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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 



PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 

MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



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HANDBOOK 



OF 



THE RIYER PLATE; 

COMPEISING 

BUENOS AYRES, THE UPPER PROVISOES, BAiiDA 
• ORIENTAL, AND PARAGUAY, 



BY 

M. G. & E. T. MULHALL, 

Editors of the Stmtdard. 
IK TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL. L 




BUENOS AYRES: 

STAJtI>A£D printing-office, 74 CALLE BELGRANO. 

1869. 



Price 160 /)er Volmnf. 



TO 



HIS EXCELLENCY D. F. SARMIENTO, 



PRESIDENT OF THE AR3EXTIXK aKPVBLIC, 



THIS WORK 



IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 



BY 



THE AUTHORS. 



'; 



PRESERVATION 
COPY ADDED 
ORIGINAL TO BE 
RETAINED 

JAN 2 1993 



F ^^0 e 



PKEPACE 



The utility of a work like the present is so manifest as to need neither 
explanation nor apology. If possible, it would be desirable to publish a 
Handbook of these countries annually, for the use as well of residents ia 
the River Plate, as of our friends in Europe and the United States. 
Unfortunately, the difficulties and outlay are far beyond any profit that the 
editors can expect. In fact we lost money by our edition of 1863, the 
National and Provincial Governments failing to subscribe for a single copy, 
although we had the satisfaction of knpwing that the work was productive 
of some good to our adopted country. In the improved and enlarged form 
of the present Handbook there will be found very complete and detailed 
information of these countries, as we have spared neither labor nor 
expense to deserve the approval of the foreign community, which is the 
great object we always keep in view. It has been our particular study to 
give an exact picture of foreign enterprise and industry in the River Plate, 
and the task was, indeed, an agreeable one. At the same time we have 
labored to point out to readers in Europe the many advantages which these 
countries enjov, to attract a larger tide of immigration. TS'or must we omit 
here to bear evidence to the liberal spirit of the institutions of these 



iviaiQaso 



^l PAEFAGE. 

■Republics, and the kindly feeling and cordiality of all educated Argentines 
and Orientals. In fine, we have every hope that with an increase of 
population and industrial resources the River Plate will soon follow in the 
footsteps of its great model, the United States. 

The conclusion of the Paraguayan War and commencement of President 
Sarmiento's administration is a most opportune time for the publication of 
the present work, in the hope of drawing increased attention to the River 
Plate. Under a progressive and peaceful administration we may look 
forward to widespread improvement, new enterprises, and an increase of 
trade and industry. Popular education also bids fair to make much head- 
"way, and no branch of knowledge is more important, nor more neglected 
in Buenos Ayres, than the study of the resources of the Argentine 
Republic ! Let us hope that patriotic Argentines will join heart and hand 
with foreigners to advance this fine country. 

Volume I. of the Handbook contains three sections, viz.: A., the 
Argentine Republic, its colonies, railways, history, public men, &c. ; B., 
the City of Buenos Ayres, its buildings, institutions, and port; C, the 
Camps of Buenos Ayres, comprising the various partidos and every estancia 
in the province. Volume II. contains four sections: D., the thirteen 
Argentine Provinces; E., the Banda Oriental; F., Paraguay; and G., a 
45oraplete Directory, official, foreign, and commercial, of Buenos Ayres and 
Montevideo, each apart. The maps of the Argentine Republic, Buenos 
Ayres city, and Montevideo, will be bound with the second volume. 

In giving the Handbook now to the public we feel confident that it will 
meet with a good reception : whatever inaccuracies may have unavoidably 
<;rept in will be corrected in the next edition. We have to thank the 
^numerous kind friei is who contributed iuterestir g information abeut their 



PREFACX. ViS 

•wn particular district, and especially the Irish clergymen in the camp^ 
to whom we beg to offer a copy of the book, gratis for each of their Lending 
Libraries. We also offer a copy for each public and charitable institution 
of the English, Scotch, American, and German communities on either side 
of the River Plate. Volume IL will appear on the 1st of June, and the 
Directory of Buenos Ayres is being carefully compiled by Mr. Frank 
Mulhall, 74 Calle Belgrano, to whom communications may be directed. 

M. G. & E. T. MULHALL. 

March 17, 1869, Standard Office, Buenos Ayrn. 



ERRATA. 

Sectios a., page 3, liae 3, read «I4,000,000 sheep.» 
« « 16, « 2, « «Pjrenees.» 

« « 109, «15, a «I00 tons monthly,), 

« <J 157, «25, « ((doubloon 15.36. » 

« « 157, «25, « <r20 francs 3. 60.» 

* « 1^7, «26, (( «condor 8.80.» 

Section C, « 81, «12, « «Kiernan.» 
« « 2#, « I, « ((Chapter III. » 



CONTENTS 

OF THE FIRST VOLUME. 



SECTION A. 
Chap. I. The Rivgr Plate Pepiiblics ; General Outline. 





»A,<J«. 


Argentine Republic, .... 


1 


Republic of Uruguay, .... 


2 


Paraguay, 


Z 


Chap. U. The Argentine Republic. 




Provinces and Chief Towns, .... 


4 


Army Statistics, .... .... 


6 


Financial Statistics, .... 


9 


Agricultural Statistics, .... .... .... 


12 


Chap. III. Foreign Popvlalion. 




Different Nationalities, 


14 


Immigration Statistics, 


17 


Scale of Wages, .... .... .... 


18 


Chap. IV. Agricultural Colonics. 




Santa Fe, 


2d 


Entre Rios, .... 


28 


Buenos Avres, .... 


.3» 


Chap. Y. Colonization of the Chaco. 




Indian Reductions, 


3 i 


Helvetia Colony, .... .... 


31) 


San Javier Project, .... .... 


4t 


Land Grants, .... .... 


4.3 


California Colony, .... .... 


45 


Rivadavia Colony, .... .... 


51 



CONTEIiiTS. 

Chap. YI. Colonization of Pataffonia. 



PAQB. 



Mr. Bamberger's Grant, .... .... .... .... 53 

<k)x' s Exploring Expedition, .... .... .... 55 

Chilian and Argentine Projects, .... .... .... 57 

The Welsh Colony, .... .... .... 58 

Free Land Grants at Bahia Blanca, .... 66 

English Settlers on the Bio Negro, .... .... .... 70 

Chap. VII. Bio de la Plata and Trifrutaries. 

General Bemarks, .... .... .... .... 72 

The Parana — Buenos Ayres to Matto Grosso, .... .... 7.*^ 

Up the Uruguay, .... .... .... 87 

The Salado and Vermejo, .... .... .... 93 

... . . . iJJnq!>H 

Chap. VIII. Itineraries of the Republic. 

General Bemarks, . — .... 9B 

Northern Boute, 99 

Western Boute, .... 101 

Cii.4P, IX. Enterprises^ Projects^ and Concessions. 

Bailways, Telegraphs, &c ,• .... . . . . ' .... 105 

Harbor Acconiuiodation, ... .... • • • • . • • • HI 

Drainage and Water Supply, .... .... .... 113 

Export of Cattle, .... .... .... 1 1 i 

Chap. X. Treaties of Commerce and Navigation. 

Treiily with Great Britain, .... .... .... n5 

Treaty with the United States, .... .... 120 

Chap. XI. Biographies of Public Men. 

President Sarmiepto, .... •.•. • • •. • •••• '-^-^ 

Vice-President Alsina, .... .... .... 125 

Ex-Prcsident Jlitre, .... 1 2G 

General Urquiza, Archbishop of Buenos Ayres, Governor Castro, 127 

CTr. Velez Sarsfield, Dr. Mariano Varela, Dr. Gorostiaga, 128 

Dr. Avellaneda, Colonel Gainza, General GcUy y Obes, 129 

General Paunero, Don N. de la Biestra, 1 30 

Don Mariano Balcarce, Seftor Posadas, Postmaster-General, Mr. 

O'Gorman, Chief of Police, .... .... 131 



CO^TE^TS. xi 

Chap. XII. Mining in the Cwjo Provinces. 



San Juan, .... 

Klappeabacb's mines, .... 

Babie's & Fragueiro's works, 
Hilario Mining Works, .... 

Mendoza, .... .... 

San Luis, .... .... 



Chap. XIII. History and Literature of River Plate. 



Chap. XVII. Miscellaneous. 

Customs Law for 18G9, .... .... 

National Stamped Paper, 1869, .... 

Administpatiou of President 5Iitre (1862-8), 
The ]\'at!onal Government, Congress, .... 

Courts of Law, Hierarchy, .... 

Budget for 1869, 

Post-oCBce Returns, Comparative Table of Time, 



PAGE. 

132 

13.3 

139 

141 

144. 

147 



Historical Record, .... 150 

Works Published on the River Plate, .... 152 

River Plate Newspapers, .... .... 15i 

Chap. XIV. Monetjs^ Weights^ Measures, and Distances. 

Buenos Ayres, .... .... .... .... 156 

Montevideo, Paraguay, .... .... 157 

Table of Distances from Buenos Ayres, .... .... 158 

Meteorological Table, .... .... 160 

Chap. XV. Advice to Emigrants. 

Who to come, and who to stay at bome, .... 161 

Steam Service to the River Plate, .... .... . . . .• 1 63 

Letters of Credit, 166 

Instructions on Landing, .... .... .... .... 167 

Chap. XVI. Itineraries from England and Sew York. 

Englandto Buenos Ayres, .... .... .... 169 

New York to Buenos Ayres, ..... .... .... 176 



177 
179 
181 
187 
188 
189 
192 



Xll CONTEiSlS. 

SECTION B. 

Chap. I. City of Buenos Ayres. 

Early History and Present Condition, 

Chap. II. Hotels, Clubs, Theatres, and Plazas. 

Hotels, .... 

Clubs, 

Theatres, .... .... 

Plazas, .... 

Markets, .... 

Chap. III. Public Departments. 

Government House, Post Office, Policia, 
Provincial Departments, Library, Legislature, 
Topographic Office, Archives, Commissariat, 
Parque, Congress Hall, Capitania, .... 

Municipality, Law Courts, .... 

Board of Health, Lottery, City Prisons, 
Museum and University, .... .... 

Public Schools, .... .... 

Chap. IV^ Churches and Charitable Institutions 

Churches, .... .... 

The Irish Convent, .... .... ... 

English Church, Scotch Church, 

American Church, German Church, Cemeteries,. . 
Admiral Brown's Monument, .... 

English Cemetery, Hospitals, .... 

British Hospital, .... .... 

Irish Hospital, , .... 

Convalescencia, Poor and Foundling Asylums, . . 

Chap. V. Streets and Shop 

Calle Bivadavia, .... 

Streets Running North, 

Streets Banning South, 

Streets BunningWest, north end. 
Streets Running West, south end. 



6 

8 

11 

16 



18 
21 
22 
2i 
26 
28 
30 
32 



34 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
43 
44 
46 



49 
50 
54 
56 

58 



CONTENTS. 



XIU 



Chap. VI. The Custom-house 

Import Traffic, 

Unloading, .... .... .... 

Goods in Transit, Direct Despatch, 

Passengers' Luggage, Goods for Deposit, 

Export Traffic, 

Shipment in Transit, 

Health Papers, .... 

Chap. VII. Bolsa, Banks, and Public Companies 

The Bolsa de Comercio, .... 

The Provincial Bank, .... .... 

Maua Bank, .... .... .... 

English Bank, .... .... .... 

The Argentine Bank, .... 

Wanklvn's Bank, Hart's Bank, the Bural Society, 
Insurance and Joint -Stock Companies, .... 

River Plate Telegraph Company, Commercial Rooms, 
British Clerks' Provident Association* .... 

The Cricket and Athletic Clubs, the Jockey Club, 

Chap. VIII. The Suburbs. 

Belgrano, 

Palermo, .... .... 

Flores, .... .... 

Barracas, .... 

The Boca, 

South Barracas, .... .... 

Chap. IX. Excursions by Railway. 

The Northern, to the Tigre, 

The Boca and Ensenada Railway, 

The Western, to Chivilcoy, 

The Southern, to Chascomus, .... 

Chap. X. Tariffs^ Taxes, Regulations. 

Provincial Stamped Paper, 

Law of Licences ( 1 869,) .... .... 

Property Tax, Tariff for Lighters, 

Municipal, Gas, and Sereno Tax, Parochial Division of the City, 
Bules of the Faculty of Medicine, .... .... 



61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 

69 
70 
73 

75 
77 
78 
SO 
82 
83 
84 

85 
87 
88 
90 
95 
97 



99 
104 
107 
114 

119 
121 
124 
127 

128 



XIV 



COJNTEliTS. 



Chap. XI. The Mouth of the River Plate, and Port of Buenos Ayres. 



The Approach to the River, 

Anchorage, .... 

The Port of Buenos Ayres, 

The Outer Roads, 

The Inner Roads, . ... 

Position of Buenos Ayres, 

Pilots, ' ... 

The Riachuelo, 
Pamperos, .... 
The Barometer, 
Temperature, 

Tides, 

The Route from. Monte video to Buenos 
The Channels, 
Point Indio, .... 
Advice to Mariners, 



Ayres, 



PAGE. 

129 
131 
132 
133 
134 
136 
137 
138 
141 
148 
149 
150 
154 
155 
158 
159 



SECTION 0. 



Chap. I. The Province of Buenos Ayres. 



General Description 







. . . . 






. . . 




1 


Partidos and Towns, 













4 




Chap. II 


Life in 


the Camp. 




Cattle Farming, 


.... 


• • • • 




. • . • • • 


9 


Sheep Farming, 













13 




Chap. III. 


The Riverine 


Partidos. 




iBelgrano, 


.... 


.... 




.... 


20 


> San Isidro, .... 


.... 














21 


4 San Fernando, 


.... 














23 


Las Conchas, 
















24 


^ Zarate, 


.... 














27 


'^ Baradero, 


.... 














28 


j San Pedro, 


.... 














31 


'_>t Rincon de Ramallo, 


.... 














33 


>( San Nicolas, .... 


.... 














34 



COI^TE.NTS. 



xr 



Chap. IV. The JS'orthern Partidos. 



,W.) 



Pilar, .... 


37 


Capilla del Seiior, . . . ; 


.... .... 39 


X San Andres de Giles, • .... 


.... .... 41 


/ San Antonio de Areco, 


.... .... 42 


T<:Carraen de Areco, .... 


4i 


X Salto, 


47 


/Arrecifes, 


49 



Chap. V. North and West Frontiers. 



K Pergamino, .... .... 


• - .53 


y Bojas, .... 


56 


X Junin, .... 


60 


Lincoln, .... .... 


.... 62 


V^Chacabuco, 


63 


Bragado, 


• . * .... 65 


y Nueve de Julio, .... 


68 


vVeinte Cinco de Mayo, .... 


71 



Chap. VI. The Western Partidos. 



y San Jose de Flores, 
/ Malanzas, .... 

V San Martin, 

"^ Moron, .... 

/Merlo, Moreno, 
/ Las Heras, Lujan, 
yc 3Iercedes, • • • • ^ 
"x Snipacha, Chivileoy, 



/ y 

77 
79 
80 
83 
85 
91 
96 



Chap. VIL South Western Partidos. 



' -f Canuelas, .... 

V>'avarro, 

V Lobos, .... 

Guardia del Monte, 

VSaladillo, 

• "^as Flores, 

^ Tapalquen, 



lot 
103 
106 
108 
111 
113 
117 



XVl 



CONTENTS. 



Chap. VIII, Southern Partidos. 



South Barracas, 
Lomas de Zamorra, 
San Vicente, 
Ranches, .... 
€hascomiis, .... 
Dolores, .... 



PAGB. 

120 
121 
124 
127 
131 
137 



Chvp. IX. South Coast Partidos. 



Quilmes, 

Ensenada, .... 
Magdalena, .... 
Rivadavia, Castelli, 

Tordillo, 

Aj6, .... 

Tuyu, 

Mar Chiquita, 



Pila, 

Vecino, 

Monsalvo, 

Ayacucho, 

Arenales, 

Ranch, 

Azul, 

Tandil, 

Balcarce, 

Lobcria, 

Necochea, 

Tres Arroyos, 

Rahia Rlanca, 

Patagones, . . 



.... 


140 


.... 


145 




1 53 


.... 


15G 


. . .... . . 


1 58 


. . .... . . 


1 59 


. . . . . ; 


161 





162 


r South Partidos. 




. . .... . . 


165 


.... 


167 


.... 


168 


.... 


170 


.... 


171 


. . ... 


172 


.... 


174 


.... 


177 


. . .... . . 


181 


.... 


183 


.... 


185 


. . .... 


187 


.... 


1 89 


. . .... . . 


193 



Chap. XI. The Islamls of the Parana. 
Description and first settlers, .... .... 



198 



34 




'^/C,^-.^^^* 



SECTION A. 



CHAP. I. 



THE RIVER PLATE REPUBLICS. 

The River Plate Republics are three in number, viz. : the Argentine 
Nation (or La Plata, properly so called), Uruguay or Banda Oriental, and 
Paraguay. These immense territories, formerly comprehended in the vice- 
royalty of Buenos Ayres imder the Spanish regime, cover nearly 900,000 
square miles, with a scanty population not exceeding three millions, or 
three inhabitants per square mile. The mineral and agricultural resources 
of these countries are perhaps equal to those of the United States, and the 
water system is almost unrivalled, the afiluents of the Plate ramifying one- 
lialf of the Continent. The climate is the healthiest on the face of the 
globe, the inhabitants are very friendly to foreigners, civil and religious 
liberty prevail in the fullest sense, and treaties of amity and commerce 
have been concluded with all the great Powers. Trade relations and new 
enterprises of importance have brought the River Plate into close contact ^ 
with Great Britain and the London capitalists, and there are few countries 
which offer more inducements to English emigrants than these, or few 
foreign nations viewed with more respect, by Argentines, than Great 
Britain. 

The Argentijse Republic is for the most part an unbroken plain, bounded 

(j on the ]\orth by Bolivia, on the West by the Cordillera of the Andes, on 

ySa the South by Magellan's Straits, and on the East by Brazil, Banda Oriental, 

>4.as'?^ the Atlantic. It is divided into fourteen provinces, some of which 

/Tanakiui*^*!® deserving of note, but others have attained a high degree of 

zation. 



2 THE RIVER PLATE REPUBLICS. 

Tlie Province of Buenos Ayres is nearly equal to all the rest collectively, 
in importance, wealth, and population, being moreover the great centre of 
foreign immigration. The city of the same name is the seat of the National 
and Provincial Governments, and one of the principal sea-ports of South 
America. In the refinement of its society, progressive spirit of the people^ 
and activity of trade and industry, it yields to no other city in the 
Continent, and has earned the title of « Athens of South America.)) Entre 
Eios and Santa Fe have of late attracted much notice as sheep-farming 
countries. Cordoba, the heart of the interior, will soon receive a great 
impulse from the Central Argentine Railway. San Juan and Cataraarca are 
remarkable for their mineral wealth. Mendoza, at the foot of the Cordil- 
lera, formerly the chief city of the Cuyo provinces, is hardly emerging 
from the ruins of the earthquake of 1 86 1 . Santiago and the other 
northern provinces have been hitherto so isolated as to be almost valueless,, 
but the projected navigation of the Vermejo, and the openiug of a highway 
through the Gran Chaco, will unite them with the river Parana, the great 
artery of the Republic. The provinces called Literal, from being adjacent 
to this river, have an immense advantage over the rest, possessing cheap 
freight and easy transit to Buenos, Ayres and the commercial world. Tiie 
population of the Republic is usually set down at a million and a half souls, 
but is ; rather over than under that estimate. The established religion is 
Roman Catholic, and the language Spanish, from which nation the original 
settlers were descended. »< 

The Republic of Uruguay, or «Eanda Oriental,)) is separated from 
the last-mentioned country by the Rivers Plate and Uruguay : the La Plata, 
opposite Buenos Ayres, is twenty-eight miles wide. It is very different 
from the sister state, in being intersected with numerous chains of moun- 
tains, called here Cuchillas or Sierras. Its extent is 63,000 square miles, 
or larger than England by one-eighth. 3Iany of the general features are 
similar to those of La Plata, the country being eminently adapted for sheep 
and cattle farming, and, moreover, free from Indian incursions. The 
capital, ^lontevideo, is favorably situated near the mouth of the Plate, 
and its commerce is almost equal to that of Buenos Ayres, from which port 
it is distant 120 miles. The next towns of importance are — Salto and 
Paysandu, on the River Uruguay ; Canelones, TacuarembO, and Minas, in 
the interior ; Mercedes, on the Rio Negro ; Colonia, abreast of Buenos 
Ayres ;> and Maldonado, on the Atlantic. The country is thickly wooded 
in parts, and presents a beautifully diversified appearance. Of .late years 
there has been an immense inllux of immigrants, and several Bueuos Ayrean 
land-owners also possess cstancias on this side: the population was 



REPUBLIC OF PARAGUAY. 5 

quintupled in the forty years from 1824-G4, being now returned as 300,000. 
Tlie live stock is considerable, amounting to 8,000,000 head of horned 
cattle, /4,000,000 sheep, and 2,000,000 of other kinds. The Custom > 
regulations are much more liberal than those of Buenos Ayres ; the religion 
and language are the same. Dui'ing the past two years the country \sas 
desolated by civil war, but everything now seems satisfactorily settled, and 
the Government is really anxious to improve the means of internal transit, 
develop the riches of the Republic, and foster foreign immigration. 

Paraguay is not always counted one of the River Plate Republics, being 
over a thousand miles inland, but we have included it because formerly a 
part of the vice-royalty, besides being situated on the principal afauent of 
La Plata, and so intimately connected with Buenos Ayrfes. It is the country 
least known of this Continent, and yet had made great advancement in the 
years just preceding the 'present war. Up to 1840 it was entirely closed 
against foreigners', under the rule of the sanguinary tyrant, D. Caspar 
Traucia. Railways, telegraphs, arsenal, dry docks, and other splendid 
works sprung up of late, employing a large and eCBcient staff of English 
mechanics. The Republic covers about 70,000 square miles, but claims a 
much larger territory, the frontiers with Brazil, Bolivia, and La Plata not 
bemg yet clearly defined. The census of 1857 gives a popidation of 
1,337,449. The climate is warm, the country hilly and pictiuesque, and 
the soil fertile. The inhabitants ace the most industrious in South America, 
the amount of land under cereals, cotton, and tobacco amounting to half 
a million of acres. The chief product of the country is yerba-mate or 
Paraguay tea, whicli, in time of peace, is annually exported (mostly to 
Buenos Ayres) to the value of £200,000. The cultivation of cotton was 
begun in 1863, but interrupted by the war. The capital, Asuncion, is 
a town of 25,000 inhabitants, formerly in weekly communication by steamer 
with the River Plate ; it has some fine buildings, but is much behind Buenos 
Ayres and Montevideo. Yilla Rica is the most important town in the 
interior, and those next in order are situated on the river Paraguay. The 
language of the country is Guaraui, most of the people being descended 
from that race of Indians by inter-marriage with the Spanish settlers. 
As yet few^ foreigners have settled in Paraguay, but the natives are very 
kind and affable, and the police organization is perfect. The unhappy war 
which broke out in the beginning of 1865 has been ruinous to Paraguay, 
but earned for the natives a high reputation for valor. 



THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 



CHAP. II. 



THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

This Republic holds the second rank among South American nations, coming 
next after the Empire of Brazil in extent and importance, though com- 
paratively low in the scale of population and native industry. There is, 
probably, no country on the face of the earth so favored by Nature: 
being entirely situated in the South temperate zone, it enjoys a delightful 
climate, and the soil is so varied and fertile that it produces almost spon- 
taneously all the great staples of liome consumption and foreign commerce. 
Cotton, wheat, tobacco, yerba-mite, cochineal, wine, coffee, silk, sugar, 
wool, and fruits of every kind may be raised of a superior quality, and 
in such abundance as to supply less favored nations. The mineral resources 
of the country are hardly less important : copper, silver, lead, salt, marble, 
lime-stone, granite, and coal are found in various places, and only require 
proper management and improved means of transit to become sources of 
national wealth. The country is, moreover, magnificently wooded and 
watered : the Gran Chaco possesses more timber, suitable for every 
purpose, than the whole of Europe, and the number and extent of navigable 
rivers are quite equal to the natural greatness and future requirenrents of 
a Republic destined one day to rival the Colossus of North America. 

There is, unhappily, a sad contrast between what La Plata might be, and 
what it actually is. It does not export one bale of cotton ; its tobacco is 
unknown ; rice is a foreign commodity ; yerba-niilte from Brazil excludes 
that from Corrientes ; cochineal abounds in Oran, but is not worth the 
freight; 3Iendoza wine has no market for the same reason; coffee is 
considered too troublesome ; the spiders of Corrientes weave a fine silk, 
which no one thinks of gathering ; sugar is hardly cultivated ; fi'uits arc 
unprized, and our export returns show but three great staples in the 
Republic — wool, hides, and tallow. 



THE FOURTEEN PROVINCES. 



The Republic comprises fourteen 


provinces, besides 


the Gtitf dy^^i^ffig 


folio wing .table gives their names 


, extent and population :■ — ' '"*'' 






Square Miles. 




Inhabitants. 


Buenos Ayres, 




70,000 




500,000 


Entre Rios, 


. 


50,000 




115,000 ^ 


Corrientes, 


, 


60,000 




110,000 '^ 


Santa Fe, .... 


, 


20,000 




50,000 


Cordoba, .... 


, , 


60,000 




150,000 


Santiago del Estero, 


, 


35,000 




115,000 


Tucuman, 


. 


28,000 




98,000 


Salta, 


. 


50,000 




101,000 


Jajuy, 


. 


30,000 




42,000 


Catamarca, 


. 


35,000 




105,000 


Rioja, 


, 


35,000 




43,000 


San Juan, 


. , 


33,000 




75,000 


Mendoza, .... 


, , 


65,000 




62,000 


San Luis, .... 


. 


20,000 




58.000 


Gran Chaco, 


. . 


250,000 




40,000 


Pampas and Patagonia, . . 


• 


440,000 




46,000 


Total, 


1,281,000 


1,710,000 


The cliief to^ns are : — 




• 






Buenos A\Tes, .... ] 


River Plate, 




200,000 


Cordoba, .... [ 


n 


25 S. lat., 




25,000 


Rosario, ] 


\{i\ 


er Parand, 




20,000 


Corrientes, .... 




do.. 




13,000 


Tucuman, ! 


27.10 S.lat., 




12,000 


Salta, 5 


>4. 


57, 




11,000 


San Juan, 


Rio San Juan, 




12,000 



The capital of each province (except Entre Rios) bears the same name, 
but the above are the only places worthy of note, and the rest have rather 
retrograded than improved, of late years, owing to the incessant civil wars 
and want of immigration. 

The form of government is very complicated and unwieldy, but shaped 
after the model of the United States. The ^^ational Executive is composed 
of — President, Domingo F. Sarmiento ; Yice-President, Adolfo Alsina; 
Home Minister, Dr. Dalmacio Velez Sarslield ; Foreign Affairs, Dr. Mariano 
Varela ; Finance, D. Benjamin Gorostiaga ; Instruction, Dr. Nicolas 
Avellaneda ; War, Colonel Gainza. The seat of government is Buenos 
Ayres, where Congress also assembles : there are two Chambers, the 



b THE ARGEJNTIJSE REPUBLIC. ^ 

Senators and the Deputies, elected in ratio by the various provinces. Eacli 
province has also its own Governor and Legislature, almost independent of 
the Supreme National authorities, and following no uniform rule. Buenos 
AjTes has two Provincial Chambers sitting- within a stone's throw of the 
National Parliament; the other provinces have but one. In Cordoba the 
Governor has three Ministers, in other places there are two, but several 
provinces boast only one ; and each Province has a separate Constitution. 

The religion is Roman Catholic. There are aboiit 10,000 Protestants 
among the foreign community, attached to the English, Scotch, American, 
and German congregations. 

Spanish is spoken throughout the Republic, but Guarani is much in use 
at Corrientes, Qaichua at Santiago, and French and English are becoming 
very general in Buenos Ayres. 

The military service of the Republic is performed by troops of the Line 
and National Guards or militia. The first consist of ten regiments of 
infantry, nine of cavalry, and two of artillery, numbering 6,650 men, and 
they are employed in the defence of the frontiers against the Indians. In 
the Province of Buenos Ayres, which has a very extensive frontier of 130 
leagues, there are three principal cantonments — the town of Azul, south ; 
the Veinte y Cinco de Mayo, west ; and Rojas, north. These little towns 
carry on a brisk trade from the consumption of the troops, and the barter 
trade with the friendly Indians. 

Before the outbreak of the Paraguayan war the troops of the Line 
were distributed as follows : — 



Regiment. 

1st, 

2nd, 

.3rd, 

4th, 

5th, 

6th, 

7th, 

5th, 

8th, 

8th, 



Total, 



CAVALRY. 




Station. 


. , strength 


Mendoza, 


450 


Fraile Muerto, 


250 


Rojas, 


250 


San Luis, 


250 


25 de Mayo, 


200 


Santa Fe, 


200 


Rio Cuarto, 


450 


Cordoba, 


150 


Melincue, 


150 


Azul, 


100 


• . • • . • • ... 


2,450 



ARMY AIN'D NATIOlfAL GUAM). 



1 ; 1 


INFANTRY. 




t Begiment. 


station. 


Strength 


1st, 


Buenos Ayres, 


350 


2nd, 


do., 


350 


3rd, 


Azul, 


350 


4th, 


25 de Mayo, 


350 


5th, 


Tandil, 


350 


6th, 


Rioja, 


400 


7th, 


Buenos Ayres, 


350 


8th, 


Salta, 


350 


Italian Legionj 


Buenos Ayres, 


400 


Italian Legion, 


Azul, 


200 



Total, 



3,450 



3Iartin Garcia, 
Mendoza, .... 
Frayle 3Iuerto, 
San Juan, 

Total, 



ARTILLERY. 



Rifles 



400 
250 
100 



750 



RESUMED. 



In the Provinces, 
In Buenos Ayres, 

Total, 



3,100 
3,550 



6,650 



The National Guard is composed of citizens who are regularly drafted 
from the country districts, and they guard the intervening redoubts or 
forts ; their term of service is six months, and they are allowed during 
that period the pay of soldiers in campaign, e.e., §230 per month. No 
National Guards from the capital are ever drafted for this service, for they 
are not always presumed to be, like the country people in the province, 
first-class horsemen, a necessary qualification for Indian warfare. The 
National army is composed of the following officers : — 7 Brigadier-Generals 
(the highest rank obtainable in the country), 25 Generals, 217 Com- 
manding-officers, and 605 subordinate officers — total, 854; which is 
rather more than a due proportion for only 6,650 men. 



8 



TUE ARGENTINE BEPUBI^IC. 



The National Guards on frontier service last year numbered 1,870 meu^ 
and, besides, there were 387 friendly Indians in Government service. The 
friendship of these Indians is. of course exceedingly doubtful ; they often 
steal cattle from the neighboring estaucias. 

By law, every citizen of the Republic is a National Guard, and liable, 
under certain circuinstances, to be called into active service. The 
number is as follows: — 

Buenos Ayres, 
Entre Bios, 
Corrientes, 
San Luis, 
Santiago, 
Jujuy, .... 
Mendoza, 
San Juan, 
Tucuman, 

Salta, 

Cordoba, 
Catamarca, 

Total, 

The Provinces of Santa Fe and La Bioja are not included, in this 
oflflcial estimate, they are supposed to give— the first 6,000 and the second 
3,000 men, thus making a grand total of 159,622, which is rather under 
than over the mark. But although presenting a respectable array in 
number, they are not nearly as powerful or effective as they should be, 
under proper organization. 

The National debt (including that of Buenos Ayres) is about £12,000,00a 
sterling, the interest of which is regularly attended to, taking a-fifth of 
the total revenue. The revenue and expenditure for 1869 will not be 
under $ 14,000,000s., which, for our population, averages ^8 per head, 
or three times the average of Chili, and our War-offlce costs over 
^8,000,000 or g5 per head. Let us compar,e this with the revenue and 
population of the various states of Europe, from the oifficial Almanac of .the 
United States. 





40,165 




19,314 




9,349 




5,404 




19,514 


. . . . .... 


2,851 




5,708 




6,990 




14,450 




15,091 




8,000 




3,786 




150,622 



»EVE>UE AND EXPENDITURE. 





Population. 


EeTcnne. 


Average per Head. 


Great Britain, 


29,500,000 


$322,000,000 


S 10.95 


France, 


37,500,000 


413,000,000 


1 1 .00 


Russia, 


67,000,000 


231,000,000 


3.40 


Austria, 


35,000,000 


171,000,000 


4.88 


Prussia, 


18,500,000 


96,000,000 


5.32 


Belgium, .... 


4,750,000 


26,000,000 


5.40 


Denmark, .... 


2,750,000 


11,000,000 


4.00 


Italy, 


22,500,000 


155,000,000 


6.95 


Holland, .... 


3,500,000 


33,000,000 


9.40 


Portugal, 


4,000,000 


15,000,000 


3.75 


Sweden and Norway, 


5,250,000 


14,000,000 


2.65 


Switzerland, 


2,500,000 


3,000,000 


1.20 


Spain, 


16,500,000 


97,000,000 


5.88 


Turkey, 


16,500,000 


65,000,000 


3.95 



General total, 265,750,000 $1,652,000,000 S^-'^^ 

For the financial year ending 3 1st March, 1868, the increase was in 
round numbers $2,470,000 s., or 26 per cent, on the previous year. 

The total expenditure — including 6,500,000 for the Paraguayan war, 
1,500,000 for the Interior riots, and 500,000 for amortisation of the public 
debt— amounted to $13,920,164. The total income was slightly over 
$12,000,000. Thus, it will be seen that were it not for the Paraguayan 
■war, the Government would be in possession of a splendid surplus. 

The National Bonds in circulation amount to 15,364,800, of which amount 
5,000,000 are held by the Provincial Bank. 

With the trifling exception of a direct tax collected in the city of 
Buenos Ayres, amounting to about $200, 000s., the whole revenue of the 
National Government is raised by indirect taxation, more than nine- 
tenths of which are Customs duties, import and export, the proportion 
being about seven-and-a-half-tenths in import duties, and two-tenths 
export duties ; the small balance is derived from stamps, post-office, and 
miscellaneous taxes. 

In round numbers the four principal provinces of the Confederation 
contribute to the Customs revenue in the following proportions : — ^Buenos 
Ayres, 70; Santa Fe, 10; Corrientes, 5; Entre Bios, 5; the remaining 
ten being the quota of the other provinces. 

The increase in the Customs receipts in Buenos Ayres has been much 
less in proportion than that of the Provinces of Santa Fe and Corrientes, 



10 THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

a proof that the direct trade with these provinces is augmenting. Taking 
the revenue in round numbers at 14,000,000, one-half is expended in 
military purposes. The 3Iinistry of Finance consumes rather less than 
one-tenth ; a large part is expended in collecting the Custom's revenues. 
As there is only one port of importance this expense is relatively not 
greater than in other countries, probably not more than 5 per cent, of 
the revenue collected. Justice, Public Worship, and Education require 
only one-twelfth, as each separate province has its own administration 
in these respects. Foreign Affairs and Legations consume only an 
eightieth part of the revenue. The 3Iinistry of the Interior consumes 
an eighth of the whole. Of this amount the National Congress and 
Public Credit figure for more than a third. Finally the interest on the 
National Debt takes one-fifth of the revenue. 

The increase of trade in late years has been unprecedented, as may be 
seen from the returns of National revenue. 

1863, .... .... .... $6,478,682 

1864, .... ...; .... 7,005,328 

1865, .... .... .... 8,295,071 

1866, .... .... .... 9,568,554 

The value of imports and exports was, in 1862, $45,890,282; and in 
1866, §66,358,551. 

The import and export trade returns with Great Britain in 1866 shewed 
an increase of 26 per cent, over the previous year; those with France 

11 per cent.; with Brazil 45 per cent.; with Spain 11 per cent. The 
only falling off was in imports from the United States and Holland : the 
trade in American flour has entirely ceased, owing to the cultivation of 
wheat in the last few years. 

Value of Imports, 1865 .... 27,103,017 

Do., 1866 .... 32,269,082 

Of imports, we get one-third from England, one-fourth from France, 
one-eighth from Brazil, and the rest from Spain, United States, 
Montevideo, and Italy. 

The value of the imports in 1866 from England alone amounted 
to $10,240,2 10s., being an excess of 2,234,000 over the imports of the 
previous year, and more than double those of 1862. 

The export returns for 1866 shew an incriease of nearly 5 per cent, 
on the previous year, viz. : — 

Value of exports, .... 1865 .... 21,996,777 
Do., .... 1866 .... 23,029,711 



TRADE RETURNS. I! 

Of exports, Belgium takes one-third, France one-fourth. United States 
one-fifth, England one-eighth, and Spain, Italy, and Brazil the rest. 

The gross returns of 1866 compared with 1862, shew an increase of 50 
per cent, in our commerce, but that with England was nearly doubled 
in the interval. 

The greatest increase in our exports is in wool — 

1862 .... .... .... ^8,153,575 

1863 73,592,425 

1864 ..». 87,976,776 

1865 .... 115,852,430 

1866 116,494,970 

This includes a small proportion (5 percent.) of washed wool. 

The shipping returns shiew that 1,036 sailing vessels, representing 
267,213 tons, arrived here from foreign ports during 1866, being an 
increase of 374 vessels over the returns for 1862. The number of steam- 
boat arrivals for 1866 is put down at 487 ; but this does not include the 
smaller ones of passenger traffic. 

Immigration from Europe, up to 1862, averaged 5,000; it now exceeds 
25,000 per annum — mostly Italians, French, English, and Spaniards ; of 
these, two-thirds are able-bodied men of the laboring classes, with a 
sprinkling of women and children, and 10 per cent, educated persons. 

There are six railways in the Bepublic, with 350 miles open to traffic, 
190 in construction, and seven other lines projected. 

The business of the Buenos Ayres Post-office has increased enormously 
of late years : the number of letters and papers passing through the office 
in 1859 was 400,000, in 1862 it rose to 800,000^ and in 1865 it amounted 
to 2,000,000! This last was an increase of 33 per cent, on the 
previous year. 

The population of the city and province of Buenos Ayres in 1801 
was set down at 72,000, in 1855 at 271,000 and at present it must be 
nearly double the last figure. Within the last three years no fewer 
than 3,550 houses have been built or re-built in the city: in the 
same period we have to note a similar activity in every branch of 
industry and progress. 



12 



THE ARGENTmE REPUBLIC. 



The farming-stock of the Republic is set down, according to statistic^ of 
1866, as follows:— 





HORNED 


lASSES & 








PROVINCES. 


CATTLE. 


HORSES. 1 

1 MULES. 


SHEEP. ' 


GOATS. 


SWINE. 


B. Ayres .... 


6,000,000 


1,800,000 30,OOo! 60,000,000 


5,000 


115,000 


E litre Rios . . 


2,500,000 


600,000 7,500 


6,000,000 


.... 


.... 


Corrientes . . 


2,000,000 


375,000 60,000 


1,000,000 


10,000 


4,500 


Cataraarca . . 


185,000 


40,000 40,000 


80,000 


121,000 


2,500 


Mendoza .... 


210,000 


71,000 7,500 


230,000 


70,000 


8,500 


Salta 


255,000 


50,000 50,000 


150,000 


95,000 


2,500 


San Luis .... 


300,000 


96,000 14,000 


160,000 


285,000 




Tucuman .... 


275,000 


85,000 22,000 


95,0*00 


25,000 




Cordoba, San 


• • • • 


.... 








.... 




Juan, Jujuy, 


• • • • 


..... 


.... 


.... 


.... 




Rioja, Santa 


• • • • 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 




Fe, Santiago, 


• • • • 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 




no returns. 


.... 





.... 


.... 





It may give an idea of the industrial condition of the Republic, to submit 
a list of the articles forwarded to the Paris Exhibition, and the names of 
those who gained prizes. 

The Central Committee of Buenos Ayres forwarded seventy-four boxes, 
containing numerous interesting specimens. 

Cordoba sent a collection of minerals and samples of marble. 
Jujuy sent a variety of valuable woods, manufactured articles, cereals, 
brandy, iudigo, &c. 

Tucuman exhibited forty kinds of timber, and various works of handicraft 
such as tanned hides, plaited reins, an v<apero» or native saddle tastefully 
ornamented, a lady's handkerchief, of lace equal to the finest Valenciennes, 
and a lot of medicinal roots. 

Mendoza came next after Buenos Ayres in the variety of its collection, 
comprising silver ore, marble, beautiful crystals, honey, wax, preserved 
fruits, Cuyano wines and^ liqueurs grown by Messrs. Ponget, Civit, and 
others, guanaco and silk ponchos, swan's down, ostrich feathers. Alpaca 
and Yicuua skins, and a pillar of green transparent marble, streaked with red. 
Buenos Ayres, of course, occupied the foremost rank- 
Messrs. John Hannah, Wilfrid Latham, Martinez de Hoz, Richard Newton, 
and Pacheco, contributed samples of superior wools. Preserved and 
salted beef figured largely, especially that of Mr. Oliden, who obtained a 
gold medal at the London Exhibition of 1862. Mr. Bletcher sent hides 
tanned and varnished, morocco leather, «fcc., of beautiful finish and superior 
quality. Mr. Klappenback's collection of silver and other ores from San 



PRODUCTS EXHIBITED AT PARIS. 13 

Juan was admirable. Mf Holterhof sent candles from the Barracas factory. 
Mr. Younger sent some sheepskins from his steam «lavadero.» M. Eouqueaud 
exhibited calf's foot oil, and other articles, from his establishment. 
Messrs. Huergo and Durand had a fine sample of native silk. The Rural 
Association contributed cereals grown at Cliivilcoy and Mercedes. 

The files of the Trihwm and Standard represented the press of Buenos Ayres. 

The prizes were as follows : — 

GOLD MEDAL. 

Argentine Government, for gold, silver, and copper ores. 

SILVER MEDALS. 

Mr. Lafone, copper samples. 

Bletscher and Co., hides tanned with quebracho. 

John Hannah, wool. 

Bethe and Hubler, extractum carnis. 

BROZE MEDALS. 

Boquet Brothers, silver ores. 

Klappeuback, silver ores. 

Tlie Government, samples of timber. 

Stegman Brothers, wool. 

Bichard INewton, wool. 

Wilfrid Latham, wool. 

M.Duportal, wool. 

Martinez de Hoz, wool. 

Macedonio Gras, Alpaca wool. 

31. Bouqueaud, calf's foot oil. 

The Secretary of Committee, soap. 

Tucuman Provincial Company, medicinal herbs. 

Tliomas Oliden, dried and salted beef. 

The Government, for «popular customs)) (stuffed gauchos, &c.) 

' HOORABLE MENTIO?i. 

Tucuman Provincial Company, embroidery. 
Major Rickard, silver ores. 
Carranza, mineral specimens. 
General Pacheco, wool and tobacco. 
H. Soyinet, avooI. 
Francis Younger, wool. 
( William 3Iiiiler, dried beef. 
Demaria and Ariza, dried beef. 
Ponget, of Meudoza, white wines. 
Michel Ponget, white wines. 



H FORElGJf POPULA.TION. 



70,000 


Irish, 


30,000 


40,000 


English and Scotch, 


10,000 


30,000 


Germans, .... 


10,000 


30,000 


Other nationalities, 


30,000 



CHAP. III. 



FOKEIGN POPULATION. 

The number of foreigners in this country is very great, and every day 
increasing. Tlie chief centres of European immigration are Buenos A}Tes, 
Santa Fe, Entre Eios, Corrientes, Cordoba, and San Juan. 

The foreign population of the Province of Buenos Ayres is estimated at 
250,000, distributed as follows :— 

Italians, .... 

Basques, .... 

Frencli, 

Spaniards, .... 

This large number of foreigners, forming half the population of the 
Province of Buenos Ayres, is remarkable : and the foreigner, upon landing^ 
is agreeably astonished to find himself in the midst of a large society 
of countrymen. Amongst Argentines of the respectable classes, proficiency 
in foreign languages is considered a necessary qualification; thus, the 
greater part of the merchants speak English or French. 

The English, unquestionably, occupy the foremost place in Buenos 
Ayres, although their number is relatively so small. Of course, in 
speaking of English merchants, this is also taken to include Scotch, and 
a few Irish and North Americans ; this community embraces the greatest 
element of social and commercial importance in Buenos Ayj'cs. A vast 
amount of the import and export trade passes through their hands, and 
the commercial interests may be said to be identified with their names. 
Englishmen are rarely found here in other than mercantile pursuits ; 
they are tlie leading merchants, brokers, bankers, shipping ager^s, &c., 
but are seldom or never found as sheepfarmers, mechanics, or in humbler 
positions. They usually make handsome fortunes, live in good style, and 
get along pleasantly with their fellow-foreigners and townsmen. Ip 
another chapter we shall make allusion to the number of British institutions 
in the city. 



ENGLISH, GERMANS, FREISCH, ETC. 15 

The Germans come next after the English in importance and position, 
being more varied in their callings, and representing much less of the 
staple trade of the country. There are several first-class German houses 
in the city, besides a '_ number of «barraqueros,)) brewers, shopkeepers, 
clerks, and tradesmen. As a rule, they are all well educated, and very 
apt for business, usually possessing three or foiir languages fluently. 
Under the title «Gerraaus» ai-e generally included also Swedes, Danes, 
Dntchi, and Belgians. In some of the country towns of tlie Upiper 
Provinces we fiud an occasional German shopkeeper, in Cordoba there 
are sundry goat-breeders, in the Province of Buenos Ayres a few are 
estancieros, and the colonies of Baradero and Santa Fe are in part made 
up of Germans. 

The French prefer the city to the country, and have a monopoly of 
fancy bazaars and such like ; the only merchants are those in the wine 
trade with Bordeaux or Cette ; there is a number oHiotel-kcepers, tailors, 
milliners, hair-dressers, and mechanics. In the little towns the French are 
very numerous, and they are generally industrious and enterprising : they 
assimilate more with the people of the country than either Germans or 
English. Many of the charitable institutions are in charge of the French 
Sisters of Charity. "' Throughout the Upper Provinces ther6 is a large 
sprinkling of Frencli, usually innkeepers, mechanics, or small tradesmen. 

The Irish, although exercising little or no weight in public matters, 
may contend with a'ly other nationality in point of usefulness. They 
have not, it is true, the position or advantages of their mercantile 
brethren, nor the versatility of the Basques in accommodating themselves 
to any calling or occupation ; but to them is due the grand development 
of sheepfarming, which makes this country rival Australia in the 
growth of wool. The Irish farmers are estimated to possess nearly 
30,000,000 sheep: they are also, as farmers, the chief landed proprietors 
in Buenos Ayres. and very hospitable to strangers. The districts 
of Lujan, Mercedes, Pilar, Areco, Lobos, &c., are thickly settled with 
Irishmen, and each district has its own Irish clergyman. With one or two 
exceptions, the Irish settlers began life (within the last thirty years) 
having no other capital than a spade or shovel. There is nothing in the 
country more admirable than the steady industry of these men, some of 
whom count their sheep by the hundred-thousand, and have landed 
property of thousands of acres in extent. In the city there is a large 
number of Irish housemaids, who are remarkable for their uniform 
morality, honesty, and good conduct. 



i^ FOREIGN POPULATION. 

The Basques are highly valued as immigrants : they come from either 
side of the Pyrinees, and may be classified into French Basques and 
Spanish Basques, both having almost the same language and national 
character. They are hardy, honest, and laborious, and are found in 
every occupation of the middle or humbler classes. After the Italians, 
they form the largest foreign population. As brick-makers, milkmen, 
shepherds, saladero peons, &c., they constitute a most useful class, and 
their good conduct is quite proverbial. Many of them have risen in the 
social scale, and some large fortunes and valuable enterprises are held 
by Basques. - t>*ii 



The Spaniards are with difficulty distinguished from the natives. They 
come mostly from Andalusia, Catalonia, and Galicia. The Catalans are 
wine merchants and first-rate business men. The Andalusians are 
cigar sellers and shop-keepers. The Galicians are street porters, night 
watchmen, newspaper messengers, and domestic servants : they are 
sober and honest, but not very enterprising. 

The Italians are the most numerous class of all, and may be found in 
every occupation of city life, and also scattered through every part of 
the vast territory. Finding here a similarity of language and climate 
to their own, the Italians make the River Plate their favored place of 
colonization. As masons and builders they are specially useful, and the 
various splendid piles of building .raised within the last ten years have 
given them an active business. In the humbler calling of market- 
gardeners they also supply the city with vegetables and earn a profitable 
livelihood. 

The monopoly of the river navigation and coasting crafts is in the 
hands of Genoese ; the crew are generally equal sharers in the venture, 
and appoint a «patrou)) or captain to command, and trade on their own 
account, puixhasing cheese, birds, skins, fruit, &c. in the upper markets, 
to bring to Buenos Ayres or IMontevidco. They construct their own ships 
in the suburb of the Boca, where they have formed a rapidly rising 
town of about 5,000 inhabitants. 

In the Upper Provinces the number of forigign settlers is very small ; still 
there are a few scattered here and there, viz. : — 

In Salta, chiefly Bolivians ; who come there for the purposes of trade, 
and on account of the political convulsions of their own republic : 
similitude of origin, climate, soil, and productions, as well as the 



IMMIGRATION RETURNS. 17 

proximity to their own frontiers, accounts for tlieir preference of this 
province. The Colony of Esquina Grande, situated at the head -waters of 
the Vermejo, is almost exclusively composed of natives of Bolivia. 

In Mendoza and San Juan, there are not many Europeans, but a 
considerable number of Chilians, who are engaged principally in the 
mines. 

In Cordoba there are about a thousand foreigners, chiefly French, 
Germans, Italians, and Spaniards, and a few English ; their occupation is 
in the mines, flour mills, lime kilns, and as mechanics and goat-breeders. 

In Entre Rios and Corrientes there is a large number of foreigners. 
Many of them are Avealthy, and their occupations are so varied, that they 
are to be found in every branch of industry and trade. In Entre 
Rios there is a number of English estancieros. The Province of Santa 
Fe has three thriving colonies, tliat of Entre Rios two, and that of Buenos 
Ayres one. 

The Committee of Immigration have agents in various parts of 
Europe, viz. : — 

3Ir. Beck Bernard, Berne ; for Switzerland and Germany. 
Mr. John Lelong, Paris ; for France. 
]\Ir. Lloyd, of Messrs. Wright, Kelso, & Co., Liverpool. 
Mr, Hadfield, and Messrs. T. M. Mackay & Son, London. 
Mr. Perkins, Montreal, Canada. 

The Committee have a Home for Emigrants at >*o. 8 Calle Corrientes, 
where they get food and lodging gratis till they find employment. 

Free immigration is the rule : neither the Government nor the Com- 
mittee assist in paying passages from Europe. 

The current of emigration from Europe is rapidly increasing, as we see 
by the returns, as follows : — 

1858, 
1859, 
1860, 
1861, 
186-2, 

The relative proportion of the various nationalities in 1837 was — 
Italians, .38 percent.; French, 13; Spaniards, 9 ; English, 6 ; Swiss, 4; 
Germans, 3 j other nationalities, 27 per cent. 



4,658 


1863, 


10,400 


4,715 


1864, 


11,680 


5,656 


1865, 


11,770 


6,300 


1866, 


13,9G0 


6,716 


1867, 


. . 23,500 



18 



FOREIGN POPULATION. 



The number of vessels and passengers from foreign ports in 1867 is 
given as follows : — 







Vessels. 


Passengers. 


Genoa, 61 


8,314 


Bordeaux, 




55 


2,409 


Bayonne, 




13 


1,800 


Havre, 




25 


627 


Blarseilles, 




30 


1,156 


Vigo, 




3 


500 


Corunna, 




5 


563 


Barcelona, 




33 


174 


Tarragona, 




6 


45 


Cadiz, 




24 


1,302 


Liverpool, 




64 


815 


Glasgow, 




18 


74 


London, 




6 


25 


Southampton, . 




12 


150 


Antwerp, 




17 


1,688 


Hamburg, 




68 


227 


Bremen, 




2 


31 


Transhipped at Montevideo 


3,600 


Total .... 441 


23,500 



In the report of the Immigration Committee the following scale of 
wages is given, and the figures are not exaggerated : — 



Farm servants, 


Monthly, wi 


th Board, 


^3 5s. 


Gardeners, 


do., 


do., 


£4 to £5 


House Servants, 


do., 


do., 


£-2 10s. to £3 


Cooks, 


do.. 


do.. 


£3 to £4 


Needle-women, 


do.. 


do.. 


£3 


Milliners, 


do.. 


do.. 


£3 to £4 


Laundresses, 


do.. 


do.. 


£3 . 


Brick-layers, .... 


Daily, without Board, 


6s. Qd. 


Carpenters, .... 


do., 


do., 


Is. 6d. 


Blacksmiths, .... 


do., 


do.. 


7s. 6f/. 


Tailors, .... 


do.. 


do.. 


6s. to 10s. 


Shoemakers, 


do., 


do.. 


7s. 6d. 


Railway navvies, 


do., 


do., 


8s. 


Saladeto peons, 


do.. 


do., 


12s..to £1 is. 



PROSPERITY OF IMMIGRANTS. 



19 



The cost of a mechanic's board and lodging does not exceed three 
shillings a day. Workmen of all kinds find immediate employment, and 
the new railways will require thousands of navvies. Any number of 
farm-laborers, married or unmarried, will find plenty of work on the 
estancias of Buenos Ayres. Domestic servants are much wanted in town, 
and women are preferred. 

Nothing can better shew the prosperity of immigrants than the official 
return of depositors in the State Bank of Buenos Ayres, Of 100 depositors 
the various nationalities were thus represented : — 

Italians, 30 French, 9 



Argentines, 18 


English and Irish, 4 


Spaniards, 13 


Germans, 4 


Basques, 13 


Various, 9 


The proportion of moneys so lodged was distributed as follows — out 


of every 100,000,000 paper dollars deposited, the owners were : — 


Argentines, 27,000,000 


Basques, 9,000,000 


Italians, 20,000,000 


French, 8,000,000 


English and Irish, 1 4,000,000 


Germans, .... 6,000,000 


Spaniards, 10,000,000 


Various, 6,000,000 



It must be borne in mind that besides the depositor's in bank there are 
thousands of industrious Europeans who have invested their savings in land 
and farming stock. Many of the Irish settlers, as in Nortli America, 
send home sums of money to their relatives, to support them or pay their 
passage hither. The Irish housemaids in town have also accounts in the 
Savings-banks. 

The Italians, as a rule, practise the greatest economy, to accumulate a 
fortune of £500 or £1,000 ; and, this attained, they return to their native 
land. The French, on the contrary, as soon as they have made some 
money, start a mill or some such enterprise, and settle for good in the 
country. 



e2 



20 AGRICULTURAL COLONIES. 



CHAP. lY. 

AGRICULTURAL COLONIES. 

Besides the numberless foreign settlers established as sheepfarmers, 
or in other occupations, there are six agricultural colonies founded 
by capitalists or Provincial Governments, on given concessions of land. 
In Santa Fe there are three colonies, in Entre Rios two, and in Buenos 
A J res one, viz. : — 

SA^'TA FE. 

Esperanza, . . . . 1627 colonists, Eight Leagues from Santa Fe. 

SanJeronimo, 800 do., Two Leagues from Esperanza. 

San Carlos, 735 do., .... Two Leagues from S. Jeronimo. 

Santa Fe is the province which has done most for colonisation, and its 
colonies are in a thriving way. The soil is fertile, watered by numerous 
rivers and «arroyos,)) which abound in fish. The Governor of Santa Fe 
gives a free passage by steamer from Buenos Ay res to all mechanics or 
settlers bound for Rosario or Santa F6 city, or other part of the province. 
The port for the colonies is Santa Fe, which has weekly communication w ith 
Buenos Ay res, Montevideo, Corrientes, and the smaller ports. 

The Esperanza Colony^ founded by D.Aaron Castellanos in 1856: the 
first settlers were Germans, who brought with them a clergyman, a 
director, and a schoolmaster. In 1858 the Argentine Government took 
the colony under its protection, indemnifying Sr. Castellanos with £24,000 
sterling. The first years were unfortunate, owing to the locusts; but the 
colony is now flourishing. It is composed of 355 families, counting 1,627 

69 
23 
20 
In 1865 the colony had 85 births, 28 deaths, and 28 marriages. 



colonists, viz. : — 






Swiss, 


852 


Belgians, 


Germans, 


456 


Italians, 


French, 


207 


Various, 



Vegetables, dried, 754 fan. 

Butter, 653 cwt. 

Cheese, 600 do. 



THE SAIVTA FE COLONIES. 21 

There are in the colony a Catholic chapel, another for Protestants, tAvo 
schools, and 474 dwelling-houses, each house having a^ell of excellent 
water. The number of farm-lots occupied is* 210, each containing 
85 acres English. There is a vast extent of ground in this colony as yet 
unallotted. 

The yield for 1865 was as follows : — 

Wheat, 5,895 fan. (.350tt) 

Indian corn, 12,370 do. 

Barley, 240 do. 

Potatoes, 1,200 do. 

This produced, after deducting for home use, a market value of 
£30,000. The number of fruit-trees, mostly peaches, is put down at 
100,000, and the vines have given such good results that new plantations 
are being made. 

The stock, in 1865, comprised : — 

Cows and oxen, 8,000 I Pigs, 710 

Horses and mules, .... 1,700 Poultry, .... 2,500 

Sheep, 708 1 Beehives, .... 20 

The colonists exported during the year, 55 brls. of flour, 545 cow- 
hides, and 625li of hair. The occupations we find thus distributed — 
19 groceries and draperies, 9 carpenter-shops, 6 brick-layers, 5 black- 
smiths, 4 midwives, 4 bootmakers, 4 mills, 3 tailors, 2 inns, 3 brick- 
kilns, 1 baker, 1 doctor, 1 brewer, 2 steam mills, 2 windmills, 1 sawing, 
6 reaping, 2 threshing, and 10 winnowing machines, 220 dairies. 

The San Jeronimo Colony is two leagues from that of Esperanza, 
comprising 157 families, which count 753 colonists, settled on 181 
farm-lots of 85 acres each. In the concession there is still a large 
tract of ground ready for any who may join the colony. The returns 
for 1865 were : — • 



Swiss, 644 colonists. 

Germans 67 do. 

French^ 13 do. 



Italicms, 10 colonists. 

North Americans, 3 do. 
IXatives, 3 do. 



Belgians, 13 do. 

Births 19, deaths 10, marriages 2. 

The colony boasts a church, school, and 165 dwelling houses. There 
are 5 shops, 3 mills, 3 blacksmiths, 4 carpenters, 1 brewer, 1 butcher, 
3 shoe-makers, 1 mason, 1 gunsmith — but most of these artisans devote 
their chief attention to agriculture. The number of fruit trees is put 
down at 30,000. 



22 



AGRICULTURAL COLOSIES. 



The crops for 1865 gave : — 



Wheat, . . . 
Indian corn, 
Oats, 

Potatoes, . . . 
Vegetables, 

The stock comprised : 

CoAvs or oxen, 

Horses, 

Sheep, 



2,000 fanegas. 
3, -000 do. 



10 
500 

48 



do. 
do. 
do. 

3,000 

570 

14 



Butter, 
Cheese, 
Poultry, 

Eggs, 



200 cwt. 
200 do. 
1,000 
845,000 



Pi""S 

I Iq^, .... 

Hens and ducks, 



331 
2,150 



The San Carlos Colony is situate 8 leagues S.W. of Santa Fe, 6 south of 
Esperanza, and 5| N.W. of Goronda ; the last named is a port on a branch 
of the Parana. Only a small part of the concession (which comprises 330 
lots) is yet taken up by settlers, but there are 130 farm-lots, of 85 acres, 
under cultivation. Every alternate lot belongs to the concessionaires, 
but they allow the use of same to the colonists for grazing purposes. 
There are 130 families, with 735 colonists : — 



Swiss, 

Italians, 

French, 



393 

204 

95 



Germans, 
IXatives, 



19 
24 



Of these there Avere 266 men, 203 women, and 266 children. Births 
35, deaths 4, marriages 8. The colony boasts a church, 3 schools, and 
210 houses. There are 6 shops, 2 mills, 1 carpenter and 1 blacksmith. 
The industry of butter and cheese is rapidly increasing, the Swiss- and 
French families occupying themselves therein. 

The stock comprised — 



Cows and oxen, . . 


. . 3,908 


Horses, 


786 


Sheep, 


26 


Swine, .... 


270 


Hens, 


. . . 3,000 


Fruit trees. 


.... 83,753 



The Santa Fe Government is always willing to extend the concession 
for any new settlers that may offer, and the alternate lots belonging to the 
concessionaires are sold at reasonable prices, the preference being given 
to the colonists. The colon)' has easy communication in all seasons Avith 
San Jeronimo, Esperanza, and the port of Coronda. Steam traffic is 
about to be established betAveen Santa Fe and Coronda ; but if the 
steamers Avould call at Maciel this Avould be only four and a half leagues 
from the colony. 



Wheat, 


60,000 cwt. 


Battel 


Indian corn, 


20,000 do. 


Eggs, 


Oats, 


5,000 do. 


Fowl, 


Vegetables, 


7,000 do. 





PERKms' REPORT ON THE COLONIES. 23 

The gross returns .of produce sent into Santa Fe, in 1865, by the 
three colonies, were — 

i cheese, 3,000 cwt. 

200,000 doz. 

ift)t stated. 

The butter was valued at =£8,000 sterling, the eggs at £12,000, and the 
cheese at an equally high figure. Meantime, the produce of the colonies 
increases every year in a wonderful manner, and the value of their lan(fe 
has been enhanced fully 25 percent, by the opening of the Rosario and 
€ordoba Railway. 

Mr. Perkins, formerly editor of the Ferro-Carril of Rosario, published a 
Taluable and interesting work in Spanish and English on this subject. At 
the invitation of Governor Cullen he started from Rosario, in November, 
1863, to make a tour of the colonies, and his narrative bears the marks 
of truth. At Lake Guadalupe, close to Santa Fe, he visited the fish oil 
factory, where he estimates 5,000 barrels of oil may be produced annually, 
without seriously reducing the fish, which are sold at one real (6(/.) per 
arroba (25U). Here also is a small colony of wealthy Germans, who 
preferred purchasing this site to taking the free Government lands. 

In company with M. Henri, Mr. Perkins set out for the Esperanza 
Colony, distant twenty miles from the capital of the province. This was 
the first of all the colonies, and established by D. Aaron Castellanos. 
The settlers were at first rather unfortunate, being mostlv iunorant and 
indigent people ; but patience and experience have aided them, and the 
colony is now nourishing. There are — says Mr. Perkins — 345 families, 
making up a population of 756 Franco-Swiss and 805 Germans, of whom 
two-thirds are Roman Catholics, and one-third Protestants. The colony 
is a parallellogram of thirty-two square miles, divided into concessions of 
eighty acres each : the whole is bisected by a common for grazing, 400 
yards broad and six miles long, the Germans being on one side, and the 
Franco-Swiss on the other. There are over 9,000 acres under crops, 
the amount sown being estimated as follows :— wheat, 3,150 bushels; 
barley, 250 ; Indian corn, 35,000 ; beans and peas, a little ; potatoes, 
none. The stock comprises — 1,569 horses, 396 oxen, 2,305 cows, 3,700 
calves, 500 sheep, and 600 pigs. The plaza is well built, containing a 
Catholic chapel, and a Protestant one in construction, besides other edifices 
and three schools ; but tlie latter are badly attended, the children being 
made to work. 



24 AGRICULTURAL COLONIES. 

Two American gentlemen named Evans and Shatter, lately settled 
in the colony, and brought reaping and threshing machines,, and other 
American improvements, into general use : one of these machines can grain 
200 quintals per day. The woods being fifteen miles off, few of the 
concessions are fenced in, and some are so with wire. There are one 
■vineyard and several gardens. The crops for this year^ — (1863) — are 
valued at gl 15,000 s. Cheese, butter, eggs, foAvls, and vegetables are 
raised ; but the supply would be much greater if cheap transport could be 
procured. One family has an income of §400 s. from butter alone, 
which they sell at 6(L to 9fZ. per 'ft, the same being worth 2s. in Rosario 
and 35. in Buenos Ayres. The annual produce in eggs is 160,000 dozen. 
There are two wind-mills, and several water-mills. The people live 
simply but substantially, consuming little animal food. Every family 
has a two-horse four-wheeled waggon, and some have two or more. 
There is a trifling disagreement in the colony about mixed marriages. 
It is remarked that the Franco-Swiss have thrived better than the 
Germans. 

The San Jeronimo Colony was founded so late as 1862, by a number of 
Swiss from the Canton of Valais, each of whom brought some money ; from 
£80 to £800 sterling. They paid all their own expenses, and only 
received from Government the usual land grant of eighty acres per family. 
The colony covers 9,000 acres, occupied by eighty-five families, counting 
462 souls : of these, one half are new arrivals, and have as yet no wheat 
crops. Inhere are sown 284 bushels of wheat, and a good deal of barley. 
The people are sober and industrious, good Catholics, moral and respectful, 
and superior to those of Esperanza. They have already a fine church, 
built by subscription of 5,000 bricks each, and several good brick houses. 
Each family has about twenty cows and horses, but no sheep. They 
make excellent butter and cheese, the latter fetching §12 per cwt. The 
colonists pay the expenses of an agent, who goes backwards and forwards 
to Switzerland, bringing out new families for the colpny. A man 
formerly working at the Esperanza as farm-servant, has settled here, 
and is now worth £1,000. San Jeronimo is half way between Esperanza 
and San Carlos, and Mr. Perkins gives it the preference of all. 

The San Carlos Colony was founded in May 1859, by the commercial 
house of Messrs. Beck and Herzhog of Basle, assisted by a company, which 
purchased some of the shares and advanced the capital. The emigrants 
were of a lower order, like those of Esperanza, and all their expenses, 
maintenance, implements, stock, seeds, &c., were most liberally supplied 
and paid for by the company. Each family got a free passage, 160 acres 



THE SAN CARLOS COLO:!iY. 25 

of land, horses, cows, &c., on condition of paying to the company every 
year (for five years) one-third of their crops, cultivating sixteen acres the 
first year, and so on. The half of each lot, I.e., 40 acres, is set apart for 
grazing, and after the fift!i year this remains the property of the company, 
the other half passing in fee to the settler. The colony covers thirty- 
seven square miles, or 26,000 acres, in 165 double lots, and is situate 
midway from Coronda to Santa Fe, and three leagues south of San 
Jeronimo. The population is 556 souls, in 100 families, of whom one-half 
are Protestants. • All bear an excellent character, except two or three 
drunkards. In the year 1862 there were nine deaths and thirty-two 
births. The colony is most prosperous and healthful. A SayIss named 
Goetchi landed in 1859, owing the company §500, and he has now paid 
all, and is worth £1,000 sterling : others sliow similar good fortune, the 
sheer fruit of industry. The stock amounts to — 2,531 horned cattle, 649 
horses, 265 pigs. The company, on its own account, took up 800 sheep 
from Buenos Ayres in 1860, lost 200 after arrival, and still counted 1,600 
in 1863. The wheat crop in 1863 yielded 37,000 bushels; the maize, 
barley, &c., is estimated at 8,000 quintals. There are public offices, 
church, model farm, gardens, and peach plantations. 

Mr, Perkins advises the adoption of traction engines for transport, 
and estimates the aggregate annual produce of the colonies as follows : — 
Wheat, 56,000 cwt. ; maize, 15,000; barley, 5,000; vegetables, 2,000 ; 
butter, 800 cwt. ; eggs, 1,000 cwt. ; cheese, 2,000 ; various, 5,000— total, 
86,800 cwt. 

Respecting the San Carlos colony, we have some interesting particulars 
in the report of M. Jacques Stelzer, Justice of the Peace :• — 

wAmong the most comfortable families I may mention that of Sigel, 
■with its handsome house on the right of the high. road. This family is of 
German origin, and arrived in 1859: it counts 7 persons, the youngest 
12 years of age. Mr. Sigel is a laborious and intelligent man, assisted by 
his children, who are already able to guide the plough : from the beginning 
he has had good crops, especially that of 1866, when grain fetched 12 and 
even 16 dollars per «fanega.» In that jear he was enabled to pay off all 
he owed to the Company, and has thus been free of the 18 per cent. 
Tvhich less fortunate colonists still have to pay. Moreover he wrought 
at his trade of Avheelwright, Avhich gives him a good revenue. The 
Sigel family now owns 94 horned cattle, 21 horses, and 50 hens, besides 
laying down this year 14 «almudes)) of wheat, 50 acres of maize, and 
planting 5,000 fruit-trees. The Sigel concession is the best in the colony. 

«The Taverna family, comprising Michael Taverna, his wife, and 



26 AGRICULTURAL COLONIES. 

4 little children, the eldest 12 and the youngest 14 months old, and a 
partner named John Bonetti. This family owes its prosperity to the experi- 
ence of Taverna, the order and frugality of his wife, and the constant and 
careful labor of Bonetti: they arrived in 1859, and now possess a fine 
brick house, 40 head of horned cattle, 12 horses, 14 pigs, and 50 hens, 
besides a farm of 60 «almudes)) of wheat, 45 acres of maize and vegetables, 
and 2,000 fruit-trees. 

((The Haemmerly family, of Swiss origin, arrived in 1859; at first 
comprised Albert Haemmerly, his wife, three sons, and two daughters, 
all of an age to work : the wife died in 18G2, and all the children have 
got married and purchased concessions for themselves, except the 
youngest son, who has remained with his father. Haemmerly has a 
neat house, 60 head of horned cattla, 20 horses, 4 pigs, 40 hens, 
besides cultivating 35 ((almudesw of wheat, 25 acres of maize, and 3,000 
fruit-trees. 

((The Beuteman family, Swiss-Geri]|ans, is composed of 9 members, 
including 7 children from 2 to 18 years of age: the concession is 
surrounded with poplars, paradise, and some 4,000 fruit-trees. This 
family owns 84 head of horned cattle, 10 horses, 1 pig, and 100 poultry, 
besides a farm of 65 ((almudesw of Avheat and 45 acres of maize and 
vegetables. 

((The Beale family, of Italian origin, counts II members, with a fine 
house and out-offices, 60 horned cattle, 12 horses, 13 pigs, 60 poultry, and 
a farm of 40 ((almudesw of wheat and 80 acres of maize, but only a few 
fruit-trees. 

((The Goetschy family, of SavIss origin, owns 83 horned cattle, 6 horses, 20 
hens, and a farm of 48 ((almudes» of wheat, with 2,000 fruit-trees, and 
a fence of poplars and paradise trees. 

((These are the families specially deserving honorable mention in my 
ofiicial report, without prejudice to the many other honest and hard- 
working people in the Colony. I have mentioned those most remarkable 
for their fine appearance, good houses, and superior cultivation, hoping 
you will permit me at another time to specify other families in prosperous 
condition, in all which details you may rely on my adhering strictly 
to the facts.)) 

The success of these colonies soon stimulated the Santa Fe Government 
to offer concessions in various parts of the Province for similar settlements, 
and Governor Orofio, during his term of office, labored strenuously to 
foment immigration. Unfortunately, the Paraguayan war checked the 
formation of new colonies, and the projects have either lapsed, or still 



EMIGRATION PROJECTS. 27 

remain 'in statu quo.' Sor. Orouo, ^vhile Deputy to Congress, in July, 
1864, introduced a bill as follows : — 

1st. To emit £400,000 in G per cent. Bonds, negociable at 75 per cent. 

2nd. To bring out 1 ,000 families of the farming class from Europe, to 
supply them Avith provisions, animals, and farming implements, during one 
year ; to build houses and a school for each colony. 

.3rd. Each immigrant family to comprise five individuals, and receive 
two oxen, one horse, three fanegas of wheat, two of potatoes, one of 
maize, two ploughs, and provisions for twelve months. Each family 
to get a grant of twenty-four cuadras (100 acrQs) of land for ever, 
and this as well as all produce to be free of taxes for twenty years. 

4th. After four years the colonists to begin to re-imburse these 
expenses, paying to Government one-fifth of the amount until satisfied. 

The project was thrown out by Congress, but about the same time the 
Santa Fe Legislature, made a grant of 200 square leagues to a German Com- 
pany, which assumed the name of «The Argentine Land and Emigration 
Co., Limited,)) and published the following prospectus : — 

«The capital of the present company is £500,000, and the company is to 
secure the land grant made by Government, by sending out ten thousand 
families to form agricultural colonies within the period of ten years. 

«The lands granted by Government to the concessionaires are to be 
situated on the Parana, and Salado, theii* exact locality to be fixed by 
the company's surveyor. 

«The Government agrees to convey, on the arrival of every 200 families, 
six square leagues. 

<(The colonists are to be Germans and Irishmen. 

«The Government makes a free grant of 200 square leagues of land, of 
which 106^ leagues are to be distributed among the immigrants, and the 
balance, 193f leagues, becomes the free property of the company.)) 

jN'othiug has since been heard of the company, but it is possible that 
on the conclusion of the war the project may be revived. 

In September 18G6, a concession was given to Sor. Calvari for the intro- 
duction of a number of Italians to colonize the Gran Chaco. Sundry 
German and French enterprises of the same kind also sprung up, of wMcli 
we shall speak more fully in treating of the Gran Chaco. There is at 
present a project to establish a colony at the Guardia Esquina, situate 
on the Rio Tercero : this river may be made navigable, and the colony 
will be within easy reach of the Rosario and Cordoba railway. 

Another newly-projected colony, in the neigliborhood of the town of 
San Jose, has received the name of «San Josede la Esquina,)) where eighty 



28 AGRICULTURAL COLONIES. 

acres of land will be given to any person, on the sole condition of its 
being cultivated, and of their bringing a couple of oxen, a pair of horses, 
and the necessary agricultural implements. An extra inducement to 
settlers is held out by a promise of four pounds of meat daily, to be 
given gratuitously to each family during the first year. The town of 
San Jose, near the banks of the Parana, has about 400 inhabitants. The 
colonists must fence in their lots, make a well, and plant fifty trees: for 
five years they will be exempt from all taxes. The distribution of the lands 
will be made by the following committee :r— Messrs. Aaron Castellanos, 
Pedro Ramayo, Colonel Rodriguez, Joaquin Lejarza, Santiago Recafio, 
Nicolas Sotomayor, arid Francisco Oliva. 

EiSTRE-RIOS. 

General Urquiza signalized his administration no less by his opening the 
rivers to the flags of all nations, than by his efforts for immigration. The 
province of Entre-Rios has two colonies, that of San Jose being.the largest 
in the River Plate. 

San Jose Colomj stands 7 leagues north of the town of Concepcion, on 
the banks of the Uruguay: it has a convenient port, of safe anchorage? 
and the town which is springing up there is to be called after the discoverer 
of the New World. The colony counts 200 Swiss, 125 French, 54 Italian, 
and 15 German families, comprising 2280 persons. The returns for 1863, 
were — 11.3 births, 33 deaths, 11 marriages. The professions of the 
colonists, were — 22 shop-keepers, 16 masons, 17 carpenters, 7 shoemakers, 
6 tailors, 6 blacksmiths, 4 tinsmiths, 5 mechanics, 1 gunsmith, 1 boiler- 
maker, 1 sawyer, 2 mills, I steam-mill, 1 oil-press. The colony boasts a 
church, a school, and 257 brick houses, valued at £26,000 sterling : there 
is also a church in construction on the site of the intended toAvn. The 
concessions are 16 cuadras (70 acres) each. Uncultivated lots are sold at 
^10 (30s.) the cuadra, the purchaser being charged IS per cent, 
interest per annum till the amount be discharged. There are 3,200 
cuadras of land occupied, and 1 ,600 under cultivation ; fruit-trees 1 12,000. 

Tiie average annual yield is — 



Wheat and oats, 30, 1 50 fanegas. 

Indian corn, 15,000 do. 
Potatoes, .... 120 tons. 

Mani, 180 do. 



Tobacco, .... 5 tons. 

Sweet potatoes, 300 do. 

Rutter, 120 do. 

Eggs, 1 70,000 doz. 



Besides cheese, melons, peas, beans, &c., in abundance. 



COLO:VIES OF EXTRE RIOS. 29 

The crops of 1865 were so prolific that wheat gave from 35 to 40 fold, 
barley 30 to 50, and Indian corn three to four hundred fold. The returns 
of stock were — 

Cows and oxen, 6,S60 ; Hens, 21,500 

Horses, 1,141 i Beehives, 170 

Swine, 629 I 

A «cuadra)) of mani will give a yield of 3^ tons, and the oil extracted 
from this nut is of excellent quality : hence this is a lucrative article. 
Ricino is a plant that grows in abundance almost w ithout cultivation ; it is 
now extensively planted, both for the raising of silk- worms and for the 
oil it contains ; a cuadra will give two to three tons. The cultivation of 
cotton w as tried, but without success ; the great danger is that of drought, 
and if the irrigation be improved this industry will be again tried : as 
much as 25'tt of cotton have been got from a single plant Avell-watered. 
The tobacco crop is highly satisfactory, w hile requiring much care : a 
«cuadra» gives, sometimes, a ton of very good tobacco. The milk, butter, 
and cheese of the colony are first-rate, and some of the colonists make 
X40 to o£60 sterling a year, out of these items, in supplying the towns of 
Coucepcion, Paysandii, &c. The colonists also find a ready market for 
their eggs, and the supply of honey promises, to be soon very considerable. 

The Colony of Villa Vrquiza is situate six leagues above the city of 
Parana, on the Parana river. The river bank here rises to a high hill. 
On ascending this hill we see a beautiful, undulating, country. The con- 
cessions are about 30 acres each, but there is no limit to the number that 
one man may own if he cultivate them. The houses are chiefly «ranchos,» 
though some better houses of brick, with azotea roofs, are already built. 

The chief produce is wheat. Every concession is fenced in, the forest 
affording the material ; sometimes many concessions form one single field 
of wheat. AVhen the year has been favorable the crop gives 20 to 25 
bushels to the acre. It is reaped by machinery. 

Cotton has not done well, not for any defect in the soil or climate, but 
for the uncertainty of obtaining hands on the emergency, for picking. But 
for this, cotton would pay better than wheat. Land, cattle, and horses, 
are very low in price. Pasturage, a little way out from the Colony, is 
abundant. The colonists send to market in large quantities wheat, maize, 
potatoes, butter, and cheese. 

Mr. Forrest and3Ir. Russell have bought largely of these lands, and will 
reap this year some hundreds of acres of wheat. In the course of another 
year a large accession of immigrants is expected. 



30 AGRICULTURAL COLOINIES. 

The official returns for 1865 are — 

((Extent of concession, 6,700 acres: colonists, Swiss 20, Germans 32, 
French 8, Italians 5, and Belgians 6, families; in all comprising 355 
persons, who occupy 232 chacra lots, and have plantations of peach, 
orange, plum, and fig trees. The colonists are made up of gardeners, 
blacksmiths, carpenters, masons, shoemakers, and small dealers. The 
total stock do«s not exceed 2,500 head. The annual crop averages 3,000 
fanegas wheat, besides maize, potatoes, vegetables, cotton, and tobacco. 
The tobacco is superior to that of Paraguay ; it gave this year a fine crop, 
-which was readily sold at ISd. per %, wholesale. This industry is 
increasing.)) The American preceptor, Mr. Rau, gives the following 
report (1867) :— 

((It is a farming colony of about 560 persons, of whom 100 are natives, 
200 European Roman Catholics, and the remaing 260 are Protestants, 
chiefly Europeans. A few^ Americans are also settled here, and arrange- 
ments are made for the settlement of many more American families. The 
colony is in its infancy, and most of the farmers are poor. During the last 
few^ years some of the crops have not been good, and the first houses built 
by the immigrants have, in very few instances, given place to better ones. 

((We have received from the local Government a free concession of a 
building lot, 200 ' varas' in front, and 200 ' varas' in depth, making about 
eight English acres. Tliis ground is finely situated. It is already fenced, 
and on it we have erected a small house, suflicient for a temporary 
residence for the Minister. A well has also been dug, in which abundance 
of good water has been found. AVe have a contract with a responsible 
party for the erection of the church, which will cost £300 sterling, and 
the edifice, when finished, will be occupied for a school also. The 
minister, being supported as such, gives his labours free as a teacher.)) 

The enterprise at Villa de Urquiza is one of the ((misiones)) under the 
charge of the Rev. W. Goodfellow, D.D., of this city, and from the society 
that he represents the colony receives help in all these projects. 

Besides the above colonies. General Urquiza talks of establishing another 
on that part of his lands lying between his palace of San Jose and the tow n 
of Concepciou, the settlement to be bisected by a railway, with German 
settlers on one side, and Irish on the other. 

BUENOS AYRES. 

The Siviss Colony of Baradero is about tw^o miles N.W. of the port of that 
name on the Parana, standing on high and uneven ground in a bend of the 
river bluffs, and commanding a fine prospect. The Arrecifes river, which 



FORTITNATE SETTLERS AT BARADEHO. 31 

abounds in fish, washes one side of the concession, giving T\ater at all 
seasons to the cattle ; as the stream is only sixty feet wide there is easy 
passage to a beautiful island which has excellent pastures even in the 
greatest drought. This island is public property, and measures ten 
leagues by three. 

In 1856 the first Swiss colonists arrived, and some of these hard-working 
men (according to the official report before Government) have been able to 
make as much as £800 to £1 ,000 sterling. They are intelligent gardeners, 
and the soil is so productive that they have raised sweet potatoes weighing 
as much as a pound and a-half each, while the melons, cabbages, and other 
vegetables are equally large, and grow in abundance. Potatoes constitute 
the most profitable of their crops. Some experiments in tobacco turned 
out so well that the growers were awarded a silver medal at the 
Agricultural Exhibition of Buenos Ayres in 1856. Mani and linseed have 
given good results, the first surprisingly so ; still, the colonists find 
potatoes to need less care, and this is their great staple, yielding two crops 
a year; they also raise sweet potatoes, maize, wheat, and barley. Trees 
come on admirably, especially peaches, and so favored is the soil of the 
locality that even palm trees (which are always found in hotter latitudes) 
are readily acclimatized. Some of the settlers make butter and cheese, 
for which there is a constant market, either at Baradero or San Pedro ; the 
latter port is six miles North of the colony. The boatmen of the coasting 
trade are also good customers of the colonists, buying their produce to 
take down to Buenos Ayres or elsewhere. The colonists know that the 
greater their produce the readier market they find. 

The Municipality of Baradero provide new comers with board and 
lodging till putting them in possession of their lots. Every able-bodied 
man receives a lot, 200 varas on each side, about eight acres in extent, on 
condition of ditching it round, planting a few trees, making himself a hut 
or (crancho,)) and cultivating the ground within a year; if a settler has 
grown-up sons, each of them may have a similar lot, merely applying to the 
Municipality for same. The colony counts 873 souls. 



Germans, 


45 


Men, 


300 


Swiss, .... 


. . . 260 


Women, 


293 


French, . 


67 


Children, 


280 


Italians, 


119 


Catholics, 


. . . 692 


Spaniards, 


37 


Protestants, 


181 


Argentines, 


. . . 345 







The concession maybe put down at 10,000 acres, of which one-half is 
already allotted : there are 18 chacra lots of 12 acres, and 374 of eight 



32 AGRICULTURAL COLONIES. 

acres, besides 236 garden lots of two acres each ; all these are fenced in 
with wood and wire, and have a ditch. The price is 800 paper dollars per 
cuadra (30s. per acre), or the rent ^90 (15s.) per chacra lot of eight 
acres, per annum. 

The colony has a school, 36 azotea houses, and 285 thatched ranchos ; 
the plantations comprise 63,300 fruit-trees. There are 2 mills, 6 dairies, 
3 masons, 3 carpenters, 2 blacksmiths. 

The crops for 1864 were — 



Wheat, 


. . 1,091 fan. 


Peas, 




50 tons. 


Barley, 


.. 1,000 do. 


Beans, 




30 do. 


Maize, 


. . 8,104 do. 


Butter, 




50 cwt. 


Potatoes, 


868 tons. 


Cheese, 




75 do. 


Sweet potatoes, . . 


17 do. 


p.rrrrc 


.... 19 


500 doz. 



The farming-stock comprises — 750 cows, 9,000 sheep, 100 swine, 
1,050 horses, 2,990 hens. 

The practical proof of the success of this colony is given in a personal 
detail of the present condition of many of its members. Some of these 
poor, but persevering people, on their arrival had a little money, which 
they invested in cows, horses, bullocks, and fowl. For the first year, they 
lived in miserable mud ranchos, earning a subsistence by selling eggs and 
butter, and often having no meat to eat but biscacha flesh. The earliest 
comers were French-Swiss ; but the greater number of those who arrived 
from 1858 to 1861 were. German-Swiss. Out of the list of those given by 
Sefior Pifiero — to the number of 14 — we select a few examples: — 

John Tenoud, French-Swiss, a farmer m his native land, of the Roman 
Catholic religion, and 49 years of age on his arrival here, with eleven in 
family, possesses now a capital of 300,000 paper dollars, the greater part 
of which is put to interest or laid out in sheep. 

James Cardineaux, French-Swiss, Roman Catholic, farmer in his own 
country, 30 years of age on his arrival, with a family of six persons, has 
now a capital, of 150,000 paper dollars placed at interest and invested 
in sheep. 

Amongst the second lot of eight families came Claudio Jamer, a French- 
man, who had kept a small wine and flour store in France, 45 years old 
on his arrival, with one grown-up son, holds to-day a mill, worked by 
mules, in which he has invested 43,000 paper dollars, and is finishing the 
erection of a wind-mill, brought by himself during the past year from 
France. This mill cost 25,000 paper dollars ; he has two plots of farm- 
ground ; a house with one room of azotea roof, and two of straw. He is 
not in possession of money, but is entirely free from debt. 



THE SWISS AT BAR-IDERO. 33 

Here comes a list of German-Swiss, many of whom were obliged to hire 
themselves out as labourers on their arrival. But see what German 
perseverance does : — 

John Schar, a German-Swiss, a brickmaker in his own country, a 
Protestant, 37 years of age, self and wife being his only family, exhausted 
his funds on reaching here, as did all hereafter mentioned, has now a 
capital of 100,000 paper dollars; one half lent out at interest, and the 
other half in the house, or invested in draught cattle. 

Felix Schaer, a German Swiss, day labourer in his own country, a 
Protestant, 28 years of age on his arrival, Avith four in family, has now a 
capital of 100,000 paper dollars ; two-thirds at interest, and the remainder 
invested in implements and cattle. 

iSicholas Hequi, German-Swiss, a butcher in his country, a Protestant, 
38 years old on his arrival, his* wife and himself constituting his whole 
family, is actually in possession of 60,000 paper dollars, part of which is 
at interest, and the rest invested in an azotea house, labourers' tools, 
and cattle. 

The names of Andrew Schaes, a boy only 19 years old on his arrival, 
and now possessed of 20,000 paper dollars and a house ; of Fernando 
Schachbaum with 40,000 paper dollars ; of Alexiander Homber with 30,000 ; 
and Jose Matting 50,000, further prove what can be done by agriculturists 
in the Argentine Republic. 

The Municipality of San Pedro (3 leagues above Baradero) offer 30 
chacra lots of 6 cuadras (25 acres each) for immigrants, on the following 
terms. The lots will be either sold at §800 per cuadra (30s. per acre), or 
rented at §100 or 16s. The tenant or purchaser must pay for survey, &c., 
the sum of $150 (24s.) There is also a suitable tract of land, 13,000 
varas by 4,300, comprising about 10,000 acres, which may be bought in 
lots from the owner (a private party) for chacra cultivation. 



34 COLOSIZATION OF THE CHACO. 



CHAP. Y. 

COLONIZATION OF THE CHACO. 

The Gran Chaco comprises an immense territory, for the most part unex- 
plored, lying between Paraguay, La Plata, and Bolivia. Tlie Argentine 
Republic claims all that part bounded on the North by the Rio Vermejo and 
on the S.W. by the Salado, comprising a superficies of 250,000 square 
miles. The soil and climate are equal to those of the most favored 
countries, and the natural features are, vast plains of luxuriant pasture, 
thick forests of various useful timbers, and numerous rivers and lagoons : 
Avith such facilities for irrigation, it would be easy to raise any quantity of 
maize, cotton, tobacco, sugar-cane, and rice. In the beginning of the 18th 
century, thanks to the efforts of the Jesuit missionaries, several flourishing 
settlements were springing upj whose ruined remains are still seen near 
San Javier, the Vermejo, and elsewhere ; but at present the interior of the 
Chaco is entirely abandoned to roving Indians and beasts of prey. After 
the expulsion of the Jesuits (1767) the Indians returned to a savage life, 
and so late as 1860 the Tobas tribe murdered some Italian Franciscan 
missionaries sent to convert them. Only five small « reductions)) of tame 
Indians still remain, according to the report of Padre Rossi, prefect of 
missions; viz. — 

Men. Women. 

Santa Rosa, 220 258 

Cayastcl, 175 186 

San Javier, 194 205 

San Pedro, 132 142 

SanGeronimo, 200 182 



Children. 


Total 


.. 353 


831 


214 


575 


. . 20i 


. . 603 


281 


f ^ ■* 

OiiO 


182 .. 


564 



THE VARIOUS IT^DLO TRIBES. 35' 

In February 1863, the Argentine Government commissioned Mr. P. C. 
Bliss to make a journey through the Chaco, and this gentleman reported 
five Indian nations, distinct in language, but alike in habits and physical 
appearance : the Mocovis and Abipones frequent the frontiers of Santiago 
del Estero and Santa Fe, while the Tobas, Ocoles, and Matacos, inhabit the 
valleys of the Yermejo and Pilcomayo. The three last tribes are said to 
number 20,000 souls. The Matacos are very industrious, being the best 
peons on the frontier estaucias of Salta, and in the sugar-fields of Salta and 
Jujuy. During much of the year the Indians live on the fruit of the 
algarroba and the «yuchan» or palo-boracho ; fish also supplies them 
Tvith food. They have no agriculture or farming implements. Formerly 
most of the tribes had cattle and sheep, but the animals seem to have been 
carried off by a pestilence. The Indians suffer great mortality from want 
of clothing and proper habitations : they are very superstitious, have a 
great fear of the Gualiche (or evil spirit), and some confused idea of a 
future life. Their barter trade is very limited : they sometimes bring to 
the frontier-settlements a few skins of pumas, jaguars, foxes, otters, &c. 
but they collect wild honey in considerable quantities, as also ostrich 
feathers and the resin of «palo-santo.)) The Matacos and Ocoles could 
easily be domesticated, if they were furnished with farming implements, 
seeds, and a few head of cattle. 

In May 1864 an expedition was got up by Government, to open up a 
highway through the Chaco, from Corrientes to Santiago del Estero, the 
distance being set down at 120 to 140 leagues. Sr. Arce, the Vermejo 
navigator, took a lively interest in the enterprise, and General Ferre 
marked out the road on a map. Passing through the «obrages)) or wood- 
cutting establishments in the Chaco, opposite Corrientes city, the route 
plunged into Indian tei ritory, broken by numerous woods and marshes. 
Here the want of water and provisions might constitute a greater difficulty 
than any to be feared from the Indians. Some caciques signed a treaty with 
the >'ational commissioner, agreeing to provide these necessaries at various 
points along the route. The chief profit to be derived from this new 
highway was that a great export trade of mules and horses would be 
opened for Corrientes with the Northern provinces. The report of the 
officer commanding the expedition was as follows : — 

« Bracho Yiejo, May 22, 1864. 
((Dear Sir, 

«By the date of this letter you will perceive that notwithstanding alj 
the sufferings we have experienced in this painful journey across the 
Chaco, I, as well as my companion, Don Adolfo Reyes, am arrived safely at 

d2 



36 COLONIZATION OF THE CHACO. 

our destination : the ways and means would form a very long subject for a 
letter, and I consequently reserve the details until my return. 

<(The few provisions that we carried were of an inferior description, 
and had an unfavourable influence on our health, but like true Germans 
we have already forgotten our past sufferings and laugh at them in the 
houses of the engineers, Messrs. William H. Cock and Auguste Lemelle, 
who have received us as if we had been old friends. We are now lodging 
in the house of the Salado Navigation Company. Major Martinez is 
rather ill in the Bracho encampment, with th« Indians w ho accompanied 
us, Avhose behaviour has been very bad. 

«0n the 1st of May an Indian ran away, back to Corrientes, with one of 
the horses. On the 17th another Indian and a boy ran away, stealing our 
beef and two of the best horses. 

«0n the 14th the Cacique Dachilique, with his brother, ran away, 
stealing some of our horses and the only hatchet we had with us. We 
lost our way during the night and passed 35 hours without water. The 
Cacique was familiar with the locality and could have found Avater, but 
.seeing that the majority of our horses were tired, he separated from us, 
to take the horses to his «tolderia.)) He is the same who, three years 
back, murdered the Franciscan friar at 3Iatara, and he communicated 
this fact to the Cacique Leoncito, adding that he accompanied us, merely 
to learn the state of the roads and cattle, so that he might be better 
enabled to carry on his depredations against the Province of Santiago. 
Such are the ((trustworthy agentsw given to us by General Ferre. 

((On the 1 4th of May, at last, we came to the River Salado, and established 
ourselves in the 'canton Tostada,' now abandoned. Here we found the 
fine and well constructed ((azoteaw houses, erected by orders of our friend 
Dr., Archer, of which we have taken a plan and sketch to present to you 
on our return. 

«The road that we have travelled over is 175 leagues, and we are noAV 
awaiting instructions and horses from the Governor of Santiago. The road 
can be made transitable for cargo with very little expense. 

((I believe that we will start for Santiago on the 26th, passing by 
Salavina, and from thence I will write further. I do not know yet Avheu 
and how we shall return to Corrientes, for this depends upon the measures 
taken by the Government of Santiago. 

«Fkancls Pankoini, 

((Lieutenant Gommaudiug.» 



JOUR]SEY ACROSS THE CHA.CO. 37 

An intelligent Indian interpreter and traveller, named Felipe Saravia, 
TV ho had previously crossed the Chaco, made a journey in January 1865, 
with complete success, and his diary from Esquina Grande to Corrientes 
is as follows : — 

« January 21st. Left Colony Hi vada via, crossed to the right bank of the 
Vermejo, following the stream (three leagues) as far as Selicano : good 
water, course S.E and E. 

«22nd. Started at sunrise, and reached Santa Rosa by noon (four leagues) : 
course E. Pushed on (three leagues) to Canada Angosta, course S.E., 
roads good. 

«2.3rd. Dined at Poso Escondido (five leagues): good water, road 
middling, course E. At one part we had to hew a passage of half a league. 
Advancing three leagues before nightfall we encamped near a large lake 
which I called Selicano Muerto : road very bad, course S.E. 

<f24th. Made four leagues to the lake of Paso Yuchan : the route is 
almost impassable, and we had frequently to cut our way through woods. 
About midway is Palo Santo, Avhere a port is projected on theEio Vermejo. 
Leaving Paso Yuchan we cleared a road through three leagues of thicket, 
and one and a-half leagues over level ground brought us to Campo Alegre : 
here there is a good well, course E. 

«25th. Reached Poso Yerde (five and a-half leagues) by noon. At first 
the road is good, S.E.; but we had two and a-half leagues E. through 
dense woods, and then turning again S. E. came on a fine lake. Before 
night we pushed on (three leagues) to Rancheria, S. E., the route being 
impassable even to our sixty Indians on foot, until cleared by foiir men 
with axes. 

«26th. Starting at six a.m. the path was still impenetrable, and with 
great difficulty we made two leagues to Pescado Flaco, where the steamer 
Vermejo grounded last year, and sent her cargo on mule-back to Salta. 
I employed the Chinipis Indians to make a wood-opening here, giving them 
both money and axes. Course E. : there are two large lakes. 

«27th. Using our axes again we made three leagues to Bobadal, E. Two 
leagues more through the woods to Yuchanes, E., where there is 
a fine lake. 

«28th. At noon to Codillar, which is three and a-half leagues ; at first no 
road, afterwards level camp, and a lake ; route E. Two leagues further to 
Paso Qiiebrahacho, over level ground, Avith water, E. 

«29th. To Punta Monte two leagues, level camp, S. E. : here there is a 
well. To Canada Larga one league, S., with water. To the well called 
Pelaco three-quarters of a league, E. After this, half a league of thick 



38 COLOmZATIOJN' OF THE CHACO, 

woods E., and trio and three-quarters of level camp to Tunal, S. In the 
evening we made three leagues : good road to Laguna Larga, S.E. 

«30th. Two leagues E. and S.E. to Paso Tobas, open ground. Three 
leagues more, same road, to Laguna Verde, S.E. 

«31st. To TresPositos, four leagues, S. E., first half of the way through 
thickets, afterwards open camp. At three p.m. started for Represa, t^vo 
and a-half leagues, good road, S.E. 

((February 1st. xVfter one and a-half leagues of good road. We had to 
use our axes for two leagues, before reaching Binalar, S.E. Following this 
route we reached Totoral, the road being for one and a-half leagues good, 
and the rest very difficult, S.E. 

((2nd. Six leagues of good road, E., to Agua Hedionda, whercthere is a 
fine lake, and we passed the night. 

((3rd. Five leagues good road, S., and then N.E. to Gateado lake : thence 
to Paso Zancudo, four and a-half leagues, E., and then S., over level 
ground : much Avater. 

((4th. Taking S.E. four leagues good road to the lake of Algarrobal. 
Same route, tljree leagues and a-half toPalma Acheada and the lagoons. 

((5th. To Acheral, four and a-half leagues, clear way, at first S.E. and 
then E. We passed the night at Potrero, five leagues further, S.E., good 
road, and water. 

<(6th. Started at six a.m. and took siesta at Tres Palmitas, six leagues 
S.E., varying to E. Here there is no water. Ey sundown reached 
Perdido, two leagues S.E. 

{(7th. Reached Montes Grandes by noon : five leagues, good road, S.E. , 
much water, pushed on to Siete Arboles, three and a-half leagues same route. 

((8th. Made five and a-half leagues to Arroyo Cortaderas, E., good road, 
with water. Five leagues more to Bajo Grande. 

«9th. Started at seven a.m. and reached the bank of the Parana, in front 
of Corrientes, at noon. After siesta crossed the river to the city, which is 
four leagues from Bajo Grande.)) 

The journey occupied twenty days, averaging seven leagues per day ; of 
the total hundred and forty leagues, twenty-seven are impassable even to • 
the Indians on foot, who have to cut a passage, as we have seen, with axes. 
The longest interval without Avater is six leagues, but it is not clear that 
the lagoons bearing the names of ((Stinking Water)) and ((Green Wclb) 
are fit for drinking purposes. 

At tlie same time the ill-fated brothers Barron (formerly of Watcrford, 
Ireland) got up an expedition to traverse the Chaco from Goya to Santiago, 
enlisting for the purpose some Indian auxiliaries, but owing to the outbreak 



THE HELVETLi COLOTT. 39 

of the Paraguayan war the enterprise was abandoned (The Barrons under- 
took a second expedition from Mendoza to Chile, in which they were 
carried off by a savage tribe of Indians, but shortly afterwards effected 
their escape. Finally they were murdered in San Juan on a third mule 
expedition, in 1866.) Since 1865 no similar expedition has been. made, but 
the road in question is one of vital necessity, and will probably be the first 
care of Government on the conclusion of the war. The above named Sr. 
Arce, at the request of President Derqui, made an attempt to cross the 
Chacoin 1860 : his men (sixty peons) were not prepared for the hardship^ 
of the journey, and after three days' floundering througli morasses they 
mutinied ; just then a band of Indians fell on them, robbing the convoy, 
and murdering a friar and six others. Sor. Arce miraculously escaped by- 
floating down the Yermejo on the branch of a tree. 

HELVETIA COLOTT. 

This colony was founded in October, 1864, by Dr. Romang (formerly 
physician to the Esperanza Colony), who obtained from the Santa Fe 
Government a grant of four square leagues, on condition of establishing 
125 families thereon. It is situate N.N.E. from the Calchines, on the River 
Cayesta, about a league beyond the Indian village of Cayesta. The first 
settlers were twenty-four families from Esperanza, and others from Villa 
Urquiza, who preferred this place on account of its excellent soil and 
situation, the farming lots being sold very cheap. Tlie average price is 
100 Bolivian dollars (£16 sterling) per lot of 85 acres. Dr. Romang's 
house is in the centre of the spot marked out for the future town and port 
of the colony : the port is good, and protected by a picturesque and wooded 
island from the south wind. The river San Javier is about 300 yards wide, 
and schooners from Buenos Ayres come up to the colony. The road hence 
to Calchines is mostly through swamps and thickets, with open camps at 
intervals : the pasture is very poor, unless near the colony, where there is 
a fine black vegetable earth. Mr. Perkins writes of the locality as 
follows : — 

«A little over a year ago I travelled all over that section of the country^ 
and found it, without exaggeration, the finest place for farming and cattle- 
rearing purposes I have seen in this country. The ground or soil is black 
and sandy, and the grass hard ; but not near so hard as south of the river 
Salado. I think for sheep it would not do so .well in the beginning ; but I 
fancy that 'gramUla' would make its appearance sooner than near Esperanza, 
San Jeronimo, San Carlos, &c. 



40 COLOIVIZATION OF THE CHACO. 

«Romang's grant is situated on the immediate banks of the navigable 
branch of the Rio Parana, called by the country folks ' El arroyo del pueblo 
Yiejo : ' by ' pueblo viejo ' they understand an Indian village, Cayesta, at a 
distance of about twenty-five leagues from the city of Santa Fe. There I 
have seen the ruins of a church aiid a number of houses — all seemed to 
have been built of tapia or adobe : remains of bricks and baldosas could be 
seen in various parts. The former ground of the church is now used by 
some of the baptized Indians as a burying-ground : they put pieces of wood 
and branches of trees on the tombs. Most of them have chacras (fenced in) 
and grow corn, water melons, pumpkins, and mani. 

«The women are industrious : they spin, dye, weave, sew and stitch 
tolerably well; they rear cattle, have first-rate milch cows, but make 
neither butter nor cheese, only using milk as a beverage. Their clothing 
is of the most primitive nature. The land would be capital for growing 
cotton and tobacco. The milch cows would be very safe and do first-rate 
on the fine island opposite the shore. 

«Dr. Romang has the land divided into lots of five and twenty cuadras, 
each 150 yards square, and he sells such lots in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the river for 100 Bolivian dollars, a little further off for sixty, and 
those lots situated two miles from the river for fifty. 

«I forgot to mention that within a league of said land there are beautiful 
forests of a great variety of trees. The forty families who accompany Dr. 
Romang are all known to me ; they are old settlers of Esperanza, and have 
the routine of the exportation of timber, &c., which is the principal reason, 
I think, of their removing fartlier north. They all handle the rifle well, 
and are not afraid of the Indians.)) 

The situation is most picturesque, on the banks of the San Javier, which 
has fringes of fine timber, and some fertile islands. The colony counts 40 
families, which comprise 167 individuals, and 100 more families are ready 
to come out from Switzerland as soon as the war is over. Some of the 
lands are good, others need drainage, but have excellent timber. The 
chief products are maize, wheat, and potatoes. Raising pigs promises to 
be a lucrative business, as the animals are fattened on maize, and the hams 
sell at ISd. per %. Cayasta is an Indian village, comprising thirty huts, a 
house belonging to a Spanish wood-cutter, and the residence of the cacique, 
Tomas Valdez. It stands on a bluff near the San Javier, with a zone of 
open camps ; but the horizon is bounded on all sides with a dark fringe of 
wood. All these lands, as far as Saladillo Dulce, are very suitable for 
colonists, with easy communication with the river Parana. The Indians 
of Cayasta are indolent, thievish, and fond of hunting and fishing : the men 



THE SkS JAVIER PROJECT. 41 

are robust, and the women have regular features. Their ranches are clean 
and commodious, built of long reeds. They dress decently, even the 
children wearing shirts. Maize grows ^ell, but is little cultivated. 

The colonists of Helvetia lost no time in bringing the land under cultiva- 
tion: by report dated January, 1866, they had sown as follows : — • 
43 fanegas wheat, j 10 fanegas beans, 

126 do., maize, 10 do., other vegetables. 

1 5,000 plants tobacco, 1 ,000 orange trees, 



10,000 do., cotton, 
Their stock comprised — 
760 cows, 
90 horses, 



10,500 fruit trees, 

80 pigs, 
400 sheep. 



The Provincial Government has solicited of the ?<ational authorities that 
all subsidized steamers shall be ordered to stop opposite the colony, in the 
Boca del Riacho Hernandaria. Thus, the colony will come into direct 
communication with Rosario and Buenos Ayres. 



SAN JAVIER CONCESSIONS. 

In April, 1865, Messrs. Wilken & Vernet obtained from the Santa Fe 
Government a concession of 100 square leagues (650,000 acres) on the 
river San Javier, for the establishment of 250 families from Germany, to 
whom they would give 50,000 sheep, 4,000 cows, besides horses, &c. The 
colony was to be established witliin three years, and the colonists to be 
exempt from taxes for five years, besides exporting their produce duty 
free for the same term. The site was well chosen, about thirty-five 
leagues north of Santa Fe city, and nearly opposite La Paz in Entre Bios. 
Mr. Vernet's diary of his journey to San Javier is interesting — 

«I started from Santa Fe on the 10th of August, at 10 a.m., accompanied 
by my peon and a merchant of the village of Las Calchinas. 

«At noon Ave arrived at the little village of San Jose del Rincon, situated 
about three leagues E.N.E. from Santa Fe. This village has about 1,000 
inhabitants, a fine little church, and 10 or 12 stores, or «casas de negocio.w 
The natives occupy themselves with growing wheat, Indian corn, 
water melons, and pumpkins (these latter are of colossal dimensions ; I 
was told they harvested last year some weighing about lOOtt each), oranges 
and peaches for home consumption : all the other produce is exported to 
Buenos Avtcs. San Jose has a fine port on the river Colastine, and I saw 
two large schooners loading wheat and Indian corn. 



42 COLONIZATION OF THE CHACO. 

«The road from Santa Fe to San Jose is rather bad and heavy on account 
of the ((bafiados)) which must be passed, and is also intercepted by the 
mouth of the Laguna Grande, which must be crossed in a canoe and the 
horses swimming. 

(fFrom San Jose leads a road to the village Santa Rosa, or Las Calchinas, 
situated on thebanks of the river Cayesta, which is a prolongation of the 
Colastine ; this road is also very tiresome for horses, passing through long 
tracts of ((bafiados,)) and through heavy sands, and is liJiewise intercepted 
by a branch of the Parana, which must be crossed in a canoe. This, branch 
or channel leads a huge quantity of Parana water into the Laguna Grande, 
on its north-eastern boundaries. The distance from one village to the 
other is seven leagues. 

((The productions of Las Calchinas are — wheat and ludian corn, 
which are exported to Baenos Ayres. The port is very good, and I saw two 
vessels and various ' chalanes' loading. There are about 600 inhabitants in 
this village, and a fine two-steepled church, of good materials, recently 
constructed by order of the National Government : there are three or four 
merchants, the principal one my fellow-traveller, Don Francisco Cardona. 

((Las Calchinas was originally a settlement of Indians ; but their number 
is now very limited. 

((On the 11th, at 1 p.m., I left the Calchinas, in company with my peon 
and the ' corregidor,' Jose Rojas. At dusk we arrived at the new colony, 
Helvetia. 1 spent the night at the house of Dr. Romang. 

((On the 12th of August, at 7 a.m., we started for San Javier, after 
having taken the indispensable mate and purchased some provisions for the 
journey. After a leisure gallop we entered a forest, which has two or 
three leagues depth on the river Cayasta, and extends, landwards, for 
several leagues. Tlie rest of the road is open camp, scattered with groups 
of trees. In some parts the ground is low and swampy, in others, a little 
high and dry. In some parts the river San Javier touches the terra firmay 
in others it retires, thus forming small islands and ' bafiados.' 

((The distance from the colony of Helvetia to San Javier is computed by 
some at fifteen, and by others at eighteen leagues. Half-way there is a 
beautiful spot on the banks of the river ; it is called El Paso del Aguara, 
and belongs to 3Ir. Genaro Elias, as also another place a little further to 
the north, called La Estancia Grande. A little to the south, at Las 
Algarrobas, is the property of Don Daniel Gowland. Both of these 
gentlemen arc resident in Buenos Ayres. 

«At half-past four p.m. we arrived at the village of San Javier. » 



LAJfD GRA:XTS of pour THOUSAISD ACRES. 43 

Messrs. Wilken & Vernet endeavored to form a company in England, but 
failed; the concession is now void. 

In July 1866, public attention wa^ notably directed to this part of the 
Gran Chaco as a field for emigration. A French colony was projected at 
Pajaro Blanco, a Dutch colony near Wilken's grant, a Californian colony on 
the San Javier, a Basque colony hard by, and another at San Antonio on 
the Rio Salado. Governor Oroilo passed a bill through the Chambers giving 
estancia lots of 4,000 acres each at a nominal price, the law being as 
follows : — 

Art. 1. The lands bordering on the river Parana between the concessions 
of Mr. Charles Vernet and Sr. Navarro, extending back westward to the 
Saladillo Grande, are hereby given in perpetuity for the use and benefit of 
immigrant families. 

Art. 2. The Government will draw up a map of the territory, marking 
sites for towns, each of which shall have an area of four leagues square 
for streets, buildings and a general grazing-common. 

Art. 3. Each township shall be divided into building-lots of 50 yards 
frontage by the same depth, and chacras of 20 cuadras each (80 acres) : the 
building lots to be given gratis, as also the chacras at the rate of four 
cuadras for each person. 

Art. 4. The rest of the territory shall be distributed as estancias of 
5,000 yards frontage by the same depth (4,000 acres), or 25,000,000 square 
yards, to be sold on a year's credit to natives or foreigners who settle 
thereon, but not more than two estancias can be sold to the same individual. 
Art. 5. The price of these lands shall be set down on the map, according to 
their distance from the river, the nature of their pastures, water-supply, 
wood, &c. as fixed by Government tariff which shall never be under $.300 
per square league, nor over $400. 

Art. 6. All sales, grants, or concessions will require the indispensable 
condition of settling on the ground, according to the existing law. 

Art. 7. The proceeds of lands sold as in Art. 4 shall be devoted to paying 
the passage of foreign emigrant families from Buenos Ayres to their 
intended place of settlement in the territory above described. 

Art. 8. The expenses of passage for said families shall be considered as 
a loan, for which the head of the family must be responsible, and it shall 
be as a mortgage on the lands ceded or sold to the family. 

Art. 9. All moneys advanced in this manner to each family for cost of 
passage shall be refunded by the colonists, beginning the 2nd year after 
settling, in a fifth part each year, without any charge for interest. 

Art. 10. The moneys refunded as above by the colonists shall form an 



44 COLONIZATION OF THE CHACO. 

«Imraigration Fund,» the annual interest of which shall be exclusively 
devoted to the education of the colonists' children, public works, and other 
purposes tending to encourage immigi^ation. 

Art. li. The settlers shall be exempt from all Provincial tax or impost 
during five years after their establishment. 

Art. 12. iXative families of this or any other Argentina Province, who 
may wish to settle in the Colonies or in their neighbourhood, shall enjoy 
the same privileges as are hereby conceded to foreign settlers. 

Art. 1,3. The Government will publish at expense of the State a pamphlet 
comprising the present law, with a description and map of the territory 
herein devoted to immigration purposes. 

Art. H. The Government is obliged to report each year to the 
Legislature on the results of the present law, with a balance-sheet of 
receipts and expenditure. 

The only colonists who availed themselves of this advantageous offer of 
lands were the settlers from California, who have since established a 
flourishing colony. Meantime the Secretary of the Emigration Committee 
at Eosario published a notice as follows : — 

«Mr. Orofio has authorised me to state that the conveyance of all persons 

desirous of settling in the Chaco will be furnished gratis, and orders will 

be transmitted to the agents of Mr. Cabal's. steamer, the Proveedor, to give 

free passages to such persons from Buenos Ayresto Santa Fe, from which point 

the Government will furnish transportation by land up the coast. At Pajaro 

Blanco, the Government has a reserve of sixteen leagues to be distributed 

gratis, in farms of eighty-five acres, to settlers. All these I have explored, 

and 1 give my word that no finer exist in the Republic. The vegetable soil 

is from two to four feet in depth, and there is plenty of wood; while the 

low lands in front, through which the San Javier runs, offer the most 

admirable pasture lands for cattle and the rearing of hogs. Twelve 

leagues above the flourishing colony of Esperanza, on the Salado River, is 

the site of the projected colony of San Antonio, where settlers can get 

grants gratis of 2,500, 1,500, 1,000 and 500 acres, according to their 

priority of arrival. This place is as yet outside tlie frontier, and 

cannot be settled on except by a considerable number of people, say a 

hundred to a hundred and fifty, for protection against the Indians. The 

Chaco will give the new colonists all the meat they want. There is a great 

abundance of deer, large and small, carpinchos, armadillos, ducks, geese, 

partridges, moor fowl, fish, &c., besides a sprinkling of tigers, wolves, 

foxes, wild hogs, and vast quantities of the American ostrich.)* 



califor:xian settlebs at san javier. 45 

the californlvn colo]?iy. 

In the last week of 3IaT, 1866, a number of Calif ornian farmers who had 
come to settle in the Argentine Republic, accompanied Mr. Perkins of 
Rosario in an exploring expedition to that part of the Gran Chaco lying 
between El Rey and San Javier, on the banks of the Parana : the river Rey 
is in 29 lat., S. The expedition was composed of the following persons 
and material: — Messrs. ^S'illiam Perkins, leader; J. Aguirre, surveyor; 
Alexander 3IcLean, James B. Locket, William J. Moore, Zina Port, Francis 
Binitz, Josiah Reeves, John Smith, Harlow, William H. Moore, Moses J. 
Moore, Charles W. Burton, Albert Vidler, M. J. English, Charles Stewart, 
Charles Hildreth, Edward Washburn. John Penington ; four peons belong- 
ing to the Surveying Department, one ' capataz ' and two men for the 
carts, of whidi there were two, one ox-cart, and another drawn by horses. 

In San Javier a number of Indians was added to the party. 

» 
They were six weeks exploring the Chaco up and down, and the land 

proved equal to their best anticipations, except near the coast-line of the 

Parana, where the swamps extended from two to six leagues inland. They 

crossed the River Rey, venturing into the territory of the warlike Tobas, 

and here they found the laud even to sui'pass what they had seen south of 

El Rey. On their return to Santa Fe they resolved to establish their first 

settlement a league northward of San Javier, in a fine tract of land which 

they therefore bought of the Government, They also applied for 40 

leagues of territory, about 13 leagues further north, and 45 leagues from 

Santa Fe city, intending to have this in readiness when their friends from 

California should arrive in large numbers. The total purchase-money 

amounted to 1.3,300 silver dollars, equal to two and a-half pence per acre. 

Some of the settlers were men of large means, one having as much as 

£10,000 sterling. 

