of molehills and mole- 
hills out of mountains depending on whether Britain or some 
other nation commits an act likely to arouse public protest." 

This is quoted from Looking Behind The Censorships, Lippin- 
cott, 1938, by Eugene J. Young, cable editor of The New York 
Times and a life long foreign news man. Adolph S. Ochs, former 
owner of The Times revealed how, at the Washington Anns Con- 
ference of 1921-22 it was arranged that Britain should police the 
Atlantic, America the Pacific, "our main fleet being kept in it 
as a restraint on the ambitious Japan. This arrangement also 
was intended to safeguard Canada, Australia and New Zealand 
and to keep China open for British trade and protect the vast 
British interests". 


New volumes are constantly appearing which record the old 
boy's adherence to and belief in the brutal crudities of the 
English Public School. The new head master at Eton won ap- 
plause demonstrating his vigor by personally flogging one 
hundred and ten boys in his first year. 


Our Great Public Schools: Their Traditions, Customs and 
Games, by Frederick A. M. Webster, Ward, Lock & Co., Ltd., 
1937, tells the ancient hallowed tales of two score of these 
schools, arranged in alphabetical order. 

In Changing Eton: A Survey of Conditions based on the 
History of Eton since the Royal Commission of 1862-64, Jona- 
than Cape, 1937, L. S. R. Byrne and E. L. Churchill sentimen- 
tally weep over the changes which must come faster if England 
is to be saved. But they show that education for them still 
means mere rote learning. "For . . . education . . . there are 
certain essentials. The first is thoroughness . . . The good 
teacher will . . . repeat the same thing in the same way for, 
not two or three but a dozen or more times." 

Ronald Gurney in I Chose Teaching, Dent, London, 1937, 
sat down to write of his life as a teacher, resolving "I will, for 
once, have no truck with platitude or convention or rationaliza- 
ation of motive". More of a dissenter than most, he still believes 
that school boys should 'fag', be 'hardened' with the cane by 
prefects and masters. 

In "A Headmaster Remembers" and now A Headmaster 
Reflects, Hodge, London, 1937, Guy Kendall, enlightened and 
liberal head for twenty years of the University College School, 
Hampstead, writes of the Montessori and Dal ton innovations. 
He is critical of the absurdities of the Public School system, of 
the sex aberrations in the homosexual boarding schools. He 
believes in the use of the cane, but deplores the sadistic ten- 
dencies of so many masters. He sees some good in the 'hardening* 
system of 'bullying, fagging, and ragging', but condemns it on 
the whole. In England he is regarded as a liberal and a foe of 
the classics, but he attributes all he is to the study of the 
classics which constituted his sole education. 


In the popular story and play "The House Master" by Ian 
Hay the humor resides in the old primitive, sadistic, Aristophanic 
delight at seeing the helpless subjected to pain and obliged to 



take it with apparent gratitude, smouldering within, while the 
smug inflictor comforts himself with a sense of righteousness. 
The master was disappointed in love in his youth and lived a 
sex-starved life. 'She' died and leaves twin boy and girl orphans 
to his care. Famed for his strong right arm and accurate and 
steady eye, he has just finished 'caning the boy* when the twin 
sister and two of her girl friends arrive from Paris to stay with 

Here is an erotic complex of the kind that appeals to old men 
who collect curiosa and erotica and which seems especially to 
delight school masters. There is no great harm in such eroticism 
if one recognizes it for what it is. But when a people practice 
eroticism and sadism in the name of altruism and righteousness, 
they are hypocrites, mentally and morally deformed. Blind to 
his own defects the Public School boy to the Continentals repre- 
sents Albion which they dub perfidious. 

France followed closely in England's imperial footsteps in 
assuming 'the white man's burden' and British methods in 
Africa and Asia. The Italians have been slow to learn and apply 
Britain's methods in Ethiopia. Now the Japanese in China are 
proving apt pupils, using the same method and phraseology. 

This anachronistic education isn't very old. The antiquity 
of the Public Schools is greatly exaggerated. The oldest, at- 
tached to monasteries, were mere schools for clerks to teach 
the reading and writing of Latin, then essential. Most of the 
English Public Schools and universities, too, were at very low 
ebb, in a degraded condition, almost out of existence up to 
within two hundred years. Eton was established by Henry 
VIII for poor boys as a part of his reform-ation, after he had 
destroyed the monastic establishments which had become a 
burden on the country. Eton was the 'progressive school' of the 

"The Protestant Reformers appealed to the recognized 
authority of scripture to show that the priestly practices were 
innovations. They had to make the scriptures an open book 
. . . Instruction in Latin and Greek was a corollary of the 
doctrine of the open bible. This prompted the great educational 
innpvation of John Knox and abetted the more parsimonious 
founding of grammar schools in England." (Lancelot Hogben, 
"Mathematics for the Million"). 

The grammar schools of England which were copied in the 
American colonies, were innovations in response to the demand 
that Latin might be known to other than the priests. Later 
English grammar became of importance to the mercantile class 
that they might use their language to defend their prerogatives. 


"Cobbett wrote in his letters on English grammar for a 
working boy: 'When you come to read the history of those 
laws of England by which the freedom of the people has been 
secured . . . you will find that tyranny has no enemy so formi- 
dable as the pen . . . ' Our educational system has ceased to be 
an instrument to assert the liberties of the country, or indeed 
to have any intelligible objective." ("Retreat from Reason"). 

But England still breeds men and produces educational in- 
novations as in the time of Colet and Cobbett. Cecil Reddie 
at Abbotsholme and Badley at Bedales and Sanderson at 
Oundle are a few who carried on the true English tradition. 
The results of their work have spread to France, the Continent, 
America, and been a leaven to the world. But the stupid 
Public School boy still regards the English tradition as some- 
thing dead, exemplified at its best by Cyril Norwood (cf. i4th 
ed. pp. 78, 80). 

In His Retreat From Reason, the Moncure Conway Lecture, 
Random House, 1938, Lancelot Hogben, one of the young intel- 
lectual giants that England still occasionally produces, virile 
biologist and mathematician of the London School of Economics, 
explains how blundering leaders have brought England to de- 

"The educational system of Western civilization grew with no 
prescience of the gargantuan resources which natural science 
would place at our disposal for better or worse . . . The training 
of the statesmen and the man of letters gives him no prevision 
of the technical forces which are shaping the society in which he 
lives. The machinery of educational selection operates to recruit 
the nation's statesman from those who can talk glibly, write 
elegantly and argue forcibly without the capacity to act com- 
petently ... If democracy can produce only leaders who can 
talk it is doomed, and we can only hope to preserve it by a 
policy of educational selection which favours competence more 
than fluency." 

Professor Hogben in his address before the British Institute 
of Adult Education in September, 1937, said, "The task of 
salvaging democracy is a positive one. We shall not resist the 
challenge of dictatorship and the downward path from militar- 
ism to barbarism if we are content to defend a democracy which 
had ceased to satisfy the social aspirations of men and women. 
The educational task of salvaging democracy is to canalise 
the will to constructive social innovation by asserting the 
reasonable grounds for hopefulness in the human experiment 
and to distribute knowledge which can be instrumental in the 
co-operative task of social reconstruction." 


Perhaps it is because of the 'old school tie' that it is the fate 
of the British Empire to be run by those whom it conquers, 
Scotch, Welsh, Boers; that its royalty have been German since 
Queen Anne's time, so many of its statesmen Jews. All these 
escaped the Public School. 


"The system now in operation is not the capitalist system; 
it is a system of Government control of the business machine 
in all countries, a control for which Governments have had 
no training and of which they have had little or no understand- 
ing. Moreover, their mental equipment is totally unsuited for 
the constructive effort needed to cause the machine to operate 
freely and effectively." 

The words are those of Sir George Paish, formerly adviser 
to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, in The Way Out, Ivor 
Nicholson and Watson, London, 1937. He is discussing "The 
Political and Economic Problems that Constitute a World 
Danger". By government, which he personifies, he means the 
Public School boys who are running it. He also knows that be- 
hind them, the puppets, are other forces. 

Brooks Adams understood this. He and his brother knew 
England, when their father was American ambassador. In "The 
Degradation of the Democratic Dogma", 1919, he wrote, 
"Today Great Britain and America, like the parts of some 
gigantic saurian which has been severed in a prehistoric contest, 
seem half unconsciously to be trying to unite in an economic 
organism, perhaps to be controlled by a syndicate of bankers 
who will direct the movements of the putative governments of 
this enormous aggregation of vested interests independent of 
the popular will". 

What was true then is even more true now. Paish tells us, 
"Every nation in the world is in fact pursuing a policy which if 
continued will amount to political and economic suicide . . . 
What the present situation demands is not so much physical 
courage, which the peoples possess in super-abundance, but 
moral courage, the courage to stand for what is just and gener- 
ous and for the common good." 


The ruling class in England is no longer what it once was. 
Taxation for war and socialistic sops to keep the people quiet 
has resulted in the depletion of resources of many an old family. 


Their scions have gone to seed, or as chairmen of great corpora- 
tions, it is their patriotic duty to uphold the diminishing 
income of their stock holders. But behind them are shrewder, 
more aggressive men, interested in 'chemicals' and 'heavy in- 
dustry*. Of the seven billion now going into rearmament, they 
should get more than their usual twenty or thirty percent, for 
while Eden supplies the idealistic front, representatives of 
'heavy industry' are in ultimate control. 

Moral courage is lacking. Labor is leaderless. The British 
parliamentary investigation of war profits was safely side- 
tracked. Popular demand had beeen incited by Senator Nye's 
investigation in America. But that, too, was stopped by a 
word from the British bureaucrats through President Roosevelt, 
just as it was about to disclose that international banker control 
which Brooks Adams had denounced. 


The operating crew, the 'Coalition Government', in August 
1935, were in a desperate way, on their last legs. Twelve million 
people had just voted for peace and the 'League'. The time for a 
general election approached. 'Labor' confidently expected to 
come in. A sudden call for a cabinet meeting about the middle 
of August brought members back from distant vacationing. 
From the meeting Ramsay MacDonald emerged, announcing, 
as though he were letting the cat out of the bag more or less 
purposely, that the decisions made had been the most momen- 
tous since the Great War. 

What had happened was that some of the 'bright boys' had 
devised and put across a plan by which the government could 
perpetuate itself, a plan whereby a rearmament program could 
be sold to the people that would keep 'heavy industries' pros- 
perous and yield large profits to those in control. Censorship 
was clamped down on the press, and before the English people 
were permitted to know, their fleet was in the Mediterranean. 
Italy was being stirred to whip up enthusiasm for rearmament. 

If England had closed the Suez Canal, free men might have 
triumphed in Ethiopia. Spain would have settled her own diffi- 
culties. Japan might not have been so cocky. 

When the English people had been stirred to war intensity 
of enthusiasm in support of the League, a general election was 
sprung upon them. The 'crew' received a new lease of life. The 
rearmament program was announced. The directors of the 
'heavy industries' had done their duty to their stock holders. 
Huge profits were assured. The Labor Party which had been so 
confident of triumph, had been skillfully fooled and was con- 
fused and helpless. The Public School boys, educated for the 
purpose had 'saved England'. 



The 'old school tie' still holds, among the 'civil servants' of 
India. Oblivious to the superority of the Indian, esthetically 
and spiritually, subconsciously sadistic because of his education, 
proud that he could 'take the cane', the Public School boy, 
with a sense of righteousness, flogs, tortures and degrades what 
he calls 'natives', whose ancestors were cultivated men when 
his own were what he would now consider crude barbarians. 
The punitive expeditions he organizes against the freedom 
loving hill men of the border follow, too, the pattern of the 
school master in purpose and righteousness. 

In India for two generations the saying has been current 
among those who know, "India was conquered by the Irish, 
is administered by the British for the benefit of the Scotch". 
The fighting quality of the Irish and the loyalty of the English 
'civil servants' made it possible for the shrewd Scotch to con- 
trol the companies that in their hey-day paid big dividends. 
Since then the Armenian, the Greek, the Jew, the Parsee, and 
the Hindu himself have reduced British dividends. Once the 
camel gets its head inside the tent . . . 

There is nothing new about this method. When the boys who 
wear the 'old school tie 7 act together as they do under orders 
from above, the Constitution may be set aside. Major Gen. 
J. E. B. Seely, soldier, statesman and sportsman who served 
in the Boer War, House of Commons, as Secretary of State had 
more to do with organizing England for the Great War than 
any other one man. In his autobiography "Adventure" he tells 
us "how for an hour in 1914 the British Constitution was sus- 
pended while millions were provided for the 'Intelligence Serv- 
ice' that brought England and her allies into the War. But 
Seely is strong in denouncing the famed 'hardening system' of 
producing English gentlemen. He sees it as subtle source of 
weakness rather than as the key to British imperial success as 
it is ordinarily held to be. England and her colonies are strewn 
with psychopathic wrecks in high places who were created in the 
English public schools by flogging methods." (cf. i$th ed. 
pp, 91, 92). 


"Man began by usurping the rank of lord of creation. Galileo 
and Newton succeeded in deposing him, much against his 
will, as the Church very candidly confessed, but he has 
never despaired of reinstating himself by means of his Reason." 
(Henry Adams, "Degradation of the Democratic Dogma"). 


Walt Whitman's proud boast that he, like the beasts of the 
field, had serenity and contentment, was mere camouflage. 

"Much of the modern world's despair springs from a belief 
that man ought to be an angel and therefore must be treated as 
a rat because he isn't ... If there has been a time when life 
was other than precarious or when mankind was immune from 
danger, agony, cruelty, or disaster, it must be sought in pre- 
history only," Bernard De Voto writes in the Saturday Review 
of Literature, October 23, 1937. 

"From the time when one of the earliest Adams shivered in 
fear before the threatening forces of nature and compared his 
puniness with the incalculable power of the universe, man has 
been "aware of his relative helplessness in the hands of natural 
forces. Having reconciled himself to this with the aid of var- 
ious devices ... he encounters the same discomforts in com- 
paring himself with individual men, stronger, quicker, or more 
astute than himself." (Menninger, "The Human Mind"). 


Of that golden age of mankind which De Voto like millions 
before him have longed for, glimmerings have come to us from 
the East. Under Asoka there was a period of hundreds of years 
of peace, actual, not armed peace like the Pax Romana. The 
Indus civilization reveals a people of six thousand years ago, 
advanced in art and hygiene, living in great cities without 
defense or weapons. 

Gerald Heard sees in these Indian survivals evidence of a 
proto-civilization when the mind of man was whole and sane. 
With the development of agriculture and land values came 
governments and wars and so developed the concept of sin, the 
consciousness of guilt, the 'split consciousness', and our longings 
for the lost paradise, our glimmering hopes for a return, which 
Gerald Heard elaborates in "The Source of Civilization", 
Harpers, 1937, (cf. 2oth ed. pp. 151, 152). 

But anthropologists find evidence of conflict and lack of 
adjustment even among primitive tribes. There is evidence, too, 

(i 18) 


that before man had acquired the use of language, there were 
internal tensions and stresses, a basic lack of coordination that 
resulted in behavior disorders, individual and social. 


Such imbalance due to conflict of internal motives of man as 
a species, Dr. Trigant Burrow explores in The Biology of Human 
Conflict: An Anatomy of Behavior Individual and Social, 
Macmillan, 1937. He is a psychopathologist who has devoted his 
life and thought to behavior disorders. He has organized a group 
of patients, pupils, and disciples, known as the Lifwynn Founda- 
tion. They study their own behavior disorders and incentives as 
normal or neurotic persons in order to develop a technique 
which offers hope of repair. Objective observations of neuromus- 
cular functions lead to understanding of subjective processes. 

The "underlying causal factors in behavior-disorders" are 
"envisaged by phylobiology". This pertains "to man's reactions 
as a phylum as they mediate his bionomic rapport with his social 
and material environment". "Bionomic" has to do "with the 
relation between organism and environment". 

His inferences as to causes far back in the phylum are drawn 
from the study of the persons before him. He remains a psycho- 
biologist, dealing wholly with the specimens in his laboratory, 
but arrives by this original method at results which have been 
reached by anthropologists studying a wider range of material. 

Crime, like insanity, is due to lack of adjustment in the in- 
dividual but implicates the phylum, the race, society. No com- 
munity will be competent to cope with insanity or crime, to 
reduce the maladjustment, until it has recognized the conflict 
and imbalance intrinsic in the social structure. 

Unbalanced behavior he says has a symptom of a pathologi- 
cal process within the racial organism and within that of the 
individual. This pathological process results from a conflict be- 
tween two systems of response, one measured only by the 
organism's need, the other which reacts to external environment 
through the symbol the spoken or written word. The first is 
inherited, the second acquired. 

The major difficulties with the individual, as with groups, are 
conflicts of words and ideas in which the outlook is distorted. 
He makes a great deal of language, as do the semanticists. 
This brings Burrow close to Korzybski's attitude: 

"The old animalistic, fallacious generalizations have been, 
and are, the foundation of our 'philosophies', 'ethics', systems, 
and naturally such animalistic doctrines must be disastrous to 
us. Neurologically, we build up conditions which our nervous 
systems cannot stand; and so we break down, and perhaps, 
shall not even survive." 


"The chauvinistic Armistice Day ceremony at Whitehall's 
Cenotaph" was interrupted by a cry, "Stop all this hypocrisy!" 
While the king stood stolid, the "madman'' piled on by the 
police was hustled to the insane asylum. A letter writer to 
Time protests, " Hypocrisy! The inanities in the world taking 
place in the name of 'patriotism 7 are enough to make any sane, 
intelligent person 'wild-eyed' . . . Perhaps he was the only ra- 
tional person there!" Time annotates, "Possibly but not prob- 
ably. Ed." 


Peer Gynt, visiting an asylum in Eygpt, set all the lunatics 
loose and locked up the keepers, we are reminded by the editors 
of Harper's, in the December, 1937, issue of which appears 
"The Age of Schizophrenia". This is the concluding chapter 
of a book by Leslie C. Barber. 'Illinus', salesman, reporter, 
soldier, farmer, he writes from the standpoint of the patient, 
now loose. 

This schizophrenia is a "splitting apart of the emotional from 
the intellectual life", due to the difficulty of adjustment to 
change. "Thus as the years go by, most men and women become 
more or less afflicted with schizophrenia. Their minds grow 
without friction or serious effort, while their emotional develop- 
ment is retarded by the hard labor of adjustment. . . . They 
wind up in the half-hearted compromise between Dr. Jekyll and 
Mr. Hyde. . . 

"The place to begin any social development is with the chil- 
dren. It is easier to avoid schizophrenia than to cure it. Our 
growing citizens may fairly demand this of us because they will 
have need of their best energies if they are ever to bring order 
out of the state of affairs we are bequeathing to them. Let us, 
to the best of our uncertain knowledge and ability, avoid 
afflicting them with habit patterns which they will some day 
have to change." 

The child "is likely to discover that certain social habits 
of his group are an insult to his intelligence. These are hang- 
overs from the past. He learns that there are some questions 
which may be asked and some which may not. His established 
habit patterns are challenged at home and abroad. The painful 
process of growing up is in full swing. 

"School brings a new set of acquaintances and more taboos. 



He must accommodate himself to the teacher's way of doing 
things. Surrounded on all sides by unreasoned anachronisms, 
he successfully evades some of them only to discover that he 
has a conscience. For the rest of his unnatural life he is at war 
on two fronts with society and with himself. 

"The coming of puberty, with its new and violent strains 
and stresses, finds him facing a new and still more severe set 
of taboos. His entrance into college or into the working world 
brings a new complement of regulations to which his habits 
must be made to conform. Marriage brings still another, and the 
births of his children (who promptly relegate him to second 
place in the household) demand one more series of adjustments. 

"Small wonder that by the time the average man has reached 
middle age he is tired of the endless process of taking himself 
to pieces, and becomes a conservative in a futile effort to avoid 
further change. It is quite logical that after seventy he should 
become a downright reactionary." 

Dr. John Y. Dent in "The Human Machine" (cf. 2ist ed. 
p. 119), sums this all up briefly. "Instead of childhood being 
as it should be, a preparation for adulthood, it is almost always 
in the Atlantic civilizations a period of preventive detention 
under more or less monastic conditions of sexual segregation." 
The sudden transitions in adjustment in the development of 
our young from "school to university", from "virginity to mar- 
riage", often produce maladjustments. 


"The psychiatrist does not deny the value of facts learned 
in school, but he believes that the facts can be useful to the 
individual only if proper adjustment is made to life. He con- 
siders that the first purpose of education in its broader sense is 
the facilitation of adjustment to reality, and if this is not at- 
tained, facts, doctrines, systems, and philosophies can be of 
little value." This is quoted from the chapter "Applications" 
in Karl Menninger's "The Human Mind". 

"Furthermore, he believes that the child's education begins 
with the first day of life and that the most important period 
from the educator's standpoint is the early years before the 
child enters school. The parents are the child's earliest educa- 
tors, and the teacher is not dealing with untouched material, 
but with an individual whose personality is already well de- 
termined . . . 

"And psychiatry ... is comparatively unknown in educa- 
tional circles. True, of late there has been considerable demand 
in parent-teacher groups and in teachers' associations for in- 
formation on mental hygiene, but usually it has been included 
as a kind of side line." 


Mind and soul have mystified men for ages. How Schmidt 
in his "Dawn of The Human Mind" discloses the origin, nature 
and the development of the soul through the last hundred 
thousand years was recounted in the last edition of this HAND- 
BOOK (pp. 105-109). Those 'possessed of devils' have helped us 
to discover and understand the human mind. Clifford Beers, 
who a quarter of a century ago emerged from an asylum to 
found the whole mental hygiene movement, has lived to reap 
his reward. 


Elmer Southard, the founder of psychopathology, after serv- 
ice in the war, died of blood poisoning from a prick on the 
finger, removing a brain in an autopsy. He came to Harvard 
in the fall of 1894, intent on becoming a doctor. His facile, 
searching mind carried him from biology into metaphysical and 
philosophic courses, and led him in his discussions and bull 
sessions into much argumentative exercise, although his mind 
was good enough to reveal to him a certain futility in all this. 

Similarly in the Medical School, his intellectual aliveness and 
curiosity led him to roam outside the normal field of studies. 
He became interested in mental abnormalities. The war gave 
him opportunity to enlarge his experience, and on his return 
he was influential in founding the first psychopathic hospital 
in this country. Professor Frederick P. Gay of Columbia, who 
was Southard's close friend for thirty years, has written a 
biography, still in manuscript. 

Among Southard's pupils at the Harvard Medical School was 
Karl A. Menninger, who writes, "The greatest genius of all, 
the man who in my opinion is more than any other one respon- 
sible for the extension of psychiatry from the laboratory and the 
asylum to the fireside and the market-place was Elmer Ernest 

"Southard was his favorite professor and influenced his work 
tremendously," Karl's father writes me. "As you may know, 
Southard suggested the founding of our school, and it was for 
him that Karl named it. Southard seems to have had the gift 
of inspiring his pupils to attempt great tasks. We have always 
thought that if he had not died so young he would have been 
considered one of the greatest psychiatrists in this country." 


The Human Mind, Knopf, 1937, by Karl A. Menninger, was 


inspired by Southard. "He told me to write it, just before he 
died, ten years ago, when I was one of his many disciples." 
It is wholly rewritten from the first edition of 1930 and in- 
corporates the best thought of the leaders in psychiatry, 
Adolf Meyer, Frankwood Williams, and Menninger 's own 
father. It is interestingly written not only for the young psy- 
chiatrist but for the layman and the teacher. These excerpts 
illustrate the straightforward sincerity. 

"The Evolution of the Devil" is the story of mental hygiene. 
"Possessed of devils" was the explanation two thousand years 
ago, "bewitched" by those who "had sold themselves to 
Satan" even as late as colonial New England. "Original sin" 
was the explanation of our grandfathers, "pure cussedness" 
of our fathers. "Feeble-mindedness" then became the explana- 
tion for "bed-wetting to bootlegging". "Insanity", the psy- 
chiatrist harped, "Heredity", the eugenists said, "human na- 
ture", the philosophers. 

"There is no such thing as human nature", says Menninger. 
"Always human misbehavior was explained on the assumption 
that something from the outside world got into the inside of a 
hapless soul and made him do and feel as he shouldn't do and 
feel". And so we get to calling names. "Common sense" pre- 
scribed as treatment "did not avert these tragedies". 

Rid of preconceptions and prejudices, Dr. Menninger takes 
us to scientific observation of "Personalities", "Symptoms", 
"Motives", "Treatments", and "Applications". "Mental 
health" is "the adjustment of human beings to the world and to 
each other with a maximum of effectiveness and happiness". 

The father, Charles F. Menninger, is president of the Men- 
ninger Clinic and the Menninger Sanitarium Corporation, which 
he and his son Karl organized in 1925, and medical director of 
the Southard School for Unadjusted Children, which is asso- 
ciated with the Menninger Clinic and Sanitarium. 

At seventy-five he discovers this Handbook, reads the intro- 
duction, and writes us: "I have just . . . taken the occasion to 
read the entire editorial preface of your last handbook. I was 
so enthusiastic about your ideas on education . . . that I wish 
to write you. You mention the fact that there is a vast gulf 
lying between the mental content and vision of the scientist 
and of the educator. This point of view in a handbook for par- 
ents or teachers is decidedly revolutionary ..." 

William C. Menninger, the younger son, at the age of 39 is 
medical director of the Menninger Sanitarium, and has con- 
tributed a very large number of articles on psychiatric and 
neurological subjects to medical literature. 


Karl A. Menninger, the older son, born in 1893, returned 
to Topeka from Harvard to develop a neuropsychiatric clinical 
center and is now associated with his father and brother and 
ten other physicians in the Menninger Clinic, of which he is 
Chief -of-Staff. For fifteen years he has been professor of mental 
hygiene and abnormal psychology and criminology at Wash- 
burn College in Topeka. He organized, and is a member of the 
board of directors of, the Kansas State Mental Hygiene Society. 

Karl A. Menninger's Man Against Himself, Harcourt, Brace, 
1938, is a brilliant study of suicide and related phenomena. 
The author starts with Freud's "death instinct" which parallels 
the will to live. The theme Oscar Wilde summed up in a single 
great line, "Each man kills the thing he loves", though Men- 
ninger doesn't quote this. He puts it, "In the end each man 
kills himself in his own selected way, fast or slow, soon or late". 
Self-destruction is often the result of unsatisfied desire for 
aggression against someone else. This may appear in the Japa- 
nese hari kiri or the Malay running amok. Menninger's cases are 
almost wholly American, mostly from the heart of the continent. 
This first book in its field opens up great possibilities for further 
studies among other peoples. It is equally valuable for those 
who do not accept as a basic factor Freud's "death instinct". 

Under "Chronic Suicide" he treats asceticism, martyrdom, 
neurotic invalidism, alcoholism. Under "Focal Suicide" he deals 
with self-mutilations, purposive accidents, impotence and 
frigidity. And under "Organic Suicide" he deals with hysteria, 
emotional stresses, hates, eroticism. 


"One out of every nineteen children born during the three 
year period from 1929-31 eventually will become incapacitated 
by mental disease to a degree requiring admission to an institu- 
tion. An increase of 15 percent is expected over the 1919-21 
ratio Of one person in twenty- two," the Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company predicts in a recent bulletin on the basis of 
its own computations. 

The 500,000 mental patients in the United States in hospitals, 
and probably as many outside, require the services of 3600 nurses 
and 3000 psychiatrists, Life reports, March 14, 1938, in a nine 
page illustrated article depicting the life in one institution. 

Considerate treatment of the mentally ill dates from Clifford 
Beers' "A Mind That Found Itself", published twenty-five 
years ago. He was the first to be cured of what we then called 
insanity without having his inferiority complex so enlarged 
that he could never tell the story. William Seabrook and Henry 


Collins Brown, two literary men who have recovered after 
treatment, each this year published the story of his experience. 
Another group of recent books deals with the history of treat- 
ment, Albert Deutsch's The Mentally HI in America, Double- 
day, Doran, 1937, and Walter Bromberg's The Mind of Man: 
The Story of Man's Conquest of Mental Illness, Harper, 1937, 
from the time of prehistoric man, who on five continents tre- 
panned skulls to let the evil spirit escape. 


The function of the mind is explained in "The Way of All 
Flesh" by Samuel Butler. "All our lives long, every day and 
every hour, we are engaged in the process of accommodating 
our changed and unchanged selves to changed and unchanged 
surroundings; living, in fact, is nothing else than this process 
of accommodation; when we fail in it a little we are stupid, 
when we fail flagrantly we are mad ... A life will be successful 
or not, according as the power of accommodation is equal to 
or unequal to the strain of fusing and adjusting internal and 
external changes. " 

What a college education does is revealed in a report on 
"Psychiatry in College", Mental Hygiene, July, 1932, by Ander- 
son and Kennedy, to which Menninger refers in "The Human 
Mind". "Out of 442 college men and women applying to Macy's 
during the spring of 1931, approximately 15 per cent were ac- 
cepted for employment and only 4 per cent were accepted for 
the training squad ... 85 to 90 per cent of applicants from the 
colleges are rejected ... for any job ... 95 to 99 per cent fail 
to be selected as potential executive material. Why? Because of 
the lack of one or more of the following characteristics : alertness, 
intelligence, good physical health, reserve energy, purposive- 
ness, shrewdness, adaptability, good insight, good sense of 
reality, well-defined interests, and evidences of achievement." 

"Man refuses to be degraded in self-esteem, of which he has 
never had enough to save him from bitter self-reproaches. He 
yearns for flattery and he needs it," wrote Henry Adams. 
"What mankind will do for itself" worried him. "Possibly the 
Universities may think it safer to ignore the dilemma for an- 
other decade or two, as they have ignored so many others." 

Our universities and schools, too, are filled with incipient 
mental hygiene cases. Our educational institutions are swelling 
the parade from 'schoolhouse to bughouse'. Conflicts, frustra- 
tions, semantic difficulties, could easily be overcome or removed 
but it is still respectable in the universities to think of mind 
as an entity, not something that can be deranged like the diges- 
tion or any other function. 

Our educators have yet to discover the mind. 


Education must first "dispel the 'knowing so many things 
that ain't so' ". Ours is "a gigantic heritage of ignorance a 
heritage held so jealously in trust that it did not begin to totter 
until psycho-pathology entered upon 'the morning of its medi- 
cal life' in our own days . . . Then, if this task be successfully 
completed, we embark upon the relatively simple business of 
imparting the new information." 


The Russian Gregory Zilboorg, graduate of Petrograd and 
Columbia, and now a practising New York psychiatrist, tells 
us this in "The Heritage of Ignorance", Atlantic, June, 1937. 
The 'things that ain't so' are persistent, sometimes difficult to 
dispel, as history shows. Aristarchus of Samos, 250 B. C., an- 
ticipated the discovery of Copernicus, that the solar system was 
not geocentric. Eighteen centuries later Copernicus was de- 
nounced as a criminal, and Bruno was burned for announcing 
this heliocentric truth. And Galileo, obliged by the inquisition 
to recant and make a "weekly recitation of the seven penitential 
psalms for a period of three years", died with his great work 
unpublished for another 180 years. 

But Galileo got a laugh out of his persecutions, at the expense 
of the professors of Padua. Zilboorg quotes Professor A. Wolf's 
translation of his letter to the German astronomer Kepler: 
"I wish, my dear Kepler, that we could have a good laugh to- 
gether at the extraordinary stupidity of the mob. What do 
you think of the foremost philosophers of this University? In 
spite of my oft-repeated efforts and invitations, they have re- 
fused, with the obstinacy of a glutted adder, to look at the 
planets or the moon, or my glass! Why must I wait so long be- 
fore I can laugh with you? Kindest Kepler, what peals of laugh- 
ter you would give forth, if you heard with what arguments the 
foremost philosopher of the University opposed me, in the 
presence of the Grand Duke, at Pisa, laboring with logic- 
chopping argumentations as though they were magical incanta- 
tions wherewith to banish or spirit away the new planets (the 
satellites of Jupiter) out of the sky." 

Paracelsus at the beginning of the i6th century "contended 
that certain mental diseases in children or adults are due to the 
unconscious activity of the imaginative faculty." Two centuries 
later Freud's reannouncement of this discovery was and is still 
greetedjvith jncredulity by those who should know. 




Man usually welcomes new things which are supposedly prac- 
tical and useful, new tools, new gadgets, every patent medi- 
cine 'to poison out disease as we smoke out vermin* (O. W. 
Holmes). It is in the trivial that he seeks the new and the novel. 
On important things he holds to the ancient fundamentals, 
where he lets principles bar his way, laws, traditions, mores, 
tabus fetter him. He is always ready to logically defend his 
ignorance of things that are of permanent and far reaching 

Ignorance exercises "an automatic, invisible, effective censor- 
ship over man's thought and activities". The why's are many. 
Let's study the causes that have " 'dampt the glory of human 
wits' and led humanity to defend its ignorance with a vehe- 
mence far greater than that with which it has ever fought for 
genuine knowledge." 


"Man projects not only his apprehensions but also his aspira- 
tions." Paranoia is a mental projection outward, of fear, hatred, 
hostility, which seeks to fasten the hatred or hostility on some 
imagined persecutor. "Idealizations, belief in immortality, faith 
in a better future are all magnificent or tragic offsprings of the 
primitive mentality which utilizes the mechanism of projec- 
tion." It is the same "mechanism which leads the individual 
to become a Napoleon or a chronic dementia praecox". 

"These displacements and projections weave themselves into 
endless postulates and opinions. They are man's own inventions 
. . . fantasies coming from the unconscious emotions. . . These 
fantasies color, influence, and frequently dominate and control 
the intellect whose supposed function is to control them. 

"Thus 'knowledge of so many things that ain't so' is born, 
nurtured, developed, and clung to with all the tenacity which 
is characteristic of a biological need. . . . That is why matters 
psychological have been bound up throughout the history of 
humanity with magic, revelation, religion, and speculative 
philosophy. . . 

"It is one of man's propensities to look outward for the 
causes of his own weakness. . . Real knowledge begins only 
with man's realization of his own imperfection. Instead of realiz- 
ing it, man projected his fantasy of perfection into the universe 
and found himself laboring under the concept of preestablished 
harmony. . . 

"Man is chiefly interested in scientific investigation of mater- 
ial nature, since this helps him not only to gratify his curiosity 
but and this primarily to gratify through the outside world 


his own fantasy of and aspiration for mastery and omnipotence." 
As Voltaire remarked, "If it is true that the Lord created man 
in His own image, man returned the compliment". 


Today we are "puzzled as we were in the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries ... by the problem of the soul." John Locke 
sought to penetrate the mystery. But the scientist, warned off, 
has been obliged to confine himself to the more obviously physi- 
cal realms. 

"We seem to shy off looking directly at the psychic reactions 
of man. . . In this almost universal trend it is not difficult to 
detect an old, essential prejudice", which "m^kes the develop- 
ment of modern medical psychology so difficult and arouses so 
many passions where psychological or psychiatric problems are 
involved. . . . Everyone looks everywhere into the stomach, 
the brain, the glands except into the human mind (the psyche) 
for a solution to his various problems." If a man is sad, they say 
it's "black bile", melancholia, take a pill. 

The soul is perfect, immortal, hence invulnerable, inviolable, 
it can't be sick. c Mens sana in corpore sano' is still quoted by 
educators and in school catalogs as the complete prescription. 
Our soul, or psychological problems are turned over to the priest, 
the philosopher, the charlatan. Kant believed that mental 
disease was a matter for philosophers. 

It is as difficult for us to recognize that what we call the hu- 
man psyche is a natural phenomenon which can be subjected 
to analysis and biological understanding, as it was for Galileo's 
peers to admit that the earth went round the sun. 

"What we call the human mind is merely a biological char- 
acteristic of the Homo sapiens . . . subject of a number of 
natural laws rather than master of these. What we call mind 
is not our intellect alone, but all our feelings, conscious and 
unconscious, all the inner drives which guide our thinking." 


"The scientific value of understanding human beings helps 
us to rid ourselves of the assumption that .the human psyche is 
more perfect than the human body." 

Our mental mechanisms are quite as subject to derangement 
as our digestive. Our digestion is no more an entity than is our 
mind. We might theorize and build a metaphysics about the 
universal and eternal digestion, and it would be more logical 
and hold together better than any of the metaphysics on the 
universal soul or mind: Everything is in tune digested, resolved 
into its elements and assimilated in new ways to build new 
units. That's good physics, demonstrable in the laboratory. 


Even if we had no mentality, no brains, even if we followed 
James Thurber's advice, Let Your Mind Alone, Harper, 1937, 
or refused to share Wolcott Gibbs' Bed of Neuroses, Dodd, 
Mead, 1937, we would still have our troubles. 


The fall of man seems to mean something. The nightmare of 
falling is common to all children and one may observe the same 
thing in young monkeys. At most, it is less than a million years 
that we have habitually stood up on our hind legs. Anatomists 
dwell on the maladjustment of our internal organs to the vertical 
position, the consequent ills necessitating the use of correctives, 
brassieres, corsets, abdominal belts, trusses, pessaries, 
braces, arch supports. 

Most of us learn to walk without help or instruction. Few of 
us have acquired the art of standing or walking with ease or 
grace. Some finishing schools train girls how to get into a room 
and out. The first thing done with a raw recruit is to show him 
how to stand up on his hind legs. 


Our ancestors developed a nervous muscularity in their 
spasmodic jumping and grasping necessary to life in the tree 
tops. We have not yet become accustomed to living on the 
surface of old mother earth. Still in our puny nervous way we 
are fighting the force of gravity. 

Gerald Stanley Lee, of the Coordination Guild, Northamp- 
ton, Mass., through long continued, patient study has dis- 
covered how much this matter of balance means to us, how un- 
accustomed we are in our present erect posture to adjusting our- 
selves to the pull of gravity. He has made us aware of what 
gravity may do for us if we only recognize and use it. The ele- 
phant moves his seven tons of weight without fighting gravity. 
Watch movies of an elephant and you see that all his motions 
are graceful, due to yielding to gravity. One forefoot is lifted 
and he falls in that direction. The hind foot is dragged forward 
and is placed. 

Mr. Lee demonstrates a method of utilizing unconsciously 
the force of gravity to do our muscular work for us, which re- 
sults in grace, poise, balance, and avoids wasted nervous and 
muscular energy. His ideas have been set forth in his books 
"Rest Working" and "Heathen Rage". 




In Ju-jitsu the Japanese have developed a system of defense 
based on the ease with which an opponent can be thrown off 
balance. The two Japanese words signify submission and science. 
It has been slow to develop in popularity in this country. Re- 
cently a new manual, The Art of Ju-Jitsu, David McKay Com- 
pany, 1937, has been produced by E. J. Harrison, a pupil of 
Yokio Tani. 

The origins of this ancient art, like most things Japanese, are 
Chinese. In Japan many schools have been developed. One great 
teacher, Jigoro Kano, at the Kodokwan in Tokyo, has com- 
bined the best of all the methods. This he calls Ju-do which 
means submission way. Both terms signify that it is not strength, 
but skill in taking your opponent when he is off balance, that 


The Thinking Body: A Study of the Balancing Forces of 
Dynamic Man, by Mabel Elsworth Todd, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 
Medical Book Department of Harpers, 1037, apes in its title 
Walter Cannon's "The Wisdom of the Body", but is not so apt, 
for thinking is active and specific, while wisdom is something 
that has been arrived at through long doing. Miss Todd has been 
doing useful work in helping people to adjust themselves physi- 
cally, particularly in problems of posture and locomotion. Her 
book approaches the subject from the empirical side and is in 
the nature of a compilation of notes. A bibliography shows 
range of reading, but much as she knows she does not know 
enough. The subject, a difficult one, requires a master mind to 
relate what she and others have done. But her courage, her 
effort, and her achievement should be applauded. 


Aldous Huxley in "Ends and Means" leans toward Yoga, 
perhaps from his close association with Gerald Heard, who in 
his "Source of Civilization" tells us, "It was not possible, until 
we in Europe became interested in psychology and realized the 
critical importance of the subconscious, for Yoga even to be 
inquired into seriously". 

The journalist Paul Brunton has gone far in his "A Search in 
Secret India" (cf. 20th ed., pp. 149, 150) to explore and under- 
stand the mystic teachings and practices of Yoga, a system of 
physical training which has always been surrounded by a halo 
of mysticism. Brunton asserts, "It can bring our bodies nearer 
the healthy condition which Nature intended" and bestow "a 
flawless serenity of mind." 


In his "Lives of a Bengal Lancer" and now in Yoga Ex- 
plained, Viking Press, 1937, Major Francis Yeats-Brown shows 
how much of the physical and breathing exercises are adaptable 
for the use of Westerns and for their benefit. Photographs show 
that he has attained a considerable skill. 

A native of Travancore, South India, graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Calcutta, a student at Yale in the department of 
psychology, returned to India, submitted to Yoga discipline 
under great teachers, became accomplished in it, and then re- 
turned to Yale for two years of additional study and research. 
In Yoga: A Scientific Evaluation, Macmillan, 1937, Kovoor T. 
Behanan gives a sympathetic presentation and appraisal, with- 
out championing it as a system of philosophy. 

He shows how Yoga has much in common with psycho- 
analysis and phychic research. A chapter on the physical train- 
ing gives illustrations of posture, breathing, exercises in con- 
centration. Some account is given of the scientific tests which 
were made on his breathing and metabolism in the Yale psycho- 
logical laboratories during and after these Yoga exercises. 


While we considered mind and soul separate entities it was 
difficult to understand how the physical control of musculature, 
breathing, circulation and glands could affect mind and soul. 
So we Westerners set down Yoga and much of this 'wisdom of 
the East* as fake. But Western laboratory science has arrived 
at a stage where it can now understand and interpret how modi- 
fication of our organic functions may affect mind and soul. 
F. Matthias Alexander unconsciously sensed and expounded 
something of this in his books which we have reviewed in earlier 
editions, "Man's Supreme Inheritance", 1918, "Constructive 
Conscious Control of the Individual", 1924. In his school at 
Bexley, Kent, is taught control of the physiological, the endo- 
crine as well as the muscular. Aldous Huxley in his last book has 
just discovered Alexander as he has Yoga. 

Younghusband, Yeats-Brown, Brunton, Carrel, Heard, and 
now Huxley, have come to a point where they can begin to 
synthesize somewhat fuzzily, still in a fog of mysticism. "There 
are more things in Heaven and earth" than Horatio had 
dreamt of in his philosophy, and on the fringe of knowledge 
where the charlatans gather there are glimmerings of under- 
standings and interpretations yet to be made that will harmo- 
nize and make meaningful much that has been mystic. 


If you have been off by yourself in the wilds, living a primitive 
life, independent of others, it takes a little readjustment when 
you get back to conform to the conventions. There are few of us 
who at times don't want to be alone, to go back and sit down 
and grouch or weep by ourselves. 

"Mrs. Martin Johnson is going back to the jungle. Not for 
her the perils of civilization", we read in the newspapers. But 
she will come back. The solitude-loving social human can't long 
remain solitary. Solitude's the worst torture that can be in- 
flicted on the recalcitrant prisoner. We are social animals, but 
we are new at the game and we have difficulty in getting on with 
our fellows. Any deb can tell you that society offers difficulties. 


The original state of man, solitary or social, is one on which 
anthropologists express differing opinions. Alfred Machin says 
man was solitary. Sir Arthur Keith, in his foreword to Machines 
book, takes issue, as anthropoid apes live in families or bands. 

But these apes were not our earliest ancestors and the story is 
more complicated. The earliest mammals, insectivorous animals, 
were both solitary and nocturnal, to escape their enemies and to 
take their sun loving insect prey when, lacking the warmth of 
the sun, the latter were less active. 

Their omnivorous remote descendants, the monkeys, found 
survival value in living in troops. Two heads were better than 
one, twenty pairs of eyes and ears better than one pair. And this 
held for the baboons and the smaller apes on the ground. The 
huge and powerful gorilla, confident in strength, could live an 
isolated family existence. So perhaps did our immediate human 

When man became a hunter of the gregarious herbivorous 
animals, there was an advantage in uniting in drives and later, 
as he domesticated these animals, in handling the herds. Agri- 
cultural man, too, found advantages in living together for de- 
fense against wild beasts and marauding tribes. 

The earliest traces of village groups in the Swiss lakes and in 
the fens of Somerset are probably much less than ten thous- 
and years old. We have lived a social life for only a short time. 
Before that for hundreds of thousands of years we lived as 
individuals or in family groups, for some million years earlier 
as troops of tree living animals. But if we go back beyond a 
hundred million years, we will find our ancestors solitary, noc- 



turnal. So it is from a long mixed heritage that we derive our 
conflicting complexes, both solitary and social. 


Men have not yet had time to become adjusted to social life, 
to living together, to modern conditions. The sadistic virtues 
of the hunter are inimical to life in our increasingly complex 
social groups. 

A living species, plant or animal, adjusts itself to its environ- 
ment, only those individuals surviving who fit the changing 
situation. Societies, groups, cultures undergo the same survival 
tests but are slower to change. 

Social maladjustment results from changes in the environ- 
ment. Physical changes may result in emigration but new 
human factors may be introduced by immigration. Adjustment 
is not a matter of free will or effort but is something that is in- 
evitable and continuously going on. 

Methods of getting food or overcoming competitors may lose 
their survival value under changing conditions. Those who do 
not change their methods, who do not adjust themselves, do not 
survive. The rocks are full of encrusted conservatives, former 
stand-patters who could not make good, and there are living 
fossils today. 

No human society has endured. That of ancient Egypt and 
the present Chinese civilization have been the longest lived. 
The ancient Egyptian lived in the Nile valley under unchanging 
physical conditions. The Chinese people are notoriously adapt- 


Our study of societies is very recent and incomplete. Eventu- 
ally there may be a real science of sociology, but the study 
bristles with semantic difficulties. 

"Social Psychology may be denned as a study of the behavior 
(or awareness) of individuals in their reactions to other individ- 
uals or in social institutions, and the behaviors through which 
individuals stimulate one another in such situations." (Social 
Forces, May, 1037). This is the definition adopted by The Ameri- 
can Psychological Association at their meeting in Hanover, 
N. H., September, 1936. It is broad enough to include not only 
the American people but the white ant. 

The Science of Social Adjustment, Macmillan, 1937, by Sir 
Josiah Stamp, is four addresses "which the times so urgently 
demand if we are to stave off Emerson's verdict: 'The end of the 
human race will be that it will eventually die of civilisation'." 

Quoting Norman Wilson's "Expected Population Changesand 
their Effect upon Social Services", he points out that while the 


total population is altered slowly, in parts and relatively, 
changes may be rapid. "Thus, in England and Wales, 40.4 
millions in 1937 becomes . . . 37.5 in 1962. But the children aged 
sixteen years . . . have been estimated, taking those in 1937 as 
100, to be ... 62 in 1962 ... On the other hand, the older people 
from sixty-five to seventy-four years will increase" in the ratio 
of 100 to 133. 

With a decline of 8 percent in the population, the proportion 
of old people over 65 in 1962 to those under 16 will be twice what 
it is today. That is, in 25 years a decline of only 8 percent in the 
population will result in the proportion of those over 65 to those 
under 16 being doubled. In 25 years there will be half as many 
children, twice as many old men, "less laughter, more groans", 
as forecasted in this Handbook four years ago. 

But all this can be changed. We have the knowledge, the 
brains, the resources. All we need is to become aware. 


The danger of mediocrity, of leveling down, the de-grading 
processes of our civilization, are satirized in Karel Capek's War 
With The Newts, Putnam, 1937. Capek is more humorous, less 
cynical than Anatole France in "Penguin Island". In his newt- 
man world, mediocrity has become a cult. To feed the hungry 
that they may multiply is the chief end. These newt men are 
great salamanders. They walk upright and swim under the sea. 
They breed rapidly. They have learned to use explosives with 
which they gradually undermine and destroy the continents 
where the humans who feed them live. Food, mere multiplica- 
tion in contrast to higher types, brains, those are the points 
of the satire. 


Both animals and plants living together in groups derive 
mutual benefits which give them greater survival value. This 
communistic living of plants and animals is called ecology. 
Sponges, corals, fans, as well as bees and beavers and scores of 
other diverse groups, were completely socialized before man 

It is little wonder that other societies than ours are more 
perfectly adjusted to their environment. They have had a longer 
time to perfect their communistic living. But who wants to be a 
white ant. 


Man proudly boasts that this is "his world", this the "age of 
man". In his entertaining recent survey of invertebrate societies 
"Evolution and Behavior of the Invertebrates", Chapter VII of 
The World and Man : As Science Sees Them, W. C. Alice, pro- 
fessor of zoology at the University of Chicago, rebukes man for 
his anthropocentric boast. 

There are more than 600,000 named species of animals, 
perhaps as many more unnamed. Stretch out your arms from 
tip to tip, six feet. The first joint of a finger represents propor- 
tionately the number of species or mammals, the second joint 
birds, reptiles and amphibians, the basal joint and the palm the 
fishes. The one hand represents all the vertebrates, the rest of 
the arm, body and other arm, all the invertebrates. And the 
number of species in each group corresponds roughly to the 
length of time the group has existed. 

But the insects comprise not only the greatest number of 
species, but are overwhelming in their numbers. They actually 
dominate and prevent the existence of man over a considerable 
portion of the earth's surface. The world is theirs and the fulness 
thereof, except in the temperate regions and in a few places like 
the Canal Zone where at great expense man has reduced the 
number of some one species of insect, like the Malarial Ano- 

An intimate view of insect life near at hand, with 130 photo- 
graphs by the author, is Edwin Way Teale's Grassroot Jungles, 
Dodd, Mead, 1937. He tells us, "Nine-tenths of all the living 
creatures on the face of the earth are insects". There are 25,000,- 
ooo insects in the air above each square mile of the earth's 
surface, "3,500,000 insects live in the soil under each acre of 
meadowland". Of the 600,000 species, not all named, only a few 



hundred are enemies of man, but they cause a loss of a billion 
and a half annually in the United States. 

But the insects have another claim. Not only have they 
developed a stable and efficient social life, but they have 
achieved almost a hundred percent altruism and unselfishness, 
qualities we poor humans strive for, boast of, but fail to attain. 
The best known of these societies, which we prey upon and 
plunder, is that of the honey bee. But with them, as with man 
and nearly all mammals, the male still remains unsocialized, a 
disturbing element, creating war, discord, jealous hates. The 
females of the species are completely socialized, cooperative, 
and wholly altruistic except toward the males. The sisters sting 
the lazy drones and throw them out and so the war goes on 
between the sexes. 


The ants have done better. They have not only made imposing 
uniformed doormen of the males, but they have subjected them 
to military discipline and send them out to bring in slaves to 
lighten the labor of the females. 

Though Solomon told us sluggards long ago to 'go to the ant' 
we are only just beginning to go. Julian Huxley in charge of the 
London Zoo thinks they are stupid. Even William Morton 
Wheeler who knew more about ants than anyone who has lived, 
took cheer from the fact that the ant's social life was not perfect. 

"And so far as the actual, fundamental, biological structure 
of our society is concerned and notwithstanding its stupendous 
growth in size and all the tinkering to which it has been sub- 
jected, we are still in much the same infantile stage. But if the 
ants are not despondent because they have failed to produce a 
new social invention or convention in 65 million years, why 
should we be discouraged because some of our institutions and 
castes have not been able to evolve a new idea in the past fifty 

But the ants have done pretty well during the last hundred 
million years. There are more common garden ants in the world 
today than any other land animal of the same or larger size. 
There are more communists in Massachusetts than there are 
Republicans and Democrats together. 


Blundering man in the presence of perfection is filled with 
wonder and worship. Those who know the termites are im- 
pressed. This "insignificant insect, which, except in soldier form 


seldom attains a quarter of an inch in length, presents to those 
who care to study it, a living obsession of unselfishness. His life, 
of unknown and, it may be, indefinite duration is devoted to 
the interests of others: to the good of his fellow-creatures and 
his city." 

This is quoted from Herbert Noyes' Man and the Termite, 
Peter Davies, London, 1937. The author has lived most of his 
life as a rubber planter among the termites, and though he is not 
a scientist, he knows the literature of the subject, gives an ex- 
cellent bibliography, and quotes from the great scientific inves- 
tigators. Their activities to him seem to transcend intelligence. 
We have fossil termites preserved in amber from the Miocene, 
but they probably have existed for 300,000,000 years. 

Blind, living in total darkness for a hundred million years, 
sending out no scouts, termites in a single night will build 
covered two way boulevards up a concrete pillar to reach and 
honeycomb the wooden beam that rests upon it. How do they 
know it is there? 

The Zulus have high respect for the termite, Noyes tells us. 
"My Zulu induna, N'hlutunkungu, a chief of the Isibonga of 
N'hlatuzi, . . ." remarked, " These teachers of yours ... tell us 
of a heaven to which we may aspire and at which we may pres- 
ently arrive. But, if they are to be believed, none of us are worthy 
of such a glorious fate. Are there many among your own people 
worthy of such distinction?' 

"And I said, in the vernacular, no; but according to the 
legends there was such a Man, two thousand years ago. But 
when I talked of prophets and intercessors, N'hlutunkungu was 
strangely irresponsive. A god he could understand, but not a 
vicarious deity. 

" 'One may well believe', he said in effect, 'that the good deeds 
of Man are not sufficient either in quality or quantity to win him 
celestial felicity, but that he should try to gain it through an 
intercessor appears to me a childish faith. . . '. 

"And I told him that because of that incredulity, unwisely 
expressed, white and brown men had been killing each other for 
the last nineteen hundred years and were killing each other 

" The beasts and the Termites have but one God, as we all 
know', he objected; 'to what end shall they employ a middle- 
man? This talk of go-betweens seems to me mere foolishness. It 
is in my mind that the Termites are nearly perfect in their mode 
of living; my own people are far from it, and of the white men, 
who can say?' " 

Eugene N. Marais, an Afrikaander, after college began as a 
journalist, studied medicine, then was called to the Bar by the 
Inner Temple. Scholar, man of culture, he chose to live in a hut 


in the lonely Waterberg mountains, making friends with a troop 
of wild baboons, whose behavior he studied, and which he tamed 
so that he could move among them and handle them with im- 
punity. His chief work was to be "The Soul of the Ape", a study 
of the behavior of apes and baboons and comparison of their 
mental processes with those of men. 

His The Soul of the White Ant, Dodd, Mead & Company, 
i937> "With a Biographical Note by his son and translated by 
Winifred de Kok", was written in Afrikaans, the Dutch language 
of South Africa. 

His observations, photographs and drawings are original. 
Perhaps he abandons too readily the mechanistic and materialis- 
tic explanation of the behavior of the white ant. He has been 
over impressed possibly with the marvels of their behavior, with 
the fact that they consciously build arches. Two individual 
workers build pillars which gradually approach each other, or 
across the pillars lay a spear of grass, covering this with pellets 
of earth to make the solid structure. 

Perhaps unfortunately he has adopted an attitude that will 
seem esoteric in assuming that the termite colony is a single 
organism, and that what some regard as the individual worker 
and soldier are akin to the red blood corpuscles and leucocytes 
in the blood, and that the queen corresponds with the ovary. 

The fungus garden in which the white ant cultivates bacteria 
to digest cellulose, he regards as the digestive system of the 

Maeterlinck stole and used this idea six years later. Stripped 
of sentimentality, it is the condition revealed by the great 
physiologists, the modern representative of whom is Walter 

Others have regarded the human body as made up of colonies 
of cells each with its own activities, highly differentiated in- 
dividual phagocytes, red blood corpuscles, all living symbioti- 
cally within an integument in which they float bathed in body 
fluids that act as a medium of exchange between different cells. 


Knowledge of the road that we have come over would seem 
to be essential to an understanding of where are we, and where 
do we go from here. We need guides who know the road. Philoso- 
phers, statesmen, are ignorant. Biologists, paleontologists have 
some knowledge of how we came to be as we are. 

As Herbert Spencer said, "I believe you might as reasonably 
expect to understand the nature of an adult man by watching 
him for an hour (being in ignorance of all his antecedents) as to 
suppose that you can fathom humanity by studying the last few 
thousand years of its evolution." 


Man, 'supreme' among the mammals, is in some ways primi- 
tive. The hand of man is that of the frog. Primitive amphibians 
of this four fingered and thumbed type developed in the car- 
boniferous, a hundred million years ago. That hand has been 
distorted and diverted into unrecognizable forms in the bird's 
wing, in the horse's foot. But in those animals that took to the 
trees, like the opposums, the tree shrews, the hand with oppos- 
able thumb became especially useful for grasping, and, when 
the monkeys descended from the trees, for picking up stones and 

Recently discovered in Malayan jungles are living fossils, in- 
sectivorous primates, ancestors of the higher primates. "The 
Living Dead", by Erich M. Schlaikjer, paleontologist and geolo- 
gist, Natural History, March, 1938, tells about these little rat- 
like patriarchs, the living images of our forefathers, that 
scampered about on the ground 140 million years ago, during 
the time of the dinosaur gangster dictators. With changed condi- 
tions, mountains where there were lowlands, arid country where 
there were marshes, the great overspecialized reptiles could not 
readapt themselves and became extinct. 

But these insignificant little placentals, insectivores, primitive 
mammals, instead of laying eggs like the dinosaurs, produced 
their young alive and perhaps fed on the eggs of dinosaurs. Alert 
and adaptable, they flourished. Some of them took to the trees, 
and adapting their five fingered hand for grasping became the 
ancestors of the lemurs and all the monkeys and apes, while 
other descendants, giving up the hand for rapid locomotion on 
their toes, became horses, deer, antelope. 

With the use of the hand, the simian brain developed and the 
eyes rotated forward, giving us stereoscopic vision. To our 
hands, more than any other one factor, we owe our brains. 




"Each geological period has had its three main factions in 
every group of mammals," Schlaikjer says, "but each time it has 
been extinction for the radicals and dictators, survival for a few 
ultra-conservative living fossils and victory for the conservative- 

Some of the insectivores became extinct. Some became over- 
specialized and so entered into one of nature's most gigantic pit- 
falls of evolutionary change. Primates became the most ad- 
vanced of all placentals. Today they show the same diversity 
from radical to ultra-conservative. 

In the tropical jungles have recently been discovered some of 
these extreme conservatives who survived. Ghosts of primitive 
ancestors, living fossils, are the ratlike Tupaia of Malay and the 
shrewlike Ptilocercus of Borneo, timid, nocturnal tree livers 
only "slightly changed throughout 60 millions of years." 

The confusion today in the minds of some men, because of 
changing conditions, is nothing to the problems that have been 
repeatedly faced by our ancestors, back through millions of 
years. Those who made the right decisions went ahead, and we 
are the result. The others we occasionally find as fossils. 

If physical conditions change, if the plain becomes mountain, 
the jungle, desert, then its inhabitants migrate, readapt them- 
selves or die. Most die. If what was once Republican plunder 
land becomes Democratic or socialistic Altruria, the plunder 
bosses must migrate, adapt or die. 

Vision rather than stupid force helps to the right decision. 
Our 'intelligence department' needs strengthening that we may 
plan our campaign wisely. We are fed up with 'education', a 
foolish fetish. With some knowledge of the history of what has 
come before, we need training in how to see, how to use our 
senses, and how to react. 


"No teacher with a spark of imagination or with an idea of 
scientific method can have helped dreaming of the immortality 
that would be achieved by the man who should successfully ap- 
ply Darwin's method to the facts of human history." (Henry 
Adams, "The Tendency of History", 1894). 

Evolution "even now . . . has not permeated the medical pro- 
fession at any rate as a dynamic, scientific reality . . . has not 
even penetrated to the dusty and probably empty recesses of 
the political minds which direct our social destinies. To the 
majority of the professional leaders of Christianity and other 
established religions, evolution is not merely an unsubstantiated 
theory, but an atheistic and anti-social philosophy, the promul- 
gation of which is subversive to the welfare of man". E. A. 
Hooton, "Apes, Men, and Morons"). 


Man is still the greatest mystery to man. The story of whence 
he came and whither he goes, is the most enthralling of all time. 
For what interests us is what's ahead. All men have built in their 
imaginations paradises, valhallas, Utopias, heavens for them- 
selves and hells for their enemies. 

But the past holds the keys to the future. Evolution is a 
process that has been going on since life began. Most of us be- 
lieve in evolution as we believe in the Holy Ghost. We give it lip 
service but we don't think it out, we don't see it in action. We 
see instances of it sometimes when they are pointed out to us. 
Sometimes it is retarded. Some forms remain static under fixed 
conditions, like Lingula on the sea floor since the Silurian. Some- 
times the process is accelerated, in jumps which are called muta- 
tions, or biological sports. With the tree shrews started a long 
period of continued development out of which finally resulted 

Darwin's Theory Applied to Mankind, Longmans, Green, 
1937, by Alfred Machin, is a book which brought this reader 
great excitement. The unstimulating title fits well enough, you 
find, though it does not convey any intimation of the book's 
importance. It gives us a vivid picture of how man has come on 
step by step over a period of some millions of years. It brings 
understanding and clarification to the most colossal problem 
man has faced. 

Once you have achieved Machin's vision, seen the picture he 
presents, innumerable disturbing phases and features of human 



behavior fall into place like the missing pieces in a picture 
puzzle. Why do we fight? Why are we fundamentally sadistic? 
Why do we respond to martial music? Why are sex and marital 
mores as they are? Why is our system of law so largely based on 
property values? These are but indications of all the discordant 
facts that fit into this perfect picture, the puzzles that are solved 
by this understanding. It is the greatest story every told, pieced 
together convincingly from little clues. 


England still breeds men. Darwin owed little to the universi- 
ties, as did Tylor, founder of anthropology, who was a brass 
founder's apprentice, invited to Oxford after he had made good 
(cf. 2ist ed., p. 100). 

Alfred Machin, a civil servant of Bath, England, describes 
himself as an amateur. Uncorrupted by academic sophistication, 
for twenty years he has been collecting scientific information 
and data, and thinking constructively on the course of man over 
the past twenty-five million years. His "Ascent of Man by 
Means of Natural Selection", 1925, sought to show that the 
behavior patterns which have persisted had survival value. 

This second book, awkwardly constructed, does not show a 
practiced hand, but it does evidence wide reading and extended 
knowledge. Let those deny who can that here is a first dass 
mind, and there are not many in the world, in which every bit of 
evidence has been fused as in a crucible, and come out crystal 


The evolutionary process he says is still going on, still account- 
ing for everything that man is and has been. The mysteries of 
life and our fellows are readily explained if we understand how 
things have come to be as they are. And everything in organic 
life has been the result of slow change and survival. 

Patiently, he patches together the picture puzzle and, supply- 
ing the missing parts, explains what were incongruities, incon- 
sistencies, densest or deepest mysteries. 

"A natural selection of the fittest has brought about the prog- 
ress of mankind, just as it has effected the evolution of other 
forms of life, just as the amphibians were displaced and re- 
placed by reptiles, and the latter in their turn by mammals." 


Deep within us are qualities for which we feel only shame. 
The sense of sin, the consciousness of guilt, persists. At unex- 
pected times men exhibit the most sadistic and selfish traits. The 
fallen angel, we have theorized, is born in original sin. The real 
story of how these traits are deep implanted in us and how we 
have developed other traits is one of the main themes of Machines 


For hundreds of thousands of years, primitive man, victim of 
the elements, of great and savage beasts, of changing conditions, 
survived only through his fortitude, his ability to bear suffering 
and pain. Puberty ceremonies, tattooing, cicatrization, tor- 
ments, impalements, cruelties have been practiced because they 
bring into prominence those that have survival value in con- 
trast to the weaklings. The ability to take it, perhaps the great- 
est of all our virtues, is the most primitive. If our ancestors had 
lacked it, we should not be here. Looking back, one sees the long 
"Martyrdom of Man". 


The survivors not only had to endure, but they had to witness 
human agony without mental disaster. And this ability persists 
as Machin writes, "deep down in the recesses of the human heart 
even unto modern days. Thus St. Thomas Aquinas made the 
charming remark that, 'in order that nothing may be wanting 
to the felicity of the saints of heaven, a perfect view is granted 
them of the tortures of the damned'." 

Gladiatorial tortures in cultured Rome, bear baiting in Eng- 
land, and whipping Quakers at the cart tail in New England, 
lynching and the blow torch burning of the Negro in the present 
day South, all attest. Lecky in his "History of European 
Morals" recognizes as "perfectly normal", an honest inheri- 
tance, and not an unusual thing, the "real and lively pleasure" 
brought by human suffering and torture. 

The North American Indians, Machin says, "boasted of their 
ferocity and cruelty, stating that it made the hearts of their 
enemies 'turn to water*. Frightfulness, the terrifying of an oppo- 
nent, the destruction of his morale, has, however, much denied 
or obscured, been a constant feature of warfare." 

Sadism was the morality of the solitary killer. The most cruel 
and ruthless, those who killed effectively, survived. The traits 
were deep implanted over a long time and they still come out, 



though today they have no survival value. In fact, under new 
conditions they call for swift elimination. 


Primitive man in hunting the wild horse and other gregarious 
herbivorous animals, combined for success in organized drives 
or to make pitfalls in taking the mammoth and the woolly 
rhinoceros. Cooperation came to have survival value. So the 
solitary were eliminated and those remained who had learned to 
work together, who developed social qualities, learned to sell 
their daughters, institute marriage, protect their rights. 

"Once societies began to form, survival was governed by the 
winning or retention of hunting grounds, and that depended on 
success in battle. Success in organized warfare depended on the 
inhibition of fear and panic and the substitution of valour and 
patriotism", Machin says. 

"They thus formulated and applied the principles of the first 
morality, and sought to secure its rule through law, religion, and 
reputation giving. Natural selection sat in judgment on the 
tribes and awarded survival to those who best practised the new 
morality . . . The result of this application of the first morality 
was to advantage the valiant and patriotic and to eliminate the 
craven, the insubordinate, and the socially unworthy." 

The virtues of the first morality of the hunter still survive. 
Most of our recreational and outdoor life is "indulging those 
physical activities and exercising the associated emotions which 
fitted them to survive in those stages of man's existence which 
have long gone by, they are pure atavistic survivals not of 
muscles and organs but of organic functions." 

Hunting, fishing, fighting, throw back to the first hunter 
stage. Group contests today take the form of football, hockey, 
etc. But we may enjoy all these contests vicariously, deriving 
the emotional outlet from onlooking. The theater, cinema, radio, 
and literature in large part is designed to entertain. Even our 
newspapers furnish sensations, emotional thrills. 


The hunter became social only from pressure of population. 
As men came to live together more closely, those who respected 
the privileges of others survived. A new code developed. 

This new second morality "aims first at the economic pros- 
perity of the state and the well-being of all those who dwell 
therein. The fundamental condition for this is the security of 
property, the guaranteeing to every man the full fruits of his 
labour. The means to the end are industry, thrift and enter- 
prise. . . Wealth is the prime aim and outcome of the second 
morality as valour was of the first. 


"The second morality is thus a system of ethics, a philosophy, 
and code, expressed through laws, religion and public opinion, 
which aims to promote the prosperity and well-being or, in other 
words, the survival values of the members of civilized society. . . 

"This common interest made the public opinion which ex- 
pressed itself through laws, religion, and the attachment of repu- 
tation values, and which aimed to make private property secure 
and to keep the national estate inviolate. These were the basic 
laws, the security of private and public property. . . "Private 
vengeance, the original guardian of civil morality is abolished 
and superseded by the machinery of justice operated by society." 


"All ancient civilisations have been based on slavery, on the 
enforced labour of captives ... a necessary condition for the 
development of agricultural societies . . . Civilisation in its be- 
ginnings required a dual structure. An agricultural estate needed 
cultivators and defenders . . . governors and controllers who 
were soldiers, citizens and freemen . . . workers who were slaves 
or serfs." 

And this form of civilization lasted while it had survival value. 
In the South in our own country it had until the sixties when it 
was artificially destroyed by the Northerners for whom eco- 
nomic conditions had long since ceased to make it profitable. 

And still the dual structure persists. We see it everywhere. 
And it is the struggle between, the attempt to unify. Evolution 
is still going on, determining what has survival values, the 
sociology, the economics of today. It is the fundamental dual 
structure in the association of many groups. 


The slaves were those who were preserved, not put to the 
sword. They were the favored. The worker, the cultivator, was 
selected by the conqueror, who continued to cast off the less 
industrious. George Washington wrote his sea captain friend 
that he was sending him a recalcitrant slave to sell for what he 
could get in the West Indies and to bring back proceeds in rum. 

"What man did for plants and animals, it was surely possible 
for him to do with that superior animal, the slave . . . The selec- 
tive breeding of workers was probably largely unconscious", 
but it was easy to propagate from the best, "eliminating the un- 
satisfactory". History tells little of the dull drudges of labor. 
The process still goes on. 

"The second morality represented survival value to the work- 
ers in the slave era. . . To the slaves or serfs it meant mere 
survival and perpetuation for the most faithful workers, and 
elimination for the lazy, inefficient, and recalcitrant. The laws 


and religious teachings were designed to maintain these princi- 
ples, and to secure the perpetuation of a body of resigned and 
contented workers. 

"The slow genesis of new types of human societies and the 
natural selection of that type best fitted to survive, this is the 
governing law of human history. . . 

"The application of the second morality to the workers led 
consciously or unconsciously to a human selection, a process 
of selective breeding, and the ultimate production of a working 
class who were adapted and resigned to their condition . . . great 
change in human nature". 


"The conflict in human nature must be due to the clash be- 
tween basic or instinctive human nature and the restraints and 
constraints imposed by the first or second moralities, or as we 
might put it to the conflicts between the survival values of the 
different stages of human progress." 

Our repressed interests, like selfishness, derived from the 
primitive law of self-preservation, "unbridled anger, fear and 
panic, and lastly, the sentiment derived from solitary battles, 
sadism or love of cruelty . . . the instinct for revenge, that 
primordial guardian of morality . . . 

"Man's survival today depends on the best synthesis or com- 
position he can make among these conflicting demands. He has 
to regulate and harness his nature to achieve survival ends. 
Obviously too much work with repressions too severe will entail 
derangement and insanity. . . 

"Man is, in short, like all other living things, just a bundle of 
survival values." Even "the patriotic spirit is nothing but the 
first morality in action". 


We might think of our more distant relatives as those having 
in common the five fingered hand, those with whom we came out 
of the water on to the land. Our nearer relatives we might re- 
strict to those with whom we came down out of the treetops on 
to the ground. The first, as we have seen with Schlaikjer, range 
back hundreds of million years, while our nearer relatives are 
limited in time perhaps to ten or twenty million years. What's 
ten million, once the relation is acknowledged. 


Our increased respect for the ape is due to our better knowl- 
edge of him. For this we owe a great deal to Yerkes who has 
deserted his Yale associates to live with his chimpanzees at 
Orange Park, Florida. 

But since the publication of "Up From the Ape" (cf. i6th ed. 
p. 64), Earnest A. Hooton, Harvard anthropologist, has become 
the chief apologist for man to our relatives, the apes. The latter 
certainly are less artificial, less sophisticated and hypocritical 
than we poor humans. They are more genuine and more mentally 
stable and show less of the inferiority complex. Those who know, 
say they are more companionable, and some of them certainly 
are not lacking in a sense of humor. 

The famous satiric illustrator Cruikshank a century ago in his 
picture "Monster Discovered by the Orang-utans" endeavored 
to show how queer man must look to them. Hooton, not being 
blessed with the anthropocentric view of most academics and 
other humans, who are "so inordinately sensitive about them- 
selves as animal organisms", does not hesitate to express the 
embarrassment of a more primitive simian in looking upon his 
contemporaries. "If you were respectable anthropoid apes, 
catching your first glimpse of a specimen of man, your modesty 
would be shocked by the spectacle of his obscene nakedness." 

As Hooton with tact and erudition makes us acquainted with 
our ancestors over a period of some sixty million years, his 
caustic debunking leads us to doubt the value of some of our 
present myths in which we believe so devoutly. Looking at 
"irrepressibly noisy and babbling type of ape" which has now 
become man, Hooton is more impressed by his past biological 
accomplishment than by some of his present behavior. 


In Apes, Men, and Morons, Putnam, 1937, Hooton brings to- 
gether addresses that have been tried out on the graduates of our 



universities and proved good. Some of these were quoted so 
extensively in our last edition, that it was practically an anthol- 
ogy of Hooton's anthropological quips, epigrams, and aphor- 
isms. But here the whole has been worked over and fused. The 
concoction will prove good for a sluggish liver and may start 
something higher up. It is especially prescribed for teachers and 
preachers. His writing is virile, colorful and irritating. 

This is a brilliantly baffling book for the reviewer. Some touch 
only upon a single chapter. Others confine themselves to caustic 
quotations. For Hooton can naively utter a truism so that it 
stings, as when he tells us "The United States indubitably leads 
the world" in "dentistry and plumbing", or reminds us "Fe- 
males, after attaining a certain age, become almost immortal". 
His hatred of bunk has been misinterpreted by some of his re- 
viewers, one of whom speaks of him as "a calamity howler", 
another "a misanthropic disciple of Nietzsche" who jibes at 
democracy as "making the world safe for morons". 


While Yerkes has gone back to his ancestors, Hooton still 
lives among the morons. His quick and untrammeled mind con- 
stantly brings into incongruous juxtaposition neglected facts 
which produce in us morons an element of surprise. This on his 
part is apparently so unstudied and so unconscious that he is in 
great demand as a speaker of wit and humor. In his "relectant 
addresses publicly delivered at the instigation of persons or 
organizations whose requests I dared not refuse" he naively but 
dramatically uncovers the obvious so that he has become one of 
the most quoted savants. 

Like the fundamentalist divines of a former generation, 
Hooton holds his audience by lambasting them and they like it. 
He tells them: "Now I really do not think that there is any 
peculiar virtue in the attempt to save man by science, nor do I 
yearn to be a saviour. But it does seem that an animal which has 
hoisted himself to human stutus by his own non-existent boot- 
straps ought not to be allowed to let himself down again through 
ignorance of the methods employed in his own original uplift." 


Myopically Hooton is pessimistic, hypermetropically he is 
optimistic. He so loves mankind that he would be willing to 
destroy three quarters of them to improve the rest. His sever est 
charge is that mankind "preserves the worst of his kind" and 
"destroys the best". "It is difficult to reconcile man's incessant 
concern over his social condition and his spiritual well-being 
with the apathy which he manifests toward his biological status. 
. . He has tried to improve everything except himself. 


"Dictators want teeming populations composed mainly of 
weak-minded individuals whom they may use for cannon fodder. 
The quality which someone has called sheep-through-the-gap- 
ishness is the essential characteristic upon which despotic rulers 
build their dominance, whether it be in labor organizations, or 
in political parties, or in the church." 


"So we come back to our single substantial hope which is that 
we may provide a sufficient smattering of education in human 
biology to induce these more promising juveniles to educate 
themselves to a point where they may know how to save the 
species and may proceed to do it. This of course brings me 
around to the subject of education, the supposed bulwark of 
civilization and the perenially regurgitated cud of fusty peda- 
gogues such as I. . ." 

The accepted idea is that "in the relatively recent past man 
came into being ... as a super-animal endowed with the unique 
possession of a soul and a creative intelligence. . . So far as man 
falls short of biological perfection nothing can be done about it 
. . . Man's departure from ideal social behavior is due to sheer 
spiritual cussedness ... or to defective intelligence. 

"So we have the soul doctor . . . and the educationalist to 
stuff into all immature individuals the knowledge accumulated 
from a few thousands of years of recorded human experience." 

As an anthropologist he accepts his full responsibility and 
says, "We must improve man before we can perfect his institu- 
tions". Modestly he leaves our economic situation to the econo- 
mists. And he has scorn for the social tinkerers. 

"The ingenuity of social technicians has been expended upon 
the fabrication of really very clever and complicated institu- 
tions, which mechanically and theoretically are well-nigh per- 
fect, but which do not work. . . This breakdown ... is due to 
the fact that the responsible elements in society are ignorant of 
the biological basis of human activity as the fundamental ele- 
ment in the social situation." 

"That part of the younger generation which is lucky enough 
to possess a modicum of mental endowment will have to be 
taught the importance of tackling this problem, before their 
skulls and their brains become completely ossified by advancing 
years and the stultifying effect of miseducation. . . 

"All of the educational steps are strewn with the frustrated, 
including the topmost. In the course of the twelve or sixteen 
years of schooling of the individual, we have probably not 
succeeded in improving his mind but only in testing his survival 
ability under educational selection." 


Man is not fundamentally stupid. Twenty-five thousand 
years ago Cro-Magnon man had as great a cranial capacity as 
today, as many brain cells. And since that time every man has 
been born into the world with approximately the same number 
of millions of brain cells, all that he will ever have. 


Oscar Riddle, biologist at the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington, writes, "As a student of life-science and the background 
of man, I am convinced that by nature man is more thoughtful 
than we now are. . . The primitive savage is kept constantly 
alert by ever-present danger. He is constantly thinking about 
the meaning of what he sees and hears. His life and the con- 
tinued existence of his tribe depend largely upon his quick and 
correct interpretation of sights and sounds and upon a sure and 
ready use of whatever his environment offers for his advantage. 

"Civilization and sheltered childhood have removed many a 
stimulus to thought, and few things in the training of the citizen 
now seem more important than getting him back to the primi- 
tive habit of thinking constantly and effectively." 

Freed from the stress of life in the open, in contact with 
nature, the belief of civilized man, especially the urban dweller, 
is largely automatic. He does not use his brain. His information 
is prepared for him by textbook makers and other propaganda 
agencies. For some thousands of years the game of those who 
rule is to fool him. They plan his education that way. 

Early man was obliged for survival to be scientific, and to 
give his young a scientific education. What do we mean by that? 
Use of the senses in accurate observation, elimination of error 
so far as might be possible. Error in observation meant failure, 
death from the charging mammoth, or starvation from failure 
to bring him down. 

Few of us have any occasion for such alertness or agility 
today as those naked men, with only chipped stone for weapons 
and implements, had in overcoming great and savage beasts for 


Twenty-seven years ago, Franz Boas, professor of anthropol- 
ogy at Columbia, announced that the mind of primitive man 
was as good as ours. Now in a complete new edition The Mind 
of Primitive Man, Macmillan, 1938, with much new material, 
he still maintains his original thesis. "There is no fundamental 



difference in the way of thinking of primitive and civilized man." 
And then he proceeds to show that the mind of man today is still 

"We must bear in mind that none of these civilizations was 
the product of the genius of a single people. Ideas and inventions 
were carried from one to the other. . . When we recognize that 
neither among civilized nor among primitive men the average 
individual carries to completion the attempt at casual explana- 
tion of phenomena, but only so far as to amalgamate it with 
other previous knowledge, we recognize that the result of the 
whole process depends entirely upon the character of the tradi- 
tional material." 

Myth, folklore, tabu control the primitive mind Boas makes 
abundantly dear. "The difference in the mode of thought of 
primitive man and that of civilized man seems to consist largely 
in the difference of character of the traditional material with 
which the new perception associates itself. . . We are only too 
apt, however, to forget entirely the general, and for most of us 
purely traditional, theoretical basis which is the foundation of 
our reasoning, and to assume that the result of our reasoning is 
absolute truth. . . 

"In the history of civilization, reasoning becomes more and 
more logical, not because each individual carries out his thought 
in a more logical manner, but because the traditional material 
which is handed down to each individual has been thought out 
and worked out more thoroughly and more carefully. While in 
primitive civilization the traditional material is doubted and 
examined by only a very few individuals, the number of thinkers 
who try to free themselves from the fetters of tradition in- 
creases as civilization advances. . . 

"There is an undoubted tendency in the advance of civiliza- 
tion to eliminate traditional elements, and to gain a dearer 
insight into the hypothetical basis of our reasoning. . . The 
confusion of the popular mind by the modern theories of rela- 
tivity, of matter, of casualty shows how profoundly we are 
influenced by ill understood theories." 

Boas does not agree with Porteus that there is a racial basis of 
intelligence. In his Primitive Intelligence and Environment, 
Macmillan, 1937, S. D. Porteus tells of his travels all over the 
world under a grant of the Carnegie Corporation. He has made 
an interesting travel book of his experiences in central Australia 
and the Kalahari Desert. With him he took his test material for 
the I. Q. and Porteus Maze Test, trying them out on primitive 


tribes. He finds the Australian aborigines have more intelli- 
gence in some ways than the Bushmen, but the latter are better 
artists. These differences he relates to environmental influences. 
These results, presented tentatively and somewhat apolo- 
getically, are a corrective of the "race levellers" who claim "that 
no real evidence of racial differences in mentality has yet been 
presented", but he adds, "Environment has some influence 
upon all of a man's reactions whether it be the crimes he com- 
mits, the benefactions he makes or his mental test responses". 


The story of "How Man Invented His Way to Civilization", 
of how necessity and changing conditions stimulated the activity 
of hand and mind, so that he found new ways, new methods, 
new tools and new explanations, is the subject of The Conquest 
of Culture, Greenberg, 1938, by M. D. C. Crawford. 

There are many books dealing with the history of culture, but 
Crawford brings to his volume much new material organized 
with clarity. His knowledge of his subject and its literature is 
unusually complete, his horizons wide, his vision undimmed. 
There is a 'truth shall make you free* purpose behind his writing. 

Man's history is a record not only of his contest with nature 
but of how, out of the confusion that arose from his social rela- 
tions with his fellows, and from the explanations of the mys- 
teries about him inherited from his ancestors, he has come to his 
present status. The successive advances and retreats of the Ice 
Sheet after man had occupied Europe, were a challenge, a stimu- 
lus, and led to adaptations and progress. 


