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Vedant series. Book No. 9. English aeries (I) 


A hand book 

Sri Madhwacfaar^a's 



Alur Venkat Rao, B.A.LL,B. 

Publishers : 



Price : 

Superior : 7 Rs. 

111954 Ordinary: 6 Rs. 

(No postage} 


Nu-va-Jeevan Granth Bhandar Dharwar, (Bombay) 
Printer : 

Sri, S. N. Kurdi, Sri Saraswati Printing Press, 


,-}// rights reserved by the author. 




Sri Sri Madhwacharya ( Courtesy : Sri 

1 he title of my book is rather misleading for 
though the main theme of the book is Madhwa 
philosophy, it incidentally and comparitively deals 
with other philosophies such as that of Sri Shankara 
Sri Ramanuja and Sri Mahaveer etc. So, it is use- 
ful for all those who are interested in such subjects. 

Sri Madhawacharya, the foremost Vaishnawa 
philosopher, who is the last of the three great 
Teachers,- Sri Shankara, Sri Ramanuja and Sri 
Madhwa,- is so far practically unknown to the 
English-reading public of India. This is, therefore 
the first attempt to present his philosophy to the 
wider public. Madhwa philosophy has got two 
aspects, one universal and the other, particular. I 
have tried to place before the readers both these 
aspects. I have re-assessed the values of Madhwa 
and other philosophies, and have tried to find out 
also the greatest common factor,-an angle of vision 
which has not been systematically adopted by any 
body. He is a great Harmoniser. In fact mine isS 
quite a new approach, I have tried to put old 
things in a new way. I have adopted an easy and 


conversational style in order to facilitate the un- 
derstanding of a difficult subject like philosophy. 
I have tried to combine firm convictions with li- 
berality of spirit. The writing of the book needs a 
Personal Note which has been given on Page XIII 
I have also the main conclusions for immcdeatc 

Acknowledgement: I openly acknowledge with 
gratitude the gracious help of three hundred rupees 
donation given by the Revered SriSri Pwarkanath 
Swamyji of Goa Partagal Mut but for whose en- 
couragement, I would not have taken up this work. 
I remember with gratitude Late. Major B. D. Ba- 
su from whose book I have taken some extracts. 
My thanks are due to the manager of the Sri Sa- 
raswati Printing Press who had to take much trou- 
ble for my sake and who has kindly given concessi- 
ons for payment. Thanks to Mr. T. A. Kukanur 
for typing easly the manuscript of this difficult 
book. I silently acknowledge the help given 
by others. No thanks need be given to my 
son-in-law Sri Varadraj Huilgol M.A.B.T. for going 
through some typed copies of my manuscript and 
to my son Chi. Krishna for helping me in correcting 
proofs etc. 


I Madhwa is the most faithful disciple & re- 
presentative of Sri Veda-Vyasa. 

II Madhwas Para-Brahma is Poo rna- Brahma ; 
his fundamental Siddhanta is Poornatwa- 

III Universe is the Outer-Form of God. 

IV Souls are the partial reflections of God in 

V Madhwa is the greatest and widest Vedic- 
Interpretor yet unsurpassed. 

VI Madhwa is the first and foremost Researcher 
of Maha-Bharat. 

VII His Poorna-Brahma theory can accomodate 
many other school?, with a little spirit of 
give & take. 

VIII An historical review of the evolution of our 
philosophy is taken. 

IX (a) Practical compromise (6) Philosophical 
understanding and (c) Spiritual guidance are 
the three main objects which I have placet 
before myself in writing this book. 
X Original design of Vaishnavism and original 
explanation of many symbols. 

GITA-BHAVAN ) ~,/, cy / / 

1 1 jQ54 r *J4( falsest Act f 




Chapter .... Page 

1. Sri Madhwas Life Works & Life-Work 1-11 
My objects 1; Sri Madhwa's Life works- 7; 

Life work 9; 

2. Veda-Vyasa and Madhwa 11-22 
Necessity of Religion 11; Vedic Epochs 

14 Definetion of Veda 14; Vyasa epoch 17; 
Epoch of Acharyas 20; 

3. Uniqueness of Madhwa Works 22-40 
Vaishnavism Very ancient 23; Madhwas 
Rhug-bhashya 23; Madhwa Pioneer of Reser- 

ch. 26; Madhwa's Avatar-hood; 27; Vastness, 
2; Madhwa His style 29; originality of inter- 
preation 32; Puranic terminology 34; Mahar- 
shi Daiwarats opinion 36; 

4. Madhwa's Main Propositions 40-50 
Misunderstandings about God 40; Madhwa's 
main propositions are four 41; Popular erro- 
rs about Dwaita 43; Brahma-Vishnu & Nara- 

yan 47; 

5. Poorna-Brahma A; Guna-Poornatwa A. 50-65 

Guna-Poornatwa 51; God is knowlableSl; 
Science of names 52;What is God ? 54; Guna- 
Poornatwa explained55;Guna-Guni AbhedaSO; 


Bahu-Rupa & Avatar- Rupas 57; what 
is full worship ? 61; objections answered 63; 
Method of proof 63; 

6. Poorna-Brahma B; Nirdoshatwa 

c; Tat-Tantratwa 65-89 
Nirdoshatwa 70; Tat-Tantratwa 74; Contra- 
versial topies & Solutions suggested, 79; SA- 
GUNA-Nirguna 79;Sakar-Nirakar 80;DwiTA- 
ADWAITA 81; Shoonya-Poorna 84; Ramanu- 
ja-Madhwa 85; Symbolism 85; 

7. " Natun; (Rama or Laxmi) 89-101 
Re-view 83; God is a Homogeneous substance 

91; Poornatwa is an abstract idea 92; Vedant 
terminology 93;Definition of male & female93, 
Characteristics of Rama or Will 94; Univer- 
se created through Laxmi 97; Forms of Will 
99; Procedure of Creation 100; 

8. Fullness of God in the Universe 101-123 
Purpose of creation 104;- Jada-prakriti 105; 
Process of creation 108;Steps in CreationllO; 
Fullness of God in the Universe 111; Sym- 
bols and their significances 111; Brahma (Ch- 
turmukha) 113; Mukhya-Prana 115; Madhwa 

<& Mukhya-Prana 116; Mukhya-Prana's birth 
& occupation 118; Description of Prana 1 19; 
Hanuma-Madhwa & Bheema 121; 

9. The* fullness of God in Man 123-145 
Summing up 123; jeeva.tatwa 125; world i& 

a Gymnasium Hall 126; Definition of jeeva 

127; jeeva and their four bodies 127; Ling- 
Deha 129; Source of knowledge 137; Means 
of Knowledge 139; Bimba paroksha 140; Con- 
clusion 143. 

10. Conclusion 145-150 

Re-Call to memory 145; Whirl-pool of human 
logic 146; IVUdhwa's method 148. 

. - - ,SADHANA 

1. Fullness of God Sadhana 153-164 
Field of Sadhana 153;God full in Sadhanal54, 
Consensus of opinion among Vedantins 155; 

Is Sadhana necessary? 156;what is Man? 159; 
Madhwa's optimism 164; The Goal and the 
Path 162. 

2. Basic Principles of Sadhana 165-183 
Madhwa & the worl'd 165; Samsara a Circuit 

166; Ten Eternals & their utility 167; what is 
Sadhana?! 68;Sadhana & self help 169;who is 
a Sadhaka?171;Candidateship. of a Sadhaka 
172, Royal Road to the Temple of God 173; 
what is that royal road? 174. Value of Bhakti 
175;Hand-H33id & Ha art 177; Definite steps 
in Sadhana 173; Sadhanas & Customs 180. 

3. Science of Vedant. 183-197 
Vedant & other sciences 1 83, Science of 

Yedant 186; Challenge to Ssientists 188; 


Princeples of Vedant Science 190; 
Vedant& its sub-divisions 192; 
Experiments vs. Experiences 194. 

4. Spirituology -Physiology &Psychologyl97-207 

General 197; Spirituology 199; Psychology 
203, Physiology 203, Prana-Vidya & how to 
develop it 205. 

5. Karma-Jnana & Bhakti etc- 207-220 

Preliminaryiremarks 207; Vairagya 208;Life 
after death 209, Karma 20; Divisions of 
Karma 210; Karma-Ksha\a 211; Jnana 
212; Ignorance is the root of Knowledge 
213; Gradation of Mental faculties 215; 
Bhakti 218. 

6. Upasana-Aparoksha & Moksha 220-239 

I Upasana 220. method of meditation 222, 
Dhyana <& Samadhi 223, 

II Aparoksha225,what is Aparoksha?225Effects 
of Aparoksha 227, Instinct and Intuition 228, 
Kanaka-Das & Aparoksha229,Adhyatma- Yo- 
ga 231. HI. Moksha231,What is Moksha ?232 
Objection answered 233, Points of keenest 
differences 235. 

7. Varnashrama-Dharma 239-253 


Introduction239,Group of Souls240,Social sy- 
stem of Bharat242,Root princeples of Varncu 
shrama242,Organisation of Yarnashrma 243, 
Madhwa & Castes 245, My seheme of re-orga- 


nisation 247, Sadhana for Whom ? 250, 
Charactristics of Bharateeya culture 252 

8- Final Conclusion. 

Sadhan & self sacrifice 953, Basic System 
of Vedie edncation 255, My attitude 258, 
Basic Principle 259, Parallels betweon, MR. 
dhwism, and Zarathustrism 260, Dark age 
with new light 26?, Madhwa is a heroic 
personoge 263, Upasam-har 265, Symbols 
explained 268. 


Anu-Vya = Anu-Vyakhyan of Madhwa. 

Anu-Vya + Bha = Anu-Vyakhyan + Bha^hya of Mcdhwa. 

Ath-Up = Atharvanopanishat or Mundak upanishat. 

Bhag = Bhagvat. 

B. S. = Brahma-sootru, 

B. S. B. + Bhashya cf Madhwa 

Br. Up = Brahadaranya Upanithat 

Br-Up Bhashya = Brahadaranya + Bhashya of Madhwa 

Chh-Up = Chhandogya-Upanishat + Bhashya of Madhwa 

Ish-Up = Ishopanishat 

Ish-Up-Bha = Ishopanisha 4 : + Bhashya of Madhwa 

Kath-Up = Kath - Upanishat 

Kath-Up-Bha = Kath - Bhashya of Madhwa 

Kena-Up = Kena-Upanishat or Talavakar or Brahma 

Mad-sa = Madhwa-sara of Veda-garbha Padmanabha 

Mand-Up= Mandooka - Upanishat [ charya 

Mund-Up= Mundaka or Atharavana 

Pra-Up = Prahashno-panisat 

Tait-Up = Taitareeya-Upamshat 

V. T. N. = Vishnu-tatwa-nirnaya of Madhwa 


This Hand book requires a short persanalnote: 

I am a Madhwa by birth & faith now by convicition. 

In 1913,1 winted to edit Madhwa-Gita, but laid it aside, 
because of some doubts & difficulties. ( The manuscripts 
are still faith me ). 

In 1915, an offer came from Lok-Tilak to. translate 

his Gita-Rahasya into Kannada, 1 gladly accepted; 
for, I found his Jnanottara Karma almost coincided with 
that of Madhwa. 

1 also found that Sri Shankar Ramanuja & Madhwa 

were really nearer to each other than is generally thou- 
ght of & with that-view I published five books on Gita 
in Kannada. 

But, I was all along feeling that there was some- 
thing wrong in the decent traditional presentation of Ma- 
dhwa philosophy, which had caused much misunderstan- 
ding & unnecessary prejudice. While studying his Works 
in the original, fortunately, I came across a passage, in a 
corner of his Anu-Vya, which, according to Madhwa him- 
self forms the centre of his thought. 

That passage threw a flood of light on my research 

<St study and this booklet is an humble attempt to present 
it in that new light, to suit modern thought. - 

I am most faithful to the spirit and have not know- 
ingly departed from the spirit of his works. 


....I am conscious, that I can not do full justice even 
to my self, in such a short compass,much less to the subject. 

I am alone responsible for the method of presen- 
tation & its mistakes; merit goes to Madhwa. 

If rightly understood; I am confident, that his philo- 
sophy would be a guide to solve many intricate questions. 

The booklet is only a Pointer, not even a Guide. It 

is rather suggestive, illustrative and reflective & in some 
respect imaginative too. 

With these few words, I float into wider sea, this 

my paper-boat. 

PART 1' 




crest r 



Shri. Mitdhwacharya is one of those greatest 
world-teachers of our sacred land, who have 
moulded the religious philosophy and culture and 
who have held a sway over the minds of numer- 
ous followers to this day. He is almost the last 
of all, and as such, has given to Indian philosophy, 
a finishing touch and has brought it, in line with 
the true and authoritative teachings of Shri Veda- 
Vyasa. But, unfortunately, Madhwa has been 
most neglected by the modern world (perhaps, 
owing to some peculiar difficulties in the way). 
But most unfortunate and unpardonable it is, that 
he should .be mis-understood, mis-interpreted 
and mis-represented by his own followers, especi- 
ally by the learned among them, and that too 
without even caring to study. This small book is 
an humble attempt to draw the attention of 
modern youths and scholars towards this subject. 

My objects in writing this book aie briefly 
these : 

( I ) To present the Madhwa philosophy in 
its true spirit, as I have re-discovered 
and understood it. 

( 2 ) To show that, understood in new ligh t 
and according to time-spirit, there are 
more common points between Shri. 
Shankar, Shri Ramanuja aud Madhwr., 
than differences, where we can all meet 
together on common plat-form, without 
at the same time, not necessarily yield- 
ing in important and essential points of 
our convictions. On this, the late revered 
Padmanabhacharya, a perfect orthodox 
is with me or rather I, with him. (The 
Life and Teachings of Shri. Madhwa, 
page 301). 

( 3 ) Such points of differences a re fortunately 
very few, for instance, whether indivi- 
dual consciousness remains or not in 
Mukti i. e. in the state of Liberation: 
whether self-absorption in the medita. 
tion on God and actual God-vision i. e. 
Aparoksha keep our~eyesand mind open 
on ourselves and on the outside world or 
not etc etc. But leaving these few purely 
philosophical and spiritually exceptional 
cases, there is ample scope, not only for 
practical compromise but also for 
philosophical understanding and spiri- 
tual guidance. 


(4) So. long, attention had been, perhaps 
rightly rivetted on differences only, and 
now I want to divert it into new channels, 
and that too on a scientific basis. I 
think, we can most safely and profitably 
do sc. 

( 5 ) There is now danger of mere dry and 
barren politicians ignorant of our ancjent 
religion, taking the culture of our 
country under their thumb, instead of 
keeping themselves to their proper role, 
namely that of administering according 
to the advice of religious philosophers 
and being guided by the eternal 
philosophic and spiritual principles 
of our Vedic religion and culture. 
Really speaking, spiritual men are the 
true guardians of our ancient culture 

( 6 ) Lastly, I am confident that Madhwa 
philosophy will pave the way a good 
deal, towards this end, since there is a 
harmonious blending of many previous 
philosophies in it, 

Shri. Madhwa' s Life^Here I can summarise 
only a few incidents of his life He was born in 3ift6ut 
1238 A. D* in a very humble family, in a humble 


village, in a corner of India on the West Coast in 
Mangalore (South Kanara) District. Having spent 
his life of about 80 years in fullest activity, he is 
supposed to have disappeared at once from the 
gaze of his disciples while he was engaged in 
instructing them in 'Aaitariya Bhashya.' His dis- 
appearance is yet a mystery. It is believed by 
his followers that he has gone to Badari to live 
at the foot of his Guru Shri. Veda-Vyasa (both 
of whom are supposed to be [Chiranjeevees] 
ever-living.) Apart from this, the main facts of 
his life are of un-doubted historical authenticity, 
unlike those of many great men whose life-incid- 
ents are shrouded in darkness. There are very 
few miracles which are un-believable. Fortunat- 
ely for us, his life has been immortalized within 
a very few years of his disappearance in beautiful 
poetical work called ' Madhwa Vijaya' written by 
Pandit Narayanacharya, one of his staunch 
devotees. The life of Shri. Shankaracharya was 
long afterwards written in imitation of this 

Madhwa like Shankar was a prodigy of 
prodigees. By the time he was five, he had 
mastered Sanskrit Grammer and Literature. 
By the age of ten, he had mastered all Vedas 
and Upanishads etc sb that even at that age. 


he was marvelled at, for his great aptitude. 
That was the measure of the man. Even in 
his early life, like Shankar he recognised that 
he was born for a particular mission in life and 
so at once determined to devote his whole life 
for the mission, and for that purpose took 
Sanyasa from one, ' Achyuta-Preksha ' when he 
was ramed by his Guru as c Poorna-Prajna. ' 
Madhwa, after a few years of doubtings and 
searchings had come to the conclusion that the 
philosophy of Shankar had many flaws. So, 
Madhwa's first duty was to convince and convert 
his Guru to his faith and this he did. inspite 
of Guru's leanirgs towards Shankar philosophy. 
Madhwa was installed by his Guru to the Peetha, 
when he was named * Anand-Teerth '. "Madhwa'' 
is the name which he himself assumed on the 
authority of Veda. So, I use these three names 
in this book namely-Madhwa, Poorna-Prajna and 

Madhwa at once commenced the work of 
convincing the scholars, about his new principles 
and with that object, took a juorney in South India 
for about two or three years, during which he had 
many controversial discussions. But he had not 
yet written any book. After his return frwn^that 
tour, he made up his mind to visit Badarikashrama 


and to take instructions from his Guru Veda-Vyasa 
about his new tenets. He was then quite younp, 
was not rich and had very few followers. The 
journey to Badari was, in those times, a very 
hazardous one. But, he had a robust health and 
he was full with enthusiasm for propagating his 
new tenets and so did take that perilous journey 
with only a few followers; visited Badari, took 
instructions from Veda-Vyasa and wrote his first 
book ' Gita-Bhashya. ' While returning, he visited 
many places in' Bengal and other Province?. While 
he was at Rajamahendry in Andhra country, two 
great Pandits - Shobhana-bhat and Shama-Shastri 
of opposite faith, became his disciples. Shobhan- 
bhat, long afterwards became his successor as 
1 Padmanabha-teerth.' Shama-shastri who was 
called Narahari-teerth after his initiation remained 
in OrSssa where he ruled the country for many 
years as the Regent of the minor King. The 
work of writing books had been continued through 
out, side by side with the propogation of his 
philosophy. His Brahma-Sootra-BJiashya was 
written about this time. 

After his return to Udipi near Mangalore 
from this Northern tour, he engaged himself in 
systematislng his school of thought, installed Shri 
Krishna Idol in Udipi and established Muth. 


Udipi is now the centre of Madhwas. Thus, he 
showed his skill as a great organiser and admini- 
strator also. In this middle period he seems to 
have written many of his important book?. 

Then began his long journey to the North of 
India and Badari. He was for many years in 
north India, Bengal, Assam, etc. He visited Delhi, 
Kurukshetra, Banares, etc and then returned to 
the South, visited Goa and then came back to 

Afterwards, he did not take any long jour- 
neyes, but was fully engaged in writing, and 
conducting disputations with the Pandits of other 
rival schools. In his last days, his big library which 
consisted of many rare manuscripts and palm leaf 
books etc. was stolen by his opponents which was 
partly recovered to him, through the intervention 
of King Jaya-sinh. But I think many of the books 
which are not now available have been lost for ever. 
He has quoted thousands of quotations from rare 
books. This, in short, is the history of this eminent 

Works:- Now about his works; he has written 
in all 37 works-big and small, all 'of them are 
published in four volumes. They cover about 
2350 pages. ( Sarva-Moola books of Kumbhako- 
nam Edition not available now). For the bandit 
of my Madhwa brethern, who must be acquainted 


at-least with the names, and for the benefit of 
other scholars, I here classify them as under 

(1) Veda and Upanishad-Bhashyas - 11 Books 
in all:- One on Rhugweda and ten on ten 
famous Upanishads. 