In the beginning of August tJiey started for tlieir new home in the 
hunting-grounds of the Mocovies, the caravan comprising 30 men, women, 
and cliildren, with six loaded waggons, horses, oxen, and baggage : the agri- 
cultural implements, machines, and provisions, were sent up by water, in 
two schooners. Three months later, Mr. Hildreth, one of the colonists, 
writes as follows : — 

«We have finally settled, say half comfortable, as far as houses and their 
appurtenances go, just one league from the fort of San Javier. The colony 
at present consists of thirty souls, men, women, and cliildren. The land 
under cultivation, and which was the labor of six men for six weeks, is one 
hundred and fifty acres, planted with Indiaa corn and every vaiiety of 



46 COLONIZATION OF THE CHA.CO. 

vegetables — all of which are doing splendidly for newly broken ground. 
The amount of stock, cattle and horses, now on hand, is about 125 head, 
and good milk and fine butter are as plentiful here as inAte and caua below. 
Our water facilities are as fine as any I have seen in the Confederacy — 
having a branch of the San Javier in front, and the Saladillo Dulce at the 
back. The captain commandant at the fort assures us that a 'seca' is never 
known here, and certainly his words have been verified since our arrival, 
for it has rained incessantly. All the colonists are much pleased with the 
land and its locality. If any of your friends are desirous of visiting us, 
advise them to bring rifles and shot-guns, as game is very plentiful, and 
two or three weeks can be delightfully passed hereabouts, hunting. Day 
before yesterday I met three or four of the tame Indians, with thirty-seven 
large red-deer skins, one tiger, and several fox skins, and which they 
assured me had been killed near here, and were the work of three days 
only. Ostriches and their eggs are plqntifal, and the latter serve as an 
excellent substitute for ' hen fruit.' Last Sunday morning at daylight, 
two of us started for a hunt, and less than two miles from the house we 
brought down a fine deer, and saw five others ; but the little songsters 
called ' mosquitos ' and the heat of the morning induced us to give up the 
chase, returning home, after two hours absence, with our venison, which was 
the fattest I have seen in this country. The Indians, of whom we had such 
bad accounts before our expedition to the Rcy, have not yet madQ their 
appearance ; but w'e have always ready at hand, loaded and capped, a good 
supply of riiles, guns, muskets, and revolvers, and as several of our 
colonists have been old North American Indian hunters, the savages may 
expect a Avarm reception if they come with evil intentions. As yet not a 
single animal has been lost or stolen, and they are allowed to roam at will 
all day, being seldom seen from the time they leave the corral in the 
morning until they return at night. Too much praise cannot be given to 
the captain commandant of the fort at San Javier, for he has extended to us 
all the civilities possible to make us comfortable and happy.)) 

A gentleman who visited the colony only six weeks after its establish- 
ment describes it as follows : — 

((After some four leagues riding, we arrived at the ford of a large 
navigable river which empties itself into the Parana opposite Ernandaria ; 
upon its banks nothing can exceed the richness of its pastures. Then the 
old works of the Jesuits open upon us, and we enter the fort or town of 
San Javier, full of the largest orange trees I ever beheld, and of Indian huts ; 
the old chapel, and walls of extraordinary bricks, made by the Jesuits, 
rivet our attention. The new house and church, the work of our host the 



THE CALIFORIVIAI? C0L0:NY. 47 

Cura, are the larj^'est edifices in the town, and, although yet in winter, I 
never beheld vegetation more luxuriant. 

«The Cura, who undoubtedly rules supreme in San Javier, has built a fine 
chapel ; it is long, broad, snfficiently high, with an iron roof, and most 
commodious; it has two bells, a sacristy, and the house and garden of the 
Cura joins it ; it is the work of his own hands, save the occasional help he 
could get from the Indians. Early on Sunday morning Ave attended his 
chapel — surprised at the large congregation present. After breakfast we 
proceeded to the Californian Colony — about a league north of San Javier ; 
how great the contrast appeared between the Indian town and the Christian 
settlement, where every implement of agriculture, every American inven- 
tion to aid the colonists, ovens of all classes, culinary and household 
fui'niture, besides large tracts of land ploughed to perfection, la\ before us ! 
We alighted at Mr. M'Lean's encampment, Avho was most communicative to 
us ; he told us he had travelled for the last thirteen months — since his 
arrival overland from California — through Buenos Ayres and the other 
provinces in search of tillage-land, and that only in the Chaco could he find 
it to satisfaction. AVe proceeded with him to the other branch of the 
colony — about a mile distant — where Ave were agreeably surprised at 
meeting several ladies, besides 31r. and Mrs. Moore with a grown-up family 
of eight in number ; one of his sons had just shot a red deer and a number 
of ducks, but their staple commodity is flour, of wliich tl>ey have a large 
supply, and their provisions bread, beans, rice, coffee, tea, and sugar, for, 
save the horses, Avorking oxen, and an odd milch cow, they haAe no other 
animals. 

«Houses are going up : the colony, which consists of men of every trade, 
are ftost enthusiastic, determined to hold their position, and have solicited 
Government for a further grant of tAventy leagues. The rifles of the colony, 
in quantity and quality, are beyond my description. We met the Coman- 
daute of San Javier, Don Antonio Alsogaray, Avho has large fields of Avheat, 
maize, and alfalfa : his services to the colony are innumerable. We were 
also Avaited on by Custodio, the cacique, who expressed his pleasure at our 
arrival, regretted that most of his Indians Avere on a hunting expedition, 
that if Ave came to trade, until their return Ave should find almost nothing, 
as every skin had been purchased by the three traders or store-keepers of 
the town — Don Benjamin Escudero, an Entre Riano ; Don Beltran Duran, 
. a Frenchman; and Don Lucas Caballo, a Spaniard, the Tattersal of San 
Javier.)) 

Fray Emitivio, the cura, is an Italian, about 35 years of age, very zealous 
in his calling and disinterested. 



48 coLONizATio:^ of the chaco. 

A writer in the Tiempo of Santa Fe says — «No less than one hundred 
years ago, under the gentle sway of tlie Jesuits, these very plains were 
waving with maize, corn, and cotton, flanked by a large quinla ,well 
stocked with fruit trees and vegetables ; besides troops of carts, the Jesuits 
had a fleet of small river craft to convey their produce to this market, and 
these vessels were made in their OAvn dockyard and by their own ship- 
wrights and blacksmiths. In 1767 the mission had 23,000 head of horned 
cattle, 3,850 sheep, 3,000 horses and mares, and 380 mules.)) 

The progress of the colony could not better be described tlian in the 
annexed letters, dated January, 1867 :■ — 

((Since we have been here we are doing well ; our crops are excellent, all 
except our early corn, that Avas sown in a hurry and the land only ploughed 
once. The regular crop, put in with greater care, is doing very well. I 
have a fine garden, from which I have just picked a squash from Californian. 
seed that measures sixty -two inches in circumference, and I have as fine 
water-melons, cucumbers, tomatoes, and other j^arden stuff as you would 
like to see. 1 have thirty head of cattle — cows and oxen. We have 
planted 150 acres of corn, and have done some ploughing for next season, 
which is not bad, considering we had such a late start. The Indians have 
not troubled us at all, in fact we have not seen one yet. The. tame Indians 
of San Javier have not meddled with us either ; if they were to do so we 
would take their whole town. The high water did not become visible 
to us. It would require a further rise of seven feet to overflow the bottom 
lands. There 'is excellent feed for the cattle all over these lands. The 
ofiBcers from the Santa Fe Government gave us a visit ; they came up to 
establish a new line of forts. They were very well pleased witlv our 
crop. What we want here are our own country seeds, and Americans 
to put them in the ground. I have six rows of cotton growing, and it is 
as promising as any I ever saAv in my life in the Southern States. I planted 
the seeds at different epochs, so as to ascertain the best date for 
planting. In a few days it will be in full bloom. — A. McLean.)) 

Mr. Moore, writes : — ((Myself and two sons have planted forty acres of 
corn, and about ten in garden stuff, and everything looks magnificent. My 
water -melons are as fine as any I ever saw, and my pumpkins, only half 
grown, weigh from 25 to, 30 lbs. The corn, although receiving no culti- 
vation, is very fine. Everything is looking so thrifty, tliat I am thoroughly 
convinced that I can raise as good crops here as in any part of the world. 
Our seeds have run out, but as soon as I can get a supply from home all 
will be well.)) 



THE CALIFORNIA COLOSY. 49 

Another letter, a year later (January 1868), continues to report 
everything most favorably — 

«The Cahfornia Colony has proved a perfect success so far. Everything 
that has been planted has thriven well, equal to the best parts of California. 
The wheat crop has been harvested, and is splendid. The corn is in 
roasting ear, and is good for any country. Irish potatoes, garden stuff of 
all kinds, cabbages particularly, melons, pumpkins, &c., I consider very 
superior. The young orchards are doing finely. The only thing which 
has failed has been the sweet potatoes. There is a kind of bug (called in 
North America the lady bug), which destroys the vines. Everything that 
has been planted has done well. The live stock is equally successful. 
Cattle, horses, and hogs have done, and are doing well. The colony has 
never been disturbed by the Indians, and every family which arrives 
lessens the probability of its being so. The colonists have not lost an animal 
by Indians or tigers. They have lost a great deal of wheat by tlie rainy 
weather, as they have no threshing machine, and had to tramp it out with 
horses. Next season they will be provided with the best Yankee machi- 
nery. If they had had the most ordinary reapers, and threshed, they would 
not have lost a grain this year. They are preparing to sow a much larger 
crop this fall. The land in this section is level, but 30 feet above the low 
lands or 'bottom' of the Parand. The soil is a black loam about three 
feet deep, and resting on yellow clay. The grass and herbage grow with 
great luxuriance at all seasons. The grass is of the same quality as the 
* merquite ' grass of Texas, and I consider it equal in all respects to that. 
The ' paja,' or tall jungle grass, grows only on the Parana bottom or low 
land, which is at this point 18 miles wide, and intersected with numerous 
'lagoons' and lakes. The cattle range in it to a sliort distance. As for 
land, there is certainly plenty of it. From this colony northward there is 
not a house for twelve hundred miles, and the vacant public domain stretches 
away for hundreds of leagues north and west. There is everywhere an 
abundance of good fresh water, and plenty of wood, both for fencing and 
firewood. We make it answer for building our cabins ; but it is short and 
crooked for that purpose. For picket fencing and firewood it has no 
superior, and there is plenty of it and well distributed. No clearing is 
required, as the country is prairie, with skirts or ranges of timber extending 
through it. The timber improves in quality as far up the country as I have 
been, which is about fifty miles. Tlie climate is healthy : there has been 
no sickness among the settlers. We have had more rain than we needed 
this summer. As to the price of land, I suppose the best land liere can be 
bought for §50 s. per acre, and from that down to nothing, and the seed 



50 COLONIZATION OF THE CHACO. 

thrown in. For if any new comer should be too poor to buy, he would 
have land given hira to his satisfaction. AVliat is most wanted now is 
settlers, American or English, equipped for settling in the woods, and 
armed to defend themselves, as the colony looks to itself for protection. 
We have lately had three English families from Buenos Ayres, and two 
single men from California. If you see any American, English, Scotch, or 
Irish families, or single men who expect to engage in agriculture, I have 
no hesitation in saying that this is the best part of the Argentine Republic. 
For live stock the country is as good as could be desired, but for the 
present no large number of horses or cattle would be advisable. I say for 
the present, but the colonists expect to bring large droves next spring. 
The colony is much in need of a blacksmith's shop. A good smithy 
equipped for farm work, is a desideratum, particularly an American, or one 
who has worked in North America. Persons moving up to the colony at 
present, should come to the town of La Paz, in Entre Eios, which is on the 
Parana River, and there charter a boat to San Javier. The charter of a 
boat from La Paz to this place, San Javier, would be about £5 sterling. 
The passage to La Paz from Buenos Ayres is gI8 s. I omitted to mention 
that the ' mosquitos ' are bad at present, though there were none this 
summer until lately. I deem it superfluous to say that we have game in 
abundance, and lish in fabulous quantities. Cotton grows well, and also 
hemp and tobacco. Please forward any letters which may arrive for me to 
the same address : Colonia California, San Javier, Santa Fe.)) 

Mr. Perkins of Rosario, in April 1868, writes as follows : — «One of the 
Americans from the Calif ornian Colony is down here. He has informed the 
Secretary of the Immigration Commission that the crops have been 
excellent, and the people are happy and contented. The Welshmen and 
their families, from Chupat, under Mr. Davies, are settled now amongst 
the Americans, and have brought up the number of the colony to about 
forty individuals. The new , French Colony, two leagues this side of San 
Javier, has now fifteen families.)) 

At the close of 1868 we have the following accounts : — «The news from 
the North American Colony is cheering. Their wheat crops are splendid, 
and the Tiempo of Santa Fe says that relatively this colony will give double 
the products that any of the others will, on account of the intelligence 
and industry of the colonists. A sample of their wheat sent doAvn to Santa 
Fe was pronounced the first in the province. The colonists have received 
several additions to their number from California. It seems the Govern- 
ment considers the contract with Messrs. Wilcken and Vernet cancelled, 
as part of tliis concession has been given to the Welslunen, another part 



THE RIVADAMA COLO:!«Y. 51 

sold to 31r. Grognet, and another to air. Laprade, both gentlemen of 
Eosario. A quantity of the lands of El Rey has also been solicited by 
purchasers.)) 

RIVADAVIA C0L03VY. 

This colony is situate on the]N\E. bank of the Rio Vermejo, about four 
leaf^ues below Esquina Grande, in the Province of Salta, up to which point 
there are no impediments to navigation. It is bounded on the north by 
the grant belonging to the missionary fathers, on the south and east by the 
Arroyo Tenco, and on the west by the Rio Vermejo. It covers a superficies 
of 200 square leagues (1,300,000 acres), extending six leagues in breadth 
from N.W. to S.E., and forty in length. The soil is mostly alluvial, being 
periodically inundated by the Vermejo. The colony -was established in 
December 1862, and in January 1864, it counted 54 families, with an 
aggregate of 550 souls. Since then, numerous «suertes)) have been allotted 
to new settlers, and the colony is now much larger. Each family receives 
for ever a donation of a asuertew of estancia, 2,500 yards front, by the same 
depth (about 1,200 acres), between the rivers Vermejo and Tenco, or 
double that area if the lands have not frontage on the above rivers ; also a 
building lot, 15 yards by 60, on the site of the proposed town; and a 
chacra of four acres for cultivation. The chief industry of the colony is in 
horned cattle, the stock amounting to 20,000 head. The soil is fertile, 
and large plantations have been made of cotton and tobacco ; but at present 
the difficulty of transport seems insuperable. President Mitre's Government 
was authorized by Congress to expend all necessary sums for the construc- 
tion of a road from Corrientes to Esquina Grande : the project has been 
allowed to fall into complete oblivion ; but the road, when made, will pass 
through the colony and meet the high road of the northern provinces 
somewhere on the frontier of Salta and Tucuman. Mr. Bliss speaks of his 
■visit to the colony in July 1863, as follows : — 

<(The long delay of our expedition had given rise to serious fears for our 
safety, and our arrival at the colony of Rivadavia was hailed with the 
greatest demonstrations of joy. When the expedition left Buenos Ayres, 
its supposed destination was the port of Esquina Grande, four leagues above 
the colony of Rivadavia. The event proved that no one on board had any 
idea of the geographical and other changes which have taken place in that 
region within three or four years. Esquina Grande, so noted in all previous 
itineraries of voyages and explorations, does not now contain a single 
building of any description, and, in fact, does not now exist as a port. The 
river has, as in many other cases, changed its course, has dug a canal across 

s2 



52 COLONIZATION OF THE CHACO. 

the peiiinsula, and has thus left the former Esquina Grande some distanee 
inland ! The port thus abandoned has, however, been more than replaced 
by the establishment, durmg the year 1862, of the new colony of Rivadavia. 
This colony is situated upon the northern bank of the Vermejo, four leagues 
below Esquina Grande, and has a grant from the Provincial Government of 
Salta of sixteen leagues of land upon the river and six leagues back. The 
colonists were mostly Bolivians of the poorer class, from the provinces of 
Tarija and Santa Cruz de la Sierra. This large grant of land was looked 
upon with a jealous eye by the estancieros of the frontier, who coveted that 
fine extent of territory for themselves. The Indians of the neighborhood 
were mostly employed as peons, either by the colonists or by the 
^fronteristas,' and some of the latter stooped to the meanness and wickedness 
of prejudicing the Indians against the colonists, hoping thus to frighten 
them from their enterprise. With the arrival of our steamer the safety of 
the colony was thought to be secured, especially as three cannon from the 
old fort of San Fernando were brought to the colony at the same time.)) 

Mr. Bliss was five weeks making the overland journey from the colony to 
Buenos Ayres, via Bosario. 

The latest official report of the colony is only to January 1864. When 
the navigation of the Bio Yermejo becomes a fact, the colony will spring 
into great importance. 



PATAGOiMA, A FIELD FOR COLONISTS. 53 



CHAP. yi. 



COLONIZATIOX OF PATAGONIA. 

Patagonia may be said to include all that vast territory lying between 
the Rio Negro (40 deg. S. Lat.) and the Straits of Magellan, and estimated 
to contain an area of 350,000 square miles. The climate is similar to that 
of England, and the soil fertile : hence the country is well suited for 
immigration, and various efforts have been made, within the last six years, 
for this purpose. 

In June 1863 the Government of Buenos Ayres made the following grant 
to Mr. Louis Bamberger : — 

1. M. Louis Bamberger engages to bring out a German Colony, whose 
total number sliall be 10,000 families. 

2. The Government of Buenos Ayres grants a free gift of public land in 
the following proportion : for every 100 families one square league, besides 
an equal quantity for the benefit of the concessionaire or joint stock 
company. 

3. The Government will provide each family with farming implements, 
seeds, two milch cows, six heifers, a yoke of oxen, and twelve sheep. 

4. The Government will support all the immigrants during six months 
after their arrival. 

The concession never came to anything, Mr. Bamberger failing to get up 
a joint-stock company. 



54 COLONIZATION OF PATAGOKIA. 

In the following month (July 1863) the Argentine Government signed a 
concession for the establishment of a Welsh Colony at the Chupat, which 
was carried out two years later. 

In August 1863 a Frenchman, Dr. Brougnes, who had been connected 
with the French Colony in Corrientes, formed a project to convert the 
Indians into colonists, giving them land, seeds, &c., and the Cacique 
Baigorria promised him every co-operation. He also proposed introducing 
European settlers, to be scattered along the rivers Negro and Colorado, 
The scheme died in embryo. 

In 1863, 3Iessrs. Galvan, Aguirre, and Murga received a most advan- 
tageous concession from the Government of Buenos Ayres, viz. : — «Messrs. 
Galvan receive for each family a gift of 160 acres land, a bonus of ^12 s., 
and the loan 'of $160 or £32 sterling, to pay the necessary expenses. 
Messrs. Aguirre and Murga receive 1,600 acres for each family, in fee, 
but without any subvention in money. The concessionaires propose to 
pay the passage of the immigrants, providing each family, on arrival, with 
300 sheep, six milch cows, one bull, four horses, and a large piece of land.)) 
As an immigration scheme it has never been carried out, but numbers 
of Englishmen have since settled on the lands of Aguirre and 3Iurga, 
some purchasing the land from them, others going into partnership with 
them in the care of sheep. 

In June 1864 General Paunero submitted an excellent project for a fixed 
line of frontier on the Rio Colorado, Avhich, but for the Paraguayan war, 
bade fair to be accepted by Government. 

The Bio Colorado rises in that part of the Andes contiguous to Mendoza, 
almost in direct line from Buenos Ayres, in 35 S. Lat,, and 69 W, Long, 
pursuing a winding course S.E. until it debouches into the Atlantic, a few 
miles below our settlement of Bahia Blanca, about 40 S. Lat. Paunero 
estimated its length at 197 leagues, say 600 miles, and proposed to erect a 
line of forts with small military picquets at certain distances, along its 
north bank. He required only 5000 men for so splendid an undertaking, 
instead of 13,000 troops of the Line and National Guards at present 
occupied in the straggling frontier service of these provinces. 

The advantages to be gained by this scheme Avere thus summed up : — 
1st. An effective and uniform cordon of frontier posts. 2nd. The creation 
of an impassable barrier, which would prevent communication between the 
Indians of the Chaco and those of Patagonia. 3rd. The recovery of 
20,000 square leagues (a territory three times as large as England) of the 
finest pasture lands. 4th. A saving of 60 per cent, in the expense of the 
present frontier forces. 5th. The total relief of civilians from military 



cox's EXPLORI>G EXPEDITION. 55 

service. 6tb. The development of a new commercial artery by the 
navigation of the Rio Colorado. 7th. A safeguard for our sheepfarmers 
against the perils of drought, these men being formerly afraid to move 
their flocks towards the Indian territory. Moreover the lands adjacent to 
the Colorado might be made to produce wheat for the whole Republic, the 
freight to Bahia Blanca being easy, and therefore cheap. 

In September 1864 a German company with a proposed capital of three 
millions sterling sought a concession for the colonization of 30,000 square 
miles of tierritory between the rivers Colorado and Negro. 

The Company proposed to Government to introduce 20,000 European 
agricultural families Avithin five years, on condition of a cavalry force of 
2,000 men, under Colonel 3Iachado, being placed for that period to defend 
the territory from the Indians. Each family was to receive free passage, 
a rancho, food for the first year, seeds and implements, one horse, two 
oxen, two cows, and 100 sheep. The emigrant would be required, in 
return, to sign bills for £200, payable in 40 yearly instalments. Each 
family was to receive 12 cuadras (50 acres) of land for tillage, and have 
the pasture lands of the colony in common with the rest. 

This enterprise shared the fate of those just mentioned. 

The Republic of Chile having always claimed a great portion of 
Patagonia, that Government commissioned Mr. Cox to explore the whole 
course of the Rio ^N'egro, as that gentleman held the conviction that fluvial 
communication existed between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

In 1859, making Port Montt (a German colony on the Pacific in S. Lat- 
41.30} his starting point and base of operations, in company with a few 
determined companions, he passed the neck of the Cordillera at Mount 
Osorno, and reached the western shore of Lake Nahuel-huapi. But he had 
not calculated all the difficulties of the enterprise, and was obliged to 
desist and return to Valparaiso. The Government was pleased with his 
report, and the explorer only waited a favorable chance to carry out 
his design. 

On the 16th of December 1862, a complete expedition fully equipped by 
Government, and consisting of 18 persons under his command, again 
started from Port Montt, and reaching Lake Nahuel-huapi on >'ew-year's 
day 1863, undertook to cross the lake in a boat left there by Mr. Cox on his 
former journey. A steep hill on the eastern shore now barred their 
progress, but they resolutely cut their way through a virgin forest, climbed 
the perilous glaciers, and Mr. Cox was the first who arrived at the summit, 
and saw, to his infinite joy, the broad stream of the Rio Negro winding its 
xjourse eastward, till lost in the brown-colored Pampas of Patagonia. 



56 COLONIZATION OF PATAGONIA. 

Having launched his boat in the Rio Negro, he determined to push down- 
•wards as far as the Argentine settlement of Carmen or Patagones, at the 
mouth, on the Atlantic. Fearing a shortness of provisions, he ordered the 
half of his party to return to Port Montt, and with the rest commenced to 
descend the river, which he found navigable, with about 10 or 12 feet of 
water. After some slight mishaps, in coming foul of the hidden obstacles, 
he had the misfortune to capsize the boat, and his men narroAvly escaped 
drowning : he owed his own safety to a life-belt, the water being here 
fourteen feet deep. The loss of all his charts and instruments was even 
less than that of the provisions, on which depended the lives of all the 
party. Luckily he fell in with a tribe of Pehuelches Indians, who at first 
determined to kill all the intruders, but the interpreter explaining that 
Mr. Cox was very rich, it was at length agreed that he should pay a large 
ransom, leaving four of his men as hostages, while he proceeded to 
Port Montt. He accordingly returned with the ransom, but instead of 
accompanying his men back to Chile, remained a voluntary companion of 
the Pehuelches, whose costume he even adopted, with the hope of accom- 
panying them at the usual time of year in their journey to Carmen, to sell 
skins and ostrich feathers. Some neighboring tribes, hearing of the 
Christian who went hunting guanacos and ostriches with the Pehuelches, 
threatened to make a «malon» with fire and lance if he were permitted to 
remain in Indian territory, and he saw himself forced to return to Chile, 
where an account of his explorations has since been published at the cost 
of Government. By a fortunate coincidence Mr. Cox was wrecked at the 
very same rapids mentioned by the Spanish pilot Villarin, who reached this 
point in a small vessel which ascended the Rio Negro from the Atlantic- 
Hence Mr. Cox considers his expedition realized, and declares the water- 
course navigable the whole way (excepting about a mile) from one ocean 
to the other. He speaks highly of M. Lenglier, a Frenchman who joined 
him in all his perilous adventures. He states that as the Argentines hold 
the line of the Rio Negro from Patagones to the Island of Choel-echoel, it 
would be easy for Chile to occupy the remainder as far as Lake Nahuel- 
huapi, and by this means a splendid country Avould be thrown open for 
immigration, and a navigable highway made available for commerce across 
the continent. 

It would seem, however, that more than thirty years previously the late 
Captain Smyley had gone the same route : in a letter dated 10th February, 
1865, he stated— 

«In the years 1828 and 1829 I made a tour of the coast of Chile, from 
Copiap6 to San Carlos (in the island of Chiloe), and from there crossed the 



CHILIAN AND ARGENTINE PROJECTS. 57 

Cordillera of the Andes with the Araucanian Indians. After that, I 
travelled with the Pampas, Chuhuelches, and Magellan Indians, from the 
head waters of the Kio Negro as far as the Straits of Magellan, and thenc9 
back, over a more southern route, laying down the latitudes and longitudes 
of the principal places on both routes. I have several times since then 
travelled with the Indians on most parts of the coast of Patagonia. And I 
still claim to be the first white man who ever took this route ; and I firmly 
believe, from what the Indians teU me, that no one has ever accomplished 
it since. I beg leave to differ with Mr. Cox, or any others who find a 
carriage road across the Andes, or judge the whole course of the Rio 
Negro navigable as far as the South Atlantic. At the same time I must 
acknowledge the route to be easy, and, for most of the way, through a fine 
country. Nor do I think the day far distant when this territory will prove 
the richest part of South America, both in mineral products and for 
agricultural purposes.)) 

In the year 1864, 3Ir. Orestes Tornero, a native of Valparaiso, solicited 
from the Chilian Legislature a concession for all the territory lying between 
deg. 49, S. lat., and the Straits of Magellan, from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific. This slice of land is 300 miles long (from Cape Virgin in the 
Atlantic to Cape Desiree in the Pacific), by 250 wide, which would give a 
superficial extent of 75,000 square miles, almost equal to the whole island 
of Great Britain. The concessionaire bound himself — 1st. To establish 
colonies on the territory ceded, the minimum number of settlers at the end 
of ten years to amount to 10,000 persons; and, 2nd. To establish two, 
four, or more steam tugs. The colonists were to be free of taxes for 
fifty years. 

Another project for colonization and steam tugs was got up by Don Anjel 
Palazuelos; but it is not clear if either of these enterprises wQl ever be 
realised. At present, the Chilian Government is paying much attention to 
the navigation of Magellan's Straits, having sent a war steamer to accom- 
pany H.B.M.'s ship Nassau in the surveys and soundings ordered by the 
British Admirality. 

In August 1865, a grand project was got up by Don Juan Cruz Ocampo 
and M. Brie dc Laustan (the latter gentleman had much colonial experience 
in Algiers) ; their prospectus was as follows : — 

«The petitioners propose to form a Joint-stock Argentine Credit Mobilier 
and Patagonia Colonization Company, within two years from date, with a 
capital of £1 ,000,000 to £i,000,000 sterling : such company to have power 
to emit Lettres de Gage guaranteed by Government. They propose to 
introduce 1 ,000 families (or 5,000 persons) within five years after formation 



tS COLONIZATION OF PATAGONIA. 

of this company, and 3,000 in tlie succeeding ten years, to colonize the 
country lying between the Rivers Colorado and Negro, the Government 
ceding to the company three-fourths of a square league (4,800 acres) of 
land for each family introduced from any neighboring or foreign country. 
They further propose to introduce, within five years as above, 800 families 
to settle south of the Rio Negro, and so on 22,000 families within fifty 
subsequent years (divided in proportions of live years each), for the coloni- 
zation of Patagonia proper, the Government ceding as before, at the 
company's choice, a square league (6,500 acres) for each family so settled. 
They propose to make these colonies pastoral, not agricultural, advancing 
to each family a sum of £400 sterling in passage money, house, maintenance 
for twelve months, and stock of 500 sheep, 50 cows, 3 mares, 2 horses, a 
■waggon, seeds, farming implements, and grazing land: the amount of such 
advances, with interest and expenses, to be refunded by the colonists in 
yearly instalments not exceeding 12 per cent., which would be more than 
covered by the wool. They solicit from Government, besides a league of 
land for each family (in all 25,800 square leagues, or 155,000,000 acres), 
the following concession : — 

«lst. Authority to govern the colony during sixty years, with a code 
approved by Government. 

«2nd. Half the nett proceeds of import and export duties of the colony 
for said term. 

«3rd. Exemption from import duties on all instruments and animals 
introduced. 

«4th. Maintenance by Government of a proper military force. 

«5th. Permission to build docks, railways, schools, &c. 

«6th. Sanction for the Credit Mobilier Company's statutes, 

«7th. Guarantee for the Lettres de Gayo) 

Mr. Ocampo died of cholera in April 1867, and M. de Laustan went home 
to France. This was the last grand emigration scheme connected »itli 
Patagonia, only one of w hich was ever carried out, and the history thereof 
(the Welsh Colony) we shall now proceed to narrate. 

THE WELSH COLONY. 

In July 1863, the following concession was signed by the Argentine 
Government : — 

((The Minister of Interior of the Argentine Republic, Dr. William 
Rawson, in name of the Government, on the one part, and a special 
committee of the Welsh Emigration Society, composed of the following 
IJersons:— G. H. Whalley, M. P., David Williams, High Sheriff of 



THE WELSH COLO>Y. 59 

Carnarvon, and Robert John Parry, of Madrin Castle, Wales — on the other 
part, have agreed to conclude the following contract : — 

«Ist. The Welsh Emigration Society shall send out, during ten years, 
from 300 to 500 families of emigrants yearly, and establish them in the 
territory of Patagonia, in the Argentine Republic, South of the Rio Negro. 

«2nd. The Argentine Government grants to every 200 families a 
municipal fee in perpetuity of two square leagues of land, the half of 
such land to be devoted to edifices and public Avorks, such as schools, 
churches, town-hall, house of correction, and other public purposes ; the 
remaining half to be distributed in building plots, either to be given gratis 
to the first settlers, or sold afterwards for the rental support of the colony. 

«3rd. In addition to the 25 squares of land given by the law to each 
emigrant family, the National Government will grant an area of five 
square leagues for every 200 families, adjacent to the respective munici 
pality, to be divided among them. 

«:4th. In case the colonists require more land, they shall be permitted to 
buy or rent the same, of the Government, on the most moderate terms, in 
accordance with the laws of the country. 

a5th. Any mines of metal, coal, or minerals which may be discovered, 
shall belong to the finder, without any other impost than the * sovereignty ' 
as decreed by the law. 

«6th, The general management of affairs and government of the colony, 
shall be vested in a commissioner or governor appointed by the National 
Government, in the manner, and for the period, directed by the laws to be 
made and provided for territorial jurisdiction. 

«7th. The municipal administration shall belong exclusively to the 
colonists, in accordance with their own regulations. 

<'8th. The colonists shall be exempt from all military service or contri- 
butions for the term of ten years ; but they engage to defend themselves, 
unaided, against the Indians. 

ttOth. When the population of the colony shall have arrived at the 
number of 20,000 souls, it will enter as a new province, to form part of 
the nation, and, as such, shall be endowed with all the rights and 
privileges thereunto belonging : at the same time its territorial limits 
shall be definitively marked out. 

«10th. The National Government, seeing the distance and solitude of 
these localities, will furnish the first company of emigrants with 4 pieces 
of artillery, 50 fanegas Indian corn, 50 fanegas wheat, 50 tons lumber for 
building, 200 tame horses, 50 milch cows, and 3,000 sheep. 

«llth. The society will give timely notice to the Government of the 



60 COLONIZATION OF PATAGONIA. 

probable date when the first batch of colonists may be expected to arrive 
at the port of Bahia Nueva, in order that the provisions, cattle, &c. 
mentioned in the previous article, may be sent to that, or any other point 
indicated, in time to meet them on their arrival. 

«12th. The colony shall be subject to the legislation to be dictated by 
Congress, for the government of national territories. — W.Rawson, J. Love, 
D. Jones Parry, Love Jones.)) 

The colonists sailed from Liverpool in the barque Mimosa, on April 25th, 
1865, numbering 132 souls, and arrived safely at the River Cliupat on the 
28th of July, the site chosen for the colony being in 43 deg. 15 m. S. Lat., 
and65deg. W. Long. There were 62 adult males, 41 adult females, 17 
boys, and 12 girls. From the very outset the Colony has undergone 
severe vicissitudes, as appears to be the fate of all new settlements ; in 
fact, in the early part of 1867 the colonists determined to abandon the 
locality, and actually transported themselves and effects some 40 miles to 
a place of embarkation ready to leave. However, on further council, 
nearly all returned to their farms, and have been steadily working and 
progressing since. It appears the great drawback to the place, from its 
commencement, has been insufficient stock and implements. This has been 
recently remedied to some extent by the importation of some American 
ploughs, and 150 milch cows. There are no sheep on the settlement, 
although there are abundant pasture lands in the vicinity. So far, the 
colonists have devoted themselves to wheat growing, and, to the extent of 
their scanty live stock, to dairy produce. These will evidently form the 
staple agricultural industry of the settlement, but it is expected soon to 
have a few flocks of sheep in addition. Sealing, salt, and mining 
operations also, we hear, are in view. The Argentine Government have 
behaved handsomely towards the Colony. For three years it has supplied 
the settlers with provisions, it has spent about $10,000 s. in cattle and 
seeds, &c. for the place, it has supplied all the men with arms and 
ammunition, it gave half the purchase money for the first schooner of the 
Colony, and has again assisted in the purchase of another to replace the lost 
one. All this without any other interest than that of encouraging 
emigration and developing these territories. Each settler occupies a 
chacraof 25 squares (nearly 100 acres) on the banks of the river, aud 
receives the Government subsidies in proportion to the family. 

The Tehuelche Indians — the genuine aboriginal Patagonians — visit the 
settlement in tribes every year, for trade and to receive their rations from 
the Government. The ostrich feathers and skins which they bring are a 



mo CHUPAT AND BAHIA WUEVA. 61 

profitable source of revenue to the colonists. Many horses and mares have 
been obtained from them in the same manner. 

The latest advices from the Colony give the following statistics : — 



Families, 33 



Church, 1 



Persons, 


.... 124 


Milch cows. 


. 200 


Brick houses, 


24 


Horses and mares. 


100 


Ranchos, 


6 


Wheat sown (acres) , . . . 


250 



The Committee of management (twelve in number) and Superintendent 
of the Colony are elected annually. Secretary, Mr. R. J. Berwzn. 
Government Agent, Mr. L. Jones. 

Five hundi-ed lots, of 100 acres each, have been measured out by a 
Government surveyor, and it is calculated that the region on which the 
settlement is placed is capable of supporting 20,000 souls. The ground at 
present occupied by the Colonists extends on each side of the River Chupat 
over an area of twelve miles. The climate is very good, a little colder, 
but drier, and more bracing than that of Buenos Ay res. 

Bahia ?fueva, which is in the vicinity of the settlement, abounds in fish ; 
and in the adjoining country game is very plentiful. Seals are met Avith in 
great numbers on the coast, and inland there are numerous herds of 
guanacos or wild llamas whose skins are highly prized, and are used by 
the Indians as their only garment. Stone in great variety, gj-psum and 
salt are met with, the latter article in great abundance. It is also reported 
that coal exists in the neighbourhood of the settlement. 

An interesting account of the colony and adjacent country is given by 
the Rev. Lewis Humphreys (who was chaplain at the Chupat during the 
first year of the settlement) in his report to the directors of the Welsh 
Colonising Company — 

((New Bay, the place where we landed, extends twenty-two miles inland 
and is seven miles across the entrance. It forms a splendid port, perfectly 
sheltered from all except the east wind, which, however, very seldom 
blows ; and it is spacious and deep enough to accommodate the whole navy 
of Great Britain at anchor. Mr. Downes, the mate of the 3Iimosa, assured 
me that New Bay is the best port of South America for vessels to enter and 
remain in perfect security. 

((The River Chupat flows through at least three distinct valleys, divided 
from each other by chains of hills. The settlement is at present confined 
to the lower valley, which is about forty-five miles long and about five 
miles broad on the average. On the whole the land is dry, though there 
are a few swampy parts, which dry up entii-ely when the river is low. The 
supply of timber in this valley is limited, for though there are trees of many 



62 COLONIZATION OF PATAGONIA. 

kinds, they are all small, being generally not larger than the common hazel 
of this country. There is, nevertheless, a superabundance of brushwood, 
■which will last us for fuel indefinitely, since it grows again after being cut. 
The second valley is similar to the first, and is very fertile, being covered 
thickly with cock plants. It contains abundance of sandstone, admirably 
adapted for building purposes, and the trees improve considerably in size 
and strength. Six hundred farms, of 100 acres each, have been measured 
out in this valley, in readiness for the second company of emigrants. The 
third valley has been only partially explored. It is narrow, and bounded 
on each side by rocks. What lies higher up the river is not yet known. 
The river water is pure and sweet, though its color is somewhat cloudy, 
and near the surface is frequently brackish. The unanimous verdict of 
every one of us is, that the climate is delightful and very healthy. A few 
Tvere ill some w eeks after landing, owing partly to the fatigue of carrying^ 
and arranging heavy goods, and partly to their frequently getting wet 
through and allowing their saturated clothing to dry upon their persons ; 
otherwise no cases of sickness occurred, whilst many instances might be 
given of the perfect restoration to health of invalids. Indigestion, head- 
ache, toothache, colds, and consumption are unknown there, although I and 
many others have frequently slept in the open air night after night in the 
depth of winter, which is so genial that no evil effects followed an amount 
of exposure which would certainly have proved fatal in any part of Great 
Britain. Owing, however, to our being compelled to subsist on salted 
meat during the passage out, and for the first few months after landing, the 
majority of us suffered more or less from scurvy, and some of us from boils. 
Still, all these inconveniences did not prevent our enjoying to the utmost 
the splendid atmosphere, which kept us constantly hungry, and was praised 
by every one as the ' healthiest a man ever breathed.' 1 believe that every 
person in the colony ate double what sufficed him at home. With such an 
excellent climate it is not surprising that the land should be extremely 
fertile. We discovered several kinds of edible wild plants, such as wild 
celery and turnips, and a sort of potato, all of which were very good. 

«Yarious unavoidable delays which took place at Liverpool and at New 
Bay prevented our settling ourselves ready for work until about two 
months after the proper season for sowing wheat, consequently all hopes of 
a crop for the first year had to be abandoned. We sowed small quantities 
of Indian corn, barley, potatoes, and garden seeds, all of which grew 
excellently, and yielded a gratif)'ing crop. It is absolutely necessary to 
sow wheat before the end of the winter, in order that it may fructify before 
the period of summer heat, which would otherwise scorch it rather than 



PROSPECTS OF THE WELSH COLONISTS. 63 

ripen it. The wheat harvest takes place about Cliristmas, so that the news 
about the crop cannot reacli this country before the end of January next. 
We labored under the grave disadvantage of not possessing an adequate 
stock of implements of husbandry, and consequently were unable to sow as 
much as we ought to have done last season. We had two ploughs from 
England, and 3Ir. Lewis Jones obtained an American plough at Patagoues, 
We had also a few Argentine ploughs, but they were of very little use. 
We kept two men constantly at work ploughing, and succeeded in sowing 
about sixty acres with wheat ; and when I left they were busily engaged 
preparing ground for a second setting of potatoes, Indian corn, &c. We 
had at that time been supplied with many thousands of young trees for 
planting, among which wer^4,000 fruit trees. The people generally were 
in excellent spirits, and looked forward to success as a certainty. Those 
among us who at first took a desponding view, and neglected to cultivate 
their farms, now praise the climate and the land, and resolve to work in 
earnest. Nothing whatever was wanted but a crop in its due season, and 
every indication appeared to justify our expectations of a favorable harvest. 
The locality has shown itself to be highly satisfactory, and our faith has 
given place to the certainty resulting from the possession of tangible proofs. 
And I may be permitted to observe here that as the products of the Chupat 
valley correspond in all other respects to those of the Rio Negro valley, 
there is no reason to suppose that wheat and sheep will prove to be excep- 
tions. At the Spanish settlement on the Negro (Patagones) wheat has been 
largely grown during the last twenty years on the same ground, and the 
increase has been frequently as much as forty-fold. I learnt also that the 
increase in sheep at Patagones has been very pleasing this year. On one 
estancia alone there are 100,000 sheep, being an increase of no less than 
30,000 in one year. The capital on that place last year was 70,000 sheep. 
Cattle are fat, and horses plenty. The sheep we had at New Bay were 
large and well-woolled, and no doubt they will have increased in the same 
proportion as the sheep just mentioned ; in fact, they were brought from 
the very flocks referred to. Our horses and cattle were remarkably fine 
and fat, even in winter, when they require no housing or other attention, 
as the pasturage is abundant and excellent all the year round. At the 
time I left we had about 100 cattle, sixty of which were milch cows, two 
full-grown bulls, and a number of younger ones. We had about forty 
horses, and each family possessed pigs and fowls, all of which were 
increasing rapidly. In some of the farm-yards the fowls were sufficiently 
abundant to recall to mind the homesteads of Caermarthenshire. None of 
us chose to kill cattle for food, owing to the paucity of their number, and 



64 COLONIZATION OF PATAGONIA. 

the pigs and fowls had not increased sufficiently for us to commence eatin» 
them ; and, indeed, there was not the slightest necessity to interfere with 
them, for the whole territory literally swarms with game ; hares, guanacos, 
armadillos, ducks, geese, partridge, and ostriches, and the river and bay 
furnish an ample supply of fish. The hares are very large, and commonly 
weigh from 18tt to 20li, whilst the birds are very fat and frequently find 
their way into the cooking-kettle. 

«It is an act of the merest justice for me to state that the Government of 
the Argentine Republic has acted in a most liberal and praiseworthy manner 
towards the Welsh Colony. Our president, Mr. William Davis, visited 
Buenos Ayres near the end of 1865, and obtaii^d from the Government a 
monthly grant of ^700, to be paid until the colony becomes self-supporting, 
and supplies have been regularly furnished ever since through the agency 
of Mr. H. Harris, a merchant long established at Patagones. I must also 
not omit to mention gratefully the valuable assistance afforded us by the 
native Indians. The chief of the tribe sent us a letter asking for English 
saddles and rum, in exchange for skins, &c., and I understand that a treaty 
of peace and commerce lias since been made. Two families of Indians 
have been several months established in the colony, and to their assistance 
we owed the greater part of game we obtained. They bartered large 
quantities of fresh meat for small pieces of bread, and exchanged mares 
for horses. The colonists now possess about 40 dogs, and the consequence 
of both these circumstances, is, that they have begun to tire of a super- 
abundance of fresh meat. When I left, very few persons lived in the fort : 
the majority had built brick-houses, and many had gone to live upon 
their OAvn farms. 

«In the proper season, seal-fishery is carried on to a great extent along 
the coast of Patagonia, principally by English and North American sailors 
who know their haunts. On several occasions some of the settlers have 
seen multitudes of seals basking on the beach of New Bay, and have killed 
a few with sticks. New Bay is a general rendezvous for vessels engaged 
in this business, and a trade has sprung up between them and the settlers, 
which will become an important element in the well-being of the colony, 
as soon as we are in a position to supply them with fresh provisions, &c. 
Some of the settlers have visited a number of Guano islands, which lie 
within easy reach of the colony, and have seen the guano, but as it varies 
greatly in quality, even on the same spot, it will be necessary to employ 
men well acquainted with it to superintend the selection and loading 
of a cargo. 

((Having thus touched upon all the points connected with the settlement 



THE WELSH COLO^iY. 65 

that I can call to mind, I will relate two important and interesting episodes. 
On the 17th September, 1865, the Comandante of Patagones, accom- 
panied by several Argentine officials and a militar}^ guard, performed the 
ceremony of formally giving us possession of the territory and naming our 
first town the 'The Kawson,' in honor of Dr. William Raw son, the 31inister 
of the Interior, who has manifested a true and deep interest in the 
establishment of the colony. In March 1866, a sealer entered New Bay, 
and two of the settlers availed themselves of the opportunity to migrate to 
the Falkland Islands. This desertion suggested to others of a similar class 
the idea of sending a memorial to the Falkland Islands praying to be 
removed from the Welsh settlement. The memorial misrepresented the 
state of affairs, and was dispatched without the knowledge of the general 
body of the settlers. In consequence of that memorial Her Britannic 
Majesty's ship Triton visited the colony in June last, to remove the people 
in a body, if necessary. This offer caused the greatest astonishment in the 
settlement, and enquiries were made to ascertain who among them had 
been guilty of sending the memorial. The commander of the Triton 
produced the document for inspection, when it was found that*very few 
names had been appended, and the greater part of those individuals denied 
their complicity when taxed with it. We at once declined to leave the 
colony, and the Triton, having assisted us to repair our little schooner and 
presented us with a cask of lime-juice, left us where we chose to remain. » 

In 1868 a sad misfortune befell the colony in the loss of the little 
schooner and six of the colonists, viz.: — Robert F. Nagle, captain, from 
Liverpool ; George Jones, from Liverpool ; James Jones, from Caermar- 
thenshire, having a wife and family in the colony ; Thomas D. Evans, 
Manchester, also having a wife and family in the colony ; David Davies, 
from Aberdare, having his parents in the colony ; and Thomas Cadivor 
Woods, Secretary of the Welsh Colonising Company at home, who had 
recently arrived in the Colony to report upon it, and had taken a trip to see 
Patagones before returning home. 

The colony sustained another loss in the departure of ten settlers, who 
have joined the Californian colony in the Gran Chaco. Latest advices are, 
however, more cheering : — «The Colony is mai*ching steadily onward. 
The pjovisions,- clothes, and wheat, barley, and cattle were all safely 
landed, and caused universal joy and activity. Active Indian trade has 
been done, and was doing when I left.)) 

The success of the Welsh Colony may be said to rest on the future 
support it will meet with in regard to an augmentatica in its number. It 
is almost superfluous to remark that any new batch of emigrants would not 



C6 COLOmZATIOIf OF PATAGONIA. 

encounter the same misfortunes that befell the original settlers. Too great 
stress, however, cannot be laid on the following points as a guide to 
emigrants who may contemplate joining their countrymen : — 

1 . That they should come out with some capital. 
^2. That they should bring with them ploughs, hand-mills, seeds, and 
lumber, for the construction of huts, as there are few trees in the country. 

3. That they should sail from England in the month of March, in order 
to arrive at the Chupat in time to prepare the ground they will be called 
upon to cultivate, before the season for sowing, which in this country is 
in the months of May and June. 

FREE LAND-GRAWTS AT BAHIA BLANC A. 

It will interest many Englishmen who come to this country witli the 
intention of settling, to know that camp can be taken out direct from the 
Argentine Government in «propiedad,» at Bahia Blanca to the extent of 
one ((suerto) (6,700 acres) in one name, on condition that a house or 
«rancho» js built upon the land, and a flock of sheep placed upon it, within 
one year after allotment. The cost of solicitatiou and surveying, &c., say 
.£40. By a flock of sheep is meant 1 ,000 head. 

After allotment of camp a deposit is required of g 10,000 mtc. or £80^ 
to be made with the Provincial Bank, which is returned when the above 
conditions have been complied with, but is forfeited should the depositor 
fail to comply. The Provincial Bank allows six per cent, per annum on 
this deposit. At the end of two years, when the Justice of the Peace of 
the district has certified that all conditions have been duly carried out, the 
title deeds are forthcoming. It must be distinctly understood that the land 
must be occupied during the whole of the term of two years. Land can 
still be obtained within twelve or fourteen leagues of the town and port of 
Bahia Blanca, and all the banks of the numerous rivers in the neighbour- 
hood have not been taken up, though with the increasing number of new 
settlers going down this will not long be the case. 

It is stated that vessels of any tonnage can enter the bay, and there 
seems no doubt that a good landing place might easily be found. The 
present settlement is composed chiefly of Englishmen, who would welcome 
any new settlers, and give them all the assistance in their power. The 
close proximity of the Indians is the chief drawback ; but so long as cattle 
is not reared, there is little to tempt them within range of the Snider 
rifles. Indians cannot carry corn on horseback, neither do sheep travel on 
foot fast enough for their purpose, so this is no very great impediment after 
all. The frontier is to be moved to within thirty leagues of Bahia Blanca^ 



LAND-GRAISTS AT BAHIA BLA>CA. 67' 

at the close of this unhappy war, Avhich will give greatly increased 
protection. 

The land and climate are both admirably suited for agriculture, and tlie 
natives grow a great deal of corn there already. It may be mentioned^ 
that scarcely three years ago laud could be obtained at Azul on the same 
terms as at Bahia Blauca, and it now fetches $100,000 or about £800 per 
ttsuerte.)) The latter place kas the great advantage of a seaboard, while 
all the produce of the former has to be conveyed to market in buUocE— 
carts at no small cost. 

Sheep — ^Picked flocks can be bought at $20 m^, orS^. 4 J. per head, and 
fatten wonderfully on these camps. There seems no reason why sheep- 
farmers should not boil down their own sheep, and thus net the profit of the 
saladero, and save the great loss of grease, which travelling any number of. 
leagues must always entail. This could the more easily be done here,, 
as the transit is comparatively easy. 

Intending settlers should secure the services of some good English 
laborers, as native labor is both scarce and dear. The usual wages are 
from $300 to $350, or say £2 lOs. to £3 per mouth. A steamer runs once 
a month between Buenos Ayres and Bahia Blauca, and as there is no- 
opposition at present, the charges are very high, but directly there is 
sufficient trade to make one pay, it will not be difficult to get one on the 
berth to make regular passages at moderate rates. There is also an Italian 
schooner which makes frequent trips to Bahia Blauca, bringing up the 
produce of the place. Bahia Blauca being situated so far from Buenos 
Ayres and Montevideo, will never be troubled by the many revolutions 
which so often occur here, which is of itself a great thing in its favor. In 
the face of the bad returns that sheepfarming has given during the last few 
years, coming settlers ought to turn their attention in the direction of this 
noted corn-growing district. 

An Englishman who recently made a trip to Bahia Blauca and Patagones, 
describes those places as well suited for new settlers ; his narrative is the 
following — 

«We started from Buenos A}Tes in the steamer Patagones, on the 1 0th. 
ult., and after three days of beautiful weather arrived at the port of Bahia 
Blauca. The entrance to this place must prove a great drawback to its 
future advancement, as the windings of tlie channel remind one of trying 
to follow the turns of a corkscrew. From the steamer's anchorage to the 
shore appears to be about a mile distant, but the windings of the creek are 
such that the boats have to be rowed at least a league. However, having 
overcome these little difficulties, we reached the mole (which is constructed 

r2 



68 ' COLONIZATION OF PATAGONIA. 

of several old bullock carts), and Avere kindly received by Sefior Coronti, 
-vvho furnished us with horses to proceed to the town, which is about two 
leagues from the landing-place. Having taken a walk round in the evening 
we saw all that is to be seen about the tOAvn, which is not much, though 
there are some nice chacras and quintas in the vicinity. Next morning, 
Sefior Coronti had horses ready for us, and his son kindly accompanied us as 
a guide, to have a look at the camps on the Naposta, which is a small river 
rising in the interior, and running througli the town. For two or three 
leagues up the stream the valley of the Naposta is under cultivation, and 
the wheat crop looks very promising. The camps we found much better 
than ^e had anticipated, and Senor Coronti offers very fair terms to 
settlers, and great praise is due to him for the way in wliich he has exerted 
all his energy for the advancement of Bahia Blanca, and for his unbounded 
hospitality to strangers. In the evening we were introduced to the 
commandant, who showed us through the fort, which, in comparison with 
the others we have seen on the frontier, is certainly a model of neatness 
and order. The following morning we embarked for Patagones, and in 
eighteen liours found ourselves off the mouth of the Rio Negro ; the bar 
being in good order for crossing, we at once entered this finest of Argentine 
rivers, and steamed up to the town of Carmen or Patagones, lying about 
seven leagues from the mouth of the river. We were favorably impressed 
with the first appearance of the country. The banks on each side of the 
river (which at the town is about 150 yards wide), are beautifully laid out 
in chacras, quintas, &c., and the trees and range of hills beyond reminded 
us more of the old country than anything Ave have as yet seen in South 
America. Having effected a landing, which is much more easily accom- 
plished here than in most Argentine ports, the steamer lying within about 
ten yards from the north bank, Ave found that Patagones Avas far before the 
sister toAvn of Bahia Blanca in its accommodation for travellers, each family 
seeming to vie with the other in trying to make strangers feel at home. 

«But, to resume our journey. The next morning, having got horses from 
Senor Aguirre, who offers every assistance to parties Avishing to look at the 
camps, Ave started up the north side of the river, Avhich, for a distance of 
six or seven leagues, until you reach the Fortin, is thickly covered Avith a 
bushy scrub, the range of hills coming doAvn to the river's edge. But, 
after passing this, the country opens out into line level camp, lying betAveen 
the hills and the river, which we found covered with excellent pasture. 
The sheep and cattle Avere very fat, and the flocks remarkably clean. 
ToAvards evening Ave arrived at the China Muerta estancia, belonging to 
Scuorcs Heusscr and Clarez, where Ave stayed till next morning. This 



PATAGOINES i.>D RIO NEGRO. 69 

estancia is one of the finest in this part of the country; the camp is 
excellent, and lias a large river frontage, besides permanent 'lagunas' in the 
back. •Next morning we resumed our journey, and arrived at the Guardia 
in time for breakfast. This is a stirring little place, there being no less 
than six stores, all of which seem to do a strong trade with the Indians ; 
several tame tribes of the latter live in the vicinity, and are constantly to 
be seen going about in their native costume of 'quillangos.' The same 
evening we arrived at the estancia of four Scotchmen, the first of our 
countrymen settled in this quarter, and who, with their proverbial hospi- 
tality, insisted on our making this our headquarters during our stay. We 
were happy to see that though but lately started they had made very fair 
progress, and were looking forward to good returns. , 

«We crossed the Rio Negro at the Guardia, and swam our horses over, 
and then rode up some four leagues to the ' tolderia ' of the Indian cacique 
Saihueque, who had just arrived from the Manzanas, with about 1.30 men. 
From Buenos Ayres accounts of these Indians we expected to meet a set of 
ferocious savages, and consequently felt rather doubtful what kind of 
reception we should get ; but we were agreeably surprised to find the 
chief a fine looking, intelligent, and altogether superior man, who received 
us very kindly. We spent a couple of hours withbim, squatted in front of 
his toldo, and before leaving we purchased a few skins, &c., from them, 
and returned highly delighted with our visit. To a stranger, an Indian 
* tolderia,' or encampment, with its huts of guanaco skins, and its swarthy 
inhabitants variously engaged — some cooking, some bringing firewood, 
others sleeping, and the women sewing the ' quillangos ' with ostrich 
sinews — the war lances stuck in the earth in front of the tents, and the 
immense number of horses feeding over the plains, is altogether an 
imposing and interesting sight. These Indians do not disturb the country, 
as in the northern provinces ; but come in, quarterly, for the rations allowed 
to them by the Government, and therefore it is to their interest to keep 
themselves quiet, 

«Eeturning to the north side, w^e rode up some eight leagues further on. 
Here, as lower down, the camps were in excellent condition. The 'rincons' 
formed by the river are very numerous, and well suited for agriculture ; 
this is carried on to a good extent in the district, both sides of the river 
being under cultivation, and the wheat crops looking very promising. The 
next day, having said good-bye to our countrjmen, we again crossed the 
river at the Guardia, returning to the town on the south side. Here the 
camp looked beautiful, and was of much larger extent than that on the 
north side, the hills being very far from the river. 



^0 COLONIZATION OP PATAGONIA. 

«The Rio Negro is well wooded on both sides, and studded here and 
there Avith islands, some of which are under cultivation, and others covered 
with trees, adding much beauty to the scenery ; in fact, the view from 
some of the higher points of the hills, looking up the river, we have seldom 
seen equalled. The river seems to vary very little in breadth, and from 
good authority we learn that it has been navigated for forty leagues higher 
up by a pilot-boat drawing four or five feet of water ; but, unless propelled 
by steam, this navigation must be tedious, on account of the strong current 
running down.w 

ENGLISH SETTLERS ON THE RIO NEGRO. 

Advices from the Rio Negro to September 1868, are as follows : — 
((The English settlers are going on very prosperously, and are planting 
wheat in large quantities, at the same time they have sheep and cattle. 
Messrs. Frazer and Co. have a league of excellent land on the banks of 
the Rio Negro, in a 'rincon' formed by a bend of the stream, about 
thirteen leagues above Patagones ; they have sown fifty fanegas of wheat, 
which at present looks beautiful, and nexA year they intend laying the 
whole of their land under the same crop. Three families formerly of the 
Chupat AVelsh Colony, are settled about twelve leagues higher up than 
f razor's ; their wheat is also in excellent condition. In fact, the whole 
country looks blooming with corn-fields at greater or lesser intervals, and 
the Rio Negro is rapidly becoming a wheat country. Englishmen arrive at 
Patagones by every steamer, to lay down wheat, as land is very cheap, and 
there is no fear of Indians. Government grants of land may be had higher 
up the river, and Messrs. xVguirre and Murga are sending down, at once, 
a little steamer drawing three feet of water, for the navigation of the 
Rio Negro. Messrs. Kincaid have also a fine estancia, nineteen leagues 
from Patagones, where they arc also planting wheat, and have some sheep 
and cattle, besides a splendid quinta. The government has resolved to 
place 1,500 men on the Rio Negro frontier, and the first batch of 150 goes 
down immediately. This sliows that our legislators attach due importance 
to the rising colony, in which Englishmen are becoming the chief settlers. 
We understand there is a project before the Chambers, for a railway from 
Patagones to Salinas, for the conveyance of salt to the seaboard. The 
flour-mill now building on the banks of the Rio Negro, about five leagues 
from Patagones, ]will be concluded before the end of the year, and will 
prove a great boon to the town, as hitherto the wheat had to be ground 
hy hand.» 



ENGLISHMEN" AT BAHIA BLANCA. 



71 



*P. Corronti, 
*J. Birtoli, 
*Fusoni Brothers, 
*George Claraz, 
*J. Arnold, 
*Johii Sinclair, 
*Richard Tillard, 
*S. J. Eyre, 
*John Mildred, 
*E. P. Goodhall, 
*Bryan Smith, 



P. de Montravel, 
J. Corbyn, 
J. Barber, 
William Perkins, 
F. Daniel, 
— Webb, 
E. Herbert, 
A. Huber, 
L. Jacob, 
J. Jaccar, 
J. Jockez. 



FOREIGN SETTLERS AT BAHIA BLANCA. 

The following are the names of the principal foreign settlers at Bahia 
Blanca. Those marked Tvith an asterisk (*) are already occupying the 
land : — 

* Arthur Mildred, and 
2 English laborers, 

*J. H. Edwards, 

*R. J. Greuie, 

*H. Hentze, 

*Richard IN'ewton, 

J. Schuriz, 

H. W. GoodhaU, 

F. Smiles, 

Rev. Mr. Powell, 

T. Fallon, 

The greater number of the English portion of the above are settled on 
the banks of a river, known as the Sauce Grande, situated about ten leagues 
from Bahia Blanca, to the north. They have some tw enty-five squares of 
land under cultivation, sown with wheat, barley, and maize — this being 
their first year — and we may look forward to seeing three times this extent 
of camp turned up for next season. 

By the commencement of 1869 a large brick-built estancia-house will be 
finished, and before June next two other smaller ones. 

We have great hopes of the newly-elected President, Seuor Sarmiento, 
and trust he may afford us the protection that is alone Avanted to make this 
part of the Republic a most prosperous district. He may rest assured that 
European energy, combined with capital, will accomplish the work of 
civilisation, if it is only allowed to run its course unmolested, and in a very 
short space of time will change a comparatively waste corner of this 
province into a thriving and populated country. 



72 THE RIO DE LA PLATA. 



CHAP. YII. 



BIO DE LA PLATA AND TRIBUTAEIES. 

The River Plate is one of the longest rivers in the world, including its two 
great tributaries, the Parand and Uruguay. Suffice it to say that the 
traveller can take steamer at Montevideo and ascend without interruption 
to the capital of Matto Grosso, a distance of over two thousand miles. 
At Montevideo the river is about 75 miles wide, but the water is brackish : 
at Buenos Ayres the water is quite fresh, and the river is 28 miles wide. 
Twenty miles above Buenos Ayres we arrive at the junction of the Parand 
and Uruguay. The lower Parana is about 900 miles long from its 
embouchure, near San Fernando, up to the Tres Bocas, above Corrientes : 
the upper Parand, from the Tres Bocas to the Salto de Guayra is only 
navigable for small boats. The Paraguay river, which debouches into the 
Parana at Tres Bocas, is navigable as far as the Guy aba : on this latter 
stream is built a city of the same name, residence of the Brazilian 
authorities of Matto Grosso, about 1,100 miles above the city of Asuncion, 
the capital of Paraguay. The Uruguay is ordinarily navigable only as high 
as Salto, but in flood-times the steamers ascend the rapids and go up to 
Uruguayana and San Borja, in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande. The 
Rio Negro is one of the chief affluents of the Uruguay ; the Salado of the 
Parana ; and tlie Vermejo, Tebiquari, and Pilcomayo fall into the Paraguay. 



VOYAGE TO MATTO GROSSO. 73 

THE PARAN.4. 

Buenos Ay res to Matto Grosso. 

Before the breaking-out of the Paraguayan war there was a regular 
Brazilian monthly mail-service from Buenos Ayres to Cuyaba, making the 
trip in ten to twelve days. The vessels were of light draught,' and the 
accommodations pretty good. At the same time the Paraguayan Govern- 
ment had a fine line of steamers plying twice a month between Asuncion 
and Montevideo. Various private companies also had steamers running 
from Buenos Ayres to Corrientes, and an ineffectual attempt was made to 
navigate the V'crmejo. The scenery from Buenos Ayres to Cuyaba has 
much of interest for the traveller, although at times the coast is low and 
marshy, and the wooded outline of the Chaco, at last grows monotonous 
and wearisome : there are sundry important towns and halting places. 

If we leave the roadstead of Buenos Ayres on a fine morning, nothing 
can be more charming tJian the panorama of the city and suburbs. We 
pass, in succession, Palermo with its plantations to the water's edge ; 
Belgrano, seated on a gentle acclivity , Point Olivos, a handsome promon- 
tory, where a new town has been projected ; San Isidro, with its delightful 
country-seats ; and San Fernando, at the head of the estuary of 
La Plata. 

We enter the Parand by one of its many mouths, the best known of 
which are the Guazii and Palmas : the latter is the shorter route, used by 
small steamers which touch at Zarate and San Pedro. The delta of the 
Parand comprises a multitude of fertile and picturesque islands, planted 
with fruit-trees ; and if the traveller halts at San Fernando or the Tigre, 
he can amuse himself for several days by boating in the Conchas and Lujan 
rivers, or making an excursion to the Carapachay islands. These islands 
are poetically termed the Argentine Tempo ; they teem with the richest 
fruits, and a number of Italian charcoal-burners are the principal 
inhabitants. We do not get a glimpse of the mainland till reaching 
Campana, the estancia of Dr. Costa, late Minister of Education, who has 
built a fine house on the bluff. 

Zarate is a straggling village of 1,000 inhabitants, with a smaU trade in 
grain, firewood, and vegetables. The principal shopkeeper is an Italian, 
Constancio Silvano. There is a new church, also a tolerable Basque inn, and 
two public schools which are attended by 106 children. The adjacent 
estancias of Latorre, Lima, Saavedra, and Fox, are worthy of mention. 
The cultivation of grain has greatly increased of late years. During^ 



74 THE mo DE LA. PLATA. 

the Paraguayan war this has been the chief port for shipment of horses. The 
* barrancas' on our left are precipitous, and here and there crowned with 
a hut or ombii-tree, till we reach — 

Baradero: this is another small port, comprising 105 houses, a church, 
and an unfinished school-house. The place derives some importance from 
a flourishing Swiss colony. The department comprises ninety-two 
estancias, of which seven belong to Irishmen : the largest proprietor is 
D. Palricio Lynch. 

San Pedro is a better town than the preceding, and looks well from the 
river: it has a new church, fifty-six rateable houses, and two public 
schools. D. Martin Pagardoy keeps a good inn, and is favorably known to 
all the Irish slieepfarmers. A little above San Pedro is the pass of 
Obligado, where the English and French cut the chain placed across the 
river by Rosas. Higher up is the fine estancia of Llavallol, at a point of 
the river called Rincon de Las Hermanas, after which we pass the 
Rincon Ramallo. 

San Nicolas is the last town in tlie territory of Buenos Ayrcs ; it is a 
place of some importance, having received the rank of ' city,' with a 
population of about 8,000 souls. It has 300 rateable houses, besides Mr. 
Armstrong's valuable mill. It is the centre of a district which comprises 
sixty-five estancias, and a number of chacras under wheat. 

By daybreak we are coasting the territory of Santa Fe, and in less than 
twenty-four hours from our departure from Buenos Ayres we are in sight 
of Rosario : the steamer goes alongside a wharf, there being deep water 
close to shore. 

Rosario is the great outlet of the upper Provinces, and will shortly be 
connected by railway Avith Cordoba, the chief city of the interior : the 
trade of the port has much increased of late years, especially since the 
beginning of the Central Argentine Railway. The ' barranca ' is so high 
that there is no view of the place till you reach the Calle Puerto. It is a 
well-built town covering 150 cuadras or blocks, with a population of 
20,000 souls. The plaza, parish church, custom-house, market-place, and 
Jardin de Recreo, are worthy of notice : the theatre was recently burnt 
doAvn. The railway terminus and workshops at the North end will repay 
a visit. The town also possesses two mills, three saladeros, two cemeteries 
(for Catholics and Protestants), a public hospital, an American chapel and 
school, and gas-works in course of erection, There are some good hotels 
and coffee-houses. Messrs. Keane and Soames, agents for tlie Standard^ 
will give strangers any information they may require. Mr. Hutchinson 
H.B.M. Consul, lives beyond the railway terminus. Excursions may be 



ROSARIO TO PARANA. /» 

made by rail to the English settlement at Fravle Muerto, or on horseback 
to the fine English estancias in the valley of Pavon. For further particulars 
of Rosario, see the chapter on Santa Fe province. 

On leaving Rosario, the first thing that calls attention is Mr. Wheel- 
wright's mole for landing materials for the Cordoba railway ; they have cut 
away the 'barranca' and erected works projecting into the river. We 
next pass Urquiza's saladero, and another a short distance higher up. The 
Parana is here very wide, at least 2,000 yards, and the current runs three 
miles an hour, the water being very deep in the channels. The islands on 
all sides are low and slightly wooded, and we can see the mainland oa 
either side. 

About six leagues above Rosario Ave si^ht the edifice of San Lorenzo, 
with its tapering belfry and large convent. This was erected by the 
Franciscan missionaries, years gone by, with the probable view of forming 
a nucleus of civilization on the frontier of the Indian territory, and is 
excellently adapted for a river port, having a small cove hard by. The 
cove alluded to, was the scene of the first struggle for South American 
independence; General San Martin (I8I0) here attacked a Spanish force 
which attempted to land, defeating them with a handful of cavalry. 

The high land on our left soon merges into a network of islands, the 
deep water channel skirting along the opposite coast, which presents a 
number of inlets, through which Ave get glimpses of wood and dale, 
perfectly charming, in contrast with the sloping ' barrancas ' of sand-stone 
or tosca. The soil of these, generally presents to the eye a superficies of 
luxuriant grass, or thick shrubbery, and casually a grove of trees, 
resembling the olive, at a distant vicAV. The section made in successive 
ages, by the river, shows a variety of geological strata. A thick, loamy, 
dark soil, of six or eight feet, covers a layer of sand, beneath Avhich latter, 
the hard tosca stretches down to the water's edge, the base being lined or 
interspersed with sand heaps, fragments of boulders, or trunks of up- 
rooted trees. 

Tlie approach to Parana, is highly picturesque : towering bluffs of red 
sand-stone, here and there relieved by a wild furze of deep green, the 
effect being very pleasing to the eye. There are several lime-kilns along- 
the Entre Riano coast, as the sand here makes excellent lime : it looks like 
tosca, ajid the lime appears of the best quality, its suoAvy heaps studding 
the beach. About a mile below Parana are some hulks, used for coal 
deposits. The town of Parana is not visible from the landing-place. The 
scenery of this part of the river, all the Avay from Rosario, is interesting, 
but there is a solemn stillness on these rivers that almost oppresses you. 



76 THE RIO DE LA PLATA. 

When we lose sight of the bluff on which Rosario stands, the coast of Entre 
Rios is not visible, while that of Santa Fc gradually declines towards the 
■water's level. Here and there a stray rancho indicates that pastor^ avoca- 
tions are not quite abandoned, in a province which has been reduced almost 
to destitution by being the theatre of so many wars. At times also we see 
a small group of horses or horned cattle, which have made their way down 
one of the fissures caused by rains or inundations to drink the mellifluous 
water, which possesses many grateful and salubrious qualities. Before 
long, the islands on our right will have disappeared, and the continuous line 
of a bold barrier, on either side, shows that tlie current here is uninterrupted, 
and consequently runs with tremendous force, the stream being about 
two miles wide. 

On arriving at Parana the steamer is usually boarded by the agent, Mr. 
Lorenzo Myers, a veteran Englishman of seventy-seven summers, resident 
in the River Plate since the year of Independence, 1^16. He is a hale, 
active, old man, and has been an eye-witness of the numberless vicissitudes 
of the Republic durhig the last half century. Parana was the capital of the 
Argentine Republic during nine years, from the fall of Rosas till the battle 
of Pavon (September 17, 1861). The Custom-house is at the foot of the 
«barranca,)> and a steep road leads up to the town. First is the Church of 
San Miguel, commenced fifteen years ago, but abandoned when half built, 
and now a refuge for all kinds of vermin. There are, however, two good 
churches in the town, and these are quite enough, as the population does 
not exceed 8,000. The grand plaza is very pretty, and the buildings on all 
its sides modern and tasteful, most of them having been constructed under 
Presidents Urquiza and Derqui. The old Government-house is now 
ceded to Dr. Fitzsimons for a college. The Legislative Chambers 
are a fme range, occupying the north side : the President's palace also 
merits attention. But the sceptre of metropolitan sway is gone. Parana 
is now all but deserted, the only sigus of vitality being a newspaper 
and a theatre sometimes visited by strolling players. The club house is, 
perhaps, th^ greatest monument of desolation : the ball-room has been cut 
into two bed-chambers and a kitchen, for a coffee house ; the billiard-room 
and reading saloon are- let out to a hair-dresser, and nothing remains of 
former greatness. 

A steamer plies across the river to Santa Fe city, remarkable for its 
antiquity and many fine churches. A number of islands intervene, com- 
pletely shutting it out from view. * 

Leaving ParanA we are forced to make a circuit of a couple of miles, to 
avoid the bank, which has already nearly closed up the port. The first 



PARANA TO LA PAZ. 77 

object of interest is the saladero built by Messrs. Seilorans, with first-class 
steam-power attached. The main stream washes the banks of Entre Eios, 
and on our right is a vast archipelago, on whose islands there is little 
timber, but a strong luxuriant grass, which is sold in Parana for fodder. 
There is a marked improvement in the scenery : amid a succession of gentle 
undulations on the right, the eye wanders over a rich champaign country, 
presenting much tlie idea of an English park or demesne. Groups of noble 
trees, like oaks, break the surface of a verdant vegetation, and Nature has 
outdone the fancy work of a landscape gardener in the rich variation of 
tints and foliage, the graceful outlines of hill and vale, the stately forms of 
pine and algarroba, which every moment present themselves. 

Five leagues from Parana we sight a cluster of ranches, called wTlie 
Spaniards,)) the owners of which usually hoist their tlag to salute vessels 
passing by. Behind this little settlement, which is occupied in cutting 
timber, is the colony of Villa Urquiza, where great efforts w ere made to 
plant cotton in 1864. A little further we lueet a place where boats usually 
cross over to Santa Fe, taking horses in tow. These animals swim much 
better than in Europe, and it will be remembered that Urquiza has several 
times passed at the Diamante an army of cavalry, for which Hannibal would 
have required rafts or bridges. Diamante is some leagues below Parana, 
and is now deserted. 

Two hours' sail beyond Villa Urquiza brings us to a place called Conchillas, 
where we perceive an estancia-house almost surrounded by trees. Next 
appears a lonely hut, commanding a grand view from the barranca, and the 
adjuncts of a cattle corral and snicdl port show that animals are here 
embarked for the saladeros. 

At Cerrito was the fine estancia of an Englishman, the late Mr. Henry 
• Vidal. Here it was that during the campaign of Paz and Lavalle against 
Rosas, the Correntino army, under General Ferre, abandoned the liberating 
cause, and returned by land to Corrientes, owing to local dissensions in 
that province. The cliffs again approach the water ; but instead of sand or 
tosca we have argillaceous deposits of red and purple colors, which are 
said to be very valuable for dyes, although not turned to use, as no one 
seems to interest himself in the speculation. Happily, there is no jealous 
guardian of woods and forests, and several small skiffs in yonder island are 
loading timber, which is had for the cutting. These wood-cutters are 
Italians, who trade with Buenos Ayres, and the Genoese may be said to 
monopolise the small traffic of this river. The river now breaks into a 
variety of channels, and the pilot has sometimes to take soundings. We 
cannot see the Gran Chaco, from which we are separated by numerous 



78 THE RIO DE LA PLATA. 

islands, teeming with tigers and small crocodiles ; the latter are called 
caymans, and resemble what naturalists term the 'iguana.' Times have 
changed wonderfully since twenty years ago, when the voyage from Buenos 
Ayres to Paraguay occupied half a year. The Italians first introduced an 
improvement, making two or three trips annually, and the introduction of 
steamers soon reduced the voyage to a few days. Still, the windings of 
the river, frequency of sandbanks, and force of the current, call for the 
most constant attention, and going «aguas arribaw is rather tedious for 
those who are not admirers of the beautiful and picturesque. Tradition 
says that the first Spanish expedition to Paraguay passed more than twelve 
months in exploring the long and tortuous course of the Parand, for 
although the direct distance is only 1,000 miles, the way is rendered very 
much longer by the necessity of crossing and re-crossing from one side 
to the other. Certainly the adventurous settlers of the sixteenth century 
"were men of surpassing energy and perseverance. It is impossible for us 
to form an idea of the hardships and dangers they must have gone through, 
penetrating to the very centre of the Continent to establish a metropolis 
amid the woods aitd wilds of an unkno \\n country. Such as they then 
looked upon these cliffs and islands they are to-day, for Nature, in her 
simplest and rudest garb, still holds undisputed sway in these silent 
regions. 

For thousands of ages this mighty river has flowed on to the sea, 
and yet it is exactly the same as when first Creation dawned upon the 
vmiverse. The arts or science of man are nowhere visible for hundreds of 
miles, and the various layers of soil forming the islands only show that 
during numberless generations the stream has continued to carry down its 
deposits till they have risen above the surrounding flood, decked out in all 
the charms of tropical Nature, with trees of various kinds, most of them, 
probably, yet unknown to botanists. A thick jungle of marshy grass and 
entangled underwood, Avhich almost defies the entrance of man, affords a 
secure and favorite asylum for tigers, serpents, and alligators, except when 
the current rises to the tops of the trees, and a broad sheet of water 
stretches from either mainland to the opposite side. Then may be seen 
the tigers swimming across, with powerful strokes, perfectly heedless of 
and unmoved by the rapid whirlpools. In many places the casual groupings 
of foliage, broken here and there by lovely rivulets which tempt you to 
follow their mysterious recesses, present a picture such as Salvator Eosa 
or Claude Lorrain never saw even in fancy. It is a pity to think that 
these islands are never to be turned to any purpose or defended against the 
torrent, for the soil is so loose that it will hold no structure. The bed of 



LA PAZ TO GOYA. 79 

the stream has changed often, and some towns erected on its banks are now 
almost inaccessible, so many islands intervene. 

About twelve hours' sail from Parana is La Paz, near the borders of 
Corrientes : the town is a poor place, but some leagues inland is a fine 
estancia belonging to Mr. Haycroft, and managed by Dr. Gibbings. Leaving 
La Paz, Me have the same general features already described. For some 
distance the river spreads out to an amazing width, the coast being on each 
side very low, and lined with timber. About twenty-five leagues above 
La Paz we come to the mouth of the Arroyo Espinillo, which is the frontier 
line between Entre Rios and Corrientes. On Captain Page's map it "is 
marked Sarandi or Guayquiraro, which falls iuto the former : it is not 
navigable. Again there is a number of these delightful islands, revelling 
in all the beauty of tropical vegetation, with palmetto trees, and a plant 
bearing goldeu leaves, easily mistaken for oranges. But what do we see 
on the margin of the Gran Chaco, in yonder island ? Some huts of palm 
trees, scarce large enough to hold a man at full length. They are the 
abode of some daring wood-cutters, undeterred by the tigers, which swarm 
hereabout, or the distance from any trace of human life. The savages of 
the Chaco never come down here, as they have plenty of means to pursue 
their occupations of hunting, fishing, or wood-cutting on the mainland. 
Every few minutes we cross the river, which is here about a mile wide, 
and verv shallow. The coast of Corrientes is low, but well wooded, and 
yonder is a little hut, elevated on poles, and with a tile roof, which 
answers as the Capitania del Puerto for Esquina, this town being half a 
league distant on the mainland. 

Esquina is a well-built town, of t,200 to 1,500 inhabitants, situate on an 
eminence at a bend of the River Corrientes, near its confluence with the 
Parana. It possesses a good church, public schools, juzgado, and other 
edifices, extending along the crest of the hill for about a mile, most of the 
houses having azoteas, with wide verandahs for shelter against the rays of 
an almost tropical sun. The surrounding country is remarkable for its 
excellent pasture, and the inhabitants are wealthy cattle-breeders, sheep 
being comparatively few. Mr. Hayes, the son of an American, is the only 
foreign resident in the town. In the year 1838 Mr. Hayes's father killed a 
serpent which measured twelve feet in length and fifteen inches in circum- 
ference, and, on opening the monster, three hens, seemingly uninjured, 
w ere found in its stomach : he sent the skin to the United States, where it 
was stuffed, and is still to be seen. The bite of these reptiles is not fatal. 
There is an abundance of tigers about here, and some years ago a washer- 
woman was devoured near the river. The Custom-house, or Aduana, is 



80 THE RIO DE LA PLATA. 

a small wooden hut elevated on poles, ten feet above the stream, in an 
island half a league distant from the town. Vessels call so rarely that 
sometimes no officials visit the place for several days. It happened some 
time back that a priest was left here by the Paraguay steamer, and being 
unable to thread his way through the thickets and cross the rivulets, he 
resolved to pass the night here: some hungry tigers prowling about 
smelled human flesh, and sacrilegiously resolved to make a meal of him. 
The priest taking alarm scrambled up on the roof, and sat on the tiles until 
daybreak. As there Avas no steamer expected to arrive, the usual 
passenger boat did not come down the ' arroyo,' and one of the wild beasts 
kept watch below, thinking the stranger might be driven by hunger to run 
the gauntlet and make towards town. In this manner the poor priest 
passed two awful days and nights before he was relieved from his perilous 
post. The Gran Chaco continues on our left, in its savage grandeur, and 
the scenery is much the same as we have passed, except that the thickets 
have grown into forests, the trees lifting their massive branches to a great 
height : they are mostly very straight and covered with a dark green or 
light brown foliage. At intervals the sandy beach is strewn with withered 
and uprooted trunks, highly useful for shipbuilding. 

Six le%ues above Esquina we pass Costa Tala, where the stream attains 
an enormous width. Carpinchos or sea hogs now shoAV themselves on the 
river-bank, disporting in the grass. Higher up on our left, a short 
distance inland, are the ruins of two Jesuit missions, Concepcion and 
S. Jeronimo, the second near a stream called Arroyo del Rey. 

By daybreak we are in sight of Goya, where a hut stands on the edge of 
an island, acting both as Custom-house and landing place for passengers. 
About the commencement of the present century, the site now occupied by 
the town of Goya was a cattle farm occupied by a Portuguese whose wife 
was named Gregoria, familiarly contracted into Goya. Here the ships 
passing used to call' for beef, and the position was so favorable that the 
Government resolved to build a town thereon. Goya is capital of the 
richest district in the province, and one of the finest towns on the Parana- 
The houses are of brick, and the population exceeds three thousand, 
including a large foreign element of Italians, Basques and French. The 
plaza is very handsome, with a pyramid in the centre, fifty feet high, on 
one side, and a church not yet finislied, of grand dimensions, the cost 
being estimated at ^ 1 50,000 s., contributed by local subscription. The 
chief autlrority is a Gefe Politico, and there is also a Judge of 1 . ^ Tnstancia; 
There are two priests, and seven doctors : Dr. Newkirk, a Canadian, is in 
good practice. There are national free schools for both sexes. Most of 



GOYA TO BELLA VISTA. 81 

the inhabitants are rich estancieros. A public conveyance is hired out, 
for any part the traveller may wish to repair to. The country is thickly 
wooded in some parts, orange groves being numerous. There are two 
English carpenters in Goya ; one of them is called Don Pedro, and is one of 
the oldest inhabitants. There is a3Ir. Ramallon, native of Gibraltar. Both 
of the priests are Italians. The Basques have brick-kilns in the subiu-bs ; 
and many of the houses are two stories high. The streets are twenty yards 
wide. The police office is a handsome building. The public cemetery, 
about a mile distant, is well kept, with some fine monuments, and a hand- 
some chapel. Such is the general prosperity of this industrious town that 
the citizens of Corrientes jestingly term it «The little Buenos Ayres.» The 
principal trade of the place consists in hides, wool, cheese, and oranges. 
Orange groves are frequent, but the business is diminishing, while the 
excellent cheese is finding its way to the various ports «aguas abajo,)> a 
large quantity being sent to Buenos Ayres. Cotton would grow well here, 
the climate being warm and dry. Imports are received from Buenos 
Ayres. 

After a couple of leagues we pass a very picturesque locality, known as 
Rincon de Soto. Here is a large saladero, surrounded by a number of huts, 
and a fine bay admits vessels of some burthen to come close to the estab- 
lishment. It was built by 3Ir. Holterhoff, who bought the site from Govern- 
ment for $150. There is another saladero at work near Goya, belonging 
to a Mr. Otto. Not far inwards, about two leagues from Goya, is the 
ancient village of Santa Lucia, on a river of the same name : it was founded 
by the Jesuits, who built a stone church (the finest in the province) where 
the few neighbors still attend Divine service. A little further on is the 
ground marked out for a new town, Pueblo Lavalle, but as yet there is only 
a solitary house with an orange grove. 

We now coast along the mainland of Corrientes, which presents an 
elevation of perhaps 100 feet. The camps gradually become bare, and the 
familiar ombii, iu lonely grandeur, stands forth, the landmark of the 
Pampas. Wc pass the « embouchures)) of several rivulets with Indian 
names, none of which are navigable, although wide as European rivers, 
with luxuriant vegetation overshadowing their banks. Next comes the 
estancia of General Ferre, a tract of several leagues, which was granted to 
him mauy years ago on condition of planting it with coffee : he tried and 
failed, and then turned it into a cattle farm. 

The red sandstone bluff now ahead of us is a place called Las Cuevas, 
where the river at low tide is hardly a hundred yards wide. The Para- 
guayans erected a battery here in 1865, which inflicted serious injury oa 



82 THE RIO DE LA PLATA. 

the Brazilian ironclads in forcing the pass. Here, in the year 1825, before 
the neighboring town of Bella Vista was formed, lived in utter solitude a 
Portuguese estanciero named Cueva, whose cattle tempted the rapacity of 
theHhaco Indians. A band of these deadly savages, on two occasions, 
swam across the narrow pass and attacked his house. The fearless old 
man and his son gave the Indians a galling reception from a skylight and 
window, through which they fired as fast as the daughters could load the 
blunderbusses, and thus succeeded in driving them off. During forty- 
three years they have never ventured another foray : the house and olive 
grove are distinctly seen from the river, crowning a headland, on doubling 
which we have Bella Vista in the distance. And well does Bella Vista 
merit its name, for the next hour's sail is one of the most delightful that 
can be imagined. A chain of steep cliffs, cut by the torrent, is broken at 
short and regular distances by numberless ^fissures caused by the rains. 
Yonder is the orange grove of Mr. Henry Hall, with its dark green outline 
against the horizon, and, as we approach, the files of trees are clearly 
discernible. 

Bella Vista, seated on a gentle slope, in the midst of tropical foliage, is 
a most charming picture. It was first peopled by a settlement of convicts, 
sent hither under General Ferre in 1826. It now contains about 1,000 
inhabitants, having some azotea houses, a plaza, &c. Nestling in orange 
groves and palm trees are several small huts, thrown as if by chance on the 
hill-side, and commanding a grand view of the Parana and Gran Chaco. 
The natives may not have inherited the propensities of their forefathers, 
but, certes, they are wild-looking fellows. Bella Vista is eighteen leagues 
above Goya. We see, a little above the town, the scene of an attempted 
cotton plantation, started here by some enterprising Americans in 1853. 
Whether owing to a bad selection of soil, or mismanagement on the part of 
the mayordomo, the undertaking failed and was abandoned. A native 
family now resides there, who pulled up all the cotton to substitute 
oranges. We have to return two leagues to get the channel, and glide by 
the Gran Chaco. Now again islands, on which we can see carpinchos. We 
are now 800 miles from Buenos Ayres, in the heart of South American 
wilds. The river is still a majestic flood, two miles wide. 

Passing Empedrado, which is half-way between Bella Vista and 
Corrientes, we reach the mouth of the Biachuelo, famous for the great 
naval battle fought here on 1 1th June, 1865, between the fleets of Paraguay 
and Brazil. The former was much less than the latter in ships and weight 
of metal, but was aided by a shore battery of forty guns. The struggle 
lasted from daybreak till nightfall, and ended in the utter defeat of the 



CITY OF CORRIENTliS. 83" 

Paraguayans, who, however, displayed great bravery : over 2,000 men 
perished in the battle, the Paraguayans losing four steamers and the 
Brazilians having three vessels hors de combat. The vicinity of tlie 
Riachuelo is said to produce good tobacco ; and now we come abreast of 
Don Domingo Latorre's famous quinta, with its 5,000 orange trees, and^ 
picturesque «montes)) of cypress, poplar, &c. This is distant fromtlie capital^ 
five leagues by land, but the windings of the river make it seven. ?fearer 
to Corrientes is the quinta of the late ex-President Derqui, finely situated 
on the river bank. At this place the Chaco looms in the distance, with its 
dark fringe of impenetrable forests. Very little of Corrientes can be seen 
before lauding, or passing «aguas arriba.)) 

Corrientes covers a plateau elevated sixty feet over the water level, so 
that we can see little but the church-towers and the few irregular edifices 
situate on the slope. On the extreme right is a graceful country-house, 
belonging to Dr. Yidal : a large shrubbery leads up to the door,- and a 
corridor all around the house has an effect of comfort and elegance. The 
line of beach is studded with dusky washerwomen, perfectly regardless of 
the fact that the thermometer stands over ninety in the shade. There are 
scattered fragments of a dark etone, said to be very good for building, 
though not much used ; it looks like tosca, but is hard as granite. Beyond 
Vidal's quinta is a saladero, the present owner of which is a Correntino. 
A tanning establishment and timber yard form the centre of our picture, 
"with the Custom-house, Casa de Gobierno, several palm ranchos, and a 
sprinkling of orange trees to fill up the whole, giving a strange and not 
unpleasant aspect. Most of the houses have corridors, which cover in the 
whole footpath, the windows being barred as in Buenos Ayres. No block 
can be called complete, for palm ranchos and orange gardens • alternate 
with tile roofs and azoteas. The streets are about fifty feet wide. The 
plaza is much the same as it was three centuries ago : on the north side is 
the Matriz or principal church, an old edifice eighty yards long, with a tile- 
roof, and at a short distance a bell tower, seventy feet high, in which is the 
town clock. The west side contains the Cabildo, where the law courts and 
prison are guarded by a bare-footed picquet of Federal troops of the Line.. 
In front are two antique houses, one of two stories, and the Merced Church, 
not yet whitewashed, with two belfrys, and a cloister attached for Franciscan 
friars. The house of Seiior Pampin, ex-Governor, with a few others of less 
note, make up the south side, and a column some sixty feet high stands in 
the centre of a multitude of weeds, around which are wooden posts but no 
seats : the column is surmounted by a diminutive female armed with a 
lance, and bears the inscriptions, 25 de Mayo 1810, and 9 de Julfo 1816. 

g2 



84 THE RIO DE LA. PLATA. 

On the pedestal are the busts of four generals. The Cabildo is a handsome 
structure, two stories Avith arches, supporting a square tower of Moorish 
build, Avhich commands a \iew of the country around. At the Hotel Globe 
Ave can procure a clean, airy apartment wherein to take « siesta. » The 
windows are of stained glass, with Venetian blinds. The cuisine is faultless 
for those who are not squeamish about garlic. The city forms a parallelo- 
gram of sixty or seventy cuadras, but is wholly different from anything 
European. There are about 1,500 palm ranclios, 200 tile roofs, and 100 
azoteasof one or two stories; also, four steeples, three miradores, six flag- 
staffs, a few slender palms, and an infinity of orange trees, amid which the 
houses seem to nestle for protection from the sun. Corrientes is distant 
270 leagues, or 900 English miles, from Buenos Ayres. 

On leaving Corrientes we can distinctly count the seven currents, which 
give the city its name ; they are formed by as many projecting points of 
land, above a place called La Batcria, a little north of the town. We now 
approach the Tres Bocas, the confluence of the rivers Paraguay and Upper 
Parana. The scenery about here is very fine. The Parana turns off at a 
right angle, eastward, and is navigable for steamers as high as the island 
and falls of Apipe. At the Paso la Patria is a ferry for carrying over cattle 
into Paraguay, and the woods on the Corrientes shore were the scene of 
some hard fighting in January 1866. iN^early opposite stood the Paraguayan 
fort of Itapiru, which formerly commanded the navigation of these waters : 
it was destroyed by the Brazilians in April 1866. Higher up on the 
Corrientes bank are the villages of San Cosmo, Itati, San Antonio, and 
Loreto ; near this last is a ford called Tranquera de Loreto. On the Para- 
guayan shore the ground is low, marshy, and uninhabited. At Itapua the 
river gives another bend, almost due north, and this is the point where the 
Paraguayans invaded Misiones, in May 1865, previous to their descent on 
Rio Grande. Opposite to Itapua is the Paraguayan station called Candelaria. 
The Parana may still be ascended in small boats as high as the great cataract 
of Salto de Guayra; but this part of the country is comparatively unexplored. 
The ruins of a town called Ciudad Real are still seen near the falls : from 
this point to the Tres Bocas is a distance of about 500 miles. 

Entering the Paraguay river at the Tres Bocas, we pass the Guardia 
Cerrito, where the Paraguayans had a battery, and in a few hours we reach 
Curupaity, where the Allies sustained a great reverse on the 22nd of 
September 1866. Every inch of ground was here disputed with immense 
sacrifice of life during more than two years, till the Paraguayans finally 
abandoned Huinaytd in July 1868. A bend of the river reveals to us this 
formidable position, which was defended by casern ated batteries, torpedoes, 



HUMAYTi TO ASU>'CI05. '85 

and chains across the river. This place was the key to the upper rivers, 
and the garrison, before the war, usually numbered 12,000 men: the 
fortress was constructed by French engineers in re54, under the regime of 
the first Lopez. 

A little above Humaita, on the Chaco sida, we coma to the mouth of the 
Rio Vermejo, which is about 300 yards wide, and bordered by a dense 
thicket. Some of the Chaco Indians may often be seen about here, 
spearing fish. 

Villa Pilar is a pretty little town, with numerous orange-groves and a 
handsome church, about a mile from the shore. It is the chief town of a 
district which shewed a census-return of 160,000 inhabitants. Under the 
rule of Francia it was the commercial emporium of Paraguay, the city of 
Asuncion being shut to all foreigners. 

An hour's sail takes us to the mouth of the Tebicuari, a large river 
which rises in the Yerbales or wa'fe-fields of Misiones, and after a course 
of 400 miles falls into the Paraguay at this place. Just before the 
war President Lopez had sent to Europe for two light steamers to navigate 
the Tebiquary. 

Yilla Franca is a village of no importance : the surrounding district has 
only 10,000 inhabitants. 

Villa Oliva is another small place, with a church and public schools : 
here the steamers often take beef and firewood. And now we may observe 
shoals of alligators on either bank : sometimes as many as a dozen basking 
together in the sun, a few measuring seven or eight feet in length. They 
lie motionless, like a log of wood, »vith their jaws extended shewing two 
alarming rows of teeth. The body is scaly like a tortoise, with four 
short fin-like legs, and they glide into the water with great ease. 
Carpiuchos may be seen in close proximity, apparently on good terms 
with the «Yacares,» for this South American crocodile confines his 
tastes to fish. 

Villeta is a difficult pass of the river, about seven leagues below 
Asuncion. At times the water is so low that no vessels drawing over 
eighteen inches can pass. Tlie banks on the Paraguayan side rise as we 
proceed up stream, and the Paraguayans used to have a battery of a few 
guns commanding a bend of the river. The scenery is very diversified 
and tranquil, with stately palm-trees that stand forth at intervals to remind 
us of the tropics. 

The peak of Lambare is enchanting, with its cone-like elevation clad in 
luxuriant foliage, raising its lofty form to the clouds. The adjacent village 



S6 THE mo DE LA PLATA. 

of Lambare is a suburb to the capital, remarkable for its church and 
cemetery. ^ 

On the left bank is the mouth of the Pilcomayo, which ibises in Bolivia, 
near the city of Chuquisaca, traverses the Gran Chaco, and after a course 
of 1 ,500 miles, here falls into the Paraguay. 

There are two batteries at the turn before we get view of the arsenal 
and city of Asuncion. 

Asuncion, the Paraguayan metropolis, is a town of some 30,000 
inhabitants ; it was founded by a Spanish captain named Ayolas, on August 
t5, 1536. There are some splendid public buildings, and excellent hotel 
accommodation is found at t!ie Club. The shops are poor, and all imported 
articles very dear. The railway to Villa Rica runs through a country 
unsurpassed for scenery. The traveller will find many delightful rides in 
the environs of Asuncion, and he should take a bath before sunrise at the 
Chorro. A description of the city and people will be given at full in the 
secti'on of this work devoted to Paraguay. 

Ascending the river to Matto Grosso, the first place beyond Asuncion is 
Villa Occidental, on the Chaco side, where a French colony was established 
by Lopez, but resulted unfortunately. We next pass the towns of Rosario 
and San Pedro, and the mouths of the Confuse, Jejuy, and Ypape rivers, 
arriving at Concepcion, 180 miles from Asuncion, The depth of the river 
varies from twenty to seventy feet, its width being from lialf a mile to a 
mile, and the banks usually about fifteen feet high. Concepcion is a town 
^f 2,000 inhabitants, and the great port of the yerba-mate trade. 

Salvador is seventy miles above Concepcion, and has a population of 
1,000 souls. From Salvador to Rio Appa is nearly 100 miles, the scenery 
being very beautiful near the ranges of Itapucu Guazii, and the country 
inhabited by Avarlike Indians. Here begins the disputed territory, which 
extends eighty miles north, as far as Rio Blanco, and is claimed by both 
Brazil and Paraguay on account of the important position of Fort Olympo. 

Fort Olympo is 420 miles above Asuncion, standing 45 feet above the 
river, which is here 600 yards wide : it forms a square of 100 feet, witli 
bastions for cannon, the walls being fourteen feet high and two and a-half 
thick, without embrasures. It was built by the Spaniards in 1798, 
garrisoned by Francia in 1822, abandoned by Lopez in 1850, again occupied 
in 1856, and afterwards seized in turns by Brazil and Paraguay. Before 
reaching Olympo is the picturesque mountain called Pan-de-azucai:, and 
live miles above the fort is Bahia Blanca,atthe mouth of the Rio Blanco. 

"We enter Brazilian territory at Salinas, and here the left bank is claimed 
"by Bolivia, while the right forms part of the province of Matto Grosso. 



ASUNCION TO CUYABA. 87 

Fort Coimbra, inLat. 19.55.43, aud Long. 57-52.32, stands oa a hill of 
the same name, which slopes to the river : it is forty feet above the water 
level, and is a solid stone structure, completely commanding the river which 
is here 600 yards wide. The officers' quarters within the fort consist of 
small stone houses. All supplies are obtained from Albuquerque or the 
neighbouring ludians. The low lands for some distance above Coimbra 
are subject to inundation, but there are also some pieces of firm land, 
covered with excellent woods aud never overflowed except in seasons of 
extraordinary rise. The mountains are still insulated peaks or short 
ranges, probably spurs of the Bolivian sierras. The surrounding country 
is held by the Guaycuru Indians, whom the Brazilian Government treats 
with much conciliation. Coimbra is thirty-three miles above Fort Olympo. 

Albuquerque is an insignificant village of seventy houses, only useful 
for supplies of provisions, and 47 miles from Coimbra. Passing the mouth 
of the Tacuari we reach Corumba, sixty miles from Albuquerque, and 560 
from Asuncion. This place sprung into importance with the introduction 
of steam traffic : it produces some good cotton. 

From Curumba to Cuyaba is nearly 400 miles, the course changing in 
Lat. 18, Long. 57.30, from the upper Paraguay to the river Cuyaba. The 
city of Cuyaba is capital of the province of Matto Grosso, residence of the 
President, Bishop, and other Brazilian functionaries, and a place of much 
importance. Tiiis is the highest point navigable in a steamer. Captain 
Bossi, in 1862, attempted to crossover to the head-waters of the Amazooas, 
but failed. The distance overland toRio JanejTO is 1200 miles, practicable 
on mules in about sixty days, but much infested by Indians, passing through 
a country of woods and mountains. The early Spaniards are known to 
have made the journey. A Brazilian expeditionary force left Rio 
Janeyro in 1865 ; most of the men perished on the route, the rest deserted 
to the woods. 

UP THE URUGUAY. 

The scenery of the Uruguay is the finest in these countries, and there 
is almost daily communication between Buenos Ayres and Salto: the 
steamers are elegant and commodious, and make the trip in 36 houi'S. 

As we cross the La Plata to ascend the Uruguay, the fine estancias of 
Martin Chico and San Juan are pointed out to the traveller; they are 
beautifully situated, and must some day become immensely valuable. 
Passing the Cerro San Juan we sight the island of Martin Garcia, the 
Gibraltar of the River Plate, which has anything but an imposing 
appearance. Two new fortifications are seen on the S. E. point, but there 



88 THE RIO DE LA PLATA. 

are no guns on them. Facing the Argentine coast is a battery of nine 
guns, with soldiers' quarters. The place almost looks deserted, and the 
old batteries used in the war of 1859 are dismiatled. Bat ween the island 
and the Oriental coast only small craft can pass. The Argentine Congress 
in 1867 voted a considerable sum for the fort fication of the island. Iq the 
time of Rosas many of the prisoners confined here escaped by swimming 
a grey mare over to the mainland of Banda Oriental, the mare regularly 
swimming back again, till Rosas took her and shot her as an enemy tcr 
the State. 

Carmelo is the first town we sight and looks very pretty, seated on a 
bend of the river, but a good view is not obtained till we pass upwards. A 
small steamer calls here in connection with Colonia or Higueritas. The 
next thing we see is an old convent now used for an estancia-house. 

The scenery improves as we advance, the Entre-Riano coast being much 
lower than the Oriental. 

Nueva Palmira or Higueritas is on the eastern bank ; it is a small place, 
and has few attractions, except that it offers a convenient landing-place 
for passengers for the interior. There is a ' graseria,' for melting down 
sheep, belonging to Mr. Henry Zimmermann. 

At the mouth of the Rio Negro the scenery is interesting : here a small 
steamer meets us to take the passengers for Mercedes. Higher up we 
meet the Gualeguaychii steamer, forming another branch-line of the 
Uruguay service. 

As we proceed up the river the nature of the last great geological 
changes, that have occurred in this valley, becomes apparent from the 
facts noticeable. The Argentine side of the river is generally low, often 
marshy, as if recently redeemed from a deep lake, while the Uruguayan 
side is generally high and rocky. Along the bold rocky border of that 
old, immense lake, the waters were drained, and, washing the base of the 
bluff on its eastern border, at length formed the River Uruguay. On the 
Uruguayan shore the bed of the river is generally of granitic rocks, the 
channel is deeper, and, from the more solid formation, the ports are better. 
The rocks are chiefly granite, though in some parts, as for example near 
Salto, the action of the fire is more marked, and quartz is seen under all 
the modification made upon it by heating and cooling, and by slight 
admixtures of other rocks. In the interior of the country, 'geodes» 
are found in great abundance and of great beauty of structure. In the 
streams and along the rocky coasts, the sand is richly interspersed with 
pebbles of cornelian, agate, chalcedony, onyx, and jasper, all more or less 
pure, and some of them of great beauty. There is, probably, but one place 



BUEROS AYRES TO PAYSA?(DU. 



89 



•where such pebbles are so abundant, or so beautiful, or so lai*ge, and that 
is at St. Anthony on the Jlississippi river. 

Fray Bentos is a new town on the same side of the river, containing 
about 1,000 inhabitants. It is called sLxty leagues from Buenos Ayres : it 
is not attractive to the traveller, v>ho only beholds it from the deck of the 
steamer, but is said to be a place of considerable business. It is chiefly 
notevv'orthy for the fauious Liebig Extractum Carnis Factory, under the 
direction of I\Ij\ Giebert, >vliich Avas established in 1864, at a cost 
of i^200,000. It gives constant employment to 600 or 800 persons, 
and can kill 500 head of cattle per day. The machinery was made 
in Glasgow, and cost £45,000: it is the most complete and elaborate 
that can be imagined. The beef extract is made up in boxes of lOOU 
each, for shipment to Europe, where it is sold at £1 sterling per % weighty 
chiefly for hospital use. 

Roman is the name of a landing place, and also of a saladero near it, 
about seventy leagues from Buenos Ayres. The saladero is owned by Don 
Felipe Iglesias, and the town is little else than a group of irregularly built 
houses to accommodate the workmen. 

- It is. usually midnight when the steamer calls at Concepcion, the chief 
town of Entre Rios, which we shall visit on our return down the river. By 
daybreak we are at anchor in the port of Paysandii. 

Paysandii, eighty leagues from Buenos Ayres, contained before the civil 
war in that country 7,700 inhabitants. So great has been the activity of 
business, since the restoration of peace, that it is believed that the 
population now exceeds 10,000. -Sew houses are going up in all directions, 
and these are of a better class than the old ranches battered down in the 
bombardment. In the Department of Paysandii are five saladeros, two of 
these are in the city, one at Casa Blanca, one at Roman, and one at Fray 
Bentos. At each of these there are killed annually 40,000 to 50,000 
animals, making from this department 200,000 to 250,000 animals in the 
year. The beef is salted and dried in thin, large slices, and it finds a 
market in Brazil and the West Indies. Hides are salted and go to Europe, 
chiefly to Antwerp and Liverpool, and the tallow goes by cargoes, in pipes, 
to England. There are no manufactories in Paysandii but sundry stores, and 
shops of shoemakers, tailors, waggon-makers, blacksmiths, «fec. Hotels, La 
Paz and La Francia ; charge, Sl| per day. Labor is dear both for house and 
farm service, the poorest laborer receiving, at the lowest, $16s. per month. 
And so rapid is the increase of population by immigration that all kinds of 
marketing are as dedr as at Buenos Avtcs. Don Miguel Horta, the 
principal shopkeeper, is Spanish vice-consul, and his house is the 



90 THE RIO DE LA. PLATA. 

rendezvous of all English estancieros. Some pleasant excursions may be 
made to the neighboring estancias of Col. Mundell, Plowes, Hughes, Green, 
and Bell, to the saladero at Arroyo Negro, to Messrs. Paris and Sloper's 
beef-packing establishment, to AVilliam's saladero, and by boat to the 
Swiss colony across tlie Uruguay. 

From Paysandii to Salto is the finest part of the river : the scenery is 
varied and beautiful. A league above the town is Mr. William's saladero, 
where they tried «the Morgan system,)) in 1866, with beef and mutton. 
At the Hervidero we pass a large establishment belonging to Mr. Richard 
Hughes, with the Union Jack flying from the battlements : it is a two-story 
house built over twenty years ago by a Company, of which Mr. Lafone 
formed part, and had a saladero, now in ruins, and an estancia with over 
1 00,000 cows and sheep. The Mesa de Artigas is a bold headland just 
over the river. Here General xVrtigas encamped his army in the War of 
Independence, and tradition says he threw his Spanish prisoners hence, 
sewed up in hides, into the river. After passing the estancia Delicias and 
other valuable establishments belonging to foreigners, we reach the 
dangerous pass of Corralitos. This reef or archipelago of rocks has but 
one narrow and tortuous channel, and is impassable by night. Sailing 
vessels cannot pass but with the most favorable wind, and we see coasting 
craft at anchor in front of the old port of Concordia, which is nearly a 
league below that town. In high water the Corralitos are covered, but 
often the river is so low that the buoys are high and dry. You cannot see 
Concordia from here, but there is a «casilla)) at the new port, and coaches are 
in waiting to convey passengers to the town. We have now a fine view 
of Salto at the head of the river, about three miles above, covering three 
or four hills, with large white edifices, and apparently a town of 
great extent. 

Salto (Hotel Concordia) is 110 leagues from Buenos Ayres : it is a very 
flourishing place, with 9,000 inhabitants, one half of whom are Italians. 

The town has a bustling aspect, new buildings going up on all sides. 
The view is very picturesque in every direction. The city stretches out 
much to the north, the new town laid out by Mr. Coleman being already 
thickly settled. The situation is charming, the Uruguay bathing the 
declivities of the ' cuchillas ' which run down in almost parallel lines, the 
white buildings studding the hill-sides, and clumps of brushwood 
fringing the outskirts. It is the headquarters of all frontier trafiic to Bio 
Grande and Corrientes, and the Brazilian Government is in treaty with a 
London firm for a railway to Uruguayana and San Borja. The Salto Chico 
is about a mile above the town, and sometimes quite dry : the Salto Grande 



SALTO TO URUGUAYA5A. 91 

higher up is a barrier to navigation in almost all periods. On the east side 
of the Plaza is the church, an unpretending structure with two towers, 
one of which has a town-clock (the weights are of sand) : inside, it is quite 
bare, and can hardly hold 800 persons. ]N'ext door is the Curia, a fine 
house with ornamental front. On the south side stands the Comandancia, 
imitation of Grecian architecture, and a few yards off is the Imprenta, 
from which issues, twice a week, the Eco de los Lihres. Some of the public 
works are a decided failure, viz., the wharf of granite which has already 
cost 60,000 hard dollars, and can never be of use except in extraordinary 
high tides, whereas an iron mole might have been run out into the river at 
a cost of 40,000. A little below the town is a tan yard, and further down 
was tlie Brazilian encampment in 1865. Salto is reputed a very healthy 
place, the only epidemic ever known being small-pox. The water here, 
as in all other parts of the Uruguay, has a mellifluous taste. Mr. Richard 
AVilliams, oue of the oldest British residents in the River Plate, has a 
handsome residence, commanding a view of the Uruguay, and Concordia 
on the opposite bank. He has a fine collection of pebbles and crystal- 
lizations : these stones come from the CeiTO de Catalanes near the river 
Cuareim, where agate is found in abundance, and some collections have 
been sent to England, and appreciated by lapidaries? A German explorer 
with a number of workmen collected quite a cargo, but died when about 
to return to Europe. There are not many English estancias, excepting 
those of Mr. Williams, near Salto. 

In times of very high water, a steamer (drawing three feet) goes up 
the falls to Uruguayana : the distance is about 150 miles, and the scenery 
"well repays the journey. 

After passing the falls we coast alternately the shores of Entre Rios and 
Banda Oriental, on both of which there are many large cattle estancias. 
Some leagues above Concordia is the Arroyo Yuqueri, where Gen. Mitre 
established his headquarters when the Paraguayan war first broke out. A 
range of hills called Puntas de Mandisobi, twelve leagues from Concordia, 
was subsequently Gen. Flores's rendezvous before the battle of Yatay. 
Not far hence is the village of Federacion, and nearly opposite, in Banda 
Oriental, is another, called Constitucion. 

A stream debouching on our left, called the 3Iocoreta, is the frontier line 
between Entre Rios and Corrieutes ; and ten leagues higher, on the right, 
we come to Santa Rosa, at the frontier of the Brazilian province of Rio 
Grande : this place is thirty leagues above Salto, and has vis-a-vis the 
Correntino village of Monte-Caseros. 

Twenty leagues further is the important town of Uruguayana, at a pass 



92 THE RIO DE LA PLATA. 

of the river, called Paso de los Libres. A line of diligences formerly ran 
from this place to Concordia, and another on the Brazilian side, from 
Uruguay ana to Salto. At present railways are projected, one on each 
side of the river, as the falls at Salto are a bar to all commerce by water. 

Uruguayana was founded in 1843, and was a thriving frontier town 
previous to the war ; it had about 10,000 inhabitants: it was the centra 
of the trade of this part of Rio Graii:l2. In 1865 the Paraguayans took it 
and held it for some time, till the allied generals closely invested the place, 
and the Paraguayan commander surrendered to Dom Pedro in person. The 
town was found to be in a dreadful condition ; but it is now fast recovering 
its prosperity. The Uruguay is here half-a-mile across. 

Twenty leagues higher up is the Correntino village of La Cruz, and two 
leagues further, on the Brazilian shore, stands the town of Itaqui, Avhich 
■was also taken by the Paraguayans in their descent on Rio Grande. A 
battle occurred near a rapid river above the town, in which the Brazilians 
were worsted, obliging them to abandon Itaqui. 

Twenty-five leagues further on, are the towns of Santo Tome and San 
Borja. The former is in Lat. 28.20, and Long. 58.10. : it is the chief town 
of the Misiones of Aguapey (Corrientes) . Exactly opposite is San Borja 
(Rio Grande) : the' country around is rich and populous. The distance 
across Misiones, to Itapua on the Upper Parana, is 38 leagues. 

We have now ascended 100 leagues from Salto, and the traveller may 
still continue his explorations in Misiones. The return voyage from San 
Borja to Salto will occupy a day and a-half . 

If we cross the Uruguay river below the falls from the eastern to the 
"western side, we shall find Concordia, an Argentine city of the province 
of Entre Rios, and nearly opposite Salto. The present war, during the 
months when Concordia was the headquarters of the army, added greatly 
to the business and Avealth of the city. There is at Concordia one saladero 
which uses about 50 ,000 animals in the 'faena' (cattle and horses). This 
is the property of A. Bcnites and Co. : the city counts about 5,000 
inhabitants, and is a place of considerable business. Rents and wages 
are high, and good houses are not easily found to rent. 

Colonia de San Jose, twenty-four leagues below Concordia, is a colony of 
Swiss and German immigrants, numbering about ^,500 persons. The town 
itself is only the few houses needed at the landing, for tlie people are 
agriculturists, raising wheat, maize, potatoes, &c. 

Concepcion del Uruguay, nine leagues lower down the river, is at 
present the capital of the province of Entre Rios. The anchorage of 
steamers is near the shore, but the landing is so far away from the city as 



THE SAL ADO AND VERMEJO. 93 

to leave but little opportunity to see the toTvn from the steamer. There 
are said to be 5,000 inhabitants. The princely residence of General 
Urquiza is seven leagues distant, at San Jose. At Concepcion are two 
saladeros, but there are no manufactories. 

The possessions of General Urquiza are immense. One-third part of 
the land of the province is called his. From the River Gualeguaychu 
to Victoria, eighty leagues, you may not go off the lands of the Captain 
General. The annual product from so much land, stocked Tvith cattle, 
horses, and sheep, must be very great. 

THE SAL.ADO AND VERMEJO. 

These two rivers belong to the Gran Chaco territory, and are generally 
considered navigable, although many obstacles have been met with in the 
expeditions sent for their exploration. 

The Bio Salado rises in the upper provinces, passes through Santiago del 
Estero, and falls into the Parana just above Santa Fe city. A Spanish 
gentleman named Esteban Rams Rupert devoted many years and a large 
amount of money to the scheme of canalising this river. His first expedi- 
tion was at the close of 1862, and he narrates it in these words — 

«We left the Colony of Esperanza on the 31st December, in the dii'ection 
of Concepcion del Tio, in the Province of Cordova : from this point we 
followed the road called De las Tropas, due north, until arriving at the 
town of Salavina, in Santiago. Then, striking out east, we reached Fort 
Bracho, on the banks of the Salado, on the 19th January. The engineer at 
once began his survey of the river, from Navicha to the Boca de Matara, 
tshich, along with the marshes, covers a superficies fifteen leagues in 
length by three or four in breadth. This is the only part of the river 
requiring heavy w orks to make the navigation clear, to Sepulturas. The 
engineer's reports, confirming and amplifying previous ones, are already 
nearly complete. The annual rise this time came as high as the Boca de 
Matard, on the night of the 30th December, and when I arrived at Matara, 
on the 23rd January, I found the river in front of this place fifteen feet deep 
for a Avidth of eighty-two feet. I left a meter there, in charge of the 
commander, and on my return on the 4th of February found that the water 
had, in the interval, suffered a maximum rise of four inches, and fall of 
foul' and a-half inches, making thus a difference of half an inch in twelve 
days, and its actual depth being fifteen feet and nine inches. This shows 
there is plenty of Avater to navigate the Salado, the sole difliculty being to 
run a canal from Boca de Matara to Navicha, a distance of fifteen leagues, 
as there is not the least obstacle between Navicha and Santa Fe. The 



94 THE RIO DE LA PLATA. 

levels taken prove the possibility, nay, the facility, of avoiding Lhe 
marshes, and conveying the whole current down to Navicha.» 

Baron Aland provided funds, pending the formation of a company in 
England, and Mr. W. H. Cock began the works in 1863. The Baron, 
however, found it impossible to get up the company, owing to the Flore s 
revolution of April 1864, and, after a year (December 1864), Mr. Cock 
received orders to suspend operations: his report on the works is as 
follows :• — 

«The Cauce Viejo (old bed), whose course was hardly known before my 
arrival here, owing to its frequent windings through impenetrable thickets, 
is now quite cleared of trees from Bracho Viejo (La Fragua) as far as two 
leagues beyond Navicha, a distance of fifteen leagues, now rendered quite 
navigable, all the old roots and trees being completely removed. The rest 
only requires a few workmen, for a couple of months, to render it fit for 
navigation, by burning the trunks and boughs felled on the banks, which 
are now so dry as easily to ignite. Beyond Navicha (except two leagues, 
which I have already said are clear) there is little wanting to be done, and 
with the staff of navvies under my orders I could have finished it by the 
end of February — so that the Rio Salado would have possessed a continuous 
canal free from all obstacles, and requiring no further works, to permit the 
passage of a small steamer as high up as Bracho Yiejo. A little canal, 
eighteen feet wide (six and a-half varas) has also been opened from the 
Lagunas del Bracho to the bed of the river, with the view of giving tho 
river an additional flow of water, and draining the marshes so as to be 
enabled to commence the canalization works across the Estero del Bracho 
some months earlier than usual. During my stay in this place I have 
devoted all my attention to a careful study of the various projects feasible 
for making a canal through the Estero del Bracho to the Boca de Matara : 
my assistant Mr. Charles Albeck has also been busy in taking levels ,and 
drawing plans for the same purpose. I now possess all the necessary data 
for this important section of the works, so as on finishing the plans, to be 
able to point out the best and most economical route for the canal.)) 

But Mr. Rams never despaired : he contrived to carry on the work in a 
small way, and in July 1865 he obtained from Congress a renewal of his 
concession, for three years longer, to date from December 31 , 1866. The 
Government was to establish a port at any suitable point between Navicha 
and Bracho, guaranteeing Rams nine per cent, on the outlay of the 
enterprise, and allowing him an exemption from half-export duties during 
thirty years. 

In March 1866 he obtained a concession from the Santa Fe Government, 



NAVIGATION OF THE S.\LADO. 95 

for the introduction of 5,000 immigrant families to be settled along the 
Rio Salado ; the Government giving him a square league of land for every 
four families. 

Mr. Rams had some iron lighters buUt by Marshal of Barracas, and was 
almost ready to start for the Salado, when he was cut off by cholera, in 
April 1867. The enterprise, however, was not suffered to faU through, 
but in the following month Mr. Seuorans started from Buenos Ayres. 