It was a great mechanical discovery when ape man first 
learned that he could use the cutting edge of a flint. Successive 
steps in the discovery of the properties of matter and the me- 
chanical use of materials have brought us to the hydro-electric 
plant. We call that physics. It was the beginning of the control 
of molecular change, chemistry, when man first learned to 
master fire, to utilize the heat given off in a chemical reaction. 
That has brought us all the way through the synthesis of new 
organic compounds to the splitting of the atom. 

The story of man's industries, agriculture, weaving, pottery, 
is here interestingly told with a wealth of human material from 
the most recent researches. There are many high spots, among 
them the interesting account of the discovery of cotton in two 
worlds, the development of the art of weaving, and the utiliza- 
tion of wool, silk, and flax, traces of which have been found as 
early as 5000 B.C. To the Indian agriculturists of the Americas 
we owe the discovery, domestication and utilization of some 


forty plants, most of which now are of the highest world utility. 
Invention was not confined to physical things. Invention was 
more alive in the immaterial world. The devil was an invention, 
an attempt to explain, and this, too, is part of the story of the 
development of man's culture. 


Man has always been quick to adopt new tools and gadgets. 
Bronze was better than flint, iron and steel still better. Such 
things are easily demonstrated. But for all his "social inventions, 
once accepted, man has a strange, often a passionate fondness, 
since they more often involve his emotions than his intellect", 
says Crawford. "He will fight fiercely and endure bravely for a 
law or a custom about which he knows little or nothing and 
which has perhaps been a terrible burden to him. But he will 
discard an old and faithful tool in place of a better one without 
a moment's hesitation of sentimentality. . . 

"Man had invented both the machines and the legal systems 
that prevented the most fruitful use of the machines. The 
machines he constantly changed; the laws he held, by some 
strange confusion of mind, to be perfect and unchangeable. 
Society was self -shackled by the shadows of its own creations. . . 

"Our society for two thousand years has developed only one 
escape for its surplus mechanical energy. This escape is the 
ancient hag of war. . . 

"Suppose one-half or one-quarter of the true costs of the last 
war and its aftermath had been spent intelligently in plans to 
improve the world, clean out pest holes, lead water to deserts, 
destroy slums and spread education and create beauty spots 
and give to leisure a fruitful direction. Would the world today 
be armed against itself? . . . 

"We can find little hope in institutions; only in the individ- 
ual's processes of thought." Man's effort today is to destroy. 
The greater part of his labor goes to pay for past and prepare 
for future wars. 

It is the social lag, the persistence of old and dead ideas and 
explanations, valuable when invented, but now preserved as 
sacred. It takes brave, bold, dear seeing men to speak out, to 
destroy, to clear the way. 


Civilization, its nature and basis, has been the subject of 
many reviews in this Handbook. Clive Bell and J. H. Denison 
dilated on the basis of civilization (cf i3th ed., pp. 39, 40). 
Spengler distinguished a cycle of fifteen hundred years (cf. nth 
ed., pp. 53, 54). Sorokin counted eight major cycles of fluctua- 
tions of his 'insensate' classification. With the coming of the new 
relativity and semantics, and the passing of the old Aristotelian 
idea of identities, all this becomes obsolete and archaic. 


Toynbee in his "Study of History" (cf. igth ed., pp. 74-76), 
to run to thirteen volumes, describes five great recent and 
current civilizations and through time distinguishes from primi- 
tive societies twenty-one civilizations. And as our knowledge 
increases, the number of cultures or civilizations becomes 

The Mexican artist, Miguel Covarrubias, in his Island of 
Bali, Knopf, IQ37, is impressed with the culture of the people, 
of Hindu and indigenous elements. All enter into the art as a 
natural, unsegregated phase of their culture. It is significant 
that there is no word in the language for 'artist* who is always 
"an amateur, casual and anonymous", his work "an expression 
of collective thought ... his only aim is to serve his com- 


But there are lost civilizations, variants of cultures that ema- 
nated from India. Toward Angkor, In The Footsteps of the 
Indian Invaders, George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd., London, 1937, 
is by H. G. Quaritch Wales, author of "Siamese State Cere- 
monies". Financed by the Greater-India Research Committee, 
of which Rabindranath Tagore is a member, and under the 
patronage of the Maharaja Gaekwar of Baroda, Dr. Wales after 
service in Siam and a thorough grounding in Hindu and Budd- 
hist civilizations, undertook two archaeological expeditions from 
1934 to 1936 which revealed the routes of trade along which the 
culture of India and her Empire was extended from the first to 
the thirteenth century into Indo-China, Java, and Bali. 

From the time of Sir Thomas Raffles, Governor of Java during 
the Napoleonic period, the white man in the jungles of the 
Malay Peninsula, Java, Indo-China, has been coming upon 
carved stone, Buddhas and Indian images, which have aroused 
his wonder and amazement. For half a century after Mouhot 



first found the gigantic monuments of Angkor amid the jungle, 
white men in their ignorance have repeated awesome, mysterious 
stories to account for its origin. Now from India itself has come 
the inspiration to follow the paths by which Indian culture, 
during and after the Buddhist period, was carried eastward and 
how as a result of its grafting on Malay or Mongolian stock, 
there grew up great empires, each with its own culture and art 
monuments. In Burma we have the thirteenth century brick 
city of Pagan, covering sixteen square miles. In Indo-China 
successive empires of Fu-Nan culture are now known. 

Successive influences from India, Gupta, Palava, Chelukya 
sent forth waves of culture across the Malay Peninsula into 
Indo-China and Java. Wales and his wife, tracing the abandoned 
trade routes through the jungles, finding a ruin here, an image 
among tree roots there, have, with the aid of scholars who know 
the Chinese and Arabian classic tales of travel, reconstructed 
the history of this expansion. Mightiest of all was the Sailendra 
Empire, whose base was on the Malay Peninsula. It penetrated 
into Indo-China and Java, and maintained diplomatic relations 
and trade with China and the Arabs. Borobodur, built between 
800 and 1200 A.D., is its greatest monument. The last of these 
great civilizations, largely indigenous, was that of the Khmer 
which climaxed at Angkor. 


America's Yesterday, by F. Martin Brown, Lippincott, 1937, 
is a brave first attempt to present a coordinated picture of the 
pre-Columbian peoples of both North and South America. 
Much of our knowledge is very recent and as yet it is incom- 
plete and difficult to interpret. The pieces are put together jig- 
saw puzzle style, revealing many still lacking. In no other one 
volume can we find so comprehensive an account of the peoples 
of America from Alaska to Patagonia. It is especially valuable 
for what it tells us of the tribes and cultures of Central America 
and the peoples of South America, the Basket Makers and the 
Mound Builders. 

Of the great civilizations of the Americas, with individual 
cultures, the author identifies the Inca state as communistic 
under a dictator, the Aztecs as fascist, the Pueblos as demo- 
cratic, the Mayas as oligarchic. In almost any society studied, 
anthropologists distinguish all these elements of cooperation 
and competition in varying degrees in each culture or society. 


At the opening of the century we knew almost nothing of the 
great Cretan civilization, and the Hittites were little more than 
a name in the Old Testament. Now, thanks to the spade of the 


archeologist, we know these to have been two great and vigorous 
civilizations. Crete flourished for three thousand years or more, 
the Hittite flowered more briefly. 

Stanley Casson, brilliant young English archeologist and 
classicist, has been digging among these destroyed cities of the 
Near East. Two years ago he delighted us with an able survey of 
"The Progress of Archeology" (cf. 2oth ed., p. 145). Now, in 
Progress and Catastrophe, Harpers, 1937, he is impressed with 
the destruction, with the sudden catastrophe that overwhelmed 
these ancient cities he has studied. 

He comes back to London and Paris and finds them ideally 
set for destruction. He contrasts them with Byzantium, which 
lasted for twelve hundred years, with Cnossus, which lasted 
twice as long, with Hattosas of the Hittites, which lasted but for 
a short time. And he shows how much easier it is today with our 
modern weapons of destruction to completely wipe out a city 
or a civilization than it was in the days of the Cretans and the 

The Cretan civilization had reached a more modern stage 
than the Babylonian or Egyptian one where "man could live 
the good life without the constraint of a theocracy and could 
select a place for its development which made defensive war- 
fare unnecessary". 


"Historical analogies are usually foolish and always danger- 
ous", Casson says, but "contemporary conditions suggest the 
reappearance of retrogressive forces." He believes that our 
present civilization has passed its prime and we are now under- 
going such a period of slow decay as did the Roman civilization, 
as reflected in the letters of Sidonius (430-487 A.D.), a Christian 
bishop who lived at Arverna, now Clermont in Central France. 
An edition of these letters, translated by O. M. Dalton, was 
published by the Clarendon Press, 1915. Sidonius reflects the 
conditions of his time without any understanding of what was 
happening. The slow infiltration of crude barbarians, the grad- 
ual decline of the culture for which he stood, filled him with 
horror and loathing. He shut himself off from the world about 
him, but kept up an active correspondence with cultured people 
like himself, carping about the changes that were going on, with- 
out comprehending their significance. When Arverna was 
captured by the Goths, he was imprisoned, but later restored to 
his bishopric. 

Casson sees here the same state of affairs, as among the cul- 
tured and conservative people of today. He writes: 

"Now they find life more amenable shut up in the confines of 
their own libraries, where the outer world regards them as harm- 


less cranks unable fortunately to affect the general course of 
affairs, which are more satisfactorily run by ruthless men who 
are not worried by the logical necessity of liberty, justice or 
freedom of speech, those outworn shibboleths of a pedantic 
world. . . In America President Roosevelt saw the advantages 
of making the theorisers come down to earth and help adminis- 
tration. In France there are politicians of merit who began life 
as professors. But in England politicians seem to have been 
politicians from birth, with Personal Advancement as their 
fairy godmother." 


The most complete presentation of a people in decline, their 
mores, thought, activities, ideals, aims, purpose in life, is pre- 
sented in Jules Remains' monumental "Men of Good Will", the 
fourteenth volume of which brings the story up to the beginning 
of 1914. Here you see the people of France living their diverse 
lives just as if you had taken the roofs off and could see into 
their hearts and skulls over a period of years. It is a dispassionate 
presentation of some hundreds of typical personalities of every 
social station, with innumerable motivations, all moving toward 
inevitable debacle. 

Struthers Burt made a reconnaissance of the people of New 
England along the coast in the summer of 1935 and reported on 
his anthropological and psychological survey in Scribner's, March, 
1936. He found an aristocracy living in the past, longing for its 
return, oblivious to changes that had already taken place. 


The study of whence came our current intellectual and social 
attitudes has been neglected. But it was this that Francis Bacon 
had in mind in planning "a just and universal history of learn- 
ing", that should describe the origin and progress of the arts and 
sciences, their decline and rebirth, the revolutions of thought 
and their causes. 


Until the late nineties we took civilization as a matter of 
course. Were we not the flower of God's effort, and did we not 
stand at the apex of evolution and history? Edward Carpenter 
first made the late Victorians a bit self-conscious with his 
"Civilization, Its Cause and Cure". But they took it as a joke. 
Post-war pessimism brought genuine doubts as to the value of 
our civilization, voiced in Freud's "Our Misfit Civilization" (cf . 
i4th ed., p. 60) and "Civilization and Its Discontents" (cf. i$th 
ed., p. 72). 

'Our civilization may be destroyed in the next war' has become 
a bromide. Just what we mean by 'our civilization' we seldom 
analyze. Our ideas about it are rather fuzzy. What we would 
miss most is those patterns of behavior to which we are accus- 
tomed and which we sanctify under names like 'law and order', 
'democracy', and Christiantity. All that could be 'destroyed' 
we have acquired in the last two thousand years through Rome 
and Greece from the East. We Western Europeans would all 
regard our progenitors of two thousand years ago as barbarians. 
The more effete of us might prefer such cultivated modes of 
behavior as prevailed in India during Asoka's time or among the 
Mandarins in China during the Sung dynasty. 


There could be no interest in the history of the intellect when 
we believed that all knowledge and wisdom was of God. Draper 
and Lecky in mid- Victorian times were the first to make ade- 
quate attempts to untangle the skein of our woolly beliefs. Now 
Harry Elmer Barnes makes a much needed advance in An In- 
tellectural and Cultural History of the Western World, Random 
House, 1937. It is a whale of a book, a colossal mappa mundi of 
the human mind, not merely a historical panorama, but a guide 
to our present day mental content, a help toward understanding 
what lies about us and ahead. 

Barnes is a synthesis! who attempts to see things as a whole. 
His inspiration as always is James Harvey Robinson. He does 



not hesitate to lay himself open to criticism in his fearless inter- 
pretations. The analytical academic historian divides history 
into minute fields for intensive study. No fair academic can deny 
that Barnes is an indefatigable scholarly organizer of neglected 
historical material. But praise will hardly come from those 
whose territory he has ruthlessly not merely invaded, but con- 
queringly marched across, possessing himself of the treasures 
they had overlooked. 


This Barnes is a prolific phenomenon. Some call him brilliant 
but superficial. Two years ago he gave us "The History of 
Western Civilization" (cf. 20th ed., pp. 121-123). His recent 
product is prodigious. Social Thought from. Lore to Science, 
Heath, 1938, in collaboration with Howard Becker, consists of 
two volumes, "A History and Interpretation of Man's Ideas 
About Life With His Fellows" and "Sociological Trends 
Throughout the World". 

In An Economic History of the Western World, Harcourt, 
Brace, 1937, Barnes tells the story of how man has provided for 
his daily needs from the stone age to the present. Narrative, 
concise, comprehensible, neither orthodox nor radical, he shows 
us fundamental economic forces at work through thousands of 
years of man's history. With amazingly scholarly grasp of eco- 
nomic relationships, he simplifies and clarifies an encyclopedic 
mass of erudition. His talent for organizing bewildering material 
makes this informing and stimulating treatise the best possible 
antidote to the traditional histories which ignore or avoid funda- 
mental relationships. No theorist seeking proofs, he organizes 
facts to speak for themselves in a way that will make the usual 
conservative who has lived on mythology and tradition squirm. 

Except for those committed to communism or conservatism, 
who are bitterly disappointed, those competent to review write 
in unstinted praise. R. K. Lamb in The Nation writes, "The 
materials he presents are assertions, most of them out of the 
mouths of others; these are not usually well related one to 
another". Crane Brinton in The Saturday Review of Literature 
says, "He is careful about establishing his facts, and his range 
among facts is encyclopedic". Brinton sneers that he is writing 
"sociology rather than history", that "emotions arrange facts". 
That Barnes gives half his book to contemporary society is not 
in accordance with the academic pattern. His liberalism, one of 
a half dozen kinds, is "individual and strongly optimistic". 


A History of Historical Writing, by Harry Elmer Barnes, Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma Press, 1937, the author asserts "is the only 


book of its kind in any language", on the ways in which history 
has been written and the theories or philosophies of historical 
writing. The development of pre-literary history and the mastery 
of the art of writing, the development of a calendar and chronol- 
ogy are followed by chapters on the historical writings of the 
Greeks and Romans, the early Christians, the Middle Ages, 
Humanism, the Reformation. The beginnings of the philosophy 
of history, the recent trends of Croce, Spengler, and Earth, and 
the influence of liberalism and nationalism on historical writing, 
are expounded. "The Rise of Critical Historical Scholarship" in 
the 1 8th century is followed in England, Germany, France, and 
America, through to the World War. This takes us through the 
first half of the book. 

"The Fall and Rise of Historical Scholarship" tells of the 
influence of the World War in debasing the critical faculties of 
most historians, and how the few who stood stoutly for truth 
were subjected to persecution and invective. During this war 
hysteria, Barnes, just out of college, was an enthusiastic writer 
of pro-war propaganda for the Creel bureau, helping to get us 
into the war. It is perhaps because of his desire to atone that he 
so painstakingly analyzes what happened to the best historical 
minds in this period of hysteria. 

The last hundred pages and more are given to the broadening 
perspective of the historian, to the "History of Culture", the 
"Sciences of Man" and "The New History". Here we deal with 
archeology, anthropology, the history of science, of technology, 
economic history, social history. The new history has achieved 
its triumph. It has opened up a new method, new fields. He tells 
us about the training necessary for it. 

Barnes is a free man who can look facts in the face without 
regard to visiting committees, overseers, trustees, who exert so 
powerful an influence in intimidating most academic historians. 
He would be the last to claim that his work was final, but it is a 
step in advance. Let others who follow do better. They should, 
but they will have to work with a broad knowledge and some- 
thing better than a judicial mind to accomplish it. 


"The mere upkeep of our present complicated culture must 
depend upon a very trifling percentage of the population", 
James Harvey Robinson is quoted in "Wise Man's Burden", 
Current History, January, 1038, by Joseph Jastrow, who adds, 
"A saving remnant maintains civilization; the rest, competently 
though they do their bit, are but worthy camp-followers." 


"Under the humanitarian code, many are born unfit to cope 
with the exactions of competitive civilized life, but are main- 
tained by a sentiment that finds its justification elsewhere. 
Constitutionally unable to make the grade, the weak become a 
burden upon the strong. . . If every metropolis segregated its 
dismal City of Deficiency, as does in part the social geography 
of New York harbor . . . the burden-bearers would be more 
cognizant of their burden . . . 

"If New York may be accepted as a 10 per cent sample of the 
United States, the total 'insane' population in public institu- 
tions . . . would number about 700,000 . . . Only 400,000 are re- 
ported as in institutions . . . The insane equal in number the 
student population of the 175 universities and colleges of the 
land with an attendance of looo or more . . . One person in 22 
in New York State, and one in 18 in New York City, may be 
expected to develop mental disorder at some time in life 
though not for life." Dr. Horatio M. Pollock "has computed the 
economic loss in earnings of the mentally afflicted in New York 
State for 1037 to be $1,000,000,000, $10,000,000,000 for the 
United States." 


If the inferior continue to breed and the superior to sterilize 
themselves, "the weak will inhabit so much of the earth as re- 
mains". At present this country has about four in every thous- 
and "mentally deficient", Jastrow remainds us. "If the lower 
moronic grade be included, at least i per cent of the population 
is mentally defective, in the clinical-social sense that they can- 
not 'manage their affairs with ordinary prudence'." 

Above them we have the 'dullards'. "The feeble minded . . . 
at least are not an active menace to society, except as they re- 
produce their kind . . . Hence the dismal warning of Professor 
Hooton in 'Apes, Men and Morons': 'Society faces the im- 
mediate prospect of domination by quick-breeding dullards. 



" 'Modern man is selling his biological birthright for a mess of 
morons' ... Of 8000 delinquent children appearing in a juvenile 
court of New York City, only 20 per cent had normal or better 
I. Q.'s . . . 50 per cent of the Sing Sing inmates are under 25 and 
80 per cent under 30 years of age. 'We Americans', says Dean 
Roscoe Pound, 'have more crime per capita than the British for 
the same reason that we have more automobiles, more tele- 
phones, more ton-miles of freight moving, more horse-power of 
electric energy per capita'." 

Dr. Norman E. Himes' Medical History of Contraception, 
Williams and Wilkins, 1936, tracing the practice from pre- 
historic times to the present, prophesies that the intelligence of 
the American population will decline five to eight per cent in the 
next two hundred years, if the present dysgenic trends continue. 
He advocates (1938) that the cost of one battleship, $100,000,- 
ooo, be put into a ten-year biological-sociological survey of 
human resources in the United States, that we may make a 
biological plan for our future population. 


Only one-tenth of one percent of our people are advancing 
civilization. Only thirty thousand are engaged in discovering 
the truth in research in science or engineering. For the world the 
percentage is much smaller. The vast majority of us are para- 
sitic on this trifling percentage, for it is cranks that make the 
world go round. It is the geniuses that inspire. 

"The present world owes no normal civilized person anything. 
On the contrary, every modern man and particularly every 
really educated and physically normal person is under un- 
payable and overwhelming debt to a few exceptional and crea- 
tive men who have in effect transformed a world and with it 
literally created modern man." (Oscar Riddle). 

"All 'material' progress among humans is due uniquely to the 
brain-work of a few mostly underpaid and overworked workers, 
who exercise properly their higher nervous centers," writes 
Korzybski in "Science and Sanity". 

"In the Soviet Union, where the social importance of science 
seems to be especially appreciated, it is reported that the funds 
made available for the development and prosecution of scientific 
studies is relatively greater than in any other country of the 
world", says Dr. Walter Cannon, and he quotes Pavlov, 1938: 

"Only science, exact science about human nature itself, and 
the most sincere approach to it by the aid of the omnipotent 
scientific method, will deliver man from the existing darkness, 
and will purge him from his shame in inter-human relations." 


"The golf links lie so near the mill 

That almost every day 
The laboring children can look out 
And see the men at play." 

This is Sarah Cleghorne's brief but vivid picture of twentieth 
century society. Vaughan Wilkins' "And So Victoria" pictures 
these children a hundred years ago deep in coal mines, or in a 
mill that had no such beautiful scene from the window, only 
slag heaps. The men would have been carousing at the inn or 
using a strap on the laboring children, (cf. Hansard). A few 
centuries earlier the men would have been in armor, ahorse, 
picking along the road, the children sniveling at the door of a 
hut. The social scene does change. 

The vast majority of men are more or less content with their 
lot. Like their ancestors they will go on salting the earth with 
their bones, unheeding. The solid citizen always endeavors to 
keep the boat from rocking. But in spite of their best efforts 
there are trouble makers, those dissatisfied with our social 
system. There have always been such, but in spite of, or perhaps 
because of, red hunts, political persecutions, protective arrests, 
detention camps, and barbed wire, the numbers increase. There 
are always those who fancy they see something ahead for which 
they reach or agitate. 


The story of our social system is quickly told. It is a slave 
system, as so many including Machin have clearly shown. 
Aristotle believed that slavery must be the basis of all civiliza- 
tion. The first civilizations of Mesopotamia go back perhaps ten 
thousand years, slave civilizations surrounded by barbaric herds- 
men and hunters. America, Australia, Central Asia, most of 
Africa continued up to recent time in this primitive state, while 
slave civilizations developed in the valleys of the fertile crescent. 
Greece and Rome remained slave civilizations throughout. All 
of Europe continued to be a serf civilization till within a few 
hundred years, and Eastern Europe till within recent time. 

We have come far, and there are those who doubt that 
"slavery exists by the law of nature". But it is only a hundred 
years since the anti-slavery movement began in England. As 
late as 1831 in Pennsylvania towns white men, indentured ser- 
vants, were sold, shackled and branded, and runaways adver- 
tised. Our ancestors two thousand years ago were^barbarians. 
Some of them as Roman slaves acquired some knowledge of 



civilization. The Negro more recently in the last few centuries 
in the same way through slavery has acquired civilization. 

What we call our 'social system' is the result of the behavior 
of a great number over a long period of time. The larger phases 
of this seen through history we call 'civilization'. Gustavus 
Myers, thirty years ago, wrote about the behavior of some of the 
more potent members of our current society and how they ac- 
quired wealth. His books have become classic, used even in the 
great universities. 

. "It is obvious that in both past and present times the chief 
beneficiaries of our social and industrial system have found it to 
their interest to represent their accumulations as the rewards of 
industry and ability, and have likewise had the strongest mo- 
tives for concealing the circumstances of all those devious 
methods which have been used in building up great fortunes . . . 
"While it is true that the methods employed by these very 
rich men have been, and are, fraudulent, it is also true that they 
are but the more conspicuous types of a whole class which, in 
varying degrees, has used precisely the same methods, and the 
collective fortunes and power of which have been derived from 
identically the same sources." 


The older forms of physical slavery are pretty well a thing of 
the past, though we hear of wage slaves and we know that few 
of us are economically free. We like to believe that we have 
achieved 'political freedom', 'equality', and 'democracy'. But 
intellectually the great mass of us are still slaves to inherited 
beliefs, to prevailing myths, to customs, mores, tabus, in- 
herited from a dead past. 

"Organizations always tend to assume the characters given 
to them by popular mythology", writes Thurman Arnold in 
"The Folklore of Capitalism". "Probably the only way in which 
mythologies actually change is through the rise to power of a 
new class whose traditional heroes are of a different mold. . . At 
first it is looked down on. Gradually it accumulates a mythology 
and a creed. Finally all searchers for universal truth, all 
scholars, all priests (except, of course, unsound radicals), all 
educational institutions of standing, are found supporting 
that class and everyone feels that the search for legal and eco- 
nomic truth has reached a successful termination." 

" 'Mythology', 'theology' and 'philosophy' are different terms 
for the same influences which shape the current of human 
thought, and which determine the character of the attempts of 
man to explain the phenomena of nature, writes Franz Boas in 
"The Primitive Mind". "Herein lies the immense importance of 
folk-lore in determining the mode of thought. Herein lies par tic- 


ularly the enormous influence of current philosophic opinion 
upon the masses of the people, and the influence of the dominant 
scientific theory upon the character of scientific work." 


All animal life is parasitic, dependent on the green of the grass, 
the chlorophyl which can directly utilize the energy of the sun. 
Out of this primitive urge for food, with the abundance the 
earth affords, man has created an art. And the epicure, to 
satisfy his taste for fine wines and good cookery, must have 

At Yale there is a man, C. C. Furnas, Associate Professor of 
Chemical Engineering, who two years ago in this Handbook 
showed us how to look ahead "The Next Hundred Years", (cf. 
2oth ed., pp. 132, 133) to look over the unfinished business of 
science. It was a whale of a book, written in corking style. 

With the aid of his wife he has now turned to the one great 
interest of man, food. Something of this is in the title, Man, 
Bread and Destiny, Reynal & Hitchcock, 1037, written in the 
same crisp, scintillating, pungent manner resulting from an 
active brain that fairly decrepitates with electrical discharges. 
With wit, wisdom, and infectious enthusiasm , he deals with food, 
its chemistry, customs, substitutions, tabus. And for food al- 
most everything has been used. Where populations are dense, 
tabus count for less in the face of starvation, 4 'A man must 
eat". "Freud to the contrary, the Great Motivator of the human 
race has been the empty stomach." 

Logan Clendening in his new edition of The Human Body, 
Knopf, 1937, quoted by Menninger, writes: 

"When a man is no longer under the grinding necessity of 
acquiring food for his next meal, he will turn to other things 
to the operations of the stock exchange, to politics, racehorses, 
or the gathering of first editions. When a woman no longer needs 
to exert any mystical fascination of limb or lip to capture a 
sugar-broker, she turns to lyric poetry or dyspepsia. But in none 
of the variegated depravities of the mind or soul the plan of 
the battle of Austerlitz, the Fifth Symphony, the ritual of the 
Holy Communion, the belfry tower at Bruges, the organization 
of the Standard Oil Company, the 'Ode on a Grecian Urn', or 
Rob Hasel ton's collection of postage stamps can I discern any- 
thing but a weak disguise either of the means to acquire food 
and shelter that they may be converted into energy and tissue, 
or of the means to acquire a mate in order that another indi- 
vidual may be reproduced." 

But the hunger incentive, the fear of lack of food to sustain 


life, is still a driving force in our civilization with the great mass 
of humans. It is this hunger incentive that holds the masses to 
uncongenial labor that they may have food to survive and 
propagate their kind, for survival values are determined in our 
social system by starvation as among primitive man. But star- 
vation includes lack of even other things than food. More is 
needed in a densely populated city. 

If you can earn more than $1000 a year, you have twice the 
chance of living. Josephine Roche, Assistant Secretary of the 
Treasury, speaking before the National Health Association, 
October, 1937, said that, from the ten major diseases causing 
three out of four deaths in the United States, the death rate of 
40 to 50 million Americans living on less than $1000 a year was 
twice that of the rest of the population. But Southern tenant 
farmers seldom have incomes of even $500 or $600 per family. 

"In the past twenty-five years, 375,000 of our women are 
known to have died to bring the world new life. This is a greater 
number than that of all the men killed in all our wars since the 
Declaration of Independence." But Paul de Kruif, from whose 
The Fight for Life, Harcourt, Brace, 1938, this is quoted, shows 
that this is entirely unnecessary. The theme of his book is that 
life is a matter of income, the wherewithal to stave off death. 


All our wealth is derived from the soil, that is, through labor 
on the surface of the earth or in mines below, or atmosphere 
within two miles of sea level. But from geniuses man has had to 
learn how to efficiently and effectively produce wealth. If a man 
who could make ten axes, under supervision can make twenty, 
he can afford to give up nine joyfully. 

But wealth has a tendency to accumulate in the hands of the 
acquisitive and forceful. Roscoe Lewis Ashley in "Our Con- 
temporary Civilization" (cf. 2oth ed., pp. 119, 120) reminds us 
that before the day of corporations wealth circulated; now its 
concentrations are perpetuated. "Corporate property has par- 
tially supplanted private property in this country". The Federal 
Trade Commission has shown that "six- tenths of one percent of 
the population owned forty-two and one-half per cent of all 
income-producing property and nearly sixty per cent of all the 
wealth in the United States." 

"Robert H. Jackson, Assistant Attorney General of the 
United States, . . . 'By 1933 over 53 per cent in value of all 
assets owned by corporations in this country was owned by only 
618 out of our half million corporations.' " (quoted by John 
Allen Murphy in Harpers, June, '37. 

There is an extensive literature explaining how wealth is ac- 
cumulated through selling of 'securities', stock market devices, 


whereby the lambs are shorn and wealth accumulates while men 
decay. Bernard J. Reis in False Security, The Betrayal of the 
American Investor, Equinox Cooperative Press, 1937, explains 
from the evidence brought out in suits the "wringing out", 
process by which bond buyers lose out through "the manipula- 
tions and chicanery practiced by many of the most reputable of 
our financial institutions". 

There is a tendency for wealth to accumulate, and now that 
we have the self-perpetuating, immortal corporation, the process 
is accelerated and intensified. 


Income determines social attitudes. Too little is harmful. A 
lot of sentiment is wasted, that is, it isn't effective, in deploring 
the hard fate of the great mass of people who don't have enough 
income, who don't have enough anything. 

But there is another way of looking at it. We ought to save 
the mentality of our best. Many good men, capable of great 
things, are forever spoiled, lost to the world, their abilities latent 
or perverted by too much of what in lesser quantities would be 
good. It is too bad to have a thoroughbred spoiled by letting 
him loose at the bin of oats. He eats too much and founders. 

Greed is not a pleasing quality. Those who are distended with 
gluttony are not good to look upon. The earth has yielded abun- 
dantly. The great mass of men have been stupid, weak, de- 
frauded, and a few have gorged themselves unconscionably. 
The Los Angeles Bishop asked Lincoln Steffens his cure for the 
abuses of our present social system. In reply Steffens reverted 
to the story of Eve, and suggested, "Remove the apple". 

Still, if apples are lying about, they will be appropriated and 
some will get social colic and become conspicuous nuisances. A 
decent society such as that of the white ants finds ways of 
policing and restricting such unsocial abuses. 

How careless the American people are about such matters, 
how imperfect our social organization, is shown in numerous 
books telling of abuses that went unheeded until recently. 

In The Guggenheims: The Making of an American Dynasty, 
Covici Friede, 1937, Harvey O'Connor, the man who told us 
about "Mellon's Millions", tells how the Guggenheims and 
Barney Baruch during the war took 350 million from the Ameri- 
can people, increased the market value of their copper stocks 
three to four times. This, of course, is more of an indictment of 
the intelligence of the American people than of the cupidity of 
the Guggenheims. It gives point to Henry Ford's question, 
"Why should such men as the Guggenheims be paid for ore in 
the ground in the state of nature?" 



Some of these researches and exposures are referred to as 
Muckraking' because they do not present the advantages of the 
system as well as the abuses, and so they meet with the con- 
tempt or bitter satire of supporters of our present system. 
Ferdinand Lundberg's America's 60 Families, Vanguard, 1937, 
has won this distinction. Lundberg shows the extent of inter- 
marriage among these families that have had great wealth over 
a period of three generations, making them "the living center 
of the modern industrial oligarchy which dominates the United 
States, functioning discreetly under a de-jurc democratic form 
of government behind which a de-facto government, absolutist 
and plutocratic in its lineaments, has gradually taken form 
since the Civil War." 

Lundberg's work is sensational journalism, which makes 
exciting reading. But the wealth of authorities cited, with the 
extensive quotations from them, make one realize that it is the 
facts that are sensational. Time emphasized trivialities. The 
commentators indulged in violent diatribe. I. F. Stone, editorial 
writer of the New York Post, in a review said, "Only an academic 
eunuch could cover Mr. Lundberg's subjects without passion". 
The author cites an article of Sorokin in Social Forces, May, 
1925, on American fortunes, which showed that our moneyed 
families were becoming dynastic. 

"Among millionaires of the last generation Sorokin discovered 
that 38.8 per cent had started poor whereas among living mil- 
lionaires only 19.6 per cent started life in humble circumstances. 
Of the older generation 29.7 per cent began life as millionaires 
whereas of the present generation no less than 52.7 per cent were 
independently wealthy upon attaining their majorities and 31.5 
per cent sprouted from comfortably prosperous surroundings." 


Brandeis "found that the great danger was not that these men 
owned all these resources but that they controlled them by 
means of 'other people's money' the essence of finance capi- 
talism. Such control made for recklessness of operation, since 
the very great losses that were sustained from time to time bore 
most heavily on moderately circumstanced citizens. Such con- 
trol also made possible the reaping of enormous profits by manip- 
ulation, profits in which the actual owners of property usually 
did not share. The consequences against which Brandeis specif- 
ically warned did not descend on the nation until 1929-33." 

Chief Justice Hughes' investigation of the insurance com- 
panies, he recalls, showed that $51,000 of stock, whose dividend 
amounted to Y* of i%, "gave control of $504,000,000 of assets". 



Naturally such an oligarchy of wealth is surrounded by para- 
sites' and climbers, who constitute what is called in the news- 
papers Society, with a capital <S'. The Saga of American So- 
ciety, Scribner, 1937, is by Dixon Wecter. This thirty-one year 
old professor, in a scholarly tome, attempts to give an historic 
picture of the upper crust, and in conclusion writes: 

"It has bought Old Masters, but fed few living artists. Its 
tastes in music and opera have been both timid and grandiose, 
and its patronage of literature has been negligible. Unhappily it 
forsook politics more than a century ago, though for reasons not 
wholly unselfish it longs just now to return. With generosity it 
has sometimes given to charity and education, though it has 
wasted other great sums in foolish ways. To the wisdom, good- 
ness and piety of mankind it has afforded at best an erratic and 
whimsical support. In all these ways American society has shown 
characteristic shortsightedness." 


A corrective to the persistent myth of equal opportunity for 
all will be found in Caste and Class in a Southern Town, Yale 
University Press, by John Bollard, author of "Criteria for the 
Life History". This research, carried on not without some danger 
to the investigator, reveals the system by which the Negro in- 
feriority complex is maintained, and how strictly caste and class 
lines are drawn. The study is psychological rather than eco- 
nomic. He shows how fear, hatred, and aggression have built up 
the "personality of the Negro", his habits and attitudes. 

In an interesting study of the Half-Caste, with a preface on 
prejudices by Lancelot Hogben, Martin Seeker and Warburg, 
Ltd., London, 1037, Cedric Dover shows that it is the prejudiced 
treatment of the half-caste that establishes his inferiority com- 
plex. He cites abundant anthropological studies to show that he 
is in no way inferior. He cites numerous authors, Lord Raglan, 
Toynbee. He points out that "in South Carolina a Negro popu- 
lation comprising 51 per cent of the total was only allotted n 
per cent of the educational funds". 

W'ithin our own culture there are other cultures, groups 
organized for their own self interests, with their own mythology, 
traditions, practices, moralities, language. Thurman Arnold in 
his "Folklore of Capitalism" gives us an inside view of the myth- 
ology and moralities, prevailing mores and symbols, among the 
legal lights of lower New York. 

An illuminating study of one of these parasitic cultures has 


been made by Edwin H. Sutherland, professor of sociology at 
Indiana University, in The Professional Thief, University of 
Chicago Press, 1037. It is based on discussions with and revela- 
tions written while in prison of one Chick Conwell, now dead, 
who tells how he became a thief, how he acquired the technique, 
and established the essential contacts and protection so that he 
could carry on. Sutherland has annotated, checked, and in- 
terpreted, and shown that thieves have a culture of their own 
which extends back to Elizabethan times, a language of their 
own, a code of ethics of their own. They have their own distinc- 
tive culture, skills, arts. And on the success of this, they parasi- 
tize themselves on the culture of the greater number. 

"It is practically impossible to understand an individual pro- 
fessional thief without this more general knowledge of the group 
to which he belongs. . . The culture of the underworld grows out 
of and is related to the general culture . . . our general social 

Courtney Ryley Cooper in Here's To Crime, Little, Brown, 
1937, asserts that "There are not twenty of our first class cities 
in which a non-partisan investigation would not result in a dozen 
prominent citizens being sent to jail. At least four thousand of 
our policemen would prove to have criminal records if finger- 
prints were taken." 

The "legal profession protects, clogs the courts, delays prose- 
cutions, opens prison doors, surrounds criminals with legal safe- 

Henry F. T. Rhodes, of the Institute of Criminology, Uni- 
versity of Lyons, in The Criminals We Deserve, Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1937, traces the conditions which make criminals, 
and finds the roots in our economic and social system, which 
results in mass production of criminals as of other things. "The 
revolt of the criminal against society is often born in the first 
place of nothing more than a revolt against intolerable condi- 


But within a community or within any group, not all have 
come along the evolutionary path equally, as in a well socialized 
species like the bees, ants, or termites. 

Social fossils, contemporary ancestors, are all about us. Re- 
mote from modern currents in the Southern mountains are 
people of our stock who are still Elizabethans in language, arts, 
and folklore. But in every community there are men who belong 
to a past century, to whose minds social consciousness has not 
yet come. And even in banking houses and Wall Street are 'trog- 
lodytes' without social conscience. "Our contemporary ances- 
tors", Walter H. Page called them. 


For a year Heard and Huxley have been traveling about in 
America, Boston, Black Mountain, Hollywood. It is apparent 
that in discussions and bull sessions they have gone pessimistic 
and turned to religion. Zen Buddhism and Yoga, monasticism, 
self-abnegation, obedience, and chastity, are various concomi- 
tants of the new religion these two somewhat tired backsliders 
have concocted for their comfort. Recovery from the depression 
may be prognosticated. 


Gerald Heard, brilliant author of "The Source of Civiliza- 
tion", discoverer of a "proto-civilization" bringing an ancient 
paradise to view, enthusiastically hailed in previous editions of 
this Handbook, calls his latest work The Third Morality, 
Morrow, 1937. The first two moralities are also described by 
Machin, whose treatment of the development of moral standards 
through survival values over a period of millions of years is more 
scientific and organic. 

In his foreword Heard attempts a dogmatic crystallization of 
vague gropings. He makes the vulnerable error of putting into 
the past tense as accomplished, what are actually working 
hypotheses and his imaginings projected on the future. He tells 
us, "This book is called 'The Third Morality' because in man's 
history he has had three main moralities, three general ideas of 
conduct based on the three world-pictures he has so far made. 

"The first world-picture, and its resultant morality, was 
Anthropomorphism, the belief that the universe was the ex- 
pression of individual persons, and then of one such supreme 
person. The second world-picture was Mechanomorphism, the 
belief that the universe could be explained as a huge machine." 
This Second Morality "has never really succeeded in function- 
ing", just as the second Napoleon never did. "The Third Moral- 
ity is the gradually defining impress which is to-day beginning 
to be made by the third world-picture." 

Just before his book was published he wrote me, "You ask me 
to let you know what I'm at work on now: a book on the prac- 
tical question of what is the behaviour we should have, faced 
with the present facts of Science. People when they think they 
are deducing from Science are usually deducing from stale 
Science. Hence they think they have to choose between believing 
the world and all objective reality to be the work of 'a magnified 
non-natural man* (Anthropomorphism) or its being nothing 
more than a machine (Mechanomorphism). We are entering the 
Third Cosmology and that must give rise to the Third Ethic." 


His 'Third Morality', bafflingly vague, has to do with ex- 
panding consciousness. It grows from "nucleations", promoted 
by a non-protein diet and Yoga exercises. There is something in 
all this "Eastern wisdom", the West is gradually coming to 
appreciate. But Heard has got it all mixed up with Bergson and 
bits of Jeans, with the chiropractics and the charlatans. There 
are inspirational tidbits in this pilaf of metaphysical mysticism. 
Here is a yearning soul earnestly striving toward better ways of 
living. He is sincere, almost convincing at times. But a little 
sadness comes to some of his admirers, with the feeling that he 
has published prematurely ideas in gestation. In the past, books 
have followed so rapidly that sometimes he has had to repudiate 
and retrace his steps. 


Aldous Huxley in his last novel, "Eyeless in Gaza", showed a 
serious undercurrent. However, his new book comes to his read- 
ers as something of a surprise, for this post-war sophisticate has 
gone back to religion. Ends and Means, An Inquiry into the 
Nature of Ideals and into the Methods Employed for Their 
Realization, Harper, 1037, gives his individual response to the 
old despairing cry, "What shall we do to be saved?" His answer 
is a brilliantly bewildering attempt to find "the Way and the 
Life". Penitent pilgrimage takes him to Buddha, Christ, and 
the mystics. He surveys the various roads to a better world 
through economic reorganization and through supernatural aid. 
About him he sees the horrors of a world organized for shame- 
less lying. The efforts toward improvement now being made in 
various countries he rejects. Obsessed with what money and 
power have done, he is all for peace at any price. His plea is 
noble, illogical, unscientific, semi-hypnotic, self-abnegating, 
platitudinous and misinformed. 

"Artistic creation and scientific research may be, and con- 
stantly are, used as devices for escaping from the responsibilities 
of life." How things came to be, the processes of evolution, don't 
interest him. His scientific curiosity dulled, he is overwhelmed 
by the great mysteries and the mystics and the atavistic physi- 
cists have debauched him. 

The "goal of human effort" has been known Huxley believes 
from Isaiah to Marx. He accepts the responsibility for plotting 
the future course of the race. The 'meaning' of the world and the 
universe obsesses him. He has abandoned the human method, 
step by step improvement on error. He must see his heaven 
clear. He insists on knowing the end before he adopts any means. 


Change does not insure forward progress. There are eddies 
and back currents in any stream, and sometimes the current is 
so sluggish it is difficult to determine the direction. 

In a time of confusion theie aie those who would play safe, 
and it is safei at the bottom of the hill when the winds blow. 
Moreover it is easier to go down than up. It is security we seek, 
not merely humans but all living things. Today from all the loud 
speakers, from the seats of learning, of finance and industry, the 
emotional cry is 'back to the past', 'retreat'. 


Man is well started on a great adventure, to explore, to learn 
about the world he lives in and the universe about him. The way 
has been long. The trail is faint to some. They doubt the course 
to take. There is dissension in camp. Some in panic want to re- 
treat. Every expedition, exploring or military, always faces the 
problem of forward or back, advance or retreat, and sometimes 
it is wise to seek safety first. 

But there are always those who want to push ahead, to be 
first to scale the highest peak, to traverse the impossible desert 
or the impenetrable wilderness. That is the spirit that has made 
known to us the face of the earth and the fulness thereof. Some 
would abandon useless baggage brought from way back, and 
with greater agility achieve vantage points which they see 
ahead. Others, too weary to look ahead, regard their heavy 
burden as a sacred trust and to save it would turn back. 

Looking back ovei the road we have come these millions of 
years, we find that more species and groups have turned back 
than have gone ahead. Of these fearful, forgotten, extinct crea- 
tures, who lost the impetus to go forward, all we know today is 
through their fossil remains in the geological strata. 

In safe, secluded legions where conditions are unchanged as 
on the dark sea bottom, we find living fossils like the Lingula, 
"history's outstanding example of stagnation . . . unchanged to- 
day after five hundred million years. . The tendency to degen- 
erate appears from available records to be well-nigh universal", 
John Hodgdon Bradley tells us in "The Other Side of Progress", 
Yale Review, Spring, 1037. In other protected environments, on 
country estates barricaded behind non- taxable securities, we 
may find living fossils whose minds have been closed for a gener- 
ation. Many university 'chairs' are filled with such antiquities. 



It's the nature of organic life to die and leave no trace. Noth- 
ing ever changes unless something spurs it. Cosmic ray or sun- 
spot eneigy may so affect the genes as to create new strains, 
which continue to change and adapt themselves. But all bio- 
logical clocks run down unless wound up. The endocrinologist 
is finding a new way to do this, and may yet save the derelicts. 

Boys come to college with the effervescence of an open bottle 
of champagne, and in an atmosphere of sophistication, snubbed 
and snobbed by supercilious Oxonians, they become limp, lassi- 
tudinous and frustrated. Instructors and professors, nipped and 
clipped, tired and deflated, teach them it is not good form to be 
enthusiastic, 'hot' about anything. 

There are those who enthuse over 'hot' music. As they cool 
to this there is a tendency to revert in music, too. The present 
trend or fashion is to the eighteenth centmy incidental music 
composed for petty princelings of German states or for the 
priests of the medieval Church. The post- revolutionary Bee- 
thoven, Schubert's folk themes, the Victorian confidence of Ein 
Heldenleben, or the Wagnerian hopes of Valhalla, are by these 
effete defeatists left for the more vulgar. 

In poetry, too, these tired self conscious esthetes would go 
back with T. S. Eliot to the 'eternal verities' of the medieval 
Church, or with Frost retreat from the world to the New Eng- 
land pastures and find satisfying the parsimonious Yankee 
philosophizing. The anemic and tired need rest in this time of 
confusion. Ahead all is noise and confusion, but there is quiet 
way back yonder. 

In their youth these reverts may have adventured and fared 
on in a world of change and new ideas, tried the new and then, 
in fear and waning vitality turned back to seek security. They 
long for the solace of the old beliefs and rituals. They are loud 
for the old moralities. 

For millions of years species have turned back, degenerated, 
even become parasites. Life that had come out of the sea and 
adapted to varying land conditions, later reverted, whole 
groups, to become sea cows, seals, and whales. But this old story 
does not discourage Mother Nature. While the species is vital 
there are enough individuals who show mutation and adapta- 
bility to change to carry on. The biologist calls them sports. We 
humans refer to them as leaders and geniuses. 

These human reverts often get a publicity wholly undeserved. 
This is nothing to be astonished about. Even the civilized Ameri- 
can negro sometimes reverts to African Voodopism. Why then, 
be surprised when a burned out mind, once brilliant, reverts to 
the Church? Watch the head of the procession, not the de- 
serters and stragglers, if you want to know where we are going. 



Some, weary of the world, instead of running away turn in 
upon themselves and become introspectionists, metaphysicians 
or inverts. The possible number of combinations of neuro-fibrils 
in the cerebral cortex, has been calculated by neurologists to be 
something like thirty-three trillion. A metaphysician shut up 
inside his own skull can have a lot of fun playing the combina- 

Some of these inverts arrogantly claim that there is nothing 
real except what occurs in their own skulls. But if you compare 
the writings of the great metaphysicians of the past with the 
writings of the formerly intelligent inmates of a first class 
asylum, you won't find much to choose. 

For more involved and meaningless experiments, look at the 
ammonites, fossil mollusks, once the flower of creation, now 
represented by that degenerate survivor, the chambered nauti- 
lus. For millions of years from the Silurian to the Cretaceous, 
Mother Nature played with the septum which divides the shell 
into chambers. From a simple plane this was convoluted, 
pocketed, each divcrticulum extended into intricate dendritic 
proliferations, multiplying the surface of the septum hundreds 
of times and varying the design of the sutures in thousands of 

Don't be surprised then, that old Mother Nature takes a few 
cosmic moments to play with the infinite combinations possible 
in the synapses of the metaphysician's cortex. And don't blame 
the metaphysician any more than ycu would the ammonite. 
Both are examples of the useless complicated inversions of 
nature's playful moments. 

An Einstein can tell of the most advanced and scientific 
thought in a small book. Great messages are simple. You can 
read their meaning clear. 


Some become disappointed, even bitter, that perfection is not 
attained. In his autobiography Ralph Adams Cram tells us of a 
farm boy who came to Boston, and happened into architecture. 
Business poor, he got a chance to build a church. Now he emu- 
lates the Gothic and the medieval, and resorts to Ortega, 
Spanish nobleman, Madariaga, Spanish intellectual and Ber- 
dyaev, Russian Orthodox religionist. 

In The End of Democracy, Marshall Jones, 1937, Cram be- 
wails its sad failure. In this loosely aggregated collection of 
addresses and essays there is much sound stuff and much that 
cannot be so characterized. He is equally ruthless with the 
'proletariat' and the 'uncouth rich'. He would have us turn back 
to the thirteenth century and return to religion. 


Albert Jay Nock, brilliant essayist, not pleased with govern- 
ment as it is, would have us do away with it all. Then there are 
the frustrated white Russians like Sorokin whose aristocratic 
paradise has been destroyed and who would have us turn back 
to authority cf the middle ages. 


In The Crisis of Civilization, Fordham University Press, 1937 
Hilaire Belloc, shows evidence of early warping, bending th e 
twig. He writes, "The culture and civilization of Christendom 
. . . was made by the Catholic Church . . . which made us ... 
and formed the nature of the white world. In this crisis the only 
alternatives are recovery through the restoration of Catholicism 
or the extinction of our culture. 

"The strategy required may be summed up in two titles: 
Print and Program . . . upon the Press must we concentrate for 
our chief effort; and by it in the main shall we succeed or fail. . . 
The falsehoods of official history whether anti-clerical or 
Protestant ... are opposed to us, but the whole body of historical 
truth is with us. . . 

"Well, it is not difficult to rewrite history and to present 
historical tiuth. . . After history, fiction. . . But fiction which 
is composed with . . . direct argument ... is far less effective 
than fiction naturally inspired by a knowledge of what the Faith 
is and its effects upon Society. The intermediate department of 
historical fiction is here particularly valuable. . . 

"Collegiate property happily we already have, the Great 
Orders are solidly established today on a strong economic basis. 
Let us work for their expansion and for their action not only in 
the educational but in the industrial field." 


Then there are those good men, valiant in their youth, whose 
arteries have hardened or who are victims of prostatitis, of 
whom Hooton remarks, "It is impossible to estimate, for ex- 
ample, to what extent the miseries of nations may have been 
enhanced by the vagaries of the enlaiged prostates of their 
senile rulers, or by the climacteric mental disturbances of the 
latter's wives." 

Still sadder is the case of Walter Lippmann. Once an aulent 
socialist, disciple of Brandeis, his early writing was so vital and 
suggestive that we forgave him, though he was a red. Perhaps 
this eventually effected in him the inferiority complex, common 
to all of us, for now wealthy and divorced he has become the 
representative of the House of Morgan at Harvard, the mouth- 
piece of Thomas Lamont to Arnold's 'thinking man', Amer- 
ica's heio, 'the business man'. 


When a hard fighting, clear thinking liberal becomes tired, 
disillusioned, accepts the brass check and waxes fat, it is a sorry 
spectacle. But in the case of a brilliant radical thinker like 
Lippmann well to diagnose his case economically and psychi- 
atrically would involve indecent exposure. 

Thurman Arnold, speaking of "Walter Lippman . . . one of 
the most learned economic pundits of the time", refer to his 
1 'emotional bias against the exercise of national power to solve 
national problems . . . pretending the separate states weie like 
chemical laboratories". 

The demagogue is an individualist and acts on his own private 
initiative. He works for possible future gains and profits, takes 
the risk like a man. Omar Khayyam's motto appeals, " Take 
the cash and let the credit go." 

"A 'plutogogue' is one who performs as the voice of the 
wealthy when the wealthy can no longer speak for themselves; 
e.g., Walter Lippman, Glenn Frank, Edward Bernays," said 
T. V. Smith, University of Chicago philosophy professor, at a 
round table conference of Williams College's Institute of 
Human Relations, April 20, 1037. 

In The Good Society, Little, Brown, 1937, Walter Lippmann 
presents his apology. He makes a noble plea for respect for the 
inviolable personality of man as the foundation of any good 
society which "is not a capitalist but a corporate system". We 
must endure our present sufferings and sacrifices, he tells us, to 
preserve the spiritual essence in man. Something like this we 
seem to have heard from the princes of the church, from Hitler 
and from Mussolini. 

It is foolish to plan for social progress because it is too diffi- 
cult. Our only hope is the "free market" and the courts. That 
has been our hope in ages past. The positive measures he pro- 
poses and advocates seem very much like those of the present 
administration, but of course Lippman, like those he works for 
and appeals to, could carry through such things much better. 


God created man in his own image, then man returned the 
compliment, Voltaire reminds us. Jeans has been announcing 
that God must have been a mathematician. The Rotarian tells 
us God was a Rotarian, while Bruce Barton who wrote "Nobody 
Knows God But Me" attempts a portrait of himself. 

Lancelot Hogben in "Retreat From Reason" says, "Sir James 
Jean's entertaining arithmetic is a by-product" of the observa- 
tories. "The scientist is invested with the dignity of priestcraft 
and reverts to his former role . . . when astronomer was also 

"The priestly accounts of the creation have fallen into dis- 


credit. So mysticism has to take refuge in the atom. The atom 
is a safe place not because it is small, but because you have to do 
complicated measurements and use underground channels to 
find your way there." (Hogben, "Mathematics for the Mil- 

These atavists, "speculators in the realm of physics like 
Eddington, Jeans, Millikan and Arthur Compton are guilty of 
. . . speaking as scientists for philosophy and religion . . . They 
are only theologians with a vengeance. . . a lurking menace". 
Dr. Max Schoen, professor of phychology, Carnegie Institute, 
in The Physicist's New Delusion', The Scientific Monthly, 
October, 1936, thus disposes of these "obscurantist and ob- 
structionist" atavists. 


But these atavistic scientists are of great service to the 
Jesuitical writers who put forth disguised propaganda to turn us 
back to the Church. Notable among such is "European Civiliza- 
tion: Its Origin and Development", Oxford University Press, 
under the direction of Edward Eyre, to be complete in seven 
volumes, the first three of which were reviewed in the 20th edi- 
tion of this Handbook, p. 85, and denounced as "propaganda of 
the most insidious kind put forth by those whose minds have 
been moulded, distorted in early years so that they can no 
longer view historic fact dispassionately". 

"Political and Cultural History of Europe since the Refor- 
mation", Volume VI, published in 1937, is not even camouflaged 
propaganda. It makes clear why all education of youth must be 
in the hands of the Church (p. 1017), why all books must be 
written from the standpoint of the Church (p. 1019). "The 
Method of Natural Science" treats of the theory of evolution as 
a problem in philosophy. Without any understanding of the 
scientific method, it becomes easy to prove its improbability 
(p. 1155). "It is the function of the Catholic Church ... to de- 
clare that a given law or action of the secular State is ... to be 
disobeyed and even resisted, on the apostolic principle of obey- 
ing God rather than man" (p. 1340). 


The great menace to 'saving the world', to advancing civiliza- 
tion, is in those who would retreat to the past. The better the 
man that advocates it, the greater danger that he will start a 

In a score of articles and speeches these past two years, Presi- 
dent Hutchins has been advising retreat. It is not his ideas, his 
complaints constantly repeated, that are important, it is the 
emotional effect on those that are fearful and the aid and com- 
fort that he brings to the medievalists. 

The very simplicity of his proposition the promise of relief 
from uncertainty and danger, the retreat to certitude, and the 
reliance on authority attracts the timid. And there are plenty 
of 'em. 


Robert Maynard Hutchins has for years been the "boy 
wonder" in education. At twenty-one he was a teacher in the 
now defunct Lake Placid School. Two years later, in 1923, he 
went to Yale as secretary of the University. From 1925 to 1929 
he was lecturer and professor in the Yale Law School, and the 
last two years was head. Dynamic, he reanimated the moribund 
Law School, aligning himself with the more liberal elements and 
bringing new blood to the school, including the incisive W. O. 
Douglas, now SEC chairman. 

Through speech and vision and action Hutchins did much to 
make Yale a center of creative thought. In helping to establish 
the Institute of Human Relations he became interested in the 
study of man in relation to his total environment. It was 
Hutchins who was influential in obtaining the necessary financ- 
ing for the Institute from the Rockefeller Foundation. 


So to Chicago at the age of thirty came this "stimulating 
human being who had made history at the Yale Law School in 
two short years of responsibility." (Fortune). Hutchins found 
Chicago no somnolent, self-satisfied place such as he had left. 
After eight years there he said, "Compared with the University 
of Chicago, Yale is a boys' finishing school." And Chicago news- 
papers have always looked upon the university as a little "radi- 
cal". Those who are not wholly in sympathy still speak of it as 
an "insane place", which means of course that it is alive and 
growing thought currents may be confused, but are inspiring. 

Hutchins had been preceded by Max Mason, now at the 



California Institute of Technology, who had given Chicago the 
forward look. In 1936 at Cornell, Mason said, "A new chapter 
in the history of science and of man is beginning as all the 
sciences are brought into coordinated attack on the vital 
problems of his future". 

The Chicago faculty, too, is thoroughly alive, lacking the 
timidity of faculties in the older universities. Here are men who 
dare to speak out. In the social sciences are T. V. Smith, philoso- 
pher, legislator; Charles E. Merriam, economist interested in 
public affairs; Harold Lasswell, daring, clear minded writer. 


Before he assumed the presidency, Hutchins said to the 
students, "My view of university training is to unsettle the 
minds of young men, to widen their horizons, to inflame their 

How could Hutchins, the dynamic, well integrated, unquench- 
able, irresistible, incisive, bold young man, plunged into this 
new and live environment, be brought to such a state that he 
turns back to medievalism? 

The trustees could not "forecast the outcome of his intellec- 
tual friendships. Had they been able to read his horoscope they 
might have been frightened of the turmoil to come," Fortune 
ventures in an article on the University of Chicago (Dec. 1937). 


To three men, who had been on Everett Dean Martin's 
People's Institute program in New York City, Fortune ascribes 
great influence upon Hutchins Richard McKeon, Columbia 
Spinozist and medievalist, Scott Buchanan, philosopher and 
mathematician, and Adler. 

Hutchins invited these three men to join the Chicago faculty. 
McKeon came as visiting professor in history, later to be made 
professor of Greek and Dean of the Division of the Humanities. 
Buchanan was appointed visiting professor of liberal arts, as the 
philosophy department refused to accept him. Adler they ac- 
cepted, but disliked him for "trying to impose immutable princi- 
ples of metaphysics, as taken from medieval schoolmen, upon 
the university." To avoid further internecine conflict he was 
transferred to the law school with a "blue sky" professorship 
in the philosophy of law. 

The first break came with Buchanan leaving to be dean at the 
derelict St. John's College, Annapolis, where an Adler-Hutchins 
curriculum is to bring "a revival of the ancient purposes of edu- 
cation ... to get away from present liberal arts courses, which 
are dreary because they are just a mass of history and social 
science". The president is this fellow Stringfellow Barr, drawn 


by Hutchins from the University of Virginia to Chicago. The 
seniors must prove that they know forward and backward the 
126 "best books of ancient and modern thought" from Plato to 
Marx. "The books which Mr. Stringfellow Barr is going to feed 
his students," Sinclair Lewis remarks, would be "a full cultural 
fare ... for a hermit", surmising that "such exotic dishes as Ap- 
polonius' 'Conies' and Bona Ventura's 'On the Reduction of the 
Arts to Theology' . . . Mr. Barr and his prophet, President 
Hutchins, quote lightly at bridge games." 


A classicist, specialist in Plato, John A. Rice, president of 
Black Mountain College, in Harper's, May, IQ37, apologizing for 
Hutchins, writes, "To nothing has reverence been paid more 
stupidly than to the classics. We do not read them as tracts for 
the times, which is what most of them were, but as distillations 
of pure reason, and we play the game of matching one abstrac- 
tion against another until all meaning is drowned in a sea of 
words. . . . 

"The American is now where the Greek was when he began 
to be something; the president of the University of Chicago, in 
a recent encyclical in Harper's, would have us begin with Aris- 
totle, when the Greek began to be nothing. The sure sign of be- 
ginning decay was his preoccupation with grammar and rhetoric, 
and the final pouring of the mold of logic." 

Plato, reporting on Socrates' talks, twisted them to suit his 
own homosexual, decadent outlook, to bolster up his own aris- 
tocratic class and era that was passing and was soon wiped out. 
Plato was feted, and failed. 

"The Greek thinkers had had little in the way of authority 
on which to build," James Harvey Robinson writes in "The 
Human Comedy", "and no inconsiderable number of them 
frankly confessed that they did not believe that such a thing 
could exist for the thoroughly sophisticated intelligence." 


Mortimer J. Adler, of New York birth, and product of its 
public school system, graduated from Columbia in '23, took his 
doctorate in '28, was instructor at Columbia and lecturer at the 
People's Institute until iQ2Q and is not directly connected with 
the famous Felix and Alfred Adler families. At Columbia he was, 
like Hutchins, interested in the psychological background of the 
law of evidence. John Erskine's course, the "Classics of the 
Western World", influenced him with the idea that "human 
wisdom had advanced relatively little in modern times". 

As a psychologist Adier is more of a philosopher than a scien- 
tist. His latest book, under the intriguing, but as applied to the 


book, meaningless title, What Man Has Made of Man, Long- 
mans, Green, 1937, is "A Study of the Consequences of Platon- 
ism and Positivism in Psychology". Sidney Hook, professor of 
philosophy at New York University, in The Nation, April 9, 
1938, reviewing this book rebukes him for his "ill-concealed 
arrogance" toward "contemporary science and modern philos- 
ophy", the "assumptions that are cooly begged", and for his 
"unhistorical version of Aristotle". He leaves the poor man not 
a leg to stand on and not much to sit on. 

Adler's befuddlement is in itself intriguing to those given to 
metaphysical reversion. They are imposed upon, too, by his 
erudition. His notes equal the text in volume. We find such 
sapient phrases as "organic forms which are called souls not 
minds" (flip flaps not flub dubs). For one of his race and training 
to turn to neo-Thomism might indicate profound physiological 
as well as psychological change. 

Hutchins seems to have come increasingly under the domi- 
nating influence of Adler. Maude Phelps McVeigh, President 
Hutchins' wife, a talented artist, worked with and published in 
conjunction with Adler the volume on "Diagrammatics", 1932, 
which she illustrated. 

By himself Adler would be relatively harmless and would 
attract little attention. But his medievalistic and ecclesiastic 
ideals superimposed upon Hutchins' orderly modern ideas and 
dynamic personality, have produced a strange hybrid. There 
has resulted a state of affairs which many close at hand, psychia- 
trists and classicists alike, diagnose as unsound, sick, a situation 
which has become a menace and cannot continue. As Fortune 
puts it,"metaphysics is battling against metabolism." 


The Pope is in agreement with Hutchins, as are Mussolini 
and Hitler. The fascists recruit from good men spent, scared, 
and in retreat. If Hutchins can send more into retreat and reduce 
the "miscellaneous and variegated" student population to con- 
formity and uniformity, that is meat for the fascists. 

For Hutchins "the truth is everywhere the same. Hence, 
education should be everywhere the same." Mark Twain put it, 
"the ancients stole all our thoughts from us." Aristotle would 
not agree with Hutchins. 

Hutchins is looking for authoritarian sanction. The Church is 
always ready to receive into its bosom those who would avoid 
the confusion of this world. In the Catholic Educational Review, 
P. W. Browne, of the Catholic University of America, notices 
that Hutchins quotes Cardinal Newman after he had gone back 
to the Church, and endorses Hutchins' statement that if we 
knew the thought of the great thinkers of Greece and Rome and 


of the Middle Ages, "our people would not fall so easily a prey 
to the latest nostrums in economics, politics, and education". 


"Will American higher education take its keynote from the 
movement toward the study of good books which President 
Hutchins has started at Chicago?" Fortune asks. 

No, not for long will we accept Hutchins' "good books" as a 
complete and balanced ration. Those ancient classics include 
some earnest attempts of men, many of whom, as Rice remarks, 
"were not educated men", to face the problems of their time and 
to solve them bravely. But Hutchins' "good books" include 
political documents of no import to-day, a good deal of myth 
for the credulous, and some pornography not current. 

Education must take its keynote from related facts, actuali- 
ties that influence today, realities that we must face. Facts 
about the C.I.O., for example, will be meaningless without 
understanding of what brought it into existence labor spies, 
'speed-ups', 'stretch-outs', tear gas, arsenaled factories. If edu- 
cation in this country fails to bring us into true relations with 
reality, then our civilization and culture will go under, and 
should as have twenty-two other civilizations that Toynbee 
considers in his thirteen volume "Study of History". And 
anthropologists know many more cultures that have passed. 


If America is to go forward, education must face the music 
with all its modern cacophonies. We must find among "the 
latest nostrums in economics, politics, and education" what 
there is of value and worth. Those who make the new discover- 
ies will command the future. 

Meantime Hutchins has his lucid intervals, his periods of re- 
turn to his own sane self. As late as June iQ37, addressing the 
students Convocation Day, (where was Adler?) he said, "I hope 
that you will never have a 'philosophy of life'. As I understand 
this phrase it means that one who says he has a philosophy of 
life has got himself adjusted to his environment. He is now pre- 
pared to compromise on any issue at any time. Injustice is all 
right. Brutality is all right. Fraud and deception are all right. 
The only thing that is not all right is something that endangers 
the security of the individual in question, or that threatens his 
income, or damages his reputaion. Peace in a vegetable sense 
and prosperity in a material sense are the aims of one who talks 
about his philosophy of life. . . . 

"There is some justification for the saying that society either 
corrupts its best men or kills them If you begin to compro- 
mise, if your courage oozes when it costs something to fight, if 


you say, 'Leave well enough alone', or 'Don't rock the boat', 
or 'I have a philosophy of life', then you will be lost to yourselves 
and to your country." 


But Hutchins may not be unredeemable. If he could only get 
away from his medievalists, if Adler could be sent off on a sab- 
batical, if Hutchins could get time to read some good modern 
books, he might come out right side up, face forward. He is a 
better man, and a more serious menace, than is here revealed. 
The purpose here is not to praise or bury, but to confute those 
who claim his defeatism is incurable, and to point the way. 

Let him read some of the new books that may be considered 
great at some later time. Alfred Machines latest, the result of 
patching together the fragmentary twenty million year record 
of our ancestors, revealed by the diggers, gives new ideas on the 
origin of our moralities. Let him read R. R. Schmidt, who has 
portrayed the past million years of man's story so intimately 
that we learn something of the development of art and the soul, 
the esthetic and the spiritual side of man. 

If he would read Korzybski's "Science and Sanity", product 
of a great mind bent on discovering order amid chaos, he would 
know better the semantic difficulties that beset him in juggling 
with "principles" and "fundamentals", and avoid his meta- 
physic as he would an emetic. He would discover a way through 
science to sanity, perhaps a new way to salvation for our 
troubled race. 

For divertissement let him take the "Symbols" and "Folk- 
lore" of Thurman Arnold, intellectual giant of the Yale Law 
School. Let him dawdle with Hooton among the "Apes, Men, 
and Morons", that he may better distinguish between those he 
meets. For wit, wise and stimulating, let him consort with that 
mathematical jester, past-president of the Mathematical Asso- 
ciation of America, E. T. Bell, in his "Search for Truth." 

These are books by men who have command of fields of 
knowledge too little known to President Hutchins, about things 
unknown to Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas, that reveal lines of 
action ahead, points of vantage to be won. To get their vision 
is to turn retreat into advance, to be filled with enthusiasm to 
move forward. 

No book is fundamental that does not deal with the funda- 
mental problem that has long agitated the world, "What's 
ahead?" And if we are to have understanding, it helps to have 
some knowledge of the road over which we have come during 
the last million years. 

These are recent books, not for the ordinary man, but for men 
of unusual intellect, like Hutchins, who are starving for the 
vitamins of new ideas, who yearn for new vision. 


Both fascism and communism are bugaboos, scare words. To 
some fascism means persecuting the Jews. To others it means 
brutal methods. The word comes from the bundles of rods, 
fasces, bound about the axe carried by the lictors of ancient 
Rome. They were not merely symbols of office but implements 
for exacting implicit obedience. On United States postofFices and 
other government public buildings, architects have stuck the 
fasces in their barren-mindedness as ornament, not prophesy. 

Fascism remains implicit obedience to centralized authority. 
Authoritarianism, retreat to the past, is justified when a people 
are so confused and scared that they are willing to give up their 
liberty for safety. 


Herbert Hoover on his return from Europe is reported in Life, 
April u, 1938, as saying: 

"Fear by nations of one another, fear by governments of their 
citizens, fear by citizens of their governments and the fear of 
people everywhere that general war is upon them again; four- 
teen nations with 240,000,000 people, have adopted notions of 
Fascism. And Fascism has demonstrated a way to fool all the 
people all the time by suppression of all criticism and free ex- 
pression." In a democracy as Lincoln remarked, you can't fool 
all the people all the time, and Gracie Allen puts it you can't 
fool some of the people some of the time. But we are learning to 
fool most of the people most of the time. 

The roots of fascism go back to the intensification of national- 
ism, in Germany to the after effects of the war. "The starva- 
tion period of Central Europe due to the blockade and its crimi- 
nal extension during the period of wrangling over the spoils of 
war shows the effect of insufficient nutrition upon the develop- 
ment of the body. Apprentices in Vienna, measured in 1919 and 
1921" showed a difference in height of up to 3 centimeters and 
weight up to 3 kilograms, says Franz Boas, in his "The Mind 
of Primitive Man". 

Starved and surrounded by enemies, with Senegalese soldiers 
quartered upon them by the French, the Germans had little 
liberty to sacrifice. Hitler, the poor paper hanger, supported by 
the industrialists, has become the puppet hero. The century long 
process of unifying the German people, begun by Napoleon and 
Bismarck, goes on. 

Italy, broken by the war, humbled by the great debacle of 
Caporetto, seemed contemptible to the great powers. Mussolini 



stuck out his chest youth did likewise. He inspired confidence, 
stimulated their patriotism and transformed the Italian people. 
In ten years he had "dewopped the wops". He, too, is the mythi- 
cal hero behind whom greater forces "in reality turned Italy 
back to ancient systems of monarchism and ecclesiasticism", 
as Eugene J. Young tells us in "The Built-Up Legend of Musso- 
lini" in his "Looking Behind The Censorships". Italy, too, is 
still in the process of making a nation out of what were scattered 
populations and petty principalities. 


Much that the dictators adopted and adapted to achieve their 
success had American origins. The summer camp originated in 
New England fifty to seventy years ago. In 1937 the Soviets 
bravely announced they sent to summer camp over 25,000,000 
children, ten times as many as in America where the idea origi- 
nated. The idea of a military school for boys got its start at 
Norwich, Vermont in i8iq and spread all over the country. 
There was nothing of this kind in Italy until a century later 
when Mussolini adopted our New England and American ideas. 
Boy Scout methods developed in England and America have 
been widely copied or adapted by all the dictators. 

Other American methods, not so admirable, were those used 
on conscientious objectors during the war, the barbed wire 
enclosure for even the Boston Symphony Orchestra conductor. 
Our current horrible and sadistic methods of suppressing un- 
popular racial or religious minorities have recently been illus- 
trated in the picture magazines. The 'third degree' was developed 
by our politically dominated American police at a time when in 
stabilized Europe police methods were on a higher, professional, 
well disciplined basis. 


Many of these modes of torture and suppression have been 
adopted by Fascist dictators. They have not gone so far as to 
use the water cure which Americans use to pacify the Philip- 
pines or the blow torch on negroes in the south. Their use of 
castor oil and the steel whip may seem to them more humane. 

All the dictators have brought to every child full opportuni- 
ties for physical development, interesting group activities, 
summer life at the seashore or in the mountains, and for older 
youth, outdoor life and activities, hiking, marching, swimming, 
skiing, mountain climbing, perhaps to a degree shared by no 
other people. 

But cannon fodder that is nearly physically perfect is not 
enough. The morale of an army is even more important than its 
marching ability. There is less of broken youth. There is less 


need for the psychiatrist. The equality of cannon fodder is not 
only better physically, but of superior morale. The dictator 
knows his job, how to mould and build youth to conform to his 
ideal, to turn out a crop of first class cannon fodder. His very 
existence depends upon their success in this. 

Those impatient of the democratic process, alarmed at the 
demands of labor, dissatisfied with the administration of the 
government and justice, would gladly see an authoritarian 
regime if they might control. Those who like to call themselves 
communists would gladly see a dictator like Stalin in order to 
bring disaster to what they hate and advance what they stand 

Fear, insecurity, willingness to sacrifice liberties, is necessary 
before fascist authoritarianism can prevail. Then there must be 
a puppet hero for the populace to worship and he must stand for 
a national policy that has long been retarded. 

Financial and aristocratic elements have been behind the 
forces in Italy and Germany, as Eugene Young brings out in 
"Looking Behind The Censorships". And such forces have not 
been idle in this country. 


We have, too, a national trend long retarded, a tendency 
toward a 'more perfect union' which is the historic driving force 
in both Germany and Italy. As yet we have no national govern- 
ment. We are still a union of states. The original club of thirteen 
has admitted additional members. 

A national government is opposed by lawyers and industrial- 
ists as they oppose federal licensing of corporations. Industrial- 
ists find it easier to control a state rather than a national legis- 
lature so 'state rights' are appealed to. Lawyers would lose their 
fattest fees. Before the American Bar Association President 
Stinchfield, horifically prophesied, "We shall have government 
from Washington covering a territory of 130 million people". 
Thurman Arnold in his "Folklore of Capitalism" adds "The 
superficial observer might have thought that this was one of the 
objectives for which the Civil War was fought and therefore had 
its good points." 


This is the only country in the world which does not have a 
national system of education. But the Federal Government 
spends about $160,000,000 yearly for so-called educational 
purposes, statistics, Alaska, R.O.T.C., and $45,000,000 for 
vocational training which has become almost a racket. 


The Federal Government did a 'land office business' giving 
away its land and natural resources, while they lasted. It gave 
to every school system, to railroads and individuals, and it gave 
away water power to corporations until the Water Power Act 
of 1023. 

With no national education our oldest and purest blooded 
citizens in the southern mountains remain illiterate, our negro 
and tenant farmers neglected. But something more than 17,000 
school boards and trustees in their wisdom determine who shall 
teach and what, while bits of graft stick to fingers. 

Hitler only recently suppressed private schools in Germany 
and there is still an American school in Munich. In Italy there 
are many American schools. But Oregon, Michigan, and other 
states passed laws, suppressing all private schools, which the 
supreme court declared unconstitutional. Professor Thomas H. 
Briggs of Teachers College in his Inglis Lecture in 1932, advo- 
cated the suppression of all private schools. 

The Harvard Teachers Union claims that President Conant's 
restriction of the admission of students is following the fascist 
pattern of Germany. While disease remains it would seem that 
we could at least use more medically trained. For "American 
Roots of Fascism" see Yankee, March, 1038. 


In full faith that we are doing the right thing we are this year 
putting some 33,000,000 young people through the educational 
mill with the aid of 1,020,000 teachers and at an average ex- 
pense for the year of $102 for each child. The tax payers com- 
plain as they have for a century that that is too much to spend 
in equipping a child for life. Well, it was only $IQ per white 
child in Mississippi and only $5.45 for a negro child, for the 
whole year. 


But the numbers of children are falling off. There are a million 
less in the elementary public schools now than at the peak. 
Catholic parochial schools as yet show no falling off, for the 
birth rate is better maintained. Only this year have we waked 
up to what the decreasing birth rate means as explained in this 
Handbook for 1035-36. The shortage will soon reach the high 
schools and in another decade the colleges. 

It was during the years of our bounding prosperity that the 
decline was most marked. It was then that we were most care- 
less of our children. Infant mortality ran disgracefully high, not 
from ignorance or poverty, but from heedlessness, rugged in- 


in the home and school, we impart to children the folkways, 
folklore, beliefs, tabus, foreboding and fears of their elders. We 
claim that we are transmitting the heritage of the race but the 
long story of mankind and of life through the ages remains un- 
known to most of our high school and college graduates. We 
stuff children with details of recent historical knowledge which 
fails to give them any understanding of the story of man. 

'Mental discipline', 'transfer of thought', were the catch- 
words of a generation past. Now we know that we can't make a 
billiard player on the tennis court, and that training in book- 
keeping won't make a man honest. But we do warp him with a 
set of beliefs and attitudes that colors all he sees and hears. We 
do train him so that association tracts and whole sections of his 
brain atrophy. 


Psychiatrists, like the Menningers, say it doesn't matter what 
we teach, it is the result on the pupil that counts, that deter- 
mines mental health or delinquency. And they are justified in 



view of the increasing percentage of the school house product 
that goes to the 'bughouse* or the 'big house'. 

We are just beginning to learn a little about what these edu- 
cational processes have done and the more we know the less 
faith we have in them. The trouble has been that teachers have 
been magnifying their own egos, not the child's. Principle, con- 
viction, has been so strong with us that we have been uncon- 
scious of the result we were producing inside the child's skull. 
Good intent, conscientiousness, were our justification, and so 
we paved the road to hell for many a youth. 

"Frustration is the one thing characteristic of the present 
generation" and it is due to our conscientious teachers living 
up to their principles and philosophies. This was explained in 
"The Crime of Teaching" by Porter Sargent, Yankee, October, 


In our earnest desire to provide better education for our 
children we have put implicit faith in 'book larnin' and the 
school teacher. We arc beginning to realize that our grand- 
fathers on the old New England farm with three months of 
'deestrick' school did better. Their's was a training in initiative 
and community activities in close contact with nature and ac- 
tuality. See "Education On The Old New England Farm" by 
Porter Sargent, Yankee, September, 1937. 

The Carnegie Foundation has just published an elaborate 
monograph on a ten-year investigation of education in Pennsyl- 
vania, at a cost of $3,000,000, which shows that many boys 
knew more before they entered college than after they grad- 

We are just learning that instead of teaching reading we 
create a distaste for it, that our best writers have never been 
taught, that examinations are foolish, home-work harmful, 
language a semantic mire out of which grow psychoses. 

From our schools and colleges youth is thrust "afraid into a 
world he never made". Housman felt it as fate. It is for us to 
remove the cause. Thomas Hardy's first poem, 1866, "A Young 
Man's Epigram on Existence" has the same burden as a long 
letter received within a few months from the graduate of one 
of our best private schools which has a complete and perfect 

"A senseless school, where we must give 
Our lives that we may learn to livel 
A dolt is he who memorizes 
Lessons that leave no time for prizes." 


There was a time in the nineties when educators had implicit 
confidence that there was a 'philosophy of education', that there 
were 'principles', 'fundamentals' from which to start, and one 
inevitable road to follow. 

Since then the emphasis has changed. We have heard a great 
deal about a 'science of education'. An enormous amount of time 
has been spent on 'educational research'. Able, beefy, brainy 
men have spent endless hours devising puzzles for children to 
do and timing them on them. All these ideas, of course, devel- 
oped within the skulls of adults. 


'Philosophy of education' is a large phrase worthy of semantic 
analysis. Once it was fashionable for everybody to have his 
personal philosophy. Every field of activity is supposed to set up 
a philosophy. But none parade their philosophies more blatantly 
than the educationalist. Most of these educational philosophies 
will not stand any close analysis or scrutiny. 

Looking through educational publications for the phrase, one 
finds that often the meaning is made clearer if for educational 
philosophy, you substitute plan, program, or propaganda. The 
Educational Policies Commissions has wisely substituted 
'policy' for 'philosophy', but in the report in their bulletin, 
October 15, 1937, on policy-making in the States, we find in 
Florida and Nebraska it is called 'program'; in Hawaii and Okla- 
home 'policy'; in Kansas 'philosophy'; in Michigan 'coordinat- 
ing and planning'; in Minnesota 'problem'. 

An article on "The Need for a Philosophy of Education" in 
the November, 1937, Journal of the National Education Associa- 
tion, boils down to the idea that if we have one, we don't need 
to worry, we will only have to defend it. 

Such an educational philosophy is a crutch to lean on or a 
screen behind which to hide while we put across the ideas which 
we think must prevail, while we put over on the young the pro- 
gram which we think they should be put through. 


But too often philosophy is an excuse for inherited or second 
hand ideas or prejudices, a defense for what they think are be- 
liefs, but which are really hunches, handouts, or inherited atti- 

Those who hold forth on philosophy of education usually 



know least about the physiological processes of growth involved. 
It is a concealment of ignorance. 

Korzybski remarks in "Science and Sanity", "Most 'philoso- 
phers' gamble on terms which have no definite single meaning, 
and so, by cleverness in twisting, can be made to appear to mean 
anything desired . . . Many 'philosophers' have played an im- 
portant and . . . sinister role in history. At the bottom of any 
historical trend, we find a certain 'philosophy', a structural im- 
plication cleverly formulated by some 'philosopher'." 

Michael Demiashkevich's "Introduction to the Philosophy of 
Education", which is propaganda for the "essentialist" school 
so-called, a reversion from the forward course, has had an effect. 
As a teacher at the George Peabody Teachers College and the 
Harvard Summer School, his doctrine of defeatism and return 
to the past, his glorification of medievalism, has been adopted 
as a program in modern forward-moving schools and has affected 
the attitude of school masters in important positions. 

"Philosophy of Education" was the chief topic of the conven- 
tion of eighteen Catholic universities and colleges in New York, 
December, 1037, which was attended by Mortimer J. Adler, 
the Hebrew-Catholic-Thomist who has so influenced Hutchins. 
"The Philosophy of Education of St. Thomas Aquinas", to 
which so many are reverting now, was the subject of a paper 
read by the Rev. Dr. Robert Slavin, O.P., of the Catholic Uni- 
versity of America. It was shown to be "a derivation from his 
theological and philosophical system". 