(2) Sootra-Prasthan Granthas - 4 in all. 

(a) Brahama-Stitra Bhashya; 

(b) Anu-Bhashya; 

(c) AM-Bhashya; 

(d) Nyaya-Vivarana. 

(3) Gita-Prasthan - 2 Granthas- Gita-Bhashya 
and Gita-Tatparya-Nirfiaya. 

(4) ' Itihasa and Purna etc - 3 Granthas :- 

(a) Maha-bharat - Tatparya-Nirfiaya. 

(b) Bhagavat-Tatparya-Nirfiaya. 

(c) Yamaka Bharat. 

(5) Pramana - Granthas - 2 Granthas :- 

(a) Pramana- Lakshana; 

(b) Katha-Lakshafia. 

(6) Tatwa Granthas - 4 Granthas:- 

(a) Tatwa-Sankhyan; 

(b) Tatwa-Viveka. 

(e) Tatwodyota; 

(d) Vishnu - Tatwa - Niriiaya. 

(7) Achara Granthas - 6 Granthas:- 

(a) SadSchara Smriti; 

(b) Karma-Nirnaya; 


(c) Tantra-sara ; 

Id) Krishna-mrita Mahirfiava; 

( e ) Yat i - P rana va-kal pa; 

(f) Jayanti-Niriiaya; 

(8) Stotras- 2 Granthas :- 

(a) Dwadasha Stotra; 

(b) Nakha-strotra. 

(9) Khandana Granthas- 3 Granthas :- 

(a) UpS-dhi Khandana; 

(b) Maya-vada Khandana; 

(c) Prapancha Mithyatwanumana 


If you remember that all his Granthas are 
very concise, many of them being mere guides 
than extensive treatments you will know how 
versatile his genius was, and what a tremendous 
volume of literature he has brought out. There 
is scarcely any one who has been equalled by him 
in the originality and quantity of literature. I 
think Madhwa is among the very few of the World- 
Teachers who have to their credit such extensive 
and profound literature. 

Life Work; Now to come to his life work. 
From his very early-hood he was fully conscious 
of his life-work. He thought himself to be the 
Special Messenger of God, being born as the third 
.Avatar of God Vayfi - the First being Hattn, 


Second being Bhima and he the Third. In the 
whole World's history, he is the only Teacher 
who has, so early, not only proclaimed his Avatar- 
hood but produced ample evidence for those 
who have faith in such Avatar-hoods. He has 
quoted the authority of Veda itself (Vide Balitha- 
sookta - Rhugweda 1,141.1-5) where his name 
Madhwa occurs. The fact of his proclamation of 
his Avatar-hood very early in life is also important 
in asmuchas there was sufficient time for testing 
it since he lived for many many years after that 
declaration. In his most important work 'Sootra- 
Bhashya ' and also in ten other works, we see this 
declaration. Moreover, he has frequently mention 
ed the science of measuremeots of body and the 
science of mark i. e. Hasta and Anga Samudrika 
oh his palm etc which an Avatarika Saint must 
possess, if he calls himself an Avatar. Evidently, 
Madhwa must have those measures of body and 
marks like Chakra i. e. concentric circle on his 
hand; otherwise, he would not have dared to make 
that announcement. These and other facts make 
him an unique personage in the whole of, the world. 
At last the curtain mysteriously drops on his life; 

His mission of life may be stated very briefly 
in one word " Pcorna-BrahmaTatwz. " i.e. "Establi- 
shment of God's Glory on Earth as " Poorna- 


Brahma" POORSATWA. or 1 The theory of the 
Absolute Perfectness of God ' is the pivot of his 
whole philosophy. But the readers shall have to 
wait for its full grasp until they read this my book. 


Necessity of Religion : The very first que- 
stion that confronts the readers is whether religion 
or religious philosophy is a necessity at all ? Why 
should we think about it and. waste our time? The 
answer to this is simple. Yes, you need not think 
at all about religion or God if you can avoid them. 
But, really speaking, you cannot help thinking 
about them, if you are true men* Man is primarily 
a thinking being. All our activities are comprised 
in three things: (1) Action, (2) Thought and 
(3) Love, All these require thinking. Can you 
cease doing these activities? No, all these are 
necessary for your happiness. Who is there who 
cannot covet happiness,if possible,perminent happi- 
ness ? Religion is the Science of Happines^, It 
teafiheS you how to perform good acts, how to 


develop fully your thinking faculties and raise them 
to their highest pitch, according to your capacity; 
it teaches you how to purify your heart and obtain 
the pleasures of loving yourself, your wife and 
children, your fellow-brotheren, nay, of loving the 
whole humanity and the world. All these are 
really possible only when you go to the very root 
of the question - that is religion. 

In short, religion or Vedanta is like space or 
air. You cannot escape from it. You may believe 
in God or not. That is quite another thing. But 
think you must about these questions.Circumstances 
compel you: thinking convinces you; love converts 
you; soul captures you; and God divinizes you. 
But after all what is God ? Go'd is Goodness, Know 
ledge and Bliss or Happiness - Sat-chit-anaiida. 

Every science requires some preliminary 
preparation and training. You must acquire the 
habit of doing good acts and moral virtues - such 
as, Shama ( Peace), Dzma (Control of your senses) 
and other ordinary virtues. Religious philosophy 
is only for those who take or desire to take or 
dare to take life seriously and not frivolously. No 
doubt, every man desires happiness, but few indeed 
there are, who know what real happiness is; still, 
fewer there are, who strive for it; still fewer who 
succeed in it. True happiness depends upon both 



P. 13 

quality and quantity; and there are grades an4 
degrees in it. SATWIK ( pure and good ) plea- 
sure is more to be Sought for, than RAJ AS A 
(mixed) or TAMASA (impure). Permanent plea- 
sure is higher than temporary one. Intellectual 
pleasure is higher than physical pleasure; and 
spiritual, is the highest. The aim of religion is to 
indicate the means of attaining permanent bliss 
and spiritual pleasure. It is only men or Gods 
that can get it. Stones and other insentient objects 
are absolutely free either from pain or pleasure. 
But does any one hanker to obtain that state? No; 
so also does any one care to become lower animals? 
No; Ved'inta deals with the fundamental principles 
of the Universe and its origin and thus goe? to 
the very root of the affair. It does not trouble 
itself with their adjustments according to time, 
place and circumstances. It leaves those things 
to Law-givers or Smrti-Karas. It enables you to 
find out the true path for your permanent happi- 
ness. That path leads you to the origin, who is God. 
So, in short, NARA and NARAYAN are the 
objects of your quest And this is typified or 
symbolised in the most sacred images of Nara 
( Highest man ) and Narayana ( Highest God ), at 
Badari. Let us try to be Naras ( real men ) acc<i- 
ding to our utmost capacity and be perfect, and 


Jet us all try to live always in the vicinity of 
Narayan. That is the goal of Vedanta. 

Vedanta epochs- Vedanta philosophy can be 
conveniently divided into three epochs: 

O) Vedic Epoch; (2) Vyasa Epoch; & 
(3) Acharya Epoch. 

1. Vedic Epoch: At the start, let me take 
a rapid survey of our philosophy from Veda, thro- 
ugh Vyasa to Madhwa. Readers need not be 
told that Vedas form the bed-rock on which our 
richest religious temple is built. Vedas are really 
infinite in number. But, only four Vedas, proper- 
ly so called, are now available to us e. g. Rhugweds* 
Yajurveda, Sama-veda, and Atharva-veda, in 
which are included Upanishads etc. They are 
said to be A-pourisheyas ' i. e. not composed by 
any human or divine being. 

Definition of Veda : What are Vedas and how 
are they A-pourisheyas? Madhwa defines them 
thus:- Vedas are those letters which have a 
special and fixed combination of their own. (Anu 
Vyak. 1-1,68). What is it that is meant by A- 
pourisheya ? Madhwa says that it means nothing 
but this:- that, that special combination of letters 
has come down to us, from times immemorial, 
that is they are eternal, in the very form and 
frame In which they were first revealed. This 


is all what is meant by saying that they are A- 
pourisheyas. What objection is there for such an 
explanation ? It is further explained in this way. 
They have no authorship of any independent per- 
son - human or divine. God is not' their author. 
He too is a Revealer only. He too is a great 
Teacher, say, He is the Greatest Teacher (Maha- 
Mahopadhyaya); a Teacher of a text-book which is 
n Jt the production of any body. 

Many people have made futile attempts to 
fix their age and many have tried to lower their 
importance by trying to read historical or .pre- 
historical events in them. Yet Vedas have defied 
them, and they will ever defy any such attempts 
in future. Vedas are eternal and will ever remain 
eternal i. e. NITYA - Nitya not in the sense of 
unchangeable and perpetually the same (e. g. not 
Kutastha Nitya), but in the sense above mentioned. 
Syllables or Varfias are Kutastha Nityas i. e. un- 
changeable in the least; but Vedas are letters and 
words so there is change of form in the original 
Varftas But their form once fixed is fixed for 
ever, fixed as in an iron frame, without the least 
change in their letters, accents or sounds. They 
have always their origin in Vishnu. But, when 
they are first seen or heard by Chaturujpkha- 
Brahma or BrahmS and others, it is said that 


Brahma and others are Seers or Sages (Rhushis) 
only. Vedas are simply the words manifested 
by Vishnu quite naturally. Whilst Brahma, and 
others must, first practise penance and austerities 
in order to hear them. So, they are called Shrutis. 
(Brah Up. II. V Madhwa Bhashya). By Shruti 
it is to be understood that collection of wcrds of 
which the sense and words will never vary in every 
creation, whilst Itihasas and Puranas etc. are not 
so. These will never vary in their senses, though 
they may vary in words. That is the difference 
between Shruti and Itihasa etc. You now see 
how wonderful these Vedas are, and you will also 
be convinced how and why they differ from all 
other scriptures such as Bible .or Kurana, which 
have not the characteristics above mentioned. No 
amount of white-washing will make them equa 
to Veda?. 

Vedas are eternal truths in all the root-mean- 
ings of the verb ' Vid. ' The root Vid has several 
meanings : for instance, * Vid f means ever-existent 
(Satta) that is eternal or Nitya. c Vid' means 
to know (Jnana). So Veda means Wisdom. 
' Vid ' also means ' always as it is ' (Vidyate) i. e. 
its form is never changed. c Vid' also means to 
1 think ' (Dhyana), so it means (Meditated ' K e. 
revealed. 'Vid' means to reasoa (Vicharana), 


so it means Rational. All ShSstras and f uranas 
etc. have their source in Vedas. ' Vid ' also means 
' Fruit ' ( Labha ). Vedas are Veda<* because they 
give us whatever we desire. From this you will 
also see why they are un -translatable. All the 
ultimate desired ends ( PuriisharthasO namely - 
Dharma ( Religion a!nd moral virtues ), Artha 
( Worldly prosperity ), Kama ( satisfaction of all 
good desires ) and Moksha (Salvation ) can be 
obtained by them. Hence they are useful not 
only for those who are after Salvation but for all 
worldly people. Lastly therefore, I may. cry, in 
the strain of Yajnawalkya ( BrahadSranya ii-iv- 115) 
that, not for the sake of God, God and Vedas 
are necessary, but for the sake of Purusharthasi.e. 
ends of man, are they necessary. In fact, they 
are the final authorities on all matters. Without 
Vedas which are eternal sentences (Nitya-Vakyas\ 
Madhwa affirms that neither Dharma nor Adhar- 
ma, neither heaven nor hell neither Punya (merit) 
nor Papa ( sin ) can be proved and believed ( Aftu- 
vyakhyana 1-1-168-Sudha). 

2. ' Vyasa Epoch ';-Af ter the Vedic,conies the 
Vyasa Epoch. Badarayana or Veda-VySsi as he 
is called is the only real representative and expon- 
ent of Vedas. He collected and arranged the 
Vedas into branches and sub-branches. He 


Vedanta-Sootras for their true interpretation. He 
is the author of Mahabharat and also of PuranSs 
which are ascribed to him. There is a difference 
of opinion'about the dates etc of these Puranas. 
But we are not here concerned with that contro- 
versy, for, one thing is un-.disputed namely all 
these have only one purpose that of explaining 
the true meaning of Vedas, All of them point 
out to one meaning, whatever that meaning may be. 
In fact they are true commentaries of Vedas and 
without the help of these books, we can not pro- 
perly understand the true purport of Vedas. 

It is to be specially noted here, that there is 
a general agreement between the famous religious 
teachers on this point. Therefore, it is the boun- 
den duty of every Bharateeya to protect this 
sacredness of Vedas at all costs. And, it is in 
token of this, that we wear and must wear the 
sacred thread which is so spun as to be the symbpl 
of Vedas. Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas 
wear it. Especially Brahmins, if they are to be 
real Brahmins, shall never neglect it. Because 
after all, Bharateeya Culture is nothing, on the 
whole, but Brahmanism, however much others 
may fret and frown. A time there was, when 
Brahmins were taken to task, for not allowing 
others to study Vedas. Brahmin? were then, 


guilty of not explaining clearly the real spirit, 
underlying such injunction. Now that the doors 
are opened since many years, say if you want, 
forcibly how many are there who have taken ad- 
vantage of Vedas, for their spiritual Salvation ? 
By some, they have been utterly thrown into the 
back-ground, if not into the lumber room. Some 
others who do study Vedas do so, only to drag 
them down to the level of prehistoric or historic 
documents. In this connection Brahmins them- 
selves are not free from blame. Mathadhi-patees 
especially are open to this my charge, since they 
should have been the real custodians of this special 
spiritual treasure. Any how, the world should 
remember that the best way to remedy the evil 
and out-do Brahmins is to imitate Brahmanism- 
let go the Brahmin caste. But, the cast into 
which the ancient Brahmin Rushees have poured 
Vedic culture and Sanatan-Dharma must remain. 
So, you can dispense with ' Caste * but not Rushee's 
ancient ' Cast ' or mould. Shri. Shankara's warning 
that"Vaidic Dharma will be protected only if 
Bramhanatwa is protected (Gita-Bhashya) should 
always be kept before our mind. Long, long ago 
Shri. Veda-vyasa reminded, in Mahabharat and 
Bhagavat that a Brahmin's life is specially meant 
for dedicating it, not for Bhoga but wholly for 
hard Tapas and for ultimate thorough happiness. 

C 19 ]\ 

After an intervening period of Buddha and 
Jina,, whose thoughts though differed as to the final 
authority of Vedas, culturally speaking owed their 
inspiration to Vedas, we now come to the third 
epoch namely. 

3. Epoch of Acliaryas :- The great Buddha, 
by .brushing aside the Vedas, paved the way for 
the intellectual school of thought. For, Vaidics 
could refute Buddha and Mahaveer in no other 
way thaa by meeting them and refuting them on 
intellectual ground. It gave our people an oppor- 
tunity to develop the rational side of philosophy 
by sharpening our intellect. I am, therefore, of 
opiniofi that, this .epoch is not one of degradation 
as some seem .to hold, but one of great intellectual 
development; for, it brought 'forth all sorts of 
rational arguments to support the intutional inter- 
pretation of old times. When we come down from 
spiritual to intellectual field, some sort of wrang- 
ling and differences of opinion are in-evitable. It 
is not" therefore to be diplored. These controver- 
sies toave taken us -to farthest point to which intell- 
ect rtiay lead us, and the abiding faith in Vedas 
yhicft was the common basis of all Acharyas such 
as Kumarila-Bhat, Shri. Shankar,Shri. Ramanuja 
and Shri, Madhwa, has been^able to drive away 
Buddhists who were atheists arid' HatfTrMeri* able t6* 

give a corner to Jainism because it admitted 
Soul, and its utmost perfection. We see .the 
greatest development of intellect in Jain School 
of Philosophy. 

Thus, the current of Vedic culture is conti- 
nuously flowing in one form or other and has ferti- 
lised this sacred Bharat-Bhumi and is now waiting 
to extend it to the outside world, which is the 
real mission of Vedic culture, by spiritualising 
politics, Sociology, Nationalism and all other 
fields of activity. 

Madhwa stands, as almost the last of these 
Teachers.No doubt there were Vallabha, Chaitan- 
ya and a few others. Vallabha and Madhwa 'have 
much in common and Chitanya belongs to Madhwa 
School In modern times, Dayananda Saraswati 
has interpreted in his own way Vedas, but his 
school of thought, in religious matters is not quite 
new, with regard to the chief fundamental tenets 
about God, Soul and World, the three most impor- 
tant topics of Vedanta. Shri. Aravinda has come 
forward to interpret Vedas in his own way, but I 
dare say that Madhwn's interpretation is more 
original and. wide. Any how, Shri. Shankar, Rama- 
nuja and Madhwa are the thre: greatest persona- 
lities after Buddha and Jina who have revolutioni- 
sed the religious thought of the world. In refigtdus 


philosophy, Madhwa had one great advantage 
over others since he was the last. He had before 
him all sorts of interpretations aqd various schools 
of thought in religious matters, and so had the 
opportunity to test them on the anvil of logic and 
Vedic texts. He had before him all the merits 
and defects of old schools. So, I may say that 
Madhwa has brought out an improved and revised 
elition of Vedic Teachings. Of course, as an hum- 
ble servant of Shri. Madhwa,- my duty is to place 
his ideas as I have under stood them and therefore, 
shall not sit in judgment over others for which 
task, I am too poor a creature. 


. , Madhwa is a unique personage in many res- 
pects. In this Chapter, I want to draw the atten- 
tion of my readers to the role he played in th" 
world's history as a pure SANATANI or VEDA- 
NTI and to his contributions to literature in that 
capacity. So, I restrict myself as far as possible 
to nan-sectarian subjects reserving special contro- 
versial subjects for special treatment in future 


Vaishnavism very ancient :- He was, of course, 
the founder of New VAISHNVISM, with its spec- 
ial tenets, Society, Customs and manners. But 
Vaishnavism itself seems to be very very old than 
the particular order of Madhwa Society. Because, 
we find many of the tenets preached by Shri, 
Madhwa have the support of Maha-Bharat and 
other Puranasand Itihasasalso. As a matter of fact, 
Madhwa has quoted numerous passages in support 
of his thoughts and interpretations,nay, has explai- 
ned many words and sentences in the very words 
of those books. This is a strong proof to show 
that even before Madhwa a school of thought exi- 
sted which propounded his philosophical views. 
Hence it is also, that I say that Madhwa is the 
3nly true representative of Veda-Vyasa who, on 
his part was the only true exponent -of Vedic Tea- 
chings. The questions of the dates of those books 
and the questions of interpolations etc are of minor 
importance. However, I draw the attention of 
all scholars and especially of our Swamis to the 
necessity of publishing authoritative editions of 
Puranas etc. incorporating in them, all the quotat- 
ions used by Madhwa in his 37 works. 

Modhwa's Rhug-bhashya:- Of the works, which 
entitle Madhwa to the title of WORLD-TEACHER, 
" Rhugveda Bhashya * stands fore- most. iL is a 


small book of 75 pages. It is only a guide ( The 
pecularity of most of his books is that they are 
mere guides, allowing ample -scope for future 
scholars to fully work out the theories inculcated 
by him). In this Guide, he has explained first 
489 Mantras ( 40 Sooktas ) in three different ways 
ADH YATMA. Though the book is pigmy in size, it 
transcendes every book in the world in its impor- 
tance. In this, Madhwa is a Pioneer and has 
remained alone to this day. Unfortunately, no 
one has followed him to this day and his unique 
work has remained un-appreciated as yet. I drew 
the attention of Shri. Aravinda shram towards this 
important book.Shri. Kapali Shastry of that Ashranv 
in his both books- (1) Lights 'on Vedas and (2) 
Rhugveda * Bhumika in Sanskrit has published his 
appreciation. Here, I give extract from c Lights 
on Vedas.' "Again the tradition that the Vedic 
Hymns are supremely spiritual in their import 
was recovered by Ananda-Teerth the Dwaita 
Teacher known as Madhwacharya. This shows 
clearly that there was, even before Sayana a 
School of Vedic interpreters holding that though 
ritual worship was part of the Vedic religion, and 
as such the Mantras present an aspect favourable 
to it, yet, the inner meaning of the Mantras was 


spiritual and the highest aim and use of Veda was 
God-Knowledge, and attainment of Supreme enc 
of life possible for man. 