After a voyage of three months and a-half he returned to Santa Fe with 
his expetlition, having nothing to lament except the death of a young man 
named Piran. The expedition reached a point some hundi-ed and eighty 
miles above Monte Aguara, at which latter place the River Salado takes a 
great bend to the Avest, just before entering into the province of Santiago 
del Estero. Mr. Seuorans thus examined and went over that part of the 
river whick Captain Page was unable to explore, owing to his steamer 
drawing too much water. The river, during the whole time occupied by 
the expedition, was pretty high— sixteen feet of water often being found, 
so that the theory of the navigation of the Salado by small steamers towing 
«chatas)) was thus fully established, and even if this navigation be only 
practicable during six or seven months of the year, it is still of the very 
greatest importance, as it will facilitate the settlement of the lands on 
either side of the river. Mr. Seuorans was successful in gaining the good 
will of the various tribes of Indians on his route. All the caciques of the 
river came to visit him, and he made treaties with many of them. The 
principal cacique, Mariano, was not seen, as he lives a considerable way in 
the interior, but about a dozen other chiefs presented themselves, accom- 
panied by a vast number of their people. It appears that about Monte 
Aguara the Indian tribes are much more numerous than it has generally 
been supposed. Mr. Seuorans took with him a large quantity of presents, 
and distributed them very liberally — clothes being given to almost all. 
They were very much afflicted to hear that their old friend and ' padrino,' 
Mr. Rams, was dead. They all asked for his portrait, and brought up 
children by the score, whom they stated Mr. Rams was god-father to. A 
good trade can be made with these various tribes of Indians, and it is 
probable many of them could be made useful in cutting timber. 

The expedition reached Fortin Taboada w ithout any difficulty, and might 
have proceeded further on, but much time had already been expended, and 
provisions were running short, as they had not calculated on the 
necessity of furnishing food to the large numbers of Indians who conti- 
nually accompanied the expedition. The reason of this equivocal guard 
of honor was probably two-fold — first, curiosity and greed, and secondly, 



96 THE BIO DE LA PLATA. 

suspicion of the whites and of their objects. They could not understand 
why all the people of the steamers invariably attended divine service fully 
armed. They said that the Padres never did it. There was evidently 
anything but good will at first, but it appears that Mr. Seilorans at last 
insinuated himself into their confidence, and gained their friendship. 

Although plenty of water was always found, the sharp turns of the river 
impeded the navigation to a large extent. Then the delays of cutting 
wood, and the conferences with the Indians, caused a vast time to be lost. 
Once thoroughly established, the navigation, with wood ready cut at stated 
points, the steamers can run up to Fortin Taboada in six or seven days. 

It is stated that the timber on the river is very abundant, and of a 
valuable quality. The «chatas)) returned loaded with various kinds, amongst 
which are specimens of excellent ebony. Two young Englishmen Avho 
accompanied the expedition returned well and hearty. 

Mr. Seilorans encountered in one place a number of dead men. He 
buried them decently. It was supposed that they belonged to 'the Salta 
contingent that mutinied in the Parana and fled into the "Ghaco. As 
nothing was ever heard of them it is probable they all perished either by 
hunger or by the Indians. 

Since the return of this expedition (September 1867) no other has gone 
up the Salado, and it. may be presumed that no efforts for its further 
navigation will be made till the termination of the Paraguayan war. 

The Rio Vermejo rises in Bolivia, and, after a tortuous course of 1 ,200 
miles through the forests of the Chaco, falls into the River Paraguay near 
the fortress of Humayta. The first expedition to navigate its waters was 
in 182G, when some Englishmen and Buenos Ayreans 'successfully descended 
the river: they were, however, taken prisoners I)y Francia, tyrant of 
Paraguay, and kept in captivity for many years. In 1856, Jose Maria Arce, 
a Bolivian, accompanied by an Irish sailor named William Martin, safely 
descended from Oran to Corrientes . Seuor Arce made four voyages after- 
wards, the last in November 1863, on this occasion losing two men, killed 
by Indians. He brought 150 tons cargo and 10 passengers, including his 
brother, Dr. Arce (with two secretaries), who had credentials from the 
Bolivian Government as Minister Plenipotentiary to the Argentine and Para- 
guayan cabinets: his principal business being to make treaties for the 
navigation of the Pilcomayo. President Lopez would not make any treaty 
on the subject, as he declared the Vermejo and Pilcomayo belonged exclu- 
sively to Paraguay. Arce, in his last voyage, found the Vermejo noNvhere 
less than five feet deep, his vessels drawing only twenty-seven inches ; but 
iR many places the boughs of trees obstructed the navigation. 



NAVIGATIO:X OF THE VERMEJO. 97 

111 February 1863, Lavarello's expedition started from Buenos Ajres, 
on board the steamer Gran Chaco. After some delays to repair she at last 
entered the River Vermejo on April 18th. One of the party writes as 
follows : — 

«Our progress was very slow, for several reasons. We were obliged 
to stop rather more than half the time for the purpose of cutting and 
loading wood for fuel. The course of the river changes five or six times 
every league, so that Captain Lavarello reckons one thousand bends from 
Esquina Grande to the mouth of the Vermejo. Owing to this tortuous 
course, and the danger of missing the channel at night, added to the strong 
currents of the river, and the small power of the engine, we could only 
navigate by daylight, and came to anchor early every evening. We were 
soon delayed several days by heavy rains, preventing the crew from cutting 
■wood, and causing nearly all on board, officers and men, to fall sick of a 
tercian fever or ' chucho,' induced by moisture and exposure. The 
steamer was converted iuto a hospital, and from lack of medical 
knowledge many suffered severely and for several weeks. Of thirty 
persons on board, more than twenty were sick at once, and we were 
detained more than twenty days from lack of hands to man the vessel. 
At last our provisions became exliausted, one article after another, so that 
we should actually have suffered from hunger, had we not succeeded 
occasionally in obtaining a sheep, a kid, or a pair of chickens, from the 
Indians. The Indians also rendered us most essential services by assisting 
us to cut and load wood, and by hauling us loose, with ropes, when we 
occasionally became stuck upon sand banks. We saw great numbers 
of Indians, thirty or forty different bands, in number ranging from ten or 
twenty up to one hundred.)) 

At last they reached Rivadavia colony in July, and the expedition 
returned to Buenos Ayres early in 1864. Just then President Lopez sent 
to Europe for two small steamers, to navigate the Vermejo and Pilcomayo, 
but the war soon after ensuing the enterprise was prevented. 

At present (November 1868), there is a petition before Congress from 
Messrs. Lezica and Lanuz, in connection with the Vermejo, which they 
propose to open to navigation as soon as the war terminates. 



98 ITINERARIES OF THE REPUBLIC. 



CHAP. YIII 



ITINERAT^IES OF THE REPUBLIC. 

The highways of the Argentine Republic are pretty much as Nature made 
them, consisting merely of a beaten track across the Pampas. They were 
formerly much better as regards post-houses and relays of horses than at 
present. General Urquiza devoted much attention to tliis matter ; but 
since the Paraguayan war the Indians have made such frequent incursions 
that the overland route from Rosario to Chile, or the upper provinces, is 
attended with much inconvenience, for want of horses at the post-houses 
along the roads. 

In the Province of Buenos Ayres the Northern, Western, and Southern 
railways offer speedy and commodious transit, in connection with 
«diligences)) ramifying the campafia in all directions. In Entre Rios there 
is also easy communication by the river steamboats, and a regular line of 
ttdiligences.)) In Corrientes there is no other way of travelling in the 
interior but on horseback. 

The Central Argentine Railway, from Rosario to Villa Nueva, is the great 
highway to the upper provinces. At Villa Nueva two main routes strike 
out north and west ; the first goes to Cordoba, Santiago, Tucuman, and 
Salta ; the second to San Luis, Mendoza, and San Juan. The railway from 
Rosario to Cordoba will be 247 miles long when finished : at present the 
section open to traffic, to Villa Nueva, is about 170 miles. The first thirty- 
three miles from Rosario are slightly undulating and destitute of timber, 
till we approach the English settlement of Frayle Muerto, when the country 
assumes a wooded aspect, with picturesque park vistas and an abundance 
of algarroba and other line trees. The line crosses two rivers ; the 
CarcarailA, about ten leagues from Rosario, and the Tercero, about twenty- 
three leagues further. (This route will be described at length in the 
chapter on the Central Argentine Railway). 



TO TUCUMAX AND SALTA. 



99 



NORTHEIC!? ROUTE. 



The ((diligences)) from Villa IVueva to Salta traverse a route of 215 
leagues, the number of days employed varying, according to the weather, 
the state of the roads, post-houses, horses, &c. The itineraryis as follows, 
in Spanish leagues : — 



Villa >'ueva, 


. H 


Tio Pugio, 


4 


Chauares, 


2* 


Espinillo, 


. 2i 


Desgraciado, 


. 2i 


Uncativo, .... 


5 


3Iendez, 


3 


Moyano, 


. 2| 


Eio Seguudo, 


. 2i 


Geromito, 


3 


Cordoba, .... 


4 


Bajo del Rosario, 


3 


Guerra, 


H 


Salitre, 


. 5i 


Tala, 


3i 


Divisadero, 


5i 


Qntiquan, .... 


3f 


Santa Cruz, 


3* 


San Pedro, 


4 


Carril, 


2i 


Piedritas, .... 


H 


Pozo del Tigre, 


4 


Portezuela, .... . . . . 


2i 


Horquetas, 


2i 


Aquila, .... . . . . 


H 


Guardia, 


H 


Paesto del Monte, 


3i 


Chilue, 


5f 


Lago Chaquin Nodri, . . . 


2 


Altamique, 


H 


Canada, 


3 


Loreto, .... 


H 



Machani, .... 


2i 


Alpapuja, 


2i 


Mano Gasla, 


2f 


Cardoso, .... 


3f 


Santiago, 


.... 2i 


Bella Vista, 


.... 2i 


Tipiro, 


.... 3| 


Chauchillo, .... 


2i 


Sotelitos, 


3| 


Pozuelos, 


4i 


Bagual, 


2 


Tres Pozos, .... 


.... 2f 


Favorina, 


.... 4f 


Tucuman, 


.... 3i 


Chailar, 


.... 3i 


Ramada, .... 


4i 


Puesto, .... 


If 


Borriaco, 


3 


Chileu, 


3 


Laguna de los Rot 


des, I| 


Ojos de Agua, 


bi 


Cauas, 


21 


Madriaga, 


.... ^ 


Mojaras, 


4 


Santas, 


3 


Conchas, .... 


3f 


Piedras, .... 


6i 


Pasaje, .... 


8 


Simbolar, 


H 


Ramada, .... 


.... 5f 



Salta, 



21 



From Villa ]N'ueva to Cordoba is about seventy-eight miles, through dense 
forests of (calgarroba.)) At Chauares there are excellent springs of water, 



'iOO ITINERARIES OF THE REPUBLIC. 

and a mile further on we reach the magnificent lake of El Aguada. About 
two miles from here are the well-known springs of Ojo de Agua. For 
several leagues the lands are now very inferior, owing to the abundance of 
wbiscachos,)) which have burroAved about in all directions. The Rio Seguudo 
is a river 250 yards wide, from one (cbarrancaw to the other ; but in dry 
seasons the stream is only thirty yards across. Two horses and twelve 
bullocks are often used to drag the «diligence)) through*the river. After 
passing through another «algarroba» Avood, Ave at last reach the city of 
Cordoba. 

Cordoba is the heart of the Republic ; it is famous for its delightful 
climate, and is situate in the midst of an amphitheatre of hills. Tlie popu- 
lation is estimated at 20,000;' the best inn is the Hotel de Paris. The 
traveller Avill find much to interest him in the old churches, the university, 
and other public buildings. If he make an excursion to the Sierras he Avill 
iind capital shooting. 

From Cordoba the route offers little of interest, till Ave reach Santiago : 
it passes through the villages of Chafiar, Altamisque, and Loreto, skirting 
the desert of Salinas : the only rivers met Avith are, the Rio Primero after 
leaving Cordoba, and the Rio Dulce before arriving at Santiago. 

Santiago del Estero is a delapidated town of 8,000 inhabitants, Avitli a 
privileged climate: it stands in lat. 27.46, and long. 64.22. Tlie Govern- 
ment-house and three churches are worth visiting. This town is ninety 
leagues north of Cordoba. 

From Santiago to Tucuman is tAventy-eight leagues, the route crossing 
■the Rio Dulce. Nothing can exceed the fertility of the Province of Tucu- 
man, the garden of South America, rich in every product of the tropical or 
temperate zones. 

The city of Tucuman stands on a Avell-Avooded plain, 358 leagues N.W. 
of Buenos Ayres, Avith a population of 12,000 souls: it is situate on a 
branch of the Rio Dulce, and is famous for the declaration of Independence, 
9th July, 1816. 

From Tucuman to Salta is sixty-nine leagues, through a diversified 
country of hill ranges and rivers, for we are noAV in the region of the 
Andes. This Avas formerly the highway from Buenos Ayres to Lima. The 
townof Salta Avas founded in 1582, and its present population is about 10,000. 

The traveller may still go tAventy leagues further north, to Jujuy , which is 
the last Argentine province, and borders on Bolivia. The tOAvn is insignificant ; 
but some salt is produced from the neighboring «salinas,)) and the discovery 
of petroleum seems to be an acknoAvlcdged fact. The navigation of the 
Yermejo Avill open up the resources of this remote province. 



TO SAN LUIS AISD MENDOZA. 



101 



WESTERN ROUTE. 



The Western route goes due west from Villa Nueva to Mendoza, thea 
strikes off due north, skirting the foot of the Andes, to San Juan. The 
itinerary is as follows : — 



Villa Nueva, 


3 


Cerrillos, 


. 4i 


Cabral, .... 


... 3i 


San Luis, 


. 4i 


Cauada de Luque, 


... n 


Tisera, 


. H 


Totoral, 


4 


Chosraes, .... , . . 


. H 


Guanacho, .... 


H 


Cabra, 


. Ui 


Tarabito, 


6 


Villa de la Paz, 


.. i\ 


Chucull, 


4 


Dorraida, 


. 4i 


Eio Cuarto, 


.... 6i 


Santa Rosa, .... 


f 6i 


Ojos de Agua, 


. . . . 3i 


Retamo, 


9 


Barranquita, 


3i 


Mendoza, 


6 


Achiras, .... 


H 


Jujuli, .... 


. n\ 


Portezuelo, .... 


H 


Guanacache, . . 


. 8i 


Morro, .... 


... 3i 


Posito, .... 


. 3i 


Lorro, .... 


... 4i 







Rio Quinto, 


5| 


San Juan, .... 


. . 149 



?roni Villa Nueva to Rio Cuarto is twenty-seven leagues, and now we 
enter on a territory very much exposed to Indian forays ; the road from 
Rio Cuarto traversing a wild and desolate tract of forty leagues, till 
reaching the town of San Luis. 

San Luis has almost disappeared from the map, partly owing to its 
constant civil Avars, and partly to the Indians. The whole province has 
only a handful of inhabitants ; the city of San Luis is mostly composed o^ 
mud huts. It has its governor, legislature, (fcc. 

From San Luis to Mendoza is 50 leagues, still through the desert. The 
road crosses the Desaguadero, before reaching the village of La Paz, and 
at last reaches Mendoza, at the base of the giant Cordillera. 

Mendoza Avas destroyed by earthquake, March 20th, 1861, but is now 
partially rebuilt. Its chief importance arises from its passes over the 
Andes into Chile, and its communication Avith San Juan and Rosario. 

The journey from IMendoza across the Cordillera of the xVndes, to Santa 
Rosa, the first toAvn met Avith on the Chilian side, can be done in four to 
six days mounted on a good mule, which may be hired from 3^ to §10. 
In summer it is a most pleasant journey, and to those Avho have not seen 
the Cordillera scenery in all its grandeur it must prove a very interesting 
trip, but the traveller must not attempt it betAveen the 1st of ]^Iay and 1st 



J 02 ITINERABIES OF THE REPUBLIC. 

of November following, as the pass ((La Cumbre» is generally closed and 
the entire road covered with snow to a depth of several yards. The 
«temporales» are most frequent in that season, and come down with 
terrific force. 

There is a weekly coach to San Juan, fare §13 ; the distance is 32 
leagues, through a very wild and mountainous country. A gentleman who 
recently made the trip from Rosario to San Juan gives the following 
notes of his journey : — 

«The distance from Rosario to San Juan is computed about 280 leagues, 
the towns through which the coach passes being as follows :^— 





Leagues. Days, i 




Guardia Esquina, 


24 


1 


San Luis, 


Saladillo, § 


16 




Mendoza, 


Frayle 3ruerto, 


10 


1 


San Juan, 


Eio Cuarto, .... 


50 


2 




Achiras, .... 


19 


1 


Total, 


Morro, 


13 


1 




((From Rosario to 


Rio 


Cuarto 


the country 



Leagues. 

25 


Days 
1 


75 


3 


48 


2 



.... 280 12 

is mostly level, the 
camps good and abounding in pasture termed 'pasto fuerte.' Ret ween 
Saladillo and Rio Cuarto timber is very plentiful. Passing the last- 
named place the surface becomes broken and the views on all 
sides mountainous. In succession we skirt along the Sierras de 
Cordoba, Morro, and San Luis. Nothing can be more picturesque 
than the situation of Achiras, Morro, and SanXuis, but the constant fear of 
the Indians effectually prevents any improvement in these towns. The 
river separating the provinces of San Luis and Mendoza is called Desagua- 
dero, and there is a village of the same name. The road from San Luis 
thither is remarkable, traversing in its whole length large forests of 
algorroba, quebracho and other species o£ timber, all hard wood. It is 
as straight as an arrow for twenty leagues of its length, and is forty yards 
"Wide. It is without exception the finest road in the Republic, and if a 
little care were bestowed on it, would be at once a wonder and a model. 
From Desaguadero to Mendoza is fifty-five leagues. Here tlie aspect of 
the country is different from anything, yet seen, the land on all sides being 
cultivated. The road is lined on either side by poplars, far as the eye can 
reach, and the cultivation being by means of artificial water drains well 
distributed, the surrounding vegetation is quite astonishing, and only 
comparable to that of the islands of the Parana. The extent of land under 
agriculture in Mendoza is found to exceed 60,000 cuadras (200,000 acres) 
chiefly occupied by alfalfa, vines, and cereals. The principal industry 



ME>DOZA TO SA.>' JUA^. 103 

consists in fattening cattle for the Chilian markets : they enclose the 
animals in a field of alfalfa, which Avhen eaten down, they turn them into 
another. What appears almost incredible, though true, is that an alfalfa 
field once sown, requires no further labor thai irrigation, and will yield 
abundant crops of pasture for forty years or more. The amount cultivated 
in San Juan is 35,000 cuadras (120,000 acres) sown, as in Mendoza, for the 
most part with alfalfa, vines, and cereals, and here also the chief business 
is fattening cattle f^r Chile. The mountains on all sides abound in 
minerals : lead, silver, copper, and gold. There are also three coal mines 
in Huerta,Pie de Palo, and Jachal, which have not yet been worked, but are 
proved to contain rich and plentiful deposits : the abundance of timber 
has almost rendered the consumption of coal unnecessary. The city of 
San Juan is well built and presents a pleasing aspect. Many of its streets 
are w ell paved, and each house has its own supply of water by means of 
a canal communicating with the Rio San Juan. The outskirts are 
charming, the city being surrounded by small mountain chains descending 
from the great Andes. » 

From San Juan the traveller may make excursions to the silver mines 
of Marayes and Hilario ; or continue his course further north to Rioja 
and Catamarca. 

Rioja is about forty leagues from San Juan. The province has been made 
a howling wilderness by the incessant civil wars ; it contains much mineral 
wealth undeveloped. The town of Rioja is at the foot of the Andes. 

Catamarca is about forty leagues beyond Rioja : the province is rich in 
mineral and agricultural products. Messrs. Lafone and Carranza are the 
chief miners. There is a good business in fattening cattle for Chile. 
Tobacco, wine, and fruits are raised in great quantities. 

In 1864 the Congress authorized an emission of eight per cent Ronds'for 
the construction of roads and bridges through the Republic. The eminent 
firm of Docwra, Wells, and DaAvson, of London had made proposals, but 
subsequently declined to take the Ronds for security. Nevertheless some 
roads were commenced by Government, th^ local contractors taking the 
bonds at fifty percent., viz: — Concordia to Restauracion, San Luis to 
Cerrillos, San Luis to San Juan, San Juan to Rioja, San Juan to Tontal and 
Chile, Cordoba to Rioja, Cordoba to Famatina, Salta to Tucuman, Salta to 
Jujuy, Salta to the Rio Vermejo, Cordoba to Catamarca. 

Besides these there are thirty-one roads projected, as follows ; — 

Jujuy — A road to Bolivia, with two or three bridges over rapid rivers. 
Another to unite the chief town with some port on the Rio Vermejo. 



lOi ITINERARIES OF THE REPUBLIC. 

Salta — Continuation of the road to Palo Santo, and those of Jujuy 
and Tucuman. 

Tucumati — Continuation of the great Northern route to Santiago. A new 
road direct to Catamarca by the Cuesta Totaral. 

Catamarca — Branch to Santiago, and road to Copiapo, with houses of 
refuge, to ensure constant communication with Chile even in winter. The 
Totoral to be prolonged to Rioja, and a direct line drawn to Cordoba. 

Rioja — AVaggon-roads to Cordoba and San Juan ; aijother across the 
Llanos to San Javier in Cordoba, for junction with the grand western route. 
Post-houses and fresh water must be provided along these roads. 

San Juan — Roads to Rioja and Copiapo, with houses of refuge in the 
Cordillera. The Mendoza road to be deviated, and the Cordoba one 
improved. 

Mendoza — The Uspallata pass to Chile to be provided with the proper 
number of houses of refuge for transandine travellers. 

San Luis — ^Road to Rioja, forming junction with that of the Llanos. 

Cordoba — Deviation and improvement of the great North highway to 
Santiago. Carriage-way across the Sierra, to meet that of the Llanos 
to Rioja. 

Santiago — Improvement of Sunchales route, and the central road through 
the Gran Chaco coming out in front of Corrientes. 

Santa Fe — Junction with the Santiago road, and direct road to Cordoba, 
•with a bridge over the Carcaraila. 

Corrientes — Road from Restauracion to Misiones, and from the latter 
district to the city of Corrientes. 

Entre-Rios — Highway to Corrientes, passing through La Paz. 

Buenos Ayres — One or two bridges over the Arroyo Medio en route for 
the province of Santa Fe. A complete postal system on the West and 
South frontiers. ^ 



PROJECTS A>'D CONCESSION'S. ' 105 



CHAP. IX. 

ENTERPRISES, PROJECTS, AND CONCESSIONS. 

Consequent on the pacification of the Republic in 1861, a number of 
important enterprises sprung up, many of which were protected by 
Government guarantee and monopoly. Some have been already completed 
or are in train, others fell through, either owing to want of capital or to the 
renewal of hostilities in these countries in 1865. Others still remain as 
projects, waiting only a favorable occasion for realization. 

The Central Argenti.ne Railway, from Rosario to Cordoba, 247 miles, 
was first projected in 1853, under General Urquiza's administration. On 
the 5th September 1862, a concession was made by Congress in favor of 
Mr. Wheelwright, which, as subsequently amended, stood thus — 

1. The cost of the line not to exceed £6,400 per mile. 

2. The land necessary for the line to be given by Government; also, a 
grant of a league of land on each side along the line. 

3. Government guarantee of 7 per cent, interest for forty years on cost 
ef construction. 

.4. The line to be finished within six and a-half years. 

The works were inaugurated in April 1863, and although some delay was 
caused by the Paraguayan war the line is noAV running to Yilla Nueva, 170 
miles, and will be finished to Cordoba in 1869. There is a project to 
continue the railway to Tucuman and across the Andes, for which purpose 
Seuor Moneta, Government engineer, made surveys in June 1868. 



106 



PROJECTS AND CONCESSIONS. 



The Southern Railway, from Buenos Ayres to Chascomus, is 72^ miles 
long, the concession from the Buenos Ayres Legislature to Mr. Edward 
Lumb bearing date 1 1th June 1862. 

1 . The cost of the line was put down at £10,000 per mile. 

2. The Buenos Ayres Government guaranteed 7 per cent, for forty years 
on the cost. 

3. If the line be prolonged to Dolores (eighty miles further south) the 
same guarantee will be given. 

4. The railway to be exempt from all tax for forty years. 

The Legislature refused to admit the cost of construction at more than 
X700,000, whereupon the guarantee on the additional sum of £25,000 was 
collectively given by the following merchants : Messrs. Thomas Armstrong, 
John Fair, George Drabble, Edward Lurab, Henry Harratt, Henry A. Green, 
Gregorio Lezama, Ambrosio P. Lezica, and Federico Elortondo. The 
works were commenced by Messrs. Peto & Betts on 8th March 1804, and 
the line was completed before the close of 1865. Last year the net profits 
gave 5 per cent, on the capital; but, every year the traffic is improving, 
and the guarantee Avill soon be unnecessary. 

The Northern Railway, was begun in 1860, the concessionaire being 
Mr. Edward A. Hopkins, but the works were destroyed the following year 
by a high tide. The enterprise was continued in 1861 by Messrs. Croskey 
& Murray, who again inaugurated the works in February 1862. The 
c Oncession stipulated : — 

1 . The cost of the line £150,000, for sixteen miles. 

2. Government guaranteed interest seven per cent, for twenty years. 
The line was opened to San Fernando on 5th February, 1864. In 

October of the same year the Legislature of Buenos Ayres gave a concession 
for prolonging the line to Zarate, with a guarantee of seven per cent, for 
.twenty years, but limithig the cost to £7,100 per mile. This concession 
lapsed, as the prolongation works were to be commenced within twelve 
months and concluded in three years. The line was, however, prolonged 
two miles to the Tigre, which is used as a port for the steamboat traffic of 
the upper rivers. 

The Boca and Exsenada Railway, Avorks were begun by Mr. Wheel- 
wright on 23rd February, 1863, and the concession granted in the 
following July, viz. : — 

1. The Government concedes permission to William Wheelwright to 
construct and run for ever a railway, which shall start from the Paseo 
Julio, where the Northern Railway terminates, to the Boca del Riachuelo, 
Barracas, and Ensenada. 



E?»SE>ADA RAILWAY. 107 

2. The road to Ensenada must be concluded before the 1st March, 1867, 
unless in view of the great importance of making a previous survey of the 
capabilities of that port to adapt it to the necessities of Buenos Ayrean 
commerce, it should be agreed on between the Government and the 
concessionaire, to make of this a practical experiment. 

3. In case that Ensenada v/ill admit of being made to meet the 
necessities of the commerce of Buenos Ayres, such as a port of loading 
and discharging vessels, and that the Government approves of the plans, it 
is agreed that the concessionaire of the railway shall take charge of the 
w ork, having first arranged with the Government. 

4. The Government guarantees to the concessionaire that for the 
term of twenty years no other railway from the Custom-house to the 
Boca, Barracas, and Ensenada, whether propelled by steam or otherwise, 
shall be permitted. 

On 8th September, 1865, the liue was opened as fer as Barracas, three 
mdes ; and in November of same year a surveying expedition proceeded to 
Ensenada to examine its condition as a port, and the difficulty offered by 
the bar : the report was favorable, but no further steps were taken in the 
matter. The line now runs to Barracas, and the bridge over the Riachuelo 
is being constructed, to push on the works to Ensenada. 

The Bio Salado navigation concession was given to Don Esteban Rams 
in 1863 : the history of the enterprise has been fully explained in the 
chapter on the Rio de la Plata and its tributaries. 

The Artesiaij Well of Barracas was begun by Messrs. Bordeaux & Co., 
on 1st June, 1859, with the object of carrying away the offal of the 
saladeros, the saladeristas and Government defraying the expense. After 
two months' labor the bore reached a depth of 96 feet, viz. : sand, 40ft. ; 
slime and dark-blue ochre, 1 3ft. ; tosca, 7ft. ; lluid yellow and grey sand, 
36ft. In December, 1861, the works were renewed, and by February, 
1862, the bore reached 234 feet, having traversed a bed of marine shells. 
On 14th March, 1862, the water rose through the tubes and poured out in 
a • jet d'eau ' : on July 6th the Artesian Well was inaugurated by President 
Mitre, and since then it has been much in use as a bath. The water is unfit 
to drink, but possesses saline medicinal qualities. 

The Electric Telegraph (Buenos Ayres to 3Iontevideo} concession was 
granted on 9th June, 1864, viz. : — 

1. Exclusive privilege conceded to Messrs. Proudfoot & Grey for fifteen 
years, from conclusion of works. 

2. Permission to erect posts on highroads or elsewhere. 



108 PROJECTS AND COIVCESSIOIVS. 

3. Government to protect the wires by all possible means. 

4. Government messages half price. 

5. In case of misunderstanding between the Republics, the Argentine 
Government not to stop the wires, nor to have right to inspect messages 
unless private correspondence be prohibited. 

The cable was laid from Punta Lara to Colonia, twenty-six miles, in 
October 1866, and the wires opened for traffic a few weeks later. 

Telegraph Wires to Chile.— In December 1866, Messrs. Hopkins & 
Gary obtained a concession to lay down wires from Buenos Ayres to Chile, 
as follows : — 

1. The line shall be completed within two years from the date of 
concession. 

2. The Government, on conclusion of the line, shall pay the contractor a 
subvention of 8 per cent, per annum for twelve years, on a cost of ^200 s. 
per mile. 

3. The Government shall cede to the company fifty squares of public 
lands for every fifteen miles of telegraph. 

4. If the whole of the line be not completed within the term specified in 
clause 2, the Government shall reduce 1 per cent, on the subvention for 
every four months so delayed in finishing the line. 

This project lapsed, owing to the death of Mr. Street, the eminent 
contractor of San Francisco. 

Traction Engines. — In August 1863, Messrs. Rossignol, Beare, & 
Puyrredon obtained a concession for traction engines throughout the 
Bepublic ; the first line to be established in eighteen months, and others to 
Eosario, Cordoba, Tacuman, and 3Iendoza in three years. The construction 
of roads and bridges was to be at the cost of the company, whose capital was 
fixed at £200,000, the Government guaranteeing 7 per cent, on actual 
outlay. In 186i Mr. Beare brought from England an engine called El 
Buey, Avhich made an unsuccessful experiment from Barracas to town, and 
the project was abandoned. The soil seems too soft and light for such 
locomotives. 

Roads and Bridges. — In September 1863, Congress passed the follow- 
ing law : — , 

1 . The President is authorised to emit §1 ,000,000 in shares, which shall 
be denominated Roads and Bridges Stock. 

2. These sliares shall be of $20, g50, $500, and g 1,000s., with an 
interest of 8 per cent., payable half yearly, and with 3 per cent, 
amortization. 



SA]X JUAN MINES. •lOQ 

3. These shall be only issued at par, and shall be paid out only T\hen 
new enterprises shall require it. 

For a list of the roads made and projected the reader is referred to 
Chap. vii. 

, San Juan 31ining Company. — In >'ovember 1862, Governor Sarniiento of 
San Juan, and President Mitre, aided Major Rickard in getting up a joint- 
stock company, capital £22,000, for the working of silver ores at Hilario. 
Mr. Rickard went to England for machinery and miners, retui'niug in 1863, 
and proceeding at once to build an extensive factory at Hilario. Troubles 
began with the shareholders in August 1864, and the works were paralysed. 
A new company was, however, formed in London in November 1867, and 
it is hoped the works will shortly be resumed. 

Klappenbach's Mining AVorks, situate at La Huerta, thirty-five leagues 
from San Juan, were begun in September 1864, and are now completed: 
they can smelt 100 tons of ore daily. The result of the smelting in 1865 
was — 1,446 marks of pure silver; in the first eight months of 1868 it Avas 
6,589 marks. In September 1868, Messrs. Klappenbach formed a joint- 
stock company of ii46,000 capital, in £200 shares : some shares not 
subscribed for were taken up by the Argentine Government. 

Carriage Road over the Andes. — In February 1865, a project was 
set on foot by M. Carpentier, a French resident in Chile, to make a highway 
from Rio Teno in Chile to Valle Hermoso in the Argentine Republic ; the 
road to be sixteen feet wide and practicable for carriages. M. Carpentier 
obtained a concession from the Chilian Government of a right of toll for 
twenty years. He estimated the cost at £50,000, and engaged to finish it 
in three years. If the project be ever carried out it will be a great gain for 
travellers crossing the Cordillera. 

Eastern Argentine Railway. — In February 1863, Minister Rawson 
instructed Smith, Knight, & Co., London, to prepare surveys for a line from 
Concordia in Entre Rios to Mercedes in Corrientes. The following con- 
cession was granted in August 1864 : — 

1 . The cost shall not exceed £13,353. 

2. The National Government guarantees 7 per cent, interest on the 
capital invested. 

3. The line to have three sections : 1st. From Concordia to Federacion ; 
2nd. From Federacion to 31onte-Caseros ; and, 3rd. From Monte-Caseros 
to Mercedes. 

4. The first section may be commenced at once ; but the second not until 



fio 



PROJECTS AISD COINCESSIOIVS. 



the first yields 3| per cent, net on the capital ; and the third Avhen both 
first and second give the same (3^ per cent.) net returns. 

5. All lands necessary for the line, stations, &c., shall be ceded gratis to 
the company. 

6. At least eighteen miles shall be open to traffic ^vithin two years,»and 
the rest of the first section in twelve months later. 

7. Government may interfere in the traffic when the dividends exceed 
15 per cent. 

There is every likelihood of this enterprise being revived, and the 
Governments of Entre JRios and Corrientes will perhaps give a land-grant 
along the line, similar to that of the Central Argentine. 

LuxAN AND Salto TIailway. — This was a project by M. Lacroze, to run 
a branch from the Western Railway northwards, the Government of Buenos 
Ayres finding the funds, to be reimbursed in part by municipal taxation in 
the (cpartidos)) benefited by the line. It was judged impracticable. 

Parana and Nogoya Railway. — The surveys for this line were made in 
October 1865 by Neville Mortimer, C. E., who estimated the cost at 
X32I.536 sterling; or £5,024 per mile, the length being 64 miles. 
Nothing has since been done in the matter. 

LoBOS Railway. — In June 1867 several land-holders of Lobos and 
neighbouring partidos prevailed on Governor Alsina to order the surveys 
of a branch-line from the Western to Lobos. The idea of Government 
consisted in proposing to the Legislature of Buenos Ayroe the emission 
of twenty millions currency (£160,000 sterling) in 6 per cent, funds, 
saleable at 85, with an annual sinking-fund of 1 per cent. Vice-President 
Paz and Dr. Acosta assured Governor Alsina that most of the said funds 
would be taken up in Lobos, Navarro, Saladillo &c. : they even promised 
to get all the land gratis, along the route. The branch-line would start 
from Moreno or Rodriguez station ; the cost would be about £5,000 per 
mile, but it is difficult to suppose the funds could be provided by 
subscription among the estancieros. 

Rio LuxAN Port and Railway. — In October 1867, a project was started, 
to run a branch railway from Floresta, on the Western line, to the River 
Lujan. The cost was estimated at £100,000, and the projectors sought no 
guarantee but a monopoly for twenty years, the great object being to make a 
port on the Rio Lujan, for the city of Buenos Ayres, at a place where the 
water is said to have a depth of twelve feet. 

Sain Fernando Canalization. — The concession, bearing date 20th July, 
1863, is as follows : — 



HARBOR ACCOMMODATIOrf. Ill 

1. Mr. Edward. A. Hopkins is hereby authorized to form a joint-stock 
company for the canalization of the Arroyo Capitan, between the Parana 
de las Palmas and Lujan river, opposite the town of San Fernando, with a 
mole, warehouses, and deposit stores, suitable to the requirements of the 
coasting craft of the upper rivers. 

2. The capital of the company shall not exceed one million five hmidred 
thousand silver dollars. 

3. The company may charge the tolls, mole, and deposit dues which it 
shall judge fit, for the term of twenty years, provided that the receipts do 
not exceed the sum of eighteen per cent nett profit on the capital. 

4. The Arroyo del Capitan shall be canalized and improved : and shall 
have at least eighteen metres in breadth throughout the whole length at 
surface, and three metres in depth at mean tide. 

5. The dues payable for the use of the canal shall only be recoverable 
in proportion to its cost, w hich must not exceed the sum of three hundred 
and seventy-eight thousand four hundred and twelve silver dollars, 
according to the estimates of the concessionaire. 

6. At the expiration of the twenty years mentioned in article 3, the 
canal shall be free from all the company's dues. 

7 . At any time during the period of this concession the Government 
shall have the right of expropriating the canal works for the benefit of the 
public, at the value of their cost, and 23 per cent extra as indemnification. 

8. The company shall have the requisite number of tug-boats for the 
service of the moles and canal. 

9. The works shall commence within the period of eighteen months. 

In 18G5 Congress gave a prolongation of the concession, and Mr. 
Hopkins began the w orks in the following year. A company was formed in 
Buenos Ayres in 1867, since when the works go on favorably. The iron- 
work is ordered from England, the machinery from the United States ; 
among the latter is a dredge capable of throwing 100 tons an hour. 

Port for Bue^vos Ayres. — In 1859, 3Ir. Coglilan, C.E., prepared a 
complete survey, with plans, for the construction of a harbor, the estimated 
cost being £800,000 : the plans still decorate the ante-chamber of the 
Provincial Legislature. In 1864 the project was taken up under another 
form by Seiior Garay. There is now some talk of Congress devoting the 
extra duties hitherto used for war purposes in this more useful manner. In 
1866 Mr. Petty, the pilot, submitted a project to clear the roadstead of the 
many wrecks and lost anchors lying about ; he asked no other remuneration 
. than the anchors, &c., to be recovered, whereupon the authorities called 



112 PROJECTS AND COIVCESSIONS. 

for tenders to clean the port, and nothing has since been done in the 
matter. 

• 

Harbor at the Boca.— In July 1863, Don Manuel Lynch submitted to 
Congress the subjoined project, -which died, like so many others, in 
embryo — 

1 . The company shall construct, at their own risk and expense, a harbor 
for this city. 

2. The entrance to such harbor Avill be near Quilmes, with a depth of 
water fourteen feet at low tide, with a proper sluice-gate. 

3. This entrance will be prolonged as far as the Riachuelo de la Boca, 
by means of a canal. 

4. The company shall erect, at their own cost, warehouses and depots. 

5. When the section shall be finished to the Biachuelo, all vessels shall 
be obliged to enter the canal and Biachuelo for unloading or loading. 

• 6. The company shall recover, in such cases, on unloading, 12 reals s. 
per ton register, and the same for loading. 

7 . The company shall have one or more tug-boats to take vessels ^n or 
out of the port, the fee for which shall not exceed 4 reals s, per ton 
register. 

8. This concession shall be for a term of thirty years, after which the 
Government shall enter into full possession of the canals and lighthouse. 

Gunpowder Manufactory.— In September 1865, this company was 
formed, with a capital of £10,000, in shares of £50 each, under the 
direction of Mr. Liesenberg, who had had ten years' experience in Europe. 
An unlucky explosion occurred in July 1867, the day before the proposed 
inauguration: Mr. Liesenberg was seriously injured; but the enterprise 
was not abandoned. The works are situate at Palermo. 

Steam Communication with United States. — In August 1865, Congress 
voted £4,000 per annum as a subsidy for a branch line of the United States 
and Brazilian mail service : up to the present no branch lias been 
established. 

Buenos Ayres Water-works. — In August 1863 a proposal was sent in 
by Messrs. Easton, AmOs, & Co., London, to provide water-works for the 
city. The supply was to be 30,000 pipes daily, the water being taken from 
above the Gas-house. The cost was estimated at £102,000, for which the 
Municipality would give 7 per cent, bonds. Several other projects were 
initiated from time to time, but the Municipality paid no attention to the 
wants of the city, till, in January 1868, the cholera caused such ravages 
Governor Alsina and the Legislature took the matter in hand. 



SEWAGE A>-D WATER-WORKS. 113 

» 

Mr. Coghlan was authorised to construct water-works near fbe Recoleta, 
:at jam estimated cost of £48,000, and an engineer was despatched to 
England for machinery. 

Mr. Coghlan states,, in a report to Don Emilio Castro, dated May 15, that 
the original design has been considerably extended, being now calculated 
for the distribution of 1,300,000 gallons daily. All the machinery being 
provided in duplicate the quantity may be at any time extended by addi- 
tional reservoirs and filters. The addition of a third engine similar to the 
two already contracted for, would be sufficient for increasing the supply to 
2,500,000 gallons daily. 

The works were inaugurated with great pomp on the 1 5th September, 
the machinery is already shipped from England, and it is expected the 
whole project will be carried out early in 1869. The pipes will suffice for 
twelve miles of ground. 

Drafnage, Water Supply, and Pavlng. — There are several projects 
under consideration, some one of which will probably be carried out before 
long. The works undertaken by Mr. Coghlan are in a manner temporary, 
as they do not include drainage and paving, and the new proposals include 
the purchase of said works. The proposals of Robinson & Co., and Gotto 
& Neate, are the most important. 

Thomas Robinson and Co.^s Praposah. 

Draina(je. — Will construct all *necessary sewers, two disiufectiug 
stations, gullies for street water, junction pipes to facilitate house 
drainage. 

• Water-works. — Will supply 2,000,000 gallons filtered water daily, con- 
stant pressure, fire-plugs at every cross street, hydi*ants, air valves, water 
tower, and cistern. 

Will execute at least twelve squares (1 ,700 yards) of both works every 
two months, and complete all in four vears. Will commence works 
immediately on signing contract. -^ 

Terms. — To be paid for 400 manzanas (blocks 425 feet square) £820,000 
in Provincial Bonds bearing 7 pec cent, interest, and 3 per cent, sinking 
fund, payable in London or Buenos Ayres at choice of contractor. For 
every additional manzana £ 1 ,350. 

Gotto and Neate' s Proposal: Capital, £1,200,000. 

Sewerage. — Pipes to carry off sewage and rain water. Junctions to 
houses. 

Water-works. — Supply of 6,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours, constant 
pressure. 



114 PROJECTS AlVD COJS'CESSIONS. 

Paving. — Of 136 squares (58,000 lineal feet) with granite blocks, in- 
concrete. 

Will maintain and work water supply and drainage for term of conces- 
sion, and keep paving in repair for one year. 

Terms. — Monopoly for ninety-nine years. Exemption from duties, 
import and export. Payment by Provincial Government of §48 s. (£9 1 5s.) 
per annum for each house within the city. The Municipality to pay 
^25,000 s. (£5,100) per annum for water for fountains, fires, and watering 
the streets. 

Export of Cattle. — In August 1868, Messrs. Alexander F. Baillie and 
P. Barry, on the part of a London company, petitioned the Argentine 
Government for a concession to export live stock to Europe. The capital 
of the company was stated at £500,000, and a fleet of seven first-class 
steamers w^ould be constructed, with the double purpose of bringing out 
emigrants, and taking home cattle in the return voyage : the annual export 
of stock to be at least 5,000 head of horned cattle and 3,000 sheep. They 
solicited a monopoly for seven years, and a total exemption from Customs'- 
duties. Mr. Baillie returned to England in October, and states that he has 
obtained the concession prayed for, as far as regards all exportation of live 
stock to England and France. 

New Gas Compat^y. — In the beginning of 1867, Mr. James Bell of 
Montevideo, associated with some men of influence and capital in Buenos 
Ayres, projected a new gas companyfn Buenos Ayres, in opposition to the 
original company established in 1856. The capital of the old company is^ 
$18,000,000, or £144,000 sterling, and the dividends in recent years have 
varied from 20 to 30 per cent, per annum : the shares are still over 50 per 
cent, premium. The present price of gas is about £ I 3s. per 1,000 cubic 
feet, and the proposed new company promises to make a great reduction ; 
as yet, however, it remains merely a project, the only step taken being the 
submission of tlie statutes to the Argentine Government, which has 
approved of same. The term o^monopoly granted to the old company has. 
long since expired. It is intended to erect the works of the new company 
at the south end, in Barracas. , 



TREATIES OF COMMERCE. H^' 



CHAP. X. 

TREATIES OF COMMERCE A>'D NAVIGATION. 

The treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation between the Argentine 
Republic and Great Britain bears date 2nd February 1825, and is as 
follo^>s : — 

TREVTY WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 

Extensive commercial intercourse having been established for a series of 
years between the dominions of His Britannic Majesty, and the territories 
of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, it seems good for the security, 
as well as encouragement of such commercial intercourse, and for the 
maintenance of good understanding between His said Britannic Majesty 
and the said United Provinces, that the relations now subsisting between 
them should be regularly acknowledged and confirmed by the signature of 
a Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation. 

For this purpose they have named their respective Plenipotentiaries, 
that is to say :— 

His Majesty, the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Woodbine Parish, His said Majesty's Consul-Generalj in the 
Province of Buenos Ay res and its dependencies ; and the United Provinces 
of Rio de la Plata, Sr. D. Manuel Jose Garcia, Minister Secretary for the 
Department of Government, Finance, and Foreign Affairs, of the National 
Executive Power of the said Provmces. 

i2 



fl6 TREATIES OF COMMERCE 

AVlio, after having commimicated to each other their respective Full 
Powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon and 
concluded the following articles : — 

Art. 1. There shall be perpetual amity between the dominions and 
subjects of His 3Iajesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata and their 
inhabitants. 

Art. 2. There shall be, between all the territories of His Britannic 
Majesty in Europe, and the territories of the United Provinces of Bio de 
la Plata, a reciprocal freedom of commerce. The inhabitants of the two 
countries respectively, shall have liberty freely and securely to come with 
their ships and cargoes to all such places, ports, and rivers in the territories 
aforesaid, to which other foreigners are or may be permitted to come, to 
enter into the same and remain and reside in any part of the said territories 
respectively ; also to hire and occupy houses and warehouses for the 
purposes of their commerce ; and generally the merchants and traders of 
each nation, respectively, shall enjoy the most complete protection and 
security for their commerce ; subject always to the laws and statutes of 
the two countries respectively. 

Art. 3. His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, engages further, that in all His Dominions situated out of 
Europe, the inhabitants of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata shall 
have the like liberty of commerce and navigation stipulated for in the 
preceding article, to the full extent in which the same is permitted at 
present, or shall be permitted hereafter to any other nation. 

Art. 4; iNo higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation 
into the territories of His Britannic Majesty, of any articles of the growth, 
produce or manufacture of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, 
and no higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the 
said United Provinces, of any articles of tlie growth, produce, or 
manufacture of His Britannic Majesty's dominions, than are, or shall be 
payable on the like articles, being the growth, produce, or manufacture, 
of any other foreign country ; nor shall any other, or higlier duties or 
ehargcs be imposed in the territories or dominions of either of the 
contracting parties, on the exportation of any articles to the territories 
or dominions of the other, than such as are or may be payable on the 
exportation of the like articles to any other foreign country : nor 
shall any prohibition be imposed upon the exportation of any article, the 
growth, produce or manufacture of His Britannic Majesty's dominions or of 
the said United'Proviaces, which shall not equally extend to all other nations. 



TREATY WITH ENGLAND. 



117 



Art. 5. No higher, or other duties or charges on account of 
tonnage, "light, or harboiu- dues, pilotage, salvage in case of damage or 
shipwreck, or any other local charges, shall be imposed, in any of the 
ports of the said United Provinces, on British vessels of the burthen of 
above one hundred and twenty tons, than those payable in the same ports, 
by vessels of the said United Provinces of the same burthen ; nor 
in the ports of any of His Britannic Majesty's territories on the 
vessels of the said United Provinces of above one hundred and twenty 
tons, than shall be payable in the same ports, on British vessels of the 
same burthen. 

Art. 6. The same duties shall be paid on the importation into the said 
United Provinces of any article the growth, produce, or manufacture of 
His Britannic Majesty's dominions, whether such importation shall be in 
vessels of the said United Provinces or in British vessels ; and the same 
duties shall be paid on the importation into the dominions of His Britannic 
Majesty of any article the growth, produce or manufacture of the said 
United Provinces, whether such importation shall be in British vessels, or 
in vessels of the said United Provinces. The .same duties shall be paid, 
and the same drawbacks and bounties allowed, on the exportation of any 
article of the growth, produce, or manufacture of His Britannic Majesty's 
dominions to the said United Provinces, whether such exportation shall be 
in vessels of the said United Provinces, or in British vessels, and the same 
duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed on the 
exportation of any articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of the 
said United Provinces to His Britannic Majesty's dominions, whether such 
exportation shall be in British vessels, or in vessels of the said United 
Provinces. 

Art. 7. In order to avoid* any misunderstanding with respect to the 
regulations which may respectively constitute a British vessel, or a vessel 
of the said United Provinces, it is hereby agreed, tliat all vessels built in 
the domimons of His Britannic Majesty and owned, navigated, and 
registered according to the laws of Great Britain, shall be considered as 
British vessels ; and that all vessels built in the territories of the said 
United Provinces, properly registered and owned by the citizens thereof, 
or any of them, and whereof the master and three fourths of the mariners, 
at least, are citizens of the said United Provinces, shall be considered as 
vessels of the said United Provinces. 

Art. 8. All merchants, commanders of ships, and others, the subjects of 
His Britannic Majesty, shall have the same liberty in all the territories of 



il8 TREATIES OF COMMERCE. 

the said United Provinces, as the natives thereof, to manage their own 
affairs tliemselves, or to commit them to the management of 
whomsoever they please, as broker, factor, agent, or interpreter ; nor 
shall they be obliged to employ any other persons for those purposes, nor 
to pay them any salary or remuneration, unless they shall choose to employ 
them ; and absolute freedom shall be allovi^ed, in all cases, to the buyer 
and seller to bargain and fix the price of any goods, wares, or merchandize 
imported into, or exported from, the said United Provinces, as they 
shall see good. 

Art. 9. In what relates to the loading or unloading of ships, the safety 
of merchandise, goods, and effects, the disposal of property of every sort 
and denomination, by sale, donation, or exchange, or in any other manner 
>vhatsoever, as also the administration of justice, the subjects and citizens 
of the two contracting parties shall enjoy, in their respective dominions, 
the same privileges, liberty, and rights, as the most favoured nation, and 
shall not be charged,' in any of these respects with any higher duties or 
imposts than those which are paid, or may be paid, by the native subjects 
or citizens of the Power in whose dominions they may be resident. They 
shall be exempted from all compulsory military service whatsoever, 
whether by sea or land, and from all forced loans, or military exactions or 
requisitions ; neither shall they be compelled to pay any ordinary taxes, 
under any pretext whatsoever, greater than those that are paid by native 
subjects or citizens. 

Art. 10. It shall be free for each of the two contracting parties to appoint 
Consuls for the protection of trade, to reside in the dominions and 
territories of the other party ; but before any Consul shall act as such, he 
shall, in the usual form, be approved and admitted by the government to 
which he is sent ; and either of the contractiag parties may except from 
the residence of Consuls, such particular place as either of them may 
judge fit to be so excepted. 

Art. 1 1 . For the better security of commerce between the subjects of 
His Britannic Majesty, and the inhabitants of the United Provinces of Rio 
de la Plata, it is agreed that if at any time any interruption of friendly 
coiumercial intercourse, or any rupture should unfortunately take place 
between the two contracting parties, the subjects or citizens" of either of 
the two contracting parties residing in the dominions of the other, shall 
have the privilege of remaining and continuing their trade therein, 
without any manner of interruption, so long as they behave peaceably, 
and commit no offence against the laws ; and their effects and property, 



TREATY WITH ENGLA:<D. 119 

T^hether entrusted to individuals or to the state, shall not be liable to 
seizure or sequestration, or to any other demands than those which may 
be made upon the like effects or property, belonging to the native 
inhabitants of the state in which such subjects or citizens may reside. 

Art. 12. The subjects of His Britannic Majesty residing in the United 
Provinces of Rio de la Plata, shall not be disturbed, persecuted, or 
annoyed on account of their religion, but they shall have perfect liberty 
of conscience therein, and to celebrate Divine service either within their 
own private houses, or in their own particular churches or chapels, which 
they shall be at liberty to build and maintain in convenient places, approved 
of by the Government of the said United Provinces. Liberty shall also 
be granted to bury the subjects of His Britannic Majesty who may die in the 
territories of the said United Provinces, in their own burial places, which 
in the same manner they may establish and maintain. In the like manner, 
the citizens of tlie said United Provinces shall enjoy, within all the 
dominions of His Britannic Majesty a perfect and unrestrained liberty of 
conscience, and of exercising their religion publicly or privately, within 
their own dwelling houses, or in the chapels and places of worship 
appointed for that purpose, agreeable to the system of toleration 
established in the dominions of His Majesty. 

Art. 13. It shall be free for the subjects of His Britannic Majesty, residing 
in the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, to dispose of their property, of 
every description, by will or testament, as they may judge fit; and in the 
event of any British subjects dying without such will or testament in the 
territories of the said United Provinces, the British Consul-General, or, 
in his absence, his representative, shall have the right to nominate curators 
to take charge of the property of the deceased, for the benefit of his 
lawful heirs and creditors, without interference, giving convenient notice 
thereof to the authorities of the country ; and reciprocally. 

Art. 14. His Britannic Majesty being extremely desirous of totally 
abolishing the slave trade, the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata 
engage to co-operate with his Britannic Majesty for the completion of so 
beneficent a work, and to prohibit all persons inhabiting within the said 
United Provinces, or subject to their jurisdiction, in the most effectual 
manner, and by the most solemn laws, from taking any share in such trade. 

Art. 15. The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall 
be exchanged in London within four months, or sooner if possible. 

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the 
/Same, and have affixed their seals thereunto. 



120 TREATIES OF COMMERCE. 

Done at Buenos Ayres, the second day of February, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five, 

WooDHiNE Parish (L. S.) (H. M. Consul-General). 
Matnuel Jose Garcia (L. S.) 

In 1839 a treaty was concluded between England and Buenos Ayres for 
the suppression of the slave trade, slavery having been already abolished 
in the River Plate. 

In 1842 the United States solemnly recognised the emancipation of La 
Plata from Spain. 

In 1849 Great Britain raised the blockade, restored Martin Garcia, and 
made peace with the tyrant Rosas, the latter consenting to withdraw his 
forces from the Banda Oriental. By this treaty the navigation of the rivers 
Parana and Uruguay was recognised as inland navigation, solely pertaining 
to tlie Argentine Republic and Banda Oriental. 

In 1.853, after the fall of Rosas, General Urquiza hastened to throw open 
the navigation of the rivers to the flags of all nations. On the 10th July of 
said year the Ministers of the United States, Great Britain, and France, 
proceeded to San Jose de Flores, and there concluded identical treaties on 
this subject. 

TREATY WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

The President of the United States and His Excellency the Provisional 
Director of the Argentine Confederation, being desirous of strengthening 
the bonds of friendship w hich so happily subsist between their respective 
States and Countries, and convinced that the surest means of arriving at 
this result is to take in concert all the measures requisite for facilitating 
and developing commercial relations, have resolved to determine by treaty 
the conditions of the free navigation of the rivers Parana and Uruguay, 
and thus to remove the obstacles which have hitherto impeded this 
navigation. 

With this object they have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that 
is to say : — 

The President of the United States, Robert C. Shenck, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Brazil, and 
Johns. Pendleton, Charge d'Affairesof the United States to the Argentine 
Confederation. 

And His Excellency the Provisional Director of the Argentine Confe- 
deration, Doctor Don Salvador Maria del Carril, and Doctor Don Jose 
Benjamin Gorostiaga. 



FREE >'AVIGATION OF TllVERS. 121 

Who, after having comraunicated to each other their full powers, found 
in good and due form, have agreed upon the folloAviug articles : — 

Art. 1 . The Argentine Confederation, in the exercise of her sovereign 
rights, concedes the free navigation of the rivers Parana and Uruguay* 
wherever they may belong to her, to the merchant vessels of all Nations, 
subject only to the conditions which this treaty establishes, and to the 
regulations sanctioned or which may hereafter be sanctioned by the 
National authority of the Confederation. 

Art. 2. Consequently, the said vessels shall be admitted to remain, load 
and unload in the places and ports of the Argentine Confederation which 
are open for that purpose. 

Art. 3. The Government of the Argentine Confederation, desirous to 
provide every facility for interior navigation, agrees to maintain beacons 
and marks for setting out the channels. 

Art. 4. A uniform system shall be established by the competent 
authorities of the Confederation for the collection of the Custom-house 
duties, harbour lights, police and pilotage dues along the whole course of 
the waters which belong to the Confederation. 

Art. 5. The high contracting parties, considering that the island of 
Martin Garcia may, from its position, embarrass and impede the free 
navigation of the continents of the River Plate, agree to use their 
influence to prevent the possession, of the said island from being retained 
or held by any State of the River Plate or its confluents which shall not 
have given its adhesion to the principle of their free navigation. 

Art. 6. If it should happen (which God forbid) that war should break 
out between any of the States, Republics, or Provinces, the rivers Parana 
and Uruguay shall remain free to the merchant flags of all nations, 
excepting in what may relate to munitions of war, such as arms of all 
kinds, gunpowder, lead, and cannon balls. 

Art. 7. Power is expressly reserved to His Majesty the Emperor of 
Brazil, and the Governments of Rolivia, Paraguay, and the Oriental State 
of Uruguay, to become parties to the present treaty in case they should be 
disposed to apply its principles to the parts of the rivers Parand, 
Paraguay, and Uruguay, over which they may respectively possess 
fluvial rights. 

Art. 8. The principal objects for which the rivers Parana and Uruguay 
are declared free to the commerce, of the world, being to extend the 
mercantile relations of the countries which border them, and to promote 
immigration, it is hereby agreed that no favour or immunity sliall be 



122 TREATIES OF COMMERCE. 

granted to the flag or trade of any other nation which shall not equally 
extend to those of the United States. 

Art. 9. The present treaty shall be ratified on the part of the Govern- 
ment of the United States within fifteen months from its date, and within 
two days by His Excellency the Provisional Director of the Argentine 
Confederation, who shall present it to the first Legislative Congress of the 
Confederation for their approbation. 

The ratifications shall be exchanged at the seat of Government of the 
Argentine Confederation within the term of eighteen months. 

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this 
treaty, and affixed thereto their seals. 

Done at San Jose de Flores on the tenth day of July in the year of our 
Lord one tliousaud eight hundred and fifty-three. — Robert Sche^nk — John 
S. Pendleto];^ — Salvador Maria del Carril — Jose B. Gorostiaga. 

In 1858, General Urquiza's Government concluded a convention Avith 
H.B.M.'s Minister, Mr. Christie, at Parand, for payment of damages caused 
to British subjects during the civil wars, the claimants receiving 6 per 
cent, bonds. 



( 



PUBLIC MEN. 123 



CHAP. XI. 
BIOGRAPHIES OF PUBLIC 3IEN. 

PRESIDENT SARMIE^•TO, 

DoMisGo Faustiko Sarmiento was born in the town of San Juan at the 
end of February 1811, nine months after the glorious 25th of 3Iay that 
marks the birthday of the Argentine nation. His father, though 
uneducated, w as an enthusiastic patriot, and took an active part in the 
revolution which emancipated his native country from the Colonial regime. 
Finding, at every step, the disadvantages of his ignorance, he determined 
that his son should not share them, and, fi'om the early age of five years, 
sent him to school. There young Sarmiento, by his application and talent, 
gave already signs of his future greatness. Being originally destined for 
the Church, he was sent, in 1824, to the Loreto Seminary at Cordova ; but 
the revolution of Carita, having deprived him of his Latin master, he 
began in 1825 to study mathematics and land surveviug under Mr. Barreau^ 
the engineer of the province. In the same year he went to San Luis with 
his relation, the Clerigo Oro, to continue the studies which the revolution 
of the previous year had interrupted. In 1826, returning to his native 
town, he hired as clerk in a store, but his nights were devoted either to 
reading or to discussions with his uncle. Father Albarracin, on the Bible. 
He took an active part in the campaign that followed against Facundo 
Quiroga in San Juan, and that against Fraile Aldao in Mendoza, which 
ended in the catastrophe of Pilar, where he rose to the rank of Captain, 
and where his courage and presence of mind saved him from many 



124 PUBLIC MEN. 

dangerous chauces. The victory of Facuiido Qiiiroga, in Chacon, in 1831, 
obliged him and most of his companions to emigrate to Chile, where he 
was successively schoolmaster in the Andes, bar-keeper in Pocuro, clerk 
in a commercial house in Valparaiso, and major-domo of mines in Copiapo. 
In 1836 he returned to San Juan, poorer than he had left, and suffering 
from severe illness. He then, in society with Drs. Rosas, Cortiuez, and 
Aberastain, devoted his energies to promote several institutions of great 
utility for the province cf San Juan, such as a college for girls, another 
for boys, a dramatic society, and last, though not least, the Zonda^^ weekly 
publication, that tended to improve and instruct the masses. General 
Benavides, who was then the absolute ruler of San Juan, took umbrage at 
the influence and position young Sarmiento was acquiring, and, not only 
suppressed the Zonda^ but left no stone unturned, by vexatious persecution, 
to oblige him once more to emigrate. In this he at last succeeded ; and in 
IXovember 1840, Sarmiento again crossed the Cordillera, doomed to eat for 
a long time the hard-earned bread of exile. On his second visit to Cliile he 
began to take an active part in the politics of his adopted country, and, 
both as editor of several papers, and as a writer of literary works, more 
especially of education, he acquired for himself a fame which found echo 
even in the Old World. In 1846 and 1847 he was sent to Europe on a 
commission by the Chilian Government, to inspect and report upon schools 
and educational institutions ; and on his return Avrote an account of his 
travels, which he published. By his powerful writings in the periodical 
press, and in his other works, he contributed to the overthiow of the tyrant 
Rosas, and also took an active part in the final scene that was enacted on 
the plains of Caseros, where he held the rank of Chief of the Staff of the 
Grande Ejercito Libertador, and as such compiled the famous bulletin 
giving the official account of that celebrated action. Having, however, 
fallen out with Urquiza, he took up his residence in Buenos Ayres, and 
continued taking an active part in the troubled politics of those days, 
principally as editor of the Nacional. He was then appointed Inspector- 
General of Schools, and was able by his great experience and profound 
knowledge to effect vast improvements in the educational system of the 
country. After the battle of Cepeda he took office with Governor Mitre as 
Ministro de Gobierno, until the sad news arrived of the tragical death of his 
school-fellow and friend, Aberastain, and of the invasion of Juan Saa in tlic 
province of San Juan. He disagreed with his colleagues as to the action 
that the Government of Buenos Ayres was called to assume, and resigned. 
He subsequently took part in the campaign that was decided on the banks 
of the Pavon, and at tlie end of December re-entered San Juan, after* 



PRESIDENT SARMIE>'TO. 125 

twenty-two years exile, at the head of a victorious army. Having been 
unanimously elected Governor of the province, he devoted for two years 
and a-balf all his energy and ability to the moral and material pjj-ogress of 
his native province, and had the glory of bringing to a successful issue the 
ditlicult campaign against the great «caudillo)> of the west, General Pefialoza, 
commonly called the Chacho. In April 1864, at the entreaty of President 
Mitre, he consented to go as Minister Plenipotentiary to Washington. 
During a residence of foiu* years in the United States he became 
imbued with the progressive ideas of Americans, especially admir- 
ing their system of popular education. In August 1868, he was elected 
President of the Argentine Republic, for the usual term of six years, the 
voting being as follows : — 



For President. 

Votes. 

Domingo F. Sarmieuto, 79 

General Urquiza, 26 

Rufino de Elizalde, .... 22 

Guillermo Rawson, .... 3 

Dalmacio Yelez Sarsfield, 1 



For Vice-President. 

Votes. 

Adolfo Alsina, .... 82 

Wenceslao Paunero, .... 45 

Manuel Ocampo, 2 

Francisco de las Carreras, I 

Juan B. Alberdi, .... 1 



On the 12th October 1868, he entered into office. 

VICE-PRESIDENT ALSINA. 

Adolfo Alsina was born in Buenos Ayres on the 13th of February 1829. 
His father having been driven into exile to Montevideo, young Adolfo began 
there his studies. In 1852 he, came back to Buenos Ayres with his father, 
and continued his studies in the Buenos Ayres University, where he 
received his degree of Doctor of Laws. He took up arms in 1 852, and shortly 
afterwards was made captain, and during the siege of 1853 commanded an 
important «canton,» where he distinguished himself for great bravery. He 
took an active part in political life, as member of the Club Libertad, and 
made himself notable by his energy and eloquence. Cepeda found him 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and on that day he earned 
great praise for military tact and courage displayed amidst adversity. He 
Avas present at Pavon, where he commanded a battalion of National Guards. 
After a journey to Europe, in 1866, the influence he held in the Club 
Libertad secured his election as Governor of Buenos Ayres, from which post 
he has been raised to the Vice-Presidency. He is of a jovial character, and 
very popular among his friends. To all the fine qualities of his father, the 
much-respected Dr. V. Alsina, he adds an energy of character which is 



126 PUBLIC MEN. 

rarely met with among our public men, and Avliicli lie inherits from his 
mother, Dofia A. Maza, daughter of Dr. Manuel Vicente Maza, who took a 
busy part in public affairs during the time of Rosas, and whose tragic end 
is notoridlis. His administration as Governor of Buenos Ajtcs ivas remark- 
able for two important measures, either of which is sulKcient to throw over 
it a lustre of imperishable glory : they are the foundation of the Oficina de 
Cambios, for fixing the value of the currency, and the city water- works. 

GENERAL MITRE, EX-PRESIDENT. 

Brigadier-General Bartolome Mitre, the late President of the Republic, 
is a native of Buenos Ayres. He commenced his career as cadet of artillery 
in Montevideo in 1839, rose to the rank of captain fighting against the 
armies of Oribe and Urquiza until 1845, when he left for Chile, where he 
was appointed Colonel and fought against Bolivia, commanding a field 
battery; after the war he edited several papers, and came in 1852 
commanding the Oriental artillery of the allied army against Rosas, in 
Caseros. Was elected deputy to the local legislature, which, having made 
strong opposition to the Government, was forcibly dissolved, and he with 
several others went into exile. He was recalled after the revolution of 
18 52, appointed commander of the forces in Buenos Ayres in the siege of 
1853, and was made Minister of War ; was promoted to the rank of General 
in 1859, and commanded the army of Buenos Ayres at the battle of 
Cepeda, which he lost. Was elected Governor of the Province in 1860, 
promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, and won the battle of Pavon 
against the army of the Confederation, after which he pacified the country, 
and was unanimously elected President', in October 1862. During his 
administration Buenos Ayres made great progress in industry, commerce, 
and public enterprises. The Cordoba railway, electric telegraph, and 
other notable works are associated with this period ; but it is also true that 
the state of the Upper Provinces was deplorable, the Indians devastating 
the frontiers with impunity. But for the war with Paraguay, the Argentine 
Republic must have advanced with rapid strides in all the arts of peace. 
General Mitre always evinced great friendship for Englishmen, and is an 
admirer of our literature, having translated some of Longfellow's poems. 
He stands high as a Spanish writer, for his life of General Bclgrano, and is 
a member of several European literary associations. On the conclusion of 
his term of office, October 12th 1868, his friends and admirers purchased a 
house for him. He is fond of playing chess, and is a thorough republican 
m sentiment. 



GENERAL URQUIZA. 127 

GET>iERAE URQUIZA. 

Justo Jose de Urquiza, Captain-General, ex-President, and Governor of 
Eutre-Rios, was born near Concepcion about the beginning of the present 
century. He began life behind a (|raper's counter, but soon took to a 
military career, in which he was eminently successful. He expelled 
Rosas in 1852, was elected President, gave a Constitution to the Republic, 
threw open the rivers to the flags of all nations, and restored order in the 
upper provinces. In 1859 he obliged Buenos Ayres to re-enter the 
Argentine Confederation, but was defeated by General Mitre in 1861. 
Since then he has lived in retirement at his princely estancia of San Jose, 
near Concepcion, where he treats all visitors, especially Englishmen, Avith 
the warmest hospitality. His cattle and sheep-farms are as large as some 
of the smaller European monarchies, and give him a splendid income. 
He encourages immigration, railways, &c., and has subscribed £20,000 to 
the Central Argentine Company. He was again elected Governor of Entre 
Rios in 1867, and was next after Sarmiento .in the list of candidates for 
the Presidency. His last service to the Republic was the pacification of 
Corrientes, in union with the veteran diplomatist. Dr. Yelcz Sarsfield. 

THE ARCHBISHOP OF BUENOS AYRES. 

His Grace, Dr. Jose 3Iaria Bustillos y Zeballos de Escalada, is descended 
cf an old Spanish family, and was born in this city, A. D. 1800. He was 
raised to the episcopal dignity as co-adjutor to the late Bishop Medrano, 
under the title 'Bishop of Anion, in partibiis.^ In 1854 a Papal bull 
created him Bishop of Buenos Ayres, and in 1866 the see was elevated to 
an Archbishopric. Dr. Escalada is a man of portly and patriarchal 
appearance, and is much esteemed for his unassuming manners. His 
palace, in the Plaza Victoria, adjacent to the Cathedral, was erected for 
him by the State, in 1861. He has a secretary* a chaplain, and three 
clerks for the despatch of business. His salary is about £1,000 a year. 
Out of his private fortune he has built a chapel near the English cemetery^ 
connected with the diocesan clerical college. 

GOVERISOR CASTRO. 

Erailio Castro, Governor of the Province of Buenos Ayres, is a native of 
this city, and about fifty years of age. He has rendered long and varied 
services in many public capacities, and enjoys general confidence. In 1859 
lie was Chief of Police ; in 1861 as commander of a battalion of National 
Guards he saw some military service : Being elected Senator in the Provincial 
Legislature, he held his seat in the Chamber till chosen its President. 



12B PUBLIC MEN. 

Under the last administration lie filled the office of Government Inspector 
of Railways. On the elevation of Governor Alsina to the Vice-Presidency 
of the Republic, Mr. Castro, as President of the Senate, became Governor 
ex-officio. Having been educated in Scotland, he has strong sympathies 
for everything English, and is of course conversant with our language. 

DR. SARSFIELD, PRIME-MI]\ISTER. 

Dalmacio Velez Sarsfield was born in Cordova about the beginning of the 
present century, and received his education in the university of that city. 
He has long been reputed the first jurisconsult in the country, and his 
Civil Code, compiled at the request of Congress, is just published. During 
various administrations he held Office successively, and his name is associated 
with Bank-reform and other important measures. In the last Congress he 
sat as Senator for his native province. The new President on assuming 
office gave him the direction of the Cabinet as Minister of Interior. Dr. 
Sarsfield claims to be descended from a distinguished Irish family : he is 
well read in the judicial literature of England and North America, and his 
name is not unknown in high legal circles in Germany. He is an able 
speaker and writer. 

DR. VARELA, FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

Mariano Varela, Minister for Foreign Affairs, is son of the late Florencio 
Varela, a distinguished writer, who was assassinated in Montevideo by 
order of General Oribe, on account of his writings in the Comercio del Plata. 
The brothers Hector and Mariano Varela served their time as printers in 
Rio Janeyro ; after -the fall of Rosas they came to Buenos Ayres and 
established the Tribuna newspaper, which soon acquired the foremost place 
in the press of these countries. Dr. Varela distinguished himself no less 
in Congress than as a journalist, and entered the Ministerial career under 
Governor Alsina, as Minister of Finance for the Province of Buenos Ayres. 
The foreign merchants presented him with a gold medal for his labors in 
establishing a fixed currency. He has taken a diploma as Doctor of Laws, 
and is a good English scholar. He is only thirty-two years of age. 

SR. GOROSTIAGA, FINANCE. 

Benjamin Gorostiaga, even before his appointment to the portfolio of 
Finance, was favorably known as a political economist, having gained an 
early reputation under the old regime at Parand . During his parliamentary 
career in the Congress convened by General Mitre, he was always 
remarkable for his clearness of views, and his mastery of statistical 
returns. He is about sixty years of age, and has a fine estancia near 
Chivilcoy. 



THE TSATIONAL MINISTERS. 129 

DR. AVELLAiSEDA, INSTRUCTION. 

Nicolas Avellaueda is the sou of a respectable citizen of Tucuman, who 
w as Governor of that Province, until beheaded bv Rosas. He was educated 
in Cordova, and came to Buenos Ayres in 1857 to study law. He had 
scarcely attained his 20th year when he was employed as editor of the 
A'acional, and named professor of civil law at the University. His work 
on Public Lands, in 1865, attracted favorable notice, and Governor Alsina 
appointed him Minister of Government for Buenos Ayres. His practise as 
a lawyer was considerable until he embraced political life. His views on 
popular education are as advanced as those of President Sarmiento. He is 
conversant with Trench and Latin classics, and is studying English. He is 
only thirty years of age, and is a better writer than orator. 

COLONEL GALNZA, WAR AND MARINE. 

Martin Gainza spent his early years in Montevideo. His father was a 
Colonel under Lavalle, and fought in all the c^impaigns against Rosas, from 
1840 till the fall of the tyrant in 185-2. The subject of our notice first 
distinguished himself as a cavalry officer in the civil wars aud the Indian 
frontier service. He owns large estancias near Zarate, and was for some 
years Commander-in-chief of the ?>ational Guards of the Province. He 
served under the last administration as Inspector of Arms, and was 
subsequently a candidate for the post of Governor on the termination 
of Governor Saavedra's period of .office. 

GENERAL GELLY-OBES. 

John Andrew Gelly-Obes, Brigadier-Geueral aud Commander-in-Chief of 
the Argentine army, is said to be a native either of Buenos Avres or the 
Bauda Oriental, although the family appears of Paraguayan descent. His 
father was. for a time Prime-Minister to the first Lopez (1852} in Paraguay, 
and when the young Lopez, since President, was sent to Europe on a 
diplomatic mission near the courts of St. James and the TuiUeries, Mr. 
Gelly-Obes, senior, accompanied him. The subject of our notice Avas 
commander of the Argentine Legion in the defence of Montevideo 
(1842-51), and subsequently Secretary in the AVar-office. During the 
campaign of Cepeda, 1859, he abandoned, for a time, his profession of 
auctioneer, to assume the command of the National Guards of Buenos Ayres. 
In 1861 he was made a Major-General, and gave up business. He aided 
General Flores in the invasion of Banda Oriental, in 1863, and, on the 
outbreak of the Paraguayan war, Avas removed from the portfolio of War 
jud Marine, to act as Chief-of-staff to General Mitre. He has since seen 
some active service in the campaign of Paraguay. 



130 PUBLIC MEW. 

GENERAL PAUJ<ERO. 

Wenceslaus Paunero, Argentine Minister at Bio, is a native of Monte- 
video, and began his military career in 1826 in the campaign against 
Brazil. In the civil wars of 1828-36, he sided against Rosas and Avas 
forced to take refuge in Bolivia, where he made a living as skop-assistant, 
and afterwards started a newspaper. The Montevidean Government 
named him Charge d' Affaires in Bolivia, and during his residence there 
he married the sister of General Ballivian (afterwards President). In 1851 
he returned to the Biver Plate, -to assist in the war against Rosas, and was 
present at the bctttle of Caseros, 1852. He served against the Indians till 
1858, and was General Mitre's Chicf-of-Staff both at Cepeda and Pavon, 
being made a Major-General on the latter field. He has since seen much 
service in the civil war with the Chacho, the Paraguayan campaign, the 
San Juan revolution, &c. He was candidate for Vice-President at the 
late election, but was defeated by 1). Adolfo Alsina. One of the first acts 
of President Sarmiento was to coniide to him the important mission that 
he now holds. 

DOIS NORBEBTO RIESTRA. 

Norberto de la Riestra w as born in this city in 1 825, of Spanish parentage, 
and when young sent to England for education. He was first employed in 
a commercial house in Liverpool, and afterwards sent out to tate charge 
of the branih-house in his native city. His eminent financial talents soon 
shewed themselves, and he was chosen for the delicate task of arranging 
the Buenos Ayrean debt in London. This business he concluded so 
satisfactorily' that the Bonds at once rose to an unprecedented figure, and 
he merited the thanks no less of tlie Bond-holders than of his own Govern- 
ment and countrymen. In I860 he became Finance Minister for the 
Province of Buenos Ayres, and on the incorporation of this state with the 
Confederation was chosen for the same odicc in the Cabinet of Parana. 
But the rupture which soon took place with Biienos Ayres induced him to 
resign the portfolio and return to this city, where the victory of Pavon 
found him m his old post, and as confidential adviser of President Mitre 
he is known to have steadfastly^ advocated the non-repudiation policy in all 
matters of public debt, the adoption of which has established our 
National Credit on a firm basis. Having resigned his seat in the Cabinet, 
he was soon elected Senator in the Provincial Legislature, and distin- 
guished himself by his labors for the Great Soutiiern Railway, and a scheme 
for the redemption of paper-money. On the formation of the London and 
lUver Piute Bank, the Board secured his influence and advice by naming 



PUBLIC ME5. 131 

him Resident Director. Mr. Kiestra may be in many respects almost 
considered an Englishman, and his sympathies and regard for everything 
English are well-known. We need not add that he is a strenuous friend of 
immigration, and of all Anglo-Argentine enterprises. In May 1865, cft 
the occasion of the Paraguayan war, he was sent to London to negotiate 
a loan voted by Congress, for two and a-half millions sterling : this he 
concluded at 12^ per cent, although the Home Bonds of the Republic were 
quoted at the time, at forty-four, in Buenos Ayres. Failing health 
prevented his presenting his credentials as Plenipotentiary near the 
Court of St, James. 

Do:?( maria:no balcarce. 
This gentleman is accredited Argentine Minister near the courts of 
Paris, Loudon, and Madrid, but he resides within a few miles of Paris. 
He is married to the daughter of the famous General San Martin, of the 
epoch of Independence. He belongs to a wealthy family of Buenos Ayres, 
-and is said to be very hospitable to friends or residents coming from the 
River Plate. His last official business was in connection with the Argentine 
stall at the Paris Exhibition. 

SR. POSADAS, POSTMASTEH-GEiMERAL. 

Gervacio A. Posadas is son of the late Supreme Director, Juan Antonio 
Posadas. In his youth he spent some years in England, where he became 
acquainted with many leading men, including Sir Rowland Hill and others. 
He speaks Englisli and French fluently, and has introduced many postal 
improvements, but, the revenue at his disposal is much too limited, and the 
premises are wholly unsuitable. No other department shows so much 
increase as the ' Correo,' the number of letters and papers regularly 
doubling every two years. 

MR. o'GORMAJf CHIEF OF POLICE. 

Enrique 0' Gorman is descended of an old and respectable French family 
whose ancestors Avere, of course, Irish, as the name indicates. He is an 
active and intelligent official, but the present police department is a reUc 
of the old Spanish system, quite inadequate to the necessities of the time. 



x2 



132 MINING m SAN JUAN. 



CHAP. XII. 



MINING IN THE CUYO PROVINCES. 

SAN JUAN. 

To the indomitable energy and untiring perseverance of the actual 
President of the Republic, H.E. Dr. Don Domingo F. Sarraiento (during his 
Governorship of San Juan), is due, in a great measure, the rapid develop- 
ment of the mining industry in this province. In the year 1862 he had the 
mining districts examined by Major F. I. Rickard, F.G.S., ifec. (engaged in 
Chile for that purpose), and. in sight of his various reports, and impartial 
statements, a Limited Liability Company was established in San Juan, with 
the small capital of ^1 10,000s., destined to be the pioneer undertaking in 
developuig the hidden riches of Tontal, distant some thirty leagues S.S.W. 
from the city. 

Although the mines of La Huerta, fifty leagues to the N.E., had been 
some time previously in operation, and a crude system of smelting had been 
essaj^cd by the owners of Santo Domingo, the political disturbances and 
constant changes in the administration precluded the possibility of their 
being worked to advantage. The ores were rich in silver, and of a plum- 
biferous nature, with a tolerably fusible gangue ; but, with such appliances 
as existed at that establishment for the extraction of the precious metals, 
and the want of knowledge and practice on the part of the owners or 
managers, large deficits resulted instead of gain. The smelting works 
were consequently abandoned, and the mines only kept partially worked^ 
awaiting brighter times. 



klappeinbach's mi.nes. 133 

Meanwhile, a Frenchman, who had been employed in the works as 
smelter, erected a small blast furnace a short distance from the mines, on 
the site now occupied by the Messrs. Klappenbach, who purchased his 
miserable attempt at a metallurgical establishment, in a good round sura. 
They have, however, completely remodelled it, and now possess works — 
small, it is true, but still sufficiently perfect for the object for which they 
are intended. The system employed is similar to the old method adopted in 
former years at Pontgibaud, Puy-de-D6me, France, but now obsolete and 
replaced by another far superior, by the Anglo-French Company. 

As no official statistics can be obtained, it is very difficult to estimate 
correctly the annual produce of silver from the La Huerta mines ; all of 
which, however, passes through the Messrs. Klappenbach's hands. Since 
the year 186.3, the mining industry in the district has been gradually 
improving, and is still advancing. Santo Domingo has lately had some 
splendid walcances)) or bunches of rich ore, with native silver visible, and 
silver glance in fair abundance. The general impulse given by the Messrs. 
Klappenbach is now bearing fruit, and numerous old mines are being 
resuscitated and worked with profit. The annual produce of silver from 
the Messrs. Klappenbach's works may be set down at about 7,000 marks 
Spanish, or about 51,800 oz. Troy, whose value in Buenos Ayres may be 
taken in round numbers at §70,000 s.- 

The Tontal district, rich in ((dry» non-plumbiferous silver ores, is mucli 
more abundant than La Huerta, but the nature of the accompanying gangue, 
which is invariably silicious, presents many difficulties to the metallurgist, 
in the course of operations necessary fcr the extraction of the silver. But, 
in order to counterbalance, as it were, this mistake of nature, another new 
district, a little to the north, was discovered in I86i, yielding abundant 
supplies of galenas (sulphides of lead), as also carbonates and sulphates, 
together with other combinations, all more or less plumbiferous, and highly 
necessary as a flux or medium by which to extract the precious metals from 
the refractory dry ores of Tontal. This new district is Castafio, about 
twenty-five leagues from Tontal, in a north-westerly direction towards the 
Cordillera, and some fifty leagues N.W. from San Juan. 

The beginning of 1864, saw the commencement of the metallurgical estab- 
lishment at Hilario, belonging to the already mentioned limited company, 
distant some seven leagues from Tontal and twenty from Castauo, agreeably 
situated on the border of the San Juan River called at this point Los Patos. 
This spot was selected by Major Rickard, the manager, as being best suited 
for the works, owing to the facility of obtaining water power for the 
machinery, the abundance of firewood necessary for the furnaces, and 



134 MmiNG IN SAW JUAN. 

above all as being the only fertile and inhabited valley in the whole district 
where pasture for animals and the necessaries of life are obtainable. 

A great drawback, however, existed, namely, its isolation from all the 
highways of traflSc, and entire absence of anything like transitable roads. 
Heavy machinery for crushing and amalgamating the ores was necessary, 
and those pieces which could not be made sufficiently light for transport 
on mules, had necessarily to be taken up on carts. Here lay the difficulty — 
Hilario is separated from San Juan by three lofty ranges of mountains ; that 
of Tontal, on the actual mule track, being at an elevation of 12,147 feet 
above the sea. Narrow defiles and impassable gorges traversed by 
mountain torrents, intercept the route at various points, and make the idea 
of forming a cart road there, the wildest dream of impossibility. This 
insurmountable difficulty was however overcome by taking a very 
circuitous route to the north ; and, by traversing some fifty leagues of extra 
inarch, a ro3d was made, partly by the Government and partly by the 
Company, which, if not macadamized and level, was suffiqiently transitable 
for lightly laden carts. But alas, the freight on machinery from San Juan 
to Hilario almost exceeded the amount paid on it from Liverpool to 
San Juan. 

In April 1864 the limited Company got short of funds, and it was found 
that the capital was too small. Major^ Rickard then came forward and 
offered to purchase all the shares at par and continue the works for his 
own account, with the ulterior view of forming an extensive company in 
London. His offer w^as accepted, and towards the close of 1865 the . 
Hilario works began to extract silver and silver lead in large quantities. 
During about ten months of active operations some 250 tons of lead and 
9,000 marks of silver were produced and remitted to Europe for 
realization. 

In addition to over 200 employes at the works, including wood-cutters, 
charcoal-burners, muleteers, and peones, upwards of 500 were employed 
in the mines of Tontal and Castailo, and solely in those beloaging to 
Major Rickard. 

At the same time, large numbers of miners Avorked mines on their own 
account, and in all over 100 were at one time in active exploration. 
Hundreds of tons of ore were produced, and lay at the mines' mouths, ready 
for transmission to the works ; but, unfortunately, the means of transport 
were fearfully inadequate to the production of ore, or even the require- 
ments of Hilario. The furnaces alone were capable of smelting six tons 
per day, and the amalgamation machinery of passing through four tons 
more ; yet the daily deliveries of ore only reached about three tons on the 



REVOLUTIOK OF 1866. 135 

average. Hence, the works, and European staff of expensive operatives, 
were more than half the time idle, waiting for ore which lay in abundance 
at the mines, but could not be transported to Hilario. In vain were the 
rates of freight raised, until almost double their normal or just value. Hie 
muleteers could not be persuaded or induced to abandon their accustomed 
haunts on the Pampa, and bury themselves in the Andes. The industry 
and undertaking were new in the province, on such an extended scale ; the 
routine and habits of centuries had been disturbed by the busy, and not to 
be defeated Anglo-Saxon. Order, discipline, and industrious habits, as 
engendered and exacted by Europeans in matters of business, were 
distasteful to the indolent, easy-living, and independent denizens of the 
South. But, alas! in this country these are not the only evils against 
which Industry has to struggle and do battle. 

The spring of 1866 saw the flame of civil war and revolution kindled in 
Cuyo, and the unbridled passions of the masses obtain full sway in society. 
This fatal barrier to the progress of civilisation and industry, coming at a 
moment so critical, served to complete the ruin of the mining prospects in 
the province. The mines were abandoned by their owners, who fled in 
numbers across the Andes, seeking refuge in Chile. The peons and 
workmen fled to the towns, too eager to join in the orgies of their fellows, 
and accumulate in a day, by their vandalism, more than the gains of a whole 
life dedicated to honest toil ! Muleteers sought refuge in the mountain 
fastnesses, amongst unfrequented streams, where sufficient pasture could 
.be obtained for their mides, and in order to save them from the general 
confiscation decreed by the vandalic hordes on the plains ! All these 
circumstances together were too much for a new industry to withstand — 
and so Hilario was obliged to suspend operations. Later on, when 
tranquillity was restored in the interior, the works were resuscitated on a 
small scale, and so continued up to recently, when a new English Company 
having been formed for the purpose, it proposed to take over the concern, 
mines, &c.,_and re-establish work on a large scale. The arrangements 
are now being carried out, and thecomiu^year, 1869, will see the industry, 
probably in a more advanced state than at any period heretofore. The 
muies are as abundant as ever, and are capable of producing much, but 
capital and intelligence are sadly wanting on the part of the owners. 

In Tontal an unproductive band of blende I'sulpliide of zinc) has appeared 
at a depth of sixty yards, and it has not as yet been passed in those mines 
where active Avork is being carried on. The inducement to cut through 
this mass of ore is however very great, as it is almost certain a rich deposit 
of precious metal exists beyond. Indeed we have almost a proof of this 



''^6 MIiM-VG LN SAiN JUA?f. 

from old workings followed up in the province of Mendoza on same range 
of mountains, Avliere the blende has been passed and rich silver ore cut, 
producing up to 500 marks per cajon (three tons). 

The workings actively carried on now at Tontal are few, comparatively 
speaking, but the yield of good ore is as proportionately abundant as 
ever—many more mines would be worked if a convenient market could be 
found for the produce; hence all are anxiously on the qui vive for the 
resuscitation of Hilario by the new company «The Anglo-Argentine)) with 
a capital of g250,000s. (limited). 

The geological formation of Tontal mineral district proper, is almost 
exclusively clay-slate, and the ores raised may be divided into three 
classes as follows :-^ 

1. Plumbiferous ores (principally galenas) yielding from 100 to 150 
marks per cajon of 6i quintals, or mare or less 245 to 368 ozs. Troy, to the 
English ton of 20 cwt. The silver exists chiefly as Sulphide, Arsenide, and 
Antimonide. This class is not very abundant. 

2. Dry refractory ores or 'pinta' of the class known here as ' calido,' 
containing a fair share of chloride of silver; but they should not be 
properly classed as * calidos,' because there exist in their composition 
arsenides and antimouides of silver, termed ' fries ' — they also hold some 
sulphates and carbonates of lead ; are ftiirly abundant and yield from 50 
to 90 marks of silver per cajon, or 123 to 220 ozs. Troy to the English ton. 

3. The same as 2nd class, but of much inferior percentage in silver, and 
almost entirely free from lead. Very abundant, and averaging from 1 5 to 
45 marks per cajon, or from 37 to 11 onz. to tlie English ton. 

The Castafio district is almost the opposite to Tontal as regards the 
composition of its ores. The greater part of them are highly plumbiferous, but 
are Avanting in richness of precious metal. They may be classed like those 
of Tontal into three kinds. The geological formation of Castano is much 
brcken up and confused, but the principal ore bearing rocks are porphyritic. 

1. Galenas, or sulphides of lead. Very pure, holding up to 80 per 
cent, of lead, and from 10 to 20 marks of silver per cajon. Abundant, 
some veins over three yards in width. In depth, the same blende bands 
have appeared as in Tontal, but unlike those, are, to some extent, 
auriferous. Will probably cut good ore in greater depth. 

5. Sulphates, and carbonates, with moljbdates and chromates of lead. 
The former very abundant, and hold from 60 to 70 per cent, of lead, and 
from 8 to 10 marks of silver per cajon, or from 19 to 24 ozs. to the ton. 

3. Ferrugineous, and cupriferous silver ores proper. The former non- 
plumbiferous, and holding from 10 to 30 marks per cajon, highly charged 



klappenbach's system. 137 

>Yith oxide of iron, which serves as a flux in furnace operations. The 
latter contain some lead, and yield from 25 to 80 marks silver per cajon, 
fairly abundant, but not docile in the furnace owing to the copper being 
combined with manganese. 

The above ores received the Bronze Medal in the Paris Exhibition, 1 867 
awarded to Major Rickard. (Messrs. Klappenbach's also received a similar 
reward for the ores of La Huerta.) The complete collection sent from 
Hilario contained 85 specimens, and exhibited the ores in all their stages 
of treatment from the crude state to the refined silver. 

Having described the raining districts of the west, and their produce 
we will now proceed to enumerate and give some description of the 
metallurgical establishments for 'beneficiating' the ores, as they exist at the 
present time ; as also describe the various processes in operation, for 
extracting the precious metals. 

As we have already observed, the Messrs. Klappenbach employ the now 
obsolete system of Pontgibaud, but, although it is no longer used at that 
place, it is no reason why it should not be introduced and continued here. 
For we must bear in mind that, in nearly all industrial progress — in the 
interior at least — we are almost a century behind Europe. Still in some 
instances, it may be preferable to use antiquated systems here, requiring 
less skilled labour, and consequently less costly to carry out. 

The ores, as delivered at Messrs. Klappenbach's (and at all the works, as 
a rule), are simply handpicked, and subjected to no other previous dressing; 
hence it is that they contain a large amount of foreign matter, frequently 
deleterious, and undoubtedly prejudicial to the facile extraction of 
the silver. Their fineness varies from lumps the size of walnuts to that 
of small peas, but rarely or never finer. To this defect must be attributed 
the extra trouble and cost of smelting; for, were the ores ground and 
mixed into a homogeneous mass previous to their introduction into the 
furnace, the time, labour, fuel, and general cost, would be perhaps 
reduced one third, and undoubtedly the results obtained in precious metal 
would be materially altered in favor of the metallurgist. 

As it is, a mixture of galenas with ' dry ' ores is made in the proportion 
of from f to I the former to | and | of the latter. This is introduced into 
the ordinary single soled reverberatory furnace (at La Huerta) and calcined 
at a low heat at first, and gradually increased, until all the volatile matters, 
such as sulphur and arsenic with some of the antimony (should the ores 
contain it) are driven off, when the fire is increasingly continued, and the 
mass run into a liquid slag. This is run out on one side of the furnace 
and when cold is broken up and carried to the deposit for calcined ore. 



138 ' MINING IN SAN JUAN. 

The next operation is that of smelting or fusing this calcined ore with 
fluxes in the 'blast furnace.' A proportionate mixture is made for this 
purpose, consisting, more or less, of saj, 100 parts of calcined ore from 
previous operation, 15 to 20 parts of oxide of iron, and from 7 to 10 parts of 
raw limestone. Sometimes a quantity of rich blast furnace slags is added. 
This mixture is passed through an upright blast furnace (rectangular) in 
intimate contact with the fuel (charcoal) which acts as a powerful reducing 
agent. During the twenty-four hours, about 16 to 20 quintals of calcined 
ore are smelted in each blast furnace, of the class used at La Huerta, and 
the products are — a hard lead, holding nearly all the silver present in the 
ore — a crude matt, or regulus of lead and copper, with sulphur and 
antimony, and slags. These latter, if poor, are thrown away; if rich in 
lead and silver are mixed with fresh portions of calcined ore, where they 
serve as flux, and yield up their metallic contents on being again passed 
through the furnace. 

The matt being a sulphide of lead with copper and antimony, &c., 
holds invariably some silver, and is roasted in the reverberatory furnace, 
either alone or with ore, and again passed through the blast. 

The hard, or work lead, is taken to the deposit until sutficient be 
accumulated to refine, say, from one to two hundred quintals. 

The refining is conducted in a circular cupelling furnace (known as the 
Continental system) where nearly all the lead is charged at once, and the 
heat gradually raised to a bright red, when the oxidised lead or litharge is 
melted and begins to flow over the surface of the metallic lead. A nozzle 
of sheet iron coated with clay, is then introduced at the back of the 
furnace, and a strong current of air directed over the surface. This drives 
off the litharge and other impurities which keep rising and accumulating^ 
by the oxidizing influence of heated atmospheric air. A slit is now made 
on the marl furnace bottom (the top of which rises slightly above the 
surface of the metallic bath around the sides), in the doorway, opposite the 
blast nozzle, and the fused litharge, &c., thus finding a channel, begins to 
flow off slowly. This is continued until all the lead and the greater part 
of copper, iron, antimony, &c., are oxidized, leaving a plate of impure 
silver on the bottom of the cupel furnace. This plate is removed when 
cold, and placed in another furnace of similar construction, but much 
smaller, and having a bone-ash bottom firmly beaten in, where it is melted, 
and the action of the fire and oxidizing influences of the air are allowed 
full scope for a sufficient time to thoroughly purify the silver. When this 
is done, the furnace is allowed to cool, the solid plate removed, and is thus 
sent to Buenos Ayres. 



babie's and fragueiro's works. 139 

The Messrs. Klappenbach use bellows moved by mules, as there is not 
sufficient water power available to drive a blowing machine or fan. They 
have an almost inexhaustible supply of firewood in cloge proximity to their 
works, which are the only ones at present in active operation in the eastern 
districts of the Province. 

We will now pass to the western districts, or those of Tontal and 
Castailo. 

In all, there are four metallurgical establishments — three in operation 
and one abandoned. They are respectively — 

1 . Messrs. Babie & Co., Castailo ; cost and capital invested about 
$30,000 Bol. 

2. Don Rafael Fragueiro, Calingasta ; say $2,000 Bol. ; abandoned. 

3. La Sorocayense, Don Anjel Riera ; about $15,000 Bol. 

4. Hilario, Major F. Ignacio Rickard (Anglo- Argentine Co., Limited); 
cost and capital invested $500,000 Bol. 

(1). Messrs. Babie & Co.'s works are situate close to the Castauo mines, 
on the river of that name, and are exclusively smeltiug works, on precisely 
the same principle as those of La Huerta, having been originally built by 
an ex-employe of that establishment. They consist of two small blast 
furnaces — a wretched attempt at a calcining or reverberatory furnace — - 
and, ditto, cupelling or refining furnace. They have a horizontal water 
wheel, with about eight feet head, and may get, perhaps, 6-horse power 
effective. Their blowing apparatus was formerly two pairs of bellows, 
but now consists of an ordinary flat-bladed circular fan, incapable of 
producing a suCBciently strong blast, owing to its faulty gearing and 
unsteady movement of the driving wheel or drum, which is sixteen feet in 
diameter by six inches wide, driving with a three-inch belt on to an inch 
and a-half pulley, fixed on the axle of the fan ! Their annual production 
of silver will scarcely reach 2,000 marks, and much loss erf precious metal 
must be sustained from the imperfect and careless system pursued about 
the works. Their proximity to the Castailo mi^jes and firewood are, 
however, their great redeeming points, and thus they are enabled to work 
with comparative advantage. 

(2). The works of Don Rafael Fragueiro were only capable of treating 
ores by amalgamation, hence only those known as «calidos» or holding 
chlorides, chloro-bromides, bromo-iodides, or native silver, could be 
treated with advantage, and as few of the ores of the district contain their 
silver exclusively in these combinations, the speculation, in a commercial, 
as well as metallurgical point of view,, was a failure. They are now 
completely abandoned, and the old amalgamation barrels may be seen 



HO MINING IN SAN JUAN. 

strewn about on the heaps of relaves or tailings, becoming every day more 
useless from exposure to the scorching sun and dry atmosphere of this 
elevated valley. 

(3). La Sorocayense.— Leaving Sefior Fragueiro's works, and proceeding 
south up the valley of Barrial or Calingasta, about three leagues distant, is 
situate Hilario, and about two leagues still further south in the same 
valley, on the Tontal road, are situate the works enjoying the rather unique 
and to many unintelligible name above expressed. Its derivation is 
traceable to the system of amalgamation used, and which has its origin in a 
small place in Bolivia named Sorocaya. 

The system employed is properly amalgamation ; but the ores are 
previously subjected to a species of calcination with common salt, having 
for its ostensible object the conversion of the silver into chloride, and thus 
rendering it extractable by amalgamation with mercury. This end is not, 
however, by any means satisfactorily attained, owing to the nature of the 
ores treated; still, a fair amount of silver is extracted, averaging about six 
marks, or forty-five ounces, daily. The ore is ground very fine by edge- 
runners, and passed through a sieve having 3,600 holes to the square inch, 
after which it is calcined for from five to eight hours in a reverberatory 
furnace, with about five per cent, of common salt, at a very low temper- 
ature, and kept constantly turned and stirred to prevent agglutination. It 
is then withdrawn, and when cold, is charged into an oblong trough about 
twelve feet by four, and four deep, accompanied by mercury, Avhere it is 
gently agitated by a cylinder having a horizontal motion, and kept in 
intimate contact with the mercury for several hours ; when finished, the 
mass of ore (called tailings) is washed off by water and conveyed into large 
pits or deposits, where it is allowed to settle, and is again, when dry, 
subjected to a further calcination, in case it should have retained sufficient 
silver to pay expenses of treatment. The mercury in the trough, now 
charged with silver, is drawn off and strained through canvass bags, in 
which a rich amalgam of silver, combined with about six times its weight 
of mercury, remaiifs. This is subsequently pressed hard, and placed in an 
iron retort, connected with a condensing apparatus, where the remaining 
mercury is distilled off by heat and recovered, leaving the now almost pure 
silver in a beautiful white porous mass, Avhich may be fused into ingots 
and sent to market. This silver is, however, rarely so pure as that obtained 
by smelting the ores with galena, and refining the argentiferous lead. 

(4). miario. — These works are situate in the valley of Calingasta, Tontal 
district, thirty-three leagues S.S.W. by AV. from San Juan city, and forty- 
eight leagues N.N.W. from Mendoza, in lat. 31 deg. 20min., S., and long, 



HILARIO MUSING WORKS. 141 

69 deg. 90mm. W. from Greenwich, at an elevation of 5,624 feet above 
sea level, are the largest metallurgical works in the Republic, and adapted 
to both systems, smelting and amalgamation. The machinery for the latter 
was made by Messrs. John Taylor and Sons of London, and consists, in part, 
of barrels on the Freyberg system, and 'tinas' on the Chilian system. 
The full working power or capacity of both, may be set down at ten tons 
of crude ore in the twenty-four hours. The motive power is a large 
turbine with thirty-three feet head, and discharge pipe two feet six inches 
in diameter. The effective horse-power may beset down at ninety-live. 
To this turbine is also geared the grinding machinery, edge-runners and a 
small extra blowing fan. 

But by far the largest and most important part of the works is dedicated 
to the smelting and refiniug with their attendant ore, charcoal and wood 
deposits. The ground actually occupied by the establishment coders over 
twelve acres, not including the houses, stores, &c., for peones, occupying a 
street without the works. 

The system of smelting followed at Hilario has some resemblance, as a 
whole, to Messrs. Klappenbach's, but is, in detail, very different. It is in 
fact as nearly as possible the same as the present improved system carried 
out at Pontgibaud, France, managed by Messrs. J. Taylor & Sons, 
the celebrated mine agents of Loudon. The ores, mixed in certain 
proportions, are calcined ' dead ' in a reverberatory furnace of peculiar 
construction having a ' double ' sole, on one of which is completed the 
agglomeration and fusion into a liquid slag, care being taken that no 
reduction to metallic lead takes place. The smelting or fusion of this 
roasted ore is conducted in the class of blast furnaces known as the 
Castilliau furnace, having three 'tuyeres' and large capacity. Each furnace 
is capable of smelting, of tolerably fusible ore, up to six and eight tons in 
the twenty-four hours with a consumption of about sixty quintals of 
charcoal. Two sets of three men are employed at each furnace in shifts 
of twelve hours each set, and are paid — the foreman (English) ^60 B. a 
month, the second hand^SOB., and the third S20B. per month ; all without 
rations, but with house accommodation and fuel. 

The blowing machine is a powerful fan five feet in diameter, driven up 
to 1800 revolutions per minute by a twenty-five horse power turbine, 
with 33ft. head and 2ft. lin. diameter discharge pipe. The wind from this 
fan is sent to different parts of the establishment, partly in pipes and partly 
by cemented brickwork flues, so as to be available for the silver lead 
refining furnaces and the forge fires. 

The argentiferous lead produced from the Gastillian furnace, being hard, 



142 MiixmG m san juan. 

is first ' improved ' or softened in an improving furnace of the rever- 
beratory class, and when freed from any copper, antimony, arsenic, or 
iron, which may have been reduced with it, is relined direct on a bone-ash 
cupel or test by what is known as the English system, silver is thus 
obtained by one cupellation up to 995-thousandths fine. 

I should here observe that Pattinson's process of crystallising out pure 
lead and concentrating the silver for refining, as practised at Pontgibaud 
and other works, is not used at Hilario. But this omission is by no means 
prejudicial ; on the contrary, very little; if any, advantage would be derived 
by its adoption there, because the argentiferous lead produced direct from 
the blast furnace averages over one per cent of silver, and it is a recognized 
fact that any attempt at enriching lead, by Pattinson's process, beyond 
2 per cent, has commercially failed. Hence the concentration is rarely 
carried beyond this figure, and the system is only adapted where there 
are large quantities of poor lead produced, which would be unprofitable to 
refine direct. 

At Hilario there are three furnaces of the reverberatory class, with one 
refining furnace on the English system, and two Castillian blast furnaces. 
The ore deposits are capable of storing over a thousand tons, divided into 
compartments with tiled floors, and numbered. Each compartment having 
its Dr. and Cr. account in a separate book for entries from mines and 
deliveries to the furnaces, hence at a glance it may be determined what 
stock remains on hand, and how much has been worked up, without the 
trouble of re-weighing. 

' The Chemical Laboratory for analysis and assays by the humid method 
is a complete department in itself, and most perfectly fitted up. 

In succession follows the weighing room with its fine assay balances 
indicating up to the 1 000th part of an English grain ; also large bullion 
balances for weighing the silver in ingots, with the corresponding sets of 
stamping numbers and letters in steel for marking their weight and 
fineness. IN'ext to this room is the assay laboratory proper, with its rows 
of miniature furnaces and muffles, for assaying and experimenting on the 
ores by the 'dry' methods; here, when in fall work, up to 100 assays 
are made daily. , 

In the same range of buildings are the carpenters-shop and smithy, 
separate, for all sorts Of repairs and work necessary about the establish- 
ment. Turning lathes, drilling machines, and the various tools necessary 
for mechanical engineering, may be seen about, for, being isolated as the 
works are, in the heart of the Andes, it is essential to have all tliese 
conveniences for any emergency which might arise. 



HILAKIO MISING WORKS. 143 

The wood 'caucba' for piling the fuel for the furnaces is extensive and 
conveniently situate on a slight elevation above the reverberatory furnaces, 
for only in these is crude wood used. On a lower level, in a large open 
space, may be seen the immense, INoah's ark shaped, mounds of wood 
charcoal, as prepared for the blast furnaces. Each pile is 200 feet long by 
18 feet wide and 12 feet high, composed chiefly of algarroba and retamo 
wood, laid longitudinally and evenly, with their ventilating flues beneath, 
so as to graduate the admission of atmospheric air, and thus govern the 
slow combu-stion of volatile gases in order to produce good charcoal. This 
branch of operations at Hilario requires almost as much study and care as 
any other, although apparently so simple and common-place. The wood 
when well charred, produces about 30 per cent, of hard, solid, shining 
charcoal, but if carelessly prepared the produce is much reduced, and the 
quality, as a caloric and reducing agent, seriously detefiorated. The 
mounds of wood are overlaid with long grass or reeds (totora) and covered 
with earth. The time necessary to burn one of these mounds varies from 
eight to fifteen days, and requires other fifteen days careful attention to 
extinguish. 

The charcoal, delivered at the furnace house, costs 50 cents per quintal 
of lOOtl, made by contract with natives who cut and carry the wood from 
the camp, preferring to make it at the works ; although apparently much 
more advantageous to them to make it where the wood is cut, and 
thus reduce the weight carried by 70 per cent. 

The manager, however, prefers the charcoal made at the works, as in the 
first place it is produced under his immediate supervision, and is delivered 
almost intact, thereby avoiding the waste of a large percentage of small 
coal, totally useless, and highly injurious in the blast furnace. 

The manufacture of firebricks, also forms a most imijortant feature in 
the works; for were it necessary to import from Em-ope or Chile this 
indispensable and largely consumed article, the cost would be very great. 
Fire-clays abound in the neighbourhood, and by a careful selection, the 
mixture used at Hilario, affords a very excellent refractory brick, well 
suited for lead furnaces. 

They are made by dry pressnu'e, and some turned out during the present 
year at a cost of §^0 Bol. per^ thousand have been used in a blast furnace 
which ran 178 days without a single brick having to be replaced. The 
cost of best Stourbridge lire-bricks (Ruffords) imported from England and 
placed at Hilario, is about 40 cents each, or S^OO per thousand. 

Beyond the immediate precincts of the works but forming part of the 
property are several hoases,^in which are general dry goods and provision 



144 MINING IN SAN JUAN. 

Stores, baker's and butcher's shops, as also a cafe or hotel with billiard 
room, &c., rented to outsiders, and forming a most essential part of the 
establishment. When in full work, the concourse of miners, employes, 
ore vendors, muleteers, &c., which accumulate, is sometimes astonishing, 
and the occupiers of these houses make a fair business on their own 
account. Some distance from the works is a grass farm rented for the 
use of the animals required about the establishment. 

The tariff for the purchase of silver ores, delivered at Hilario, is as 
follows (Bolivian currency) : — 



From 


20 


to 


30 ] 


marks 


per 


cajon 


of 


64 quintals 


$3.50 


Do. 


31 


to 


40 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


4.00 


Do. 


41 


to 


50 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


4.75 


Do. 


51 


to 


60 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


5.. 50 


Do. 


61 


to. 


70 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


6.00 


Do. 


71 


to 


80 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


6.25 


Do. 


81 


to 


90 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


6.50 


Do, 


91 


to 


100 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


6.75 


Do. 


101 


to 


150 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


7.25 


Do. 


151 


to 


200 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


7.50 


Do. 


201 


to 


300 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


7.75 


Do. 


301 


to 


400 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


7.87i 


Do. 


401 


to 


600 


do. 


do. 


do, 


do. 


do. 


8.00 


Do. 


601 


to 


800 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


s.m 


Do. 


801 


to 


1000 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


8.25 


Do. 


1000 


up^ 


wards 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


8.50 



Per mark of pure silver. 
The Messrs. Babie & Co.'s tariff differs considerably from the above as they 
base their calculations on a different system of working. They deduct, in 
the first place, from every cajon of fifty quintals fourteen marks of the 
silver contained therein, and pay for the remainder at the rate of ^lObol. 
per mark of pure silver, according to assay. 

MENDOZA. 

Although this Province, 'during Spanish rule, was celebrated for its 
mineral wealth, and large quantities of silver were annually extracted 
from the ores produced in the Paramillo de Uspallata, it has so degenerated 
iu metallurgical and mining enterprise, that were it not for a few energetic 
and persevering individuals, now toiling in the old mines of that district, 
it scarcely merits a passing notice in this work. 



THE PARAMILLO MINES. 145 

In the year 1865, the Paramillo mines were visited by the Government 
Inspector General (Major Rickard), and after a careful examination he 
resolved to make a few trials, by cutting in great depth, by means of adit 
levels, some of the celebrated old veins which produced rich ore in former 
times. Operations were commenced in company with Don Eustaquio 
Villanueva, a resident there, and up to the breaking out of the revolution 
in 1866, the workings produced fairly, although not yet into the workings 
of the Spaniards. Of course all was paralysed during the Federals' sway, 
and Mr. Villanueva was obliged, like many others, to seek refuge in Chili 
in order to save his throat and his purse. Whilst in the sister republic he 
formed the acquaintance of Seilor Don Antonio del Canto, a Chilian miner 
and copper smelter of much experience, whom he induced to come over 
and examine the mines. 

Early in 1867 operations were commenced by these men, following up 
the adit^ commenced in I860, and re-establishing various old workings on 
other veins, including some copper deposits. ' Seiior del Canto formed the 
project of smelting copper ores at the mines, and producing, by a proper 
admixture of the silver ores, an argentiferous regulus of copper, which 
commands a high price in Europe. This idea had the advantage, if 
realized, of utilizing the. immense quantities of poor silver ores, which 
in their crude state are almost valueless ; the high rates of freight, to an 
available market, rendering their export commercially impossible. His 
object was, therefore, to concentrate, by a series of fusions with copper 
ores, the silver cx)ntaincd in them, and thus, raised to a high standard, in 
small bulk, realize them with profit. 

Many difficulties, natural to the district and country, generally presented 
themselves, but wth praiseworthy determination, this industrious Chilian, 
we are glad to say, has so far, surmounted them. The weary Andine 
traveller is now relieved of the tiresome monotony presented by barren, 
desolate wastes, on his route to Chfle, by the sudden and almost magical 
appearance of a well constructed copper furnai^, with its slender chimney, 
towering some 40 feet above the mountain gorge, and the orderly, civilised 
aspect of a neat row of buildings perched on the side of a steep hill. 

The great drawback of the undertaking is the scarcity of fuel ; very 
little wood, or more properly brushwood, is to be found on the barren hills 
in the vicinity. But Mr. Canto has determined to utilise as an auxiliary 
fuel, the bituminous shales (erroneously termed coal by the natives) which 
abound within a few yards of his furnace grate. These hold about 25 to 
30 per cent, of combustible matter^ but the immense accumulation of ash 



146 MENDOZA MINE^. 

pn the fire bars renders it a most troublesome and difficult matter to 
i^gulate the temperature of the furnace. - 

•, The result of the first trials, with this fufeljp'«rse, ialfti'ost (iau^fed him to 
abandon in despair the idea of using it ; but later on, heciessity obliged hira 
%o revert to it again, and we are now informed that by Using 50 per cent, 
of wood he can maintain a good temperature. He has to adopt two fire 
places for each furnace; the one permanent for wood, and the other 
Jnoveable and farther in, for tlie shale. Ilius, when a grate full of this stuff 
has given off all its combustible matter, the bulk still remaining the same, 
be is obliged to remove tlve bars bodily, and discharge the useless slates 
into the ash-pit to make room for another charge, 'i ip loihtm. I'M^cnn bur. 

He has already produced a fair amount of argentiferous copper regiilus 
holding 150 marks per cajon,for 368 ozs. silver to the ton, with from 30 to 
40 per ceqt. of copper. Tliis sells in Valparaiso (at the present time) for 
fi|)<^u^g|l,,200s. percajpnof ^xty-four quintals, and consequently pays well. 
.J,, The mining operations proper, have of late produced some A^ery rich ore, 
|n jt^ijB old wprkhigs commencedjn 1865 by Major Hickard, with the view of 
passing the {unproductive blende bands (similar to those of Tontal) where 
|iiej^avje<5ut silver ore in fftir abundance, holding over a thousand ounces' 
|o tbie ti>ji, thus bearingout the theory of expected riches, in depth, on' the 
X<?ntal lodes which exist on the same range farther north, and in somewhat 
sijiiilar formation. - /; fd ^mmiiiQ-ynQn i>i ,tyio\*notli ^^r ia^ido 

jriWe'dre authehtically informed that Messrs. Canto and Yillanueva have 
some $20,000 Bol. worth of rich ore, now on surface, awaiting the opening 
pf,^tlie Cumbre pass to remit to Chile.. They have some 200 miners 
and others employed in the Paramillo, together with about twenty miners 
on a copper ore vein some thirty leagues south of Mendoza, Avhence they 
are obliged to bring the necessary 11 axes , Ipv .smelting, and form the 
jregulus at the works in the Paramill^.^|n| ^,j ofnct ^id no ,h£ I 
.y.'^'he capital invested in Ihining in Mendoza at the present day does not 
•exceed^§50,000 Bol.,'but should the Paramillo works continue to improve, 
it is reasonable to expect a proportionate increase in speculative enterprise. 
The. Paramillo mines and works are situated about tAventy-three leagues 
W.N.W. from Mendoza, on the high road to Chile, via Uspallata and La 
Cumbre pass. Their elevation above the sea is not less than 10,000 feet, 
and the cold, nearly the Avhole year round, is most intense. 
,.j The only potable Avater available, near the Avorks, are two small springs, 
■which are made the most of by accumulating their Avater in large tanks of 
solid masonry. 



SAN LUIS MIXES. 



fnf 



The soufh of the Province is sSid to be very rich in minerals, but the 
Indians take good care that their territory is hot violated by the white 
man; hence ^ the hidden treasures" of the , earth in those districts must 
remain to tempt the cupidity of a future, and 'more adventurous race. A. 
specimen from San Bafael, lately found, has' proved on examination by 
Major Rickard, to be a new species: it holds 70 per cent, of copper 
combined with antimony. 

Extensive deposits of an impure petroleum exist about seventy leagues 
from the city, south, but from their isolated position and want of roads, 
must for the present remain commercially worthless. 



SAX LUIS. 



The only mining industry, at present developed, in this Province, is gold 
digging and washing, if we except a puny attempt at copper smelting lately 
essayed by a German, who, we are told, tried to make an auriferous regulus 
of copper by direct fusion of carbonates, silicates and oxides of that metal, 
having (we suppose' forgotten the important sulphurous compound. 

We have no authentic data as to 'the value of gold produced at the present 
day: but according to official returns corresponding to tlie year 1865, it 
appears that there were 1^7 miners employed on eight mines, and had 
produced 800 marks of gold, valued at $89,6001)01. 

We are informed that some very productive quartz veins are now being 
worked by a few Chilian mining adventurers, and with fair returns ; but as 
they have only recentlv begun, no correct idea tin yiet be formed of the 
enterprise. 

The gold usually produced from the washings is of a vef y iirfe'^iol' quality, 
rarely passing .750 pure gold in a tliousalid, the" remaining '.250 being 
mostly silver. i j . 

The mining distncts^afe si'tu^te towards the north of ti!i^' Pilovince, 
distant from twelve to eighteen leagues fi-om the capital. '*^'^^ ' *'• 

In conclusion, thtre exists a vast field for speculative enterprise in the 
Cuyo Provinces, where the industry may be said to be yet in its infancy. 
And, witli the briglit prospects of national prosperity, advancement, 
civilization, and peace, which the Republic nowenjc^s, beneath the popular 
rule of her distinguished President, the fullest development of her hidden 
treasures is to be hoped and looked for. 

His Excellency, Governor Sarmiento, initiated the pioneer mining 
enterprise in San Juan. His Excellency, President Sarmiento, is still in 
time to prune and train up the tender ' vine-shoot,^ and by the genial sun 
of his protecting influencCj make it bear the much desired fruit. 

l2 



i48 klappenbach's mining report. 