Walter Crosby Eells, director of the Cooperative Study of 
Secondary School Standards, in The Educational Record, Janu- 
ary, 1938, reports on "Educational Philosophy of Schools: 
Theory vs. Practice". He quotes Sir John Adams, British edu- 
cator, who "argued that 'the principles' and 'the practices' of 
education as taught in teacher training institutions were like oil 
and water they hardly ever mixed. Often, indeed, 'never the 
twain will meet'. . . 

"The philosophy of education held by the administrators 
and staffs" of the two hundred schools studied shows little rela- 
tion between philosophy or theory and actual practice. It is all 
charted to show that they are more progressive in their philos- 
ophy than in their practice. Their philosophy is a screen, a 
window dressing, behind which they follow traditional practice. 

"We say that we have a philosophy of education and from 
that source we derive the reasons why we should give certain 
types of curricula and certain courses of study and contents 
thereof", writes President Raymond A. Kent of the University 
of Louisville in "Minors of Education", The Educational Record, 


July, 1937, and he cites the absurd teaching of "mathematics 
and Latin, originally inserted into the curriculum ... as tools to 
be used by persons who were to enter specific types of occupa- 


"To escape from the restrictions of science, our contempo- 
raries write philosophies of education", writes W. C. Ruediger 
in Educational Method, reviewing A. Gordon Melvin's The New 
Culture, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1937. Of our traditional fields 
of study, the author tells us, "we must discard the organization 
which cast our world since Aristotle into such various logical or 
static forms as astronomy, mathematics, history, etc. . . This 
type of organization is outmoded; it should become for the pur- 
poses of the school entirely extinct. The educational luncheon 
must be served in a new set of courses with food adequate for 

Colonel Parker's one hundredth anniversary was cele- 
brated by tributes from prominent educators in Progressive 
Education. As able and progressive a philosopher as Kilpatrick 
asks "What is philosophy?" and one gathers from his remarks 
that it is what he describes as "enduring principles" by which 
he means "conception" and "relationships grown out of ex- 
perience" that are "least liable to change", by which he means 
those that have changed least. For what does he know about 
future changes? He is merely saying that philosophy is what you 
deduce from experience. Well, let us call it that and be done with 
philosophy, the comforter, the pacifier, the teething ring of 
the weak and whimpering. 

Flora J. Cooke, devoted disciple, writes on Parker's "social 
philosophy". His philosophy was never to dodge an issue, how- 
ever unpleasant, but always to face reality. 


The educational presses are turning out each year new books 
from the pens of college teachers, on the philosophy, program 
and methods of education. Some follow the mores, the folklore, 
the customs of this American branch of western European civi- 
lization. But increasingly books appear which have a biological 
or psychological basis. That is, the statements, the practices are 
such that they could be tested by others, in other times, in other 
climes, and proved in other words. There is a tendency toward 
the scientific attitude and method. But it has not gone far. 

Most of these texts still begin with a long story about the 
systems of education that have been set up in the past, systems 
that had little organic consistency, little relation to actuality, 
but were evolved within the skull of some man. Of course the 


man, Plato or Pestalozzi, was a product of his time. We live in a 
new world, a world in which man has progressed in a hundred 
years at such an accelerated rate that his accomplishment, his 
change of view, his change of base, his new acquisitions, material 
and immaterial, exceed all that he had accomplished previously. 
One of the best of these texts is Secondary School Teaching, 
Ginn & Co., 1937, by J. G. Umstattd, Associate Professor of 
Secondary Education, Wayne University, and Supervisor in 
Secondary Education, Detroit Public Schools. It shows aware- 
ness and aliveness to the world we live in. Moreover his attitude 
is thoroughly modern. Individual differences seem to him im- 
portant, and method aside from material futile. 

Secondary Education, D. Appleton-Century Co., 1937, is by 
Dr. Fred Engelhardt, Professor of Educational Administration, 
University of Minnesota and Dr. Alfred Victor Overn, Professor 
of Education, University of North Dakota. Its sub-title, 
"Principles and Practices", tells the story. However it gives 
some view of what has been done recently in foreign lands, and it 
shows aliveness to social studies and natural science and reflects 
the broadened attitude of educational thought toward the fine 
arts and practical arts. The authors recognize "the evolutionary 
processes that have brought schools to their present state of 

Secondary Education for Youth in Modern America, 1937, is 
a report of the American Youth Commission of the American 
Council on Education, prepared by Harl R. Douglass, Professor 
of Secondary Education at the University of Minnesota. He 
recognizes that "the approach to a philosophy of secondary 
education must be on the basis of the relationship of the schools 
to the rest of society". This resume has been prepared to give 
"both meaning and support to a statement of the philosophy 
which seems most practical and effective in the light of our 
times and ideals". 

The Challenge of Education, McGraw-Hill, 1937, is a sympo- 
sium by the members of the education faculty of Stanford 
University. A realistic modern attitude toward the bearing of 
sociology, psychology, and biology on education is evidenced, 
against a background of the usual teachers training courses. 

The Effective General College Curriculum as Revealed by 
Examinations is published by the Committee on Educational 
Research, by the University of Minnesota Press, 1937. Twenty 
of the faculty contribute. Students were leaving after the sopho- 
more year. The investigation shows "The effective curriculum 
is the student's curriculum. It is not the instructor's curriculum. 
The latter is important only as it affords a stimulus to the 
student to achieve his own growth and a guide to his educa- 
tional development." Plenty of evidence is provided that you 
can't decide in advance, as President Hutchins thinks, on what 
is good for a student. 


If we adults had been educated, trained, conditioned, en- 
vironmented, by all- wise, all-seeing parents and pedagogues, 
we would then naturally be much better adapted to meet the 
things that worry and trouble us now, that we don't under- 
stand, that frustrate us. 

Generations of loving parents and conscientious pedagogues 
with the best intent have striven zealously to follow the best 
traditions, to inculcate principles, sure of their fundamentals 
and philosophy. And it has resulted in frustrating youth and has 
reduced the world to its present state. 


"Philosophy is a stage in intellectual development, and is not 
compatible with mental maturity. In order that it may flourish, 
traditional doctrines must still be believed . . . there must also 
be a belief that important truths can be discovered by merely 
thinking, without the aid of observation. " 

Bertrand Russell in the Atlantic, February, IQJ;, in an article 
on "Philosophy's Ulterior Motives", uttered this shocking 
heresy. Most At/antic readers had believed that philosophy was 
the ultimate, that philosophers were the final repositories of the 
world's wisdom, that they held the eternal verities in their 
possession, that they told scientists where they got off . . . Phil- 
osophers still attempt to keep us under their thumb. According 
to Mortimer Adler, as Sidney Hook puts it in The Nation, April 
9, 1938, "scientists may explain the world in a descriptive sense, 
but they cannot understand it." 

Russell goes on, "Philosophy has been denned as 'an unusually 
obstinate attempt to think clearly'; I should define it rather as 
'an unusually ingenious attempt to think fallaciously' ... To 
the completely unintellectual, general doctrines are unimpor- 
tant; to the man of science, they are hypotheses to be tested by 
experiment; while to the philosopher they are mental habits 
which must be justified somehow if he is to find life endurable. 
. . . Capacity to believe that the 'laws of thought' have com- 
forting political consequences is a mark of the philosophic bias. 
Philosophy, as opposed to science, springs from a kind of self- 
assertion. . . If our scientific knowledge were full and complete, 
we should understand ourselves and the world and our relation 
to the world." Then philosophy would have nothing to do. 

Stuart Chase in his "Tyranny of Words" reports, "Another 
matter which distressed me was that I found it almost impossi- 
ble to read philosophy . . . just a haughty parade of Truth, Sub- 



stance, Infinite, Absolute, Over-soul, the Universal, the Nomi- 
nal, the Eternal". Now that Chase has discovered the new 
technique of semantics, he writes, "Many of the questions asked 
about social and philosophical subjects will be found to be 


Thirty years ago, that colossal personality John Jay Chap- 
man had penetrated the bunk. In a letter March 17, 1897, to 
William James, he wrote, speaking of Josiah Royce, "I never 
heard a man talk so much nonsense . . . The inroads of Harvard 
University upon his intelligence . . . have been terrible. . . I 
know you would say that it's mere philosophy and not to be 
taken seriously; but these things do have some influence some- 
times." On another occasion, apropos of Royce, he wrote, 
"There is no such thing as philosophy. But there are such things 
as philosophers. A philosopher is a man who believes there is 
such a thing as philosophy, and who devotes himself to proving 
it." And again April 25, 1909, "Modem Philosophy since Kant 
is a game and so many thousands are in the conspiracy that 
almost anyone may be tempted to throw a few louis d'ors on the 
table as he passes through the gambling hell. With three years' 
practice I could play it myself." 

Henry Adams, when Bergson's "Creative Evolution" was 
first published, referred to it as "the most widely known among 
the very latest efforts of metaphysicians to defend their con- 
ceptions against the methods of physics. From the beginnings 
of philosophy and religion, the thinker was taught by the mere 
act of thinking, to take for granted that his mind was the high- 
est energy of nature." 


"We sometimes forget that systems of philosophy are the 
products of old age; and we have failed to follow the Socratic 
direction to teach the young how to become, not how to be, 
philosophers". This is John Rice apologizing in Harper's, May, 
1937, for Hutchins' back-to-philosophy cry. 

These philosophers "feast upon shadows in the prevailing 
famine of substance", E. T. Bell tells in "Debunking Science". 
They eschew experience, refuse to make inquiries, remain unin- 
formed about scientific research, assert that the correct pro- 
cedure is known only to supermen like themselves and that they 
are above criticism. 

These old men pass on their versions of mythology, theology 
or philosophy, which Boaz, the anthropologist, tells us are 
merely different terms for the current shape of human thought. 
He quotes Lehmann, the German writer, "The character of a 


system of philosophy is, just like that of any other literary work, 
determined first of all by the personality of its originator ... It 
bears the general marks of the period to which it belongs . . . 
It is influenced by the particular bent of philosophical thought 
of the period." 


Through Science to Philosophy, Oxford, 1937, is based on the 
Lowell Lectures of 1936 by Herbert Dingle, London astro- 
physicist. It is an exposition of the modern scientific method in 
the presence of Einstein's relativity and the quantum theory. 
He leads us on through a metaphysical treatment of "Words", 
"Knowledge, Truth, and 'Unobservables' ", "Subjective and 
Physical Time", "Causality", "Indeterminacy and Free Will", 
to "The Universe" as a whole. 

Dingle is an avowed solipsist, a sincere exponent of extreme 
subjectivism, considering his own "consciousness as the whole 
universe including whatever of physical, mental, spiritual or 
other kind of being you regard as existing or capable of deluding 
me into thinking that it exists". 

In apology for the somewhat confused state of knowledge and 
the incompleteness of his treatment, he cites a character in one 
of Gogol's books who spent much thought on the problem, 
"What would be the colour of elephants' eggs if elephants laid 
eggs?" One suspects that Dingle has not fully escaped the 
Aristotelian fetters, that he has some semantic difficulties, and 
he admits that he lacks the biological point of view. 

In The Unity of Philosophical Experience, Scribner, 1938, 
Etienne Gilson of the University of Paris, one of the speakers 
at the Harvard Tercentenary, gives us a history of psycho- 
logical failures, holding up Plato, Aristotle, and Thomas as the 
non-failures, the servants of "perennial philosophy", who 
attempted to "relate reality ... to the permanent principles in 
whose light all the changing problems of science, of ethics, and 
of art have to be solved." Erudition is Gilson's middle name, 
but his last is Dogmatism. 


A Philosophy for a Modern Man, Knopf, 1938, by H. Levy, 
tends to counter the confusion of these medievalists. Heisen- 
berg's Principle of Uncertainty is directly dealt with. The pessi- 
mistic conclusions of many writers on science, he shows by his 
method of 'isolates', are due to philosophical mistakes. His is a 
counter attack on the modern confusionists and a protection for 
the ordinary man against them. 

Four Ways of Philosophy, Henry Holt, 1937, by Erwin 
Edman, professor of philosophy at Columbia, and dedicated to 


Justice Cardozo, is in substance the Henry Ward Beecher lec- 
tures of 1936 at Amherst. He reduces all philosophies to four 
perennial types, those of "logical faith", "social criticism", 
"mystical insight" and "nature understood". 

"Philosophers are always arriving at conclusions, but there 
is no conclusion to philosophy . . . the end at which they arrive 
is determined by what they start with, and what philosophers 
start with is in turn determined by temperamental bias, by the 
circumstances of a social and political and religious tradition, 
by the particular points of social conflict or personal uncertainty 
which initiate the whole movement of their thought. . . Other 
men, other circumstances, other central problems, and other 
philosophies arise. . . The philosopher is always a mortal crea- 
ture at a given place and juncture of time. . . 

"Philosophy examined historically and psychologically is as 
much an activity of men as breathing, as much a skill as music 
. . . Philosophy has mistaken its function in arrogating to itself 
the notion that it is either a transcript of reality or a specific 
program for life. . . 

"Many philosophers (and all transcendentalists) set great 
store by the compulsions of logical necessity'. . . But it would 
be no whit less logically inevitable to infer, as Richards and 
Ogden point out in their 'Meaning of Meaning', that granted 
that all flubjubs are dingbats and that this is a flubjub this must 
be a dingbat. Whether flubjubs or dingbats exist has not been 
settled by the argument, nor what they are. But the argument 
is none the less formally sound." 


"Philosophy conceived as a wide and disciplined poetry, cele- 
brating man's origins, his vicissitudes and his objects of life, 
would clarify the question of progress in philosophy", Edman 
believes. Chapman had written James thirty years before that 
"philosophy was only an inexpressive form of poetry and that 
you would end by teaching poetry if you make philosophy 

Like poets, philosophers present their reflections on their 
experience of life and nature, many of them abstrusely and com- 
plexly, but Edman is able in simple language without techni- 
calities to present these different philosophers sympathetically 
and understandingly . He recreates their moods and attitudes. 
His style suggests Santayana, his thought Dewey. 

" 'To make the philosophy by which men live the philosophy 
by which they speak' is a felicitous statement of a common 
program for all naturalistic and empirical philosophies. Psychol- 
ogy, sociology, and imaginative reconstruction then become the 
appropriate instruments for understanding philosophers who 


cannot make themselves clear to others'*, comments Sidney 
Hook in The Nation, January 8, 1938. 


The "new education" that Socrates stood for he called 
"philo-sophy", love of wisdom, which meant to him hatred of 
bunk. This love of wisdom had for its main task "to examine 
and reject" everything false that was commonly held. The 
methods of his new education, philo-sophy, consisted merely in 
asking for definitions for words like "justice", "courage", 
"piety", just as Thurman Arnold and Stuart Chase do today, 
the real philosophers in the tradition of Socrates. 

The last twenty years of his life Socrates devoted to "the 
exposure of ignorance in high places . . . Disclaiming all knowl- 
edge, he declared himself incompetent to teach . . . This humil- 
ity naturally infuriated anyone who had been subjected to the 
deadly Socratic analysis and had been forced to realize his state 
of mental confusion. For it soon became clear that no reputation 
could survive a conversation with Socrates, the man who knew 

Socrates didn't claim to teach anybody anything. He only 
helped people to question themselves. "He did not provide his 
hearers with new and interesting ideas, but like a midwife 
assisted the pregnant mind to bring forth its own truths. In the 
early dialogues of Plato we can watch 'the midwife' at work." 


The foregoing quotations are from Plato To-Day, Allen and 
Unwin, 1937, by R. H. S. Crossman, fellow and tutor of New 
College, Oxford. Originally radio talks, this book lacks the ver- 
bosity of most writings on Plato. He is paid to teach Plato, who 
wrote, but he has greater admiration for Socrates, who, like 
Christ and St. Francis, left nothing in writing but lives through 
the vividness of his personality. 

Crossman does not dwell on Plato's foibles or perversions. 
He pictures him as a very human personality, an aristocrat, of 
a time and place, who belonged to a dying order and a dying 
nation and tried to save it. He outlines his plan for society, the 
philosopher kings, the administrators. 

"Plato's philosophy is the most savage and the most pro- 
found attack upon Liberal ideas which history can show. It 
denies every axiom of 'progressive' thought and challenges all 
its fondest ideals. Equality, freedom, self-government all are 
condemned as illusions." 

Plato, he tells us, "busied himself with the problems of his 


fellow Greeks ... In all that he tried to do for the Greeks he 
failed. Why then should people in this modern world bother to 
read what he had to say?" 

In an extended analysis of "Why Plato Failed" he explains 
his relations to his time and his inability to adjust himself to 
inevitable forces which he failed to face, turning backward to 
"defend a status quo in which the seeds of revolution are 
watered by the self-righteous opposition of the educated classes 
to all forms of social change." 

"The politicians on each side were equipped with high-sound- 
ing slogans: the Left claimed that they were the champions of 
the constitutional rights of the people, the Right that they stood 
for aristocracy, law, and order." 


"It is Socrates, not Plato, whom we need", Grossman tells us. 
Socrates was "the first man who really saw what intellectual 
integrity implied and yet preferred it to everything else. He was 
the spirit of research, incorruptible, intolerant of sham, greedy 
for every variety of human experience, insatiable in dicussion, 
ironic yet serious. Such a spirit is generally intolerable to any 
well-organized community. The statesman . . . the priest . . . 
the professor . . . will all unite to suppress the free spirit . . . 
which respects no authority . . . 

"Every established authority must resort to the most irra- 
tional of defences force. There is no other weapon against the 
conscientious objector . . . Conscientious objection to prejudice 
and unreason . . . will have no simple answer to the questions 
of the hour. 

"Regarding force as irrational, it will refuse to use it and 
ceaselessly demand that those who are prepared to do so should 
ask themselves precisely what their purpose and their motives 
are. The Athenian democracy had no answer to this question 
has the United States or England?, and so Socrates died. . . 

"Socrates will always be compelled to die, his death will 
always be ... condemned by succeeding generations, who see so 
easily in retrospect that truth is ultimately preferable to any 
established falsehood, however efficient it may be. Condemning 
the death of the historical Socrates, each generation kills its 


Our Western philosophy is quite different from Chinese 
philosophy. We Nordics and Baltics, recently brought in con- 
tact with classic cultures and Oriental religions, have had our 
inferiority complex so enlarged that we have to excuse ourselves 
at every turn, we have to build screens and camouflages, and 
we call these philosophies, and get pleasure from contemplating 
life in distant worlds, or in chasing our mental tails. In extrovert 
Elizabethan times, when we were beginning to discover the 
world and gaining release from metaphysical fears, we sailed 
forth and singed the King of Spain's beard and felt "the world 
is mine oyster". 


Lin Yutang two years ago produced a beautiful and engaging 
picture of an ancient culture, reflecting the sweetest and deepest 
kind of patriotism. It was entitled "My Country and My 
People". No Westerner has yet written with as great depth of 
feeling, understanding, and sanity of his own people and coun- 

Now his The Importance of Living, Reynal and Hitchcock, 
1937, has fortunately become a best seller. He presents what we 
'Westerns' would call a 'philosophy of life'. But it is actually a 
way of avoiding the kind of philosophy we have been sampling 
and arriving at enjoyment. The great theme is that life is worth 
living and worth enjoying, without vain hope of future life, 
without excuse or apology for the present. He writes, 

"Deprived of academic training in philosophy,! am less scared 
to write a book about it. Everything seems clearer and simpler 
for it. . . Courage seems to be the rarest of all virtues in a modern 

The Western philosophy is all to answer the questions "Why 
am I?" "How did I get this way?" and "Where do I go from 
here?" "What is the end of living and what is the purpose of 
life?" The Chinese never ask those questions. They live and die 
and explore the universe about them, unquestioning but ex- 
ploring, discovering, appreciating, enjoying. 


"According to empirical philosophy, science provides the only 
means we have for learning about man and the world in which 
he lives. Some have thought that this fact makes philosophy 
unnecessary. . . The elimination does rule out one kind of philos- 
ophy, namely, that which held that philosophy is a higher form 



of knowledge than the scientific kind, one which furnishes 
knowledge of ultimate higher reality," John Dewey said in 
"The Relation of Science and Philosophy as the Basis of Educa- 
tion", a paper read before the National Society for the Study of 
Education, February 26, 1938, at the Atlantic City meeting of 
the American Association of School Administrators, School and 
Society, April 9, 1938. 

But, he added, "Given the most extensive and accurate system 
of knowledge, man is still faced with the question of what he is 
going to do about it and what he is going to do with the knowl- 
edge in his possession. . . 

"Experimental philosophy is at one with the genuine spirit 
of a scientific attitude . . . Finally, the science and philosophy 
of education can and should work together in overcoming the 
split between knowledge and action, between theory and prac- 
tice, which now affects both education and society, so seriously 
and harmfully." 


"Great is philosophy, for it is the synthesis of all knowledge, 
but if it is true philosophy it must be built upon sceince, which 
is tested knowledge", said Edwin Grant Conklin in his address 
as retiring president of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 

"Nowadays our philosophers are mathematicians. Their aim, 
if not their ambition, is not to explain, but to translate quantita- 
tively the facts perceived by our conscience." (Du Noiiy, "Bio- 
logical Time"). 

"The only justification for our concepts and system of con- 
cepts is that they serve to represent the complex of our experi- 
ences; beyond this they have no legitimacy. I am convinced 
that the philosophers have had a harmful effect upon the prog- 
ress of scientific thinking in removing certain fundamental con- 
cepts from the domain of empiricism, where they are under our 
control, to the intangible heights of the a priori" wrote Albert 
Einstein in "The Meaning of Relativity". 

"Not all so-called 'philosophy' represents an episode of se- 
mantic illness," says Korzybski. "A few 'philosophers' really do 
important work. This applies to the so-called 'critical philoso- 
phy' and to the theory of knowledge or epistemology. This class 
of workers I call epistemologists, to avoid the disagreeable im- 
plications of the term 'philosopher'." 


Science has made possible the society of today, the great 
increase in the number of the human race, the possibility of 
their living not only on the surface of the earth but aggregated 
as they are in great communities. Society still needs science and 
more science. A symposium on "Science and Society" is an- 
nounced to be held at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology in Cambridge, June 6, 1038. Some of the topics to be 
treated by invited speakers are "Science and Letters", "Bio- 
Technics and Architecture". 


"The human race has more and greater benefits to expect 
from the successful cultivation of the science which deals with 
living things, than from all the other sciences put together." 
This is quoted from Charles W. Eliot. 

"The depression is a small price to pay if it induces us to think 
about the cause of the disorder, confusion, and insecurity which 
are the outstanding traits of our social life ... our halfway and 
accidental use of science,'' says John Dewey. "It is incredible 
that the men who have brought the technique of physical dis- 
covery, invention, and use to such a pitch of perfection, will ab- 
dicate in the face of the infinitely more important human 
problem. . . The great scientific revolution is still to come. It will 
ensue when men collectively and cooperatively organize their 
knowledge to achieve and make secure human values." 


"Education . . . has hardly been touched by the application 
of science", Dewey tells us in his "The Supreme Intellectual 
Obligation". What is needed, he says, is not scientific informa- 
tion, but a scientific attitude, the ability to see straight, to eval- 
uate bits of truth, and piece them together into a related whole. 
"The greatest indictment that can be brought against present 
civilization, in its intellectual phase, is that so little attention is 
given to instilling trust in intelligence and eager interest in its 
active manifestation. 

"I take little interest in demonstrations of the average low 
level of native intelligence as long as I am aware how little is 
done to secure full operation of what native intellectual capacity 
there is, however limited it may be." 


The Advancing Front of Science, Whittlesey House, 1937, by 


George W. Gray, is a mine of pregnant quotations. It is an in- 
teresting report on his visits to the laboratories of foremost 
workers. Three pages are given of names of those to whom he is 
indebted. He notes, "The American public spends more money 
to attend two major football games than goes into a year's 
cancer research in all the institutions now at work on this truly 
major human problem." 

He has covered a broad frontier from Pasadena to Moscow, 
and his reports are surprisingly up to date. Much of his news is 
of 1936 and 1937. The range of the news he brings us is from 
galaxies five hundred million light years away, through the 
atmosphere, radio, the new science of sound, to the intimate 
details of the interior of the atom. We continue to cull from the 


"Isaiah Bowman said, 'In our time the highest hope of social 
advancement is based on a reasoned relationship of man to man, 
not a haphazard relationship. We have come to believe that the 
affairs of man are not subject to a malign fatalism as he goes 
forward in his "dark striving toward the good". Science is in re- 
lentless pursuit of power to diminish the darkness of that striving 
and to "shape reality from hope's vast dream". . .' 

" 'If the devices of social invention are able to keep pace with 
the scientific organization of nature, our new road may lead to 
a fairyland of achievement/ says Charles E. Merriman, politi- 
cal scientist, of the University of Chicago. 'The burdens of 
hunger, disease, toil, and fear may be lifted. The book of leisure 
may be opened, and the treasures of human appreciation and 
enjoyment made available to the mass of mankind.' . . . 

"And from Russia echoes the confidence of Pavlov, 'Only 
science, exact science about human nature itself, and the most 
sincere approach to it by the aid of the omnipotent scientific 
method, will deliver man from his present gloom, and will purge 
him from his contemporary shame in the sphere of inter-human 

At Chicago the faculty in natural sciences makes a periodic 
survey of themselves. They put the members of the department 
on exhibit. They make them confess their articles of faith. And 
it is a grand show. In The World and Man as Science Sees 
Them, Doubleday, Doran, 1937, the departments file by with 
Forest Ray Moulton, editor, as drum major, a parade such as 
all love to watch. Prizes go to astronomy, geology, and all the 
biological sciences. About ten years ago, these same depart- 
ments were paraded in "The Nature of the World and Man". 
Few universities would dare put their departments on inspec- 


tion every few years in this way. In some cases it would result 
in obscene exposure. 

It is an inspiring book. We have already referred to Professor 
Alice's treatment of man and insects and their social systems. 
Professor Moulton of the department of astronomy tells us the 
Milky Way is what we see edgewise and from an insignificant 
position on the sidelines of our galaxy. Magellan in the southern 
sky discovered the Magellanic Clouds which now we know to be 
the nearest galaxy to us, less than 100,000 light years away. 
Beyond in all directions, void, until at 700,000 light years there 
is a small galaxy, Taurus. And at QOO,OOO, the great nebula of 
Andromeda, which we see edge on, by light which has been on 
its way since before man appeared on the earth. 

Within a million light years there are only six galaxies. Now 
we go on our way 10,000,000 light years, and in that concentric 
sphere we find one thousand galaxies. But if we go on 500,000,- 
ooo light years we discover 100,000,000 galaxies like the Milky 
Way and Andromeda. And they are all moving outward, away 
from us, with a speed up to 15,000 miles per second, which in- 
creases with their distance. 

For the more distant galaxies, Professor Moulton has to refer 
us to Professor Shapley of Harvard, who tells us of one super 
galaxy 7,000,000 light years in diameter, and suggests that there 
may be something bigger and better and beyond the super 
galaxies. Ajid this he evidently found, for April 23, 1938, at 
Philadelphia, before the American Philosophical Society, he 
told of a more recent photographic survey of an area near the 
south galactic pole. 


George Sarton, of Harvard, who has devoted his life to the 
subject, in his The History of Science and the New Humanism, 
Harvard University Press, 1937, says, "I do not know who is 
the poorer, the old humanist without understanding of science 
or the scientist without appreciation of beauty ... I would 
never claim that science is more important than art, morality, 
or religion, but it is more fundamental, for progress in any di- 
rection is always subordinated to some form or other of scien- 
tific progress". 

In his Elihu Root Lectures of the Carnegie Institute of Wash- 
ington, 1936, he said, 

|fe"The history of science is the story of a protracted struggle, 
which will never end, against the inertia of superstitution and 
ignorance, against the liars and hypocrites, against the deceivers 
and the self-deceived, against all the forces of darkness and 
The history of society or government is the story of a pro- 


tracted struggle, which will never end. Against all the forms of 
tyranny, whether individual or social, against arbitrariness in 
human dealings, and against the exploitation of the weak and 
the poor by the strong and the rich, the history of mankind is 
that of a Pilgrim's Progress, which can never be free from 
struggles, for the latter never end except with life itself. " 


"Education, based upon a knowledge of the principles of de- 
velopment and aimed at the cultivation of better relations 
among all classes, races and nations is the chief hope of social 
progress. The most enduring effect of education is habit forma- 
tion", said Edwin Grant Conklin, philosophical biologist, in his 
address as retiring president of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, at Indianapolis, December 27, 1937 
(Science, December 31, i()37). He further stated: 

"in all normal human beings it is possible to cultivate habits 
of unselfishness rather than selfishness, of sympathy rather than 
enmity, of cooperation rather than antagonism. To trust en- 
tirely to heredity to improve men or society is ... to disregard 
the universal experience of mankind that human nature may be 
improved by humane nurture. . . 

"The president of the University of Chicago has recently 
called science a failure in the educational process and has urged 
a return to philosophy as the only sure road to sound discipline 
and true culture. . . As an educational discipline there are no 
other studies that distinguish so sharply truth from error, evi- 
dence from opinion, reason from emotion." 

"Education, then, which looks to the highest development of 
the physical, intellectual and moral capacities of men is the chief 
hope of human progress. . . Great progress can be made toward 
the 'good society' by the better development of the capacities 
we already possess. All the advances from savagery to the high- 
est civilization have been made without any corresponding im- 
provement in heredity. . . 


"The ethics of science . . . teaches that both human nature 
and humane nurture may be improved . . . and the progress of 
the human race through future ages be promoted by intelligence 
and good will. . . It is concerned especially with education of a 
kind that establishes habits of rational thinking, generous feeling 
and courageous doing. . . 

"The greatest problems that confront the human race are 
how to promote social cooperation; how to increase loyalty to 
truth, how to promote justice, and a spirit of brotherhood; how 
to expand ethics until it embraces all mankind. . . 


"The faith, ideals and ethics of science constitute a form of 
natural religion . . . include . . . recognition of the fact that 
knowledge is relative, not absolute, and that only gradually do 
we arrive at truth concerning nature . . . "The ills of society, 
like the diseases of the body, have natural causes and they can 
be cured only by controlling those causes. . . 

"That so little has been accomplished and so much remains 
to be done is due in part to refractory material, poor methods 
and the necessity of repeating this work in every generation. . . . 
Religious bodies are enormous organizations with great poten- 
tialities for good. Why should not science and religion be allies 
rather than enemies in this process of domesticating and civiliz- 
ing the wild beast in man?" 


"Freedom has been essential for the advance of science, and 
the time has come when scientists and scientific organizations 
should stand for freedom. . . Throughout the period of recorded 
human history there has been a notable growth of freedom not 
only from the rigors of nature but also from the tyrannies of 
men. . . Even in certain sciences, freedom of teaching and re- 
search has been restricted or prohibited, in spite of the fact that 
the advancement of science rests upon freedom to seek and test 
and proclaim the truth. . . 

"Science should be the supreme guardian of intellectual free- 
dom, but in this world crisis only a few scientists have fought 
for intellectual freedom. . . when it has been threatened. Perhaps 
they have lacked that confidence in absolute truth and that 
emotional exaltation that have led martyrs and heroes to wel- 
come persecution. . . 

"To us the inestimable privilege is given to add to the store 
of knowledge, to seek truth not only for truth's sake but also 
for humanity's sake, and to have a part in the greatest work of 
all time, namely, the further progress of the human race through 
the advancement of both science and ethics." 


Oscar Riddle, before the American Science Teachers Associa- 
tion, Atlantic City, December 31, ig36, Scicmc Education, 
April, 1937, speaking "For Natural Science" on "The Relative 
Claims of Natural Science and of Social Studies to a Core Place 
in the Secondary School Curriculum", said: 

"With our better universities and research institutes largely 
dedicated to truth, but with practically all of our other institu- 
tions neglecting, twisting, curbing or suppressing basic biologic 
truth, there is little wonder that our people are uninformed or 
misinformed on man's own nature and man's place in nature. . . 


"Life-science can emphasize the newness of intimate knowl- 
edge of ourselves. Nearly all of the definite and worth-while that 
we know about our own bodies has been learned within the time 
of men now alive. Most that we know about the care of our 
bodies and nearly everything that we know about fighting 
disease successfully has been learned in that same time or in 
an even shorter period." 


The Origin of Life, by A. I. Oparin, of the Biochemical In- 
stitute, U. S. S. R., Macmillan, 1938, has just been translated, 
though written two years ago. Fifteen years ago a preliminary 
draft of it was published in Russia. The subject is one of organic 
chemistry, biochemistry. Reviewing and rejecting all earlier 
theories as to the origin, the approach is wholly through chemis- 
try. All life centers about carbon. In the molten earth carbon 
first united with the heavy metals, forming carbides. Acted on 
by superheated steam in the atmosphere, these would form 
hydrocarbons, and as the temperature cooled would take up 
water to form more complex ones. This reaction is the basis for 
the synthetic manufacture of fatty acids. 

All living substance consists of colloidal aggregates. Colloids 
are dispersions of one substance in another. The first colloids 
in the sea were not living. They had no shape, boundary, or 
individuality. But around some colloidal particles water mole- 
cules arranged themselves to form a definite boundary, and such 
are called coazervates. Such coazervate droplets, "separated 
from the surrounding medium by a more or less definite border, 
. . . acquired a certain degree of individuality." 

Now we get into rather complex chemical technique which 
leads to the subject of enzymes and "their enormous biological 
significance". "Without enzymes there can be no life", but en- 
zymes are not living. There is obscurity here in the next step to 
photosynthesis and fermentation. The problem is not solved, 
but here is a clear exposition of how far chemists have gone and 
of the missing steps, fully documented and offering hope of a 
complete solution. 


We look out upon the world, and interpret what comes to us 
through the senses, through our beliefs, ideologies, sets of ideas 
that we have absorbed from parents and teachers, as the twig 
was being bent. While any set of such ideas, explanations in- 
vented in the past prevail, while we are under the influence of 
a system of mythology, folklore, theology, or philosophy, while 
we believe in a set of 'eternal verities', there is no freedom for us, 
there is little possibility of discovery. But periodically in spite 
of repressions and suppressions, great minds blaze forth like 
comets and bring new light to the world. 

In the Harvard Alumni Bulletin, April 22, 1938, Brooks 
Atkinson, writing to the suggested 'toast', "The Value of a 
Liberal Education Judged from the Standpoint of Later Life", 
specified, "To provide a technique for enlightenment ... to 
liberate a student from the taboos and habits of the routine 
world ... to loosen his mind so that he can cope with the pitiless 
stream of ideas that will always pour down on him . . . those are 
some of the things a liberal education can do". And then he 
admits that Harvard didn't do it for him. 

Galileo, in overturning the Aristotelian system in the seven- 
teenth century, gave us a new technique with which to explore 
the universe. Those two Poles, Lobatchewsky and Lucasiewicz, 
within a century successfully challenging Euclid's axioms, made 
possible a new freedom for mathematical investigation. Einstein 
in this twentieth century with his theory of relativity gave us a 
new technique with which to scrutinize what we formerly held 
as true. 

Now come the semanticists scrutinizing the words we use and 
showing how our language, differing from our organic nerve and 
brain reactions, throws the human machine out of kilter. Not 
only does this result in our entanglement in philosophic and 
metaphysical mazes, but economists and the critics of society 
have bogged down in words that are mere symbols, without 
consciousness that they were strangling themselves. 


The new science of semantics makes obsolete most of the 
teaching of the philosophers, the metaphysicians, the econo- 
mists. The decisions of the judges and the sacred themes of the 
statesmen, under semantic scrutiny resolve themselves into 
traps for mankind. But semantics is destructive only in that it 



clears the way for a re-examination and a better understanding 
of human difficulties. 

The psychiatrist who sees most tragically the breakdown of 
humanity under the ideals and teachings of our present teach- 
ers, because of philosophies and principles and ethics, is natur- 
ally the first to appreciate the value of this new science and to 
apply it in repairing broken mentalities, in driving out devils 
and saving souls. 

It will be long before our universities give general recognition. 
No major college yet offers a course in this important subject. 
But then the universities usually lag a few centuries behind the 
leaders of thought. Up to IQOO Harvard had not recognized in 
its courses that the world was round. To the universities se- 
mantics will long remain a heresy, for it would reveal to un- 
prejudiced undergraduates that a large proportion of their 
professors were engaged in meaningless juggling of words and 
symbols, in philosophy, economics, and government. 

Periodically Stuart Chase finds a new enthusiasm and brings 
it to a larger audience than it would otherwise reach. He has put 
the consumer on his guard. He has brought home to a larger 
public the waste of our American social system, of our soil, and 
of our continent's resources. Now he has discovered the waste 
of our human energy in our symbolic use of words. 

The Tyranny of Words, Harcourt, Brace, 1038, by Stuart 
Chase, is the first attempt to popularize the work of the pioneers 
in semantics, and because of earlier publication of several 
chapters in Harper's immediately became a best seller. But even 
under his skillful handling the subjects he treats are tough and 
knotty. Moreover, understanding of them changes one's ideas 
materially, destroys his faith in words that have always been 
printed with a capital, leads one on to where his former beliefs 
look foolish. 

But he has ruthlessly applied the same critical method to his 
own previous writings, selections from which he included with 
"Horrible Examples" of other writers in an appendix, with a 
semantic commentary showing how meaningless are the sacred 
words used by statesmen and economists examined in the light 
of the new semantics. Stuart Chase has done a brave job and he 
has reported in an interesting way on his study of the exponents 
of this discipline. He tells us he has "read Freud, Trotter, Le 
Bon, MacDougall, Watson". 


He reports on the pioneers C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards. 
He read their "Meaning of Meaning", and found Malinowski's 


essay, (reviewed in this Handbook, 2oth ed., pp. 113, 114) the 
first attempt to deal with the study of the "influence of language 
on thought". Chase remarks, "The title sounded like more 
philosophy. On the contrary, philosophers were harried from 
pillar to post." He read P. W. Bridgman and "found a similar 
criticism of language". He read E. T. Bell and Lancelot Hogben, 
Henshaw Ward, and went back to Jeremy Bentham, the grand- 
father of the study of "imposter-terms" (cf. 2oth ed., p. 39). 

He "read Thurman Arnold's 'The Symbols of Government' 
and looked at language from another unsettling but illuminating 
angle. For the individual, as I can testify, a brief grounding in 
semantics, besides making philosophy unreadable, makes un- 
readable most political speeches, classical economic theory, 
after-dinner oratory, diplomatic notes, newspaper editorials, 
treatises on pedagogics and education, expert financial comment, 
dissertations on money and credit, accounts of debates, and 
Great Thoughts from Great Thinkers in general. You would be 
surprised at the amount of time this saves." 

But he found his great inspiration, naturally, in Korzybski. 
He tells us, "In his book 'Science and Sanity', published in 1933, 
he explored the possibility of formulating a genuine science of 
communication. . . I looked for the first time into the awful 
depths of language itself; depths into which the grammarian 
and the lexicographer have seldom peered, for theirs is a differ- 
ent business. Grammar, syntax, dictionary derivations are to 
semantics as a history of the coinage is to the operations going 
on in a large modern bank. . . 

"One wonders if modern methods of mass education promote 
as much knowledge in children's minds as they do confusion. . . 
Fortunately there is nothing seriously the matter with our 
natural mental equipment. It might be improved, but the nor- 
mal human brain, to quote Korzybski, has the possibility of 
making at least ten (10) with 2,783,000 zeros after it, different 
connections between nerve cells. . . 

"People are not 'dumb' because they lack mental equipment; 
they are dumb because they lack an adequate method for the 
use of that equipment. Those intellectuals whose pastime is to 
sit on high fences and deplore the innate stupidity of the herd 
are on a very shaky fence. . . 

"In brief, with a dreadful irony, we are acting to produce 
precisely the kinds of things and situations which we do not 
want. . . I assume that it is a temporary perversion, that it is 
bound up to some extent with an unconscious misuse of man's 
most human attributes, thinking and its tool, language. . . 

"Most of us are aware of the chronic inability of school chil- 
dren to understand what is taught them; their examination 
papers are familiar exhibits in communication failure." 



As a popularizer it is Chase's job to attract our attention to 
this important field of knowledge and the unrecognized books 
the great thinkers have written. But he has opened himself to 
criticism and abuse from the philosophers, politicians, econo- 
mists and others whom he tells in effect they are using terms in 
meaningless ways and don't know what they are talking about. 

"One might continue almost indefinitely listing words about 
which there is much solemn argument, mostly meaningless and 
futile: Centralization, Decentralization, Production, Money, 
Credit, Economic Planning, Balance the Budget, and so forth. 
. . Pick up any magazine or newspaper, and you will find many 
of the articles devoted to sound and fury from politicians, edi- 
tors, leaders of industry, and diplomats." 

This is rather more than one who has committed himself in 
speech or print in support of the eternal verities, Democracy, 
Geometry, Economics, or what you will, can stand. So they re- 
sent it. Most of his reviewers criticize his presentation of Se- 
mantics from a hasty reading, and it isn't possible to read even 
Chase's report hastily and understand it. But they have failed 
to go back to his sources and understand their importance. 


One of the great intellects of this century, to stand with 
Pavlov and Einstein, he is yet to be recognized, to come into 
his own. Primarily mathematical in his approach, in his work 
he draws upon every field of knowledge. In biology, neurology, 
psychiatry, mathematics, physics, specialists have checked his 
work and found his contributions sound. No one yet has felt 
competent to fully comprehend or criticize his broad studies 
and findings, to attempt a review and critique of his work as a 
whole. It will be long before the great centers of learning are 
able to utilize and interpret to the world the work he has ac- 

Count Alfred Korzybski at the age of six was taught by his 
father to use calculus. For generations the men of this aristo- 
cratic Polish family had been engineers and mathematicians. 
A mathematical engineer of the University of Warsaw, Korzyb- 
ski spent years studying Greek philosophy at the University of 
Rome. Trained cavalryman, fencer, marksman, he served in 
the war on the Russian General Staff till disabled and sent to 
Canada to test artillery for the Russian government. 

His first book appeared in 1921. The following years were 
spent in intensive study in psychopathic hospitals. In 1933 
appeared "Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non- Aristo- 
telian Systems and General Semantics". In the past several 


years seminars in General Semantics have been held at uni- 
versities and colleges and psychopathic hospitals throughout 
the country. He is now establishing the Institute for General 
Semantics in Chicago. 

Korzybski's work has been hailed and acclaimed by the great 
minds of the world and by the great specialists in mathematics, 
anthropology, biology, neurology, philosophy, and psychiatry, 
among them Malinowski, E. T. Bell, Bertrand Russell, William 
A. White, Smith Ely Jelliffe. 

H. S. Jennings says, "The attempt of Count Korzybski to 
formulate the world and its processes, keeping in view the fact 
that no two things are identical ... is something that had to be 
done, and it has within it the seeds of a much needed intellectual 
revolution"; Raymond Pearl: "A contribution to human 
thought and understanding of the very first rank of importance"; 
David G. Fairchild: "Korzybski's masterly treatise will act as 
a powerful force . . . Korzybski's criticisms are so profound that 
they change the very foundations upon which we have been 
used to depend"; William Morton Wheeler: "Count Korzyb- 
ski's work seems to me to be of great value ... to the biologist 
and sociologist in particular . . . lays the foundation for a sound 
and much-needed social, commercial and political ethics"; 
C. Judson Herrick: "Count Korzybski has diagnosed a funda- 
mental source of confusion in thinking and in conduct"; P. W. 
Bridgman: "A technique by which the vicious consequences of 
verbal habits may be avoided"; Roy J. Kennedy: "Whether or 
not the reader's sanity is improved by a careful study of the 
book, he cannot fail to enlarge his capacity for dear thinking"; 
Ralph S. Lillie: "Korzybski's criticism of the present structure 
and usages of human society ... is timely and well-founded". 


Korzybski has demonstrated the applicability of General 
Semantics to education in a number of educational institutions. 
At the Bars tow School, Kansas City, the English work was re- 
organized by Director M. M. Kendig on a semantic basis. 
Semantics was introduced, too, by the late Cora L. Williams, 
Williams Institute, Berkeley, California, who wrote, "What 
Einstein has done for the outer realm of our being, Korzybski 
is doing for our inner realm". 

Professor E. A. Hooton of Harvard writes me personally of 
the value of Korzybski's work in education as follows: 

"I am deeply impressed with the practical possibilities of the 
application of Count Alfred Korzybski's semantic teachings to 
problems of education. This writer has an extraordinary grasp 
of the basic sciences of biology, chemistry, and mathematics. 
To this he adds a profound knowledge of the science of the 


meaning of language and mathematical logic. I am of the 
opinion that a great many psychoses and frustrations that fall 
to the lot of individuals in our civilized populations are due to 
the unsuitability of our linguistic structure to man's animal 
organism. While I do not think that a revision of language and 
a re-adaptation of its structure to the organism will solve every 
human problem, I nevertheless am convinced that the introduc- 
tion of such a revision into our educational system would greatly 
ameliorate human misunderstandings and would straighten out 
countless individual difficulties. 

"I therefore feel that all persons seriously interested in educa- 
tion should inform themselves in regard to Count Korzybski's 
work and I observe with great satisfaction the efforts of the few 
progressive teachers who have attempted to utilize these very 
promising and indubitably scientific methods of re-education." 


General Semantics, Olivet College, 1937, mimeographed, 
$1.00, is a report on a seminar given by Count Alfred Korzyb- 
ski which makes abundantly clear the method by which this 
discipline may profitably be applied in educational institutions. 
It reveals the vitality, aliveness, practicability and profundity 
of Korzbyski and his method. 

"Education in the Modern World" is an address by Joseph 
Brewer, President of Olivet College, published by the college, 
1937, which reviews the educational application of Korzbyski's 
work in various educational institutions. He says, 

"General Semantics presents a natural order of evaluation 
which can once more provide us with a direction, an Ariadne's 
thread for our 1937 maze. It might well take its place as the 
inheritor of the great Humanist Tradition, taking all knowledge 
including science to be its province and from which nothing that 
is human is considered alien. . . 

"Man's language function is of paramount importance for his 
happiness since it affects directly the functioning of his nervous 
system and hence his adjustment to the world outside his skin, 
including other human beings. 

"Unless his verbal and symbolical structures which can actu- 
ally alter the constitution of the colloids in his nervous system, 
are similar to the structure of the world in which he lives, he is 
like a man trying to find his way in unknown territory by means 
of a map of some other country." 


Our world is a new world. Our solar system is juvenile. No one 
is complaining about the age of our galactic system as compared 
with other nebulae. Life is recent. Only since the temperature 
of water and air, since the 'fitness of the environment' was just 
right, has life appeared. The world has just begun. 


Man, the species, is on the up. From a slow start some millions 
of years ago he has recently been getting up speed. In the last 
hundred thousand he has straightened up and become fairly 
presentable, though Hooton still apologizes for him to the apes. 
In the last ten thousand years he has developed a fellow feeling, 
come to speak of the species as 'mankind'. And mankind is on 
the march. His mastery of fire filled him with the desire to con- 
quer all materials and forces, and he is on the way. 

"It is all ahead of us. At every period in time there is some- 
body to say, '1 don't see what there is new to be done'. Go out 
and look. If we can cast off the bugaboo of 'Your world is fin- 
ished', and put in its place, 'The world is begun', we have a 
marvelous future ahead of us." Speaking is C. F. Kettering, 
General Motors millionaire, inventor of the self-starter, the 
fever machine, and scores of devices (Readers Digest, January, 


"We ought to quit being afraid of the future. Change is the 
law of life. We should work with change instead of being forced 
into it. All our education teaches finality. Business clamors for 
stability. Our thinking is conventionalized. . . 


"The most important research problem in the world today is 
'to find out why grass is green'. . . If we knew that secret we 
could build engines to transform enough radiation from the sun 
into heat or chemical energy or electricity to run our machin- 

Man is a saprophyte, dependent for his food on other animals 
and plants, and they in turn on chlorophyl, the green coloring 
matter of all plants, which can utilize the sun's energy to manu- 
facture organic compounds. The chemists are working on the 
process, will soon be able to do the trick. Conant, one of the 
foremost, sacrificed a possible victory to head Harvard. We are 
dependent in a large measure on life long since past, that stored 
up energy in earth's strata. 

At Miami, where Kettering has been working on a machine 



to measure the sun's intensity, three months later he said to a 
reporter (Boston Herald, April 24, 1938): 

"All our fuels are products of the sun. We dig coal and pump 
up petroleum and then use the energy given them by the sun. 

"What we must do now is learn how to use today's sunshine 
rather than the sunshine of thousands of years ago. But we're 
so ignorant!" 


"We don't know very much about anything. We're so terribly 
ignorant. If we would only admit it instead of hiding our ignor- 
ance behind high sounding scientific terms, we'd go further. . . 
All we can do is keep on the road and hope we'll come out some- 
where. . . We hate to admit we don't know it all, and we keep 
ourselves back by pretending to have knowledge we don't 

Kettering deplores the world's dearth of creative minds. Like 
Socrates, he appreciates the density of ignorance in high places. 
More than two centuries ago William Penn in "Some Fruits of 
Solitude" wrote of "Education" and "Ignorance": 

"It is admirable to consider how many millions of people 
come into and go out of the world ignorant of themselves and 
of the world they have lived in. . . 


"We are in pain to make them scholars, but not men; to talk 
rather than to know, which is true canting. The first thing 
obvious to children is what is sensible; and that we make no 
part of their rudiments. 

"We press their memory too soon, and puzzle, strain and load 
them with words and rules ; to know grammar and rhetoric, and a 
strange tongue or two, that it is ten to one may never be useful 
to them; leaving their natural genius to mechanical and physi- 
cal, or natural knowledge uncultivated and neglected; which 
would be of exceeding use and pleasure to them through the 
whole course of their life . . . 

"Children had rather be making of tools and instruments of 
play; shaping, drawing, framing, and building, etc., than getting 
some rules of propriety or speech by heart: and those also would 
follow with more judgment, and less trouble and time. 

"It were happy if we studied nature more in natural things, 
whose rules are few, plain and most reasonable. Let us begin 
where she begins, go her pace, and close always where she ends, 
and we cannot miss of being good naturalists." 

Thomas Whitney Surette, founder of the Concord School of 
Music where he has inspired and trained teachers so that they 
have revivified music in a thousand schools, returning from 


Black Mountain College, where he has been professor of music 
and poetry, told the Women's City Club of New York, Christian 
Science Monitor, April 25, 1938): 

"Education has once more become a simple natural thing. It 
has the force of a kind of religion . . . Here is a college that is 
like a family ... no lectures ... no degrees ... no trustees. 
Conferences where there is the closest contact between teacher 
and pupil . . . discussion free ... an intangible mixture of learn- 
ing and living together." 

"The world is certainly a great and stately volume of natural 
things; and may not be improperly styled the hieroglyphics of a 
better. But, alas! how very few leaves of it do we really turn 
over! This ought to be the subject of the education of our youth, 
who at twenty, when they should be fit for business, know little 
or nothing of it." (William Penn). 

"The world is so full of a number of things" that we have no 
need for other worlds to bring us enduring satisfactions, to 
be "as happy as kings". We need information that will help us 
to an understanding of the world we live in and the opportuni- 
ties before us. We need broad knowledge and understanding, the 
kind that will gradually send its roots down into the crannies 
and suck nourishment from deep below. We can make good use 
of the right kind of information and we suffer from lack of it. 
We learn only through our senses and by experience, by trial 
and error, except as we learn imitatively from the experience of 
others. But that knowledge must stand the test not only of 
experience but of verification, so that it may become common 
to all men. That is scientific knowledge. 

Most we need to know about ourselves. Man is still the great 
mystery. From the archeologist, the anthropologist, and the 
paleontologist, there is an enormous amount of fascinating 
information which is not available or known to the average 
school boy or even college graduate. It is questionable if half the 
faculty of Harvard University, the world's greatest center of 
light and learning, could pass the most elementary examination 
on the known history of man during the last million years, ex- 
cluding of course that short period since we invented writing, 
a few thousand years ago. 

"Unless the secondary school has led the youth to an under- 
standing of himself and of his place in nature it has withheld or 
pilfered from him his modern birthright" (Oscar Riddle). 

"It is human nature to change itself", William E. Hocking 


tells us. And John Dewey writes, "If human nature is unchange" 
able, then there is no such thing as education and all our effort 8 
to educate are doomed to failure. For the very meaning of edu" 
cation is modification of native human nature in formation o* 
those new ways of thinking, of feeling, of desiring, and of be" 
lieving that are foreign to raw human nature." 

When we speak of human nature, we mean the way we behave 
habitually, but our thought is fuzzy, we don't analyze (cf. 2ist 
ed., p. 116 ff.). So changeable is behavior that we would'nt enjoy 
the table manners of some of our relatives and ancestors not 
very remote. Human behavior constantly changes, subject to 
sun, temperature, winds, meteorological and physical condi- 
tions, with which we meet. The behavior of the plains Indians 
entirely changed after the horses of the Spanish, run wild, were 
captured and ridden by them. 

Advertising 'pays' because it changes behavior habits to the 
profit of the advertiser. The means of controlling and changing 
human nature are constantly being extended by print, tele- 
phone, radio, loud speakers. The future belongs to the best 
radio voice. The psychologist is showing us how to use these 
forms of propaganda to more effectively change human be- 
havior. The psychiatrist is improving his techniques to repair 
the damage the preceding have done. The endocrinologist is dis- 
covering short cuts by which the human nature of the individual 
may be radically changed. And the chemist is synthesizing the 
necessary hormones in his laboratory. 

With purpose, planning, good will, and our present tech- 
niques, we need no more brains than we have at present to im- 
prove human behavior, to change human nature. 


But the human mind is still in chains. Links of superstitution 
have been broken, but still what we call our beliefs control our 
actions. These we absorbed unconsciously in childhood, beliefs 
that were shaped generations ago when less was known about 
our world. 

The twigs have been bent, the trees are distorted. The world 
is run and operated by those that have been warped, given 
slants, ways of looking at things. They have been trained in 
folklore, folkways, the mythology of their parents and their 
teachers. As Professor MLUiken says, "Mankind's fundamental 
beliefs about the universe and his place in it must in the end 
motivate all his activities and all his conduct". 

Principles, philosophies, fundamentals, eternal verities, still 
control as did once magic and superstition. Unable to live up to 
false standards set, we are filled with a sense of failure and fear. 
We dare not face reality. 



At the looth anniversary of the birth of Colonel Francis 
Parker, one of his old pupils, Marion Foster Wotherspoon, 
mother of Carleton Washburne, called him "a realist, and a 
passionate foe both of sham and of all idealism which did not 
connect up with practical life". 

While most of the speakers praising Colonel Parker failed to 
face reality as he had, some spoke up in his own style. 

Harold Rugg, of Teachers College, Columbia, at the fifth 
general session, devoted to problems that teachers must face, 
said, "Face the problems! Confront them squarely, bravely, in- 
telligently not dodging an issue or a problem, a trend or a 
factor! ... No honest and informed educator can longer keep 
these out of the program of his school to keep them out is to 
keep life out of it! ... Teachers must become students of the 
world scene! Of its trends and factors. But below these trends 
are two great problems. The whole world -struggle of today is 
over these: First, Who shall control and own property? Second, 
Who shall control government? For . . . 10,000 years the 
struggle . . . has been over these . . . Today we tend to confuse 
them by saying, Fascism vs. Communism." (Progressive Edu- 
cation, December, 1937, pp. 614-617). 


"Will the Upper Classes Vanish?" Struthers Burt asks in The 
Forum, December, 1037. Of course they will, they always have. 
They must constantly be replenished from below. 

Henry R. Luce, of Time, "orated recently of conditions in this 
country: 'Without the aristocratic principle no society can en- 
dure . . . What slowly deadened our aristocratic sense was the 
expanding frontier, but more the expanding machine . . . But 
the aristocratic principle persisted in the United States in our 
fetish of comparative success . . . We got a plutocracy without 
any common sense of dignity and obligation. Money became 
more and more the only mark of success, but still we insisted 
that the rich man was no better than the poor man and the 
rich man accepted the verdict. And so let me make it plain, the 
triumph of the mass mind is nowhere more apparent than in the 
frustration of the upper classes." (Wolcott Gibbs, "Bed of 


This idea that education may 'save the world' is a new thing 
for humanity. For a few thousand years or less man has largely 
been interested in his own salvation. Now he has a larger con- 
cept of something that may be worth while. He may 'save the 
world', by which he means the world he knows, lives in, is 


comfortable in, which means, from an anthropological point 
of view, his culture, what an historian might call his civilization, 
the ways he has been in the habit of looking at things and react- 
ing toward them. 

If we do not 'save the world 1 , new and strange ways and 
customs will come in, perhaps be forced upon the survivors. 
That's what we mean. We don't mean we could avert the comet 
that may hit us and burn us up. We know we can't do that. 

'Saving the world' may be, for aught we know, starting with 
Chinese culture of some thousands of years ago and carrying on, 
fertilized by Western science. And it may be, for aught we know, 
carried on by a race that is two-thirds African negroid, the 
Northern peoples having been swept away. The more we know 
the less confidence we have that our own ancestral line is the 
only one that should persist forever. But that is a new attitude. 


Now that there is movement and change and things are not 
static, it's a great time to live. Most of us would be uncomfort- 
able if we were thrust back into our idealized Gothic eleventh 
century. Not many of us would feel happy powdered and be- 
wigged at the court of Louis XIV. We would have an uncom- 
fortable time if our great grandparents turned up for a visit. If 
the world of our forefathers had been 'saved' and we were now 
planted down in it, what a stew we would be in. 

There is something better, perhaps, than to 'save our world'. 
It is to play a small part in creating a better world, if you can 
conceive it, just a step at a time, without any blue prints, but 
with some vision and much faith. It's a great time for 'rugged 
individualism' of the right sort. It's a great time to live. 




In bold face type the basic statistical facts are 
given for each school as reported by the school. 
Enrollment figures are supposed to represent actual 
enrollment, but optimistic school heads occasionally 
list capacity figures. Many fail to report and others 
send figures asking that they be not published. Still 
others give a blanket approval of the statistics pub- 
lished in former editions. Such figures are printed 
in lieu of more up to date data. 

Listed alphabetically under the town or city are 
the School, for Boys, for Girls or Coeducational 
(Coed); the Ages of the pupils enrolled; the date of 
establishment (Est); the head, with degrees, 
colleges, and title. The enrollment (Enr) is when- 
ever possible divided into boarding (Bdg), Country 
Day (Co Day), and Day. The number of the faculty 
(Fac) in general includes only full-time instructors. 
Tuition (Tui) with its various ranges, boarding and 
day; the grades covered and the courses given, 
college preparatory (Col Prep), academic (Acad), 
and special (Music, Art, Domestic Science, etc.), are 
indicated. The type of ownership, incorporated not 
for profit, partnership, proprietary; the number of 
trustees and how elected; the endowment; scholar" 
ships and their value; prizes and their value; de- 
nominational influence or affiliation; the colleges 
and associations by which the school is accredited, 
the number of pupils taking College Entrance 
Board Examinations (C E B Exams) for various 
years; the number of graduates entering college in , 
1937; and the number of living alumni, are given 
where reported. Accrediting by state departments of 
education and by church boards, and membership 
in non-accrediting associations, have been omitted u 


BETHEL, ME. Alt 643 ft. Pop 2025 (1930). Motor Route 26 

from Portland. 

On a terrace above the Androscoggin, between Lewiston and 

Portland, this is a pleasant town of broad elm-shaded streets. 

Through the late Dr. John G. Gehring, nerve specialist, Bethel 

. became widely known. Stretching along the main street are the 

imposing red brick and limestone buildings of the academy. 

GOULD ACADEMY Coed Ages 14-20 Est 1836. 

Philip S. Sayles, A.B., Williams, A.M., Columbia, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 75, Day 100. Fac: 14. Tui: Bdg $400, Day $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Scientific Commercial 
Household Arts Manual Training. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees 20 self perpetuating. Endowment $52,296. C E B 
candidates '37, 2; > 32- > 36, i. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif 
Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc. 

This old school entered upon a new era in 1036, its centennial 
year, when Mr. Sayles came from the principalship of the Adams, 
Massachusetts, High School, to succeed Frank E. Hanscom, 
long principal. Under his direction courses have been broadened 
and more boys and girls enrolled from outside the state, though 
northern New England students are still in the majority. College 
preparatory and general courses are offered. The modern build- 
ings and much of the up to date equipment were given to the 
school by William Bingham. See page 1040. 

BRIDGTON, ME. Alt 405 ft. Pop 2546 (1920) 2659 (1930). 

M.C.R.R. Motor Route 18 from Portland. 
At the head of Long Lake, this small rural community has 
long been a center for summer camp and winter sports activities. 
The academy is back from the lake in North Bridgton. 

BRIDGTON ACADEMY, No. Bridgton Coed Ages 13-25- 

H. H. Sampson, A.B., Bowdoin, Principal. Est 1808. 
Enr: Bdg 80, Day 70. Fac: 10. Tui: Bdg $600, Day $100. Courses 
5 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music Post Grad. Incorporated. 
Trustees self perpetuating. Endowment $50,000. Undenomina- 
tional. C E B candidates '37, i ; > 32-*36, 5. Entered Col '37, 48; 
'32-36, 156. Alumni 2500. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

A group of local residents founded the academy when this 
section of the state was still a part of Massachusetts. Mr. Samp- 
son, principal for nearly two decades, has developed working 
scholarships that have brought the enrollment to capacity. 
Most of the students go on to northern New England colleges. 



CHARLESTON, ME. Pop 716 (1930). M.C.R.R. to Dover- 
Foxcroft. Motor Route 105. 

In Penobscot County, twenty-five miles from Bangor, Charles- 
ton is a quiet little village. The Institute stands on a hill. 


William A. Tracy, B.A., Colby, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 100, Day 40. Fac: 8. Tui: Bdg $360-385, Day $100. 
Courses 7 yrs: Grades VII- VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Home . 
Economics Music Post Grad Nurses Training. Incorporated 
1891 not for profit. Trustees 15 self perpetuating. Endowment 
$25,000. Income from invested funds $950. Baptist. C E B 
candidates '37, i ; '32-^36, o. Alumni 1040. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Privately owned and conducted for half a century as Charles- 
ton Academy, this was purchased in 1887 by the Rev. John H. 
Higgins, reorganized, given its present name, and presented to 
Colby College as its fourth fitting school. 

DEXTER, ME. Alt 380ft. Pop 4063 (1930). Motor Route U.S. 7. 

In the center of the state, on the route from Newport Junction 
to Moosehead Lake, Dexter is a small country town. Wassookeag 
School is on Bryant Hill overlooking the village. 

WASSOOKEAG SCHOOL Boys Ages 14-19 Est 1927. 

Lloyd Harvey Hatch, Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 20. Fac: 7. Tui: $2100-2500. Courses: Col Prep Jr 
Col. Proprietary. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 7; 
'32-'36, 50. Entered Col '37, 6; 32-'36, 44. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

Wassookeag has made a definite place for itself among the 
schools of northern New England. Tutorial in its system, giving 
boys virtually individual instruction, it avoids the cramming of 
the regulation tutoring school. Mr. Hatch, a former member of 
the faculties of Bowdoin and Cornell, has tremendous energy 
and devotes himself zealously to the school and his boys. A sum- 
mer session, Wassookeag School-Camp, antedating the winter 
school by a year, is affiliated. See page 930. 

FRYEBURG, ME. Alt 420ft. Pop 1592 (1930). Motor Route 18. 

Near the New Hampshire line about fifty miles from Portland, 
this quiet village is on the broad intervale of the Saco river in 
the foothills of the White Mountains. 

FRYEBURG ACADEMY Coed Ages 13-20 Est 1792. 

Elroy O. LaCasce, A.B., Bowdoin, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 80, Day 140. Fac: 14. Tui: Bdg $500, Day $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Commercial Music 
Manual Training Home Economics. Incorporated 1792 not for 


profit. Trustees 13 self perpetuating. Scholarships 10, value 
$1260. Prizes 12. Undenominational. Entered Col '37, 10; 
'32-'36, 42. Alumni 1900. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Dating back almost a hundred and fifty years, Fryeburg 
Academy has always been coeducational and still attracts about 
an equal number of boys and girls. Paul Langdon, the Bernard 
Langdon of Oliver Wendell Holmes' novel "Elsie Venner" was 
the first principal. His most eminent successor was Daniel 
Webster, who here made his first and only attempt at teaching 
school. Since 1922 this academy has been under Mr. LaCasce. 
New buildings were provided in 1930 through the endowment 
of Cyrus H. K. Curtis. 

GOOD WILL, ME. M.C.R.R. Route U.S. 201 to Hinckley. 

On the west side of the Kennebec river, about six miles from 
Fairfield, Good Will is a community in itself. 


Walter P. Hinckley, Supervisor. 

Enr: Bdg 190. Fac: 8. Tui: $0-175. Courses 6 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Acad Grades VII- VIII. Incorporated. Trustees 8. Un- 
denominational. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

This philanthropic institution was established by George W. 
Hinckley, now president of the Good Will Home Association, 
then a poor preacher who took three homeless boys into his 
family as a nucleus of the two thousand or more boys and girls 
who have since been given a home and education under his direc- 
tion. Mr. Hinckley was one of the pioneers in the summer camp 
movement, having conducted a camp for boys in 1880 on Gard- 
iner's Island, Rhode Island. Needy boys and girls are here given 
industrial training and schooling. Boys and girls grammar schools 
are separate, but both attend the same high school. The boys 
live fifteen in a cottage. 

HEBRON, ME. Alt 600 ft. Pop (twp) 652 (1920) 791 (1930). 
M.C.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 26 from Portland. 

This quiet hamlet in the hill country of western Maine is 
dominated by the academy. 

HEBRON ACADEMY Boys Ages 14-18 Est 1804. 

Ralph L. Hunt, A.B., Bates, M.A., Colby, Ed.D.,Maine,Princ. 
Enr: Bdg 219. Fac: 16. Tui: $575-750. Courses 4 yrs: High 
Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 15. Endowment 
$251,626. Income from invested funds $20,223. Scholarships 
1 8, value $24,000. Prizes 9, value $90. Baptist. C E B candi- 
dates '37, 13; '32-*36, 65. Entered Col '37, 75 J *32-'36, 2 52- 
Alumni 3000. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member 
N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 


This Baptist academy has been in continuous operation for 
more than a century and a quarter. Made a fitting school for 
Colby College in 1877, it was reorganized for boys only in 
1922 when Mr. Hunt, former public school principal, took 
charge. On the roll of its earlier alumni are many names of 
more than local fame. Maine still continues to furnish most of 
the students, but other parts of New England, the south and 
west are represented. Most of the graduates enter college. 

HOULTON, ME. Alt 357 ft. Pop (twp) 6865 (1930). C.P.R.R., 
B.&A.R.R. Route U.S. 2, north from Bangor 138 miles. 

This largest town in northeastern Maine is the center of the 
potato industry. Here are the extensive farms of E. T. Cleve- 
land, largest grower in the state. 

Coed Ages 12-20 Est 1848. 

Roy Mitchell Hayes, A.B., M.A., Colby, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 83, Day 141. Fac: 15. Tui: Bdg $410-450, Day $125- 
160. Courses 6 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Jr Col 1-2. Incor- 
porated. Baptist. Entered Col '37, 13; ^32-^36, 77. Alumni 
1400. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd (Acad). Member 
N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sen (Jr Col), Am Assoc Jr Col. 

For almost forty years known as Houlton Academy, the 
school was renamed in 1886 in recognition of the work of the 
Rev. Joseph Ricker who raised endowment and affiliated the 
institute with Colby College as one of its preparatory schools. 
Since 1935 full junior college work has Been offered. The enroll- 
ment is largely from the northern section of the state. 

KENTS HILL, ME. Pop 250 (1920). M.C.R.R. to Readfield. 

Motor Route 100 from Augusta, 217 from Manchester. 
Twelve miles northwest of Augusta, adjacent to the town of 
Readfield, this little community is off the beaten track. 

KENTS HILL SCHOOL Coed Ages 14-20 Est 1824. 

Edward W. Hincks, Ph.B., Brown, Ed.M., Harvard, Head. 
Enr: Bdg 102, Day 73. Fac: 15. Tui: Bdg $450, Day Sioo. 
Courses 6 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Business Commercial 
Music Jr Col 1-2 (Secretarial Science). Incorporated 1824 not 
for profit. Trustees 25 self perpetuating. Endowment $210,000. 
Income from invested funds $10,400. Scholarships, value 
$2500. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, o; *32-'36, 4. 
Entered Col '37, 27; > 32- > 36, 94. Alumni n,77<>. Approved by 
N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

Moved by "divine direction," Luther Sampson, a Methodist, 
founded his home on Kents Hill in 1798 and later started Maine 


Wesleyan Seminary, which corporate name the school still 
bears. Today it attracts some patronage from outside the state. 
Former senior master of Thayer Academy, Mr. Hincks is suc- 
cessor to a line of able and vigorous principals. 

NORTH PARSONSFIELD, ME. Pop (twp) 310 (1920). B.&M. 

R.R. to Cornish. Motor Route 25 from Portland. 
Overlooking a wide panorama of the White Mountains, this 
tiny hamlet is southwest of Cornish near the New Hampshire 
line. The seminary is in the center of the town. 

PARSONSFIELD SEMINARY, Kezar Falls P.O. Coed 12- . 

Ernest E. Weeks, Principal. Est 1832. 

Enr: Bdg 25, Day 20. Fac: 4. Tui: Bdg $300. Courses 4 yrs: 
High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Home Economics Scientific. Incor- 
porated not for profit. Trustees self perpetuating. Endowment 
$100,000. Income from invested funds $5000. Approved by 
N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

This school for fifty years was intimately connected with the 
Free Baptist denomination and served for a time as its theologi- 
cal training school. Now wholly secondary in scope, the semi- 
nary enrolls students of , all denominations. 

PITTSFIELD, ME. Alt 205 ft. Pop 2146 (1920) 2075 (1930). 
M.C.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 2 from Bangor. 

Pittsfield is an attractive little town on the Sebasticpok 
river between Waterville and Bangor. The school grounds adjoin 
the main highway. 

MAINE CENTRAL INSTITUTE Coed Ages 13- Est 1866. 

Edwin M. Purinton, A.B., A.M., Bates, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 50, Day 210. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $500, Day $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Home Economics 
Music. Incorporated. Trustees 25 self perpetuating. Endow- 
ment $48,000. Income from invested funds $1600. Baptist. 
C E B candidates '37, 2; 32- J 36, 3. Entered Col '37, 15; '32-'36, 
92. Alumni 1900. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member 
N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Long intimately connected with Bates College, this is one of 
the best known of Maine's many Baptist academies. 

PORTLAND, ME. Alt 26ft. Pop 69,272 (1920) 70,810 (1930). 
Still wearing an air of mellow dignity which modern innova- 
tions and summer tourists have not wholly obliterated, Port- 
land is the gateway to, and the metropolis of Maine. Its eight- 
eenth century homes and modern buildings, and its well kept 
shade trees enhance the city's natural loveliness. Extending 
along a saddleback about three miles long at the southwestern 
end of Casco Bay, it is the leading industrial city of the state 


and the home of many specialized manufactories. The City Hall 
with its municipal auditorium contains a notable pipe organ. 
A few doors west of Monument Square is the elm-shaded 
Wadsworth-Longfellow house, carefully preserved by the 
Maine Historical Society. 

The Waynflete School is in the West End residential section. 
On the same street, nearer the center of the city, is the School 
of the Portland Society of Art. Westbrook Junior College, in the 
Deering section to the west, is the oldest educational institution 
of Universalist origin in the country. 


Alexander Bower, A.N.A., Director. 

Enr: Day 40, Eve 30. Fac: 4. Tui: Day $130, Eve $30. Courses 
4 yrs. Incorporated not for profit. Scholarships 3. 

The only art school in Maine, this has studios for drawing, 
painting, and design. There are Saturday and evening classes. 

THE WAYNFLETE SCHOOL Girls Ages 7-18 Est 1897. 

Barbara B. Woodruff, B.S., Teachers Col, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Day 107. Fac: 17. Tui: $150-400. Courses 14 yrs: Nurs- 
ery Sch Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. 
Incorporated 1923 not for profit, patrons own stock. Trustees 
14. Scholarships. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 6; 
'32-'36, 40. Alumnae 600. 

Long known as the Waynflete Latin School and serving as a 
conservative college preparatory school for the daughters of 
Portland's leading families, this was completely reorganized in 
1927. Under Miss Woodruff, assistant head mistress from 1929 
and in full charge since 1931, the school has become something 
of a community enterprise with college preparation supple- 
mented by broader, more colorful courses. 


Milton D. Proctor, B.S., Colgate, Ph.D., N Y Univ, President. 
Enr: 125. Fac: 27. Tui: Bdg $800, Day $250. Courses 2 yrs : Jr 
Col 1-2. Incorporated 1831 not for profit. Scholarships (for 
Maine girls), value $250 each. Undenominational. Member 
N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch, Am Assoc Jr Col. 

A coeducational institution for nearly a century, Westbrook 
was reorganized in 1925 as a girls school and is today, under 
Dr. Proctor, a full fledged junior college. Academic standards 
have been raised, the faculty increased, and a number of inter- 
esting practical courses added to the curriculum. 

VASSALBORO, ME. Alt 350 ft. Pop (twp) 1936 (1920) 2000 

(1930). M.C.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 201 from Augusta. 
Vassalboro stretches along the Kennebec river between the 
capital city of Augusta and the college town of Waterville. The 


industrial center is in the eastern section. About a mile from the 
village, the two hundred fifty acres of Oak Grove command a 
hilltop overlooking the river. 

OAK GROVE SCHOOL Girls Ages 11-20 Est 1849. 

Robert Owen, B.S., Colby, Ed.M., Harvard, Principal; Mrs. 

Eva Pratt Owen, Assoc Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 90, Day 5. Fac: 17. Tui: Bdg $700-950. Courses 7 
yrs: Grades VII-XII Col Prep Acad Post Grad Art Music 
Expression Secretarial Science. Incorporated not for profit 
Trustees elected by Society of Friends. Scholarships 8, value 
$50-150. C E B candidates '37, 10; J 32-'36, 24. Entered Col 
*37> 19; *32-*36, in. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Ac- 
credited to Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and 
Secondary Sch. 

A well organized, endowed school for girls, Oak Grove today 
draws its patrons from many states and from foreign countries. 
Established by five influential and scholarly Friends who de- 
sired a "select school" for their children, it is still a Friends 
school though patronized by all denominations. Coeducational 
for seventy-five years, it was reorganized for girls in 1025. The 
present status of the school is chiefly due to the untiring zeal 
of the Owens and the devotion of the students to them, in re- 
sponse to their real and vital interest in each girl. Mr. Owen, 
who represents the section in the state senate, acts as business 
manager. The organization, curriculum, and student activities 
are in the competent hands of Mrs. Owen. Their twentieth year 
at Oak Grove is marked by the completion of another well 
equipped building. See page 997. 

WATERVILLE, ME. Alt 112 ft. Pop 13,351 (1920) IS ,454 (1930). 
This manufacturing city on the Kennebec was settled by im- 
migrants from Cape Cod. Here Colby, formerly Waterville 
College, a Baptist institution, was founded in 1813. The grounds 
of the preparatory school are near the center. 


Hugh A. Smith, B.A., Colby, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 30, Day 53. Fac: 7. Tui: Bdg $400, Day $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep English-Scientific 
Music. Incorporated 1901 not for profit. Trustees 17 self per- 
petuating. Endowment $54,000. Income from invested funds 
$2000. Scholarships 20, value $25-150. Baptist. C E B candi- 
dates '37, o; '32-'36, 3. Entered Col '37, o; '32-' 36, 65. Alumni 
680. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc 
Col and Secondary Sch. 

Coburn is as old as the state of Maine and has educated four 
of its governors, as well as two U. S. senators and several con- 


gressmen. Established as a preparatory school for Colby College 
and formerly known as Waterville Classical Institute, its first 
principal was Elijah Parish Lovejoy, anti-slavery editor and 
apostle of the freedom of the press. The present name was taken 
in 1883 to honor ex-Governor Abner Coburn who donated the 
Institute building. Only boys are now accepted in residence. 
Some of the town boys and girls attend as day pupils. See p. 930. 

YARMOUTH, ME. Alt 87ft. Pop (twp) 2125 (1930). M.C.R.R. 

This old shipbuilding town originally included the whole 
region represented today by villages as far north as Pownal. 
Ten miles east of Portland on the shores of Casco Bay, it has 
recently become something of a summer resort. 

NORTH YARMOUTH ACADEMY Coed 12-18 Est 1814. 

Stanley W. Hyde, B.S.Ed., Mass Inst Tech, Edinburgh Univ, 


Enr: Bdg 35, Day 160. Fac: 10. Tui: Bdg $250-291, Day $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Business Home Eco- 
nomics Dramatics Music Agriculture. Incorporated 1814 not 
for profit. Trustees 15 self perpetuating. Endowment $124,- 
056.30. Income from invested funds $10,432.03. Undenomina- 
tional. C E B candidates '37, i; '32-*36, i. Entered Col '37, 5; 
*32-*36, ii. Alumni 300. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col 
and Secondary Sch. 

Maintained through changes and vicissitudes for over a cen- 
tury, this old academy has been revivified in the last dozen 
years under Mr. Hyde. It was chartered by the General Court 
when the territory was part of Massachusetts "for the purpose 
of promoting piety and virtue; and for the education of youth 
in such languages, and such of the liberal arts and sciences as the 
Trustees shall direct." In 1028 Cyrus H. K. Curtis gave over a 
quarter of a million dollars for new buildings and equipment. 
Vigorous, far-sighted, Mr. Hyde maintains this as a low priced 
school fitted to the needs of the boys and girls of the neighboring 
coast and islands, though some of the students come from farther 
afield. The low rate is made possible by a cooperative plan 
through which the girls of the home economics department, 
under supervision, cook and serve the meals. An increasing 
number of graduates now go on to college. See page 1040. 

For other Maine schools see Supplementary Lists 
Secondary, Elementary Boarding, Local Day, Nurs- 
ery, Charitable, Schools of Music, Art, Expression, 
Business, Catholic Boarding, etc. 


ANDOVER, N.H. Alt 620 ft. Pop 1121 (1920) 1031 (1930). 

B.&M.R.R. Motor Route 11 from Franklin. 
At the base of Ragged Mountain, forty miles from Hanover 
and ninety-five miles from Boston, Andover is a quiet village. 

PROCTOR ACADEMY Boys Ages 12-19 Est 1848. 

J. Halsey Gulick, Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 50. Fac: 10. Tui: $1200. Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep 
Gen High Sch 1-4. Incorporated 1879 not for profit. Trustees 
15 elected by corporation. Unitarian. C E B candidates '37, 3 ; 
*32-'36, 7. Entered Col '37, 7; > 32- > 36, 55. Alumni 1012. Ap- 
proved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and 
Secondary Sch. 

This old New England school, long Andover Academy, was 
renamed in 1870 to honor a liberal local benefactor, John Proc- 
tor. Since 1030 boys only have been enrolled. Though undenom- 
inational in practice, for more than half a century it has been 
definitely affiliated with the Unitarians. Mr. Gulick. member of 
a family once well known in the ministry, later in camping, 
after experience in various colleges and private schools in New 
England, succeeded Carl B. Wetherell in 1936. In 1037 Arthur 
F. Stearns, a trustee, joined the faculty, bringing with him a 
group of boys from his discontinued school in Mont Vernon. 
See page 933- 

CENTER STRAFFORD, N.H. Alt 600ft. Pop 800 (1930). B.&M. 
R.R. to Rochester. Motor Route U.S. 4 from Portsmouth. 

In the foothills of the White Mountains ninety miles from 
Boston, Center StrafTord is a pleasant country village. The 
academy campus crowns a hill high above the town. 

AUSTIN-CATE ACADEMY Coed Ages 14- Est 1833. 

Clarence Cummings, B.S., N H Univ, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 35, Day 30. Fac: 6. Tui: Bdg $450, Day $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Classical Music Dra- 
matics Domestic Science Agriculture. Incorporated not for 
profit. Trustees 12 elected by alumni and corporators. Endow- 
ment $250,000. Income from invested funds $6000. Scholar- 
ships 7, value $150. Prizes 10, value $60. Undenominational. 
Entered Col '33, 10; > 28-*32, 29. Alumni 2000. 

Established by the Free-Will Baptist Society as Strafford 
Union Academy, the present name, honoring two benefactors, 
dates from 1888. Practical work on the school farm is available. 
Mr. Cummings has been in charge since 1928. 


CONCORD, N.H. Alt 244ft. Pop 22,167 (1920) 25,228 (1930). 

A busy city on the west bank of the Merrimack, seventy-five 
miles north of Boston, the capital of New Hampshire has some- 
thing of the charm of a residential village. The state house and 
the beautiful building of the New Hampshire Historical Society 
presented by Edward Tuck, benefactor of Dartmouth, lend an 
atmosphere of individuality and distinction. The cross state 
route that formerly ran through the grounds of St. Paul's School 
now swings north through the valley of the Turkey river. 

ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1855. 

Henry C. Kittredge, A.B., Harvard, Acting Head. 
Enr: Bdg 450. Fac: 52. Tui: $1400. Courses 6 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Col Prep Grades VII-VIII. Incorporated. Trustees self 
perpetuating. Endowment $1,500,000. Income from invested 
funds $182,150. Scholarships 80, value $51,000. Episcopal. 
C E B candidates '37, 125; > 32- > 36, 743. Entered Col '37, 68; 
*32-'36, 393. Alumni 4300. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

The establishment of St. Paul's marked a new trend in educa- 
tion in America. It was the first of the church schools to make 
a somewhat snobbish appeal to the new class that was rapidly 
acquiring wealth from the development of water power, textile 
mills and the exploitation of the continent. 