Madhwacharya's work is comparatively smal 
in volume, the language simple, but its influence 
among scholars modern or ancient is not commen- 
surate with its importance, as can be judged from 
the fact that most modern scholars and Pandits as 
a class, with the possible exception of some among 
his followers are un-aware of the very existence 
of such a work." 

Shriyut DEI WAR AT MAHARSHIoi Gokarna 
in Karnatak who has devoted his whole life, only 
to the study of Vedas ( himself not a madhwa ) was 
over-joyed when I showed to him this book and 
the commentaries of Shri. TEEKACHARYA 
Shri. RAGHAVENDRA-SWAMI and Notes by 
Shri. CHHALARI Narashimhacharya and kept 
them with him for a few days for study. He is 
of opinion that, that Shri. Madhwa wrote his 
Bhashya in ANUSHTUPA VRITTA is most 
creditable. The book is exceptionally excellent. 
He also appreciated my Poorna-Brahma. name and 
" Poornatwa theory. " 

It is a pity that our own Pandits should comp- 
letely neglect it. That only shows the depth of 
degradation to which they have fallen. 


Madtiwa-Pioneer of Research: Madhwa is 
the first and foremost of Research Scholars of 
India. This is evident from his another stupendous 
(5160 Shlokas ) work called u Maha-bharat Tatpa- 
rya-Nirnaya." In the first three Adhyayas, he 
has given the essence of not only Maha-bharat, 
but of all Shastras and in its 32 Adhyayas in all, 
he has summarised the Tatparya i. e. the essence 
of Mool-Ramayan and Maha-bharat. In the com- 
position of this, Ms original work, he has shown 
his great Research Scholarship. As a matter of 
fact, he was the first to collect all possible palm- 
leaf and other manuscripts, travelling through-out 
India, even in those hard days, in search of them. 
He found that there were many interpolations, 
many omissions, alterations through error or pur- 
posely made and in this way, the whole book was 
in a very mutiliated condition. ( Bhagavit book 
was not 5o ) He collected and compared them : 
fixed their meanings in accordance with the other 
works of Veda-Vyasa and then wrote this huge 
work. All this is stated in the book itself. (Maha- 
Bharat II. 3). Really Madhwa is the true Founder 
of Research Society in India. It is a great pity 
that such a recognised body like Bhandarkar Res- 
earch Institution should not even the courtesy of 
acknowledging its debt to the real founder of Rese- 


arch work e. g. Madhwa in fitting and glowing 
terms. Difference of opinion there may be. It is 
but natural in such matters. But it should not be 
a bar to fairness of mind and research mentality. 

Madhwa' s Avatar-hood:- 1 have already refe- 
rred to Madhwa's AvatSr-hood arid to his myster- 
ious dis-appearance from our sight. These inci- 
dents also are unique in his life. About his Avatar- 
hood, I may here note that Madhwa has mentioned 
the fact of his Avatar-hood in the following works 
of his:- (1) B rahma-Sootra- Bhashya ; (2) Anu- 
Vyakhyan ; (3) Vishnu-Tatwa-Nirnaya ; (4) Braha- 
daranya Bhashya; (5) Chhandogya Bhashya; (6) 
Taittifeya Bhashya; (7) Gita-Tatparya-Nirnaya; 
(8) Nyaya Vivarafia; (9) Maha-Bharat-Tatparya- 
Nirnaya; (lo) Tantra-Sara-Sangraha and.(H) 
Krishnamrita-Maharnawa. I have already referr- 
ed to his mention of the measure-ments of the 
body and the marks of Chakra etc. which an Ava- 
tar Purusha should have. Besides, he has quoted 
some other authorities such as "Swabhawa" etc. 

Hanuman = Anu-Mahan ? Here I may mention 
a curious coincidence. Recently, a very old 
Kannada book called "Shri-Bhu-Valaya" of 783 
A. D. is published. It has been written by one 
Jain Kavi called Kumuderidu. It is the most my- 
stical book which, is said to have been writt&Kn 


Kannada language so as to fit itself in many, many 
languages of the world such as Sanskrit, Prakrita, 
Telagu, Tamil, Maharashtra, and Bengali, etc. 
The clue to discipher them also is given there-in. 
In this printed book on page 21, there is also an 
inscription, a very old inscription and an image of 
Hanuman said to belong to the Iron Age. Here 
I am concerned with that image only.I was wonder- 
struck to read there-m the word Hanuman as 
" Anu-Mahan " which, in my opinion exactly fits 
in, with the mythological story of Hanuman that 
as soon as he was born as a child (Anu) he at once 
became big ( Mahan ) and jumped to swallow the 
orb of the Sun. Is not Hanuman really Anu-Mahan? 
Vastness:- Now to proceed with the topic in 
hand. Vastness of his works and their originality 
also entitle him to the respect of the whole world. 
In his works you will be surprised to see that he has 
occasionally treated almost all important subjects 
not only of Vedanta, but other subjects such as 
Vyakaraiia, Nirukta, Logic, Prosody, Etimology, 
Jyotisha, Psychology, Science of Images, Science 
of Yoga and numerous other subjects. He has 
drawn quotations from hundreds of books. He was 
proficient in Sangeeta ShSstra, himself a very 
good songster. He himself prepared seventeen 
idols and presented them to his disciples. In short, 

I have found no one who equals him in the variety 
and originality of subjects treated. 

Madhwa:- His Style :- *Now to come to his 
Style:- Here too he is unique. He has written 
his books in many styles, according to the subjects 
dealt with. In Rhugweda he adopts Vedic and 
mystic style. In Bhashya and Anu-Vyakhyan, we 
see he adopts a very condensed and cryptic style. 
To me,there,he appears to follow the Sootra style. 
He had to say too much, which he could not do 
unless he followed Sootra style to some extent. 
Here I mention only one instance. In Anu-Vya- 
khyan, while discussing about the author itativpness 
of Vedas, he has this smallest sentence. , 

EVA" ( Anu- Vyakhyana - Sudha 1.1.66 ) "And 
the evidence of Vedas is as self-evident as 
that of direct knowledge. " Please see how short 
and simple the sentence is! But, you will be sur- 
prised to see, that little sentence serves as a reply 
to nearly twelve or more schools of opponents 
( SUDHA on 1 '. 1 . 66 ). The famous Jaya-Teer- 
thacharya in NYAYA-SUDHA - his commentary 
on that book explains in detail how it refutes all 
other opposite schools Here I may be . allowed 
to say that but for Jaya-teertha who is popularly 
called TEEKACHARYA, , Madhwa's books v 


have been remained as sealed books. Nyaya-Su- 
dha of ' Shri. Teekacharya deserves to be ranked 
with one of the highest books of the world. Its 
style is not less flowing and beautiful than that of 
Shri. Shankar. Well, this much is certain, Madh- 
wa's cryptic style has been stood in the way of his 
books not being read even by scholars. Another diffi- 
culty about his books is that in his commentaries 
he has touched only those points in which he 
differed from others. But, though it is a virtue, 
it makes the reading difficult. Moreover, he is so 
tolerant that he does not even mention the name 
of his opponents. 

Madhwa has in his works refuted in all, twenty - 
one old Bhashyas and not only Shankar-Bhashya. 
The scholars would do well to separate them and 
write different brochures consolidating in one place 
all the arguments advanced against a particular 

Madhwa has adopted a different style in such 
books as Tatwodyota, etc. In Upanishad Bhashyas 
his style is differnt. Stotras have been written in 
a very fluent and easy style. In his great work 
on Mahabharat, we shall fully read his most beauti- 
ful poetry. His Dwadasha Stotra is the most soul- 
stirring sonorous song. If he had written in elabo- 
rate style, his works would have grown at-least to 


tan times in volume. Another hindrance to the 
study of his book is due to the neglect of his follo- 
wers. Printed books or manuscripts are not avai- 
lable now-a-days for study. 

Pithy sentences of Madhwa contain a volume 
of meaning. Numerous instances may be given. 
Many alternate meanings also are given. Some 
times he corrects seemingly plain meanings by 
giving deeper connotations; for instance in Gita 
( VIII. 12 ), it is stated that at the time of death, 
mind should be concentrated in Hridaya. Madhwa 
says, if Hridaya be taken in its ordinary meaning,' 
it is not quite true, because, he says it is against 
Yoga, for, the mind of a Yogi at the time of his 
death remains always with ATMA, which is at 
the time of death is in BRAHMA-RANDHRA 
i. e. in or above the head, for, the rule is c mind is 
always there where Atma is. * So, mind cannot 
be then in the heart. Madhwa quotes 'Vyasa- 
Yoga ' for his authority and not PStanjala- Yoga. 
Therefore, he translates Hridaya as meaning God 
and gives authority also for it. Of course, the 
ordinary meaning of heart may be also true in the 
case of common men. 

Here, I give another instance of a small but 
important correction. You know that Bhagayad- 
gita is supposed to be authoritative, because t&e 

C 3i ] 

verses ther,e-in are the words of Shn. Krishna, 
But this is not technically true; for, Madhwa says 
Gita-Shlokas are not Krishna's at all; for, admitte- 
dly they are the composition of Veda-Vyasa and 
not of Krishna. And Gita is only a Chapter in 
Maha-Bharat, so, unless we prove that the whole 
of Maha-Bharat is an authoritative work, its chap- 
ter cannot be authoritative. Therefore it is, that 
Madhwa first proves the authoritative-ness of Maha- 
Bharat itself and reconciles the above inconsi- 
stency by stating that Veda-Vyasa is also an Avatar 
of Narayan, hence there is complete identity of 
thought. This statement of Madhwa removes 
many of the doubts of modern critics objecting to 
the faithfulness of Gita on the grounds of the in- 
appropriateness of the occasion and length of tiire 
required to repeat all Gita Shlokas. 

Originality of Interpretation :- If there is any 
special trait in him it is this:- He never imitates 
any body in anything. In Chhandogya ( I. .13 - II 
Chapter ) he has explained the 13 so-called Sto- 
bha syllables which are used while singing Santa 
Songs and which had been left un-explained before 
him by any body. He has stated that they are 
all names of God' and in doing this he has shown 
his skill in Etymology. He has interpreted Maha- 
bharat in three different ways. He says that 


Maha-bharat is written in three different^tyles 
namely - Darshana, Guhya and Samadhi'Bhasha 
(Maha-Bh-ta 11-123,139, 140) and has three differ- 
ent meanings such as (l)Manwadi, (2) Upari- 
charadi and (3) Asteekadi. Darshana BHasha is 
that which gives only apparent meanings, and will 

be dissolved when contradictions are shown bet- 
ween the previous passages and the passages in 

question. Guhya is that where the real meanings 
of words are hidden by apparently opposite mean- 
ings. But Samadhi Bhasha is the most important 

portion,because it proceeds purely from inspiration 
of the author. Manwadi meaning is that which 
explains the ten virtues sucn as JnSna(Mana-Jnane) 
Bhakti etc. You will be surprised to note that 
Madhwa understands Maha-bharat not only as a 
historical document, but also as a war between 
Vice and Virtue. Yudhisthira represents pure 

Dharma; Bheema represents ten Virtues-such as 
Bhakti, Jnana, Vairagya, Prajna, Medha, Dhriti 

(Courage), Sthiti ( Protection ), Yoga, Prana and 
Bala (Strength). Arjuna is the embodiment of 

Shravana and Manana; Nakula and Sahadeva are 

full of fair conduct (Sheela) and modesty (Vinaya)* 
On the opposite side, Duryodhana is the personif- 
ication of illusion etc. Perverse knowledge belo- 
ngs to Duhshashana. Shakuni is Atheism. 
thSma is Egotism itself etc etc. 

f 33 1 

The College students will derive much bene- 
fit by reading his small book called "Katha-Lakhana" 
in which he has treated the subject of conducting 
debates, the rules which should govern different 
kinds of discussions. If the controversy was to be 
conducted purely for the sake of arriving at the 
truth, the manner of conducting it was separate. 
If the debate was merely for gaining victory over 
the other party, then the procedure was different. 

In his works, you will also collect a fund of 
information about different words in Sanskrit for 
instance, Sweetness of milk is called * Vishad ' ; 
that of Ghee is Sthira\ that of Jack fruit is called 
* Nirahari ' etc. He has mentioned the names of 
varieties of gold such as Suvarna, JSmbunada. He 
has a special science of symbolism. In his works, 
there are reflections which will throw light on 
Behavourism (Anu-Vya. Sudha III. 3-100) on 
heridity, sub-conscious states of mind etc. 

Puranic Terminology :- Lastly, I mention how 
proper -understanding of the terminology of Madh- 
wa and others remove a good deal of mis- under- 
standing and prejudice by quoting only one inst- 
ance. You know that there is always a war bet- 
ween Shaivas and Veera-Shaivas on the one hand 
Vaishnavas on the other ^bout the name of the 
Highest God. All the Gods have melted away, 


but Shiva or Rudra and Vishnu or Narayan have 
stood the testx>f times. To me, it appears to be 
a war of mere words. This will 6e clear if we 
just go to the connotations of those words. Both 
want a God who is the highest. Then what harm 
is there if one calls HIM c RUDRA ' and the other 
calls HIM * VISHNU '. Then, if the matter is so 
simple, why at all this keen quarrel ? Yes, because, 
we do net try to ^understand the phraseology of 
those schools. No doubt, Madhwas have given a 
lower place to Rudra than Vishnu. But why? 
because, in their vocabulory and in nany Puranas 
too, Rudra is the deity of Egoism (Ahankar Deva- 
ta ) who is decidedly lower in psychological scale 
than Mahat or Brahma and the principle of Mahat 
is certainly higher than Ahankar. In the same 
way, higher than Mahat is Mool-Prakriti or Rama 
and in this scale, Vishnu becomes the highest. This 
hierarchy is generally the accepted hierarchy in 
many Puranas. But the essence is the same. 
Whether you call * Rudra Sarvottama f or 'Vishnu 
Sarvottama' does not much -matter. What- is 
essential is Sarvottamatwa, which is the same in 
both. As a matter cf fact, Madhwa has no obje- 
ction to call God by the name Rudra or Pinaki; 
if their etymological meanings are correctly under- 
stood and used in Sarvottam Sense (Brah.-Soofrk 


I....IV-7 ) His objection .is that those words parti- 
ally express Hirri. Madhwa has accepted Vishnu 
because He is the Highest God in Vedas (Rhug 
VII-40-5; X. 125-5.) 

In one way, the work that is done in the field 
of religion by Madhwa is more important than the 
work he is considered to have done in his first and 
second Avataras of Hanuman and Bheema. For* 
then, he had performed works more of strength 
and other virtues (Bala Karya), while Madhwa's 
main mission was nothing but Knowledge ( Jnana- 
Karya ) in his third Avatara- 

Maharshi DAIWARATs Opinion:- Here, I 
ad d the purport of some extracts from the opinion 
in Kannada of Maharshi Daivarat on Rhugbhasya 
of Madhwa, which I have just now received* I 
had, long before written to ARAVINDASHRAMA that 
no one can give any other better interpretation of 
Rhug- Veda than that of Madhwa. Of course, it 
was- a blind belief of mine since I was not a student 
of Vedic literature. I had arrived at my Poorna- 
Brahma theory from the works of Shri. Madhwa 
which included Rhug-bhasya also. But now, I am 
glad that my intutional belief is supported now 
by the opinion of an Authority on Veda as Mahar- 
shi Daivarat. In his letter dated 14-7-53, he writes 
thus :- ' I regard it as a benefit of my visit to you 


after a long time, that I got the opportunity to 
read Rhug-bhashya etc which you showed to me. 

The Vedas are the self-proved productions in 
the form of the expressive power of words (VACH- 
AKA SHABDA SHAKTI ) of Paramatma's breath : 
Paramatma who is perfectly full of knowledge - 
power, independent will-power and power of 
SHAKTI ). These are revealed to us in their God- 
vision, by great Seers like VASHISTHA, VAMVDEV 
and VISHWAMITRA etc. and after their un-broken 
TAPAS and when they had been absorbed in natu- 

Fortunitely for me, I had the opportunity 
to read Rhug-bhashya in the house of Shri. ALUR- 
Venkatrao. The Rhu?-bhashya is a small book in 
Sanskrit in Anushtup Chhandas. There are 489 
Shlokas.As it is poetry, it is convenient for making 
them by heart. We may call it a Karikaor V<irt\- 
k.i Bhashya.Shri.GoUDA-PADACHARYA had written 
such Karikas to Mavduk. Up. But no one has yet 
written in poetry -Bhashya like this to Veda Mant- 
ras. This is the first of its kind. This is no 
exaggeration. Because all commentaries in Sans- 
krit literature such as PANINI SOOTRAS, M AH A -BHA- 
M&EMAMSA etc and ail Upanhhad~bh?hy&3 ire 


only in prose and not in poetry. Hence, this 
Rhug-Bhashyv of Madhwa deserves to be ranked a? 
the most ancient and only one VEDIC BHASHYA 

MAHARSHI DAIVARAT, after making a mention 
of 'three meanings given to every Mantra, procee- 
ds to say :- YASKA was of opinion that there are 
three meanings, only in some Mantras. But Madh- 
wacharya has asserted and proved that every 
Mantra is pregnant with three meanings and has 
supported this his statement by quoting SKANDA. 

Further-on, after giving the details of the 
three meanings, the Maharshi goes on :- 

WATI have inter-preted Vedas in . ADHYATMA 
meaning. But I,in my book called C VEDA-HRIDAYA' 
have affirmed that there is much more in Vedas. 
-The Mantras are full with exceptional, extensive 
and noble secret meanings. There is in Vedas an 
extra-ordinary style of speech and of singing art 
in every Mantra. 1 have also very beautifully 
mapped Vedas in all above details. 

" Now to come to the book in hand. No doubt* 
in comparison with the vast bulk of Vedic Lore, 
this is but a very small book. But since it is a 
guide to know the meanings of Vedas, this small 
book of 489 Mantras deserves its unique importance. 


Because the book reveals the etymological mean- 
ings of many Vedic words, which are not to be 
found in common Sanskrit literature, and which 
had not been understood, even in out-lines (RUPA- 
RESHA) by any body. This book explains the 
SWAROOPA of such words and the method of ex- 
plaining these un-common words and using them 
in their philosophical sense is really most beautiful. 

Madhwacharya has given the VISHNU-PARA 
meaning in the broadest sense and not in its restric- 
ted sense. But,we cannot deny that it became secta- 
rian in the eyes of the people. Really speaking, 
Rhug-bhashya. is equally important for all Vedic 
Sampradsiy^s and for all Vedic R<;-seB.rch ScAo/ars. 

The Shlokas of this book are composed in 
very easy and f4owing style. Such Bhashyas on 
Vaidic Mantras are very rare, or we may say it, is 
the only one. Though it is easy in style, it is very 
very deep in its meaning. Even well- versed 
Pandits cannot know easily its deep philosophical 
meanings. Because the PRAMANAS and examples 
given are to be found only in Vedas. Hence, mere 
Sanskrit Pandits cannot know its secret meanings. 
Another special feature of the book is that this book 
on Vedas is composed by a Sanyashi. Of all the 
Sanyashis, Madhwa is the only Sanyashi who has 

composed Bhashyz. on Rhuk-Mzntrzs. It is wrongly 


thought tbat Mantras are not MOKSHA-PARA. So, 
this book is an excellent and exceptional book from 
this point of view also." 