Ue has already, we believe, taken an important step in this direction, by 
naming a person to proceed in commission through all the provinces and 
report extensively on the mineral resources of the country. Once this 
report shall have been handed in to the Government, important projects 
will be laid before Congress, tending to the development, not only of the 
raining, but other staple industries of the Republic. 

F. IGISACIO RiCKARD, F.G.S., <S^c., &c. 

Government Inspector General of Mines. 
Hilario, San Juan, October 12, 1868. 

. THE SAN JUAN MINING AND SMELTING WORKS. 

In September 1864 Messrs. F. S. Klappenbach commenced their operations 
in mines and the construction of the Argentine Smelting Works in the 
Mineral do la Huerta, distant thirty-five leagues from San Juan and seventy 
leagues from Cordova. Lat. 31. .30, Long. 67.16 W. of Greenwich. 

The establishment had been in course of construction since 1865, and now 
in the beginning of this year all the necessary works have been completed. 

In its present condition 40 cajones or 100 tons of ore can be smelted in 
the establishment, per month. 

The situation is one of the most favorable for the enterprise, being 
surrounded on all sides to a distance of twenty leagues by woods. Also 
there exist in the immediate neighbourhood, deposits of coal, iron, lime, 
salt, clay for firebricks, and other necessaries. 

The result of the smelting during the construction of the establishment 
lias been as follows : — 

In 1865, 1446 marks of pure silver. 

In 1866, 4766 do., do., do. 

In 1867, 6201 do., do., do. 

In 1868, 6589 do., up to August. 

and 3200 qq. of lead. 

The produce of tliis year would have been considerably greater had it 
not been for the total paralyzation of the works for tliree months during 
i\e prevalence of the cholera. 

The mines continue increasing in richness as they proceed, and the ores 
vhich are principally composed of «galeuas» give even tlie highest ley of 
silver Avith small quantities of native silver. 

The common ley of all the ores received and smelted in the establishment 
>as up to 1866 fifty-five marks of pure silver to the cajon (or 50 qq.) of 
Jre, equal to 176 oz. silver to one ton of ore. 



KLAPPEIVBACH'S COMPANY. 



'14^9 



In 1867, sixty-two marks pure silver, equal to 198 oz. to one ton of ore ; 
and the ley has increased this year to seventy-six marks pure silver to the 
cajon, equal to 272 oz. of pure silver to one ton of ore. 

Messrs. F. S. KlappenbachandCo. have lately changed their society into a 
company in Buenos Ayres called the «San Juan Mining and Smelting Co.,» 
capital §230,0008., divided into 230 shares of g 1,000s. each. 
The folio Vising gentlemen form the Board of Directors, &c. — 

Constant ^anta Maria, .... .... President. 

F. Wanklyn, .... Director. 

H. Ebbinghaus, .... do. 

H. Heberard, .... do. 

J. Aldao, do. 

A. Scharff, Secretary. 

F. S. Klappenbach, .... .... .... Manager in S. Juan. 

The future of the company is most promising, entering as it does into a 
field of action already explored and prepared for it, in which it will have 
but to reap the fruit. ^ 

The mines of La Huerta, whose richness and abundance are well 
recognised, only require hands to give brilliant results, giving new 
elements of greatness and prosperity to the country, and at the same time 
offering scope for the formation of new and greater undertakings. 



150 HISTORY AND LITERATURE. 



7li> b'WKif ^0 .xt> £\£' oi limp'^ 






.'iM"vii('r 

.VIKJD'rOS' 



und^fikUlH .if 



CHAP, XIII. - ; . 



HrSTORY AISD LITEHATimE OF RIVER PLATE . 

HISTORICAL RECORD. 

1515 — River Plate discovered by Juaji Diaz de Solis. 
1527 — Sebastian Cabot explores the Parana and Uruguay. 
1530 — Buenos Ayres founded, under invocation of the Holy Trinity. 
1531 — The fort and settlement destroyed by the Indians. 
1535 — Second foundation by Pedro de Mendoza : also destroyed. 
•1537 — Asuncion del Paraguay founded by Ayola. 
1544 — Irala greatly extends the Spanish dominions. 
1553 — Santiago del Estero founded by Aguirre. 
1555 — Arrival of the first bishop, Francisco la Torre. 
1559 — Garcia de Mendoza founds Mendoza and San Juan. 
1565 — Villaroel founds Tucuman. 
1573 — Cabrera founds Cordova. 
1573 — Juan de Garay founds Santa Fe city. 
1580 — He marks out the city of Buenos Ayres, June 1 1th. 
1582 — Lerma founds Salta, 
1588 — Corrientes founded by Alonzo de Vera. 
1591 — Velazco founds Rioja, and, in 1592, Jujuy. 
1596 — Loyola founds San Luis. 



HISTORICAL RECORD. 151 

yrnn hht ro ?.A&off 
1609— Jesuit missions of Paraguay founded by Padres Mazeta and 
Cataldini. n i; ' ■ ■' 

1622 — Jesuit missions along the upper Uruguay, •mdt motltw^: — l'B8l 
1 628 — Paulista Indians carry off 60,000 captives from ?irisiones'. ■ 

1680 — Colonia founded by the Portuguese. 

1726^Montevideo founded by Zavala, Governor of Buenos Ayi^s.- ■" ' 
1730— Spain cedes Misiones to Portugal; Indian settlements broken up. 
1767 — Expulsion of the Jesuits ; destruction of the ^lisiones. 
1776— Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres created, under Pedro de Zebalfef^. 
1782— Census; Buenos Ayres territory, 170,832 inhabitants, dnd 
Paraguay 97,480. -; ., , ;;,a ^ ^ ;. ^.i ■-,> :./.;„:.:.... •^.<;i .;;::-:'ii '•' 
1 8p6— -English invasioa cmder General Beresford, wHo idapittil^tes . ' • 
1807 — Second invasion, under General AVhitelocke, who also capitulatesi 
1808 — Liniers named Vice-roy. .;! uilJ Jr<'.o-it>ii bjiji 
1810 — Revolution of Buenos Ayres, May 25th. ' • - ■• 

1811 — Belgrano invades Paraguay, and capitulates.' .)— '081 

1812 — He beats the Spaniards at Tucuman and Salta. 1 itiaflsi^— Bi)'^l 
1814 — Spanish garrison expelled fromiMontevideo. " * " ' ' 

1 8 1 5 — Campaign of Artigas in Banda-.Griental . 

1816 — ^Declaration, of Argentine Independence, at Tucuman, Jiily9th. 
1818 — General San Martin beats the Spaniards at Maypu, and eman- 
cipates Chile. • ' '-''-^ ' ^ "> - ■ ■ 
1821 — He liberates Peru, and enters Limaih triumph. 
1821 — ^Banda Oriental aolieied to Brazil. ) ^rs.'^nuC oit>yi/. 
1825 — ^Revolution of Lavalleja and thirty-two others. .-'■'■ 'T " ■• ' H 
1825 — Fructos Rivero beats the Brazilians at Rincon'Gallinas. 
1826 — Buenos Ayrefe declares Avar against Brazil.. ' I' .; . . '•'^' 
1826 — Admiral Brown chastises the Brazilians. \'ii>'iiul. 
1826 — Rivadavia introduces many reforms. -.-i-- i .JAu&X -lOi .. 
1827 — Alvear beats the Brazilians at Ituzaingo.. fcii^QB'ifi^J nroil f.i^fi^l 
1828 — Brazil gives up Bauda Oriental, and makes peaceil faoil rXomiH 
1828 — England guarantees the independence of Band^lOrictiftalofl-s*;'!/ 
1830 to 1852— .Civil wars, and tyranny of Rosas. ; -" 'A ■' \ oroliifAr 
1852 — Rosas overthrown by Urquiz a. . • .. "i }. 
1853 — Urquiza expelled from Buenos Ayresf. 

1856 — Introduction of gas. , ^ ■ ■ = ' . ' 

1857 — lAVestern Railway inaugurated ;. tJje first iu. these countritei.ncH 
1859 — Battle of iCepeda : Buenos Ajtcs capitulates. ;] .nih .. 
1860 — Buenos Ayres re-enters the Argentine Confederatioii.'* 
1861 — Dreadful earthquake at Mendoza. i 



152 WORKS ON THE RIVEB PLATE. 

1861 — Battle of Pavon : gained by General Mitre. 

1862 — Northern Railway works commenced. 

1 862 — General Mitre unanimously elected President. 

1863 — Flores invades the Banda Oriental. 

1 863— Inauguration of Central Argentine Railway works at Rosario. 

1864 — Brazil invades the Banda Oriental. 

1864 — Southern Railway, to Chascomus, begun. 

1865 — Montevideo surrenders. 
: 1865 — Paraguay declares war. 

1865 — Boca and Ensenada Railway opened to Barracas. 

1866 — The Allied army (Argentines, Brazilians, and Orientals) invade 
Paraguay. 

1866 — Electric cable laid across the River Plate. 

1867 — Siege of Humaiti. 

1867 — Government-house at Buenos Ayres twice burned. 

1868 — General Flores murdered at Montevideo. 

1868— Paraguayans abandon Humaita. 

1868 — Water-Avorks begun at Btifenos Ayres. 

1868 — Don Domingo F. Sarmiento elected President. 

WORKS PUBLISHED OK THE RIVER PLATE. 

. Schmidel's Conquest of La Plata, in 1534. Nuremberg, 1559. - 

Alvaro Nufiez's Commentaries. Madrid, 1560. ^-^5 

History of Paraguay and La Plata. By Buy Diaz dc Guzman. 1573. 
Jesuit Missions. By Charleroix and Guevara. 
Relation of R. M.'s Voyage to Buenos Ayres, &c. London, 1716. • 
Muraturi's missions. (English translation). London, 1759. 
Father Faulkner's Patagonia, in Latin. England, 1774. ' 

Letters from Paraguay. By John C. Davie. London, 1805. ' 
Travels from Buenos Ayres to Lima, &c. By A. Z. Helms. London, 1806. 
Vice-Royalty of Buenos Ayres. By Sam. H. Wilcocke. London, 1807. 
Whitelocke^s Expedition. By an Officer. London, 1808. 
Rio de la Plata. By Felix Azara. Paris, 1809. 
Dean Funes's History of Paraguay, &c. Buenos Ayres, 1816. 
Captain Head's Ride Across the Pampas. London, 1828. 
Humboldt's Travels in South America. Price, 12s. C^d. London, 1831. 
The Chaco and Rio Yermejo. By Arenales. Buenos Ayres, 1833. 
Castelnau's Expedition to Sonth America. Paris, 1836. 
Plata — Staaten. By Kerst. Berlin. 
Robertson's Letters on Paraguay. Edinburgh, 1838. 



WORKS OIV THE RIVER PLATE. 155 

Pedro do Angelis's Records of Buenos Ayres. Buenos Ayres, 1839. 

Robertson's Francia's Reign of Terror. London, 1840. 

Id., Letters on South America. London, 1843. 

Researches by Fitzroy and Darwin. London, 1844. 

M'Cann's Adventures in the Pampas. Dublin, 1846. 

Colonel King's Souvenirs of Buenos Ayres. New York, 1847. 

D'Orbigny's Scientific Travels. Paris, 1847. 

Buenos Ayres, from the Conquest. By Sir W. Parish, London, 1852, 

Map of the Republic of Uruguay. By General Reyes. Montevideo, 1853. 

Mansfield's Paraguay and River Plate, London, 1854. 

La Province de Buenos Ayres, Par Heusser et Claraz. Zurich, 1854. 

Commander Page's La Plata. New York, 1856. 

Celebridades Argentinas. Buenos Ayres, 1859. 

La Confederation Argentine. By M. de Moussy. Paris, 1860. 

The Argentine Republic. By Colonel Du Graty. Brussels, 1861. 

Republic of Paraguay. By the same, Brussels, 1862. 

M'Coll's Guide to Montevideo. Price„3.s. Qd. London, 1862. 

Hinchcliff's South American Sketches. Price, 12."?, 6rf. London, 1862. 

Handbook to the River Plate. By M. G. & E. T. Mulhall. Buenos 
Ayres, 1863. 

Rickard's Journey Across the Andes. Price, 7s. 6d. London, 1863, 

Historia Argentina. ByDominguez. Buenos Ayres, 1864. 

Burmeister's Travels in the Provinces. Berlin, 1864. 

Alberdi on the Argentine Republic, Paris, 1864, 

Pillado's Guia de Buenos Ayres, Price, ^50 m^^. Buenos Ayres, 1864. 

Hutchinson's Argentine Gleanings. Price, 16s, 6rf. London, 1866. 

Solveyra's Street Directory. Price, $80 m^. Buenos Ayres, 1866. 

Palliere's River Plate Album. 52 plates. g500m^fc, Buenos Ayres, 1866. 

An Account of Paraguay. By Ch. Quentin. London, 1866. 

Map of Province of Buenos Ayres. Topographical Department, ^^^^^^^b- 
Buenos Ayres, 1866, 

States of the River Plate. By W. Latham. Price, 12s. London, 1867. 

The Argentine Alps. By Ross Johnston. London, 1867. 

Modern Paraguay. By M. Poucel, Paris, 1867. 

Map of City of Buenos Ayres. Topographical Department. §500 m^. 
Buenos Ayres, 1868. 

Random Sketches of Buenos Ayres. Edinburgh, 1868. 

Life in the Argentine Republic. By His Excellency President Sarmiento. 
Price, 8s. New^ York, 1868. 

Hadfield's Visit to La Plata. Price, 10s. M. London, 1868. 



154 PRESS OF LA PLATA. 

. ■ t - 

RIVER PLATE NEWSPAPERS. 

". Buenos Ayres. ' .^. 

The Tribuna was established in 1854 by Hector and Mariano Yarela, sons 
of the distinguished writer D. Floreneio Yarela. It is the first paper in 
the River Plate, as regards influence and circulation. It appears every 
morning; subscription §40 a month. Circulation 5,000. 

The Repiiblica was established in 1867 by Mr. Bernheim, and has been 
very successful as an experiment of a cheap press. It appears every 
morning; subscription, §25 a month. Circulation, 4,000. 

The Nacion Argentina vfdiS established in 1862, by Dr. Jose Maria Gutierrez, 
and was regarded as the official organ of General Mitre's administration. 
It appears every morning ; subscription, §40 a month. Circulation, 2,000. 

The Nacional is the oldest paper in Buenos Ayres, having beei^ established 
in 1853. Among its editors, at various times, have been General Mitre, 
Pres. Sarmiento, Dr. V. Sarsfield, Dr. Avellaneda, and other leading public 
men. It appears every evening, subscription $40 a month. Circulation, 2,000. 

The Standard ^\ as established in 1861 by Michael and Edward Thomas 
Mulhall, being the first English daily ever published in South America. It 
has three editions, the Dailf/ for Buenos Ayres and Montevideo, the Week!?/ 
for the country departments, the Fortnightly for Europe : subscription 
for Daily §.30, for Weekly §200 a. year; Fortnightly £1 a year. 
Circulation, 3,000. 

The Courrier de la Plata was established by JI. Legout in 1864, as the 
organ of the French population. It appears every morning ; subscription, 
§30 a month. Circulation, 1,200. . , i 

The JKsp«/i«, a tri- weekly organ of the Spanish.residents. \l 

The America, a new daily paper ; subscription, §30. log 

The Deutsche Zeititng wan established in 1866, its present editor being 
Mr. Napp. It appears every morning ; subscription, §30 a month. 
. Th^e Nazio7ie Italiana was established in 1868, by Dr. Bianchi. It appears 
every morning : subscription, §30 a month. 

The Intereses Argentines is a paper of a religious character. It was 
established in 1868 ; subscription, §30 a month. il" 

The Mosquito is a weekly 'charivari,' illustrated. . It was established in 
1863; subscription, §20 a month. • 

The Revista de Buenos Ayres is a valuable monthly periodical, established! 
iu 1862, by Drs. Navarro Viola and Quesada ; subscription ,§30 a month. 

The Bevista Argentina, established in 1868, by Jose M. Estrada, is similar 
to the last. Appears fortnightly ; subscriptions, §30 a month. ) 



PRESS OF MOJITE VIDEO. 155 

Annates de la Sociedad Ritral is the name of a monthly farming gazette, 
published by the Rural Society. 

Montevideo. 

The ^jjr/o was first established in 1863, but suppressed by Government 
in the following year. It re-appeared in 1865, under M. Vaillant, and is 
now edited by Dr. Eamirez. It appears every morning ; subscription ^1 a 
month. Circulation, 2,000. 

The Tribuna was established by Colonel Bustamante in 1866, and is 
edited by Seuor Tavolara. It is considered the olBcial paper. It appears 
every morning; subscription, %1 a month. Circulation, 1,500. There 
is an evening edition called the Tribunita. 

The Telegrafo Maritimo is an old established shipping gazet-te, published 
every afternoon by D. Juan Buela. 

The Merca/itil del PkUa was established in 1868, and appears every 
morning. 

The Orden is a morning paper, edited by Sr. Gordillo. 

The Progreso is a small evening paper, also of recent date. 

Rosario. 
The Capital is a daily paper, established in 1868. 
The Federal ista, also new, appears likewise daily. 

Cordoba . 
The Eco de Cordoba is the only daily paper in the interior. 

. Entre-Rios.\ i 
The Urugvay published at Concepcion, is edited by Sr. Victorica. It is 
considered General Urquiza's official orga^, aj^ appears daily. 

The Sonanario, official organ, appears weekly at Asuncion. 
The Cabiehuy, is a weekly 'charivari.' -- * . - ' 

There are numerous smalls weekly papers puDlished m the provincial 
towns, Tiz.: at 3an. Juan,(Mendoza, Salta, Tucuman, Corrientes, Parana, 
Santa F6, Salto, P.aygandu, Colonia, &c. 



156 



MOWEYS, WEIGHTS, MEASURES 



CHAP. XIY. 



MONEYS, WEIGHTS, MEASUREjS, AND DISTANCES. 

BUENOS AYAES. 

Ire Buenos Ayres the basis of the currency is the paper dollar or «peso,)) 
>vorth 2</. English, 25 «pesos» being equal to a hard dollar, such as used 
in North America. In all exchange operations, and the like, only specie is 
used, the sovereign being taken for ^4 90c. silver, or for $122^ paper. 
The gold coins of England, North America, France, Spain, and Brazil are a 
legal tender throughout the Republic, at the following rates : — 

Silver. Paper. 

Sovereign, $4.90 .... $122^ 

3.90 

9.25 

1 1 .00 

, • 10.00 

16.00 



Twenty Francs, . . 
Chilian Condor, . . 
Twenty Milreis, . . 
United States Eagle, 



Doubloon, 



97i 
231i 
275 
250 
400 



In the upper provinces almost all transactions are carried on in Bolivian 
silver, the value of which slightly fluctuates at times. The Bolivian dollar 
averages about 3s. English, or twenty-one to the doubloon. 



WEIGHTS AIS'D MEASURES. 157 



The weights and measures are — 
I Arrobe, equal to 25tt 

4 Arrobes, do., I Quintal. 

20 Quintals, do., 1 Ton. 

80 Arrobes, do., 1 Ton. 

2000!i, do., I Ton. 



1 Vara, equal to 34 English inches. 

1 Cuadra, do., 150 Varas. 

40 do., do., 1 League. 

6000 Varas, do., 1 Leag^ue. 

1 Sq. League, do., 6500 Eng. acres. 



It will be seen that a Spanish ton is 240tt less than an English ton. The 
Spanish league is vulgarly taken to represent three miles, but it is fully 
three and a-quarter miles. The cuadra, in measuring land, is always 150 
varas, but some of the provincial towns are built in cuadras or blocks of 
100 or 120 varas. In calculating distances, twelve cuadras may be esti- 
mated as an English mile. The superficial cuadra covers about four acres, 
and is also called a (cmanzana : » there aye 1,600 «maiizanas)) in a square 
league of land. A wsuerto) of estancia usually measures one and a-half 
leagues long, by half a league wide, comprising 27,000,000 square varas : 
a square league of land contains 36,000,000 varas. 

MOTE VIDEO. 

Before the suspension of specie payments, 1867, the currency was fixed 
on the basis of a dollar worth 52rf. English, or 4 per cent, more than 
the North American dollar. At present, October 1868, the currency is at 
a discount of 15 per cent. ; but the former value of the currency, in rela- 
tion with foreign currency, was — 





,MonteTidean $. 




Montevidean $. 


Mexican dollar, 


.,..' 0.96 


Twenty Milreis, . . . 


10.56 


Sovereign, 


.... 4.70 


United States Eagle, 


9.60 


Twenty Francs, 


3.74 


Doubloon, 


15.60 


Chilian Condor, 


8.88 


i 





The weights and measures are the same as in Buenos Ayres ; but the 
cuadras in the city are only 100 varas square. The French metrical system 
is being gradually introduced, and building lots are sometimes sold by the 
metre, which is three inches longer than an English yard. In measuring 
land the cuadra is fixed at 100 varas, so that a league is said to be sixty 
cuadras long, and a superficial league to contain 3,600 raanzanas : of course 
the league is exactly the same length as in Buenos Ayres. 

PARAGUAY. 

Before the war the currency of the country consisted partly of doubloons 
and partly paper dollars, all accounts being payable by laAV in half and half. 
The paper dollar, in 1864, was worth about half-a-crown English, or 



158 



TABLE OF DISTANCES. 



twenty-five to the doubloon ; say 64 cfeots. silver. No foreign cqnvhad 
circulation in the couritry. Antuiuij i / ,\ 

The tabjle of weights is th6 same as in Buenos Ayres. , The land measure 
is very different — . - 



1 League, equal to 5,000 Varas. 
1 Cuerda, do., S^ do. 

1 League, do., GO Cuerdas. 

1 Sq. League, do., 3,600 manzanas. 



I Manzana, equal to IJ Eng. acres. 
I Sq. League, do., 25,000,000 sq. v. 
1 Sq. League, do,., ,! - 4,500 acres 



TABLE OF DISTATVCES FROM BUENOS AYRES. 






London, 
Lisbon, 
Cape Verde, 
Pernambuco, 
Bahia, .... 
l^.^^jjRio Janeiro, 
„.:,„ New Yai'k, 
, . ■ St. Thomas, 
'/ Para, .... 



■>([)• 1.; 



Spanish Leagfues. 

. .. 2,500 
... 2,200 
... 1,550 
.:. 850 
... 700 
... 450 
... 2,300 

!,800 

1,250 



01:1 -10 0,01 

Spanish Leagues. 



"' IRosario (S. Fe) 

'^^^ahta Fe, '^'y!?! 

Parana, .... 

Californian Colony, 



Cape San Roque, .... 920 '' 

Rio Grandp do Sul 150 '^ 

Montevideo, VU'; " 40* 
Bahia Blanca, J^:'^"- ^00 

Welsh Colony, 350 

Falkland Islands, 450 

Magellan's Straits, 600 ' 

Cape Horn, 680 

t tail ; t/f^n *i'^q f- \ lo Jiiuooj^ib b 
River Paranivfr ,r>tvyv*u'-, v :\'nr;\t\\\4t jf..ji 
75 



La Paz, 



ill i;^/fe iH')nt:>m ibnf>-il oi'' 

9ii1 /irfe^ Boeas;' ^i c^v^ 

T>fHf'rHumayta, i'iti. 

Rio Vermejo, mouth, 

'MM Villa Pilar, 

Tebiquary, mouth, 

Villa Franca, 

Villa Oliva, 

Asuncion, .... 

Rosario, 

San Pedro, 

Concepcion, .... 



U1 
115' ' 

.... 160 

U(I iir W; •->'■•■ 

River Paraguay. 



Esqtliria, 
Goya, .... 
Bella Vista,- 
Corrientes, 



180 
210 
230 






nhcij,'> 



278 
280 
290 
300 
315 
340 
.365 
380 
400 



Salvadof, ' 
Rio Appa, mouth, 
Siete Puntas, 
Pan do Azucajf ,;,,*/« 
Fort Olympo, 
Rio Negro, mouth, 
Fort Coimbra, 
Albuquerque, 
Curumba, 
Guy aba. 



420 

440 
450 
460 
475 
500 
510 
530 
555 
6i0 



i^.i 
in 



TABLE OP DISTANCES. 

.frj-io7 

upper Par and. 



159 



Paso la Patria, . -. . , 270 
Falls of Apipe, '('i7.o/o310 
Trauquerade Loreto, 315 
Itapua *fe Caadelaria, 



ooijcli 



id 



FrayBentos, 

Rio >'egro, mouth 

Gualeguaychii, 

Concepcion, 

Pavsandii, 

Concordia, 

Salto, ...-. 

«.j .... .... 

Frayle -Maerto , ''..".. 
Rio Cuarto, .... 
Cordoba, • '^' '.V.'. 

Mendoza; • . .•'. . 

The Andes, 

San Juan,. w • • 

Klappenba^h's mines, 



335 

River 

20 

40 

50 

70 

80 
108 

upper 

100 

130 

150 

170 

225 

2/0, , 

•^45 

270 



Falls of Guritiba, 
Rio Tacuari, mouth, 
Salto d^ Guayra, . . . 

Uruguay. 

Santa Rosa, ... 
Uruguay ana. 
La Cruz, 

Itaqui, 

Santo Tome, . ... 
San Borja, 



400 

425 
450 



140 
160 
180 
182 
207 
208 



:.;?ni 



Provinces. 



t'KJi 



Hilurio woi'ks, .... ' 255 

Rrioja, ■'"250 

tiatamarca, '.IV 260 
Tacuman; •'• • . 270 
Santiago del Estero^ 220 
Salta, 310 

Of*an, Rio.^Vermejp,^j _ j,^pO 



Provinc(^ of^ B^uenos'^Aifrcs. 
South. 



Cauuelas, 

San Vicente, — . 
Lobos, .... .... 

jN'avapro, . • • • « 

' Guardia Mon^e,^. i . . 

Rauchos, - .... 



Chascomus^ 
25 de Mayo, 
Paso de Rocha, 
Las Flores, 
Dolores, 
Ensenada, 
Magdalena, 
Tuyu, .... 
Montes Grandes, 
Tandil, 



•re 



11 

10 

18 

19 

20 



32 
39 
10 
19 
46 
59 
60 






Tapalqueu, ;^. ., „,|.jf;^.. 
Sierra Quillalanqueo, 

Azul, .... 

Arroyo Chapaleofii, 

31ar Chiquita, 

Sierra Tiuta, .... 
Cinco Lomas; .... 
Liberia, 

Cape Corrientes> , 
Laguna ^os Padres, 
Necochea, .... 

yirroyo Pillahuinco, 
Tres Arroyos, .... 
Sierra La Ventana, 
Bahia Blanca, .... 



. 48 
62 
55 
52 
66 
69 
70 
65. 
78 
74 
80 
90 
98 
103 
115 



160 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE. 



North. 



Pilar, 


10 


Cepeda, 


43 


Capilla, 


14 


Arroyo Medio, . . . 


46 


Zarate, 


16 


Arroyo Pavon, . . . 


48 


Giles, 


20 


Arrecifes, . . . . 


33 


San Antonio, 


21 


Fortin Areco, . . . . 


27 


Baradero, 


27 


Salto, 


3i 


San Pedro, 


... 31 


Pergamino, . . . . 


42 


Obligado, 


35 


Rojas, .... 


43 


Las Hermanas, . 


39 


Fort Chaflar, 


56 


Kamallo, 


44 


Fort Melincue, . . . . 


60 


San Nicobs, 


45 


India Maerta, 

iSt. 


61 


Rodriguez, 


10 


Chacabuco, 


36 


Lujan, 


13 


Junin, 


45 


Mercedes, 


... 20 


Fort Ranch, 


44 


Freyre, 


... 2$ 


Nueve de Julio, . . . 


48 


Gorostiaga, 


... 28 


Tigre Muerto, 


55 


Chivilcoy, 


31 


Fort Vallimanca, . . . 


47 


Bragado, 


... 39 


Saiadillo, 


33 



METEOROLOGICAL. 

The following are the results of meteorological observations, taken by 
the aid of one of Messrs. Negretti &Zambra's minimum and maximum self- 
registering thermometers (Fahrenheit), exposed in the shade during the 
month of March at Rosario, from April to June at Montevideo, and from 
July to September at Buenos A^res: — 



Monthly range, . . 
Greatest diurnal range, 
Average do., do., 
Highest maximum, . . 
Lowest do.,.. 
Average do.,. . 
Highest minimum, 
Lowest do., 
Average do.. 
Mean averages, . . 



__. 








■ 


2 




v« 


•r 


s^ 


■ ^ 


^ 


^ 


■•• 


« 




«• 


►^ 


^ 


-^ ■ 


V3 


51 


26 


25 


28 


26 


25 


18 


43 


24 


18 


21 


14 


14 


9 


20 


10 


9 


■ 7 


9 


7 


5 


98 


77 


71 


72 


65 


66 


63 


68 


57 


55 


49 


48 


49 


52 


80 


68 


63 


.59 


54 


58 


58 


77 


67 


61 


62 


50 


61 


59 


47 


51 


46 


44 


39 


41 


45 


64 


58 


54 


51 


44 


51 


53 


72 


63 


59 


55 


49 


54 


56 



ADVICE TO EMIGRA1NT3. 161 



CHAP. XT. 
ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 

WHO TO COME, AKD WHO TO STAY AT HOME. 

The Eiver Plate offers a fine field for immigrants, as is proved by the 
thousands of Europeans here who have gained fortune and position during 
the last twenty years. Yet it sometimes happens that individuals come out 
to Buenos Ayres, throwing up a good livelihood, and being ignorant of the 
language and unwilling at first to trough it,)) grow disgusted and return to 
England sadder but not wiser men. " It is, therefore, absolutely necessary 
to bear in mind the classes of emigrants most needed in a new country : — 
1st. Farm servants — unmarried men, of strong constitutions, sober, 
steady, accustomed to country life, and able to stand rain and sun. Their 
occupation here would be the care of sheep, and as our Hocks make up a 
total of sixty millions, doubling every four years, at least tAventy thousand 
of this class will find immediate employment at £20 per annum, being 
found in house, provisions, horses, &c. After two or three years, they 
usually get a flock of sheep with third profits, and ultimately become 
independent farmers. 

2nd. Cooks and housemaids — unmarried women of good conduct and 
some experience in house-keeping, although ignorant of Spanish, are much 
in request. Five hundred would at once get situations in native or foreign 
families, at £25 to £35 per annum. They often get married to the above 
class of shecpfarmers. 

3rd. Young married couples — when unencumbered with family, this 
class is in greater demand than any other, and always preferred, on the 



162 ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 

ground of steadiness. The husband must act either as sheep-peon or 
gardener, and the wife as cook. If they hire on an estancia in Buenos 
Ayres their joint wages may be calculated at £45 per annum, but if they 
go to Banda Oriental, Entre-Rios, or the other Provinces, tliey will 
earn £80. 

4th. Speculators — we want some wide-awake, practical men, possessing 
money and experience. We have no manufactures in the River Plate. We 
want a paper mill, a woollen manufactory, omnibuses to ply throujih the 
city, pleasure gardens, an English theatre, and fifty other enterprises 
which would handsomely pay the originators. 

The above are the classes actually wanted, but some others might possibly 
better themselves by coming hither. For instance, there is room for half- 
a-dozen English physicians in the 'camp' ; a few mechanics might get good 
w ages in the interior ; printers are always wanted in Buenos Ayres ; some 
sober coachmen may also come out, and a good teacher of music or 
languages will find plenty to do. 

It may be needful to specify the classes not wanted — 

1st. Lawyers, land surveyors, newspaper reporters, and graduates of 
universities. The first two are debarred from practising, until they go 
through a course of studies in the universities of these countries and take 
out degrees here. This involves three years, and is not worth the trouble. 
Reporters, if even they knew Spanish, would get nothing to do, there 
being no meetings, law-trials, lectures, &c., to report. Graduates are 
proverbially useless, for a man may have Homer and Yirgil by heart, and 
be obliged to sell orauges for a living. 

2nd. Clerks and shop assistants. Some of this class come out to seek 
their fortune and generally return. They are ignorant of Spanish, 
and therefore both helpless and useless : moreover the English houses 
bring out their own clerks, and look with distrust on strangers. , Half a 
dozen youths understanding Spanish and their business, might fall into a 
drapery or grocery, at £60 a year. As a class, however, they are 
not Av anted. 

3rd. Unemployed gentlemen. If these men have sufficient money to buy 
a flock of siieep, it is likely they will get disgusted, and sell out at a loss. 
If they have not, they are out of element, not willing to Avork hard, and 
desiring some lucrative post which they would be unable to fill. 

4th. Tradesmen with large families. Most handicrafts being exercised 
by French, Italian, or Spanish operatives, it is not likely an English tailor, 
bootmaker or carpenter would find wages so much better than at home, 
comparatively with the value of money in both countries, as to be worth 



STEAM LINES TO LA PLATA. 163- 

the change. If he has a few hundred pounds, to start for himself, he may 
possibly get on, but if he has a large family and no ready money, he will 
find himself much worse than at home. 

5th. Fast young men. If there were a law prohil)iting the importation of 
this class, it would be a service to the country and to themselves. The • 
British Hospital and Policia can tell of many locked up for drunkenness^ 
and finally dying in adelirium tremens,)) for this climate cuts them off 
with extraordinary rapidity. 

We have now pointed out distinctly ihe classes which are sure to get on 
well ; and also those which must come here only to be sadly disappointed. 
If the immigrant has little self conceit, and a' good temper, he will find 
friends everywhere. If strictly sober and honest, he is sure to thrive. 
It is perfectly immaterial yyhether he be Catholic or Protestant. A good 
education is not virtually a disadvmtage. The climate is the finest on 
earth, and persons who come out young speedily accustom themselves. 
The distance from Europe is very great, and those yyho cast their fortunes 
here have little chance of seeing the Old World again, not one in a 
hundred ever returning. Still the country has so many advantages, and 
the people are in general so kind, that whomc sickness)) is hardly known. 

STEAM SERVICE TO THE RIVER PLATE. 

A feyy years ago there was but one line of steamers plying to Brazil and 
the Biver Plate, viz. : the Boyal Mail from Southampton. At present there 
are seven lines, viz.: the Southampton, Liverpool (2), London, Bordeaux,, 
Marseilles, and Neyv York steamboat services. 

1 . The Boyal Mail Company despatch a steamer on the morning of the 
9th of every month, from Southampton, or on the 10th if the previous day 
be Sunday. This line has been running over tyventy years : the vessels 
are large and commodious. Fares — 1st class, £35 and upwards: return 
tickets, available for tyvelve months, issued at a fare and a-half ; 2nd class^ 
£25, good accommodation ; but this class is not alloyved to mix with the 
first or go on the quarter-deck. Bed, bedding, plate, and utensils provided 
for both classes. A reduction of one-sixth is alloyved for families of foiu^- 
or more persons travelling first-class. The steamer calls at Lisbon, Gape- 
Verds, Bahia, and Pernambuco : at Rio Janeyro passengers for the Biver 
Plate are transhipped to the Arno. The voyage occupies thirty-one days to 
Montevideo, and thirty-two to Buenos Ayres. For regulations about 
luggage, &c., see the company's pamphlet, given gratis on application, 
either personally or by letter, to Captain Vincent, Superintendent, South- 
ampton ; OFj to J. M. Lloyd, Esq., 55 Moorgate Street, London, E.G. 

m2 



r?64 ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 

"2,. The Meiisageries Imperiales, or French mail line from Bordeaux, 
«stablislied in 1861, also carry a monthly mail, leaving Bordeaux on the 
"^blh, and making the voyage in the same number of days as the 
^Southampton line. At Bio Janeyro passengers are in like manner tran- 
shipped to the Aunis for the Biver Plate. Few Englishmen come by this 
ihie^ but if a person wishes to visit Paris «en passant)) he can reach 
Bordeaux from London in two days. The vessels call at Lisbon, Goree, 
IJahia, Pernambuco, and Bio Janeyro : they are not so large as the Boyal 
Miiil Steamers. First cabin, including wine, £50. Second cabin, £20. 
^Iffice— Messrs. Fletcher & Co., Liverpool, and 3Iessrs. Home, 4 iMoorgate 
St., London. 

13. The Liverpool and Biver Plate Mail Company despatch a steamer 
from Liverpool ou the 20th of each month, calling at Lisbon, Bahia, and 
Wki& Janeyro, and coming on to the Biver'Plate without any transhipment of 
^^^aissengers : they usually make the passage in tAventy-eight days. The 
treatment and accommodation on board are excellent. The line Avas 
*»s£ablished in 1863, and in 1868 obtained a mail charter from the British 
Coverument. First cabin, £35. Second cabin, £25. Steerage, £16: 
She 1st and 2nd classes are found in everything ; steerage passengers get 
rations on the emigration dietary scale. Agents, Messrs. Lamport and 
Molt, 2 1 Water St. , and Messrs. Wright & Kelso, 7 Tower buildings, Water St., 
iiycrpool. Mr. Lloyd of the latter lirm is Argeutiiie Yice-Cousul, and will 
|s*ive any information required. The Company's steamers are the following : 
ll'jcho Brahe, 1858 tons; Hipparchus, 1840; Kepler, 1499; Galileo, 1525; 
:¥ewton, 1074; Ptolemy, 1115; Halley, 1347; Donati, 1182; Humboldt, 
1316; Gassini, 836; Flamsteed, 1376; Copernicus, 1397; Saladin, 510; 
.Ironsides, 691 ; La Plata, 1393; La Place, 1194. Beduction for families. 
-Seturn- ticket, for twelve months, at a fare and a-half. 

i. The New York and Brazilian Mail Company despatch a monthly 
:rlt6amer from New York, which calls at St. Thomas's, Para, Pernambuco, 
*«M Bahia, arriving at Bio Janeyro in twenty-four days. The line was 
established in 1866, and has a subsidy from the American and Brazilian 
jGovernmeuts. It is proposed to have a branch line to the Biver Plate. 
First class from New Y'ork to Bio, £50. 

'S. The London, Belgium, Brazil and Biver Plate Mail Company despatch a 
^steamer from London, with English mails, which takes the Belgian mails at 
Ani werp , and receives passengers for South America at Falmouth on the 3rd of 
each month. The line was started by Messrs. Tait Brothers, of Limerick, in 
P. 857, and has some fine new steamers with superior accommodation. The 
City of Bio Janeyro has made one of the quickest passages to Brazil ou 



STEAM LliNES TO LA PLATA. 1€£» 

record : the other vessels are — the City of Limerick, City of Brussels, and 
City of Buenos Ayres. The departures are — from Loudon, 28th;; 
Antwerp, 1st; Falmouth, 3rd; arriving at Rio Jaueyro in about twentjr 
days, and proceeding to the River Plate without transhipping passengers.^ 
Fares, £35, £25, and £16, first and second classes found in every thii^ r 
the usual reduction for families ; return tickets at a fare and a-half» 
Agents — London, Managing owners, M^essrs. Tait & Co. ; Brokers, A.. 
Howden & Co. Antwerp, Consignee, B. de Vleeshouwer; Broker, E. I^ 

Isenbaert. Rio Janeyro, Consignee, Thomas Holicombe, Esq, ; Broker 

Montevideo, Consignees, Messrs. Zimmerman, Fair & Co. ;^ Broker, J. R- 
Schwartz. Buenos Ayres, Consignee, Messrs. Zimmerman, Fair & Co.- 
Brokers, Woodgate Brothers. 

6. The Pacific iN'avigation Company despatch a steamer from Liverpool ce 
the 19th of every alternate month, for Valparaiso, calling at Rio Janeiro a^cK 
Montevideo ; the voyage to the River Plate is made in twenty-four days„ 
the vessels beiug constructed for great speed. The Company was 
established in 1868, and has a subsidy from the Chilian Government. 

7. The Marseilles line, called «Societe de Transports Maritimes,* 
despatches a monthly steamer from Genoa, calling at Marseilles, Gibraltar^ 
Bahia and Rio Janeyro, and making the voyage to Montevideo in twenty- 
eight days. The vessels are large and well appointed, viz. : the Bourgogne.. 
Picardie, Poitou, etc., each 3.000 tons register. Fares: from Genoa. £5^^ 
£33, £i6--from Marseilles or Gibraltar, £48, £31, and £16. Agents m 
Buenos Ayres, Messrs. Bonnemason & Heydeckcr, Calle Bolivar. 

There are also sailing vessels, of about 300 tons register, always on tife 
berth at London or Liverpool, to receive cargo and passengers for Moi^e- 
video and Buenos Ayres. The passenger fare is usually £13,. tlic 
accommodation pretty good, and the voyage is made in about sixty days^ 
For particulars apply to Messrs. Nuttall, Mors &Co., Liverpool ; or to Messrs. 
Howden & Sons, 19 Birchin Lane, London. 

IN'o passport is required on landing in the River Plate, but if tBc; 
emigrant has no friends here, it would be well for him to bring a certificate 
of baptism or other document shewing his name and nationality. le. 
receiving letters at the Post-office, taking out a marriage license, receiving 
money from home, &:c. positive proof of identity is of course required, and 
as passage tickets are often lost, and letters of introduction only used for 
the moment, an official document is more valuable. Some persons procisre 
a letter from the Foreign Office to our diplomatic or consular represen- 
tatives, but it is hardly worth tlie trouble, and leads, at best, to aot 
invitation to dinner. 



166 ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 

As to letters of introduction they are useful, and as many may be 
brought as choice may dictate. But let it not be supposed that they will 
always avail to procure a situation for the bearer. Merchants are often 
«bored» by a dozen such recommendations, on the arrival of the packet. 
Irish emigrants should invariably bring letters to the head of their 
countrymen here, Y. Rev. Canon Fahy. 

Packing up the trunk is a serious consideration : vfe advise the reader to 
provide himself with an abundant supply of clothing and comforts, not 
only for the voyage, but because they cost here tliree times their value in 
England, and may be introduced duty free. They must be bona-fide for 
personal use and marked with the owner's name, to avoid suspicion of 
smuggling. A box of kid gloves or roll of silk would be exposed to Custom- 
house seizure, but shirts and clothing (marked) incur no risk. A gun or 
revolver, saddle and equipments should not be omitted, and if not required 
afterwards may be sold at a profit ; but no more than one is permitted, and 
we caution passengers against the false idea of bringing out boots, fire- 
arms, &c., on speculation. A dozen linen suits will be found useful on 
board when near the tropics, and always come in well for summer 
wear here. 

LETTERS OF CREDIT. 

We should advise emigrants who intend bringing money with them, to 
jdo so by means of a Letter of Credit. This may easily be obtained 
through almost every Bank in England and Scotland, on the London 
and River Plate, or jMaua Banks of this city, and 3Iontevideo (B. Oriental). 
And in Ireland from any of the various branches of the National Bank of 
Ireland which also grants Letters of Credit on the above Banks. The 
agents in Buenos Ayres of thelNational Bank are Messrs. \Vauklyn & Co. 

The above Credits may be obtained for a trilling charge for commission, 
if the amount be under £500 ; and if over that sum, we believe free of 
any charge Avhatever. The party taking a Letter of Credit will always 
receive a duplicate, wiiich he should leave at home with his friends in 
case of his losing the original, or the ship being lost. 

This course we can with conlidence recommend to our friends as being 
the best and safest, and one that does not in any way involve the possibility 
of a loss, whilst by the old and foolish system of carrying gold about the 
person a man runs the risk of losing it, or being robbed, and if the ship 
is lost for a certainty loses his money also. Wliereas by the Letter of 
Clredit system even should the ship be lost, his friends at home have stil 



INSTRUCTIONS ON LANDING. 167 

got the duplicate Letter of Credit, by which they can obtain the money 
deposited. 

INSTRUCTIONS ON LA7SDING. 

Passengers by the mail-steamers are usually landed in a little steamboat, 
but failing this it will be necessary to take a whaleboat (M'Lean's are the 
best), and be sure to bargain with the boatman before leaving the ship : his 
charge will depend on the weather, say §20 to §50 a head. On no account 
let any of your luggage be separated from you, or you may lose it. 
Reaching the mole you will be assailed by an impetuous gang of porters ; 
pick out one of them, count for him the number of your trunks, and let 
him get others to help him if he like : he will charge probably $5 or §10 
a trunk to take them to your hotel. At the Resguardo, near the end of the 
mole, you will have to open your trunk for examination; if you do so 
with good grace you will find the officials most polite and anxious to save 
you any trouble. If you have cigars, silks, jewellery, or fire-arms, you 
had better declare the same. On arriving at your hotel if you have any 
difficulty with the porters about vour luggage, ask the landlord to settle 
Avith them. You will find the hotels very cheap and good, the charge for 
bed and board not exceeding eight shillings a day, unless you take a sitting 
room, which you will find very dear. Place your card with the number of 
your room in the frame at the stair's foot. Lock your room Avhenever you 
go out, leaving the key with the porter : lock it also at ni^ht. If any of 
your trunks have been detained at the Resguardo or sent to the Custom- 
house, lose no time to employ Mr. Hill, of 76 Calle Defensa, or some other 
respectable broker, to clear them for you : the cost will be trifling, unless 
duties be enforced, in which case they will amount to 23 per cent, on the 
value of the article. 

The change cf climate will necessarily oblige you to be careful as to 
your manner of living. Rise early, take "a cold bath every morning, beware 
of walking about much in the sun, and remember that there are frequent 
changes of temperature even in one day. Flannel singlets, light clothing 
and a straw hat are advisable in summer mouths. At all seasons the 
mornings are frequently cold, necessitating warm clothing. Be very 
careful of a cut finger or other trifling wound, which must be kept closely 
bandaged : it is sometimes very hard to heal a small cut, if the air get into 
it, and we have unfortunately many cases of lockjaw from a mere scratch 
not attended to. It is also very bad to drink much cold water, which acts as 
a purgative on strangers. The most wholesome drink at breakfast or 
dinner is French wine, for which no charge is made in the hotels. Brandy 
is too hot for the climate, and must only be taken with extreme moderation : 



168 ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 

wdelirium tremens,)) from the intemperate use of spirits, results sooner in 
this than in any other country. The meat of the country is good and 
■wholesome, except pork, .which you had better avoid, seeing the 
objectionable manner of rearing swine in Buenos Ayres. In the hotels the 
usual hour for breakfast is 9 a.m. and dinner 5 pm. As soon as convenient 
after arrival you may call at the Standard office, 74 Calle Belgrano, where 
the editors will gladly give you any information or advice in their power. 
Letters from home may also be directed to their care free of charge. Poor 
emigrants looking for employment can have advertisements inserted gratis. 
New arrivals should be careful about roaming through the streets after 
11 P.M., although the city is more quiet and orderly than most large towns. 
Above all things beware of intoxication, and keep out of the Policia. In 
the coffee-houses, never make any offensive remarks about the country ; it 
would be ill-breeding, and many of those around you are sure to understand 
English. If you meet a religious procession either turn into the next street, 
or take off your hat and stand till it passes by. If anyone ask you for 
a light for his cigar, present yours to him politely. Remember always that 
politeness and equality are the rule of the country, and act up to it. 



rrrNERARY from ENGLAND. 1 69> 



CHAP. XYI. 



1TL\ERARIES FROM ENGLAND AND NEW YORK. 

F.NGLAHD TO BUENOS ATRES. 

The voyage is usually made in thirty days, the distance being about 
7,800 statute miles. The outset is often disagreeable, in crossing the Bay 
of Biscay, but the rest of the voyage is generally delightful, and rough 
■weather is exceedingly rare between Lisbon and Rio Janeyro. 

Lisbon is reached in four days from England. The entrance to the Tagus 
is highly picturesque. Rounding the Rock of Lisbon, and crossing the 
bar, -we get a distant view of Belen, the hills around being covered with a 
multitude of windmills. On the right is seen a massive building, the 
Lazarretto ; on the left is Fort Julian, a relic of the Moorish epoch. 
Abreast of Belen we are hailed by the port officials, after which we are 
allowed to proceed. The panorama of the city becomes every moment 
more attractive : a crowd of steamers, war-vessels and shipping, line the 
quays. AS'e land at the Custom-house, in the Terreyro do Paoo, or Black- 
horse Square. The streets of the new town are handsome and spacious, 
w ith massive piles of building in regular blocks of about a hundred yards 
square ; the houses are six or seven stories high, and all built of stone. 
The three principal streets, Rua Aurea, Rua Augusta, and Rua da Prata, 
run parallel. This was the scene of the earthquake of 1755, when most 
of the old town, with 40,000 inhabitants, was destroyed. The 3Iarquis de 
Pombal rebuilt the city. He was Minister to King Jose L, whose equestrian 
statue gives name to the Plaza, and the effigy of the Minister is seen in a 
bronze medallion on the pedestal. The east and west sides of tiie Plaza 
are occupied by public departments. The south is bounded by the river, 
and on the north a triumphal arch gives access to the city. 



i/O ITINERARY FROM ENGLAjVD. 

Englishmen usually stop at the Hotel Braganza, which surmounts one of 
the seven hills, and is situated close to the Opera-house, in the aristocratic 
quarter : charge, eight shillings a day. The Rocio terminates the lower 
town built by Pombal and is flanked on two sides by the Dona Maria theatre 
and St. Domingo church. In the centre a monument is being erected to 
Don Pedro I., who abdicated the throne of Brazil to return to the mother 
country. In public monuments, plazas, fountains, &c., the city abounds. 
It may give some idea of Lisbon to say that it comprises 355 streets, 281 
travessas or causeways, 12 plazas, 52 plazuelas, 5 public parks, 6 theatres, 
200 churches, and 36 public fountains. It contains over 300,000 
inhabitants, and enjoys a privileged clknate. The traveller should visit the 
Cathedral, the Abbey of Belen, the Paseo da Estrella, the aqueduct, and 
the Opera-house. In the coffee-houses may be had capital port-wine at two 
shillings a bottle. Tlie English book-store is in RuadoCarmo. English 
Vice-Consul, Jeremiah Meagher. Chaplain, Rev. T. K. Brown. Messrs. 
Knowles & Co, are agents for the Royal Mail Company, and Messrs. 
Tait's London line, and the Liverpool and River Plate Company, 
have also agencies. If the steamer delay more than one day the traveller 
should drive out to Cintra, 1 7 miles, one of the most charming spots in the 
universe. There is now railway communication from Lisbon to Paris, and 
some people come this way, to avoid the Bay of Biscay. The route is this 
— Paris to Bordeaux, 12 hours; Bordeaux to Madrid, 20 hours ; Madrid to 
Badajoz, 16 hours; Badajoz to Lisbon, 15 hours. Between 3Iadrid and 
Lisbon the traveller had better carry provisions. 

Four days from Lisbon we pass the Canary Islands, the Peak of Teneriffe 
rising to a height of 1 1 ,000 feet, and being visible at a great distance. 
Formerly the steamers called here ; but the over-zealous quarantine regu- 
lations caused the coaling-station to be transferred to San Vicente. The 
climate of the Canaries is most salubrious, and the scenery interesting: the 
islands belong to Spain, being governed by a Captain-General, and are 
sometimes used as a place of exile for turbulent politicians. The late 
Marshal O'Donnell was born here. The islands produce good wine and 
fruits : the inhabitants are whites. Lord Nelson fought one of his battles 
here. Teneriffe is a station on the Cadiz and Havana line of steamers. 

When the mail steamers called at Madeira, this Avas a very pleasant halt 
for passengers. The island is now sometimes sighted, and can be clearly 
seen at sixty miles distance : there are three peaks above the town of 
Funchal, which are of considerable elevation. 

the Cape Verde Islands are made in seven days from Lisbon. San 
Antonio is fertile and mountainous. «Bird Rock» is a conical piece of 



CAPE VERBS TO PERNAMBUCO. 171 

granite, tenanted by sea-gulls ; and opposite to it is the wretched island of 
St. Vincent. This is certainly the most barren spot on the world's surface : 
sundry bold ranges of mountains, but not a particle of vegetation ; in its 
whole extent there is not a blade of grass, not a weed. Two palm-trees 
near the barrack, and two orange trees on the beach, are sustained in some 
miraculous manner. The port is spacious and secure ; on one side a small 
fort flying the Portuguese flag, overlooks the shipping ; on another, the 
summit of an adjacent mountain bears a striking resemblance to the 
head of Washington. Mr. Miller, the English Consul, has a cottage a little 
above the town, which is a straggling collection of about a hundred houses, 
built of stone, and a neat little church. There is an English cemetery up 
the hill-side, and on the beach is the grave of an English colonel's wife, 
Avho died returning from India. The water is so clear and blue that the 
natives will dive for a shilling,* and catch it before it reaches the bottom, 
the boatmen sell some pretty mats and inlaid work-boxes, which come 
from Madeira. There is also a good supply of fruit from the island cf San 
Antonio, whose rugged and lofty outline is seen a few miles Avestward. 
The garrison of the place consists of a company of Portuguese soldiers : 
the natives are all black, and occupy themselves in coaling the steamers. 

From St. Vincent to the Brazils the sea is always as smooth as a mill-pond, 
and the heat is of course intense, crossing the Line. You see myriads of 
flying-fish, and now and then a shark or a shoal of porpoises, or the tiny 
little nautilus w ith sail before the wind (sailors call it the Portuguese man- 
of-war). At night the sea is phosphorescent; the moon shines with 
peculiar brilliancy, and the constellation of the Southern Cross reminds us 
that we are in a new hemisphere. Passengers should beware of 
'catching cold, and on no account sleep on deck. If they continue their 
usual morning bath they will find it very relaxing, the sea-water being 
actually warmet than the atmosphere. 

Fernando Noronha is sighted on the seventh day from St. Vincent. It is 
a small rocky island, used by the Brazilians as a penal settlement, and has 
a light -house. As we approach the coast of Brazil Ave see numbers of 
birds, and the first land visible is Cape San Roque, a bold headland, 200 
miles north of Pernambuco. 

Pernambuco is the worst port in the world. The mail steamers lie out 
far to sea, and there is a nasty reef near the shore. When the weather is 
at all rough, passengers are lowered over the side in an arm chair. The boats 
are strong, buoyant, and well-manned, but there are sometimes sudden 
changes in the weather, especially about 1 p.m., which render it both 
difficult and dangerous for passengers to return aboard. Bathers had better 



172 ITINERARY FROM ENGLAIND. 

look out, here, for sharks, which are very numerous. The city has about 
100,000 inhabitants, including a few English, and does a great business 
with England and other countries, in coffee, cotton, &c. It is built on 
three or four islands, and a fine iron bridge was put up recently, to connect 
the chief business quarters. A pretty drive may be taken to Olinda : the 
cab fare is ten milreis (fifteen shillings) for two persons. Royal Mail 
Company agents, Messrs. Adamson, Howie &Co. British Consul, B. AV. 
Doyle. Vice-Consul, Alexander Gollan. Chaplain, Bev. Charles A. Austin. 

From Pernambuco to Bahia the voyage occupies thirty-six hours. The 
overland journey would take as many days, there being no road through 
the forests. The distance is under 500 miles. In these waters we meet a 
number of « catamarans,)) the strangest kind of craft ever seen; they 
sometimes venture over 100 miles from the shore. 

Bahia', or San Salvador, is the oldest city in Brazil, and next in 
importance after the metropolis. The bay is very fine, the vegetation 
luxuriant; the city stretches along a hill-side, with numerous churches and 
other massive buildings. The suburb called Victoria is the residence of 
the English merchants, embowered in gardens, and enjoying the fresh 
breeze from the Atlantic. On landing the traveller finds a host of 
palanquins ready to carry him up the hill, but these conveyances, which 
are borne by two negroes, look so greasy that some people prefer walking. 
The heat is so great that the best plan is to take a coacii and four mules. Drive 
first to the Botanical Gardens, whence a splendid view is obtained. Then 
see the old Jesuit cathedral, the Government-house, railway terminus, and 
post-office : if you have time to drive to the head of the bay, near the 
Portuguese hospital, it will repay the trouble. . More than three-fourths of 
the inhabitants are colored, and the city is so lilthy that foul odours assail 
one on all sides. There is an excellent coffee-house opposite the post- 
office. Mail Packet agents, Wilson, Hett & Go. British Consul, John 
Morgan. Chaplain, Bev. Charles G. Nicolay. There is an English cricket 
club here. Bahia boasts the largest oranges and the fattest black Avomen 
in South America. 

Rio Janeyro is about 800 miles from Bahia, and the voyage takes nearly 
three days. The entrance to the Bay of Rio is the grandest picture that 
ever delighted the eye of man, grand, solemn, and imposing. A chain of 
wild and dark-colored mountains forms the coast-line ; right a-head of us 
the land recedes, discovering, as we approach, two rocky islets, one of 
them crowned by a light-house. Presently Ave begin to descry houses 
perched here and there among the hills, while the peaks of Gabia, Tijuca, 
Corcovado, and the Sugar-loaf, frown upon us in over-awing majesty. 



CITY OF RIO JAZS'EYRO. 173 

At every instant, as the steamer steadily advances into the bay, the scene 
changes like a kaleidoscope, the mountains seem to move one behind the 
other, and to change entirely in shape, till we get in fall view of the city, 
with the Organ Mountains in tlie back-ground, and the middle distance 
occupied by sundry islands bristling with batteries. 

The Sugar-loaf is perhaps the most striking feature in the picture, and 
rises to a height (almost precipitous) of 3,200 feet: an American lady some 
years ago climbed to the top. Gabia looks as if surrounded by a castellated 
building. The peak of Santa Cruz is on the right of the bay, overlooking 
a fort of granite walls mounting a hundred guns. We pass the British and 
French flagships, and several other war-vessels. All the navies in the 
world might ride at anchor in this land-locked bay. Small steamboats are 
plying in all directions, to the various suburbs along the water-line. 

The steamer comes to her moorings alongside Coal Island : the island 
was formerly used for rearing young slaves. The boatmen here are mostly 
thorough negroes. The landing place is close to the market, a bustling 
place, with a very incongruous assemblage. In coming ashore we notice 
the Arsenal, where some of the ironclads Avere built for the Paraguayan 
war. Rio Janeiro is wholly different from any other city : it has nothing 
South American about it, and nowise resembles the large towns you see in 
France or Italy. The houses are very high, the streets are as narrow as 
those of Genoa, and the shops very small, but rich. The vehicles are 
drawn by mules, and in some streets you have to step into a shop doorway 
when a coach passes. Black servants in livery abound. The Alfandagaor 
Custom-house is a fine building, The best hotel is «McDowell's Exchange 
Hotel)) : the same owner has a hotel at Petropolis, a charming place about 
forty miles up the country. The natives are very polite and understand 
a person talking Spanisli, although their language is Portuguese. The 
Plaza Constitucion is a very handsome square, witli fountains, and in the 
centre is a tasteful equestrian statue of Peter I., the founder of the 
Brazilian Monarchy. We are now in the new town; the streets are wide 
and well paved : the English Company, called the Bio Improvement 
Company, has. done good service here. The convict prison is surrounded 
with high walls of granite : a little further on we reach another Plaza, 
where the Lyric Theatre, the Senate-house, and other buildings claim 
notice. As we get to the outskirts we see the reservoir of the grand 
aqueduct of Tijuca. The pleasantest ' excursion from Bio is to Tijuca, 
which is situate in the mountains, about twelve miles inland. An omnibus 
leaves the San Francisco square every hour. iVumerous charming cottages, 
sprinkled here and there over a fertile zone of gardens and orange groves, 



174 ITINERARY FROM ENGLAND. 

occupy the line of route as we ascend towards Tijuca. The omnibus stops at 
a place called Andrahy. Here you can hire a horse or coach to ascend the 
hill. The road winds round a succession of precipices disclosing at every 
point the most enchanting views : the gorge below is at times 500 feet 
perpendicular. There are several country-seats, where the owners reside 
in summer. The road is first-rate, and at short distances there are gas 
lamps. The English Hotel is in a hollow, although still at a great height ; 
the proprietor is Mr. Bennett. It would be difficult even in England to 
find anything to surpass the neatness, elegance, and comfort of this house. 
Mr. Bennett gets up pic-nic parties t^vice a week to all the finest points of 
scenery in this lovely neighbourhood. After seeing Tijuca you should 
next make a trip to Petropolis. The first part of the journey is 
made in steamboat, some fourteen miles across the bay ; the second is in 
the Baron Maua's railway, about sixteen miles, and the rest by. diligence. 
The ascent of the Sierra da Estrella, a branch of the Organ Mountains, is 
most picturesque. The road is a triumph of engineering skill, the 
mountain side being almost perpendicular. When you have ascended 
about a thousand feet you see the road winding zig-zag below you, every 
bend forming a terrace cut in the rock. There is no possibility of an 
accident, the road being lined, over the precipice, with a stone wall four 
feet high. Petropolis is at last reached after a half hour's drive over the 
table-land lying between two ridges. It is embosomed in the mountains, 
at a height of 2600 feet above the sea. The mountains rise all around like 
a barrier, the vegetation is as tall and luxuriant as at Tijuca. Petropolis 
is the summer residence of the Brazilian Court and aristocracy. The 
Emperor's palace is a fine massive pile of building, not unlike an Italian 
nobleman's villa. 

The great attraction in Rio is the Botanical Garden, with an avenue of 
palms that has no match in the Avorld. The drives around by Botafogo, 
Larangeiras, La Gloria, &c., are very beautiful, and omnibuses ply every 
hour from the square adjoining the Emperor's palace. In the shops of Bua 
Ouvidor will be found feather-flowers, beetles, jewellery, and such like 
articles. The English Consulate is in the Rua Direita, Consul Mr. George 
Lennon Hunt, who is also agent for the Royal Mail steamers. The. English 
Minister, Mr. Buckley Mathew, resides near Botafogo. The Exchange and 
Post-office are in the same street as the Consulate and M'Do well's hotel. 

From Rio to Montevideo takes four or five days, according to the weather. 
Pamperos are not uncommon on this coast. Ear out to sea, before seeing 
land, we can perceive the effect of the waters of the River Plate, changing 
the color of the ocean. Maldonado is situate at the mouth of the river, and 



ARRIVAL IN THE RIVER PLATE. 175 

the* navigation is here very dangerous, owing to the bad arrangement of 
lights. A profitable seal fishery is carried on at Lobos Island. The coast 
of the Banda Oriental is low and uninteresting till we sight the «raount)> 
which has given its name to Montevideo. 

Montevideo is the capital of the Republic of Uruguay, with a population 
of 70,000 souls. The city, as seen from the bay, looks to advantage, the 
towers of the Matriz Church, and the Custom-house and Caridad Hospital 
being conspicuous. The best hotels are the Oriental and Americano, 
charge. 95. per day. Strangers are admitted to the Club : they will find 
the Dailij Stayidarcl at the ageucy, Mr. G. Behrens, 103 Calle Zavala. Fully 
three-fourths of the inhabitants are foreigners, including a number of 
English and German merchants. There are numerous fine buildings, 
especially the Bolsa, where the merchants meet at two p.m., every day. 
The Biver Plate Telegraph Co.'s office is in the same building. There 
are drives to the Paso Molina, Buschenthal's quinta, and atramway to Union. 
The Bev. Mr. Adams reads Divine service at eleven o'clock on Sundays, at 
the English Church. The British Hospital is a small building near the fort. 
The Government-house is in Calle Bincon. Major Munro is British Vicc- 
Consul. Mail-packet agent, Mr. Charles, 50 Calle Castellanos ; Tait's line, 
Mr. Schwartz, 103 Calle Misiones; Liverpool steamers, Mr. Charles Home, 
213 Calle Cerrito. 

The steamers leave Montevideo in the evening and arrive at the outer 
roads of Buenos Ayres by daybreak. The minarets, church towers, and 
cupolas give a light and fantastic appearance to the city, which, seated 
some eighty feet above the western shore of the La Plata, extends about 
two miles along the v^ater's edge and forms an irregular quadrangle of 500 
cuadras, or 2,000 acres, area. On near approach, the various public 
buildings can be clearly discerned, rising from the crowd of minor edifices. 
In the centre of the picture is the Custom-house, with a wharf stretching 
some 600 yards into the river. On the right are seen — the belfry of La 
Merced, the Capitania del Puerto with a flagstaff, the fine edifices of Don 
Felipe Llavallol and Don Juan Anchorena, and at the extremity of the line 
of beach the gas-house, close to whicli are the terminus of the Northern 
Railway and a battery of four guns, d fleur d^eau, used for salutes. 
In the back ground of the centre we see the clock-tower of the 
Cabildo, the roof' of Colon Theatre, and the porcelain cupola of the 
Cathedral ; while further to the left rise the towers of San Francisco and 
Santo Domingo, and on a slight eminence stands San Telmo. The view is 
bounded by a low strip of coast edged with luxuriant vegetation ; in the 
midst of which the Riachuelo stream debouches into the Plata. 



176 ITINERARY FROM IVEW YORK. 

KEW YORK TO BUENOS AYRES. * 

The mail steamer leaves New York on the — th of each month for the 
Brazils, calling at St. Thomas. From New York to St. Thomas is about 
1,600 miles English, and the voyage usually takes six days. 

St. Thomas is one of the Virgin Islands, recently sold by Denmark to the 
United States, and situate thirty-eight miles east of Porto Rico. Area, 
24 square miles ; population, 12,560. The surface is elevated and rough, 
highest in the centre. It was formerly well wooded ; but the cutting of 
the timber has subjected it to frequent and severe droughts. The soil is 
sandy and not very fertile: about 2,500 acres are under cultivation, the 
principal crops being cotton and sugar. St. Tliomas is open to the com- 
merce of all nations : it is a depot of goods for the adjacent islands, and is 
becoming an important packet station. It is visited by 3,000 vessels 
annually. Capital, Charlotte Anielie. 

From St. Thomas's to Para (Brazil) the distance is nearly 1800 miles. 
The town of Para, or Belem, is situated on the river Guama, which flows 
into the estuary of Para, about 70 miles from the Atlantic, in lat. 1 .34 S., and 
long. 4«.50 W. : population 28,000, including 4,000 slaves. The climate 
is hot, being almost under the equator, but not unhealthy. The streets are 
well laid out and paved. The houses are not generally high, but they are 
substantially and often elegantly built. The to*vn boasts a handsome 
cathedral and several churches, a governor's palace, a college, schools, 
hospitals, a botanic garden, a theatre, and a law-court. The anchorage is 
safe and roomy, and with the exception of two shoals at the entrance of the 
river, is easy of access. The approach to the town is commanded by a 
small fort. The principal exports consist of cocoa, india-rubber, rice, 
nuts, and hides. In 1856, 5,000, OOOfl of India-rubber Avere exported. 
The total value of exports during the year 1858-59, Avas §1,950,048, of 
which no less that 42 per cent. Avas shipped to the United States. The 
imports from the United States for the same year were valued at §542,379, 
and consisted of manufactured articles, lumber, flour, &c. 

Cape San Roque is distant a thousand miles from Para. After doubling 
this cape, we have yet 200 miles before reaching Pernambuco, and from 
this last port the rest of the voyage is the same as the route from England 
to Buenos Ayres. The total distance "from New York to Rio Janeyro is 
nearly 6,000 miles. At Rio, the passengers wait for the French or English 
mail-steamers, to proceed to the River Plate ; but, it is likely the Americaa 
Company will soon establish a branch-line to Montevideo. 



CUSTOMS LAW. 177 



01)-.iV-fiV 



CHAP. XYII. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

CUSTOMS LAW FOR 1869. 

Imports by Water. 

Art. 1. The following are duty-free: — gold and silver coined or in 
bullion, books, printing-paper, plants of all kinds, fresh fruits, ice, 
firewood, charcoal, cattle for breeding, maize and maize flour (introduced 
by land), prepared tobacco for curing scab in sheep. 

2. The Executive may exempt from duties the following: — seeds for 
agriculture, articles for Divine worship (at the order of the clerical 
authorities,) scientific instruments, machinery for steamboats, machinery 
for mining or new industries, furniture and utensils for immigrants and 
other things exclusively for their establishment. 

3. The following shall pay \(i ^qv cent, ad valorem: — salt, silks, unset 
precious stones, gold and silver wrought, either with or without precious 
stones, all articles mounted in gold or silver, when such mounting 
increases their value by one-third. 

4. All ai'ticles not above excepted shall pay 18 per cent, ad valorem. 

5. The leakage allowed on wines, aguardiente, liquors, beer in wood, 
and vinegar, shall be calculated according to the poi^t whence the vessel 
brings her cargo, and only in the first Argentine port she enters, viz., 10 
percent, for vessels from beyond the Line, six per cent, for this side of 
the Line, and three per cent, within the Capes (at the. mouth of the 
River Plate). 



178 CUSTOMS LAW. 

Exports hy Land and Water. 

6. Horse and cow hides of every kind, mule and sheep skins, and skins^ 
in general, hide-cuttings, jerked and salted meat, salt tongues, ostrich 
feathers, bones, bone-ash, horns and horn-tips, horse-hair, wool washed 
or unwashed, animal oil, grease and tallow raw or rendered, shall pay six 
per cent, ad valorem. 

7 . Every other article of produce or manufacture, as also gold and silver 
coined or in bullion, shall be Jadraitted duty-free. 

Calculation of Dntles. 

8. The duties shall be arranged by «Vistas» and calculated in imported 
articles on their value in deposit, and in exports on their market value at 
date of shipment ; always excepting such' articles as may be previously 
classified and valued in the Valuation Tariff, based on the same principle. 
The valuation on -washed wool shall be no greater than what the tariff 
stipulates lor unwashed. 

9. The Executive shall fix the valuation of the articles to be included in 
said Tariff. 

10. Export duties shall be paid at the first port of shipment, being 
articles cleared direct for foreign parts ; and cannot be transported by 
"water from one point to another of the Republic without having first paid 
the duties or given the usual security. For such duties, approved bills, 
to the satisfaction of the Customs' authorities, shall be given on stamped 
paper, at four months. 

General Jiegiilations. 

11. Duties may be paid, at any of the Custom-houses of the Republic, 
in any of the moneys declared legal tender by law of Oct. 26th 1863, or 
in the paper-money of Buenos Ayres, or in Bolivian silver at its current 
value, or in Provincial Bank certificates for specie deposits. The copper 
currency shall only be received in the proportion of 3 per cent, on the 
amount payable ; and no vouchers or documents shall be received in 
payment of duties. 

12. Goods that have paid import duties in any Custom-house of the 
Republic may pass free throughout its territory; but land-transit is 
forbidden to those that have not paid duties, except in the case of goods 
passing from Concordia, through Tederacion and Restauracion, to the 
Brazilian ports on the Uruguay, or vice versa; also excepting goods in 
transit from Paraguay, passing through Federacion or Restauracion, for 
Brazil or the Republic of Uruguay. 



J 

/ 
STAMP LAW 



179 



13. This law shall hold from January 1st 1869 to December 31st of 
same year. 

Given at Congress, in Buenos Ayres, this 22nd day of September, 1868. 

AivGEL Elias, Maria?* o Acosta. 
Let the above be fulfilled and registered. 

MITRE. 

Cristobal Aguirre. 

Ed. Nofe.—^'e understand that salt for the saladeros has been recently 
declared duty-free. 



:^ATrO>AL STAMPED PAPER (1869), 



1st. T^ie stamped pa[>er to be used in 
tribunals of the nation shall be as follows : - 

Amount. 

$25 and under 



all public departments and 



Above 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do., 

ito. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



U)0 do. 

300 do. 

500 do. 

800 do. 

1,000 do. 

1,500 do. 
2,000 do. 

o,-oo do. 

3,000 do. 

3,500 do. 

4,000 do. 

4,500 do. 

5,000 do. 

5,500 do. 

7,500 do. 

10,000 do. 

12,500 do. 

15,000 do. 

20,000 do. 

25,000 do. 
and from §30,000 upwards the stamp shall be 
ninety days. 



$100 
300 
500 
800 
1,000 
1,500 
2,000 
2,500 
3,000 
3,500 
4,000 
4,500 
5,000 
5,500 
7,500 
10,000 
-12,500 
15,000 
20,000 
25,000 
30,000 



For 90 Days. 

12c. 



.SO 



25 
50 
75 



1 
I 
2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
4 
5 
5 
7 
10 



20 
25 
50 



50 


50 


50 


50 


50 
50 





12 50 
15 



Over 90 Days. 
SO Oc. 















3 

4 

4 

6 

6 



/ 
7 

10 
15 
18 
22 
30 
37 
43 









75 
50 
75 

7.") 
50 
75 
75 

75 


50 




1 per mil extra under 



or over 



>-2 



180 ' \ STAMP LA.W. 

2. All obligations subject to national jurisdiction shall be on stamped 
paper as above. 

3. Contracts between masters and sailors of mercliant ships shall have a 
stamp of 12 cents. 

4. Each leaf of a petition to the National Government, Tribunals or 
offices, and all copies of documents produced in court, a stamp of 25 cents. 
Guides, permits, or policies for shipment of goods, and protocols by 
Escribanos, 25 cents. The first leaf of oue of the discharge manifests of 
coasting crafts under 50 tons, as well as permits for loading or unloading, 
25 cents. Petitions of soldiers for pay or pensions may be presented in 
common paper. 

5. The discharge manifest of vessels over 50 and under 100 tons, and 
permits for loading and unloading, 50 cents. Copies of documents from 
the archives, 50 cents. 

6. The discharge manifest of vessels over 100 tons, and permits for 
loading or unloading, 75 cents. 

7. Manifests of steam packets, ^1. ' 

8. Navigation license for coasting craft under 50 tons, $2A. Discharge 
manifests, and petition to load or unload, for sea-going vessels under 
50 tons, $2^. 

9. Coasting craft over'50tons shall pay $.3 for license, and sea-going 
vessels the same for each leaf of the manifest of their cargo cleared for 
foreign ports. 

10. Sea-going vessels uuder 50 and over 100 toue «hall pal Ct for their 
discharge manifest, and for petitions to load or unload. 

11. Vessels over 100 tons shall pay $ 1 for discharge manifest, or for 
petitions to load or unload. Pilots' licenses, $10 each. 

' 12. Concessions of land or of any privilege except for Patents af 
Invention, shall pay §25. 

13. Navigation license for Argentine sea-going vessels, $50. 

14. The stamp shall be paid bv the party presenting the document or 
originating the proceedings. , 

15. The Judges or authorities may admit unstamped paper, w.itu inc 
obligation on the parties to put on the proper stamps afterwards. 

16. If any party make out or present a document in unstamped paper 
he shall pay a fine of ten times the proper amount of stamp. If the stamp 
be of insulficient value he shall pay the same fine, less the va uc ot tie 
stamp. Notaries or others concerned in such omission shall pav lue 
sauie fine. 



PRESIDExNT mitre's ADMI?JISTRATION. ISl 

17. Any public employee before whom a petitioa is presented insutB- 
ciently stamped, shall write on it «no correspondo) The petition shall 
not be admitted till the fine be paid. 

18. When any doubt arises as to the necessary amount of stamp, the 
authorities shall decide either verbally, or in writing by the Fiscal, from 
which there shall be no appeal. 

19. Any document may be stamped within thirty days in Buenos Ayres ; 
or if in the Provinces w ithin sixty days, with date noted by the nearest 
receiver of revenue. 

20. Tickets of contracts to be afterwards formally draw n up, may be 
made on unstamped paper. 

21. In the first three months of the year any unused stamp of the 
previous year may be exchanged. 

22. Unused stamp paper of tlie current year may be exchanged on 
payment of 3 cents per stamp. 

23. In all the month of January the stamps of the previous year may be 
used in any kind of petition. 

24. In contracts of monthly payment for a given term the stamp shall be 
for one-half the total amount of such payments till the end. 

25. This law shall hold from 1st January, 1869. 



ADMIISISTRATION OF PRESIDE^JT MITRE. 
1862. 

April 12 — General Mitre assumes the National Executive, and dismisses 
the diplomatic agents appointed by the Parand Government. 

May 16 — Contract and regulations for mail-coach service. 

May 25 — Congress inaugurated at Buenos Ayrcs. 

June 12 — Decree of election for President and Vice-President. 

July 10 — Proclamation to tke people of Corrientes. 

August 10 — Minister of War sent as National Commissioner to Corrientes. 

August 12 — Corrientes declared in state of siege. 

August 16 — Intervention ordered in Catamarca. 

August 19 — Custom-house law for 1862. Foreign coins admitted as a 
legal tender. 

September 5 — Executive authorized to make a railway to Cordova. 

September 27— Contract with D. EstebanRams for navigating the Salado. 

September 29 — General census of the Republic ordered. 



182 ' PRESIDENT mitre's ADMINISTRATION. 

October 3 — Various provincial departments made national. 

October 4 — Congress prolongs its sessions. 

October 7 — General Mitre and Don Marcos Paz elected President and 
Vice-President. 

October 8 — City of Buenos Ay res made temporary capital. 

October 13— Dr. Rawson, Minister of Interior; Dr. Elizalde, Foreign 
Affairs ; Dr. Velez Sarsfield, Finance ; Dr. Costa, Instruction ; General 
Gelly-Obes, AVar and Marine. 

October 17 — Project to navigate the Rio Vermejo. 

October 18 — Federal Court established: — Drs. Alsina, Carreras, Carril, 
Delgado, Barros Pazos, and Pico. 

October 24 — Appointment of Consuls-general abroad. 

November 1 — Consolidation of the Parana floating debt. 

November 14 — Congress closes sessions. 

November 19 — Decree on intervention of Consuls in case of foreigners 
dying intestate. 

November 29— Extradition of a Brazilian subject refused. 

December 3 1 — Officers of the Independence placed on the army roll. 

1863. 

January 1 5 — Each of the Provinces, except Buenos Ayres, to receive a 
subsidy of ^12,000 per annum. 

January 24 — Arrangement of extra-duties with Maud & Co. 

January 31 — Committee named to examine coupons of foreign debt- 
February 18 — Mr. Bliss sent to explore the Chaco. 

March 14 — National college of Buenos Ayres established. 

aiarch 19^Contract with Wheelwright for Cordoba Railway. 

April 7 — Distribution of funds for Mendoza sufferers. 

May 5 — Congress re-opens. 

May 18 — Balcarce named envoy to France, England, Spain, and Italy. 

May 23^ — Wheelwright's concession ratified. 

July 20 — Hopkin's project for canalising the Capitan. 

August 26 — Amortization of Corrientes paper money. 

September 7 — Executive authorised to spend £100,000 sterling in 
building a neAv Custom-house. 

September 10 — Decimal system adopted. 

October 10 — Congress sessions prolonged. 

October 16 — Projects of telegraph wires to Rosario, and to introduce 
traction engines. 

October 17 — Roads and Bridges Stock authorised. 



PRESIDENT mitre's ADMINISTRATION. 183 

October 20 — Expenses paid to British Admiralty for sounding the rivers. 
November 6 — Treaty with Spain ratified. 

November 13 — Payment ordered of expenses incurred in the campaign 
against Rosas. 

November 16 — Public Credit Office established. 
November 18 — Congress session closed. 
December 7 — Marmol sent envoy to Brazil. 

1864. 

January 21 — Sourdeaux^s jcontract for Artesian wells. 

February 29— Dr. Gonsalez succeeds Dr. Sarsfield as Finance Minister. 

May 12 — Congress re-opens. 

June 10 — Protocol ratified to pay Brazil ^7 14,000s. 

June 1 5 — Executive authorised fo subscribe £40,000 to Cordoba Railway. 

June 20 — Rosario Immigration Committee established. 

July 29 — Contract for navigating the Upper Uruguay. 

September 5 — Privilege to 3Ir. Perkins for paper mill and powder 
factory. 

September 24 — Project of telegraph frooi Buenos Ayres to Montevideo. 

October 1 — Vote of §5, 000 for introduction of useful seeds. 

October 3 — Road projected through the Gran Chaco. 

October 8 — Emission of $5,000,000 in Bonds to amortise emissions of 
1859 and 1861. 

October 11 — Patent Office established. 

October 1 1 — Concession of Eastern Argentine Railway. 

December 9 — National Colleges established in Catamarca, Salta, Tucuman 
San Juan, and Mendoza. 

1865. 

January 2 — Construction of refuge huts in the Andes. 
January 27 — Harrison & Mansilla's contract for six lines of steamers. 
February 8 — Vote of §300 to buy useful books. 

March 18— Intervention in Cordoba ; Dr. Rawson sent as commissioner. 
April 16 — War breaks out with Paraguay; Republic in state of siege. 
April 17 — ^Paraguayan ports declared in blockade. 

April 18 — Paraguayan properties confiscated, and Seilor Egusquiza 
arrested. 

May 1 — Congress re-opens. 

May 8 — Horses declared an article of war. *• . 

May 9 — Declaration of w ar against Paraguay. 



184 PRESIDENT mitre's ADMINISTRATION. 

May 26 — Treaty of Alliance "vyith Brazil and Montevideo ratified. 
May 27— Loan of $12,000,000 voted. 
June 2 — Three days mourning for death of Lincoln. 
June 5 — Vote to raise an army of 28,000 men. 
June 5 — Kiestra sent to London to negotiate loan. 
June 6 — Supplemental vote of $8,000,000 for war expenses. 
June 10 — General Mitre takes the field, and Vice-President Paz assumes 
power. 

July 7 — Hopkins' concession prolonged. 

July 10 — Rams' concession prolonged three years. 

August 16 — Extradition Treaty with Banda Oriental. 

August 18 — Vote of $20,000 for steam communication with New York. 

August 19 — Medals to the officers and men who fought at Corrientes. 

August 23 — Committee named to send articles to Paris Exhibition. 

August 28— Subsidy for distressed Correntino families. 

September 22 — Extradition Treaty with Bolivia. 

October 2 — Vote of $ 1 5,000 for expenses of Paris Exhibition. 

October 7— Vote of $ 1 5,000 for the Gualeguay Railway. 

October 12 — Treaty of amity and commerce with Bolivia. 

1866. 

January 23 — Torrent sent envoy to Brazil. 

May 6 — Congress re-opens. 

May 12— Subsidy of $4,000 to Rioja. 

June 15 — ^Commissioner sent to report on Welsh Colony. 

June 22 — Tucuman paper money redeemed. 

June 28 — Treaty w ith Portugal of 1 852 denounced. 

July 7 — Seizure of 5,000 horses and 1 ,500 mules. 

July 10 — Subvention of $4,000 a month to San Luis. 

September 1 — Extra war credit of $4,000,000 in Treasury notes. 

September 24 — Telegraph project from Buenos Ayres to Chile. 

September 28 — Vote of a medal to all officers and soldiers in Paraguay. 

October 2 — Invalid soldiers to be sent home gratis. 

October 3 — Various provincial debts of Buenos Ayres assumed by 
the nation. 

October 4 — New credit for war expenses. Intervention in Catamarca. 

October S^English debt of Buenos Ayres assumed by the nation. 

October 20— Construction of a bridge over the Rio Tercero. / 

October 22 — 3Iunicipality of Buenos Ayres restored to Provincial juris- 
diction. 



PRESIDEIVT murk's ADMINISTRATION. 185 

November 9 — Arrangement ^vith Provincial Bank for 4,000,000 
treasury notes. 

iVovember 15 — Minister of War sent to look after the frontier, 

November 21 — Pannero's intervention in Mendoza. 

November 28 — Contract with Aguirre and Murga for steam-service to 
Patagones for three years. 

December 1 1 — Contract for telegraph to Chile. 

1867. 

January 10 — Buenos Ayres paper-money received for duties at 25 per. 

January 13 — Arrangements of Paraguayan ports now occupied. 

January 26- — Minister of War sent against Mendoza rebels. 

February 13 — Wharfage dues at the Tigre established. 

March 7 — Subvention to the Welsh colony. 

March 22 — Project of telegraph to Rosario. 

April 13— Grant of S8,000 to cholera sufferers. 

April 22 — Ecclesiastical tribunals organized. 

May 3 — Fiscal appointed to prosecute Cordoba rebels. 

May 14 — Projected highway from Cordoba to San Juan. 

June 2 — Congress re-opens. 

July 19 — Suspension of all furloughs to officers. 

August 2 — A sum of $20,000 distributed among the provinces. 

August 20 — General Conesa sent to put down the Cordoba rebels. 

August 29 — Re-building Government-house after the fire. 

September 6 — Drs. Ugarte and Uriburu succeed Ministers Elizalde 
and Costa. 

September 12 — Congress authorizes another subscription of 15,000 shares 
to the Central Argentine Railway. 

September 18^ — Vote of ^18,000 to the destitute families in Rioja. 

October 3— Emission of §600,000 in Bonds. 

October 14— Credit of $2,000,000 with Provincial Bank. 

November 15 — Plans ordered of a projected railway from Villa Nueva to 
Rio Cuarto. 

November 18 — 3Iinister of War sent with an army to the Interior. 

November 27 — Council of War ordered on General Arredondo. 

November 30 — Intervention in Rioja ; La Fuente special commissioner. 

December 21 — New regulations about payment of export duties. 

December 25 — Intervention in Santa Fe ; Dr. Pico special commissioner. 

1868. 
January 2— Death of Vice-President Paz. The Ministers assume power. 



^86 PRESIDENT mitre's ADMINISTRATION. 

January 23 — Funeral honors to General Asboth, United States Minister. 

Januarj^ 25 — Resignation of Ministers Ugarte, Uriburu, Rawson, and 
Gonzalez. Appointment of Sarmiento (who refuses), Elizalde, Costa, 
Aguirre, and Pauuero, as the new Cabinet. 

January 30 — Funeral honors to Vice-President Paz. 

January 31 — Minister Costa's intervention in Santa Fe. 

February 19 — Elections ordered for new President and Vice. 

February 20 — State of Siege throughout the Republic suspended. 

March 4 — Sum' of ^1500 sent to cholera sufferers in Cataraarca. 

March 10 — Subsidy of §150,000 distributed among the thirteen upper 
Provinces. 

March 28 — Continued subsidy to Welsh colony. 

April 2 — Sum of $1500 sent to cholera sufferers in San Juan. 

May 18 — Congress re-opens. 

June 3 — Congress reA'okes the state of siege. 

June 13 — Congress calls for protocol of Triple Alliance treaty. 

June 18 — Intervention by General Emilio Mitre in Corrientes. 

August 4 — General Caceres summoned to a Council of War. 

August 16 — D.Domingo Sarmiento declared President, and D. Adolfo 
Alsina Vice-President of the Republic. 

August 24 — Arrangement about Spanish claims. 

August 28 — Italian treaty of 1856 prolonged for a year. 

September 7 — Congress offers a premium for best system of curing beef. 

September 18 — ^Proposed law to remove the capital to Rosario — vetoed. 

September 23 — Treaty with Relgium for navigation of the Scheld. 

September 23— Vote of $30,000 to Dr. Tejedor for his Penal Code. 

September 26 — Yote of $1,1 1 1,000 in bonds, to pay Spanish claims. 

September 26 — Another vote of $1,430,000 for other Spanish claims. 

September 30 — Census of the Republic ordered. 

October 2 — Export duty taken off copper. 

October 8— Vote of $2,000,000 for the war. 

October 10 — Cession of an island at Cape Horn to Mr. Picdrabuena, 

October 10 — Salaries of President, Vice-President, and Ministers 
increased. 

October 10 — Subscription of $25,00,0 to Mr. Hopkins' project of the 
Capitan. 

October 10 — National Guard of Corrientes called out. 

October 10— Vote of $30,000 to Martin de Moussy. 

October 1 2 — General Mitre transfers the insignia of office to the new 
President, D. Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. 



GOVERrCMEJfT AIND COiNGRESS. 187 

THE NATIONAL GOVER^iMEIHT. 

President — Don Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. 
Vice-President — Dr. Adolfo Alsina. 
Minister of Interior — Dr. Velez Sarsfield. 
Minister of Foreign Affairs — Dr. Mariano Varela. 
Minister of Finance — Dr. Benjamin Gorostiaga. 
Minister of Instruction — Dr. rs'icolas Avellaneda. 
Minister of War and Marine — Colonel 3Iartin Gainaa. 

Congress. 

Chamber of Senators. 

President — Dr. Adolfo Alsina. 

Buenos Ayres — Dr. Valentine Alsina, Don Felix Frias. 
Entre Rios — Dr. Benjamin Victorica, Don Anjel Elias. 
Corrientes— Dr. J. R. Vidal, Don W. Colodrero. 
Santa Fe — Dr. Joaquin Grauel, Don Nicasio Oroilo. 
Cordoba — Don Jose A. San Roman, Don Martin Piilero. 
Santiago — Don Absalon Ibarra, Don J. F. Borjes. 
Tucuman — Don Uladislao Frias, Don Salustiano Zavalia. 
Salta — Dr. Pedro Uriburu, Don Anselmo Rojo. 
Jujuy — Don Placido S. Bustamante, Dr. Daniel Araoz. 
. Catamarca — ^Dr. Anjel Navarro, Don Jose L. Lobo, 
Rioja — Don Guillermo Davila, Dr. Abel Bazan. 
San Juan — Don Tadeo Rojo.* (One vacant). 
Mendoza — ^Don Eusebio Blanco, Don Federico Corbalan. 
San Luis — Don Mauricio Darac, Don Juan Llerena. 

Chamber of Deputies. 

Buenos Ayres — Dr. Mariano Acosta, Dr. Carlos Tejedor, Dr. 3Ianuel 
Quintana, Dr. Manuel A. Montes de Oca, Dr. Pastor Obligado, Dr. Carlos 
Keen, Dr. Manuel Arauz, Don Mateo Martinez, Don Jose Marmol, General 
Conesa. (Two vacant). 

Santa Fe — Dr. Marcelino Freire, Don Pedro Lasaga. 

Santiago — Don Pedro Gallo, Don Luis Frias, Don Amancio Gonsalez 
Durand, Don Luciano Gorostiaga. 

San Luis — Don Juan A. Barbeito, Don Jose Veloz Rua. 

Tucuman — Dr. Anjel C. Padilla, Don Anjel 3Iendez, Don Nabor Cordoba. 

Mendoza — Don Francisco Civit, Don Aristides Villanueva. 



188 FEDERAL COURTS. 

San Juan — Dr. Amaro Cuenca, Don Isiclro Qiiiroga. 

Entrp Rios — Dr. Eusebio Ocarapos, Dr. Vicente X. Montero. 

JujuY— Dr. Pablo Carrillo, Don T^ufuio Valle. 

Catamarca— Dr. Adolfo Cano, Don Jose del Pino, Don Victoriano Tolosa. 

Cordoba — Dr. Luis Velez, Dr. Benjamin Igarzabal, Dr. Niceforo Gastellano, 
Don Santiago Caceres, Don Augusto Lopez, Don Marcelino Gacitua. 

Salta— Dr. Joaquin Diaz de Bedoya, Dr. Cleto Aguirre, Dr. Francisco J. 
Ortiz. 

Rioja — Two deputies.. No election. 

Corrientes — Four deputies. No election. 

Supreme Federal Court. 

Dr. Francisco de las Carreras, President; Dr. Salvador M. del Carril, 
Dr. Francisco Delgado, Dr. Jose Barros Pazos, Dr. Benito Carrasco. 
Procurator- General, Dr. Francisco Pico. 

Federal Sectional Judges. 

Buenos Ayres — Dr. Manuel Zavaleta, Dr. Carlos Eguia. 

Entre Rios — Dr. Leouidas Echague. 

Corrientes — Dr. Jose M. Guastaviuo. * iiou-^ 

Santa Fe — Dr. Jose M. Zaviria. ' ' ^ 

Cordoba — Dr. Saturnino Laspiur. 

Santiago — Dr. Prospero Garcia. 

Tucuman — Dr. Agustin de la Vega. 

Salta — Dr. Apolonio Ormaechea. 

Catamarca — Dr. Joaquin Quiroga. 

Jujuy — Dr. Macedonio Gras. 

Bioja — Dr. Artemio Granillo. 

San Juan — Dr. Jose B. de la Vega. 

Mendoza — Dr. Franklin Villanueva. 

San Luis — Dr. Pablo Saravia. 

Hierarchy. 

His Grace Dr. Mariano Jose de Escalada, Archbishop of Buenos Ayres. 
Most Rev. Dr. A'^icente R. Arellano, Bishop of Cordoba. 
Most Rev. Fray Wenceslao Achaval, Bishop of Cuyo. 
Most Rev. Fray B. Rizo Patron, Bishop of Salta. 
Most Rev. Dr. Jose Maria Gelabert, Bishop of Parana. 



NATIONAL BUDGET. 



189 



BUDGET FOR 18 6 9. 

Home Department. 

President's bureau, §38,7-20 

Minister of Interior, 20,280 

Congress and Public Credit, 315,400 

Post-office, 113,049 

Immigration oflices, 26,000 

Contracts, .... 92,720 

Official bulletin, 6,000 

Public Works, 16,000 

Roads and Bridges, 160,000 

Post houses, 30,000 

Pensions, 3,384 

Miscellaneous, .... .... 20,000 

Department of National Statistics, 4,804 

Industrial patents, 6,632 

Subsidies to the provinces, 210,000 



Foreign Affairs. 


Minister's bureau, 


$20,764 


Legations, .... 


81,570 


Worship and Public 


Instrvction. 


Minister's bureau, 


$15,720 


J'ederal Courts, .... 


103,272 


Printing, .... .... 


12,000 


Fiscal fees, .... .... 


12,000 


3Iiscellaneous (Justice), .... 


2,000 


Legal Codes, .... 


6,160 


ISishoprics, . . . , .... 


109,604 


Church subsidies, .... 


30,000 


^'i'scellaneous (Worship), 


4,500 


Univo.rsity and Colleges, 


262,839 


SubsidWz for education, 


100,000 


Inspection wi Colleges, 


4,000 


Primary instruc-aon im^ioja, 


15,000 


Books, 


60,000 


3Iiscellaneous (Instrc^tion), . . 


8,000 



$1,062,989 



$102,334 



§745,095 



190 



NATIONAL BUDGET. 



Finance Department. 



Minister's bureau, 


$19,032 


Treasury aud Comptroller's office, GO, GOO 


Custom-house, 


6i7,058 


Stamp office. 


6,G78 


Fiscal buildings, 


30,000 


Pensions, 


9,884 


National Credit, 


.50,000 


Miscellaneous, 


20,000 




War and Marine. 


Minister's bureau. 


$28,584 


Inspector's office. 


37,.536 


Staff officers, 


356,220 


Artillery, 


79,122 


Infantry, 


281,448 


Cavalry, .... 


394,746 


National Guards, 


184,620 


Marine, 


193,780 


Army administration 


1,H3,623 


Pensions, .... 


212,040 


Independence heroes 


5, 20,000 


Indiaa subsidies, 


... .... 212,906 


I»ations for the Navy 


46,197 


Extras and arrears o 


fpay, .... 173,568 


Miscellaneous, 


80,000 



$843,252 



$3,444,390 



Pvhlic Debt. 
Emission of Jan. 1862, $2,000,000, 

9 per cent, interest, $1 80,000 

Amortisation of same, 3 per cent., 60,000 
Emission of June 1861, $960,000, 

6 per cents., .... .... 44,388 

Amortisation at 1 per cent., 28,800 

Emission of' May 1859, $800,000, 

6 per cents., 48,000 

Amortisation at 1 per cent., 8,00<* 

Brazilian debt, October 1 8G8, 1 36.^^63 

Coupons on Foreign Debt, ... ' ^"lOOO 

English coupons, alter dale. • • • • 10,000 



WATS Al^D MEANS. 



191 



Emission of Oct. 1860, $3,000,000, 

6 per ceuts., .... .... 

Amortisation at 2^ per cent., .... 

Emissions of Nov. 18G3 and Oct. I86i, 

§12,000,000, at 6 percent., 

Amortisation at 1 per cent., .... 
Emission of Oct. 1867, §600,000, at 

6 per cent., .... 

Amortisation at 1 per cent., ..... 
Emissions of Sept. and Oct. 1868, 

$2,500,000, 6 per cent., 

Amortisation at 1 per cent., .... 
English loan of 1824, 5 per cents.. 
Amortisation, .... 

Deferred 3 per cents., ... 

Amortisation at ^ per cent., .... 
English loan of 1866, £2,500,000, 

6 per cents., .... 



$169,112 

70,588 

677,648 
112,941 

33,882 
5,6 i7 

143,492 
23,915 



519,522 



1,041,240 



Total expenditure, $9,622,098 

WAYS AND MEANS. 

Imports, estimate for 1869, 

Exports, .... .... 

Bonded stores, .... 

Stamped paper, 

Post-office, .... 

Patents of invention, 

Port fees, .... .... 

Miscellaneous, .... 



$3,424,038 



2,250,000 


300,000 


160,000 


88,000 


.... 1 ,300 


1,100 


.... 49,600 


$10,950,000 



Estimated surplus, .... .... 

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF REVENUE. 

Revenue for 1864, .... .... 

Do., 1865, • 

Do., 1866, .... $9,351,809) 

Extra duties for 1866, 216,745 ) 

Revenue for 1867, 9,724,284) 

Extra duties for 1 867 , 2,3 1 6,003 ( 



$1,327,902 

$7,005,328 
8,295,071 

9,568,554 
12,040,287 



192 



TABLE OF TIME. 



POST-OFFICE KETURNS. 

Letters. Papers. 

1866, .... 1,894,594 .... 1,395,564 

1867, .... 2,009,092 .... 1,449,6.50 
There are 147 Post-offices in the Republic, viz. : 

2 ; Jujuy, 3 ; Salta, 3 ; Tucuman, 3 ; Mendoza, 3 ; 

Santa Fe, 4; Cordoba, 4; Catamarca, 5; Entre Rios, 12; Corrientes, 15; 

and Buenos Ay res, 84. . 



Despatches. 

102,779 

109,156 

San Luis, 2 ;• San Jugin, 
Rioja, 3 ; Santiago, 4 ; 



COMPARATIVE 

Wheu it is noon at Buenos Ayres 

Montevideo, 
Bio Janeyro, 

Bahia, 

Pernambuco, 

Valparaiso, 

New York, 

Port Boyal, 

Cape de Verd Islands, 

St. Helena, 

Madera, 

London, 

Paris, 

St. Petersburg, . . . 
Berlin, 
Vienna , 
Constantinople, ... 

Rome, 

Venice, 

Madrid, 

Lisbon, 

Calcutta, 

Canton, 

Jerusalem, 

Pekin,. ... 

Sydney, 

New Caledonia, , . . 

Cape of Good Hope, 

Cairo, .... 

Suez, 



TABLE OF 

it- is at — 

Hours. 

12 

12 

1 

1 

11 

10 

10 

2 

3 

2 

3 

4 

5 

4 

4 

5 
4 

4 
3 
2 
9 

II 
.6 

II 
I 
3 
5 
5 
6 



TIME, 

Minutes. 

8 
42 

9 
34 

7 

58 
47 
43 
30 
45 
53 

2 

54 
47 
59 
29 
43 
42 
36 
17 .^umil 
46 
26 
14 
39 
58 

3 

7 
58 

3 



Seconds. 

43 P.M. 

57 

32 

9 

50 A.M. 

35 

15 

32 p.m. 

44 

54 

13 

57 

50 

11 

6 
4^ J'loH 

25 
57 
53 
<H2 
57 
43 
22 
31 

30 A.M. 

29 

31 p.m. 
58 

41 




/%^ /fL^i^^^^^^- 



SECTION B. 



CHAP. I. 



THE CITY OF BUEXOS AYRES. 

Buenos Ayres is in many respects the finest, city in South America, 
although second to Rio Janeyro iu trade and population. In every other 
respect it stands first in this Continent. Being situated in S. Lat. 34.29, 
W. Long. 59.12 it enjoys a delightful climate, and is the most eligible 
residence in Spanish America. Tlie first settlers called it Santisima 
Trinidad de Buenos Ayres, and it still preserves the cognomen of «good 
air,)) which it so well deserves. It covers a superficies of almost 2,000 
acres, forming a parallelogram whose longest sides are east and west, and 
cut up like a chess-board, in blocks loO yards square. Wheu laid out by 
the early Spaniards, the streets were made only thirty-six feet wide, and 
the houses had no upper story. Since 1860 a rage for building has 
prevailed, and now we see splendid edifices of three or four stories in every 
street. The streets are called «calles,)) and the public squares wplazas; » 
the former are eighty-three in number, of which thirty-one run from the 
river-side due >Vest, and fifty-two from North to South. The pavement 
and side-walks are bad and irregular ; the city cannot yet boast street- 
drainage, but is being provided with witer-supply, and is well lighted with 
gas. There are eleven parishes, containing sixteen Catholic churches, 



2 THE CITY OF BUETs'OS AYRES. 

besides some chapels of ease, aud four Protestant churches. There are 
two city hospitals supported by the Municipality, and four of foreigners, 
belonging to the English, French, Italian, and Irish communities. The 
theatres are three in number, besides a handsome Concert-hall. The 
Custom-house offices are large, but a part of this edifice is now used as the 
National Government house. The Provincial Government house is close to 
the University, to which latter are attached the Museum and State Library, 
■five markets, for the daily supply of the city with provisions, are placed at 
convenient distances ; and the Plazas 1 1th September, and Constitucionare 
the great wool-markets for the North and South districts of tlie camp. 
The two killing-grounds or ((abattoirs)) are situated in the extreme 
outskirts of the Recoleta and Convalecencia : the former locality is 
remarkable for the city cemetery, and tlie latter for the new and 
commodious Lunatic Asylum. The Protestant or English burial-ground is 
situate in Calle Victoria. Hotel accommodation is cheap and good, there 
being three superior, and five second-rate, houses, in which the charge 
varies from five to ten shillings per diem. The stranger finds himself at 
once at home in Buenos Ay res, as he can procure entree by a visitor's 
ticket to all the clubs and societies in the city. As yet we have no public 
park, but there is a project to turn Palermo, the late residence of Rosas, 
into a species of Champs Elysees. The number of English houses is large, 
and the merchants constitute the most respectable class in the society of 
the city; English families (including Americans) are about 1,000 in 
number. There are five rosident English physicians, and ten or twelve 
good English schools. The police department is imperfect, there being 
only some 200 vigilantes for the total city service. There is a barrack in 
the Plaza Retiro, the garrison being usually about 600 men. The artillery 
magazine in Plaza Parque contains some historic pieces of large calibre. 
The National Guards are drilled on Sundays during a few months in the 
year. Most foreign nations are represented by a Minister and a Consul, 
as vessels of all flags, and people of almost every country, are found in 
this port. The British Legation is in Calle Parque : at the Consulate, 121 
Calle Mayo, is the English post-office. The French Consulate serves for a 
post-office to the Bordeaux monthly steamer. 

The Foreign Club, in Calle San Martin, is the usual rendezvous of 
visitors, who merely require to have their name put doAvn by one of the 
members. The native Clubs are fashionable and brilliant, but mostly used 
for balls : foreign visitors can easily procure invitations. 

The Cathedral is one of the finest buildings in the continent, and the 
church services on great holidays are solemnized with becoming splendor. 



THE CITY OF BUENOS A^RES. 6 

There are two convents of friars, and two of (native) cloistered nuns, 
Avhicli escaped the suppression of religious orders after the Independence. 
The French Sisters of Charity have numerous institutes and schools, and 
the Irish Sisters of Mercy'have a school and hospital. 

The National and Provincial Governments, botji, reside in the city, and 
act in perfect harmony. The Municipality, composed of a dozen leading 
Argentines and foreign residents, has its Town-hall at the Policia. 

The Bolsa or Exchange is in Calle San Martin, and here the visitor will 
meet all the business men of the city, native and foreign. The Commercial 
Rooms, next door to the Capitania, supply the latest shipping intelligence, 
and possess first-rate telescopes and a reading room. The Casa de Moneda 
or Bank of the Province is the headquarters of our paper-money. The 
Maud Bank was the first private bank in the city, established in 1858. 
The London and River Plate Bank, established in 1863, does a large 
and remunerative business. The Argentine Bank is of recent date. 

The Argentine General Post-office, Calle Bolivar, is directed by Don 
Gervasio Posadas. The chief Courts of Law are in the Cabildo, Plaza 
Victoria, in the tower of which is the new town clock. The Congress-hall, 
open from May to November, is in Plaza Mayo, beside the Custom-house. 

Each parish has a Justice of Peace, and male and female public schools. 
The inhabitants are generally w^ell educated. There are ten daily papers, 
six Spanish, one English, one French, one German, and one Italian. 
Foreigners enjoy the fullest immunities, but have of course no represen- 
tation or voice in the Legislature. 

There are few cities that have made such progress as Buenos Ayres in 
the last ten years. In 1859 we had six miles of railway; at present we 
have 200 miles, on the Northern, Southern, Western and Ensenada lines* 
In 1859 there was but one line of ocean steamers ; now there are seven 
lines from England, France, Belgium, Italy and the United States. In 1859 
there were but two Banks: at present there are four. In 1859 the 
newspaper circulation was 3,000 daily; it now amounts to 20,000. In 
1859 the population was 100.000, just half the present estimate. In 1859 
there was not a single English joint-stock company, nor an insurance oflSce, 
in the country; to-day it would be difficult to number them. In 1859 the 
number of immigrants was 4,700 ; at present the returns shew 30,000 per 
annum. In 1859 the business of the Post-oflice comprised 400,000 letters 
and papers; at present it is nearly 4,000,000. In 1859 the Customs 
revenues were about £200,000; now they exceed £2.000,000 sterling. 
The same increase is observable in every branch of industry oc enterprise. 

Tramways are about to be established throughout the city and suburbs, 

02 



* THE CITY OF BUEiXOS AYRES. 

the following lines being either projected or in course of construction. 
I . From the Custom-house, along Calle Rivadavia, to the Plaza Once de 
Setiembre; 2. From Plaza Parque to Plaza Monserrat ; 3. From the Plaza 
Constitucion terminus to the Plaza 25 de Mayo ; 4. From Plaza Libertad to 
Plaza Victoria ; 5. From 'the Cinco Esquinas to the village of Belgrano. 
On the first first four lines the uniform charge would be §1, the proprietors 
paying the municipality 20 per cent, of the gross receipts, for use of 
the streets. 

The suburbs of Belgrano, San Fernando, Flores and Barracas are pretty, 
and studded with charming country seats. The AVesteru Eailway is open 
(100 miles) to Chivilcoy, the Northern (20 miles) to the Tigre, the Great 
Southern (75 miles) to Chascomus, and the Ensenada line (3 miles) to 
Barracas. Pleasant boating excursions may be made to Las Conchas, the 
islands of Carapachay, and the delta of the Parana. There is almost daily 
steam communication with the river ports, and diligences ply to the various 
camp towns. The mortality of the city is thirteen daily or twenty-four per 
mil per annum. Immigration, 2,500 monthly. Municipal income, £120,000 
per annum. 

Buenos Ayres is the grand centre of communication between this part 
of South America and Europe. The traveller may here book himself for 
any of the river ports in the Parana or Uruguay, or for the upper provinces 
of the Interior, or for the more distant republics of Paraguay, Bolivia, or 
Chile. He may even take a steamboat trip 2,000 miles up the river, into 
the interior of Brazil, passing Asuncion. Or if anxious to visit the Indian 
tribes of Patagonia, he will find monthly steamboat communication with 
Bahia Blanca and Rio Negro. As a place of residence for the visitor or 
invalid, no city in this hemisphere has superior attractions. The climate 
is healthy, and there are a variety of public amusements, fashionable and 
enlightened society, a healthy atmosphere of progress, and an almost 
weekly mail from Europe. 



HOTjELS, CLUBS, THEATRES. 



CHAP. II. 



HOTELS, CLUBS, THEATRES, .OD PLAZAS. 

HOTELS. 

Thei\e are three first-rate hotels, and several of lesser note — • 

Hotel de la Paix, 56 Calle Cangallo, contains nearly 100 apartments, well 
ventilated. The «rairador)) is one of the highest objects in the city, and 
commands a splendid view. English, French, and Spanish spoken. The 
proprietor, M. Marechal, has also a «maison meublee,» called Hotel San 
Martin, next the Bolsa, where visitors who purpose making a long stay will 
find suitable rooms with board. Charges vary from $50 to $120 (Ss. to £1) 
per day, according to accommodation. 

Hotel du Louvre, 95 Calle San Martin, is a new house, elegantly fitted up, 
and the charges are much the same as at La Paix. English and other 
languages spoken. 

Hotel du Provence, 25 Calle Cangallo ; very comfortable, and much 
frequented by* English. Madame Boch is very attentive to families. This 
is one of the oldest and most respectable houses in town. Charges, §40 a 
day, and upwards. 

Hotel del Globo, 38 Calle Mayo : an Italian house, well kept, with a fine 
view of the roadstead. Charge, $40 a day. 

Hotel de Paris, 43 Calle j\layo ; much frequented by Frenchmen ; the 
dining-saloon overlooks the beach, good cuisine. Charge, $40 per day. 

Hotel de Europa, 53 Calle Mayo, established in 1809, much frequented by 
Dutch ship-captains; good board and attendance. Charge, $35 per day. 

The Victoria Hotel, Mr. John Geoghegan proprietor, 21 Calle Corrientes. 
This house is the rendezvous of Irish sheepfarmers when they come to 
town. 



6 HOTELS AND CLUBS. 

Furnished apartments, without board, may be obtained at the Universelle, 
1 02 Calle San Martin ; the Ancla Dorada, 76 Calle Cangallo; the Maison- 
meublee, No. 2 Calle Mayo; Mrs. Whittaker's, 77 Calle Mayo; Mrs. 
Summer's, 82 Calle Parque; Mrs. Stafford's, 190 Calle San Martin; Mr. 
Lewis, 1 16 Florida, and other respectable English houses, all of which are 
kept with the utmost neatness. The charges usual are — bed-room and 
parlor gSOO to $1,200 (£7 to 10£) a month; bed-room, with attendance, 
$300 to §700 a month. Unfurnished rooms may be procured at $200 to 
$500 a month, and young men sometimes prefer taking lodgings with, a 
native family, in order the quicker to learn Spanish. If the stranger wish 
to take a house, he will find it difficult to get one iu a hurry, but must 
patiently advertise and wait. The best localities are the Plaza Retire, 
Drabble Row, Plaza Parque, Whitfield's quintas, and Ludlam's terrace 
(Calle Dcfcnsa) : rent, from $1 ,500 to $3,000 a month. 

CLUBS. 

The Foreign Ckib, No. 36 Calle San Mdrtin, was established in 1841, its 
first President having been the head of« the well known firm of Thomas 
Duguid & Co. : it was then situate on the site before occupied by Faunch's 
hotel, and which is now the English book-store of Messrs. Mackern. The 
present new building is elegant and commodious. The reading-room is 
probably the best in South America ; there is a good billiard-room, and the 
coffee-room and cuisine are in English style, with reasonalDle charges : 
the other apartments are to match, the only drawback being that the 
premises are small, and command no view from the front. The slate in the 
hall contains the latest maritime intelligence, and the saloons are crowded at 
every hour in the day with th:e merchants of the city. The original 
number of subscribers was 150, but is now 274. Entrance fee, $2,000 ; 
subscription for town residents $70, for country residents $35 per month. 
Foreign ministers, consuls, officers, and clergymen are admitted as 
honorary members. Visitors' tickets, available gratis for three months, 
may be procured by application to any of the members ; such tickets may 
be prolonged four months more, by paying the monthly subscription. 

The Club del Progreso was founded, May 1st 1852, by Messrs. Diego 
Alvear, Rufino Elizalde, Gervasio A. Posadas, and Juan Martin Estrada. 
Foreigners were admitted as members, and a spirit of social harmony began 
to be cultivated, after the long tyranny of Rosas. The bye-laws specially 
provided for balls at stated periods, which soon became the most brilliant 
«reuiiions» in South America. In 1859, Sr. Muiloz having concluded his 



GERMA>' CLUBS. 7 

spleudid house at the corner of Calles Peru and Victoria, the Club removed 
thither. The suite of saloous is unrivalled, and their luxury and style 
quite in keeping with the gay and fashionable society that has gained for 
the Progreso balls a Parisian reputation. The reading-room, library, 
billiard-room, conversation-hall, &c. are well arranged. The commercial 
news of the day is marked down on a slate. Besides the monthly balls, 
there are others on the grand fete-days of Buenos Ayres : strangers caa 
procure an invitation through any of the members. The number of 
members is over 400 ; entrance fee, $3,000 me ; monthly subscription, §75. 
The Chib del Plata was founded, August 6th 1860, in the building 
formerly occupied by the Philharmonic Society, 112 Bivadavia. The 
saloons are spacious and handsome (President Derqui lodged here, on his 
visit to Buenos Ayres, in 1860). The style and character of tliis Club are 
similar to those of the Progreso, and the balls almost as brilliant. 
Foreign residents may become members, and, visitors can easily procure an 
invitation. Entrance fee §600, and monthly subscription $60. 

The Club del Parqve has been recently opened in Calle Artes, and is a 
rendezvous for the neighbors of the West end. 

The British Library, No. 5 Calle Defensa, was established about forty 
years ago, and contains 1,600 works of general literature, besides a 
reading-room furnished with the leading local and English journals : there 
is a chess and smoking-room. Mr. Duffy, the librarian, is very attentive 
to visitors. The rooms are open on all week days, from 9a.m. to 10p.m. 
There are printed catalogues, price $5 ; and a list is posted up^each month of 
the new works received by the packet. Subscribers may take out a book 
for a stated number of days, passing which a small fine is exacted. 
Periodicals are likewise lent out. The subscription fof the Lending- 
library and reading-room is $2 iO ayear. Mr. Mudie supplies the institute 
with books. 

"^ (lerman Chtbs — There are no less than nine German clubs or societies. 
1. The Germania, founded in 1853, composed of respectable tradesmen 
and their families, to the number of 250 members. They occasionally give 
concerts, balls, and amateur theatrical performances. They have a good 
reading room, with newspapers and books, also a piano, and the billiard 
room and skittle ground are open daily. 2. The Gymnastic Club, founded 
in 1854, comprises about 400 merchants agd clerks, who have a large haU 
wherein gymnastic exercises are performed on certain days of the week : 

*a small hall is being built for boys. The 14th anniversary was recently- 
celebrated with a great athletic match and game of skittles, attended by a 



8 OPERA HOUSE Ai\D THEATRES. 

number of ladies, the festivity concluding with a banquet. Thei^e are four 
fine skittle grounds, and a nice garden attached to the club. 3. The 
Teutonia, established in 1861, counts 100 members, mostly mercantile 
clerks, A\ho give musical entertainments from time to time : their reading 
room contains books and papers in several languages ; there are also music 
and billiard rooms and a refreshment and conversation hall. 4. The 
Concordia, opened in 1864, has 150 members, mostly tradesmen, who form 
a musical association and have a skittle ground, reading-room, &c. 5. The 
German Singing Academy, founded in 1864, counts 400 members who 
devote themselves entirely to the study of classical and sacred music. 
Concerts are given at regular intervals in the German church and the 
Coliseum, Avith the most brilliant success. 6. The Heimath, or «home,)> 
was founded in 1865, and has about 100 members of the mercantile class : 
reading-room, billiards, and music-hall. The club has quite a musical 
character. 7. The Kranken-verein, founded in 1865, is a society for the 
relief of sick persons. 8. The German Hospital Society, is similar to the 
last, founded in 1867, 'for the purpose of establishing a German hospital :, 
a concert was given at the Coliseum towards this end. 9. The Thalia, 
founded in 1867, counts already eighty members, mostly tradesmen, who 
recreate themselves at skittles daily, and have also a billiard room, a good 
supply of books and journals, and a music room : they sometimes give 
balls and concerts. It will be seen that most of the above clubs are of 
an eminently musical character, and the Germans also form a large 
proportion of the Philharmonic Society. In 1865 there was a grand 
gathering of all the German musical associations of Buenos Ayres, 
Rosario, Montevideo and Eio Grande in the first-named city, and the 
festivities were kept up for three days. 

THEATRES. 