Their need was first recognized by Dr. George Cheyne Shat- 
tuck, who in 1855 gave his estate near Concord for the purpose, 
as he expressed it, in characteristic Victorian language in his 
deed of gift, "Of endowing a school of the highest class for boys, 
in which they may obtain an education which shall fit them 
either for college or business, including thorough intellectual 
training in the various branches of learning, gymnastics and 
manly exercises adapted to preserve health and strengthen the 
physical condition, such aesthetic culture and accomplishments 
as shall tend to refine the manners and elevate the taste, to- 
gether with careful moral and religious instruction." 

The Rev. Henry Augustus Coit, then only twenty-five, was 
chosen by the trustees as the first rector. Of a family long prom- 
inent in American education, his early training had been under 
the Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg, at whose suggestion 
he was later an instructor in the College of St. James, Hagers- 
town, Md. Dr. Muhlenberg's school at College Point, L. I., 
which later became St. Paul's College, in its eighteen years 
existence exerted a great influence on the future private schools 
in America, for among his pupils in addition to Coit were several 
future bishops who were later influential in organizing the 
earliest Episcopal church schools. In his unreserved adoption of 


the "in loco parentis" attitude Dr. Coit showed the influence of 
his master, Muhlenberg. 

From the English public schools which he had visited, much 
was adapted. Inspiration was without doubt especially derived 
from Arnold at Rugby. Even in outdoor life English influence 
was at first apparent. Dr. Coit encouraged cricket rather than 
baseball. The English schoolroom nomenclature, too, was here 
introduced to the American boy. St. Paul's still has "forms," 
but the "removes," "evensong" and "matins" of Dr. Coit's 
time are now forgotten. Most of the boys in the four upper 
forms have separate rooms. The young boys have "alcoves" in 
the dormitories similar to the "cubicles" of many of the English 
public schools. This custom here first introduced in the Ameri- 
can private schools has been followed by Groton, St. Mark's 
and other schools. 

Dr. Coit was so awe-inspiring a man that only in recent years 
have his old pupils been able to write of him realistically. Owen 
Wistcr describes him as "a stern, sad man in clerical black, 
born seven hundred years later than the days of his spiritual 
kin." Arthur Stanwood Pier, now a member of the faculty, in 
his history of the school reviewed in a recent edition of this 
Handbook, speaks of him "in character and zeal and tempera- 
ment very like the man of wrath, John Brown ... a ruthless 
fanatic." To John Brown whose aims and "actions he abhorred 
. . . his soul was akin." 

For nearly forty years Dr. Coit was the head and heart of 
St. Paul's and made it one of the foremost socially desirable 
schools. Following his death, his brother Joseph Rowland Coit, 
who had been vice rector since 1865, carried on and later the 
Rev. Henry Ferguson, a St. Paul's "old boy." But his successors 
were not able to fill his shoes. 

Though St. Paul's boys no longer play the English game they 
are made much aware of what is "cricket." "Quite uncritical in 
his outlook," Mr. Pier says, the St. Paul boy goes out into the 
world with "an eagerness to join in some common effort for the 
good of all if only some one will direct him where that common 
effort is being made! Again a qualification that indicates there 
may be something lacking in a school spirit that is solely one of 
cheerful cooperation." The largest of the church boarding 
schools, St. Paul's enrolls over four hundred boys, some receiv- 
ing partial remission of tuition or full scholarships. On the long 
waiting list about a fifth are sons of alumni. 

The recent history of the school is the story of Samuel Smith 
Drury, rector from 1911 to his death in 1938, priest, preacher, 
writer, a man of compulsive type, of great driving force. To his 
boys he was sternly aloof, to his aides an inspiration and saintly 
man. To the public he was a willing and able speaker, a prolific 


and popular writer whose annual school reports made the front 
pages and must have had a broadening effect on the alumni. 

Mr. Kittredge, one of the two vice rectors, son of the famous 
Harvard Shakespearean "Kitty," and author of several books 
on Cape Cod, was immediately appointed acting head. A man 
of warmth and human understanding, he may bring to the 
trustees realization that restriction of the head mastership to 
an ordained priest is today an anachronism. 

DERRY, N.H. Alt 278ft. Pop 5382 (1920) 5131 (1930). B.&M. 

R.R. Motor Route 28 from Lawrence, Mass. 
Between Lawrence and Manchester, forty-three miles from 
Boston, Derry is a dairying center. 

PINKERTON ACADEMY Coed Ages 12-19 Est 1814. 

John H. Bell, A.B., Dartmouth, Ed.M., Harvard, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg , Day 280. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $ , Day Sioo. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Household Arts Com- 
mercial Agriculture. Incorporated 1814 not for profit. Trus- 
tees 9 self perpetuating. Scholarships 3. Undenominational. 
Entered Col '37, 6; '32-'36, 31. Alumni 1600. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This old academy has been in continuous operation for nearly 
a century and a quarter, serving the towns of Derry and vicinity. 
A boarding department was announced for 1937. Mr. Bell, a 
graduate of the school, has been principal since 1929. 

DUBLIN, N.H. Alt 1493ft. Pop (twp) 408 (1920) 506 (1930). 

This highest village in New England is one of the most beau- 
tiful spots in New Hampshire. Now a region of country estates 
including the homes of many well known artists and literary 
folk, here lived in seclusion Abbott H. Thayer, artist and natu- 
ralist, absorbed in his studies of color mimicry. 

DUBLIN SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1935. 

Paul W. Lehmann, Clark Univ, Harvard Grad Sch, Head 


Enr: Bdg 17. Fac: 8. Tui: $1400 incl. Courses 7 yrs: Grades 
VI- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Inc. C E B candidates '37, 3* 

Mr. Lehmann, after teaching for ten years in such private 
schools as Fessenden and Chicago Latin, climaxed by two years 
of work at Harvard's School of Education, opened Dublin to 
carry out his ideal of "a thoroughly integrated small school." 
He plans to enroll only "capable and industrious boys." 

EXETER, N.H. Alt 58 ft. Pop 4604 (1920) 4872 (1930). B.&M.. 

R.R. Motor Route 101 from Portsmouth. 
Settled in 1638, Exeter for more than a century and a half 
has been famous for its academy. With wide, elm-shaded streets 


and an air of undisturbed tranquillity, it resembles perhaps 
more than any other New England town an English provincial 
village. The buildings of Phillips Exeter Academy are set on a 
spacious campus on either side of Front Street. The main 
Academy building, designed by Cram and Ferguson in 1915, is a 
reproduction in brick and marble of the smaller building erected 
in 1 704. The Plimpton Playing Fields extend from Court Street 
to the river, across which are the Plimpton Fields beyond. Bor- 
dering on Front Street is the sixteen acre campus of Robinson 
Seminary and on High Street, Emerson School for Boys adjoins 
the Exeter playing fields near the stadium. 


Edward E. Emerson, A.B., Dartmouth, Head Master; Mrs. 

Mabel H. Emerson, A.B., Smith, Director. 
Enr: Bdg 36, Day 10. Fac: 6. Tui: Bdg $900-1200, Day $200. 
Courses 8 yrs: Grades III- VIII High Sch 1-2. Proprietary. 
Scholarships 5, value $400 each. C E B candidates '37, i ; '32- 
'36, 8. Alumni 195. 

Started in the depths of the depression by Mrs. Emerson who 
was joined by her son in 1931, this has become a successful 
school, meeting a real need in preparing young boys for Exeter 
and other preparatory schools. Former head of Ploward Sem- 
inary, Mrs. Emerson returned to that school in 1938, though 
retaining her interest here. See page 934. 

PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY Boys Ages 13-18 Est 1781. 

Lewis Perry, L.H.D., Williams, Litt.D., Dartmouth, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 700. Fac: 81. Tui: $1050. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 7. Foundation grants 
and scholarships $72,000. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
'37, 210; '32-*36, 1587. Entered Col '35, 284; *27- > 3i, 1250. 
Alumni 10,500 (living). Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

The immediate success of Phillips Academy at Andover led 
John Phillips to establish in 1781 in his home town in New 
Hampshire this new academy, which was opened two years later. 
So the Phillips put the wealth that had come to them from the 
patriotic work of making powder for Washington's Revolution- 
ary army into education, where it has fired many a youth smce. 

Benjamin Abbot, the second principal, ruled over the insti- 
tution with great power and wisdom for fifty years. He had been 
trained at Andover under Principal Pearson, graduated from 
Harvard in 1788, and came immediately to Exeter where he 
became perhaps the most famous of all the early academy 
teachers. Daniel Webster came to him for schooling in 1796. In 
1838 Gideon L. Soule, who had already been a teacher in the 
school for seventeen years, succeeded Dr. Abbot, and in 1872 


the fiftieth year of his continuous service in the academy was 

The long line of principals, men of strong personality, may 
have prompted President Eliot of Harvard to characterize 
Exeter as "one of the most precious institutions of the country." 
Not the least of these was Harlan P. Amen, who, coming to the 
principalship after "a period of executive laxness," in his eight- 
een years of office by strong and sympathetic leadership 
brought Exeter again to her ancient standards. 

There were giants in those days on the faculty, too, and none 
mere famous than "Bull" Wentworth, the terror of whose name 
extended beyond the school room through his innumerable 
mathematics textbooks. It was these men who gave Exeter the 
reputation of being faculty controlled while Andover was under 
more autocratic dominance. No theological seminary as at 
Andover here held to strict orthodoxy, so there was freedom to 
question. For generations graduates resorted chiefly to the less 
godly and more liberal Harvard. 

Masterful head masters and masters put Exeter at the top 
and influenced teaching at other schools. They impressed a 
pattern that has long remained hard to change, and there lingers 
at Exeter a tradition of rugged democracy. With reverence the 
ancient maxims are still repeated in the attractive illustrated 
brochure written by Myron Williams of the faculty: "from the 
past comes the ancient Exeter tradition of thoroughness, accu- 
racy and severity," "Exeter is still a hard school," "the pro- 
cess of learning is in the main irksome," "the pupil should bear 
the laboring oar." 

Knowing the school today, in the hands of liberal gentlemen, 
a little overawed perhaps by the more virile men who preceded, 
one must interpret this as an attempt to live up to past rigors 
and methods. But there is a beginning of self questioning, even 
of the teaching of Went worth's Euclid. George T. Major, in- 
structor in mathematics since 1927, has the temerity to ask 
in a recent issue of the Bulletin, "What good is it?" Inevitable 
change will come slowly. 

Dr. Perry, brother of the more famous Bliss, son of a Williams 
College professor, came to the principalship in 1914. One of 
the world's best mixers, beloved by all who know him and he 
knows everyone he is much in demand as an after dinner 

The Harkness millions in 1930 brought the Harkness Plan 
with many new brick structures and thirty instructors, who 
meet small groups of ten to fifteen students about oval tables. 
The groups are so graded that some may proceed more rapidly 
than others. 


ROBINSON SEMINARY Girls Ages 12-18 Est 1867. 

James A. Pirnie, A.B., Cornell, Ed.M., Harvard, Principal. 
Enr:Day275. Fac: 17. Tui: $68-85. Courses 6 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Col Prep Grades VH-VHI. Incorporated. Trustees 7 
elected by town. Endowment $363,000. Income from invested 
funds $16,650. Scholarships 3, value $270. Prizes 15, value 
$120. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 3; *32-'36, 7. 
Entered Col'37> 3J J 32-'36, 25. Alumnae 988. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Sending a small proportion of its graduates on to college each 
year, this is a prosperous endowed school with a largely local 
patronage. Harlan M. Bisbee, principal from 1905, was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Pirnie in 1928. 

HANOVER, N.H. Alt 603 ft. Pop 3043 (1930). B.&M.R.R. 
Motor Route U.S. 5 from Windsor, 10 from White River Jet. 
Half a mile from the Connecticut river and surrounded on the 
east by rugged hills culminating in Moose Mountain, this pleas- 
ant old town is the seat of Dartmouth, one of the oldest colleges 
and, in its outward manifestations, one of the most beautiful 
in the country. The buildings of varied dates and architecture 
surround the elm-shaded green. The recitation building and 
dormitories of Clark School are near the college. 

THE CLARK SCHOOL Boys Ages 16- Est 1919. 

Clifford Pease Clark, B.A., Wesleyan, Ph.D., Princeton, 
Founder; Frank Millett Morgan, A.B., M.A., Ph.D., Cor- 
nell, Director. 

Enr: Bdg 65, Day 10. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $1300. Courses 4, 
2 and i yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Jr Col of Business. Incor- 
porated not for profit. Trustees 5. Undenominational. C E B 
candidates '37, 5; > 32- > 36, 39. Entered Col '37, 34; '32- f 36, 153. 
Alumni 1050. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited 
to Dartmouth and Col admitting by certif. 

Established by Dr. Clark and Dr. Morgan, former members 
of the Dartmouth faculty, this school prepares especially for 
Dartmouth but annually sends a number of boys to other cer- 
tificating colleges and to those requiring Board examinations. 
A junior college course in business administration was inaugu- 
rated in 1933. Classes average five students. In small groups, the 
boys live in the homes of the masters who give individual over- 
sight to their lives and studies. See page 931. 

KINGSTON, N.H. Pop 1017 (1930). B.&M.R.R. to East Kings- 
ton. Motor Route 101 from Portsmouth, 108 from Exeter. 

In southeastern New Hampshire, about twelve miles from the 
ocean and forty-five miles from Boston, this old town was 
founded in 1694. 


SANBORN SEMINARY Coed Ages 12-20 Est 1883. 

Raymond Hoyt, Acting Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 30, Day 135. Fac: n. Tui: Bdg $450, Day $90. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Acad Business. Incor- 
porated not for profit. Trustees 7 self perpetuating. Endowment 
$160,000. Income from invested funds $8000. Scholarships 5, 
value $200 each. Prizes 8, value $100. Undenominational. 
C E B candidates '37, o; *32-'36, 2. Entered Col '37, 15; > 32- > 36, 
75. Alumni 740. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

This inexpensive school is named for Edward Stevens San- 
born, who in 1883 left a part of his estate "to found a school in 
token of his regard for his native town and his appreciation of 
the importance of education." Most of the students are still 
drawn from the surrounding towns, though some come from 
other parts of New England. About a fourth of the graduates 
enter college each year. On the death of Clarence E. Amstutz in 
1937, Mr. Hoyt of the faculty was appointed acting head. 

LITTLETON, N.H. Alt 700ft. Pop 4558 (1930). 

This White Mountain village is a popular winter sports 
center. The girls school at Seven Springs commands a wide 
panoramic view of the mountains. 

ST. MARY'S-IN-THE-MOUNTAINS Girls 6-18 Est 1885. 

Mrs. Clinton A. McLane, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 25, Day 6. Fac: 9. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $150. Courses 
13 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep PostGrad Music 
Art Drama. Incorporated. Trustees self perpetuating. Episco- 
pal. C E B candidates '37, 3; '32-'36, 3- 

After long and successful experience with girls in camps and 
schools, Mrs. McLane here has opportunity to work out her 
eminently sane ideas on a wholesome, interesting life for young 
girls. Preparing adequately for all colleges, with an average of 
one teacher to every four girls, St. Mary's today is a far cry 
from the drab diocesan school so long conducted in Concord. 
See page 998. 

MANCHESTER, N.H. Alt 173 ft. Pop 78,384 (1920) 76,834 
(1930). B.&M.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 3 from Nashua. 

Manchester is the largest city in New Hampshire and boasts 
the largest textile plant in the world. It ranks high in the pro- 
duction of shoes. 

Albert L. Clough, S.B., Mass Inst Tech, Pres. Est 1898. 
Enr: Day 750. Fac: 30. Tui: Variable. Courses: Jr Col Art 
Music Expression Dramatics Languages Interior Decoration 
Crafts Manual Arts. Incorporated 1898 not for profit Trustees 
34 elected by members. Endowment $100,000. 


The income from the bequest of Mrs. Emeline E. Balch en- 
dows this institution, and the building was donated by Mrs. 
Emma B. French. Class work of junior college grade is supple- 
mented by lectures in sociology, natural and physical science, 
and general cultural subjects. The normal art courses arc ap- 
proved by the New Hampshire department of education. 

MERIDEN, N.H. Alt 1000ft. Pop (twp) 853 (1920) 853 (1925). 

B.&M.R.R. to Lebanon. Motor Route from Lebanon or 


Near the Connecticut river fifteen miles south of Hanover , 
this little town was made well known as the bird village by 
Harold Baynes, the naturalist. From Mcriden hill the academy 
looks out over the Connecticut valley to Mt. Ascutney. 

KIMBALL UNION ACADEMY Boys Ages 12- Est 1813. 

William R. Brewster, S.B., Middlebury, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 133, Day 19. Fac: 15. Tui: Bdg $800, Day $100. 
Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorpo- 
rated not for profit. Trustees 13 self perpetuating. Endowment 
$200,000. Income from invested funds $10,000. Scholarships, 
value $2000. Prizes 15, value $200. Undenominational. C E B 
candidates '37, 3; '32-^36, 3- Entered Col '37, 21; '32^36, 38. 
Alumni 3000. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited 
to Dartmouth, Oberlin, Worcester Tech, Middlebury. 

For ninety-five years coeducational and during the middle of 
the last century foremost among the preparatory schools for 
Dartmouth, Kimball Union with the coming of its present head 
master in 1935 reverted to its original status as a boys school. 
Some of its alumni have achieved fame, and, unlike many 
northern New England academies, its enrollment is not chiefly 
local. Mr. Brewster, an old Kimball Union boy, director of 
Birch Rock Camp, and former senior master at the Country 
Day School of Newton, succeeded Charles A.Tracy, head master 
for thirty years. Pie has increased the enrollment, raised the 
tuition, and improved the plant. 

NEW HAMPTON, N.H. Alt 57 4 ft. Pop 692 (1930). B.&M.R.R. 
to Bristol. Motor Route from Bristol or Meredith. 

The conspicuous feature of this little town, high above the 
Pemigewasset Valley, is the fifty acre campus of the school with 
its red brick buildings. 

NEW HAMPTON Boys Ages 11-18 Est 1821. 

Frederick Smith, A.B., Bates, A.M., Harvard, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 125, Day 15. Fac: 14. Tui: Bdg $950, Day $120. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Technological. Incor- 
porated not for profit. Trustees 18 elected by alumni. Endow- 


ment $125,000. Scholarships 10. Prizes 15. Undenominational' 
C E B candidates '37, 8; *32-'36, 58. Entered Col '37, 43; '32- 
'36, 196. Alumni 4000. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Accredited to Dartmouth and Col admitting by certif. 

Most ancient of the Baptist schools in New England, the old 
coeducational New Hampton Literary Institution and Commer- 
cial College produced nine state governors, several college presi- 
dents, a supreme court justice, and other leaders in New Eng- 
land public life. A moribund institution when Mr. Smith took 
it over in 1026 and reorganized it for boys only, the school today 
offers a vigorous, virile life with emphasis on college preparation. 
See page 934. 

NEW IPSWICH, N.H. Alt 979ft. Pop 838 (1930). B.&M.R.R. to 
Greenville. Motor Route from Wilton, N.H., or Ashby, 

Untouched by modern innovations, this charming village 
lies amid the hills near the Massachusetts line. 


Lester E. Smith, Principal. Est 1789. 

Enr: Bdg , Day 33. Fac: 2. Tui: Bdg $390, Day $70. Courses 
4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees self perpetuating. Endowment $60,000. Income from 
invested funds $4000. Undenominational. Alumni ca 1500. 

The second oldest academy in New Hampshire, this was en- 
dowed in 1853 by Samuel Appleton. The boarding department 
is for girls only. 

NEW LONDON, N.H. Alt 1479ft. Pop 701 (1920) 812 (1930). 

B.&M.R.R. Motor Route 11 from Franklin. 
Commanding an extensive view southwest over Lake Suna- 
pee, the buildings of the college practically constitute this little 

COLBY JUNIOR COLLEGE Girls Ages 16-20 Est 1837. 

Herbert Leslie Sawyer, A.B., Bates, A.M., Ed.D., Princeton. 
Enr: Bdg 320. Fac: 35. Tui: Bdg $900, Day $250. Courses 4 
yrs: High Sch 3-4 Jr Col 1-2 Liberal Arts Medical Secre- 
tarial Music Art Business Physical Education Homemaking. 
Incorporated. Trustees 24 self perpetuating. Endowment ca 
$265,000. Income from invested funds $9000. Scholarships 13, 
value $1250. Baptist. C E B candidates '37, 4; '32-'36, 32. 
Alumnae 1500. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member 
Am Assoc Jr Col, N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Now entering upon its second century, this only Baptist 
school for girls in the east, now a flourishing junior college, 
grew out of the coeducational school which until 1853 was known 
as the New London Literary and Scientific Institution. The 


name was changed in honor of the Colby family, who contrib- 
uted generously to its endowment. Mr. Sawyer, principal since 
1922, had on his hands six years later a moribund institution of 
thirty boys and girls, which he reorganized as a girls school 
offering junior college courses. The school was immediately 
successful, and today with its variety of courses and low rate 
attracts high school graduates not only from New England cities 
and suburbs, but from farther afield. 

PETERBOROUGH, N.H. Alt 744ft. Pop 2521 (1930). B.&M. 
R.R. Motor Route 101. 

Today attracting musicians, artists, and writers to its Mac- 
Dowell Colony, this lovely old town was the summer home of 
Edward MacDowell who did much of his work in a log cabin in 
the woods. Peterborough claims the first free town library in the 
world, established in 1833. The former hilltop estate of Mrs. 
William H. Schofield is now Kendall Hall school. 

KENDALL HALL Girls Ages 12-18 Est 1923. 

Charles P. Kendall, A.B., M.A., Harvard; Mrs. Kendall. 
Enr:Bdg36. Fac: 8. Tui:$noo. Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 
Col Prep Gen. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 6. C E B 
candidates '37, 6; *32-36, 14. Entered Col '37, 4; *3i-'36, 18. 
Alumnae 360. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kendall, for some years principals of Howard 
Seminary, conducted this school at Prides Crossing, Massachu- 
setts, for twelve years, moving it to Peterborough in 1935. 
A son now assists in the direction. Girls of high school age are 
given college preparatory and general courses in a pleasant 
home atmosphere. See page 999. 

PLYMOUTH, N.H. Alt 483 ft. Pop 23S3 (1920) 2470 (1930). 
B.&M.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 3 A from Franklin. 

Part of the old town of Holderness which extends from the 
Pemigewasset river to Squam Lake, with Franconia Notch to 
the north and Newfound Lake to the southwest, Plymouth 
today is a popular summer resort. The school is a mile across the 
intervale and over a covered bridge from the town. 

HOLDERNESS SCHOOL Boys Ages 13-19 Est 1879. 
Rev. Edric Amory Weld, A.B., Harvard, B.D., Epis Theol Sch, 


Enr: Bdg 60. Fac: 10. Tui: $950. Courses 5 yrs: Grade Vin 
High Sch x-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 
15. Endowment $75,000. Income from invested funds $4500. 
Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, n; '32^36, 36. Entered Col 
'37, 17; *3i-'35, 40. Alumni 700. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif 
Bd. Accredited to Dartmouth, Cornell, etc. Member N E Assoc 
Col and Secondary Sch. 


This diocesan school was established by Dr. Augustus Coit 
and the Bishop of New Hampshire especially for sons of Epis- 
copal families of moderate means. Mr. Weld, who prepared for 
college at Groton, came to the school in 1931 from the rectorship 
of St. Stephen's Church in Middlebury, Vermont. With the 
assistance of Bishop Dallas, money has been raised for the beau- 
tiful and well equipped plant. There is unusual opportunity for 
metal and pottery work. See page 933. 

RYE, N.H. Pop (twp) 1196 (1920) 1081 (1930). B.&M.R.R. to 

North Hampton. Motor Route 1A from Salisbury, Mass. 
A fashionable summer resort, Rye Beach is known for its 
attractive estates. The beautiful Stoneleigh Hotel, designed by 
Cram, has since 1926 been used for school purposes. 

STONELEIGH COLLEGE Girls Ages 17- Est 1934. 

Richard D. Currier, A.B., LL.B., Yale, President; Priscilla 

Gough, A.B., Dean. 

Enr: Bdg 133. Fac: 22. Tui: $1050. Courses 2 yrs: Jr Col 
Literature Gen Culture Practical Arts. Inc. Trustees 10. 

Mr. Currier has been very successful in promoting educational 
institutions since he established camps in Vermont and the New 
Jersey Law School, parent institution of Dana College and Seth 
Boyden School in New Jersey. With the academic cooperation of 
T. Lawrence Davis of Boston University, he opened this junior 
college for girls who have had the equivalent of high school train- 
ing. Various cultural and vocational courses are now offered. 

TILTON, N.H. Alt 4S3 ft. Pop 1712 (1930). B.&M.R.R. Motor 
Route 3 from Boston. 

In the foothills of the White Mountains in sight of Lake Win- 
nipesaukee, this is a clean, prosperous looking town with some 
manufacturing carried on by native stock. The school is on a 
hill above the town opposite the Tilton family monument, a 
Memorial Arch, copied from the Arch of Titus in Rome. 

10-21 Est 1845. 

James E. Coons, A.B., A.M., D.D., Ohio Wesleyan, S.T.B., 

LL.D., Boston Univ, Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 140, Day 150. Fac: 23. Tui: Bdg $850, Day $350. 
Courses 8 yrs: Grades VII- VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Jr 
Col 1-2. Incorporated. Trustees self perpetuating. Endow- 
ment $600,000. Income from invested funds $17,500. Scholar- 
ships, value $5000. C E B candidates '37, 7; '32-'36, 57. En- 
tered Col '37, 46; > 32- > 36, 235. Alumni 4500. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Now nearing its centenary, this well equipped school for boys 


is the outgrowth of a Methodist coeducational academy estab- 
lished in Northfield. Conducted on its present site since 1855, 
the school is still coeducational in its day department, for Tilton 
village has no high school. The junior college was organized in 
1936. Thomas W. Watkins, head master for six years, was suc- 
ceeded in 1935 by Dr. Coons, former minister of a Methodist 
church in Boston and instructor in Boston University. As presi- 
dent of Iowa Wesley an College from 1927 to 1935, he had con- 
siderable success in building enrollment and procuring endow- 
ment. See page 932. 

WOLFEBORO, N.H. Alt 508ft. Pop 2358 (1930). B.&M.R.R. 

Motor Route 11 from Rochester, 28 from Alton. 
Named for General Wolfe, this little town at the southeastern 
end of Lake Winnipesaukee is a popular summer resort and 
summer camp center. The academy grounds have half a mile of 
lake frontage, south of the village. 

BREWSTER FREE ACADEMY Coed Ages 14-20 Est 1887. 

Walter G. Greenall, A.B., Clark, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 40, Day 120. Fac: 9. Tui: Free, Board $390. Courses 
4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Gen. Incorporated 1887 not for 
profit. Trustees n self perpetuating. Endowment $1,000,000. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 2; *32-'36, 2. Entered 
Col '37, 3; '32-'36, 8. Alumni 1400. Approved by N E Col Ent 
Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Named for and endowed by John Brewster, this school charges 
its students for living expenses only. On the death of Rev. Ralph 
K. Bearce in 1935, Mr. Greenall, former master at the Choate 
School, was made head master. 

For other New Hampshire schools see Supplementary 
Lists Secondary, Elementary Boarding, Local Day, 
Nursery, Charitable, Schools of Music, Art, Expres- 
sion, Business, Catholic Boarding, etc. 


LYNDON CENTER, VT. Alt 727ft. Pop 255 (1920) 297 (1930). 
C.P.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 5 from St. Johnsbury. 

In the valley of the Passumpsic, this little village is sur- 
rounded by rich dairy farms. The village common is used as an 
athletic field by the Institute. 

LYNDON INSTITUTE Coed Ages 14-20 Est 1867. 

O. D. Mathewson, A.M., Dartmouth, Pd.D., Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 37, Day 295. Fac: 17. Tui: Bdg $310, Day $75. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Business Music Home 
Economics Scientific. Incorporated 1867 not for profit. Trus- 
tees 24 self perpetuating. Endowment $300,000. Undenomina- 
tional. Entered Col '37, 4; '32-' 36, 60. Approved by N E Col 
Ent Certif Bd. 

This inexpensive school offers its boys and girls academic and 
practical courses. Scholarship aid has been made available by 
gifts from various friends, most generous of whom was the 
late Theodore N. Vail who liberally supported the school during 
his life and endowed it by his will. It has long been one of the 
state normal school centers. 

MANCHESTER, VT. Alt 694ft. Pop 2057 (1920) 2004 (1930). 

A half shire town, Manchester alternates with Bennington as 
the seat of the county court. A center for the marble industry, 
sidewalks of white limestone lend an air of individuality to the 
broad main street. 

BURR AND BURTON SEMINARY Coed 12-20 Est 1829. 

Ralph E. Howes, A.B., Williams, Ed.M., Harvard, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 15, Day 150. Fac: 10. Tui: Bdg $500, Day $110. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music Secretarial. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 15 self perpetuating. 
Income from invested funds $5000. Scholarships variable, 
value $600. Prizes 9, value Sioo. Undenominational. C E B 
candidates '37, o; *32-'36, 4. Entered Col '37, 9; '3 2 -'3 6 4 2 - 
Alumni ca 1000 (living). Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

Founded before the establishment of local high schools and 
named for two benefactors, this academy has functioned for 
more than a century as a boarding and community day school. 
For the first twenty years only boys were enrolled. In 1855 it 
became the first institution of higher learning in the state of 
Vermont to admit young women. The original building of lime- 
stone, quarried from the side of Equinox Mountain, is still in use. 



MONTPELIER, VT. Alt 484ft. Pop 712S (1920) 8700 (1930). 
C.V.R.R., M.&W.R.R.R. Route U.S. 2 from Burlington. 

The capital of Vermont, Montpelier is in a cup-shaped valley 
on the Winooski, just northeast of the geographical center of the 
state. The capitol, a handsome building of Barre granite erected 
in 1857, contains the Daye press on which was printed the first 
book published in North America. The modest cottage opposite 
is the birthplace of Admiral Dewey. Montpelier Seminary and 
its affiliated Vermont Junior College crown a hill overlooking 
the town. 

MONTPELIER SEMINARY Coed Ages 12- Est 1834. 

Arthur W. Hewitt, D.D., Middlebury Col, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 80, Day 90. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $480, Day $75, $135, 
$200. Courses 6 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Jr Col 1-2 Music 
Commercial Vocational. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 
1 6 elected by Church, trustees, alumni. Endowment $223,000. 
Methodist Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, o; '32-' 36, 3. En- 
tered Col '35, 12; '2p-'33, 50. Alumni 2500. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. 

This old coeducational Methodist school was established over 
a century ago at Newbury, transferring to Montpelier in 1866. 
Popular for years in small towns and rural communities of the 
state, the school under Dr. Hewitt, head master since 1935, has 
taken on new life. 

VERMONT JUNIOR COLLEGE, the graduate department started 
in 1936, offers courses of college grade from which some gradu- 
ates transfer to the state universities. 

PLAINFIELD, VT. Pop 447 (1935). 

To this small community about five miles north of Barre, 
Goddard will transfer in the fall of 1938. 

GODDARD COLLEGE Coed Ages 14- Est 1863. 

Royce Stanley Pitkin, A.M., Ph.D., Columbia, President. 
Enr: Bdg 70, Day 35. Fac: 20. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $250. 
Courses 4 yrs: Jr Col 1-4 Dramatic Arts Music Visual Arts 
Languages Literature Social Studies Vocational Studies Agri- 
culture Home Economics Secretarial Science Natural Science. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 15. Endowment $100,000. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, o; > 32-*36, 5. En- 
tered Col '37, 7; 32- > 36, 30. Alumni 1750. Approved by N E Col 
Ent Certif Bd. 

This four year coeducational junior college is an outgrowth 
of the Green Mountain Central Institute established in Barre, 
with the support of the State Convention of Universalists and 
renamed in 1870 for Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Goddard. From 


1929 to 1938 only girls were enrolled. From the moribund insti- 
tution which Dr. Pitkin took over in 1935 has developed this 
school designed to meet the needs of modern youth. 

POVLTNEY, VT. Alt 430 ft. Pop 1371 (1920) 1570 (1930). Motor 
Route 101 from Manchester. 

Poultney is at the southern tip of Vermont which here sep- 
arates Massachusetts from New York. It derives some fame as 
the town in which Horace Greeley began newspaper work in 
1826, setting type on the Northern Spectator as an apprentice. 


Jesse P. Bogue, A.B., D.D., DePauw Univ, Pres. Est 1834. 
Enr: Bdg 188, Day 56. Fac: 24. Tui: Bdg $675, Day $250. 
Courses 2 yrs: Jr Col 1-2 Pre-professional Terminal. Incor- 
porated not for profit. Trustees 33 elected by Church and alum- 
ni. Methodist Episcopal. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch (Jr Col), Am Assoc 
Jr Col. 

Offering only college courses since 1936, this institution grew 
out of the well known Troy Conference Academy. The boys 
and girls come largely from New York and New England. Dr. 
Bogue has been president since IQ^O. 

PUTNEY, VT. Pop 2868 (1920) 3215 (1930). Motor Route U.S. 

7 from Burlington, 30 from Middlebury. 
Terraces cut by deep ravines running up into the hills from 
the Connecticut make this a lovely bit of country. Here the 
present Governor domesticated our wild flowers and now from 
the state capitol attempts to reform the Republican party. 
The Putney School occupies Elm Lea and an adjacent farm on 
a hilltop two miles from the town. 

PUTNEY SCHOOL Coed Ages 12-18 Est 1935. 

Mrs. Sebastian Hinton, A.B., Bryn Mawr, Director; Eric 

Rogers, A.M., Cambridge, Assistant Director. 
Enr: Bdg 80. Fac: 26. Tui: Si 250. Courses 6 yrs: High Sch 1-4 
Col Prep Music Art Manual Arts Agriculture. C E B candi- 
dates '37, 8. 

"To make school life a more real, less sheltered, less self- 
centered venture; to educate the individual in the light of what 
he can later do toward solving the problems of society," was 
Mrs. Hin ton's vision in opening this coeducational preparatory 
school. And she has gone far toward realizing her ideal. Her 
school resembles the Landerziehungsheime of Germany rather 
than the typical progressive schools of this country. Evening 
discussions, concerts, lectures, married instructors who build 
their own homes on property adjoining give a characteristic 


flavor not found elsewhere. Vigorous, dynamic, broad -visioned, 
Mrs. Hinton is the mother of three children. Mr. Rogers, experi- 
enced in outstanding progressive and conservative public schools 
of England and for two years instructor at Harvard, came as 
assistant director in 1937. Men outnumber women on the faculty 
and all are specialists in some of the arts. See page 1045. 

ST. JOHNSBURY, VT. Alt 711ft. Pop 7164 (1920) 7920 (1930). 
Between the White and the Green Mountains at the junction 
of the Moose and Passumpsic rivers, St. Johnsbury is fifled with 
reminders of the Fairbanks family who here developed the 
P'airbanks Scale Works, largest in the country. 

ST. JOHNSBURY ACADEMY Coed Ages 14-18 Est 1842. 

Stanley R. Oldham, A.B., Lebanon Valley Col, A.M., Wis 

Univ, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 33, Day 490. Fac: 28. Tui: Bdg $600, Day $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Secretarial Home Eco- 
nomics Agriculture. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 15 
self perpetuating. Endowment $240,000. Income from invested 
funds $12,000. Scholarships 40, value $2500. Undenomina- 
tional. C E B candidates '37, 2 ; '32-'36, 12. Entered Col '37, 13 ; 
*32-'36, 114. Alumni 8400. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Three Fairbanks brothers established this old New England 
academy, maintained it for forty years, and finally provided 
endowment. Calvin Coolidge here prepared for Amherst. During 
the earlier years the school sent most of its boys to Dartmouth; 
today the Vermont colleges attract more. 

SAXTONS RIVER, VT. Pop 670 (1930). B.&M.R.R., R.R.R. to 

Bellows Falls. Motor Route 121 from Bellows Falls. 
James P. Taylor, former member of the academy faculty, here 
started the first outdoor winter sports in New England when 
he organized in 1908 the Green Mountain Club, out of which, by 
way of the Dartmouth Outing Club, has come the modern 
snow-train enthusiasts. 

VERMONT ACADEMY Boys Ages 12-20 Est 1876. 

Laurence G. Leavitt, B.S., Dartmouth, A.M., Teachers Col, 

Columbia, Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 86, Day 18. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $200. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music. Incorporated 
not for profit. Trustees 13. Undenominational. C E B candi- 
dates'37, 2;'32-'36, 7. Entered Col '37, 30; '32-'36, 66. Alumni 
1200. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col 
admitting by certif. 

Since Mr. and Mrs. Leavitt came to the school in 1934 from 


Tabor, this old academy has taken on new life and color. Dating 
back some sixty years, during most of which it was coeducational 
and largely local in appeal, it was reorganized for boys only in 
1931 and is today a college preparatory school of good standing. 
Much is made of extra-curricular activities. Clubs and societies 
foster intellectual and musical interests. Winter sports are 
naturally emphasized and the winter campus stretches up past 
Dartmouth College to Moosilauke. See page 932. 

THETFORD, VT. Alt 600 ft. Pop 1052. B.&M.R.R. Motor 
Route 5. 

Ten miles from Hanover, N. H., this little village is in farming 
country surrounded by wooded hills. On Thetford Hill, a few 
miles back from the Connecticut river, is the academy, next to 
the oldest private school in the state. 

THETFORD ACADEMY Coed Ages 14-18 Est 1818. 

Carl A. Anderson, B.S., M.S., Me Univ, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 45, Day 60. Fac: 8. Tui: Bdg $300, Day $75. Courses 
4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Agriculture Home Economics. 
Un denominational. 

^Established by a group of residents under the leadership of 
Amasa Bond, this school has always been primarily for boys 
and girls of moderate means. Hiram Orcutt a hundred years ago 
gave the school its first fame, increasing the enrollment from 
fifty to four hundred. A campaign is now under way to raise 
funds for new buildings and endowment. 

TOWNSHEND, VT. Pop 196 (1935). 

This little village is in the West river valley of southeastern 
Vermont. The school buildings are near the village green. 

LELAND AND GRAY SEMINARY Coed 14-18 Est 1834. 

Vernon C. D. Pinkham, B.S., Conn State, M.S., Iowa State, 

Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 5, Day 105. Fac: 5. Tui: Bdg $350, Day $75. Courses 
4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Business Domestic Science 
Manual Arts. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 27. Endow- 
ment $25,000. Scholarships 5, value $100. Baptist. Entered 
Col '37, 5; '32-'36, 34. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Chartered by the Vermont Legislature as Leland Classical 
and English School, the present name was adopted thirty years 
later in honor of Deacon Samuel Gray. The first president of the 
trustees was Peter Rawson Taft, grandfather of the late Presi- 
dent and of Horace D. Taft, who is still a member of the Semi- 
nary's Board of Reference. The students are drawn from a dozen 
or more towns within a radius of seventy miles. Boarding ac- 
commodations are available in private homes. 


WINDHAM, VT. Pop SO (1935). 

Windham is in hilly country, about thirty miles north of 
Brattleboro. The school occupies an old farmhouse. 

THE NEWTON SCHOOL, So. Londonderry P.O. Boys Ages 
12- Est 1937. 

David Newton, A.B., Princeton, Head Master. 
Enr:Bdgs. Fac: 6. Tui: $1200 incl. Courses 4 yrs : High Sen 
1-4 Col Prep Business Manual Arts. Incorporated not for 
profit. Trustees 3 self perpetuating. Undenominational. 

Mr. Newton, son of Charles Bertram Newton long head mas- 
ter of Pingry School, left his job at Loomis to here carry out his 
own ideas of the education provided by the old New England 
farm and its activities. 

For other Vermont schools see Supplementary Lists 
Secondary, Tutoring, Elementary Boarding, Local 
Day, Nursery, Charitable, Music; Schooh of Fine 
and Applied Art*, Practical Arts, Household Art, 
Schools of Expression, Theatre, Dance, Physical 
Education; Technological and Trade Schools, Avia- 
tion Schools, Business Schools, Nurses Training 
Schools, Schools of Languages, Schooh for Defectives, 
Catholic Boarding Schools. 


ANDOVER, MASS. Alt 92ft. Pop 8268 (1920) 9969 (1930). 

Long an educational center, the substantial Colonial houses 
of this old town are rich in literary associations. Phillips Acad- 
emy, magnificently crowning Seminary Hill a mile south of the 
center, includes on its campus the old Theological Seminary. 
The Memorial Clock Tower with its carillon is a conspicuous 
landmark from afar. The buildings designed by Charles Platt 
and the grounds landscaped by Ohnsted Brothers are outstand- 
ing among secondary schools. To the west, the buildings of 
Abbot Academy are grouped about a circular green. Brooks 
School at North Andover follows architecturally the plan of an 
old New England Village. 

ABBOT ACADEMY Girls Ages 13-20 Est 1829. 

Marguerite Hearsay, A.B., Hollins, M.A., Radcliffe, Ph.D., 

Yale, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 125, Day 36. Fac: 25. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $425. 
Courses 4-5 yrs: Col Prep Gen Art Music Household Science 
Business. Incorporated 1828 not for profit. Trustees 16 self 
perpetuating. Endowment $506,468. Scholarships 28, value 
$104,926. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 54; '32-*36, 
1 68. Entered Col '37, 47; '32^36, no. Alumnae ca 3000. Ap- 
proved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting 
by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

The first incorporated school for girls in New England estab- 
lished "to regulate the tempers, to improve the taste, to disci- 
pline and enlarge minds, and to form the morals of the youth 
who may be members of it," the academy was named in honor of 
Madam Sarah Abbot whose funds made possible the first build- 
ing. For more than a century it maintained the even tenor of its 
traditions, undiverted by passing fashions. Daughters, grand- 
daughters, and great-granddaughters of loyal alumnae from 
every state in the Union turn to Abbot for their schooling. 
Under Bertha Bailey, principal from igi2 to 1035, tne school, 
as from its early days, offered advanced as well as preparatory 
courses. Today there is no advanced work but courses in music 
and art" have been strengthened to be acceptable for college 
entrance. Miss Hearsey, former professor of English at Hollins 
College, was elected in 1936 and immediately did away with 
many outworn customs. Winning the support of the alumnae, 
she has inaugurated a drive for funds for new buildings and 
equipment. See page 1001. 


252 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

BROOKS SCHOOL, North Andover P.O. Boys Ages 12-19. 

Frank D. Ashburn, A.B., Yale, Head Master. Est 1927. 
Enr: Bdg 120. Fac: 18. Tui: $1400. Courses 6 yrs: Grades 
VII-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Art Music. Incorporated 
1927 not for profit. Trustees 14 self perpetuating. Scholarships 
13, value $8500. Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, 14; '32-*36, 
64. Entered Col '37, 12; *32-'36, 83. Alumni 87. 

Started by Groton men, the school immediately attracted 
families of discrimination, and its success has continued. Named 
in honor of Phillips Brooks, one time resident of North Andover, 
the buildings and site were donated by the Russell family. Mr. 
Ashburn, a Groton boy and later a master, with teaching experi- 
ence elsewhere, has shown in his plan and conduct of the school 
that he has outgrown the Groton mode and has cast his school 
in a larger mold. Since HJ.V the school has each year sent grad- 
uates on to college, most of them with honors. But Mr. Ashburn 
seeks more than this. He endeavors to develop in his boys some 
capacity for intellectual enjoyment. 

PHILLIPS ACADEMY Boys Ages 14-20 Est 1778. 

Claude M. Fuess, A.B., Hon Litt.D., Amherst, Dartmouth, 
Columbia, Yale, L.H.D., Williams, A.M., Ph.D., Columbia, 
Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 637, Day 57. Fac: 76. Tui: Bdg Snoo, Day $400. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for 
profit. Trustees 13 self perpetuating. Endowment $7,000,000. 
Income from invested funds $300,000. Scholarships 125, value 
$130,000. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 458; '32- 
'36, 2509. Entered Col '37, 186; *32-'36, 1107. Alumni 10,000. 
Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting 
by certif. Member all accrediting Assoc. 

Of the great national schools which have become such distinc- 
tive features in American education, Andover, the oldest, was 
founded by Samuel Phillips, who, together with his father and 
his uncle John, deeded both land and money for the establish- 
ment of a school to be opened at Andover, where the grand- 
father of Samuel Phillips had been head master of the Grammar 
School. The donors proposed "to lay the foundation of a SCHOOL 
OR ACADEMY for the purpose of instructing Youth, not only 
in English and Latin, Grammar, Writing, Arithmetic and those 
Sciences wherein they are commonly taught; but more especially 
to learn them the great end and real business of living. " Further 
"it is again declared that the first and principal object of this 
Institution is the promotion of true piety and virtue." 

The school opened in the midst of the Revolution and in 1780 
was incorporated with the title of Phillips Academy, the first 
chartered academy in New England. Among its early patrons 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 253 

were Washingtons and Lees from Virginia, as well as Lowells 
and Quincys from Massachusetts. The first head master, Eli- 
phalet Pearson, had been a classmate of the founder at Dum- 
mer and at Harvard. A man of force and commanding presence, 
he was known to his awed students as "Elephant" Pearson. 
Later he was professor of Hebrew at Harvard and the Andover 
Theological Seminary. 

There were twenty- three boys in the academy when, in 1810, 
Dr. John Vdams came to the master's throne. By 1817 the num- 
ber had increased to a hundred, and during his twenty-three 
years Dr Adams admitted IIIQ pupils, nearly a fifth of whom 
became ministers. 

Under Samuel H. Taylor, a man of picturesque and striking 
personality, head master from 1837 to 1871, the institution 
gradually took on its present character. After his death, how- 
ever, it declined in prestige until it was rejuvenated and brought 
in touch with modern methods of education by Dr. Cecil F. P. 
Bancroft, principal from 1874 to igoi. 

The first head master to give his whole time to administra- 
tion was Alfred E. Stearns, in office for thirty years from 1903, 
alumnus of the Theological Seminary and of Amherst, under 
whose administration the old primitive austere atmosphere of 
Andover gave way to a richer life as millions, largely secured by 
Thomas Cochran, 'go, a Morgan partner, were spent in enlarging 
and beautifying the plant, which today makes an ensemble 
fittingly designated 'the loveliest group of buildings in America.' 
To the casual visitor Andover today looks like a college. There 
is no study hall. The boys wander from their dormitory rooms 
across the campus to their recitations. The archaeological mu- 
seum, with its research workers, its art museums with special 
exhibits, add to the college flavor. 

Andover perhaps more than Exeter long remained conserva- 
tive, less influenced by the Unitarian movements which have 
stirred New England, and perhaps for that reason Andover 
early became primarily a preparatory school for more conserva- 
tive Yale rather than Harvard, which soon came under more 
liberal influences. 

Of the more than twenty thousand boys that have graduated 
from the school about sixty per cent have gone to Yale and per- 
haps twenty per cent to Harvard. Its ten thousand loyal living 
alumni are organized in numerous associations throughout the 
country and their continued interest through the years has 
brought increased endowments and gifts. 

In 1933 Mr. Fuess became head master. A graduate of Am- 
herst, he had been instructor of English at Andover since 1908, 
secretary of the alumni fund, editor of the alumni magazine, 
and secretary for information. Official historian of Andover, he 

254 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

had published notable biographies. From the first he has boldly 
established new policies, strengthened the bonds with the alumni 
through frequent visits and numerous addresses all over the 
country and displayed versatility, tact, and skill. The teaching 
staff has been much enlarged and the class room divisions re- 
duced in size as a step toward one of Mr. Fuess' high purposes, 
to teach the boy "how to adjust himself to his environment and 
to remold it to his heart's desire." See page 929. 

ARLINGTON, MASS. Alt 145 ft. Pop 18,665 (1920) 36,094 
(1930). Motor Route U.S. 3 from Boston. 

Eight miles northwest of Boston, Arlington is a residential 
suburb with large truck farms. On the Heights are The Freer 
School, Marycliff Academy, and St. Anne's School. 

THE FREER SCHOOL Girls Ages 6-18 Est 1921. 

Cora E. Morse, Pa Univ, Radcliffe, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 12. Fac: 4. Tui: $1300. Courses: Individual. 

Miss Morse established this school after extensive experience 
with children of retarded mentality. 

MARYCLIFF ACADEMY Girls Ages 5-20 Est 1913. 
Enr: Bdg 40, Day 90. Fac: 15. Tui: Bdg $500, Day $175. 
Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music. 
Incorporated 1913 not for profit. Trustees self perpetuating. 
Roman Catholic. C E B candidates '37, i; '32-*36, 6. Entered 
Col '33, ; '27-'3i, 35. Alumnae 150. Accredited to all Catholic 
Col, Simmons, Boston Univ. 

This well known Catholic school, directed by the Sisters of 
Christian Education, enrolls girls of all denominations. 

ST. ANNE'S SCHOOL Girls 3-19, Boys 3-10 Est 1928. 

Sisters of St. Anne. 

Enr: Bdg 30. Fac: 8. Tui: $600. Courses 13 yrs: Nursery Sch 
Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Epis. 

The Episcopal Sisters of St. Anne here enroll girls and young 
boys for the whole year. 

ASHBURNHAM, MASS. Alt 1100ft. Pop 2079 (1930). B.&M- 

R.R. Motor Route U.S. 2 from Boston, 12 from Fitchburg. 
High in the hills beyond Fitchburg, the bronze schoolboy, 
gift of Melvin Adams, wealthy native son, heads toward the old 
academy buildings on an elevation to the west. Three miles 
north on Naukeag Lake is Ashburnham School for Boys. 


Whitton E. N orris, A.B., Dartmouth, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 20. Fac: 5. Tui: Siooo. Courses 8 yrs: Grades III-IX 
High Sch 1-2* Incorporated. Scholarships 4, value $1200. 

Afasi. . NEW ENGLAND 255 

Mr. Norris, a graduate of Choate and former teacher of 
French at New Hampton, in 1936 came to this small school, 
started some years before by Captain and Mrs. H. C. Rideout, 
and a year later took over the direction. His boys are given a 
happy country life with some attention to the amenities. See 
page 946. 

GUSHING ACADEMY Coed Ages 13- Est 1875. 

Clarence P. Quimby, A.B., Bates, A.M., M.Ed., Harvard, 


Enr: Bdg 125, Day 90. Fac: 24. Tui: Bdg $825-875, Day $225. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Secretarial Music Art 
Dramatics. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees self perpetuat- 
ing. Income from invested funds $6500. Scholarships 30, value 
$1080. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 8; *32-'36, 36. 
Entered Col '37, 8; '32-^36, 46. Alumni 2300. Approved by 
N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

Attracting students largely from Massachusetts but with 
many other states and foreign countries on the roster, Cushing 
is one of the very few New England academies successful in re- 
maining coeducational. Boys and girls mingle in classes but have 
separately organized social activities, dormitories and athletics. 
Hervey S. Co well, beloved by his pupils, was principal for 
almost forty years. James W. Vose served until 1933 when he 
was succeeded by Mr. Quimby. 

BELMONT, MASS. Alt 39ft. Pop 10,749 (1920) 21,748 (1930). 

Between Arlington and Waverley on the rim of the Boston 
basin, Belmont has become increasingly popular as a place of 
residence. On the heights above Pleasant Street are the estates 
of the Atkins family and the Belmont Hill and Belmont Day 
BELMONT DAY SCHOOL Coed Ages 3-10 Est 1927. 

Elna Jensen, Rachel McMillan Tr Col, London, Director. 
Enr: Day 49. Fac: 7. Tui: $150-350. Courses 7 yrs: Nursery 
Sch Grades I- VI. Executive board 7. Incorporated 1933. 

This progressive, cooperatively owned day school prepares 
for the various secondary schools in and around Boston. Miss 
Jensen has been director since 1935. 

BELMONT HILL SCHOOL Boys Ages 10-18 Est 1923. 

Thomas R. Morse, A.B., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 40, Co Day 150. Fac: 19. Tui: Bdg $1175-1350, Day 
$450-550. Courses 8 yrs: Grades V-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col 
Prep Manual Training Fine Arts. Incorporated 1923 not for 
profit. Executive Committee 7, self perpetuating. Scholarships. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 48; '3 2-' 36, 280. 

256 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

Entered Col '37, 21; '32-^36, ca 92. Alumni 225. Approved by 
N Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Dartmouth. Member N 
Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

Established by the late R. Heber Howe, former master at 
Middlesex, and Harvard rowing coach, whose interest in the 
natural sciences led to the establishment of an unusually well 
equipped museum, this is a thorough going college preparatory 
school with country day and five day boarding facilities. W. H. 
Taylor directed the school for three years until 1935. Mr Morse, 
assistant head from 1931, has separated upper and lower 
schools, each under its own director, and improved the plant. 

BERKSHIRE, MASS. Alt 1200ft. Pop 1174 (1930). B.&A.R.R. 

Motor Route 7 from Pittsfield, 9 from Northampton. 
Once a glass manufacturing town, Berkshire is six miles from 
Pittsfield in the foothills of Mt. Greylock. Midway between 
Berkshire and Lanesboro is Crestalban School for girls. 

CRESTALBAN Girls Ages 6-14 Est 1917. 

Margery Whiting, Principal; Anne H. Whiting, A.B., Vassar, 

Assoc Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 12. Fac: 4. Tui: Bdg $1000, Co Day $350. Courses 
9 yrs: Grades I-IX French Latin Arts Crafts Home Eco- 
nomics Music. Proprietary. Undenominational. 

Life in this small subpreparatory school is as far as possible 
removed from the institutional. Outdoor play activities are 

BEVERLY, MASS. Alt 365 ft. Pop 25,086 (1930). B.&M.R.R. 

The North Shore region of extensive estates of wealthy 
people who come from aU parts of the country for the summer, 
starts at Beverly. It is also an industrial city, headquarters of 
the United Shoe Machinery, and has many old houses and his- 
torical sites. 

SHORE COUNTRY DAY SCHOOL Coed Ages 4-17 Est 1922. 

Raymonde Neel, A.B., Bryn Mawr, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Day 121. Fac: 16. Tui: $100-550. Courses 14 yrs: Play 
Sch Pre-Primary Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. In- 
corporated 1936 not for profit. Trustees 14 elected by parents. 

In 1036 two local institutions, the Shore School, and the 
North Shore Country Day School established in 1922 by Grace 
M. Swett, merged. The plant of the latter is used. 


St. Coed Est 1932. 

Harold W. Wise, A.B., Harvard, Director. 
Enr: Co Day . Tui: S . Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII 
High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. C E B candidates '37, i ; '32-^36, 2. 

Boston NEW ENGLAND 257 

An experienced tutor and former teacher at Mohonk School 
and Lawrenceville, Mr. Wise maintains summer sessions here 
and at Beach Bluff and sends tutors to various points on the 
North Shore. There are accommodations for boys in residence. 

BILLERICA, MASS. Alt 126ft. Pop 3646 (1920) 5880 (1930). 
Billerica is a pleasant old town set between the Shawsheen 
and Concord rivers. The Mitchell School with its affiliated 
camp has extensive acreage southwest of the village. 

THE MITCHELL SCHOOL Boys Ages 6-16 Est 1870. 

Alexander H. Mitchell, A.B., Colby, Director. 
Enr: Bdg 30. Fac: 6. Tui: $800. Courses 10 yrs: Grades I- VIII 
High Sch 1-2 Sub-Prep. Incorporated. Alumni 1200. 

The only school for young boys in New England making use of 
military training, this was founded by the father of the present 
head who holds to the good old New England traditions of 
cleanliness and good food. The boys are given a happy, whole- 
some, country life. Horses owned by the school are used exten- 
sively by the boys both during the school year and in the 
summer at Camp Skylark which Mr. Mitchell conducts. See 
page 946. 

BOSTON, MASS. Pop 748,060 (1920) 781,188 (1930). 

A city of individuality, charm and flavor, the world offers few 
more distinctive places of residence. It brings to mind the old 
English town for which it was named, and of all the great 
American cities it is in many ways nearest to England. Bos- 
tonians, whatever their origin, Puritan, Irish, Italian or Jew, 
show the love they bear their city through their slightly veiled 
contemptuous superiority toward New York and other more 
vulgar places. Though its climate is harsh, its people aloof and 
its government corrupt, those who hail from within fifty miles 
proudly proclaim themselves Bostonians. 

The wealthier families live within a periphery of twenty miles 
where the tax rate is lower in horsey or sea-going communities 
on the North or South Shores. The maligned and misunderstood 
Boston aristocracy, so-called, are actually of recent and humble 
stock. Boston's old families date from the Revolution. Few of 
their names will be found today in the social register or even 
the telephone book. The forebears of the present aristocracy 
were small town and country people, smugglers and privateers- 
men from Newburyport and Marblehead who poured in to seize 
the confiscated property of the Tories who sailed away with 
Lord Howe. The Lowells and Lawrences, who owe their fame 
and gave their name to the mill cities, with Cardinal O'Connell, 
who as a child worked long hours in their ancestral mills, 
annually oppose restriction of child labor. Such Boston families 

258 NEW ENGLAND Boston 

are easy butts for the satirical novelists. Their trusteed estates, 
acting through financial institutions in conjunction with the 
Catholic hierarchy, insure, through politicians, continuance of 
their interests. 

Boston proper is Roman Catholic. Dominant in politics, 
formerly split into bitter warring factions under the old leaders, 
a younger generation of more promise, more American, not so 
slavishly Bostonese in accent as the past leaders, is coming to 
the fore. The Puritan hierarchy and morality has become 
Catholic and the cloak of Mather has long been flauntingly 
worn by Cardinal O'Connell. 

The golden dome on Beacon Hill, the hub-cap of the universe, 
long looked down on the greatest educational center and student 
population, and until the dawn of the twentieth century, on the 
literary center of the country. Today the higher institutions of 
learning in the city, Boston University (Methodist), Boston 
College (Catholic), Northeastern and Simmons Colleges; across 
the Charles, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard, 
and Radcliffe; on the outer fringes, Tufts and Wellesley; to- 
gether with the professional and vocational schools enroll some 
40,000 students. 

The private schools, patronized by upper middle class fam- 
ilies, are in Back Bay and the Fenway. As the wealthier Boston- 
ians live mostly outside the city, Brookline, the Newtons, Mil- 
ton, Dedham, Cambridge, Weston, Waltham, and Concord, all 
have their private schools, separately treated. 
BEAVER SCHOOL, INC., 75 Chestnut St. Coed 2-9 Est 1915. 

Eugene Randolph Smith, Head Master; Margaretta Voor- 

hees, Supervisor. 

Enr: Day 42. Fac: 6. Tui: $100-350. Courses: Nursery Sch 
Kindergarten Transition Grades I-III. Incorporated. 

From this little city group developed the great progressive 
country day school in Chestnut Hill, for which this now serves 
as an elementary city branch. Established on Beaver Place, 
whence the name was derived, the school was later transferred 
to its present home. Miss Voorhees, head of the lower school at 
Chestnut Hill, is supervisor. The full day session with super- 
vised play is available. See page 1007. 

921 Boylston St. Men Ages 17-40 Est 1917- 

Harry C. Bentley, C.P.A., President; Bertel G. Willard, A.B., 

C.P.A., (N.H.), Vice President. 

Enr: . Fac: 23. Tui: Day $260, Eve $90. Courses 2 and 4 yrs: 
Accounting Business Law Economics Corporation Finance 
English Psychology. Incorporated. 

Students from all over the country are enrolled here. 

Boston NEW ENGLAND 259 

THE BISHOP-LEE SCHOOL, INC., 73 Mt. Vcrnon St. Coed 
Ages 17-25 Est 1934. 

Emily Perry Bishop, Adele Hoes Lee, Directors. 
Enr: Bdg , Day . Fac: . Tui: Bdg $860, Day $360. 
Courses 3 yrs: Theatre Arts Platform Art Dancing Languages 
Expression Radio Broadcasting Post Grad. Incorporated not 
for profit. 

Bishop-Lee School is an outgrowth of the Berkshire Theatre 
Workshop conducted during the summer by Mrs. Bishop and 
Mrs. Lee, long at Lcland Powers School. A junior department 
is maintained covering the fundamentals of expression. 

Girls Ages 5-18 Est 1854. 

Sister Frances, S.H., Principal. 

Enr: Day 170. Fac: 15. Tui: $100. Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- 
VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Art Music Expression. Incor- 
porated not for profit. Scholarships 2, value $250. Roman 
Catholic. C E B candidates '37, i; '32-'36, 21. Entered Col '34, 

; '27-*3i, 115. Alumnro 750. Accredited to Simmons, B. U. 

Prospering with the prosperity of its increasing clientele, since 
1931 this school has had its own building, formerly the Card- 
inal's offices. Previously it had been housed with the affiliated 
Emmanuel College in the Fenway. 


court St. Women Ages 20-35 Est 1921. 
Mrs. John A. Greene, Director. 
Tui: $300. Courses 3 yrs. Incorporated not for profit. 

The outgrowth of a school started after the war for training 
reconstruction aides for the military and naval hospitals, this is 
now a training school approved by the American Occupational 
Therapy Association and the American Medical Association. 

40 Berkeley St. Woman Ages 18- Est 1888. 

Mrs. Frederick S. Belyea, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 40, Day 20. Fac: 5. Tui: Bdg $600, Day $200. Courses 
1-2 yrs: Domestic Science and Arts. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees self perpetuating. 

One of the oldest in its field, this school has had great influ- 
ence in the lives of thousands. A. Josephine Forehand, principal 
for thirty-five years, was succeeded in 1933 by Mrs. Belyea. 

105 South Huntington Ave. Girls Ages 17- Est 1913. 
Marjorie Bouve, B.S.Ed., President. 
Enr: Bdg 63, Day 51. Fac: 40. Tui: Bdg $875-950, Day $400, 







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Botton NEW ENGLAND 261 

Camp Si 10. Courses 3 and 4 yrs: Normal Physical Therapeu- 

This school is the result of the merging in 1930 of the Boston 
School of Physical Education, of which Miss Bouv6 was one 
of the founders and for thirteen years co-director, and the Bouve 
School opened in 1925. Entrants must have a secondary school 
diploma or its equivalent. Candidates for the B.S. degree 
granted by Simmons must meet the entrance requirements of 
that college. The month of June is spent at camp. 

THE BRIMMER SCHOOL, 69 Brimmer St. Girls 4-18, Boys 
4-9 Est 1887. 

Mabel H. Cummings, A.B., Smith, Principal. 
Enr: Day 150. Fac: 21. Tui: $150-500. Courses 14 yrs: Kin- 
dergarten Grades I- VII High Sch 1-5 Col Prep. Incorporated 
1913 not for profit, patrons own bonds. Trustees 15 self per- 
petuating. Scholarships. C E B candidates '37, 25; '32-^36, 132. 
Entered Col '37, 18; '32-^36, 85. Alumnae 823. Member N E 
Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Brimmer School traces its history back through Miss Cum- 
mings' School, which resulted in 1912 from the union of Miss 
Browne's Classical School for Girls, established in 1887, and 
Miss Creech's School, dating from 1909. In the present quarters 
since 1914, little boys are taken in the elementary group. 

Boylston St. Coed Est 1865. 

J. W. Blaisdell, President; L. O. White, Principal. 
Tui: Day $75 ten wks, Eve $50 thirty wks, Summer Session 
$45 six wks. Courses 1-2 yrs. Incorporated. 

Business administration, general business, stenographic and 
secretarial courses, and a special intensive course for college 
graduates are available. 

BURDETT COLLEGE, 156 Stuart St. Coed 17- Est 1879. 

C. Fred Burdett, President. 

Enr: Day 1398, Eve 1213. Fac: 93. Tui: Day $70-75 term, Eve 
$55 52 wks. Courses 1-2 yrs: Business Administration Ac- 
counting Gen Business Stenographic Secretarial. Proprietary. 
Member Nat Assoc Accred Commercial Sch, Am Assoc Jr Col. 

Established by the late Charles A. and Fred H. Burdett, this 
efficient school has trained more than a hundred thousand men 
and women for business and government positions. Two year 
courses of college grade and five shorter courses with opportu- 
nities for specialization in basic subjects are offered high school 
and college graduates. The summer session is of eight weeks 
duration. A branch school is maintained at 74 Mt. Vernon 
Street, Lynn. See page 1066. 

262 NEW ENGLAND Boston 

CHAMBERLAIN SCHOOL, INC., 739 Boylston St. Girls 
Ages 17- Est 1927. 

Mrs. Elsie K. Chamberlain, Director. 

Enr: Day 120. Fac: 15. Tui: $300. Courses 2 yrs: Appreciation 
of Arts Theory and Use of Color Design Merchandising. Inc. 

Starting informally with emphasis on interior decoration, 
this school now prepares largely for retail store work. 

THE CHAMBERLAYNE SCHOOL, 229 Commonwealth Ave. 
Girls Ages 15- Est 1892. 

Theresa G. Leary, A.B., A.M., Radcliffe, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 12, Day 40. Fac: 25. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $400. 
Courses 6 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Jr Col 1-2 Secretarial 
Journalism Art Expression Costume Design Interior Decora- 
tion. Proprietary. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, o; 
*32-'36, 2. Entered Col '34, ; *27-'3i, ca 15. 

Miss Leary and her sister, former teachers in Boston private 
schools, took over in 1935 the direction of this school, established 
by Catherine J. Chamberlayne and for fifteen years from 1920 
directed by her niece, Bertha K. Filkins. In 1932 it was reorgan- 
ized to offer junior college courses. See page 1054. 

CHANDLER SCHOOL, 245 Marlborough St. Women 16- . 

Alan W. Furber, B.S., Middlebury, President. Est 1883. 
Enr: Day 300. Fac: 19. Tui: $300-350. 

Established by Mary Chandler Atherton, whose shorthand 
system was once widely used, Chandler now has two supplemen- 
tary units, Marlborough, for intensive review; and Fairfield, 
for college graduates. Until 1930 specializing in teacher training, 
the school now offers practical business courses only. Summer 
and evening sessions are maintained. 

CHAUNCY HALL SCHOOL, 553 Boylston St. Boys 14-20. 

Franklin T. Kurt, Ph.B., A.M., Wesley an, Principal. Est 1828. 
Enr: Day 125. Fac: 10. Tui: $400. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Col Prep. C E B candidates '37, 17; *32-'36, 237. 

Established by Gideon F. Thayer, Chauncy Hall has in the 
course of its century or more had five changes in administration 
and four changes in location, although always in the neighbor- 
hood of Copley Square. Now preparing exclusively for the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology, it was for thirty years a 
pioneer in education. Military training, coeducation and kinder- 
garten work were introduced here before other schools generally 
had adopted them. Mr. Kurt, sole owner since 1910, has been 
connected with the school since 1896. 

300 Longwood Ave. Women Ages 18-30 Est 1889. 

Boston NEW ENGLAND 263 

Stella Goostray, B.S., M.Ed., R.N., Director. 
Tui: $200. Course 3 yrs. Incorporated. Undenominational. 

This school is an integral part of the Children's Hospital and 
is under the hospital governing board. Emphasis is on training 
in the care of children, preparing not only for bedside nursing but 
for the function of the nurse as a health worker in the commu- 
nity. The school is affiliated with Simmons College for instruc- 
tion in the sciences. 

St. Coed Ages 17- Est 1910. 

Anton Van Dereck, Director. 

Enr: Day 75. Fac: 9. Tui: $300. Courses 4 yrs. Incorporated 
not for profit. Trustees n self perpetuating. 

This school was established as The School of Fine Arts and 
Crafts by the late C. Howard Walker with Katherine B. Child, 
who directed it until 1935. It was renamed at that time in their 
honor. Under Mr. Van Dereck courses in painting, sculpture, 
interior design, industrial design, advertising arts, illustration, 
and crafts may be supplemented by academic courses at the 
affiliated Stuart School. A Graduate House in Florence, Italy, 
is under Miss Child's personal supervision. See page 1051. j 

Ave. Coed Ages 6- Est 1879. 

Trentwell M. White, A.M., Pres; Josephine Holmes, Dean. 
Enr: Day 50. Fac: 10. Tui: $250. Courses 2, 3 and 4 yrs: 
Normal Expression. Incorporated not for profit. Alumni 5000. 

An outgrowth of the department of oratory of Boston Univer- 
sity established in 1895, th* s school was founded by Dr. Samuel 
Silas Curry and Anna Baright Curry. Summer sessions are 
conducted in various sections of the country. 

ERSKINE SCHOOL, in Beacon St. Girls 17- Est 1920. 

Euphemia E. McCUntock, A.B., Goucher, M.A., Chicago 

Univ, Director. 

Enr:Bdg7o, Day 60. Fac: 30. Tui: Bdg $1300-1500, Day $450. 
Courses T-2 yrs: Jr Col 1-2 Secretarial Art Music Languages 
Dramatics Social Service. Proprietary. 

Now a full fledged junior college, Erskine School has from the 
beginning offered work of college grade to graduates of high 
schools and private schools, and has taken advantage of the 
various opportunities Boston affords in music and art. Miss 
McClintock's broad experience in the south, in the middle west 
and in Boston, in vocational schools and university work, en- 
ables her to direct her students wisely in their choice of studies. 
The freedom usually accorded to freshmen in girls colleges is 
allowed the students who live in Miss McClintock's Beacon 

264 NEW ENGLAND Boston 

Street residences, some of which are assigned to groups of stu- 
dents particularly interested in a specific course like dramatics, 
of which much has been made recently. See page 1050. 

Boys Ages 10-17 Est 1814. 

William M. Meacham, B.S., Middlebury, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg zoo. Fac: 25. Tui: $0-300. Courses 6 yrs: Grades 
VI-VIII High Sen 1-3 Agricultural Trades Marine Music. 
Incorporated 1814 not for profit. Trustees 26 elected by patrons. 
Endowment $500,000. Income from invested funds $25,000. 
Scholarships. Undenominational. 

Boys from ten to fourteen are eligible for admission to this 
school which since 1832 has occupied the whole of Thompson's 
Island in Boston harbor. Here developed the first boys band 
in America and the first printing and sloyd courses. Parents 
who can, pay the maximum rate. Mr. Meacham has been in 
charge since 1926. 

Ave. Est 1902. 

Alice Bradley, Principal. 
Enr: Day 650. Fac: 14. Tui: 650-1500. Courses 1-2-6 mos, i yr. 

Established and long conducted by Fannie Merritt Farmer of 
cook book fame, the school has been owned and managed since 
1915 by Miss Bradley, for twenty years cooking editor of a 
woman's magazine, and author of "Cooking for Profit" and 
other books. Practical courses in cookery, dietetics, marketing, 
tea room management are offered brides and women interested 
in tea room work. The full year course is supplemented by vari- 
ous shorter courses. 

FISHER BUSINESS SCHOOL, 30 Franklin St. Coed Ages 16- 
Est 1903. 

Sanford L. Fisher, Pres; Myron C. Fisher, Jr., Vice Pres. 
Enr: 200. Fac: 10. Tui: Day $70 10 wks, Eve $50 30 wks. 
Courses: Secretarial Stenographic Accounting. Incorporated 
1936. Member Nat Assoc Accredited Commercial Sch. 

Varying types of business courses are here offered men and 
women in day, evening, and summer sessions. The Somerville 
branch enrolls young women only. 

monwealth Ave. Ages 17- Est 1872. 

Mrs. Gladys Beckett Jones, M.S., Columbia, President. 
Enr: Bdg 48, Day 50. Fac: 25. Tui: Bdg $1800, Day $500. 
Courses 1-2 yrs. Alumna 1300. Member Am Assoc Jr Col. 

From the kindergarten training school started by Mrs. Mar- 
garet J. Stannard, developed this school of homemaking which 

Boston NEW ENGLAND 265 

she conducted from 1902 until her retirement in 1931. Mrs. 
Jones, who had been connected with the school as early as 1921, 
succeeded to the direction. She has adapted the school to the 
needs of the time, made it a junior college, and acquired four 
residence houses in which the girls get practical training in the 
administration and the social and economic activities of a home. 
The two year course may be applied toward a degree. Mature 
students may take the practical one year course. Seepage 1054. 


Mrs. Edina Campbell-Dover, Principal. Est 1879. 
Enr: Day 100, Eve 90. Fac: 8. Tui: $25 mo. Courses 3-8 mos. 

Mrs. Dover's colorful personality and keen interest in the 
individual make her school outstanding. More flexible than the 
usual secretarial school, it was established by William Hickox 
and operated continuously by him until 1920, when Mrs. Dover 
was made principal. Since 1920 she has been sole owner. One of 
the first schools to introduce the Gregg system, Hickox con- 
tinued pioneering by introducing in 1925 a course in speed- 
writing. The shorter courses attract a considerable number of 
college graduates. 


Charles H. Sampson, B.S., Maine Univ, Ed.M., Harvard, 

Head Master. Est 1909. 

Enr: Day 200. Fac: 18. Tui: $425. Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII 
High Sen Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 30. 
Scholarships 50, value $7500. Undenominational. C E B can- 
didates '37, 22; '32-*36, 132. Entered Col '37, 71; *32- > 36, 317. 
Alumni 1052. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited 
to all N E Col and Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc 
Col and Secondary Sch. 

Developed along modern but conservative lines, Huntington 
emphasizes preparation for all colleges and universities. Special 
courses prepare for M.I.T., for business administration colleges, 
and for College Board examinations. The school is housed in the 
Boston Y.M.C. A. building which, with a playing field in Brook- 
line, gives it an athletic equipment unusual for a city school. Its 
success has been due to its filling a real need. A summer session 
admitting girls as well as boys is conducted during July and 
August and covers an entire year's work in all grammar and 
high school subjects. Mr. Sampson, connected with the school 
since iqi2, and head since 1925, is devoted to the interests of his 
boys. The Huntington Chapter of the Cum Laude Society was 
established in 1928. See page 938. 

KATHARINE GIBBS SCHOOL, 90 Marlborough St. Women 
Ages 17-25 Est 1917. 

266 NEW ENGLAND Boston 

James Gordon Gibbs, President; Elizabeth Whittemore, 


Enr: Bdg 150, Day 300. Fac: 25. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $400. 
Courses 2 yrs, i yr: Special College. Alumnae 3000. 

Cultural and technical courses preparing for actual business 
life are offered in this Boston school, second of the three schools 
established by the late Mrs. Katharine M. Gibbs and directed 
by her until her death in 1934. College and secondary school 
graduates are provided special one year secretarial courses. Two 
year courses combining academic work of college grade with 
secretarial are also available. Mr. Gibbs, with headquarters in 
New York, directs the school with the assistance of a resident 
executive staff. Graduates of the school are in demand in offices 
insisting on good background and sound technical training. See 
page 1065. 

Way. Coed Ages 16- Est 1904. 

Mrs. Leland Powers, Principal; Haven M. Powers, Assoc. 
Enr: Day 150. Fac: 16. Tui : $300-425. Courses i, 2 and 3 yrs: 
Expression Theatre Arts Radio Arts. Proprietary. 

Established and long conducted by Leland Powers, widely 
known public reader and author, this school continues under his 
son and widow. Evening and summer courses are given. A stu- 
dent residence is maintained. 

Coed Est 1907. 

James W. Lees, A.M., Glasgow, Principal. 
Enr: Eve 705. Fac: 26. Courses: General Classical Scientific 
Commercial. Incorporated not for profit. C E B candidates '37, 
5; '32-36, 19. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Formerly the Northeastern Preparatory School established 
in 1898, this institution offers men and women an evening high 
school education. 

SCHOOL FOR NURSES, Fruit St. Ages 19-30 Est 1873. 

Sally Johnson, R.N., B.S., Principal. 

Enr: 263. Fac: 59. Tui: $50. Course 3 yrs. Scholarships 6, 
value $600. Alumnae 2352. 

This training school for nurses, one of the first three nursing 
schools in America to be organized on the Nightingale plan, 
requires a high school diploma for admission and offers special 
opportunities to graduates of accredited colleges who have had 
required courses in the sciences. A large hospital and an out- 
patient department caring for a thousand patients a day, furnish 
a varied clinical experience. 

Boston NEW ENGLAND 267 

THE MAY SCHOOL, INC., 270 Beacon St. Girls Ages 10-18. 

Mrs. Charles H. Haskins, A.B., Vassar, Principal. Est 1901. 
Enr: Day 80. Fac: 15. Tui: $550. Courses 8 yrs: Grades VI- 
VIII High Sch 1-5 Col Prep. Incorporated 1924 not for profit. 
C E B candidates '37, 17; '32-36, 109. Entered Col '37, 14; 
'32-'36, 73. Alumni ca 1200. Member N E Assoc Col and 
Secondary Sch. 

Long appealing to a characteristic Boston clientele, this is 
the outgrowth of a little school formed in the '8o's for the chil- 
dren of Mrs. Quincy Shaw. Mrs. Haskins, a trustee, succeeded 
to the principalship in 1934 on the retirement of Jessie Degen. 
Residence on the Continent before taking up her duties makes 
Mrs. Haskins well qualified to emphasize the teaching of French. 

Coed Ages 17- Est 1934. 

Donald Smith Feeley; Carolyn L. Dewing, A.B., Radcliffe. 
Enr: Day 100. Fac: 16. Tui: $250. Courses 3, 2 and i yrs: 
Interior Decoration Advt Art Copywriting Costume Design. 

A year after its opening, this school absorbed The Designers 
Art School. Training is offered in costume design, interior deco- 
ration and advertising arts, with emphasis on practical values. 

Ave. Est 1867. 

Wallace Goodrich, Dir; Frederick S. Converse, Dean. 
Fac: 84. Courses 4 yrs: Music Dramatics Normal. Inc. 

Founded by Dr. Eben Tourjee, this oldest conservatory in the 
country offers various diploma courses as well as those leading 
to the degrees of Bachelor and Master of Music. Full time en- 
rollment is limited to mature students but there is a large group 
of special students of all ages. Mr. Goodrich, dean since 1907, 
and still conductor of the orchestra, succeeded the late George 
W. Chad wick as director in 1930. 

borough St. Girls Ages 20- Est 1922. 

Abigail A. Eliot, A.B., Radcliffe, Ed.D., Harvard, Director. 
Enr: Bdg 5, Day 39. Fac: n. Tui: Bdg $950, Day $350. In- 
corporated 1926 not for profit. Corporation 50 self perpetuating. 
Alumnae 414. 

Two years of college or its equivalent are required for admis- 
sion to this school, the only institution in New England whose 
primary object is the training of nursery school teachers. 
Recently the curriculum has been broadened to include some 
courses dealing with the needs of children of kindergarten age. 
The school is affiliated with Boston University School of Educa- 
tion where some of the courses are taken, and practice work is 

268 NEW ENGLAND Boston 

done in the affiliated demonstration nursery school on Ruggles 
Street and in various other nursery schools in and near Boston. 
Miss Eliot is discriminating in her choice of students, annually 
rejecting many applicants. 

ton Ave. Women Ages 17- Est 1898. 

Mrs. Harriot Hamblen Jones, Principal. 

Enr: Day 135. Fac: 21. Tui: $225. Courses 3 yrs: Nursery Sch 
Kindergarten Primary Playground. Scholarships 2, value 
$1400. Alumnae 871. Member Assoc Childhood Educ, Mass 
State Kindergarten Assoc. 

Frpebelian principles and practice teaching are emphasized in 
training for nursery school, kindergarten and primary teaching 
and for playground leadership. A one year course for the guid- 
ance of one's own children in the home is also offered. Founded 
by Annie Moseley Perry, the school has been under the direction 
of Mrs. Jones, a graduate, since 1918. A small school, close per- 
sonal contact between instructors and pupils is possible. Uni- 
versity credits toward a degree are given to certain recom- 
mended graduates of the three year course. See page 1068. 


Althea Archibald, Principal. Est 1894. 
Enr: Day 125. Fac: 7. Tui: $75 ten wks. 

Established and conducted for forty years by Mary E. Pierce 
for young ladies of good family, the school has been under Miss 
Archibald since 1934. She continues to maintain high standards 
in business and secretarial training but has modernized the tone. 

ROCKWOOD PARK SCHOOL, Rockwood Park, Jamaica 
Plain. Coed Ages 3-18 Est 1935. 

Abraham Krasker, Ed.M., Director. 

Enr: Bdg 6, Co Day 35. Fac: 16. Tui: Bdg $750-1000, Day $125- 
500. Courses 13 yrs: Pre-Sch Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 
Col Prep. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 2. Ap- 
proved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

After long experience in educational and summer camp work 
as directors of Indian Acres and Forest Acres for boys and girls, 
Mr. and Mrs. Krasker opened this school, coeducational through- 
out. Seven university professors of education on the Board of 
Trustees direct the educational policies. See page 1041. 

ROXBURY LATIN SCHOOL, Centre St, West Roxbury. 

Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1645. 
George Norton Northrop, M.A., Minnesota Univ, Head 

Enr: Day 151. Fac: n. Tui: $300 (for those outside the "free 

Boston NEW ENGLAND 269 

tuition" district). Courses 6 yrs: Col Prep. Incorporated 1789 
not for profit. Trustees 13 self perpetuating. Endowment $1,000,- 
ooo. Income $50,000. Scholarships for those qualified, value 
$300. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 25; '32-'36, 
245. Entered Col '37, 25; '32-'36, 120. Alumni 1675. Approved 
by N Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

This oldest endowed secondary school in the United States 
was established some nine years after the founding of Harvard 
College to prepare boys for that institution and has continued 
its work without interruption. John Eliot, "Apostle to the 
Indians/' when minister of the First Church of Roxbury, signed 
a statement with others of the town that they, "in consideration 
of their religious care of posterity, have taken into consideration 
how necessary the education of their children in literature will 
be, to fit them for public service, both in Church and Common- 
wealth, in succeeding ages. They, therefore, unanimously have 
consented and agreed to erect a free school in the said Town of 
Roxbury." In 1671 Thomas Bell, formerly a freeman of Rox- 
bury, died in London, willing two hundred acres of Roxbury 
lands to the school and naming the Rev. John Eliot and two 
other officers of the First Church as trustees of the endowment. 