At last, Maharshi quotes Madhwa and gives 
his full consent to Madhwa's interpretation of Aunt, 
Puman etc. as Poorna which are the names of God. 


Mis-understandings about God : All Schools 
before Madhwa mis-understood God. So after 
establishing Madhwa's claim as an Universal 
Teacher, let me now come to the proper subject 
of this hand-bpok namely * Madhwa's Special Phi- 
losophy '. Though his philosophy had its origin 
in Veda-Vyasa's books, and Vedas, it had been 
completely mis-understood by different schools of 
thought and mutiliated in many respects. Darsha- 
nakaras such as the founders of Nyaya, Vaisheshika, 
Sankhya, Yoga and Meemansak Schools, who ad- 
mitted Vedas in a more or less degree differed 
as to the existence of God, some denying God 
altogether while some allowed HIM a hort corner: 


some denied to HIM infinite qualities, some admi- 
tted few, that too only hesitatingly: some argued 
HE was a Creator but not a Destroyer, some deni- 
ed to HIM Governorship, some made HIM an arbi- 
trary Dictator; some placed HIM somewhere in 
Kailasa or Vaikunthn, from there, issuing orders 
at His pleasure and bestowing salvation to those 
who praised HIM and throwing into hell those who 
despised ; others denied both Vedas and God, and 
even the very world in which they lived, attribut- 
ing illusion to HIM and made HIM an ignorant ima- 
ginative object. So, there were so many false 
views and half views. Madhwa therefore had to 
clear off this jungle of false and imperfect views 
by severely cutting the wood ruthlessly. And 
this he has done, as no one before him had done. 
Madhwa has himself summarised his main con- 
clusions in a corner of his greatest work c Anu- 
Vyakhyana - III. III. 82-87 into four proposition?. 
They are as under :- 

Madhwa's main propositions are four 
1, Full of all attributes and multiplications, comp- 
letely free from any least defect. All else beside 
Himself being under His direct control, Direction 
and Dictatorship. This, in short, is the only chi- 
ef est and expressly stated conclusion - (Anu-Vya 
III. III. 82), This is the only proposition 


PARA-BRAHMAN, to expatiate on which Madhwa 
had to write 37 books. 

2. His second proposition about Para-Brah- 
man, which, though not expressly stated, Madhwa 
has himself inferred from all the writings of Shri. 
Veda-Vyasa is this :- 

" Absolute Independence of God - Vishnu and 
His uniqueness from every thing else in the world- 
but for these, Vishnu's absolute defectlessness 
cannot be proved (Anu-Vya- III. 3.83). For, Madh- 
wa says if there is the least identity between the 
objects and God, the imperfect nature of objects 
must affect God also. Madhwa is firmly of opini- 
on that the original nature of any thing (leaving 
apart the questin what that original nature is ) 
can never be changed. ( Anu. Vya. Ill-Ill. 84-86 \ 
Even partial identity is not allowed, for, partial 
identity between a thing with defects cannot but 
affect the purety of God. Hence, Madhwa says 
jf God is to be untainted, he must have complete 
independence in Him and then only God is really 

3. His third main proposition is not about 
Par a -Brahman, but is about RAMA, or Nature. It 
is this :- . 

" Rama or Nature is next to Vishnu, next only 
to Vishnu and to none else. She is like Him, in 


being free from faults. She is not completely full 
like Him in all qualities (Anu. Vya. 111-111-87).* 

4. Madhwa's last main proposition is about 
the hierarchy of Gods from Chaturmukha Brahma 
downwards differing in grades and degrees. (Anu. 
Vya. III-III-S7-89). 

When, in my long study, I came across these 
four main propositions of Madhwa, I Was over- 
joyed, all my doubts about Madhwa philosophy 
vanished like mist when I applied these four pro- 
positions to the intricate questions. Now, in this 
my hand-book, I use this key to unlock and solve 
many of the riddles of philosophy with the help 
of numerous commentaries- of Madhwa School. 
Those authors have rightly understood his philo- 
sophy and have left copious notes for our guidance. 

Popular Errors about Dwaita :- But before 
doing so, I must clear some popular errors in which 
Madhwas have fallen, by not properly understand- 
ing Madhwa, philosophically. I mentioned my 
doubts about the word c Dwaita ' about 20 years 
ago, in my Kannada book'Gita Prakasha' (P.361) 
Here I state some of those errors :- 

( 1 ) Madhwa Siddhanta is generally and 
only recently called " Dwaita Siddhanta." My 
contention is that it is a is not wholly 
true. For, it does not fully connote the first faagin 


proposition which is rightly called * Pradhan Pra- 
weya " while all the other three propositions are 
not so They are inferior one c , as compared with 
this first. If you just read the six Tippanis on 
Sudha (the greatest commentary of TEEKACHARYA) 
you will see all of them agree to what I say. 

( 2 ) I hold that the word c Dwaita Siddhan- 
ta ' has no basis at all. No where in a:iy authorit- 
ative books of Madhwa, has the word ' Dwaita 
Siddhanta' been used for the Madhwa Siddhantn. 
I think that the words Dwaita and Adwaita came 
into vogue in times of keen controversy between 
Madhwas and Shankarite?, which raged afterwards 
and were probably used by the opposite parties - 
Shankarites calling Madhwas - Dwaitas in order 
to lower them and madhwas c illing Shankarites 
mayavadis. We see even, in modern times such 
epithets used - Moderates and Extremists, Sana- 
tanees and Non-Sanatances -etc. They are only 
partially true and not fully true. So, even taking 
it at its best, Dwaita is only a partial truth. 

( 3 ) This term Dwaita has no historical 
basis at all, On the other hand, it appears that 
Madhwa had definite contempt for that word 
for, in his Manduka Bhashya on the authority of 
books called " Mahatmya " and " Sankalpi " he has 
expressly and repeatedly stated that * Dwaita ' 


means false knowledge, perverted knowledge. 
Certainly, Madhwa would never like that such a 
word should be applied to his philosophy as a 

(4) No doubt he has used in few places the 
word Dwaita as against Shankar ; but that is for 
compelling Shankar that one other object also 
must be admitted by Shankar, on the irrefutable 
grounds advanced. 

( 5 ) There is no unanimity of opinion among 
the Pandits themselves about what they mean by 
the word " Dwaita. " Some say it refers to the 
permanent difference between Soul and. God. 
But Madhwa also advocates the difference between 
God and Matter. Others say that it refers to two 
objects - one Swatantra and another /\-Swatantra, 
and some others bring both under the category of 
Adwaita meaning thereby something else than 
Shankar's Monism. But, all these should have 
absolutely no objection to hold that the only Prad- 
han Prameya of Madhwa is his first propcsition 
which has been most beautifully called by Madhwa 
himself as POORNATWA SIDDHANTA. (Maha Bh.ta. 
11-185 ) which I have quoted in so many of my 
books on Madhwa philosophy (See* my moola- 
Shiddhanta of Madhwa, its Vivaraiia and Madhwa; 
Siddhanta Praveshike which are all in Kannada.) 


( 6 ) The word Dwaita is defined thus in dicti- 
onary (See Apte's Sanskrit Dictionary):- Dualism 
in philosophy ; the assertion of two distinct princi- 
ples. Really Madhwa's two principles are not 
irreconcilable entites, one being the Highest, 
the other two, Soul and Matter being completely 
dependant upon HIM. Such a relation cannot be 
properly called c Dwaita ' relation. 

( 7 ; Moreover, we are not the only * Dwai- 
tees. ' Almost all others except Shankar admit 
the real existence of Gcd and Soul. Christians 
are Dwaitees in that sense, Mahommedans are 
* Dwaitees ' ; Jains are ' Dwaitees. ' So, it cannot 
be the exclusive monopoly of Madhwas. 

( 8 ) In short, the word " Dwaita " as applied 
to our Siddhanta as a whole, is completely un- 
justifiable. It does not fully connote our Siddhan- 
ta. We had 21 opponents and not only Shankar. 

Hence, we must cease from using that word, 
as it has given scope to many prejudicies in comm- 
on usage. I myself have called our Siddhanta by 
the name " POORNATWA SIDDHANTA " and Madh- 
w'as Brahma " POORNA- BRAHMA " the most beauti- 
ful and pregnant words, on the authority of Madh- 
wa himself, which Madhwa has repeatedly used 
in his works and has given cogent proofs with 
copious arguments, the full import of which will 

[ 46 ] 

be explained by me in iry next Chapters. Here, 
it is to be noted that Madhwa, in his very 
earlihood when he took Sanyasa was prophetically 
named by his Guru as " PooRNA-PRAJNA." It i?, 
therefore, quite clear that Madhwa's Poornatu\i 
theory was already fully ripe in Madhwa's mind 
then. You should remember that Madhwa's Guru 
had belonged to other sect, yet, Madhwa mu?t 
have impressed upon the mind of his Guru, his 

BRAHMA - VISHNU - NARAYAN : Before clo- 
sing this Chapter, I shall say few words about the 
names " Brahma, Vishnu, and Narayan. " Of course 
every body is familiar with the word Brahman, 
used in Upanishads and Sootra Bhashya of Shri. 
Veda-Vyasa. In truth, the whole enquiry there, 
is about Brahman-about His characteristic^ and 
His relation with the world. Perhaps, Vedantins 
preferred that word Brahman of neuter gender, 
in order to make it clear that He is neither male 
nor female nor really a neuter nor is He a Person 
or Creature, in the ordinary senses of those words 
(Paingi Shruti and Bhag. & Bra.Soo.Bha. UV-6). 
But this negative description seems to have given 
occasion to riany other questions. Whether he is 
not a person? If not what is he? Has He any 
attributes of any kind or not? Whether HeT'i& a 


mere zero or Shoonya. Why should we admit at 
all such a non-entity as our God ? So, Madhwa 
came forward to prove that, that Brahman which 
is spoken of in Upanishads is none else than Vishnu 
of Vedas and so the first point he proved is the 
identity of Brahman with the Vishnu of Veda?. 
( Br- Soo. Bhashya 1-1-1 ). Unfortunately, I can- 
not deal with this topic at length besides drwing 
attention of scholars towards this subject. 

Another favourite word of Madhwa isNarayan. 
This Vishnu-Narayan and other epithets used for 
Him such as Govinda etc. are also the favourite 
names of Shankar who was the most devoted 
"Bhakta of Vishnu, though academically differred 
from Madhwa in many theories pertaining to it. 
Madhwa has chosen that word Narayan for many 
reasons. That word fully expresses all that Madh- 
wa wanted to say about God. In fact, that word 
Narayan is a short and safe substitute for the very 
first proposition, which I have stated above i. e. 
The absolute perfectness of God or Poornatwa of 
God. ( Anu. Vya. Sudha - 1-1-1 ). Madhwa's God 
is not only Poorna but has got all the attributes 
complete in himself which go to prove His Godiiess, 
if I may use that word. So, Madhwa's God is ALL- 
FULL and His God-ness or God-hood consists in His 
bsing completely and absolutely full in all respects. 


Madhwa, at the very outset of his SootraBha- 
shya begins the subject by emphatically asserting 
that the Para-Brahman of Vedantins is no body 
else but Vishnu who has been proclaimed in vedas 
as the Highest Deity (Rhugweda X-82-1-6). Ambh- 
rani Sookta (Rhugweda X-125) also supports. 
So, the word Vishnu came into vogue. Veda-Vyasa, 
it was, who made this word popular. Veda-Vyasa's 
two Sootras ( Aphorisms ) - " Stf, Vishnu rahahi " 
and " Tarn, Brahmetyachakh^te " the 2 sootras of 
Daivee Meemansa proclaim in clearest terms 
that Vishnu and Brahman are identical (Anu, Vya. 

Madhwa has woven the web of his whole phi- 
losophy round these four propositions only. I finish 
this Chapter with two extracts from Madhwa 
Bhashya which will further elucidate Madhwa's 

"I meditate -upon that Hari, whose bliss is 
pure, infinite and un-mixed with evil, whose 
knowledge ( Jnana shakti ) is infinite and great (and) 
all-embracing, whose light ( flame ) of thought is 
steady ( not capable of being distracted from its 
one-pointed concentration ) who is Almighty in 
His Lordly energy and enjoyment, whose IchJia 
and Kriya Shaktis are supreme and who is All- 
powerful, whose Bala-Shakti is also infinite, whose 


Divine Form is higher than that of Brahma and 
of the rest and who is the essence ( Atman ) of all 
other forms. He is the Creator, the Preserver and 
the Destroyer. He is the Ruler of the Eternals. He is 
the light of the knowledge. He is the liberator from 
ignorance, darkness, and non-release (bondage, 
Samsara ). He is unborn and Eternal, I worship 
that Hari alone *. ( Chh. Up. M. B. 1-1-1 ) 

a Vishnu do I always adore, Vishnu who rules 
over the Pr&na and other Vay//^; who is the trea- 
sure-house of Eternal Bliss\ who is not at all tou- 
ched by any sort of impurity; who pervades all 
things in the world; who is The Full ( full in all 
times; full in all places and full in all qualities). 
Vishnu who is the Lord of Prakrati, who knows no 
birth, who is not at all like anything that we know; 
Vishnu, who is eternal and knows no decay. He. 
who is Omniscient and Omnipotent, Vishnu who is 
Himself the source of all sorts of energies; Vishnu 
who is always adored by all the Devzs, all the 
Munis and all sons of; Vishnu from whom 
proceed the creation and destruction of this world, 
and all the movements and the changes that are 
going on in it and Vishnu from whom cpmes the 
Eternal Bliss to all * . (Br. Up. M. B. 1-1-1 ), * 

* N. B. ;- For the above 2 and some other extra- 
cts, I am indebted to Major B. D, Basu, I M ,s 




A: GUNA-POORNATWA;- In this chapter, 
I deal with the main doctrine of Madhwa namely 
Poorna-Brahma which, according to my opinion 
forms his central thought. God is the first thing 
to be known, but the very last thing to be realised 
All that Vedas and other books can give, is indi- 
rect knowledge ( PAROKSHA ) only; even a Guru 

cannot give more. One must himself take steps 
towards that end. 

GOD is KNOWABLE : But, the question arises. 
Is He really knowable at all ? Madhwa's emphatic 
reply to this is- YES- He is knowable. Some say 
He is quite un-knowable. If God is really un- 
knowable, why should we worship such a God ? 
Madhwa does not want us to worship any God 
unless we know what He is. If we worship Him, 
without knowing what He is, it is blind wor- 
ship which Madhwa hates. At the same time, you 
must remember that God is not fully knowable. 
Even Vedas cannot describe Him fully. ( Ana Vya. 
III. 2, 3. and Tait I. 1. 1 ) t because of His great- 
ness and vastness. He is above description^not 
because He is un-knowable but because of His 


nity (Ann. Vya. I. 4 1. II). He is not amenable 
to human logic ( Katha. I. II. 9). 

Secondly, God is not only knowable partiaily- 
though not fully but He is also really attainable 
( GAMYA) according to our capacity. Fully He is 
never attainable. u God is no God if He is Fully 
attainable " is the conclusion of Madhwa in this 

Merely because God is not fully knowable, 
we cannot say that knowledge about God is not 
rational. It is rational and not irrational. It may 
be said to be above ' Reason * i. e. human reason 
cannot reach Him ( Kath. II. 19. ) There are 
degrees and grades also in c Reason ' . we must 
look to God's power of reasoning which is un-limi- 
ted and if we do so, we shall find that statements 
made in Vedas and Upanishads are quite reasona- 
ble from God's point of view. His logic also is 
infinite. It my be called "BRAHMA-TARK "- Reaso- 
nable according to God's logic. Madhwa quotes 
many times from a book called " BRAHMA-TARK ". 

SCIENCE of NAMES: Now let me say a few 
words about the science of Names. In common 
parlance, words are used in-discriminately. For 
instance, we name a person Rama or Krisna, not 
because he is really a Rama or Krishna but because 
we wish him to keep Rama or Krishna as his ideal 


and try to acquire atleast one or a few of their 
virtues, in infinitely small degree. No doubt, I know* 
that the word c SHIVA ' is another name, which is 
popular among 'SHAIVA' and 'VEERA-SHAIVA' sects. 
But, if we remember the fact that many of these 
sects recognise the fact of * SARVOTTAMATWA " i.e. 
Supreme God-hood of God, the name by which 
we should call God becomes a minor point. For, 
the meaning is more important than mere name. 
Any name for God is welcome if we but remember 
HisSarvottamatwa. Sanskrit is the most scientific 
language in the whole world, which is not equalled 
and will be never equalled. English and Sanskrit are 
the two languages which have the largest vocabu- 
lary. But except for some words which have their 
origin in Greek or Latin, the English has, grown 
up at random; not so, the Sanskrit. In Sanskrit, 
objects are named according to their qualities they 
pDSsess. Abstract names especially indicate quali- 
ties. Madhwa has taken the fullest advantage of 
the science of etymology as I shall show further. 
This much about names. In my opinion, it is time 
that we should substitute some such name as PARA- 
2, 2. ) which will be conceded by all -generally. Even 
Jains shall have no objection to use the word Para- 

''frfy* ^ 

matma since that word is frequently used by them 


for their Atma when man becomes a PERFECT. 
* who is God * ? The reply is " God is He who is 
really Sarvottama - The Highest. VISHNU is HIS 

name n < 

What is God ? This is about ' Who is God. ' 
Now, to come to the question - what is God ? 
Madhwa's answer to this question is - God is He 

who is ALL - FULL i. e. " POORNA. " POORNATWA Of 

fullness sums up all his characterstics. All other 
propositions are secondary as compared with this 
primary one. And He is of firm opinion that it 
was He and He alone, who has proved this main 
proposition to the hilt. Until he revealed it to the 
world, it had remained a mystery. Here, I give 
four references only in this respect :- ( 1 ) Maha. 
Bh. Ta. 32-174; (2) Maya. Kh. (3) Maha Bh. 
T. I. II. (4) Maha. Bh. T. 1-11. course, of 
Madhwa confesses that he is not the originator of 
that theory. It was Veda-Vyasa, who advocated 
this theory in all his works such as Brahma-Sootra 
and other works. This theory had its origin in 
Vedas and Upanishads. But, it lay there dormant 
until Veda-Vyasa explained it. Then too, it was 
not fully understood. Its true importance had 
been missed and Madhwa corrected it. 

Therefore, Madhwa's main proposition may 
be stated again as fellows : 


Fullness in all qualities, attributes and in all 
His multiplications; absolutely free from all sorts 
of defects and every -thing else* under Vishnu s 
will and government. This is the completly and con- 
clusively proved proposition. (Anu. Vya. III. 1.82). 
Madhwa has combined in this one proposition all 
that he had wanted to say about God. As usual 
this is a very short but pregnant sentence. TEEKA 
CHARYA has explained its full meaniner in his way 
( Sudha-on any-Vya. III-III-82). Madhwa warned 
us ( Ami- Vya. Ill -1.81) that every one should 
be very careful about one thing namely he should 
always keep before his mind, this- his fundamental 
proposition. This is, as he himself says his only 
proposition about Para - Brahman every other 
proposition being brought in, merely as arguments 
to strengthen this central and essentinal pro- 

GUN A - POORNATWA explained :- Let me 
therefore explain this chief proposition at some 
length. This proposition contains three clauses.:*" 
(1) Guna - Poornatwa i.e. Fullness of all quali- 
ties etc. (2) Absolute freedom from all faults. 
(3) Every thing else besides Himself being under 
the direct will and control of Vishnu. 