Colon Theatre, called after. Columbus, stands at the N.E. corner of Plaza 
'Victoria; it is used as an opera house, and is the finest theatre in the 
Continent. It was built in 1856, by a joint-stock company, at a cost of 
£40,000 ; the roof is of iron, and was put up by Mr. Turner of Dublin. 
The architect was Mr. Charles Pelligrini. The house can conveniently hold 
2,500 persons : tliere are three tiers of boxes, above which is the Cazuela, 
for ladies only ; the upper gaUery is called the Paraiso. In the pit there 
are only gentlemen ; but a few rows of front stalls are set apart for ladies 
and gentlemen. Ladies in tlie boxes usually wear ball dress, but tlw) 
etiquette in this particular is not rigid. There are tcrtulia seats on eitlier 



VICTORIA THEATRE. 9 

•side of the President's state-box, for ladies and gentlemen ; and screened 
boxes below for parties in mourning. The appearance of the house, when 
full, is extremely brilliant : \he stage is of great size, the scenery very fine, 
and the orchestra good ; the performances are fair enough, though not 
equal to what is seen in Europe. Performances commence in winter at 
7.30 P.M., and in summer at 8.30 p.m. A first-rate coffee-house is attached 
to the theatre. Between the acts it is very customary to go around visiting 
friends in the boxes. Smoking is not allowed in the passages. The house 
is well lighted and ventilated, but the accommodation for entrance and 
exit is insufficient. Performances are given three times a week. Boxes, 
$200; tertulias, $30; pit, $20; cazuela, $15: besides these charges 
every one has to pay $20 entrance ; there is no charge to the paraiso, other 
than that of entrance. The theatre is not exclusively devoted to the opera* 
but often used for the Spanish drama or other entertainments. Public 
dinners are sometimes given here, and the annual distribution of premiums 
to the State schools, on the 26th of May, is a grand function. During 
Carnival there is a series of masked balls, when the splendid suite of 
saloons is also thrown open, and as many as 4,000 tickets are sold in a 
night: the dancing is confined to the pit, which is crowded with the demi 
monde. From the roof is obtained the finest xiew in Buenos Ayres, taking 
in the city and suburbs a vol d^oiseau. At times even the coast of Banda 
Oriental is visible — the town of Colonia, and Cerro de San Juan — but this 
is an infallible sign of bad weather. There is a fire engine, with water- 
tank, on the roof. 

Victoria Theatre^ 344 Calle Victoria, is devoted to the Spanish drama; it 
holds 1 ,500 persons, but is badly constructed for sound. It is used once 
or twice a year by English amateurs, who give an English play, for benefit 
of the British Hospital. Boxes, $100— tertulias, $15— pit, $10— Cazuela, 
$10 — and entrance $10. Performances, three times a week. The site of 
this theatre was quite outside the city only sixty years ago. "When building 
the foundations the workmen came upon an old ditch, in which were 
discovered the bones and accoutrements of a number of English soldiers 
who fell in the unfortunate invasion of Whitelocke, xV.D. 1807. 

Franco Argentine Theatre, in Calle Cangallo, opposite the Hotel de la 
Paix, belongs to the French Bouffes, who give two or three performances 
-weekly. It holds 1,000 persons. This was the oldest theatre in Buenos 
Ayres, till 1857, when it was almost destroyed in a riot ; it was used as a 
Custotti-house depot till 186i, when 3Iadame Pauline converted it into 
a French theatre, taking a lease of it for nine years. The performances 



10 THE COLISEUM. 

consist of burlesques and comic operas. Upper boxes, $125 — lower 
boxes, §100— tertulia seats, $15— pit, $10— entrance, $10. 

The Coliseum. This elegant concert-hall was built by the English and 
German residents in 1865, in shares of £10 each, the architects being 
Messrs. Hunt and Schroedcr. It stands in Calle Parque, between Calles 
Esmeralda and Suipacha, and cost about £12,000 sterling. Being simply 
a Concert-hall, it is small but beautifully arranged, with seats for 500 
persons, and cloak-rooms, ladies' apartments, dining-hall, &c. suitable 
for balls, public dinners or such like purpose. The vestibule has three 
entrance-doors : the grand hall is lofty and well designed, with seven 
frescoes on the left and four on the right, the other three niches on the 
right being occupied by doors opening into a corridor. These frescoes, 
from the palette of M. Palliere, comprise the following allegories : — we 
begin on the left, 1 . Figure of Victory, a woman crowned with palm. 
2. A female Bacchante. 3. A girl playing on a guitar. 4. A priestess 
playing on the lyre. 5. Rustic poetry: a woman dancing and playing on 
the triangle. 6. Comedy: Folly with her cap and bells. 7. The Idylls: 
a woman playing on the ancient double-flute. On the right side, we have 
— 1. Chant de Joie : a woman playing castauetts. 2. Chant de Deuil: 
female figure with urn and cypress-wreath. 3. Saored Song: .woman 
playing an organ. 4th, Concert Music : woman playing a violin. At the 
end of the hall, beliind the orchestra, are three doors communicating with 
the salle-a-manger and ladies' apartments. The corridor on the right of the 
hall leads into a small court-yard with glass-roof, and other out-oflices. 
The cloak-rooms are on either side of the vestibule at the entrance to the 
hall. The front of the building is very chaste, with the motto «Artibas 
et Musis.)) The large hall measures forty feet by eighty-five, and is 
lighted by three gasoliers, with 110 jets, from the ceiling, which is forty 
feet high. The hall is admirably suited for singing, there being no gallery 
or other impediment to the sound. The dining-hall is 26x40 feet : behind 
the smoking room follow the servants' apartments and kitchen The 
Coliseum was inaugurated in November 1865, with a series of concerts by 
Professors Reinkcn, Werner and Schramm. The grand electric telegraph 
banquet was given here in November 1866, on the completion of the cable 
and wires to Montevideo. Balls and concerts are given at intervals, with 
great brilliancy and success. The select concerts of the German Singing 
Academy are considered very fine, but the number of invitations is 
limited. The Philharmonic Society, comprising the best Argentine and 
foreign amateurs, gives public concerts, which are always fashionably 
attended. 



THE PLAZA VICTORIA. 11 

PLAZAS. 

The Plaza Victoria is the great square of the city, covering an area of 

21,000 square yards. In the centre is the column of Liberty, with the 

inscription «25 de Mayo, 1810,)) to commemorate the revolution of Buenos 

Ayres, which resulted in the independence of all South x\merica. Each 

side of the plaza has a row of paradise trees and marble seats : here the 

citizens sometimes sit, on summer evenings, while a band plays. The 

plaza is at times used for military reviews, the troops defiling in front of 

the Policia, and the President and staff occupying the municipal balcony. 

The Policia is under the direction of Don Enrique O'Gorman, who levies 

fmes for the infraction of municipal regulations, and condemns minor 

offenders to sweep the streets or suffer confinement for some days. The 

Cabildo, erected in 1711, was the Town Hall, under the Spaniards, and is 

now the seat of the Law Courts: it was struck by lightning in 1862, but 

now has a conductor. On the ground-floor are the notaries' offices, and 

inside is the prison for malefactors. After 11 p.m. no one can pass under 

this arcade. The town clock, in the Cabildo tower, was put up by Messrs. 

Jaeggli & Dia vet, agents for Koskell of Liverpool, in 1861. The former 

timepiece was very irregular, the weights being of sand, Avhich changed 

under atmospheric influences : the present one is illuminated by night 

until 12 o'clock, and keeps excellent time; its cost was £500. The 

Recoba Nueva, or new arcade;, is on the south side of the Plaza, and consists 

of a number of shops. There is a cab stand at the corner ; the cabs are 

usually better than are found in most European cities. The north side of 

the Plaza is occupied by the Cathedral and the Archbishop's house. The 

portico and facade of the Cathedral are massive and yet 'elegant, the 

fa(ade being decc rated with an alto-relievo of « Joseph embracing his 

brethren,)) to commemorate the family compact of Buenos Ayres with the 

Argentine Provinces after the civil wars of 1853 — 59. The episcopal 

palace was erected by order of the Legislature of the Province of Buenos 

Ayres, in 1861 : it is spacious and well-built. Alongside is an old house, 

with tile roof : the owners refused a fabulous price for the site, whereon it 

was proposed to build a bank. At the corner of the Cathedral and Calle 

San Martin is a liistoric monument — the foundation-stone of Buenos Ayres, 

A.D. 1535: it is now covered with an iron plate, but remained in its 

original state, open to view, till 1862, when a water-cart broke off a large 

piece of it. It is nearly round, and quite rough and unpolished. Don Juan 

de Garay called this square the Plaza Mayor, which name it preserved till 

August, 1806, when it gained its present name, in honor of the complete 



12 PLAZA 25 DE MAYO. 

victory over General Beresford. The Recoba Vieja is a kind of Moorish 
arcade, with an ugly triumphal arch of brick and mortar, in the centre. 
Hair-cutters, shoemakers, confectioners, and small dealers have shops on 
either side of the arcade, the back looking into Plaza Mayo. The property 
belongs to Sefior Anchorena. It is a great eye-sore, and should be knocked 
down as soon as possible. In front of the Recoba, municipal fireworks are 
let off on the civic festivals. 

The Plaza 25 de Mayo is separated from the Plaza Victoria by the Recoba 
A'^ieja, and overlooks the river. It has the same area as the Plaza Victoria, 
and the chief object of interest is the Custom-house, which was^ built in 
1855 : it stands on the site of the old fort of Santa Trinidad, erected by the 
first Spanish settlers. Although possessing great historic interest the fort 
was demolished, and the present inferior building put up in its place. The 
old fort was the residence of tlie Spanish Viceroys, tlie headquarters of 
General Beresford in the English invasion of 1805, and the scene of the 
revolution of 1810. There was a tradition that the Spaniards had buried 
a great quantity of treasure here, but all efforts to discover the same have 
been unsuccessful. In 1863 Mr. Wilks disinterred a large iron cliest near 
the spot, but the treasure, if any^ had been previously taken a^Yay. The 
present Custom-house is elegant and commodious, but subject to inundation 
at high tides: that portion next the Plaza is used as the National 
Government-house, and was twice burned in I8G7. In the upper story are 
the President's saloons, and here foreign ministers are received. At the 
entrance facing the Recoba arch, is a portico surmounted by the national 
flag. In the civil war of 1859 the building was occupied jointly by 
English, American, and French marines, with artillery. Near the corner of 
Calle Balcarce is the Congress-hall, a small amphitheatre, where the 
Chambers meet daily during the session, from May to November. The hall 
was built in 1863 by Sr. Larguia : it holds 800 persons, and the public 
galleries are accessible by a wretched winding-stair, while the ventilation 
of the hall is also insufficient. The members speak sitting down. The 
policeman at the door will admit no one with a walking-stick. The ante- 
chamber forms a large waiting-room, where mdte is serve'd to the Deputies : 
the other rooms are occupied by the secretaries and servants. On this site 
was the old barrack for National Guards. The north side of the Plaza is 
made up of the Colon theatre, the livery stables of AUinson and 3Ialcolm, 
and two large buildings at the corners of Callc Mayo used for furnished 
lodghigs and offices. Between the Custom-house and the Pasco Julio is 
the terminus of the Northern Railway tramway, and at this point it is 
proposed to build a grand station, where the four city railways shall 



PLAZA DEL RETIRO. 13 

converge. In former times, political offenders and others were shot in 
this Plaza. Pillado states that this plaza was formerly one with that of 
Victoria, but at the beginning of the present century it went by the name 
of Plaza de Perdices (partridge square) because the vendors of game and 
poultry had their stands here. In 1822, when all the streets and plazas 
received new names, it was designated by its present title in honor of the 
revolution against Spain. In the first plan of the city this square is given 
to the Adelanlado or Governor. A fort called after San Baltazar of Austria 
stood on the site now occupied by that part of tlie Government-house 
which faces the Recoba arch. 

The Plaza del Retiro^ sometimes called Plaza Marte, forms the N.E. point 
of the city, at the end of Calles Florida andMaypu, just over the gas works. 
It has an area of eight acres, say 42,000 square yards, and was first arranged 
as a public garden in 1860. In June, 1862, the equestrian statue of General 
San Martin was put up : it is cast in bronze, and was made in Paris, repre- 
senting the hero of Argentine Independence crossing the Andes : he points 
to the streets Maypii and Chacabuco, called after his two great victories 
over the Spaniards. Critics find fault with the horse's tail, but the figure 
is altogether bold and graceful. The marble pedestal is fifteen feet high, 
and the statue fifteen feet more. There are seats in various parts of the 
garden, and the band on Sunday afternoons often draws a concourse of 
people. The barrack of the Retiro has accommodation for 1 ,000 men ; it 
formed a part of Beresford's attack on the city in 1806 : a dreadful explo- 
sion occui*i'ed in 1865, blowing up a great portion of the building, and 
killing seventy men. The steam saw-mill, or «carpinteria mecanica,)) of 
M. Emile Landois, was the first of the kind in these countries, and inaugu- 
rated by Governor Valentin Alsina in May 1857. M. Landcis introduced 
the most improved machinery from France and the United States, and em- 
ploys eighty operatives. At the other end of the Plaza is a fine house, built 
in English fashion, called Quinta de Laprida ; it was for some years occu- 
pied by Dr. Scrivener, and is now an English school, under the direction of 
Dr. White. There is a good view of the city from this plaza. KX the foot 
of the hill is the Retiro Station of the Northern Railway. The 
city records relate that the Retiro derives its name from having been 
under the early Spaniards, the retreat of a hermit, whose name, however, 
is not preserved. In 1702, when the English carried on a slave trade 
between Africa and the River Plate, a company of British merchants 
established here a depot for slaves, and built that part of the barrack which 
looks westward. Towards the close of the 18th century the other wing, 
now occupied by a park of light artillery, was erected; and in 1818 the 



H PLAZAS LOREA AND PARQUE. 

centre of the edifice. Between 1800 and 1818 the site was used as a 
Bull-ring, which was pulled down in the latter year, and the materials 
were used for the barrack. In 1808 the square was called Campo de 
Gloria, alluding to the success of the patriot forces which marched from this 
point against Geueral Beresford and re-conquered the city, in 1806. 
Subsequently, in 1822, the name was changed to Plaza Marte. 

The Plaza Lorea is ten blocks west of Plaza Victoria, between Calles 
lUvadavia and Victoria, and derives its name from Don Isidro Lorea, 
a neighbour of this locality, who was killed along with his wife in the 
defence of this point of the city against General W'hitelocke's troops. 
Formerly it was the rendezvous of bullock-carts from the South. In 1860 
an effort was made to sink an Artesian well ; after a great outlay, it proved 
a failure. The Lorea market was established in 1864. The Plaza was 
originally known as Plaza de Piedad. 

The Plaza Moyiserrat, at the junction of Calles Belgrano and Bueu Orden, 
is a small square,, about two acres in extent, deriving its name from the 
adjoining church of Our Lady of Monserrat. Behind the Plaza, in Calle 
Lima, is the temporary station of the tramway running to the Southern 
terminus in the Plaza Constitucion. In 1860 the Plaza was rented out to a 
Circus Company, but now it is neatly arranged, with trees and seats. The 
proper name of this square is Plaza General San Martin, but it is usually 
known by the name given it by the first settlers. In 1808 it was ordered 
to be designated as Plaza de Fidelidad in commemoration of the fidelity of 
the negroes, Indians, and cross-breeds who formed a volunteer battalion 
and drilled in this place to aid in repelling the English invasions of 1806 
and 1807. In 1822 the name was changed to Plaza Bueu Orden; and 
again in 1849 Rosas varied it by calling the Plaza after the hero of Argentine 
Independence, putting up at the same time on each corner the following 
inscription — ((Campaign of the Andes, from December 12th, 1816, to 
February 12th, 1817.)) 

The Plaza del Parque is situated in the west-end of town, and derives its 
name from the Artillery magazine, where some rare old guns are still pre- 
served. The plaza covers eight acres, and is nicely laid out, with a casino 
in the centre, and merry-go-rounds for children. A band plays every Sun- 
day afternoon, but the company is not so fashionable as at the Betiro. The 
"Western Railway bisects the plaza diagonally, and there are some fine houses 
in the neighborhood. In 1861 it was made a public garden, with paradise 
trees, scats, and railings. On the north side is the magnificent residence 
of Seiior Miro, surrounded by neat gardens. The Western Railway termi- 
nus is on the east side — and here was started the first railway in the River 



PLAZAS INDEPENDENCIA AND SETIEMBRE. 15 

Plate. This line belongs to the Provincial Government, and runs as far as 
Chivilcoy, 101 miles ^vestward. It is being prolonged to Bragado. 

The Plaza Lihertad is a small square of four acres, close to the Parque ; 
in 1862 it was laid out and planted, previous to which time the bullock- 
carts used to encamp here. As yet, there are few fine houses, although 
the situation is high and favorable. This square, previous to 1822, was 
known as Hueco de Dofia Engracia, that being the name of the lady who 
benevolently ceded it to the city for a public square. Adjacent to this 
square, in Calle Libertad, is the French Hospital, under charge of the 
«Soeurs de Charite». 

The Plaza Indcpendencia, at the junction of Cidles Independcncia and 
Buen Orden, is in the south end, covering an area of 3 acres, and recently 
laid out as a public garden. It was formerly called Plaza de Concepcion, 
from the adjoining church of that name, the roof of which fell in (I860) 
while in course of construction : the edifice is now nearly finished. 
Beside the church is a «corralon)) sometimes used for a barrack. In the 
siege of 1 859 the Plaza was.made an artillery depot. Hard-by is the institute 
of Los Ejercicios, a house of detention for women who may have been 
guilty of minor offences. The Plaza is called after the Independence of 
the Argentine Republic, proclaimed at Tucuman, July 9th, 1816. 

The Plaza Constitucion, at the extreme south point of the city, is a large, 
open space, covering about twenty acres. All the bullock-carts from the 
South, with wool and hides, encamp here, to the number of several 
hundreds, although they are going very much out of fashion since the 
opening of the Southern Railway. Large deposit stores or «barracas» are 
in the neighbourhood. The tramway runs through the Plaza, and the 
Southern terminus is a handsome and commodious structure : the Southern 
Railway runs out seventy-two miles, to Chascoraus. A little beyond 
the Plaza are the Mataderos where cattle are killed for the city markets. 
Tlie brokers have a club and veading-room in the Plaza, Avhere they meet to 
transact business. The busy wool-season is from November to March. 

The Plaza Once de Setiembre, at the extreme west of the city, has an area 
of twelve acres ; it is the great produce market for the western and northern 
districts. During the wool season this place is crowded with Irish sheep- 
farmers: air. Duggan does the chief business with his countrymen, and 
has large deposit stores in the Plaza. The Once de Setiembre (11th of 
September) is so called in commemoration of a revolution on that day 
(1852) wliich expelled General Urquiza from Buenos Ayres; an insigni- 
ficant statue once decorated the Plaza, but it has been removed to the 
Parque casino. The new workshops of th^ Western Railway are worthy 



16 CITY MARKETS. 

of note, and behind them is Mr. Ryan's «lavadero)> for washing sheep- 
skins. There are some large mills, and Demarchi's ice-factory, in the 
neighbourhood. The Plaza is twenty-three «cuadras)), nearly two miles, 
west of Plaza Victoria, and an omnibus plies every quarter-hour, fare ^5. 
It is also the first station on the Western Railway, being one and a-half 
miles from the Parque terminus. 

MARKETS. 

There are five city markets for the supply of meat, vegetables, poultry, 
frtiit, fish, flowers, singing-birds, butter, cheese, eggs, &c. Beef and 
mutton are brought in carts from the mataderos ; vegetables and fruit are 
mostly supplied by the Italian «quinteros)) of the suburbs ; the river al- 
ways gives an abundance of dorado, pejerey, bagre, and other excellent 
kinds of fish ; the railway trains bring in a profusion of partridge, duck, 
and domestic poultry ; and the ((chacreros)) of Moron, Quilmes, &c., raise 
most of the butter and eggs. Moreover, fruit is often brought from 
Montevideo or Brazil, and sometimes cheese and butter from the Swiss 
colonies of Entre Rios or Santa Fe. The best potatoes come from Baradero, 
the Carapachay islands and Chivilcoy ; the best peaches from Point 
Santiago, Ensenada ; the best meat is that killed in the camp, and brought 
in by rail; and the best butter is that from Euglish-bred cows. The city- 
is supplied with milk by a number of Basque «lecheros,» who come in on 
horseback every morning from Quilmes, Lomas de Zamora, and Moron. 
The pork raised in the country is to be avoided, the pigs being usually 
fed in the saladeros. Game is alwavs abundant and cheap ; poultry is 
very dear. The best hour for marketing is five o'clock a.m. It is necessary 
to beware of buying «tired» beef, which- looks sound, but is apt to cause 
diarrhoea. The usual market prices are as follows : — Beef, §1 per U ; fish, 
$3 ; potatoes, gl ; vegetables, §2 ; partridges, §10 per pair ; ducks, §10; 
chickens, §25 ; turkeys, §40 each; butter, §15 per %; eggs, §10 per doz.; 
mutton, §10 per quarter; peaches, §1 per doz. 

The Old Market is at the corner of Calles Potosi and Peru, and is as old 
as the city itself. It was formerly very unclean and inconvenient, till 
Messrs. Urien rebuilt it in its present form, in 1864: it is still much too 
small, not quite two acres, and is surrounded on all sides with houses, 
preventing proper ventilation. Until 1859 it was the only market in the 
city. The fees for market stalls form a part of the municipal revenue, and 
no one can open a shop for meat or vegetables within a certain distance 
(half-a-mile or so) of any of the markets. The chief entraaces to the Old 



CITY MARKETS. 17 

Market are at the corners of Calles Potosi, Chacabuco, and Moreno. 
In 1865 some excavations were made opposite to the University, when a 
quantity of long hair was found in an old well : the site had been, at the 
beginning of this century, occupied by a barrack for the Blandengues or 
militia frontier regiment, who, on being ordered to cut their hair short, 
mutinied and were only quelled after much bloodshed. The Old Market 
is in the most central and populous part of the town. 

The Mercado del Plata , at the junction of Calles Artes and Cuyo, was 
built in 1839 and called «The New^ Market, » occupying an area of less than 
two acres. It was formerly called Plaza de Union, because here the 
patriots assembled to expel Whitelocke. In 1822 the name was changed 
to Plaza Artes. It was partly burnt down in 1863. The stall-keepers are 
mostly Italians, and the market is always well supplied. It is the only 
market in the N.E. corner of the town. 

The Mercado del Comercio was erected in 1862 and inaugurated by 
General 3Iitre : it occupies a small square (| of an acre) that was formerly 
called Plaza de Comercio, and previous to 1822 known as Plaza de 
Residencia. This market answers for the extreme south end of the city, 
being ten cuadras S. of Plaza Victoria. 

The Mercado de Lorea was opened by Governor Saavedrain 1861, adjacent 
to the Plaza Lorea, and covering about one acre. It is fitted up with great 
taste, but does not belong to the Municipality, the owners being several 
private parties who purchased the right to open the market on their own 
account, for the benefit of the large population in the west end of the 
town : it is situate eight cuadras west of the Old Market. 

The Mercado de Independencia^ at the corner of Calles Independencia and 
Lima, is less than an acre in extent, and not so w ell supplied as the other 
markets. It was opened in 186G, for the S.W. quarter of the city. 

The. Mercado del Norte was opened by Don Eduardo Madero in 1867, in a 
site formerly used as a nursery, at the junction of Calles Florida and 
Cordoba. It covered an area of two acres, and was intended to supply 
the north end of the town, being fitted up in excellent style. It has not, 
however, proved successful, and is now used as a Customs deposit, called 
the Aduana Chica, where all cargoes by steamers from abroad are deposited : 
it is the great bonded warehouse of foreign im.)ortei s. 



18 PUBLIC DEPIRTMENTS. 



CHAP. III. 
PUBLIC DEPARTMENTS. 

GOVERiyMENT-HOUSE, POST-OFFICE, POLICIA. 

The National Government-House, in Plaza 25 de Mayo, is an unsightly and 
irregular ediiice : it was twice partially burnt in 1867, whenmany valuable 
documents were lost. The President's saloons, upstairs, are fine and airy, 
with a good view of the port : here the Foreign Ministers are received 
when- presenting their credentials. The various Departments of the 
Interior, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Instruction, and War, have their offices 
in the same building: office hours from 1 1 a.m. to 4 p.m. The ofiices of the 
Tesoreria and Contaduria are on the ground floor. 

The Stamp Office is in the new Custom-house, open from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., 
for the sale of National stamped paper. Thirty days are allowed by 
law for stamping notes or documents of any kind. After that period any 
unstamped paper brought before any court must pay a fine ten times the 
amount of the proper stamp. Old stamps, not used, may be exchanged. 

The Provincial Stamj) Office is in tlie Government-house, Calle Moreno, 
and here all documents, except, for the Custom-house or Federal Courts, 
must be stamped. 

The Post-Office, 115 Calle Bolivar, is lodged in very small and inconve- 
nient premises. Mr. Posadas has greatly reformed this bianch of the 
public service, but there is still great room for improvement, if the revenue 
would admit. The principal hall for despatch of business is Avell arranged 
aul has a bust of Rivadavia. Mr. Hansen and others of the officials speak 



THE POST-OFFICE. 19. 

• 

English. Office hours in summer, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., and in theevening^ 
ft-omSp.M. to 7 P.M.: in winter from 8 a.m. to 4p.m. On Sundays and 
holidays, from 9 a.m. to noon ; but when the mails from Europe arrive the 
office is kept open indefinitely. Over 4,000,000 papers and letters pass 
through the office in the year. There are branch -offices at the Captain of 
the Port's and the various railway stations. Letters are delivered through 
town twice a day. The mails are despatched every day to the principal 
towns in the province of Buenos Ay res, viz. — 1. Bj the Western Railway 
to Flores, San Martin, Moron, Merlo, Moreno, Matanzas, Lujan, Mercedes, 
Chivilcoy, Las Heras, and Ghacabuco : there are diligences plying from these 
various stations, which take mails to the following towns : Pilar, Capilla 
del Seilor, San Antonio, Arrecifes, Lobos, Saladillo, 25 de Mayo, Giles, 
Fortin de Areco, Salto, Rojas, Pergamino, Junin, Navarro, Bragado, and 
Nueve de Julio. 2. By the Northern Railway to Belgrano, San Isidro, San 
Fernando, Tigre, and Conchas : the steamboats from the Tigre take mails 
three times a week to Zarate, Baradero, San Pedro, San Nicolas, Bosario, 
Santa Fe, ParanA, and Gualeguay. 3. By the Southern Railway to Barracas, 
Lomas de Zamorra, San Vicente, Chascomus, and intermediate stations, 
from which the diligences radiate to Ranchos, Canuelas, Monte, Las Flores, 
Tapalquen, Dolores, Pila, Vecino, Monsalvo, AjO, Tordillo, Mar-Chiquita, 
Loberia, Tandil, Juarez, and Azul. 4. By the Boca railway, to the Boca 
and Barracas. 5. The diligence goes twice a week to Quilmes, Ensenada, 
and Magdalena. 6. To Bahia Blanca and Patagones hy steamer once a month. 
7. To Cordoba, Tucuman, Salta and the northern provinces three times a 
week, via Bosario. 8. To San Luis, 3Iendoza, and San Juan, once a week, 
via Bosario. 9. To Chile, Peru, and the other Spanish republics, once a week, 
via Rosario and Mendoza. 10. To Corrientes and Paraguay by steamer 
twice a week. 11. To Santa Fe twice a week. 12. To Salto, Paysandii, 
Concepcion and other ports of the Uruguay twice a week. 13. To 
Montevideo every evening. 14. To Europe by the French packet and the 
English packets every month, as also by the Liverpool, London, and 
Marseilles lines of steamers. 15. To Brazil via Montevideo by the 
Brazilian, English, and French mail-steamers, eight times a month. All 
letters must be prepaid, except those directed to the President, Governors, 
or Ministers of State, and any letters found unstamped, in 
the Buzon, will be detained and published, as well as those witliout a 
direction. Letters may be certified or registered, for greater security. 
The post-office will take no letters outside the mail-bags : sliip-captaijis or 
passengers having letters must deliver them on arrival to the Captain of 
the Port. Army-letters are carried free. Letters uncalled for are 

F2 



20 PUBLIC DEPARTMEIVTS. 

published eyery three months, and burned at the end of the year in 

presence of the proper authorities, after first taking out any documents 

that maybe of \alue. It is prohibited to send money or articles of value, 

through the post, even in registered letters : such articles must be 

forwarded through steamboats or other agencies ; samples of goods through 

the Custom-house. Special couriers for private parties pay ten cents per 

league, besides the usual postage. The law of 1863 fixes the posting 

charges in the upper provinces at one real (Qd.) per league for each horse. 

The post-house keepers must always provide travellers with horses, and 

give them hospitality at conventional terms. Parties carrying unstamped 

letters are fined ^50 or imprisoned for six months. Robbing the mail is 

punishable with four years penal service. The tariff for all letters is five 

cents (or ^H Buenos Ayres currency) for letters not exceeding ^oz. ; ten 

cents for ^ oz., and so on. Registering a letter costs twenty-five cents 

extra. Books, pictures, music, <fec. pay five cents per %. Newspapers for 

all parts go free. This does not include the charges made in foreign 

countries, viz., England or France, for letters or papers carried by the 

mail-steamers. Street delivery in town is charged five cents extra. 

Boxes are set apart in the Correo for the chief mer«antile houses, to the 

number of 800, at a charge of $200 m^c. per annum. The stamps newly 

made by the JNew York bank-note company are very neat, and as follows — 

Rivadavia's head, pink, five cents ; General Belgrano's, green, ten cents ; 

General San Martin's, blue, fifteen cents. The Postmaster-General, Sefior 

Posadas, has authority over all the postmasters in the fourteen Argentine 

ProvinceB;; they are 160 in number. On the right of the wpatio)) are 

hung around the wall alphabetical lists of letters not yet called for, with 

the proper number attached. Strangers must either produce a document 

of their identity, or seek assistance at the Standard office, close by, at 74 Calle 

Belgrano. The house at present occupied by the Correo was built by Don 

Martin Rodriguez de Vega, who bequeathed it for benefit of the Ejercicios 

asylum. It is propos^ now to purchase the Uolsa and convert it into a 

post-office. The first Xorreo established in Buenos Ayres was by Don 

Domingo Basabilvaso, in 1748. 

The Police Department is in Plaza Victoria ; tlie Chief of Police has two 
secretaries, a treasurer, 28 clerks, two physicians, a jailer, a watchmaker, 
21 commissaries, 17 sergeants, 129 vigilantes, and 240 serenos. The city 
is divided into 14 Sections, each of which is under the care of a commissary, 
who arrests offenders, and levies fines for breach of municipal regulations. 
When he arrests anyone he must send in a report of same within twenty-four 
hours : he cannot enter a house without a written order, or in cases of 



STATE LIBRARY AJVD LEGISLATURE. 21 

flagranti delicto. The policemen wear swords, and always go on horseback : 
they do not go on beats as in Europe, but can only be found at the 
Comisaria of the section. 3Iinor offences are punishable by fine, or 
detention for an equivalent number of hours. The Correctional Judge 
tries ordinary police cases, but there is appeal to the superior tribunals. 
In cases of any serious crime the offender is removed from the prison of 
the Policia to that of the Cabildo. The serenos, or night-watchmen, are 
natives of Galicia : they sing the hours from 11 p.m. to 5 a.m., and carry a pistol, 
a cutlass, and a lantern. Serenos were first got upby voluntary subscription 
in I83i, and shortly afterwards* established by law : there are 60 mounted 
and 180 on foot, under the direction of an Adjutant-major and seven 
Adjutants. The annual cost of the serenos is about §1,300,000. The 
police service is miserably defective, but happily the inhabitants are in 
general orderly and well-conducted. It is intended by Government to 
send to England or the United States for police-officers, so as to organize a 
proper force for the city. There is a fire-engine attached to the Policia, 
but it has never proved of any use/ 

PROVINCIAL DEPARTME:!fTS, LIBRARY, LEGISLATURE. 

The Provincial Government-home was built by Rosas, and occupies half a 
«cuadra)) between Calles Bolivar, Moreno, and Peru. The entrance is in 
Calle Moreno, and around a spacious court-yard are the various public 
offices. The Governor of Buenos Ayres has his apartments on the right ; 
an aide-de-camp receives visitors in the ante-chamber. The Minister of 
Government, the Inspector of Arms, and other officials, have offices on the 
left. The Finance Department is in the second «patio.)) Parties wishing 
to inspect the Contribucion Directa books for the city or province can do so 
free of charge : they form a complete register of the various properties, 
their owners, and valuation. The tax for «patentes,)) or licenses, for the 
various trades and professions, is payable at an ofice in this building, with 
separate entrance in Calle Moreno. 

The State Library is in Calle Moreno, opposite the Government-house, 
occupying seven saloons in the upper story. There are 18,7 40 volumes, 
and 101 manuscripts, most of which belonged to the Jesuits, and are 
valuable for their antiquity ; there is also a number of foreign works in all 
languages, some on general science, others on South America. 'The chief 
librarian is Don Jose Marmol, the poet. It is a pity that there is no 
catalogue. The assistant librarians will procure any book that is required, 
and also supply pen and ink to take notes, if necessary. The library is 



22 > PUBLIC DEPARTMENTS. 

open to the public, free, on all week days, from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. ]So 
smoking or conversation allowed. The average attendance of visitors does 
not exceed a dozen daily. The library was established by Moreno in 1810, 
but suffered afterwards to fall into decay. In 1822 there were 20,000 
volumes, and in 1851 only 15,000. Since the latter date it has been much 
increased, and the publishers of all new works in the country have to 
present a copy. There is a complete collection of all newspapers published 
here and in Montevideo. 

The Chambers of the Legislature of Buenos Ayres have their principal 
entrance in Calle Peru, with a side entrance for the public in Calle Moreno, 
next the State Library. The Chamber is small but elegant, in the shape of 
an amphitheatre, dimly lighted from the roof. The President and Secre- 
taries of the Chamber sit on a raised bench, under which are the reporters. 
The galleries for the public give accommodation to 400 persons. The 
Senators and Deputies meet here alternately, and the Provincial Ministers 
attend when summoned. The ante-chambers are small and old-fashioned : 
here the members take mAte. There^s a suite of rooms occupied by clerks 
and officials. The Legislature is composed of twenty-fovr Senators and 
fifty Deputies, elected by the various partidos or electoral districts of the 
Province of Buenos Ayres, The Hall of Session was built in 1822, by Don 
Prospero Catelin, and repaired in 1864. It occupies the court^yard of the 
old Jesuit building, standing on the exact spot formerly occupied by the 
dungeon in which the followers of the famous cacique Tupac Amaru were 
confined after their attempted revolution in 1 780. 

topographic office, archives, COMMISS.IRIAT. 

The Topographic Department is in the premises formerly devoted to the 
Tribunal of Commerce, to which access is gained by a steep staircase from 
Calle Peru. This office was founded by Rivadavia in 1824, and is managed 
by Don Saturnino Salas and an efficient staff of civil engineers, comprising 
Messrs. German Kuhi', Pedro Benoit, Antonio Malaver, and Ignaclo 
Casagcmas. This department published in 1866 an admirable map — six 
feet by four and a-half — of the Province of Buenos Ayres, showing minutely 
every estancia and all the natural features of the various partidos. It also 
published in 1867 a similar map of the city and suburbs. The business of 
the office is to keep a correct register of the sub-divisions of property, to 
examine and approve afl surveys of land, to give licenses for building 
houses in town, and to make whatever charts, maps, or plans may be 
required by the authorities. It also serves as an academy for surveyors, 



STATE ARCHnTS AMD COMMISSARIAT. 23 

who have to undergo a severe examination in the theory and practice of 
surveying before being allowed to practise their profession. The chief of 
the department has a salary of §6,000 a month. 

The Department of Schools adjoins the last-mentioned, and is under the 
charge of Don Manuel J. Peua. Here are deposited the supplies of boots 
and furniture for the State schools. After the fall of Rosas, in 1852, Dr. 
Vicente Fidel Lopez was named Minister of Instruction, and undertook to 
re-model the system of education: in October of same year the Department 
of Schools was established. Don Santiago Estrada is the present Inspector 
of Schools. 

The State Archives are in the same building, under the direction of Don 
Manuel R. Trelles, assisted by seven clerks: here are kept the valuable 
records of Buenos Ayres since the Conquest, which throw such light on the 
history of the Vice-royalty of La Plata and the neighboring countries of 
Spanish America. Important documents and title-deeds, which belong to 
Paraguay, Tucuman, the Cuyo provinces, and the Banda Oriental, still 
remain in this department. Sr. Trelles also publishes a half-yearly volume 
of statistics referring to the Province of Buenos Ayres : the information at 
his disposal is so defective, that his efforts are the more creditable. The 
contents of the archives are — 7,500 bundles of documents, 6,167 account- 
books, 8,700 printed books and pamphlets, and a number of periodicals. 
Since 1 857 Seflor Trelles has published twenty volumes of ancient records 
and statistical reports. 

The National Statistical Department^ situate at 64 Calle Be]grano,is under 
the direction of Mr. Damian Hudson ; this gentleman, who is eminently 
<jualified for the post, is a native of San Juan, and son to an American 
settler. He compiler the various official returns from the fourteen 
provinces, which are scattered and imperfect. A national census has 
been ordered, and will probably be carried out on the wind-up of the 
Paraguayan war. The Customs' Department publishes its own statistics 
half-yearly. 

Commissariat-General. — This department was formerly situate in Calle 
Bolivar, adjoining the Provincial Government-house; it is now located in 
the National Government-house, Plaza Mayo. The Commissary-General, 
Don Jose Luis Amadeo, has to contract for and examine all supplies of 
pro\isions, clothing, «fec., for the army and navy, as well as for the friendly 
Indian tribes of Calfucura, Coliqueo, and others on the frontier. Tenders 
for such supplies must be lodged at this office, which also gives the 
order for payment when the goods have been duly examined and 
approved. 



24 5^,; PUBLIC DEPARTMENTS. 

l(',irH PARQUE, CONGRESS HALL, CAPITANIA. 

The Parque, or Artillery Magazine, situate in the Plaza Parque, covers 
an entire «cuadra.)) It was founded by the famous patriot Moreno, who 
served as Minister of War in the epoch of Independence. The collection of 
guns is more remarkable for antiquity than usefulness, most of them being 
old bronze pieces of the Spaniards, with quaint inscriptions— «Ultima r^itio 
regum,)) «E1 Rey Carlos me hizo,» &c. Visitors are admitted gratis, and 
the stranger will be amused to see that smoking is not prohibited : the 
magazine, however, is said to contain no powder. Cannoa balls are piled 
up in the yard, and the old guns are exposed to the inclemency of the 
weather : some interesting old cannons are still seen at some of the street 
corners through town. The powder depots are outside the city, near 
Palermo. The Parque has seven large store-rooms, in one of which was 
recently kept one of Krupp's steel guns; there are also' five workshops, a 
hall of arms, and a number of apartments for use of the officials and 
operatives. 

The Co?iQr ess-hall, in Plaza Mayo, was erected by President Mitre's 
Government for the first united Argentine parliament on the removal of the 
metropolis to Buenos Ayres, and inaugurated in May 1864. The front is 
small and unpretending : the chief entrance, surmounted by the National 
arms, consists of three iron gates, opening into a marble portico, and only 
the members of Congress, public dignitaries, or Foreign Ministers are 
admitted by this access. The right wing of the building is devoted to the 
use of the Public Credit Department, and on the left is the entrance for the 
public to the galleries of the Hall. Congress is composed of Vice-President 
Alsina, 28 Senators, and 49 Deputies, there being two Senators for each 
province, and Deputies in the following ratio — Buenos Ayres 12, Cordoba 6, 
Corrientes 4, Santiago 4, Tucuman 3, Catamarca 3, Salta 3, San Juan 2, 
Mendoza 2, San Luis 2, Jujuy 2, Rioja 2, Entre Rios 2, Santa F6 2. The 
sessions open in the first week of May and close in October, but there is 
usually an extraordinary session till November to conclude the current 
business of the year. The Deputies receive a salary of ^4,000 s. per 
annum : some of them reside altogether in Buenos Ayres. 

The National Credit Office was organized on 16th November, 1863, and 
commenced its labors on January 2ud, 1864, the board being composed of 
Messrs. Lucas Gonzalez, Alejo Arocena, Manuel Zavaleta, Jose Maria Cantilo, 
and Martin Estrada, with the following employees : Don Juan Dominguez, 
secretary; Don Alfonso de Maria, treasurer; Don Ramon Rezabal, book- 
keeper ; Don Cipriano Quesada, assistant clerk. The accounts immediately 



PUBLIC CREDIT OFFICE. 2a 

submitted to their'care •were the folio wing — 1 . The Public funds of October 
1st, 1860, for $3,000,000. 2. The provisional bonds of October 20th, 
1863, for the Parana bonds and Treasury notes up to 1st April, 1861. 
3. The credits admitted by Government as lawfully proceeding from the 
Parana floating debt, subsequent to April 1861. 4. The compensation 
awarded by law" of iVovember 1863 for «ausilios)> given toLavalle's army 
against Rosas. 5. Six per cents awarded by Congress for claims of 
indemnity. 6. The bonds and coupons given in payment of foreign claims 
for injuries sustained in the civil wars. 7. The petitions of the widows 
and relatives of Generals Lavalle, La Madrid, and Paz. The treasurer 
was to have charge of all funds for payment of coupons and amortization, 
but not to pay anything without written order from the chairman of the 
board. All coupons to be paid faithfully Avithin the €ight days fixed by 
law. The bonds were issued in five series, as follows: Serie A, $100 — • 
Serie B, S600— Serie C, $1,000— Serie D, 2,600— Serie E, $5,000, each 
having forty coupons annexed, one payable every quarter, and then burned- 
Whenever a coupon became payable it was necessary to present the whole 
Bond and have it compared with the corresponding block, which was cut 
zig-zag. Nevertheless a'great forgery was discovered in October, 1868, 
immediately after President Sarmiento entered office, whereby it appeared 
that duplicate bonds, signed by the proper authorities, had been regularly 
admitted and the coupons paid for some years back. It was concluded 
that in the signing of so many tliousand coupons several duplicates w ere 
introduced surreptitiously, and the parties suspected of the fraud were no 
longer in the country, nor was there any proof sufficiently inculpating 
anyone in particular. The Paraguayan war caused new loans and frequent 
emissions of Public Funds, all w hich are specified in the budget for 1 869 : 
see section A, page 191. 

The Provincial Credit Office, 91 Calle Moreno, was established in 1821. 
The board consists of six persons named by Government, and an accountant 
who has a salary of $4,000 a month. The accounts under their charge are 
as follows: — I. Original issue of six per cent. 28,000,000, and of four per 
cents. 2,000,000. 2. Issue of 10,000,000 six per cents in September 1856. 
3. Issue of 12,000,000 six per cents in July 1358. All these sums are in 
the paper currency of Buenos Ayres and the annual interest amounts to 
33,821,592m.c, or about £30,500 sterling, besides an amortization or 
sinking-fund of $630,000 m^ per annum, equivalent to one per cent. 
Until assumed by the National Treasury in 1864 there were two other 
debts at the charge of the Province, viz. : that of May 1 859, for 20,000,000 ; 
and of June 1861 for 24,000,000; the annual interest of both amounting 



26 PUBLIC DEPARTMENTS. 

to S2,640,000m^, and the sinking-fund to §920,000. The English loan of 
1826, to Buenos Ayres, was also a provincial debt until assumed by the 
nation in 1864. 

The CapUania, or Captain of the Port's office, is situate in Calle Mayo, 
opposite the English Church, with another entrance by Paseo Julio. 
The offices are open from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. All foreign vessels arriving 
from beyond the seas have to send their Bill of Health before being allowed 
to communicate with the shore : the captains have also to declare on arrival 
what cargo they bring, to whom consigned, date of departure from home 
and arrival here ; if they bring passengers a list of same must be entered in 
the Capitania books, and any letters are handed over to the branch Post- 
office in this building. If the vessel be Argentine, or belonging to a flag 
that has no Consul here, all her papers must be lodged at the Capitania. 
The captains have also to report exactly on the condition of their vessels. 
Signal flags are used to communicate with the pontoon Castelli in the outer 
roads. The Capitania has a dungeon for refractory sailors: a guard is 
always mounted on the Paseo Julio entrance. Colonel Bustillos has a staff 
of twelve oflicials and thirty-six sailors, with three state barges: he has 
recently received jurisdiction over all the Capitanias of the Republic. The 
branch Post-office receives letters for Montevideo, &c., up to half an hour 
before sailing of steamer. For any matters before or after hours, apply at 
the Ayudantia, next the guard-house at the Paseo Julio. No one is allowed 
to gallop by the Capitania. 



MUMICIPALITY, LAW COURTS. 

• .I'jiiiiV , 

The. Municipality ^ ov Corporation, holds its meetings in a saloon over the 
Policia : its charter dates from October 1854, and it is composed of a 
President, thirteen members, and twenty-four «suplentes :» each parish 
furnishes a member, and the ((suplcntesw are elected to take his place in 
case of sickness or absence. The Minister of Interior is an ex-officio 
president, but never attends, the Provincial Government each year 
naming the Vice-President from among the members. There are two 
secretaries, eighteen clerks, and three servants. The revenue exceeds 
§12,000,000 per annum, and is spent in this manner: hospital and lunatic 
asylum, $2,000,000; serenos, &c., §2,000,000; schools, §1,000,000; 
scavenger carts, §1,000,000; clerks and fireworks, §1,000,000; paving, 
&c., §5,000,000. The items of income are— public lottery, §4,000,000; 
sereno tax, §2,000,000 ; market stalls, §1 ,000,000 ; mataderos, §1 ,000,000 ; 



COURTS OF LAW. 27 

licenses, &c., $4,000,000. Foreigners are sometimes elected to serve on 
the Board, but they generally resign. The street lighting is done by the 
Gas Company; there are 1,722 lamps, for which the company levies 
payment at each house. In the suburbs there are 1,483 oil lamps, 
belonging to the Municipality. The neglected state of the city is 
unsusceptible of exaggeration, and each succeeding Board throws all the 
blame on the preceding one. The Corporation of 1868 was expelled by 
an indignation meeting of the citizens, who formed a Committee of Public 
Health in its room ; but the Board was reinstated by Government shortly 
afterwards. A better election of members is hoped for the year 1869. 

The Archbis}i02)''s Palace is a handsome two story edifice, next the 
Cathedral : the reception hall, in the upper story, is a magnificent apart- 
ment, with a bust of Pope Pius IX. and some pictures. The building was 
completed in April 1862, since when the Archbishop resides here, along 
with his secretary, chaplain, and three other clergymen. 

Cauf'ts of Law. — There are the ordinary Courts of Primera Instanciaia 
the Cabildo, where civil and criminal causes ire tried : attached to these 
Courts are the offices of the escribanos or notaries, for all judicial proceed- 
ings, transfer of property, &c. : most of the escribanias date back many 
years, and have records from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
being used as registry offices in all matters of assignment, mortgage, &c. 
The Tribunal of Commerce is next to the Topographic Department, in Calle 
Peru; its proceedings are guided by the «Codigo de Comercio» framed for 
Buenos Ayres. The Superior Tribunal of Justice is composed of ten judges, 
and sits in the Cabildo, to hear appeals from the ordinary civil, criminal, 
and commercial Courts : it has immediate jurisdiction over the Justices of 
Peace in the camp, and has a Fiscal or Attorney-General, two. reporters, 
a notary, and other employees. Each of the Judges has a salary of $6,000 a 
month. Every Saturday they visit the prisons, to see the prisoners and how 
their cases stand ; but the proceedings of this and the other Courts are so 
tedious that a reform is much called for. The «Code of the Indies,)) and 
other obsolete Spanish statutes, were hitherto the sole system of procedure ; 
but some new codes have been compiled and will shortly be adopted. In the 
camp there are three tribunals ; one at San Nicolas, north ; one at Mercedes, 
west ; and one at Dolores, south : these are often badly attended to, as 
there are few lawyers in town willing to take such responsibility for a poor 
remuneration. The High Court of Justice is one of the supreme powers of 
the State, viz. : the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial, and the Govern- 
ment cannot interfere in its affairs, which secures to the tribunal perfect 
liberty of action. The public never attend the hearing of lawsuits, and 



28 PUBLIC DEPARTMENTS. 

formerly the proceedings were altogether secret : by decree of November 
' !l2, 1868, President Sarmiento has ordered the Fiscal to publish all suits in 
one of the daily papers. There is no trial by jury, unless in cases of press 
prosecution for sedition or libel. Witnesses usually give their depositions 
in writing, instead of orally, The President of the High Court has juris- 
diction in cases of Protestants seeking a marriage license. The Supreme 
Federal Court adjoins the Provincial Government-house, in Galle Bolivar : 
it was established in 1863, and consists of five Judges. All matters in 
which foreigners are concerned, either against the Government or private 
parties, or questions between any of the Federal provinces, are finally 
decided by this Court, to which, also, there is appeal from all other 
tribuiials. 

Academy of Jurisprudence, founded January 16th 1815, by Manuel A. 
Castro. The institute is under the direction of the High Court of Justice, 
and meets twice a week at the University, where lectures and imaginary 
lawsuits take place. The students must have already taken their degree 
as Doctor of Laws, and cannot practise at their profession till after two 
years attendance at the Academy. The session is from March to November. 
The average number of students is thirty -five. There are 120 advocates 
in Buenos Ayres. 

BOARD OF HEALTri, LOTTERY, CITY PRISONS. 

Facility of Medicine, founded in 1852, by Drs. Fernandez, Montesdeoca, 
r^'Alvarez, Albarellos, Garcia, Muiliz, Cuenca, Gomez, and Ortiz Velez, The 
'board at present consists of eight professors, eight substitutes, and a 
secretary, and resides at 53 Calle Corrientes : the studies comprise — 
clinical surgery, operations, midwifery, diseases of women and children, 
materia medica, therapeutics, pharmacology, hygiene, nosography, pathology, 
anatomy, medical jurisprudence, physiology, &c. The term of studies is 
for six years, the only degree given being that of M.D. foreign practi- 
tioners, although having diplomas from European universities, are not 
allowed to practise without previous examination of the Faculty of 
Medicine, and in this their chief difiiculty will be the Spanish language. 
The academical year begins on 1st March ; the examinations commence on 
December 1st, after which there is vacation. The school of medicine is 
opposite San Telmo church, and was bnilt in 1858 out of the proceeds of 
fines levied from foreign physicians, apothecaries, midwives, and bleeders. 
There are two large lecture rooms, a library, a school of pharmacy and 
natural history, and a small museum ; 'besides the grand hall for the 
conferring of degrees. 



EMIGRA.1ST HOME. 29 

Vaccination and Board of Healthy situate next the Provincial Chambers in 
Calle Peru. The first vaccinator in Buenos Ayres was the Rev. Saturnino 
Segurola, and in 1821 Rivadavia established the department, subject to 
certain municipal regulations. The annual number of vaccinations in 
town at the «yacuna)) offices is about 2,000. Besides the head office in 
Calle Peru, there are branches in Calles Defensa, Santa Fe, and Santiago 
del Estero ; office hours 12 to 2 in winter, 5 to 7 in summer. The Board 
of Health was created in 1852, and is supposed to watch over the public 
health, inspect markets and private houses, &c. : this is merely imaginary 
and the Board has no real existence. 

Emigrants^ Home, situate No. 8 Calle Corrientes, under the direction of 
Mr. Van Bartels, provides board and lodging gratis for distressed immi- 
grants, until they find employment. It is supported partly by the National 
Government and partly by subscription, but not more than 5 per cent, of 
immigrants seek its refuge. The expense of the institution amounts to 
about £1 ,000 per annum. The first immigration committee was established 
in this city in 1824. 

Lottery of the KBeneficencia,n situate at 168 Calle Bolivar, was established 
in its present form in 1852, but the institution existed many years before as 
a source of public revenue. It produces at present about §5,000,000 m^ 
per annum, in weekly and monthly lotteries: the weekly has a prize of 
$120,000, the monthly $300,000, the prizes being publicly drawn and then 
published. Of the total receipts 75 per cent, is given in prizes, 10 per 
cent.' goes in expenses, and the rest (15 per cent.) is devoted to the 
charitable institutions under care of the Municipality. 

Public Lands Office, in the Government-house, Calle Moreno, established 
in 1859, open daily from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Information may be obtaified 
for soliciting land «in enfiteusis,» renting Government lands, or buying 
same. 

City Prisons. — There are three : that under the Cabildo is the principal, 
and is guarded by a company of soldiers expressly raised by the Provincial 
Government ; formerly the National Guards of the city had to perform this 
irksome service. The prisoners are allowed to see their friends on Sundays 
and Thursdays. The Debtors' prison is in Calle Moreno, behind San 
Francisco church : persons guilty of misdemeanors are also confined here ; 
visiting days as above. There is another prison called the Penitenciaria 
near San Telmo ; but a proper jail is much needed, the escape of prisoners 
being at present a frequent occurrence. 



30 PUBLIC DEPARTMENTS. 

MUSEUM AWi) UNIVERSITY. 

The Museum of Buenos Ayres is, perhaps, the richest in the world in ante- 
diluvian fossil remains, and in late years it has been carefully managed by 
the distinguished German savant^ Professor Burmeister. It is situate in 
Calle Peru, corner of Calle Potosi, opposite the Old Market. Rivadavia 
was the founder of the Museum (December 31, 1823), and it first occupied 
the upper story of Santo Domingo monastery. During the rule of Rosas it 
was much neglected, the only valuable collection being 736 mineral 
specimens brought from France. In 1854 the Society of Natural History of 
the Plate was formed, and donations quickly poured in from all quarters. 
M. Bravard (afterwards lost in the earthquake of Mendoza) lent good 
assistance; and in February 1862, President Mitre, through the Prussian 
Minister, Baron von Gulich, induced Dr. Burmeister to give up the museum 
of Halle and come out to take charge of that of our city. Under the 
present director it has undergone complete reform, and a saloon forty yards 
long, with three other apartments, is appropriated for the institution. In 
classifying the objects of exhibition, Dr. Burmeister divides them under' 
three heads : artistic, historical and scientific. There is no work of 
art of any merit, but only some drawings or copies of pictures executed by 
students sent to Florence and Rome at the expense of the National 
Government; also a few portraits of distinguished individuals, which 
serve for curiosities. In the historic section are — three Egyptian mummies 
supposed to be about 4,000 years old, some Peruvian vases prior to the 
Spanish conquest, with gold and silver idols and some mummies: these 
Indian sepulchres are also found in San Juan, Rioja, and Gatamarca, and 
Sefior Lozana has presented two Peruvian mummies to the museum. The 
collection of coins numbers 4 1 5 from the time of Pompey to xintoninus 
Pius : it was purchased in France for £2i0 sterling. There are twenty- 
two enamelled pictures of the conquest of Mexico ; supposed artist Miguel 
Gonzales ; it was presented by Mr. Mackinlay. The standard of Juan de 
Garay used at the foundation of Buenos Ayres, with two old swords of that 
date. Among modern relics is the writing desk of Rivadavia and his 
coffin, General Lavalle's sword, and the ornamental wheel-barrow of the 
Southern railway inauguration; also an infernal machine used to attempt 
the assassination of Rosas. The most valuable collection is that of natural 
science, comprising zoological specimens of the present time and ante- 
diluvian fossils of animals no longer [known on earth. M. Bravard counts 
fifty specimens of the latter found in Buenos Ayres. We have a complete 
«Megatherium,)) presented by Dr. Muiiiz, the hind-part of a aMylodon' 



THE MUSEUM. 3£- 

robustus» found by Dr. Burmeister near the Rio Salado, and three kinds of 
«Mylodoutes,)) besides a wScelidotherium)) ; a complete «Glyptodon)) 
presented by Don David Lanata, the head of a «Toxydou,)) and the fossil- 
teetli of an ante-diluvian horse from the Salado. The «mammiferi» 
comprise sixty-eight kinds in 110 specimens, of which forty belong to the 
San 3Iartin collection recently purchased in France : the most important is 
the «Pichi-ciego» or ((Chamyphorus retusus.)) There are 1,500 bird 
specimens of 500 different kinds : one half from the San Martin collection, 
the rest from Europe, Brazil, and the provinces. The fish and amphibious 
specimens are of little value. The insects comprise a splendid variety of 
Brazilian butterflies, which cannot however be exposed to the light, but are 
kept in a dark room. In Botany we have samples of the beautiful woods 
of Paraguay, and an «herbarium,)) of European plants imported from 
France. There is a valuable case of minerals from, Chile, presented by the 
late Mr. Harratt ; a box of geological strata perforated in Messrs. 
Bordeaux's artesian well of Barracas ; a fossil willow trunk presented by 
Senor Pedriel. In the portico of the Museum may be seen an extraor- 
dinary wooden anchor, mounted with lead : this belonged to the Vermejo 
expedition of Mr. Cheney Hickman, who descended that river in 1852, but 
died of dysentery on the voyage and was buried on the Gran Chaco shore. 
There are also sundry fragments of a fossil whale, which reminds us that 
such remains have been found as far inland as Parana city, 500 miles from 
the ocean, at a depth of sixty feet in the barranca or bluff. Dr. Burmeister 
has published a scientific dissertation on Palaeontology, with special 
reference to the aute-diluAlan treasures of Buenos Ayres, and complimen- 
tary allusions to the English geologists Lyell, Darwen, Owen, and others ; 
also an essay on «Patagonian Macraucheuia,)) illustrated with four 
handsome designs by the ill-fated Bravard. Bespecting the Picaflor, or 
humming-bird, he gives eleven classes as inhabitants of the River Plate and 
Paraguay, although Azara reduces the number to six. He has also an essay 
on «Glyptodontes,)) the most abundant fossOs found in the country. Dr. 
Burmeister is member of twenty-six different literary societies, including' 
some of the highest in Great Britain and ]\orth America. Valuable 
acquisitions are made from time to time, whenever the Government can 
supply Dr. Burmeister with funds for the purpose. In June 1867 a 
complete fossil monster called «Glyptodon Tuberculatus» was found near 
Villa Mercedes and purchased for §15,000. About the same time was 
bought a collection of eighty-seven stuffed birds and animals from M. 
Chanalet, for the sum of §35,000 m^. The total collection in the Museum 
may be summed up thus : zoological specimens 1 ,620, samples of mine- 



32 PUBLIC DEPARTMENTS. 

ralogy 1,030, coins 2,120, objects of antiquity and fine arts 30. The 
Museum is open, free of charge, on all Sundays and holidays between the 
hours of 10 and 2. 

The University of Buenos Ayres adjoins the Museum, also forming part of 
the block originally built by the Jesuits. It Avas founded on August 9th, 
1821, by Governor Rodriguez, and his Minister, Rivadavia. The solemn 
inauguration took place on the 12th of same month in the College-church, 
Dr. Antonio Suarez being sworn in as first Rector. The premises were used 
as a barrack until very recently. It is at present under the direction of 
Dr. Juan Maria Gutierrez, a distinguished scholar, and the staff of 
professors is equally respectable. The studies embrace the usual classic 
and scientific courses, besides modern languages, and degrees are given in 
theology, law, and medicine. There is a library for the students, 
comprising over 2,000 works, presented by the rector and other donors. 
A complete chemical apparatus, with electric battery, &c. has been 
recently brought out from Italy. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The Coleyio Nacional, formerly the Jesuit College, has spacious premises 
adjoining the Church of San Ignacio. Up to 1863 it was used as an 
Ecclesiastical Seminary, under the direction of Rev. Dr. Aguero and Canon 
Aneiros, and contained ninety students. General Mitre's Government 
converted it into a Head Grammar School for all the Argentine provinces, 
confiding its management to Messrs. Jacques and Cosson : each province is 
allowed to send a certain number of boys for education, with board and 
lodging gratis. The sphere of studies is analogous to that of the 
University. 

There are two city Model Schools: that called Catedral al Norte, 
in Calle Reconquista, was begun in May 1859 by public subscription, and 
solemnly inaugurated by the Governor of Buenos Ayres, President Derqui, 
and General Urquiza, on May 26th, 1860, the Children of the schools 
assisting to the number of 8,000. Thebuilding is tasteful and commodious ; 
the school-rooms are spacious, and well furnished with maps and books. 
Besides the ordinary classes, there is one of pupil-teachers in training as 
municipal school-masters. The branches of education are, science, 
modern languages, drawing, music, &c. The Model School of Catedral al 
Sur, was the first in these countries, having been originated by Don 
Domingo Sarmiento, then Director of Schools, and inaugurated on April 
28th, 1858. The first beard of Directors was composed of Messrs. Roque 



CITY SCHOOLS. 33 

Perez, Elizalde, Casares, Garcia, Toledo, Iraola, Billinghurst, Castro, and 
Pereyra: the funds were mostly raised by subscription. The premises 
adjoin the Provincial Government-house at the corner of Moreno and Perii, 
having been ceded by the Legislature for this express purpose : there are 
three large halls and others smaller, capable of accommodating 300 pupils. 
More than 1,000 youths have been educated here in the last eleven years, 
and a large proportion of these afterwards passed through the University. 
The studies include — Latin, English, French, German, mathematics, 
history, geography, drawing, music, and gymnastics. At first there was 
uo charge for pupils, the institute being supported by voluntary 
subscription, but it became necessary to alter this, and the following scale 
of fees now rules — boarders, $500; externs, $100; externs with 
breakfast, $150 per month. The Municipality maintains tliirty free 
schools, for boys and girls, in the various city parishes and suburbs, which 
are attended by about 2,000 children of all ranks in society. The 
masters receive a salary of $2,000 a month, assistants S^^^O, and 
mistresses $1,300 (besides which the children's parents usually give them 
something). The expenditure entailed by these schools is set down at 
$834,000 per annum. The Department of Schools was established in 1852, 
under the direction of Dr. Barros Pazos, then rector of the University : in 
1855 it was entrusted to Don Domingo Sarmiento, who established in five 
years as many as seventy public schools. There are at present 142 
municipal and state schools in the city and province of Buenos Ayres, at 
which 8,000 children are educated. There are also 125 private schools in 
the city ; the best of these are English, at which the usual fees are, for boarders 
$500, externs $100 a month. The Sociedad de Beneficencia, composed of 
charitable ladies, has charge of seventeen free schools for girls in the city, 
and forty-five in the country districts. The Diocesan Seminary, directed 
by the Be V. Canon Brid, is situate in Calle V^ictoria, close to the English 
cemetery. The Jesuit College in Calle Parque, corner of Callao, is a large 
building with grounds covering the whole «cuadra.)) There is another 
lay college at the Balvanera, directed by French priests who are called 
Padres Bayoneses. Besides the day schools in connection with the 
English, Scotch, American, and German churches, there are boarding- 
schools attached to the Irish convent, Calle Bio Bamba, and the French 
convent, Calle Cochabamba ; also a day school kept by French nuns in 
Calle Bivadavia. 



Q 



34 CHURCHES AND INSTITUTIONS. 



CHAP. lY. 
CHURCHES AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

CHURCHES. 

The city is divided into eleven parishes, and contains some fine churches. 
Besides the Cathedral, there are fifteen churches, six chapels of ease, and 
four Protestant churches. 

The Cathedral is situate in Plaza Victoria, \s ith a massive colonnade and 
fine front. Its dimensions are spacious, rendering it one of the grandest 
temples in this continent. Don Juan de Garay, in 1550, first marked out 
the site, and there is a tradition that the first bricks made in the country 
■were devoted to this church. The Jesuits commenced a larger structure 
in 1621, but it fell in A.D. 1752, and was rebuilt by the architect Rocha, in 
the form that now exists, excepting the facade, in 1822 Senor Catellin 
was entrusted with the completion of the work, but this was paralysed 
during forty yeats of civil war, being only finished in 1862. The interior 
is imposing, the nave presenting a brilliant spectacle on feast days, when 
cro>Yded with a congregation numbering some thousands, and the roof 
hung Avith flags taken in the wars against Spain and Brazil. The high altar 
stands nearly under the dome, which, with the cupola, rises to a height of 
130 feet. There are twelve chapels in the aisles, possessing little in the 
■way of fine arts. A proper organ is much wanted, and the choir is inferior. 
The Archbishop's throne is on the right of the high altar ; the seats for the 
canons are of carved wood. The sacristy and baptistery are beyond the 



CITY CHURCHES. 35 

right transept, and have a few paintings ; one was a picture of merit and an 
artist took it away, leaving the copy in its stead. This side of the church 
communicates with the episcopal palace. The Archbishop officiates on all 
great feasts: the last Mass on Sundays and holidays is at 1p.m. On the 
left side, are the halls for use of the Chapter, and here are the portraits 
of all the prelates from Dr. Carranza down to Bishop Medrano, eighteen in 
number. Four were natives of Buenos Ayres (including the brotliers 
Arregui), five never took possession of the sea, and six Avcre removed or 
died abroad. On May 12th, 1G22, Fray Pedro de Carranza, Bishop of La 
Plata and Apostolic commissioner, raised this church to the rank of cathedral, 
and Avas its first prelate. In 186G the see was created an archbisliopric, 
under Dr. Mariano Escalada. The chapter consists of nine canons and four 
honorary canons ; besides ten chaplains, and a dozen choristers and 
sacristans. 

The Merced^ at the corner of Calles Cangallo and Beconquista, was 
built in 1768, and had formerly a convent of nuns attached. The convent 
is now in charge of the Sociedad de Benelicencia, who use it as an 
orphanage: an annual bazaar is held for its support, the articles of needle- 
work being admirable. The church tower is used as a city observatory. 

San lynacio, corner of Bolivar and Potosi, is usually called the College 
church, because formerly belonging to the Jesuits, whose college was 
alongside. Although the Jesuit order was expelled in 1767, they are still 
allowed to keep schools in Buenos Ayres ; but their college has long been 
expropriated by the State, and is now a secular school, with a good staff of 
professors. The exterior of the church is very line, with two lofty turrets : 
the interior is rather sombre. 

Sati Francisco, corner of Potosi and Defensa, belongs to the Franciscan 
monastery, and is remarkable for richness of decoration. The first mention 
of Franciscans in this city is about the year 1594, and it seems their convent 
was established in IGOi. In the suppression of religious orders, in 1822, 
this community escaped ; but the convents of the same order at the Recoleta 
and San Pedro were suppressed. The community now consists of thirty 
mendicant iriars. The sacristy possesses some curious old pictures. The 
cloisters and corridors are finely vaulted. 

San Roque is a chapel of ease, adjoining San Francisco, and set apart for 
the especial use of Irish residents. Canon Fahy, or another of the Irish 
clergy, celebrates MasS; and preaches in English, every Sunday at 11 a.m. 

Santo Domingo, corner of Defensa and Belgrano, has a large nave, with 
aisles : the high altar and side chapels are richly gilt. The Dominican 
convent has a prior and twenty mendicant friars. It was established in 

Q2 



36 CITY CHURCHES. 

1591, and suppressed in 1822; but, in 1835, Fray Inchaurregui received 
permission from Government to re-establish the order. Tliis church 
preserves rare and valuable trophies, which are hung from the dome on 
certain feast days : they consist of four English Hags taken from 
Whitclocke's army in 1807 — an artillery, a royal marine, and two infantry 
flags. In one of the belfry towers are seen twenty-four cannon shot, 
thrown by the English fleet from the roadstead, on the same occasion. 
Some of the Dominicans are very able preachers : this church is also 
remarkable for the splendor of its ceremonials and processions. 

Sa7i Tebiio, Calles Defensa and Coraercio, dedicated to the patron of 
sailors, is a small church on a high point overlooking the roadstead : a new 
belfry was erected last year. Adjacent to the church are the 3Ien's 
Hospital and the Residencia Lunatic Asylum. The neighborhood, during 
the time of Hosas, was known as «Barrio del Alto,» and bore a bad name. 

The Concepcion, adjoining Plaza Independencia, is a new church, from 
designs by Padre Marin. It remained unfinished for some years owing to 
the roof having fallen in, when some workmen were killed, in 1860. 

Santa Catalina^ in Calle Brazil, is a chapel of ease, built in 18G0, in 
pursuance of a pious testament, with schools attached. 

San Juan, Calles Potosi and Piedras, is attached to a convent of Capuchin 
nuns : the order was established here in 1749, by five nuns Avho came from 
Chile ; the convent was first situate close to the church of San Nicolas, 
but afterwards removed to the present spacious premises. The order was 
excepted in the decree of suppression, in 1822, and has now tiiirty-six 
nuns, who live by alms and a small pension from Government. There are, 
however, some ladies of fortune among the community. The convent has 
a large garden, covering almost the entire block, in a very valuable 
situation. The church is attended by French priests. 

Our Ladij of Monserrat, adjoining the Plaza of the same name, is a 
handsome new church. The parish is reputed very rich, and the interior 
of the edifice is elegant and tasteful. 

Las Salinas is the name of a chapel situate in Calles Victoria and Sarandi, 
attached to the Archbishop's college : the latter is under the direction of 
Canon Brid, andastaff of professors, indudingthe Rev. Mr. Dillon. Another 
chapel is in construction in General Guido's quinta, Calle Potosi, by the 
Italian residents. 

San Miguel, Calles Suipacha and Piedad, stands in the highest part of the 
city, and an extensive view is obtained from the belfry. There is a statue 
of Saint Michael over the entrance. An orphanage was at first attached to 
this church, and the Jesuit printing-press, from Cordova, was devoted to 



THE IRISH CONVENT. 37 

its support. The orphanage is now attached to the Merced. Sati 
Miguel was founded in 1727 by Don Juan Alonzo Gonsalez, during the 
prevalence of a great plague in which the corpses were removed for 
interment by being tied to the horses' tails. Gonsalez was a native of 
Cadiz, and after his wife's death became a priest, bringing the first convent 
of Catalinas nuns from Tucuman to settle in this city. His son succeeded 
him as director of the Institute of Charity of San Miguel, which was 
suppressed in 1822,: the second Gonsalez died in 1801, and there is a 
tasteful marble slab to his memory on the right of the altar. 

San Nicolas de Bari, Calles Corrientes and Artes, is the favorite church 
of Italians, but has nothing of artistic merit calling for notice. The belfry 
has a public clock. 

La Piedad is a small parish-church at the corner of Calles Piedad and 
Parana. In the neighbourhood is a remarkable pine-tree, 100 feet high. 

La Balvanera is a fine edifice, near the Plaza Once de Setiembre, with a 
college attached, under the charge of some French clergymen. 

El Socorro^ near the Plaza Retiro, is small and unpretending. Close to it 
is a garden that was formerly the British cemetery, until 1812, when Mr. 
Harratt purchased the present site in Calle Victoria. 

Las Monjas, corner of Temple and San Martin, is a small church of some 
antiquity, attached to the convent of Dominican nuns, called Catalinas, 
whose order is very strict. The convent was founded in 1744 and was 
excepted from the suppression of 1822. There are forty nuns, each of 
whom at entering brings a small dowry ; for the rest they depend on 
public charity : their garden occupies the whole block. The military of 
the Retiro attend Mass here on Sundays. 

The Irish Convent of Sisters of Mercy is situate at the corner of Calles Rio 
Bamba and Tucuman ; it has a chapel, schools, and hospital, under the 
patronage of St. Joseph. The community has its origin from Baggot Street 
Convent, Dublin. The first sisters were brought out by Father Fahy, in 
February 1856, under the superioress. Mother Mary Evangelist Fitzpa trick. 
They were first established in Calle Cangallo, till, in 18G1, their country- 
men built for them the present elegant structure. The community consists 
of about twenty sisters, of whom one-half are daughters of Irish sheep- 
farmers here resident. Tliey make the tliree usual vows of poverty, 
chastity, and obedience, and a fourth for the service of the poor and sick. 
Their principal task, however, is the education of seventy boarders, the 
daughters of Irish estancieros, who pay £.30 a year pension ; and the 
gratuitous instruction of 200 poor native children of the neighborhood. 
They also feed, clothe, and instruct a limited number of orphans. The 



38 PROTESTANT CHURCHES. 

boarders are taught English, French, Spanish, music, and needlework : no 
children are admitted under five, or over fifteen, years of age ; they wear 
a uniform, and are allowed to see their friends on Sundays and holidays, 
between the hours of 10 a.m. and 5 p.m. The halls, play ground, &c., are 
spacious, and the chapel is very neat. The convent covers an area of two 
acres, or half a cuadra, and the northern wing consists of a hospital for 
sick and distressed Irish. Tiie sisters also visit the sick of the neighbor- 
hood. They receive no subsidy from the State, each of the nuns having 
her own dowry on entering. The rules of the order were sanctioned by 
Gregory XVI., in 1841, and the Sisters of Mercy have now numerous 
establishments in Ireland, United States, and Australia. 

The Bccoleta, dedicated to Our Lady of Pilar, is attached to the city 
cemetery, about two miles from Plaza Victoria. The church and convent 
were built by the Franciscans in 1720, at an outlay of £4,000 sterling. 
There is a tradition that the site had been sold for a suit of clothes. The 
convent was suppressed in 1822, and in 1858 the building was taken for a 
Poor As}lum. 

There are four Protestant churches ; the English, Scotch, American, and 
German. 

The English Church, near the corner of Calles Mayo and Cuyo, is a hand- 
some and commodious structure, capable of accommodating about 700 
persons. The treaty of 1 825 guaranteed Protestants the fullest religious 
liberty, and the Argentine Government had the generosity to cede this site 
gratis for an English church, and for the last forty years a chaplain has 
been attached at the expense of the British Government. Previous to that 
date (1827) the Protestants assembled for Divine service in a private room, 
where the Foreign Club now stands. The present chaplain is the Rev. J. 
Chubb Ford, a graduate of one of the English universities. Divine service 
is held every Sunday at /I I a.m., and in the evening. Two pews, marked 
A and B, are set apart for ship captains. The new organ presented by Mr. 
Lumb is a splendid instrument, and cost £500. Attached to the church 
are the English parochial schools, attended by about 100 children of both 
sexes, and under the ciiarge of Professor Ryan. 

Tiie Scotch Church is in Calle Piedras, near Calle Rivadavia, and of the 
same simple architecture as usually characterises Presbyterian houses of 
prayer. It was built in 1838, at a cost of £7,000, and has seats for 300 
persons. The first Scotch colony came to Buenos Ayres*in 1827 with the 
Messrs. Robertson, and their countrymen now number over 2,000 in the 
camp and town. There are two Scotch chapels, at San Vicente and 
Chascomus, with resident clergymen, and the British Government allows 



• THE RECOLETA CEMETERY. 39 

a subsidy for their maintenance. The first chaplain was the late Rev. "W. 
Brown, D.D., whose successor is Rev. James Smith, deservedly popular 
among men of all persuasions. Divine service every Sunday at 1 1 a.m. 
and 7 p.m. : there is a fine choir. The Scotch school was founded in 1812, 
and has been successively managed by Mr. Ray, Rev. Dr. Brown, Rev. J. 
Smith, Mr. Ramsay, and Mr. Augustus Powell : the last-named gentleman 
has directed it already thirteen years, on the Glasgow normal training 
system : the average attendance is sixty pupils, and the curriculum 
includes English, French, Spauish, Latin, &c. The school-room is spacious 
and sometimes used for lectures. 

The American, or Methodist Church, is in Calle Cangallo, opposite the Hotel 
du Provence ; it holds about 300 persons, but the congregation intends 
providing a better chapel. The actual incumbent is Rev. Mr. Goodfellow, 
of the American Missionary Society, who has initiated a system of 
children's lectures on moral training. There is a Sunday school, the 
children of which have a grand annual fete. Several tracts on religious 
subjects are distributed by the curate. Divine service on Sundays 1 1 a.m. ; 
also in the afternoon. 

The German, or Lutheran Church, is in Calle Esmeralda, between Piedad 
and Cangallo. It has a pretty Gothic facade and porch, and holds about 300 
persons ; it was built in 1847 by the German residents, and is almost too 
small for the present congregation. The chaplain is the Rev. Mr. Gehrke, 
who has also charge of the schools attached. Divine service at 1 1 a.m. 
and 7 P.M. on Sundays. The choir is the best in the city. The architect 
was the late Mr. Taylor. 

CEMETERIES. 

The Rccoleta Cemetery is much too small, covering only ten acres ; here 
the inhabitants of the city have been interred for three centuries. Some 
of the tombs are grand and costly, but the place is so crowded that they 
appear to no advantage. The place is very much neglected, and the 
practise of disinterring remains after a certain number of years is a 
violation of the most hallowed associations. Rich persons by paying fifty 
years purchase are guaranteed against removal. Poor people can buy 
graves for five years, at prices varying from $10 to $100m,{j, ac^iording to 
locality. The mausoleum of Bernardino Rivadavia, the illustrious 
statesman of 18'28, is the finest, and stands in the central avenue. 
Opposite to it is a monument which will call the special attention of 
Englishmen, as it marks the resting-place of a valiant countryman, the 



40 CITY CEMETERIES. 

famous Admiral Brown. On a flight of marble steps, covering the vault 
wherein are deposited the remains of the gallant admiral and his wife, 
rises the base of the structure, the principal portion of which measures 
4ft. by 5ft. and the upper 3|ft. by 3|ft. The main shaft is 12ft."high, with 
a Corinthian capital bearing a naval trophy of gilt bronze 5ft. high : total 
height from the ground, 28ft. 6in, Upon the base are well executed 
<(relievos» of the following naval engagements:' — 11th June, 30th June, 
Juncal and Emperatriz ; also the arms of the Republic, initials of the 
deceased, and a graceful epitaph bordered with wreaths of shamrocks. A 
band encircles the column, upon which is the inscription «Guillermo BroAvn.w 
Springing from the leaves of the capital is the trident, and surmounting all 
a trophy of «rostra.)) The total cost was $40,000, about £300, and the 
site was given by Government. The Avhole of the work was executed in 
Buenos Ayres, from designs by P. Beare, G.E. : the castings weighed over 
five tons and were made in the establishment of F. CaruUa. Tlie epitaph, 
translated from the Spanish, is as follows : — 

WILLIAM BROWN, 

BOR?J ON THE 22kD JUNE, 1777, AT FOXFORD, COUNTY MAYO, IRELAND- 
OF BRITISH ORIGIN, BUT ARGENTINE BY HIS SERVICES. 

He commanded in chief the first fleet in the War of Independence j 

bringing glory and triumph to our flag^ A.'D. 1814, destroying 

the Spanish navies at Martin Garcia and Montevideo. 

Sweeping the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1815 to 1818. 

The ports of Callao and Guayaquil witnessed his prowess under the 

Argentine banner , on January 20, and February 1, 1816. 

The sun that shone on Februarg 9, June 11, and July 29, 1826, 

in the waters of La Plata ^ and on February 9, 1827, in the 

River Uruguay, beheld the vessels of the Republic confided to Admiral Broivn 

crowned with victory in supporting the Independence of the Sister State. 

He died like a true Christian, on the night, of May 3, 1857, surrounded 

by his family, overshadowed by his great name, and at the ripe 

age of eighty years, having consecrated his life to naval glory. 

His Widow dedicates this Monument to his memory, 

and asks from all brave and grateful men a 

Remembrance and a Prayer. 

R. LP. 



THE ENGLISH CEMETERY. 4t 

The monuments of the Typographic Society and the Spanish Charitable 
Association are handsome edifices. Not far hence is a stone with the 
inscription (cSeilor Alvarez, assassinated by his friends!)) Besides the 
natives there are numerous Irish and French buried in the Recoleta. 
On the north side, against the convent wall, is a marble slab to the memory 
of the first Irish priest who came to Buenos Ayres, some forty years ago. 
Kear the entrance-gate are the monuments of Colonel Brandsen, who fell 
in the battle of Ituzaingo, A.D. 1827, and Captain Meyer, killed in the 
civil war of 1864. Besides tliis cemetery another has been recently 
opened in the south end, near the Convalecencia. 

Tihe, English Cemetery — About the year 1821 the English residents in this 
city obtained from the Government a general charter in due form for the 
establishment of a Protestant Cemetery. A short time afterwards a small 
plot of ground was purchased near the Socorro Church, which for several 
years was used as their burial-ground; its dimensions were, however, 
soon found insufiicient, and in the year 1832 Mr. John Harratt purchased 
the present site, and transferred this ownership to the British community of 
Buenos Ayres. It is situate at the corner of Calles Victoria and Pasco, 
about a mile and a quarter from Plaza Victoria, covering a «manzana)) of 
150 yards square, nicely planted and walled in. There is a neat 
mortuary chapel, in the centre, and the tombs are of varied taste and 
nationalities, including all classes of Protestants. The Germans have a 
quarter to themselves, and English, Scotch, and Americans occupy the 
rest. There are some very sad mementos, such as naval officers 
accidentally drowned in port, and persons killed in civil commotions. The 
visitor, may pause at the grave of Mr. Priestly who w as shot at his own 
door in a street-riot, or at those of Mr. Mason and General Asboth, late 
American Ministers for the United States. There is a touching record in 
a tablet, near the entrance, to the memory of Mr. Taggart, an American 
resident, who was drowned in rescuing some ladies from drowning in 
the Lujan river. ]Xo coffin is allowed to be laid at less than eight 
feet from the surface, and the great majority of the coffins are lined 
with lead. Nevertheless there is an agitation to close up the cemetery and 
oblige the Protestant residents to take a new site further out of town. A 
municipal decree has been passed to this effect. 

HOSPITALS. 

Few cities are better supplied than ours with institutions for the relief 
of the sick. The Municipality maintains two hospitals, for men and women, 



42 CITY HOSPITALS. ♦ 

irrespective of creed or nationality. There are also the English, French, 
Italian and Irish hospitals, and the Sanitary Institute : this last is one of 
the finest establishments in South America. 

The Men's Hospital was founded by Don Juan de Garay under the 
patronage of St. Martin, a block of ground being marked out for the 
purpose in the distribution of the city. A building was commenced in 
161 1, and from that time the accounts of the establishment were submitted 
regularly to the Cabildo, till 1748 : in this year the Bethlamite monks took 
charge of the hospital, and when their order was suppressed the 
establishment passed into the hands of Government. It was directed by a 
Philanthropic Society from 1828 to 1833, after which Rosas supported it by 
a subvention of gl 2)000, till the French blockade, when he suppressed it 
altogether as unnecessary : he, however, allowed it to be re-opened by 
several charitable persons in 1848, allowing a subvention of §15,000 per 
annum, till his fall, in 1852. Since then it has been maintained by the 
Municipality at a cost of nearly ^2, 000,000 per annum. It is situate at the 
corner of Callcs Comercio and Balcarce, and is attended by twenty French 
Sisters of Charity, who treat the patients with the utmost kindness and 
care. The physicians are ordered to prescribe wines, delicacies, &c. ad 
libitum for those who require it. Old and infirm people have also an 
asylum here and are allowed a little pocket-money for tobacco and yerba. 
The average number of patients is over 4,000 yearly, of which eleven 
per cent. die. The proportion of nationalities is — Argentines 42, Italians 
13," Spaniards 11, French 8, Germans G, English 2, other nations 18 per 
cent. The average cost of a patient is $10 a day. The officials comprise 
— an administrator, two clerks, a chaplain, six physicians, nine medical 
students, and three apothecaries. The establishment also comprises 
a military hospital, and one for sick convicts. 

The Women's Hospital, under the patronage of St. IV^ichael, was established 
in 1743, by Padre Juan Alonzo Gonsalez and a Confraternity of Charity, 
with accommodation for ten patients. In 1784 the house was much 
enlarged, and again in 1823, when it passed under the charge of the 
Sociedad de Beneficencia, which association of benevolent ladies still 
directs its management. The hospital is under the care of fourteen 
Sisters, callea Daughters of Mary, brought from Italy in 1859 : the mother 
house and noviciate is in Montevideo, where these nuns have charge of the 
Caridad Hospital The order was first established in Italy in 1829, for 
caring the sick and teaching children : there are branch houses at Santa 
F6, Bosario, and Cordoba. The Women's hospital is at No. 26 Calle 
Esmeralda, and it has often been proposed to remove it from so central 



THE BRITISH HOSPITAL. 43 

a locality lo the suburbs, but there are no funds to build a new one. The 
Sisters receive a trifling pension of $200 a month. There are 200 beds, 
the average number of patients admitted being 800 per annum, of which 
27 per cent. die. The oflicials include a chaplain, three physicians, one 
student, an apothecary, and seven nurses. The total annual expenditure 
is about 3500,000ni(;. It is very usual with wealthy citizens or estancieros 
to leave donations to this and to the Men's Hospital. 

The British Hospital is a fine, airy, commodious structure, standing at the 
southern extremity of the city, on a high ground, known as Horn's hill, 
with a pleasant prospect. It was built in 1859 at a cost of £3,000, the 
British Government contributing one-half. A bazaar was held at Colon 
theatre in October 1859, which almost redeemed all the debt, and in 1862 
the American Circus of Spalding and Rogers gave a benefit which realized 
£500 : a marble slab has been put up in one of the corridors in gratitude 
for the same. For the last few years an amateur English Dramatic Club 
has given annual performances Avith signal success, at the Victoria theatre, 
in aid of the hospital. The local subscriptions also amount to about £600 
per annum. There are two wards, one for opulent patients at §50, the 
other for humbler classes at §20 per diem. Patients are admitted gratis 
when certified to be distressed British subjects. The resident surgeon, 
Robert Reid,Esq.,M.D., is a gentleman of acknowledged talent and success, 
and the returns of patients, operations, &c., are most favorable. In 1867 
ashed was erected in front of the hospital, west view, for the reception of 
fever patients. During the cholera of the following year the institute did 
good service, no fewer than 72 cases having been admitted, of which more 
than one-half were discharged cured. The matron, Mrs. Blues, died of 
the epidemic. The Expenses of the hospital are about $250,000 per 
annum: the receipts for the years 1865-67 (not including §97, .361 from 
the Amateur Dramatic benefits) were as follows : — 

1565, 1866. 1867. 

Subscriptions, .... §128,871 .... $92,112 .... $78,248 

Donations, .... 12,070 .... 20,585 .... 2,500 

Visitors, .... 2,210 .... 1,247 .... 1,000 

Fees, 97,064 .... 91,325 .... 150,527 



$240,215 $205,269 $232,275 

Comparative expenditure in meat, groceries, bread, milk, &c. : — 

$133,747 ... $121,454 ....• $133,340 

>'umber of patients, 459 462 522 

Cost of each, .... $590 .... $520 .... $464 



44 , CITY HOSPITALS. 

A large proportion of tlie patients is made up of sailors and distressed 
British subjects, -which causes a considerable deficit, that has to be defrayed 
by local subscription. Before 1859 the British Hospital ^Yas situate in very 
confined premises in Calle Indepeudencia. The committee is composed of 
H.B. M. Consul, the English and Scotch chaplains, and five subscribers 
annually elected. 

The French Hospital is in Calle Libertad, half a cuadra from the plaza of 
that name. It -was established in 18G2, and placed in charge of four Sisters 
of Charity brought out from Trance for the institution. A bazaar was held 
at the Club del Plata in 1864, which produced a handsome amount for the 
hospital. There is a very neat chapel, consecrated in 1863, and a com- 
pounding department, besides accommodation fer thirty-five sick people. 
During the cholera these pious daughters of St. Vincent de Paul rendered 
great assistance to the poor, and the Superioress fell a victim to the 
epidemic. During the Paraguayan Avar they have also attended the 
military hospitals, both in this city and at Corrientes. The French Hospital 
is supported by subscription. 

The Italian Hospital was begun by Count Cerutti, Italian Minister, in 
1858 : owing to lack of subscriptions the works were suspended for a time, 
but resumed by Count La Ville, Italian Consul, in 1862. The situation is 
good, being quite close to the British Hospital, at the corner of Called 
Bolivar and Caseros. The edifice is large and airy, with a handsome 
facade : in the hall is a fine statue of Charity, in Carrara marble, and the 
staircase is the best in the city. The blessing of the ehapel took place on 
the 27th December, 1863, the Bishop officiating, and the sponsors including 
the Pope's Nuncio, the Italian Minister, the President IH the Republic, and 
the Governor. In 1865 it was converted into a military hospital for 
wounded Brazilians from the seat-of-war ; in 1 867 it was used as a cholera 
hospital for the city, and subsequently there w^as a project to buy it for the 
Municipality, and transport the Women's Hospital hither. At present it is 
closed up, but will, probably, ere long be devoted to its real purpose, the 
reception of sick Italians. The committee consist of the Italian Consul, the 
Vice-Consul, and 100 subscribers. 

The Irish Hospital^ in Calle Rio Bamba, was established by the Sisters of 
Mercy in 1862, a wing being built to the convent for the purpose, and the 
expense defrayed by the Irish sheepfarmers. The wards are spacious and 
well-ventilated, but generally empty ; in fact, the number of sick among 
the Irish residents bears no proportion whatever to their population. The 
nuns have a House of Refuge attached, where fifteen orphan girls are 
brought up at the expense of the convent. During the cholera the hospital 



THE S.OITARY OSTITUTE. 45 

was full, and the Sisters were untiring in their attendance on the sick. 
One of the Irish priests acts as chaplain both to the convent and the 
hospital. 

The Sanitary Institute, on Calle Buen Orden hill, is one of the finest 
establishments in the country, built with an utter disregard to expense, 
and supplied with every comfort and luxury in the Avay of sanitary arrange- 
ments. It was opened in June 1868. The grand entrance faces on Calle 
Buen Orden, and is back from the street about twenty yards ; on either 
side in the garden in front there is a handsome jet cVeau; ascending the 
steps the stranger enters a stately portico, with Corinthian pillars, and, on 
entering the hall, finds on one side the apothecary's department, and on the 
other the telegraph ofiice, which connects with the central office at 31 Calle 
Tacuari. The outward hall or passage, which runs around the building, 
leads to the various chambers of sickness and convalescence ; the space 
intervening between this hall and the round room in the centre, wiiich is 
the chapel beneath the dome, is occupied by various saloon dormitories for 
the patients, each and*^!! opening on the chapel in the centre, the altar of 
which revolves, so as to be seen by all the patients ; and the beautiful 
stained-glass windows of the various departments open on the chapel in 
question. Ascending to the second flight we find the rooms, the hall, and 
the dormitories precisely in the same order as on the first floor, with the 
exception that the hall opens upon a charming terrace, which commands 
the finest view in the city. Aloft is the dome, which is an immense iron 
cistern, containing several hundred pipes of water, pumped up by steam 
from the premises in the rear ; each room is supplied with hot and cold 
Avater baths, patent ventilator, gas, and electric bells, with windows 
looking out on the gardens. The institute receives subscribers on payment 
of 330 JTLc monthly, or §300 ni,'c a year, in advance, by which they are 
qualified, when sick, to enter and remain until cured ; a clean airy apart- 
ment, .with suitable food, medical adviser, physic, and attendance, are 
supplied. For the use of sailors the proprietor, M. Lassance, has made the 
following regulations : — 1st. Every vessel, on entering port, can have her 
crew insured, provided always that she can show a clean bill of health. 
2nd. Each member of the crew shall pay 3^0 m,(j. 3rd. An} individual 
taken ill eight days after will be admitted. 4th. The §50 above-mentioned 
only pays the mariner for three months. 5th. If the vessel brings sick, 
the doctors attached to the establishment shall classify them into ((Positive 
short cure» and ((Doubtful long cure.)> The former will only be treated as 
externs, paying so much a day, the latter Avill be admitted on chance, that 
is to say, for the sum of :^500in,(j they are cared and attended until quite 



46 CHARITABLE ISSTITUTIOKS. 

restored. Non-subscribers can be accommodated, whilst ill, with private 
rooms and all requisites, at from §50 to §100 per day. Subscribers 
desirous of extra privileges can obtain them at half-price. Medical Staff — 
Dr. Luis Drago, President of the Board of Health, one apothecary, and two 
assistants. Consulting Physicians — Drs. William Rawson, Ventura Bosch, 
Nicanor Albarellos, Teodoro Alvarez, Toribio Ayerza. Free visits for the 
poor on Mondays and Fridays. Hours — From 8 to 9 a.m., and from 4.30 to 
5.30 P.M. The drugs for the poor, ordered by the physicians of the 
establishment on the above dajs, Avill be compounded in the dispensary for 
half the regular prices. Patients are at perfect liberty to bring in any 
member of the faculty they choose for their own account, and the resident 
physicians will always assist without fees at a consultation called by the 
patient's particular doctor. The town office is at 31 Calle Tacuari. The 
site of the hospital was formerly included in Balcarce's quinta. The 
edifice was begun in 1866 : it has the appearance of a rotunda, and can be 
seen from the city. There is a fine kitchen garden attached, to raise 
vegetables for the house. Subscribers or patients are admitted without 
any distinction. 

CONVALECENCIA, POOR ATVD FOU>'DLING ASYLUMS. 

The Convalecencia, or Lunatic Asylum, is about half a mile from the Plaza 
Constitucion, on a hill overlooking Barracas. It takes its name from a 
hospital founded by the Bethlemite monks. The present new building was 
erected in 1859, at a cost of §2,000,000, the Legislature providing one- 
half: the architects were Messrs Hunt and Schroeder. The edifice is 
spacious, being the only asylum for male and female patients in the 
country : they were formerly coufuied in narrow and unwholesome 
quarters at the Residencia. It is related by Pillado that in 1785 there 
were but seven lunatics in Buenos Ayres. The average number of patients 
is about 400, of whom 28 per cent, are cured. The Men's quarter is under 
the charge of a manager, a physician, and fourteen keepers : that of the 
Women is managed by nine Italian «religieuses» called ((Daughters of 
Mary.M who receive a pension of §200^a month, having been brought out 
expressly at the request of the Municipality ; there are also a chaplain , a 
doctor, and seven servants. The expenses of the Women's asylum are 
paid out of the Provincial revenues of Buenos Ayres, and administered by 
the ladies of the Sociedad de Beneficeucia, amounting to §320,000 per 
annum. The Men's asylum is supported by the Municipality, at a cost of 
§370,000 per annum. 



FOUNDLISG ASD ORPHAN HOMES. 47 

The Cxma, or Foundling Asylum, is situate at the back of San Francisco, 
facing the Debtors' prison, with the touching inscription «Mr father and 
mother have cast me out, God's pity has sheltered me here.)) The innocent 
victims of shame or distress are kindly brought up, and not unfrequently 
attain a good position in society. Infanticide is unknown, thanks to this 
institution. There is a staff of seventeen nurses, under the direction of 
six Italian nuns ; also a physician and a chaplain. A new asylum has 
been erected near the Convalecencia, where forty weaned children are 
cared for. The parents may claim a child up to two years, but after this 
term it becomes the property of the institute : at a certain age the children 
are given out, with consent of the Juez deMenores, to respectable families 
who engage to rear and educate them, making them also useful in domestic 
service, giving account of them when required by the Sociedad de 
Beueficeucia, and not taking them out of the country without a special 
permission. Notwithstanding every care given to the poor foundlings 
from the first moment, about one-third of them die, and 4 per cent, are 
claimed by their parents, who in this case have to pay a small retribution 
to the institute. The Cuna was established by Don JoseRiglos and the 
Yice-roy Vertis, in 1779, from which time it remained under charge of the 
civil authorities till 18'23, when the Sociedad de Benelicencia was formed. 
It was suppressed by Rosas in 1838, and re-established in 1852, since 
"which latter date over 300 children have been received. The annual 
expenditure is §600,000. 

Female Orphan School. — This institute was begun at San Miguel church, 
in 1755, by the Confraternity of Charity, which being suppressed in 1822, 
the asylum then pissed into the hands of Government. Rosas did not 
suppress the institute, but merely obliged the orphans to dress in red, the 
color of his party. The orphanage now exists in the suppressed convent 
attached to the Merced church, under the direction of the Sociedad de 
Beneficencia. Previous to the cholera of 1867 the number of orphans 
was limited to thirty-two, but the sad effects of the epidemic caused 
Governor Alsina to increase the number permanently to seventy-five. 
There are also 100 externs educated in the school. There are two 
mistresses, seven assistants, a chaplain, three visiting masters, and a staff 
of servants. The annual expenditure is $400,000. 

The Asilo de Mendigos, or Poor Asylum, is situate in the extinct convent of 
the Recoleta, adjoining the cemetery. Buenos Ayres has always been 
almost free from mendicity, although Parish represents a 7ew beggars in 
his time who used to go about on horseback. A few^ lame or blind men 
still make their rounds on Saturdays, afoot. The asylum was established 



48 CHARITABLE LXSTITUTlOiXS. 

by the Municipality in 1858, and inaugurated by Governor Valentin Alsina : 
at tlie end of that year it contained seventy-nine mendicants. The first 
committee of direction was composed of Canon Fuentes, Dr. Pinedo, and 
Messrs. Martinez, Varela, Pintos, Fernandez, Billinghurst, Cabrera, Zinny, 
and Sefiorans. The average number in the asylum is about 200, of wliom 
three-fourths are whites, including some foreigners and old soldiers. The 
treatment they receive is very good. The Municipality contributes §60,000 
a year, and the rest is made up by voluntary subscription. Previous to 
1858 the convent was used as a barrack: the situation is very line, 
commanding an extensive view over the River Plate. 

Los Hljercicios is a kind of female penitentiary at the corner of Calles 
Salta and Independencia. The institute was founded in 1794, by a nun 
named Maria Antonia Paz, from Santiago del Estero, in a house in Calle 
Piedras now occupied by Seilor Terrero : it was transferred to its present 
site before the *death of the founder, and has since been ruled by five 
superioresses. In 1859 the Bishop reformed the rules. There are usually 
100 persons in the house, between nuns and penitents, the latter being 
sent hither by the Tribunals. The establishment receives a pension from 
Government and various public donations. 

Sociedad de Beneficencia.' — This society of charitable ladies was founded 
in 1823, to take charge of the Women's Hospital, Foundling Asylum, 
Orphan School, and the State schools for girls. It was installed by 
Rivddavia, the founders being Mesdames Cabrera, Mandeville, Aguirre, 
Sanches, Ramos, Boneo, Agtiero, Azcuenaga, Viamont, Luca, Izquierdo, 
Lasala, and Gutierrez. It was partly suppressed by Rosas in 1838, and 
revived under Mme. Garrigos in 1852. Since then it has rendered 
invaluable service, remodelling the above-mentioned institutions and 
establishing seventy female free schools in town and country, which are 
attended by 5,000 children. 

Deaf and Dumb Institute^ 481 Calle Cangallo : it was founded in 1857 by 
a philanthropic society called La Regeneracion, and placed under the 
direction of Mr. Charles Keil. The Provincial Government pays a 
subvention of <^ 12,000 a year, and the rest is borne by the society. The 
children are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, drawing, Christian 
doctrine, &c., but their number rarely exceeds half-a-dozen. They 
afterwards earn a living as cigar-makers, boot-makers, clc. 



STREETS AMD SHOPS. . 49 



CHAP. Y. 

S T R EETS AND SHOPS. 

The Calle Rivadavia bisects the city, running due west from tlie Plaza 
Victoria to the Plaza Once de Setiembre, a distance of two miles: it is 
crossed at intervals of 150 yards by t^Yenty-tllree streets, which take 
different names as they run north or south. At the corner of Plaza Victoria 
and Calle San Martin Mr. Olivera, a cigar seller, has built a fine three-story 
house with a good view of the Plaza. In the first block we find the Cafe 
del Plata and many dry goods stores, besides Phillips' mineral water 
establishment, Cranwell's drug store, and the office of Best Brothers. 
The second block contains a large building belonging to Sefior Anchorena, 
in which are some foreign merchants' offices, viz. : 3Iessrs. Lohman & Co., 
Paul Pott <fc Co., Clark & Malm, and the hat shop of 3Ir. Christian 
Sommer. Passing these we meet, at the corner of Chacabuco, the Club 
del Plata, after which come the offices of Pels, Seyffcrt, & Co., Malmann & 
Co., Luders & Co., the Gas Co., Parody's clothing store, and Eoldan & 
Amaral's agricultural implement store ; pursuing our course Ave come to 
the grand coach depot of Seilor Cabral. Next is the school of the French 
nuns ; and at the corner of Calle Libertad is the splendid house of Messrs. 
Unzue. Three blocks further are the Plaza and market of Lorea, near 
which is an old wind-mill. The street widens before it reaches the Once 
de Setiembre, but is irregularly built. It was originally called Calle Las 



50 STREETS AlVD SHOPS. 

Torres, because the towers of the old cathedral were visible to wayfarers 
coming in from the direction of Flores : it was next called Calle Federacion, 
but obtained its present name on the occasion of the funeral of Rivadavia. 
We shall now take the streets at right angles in their order, beginning 
with the North end. 



STREETS RU]ViNING NORTH. 



Pasco de Julio runs along the beach, from the Custom-house northward, 
and has a number of ship-chandleries and whaleboat oiRces, viz., those of 
Alllnson, Mahon, McLean, Herring, Eckell, Lowry, and Le Couter, besides 
many coffee-houses and outfitters' shops. There are back -entrances to the 
Conimercial Rooms and' Capitania del Puerto. Seilor Llavallol has a fiie 
house at the corner of Calle Cuyo, Sefior Gomez at the corner of Calle 
Corrientes, and the Hotel da Nord is Avell suited for ship-captains, having a 
fine view of the port. There is a first-class foundry belonging to an old 
Spaniard named Carulla, whose son was educated at Manchester, and who 
purposes establishing the first cloth factory in the River Plate. Next 
follows the foundry of Stevens & Co. The Paseo Julio was formerly a 
promenade, which Rosas intended prolonging out to Palermo ; part of the 
balustrade was knocked down by the Santa Rosa gale, August 1860. At 
the foot of Calle Cordoba it is proposed to build wharves and bonded stores : 
this point is known asRajo de las Catalinas, from the adjacent convent. A 
little further we meet the ice-house, and the beach is now lined with 
willow-plantations among which the black washerwomen appear in great 
numbers. The Gas-house forms the extreme north point of the city : it is 
defended by a strong sea-wall and has all the necessary workshops, retorts, 
&c. for its present supply of 40,000 lights in the city. 

Calk 2.5 de Mayo runs parallel with the Paseo de Julio. Messrs. 
Elortondo and Bosch have two lofty edifices at the corner of the Plaza 
Mayo. This street contains three hotels, the Globo, Paris, and Europa, 
besides many houses where furnished lodgings may be obtained. The 
Commercial Rooms and Capitania are nearly opposite the English church. 
The British Consulate is at the corner of Corrientes . In this street are the offices 
of Deetjen & CO., Mofler & Co., and the American house of H. J. Ropes & 
Co.; also Dowse's steamboat agency, C. W. Bcnn & Co. shipbrokers, and 
Mulvany^s coffee-house. The Southern Railway directors have their office 
at the British Consulate. 



CALLE RECOSQUISTA. 51 

Calle lieconqiiista begins at Colon theatre : it was formerly called Defensa. 
but in 1809 received its present name to commemorate the recovery of the 
city from General Beresford. The old house, formerly occupied by J, C. 
Thompson & Co., was the residence of some of the vice-roys, and is of 
remarkable construction. In this same block we find the offices of Samuel 
B. Hale, Latham & Co., Mr. Dowdall, broker, Gowlaud & Co., and the 
hardware store of Mr. Dakin ; on the opposite side the Portuguese 
Consulate, the offices of Rossi & Co., Tay and Upton, American shipbrokers, 
and the grocer's shop of T. Moore, who does a large business with Irish 
sheepfarmers. The new London and Kiver Plate Bank is a fine structure , 
at the corner of Calle Piedad. In the same block we find the residence of 
Canon Fahey, the patriarch of Irish residents ; the apothecary's sliop of 
Cranwell and Murray, the offices of Moore Punch and Tudor ; H. A. Green 
& Co., shipbrokers andagents for the Liverpool steamers ; Hughes & Peters, 
produce-brokers ; J. C. Thompson &Co. ; Bemberg «fc Co. ; and Rick & Co. 
Opposite to Cranwell and Murray's is the fine mansion of the late Seflor 
Ocha, an old Spanish merchant ; and next door is a stately pile erected by 
Dr. Costa, late Minister of Instruction, who has now let it out in offices ; 
those of the Central Argentine Railway and Mr. Coghlan, C.E., are in the 
upper story. At the corner of Calle Cangallo is the Hotel de la Paix. 
Next comes the Merced church, with orphan asylum attached. Th^ 
architect was a Jesuit priest named Andrea Blanqui, who built several 
churches in this city. In the chancel is still seen a portrait of the chief 
benefactor and his wife, with the date 1769. Opposite is the 
luxurious residence of Senor Anchorena. Mr. Kelly, the apothecary} 
has a shop at the next corner, opposite Risso's steamboat agency. The Italian 
Bank was in the fourth block, but after a» brief existence of two years it 
was closed up and the furniture sold by auction. In this block are the 
offices of Folmar & Co., American merchants ; Dr. Nelson, a resident 
physician of long standing ; Sasseubcrg & Co. ; Bunge & Co. ; and 
Warnholtz & Co ; this last firm has taken much interest in the importation 
of Angora goats from tlie Cape of Good Hope. la the fifth block is the 
Model School, founded in 1859. 

Calle San Martin begins at Plaza Victoria : in the first block are the 
Foreign Club and Mackern's book-store, where strangers may find it 
convenient to ask information ; also the offices of Russell and Anderson, 
produce brokers ; Aguirre & 3Iurga, the great landed proprietors of Bahia 
Blanca; Woodgate Brothers, ship-brokers and agents for Tail's line of 
steamers ; aud the haberdashery of Mr. Flower. The next block contains 
the Provincial and Argentine Banks, the handsome residences of the Pacheco 

K2 



52 STREETS AKD SHOPS. 

and Tejedor families, and the offices of J. P. Boyd & Co., ship-brokers and 
agents for the Liverpool steamers ; the grocers shop of Feely & Wilson, 
Grieben's casino, the American store of Bate & Livingstone, Clausen's 
cigar shop, and several offices of money-brokers, including that of Mr. 
Henry Hart. Further on we come to the Bolsa, the Universelle lodging 
house, public baths, Loedel's English book-store, the German photographic 
studio, the printing o.Tices of the German paper, of Sefior Estrada, and of 
the Nacion Argentina : in this block there are two Casinos or lunch 
saloons. The fourth block contains the Louvre Hotel, the house of General 
Mitre, the office of Haycroft & Co., and the residence of General Paz's 
family. The fifth has a beautiful mansion belonging to Sefior Anchorena, 
;.No. 137, and opposite is the two-story terrace of Sefior Miro, which is 
: rented out in very neat and commodious English lodgings. Crossing Calle 
Parque we iind another princely house of the Anchorena family: at the 
corner of Tucuman is a range of houses belonging to Mr. Armstrong ; and 
the next block shews us the convent of Catalinas, with church attached. 
The founder was Dr. Dionisio Brisefio, and the architect Juan Narbana, 
from plans by Padre Blanqui. At the end of the street is thei'quinta 
Laprida, now Dr. White's school. 

Calle Florida is perhaps the best street in the city. The residence of 
Mr. Lumb, an old English resident, that of the Dorrego family, and many 
,. fashionable shops, along with the offices of Russell Shaw, Mitchell & Co., 
w and E. Glover make up the first block : the second has also numerous 
jewellers' shops and bazaars : tlie third has Alzaga's fine house, after Avhich 
comes that of Mr. Plowes, and then the office of Darbyshire, Krabbe, & Co. : 
the fourth contains some lodging-houses and a German Club, after which 
comes the Spanish Consulate : the fifth comprises some of the most 
elegantly finished houses in town. The rest of the street as far as the 
Betiro comprises the most fashionable quarter : here we meet the houses 
of Ocampo, Jackson, Blaye, 3Iackinlay, Biestra, &c. At the corner of Calle 
Tucuman is the apothecary shop of Espinosa & Kyle. In the ninth block 
.i! Sefior Madero built a market in 1865, but it has been closed : opposite is a 
very pretty nursery. At the corner of Calle Paraguay is a block of houses 
belonging to Mr, Armstrong. There is a wooden draw-bridge across Calle 
Paraguay, for foot-passengers in time of rain : there being no street- 
drainage the stream that comes rushing down here after heavy rains is so 
great that a man was drowned here in October 18G8. One block now 
,, takes us to the handsome promenade of the Betiro. 

Calle Maypu is called after the victory over the Spaniards in 1818. The 
blocks near the centre have some English offices, viz., Kohlstedt & Co., 



CALLES ESMERALDA. AND ARTES. 53 

Isaac & Co., Ferber, Huhn, & Co., Clarke & Co., and Bates, Stokes, & Co. ; 
this last is one of the oldest and most influential houses in the River Plate, 
being also agents for the Liverpool and Pacific Company's steamers ; there 
is nothing else of interest till you reach General San Martin's statue in the 
Plaza Retiro. 

Calle Esmeralda derives its name from a naval feat of Lord Cochrane's 
in the port of Callao, 1820. Tiie Women's hospital, in the first block, 
accommodates 200 patients. In the next is the German Lutheran church. 
A little further is Mr. CoCSn^s depot of American machinery and farming 
implements. At the corner of Calle Cordoba is a handsome mansion and 
garden, the residence of a Spaniard named Giraldez. Near the Retiro is 
the residence of the Chilian Consul: this spacious house was built by a 
wealthy estanciero for his wife, who died immediately after, and on this 
account he kept it closed up for many years. A new block of houses in 
English style has been built at the corner of Plaza Retiro. 

Calle Svi2)acha, called after another victory over the Spaniards, has many 
handsome residences in the first four or five blocks, that of Seuor Atucha 
being the finest. Beside Sail Miguel cliurch is an old established English 
seminary, next door to Mr. Lenz, jeweller. At the seventh block we come 
to a little square called Plaza del Temple, now shabby and old-fashioned, 
but it is supposed there was a sword-factory here long ago, to give rise to 
the name, since atemplo)) signifies «the temper of a blade.)) The rest of 
this street is ugly till we approach the Socorro : a chapel was first built 
at the Socorro by Don Alejandro del Valle, the rebuilding of which in 
recent times gave rise to a great lawsuit, and here a tasteful row of 
English houses has been built by 3Ir. Drabble. Passing the splendid 
residence of this gentleman, who owns the entire block, we reach the 
quinta of Mr. Santamaria, and then the princely residence cf the Estrada 
family ; from this point is obtained a charming view of the river. 

Calle Artes has little of note except the market arid water-works: the- 
former was partially burned in 1862, but was rebuilt; this is one of the 
highest spots in the city, and therefore chosen for the tank of the water- 
works. The church of San Nicolas is at the corner of Corrientes: it^ 
■was built by Don Francisco Araujo, and the capuchin nuns were first" 
stationed here. The church has been recently decorated anew by the 
«cura,» Canon Edward O'Gorman. The Brazilian Legation is at No. 166, 
and a little further is the Club del Parque. At the end of the street, 
overlooking the river, is the quinta of Don Lorenzo Torres. 

Calle Cerrito and Calle Lihertad are comparatively new streets : the latter 
runs through the Plazas Parque and Lihertad, out to the Cinco Esquinas. 



54 STREETS AND SHOPS. 

In this locality are several pretty quintas originally built by Messrs. 
Whitfield and Klappenbach, and now occupied by English families. The 
Chevalier Noel keeps the French Legation in the liouse previously occupied 
by H.B.M. 3Iinister, Mr. Buckley Mathew. The families of Coghlan, 
Cardenas, Glover, Harrison, and Kinch have the neighbouring quintas. 

The other streets running north from Calle Rivadavia are only partly 
built on. At the corner of CallaoandParque is a large Jesuit college, just 
finished, and in Calle Rio Bamba, near the corner of Tucuman, is the Irish 
convent of Mercy. 



STREETS RUNINING SOUTH. 

Calle Balcarce runs south from Plaza Mayo, by the back of San Francisco 
and Santo Domingo convents, passing the old Custom-house, the mill of the 
Andes, and a number of old houses which bear the impress of the early 
Spaniards. 

Calle Defensa is quite an English street, running from the Recoba Vieja 
to the British Hospital. For several blocks we meet English grocery 
stores, boot shops, draperies, &c. In the first block are — the British 
Library; the offices of Wells and Gatliff, brokers; Eastman's drug store; 
Lindenau's hat shop; James Hill, custom-house broker; C. T. Getting 
& Co., import and export merchants; Claypole's newspaper agency; 
Fleming's boot shop; G. Ellis, clothier; Galbraith & Hunter, and A. 
Fulton & Co., drapers; Keyser's bar room; Davenport & Co. The 
Irish church of San Roque is at the corner of Poiosi, next to that of San 
Francisco, and lower down is Santo Domingo. At No. 9 1 in this street 
Rosas Avas born ; the house belonged to the Ezcurra family. In this same 
block we find Torres & Barton's drug store, Mr. James White's house, 
Barry & Walker's grocery, hardware, and drapery stores, and the Porvenir 
printing-office. In the next cuadra are — Gowland's auction mart, Southron's 
saddlery, Roncoroni's color and paint shop. Opposite Santo Domingo is 
the drug store of Signer Demarchi, Avho is Swiss Consul, and a little loAver 
down are Bell's timber yard and the grocery of Robert Muir & Co. The 
Black barrack, at the corner of Calle Mejico, is now a Customs deposit, in 
front of which are Gregory's livery stables. The wooden bridge is an 
abominable locality : here a torrent runs down in wet w eather ; in fact, it 
is an open sewer. San Telmo is on high ground, a little above the Comercio 
Market; it was built by Padre Blanqui, and in 1815 was made a parish 
church. Further on is Fair's quinta, so long the residenccof the British 



CALLES BOLIVAR AND PERU. OO 

Legation, now belonging to Mr. Lowry of Montevideo, and tenanted by 
Mt. l?erfy. The ornamental grounds and residence of Don Gregorio 
Lezama, at the furthest south end, command a fine prospect of the city and 
roadstead: they are said to have cost £50,000 sterling. A terrace of 
English houses hard by belongs to Mr. Ludlam. The British Hospital 
crowns the barranca overlooking Barracas and the south. 

Calle Bolivar, formevly Santa Rosa, has yet many traces of antiquity. 
At No. 12 is the residence of General Gelly Obes, formerly a convent; the 
bones of some of the nuns were found here. In front is a very antique 
three-story house, and further on is the Nacional office, close to Sefiou 
Lezica's handsome residence. In the second block is the College church, 
formerly belonging to the Jesuits, who were said to have an underground 
passage from here to the old fort. The architect of the church was 
Padre Blanqni, and the chief benefactor Don Juan Antonio Costa, 
date 1722. In November, 1868, the workmen laying down the 
water pipes found an old well in the middle of the street, opposite 
Mr. Morta's book-store. In this block are — M. Bonnemason's office, 
agent for the Marseilles line of steamers, and the millinery shop of Mrs. 
M'Dougall. At the corner of Calle Moreno is a large building, newly 
erected, the property of the Anchorena family, and in fi'ont is the Patente 

lit* 

Office. Lower down is the Supreme Federal Court ; then the new house 
of Dr. Quintana, the Post-office, the Brazilian Consulate, the Lottery Office, 
and the house of Sefior Aldecoa. At the corner of Calle Europa is the 
brewery of M. Biihler. The street terminates with the Italian Hospital, 
corner of Caseros, and on the barranca is the quinta of Seuor Gonsalez 
Moreno. • ■,-.. ;-i 

Calle Peru. — The first block has the splendid mansions of Molma, 
Armstrong, Klizalde, Elortondo, and some fine shops. No. 3 is the shop of 
Mr. Jaeggli, agent for Roskell & Cq., watchmaker^^ At the corner of 
Victoria is the Club Progreso, a princely edifice built by Seuor Munoa, who, . , 
like so , many others, landed in the country without a shilling. A littles 
further IS the office of the Sociedad Rural, of Farmers' Club. At the next 
corner we come to the Museum and Old Market ; there is a kiosk in front of, , 
the market, where hack-coaches may be hired cheap. Opposite to the 
University and Chambers of Legislature is a row of houses belonging to 
Mr. Armstrong. At the next corner is a steam confectionary. Another 
block brings us to Don Ricardo O'Shee's office, formerly the residence of 
the Bishop, and vulgarly called Casa de la A^ireyna. Lower down 
are — the office of Peyredieu & Bradley, brokers, and Mr. James 
Carmen's barraca. 



56 ' STREETS AlfD SHOPS. 

Calle Chacabuco begins at the Club del Plata ; it has several comraerciali: 
offices, Yiz. : Barbour, Barclay, & Co., Mr.Loog, jeweller, Cohen & Joseph^' " 
Stock & Co., Mantels & Pfeiffer, Semple & Co., Dilleraann, Landwech, & 
Desarnaud, and runs bj the Old Market, terminating at Mr. Zimmermann's 
quinta, where the Municipality made several attempts to cut a road down 
the barranca, but was prevented by the Law Courts. 