"The Free Schoole in Roxburie," as it was called, was not 
then free in the sense of being supported by uniform taxation 
or free from all tuition fees. But today the school is free to 
twenty boys in each entering class who live within the limits of 
the original town of Roxbury. 

William C. Collar, for more than half a century connected 
with the school, in his long career attained a national position 
in the educational world. Appointed a master in 1857 and head 
master in 1867, he resigned in 1907 and died in 1916. D. O. S. 
Lowell, a graduate of Bowdoin, became a master in the school 
in 1884 and was head master from 1909 to his retirement in 
June, 1921. Daniel V. Thompson, who came from Lawrenceville 
as his successor, maintained the high scholastic standards. It 
was in his regime that the school moved to its present site. 
Following his death in 1932 the trustees selected as his successor 
Mr. Northrop, once head of Brearley, and more recently of the 
Chicago Latin School for Boys. 


739 Boylston St. Est 1901. 
Amy M. Sacker, Director. 
Enr:Day75. Fac: 5. Tui: $250. Courses i, 2 and 3 yrs. 

Miss Backer's School from 1933 to 1937 was called the School 
of Design and Interior Decoration. Special lecture courses are 
given in interior decoration, furniture and history of art. 


THERAPY, 77 Newbury St. Coed Ages 17- Est 1914. 

Mary Irving Husted, B.S., Smith Col, Columbia, Director. 
Enr: Day 100. Fac: 12. Tui: $450. Courses 2 yrs: Occupa- 
tional Therapy Artist Craftsman. 

Miss Husted, an artist and an experienced occupational thera- 
pist, in 1937 discontinued the crafts course. Opened in Boston 
under the auspices of The Tide Over League and transferred 
to Cambridge in 1924, the school returned to Boston in 1936. 

and Fenway. Coed Ages 16- Est 1876. 

Amy F. Gibson, Manager. 

Enr: Day 175. Fac: u. Tui: $225. Incorporated not for profit. 
Council n. Tuition and traveling scholarships, value $11,000. 

Sound training in the fine arts, painting, sculpture, and design, 
both technique and composition, have always been provided by 
this school of the Boston Museum. Edmund C. Tarbell, Frank 
W. Benson, Philip L. Hale, and William James early gave the 
school international standing. Regular and post graduate 
courses are offered. 

SCOTT CARBEE SCHOOL OF ART, 126 Massachusetts Ave. 
Coed Ages 16-60 Est 1921. 

Scott Clifton Carbee, Director. 

Enr: Day 75, Eve 50. Fac: 6. Tui: Day $245-260, Eve $70. 
Courses 2, 3 and 4 yrs: Fine and Commercial Arts. 

Established by Mr. Carbee, a successful portrait and figure 
painter, long a teacher, who inaugurated the Fine Arts Depart- 
ment at the University of Vermont Summer School, which he 
conducted for eighteen years, this art school offers elementary 
and advanced work. 

THE STUART SCHOOL, 102 Fenway. Women Ages 17-25. 

Beatrice Louise Williams, Director; Mrs. Elizabeth Runkle 
Purcell, A.B., Vassar, A.M., Cambridge, Dean. Est 1932. 
Enr: Bdg 42, Day 10. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $1100-1400, Day $400- 
500. Courses 2, 3, and 4 yrs: Art Music Secretarial Dra- 
matics Dancing, Related Academic Subjects. Incorporated not 
for profit. Trustees 13 self perpetuating. Scholarships 4, value 

Now a junior college of the arts, Stuart School had its be- 
ginnings in the Stuart Club established in 1905 by Katherine 
B. Child, co-founder of the Child- Walker School of Design. Indi- 
vidual programs for each student are arranged with the major 
she selects, art, music, secretarial training, 'drama, or dancing. 
Miss Williams, who supervises the residence, has much to offer 
the students through her long study of the arts. See page 1051. 

Boston NEW ENGLAND 2? I 

89 Brighton Ave. Men Ages 16-50 Est 1933. 

Myron S. Huckle, B.S., Wash State Col, Harvard, Mass Inst 

Tech, President. 

Enr: Day 150, Eve 150. Fac: 20. Tui: $450. Courses, Day i 
and 2 yrs; Eve 2 and 4 yrs: Diesel Mechanical Grad Work in 
Diesel Engineering. Incorporated 1933* Scholarships 10, value 
$2250. Undenominational. 

One and two year day, two and four year evening, and 
graduate courses are offered by this technical school which sends 
most of its graduates directly into industry. Dormitory facilities 
are provided for students coming from a distance. 


Dorothy H. George, Director. Est 1924. 
Enr: Day 250. Fac: 20. Tui: $225. Courses 2-3 yrs. Incorpo- 
rated. Scholarships u, value $2825. Undenominational. 

Under the daughter of the founder since 1034, tms school 
maintains winter, summer, evening, and Saturday classes for 
work in fine and commercial arts, costume design, stagecraft, 
interior decoration, and photography. 

WEBBER COLLEGE, 535 Beacon St. Girls 17-25 Est 1927. 

Winslow L. Webber, Executive Director; George W. Cole- 
man, A.M., Colby, LL.D., Franklin and Wake Forest, Pres. 
Enr: Bdg 70. Fac: 22. Tui: $1550. Courses 1-2 yrs: Business 
Financial Secretarial Executive. Incorporated 1927 not for 
profit. Trustees 5 self perpetuating. Undenom. Alumnae 332. 

Established by Mrs. Roger W. Babson and modeled after 
Babson Institute for men, this college for young women is under 
the immediate direction of her son-in-law. The fall term in 
Boston has for some years had capacity enrollment. The winter 
term is spent in attractive quarters at Babson Park, Florida. 
See page 1050. 

WENTWORTH INSTITUTE, Huntington Ave. Boys 17- . 

Frederick E. Dobbs, Pratt Institute, Principal. Est ion- 
Em 1 : Day 550, Eve 700. Fac: Day 39, Eve 15. Tui: Day $150, 
Eve $35. Courses 2 yrs: Printing Building Architectural Me- 
chanical Electrical Steam and Electrical Machinery Operation 
Aircraft Construction and Design. Incorporated 1904 not for 
profit. Trustees self perpetuating. Endowment $5,000,000. 
Scholarships 25, value $2000. Alumni, Day 6000; Eve 8800. 

Founded by Arioch Wentworth in 1904 this institute opened 
some seven years later with excellent equipment for its practical 
courses. Two types of full day courses are available: the first, 
for young men with knowledge of elementary mathematics and 
science, which they apply to advanced work in mathematics, 

272 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

applied science, electricity and general shop work; the second, 
for more shop training without the advanced mathematics. 

THE WHEELOCK SCHOOL, 100 Riverway. Girls Ages 18- 
Est 1888. 

Lucy Wheelock, Litt.D., Vt Univ, Princ; Marion C. Gilbert, 

A.M., Radcliffe, Laura P. Holmes, Assistant Principals. 
Enr: Bdg 200, Day 150. Fac: 31. Tui: Bdg $780, Day $230. 
Courses 3 yrs: Nursery-Kindergarten- Primary Training. Pro- 
prietary. Alumnae 5000. 

Long the best known and most successful kindergarten 
training school in New England, this centers about the person- 
ality of Miss Wheelock, who has conducted it for half a century. 
A woman of broad sympathies, who has exerted a wide influence 
in her field, Miss Wheelock has recently turned much of the 
work over to her assistants. Students are accepted on probation 
for the first semester, and those from a distance live in the 
school dormitory or in approved residences. 

THE WINSOR SCHOOL, Pilgrim Rd. Girls 10-18 Est 1886. 

Katharine Lord, A.B., Bryn Mawr, Director. 
Enr: Day 270. Fac: 48. Tui: $550-600. Courses 8 yrs: Grades 
Via, VIb-VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1908 not 
for profit. Trustees 47 self perpetuating. Endowment $58,775. 
Income from invested funds $9713. Scholarships 9 full, 12 par- 
tial, value $7200. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 54; 
*32-'36 3io. Entered Col '37, 20; '32-*36, 88 Alumnae 848. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

For many years the socially accepted day school for girls of 
Boston, this was the creation of Mary Pickard Winsor whose 
brother founded Middlesex School. Its continued and suc- 
cessful growth culminated in 1908 when it was incorporated 
and moved to its present building. Miss Lord, who took over 
the active management of the school upon Miss Winsor's retire- 
ment in 1922, is assisted by a strong administrative and teaching 

WOODWARD SCHOOL, 319 Marlborough St. Coed 2-12. 

Elizabeth Vanston, Principal. Est 1894. 
Enr: Day 60. Fac: 12. Tui: $100-450. Courses 10 yrs: Nursery 
Sch Kindergarten Grades I-VII. Incorporated 1932 not for 
profit. Trustees 9 self perpetuating. Undenom. 

The outgrowth of a group founded by Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw, 
a daughter of Louis Agassiz, this was owned and conducted by 
Elizabeth J. Woodward until 1932. An all day program with 
a flexible afternoon schedule is featured. 

BRADFORD, MASS. Alt 38 ft. Pop 8828 (1920). B.&M.R.R. 
Motor Route 128 from Boston, 125 from Andover. 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 273 

Now part of the city of Haverhill, Bradford was long a sepa- 
rate town. A residential section on the Merrimack with shady 
streets and old fashioned houses, it is in marked contrast to the 
bustling city across the river. 
BRADFORD JUNIOR COLLEGE Girls 17-21 Est 1803. 

Katharine M. Den worth, A.B., Swarthmore, A.M., Ph.D., 

Columbia, President. 

Enr: Bdg 229. Fac: 39. Tui: Siooo. Courses 2 yrs: Jr Col 1-2. 
Incorporated 1804 not for profit. Trustees 12 self perpetuating. 
Endowment $280,200. Income from invested funds $14,000. 
Scholarships, value $3350. Undenominational. Alumnae 4400 
(living). Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch, Am 
Assoc Jr Col. 

Exclusively of college grade since 1934, with courses in liberal 
arts parallel to those of the first two years of a four year college, 
Bradford is the oldest institution in New England for the higher 
education of women. It was established by the parishioners of 
the Congregational Church of the town of Bradford and until 
1836 was coeducational. The school has been fortunate through- 
out its history in having on its board of trustees men and 
women of unusual capacity and devotion to the interests of 
Bradford. Alice Freeman Palmer long took active interest. The 
unusual advantages of Bradford early drew students from all 
over New England, but for many decades the patronage has 
been national. During the century and more of its existence over 
nine thousand students have attended the school. The strong 
personality of Laura A. Knott, principal from IQOI to 1918, was 
long stamped on the life and work of the school. With Marion 
Coats, principal from 1918 to 1927, the great impetus toward 
the graduate courses began, culminating under Dr. Denworth 
in 1930 in the acceptance of Bradford as a junior college member 
of the New England Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools. Dr. Denworth was formerly principal of Friends High 
School, Moorestown, N. J., and head mistress of Stevens School, 
Germantown, Pa. Especially trained, she brought to her task 
zeal, ambition and marked personality. While under her able 
scholastic and financial administration standards of scholarship 
have been raised and the faculty Strengthened, a very human 
attitude prevails. See page 1052. 

BRAINTREE, MASS. Alt 94ft. Pop 10,580 (1920} 15,712 (1930). 
N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Route U.S. 138 from Boston. 

Much of the Blue Hills Reservation lies within the borders 
of this residential town, one of the oldest in Massachusetts. 
Thayer Academy is in South Braintree. 
THAYER ACADEMY Coed Ages 12-18 Est 1877. 

Stacy B. Southworth, A.B., Harvard, Head Master. 

274 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

Enr: Co Day 275, Bdg 10. Fac: 22. Tui: Day $200-300, Bdg 
$850-1000. Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep. Incorporated not for 
profit. Trustees 15 self perpetuating. Endowment $500,000. 
Income from invested funds $16,000. Scholarships 25, value 
$3000. Undenominational C E B candidates '37, 34; *32-'36, 
184. Entered Col '37, 70; '32-^36, 270. Alumnae 2650. Ap- 
proved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting 
by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This successful college preparatory school has since IQIQ been 
under the direction of Mr. South worth, long a teacher in the 
Boston Latin School and formerly head of Camp Marienfeld. 
He has greatly enriched the course of study, especially in the 
sciences, music, and art, and has successfully developed a board- 
ing department and country day program. Endowed by General 
Sylvanus Thayer, the "father of West Point," the school 
attained prominence under Dr. William Gallagher, principal for 
twenty-three years. Today it draws its students from a great 
number of neighboring cities and towns. Thayerlands, the sub- 
preparatory department, has since 1924 occupied an adjoining 

BREWSTER, MASS. Alt 124ft. Pop 769 (1930). N.Y.N.H.&H. 
R.R. Motor Route 3 from Boston, U.S. 6 from Sagamore. 

On the Bay side of Cape Cod, Brewster, once a well known 
port, is a sleepy old fishing village enlivened in summer by the 
advent of the tourist. Between the main street and the water is 
the three hundred acre estate of Sea Pines. 

SEA PINES SCHOOL Girls Ages 5-18 Est 1907. 

Faith Bickford, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 30. Fac: 10. Tui: $900-1600. Courses 13 yrs: Grades 
I-Vin High Sch 1-5 Col Prep Gen Art Music Dramatics. 
Incorporated not for profit. Undenominational. C E B candi- 
dates '37, i ; '32-'36, 5. Ent Col '37, 5; '32- J 36, 14. Alumnae 483. 

With the winter term spent in Florida, and the fall and spring 
on Cape Cod, Sea Pines today stresses an active life and a home- 
like atmosphere. It was established as a school of personality by 
the Rev. Thomas Bickford, a Congregational minister of Cam- 
bridge. Since his death in 1917 his older daughter makes no 
attempt to continue the vocabulary of educational psychology in 
relation to self-analysis, and conducts the school along actively 
Christian but nondenominational lines. See page 1004. 

BROOKLINE, MASS. Alt 43ft. Pop 37,748 (1920) 47,490 (1930). 
The choicest residence section adjacent to the City of Boston 
by which it is almost surrounded, Brookline has in the past ten 
years been invaded by the Jews. Four synagogues and the in- 
crease of apartment houses indicate recent changes in popula- 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 275 

tion attributable to the once low tax rate. Its shaded roads 
winding about its hills provide a setting for many beautiful 
homes. Here great estates, some of the oldest in the country, 
crown the southern heights. The slogan, 'a model town', is still 
heard, and a semblance of the old town government still exists, 
honest but stupid, with petty politicians nibbling to get in. The 
schools are largely in the residence districts near Coolidge 
Corner and Washington Square and in Chestnut Hill. 


Woodland Rd. Girls 4-19, Boys 4-9 Est 1921. 
Eugene R. Smith, A.M., Syracuse Univ, Ped.D., N Y State 

Teachers Col, Syracuse, Head Master. 

Enr: 340. Fac: 63. Tui: $150-600. Courses 14 yrs: Nursery 
Sen Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Acad 
Teacher Training. Incorporated 1921 not for profit, patrons own 
bonds. Trustees 15 elected by corporation members. Scholar- 
ships at discretion of trustees. Undenominational. C E B can- 
didates '37, 21 ; *32-*36, 52. Entered Col '37, 21; *32-*36, 59. 
Alumnae 276. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

One of the most widely known and successful progressive 
schools, Beaver has come to be socially accepted by discrimi- 
nating Boston families. Liberal minded parents, desirous of bring- 
ing to Boston more progressive educational methods than were 
then available, called Dr. Smith, who had successfully developed 
the Park School in Baltimore, to organize a similar school here. 
He has been extraordinarily successful and has added constantly 
to the activities and plant of the school. Since 1931 the upper 
classes have been limited to girls. Among the many features 
unusual in secondary schools are the courses in instrumental and 
vocal music for which school credit is given, opportunities for 
instruction in the decorative arts and sciences, the kitchens in 
which girls are given experience under home conditions, a com- 
pletely equipped theatre and beautiful art and library quarters. 
A department for training apprentice teachers, many of them 
recent college graduates, has been in operation since the early 
days of the school. A small boarding department was opened in 
1936. See page 1007. 

Essex Rd. Coed Ages 4-11 Est 1860. 
Monica Burrell Owen, A.B., Smith, Head. 
Enr: Co Day 70. Fac: 18. Tui: $150-425. Courses 7 yrs: Kin- 
dergarten Grades I-V. Incorporated 1919 not for profit. Trus- 
tees 8 elected by corporation of parents. 

Thomas Lee gave buildings and grounds for this little com- 
munity school nearly four score years ago. Under Clara A. 
Bentley, head mistress from 1919 to 1933, it prepared conserva- 

276 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

lively for the city schools. Phyllis Graves, who came from the 
public schools of Scarsdale, gave it a progressive bent which will 
be continued under Mrs. Owen, for some years on the staff of 
Shady Hill School, Cambridge. 

CHOATE SCHOOL, 1600 Beacon St. Girls Ages Bdg 11-19, 
Day 5-19 Est 1920. 

Augusta Choate, A.M., A.B., Vassar, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 50, Co Day 100. Fac: 25. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $175- 
400. Courses 12 yrs: Bdg, Grades VII- VIII High Sen IX-XII; 
Day, Grades I-VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Art Music. In- 
corporated 1932. Undenominational. C B candidates '37, 15; 
'32-'36, 122. Entered Col '37, 10; '32-*36, 59. Alumnae Assoc 
425. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col ad- 
mitting by certif. 

Dating back nearly fifty years to the Commonwealth Avenue 
School in Boston, owned by the Misses Gilman, Choate School 
now carries the name of its principal. From 1900 to 1920 it 
was directed by Miss Guild and Miss Evans and carried their 
names. Miss Choate moved the school to Brookline and has 
built up a college preparatory institution of excellent standing 
with an attractive home life for the girls in residence, and a 
country day program for local girls. See page 1009. 

THE DEXTER SCHOOL, 169 Freeman St. Boys Ages 6-12. 
Enr: Co Day 99. Fac: 9. Tui: $300-550. Courses 6 yrs: Grades 
I-VI. Incorporated. Undenominational. 

Long the lower school for Noble and Greenough, this was in- 
dependently organized in 1926 under its long time principal, 
Myra E. Fiske, who remained in charge until 1938. 

KATHLEEN DELL SCHOOL, 1152 Beacon St. Day, Girls; 
Eve, Coed Ages 16- Est 1932. 

Kathleen Dell, Principal. 

Enr: 75. Fac: 8. Tui: Day $300, Eve $ . Courses i and 2 yrs: 
Creative Writing Puppetry Dramatics Medical Secretarial. 

This small school offers a variety of courses adapted to the 

THE LONGWOOD DAY SCHOOL, 36 Browne St. Boys 4-15, 
Girls 4-9 Est 1913. 

Robert L. Cummings, B.S., Maine Univ, A.M., Harvard, 

Principal; Grace L. Scale, Assistant Principal. 
Enr: 60. Fac: 9. Tui: $150-500. Courses 10 yrs: Kindergarten 
Grades I-IX Music Arts Crafts. Scholarships. Prizes 12. Un- 
denominational. Incorporated 1936 not for profit. Trustees 10 
elected by corporated members. 

Preparing its boys for leading New England secondary schools, 
Longwood is ably staffed and freer in atmosphere than most 

Ma$*. NEW ENGLAND 2? 7 

schools of its type. The activities are sufficiently self motivated 
to eliminate the usual waste and idleness incident to the tradi- 
tional orderliness of school life. Emphasis on the arts and crafts 
and music is planned with the development of the boys tastes 
and interests in mind, and there is a well supervised system of 
afternoon play. Among recent developments are a boarding de- 
partment for a few boys, enrollment of girls in the primary de- 
partment, and tutoring in high school subjects. See page 937. 

THE PARK SCHOOL, Kennard and Hedge Rds. Coed 3-14. 

Grace M. Cole, A.B., Wellesley, M.A., Bryn Mawr. Est 1888. 
Enr: Co Day 161. Fac: 23. Tui: $125-450. Courses n yrs: 
Nursery Kindergarten Grades I-VIII. Incorporated 1922 not 
for profit. Trustees 7 elected by corporate members. 

Originally owned and conducted by Caroline A. Pierce, later 
by Julia B. Park, and for many years under the joint direction 
of Alice Lee and Grace M. Harris, the school is now coopera- 
tively managed by a group of parents. Miss Cole has been direc- 
tor since 1936. 

THE RIVERS SCHOOL, 290 Dean Rd. Boys 5-18 Est 1915. 

Clarence E. Allen, B.S., Dartmouth, Head Master. 
Enr: Day 190. Fac: 21. Tui: $300-550. Courses 13 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I-VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Music Manual 
Arts. Incorporated 1924 not for profit, patrons own bonds. Trus- 
tees 8 self perpetuating. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
*37> 8; *32-'36, 122. Entered Col '37, 42; '32-'36, 60. Alumni 
128. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Established by Robert W. Rivers as an open air school, Rivers 
today is more conservative, preparing most of its boys for col- 
lege entrance examinations. Since Mr. Allen, a former master at 
Newton Country Day School, took over the direction in 1929, 
fewer boys have entered Harvard. The all day program includes 
the usual sports and work in the arts and crafts. 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Alt 74 ft. Pop 109,694 (1920) 113,643. 
The seat of Harvard, Radcliffe, and "Boston Tech", Cam- 
bridge is also a city of varied industries. The city proper lies west 
of "The Yard" along Brattle Street. The non-academic estab- 
lishments of Harvard, on which more than fifty million dollars 
have been spent, border the drives along the Charles river, once 
a region of salt marshes. On opposite sides of the river are the 
Harkness boarding houses and the Baker business college. 


Boys Ages 8-18 Est 1883. 
Geoffrey W. Lewis, A.B., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Co Day 125. Fac: 20. Tui: $450-500. Courses 9 yrs: 

278 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

Grades IV- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1912 not 
for profit. Overseers 15 appointed by corporation. C B candi- 
dates '37, 26; '32-'36, 87. Entered Col '37, 18; '32-'36, 95- 
Alumni 1380. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member 
N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Founded by two Harvard classmates, George H. Browne and 
Edgar H. Nichols, soon after their graduation, the school was 
conducted by them jointly until Mr. Nichols' death in 1910. 
Two years later WiUard Reed became co-principal with Mr. 
Browne. In 1928 the school was taken over and incorporated 
by a board of alumni trustees who in 1931 selected as head 
master Roger T. Twitchell, for nine years previously a master 
at Milton Academy. During the six years of his head mastership, 
the junior school was moved to new buildings at Gerry's Land- 
ing and plans made for early removal of the upper school to the 
same site. Mr. Lewis in 1937 joined the increasing group of 
young Harvard deans chosen head masters of preparatory 
schools. The boys continue to come from all parts of greater 
Boston and prepare chiefly for Harvard and M. I. T. 

THE BUCKINGHAM SCHOOL, 10 Buckingham St. Coed 
Girls 4-18, Boys 4-10 Est 1902. 

Marian W. Vaillant, A.B., Radcliffe, Principal. 
Enr: Day 185. Fac: 28. Tui: $100-550. Courses 14 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Transition Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. In- 
corporated 1902, patrons own bonds. Trustees 9. C E B candi- 
dates '37, 175 '32-'36, 87. Ent Col '37, 12; '32-'3<5, 34- 

From this solid college preparatory and elementary school, 
successor to Miss Markham's School established in 1893, have 
recently come a number of head mistresses of lesser schools. 
Long under the direction of Katharine M. Thompson who re- 
signed in 1929, it has more recently been directed first by Eliza- 
beth M. Cooper, and since 1935 by Miss Vaillant. 

CAMBRIDGE SCHOOL, 34 Concord Ave. Coed Ages 4-12. 

John R. P. French, A.B., A.M., Harvard, Head Master; 

Harriet A. Ellis, A.B., Director. Est 1886. 
Enr: Day 100. Fac: 25. Tui: $100-500. Courses 8 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I- VII. Inc not for profit. Trustees 9. 

Since 1931 the upper school has been conducted in Kendal 
Green where boarding facilities are available. See page 900. 

LESLEY SCHOOL, 29 Everett St. Women Ages 1 8- Est 1909. 

Mrs. Edith Lesley Wolfard, Director. 

Enr: 184. Fac: 27. Tui: Bdg $575, Day $230-400. Courses 2 
and 3 yrs: Nursery, Kindergarten, Primary and Elementary 
Teacher-Training; i and 2 yrs: Homemaking and Professional 
Domestic Science. Proprietary. Alumnae ca 2000. 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 279 

The courses for teacher training are supplemented by work 
in domestic science in cooperation with Miss Farmer's School of 
Cookery. There are opportunities for observation and practical 
teaching in both public and private kindergartens and elemen- 
tary schools. Four supervised dormitories care for girls in resi- 
dence. Mrs. Wolfard is a woman of broad experience and many 
interests. See page 1068. 

LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC, Garden and Pollen Sts. Coed. 

Minna Franziska Holl, Director. Est 1915. 
Enr: Day 275. Fac: 30. Tui: Diploma Course $300-400, Single 
Courses, variable. Courses: Instrumental Vocal Theoretical. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees self perpetuating. 

Founded by Georges Longy, oboist of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, for the teaching of music through the study of solfege, 
the school is affiliated with L'Ecole Normale de Musique de 
Paris. Instruction is given in all branches of music, instrumental, 
vocal, and theoretical. Radcliffe recognizes correlary work. 
A considerable increase in enrollment and a campaign for funds 
resulted in the acquisition of a new plant in 1938. 

MANTER HALL SCHOOL, Harvard Sq. Coed 12- Est 1886. 

John C. Hall, S.B., Boston Univ, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 15, Day 75. Fac: 38. Tui: Bdg $1200-1800, Day $2.50 
per hour. Courses 6 yrs: Col Prep Tutoring Spec i yr. Incor- 
porated. CEB candidates '37, 6; '32-'36, 42. Entered Col '35, 
35? '30-*34, 274. Alumni ca 800. 

The first Harvard tutoring school was established by William 
Whiting Nolen, colloquially known as the "widow Nolen." After 
his death in 1923, it was incorporated and has since been carried 
on by men who had been with him for many years and had 
helped to make the reputation of the school. Among them is 
Mr. Hall, long treasurer and member of the board, director 
since 1937. Now primarily a preparatory school for boys, both 
resident and day, Manter Hall accepts a limited number of day 
girls, many daughters of alumni. See page 936. 

NEW PREPARATORY SCHOOL, 1374 Mass Ave. Boys 16- . 

Ernest Benshimol, Principal. Est 1924. 

Enr: 350. Fac: 16. Tui: variable. Courses : Col Prep. Proprie- 
tary. Scholarships 2, value tui. C E B candidates '37, 41; '32- 
'36, 241. 

Max Benshimol opened this school after the death of William 
Whiting Nolen, with whom he taught for twenty years. On his 
death in 1934 his son assumed control. 

33 Washington Ave. Men Ages 17- Est 1924. 

280 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

Fred Miller, B.S., Pa Univ, M.B.A., Harvard, B.Litt., Oxford 

Univ, Eng, Dean. 

Enr: Bdg , Day . Fac: 8. Tui: Bdg $375-720, Day $300. 
Coursed 2 and 4 yrs: Executive Training Grad. 

High school graduates are here offered two curriculums from 
which to choose, an intensive four year course in executive 
training and a two year course for those specializing in one par- 
ticular field. The graduate work is limited to men who have pre- 
viously acquired degrees in liberal arts, sciences, or engineering. 
See page 1066. 
SHADY HILL SCHOOL, Coolidge Hill. Coed 5-15 Est 1915. 

Katharine Taylor, A.B., Vassar, M.A., Mich Univ, Director. 
Enr: Day 287. Fac: 41. Tui : $250-550. Courses 10 yrs : Kinder- 
garten Grades I- VIII High Sch i. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees 13. Scholarships 45, value full or part tui. Undenomi- 
national. Alumni 277. 

Outstanding among progressive elementary schools, Shady 
Hill had its beginnings in a group of children largely from 
families of the Harvard faculty. It bears the name of the estate 
of Charles Eliot Norton. Reorganized in 1927 under a governing 
board of parents and faculty, it has been under the skillful ad- 
ministration of Miss Taylor since 1921. The present open site 
near the Charles river has been occupied since 1926. 
CONCORD, MASS. Alt 121 ft. Pop 6461 (1920) 7477 (1930). 

The home of Hawthorne, Emerson, Thoreau, and the Alcotts, 
Concord is a literary shrine with the significance in America of 
England's Stratford or Germany's Weimar. A mecca of the 
patriotic, here was fired the "shot heard round the world." And 
here Thoreau in jail wrote his "Civil Disobedience" which 
through Tolstoi and Gandhi has shaken the foundations of the 
world's two greatest empires. 

But its schools of today are in no way revolutionary. Concord 
Academy occupies the former Samuel Hoar estate and the adja- 
cent property on Main Street. The Fenn School is on Monument 
Street, about a half mile from the bridge. The Concord Summer 
School of Music, under Thomas Whitney Surette, is held in 
Concord Academy. Three miles from the center of the town are 
the brick Colonial buildings and spacious grounds of Middlesex. 
CONCORD ACADEMY Girls Bdg 13-18, Day 5-18 Est 1919. 

Valeria Addams Knapp, A.B., Vassar, Columbia, Head. 
Enr: Bdg 22, Day 102. Fac: 19. Tui: Bdg $1500, Day $175-425. 
Courses 12 yrs: Bdg, High Sch 1-5 Col Prep; Day, Grades I- VII 
High Sch 1-5 Col Prep. Incorporated 1922 not for profit. 
Trustees 15 self perpetuating. Undenominational. C E B can- 
didates '37, ii ; J 32-'36, TO. Entered Col '37, 5; > 32- > 36, 41. 
Alumnae 152. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 281 

Citizens of Concord and adjacent towns, seeking for their 
daughters a type of school not available in the vicinity, brought 
about the merging of several old local institutions to found this 
academy. Dr. Elsie G. Hobson, in charge for fifteen years, 
brought the school to a high point of efficiency. She was suc- 
ceeded in 1937 by Miss Knapp, former chairman of Winsor 
Lower School. 

THE FENN SCHOOL Boys Ages 6-15 Est 1929. 

Roger C. Fenn, A.B., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 19, Day 45. Fac: n. Tui: Bdg $1250, Day $175-400. 
Courses 8 yrs: Grades I- VIII. Incorporated 1929 not for profit. 
Trustees 1 1 self perpetuating. Undenominational. Alumni 84. 

A former teacher at Middlesex, Mr. Fenn here takes younger 
boys as full or five day boarders and prepares them in pleasant 
surroundings for the large secondary boarding schools. 

MIDDLESEX SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-19 Est 1901. 

Lawrence Terry, Harvard, Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 125. Fac: 23. Tui: $1350. Courses 6 yrs: Col Prep 
Grades VII- VIII. Incorporated 1901 not for profit. Trustees 12 
self perpetuating. Income from invested funds $1000. Compet- 
itive prize scholarships. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
*37 29; '32-36, 131. Entered Col '37, 27; *32- l 36, 112. Alumni 
780. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This school was established as a Harvard preparatory school 
by Frederick Winsor and a group of notable and wealthy Har- 
vard men. Mr. Winsor, who graduated from Harvard in 1893, 
served as master at Taf t and Exeter, and for three years head 
master of the Oilman Country School, Baltimore. Eclectically 
he combined the English house system, first introduced at Law- 
renceville, with some of the features of the church schools of 
England. From the first, satisfactory college entrance stand- 
ards have been maintained, but the interests are much broader, 
as is evidenced by the courses in music, fine arts and woodwork- 
ing. Each member of the graduating class has carved a panel for 
the assembly hall. The boys have been encouraged to build the 
collections in the school museum and the school zoo. From the 
faculty in the last two decades have come nine heads of promi- 
nent schools. Mr. Winsor has given his close interest to building 
the school, establishing a system of visiting national alumni 
centers to interest boys of promise from all parts of the country 
in the competitive prize scholarship plan which he was the first 
secondary school man to inaugurate, following the ideas of 
President Conant at Harvard. In 1938 he announced his retire- 
ment and the appointment of his successor Mr. Terry, former 
assistant head master of Noble and Greenough School. 

282 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

CUMMINGTON, MASS. Pop 489 (1920) $31 (1930). 

This village is in the hills of western Massachusetts. 


Katharine Frazier, B.A., Mt Holyoke, Director. 
Enr: Bdg 30. Fac: 10. Tui: $1040. Courses 3 yrs: Writing 
Music Literature Expression Arts Allied Cultural Subjects. 
Incorporated 1930 not for profit. Trustees self perpetuating. 

Established as the Play house-in- the-Hills, a summer school, 
this has become a full time school for young men and women of 
some creative ability in writing, music, and the fine arts. 

DANVERS, MASS. Alt 42ft. Pop 11,108 (1920) 12,957 (1930). 
B.&M.R.R. Route Ifrom Boston, northeast from Salem. 

An important leather manufacturing center, Danvcrs is still 
redolent of Colonial times and witchcraft days. Crowning a hill 
is one of the state insane asylums. On high, rolling ground, two 
miles from the center, is the two hundred acre site of St. John's 
Preparatory School. 


Brother Aubert, C.F.X., Head Master. Est 1907. 
Enr: Bdg 140, Day 112. Fac: 25. Tui: Bdg $560, Day $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep. Incorporated. Roman Catholic. 
C E B candidates '37, 3; '32-36, 48. Entered Col '37, 60; '32- 
'36, 202. Alumni 3000. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

Most of the graduates of this large, successful Catholic school 
go on to Catholic colleges. The Brothers of St. Francis Xavier 
started the school with one building and an enrollment of thirty. 

DEDHAM, MASS. Alt 119ft. Pop 10,792 (1920) 15,136 (1930). 

This pleasant county seat has attracted prominent families 
from Boston, ten miles distant, ever since 1636 when its "twenty- 
two proprietors from Water town and Roxbury" took possession. 
Dedham Country Day School is a block from the court house. 
Noble and Greenough School is on the hundred acre Nickerson 
estate bordering on the Charles river. 


Everett W. Ladd, Ed.M., Harvard, Principal. 
Enr: Day 115. Fac: 15. Tui: $100-350. Courses 9 yrs: Nursery 
Play Group Pre-Sch Kindergarten Grades I-VII. Incor- 
porated 1922. Trustees 5. 

A country day school program has been carried on here since 
1928 when Mr. Ladd became principal. The present modern 
school, successor of The Hewins School long directed by Bertha 
Hewins, continues to prepare students adequately for the large 
eastern secondary schools. 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 283 

19 Est 1866. 

Charles Wiggins, 2nd, A.B., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 37, Co Day 77. Fac: 13. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $600. 
Courses 6 yrs: Col Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 15. Unde- 
nominational. C E B candidates '37, 45; >32-'36, 305. Entered 
Col '37, 16; '32-'36, ca 72. Alumni 1217. Member N E Assoc. 

Since it was established on Beacon Hill by George W. C. 
Noble, who was joined after a quarter of a century by James J. 
Greenough, this school bearing their names has prepared chiefly 
for Harvard, enrolling boys from stable and influential Boston 
families. Mr. Wiggins, formerly at Pomfret, head master since 
the school moved to Dedham in 1922, inaugurated a small 
boarding department in 1929. 

DEERFIELD, MASS. Alt 152ft. Pop 2803 (1920) 2882 (1930). 
B.&M.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 5 from Springfield. 

Beautiful old Colonial houses border the quiet broad streets 
of this historic town which runs along a terrace above the 
Connecticut. The state road detours the village. As early as 1896 
the crafts movement was taken up here and interesting exhibits 
of local work may be seen. The academy now occupies beautiful 
buildings designed by Charles Platt of New York, the gift of 
loyal friends. Nearby in an interesting old house is The Bement 
School. On a shoulder of Mt. Pocumtuck is Eaglebrook School 
for young boys, once occupied by Rudyard Kipling who ad- 
mired the superb view. 

THE BEMENT SCHOOL Coed Ages Bdg 8-15, Day 4-15. 

Mrs. Lewis D. Bement, A.B., Vassar, Principal. Est 1925. 
Enr: Bdg 20, Day 38. Fac: 15. Tui: Bdg $1500, Day $500. 
Courses 9 yrs: Kindergarten Grades I- VIII. Incorporated 1932. 

Mrs. Bement has here in old Colonial buildings created a 
school for young children. Visitors will find groups intent on 
tasks in hand, living naturally and with enthusiasm a rich and 
colorful life, deriving discipline and education as a by-product 
of ordered and interesting activities. Without the confusion of 
some progressive schools, the children are still free to concen- 
trate on work in which they are interested. See page 1043. 

DEERFIELD ACADEMY Boys Ages 14-19 Est 1797. 
Frank L. Boyden, A.B., M.A., Amherst, Williams, Yale, D.Sc., 

Colgate, Ped.D., N Y State Teachers Col, LL.D., Wesleyan, 

Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 300, Day 100. Fac: 40. Tui: Bdg $1500, Day $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for 
profit. Trustees 13 self perpetuating. Scholarships! value 

284 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

$25,000. Undenominational. C B candidates '37, 30; *32- 9 36, 
116. Entered Col '37, 120; *32-'36, 500. Alumni 2400. Ap- 
proved by N Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N Assoc. 

One of the nation's great secondary schools, Deerfield is the 
creation of Mr. Boyden. Fresh from Amherst he came to head 
Dickinson Academy, the local high school housed in an ugly 
brick building. Today Mr. Boyden is one of the most influential 
men in secondary school education, playing an important part 
in the reorganization and planning of other schools. Former 
masters trained by him are following in his footsteps as head 
masters elsewhere. So great has been the confidence and friend- 
liness felt for Mr. Boyden that in 1924 when the school through 
state statute lost the support of the town, heads of schools like 
Exeter, Taf t and Andover cooperated in his appeal for funds for 
the present beautiful equipment. Mr. Boyden was the first to 
work out here a successful system of athletics for all. The social 
community life of the school and general participation in 
dramatics are made use of in training and developing the per- 
sonality of each boy. Unusual, unconventional and natural are 
such features as the Sunday evening sings and a survey and pub- 
lished reports by students on the geology of the country round 
about. The Amherst-Williams-Dartmouth tradition is strong, 
though a fifth of the graduates enter the 'big three' each year by 
Board examinations. Mr. Boyden selects from his candidates 
the type he can develop with greatest success. Both he and 
Mrs. Boyden know each boy in the school and every boy passes 
through the science and mathematics classes that Mrs. Boyden 
teaches. See page 944. 
EAGLEBROOK SCHOOL Boys Ages 6-15 Est 1921. 

C. Thurston Chase, Jr., A.B., Williams, Columbia, Head. 
Enr: Bdg 96. Fac: 21. Tui: $1400. Courses 9 yrs: Grades I- 
VIII High Sch i. Incorporated 1931. Trustees zo. Scholar- 
ships 8, value $5000. Undenominational. Alumni 316. 

Mr. and Mrs. Chase have here developed an outstanding 
school for young boys. In 1928 they purchased Eaglebrook 
Lodge with which Mr. Chase had been associated under the 
founder, Howard B. Gibbs. Their own little boys have given 
them an added zest for the varied outdoor activities and inter- 
ests they have arranged for all to participate in, together with 
music, art, printing. In a cheerful atmosphere of youth and 
enthusiasm boys receive considerable individual attention. See 
page 941. 
DOVER, MASS. Alt 156 ft. Pop 867 (1920) 1195 (1930). 

Dover has recently become popular as a place of residence for 
wealthy Bostonians. The school, originally in Charles River 
Village, now occupies five acres near the town. 

Mats. NEW ENGLAND 285 

THE CHARLES RIVER SCHOOL Coed Ages 5-13 Est 1911. 

Wlnqna K. Algie, Margaret W. Burnham, Directors. 
Enr:Day6o. Fac: . Tui: $150-300. Courses 6 yrs : Grades I- 
VI. Incorporated. Trustees 3. Undenominational. 

Children of the neighboring estates are here prepared for the 
large eastern secondary schools. 

DUDLEY, MASS. Pop 3701 (1920) 426S (1930). 

Near the Connecticut line, sixteen miles southwest of Worces- 
ter, is this small village. From its hilltop campus the junior 
college has a view of three states. 

NICHOLS JUNIOR COLLEGE Men Ages 18-22 Est 1930. 

James Lawson Conrad, B.B.A., Boston Univ, President. 
Enr: Bdg 112. Fac: 12. Tui: $900. Courses 2 yrs. Incor- 
porated 1930. Trustees 17 self perpetuating. Endowment 
$30,000. Scholarships, value $3000. Undenom. Alumni 800. 

This independent junior college of business administration 
and executive training meets the need of graduates of prepara- 
tory and high schools who are interested in some practical train- 
ing for business life combined with informal college activities 
and interests. Mr. Conrad, through his energy and quick vision 
was successful from the first and in 1938 petitioned the legisla- 
ture for the privilege of granting degrees. Today the boys come 
not only from New England but from twenty-six states and 
fourteen foreign countries. See page 1067. 

EASTHAMPTON, MASS. Alt 169ft. Pop 11,261 (1920) 11,323 

(1930). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route 10 from Westfield. 

A tree shaded town in the rich valley lands of the Connecticut, 

Easthampton is within sight of Mt. Tom and Mt. Fomeroy. 

The town has long been a small manufacturing center. 

WILLISTON ACADEMY Boys Ages ca 10-20 Est 1841. 

Archibald V. Galbraith, A.B., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 172, Day 28. Fac: 20. Tui: Bdg $850-1100, Day $335. 
Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep High Sen 1-4. Incorporated 1841 not 
for profit. Trustees 15 self perpetuating. Endowment $1,000,- 
ooo. Income from invested funds $28,235. Scholarships 25, 
value ca $5000. Prizes 40, value $700. Undenominational. 
C E B candidates '37, 23; '32^36, x6x. Entered Col '37, 57 J '32- 
'36, 170. Alumni 3000 living, 10,000 in all. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Mem- 
ber N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

In establishing and endowing an academy, equipping lecture 
rooms, and placing English and scientific courses on the same 
plane as the classical, Samuel Williston, wealthy manufacturer 
of the town, took a radical step. Under Josiah Clark, principal 

286 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

from 1849 to 1863, the standards of instruction in ancient 
classics were established. Under Marshall Henshaw (1863-76), 
Mr. Williston's ideal of a school in which science, mathematics 
and English should be held in equal honor and pursued with 
equal thoroughness as the ancient classics, was realized. Of the 
ten thousand who have attended the school during its long 
existence, more than a third have entered some thirty colleges 
and universities; a fifth, the learned professions. Seven of its 
teachers have become college presidents; seventeen, college pro- 
fessors; nine, principals of other schools. Dr. Joseph Sawyer, 
connected for half a century with Williston, resigned in IQTQ be- 
cause of failing health. Mr. Galbraith, for nearly twenty years 
master at Middlesex School, has been principal since IQIQ and 
has succeeded in broadening the school's appeal, modernizing 
its outlook, and bringing its standards up to those of the best 
college preparatory schools. 

WILLISTON JUNIOR SCHOOL, with its own head master, E. R. 
Clare, has been maintained as a separate unit since 1016. It 
offers work of the fourth through the eighth grades and has its 
own faculty of five. The majority of the boys enter the senior 
school. See page 939. 

FRANKLIN, MASS. Alt 800ft. Pop 7028 (1930). N.Y.N.H.&H. 
R.R. Motor Route U.S. 1 from Boston. 

Separated from Wrentham in 1778 and named for "Poor 
Richard", this town of diversified manufactures is about half 
way between Boston and Providence. The academy is near the 

DEAN ACADEMY Coed Ages 14- Est 1865. 

Earle S. Wallace, B.S., Tufts, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 150, Day 60. Fac: 25. Tui: Bdg S6oo, Day $75-175. 
Courses 6 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Grade VIII Secretarial 
Home Economics Post Grad. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees 25 self perpetuating. Endowment $350,000. Income 
from invested funds $22,000. Scholarships. Undenominational. 
C E B candidates '37, 3; '32-'36, 48. Entered Col '37, 37; > 32- > 36, 
431. Alumni 355<>. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accred- 
ited to Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc. 

Long closely affiliated with Tufts College, Dean is one of the 
few surviving and prosperous coeducational academies in New 
England. The course conforms to and provides adequately for 
the requirements of college preparation, but opportunities are 
available in business, music, and science. Mr. Wallace, an 
alumnus, with considerable experience in schools on the West 
Coast, came in 1934 after the death of Dr. Arthur W. Peirce, 
head master for forty years. See page 1041. 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 287 

GREAT BARRINGTON, MASS. Alt 726 ft. Pop 6315 (1920} 

5934 (1930). Motor Route U.S. 20 from Springfield. 
Early a fashionable place of residence, Great Harrington is 
the chief town of the beautiful southern Berkshires. William 
Cullen Bryant was town clerk for a decade, and many of the 
old records are in his writing. Near the center, behind a high 
stone wall, Barrington School occupies the blue limestone resi- 
dence of the old Searles estate. 

ALTARAZ SCHOOL, Monterey P.O. Coed 6-18 Est 1927. 

Isaac M. Altaraz, Ph.D., Berlin Univ; Mrs. Altaraz, Dirs. 
Enr: Bdg 35. Fac: 9. Tui: $1200. Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- 
VIII High Sch 1-4 Manual Arts Vocational Training Music 
Dance Drama. Proprietary. Undenom. Alumni 75. 

Dr. Altaraz, a psychologist, and Mrs. Altaraz, an artist, here 
give maladjusted children year round academic training, work- 
ing toward social and emotional stability through the develop- 
ment of individual aptitudes. 

BARRINGTON SCHOOL Girls Ages 11-20 Est 1923. 

Ellen E. Hill, B.L., Smith; Mrs. Ruth W. Tracy, A.B., Mount 

Holyoke, Directors. 

Enr: Bdg 25. Fac: 9. Tui: $1500 (incl). Courses 6 yrs: Grades 
VII-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music. Incorporated 1923 
not for profit. Trustees 6 self perpetuating. Scholarships 2, 
value $2000. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 4; '32- 
'36, 17. Entered Col '37, 4; *29-'36, 22. Alumnae 175. 

In the fall of 1938 Barrington School enters upon a new era. 
For fifteen years Miss Hill, former instructor in English at 
Bryn Mawr and later at Westover, has offered her girls an edu- 
cation, esthetic as well as intellectual, broader than usual. A 
woman of personality, charm, and social poise, she has lived 
and travelled extensively in Europe and has wide interests 
which she imparts to her girls. Mr. and Mrs. Tracy, formerly 
at Hotchkiss School, will have her cooperation in carrying on 
the traditions, broadening the scope, and increasing the enroll- 
ment, Mrs. Tracy acting as director, Mr. Tracy as business 
manager. See page 1008. 

GREENFIELD, MASS. Alt 1170 ft. Pop 15,462 (1920) 15,500 
(1930). B.&M.R.R. Motor Route 2 from Boston. 

The cars of Mohawk Trailers throng the wide, tree-shaded 
streets of this trading and manufacturing center. On a slope 
on the outskirts, back from the quiet country road leading to 
Bernards ton, is the beautiful modern building which houses 
Stoneleigh-Prospect Hill School. 

288 NEW ENGLAND Jlfass. 

Est Prospect Hill 1869, Stoneleigh 1909. 

Isabel B. Cressler, B.A., Wilson; Caroline L. Sumner, B.A., 

Smith, Head Mistresses. 

Enr: Bdg 30, Day 20. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $1700 incl, Day $500. 
Courses 4 and 5 yrs: Col Prep Art Music. Incorporated not for 
profit. Trustees 12 self perpetuating. Undenominational. C E B 
candidates '37, 4; *32-'36, 13. Entered Col '37, 5; '32-^36, 13. 
Alumnae ca 600. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Member 
N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Miss Cressler and Miss Sumner have here created a school of 
unusual atmosphere. Before the war they had a school in Rome, 
later a small group, Elmhurst, for young girls in Connersville, 
Indiana, which they directed until 1926. The present name is 
derived in part from the Stoneleigh Manor Hotel at Rye Beach, 
N. H., which they occupied for four years, and in part from the 
old Prospect Hill School in Greenfield. The trustees of this latter 
institution, long discontinued except for local classes in music 
and art, turned over the large endowment fund that had accumu- 
lated and built the present beautiful plant. Here, reminiscent 
of the best of the liberal Victorians, the head mistresses give 
their girls intimate and friendly supervision and a sense of well 
being in a milieu of intellectual culture. See page 1005. 

GROTON, MASS. Alt 300 ft. Pop 2185 (1920) 2434 (1930). 
B.&M.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 2 from Boston. 

This old town overlooks the valley of the Nashua river and 
the hills beyond. On its main street are eighteenth century 
houses, the best of which belong to Lawrence Academy. The 
Groton Inn is a comfortable hostelry dating from pre-Revolu- 
tionary times when the town was an important posting place 
between Boston and Canada. A mile and a half to the west, 
Groton School, with its beautiful Gothic tower, commands a 
wide view. 

GROTON SCHOOL Boys Ages 13-18 Est 1884. 

Rev. Endicott Peabody, D.D., Cambridge, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 183. Fac: 27. Tui: $1400. Courses 6 yrs: Col Prep. 
Incorporated. Trustees 12. Scholarships, value $3500. Prot- 
estant Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, 26; '32-'36 f 195. En- 
tered Col '35, 29; '3o-'34, 143. Alumni ca 1200. Member N E 
Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Founded by Dr. Peabody with a coterie of Boston aristocrats, 
the school still remains the lengthened shadow of his own un- 
compromising personality. Bishop Lawrence, still a trustee, is 
the only other survivor of the original group. Groton has brought 
nurture, intellectual pap, and a spirit of aristocratic democracy 

Mats. NEW ENGLAND 289 

to leading and socially ambitious families, especially from New 
York. The Roosevelts native talent for publicity has rather 
spoiled the seclusion long sedulously sought. 

"Groton has been a Church school, believing profoundly in 
the power of the Spirit and in the duty of service being passed 
from generation to generation by personal intimate contact . . .", 
writes Frank Davis Ashburn, alumnus and former master of 
Groton, now head of Brooks School, in " Fifty Years On", pub- 
lished ig.H- "For at least twenty-five years the texts and courses 
gave no hint that there had been men before Adam, that Charles 
Darwin and Andrew D. White, to name only two, had confronted 
established religion with the most startling challenge since 
Martin Luther." 

Mr. Ashburn frankly and graciously meets the critics who 
have dubbed Groton aristocratic, un-American, British, 
"absurdly pure", keeping its boys "unspotted from the world". 
"The code is strict, in some respects almost monastic. . . . The 
question of the possible psychological cramping of a boy by 
too much of it is more serious. . . . The single spot in which the 
cramping has been most felt has been the spiritual. Individuals 
feel that there has been too much dogmatism and not enough 
reason; too much chapel and not enough freedom of thought". 
So much attention is given to sacred studies that few of its 
graduates go into the ministry. "Groton turns out a type", 
chiefly a so-called "business type". 

A modification of the monitorial system which for twenty 
years had been in successful use at St. Mark's was adopted at 
Groton and has from the first proved successful, but at Groton 
the boys are called prefects. A head prefect and six prefects are 
appointed annually from the upper form. They exercise a con- 
siderable measure of influence on the student body, which de- 
velops responsibility in the holders of these offices and lessens 
the load of the masters. The boys at Groton do not have separate 
rooms; all except the prefects live in cubicles. Denied their 
accustomed luxuries of living, they wash in cold water in tin 
basins. The system that is followed at St. Paul's and St. Mark's 
for the younger boys is here continued through all forms, and 
Groton's system in this respect has been copied in some other 
church schools. The two upper forms are provided with studies 
and the lower forms study at desks in large schoolrooms. The 
relations between master and pupil at Groton are particularly 
intimate in all branches of school activity. Boys are selected 
for admission in order from lists on which they are registered at 
birth. Eight scholarship boys are admitted annually on competi- 
tive examination without reference to previous environment. 

Conservative in so many ways, Groton has been unusually 
progressive in others. Printing, woodworking, science in all its 


forms, music, drawing, have been introduced to provide en- 
riched activities. The school Quarterly gives evidence of an eye 
to English models, of cultural inbreeding, of a superiority com- 
plex which is the result of lack of complete adjustment to en- 
vironment. Groton has been a notable experiment in aristocratic 
conservatism, in its early years in the midst of a crude culture, 
and later in a changing world to which it remains unadjusted. 
Its friends are not unconcerned about its future. 

THE LAWRENCE ACADEMY Boys Ages 12-19 Est 1793. 

Fred Clifton Gray, A.B., Bates, A.M., Columbia, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 75, Day 25. Fac: 9. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $125. 
Courses 4 yrs : High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 
12 self perpetuating. Endowment $500,000. Income from in- 
vested funds $25,000. Scholarships 12. Undenominational. 
C E B candidates '37, 6; *32-'36, 39. Entered Col '37, 40; '32- 
'36, 156. Alumni 8300. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

Today a sound college preparatory school, Lawrence Academy 
is successor to the coeducational Groton Academy renamed in 
1846 in honor of Amos and William Lawrence who endowed it. 
Since 1898 it has enrolled boys only. The Dr. Samuel A. Green 
Foundation gave the greater proportion of the present endow- 
ment in igi8, but it was not until 1925 when Mr. Gray took 
charge that a period of practical stagnation came to an end. 
In 1937 the trustees took the first step in a general development 
program, the purchase of a thirty-seven acre tract, for playing 
fields, and for future additions to the plant. See page 937. 

Women Ages 18- Est 1901. 

John Parker, S.B., M.Arch., Mass Inst Tech, Director. 
Enr: Bdg 18, Day 4. Fac: 9. Tui: $350-500, Board $18 wk. 
Courses 2-3 yrs: Landscape Architecture Horticulture. Incor- 
porated 1909 not for profit. Trustees 26 self perpetuating. 
Alumna ca 150. 

Established by the late Mrs. Edward Gilchrist Low to train 
women for the profession of landscape architecture, this was the 
first school of its kind in the United States. Mr. Parker took 
charge in 1934 and instituted a winter term in Boston in connec- 
tion with the Department of Architecture of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. A two year course in horticulture was 
inaugurated in 1936. 

HALIFAX, MASS. Alt 84ft. Pop 728 (1930). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. 
Motor Route U.S. 3 from Boston, 106 from Kingston. 

Bordering on Lake Monponsett, Halifax is twelve miles from 
Plymouth. Here is Standish Manor School. 


STANDISH MANOR SCHOOL Girls Ages 10-20 Est 1911. 
Alice M. Myers, Principal; Hazel G. Cullingford, Assistant. 
Enr: Bdg 25. Fac: 5. Tui: variable. Partnership. 

This year round school for backward girls has carefully 
planned courses in all school subjects and makes a specialty of 
speech correction. The winter is spent at Cassadaga, Florida. 

HINGHAM, MASS. Alt 21 ft. Pop 5604 (1920) 6657 (1930). 
N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route 3 A from Quincy. 

Settlers from Hingham, England, founded this town in 1633. 
Fifteen miles from Boston, its elm-shaded streets and old Colo- 
nial houses have long attracted summer residents. The Old Ship 
Church, erected in 1681, is a landmark of historic interest. The 
upper school of Derby Academy is on Burditt Avenue; the 
lower school on Main Street. 

DERBY ACADEMY Coed Ages 4-19 Est 1784. 

George F. Cherry, A.B., Harvard, A.M., Middlebury, Head. 
Enr: Co Day 138. Fac:2o. Tui: $125-450. Courses 14 yrs: Kin- 
dergarten 1-2 Grades I- VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Domestic 
Science Manual Arts. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 15 
self perpetuating. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 2 ; 
'32-*36, 7- Entered Col '36, 3; *3i-*35, 10. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Dartmouth. Member N E 
Assoc Col. Approved N E Certif Bd. 

Founded to fit boys for Harvard and girls for the duties of the 
home, Derby Academy has been in continuous operation since 
1701. Early in 1922 it was reorganized by interested citizens 
who engaged John R. P. French, now at Cambridge School, as 
head. A new site was purchased, and the academy developed for 
a time along modern, progressive lines. Mr. Cherry came to the 
school in 1930 from Avon Old Farms. 

LANCASTER, MASS. Alt 258ft. Pop 2461 (1920) 2897 (1930}. 

B.&M.R.R. Route 110 from Worcester, 117 from Waltham. 

A beautiful old village thirty-eight miles northwest of Boston, 

Lancaster is known for its magnificent trees and for its church 

(1816) designed by Charles Bulfinch. Here are the extensive 

estates of the Thayer family. The former Iver Johnson estate 

is now the home of Perkins School. 

PERKINS SCHOOL Coed Ages 4-16 Est 1896. 

Franklin H. Perkins, M.D., Tufts Col, Director. 
Enr: Bdg 50. Fac: 12. Tui: . Incorporated. 

Here Dr. Perkins, one of the few physicians and psychiatrists 
conducting a school, provides for the education of children of 
undeveloped faculties and gives them professionally sound 
treatment and home care. For many years connected with state 


institutions, he took over the Hillbrow School of Newton in 
1922 and gave it a new name. Since 1924 the school has been in 
Lancaster where plant and equipment have been constantly 
added to and improved. Dr. Perkins also conducts a summer 
camp at Friendship, Maine. See page 1070. 

LENOX, MASS. Alt 1270ft. Pop 2742 (1930). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. 
Motor Route U.S. 20 from Springfield, U.S. 7 from N.Y.C. 
As the permanent summer headquarters of the Boston Sym- 
phony since 1937, this old town has begun to take on new color. 
In the middle of the nineteenth century the home of the Sedg- 
wicks, Fanny Kemble, Henry Ward Beecher, Mark Hopkins, 
and other intellectuals, Lenox is rich in literary associations and 
was long a fashionable resort. Lenox School occupies a country 
estate south of the town. 

LENOX SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1926. 

Rev. George Gardner Monks, A.B., Harvard A.M., Columbia, 

B.D., Episcopal Theol Sen, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 86. Fac: 9. Tui: $950. Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII 
High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1926 not for profit. Trus- 
tees ii self perpetuating. Scholarships, value $15,000. Episco- 
pal. C E B candidates '37, 14; *32-'36, 159. Entered Col '37, 
16; '32-^36, 65. Alumni 130. Approved by N E Col Ent Bd. 

This church school, characterized by simplicity and plainness, 
is an offshoot of St. Mark's, started for New England boys of 
Episcopal families who could not afford the fashionable schools. 
Mr. Monks, former curate of All Saints in Worcester, has been 
head master since the school opened. 

LOWELL, MASS. Alt 101ft. Pop 112,759 (1920) 100,234 (1930). 

This cotton manufacturing city is on the Concord and Merri- 
mack rivers, twenty-six miles from Boston. The textile industry 
led to the establishment here of the Lowell Textile Institute. 
The birthplace of Whistler, his home is now open to the public 
as a museum. Rogers Fort Hill Park, commanding a view of the 
valleys, was presented to Lowell by the founder of Rogers Hall 
which faces the park. 

ROGERS HALL Girls Ages 13-19 Est 1892. 

Mrs. Katharine Whitten McGay, B.A., Wellesley, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 40, Day 20. Fac: 17. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $350. 
Courses 7 yrs: Grades VIII-XII Col Prep GenAcad Post Grad 
1-2 Liberal Arts Secretarial Music Dramatics Home Econom- 
ics. Incorporated 1892 not for profit. Trustees 14 self perpet- 
uating with alumnae representation. Undenominational. C E B 
candidates '37, 6; *32-*36, 29. Entered Col '37, 18; *32-'36, 37. 
Alumnae 1220. Member N E Assoc. Approved N E Certif Bd. 


Founded by Elizabeth Rogers, who in her lifetime gave her 
family mansion to the school, and on her death in 1898 endowed 
it with her entire property, Rogers Hall is the creation of Mrs. 
Eliza Parker Underhill and her sister, Olive Sewall Parsons. 
Mrs. McGay, a former teacher, returned to Rogers Hall as dean 
in 1930 and assumed complete control in 1932 when Miss Par- 
sons retired. She has brought wholesome vigor and a modern 
spirit, maintaining the sound old traditions. See page 1005. 

MARION, MASS. Alt 38ft. Pop 1288 (1920) 1638 (1930). N.Y. 
N.H.&H.R.R. Route 28 from Boston, U.S. 6 from Wareham. 

In summer this sleepy seaside town is enlivened by the stac- 
cato hum of small amphibian planes and the cheerful noise of 
amateur yachtsmen, whose boats dot the quiet waters of Buz- 
zards Bay, bordered by extensive summer estates. Tabor Acad- 
emy, on the waterfront, is the only Massachusetts preparatory 
school with a nautical program. 

TABOR ACADEMY Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1876. 

Walter Huston Lillard, A.M., Litt.D., Dartmouth, Head. 
Enr: Bdg 122, Day 22. Fac: 18. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $250. 
Courses 5 yrs: Col Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 13. Scholar- 
ships 26, value $16,000. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
'37, I3J '32-'36, 123- Entered Col '35, 27; '3<>-'34, 173- Alumni 
1230. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col 
admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

Tabor is an unusual school, the creation of Mr. Lillard. Here 
he has built a successful college preparatory school which 
through boat building, sailing, weekend cruises in the school 
yacht, Easter cruises to the West Indies, and summer cruises to 
Central America and Europe, offers unusual incentives to good 
work. The sea had always made a strong appeal to Mr. Lillard, 
a master at Andover until 1916, and in the local coeducational 
academy at Marion, he saw the possibilities of a boys school in 
which he could make use of the old New England seafaring 
traditions. Long active in the interchange of students between 
the schools of England, France, and Germany, he inaugurated 
the International Schoolboy Fellowship in 1927. In his work he 
is now assisted by a son as director of admissions. The summer 
term, open to students from other schools as well as Tabor boys, 
is directed by a son-in-law, Evan Collins. See page 935. 

MILTON, MASS. Alt 24ft. Pop 9382 (1920) 16,434 (1930). 

Near the Blue Hills and not far from the sea, the prosperous 
merchants of a century ago Saltonstalls, Hallowells, Forbeses, 
Wolcotts established their homes and their families have 
fostered the educational institutions of the town. More recently 
Milton has become a residential mecca for other families who 


wish to share in its social prestige and educational advantages. 
The buildings and grounds of Milton Academy, the Town Hall 
and Milton Churches make an attractive group. 

BRUSH HILL SCHOOL Coed Ages 2-12 Est 1898. 

Mrs. Henry S. Pitts, A.B., Bryn Mawr, Principal. 
Enr: Co Day 60. Fac: 9. Tui: $150-400. Courses 7 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I- VI. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 5. 

Children from the surrounding estates and Boston make up 
the enrollment of this country day school. 

MILTON ACADEMY Boys, Girls Est 1798. 

William L. W. Field, A.M., Harvard, Head Master; Arthur 
B. Perry, A.B., Williams, A.M., Harvard, Prin Boys School. 
Enr: Boys Sen Bdg 159, Day 103; Girls Sch Bdg 39, Day 87; 
Lower Sch Day 47. Fac: 65. Tui: Boys Sch Bdg $1400, Day 
$550; Girls Sch Bdg $1700, Day $550; Lower Sch Day $400. 
Courses 9 yrs: Grades IV- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incor- 
porated. Trustees 18. Endowment $650,000. Income from in- 
vested funds $25,000. Scholarships, value $12,000. Undenom- 
inational. C E B candidates '37, 69; *32-'36, 372. Entered Col 
'37, 65; *32-'36, 306. Alumni 1800. Approved by N E Col Ent 
Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

High academic standing and a fortunate situation near the 
estates of some of the older Boston families have made the 
academy in recent years one of the country's leading prepara- 
tory schools. Still, however, it draws the majority of its students 
from local families, although as a result of special effort to 
recruit from further afield about half the residents come from 
outside Massachusetts. Contacts of boarders with Milton homes 
and weekend privileges are encouraged. The Explorer's Club 
brings old and young together. Although the Harvard tradition 
is strong, the school definitely encourages boys who wish to enter 
other colleges. 

As early as 1798 steps were taken to establish a local academy 
which finally opened in 1807 and was conducted interruptedly 
until 1866 when, on the establishment of a town high school, 
it was closed. The academy, reopened in 1885 on a new site, was 
coeducational until 1901. Un^er Harrison Otis Apthorp the 
school first won national prominence which receded under Prin- 
cipal Cobb. But since Mr. Field, a naturalist and entomologist 
of scientific training, took over the school in 1914, its progress 
has been upward. 

MILTON ACADEMY GIRLS SCHOOL provides in Hathaway and 
Goodwin Houses for two score girls in residence. Sarah S. Good- 
win, principal for many years, was succeeded in 1928 by Ellen 
Faulkner, M.A., Bryn Mawr. 


THE LOWER SCHOOL, coeducational, is conducted for children 
from nine to twelve. Frances Browne, A.B., Bryn Mawr, head 
mistress of Phebe Anna Thorne School for a number of years 
until its discontinuance in 1031, is principal. A preparatory de- 
partment for still younger children is affiliated but not financed 
by the academy. 

MONSON, MASS. Alt 380ft. Pop 4826 (1920) 4918 (1930). 

Between Worcester and Springfield in the hills of central 
Massachusetts, Monson has some beautiful old houses. 

MONSON ACADEMY Boys Ages 12-20 Est 1804. 

George E. Rogers, A.B., Tufts, Head Master. 
Enr:Bdg42,Day 20. Fac:8. Tui: Bdg $950, Day $250. Courses 
6 yrs: Col Prep. Incorporated 1804 not for profit. Trustees 15 
self perpetuating. Endowment $250,000. Income from invested 
funds $9000. Scholarships. Undenominational. C E B candi- 
dates '37, i J *32-*36, 13- Entered Col '37, 14; '32-'36, 52. Alumni 
1400. Approved by N E Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc. 

Over eight thousand boys and girls were enrolled at Mon?on 
in its century of existence as a coeducational institution After ;i 
period of discontinuance, the school with new endowment re- 
opened in IQ26 for boys only under Bertram A. Strohmeier. 
Mr. Rogers, former instructor at the Northwood School, Lake 
Placid, took over the direction in 1035. 

NATICK, MASS. Alt 158ft. Pop 10,907 (1920) 13,589 (1930 . 
Motor Route 128 from Cambridge, 135 from Needham. 

Seventeen miles from Boston, Natick is quiet, industrial town. 
The Walnut Hill School takes its name from its location in a 
residential section. 

WALNUT HILL SCHOOL Girls Ages 12-19 Est 1893. 

Hester R. Davies, B.A., Wellesley, A.M., Chicago Univ, Princ. 
Enr: Bdg 90, Co Day 25. Fac: 19. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $400. 
Courses 4-5 yrs: Col Prep Gen. Incorporated 1916 not for profit. 
Trustees 10 self perpetuating with alumnae representation. 
Scholarships, value ? 4ooo. Undenominational. C E B candi- 
dates '37, 39; *32-'36, 246. Entered Col '37, 30; *32-*36, 172. 
Alumnae ca 1928. Member N E Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

Long an efficient college preparatory school, Walnut Hill now 
provides also for the non-college girl. Established at the sugges- 
tion of President Shafer of Wellesley College by Charlotte H. 
Tenant and Florence Bigelow, the school today sends its grad- 
uates to many colleges for women. After Miss Conant's death 
in IQ25, Miss Bigelow carried on until 1032 when Miss Davies, 
a former teacher, was made principal. See page 1002. 

296 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

NEW BEDFORD, MASS. Alt 17ft. Pop 122,597 (1930}. Motor 
Route 138 from Boston, U.S. 6 from Fall River. 

Stately old residences dating from the days when the town 
was a famous whaling port are here outnumbered by the man- 
sions built later with cotton money. For when the whaling 
industry died profits were put into cotton and for many years 
the city led in the manufacture of fine cotton goods. In the old 
section the Bourne Whaling Museum is of historical interest. 

FRIENDS' ACADEMY, 25 Morgan St. Coed 3-17 Est 1810. 

Adelia Ethel Borden, A.B., Radcliffe, Teachers Col, Principal. 
Enr: Co Day 50. Fac: 10. Tui: $100-400. Courses 10 yrs: Pre- 
Primary Grades I-X. Incorporated 1812 not for profit. Trustees 
15. Endowment $35,000. Undenom. Member N E Assoc. 

Conducted continuously for a century and a quarter, this 
school was reorganized on a progressive plan in 1024. Miss 
Borden, vigorous and incisive, has been head since iQ2g. 

SWAIN SCHOOL OF DESIGN, 391 County St. Coed Ages 16- . 

Allen Dale Currier, A. A., Harvard, Director. Est 1881. 
Enr: 200. Fac: 8. Tui: Day $60, Eve $20, Sat $10. Courses 4 
yrs: Fine and Practical Arts. Inc not for profit. Trustees 10. 

Established by William W. Swain, this school operates under 
a limited endowment fund and enrolls young men and women of 
college age. There is no charge for tuition, but fees ranging from 
$20 to $60 are charged for registration. 

NEWTON, MASS. Alt 33 ft. Pop 46,054 (1920) 65,000 (1930). 

In number and variety the Newtons vie with the New Jersey 
Oranges. Ten separate communities, each with its own post 
office, are controlled from the imposing city administration 
building erected as a War Memorial in 1933. The wealthy resi- 
dents are served by private schools not only here but across the 
line in Brookline. The Country Day School for Boys is in the 
Nonantum section. In Auburndale is Lasell Junior College. The 
Fessenden and The Misses Allen Schools are in West Newton. 

THE MISSES ALLEN SCHOOL, 35 Webster St, West New- 
ton. Girls Ages 12-20 Est 1904. 

Lucy Ellis Allen, A.B., Smith, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg , Day 20. Fac: 7. Tui: Bdg $850-1000, Day $300. 
Courses 4-5 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Art Music Dramatics. 
Proprietary. Undenom. C E B candidates '37, i; '32-'36, 4. 
Entered Col '37, ; '32- f 36, . Alumnae ca 600. Approved by 
N E Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

Miss Allen, in the old Colonel Allen homestead, gives her day 
as well as resident girls personal oversight unusual in these times. 
In its standards and atmosphere the school is sua generis, carry- 


ing on the traditions and maintaining the high ideals of the days 
when it was founded by the late Nathaniel T. Allen, educator, 
reformer, abolitionist, and philanthropist. See page 998. 

Nonantum Hill. Boys Ages 9-18 Est 1907. 

W. Linwood Chase, A.B., Maine Univ, Ph.D., Columbia. 
Enr: Co Day 80. Fac: 12. Tui: $500. Courses 9 yrs: Grades 
IV- VII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1933 not for 
profit. Trustees 12 self perpetuating. Undenominational. 
C E B candidates '37, 10; *32-'36, 192. Entered Col '37, n; 
'3i-*35, 72. Alumni 450. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

The first of the country day schools without a boarding de- 
partment, this was founded by Shirley Kerns, once a master at 
Oilman and Middlesex. He brought the idea from the Baltimore 
school and launched it under social auspices which insured its 
success from the start. On Mr. Kerns' resignation in 1035, M r - 
Chase, a patron of the school, resigned his professorship of edu- 
cation in Boston University to reorganize and build the enroll- 
ment, a task which he has undertaken with a tact and vigor that 
has enlisted the support and interest of alumni and community. 

THE FESSENDEN SCHOOL, 215 Albemarle Rd, West New- 
ton. Boys Ages 5-14 Est 1903. 

Hart Fessenden, A.B., Williams, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 105, Day 90. Fac: 28. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $300-600. 
Courses 9 yrs: Grades I-IX. Incorporated 1905 not for profit. 
Trustees 9. Undenominational. Alumni 1500. 

The founder, Frederick J. Fessenden, who had been a master 
at The Hill School under the great Meigs, was one of the first to 
hold unswervingly to his purpose of maintaining a school wholly 
for young boys to fit them for the next four years of the great 
college preparatory schools. His became preeminent among 
schools of the type, a little austere and high ceilinged both in 
its architecture and ideals. The organization and equipment are 
most complete. Discipline is largely relegated to one master. 
Only the worst cases come to the attention of the head master. 
Invitations to the Saturday night assemblies for the boys inter- 
ested in dancing are prized in Boston families. In 1035 the son 
of the founder, who had been assistant head master for some 
years, was made sole head. The father became president of the 
board. Another son, Frederick J. Jr., also a graduate of Williams, 
is business manager. See page 940. 

LASELL JUNIOR COLLEGE, Auburndale P.O. Girls 16-22. 

Guy M. Winslow, A.B., Ph.D., Tufts, President. Est 1851. 

Enr: Bdg 291, Day 101. Fac: 40. Tui : Bdg $850-900, Day $300. 

Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 3-4 Jr Col 1-2 Home Economics Sec* 


retarial Merchandising Music Art Dramatic Expression Col 
Prep. Reincorporated 1921 not for profit. Undenominational. 
C E B candidates '37, 3; > 32- > 36, 16. Entered Col '37, 13; '32- 
'36, 56. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E 
Assoc Col and Secondary Sch (Jr Col) Am Assoc Jr Col. 

Long before the day of the junior college, Lasell was offering 
such courses. It was established by Professor Lasell of Williams 
College, and under Charles C. Bragdon for thirty-four years 
from 1874, many practical features were introduced including 
the study of home economics on a scientific basis. Dr. Winslow 
who came to the school as a master in 1898, has been in control 
since igo8 as principal and more recently as president. He has 
practical business ideals as to the education of the modern 
woman. The preparatory school, Woodland Park, offers ninth 
and tenth grade work. 

NORTHAMPTON, MASS. Alt 124ft. Pop 21,951 (1920) 24,381 

(1930). B.&M.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 20 from Boston. 
The seat of Smith College, the home town of Calvin Coolidge, 
Northampton is thoroughly New England, with wide elm- 
shaded streets and old time substantial homes. On Elm Street it. 
the old Burnham School; on the eastern outskirts overlooking 
the Connecticut meadows, the Northampton School for Girls. 

Dorothy M. Bement, A.B., A.M., Smith; Sarah B. Whitaker, 

Principals. Est 1924. 

Enr: Bdg 48, Day 13. Fac: 16. Tui: Bdg $1200-1500, Day $400. 
Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII Col Prep High Sch 1-4. Incorpo- 
rated. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 27; > 32- > 36, 
105. Entered Col '37, 27; *32-'36, 128. Alumnae 450. Approved 
by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

The two principals, former teachers at Capen School discon- 
tinued here in 1920, of diverse personalities, admirably supple- 
ment each other in the direction of their school. For some years 
intensive review for college entrance was featured. Today the 
enrollment is evenly distributed among the five classes. A Sum- 
mer School of French was inaugurated in 1936. See page 1002. 


Seth Wakeman, Ph.D., Cornell, Director. Est 1926. 
Enr: Day 85. Fac: 15. Tui: $90-210. Courses 9 yrs: Nursery 
Sch Kindergarten Grades I- VIII. Scholarships 6. 

Owned by Smith College and controlled by its department of 
education of which Dr. Wakeman is director, these progressive 
schools enroll children up to preparatory school age. Elizabeth 
M. Collins, M.A., Harvard, is principal of the upper school; 

300 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

Mary A. Wagner, M.A., Iowa State, of the affiliated Elizabeth 
Morrow Morgan Nursery School. 

NORTHFIELD, MASS. Alt 300ft. Pop 1775 (1920) 1879 (1930). 
C.V.R.R. or B.&M.R.R. to East Northfield. Motor Route 
U.S. 5 from Springfield, 10 from Bernards ton. 
This quiet, tree-shaded village on the broad terraces of the 
Connecticut commands beautiful prospects. On the site of 
Joseph Dickinson's fort of 1728 is the Dickinson Memorial 
Library. Here in his boyhood home, later his summer residence, 
Dwight L. Moody founded Northfield School and two years 
later, across the river at Mount Hermon, the boys school. The 
two schools today, with their enrollment of more than a thou- 
sand, make up the country's largest private secondary institu- 
tion incorporated under one board of trustees. The alumni 
spread out all over the globe in fifty countries, have made their 
contribution to Christian civilization and to the support of the 
schools. The annual summer conferences started by Dwight 
Moody in 1880 still attract hundreds of Christian workers. 

MOUNT HERMON SCHOOL, Mt. Hermon P.O. Boys Ages 
14- Est-i88i. 

David R. Porter, M.A., L.H.D., Bowdoin, Oxford, Head. 
Enr: Bdg 545, Day 32. Fac: 51. Tui: Bdg $375, Day $50. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1882 not 
for profit. Trustees 27 self perpetuating. Endowment $1,375,000. 
Income from invested funds $80,000. Scholarships 100, value 
$25-225. Prizes 48. Interdenominational. C E B candidates 
'37, 17; '32-*36, 203. Entered Col '37, 125; '32-'36, ca 525. 
Alumni 15,000. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited 
to Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

Established to make thorough secondary schooling available 
for the poor boys of the time, the school in the early years re- 
quired daily work on the farm or in the buildings. Today each 
boy works ten hours a week. The school has from the first af- 
forded abundant opportunity for a boy to secure an education 
or preparation for college. The founder's rigorous ideals and 
ideas of life and training for the guidance of youth continued 
under Dr. Henry Franklin Cutler, principal from i8go to 1032. 
He was succeeded by the late Elliott Speer, a man of liberal 
religious views, who had been president of The Northfield 
Schools since 11)26. He inaugurated policies quite different from 
some held by the conservative fundamentalists then on the 
faculty. Mr. Porter, who had long been active in the larger work 
of the Y. M. C. A., and whom Mr. Speer brought to the school 
in 1 934 to head the Bible department, was made head master 
early in 1935 an< 3 has continued to broaden the horizons of 
Mount Hermon boys. See page 938. 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 30 1 

NORTHFIELD SEMINARY Girls Ages 14- Est 1879. 

Mira B. Wilson, A.B., Smith, B.D., Boston Univ, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 500, Day 32. Fac: 48. Tui: Bdg $375, Day $50. Courses 
4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Gen. Incorporated 1881. Endow- 
ment $2,000,000. Income from invested funds $80,000. Scholar- 
ships 90, value $25-225. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
*37> 34J '32-*36, 133. Entered Col '37, 76; *32-'36, 302. Alumnae 
10,986. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col 
admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

Established and still conducted to provide opportunity for 
secondary school training to girls of limited income by a system 
of cooperative housekeeping shared by all students, Northfield 
has in recent years become modernized under the leadership of 
Miss Wilson. She came in 1929 from the faculty of Smith College 
where she had been a class dean and assistant professor of reli- 
gion. See page 1000. 

NORTON, MASS. Alt 101ft. Pop 2737 (1930). N.Y.N.H.&H. 
R.R. Motor Route 138 from Boston, 123 from Southeastern. 

The seat of Wheaton College, whose Georgian chapel and ad- 
ministration building are conspicuous, Norton is an attractive 
little town about forty miles south of Boston. Well back from 
the road, the homelike building of House in the Pines is shel- 
tered by the trees from which it takes its name. 

HOUSE IN THE PINES Girls Ages 12-20 Est 1911. 

Gertrude Cornish Milliken, B.S., M.A., Middlebury, Princ. 
Enr: Bdg 70, Day 5. Fac: 15. Tui: Bdg $1400-1550, Day $275- 
375. Courses 8 yrs: Grades VII- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep 
Jr Col 1-2. Incorporated not for profit. Scholarships 10, value 
$3000. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 8; '32-'36, 
26. Entered Col '37, 17; *32-'36, ca 38. Alumnae 700. Approved 
by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Mrs. Milliken, until 1936 Gertrude Cornish, established this 
school after some years as instructor at Wheaton and later at 
Farmington. She has been especially successful in winning the 
admiration and comradeship of her pupils and in maintaining a 
homelike atmosphere. Supplementing the preparatory depart- 
ment, a small junior school is maintained. In the junior college 
girls may take their second year in Europe under the direction 
of a member of the faculty. See page 1004. 
ORLEANS, MASS. Pop 850 (1935). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. 

A characteristic Cape Cod town, Orleans gives the tourist this 
first view of the ocean and the Cape sand dunes. 

THE CAPE SCHOOL Boys Ages 10-18 Est 1938. 
Llewellyn Henson, Jr., B.S., Colgate, Harvard, Head. 

302 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

Enr: Bdg , Day . Fac: 6. Tui: Bdg $1300, Day $500. 
Courses 9 yrs: Grades IV-XII Col Prep. Proprietary. 

Mr. Henson in the fall of 1938 will open this small school for 
boys in conjunction with his well known Florentine School, 
conducted since 1904 in Italy. Boys will be prepared for college 
by masters who have travelled extensively and are able to give 
them unusual instruction in the languages. See page 1073. 

PEMBROKE, MASS. Pop 800 (1935). 

A small town in the sandy, pine covered region approaching 
Cape Cod, Pembroke was settled in 1640. The Arnold School 
occupies a remodelled Colonial farmhouse in East Pembroke. 

THE ARNOLD SCHOOL, E. Pembroke P.O. Coed 6-16 
Est 1926. 

Mr. and Mrs. Nathan P. Arnold, A.B., B.S., Pa Univ, Dirs. 
Enr: Bdg 15. Fac: 4. Tui: $800-1000. Courses n yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-2. Proprietary. Undenom. 

Mr. and Mrs. Arnold give the children in their school a whole- 
some country life and adequate schooling. There are facilities 
for year round care. 