[A] Guna - Poortiafrva : What does he 
mean by Guna - Poornatwa ? He means 

1 55 1 

is the fountain-head of all auspicious qualities 
and excellaneces. Every good quality in the world is 
to be found brimful in God. Every quality raised 
to its c N y th degree i. e. Anant degree is infinite 
.and He is the repository of all qualities- without 
any exception. 

The second thing he noted is this:- These 
his qualities are not material or physical or mental 
like OUR good qualities but purely spiritual. Hence, 
He is called A-PRA-KRAT ( Maha. Bh. T. II. 85 ), 
(Mah. Bh. T. 118). 

GUNA-GUNI-ABHEDA:- The third thing to 
remember is that there is absolutely no difference 
in Him as regards his qualities ( GUNA ) and quali- 
fied ( GUNI ). Poorna - Brahman is the substance 
of which Poornatwa or Fullness is the attribute. 
This is His speciality with regard to Brahman, 
there is no difference between the attribute and 
substance. In fact, DHARMA and DHARMI are the 
same. ( Brah. Up. IV. 1 Bhashya ). With regard 
to others, it is not so; quality is always different 
from the qualified. But Madhwa's God is ADWAITA 
pgly in qualities and other attributes is He Uni- 
form, but there is also no difference in His organs 
of body, such as eye, ear, face, feet etc. So, His 
eye is not different from his feet and his arms are 


not different frcm his eyes etc. While in the world, 
you see that such differences between the different 
organs do exist. So also, even among organs them- 
selves, there is no difference. His eye is His feet. 
His body is His eye. There is ABHEDA in respect 
to his body and limbs etc. This description of 
Madhwa's God sounds strange no doubt and so it 
cannot be grasped at once. But if God is to be 
extra-ordinary, He must possess peculiar powers, 
not found at all, in the world. It only means that 
God can perform the functions of all limbs that 
are ordinarily performed by different organs of 
human or any divine beings. Gods' feet can think 
and His mouth can meditate. But then, why 
make this difference in his body and limbs etc ? 
And how do you know that it is His such and such 
a limb that performs such and such functions? 
The answer is we can recognise it by the parti- 
cular activity. If He exibits the activity of walking, 
we say God is walking by His feet etc. This is 
His Vishesha i.e. speciality. He is SWAGATA-BHEDA 
VARJITA, that is He is without any difference in 
Himself. Identical in all His organs etc. 

as well as Multi-form That is He is not only All- 
Form ( Rupa ) but All Forms. ' He can assume 
and has assumed infinite forms. For 

[ 57 ] 

He has taken many Avatar as ( Incarnations ) such 
as MATSHYA, KOORMA, etc. All these Avatara-forms 
also are Full like Himself. 

11 That (Root-Form i. e. Moola-Rupa ) is full ; 
this ( Avatar-Rupa ) is full; from that Full, this 
Full emanated and when this Full is withdrawn 
into that Full, what remains is the Full alone. 
(Brah. Up. I-V-1-Bhashya). 

This means that the Avatara-Rupas of Vishnu 
such as Matshya etc. are all identical in all respe- 
cts that is in their knowledge, power, etc. with 
the original form of Vishnu. Then, if you ask 
again what is the specific difference between them? 
Why should they be called by different names at 
all, if in fact, there is no difference? The answer 
is MOOLA-RUPA is prior in time and Avatara-Rupas 
are posterior. This is the only difference. KOORMA 
AVATAR has come after MATSHYA etc. and so on. 
But, so far as manifestation is concerned, one is 
not superior to the other. All are equally full in 
their GUNAS (RUPAS and KRIYAS) and Powers 
( SHAKTI ). They are all full and perfect. Neither 
in time, nor in space, nor in power, nor in qualities 
are they superior or inferior to one another. When 
the Full of Moola-Rupa with-draws the other Fulls, 
there remains only One Full namely Vishnu i. e. 
Poorna-Brahma alone. The Laya of an Avatara 


does not mean dissolution but mean?, invisible to 
human sight' and ceasing to perform the functions 
proper to that particular Avatar, namely that of 
Protection, etc. of the world. The same is the 
case with His other Avataras such as VASUDEVA, 

We said He was not only Uniform i. e. one 
homogeneous substance, but He is also Multi-form 
( Guna also means Multi-pliers in mathematics). 
He has multiplied Himself. He has assumed many 
forms in the Universe such as Agni, Varuiur, Indra, 
Vayti, Rudra, Brahma and others. But in His 
multi-forms, He has not endowed them with all 
His full powers, but only some. But remember 
that He Himself is full there also. The Lord is 
infinite in His Glory and always full. It isagains* 
the very notion of God-head of the Lord to say 
that He is only partially there. So wherever He 
is present ( and He is present every where ) He is 
present with all His fullness. This is so, not only 
with regard to Gods such as Agni, Varufia, etc., 
but also with regard to human beings, nay, this 
principle applies even to every insentient object, 
either - Macro cosmic or Micro-Cosmic, whether 
they are large objects such as Sun, Moon or insig- 
nificant objects such as an atom of dust, or a^ggbbi- 
le. /In this connection, I may note that HIRANMA^A 



PURUSHA of Upanishads offer no difficulty to Madh- 
\va because the orb of the Sun is the body ; Sun 
God is the Soul of that body and God is the Soul 
of Sun God. He is the Soul of Souls. In short, 
whether it is God or man or beast or any other 
trifling insinttent object, God fully pervades that 
object. But here Madhwa gives one warning. It 
is this, merely because God pervades all the obje- 
cts of world, that does not justify your worshipp- 
ing them as God. The worship of the Sun as 
God, of Fire as God is prohibited by Madhwa 
strictly ( Brah. V-I- Madhwa Bhashya ). Imper- 
fect is the worship of that person who worships the 
Lord as Sun, Fire, Air, etc. for, these are merely 
the different aspects of God and so do not express 
all His qualities. Thus, Agiii or Fire-God repre- 
sents one aspect of his activity ; so also, Sun-God 
represents another aspect. Prithwi stands for 
some other aspect. Therefore, words like - Agni, 
Soorya, Vayu, Prithwi, etc. though they express 
God, do not express all His attributes. Thu?, God 
is called PRANA or LIFE. This word expresses 
only one aspect namely God's power of energy 
( MUKHYA-PRANA ) or the lower Prana i. e. breath- 
ing and not all powers and qualities. Consequent- 
ly, the person who worships God as Mukhya-Prana 


or Prana does not worship Him fully. He is an 
imperfect worshipper, not because God is not pre- 
sent in all His fullness in Mukhya-Praiia or inferi- 
or Prana. ( PRANA, APANA, etc. ), but because, the 
worshipper does not realise the fullness of God, 
while doing so. In fact, all partial names under 
which the Upanishads, some times teach the wor- 
ship of Brahmzn as Breath, Sight, Hearing, Taste, 
etc.only describe a portion of the activities of God 
and consequently, no worship of God under these 
aspects can be called complete or POORNA, 

What is Full-Worship: God Vishnu should, 
therefore, be worshipped in names which express 
the fullness of all qualities. Such names are 
SARVA, etc. many others, which are the favourite 
names among Vaishnavas, which are chosen by 
them because they all mean Fullness primarily. 
Madhwa in various places emphasises this Poorna- 

twa and gives the etymological meanings and 

explains how they all mean fullness and quotes 
authorities for the same, from SHRUTI, Itihasas 
and Puranas (HARI-VAMSHA ). When God really 
has all qualities, and every quality infinitely,' to 
know but a part of His qualities, is only to have an 
incomplete and imperfect knowledge of Him, 
Further, all these qualities are conv^utotly 


grouped together in SAT-Existence or Perfect 
Goodness, CHIT-Perfect Wisdom and ANANDA Per- 
fect Bliss - SATCHIDANDA. Thus, we have proved 
the Poornatw.i and have shown perfect identity 
between His Avayava-Avayavi\ His Gii'ia-Guni-, 
His Avataras\ His powers in short - His Dharmas 
and Dharmis. 

From the above summary explanation, the 
readers will have some idea about Madhwa's God 
who is really Poorna from all points of view. I 
know the explanation about His being a homogene 
ous Substance is not sufficient but you shall have 
to wait for further explanation in future Chapters 
to know about His ACHINTYA SHAKTITWA i. e. im- 
measurable extra-ordinary powers. The above ex- 
planation will also convince the readers that the 
Vaishnavas are not arbitnry in calling their highest 
God with only some names, rejecting other names. 
They have no objection if other names are used 
for their God, if only they remember that what is 
most essential is that God is All-Full and that HE 
pervades the whole Universe in all His Fullness. 
The above explanation will also clear what ignor- 
ant Europeans ascribe to the Gods of Vedas-saying 
that Vedas ask us to worship huge natural pheno- 
mena only. Enough of this ignorance and bias. 
Stupid people amongst us also, not knowing the 


real interpretation follow these Westerners in 
condemning Vedas ! If any body is against Idolatory 
it is emphatically Madhwa. Not only human made 
idols are idols in his view, but all Gods, Souls, and 
every insentient object are but also idols of God 
and hence should never be worshipped as such 
( Brah. Soo. ) 

Objection answered ;- Lastly, I will clear one 
more objection. One may argue that we do not 
worship mere insentient organs such as organ of 
speech, eye etc. as Brahman, but we meditate on 
Brahman in the organs of speech, mind etc. conse- 
quently such worship of senses is not a false wor- 
ship; it is really the worship of Brahman, in these 
organs. We reply, really this is a false argument. 
For, the sense organs of speech, eye, mind, etc. 
have never the chief quality which constitutes 
Brahma-hood namely Fullness or Poornatwa. So, 
it is false worship. When you worship Him in 
those organs what you should do is to meditate on 
God not merely as that particular sense organ; 
but reflect upon Him as All-Speaker, All-Feeler 
All-Seer, All-Thinker, All-Life-giver, All-knower 
etc, ( Brah. IV-1 1-2-7). 

Method of Proof :- In conclusion, I must say a 
few words about the evidence upon whichMadhwa 
bases his theory of Poornatwa of Poorna-Bra&ma. 


Madhwa has depended upon three kinds of evidence 
in this respect :- 

( 1 ) Shruti\ ( X) Yukti and ( 3 ) Apta-Vaky* 
i. e. evidence of those great men like VASHISTHA 
and other Rhushees and Veda-Vyasa and others 
who have actually seen God and Madhwa affirms 
strongly that HE has also fullest vision of God 
always before him ( Brah. Up. B. I-I-I ). In all 
his books, there are hundreds of quotations for 
his Poo rna- Brah ma theory. Here I am tempted 
to give Sanskrit passages, but I must with hold 
my pen. I shall state a few only as samples. 
Take the very first Sootra ( Aphorism ) in Brah- 
ma-Sootra. Brahma is the direct subject of 
.enquiry and Brahma word itself means Full of 
qualities, in its derivation. So also, the words 
Atma, Aum, Purusha, Narayana, Bhuma, Para, 
.Aja (Any. Vya. 1-1-199 1-1-234 235). In fact, 
every Vedic word primarily mean Vishnu who is 
the Emporium of all qualities and only second- 
arily is applied to other objects. For instance, 
Indra primarily means Vishnu because of all the 
Lordly qualities God possesses; while the deity 
Indra is called Indra, merely because he possesses 
an inf initevely small quantity of God's Aishwarya. 

In Short, Vishnu is All-Full. Full in all. 
He is Full in physical world; mental world and 


spiritual world and yet He is Himself absolutely 
and infinitely exceptional. ( CHETANA-CHETANA- 
VILAKSHANA ). Here I again give one quotation 
from Madhwa-Bhashya. " The Lord is verily one 
and identical, in all times ad in all objects. He 
is un-limited (NIR-VISHESHA ) i. e. does not possess 
any specific ( VISHESHA ) energy and His Glory 
never increases or dicreases, with objects in which 
he may be. Still, owing to the difference in his 
activities, He gets different names and forms, 
though He Himself is not different and is one in 
His full Lordliness every where. He, on account 
of His infinite powers, produces different results 
in different bodies, without Himself undergoing 
any change. The Lord is verily devoid of any 
particular power ( AVISAESHA ) because, He is 
All-Power and therefore He produces always the 
effect of particular forces, though Himself remains 

un-modified, un-contaminated by pleasure or pain. 
(Chh Up. I-III-12-Bhashya ). 

. r\ . 

. \j 




In the last Chapter, I gave the description 
of Madhwa's Poorna- Brahma and Guna-Potffnatwa 


as far as possible in the very words of Madhwa. 
But I am conscious of the fact that it is very diffi- 
cult to grasp it fully. But as stated there, God is 
the very first thing to be known but the very last 
thing to be realised. Correct and full knowledge 
is the first necessity for Moksha, hence it is that 
Madhwa strongly insists on it. SHANKAR, RAMANUJA 
and MADHWA are one on this point. All insist 
upon JNANA for MOKSHA ( Jnana-deva Mokshah ). 
Some others preach Jnana - Karmjs Samuchhaya , 
for instance, Bhaskar does so. But these three 
strongly advocate Jnana. Jnana, you must rcme- 
mber,there means APAROKSHA JNANA (Direct -God- 
Vision) and not merely Paroksha Jnana i. o. indir- 
ect knowledge. That is the state of JEEVAN- 
MUKTA of SHANKAR. The further path is safe. 
If you reach the stage of Aparokshn, you reach 
the central gate ( Maha-Dwara ) of the grand 
temple of God, from whence you may see God 
directly, at-least you can peep in, through the small 
hole in that door. 

Reduced to simpler terms, the conclusions of 
the last Chapter may be summed up thus:- God 
is Poorna in all qualities, attributes etc. Madhwa 
has, as is his usual habit uses this word gufia in all 
its meanings. It is a very elastic word and means 
quality, merit, virtue, excellence, effect, efficacy, 


attribute, property in general, Satwadi Gunas and 
also means multiplication (See Apte's Sanskrit 
Dictionary ). So, every thing that contributes to 
practical affairs is called a Guna (Ma-Si-Sara). 
By using this one word Madhwa has stated all 
that he wanted to tell about God. Therefore, it 
is very difficult to translate Madhwa works. To 
give you some rough idea about Madhwa's God, 
I may say Madhwa's God is the sum-total of all 
excellent qualities and virtues etc. What more 
do you expect from any God ? What God can be 
there who is more than this? 'He is Guna-Samu- 
daya ( Anu. Bh. III-II-211 212) But you must 
also remember that He is not merely a bundle of 
these, not a mathematical sum of these. We 
must take these Gunas both horizontally and verti- 
cally. Here, I must warn my readers about one 
point. All the similies, analogies, illustrations etc. 
which have been used in Vedas and Upani- 
shads etc. are merely suggestive only and so should 
not be taken too literally. They give but a glimpse 
of the truth, not the full truth. Such instances 
are many. For example, Samudra, Spider, Tree, 
Sparks of Fire, Salt, Sea and so many others 
which abound in Vedanta books. 

Highest-pitch of these Gunas is another kind 
of Poornatwa. Moreover, in God there are 'Some 


guna's which are beyond the reach of our 
imagination. They are immeasurable (APKAME- 
YAR ); for instance He is identical in all limbs, in 
all organs of senses, that His stomach holds the 
whole Universe; His feet can parform all that 
His eyes can perform etc. Hence, it is that I 
say God is both knowable and un-knowable and is 
beyond un-knowable. Madhwa has compared this 
state to the mountain MERU. We cannot have the 
full view of Meru or Himalaya at once, before 
our eyes; only one part is visible. We are human 
beings and have limited powers; hence, impossible 
to get the whole view, much less can we scale it 
up. That requires a Ten-Singh or a Hillary. In 
Gita, God is described as a wonder of wonderr- 
(B. Gita 11-29). Madhwa says that God is not 
fully knowable because of His ADBHUTATWA i. e. 
of his Grandeur. He is beyond our Tark i. e. in- 
ference and for the same reason He is also ACHIN- 
TYA beyond our imagination ( Anu Bha. I. 1. 153 ) 
and not because He is un-attainable. I may simp- 
lify yet further by the illustration of human body 
and its actions. Man performs many actions by 
his many organs. Yet really it is the Soul that 
acts through the limbs. In the same way, Vishnu 
Himself really performs all activities of the world 
through separate channels. Therefore it is that 


Universe is said to be the body of Vishnu. But 
this is only an illustration. So you should not 
stretch it too far. For, really, Universe is not 
His body as we have our body. Universe is 
material while Vishnu is immaterial, spiritual. 
So, He is body-les?. Vishnu in His essence has no 
such body. For, consiousness (CHIT) and Bliss 
(ANANDA) constitute His body. Ths world is said 
to be His body, because it is under His control 
(TAT-TANTRATWA), under His will and government. 
So the readers should remember and believe these 
few statements at least:- (1) That God is the 
Emporium of all Gufias; (2) That He is Poorfia 
in all His attributes; (3) All His multiplications 
( Gufias) are identical i. e. All His Avataras like 
Rama and Krishna and all His infinite forms in. all 
sentient and insentient objects are eqally full ; 
(4) Partial Guna-Yuktas i, e. who have few quali- 
ties only, have got partial names such as Vayu, 
Rudra, Indra, etc; (5) In short, God is present in 
all His fullness whether He is in the hearts of men 
or in a bl^de of grass. 

So, God is Uni-form and Multi-form. This 
is what is really meant by Adwaita and Dwaita. 
God's identity in Himself is ADWAITA and God 
has BHEDA or is DWAITA in one sense. BHEDA really 

m inn 5 multiplicity: KAHU-BHAWA (SHAT-PRASrifNA- 


BHA. 6) according to Madhwa himself and it is 
therefore I say that God's Poorfiatwa includes 
both this Adwaita and Dvvaita principles. Vishnu 
is both Adwaiia or Adwaya and Dwaita in this 
sense. His Poorfiatwa combines both of them 
and is also far above these. As stated already, 
Madhwa himself had a contempt for the word 
Dwaita because in his MANDUKA UPANISHAD, he has 
explained that word as meaning false knowledge, 
perverted knowledge ( Man. Up. II-Bha ). So, if 
Madhwa was present now, he would never have 
tolerated its use by his followers. 

NIRDOSHATWA :- Madhwa says God is He 
who is Absolutely free from all sorts of defects 
(SarvaDosha Samuzziti) (Anu. Vy. III-III-83). 
This is His second characteristic. We may sum 
up these defects in four words - ( 1 ) ANITYATWA - 
not being eternal; ( 2 ) DEHA-HANI - Destruction of 
body; ( 3 ) DUKHA - PRAPTI - Pain - Misery etc. 
(4) APOORNATWA - Incompleteness ( Sudha I-I-88) 
God is completely free from all these. This is 
proved by Madhwa in his Bhashya 2nd Adhyaya 
of Brahma-Sootra. There were only 21 Bhash- 
yas before his time. We have also the names of 
those Bhashyas such as Dramid TANKA & Some 
of the names are found to be referred to in Rama- 
ntija Bhashya and other books. But they are now 


extinct. However, we can find what those oppo- 
site schools had to say by our reference to Madh- 
wa works. For, Maclhwa is said to have refuted 
all the 21 opposite schools and established his 
school which is the 22nd and it is opined that 
there will be no other independent Bhashya 
systimatically refuting Madhwa Bhashya (MADHWA 
VlJAYA); and at least, upto the present time the 
prophesy has remained true. 

God is ever Eternal. He is the Eternal of 
Eternals ( NITYO NITYANAM - Kath. II-5-13; Kena. 
I. 3 ). There are other eternals such as time, 
space, but really He is the Eternal. So also, He 
is the CHETANA - Consciousness of all CHETANAS 
(Kath. II. 5. 13). He alone is absolutely free 
from any sort of misery such as anxiety, anger, 
pain, attachment of merit and sin (both are pain- 
ful), birth, death, etc. ( Anu. Bha. ) Incompleten- 
ess Apoornatwa has alredy been removed in the 
last Chapter. In fact, He is Poorfia in all auspi- 
cious qualities such as ANANDA (Bliss) JNANA 
( Knowledge ), DYUTI ( Illumination), BALA (Ener- 
gy ). Atidarya ( Liberality ), Veerya ( Strength ) 
which are the 6 Aishwaryas, which include all other 
excellences. ( Maha. Bha. Ta. I. 1. 13 ). 