Calle las Piedras passes by the Scotch Church and the convent of San 
Juan. In this street reside Bev. J. Smith, Mr. Parravicini, Austrian 
Consul; Dr. Terrero, lawyer; Dr. Varela, Minister, of Foreign Affairs;. 
Santillau & Co., brokers. , ,,/ i^ . i- i j f • r 

Lalle Tacuari has some fine buildings: m the first block is a French- 

school ; in the second are the Colegio Griego and Madame Farnesi's semi- 

nary, both foi*, young ladies; .in the third. is Mr, Nicholson's school. At the.? 

corner of Independencia is the Coiicepcion Church. A little chaJDcl was first 

built here by Don Matias Flores, who subsquently in conjunction with Don 

Geronimo Pizarro, undertook to erect a parish church on the spot ; and eighty 

blocks further Ave reach the chapel and schools of Santa Catalina, which were,^. 

founded by bequest of a wealthy citizen, in 1860, and since then th^, 

adjoining property has become verv valuable. Barde*vick's and Prange's- 

barracas are in this neighborhood. ,. ,. . ' , . ^ ' 't .' uu k 

, '' , !!fj^ Qf(J sff nwol> pv/oJ .0)mU 

Calle Buen Orden has always been the gi*eat highway to the south: it 
runs through the Plazas of Mqnser rat and Independencia, terminating at, . 
the grand Sanitary Institute on the. (cbarj-ancaw overlobking the Calle Larga^,, r 

Calle Lima is the route taken by the tramway from the Southern Bailway 
terminus into town, passing through the Plaza Constitucion. In this street. 
are the Ejercicios and the Independencia market ; also, the ofllc^ ,<^f 
Corrales & Wehmann, brokers. „ , ", , ' .,' ,? i i • .» 

The other streets running soutn from Kivaaavia are hardly worth notice ^ 
At the corner of San Jose and Cochabamba is the new convent school of 
the French nuns, with a neat chapel. The S.y., suburbs comprise mans, 
fine quintas, belonging to the families of Casares, Bunge, Gowland, Crespq, ,. 
Martinez de Hoz, Aldao, Downes, Diehl, Frias, and Navarro Viola: near 
the last-named are the Southern Cemetery and the hew wmataderos.)) 

STREETS RUi>NING WEST — NORTH END. 

There are thirty-one streets running west from the river side, and we 
shall begin Avith those in the north end. 

Calle Piedad is the first street parallel with Bivadavia, and one of the 
great business thoroughfares. In the second block are the offices of 



CALLE CATJGALLoi' ^'^ 57 

Messrs. Duguid & Co. and Arniug, Hutz, & Co. At the corner of Calle 
Reconquista is the new English Bank. In the third block Ave find 3Ir. 
Fallon's general wholesale and retail store, called the Hibernian House, 
also the offices of T. Nuttal, of Tomkinson & Co., and Turmeau's grocery. 
In the fourth block are the famous Swiss Confiteria, Ashworth & Co., 
Gilmour & Co., Barker,; bill' broker, Carhle, Smith, '<& Co., Gifford 
Brothers, Drabble Brothers & Co., the Estrella, Bienliechora, and 
Argentine insurance companies, and Twyford's grocery. Crossing 
Calle Florida we come to the residence of ex-Governor Saavedra, the 
public baths, Parlane, Graham, & Co., Khaynach & Co., Kerr & Grierson, J. 
Brown & Co., 3Iilligan & Williamson. At the corner of Suipacha is San 3Iiguel 
church. The present church was commenced on St. Michael's day, 1782, 
and completed six years later! it was not consecrated till 2lst ??OYember, ' 
1784, the curate being Don Jose Gonzalez Islas, a native of Santiago del' 
Estero: six cuadras further is the Piedad ehurch. It was founded by a 
Portuguese, named Manuel Goihez. Before reaching the Plaza Once de^^' 
Setiembre we reach the Balvanera, anew and imposing church, attached 
to which is the college of the Padres Bayoneses ; the church was begun 
by a Franciscan mendicant friar named Juan Rodriguez, with the intent of 
establishing a house fbr. mjssioiiaries on the Chilian and Peruyia© iniSsidiis j 
near this is Livingstone's barraca. 

Calle Canqallo, formerly called La Merced. In the second block are tlje! , 
Pro-vence Hotel, the American Methodist Church, and Sciurrano's steamboat 
agency. The Hotel de la Paix is in front of the French theatre^, 
and then come the Ancla Dorada and the excellent coffee-houses callea 
Cafe de Paris and Cafe de Catalanes, which are crowded every evening : 
the best dinners in town may be obtained here. In this block are the 
offices of Peltzer & Co., Lennuyeux, ship broker, and the clothing stores of' 
Teraperley and Parody. At the next corner is the Hotel San Martiii,.' 
passing- SdriiJh is the Electric Telegraph office, and then the Maud Bahk't 
on the other side you see the splendid house and ware-rooms of Fusoni ct^ 
Maveroff. The picture gallery of Corti iz Francischelli is at the corner of" 
Florida. In the next block is the fine new building called Carabassa's Bank. 
Four cuadras further is the INew Market, and crossing Calle Talcahuano we 
remark a building with Grecian front, the club house of the Italian 
Benevolent Society. 

Calle Cmjo begins at Llavallol's mansion, which is the Boman Consulate, 
and in the next block are two fashionable houses, the first the residence of 
3Ir. Charles Saguier, the second contains the steamboat agencies of Matti 
& Piera and the Corrientes Company. At the corner of Esmeralda is a 



■58 STREKTS AND SHOPS. 

tasteful row of houses, in one of which the defunct Literary Club 
used to meet. 

Calle Con'.ie?ites~ln the first block is the Asylum for Emigrants, after 
which is the Victoria Hotel. Next come x^liss Roche's millinery shop, Mr. 
Holm's fashionable warehouse, and Shaw's upholstery. At the corner of 
Esmeralda is Black's timber yard. At the corner of Artes is the church of 
San Nicolas, and on crossing Calle Libertad we find another of the wooden 
bridges so necessary for foot-passengers when rains flood the streets. 

Calle Parque has long been a fashionable street. Anchorena's and 
Miro's houses are very fine : the latter, atthe corner of Sau Martin, being let 
out in first-class English lodgings : in this street are the French and Swedish 
Consulates, Dr. Ayer, Dr. Alston, ^Messrs. Allen Bailey & Co. Passing 
Calle Esmeralda we reach the Coliseum, and in the next block is the British 
Legation. Two blocks further is the Plaza Parque. 

Calles Tucuman and Temple come next. The first may be said to terminate 
at the Parque railway terminus, tlie second runs from the Monjas convent, 
passing through the Plazas Temple and Parque. 

Calles Cordoba and Paraguay. — In the first there is nothing remarkable 
till we reach the outskirts. In the fourteenth block is the chapel of El 
Carmen, founded in the beginning of this century by a wealthy native. 
Six squares further is a quinta tastefully laid out belonging to the late Dr. 
Leslie. Not far from this is another verj handsome, belonging to Dr., 
Velez Sarsfield. 

Calles Charcas, ^anta .Fe, and Arenales runfr^m the Plaza Retiro westwa^di^ ,. 
TheVjast named terminates in tlie Hueco de: C5abe?!itas,,an open spap^oj^^, 
some ten acres. , , , , . V. i ■-, -x t .;...,u ,r •, , 

Calle JuMal is the extreme north line of the city, and here ^re situat(^ 
many pretty residences overlooking the river. In this street is tlie 
American legation, passing which we come to the Cinco Esquiijas, .an^.o^d 
fashioned locality, deriving its name from the «five corners)) here forme(J,. 
by tlie crossing of the streets. From this point there is a well paved street 
tolheRecoleta. ^.^^^^^^ .i-io-.i)v.,R 

ir:) boIhiT) -pnibtiiid v/onoititorilftijboltl imu »4J.nI-.,.«bi u^i'i 

Calle Victoria is the first street parallel with Rivadavia, in the south 
section. In the first block are Messrs. Gibson and Murray, tailors; 
Dickleman & Co., and the Tribuna office: crossing Calle Peru we have on 
one side a French bazaar, and on the other the Progreso Club, after which 
come the German Club, Esbens & Co., Jourde & Co., Ebbeke, AVedekind 



ii 



CALLES POTOSI AKD BELGRANO. 5^-^ 

Fehr & Co., Schultz vfc Co. Passing Calle Esmeralda is the Alcazar, 
and then comes the Victoria theatre. Five squares further \^e pass 
the Plaza Lorea, and at the sixteenth block from the Plaza Victoria is the 
Bishop^s chapel of Salinas, attached to which is the diocesan seminary for 
ecclesiastics. Two squares further is the British cemetery. 

Calle Potosi runs from the chapel of San Roque, past the College church, 
Old Market, and the convent of San Juan : near this are the 
mansions of Cibils and Terrero. In this street are, Mr. Billinghurst's 
auction-rooms, Mr. Binden, broker ; Underwood's upholstery, Iturraspe & 
Co. In the fourteenth block is a handsome quinta once belonging to the 
late General Guido, and here the Italians are building a chapel of ease. 

Calle Moreno^ formerly San Francisco, begins at the Cuna and Debtors^ 
prison. In the second block is Mr. Drysdale's fine new house, and at the 
next corner a massive building belonging to the Auchorenas. The next 
block is occupied by the Provincial Government-house, State Library, and 
Model School. We next pass Kitchen's plumber's shop, and Mr. Bernheim's 
printing-liouse and type foundry : here the «Republica» and French 
paper are published. In the fifth block are the residences of the 
Stegman family, and 3Iinister Avellaneda. Two blocks fui'ther we reach 
the Plaza Monserrat. 

CalU BelgrcDio begins with the church and convent of Santo Domingo, 
in the second block is the Standard office, next to which is the 
National Statistic Department. In the next block is the residence of the 
President of the Republic, and passing the Plaza Monserrat we reach the 
church of that name. The origin of Monserrat was a small chapel built 
here by Don Pedro Sierra, which was made a parish church in 1769. At 
the foot of Calle Belgrano a whale was washed ashore in 1866. 

Calle Venezuela. — At the foot of this street is the temporary terminus of 
the Boca Railway. There are some fine houses in this street, especially 
that of Seiior Alzaga, and finished in modern style with rich marble 
ornaments. In this street are Paats & Co., Murdock & Henderson, beer 
importers ; Burmeister, w ool-broker ; and 3Ir. Shaw's great furniture mart. 

Calle Mexico begins at the Plaza Andes. At the corner of Chacabuco is 
CabraFs factory. The Anglo-German hotel is in the second block. 

Calle ChilehsiS nothing worthy of note. 

Calle Independencia. — In tlie third block is Mrs. Powell's boarding and day 
school, and in the seventh is the Concepcion church, after which come 
the Plaza Independeucia and tlie Ejercicios. 

Calles Estados Unidos and Eiiropa follow next. Nothing remarkable. 
Torres and Schickedantz, brokers, have an office at 211 Estados Unidos. 



66 STREETS AND SHOPS.^'^''---^ 

Calles Comercio, San Juan, and Cochabamba. — In the first we fmd the 
Men's Hospital, San Telmo church, and the Comercio market. In Calle 
Cochabamba, thirteenth block, is the new French convent. 

Calles Garay and Brazil run from Fair's quinta to the Plaza Constitucion. 
In the second we pass the chapel and schools of Santa Catalina. 

Calle Caseros 'is iMo. extreme southern limit of the city,' starting from 
Lezama's quinta, passing that of Gonzales Moreno, crossing the Southern 
railway near thie Con\alecencia, and terminating at the new Southern 
cemetery . 

The city of Buenos Ayres can hardly boast much of manufactures, but 
there are some important industries. The breweries of Mr. Bieckhert in 
Calle S^lta, of Mr. Biihler Calle Bolivar, and several others do a large 
business,' The coach fa6t!6fybfSefW^ 'principal one in the [ 

country,' I urns out vehicles equal to any made in Europe. There are - 
several first-class iron foundries, including those of Seilor CaruUa, ^ 
Stevens ■'&'' Kay i.JolVi4\ Marshall, ^^&^^^^ Previous to the year 1865 
we procured ice from the United States, but Mr. Demarchi's factory now 
supplies this article in abundance. There are also one or two factories for' 
making wax matches, and several for the fabrication of macaroni, minerar 
waters, &c. In the outskirts are numerous steam washing establishments 
for wool arid sheepskins. A stbam laundry has teen relcently put up, 6n 
the Palermo road. ' * 



mo L'-i'j/jq . WM mdaia-i'^ii 



CUSTOM-HOUSE. 61 



CHAP. YI. 

.!0 7<jO'J J.Vlll Sll! 

. '^Mj!fipft-!E .^^^f-U S^tr^O.M-H U S E . 

The Custom-house, as we have said, is built on the site of the fort erected 
by the first settlers, and has a light, visible about, fifteen miles. The 
Custom-house is divided into five departments,,,i:i2. ; i^dministracion, 
Contaduria, Alcaidia, Tesoreria, and Resguardo. The first comprises the 
Administrator of Customs, his secretary, the arrival and sailing office, the 
vistas, statistics, and archives. The second has an Accountant-General and 
offices for despatch of goods, either direct or in deposit, for entrances and 
clearances of coasting eraft, and for copying and numbering documents. 
The third is in charge of an Alcaide, who has to look after the various 
bonded stores and their contents. The fourth comprises the Treasurer and 
his office, for all monetary matters. The fifth has three inspectors, one at 
the Custom-house, another at the Boca, and a third at the passengers 
wharf, who act as coast guards. 

IMPORT TRAFFIC. 

Every vessel cleared from foreign ports for Buenos Ayres must have her 
papers signed by the Argentine Consul of the port of her departure, and of 
whatever ports she may touch at on the voyage : the Consular fee is $4, or 
16s., per 100 tons register. >yhen the vessel arrives in port she is boarded 



62 CUSTOM-HOUSE. 

hy the health officer and aQoCicialfromthe pontoon Castelli ; the latter asks 
the captain what port he comes from, where he got his cargo, and who is 
his consignee ; he then gives him a printed copy of the port regulations, 
asks for the general manifest of cargo, and for a list (in any language) of 
ship's stores and supplies. The captain signs a declaration of same, and 
the papers are taken ashore to the wharf inspector, who transmits them to 
the Escribania Maritima. The consignee then presents to the Mesa a 
duplicate certificate from his Consul, whereupon the Mesa calculates the 
port charges accruing, and these have to be paid into the Treasury : the 
Mesa gives a certificate of such payment to the consignee, who then enters 
the vessel in the office of maritime arrivals and sailings, depositing the 
ship's papers. Tlien the consignees or brokers accompany the captain to 
enter the ship in form, and the captain identifies the ship's papers. A 
document is next drawn up ratifying the manifest, and signed by the 
captain, the consignee or broker, and the Customs clerk. The consigliee 
then makes three copies (in Spanish) of the manifest of cargo and ship's 
stores, the firzt copy on stamp according to the tonnage, the second on a 
25 cent, stamp, and the third on common paper. The vessel is next 
entered, with her registry, number, class, nationality, name, port, 
consignee, and date, which are noted on the three manifests. The first 
manifest, with the ship's papers, is sent to the Contaduria, the second to 
the Resguardo, and the third to tbe Alcaidia. The vessel may then begin 
to unload, and the consignees to look after their goods. 

'lO'^y'l' ,; :>;> 

<M')Knn>iU: UNLOADING. 

The mate gives to the master of each lighter a document (in any language) 
specifying the goods delivered, their mark, number, &c., and getting a 
receipt for same: the lighterman presents the apapeletaw at the wharf 
wresguardo,)) where it is compared with the manifest, after which he makes 
out (cpapeletas)) for the various deposits to which the goods are to be 
forwarded. The Resguardo numbers and signs these papeletas, which are 
then transmitted to the Alcaide, to receive such goods. The Alcaide marks 
on the (cpapeletas)) the name of the employee Avho has to receive the goods, 
and the deposit where they are to be stored. The employee in question, 
on receiving the goods, gives a receipt for same, and the «papeletas)) are 
then returned to the Alcaidia, and archived. After the vessel has 
discharged all her cargo, the Resguardo sends an officer to compare tlie list 
of ship's stores as returned. 



CUSTOM-HOUSE REGULATIOjVS. G3 

lo -yrf/j ,.r GOODS IN TRANSIT. 

If after eight days from arrival a vessel has not broken bulk the 
consignee may request her clearance for another port : this shall be on a 
25 cent, stamp, and on payment of port dues the Administrator, after the 
visit by the Resguardo, shall return her papers and clear her. The transit 
of goods not discharged may be effected either by «retorno» in the same 
vessel or by «transbordo)) to another. Duplicate petitions on 25 cent, 
stamps must be made, setting forth the name of the importing vessel and 
that of transhipment, the destination of the latter, the marks, contents, and 
qualities of the goods ; and these must be presented to the Direct Despatch 
oflSce of the Contaduria within twelve days after the ship's arrival. A term 
of forty days is allowed when the manifest expresses that the goods are for 
transhipment to a certain destination: the same term is allowed for 
lumber, salt, and coal. In like manner goods solicited for direct despatch 
w ithin eight days from the ship's arrival may be transhipped within forty days 
in the manner already stated. 

DIRECT DESPiTCH. 

The consignee has to draw up four documents : a manifest on 25 cent, 
stamp, a copy of bill of lading on 25 cent, stamp, and copies of each of the 
foregoing on common paper. In all must be specified the mark and number 
of each parcel, specifying its contents, quality, quantity, &c., either in 
local or foreign measurement, but the consignee may put if he wish 
«contents unknown,)) and the papers are then sent to the Contaduria, the 
consignee either paying the duties cash, or giving the usual guarantee. 
The proper clerk then puts «despachese)) on the manifests, and «conforme)> 
on the bill of lading, as also on the copies. If the consignee has put 
Kcontents unknown)) the inspector proceeds to open the case and note 
down its contents. The consignee presents the document at the Conta- 
duria, the clerk stamps same, and specifies the employee who is to despatch 
the goods. This document must next be counter-signed by the proper 
Vista, who sends it to the warehouseman, retaining the manifest for 
comparison. The warehouseman has to weigh the goods or measure them. 
The Vista assesses them at the valuation in the tariff, and, if not expressed 
therein, he puts his own valuation. In case the importer resist the 
valuation, and that the Vista do not alter it within three days, the Custom- 
house shall be obliged to take the goods at such valuation. If the goods be 
damaged they must be sold by auction within fifteen days, and the duties 



64 - CUSTOM-HOUSE. 

assessed at 23 per cent, under the auctioneer's returns. In all cases of 
disagreement between the merchant and the Arista it shall be decided by 
the Tariff Committee, from whose decree there is no appeal for goods 
specified in the tariff. The Vista then writes «despachado» on the copy, 
and the manifest is sent to the Coutaduria. The Alcaidia clears the goods, 
and archives said copy. In comestibles and liquors the Vista often puts 
«despachado)) before measuring them, but the measurement is afterwards 
noted. The Coutaduria recovers the duties cash, when not amounting to 
^50 s., or if there be no bail. All duties payable cash must be satisfied 
within five days from notification. The consignee in paying tlie duties 
must take a memorandum of their amount from the Coutaduria to the 
Tesoreria, which latter office gives a receipt in due form. Tiie Coutaduria 
draws bills at four months, which are presented to the consignees, and 
must be accepted Avithiu five days, whereupon they are sent in to the 
JXational Treasury. Extra duties must be paid cash, in precisely the same 
way as those not amounting to ^50 s. 

passengers' luggage AIXD SPECIE. 

Luggage, parcels, and samples may be landed at the passengers' wharf 

without permit, and before the vessel is registered for unloading. The 

Besguardo examines the luggage and shows it to the Vista, who despatches 

it if the value be under $10 s. If tlie value be over $10 s., and under 

$50 s., the Vista calculates the duties and a stamp of 25 cents., wliich must 

be paid to tlie Inspector of the Resguardo before letting the goods pass. 

If the value be over $50 s. the Resguardo sends the parcel with a papeleta 

to the Custom-house, where the Alcaidia takes charge of same. Specie 

may also be despatched by the Resguardo, without Avaiting for the ship to 

be formally entered ; but in case the consignee do not wish to run the risk 

of opening the parcel, the Resguardo seals the same, telling the consignee 

.. that he must produce it in the same condition within forty-eight hours at 

, the Tesoreria under pain of $500. The Treasury counts it and delivers it 

■- ^t once to the owner. 

GOODS FOR DEPOSIT. 

Permits for storing goods are made on a 25 cent, duplicate stamp, the 
merchant declaring the name and port of the ship, the marks, number, and 
contents of the packages, and presenting same at the Contaduria within 
eight days of the ship's arrival : passing this term tbere is a fine of 2 per 



EXPORT TRAFFIC. 65 

cent, ad valorem. la the copy bill of lading the merchant may put ((contents 
unknown.)) The goods are afterwards at the merchant's disposal, to be 
sold or transhipped, either the whole or in part, and if undisposed of 
after two years the storage may be renewed in form. In despatching 
bonded goods the form is similar to that used for ((direct despatch:)) there 

• must be a manifest on a 25 cent stamp, and two copies on plain paper. 
Petitions for ((trausbordo)) or ((retornow of goods not landed must be made 
within forty days of the ship's arrival. Petitions for re-shipment of 
goods in transit must be made on three papers for sailing ships, and four for 
steamers, two of them with 25 cent stamp, expressing the ship's name, 
date of arrival, nature of goods, &c. Goods that have lain two years 
in deposit can be re-stored at the expiration of the legal term : the 
merchant presents a permit at the Contaduria on a 25 cent stamp, with copy 
on common paper, which after receiving the ((conforme)) is sent to the 
Alcaidia. One of the warehouse inspectors proceeds to the store in 
question and compares the goods : if the store be a private deposit there is 
no warehouse fee, and the Contador puts his ((conforme;)) but if it be a 
Customs warehouse the merchant must pay at the Treasury the warehouse 
and ((eslingage)) fees for the two years past, getting receipt for same. The 
Custom-house allows packages to be broken up, provided they he taken to 
the ((Deposito de fracciones.)) Two permits are requisite, one on a 25 cent 
stamp, and specifying in what deposit the goods are : the Alcaidia gives the 
necessary order to the warehouse inspector, who delivers the goods to two 
Ayudantes and returns receipt for same, with the ((Conforme,)) to the 
Contaduria : the goods so broken up are then despatched either for the 
market or transhipment, in the same manner as if whole packages. 
3Ierchants may also cut off a sample, on condition of restoring same when 
clearing the article : a permit is requisite on a 25 cent stamp, expressing 
the usual particulars and the quantity required for a sample for the 
Contaduria and Alcaidia despatch . * 



EXPORT TRAFFIC. 

When a vessel wishes to load for foreign parts, the consignee, broker, 
captain, or other person, makes a petition to the Administrator for 
permission to be placed on the berth, expressing the name, class, 
nationality and destination. The stamp is determined by the ship's 
tonnage. The petition is lodged at the ((Mesa de despacho directo)) in the 
Contaduria, for the vessel to be entered ; it is then sent to the Secretaria, 

s 



66 CUSTOM-HOUSE. 

which in turn passes it to the Resguardo, and finally it is sent to the office 
of clearances or wsalidas Ji ultramar.)) The vessel is then ready to receive 
cargo. In shipping produce that is subject to export duties the shipper 
must present two permits on 25 cent stamps, specifying the ship's name, 
&c., and the produce to be shipped, as also the point of shipment. The 
«Mesa de Salidaso gives a ticket for such shipment. If the shipment be 
made from the old or new Custom-house, the «boleto» must be shewn to 
the Kesguardo, and the barraquero or shipper sends off each cart with a 
wpapeleta)) expressing the ship's name, the lighter, the nature of goods, 
and the shipper : this «papeleta)> is given to the Resguardo. The lighter 
being fully laden proceeds to the ship, and thus each lighter goes till all 
the cargo is shipped. If the goods are to be shipped from Barracas the 
Besguardo seuds an official to weigh or count them at the barraca in the 
act of shipment. The barraquero gives the lighterman a «papeleta)) of 
the goods shipped, with the names of the shipper, the lighter, and the 
vessel receiving; this wpapeletaj) is countersigned by the official and 
afterwards presented at the Resguardo, which gives the lighterman a 
«pasavante» to the Boca. Here the second Resguardo gives another to the 
third Resguardo, situate at the mouth of the Riachuelo. If the last has 
any suspicion of smuggling it sends an official to superintend the loading. 
When the shipment is made from the Boca the same formalities are 
observed, As soon as all the cargo is shipped the Resguardo returns the 
ttboleto)) to the shipper, who takes it to the Contaduria and Liquidacion for 
payment of the export duties. The «Mesa de salidasw having assessed the 
iimount of these, the shipper then goes to the Tesoreria and pajs same, 
getting a receipt for the amount. If the shipper has any «boletos de 
transito)) tiiese are deducted from the duties. In the event of shipping 
goods that are duty-free the same formalities are gone through as already 
expressed, except as rajards duties. 

SHIPMENT IN TRANSIT. 

When a merchant has obtained a permit of «re-embarco)) in the manner 
already explained, he takes it to the Alcaidia, to be stamped, &c. Either 
of the transit offices, in the old or new Custom-house, receives the permit 
after which the Resguardo is notified, that it may oversee the transhipment 
and then endorse the permit, previous to the inspector returning it to the 
merchant. If the shipment takes place at the Boca the Resguardo 
superintends the operation and endorses the permit «embarcado,» The 



CLEARISG VESSELS. 67 

goods being re-embarked the merchant presents the permit at the 
Coutdduria, which assesses the warehouse fees to be paid at the Tesoreria, 
the latter giving receipt for same in due form. 



RE-EXPORTATIOIV OF GOODS. 

Goods that have been duly cleared and have paid duties may be again 
shipped for foreign ports in this manner : two permits for exportation are 
presented to the «Mesa de salidaso on a 25 cent stamp, with the usual 
particulars and specifying that the goods have already paid duty ; the 
permit is then sent to the Resguardo, who oversees the shipment. 

CLEARING VESSELS FOR ABROAD. 

When a vessel has taken in all her cargo the consignee gives on oath a 
full return of same, according to the bills of lading, to the «Mesa de 
salidas,)) which sends him to the wdespacho directo»; the latter office 
compares the papers, to see if the vessel has discharged all the cargo 
expressed in her manifest on arrival in port. But if it happen that there 
are goods not cleared by the consignees, the office will require a certificate 
from the Alcaidia that such goods are in deposit, before clearing the vessel. 
These formalities being fulfilled, the merchant presents to the Oficina de 
Entradas a petition with same stamp as that for breaking bulk, begging 
that ^the vessel may be cleared for such or such port. This permit is 
granted with the note (after payment of duties), and the permit is sent to 
the 51esa de Salidas. The merchant next presents a Guia on 3-3 stamp, 
expressing ship's name, class, &c., and a full manifest of all her cargo : 
the manifest is countersigned by the Administrador andContador, and then 
given to the captain. 

CVPTAL^'S AND HEALTH PAPERS. 

Before clearing a vessel the Mesa de Salidas shall calculate from the 
consular papers the amount of port-dues, including the health-paper, which 
the captain shall pay at the Tesoreria, in the same manner as the entrance 
dues on arrival. The Mesa then advises the consul by certificate that the 
vessel is duly cleared, and notifies the Capitania in like manner. The^ 

S2 



68 CUSTOM-HOUSE. 

captain having procured the certificates for his Consul and the Capitania. 
also the ship's manifest and health patent, he proceeds to the Consulate for 
his navigation papers, lodged there on arrival : after this he goes to the 
Consul of the country of his destination, to have his papers «viseed,)) then 
to the Capitania to pay light dues, and finally to the Resguardo on the 
mole to have his manifest compared with the apapeletas)) given on 
shipment of produce. When once cleared the vessel can do no operation 
further than to receive luggage, which merely passes inspection on the 
mole. For provisions, the captain, consignee, or broker, may at any time 
draw up a permit on a 25 cent stamp, aud present it the Mesa de Salidas, 
which at once grants same, subject to the surveillance of tlie Resguardo. 
(The Customs-law proper for the year will be found in Section A). 



BOLSA A3ID BANKS. 69 



CHAP. YII. 



BOLSA, BANKS, AND PUBLIC COMPANIES. 

THE BOLSA DE COMERCIO. 

The BoUa is a handsome buildiag, in the best part of the city, being situate 
in Calle San Martin, near the corner of Cangallo. The hall is spacious, 
lofty and well ventilated, with a ring in the centre, around which the 
brokers assemble when transacting business. The brokers meet at 1 1 a.m., 
and you will hear them in a loud voice offering to buy or sell Government 
bonds, gas shares, &c., till 2 p.m., when the merchants meet. The 
attendance on 'Change often numbers several hundred persons, and the 
hall can scarcely accommodate all the members. Groups of English and 
Germans may be seen in the wing on the left, French and Italians on the 
right, and a general mixture of these and other nations indiscriminately 
through the hall. Half a dozen languages are currently spoken on all sides, 
the most general being English and Spanish. The large black board on the 
right gives the various quotations of stock and transactions of the day ; on 
the opposite side is another board, with quotations of produce : the 
liquidation room and reading room are at the further end of the hall. 
Upstairs there is a board room, which occupies the whole front of the 
building, and a committee room adjoins, which is sometimes used for 
meetings, also the manager's offices. The busiest hour on 'Change is about 
2.30 P.M., and strangers can get a visitor's ticket through any of the 
members. In the time of Rosas there was no Bolsa,but the merchants and 
"brokers used to have a rendezvous at one or other private office. About 



70 BAKKS AND COMPANIES. 

twenty years ago there was a «Camuati)) at the house now occupied by 
Mauigot the hatter, in Calle Florida ; this is a Guarani w ord signifying a 
beehive, and the name was still applied to the various poinls of re-union, 
as circumstances obliged a change of locality from time to time. The 
house which is now the Trihnna office was expressly taken for the purpose, 
and a kind of society established, till put down by the police agents of 
Rosas. A French broker named Loiseau took a house next the public baths 
in Calle Piedad and revived the association : subsequently it removed to 
Calle Victoria, and then to Calle Piedad, next door to the Cafe de Suizos, 
where it was again put down by the police. A few days after the fall of 
Rosas (1852) the «Camuati)) again assembled, in a store belonging to Mr. 
Armstrong, near the corner of Piedad and Reconquista. It was transferred 
to Haedo's house in Calle San 3Iartin, and on the 10th July, 1854, a regular 
Bolsa was established, at a meeting of 1 1 8 merchants and brokers in the 
hall of the Tribunal of .Commerce. A committee was framed of Messrs. 
Llavallol, Gowland, Moreno, Monasterio, Pico, Biedma, Bornefield, Casares, 
Martinez de Hoz, Lynch, Serna, and Sorondo, who took the house where 
Mr. Hart's office now is, and here the Bolsa was located for some years. In 
1860 it was resolved to build a new Bolsa, and a joint-stock company was 
formed, with a capital of § 1,380,000, in shares of §1,000 each: the 
building was completed in a year and a half, and inaugurated with great 
pomp by General Mitre, in February 1862. The subscription is $50 a 
month, and the annual profits are distributed thus:., 90 per cent, to the 
shareholders, 10 per cent, to the members in general. The institution has 
been so successful that the shares are at a high premium and difficult to be 
obtained: the annual dividends are 12 or 15 per cent. No one can become 
a member unless resident over twelve months in the country and engaged 
in commercial pursuits, besides being recommended by a merchant. 
Brokers must have two recommendations. Consuls are admitted as 
honorary members. Ship captains are admitted free. 



THE PROVINCIAL BiNK. 

The Casa de Moncda^ or Provincial Bank, 29 Calle San Martin, was 
founded on January 15th 1822 by a meeting of foreign and native 
merchants, presided over by the Finance Minister Bon Manuel Garcia, its 
first operations being merely as a discount bank. In 1826 it was converted 
into a national bank, under the title «Banco de las Provincicis Unidas:» 
tills in turn made way for the Casa de Moneda, in 1836, and as the currency 



PROVI>CIAL BAISK. 71 

had been frequently tampered with in the interim, by successive emissions, 
the value of the paper dollar fell, from 4 shillings, as low as sixpence. 
In 1826 the circulating medium amounted to 32,694,856, the exchange 
being quoted in February of that year at §18 to the doubloon, or about. 
44 pence to the dollar. In October 1829 the rate^vas 108 to the doubloon, 
or 7^ pence to the dollar, and from this time the currency never recovered 
itself; when Rosas reformed the bank in 1836 the circulation amounted 
to 1 5J millions, tlie rate being 122 to the doubloon. But the subsequent 
depreciation of the currency was rapid and ruinous; many people suddenly 
lost large fortunes, so violent were the fluctuations in even one day. The 
emissions of 1837-.39 amounted to 24,000,000, and in >'ovember of the 
latter year the currency stood at $300, leaving the paper dollar worth 2frf. 
But it had not yet touched «bathos,)) for in the following year (1840; Rosas 
emitted 12,000,000 and the luckless paper dollar fell to 1|^ pence, or 570 
to the doubloon. Nevertheless a recuperative period ensued, during a 
term of six years without any fresh emission ; in 1844 the dollar had risen, 
as high as 4 pence, or 200 to the doubloon, and continued so till the close 
of 1845. In January 1846 Rosas emitted 75,000,000, and the currency 
fell considerably below 2 pence : the circulation now amounted to 
126,000,000. After the fall of Rosas the emissions grew more frequent, 
viz, two in 1852, and five in the year following, in all 91,000,000. Then 
was invented the amortization by burning, 7,250,000 were burned in 1853 , 
after this the paper dollar improved to 2^ pence, at which figure it was 
almost stationary for a long time. War with General Urquiza ensued in 
1859, and an emission of 85,000,000 took place, the dollar again falling to 
2 pence. A second civil war broke out in 1861, Avhich called for 
100,000,000 more, and further depreciated the currency, tiU it was judged 
expedient to pass a law declaring any future emission illegal. At the same 
time the* burning was resorted to, monthly, and 55,000,000 were thus 
consumed, when another law was made to stop the same, September 9th, 
1863. At the beginning of 1864 the circulation amounted to 340,000,000, 
and in the absence of wars or fresh emissions the money-market sustained 
a long and painful crisis from enormous speculation. The fluctuations 
were ruinous to the honest hard-working tradesmen, and also affected the 
price of staple articles of produce. A great outcry was made, various 
schemes were proposed for a fixed currency, and laws were passed under 
Governor Saavedra's administration which proved illusory towards bringing 
any remedy. In 1866 the Alsina cabinet boldly established an Oficina de 
Carobios, where gold and paper were freely given at 25 «pesos)) to the 
hard dollar : notwithstanding all manner of evil predictions, the currency 



72 BANKS ATiD COMPANIES. 

has remained ever since at tliis fixed valuation of 2 pence to the paper 
dollar, and the benefit to legitimate trade has been incalculable : tlie city 
merchants presented Governor Adolfo Alsina and his Finance Minister, 
Don Mariano Varela, Avith a handsome gold medal. The last reform of the 
bank constitution was in 1854, when it was denominated « Banco y Casa do 
Moneda de Buenos Ayres,)) and many wholesome improvements were 
instituted by the advice of Dr. Velez Sarsfield. This distinguished 
statesman is regarded almost as the founder of the bank, and his full 
length portrait is seen in the board-room. The board is composed of 
sixteen merchants, one-half foreigners, annually named by the Provincial 
Government. The directors sit daily for the transaction of business. The 
old bank-notes of the time of Rosas had the motto «Long live the Restorer 
of the laws ! Death to the foul and savage Unitarios ! :» these are very rare 
now. The currency of 1854, printed in London, had emblematic devices 
of commerce and industry ; the engraving was good, but the paper inferior. 
In 1864 machinery was procured from England and a new issue made, the 
paper being so bad as to crumble away in a few days, and offering every 
facility for forgery. The first bank forgeries in Rosas' s time were rudely 
executed, a sample being still kept in the Museum, and the delinquent was 
shot. In late years forging bank-notes has unfortunately become a constant 
practise, and a considerable proportion of the currency is forged, so 
cleverly as frequently to escape detection. The new notes, however, printed 
by the New York Bank-note Go, in 1868, are of very superior quality, and 
henceforward forgery will be extremely difficult. The ordinary currency 
consists of notes of gl, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000, and 5,000, 
thus ranging from 2 pence to £40 : besides these there are specie-notes of 
various values to a high amount. The bank has great fiscal privileges, and 
in bankrupt cases enjoys a priority over all other creditors. No other bank 
in Buenos Ayres h?s right of issue. Deposits for the law-courts and public 
departments gain no interest : moneys belonging to minors are ordered to 
be lodged here, but gain the usual interest. The Western Railway owes 
^59,000,000 to the bank, for the sections from Moreno to Chascoihus. 
During the Paraguayan war the Government obtained great facilities in the 
negotiation of public funds emitted for the purpose, on tlie guarantee of 
extra duties. The bank profits are large, and go to increase its capital. 
The Directors receive no salary. Among the improvements of recent years 
have been the opening of accounts-current, and the establishment of eight 
brandies throughout the Province : tlie first branch, at San Nicolas, was 
established in 1863. The bank paper-money is declared a legal tender 
throughout the whole Republic. It is proposed to build a new bank on the 



MAUA BANK. 73 

site at present occupied. The bank regulations are as follows : — Deposits 
of not less than §400 m^ and $I6s. received. These deposits Avill not be 
entitled to interest if Avithdrawn before the expiration of sixty days from the 
date of such deposit ; after sixty days they Tvill be entitled to interest from 
the date of deposit. All interests not collected shall, at the. end of each 
year, be capitalized. All deposits at interest shall be entered in a book 
"which the bank will deliver to the depositors, in which all payments of 
interest and capital shall be entered, and all interest shall be payable after 
the first of the month or on taking out the deposit. The bank discounts bills 
"with two signatures having from seventy to ninety days to run ; it also 
discounts mercantile bills of from seventy days to six months, on condition 
that at maturity they are paid in full. The bank draws at sight upon the 
following branches : — Dolores, San Nicolas, Lobos, Salto, Chivilcoy, 
Mercedes, Baradero, and Azul. The bank pa}s commission to brokers on 
the first discounting of bills and promissory notes. The bank lends to 
artizans and operatives sums of from $.3,000 to $20,000, taking 
as security a document with'any well-known signature. Credits in account 
current are opened on the following terms : — 1st. The bank opens accounts 
current for commercial houses. 2nd. The security to be either personal 
or with documentary values. 3rd. In each case the bank shall fix the 
amount of credit. 4th. The Directory shall from time to time arrange the 
interest chargable pro and contra. 5th. Each account shall be liquidated 
every sixty days. 6th. A pass-book shall be given to parties opening 
accounts current, for entry of cheques and sums deposited. Business hours 
from 10a.m. to 4p.m. 



THE MAUA BANK. 

The Maud Bank was established in 1858, under the management of Mr. 
William Leslie, in an office in Calle Reconquista. The business increased 
rapidly to such an extent that it was necessary in January 1861, to remove 
to the present spacious premises in Calle Cangallo, Nos. 10 1 and 103^ 
where it continues to do a large business, the present manager being Seiior 
Amorins. For some years it was the only private bank in the country, and 
lent great assistance in accounts current to traders, besides aidinji all 
manner of industrial enterprises, such as the Salado navigation, San Juan 
mines, «fec. Baron 3Iauci has various branch banks throughout the Republic, 
which have the right of emission, although the bank in puenos Ayres has 
not. This was the first institution that opened a savings' bank in the 



74 ' BAITKS AWD COMPANIES. 

Argentine Republic, to receive small sums at interest from the working 
classes. The clerks speak English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, &c. 
Foreigners about to travel up the Uruguay, through Entre Eios and the 
Banda Oriental, will find it convenient to provide themselves with a letter 
of credit from the Maua Bank of Buenos Ayres or 31ontevideo, as, owing to 
its numerous branches in the different towns, drafts on this bank are 
everywhere received the same as cash : the chief circulating medium at all 
the saladeros and estaucias on the Tlrujjuay is Maua bank paper. The 
Maua Bank is the largest real estate holder in the River Plate, owning 
immense estates on either side of the Uruguay, as also large properties in 
and about Buenos Ayres and Montevideo. Unlike the London and River 
Plate Bank, the head establishment of the Maua Bank is in Rio Janeyro, 
whilst the bank here is but a branch. The banking-office, in Calle 
Cangallo, which the bank holds in fee, is one of the finest buildings in this 
city, built by a wealthy Paraguayan gentleman in 1861, who sold it to the 
Baron Maua in 1866. The close proximity of the bank to the Bolsa renders 
it a most convenient establishment for the «almaceneros)) and dealers, who 
have so steadily supported this bank. 3Ir. Souza, the deputy-manager, 
speaks English fluently, and is most attentive to strangers. Mr, White is the 
head book-keeper. The bank regulations are as follows : — 1st. Bills and 
obligations with good signatures are discounted on conventional terms. 
2nd. Money is advanced on mercantile and other securities, approved of by 
the Manager. 3rd. Accounts current are opened with mercantile or other 
parties who may prefer depositing endorsed and transferable securities, 
against which they may draw up to an amount previously convened, under 
conditions established for such class of operations. 4th. Money is received 
in account current, bearing interest from day of deposit, which is 
accumulated in favor of the parties every three months, the depositors 
being allowed to draw at any time, by means of cheques, part or the full 
amount at their wish, save when the quantity exceeds 300 doubloons or 
$100,000 m/c-, in which case forty-eight hours' previous notice is requiied 
to be given at the treasury of tlie bank. 5th. Bills or letters of credit are 
drawn and taken on Montevideo, Rosario, Santa Fe, Salto (Banda Oriental), 
Paysanda, Rio Janeyro, and other places in Brazil, England, and France, as 
also on other places, of which notice will be given hereafter The estab- 
lishment is ahvajs open from 10 a.m. till 3 p.m. The Savings' Bank, at 
No. 103 Calle Cangallo, is open from 9 a.m. till 3 p.m. every day, for the 
reception of the savings of the working classes, Sundays and holidays 
excepted. The bank will deliver to each depositor a pass-book, in which 
will be entered the amount deposited and withdrawn. The depositor is 



LONDON AND RIVER PLATE BANK. 75 

permitted at auy time to withdraw the whole or part of the sum deposited; 
in the former case the interest will be calculated up to date. 1st. The 
bank receives at interest any sum from $25 mc- 2ud. The interest allowed 
is 6 per cent, per annum, which is liquidated every six months. 3rd. The 
depositors can at any time withdraw the whole or part of the money deposited. 
4th. Once the money deposited exceeds ^^.o'JboO mij., or $1,000 s., the 
depositor, if he wishes, can open an account current, according to the rules 
established by the bank. The Maua Bank, as Avell as the London and River 
Plate Bank, subscribes liberally to all local charities. 



THE ENGLISH BANK. 

The London ami River Plate Bank, established on 1st January, 1863, was 
first situate in the hq|ise of Seiior Elortondo, 80 Calle Piedad, and now 
occupies the fine new building at the corner of Piedad and Reconquista. 
The bank was started by a number of London merchants, many of whom 
had some connection with the River Plate, the authorised capital being 
£2,000,000 sterling, in £40 shares, subscribed capital £1,000,000, and 
paid up capital £600,000 : the management was entrusted to Mr. J. H. 
Green, a merchant of many years standing here ; and the eminent financier, 
Don Nqrberto Riestra, was named Consulting Director. The success of the 
bank was very decided from the outset, and it soon began to rule exchange 
on England. The introduction of so large an amount of English gold had, 
afl'he time, a most healthy. effect on our money market, and since that 
period all other kinds of coin have almost disappeared, while the English 
sovereign, previously unknown, has now become the current specie of the 
country. English habits of business have also gained strength in our 
cosmopolitan trading community, and the bank has insensibly proved 
a powerful medium in the industrial reformation which is being happily 
worked out among us. The staff of clerks quickly rose from three to a 
dozen, and now numbers thirty, showing how the business of the establish- 
ment has grown in six years, while branches have also been established at 
Rosario and Cordoba, besides the house in Montevideo, which last Avas 
founded simultaneously with that of Buenos Ayres. During the Paraguayan 
war the bank lent valuable aid to the IS'atioual Government, by finding funds 
and making advances when circumstances rendered such negotiations more 
of a f iendly favor than a business transaction. Nevertheless, the bank 
has not yet been able to obtain a right of issue in Buenos Ayres, as this 
privilege depends on the Provincial Government, which gives the State 



76 BANKS AND OOMPANIKS. 

bank a monopoly in this regard. In 1866, a panic having arisen among the 
working classes who had deposits in the Provincial- (or State) Bank, Mr. 
Green came forward promptly to its support, as did also the 3Iaua Bank and 
the leading capitalists of the city. Mr. Riestra resigned his post as Director 
in 1865, being appointed to go to London to negotiate the loan. During 
some critical monetary periods the bank has passed safely and honorably, 
and the Bosario brancli has been equally successful : the Cordoba branch 
does little as yet. In 1866 new shares, £20 each, were emitted in London, 
raising the subscribed capital to £1,500,000, and the reserve fund in 1868 
amounted to £145,000. The annual dividends from the commencement 
have ranged between 10 and 15 per cent., and the shares are always at a 
good premium. The premises first taken in Calle Piedad were found 
insufficient in 186*^, and the bank purchased the corner building of Calles 
Florida and Cangallo ; but this was afterwards sold at a profit, it being 
resolved to erect a proper bank at the corner *of Calles Piedad and 
Reconquista. This handsome structure is one of the ornaments of our city, 
and in the best business locality. It was commenced in January 1867, and 
is now completed; Mr. Hunt of this city was the architect, and had great 
success in the style of architecture chosen, which is of the Roman-Corinthian 
order. The roof came out from England, and is a very fine piece of 
workmanship, extremely light, and at the same time of great strength. 
Over the principal doorway is placed a clock, by Frodsham of London, 
which, besides adding to the finish of the building, is of great use in that 
part of the city, where the traffic is large. The grand hall is 90 feet long 
by 45 feet broad, and the ceilihg is 42 feet high, embracing the entire 
height of the building : the flooring of the hall is composed of Winton's 
patent tiles. Besides the grand hall there are manager's rooms, consulting 
and waiting rooms, clerks' luncheon and dressing rooms, and porters' 
quarters. Every possible modern impt'ovemeiit has been introduced in 
fitting up the establishment. The furnishings are by Rough and Son, of 
St. Paul's Churchyard, and are of the best description, constructed on the 
most improved plans, with everything conducive to facilitate the despatch 
of busine'ss. The cashier's counter, for paying and receiving money, has a 
sweep of 60ft. in length. The vaults underneath are perhaps one of the 
most interesting features in the building ; a iiydraulic lift of considerable 
power lowers the bullion down with a very easy motion. The room is 48ft. 
in length by 12 ft. in width, divided into three separate compartments by 
strong iron bars ; each compartment is laid off with marble shelving, and 
they are capable of accommodating, besides the treasure of the bank, any 
quantity of valuables that may be placed there for safe custody. The 



..AIIGE>'TINE BA>'K. 77 

upper portion of the hack part of the building contains a very comfortable 
dwelliug-house, occupied by the principal ofBcials. The bank regulations 
are as follows : — Current accounts opened with parties properly introduced, 
and interest allowed on credit balances. Customers have the advantage of 
drawing cheques, of having approved bills discounted, of obtaining loans 
upon negotiable securities, of depositing bills, coupons, &c., for collection, 
and of lodging with the bank valuable property in the fire-proof strong 
rooms for safe custody. Deposit Accounts — Deposits received from 
the public generally — either for fixed periods or subject to seven or 
thirty days notice of withdrawal — interest on which is regulated by the 
market value of money, the bank notifying any change in the rate by 
advertisement in the principal daily papers. Bills of Exchange issued on 
the following places: — London, Dublin, Liverpool, Paris, Antwerp, 
Hamburg, Genoa, Rio de Jaueyro, Montevideo, Kosario, Cordoba, and all 
branches of the National Bank of Scotland. Business hours, 10 a.m. to 
3.30 P.M. every day. 



THE ARGENTINE A>D OTHER BAXRS. 

The Argentine Bank was established in 1867, through the exertions of 
Messrs. CuUen, O'Shee, Lanuz, Iturraspe and other influential merchants 
and capitalists. It was founded on the basis of the Eosario Bank, a 
flourishing institution with some branches in Eutre-Rios. The capital was 
fixed at $2,000,000, in shares of $100 (£20) each, of which $60 were 
called up, and the bank commenced a good and lucrative business under the 
management of Seuor Marc6 del Pont ; the dividend declared for the last half 
year (1868) was at the rate of 22 per cent, per annum. The premises are 
situate next door to the Provincial Bank, in a house belonging to Judge 
Medina, which had previously been fitted up as a small theatre. In the 
first allotment of the city by Don Juan de Garay, on June 1 1th, 1580, this 
site is marked >'o. 7, and was given to an adventurer named Estevan Alegre. 
The counting-house and savings-bank are on either sides of the entrance, 
and the manager's office forms the fourth side of the court-yard. The 
business and regulations of the bank are similar to those already noted. 
The branches at Cordoba and Rosario happily escaped uninjured during the 
convulsions of 1866-68. There are also branches at Santa Fe, Parana, 
Concordia, and Gualeguay; the notes of the bank are convertible at all 
these branches. The currency is in two kinds of paper, viz. : Bolivian 
dollars, and patacons or Mexican dollars. Most of the shareholders are 



78 BkTUKS AISD COMPANIES. 

Argentines, but there are also some Englishmen and other foreigners 
holding a large number of shares. Oflice hours, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 

The WanUyn Bank is a private establishment greatly patronized by the 
English and American houses. Mr. Frederick Wanklyn, the head of the 
firm, is an Englishman of excellent connection and varied experience. A 
number of English estancieros keep accounts with this bank. The rates of 
interest charged and allowed are the same as at the other banks. Mr. 
Alfred Lumb, son of Mr. Edward Lumb, one of the oldest residents in 
Buenos Ayres, is partner and second manager of the concern. The baaking 
offices are alongside the Bolsa in Calle San Martin, and occupy a part of the 
ground floor of Mr. Lumb's magnificent house, known as the Universelle. 
Wanklyn's bank is well known in the camp, as it does a very large business 
in small drafts on Ireland, being connected with the National Bank of 
Ireland. Wanklyn and Co. are also connected with the National Bank, 
London; Mdllet Bros. & Co., Paris; Granet Brown & Co., Genoa; Vidal 
Cuadras & Co., Barcelona; Menendez & Barcena, Vigo; E. F. Davison 
& Co., New York; and give drafts for large and small amounts on all 
the above. 

Hart^s Bank. — This is also a private English bank, of high credit and 
repute. Mr. Henry Hart is one of the best known English bankers in 
Buenos Ayres, and does a very extensive banking business with the English 
and German importers and barraqueros. Mr. Hart is considered one of 
the best judges of city paper. The banking offices are in Calle San Martin, 
the former site of the Bolsa. 

Carabassa^s Bank, a private native bank, which does an immense discount 
business, and has some of the best English and American accounts current 
in Buenos Ayres. Sefior Carabassa is an affable polished Spaniard, stands, 
particularly well with foreign merchants, and is the private banker of most 
of the native capitalists. The new banking premises have been concluded in 
the present year, and combine elegance with convenience ; they are situate 
in Calle Cangallo. The building is expressly constructed for the bank. 
The site was bought at auction in 18G7 for g85O,000ra/c. 

Caprile and P/casso, Italian bankers, who do a considerable business in 
small drafts on Genoa. 



SOCIEDAD RURAL ARGENTINA. 

The Argentine Rural Societ//.' — In 1858 the first effort was made towards 
fostej-ing industrial interests among the rural population, by an exhibition 



RURAL SOCIETY. 79 

got up at Palermo by Messrs. Posadas, Sarmiento, Javier, John Clark, and 
Edward Oiivera. The campaigns of Cepeda and Pavon followed, and public 
attention was distracted from the arts of peace. In May, 1866, Messrs. 
Martinez de Hoz, Richard ]^■e^Yton, and Oiivera projected the establishment 
of a Farmers" Association, and on the 16th August of same year the Sociedad 
Rural Argentina was formally inaugurated, with Messrs. Martinez de Hoz 
and Xewton as president and vice, the rest of the board comprising Messrs. 
Yiton, Oiivera, Temperley, Pereyra, F. Madero, Aguero, Amadeo, Molina, 
M. Casares, Stegmann, and Castafio : among the other founders of the club 
■^vere — 3Iessrs. Urioste, Quirno, Emilio Castro, Arana, Yraola, Judge Carril, 
Ramos Mejia, Bernal, Cobo, Senillosa, Munilla, Saenz Peua, Yidela Dorna, 
E. Torres, Posadas, Alegre, R. Pineyro, E. Stegmann, Moujan, Rodriguez, 
Martinez, Garcia Gonsalez, H. Torres, P. Millan, Bedoya, Fernandez, Galup, 
and Lezama. The object of the association was declared under the 
following heads: — 1st. To protect rural interests; 2nd. To improve the 
pastoral industry ; 3rd. To combine grazing with agriculture ; 4th. To get 
scientific men to study the best method of drainage and irrigation for the 
camp; 5th, To ameliorate the condition of the rural inhabitants; 6th. To 
acclimatise refined breeds of cattle ; 7th. To promote agricultural studies ; 
8th. To improve agricultural implements and dwellings; 9th. To study the 
curing of beef for exportation ; 10th. To introduce useful seeds and plants ; 
11th. To establish relations Avith foreign markets; r2th. To study the 
economic resources of the country. The society has been productive of 
great benefits to the industrial interests of the country, especially in causing 
the repeal of oppressive laws or duties. To its efforts are due, among 
other acts, the removal of import dues from salt used fcr saladeros, and the 
permission to export washed sheepskins at no higher duties than are charged 
for the unwashed. Moreover, the society publishes a monthly review 
containing important articles on the staple industries of Buenos Ayres, 
"with valuable information and correspondence from foreign countries : this 
tends in a notable manner to keep alive public attention on such matters. 
Subscribers to the association pay ^SOOm^. entrance fee, and 3^0 a month : 
there are also honorary or corresponding members, and the society is in 
relation with most of the similar associations in England, Germany, and the 
United States. There are at present 234 active members in Buenos Ayres. 
The society was first established in a house next the Post-ofiice, Calle 
Bolivar : its present residence is at No. 92 Calle Peru. The reading-room 
has a good supply of newspapers, and a library of industrial works in 
English, French, German, &c., including the United States Patent-office 
Reports, and other valuable publications: the club-room, billiard-room, 



80 BANKS AND COMPANIES. 

and secretary's apartments are neatly arranged, with portraits of eminent 
Argentines and pictures of the leading sheep wcabailas)) of Germany. There 
is a black-board in the hall, to mark the current prices of horned cattle, 
sheep, land, &c. The society permits the newly-established Jockey Club 
to have the use of its rooms. 

The Caj a de Credito is a joint-stock discount bank, established in 1865, 
under the management of M. Montravel, with a capital of §2,800,000 in 
14,000 shares of §200, or £40 each, all paid up. It has given very 
profitable results, the annual dividend being usually 15 per cent. 



INSURANCE AND JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES. 

The Bienhechora del Plata is a savings-bank and insurance association, 
founded in 185i by the leading capitalists, foreign and Argentine," and 
specially authorized by the National Government, in decree dated May 7th, 
1864. The investments of the company are exclusively in Government 
6 per cent. Bonds which are bought at prices varying from 40 to 50, thus 
giving over 12 per cent, per annum. Deposits are received from £1 
a year up to any amount, in weekly, monthly, or yearly instalments, and the 
profits are liquidated every five years. There are three manners of 
subscribing : 1st. With loss of capital by death of insured. 2nd. Without 
loss of capital but with loss of interest in such event. 3rd. Subscriptions 
in deposit Avith compound interest. The 1st class of subscribers enjoy 
their share of compound interest on the bonds purchased by the Company ; 
also a part of the capital forfeited by those of this class who may die ; also 
a part of the interest belonging to those who have died. The 2nd class 
enjoy compound interest in the 6 per cent Government bonds; also their 
proportion of the interest-moneys forfeited by those of this class who have 
died. The 3rd class simply gain compound interest on the bonds, for the 
profits are capitalized every three months, and new bonds purchased. The 
system of insurance is exactly the reverse of what is customary in England. 
Thus if a father insure his child for ten or twenty years and that it die in 
the interim, everything is lost, unless specially enrolled in the 2nd class. 
3Ieantime there is always the option of withdrawing one's capital and 
profits at the expiration of every five years. Of course the largest profits 
accrue to the class that incurs the risk of forfeiting all by death. 
Deparcieux's mortality tables shew an almost incredible profit in such cases, 
when the first investment yields 12 per cent, per annum. Thus by 
payment of $100, or £20, per annum for a child between the ages of one 



ISSURAIS'CE COMPANIES. 8 If 

and fifteen, the sum accumulated at the endof twenty-five years mil be over 
£7,000 and under £8,000 sterling. Parties insuring between the ages of 
15 and 40 will find nearly the same results, but those over 40, if they 
survive 25 years, will reap still greater profits. A man of 20, for example, 
paying £20 a year, will find himself at 25 worth £200 ; at 30 £600 ; at 
35, £1,600 ; at 40, £3,400 ; and at 45 he will have £7,400. As regards 
tlie 2nd class of subscribers, who do not risk their capital, the profits may 
be estimated at one-eighth less than those of the 1st class.^ The office of the 
Company is at 118 Calle Piedad; manager, Don Francisco F. Moreno. 
Among the founders were Messrs., Arocena, Benites, Cabal, Casares, 
Holterhoff, Gandara, Iturraspe, Lumh.. Martinez ae Hoz, Leal, Miro. Mata, 
Ochoa, Tomkinson, and Zumaran. The subscribers number 3,000, more 
than half of whom are foreign residents. At the close of 1868 the amount 
of subscribed capital. was about £600,000 sterling, and the nominal value 
of bonds purchased Avas almost £200,000. The legal residence of the 
Company is in Buenos Ayres, but there are agents in Montevideo and other 
towns of the River Plate. Bankers— the Provincial Bank of Buenos Ayres. 
GoAernment-inspector — Don Jose Maria Cantilo. 

The Argentine Marine Insurance Companij^ 1 18 Calle Piedad, was established 
in 1859, and under the management of Don Francisco F. Moreno, has given 
the most splendid results. The capital is $1,024,000 s., but may be 
increased to $2,000,000, in shares of $ 1 ,000, or £200 each. The founders 
were Messrs. Armstrong, Casares, Iturraspe, Lezica, Paraviciui, Tomkinson, 
Lurab, and others, who had their statutes approved by Government in October, 
1860. The whole of the stoik is held up by forty shareholders, and shares 
are very difficult to be obtained. The company insures vessels both for the 
rivers and the high seas. 

The Estrella Marine and Fire Insurance Covipanfj, 118 Calle Piedad, was 
established in October, 1865, its statutes being duly sanctioned, with a 
capital of $2,000,000 s. , under the management of Don Francisco F. Moreno. 
The company insures all manner of properties against fire, at a fixed rate, 
and offers the following prizes to fire-engines arriving at a fire : $10 to the 
first, $20 to the second, $20 for the first barrel of water, and $4 for each 
of five following; also a reward of $4 to the person who first brings to 
the office news of a fire in any part of the town. The founders of the 
•Company were Messrs. Demarchi,- Ochoa, Lumb, Armstrong, Martinez de 
Hoz, Bustamante, Zumaran, and others. In June 1866 the company obtained 
legal permission to make maritime insurance also a branch of their business, 
and now they insure vessels for ocean or river traffic. 

The Protectora Americana^ 21 Calle Las Piedras, was established in 1868, 

T 



8 2 BANKS AND COMPANIES. 

for life insurance at a fixed rate, authorized capital ^2, 000, 000, the 
originators of the Company being Dr. Roque Perez, and Messrs. Zuraaran, 
Belaustegui, Pico, and Mercenaro, and the managei- Don Pablo Montravel. 
The Company gives policies payable on decease of the insured party, or 
pensions for old age, on payment of a premium, yearly, quarterly,, 
or monthly. 

The River Plate Telegraph Compamj was established in 1864 (see page 107 
of Section A) an^ the cable laid across from Punta Lara to Colonia in 
October 186G, the line being inaugurated soon afterwards, The stock is 
held up among a few shareholders, and the dividend for 1868 was declared 
at 20 per cent. There is* a great business done between Buenos Ayres and 
Montevideo, and since 1868 the telegraph lines of the Northern and 
Southern rail^vays have come to form branches. The head-office is at 
Montevideo, Calle Las Piedras, and the central station at Buenos Ayres, 
Calle Cangallo ; the intermediate stations being Colonia, San Jose and 
Hosario Colony in Banda Oriental. Messages can also be sent to or from 
any station on the Northern and Southern railways. Mr. Oldham is the 
superintendent and manager : the ofiices at Montevideo and Buenos Avres 
are open on all week days from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m., and on Sundays for an hour 
in the morning and another in the evening, for charges, &c. see 
advertisement. 

The River Plate Credit Mohilier Company has been recently established, the 
statutes having been approved by the Governor and Provincial Legislature 
on November 6, 1868, with a capital of g 12,000,000 in 120,000 shares of 
^100, or £20, each. Among the founders of the Company are Blanco del 
Yalle, Emilio Castro, Agote, Saavedra, Marcenaro, Teofilo Mendez, M. 
Casares, Moreno, Adrogue, Andres Lamas, Arocena, and Anjel Texo. 
Besides ordinary banking transactions the sphere of the Company is to 
comprehend loans, railways, immigration, and other public enterprises ; 
there Avill be branches at Montevideo, Bio Janeyro, Lisbon, Madrid, 
Barcelona, Paris,| Marseilles, Bordeaux, London, Southampton, Liverpool, 
and Genoa. The legaljdomicile of the Company is in Buenos Ayres. 

The Commercial Rooms, situate at No. 69 Calle Mayo. This is a very old 
and useful institution, belonging to Mr. Daniel Maxwell; it possesses the 
double advantage of a first-class reading-room and an observatory 
furnished with the best telescopes in the River Plate. Besides local and 
English papers, Ave find the leading German, French, Spanish and American 
journals and magazines. The observatory contains a collection of charts, 
signal books, &c., and the Avindovvs command an unrivalled view of the 
port and shipping. The azotea or roof offers a pleasant promenade. Every 



STEAMBOAT COMPA>IES. 83 

kind of commercial inforraatiou for the city is here procured, a slate is 
kept with daily maritime lists, and letters from Montevideo and elsewhere 
will be found with last trade reports, on the reading room table. The 
s ubscription is $200 per quarter, but ship-masters, supercargoes, pilots, 
naval officers, and several local authorities are admitted gratis. Visitors' 
tickets may also be obtained. The entrance to the Rooms is in Calle Mayo, 
and there is a staircase leading out on ihe beach. Mr. Maxwell is the best 
authority in town on industrial statistics. * 

The South American Steam Navigation Company, 36^ Calle Cuyo, has 
steamboat lines on all the rivers, Mr. William Matti being the principal 
shareholder : the capital is 300,000 hard dollars, in shares of $ 1 ,000 each, 
all paid up. The line is well managed, the steamers are commodious, and 
the last dividend was 15 per cent. There are six steamers weekly to 
Eosario, two to Corrientes and Paraguay, three to Parana, four to San 
Nicolas, one to Zarate and San Pedro, one to Gualeguay, two up the river 
Uruguay, and two to Montevideo. 

The Riode la Plata Steam Company, founded in 1866 by Don Juan Jose 
Mendez and others, despatches a vessel to Paraguay, Corrientes, and 
intermediate ports. The Estrella Steamboat Company, founded by Captain 
Da vies, plies to Rosario and the smaller ports. 

There are in Buenos Ayres several other insurance and steamboat 
companies of which we have no particulars. There are also agencies for 
Chilian and English life assurance companies, and branch-baiks of 
establishments that will come to be mentioned in treating of theProvinces. 
The agencies of the English and French steamboat lines cannot be included 
in this chapter of local institutions. 

There are various associations of a mutual and friendly character, such as 
the Typographic Society the Spanish Mutual Aid Association, the Cricket 
Club, the Oddfellows, the British Clerks, the Philharmonic Society, the 
Masonic Fraternity, the Athletic- Club, the Jockey Club, the Italian 
Benevolent Society, the St. Vincent de Paul Confraternity, &c. 

The British Clerks' Provident Association Avas founded by Mr. F. M. Wells 
and other mercantile gentlemen on September 1 st, 1 86 1 . Although limited 
in number it has been successful in a monetary sense, the annual dividends 
ranging from 12 to IS percent. In March 1868 there were twenty -nine 
members, holding 218 shares, which amounted to $5,263 s., and $176,343 
paper, or an aggregate of <£2,400 sterling. The society meets at the 
British Library. Each share represents a subscription of $2 silver, or 
$50m() ; tlie association is of especial benefit in giving habits of economy 

to younger clerks. 

T2 



8i BANKS AND COMPANIES- 

The Typographic Society provides a sick and burial fund for printers ; 
the Spanish and Italian societies support their sick or distressed 
countrymen ; the Philliarmonic Club gives concerts at the Coliseum : the 
Vincent de Paul Society visits and relieves the poor and sick throughout 
the city. 

The Oddfellows Society numbers about seventy members, and is of a 
mutual aid character: the lodge room is situate at No, 96 Independencia. 
The members have an annual dinner in the month of March. 

The Cricket and Athletic jCluhs have their grounds at Palermo, where 
matches and meetings come off at certain periods. A stand-house and tent 
have been erected, and the festivities are sometimes attended by as many 
as 5,000 ladies and gentlemen, mostly foreign residents. 

The Freemason Lodges are very numerous, comprising Argentine, English, 
French and Italian circles. The English lodge gives its annual dinner on 
June 24th at the Provence Hotel. In the Museum is preserved a diploma 
of a Dublin lodge, called after St. Patrick, and bearing date as far back as 
the last century. President Sarmiento, General Mitre, and General 
Urquiza are free-masons. 

The Jtckey Club, founded in 1868, for the purpose of promoting in this 
country horse-racing, meets at present in the rooms of the Sociedad 
Eural, and numbers sixty members. Members of the club only are allowed 
to enter and ride horses. The committee i^ as follows : — Honorary 
President and Vice-President, their Excellencies President Sarmiento and 
Vice-President Alsina; Chairman, Don Carlos Casares; Vice-Chairman, 
H. Tomkinson, Esq. ; Secretary, G. P. Craufurd, Esq. ; Treasurer, F. 
Plowes, Esq.; W, Welchman, Esq., Dr. B. Irigoyen, Don H. F. Varela, 
Don A. C. Cambaceres, Don E, Oldendorff. The first meeting was held at 
Randairs, near tlie Jeppener Station of the Southern llailway, on the 8th 
and 9th of September, 1868. The Provincial Government gave a prize 
silver cup, value ^5,000, wliich was won by H. Tomkinson, Esq., with 
Gauchito beating Old Warden and Cochin China, belonging respectively to 
W. Welchman, Esq., and W. M'Clymont, Esq. It is intended to hold for 
the present two meetings annually in Belgrano, one in the autumn 
and another in the spring. But as soon as the funds of the Club 
will permit the necessary outlay, a piece of ground Avill be purchased 
in one of the suburbs of the city with the intention of forming a 
race-course with grand stand and pleasure grounds for the use of the 
members and their families. 



THE SUBURBS. S5 



CHAP. YIII. 



THE SUBURBS. 

TuERE are three principal suburbs, Tiz., Belgrano, Flores, and Barracas : 
the first two are fashionable outlets much frequented in the summer 
mouths; the last-iiamed is an industrial entrepot situated on the Biachuelo. 
AH three are connected by rail Avith the city, and boast numerous 
beautiful quintas. 

BELGRASO. 

This charming town is two leagues distant from the city by the Northern 
Railway, and has become in a few years one of the prettiest places in the 
River Plate. It was founded in 1854 by Don Santiago Tobal, during the 
administration of Governor Alsina, and called after a distinguished 
Argentine General who fought in the War of Independence. The situation 
is pleasant, on a high ground about a mile from the river ; the number of 
quintas belonging to the leading families of the city is very considerable, 
those of Messrs. Alsina, Amorins, Guerin, Matti, Plowes, Esteves Segui, 
Arriola, Agrelo, Bosch, Berger, Calvo, Costa, Demot, Antigues, Arzeno, 
Androguez, Elias, Fusoni, Gowlaud, Francischelli, Hartenfels, Itur^-aspe, 
Miro, Newton, Oliver, Pelvilain, Piaggio, Ravier, Solanet, Saavedra, 
Haycroft, Llambi, Benn, James Brown, Wells, Rossi, Lamas, &c., 
being among the most remarkable. On the hill overlooking the 
railway is a tasteful little chapel, in front of which are some venerable 



86 THE SUBURBS. 

Ombiies. This chapel has become too small for the congregation, and a 
large church is being erected in the Plaza. On the east side of the Plaza 
is the public school, built in the Grecian style. At the next corner is the 
Juzgado. No one is allowed to gallop through the streets of the town. 
At the west end is the race-course, where the foreign and Argentine 
racing clubs hold their meetings periodically : there is a fine stand house, 
and the course is nine furlongs round ; the meetings are always attended 
by all the wealth and fashion of Buenos Ayres. The Rev. Mr. Goodfellow 
has an English school in the town, for which the Provincial Government 
allows a monthly subsidy of $2,000 ; it was founded in August 1867, and 
is under the charge of, Mr. John T. Thompson : the system of instruction 
is that of the United States' schools, and comprises the elements of a 
commercial education, science, modern languages, Greek and Latin ; this 
school is very useful in the summer months, when so many foreign families 
come here for the season. In winter Belgrano is all but deserted, but at 
the approach of the hot season, in November, the most extravagant rents 
are demanded; houses which may be bought for £1,000, commonly fetch 
£200 or £300 for the summer months. Watson's hotel, close to the 
railway station, is a first-rate English house, good wines and cookery, and 
everything very neat. On Sunday mornings parties often come out for 
breakfast ; the garden attached to the hotel covers several acres. Adjoining 
the station is a croquet ground or promenade ; a band plays here every 
Sunday evening. A tramway is projected to connect Belgrano with the 
city, running along the barranca; this would give a cheaper mode of 
transit than the present railway charge. In summer there are twelve 
trains daily to and from Belgrano. The partido of Belgrano comprehends 
a number of chacras or farms ; in some we see wheat and vegetables 
cultivated on a large scale ; in others there are fine breeds of horses and 
cattle. This district was formerly included in the partido of San Isidro, 
but it now has a distinct Municipality, Justice of Peace, and Curate, whose 
jurisdiction extends half way to the city, and includes Palermo, once the 
residence of Rosas. From a statistical report in 1867 we take the 
following figures : — Belgrano has 63 chacras with an aggregate of 2,000 
acres, 230 azotea houses, 150 do. with straw roof, four draperies and 
eighteen grocery stores ; the farming stock is not numerous, comprising 
only 1,400 horned cattle, 1.420 horses, 200 sheep, and 300 swine; the 
population is set down at 2,946, National Guards 280, Alcaldes and police 
37 ; the Municipality is composed of six members. According to the 
educational returns we find the State school is attended by 78 boys and 
89 girls, showing an increase of nearly double the returns of 1864. 



PALERMO. 87 

• PALERMO. 

This place was the residence of Rosas, once surrounded with beautiful 
gardens and plantations, but now it is a miserable ruin, the palace falling 
lo decav, the fences destroyed, the timber cut down, and the whole place a 
scene of desolation. During many years Rosas devoted much attention to 
the grounds, with the view of making Palermo the finest residence in South 
America : he had a number of men provided with tooth-brushes employed 
in keeping the trees free of insects, and the gardens contained the choicest 
fruits and flowers. Shady avenues led down to the water's side ; nothing 
was spared that taste and wealth could devise ; the palace itself was a 
handsome Moorish structure, with colonnade on all sides ; the apartments 
were large, lofty, and richly decorated. Here the t^Tant held his court 
for many years, till the battle of Gaseros, 3rd February, 1852, resulted in 
his overthrow. General Urquiza established his headquarters in Palermo 
on the folIoAving day. In 1856 Seuor Posadas got up an Agricultural 
Exhibition here, but the hatred to the name of Rosas seems to have 
prevented any efforts towards keeping the place from ruin. So late as 
1859 the principal avenue, with its lofty rows of trees, was intact. In 
1862 3Ir. Paris proposed to make Elysean Gardens here, but the project fell 
through. It was, however, still the favorite resort of the wealth and 
fashion of Buenos Ayres on summer evenings, when the Palermo road was 
always thronged with horsemen and gay equipages. Subsequently the 
Municipality of Belgrano sold some of the timber for firewood, and the 
work of destruction was actively begun : the palace was next let out for a 
boarding-school — Escucla de Artes — the proprietor of which built up the 
beautiful colonnades w ith unsightly bricks (not even plastered) , and left the 
place an ugly wreck, fit only for owls to make tiieir abode in. It is painful 
to walk through the ruined halls: the library, parlor, and dining-room 
may still be traced, and the ball-room (100 feet by 20 feet) forms one side 
of the quadrangle. The azotea has a view of the city and roadstead. The 
only plantation remaining is on the river's side : here duels are sometimes 
fought. The ISorthern Railw ay runs through the park, and near the station 
is the English Cricket ground : a little further is the new pcwder mill of 
Messrs. Liesenberg & Co., a wing cf which blew up in 1867 ; it is now 
working Avell. 

The road from Palermo to town was the only decent highway in the 
country till very recently, but now it is as bad as the rest, and the neat 
iron fences are all broken down. Messrs. Lezica & Co. have started a 
wgraseriaw for melting down sheep, near the Rifl^eros, which will be most 



88 THE SUBURBS. 

injurious to the water supply taken from the River Plate a few perches^ 
lower down. These works have been recently put up by Mr. Coghlan, C.E., 
for the Provincial Government, at a cost of £50,000, and can distribute 
1,300,000 gallons of filtered water daily through the city. 

Passing the Recoleta we find a series of charming quintas along the 
((barranca)) all the way into town. Whitfield's is one of the finest ; it was 
built in 182.3 by Mr. Wilson alias Whitfield, who had been a soldier at St. 
Helena and, coming to Buenos Ayres, established the first English 
apothecary's shop in this city. The Klappenbach quintas are occupied by 
Englisli families : the grounds have been recently sold out in building lots. 
The Povero I^iavolo is a well-known tavern, with bowling-alleys, &c. Just 
below the fine quinta of Senor Estrada is Chassaing's new steam-laundry^ 
a first-class establishment, provided with the most improved American 
machinery : it is quite a boon to the city, which formerly depended solely 
on black washerwomen. 

We have now reached the terminus of the Northern Railway, in the 
Paseo Guardia Nacional, as the adjacent thicket of willow-trees is called- 
The battery (ca fleur d'eau)) has six guns for firing salutes. 

FLORES. 

San Jose de Flores is nearly t\w leagues from town by the Western 
Railway, and situated on a gently rising ground, with a fine view of the 
camps westward. The village takes its name from the founder, Don Juan 
Diego Flores, who ceded the ground for the purpose, and commenced a 
small chapel thereon. In 1808 Rishop Lue formed it into a parish out of 
the territory of San Isidro, the first curates being Don Simon Rustamante 
and Don Miguel Garcia. The place began to attain some importance under 
Don xVntonio Millan, who marked out the building lots and projected the 
building of the church. On the 11th December 1831, the church was 
consecrated by Rishop Med ran o ; it consists of three naves, and measures 
120 feet long by 50 feet wide. Amongst the principal benefactors were 
Messrs. Terrero and Roneo. In this church was signed the treaty of 1859 
between General Urquiza and the city of Ruenos Ayres. Half a century 
ago Flores was the favorite suburb, but it suffered severely during the civil 
wars up to 1859. Since that time it has revived a little, and there are 
now many pretty quintas along the line of railway. The high road has 
been allowed to fall into such decaj as to become almost intransitable. 
The partido is small, comprising only six square leagues of land, now 
exclusively occupied in gardens, meadows, or grain farms. So late as the 



SAK JOSE DE FLORES. 8^ 

year 1 855 there were «rodeos)) of cattle in this partido. The town is a 
straggling place ; on the south side of the Plaza is the church with its two 
belfries ; on the east side the public school, a fine building with Grecian 
front and portico. There are 979 houses, of which 593 have azotea roofs, 
four are dry-goods stores, and eighty-three grocery and general ware 
stores. There are 422 chacras, covering about 9^000 acres; the farming 
stock comprises 2,472 horned cattle, 4,232 horses, 5,320 sheep, including 
500 Saxony do., and 1,332 swine. At Caballito the traveller will admire 
the fine edifice occupied by 3Ir. Negrotto's school. On the road we remark 
the quintas of many wealthy city residents. Before reaching Flores a 
pretty cottage with gothic gables arrests our attention ; it belonged for 
many years to the amiable and accomplished Manuelita Bosas, who fled to 
England on the downfall of her father, but still keeps the place in the 
utmost neatness and style. The prettiest quintas are those near the 
railway. Mr. Boyd's, called «Rose-hill,)) is a delightful place, formerly the 
country-house of Mr. Parody ; the gardens cover about six acres: on the 
opposite side of the railway isDorrego's quinta, Avhere General Urquiza had 
his head-quarters in 1859. Between the Caballito and Flores stations are 
the quintas of the eminent financier, Seuor Ricstra, of Dr. Pardo, Seuor 
Terrero, and many others. That of Narco del Pont, at the Flores station, 
presents a beautiful spectacle in Spring, beings surrounded and festooned 
with roses. About 500 yards westward is the delightful residence of Mr. 
David Methven, who bought the place in 1867 from Seuor Coquet: the 
latter gentleman had expended a great deal of money, during sixteen 
years, to render this quinta what it now is ; the grounds are interspersed 
with shady bowers, fountains, flower -knots, vineries, hot-houses, statuary, 
&c. and the view of fields and meadows on all sides brings vivid 
recollections of English farm scenery. South of the railway there are 
also two fine quintas, belonging to Mr. John Hughes and Mr. Stegnian ; the 
latter is occupied by Mr. H. A. Green. ?fearer to the village are the 
cottages of Mr. Neild, Mr. Forrester, the late Dr. Leslie, and other foreign 
residents. Flores was once very famous for its cock-pit, and crowds 
would assemble on Sundays to witness the sport; but, of late years, cock- 
fighting has gone out of fashion, much to the regret of the «pulperos.» 
There is a respectable Club of young men here in the summer months, when 
balls are often given on Sunday evenings. It is not easy to find houses 
to rent for the summer months, but building-lots may be had very cheap, 
and many families reside here all the year round. The population of the 
district is set down as follows: Argentines 2,841, Italians 1,641, French 
355, Spaniards 330, English 169, Germans 40, Indians 2, various 87 — Total 



90 THE SUBURBS. 

5,435. The State schools are attended by 91 boys and 126 girls, shewing 
an increase of one-third over the returns for 1863. Flores has a Justice 
of Peace, a municipality composed of six members, 463 National Guards, 
and fifty-eight Alcaldes and policemen. There is no hotel in the place, and 
the shops are of an inferior order. Dr. Fitzsiraons had an Irish college 
here in 1865, but he has since removed to the province of Entre-Rios. 
General Gelly-Obes has a quinta near Caballito, and Dr. Velez Sarsfield's is 
near Alraagro. The Italian «chacreros)) raise beautiful fields of lucerne, 
which give splendid hay-crops : they also make much money by fruit and 
vegetables. The district of Flores is a succession of gardens, orchards, 
country-houses, &c. from the moment we leave the Plaza Once de 
Setiembre till we reach Floresta. 

DARK A CAS. 

Barracas is just one league south from the Plaza Yictoria, and was at the 
beginning of the present century a charming outlet much frequented by 
English families. Thus from Horn's hill, where Mr. Mackinlay resided,. 
we pass a number of quintas, en route southwards, most of which were 
built by Englishmen. The Yellow House, at the turn of the road to the 
Boca, was built by Mr. N., who made a fortune in Paraguay, and from 
whose heirs it has passed into the hands of Mr. Ackerley : it was, originally 
three stories high, but has now only two. Hard by was a brick factory, 
belonging to Mr. Billinghurst and others, which was given up in 1866: 
strange to say, this was the spot where the early Spaniards made their first 
bricks, whence the hill was called Barranca de Hornos (ovens) : the name 
Horn's Hill is not derived from the coincidence that Mr. Horn resided here, 
having been so called from the earliest times. Waterloo quinta, below the 
British Hospital, was built by Mr. Brittain, and is now the residence of 
Messrs. Krabbe and Williamson. A few hundred yards westward Ave reach 
a fine old English mansion : it was built by the late distinguished hero, 
Admiral Brown, and two old cannons, probably taken from the Brazilians, 
are seen at the entrance ; the quinta was purchased from the Admiral's 
widoAV in 1861, by Mr. Nowell, whose family still resides here. 

On the barranca of Calle Buen Orden is the Balcarce quinta: here 
Admiral Coe lived for a time, and it is at present tenanted by Mr. Banfield. 
In 1865 the quinta was cut up for building, and the splendid Instituto 
Sanitario is built on this ground. The adjoining quinta belongs to Seuor 
Gonsalez Moreno, who has rented it to Mr. Zimmermann. At the foot of 
Calle Buen Orden is the Suarez quinta, for some time an English grammar 
school, kept by the late Mr. Pongerard: it at present belongs to Mr. 



BARRACAS. 91 

Holterhofl Opposite to the Balcarce quinta is tliat of Seiior Carabaceres, 
which is bouaded by Langdon's fields, and is famous for delicious fruit. 
Further west, beyoad the Southern Railway, is the Convalecencia, formerly 
the residence of Mr. Barton ; and close to this is the Saenz-Yaliente quinta, 
built by an Englishman in the last century, with very pretty garden and 
grounds. There are some cannon balls in the roof and chimney, a souvenir 
of the siege of Buenos Ayres in 1853. 

The chapel of Santa Lucia, in the CalleLarga, is quaint and qld-fashioned ; 
it was formerly the chapel of an estanciero whose herds of horned cattle 
roamed over the site now occupied by Bariacas, and whose estancia house 
is still seen (now a butcher's shop) at the Banderita corner. The feast of 
Santa Lucia occurs in December, and the Calle Larga is lighted with 
bonfires on the. occasion. Yidela's quinta is worthy of notice, as also a 
fashionable house built in the Louis Quatorze style by M. Vignal. There 
is another pleasant country house belonging to tlie wealthy family of 
Llavallol. Fronting the plaza of Santa Lucia is the elegant quinta of the 
Senillosa family : there are fountains, statues, arbors, &c., and at the end 
of the garden, in the rear of the kouse, we fiud a grotto and a tea-house, 
from the top of which there is a fine view. The Botet quintas come next, 
and opposite these is that of Mrs.Carreras, overgrown with weeds and fruit 
trees run wild. The Banderita is an ancient pulperia, famous for its horse 
races on Sunday afternoons : here branches off a road that leads down to 
the Calle Sola. The first quinta on the left was once the property of a 

lady named B , a beauty in her day, who afterwards died in the public 

hospital : an Italian gardener now lives here. A little further, on the right, 
is the entrance to Saenz A'aliente's quinta, where the first sod of the 
Southern Railway was turned, on the 8th March, 1864 : the first saladero in 
the country was established here in the eighteenth century. Next comes 
Mrs. Oliver's quinta, and in front that of Dr. Casajemas, who has a 
beautiful nursery and some fine fruit. 

Returning to the Calle Larga, we meet, on the right, the delightful 
cottage and gardens of Don Juan Antonio Fernandez ; next, the country 
house of Sefior Subiaurre, built in Italian style ; the quinta of ex-Minister 
Elizalde ; and opposite these the Miguens' quintas, seven in number, the 
first belonging to Minister Avellaneda. Passing the Segovia quinta we 
come to that of the Atkin's family : old Mr. Atkins was an American citizen 
who lent £20,000 to equip the first Argentine fleet, under Admiral Brown ; 
he died in poverty, of a broken heart, but his family got paid in 1865. The 
steariue candle factory of Messrs. Holterhoff & Co. is an important establish- 
ment, provided with the most improved machinery : it w as inaugurated, ia 



92 THE SUBUllBS. 

presence of the chief authorities, ia 1856, and produces excellent candles; 
some samples were seut to* the Paris Exhibition of 18G7: the factory is 
under the immediate supervision of Mr. Holterhoff, and most of the work- 
men are French or Germans. Next is the handsome quinta of the Herrera 
family, in which ground was commenced the new church of Santa Lucia, in 
1863: the design was too vast, the walls having only got 4 feet high, and it 
is not likely the work will ever be carried out, although a church is much 
needed here. The candle and soap factories of Sefior Mafie and Don Julio 
Arditi, and the quintas of Rebol and Silvestre, intervene before reaching 
the castellated residence of the late Sefior Escribano : this is an imitation 
of some feudal castle seen by Sefior E. in his travels on the Rhine ; he died 
in 1862, leaving a large fortune to an infant daughter. This part of the 
Calle Larga is a favorite «promcnade a chevab) on moonlight nights in 
summer. The Torres quinta is at the corner of Calle California, crossing 
which we come to the Fabrica del Incendio, so called because Sefior 
Sansinena had the misfortune to be twice burned down : it is a soap and 
candle factory. On the left side of the Calle Larga is Alzaga's quinta, now 
a soap factory, and a feAV steps further is the Tres Esquinas Railway 
Station. The Barracas Club has very commodious premises, with billiard- 
tables, reading-room, salle-a-manger, etc., but the dreadful miasma 
produced by the saladeros and myriads of poisoned fish, on the banks of the 
Eiachuelo, pollutes the atmosphere in this neighborhood. 

The village of INorth Barracas has little to recommend it, consisting of 
surdry ubarracas)) for storing produce, a few liquor shops, and a State 
school. The streets are often impassable in wet weather, although this is 
the great higMvay to the south. Cattle for the city markets are sometimes 
brought in by the Calle Sola, to the great risk of the foot passengers. At 
the bridge a toll is collected from passengers in coaches or on horseback : 
a new iron bridge is in course of erection, besides a railway bridge for Mr. 
Wheelwright's line to Ensenada. West of the bridge is a group of houses 
called San Antonio. Most of the inhabitants here, and throughout Barracas, 
are Basques or Italians : thirty years ago there was a large Irish population, 
employed in the saladeros of Brown, Dowdall, Armstrong, Cambaceres, 
Downes, «fec., but they are now mostly estancieros in the camp. 

The great industry of Barracas consists in its saladeros, of which there 
are sixteen, beginning at the Puente Alsina. The saladero is a place fitted 
up for the killing of cows and mares, salting the beef and hides, and boiling 
down the sheep and mares' flesh to extract the grease. In former years 
as many as 10,000 cows and mares have been slaughtered in a day, in the 
busy season, but owing to the depreciation of jerked beef, and the 



BARRACAS. 



93 



increased taxes and expenses, this business is now diminished. Since 1866 
the rendering down of sheep has become a great business, amounting to 
200,000 head monthly. For many years the Riachuelo river has been used 
as a sewer to carry off the offal and filth of the saladeros, and the 
«raalaria» arising herefrom lias been most prejudicial to public health : the 
water of the river is often blood-red and poisons all the fish. In 1862 
an Artesian well was sunk by Messrs. Sordeaux and Legout to cleanse the 
saladeros, but it failed m this purpose. In 1868, during the cholera, public 
indignation forced Government to close the saladeros for a period, but they 
still continue their pestilential labors, although a decree has been passed for 
their removal at a future date. Saladeros have afforded a staple trade 
from the earliest time of the Spaniards when the horned cattle were killed 
in millions, merely for their hides : in the present century a trade sprung 
up with Cuba and Brazil for jerked beef, which is exported thither in large 
quantities. The celerity with which the saladeros work is so great that 
500 head are slain, cut up, salted, &c., in a few hours, with a comparatively 
small number of peons. The flesh is first hung in strips, to dry in the sun, 
and then put in an immense salted pile, previous to shipment. The peons 
earn from $10 to $200 a day, according to their skill. Between Puente 
Alsiua and the Barracas Bridge there are six saladeros, viz. : those of 
Anderson, Lopez, Lezama, Cobo, Pereyra, and Medrano & Panthou. Those 
below the bridge are all on the south side of the Riachuelo, viz.: Llambi, 
Sautamaria & Llambi, Cambaceres. Saavedra, Mufioa, Herrera & Baudrix, 
Berisso, Soler, Seuillosa, and Cambaceres. The killing season usually 
begins in November, and ends in May, and the «faena)) sometimes amounts 
to 400,000 head of cattle. The returns of the total «faena» in the River 
Plate for 1867 were as follows: 

Uniffiiaf/ Jiepitblic. 



Montevideo, .... 


317,000 i 


Saladero Quemado, 


36,000 


Fray Bentos, .... 


66,000 


Salto, 


25.000 


Bomau, 


32,000 


Casa Blanca, 


48,000 


Arroyo Negro, 


63,000 






Sacra, .... 


31,000 


Total, 


648,000 


Mercedes, .... 


30,000 








Argentine 


Bepvbltc. 




Concordia, .... 


32,000 


Buenos Ayres, .... 


444,000 


Gualeguaychu, 


77,000 








Gualeguay, 

Rosario, .... 


54,ooa 

40,000 


Total, 


661,000 






Parana , .... 


1 4,000 


Grand total, .... 


1,309,000 



94 THE SUBURBS. 

The traveller should not omit to visit the iron girder bridge and specious 
workshops of the Southern railway, about 400 yards above the Barracas 
bridge : the bridge is one of the finest Avorks of the kind in the continent. 
Hard-by is the Wool-Avashing factory of Mr. Isaac Rick: these works, 
which have been just completed, are situated about midway between the 
old Barracas bridge and the bridge of the Ferro-Carril del Sud on the 
north side of the Riachuclo. They form an entirely new industry : the wool 
from its usually dirty and greasy state, is converted into a material so 
•white, clean, and free from «carretilla)) and «abrojo,)) and all other foreign 
matter, as to be scarcely recognized by those unacquainted with the process, 
and rendered perfectly fit for the spinners' hands on arrival in England, 
France, or Germany. Sorting Room — The wool in its dirty state from the 
shed in the yard having first been assorted here into several classes 
according to the length of staple and various qualities of the wool, is 
taken into the Scouring Room. Here it is first placed in a steeping trough 
containing hot-water and ingredients of a saponaceous kind, for the purpose 
of softening what is termed the «yolk)) and loosing the dirt. Afterwards 
it is placed on the feeder of the scouring machine which, revolving, carries 
the wool into the trough of the machine holding hot-w^ater and a scouring- 
liquid, wliich is kept at a regular temperature by means of pipes bringing 
steam from the boiler. The wool is carried forward in this trough by 
means of rakes to a cylinder which lifts the wool on to a feeder, carrying 
it forward to rollers, wliich, by means of great pressure, squeeze the 
water from it and render it ready for the Drying Room. In this room is 
a machine having a very powerful fan, making 800 revolutions per minute. 
The wool having been spread on the open work, the fan is set in motion, 
and by means of the dry-air being drawn through the wool into the fan 
chamber, the moisture from the wool is carried thence by means of a flue, 
to the outside of the galpon, and the wool is in a short time rendered dry 
and lit for the next process. Willowing and Burring Room — In the first of 
these, in a machine designated in England in common parlance a devil, the 
wool is next placed, and by means of a cylinder revolving rapidly (the 
teeth in which pass through the fixed teeth in the machine) any dirt which 
may have remained is separated from the wool and by a fan, carried through 
a fiue to the outside of the galpon. In a short time the wool is ready for 
the burring machine, which is of a new and most successful kind. This 
machine being fed, the wool is carried through rollers revolving in 
different directions, whence it is taken by a cylinder on to a steel hooked 
roller revolving rapidly in one direction, so close to another smaller fluted 
roller revolving in the other direction, as to extract from the wool all 



BARRACAS. 95 

wcarretilla,)) v(abrojo,» and any other extraneous matter. Above this are 
revolving brushes, which take the wool from the hooked roller, at the 
same time brushing off every particle of dust, which is carried off by 
means of a powerful fan through a flue leading out of the roof of the 
buildiug, leaving the wool most delicately clean and fit for manufacturing 
purposes : it is then taken to the Packing-room and there baled for 
exportation. The engine, of ten-horse power, is fixed between the drying 
and press rooms, and by means of strong shafting and pullies running the 
entire length of the buildiug, which make 200 revolutions per minute^ 
the whole machinery and works are set in motion. The boiler 
and hot-M atei' tank will be placed outside. A large tank or deposit for 
pumping water into from the river, has been sunk outside the building, 
lined with zinc, capable of holding water sufficient for nearly a week's use, 
so as to render the working somewhat independent of the river when low 
or dirty. Altogether there is an air of compactness and arrangement about 
the whole establishment, which must commend itself to all business men, 
At the Tres Esquinas, also, there is a place well worthy of notice ; it is the 
dockyard of John Marshall, who built the first steamer in the Eiver Plate, 
the Anglo Argentine, in 18G3. Since then he has built the Era, the Luxan, 
the Estrella, and other commodious steamers for the passenger traffic of 
the Pa; ana and Uruguay ; the tonnage of these steamers was as follows : 
Anglo-Argentino, 30 tons, 8-horse power ; Era, 130 tons, 40 horse power ; 
Estrella, 45 tons, 1 8-horse power; the interior fittings of these vessels 
were also done by Marshall, who has a carpenter's shop attached to his 
iron works; he gives employment to a large number of hands: he also 
constructed the vessels of light draught for Mr. Seilorans' expedition up the 
Rio Vermejo. During a quarter of a century this persevering man, who 
came thither a poor mechanic, has toiled successfully for his adopted 
country and with great credit to himself, notwithstanding the oppressive 
duties on iron and coal, which weigh down this industry. 

THE BOCA. 

Following the sinuous course of the Riachuelo towards its mouth we 
pass a number of «barracas)) where a bustling trade is always going on, 
either receiving produce from the coasting-craft, or baling wool for 
shipment, or embarking hides, wool and bone-ash in lighters for the vessels 
in the roadstead. The Llavallol and Balcarce «barracas» are notable for 
their great size ; next come those of Temperley and Bunge. Near the last 
named is Mr. Younger's steam «lavadero» for washmg sheepskins, the first 



96 THE BOCA. 

of the kind started in the country : this enterprising Scotchman brought 
his machinery from England, and began his works very successfully in 
1866: since then other alavaderosw have been established, and the 
Government has in a measure favoured the industry by charging no higher 
duties on washed wool and sheepskins than on unwashed. 

We are now in the region of Italian boat builders, and the sounds of 
the saw and hammer are heard on all sides. This is the Boca, distant 
about half a league by railway from the city, and consisting of an 
assemblage of painted wooden houses, in the midst of a rank vegetation. 
The language of the place is a corrupt Genoese dialect, lumbers of 
coasting craft from the up river ports, the islands of the Parana, and the 
Gran Chaco, bring cargoes of oranges, vegetables, charcoal, firewood, &c., 
for the use of the city ; the master and crew are invariably Italians, and all 
part owners of both vessel and cargo. The Riachuelo has so many bends 
that the navigation is most difficult : the tides are treacherous, depending 
chiefly on the wind, and vessels are sometimes delayed a week or more for 
want of sufficient draught of water. There is a Captain of the Port, with 
four subordinates and fifteen sailors. The best stores are those of Casares 
and Roncoroui Piui. The whole village is at times inundated, the flood 
reaching as far as the Calle Larga of Barracas : there is also much danger 
of fire, the houses being of wood. The situation is low, damp, and 
unwholesome, and the cholera made great havoc here. There is no church 
for the inhabitants, who are supposed to belong to the parish of San Telrao. 
The ccommunication with the city is by rail and omnibus, fare §5 and ^3. 
The inhabitants are orderly and industrious, mostly occupied in building 
or repairing sm^U vessels of 20 to 100 tons, Avhich trade with all the ports 
of the Parana and Uruguay. The official returns show that there are thirty 
of these dockyards, employing 40 master builders, 150 carpenters, 85 
caulkers, 9 blacksmiths, and 25 sawyers. In 1864 they built U schooners 
and 15 smaller craft, with an aggregate tonnage of 876 tons, the timber 
used being all hard woods, such as urunday, algarroba, quebracho, 
lapacho, &c., from Paraguay and the Gran Chaco. There are 117 lighters, 
manned by 465 sailors, constantly engaged between the Boca and the 
vessels iu port. The returns of coasting trade show 37 steamers and 2,902 
schooners entered during the year, with an aggregate of 7 1,474 tons. Mr. 
Hodge and Mr. Sherman have foundries on the south side of the stream, 
with which there is a ferry. For some time the superannuated war 
steamers of the Republic might be seen heref, as also the «drag)) brought 
out by Government for cleansing the port, but which was suffered to stick 
lisrc uselessly in the mud. In July 1867, the American clergyman, Rev. 



SOUTH BARRACAS. 97 

W. Goodfellow, started a school for both sexes in the Boca. If, before 
leaving this industrious neighborhood, tjie stranger have time to visit 
Younger 's lavadero, he will find it well Avorth while. The apparatus for 
burring and scouring, as also the baling press, are driven by steam power. 
The machinery is of the best description, and the scene is very animated 
when all is in full play. There are twenty men constantly employed, who 
can turn out 300 dozen sheepskins and 300 arrobes washed wool per day. 
Mr. Younger obtained a prize at the Paris Exhibition, the only one given 
for this industry in South America : his residence is adjoining the works, 
which are about to be enlarged to meet the increased demand : the estab- 
lishment stands on eight acres. It seems clearly ascertained that the 
first Spanish discoverers made their landing at the Boca. There is a 
Resguardo at the mouth of the Riachuelo, to prevent smuggling: the 
adjacent grounds, south side, are the property of Mr. Demarchi. Most of 
the lands on the north side belonged to the Brittain family, but were sold 
by auction in 1865, the purchaser being Mr. Charles Jackson. The high- 
road from the Boca to town has been paved as far as the Yellow House, and 
is now a great facility to trade. The population of the Boca will probably 
amount to 3,000. It is situate within the municipal boundary, and has 
therefore no local authorities. 

SOUTH BARRACAS. 

The Barrdcas bridge being the municipal boundary, the district of South 
Barracas forms a distinct «partido)> of the province, but it is really a suburb 
of Buenos Ayres. This flourishing village, distant one league from the 
Plaza Victoria, would be an exceedingly pleasant place bufrfor the smell of 
the saladeros : these are eleven in number, as already enumerated, and 
give employment to a large and industrious population. There are some 
very good shops, and the people have a well-to-do look. The main street, 
Calle 3Iitre, is wide and well-built, but sometimes almost impassable from 
wpantanos.)) The church is a fine new building, erected mostly by 
contributions fi'om the Basques, and has two belfries that are visible 
several leagues off : there are six side altars, kept remarkably neat by the 
.several families of Panthou, Gimenez,&c.to whose care they are entrusted. 
Don Enrique O'Gorman is owner of much landed property hereabout. In 
Calle Brown there is a «corral)) for pigs, belonging to Senor Soler. Don 
Lorenzo Torres has some land bordering on the Arroyo Crucecita, which is 
crossed by travellers going southward, to the Puente Chico and Quilmes. 
The cemetery of South Barracas is not far from the church. There are 

u 



98 THE SUBURBS. 

two State-schools, attended by 65 boys and 52 girls. The population in 
1864 was estimated at 7,000, including 79 i French, 659 Spaniards, 622 
Italians, 47 Germans, 37 English, and the rest Basques or Argentines. 
There are 207 azotea houses, 11 dry goods' stores, 74 grocery and liquor 
shops, and 392 thatched houses. Tlie chacras are 214 in number, covering 
about 4,000 acres of tilled ground: the partido comprises four square 
leagues, and the stock consists of 2787 horned cattle, 1958 horses, 3,952 
sheep (including 168 fine do.) and 2,023 swine. The railway to Ensenada 
•will follow the line of the high-road towards Quilmes : the fields on either 
side produce abundant crops of hay. The coast-line is low and marshy, 
and there is an island called Islade Pescadores, where fugitives from justice 
sometimes hide themselves. The high-road to the Lomas de Zamorra 
branches off at the Juzgado, not far from the Barracas bridge. The 
municipality of South Barracas comprises the Justice of Peace and six. 
members : there are 50 alcaldes and police, and the district furnishes 372 
National Guards. The traveller should pay a visit to the Artesian Well in 
Cambac^res' saladero, the bore of which is eighty-nine yards deep ; the 
water is brackish, but said to possess saline qualities, on which account 
baths are now established here (seepage 107 of Section A). The works 
were begun in 1859 and concluded in March 1862, the following being the 
layers penetrated in boring — 1st. Sand for 15 feet, the base being 
corrupted with filtrations from the salad eros. 2nd. Tough compact sand 
for 24 feet. 3rd. Very close sand, with veins of «asperon,)) for 2 feet. 
4th. Liquid slimy soil for 3 feet. 5th. Dark-blue ochre, easily dissolved^ 
for 9 feet. 6th. Tosca with calcareous spots, for 8 feet. 7th. Very 
yellow fluid sand for 5 feet. 8th. Fluid grey sand, with small bits of 
quartz, and a s^jriug of water, 33 feet. 9th. Fluid sand for 56 feet. 10th. 
Consistent loam, marine shells, calcareous fragmeiits and crusts of asperon 
for 56 feet. 11th. Argillaceous sand for 8 feet. 12th. Very hard 
calcareous layer for 1 2 feet, after Avhich the water rushed up through the 
tube to a height of 15 feet above the ground, and this was the completion 
of tiie works, after boring 234 feet. The failure of the well to absorb the 
blood of the saladeros was said to be owing to the thin texture of the 
fluid lands. 

It is proposed to remove the saladeros to Ensenada, ten leagues further 
south, where a good port can' be made at little trouble or expense, and 
Mr. Wheelwright's railway will connect the place witii Buenos Ayres. 



EXCURSIO:!?S BY RAILWAY, 99 



CHAP. IX. 



EXCURSIONS BY RAILWAY. 

THE NORTHER>' — TO THE TIGRE. 

The prettiest scenery around Rueuos Avres is found in this route: the 
distance is about twenty-four miles. The Hue was begun in 1862 by Messrs. 
Croskey and Murray, of London, the Government giving a guarantee of 
7 per cent, on an outlay of £150,000.. It was opened to San Fernando in 
February 1864 (see page 108 of Section A). The official returns for 18G6 
and 1867 are as follows : — 

18G6 1867 

IN'umber of passengers, 267,792 329,793 

Gross receipts, 4,361,979 

Working expenses, 3,516,347 

Guarantee paid by Government, 1,057,516 .... 466,868 

This line has not resiilted favorably, owing to its inferior construct.on, * 

T\hich has called for constant repairs, making the working expenses exceed 

80 per cent, of the gross receipts. It will be seen, nevertheless, that the 

deficit to be made good by Government was much less in 1867 than in the 

previous year, 

r2 



100 EXCURSIONS BY RAILWAY. 

There is a tramway from the Custom-house to the Retiro terminus, a 
mile in length, the cars running along the Paseo Julio, past the Gas-house, 
The Retiro terminus is at the foot of the hill on which the city barrack 
stands. The first section of the line is much exposed to inundations, 
although partly protected from the river by a plantation of willows, among 
which you will see numbers of black women washing clothes. On the 
left we have a pleasant view of the quintas built along the «barranca.» 
Mme. Frebourg has a French boarding-school, after which comes Riglos's 
quinta, where General Whitelocke signed the capitulation of his army, in 
1807; it is now the property of Scnor Estrada, whose splendid two-story 
mansion is the next object. Below the quinta of Dr. Lorenzo Torres is the 
new Steam-laundry, close to which is the tavern of Povero Diavolo. 
Slappenbach's quinta is now cut up, and yonder was the former residence 
of Consul Parish, commanding a delightful view of the river. So does 
AVhitfield's quinta, by turns the residence of the British or French 
Minister, and nearer to the Recoleta is Mr. Armstrong's country-house. 
The line here passes through the dismantled fortifications of one of the 
outworks thrown up in 1861 to defend the city from General Urquiza's 
threatened siege. This is a very exposed point, and the railway works 
have been repeatedly damaged by inundations. The water-supply for the 
city is taken from here ; the works and embankments just completed are 
on the left of the line. The Recoleta cemetery and Poor Asylum crown 
the «barranca.)) The quintas of Mr. Samuel B. Hale, an old American 
merchant of high standing, and of ex-Governor Saavedra, ccme next. In 
south-easterly gales it is common to see vessels driven ashore here. The 
Rifleros is a tavern near Palermo Chico, and there are some farm-yards 
here for rearing poultry for the principal city hotels. AVe now enter the 
ruined park of Palermo, the palace of Rosas lying to the left. The station 
is situate in what was once the grand avenue, and on our right is visible 
the stand-house of the English cricket-club: the cricket-ground is about 
four acres, rented from the municipality of Belgrano, and here the Athletic 
Sports also take place. Passing the new Powder-mill we cross the Arroyo 
Maldonado: about half a mile on the left we see the handsome Maldonado 
quinta, near which Rosas comnienced a great bridge over the arroyo, but it 
has been left unfinished. The line now crosses a tract of swampy land, 
till approaching the (cbarrancasw of Belgrano. A number of pretty 
quintas run along the hill, ending with a very ancient tile-roof house 
belonging to Dr. Corvalan. 

The chapel of Belgrano has a charming effect, looking over the line of 
railwaj, the lowlands, and the river. On one side of the station is the 



P0I5T OLIVOS. 101 

Italian villa of Seiior 3Iatti, the steamboat proprietor ; on the other is 
Watson's hotel. In the summer season Belgrano is crowded with visitors 
but in winter it is all but deserted : the place is famous for its race-course 
(see page 86 of Section B). After traversing an open plain we cross the 
Arroyo Medrano, by an iron bridge, and enter the fine demesne of Mr. 
James White, a Scotch gentleman, who, coming to Buenos Ayres forty 
years ago, began life at the foot of the ladder, like so many other prosperous 
men in the country. This demesne formerly belonged to the family of 
the late bishop, Medrano, and is one of the oldest places in the neighbor- 
hood: the house is nicely situated, with shady corridors, large apartments, 
and extensive offices ; there is a court-yard resembling a barrack, where 
the slaves were lodged; the pigeon house contains some thousands of birds. 
Mr. White has devoted his chief attention to the rearing of superior 
English-bred horses, cows, &c. : his famous racer Belgrano has carried off 
numberless honors, and liis half-breds are much in request both as saddle 
and carriage horses. He has expended large siiras in bringing out superior 
animals from England. The farmyard is admirable ; the grounds are 
tastefully laid out. There is a gigautic; ombii tree, in the trunk of which 
one of Mr. White's cow herds has lived for some years past. Mr. White 
possesses a large w heat farm at Chivilcoy. The next quinta is that of the 
family of the late Mr. Patrick M'Lean, and here there is a station, called 
Bivadavia. The line traverses a low ground, skirting the base of a series 
of delightful summer residences, belonging to the wealthy families of 
Barros Pazos, Elia, Laprida, Uriarte, and Cano : some of these are built in 
the best style, with ornamental terraces and gardens in front, and looking 
out over the broad bosom of La Plata. For fantastic effect nothing can 
surpass the Azcuenaga quinta, built in the form of a hexagon, with a 
multitude of windows : it is related of a Gaucho that, on being asked how 
he liked the place, he said — «It was a nice place enough for a man to sleep 
outside of.)) Mr. Azcuenaga is an old bachelor, and was once president of 
the Municipality of Buenos Ayres. 

Point Olivos, the property of Mr. Wineberg, is the best situation along 
the river, and here the town of Belgrano should have been built. The 
barranca comes close to the water's edge, which offers a very suitable 
bathing place, and the point juts out into the river, with a fine view of 
Buenos Ayres southward, and San Fernando and the islands northward. 
Mr. Wineberg, who is a native of Poland, after making some money as a 
dentist in Brazil and Buenos Ayres, purchased the site, which extends back 
as far as the San Isidro highroad, and projected the formation of a town to 
be called « Pueblo Mitre,)) but he asked too much for building lots, and his 



102 KXCURSIOISS BY RAILWAY. 

house has stood here in solitude for some years, surrounded by a vineyard 
and flower garden. Looking from the raihvay carriage over the river the 
traveller obtains a panoramic view in which the thousand ships in the 
roadstead of Buenos Ayres form an interesting feature. The line now 
enters a slight cutting, and we are surrounded by the rich corn fields of 
San Isidro, interspersed with the quintas of Pellon, Uriarte, Pacheco, 
Martinez, and Escalada. We cross the famous Callejon d'Ybailez, a green 
lane leading from the highroad to the river, which was the abode of a gang 
of brigands thirty years ago: numberless robberies and murders Avere 
committed here„ and passengers dreaded to pass the place even in the noon 
day. A deserted ^(pulperia,)) where the robbers held their rendezvous, is 
still seen on the roadside, but has long been uninhabited. There are some 
handsome quintas on the barranca, right of the line, before reaching San 
Isidro, viz.: those of Aguirre, Anchorena, and Vernet: the second was 
built by Mr. Patrick Brown, an old Irish resident ; it had nice grounds, 
summer houses on the cliffs, and an excellent fruit garden. Yernet^s is 
equally beautiful, commanding a boundless view of the river. 

San Isidro is a charming summer residence, about 14 miles from the 
city : waving fields of corn far as the eye can reach, green lanes that remind 
you of some midland counties in England, and lovely quintas with Grecian 
colonnades, Moorish corridors, and rich vegetation all around, make up a 
picture unrivalled on this side of the River Plate. The quintas of Alvear, 
Mackinlay, Elortondo, Tomkinson, and Tbafiez are remarkable for their 
picturesque situation and luxurious style. The town looks ancient, and 
most of the village forefathers sleep in the churchyard at the entrance to 
the chapel of St. Isidore the Laborer, The legend of the foundation of San 
Isidro is thus told — On a summer afternoon in the month of February 1725, 
a Gaucho halted his horse here under the shade of an ombi\, to take siesta, 
and, struck with the beauty of the situation, made a vow to St. Isidore, his 
patron saint, that if ever he came to be a rich man he would build a chapel 
here. He became in time a wealthy estanciero, and kept his word. The 
present church is, however, of a more modern date. There is a pietty good 
inn, kept by Sefior Tiscornia. The public school is newly built, spacious, 
and well-ventilated. From the plaza to the river side there is a shady 
thicket, which is a favorite place for English pic-nics in the fine weather. 
New country houses are being every day built in the neighborhood,' and one 
of the finest is that belonging to an Italian gentleman, close to the railway 
station. General 3Iitre, during his term of ollice, sought relief from the 
cares of state in a quiuta on the river's side, where he passed the summer 
mouths with his family. 



SAN FERSA.1XD0. 103 

Leaving San Isidro, the railway strikes inland and we only get a distant 
view of the quintas along the «barranca.» The iriost notable is the Punta 
Chica, Mr. Brittain's delightful cottage : this is fitted up with the utmost taste 
and luxury ; the gardens are extensive and well stored with all kinds of 
fruit; from the extreme point over the river can be seen the island of 
31artin Garcia and the delta of the Parana. There is a ruin on the 
<(barranca)) from the time of the early Spaniards. 

Corn-fields again intervene till we reach San Fernando (alias Bella Vista, 
from the beauty of its position). The view inland now reveals the first 
glimpses of the wide and open camp, with sheep grazing in the distance. 
The town is at some distance from the river ; it is very irregularly built, 
but has a considerable population, aud promises to become a place of great 
importance, if Mr. Hopkins succeed in his project of making the Capitan 
arroyo the port of Buenos Ayres. There are two very good hotels : the 
National, kept by M. Manet, has good wines and accommodation ; the other 
is called Hotel de France, in the Plaza. A new church is in course of 
construction. There are many fine quintas in the neighbourhood. Saa 
fernaudo owes its existence to an inundation which occurred at Las 
Conchas in 1806, when the parish-priest removed the sanctuary to this 
high ground, and the Viceroy Sobre-moute turned the first sod of San 
Fernando in great solemnity, only a few months before his flight from 
Buenos Ayres, on the English invasion, when he embarked from this 
same place. 

The Northern Railway w as at first intended to stop at San Fernando, and 
the Government guarantee went no further, but the Company afterwards 
resolved to prolong it at their own risk to the Tigre, Avhich offered a 
convenient port for the river steamboats. The Tigre is at all times 
sheltered from rough weather, and while it is often diliicult to embark in 
the roadstead of Buenos Ayres the up-river passenger traffic sustains no 
interruption al the Tigre. 

From San Fernando there is a continual descent towards the swamps of 
the Tigre and Las Conchas. A few houses and ranchos scattered here and 
there, a school-house built on arches, a quinta belonging to3Ir.Arning, and 
some clumps of trees, are met with before reaching the Tigre, which is 
nearly three miles from San Fernando, and 24 from the city. The 
rails run right down to the river, and passengers can at once step on board 
the steamers. Beyond the Tigre we see several splendid country-houses ; 
those of Gonsalez Moreno, Tejedor, Garrigos, and Madero ; tlie last 
resembles a chapel, and cost a large sum of money. At the railway 
station there is an excellent restaurant kept by M. Champion. Since the 



104 EXCURSIONS BY RAILWAY. 

steamers visit the Tigre a number of shops and stores have sprung up. 
The Captain of the Port has a wooden house built on piles. The English 
rowing-club have a boat-house in which they keep their «outriggers,)) an 
exceedingly light craft of which you Avill often see, on Sundays, a dozen 
skimming over the waters of the Lujan, Tigre, and numberless channels of 
the Parana islands. These islands were uninhabited a few years ago, and 
Senor Sarmiento (now President of the Republic) was one of the first to 
appreciate their beauty and fertility : his island, in the Rcculadas stream, 
is a garden teeming with fruit and vegetables, some of the trees planted by 
his own hand. Not far off is another island cultivated by Senator Piilero ; 
but the finest of all is that of M. Brunet, a Frenchman, who has invested 
XI 6,000 sterling in the venture, living himself on the island, and raising 
the finest potatoes for the city market. The traveller will pass a pleasant 
day among these islands, where Nature bestows a luxuriant vegetation, and 
every stream is bordered with willows that droop their branches to the 
water's edge, and the quince trees laden with fruit of enormous size. 
The islanders are mostly Italians or French, some of them gardeners^ 
others charcoal burners, others basket-makers ; they have their huts built 
on poles, to guard against the frequent inundations. The usual charge for 
boats at the Tigre is §30 an hour. There are six trains to and from town 
daily, making the run in about an hour and 20 minutes. 



THE BOCA AND ENSENADA RAILWAY. 

The first concession for this line was granted in favor of M. Lelievre, but 
the works were not commenced till Mr. Wheelwright took the concession 
in hand in 1863, the first sod being turned on Washington's birthday 
(23rd February) of that year. In July following the National Government / 
made a new concession ia favor of Mr. Wheelwright (see page 106 of 
Section A), with a right of monopoly for twenty years, but without any 
guarantee for interest. The line was opened to Barracas, four miles, oa 
September 18, 1865, and a branch was shortly afterwards run down to the 
Boca. It is proposed to prolong this railway to Ensenada, thirty miles 
further south, but the works are suspended for a time owing to a difiiculty 
about the exact point where the line is to cross the Riachuelo. 

This line has been very successful : in 1867 it carried 459,698 passengers, 
producing $63,690 s., of which the working expenses absorbed 60 per 
cent. The nett proceeds gave 6J per cent., on a capital of £80,000 
sterling. 



THE BOCA 105 

The temporary terminus is at tlie foot of Calle Yeaeziiela, below Santo 
Domingo church, but there is in course of erection a splendid iron girder 
viaduct, made in England, ^vhich Avill start from the Custom-house and run 
along the beach to the Yellow House, a distance of more than a mile. This 
Avill be one of the finest works of railway ens-ineering in the Continent : 
the cost of it being £50,000, including the terminus at the Custom-house ; 
it runs at a height of several feet above the highest Santa Kosa flood. At 
various tunes the line suffered much injury and interruption from these 
periodical floods ; but now this inconvenience will be obviated. The 
viaduct will be completed in the beginning of 1870; the weight of the 
structure is estimated at 1 ,000 tons. 

The line runs along the beach called Paseo Colon, where a kind of 
breakwater is formed by a thick plantation of weeping willows. The 
barranca on the right is high and steep : we pass under the city hospital. 
Fair's quinta [for manv years the British Legation), and Lezama's quiuta : 
this last is the finest in Buenos Ayres, covering fifteen acres of ground, laid 
out in the best Italian style, with parterres, hot houses, statuary, bowers, 
and ornamental plantations : the house is also commodious and elegant, with 
rich drawing-rooms, dining hall, chapel, and a mirador 60 feet high : 
visitors can obtain tickets for admission to the gardens, which command 
the best. view in the city. General Urquiza resided here for a short time in 
1860. The site was occupied forty years ago by Mr. 3Iackinlay's quinta. 