PITTSFIELD, MASS. Alt 1013ft. Pop 49,677 (1930). N.Y.N.H. 
&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 20 from Boston and Albany. 

Important in the manufacture of electrical machinery, sta- 
tionery, and textiles, Pittsfield was long favored by wealthy 
families as a place of residence. The trading center of Berkshire 
County, it is surrounded by the broad Pontoosuc meadows of 
the upper Housatonic. Miss Hall's School is a mile and a half 
south of the city. 

MISS HALL'S SCHOOL, INC. Girls Ages 13-20 Est 1898. 

Margaret H. Hall, Head Mistress. 

Enr: Bdg 92. Fac: 18. Tui: $2000. Courses 4 yrs: Grades 9-12 
Col Prep Gen Acad Art Music Domestic Science Expression. 
Incorporated 1924 not for profit. Trustees 7 self perpetuating. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 13; '32-^36, 66. En- 
tered Col '37, 7; '32-'36, 63. Alumnae 1057. Accredited to Col 
admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

One of the most expensive of the girls schools, the curriculum 
and intellectual atmosphere are a little Victorian, but a larger 
proportion of the girls take the college preparatory course than 
in the usual finishing school. The administrative genius, skill, 
and tact of Mira H. Hall won her school a national reputation. 
From the first she was successful in impressing her educational 
ideals on her girls. On her death in 1937 her will left to her niece 
controlling interest in the school and a large part of her estate. 
The new head mistress, through her long executive experience in 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 303 

I he school and her winning personality, has the confidence of 
patrons and trustees. 

RICHMOND, MASS. Alt 1047 ft. Pop 561 (1920) 583 (1930). 
Jn the Berkshire hills, the little town of Richmond is about 
equidistant from Pittsfield, Lenox and Stockbridge. Here is the 
hundred forty-five acre property of Morning Face. 

MORNING FACE Coed Ages 4-14 Est 1932. 

Mrs. William M. Crane, A.B., Radcliffe, Director; Mrs. Wil- 
liam S. Annin, A.B., Bryn Mawr, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 10, Co Day 40. Fac: n. Tui: Bdg $1500, Day $150- 
450. Courses 9 yrs: Kindergarten Grades I- VIII. 

This small group is the outgrowth of a day school started in 
1027 by Mr. and Mrs. Annin who direct the academic program. 
Mr. and Mrs. Crane take a few boarding children into their 
home and offer them a happy, wholesome life and meticulous 
physical care. The school has been particularly successful in 
dealing \\ith the child with reading disabilities, and this feature 
is stressed See page 1043. 

SALEM, MASS. Alt 10ft. Pop 42,529 (1920) 43,353 (1930). 
Motor Route 1A from Boston. 

Salem 's colorful past still inspires books, plays, movies. The 
Peabody Museum and Essex Institute and the homes of the old 
time merchant princes are on Chestnut and Essex Streets and 
about Washington Square. The House of Seven Gables on Tur- 
ner Street and the Old Custom House on Derby Street are rich 
in memories of Hawthorne. 

THE TOWER SCHOOL Coed Ages 3-15 Est 1912. 

Helen V. Runnette, B.A., Mount Holyoke, Director. 
Enr: Day 80. Fac: 9. Tui: $125-450. Courses 10 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I-IX. Incorporated 1937. 

Creative activities are emphasized in this school established 
by Adeline Lane Tower. 'The Turret," started in 1917, was 
the first school magazine managed by younger children. 

SHEFFIELD, MASS. Alt 679ft. Pop 1435 (1920) 1650 (1930). 
Motor Route U.S. 20 from Boston, U.S. 7 from Stockbridge. 
This quiet village in the Housatonic valley has one long elm- 
shaded main street. Under the eastern shadow of Mt. Everett 
to the west, Berkshire School is in a natural amphitheater. 

BERKSHIRE SCHOOL Boys Ages 13-18 Est 1907. 

Seaver B. Buck, A.B., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 125, Day 20. Fac: 14. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $25 term. 
Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII High Sch 1-4 Scientific Col Prep. 
Incorporated 1919. Trustees 1 1 self perpetuating. Scholarship 

304 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

awards $16,000 annually. Undenominational. C B candidates 
*37 13; *32-'36, 123. Entered Col '35, 34. Alumni ca 850. Ap- 
proved by N Col Ent Certif Bd. 

This school is the creation of and centers around its present 
head master under whom, since its establishment, it has enjoyed 
a consistent and solid growth in numbers and reputation. From 
the first Mr. Buck's masterful and buoyant personality has 
dominated the school and found expression in vigorous and 
wholesome ideals. Mrs. Buck, though she takes no formal part, 
plays a vital role in the life of the school. The sincerity of the 
atmosphere and the efficiency of the simple organization com- 
mand admiration. Boys come from all over the country; the 
youngest have single rooms, the upper class boys may have 
single or double rooms with a common study and are given con- 
siderable liberty and responsibility to bridge the gap from school 
to college. The school achieves much more than mere college 
preparation, though this is met in a scholarly and efficient way. 
See page 945- 
SOUTHBOROUGH, MASS. Alt 314ft. Pop 2166 (1930). 

The Burnett family, manufacturers of vanilla extract, devel- 
oped Southborough, and their schools and Deerfoot Farms 
brought it fame. St. Mark's School stands back from the cross- 
roads just above the village. Fay School faces the main street, 
its grounds terracing down to the water. 

THE FAY SCHOOL Boys Ages 8-14 Est 1866. 

Edward Winchester Fay, A.B., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 60, Day 10. Fac: 9. Tui: Bdg $1400. Courses 6 yrs: 
Grades III- VIII. Inc not for profit. Trustees 14 elected by 
trustees. Scholarships 6, value $25,000. Prizes 60. Episcopal. 

This subpreparatory school founded by Harriet Burnett and 
Eliza Burnett Fay has remained in the Fay family even to the 
present third generation. Originally it prepared for St. Mark's 
but now sends its boys to other large preparatory schools as 
well. The life is simple, frugal. Standards of physical care and 
health are those of the wealthy families from which most of the 
boys come. A little of the English feeling that boys should be 
'toughened' pervades. Punishment largely takes the form of 
long walks. See page 947. 

ST. MARK'S SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1865. 

Francis Parkman, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 198. Fac: 25. Tui: $1400. Courses 6 yrs: Col Prep 
High Sch 1-4 Grades VII-VIII Manual Arts. Incorporated 
1865 not for profit. Trustees 13 self perpetuating. Endowment 
$400,000. Income from invested funds $15,000. Scholarships 
15, value $8275. Prizes 34, value $1000. Episcopal. C B can- 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 305 

didates '37, 62; 9 32-'& 354. Entered Col '37, 32; *32-'36, 161. 
Alumni 1170. Member N Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

Inspired by the success of St. Paul's and by the desire to have 
a similar school in his native town of Southborough, Joseph 
Burnett founded St. Mark's School. Assured of prestige from 
the first, it developed steadily in strength and efficiency under 
the capable management of William E. Peck, head master from 
1882 until 1804. His successor, the Rev. Dr. William G. Thayer 
who remained in charge until 1030, zealously maintained the 
ideals of the school. The life remained intimate, proscribed; 
admission rigidly restricted; but in his later years Dr. Thayer 
became liberal and progressive. 

St. Mark's is a church school of the parental type, with all its 
activities confined to one large building. The boys of the three 
lower forms do not have separate rooms but occupy dormitories 
with windowed alcoves. Though the general policy was modeled 
after that of St. Paul's, one notable innovation in American 
school boy life was introduced which has proved a valuable 
contribution and has been extensively adopted by private 
schools since established. From its opening St. Mark's has had 
its present system of monitors, six or seven boys chosen from 
the sixth form who "are the representatives of the school, have 
certain duties and a general oversight of the life of the boys. 
They are supposed to stand for the school ideals and to exert 
their influence and leadership." 

Dr. Parkman, of the historical Boston family, is an old St. 
Mark's boy and an Overseer of Harvard where he spent five 
years after graduation in study and administrative work. He 
has brought a new alertness and straightforwardness which have 
won friends in every direction, enriched the life with new activ- 
ities, and the curriculum with new elective courses in music, 
navigation, politics, poetry. The school now appeals to others 
than sons of alumni, and provides a few full scholarships each 
year for boys of unusual promise. 

SOUTH BYFIELD, MASS. Alt 64ft. Pop 2000 (1930). B.&M. 

R.R. to Newburyport. Motor Route U.S. 1 from Boston. 
In the town of Newbury, South Byfield overlooks the exten- 
sive salt marshes of the Parker river. On a knoll off the New- 
buryport Turnpike stands the stately old Governor Dummer 
mansion, home of the head master of the second oldest private 
school and the oldest boarding school. 


Edward W. Eames, A.B., Amherst M.A., Harvard, Head. 
Enr: Bdg 120, Day 17. Fac: 19. Tui: Bdg $1500, Day $300. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Art Music Languages. 

^06 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

Incorporated 1782 not for profit. Trustees 15 self perpetuating. 
Endowment $80,000. Income from invested funds $2000. 
Scholarships 8-12, value $200-1000. Prizes 10, value $125. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 9; '32-'36, 48. En- 
tered Col '37, 45; *32-*36, 145. Alumni 950. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Dartmouth. Member N E 
Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This oldest secondary boarding school in the country was 
established by William Dummer, Lieutenant Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, who in 1761 bequeathed his house and farm at By- 
field for the purpose. Two years later the school opened under 
the celebrated Samuel Moody who made it a grammar school of 
the earlier type. Here were prepared for Harvard many boys 
who later became prominent in the life of the nation, including 
the founder of Andover. For years the school dwindled and 
finally became moribund. In IQ % }O with the corning of Mr. and 
Mrs. Eames, who had been at Deerfield with Mr. Hoyden, the 
academy entered upon an era of new life and vigor. They 
brought youth, enthusiasm, and steadfastness of purpose to the 
building of a new school on the old. They have modernized name 
and equipment. Boys are encouraged through their own labors 
and effort to contribute to the material welfare of the school, 
and through their interest and earnestness funds have been 
raised, adding to the plant. Mr. Eames has made this one of the 
important secondary schools of the country. See page 942. 
SPRINGFIELD, MASS. Alt 119ft. Pop 149,900 (1930). 

This beautiful city has long vied with Hartford and Worcester 
in enterprise, wealth, and civic pride. The municipal group 
dominated by the Campanile faces Court Square. On State 
Street are the Art and Natural History Museum, the library and 
high schools. In Merrick Park adjoining the library is Saint 
Gaudens vigorous and masterly statue, "The Puritan." Bay 
Path Institute is on Harrison Avenue and Chestnut Street. On 
Crescent Hill a mile from the center is The MacDutfie School. 
BAY PATH INSTITUTE Coed Ages 16- Est 1897. 

Charles F. Gaugh, Principal. 

Enr: Day 800, Eve 300. Fac: 25. Tui: $330. Courses 2 yrs: 
Commercial Teaching Business Training Civil Service Prep- 
aration. Partnership. Undenominational. Alumni ca 10,000. 
Member Nat Assoc Accredited Commercial Sch. 

Business men of acumen founded and have always conducted 
this school. A branch is maintained in Brattleboro. 
THE MACDUFFIE SCHOOL Girls Bdg 12-20, Day 6-20; 
Coed Co Day 3-12 Est 1890. 

Malcolm A. MacDuffie, B.S., Mass Inst Tech, Harvard; Mar- 
garet Fincke MacDuffie, A.B., Wellesley, Ed.M., Harvard. 

Mass. NKW ENGLAND 307 

Enr: Bdg 20, Day 80. Fac: 19. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $325-350. 
Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Post 
Grad. Incorporated 1916. Undenominational. C B candidates 
*37i o' '32-'36, 15. Entered Col '36, 3; '3i-*35, 37. Alumnae 800. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Established and for over forty years conducted by Dr. and 
Mrs. John MacDuffie, the school is now headed by their son. 
The elementary department under Helen Karle follows a 
country day program. 

WALTHAM, MASS. Alt 51ft. Pop 30,915 (1920) 39,247 (1930). 
Motor Route U.S. 20 from Boston. 

Ten miles west of Boston, Waltham is known afar for its 
watches and locally as a trading center. In the Cedar Hill dis- 
trict, Mt. Prospect School provides complete schooling free to 
six promising boys under the endowment of Arthur A. Carey. 
Chapel Hill School is a mile from the center, at Piety Corner. 

CHAPEL HILL SCHOOL Girls Ages Bdg 5-19, Coed Day 5-14 
Est 1860. 

Philip E. Goodhue, A.B., Bowdoin, A.M., Harvard, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 29, Co Day 28. Fac: 18. Tui: Bdg $900, Day $125-180. 
Courses 13 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Secre- 
tarial Art Music Dancing Handicrafts Domestic Science. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 8 self perpetuating. En- 
dowment $160,000. Income from invested funds $5200. Church 
of the New Jerusalem. C E B candidates '37, o; *32- > 36, 6. 
Entered Col '37, 5; f 3o-'34, 12. Alumni 1765. Accredited to 
Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

Mr. and Mrs. Goodhue, directors since 1037, continue to 
.stress the simple wholesome life for which this school has long 
been known, but place greater emphasis on college preparation. 
Founded by Benjamin Worcester as Waltham School, and from 
1925 under the direction of Louise Fay, the school now has a 
considerable country day department. See page 1000. 
WELLESLEY, MASS. Alt 140ft. Pop 6224 (1920) 11,439 (1930). 
Motor Route U.S. 16 from Boston, 135 from Dedham. 

Once a country village with an academic flavor and a group 
of large country estates, Wellesley, and more particularly its 
Hills and its Farms, today attract well-to-do commuters. Near 
the western boundary are the buildings and grounds of W T ellesley 
College. The score of Dana Hall buildings line Grove Street and 
Eastman Circle on both sides for half a mile from the village 
square. In Wellesley Hills, Babson Park and Institute crown a 
high plateau to the south. The Catholic school dominates a 
hilltop on the Turnpike. The Beacon School is in Wellesley 
Farms near the Weston line. 

308 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

ACADEMY OF THE ASSUMPTION Girls 5-18, Boys 5-14. 

Sister Mans Stella, Superior. Est 1893. 
Enr: Bdg 118, Day 10. Fac: 22. Tui: Bdg $500, Day $200. 
Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Roman 
Catholic. C E B candidates '37, i; *32-'36, 7. Alumni 1800. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

At least two years of residence are required for graduation 
from the girls school which is quite separate from the depart- 
ment for young boys, called St. Joseph's. 
BABSON INSTITUTE, Babson Park P.O. Men Ages 18- 
Est 1919. 

Carl D. Smith, B.H. Springfield, Ed.M., Harvard, President. 
Enr: 100. Fac: 14. Tui: $1270. Course 1-2 yrs. Alumni 800. 

Established by Roger W. Babson to train sons of clients of 
his financial organization, the school has, of course, always been 
open to others. Under Dr. George W. Coleman, now at Webber 
College, a man of broad interests and liberal policies, the school 
attained standing. He was succeeded in 1035 by Mr. Smith, 
former dean of Northeastern University, Boston. A year course 
is offered older students with some college or business training. 
The two year course is for younger men. 
BEACON SCHOOL Boys Ages 13-19 Est 1929. 

William V. Trevoy, A.B., A.M., Amherst, Director. 
Enr: Bdg 35, Day 40. Fac: 10. Tui: Bdg $1500, Day $500. 
Course s 5 yrs: High Sch 1-5 Col Prep Art Music. Incorporated 
1929 not for profit. Trustees 5 self perpetuating. C E B candi- 
dates '37, x; > 32- > 36, 26. Entered Col '35, n; '3<>-'35, 75- Ap- 
proved by N E Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

A college preparatory school with small classes, informal in- 
struction and unusual opportunities for individual help, Beacon 
is the creation of its director who has here built an environment 
in which boys luxuriate. It is a man's and a boy's school and in 
this masculine atmosphere tastes and intellectual interests 
develop. Mr. Trevoy believes in boys. He is interested in them 
and that is reflected in their loyalty and devotion to the man and 
his school. There is unusual breadth of interests and varied ac- 
tivities, music, art, government, social and international affairs. 
Every opportunity is utilized to enlarge the horizons of the boys. 
See page 943. 
DANA HALL SCHOOLS Girls Ages 8-20 Est 1881. 

Helen Temple Cooke, Wellesley, Head. 

Enr: Bdg 425, Day 125. Fac: 105. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $400. 
Courses 12 yrs: Grades Jr High Acad Col Prep Music Dra- 
matics. Incorporated. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
'37, 57;'32-'36, 273- Entered Col '36, 44 J '3i-'35, 307. Alumnae 
6000. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 309 

With the cooperation of Wellesley College, Julia A. and 
Sarah P. Eastman established Dana Hall as a preparatory school 
for that institution. Since i8go it has been under the exception- 
ally strong management of Miss Cooke, a woman of great execu- 
tive capacity with the highest ideals of womanhood. She has 
developed three separate institutions, all with day as well as 
boarding departments. 

DANA HALL, the preparatory school, with an enrollment of 
about two hundred, sends two-thirds of its graduates each year 
to the leading women's colleges. Others go on to Pine Manor. 
Dorothy Waldo is principal. See page 1003. 

TENACRE, opened in 1910 for younger girls, prepares for Dana 
Hall and other secondary schools. It is directed by Mrs. Helen 
Wells and Miss Edith Lees. See page 1003. 

PINE MANOR JUNIOR COLLEGE Girls Ages 17- Est 1911. 

Helen Temple Cooke, Wellesley, Head ; Mrs. Marie Warren 

Potter, B.A., Wellesley, President. 

Enr: Bdg 217, Day 6. Fac: 57. Tui: $1500. Courses 2 yrs: Acad 
Homemaking Music. Undenominational. Member Am Assoc 
Jr Col. 

Since 1930 a full-fledged junior college, Pine Manor opened 
in a modest way for a group of Dana Hall graduates wishing 
special advanced courses instead of the four year college. The 
girls live in small groups in nineteen houses, each in charge of a 
member of the faculty. Courses are adapted to the student's 
special interests. See pages 1053. 

WEST BRIDGEWATER, MASS. Alt 92 ft. Pop 2906 (1920) 
3206 (1930). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. to Campello Sta. Motor 
Routes 28 and 138 from Boston. 

Two miles from Bridgewater with its State Normal School, 
and adjoining the shoe town of Brockton, this little village is 
the home of Howard Seminary. 

HOWARD SEMINARY Girls Ages 14-20 Est 1875. 

Mrs. Macdonald Peters, Head Mistress; Mrs. Mabel H. 

Emerson, A.B., Smith, Director. 

Enr: Bdg 46, Day 10. Fac: 13. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $300. 
Courses 6 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Grad 1-2 Home Eco- 
nomics Secretarial Art Music Dramatics. Incorporated 1868. 
Trustees 10 self perpetuating. Endowment $250,000. Income 
from invested funds Si 0,000. Scholarships 6, value $1200. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, o; *32-'36, 14. En- 
tered Col '36, 7; '3i-'35 52. Alumna? ca 1280. Approved by 
N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

This old srhool entered upon a wholly new regime in 1937 


when Mr. and Mrs. Peters took over the direction. They are 
son-in-law and daughter of Mrs. Emerson who conducted the 
school from 1923 to 1027 and left to found a school for young 
boys which she has now turned over to a son. The enthusiasm of 
the heads and the driving force of the director have already 
resulted in a good enrollment in the high school department 
which emphasizes college preparation, and in advanced courses, 
featuring secretarial work and home economics. See page 1006 

WESTON, MASS. Alt 161 ft. Pop 3332 (1930). B.&M.R.R., 
B.&A.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 20 from Boston. 

One of the most attractive sections about the fringe of 
greater Boston, this historic old town has many pre-Revolu- 
tionary houses and beautiful estates of business and professional 
men. The stone church in the square has a bell cast by Paul 
Revere. Most interesting of the old buildings is the Ciolden 
Kail Tavern erected in 1751 by Elisha Jones. Meadowbrook 
School is not far from the center. In the Kendal Green district 
the twenty-five acre estate of The Cambridge School is secluded. 

THE CAMBRIDGE SCHOOL, Kendal Green. Coed Ages 
11-19 Est 1886. 

John R. P. French, A.B., A.M., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 48, Co Day 58. Fac: 20. Tui: Bdg $1200-1400, Day 
$500-550. Courses 7 yrs: Grades VII- VIII High Sen 1-4 Col 
Prep Post Grad. Incorporated 1909 not for profit. Directors 7. 
Scholarships, value partial tui. Undenominational. C E B can- 
didates '37, 10 ; J 32-*36, 42. Entered Col '37, 15; *32-*36, 92. 
Alumni 836. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited 
to Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

Long the foremost school for families of Old Cambridge, this 
was established by Arthur Oilman in Cambridge to prepare for 
Radcliffe. In igi8 Mary E. Haskell became principal and for 
some years the school bore her name. In 1930 Mr. French, who 
had successfully reorganized the old Derby Academy in H ing- 
ham, was made head master. He restored the original name and 
made the school coeducational. The lower school, through the 
sixth grade, is still maintained on the old site on Concord 
Avenue, Cambridge, but the upper school since 1031 has fol- 
lowed a country day program in its rural setting in Kendal 
Green. The boarding group, with separate houses for boys and 
girls, may be on either the five day or full week plan. College 
preparation continues to be efficiently carried on, but the rich 
curriculum provides generously for the development of individ- 
ual capacities and gifts. See page 1044. 

Beatrice Cervi, Head Mistress. Est 1923. 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 311 

Enr: Day 84. Fac: 12. Tui: $150-375. Courses 8 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Intermediate Grades I- VI. Inc 1923. Trustees 30. 

For ten years directed by Alma Gray, this community school 
has been conducted by Miss Cervi since 1033. 

WILBRAHAM, MASS. Alt ca 119 ft. Pop 2780 (1920) 2719 
(1930). Motor Route U.S. 20 from Boston. 

Ten miles east of Springfield, this small village runs along 
the foot of the Wilbraham Mountains which rise sharply to the 
east to a height of nine hundred feet. The dormitory of Wilbra- 
ham Academy faces the main street, as does the Methodist 
chapel turned over to the school by the parish in 1034. 

WILBRAHAM ACADEMY Boys Ages 9-20 Est 1817. 

Charles L. Stevens, A.B., Bates, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 150, Co Day 25. Fac: 21. Tui: Bdg, Upper Sch $1050, 
Jr Sch $1100 ; Day $425. Courses 7 yrs: Grades VI- VIII High 
Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1826. Trustees 30. Endow- 
ment $250,000. Income from invested funds $12,500. Scholar- 
ships, value $8000. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 
9J 'az-'aG, 75- Entered Col '37, 48; '32-*36, 90. Alumni 2800 
(living). Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to 
Worcester Tech, Syracuse. Member N E Assoc Col and 
Secondary Sch. 

Chartered nearly a century and a quarter ago as a Methodist 
coeducational institution, the school was reorganized for boys 
under Gaylord W. Douglass, head master from iqi2 to KJJQ. 
His successor, Ralph E. Peck, brought up the college prepara- 
tory standards. On his resignation in 1035, Mr. Stevens, former 
business manager of Worcester Academy, was made head. 

WILLIAMSTOWN, MASS. Alt 604 ft. Pop 3707 (1920) 3900 

(1930). B.&M.R.R. Motor Route 2 from Greenfield. 
In the extreme northwestern corner of the state, bounded by 
New York and Vermont, Williamstown, with the college build- 
ings of creamy gray stone and brick, its beautiful horre^, has 
an air of mellowness and security. 

THE PINE COBBLE SCHOOL Coed Ages 6-18 Est 1937. 
Edgar William Flinton, B.S.E., Boston Univ, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg , Day . Fac: 9. Tui: Bdg Siooo, Day $250. 
Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. 

Mr. Flinton, former teacher in the local high school, has for 
some time conducted a summer tutoring school which in 1937 
developed into a full time boarding and day school. Some em- 
phasis is placed on remedial reading. The summer session offers 
special tutoring and preparation for C. E. B. examinations. 

312 NEW ENGLAND Mass. 

WORCESTER, MASS. Alt 482ft. Pop 179,754 (1920) 196,311. 

An important educational and industrial center, Worcester 
is second among Massachusetts and third among New England 
cities. From its original levels it has spread up to the surround- 
ing higher land, and now boasts that like Rome it is built on its 
seven hills. Public spirited citizens have placed markers on the 
many historical houses. The Art Museum, especially strong in 
the work of recent American artists, plays a vital part in the life 
of the community. 

Among the chief educational institutions are Clark Univer- 
sity, Holy Cross College, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, the 
Worcester Boys Trade School and the State Normal School. In 
the eastern portion the Worcester Academy buildings are on a 
hilltop not far from the center of the city. Bancroft School is in 
the west side section. 

BANCROFT SCHOOL, 61 Sever St. Girls Bdg 12-18, Day 
4-18; Boys 4-14 Est 1 900. 

Hope Fisher, A.B., Vassar, M.A., Columbia, Ph.D., Mich 

Univ, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 10, Day 185. Fac: 30. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $200-400. 
Courses 14 yrs: Bdg, Grades VII- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep; 
Day, Nursery Sch Sub-Primary Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 
Col Prep Gen. Incorporated 1902 not for profit. Trustees 20 
self perpetuating. Scholarships 25, value $6100. Undenomina- 
tional. C E B candidates '37, 13; > 32- > 36, 46. Entered Col '34, 9; 
*29-'33> 60. Alumnae 653. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Daughters of Worcester's leading citizens have long attended 
this school. From its class rooms came the country's first 
woman cabinet officer. Miss Fisher, principal since rg2*6, keeps 
the school abreast of the times in its activities and supervises the 
small group of older girls in Gray Gables. 

land St. Coed Ages 17- Est 1898. 

H. Stuart Michie, Principal. 

Enr: Day 75, Eve 105, Sat 120. Fac: 10. Tui: Day $100, Eve 
$15. Courses 3-4 yrs: Design Drawing and Painting Crafts 
Metal Work Pottery Weaving Modeling. Incorporated not 
for profit. Scholarships 10, value $100 each; i, $200. 

The late Stephen Salisbury, founder of the Museum, estab- 
lished this school which under Mr. Michie makes available to its 
students the opportunities of the live and up-to-date parent 
institution. Though the fees are low, well rounded training in 
the fundamentals of art is offered in the four year course 
opened to high school graduates. 

Mass. NEW ENGLAND 313 

WORCESTER ACADEMY Boys Ages 14-19 Est 1834. 

Harold H. Wade, A.B., Beloit, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 190, Day 50. Fac: 26. Tui: Bdg $1000-1150, Day 
$425. Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep. Incorporated 1834 not for profit. 
Trustees 25, 12 alumni. Scholarships 20, value $15,000. Prizes 
25. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 24; '32-*36, 252. 
Entered Col '37, 95; '32-'36, 450. Alumni 3000. Approved by 
N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

One of the old New England Baptist academies, Worcester, 
under the direction of Dr. D. W. Abercrombie for thirty-six 
years from 1882, was reorganized as a boys school and as such 
gained a national reputation. From 1018 the school was directed 
by Samuel Foss Holmes as head master and George Dudley 
Church as registrar. Mr. Wade, long a teacher in the school and 
for some years in charge of alumni relations, became head in 
IQ33. A man of energy and intelligence, he has reduced the 
school debt, united the alumni, and increased the enrollment. 
Warren R. Sargent is in charge of admissions. 

For other Massachusetts schools see Supplementary 
Lists Secondary, Tutoring, Rlementary hoarding. 
Local Day, Nursery, Charitable, Music; Schools of 
Fine and Applied Arts, Practical Arts, Household 
Art; Schools of Expression, Theatre, Dance, Physical 
Education; Technological and Trade Schools, Avia- 
tion Schools, Business Schools, Nurses Training 
Schools, Schools of Languages, School* for Dejc(- 
tive\, (\itholic hoarding Schools. 


BRISTOL, R.I. Pop 11,953 (1930). 

An old shipbuilding town with many interesting Colonial 
houses, Bristol overlooks its harbor and Hog Island. 

MARTIN HALL Coed Est 1897. 

Frederick Martin, Head Master. 

For many years Dr. Martin conducted this as the Martin 
Institute for Speech Correction of the Ithaca Conservatory, 
New York. In IQ36 the location was changed and the present 
name taken. Corrective and teacher training courses for stam- 
mering, stuttering, lisping, etc., are offered. 

EAST GREENWICH, R.I. Pop 3290 (1920). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. 

This pleasant old town with quiet, shaded streets is on 
Cowesett Bay. 

EAST GREENWICH ACADEMY Coed Ages 12- Est 1802. 

Ira W. LeBaron, A.B., Ph.D., D.D., Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 50, Day 100. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $C6o, Day $130. 
Courses 5 yrs: Col Prep High Sch 1-4 Secretarial Music 
Col i. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 15 elected by 
Church and self perpetuating. Endowment $75,000. Income 
from invested funds $3500. Scholarships 20, value $2000. 
Methodist Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, i; '32-^36, i. Ap- 
proved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

This Methodist school, in continuous operation for over a 
century, has always had a minister of the Church as head 

NARRAGANSETT, R.I. Pop 1258 (1930). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. 

With its mile long beach of firm sand, Narragansett is second 
only to Newport among Rhode Island beach resorts. 

THE TOWER SCHOOL Coed Ages 6-16 Est 1932. 

George T. Turner, Director. 

Enr: Bdg 2, Day 21. Fac: 4. Tui: Bdg $1200-1500, Day $250- 
750. Courses 10 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-2 Art Lan- 
guages. Proprietary. Undenom. Alumni 36. C E B candidates 
'37, 2. 

An outgrowth of a summer tutoring group, this little school 
provides an all day program for day students and facilities for a 
few boarders. The academic work is of high standard. 

NEWPORT, R.L Alt 6ft. Pop 27,612 (1930). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. 
Motor Route U.S. 6 from Providence, 138 from Fall River. 

Newport's golden age was the second half of the nineteenth 


century, when it was the summer social capital of the country. 
Once a famous shipping town, it is now dominated by the War 
College, the Naval Training School, and the Torpedo Station. 
Three miles north in Middletown, on Sachuest Neck facing the 
sea, is St. George's School. In Portsmouth, on the east shore, are 
the Priory and School. 


Ages 12-18 Est 1926. 
Very Rev. Dom J. Hugh Diman, O.S.B., A.B., Brown, A.M., 

Harvard, Prior and Head Master; Henry H. Hobbs, A.B., 

Hobart, Asst Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 92. Fac: 14. Tui: $1400. Courses 6 yrs: Grades VII- 
VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Proprietary. Roman Catholic. 
C E B candidates '37, 41; > 32- > 36, 190. Entered Col '37, 15; 
f 32-*36, ca 65. Alumni 93. 

Modeled after and following the traditions of English schools 
of the order like Downside and Ampleforth, this was founded 
as the School of St. Gregory the Great. A daughter house of 
the Abbey of Fort Augustus of Scotland, the priory is under 
the English Congregation of the Order of St. Benedict. But both 
priory and school are almost wholly American in personnel, 
flere boys from discriminating Catholic families are trained for 
college and for life. Father Diman, prior of the community, was 
the founder and long head master of the neighboring St 
George's. To his personal interest and administrative genius is 
largely due the growth and prosperity of the school. His keen 
and flexible mind, his sweet and calm serenity, make a strong 
appeal to all. See page 950. 

ST. GEORGE'S SCHOOL Boys Ages 13-18 Est 1896. 

J. Vaughan Merrick, 3rd, B.S., M.A., Pa Univ, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 149, Day 9. Fac: 20. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $500. 
Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Manual 
Arts Music. Incorporated 1900 not for profit. Trustees n self 
perpetuating. Endowment $15,000. Income from invested 
funds $800. Scholarships 30, value $12, ooo annually. Episcopal. 
C E B candidates '37, 36; *32-*36, 312. Entered Col '37, 32; 
'32-'d6> 141- Alumni ca 825. Member N E Assoc Col and Sec- 
ondary Sch. 

Founded by the Rev. John B. Diman who later established 
Portsmouth Priory School, St. George's has long been under the 
control of Bishop James I)e Wolf Perry. During the administra- 
tion of Stephen P. Cabot, a master in the school from IQOI, and 
head master from IQT;, St. George's went through a period of 
great material growth. The alumni took an increasing interest 
in the school, evidenced by St. George's Clubs at the three great 


universities to which the majority of the boys go. Mr. Cabot 
"ultimately resigned on religious grounds" in 1026. Those who 
know the school are impressed with the beauty of the setting, 
the matchlessness of the architecture, and the dominance of 
Bishop Perry. Mr. Merrick, for thirteen years a master at St. 
Paul's School, head master since IQ28, has won the support of 
influential church people. Interested in athletics, he is popular 
with his boys. 

PROVIDENCE, R.L Alt 12ft. Pop 237,595 (1920) 252 t 981 (1930). 

The city of Roger Williams and the capital of the state, 
Providence, at the head of Narragansett Bay, was once an 
important seaport. Today it is an industrial city second in popu- 
lation in New England. Founded in 1636, few cities in the coun- 
try have more landmarks of prime historic interest or such a 
collection of notable examples of Colonial architecture. The 
state house on Capitol Hill is a huge Renaissance structure of 
Georgia marble, designed by Boston architects, McKim, Mead, 
and White. The private schools center about the Art Museum 
and Brown University on College Hill. 

BRYANT COLLEGE Coed Ages 18-25 Est 1863. 

Henry L. Jacobs, M.S., President. 

Enr: Day 500, Eve 450. Fac: 40. Courses 4, 2 and i yrs: Busi- 
ness Adminis Accounting Finance Secretarial and Executive 
Training Teacher Training. Advisory Board 18. 

As Bryant-Stratton College this school was long conducted 
in the business district, moving to its new site in 1035. The usual 
business courses are supplemented by teacher training. The four 
year course leads to a degree; the secretarial course to a diploma. 
Dormitories are maintained. The school has been under Mr. 
Jacob's aggressive direction for more than thirty years. 

THE GORDON SCHOOL, 405 Angell St. Coed Ages 3-11 
Est 1910. 

Sarah Hincks, A.B., Vassar, A.M., Mich, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Day 85. Fac: 14. Tui: $150-300. Courses 7 yrs: Nursery 
Sch Kindergarten Grades I- V. Incorporated 1930 not for profit. 
Trustees 18 self perpetuating. 

This progressive junior school is the outgrowth of classes con- 
ducted by Dr. Helen W. Cooke for her own children and their 
playmates. Miss Hincks, former head of Shady Hill Country 
Day School, Philadelphia, succeeded Katharine G. Rusk in 1936. 

KATHARINE GIBBS SCHOOL, 155 Angell St. Est 1911. 

James Gordon Gibbs, President. 

Enr: 155. Fac: 15. Tui: $325-350. Courses i and 2 yrs. Alumnae 

Day girls only are enrolled in this school, the first of the three 


founded by the late Katharine Gibbs. One and two year courses 
similar to those in the Boston and New York schools are carried 
on in Churchill House. See page 1065. 

LINCOLN SCHOOL, 301 Butler Ave. Girls Ages Bdg 12-18, 

Day 4- 1 8 Est 1884. 

Amy L. Philips, Goucher, M.A., Columbia, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 27, Day 225. Fac:33. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $150-400. 
Courses 13 yrs: Bdg, Grades VII- VIII High Sch 1-4; Day, Nurs- 
ery Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Gen. 
Incorporated 1912 not for profit. Trustees 25 elected by Church. 
Endowment $85,000. Income from invested funds $4000-5000. 
Scholarships 10, value $100-500 annually. Prizes n. Friends. 
C E B candidates '37, 18; '32- f 36, 78- Entered Col '37, 8; '32- 
'36, 58. Alumnae 793. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

For a quarter of a century a non-sectarian day school for girls, 
Lincoln has had a boarding department since iqi2. Its growth 
in the last decade is due largely to the devoted efforts of Frances 
E. Wheeler, previously head of the girls department of Moses 
Brown School, who was made principal in 1025 when the school 
was taken over by the Society of Friends. Lincoln now appeals 
to conservative families of moderate means who value the sound 
academic training and characteristic simplicity of a Quaker 
institution. Miss Philips, for eight years head of Friends Com- 
munity School, West Chester, Pa., succeeds Miss Wheeler in the 
fall of 1038. See page 1006. 


Ages Bdg 8-18, Day 2-18; Boys 2-9 Est 1889. 
Mary Helena Dey, B.A., McGill Univ, M.A., Chicago Univ, 

Head Mistress. 

Enr: Bdg 63, Day 178. Fac: 40. Tui: Bdg $1600 incl, Day $400. 
Courses 14 yrs: Nursery Sch Grades I- VII High Sch 1-5 Col 
Prep Post Grad 1-2 Secretarial. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees 23 elected by alumna and trustees. Undenomina- 
tional. C E B candidates '37, 24; *32-'36, 87. Entered Col '37, 
IS! '32-'36, 66. Alumnae 1368. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif 
Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This school bears the name of its founder whose story as a 
leader in art and education is well told by her niece, Blanche E. 
Wheeler Williams, in her biography published in 1934. Eighth 
of her generation in Concord, endowed with an interest in 
art, in the eighties she opened a studio in Providence out of 
which gradually developed this school. It was what we would 
call today a progressive school, following principles advocated 
by Eliot of Harvard. School work was informal but intensive. 


In the summer, groups of girls went with her to her villa in 
France. Here she trained as assistants Marion E. Park, now 
president of Bryn Mawr, and Katherine Lord, now head of Win- 
sor School. "Any education that does not prepare a girl to live 
well in her own home is fundamentally defective," Miss Wheeler 
announced in an early school circular. Miss Dcy, for some years 
associate principal, has been head mistress since Miss Wheeler's 
death in 1920. A woman of pervasive personality, progressive in 
her educational ideals, she continues to enroll girfs from far 
afield. Columbine Hill just outside the city is for younger girls 
eight to fourteen. See page 1007. 

THE MOSES BROWN SCHOOL, 257 Hope St. Boys Ages 

Bdg 7-19, Day 4-19 Est 1784. 

L. Ralston Thomas, B.S., Haverford, Ed.M., Harvard, Head. 
Enr: Bdg 71, Day 307. Fac: 34. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $200-400. 
Courses 13 yrs: Bdg, Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4; Day, Kin- 
dergarten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Conducted 
not for profit. Trustees appointed by Society of Friends of N E. 
Scholarships, value $5000. Friends. C E B candidates '37, 60; 
*32-'36 329. Entered Col '37, 36; '32-*36, 184. Alumni 1900. 
Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting 
by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Until 1 004 known as Friends School, this began in Portsmouth 
and was reestablished in 1810 in Providence. Liberally endowed 
by Obadiah Brown, son of the founder, it remained coeduca- 
tional until 1026 when the Lincoln School was taken over for 
the girls. Mr. Thomas, former principal of Friends Central 
School, Philadelphia, has been head master since 1025 Although 
the school is strictly college preparatory, opportunities for work 
in the arts and crafts are provided. Lower school boys are 
separately housed. See page 948. 


Boys Ages 10-21 Est 1923. 

Edward G. Lund, S.B., M.Ed., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 5, Day 85. Fac: 10. Tui: Bdg $900-1200, Day $300- 
500. Courses 7 yrs: Grades VI- VII High Sch 1-5 Col Prep. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 18 self perpetuating. Un- 
denominational. C E B candidates '37, 4; '32-^36, 85. Entered 
Col '37, 9; '32-'35, 38. Alumni 259. Accredited to certif Col. 

A group of parents who felt the need of a college preparatory 
school with broader training than was then available in the city 
organized this school. Under Mr. Lund, who came in 1934 from 
the North Shore Country Day School, Winnetka, to succeed 
Albert C. Tyler, standards have been raised and the enrollment 
increased. There are facilities for five day boarders. 



Royal B. Farnum, Brown Univ, Exec Vice President. Est 1877. 

Enr: Day 427, Eve 950, Sat 347. Fac: 100. Tui: Day $125, Eve 

$24, Sat $13. Courses 4 and 5 yrs. Incorporated not for profit. 

The support given by the state and by individuals to this 
notable school is evidence of the interest of the community in 
jewelry, fine metal work, and textile designing. Instruction is 
given in drawing, painting, costume design, interior decoration, 
graphic arts, sculpture, architecture, mechanical design, jewelry 
and silversmithing, textiles and art teacher training. Dormitory 
accommodations are provided fur women. Since 10^7 the school 
has granted the B.A.K. degree in the department of teacher 

ST. DUNSTAN'S SCHOOL, 88 Benefit St. Boys Ages 8-15 
Est 1929. 

Roy W. Howard, Ph.B., Brown Univ, Head Master. 
Enr: Day 90. Fac: 9. Tui: $200. Courses 7 yrs: Grades III-IX. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 6. Episcopal. Alumni 62. 

Music, art, and religion are important in the life of this sub- 
preparatory school which provides boy choirs for three of the 
Episcopal churches in the city. The academic program prepares 
for public and private high schools. 

For oilier Rhode Inland \ihool \ \ee Supplementary 
/./s/.s Seiondury, Tutoring, Elementary Hoarding. 
Local Day, Nursery, ( ' liar i table , Music, Sihool\ ol 
J f inc and Applied Art*, Practical Art\, Household 
Art, .SV/ioo/s oj 7i.v/>/v,ss/oH, Theatre, Dame, Phy\n il 
/Education; Trdtnological and Trade Sthooh, Aviation 
Sihool\, Hu\ine\\ SV//oo/s, Nur\e\ Training .Schools, 
Sthools of Language^, St hoots for Defe< lives, C'atholit 
Hoarding .Sthool\. 


AVON,CONN. Pop 17 38 (1930). Motor Route 101 from Hartford. 

In this little village, five miles up the river from Farmington, 
is the three thousand acre estate of farm, meadows, and forest 
land long known as Old Farms. The twenty buildings of the 
school follow architecturally the style of a Cotswold village. 

AVON OLD FARMS Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1918. 

Rev. Percy Gamble Kammerer, A.B., Ph.D., Harvard, Provost. 
Enr: Bdg 122. Fac: 20. Tui: $1500. Courses 6 yrs: Grades VII- 
VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees self perpetuating. Undenominational. C E B candi- 
dates '37, ii ; > 32-*36, 4*>. Entered Col '37, 18; '32-*36, 72. 
Alumni 115. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This school in its plan of education, layout of grounds, and 
architecture is the creation of the founder, Theodate Pope, now 
Mrs. John Wallace Riddle, who had earlier designed Westover 
School. To these plans she devoted more than ten years of her 
life and most of her wealth. Still carried out is the original idea, 
to make use of many of the educational features characteristic of 
old New England farm life, the arts and crafts, the com- 
munity interests, for the purpose of developing initiative and 
responsibility. Since 1930 the provost has been Dr. Kammerer, 
former dean of Trinity Cathedral, Pittsburgh. Under him the 
school emphasizes individual approach, small classes and 
"assignment of boys to tutors", instead of central classroom 
study. Music, art, applied arts, shop work, forestry are provided 
for and encouraged, and on the estate there are opportunities 
for fishing and hunting. There are no interschool sports, all 
games are intramural. Participating as citizens in all the opera- 
tions of community life in this small commonwealth, most of 
the boys are prepared for college. See page 959. 

BERLIN, CONN. Alt 64ft. Pop 4298 (1920) 4875 (1930). N.Y. 

N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 5 from Hartford. 
A small industrial town and railroad junction midway be- 
tween Hartford and New Haven, Berlin was the birthplace in 
1787 of Emma Hart Willard, pioneer in women's education, 
whose name is perpetuated in a school at Troy, New York. 
Famous as an educator, she is less known as the author of 
"Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep." On a ridge above the town 
is Merricourt. 

MERRICOURT Coed Ages 2-12 Est 1926. 

Rev. John H. Kingsbury, B.A., Dartmouth, M.A., Columbia; 
Mrs. Ruth Beardslee Kingsbury , B.A., Mt Holyoke, Dirs. 


Conn. NEW ENGLAND 321 

Bur: Bdg 20, Day 5. Fac: 4. Tui: Bdg $1100-1350 for 12 mos; 
Day $175, Summer $250. Courses 8 yrs: Pre-Sch Kinder- 
garten Grades I-VI Music Tutoring. Incorporated 1933 not 
for profit. Undenominational. 

Here in their large, pleasant home in the country, Mr. and 
Mrs. Kingsbury take little children and give them devoted care 
and attention the year round, with many camp activities in the 
summer. It is an excellent place for children from broken homes 
or whose parents must travel. Enrollments are made for a few 
months or a year. 

BRIDGEPORT, CONN. Alt 15ft. Pop 143,555 (1920) 146,716 

(1930). Motor Route U.S. 1 from New Haven. 
A busy port for the coastwise traffic on Long Island Sound, 
Bridgeport is a city of varied industries. Traces of P. T. Harnum, 
who long made it his home, still linger. 

TRAINING SCHOOL, 1097-1134 Iranistan Ave. Girls 
Ages 16-25 Est 1885. 

Fannie A. Smith, Principal. 

Enr: Day . Fac: . Tui: $200. Courses 3 and 4 yrs : Kinder- 
garten Training. Proprietary. Alumnae 175. 

Over seven thousand children have been enrolled in the prac- 
tice department of this school, one of the pioneer institutions 
of its kind in the country. Students in training also practice in 
the public schools. There are resident accommodations. 

Coed Ages 16- Est 1927. 

E. Everett Cortright, President. 

Enr: Day 187. Fac: n. Tui: Bdg $800-900, Day $400-500. 
Courses 2 and 3 yrs: Liberal Arts Gen Engineering Science 
Chemical Engineering Law Medicine Teaching Nursing 
Journalism Dentistry Social Work Library Work Secretarial 
Science. Non-profit, trusteed institution. Member Am Assoc 
Jr Col. 

The degree Associate in Arts is conferred by this liberal arts 
college. In addition to the regular junior college work, three year 
specialized courses are offered. Boarding accommodations are 
available for fifteen girls. 

THE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL Boys Ages 14-18 Est 1802. 
Mark M. Richardson, B.S., Mass Agri Col, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg . Fac: 4. Tui: $900. Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 
Col Prep. Incorporated. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
'37, o; 

322 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

Established and long conducted by Vincent C. Peck, this 
tutoring school has been directed by Mr. Richardson since IQ^Q. 

BROOKFIELD CENTER, CONN. Alt 500ft. Pop 926 (1930). 
N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 6 from Hartford. 


Gerald B. Curtis, B.S., Columbia, Head Master. Est 1875. 
Enr: Bdg 30, Day 5. Fac: 5. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $250. Courses 
5 yrs: Grades IV- VIII. Proprietary. 

The father of the present head master with a deep sense of the 
grave responsibility of a teacher's function, devoted fifty years 
of his life to the upbuilding of this school. His son carries on, 
aided since 10,36 by an assistant, Robert D. Shields. 

CHESHIRE, CONN. Alt 161 ft. Pop 2855 (1920) 3263 (1930). 
N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route 118 from New Haven. 

Fifteen miles north of New Haven, this is a quiet old village. 
The building of the old Episcopal Academy, founded in 1704, 
sets back from the street, with the more modern structures of 
The Cheshire Academy grouped about it. Opposite are several 
fine old houses, modernized for the junior school. 

THE CHESHIRE ACADEMY Boys Ages 10- Est 1906. 

Arthur N. Sheriff, B.A., M.A., Yale, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 145, Day 35. Fac: 32. Tui: Bdg $1550-1750, Day 
$700-900. Courses 6 yrs : Col Prep Jr and Sr High Sch Tech- 
nological Business. Under special state charter, not for profit. 
Scholarships 15. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 86; 
'32- f 36, 409- Entered Col '37, 78; '32-^36, 293. Alumni 1800. 
Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

As Roxbury School, this highly efficient college preparatory 
institution, first in New Haven, has for more than twenty years 
been conducted in Cheshire. Heir to two ancient schools, the 
Episcopal Academy and its successor, Cheshire School, the 
present name was taken in 1037. Small classes and supervision 
of each boy's progress, with individual instruction when advis- 
able, prepare boys for all colleges but especially for Yale. Mr. 
Sheriff, for some years dean and since 1023 head master, has 
put the administration and scholastic work on a sound basis 
and has developed a separate and well organized junior school 
offering work in the upper elementary and lower high school 
years. A summer session is held. See page 955. 

CLINTON, CONN. Alt 24 ft. Pop 1217 (1920) 1574 (1930). 
N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 1 from New Haven. 

This town until 1838 was part of the old town of Killing- 
worth, settled in 1663. On the green, a column surmounted by a 
pile of books marks the site of the earliest classes of Yale College, 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 323 

held by the first president, Rev. Abraham Pierson, pastor of 
Killingworth. East of Stanton House, built in xySg and now a 
Colonial museum, is Morgan School, in front of which stand 
statues of Charles Morgan, the founder, and Abraham Pierson. 

THE MORGAN SCHOOL Coed Ages 13-19 Est 1871. 

George L. Scott, Preceptor. 

Enr: Day 102. Fac: 7. Tui: $100. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 
Col Prep Commercial Gen. Incorporated not for profit. Trus- 
tees 4 self perpetuating. Endowment $200,000. Income from 
invested funds $6000. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
*37 > *3 2 -'36, 6. Entered Col '37, i. Alumni 750. 

This endowed school of local patronage has been under the 
direction of Mr. Scott since 10/56, when he succeeded James S. 
Guernsey, now at Shattuck School, Minnesota. 

CORNWALL, CONN. Alt 786 ft. Pop 878 (1930). N.Y.N.H.& 
H.R.R. Motor Route 17 from Hartford. 

Cornwall is a secluded little town in a region of wooded hills 
at the base of Colt's Foot Mountain. The school is on high 
ground some distance from the village. 

RUMSEY HALL Boys Ages 7-15 Est 1900. 

Louis H. Schutte, B.A., M.A., Yale, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 50, Day 6. Fac: 8. Tui: Bdg $1350, Day $200. Courses 
7 yrs: Grades I- VII. Proprietary. Scholarships. Frizes 30. 
Undenominational. Alumni 500. 

Since 1007 this school, opened first in her home in Seneca 
Falls, N. Y., by Mrs. Lillias Rumsey Sanford, has been here. 
Mrs. Sanford 's success has been due to her more than usual 
understanding of young boys and her deep interest in them 
which continues on through later life. The warmth and frank 
camaraderie of her daughter-in-law, Helen (ireves Sanford, 
now formal director, pervades the homelike atmosphere of the 
school. The academic work is in a separate building. Counter- 
acting the feminine influence, the faculty are men. under the 
direction of Mr. Schutte. See page 948. 

DANBURY, CONN. Alt 371ft. Pop 18,943 (1920) 22,261 (1930). 

Motor Route U.S. 6 from Hartford. 

Hats, silverware, and textiles are among the manufactures of 
this busy trading center. Wooster School is on Ridgcbury Road, 
three miles from the town. 

THE WOOSTER SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1926. 
Rev. Aaron Cutler Coburn, A.B., Amherst, B.D., Philadelphia 

Divinity Sch, Litt.D., Hobart, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 62. Fac 17. Tui: $0-1200. Courses 6 yrs : Grades VII- 
VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. 

324 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

Trustees 7. Prizes 6, value $150. Episcopal. C B candidates 
'37, 5J '32-'36, 44- Entered Col '37, 14; 3i-'36, 5<>. Alumni 85. 
Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Following the example of Father Sill at Kent, Mr. Coburn, 
for years rector of St. James in Danbury, started this small 
school on a farm and gave each boy a responsible part in its 
maintenance. In its first decade the school made a place for 
itself and a reputation for sound academic work. 

DARIEN, CONN. Alt 66ft. Pop 4184 (1920) 6951 (1930). N.Y. 

N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 1 from New Haven. 
With a considerable art colony and many large estates, Darien 
is on the shore between Stamford and Norwalk. The school is 
on Brookside Road, half a mile off the Boston Post Road. 

CHERRY LAWN SCHOOL Coed Ages 5-18 Est 1915. 

Christina Stael von Holstein Bogoslovsky, M.A., Stockholm) 
Ph.D., Columbia; Boris Basil Bogoslovsky, Moscow Univ, 
Ph.D., Columbia, Directors. 

Enr: Bdg 87, Day 16. Fac: 24. Tui: Bdg $1200-1450, Day $260- 
360. Courses n yrs: Grades I-VI Jr and Sr High Sch Col Prep. 
Incorporated 1920 not for profit. Scholarships, value $8000. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 3; '32-136, 29. En- 
tered Col '37, 5; *32-'36, 30. Alumni 102. 

The present directors, formerly with the Dalton Schools and 
Columbia University, have here gone forward with the ideals 
on which Dr. Fred Goldfrank, a New York pediatrician, estab- 
lished this school. Open air classrooms, wholesome and natural 
activities, much outdoor life, a rich and varied curriculum pre- 
paratory to college, are outstanding characteristics. Dr. Chris- 
tina, Swedish, scholarly, Dr. Boris, Russian, Lincolnesque, alert 
minded, like their faculty are Gentiles. Dr. Boris' book, "The 
Ideal School", published in 1(^36, gives some understanding of 
the ends towards which they are working. The school is making 
an increasing appeal to Gentile families in the neighborhood, 
though the majority of the boys and girls are from well-to-do 
Jewish homes. See page 1047. 

F AIRFIELD, CONN. Pop (twp) 11,475 (1920) 17,218 (1930). 

Though invaded by manufacturing firms, this town, named 
for its fair fields, retains much of its quiet charm. In the village 
and on the hills are handsome and elaborate estates. 


Laurence W. Gregory, B.A., Yale, Head Master. Est 1936. 
Enr: Day 26. Fac: 5. Tui: $350-500. Courses 9 yrs: Grades 
IV-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Scholarships 3, value $500. 
C E B candidates '37, 2. 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 325 

Mr. Gregory, for fifteen years head of Milford School, gives 
his boys adequate college preparation. 

THE GRAIL SCHOOL, INC. Coed Ages 12-25 Est 1908. 

Charles C. Saunders, Ph.D., Yale, Head Master. 
Enr: Day 33. Fac: 5. Tui: $850. Courses 6 yrs: High Sch 1-4 
Col Prep Jr Col. Incorporated. Trustees 5. Undenomina- 
tional. C E B candidates '37, i; > 32-*36, 2. Entered Col '37, 18. 
Alumni 2345. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

In this school, largely tutorial in type, Mr. Saunders has pre- 
pared hundreds of boys for college. He now enrolls girls also. 

UNQUOWA SCHOOL Coed Ages 3-14 Est 1917. 

Carl Churchill, M.A., Columbia, Ph.B., Keuka Col, Head. 
Enr: Co Day 120. Fac: 15. Tui: $100-350. Courses 10 yrs: 
Nursery Sch Kindergarten Grades I- VIII. Incorporated 1917 
not for profit. Trustees elected by patrons. Alumni 165. 

Progressive methods are followed in this cooperatively owned 
country day school. 

FARMINGTON, CONN. Alt 245ft. Pop 4548 (1930). N.Y.N.ff. 
&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 6 from Hartford. 

Wide elm-shaded streets and fine old houses give Farmington 
an atmosphere of leisure and unostentatious prosperity. It is 
known to the outer world chiefly for its school. Hill Stead, the 
Victorian home of Mrs. John Wallace Riddle, architect and 
founder of Avon Old Farms, is on a hill above the village. 

MISS PORTER'S SCHOOL Girls Ages 14-19 Est 1843. 

Robert Porter Keep, B.A., Yale; Mrs. Keep, Principals. 
Enr:Bdg2oo. Fac: 25. Tui: $1800. Courses 6 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Col Prep Jr Col 1-2 Art Music Domestic Science. Pro- 
prietary. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, i ; *32-'36, 9. 
Entered Col '36, 3; *3i-'35, 8. Member N E Assoc. 

The founder, Sarah Porter, sister of President Porter of Yale, 
in the eighty-seven years of her life made this school pre- 
eminent as the "result of her own unusual character. She gave 
to hundreds of the best born women of the land that poise and 
stability of character, that combination of learning and good 
manners, which is a mark of the noblest American womanhood." 
From 1900 the school was continued by her nephew, Robert 
Porter Keep, and later by Mrs. Keep who had been a pupil of 
Miss Porter. Since 1917 Mrs. Keep's son, successful as an in- 
structor at Andover, has carried on. A Victorian attitude of 
genteel superiority and culture still prevails. Every girl must 
take some of the conventional courses in languages, mathemat- 
ics, history. The college preparatory course, discontinued some 
years ago because "the work was found to be encroaching too 

326 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

much on the courses that this school desires to emphasize", 
will again be offered in 1038. The "best born" alumnae still send 
their daughters to the same venerable houses along the same 
village street. And their daughters still show the same evidence 
of breeding, deserving of a better education. 

GREENWICH, CONN. Alt 28 ft. Pop 22,123 (1920} 33,112 
(1930). N.Y.N.H.&.H.R.R. Route U.S. 1 from New Haven. 

Greenwich's main street still carries the heavy Post Road 
traffic from New York to Boston past new and imposing busi- 
ness blocks and, on the outskirts, the publishing plant of Conde 
Nast. Favored as a place of residence for New York millionaires 
and those who would live near them, magnificent estates line 
the diversified shore and crown the hills. Several of the city's 
private schools are widely known. 

BRUNSWICK SCHOOL Boys Ages 3-18 Est 1902. 

William L. Henry, Yale, Head Master. 

Enr: Co Day 114. Fac: 29. Tui: $200-525. Courses 15 yrs: 
Pre-Sch Grades I-VI High Sch VII-XII Col Prep. Incorpo- 
rated 1905. Trustees 18. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
'37, 9j'32-'36, 37- Entered Col '34, 5; '29-*33, 58. Approved by 
N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Starting in a modest way with fourteen boys and two teachers, 
(ieorge E. Carmichael directed the school for twenty years. In 
a reorganization in 1033, Thomas C. Burton came from Staten 
Island Academy as head master, resigning in 1038. Mr. Henry, 
popular with both boys and parents, has been assistant head 
for ten years. 

THE EDGEWOOD SCHOOL Coed Ages 3-18 Est 1910. 

Elizabeth Euphrosyne Langley, M.A., Chicago Univ, Colum- 
bia, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 65, Day 100. Fac: 36. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $250-450. 
Courses 13 yrs: Pre-Sch Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High 
Sch 1-4 Col Prep Teacher Training. Incorporated 1910 not 
for profit. Trustees 7 self perpetuating. Scholarships 30, value 
$15,300. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 8; *32- f 36, 
12. Entered Col '37, 8; *32-'36, 26. Alumni 100. Accredited to 
Col admitting by certif. 

The vigorous and inspiring personality of Miss Langley, 
principal since 1922, vitalizes this progressive school. An out- 
growth of the Lanier School, it was later under Marietta John- 
son who used it as her northern branch. An interested and 
devoted board have made it possible for Miss Langley to incor- 
porate in the curriculum various attractive features, among 
them a training school for teachers. The colorful life derives 
from the educational principles of Parker and Dewey and a busy 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 327 

hum of activity pervades. Boys and girls and an unusually 
attractive group of men and women, who constitute the faculty, 
work together unceasingly and happily toward common ends. 
The school catalog is produced in the printing shop, in charge 
of a veteran printer. An observatory was almost wholly con- 
structed by the pupils, under guidance. The phrase, "the life of 
the school", is meaningful here. Everyone lives intensely, wilh 
the one end of accomplishment. See page 1044. 

GREENWICH ACADEMY Girls Ages 3-18 Est 1827. 

Mrs. Ruth West Campbell, A.M., Columbia, Principal. 
Enr : Co Day 250. Fac : 36. Tui : $175-550. Courses 13 yrs : Kin- 
dergarten Grades I- VII High Sch 1-5 Col Prep. Incorporated. 
Trustees 8. Scholarships 12, value $5100. Undenominational. 
C E B candidates '37, 10; '32-'3&, 47- Ent Col '37, 9J *32-*36, 37- 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Under Mrs. Campbell, who came to the school in 1025, this 
century old academy, for eighty years coeducational, was re- 
organized as a country day school for girls. Efficient college 
preparation is supplemented by broad general courses and cre- 
ative work in music, arts and crafts, and English. Girls in the 
junior and senior years may arrange for residence. 


G. Denis Meadows, London Univ, Head Master. Est 1926. 
Enr: Day 173. Fac: 26. Tui: $300-650. Courses 8 yrs: Grades 
I- VIII. Incorporated 1927 not for profit. Trustees 12 elected 
by corporate members. Alumni 134. 

This parent owned institution was established by John L. 
Miner, former head of Harvey School, Hawthorne, N. Y. For a 
year it bore the name Harvey Day School. Mr. Meadows, an 
Englishman and long senior master, succeeded Mr. Miner in 

ROSEMARY HALL Girls Ages 12-19 Est 1890. 

Caroline Ruutz-Rees, M.A., Ph.D., Columbia; Mary E. 
Lowndes, M.A., Cambridge, LittD., Trinity Col, Dublin, 
Advisers. Mrs. Constance Evers, Mrs. Eugenia Jessup, 
B.A., Acting Heads. 

Enr: Bdg 100, Co Day 40. Fac: 26. Tui: Bdg $1650, Day $700. 
Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Post Grad 
Art Music Diction Dramatics. Incorporated. Scholarships 3, 
value $2400. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 27; 
l 32- > 36, 238. Entered Col '37, 16; ) 32- > 36, 79. Alumnae 1815. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Miss Ruutz-Rees, of English birth and education, a natural- 
ized citizen of this country in which she has lived since 1883, 
with degrees from Columbia as well as St. Andrew's, established 

328 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

this school in Wallingford on the Choate Farm, moving to 
Greenwich in 1900. Broad scholarship, a masculine grasp of 
mind, keen human interest in her girls, her graduates and alum- 
nae, an unusual teacher who uses the classics to inspire her 
pupils she has created a school unlike any other. MissLowndes, 
skilled horsewoman, literary scholar, was co-head mistress from 
1910 until their retirement in 1938. A distinctive flavor is given 
the school by the number of married faculty and staff members, 
many with children of their own. Here is no narrow conventual 
atmosphere. The intellectual and physical life is robust and 
well supervised. A pupil must pass examinations qualifying her 
for the major colleges, Bryn Mawr, Vassar, Smith, Wellesley, 
to receive the school diploma. Rosemary has much suggestive 
of English girls schools in the customs, the fostered traditions, 
the classical terminology, the stress on walking or "bounding", 
the uniforms, the faculty teaching in academic gowns. Miss 
Ruutz-Rees or one of her assistants "takes Chapel" every eve- 
ning in academic gown, and at the close of the service takes every 
girl by the hand for a friendly word or a cheery good night. Boys 
are encouraged to come to the school for Sunday calls and an 
occasional dance. In 1937 Mrs. Jessup with Mrs. Evers who 
formerly had her own school in Italy, were made acting heads. 
See page ion. 
ROSEMARY JUNIOR SCHOOL Girls al-n, Coed 3^-5. 

Ellen Steele Reece, B.S., Teachers Col, Director. 
Enr: Co Day 125. Fac: 20. Tui: $175-540. Courses 8 yrs : Nur- 
sery Sch Grades I- VII. 

Markedly progressive with interesting opportunities for work 
in art, music, dancing, French and dramatics, this lower school 
of Rosemary Hall prepares for the upper group. Mrs. Reece, the 
former Ellen Steele, has been in charge since 1928. See page 101 1. 

HARTFORD, CONN. Alt 38 ft. Pop 138,036 (1920) 164,072. 
Model and inspirer of many cities that have improved upon 
it, the capital of the state is on the Connecticut river fifty miles 
from Long Island Sound. Civic pride early resulted in a system 
of well laid out parks and substantial public buildings. Here are 
the home offices of many of the large national insurance com- 
panies, so every fire alarm is heard in Hartford and every obitu- 
ary brings tears to the eyes of its leading citizens. But the Con- 
necticut river floods periodically wash away all tears and other 
things. The city wears an air of complacent repose, but the vigor 
of its life pulsates in new extensions to the north and west and 
blossoms periodically in a beautiful bridge or a notable building. 
When Mark Twain, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Charles Dud- 
ley Warner lived here, Hartford well maintained literary pre- 
tensions. Trinity College, started patriotically as Washington 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 329 

College in 1823, became Episcopal under its present name in 
1845. In West Hartford, a residential suburb, is the attractive 
plant of Kingswood School. 

KINGSWOOD SCHOOL, West Hartford P.O. Boys 10-18. 

George R. H. Nicholson, M.A., Manchester. Est 1916. 
Enr: Co Day 197. Fac: 16. Tui: $400-600. Courses 8 yrs: 
Grades V-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1921 not 
for profit. Trustees 22 elected by patrons. Scholarships 6, 
value $3600. C B candidates '37, 9; '32^36, 141. Entered Col 
'37, 28;'32-'36, 88. Alumni 208. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif 
Bd. Member N Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This parent owned community enterprise has been since its 
establishment under the direction of Mr. Nicholson whose lead- 
ership and organizing ability have resulted in increasing success. 
Of English birth and training, former head master of Kings- 
wood School in England, Mr. Nicholson is alert, efficient, and 
modern in his attitudes. 

OXFORD SCHOOL, 695 Prospect Ave. Girls 10-18 Est 1909. 

Mrs. Vachel Lindsay, B.A., M.A., Mills Col, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Co Day 203. Fac: 30. Tui: $450-550. Courses 8 yrs: 
Grades V-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Art Music Dramatics. 
Incorporated 1929 not for profit. Trustees n elected by cor- 
poration. C B candidates '37, 12; l 32- > 36, 87. Entered Col '37, 
7! *32-'36> 42. Alumni 189. Member N Assoc. 

From 1929 directed by Ruth E. Guernsey, Oxford was con- 
ducted for a year following her death in 1937 by Edith N. Evans 
as acting head. For some fifteen years a city school enrolling 
daughters of leading families, it was made a community project 
in 1929 and is now organized along country day lines. Mrs. 
Lindsay who had taught in various secondary schools before her 
marriage, and has published some of her late husband's poems, 
comes from the deanship of King-Smith Studio-School in the 
fall of 1938. 

KENT, CONN. Alt 395ft. Pop 1086 (1920) 1054 (1930). N.Y. 
N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 7 from Norwalk. 

Until Father Sill and the water power companies rediscovered 
this old town, it was an abandoned section of the Housatonic 
Valley. Two notable schools have developed; Kent School near 
the village, the newer school four miles to the south, half a mile 
from the South Kent station. 

KENT SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-19 Est 1906. 
Rev. Frederick H. Sill, A.B., Litt.D., Columbia, S.T.D., D.D., 

Williams, Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 299. Fac: 23. Tui: $0-1500, average $900. Courses 
5 yrs: Col Prep High School 1-4 Grade VIII. Incorporated 

330 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

1907 not for profit. Trustees 4 self perpetuating. Endowment 
$18,400. Income from invested funds $830. Scholarships 4, 
value $5900; income $230. Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, 
82; '32-*36, 731. Entered Col '37, 71 ; '32-*36, 312. Alumni 1027. 
Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc. 

Simplicity, self reliance, and directness of purpose still char- 
acterize Kent, although it has become one of the world's great 
schools. When Father Sill started the first small group in the 
one farmhouse, the plan of self-help by which the boys do prac- 
tically all the work was developed, a system which has since 
been modified and copied by many other boys schools. The 
simple and severe Norman chapel is an architectural gem, but 
the religious life remains actual and sincere as in the early days 
when, sweaty in their soiled smocks from the fields, the school 
knelt before the improvised altar. For over thirty years Father 
Sill has devoted his whole life to his boys. In the midst of a 
million dollars worth of new architecture he still lives simply, 
serving tea each afternoon to the seniors in his attic study. He 
still coaches and coxswains his crews and every three years takes 
them to Henley, which brings renown. There is no time at Kent 
for boys to wander. There are duties and varied activities in- 
doors and out. And the demand for places is such that only the 
studious and earnest boy who will respond to the religious 
atmosphere should seek admission. Money is non-essential, for 
Father Sill maintains a sliding scale of charges, assessing par- 
ents enough to meet the year's budget, in accordance with their 
ability to pay, from almost nothing to $1500. A summer session, 
a lusty offshoot at South Kent, an interested alumni, volumi- 
nous publicity, the adoration of his old boys, the admiration of 
all, are some of the rewards of this devoted life. 

SOUTH KENT SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1923. 

Samuel S. Bartlett, B.S., Lafayette, Head Master. 
Enr : Bdg 93. Fac : 10. Tui : $0-1500. Courses 5 yrs : Grade VIII 
High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1926 not for profit, 
patrons own bonds. Trustees 5 self perpetuating Episcopal. 
C E B candidates '37, 10; '32^36, 59- Entered Col '37, 20; '32- 
'36, 94. Alumni 173. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Now sturdy and independent, with a considerable waiting 
list, this school was established by Father Sill to take the over- 
flow from Kent. Mr. Bartlett, a former Kent boy, has been head 
master since the opening. 

LAKEVILLE, CONN. Alt 800ft. Pop 1210 (1920). N.Y.N.H.& 
H.R.R. Motor Route 17 from Hartford, 121 from Canaan. 

In the northwest corner of Connecticut where three states 
come together, Lakeville is surrounded by mountains rising to 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 331 

more than two thousand feet. Several fine old Colonial residences 
are in and about the village. The Hotchkiss School is on the 
saddle between Lakes Wononskopomuc and Wononpakook. 
Indian Mountain is about two miles from the village. 

THE HOTCHKISS SCHOOL Boys Ages 14-18 Est 1892. 

George Van Santvoord, B.A., Yale, M.A., B.Litt., Oxford, 

Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 345. Fac: 37. Tui: $1500. Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep 
High Sch 1-4. Incorporated 1892 not for profit. Trustees 16 
elected by alumni and self perpetuating. Endowment $500,000. 
Scholarships 40, value $60,000. Undenominational. C E B 
candidates '37, 82; '32- f 36, 498. Entered Col '37, 82; '32-'36, 
486. Alumni 2600. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Mem- 
ber N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

From the first Ilotchkiss has been intimately associated with 
Yale. Edward G. Coy, the first head master, a graduate of Yale, 
had served at the old Phillips Academy in Andover and brought 
with him to the newly founded school much of the atmosphere of 
Andover. The trustees, too have usually been Yale men, and 
Frederick S. Jones, president today, was for years Dean of Yale 
College. The graduates have generally shown preference for 
Yale, though in recent years the number entering other colleges 
has greatly increased and now a large delegation is sent yearly 
to Princeton and many enter Harvard, Williams, and M.I. T., 
and a few Amherst, Cornell and midwestern universities. 

Named for the widow of the inventor of the famous machine 
gun, who provided the plant and endowment, it was under Dr. 
Huber Gray Buehler, affectionately known as "The King", that 
the school developed its present sturdy character. Each year the 
King declared "there is only one rule in this school, Be a gentle- 
man!" and the implications of this one rule cast a shade of 
responsibility over the previously unruffled brows of those lads 
from homes of wealth where pleasure dominated. Under Dr. 
Buehler's direction Hotchkiss became recognized as one of the 
foremost preparatory schools of the country. Mr. Van Sant- 
voord, old Hotchkiss boy, Rhodes scholar, in IQ26 was appointed 
head master after teaching at Winchester School, England, at 
Yale and at the University of Buffalo. Under him the plant has 
been improved; the Spartan simplicity and intensity of the life 
relaxed. Physical welfare and athletics for health and recreation, 
forestry and winter sports are stressed. The curriculum has been 
broadened and the finer things of life, art and music, are encour- 
aged. Broadened too in the last few years has been the scope of 
the head master's activities. In addition to classroom teaching 
of seniors and lower middlers, he now acts as educational adviser 
and trustee of some of the surrounding schools. 

332 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

INDIAN MOUNTAIN SCHOOL Boys Ages 8-14 Est 1922. 

Francis Behn Riggs, A.B., Ed.M., Harvard, Head Master. 
Bnr:Bdg40. Fac: 9. Tui: $1500. Courses 8 yrs: Grades II-IX. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 15 self perpetuating. In- 
come from invested funds $1500. Alumni 232. 

Indian Mountain does much more than fit its boys success- 
fully for the large college preparatory schools. A band and an 
orchestra, an art studio, and a well equipped shop all play 
their part in the educational program. Mr. Riggs, a physical 
giant, a man of keen understanding and vague idealism, is de- 
voted to his boys and they to him because of his sympathy with 
them. See page 953. 

LITCHFIELD, CONN. Alt 956ft. Pop 3574 (1930). N.Y.N.H.& 
H.R.R. Motor Route 17 from Hartford, 123 from Canton, 
128 from Torrington. 

A delightful little village, rich in historic importance and 
literary associations, Litchfield is a hundred miles from New 
York. Here in the old home of Judge Tapping Reeve was opened 
in 1784 the first law school in the country. The Forman School 
occupies one of the old Colonial houses back from the main 
street. The sixty acre Spring Hill property is on the edge of the 
village. On the road to Cornwall is the stone building of Litch- 
field School. 

Est 1904. 

Harold F. Strong, Director. 

Enr: Bdg 102. Fac: 28. Tui: variable. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Junior Business Auto Mechanics Construction Carpentry 
Cooking and Baking Printing Agriculture Plant Maintenance. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 23. Endowment $280,- 
084.93. Income from invested funds $12,488.76. Undenomina- 
tional. Alumni ca 2000. 

Boys who have failed to adjust to their school or home en- 
vironments are here given special training, the majority enroll- 
ing in trade courses offered at the school, a few attending the 
local high school. The school has some support from the state 
and from charitable organizations. 

THE FORMAN SCHOOLS, INC. Boys Ages 8-19 Est 1930. 

John N. Forman, A.B., Princeton, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 50, Day 6. Fac: 13. Tui: Bdg $1500, Day $500. 
Courses 10 yrs: Grades III- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. 
Incorporated 1930 not for profit. Trustees 6 self perpetuating. 
Scholarships, value $2500. Alumni 45. 

A former master at Fessenden and Gunnery, Mr. Forman has 
here created a simple, friendly atmosphere. The group is small, 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 333 

and each boy has the interested oversight of the head master 
and his wife. There are many practical courses, and most of 
the work about the buildings and grounds is done by the boys. 

LITCHFIELD SCHOOL Boys Ages 6-15 Est 1922. 

Earle E. Sarcka, West Point, Head Master; Charles F. Brusie. 
Enr: Bdg 30. Fac: 5. Tui: $1350. Courses 8 yrs: Grades I- 
VIII. Incorporated. Undenominational. 

Mr. Brusie, former principal of Mt. Pleasant Academy, is 
assisted by his son-in-law, Major Sarcka. 

SPRING HILL SCHOOL Girls Bdg 6-16, Boys Day 6-10. 

Mrs. William Spinney, Principal. Est 1926. 
Enr: Bdg 20, Day 27. Fac: 13. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $300. 
Courses 9 yrs: Grades I- VII High Sch 1-2. Undenom. 

Spring Hill now accepts only girls in the boarding depart- 
ment. About half the enrollment is in the day group. Much of 
the activity centers about the school farm. 

MADISON, CONN. Pop 1918 (1930). 

A quiet old village during the school year, Madison in summer 
is something of a beach resort. Many of the houses date from 
Colonial times. 

GROVE SCHOOL Coed Ages 4-18 Est 1934. 

Jess Perlman, B.A., LL.B., CCNY, Fordham, Director. 
Enr: Bdg 20. Fac: 7. Tui: $1200. Incorporated 1936. 

In conjunction with Camp Madison, this school offers year 
round training especially designed for children of normal men- 
tality with behavior problems. 

MIDDLEBURY, CONN. Pop 1067 (19 20} 1449 (1930). N.Y.N.H. 
& H.R.R. to Waterbury. Motor Route U.S. 6 from Hartford. 

In the hills south of Litchfield, this peaceful old village is 
suburban to the bustling town of Waterbury. Some of the farms 
are still owned and worked by descendants of the early settlers. 
The fashionable girls school is beyond the green. 

WESTOVER SCHOOL Girls Ages 14-19 Est 1909. 

Louise Bulkley Dillingham, Ph.D., Bryn Mawr, Head. 
Enr: Bdg 160. Fac: 41. Tui: $2000. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated. Undenominational. C E B candi- 
dates '37, 20; > 32-*36, 56. Entered Col '36, n; *3i-'35, 63. 
Alumnae 899. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Established by Mary R. Hillard, who was trained at Miss 
Porter's and long headed St. Margaret's, Westover was for 
years permeated with her sentimental spirit of religion, which 
made special appeal to the wealthy Episcopal families who sent 
their daughters to her. Something between a saint and a snob, 

334 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

she fostered a reputation for exclusiveness. Miss Dillingham, 
scholarly, Bryn Mawrish, head mistress since 1033, has done 
away with much of the formality and pomp, fostering a modern 
freedom wholly new to the school. Still they wear the Westover 
capes, and the girls are considered snobbish. The Dorcas Society 
still sews for Dr. Grenfell's Mission. Still the life is somewhat 
soft, the athletics casual. But Westover is no longer a mere 
finishing school. The faculty has been strengthened and today 
a larger proportion of the girls take college preparatory work. 
MILFORD, CONN. Alt 64ft. Pop 10,193 (1920) 12,660 (1930). 
N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 1 from New Haven. 
The long, elm-shaded green bordering on the Post Road, 
Colonial meeting houses, old homesteads, and the mossy stone 
dam of the mill pond, still give Milford something of a nineteenth 
century flavor. The old tavern, built in 1644, still stands. 

LAURALTON HALL Girls Ages 8-18 Est 1905. 

Sister M. Basil, B.A., Catholic Univ, M.A., Fordham, Dir. 
Enr: Bdg 65, Day 63. Fac: 16. Tui: Bdg $500, Day $150. 
Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incor- 
porated not for profit. Roman Catholic. Alumnae 280. 

Non-Catholics are admitted to this school, affiliated with the 
Catholic University in Washington, D. C. 

THE MILFORD SCHOOL Boys Ages 10-20 Est 1907. 
Enr: Bdg 40, Day 25. Fac: 14. Tui: Bdg $1050-1750, Day $500- 
1000. Courses 7 yrs: Grades VI- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. 
Incorporated 1932. Trustees 4 self perpetuating. Scholarships 
2, value $1250 each. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 
21 ; *32-'36, 167. Entered Col '37, 27; '32-^36, 168. Alumni ca 
4000. Accredited to many Univ. 

Started in New Haven by S. B. Rosenbaum as the Rosen- 
baum Tutoring School, the school moved here in igi6. Mr. 
Rosenbaum continues as teacher and business manager, though 
under Paul Shaferfrom 1036 to 1038 activities were broadened 
and the school made less tutorialin function. A junior department 
was started in 10,37 under the direction of Theodore R. Connett. 
Dr. Shafer resigned in 1038 to head Packer Institute, Brooklyn. 
THE WEYLISTER Women Ages 17- Est 1927. 

Marian W. Skinner Beach, A.B., Radcliffe, A.M., Columbia. 
Enr: Bdg 35, Day 15. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $1000-1300, Day $325. 
Courses 1-2 yrs: College Secretarial. 

Marian Skinner, now Mrs. Beach, and Louise H. Scott started 
this school which came into the control of the latter in 1033, 
reverting to Mrs. Beach the following year. High school gradu- 
ates are given intensive secretarial training and some academic 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 335 

MYSTIC, CONN. Pop 3978. N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. 

The Mystic river, running through the town, was formerly the 
boundary between the colonies of Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts. Ten miles from New London, Mystic today attracts many 
artists. On a lake eight miles north is John Mason Country 


George Farnham, B.A., Iowa, B.D., Yale, President. 
Enr: Bdg 30. Fac: 5. Tui: $55 mo. Courses 13 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4. Incorporated. 

A simple country life, with academic courses supplemented 
by practical work, is here offered a small group of boys. Mr. 
Farnham also directs Lantern Hill Camp. 

NEW CANAAN, CONN. Alt 550 ft. Pop 5456 (1930). N.Y.N.H. 
&H.R.R. Motor Route 184 from Norwalk. 

This quiet village has become a center for artists, literary, 
lights, and solid business men. Its village green is surrounded by 
steepled meeting houses and homes of Colonial architecture. 


Mary Rogers Roper, A.B., Princ; Marjorie L. Tilley, Assoc. 
Courses 5 yrs: Pre-Sch Grades I-IV. 

The well known Stamford school for girls opened this coeduca- 
tional junior school in the fall of 1036 on the property used for 
some years by the upper school for its playing fields and winter 
sports campus. See page 1012. 


Hope Conklin Macintosh, A.B., A.M., Columbia, Mich Univ, 
Head Mistress; Philip H. Thomas, A.M., Head Master. 
Est 1916. 

Enr: Day 121. Fac: 14. Tui: 8175-450. Courses 12 yrs: Pre- 
Sch Kindergarten Grades I-XI. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees 13 elected by parents. Undenominational. 

Bearing its present name since 1036 when the Community 
School, directed by Mrs. Macintosh since 1034, purchased from 
Grace Church of New York the property long used by St. 
Luke's School, this is now a modern country day school. Mrs. 
Macintosh heads the primary and girls departments. Mr. Thomas 
came as head master in ig^7 after seven years as instructor at 
Romford School. 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. Alt 10ft. Pop 162,537 (1920) 162,655 
(1930). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Route U.S. 1 from Providence. 

New Haven is an industrial city famous for its locks and 
clocks. On the green starid three ancient and interesting types 

336 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

of the old New England Meeting House. To the south is a great 
display of Roman architecture, bank, court house and federal 
building. North of the green Yale in the past ten years, fertilized 
by Standard Oil money, has spawned successive quadrangles of 
bastard Gothic, branded Sterling or Harkness. This hundred 
million dollar plant in 1937 was put in the care, as president, 
of Provost Seymour who is close to the financial pulse of the 
nation and apologist for big business in its international rela- 
tions. But a Yale spirit of awareness lives in its Institute of 
Human Relations and in its law faculty that dares to reveal 
revered junk and sham. Hopkins Grammar School is on the old 
Ik Marvel estate northwest of the Boulevard. In Whitneyville, 
two miles northeast of the city, are the country day school, 
Hamden Hall, and Larson Junior College. 