The problem of evil has troubled the heads 
of many teachers and has taxed their brainy since 


the beginning when man began to reflect and to 
this day it has remained to many an un-solved 
riddle. No problem is so vital as this problem to 
human interests. Madhwa has cut this Gordean 
Knot assunder easily by making his God free from 
all evil. God is absolutely free from these is 
Madhwa's firm conclusion. No doubt the world 
is full of misery, pain and evil but apparently only. 
If we go to the very root of these, we see that 
they have no basis fundamentally. It is we, men 
who conceive these things. Both good and evil 
are our imaginations if we analyse them properly. 
Gita says ( 11-14-15 ) Cold-Heat, Pleasure - Pain 
and all these our connections with elements come 
and go of themselves, it is just possible to make 
them quite in-effective. They are the natural 
consequences of opposite forces. Because we 
identify ourselves with these, we feel pleasures 
and pains. Cut assunder the ABHIMAN i. e. our 
identification with them, then there is neither 
pain nor pleasure. They are really the weakness 
of our flesh not of soul. We can and should rise 
above both pleasure and pain, good ( Shubha ) 
and evil ( Asubha ). The whole 'of Gita bears 
witness to this truth and advises us about the 
means of rising above these. Here lies the 
superiority of our ancient culture. It is no use 


saying that all cultures are one and that there are 
no different cultures. It is a misleading statement, 
a half-truth. The MOHA theory of Madhwa 
asserts that half-truths & illusions are more harm- 
ful than even falsehoods. For, falsehoods can be 
easily detected but not so these misleading state- 
ments. Yet, the world abounds in such mislea- 
ding theories. 

Here is a quotation for God's clefectlessness:- 
" Oh Gargi, the knowers of Brahman describe 
Him as the AKSHARA - the Indestructible. He 
is not gross. He is not subtle. He is not 
short. He is not long. He is neither red nor 
is He Semi-fluid. He has no shadow. He 
has no darkness. He has no resperation. He 
has none of the elements He is not adhesive. 
He has no taste. He has' no scent. He has 
no material eye. He has no material ears. 
He has no material speech. He has no mate- 
rial mind. Ha has no energy of a ijiaterial 
thing. He has no INDRIYAS for perception 
and work. He has no material shape. He has 
no measurement. He has no inside. He has 
no outside. He does not eat anything and no 
one eats Him." ( Bra. Up. III-8 ). 
This does not mean that God Vishnu is not a 
substance at all and has no SWABHAVA or existence 


of his own. These simply mean that He is not 
coarse and fine etc in the sense that He is not coarse 
nor fine etc. in the worldly well-known ordinary 
significance of these words and not that the Lord 
has no body of his own etc. The Mantra does not 
describe the non-existence of all kinds of STHULA- 
TWA etc. since the Lord is independent. He is not 
devoured or killed by any body. ( Brah. Up. III-8 
Bhashya ). 

TAT-TANTRATWA: Now the third clause of the 
PRADHAN - PRAMEYA /. e. the central proposition 
cf Madhwa namely Tat-Tantratwa. It means, 
" All else besides Himself is under Vishnu's will 
Government and Dictatorship. Here, I give only 
one quotation. " It is indeed, owing to the bidding 
of this AKSHARA, the Indestructible, O GARGI, that 
BRAHMA and RUDRA remain up-held ( in their res- 
pective places ). It is indeed owing to the bidding 
of this AKSHARA, O GARGI, that Shri. and the 
God of Earth remain upheld ( in their respective 
places). It is, indeed, through the bidding of this 
Akshara, O Gargi, that the Gods of the periods 
of time of the twinklings of the eye, of mo- 
ments, of the days and nights, of half-months, of 
months, of the seasons, of the years, all remain 
upheld ( in their respective positions ). It is, on 
account of the bidding of This AKSHARA, O GARGI 


that some of the rivers flow to the East from the 
West ( snowy ) mountains and some rivers flow to 
the West in their respective directions. It is 
through the bidding of this Akshara, O Gargi, 

that men praise these that give alms, that Gods 
follow the sacrificer and the Pitrisor fathers follow 

the oblation?. ( Br. Up. III-S-9 ). In fact, through- 
out all books, God's Rule is Glorified." 

Now, to come to Modhwa's second proposition 
which is second in importance also. It is this:- 
" Absolute independence always; and always 

of exceptional essence from every thing else in 
the world." ( Anu Vya. IIMII-83 ). 

This second prposition about PARA-BRAHMAN 
is one which is not expressly expressed as is the 
first, but it is inferred only. Hence its secondary 
importance ( Sudha. Anu. Vya. III-III-83). 
TEILKACHARYA calls the first central proposition 
c Vachanika ' i. c. expressed in so many words 
while the second, he calls ANUSHWANGIKA i. c. a 
logical consequence, inferential or consequential. 
It is deduced from the texts. The first is called 

by Teekacharya Pradhna-Prameya i. c. Central 
Proposition] other propositions cannot come up to 

that standard ( see all the 6 notes published 
on Sudha which all support my view ). Repetition 

in such matters is a virtue since it concentrates 
the mind on their importance. 


Here is a quotation for God's independence. 
" There is not an atom of independence either in 
Prikriti or in Purusha i. e. matter or soul. They 
are always under the will of God, are actually 
governed by God. What can there exist which 
is not seen by God ? and who can see a thing, not 
cognised by God ? God sees all Avataras as Him- 
self and all Jeevas as always separate. For, when 
one sees something as different or separate from 
Himself, it can be rightly inferred that the seen 
and the thing seen can never be one." (Maha- 
Bharat - Ml ). 

Now, how does God's absolute independence 
help to prove the freedom of God from any defect? 
Madhwa in his second proposition asserts that this 
second proposition further proves the faultlessness 
of God, which had been mentioned in clauae ( b ) 
of the main proposition. The reason is this : 
Because of His independence God is not involved 
in any of the conflicts of the world. How and why ? 
About independence, I may cite the example of 
Jailor and the Prisoner. Both are in one place. 
Yet, prisoner is bound while Jailor is independent. 
So is the case with God. Pure silk, it is said, is 
that which does not catch dirt though steeped in 
mud. So is God, pure though He is in hell. 


All have limitations of their own. No body 
except God i? quite free. God alone has no limi- 
tations. God remains quite free from a-11 the 
imperfectness of the world. Fire cannot burn 
Him ; nor can swords cut Him asunder. This is 
possible because of His independence. He can 
remain quite free from all their effects. Many 
treatises such as Tatwa-manjarcc have treated 
this question of His independence exhaustively. 
Madhwa has taken advantage of this particular 
quailty namely independence throughout all his 
works to prove NIRDOSATWA of God. 

Another particular quality of God which 
Madhwa has taken for his help in -proving God's 
freedom from faults is God's exceptional essence 
or nature. In essence, God is quite different from 
all natures in this world. Every object in this 
world is tainted with one or other defect. Comp- 
letely defectless nature is never found in the 
Universe. Hence, if there is any identification 
of God with the objects, then naturally God shall 
have to be affected by that taint. Hence, if we 
are to make God free from the tainted nature, we 
are to hold that His original nature, essential 
nature must be quite different(Anu.Vya.III-III-87) 
Thus, I have dealt with the 2 propositions of 
Madhwa about POORNA BRAHMA and His POORNAT- 


WA. I am perfectly conscious that this treatise of 
mine does not explain all that requires explanation. 
This is only a glimpse. But as Emmerson says - 
c Glimpse of Truth sometimes is better than a 
whole System ' 

In Upanishads, we find so many passages 
which have been interpreted by Madhwi as provi- 
ng Poornatwa. If we but read the introduction 
( UPAKARMA ) and conclusion ( UPA-SANHAR ) of 
many of the works of Madhwa, we find that He 
e mphasises only one Shidhanta namely Poornatwa. 
In the same way, if we read the different comme- 
ntaries like TATWA PRAKASHIKA, SUDHA etc, we 
find every where the VISHNUTWA, BRAHMATWA, 
POORNATWA etc.ire the last concluding statements. 
All his other propositions such as the reality of the 
world, BHEDA i. e. difference between Soul and 
Soul, His PANCHA-BHEDA theory, His thory of 
infinite gradations and degrees, His Trividha Jecva 
theory, in short every other proposition of Madh- 
wa centres round this Poornatwa theory. They 
are rather props. This is the Arch-stone of his 

Here, I give a few examples from Upani- 
shads. In Brah. Up. you find such expressions as 
Brahma was alone (EKA, EVA). Atma was 
alone. Madhwa has interpreted all of them 


as meaning fullness. He was alone means He was 
alone-full. In Chhandogya again we read God is 
UDGETHA i. c. the Most High ( Chha. Up 1-1 ).God 
is Saman i. e. Sama. ( Chh. Up. II-l ) God is all 
Good ( Chh. Up. II-l ) God is All Madhu (Chh. 
I II-l ) sweet and beautiful. Everywhere it is 
the fulness, that is proved. Madhwa, you must 
remember looks to the whole essence of the tea- 
chings ( Maha-Tatparya ), and not merely to 
stray sentences. The essence of the teaching has 
to be determined looking to the whole of the tea- 
chings according to UPA-KRAMA, UPA SANHARAand 
not upon isolated words or sentences ( Paingi 
Shruti \ 

NJ doubt the word Brahma itself means deri- 
vatively full of all qualities. Yet, I have named 
Madhw.i's Brahman as Poorna Brahma and for- 
tunately for this I have got the backing of such a 
high Ka.madi Saint as KANAKA-DAS, who has 
used this very word Poorna Brahma for Madh 
wa's G:>d. In Bhagavat also this Poorna Brahrra 
is used. 

Controversial topics & Solutions Suggested :- 
From the above exposition of Poorna Brahma in 
Chapter V and in this Chapter some puzzling pro- 
bletns also become clear namely " SAGUNA " or 
"NIRGUNA" i. c. the controversey about Saguna 


and Nirguna; about His Sakara and Nirakara. The 
Saguna and Nirguna quarrel may be solved in this 
way. From one point of view, God is Nirguna 
meaning thereby He is free from the influence of 
the three famous original Gunas - SATWIKA, RAJA- 
SA and TAMASA. It may also be taken to mean 
that God has the power to become both Saguna 
and Nirguna as He pleases. The greatest Kanna- 
da Saint and devotee of God - PURANDARA- 
DAS has taken it in that sense. He says when God 
has infinite powers, He can, at His will become 
both at the same time and separate at any time. 

SAKAR & NIRAKARA :- In the same way, the 
controversy about His Sakara and Nirakara may 
also be settled. From one point of view God is 
Sakara i. e. He is a Personality. His Moola-Rupa 
is such a personality. While He may be said to 
be NIRAKARA in the sense that His whole AKAR 
being infinite cannot be grasped. Sky or GAGANA 
is Nirakar in that way. We cannot grasp infinity. 
When God comes before our vision, He is called 
Vishnu or Narayan etc. In PURUSHA-SOOKTA, we 
have the cleanest description of both. He is imper- 
sonal in the sense He exceeds personality. In 
this also, I have the backing of Purandar-Das, 
who has explained thus :- " Being an impersonal 
child, He is also a personal child etc. So, if we 


just fix our mind not on mere wordr, but on the 
essence and spirit of the teachings, ( Sudha warns 
us the names are un-important as compared to 
the characteristics - Anu. Vya. 1-1-9) many of 
these riddles will be perfectly and correctly under 

DWAITADWA1TA : From my exposition' of 
Poornatwa of Madhwa, you will come to know how 
Madhwa's Poornatwa theory includes both the 
ideas of Adwdita and Dwaita and also how it 
exceeds both. Brah. Up. IV-3-23 is explained 
by Madhwa in non-dualist ic sense, by showing that 
the Adwaita of God in Himself is the real Adwai- 
ta. So many of the so-called opposite texts are 
explained by Madhwa on this principle- Adwaita 
in his sense. Madhwa has transferred the Adwaita 
to God's identity in Himself. So, the real differe- 
nce between SHANKAR and MADHWA was not so 
much about the inherent nature or essence (SWA- 
ROOPA) of God, but was about the characteristics 
of the Adwaita or Adwaya God. Madhwa does 
not hesitate to call his God Adwaita ( See Mandu- 
kya Up* II. 6-9 Bha.) The chief points of differe- 
nces thus were :- Whether God had really the 
powers of eight kinds of activities such as Creation 
Dissolution, Destruction, Protection, Knowledge, 
Ignorance, Bondage of Souls, Salvation of Souls 


( Anu. Vya. 1-1-90 )about the SAKARATWA of God's 
hands and feet etc; and about the reality of His 
organs of sense; about His Omnipotency etc. The 
CRIYADWAITA is familar to Madhwas, So, Madh- 
wa's chief contention is that Shankaras Brahma 
is not c Poorna ' chiefly because of his being sub- 
ject to MAYA. Madhwa therefore challenges Shan- 
kar on this one point especially. How can such a 
Brahma be called essentially(Mukhyatawena)Poor- 
na ( Anu. Vya. I-I-5-136 ) ? Hence, every thing 
will be all right if Maya be taken to mean PRA- 
KRITI or Nature ( Brah, Sootra. Bh. 1-4-6 ; and 
Madhwa says Maya has many senses. Madhwa 
proves that in all those senses Maya can be justi- 
fied. Therefore it is that the three KHANDANA 
Granthas refer to this one point only Out of 37 
Granthas. MADHUSOODANA SARASWATI, one of the 
greatest Commentators of Shri. Shankar is not 
enamoured of NIRGUNA BRAHMA ( GitaTeeka. VII 
Adhyaya ). The Maya presentation of VIVEKA- 
NANDA or TILAK or some other moderners is not 
strictly Maya in the original sense. I have read 
that even an attempt is made to defend Shankar 
by saying that Shankar also was not really a MAYA- 
IST but it was simply as ANUVADA or POORWA 
PAKSHA to attack Buddha. 


I prefer to take her a historical view. This 
kind of controversy was not very keen before 
BUDDHA, at-least in the form, in which it was raged 
afterwards. For, if it was so, it would have app- 
eard in that form in Brahma Sootra of Vyasa and 
in the Bhashyas of Shankar and Madhwa. But as 
a matter of fact, we do not find this controversy 
in them. There is no direct refutation of Dwaita 
or Adwaita in any of them. This strengthens my 
view. I hold that it was after BUDDHA that the 
Maya theory was brought before the world pro- 
iflinetly. Then Buddha's Sftoonya theory it was, 
which was chiefly to be combatted. The best 
way of combatting that theory was to embrace 
the opponent closely and bring him down to the 
ground and this Shankar did. Next impor- 
tant point was about God and Vedas. Shankar 
completely succeeded in establishing the Supre- 
macy of Vedas and God and this he did, by not 
disturbing un-necessarily the balance as to the 
tempoaryness ( KSHANIKATWA J of the world 
which SHANKAR admitted in much more extended 
form of it. This is but natural. That is the true 
procedure of religious reform. So, no use in 
attributing motives to religious reformers; they 
are not merely political reformers, 


'SHOONYA.' Madhwa thinks Shankar to be Buddha 
in some respects but not without reason. For, 
there is very little difference between Shank&r's 
God and Buddha?s S/ioonyz.. Madhwa's criticism 
in this respect ( Brah. Up. IV-111-10 Bha.) is 
un-answerable. He has completely proved their 
identity except in words in this particular respect, 
by quoting actual texts of both Schools. Readers 
would do well to read this portion. But, even 
taking S/zoo/tya of Buddha, we can come to a 
philosophical understanding if not to a complete 
compromise. BUDDHA, you know, is regarded as an 
AVATAR ( Whether it is the historical Buddha or 
not is a small point. What is of importance is his 
theory of SHOONYATWA ). Why is he regareed t \s 
as Avatar? Here Madhwa's explanation of Buddha 
as an Avatar though appears far-fetched, may 
become useful in bringing BUDDHA, SHANKAR and 
MADHWA, nearer each other. Madhwa has de- 
fended Buddha (Mah. Bh. T. 32-153-158 and 
Brah. Soo. Bh. 1-4-7 ) in many ways. By Shoo- 
nya, Buddha did not really mean void; he really 
meant by that expression that God was Full and 
it was people who mis-understood his real meaning 
or did not fully grasp it. 

Whatever it is, here I take its assistance to 

prove that SHOONYA, -really means nothing but 
POORNA. My elucidation of Shoonya is like this. 
Shoonya is really Poorna in number. It is our 
ancients that have first put forth zero as one of 
the numbers, and give it in mathematics the value 
of fullness. Really Shoonya is full number. Shoo- 
nya has no value in itself, but it gives completeness 
to every other number upto infinity. So, Shoonya 
is infinity. 

RAMANUJA & MADHWA :- The difference bet- 
ween these is thinest. Ramamija attacks Shankar 
ruthlessly up to the end, but unfortunately, con- 
ceds the point at the last moment by 'asserting 
that God has worn a subtle body of CHIT and ACHIT 
and therefore He is VISHISHTA a particular kind 
of ADWAITA. Madhwa argues there is no meaning 
in saying so. There was no necessity of doing so 
according to his ( Ramanuja's ) theory. In a sense 
Ramanuja's view is conceded by Madhwa ( Anu. 
Vya, 1-1-63 Sudha ). The controversy about mere 
name is immaterial as Sudha says. 

SYMBOLISM :- In conculusion, I must say a 
few words about my symbols of SHALIGRAM and 
SHANKHA in them. These have been designed 
by me as to express the essence of Madhwa Phi- 
losophy. Madhwas necessarily worship SHALIGRA- 
MA every day, bathing it with water poured through 

[85] : 

SHANKHA. Why so ? I hold that because Sh&li- 
grzm represents Full God and Shankha, represents 
Lzxmi Madhwas are not allowed to worship 
any God except the Highest God and that 
too,not independently but through LAXMI only. We 
have no ADHIKARA to worship HIM directly. The 
worship of all other Gods such as MUKHYA-PRANA 
etc. is but formal 'worship, like the worship of 
great souls. Now Shaligram also is IMPERSONAL. 
VASUDEV SHALIGRAM and other Shaligrams are 
determined by the CHAKRAS in it. I have inser- 
ted in it Vishnu God's Moola-Rupa. Shaligram has 
not such forms. Shankha is admittedly the sym- 
bol of Laxmi. I have so designed it as to be the 
number one of Sanskrit. 

The world begins from LAXMI who is repre- 
sented by SHANKHA which is nothing but Sans- 
krit c One' number in form. Vishnu i. e. Shoonya 
when He comes before one and other numbers, 
He completes the values, " The cipher or zero 
to denote nothing was an invention of our ancients 
an invention that has been described as one of the 
greatest importance in the history of Mathematics. 
The cipher or zero placed before other numbers 
makes them full numbers. The index of any 
power often is equal to the number of ciphers 
following one." ( Gokhale's Mathematics ). This is 


when Vishnu the Unifrom or Formless assumes 
Himself such Avataras as Matshya, Kocrma, etc. 
They are His Full Avataras. o, 1, 10, 100,1000.... 
infinity ). His Avataras are infinite in number 
10,100, 1000, upto infinity. The same Shoonya 
if placed below one and other numbers 0/1, 1/10, 
1/100, 1/1000 upto infinity represents other Gods 
such as Brahma^ Vayu, Rudra and Indra etc, who 
are all His BHINNANSHAS or fractionate. As the 
researchers of zero we take pride in Shoonya. It 
is also in another sense the Shoonya of Buddha ; 
only his Shoonya was completely void Shoonya, 
devoid of any value, while our Soonya is of Fullest 
value. Madhwa has skillfully defended the 
BUDDHA AVATAR in other ways. Madhwas' defe- 
nce of Buddha has been given in various 
ways for which we may see his book Maha. 
32-153-158. and Bra. Bhashya and to me 
also this appears to be a true satisfactory inter- 
pretation ; because, Buddha's chief characteristic 
was his fullest absorption in meditation of Shoonya; 
so, it is just possible that Buddha also took Skoo- 
nya to be full. He fully engrossed himself in all 
his fulness in that meditation. 