The first station is the Yellow House ; here the line crosses tiie highroad 
to the Boca, and enters Jackson's fields. On the right are seen Waterloo 
quiuta, the British Hospital, and the barranca which extends to the Calle 
Buen Orden : this would be an admirable place for a good row of houses 
built in English style, as the position is high and airy. The fields traversed 
by the line are often partly under water, the vicinity of the Boca being 
almost below water level. The view on the right is \ery pretty; the 
quintas of >'orth Barracas peeping out here and there in the midst of a 
dark green foliage. On the left we see the wooden village of the Boca, 
from which rises the din of ship carpenters busy at work, for this is the 
great dockyard of the River Plate. A forest of masts indicates the great 
coasting trade also done here. 

At the junction of the Boca branch with the main line are the company's 
workshops and sheds for rolling stock, besides a turning table : the train 
halts here. There is a great curve on the Boca branch, which winds its 
way through the shanties and dock yards of the Italian ship-wrights. You 
"will see them building schooners on all sides for the coasting and up river 
traffic. The line runs down close to the Riachuelo, where there is a 



106 EXCURSIONS BY RAILWAY. 

wooden station: the passengers are almost exclusively Genoese. Here 
were landed some of the locomotives brought out from England for the 
Central Argentine Railway, but the goods traflic by this way is inconsiderable, 
owing to the difficulty of bringing lighters up the Tliachuelo, and the 
necessity of carting goods at the Venezuela Station till the viaduct be made 
to the Custom-house. 

The trains for Barracas have to run down to the Boca, and then return 
to the main line, which goes straight towards the Barraca de Peiia, on the 
banks of the Riachuelo. We pass Youuger's steam factory for washing 
sheepskins, and the barracas of Temperley and Bunge. The train halts at 
Peila's barraca, to let down or pick up wool brokers or barraqueros : this 
barraca is one of the finest, and does a great business. 

The line now hugs the river side, passing in front of several barracas, 
where the peons are at work loading or discharging produce from schooners 
and lighters, Avhich are moored under the willows. At times the banks are 
strewn Avith fish, poisoned by the saladero liquids, and then the smell is 
insupportable. On the opposite bank are the saladeros. The Riachuelo 
here is about 150 feet wide, the water of a dirty red color, and the bottom 
is such a deposit of mud that sometimes when a man falls into the water he 
never rises to the surface. 

Passing the extensive barraca of Hughes & Peters we reach the Cinco 
Esquinas, situate at the end of the Calle Larga. The stranger should visit 
the Glub, and Marshall's dockyard. From here the line pursues its course 
by tlie former site of Brown's saladero, and then on to the Barracas Bridge, 
the present terminus. 

The trains run from town every hour, and return from Barracas at the 
half hours, making the journey either way in twenty-five minutes. The 
average number of passengers is 1 ,400 daily. 

Wiien the line shall be prolonged towards Ensenada it will cross the 
Riachuelo near the site of the old passenger bridge, pass through the wide 
main street that leads to the Crucecita, leaving Barracas church on the 
right, and crossing the arroyo at the Puente Chico. It will then touch at 
QuilmeSj which will become a favorite suburb when once connected with 
town. There are many nice quintas here, and the farm and plantations of 
Mr. John Clark cover a great extent. , Leaving the cabanas of Latham and 
Benavente on the right, the line will traverse the estancias of Mrs. Yates and 
Don Leonardo Pereyra, then following the route of the telegraph wires 
over a tract of swami)y country, and crossing Mr. Bell's Estancia Chica, it 
will terminate at Ensenada, where Mr. Wheelwright projects to form the 
port cf Buenos Ayres, as it was under the early Spaniards till the mouth 



WESTERN RAILWAY. 107 

became impeded with sand. The distance from Buenos Ayres to Ensenada 
is thirty-three miles. 



THE WESTERN — TO CUIVILCOY. 

This was the first railway constructed in the Biver Plate ; it was got up 

entirely by local capitalists, the contractor being Mr. Bragg ; the first sod 

w as turned at the Plaza Parque, in presence of the civil and ecclesiastical 

authorities, on the feast of Santa Bosa (August 30th) 1857. It was opened 

to Flores, 6 miles, in the following year; to Moron, in 1859; and to 

Moreno, 25 miles, in 1861. The enterprise proved unsatisfactory to the 

shareholders, and after some dissension the line was purchased by the 

Government of Buenos Ayres for $20,000,000m,fc (£160,000) with the view 

of prolonging it to the western districts. The Provincial Bank, was 

authorized by the Legislature to advance 44,000,000 for the prolongation 

to Mercedes, 37 miles beyond Moreno, and subsequently 1 5,000,000 for the 

section to Chivilcoy, in all 100 miles from town : the total cost has been 

82,500,000 (including a sum produced by sale of public lands) or about 

£660,000 sterling, equal to £6,600 a mile. The line was inaugurated for 

traffic to Chivilcoy on September 17th, 1866, on which occasion the 

Government struck a medal with the inscription «Western railway to 

Chivilcoy, 100 miles, constructed entirely by native resources.)) The line 

traverses the best sheepfarming districts in the country, and does a gieat 

business in goods and passengers. The ollicial returns for 1866 and 1867 

are as follows : — * 

1866. 1867. 

Number of passengers, 368,651 472,627 

Gross receipts, goods & passengers, 12,685,499 .... 16,18i,656 

"Working expenses, .... 57 p. cent 65 p. cent. 

Nett profit on capital, d} 7^ 

The decrease of profits in the latter year was owing to a reduction of 
25 per cent in the fares, which are cheaper than on any other line. Tlie 
amount remaining due to the Bank, on April 30th 1868, was $59,000,000ra^. 
The construction of telegraph wires to Chivilcoy cost £6,200, equal to £62 
per mile. The line is on Barlow rails from town to Mercedes, and Griffin's 
rails from Mercedes to Chivilcoy : at special places there are Krupp's or 
Greaves's steel rails, also Viguoles and double-headed rails. The 
terminus has been recently supplied with a powerful fire-engine worked 
by steam power, with a hose some hundreds of yards in length. 



108 EXCURSIO.XS BY RAILWAY. 

The Parque station is in the Plaza of that name ; the new station now 
building will cover 1800 square yards; the line crosses the Plaza 
diagonally, passing in front of the artillery magazine ; there is a sharp 
curve into the Calle Parque, and here they have employed steel rails. 
Although the Calle Parque is only 40 feet wide and thickly inhabited, no 
accidents occur here ; in fact Buenos Ayres is so fortunate in this respect, 
that our railway mortality does not amount to one person yearly. Leaving 
the new Jesuit college at Calle Callao on' our right, the line makes another 
bend, into Calle Corrientes, down which there is a steady decline till we 
reach the great Avorkshops of the railway. These Avere completed in 18G8 
and comprise a lirst-class establishment for all kinds of railway works : 
tlie various shops of carpenters, blacksmiths, turners, coach-builders, 
painters, &c. are well worth a visit. Further on the spacious goods' 
stores offer an animated picture in the wool season, and have accommodation 
for a large portion of produce of the northern and western sheepfarms : 
the roof is of corrugated Ifou, supported by metal pillars. Passing the 
«mill of the^West)) we get a view of the Once de Setiembre wool-market ; 
this is crowded in the basy season with the (ccarretasw or camp waggons, 
which may be said to navigate the Pampas in all directions. This is the 
first station on the line. 

From Once de Setiembre the line strikes out due west through a series 
of quintas well stocked with fruit-trees. On the left is the Miserere, a 
very ancient place associated with General Whitclock's attack on lUienos 
Ayres. A branch line runs off here towards Barracas, which was made 
with the intention of carrying produce to tlie Riachuelo, but this was 
afterwards abandoned ^it is now used for carrying off the city ordure, 
which is burnt in an adjacent field. Before reaching Almagro station we 
pass the quintas of Bletcher and Gomez on the right, and Billinghurst on 
the left. The station adjoins the grounds of Don Julian Almagro, and is 
2^ miles from the city. At a short distance on the right are the suburban 
residences of Mr. Lumb, Dr. Velez Sarsfield, and the Jesuit fathers. 
There are now two highroads parallel with the line, the Gauna road on the 
right and the Flores road on the left. The latter is lined with quintas 
belonging to Carreras, Valenzuela, Ceballos, Achaval, Amespil, Tarragona, 
Cruz, and Labrue. On the Gauna road is a saladero for killing pigs. 
The meadows about here give abundant hay crops. On a slight eminence 
to the right is Rose-hill, the delightful residence of a leading shipbroker, 
Mr. Boyd: the house is in Grecian style, with principal front looking 
eastward, a row of Australian gum trees forming the avenue from the 
highroad ; the gardens are exceedingly tasteful. On the left is Guerrico's 



FLORES AT^D MORON. 109 

quinta, with a fine grapery leading dovn to the line of railway. The 
quintas of Valle, Luna, Dr. Pardo, and others follow. Dorrego's, on the 
left, has numerous bowers and statues ; on the right is the quinta of Don 
IXorberto Riestra. 

Flores is a pleasant little place in the summer time. Observe the quinta 
of Sefior Del Pont, fronting the station, and three or four others, almost as 
pretty, hard by. The church and public school are on the left. The 
village contains about 1,000 inhabitants (see page 88 of Section B). To the 
right the view stretches away towards the Pampa; on the left we pass the 
Olivera and Letamendi quintas, and approaching l*loresta is that of Sefior 
Ximenez, an estanciero of Corrientes, who essayed cotton planting in 1863, 
on the river Balel. On the right is a strange looking wooden structure, 
built for a hotel when this was the terminus of the line ; and now we pass 
through a number of chacras under grain, till reaching the station of San 
Martin. The village of this name lies to the right, not far from the battle- 
field of Monte Caseros, where Rosas was overthrown in 1852. The branch 
railway from Floresta to the Luxan river will take this route. Near the 
San Martin station is a nursery belonging to Don Eduardo Madero, under 
the care of a French gardener: after which we see the charming country- 
houses of Don Juan Madero and the brothers Exequiel and 3Iatias Ramos 
Mejia. To the left is the river of Matanzas, so called from a dreadful 
slaughter (matanza) of Indians made here by the founder of Buenos Ayres, 
Don Juan de Garay, for which the King of Spain gave him a grant of three 
square leagues of laud on the northern bank of the river : this grant is at 
present in the hands of the Ramos-Mejia family. Crossing the lands of 
Segurola, Mendez, and Rubio, we leave on the left the village of San Justo, 
and next traverse the properties of Villegas, Pefia and Puyrredon. The 
highroad to the northern camps strikes off on the right towards the Puente 
de Marquez, a place associated with some bloody battles in the civil wars. 

Before reaching Moron our notice is attracted by a pretty American farm- 
house, called Ohio Park, the country-seat of Mr. Coffin ; the house is of 
two stories with pointed gables, and surrounded by gardens and meadows. 
Moron is situate on a high ground and considered a healthy summer 
residence; it has some fine houses, a parish church, public promenade, 
theatre, hotel, and about forty dry goods and grocers' stores. Horses or 
carriages may be hired here to make excursions to any of the neighboring 
estancias. In summer time there is a Club which gives balls on Sunday 
evenings, and these are attended by the townfolk and many ladies and 
gentlemen from the city. We now get a view of the campagna stretching 
away on all sides to the horizon, save where the prospect is relieved by aa 



110 EXCURSIONS BY RAILWAY. 

estancia-house surrounded by a «monte» or peach plantation. On the 
right are those of Gonsalez and Pellon, and the left Pearson and Dillon ; 
the last named is Justice of the Peace for Merlo, and descended of a 
respectable Irish family that was banished in the rebellion of 1798. The 
village of Merlo is a straggling place, with a scanty population and a little 
Gothic church : the 'public-school is half-way between the station and the 
village, and near it is an English-built house, formerly belonging to Mr. 
Boyd. Many of the houses are in ruins, and the doors still painted red, a 
souvenir of the time of Rosas. The finest estancia in the neighbourhood 
is that of Mr. Thomas Gahan,a wealthy Irish sheepfarmer. Seilor Carranza 
has also a well cultivated chacra. The branch railway to Lobos will start 
from near Merlo. We now cross the river Las Conchas : on the left is 
Castagno's flour mill, and adjacent are meadow farms belonging to some 
industrious Frenchmen. Alcorta's «cabafia)) of fine sheep is on the left, 
with a tasteful house and plantations, and further west is the valuable 
estancia of Mr. Wyatt Smith, a favorite visiting place for strangers who wish 
to have an insight of camp-life. 

Moreno is distant 25 miles from the city, and was a place of some 
importance before the prolongation of the line ; it has a population of a 
few hundred souls, with a hotel, a dozen shops, a large plaza, and a church : 
at the western corner of the Plaza is a curious unfinished structure, with a 
wmirador)) three stories high ; this was the work of a Trenchraan who was 
employed to build the church, and who died before finishing either the 
church or his house. Horses may be hired at the hotel Labastie. The only 
cutting on the line is after leaving Moreno, and even this is insignificant : 
probably there never was a railroad easier constructed than this, the work 
simply being to lay down the rails on the turf, which is so level that Ki\ 
Allen assures us the incline sometimes in ten miles does not exceed that 
number of inches. We are now fairly launched on the broad bosom of the 
Pampa, and if you wish to feast your eyes on the glorious expanse that has 
no limit for a thousand miles, you should ask permission to accompany the 
engine-driver, who hurries along at 30 miles an hour, speeding onward 
towards the Indian territory, with the motto of his locomotive (d'm off to 
Chile !» There is a peculiar sense of buoyancy and freedom in careering 
over these boundless prairies, and the eye of tiie political economist is 
cheered by the signs of thriving pastoral industry on all sides. Most of 
the sheepfarmers are Irishmen, some of them owners of large tracts of 
, land and numerous fiocks of sheep ; others are poor «puesteros» following 
their fiocks on horseback, while the children run out from the mud raucho 
to gaze at the train as it passes. The humblest hut of an Irishman is 



LUXAK A1\D MERCEDES. Ill 

distinguishable from those of natives, by its having a chimney and a ladder, 
the latter being used as a look-out for the sheep. On the right is Robert 
Kelly's estancia, after -VNhich we cross the Arroyo Sauce and a «cauada)> 
or hollow, called Bajo-hondo. To the left are the estancias of Edward 
Dillon and Owen Lynch : the latter made his money in the city at his trade 
of saddler. The Alvares estancia covers a large area, and we cross the 
arroyos Durazno and La Choza, the latter of which rises some leagues 
higher up, in the estancia of >fr. Patrick Maguire. The Rodriguez station 
is on the site of an intended town, which at present counts seven houses : 
it was marked out by Governor Saavedra, who directed that the church 
when built should be dedicated to St. Patrick, as most of the neighbors 
are from the green isle of Erin. Crossing the (ccanada)) of San Antonio we 
skirt the Irigoyen estancia ; the house has a chapel and large chacra 
attached. The confluence of La Choza and Arias arroyos is near another 
large Irish settlement, comprising the rich estancias of Peter Ham, John 
Brown, Kelly, Casey, and others, after which we get sight of the 
Villa de Luxan. 

Luxan is one of the prettiest and most interesting towns in the camp, and 
distant forty-three miles from the city. It derives its name from a Spanish 
officer killed in an encounter with the Indians on the bank of the river that 
flows by here. The church of Lux.an has long been a pilgrimage for people 
from all parts of South America, and the shrine of the Virgin is richly 
decorated with votive offerings. The Cabildo stands in the plaza, around 
Avhich are several good shops. There is an Irish priest resident here. The 
public schools are worthy of a visit. An omnibus plies between the station 
and the town, and if the traveller wish to see some of the Irish estancias he 
will find horses for hire. On Sunday mornings the town is crowded with 
Irishmen coming in to Mass, and one or other of the richer estancieros will 
always invite a respectable stranger to dine wtth him at his estancia. From 
Luxan the line runs almost parallel with the Luxan river, but in opposite 
directions, nearly the whole way to Mercedes. Crossing a small arroyo 
Ave pass the estancias of Romero, Gutierrez, Maxwell, Burke, and Real on 
the left, and Gonsalez, INavarro, and Achaval on the right. We now enter 
on the large Olivera e'stancia, where there is a midway station between 
Luxan and Mercedes. The estancia Ruiz intervenes before passing the 
Arrovo Balta, v,hich is spanned by an. iron bridge sixty feet long, after 
which we leave the estancias of Yivar, Garaghan, and Connor on the left, 
and those of Dr. and !Sicolas Lowe on the right. 

Mercedes is visible at a considerable distance, or at least the chacrasand 
quintas which surround it, for nothing of the town itself can be seen till 



112 EXCURSIONS BY RAILWAY. 

we have travelled a couple of miles through shady peach orchards. The 
railway station is superb, and has an excellent «buffet.)) The city, for 
such is its official title, is a mile distant, and omnibuses meet every train. 
The church and new town hall are handsome buildings, and there arc about 
5,000 inhabitants: an Irish priest resides here. The best shop is that of 
Messrs. Torroba Brothers, where strangers will find any information they 
may require. Tliere are two good inns, and horses or carriages may be 
hired for excursions. This town, like Luxan, is a great centre of Irish 
sheepfarmers, who possess several valuable estancias in the partido. It is 
distant sixty miles from Buenos Ayres, and the trip is made in tiiree hours 
and a-half. The Luxan river flows N.W. of the town. As we leave 
Mercedes, the cemetery is on our left, and we again traverse a number of 
quintas, crossing the Luxan river below the Frias estancia, beyond which 
we see a large flour mill. On the left we pass a wooden cross in the centre 
of a fenced field : this marks the scene of a dreadful battle with the Indians 
some forty years ago, in which the savages were victorious, and here are 
interred the unfortunate frontier troops who were cut to pieces. On the 
right we see the electric telegraph wires that start hence for Rosario, 
passing through San ISicolas and some intermediate villages. The river 
Luxan still runs parallel, and on the right are the estanci^'s of Barrancos 
and Unzue, on tlie left Sanchez and Aranguren. A little further we find 
some more wealthy Irish farmers; Michael Murray, John Dillon, and 
Edward Martin : the camps about here begin to descend. On the right is 
the confluence of three arroyos, named Cardo, Durazao, and Leones; 
beyond these are several lagoons and a little eminence called Cerrillo de 
Leones. A few years ago this was Indian territory, and as yet there are 
few peach mounts or plantations. The solitary ombu stands out, at 
intervals, in bold relief on the horizon : this tree is Avorthless even for 
firewood, the timber being exactly like a rotten cabbage-stalk, but it is 
most valuable as a landmark in the Pampas, and the coolness of its shade is 
exceedingly grateful to the wearied traveller. Travelling across these 
plains bears some resemblance to a journey in Egvpt: when the plain 
is at all dusty and the sun shines brightly, a perfect «miragei) is 
created. You fancy you see a lake or river, and the rettectipn of trees in 
the water: the picture recedes from you as von advance, the lake never 
had existence, and the tree is only a shrub a few inches high. Another 
effect of the mirage is to confuse distances : two houses are in sight, and 
you make for the nearest, but you find it double the distance of the other. - 
The size of objects is also strangely magnified, and a small whitewashed 
cottage appears a large and stately mansion. It often happens at daybreak 



FREYRE TO CHIVILCOY. 113 

that an estancia becomes distinctly visible to the naked eye, although so 
much beyond the horizon as not to be properly visible even through a 
telescope. Yonder flock of sheep, by another optical delusion, exactly 
resembles a long stone wall. In spring these plains are covered with 
thistles 10 feet high, so thick that ahorseman cannot make his way through 
them. Sometimes there are dreadful camp fires, accidentally caused by 
throwing the remains of a lighted cigar among the thistles. 3Iessrs. Van 
de Velde of Buenos Ayres, and others, have invented machines for mowing 
down these thistles. 

The estancias of Laurence Kelly, Mrs. Kenny, and James Maguire are 
seen on the left, before reaching Freyre. This station is close to the 
estancia-house of an old Spanish family of the same name: old Senor 
Freyre died last year, very wealthy, and his death-sickness was said to be 
caused by vexation at having 200 sheep killed by the train. It is found 
expedient not to fence the railways in thi| country, but rather leave the 
sides open, for cattle to scamper off on either side when the train 
approaches. When a cow or sheep, however, is run over, the iron fender 
in front of the locomotive quietly throws the dead animal off. At Frevre 
station there is a sagacious mule employed in turning the wheel of the 
water-tank, and whenever he hears the approach of the train lie goes to 
work of his own accord. As we traverse the Barrancos estancia the line 
steadily declines towards Las Saladas, a stream or rather swamp, which has 
its origin in the Encadenadas lakes some distance to the north, near the 
estancias of Thomas Carney and Michael Allen. In wet seasons this 
swamp is very much flooded, and the first railway bridge put across tlie 
Saladas Avas partly carried away : this caused Mr. Allen, the engineer, to 
invent two supplementary bridges instead of earthworks, which he 
constructed of two railway bars placed one on the other, leaving free 
passage beneath for the flood. The total bridge now measures 150 feet 
across. Ten leagues loMer down, to the left. Las Saladas falls into the 
River Salado, not far from the fine estancia of Mr. John Smith, the well- 
known broker. We now enter the grfeat estancia of Dr. Gorostiaga, Finance 
Blinister ; it comprises nine square leagues of land, forming four distinct 
establishments, viz., San Jose, San Bernardo, San Patricio, and Santa 
Trinidad, each of which has a lagoon of the same name, an estancia house 
and plantation, and a quantity of farming stock : the chief estancia house 
is far on the right, with a large peach-mount ; the stock of the Gorostiaga 
estancia numbers 10,000 cows and 60,000 sheep. The station at this point 
is midway between Freyre and Ghivilcoy. The land is still low, and as we 
pass Cerrito Averias we get a view of the «chacras)) and plantations of the 
town of Ghivilcoy. 



114 EXCURSIONS BY RAILWAY. 

Chivilcoy, the temporary terminus of the Western line, is 100 miles from 
Buenos Ay res, and is the great agricultural district of the province : it had 
long been the dream of Don Domingo Sarmiento, now President of the 
Republic, and, in the 14 years since its foundation, the progress of the 
place has been rapid and prosperous. Abundant crops of grain and 
potatoes are raised liere, but previous to the railway reaching Chivilcoy 
(September 1866) the farmers had no market for their Indian-corn and were 
obliged to burn it for fuel in making bricks. The «cliacras)) cover a great 
extent of ground, and are famous for excellent peaches. The streets are 
■wide, and many houses are of two stories. There is a first-rate club and 
reading-room; also a handsome school-house. The plaza is 200 yards on 
each side. At Messrs. Torroba, Standard agents, the stranger can procure 
any necessary information. The train takes 5f hours to make tlie journey 
from town : there are two trains daily each way. 

The line is being prolongec^toBragado, 25 miles further west, for which 
purpose the Legislature of Buenos Ay res recently voted an emission of 
6 per cent, bonds. The route will traverse the achacras)) of Chivilcoy,, 
cross the Arroyo Hinojo and San Antonio, then through Mr. Wliite's large 
■wheat farm down to the Rio Salado. Tliis river is crossed in 35 degrees S. 
lat., and just 2 degrees of longitude W. of Buenos Ayres. The estancias 
of the Cranwell family and of Biaus intervene before reaching the lagoons 
of Bragado-grande and Cassio. Then there is a «loma)) or gentle rise, 
and on the far side lies the frontier town of Bragado, near the Saladillo 
lagoon. 



THE SOUTHERK — TO CHASCOMUS. 

Tlie first sod was turned on March 8th, 1864, by President 3Iitre, and the 
line was completed to Chascomus in December 1865, the distance being 
72^ miles, and the cost £725,000. The contractors, Messrs. Peto & Betts, 
adopted the Barlow rail, and the construction of the road, the rolling-stock, 
&c. are highly creditable. The line may be considered very successful, 
from the following official returns : 

1866. 1867. 



Number of passengers, .... 210,878 

Gross receipts, .... .... 7,790,231 

Working expenses, .... 63^ p. cent. 

Goods traffic (arrobas), .... 1,293,799 

Deficit paid by Government, 3,778,667 



407,410 

10,447,873 

5Hf p. cent. 

2,117,794 

1,696,722 



LOMAS DE ZAMORRA. 11$ 

Thus it will be seen that the "working expenses diminished, while the 
nett proceeds increased, from 2| in 1866 to over 5 per cent in 1867. The 
prolongation to Dolores is indefinitely postponed. 

There is a tramway connecting the Plaza Gonstitucion terminus with the 
city ; at present it stops in Calle Lima, but it will be prolonged to the 
Custom-house. The terminus has every accommodation for passengers and 
goods, the sheds affording ample storage for wool. The line leaves the 
Convalecencia on the right, and Langdon's and Saenz- Valiente's quiutas on 
the left, after which there is a rapid decline towards Barracas, while 
the view takes in a varied landscape of country-houses and gardens, with 
the Boca in the distance. The station of North Barracas is close to 
Pereyra's sahlflero, in the midst of a little colony of industrious Basques. 
The Riachuelo is crossed by a great iron girder bridge, supported by six 
cylinders, and having a span of 52 yards : the cylinders are sunk 60 feet^ 
and the bed of the stream is so slimy that some of them stand in .32 feet of 
mud; each cylinder was tested with a weight of 125 tons of rails: the 
bridge was made in England by Messrs. Bridgeworth, and is a noble work. 
On the south bank of the Eiachuelo are the Company's workshops ; that for 
repairing locomotives and doing other iron works has room for a dozen 
large forges, with flues of massive brickwork ; the shed for mending 
carriages is equally spacious, and has a turning-table ; then follow two 
large depots, for carriages and engines. The station of South Barracas is 
at some distance from the village : we see the church towers on the left, 
as we traverse a region of kitchen-gardens to Lanuz station, and then speed 
away towards the picturesque thickets of 

Lomas de Zamorra : there are several pretty quintas in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Lomas, and among the contributors to the village church 
were Messrs. Peto & Betts and some other Protestant friends. It Avouldbe 
difficult tofiud in the environs of Buenos Ayres a more delightful place for 
country-houses than hereabout. The air is peculiarly fresh and invigorating 
the ground high and dry, the plantations affordiug agreeable shade, and 
forming green lanes lined with poplars. Mr. Temperley's quinta is the 
most charming that can be imagined, being finished in the best English 
style, with handsome grounds, through which the railway runs. This 
property acquired great value by the line, and Mr. Temperley sold a part 
of his wchacra)) in building lots for country-houses. Messrs. Green, 
Drabble, Grigg, and others, have lands near the line. The Lomas station 
is exceedingly neat : it may be mentioned here that the stations on the line 
cost the sum of £64,000. Mr. Temperley's house is a little way beyond 
the station, on the right, and opposite to it is Mr. Livingstone's 

X2 



116 EXCURSIOIfS BY RAILWAY. 

«rus-in-urbe» with a neat summer house. Emerging from the woods of 
Zamorra we get a view of the open camp, the eye taking in on the right a 
faint glimpse of the far-famed Santa Catalina, and on the left the shrubbery 
of Mrs. Kidd's rustic hotel. Santa Catalina was the site of Eobertson's 
Scotch colony, 1826, and has the finest plantations in Buenos Ayres. Mr. 
Fair projected a branch-line from the Lomas to his estancia of Monte 
Grande, via Santa Catalina, but it has not much prospect of being realized. 
Next we come on the grounds of Don Roque Correa covered with peach 
and paradise trees, and then on the Hunt property, after which there are 
some large grain «chacras,)) belonging to Bell, Boyd, and others, including 
an industrious native farmer. 

Excellent fresh butter is sent into town from the next Itation, which is 
called Bursaco. There are some fine estaucias within easy reach of 
Bursaco station ; those of Robson, Young, Brown, and Boyd ; and near the 
Conchitas river is Santo Domingo, the property of 3Ir. Davidson. The line 
of railway is as straight as an arrow. 

In a few minutes we reach Mr. Glow's estancia : the farm house is 
surrounded by a peach mount, and close at hand is the Glow station. Up 
to this point the country wears a lovely aspect ; smiling gardens, thickets of 
peach trees, and fields full of golden promise ; but henceforth the landscape 
grows dull and uninteresting. Leaving Glow's estancia on the right, and 
Ojeda's and Gowland's on the left, Ave begin to enter on what maybe called 
the fens of Buenos Ayres, a low-lying country of lagoons and «banados.>» 
We are now close to San Vicente, those two ombii trees being only a league 
from that village. 

San Vicente station is reached in two hours from Buenos Ayres, and a 
diligence plies to the neighboring town. As the line pushes on to 
Donselaar, we pass the widow Campos's estancia, a snug farm-house, and 
further on Mrs. Flora Lavalle's ; the land about here is verj low : Ave cross 
the Arroyos Campos and Donselaar by small iron bridges. The estaucias of 
Donselaar and Ereers are on the left, and not far off is the splendid German 
model-farm of Oldendorff vfe Co. : this is Avorthy of a visit, being unrivalled 
in the River Plate ; the grain farms, raeadoAV lands, fences, farm yard, and 
sheds are admirable of their kind, and there is a fine breed of horses from 
the King of >Vurtemburg's stables. President Sarmiento visited this farm 
lately and complimented Mr. Oldendorff as «the first German in the lUver 
Plate.)) We next cross the estancia Godoy, and on the right is a large estate 
belonging to Mr. George Bell. Not far off is the property of a thrifty 
Scotchman, Mr. MacFarquhar, and then folloAVs that of Senor Udaquiola. 
On the left is Mr. Temperley's estancia, and then come those of Wilkie and 



SATfBOROMBOIV. 117 

Faulkes ; the latter is a valuable property, which the OTfner (an old 
Englishman) fenced in at great expense. To the right of the line lies the 
estancia of the late Mr. Harratt, who was one of the first settlers that 
imported fine sheep from Europe, about thirty years ago. The estancia 
of the late Bryan Thorp is some distance on the right. 

■Sauborombon is famous for its great iron yiaduct, 900 feet long, 
supported by fifteen solid buttresses of masonry, the bricks for which were 
made by the Company, near Ferrari station. The whole country hereabout 
is sin impassable swamp in winter, and in summer it is usually dry, and 
swarming with grasshoppers : as many as a dozen people usually lost their 
lives every winter in attempting to cross the Sanborombon. This immense 
«cauada» or valley extends for thirty leagues down to the coast of the 
River Plate, and in its vicinity there are some fine estancias, including 
those of Bell, Buchanan, Graham, Plowes, Brown, and Newton. The last 
named family possesses a great quantity of real estate in the province. 
There is nothing of interest till we reach Ferrari, and a little beyond this 
is Jeppener station, so called from a German estanciero who is lord of the 
soil ; an ineffectual attempt was made to establish a town here, but there 
is a very good English hotel, and numbers of diligences ply hither from all 
the southern districts. Near Jeppener station is the estancia of Los 
Gaipones, the residence of Mr. Welchman: the Jockey Club holds races 
here at intervals. A little further we come to the Wild bridge, which was 
singularly unfortunate during the building of the line; no fewer than 
three bridges to cross the «arroyo)) were lost in the Atlantic, coming out 
from England, and this is the fourth. Mr. AVild has a comfortable farm- 
house on the left : further on is Mr. Cowan's estancia, and now we approach 
the Altamirano station : a diligence here takes passengers for Ranchos. On 
the right are the estancias of the Alegre family. Next comes that of 
Seilor Gorrea. 

The Gandara station is on the fine estate of the same name ; the late Mr. 
Gandara w as an industrious old Spaniard, and his family still reside here ; 
they have a «graseria» for melting down sheep, close to the station. The 
estancia extends on either side of the line ; the house, surrounded by a 
large «monte,)) is seen about two miles distant on the left. Near the 
Yitel (daguia)) are the Twaites estancias. Passing the lands of Figuerroa 
we traverse a series of wchacras,)) and come in sight of Chascomus. We 
have now travelled over 70 miles from town,* and it will be remarked that 
we have hardly seen an Irishman along the route. The foreign population 
is not at all so thick as in the north and west, but there are some English, 
Scotch, and German establishments of the first order. In the wool season 



1 ij^ { EXCURSIOxNS BY RAILWAY. 

of 1868 the wools from the south fetched the highest prices, being 
considered cleaner and better than from any other districts. 

Chascomus is a thriving place, situated on the side of a large lake. The 
railway terminus is a handsome building, and there is a good hotel kept by 
Mr. Dcvitt, besides Sefior Titon's inn. The church, public schools, plaza, 
and a quinta built by Mr. Crawford on the edge of the lake, are worthy of 
mention ; besides the well-furnished shops of Auld & Pettygrew, Standard'^''- 
agents, and King & Co. There is a resident Scotch clergyman, Rev. Mr. ' 
Tergusson. A resident Irish clergyman has also been recently appointed 
here, the Rev. Mr. Mullady. A telegraph wire connects the town 
with Buenos Ayres and Montevideo. There are three trains to and from 
town daily, making the journey in. five hours. 

The projected prolongation to Dolores, for which the Government also 
offers a guarantee of 7 per cent., would open up many rich farming districts. 
The line would cross the estancia of Don Juan N. Fernandez, and pass by 
several lagoons, then touch at Lacombe's of Chischis ; after traversing the 
estancia of Don Gregorio Lezama, it would cross the Rio Salado at Paso ! 
Villar. This is the chief engineering obstacle on the route. The line 
Would next cross the estancias of Alzaga, Alvarez, Botet, Cordoba, Piilero, 
Madariaga, and Peredo, before reaching Dolores. This town is the great 
market of the south, and a place of much importance : it is about 50 miles 
trom Chascomus, and diligences ply between the towns, but the roads in 
winter are rather unpleasant for travelling. 

There is another project to prolong the line towards Azul, but nothing 
positive has yet been arrived at, and it is probable that for some years the 
line will go no further than Chascomus. 



TARIFF, TAXES, AHD REGULATIONS. 



119 



CHAP. X. 



TARIFFS, TAXES, REGULATIONS. 



PROVIICCIAL STAMPED PAPER. 

Art. 1. The stamps to be used in all Provincial docuraents in Buenos 
Ayres (the Custom-house and Federal Courts being national, for which see 
page 179, Section A), shall be as follows 

Amount. 



$100 


to 


$3,000 


3,001 


do.. 


5,000 


5,001 


do., 


10,000 


10,001 


do.. 


20,000 


20,001 


do., 


30,000 


30,001 


do., 


40,000 


40,001 


do., 


50.000 


50,001 


do.. 


60,000 


60,001 


do.. 


70,000 


70,001 


do.. 


80,000 


80,001 


do.. 


90,000 


90,001 


do.. 


100,000 


100,001 


do., 


150,000 


150,001 


do.. 


200,000 


200,001 


do.. 


250,000 


250,001 


do., 


300,000 


300,001 


do., 


400,000 


400,001 


do;, 


500,000 



Not OTer 90 days. 


Over 90 days. 


$3 .. 


. 8- 


5 


10 


10 


15 


20 


30 


30 


45 


40 


60 


50 


75 


60 


90 


70 


105 


80 


120 


90 


135 


100 


150 


150 


225 


200 


300 


250 


375 


300 


450 


400 


600 


500 


750 



and so on in proportion. 



120 TARIFFS AlfD TAXES. 

Art. 2. All bills of exchange, promissory notes, &c., whether in Buenos^ 
Ayres currency or other money, shall have stamps as in the foregoing^ 
scale. 

Art. 3. All contracts for sale of houses or lands, or goods, and all 
monetary transactions for stated periods, either with or Avithout a broker, 
shall be on stamped paper, but the first draft may be on plain paper. 

Art. 4. Police contracts, such as for apprentices, servants,, or orphans, 
shall have a ^3 stamp ; and the same for each page of a petition to any of 
the public authorities; also each page of an arbitration, notary's docu- 
ments, (fee. 

Art. 5. A copy certificate of birth, marriage, or death, a license for the 
inner provinces, and each page of a valuator's report, shall have a ^^ 
stamp. 

Art. 6. A copy of special power of attorney, protest of a bill, or other 
registered document in a notary's oflice shall have a ^10 stamp ; the same 
for a wguia)) for cattle, and «boletos)) of measurement from the Topographic 
Department; also for each page of a contract with amount not expressed. 

Art. 7. Documents for sale of furniture or real estate, and promises to 
pay, either with or without mortgage,- shall have the proper stamp as iii 
Art. 1. Notary's certificates shall be on g3 stamp. 

Art. 8. Certificates of registered contracts shall likewise be on g 3 stamp. 

Art. 9. Copies of such documents as specified in Arts. 6 and 7, executed 
before 1862, shall have stamp as in Art. 1 on the first page, and. $3 on 
following pages. 

Art. 10. Each page of a land measurement, general power of attorney 
or draft of a will, g20. 

Art. 11. Despatches of promotion, license on coming of, age, or for 
fowling, the first page of a will, all petitions to Government or the law 
courts for measurement of frontier lands or beyond the Sala(Jo, orto the 
Topographic Department for delineations in the city. Outside the area of 
Calles Corrientes, Belgrano, Piedras, Esmeralda, Defensa, and Julio, shall 
have a 3100 stamp; but petitions to' the Department for renewal of doors 
and windows" shall only pay ^30. 

Art. 12. Petitions for measurement within the Salado aud the frontier, 
copies of plans from the Department, professional diplomas, and seals to 
wills, §200. 

Art. 13. Petitions for professional matriculation, for delineation of house 
property within the area mentioned* in Art. 1 1 shall pay §500, bat renewal 
of doors and windows only $100. 

Art. 14. Boletos for new marks, $500; copy or transfer of marks, §100. 



PATENT TJlX* 121 

Art. 15. Receipts may be given on plain paper, but if placed in evidence 
require a $3 stamp. 

Art. 16. The party presenting the documents or originating proceedings 
shall pay the stamp. 

Art. 17. Judges or authorities may use plain paper, j7ro tern.. 

Art. 18. Ko public employee shall admit a document not properly 
stamped. 

Art. 19. Any party giving or recei\ing a document not properly stamped 
shall incur a fine of tenfold the proper stamp ; notaries shall suffer the 
same fine, and for a second offence suspension. 

Art. 20. In cases of doubt the proper authority shall decide the amount of 
stamp, without appeal. 

Art. 2 1 . In January each year all unused stamps may be exchanged. 

Art. 22. Spoiled stamps may be likewise exchanged at any time, paying 
$1 each. 

Art. 23. Contracts for a monthly sum shall .pay half the stamp of the 
amount for the whole term. 

LAW OF LICE:^SES or PATEiSTS (1869). 

Art. 1. The yarious trades and professions are divided into eleven 
categories, for the payment of Patents for 1369, as follows : — 

Category 1 . First class, $50,000 ; second class, $25,000 ; third class, 
$15,000. This category comprises banks, gas company, and houses 
exclusively occupied in discounting. 

Category 1. First class, $12,000; second class, $8,000; third class, 
$5,000. This category comprises houses of importation and 
consignment, whether they keep goods in Custom-house deposit 
or have private stores, or receive goods despatched direct ; it also 
includes saladeros, houses that export produce, insurance companies, 
and agencies of every kind. 

Category 3. First class, $8,000; second class, $5,000; third class, 
$3,000. This category comprises mills, wholesale shojis of eveiy 
kind, hqtels, public lodging houses, markets, and travelling huxters 
who sell liquor. 

Category 4. First class, $5,000; second class, $3,000; third class, 
$2,000. This category comprises private hospitals, undertakers, 
graserias, drug stores, jewellery shops, clothing marts, theatres, 
auction marts, steamboat agencies, and bazaars for the sale of articles 
of luxury. 



122 TARIFFS AND TAXES. 

Category 5. First class, g3,000; second class, §2,000; third class, 
§1 ,500. This category includes shops or stores by Avholesale and 
retail, wine merchants, furniture marts, newspaper offices, con- 
signees of produce and cattle from the country, breweries, carriage 
builders, auctioneers, coal and timber yards, billiard manufacturers 
or retailers. 

Category 6. First class, g2,500; second class, ^1,500; third class, 
^1,000. This category comprises ship brokers, produce barracas 
with presses, coach yards, waggon factories, machine depots, ship 
chandlers, shipbuilding yards, fondas, taverns, and coffee houses. 

Category 7. First class, §2,000; secondclass, $1,000; third class, §700; 
fourth class, §500. This category comprises photographers, dentists, 
retail shops for dry goods and groceries, gunsmiths, upholsteries, lamp 
shops, saddleries, factories of soap, chocolate, tiles, oil, macaroni, 
&c., and tan yards ; also shops of hardware, musical instruments, 
pictures and mirrors, printing offices, public gardens, confectionary 
shops, ready-made clothing shops, military outfitters, agencies of all 
kinds, millinery shops, distilleries, piano stores, foundries, cigar 
shops, whaleboat offices, barracas without presses, and all lottery 
vendors who are not invalids or above 60 years of age. 

Category 8. First class, §1,000. This category comprises lawyers, 
physicians, surgeons, notaries public, accountants, architects, and 
master builders. 

Category 9. First class, §800; second class, §500; third class, §300. 
This category includes land surveyors, haberdashers, apothecaries, 
watchmakers, silversmiths, hatters, shoemakers, tinsmiths, cuttlers, 
■ ' ■; coopers, combmakers, blacksmiths, carpenters, dyers, stone cutters, 
chair makers, house painters, guitar makers, huxters, sail makers, 
mattrass makers, charcoal sellers, attorneys, brokers, midwives, 
sewing machine workers, lace makers, coffin makers, baling presses, 
plumbers, turners, hair dressers, bakers, livery stables, peep shows, 
broom and basket makers, booksellers, window blind makers, coach 
offices, tinkers, laundries, chiropodists, opticians, &c. 

Category 10. First class §450. This category comprisee weighers, 
measurers, pilots, bleeders, veterinary surgeons, engravers^ 
painters, paper and bell-hangers. 

Category {{. Tvcsl class, 300§. This category comprises organ 
grinders, fiddlers, fan-makers, book-binders, huxters, piano-tuners, 
clothes cleaners, stucco-workers, and all others not specified in any 
of the above categories. 



PATE5T TAX. 



123 



Art. 2. The tariff shall be one-half in the country districts, excepting all 
saladeros, graserias, and steam-factories -within two leagues of the 
municipal boundary of the city. 

Art. 3. The assessment of the amount of Patent according to the 
classification of the various industries as above, shall be done by a 
committee appointed in each town by the Executive. 

Art. 4. When one house comprises different branches the committee 
shall assess that which pays the highest Patente: if there be separate 
doors for such branches of business, they shall assess the highest Patente 
and half that which answers to the lower branch. 

Art. 5. From article 3 are excepted the following, all which pay 1st. 
class in their respective categories — Gas Company, travelling huxters, 
pedlars, dentists, lottery-vendors, attorneys, brokers, midwives, chiro- 
podists. Except also land-surveyors, and these shall pay the 2ud class in 
their respective category. 

Art. 6. The committee for assessing Patentes shall classify the various 
shop-keepers, &c. and deliver to each a ticket expressing how much they 
have to pay. 

Art. 7. Parties who may not have received such ticket can apply to the 
committee within eight days after the classification. In case of disagree- 
ment about the amount payable the interested party may appeal within 
thirty days to a jury composed of fire members, whose decision shall admit 
of no appeal. 

Art. 8. There shall be two juries in the city of Buenos Ayres, and one 
in each town or partido of the province ; the members being named by the 
respective municipalities and electing their own chairman. 

Art. 9. The juries of appeal must be installed before the 1st of April, 
and at once communicate with the classifying committees. 

Art. 10. The committees shall before the 30th March submit to the juries 
their respective lists, and the juries give notice in the public papers of the 
time and place for hearing of appeals, at which, moreover, the committees 
must also assist, to give any necessary information. 

Art. 1 1 . After the term of thirty days the jury shall close its sittings and 
send in the returns as amended to the Oficina de Patentes. 

Art. 12. All Patentes must be taken out in the country districts before 
August 30th, and the Executive shall fix a suitable term in the city for 
each profession. 

Art. 13. Whoever violate this law shall pay a fine double the amount of 
Patente, besides being obliged to take out the proper Patente. 



124 



TARIFFS AKD TAXES. 



Art. 14. Each country muaicipalitj shall receive 10 per cent, of the 
proceeds of Patentes in its district. 

Art. 15. The Executive is authorized to expend 5 per cent of the gross 
proceeds and 20 per cent, of the fines inthe collection of the tax. 



CONTIIIBUCION . DIBECTA. 
Property Tax. 

Art. 1. All landed or household property in town or country shall pay 
four per roil on its assessed value. 

Art. 2. Proprietors whose total estate is not worth §20,000 m/c., and 
that they reside on same, are exempted from this tax. 



mnm v. 



TARIFF FOR LIGHTERS. 

Loading. 



Balizas. Pozos. 

Anchors, qcj., §3^ $4^ 

Acid sulph., 40 40 

JBales estraza paper, 2^ 3 

Do. toba.cco, 10 12 

Do. twine, 21 2| 

Do. N. A. wick,, 1^ \\ 

Barrels beer, .... 5J 6^ 

Do. Braz. sugar, 7 8 

Do. N. A. tar, G 7 

Do. Swedish tar, 8 10 

Do. flour, 4| 5 

Do. sugar, alpiste, 6 7 

Do. Seltzer, 8 9 

Do. pimenton, 2 2^ 

Do. resin, 8 10 

Boxes tea U,. .. . ^ ^ 

Do. tbco,grease,qq, 3^ 4| 

Do. ink, blacking, 2| 3 

Do. raisins, lideos, 1^ If 



Balizas. 

13 
1 
2 

3i 
3i 



Do. Hav. sugar, 

Do. rockets. 

Do. starch ^(a)j 

Do. lingqq., 

Do. nails, . . . , 

Do. w. glass, cube ft. 3^ 

Do. glass-ware ft.. If 

Do. indigo, blue, (a) 1 

Do. candles, (a) 1| 

Do. gunpowder, (a) 6 

Do. preserves, 8 

Do. dulce, 9 

Do. oysters, 2 

Do. paper, 20 reams, 8 

Do. N. A. chairs, 7 

Do. soap, .... 2^ 

Do. wines, cognac, 

- pickles. If 

Do. champagne,liqrs,2^ 



Pozos. 

15 

1 

2i 

4i 

4i. 

4i 

If 

li 

2i 

6 

10 

10 

10 
8 
3 

2i 
3 



LIGHTER TARIFFP. 



125 



Balizas. Pozos . 

Do. gin, doz. 1^ 1^ 

Do. sardines, 4 5 

Bags rice, .... 6 7 

Do. farifia, .... 4 4^ 

Do. pimenton, 4^ 5^ 

Do. corks, 1^ I^ 

Do. nuts, sugar, coffee 5 5^ 

Baldosas, Havre, mil, 80 90 

Do. • Marseilles, 65 75 

Do. Spanish, cart, 40 50 

Barras, each, 3 3 

Brooms, doz 2^ 3 

Bocoys, coal, .... 40 40 

Do. lump-sugar, 25 30 

Buckets, doz 4 5 

Cables, qq 5 6 

Do. do. ... . 4 5 

Coal, iron, ton 55 55 

Cheese, Eidam, doz. 2^ 3 

Do. 12tt I 1 

Coke, ton, 60 70 

Crockery, cask. If If 

. Do. hampers, 30 35 

Demijohns, 5 gals. 1^ 2 

Do. 2^ 11 If 

Do. 1 . . . . f t 

Salt, fan 6 7 

Spades, bundles 4 5 

French tiles, mil 200 200 

Fire-bricks, 150 150 

Firewood, 100 pges 5 6 

Hams, .... ^ 1 
Hardware, canvas, 
packing, matches, 
paper, and cigars, 

per cube ft 2^ 2^ 

Hemp, qq 6 7 

Kerosene, 10 gals. 3^ 4^ 
Machinery, iron safes, botadores and 



Marble, ton 
Oars, each. 
Oil, @, 
Oil in tins, 
Olives, @ 



Balizas. Pozos. 

65 65 
H H 

2 3 

1 H 



1 



I 
If 



Paper estraza, ream, 

, Paint, @ 

Potatoes, @ 

Pots, qq 6 7 

Pine-boards, 1000 ft. 65 75 

Bolls, matting 6 7 

Do, felpudoS, doz. 4 5 

Do. tobacco, (a) 1 1 

B: cement, soda, qq. 2^ 3 

Railway bars, ton 70 70 

Tinware, qq 4 5 

Tubs, ^ doz 5^ 6 

Tanned hides, Ij; i^ 

Tei'falla, cart, 40 40 

Tablas, Braz. 1 inch 30 30 

Db. 2 inch 50 50 

Tablillas, 2^ 3 

Wood, 1000 ft. 120 120 

WAX,qq 3* ^ 

Wheat, lime, fan. 5 6 

Wire, steel, qq. 4 4^ 

Ziuc,'qq 3^ 4 

pipes, aguardiente, 25 28 

Do. empty. 11 12 

Do. abatidas, 6 6 

Posts, 2 2 

Do. half U li 

Perches 50f . by 1 Oin. 200 200 

Peje-palo, bundles 5 6 

Yerba, Parnagua 5 6 

Do. half sobs, 4 5 

Do. Par^.&R. G. 5 5^^ 

Do. Misionera, 7 8 

tirautes, at conventional prices. 



126 



TARIFFS AKD TAXES. 



From Custom-house 

Animals, each, .... 

Bones, ton,. ... .... 

Bone-ash, .... .... 

Bales, hay, 

Bales, wool, hair, [Provinces] 
Bales, wool. [Buenos Ayres^ 
Canillas, mil, .... 

Caracues .... 

Chiguas, wool and hair, 
Chiguas, Santiago, .... 

Deerskins, .... .... 

Horns, mil, . . . , .... 

Hides, salted ox, .... 

Hides, salted mares, .... 

Hides, dry raatadero,. . . . 

Hides, dry, Spain andN. A. 
Hides, dry mare and calf, 
Jerked beef, qq. .... 

Hoofs, ton, .... .... 

Machos, mil, .... 

Pipes, grease and tallow, 
Pipes iron, tallow .... 

Pipones, tallow .... 

Straw, bundles, .... 

Sheepskins, dox., .... 

Wool in bags, .... 

Boxes tallow, 2qq 

Boxes Mares' grease, 3qq. 
Boxes raares^ grease, 4qq 



Dischargmg. 

Balizas. 

8.80 



70 
55 
20 
32 
28 
20 
30 

If 
15 

1 

4: 

50 

1 

If 
1 

f 

n 

100 
200 

24 

40 

40 

\ 
4 

H 
6 
8 
12 



Pozos. 

$80 
70 
55 
25 
40 
34 
25 
36 



If 



11 



60 
If 

If 

H 

100 
200 

30 

40 

40 

1 

4 

1* 

7 

10 
14 



From Barracas. 

880 
70 
55 
25 
40 
34 
25 
40 

f 
18 

60 
If 

H 

If 
H 

3i 
100 
200 

30 

40 

40 

I 
4 

H 

7 

10 
14 



Delays — After two days at the rate of $250 a day for 30 bales [B. A.] 
In unloading the ton is calculated at 221 1 lbs. ; in loading or in ballast the 
ton has only 2000 lbs. In discharging matches, paper, hardware, packing, 
glassware, cigars and brushes, the price is by the cubic foot English and 
includes cart-hire to the Custom. house : in other articles the owner has to 
pay the carts. The English ton measurement has 40 cubic feet, the French 
52 English cubic feet, and 100 feet English are equal to 1 1 7 Hamburg ditto. 

Re-embarkation— rilcienda $45, comestibles $30 per cart. Cargo above 
the Barraca bridge is charged 20 per cent, extra, eiiher loading or 
discharging. 



MKIflCIPAL TAXES. 127 

No complaint allowed beyond four days after delivery of goods: all 
complaints should be made to tiie lighterman, but the undersigned do not 
answer for damage caused by fortuitous events. 

Casares & Sons, Rodriguez & Sons, Guerrero, Hoevel & Langenheim, 
Seiiorans & Fuzier, Bernal & Co., Neves, Rubio & Co., INufiez, Noceti & 
Tornquist, Bettolache &Co., Caranza, Gamartino & Co., Garri& Co., Garcia, 
Bergmann & Bickleman, McLean, Garay & Co., Ferrer & Co., Marti, Pla 
& Co., Ascheri, Guimaraens,Solari, Laforgue,CurellBros.,Delfino,DoderOy 
Agnese, Coelho, Dally, Martin, B. Curell & Co., F. Casares. 

MUNICIPAL Gas and SERENO TAX. 

1 . Mercantile houses, barracas, timber yards, w holesale stores, mills, 
printing offices, hotels, insurance offices, clubs, and theatres, pay §30 a 
month for serenos, §iO for gas, and where there is no gas $15 for oil. 

2. Bakers, hatters, baths, soap boilers, coach makers, brewers, druggists, 
jewellers, ship chandlers, liverv stables, and lithographers, pay as above — 
$20, $30, S 12. 

3. Blacksmiths, coffee houses, upholsterers, apothecaries, watchmakers 
chandlers, and cart owners, pay — $15, $25, $10. 

4. Drapers, grocers, workshops, palperias, butchers, and eating-houses, 
pay— S JO, $20, $5. 

5. Private houses pay — $5, $5, $3. 

6. Rooms on the street pay — $2, $2, $2. 

7. Houses with two doors shall pay half for the second, and the same 
for unbarred windows. Empty houses pay nothing, but, once taken, a part 
of a month counts for a whole one. 

PAIiOCHlAL DIVISION OF THE CITY. 

1. Catedral al Norte. — From Calle Rivadavia to Paraguay, and from Paseo 
Julio to Calle Maypu. 

2. Catedral al Sud. — From Calle Rivadavia to Chile, and from the river to 
Calle Las Piedras. 

. 3. San Telmo. — From Calle Chile to the Riachuelo, and from the Paseo 
Colon to Calle Piedras and Barracas 

4. Concepcion. — From Calle 3fexico to Caseros, and from Calle Las 
Piedras to San Jose. 

5. Monserrat. — From Calle Potosi to Caseros, and from Las Piedras and 
San Jose to Sarandi. 

6. San Miguel. — From Calle Maypu to Calle Talcahuano, and from Cuyo 
to Potosi. 

7. San Nicolas. — From Calle Maypu to Uruguay, and from Cuyo to 
Charcas. » 



128 TARIFFS AND TAXES. 

8. Socorro. — ^Frora Calle Paraguay to the Pobre Diablo, and from Hueco 
de Cabecitas to Calle Uruguay. 

9. Pilar.— From Tobre Diablo to the Arroyo Maldonado, and from the 
Cinco Esquinas to the municipal boundary. 

10. Piedad. — From Calle Uruguay and Santiago del Estero to Ayacucho 
and Sarandi, and from Calle Charcas to Potosi. 

11. Balvanera. — From Calle Charcas to the Puente Alsina, and from 
Calles Sarandi and Ayacucho to the municipal boundary at Piran's quinta. 

Note. — It is proposed to form anew parish in North Barracas, embracing 
also the Boca, and to divide the Balvanera parish, forming another new one 
at the south-west quarter of the suburbs, between the Puente Alsina, Calle 
Solis, and Calle Mexico. The Archbishop has given his consent for the 
change as soon as the intended parishes be provided with churches. 

RULES OF THE FACULTY OF MEDICmE. 

The Faculty is composed of ten professors, eight substitutes, and a 
secretary. The School of Medicine is opposite San Telmo church. 

The medical studies require six years. Besides these, the candidate for a 
studentship must show certificates of having passed satisfactorily examina- 
tions in Latin, philosophy, mathematics, chemistry, and physics. 

The pharmaceutical studies are Latin, philosophy, mathematics, physics, 
chemistry, botany, and pharmacology. The medical student, after passing 
satisfactorily six yearly examinations, and two general examinations, 
receives the diploma of Doctor in Medicine. The pharmaceutical student 
receives that of Licentiate in Pharmacy. 

All those who wish to practise medicine or pharmac}- in Buenos Ayres 
must present their diplomas of Doctor or Licentiate in Medicine or 
Pharmacy of a Faculty or University recognised by that of this country. 
The medical student must also undergo two examinations ; one before the 
professors of anatomy and physiology, general pathology, materia medica, 
pathological anatomy, &c., obstetrics, &c., which lasts two liours ; the 
other examination consists of two practical cases of medicine and two 
operations. The examinations are in the Spanish language, and are public. 

The candidates pay as fees ^lOOs. If the candidate does not pass a 
satisfactory examination half the amount is returned to him. and he cannot 
present himself again until six mouths have passed. 

The foreign candidates for the pharmaceutical diploma, without which 
they cannot open a pharmaceutical establishment, must pass two examina- 
tions; one practical, for which he will have to make six chemical and 
pharmaceutical preparations ; the other theoretical. 



THE MQUTH OF THE FLATS. Ilf? 



CHAP. XI. 

THS MOUTH OF THE BIVER PLATE 
PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 

THE APPROACH TO THE RIVER. 

The depth of this river increases from the spot where it is joined by its 
two great tributaries to the sea, and the bottom is oozy, and in some places 
rocky, to the meridian of Montevideo. From here it changes, and its 
proximity to the ocean becomes gradually apparent, for the ooze is mixed 
with sand ; as the mouth of the river is approached the sand is finer, and 
mixed with shells and rocks, the northern bank only remaining oozy. The 
rocks (tosca) are principally found on the southern coast, from the SaladiUo 
to the little bay of Barragan. The bottom at this part of the coast is very 
hard, and the water shallow, the width of the bay being two or three 
leagues. The different bottoms of sand, shells and sand, and rocks and 
sand, situated to the east of the meridian of Montevideo, may be considered 
as an immense bank, known at its culminating point as the English Bank. 
The bed of La Plata is full of banks and quicksands, extending for more 
than thirty leagues to the east of its mouth, and from thence inwards^ 
obstructing its course and rendering the navigation to Buenos Ayres 
difficult for vessels of a certain tonnage. We will again refer to these 
dangers in Vol. II. The tinge of the water of the La Plata, produced 
by lime, extends for more than twenty leagues into the ocean. 



180 THE MOUTH OF THE PLA.TI. 

Islands. 

It is only on the left bank they are to be met with, which is rocky, while 
on the opposite side not a stone is to be found. The principal are Lobos, 
S.E. of Maldonado; Gorriti, in the same bay ; Flores, east of Montevideo; 
San Gabriel, Lopez, and Farallon, opposite Colonia ; Hornos, north of these ; 
Martin Garcia, near the delta of the Parana : besides these there are several 
rocky clusters more or less distant from the coast. 

Banks. 

The principal ones are the English (the most dangerous), the Archimedes, 
Medusa, Chico, Nuevo, Big and Little Ortiz, Las Palmas, &c. As far as 
Maldonado there are no banks, but from that to Montevideo the English 
Bank must be rounded; and if the south passage is taken Archimedes and 
Medusa also : if Buenos Ayres is the destination all must be passed. To- 
reach Montevideo a pilot is seldom employed ; but rarely indeed are the 
services of a pilot dispensed with when going up to Buenos Ayres. 
Formerly, before the creation of the ports of Montevideo and Maldonado, 
mariners preferred the southern shore, passing the English Bank, and those 
bound for Buenos Ayr^s stopped at the port of Barragan. Such was the 
dread inspired by the dangerous banks supposed to be at the mouth of the 
La Plata that seamen dubbed it «the sailors' hell,)) and the insurance on its 
navigation was equal to that paid from Europe to its mouth, it being 
considered a miracle to escape. Few were the merchant vessels to be seen 
on its bosom, and a war vessel never except in time of war. The vessels 
most frequenting it were Spanish, but never above 500 tons. No vessel 
sailed on it by night, which was always passed at anchor, and the course 
steered was by the eastern side pf the Ortiz Bank; but, according as the 
river became better known, and ports sprung up, the fear inspired by the 
banks decreased, and the navigation of the river made great progress, aided 
by the exact and detailed (iharts introduced, and the pilot service that was 
organised. If we are to believe the writers and sailors of the last century, 
it should help to dissipate oar terror to know that hurricanes were then less 
frequent than formerly, nor were they so violent as in the first years of the 
river's discovery. From the time that ports were made at Montevideo and 
Maldonado, and the northern shore of the river better known, navigation 
by the southern side was completely abandoned, whether through the want 
of good points of observation, or the few ports or harbors to be found along 
it, or that but little was known of it, or the exact situation of Cape Saa 



THE MOUTH OF THB PLATE. 131 

Antonio, until the necessity of avoiding the English cruisers off Santa Maria 
and Maldonado obliged the Spanish vessels to find a new passage to the 
south of the bank, sailing by parallels 35 deg. 5ni. to 36 deg. until arrived at 
the meridian of Montevideo, and then making for this port, or Barragan, or 
Buenos Ay res, as the case might be. This course, once safely opened, it 
has so continued, until, with the establishing of so many lighthouses, the 
river is now entered by the northern side. 



Anchorage^ 

Wherever the lead shows that the bottom is oozy an anchor may be let 
go, taking care, however, to give a wide berth to the banks, lest the ship 
might drag on to them. With winds from the south the southern side is 
preferable, from other points the northern is best. Large vessels can get 
as far as Montevideo, while vessels drawing fifteen or nineteen feet of water 
can fearlessly ascend as far as Buenos Ayres or the Hornos Island. As 
shelter from the N.N.E., E., and S.E. winds the best parts are Hornos, 
Montevideo, and Maldonado, although the latter is not perfectly sheltered 
from the S.E., which reaches the anchorage through the pass of Gorriti. 
The Bay of Barragan, and the roads of Buenos Ayres, are sheltered from 
S.W. winds. Small vessels can anchoroff Cape Santa Maria, at the entrance 
of the Santa Lucia, and off Colonia, on the northern shore ; in the Tuyii and 
Saladillo rivers, the Bay of Barragan, and the Riachuelo, near Buenos Ayres, 
on the southern. Ships can anchor at 3Ialdonado in six or eight fathoms ; 
in the roads of Montevideo, four to six fathoms ; in the harbor, two to three 
fathoms ; in the roads at Barragan, three fathoms ; the roads of Buenos 
Ayres, three to six fathoms ; near the city, two to three fathoms. Against 
S.W. winds the anchorage on the northern shores is best, against those 
from the S.E. the others. Of all these anchorage grounds that of Maldonado 
is the best, as the bottom is oozy, covered with sand. In the others the 
bottom is mud, in which the anchor cannot hold during strong winds. 



Lights. 

The lighthouses of the La Plata in this part have considerably improved 
of late years. At present there are five stationary and five floating lights ; 
the first-named are placed on the Island of Flores,the Cerro of Montevideo, 
Colonia, and the Custom-house of Buenos Ayres. The floating lights point 

Y2 



J 32 THE POBT OF BUE«OS AYRKS. 

out the following dangers: the English Bank, Panela Quicksands, Nev 
Bank, Little Bank, and the roads of Buenos Ayres. We will give in their 
proper place detailed particulars of these lights, leaving it as granted that 
their combination greatly facilitates the entry and navigation of the river 
during the night. The first light known in the Rio de la Plata was that of 
the poop lantern of the Spanish frigate Loreto, lost off San Jos(i in 1792, 
and placed on the Island of Flo res. This light was afterwards removed, in 
1798, to the Gerro of Montevideo, experiencing a thousand vicissitudes^ 
until one light was established on the island, and another on the Cerro. 



Beacons and Buoys. 



There are many along the river, but complete confidence cannot be placed 
ill their stability, as the force of the current often tears them away, or, 
what is even worse, displaces them, for then, instead of acting as a warning 
against danger, they lead to it. The principal beacons are those on Saa 
Jos6 Point, at Montevideo, and at the Martin Garcia channel. The Bell 
Buoy on the English Bank disappeared during a tempest, and has never been 
replaced. 



THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 



The port is no better than any other on the river, the anchorage not being 
good, in consequence of the softness of the bottom, which allows of the 
anchors dragging when the wind blows from the N.E., this wind traversing' 
the roads in an obli(|ue direction, and raising generally a heavy sea. The 
anchoring ground is divided into tlie Outer and Inner Roads, formed on one 
side by the City Bank, and on the other by the Cumarones Bank, which is a 
ramification of the great Palmas or Play a Honda Bank. The Port of 
Buenos Ayres being but a very indifferent one by nature, and 
hitherto neglected by the authorities, it is insufficient for the trade 
of this vast emporium. No captain considers his ship safe Avhilst anchored in 
these offings (it being impossible to call the «port)) anything else), as every 
gale of wind from S.W. round to N.E. imperils his vessel. Many 
schemes have been proposed for constructing a harbor and docks ; but as 
yet nothing has been done. 



THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 1^3 

In the early part of 1869, Mr. Bell of Glaso;ow arrived out for the purpose 
of surveying the port, in company with Mr. Miller of the same place. 
After a minute study and survey, the plans were drawn up, and proposals 
sent into Government for the purpose of constructing docks and building 
warehouses. The plans have not been made public ; but, in the month of 
March, 1869, all questions being definitely settled, the Government 
concluded the contract. A company for the purpose of carrying out the 
same is being formed, having for its representatives 3Ir. John Proudfoot in 
England and Mr. Edward Madero in Buenos Ayres. The enterprise is one 
of the most important for the maritime commerce of the Port of Buenos 
Ayres, and being in such good hands will doubtless prove a reality. In 
Vol. II. of this Handbook a copy of the concession, with a full description of 
the scheme, will be given. 

3Ieantime, attention is turned to tlie adjacent rivulets and available 
advantageous points as adjuncts for relieving the port; hence comes the 
importance of the Riachuelo, the Capitania of San Fernando and the Tigre, 
and even Ensenada, which is eight leagues off. Thus the Port of Buenba 
Ayres may be considered as extending from Ensenada to the Tigre. 
And the nautical observations and directions in this chapter must prove 
useful to those engaged in the trade of the River Plate. 

The Outer Roads. 
Consist of a channel half a mile wide and three to four long, stretching 
N.W. to S.E. by E., between the City pank and that of Las Palmas. The 
water here is from nineteen to twenty-four feet deep, with a muddy bottom, 
but at the eastern entrance there is a bar preventing the ingress of large 
yessels of war ; on the bar there is only a depth of seventeen feet of water, 
60 large vessels are obliged to remain outside. A good point for a large 
vessel to anchor in nineteen feet of water and muddy bottom is four miles 
distant from the mole of Buenos Ayres, with the tower of the Besidencia 
bearing W.S.W. It is the nearest point of the outer roads where a large 
vessel can lie. A little further north the depth increases one or two feet ; 
this is also a good station, keeping in a direct line with the belfreys of 
§a«ta Catalina and San Nicolas, or marking them from the south 81 degrees 
west. The tower on the Besidencia is the most conspicuous object on 
shore, and is situated in the southern part of the city. This point is called 
tlie Amarradcro, because in former times all European vessels anchored here. 

Palmas Sank. 
Is also called Playa Honda, is very wide, and is formed by the sand 
driven down by the Uruguay and Parana. On this bank the water does 



134 THE PORT OF BUEKOS ATHES. 

not shoal rapidly ; nevertheless, great care must be taken in sounding, and 
not to pass seventeen feet with a vessel drawing fifteen or sixteen feet. 

The City Bank. 

The bottom on this bank is hard, and the water shoals more rapidly than 
on Las Palmas, and greater precautions must be taken to avoid grounding. 
The bar once passed the depth increases gradually, and the bottom becomes 
softer. When a depth of eighteen feet is reached, in order to lie as near 
land as possible, the anchor should be let go, when the bearings are as 
follows : — 

Custom-house, S. 38 deg. W. 

Kocoleta Church, S. 64 deg. W. 

Besidencia, S. 30deg W. 

Guard Ship, .... .... .... S. 50 deg. E. 

Distant 2' 2" miles. 

The best ground is in a depth of twenty -three feet at low tide. It is a 
kind of channel, outside of which the water is shallower. This anchorage is 
situated exactly in the centre of a line diree miles long from N.W. to S.E. ; 
this is where all the vessels in the Outer Roads anchor, from the Guard Ship 
outwards. The Guard Ship is anchored to the N. 72 deg. E., from the 
Custom-house, distant 3' 7" miles. The channel alluded to is 3' 5" miles 
from the mole. 

The Pozo Anchorage. 

A'essels having only fourteen feet draught will here find fifteen feet of 
water, oozy bottom, the Rocoleta Church bearing S.W. and the mole-head 
due south. To reach this anchorage it is better to take a pilot, although 
it is not diflicult to get to it if the following directions be observed : — 
Sailing towards it from the Outer Roads, the course to be steered is north 
60 west, for a little more than two miles, and then edging aAvay S.W. by 
S. as marked on the chart, until the spot already referred to be reached. 

Inner Roads. 

They are also called Las Valizas, and extend over a short distance a mile 
and a-half long by three cables' lengtbs wide, running parallel to the coast 
from S.S.E. to N.N.W. and formed by the City Bank, and the river side; 
near the latter is a reef of rocks. To get in, vessels must not draw more 
than thirteen feet of water, and a pilot is necessary. The holding is bad, 
as the bottom is rocky, covered with ooze, and anchors drag easily ; the 
waves rise very high when the winds come from the S.E., and a storm from 



THE PORT OF BUE50S AYREI. 135 

tbis point generally drives some vessels on shore. Good cables are 
absolutely necessary for anchorage in these roads in a storm from the S.E., 
as no help can be expected from the shore should they prove faulty. la 
such a case the river is greatly swollen, and the vessels drive on to the 
banks near the city, to the imminent risk of the lives of their crews. Some 
river trading vessels often set sail and ran for Las Conchas to the W. of 
San Isidro point, which is sheltered from the S.E wind. It must here be 
repeated that no vessel of tonnage should attempt to reach either the Pozo 
•or Inner Roads without a pilot, as in order to reach them the channels near 
the City and Gamaroucs Banks have to be gone through, which can only be 
done through landmarks combined and laid down, of the existence of which 
a foreigner is generally ignorant. Besides, the marks laid down for the 
guidance of pilots in the beginning of this century are of no use to those of 
the present day, in consequence of the change of position of many of the 
banks and channels, a change sufficiently apparent if the charts of the 
Baenos Ayres roads, drawa out by the Spaniards in the last century, be 
compared with those of Mons. Barral in 1831 , and Mr. Sidney in 1856. To 
the west of the Pozo anchorage, and a little nearer to the city, there is a 
channel through which vessels drawing less than ten feet eight inches of 
water can pass. It is a shelving of the City Bank, called Santa Catalina 
Canal, with less water than thePozo,and is much frequented by steamboats, 
saving them about two miles distance ; but the greatest experience is 
required to pass safely through it. 

Anchorage. 

As both roads are exposed to the S.E. wind, and the high sea which it 
raises when blowing strong, two anchors must be let go N.E., S.W., with 
j^nty of chain, say seventy to eighty fathoms each. It would always be 
well to select a spot free from ships to the S.E., so that if the wind should 
come from this quarter there may be no ships ahead to run foul of you, an 
accident very common in this port, and generally ha^^ng fatal results. With 
the wind from other quarters the roads are safe, and even during the 
pamperos, the most destructive winds in the River Plate, the water is 
smooth. The bad weather often prevents communication between ships and 
the shore. The ships being anchored so far off, communication with the 
shore is laborious and sometimes diOacult, days often passing before 
passengers can land. For this reason, all vessels should. anchor as near 
shore as possible. 



136 THE PORT OF BUENOS AYHES. 

Precautions. 
When entering the Outer Boads great care must be taken to avoid the 
many sunken vessels. Two hulls have already disappeared, embedded in. 
the mud, and the others may be considered as so many hidden rocks, often 
"without buoys. The position of all cf them is perfectly known to pilots. 
Care should be taken in shallow water not to run on the anchors of other 
vessels, and vi^hen at anchor to ride with a long chain, in order not to run 
on your own anchors. Accidents of this nature might prove fatal in case of 
a fall in the river. Many captains prefer riding with a single long cable, 
holding themselves ready to let go another anchor if required. As so many 
vessels are constantly anchored in both roads, a good position should be 
selected clear of other ships, in order to avoid fouling, an accident that 
occasions many losses. The Pampero wreck in the inner roads is still visible. 

Piers, 
Before such existed passengers and goods were lauded in carts, that went 
out to meet the boats, at a distance of two or three cables^ lengths from the 
shore, but since 1855 there are two handsome piers built of wood and. iron, 
of from 400 to 600 metres in length. That in front of La Merced is for 
passengers, and that opposite the Custom-house is for goods. They are, 
nevertheless, not of sufficient length, for when the river is low, luggers, or 
even boats, have not sufficient water, and the old system of carts has to be 
resorted to. The depth at this part of the bank is little, in consequence of 
the gradual accumulation of slime. The merchandise brought by large 
ships, and also all that is exported, is carried in luggers destined for this 
purpose. 

Position of Jluenoi Ayres. 
The geographical position of this city was determined by several 
Spanish commissions at the end of the last century. They established an 
observatory in the Cabildo, and put under contribution several celestial 
phenomena, which aided by chronometrical comparisons with the meridian 
of Montevideo gave as a result 34° 36' 38" S. lat., and 52° 11' 38" W. long., 
which shows but a slight difference when compared with Mr. Barral's 
observations, thus proving the correctness and delicacy with which the 
Spanish geographers and astronomers of the last century worked. The 
difference they found between the meridians of Montevideo and Buenos 
Ayres was 2° 10' 16". (See Second Memoir of the Hydrographical Direction, 
published in Madrid, edition of 1809, page 7.) The variation of the needle 
is calculated at 10° N.E. for 1868 ; the annual decrease in the variation is 
estimated at five minutes. 



THE. PORT OF BUENOS ATRES. »^^ 

Floating Light. 

The Guard Ship stationed to the south of the Outer Eoads carries ever j 
night a fixed red light, which can be seen six or seven miles off in fine 
weather. The Guard Ship is painted black, and has three masts: her 
principal duty is to watch over the safety of the port. She is anchored in 
sixteen feet five inches of water, at three to five miles to the north, 72° east 
of the Custom-house, and forty miles north 74<^ west of the fioating light on 
the Chico Bank, so that steering this course from the Chico light the Outer 
Eoads are reached. 

Port Lights 

Every night on the Custom-house tower a white light is placed, which 
taken in conjunction with the floating light, points out an easterly course 
to the Outer Roads. 

Tides and Currents. 

The tides are of average regularity in the roads of Buenos Ayres ; when 
the weather is fine their mean rise is about three feet six inches. The 
rise lasts for about five hours, and the fall seven, running at the rate of from 
one to two miles an hour, but when the wind is strong the tides are very 
irregular. Strong winds from the S.E. cause the river to rise, and from 
the opposite quarter, N W., to fall, so much that the difference of level 
between the rise and fall is often fourteen feet three inches. On occasions 
of strong wind from the N.W., so low has the water often been that vessels 
have been left almost high and dry. In Vol. II. we will remark on this 
difference of level which is about ten feet five inches. 

Wattr Provision. 
The vessels anchored in the roads generally supply themselves with water 
from the river itself. The best point for this purpose is to the east of the 
Ortiz bank, particularly during westerly winds when the water is smooth. 

Provisions. 
The Buenos Ayres market supplies the sailor with all kinds of provisions, 
both for daily and sea use. Naval stores of all kinds can also be had from 
Messrs. Herring, Allinson, and Eckell, and repairs can be effected in the 
Tigre, at Messrs. Kay & Stephens', Marshall's and others, but at great cost ; 
any aid rendered to vessels also is charged highly for. 

Pilots. 
There is a corps of pilots organized under the inspection of the Captain 
of the Port, for the use of vessels navigating the Plate and its affluents. 



!38 THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 

These men have by law the status of marine police agents in matters 
relating to their profession. They are obliged when entering a «hip to 
inform the captain as to the navigation laws, the police regulations of the 
rivers and roads, the system of liglits during the night, signals during hazy 
•weather, &c. All pilots ai*e provided with the river police rules, in which 
their duties are set forth, and rules for navigation laid down whether for 
night or day, sailing or steam vessels, in order to avoid collisions or other 
accidents. These rules are printed in live languages, Spanish, French, 
English, German, and Dutch, for the convenience of navigators, and a copy 
can be had free at the Port Captain's by any captain or master of a vessel, 
in order that he may not be able to plead ignorance. It is not laid down by 
the rules what remuneration the pilots should receive for their services, 
which is arranged by the pilots themselves every year, at a meeting held 
for the purpose, and the tariff once agreed upon it is shown to the Port 
Captain for his sanction. The tariff at present is more moderate than it 
has been for some years, as are also the port dues. In 1833 a foreign ship of 
300 tons and fifteen feet draught of water, bound for Buenos Ayres, with 
.cargo paid — '! ©•^ndt 

Pilotage and entrance dues from the Punto del Indio, $420 
Port pilotage, .... .... .... 90 

Port dues, .... .... 300 

Inspection and stamped paper, .... 30 

Notary's charges, .... .... 18 

Pilotage outwards leaving the river, .... ^20 

Port pilotage, .... .... 90 

Port dues, .... .... .... .... 300 

Stamped paper, health, and notary, 50 



S«,7I8 
These enormous expenses frightened away foreign ships. A pilot from 
Montevideo to the Punto del Indio cost $700 ; but has since been immensely 
reduced. 



THE RIA.CHUELO. 



This rivulet forms a canal where the rain water from the surrounding 
flats runs into, and to which the waters of the River Plate penetrate during 
ordinary tides. Its principal mouth, for it has two, is about a mile S.E. of 
Buenos Ayres. If by dredging and other hydraulic works, the Riachuelo 
was a little improved upon, it would, no doubt, be the real port of the 



PUSTA DE SAIf ISTDRO. 139 

capital. Notwithstanding its shallow entrance and the olistructions of the 
banks, it is the general refuge of small craft ; and once inside there is 
complete shelter for all necessarv operations. Inside the Eiachuelo there 
is from fourteen to seventeen feet at low water, but on the bar there is 
often not more than three and a-half feet, hence vessels drawing more than 
ten and a-half feet have to wait for a risen river to enter. In this natural 
port there is a spacious wharf on its left bank, where the numerous coasting 
vessels discharge and take in their cargoes. On its right banks are the 
saladeros, from whence are shipped the staple products of the ccuntrv, 
such as wool, hides, tallow, «fec. Of course, there are also numerous shops 
and taverns providing for the wants of the numerous maritime population. 
Here also small vessels are hauled up for repairs of all kind. The greatest 
inconvenience of the Riachuelo is the putrid state of its waters in summer, 
owing to the refuse from the saladeros, the stench being overpowering in 
warm weather. Years ago there have been projects for the canalization of 
theRiachuelo, so as to admit ships of all sizes, and the cutting out of docks 
in its adjacent flats ; and in February, 1869, President Sarmiento directed 
the Government engineer to draw up plans for cleansing the mouth of the 
Riachuelo. 

THE BVRRACAS. 

This is a point further inland on the Riachuelo, two miles from its mouth; 
from whence there are two roads to the city, and in connection with one of 
which a bridge spans the river. Its inhabitants are dependent on the 
neighboring saladeros and produce warehouses. It is now connected with 
the city by the Boca and Southern railways. 

E>'SENADA DE LOS OLIVQS. 

On passing the Retire Point, Avhich is the northern limit of the port of 
Ruenos Ayres, and where the present gasworks are situated, the coast 
recedes to the west, and forms the bay called as above, having its northern 
limit at Point Olivosor Sau Isidro, distant nine miles from the Retiro, bear- 
ing N. 40 deg. W. 

POIJVT SAN ISIDRO. 

This is a «barranca» of some sixty-eight feet high. Along this coast, about 
two miles to the west of Buenos Ayres, may be seen the celebrated palace 
of Rosas, called Palermo, where the Dictator used to reside in the summer 
months. Some two and a-half miles further on may also be seen the 
fashionable rising town of Belgrano. The coast is very shallow, and the 
canal narrow. 



^^^ THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 

PALERMO BANK. 

Is a saadbauk ia the Ensenada de los Olives, nnd near which the rivulet 
Cobos discharges its waters into the Plate. The towns of San Isidro and 
San Fernando are close to. The first of these is abreast of Point Olivos or 
San Isidro, two miles inland, and numbers a good many inhabitants. San 
Fernando is distant two miles to the N.W. from the former, and is equally 
well populated. When the new wharves are completed, the port of Sau 
Fernando will be of much importance. 

RIVER CONCHAS. 

Its mouth is about four miles distant from Point San Isidro, bearing N.W. 
one-quarter W. This river has sufficient water in it during the rising of 
the tides in the Plate to admit coasting vessels of all classes, numbers of 
which abandon their anchorage in the roads of Buenos Ayres during S.E. 
gales to take refuge here. Yet it requires practical experience of the place 
to run in safely, as the channels wind through the great bank of Playa Honda, 
and the soundings are very irregular near the coast. There is a good 
anchorage, with eighteen feet of water, in front of the coast of San Isidro, 
but it requires pilotage to reach it. 

LAS CONCHAS. 

Is a small town, similar to the previous ones mentioned, situated on the 
right bank of the river of same name, about three miles inland. Its inhabi- 
tants cultivate their lands and rear cattle. The Tigre may be called its 
port ; a place of rising importance and already described. 

DELTA OF THE PARAS i. 

Past the river Conchas the coast stretches to the northward , and its aspect is 
entirely changed. Low islands, covered with wood, and hemmed in by the 
great flat of Palmas or Playa Honda, which stretches out twenty miles to the 
S.E., having one end in the bay of Olivos and the outer roads of Buenos 
Ayres, and the other at the entrance to the Uruguay, even as far as Martin 
Garcia. All this accumulation of islands and banks^constitute the Delta of 
Ihe ParanA. 

PARANA DE LAS PALMAS. 

Between the many islands mentioned above are the channels by wliich 
the waters of the Paranji enter the Plate. These channels are arms of the 
river, and their entrances bear separate names, the most prominent ones of 
which are the Capitan, Mini, and the Palmas, the latter being of good 
extent. 



PAMPEROS. |I4,1 

PARASi. GCAZU. 

This is the name for the principal entrance to theParani, distant twentj- 
Hve miles from the river Conchas, bearing N.N.E. It is the only channel bj 
which large vessels enter the upper river. The other channels, even whe« 
there is sufficient water, are narrow and tortuous, and hence are only 
frequented by coasters well acquainted with their windings. 

LARA AND SA:«TIAG0 BA?iKS, 

These are to the E. and E.N.E. of Point Lara, and to the iX. of Santiago. It 
is npt safe to pass between these two banks, as there is scarcely twelve feet 
of water. There is but little difference on the outer bank, it having some 
nine feet all over. The bay of Barrangan will be found between the bank* 
near Points Lara and Santiago. 

QUILMES BAK'K. 

Ott passing Point Lara the S.E. end of this bank commences, and stretches 
abreast of Buenos Ayres, hence one end is called the Quilmes Bank, and the 
other end the City Bank. It is of sand, or sand and mud, which the lead 
* ill indicate sufficiently distinct. 

PAMPEROS. 

In the River Plate, this is the name for the strong winds which come from 
W. to S.S.W., and so called from their coming over the great plains called 
Pampas. They may be classified into two categories — local pamperos and 
general pamijcros. The first is of short duration, and even when it blows 
strong the sky is clear. The general pampero, on the contrary, comes in 
squalls and gusts. They have their origin in the Andes mountains, and are 
the great storms of these latitudes. These are the pamperos proper, called 
«dirtv)) in the country, and^enerally lastipg three days. In thefirsthours, 
particularly afternoon, the pampero is most tempestuous, accompanied by 
rain and thunder ; but when the sky clears, a fresh breeze follows, with fine 
weather. When the pamperos come in force they last sometimes for fifteen 
or twenty days, and vessels lying in for the river are much knocked about 
bv the heavy sea which they raise. When the wind shifts to the S. or 
*N.E. and E. in general it becomes clear then, and good weather is established. 



H2 THE PORT OF BUEl^OS AfRES. 

» 

But thougli the pampero is stormy and to be dreaded, it is not so terrible or 
dangerous as the S.E. gales. If a vessel caught by such a gale is obliged to 
cnterthe rivef, there is no other resource than the anchors, close to a bank, if 
possible, but even close on shore there is no alternative. As the S.E. gales 
always bring rainy cloudy weather with them, it is ditlicult for the navigator 
to make his port. If a vessel is thus canght outside the river, and not very 
far, she is in danger of being driven on the coasit of Castillos. Thus it is a 
S.E. gale is more to be feared than a pampero, and experience shows that 
the wrecks nearly always are caused by winds f»*om the second quarter. 

TJu; Approach ef a Pampero. 

Coming from Europe these winds are net generally met with until. lat. 
30 deg. or 32 deg. S. is reached. If the wind freshens during the day from 
N. or N. W , and continues so after mid-day, there is certain change of 
weather; the change will be a pampero if the wind veers to the fourth 
quarter, and a mist rises, with lightning in the S, or S.S.AV, It is time 
then to take in sails, and prepare for the 3quall. The approach of these 
storms is also Indicated by any webs entangling in the shrouds of a ship, by 
the prevalence ofinsects brought by the hot wiiitjs.i bj the rise or fall of 
the river, and the suffo,cf4i»g heaviness of the previous northerly winds. 
The barometer shoNVs it by ^ great fall . 

The Cojnmencemcnt of a Pampero. 

Tlae sudden coming on of a pampero in summer, is during clear weather 
and a fresh breeze, whsn a vivid lightning appears in the S.W. If it is 
davtime, and the squall may be seen coming, or if the wind suddenly shifts 
to the N.W. or W., and thence to S.W., no time should be lost in makingr 
everything ready. A pampero may also pome after a calm day and hot 
weather, and, at times follows after strong iS.E. winds, >yhen the sky is 
overclouded. 

Duration of a Pampero. 

If, after a pampero has set in, the wind is string from the second quarter, 
and it continues to rain, it indicates a lengthened duration. The weather 
will not settle without many squalls from the S \V., Avhich w ill lighten the 
atmosphere. If, after the rising or setting of the sun, there is a lull in the 
wind, it denotes a subsidence or change, and though it may blow strong 
afterwards it will not last long. When a pampero is about to cease, the 
wind veers to the W., and the atmosphere clears qp; the land breeze will 
take its place if it be morning, if evening then the N.E. or S.E. sea breeze. 



SEk BREEZES. t4^ 

In summer pamperos are tmt of snort duration, but m winter they some- 
times last long ; occasionally thev pass round to the S.E. and then render 
the coasts obscure. During the nights it does not blow so strongly. Thes« 
pmperos cleanse tlie atmosphere, as the N.W. winds in the meridian of 
Spain, and generally there is a clear sky while they last. 

aTiirbanadan or Squalls. 

Such is the summer pampero called, and at times it bursts with terriGc 
violence, though, happily, but of short duration. If a Ssiiip. is under sail 
Avhen indications of such a squall is seen, it may be prudent not only to have 
the smallest possible canvas on, but also to dip the upper yards, without a 
moment's delay. «In 1828,)) sajs Captain Fitzroy, «we came very near to 
be dismasted and capsized during a pampero, although the sails were all 
lowered or close-reefed : it is therefore wise to take immediate precautions 
when the indications appear. It may be that such a squall as we then 
experienced maj not again be felt for thirty years. Twenty pamperos out 
of thirty are not dangerous, and some are only ordinary storms of short 
duration, and whose advent need not be feared. Years may pass without 
any very terrible pamperos occurring. From 1828 to 1833 there were none 
of very great violence, but in the latter year we had three of very great 
h)rce.)> Nearly always when a pampero is about to cease, the wind 
subsides or veers to the southward. Sometimes these storms extend out to 
sea, even beyond the latitude of Santa Catalina. Jf they come with clear 
weather, they last longer than when the sky is overcast. But in thePlatc^ 
and outside its entrance, the winds are very variable. 

The Summer Season. 

During the fine season, which is from September to 31arch, ]N.E. winds 
are prevalent ; the atmosphere is hazy, and the sky covered with clouds of 
undeOnable formations. As the river is approached,- the winds will be 
found to go round to the E., and at times blowing fresh from the S.E., with 
rain and dark Aveather. Inside the estuary, in good weather, the wind 
generally will be found to pass round the compass in twenty-four hours. A 
gallant-sail breeze blows from the S.E. in the evening, replaced by a similar 
one from the iV.E. at night, followed next day by a light wind from the 
westward or a calm, gradually going round to the S. 

vVirazon,n or Sea Breeze. 

This is the name for the breeze which has just been mentioned. When 
it is not prevalent, or baffled by winds from N. and N.W. a «turbonada» 



i44 THE PORT or BUENOS AYRES. 

from the S.W., more or less strong, must be expected before the Seabreeze* 
are settled. If it is hazy from sunrise until eight or nine o'clock in the 
morning, the «virazon» is pretty sure to follow. When the weather m 
settled, the wind in the morning is generally N. or N.N.W., moderate 
breeze, until ten or eleven o'clock in the morning. Then commences a 
fresh breeze from outside, from E.S.E. to E.N.E., gradually lessening after 
'Sunset, until near midnight, when it generally becomes a calm. From 
midnight until dawn it goes round again to N. and N.E., and again traverse! 
the same course during the day. Thus, in general, land breezes are 
prevalent at nights, and sea breezes during the day, until the equilibrium 
of the atmosphere is upset. The Spanish pilot, Don Claudi© Vila, thus 
describes the weather of the River Plate : — «Good weather generally lastn 
fifteen or twenty days. In the mornings northerly winds blow strong and 
warm, increasing with the day, and at noon the sky is overcast and hazj. 
Soon after, a squall appears forming in the fourth quarter, with another la 
the S.jboth sending forth vivid lightning. Ordinarily the changes extend 
over two days, during which more or less rain falls, the atmosphere i« 
charged, and heavy black clouds are driven to and fro by the available 
winds prevailing. After this and a heavy thunderstorm, the sky is clear m 
a bell all over the third quarter, when a pampero begins to blow, but which 
only lasts for the day, the wind passing rapidly to the second quarter with 
serene weather.)) Sometimes during ordinary weather, instead of a- 
clouded sky, there is rain and fresh winds ; but it is not easy to foretell from 
whence the clouds or wind will come. If from the N., bad weather is 
likely to follow ; and if the wind does not go round to the south, even 
when it looks clear, the good weather will not then be of much longer 
-duration. The more overcast becomes the sky, and the more it rains and 
blows from the N., the stronger it must blow from the S. to clear the 
heavens. During the warm mouths of summer, when it does not rain much 
to refresh the earth and atmosphere, the northerly wind is suffocating for 
man and animal,, and the inhabitants attribute baneful influences to it. 
While it lasts the barometer is low, and continues to fall as it freshen?, 
which may be for three days ; the atmosphere is charged with electricity, 
and it ends nearly always with a gale, when the wind veers to S.W., and 
the equilibrium is renewed. Near the full and new moon there is generally 
a breeze from the S.E., with some rain ; at other times the wind continues 
from the N., but not so strong as that from the S.E., and with a higher 
temperature. The pilots of the Plate say that S.E. winds will prevail if the 
declination of the moon is southward, and N. winds if the dip of the moou 
be northward ; in the latter case, N. winds will nearly always go round to 



\VI>TER SEASON. . 143 

JX.E. if it be dry weather, but if there be raia or dew, thea it is inclined to 

be N.W. At times it freshens up strong, accompanied with squalls, and 
runs round to S.W., clear weather : this wind brings a high sea, followed 
soon by a calm. 



The Summer Season in Buenos Ai/res. 



According to the observations of M. Thoyon, of the French navy, tke 
winds are lightest in these parts from December to March, as also more 
regular than during the other months of the year. It is usual for the 
breeze to pass in the evening to the N.E., N., and even N.N.W., blowing 
strong from the latter point in the morning, but eventually running to N. 
or N.N.E., and subsiding into a calm about eleven o'clock ; in the afternoon 
it revives from the E. or E.S.E., until dark, when it returns again to N. 
The pamperos, or S.W. winds, are very rare during these times. In summer, 
ate in winter, N.W. winds are warm, rainy, and disagreeable ; whilst the 
S. winds, after their first stormy advent bring bracing weather and a clear 
atmosphere. Easterly winds are cold ^nd wet, ertept the sea breezes in 
summer. Westerly Avinds give dry days and agreeable weather. Summer 
is the worst time to be in the roads of Buenos Ayres, because the S.B. 
winds are generally fresh during the day, and cause an awkward sea, 
rendering harbor work and communication with the shore rather 
difficult. 



]y infer Sefison, 

The prevalent winds at the mouth of the Plate from March to September 
are W. and S.W., but inside they are generally from the fourth quarter. At 
this season, when the weather is very good, the wind goes round with the 
sun as in summer ; but this only happens perhaps once in a fortnight, in 
general the wind is from S. to E. or from >'. to W., blowing more or less 
jitrong successively from these quarters. N. winds bring rain, thunder, and 
lightning, S. winds hail, and those from the E. heavy rains. If the wind 
follows round with the sun, the weather is settled; but if it shifts inversely, 

then bad weather and strong winds may be expected. Pilot Vila savs: 

«In winter, if the wind comes fpom N.E., increasing, and remaining fixed 

z 



I"40 THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRKS. 

for one or two days, with thick weather, it is dangerous then to navigate 
the river without experience, especially as the islands and coasts at the 
entrance cannot be made out, whilst the current is setting in strong. After 
Tenting its strength from the second quarter, the wind passes to the first, 
without ceasing to rain ; it remains there for a day or two, settling in the 
^. on the fourth. At the time when it enters this quarter there will appear 
a black horizon from the S.E. to W.N.W., then a clear space appears, 
and a strong pampero will begin to blow^ on the instant, clearing the sty 
before it. This wind continues from S.W. to W.S.W. for five or six days, 
clear weather and light clouds, and at the same time the current from the 
river begins to set out strongly. The pampero will be followed by winds 
from tlie second quarter, which bring on rain again ; before long it shifts 
to the first quarter, and then to the fourth, to be followed again by a furious- 
pampero, but which will not last long, and brings settled weather. » 
Although S. winds are more frequent and of longer duration in winter 
than in summer, and though N. winds generally prevail in summer, yet, at 
times, they occur from the opposite directions. During winter, S. winds 
are persistent storms, whilst in summer they are shorter, though often 
strong and violent. 



Winter Season in liven os Ay res. 

In these roads winter is preferable to summer, because the common winds 
are S.W. to IN.W.. ^^hich leaves a smooth river and easy communication, 
>f. Thoyon made the following observations on this season: — « The pamperos 
are most frequent from June to October, otherwise there are fresh and 
Yaricible breezes, with man)' days of calm, rain intervening between these 
changes. A strong breeze from the E. is almost sure to be followed by a 
stronger one from the W., and vice versa, whilst the weather will not settle 
until the wind remains in either N. orS., according to where it commenced. 
Thus, a breeze that springs from the W. passes to S.E., freshening up 
when it reaches E. or IN. E., will leap to the N.W. with a squall, returning 
again to W. ; but the weather will not be good until the breeze springs up 
again from 1N.» It may be remarked as traditional among the inhabitants 
of the Plate, that about Santa Rosa's holiday, Avhich is at the latter end of 
August, there is always a storm: the hurricane of that period in 1860 was 
terrific, and twenty vessels were lost in the roads of Buenos Ayres and 
Montevideo. 



ItAIRS. 147 

Fogs. 

During autumn and winter, more especially at the mouth of the river and 
CD the Ortiz Bank fogs are of frequent occurrence. Don Miguel Lobo, of 
the Spanish navy, thus speaks of thera : «If at new moon, during autumn, 
the weather is hazy, with light S.E. winds, it is likely to last so for the 
whole month, thickening as the moon wanes, but disappearing for a short 
time at nine or ten o'clock in the morning. Sometimes at suurise.the fog 
seems gathered in the first and second quarter, but it spreads rapidly over 
the horizon, enveloping everything in more density than usual, and is later 
in clearing up. At these times fineAveather is enjoyed : and, if, during the 
fog, it is a little humid, when that clears up, no better weather could be 
\^ished; about mid-day a light sea breeze sets in. going round to the >'. later 
on. This most agreeable weather in the windy climate of the PJate is 
interrupted occasionally by a strong S.E. gale, which lasts a few hours 
only, and is shown by a slight fall in the barometer, which, it should be 
remarived, stands high when the fogs are most dense and frequent. After 
this weather generally follows S.W. Avinds, commencing in the W., the 
barometer beginning its fall twenty-four or thirty hours bijfore the change 
occurs.)) Inside the river fogs are not so general, as in Buenos .^yres they 
appear seldom but for a few hours. 



Bains. 



These are very irregular in the Plate, but are more so in autumn and 
spring than during the rest of the year; but when it does rain, more water 
falls than in many parts of Europe. It is remarked also to be more plentiful 
during day than night, which is the reverse of the other hemisphere. The 
dews are also very heavy iu these regions, equal indeed to a light rain in 
some parts of the world. It is not less surprising the dampness which 
prevails at times iu the Plate, being such iu Buenos Ayres that it affects 
metals and furniture, and rooms fronting to the south have damp floors and 
Avails. According to Sefior Azara, it is a sign of rain when a bank of clouds 
rise on the western horizon about sunset. Heaviness in the head when 
northerly wind prevails, also indicates rain, and lightning appearing in the 
S.W. In the city of Buenos Ayres it is a sure sign of rain if the north coast 
of the river is visible. 

Z2 



148 THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 

liefraction. 

There are times, mostl}' during westerly winds, when tlie river presents 
some strange examples of refraction. It is the general belief in Buenos 
Ajres when the coast of the Banda Oriental is seen from that city that a 
change of weather is at haud. This refraction is not always the same, as at 
times it permits one to see the tops of the hills of San Juan, which are 
some thirty-six miles off to the JN N.E., wliilst at other times the islands of 
the Parana and the coast between Colonia and Martin Garcia are visible. 
During such weather it is difficult to make any nautical observations, and 
impossible to regulate any chronometer in the roads of Buenos Ayres. What 
has been stated concerning the winds, both outside and inside the Plate, 
must be considered as usual or general ; but they may happen to the 
contrary, as they are so variable that no absolute rule can be set down as to 
either their point or duration, and the experience of successive years may 
be entirely reversed some seasons. 

The Barometer. 

Although in the River Plate the rise and fall of the barometer are not 
v^?rjr great, nevertheless its indications are almost ahvajs correct if 
consulted carefully. In settled weather its highest point is 760 milimetros, 
and its general range is within 1.3m. to this in ordinary weather, but muck 
TOorc when severe changes occur. In the months of July and August the 
barometer is highest, and in that of June it is lowest. Its highest is during 
winds from S.E. to N.E., when it reaches even 778hi. If the wind rounds. 
to the N., the mercury will fall, and will continue so until IS. W. blows. 
W, and S.W. winds produce the lowest barometer : thus it is that before 
ft strong pampero the barometer will fall to 746 or 744, and even to 741, 
but ordinarily 7 46 is below the gradation of the Puver Plate. The rising 
of the glass wheu the wind is S. W. indicates that it is about to cease or 
change to S. A liigh barometer, overcast sky, but red at sunset, threaten- 
ing aspect, with distant lightning, a rising river and a strong current 
setting ill, more especially above the Ortiz Bank, are all signs of a coming 
S. E. gale. From whatever point a storm comes, or if the weather is 
murky, the barometer falls ; but no sooner has it blown over, and the weather 
cleared, than it rises again. Ifit has set in for bad weather, the barometer 
remains lew, until the wind be S.W., when a clearing pampero sets in: 
ft is the same after some hours of great heat. In Buenos Ayres the 



TEMPERATURE. 1 ^9 

barometer falls with E. and S.E. winds, but soon rises if they die out, and 
will not again fall if the breeze does not spring up from the W., and 
then, if good weather, its change is but very little. If W. winds 
continue, and the barometer still falls, then it will blow again from the E. 
In general the barometer announces easterly winds by rising, though they 
may be fresh breezes, and westerly winds by falling : but storms or gales 
of wind, from whatever quarter, are always indicated by a fall. According 
to the observations of Fitzroy the river is low when the glass is steady, the 
gradation at such time being 29.9 English (or 758m.) ; and he never noticed 
it to be above 30.3 (7G9m.) or lower than 29.4 (745m.) 



Electricity. 



In summer, or indeed it might be said, during the whole year, thunder- 
storms are very frequent ; so much so that perhaps the River Plate 
experiences more of them than any part of the world. They often cause 
damage to vessels, houses, and churches ; but such accidents are not of such 
recurrence as one might expect from the vividness and rapidity of the 
lightning. Sefior Azara states that during a N.W. storm on the 2ist 
January, 1793, thirty-seven thunderbolts fell in the district around Buenos 
Ayres, killing nineteen persons. 



Tern per ahire. 



It is of common experience to have in the one and same day a touch of 
the four seasons of the year, such is the extreme and rapid variation in the 
temperature. And though such sudden changes may affect the health, still 
it is certain that the climate of these parts of South America is excellent, 
never suffering from very extreme cold or warmth In Buenos Ayres the 
highest theiraometer in summer is 30, and the lowest in winter 2 above 
zero, some rare instances having brought it down to zero : sno"W is also 
very seldom seen in these regions. The average temperature of Buenos 
Ayres is one or two grades higher than tliat of Montevideo, probably to be 
attributed to the proximity of the latter to the sea, and some other 
topographical differences. 



150 THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 

Tides. 

Captain Heywood says of the tides:— «The tides of the River Plate are 
far from being regular, the run of the current being so uncertain in velocity, 
duration, and direction. It is, therefore, impossible to base any calcula- 
tions upon them, so that the lead has to be used for ascertaining both the 
soundings and the running. When it is calm weather the currents 
generally are not strong, and set m or out pretty regular. The currents 
always vary with the wind; thus, they run eastward along the northern 
coast of the river when the wind is IV. E., but set in, westward, strongly 
along the southern shore during a S.W. or pampero, the water rising 
amazingly : both these currents produce the contrary effect on the opposite 
shores. The river is lowest during N.N.E. or iN.N.W. winds, and at such 
times the curreut running out is on the south shore, but generally does not 
exceed three knots an hour; on the northern it is never very strong.* 
Oyarvide, during a long cruise and many anchorings about Cape San 
Antonio and Sanborombon Bay, up to Cape St. Mary, gives it as his opinion 
that the tides at the mouth of the River Plate are generally regular, being 
only disturbed by heavy storms and high floods, so that the irregularity, 
caused by the wind, concerns more the inside. He states that in the 
anchorage of St. Clement the tide rises six feet, running N.W. for flood, and 
S.E. for ebb. At the Rodeo anchorage it rises six feet five inches, and runs 
N. for flood and S. for the ebb. Off the tosca shores of Point Piedras it is 
high water full and change at lib. t5m., rising six and a-ha!f feet, and 
running N.N.E and S.S.W. In the port of Paloma (Cape St. Mary), the 
tides rise regularly five and a-half feet. At Maldonado, the highest rise 
during ordinary weather is six to seven feet, running S.E. for the flood and 
N.W. for ebbing. It should be remembered, nevertheless, that in all these 
ports if north winds continue long the rise is not so great, and, on the other 
hand, if strong south winds set in there Avill be two feet more water, even 
exceeding that at times, outside winds always causing higher tides. 

Tides in Buenos Ayres. 

M. Thoyou, of the French navy, remarks that the tides at Buenos Ayres 
are more regular than might be supposed, and pretty accurately ascertained 
if the observation of the weather be attended to. He states that the flood 
sets in generally for five hours twenty-one minutes, and the ebb seven hours 
five minutes : high water full and change at 7h. 47m., ordinary rise ten 



LOW TIDES. 1 51 

feet eight iuches. «Comparing observations,)) says the same author, «and. 
taking into account the prevailing v^inds, which, undoubtedly have an 
influence, the irregularity of the tides is not so considerable as geuerallj 
supposed. It will be seen, though the difference be not much, that witk 
outside winds, such as -S.E. toS.E., the flood will commence earlier than 
the calculated hour, succeeded by a proportionate longer ebb : and as 
ordinarily the flood is of shorter duration than the ebb, it is easy to deduce 
that the flood will set in earlier and be of longer duration during IS.E. or 
S.E. Aviud, but it does not much affect the succession of tides. The flood 
makes in undisturbed during >\W. to S.W. winds, and the ebb is not 
affected if it does not blow strong from the S.W. As has been stated, the 
tides are pretty regular with ordinary winds from all quarters, but more so 
when the wind is E. or "V., even when these blow fresh. The wind has 
more influence at hith water, in checking the ebb, than during the flood; 
therefore when it blows from rs\E. round to S.W., the water is dammed in 
longer, whilst the Parana and Uruguay continue to discharge, so that the 
consequence is a much higher water and a later ebb. The reverse of this 
occurs with winds from N. to W. The difference in the rise of water at 
two consecutive tides is rarely more than three and a-half feet; but on 
.some occasions, when the wind has been the sadie for several days, the 
difference has been known to be ten or eleven feet, and with IN. and W. 
strong winds the difference has even been twenty feet — the water falling 
from thirty feet two inches to ton feet four inches. But these are very 
rare occasions, and it requires a combination of circumstances to produce 
them. As a rule, the rise and fall is not more than nineteen feet eight 
inches, and not less than six feet eight iuches, giving ten feet eight inches 
as the average. » 



Low Tides. 

Very low tides are occasioned by strong winds from N.W. to S.W. la 
1792 such a wind lasted three consecutive days, and the consequence was 
to leave the great River Plate nearly dry in most parts. During the Inde- 
pendence War an extraordinary event happened in this respect : the river 
was so low that the Spanish squadron anchored in the outer roads blockad- 
ing Buenos Ayres were left aground, and the bank between the two roads 
appeared dry out of the water ; the Argentines seeing this passed over 
some artillery to attack the squadron, and opened fire on a brigantine 
which was almost on her beam ends ; but that moment the water began to 



1&2 THE PORT OF BUE?(OS AYRKS. 

rise^ and they had to retire. So fast indeed did the flood flow in that, by the 
time the artillery got back to cross the inner roads, only the horses' heads 
appeared above water. Seilor Azara remarks : — The River Plate may be 
considered a gulf of the sea, though it preserves the freshness of its water 
twenty-five or thirty leagues below Buenos Ayres. The strong tides of the 
southern coast do not prevail here, and tlie water does not rise or fall 
according to the floods in the river, but is mostly affected by the winds, 
thus E. or S.E. wind will cause an additional rise of sevenfeet. 



General Movement of Waters. 

In regard to this M. Duperier remarks : — «Tw« causes affect the move- 
ment of the waters of the River Plate,; one is the proportionate strength 
and duration of local winds, the other, it is not certain, but presumed, m 
attributable to the prevailing winds, whether along the north shore or from 
the south at the mouth of the river. Easterly winds, and the adjacent 
points, will always cause the water to rise alongthe whole river ; northerly 
winds produce low water in the left channel, and high water in the right 
channel. Winds from AV. to S.W. will cause the water to fall in the whole 
river, as far as the Ortiz Bank, except in a part near Colonia, where the 
water rises in the left channel. It is true that the extent of this rise or fall 
will depend much on the force of the wind, but the pressure of such a 
mighty body of water is sufficient to move the current from one channel to 
the other. Respecting the rise and fall which are without any apparent 
local cause, it may be said they are common to the whole river. Though 
these effects ai'e well known, it is not easy to ascertain their immediate 
cause ; if observations were taken at the one and same time at several points 
of the river — say Montevideo, Colonia, Martin Garcia, Buenos Ayres, and 
the south extremity of the Ortiz Bank or Point Indio — it might be possible 
to arrive at some solution of this phenomena, especially if added to the 
experience of many years.)) As yet, however, the pilots of the river arc 
content with knowing by experience that always when fresh northerly 
winds blow, or N.W., even also N.E., the river falls considerably, and' 
the current runs to the S E. and S. ; and when pamperos or S.E. winds 
prevail, then the river rises, and the waters run S.W.. or N.W., according 
to the channel. But there are occasions when, without wind or any visible 
cause, the river rises and falls considerably. It may be these are owing to 
iiigh tides out at sea, or perhaps to floods in the two great affluents, the 
yarand and Uruguay ; if the latter, then fresh water ought to flow in the 



PILOTS, 



15> 



•ehtrc of the river, leaving the sliores to bracMsh water. The movements 
•f the water depends also on the shiftings of the breeze. However, by 
attending to the rising and falling of the river, and noting the direction of 
the current, the change of weather can be predicted almost to a certainty. 
Before S.E. wind, running along the shores, the river begins to rise in the 
roads of Buenos Ay res . Many hours before a pampero sets in, and some- 
times a whole day in advance, the water rises in the port of Montevideo. 
AVhen the waters make eastward, shunning the northern shores, then IN.E. 
winds may be expected. A S.E, or S.W. gale may be expected if there is a 
rush of waters in, and the actual rise of water will indicate more or less the 
force and duration of the approaching storm : it has been known to rise 
twenty-one and a-half feet. The lowest river is always with the ij^ind 
from N.IN.E. or N.N.W. which produces an outward current, felt the 
strongest along the southern shore, but seldom exceeding three or four 
knots an hour : ordiuaiy tide currents are from one to one and a-half knots 
an hour. Within the harbor of Monte ^ideo, if the water rises rapidly when 
a strong pampero blows, it continues so for two o; three hours, and then as 
rapidly retires, producing a current against the wind, which in its turn 
causes a cross sea very annoying to vessels, especially those near the mole. 
During N.E. breezes the waters runup along the northern channel, but it 
has the inverse effect in the opposite channel. With the wind from N.E, to 
S,E. the waters run in a westerly direction, causing a slight rise as far as 
the meridian of Montevideo, but much more so above the banks inside the 
river. 

Currents. 

As has been stated, these are not regular within the Plate, generally 
following the direction of the wind. Many times they indicate in advance 
a coming wind : thus, if the water rises longer than during ordinary flood, 
and it is calm, or wind from N. by way of W. toS., then a N.E. or S.E. may 
be expected. 



Pilots. 

These are taken in at Jfontevideo if the vessel calls there, or at the 
lightship off Point Indio if she enters the Plate alone. There are always 
pilots in the lightship ready to board any vessel making signal for such. 
Though these parties are experienced and acquainted with the channels. 



i^4 THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 

captains should not always place blind confidence in them, but keep a 
vigilant look out, consulting their charts, and taking all precautions witk 
the lead, &c., whilst passing the most dangerous channels. Hence, these 
pilots are looked upon more as advisers than trusty guides ; therefore, when 
the position of a ship is doubtful, and it is seen the pilot is not fully up to his 
business, then it is better to let go the anchor at once. Yet the rate of 
these pilotages are high enough, caused probably by the incomplete 
directions respecting the hidden dangers of the river, its uncertain and 
irregular soundings, as well as the fear of the traditional pampero. But 
up to Buenos Ayres or the Homos Islands the depth of Avater is such that 
vessels drawing eighteen feet may ascend in safety by paying attention to 
the general directions given. It is safe and advantageous to let go the 
anchor anywhere the lead indicates soft bottom, and the pilots avail them- 
selves of this very often. 



The Route from Montevideo to Buenos Ayrea. 

Since the establishment of lightships off Point Indio and the Chico Bank, 

this route is easy enough. Nevertheless all foreign ships take in pilots, 

more especially those drawing sixteen feet four inches of water, as the 

channel in some places is narrow and tortuous, particularly at the S.E. 

extremity of the Ortiz Bank. It must be borne in mind also that these 

banks, which impede the navigation of the Plate, are continually shifting and 

altering in their forms and depths, hence they canrjot be known for a 

certainty except by the pilots, Avho have to sound and ascertain the channels 

continually in conducting ships under their charge. Vessels drawing less 

than ten feet of water may cross the Ortiz Bank anywhere, coming from 

Montevideo to Buenos Ayres, as there is always ten feet eight inches over 

it. As a rule, when the lead gives a soft bottom mixed with sand, it is 

indicative of approaching a bank, and the harder it gets the nearer is the 

bank. Care should be always taken to have the anchors ready to let go at 

any moment. There are three channels between Montevideo and Buenos 

Ayres,— the North Channel, the Middle Channel, and the South Channel. 

The North Channel is between the northern shore of the river and the 

Ortiz Bank, and only vessels of fourteen to fifteen feet can navigate it. The 

Middle Channel, which is formed between the Ortiz and Chico Banks, is the 

deepest, and therefore the most frequented. The South Channel is 

between the southern shore and the Chico Bank, and is available to vessel* 

of sixteen feet. To pass through the North or South Ciianuels there should 



MIDDLE CHAIiNEL. ISo 

be a steady breeze, aft or on the quarter, hence thej are only used by 
coasters, if it can be helped. 



The SorOi Channel. 

If circumstances oblige a vessel to take this channel, and supposing the 
starting point to be three or four miles S. of the Cerro, it should steer 
W.5.W. for a time, endeavoring to ascertain the run of the current. To 
clear the Panela Rock, which should always be passed on the starboard 
side, keep the light of the Cerro nothing to E. of N.E. ^ E., until it is in 
line north and south >vith Point Espinillo, then put the helm to W.N.W. ^N., 
so as to avoid the shoals of Santa Lucia and the Barrancas de San Gregorio, 
Approaching Point San Gregorio, which is the extremity of the high laud, 
much care should be taken with the soundings. If more than twenty-nine 
feet of water is found, it shows the vessel to be near the Hat to the west 
of this point, and she should be put to port until the water shoals to 
twenty-three or twenty-five feet, then put her head to N.W. iW.,the 
Point bearing E.N.E., distant eight miles. Steering IN' .W. ^ >'. the water 
will gradually diminish to eighteen feet in front of Point Cufre, which 
should be passed within about two miles. When th's point bears >.E., 
put the ship's head to ^- , keepijig a moderate distance from shore, until 
the west point of Sauce is made, which is easily distinguished by the trees 
crowning its top. Once here, to give a good berth to the rocks called the 
Pipas, which are in mid-channel, and partly above water, and to pass 
in shore of them, the coast must be approached pretty near, until ihe rocks 
bear a point and a half or tw o points to port ; then follow the edge of the 
Ortiz Bank according to soundings, until Colonia appears about W. by N., 
and the vessel then bears for the city. The soundings, which have been 
imiform at about eigliteen feet, will now deepen to twenty-nine feet in the 
narrow channel between Point San Pedro Alcantara and the Pescadore* 
Bank. Making Buenos Ayres whilst steering W.S.\V\, or somewhat more 
S., twenty-one feet of water will be found in the Outer Roads. 



The Middle Channel. 

Before establishing the lightship off Point Indio it was necessary to make 
out that point for certaiYity before attempting either the Middle Channel or 
the South Channel. Although the facilities which the soundings and the 



15G THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 

nature of the bottom indicate are very great, still the land is so 1o\t 
hereabouts that this lightship is a great boon to those navigating the Plate, 
and forms an excellent starting point for both channels, either at day or 
night. The first tiling after leaving the roads of Montevideo is to make for 
this lightship, steering W S.W. ^ W.; but the currents in this part of the 
river are such that the bearings of the Cerro should be carefully Avatched 
as long as it is in view, until the lightship be made out, and the ship's 
course be thus ensured. The soundings are also a good guide. Soon after 
leaving the roads twenty-three and a half to twenty-five feet will be found, 
and whilst the depth remains nearly uniform at that, it shows the channel 
is well kept : if it diminishes to twenty feet and less, then the vessel is 
falling on the verge of the Ortiz Bank; Avhilst on the other hand, if it 
deepens to twenty-nine feet, it indicates a drift towards Sanborombon Bay. 
In each case the currents should be carefully considered, in any alteration of 
course. Having proceeded thirty-five miles on this course, the lightship 
will appear, and a vessel can bear down on her to pass on cither side, or 
take in pilot, if one is required, as this is their station. After passing the 
lightship, put the ship's head to >\W., so as to pass between the Ncav Bank 
and the shoals forming off the Argentine shore, meanwhile watching for 
the steep edges of the Ortiz Bank to the N. of the Chico. On tliis course 
the water should deepen from about twentj-five feet to twenty-nine and 
thirty-five feet, afterwards very gradually shoaling. This shoaling, and 
the hardening of the bottom with sand, indicate the proximity of the banks 
in the narrow part of the channel. If with this N.W. course the soundings 
are uniform, not exceeding twenty-three and a half feet, it shows that a 
strong current has set the vessel towards the Chico Bank : in that case 
steer N., even a little E. to it, if it is thought the bank is very near, until 
the lead gives twenty-nine or thirty-four feet as mid-cliannel : once in that 
water the ship^s head should be put to JN.W. again, as the steep edges of 
the Ortiz Bank have to be avoided, conthuiiug on the same course until the 
next lightship on the Chico Bank is made out. This lightship is anchored 
in twenty-one feet of water, off the IN.E. extremity of the Bank, and should 
be left on the port side. If from some cause or other this lightship is 
unavailable, or cannot be made out in thick weather, then- great care should 
be taken with the soundings, keeping close to the edge of Ortiz, but 
marking well the nature of the bottom. If the vessel is in tlie direct 
channel for Buenos Ayrcs, and in the parallel of the Ortiz Bank with the 
N. extremity of the Chico Bank, then the lead will give twenty-three, 
twenty-nine, and thirty-five feet of water, Avith soh bottom, diminishing 
gradually as the Santiago and Lara Banks are approached, and' continuing 



SOUTH CUAK^'EL. 157 

SO to shoal until the roads of Buenos Ayres are reached. The northern 
edges of the Chico Bank are verv uneven and «lumpy,» hence care should 
be taken to avoid them. If thirty-nine feet or more water is found 
hereabouts, it shows the position to be more S. than the extreme >«.E. point 
of the Chico Bank, and therefore necessary to move more N. in order to 
avoid the Bank. If, on the contrary, the water does not exceed thirty-five 
feet, it indicates the edge of the Ortiz Bank to the northward of its parallel 
uith the point of the Chico Bank, and the ship is therefore to be put for 
the Argentine shore until mid-channel is reached. This lightship off the 
northern point of t lie Chico Bank is a great acquisition for navigating the 
Plate by the Middle Channel: it is anchored in twenty-five feet of water, 
distant thirty-four miles :<. 45 deg. W. from Point ludio lightship in 
direct line. 