CATION, 1466 Chapel St. Coed Ages 16-35 Est 1886. 

Webster Stover, A.B., M.A., B.D., Ursinus Col, Union Theol 

Sem, Ph.D., Columbia, President. 

Enr: 120. Fac: 20. Tui: Bdg $800, Day $400. Courses 4 and 5 
yrs: Teacher Training Physical Education Coaching Physical 
Therapy. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 4. Alumni 2060. 

Founded in Brooklyn and transferred six years later to ^Jew 
Haven, this school was renamed early in this decade to honor 
Dr. E. H. Arnold, director for many years. Since 1935 the school 
has been under the efficient management of Dr. Stover. Four 
and five year courses now lead to the B. P. E. and M.P.E. degrees. 

COLLEGIATE SCHOOL Coed Ages 16-21 Est 1916. 

Arthur Pite, B.A., M.A., Yale, Head Master. 
Enr: Day 175. Fac: 12. Tui: $300. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 
Col Prep Business. Incorporated 1924. Scholarships 10, value 
$2600. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 2; '32-' 36, ca 
25. Entered Col '37, 45; '3 2-'a 6, 200. Alumni 2000. Accredited 
to Col admitting by certif . 

MRS. DAY'S SCHOOL, 224 Edwards St. Girls 4-18, Boys 4-8. 

Mrs. Clive Day, A.B., A.M., Smith; Julia B. Thomas, A.B., 

Smith. Principals. Est 1910. 

Enr: Day 100. Fac: 16. Tui: $150-400. Courses 13 yrs: 
French Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. 
Proprietary. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 18; 
*32-'36, 75. Entered Col '36, 8; '31 -'35, 50. Alumnae 140. Ac- 
credited to Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and 
Secondary Sch. 

Conservative local families have enrolled their daughters 
here since 1915, when Mrs. Day took over a longer established 
school and gave it her name. Miss Thomas is active in the direc- 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 337 

tion. Completion of a college preparatory course is required for 
graduation, but such extra-curricular activities as athletics, 
art, and music are important. 
THE GATEWAY, St. Ronan Terrace. Girls 5-20 Est 1912. 

Alice E. Reynolds, Principal. 

Enr: Day 42. Fac: 10. Tui: $200-400. Courses 12 yrs: Grades 
I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Undenominational. C E B can- 
didates '37, 7; '32-'36, 39. Entered Col '37, ; *27-'3i, 8. Alum- 
nae 194. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

Miss Reynolds has maintained this day school since its estab- 

Ave. Coed Ages 2^-18 Est 1912. 

Edwin Stanley Taylor, B.S., M.S., Wesleyan, Yale, Nancy 

Univ (France), Head Master. 

Enr: Co Day 147. Fac 133. Tui: Si 20-400. Courses 14 yrs: Nurs- 
ery Sch Kindergarten Connecting Class Grades I- VIII High 
Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. Directors 15. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, i ; '32-*36, 2. Entered 
Col '37, 5. Alumni 315. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 
Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

Since iQ26 a parent owned and controlled institution, Ham- 
den Hall was one of the early country day schools, established 
by Dr. John P. Gushing. Mr. Taylor succeeded H. H. Vreeland 

HOPKINS GRAMMAR SCHOOL, 986 Forest Rd. Boys 10-18. 

George B. Lovell, B.A., Ph.D., Yale, Rector. Est 1660. 
Enr: Co Day 144. Fac: 20. Tui: $400-550. Courses 7 yrs: 
Grades VI-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for 
profit. Trustees n self perpetuating. Endowment $400,000. 
Income from invested funds $12,000. Prizes 18. Scholarships 
1 6, value $5500. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 27; 
*32-*36, 181. Entered Col '37, 21; *32-'36, 138. Alumni 1350. 
Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col 
and Secondary Sch. 

With the appointment of Dr. Lovell as rector in iqi6 this 
ancient academy, established on the bequest of Edward Hop- 
kins, five times governor of Connecticut Colony, entered upon a 
new era. Breaking with the two century academic routine, he 
revised, expanded, and enriched the classical curriculum, and 
when the school moved to its present site in 1025 inaugurated a 
full country day program. He has built up a faculty unusual in 
its breadth of experience. Five were born in foreign lands, 
otters have studied and traveled abroad. For its first fifty years 
the school sent its graduates on to Harvard. After Yale came 

n a Q 


Conn. NEW ENGLAND 339 

into existence it naturally prepared chiefly for that institution 
and more than fourteen hundred of its students have graduated 
from that college. From 1705 to iq2i every president of Yale 
was associated with Hopkins either as graduate, rector, or 
trustee. See page 949. 

LARSON JUNIOR COLLEGE, 1450 Whitney Ave. Girls Ages 
1 6- Est 1911. 

George V. Larson, President; Mrs. Olga K. Larson, Dean. 
Enr: Bdg 60, Day 100. Fac: 20. Tui: Bdg $900-1100, Day $250- 
400. Courses 1-2 yrs: Liberal Arts Secretarial Medical Secre- 
tarial Homemaking Social Service Journalism Pre-Nursing 
Library Science Fashion Design and Merchandising Advertis- 
ing Music Art Dramatic Art. Proprietary. Scholarships 10, 
value $2500. Undenominational. Alumni 1150. Member Am 
Assoc Jr Col. 

Originally a secretarial school for day students only, a resi- 
dent department has been added and the curriculum broadened. 

NEW LONDON, CONN. Alt 45 ft. Pop 25,688 (1920) 29,794 
(1930). N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Route U.S. 1 from Providence. 

Three miles above the mouth of the Thames on terraces rising 
from the harbor, New London is an important naval and sub- 
marine base. The adjoining shore resorts make it a vacation 
center, and in summer the beautiful harbor is filled with yachts. 
Here are held the annual Yale-Harvard races. The Connecticut 
College for Women occupies an elevated tract on the northern 
limits of the town. The grounds of Admiral Billard Academy 
skirt the harbor. 

ADMIRAL BILLARD ACADEMY Boys Ages 12-20 Est 1936. 

Lieut. Palmer A. Niles, U.S.C.G. Ret., Supt; Albert W. But- 
terfield, B.S., U S Naval Acad, A.M., Mich Univ, Acad Dir. 
Enr: Bdg 70, Day 4. Fac: 9. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day S .Courses 
6 yrs: Grades VII- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 
1937. Advisory Board 18. Scholarships 7, value $2800. Unde- 
nominational. Entered Col '37, 5. Accredited by Military, 
Naval and Coast Guard Acad. 

Lieut. Niles, after teaching at Farragut Academy, opened his 
own school with special features that appeal to the boy who 
loves the sea. The personality of the head master and his wife 
made the school almost immediately a success. Students are 
adequately equipped for college and the government naval 
academies. See page 949. 

BULKELEY SCHOOL Boys Ages 14-18 Est 1873- 
Homer K. Underwood, M.A., Yale, Head Master. 
Enr: Dav 650. Fac: 25. Tui: $160. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 

340 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

1-4 Col Prep Commercial. Incorporated. Trustees 5. Schol- 
arships, value $1000. C B candidates '37, 5; '32~'36 35- 
Entered Col '36, 42; '3i-'35, 193. Alumni 1582. Approved by 
N Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Named for its founder, Leonard H. Bulkeley, this school has 
been directed by Mr. Underwood since 1921. 



Enr: Day 843. Fac: 41. Tui: $125. Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep 
High Sch 1-4 Business. Incorporated 1879 not for profit. 
Trustees 5 self perpetuating. Endowment $400,000. Income 
from invested funds ca $12,000. Prizes 25, value $125. C E B 
candidates '37, 2; > 32- l 36 ) 12. Entered Col '37, 98; '32-' 36, ca 
1 60. Alumnae ca 2500. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Directed for forty-six years by Colin S. Buell until his death 
in iQ37, this school established by Mrs. Harriet Peck Williams 
is now under the acting headship of Madeleine Freeman, long 
in charge of the mathematics department. Although there is a 
large local patronage, out of town girls are enrolled for a nominal 
fee, and provision is made for those unable to pay. 

NEWMILFORD, CONN. Alt 233ft. Pop 4700 (1930). N.Y.N.H. 
&H.R.R. Motor Route 17 from Hartford. 

This riverside town in the valley of the Housatonic is in the 
center of a tobacco growing region. On a hill a mile from the 
station, the hundred thirty-five acre campus of Canterbury 
School looks out over the lowlands to the Berkshire foothills. 

CANTERBURY SCHOOL Boys Ages 11-18 Est 1915. 

Nelson Hume, Ph.D., Georgetown Univ, Head Master. 
Enr:Bdg95. Fac: 12. Tui: $1350-1500. Courses 6 yrs: Grades 
VII-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 7. 
Roman Catholic. C E B candidates '37, 28; *32-'36, 165. En- 
tered Col '37, 16; '32- f 36, 70. Alumni 224. Approved by N E 
Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Long holding high rank among the few Catholic schools that 
appeal to economically and socially upper class Catholic fam- 
ilies, Canterbury is conducted under the patronage of the Most 
Reverend Maurice F. McAuliffe, D.D., Bishop of Hartford. 
Prominent Catholic laymen serve on the board of trustees. Boys 
are adequately prepared for college and trained in the doctrines 
and practices of the church. Dr. Hume is treasurer of the cor- 
poration as well as head master of the school. See page 951. 

NORFOLK, CONN. Alt 1240ft. Pop 1280 (1935). U.S.G.S.R.R. 

In the midst of delightful scenery, this highest town in Con- 
necticut is a popular year round resort. At the end of the village 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 341 

green is a fountain of granite and bronze designed by Stanford 
White, the bronze by Saint-Gaudens. 

THE NORFOLK SCHOOL Boys Ages 14-20 Est 1937. 

Richard S. Leach, B.A., Yale, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg . Fac: 4. Tui: $1000. Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII 
High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Manual Arts. To be incorporated not 
for profit. Undenominational. 

Mr. Leach, former instructor at Morristown School, New 
Jersey, and his associates have here started a small school char- 
acterized by close individual attention and healthful country 
living. The boys share in the farm activities. See page 960. 

NORTH STONINGTON, CONN. Pop (twp) 1135 (1930). 
Route U.S. 1 from Providence, /?./., 17 from Pawcatuck. 

This old town is twelve miles from Norwich, near the Rhode 
Island line. 

WHEELER SCHOOL Coed, Day 12-18; Boys, Bdg 12-20. 

Edward V. Atwood, A.M., B.S., Boston Univ. Est 1889. 
Enr: 82. Fac: 8. Tui: Bdg $400, Day $75. Courses 4-5 yrs: 
High Sch 1-5 Col Prep Gen Commercial Agriculture. Incor- 
porated. Trustees 6. Partial Scholarships. C E B candidates 
*37 o *32-'36, 2. Entered Col '37, 5; '32-^36, 30. Accredited to 
Dartmouth and Col admitting by certif. 

Jennie Wheeler provided the endowment for this school which, 
coeducational in its day department, maintains residence facili- 
ties for boys. Standards have been raised and the curriculum 
broadened by Mr. Atwood, director since 1927. Small classes 
give practically the advantages of a tutorial system. 

NORWALK, CONN. Alt 39ft. Pop 27,743 (1920) 36,019 (1930). 

Still retaining a characteristically New England appearance, 
with many old Colonial homes and the two white meeting 
houses on its elm shaded green, Norwalk is a busy industrial city. 
Writers, artists, musicians and actors have peppered the out- 
skirts with bungalows, chalets, cottages and mansions. In Row- 
ayton, at the head of Five Mile river, is The Thomas School. 


Girls Ages 5-18 Est 1883. 
Margaret R. Brendlinger, A.B., Vassar, Principal; Vida Hunt 

Francis, A.B., Smith, Educational Director. 
Enr: Bdg 20, Day 75. Fac: 16. Tui: Bdg $950, Day $180-300. 
Courses 14 yrs: Post Grad i Col Prep High Sch 1-4 Grades. 
C E B candidates '37, 7; > 32-'36, 51. 

Opened in Darien by Mrs. Elizabeth Hyde Mead, Hillside 
was transferred in 1889 to Norwalk. 

342 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

THE STOREY SCHOOL, 24 Connecticut Ave. Coed 6-18. 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Storey, Mt Holyoke, Principal. Est 1907. 
Enr: Day 9. Fac: 2. Tui: $200. Courses u yrs: Grades I- VIII 
High Sch 1-3. Proprietary. 

Individual work in preparation for college characterizes this 
school. Summer tutoring is available. 

THE THOMAS SCHOOL, Rowayton P.O. Girls 4-18, Boys 
4-14 Est 1922. 

Mabel Thomas, A.B., Boston Univ, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 22, Co Day 100. Fac: 28. Tui: Bdg $1600, Day $250- 
350. Courses 14 yrs: Pre-Sch Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4. 
Proprietary. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 2; '32- 
'36, 21. Entered Col '35, 4. 

Miss Thomas, long associated with Winsor School and for- 
merly president of the Private School Association of Boston, 
was impelled in opening this school by her feeling that certain 
girls needed surroundings and educational programs fitted to 
their particular .needs. Now coeducational, the academic stand- 
ards are high. The school still maintains its air of informality 
and, with its emphasis on creative work in the arts, continues to 
appeal to the socially and intellectually discriminating. 

NORWICH, CONN. Alt 33ft. Pop 22,304 (1920) 23,021 (1930). 

This busy city, with many manufacturing plants and a few 
interesting survivals of Colonial days, is between the valleys 
of the Yantic and the Shetucket, which here unite to form the 
Thames. The residential streets radiate in terraces from the 
business section. 

Henry A. Tirrell, A.B., Wesleyan, A.M., Trinity, Principal; 

Charlotte Fuller Eastman, Director. 

Enr: Day 760. Fac: 16. Tui: $35. Courses 3 yrs. Incorporated 
not for profit. Scholarships. 

Affiliated with the Norwich Free Academy, of which Mr. 
Tirrell is also principal, this school gives professional training 
to advanced students, and some understanding of the arts to 
younger groups. Courses in fine arts are supplemented by work 
in pottery, jewelry, and metalry. Morning and afternoon ses- 
sions, Saturday classes for children, and free weekly classes open 
to the public, are held. A student guild is maintained to enable 
students to become self-supporting. Instruction is free for 
Academy students. 

THE NORWICH FREE ACADEMY Coed 14-18 Est 1856. 

Henry A. Tirrell, A.B., Wesleyan, A.M., Trinity, Principal. 

Enr: Day 2171. Fac: 89. Tui: $90-140. Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep 

High Sch 1-4 Commercial Gen. Incorporated 1854 not for 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 343 

profit. Trustees 9 self perpetuating. Endowment $1,042,000. 
Income from invested funds $27,000. Scholarships 10, value 
$1500. Prizes 35, value $700. C E B candidates '37, n ; > 32- > 36, 
53. Entered Col '37, 12; '32-^36, ca 250. Alumni ca 5791. Ap- 
proved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting 
by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Planned as early as 1846 and incorporated in 1854, this 
academy differs in type both from the academy and the high 
school, between which it is historically a connecting link. The 
movement to establish a free academy met with great opposi- 
tion, for many at this time opposed free education beyond the 
elementary schools. The orators of the day, including Daniel 
Webster, were enlisted, and the agitation which resulted did 
much to further the development of the high school system, but 
in Norwich no high school was established. Though amply en- 
dowed, the Free Academy makes a nominal charge to residents 
of the town and exacts a low fee from non-residents. The school 
was early influenced by the Putnam School of Ncwburyport, 
no longer existing. Mr. Tirrell has been principal since 1003. 

PLAINFIELD, CONN. Alt 177ft. Pop 2500 (1935). N.Y.N.H.& 

About sixteen miles northeast of Norwich, this manufacturing 
town was settled in 1689 by residents from Chelmsford, Mass. 
Its 'plains' were called Egypt by the surrounding settlement 
because of the great quantities of corn which were raised. The 
hundred acre farm of The Fireside is two miles from the center. 

THE FIRESIDE Coed Ages 3-18 Est 1936. 

Leonid V. Tulpa, A.B., Imperial Univ (Moscow), Ed.M., Har- 
vard; Mrs. Tulpa, Directors. 

Enr: Bdg 7, Day 2. Fac: 5. Tui: Bdg Siooo, Day variable. 
Courses 14 yrs: Pre-Sch Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col 
Prep. Proprietary. Scholarships 4, value $2000. 

Mr. Tulpa, a Russian, Mrs. Tulpa, Swedish, after teaching 
in various New England private schools, opened this small pro- 
gressive group in South Woodstock. In 10.37 they moved to the 
present site where they offer boys and girls a free, natural life 
with much emphasis on the activities of the school farm. 

POMFRET, CONN. Alt 389ft. Pop 1454 (1920) 1617 (1930). 

Surrounded by rolling hills, this pleasant old town is rich 
in memories of Israel Putnam. Pomfret School faces the green 
across from the old Ben Grosvenor Inn. The hundred forty acre 
estate of Rectory School is on Pomfret Street. 

POMFRET SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1894. 

Halleck Lefferts, Ph.B., Yale, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 126. Fac: 18. Tui: $1450. Courses 5 yrs: Col Prep 

344 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

High Sch 1-4 Grade VIII. Incorporated. Trustees 18. Prizes 
45. Episcopal. C B candidates '37, 32; *32-'36, 282. Entered 
Col '37, 19; '32-*36, 120. Alumni 880. Approved by N E Col 
Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

There is a warmth and sincerity about this church school 
brought to it by Mr. Lefferts, head master since 1929, though 
something of the old sanctimonious atmosphere still lingers in 
the chinks and crevices. It was founded by one of the great 
school masters, William E. Peck, who left St. Mark's to come 
here to more fully carry out his ideals. He was succeeded by 
William Beach Olmsted who enlisted the interest of people of 
wealth and gave the school social standing. Mr. Lefferts, edu- 
cated at Taft and Yale, came to Pomfret from the Thacher 
School in California. His appealing smile and something reminis- 
cent of the great open spaces immediately won patrons and 
students. He has broadened and liberalized the school and en- 
courages independent thinking among his boys. See page 958. 

RECTORY SCHOOL Boys Ages 5-14 Est 1920. 

John Brittain Bigelow, A.B., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 52, Day 8. Fac: 14. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $400. 
Courses 10 yrs: Kindergarten Grades I-IX. Episcopal. Schol- 
arships 6, value $800. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 
self perpetuating. 

Founded by Rev. F. H. Bigelow, whose pervading kindliness 
combined with the untiring energy of Mrs. Bigelow immediately 
attracted students, Rectory is a well ordered school with much 
outdoor life and good preparation for the large secondary 
schools. On Father Bigelow's death in 1937 his son, who had 
been assistant head from 1035, was made head master, and his 
daughter, Elizabeth Bigelow Abbott, M.A., Columbia, educa- 
tional director. Increased enrollment has necessitated plans for 
new buildings. See page 952. 

REDDING RIDGE, CONN. Pop 245 (1930). 

This town is about ten miles south of Danbury. Redding 
Ridge School occupies the old Sanford School buildings. 

REDDING RIDGE SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-19 Est 1937. 

Kenneth Bonner, Litt.B., Princeton, LL.B., Harvard, Head. 
Enr: Bdg . Fac: 5. Tui: $1200. Courses 5 yrs: Col Prep. 
Incorporated not for profit. Undenominational. 

To carry out his idea of giving boys one main subject each 
year along with others which are naturally allied to it, Mr. 
Bonner opened this college preparatory school after many years 
on the staff of St. James School, Maryland. In 1938 boys will be 
admitted only to the second and third forms. See page 962. 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 345 

RIDGEFIELD, CONN. Alt 1000 ft. Pop 3580 (1930). Harlem 
Div., N.Y.C., N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 6 from 
Hartford, U.S. 7 from Danbury. 

In the foothills of the Berkshires, Ridgefield is surrounded 
by beautiful country dotted with residential estates. Near Lake 
Mamanasco, north of the village, Ridgefield School is almost on 
the New York state line. 
RIDGEFIELD SCHOOL Boys Ages 11-20 Est 1907. 

Eric A. Tucker, Acting Head Master. 

Enr : Bdg 40, Day 5. Fac: 8. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $350. Courses 
6yrs:ColPrep Grades VII-VIII High Sch 1-4. Incorporated 
191 1 not for profit. Trustees 15 self perpetuating. Undenomi- 
national. C E B candidates '37, 2 ; '32-'36, 29. Entered Col '33, 
2 ; *28- f 32, 48. Alumni 255. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Founded by the Rev. Roland Jessup Mulford, Ridgefield was 
directed by Theodore C. Jessup until 1934 and from that time 
until IQ37 by Philip M. Gray. 

ROXBURY, CONN. Alt 1200ft. Pop 553(1930). Motor Route 67. 

This small village is in the southern part of Litchfield County. 
Glenacres School is near the green. 

GLENACRES SCHOOL Boys Ages 10-16 Est 1933. 

Michael Martin, A.B., Columbia, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 13. Fac: 4. Tui: Siooo. Courses 6 yrs: Grades V-VIII 
High Sch 1-2 Col Prep Art Music Manual Arts. Incorporated 
not for profit. C E B candidates '37, 3. 

A small subpreparatory school, Glenacres holds to high intel- 
lectual standards. Mr. Martin, the head master, offers no 
apology for his insistence on manners and good form, lays down 
few rules. Classes are small, the program flexible. 

SALISBURY, CONN. Alt 685ft. Pop 2767 (1930). C.N.E.R.R. 
This old New England village is in the extreme northwestern 
section of the state where the Litchfield hills become the Berk- 
shires. The school stands conspicuously on a hill, commanding 
an extensive view. 

SALISBURY SCHOOL Boys Ages 13-19 Est 1001. 

Emerson B. Quaile, B.A., Yale, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 39. Fac: 7. Tui: $1500. Courses 5 yrs: Col Prep. 
Incorporated 1924 not for profit. Trustees 12 self perpetuating. 
Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, 7; '32-' 36, 78. Entered Col 
*37 10 ; '32-*36, 48. Alumni 350. Approved by N E Certif Bd. 

Since 1935 this school established by the Rev. George E. 
Quaile has been in charge of his son whose outlook had been 
broadened by some years as teacher of Latin and athletic coach 
at the neighboring Hotchkiss School. Salisbury has long been 

346 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

patronized by socially prominent families from metropolitan 
centers whose boys need the careful personal attention possible 
in a small group. 

SIMSBVRY, CONN. Alt 164ft. Pop 3625 (1930). 

On the Farmington river fourteen miles from Hartford, Sims- 
bury is an attractive old New England village. The Westminster 
School, originally in Dobbs Ferry, has since IQOO occupied a site 
on Williams Hill north of the village overlooking the Farmington 
Valley. The Ethel Walker School occupies the six hundred acre 
Stuart Dodge estate, two miles south of the village. 

ETHEL WALKER SCHOOL Girls Ages 13-18 Est 19x1. 

Mrs. Ethel Walker Smith, A.M., Bryn Mawr, Head of Sch; 

Mrs. Elliott Speer, Head Mistress. 

Enr: Bdg 160. Fac: 20. Tui: $1800. Courses 5 yrs: Col Prep. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 80; '32-'36, 644. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Miss Walker conducted her school for seven years in Lake- 
wood, New Jersey, where she won the patronage of New York 
families of wealth and power. In 1917 she moved the school to 
Simsbury and remained in direct charge until her marriage in 
iQ2i to Dr. Terry Smith. She has since controlled the school 
through her resident head, in iqjS appointing to succeed Jessie 
G. Hewitt, Mrs. Speer, widow of the former head master of 
Mount Hermon School, daughter of Dr. Henry Hunter Welles 
of the Presbyterian Board of National Missions in New York, 
and mother of three children. The school has for years main- 
tained high standards of college preparatory work and offers 
advanced courses in languages, music and art. Much is made of 
outdoor life, but the pride of the school is its stable of half a 
hundred horses. The girls, as carefully cared for as are the horses, 
have their own characteristic customs and terminology. Under 
a student president and board of prefects an elaborate system of 
committee work and student government anticipates the politics 
of Junior League life. Replacing the houses destroyed by incen- 
diary fires in iQ33, a new luxuriously equipped brick building 
brings everything from gymnasium to classroom under one roof, 
except the dormitory for younger girls and the huge riding ring. 

WESTMINSTER SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-20 Est 1888. 

Arthur Milliken, B.A., Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 104. Fac: 14. Tui: $1450. Courses 5 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Col Prep. Grade VIII. Incorporated not for profit. Trus- 
tees 12. Scholarships limited. Undenominational. C E B can- 
didates '37, 28; l 32-36, 216. Entered Col '37, 18; 9 32^36, 118. 
Alumni 800. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited 
to Col admitting by certif . 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 347 

Since Mr. Milliken was brought from Brooks School by the 
trustees in 1936, Westminster has developed along new lines. 
Founded by William Lee Gushing, the inspiration of the school 
lay in the ancient Uppingham School, established 1584, in Rut- 
land, England. Westminster graduates have entered Harvard, 
Williams, Cornell and other colleges, though the Yale influence 
has naturally predominated. On Mr. Cushing's retirement in 
1 020 the head mastership was assumed by L. G. Pettee, still 
a member of the faculty, who in turn was succeeded by Ray- 
mond Richards McOrmond, head master until ig^6. See p. 963. 

STAMFORD, CONN. Alt 100ft. Pop 46,346 (1930). 

Stamford is an important industrial center and has for many 
years attracted New York business men, whose homes line the 
shores. At the end of Shippan Point are the buildings of Low- 
Heywood School. On the opposite promontory, Southfield 
Point, Gray Court overlooks the ocean. The King School is just 
north of the business section. Daycroft is on Blachley Road. 

DAYCROFT Coed Ages Bdg 6-18, Day 2-18 Est 1928. 

Mrs. Sara Smart, Directress. 

Enr: Bdg 17, Day 56. Fac: 13. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $150-400. 
Courses 12 yrs: Pre-Sch Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High 
Sch 1-2 Col Prep. Proprietary. Scholarships, value $500. 
Christian Science. 

Founded for the children of Christian Scientists, Daycroft 
in the fall of 1938 will offer four years of high school work. 

GRAY COURT Girls Ages 6-20 Est 1920. 

Jessie Callam Gray, B.A., Princ; Bernice T. Porter, Asst. 
Enr: Bdg 40, Day 35. Fac: n. Tui: Bdg $1000-1200, Day $200. 
Courses 13 yrs: Grades I-VTII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music 
Secretarial Grad. Proprietary. Undenominational. C E B can- 
didates '37, i; '32-'36, i- 

Opened as Southfield Point Hall, this school has been under 
the direction of Miss Gray and Miss Porter since 10,21. The life 
of the school is far from institutional. 

KING SCHOOL Boys Ages 6-18 Est 1876. 

V. A. Dwelle, Litt.B., Princeton, Head Master. 
Enr: Co Day 100. Fac: 12. Tui: $200-400. Courses 12 yrs: 
Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1913. 
Trustees 7. C E B candidates '37, 3; f 32-'36, 34. Entered Col 
'36, 8; '3i-'35, 40. Alumni 600. Approved by N E Col Ent Certif 
Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

This leading day school for boys of Stamford, long conducted 
by H. Mason Brent, came under the present head in 1932. 

348 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

THE LOW-HEYWOOD SCHOOL Girls 6-18 Est 1865. 

Mary Rogers Roper, A.B., Barnard, Principal; Marjorie L. 

Tilley, Assoc Principal. 

Enr:Bdg65,Day75. Fac: 31. Tui: Bdg $1200-1400, Day $150- 
400. Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. 
Incorporated. Scholarships. Undenominational. C E B candi- 
dates '37, 24; *32-'36, 90. Entered Col '35, 9; > 3O- > 34, 58. 
Alumnae ca 1000. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Established by Mrs. C. E. Richardson, an Englishwoman of 
wide educational experience, this was modeled after the best 
of the English private schools for girls. Louisa Low and her 
niece, Edith Hey wood, took charge in 1883, and continued so 
far as practicable the policies and ideals of the founder. Under 
Miss Roper, long co-principal, and since Miss Hey wood's death 
in 1027, head mistress, the school has continued to stand for 
thorough scholarship and all round development of its pupils. 
In Miss Tilley, a capable executive, the English tradition has 
been continued. Resident pupils come from all over the country. 
The day department here and in the New Canaan group has the 
patronage of the leading families. See page 1012. 


W. Jerold O'Neil, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg . Fac: . Tui: $2100. Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- 
VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Undenominational. C E B candi- 
dates '37, 2;'32-'36, 2. 

Mr. O'Neil, a public school principal, takes into his home a 
few boys who need individual help in preparing for college. 

SUFFIELD, CONN. Alt 124ft. Pop 4070 (1920) 4346 (1930). 

Originally called Stony River, this town became South field, 
and finally Suffield in 1674. Typically New England in appear- 
ance, the town's chief interest has long been tobacco growing. 
Near the Kent Memorial Library is Suffield Academy. 

SUFFIELD ACADEMY Boys Ages 0-19 Est 1833. 

Rev. Brownell Gage, Ph.D., Yale, B.D., Union Theol Sem. 
Enr: Bdg 100, Day 12. Fac: 20. Tui: Bdg $900-1000, Day $250. 
Courses 9 yrs: Grades IV- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Busi- 
ness Admin. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 33 self per- 
petuating. Endowment $270,000. Income from invested funds 
$9246. Scholarships, value $18,450. Prizes 12, value $100. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 9; *32-'36, 63. En- 
tered Col '35, 24; > 30- > 34, 93- Alumni ca 2000. Approved by 
N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Founded as the Connecticut Literary Institution over a cen- 
tury ago and known as Suffield School for many years, the desig- 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 349 

nation "Academy" was given in 1937. The school functions as 
the town senior high school. Dr. Gage, who came to Suffield in 
1924 after many years in charge of the College of Yale in China, 
has given the school its present characteristic closer contact be- 
tween boys and faculty than is usual. Broad cultural courses, 
and opportunities for practical business training for the non- 
college boy are available, as well as adequate college preparation. 
See page 954- 

THOMPSON, CONN. Alt 428ft. Pop 4999 (1930). N.Y.N.H.& 
H.R.R. Route U.S. 6 from Providence, 12 from Danielson. 

The triangular common planted years ago v\ itli beautiful trees 
is in the center of this hill village. 

MAROT JUNIOR COLLEGE Girls Ages Jr Col 17-22, Prep 
Dept 15-17 Est 1905. 

Mary Louise Marot, B.S., Chicago Univ, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 50. Fac: 13. Tui: $1000. Courses 4 yrs: History and 
Economics Science Languages Social Service Home Eco- 
nomics Music Art Secretarial. Incorporated. C E B candi- 
dates '37, o; '32-'s6, 7. Member Am Assoc Jr Col. 

An outgrowth of Howe-Marot School, this was long an inti- 
mate school revolving around the personality of Miss Marot and 
various members of her family, most of whom have now passed. 
The work is of high standard. See page 1056. 

WALLINGFORD, CONN. Alt 76 ft. Pop 9648 (1920) 11,170 

(1930). Motor Route U.S. 5 from New Haven. 
Known for its Revolutionary houses, its peach orchards, and 
its manufacture of silver, Wallingford dates from 1670. On the 
edge of the rolling country to the east is The Choate School, 
named for its founder, Judge William Gardner Choate, long a 
resident of the town. 

THE CHOATE SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1896, 
Rev. George C. St. John, A.B., A.M., LL.D., Harvard, Head 


Enr: Bdg 480, Day 20. Fac: 60. Tui: Bdg $1600. Courses 6 yrs: 
Grades VII-VHI High Sen 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 1908. 
Trustees 5. Scholarships 25, value $20,000. Prizes 25. Unde- 
nominational. C E B candidates '37, 168; '32-'a6, 1176. En- 
tered Col '37, 113; *32-'36, ca 520. Alumni 2000. Approved by 
N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

One of the most prosperous and successful of the younger New 
England preparatory schools, since its establishment this has 
been dominated by the atmosphere and ideals of the best New 
England homes. The Choate School has come into its fuller life 

350 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

during the able administration of Dr. St. John, head master 
since iqo8, whose enthusiasm, good judgment, ready sympathy, 
and discrimination have been ably supplemented by Mrs. St. 
John's personal interest in maintaining the friendly, intimate 
atmosphere that characterized the school in its earlier days. 
Although nearly all the courses of study are planned with college 
entrance in view, no rigid adherence to forms is insisted on and 
the student may take subjects chosen from different forms to 
suit his own needs. Interest in the individual boy and the pur- 
pose to give him what he as an individual needs is the ideal that 
Dr. St. John holds up to his unusual corps of masters. The flexi- 
ble system of forms; separate divisions for honor students; spe- 
cial opportunities in art, music and literature; orthopedic and 
physical examinations with an individual corrective and athletic 
program for each boy; and a close personal relationship with the 
boy's family help to accomplish this ideal. See page 956. 

THE PUTNAM SCHOOL, 490 North Main St. Coed 4-15. 

Mrs. Mabel Putnam Morgan, New Britain Normal, Yale Sch 
Ed; Miss Hazel M. Fowler, A.B., Brown, Princ. Est 1922. 
Enr: Day 50. Fac: 10. Tui: $135-350. Courses n yrs: Sub- 
Primary Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-2. Scholarships 3. 

Started in 1017 by Mrs. Morgan to provide for the families 
of masters at Choate, Putnam School has devHoned i ito a pro- 
gressive day school with a colorful life and special opportunities 
in shop work and music. 

WASHINGTON, CONN. Alt 740 ft. Pop 1775 (1930). Motor 

Route U.S. 6 from Hartford, 154 from N. Woodbury. 
The first place named after 'The Father of his Country', this 
has long been a favored residence for artists. Gunnery and 
Wykeham Rise Schools are not far from the village green. Rom- 
ford School is on the outskirts. 

THE GUNNERY SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-20 Est 1850. 

Rev. Tertius van Dyke, A.B., Princeton, M.A., Oxford, B.D., 

Union Theol Sem, Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 60, Day 14. Fac: n. Tui: Bdg $1100-1300, Day $275. 
Courses 6 yrs: Grades VII- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incor- 
porated not for profit. Scholarships, value $6000. Prize i. Un- 
denominational. C E B candidates '37, 29; '32-^36, 258. Entered 
Col '37, 22; '32-*36, 80. Alumni 825. Approved by N E Col Ent 
Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

An historic school, Gunnery was founded by the abolitionist, 
Frederick W. Gunn, and his wife, Abigail Brinsmade. John C. 
Brinsmade, a nephew,head master from 1881 to 1922, carried on. 
He was followed by Hamilton Gibson, son of the famous author 
and naturalist, long senior master at Berkshire School. Mr. Gib- 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 351 

son rejuvenated the school physically while maintaining the old 
individualism and holding that "luxury, waste, and soft living 
are contrary to the spirit of the school." In 1936 he went into 
retirement, turning the school over to his brother-in-law, son of 
Princeton's Henry van Dyke, and for years pastor of Washing- 
ton's Congregational Church. Mr. and Mrs. van Dyke bring to 
Gunnery earnest enthusiasm for their boys and the opportun- 
ities the school offers them. See page 961. 
THE ROMFORD SCHOOL Boys Ages 11-19 Est 1930. 

Harpld L. Cruikshank, Head Master; Paul L. Cornell, Pres. 
Enr: Bdg 38, Day 12. Fac: 7. Tui: Bdg $1300, Day $275. 
Courses 6 yrs: Grades VII- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Art 
Music Languages. Incorporated. Scholarships, value $2600. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 12; *32-'35, 52. En- 
tered Col '37, ii ; *32-'36, 33. Alumni 61. Approved by N E Col 
Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

The present head master of Taft opened this small school after 
some years as a master at the neighboring Gunnery School. 
When he left for wider fields in 1036, he sold the school to Mr. 
Cornell, whose success as an advertising expert had enabled him, 
still youthful and vigorous, to devote most of his time to the 
school. With a brother of the founder as head master, Mr. Cor- 
nell plays an active part as teacher, coach, and president of 
the school. See page 960. 
WYKEHAM RISE Girls Ages 12-20 Est 1902. 

Fanny E. Davies, LL.A., St. Andrew's, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Bdg 60. Fac: 16. Tui: $1200-1450. Courses 6 yrs: Grades 
VII- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music Art. Incorporated not 
for profit. Scholarships. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
'37, ii ; *32-'36, 68. Entered Col '37, 14; > 32-36, 54. Accredited 
to Col admitting by certif. Member N E Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

An atmosphere of distinction characterizes the school which 
Miss Davies, of English birth and training, founded and has 
long maintained. The girls, who come largely from well-to-do 
families of the more conservative type, are adequately prepared 
for college and for further work in art and music. See page 1013. 
WATERBURY, CONN. Alt 260ft. Pop 99,902 (1930). 

The village of Mattatuck, from which Waterbury grew, ante- 
dated the Revolution by nearly a century. In the deep narrow 
valley of the Naugatuck, the modern city is an important center 
of the brass industries. Wealthy manufacturers have long sup- 
ported the private schools and have for many years brought 
musicians and lecturers to the city. In a region of homes to the 
northwest is McTernan School. Saint Margaret's, long in an 
older residential section near the center of the city, moved to a 
country site on the outskirts in the fall of 1928. 

352 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

McTERNAN SCHOOL Boys Ages 6-14 Est 1912. 

C. C. McTernan, B.S., Amherst, Principal. 
Bnr:Bdgi2,Day33. Fac:s. Tui: Bdg $900, Day $400. Courses 
9 yrs: Grades I-VIII High Sch i. Proprietary. Episcopal. 

Mr. McTernan, with an affiliated summer camp at Saybrook, 
offers year round care to his boys. 

SAINT MARGARET'S SCHOOL Girls Ages Bdg 12-18, Day 
5- 1 8 Est 1865. 

Alberta C. Edell, A.B., Barnard, A.M., Columbia, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 80, Day 125. Fac:a6. Tui: Bdg $1350, Day $200-330. 
Courses 13 yrs: Bdg, Grades VII- VIII High Sch 1-4; Day, 
Kindergarten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Secre- 
tarial Music Art. Incorporated 1875 not for profit. Trustees 
ii self perpetuating. Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, 22; '32- 
'36, 83. Entered Col '37, 16; f 32-*36, 75. Alumnae ca 1025. Ap- 
proved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col and 
Secondary Sch. 

Saint Margaret's had its beginnings in the Collegiate Insti- 
tute for Young Ladies, founded in 1865. It was incorporated as 
a church school ten years later, and from the first has attracted 
a discriminating clientele. The spirit of the school today is in 
large part due to Miss Edell, whose modest but pervasive per- 
sonality is particularly attractive to the conservative patrons. 
Emphasis is laid on preparation for the leading colleges to which 
the school sends about half its graduates. But to the girls prepar- 
ing for college as well as those taking the broad general course, 
much extra curricular work is available in drama, art, and 
especially music. See page 1010. 

WATERTO WN, CONN. Alt 484ft. Pop 6050(1920) 8192(1930). 

N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 6 from Hartford. 
This once secluded village, six miles from Waterbury, is now 
on a main highway. Its importance is largely due to The Taft 
School whose two million dollar plant was designed and equipped 
by the architect of Yale's Harkness Memorial quadrangle. 

THE TAFT SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1890. 

Paul F. Cruikshank, A.B., Yale, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 320, Day 30. Fac: 35. Tui: Bdg $1450, Day $400. 
Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep Col Scientific High Sch 1-4. Incorpo- 
rated 1926 not for profit. Trustees 15. Endowment $500,000. 
Scholarships. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 101; 
'32-'36, 668. Entered Col '37, 86; *32-'36, 374. Alumni ca 2400. 
Approved by N E Col Ent Certif Bd. Member N E Assoc Col 
and Secondary Sch. 

Forty-six years of his life were given by Horace Button Taft 
to the creation and maintenance of this school. He began life as 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 353 

a lawyer like his two brothers, one of whom became president 
and chief justice. But teaching drew him in 1887 first to Yale 
as a tutor in Latin, then, three years later, to his own school. He 
was a great head master, a tremendous worker, and inspired his 
boys to work, stamping his personality upon the school. Under 
him the only salvation was through hard work. But he won con- 
fidence by his geniality and large-heartedness, and comradeship 
in the classroom and on the playground. Having endowed the 
school with high ideals of work and scholarship, Mr. Taft gave it 
unconditionally to a self perpetuating board of trustees and 
retired in 1936, though he remains chairman of the board. Mr. 
Cruikshank after teaching at Hopkins Grammar and at Gunnery 
Schools, had in the previous six years built his own neighboring 
Romford School which his brother now directs. Big in mind and 
body, reserved, he makes an equally strong appeal to alumni 
and his boys, inspiring confidence, and is likely to go far. He 
inherited a great school with a beautiful plant not wholly paid 
for. About half the boys are from Connecticut and New York, 
and many from the middle west. The course of study, not as 
broad as in some schools of similar type, is intensive and pre- 
pares thoroughly for all colleges, though nearby Yale casts its 
shadow. See page 957. 

WESTPORT, CONN. Alt 26ft. Pop 5114 (1920) 6073 (1930). 
Motor Route U.S. 1 from New Haven. 

An oldtime town with an air of quiet leisure, Westport has 
long lured artists and craftsmen. 

MRS. BOLTON'S SCHOOL Girls Bdg 7-18, Boys Day 8-12. 

Mrs. Mary Bolton, Principal; Miss Kathleen Laycock, Inter 

B.A., London Univ, Assistant Principal. Est 1925. 
Enr: Bdg 15, Co Day 45. Fac: 8. Tui: Bdg $900-1200, Day 
$300-480. Courses 13 yrs: Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High 
Sen 1-4 Col Prep Expression Dramatics Dancing. Undenom- 
inational. C B candidates '37, i; '32-'36, 6. 

This small school for girls is under the personal direction of 
Mrs. Bolton and her sister, Miss Laycock, English women. It 
has twice moved to larger quarters. 


George P. Weddle; Mrs. Weddle, Directors. 
Enr: Bdg 12, Day 20. Fac: 3. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $400. Courses 
7 yrs: Grades II- VIII. Proprietary. Episcopal. 

An offshoot of Camp Saugatuck which the directors con- 
ducted for fourteen years, this school spends the fall and spring 
terms here, transferring to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, for the 
winter months. 

354 NEW ENGLAND Conn. 

WINDSOR, CONN. Alt 61ft. Pop 5620 (1920) 8290(1930). N.Y. 

N.H.&H.R.R. Motor Route 110 from Hartford. 
On the terraces along the Farmington river, Windsor has one 
long street. In the meadows round about, Sumatra tobacco is 
grown. The Colonial buildings of Loomis Institute stand out 
conspicuously. Chaffee, the girls department of the Institute, 
is across the river. 

THE LOOMIS SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-20 Est 1914. 

N. H. Batchelder, A.B., A.M., Harvard, Head Master. 
Ear: Bdg 214, Day 116. Fac: 32. Tui: Bdg $900, Day Free. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Scientific Business. 
Incorporated 1874 not for profit. Trustees 10 self perpetuating. 
Endowment $2,500,000. Income from invested funds $77,000. 
Scholarships 30, value $12,000. Undenominational. C E B can- 
didates '37, 56; '32-^36, 410 (including Chaffee). Entered Col 
'37, 84; *32-'36, 380. Alumni 1250. Approved by N E Col Ent 
Certif Bd. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Member N E 
Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

The school and the head master both celebrate their twenty- 
fifth anniversaries this year with the addition of a new social 
center and dormitory, completing the million dollar plant. In 
1874 five of the Loomis family drew up a charter and incorpo- 
rated this school on what had been since 1639 the Loomis home- 
stead. The broad charter provided for practical training for 
the girls and vocational and agricultural training for the boys 
of the neighborhood, with preference to members of the Loomis 
family and residents of Windsor, but no restrictions on subjects 
taught. By igi2 two millions had accumulated and the school 
opened in 1014. Mr. Batchelder, called from Hotchkiss as head 
master, has developed the school following the pattern of the 
best New England preparatory schools. Since 1027 the girls 
have occupied two houses across the river, named Chaffee in 
honor of the mother of the founders. The student body repre- 
sents a democratic cross section of society, with a generous pro- 
portion of sons of ministers, doctors, educators, and other pro- 
fessional men. About half the boys take the academic course. 
The other half are distributed between scientific and business 
courses. For boys who may be interested, agricultural training 
is available. Pupils share in the useful labor of the school, caring 
for their own rooms, the classrooms and the school grounds and 
athletic fields. The endowment makes possible a low rate of 
luition and there are a number of scholarships. The student 
council plans and supervises student activities, affording a meas- 
ure of self-government which cultivates a sense of responsibility. 
VI rs. Batchelder, who was Evelyn Longman, a sculptor of 
genius and renown, maintains her studio on the campus, not 

Conn. NEW ENGLAND 355 

without beneficial influence on the boys. There is about the 
school evidence of an awareness of things of beauty and things 
doing in the world. See page 954. 

WINSTED, CONN. Alt 724ft. Pop 7883 (1930). Motor Route 17. 

Winsted is in the hills, a borough in the town of Winchester. 

THE GILBERT SCHOOL Coed Ages 12-18 Est 1895. 

Henry S. Moseley, M.Ed., Harvard, Principal. 
Enr: Day 650. Fac: 27. Tui: $125. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 
1-4 Col Prep Scientific Normal Commercial Agricultural 
Mechanic Arts Household Arts. Incorporated. Trustees 16. 
Endowment $1,200,000. C E B candidates '37, 2; '32-^36, 33. 
Entered Col '37, 25; *32-'36, 72. Alumni 1817. Approved by 
N E Col Ent Certif Bd. 

Established by the bequest of the late William L. Gilbert, 
this private high school is free to boys and girls of the town. 
Mr. Moseley, former vice president, in 1937 succeeded Walter 
D. Hood, now emeritus. 

WOODSTOCK, CONN. Pop 1712 (1930). 

This small village is in the northeast corner of the state. 

ARKE, W. Woodstock P.O. Coed Ages 6-12 Est 1931. 

Clinton Taylor, A.B., Yale; Mrs. Taylor, Directors. 
Enr: Bdg 10. Fac: 4. Tui: $1200. Courses 9 yrs: Grades I- VIII 
High Sch i. Proprietary. Undenominational. 

From a group Mrs. Taylor formed in her home for her own 
children developed this country school. A woman of broad travel 
and wide interests, she fosters something of the old time large 
family atmosphere in which each member has a responsible part 
to play for his own good and that of the group. 

For other ( 'onnecliciit sihool* .w Supplementary Li^l^ 
Secondary, Elementary Hoarding, Day, 
Nursery, Charitable, Schools of A/w.s/r, Art, Expres- 
sion, l}u\ines$. Catholic Boarding, etc 


ALBANY, N.Y. Alt 30ft. Pop 113,344 (1920) 127,412 (1930). 

The city is dominated by the massive state capital building 
on Capitol Hill, beside which rises the pretentious State Edu- 
cation building. At the junction of the Hudson and Mohawk 
rivers, Albany was once a seat of the old time Dutch patroon 
aristocracy. Today it is an educational center with its New 
York State College for Teachers, Law School, Medical College, 
and College of Pharmacy directly in the city; while at Troy 
some six miles up the river are other important educational 
institutions. Of the three well known private schools in Albany, 
the Academy for Girls is still in the old downtown district. The 
million dollar building of the Academy for Boys in the New 
Scotland Avenue section has been occupied since 1931. On a 
high plateau north of the city, in Loudonville, St. Agnes is 
housed in a modern plant. 

THE ALBANY ACADEMY, Academy Rd. Boys 5-18 Est 1813. 

Islay F. McCormick, A.B., Bowdoin, Pd.D., N Y State Col, 

Sc.D., Union, Head Master. 

Enr: Co Day 400. Fac: 30. Tui: $100-420. Courses 13 yrs: 
Kindergarten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incor- 
porated not for profit. Trustees 14 self perpetuating, 3 alumni, 
i Fathers Assoc. Endowment $153,650. Income from invested 
funds $5650. Scholarships 46, value $10,670. Undenomina- 
tional. C E B candidates '37, 104; *32-'36, 545. Entered Col '37, 
24; *32-*36, 148. Alumni 1700-1800. Accredited by Middle 
States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

One of the oldest academies in the country, this is today a 
modern country day school preparing ninety-five per cent 
of its boys for college. The school has always served the old 
families of the city, but the heavy patroon hand has been lifted 
and today the school plant is on a par with those of the best 
country day schools. Dr. McCormick, a master since 1912, has 
fully maintained the standards impressed on the school by 
Henry P. Warren, who at his death in 1919 had been head 
master for over thirty years. A cadet battalion organized in 
1870 is still continued. 

ALBANY ACADEMY FOR GIRLS, 155 Washington Ave. Ages 

5-18 Est 1814. 

Margaret Trotter, A.B., Vassar, M.A., Columbia, Principal. 
Enr: Day 250. Fac: 29. Tui: $100-300. Courses 13 yrs: Kin- 
dergarten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 
1814 not for profit. Trustees 20 self perpetuating. Endowment 



$258,857. Income from invested funds $7200. Scholarships 20, 
value $3500. Prizes 10, value $225. C B candidates '37, 22; 
'aa-'a^ 85. Entered Col '37, 24; *32-'36, 85. Alumnae 1000. 
Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle 
States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Antedating the oldest Massachusetts school for women, 
Abbot Academy, by some fourteen years, the old Albany 
Female Academy today is modern in tone, though still occupy- 
ing buildings in the downtown section. Miss Trotter, principal 
since 1930, progressive in her educational thought, has won the 
enthusiastic support of her patrons. 

ALBANY BUSINESS COLLEGE, 126 Washington Ave. Coed 
Ages 18- Est 1857. 

Prentiss Carnell, A.B., Amherst, President. 
Enr: 550. Fac: 21. Tui: Day and Eve ca $200. Courses i and 
2 yrs: Business Administration Secretarial Science Account- 
ing. Partnership. Undenominational. Alumni 41,500. Mem- 
ber Nat Assoc Accredited Commercial Sch. 

Now offering business training in day, evening, and summer 
courses, this school was founded by Silas S. Packard. Dormitory 
accommodations are maintained. 

ST. AGNES SCHOOL Girls Bdg 10-18, Day 5-18 Est 1870. 

Blanche Pittman, B.A., Toronto Univ, M.A., Columbia, Princ. 
Enr: Bdg 30, Co Day 200. Fac: 32. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $300. 
Courses 13 yrs: Bdg, Grades IV- VIII High Sch 1-4; Day, Kin- 
dergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 
1875 not for profit. Trustees 15 self perpetuating. Endowment 
$50,000. Income from invested funds $3000. Scholarships 5, 
value $200-300. Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, 10; '3 2- J 36, 29. 
Entered Col '37, 9; *32-*36, 27. Alumnae 667. Accredited to Col 
admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and 
Secondary Sch. 

This is a thriving country day school with a boarding depart- 
ment. The college preparatory work is efficient; the physical 
and non-academic activities vigorous and stimulating. Founded 
by Bishop William Croswell Doane of Albany under the shadow 
of the Cathedral, the school long attracted daughters of con- 
servative families in the city. Three notable women devoted 
their lives to its upbuilding, Ellen W. Boyd, Catherine R. 
Seabury, and Matilda Gray. Miss Pittman, energetic and per- 
vasive, brought new vitality when she came to the school in 
1930. Under her vigorous administration academic standards 
have been maintained and the tone modernized. See page 1016. 

ARDSLEY, N.Y. Alt 400ft. Pop 730 (1920) 113S (1930). N.Y.C. 
R.R. Motor Route 6 A from New York City. 


Among the low Westchester hills twenty miles from New 
York City, Ardsley has many large and beautiful estates. 


Henriette . Henschel, A.B., Hunter Col, Principal; David 

Henschel, LL.B., N Y Univ, Director. 

Enr: Bdg 45. Fac: 10. Tui: $780 for 12 mos. Courses 9 yrs: 
Kindergarten Grades I- VIII. Proprietary. Undenominational. 
Alumni 65. 

For the first eight years Mr. and Mrs. Henschel conducted 
this school as a coeducational institution, but in 1929 reorgan- 
ized it for girls only. The patronage is largely Jewish. An 
affiliated boys school was opened in 1937 in Rye. 

BEDFORD, N.Y. Alt 200ft. N.Y.C.&H.R.R. 

Forty miles north of New York, this little town is a secluded 
region of country homes and large estates, part of the Tor- 
quams tract bought from the Indians in 1640 by Nathaniel 


E. Trudeau Thomas, Head Master. 

Enr: Co Day 152. Fac: 20. Tui: $180-550. Courses 10 yrs: 
Kindergarten Grades I-IX. Incorporated 1930 not for profit. 
Trustees 13 self perpetuating. Scholarships. 

Absorbing Newcastle School of Mt. Kisco in 1935, tnis 1S a 
local school for children of the neighboring estates. With Mr. 
Thomas, former assistant to Perry Dunlap Smith at Winnetka, 
is associated Henry W. Schereschewsky, previously head of 
Newcastle School. 

BRIARCLIFF MANOR, N.Y. Alt 400ft. Pop 1794. N.Y.C.R.R. to 
Pleasantville or Ossining. Motor Route 6 A from New York. 

Just off the Bronx River Parkway Extension, back from the 
river in the Pocantico Hills, Briarcliff Manor is thirty miles 
from New York. Three schools now occupy the old BriarclifT 
Hotel buildings and grounds, the junior college, formerly Mrs. 
Dow's School, the oldest of the three; Edgewood, a comparative 
new-comer; and the Academy. Bernarr Macfadden J s group is 
installed in the old Schwab mansion. 


Ages 2-10 Est 1937. 
Bernarr Macfadden, Director. 

Enr: Bdg . Fac: . Tui: $540 for 12 mos. Courses 6 yrs: 
Pre-Sch Grades I- V. 

This is another of the Macfadden enterprises. 


BRIARCLIFF ACADEMY Boys Ages Bdg 6-15, Day 4-15. 

John W. Wayland, Head Master. Est 1937. 
Enr: Bdg 11, Day 2. Fac: 3- Tui: Bdg $600, Day $175. Courses 
8 yrs: Grades I- VIII. Proprietary. Undenominational. 

This new school has accommodations for about fourteen resi- 
dent boys, whose tuition may be paid monthly. A summer camp 
is maintained. 


Doris Laura Flick, B.A., M.A., Vassar, President. 
Enr: Bdg 120. Fac: 43. Tui: $1600. Courses 2 yrs: Liberal 
Arts Music Art Home Economics Theater Arts Business. 
Incorporated 1933 under Regents of the State of New York. 
Trustees self perpetuating. Endowment $320,000. Scholar- 
ships, value $6000. Undenominational. Alumnae 129. 

Since 1935 Briarcliff has offered only junior college courses 
and for four years (1033-37) was a member of the American 
Association of Junior Colleges. It developed from Mrs. Dow's 
School, which, under Mrs. Edith Cooper Hartman from 1020 
to 1026 was one of the best known finishing schools in the 
country, offering interesting courses in music, art, and the 
theatre arts. Miss Flick, president since IQ2Q, was formerly 
recorder at Vassar. In addition to the regulation junior college 
courses there is opportunity for practical apprentice work and 
foreign study trips. 

EDGEWOOD PARK Girls Ages 17- Est 1936. 

Frederick H. Spaulding, A.M., Ed.D., President. 
Enr: 333. Fac. 40. Tui: Bdg $875- 1087, Day $250-350. Courses 
4 yrs: Col Prep 3-4 Liberal and Practical Arts Secretarial 
Medical Assistant Home Economics Social Service Speech 
Arts Costume Design Kindergarten Training Interior Decora- 
tion. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 2; '32-'36, 3. 

Retaining the name of the last hotel it occupied in Greenwich, 
Connecticut, for four years from 1932, this school has been 
forced by the stricter laws of New York to drop the title 
'junior college.' Matthew H. Reaser, who had previously 
operated through his daughters and sons-in-law such schools, 
now defunct, as Beechwood, Darlington, Ossining, is here 
represented by his daughters, Helen Reaser Temple as academic 
dean, and Harriet Reaser Sowell as social directress. 

BRONXVILLE, N.Y. Alt 109ft. Pop 3055 (1920) 6387 (1930). 

N.Y.C.R.R. Motor Route 22 from Mi. Vernon. 

Easily accessible from the city by the Bronx River Parkway, 

Bronxville's large estates have been supplanted near the center 

by numerous apartment houses. Its public school system 

was made widely known by former Superintendent Beatty. The 


Brantwood Hall houses are on a hillside near the center; the 
Country Day School in Lawrence Park West. Sarah Lawrence, 
now a standard four year college, opened here in 1928 in a sec- 
tion of elaborate estates. 

BRANTWOOD HALL Girls Ages Bdg 12-18, Day 2-18. 

Mary T. Maine, A.B., Wellesley, Principal. Est 1906. 
Enr: Bdg 35, Day 200. Fac: 20. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $175-400. 
Courses 13 yrs: Bdg, Grades VII- VIII High Sen 1-4; Day, Pre- 
Sch Kindergarten Grades I-VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep. 
Scholarships 2, value $700. C E B candidates '37, 2; *32-'36, 16. 
Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

Cast in the mold of New England schools of the nineties, 
Brantwood Hall is in sharp contrast to the modernity of the 
neighborhood. Under the close and very personal supervision of 
Miss Maine, the girls lead a quiet life with considerable latitude 
in the selection of courses, including college preparation. 


Est 1881. 
Rev. Arthur Doege, B.D., Concordia Theol Sem, M.A., 

Columbia Univ, President. 

Enr: Bdg 135, Day 5. Fac: 14. Tui: Bdg $350, Day $ . 
Courses 6 yrs: High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Jr Col 1-2 Languages. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 5. Lutheran. Entered 
Col '37, 1 8. Alumni 1000. 

Founded to train young men for the ministry, this Lutheran 
institution still stresses its six year, pre-theological course. 

Ages 6-18 Est 1930. 

George Collen, Cheltenham Col, England, Head Master. 
Enr: Day 30. Fac: 5. Tui: $250-600. Courses 13 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Languages. 

Most of Mr. Collen 's boys are prepared for the large eastern 
secondary schools, though work through high school is now 
provided. There are men teachers above the fourth grade. 

BUFFALO, N.Y. Alt 600ft. Pop 506,775 (1920) 573,076 (1930). 
The second largest city in the state, Buffalo is an important 
port at the entrance to the Erie Canal. Niagara Falls, twenty- 
one miles north, supplies electric power for many industrial 
plants, among them the largest flour mill and grain elevator in 
the world. The University of Buffalo, the Albright Art Gallery, 
together with the schools described here, and some huge Cath- 
olic schools, Mary Immaculate and Sacred Heart, are the prin- 
cipal educational institutions. In Snyder, a residential suburb 
seven miles northeast, is The Park School of Buffalo. 


THE BUFFALO SEMINARY, Bidwell Parkway. Girls 11-19. 

L. Gertrude Angell, B.A., Welle si ey, Principal. Est 1851. 
Enr: Day 191. Fac: 25. Tui:$4oo. Courses 5 yrs: High Sch 1-5 
Col Prep Gen. Incorporated 1851 not for profit. Trustees self 
perpetuating. Scholarship fund $20,000. C E B candidates '37, 
17; '32-'36, 103. Entered Col '37, 26; > 32- > 36, 161. Alumnae 
1408. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Accredited by 
Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This seminary has long prepared for college the daughters of 
leading Buffalo families. Under Miss Angell, principal since 
1904, the school not only maintains its scholastic standing but 
encourages participation in community activities. 

THE ELM WOOD SCHOOL, 213 Bryant St. Girls 2-14, Boys 
2-10 Est 1889. 

Charlotte K. Holbrook, Cornell, Principal. 
Enr: Day 215. Fac: 22. Tui: $150-475. Courses 9 yrs: Pre-Sch 
Grades I- VIII. Incorporated not for profit. 

Established by Jessica E. Beers and reorganized in 1014 under 
Miss Holbrook, this school, coeducational through the fifth 
grade, has long prepared its girls chiefly for Buffalo Seminary. 
Pre-school and kindergarten groups occupy a separate building. 
The equipment is adequate to provide for the creative activities 
which supplement the academic program. 

THE FRANKLIN SCHOOL, 146 Park St. Girls 4-18, Boys 4-10. 

Bertha A. Keyes, B.A., Smith, Head Mistress. Est 1893. 
Enr: Day 180. Fac: 21. Tui: $200-400. Courses 13 yrs: Kin- 
dergarten Grades I-XII Col Prep. Incorporated. C E B candi- 
dates '37, i; '32-'36, 3- 

Started as a cooperative school by a group of parents and 
bought some years later by John Joseph Albright, this is now 
primarily for girls. Its first principal was William Nichols who 
had established the Nichols School. Mi^s Reyes was made 
principal in charge under him, and on his death in TOOO was 
given complete control. Developed under her along conserva- 
tive lines, the school is now prosperous. Boys in the first five 
grades are prepared chiefly for NichoK 

NICHOLS SCHOOL, Amherst and Colvin Sts. Boys 10-18. 

Philip M. B. Boocock, A.B., Rutgers, Head Master. Est 1892. 
Enr: Co Day 221. Fac: 20. Tui: $500. Courses 8 yrs: Grades 
V-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees 21, 6 elected by alumni. Scholarships 15 half, 3 full, 
value $5250. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 17; '32- 
'36, 134. Entered Col '36, 19; *3i-'35, 141. Alumni 1315. Ac- 
credited to Col admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle 
States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 


This school, established by the late William Nichols of Boston, 
has always done efficient college preparatory work. It is now a 
country day school from which numerous alert and enthusiastic 
young instructors have during the last decade been chosen as 
executives for smaller schools. Mr. Boocock, a former master 
here and for three years from 1034 head of Rutgers Preparatory 
School, New Jersey, was elected head master in iQ}7, succeeding 
Henry G. Gilland" 

Ages 2-19 Est 191 1. 

M. Adolphus Cheek, Jr., A.B., M.A., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Co Day 183. Fac: 29. Tui: $100-400. Courses 16 yrs: Pre- 
Kindergarten Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col 
Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 15. Scholarships 16, value 
$6400. C E B candidates '37, 3; '32-^36, 6. Entered Col '37, 5; 
*23-*36, 75. Alumni 108. 

Park School was founded by Mary H. Lewis, who later estab- 
lished the Park School of Cleveland, and in its early years was 
considered quite radical. Leslie Leland, now of Toledo, gave im- 
petus to its growth. A succession of head masters followed her 
resignation in 1027. Mr. Cheek, formerly at Exeter, later at The 
Rivers School, Brookline, has stabilized the enrollment and 
organization since he took the head mastership in 1036. The 
summer day camp is directed by a faculty member, K. B. Webb. 

CARMEL, N.Y. Alt 519 ft. Pop 2299 (1920} 3434 (1930). N.Y.C. 
R.R. Motor Route U.S. 6 from Peekskitt. 

The scat of Putnam County, Carmel is on the Bear Mountain 
Highway about fifty miles north of New York City and half 
way between West Point and Danbury. A little apart from the 
village, the grounds of the girls school front on Lake Gleneida. 

DREW SEMINARY Girls Ages 10-26 Est 1849. 

Herbert E. Wright, D.D., Syracuse, President. 
Enr: Bdg 120, Day 6. Fac: 16. Tui: Bdg $800, Day $150-250. 
Courses 13 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Post 
Grad Art Music Secretarial. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees elected by Church. Scholarships 20, value $8000. 
Methodist Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, 3; *32-'36, 26. 
Entered Col '33, ; 'zy-^i, 72. Accredited to Col admitting by 
certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

This well known, moderately priced school is characterized 
by a simple, wholesome life, adequate college preparation, and 
an unusually comprehensive curriculum. Developed from the 
Raymond Collegiate Institute founded in Carmel, it was taken 
over in 1866 by the famed Daniel Drew and renamed for him. 
Dr. Wright, a clergyman, has been president since 1925. 


CAZENOVIA, N.Y. Alt 1246ft. Pop 1683 (1920) 1788 (1930). 

This attractive little town is in the lake region of central 
New York. The school is near the shores of Owahgena Lake, 
almost in the center of the village. 
THE CAZENOVIA SEMINARY Coed Ages 12- Est 1824. 

Harold W. Hebblethwaite, A.B., Syracuse, A.M., S.T.B., 

Boston Univ, President. 

Enr: Bdg 89, Day 15. Fac: 18. Tui: Bdg $650, Day $200. 
Courses 6 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Jr Col 1-2 Art Music 
Dramatics Secretarial. Incorporated 1825 not for profit. 
Trustees 21 elected by Church, alumni, and self perpetuating. 
Endowment $220,000. Income from invested funds $6147. 
Scholarships 50, value $49,728. Methodist Episcopal. C E B 
candidates '37, o; *32-36, 5. Entered Col '35, 16; *3<>-'34 160. 
Alumni 17,358. Accredited to Col admitting bycertif. Accredited 
by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sen. 

One of the most ancient of the continuously existing Meth- 
odist seminaries, this school still uses the chapel built as the 
Madison County Court House in 1811. Rev. Charles E. Hamil- 
ton, president from IQIS until his death in 1033, developed the 
college preparatory work and organized courses in arts and 
crafts, music and secretarial work. Two years of college work 
have been added to the curriculum under Mr. Hebblethwaite. 

COOPERSTOWN, N.Y. Alt 1200 ft. Pop 2909. D.&H.R.R. 
Motor Route U.S. 20 from Albany. 

Priding itself on an atmosphere somewhat more cosmopolitan 
than that of the neighboring communities, Cooperstown is in 
the Leatherstocking country about Lake Otsego, made famous 
by James Fenimore Cooper. In appearance not unlike a New 
England village, it is still favored by wealthy New Yorkers 
who continue to maintain here their ancestral homesteads. Four 
sons of Alfred Corning Clark, who made a fortune in the Singer 
Sewing Machines, have done much for the town. The great 
hospital was built by the late Edward S. ; Stephen built the large 
brick Georgian building on the lake, up to the summer of 1030 
the O-te-sa-ga Hotel, and in winter, since 1020, the home of The 
Knox School. The Beasley School is near the center. 

THE BEASLEY SCHOOL Boys Ages 8-15 Est 1928. 

Chauncey Haven Beasley, A.M., Principal 
Enr: Bdg 25, Day 7. Fac: 6. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $400. Courses 
10 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sen 1-2 Manual Arts. Proprietary. 

In preparation for the large secondary schools, Mr. and Mrs. 
Beasley give the little boys in their care a quiet and informal 
life. Much of the enrollment comes from New York City where 
Mr. Beasley once taught in the Buckley School. 


THE KNOX SCHOOL Girls Ages 11-20 Est 1905. 

Mrs. . Russell Bought on, A.B., Smith, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Bdg 130, Day 12. Fac: 35. Tui: Bdg $1650, Day $300. 
Courses 10 yrs: Jr High VI-IX High Sch 1-4 Advanced 1-2 
Art Music Expression Dramatics Interior Decoration Secre- 
tarial Homemaking. Incorporated 1912 not for profit, patrons 
own stock. Scholarships 10, value $400 each. Undenomina- 
tional. C E B candidates '37, 12; '32^36, 33. Entered Col '37, 
.17; '32-'36 f 87. Alumnae 1182. Accredited to Col admitting by 
certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

The late Mary Alice Knox opened this school in Briarcliff 
Manor. Under the direction of Mrs. Houghton since 1911, it was 
incorporated and moved to its present site in 1920. Here away 
from the distractions of the city Mrs. Houghton has had oppor- 
tunity to work out her educational ideals. Her forceful person- 
ality has enabled her to give her girls training in poise and to 
offer them a healthful outdoor life and interesting and well 
planned courses, preparing for future vocational work or college. 
The post graduate school provides a variety of academic and 
practical courses. The horsemanship of the girls and their winter 
carnival are widely known. See page 1015. 

CORNWALL, N.Y. Alt 282 ft. Pop 1755 (1920) 1910 (1930). 
N.Y.C.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 9 W from Alpine. 

Cornwall is at the northern end of the Storm King Highway, 
five miles west of West Point. The imposing buildings of New 
York Military Academy are on a three hundred and fifty acre 
campus on the outskirts. The school that takes its name from 
the Mountain is high on its slopes some miles northwest, adja- 
cent to Black Rock Forest. 

THE BRADEN SCHOOL Boys 15-21 Est 1883. 

H. Vincent Van Slyke, A.B., Allegheny, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 34, Day 2. Fac: 3. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $500. 
Courses: Preparation for West Point and Annapolis. Partner- 
ship. Undenominational. Alumni 2256. 

Preparation for the United States academies is stressed in this 
school which is also known as the National Preparatory Academy. 


Brig. Gen. Milton F. Davis, D.S.M., S.S., A.B., President; 

Capt. Frank A. Pattillo, D.S.C., P.H., Ph.B., Supt. 
Enr: Bdg 350. Fac: 42. Tui: $1100. Courses 9 yrs: Col Prep 
Scientific Commercial Graded IV-VIII. Incorporated. Trus- 
tees. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 14; *32-'36, 
47. Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 
Member Assoc Milit Col and Sch of U S. 

This large military school, drawing its cadets from all over 


the United States but largely from New York, was long under 
the superintendency of General Davis who has borne the title 
of president since 1936. The department for boys under fourteen 
is separately organized. 

Est 1925. 

Lieut-Col. H. G. Stanton, O.R.C., West Point, Executive. 
Enr:Bdg6o,Day 10. Fac: 5. Tui : Bdg $1100, Day $675. Courses 
1-3 yrs: Preparation for West Point and Annapolis. Proprietary. 
C E B candidates '37, i; *32-'36, i. 

Preparing exclusively for West Point and Annapolis, this 
academy has been under Colonel Stanton since 1925. 

THE STORM KING SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1867. 

Anson Barker, A.B., Amherst, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 44, Day . Fac: n. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $400. 
Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorpo- 
rated 1927 not for profit. Trustees 12 self perpetuating. Unde- 
nominational. C E B candidates '37, 5; > 32- > 36 l 112. Entered 
Col '37, 15; '32-^36, 60. Alumni 685. Accredited to Col admitting 
by certif. Member Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Accessible to the great centers, but secluded and at high alti- 
tude, this is the outgrowth of the Cornwall Heights School, 
founded by Dr. Louis P. Ledoux, and conducted from 1887 to 
1912 by Dr. Carlos H. Stone as The Stone School. Alvan E. 
Duerr succeeded him and in 1922 gave the school its present 
name. Five years later it was reorganized on a non-profit basis 
and turned over to a self perpetuating board of trustees. Mr. 
Barker, trained at Lawrenceville, head master since 1932, sees 
that his boys have individual attention and fosters a friendly 
atmosphere. See page 963. 

CROTON-ON-HVDSON, N.Y. Pop 2286 (1920) 2447 (1930). 
Steep wooded hills that hem in the village on the east and 
west have attracted artists, writers, and intellectuals who com- 
mute to the city. The scene of one of "Mad Anthony" Wayne's 
most daring coups, the village was a strategic point during the 
Revolutionary War. About a mile from the center, on a hill, is 
the school, its buildings of modern functional architecture. 

HESSIAN HILLS SCHOOL Coed Ages 2-15 Est 1925. 

Elizabeth Moos, A.B., Smith, Administrator. 
Enr: Bdg 55, Day 28. Fac: 22. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $275-400. 
Courses 10 yrs: Nursery Pre-Sch Grades I-IX. Incorporated 
not for profit. Trustees 13 elected by patrons. Scholarships. 

Science and the social studies are stressed in all groups in this 
cooperative, parent owned, experimental school which seeks to 

. 8 

s o </> 

J i| fl J ' 


impart some understanding of contemporary social forces. A 
summer session is held during July and August. 

DOBBS FERRY, N.Y. Alt 12ft. Pop 4401 (1920) 5741 (1930). 
N.Y.C.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 9 from Yonkers. 

Long a favorite place of residence for families of wealth, 
Dobbs Ferry also has some historic importance. The elementary 
school occupies part of the estate of The Masters School, along 
the Post Road. 

THE HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL Coed Ages 4-12 511924. 

Annie E. Warnock, Principal. 

Enr: Co Day 50. Fac: 8. Tui: $200-400. Courses 6 yrs: Pre- 
Sch Grades I-V. Scholarship i. 

This country day school has been under the supervision of 
Scarborough School since 1920. Miss Warnock has kept her 
budget balanced through the difficult years. 

THE MASTERS SCHOOL Girls Ages 14-18 Est 1877. 

Evelina Pierce, B.A., Vassar, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Bdg 203, Day 79. Fac: 35. Tui: Bdg $1800, Day $400. 
Courses 7 yrs: Bdg, Grade VIII High Sch 1-5; Day, Grades 
VII-VIII High Sch 1-5 Col Prep Gen. Incorporated 1915 not 
for profit. Trustees 20, 9 elected by alumnae and self perpetuat- 
ing. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 71 ; *32-'36, 361. 
Entered Col '37, 34; *32-*36, 147. Alumnae 3300. Accredited to 
Col admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col 
and Secondary Sch. , 

" Dobbs" has long been one of the schools most desired by 
New York families of social standing in certain restricted circles. 
Enrolling the majority of its girls through its alumna?, the school 
in recent years has opened its doors to girls from the middle 
stretches of the country. Eliza and Sarah Masters established 
their Female Seminary on the Post Road overlooking the river 
and conducted it for nearly half a century. Traces of their iqth 
century religious tone are still evident, but under Miss Pierce, 
a New Englander, who came from the Potomac School in 
Washington in 1020 a more liberal spirit prevails. And though 
the Bible still figures, interest in things political and economic, 
and in the arts, fine and domestic, is encouraged. There is 
greater freedom, physical and moral. More than half the girls 
go to college, many to Smith and Vassar, which credit the stiff 
Bible courses for entrance. 

GARRISON, N.Y. Pop 530 (1935). 
This village is on the Hudson, directly opposite West Point. 

MALCOLM GORDON SCHOOL Boys 8-14 Est 1928. 
Malcolm K. Gordon, Principal. 


Enr: Bdg 25. Fac: 4. Tui: $1400. Courses 8 yrs: Grades III- 
VIII High Sch 1-2. Proprietary. Episcopal. 

Mr. Gordon opened this school for young boys after many 
years at St. Paul's, Concord. The plant was donated by friends. 

GENEVA, N.Y. Alt 491ft. Pop 14,648 (1920) 16,053 (1930). 

With broad, tree-lined streets and many comfortable old 
homes, the town commands a view of Seneca, one of the largest 
of the beautiful Finger Lakes. Here is Hobart College, an Epis- 
copal institution. 

LOCHLAND SCHOOL Coed 2-12 Est 1933. 

Florence H. Stewart, B.S., Ed.M., Columbia, Harvard, Dir. 
Enr: Bdg 23. Fac: 7. Tui: variable. Courses 8 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I- VII. Undenominational. 

Miss Stewart, whose early experience was in such schools as 
Pine Manor and Chicago Latin for Girls, opened this school for 
retarded and maladjusted children as Bellwood Farms, changing 
to the present name in 1037. 

HARPURSVILLE, N.Y. Pop 300 (1935). 

In the south central part of the state, this little village is near 
Binghamton. The school occupies a farm house. 

EXPERIENTIAL GROUPS Girls Ages 17-22 Est 1931. 
Marion Coats Graves, A.B., Vassar, M.A., Radcliffe, Yale, 
Columbia, Chairman. 

Conducted for seven years in New York City where it occu- 
pied a floor in the American Woman's Association Clubhouse, 
these groups embodied Mrs. Graves' ideals and plans for the 
broader training of young women which were formulated during 
her years as head mistress of Ferry Hall and Bradford Academy, 
and as first president of Sarah Lawrence College. The practical 
education offered by farm life will be utilized by Mrs. Graves 
in the new home to which, with a few members of the group, she 
moved in 1938. 

HARRISON, N.Y. Alt 65ft. N.Y.N.H.&H.R.R. Route U.S. 1. 

Harrison is on the Sound between Mamaroneck and Rye, 
twenty-three miles from New York. Kohut School occupies an 
estate near the center. 

KOHUT SCHOOL FOR BOYS Ages 7-17 Est 1909. 

Harry J. Kugel, A.B., Yale, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 75. Fac:io. Tui: $900. Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII 
High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Proprietary. Undenominational. C E B 
candidates '37, 2; *32-'36, 4. Entered Col '37, 6; *32-'36, 
Alumni 35. 


This school for Jewish boys is an outgrowth of a long estab- 
lished city school reorganized in Riverdale by the late Dr. G. A. 
Kohut and Mr. Kugel, and transferred to its present site in 1920. 

HAWTHORNE, N.Y. Alt 257 ft. N.Y.C.R.R. Motor Route 6 A. 

Among the Westchester Hills near Tarry town, twenty-eight 
miles from New York, the quiet of this once secluded village is 
now broken by the steady hum of motors on the Bronx River 
Parkway Extension. The school grounds border the Parkway. 

THE HARVEY SCHOOL Boys Ages 9-15 Est 1916. 

Herbert S. Carter, 2nd, A.B., Princeton, A.M., Columbia. 
Enr: Bdg 80, Day 35. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $1400, Day $500. 
Courses 5 yrs: Grades IV- VIII Preparation for Secondary 
Schools. Proprietary. Advisory Board 10. Scholarships 5, 
value $5000. Undenominational. Alumni 394. 

This has become one of the foremost schools for the younger 
sons of wealthy New York families. The present head's father, 
a practicing physician, established it for boys who needed physi- 
cal care. Today the life of the school is vigorous. 

HIGHLAND, N.Y. Alt 10ft. W.S.R.R. Motor Route U.S. 9W. 

Opposite Poughkeepsie, on the west bank of the Hudson, 
Highland is in the foothills of the Catskills. The school is in an 
isolated section overlooking Chodikee Lake. 


Raymond Riordon, Pres; George O. Aykroyd, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 75. Fac: 12. Tui: $1200. Courses 10 yrs: Grades III- 
VIII Col Prep High Sch 1-4. Incorporated. Undenominational. 
C E B candidates '37, 2; *32-'36, 8. Ent Col '33, 8; *28- J 32, 45. 
Member Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Developing his school along the lines of his own ideas as to 
what the education of the modern boy should be, Mr. Riordon, 
from his association with the Interlaken School under Dr. Ed- 
ward A. Rumely, absorbed much of the spirit of the New 
Schools of the Continent which he has introduced into his own. 
Features that have been added from time to time include in- 
struction in roping, riding, toy making; ground and flight work 
in aviation; an Adirondack summer camp; Washington hotel 
life in the winter; and three months in Virginia, aboard one of 
the Norfolk- Washington fleet. 

HOOSICK, N.Y. Alt 458 ft. Pop 6858 (1920) 7026 (1930). 

About equidistant from the state lines of Massachusetts and 
Vermont, in the capital district of New York, the town of Hoo- 
sick is on the Hoosic river. The pleasant buildings of the Hoosac 
School set back from the road. 


THE HOO8AC SCHOOL Boys Ages 11-17 Est 1889. 

Rev. James L. Whitcomb, St. Stephen's, Gen Theol Sem. 
Enr: Bdg 35, Day 3. Fac: 6. Tui: Bdg $1000, Day $300. 
Courses 6 yrs: Grades VII- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incor- 
porated 1923 not for profit. Trustees 20 self perpetuating. 
Prizes 21. Episcopal. C E B candidates '37, 4; '32-^36, 14. 
Entered Col '36, 5; '3i-*35, 36. Alumni 468. 

Under Father Whitcomb the curriculum of this church school 
has been modernized but still retains much of the characteristic 
flavor. A monument to the life work of Dr. Edward D. Tibbits, 
rector until 1030, and his father, this was originally the local 
choir school of the parish. 

HOUGHTON, N.Y. Alt 1600ft. P.R.R. Motor Route 17 from 
Elmira, 62 from Belvidere. 

In a secluded section of the Genesee country, this little town 
is about fifteen miles from Portage Falls. 


Stephen W. Paine, A.M., Ph.D., President. 
Enr: Bdg 270, Day 175. Fac: 35. Tui: Bdg $250-450, Day $30- 
180. Courses 9 yrs: Grade VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Col 1-4 
Theol Music Expression. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 
17 elected by Church. Endowment $175,000. Income from in- 
vested funds $13,000. Wesleyan Methodist. Alumni noo. 

The late Dr. James S. Luckey long directed the policies of this 
school, established by the Wesleyan Methodists. Expenses have 
always been within reach of poor boys and girls. The prepara- 
tory department is now used as a practice school for prospective 
teachers training in the college. Dr. Paine, former dean, suc- 
ceeded to the presidency on Dr. Luckey 's death in 1037. 

HYDE PARK, N.Y. Alt 8ft. Pop 900 (1935). N.Y.C.&H.R.R.R. 

Surrounded by old Dutch patroon estates, including that of 
the Roosevelts, this is an attractive Hudson river village seven 
miles from Poughkeepsie. 

HILL AND HOLLOW FARM Coed Ages 4-7 Est 1933. 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Garrigue, Directors. 

Enr: Bdg 21. Fac: 8. Tui: $1200 for 12 mos. Courses 4 yrs: 
Pre-Sch Kindergarten Grades I-II. Proprietary. 

This school utilizes its country location to provide wholesome 
farm activities for its boys and girls. 

ITHACA, N.Y. Alt 814ft. Pop 17,004 (1920) 20,708 (1930). 

Extending up a steep hill, Ithaca is on the delta of the inlet 
of Cayuga Lake. 'Far above Cayuga's waters', lies the three 
thousand acre campus of the great university established by 
Ezra Cornell from personal gifts and the proceeds of the sale of 
lands received from the Merrill Land Grant. 