In conclusion, I assert that Madhwa a/on0has 
got the full orb of Truth. 

In short, SHOONYA and POORNA are one. It 

is Shoonya Circle without circumference i. e. Poorr 
na Circle with infinity as its cirumference. It is 
not a void but full: Mere void is un-thinkable as 
Bergson says.- . It may be compared to a Round 
Table Conference or rather to VEENA with its 
round part -representing Brahma with void in it - 
full void with full powers of all sorts of manifes- 
tations when a string representing one or LAXMI is 
attached to it. ,It can produce all sorts of NADAS 
or sounds; Poorna means Shoonya or zero; An 
infinitely full zero or cipher; for, zero is a full & 
perfect jnumber. Poorna is also the " Poo/ya " Most 
worshipped, and in Kannad language, therefore 
Poojya is zero. AlsoBindzi is a FuLL-Point;God is a 
FULL-Point and God is FULL in a point too. In short 
Gunapoornatwa or Poornatwa means and includes 
the Connotations of all sorts of expressions denoted 
by the word 'Poorna,' as defined in Madhwa Sidd- 
hanta Sara " Bindu is also Sitidhu. Hence God is 
both an Infinetly big zero as also an infinitsima- 
lly small point.* 

So, our.Gpd is POORNA-BRAHMA and our SHI- 

A SHWUTI describes HIM thus:- GOD is verily 

TI (Amu Vya. IV IV-2jind Sudha ). 



See P. 268 

To me, it appears that the so-called PHALLUS 
or ISHWARA-LINGA installed in our temples may 
be taken as symbols of Poorna-Brahma and his 
wife - PINDA or the round stone re -rep resenting 
Poorna or Shoonya and the lower part with its 
shape as figure one representing Laxmi wife of 
Vishnu or Parvati wife of Shiva. At one time, it 
appears that Karnatak tried this method of brin- 
ging the 2 sects nearer to each other by erecting 
etc. The stone inscription at BELUR CHANNA- 
KESHAVA temple on which the SHLOKA "YAM 
SHAIVA SAMUPASATE etc " bears witness to this 


RE-VIEW: The sum and substance of the 
preceding 2 Chapters is this:- God is All-Full and 
Full in All. . Teachers have propounded^ all* the 
variety of answers about God that are still current. 
Madhwa says all these Schools of thought existed 
in ancient times and will be existing in future. 
He is out, not to knock them out of existence. All 
that one can do - even what VEDA-VYASA has done 


is to put forth the perfect idea about God, and 
support it as best as one can do, by strengthening 
it with PRAMANAS OF VEDA, and by putting forth 
stronger arguments in favour of his own theory 
and this is all that he has done ( Anu. Vya. II -2-3). 
I have shown in the preceding Chapter that 
the description of God as POORNA accomodates 
many schools. We can at-least have modus viven- 
di a way of temporary arrangement if not, modus 
operandi. Shoanya may stand in the sense of 
POORNA-SHOONYA, for, Shoonya means perfect 
and full. So. it is Full-Shoonya. God is One may 
stand; since God is really only one in this sense. 
He is a Full-One. Ramanuja^s clothing Brahma 
with a very thin and subtle cloth of CHIT and 
ACHIT PRAKRITI need not be given up, if under- 
stood in its proper sense namely after all CHIT 
PRAKRITI and ACHIT PRAKRITI are riot God, but 
are mere clothings. So also the qu.irrel about 
SAGUNA and NIRGUNA etc. and many others may be 
solved with a little better understanding. Common 
ideas about God as Omnipotent, Omni-scient etc, 
may remain there, if they are understood not in 
their crude consception. Because really our God 
is not merely an ABSENTEE Land-lord as the 
common people think. Our Land-lord is both - a 


He is. So, Madhwa refines all these rough ideas 
and brings out prominently all the characteristics 
of God as Poorna-Brahma. Madhwa says it had 
remained as a mystery until he came forward to 
reveal it. 

God is a Homogenius Substance, with no parts 
in HIM. So, He is One and Full. That one limb 
perfprms the functions of other limbs etc. really 
appears strange and un-believable. But, to give 
some idea of its possibility, I may state that even 
in nature we perceive this:- Eye can measure 
distances at a twinkle. Hand can weigh weights. 
So, the functions performed ordinarily may be 
performed by other organs of sense, if they are 
properly developed. We now hear and see from 
distance with the assistance of instruments. A 
time may come when we can dispense with arti- 
ficial instruments and mind itself be its own 
battery, and can be able to read the thoughts of 
others. PATANJALi YOGA had devised means for 
by Yoga Sadhana. But, they were prohibited by 
Madhwa and others ( Madhwa Sara Aparok- 
sha Ch, ) for those who are after purity of life 
and salvation, lest they may be degraded by such 
SIDDHIS. It was meant only for high souls. 
ARJUNA had been endowed with DIVYA CHAKSHUS 


( Gita XI-8 ). Well, here all that I want to convey 
to my readers is that in God it is just possible, 
nay, necessary to conceive such extra-ordinary 
powers. Vices become virtues in God. BAHU- 
BHOJANA may be a vice in -ordinary men, but it is 
a virtue in a BHEEMA or BAKA. Much more there- 
fore, is it a virtue in God. So also those which 
appear AMANGAL ( in-auspicious ) in others, are 
not so with regard to God. (Anu. Vya. I-IV-1 - 
9, 10 f 1 and also see Tatvodyota 16 ). God is 

POORNATWA is an Abstract Idea : Madhwa 
does not want any one to bow down to a God, 
unless he is fully convinced about HIM. His chief 
feature is Poornatwa. But after all this char- 
acteristic, one must admit, is an abstraction, so 
can not be easily grasped. Hence it is, that Vyasa 
in his second SOOTRA gives the more concrete 
characteristic of God namely God is He 
who is the author of Creation, Destruction etc. 
But before coming to that question, I must treat 
the subject of Nature or Rama or Laxmi because, 
God conducts all his activity of the world 
through His wife i. e. Nature or Rama. Here 
we tread upon some what more firmer ground 
and need not therefore trade upon mere imagi- 
nations and abstracts. For, Nature is not so un- 


acquainted to us as God. Nay, we always speak 
in that language, We know c Natural laws.' we are 
familiar with c natural ' tendencies in man etc. 

is represented by RAMA or LAKSHMI and by other 
names. Here I have to say a few words about 
Vedanta Terminology i. e. the Science of techni- 
cal terms. You know that Vedantins speak in 
terms of Gods and Goddeses. What is the reason ? 
The reason is this:- that the whole Universe 
consists of 2 main objects - (1) Living or CRETAN A 
(2) and ACHETANA or non-living. Among Chetana, 
come gods, human beings etc. So we are to be- 
lieve in four things- (1) God, (2) Gods (3) JEEVAS 
or SOULS and (4) Insentient objects. Those, who 
have got consciousness are spoken of, generally in 
masculine or feminine gender and not in neuter. 
That is the underlying principle of Vedantic 
Terminology. Every insintient object is ruled by 
or is presided over, by a God. What we call 
nature, Vedantins call Rama or Laxmi. 

Definitions of Male and Female :- Here, I 
should also clear one more point. Why one God 
is called male and another Goddess as female ? 
Matter is female and energy or Life is male. 
Matter is visible and energy is in-visible. Just as 
a wire is visible and the electricity which flows 


through it is invisible. Shall we say that electro- 
ns are the wives and Proton the husbands? Krishna 
it is said had 60,000 wives. Why not ? We, Indi- 
ans are used to this kind of language. In the prce- 
ding chapters it is used without explanation. But we 
are not used to it in other cases. Hence the ex- 
planation. Madhwa hss given in brief the defini- 
tions of male and female thus:- ( Brah. Soo. Bha. 
I-IV-6 ) - She who gives birth directly is female 
and He, without the assistance of whose energy 
she will not be able to produce is male. So, female 
is dependent on male. The reverse is not natural, 
but un-natural. ( Will not this natural law be a 
clue to solve or at-least to understand many of the 
social problems? ) God of course is both Male and 
Female in One. He is an exception. He is really 
neither Male nor Female. He can assume all 
powers. He can become ARDHA-NARI NATESHWAR 
i. e. Prakriti and Purusha in one. 

Charcteristics of Ram& or Will: - So, I may 
sum up the chief characteristics of Rama or 
Naturejthus :- 

Rama or Nature is His Will. Rama is not 
different but is God's Swaroopa. She is subordi- 
nate to none else than God. God puts forth for 
the creation of this Universe only an infinitely 
small port ion-of His Will, Since Rama is pait 


and parcel of God, she is not inneed of MUKTI; is 
NlTYA-MUKTA. Because Mukti pre-supposes 
Bandha or Bondage. According to the definition 
of male and female given above ( P. 94 ) she 
becomes female and the wife .of God. She 
is also called CHIT-PRAKRITI and is the presiding 
Deity of JADA-PAKRITI. The enjoyment of God 
in Rama or His Will is not for His own pleasure 
( for He has pleasure always and All Full ). Yet, 
by giving various forms to His Will, Rama 
becomes fully satisfied, i. e. God takes pleasure 
in making use of His Will in creating the whole 
Universe. She is the subject of His enjoyment 
and not the bestower of enjoyment on God. He 
is SWA-RAMANA. Rama or His Will manifests 
itself in many forms such as Shri. BHU, DURGA, 
as God has no material body she too is without 
material body. Her body also consists only of 
knowledge and bliss. She is all pervading like 
God only in TIME and SPACE; All pervading also 
means fullness, but not in GUNAS or qualities. In 
Gunas she is far below HIM. 

Here, we must note one thing. Space ordi- 
narily means DIK or direction. But Madhwa 
does not give to Dik independent existence. Diks 
are but parts of far extended and un-mamfested 


Space ( AVYAKRAT AKASHA and not mere AKASHA ). 
AKASHA according to Madhwa is of 2 sorts - (1) 
BHOOTA-AKASHA - material Space, (2) AVYAKRAT 
AKASHA ( Mad. Si. Sar. Ach. 14 ). Avyakrat- 
Akasha is eternal, VYAPTA. Laxmi's birth im- 
plies simply her pregnancy ( SiSRUKHATWA ) and 
her identification ( ABH I MAN-TAT WA ) with this 
all extended Spac'e and her being endowed with 
many powers of Creation etc. (Mad. Si. Sa.Ch.14) 

The symbolism of Rama or Laxmi is always 
worth studying. Vapour or subtlest form of Jala 
signifies Laxmi. It is nothing but Chef ana Pra- 
krati. Her Shri. form is Chit Prakrati (Br. Soo. 
1-2-38). Prakrati in God's Heart represents 
Will. Laxmi on His lap or on His side repre- 
sents Bhu. In this way, if we study all the symbo- 
ls of Sapta Samudras etc. they can throw light on 
our philosophy, and make it easy to understand it. 

Since Laxmi is Nitya Mukta she has no 
Deha-laya like others. Her Laya means simply 
her inactivity God's un-manifestation of Will. 
But Will or Laxmi is always there and so no 
Laya. So she is Samana. - eternal like Him in 
Time and Space. She is Nitya Mukta, hence 
there is no necessity of Upasana ( worship ) for 
her. She is the subtlest except God. She is 
faultless and always pure. 

[ 96 ] 

Hence, the conclusion is that Nature is not 
independent but ia always and fully controlled by 
God. Natural laws are therefore unavoidable 
and always faultless. So God Himself normally 
never interfers with natural laws, which He Him- 
self has f ramed.He is the Sole Legislator.Nature's 
powers are limited; that means natural laws have 
a limit while God is unlimited. He can annul any 
natural law and upset it. Yet, He does not ordinarily 
do so (Bra. Soo. II-1-6). For God follows the 
procedure which He Himself has fixed. (Bra. Soo. 
11-92). Nature forces you to follow her ( Gita 
18-59 ). Really Vedanta language is more 
natural than the language we use which is lifeless 
and has no meaning. I emphasise this point be- 
cause all through Vedanta books, we read this 
kind of phraseology and really we must train our- 
selves to use it since it is more correct. But for 
the convenience of my readers, I use both kinds. 

Universe created through Laxmi: God's 
Glory lies in his grandest creation namely Nature. 
By Nature it is meant that system of creation 
which consists of the powers that carry on the 
processes of Creation. He created the whole 
Universe through Rama or Laxmi - His wife 
alias Nature. The Scheme may be summarised 
thus :- God was alone before Creation i. e. in 


PRALAYA. He was then fully absorbed in His full 
enjoyment. There was then no Rama or Nature, 
in the sense that it was un-manifested. He could 
fully enjoy Himself even without Her. Then God 
Willed that He should create the Uulverse in or- 
der to give benefit of enjoyment to Rama his 
wife, by creating all objects. So God willed to 
create and there was Universe. This-His Will i? 
what is called LAXMI or RAMA in Vedanta par- 
lance. His Will took many forms and so also He 
Himself tcok many forms. Of course, He is every 
where full and in-dispensable. Yet, He prefers to 
work through her. In Gita, God is said to be the 
President ( Gita IX 10 + 8. st. ) and She His 
Executive or Chairman, or Ambassador DOOTI as 
She is called by JAGANNATHA - DAS of Karnatak. 
The whole Universe is the out-come of these two. 
We said His Will has taken two main forms :- 
(Bra. Soo. 1-2-38) 



We shall reserve Apara - Prakriti for future 
treatment. Let me treat of Para-Prakriti here. 
His Chief will is called by various names:- MAYA, 




1-4-6 ). All these are God's own Swapoora and so 
not at all different from God. You and your Will 
are really one. God is said to be sleeping when 
He keeps His Will dormant. Then He is in YOGA- 
NIDRA i. e. not sleeping like ourselves, but fully 
awakened. His will also is there, but it is then 
not active. 

Forms of Will: Madhwa, as usual, takes 
the words applied to Nature in its widest senses. 
Thus God's WILL is called PRAKRITI; which 
means will is nothing but His own nature. MAYA 
also means His ICHHA; again MAHA-MAYA, AVIDYA, 
different forms of His ABHIDYA i. e. WILL or 
ICHHA only ( Bra. Soo. Bha. 1-4-6 ); so also Abidya 
is called JOOTI because of His SARVA PRERAKATWA 
All Inspirer. Laxmi is not Swatntara, for Swatan- 
tra really means power of acting as one pleases 
( Anu. Vya. II-II-1-20) which power she has not. 
Laxmi is called AKSHARA. She is Un-change- 
able and perpetually the same ( Gita 6-8; 12-3 ). 

In Psychology, Will is one of the mysteries 
which has not yielded to material theory of 
mind. It seems to be the most spiritual kind of 
faculty we have. Will dominates matter. Free- 
dom of will means to act as we please. There, 
we are free from the laws of cause and effect. 


So, it is more independent than other facu- 

Procedure of Creation: Hence according to 
Vedanta the whole nature is nothing but the out- 
come of His Will. God does not require any out- 
side agency. When God Willed to create He 
assumed the form of Vasudev and His Will assu- 
med the form of Maya. God delegated to her 
some special powers. Then again he took the 
form of SANKARSHANA and His Will took the 
form ofjaya and so on. This simply means that 
in the first instance certain creation was effected 
and they are merely different stages of creation. 
There are four chief stages such as SHUDDHA- 
and KEVAL-SHRISTI. This much is sufficient for 
the present. 

Except God and God's own forms, every 
other deity including His wife or Rama, all are 
only presiding Deties. That simply means that 
every object whether animate or in-animate is 
presided over by Gods, who identify themselves 
with those objects and carry out the functions of 
the objects. So presiding deity means that power 
of God, which presides or rules over that object. 
Those conscious or un-conscions objects have no 
power of their own. All energy comes from the 


Fountain Head. He is the Electrical House. They 
are mere Telephone Exchanges as it were. Ele- 
ctricity or any energy is really invisible. So is 
God too; so is Laxmi too. These Gods and Godd- 
ess represent different degrees and grades of 
power, that is, God and His energies are all 
invisible. We see only their effects and we infer. 
So we need not wonder if God or His Will Power 
LAXMI is not visible to us. We do not deny any- 
thing merely because it is invisible. 

In short, God, for the purpose of Creation of 
the Universe bestows some of His powers to 
Laxmi. She has no real independent power. Yet She 
is said to be in-separable Power-Riiergy or JVi7/are 
never separate from the person. Hence LAXMI 
is called AVIYOGINI. She is also Eternal ( NITYA ) 
like God. She may be said to be the Permanent 
Chairman of the Executive Committee. 


Madhwa thinks it a gross offence against the 
economy of words to use more words than nece- 
ssary. So, he is very laconic in his Bhashyas. 
But he is very clear and precise. In his opinion 

[ 101 ] 

GOD can not be defined, but can be described to 
some extent. NATURE is not so abstract. We 
can see HER, in HER effects, and discover natural 
laws and we must discover her laws and take 
pleasure in obeying those laws. She is your 
mother. So, she does not run away from you 
like a coy-maiden. As a mother, she, many time? 
hides herself and takes pleasure in your sports. 

As we said GOD and NATURE are not separate. 
Nature means God's Nature-His Will. It is the 
efficient cause of the Universe. It is called CHIT- 
PRAKRITI or Intelligent Will. Now, we shall con- 
sider about the material cause of the Universe or 
UPADANA KARANA as it is called. Here we are on 
more firmer ground. For, Universe is actually 
spread before our eyes. We can trust her. We 
shall have to believe in the evidence which the 
world provides. Our experience cannot purposed- 
ly deceive us. If we do not rely upon that evi- 
dence, we shall be cutting the very ground on 
which we stand, from under our feet. Our senses 
in their pure state will not deceive us. If there 
is any deformity in them, it can be detected. Of 
course, the proper development of our senses is 
necessary. Even if our physical eyes are extingui- 
shed,there is the mental eye,which is the third eye 
of RUDRA, called in my opinion, SAKSHI, in Madh- 


wa's philosophy. There is yet a higher spiritual 
eye which is, I think, called the MUKHYA- PRANA. 
In fact, there are higher ranges, which are the 
guardins of our world and which will correct our 

JADA-PRAKRATI which is also called ACHIT- 
PRAKRATI (non-intelligent matter ) is then the 
natural cause of this Universe. Here I must re- 
mind my readers that JADA is used by Vddantins 
not in the sense in which the materialists now use 
it, but it simply means non-intelligent. AKASHA, 
VAYU, also are JADAS. Since the main characteri- 
stic of God namely GUNA-POORNATWA is too abstr- 
act, another characteristic of God given by VYASA 
in his second VEDANTA SOOTRA (Bra. Soo. 1-1-2) 
thus :- 

God is HE who is the actual CRAETOR, DIST- 
ROYER, PROTECTOR, etc. of this world. So, we 
can solve the riddle of the world in both ways. 
We can assume FULL GOD and then descend 
downwards along with HIM, using His FULLNESS 
to explain the problems of the world, or, we can 
proceed from the visible world before us, and .try 
to know the origin of its manifestation (really the 
world is a manifestation or emanation and not 
creation in the ordinary sense. Yet, I use the 
common word Creation also). God is not'~ortly 


the Creator, but is its Protector, Destroyer, Cont- 
roller, Bestower of KNOWLEDGE as well as IGNO" 
RANGE, Binder i. e. Thrower of Souls in SAMSARA 
as well as LIBERATOR. These eight kinds of His 
activities also give us His Chief Characteristics, 
So, here, we are on more safe ground. By this 
method of enquiry, we can rise up and up until 
we arrive at the SAMMIT-GOD. Madhwa has 
taken advantage of both these methods to prove 
the fullness of God, for, the above eight kinds of 
activities of God comprise the whole of His acti- 
vities in the world. (Br. Soo. 1-2). 