The South Channel. 

In entering this channel it is requisite to make out the lightship off Point 
indio, Aviiich, as has been stated, is anchored in twenty-five feet of water, 
between tlie said point and the S.E. extremity of the Ortiz Bank,, and forty- 
three miles from the port of Montevideo. If circumstances are such that 
this channel is preferable to the middle channel, run along the Argentine 
Jhore, keeping a soft bottom with the lead until rounding the point at Bay 
of Barragan. In tlie first part of the run the New Bank must not be forgotten; 
its proximity will be indicated by the shoaling of the soundings, and the 
cnixture of sand with the soft bottom. The bearings from the lightship, how- 
ever, if that be made out rightly, will insure a safe passage here. Following 
tJie southern coast of the river, and keeping with the edge of the tosca 
ahoals which fringe it, the lead will indicate tosca and soft bottom 
alternatively, and nearly equal soundings. In this manner the south 
channel must be crept along until the churcii of the 31agdalena bears S. 28 
deg. W. On the southern extremity of the Chico Bank, as well as along its 
edge there are twenty-three feet of water, hard bottom ; but running >\W. 
and S.E. there i« a strip on which no more ti»an eighteen feet of water will 
be found, though the bottom is soft, and it forms a narrow channel with the 
shore. Tiierefore, to be quite secure, this channel, which is near the Chico 
Bank^ should be avoided, keeping as near shore as possible for the draught 
of the vessel. If Point Atalaya bears S. 40 deg. AV., it is then pretty certain 
that the vessel is not in the channel, and should be kept off until twenty- 
three feet is obtained, so as to clear the Santi;>go and Lara Banks, and this 
depth should not diminish until abreast of Quilmcs, the same river giving 



1&8 THE PORT OF BUESOS AYRES. 

nineteen or twenty feet in the roads of Buenos Ayres. In place of following 
the Argentine coast, after emerging from the south channel proper, perhaps 
the safest course is to steer N.W. until the Ortiz Bank is approached, and 
then take a course for Buenos Ayrss direct. This is by far the best course 
if the destination be Colonia or the Hornos Isles. 

Beating from Montevideo to Pointlndio. 

If it is necessary to tack after leaving Montevideo, care should be taken 
to avoid the dangers lying at the mouth of the river, such as the English Bank , 
the Archimedes, the Ortiz, and the shoals off the right shores of the river. 
The soundings and the nature of the bottom will indicate clearly the 
localities of the banks, and with such guidance there should be no fear to 
beat the distance to Point Indio. 

From Point Indio to Buenos Ayres. 

More difficulties present themselves, and more attention is necessary in 
beating from Point Indio to Buenos Ayres For a while, between these two 
points, unless the running is at least six knots an hour, the current should 
not be attempted to be stemmed, at least if it runs more than one or one 
and a-half knots. If the current runs strong, and the vessel does not make 
much way, it is better to come to anchor, and wait for a more favorable 
opportunity— change of w ind or current. After passing the lightship the 
first tacks should be towards the Argentine shore, so as to clear the New 
Bank, at least if the draught of the vessel permits it being crossed. It is 
quite safe to beat here if the lightship is always kept bearing somewhat E. 
in the outward tacks, until a tosca bottom is felt, which shows that the 
N.W. point of the bank is being crossed ; tlien the tacking may be 
prolonged to the Ortiz Bank up to twenty-one feet of Avater, returning to a 
similar depth in shore. It is not so uneven or broken on the edge of the 
Ortiz Bauk as it is on the tosca ledges lying along shore, therefore even a 
little less water on that bow may not be dangerous, still it is better to keep 
the same water, so as to avoid any outlying lumps of the bank. In this 
manner a vessel may beat past the New Bank to the S.E. extremity of the 
Chico Bank. When in the vicinity of the latter bank, six or eight trees in 
the neighborhood of Magdalena will appear, and while these bear S.W. 
quarters, a vessel may beat without fear. It will be noted now that more 
water will be found on the starboard side, running along the edge of the 
Ortiz Bank, than when making shore on the port bow. When the onibii 



ADVICE. 1 59 

trees referred to bear S.S.W., it shows the position to be in the channel 
between the Ortiz and Chico Banks : they may be seen from the round-top 
of an ordinary vessel before the Chico Bank is reached, but from the edge 
of the Ortiz, say in twenty feet of water, they cannot be seen, — a vessel 
must be in mid-channel, and the weather clear, before they can be made 
out from the mast-head. Once between the Ortiz and Chico, a vessel may 
beat towards the former up to twenty feet without any fear ; but should 
not approach the latter any nearer than twenty-five feet, as its edges are 
very steep. When it is calculated the vessel is in the narrowest part of the 
middle channel, great care should be taken, the ship put about immediately 
if after the lead gives twenty -nine feet the next throw be two feet less. 
The shoaling of this bank is rather abrupt — giving twenty-three feet at 
first, then eighteen feet at a second cast, and the ne\t eleven feet, with 
hard bottom : the rapid shoaling renders the Chico the most dangerous 
bank in the River Plate, and being uneven in its edges, and leaving but a 
narrow channel between it and the Ortiz, the working of a ship past its 
dangers is a difficult task. Having passed this, and tacked across the 
channel, the soundings will be found at thirty-nine and a-half feet, which, 
when shoaling to thirty-two or twenty-eight and a-half fe'et, shows the 
pro\imity of the Santiago and Lara Banks : still the port bow may be kept 
to the Argentine shore until twenty-three feet is reached, which will be 
nearly abreast of Quilmes : perhaps only twenty-one feet will be found, but 
if the bottom be soft black mud the channel is good. Once up to this point 
a couple more tacks will reach the outer roads of Buenos Ayres. Inside 
the road perhaps it w ill be necessary to take one or two short tacks, to 
bring the vessel to a good position, but not less than two feet of water 
shottld always be under the keel. 

ADVICE. 

After all, it must be remembered, that all such book instructions as have 
been given as to the routes to Puenos Ayres are mere indications for 
extreme cases, and for such unforeseen circumstances that no others are 
available — such, for instance, as the lemoval of either of the lightships off 
Point ludio or the Chico Bank, from some cause or other; or during thick 
weather, when no marks are visible ; or if full confidence cannot be placed 
in the pilot on board. Otherwise, it is not advisable for any foreign 
captain, unless of much experience, and well knowing the landmarks, to 
attempt the passage to Buenos Ayres, or outward, without the assistance of 
a practical pilot. It should also be borne in mind that in a great estuary like 



<60 THE PORT OF BUENOS AYRES. 

this, where the currents run in such different directions, the formation of 
the banks is always changing, and with them the channels; hence it 
becomes necessary sometimes to alter the position of the lightships, from 
which it will be seen that the bearings and directions given can only be 
approximately relied upon, as the results of the then latest surveys published. 
More may be confided to the soundings, and the lead should always be kept 
going : the depth, and nature of the bottom, with careful reference to the 
chart, are, moreover, the best guides the pilots have. 

THE AFFLUENTS OF THE PLATE. 

The requisite knowledge for navigating the Uruguay and Parana 

.being only attained by practical experience, the distances on these 

rivers only are given here : — 

The Vruguaij. 

Miles. 

From the roads of Buenos Ayres to Point Gorda, at the 

entrance of the Uruguay, ..." 55 

« Point Gorda to the Bio ISegro, 30 

« Rio Negro to Gualeguaychu, .... 23 

« Gualeguaychu to the Arroyo China, ... 40 

« Arroyo China to Paysandu, .... 12 

« Paysandu lo Concordia, .... .... 62 

« Concordia to Salto, .... .... 9 

« Salto to the town of Belen, 30 

« Belen to the Rio Miriilai, ' 48 

« Mirifiai to the Rio Ibicui, 60 

« Ibicui to the town of La Cruz, .... 16 

« La Cruz to Santo Tom6, .... .... 48 

« Santo Tome to the Pass of Concepcion 66 

« Concepcion Pass to San Javier, .... 21 

« San Javier to Salto Grande, 4 miles below Pepiri, 121 

The Parand. 
The distances of the various ports of call on this river from the roads of 



LlC^UUO i-t-JM-^^ '^- 


Miles. 




Miles, 


To the ParanA Guazu, . . . 


55 


To Esquina, 


456 


« San Pedro, 


. 115 


« Bella Vista, 


. . 572 


« San Nicolas, 


181 


« Corrientes, 


.. 612 


« Rosario, .... 


. 223 


« Salto de Apipe, 


780 


« Paran(i, 


. 321 


« Salto dc GuairA, . . 


. . 1 ,070 


« La Paz, 


. 406 








SECTION C. 



CHAP. I. 



THE PROVIIN'CE OF BUENOS AYRES. 

The territory of the province is not very clearly defined : it is supposed to 
include all the area bounded on the N. by Santa Fe, on the W. by Mendoza, 
on the South by the Magellan's" Straits, and on the E. by the La Plata 
and South Atlantic. Meantime the Indians are undisputed owners of 
immense regions in Patagonia and the Pampas, and the settled districts of 
Buenos Ajres hardly exceed 70,000 square miles, which is little more than 
the extent of England, while the Pampas and Patagonia cover a superficies 
of 440,000 square miles. Part of this latter territory, at present wholly 
useless, is claimed by the province of Mendoza, and also by the Republic of 
Chile. The general appearance of the country is that of a vast plain, 
covered with grass or thistles, and almost destitute of trees. In the north 
there are numerous arroyos w hich fall into the Parana ; these have their 
origin in swamps or «cauadas,)) and sometimes dry up in summer time, but 
the rivers of Del Medio, Arrecifes, Areco, audLuxan are permanent water 

AA 



2 THE PROVINCE OF BUENOS A\RES. 

courses: in the south we find some large rivers, viz., the Salado, whicb 
runs for 250 miles, from W. to E. and falls into the estuary of the La 
Plata near Cape St, Anthony ; and the Colorado and Negro, which may be 
regarded as the Indian frontier-line southward. Among the tributaries of 
the Salado are the arroyos of Las Flores, Tapalquen and Azul, which give 
their names to the districts they irrigate. The Rio Negro has its origin 
in the Andes, crossing the continent from E. to W., and is navigable 
almost the whole course. Further south is the Chupat river, where the 
Welsh colony is establislied. Among the minor streams of the south are 
the Chapaleofu, Tandileofii, Aapaleofu, Yivorata and Arroyo Grande, of 
sweet water, and the Pantanoso, Quequen-grande, Quequen Salado, 
Cristiano Muerto, Carmelo, 3Iulponleofu and Sauce Grande, which have a 
brackish taste, being impregnated with certain salts. There are numerous 
lagoons or lakes scattered over the various districts ; like the rivers, some 
of them dry up in the hot season ; they are mostly of sweet water, and 
invaluable for the use of the flocks and herds : the lakes of Chascomas, 
Bragado, 25 de Mayo, Encadenadas, Laguna de los Padres, and Mar 
Chiquita are the most important. The only lines of hills are those in the 
southern Indian country, viz., the Sierra Vulcan, Tandileofii, Tandil, 
Huesos, Tapalquen, Sierra Tinta, Chapaleofu, Azul, &c., which rise near 
Cape Corrientes, run 200 miles inland in a WNW. direction, and are lost 
m the Pampas: further south ^are the Curra-malal, Guanini, and Sierra 
Yentana, which stretch out about 100 miles. The Sierra Tinta is famous 
for superior marble. Among natural curiosities is worthy of mention the 
great rocking-stone of Tandil. 

The population of the province, exclusive of the city of Buenos Ayres, 
is returned as 319,773 souls, iri the following order — Argentines 217,325, 
Spaniards 18,332, French 14,594, Italians 13,768, English 12,449, Germans. 
2,339, Indians 6,966, others 4,000. These returns are pretty correct in an 
official point of view, since they include all foreigners' children born int he 
country, under the classification of Argentines. If, however, we be 
permitted to count the families of foreign settlers as belonging to their 
nationality we shall find the estimates thus : — 

Argentines, 180,000 English, 35,000 

French & Basques, 40,000 Italians, 30,000 

Spaniards, 30,000 Germans, 5,000 

The natives may be said to occupy themselves exclusively iri the care of 
horned cattle and breaking-in horses. They are intelligent, obliging, and 
hospitable, but fond of gambling and horse-racing, and the lower classes 
are entirely devoid of education. Their manner of life gives them little 



FOREIGlf P0PUL1.TI0IC. 3 

respect for a laborious and well-organized state of society ; and as the layfs 
have hitherto afforded the «paisauo)) no other privilege than a life of 
perpetual military service, either on the frontier or in the civil wars, the 
result has been to demoralize the rural population. The French and 
Basques are found in a variety of callings — inn-keepers, artizans, shepherds, 
brick-makers, bullock-drivers, &c. : they are industrious and honest, 
seldom failing to realize an independence, and well-liked by . their 
neighbors. The Spaniards are sometimes shopkeepers, sometimes 
shepherds, chacreros, &c. The Italians are often found as pulperos or 
travelling huxters, and they have little shops here and there through the 
country. The English may be subdivided thus — Irish 30,000, Scotch, 
Americans, &c. 5000: the Irish have, for over 20 years, formed the bulk of the 
sheep-farming community, and to them is in a great measure due the staple 
wealth of the country ; they are mostly found in the N. and W. where they 
own large estancias, and their attention to the education of their children 
is an honorable characteristic ; each district has its own Irish clergyman, 
its lending library, aud its racing club. The Scotch seem to prefer the 
Southern camps : there are flourishing communities in the districts of San 
Vicente and Chascomus, where many of the estancias will call for our 
special attention in the tour of the campagna. The Scotch settlers were 
originally men of humble fortunes, but thrifty, well-informed, and 
laborious; it is not surprising that success has attended them. There is a 
Scotch chapel near Quilmes, and another on the Adela estancia near 
Chascomus. Of Englishmen properly so called there are very few 
in the camp, but we shall have to visit one or two wealthy English 
estancieros. North Americans are fewer still. Germans are scattered 
widely, some as shop-keepers, others as farmers, and the latter have some of 
the finest establishments in the province. 

In the last century the sole industry of the country consisted in killing 
horned cattle for their hides. Of late years the sheep business has sprung 
up rapidly, aud attained colossal dimensions. The country is well adapted 
for rearing innumerable flocks, and when the frontier is once securely fixed 
along the Rio JNegro we may look for further expansion to this industry. 
Agriculture has some draAvbacks, particularly that of want of hands, but it 
is making unprecedented progress in those districts connected by river or 
railway with the capital : the wheat crops, especially, are abundant and 
remunerative. The official statistics of stock are as follows: — sheep, 
60,000,000; cows, 6,000,000; horses, nearly 2,000,000. This gives an 
average of 200 sheep, 20 cows, and 6 horses to every inhabitant, a 
proportion that will not be found in any other country of the globe. 

AA2 



THE PROVmCE OF BUENOS A.YRES. 



The province is divided 
are as follows : — 

Partidos. 

San Jose de Flores, 

South Barracas, . . . . 

Zamora, .... . . . . 

San Vicente, . . . . 

Quilmes, .... . . . . 

Ensenada, .... . . . . 

Magdalena, . . . . 

Bivadavia (new), . . . . 

Biedma " . . . . 

Chascoraus, . • • • 

Banchos, .... . . . . 

Guardia Monte, 

Cafmelas, .... . . . . 

Lobos, .... . . . . 

Las Heras, . . . . 

Navarro, .... 

3Iercedes, .... 

Suipacha (new), ... 

Chivilcoy, .... . . . , 

Chacabuco, . . . . 

IN'ueve de Julio, .... 

Junin, .... ... 

Bojas, 

Pergamino, ... 

San Nicolas, 

Bamallo, .... . . . . 

San Pedro, .... 

Arrecifes, ... 

Salto, 

Carmen deAreco, . . . 

San Antonio " ... 
Baradero, .... 
Necochea,(new), 
Zarate, .... 
Lincoln (new), 
Capilla del Sefior, 



into 72 partidos, which, with their population, 



Population. 

5,435 
5,2.50 
1,255 
6,030 
5,286 
3,140 
15,807 



15,590 
7,588 
4,432 
4,933 

16,409 
1,670 

11,195 
8,937 

11,664 
6,063 
3,053 
1,326 
2,615 
7,042 

12,561 
2,054 
5,789 
3,514 
3,478 
4,187 
2,39 i 
4,601 

3,436 

4,227 



Partidos. 

S. Andres de Giles, 
Villai Luxan, 

Pilar, 

Moreno, .... 
Las Conchas, 
San Fernando, 
Sanlsidro,. . . . 

Belgrano, 

San Martin, 
Moron, .... 

Merlo, 

Matauzas, .... 

Tordillo, 

Tres Arroyos (new), 

Castelli « 

Bauch « 

Ayacucho « 

Balcarce « 

Tuyu « 

Aj6, 

Monsalvo, . . 

Mar-Chiquita 

Loberia, 

Dolores, . . 

Vecino, 

Tandil, . . 

Azul, 

Las Flores, 

Saladillo, . . 

Pila, 

Arcnales, . . 

Tapalquen, 

25 de Mayo, 

Bragado, . . 

BahiaBlanca, 

Patagones, 



Population. 

2,834 
10,292 
4,313 
2,063 
1,681 
4,112 
3,649 
2,946 
2,666 
2,914 
2,003 
1,313 
2,386 



2,922 
9,577 
3,333 
3,365 
7,466 
1,600 
2,143 
I0,2i9 
7,863 
5,746 
3,361 
9,645 
2,000 
8,821 
4,222 
2,168 
2,300 



PRmCIPAL TOWTTS. 5 

The principal camp towns are— San Nicolas, on the Parana, 8,000 
inhabitants; Mercedes, a flourishing western town, 6,000; Villa Luxan, 
surrounded by Irish sheepfarmers, 5,500 ; Chivilcoy, the centre of the 
agricultural districts, 3,500; Dolores, in the south, 4,800; San Pedro, on 
the Parana, 3,248 ; Chascomus, the terminus of the Southern Railway, 
4,000; Lobos, a busy little place, 5,000; Azul, near the Indian frontier, 
5,000: Navarro, another sheepfarming centre, 3,000; San Fernando, a 
port for coasting traflSc, 3,000; Belgrano, a fashionable summer residence, 
2,500; Carmen de Areco, in the north, 2,000; Quilmes, famous for its 
chacras, 2,500 ; Barracas, where the saladeros are situated, 3,000 ; Salto, 
2,000; Las Hores, 2,000; Magdalena, 2,000; Ranchos, 1,600; Rojas, 
1,700; San Jose de Flores, 1,500; Veinte-Cinco de Mayo, 1,500; Bahia 
Blanca, 1,500; Patagones, 1,350; San Antonio de Areco, 1,200; Moron, 
1,205; Capilla del Seuor, 1,152; Pilar, 1,000; San Yicente, 1,000; 
Pergaraino, 1.500; Arrecifes, 1,000; Baradero, 1,000. 

As a rule the northern camps are high, and, in dry seasons, exposed to 
drought: in 1859 a million horned cattle perished, and their carcases 
covered the country far and wide. The southern camps, on the contrary, 
are low, and suffer in wet seasons from a superabundance of water. ccThe 
soil,)) says an intelligent Scotch writer, wis in general very rich and 
produces, at certain seasons, luxuriant crops of natural clover, in which 
horses and cattle may be seen wading knee-deep. Even during a 'seca,* 
when the camp is as bare as a turnpike-road, the flocks contrive to subsist, 
though in an emaciated condition, on thistle seeds, which are scattered in 
great abundance over the ground. The climate is agreeable, and I have 
seldom seen finer-looking men than Europeans who have resided long in 
the country, and those of European descent. The spring is the pleasantest 
season, being neither too hot nor too cold. The earth, too, is covered with 
a rich carpet of clover and thistles, and looks as fine as any country with 
such a flat face can do. As summer approaches the heat becomes excessive. 
The thistles, which before looked like a crop of turnips, suddenly spring up 
to a height of ten or eleven feet, armed with strong prickles, forming dense 
jungles impenetrable to man or beast. The appearance of the country 
undergoes a complete change in the course of a week or two. The horizon, 
with its known landmarks, is suddenly hidden from view, and one scarcely 
knows where to steer. About Christmas (midsummer) the thistles are all 
in full bloom, and soon droop and die. The grass grows yellow, withers, 
and disappears. Pamperos, tremendous gales from the west, arise and 
sweep away all* remains of vegetation. These hurricanes are so charged 
with dust and dead thistles that day becomes as dark as night. Travellers 



6 IHE PROVINCE OF BUENOS AYEES. 

lose all idea of their course, and often AYander astray. Even the natives, 
who possess an instinct like that of the pigeon, make absurd mistakes. 
Tropical rains fall in winter, and the whole country becomes a SAvamp. 
After the rain, liowever, Nature, like a phoenix, rises from the ashes, and 
the earth turns green again. Snow may not be seen for a generation, but 
ice is not uncommon, and the wind is often piercingly cold. The climate is 
healthy to the healthy, but unsuitable for invalids, especially those with 
consumptive tendencies.)) 

Among the animals peculiar to the country is the ((biscacho,)) which is 
classed by naturalists among the family of Chinchillidae and order of 
Rodentia. (cBiscachosw are an abhorrence to sheepfarmers, as they burrow 
the land in all directions, and there is much danger to persons galloping 
after dark, of the horse stumbling over a wbiscachera.)) The «biscachos» 
remain underground during tlie day, and it is remarkable that a peculiar 
breed of owls inhabit the same burrows with them. After sunset the 
traveller will see these strange animals sitting or running about at the 
mouth of their burrow ; but, of a sudden, they utter a strange cry and 
dive down out of sight. Another curious animal is the wpeludo)) or 
armadillo, which burrows in the ground, but leaves no opening behind it. 
«Peludos)) are considered by the natives as a very dainty dish, being cooked 
and served up in the shell : the flavor is almost too rich and savoury. 
«Mulitas)) are almost the same as «peludos,)) and also mucli in request as 
an article of food. These animals have such powerful claws that if once 
they get their head under ground it is impossible to pull them out. In the 
more distant camps w^e sometimes hear of wild dogs (perros cimarrones) 
which go about like wolves, in large packs, doing much havoc among sheep. 
The acomadreja)) is an animal between the weasel and the otter ; it is fond 
•f sucking eggs, and has a pouch, like the opossum, for carrying about its 
young. Rats, mice, and frogs are abundant in all parts of the country ; and 
among venemous reptiles are found the «escuerzo,)) a deadly kind of toad, 
and the «Vivora de la Cruz,)) a small snake so called from its having a cross 
on its head; the latter kind of reptile is very rare. The other animals 
comprise ostriches, «nutrias,)) pole-cats, and tiger-cats : «nutrias)) are much 
esteemed for their skins, in which the Indians carry on some trade. 
Tiger-cats arc about double the size of the domestic animal. 

Birds are as scarce as trees 'in Buenos Ayres, if we except game, which 
is very abundant: the country swarms with wild duck, partridge, and a 
species of horned plover, called «tero-tero)) from the cry which it makes. 
There is a kind of hawk or vulture called «chimango,)) wliich picks out the 
eyes of young lambs; the «carancho)) is another kind, somewhat larger, 



TREES AVD SHRUBS. 7 

and both these birds are a kind of scavengers, specially provided by 
Nature for carrying off the carrion that infests the camps on all sides. 
Parrots are often found in large numbers. The «Pica-flor,» or humming- 
bird, is one of the tiniest and prettiest of the feathered tribe ; it is no 
larger than a bee, of the most beautiful and variegated hues, and lives by 
sipping from the flowers, like a butterfly : there is also the (fHornero)) or 
«oven-bird,)) a little larger than a lark, whichbuilds its nest of mud on the 
fork of a tree ; the nest is about th^ size of a man's head, the walls an 
inch thick, and almost as strong as a brick. 

Tiie botanist will find little to interest him in the Pampas : nevertheless 
the apita)) or flowering-aloe is a beautiful plant, indigenous to the country. 
It is usually seen forming a fence in the suburban quintas, and has a fine 
effect, springing up to a height of .30 feet, and at the basQ it is surrounded 
by large prickly leaves, 7 or 8 feet long, and 5 or 6 inches in thickness. 
The inner substance is a fibrous matter from which some excellent twine 
has been made. The «tuna)> is sometimes confounded with the «pita,)) but 
the former seems rather of the cactus family. The fences formed by these 
plants have often proved impenetrable even to the Indians. The chief 
ornament of these plains is the «Ombu,» which casts out its branches to a 
great extent and affords a cool and refreshing shade ; the foliage is dark 
green; it is invaluable as a landmark, and Don Luis Dominguez has sung 
its praises in very eloquent strains. Poplars grow abundantly in the south, 
paradise-trees in the north, and peach-trees everywhere ; these last are 
useful not only for their fruit, but for supplying firewood, and they are 
cut down every three years. Grapes, figs, and other European fruits 
thrive here admirably, as also the vegetables in common use in England. 
In fact nearly all the products of the temperate zones and the tropics are 
reared with little difliculty other than that caused by the ants. Australian 
gum-trees acquire a Avonderful height and bulk in three or four years, and 
the Government endeavored, a couple of years ago, to induce the natives 
to plant it largely. There are many pretty field flowers, apparently 
indigenous, but the science of horticultuse is comparatively new and 
limited to the commoner kinds of garden-flowers, although the camelias 
seem much finer than are usual in Europe. 

Thirty years ago all travelling in the camp was done on horseback, and 
the natives still make light of galloping 100 or even 150 miles in a day. 
«Diligencias)) or mail-coaches, when first introduced, were drawn by a 
dozen horses yoked sideways by a girth or «cincha. The want of bridges 
over the arroyos often made this method of travelling exceedingly 
troublesome and tedious. At present there are railways north, south, and 



8 THE PROVINCE OF BUENOS ATRES. 

west, traversing the country for two hundred miles, and in connection with 
them a number of «diligencias,)) which renders travelling easy and 
expeditious. Goods and produce are transported by troops of ten or a 
dozen bullock-carts, which are ugly, cumbersome, vehicles, built on 
ponderous wheels ; they travel about 20 miles a day ; the bullock-drivers 
urge on the oxen with long goads; these men have a life of extreme 
hardship, living always in the open air, without other home or shelter than 
the shadow of their rude waggons. ♦ 

The Province of Buenos Ayres was an independent Republic from the fall 
of Rosas, in 1852, till the reconstruction of the Argentine Confederation in 
1861; it is now one of the fourteen united provinces, having its owa 
Governor, Legislature, and local authorities, and being represented in the 
National Congress by two Senators and twelve Deputies. The Governor is 
elected for three years, and has two 3Iinisters of State, for the Home and 
Finance Departments. The Senators and, Deputies for the Provincial 
Legislature are elected by the various districts, in the rate of a Senator for 
every 12,000, and a Deputy for every 6,000 inliabitants : the first sit for 
three years, the se;cond for two. The judicial authorities comprise a High 
Court of Justice (from which there is appeal to the Federal tribunal), the 
Tribunal of Commerce, District Courts at 3Iercedes, San Nicolas and Dolores, 
Justices of Primera Instancia, and the ordinary Justices of Peace for the 
respective partidos. The administration of the laws is necessarily 
imperfect, owing to the difficulty of organizing a proper police force in so 
extended a country, and the want of respect towards the'public magistrates : 
the Justice of the Peace, in the camp districts, is usually a grocer 
or sheep-farmer, and the Alcaldes and Tenientes often belong to the 
humblest class of «paisanos.» Each partido has also its municipal board^ 
to which foreigners are eligible. The ecclesiastical division of the 
province coincides with the judicial, and each partido has its Cura, with 
one or two assistant clergymen, who are often Italian priests. Public 
instruction meets with every possible favor from Government, and the 
various camp-towns boast handsome state-schools ; meantime the education 
of the Fural population offers great difficulties, partly oAving to the 
distances intervening between the scattered towns, and still more to the 
habits and character of the gauchos. The total number of children 
attending state-schools in the camp is returned at 5,903, in a population of 
320,000 souls. The number of National Guards amounts to 32,320, and 
from these are drawn contingents for the Indian frontier : all foreigners^ 
are exempt from this laborious and unpleasant service. 



CATTLE rARHIIfG. 



CHAP. II. 

LIFE IN THE CAMP. 

CATTLE-FARMIHG. 

The business of horned cattle is almost entirely in the hands of natives, 
and it formed for nearly three centuries the sole occupation of the Spanish 
settlers. It seems incredible, and yet it is no less true, that horses and 
cows were unknown before the time of Alvaro ?(uuez, otherwise called 
Cabeza de Yaca (cow's head), who brought out the first cattle from Spain, 
A.D. 1541, since which time they have increased so prodigiously as to 
number several millions, notwithstanding the enormous slaughter, during 
so many years, of millions of cows and mares, merely for their hides. The 
rearing of cattle is still extensively carried on, for the saladeros, where the 
hides, bones, and flesh are turned to account, the trade in jerked beef 
being very considerable, for the markets of Cuba and Brazil. 

Estancias for horned cattle usually vary from one to ten square leagues 
in extent, while those on the frontier are even much larger ; they abound 
in «pasto fuerte« or coarse grass, which stands th« dry seasons better than 
the meadow grass or trefoil on which sheep are pastured : the former must 
be entirely eaten down before the fide grasses spring up. The estanciero 
takes care to select a piece of land bordered by a river, or having 
permanent lagoons, and as free as possible from thistles, hemlock and 
burr. In building his house he is guided by his taste or means; a mud 
rancho costs about £40 to £60, a house of adobes or sun-dried bricks 
about double the above amount; and sometimes we find luxurious 
residences that cost over a thousand pounds sterling. The «corrales» are 
large folds for enclosing the cattle, whenever this is found necessary ; they 
are made of upright posts 7 feet high, of a hard wood called uaudubay, 
fastened together by means of cross bars and hide thongs, the «corrales» 
are round in form, and strongly made, so as to hold a large number of cattle ; 



10 I-IPE IN THE CAMP. 

the gate consists of two or three transverse bars. The «corral» is always 
near the estancia house. The umonte)> or «quiuta,» surrounding the house, 
comprises an extensive peach-orchard, visible several leagues off. In 
three years peach-trees arrive at maturity, and they serve the double purpose 
of fruit and fuel, besides making fences. One third of the plantation 
is cut down at intervals, and planted afresh, and in this manner the supply 
of fruit and timber is constant and abundant. The staff of an estancia 
usually consists of a Majordorao, who represents the master, an expert 
capataz to oversee the peons, and half-a-dozen to twenty peons or servants, 
according to the size of the estancia ; these last earn $250* to ^^oO 
(£2 to £3) a month ; they also get their food — an unlimited supply of beef 
and some «yerba.)) 

The stock of an estancia often numbers ten thousand head, divided into 
herds of two or three thousand each, which two men can easily care. Each 
herd is gathered up every night to its «rodeo,» an open space, where each 
animal regularly chooses its own place to lie down ; they remain there till 
after sunrise, when they set off again to graze. Cows calve once a year, 
heifers as early as two years ; they live to about 15 or 20 years of age, 
and their milk is rich and of excellent flavor. The legs and horns are 
longer than in English breeds. The stock of horned cattle in the province 
is set down at 6,000,000 head, and the annual slaughter in thc^aladeros 
exceeds half-a-million, independent of the consumption for the city 
markets. The oxen broken for the plough or bullock-cart are remarkably 
gentle, and of symmetrical proportions. Formerly there were large- 
quantities of «alzada)) or wild cattle, but the Indians have left but few on 
the frontiers. In seasons of drought cattle sometimes stray hundreds of 
miles in quest of water, but unless they calve on their new pastures they 
invariably return to their aquerencia)) after the drought. Sometimes the 
cattle are watered by means of a «balde sinfondo,» which raises water 
from a well, and is worked by a man rni horseback ; it can water 2,000 head 
of cattle in a day. Cattle-farming until recently Avas not considered so 
lucrative, but, when properly attended to it gives very fair results, say 20_ 
to 30 per cent, on the capital invested. Herds of cattle, from 1,000 
upwards, may be purchased atgGO or §80m/c (say 10 to 13 shillings) a head. 
Land is so dear in the sheep-farming districts that the estanciero has to 
choose an estancia in the southern partidos of Pila, Vecino, Monsalvo, or 
Loberia, but he must beware of the western frontier, which is much 
' exposed to Indians. As a rule the business of horned cattle, does not at 
all suit foreign settlers, although some have in a measure combined it with 
the care of sheep. 



HABITS OF THE «PAISAKOS.» 11 

The great season of amusement in camp life is the Yerra or marking- 
time. All the peons of the estancia, and others from the neighborhood, 
drive the cattle into the « corrals : » each animal is caught with a lasso bj a 
man on horseback, then tied down, and a red hot iron with the owner's 
monogram or mark is planted on the poor brute's flank, while a blue smoke 
curls upward from the smoking flesh: the mark so made is indelible, and 
this is the way that estancieros distinguish their property, there being no 
fences or bounds to the various estancias. The Yerra always winds up 
with a feast of «carne-con-cuero,» or meat cooked in the hide, than which 
nothing can be more savory ; neither coals nor wood must be employed in 
cooking it, but only bones, and it eats best cold. Horses are marked in 
the same manner as horned cattle, and when sold must receive the 
counter-mark of the first owner as well as the brand of the purchaser, 
which custom sadly disfigures many fine animals. The Gauchos are very 
clever in breaking-in horses, following a method very akin to that of Karey ; 
they tie one of the horse's legs, and put him through a tiresome ordeal, 
then mount him, ride him about a mile, tie him up for a day without food, 
and before a week the animal is quite tame aud broken-in. 

Nothing is so wonderful as the dexterity of the natives in throwing the 
lasso ; their aim is almost unerring ; they will single out a horse or cow in 
the middle of a herd and bring him down with unfailing precision. They 
will also pursue an animal in full chase across the plains, and, when thejr 
get sufliciently near, the lasso is swung twice or thrice around their head, 
then let go, aud the moment it touches the runaway cow the horse of the 
rider stands still, to receive the shock, and down goes the cow headlong on 
the ground. Another way of catching horses is with the «bolas : » these 
are three round stones or iron balls, about the size of an egg, covered with 
raw hide, aud fastened to a strip of hide about five feet long. They are 
thrown much like the lasso, at a distance of sixty or seventy yards, with 
unerring aim, and, entangling the feet of the pursued animal, bring him to 
the ground with a violent shock. The Gauchos are also very clever in 
plaiting bridles of uutanned hide thongs, and their great ambition is to 
caparison their horses with elaborate • silver trappings, often worth a £100 
sterling. Their own dress is, moreover, tasteful and fantastic : instead of 
pantaloous they wear a (cchiripa)) of striped Avoollen stuff, fitting loosely 
about the thighs, and exceedingly convenient on horseback ; this is fastened 
by a leathern «tirador)) ornamented with silver buttons, and in this, at their 
back, they stick a knife with silver or leathern scabbard. Under the 
«chiripa)) they wear white cotton drawers Avith a fringe twelve inches 
deep : the boots were formerly «botas de potro» formed of the untanned 



12 LIFE I]N THE CAMP. 

skin of a colt's legs, leaving the wearer's toes quite bare, and the big toe 
exactly fitted the little wooden stirrup which they used ; but now they are 
beginning very generally to wear the ordinary boots. Besides the 
tttiradoD) they wear a long «faja)) or sash of red silk, tied around the 
waist. The «poncho» completes the dress : it is like a table cover, with a 
slit in the middle to admit the head, and varying in value from a few 
shillings to £50 ; the finest are those made of vicuna wool, woven by the 
natives of the upper provinces. 

The rich estancieros usually live in the city, in great fashion and luxury, 
leaving their establishments in charge cf a amayordomo,)) and going out 
once or twice a year to see how things go on; they are men of polished 
manners, good education, and often members of learned professions. 
Their great fault is an absolute neglect to improve the condition and 
manners of the «paisanos)) on their estates. The «gauchos» live in 
wretched «i:anchos,» of which the rafters and frame-work are stalks of 
the aloe or canes, the sides are plastered with mud, and the roof is of 
«paja)) or reeds that grow in the lagoons. The furniture consists of a 
wooden stool or bench, a few horses' or cows' heads that are used for seats, 
and a cowhide stretched on stakes, which serves as the family bed. The 
cooking is done in the open air with an «asador)) or spit that is stuck into 
the ground, and a large three-legged pot : sometimes a little oven is built 
near the «rancho.» ^The most important piece of furniture, however, is 
the (crecado)) or native saddle, which is very complicated and consists of 
hide-trappings and cloths that as often serve the «gaucho)> for his bed ; 
the wrecado is a very comfortable saddle for a long journey, but tires the 
horse more than the ordinary saddle. The ordinary price of a «recado,» 
complete, is about £5, and the best^street in the city to buy it in, is Calle 
Buen Orden. TJie business of cattle-farming will receive a great impulse 
and prove much more lucrative if Mr. Bailey's project succeeds, of 
importing live cattle from the Biver Plate into England. Hitherto all 
efforts in Buenos Ayres to export cured beef for the English markets have 
failed to create a staple trade. Meantime the exportation of dry and salted 
hides has kept up a very active business : according to Lennuyeux's tables 
we find 2,054,824 cow hides exported in the year ending September 12, 
1868 ; this, however, shews a decline of 10 per cent, on the previous year. 
The export of horse-hides amounted to 104,053, being also less than in 
1867. The tallow trade has, however, increased notably : we find 77,188 
pipes and 20,233 boxes for 18G8, an increase of more than 50 per cent. If 
the National Government would take the export duties off produce the 
farming business would be as remunerative as ever. 



SHEEP-FARMISG. 13 

S11EEP-FABMI5G. 

The Province of Buenos Ayres counts 60,000,000 of sheep, which give 
avield of about 3tt a head, or lS0,000,0001i unwashed wool. The sheep- 
farms cover over 40,000,000 acres, being 1^ sheep per acre, and the 
number of shepherds may be estimated at 60,000, of which at least a 
quarter are Irish or Scotch, and the Basques also form a large proportion. 
Buenos Ayres closely competes with Australia for the rank of first sheep- 
farming country in the world, and wool now forms the great staple of our 
home production and export trade, the annual value of this item being 
about £3,000,000 sterling. 

Only thirty years ago, previous to the time of Sheridan and Harratt, 
sheep were of no value; they were what was termed «creole,» and the 
wool, not being worth the freight to town, was often thrown in the «corral)> 
to make a footing for the animals. Slieep were merely raised for food, 
and held entirely by natives ; they were hardly worth a paper dollar, say 
fourpeuce, each. Peter Sheridan was an Irishman, John Harrat an 
Englishman, and they were the first to import fine sheep into Buenos 
Ayres, their example being soon followed by John Hannah (a Scotchman), 
Stegman (a German}, and others. As soon as attention was turned to this 
branch of industry many people took it up, and went out into the camp, 
beginning with a flock or 500 or 1,000 : the Irishmea. in particular, of the 
saladei*Os of Barracas, who had laid by a little money, bought flocks of 
sheep at a few pence per head, and laid the foundation of the larg:e fortunes 
that many of them have since amassed. In 1852 the number of sheep was 
estimated at 4,500,000. With the refinement of the breed, and the 
improved attention paid to sheep, a market speedily sprung up for the 
wool, and sheep rose in value till 1859, when they were worth ten shillings 
a head. 3Ieautime the Irish farmers had steadily gone on purchasing all 
lands offered for sale, and paying as high as £8,000 per square league, or 
twenty-six shillings an acre (being five times the price of farm lands in the 
United States). They also spent money lavishly in the refinem^ent of their 
flocks, sometimes giving £150 or £200 sterling for a prize ram of the 
Rambouillet or Negretti breeds. 

Sheep-farming reached its height in 1860, when the flocks counted 
nearly 14,000,000 sheep; the farmers had made such fortunes ihat a 
sheep-fever seized the town-folk, and lawyers, shop-keepers, tailors, 
saddlers, midwives, &c. embarked iu the business. The demand for 
rented land was so great that «puesfos» for a single flock of sheep fetched 
as much as £80 a year, and the scarcity of hands being felt the farmers 



14 ' LIFE IK THE CAMP. 

sent home money to Ireland to bring out their relatives. ^..^..^^ 
well for a couple of years, but, on the conclusion of the war in the United 
States, the price of wool fell, while the depreciation of our currency 
caused a corresponding rise in wages and all items of farming expenses. 
The wars of Flores and Paraguay, and the troubles of the interior caused 
a disastrous increase of taxation that weighed almost exclusively on the 
sheep-farmers and producing classes, who saw their Splendid profits vanish 
from before their eyes, and sheep-farming henceforward did little more 
than pay the current expenses. But greater trials were in store for them. 
The increase of sheep was so rapid, doubling in five or six years, tliat 
there were no longer purchasers for the extra stock, nor lands whereon to 
place it, and the amount of wool being proportionably increased its price 
suffered a further ruinous decline. 

In 1867 the high rate of wages, rent, and provisions, coupled with a fall 
of nearly 50 per cent, in the price of wool, as compared with 1864, reduced 
the value of sheep to about twenty pence ($IOm^), and, as if to crown the 
affliction of the farmers, the cholera brok^ out with terrible virulence, 
causing the most unparallelled havoc throughout all the partidos. Two 
thousand Irish perished, including some wealthy estancieros, and in many 
cases their flocks wandered about the camp, there being no one to 
claim them. 

Since then a season of recuperation has set in. The price of wool has 
indeed, improved slightly, and sheep no longer offer the prospect of a 
brilliant venture as in days gone by. Nevertheless a new form of industry 
has sprung up, in the melting down of sheep for their grease, which has so 
much enhanced the value of the flocks that sheep have risen to g 20 a head. 
There are graserias now established in all parts, and it may be estimated 
that 5,000,000 sheep are melted down per annum. 

The following comparative statement will show the steady increase in 
the export of wool : — • 

Year. ■ Bales. 

1860-61 .... .... .... 60.734 



1861-62 
1862-63 
1863-64 
1864-65 

1865-66 

1866-67 

1867-68 

1868-69 estimated clip, 



67,161 
88,780 
96,679 
130,860 
150,453 
155,078 
180,000 
200;000 



SHEEP ESTATfCUS. 



15 



The increase in the exportation of sheepskins has been still more 
remarkable, viz. : — 

Year. Bales. 

1860-61 .... 8,888 

1861-62 10,706 

1862-63 13,960 

1863-6i .... .... .... 16,733 

1864-65 • 19,855 

1865-66 .... .... .... 20,761 

1866-67 29,924 

1867-68 40,035 

It is to be remarked that in 1868 no fewer than sixteen new tanneries 
were established, which reduced the exportation of sheepskins by at least 
2,000,000 skins. 

Sheep estancias are generally smaller than those for horned cattle, say 
from half-a-Ieague to four or five square leagues in extent. Some Irish 
estaucieros have only half a square league (say 3,000 acres) with a stock of 
10,000 sheep; others have estates of four or more square leagues, stocked 
■with 100,000 sheep and upwards. A flock usually counts 1,500 to 3,000 
sheep, and is managed by one man on horseback. The flocks of different 
estancias, and even those of the same estancia, are distinguished by the 
ftscual,)) or peculiar mark cut in the ear. The pastures of the sheepfarms 
consist of fine grasses, which, in summer, are protected by forests of 
gigantic thistles from the scorciiing heat of the sun. Frontier lands are 
found unsuited for sheep, till the course grasses have been eaten down by 
cattle. There are certain poisonous herbs, such as «romerilla)) and 
«mio-m!0,» which sometimes cause great losses in flocks. Sheep also die 
from eating white clay, or getting the leech in low, marshy, lands. The 
scab is a great plague to sheep-farmers, but of late years the application of 
extract-of-tobacco is used with much success as a remedy. Perez Mendoza 
recommends lit of tobacco juice to five quarts of water, to be rubbed daily 
to the parts affected, or a mixture of 4^ of grease with lU of turpentine 
and iU of Swedish tar, applied in like manner : for prevention of the 
disease he prescribes good pastures, cleancorrals, and well ventilated sheds. 
The profits of sheepfarming are a subject that has exhausted the 
calculations of the oldest farmers and the ablest economists in the country. 
At one time it was generally believed that a flock of sheep, minded by the 
owner in person, gave 80 or 100 per cent, per annum. The increased 
expenses and depreciation of the currencj brought dewn the estimate to 
60 or 70 per cent. Subsequently, the burthen of new taxes, and decline 



16 LIFE m THE CAMP. 

in the wool markets of the world, reduced the gains to barely 20 per cent., 
and this is probably the maximum figure that can now be quoted. 

New comers going into the sheep business consist of — 1st. Men of 
capital, say from £5,000 upwards; 2nd. Those who have a few hundred 
pounds ; 3rd. Those who have nothing at all. The first class may calculate 
as follows: — 

Half square league of land, .... .... '£3,000 

10,000 sheep at 35 1 ,500 

House and corrals, .... .... .... 100 

Carts, horses, implements, .... 200 

Provisions and wages, 1st |^ year, 200 

This will give — first year — 

1,500^ of wool at 8s., £600 

2,000 sheep for graseria at 3s., .... .... 300 

—£900 



Deduct— 

Three peons, at £30, £90 

Groceries, &c., .... .... .... 100 

Personal expenses, .... .... 160 

Rams, 100 



—£450 

Nett profits, £450 

Leaving a nett gain of 9 per cent on the capital invested, independent of 
the increase of the flock ; and this Will go on in arithmetical proportion 
at the rate of 20 per cent, per annum. 

The majority of intending sheep-farmers, however, are young men with 
a sum of, say £300, and their best manner of proceeding is this. They 
arrange with some estanciero to buy the half a flock, and enter with him as 
«medianero.)) Thus a 1,000 sheep at 3s. cost £150, leaving the remaining 
£150 for the expenses of the first year ; the estanciero sometimes goes half 
in the cost of rancho and corrals; he give? the wmedianero)) a piece of 
ground about ten wcuadras)) by 10 (say 400 acres) rent free. The flock will 
comprise 2,000 sheep, the «niedianero» minding the estanciero's half, iu 
return for the land. This is the safest way to begin sheepfarming, as the 
estanciero gives every assistance to the beginner ; and, in this way; many 
of our wealthiest proprietors commenced life. The partnership usually 
lasts three years, in which term the flock doubles, and the «medianero)» 
has 2,000 sheep of his oWn, and looks out for a piece of rented land 
whereon to settle. The terra ((medianero» signifies «on halves,)) as all 



SHEEP 05 THIRDS. 17 

expenses and profits are shared evenly between him and the estanciero . 
The wmedianero)) system obtains only in the province of Buenos A.yres, 
•where it has proved most advantageous for all parties : it is not known in 
Entre Rios or the Banda Oriental. 

The 3rd class of immigrants, by far the most numerous, and formerly the 
most successful, consists of those who land on our shores without a shilling. 
They begin as peons or servants, hiring with some estanciero at £oO a year 
($300 per month) to mind a flock of sheep ; they are found in horse and 
provisions, sleeping either at the estancia house, or in a rancho on some 
part of the land. Their life is a rude one, especially if quartered in a 
rancho with no other company than a couple of dogs. They have to cook 
and wash for themselves, digging a little quinta in the intervals of 
recreation when the sheep are quietly grazing ; but, every now and then 
they have to run up the ladder at the gable-end of the rancho, to see that the 
sheep are not straying or in danger of mixing with a neighbor's flock. For 
such contingency a horse is always kept ready saddled at the «palenque,)> 
near the entrance to the hut. If the shepherd has a taste for reading he 
can take a book with him into the camp, and lying down beside his horse 
pass the day in this manner. Sometimes the «puestero)) or shepherd does 
not return home till sundown, when the sheep are always shut into their 
ttcorral,)) which is a square or oblong enclosure fenced with American pine. 
At night he makes his lonely supper and lies down on a rude coucli, not 
unfrequently a pile of sheepskins, to rise again before day ; and this is the 
round of a «puestero's» life. 

It often happens that when a man has proved himself to be steady and 
sober, the estanciero gives him a flock of sheep on thirds, that is the peon 
gets one third the increase of the flock and the same proportion of the nett 
proceeds of the wool. Under ordinary circumstances the «tercero,» as he 
is then called, becomes owner of half a flock in three or four years, and 
then he goes into partnership as «medianero,» in the manner already 
describe^. The «tercero)) has no expenses of any kind, being found in 
everything by his employer, and he often lays by a little money each year, 
as he spends not much on clothes or tlie comforts of life. A stranger is 
astonished at the rudeness of this mode of life, especially when he finds, 
as often happens, that the occupant of the hut is a man who has moved in 
fashionable society. The life of a «puestero» is certainly healthy, and free 
from the gnawing cares of city life, but its great drawback is solitude. 
The poor man, of humble origin, who has his wife and family around him, 
is comparatively comfortable and happy ; but, a man of reduced fortune 

BB 



18 LIFE IIS THE CAMP. 

can seldom reconcile himself to the idea of asking a woman of his own 
position to share the rude home of a raneho. 

At present camp-life is much improved, in comparison with ten years ago. 
Railways have placed the principal estancias within a day's journey of town, 
and the little comforts or necessaries of life are easier procured. Most of 
the sheep-farmers are subscribers to some of the London or Irish papers, 
and the Irish clergymen have established lending-libraries in the various 
districts for the use of their parishioners. In every Irish house, too, is 
found a tutor who teaches the children the rudiments of education ; these 
tutors are paid from £3 to £5 a month and treated as a member of the 
family, for which reason young men arriving here without money often hire 
in this capacity. The Irish shepherds, -living within four or five leagues of 
a town, gallop in on Sunday mornings to attend at Mass, and get their copy 
of the Weekly Standard with all the latest news from town. Those who 
live within easy reach of a railway station get the daily papers, and the 
taste for reading has wonderfully increased in the last few years. The 
Irish clergymen resident in the camp are always attentive to the spiritual 
wants of their countrymen, and also act as friends and counsellors, since 
they enjoy universal confidence. It is right to add that the Irish sheep- 
farmers are very liberal to their pastors, even in times of comparative 
di.stress. 

The Scotch sheep-farms in the south are well worthy of especial notice : 
the neatness, style, and good order, both in the estancia house and all its 
belongings, are very pleasing to the visitor. You are sure to find also, a 
good supply of books, and on Sundays the farmers attend their kirk, 
although having to ride some leagues. The Scotch were among the first to 
start as sheep-farmers, and some of them to-day are richer even than the 
wealthiest Irish, but their numbers are relatively small. In the better 
class of Scotch and Irish estancias the traveller will find all the comforts 
and many of the luxuries of civilized life ; but should he be benighted 
and obliged to stop at the humblest raneho of one or other of his 
countrymen he is sure to find the warmest-hearted hospitality. It is no 
less true that the poorest gaucho is by nature most hospitable ; he will give 
the stranger the best his house can afford, and gladly cede his only bed to 
the weary traveller. 

Within the last two years a number of courageous Englishmen, of good 
family and education and with a capital of a few hundred pounds each, 
have establislied themselves on the Indian frontier, some beyond Azul, 
others in Patagonia, with the object of raising sheep and cattle. Nothing 
can exceed the hardship of such a life, and it is not without its dangers also. 



LARD AND SHEEP Olf THE FROSTIER. 19 

For immigrants of this class it may be well to advise them that the Govern- 
ment of Buenos Ayres gives a free grant of a square league of land for a 
certain term of years, on the expiration of which the settler receives aright 
of «enfiteusis,» which has Always a marketable value ; and if the settler 
wish to become absolute owner of the land he has the preference as a 
purchaser at the price fixed by law and on long credits. There are always 
many wealthy natives owning land in the frontier partidos, who are only too 
anxious to find steady foreigners to take sheep and cattle in partnership, 
and for this the immigrant needs no capital. The reason why foreigners 
are in such request for this purpose, is, that natives are liable at any 
moment to be taken up for military service, and the condition on Which the 
estanciero receives these frontier lands from Government is to keep a house 
and certain quantity of stock on the ground. 

Life in the camp has a peculiar charm for young men emancipated from 
the office desk. The free air and bounding steed give an elasticity and 
vigor both to mind and body that cannot be expressed. The savory taste 
of meat cooked on an aasadorw surpasses the finest cookery of European 
«chefs-de-cuisine.)) The complete liberty of thought and action induce a 
buoyancy of feeling that compensates for all the hardships undergone ; and 
it is a strange fact that young men who have distinguished themselves in 
universities and ball-rooms get quite an affection for camp-life. This, 
however, wears off when one reaches about 30 years of age;, we get tired 
of the camp and its dull monotony, and sigh for the refinement and comfort 
of city life. There are many people in Buenos Ayres who are so disgusted 
with all remembrances of camp-life that they can hardly be induced to 
mount a horse or even visit an estanciero friend. Fortunes have been 
made in the camp, and are still to be made in minding sheep : one thing is 
requisite, the shepherd must stick to his sheep as close as possible, live 
very economically, and abhor the sight of a «pulperia.» We shall now 
begin our tour through the partidoz, beginning with the north, and in every 
instance the distance will be calculated to the chief town or centre of the 
partido. 



BB2 



20 



THE RIVERINE PARTIDOS. 



CHAP. II. 



THE RIVERINE PARTIDOS. 



FROM BELGRANO TO SAIS KICOLAS. 

Belgrano. 

This partido does not properly form one of the camp districts, being merely 
a suburb of Buenos xiyres, and as such it has been described in Section B. 
It is bounded on the North and East by the River Plate, on the N.W. by San 
Isidro, andontheS.W. by San Martin and Flores : it covers two square 
leagues. The Municipality is composed of six members, and has a revenue 
of about 500,000 myb- per annum. The property valuation amounts to 
25,000,000, against 12,000,000 in 1862. The state-schools are attended 
by 76 boys and 89 girls. The largest land holders are — 



Name. 


Cuadras. 


Name. 


Cuadras 


James White, 


278 


Colin, 


35 


L. Oliver, 


100 


L. Torres, 


40 


L. Saavedra, 


110 


Tantilian, 


24 


R. Sebastiani, 


67 


Castillo, family, 


74 


F. Plowes, 


53 


Cabrera, .... 


30 


M. Lebrero, 


23 


Munita Bros., 


40 


Bias Gonsalez, 


80 


L. Goya, 


20 


P. Calderon, 


42i 


Scher, .... 


20 


Corbalan, .... 


29 


John Malcolm, 


18 



There are fifty smaller chacras, making, with the above, a total of 10,000 
acres under tillage. There are also 227 handsome country-seats, of which 
the principal are — 





SAN TSIDRO. 




Name. 


Value. 


Name. 


Value. 


P. Berger, 


. . $.300,000 


L. Walter, 


. ... S^ 50,000 


Esteves Sagui, . . 


200,000 


Machain, 


140,000 


Francischelli, . . 


250,000 


Lardapide, 


120,000 


Serna, 


250,000 


Ciappi, 


120,000 


Solanet, 


150,000 


Caprile, 


200,000 


P. Guerin, 


150,000 


Acosta, 


150,000 


R. Newton, 


150,000 


Chateauneuf, 


200,000 


Mrs. F. GoAvland, 


150,000 


Haycroft, 


200,000 


Morillo, 


250,000 


Tobal, 


216,000 


Leslie, 


140,000 


Santamaria, 


150,000 


Caraino, 


150,000 


Sanguinetti, 


160,000 


B. Costa, 


180,000 


Rocba, 


150,000 


A. Clas, 


125,000 


Petrocchi, 


230,000 


Groteon, 


150,000 


Piran, 


150,000 


Hartenfels, 


150,000 


J.M'Donnell, . 


124,000 


Iturraspe, 


150,000 


Elias, .... 


180,000 


r. Miro, 


150,000 


Calvo, 


140,000 


Piaggio, 


250,000 


Caulein, 


200,000 


Ravier, 


220,000 


Bosch, 


140,000 


Amorins, 


150,000 






This partido incli 


ides Palermo, the former residence of Rosas. (Sc 


Section B). 










San 1 


'sidro. 





21 



Situate five leagues North of the city, is alike remarkable for the beauty 
of its situation and the fertility of its grain chacras. Along the barranca 
overlooking the River Plate there is a succession of charming quintas, which 
make San Isidro a most fashionable residence in the summer months. The 
largest land-holders are — 



Name. 


Cuadras. 


Name. 


Cuadras. 


L. Uriarte, 


480 


M. Elias, 


53i 


M. Aguirre, 


2i0 


Posas, .... 


53i 


Azcuenaga Bros., . . . 


187 


G. Rua, 


60 


A. Pacheco, ... 


160 


B. Marquez, 


48 


L. Jlartinez, 


106^ 


M. Perez, .... 


48 


J. de Luca, 


104 


A. Castei, 


40 


Saenz-Valiente, . . . . 


58^ 


M. Gutierrez, 


40 


Seilora Omar, . . . . 


86 


M. Baptista, 


37 


V. Escalada, . . . . 


80 1 


M. Alvarez, 


34 



22 



THE RIVERINE PARTIDOS. 



Value. 


Name. 


Value. 


g250,000 


Haedo, .... 


100,000 


250,000 


Velasquez, .... 


120,000 


250,000 


Wineberg, .... 


48,000 


200,000 


P. Anchorena, .... 


180,000 


200,000 


Ituarte, 


130,000 




C. Saenz-Valiente, 


160,000 


130,000 


E. Anchorena, .... 


180,000 


150,000 


Selaya, .... 


100,000 


150,000 


Segismundo, .... 


200,000 


150,000 


Vernet, .... 


40,000 



There are numerous handsome residences surrounded, each, by a few 
acres of pleasure-ground, and the following are the principal : — 

-Natne. 

T. Anchorena, . . . 

S. Campodonico, 

Ui'ibelarrea, .... 

B. Saenz-Valiente, 

Juan Cano, .... 

Mrs. Mackinlay, 

E. Marquez, ... 

M'Lean, 

Paravicini, . . . , 

James Brittain, . . . 

Elortondo, 

Among smaller holdings are those of Denby, Moore, Hunt, Yateman, 
Nelson, Tornquist, Sinclair, and other foreign residents. The total 
property valuation amounts to 16,000,000, against 1 4 000,000 in 1862. 
The quiutas and chacras are mostly cultivated by Basques and Italians, who 
make much money in supplying Buenos Ayres with hay, wheat, maize, and 
vegetables. About thirty years ago the district was much infested with 
gaucho highwaymen. The partido formerly comprised four square leagues, 
but on the formation of Belgrano it lost half its territory. It contains at 
present 1508 chacras, covering about 10,000 acres, all under cultivation. 
The farming-stock consists of 4126 horned cattle, 1.267 horses, 760 sheep, 
and soQie swine. The population of the partido is set down as follows : — 
Argentines 2793, Italians 459, Spaniards 202, Trench 150, English 45 — ■ 
Total, 3,649. There are — a Justice of Peace, 8 Alcaldes, 42 police, and 
380 National Guards. 

The village of San Isidro was founded in the beginning of the last 
century, and has a very ancient look. The church stands on a high ground, 
with a plaza in front and a fine view of the coast. Araujo relates that, in 
the year 1706, the inhabitants of all the territory lying between Las 
Conchas river and the Arroyo Maldonado being destitute of religious 
service, a gentleman named Domingo Acasuso, who was a Spanish captain 
and a native of Madrid, resolved to build a chapel here in honor of St. 
Isidore ; for this purpose he endowed the parish Avith a pension of $2,000, 
and a site of ground 300 yards x 6,000. The chapel was inaugurated on 
Pentecost Sunday 1708, its first curate being Rev. Fernando Ruiz Corredor. 
There are — an inn, 3 drapers' shops, 28 smaller stores, and about 600 
inhabitants, who have a Municipality composed of four members. There 



SAN FERNANDO. 23 

is a good public school, attended by 72 boys and 46 girls. The Northern 
Railway places San Isidro w ithin an hour's journey from town, and the 
morning papers are delivered in time for breakfast. The post-master is 
Don Emilio Sarracan. There is no doctor resident in the place. The beach 
offers good bathing, but it is dangerous to ride along the coast owing to 
quicksands. The boundaries of the partido arc — N.E. the River Plate, 
N.W. San Fernando, S.W. San Martin, S.E. White's chacra (Belgrano). 
Contribucion or property tax, $6i,000. Justice of Peace, Don Manuel 
Omar; Curate, Rev. Diego Palma. 



San Fernando. 

Situate seven leagues from Buenos Ayres, is, like San Isidro, remarkable 
for quintas and chacras. It is bounded on theN. andE. by the River Plate, 
on the N.W. by the Rio Las Conchas, on the W. by San Martin, and on the 
South by San Isidro. It includes, moreover, a number of fertile islands in 
what is called the Delta of the Parana. Sau Fernando is important, no 
less for its agriculture than for its coasting trade : it has a good and safe 
port, where many river craft put in with cargoes of fire-wood, posts, &c. 
Mr. Hopkins' project of canalising the Capitan will prove most beneficial, 
and a branch railway will be run down to the river's side, Tvhere wharves 
are already in construction. The arrivals in coasting-craft for the year 
amount to 262 vessels with au aggregate of 6,664 tons cargo. The islands 
are mostly in a high state of cultivation, having been sold or ceded a few 
years ago to a number of industrious Frenchmen, Basques and Swiss. In 
M. Brunet's island there is constant employment for over 100 laborers, who 
raise abundant crops of potatoes and other products. Such is the 
extraordinary fertility of these islands that we are told of pumpkins which 
take two men to carry them, and potatoes weighing fis much as lOti. The 
quinces also grow to an enormous size, and the rapidity with which poplars, 
peaches, and other trees spring up is incredible. It is thought these 
islands would be well adapted to the growth of rice. The islands of 
President Sarmiento, Sefior Pifleyro, &c. are also well tilled. The 
inhabitants of course go about in boats, and there is a school attended by 
100 children who travel everyday in the same manner. 

The town of San Fernando has 3,000 inhabitants and the rest of the 
district 1,1 12, but this cannot be supposed to include the islanders. The 
extent of the partido is about 2 square leagues, of which nearly one- 
half is under agriculture. The largest proprietors are — 



24 



THE RIVERIWE PARTIDOS. 



Name. 


Value. 


Name. 


Value. 


Thomas Valle, 


300,000 


Anjel Croza, 


150,000 


Ybafiez, 


400,000 


Crisol, 


130,000 


A. Conde, . . . . 


190,000 


Lima, .... 


200,000 


G. Espinosa, . . . . 


180,000 


P. Yillaruel, 


350,000 


Seilora Castro, . . . . 


120,000 


P. Vela, 


180,000 


Justo, 


145,000 


P. Almandos, . . . 


130,000 


George Drabble, 


200,000 


L. Almandos, . . . 


120,000 


Pietranera, .... 


150,000 


Catelin, 


200,000 


J. Rodriguez, 


150,000 


Salguero, 


150,000 



There are smaller holdings, viz., those of Russell Shaw, Billinghurst, 
Bletcher, Delfino, Fusoni, Gloede, Hughes, Pringles, and other foreign 
residents. The total property valuation exceeds 16,000,000 against 
15,000,000 in 1863. The church was founded in the beginning of the present 
century, but a larger one is being constructed in the plaza. There are 
two good hotels, and omnibuses ply to the railway station : at the Hotel 
National, kept by Monsieur Manet, the traveller can procure horses or 
carriages for excursions. The club gives balls on Sunday evenings 
in Summer. The town has its own Justice of Peace and Municipality, and 
boasts a resident doctor, an apothecary, 6 midwives, 5 bakers, 2 silver- 
smiths, 3 blacksmith, 5 carpenters, 1 chandlery, 3 tailors, 1 saddler, 2 hair- 
dressers, 6 billiard-tables, 4 draperies, 21 small stores, and 189 houses. 
There are 256 National Guards, and the police authorities number 
5 Alcaldes, 20 Tenientes, and 12 policemen. The farming-stock comprises 
439 cows, 338 horses, 2445 sheep. The population returns give — 3,305 
Argentines, 116 Spaniards, 77 French, 458 Italians, 156 English, (fee. 
Besides private schools there are those of the State, attended by 59 boys 
and 69 girls. San Fernando has long been a favorite resort in the hot 
season, and since the opening of tlie Northern railway it is placed within 
easy reach of the city. Justice of Peace, Don Adolfo Insiarte ; Curate, 
Rev. Bernardo Repetto ; Postmaster, Don Luis Lan. 

Las Conchas. 

Between the rivers Lujan and Las Conchas, a territory of about six 
leagues, once was located the tribe of Guacunambis consisting of six 
hundred families, but the exact locality of this Indian settlement is 
unknown. In the year 1614 the Spaniards kept a special guard here to 
stop smuggling from Colonia, and in the year 1720 the first settlement of 
the present town was made. The principal landholder at that time was 
Don Juan Ponce de Leon, who out of his own pocket defrayed the expenses 



LAS CONCHAS. 25 

of building the church. Owing to the village being built on the margin 
of a swamp its progress was very slow. In the year 1820 Don Lorenzo 
Lopez built a Capilla, the Government having contributed $1^,000. The 
wealthy native families of Buenos Ayres have country residences in Las 
Conchas, and in summer it is one of the gayest places about town. 

Nothing can be pleasanter than a boating excursion in the Luxan, 
Conchas and Tigre rivers, which are overshadowed by large willow-trees, 
and bordered on either side by elegant country-seats. Getting out of the 
train at the Tigre terminus we take a boat and descend the stream. On 
the right is the Capitania, a wooden house on poles, similar to the shanties 
and shops that make up the Tigre village. Zurueta's quinta adjoins the 
boat-house of the English yacht club, and further on are nestling in the 
trees the cottages of Uparaguirre, Aguirre, Urioste, and Dolz. On the 
left is Canedo's, and lower down a stylish building, much resembling a 
church.; this is the summer residence of Don Eduardo Madero. In high 
floods all about here is a swamp. Marshall of Barracas has a yard for 
building steamers on the right, and next comes Vivanco's quinta ; pulling 
out into the wide river of Luxan, there is a charming view on all sides, 
and here is always a number of steamers lying up for repairs. Ascending 
the Luxan river, which was anciently called Rio de Corpus Christi, we pass, 
on the left, the site marked out by Bubio and Foley for the terminus of the 
new line and the landing wharf of the proposed port : there is always over 
10 feet of water here, even when the Tigre is almost dry. Tigers are 
sometimes seen here, and Mr. Milberg has caged two, which he trapped on 
his own ground : they descend the Parand in seasons of «creciente,» on 
the camelotes or floating islands of brushwood. 

The Tigre is the port for embarkation in the up-river steamers, which lie 
close along theAvharf; at the railway station M. Champion keeps an 
excellent restaurant. There is also a good hotel on the Conchas side, kept 
by Mr. Cramer: ferry boats charge \$m,x: for going across. Mr. C. has 
good wines and boats, and horses or waggonettes may also be procured. 
Adjoining the hotel is the dockyard of Stevens and Kay, where you will 
sometimes see as many as 120 operatives at work, building or repairing 
steamboats, iron launches, &c. ; this is a great establishment, begun in 
1868, and they can build a small steamer in three to four months; the 
machinery is from Glasgow ; Messrs. S. & K. have another foundry in the 
cit)' at Paseo Julio. If we take a boat to ascend the Tigre we shall find a 
succession of delightful country-seats. Those of Garrigos, Tejedor, and 
Gonzales Moreno are princely, and after Cobo's, Del Campo's and Balbin's 
we pass under a picturesque wooden bridge ; now the river takes a bend^ 



26 THE RIVERI5E PARTIDOS. 

and on the right is a charming cottage belonging to Dr. Alvarellos, after 
which come those of Lynch, Balbin, Majeste and Schultz. On the right 
is the Lavadero of Sefior Zumaran, which does a great business in 
washing wool and sheepskins ; next is another cottage of the Lynch 
family, and further is that of Dr. Scrivener, the only English resident in 
these picturesque but swampy regions. During the cholera of 1867 the 
Doctor lent such valuable service, gratis, that the Municipality of Las 
Conchas presented him with a gold medal. Mr. Lawson's quinta comes 
next: all these sequestered cottages have bathing-houses, stairs down to 
the water's edge, and a boat. The Tigre is navigable about a league 
further, but the only places we meet are Joffii's cane-cutting establishment 
and a deserted house that was built a couple of years ago by half-a-dozen 
Cerman clerks as a summer residence. Returning to the Tigre station we 
remark in its vicinity the quintas of Romero, Martinez, and Anciso. 

The village of Las Conchas preserves some very ancient-looking houses 
with corridors and tile-roofs, which remind us of the time when this was 
the limit of the Indian frontier northwards. The church is very neat, with 
an antique portico : the altar and sacristy were put up, in the last century, 
at the expense of a pious lady named Magdalena Bonelo, and the first Mass 
was celebrated by a friar named Goy tia. There are numerous quintas in the 
neighbourhood belonging to the following families — Rocha, Bulrich, 
Calzadilla, Carrega, Acuila, Cebey, Castrelo, Alcorta, Com!, Schleeper, 
Ibanez, Muuoa, Hernandez, Brilli, Acevez, Arana, and that of Sefior Mufioz 
is remarkably fine. The vegetation about here is rapid and luxuriant : in 
summer the quintas are full of the richest fruits and flowers. 

Las Conchas is about 2i miles from town, and will shortly be connected 
with Buenos Ayres by two lines of railway ; the "Western branch-line will 
start from Floresta and cross the Tigre near the wooden bridge ; it seems 
the Northern Railway also proposes to throw a bridge over to Las Conchas 
island, and make its terminus likewise on the Luxan river. 

The partido is subject to frequent inundations, being mostly below water 
level, which accounts for its amazing fertility. It is intersected by two 
large rivers ; the Luxan and Las Conchas. The former has its rise in the 
camps beyond Mercedes, and the latter is formed by the confluence of the 
arroyos La Choza and Durazno, near the town of Moreno. The Canada 
Escobar and arroyos Tigre, Garcia, Las Tunas, &c., also form a part of the 
water system of Las Conchas, where they unite with the Parana. 

The Partido covers three square leagues, which are chiefly under 
cultivation. The largest landed proprietors are, John Milberg 1200 
cuadras, Anjel Pacheco (whose place is valued at ^1,000, 000 m/c-), and 



ZARATE. 



27 



Villamajor 1 188 cuadras : these are estancieros, and there are nine smaller 
estancias. The stock comprises, 6,250 cows, 2,650 horses, 57,369 sheep. 
The boundaries of the partido are — N. and E. the Parana, S. San Fernando, 
and W. Pilar. 

' The population is set down at 1,681, including 373 in the village; the 
nationalities are thus distributed, 862 Argentines, 435 Italians, 169 
Spaniards, 32 French, 179 English and others, 1 Indian. There are 21 
general stores ; also a Justice of Peace, Municipality of four members, 60 
National Guards, 4 Alcaldes, 17 Tenientes, and 9 policemen. The State 
school is attended by 25 boys and 52 girls. The total property valaation 
is 7,000,000, against 3,000,000 in 1862. Contribucion or property 
tax, $28,000. Justice and Postmaster, Don Damaso del Campo ; Curate, 
Rev. Geronimo Rebagliata. 



Zarate. 

Situate 16 leagues N. of Buenos Ayres, on the banks of the Parana, is 
the first sheepfarming district we meet. It was formerly part of the 
Capilla del Seuor, till 1856. The land is very high and ill-suited for sheep, 
but good for grain crops. Of late years the plantation of cereals has been 
actively increased, and we find a large number of chacras. The Partido is 
supposed to cover 20 square leagues : there are 59 estancias and 140 tillage 
farms. The land of the former is valued at $600,000. that of the chacras 
at nearly double this figure, per square league. The total extent under 
tillage is 20,000 acres. 



The principal estancias are- 
Name. 
Lima, family, 
Latorre, family, 
Insua, .... 

Soler, .... 

Acebey, .... 

Saavedra, 

J. Fox, . ;. . 
J. Celery, 



. Leagues. 
4 


Name. 

Murray, 


3 


Gelves, 


3| 


Hermida, 


H 


Castex, 


2 


Pujol, 
Rqmero, 


i 


Barrios, family. 



S. Leagues. 

f 



The estancias of Lima and Saavedra occupy the «rincon» formed by the 
confluence of the Areco river and Canada Honda with that branch of the 
Parana called Rio de Baradero. The La Torre property is called Las 
Palmas, from an old Jesuit establishment of the same name which existed 
here in the last century : the ruins of the chapel of the Fathers are still to 
be seen; there are also a fine plantation of «tala» and an excellent port for 



28 THE RIVERINE PARTIDOS. 

coasting traiBc. The Insua estancia is S.E. of the river of Areco, and 
reaches to the boundary of Capilla del Sefior. Mr. Fox's place is close to 
the Arroyo Pesqueria, about two leagues S.W. of Zarate. 

The Irish population is about 100. The town, although a river port, 
is very poor, having only three houses valued over ^60,000: those of 
Silvano, Soler, and Saavedra. Don Constancio Silvano owns nine houses : 
his property is valued at $500,000ra/c. Mrs. Cullen has also a house. 

The importance of Zarate consists in its river trade, and during the 
Paraguayan war it Avas the great port for shipping horses for headquarters. 
The steamers up and down the river call here twice a week each way. Tlie 
Italian boatmen do a large business in firewood, charcoal and iiandubay 
posts. Zarate probably takes its name from the Vice-roy Zarate, and there 
are still numbers of the inhabitants who bear the same name. The town 
has a new church, a State school, 4 billiard-rooms, 3 inns, 20 shops, and a 
cockpit. It stands on a barranca 60 feet over the river, and the 
port is in low marshy ground, where Sig. Silvano has built a wharf. The 
state-school is attended by 53 boys and same number of girls. Zarate has 
a Justice of Peace, Municipality, 4 Alcaldes, 16 Tenientes, 10 policemen, 
and 470 National Guards. The population of the district is returned as — 
Argentines 3,185, Germans 5, Spaniards 49, French 72, Italians 86, English 
39 ; total 3,436 : of this number the town has about 700. There are 836 
houses in the partido. The stock is estimated at 32,139 cows, 13,832 
horses, 390,970 sheep, and 6,679 swine. The landed property is valued at 
15,000,000, against 8,000,000 in 1861. The principal chacras are tliose of 
Anta, Acebey, Conde, Balvidares,Gaetan,Palacios, Sosa, Silvano, Vidal, and 
Zarate. Post-master, D. Luis S. Martinez. A few leaguesbelow Zarate is 
Port Campana, where Dr. Costa has a fine estancia. Near this point several 
affluents fall into the Parand, viz.: the Arroyo Romero and La Graz, 
Arroyo de Moujan, and the Pesqueria. The river Areco and Canada Honda 
empty their waters a little above Saavedra's estancia. Some of the 
islands fronting Zarate are settled on, with cattle and sheep farms. This 
branch of the Paraui is called «de las Palmas,» from the old Jesuit port 
above-mentioned. Contribucion tax, $60,000. Curate, Rev. Nicolas 
Aquerone ; Justice, Don Romulo Nazar. 



Baradero. 

Situate 27 leagues N. of Buenos Ayres, is a large sheepfarming 
department, with a superficies of 41 square leagues. 





BARADERO. 


29 


There are ninety-two estancias, of which the principal are — 




Name. 


S. Leagues. 


Name. 


S LeagHos. 


Gastex, family, .... 


11 


Eosell, 


i 


P. Lynch, .... 


8 


Rodriguez, .... 


i 


San Martin, family, 


3 


Alsina, .... 


i 


EdNvard Wallace, 


1 


Troucoso, 


i 


George Macorae, 


1 


Salas, 




M. O'Rourke, 


i 


P. Whclan, 


1 

4 


M. Brennan, 


i 


J. Murtagh, ... 


^ 


Camauos, family. 


1 


Pereyra, .... 


i 


Casco, family, 


1 


Pifiero, .... 


i 


Sierra, 


1 


Muriuigo, .... 


i 


Passo, 


H 


Gelves, 


1 
8 


S. Gomez, 


1 


Figuerroa, .... 




Tapia, family, 


1 


Gabriotti, .... 


i 


Magallanes, 


i 


Yillaruel, ... 


^ 


Medina, .... 


i 


B£. Gounaughtiu, 


i 



The lands are well stocked, the returns showing an average of 1 ,000 
cows, 2.50 horses, and 1.3,000 sheep to the square league. The Gastex 
estancia lies on the north bank of the river Areco, and comprises six 
distinct properties, belonging to Ramon, Pedro, Fermin, Feliciano, 
Mariano, and Indalecia Gastex : this fine estate is also watered by the 
Arroyo Doblado, which falls into the Areco river. The estancias of Lynch 
and ^Yallace are on the Gauada Honda, but Lynch has a second estate on the 
Rio de Arrecifes. Macome and Gomez are also on the Arrecifes river. 
The San Martin lands extend southward from Baradero to the mouth of the 
Areco river. The O'Rourke estancia is near the Gauada Bellaca; and 
Murtagh and Whelan are further south, near Gauada Los Tores. There 
are many Irishmen on rented land, besides medianeros, e%c., and the total 
Irish population is about 300. 

The estancia land is valued at $iOO,000 per league. The stock 
consists of 40,8G3 cows, 9,573 horses, 328,680 mestiza sheep, 6,032 
refined do., and 10,8i8 Creole do.; I,8i0 swine. There are 696 
cliacras let out to tenants ; each chacra is 200 yards wide by 200 long ; the 
annual rent of each is §90, and they can be purchased out and out at an 
upshot price of $600. Thequintas are 100 yards long by 100 wide ; tkere 
are 284 of these occupied by tenants, at an annual rent of $30 each. The 
boundaries of the partido are — N. the Parand and San Pedro, W. the river 
Arrecifes, S. San Antonio de Areco and Zarate, and E. the Paraqd. 
Opposite Baradero is a difficult pass in the river, called iSueve Vueltas. 



30 THE RIVERIKE PARTIDOS. 

Baradero owes its importance to the Swiss Colony, established here in 
185G, which has been so prosperous that some of the colonists have 
amassed as much as £8,000 sterling, and others almost as large fortunes. 
These industrious settlers arrived here Avithout a shilling and fortunately 
met a good friend and protector in Colonel Gainza, who induced the 
Municipality to grant them chacras of 3 cuadras each at a nominal price. 
Thej liave about 10,000 acres under tillage, and supply the various river 
ports with butter, potatoes, &c. (For full details of the colony see 
page 31, Section A). 

Baradero is one of the oldest towns in the province : it was founded in 
1616 by the venerable Luis Bolailos, a Franciscan friar, who accompanied 
St. Francis- Solano in his perilous missions among the Guarani, Mbiguay, 
and Chanas Indians. Tlie chapel was dedicated to St. James, and Padre 
Valdivia became its first curate in 1628; sometime later the parish was 
incorporated with that of Arrecifes, biit again restored in 1781. Although 
so ancient, it is a poor village, there being only nine houses valued at ^50,000, 
viz., those of Alsiua^Basabilvaso, Cabriotti, Casco, Frumento, Falconieri, 
MonsalvOji Piilero, and Puppo. Post-master, Don Juan Antonio Alonzo. 
The Municipality commenced in 1859 a large school-house on the barranca, 
which remained many years unfinished, but the Government has now given 
$200,000 for its completion, and it is intended, moreover, to receive 
boarders from the neighboring districts. The population of the partido is 
set down thus — Argentines 3,709, Germans 282, Spaniards 90, French 162, 
English 95, Italians 242, others 20— total 4,601. There are 139 houses and 
780 ranches, including an apothecary's shop, 2 inns, 10 draperies, 35 stores, 
3 brick-kilns, and several timber-yards. The state-school is attended by 
122 boys, and 64 girls, besides which there are private schools attended by 
61 boys and 59 girls. The land in this partido is considered very good for 
sheepfarming, although only valued at 3^00,000 a league. It is so thickly 
settled on, that it would be difficult to find any to rent or buy. The Irish 
farmers have prospered here, and their numbers greatly increased during 
the last ten years. The landed property is valued at 20,000,000, against 
13,000,000 in 1862. The partido is well watered, by the Arrecifes river 
and Canada Honda, besides having a considerable front on the River Parana. 
The steamers call at Baradero twice a week, each way. The Municipality 
consists of 6 members : there are also a Justice of the Peace, 1 4 Alcaldes 
and Tenientes, 14 policemen, and 1,000 National Guards. The port 
returns shew 343 vessels with an aggregate of 4,205 tons for the year. 
Municipal income, $2 40, 000; Contribuciou or property tax, $80,000. In 
1867 the Provincial Bank established a branch at Baradero for this district 



SAW PEDRO. 



31 



and the adjoining ones of Zarate and Capilla del Sefior, with a capital of 
$2,000,000 mfc. Justice, Don Carlos Lynch ; Curate, Rev. Francisco 
Bianchi. 

San Pedro. 

Situate 31 leagues IV. of Buenos Ayres, is another fine sheep-farming 
district, with an area of 52 square leagues. It comprises 63 estancias, of 
which the following are the principal : — 



Name. 

Llavallol, 


3. Leagues 

3 


Name. 

G. Palacios, .... 


S. Leagues 
If 


Jose Castro, 


2i 


Quiroga, 


1 


Lorenzo Gomez, 


2i 


Urraco, 


i 


Luis Obligado, 
Pastor Obligado, 


. 2i 
2| 


Laserna, 

Villar, 




Manuel Cobo, 


2 


Buiz Diaz, .... 


f 


Bruno Castro, 


2 


Ex. Castro, 


f 


Leslie, .... 


2 


Pio Acosta, .... 


f 


Laprida, 

Villalon, 


1 
1 


Eoque Palacios, 
Buiz Moreno, 




Magallaues, 


H 







There are also four Iri.sh estancias, that of Mr. John Harrington being 
well laid out ; the others are those of Luke Doyle, T. AVheeler, and Thomas 
Fallon. Besides these there are numerous other Irish farmers, mostly on 
rented ground, all doing well, viz. : Michael Dogherty, J. Kehoe, Thomas 
Young, Michael McDonald, J. Cronin, and the Messrs. Finnery, who have 
7,000 or 8,000 sheep each. The land is valued at $150,000 per league : 
total valuation 21,000,000, against 7,000.000 in 1862; Coutribucion 
$84,000. Tliere are three square leagues of public or municipal lauds, 
and the Municipality seeks to form a colony like that of Baradero, in 
«chacras» of 12 acres each. The returns of stock shew, 101,564 cows, 
23,185 horses, 7,144 fine sheep, 613,790 mestiza do., 67,8iO creole do., 
and 1,217 pigs. 

The Leslie estancia, called Estrella del Norte, may* be considered the 
model one of the north, as regards elegance, comfort and good order. The 
house is a handsome residence, and stands on a rising ground, surrounded 
with pleasure-gardens, and the accommodations are in keeping with the 
hospitable character of its owner. There is a good portion of ground 
under tillage, and the estancia has permanent water, being bounded by the 
Arrecifes river : the stock qf sheep is large and of superior quality, the 
peon's huts are neat English cabins, the w orkshops of the establishment 



32 THE RIVERINE PARTIDOS. 

are large and fully fitted with presses, forge and every requisite for 
baling the wool on the spot, previous to shipment. There are spacious 
sheds for rearing of fine sheep, storing hay, &c., and for the shearing of 
the flocks. The cattle-farm is at the old estancia house, near the Arrecifes 
river. The estancia forms a «rincon» between the Tala and Arrecifes 
rivers. The Llavallol estancia has a port on the Parana, at the mouth of a 
stream called Las Hermanas, where the steamers call : this is another fine 
establishment, the owner being a wealthy Spanish merchant, . Avho has 
spared no expense in all modern improvements. A few leagues lower 
down is the Obligado estancia, where Rosas vainly attempted to close the 
Parana against the English and French fleets. Don Pastor Obligado was 
the first cojistutional Governor of Buenos Ayres after the fall of Rosas: 
there are several Irish farmers on his estancia. Opposite to Obligado is a 
large island called Las Lechiguanas ; near this is a pass called Touelero, 
and the Arroyos Espinillo and Cueros debouch a little lower down. The 
boundaries of San Pedro are — N. the Parana and Ramallo, W. Ramallo, S. 
Baradero, and E. the. Parana. 

The town of San Pedro is large, but built in a straggling manner along 
the barranca, which commands a panoramic view of the Parana and its 
numberless islands. There are some 30 good shops, and an inn is kept by 
Don Martin Pagardoy (agent for the Standard), where horses can also be 
procured. The town has also achurch, state-schools, a graseria for melting 
down sheep, two resident doctors, several brick-kilns, and 3,248 
inliabitants. The Rev. John B. Leahy, Irish curate, is about to establish a 
library for the use of his countrymen of this district, who number with 
their families about 1,000 souls. Father Leahy has also to attend his 
countrymen in the districts of Arrecifes, Pergamino and San Nicolas, 
embracing a territory of nearly 3,000 square miles. The town of San 
Pedro has 86 rateable houses, the best being tho.se of 3Iamberto, Molina, 
Palacios, Molero, Casco, Banegas, Urreta, Quiroga, Aguirre, Telechea, 
Pardo, Lantero, Gafferot, Camelino, Arricta, Bibolian, Chacon, Salas, Auese, 
Belizan, Magallanes, Biancardi, Rubio, Villar, Ruedas, Paredes, Soler, and 
Quiroga : the house "property of the town is valued about ^4,000,000. 
The population of the district is returned thus — Argentines 4,923, English 
340, Italians 182, Spaniards 150, French 124, Germans 7, others 63— 
total 5,789. There are 254 houses, and 95i ranchos, and 189 chacras. 
The Slunicipality consists of seven members, besides which there are — a 
Justice of Peace, curate, 3 Alcaldes, 9 Teuieutes, 1 1 policemen, and 638 
National Guards. Steamers touch at Sau Pedra almost daily. The port 
returns for the year shew 254 vessels with an aggregate of 3994 tons. 



mSCO:^ DE R\MALLO. 33 

The state-schools are attended by 60 boys and 52 girls. Post-master, 
DonEugenio Arnaldo. 

Some of the estaucias above enumerated no longer belong to San Pedro, 
having been incorporated in the new partido of Ramallo ; of these the 
principal are — the estaneias of Llavallol, Gomez, Laprida, and Luis 
Obligado, besides the smaller properties of Olmos and Arias on the Arroyo 
Las Hermanas. In the above list for San Pedro we have casually omitted 
the estaucia of Demarchi, one and a half square leagues, and Juaua Perez 
Millan, one league, both situate on the Arroyo del Tala. The partido is 
Avell watered on all sides, by the rivers Parana and Arrecifes, and the 
Arroyos Las Hermanas, Los Cueros, La Tala, Espinillo, and others. 

The town of San Pedro is 3 leagues N.W. of Baradero, 13 S.E. of San 
iSicolas, 17 east of Pergamino, and 1 1 N.E. of Arrecifes. Between this town 
and Arrecifes an Irish chapel is being built, under the auspices of Rev. Mr. 
Leahy. Justice of Peace, Don Facundo Quiroga; Curate, Bev. Martin 
Pader. Municipal revenue, $121,000. 

Rincon de Ramallo. 

This is a new partido, chiefly formed out of that part of San Nicolas 
adjacent to the Arroyo de Ramallo, where Mr. Lewis Boothe, an American 
settler, has a fine estaucia. Nearly half the large estate of Stegmann has 
been cut off the partido of Arrecifes to be incorporated with Ramallo, and 
San Pedro has had to cede in like manner the estaneias of Llavallol, Gomez, 
Laprida, L. Obligado, Olmos, and Arias. The Irish population here is 
about 100. The land is well Avatered by the Arrojos Ramallo, Laprida, 
Las Hermanas, and Seco. Justice of Peace, Don Manuel J. Guerrico, jun. 
The partido lies between Saa Pedro and San Nicolas, on the banks of the 
Parana, having an area of 33 square leagues, embracing 70 estaneias. The 
stock is set down at 54,518 cows, 16,815 horses, 1,500 fine sheep, 450,000 
mestiza sheep, and 30,000 Creole sheep. The land under agriculture is 
estimated at 3,000 acres. Population— 1856 Argentines, 97 Spaniards, 36 
English, 32 Italians, 30 French, 3 Germans — total 2,054. There arc 76 
houses and 470 ranches in the district, including 17 general stores; but 
there is as yet no town. The Justice of Peace has 5 Alcaldes, 1 5 Tenientes, 
and 7 policemen. 

On the banks of the river which divides this partido from San Nicolas 
is a fine flour-mill, Avhich although of recent date, does a large 
business. It is proposed to erect a bridge over this river, as the passes are 

CO 



34 



THE RIVERINE PARTIDOS. 



extremely dangerous even in the dry season. Mr. Boothe has placed the 
district under great obligations by keeping a canoe at the pass for the 
convience of travellers, but frequently the canoe has been swept aAvay by 
the torrents. Land in this district is. now scarce, bat a few years ago 
sheep puestos could be had at a very moderate rate. 

San Nicolas. 

Situate 45 leagues N.W of Buenos Ayres, is an important agricultural 
district, contiguous with the frontier of Santa Fe. BefiDre the formation of 
Kamallo into a distinct partido, San Nicolas had an area of .38 square 
leagues, containing 170 small estancias and 651 chacras : of tiie latter only 
120 are rateable. The chief estancias are — 



Name. S. Leagues. 


Name. 


S. Leagues 


Acevedo, 


.. H 


Boldan, 


.... li 


Leonardo Pereyra. 


.. li 


Fernandez, 


.... f 


Inocencio Pico, 


.. 1 


N. Guerrico, 


.... i 


Ramos, .... 


.. 2 


Insaurralde, .... 


.... I 


Machado, .... 


.. i 


Barrera, .... 


.... f 


Diego Alvear 


.. f 


JoscEojo, 


.... f 


M. Guerrico, .... 


.. f 


Castillo, 


.... i 



There are not many foreign sheep-farmers, other than Tait, Savage, 
Boxwill, Mrs. Hogan, Barker, Stickney, Pearson, Barry, Neale Brothers : 
the total Irish population does not exceed 100. The estancia lands are 
valued at §400,000 per league. The returns of stock are — 54, 105 cows, 
11,930 horses, 3,000 fine sheep, 265,000 raestiza do., 69,000 Creole do., 
and 1,526 pigs. 

The amount of land under tillage is more than 20,000 acres, and the- 
principal chacras are- 



Name. 


Cuadr as 


Name. 


Cuadras. 


Plfieyro, .... 


... 1,200 


Carranza, .... 


105 


Lucio Mansilla, 


300 


Garreton, .... 


54 


F. Bobles, 


285 


Aldao, 


90 


Lafuente, 


192 


Quiroga, .... 


52 


fealinas, 


212 


Bardon, .... 


45 


Seg. Garcia, 


120 


Cardoso bros. 


122 


Jose Ruiz, .... 


124 


M. Pezzi, 


70 


Machado, .... 


60 







The chacra lands are valued at ^2,250,000 per square league, and, 
although occupying barely one-tenth, they represent at least half the 
landed value of the partido. 



SAN TSICOLAS. 35 

The city of San Nicolas is a port of some importance, about 1 i leagues 
above San Pedro : it is tlie second town in the province of Buenos Ayres, 
with a population of nearly 8,000 souls; it has 350 rateable houses, 25 
dry-goods stores, 105 smaller shops, a church, state schools, a mill (the 
property of Mr. Armstrong), a graseria (belonging to Mr. Hale), and 
sometimes a small newspaper published weekly. The best houses are 
those of— F. Gonsalez, Cerruti, Ponce, Bustamante, Contrera, Gijena,, 
Iraurralde, R. Gonsalez, Figueroa, Basaldua, Ramirez, Echcgaray, Ibiai, 
Latorre, Baro, Mallon, Dacombs, Baque, Fernandez, Alcarses, Saliua, 
Mansilla, Roca, Alcaras, Cabezas, Pombo, A. Martinez. P. Martinez, and 
Casenave, all which are assessed from § 100,000 upwards. The house 
property of the town is valued at 18,000,000. 

There are distinct Justices of Peace for the city of San N'icolas and its 
rural district. There is also a Criminal tribunal here for the INorthern 
districts. The Provincial Bank established its first branch in this town, in 
1863: the regulations are similar to those of the parent establishment. 
San iSicolas is styled «de los Arroyos,)) because situate between theRamalJo 
stream and Arroyo del Medio, which latter is the boundary between Buenos 
Ayres and Santa Fe. The boundaries of San Mcolas are — the Parana on 
the N, and E., the Arroyo del Medio on the >'.W. and W., and the Ramallo on 
the south. After the disastrous battle of Cepeda, in 1859, the infantry of 
Buenos Ayres made an orderly retreat on this town, and embarked here for 
the capital. The San Nicolas battalion was accidentally blown up a few days 
later in the port of Buenos Ayres, on board the Havelock steamer. 
Notwithstanding the elevated situation of the town it suffered much during 
the cholera of 1867-68, perhaps owing to the uncleanly condition of the 
streets. The population of the town and district are set down thus — 
Argentines 10,056, Italians 608, Spaniards 582, French 499, English 51, 
Germans 28, Indians 2, others 267 — total 12,581. There are 1, 225 houses, 
and 796 ranches. The Municipality consists of 12 members; there are 16 
Alcaldes, 42 Tenientes, 20 policemen, and 1,056 National Guards. San 
Nicolas possesses great advanges as a port, steamers and coasting-vessels 
calling here daily, the landing place being about half a league below the 
town; nevertheless its progress is not so rapid as that of the inland sheep- 
farming districts. The state-schools are attended by only 100 boys and 81 
girls. The telegraph-line from Buenos Ayres to San Nicolas has been 
recently completed and will be prolonged to Rosario. The total valuation 
of landed and house-property both for the town and the rural district 
amounts to32,000,000. against 17,000,000 in 1862. Contribucion, $128,000. 
The port returns shew — 1821 vessels with an aggregate of 18,982 tons. 



36 THE RIVERINE P/IRTIDOS. 

There is a club-house fachig the public square, which affords hotel 
accommodation to travellers. The square is neatly laid out and well 
kept : at times a band plays in the evenings. At Gataneo's store is the 
Standard Agency ; strangers vviU obtain whatever local information they 
may require ; also horses and guides. San Nicolas was so long and so 
frequently the lieadquarters of the Buenos Ayres army that at one period 
it boasted of a very respectabletrade, but to-day half the fine houses m the 
streets are shut up, and the place presents the most fallen aspect. The 
lands are considered as peculiarly adapted for wheat and maize farms. 

About 2 miles S. of the town was the encampment of General Mansilla, 
during the time of Rosas. In former years a saladero was worked to 
advantage near the port : it was owned by Messrs. Garcia and Botet. A 
large barraca is kept by Don Segundo Garcia, for receiving hides and wool. 
Freights to Buenos Ajres, owing to the river navigation, are usually very 
c'.ieap ; produce should not be shipped without insurance. 

San Nicolas is about 10 leagues N.E.of the battle-field of Cepeda, 5 E. of 
Pavon, 1 S. of the Arroyo del Medio, 13 N.E. of Pergamino, and 16 N. of 
Arrecifes. Justice of Peace, Dr. Diaz Herrera ; Curate, Rev. Bartolomeo 
Gerruti ; Post-master, D. Leonor Sanchez. 



THE SORTHEIi:)^ PARTIDOS. 



37 



CHAP. TV. 



THE INOBTHERiN PARTIDOS. 



PILAR TO ARRECIFES. 

Pilar. 

Situate ten leagues N.W. of Buenos Ayres, has an area of 38 square 
leagues, and contains 170 estancias, averaging less than a quarter of a 
league each. The principal are — 



Name. 

Anjel Pacheco, 

F. Poucel, 

J. J. Pinedo, 


S. Leagues. 

... H 
... li 

... f 


F. Pifiero, .... 


...• 1 


E.Despau, 

F. Aguilar, .... 
P. Eruandez; .... 
Celiera, family, 
F. Maderna, .... 


... 1 
... i 
... * 
... i 
..: i 


Ponce, family, .... 
Oliveia, family, 

Joaquin Lopez, ... . 


... 2 
... 1 

... i 



Name. S. 

Pablo Lopez, 

Michael Egan, .... 


Leagues 

X 
b 

. i 


Huergo, family. 


. n 


Burgos, family, 
A. Alvarez, 




F. Arnais, 


. i 


Jose Costa, 


. i 


J.Cruz, .... 


. i 


Carrion, family, 


. 1 


Cufre, family, .... 


• i 


Robert Kelly, 

Mis. jNowla'n, .... 





The camps of this partido are not esteemed so good as in the neighboring 
districts of Luxan and Capilla del Seilor, yet there are some tracts of land 
■very suitable for sheep. There are but three Irish estancieros in the 



38 THE ?iORTHERN PARTIDOS. 

district, but there is a large number who have rented land, and the total 
Irish population is fully 300: they are visited by Rev. J. O'Reilly, 
who resides at Villa Luxan. Great injury to farming interests is 
caused by the infinitesimal division of estancia lands, as happens in this 
partido : it is not uncommon to find a «paisano» with an estancia a league 
in length, but so narrow that he has to build his house sideways on his 
land ; of course his cattle graze on his neighbors' lands, and the laws afford 
little or no remedy. Mr. Peter Healy had until recently a very fin'c 
((cabafia)) of prize sheep, on the road leading to the Capilla. The stock of 
the partido comprises 22,649 cows, 11,507 horses, 452 fine sheep, 405,992 
mestiza sheep, 16,640 Creole sheep, 2,051 pigS: This is an average of 600 
cows, 300 horses, and 1 1,000 sheep to the square league. The total amount 
of land under chacra cultivation is about 800 cuadras, or 3,500 acres. The 
estancia lands are valued at $420,000 per league, the chacra lands at 
$650,000. The total landed valuation, including the village, is 
$16,000,000, against $10,000,000 in 1862. Contribucion tax, $6i,000. 
The official returns of population are — Argentines 3783, French 218, 
Italians 108, English 97, Spaniards 105, others 2 — total, 4,313. There are 
103 houses and 602 ranches, including 8 dry-goods stores and 31 other 
shops. Besides the Justice of Peace and curate, there are a municipality 
of 6 members, 3 alcaldes, 10 tenientes, 12 policemen, and 350 National 
Guards. 

The village of Pilar has 1 ,000 inhabitants, and is a neat little place, 
situate on the Luxan river, which is crossed by a fine bridge built by Hunt 
& Schroeder ; this bridge is, however, at times almost inaccessible, owing 
to the marshes all around. The village stands on a high ground and has a 
pleasant look. The new church has a turret visible for several leagues in 
every direction. The streets are twelve in number, but not all built on; 
many of the houses are very good, the best being those of Echegaray, Melo, 
Castro, Burgos, Benitez, Bordenaba, Basabe, Franco, Gonsalez, Laballen, 
Lopez, Luexes, Navarro, Otaran, Ponce, Quinteros, Regueyra, Rodriguez, 
Ri-vadaveria, Silva, and Yiscayar. The place boasts 3 inns, 2 doctors, 3 
schools, and a mill ; coaches ply daily to and from Moreno station on the 
Western Railway. There are twenty-six chacras in the vicinity of the 
village, where wheat and maize are cultivated. There is one square 
league of municipal or public lands, betw een the Arroyo Escobar and the 
Luxan river. Although these rivers are of permanent water, in dry 
seasons a drought is often felt where the lands are .high and dusty. It is 
difficult to procure land in this partido. The boundaries are— on the north 
the Parang and Capilla del Seilor, on the west Luxan, on the south 3Ioreno, 



CAP ILL A DEL SE^OR. 



39 



and on the east San Fernando and Las Conchas, The state school of Pilar 
is attended by 70 boys and 68 girls. Municipal revenue, 3^30,000. 
Justice of Peace, Don Alejandro Diaz Franco; Curate, Rev, S. Guridi; 
Postmaster, Sor. Ghigliazza, 

Pilar is four leagues N.E, of Luxan, 5 N, of Moreno, 6 W, of Las 
/Conchas, and 9 E, of San Andres de Giles, 

Cap ilia del Senor. 



Situate 14 leagues N,W. of Buenos Ayres, has an area of 18 square 
leagues, and contains 43 estancias and 49 chacras: of the former the 
^principal are — 



Name. 


S. Leagues. 


Name. 


S. Leagues 


Costa, .... 


.... 2i 


Sosa, family, .... 


.. 2i 


Mrs.Delamore, 


.... 2 


P. Pugh's heirs, 


•• i 


John Fox, 


.... i 


Diaz, family, .... 


.. 1 


James Scally, 


I 


Morales, .... 


.. 1 


James Gay nor, 


.... H 


Castro, family, ... . 


•• h 


John O'Brien, .... 


.... i- 


3Irs,Cullen (T.Fallon), . 


... i 


Edward Lennon, 


.... i 


Harrington, .... 


•• i 


Managua, 


.... i 


P. Bustos, 


1 
. . . 4 


Mrs. Torniey, 


.... i 


J. Castro, 


1 
. . . 4 


Borbon, .... 


.... f 


Melo, family, 


.. h 


Ben. Lynch, .... 


.... i 







This partido is quite an Irish settlement, our countrymen owning half the 
landed property and most of the sheep ; the total number of Irish exceeds 
1,000. There are few districts in which they have be^n more successful 
than here, and the lands are well adapted for sheep-farming. The Culligan 
estancia at Monte INadal, is not included in the above list ; it is also a a fine 
property. The partido is watered by the Caiiada de la Cruz and its 
-affluents, the Arroyos Romero and Monsalvo. The returns of stock are, 
18,146 cows, 13,209 horses, l,12i fine sheep, 679,344 mestiza do,, 6,800 
Creole do., 2,138 pigs. This is an average of 800 horses, 1,100 cows, 
and 40,000 sheep to the square league. 

The amount of chacra land under cultivation is very large : there are no 
exact returns, but we may estimate the area at more than a square league, 
the principal chacras being those of Avalos, Aguilar, Alvarez, Beliera, 
Burguefio, Barrios, Basabe, Casco, Diaz, Fragosa, James Fox, Gutierrez, 
Harrington, Martinez, Ortega, Pacheco, Ponce, Roldan,, Romero, Sosa, 



40 THE NORTHERN PARTIDOS. 

Santellan, Salaberry, Tapia, Toledo, Tavares, and Urseley. The land for 
estancias or chacras h uniformly valued at $500,000 per square league. 
The total valuationis 15,000,000, against 12,000,000 in 1862. Contribucioii 
tax §60,000. This partido is officially called Exaltacicn de la Cruz, but 
better knoMn by the name of «the Capillar » the boundaries are — IN. Zarate, 
W. the rivers of Areco and Giles, S. Luxan, and E. Pilar. Tliere is a 
bridge over the Areco river at Pasode Sosa, near Mrs. Delamore's estancia. 
Many of the Irish estancias are comfortable, well-arranged establishments, 
and the quality of sheep is very fine. Lands cannot be obtained here' at 
any price, and the general character of the neighbourhood is one of 
persevering aud prosperous industry. The lands belonging to Irishmen 
exceed 7 square leagues, or 45,000 acres in extent, and represent 
$3,500,000 at the Government valuation. Add to this 500,000 sheep, and 
"we shall have some idea of the success of our hard-working countrymen ; 
all the above-named ^vealthy estancieros arrived in this country without a 
shilling, from 10 to 20 years ago. 

The village of the Capilla has 1,152 inhabitants, Avith state-schools, 
church, juzgado, several good shops, brick-kilns, an English doctor, Irish 
curate, apothecary's shop, and 52 rated houses ; of these latter the best 
are those of — Lamarque, Larrosa, Mrs.Tormey, JuanSorano, Padin, Perez, 
Ordo, Molinares,Insua, Ibarra, Iriza, Furco, Barrios, and Arias. A house 
has been purchased by the Irish farmers for the residence of their curate. 
The new church has been built in great measure by the liberality of the 
Irish sheep-farmers; the works were solemnly inaugurated in 1866 by 
Archbishop Escalada and Governor Saavedra. The laie Mr. Tormey had the 
intention of building a chapel on his own estancia for the immediate 
neighbors, but could not obtain the necessary ecclesiastical permission: 
Darby Tormey was a fair type of the prosperous Irishman in these countries, 
and acquired a large fortune in sheep and lands, besides valuable house- 
property, but was cut off by cholera in the prime of life. The Capilla is 
built on the edge of the Canada de la Cruz, about 5 leagues from the river 
Parani. The official returns of tiie population for the partido are — 
Argentines 3,536, English 395, French 125, Spaniards 68, Italians 61, 
Germans 9, Indians 1, others 32; total 4,227. There are 142 houses and 
667 ranchos, including 8 dry-goods stores, and 20 other shops. The Irish 
clergyman is Rev. AVm. Grenn on, whose mission also takes in the partido 
of Zarate. Dr. Priestly has an extensive practise in tliis and the 
neighboring districts. The neighbors of the Capilla have the use of a 
Provincial branch bank at Baradero. There are 6 Municipal members, 
3 Alcaldes, 15 Tenientes, and 12 policemen. The state-school is attended 



SAN ANDRES DE GILES. 



.4t 



by 57 boys and 60 girls. Justice of Peace, D. Jose Sosa ; Curate, F. 
Antonio Romero ; Post-master, D. Manuel Montalvo ; Standard agent, D. 
Juan Sorano. 

The Gapilla del Sefior is 4 leagues South of Zarate, 7 E. of San Antonio, 
7 N.E. of Giles, 5^ >'. of Luxan, 4* N.W. of Pilar, and 10 W. of 
Las Conchas. 



San Andres de Giles. 



Situate twenty leagues N.N.W. of Buenos Ayres, wjjs formerly supposed 
to have an area of forty square leagues, but actually contains only eighteen 
and three-quarters, which extent is almost entirely under estancias, there 
being only twenty-two small chacras. The chief estancias are — 



Name. 

D. Tormey's heirs. 


S. Leagues. 

... H 


Name. S. 

D. Flores, 


LtagTifs 


F. Monsalvo, 


... U 


F. Casco, .... 


JL 


B. Bustos, .... 


1 


F. Maldonado, 


. i 


Dofia Pividal, .... 
Doila Monsalvo, 


... f 


J. M. Echevarria, 

J. M.Casado, 


t 


Doila Saravi, .... 


... 4 


Dona Lamadrid, • 


. i 


H. Biestra, 

Charles Butterfield, 


... i 

... i- 


Francis Duberty, 
Pedro Salas, .... 




Rodriguez, family, 


... 2 


Patrick \Vheeler, 


. i 



There are in all seventy-fiYe estancias, averaging a quarter of a league 
each, and including only three of foreigners. Nevertheless, the foreign 
residents number at least 400. 

The land is rich and well stocked, watered by the Giles river 
and Arroyo del Suero, and valued at $500,000 per square league. Cattle 
have been entirely replaced by sheep, even on the native estancias ; but in 
many places the land is exhausted from over-stocking. " Rents are, of 
course, very high, and this district will not at all suit beginners. The 
returns of stock are — 13,306 cows, 8,414 horses, 325,421 mestiza sheep^ 
15,900 Creole sheep, and 1,550 pigs. This is an average of 600 cows, 400 
horses, and 17,000 sheep to the square league. The landed valuation is 
$11,000,000, against $8,000,000 in 1862. Contribucion tax, $44,000. 
The boundaries of Giles are — nortli San Antonio de Areco, west Carmen de 
Areco, south Mercedes, and east Capilla de Seuor. On the road from Giles 
to Mercedes the traveller will remark the estancia of Mr. Butterfield, an 
Englishman long resident in this countrv. Between Giles and San Antonio • 



42 THE KORTHERN PARTIDOS. 

he will pass the establishments of the Wheeler and Morgan families, the 
second being, however, in the partido of San Antonio. 

San Andres de Giles is a poor little hamlet with 950 inhabitants, almost 
destitute of trade or agriculture. It has no resident proprietors of any 
wealth, and many of the streets are grass-grown. The church is new, and 
there is a state school, attended by 38 boys and 55 girls ; a few brick 
houses, interspersed Avith numerous miserable ranches, three or four good 
shops, and a couple of inns, make up the village. There is a resident 
doctor, and the best business houses are — Picheto's inn, Pelaez's shop, and 
that of Sefior Cuculla. The Municipality will give building lots free. 
There is no club, but numbers of pulperias and billiard tables. There are 
eighty-six rated houses, including those of Dofia Saravi, Bustos, Monsalvo, 
Eiestra, Arevalo, Lezcano, Quevedo, Tarcetti, Flores,M. Rodriguez, Lopez, 
Rivarola, Larrosa, Pividal, Acquarone, Pascual Rodriguez, Acufia, Navarro, 
Silva, Yeral, Cutilla, Andrade, Merlo, Gasado, and Ordones. There are 
some plantations about the village, mostly of fruit trees, but there are feAV 
or no chacras for raising wheat, although a large proportion of the town 
folk is composed of Italians or Basques. The river of Giles runs just below 
the town, and a bridge is about to be built over it. 

• The official returns for the partido are — Argentines 1822, English 207, 
Italians 121, Spaniards 53, French 46, Germans 2 — total 2,251 inhabitants. 
There are 86 houses and 431 ranches, including 4 shops and 87 minor 
stores and pulperias. The partido has 6 alcaldes, 17 tenientes, 12 
policemen, and 280 National Guards. Justice of Peace, Don Juan Silva; 
Curate, Rev. F. Tiscornia ; Postmaster, Don Juan Silva : Standard agent, 
Don Fernando Pelaez. 

Giles is 4 leagues N. of Mercedes, 6JE. of Carmen de Areco, 4^ S. of 
San Antonio, and 9 W. of Pilar. 

San Antonio de Areco. 

Situate 21 leagues NW. of Buenos Ayres, is bounded on the N. by 
Baradero, on the W. by Carmen de Areco, on tlie S. by Giles, and on the 
E. by Capilla del Sefior. It has an area of 26 square leagues, comprising 
64 estancias. 

There are also two lots of Government lands rented out, 1 square league 
to Dr. Terry, and ^ a league to Sefior Casco. In this partido foreign sheep- 
farmers are very numerous, holding one-fourth the land and more than half 
the sheep. The Irish population may be set down at 700. The estancias of 



SAIV A?iTONIO DE ARECO. 



43 



San Antonio are generally small, averaging less than half a square league. 
The lands are very good, but overstocked, and suffer severely in times of 
drought; nevertheless a drought is of rare occurrence, and the River of 
Areco, with its affluents, the Arroyos Lavallen and Chafiaritos, as also the 
Canada Honda, afford permanent water. Some of the Irishmen above 
mentioned are very wealthy ; the houses of 3Iorgan, Mooney, and Donohoe 
are comfortable and surrounded by fine peach-mounts. Mr. Chapeaurouge 
has a very handsome estancia house near the Giles river ; this gentleman 
is a native of Switzerland and a very enterprising man; he is at present 
experimenting on the production of Extractura Carnis, similar to tliat of 
Liebig. Most of the native es'.ancieros are very poor, except Sefior 
Guerrico, whose fine estancia borders the village eastward. The Justice 
of Peace reports that there are several estancias a league and a-half long 
by only a few dozen yards wide. Cattle have almost everywhere made 
way for sheep. The returns are 40,192 cows, 9,884 horses, 5,730 fine 
sheep, 411,984 mestiza do., 14,620 Creole do., and 980 pigs: being an 
average of 1,500 cows, 400 horses, and 20,000 sheep per square league. 
Land is valued at $360,000 per league. Total valuation 12,000,000, 
against 8,000,000 in 1862. Contribucion tax $i8,000. The returns of 
population are — 1,749 Argentines, 255 English, 182 French, 127 Spaniards, 
43 Italians, 13 Germans, others 25; total 2,394. There ai'e 141 houses 
and 257 ranchos, including 8 shops and 15 small stores and pulperias. 
The following are the principal estancias : — 



Name. 


S. Leagues. 


Name. S 


. Leagues. 


Guerrico, .... 


.... 2i 


H. Gutierrez, 


. 1 


Morgan, .... 


.... H 


Chapeaurouge, 


.. I 


Lanusse & Co., 


.... li 


Alegre, 


. f 


Almagro, 


.... If 


P. Figuerroa, ... 


• i 


Michael Duggan, 


.... If 


Patrick Hogan, 


• i 


Casco, 


.... H 


Alfcnsiu, .... 


. i 


Lima, 


.... H 


Alen, 


. i 


N. O'Donnell, .... 


.... i 


N. Gutierrez, 


. -i 


J. Duggan, 


.... i 


G. Sosa, 


• 1 


Mooney, 


3. 
.... ^ 


0. Molina, .... 


■ i 


Olivera, .... 


.... 1 


Donohue, 


• i 


Jose Martinez, 


.... i 


Peter Kenny, 


' i 



The village of San Antonio de Areco is an old-fashioned place, founded 
in 1759 by an estanciero named Areco, whose house stood on the site of the 
present church, and who gave the necessary land for the village. Until 
recently there lived an old negro, the bell-ringer of the church, who 



4i THE NORTHERN PARTIDOS. 

remembered the first settlement of the place ; it was then on the Indian 
frontier. The village has a pleasant aspect northwards over the river of 
Areco : the streets and plaza are very irregular, but some of the shops are 
well-furnished, the best being those of 'juau F. Font, Carlos Martinez, 
Lima, Hurtado, Picheto, Gasco, Jose Martinez, Gonsalez, &c. The old 
church was in danger of falling and was pulled down, to make room for 
a new one ; the first stone of the latter was laid on January 1st, 1869. A 
new state-school has been recently built, which is attended by 6i boys and 
44 girlsy There are two good «fondas,)) or inns. There are two 
blacksmith's shops, that of Don Santiago, in the plaza, being the better 
one. In some of the drapers' shops English is spoken, most of the 
customers being Irish farmers. A fine one-arch bridge spans the river of 
Areco : it cost about ^200,000, mostly subscribed by the sheepfarmers, and 
a toll is levied of $5 for a cart and gJ^- for a horseman. The trade of Areco 
is very limited. There is a French tailor in the plaza'. An English doctor 
is much wanted, also an English school-master, for the large foreign 
population of the surrounding country. Tlie resident Irish clergyman is 
Rev. Felix O'Callaghan, who also attends the Baradero district. San 
Antonio is hardly progressing, although a noAV house is built now and then ; 
the streets are tery neglected, although the municipal revenue exceeds 
$100,000. The population of t lie village is 1,200. The partido has 5 
alcaldes, 10 tenientes, 12 policemen, and 300 National Guards. Justice of 
Peace, Don Carlos Martinez ; Curate, Padre Rossi ; Postmaster, Don Manuel 
Gonsalez ; Standard agent, Don Juan Francisco Font. 

San Antonio is 8 leagues AV.S.W. of Zarate, ^ S. of Baradero, 12E.S.E. 
of Arrecifes, 13 E. of Salto, and 7 E.IN.E. of Carmen de Areco. 



Carmen de Areco. 

More generally called the Fortin de Areco, is situate twenty-seven 
leagues AV.JX.W. of Buenos Ayres, Avith an area of fifty square leagues : it is 
bounded on the north by Arrecifes, on the west by Salto, on the south by the 
new partido of Suipacha, and on the east by Giles. It comprises twenty- 
seven estancias, averaging nearly two leagues each. 

This partido was, until a few years ago, shunned on account of its 
proximity to the Indians ; it has now become one of the most thickly 
populated in the province, and is remarkable for its many lirst-class foreign 
estancias. The aggregate of lands held by foreigners amounts to twenty 
square leagues, and the Irishmen of the district are all Avealthy and 



CARMEN DE ARECO. 45 

prosperous. Oa all sides the traveller meets fine flocks and snug farm 
houses; most of the land is well watered and suitable for sheep. About a 
league north of the town of the Fortin Ave meet