C. M. Doyle, A.B., Cornell, Head Master. Est 1925. 
Enr: Day 67. Fac: 8. Tui: $360. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 1-4 
Col Prep. Proprietary. C E B candidates '37, 2; f 32-*36, 4. 
Entered Col '36, 21; *32-'36, 136. 

The outgrowth of the old Cascadilla boarding school estab- 
lished in 1870, this is largely preparatory to Cornell. Winter and 
summer sessions offer high school work and tutoring in secondary 
and university subjects. 
KATONAH, N.Y. Alt 300ft. N.Y.C.R.R. Motor Route 22. 

On the Bronx River Parkway above White Plains, Katonah 
has secluded estates among which is Bailey Hall. 

BAILEY HALL Boys Ages 6-16 Est 1912. 

Rudolph 5. Fried, Director. 
Enr: Bdg 28. Fac: 5. Tui: $2400. Incorporated 1932. Trustees 5. 

This school for backward and maladjusted boys was estab- 
lished by Mr. Fried as Florence Nightingale School and was so 
known until IQ32. The winter is spent in Avon Park, Florida. 

LAKE MOHONK, N.Y. Alt 1300ft. N.Y.C.R.R. to Poughkeepsie. 
Here in the Shawangunk Mountains, the Smileys, famous 
hotel keepers and peace advocates, built an estate famous 
through three generations for its summer conferences. 

MOHONK SCHOOL Boys Ages 9-15 Est 1920. 

Donald E. Richardson, A.B., Dartmouth, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 12. Fac: 6. Tui: $800 incl. Courses 5 yrs: Grades 
V-IX. Proprietary. Undenominational. Alumni 203. 

Occupying a portion of the hotel property of the Smileys and 
using the estate, Mohonk for many years was a preparatory 
school directed by Jerome F. Kidder. Under Mr. Richardson, 
who succeeded Chauncey G. Paxson in 1037, it is conducted for 
young boys only. 

LAKE PLACID, N.Y. Alt 1742ft. Pop 2099 (1920) 2930 (1930). 
Motor Route U.S. 9 from Albany, 9 W from Elizabethtown. 

This fashionable Adirondack resort for winter and summer 
sports is known especially for its club which has been largely 
responsible for the development of the country round about. 
NORTHWOOD SCHOOL, Lake Placid Club P.O. Boys 8-18. 

Ira A. Flinner, A.M., Ed.D., Harvard, Director. Est 1925. 
Enr: Bdg 80. Fac: 12. Tui: $1200-1500. Courses 6 yrs: Forms 
1-6 Col Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 10. Income from in- 
vested funds $10,000. Scholarships, value $10,000. Undenomi- 
national. CEBcandidates*37,4i;'32-'36,2io. Entered Col '37, 
12; *32-'36, 86. Alumni 157. Accredited by Middle States 
Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

College preparatory in function and unusual in its setting, 


Northwood has sent over three-quarters of its graduates to the 
large eastern colleges. Opened as the Lake Placid Club School, 
the first unit of the Club Education Foundation, the name was 
changed in 1927. Small classes, patronage restricted to families 
eligible for membership in the club, and intensive study of each 
boy are outstanding features, and naturally much is made of 
winter sports and outdoor life. Dr. Flinner, who is supported by 
a strong faculty, was for fifteen years head of Huntington School, 
Boston. See page 967. 

LIMA, N.Y. Alt 1200 ft. Pop 843 (1920) 897 (1930). L.V.R.R. 
Motor Route U.S. 20 from Syracuse. 

Eighteen miles south of Rochester, Lima is a pleasant village 
in the Finger Lake district of western New York. 

Charles W. Spangle, A.B., Allegheny Col, Dean. 
Enr: Bdg 50, Day 10. Fac: u. Tui: Bdg $475, Day $125. 
Courses n yrs: Grades III- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Post 
Grad Art Music Business. Incorporated not for profit. Trus- 
tees 21 elected by Church and alumni. Endowment $208,889. 
Income from invested funds $12,780. Methodist Episcopal. 
C E B candidates '37, o; >32-'36, 2. Entered Col '37, 6; '32-*36, 
79. Alumni 30,000. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Ac- 
credited by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Now offering college preparation and one year of advanced 
work, this seminary antedates by some years the high schools 
in surrounding cities and towns. Some of the older buildings 
were occupied by the former Genesee College, predecessor of the 
present Syracuse University, which functioned at Lima from 
1850 to 1872. Mr. Spangle in 1937 succeeded Dr. A. Talmage 
Schulmaier, president from 1930. 
MANLIUS, N.Y. Alt 747 ft. Pop 1296 (1920) 1538 (1930). 

Ten miles southeast of Syracuse among the hills, The Manlius 
School occupies beautiful and extensive grounds. 
THE MANLIUS SCHOOL Boys Ages 13-18 Est 1869. 

Col. Guido F. Verbeck, Sc.D., Colgate Univ, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 200. Fac: 24. Tui: $1250. Courses 5 yrs: Grades VIII- 
XII. Incorporated 1881 not for profit. Trustees 15 self perpetu- 
ating. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 14; '32->36, 
228. Entered Col '37, 46 ;'32-'36, 185. Alumni 4250. Accredited 
by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. Member Assoc 
Milit Col and Sch of U S. 

In recent years using the military only for its value in posture 
training and recreation, Manlius is no longer an essentially 
military school. It has long sent up annually many boys for 
College Board examinations. Established as St. John's, a dioc- 
esan school, by the first Bishop of central New York and a group 


of citizens, in the buildings of the old Manlius Academy founded 
in 1835, it moved to the present site in 1871. The modern school 
was developed by General William Verbeck, head master from 
1888 to 1930, under whom, in 1923, it was reorganized and the 
present name taken. Standards are now maintained by his son, 
on the staff for many years. See page 968. 

MILLBROOK, N.Y. Alt 567 ft. Pop 1096 (1920) 1296 (1930). 
Millbrook is fifteen miles in from Poughkeepsie, in a region of 
large estates. The Bennett School, with its well kept lawns and 
terraces, is set conspicuously on a bend in the road. Five miles 
north of the town, on the road to Amenia, Millbrook School for 
boys is built about a remodeled ancient farmhouse. 

Girls Ages 15-21 Est 1891. 

Miss Courtney Carroll, A.B., Vassar, President. 
Enr:Bdgi35. Fac: 40. Tui: $1500-1700. Courses 5 yrs: High 
Sen 2-4 Col Prep Jr Col Gen Acad Collegiate Dramatic Art 
Music Fine Arts Household Arts Child Training. Incorporated 
1924 not for profit. Trustees 9 self perpetuating. Scholarships. 
Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 8; '32-^36, 23. Alum- 
nee 1900. Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Sec Sen. 

Since its establishment by May F. Bennett, this school has 
offered advanced courses equivalent to those of the junior 
college that has since become so popular. Miss Bennett was 
perhaps the first to independently maintain her own conception 
of what was desirable in the education of girls. She developed 
specialized departments to the direction of which she called 
leading artists. The dramatic arts work is still under the direc- 
tion of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Rann Kennedy (Edith Wynne 
Matthison); the music department under Horace Middleton. 
Fine arts, the household arts, child training which involves prac- 
tical work with babies in the nursery and with little children in 
the nursery school laboratory, still exact work of the standard 
which gave Bennett its reputation. On Miss Bennett's death in 
1924 she bequeathed the school to her co-workers, Miss Carroll 
and the Kennedys. Today a preparatory department offers gen- 
eral academic courses giving some choice for the development of 
artistic bents, and the older group is organized as a junior col- 
lege. See page 1055. 

MILLBROOK SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1931- 

Edward Pulling, A.B., Princeton, M.A., Cambridge Univ. 
Enr: Bdg 65, Day 3. Fac: n. Tui: Bdg $1350, Day $ . Courses 
6 yrs: Grades VTI-VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated 
1932 not for profit. Trustees 5 self perpetuating. Undenom. 
C E B candidates '37, 12; '32^36, 33. Ent Col '36, 4; '35, 2. 


Successful from the start, Millbrook now gives full college 
preparation. With a broad and liberal spirit toward the tradi- 
tional school activities, Mr. Pulling started the school with 
twenty-five young boys, after six years at Groton and two at 
Avon Old Farms. 

MONTOUR FALLS, N.Y. Alt 457 ft. Pop 1489 (1930). 

Among the Finger Lakes twenty miles southwest of Ithaca, 
the "Catherinestown" of Colonial times is the M on tour Falls 
of today. The academy is on a hill above the village. 

COOK ACADEMY Boys Ages 14-25 Est 1870. 

Bert C. Gate, A.B., Williams, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 50, Day 100. Fac: 12. Tui: Bdg $800, Day $150. 
Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Music Secretarial. 
Incorporated 1873 not for profit. Trustees 24 self perpetuating. 
Endowment $95,000. Baptist. C E B candidates '37, o; *32-'36, 
5. Entered Col '36, 19; '3 1-'35, 145. Alumni ca 700. Accredited 
to Col admitting by certif. 

Endowed and presented to the Baptist State Convention by 
Colonel E. W. Cook, this is the only Baptist secondary school 
for boys in the state. 

MT. KISCO, N.Y. Alt 219 ft. Pop 3944 (1920) 5127 (1930). 
N.Y.C.R.R. Route 22 from White Plains, north from 

Mt. Kisco is a fashionable Westchester hill town, thirty-eight 
miles north of New York City. Sky wood Hall is at Lawrence 
SKYWOOD HALL Girls Bdg 12-18, Day 3-18; Boys 3-14. 

Katherine P. Debevoise, A.B., Smith, M.A., Columbia, Head 

Mistress. Est 1937. 

Enr: . Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $150-500. Courses 14 yrs: Bdg, 
Grades VII- VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep; Day, Nursery Sch 
Kindergarten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. 

This school was opened by Miss Debevoise, at one time 
assistant to the heads at Rosemary Hall, and later in a small 
school in Southern Pines, North Carolina. 

NEW LEBANON, N.Y. Alt 699ft. Pop 1133 (1920) 1081 (1930). 

Founded in 1785 by 'Mother' Ann Lee and once the most 
flourishing Shaker colony in America, this little settlement is in 
a wide valley on the slopes of Mount Lebanon, near the Massa- 
chusetts line. The trustees of Lebanon School now own the 
300 acre Shaker property with its substantial buildings, some of 
which are used by the school. 
THE LEBANON SCHOOL Boys Ages 12-18 Est 1931. 

Charles H. Jones, A.B., Princeton, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 33. Fac: 6. Tui: $1200. Courses 5 yrs: Grade VIII 


High Sen 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. Undenom. 
C E B candidates '37, 2; '32-*36 31- Entered Col '34, 5; '33, 9. 

The school was opened with a board of trustees which included 
the head masters of Deerfield, Taft, and Hotchkiss. Mr. Jones, 
called to the head mastership from a successful career in college 
and school work gives himself devotedly to his boys. The extra- 
curricular life is made unusually varied and interesting, taking 
advantage of the location and surroundings. Instruction in small 
groups insures adequate college preparation. See page 972. 

NEW YORK CITY, N.Y. Pop 5,620,048 (1920) 6,930,446 (1930). 

The financial capital of the world. New York is the mecca 
which draws those who have acquired pelf, that they may dis- 
play it in conspicuous waste. New York holds the purse strings 
of the nation. Here are controlled the great industries, public 
utilities and transportation systems. Naturally the controlling 
New York mind is legalistic and financial. 

The sink of a continent, into this swirling vortex are drawn 
the restless and ambitious from every state and every country. 
In their mad rush through its narrow canyons, they seek their 
pot of gold, fabulous salaries or palatial penthouses. Behind the 
plate glass windows of Fifth Avenue is displayed the loot of 
centuries from every land. 

The most stupendous of man's creations, the Egyptian pyra- 
mids and Karnac would appear insignificant if placed in Central 
Park; and London, seen from the air, flat and drab in compari- 
son. Approaching from the sea the stranger is astounded by the 
pinnacled and ziggu rated skyline. To the traveller by air, Man- 
hattan seems a citadel of watch towers among the sprawling 
suburbs that reach out on to the neighboring islands, across the 
Jersey marshes, and fringe the salt water rivers and estuaries. 
On one of these salt marshes on the Ix>ng Island shore, a hundred 
million dollars is now being spent to prepare for the IQJQ 
World's Fair whose theme is 'the world of tomorrow.' 

Historically the city of the Dutch, of Tammany, the Vander- 
astors, of La Guardia, today the native New Yorker is a 
rarity. Here the handiwork of man changes as rapidly as its 
populace. Less than thirty per cent of the population is Jewish, 
though it is the greatest Jewish city in the world and a third of 
all American Semites live here. New Yorkers include half a 
million Russians and about as many Italians. 

The museums of Art, Natural History, Indian Ethnology, 
and things Hispanic, with their matchless and rapidly growing 
collections, offer great educational opportunities. The public 
library is notable for its architecture, its location, its exhibits, 
and its scores of branches. The priceless collection of the Morgan 
Library is in a building architecturally perfect. 


On Morningside Heights, the acropolis of this new world, 
nearly forty thousand students resort to Columbia University 
and its affiliated institutions, Teachers, Barnard and New Col- 
leges. To the north the College of the City of New York has 
more than twenty thousand, not all Jewish. On University 
Heights, across the Harlem, New York University, famous for 
its Hall of Fame, enrolls over thirty thousand; Fordham, Catho- 
lic, near Bronx Park, about a fourth as many. 

The professional and vocational schools lie generally to the 
south, between Central Park and 42d Street. The private schools 
for boys are chiefly for day pupils while many of the girls schools 
provide residence for those from a distance who are attracted 
by the varied musical, dramatic, and other advantages of the 
metropolis. Some schools lie west of Central Park including two 
or three of the oldest in the city. But the more recently estab- 
lished schools that appeal to the socially elect are all to the east. 
Brearley and Chapin are in the recently reclaimed smart region 
bordering on the East river. 

As a matter of convenience the schools of Long Island, includ- 
ing Brooklyn, are treated as a group. Staten Island schools will 
be found listed under New York City. 

Ages 6- 1 8 Est 1847. 

Sister Maria, Principal. 

Enr: Bdg 185. Fac: 25. Tui: $900. Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- 
VIII Col Prep High Sch 1-4. Incorporated. Roman Catholic. 
C E B candidates '37, i; > 32- > 36, o. Entered Col '37, 16. Alum- 
nae 1450. 

As business claimed its earlier sites, this pioneer convent 
boarding school has moved northward. The Sisters of Charity 
were incorporated as a teaching body two years after they 
founded the school. The affiliated college was incorporated in 

ACADEMY OF OUR LADY, Grymes Hill, Staten Island. Girls 
Ages 6- 1 8 Est 1902. 

Sister St. Catherine of the Angels, Superior. 
Enr: Bdg 35, Day 250. Fac: 18. Tui: Bdg $500, Day Si 80. 
Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music 
Art. Incorporated, patrons own stocks. Trustees elected by 
patrons. Roman Catholic. 

Drawing its day girls from all sections of the city, this school 
is under the direction of the Sisters of the Congregation of 
Notre Dame, Montreal. 

St. Boys Ages 6-15 Est 1883. 


Francis B. Allen, A.B., Harvard; Robert A. Stevenson, A.B., 

Princeton, Head Masters. 

Enr: Day 225. Fac: 25. Tui: $400-650. Courses 9 yrs: Grades 
I-IX. Proprietary. 

Mr. Allen, the founder, has long prepared the sons of conserv- 
ative families of the city for the large secondary schools. Mr. 
Stevenson has been associate head since 1904. 

ALL HALLOWS INSTITUTE, in East i64th St. Boys 8-20. 

Rev. P. A. Gleeson, A.B., A.M., Principal. Est 1909. 
Enr: Day 400. Fac: 17. Tui: $160-200. Courses 10 yrs: Grades 
III-Vni High Sen 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. 
Roman Catholic. C E B candidates '37, i ; *32-'36, 6. Entered 
Col '33, ; > 27-'3i, 241. Alumni 500. Accred to Catholic Col. 

Making much of art, physical development, and music, this 
school is conducted by the Christian Brothers of Ireland. 
Father Gleeson has been in charge for many years. 


Claude M. Alviene, Alan Dale, Directors. Est 1894. 

This school has many units among them, Alviene School of 
Dramatic Art, The Alviene School of the Theatre, The New 
York School of Opera and Musical Comedy, The College of 
Dance Arts, The Institute of the Photoplay, The Metro School 
of Oratory, The Music Institute, Theatre Decoration and Stage 
Design, The Language College, and School of Stage Arts. 


Hall. Ages 16-30 Est 1884. 

Charles Jehlinger, Vice President; Emil E. Diestel, Secretary. 
Enr: Day 250. Fac: 16. Tui: $500. Courses 6 mos. Incorporated. 

The earliest and foremost institution of its kind in the coun- 
try, this school from its opening has given instruction in all 
phases of dramatic art and expression. It was founded as the 
Lyceum School of Acting and chartered fifteen years later. The 
senior class is organized as a stock company and gives public 
performances. Franklin H. Sargent, the founder and for forty 
years the director, died in 1923 and the school is now adminis- 
tered by a board of trustees. See page 1064. 

Ages 16- Est 1896. 

Douglas John Connah, President; Kay Hardy, Director. 
Enr: Day 250. Fac: 8. Tui: Day $235, Eve $75. Incorporated, 

Until 1936 known as The New York School of Design, this 
school has day and evening groups in drawing, painting, adver- 
tising, textile design, costume design, fashion illustration, 
interior decoration, teacher training, and handicrafts. Summer 
classes are held in New York and Connecticut. 


/v Y fiaip SCH 





C co fen 



West 86th St. Girls Ages 17- Est 1913. 

Bertha Chapman, Director. 

Enr: Day 4. Fac: 22. Tui: $250. Courses 3 yrs: Teacher 

Preparation for teaching in nursery schools, kindergartens, 
and primary grades is here offered high school graduates, to- 
gether with extension courses for teachers. There is opportunity 
for observation and practice work in the demonstration school 
and in various public and private schools throughout the city. 
Residence facilities are provided. 

Island. Boys Ages 7-14 Est 1913. 

H. E. Merrick, B.S., Pa Univ, Head Master. 
Enr: Day 68. Fac: 6. Tui: $375. Courses 9 yrs: Grades I-IX. 

Founded and directed until 1027 by Harold Sindall, this 

school opened in Eltingville, moving to New Brighton its second 

year. Young boys are prepared for the leading secondary schools. 


57th St. Coed Est 1875. 

Stewart Klonis, President; Anna Clarke, Exec Sec. 
Enr: Day and Eve 1202. Fac: 25. Tui: Day $144, Eve $102. 
Scholarships 122 mo, value $1754. 

In this cooperative society, under a board of control serving 
without compensation, each instructor has complete freedom in 
his method of teaching and each student has equal freedom in 
his choice of classes and instructors. Artists are invited to teach 
and lecture here, and many artists of note have at some time 
served in this capacity, working with students in twelve well 
equipped studios. Conducted in the Fine Arts Building and 
financed solely by tuition fees, both winter and summer sessions 
offer instruction in drawing, painting, sculpture, commercial 
art, the graphic arts, illustration, mural painting, and wood 

BALLARD SCHOOL, Y.W.C.A., 610 Lexington Ave. Women 
Ages 1 6- Est 1872. 

Sarah Balch Hackett, A.B., Smith, M.S., Simmons, Director. 
Enr: Day and Eve 1900. Fac: 29. Tui: Day and Eve $5-200. 
Courses 4 wks-9 mos: Secretarial Business Home Economics 
Nurses Training. Incorporated not for profit. 

Organized as the educational department of the Y.W.C.A., 
this was the first day school in New York to offer classes in 
shorthand for women. Courses are given in all branches of 
secretarial and commercial training, home arts, general and 
cultural subjects. There are special classes in cooking, nursing, 
home and food service management. 


stem. Boys 3-18, Coed 3-6 Est 1886. 

William L. Hazen, A.B., LL.B., Columbia, LL.D., Manhattan. 
Enr: Day 208. Fac: 31. Tui: $150-450. Courses 14 yrs: Pre- 
Sch Kindergarten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. 
Charter under Regents. C E B candidates '37, 6; '32-^36, 67. 
Entered Col '37, 18; *32-*36, 92. Alumni 723. Accredited to 
Col admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc. 

Since its establishment, over fifty years ago, Dr. Hazen has 
headed this day school. The present site has been occupied since 
1912. This and the affiliated girls school bear the name of a 
former president of Columbia. 

Ave. Girls Ages 3-18 Est 1896. 

Theodore E. Lyon, B.S., Head Master; Margaret D. Gillette, 

B.A., Associate. 

Enr: Day 250. Fac: 32. Tui: $175-425. Courses 14 yrs: Pre- 
Sch Kindergarten Grades I- VI Jr and Sr High Sch VII-XII 
Col Prep. Charter 1935 under Regents. C E B candidates '37, 
23; *32-'36, 72. Entered Col '37, 16. Alumnee 600. Accredited 
to Col admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc 
Col and Secondary Sch. 

Started ten years later than the boys group, this efficient 
college preparatory school has long been under the direction of 
Mr. Lyon. It is well equipped and enrolls girls from all parts of 
the city. 

THE BENTLEY SCHOOL, 48 West 86th St. Coed Ages 4-18. 

Bertha M. Bentley, M.Pd., Mich State Normal Col, B.S., 
Columbia Univ; Racille Sameth, B.A., Pittsburgh Univ, 
Directors. Est 1915. 

Enr: Day 160. Fac: 20. Tui: $200-400. Courses 13 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated. 
Scholarships, value $100-150. C E B candidates '37, 2; *32-'36, 
i. Entered Col '37, 3; '32- J 36, 3. Alumni 15. 

One of the early progressive schools, this was known as the 
Social Motive School until Miss Bentley changed the name in 
1926. She has continued to point the way in many phases of 
child education. 

BIRCH WATHEN SCHOOL, 149 West 93d St. Coed 3-18. 
Louise Birch, B.A., Wellesley, A.M., Columbia, Principal; 

Edith Wathen, Co-Principal. Est 1921. 

Enr: Day 330. Fac: 45. Tui: $330-680. Courses 13 yrs: Kin- 
dergarten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4. Incorporated 1933 not 
for profit. C E B candidates '37, 10; '32-'36, 36. Entered Col '36, 
17; *30-'34, 27. Alumni 105. Accredited by Middle States Assoc. 


Miss Birch and Mrs. Wathen, who started this as a forward 
looking elementary school, now carry boys and girls through 
to college. Colorful and interesting activities, along with good 
academic instruction is provided. 

THE BREARLEY SCHOOL, 610 East 83 d St. Girls Ages 6-18. 

Millicent Carey Mclntosh, A.B., Bryn Mawr, Ph.D., Johns 

Hopkins, Head Mistress. Est 1883. 

Enr: 464. Fac: 95. Tui: $400-800. Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- 
XII Col Prep. Incorporated 1889. Trustees 5. C E B candidates 
'37, 62; '32-'36* 237. Entered Col '37, 23; '32- f 36, 147. Alumna 
ca 1639. Member Middle States Assoc. 

To provide a more substantial education and more thorough 
preparation for college than the schools of the time offered, 
Samuel Brearley, a Harvard and Oxford man, established The 
Brearley School. Men prominent in educational and financial 
circles of New York have always been on the board. James G. 
Croswell, Harvard '73, was head master from 1887 until his 
death in 1915. Henry Dwight Sedgwick and Carl Van Doren 
who followed him were men of scholarly attainments and literary 
distinction. Since 1929 in a new building overlooking the East 
river, its lower floors are known as decks. Mrs. Mclntosh, as 
Millicent Carey, came from a Bryn Mawr deanship in 1930. 
Among the alumnae are women who have attained real intellec- 
tual distinction. Brearley is still in the forefront of the fashion- 
able schools in scholastic standards, and succeeds in cultivating 
intellectual interests among its pupils who come from solid 
families of taste and culture. 

THE BROWNING SCHOOL, 52 East 62d St. Boys 5-18- 

Arthur J. Jones, A.B., A.M., Harvard, Principal. Est 1889. 
Enr: Day no. Fac: 18. Tui: $400-900. Courses 12 yrs: Grades 
I- VIII Col Prep High Sen 1-4. C E B candidates '37, i J '3*- 9 36, 
38. Entered Col '33, 4; '28-'32, 20. Alumni 210. 

For a generation directed by John A. Browning, a man of 
conservative tendencies, this school has long enrolled boys from 
a New York set of some social prominence. Mr. Jones has been 
head master since 1919 

BROWN SCHOOL OF TUTORING, 38 W. 69th St. Ages 6-20. 

Frederic L. Brown, B.S., Syracuse, Principal; W. E. Van 

Worner, Head Master. Est 1910. 

Enr: Day 30 Fac: 8. Tui: $400-1950. Courses 12 yrs: Grades 
I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Languages Col Prep Business. Incor- 
porated 1929. C E B candidates '37, 3; '32-^36, 27. Entered Col 
*37> 3 > '3<>-'34> 26. Alumni ca 759. Accredited to Col admitting 
by certif. 

Out of a summer group he established in 1906, Mr. Brown 


has developed this school. Individual instruction makes it 
possible to accomplish a program of work limited only by the 
capacity of the individual pupil. The school is open all summer. 

Ages 5-15 Est 1913. 

Mrs. Evelyn W. Adams, Director. 

Enr: Day 290. Fac: 45. Tui: $600-800. Courses 9 yrs: Pre-Sch 
Grades I- VIII. Scholarships 2, value $750. Alumni 800. 

With this city school as a nucleus, B. Lord Buckley, with the 
financial support of wealthy patrons, organized a number of 
country day schools on Long Island and in New Jersey, South 
Carolina and Virginia. These, since his death in 1032, have be- 
come independent units. Mrs. Adams continues the New York 
school under the provisions of Mr. Buckley's will. 

THE CALHOUN SCHOOL, 309 West 92d St. Girls 6-17. 

Mary E. Calhoun, A.M., Columbia; Ella C. Levis, A.M., 

Columbia, Head Mistresses. Est 1896. 

Enr: Day 200. Fac: 20. Tui: $300-550. Courses 12 yrs: Grades 
I- VI Jr High Sen 1-3 Sr High Sch 1-3 Col Prep. Partnership 
Scholarships 5, value $2275. C E B candidates '37, 3; '32-'3<>, 
76. Entered Col '37, 12; *32- J 36, 96. Alumnae 670. Accred- 
ited by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

In 1916 Miss Calhoun, for twelve years on the staff of the 
Horace Mann School, took over the direction of the Jacobi 
School and in 1925 gave it her own name. Influential among 
school mistresses and long active in various educational asso- 
ciations, Miss Calhoun maintains the traditional high standards. 
The patronage has always been largely Jewish. 

CATHEDRAL CHOIR SCHOOL, Amsterdam Ave and mth 
St. Boys Ages 9-15 Est 1901. 

Rev. W. D. F. Hughes, M.A., B.Litt., Oxon, Head Master; 

Norman Coke-Jephcott, Master of the Choristers. 
Enr: Bdg 40. Fac: 8. Tui: $250. Courses 5 yrs: Grades V-VIII 
High Sch i. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees elected by 
Church. Episcopal. Alumni 500. 

Restricting admission to applicants under eleven, and re- 
quiring each boy to pass a satisfactory voice test before ac- 
ceptance, this school was organized by Bishop Potter to supply 
material for the choir of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine. 
Daily music instruction, individual when the voices warrant, is 
given. The boarding school is endowed and the work based on 
that of the best private schools. For many years it has occupied 
its own building in the Cathedral Close. 

CHALIF SCHOOL OF DANCE, 630 Fifth Ave. Est 1905. 
Louis H. Chalif, Principal. 


Mr. Chalif, former ballet master of the Odessa Government 
Theatre and long resident in New York, started this school. 
New quarters were occupied in 1937. 

THE CHAPIN SCHOOL, Ltd., 100 East End Ave at 84th St. 
Girls Ages 6-18 Est 1901. 

Ethel G. Stringfellow, B.S., Columbia, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Day 380. Fac: 46. Tui: $400-700. Courses 12 yrs: Grades 
I- VII High Sch 1-5 Col Prep. Incorporated 1925 not for profit. 
Trustees 13 self perpetuating. Scholarships, value $17,480. 
C E B candidates '37, 31; '32-'36 157. Entered Col '35, 12; 
'3<>-'34i 44- Alumnae 1 142. Accredited by Middle States Assoc 
Col and Secondary Sch. 

Still retaining something of the dignity of a fashionable 
school of the eighties, though reflecting modern trends, this 
school was established by the late Maria B. Chapin to provide 
a liberal education as well as training in the social graces. 
Removal in 1928 to the east side water front was followed 
geographically and architecturally by Brearley a year later. 
Mary C. Fairfax, connected with the school from 1002 and a 
partner from IQII, succeeded Miss Chapin in 1032. Her death 
occurred early in 1035, within a year of Miss Chapin's. Miss 
Stringfellow has a somewhat lighter touch, but the school con- 
tinues to cater to the older families of New York, especially 
those who have achieved social standing. 

535 East 84th St. Women Ages 18- Est 1916. 

Anna Eva McLin, Director. 

Enr: 50. Fac: 21. Tui: Bdg $1088-1188, Day $400-450. Courses 
3 yrs: Teacher Training. Incorporated 1932 not for profit. 
Trustees 15. Scholarships 3. 

This training school provides its students with opportunities 
for teaching and observation in various affiliated schools. 
The first to prepare for nursery school teaching, it has its own 
Children's Home School. The work is accredited toward a 
degree by some universities. 

FOUNDATION, 535 East 84th St. Coed Ages iJ-9- 

Helen Watson, Head Mistress. Est 1921. 
Enr: Day 100. Fac: 13. Tui: $275-450. Courses 8 yrs: Nursery 
Sch Grades I -IV. Incorporated 1932. 

Since 1924 a part of the Child Education Foundation, a spe- 
cial afternoon session is a feature of this practice and model 
school for the affiliated teacher training department. Parents 
are kept in close touch with the progress and problems of their 


CITY AND COUNTRY SCHOOL, 165 West i2th St. Coed 3-13. 

Caroline Pratt, Principal. Est 1914. 

Enr: Day 155. Fac: 24. Tui: $300-640. Courses n yrs: Pre- 
Sch Kindergarten Grades I- VIII. Incorporated 1924 not for 
profit. Trustees 7. Alumni 87. 

Miss Pratt, founder of this interesting experimental school, 
has contributed much to the methodology of modern educa- 
tion for young children. Her plans of developing serious intellec- 
tual interests from natural play instincts have been made 
widely known through various publications. 

CLAREMONT SCHOOL, 788 West End Ave. Coed Ages 3-15. 

Lydia O. Herzfeld, Director. Est 1913. 

Enr: Day 64. Fac: 12. Tui: $125-350. Courses 10 yrs: Pre- 
Kindergarten Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch i. Schol- 
arships 5, value $1500. 

This school has no boarding department, but arrangements 
maybe made for the boysand girls to live in homes recommended 
by the school. A combination of the Froebel and Montessori 
methods is used. 

COLLEGIATE SCHOOL, 241 West 77th St. Boys 4^-18, 
Coed 4}- Est 1633. 

Wilson Parkhill, A.B., Williams, A.M., Columbia, Head. 
Enr: Day 150. Fac: 22. Tui: $200-500. Courses 13 yrs: Pre- 
Primary Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Trustees 9 
elected by Dutch Reformed Church and alumni. Scholarships 
10, value $5000. C E B candidates '37, 13 ; J 32-'36, 1 13. Entered 
Col '37, 16; '32-'36, 79. Alumni 1859. Accredited by Middle 
States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This is the oldest existing private secondary school in the 
United States, its history running back three centuries to the 
early settlement of Manhattan by the Dutch. For two hundred 
and fifty years it was maintained as a parish day school, but in 
1887 it became a grammar school for both boys and girls, with 
a fixed tuition fee; in i8qi preparatory; and after 1894, for boys 
only. Since 1934, a pre-primary grade for little boys and girls 
has been conducted. The school has moved progressively north- 
ward as the city has developed. The Consistory of the Collegiate 
Dutch Reformed Church, sponsors and controls through a 
board of trustees. Mr. Parkhill, a former master at Lawrence- 
Smith, who succeeded Cornelius Boocock in 1934 has won back 
the support of former patrons, attracted new families and im- 
proved the equipment. 


Ages 4-18 Est 1764. 
Frederic A. Alden, B.S., Dartmouth, M.A., Columbia, Head. 


Enr: Day 240. Fac: 32. Tui: $250-600. Courses 12 yrs: Kin- 
dergarten Grades I- VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep. Proprietary. 
Trustees 3. Scholarships 12, value $7200. C B candidates 
'37, 13; '32-'36 "5- Entered Col '33, ; '27-3i, 344. Alumni 
3055. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Accredited by 
Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Long an independent institution, this was founded as a pre- 
paratory school to Columbia College, and like its namesake 
has moved progressively uptown as the city has grown. In the 
middle of the nineteenth century under Dr. Anthon, America's 
earliest scholar, it rose to highest prominence. At one time the 
majority of its graduates entered Columbia, but of recent years 
it has prepared for all the leading eastern colleges. An all day 
plan for supervised study and play was organized in 1930. The 
clientele is largely Jewish. 

St. Women Est 1898. 

Katharine C. Richmond, Director. 
Enr: Day 140. Fac: 8. Tui: $325. Proprietary. 

In the decade when women in large numbers first began to 
enter the business world, S. Louise Conklin founded this school 
which has always maintained high social and professional 
standards. The general secretarial course is supplemented by a 
well organized social secretarial training, and an efficient place- 
ment bureau is maintained. Miss Richmond has been director 
since 1926. 

69 Bank St. Coed Ages 20- Est 1930. 

Randolph B. Smith, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., Harvard, Columbia, 

Executive Secretary. 

Enr: Day 34. Fac: 16. Tui: $360. Course i yr: Professional 
Elementary and Nursery Sch Teacher Training. Incorporated 
not for profit. Trustees 9. Endowment $5000. Income from 
invested funds $200. Student loan fund, value $1700. Unde- 
nominational. Alumni 160. 

A division of the Bureau of Educational Experiments, this 
school, in cooperation with four elementary and nursery schools, 
offers college graduates intensive training preparatory to teach- 
ing in progressive elementary schools. 

THE DALTON SCHOOLS, 108-114 East 8gth St. Girls 2-18, 

Boys 2-14 Est 1920. 
Helen Parkhurst, Principal. 

Enr: Day 500. Fac: 100. Tui: $300-700. Courses 14 yrs: 
Nursery Pre-Sch Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Jr 


Colx. Incorporated. Trustees 15. CEB candidates '37, 9; '32- 
'3<> 45* Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 

From the very first Miss Parkhurst's school had remarkable 
success. Her loyal supporters not only supplied a waiting list of 
several hundred each year, but built and long maintained the 
elaborately furnished and well equipped plant, occupied since 
1929. Classes extend from infant groups through high school, 
the boys leaving after the eighth grade. Since 1935 there has 
been a one year junior college course for girls. Although not 
emphasized, adequate college preparation is offered. The ele- 
mentary group carries out the Dal ton Plan of which Miss Park- 
hurst is the originator, with half individual and half group work. 
Throughout the high school the laboratory method of individual 
progress is used. 


Mr. and Mrs. David Mannes, Directors. Est 1916. 
Enr: 250. Fac: 39. Tui: $50-560. 

Mr. Mannes and his wife, Clara Damrosch, offer work in all 
branches of music in surroundings somewhat more homelike 
than are found in many music schools. 

St. Coed Est 1920. 

Angela Diller, Elizabeth Quaile, Directors. 
Enr: Day 250. Fac: 21. Tui: $50-350. Courses: Elementary 
Intermediate Advanced Teacher Training. 

One of the most successful progressive systems for the musical 
training of young children has here been developed by Miss 
Diller and Miss Quaile, whose books are widely used. 

DONGAN HALL, Dongan Hills, Staten Island. Girls 3-18, 
Boys 3-9 Est 1919. 

Marguerite A. R. Booraem, A.B., Vassar, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Co Day 50. Fac: 12. Tui: $100-450. Courses 14 yrs : Pre- 
Sch Kindergarten Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep 
Music Art. Incorporated 1919 not for profit, patrons own stock. 
Trustees 10 elected by stockholders. Undenominational. 
C E B candidates '37, 6; 3a- > 36, 24. Entered Col '3?, 2; f 3i-'36, 
32. Alumnae 180. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Accred- 
ited by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Preparatory and general courses are offered in this local day 
school, which in its earlier years had a small boarding depart- 
ment. Miss Booraem has been in charge since 1932. 

D WIGHT SCHOOL, 72 Park Ave. Boys Ages 12-19 Est 1880. 

Ernest Greenwood, Head Master. 

Enr: Day 115. Fac: 9. Tui: $250-375. Courses 5 yrs: Grade 
VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Rrep. Trustees 3. C E B candidates '37, 


12; '32-'36, 30. Entered Col '37, 21; > 32-*36, igi. Accredited to 
Col admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc 
Col and Secondary Sch. 

Mr. Greenwood now maintains this as a branch of the New 
York Preparatory School and continues intensive college prepa- 
ration. Eight years after its establishment, the school took the 
name of President Dwight of Yale. The present premises have 
been occupied since 1916. 

ETHICAL CULTURE SCHOOLS, 33 Central Park West. Coed 
Ages 4-20 Est 1878. 

V. T. Thayer, Ph.D., Wis Univ, Educational Director. 
Enr: Day 1060. Fac: 139. Tui: $320-650. Courses 16 yrs: Pre- 
Kindergarten Grades I-VI Jr High 1-3 High Sch 4-6 Col 
Prep Art Business Homemaking Kindergarten-Primary 
Teacher Training (3 yrs). Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 
29 elected by Society. Scholarships one-third enrollment. 
C E B candidates '37, 99; *32-'36, 274. Entered Col '37, 78; '30- 
'34 295. Alumni ca 1200. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Enrolling children of the rich, the middle classes, and the 
poor, this school was established by Felix Adler two years after 
the founding of the Society for Ethical Culture. Direct moral 
instruction has a definite place in the curriculum. In the 
Elementary School on Central Park West, of which Ethel C. 
Bratton is principal, pupils complete the sixth grade. Its kinder- 
garten and primary classes are utilized for observation and 
practice by the Teacher Training School. 

THE FIELDSTON SCHOOL, of which Herbert W. Smith is prin- 
cipal, has spacious wooded grounds in the Riverdale section at 
Fieldston Road and Spuyten Duyvil Parkway. This is the home 
of the Junior and Senior High Schools and offers special courses 
in art, business and homemaking to supplement the regular col- 
lege preparatory course. 

THE FIELDSTON LOWER SCHOOL of which Marie A. Spotts- 
wood is principal is the elementary unit with an all day program. 
Formerly conducted in the Ethical Culture Branch School at 
27 West 75th Street, it is now in the new building on the Field- 
ston grounds. See page 1046. 

FASHION ACADEMY, 30 Rockefeller Plaza. Women, Coed 

Ages 17-50 Est 1914. 
Emil Alvin Hartman, Director. 

Enr: Day and Eve 100. Fac: 10. Tui: Regular Session $310, 
Part Time $170, Eve $140. Courses: Costume Design Fashion 
Analyzing and Reporting Styling and Fashion Forecasting 
Fashion Advising Merchandising Practical Clothes Con- 


struction Buying Fashion Illustration Textile Design. Pro- 

Courses here vary from three to twenty months, with an 
optional six weeks trip to Paris and a summer session. Evening 
classes are coeducational. 


Lucy Feagin, Director. Est 1915. 

Enr: 200. Fac: 9. Tui: $400, Special Course $30 term. Courses 
2 yrs. Scholarships 4. 

Miss Feagin offers stage and platform work based on the 
courses at the Conservatoire in Paris. Moving to new quarters 
in 1037, day and evening courses of ten weeks are supplemented 
by a summer session. 

FINCH JUNIOR COLLEGE, 61 E. 77th St. Girls 17-22. 

Mrs. Jessica G. Cosgrave, A.B., Barnard, LL.B., N Y Univ, 

President. Est 1900. 

Enr: Bdg 85, Day 80. Fac: 42. Tui: Bdg $1800, Day $700. 
Courses 2 yrs: Liberal Arts Fine and Applied Arts Theatre 
Arts Creative Writing Music Home Economics Secretarial 
Training. Incorporated not for profit. Scholarships 2. Un- 
denominational. Alumnae ca 1900. 

This modern junior college, incorporated as such in 1937, is 
the outgrowth of Finch School which had for more than thirty 
years been offering work of junior college grade in cultural and 
vocational courses. Mrs. John O'Hara Cosgrave (Jessica G. 
Finch) here developed her ideas on correlating New York's 
opportunities with classroom and studio work. Her sane and 
wholesome magazine articles and books addressed to parents of 
adolescent girls have widened her circle of influence. Mrs. 
Ordway Tead, formerly with Katharine Gibbs New York 
School, has been executive dean since 1935. See page 1056. 

FRANKLIN SCHOOL, 18 West 89th St. Boys Ages 6-18. 

Clifford W. Hall, A.B., A.M., Wesleyan, Columbia; David P. 

Berenberg, A.B., CCNY, Directors. Est 1872. 
Enr: Day 162. Fac: 17. Tui: $300-600. Courses n yrs: 
Grades I-VII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Proprietary. Un- 
denominational. C E B candidates '37, 25; *32-'36, 185. En- 
tered Col '37, 13; '32-*36> 84. Alumni 990. Accredited to 
Johns Hopkins, Pa Univ. Accredited by Middle States Assoc 
Col and Sec Sch. 

College preparation is the primary interest in this school, 
founded and conducted until 1904 by Julius Sachs as Sachs 
Collegiate Institute. The original traditions and policies were 
continued under Otto Koenig until 1932, when the present 
directors, long on the faculty, took charge. 



17-20 Est 1914. 

Mile. Jeanne Toutain, Gwendolyn Cummings, Principals. 
Enr: Bdg 12. Fac: 6. Tui: $1800. Courses: French English 
Art Music Home Economics Partnership. 

Mile. Toutain and Miss Cummings, the former long head of 
the French department at Masters School and the latter an 
alumna, bought this school from Margaret Williams and 
Louise McLeflan in 1924. Although emphasizing the study of 
French language and culture, the curriculum also includes 
English, art, music, and home economics. Much is made in 
the cultural advantages of New York City. See page 1018. 

FRIENDS SEMINARY, n Rutherford PI. Coed Ages 4-18. 

Henry L. Messner, A.B., Swarthmore, Columbia, Principal; 
Earle L. Hunter, Ph.D., Assoc Principal Est 1860. 
Enr: Day 385. Fac: 35. Tui: $250-500. Courses 13 yrs: 
Kindergarten Grades I- VI Jr High Sch 1-3 Sr High Sch 1-3 
Col Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 24. Friends. C E B candi- 
dates '37, 6; '32-'36, 23. Entered Col '37, ; '32-*36, 
Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Mr. Messner, principal since 1924, has made this more pro- 
gressive than most Friends schools, though, in comparison with 
other schools in the vicinity, it is still conservative. 


7ist St. Coed Ages 2-10 Est 1897. 
Hugh Stuart, Ph.D., Patricia M. Hahn, A.B., Asst Director. 
Enr: Day 75. Fac: 10. Tui: $350-400. Courses 6 yrs : Nursery 
Sch Kindergarten Primary. Incorporated 1910 not for profit. 

This modern, progressive school is an outgrowth of a kinder- 
garten opened by Mrs. Nicholas Murray Butler, Mrs. J. Pier- 
pont Morgan, and others, and now serves as the demonstration 
group for the affiliated training school. 


East 7ist St. Women Ages 17- Est 1909. 
Hugh Stuart, Ph.D., Columbia, Director; Patricia M. Hahn, 
A.B., Hunter, Asst Director. 

Enr: Day 75. Fac: 12. Tui: $350. Courses 3 yrs. Incorporated 

1910 not for profit. Trustees 9. Alumnce 500. 

Graduates of this training school of The Froebel League are 
granted certificates to teach without further examination. 
Practical training is provided for teaching in the affiliated 
groups, eight day nurseries, kindergartens, and elementary 
schools, and six baby and pre-school clinics. 


THE GARDNER SCHOOL, 154 East yoth St. Girls Ages Bdg 
14-20, Day 4-20 Est 1858. 

M. Elizabeth Masland, A.B., Bryn Mawr, Principal. 
Enr: Bdg 20, Day 80. Fac: 32. Tui: Bdg $1400-1850, Day $250- 
600. Courses 15 yrs: Kindergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch 
1-4 Col Prep Jr Col 1-2 Music Dramatics Secretarial. Incor- 
porated 1932. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, o; '32- 
'36, n. Entered Col '36, 3; '3i-*35, 46. Alumnae 500 (organ- 
ized). Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

Gardner is the oldest girls boarding school in the city. Estab- 
lished by the Rev. Charles H. Gardner, it now offers courses 
from kindergarten through college preparation, with two years 
of advanced work in music, art, and dramatics. Miss Masland, 
co-principal from IQIO, has had sole direction since IQJI when 
she moved the school to its present site. 

GRACE CHURCH SCHOOL, 802 Broadway. Boys Ages 10-18. 

Ernest Mitchell, Choir Master. Est 1894. 
Enr: Day . Fac: 5. Tui: $250-350. Courses 8 yrs: Grades V- 
VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music Expression. Trustees 
elected by Church. C E B candidates '37, 2. 

Boys are here given schooling in return for their services as 
choristers for Grace Church. Long offering sub-preparatory 
courses only, in 1936 high school grades were added to the cur- 

Terminal. Est 1924. 

Edmund Greacen, N.A., President. 

Enr: 500. Fac: 24. Tui: $15 a class per mo. Courses 9 mos: 
Painting Drawing and Sculpture Illustration Design Costume 
Drawing Interior Decoration. Incorporated. 

Students may enroll at any time during the season in the 
various fine and commercial art courses. 

HANYA HOLM STUDIO, 215 West nth St. Coed Ages 6- 

Hanya Holm, Director. Est 1931. 

Enr: Day 125. Fac: 4. Tui: $420-450. Courses 3 yrs: Dancing. 
Incorporated 1936 not for profit. 

A member of the original Mary Wigman group, Miss Holm in 
1936 renamed this school which was started as the official Amer- 
ican branch of the Wigman Central Institute of Dresden and 
was for five years known as the Wigman School of the Dance. 
Courses lead to the career of professional concert dancer or 
teacher of dancing. In addition to the regular professional 
course, there are classes for children, teachers, professional 
dancers and laymen. 


Coed Ages 2-6 Est 1919. 

Jessie Stanton, Director. 

Enr: Day 75. Fac: . Tui: $350. Courses: Pre-Sch Kinder- 
garten. Incorporated not for profit. Trustees 10. 

Miss Stanton provides interesting, modern pre-school and 
kindergarten training for children of the vicinity. 

MISS HEWITT'S CLASSES, 68-74 East 79th St. Girls 4-18, 
Boys 4-7 Est 1920. 

Caroline D. Hewitt, Principal. 

Enr: Day 183. Fac: 29. Tui: $35<>-75o. Courses 13 yrs: Kin- 
dergarten Grades I- VIII High Sch IX-XII Col Prep Art Music 
Languages. Proprietary. Entered Col '37, i ; *3O-*36, 9. 

Since 1934 this school that has attained considerable social 
prestige has offered both the broad general courses for which it 
has long been well known, and preparation for College Board 
examinations. Students who so desire may stress art and the 
social sciences in informal groups. 

530 West 2 1 5th St. Coed Ages 4-14 Est 1921. 

Rebecca Hoffman, Director. 

Enr: Bdg 15, Day 120. Fac: 16. Tui: Bdg $1200, Day $175-450. 
Courses 9 yrs : Kindergarten Grades I- VIII. Proprietary. 

Offering outdoor classes and the activities of an affiliated sum- 
mer camp, this school is modern in its plan to adapt the child's 
education to his individual and social needs. 

HORACE MANN SCHOOL, Teachers College, Broadway and 
1 2oth St. Girls 4-18, Boys 4-12 Est 1887. 

Rollo G. Reynolds, Ph.D., Columbia, Principal. 
Enr: Day 650. Fac: 65. Tui: $300-500. Courses 14 yrs: Kin- 
dergarten Grades I- VI High Sch 1-6 Col Prep Gen. Incor- 
porated. Trustees 20. C E B candidates '37, 36; '32-^36, 113. 
Entered Col '37, 38; *32-*36, 170. Alumnae ca 1891. Accredited 
to Col admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc 
Col and Secondary Sch. 

Controlled and managed by Teachers College of Columbia 
University, this six year high school for girls with a coeducational 
elementary school is the original unit of Horace Mann Schools. 
The original building, in proximity to the parent institution, has 
continued in use since the removal of the boys high school to its 
country site in 1914. Broad education on modern lines under a 
staff of experienced teachers is offered. About ninety per cent 
of the graduates enter college, and the school is a member of the 
experimental study plan for college entrance without examina- 
tion under the direction of the Progressive Education Associa- 


tion. Dr. Reynolds, former provost of Teachers College, in 1928 
succeeded Henry C. Pearson. 

Fieldston. Ages 12-18 Est 1887. 

Charles C. Tfflinghast, A.B., Ed.D., Brown, A.M., Columbia. 
Enr: Bdg 30, Day 365. Fac: 35. Tui: Bdg $1600, Day $500. 
Courses 6 yrs: Jr and Sr High Sch Col Prep. Incorporated. 
Trustees 21 elected by Teachers Col. Administrative Board 9 
appointed by Fathers Association. Endowment $150,000. 
Income from invested funds $5000. Scholarships, value $10,000. 
Nondenominational. C E B candidates '37, 54; '32-*36, 292. 
Entered Col '37, 75; *32-'36, 270. Alumni 1010. Accredited to 
Col admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col 
and Secondary Sch. 

For the first forty years Horace Mann School occupied the 
old school building adjacent to Columbia University which now 
houses the elementary department. Affiliated since its begin- 
ning with Teachers College, the school was transferred in 1914 
to its present country location where all the facilities of a coun- 
try day school are now available to boys in the junior and senior 
high schools. Since 1931 boarding boys have been provided for 
in the dormitory, within easy walking distance of the school. 
Mr. Tillinghast, principal since 1920, New England born and 
educated, has had broad experience and training including a 
year's exchange teaching in Prussia. Long active and influential 
in educational associations, in 1937 he was elected president of 
the Headmasters Association after many years as its secretary. 
See page 964. 


Ernest Hutcheson, D.Mus., President. Est 1905. 

The Augustus D. Juilliard Foundation supports three schools 
which make up the Juilliard School of Music, the Graduate 
School, the Institute of Musical Art, and the Summer School. 
The Graduate School offers fellowships through competitive 
examinations to advanced students meeting entrance require- 
ments. The Institute of Musical Art and the Summer School 
are operated as conservatories, the former offering the B.S. 
degree through the Department of Public School Music. Dr. 
Hutcheson succeeded John Erskine in 1937. Oscar Wagner is 
dean. George A. Wedge heads the Summer School. 

KATHARINE GIBBS SCHOOL, 230 Park Ave. Est 1918. 

James Gordon Gibbs, President. 

Enr: Bdg 70, Day 750. Fac: 50. Tui: Bdg $1600, Day $400. 
Courses i and 2 yrs: Secretarial. Alumnae 4000. 

The largest of the three schools of similar name and direction, 


this was established by Mrs. Katharine M. Gibbs who was in 
active charge until her death in 1934. As in the other branches, 
one and two year courses are offered, with a special course in 
executive training for college women. The two year course com- 
bines advanced academic study with secretarial training. In the 
intensive one year course for preparatory school graduates and 
in the special course for college women, students are accepted 
either in July or September. Three floors of the Barbizon, 140 
East 63d Street, provide supervised resident accommodations 
with school staff supervisors in charge. See page 1065. 

KIRMAYER SCHOOL, 130 East End Ave. Boys Ages 5-18. 

Frank H. Kirmayer, S.B., Harvard, Head Master. Est 1907. 
Enr: Day 100. Fac: 12. Tui: $400-800. Bourses 12 yrs: Grades 
I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Proprietary. C E B candidates 
'37> o; *32-'36, 3. Entered Col '37, 2; *32-'36, 10. Alumni 260. 
Accredited to Dartmouth and Col admitting by certif. 

Transferred in 1935 to its present plant, this school is char- 
acterized by small classes under men teachers, from the third 
grade up. 

THE LAWRENCE-SMITH SCHOOL, 168 East 7oth St. Boys 
Ages 5-14 Est 1914. 

C. Lawrence Smith, A.B., A.M., Harvard, Head Master. 
Enr: Day 115. Fac: 14. Tui: $325-775. Courses 10 yrs: Sub- 
Primary Grades I-IX. Incorporated 1932 not for profit. Trus- 
tees 9. Alumni ca 500. 

Modern in tone, Lawrence-Smith offers an all day program, 
sending most of its boys on to the large secondary boarding 
schools. Mr. Smith opened the school after some years as a 
master at Milton and St. Paul's. 

THE LENOX SCHOOL, 52 East 78th St. Girls 3-18, Boys 3-6 
Est 1916. 

Olivia Green, B.A., Wellesley, M.A., Columbia, Principal. 
Enr: Day 140. Fac: 28. Tui: $250-600. Courses 14 yrs: Pre- 
Primary Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Art Music 
Languages. Incorporated not for profit. Scholarships 3, value 
$1400. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, 4; *32-'36, 30. 
Entered Col '37, 4; f 32-'36, 28. Alumnae 307. Accredited to 
N Y State Univ. 

Started as the preparatory department of The Finch School, 
Lenox has been a separate institution since 1916, preparing 
for college or other specialized schools. Miss Green, formerly 
with Halsted and Dana Hall Schools, has been principal sinca 

Univ, 425 West i23d St. Coed Ages 3-18 Est 1917. 


Lester Dix, B.S., M.A., Ph.D., Teachers Col, Columbia, 


Enr: Day 600. Fac: 88. Tui: $250-500. Courses 15 yrs: Nur- 
sery Sch Grades I- VI JrHighVII-IX SrHighX-XII Col Prep. 
Incorporated not for profit. Scholarships. C E B candidates '37, 
20; '32-^36, 95. Entered Col '37, 53; *32-'36, 218. Alumni 600. 
Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

This experimental school has made important contributions 
to modern educational thought, particularly along the lines of 
the creative arts and literature. Its materials in science, mathe- 
matics and the social sciences, as published by Teachers College, 
are numerous. The descriptive booklet of the school is a note- 
worthy example. The school owes its origin to Abraham Flexner 
and was established and long supported by the General Educa- 
tion Board as the experimental school of Teachers College. Otis 
W. Caldwell, director of the school from its inception, resigned 
in 1927. The school is a member of the committee on the Rela- 
tion of School and College of the Progressive Education Associa- 
tion, of which it was one of the early members. 

Coed Ages 4-13. 

Elisabeth Irwin, Principal. 

Enr: Day 400. Fac: 18. Tui: $150. Courses 10 yrs: Pre Sch 1-2 
Grades I- VIII. 

An outgrowth of the educational experiment conducted for 
eleven years in Public School 41 with the support of the Public 
Education Association, this is now a private school primarily 
interested in contributing to the solution of problems of public 
education. The large classes and small budget of the public 
school situation have been retained. The children live and work 
in a cooperative, rather than a competitive, atmosphere with the 
curriculum of the first years based largely on the study of their 
environment. Music and rhythms, painting, modelling, dra- 
matics, and handicrafts are emphasized throughout. Children 
beyond the fourth grade must meet all the standard achieve- 
ment tests. The June camp is considered an essential part of the 
school year. 

LYCEE FRANCAIS DE NEW YORK, 22 East 6oth St. Coed 
Ages 6- 1 6 Est 1935. 

Henry Dupont, Agrege de 1'Universite, Dir of Studies. Enr: 
Day 75. Fac: 18. Tui: $350-400. Courses 8 yrs: Grades III-X. 
Conducted not for profit. 

Following the course of study as given in the French Iyc6es, 
this school is primarily for children of French parents, though 
American children are also enrolled. A new class will be added 
each year until there are ten grades. 


27 West 6yth St. Coed Est 1930. 

Ray L. Baldwin, Manager. 

Enr: 100. Courses: Technique of Acting 1-2 Diction Voice 
Production Singing Rhythmic Physical Re-education Makeup. 

Former head of the dramatics school in the original Moscow 
Art Theatre in Russia and more recently of the American Labor- 
atory Theatre, now defunct, Mme. Ouspenskaya has had prac- 
tical experience in the theatre and movies in this country. 

Riverside Drive. Coed Est 1921. 

Prof. Nicholas Roerich, Pres; Sina Lichtmann, Director. 
Enr: 300. Fac: 47. Tui: $56-260. Incorporated 1922. 

Founded by Professor Roerich as the Master Institute of 
United Arts, in 1037 tne school took the name of its affiliated 
museum. Instruction is offered in all the arts in day, evening, 
and Saturday classes. A junior art center for children and a six 
weeks summer session are maintained. For some years President 
Roerich has been assisted by Sina Lichtmann. 

McBURNEY SCHOOL, 63rd St and Central Park West. Boys 
Ages 9-20 Est 1915. 

Thomas Hemenway, B.S., A.M., Columbia, Head Master. 
Enr: Day 228. Fac: 21. Tui: $275-325. Courses 9 yrs: Grades 
IV-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated not for profit. 
Trustees elected by YMCA. Scholarships, value $8500. YMCA. 
C E B candidates '37, 5; *32-36, 24. Entered Col '37, 32; '32- 
'36, 148. Alumni 616. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

Offering a full day program with supervised activities, Mc- 
Burney since 1930 has occupied three floors of the West Side 
Y.M.C.A., making use of its complete equipment for athletics 
and technical training. There is opportunity for outdoor play 
and varied hobby and crafts work. In 1935 the Kelvin School 
was absorbed. 


Arthur Black, Director. Est 1919. 

Enr: Day 50, Eve . Fac: 6. Tui: Day $245, Eve $90. Courses 
9 mos. Incorporated 1932 not for profit. 

Founded by Michel Jacobs, the school offers painting from 
life and landscape, poster, costume and fabric design, interior 
decorating and designing in day and evening classes. Summer 
schools are maintained. 

TEACHERS, 66 Fifth Ave. Women 18-22 Est 1909. 

James E. Lough, Ph.D., Pd.D., Dean. 


Bnr: 125. Fac: 14. Tui: $375. Courses 3 and 4 yrs. Incorpo- 
rated 1931 not for profit. 

The work of this school is accredited by most universities, and 
graduates of the three year course are eligible for a State life 
certificate. Harriette Melissa Mills, one of the founders, was 
principal until her death in 1929, when Dr. Lough, long dean of 
New York University, took over the direction. There are facili- 
ties for residence. 

Coed Ages 15-30 Est 1825. 

Jonas Lie, President. 

Enr: 400-500. Fac: 17. Tui: Free. Courses 7 mos. Incorpo- 
rated. Scholarships 2 (traveling). 

Well known artists direct the work in the various branches 
of this oldest professional art institution in New York, and 
there are always more applicants than can be accepted. An 
affiliation with the College of Fine Arts of New York University 
offers college students special work for which credit is given. 
Cass Gilbert directed the school from 1926 until hisdeathin 1934 

SCHOOL, INC., 625 Madison Ave. Coed Ages 3-16, 16- . 
Ned Wayburn, Principal. 

Mr. Wayburn started in a small way as a teacher of dancing. 
His courses now include everything from stage to television. 

Ages 18-35 E t 1888. 

Ernest Greenwood, Head Master. 

Enr: Eve 425. Fac: 23. Tui: $155. Courses 4 yrs: High Sen 
1-4 Col Prep Col Science. Incorporated 1894. C E B candi- 
dates '37, o; > 32- > 36, 7. Entered Col '37, 45; '32-^36, 255. Ac- 
credited to Col admitting by certif. 

In 1927 Mr. Greenwood, head of Dwight School, took over 
this school and its Brooklyn branch from E. E. Camerer. 

160-162 Lexington Ave. Est 1892. 

Leon V. Solon, President. 

Enr: 400. Fac: n. Tui: $190. Courses 2-3 yrs: Textile Wall 
Paper and Gen Design Poster and Commercial Art Illustration 
Fashion Drawing Interior Decoration Architecture. Incor- 
porated. Trustees 12. Alumnae 20,000. 

Students from all over the country come to this school, estab- 
lished by Ellen Dunlap Hopkins to provide practical work for 
women in the applied arts. Over twenty-five thousand women 
have been prepared for textile and fashion designing and interior 


Broadway. Coed Ages 17- Est 1896. 

William M. Odom, President. 

Enr:Day6oo. Fac: 55. Tui: $300 N Y; $300 Paris. Courses 3 
yrs: Interior Architecture and Decoration Advertising Design 
and Illustration Costume Design and Illustration Teacher 

This school is the creation of Frank Alvah Parsons, president 
until his death in 1930, when Mr. Odom, his associate and direc- 
tor of the Paris ateliers, took over the management. Professional 
training in the various applied arts is offered here as in Paris and 
Italy. A six weeks summer session and Saturday classes are held 
in New York. 

515 Madison Ave. Coed Ages 18- Est 1916. 

SherriU Whiton, Director. 

Enr: Day 150, Eve 65. Fac: 25. Tui: Day $200, Eve $65. 
Courses 4-8 mos, 2 yrs. Chartered by N Y State Bd of Regents. 
Trustees 5. Traveling Scholarship i, value $500. Alumni 900. 

Professional preparation is supplemented by an intensive 
shorter course offering cultural training in selecting and har- 
monizing interior furnishings. 

Ave. Coed Est 1912. 

Mrs. V. M. Wheat, Director. 
Tui: Day $225, Eve $150. Courses 3 mos. Proprietary. 

Mrs. Wheat's school was long favored by prominent New 
Yorkers, many of whose daughters have been enrolled. The 
work is largely individual, preparatory to private and literary 
secretary positions. There is a special course for college grad- 

Coed Ages 15- Est 1922. 

Elizabeth B. Grimball, Director. 
Enr: Day 30, Eve 16. Fac: 8. Tui: $500, Eve $15. 

This group grew from the Inter-Theatre Arts School, estab- 
lished by Miss Grimball. Professional producer, author, and 
lecturer, she here offers two year and special courses in technique 
of the theatre, talking pictures, radio, musical comedy, opera, 
with Saturday classes for children, and summer sessions in 
Woodstock, N. Y., and Europe. 


Girls 4-18, Boys 4-6 Est 1920. 

Frances N. Nightingale; Maya Stevens Bamford, B.A., 
Queens Univ, Cambridge Univ, Head Mistresses. 


Enr: Day 203. Fac: 34. Tui: $250-700. Courses 14 yrs: Nursery 
Sch Grades I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated. 
Trustees 7. Undenominational. C B candidates '37, 10; '32- 
'36,47. Entered Col '37, 4; '32-^36, 27. Alumnae 223. 

High social standards and modern methods characterize this 
school which developed from private classes organized by Miss 
Nightingale as early as 1906. Arrangements are made for out of 
town girls to stay in New York for the five day school week. 
The present site has been occupied since 1929. 

THE HELEN NORFLEET SCHOOL, 10 East 93rd St. Girls 
Ages 1 8- Est 1932. 

Helen Norfleet, Director. 

Enr: Bdg 6. Fac: . Tui: $2500. Courses 2-3 yrs: Acad Theo- 
retical Music Art. 

Miss Norfleet, the pianist of the Norfleet Trio, the other two 
members of which are her brother and sister, and co-director 
of the Norfleet Trio Camp for Girls at Peterborough, N. H., 
here takes charge of a few older girls who are specializing in 
music or one of the arts. Affiliation with various New York 
schools gives opportunity for academic courses. 

THE PACKARD SCHOOL, Lexington Ave at 35th St. Coed. 

Seth B. Carkin, M.Accts., B.S., Rochester Univ. Est 1858. 
Enr: Day 1064. Fac: 35. Tui: Day $65 10 wks, Eve $20. 
Courses : Secretarial Gen Business Exec Secretarial Business 

Silas Packard and H. D. Stratton founded this as one of a 
chain of fifty commercial schools operated under the Bryant and 
Stratton name. Mr. Packard became sole owner in 1866. Mr. 
Carkin succeeded Byron Morton in 1925. 

PRATT SCHOOL, 400 Madison Ave. Coed Est 1905. 

Mrs. Alma R. Pratt, President. 
Tui: Day $200, Eve $110. Courses 8 mos. Proprietary. 

This school offers a secretarial course which includes cultural 
as well as technical subjects. For experienced stenographers, 
advanced day and evening courses are available. Mrs. Pratt has 
been in charge since her husband's death in 1930. 

THE RESIDENCE SCHOOL, 37 East 83d St. Girls Ages 17- . 

Mollie Hourigan, Director. Est 1920. 

Enr: Bdg . Fac: . Tui: . Courses: Music French Ad- 
vanced English Social Service Journalism Fine Art Designing 
Grad Medical Asst Law Asst. 

Miss Hourigan, who long conducted a residence for older girls, 
recently inaugurated an academic department. She spent many 
years abroad and was formerly on the faculty of Spence School. 
Music and languages are emphasized. 


RHODES SCHOOL, 1071 Sixth Ave. Coed Ages 1 6- Estign. 

J. Leslie White, President; David Goodman, B.A., M.A., 

Columbia, Principal. 

Enr: Day 175, Eve 375. Fac: 22. Tui: Day $250, Eve $100. 
Courses 4 yrs: Col Prep High Sch 1-4 Commercial. Incorpo- 
rated. Trustees self perpetuating. Scholarships 5, value $250 
each. C E B candidates '37, 3; '32-^36, 14. Entered Col '34, 65. 
Alumni 2000. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. Member 
Nat Assoc Accredited Commercial Sch. 

In 1030 Mr. Goodman merged the University Preparatory 
School, of which he was principal, with the Rhodes Preparatory 
School. The name was shortened when the school moved in 
IQ35 to its present location. 

P.O. Boys Ages 9-20 Est 1907. 

Frank S. Hackett, A.B., Columbia, Hon A.M., Williams, 

Head Master. 

Enr: Bdg 70, Day 170. Fac: 40. Tui: Bdg $1300, Day $550-650. 
Courses 9 yrs: Grades IV- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Music. 
Incorporated not for profit. Trustees self perpetuating. Scholar- 
ships 15, value $5400. Undenominational. C E B candidates 
*37 7 6 ; *3 2 -*36, 285. Entered Col '37, 18; *32-'37, 114. Alumni 
638. Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Secondary Sch. 

One of the first country schools to be located near a metro- 
politan center, Riverdale was established by Mr. Hackett on 
grounds adjoining the vast open spaces of Van Cortlandt Park. 
College preparation has been emphasized from the first, but the 
curriculum has shown unusual breadth in music and more re- 
cently in art. A liberal weekend policy makes it possible for boys 
who live nearby to keep in touch with their families, and for 
boys from a distance to enjoy the educational advantages of a 
world center. Day boys are transported in school buses from 
New York and Westchester. The entire plant, valued at more 
than a million dollars, was turned over to a board of trustees in 
1025 by Mr. Hackett, who continues as head master. Camp 
Riverdale in the Adirondacks has been maintained since 1912. 
See page 965. 

RIVERDALK SCHOOL OF Music, established in 1022, is affili- 
ated, but its enrollment is not confined to pupils in the other 
Riverdale schools. A preparatory school member of the National 
Association of Schools of Music, Richard McClanahan is head. 

THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCHOOL, coeducational, enrolls children 
from four to nine years, under Cecil C. Baldwin. 

Denness Cooper, A.B., Wells, A.M., Teachers College, takes 
girls through to college. See page 1018. 


THE RIVERSIDE SCHOOL, 316 West io 4 th St. Coed Ages 
4-18 Est 1907. 

Margaret Elizabeth Wells, B.S., A.M., Ph.D., Columbia, Dir. 
Enr: Day no. Fac: 16. Tui: $200-425. Courses 13 yrs: Kinder- 
garten Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. C E B candi- 
dates '37, 6; *32-'36, 12. Entered Col '34, o; *29- > 33, 14. 

Now offering full college preparation, this is the outgrowth 
of an elementary school purchased by Dr. Wells in 1030. 
Trained at Columbia, Dr. Wells has published books on elemen- 
tary school curricula and a series of histories. 

RUDOLF STEINER SCHOOL, 20 West 73d St. Coed 4-15. 

Hazel Lassauer, Executive Secretary. Est 1929. 
Tui: Day $200-400. Courses 10 yrs: Kindergarten Grades I-IX 
French German Art Crafts Eurythmics. Undenominational. 

Directed by the faculty as a whole under an executive com- 
mittee of three, this school is an offshoot of the original Rudolf 
Steiner School founded in 1919 in Stuttgart, Germany. 


Ruth St. Denis, Principal. Est 1915. 
Enr: Bdg 12, Day 300. Fac: . Tui: Bdg $1547, Day $872. 

The dance in America owes its position as a fine art to two 
Americans, Isadora Duncan and Ruth St. Denis. A complete 
dance education under Miss St. Denis is here given and on 
graduation students may remain on the staff, teach in branch 
schools, or join the concert company. Children's classes and a 
summer session are maintained. 

ST. AGATHA, 553 West End Ave. Girls Ages 45-19 Est 1898. 

Muriel Bowden, B.S., M.A., Columbia, Head Mistress. 
Enr: Day 250. Fac: 24. Tui: $200-500. Courses 12 yrs: Lower 
Sch I- VI Upper Sch 1-6 Col Prep Gen. Incorporated 1806 not 
for profit. Trustees 21 elected by Church. Scholarships indefi- 
nite, awarded according to merit. Episcopal. C E B candidates 
'37, 24; '32-'36, 121. Entered Col '37, 18; >32-'36, 90. Alumna 
ca 500. Accredited by Middle States Assoc. 

A school for the education of children of both sexes "in piety 
and useful learning" was founded in 1700 in Trinity Parish, 
New York, and was continued by the Trinity Church Corpora- 
tion until 1806. Out of this grew Trinity School for boys and St. 
Agatha's. The girls school today is a monument to the work of 
Emma G. Sebring, for three years member of the faculty of 
Teachers College, who organized the school and was principal 
for thirty- two years until her resignation in 1930 when she was 
retired with a pension. Miss Bowden, formerly on the staff of 
Brearley School, has maintained the traditional high standards, 
modernizing the curriculum. 


ST. ANN'S ACADEMY, 153 East 76th St. Boys Ages 6-19. 

Brother Paul Stratonic, Director. Est 1892. 
Enr: Bdg 100, Day 400. Fac: 36. Tui: Bdg $550, Day $150. 
Courses 12 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Pro- 
prietary. Trustees 5 elected by Superiors. Scholarships 20, 
value $600. Roman Catholic. C E B candidates '37, i ; '32-^36, 
o. Alumni 750. 

Sending most of its boys to Catholic colleges, this academy is 
conducted by the Marist Brothers of the Schools. 


Boys Ages 6-14 Est 1904. 

John C. Jenkins, M.A., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 
Enr: Day 200. Fac: 15. Tui: $500-700. 

St. Bernard's enrolls sons of many of New York's wealthy 
and prominent families, and prepares them for the large eastern 
boarding schools. A summer camp is affiliated. 

NURSES, Amsterdam Ave. Ages 18-30 Est 1888. 

F. Evelyn Carling, B.S., Directress. 
Enr: 150. Fac: 10. Tui: $50. Courses 3 yrs. Alumnae 1600. 

Candidates for this training school must have a high school 
diploma or its equivalent. All departments of the hospital are 
open to the pupils for instruction. The nurses have quarters for 
their exclusive use in the Eli White Memorial. 


Boys Ages 9-15 Est 1918. 
T. Tertius Noble, M.A., Mus.D., Cantuar, Choirmaster; 

Charles M. Benham, B.A., Williams, Head Master. 
Enr: Bdg 31. Fac: 7. Tui: $50. Courses 5 yrs: Grades VI-VIII 
High Sch 1-2. Episcopal. Alumni 145. 

Boys with good voices are here trained for the choir of St. 
Thomas Church. A high standard of scholarship is maintained 
and boys are prepared for the leading secondary schools. 

59th St. Coed Ages 16- Est 1890. 

Gabrielle Sorrenson, B.S., NYU, A.M., Columbia, Dean. 
Enr: Day 280. Fac: 45. Tui: $280. Courses 3 yrs: Normal. 
Incorporated 1890 not for profit. Trustees 7 self perpetuating. 
Scholarships ca 20, value $2100-2500 annually. Alumni 2552. 

This oldest school of its kind in the state was incorporated as 
the Dr. Savage Physical Development Institute, later known 
as the New York Normal School for Physical Education. The 
work is credited toward a degree by some colleges. Watson L. 
Savage, the founder, was president until his death in 1931. 


SCOVILLE SCHOOL, 1008 Fifth Ave. Girls 5- Est 1878. 

Elizabeth G. At wood, A.B., A.M., Boston Univ; Effingham 

M. Crane, Principals. 

Enr: Bdg 10, Day 88. Fac: 16. Tui: Bdg $1000-1200, Day $350- 
. Courses 14 yrs: Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep 
Post Grad Music Art Languages. Proprietary. Undenomina- 
tional. C E B candidates '37, 5; '32-'36, 13. Entered Col '35, 35 
'3<>-'34, 25. Alumnae 625. Accredited to Col admitting by certif. 
Accredited by Middle States Assoc Col and Sec Sch. 

This is the outgrowth of a school established by a Miss North 
and taken over and renamed in 1882 by Mrs. Helen M. Scoville. 
Purchased in 1030 by Mrs. Atwood, it now offers intensive 
college preparation and advanced cultural courses. 

THE SCUDDER SCHOOL, 66 Fifth Ave. Girls 17- Est 1895. 

James E. Lough, Ph.D., Pd.D., President. 
Enr: Bdg 15, Day 175. Fac: 18. Tui: Bdg $1350, Day $350-380. 
Courses 1-2 yrs: Secretarial Social Welfare. Incorporated 1913 
not for profit. Trustees 10. Scholarships 4, value $100. Unde- 
nominational. Alumnae 1600. 

Now offering older girls specialized training in secretarial 
work and social welfare, this was long under the close personal 
direction of Dr. Myron T. Scudder who died in 10,35. M FS - 
Scudder and a daughter carried on for some time. Dr. Lough, 
president since 1936, has been connected with various schools 
and colleges in the city. 

THE SEMPLE SCHOOL, 351 Riverside Drive. Girls 16-20. 

Mrs. T. Darrington Semple, Principal. Est 1898. 
Enr: Bdg 35, Day 55. Fac: 14. Tui: Bdg $1500-1800, Day $500- 
600. Courses 4 yrs: High Sch 3-4 Col Prep Post Grad 1-2 
Finishing Languages Music Art Domestic Art Drama Secre- 
tarial. Undenominational. C E B candidates '37, i; *32-'36, 3. 

Emphasizing its special courses, this finishing school draws 
its girls from all over the country. 

THE SPENCE SCHOOL, 22 East Qist St. Girls Bdg 13-18, 

Day 4-18 Est 1892. 
Dorothy Brockway, B.A., Barnard, M.A., Columbia, Head 


Enr: Bdg 25, Day 207. Fac: 41. Tui: Bdg $1800-2200, Day 
$250-700. Courses 13 yrs: Bdg, Grade VIII High Sch 1-4 ; Day, 
Pre-Sch i Grades I- VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep Art Music 
Expression Dramatics Languages Dancing. Incorporated 
1916 not for profit. Trustees 20 elected by alumnae and self 
perpetuating. C E B candidates '37, 4; *32-'36, 43. Entered Col 
'37> 10 ; '32-'36, 43. Alumnae ca 2000. Accredited to Col admit- 
ting by certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc. 


For thirty years Clara B. Spence held the implicit confidence 
of her patrons. A woman of strong and gracious personality, 
Miss Spence was able to live uncompromisingly up to her ideals. 
Even at the beginning of the century, when the social graces 
were of more importance, she developed in her girls something 
of social consciousness. On her death in 1923 the school came 
under the direction of Charlotte S. Baker, for many years co- 
principal. When in 1932 the trustees, many of them alumnae, 
invited Valentine Chandor to merge with Spence her own school, 
opened in 1917, a new era began. The spring teas and sewing 
classes of Miss Spence's day passed. Miss Chandor 's personality 
and intellectual interests were stimulating to students and 
alumnae. A coterie of the New York socialite alumnae ran the 
school following Miss Chandor 's death in 1935 and selected as 
the fifth head mistress, Miss Brockway, who had been for some 
years at Miss Hewitt's, and is here repeating the success she 
there attained. See page 1017. 

STATEN ISLAND ACADEMY, New Brighton, Staten Island. 
Coed Ages 3-18 Est 1884. 

Stephen J. Botsford, A.B., Colgate, M.A., Pa Univ, Head. 
Enr: Day 200. Fac: 23. Tui: $200-425. Courses 15 yrs: Pre- 
Sch Grades I-VI High Sch VII-XII Col Prep. Incorporated 
not for profit. Trustees 21 self perpetuating. Scholarships 24, 
value one-half tuition. C E B candidates '37, 8; '32-^36, 25. 
Entered Col '37, 18; '32-^36, 35. Alumni ca 550. Accredited to 
Col admitting by certif. Accredited by Middle States Assoc. 

This academy has served its community for half a century 
under a notable series of head masters. Mr. Botsford for seven 
years assistant head master, in 1935 succeeded Thomas C. 
Burton, during whose administration three local institutions 
were absorbed. Most of the graduates go on to college. 

THE STUDIO FOR THE THEATRE, 15 West 67th St. Coed 

Ages 1 6- Est 1911. 
Theodora Irvine, A.B., Northwestern Univ, Director; Leath 

Loder, Assistant Director. 
Proprietary. Scholarships 2. 

Courses in diction and the speaking voice are given special 
attention in this school which trains expressly for the stage. 
Evening and summer courses are maintained. 

29 West s6th St. Coed. 

Tamara Daykarhanova, Dir; Frances Deitz, Managing Dir. 
Tui: $400. Courses: Technique of Acting Voice Body Training 
and Mimo-Drama Stage Makeup Diction Dialects. 

Mme. Daykarhanova had wide stage experience here and 


abroad before opening this school. The Studio of Stage Make-Up 
which she started in 1931, has been incorporated in this school 
which maintains evening and summer sessions. 

THE TODHUNTER SCHOOL, 66 East Both St. Girls Ages 
6- 1 8 Est 1900. 

Marion Dickerman, M.A., B.Ped., Syracuse, Principal. 
Enr: Day 100. Fac: 16. Tui: $350-700. Courses 13 yrs: Grades 
I-VIII High Sen 1-4 Col Prep Art Music Manual Arts Post 
Grad. Incorporated not for profit. Scholarships 2. C E B can- 
didates '37, 3J '32-'36, 10. Entered Col '37, 7J '3<>-'34, ca 14. 
Alumnae no (since 1927). Accredited by Middle States Assoc 
Col and Secondary Sch. 

Since 1927 Todhunter School, established by Mrs. Randall- 
Maclver and taken over in 1921 by Winifred A. Todhunter, has 
been under the direction of Miss Dickerman. Until 1936 she 
had the cooperation of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, who 
brought to the school an aristocratic democracy and to its 
pupils broadminded teaching of history and current affairs. 
Since she took over her larger audience, Mrs. Roosevelt has 
continued to teach a class in the school and tells of her intimate 
relations with it in her autobiography, "This Is My Story." 

THE TOWN SCHOOL, INC., 114 East 76th St. Coed Ages 

2}-I2 Est 1916. 

Harriette B. Young, Cornell, President. 

Enr: Day 75. Fac: 15. Tui: $300-700. Courses 9 yrs: Nursery 
Grades I-VIII. Incorporated 1935. Trustees 6. Undenomina- 

Emphasizing crafts work, music and French this day group 
prepares largely for local secondary schools. In 1936 it sup- 
planted The Hyde School. 

Coed Est 1923. 

Ethel Traphagen, Director. 

Tui: Day $375* Courses 1-2 yrs: Costume Design Interior 
Decoration Window Display Textile Design Fashion Journal- 
ism Theatre Design Illustration. Scholarships. 

Following the European apprentice idea, this combination 
school and business house emphasizes all phases of costume de- 
sign and illustration, with a separate clothing construction 
department. There are day and evening courses, winter and 

TRINITY SCHOOL, 139 West 9ist St. Boys 6-18 Est 1709. 

M. Edward Dann, M.A., Columbia, Head Master. 
Enr: Day 300. Fac: 20. Tui: $150-300. Courses 12 yrs: Grades 


I-VIII High Sch 1-4 Col Prep. Incorporated. Trustees 21. 
Scholarships 125. Prizes 17, value $225. Episcopal. C B can- 
didates '37, 8; ! 32-*36, 50. Entered Col '34, ; '27-3i, 108. 
Alumni 1500. Accredited by Middle States Assoc. 

Endowed in 1796 and maintained in connection with Trinity 
Parish until 1806, when it was incorporated, Trinity was 
founded over two centuries ago by the "Venerable Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts". Conducted 
at first in the tower of old Trinity Church as an elementary 
school, it has moved uptown with the progress of the residential 
district and has increased the range of instruction. In 1898 the 
corporation established a separate school for girls, St. Agatha. 
Under the Rev. Lawrence T. Cole, rector from 1903 to 1937, 
four-fifths of the graduates yearly entered leading colleges. The 
school's self -con ten ted conservatism is attributable not only to 
its hallowed past but to its successful investments in New York 
real estate. 

St. Coed Ages 12-30 Est 1926. 

George Matthew, B.A., M.A., Columbia, Director. 
Enr: Day 36. Fac: 22. Tui: $400-240