PURPOSE OF CREATION :- What is the purpose 
of Creation? Variety of answers have been pro- 
pounded. Some said the Creation was merely 
for His (God's) own enjoyment; while others argued 
it was simply to while away His Time in sports. 
(Ami. Vya. II-1-5). Madhwa modifies both these 
views and asserts that it is neither for His own 
BHOGA (Enjoyment) or for His SPORT (Creeda) 
For God is APTA-KAM, always full satisfied. So 
the real answer is, that God does it because it is 
His habit or nature to create the worlds. It is 
His SWABHAVA ( Anu. Vya. II-1-9 ). It is as natu- 
ral for Him to create worlds as it is natural for 
the fire to burn, &for the Sun to shine. He cannot 
but help Creating. There is no" benefit to Him 


from it. It is simply His LEELA (Bra. Soo. II-l- 
9-34). Just as an intoxicated person revels in dan- 
cing and singing or if you do not like the simile, 
just as PURANIKS and Lecturers are in the habit 
of waving their hands without any purpose (Ami. 
Vya. II-1-9) so, it is God's PRAVRITTI i. e. acti- 
vity. This is about Himself. But, certainly, 
there is an object for others.The object of creation 
is to give JEEVAS, an occasion to get their MOKSHA 
or LIBERATION. This too is suggested by VYASA 
in that very SOOTRA quoted above. It is for the 
benefit of JEEVAS, There are some others who 
deny to God even the l WilV to create. They 
say, no will is necessary. The Universe has come 
out itself. It is an accidental up-shot. They too 
are wrong, says Madhwa. It is the out-come of 
God's Will (Ami. Vya. I-IV-66). It is there, ber 
cause GOD WILLED it. 

Tl or Root-matter and how is it born? The answer 
of Madhwa to this question is that Universe is 
born from God Himself, but as a separate thing. 
It is His own Form, but is His Outer Form. For, 
when we say that God is Full, and alone Full, the 
question of any other thing independently exi- 4 
sting of HIM does not arisa at all. There cannot 
be anything, which He Himself has not willed to 


be. So, God willed that there should be Universe 
and that it should be separate and yet one like sha- 
dow ( CHHAYA ) ( Ami. Vya. 111-11-10-124), comple- 
tely dependent upon Him. If God's one Form of will 
took the form of CHIT-PRAKRITI or SHREE, ano- 
ther form of His own will takes the outher form 
of the Universe. It is His BAHISHTA ROOPA 
( Outer Form of God ) as the author of SHODASHI 
calls it. It is the UPADANAKARANA of the world. 
God is POORNA, so He cm assume any Form He 
likes. Then why should He not, why can He not 
assume material form, or outward form? He 
willed it to be material that is all. There can be 
nothing there, whose existence, knowledge and 
activity (SATTA-PRATEETI and PRAVRiTTi) are not 
due to God (Anu. Vya. I-II-12 ). Therefore, 
PARAKRITI, KALA, KARMA and even their SWA- 
BHAVA i. e. essential nature all these depend upon 
God's Will. 

Here, an objection may be raised thus - Why 
posit another separate substance as the Universe ? 
Why not say, there is nothing but God and God 
only and every -thing else an Illusion and ANITYA 
-not permanent? The answer is - No. We can 
not easily deny or disprove the Universe. It i? 
ANITYA - we admit in the ordinary sense; but not 
an Illusion or MAYA. For, there is no evidence to 


prove that it is MAYA meaning Illusion. Madhwa 
admits MAYA, but says MAYA is but God's power. 
Why should God create a false Universe when 
He has Full power to create? He is not merely a 
magician who produces only false mangoe?. He is 
ALL-POWER and so has the magic power to create 
true objects. Madhwa renders MAYA to mean 
Power of God. LAXMI of Madhwa is MAYA of 
SHANKAR. Madhwa asks 2 questions here ( 1) Why 
attribute illusion to one who is POORNA SHAKTI ? 
(Mun, Up. Bhashya Anu. Vya. I-I-136). If BRA- 
HMAN is affected by MAYA, how can HE be called 
BRAHMA chiefly,for Brahma itself means POORNA. 
It is its derivative sense. Other wise He cannot 
be called prominently POORNA (Anu. Vya. 1-1-5- 
136). So, all that Madhwa does to solve the 
riddle is to transfer MAYA from God to Soul and 
Madhwa has inter-preted accordingly, on the 
basis of authorities. In fact, this appears to me 
to be the only chief and important point of differ- 
ance between MADHWA and SHANKAR as is evident 
from the fact that, Madhwa's refutation-books 
( KHANDANA books) all refer primarily to this one 
subject and if we remember that the idea of MAYA 
has undergone many changes and is made fluid, 
we can see how they can be brought nearer to 
each other. The concession given by Shankar to 


the world, as conventionally true (VYAVAHARIKA). 
SATYA is a great step forward. Madhwa also admits 
VYAVARARIKA SATYA in his sense. For, Madhwa 
admits world as ANITYA not permanent like God. 
It is only PRAVAHATAH NiTYA i. e. Its current or 
flow is NiTYA while God is Greater NiTYA (NlTYO- 
NITYANAM) ( Katha. Up. II-5-13). Others argue 
that God HIMSELF gets transformed into World 
or as RAMANUJA says, World is part and parcel 
of God. The objection to these is, God is every 
where declared to be AVIKARI and SUDDHA (Anu. 
Vya. 1-4-58-60). Hence, their assertion is wrong. 

PROCESS OF CREATION : There was nothing 
indeed before Creation. All that was there, had 
been enveloped by this World-Destroyer (MRITYU) 
Then He thought - " Let me have a body and 
there came - APA (Water) in its subtlest state, 
highest ether. So, the first creation of God is 
not ordinary water, but matter in its most subtle 
& refulgent state. This is the Root-matter (JADA- 
PRAKRITI) (Brah. I-II-l). There was foam of 
those waters in which when God laid His seed 
(VEERYA), it became condensed. This is the 
so-called BRAHMANDA." ( Cosmic Egg ) (Brah Up. 
I-II-2 ). 

The same thing is told in another form thus:- 
First, there was NARAYAN. He wished for a wife. 


This was for Her enjoyment. For, it was not 
that there was not Shri. for, She is ever existing* 
Though Narayan and Shri. are both existing, 
yet, when He is separated from Him, He is said 
to be alone, joining with Her, He longed for a son 
and BRAHMA (CHATUR-MUKHA ) was born. (Bra. 
Up. I-V-Bhashya ). 

" Those that have forms and those that have 
not, these 2 are the symbols of Brahma, but none 
of them is ^His real Form; for, He is superior to 
both of them. All except Shri. Vayu and Viranchi 
are called MURTA i. e. possessed of sin; while 
these 3 are sinless" (Brah. Up. II-III-Bhashyas ). 

"Then in PRALAYA, world was in its un-mani- 
fested form. This became evolved by Brahman. 
Un-differentiated JEEVA-PRAKRITI became diffe- 
rentiated, andun-evolved became evolved through 
name and form. In PRALAYA, Brahman was in a 
condition when there was no change of form or 
nature. This state of things is called by some, 
the casual form of the World. Then it was made 
manifest by God,through names and forms. Every 
object was distinguished from another object by 
means of names and forms only. (NAMA and 
ROOPA). Original nature of any object whether 
sentient or insentient is never changed. The 
essence always remains un-changed; while the 

[ 109] 

names and forms change and God after creating 
these objects entered into -them and energised 
them." (Brah. Up. I-VI-1 Bha.) 

Thus, after creating the whole Universe, God 
bestows upon the objects certain of His qualities 
i. e. they are His partial reflections; but always 
fully stands Himself at their back.Even in an atom 
He is Full, Hence, He is fully full in all ADHI- 
BHOOTAS (Bra Soo. I-I-8 ). ADHI-DAIVAS (Bra. 
Soo. I-I-7 ) and ADHYATMAS ( Bra. Soo. I-I-9 ) 
This is completely proved by VAYSA in his first 
Adhyaya of Vedanta-Sootra. 

STEPS IN CREATION :- There 1 is not much di- 
fference about the main steps. In details only, 
there are differences. First there isANGA-SRASHTI, 
when 5 BHOOTAS ( such as AKASHA, Ether ) and 
PRANA and Manas & in all 17 come out of God's 
different organs. In this first Creation, no help 
of Laxmi is taken. The various members of 
VishmSs body themselves are called DHYU-Lumi- 
nous. These 17 are all luminous. All these ANGAS 
are corelated with the world or Cosmos (Mand. 
Up. III). Second step is the Cretion of 24 TAT- 
WAS directly from JADA-PRAKRITI. Here we 
must remember that TATWAS do not mean abs- 
tract principles but are actual Substances (DRA- 
VYAS). They are at first in their subtle state. 


With the help of these 24 Tatwas and Jada-Pra- 
kriti, the 25/A, God has created BRAHMANDA (the 
Universe) with 14 Worlds in it. These 24 Tatwas 
are (1) MAHAT, (2) AHANKAR (3) BUDDHI, (4) 
MANAS, (5) 5 jNANENDRiYAS-Organs of knowledge 
(6) 5 KARMENDRIYAS - Organs of action. So 10 
in all, (5 BHOOTAS - dense elements. In all 24 
including Prakrati 25th. I need not dilate further 
on this subject. 

again reminds us to realise God in matter or 
Universe. Minutest and most essential knowledge 
is to know that this matter is not itself God, but 
is fully pervaded by God. VYASA deals with this 
question (Bra. Soo. I-I) and proves that ether^air, 
fire, water and earth in themselves have no power 
to act unless they are moved by God. All motion 
comes from God (Issha. Up.) This fact is given to 
the common people as God being fully present in 
every atom, particle of dtist, in a blade of grass 
or wood ( Anu, Renu, Trina, Kastha, Vyapta \ 
So also HE is in big mountains like MERU etc. nay, 
in all bodies of SUN, MOON, STARS, etc. They too 
are nothing but dead matter. It is the presence 
and filling by God that gives them power. 

10th Chapter treats ViBHUTi-RooPAS. Ther e 


in, are included insentient objects too. The best 
of each is considered as VlBHUTl. SHALI-GRAM 
is such a stone, selected by our ancients for such 
sacred worship. So I have selected it for the 
symbol of Vishnu. There also we must see God 
throug is for this very reason that UD-BHAVA 
( Self-manifested ) LINGAS are more sacred than 
artificial LINGAS. Both of these do not require 
any special bathing etc. for being touched. You 
know CHANDRA-HASA used to carry Sluiligram in 
his mouth anywhere he liked. Vithal Murti is 
perhaps such a Murti & Bala- Krishna of Udipi is 
certainly of this type. These are the two 
most sacred & special .Gods of Madhwas & of 
Karnatak. Artifical idols come next to these. 
We are ordained to carry with us SUDARSHANA 
(piece of Shall gram stone rings either of gold or 
silver ) wherever we go, in order to remind us 
always of God's presnce. It is for this very reason, 
that LINGAYATS carry Lingas on their body. 
Both objects are sacred. The mere artificial a 
thing is, the more it requires ceremony of puri- 
fication. So, human beings require more of these 
observances about bathing and wearing of sacred 
clothes. SANYASIS are free comparatively from 
these. Some others never care for these. Raw 
minds do not realise this underlying principle. 


We can and should adjust without giving up the 
principle. The late Hon. GOKHALE advised us to 
spiritualise politics. We should do so, instead 
of dragging spirituality to the level of politics 
and economics. 

God is represented on the forehead of VAI- 
SHNAVAS in full red mark while the black line 
below (CHHAYA) represents LAXMI. 

Here, I may note that the idols of Laxmi 
are generally made rather too shorter in compari- 
son to Vishnu idols such as Rama > Krishna, Vithal 
etc. Why ? I think because as compared to God 
His will which is represented by Laxmi is too 
short and little. Mother India is sacred to us not 
merely because we are born in it, but because 
our ancients have taught us to see the FULLNESS 
OF GOD, through HER. Berefit of this sentiment, 
patriotism has no value. 

Symbols :- Anuswara - Zero or Bindu = O = 
Vishnu Visarga - Two smallest points, one repre- 
sents Shri, the other Bhoo, from these two the 
further particular creation (Visarga) proceefls. 

BRAHMA (CHATUR-MUKHA):- The first que- 
stion in Pra. Up. refers to cosmogony. It is a very 
general and comprehensive question-namely who 
creates all these creatures? It is a well known 
fact that creatures are born. There cannot be *ti 


effect without a cause. Non-inteligent matter 
(JADA-PRAKRITI) cannot be the cause. For, matter 
has no power to create. Insentient objects can 
never be turned into sentient beings. (Anu. Vya. 
1-4-59) and no intelligent being can be turned into 
an insentient object (Anu. Vya. 1-4-68). No amo- 
unt of laboratory experiment can turn life-less and 
consciousless things into creatures with life and 
knowledge. DARWIN'S bridge is broken at-least 
in these 2 places. The answer given by Madhwa 
is this:- The first born of the union of God and 
His consort i. e. His will was Brahma called gene- 
rally CHATUR MUKHA. God .entrusted the matter of 
creating the actual this world to His son. But, 
Brahma did not know how to create. For God 
could 'create by His extra-ordinary and full powers 
by his simple will and did create by His body 
( ANGA-SRASTI ) many Gods. ButChatur-mukha 
could not do so. If he has to create the world 
with its beings and objects, he must do so like an 
ordinary being. For Chaturmukha, after all, is a 
soul - JEEVA. If he is to create he must follow 
the ordinary law namely combination of husband 
and wife. But he was alone. So, God endowed 
him power to split himself into 2-maleand female. 
This the Chatur mukha did and SARASWAT 1 
wasboin. Before it, he was alone, he did not 


feel any pleasure. He wished for a wife but there 
was no other woman except his own daughter i. e. 
his own production. Therefore, there was no 
other alternative except to co-habit with her and 
un-hesitatingly he did and from that union all 
Gods, men and other beings, demons too were 
born. First, CHATUR-MUKHA created them in his 
mind, just as an artist creates pictures, at first 
fully in his own mind and then gives them shapes. 
So, this creation was on a mental plane only. 
They are, therefore, called MANASA-PUTRAS i. e. 
mind-born sons. ( Brah. Up. I -IV ) Chaturmukhtfs 
main function was of his planning. Therefore, we 
are not in direct connection with him. This is, 
I think, the reason why he is not worshipped act- 
ually in the world. 

MUKHYA-PRANA :- With these brief remarks 
I come now to the most important subject namely 
the part thru is played by MUKHYA-PRANA in the 
creation and in the conducting of the world. Cha- 
tur-Mukha Brahma and this PRANA are both equal 
in grades, Brahma being a little higher in rank 
only. This Prana is said to come to the position 
of Brahma in the next KAL>A (= 1000 Yugas). 
Mukhya-Prana is the most popular God amongst 
all Gods. He is worshipped by almost all without 
any difference of sect or Cast. If Brahma be 


a Superintending Engineer, this Prana is our 
Direct Superior, our Executive Engineer. He is 
the architect of the Temple of God. 

MADHWA & MUKHYA-PRANA:- It appears that 
it was Madhwa who has contributed most to make 
this deity loved by all. No doubt, there was 
mukhya Prana even before Madhwa. But he was 
not so prominent. One special feature of this 
God is that in every village he has a temple and 
mostly the wordhippers are non Brahmins. Per- 
haps, this is because next to God and Laxmi, he 
is the one person who is quite un-touched by any 
sin (Baah. Up. II-III ). So, next to Shaligram, 
this God also does not require any special obser- 
vances of worship. As I have already said, the more 
impure you are, the more you are bound by the 
laws of touchability and un-touchability. Highest 
like Sanyashis-are free from such restrictions so 
also the lowest who are below social rules, both 
are free from any restrictions. This idea appears 
to be at the root of that custom. 

Now to proceed. Madhwa himself claims to 
be the third AVATAR of this VAYU or MUKHYA- 
PRANA. In every book of his, as an Avatar of Vayit. 
he bows to God. Here, I give a sample of his 
prayer:- " To HAYA-GREEVA - the form in which 
HE is always present in the heart of HANUMAN." 


" To HAYA-GREEVA - in the form of KRISHNA 
the form in which HE is always present in the 
heart of BHEEMA." "To HAYA-GREEVA in the form 
of VEDA-VYASA, the form in which HE is always 
present in the heart of MADHWA. I bow to this 
VISHNU, who rules over the central Praua (Brah. 
Up. M). , 

It is mostly after Madhwa that this God spre- 
ad his influence through-out India. Though Mad- 
wa sect is small, Vaishnavism of which Madhwa is 
the Pioneer, is very wide-spread thrcugh-out India. 
Disciples of VALLABHA are all Vaishnavas. So 
also, Madhwa philosophy counts among its devo- 
tees such high souls as RAMANANDA, KABIR, NANAK 
TULASHI-DAS, and all Dasas of CHAITANYA School 
in N^rth India and the revered Saint RAMA-DAS 
in Maharasthra. This Dus-cult is especially the 
production of Madhwism. It originated in KAR- 
NATAK at the time -of Madhwa in 13th Century. 
Karanatak is the HOME of DASAS. It counts many 
hundreds of Dasas who sang devotional principles 
of Madhwa philosophy. The temples to Hanwnan 
then became spread to the nook and corner of the 
country. The most learned VYASARAJ SWAMI 
himself installed nearly one thousand idols of Hanu- 
m in. Three or four centuries after Madhwa i. e. in 
17th Century, wj find in Maharashtra, Rtfaxdas 


devotee of MARUTI installed Maruti temple?, 
an Goa state Mangesh ( Hantiman in Kannda ') is 
the chief God. Thus, Madhwa's mission in this 
respect has been fulfilled. 

How is he born? Pra. Up. says - God does not 

create the world like a potter in the presnce of 
all but entrusts that duty to his son Mukhya-Prara 

( Pra. Up. VI-4 ). If Lzxmi is Gods 1 Will-Power, 
this Prana is His Energy-Power. RAYI popularly 
called BHARATI (which is the name of this country 

also) is Pranas wife. She represents subtle ma- 
tter. It is the combination of this husband Prana 
and his wife Bharati that has actually given rise 
to the Universe. This pair was the real cau^e. 
Then was created Great space, then Great Time 
and so on upto the creation of husband and wife. 
In short, energy is husband and matter is wife. 
The Great Cause, the Great Space and the Great 
Time in course of time-14 worlds (7 above earth 
and 7 below) were created and were filled with 

the creatures in this order. So, you see why VAYU 
occupies that highest post. He is the Electrical 

Power House. 

This Prana is extolled in many Upanishads 
and Vedz for instance, Brah. Up. I, II, III, IV, V, 
VI, Chh. Up. I, II, IV, V, Bran. Up. III-7-B; 
Rhug. 1-156; M61; 1-179; VII-82-2; X-168-4. 


Description of PR AN A :- He is the up-holder 
of all worlds. All the fourteen worlds are suspen- 
ded only through this Prana and He has pervaded 
all the worlds. The Sun shines not through his 
own power, but through the power of Prana, who 
resides inside the Sun and makes him shine. The 
Moon also gives light in the same way. Agni 
burns because of this Prana ( Brah. Up. I-II-3 ). 
He is the pet child-S/wVw(Brah.Up.II-l) of God. 
This central Prana is the infant. His abode is in 
subtle body. Gross .body is his outer abode. He 
is calf. This calf is attached to the peg who is 
God and Laxmi is the rope. (Brah. Up. II-2 ). 
He is the Sootra, (thread) because the whole world 
is sewn in him (Brah. Up. 1-51; III-7). He is the 
Up-holder. Uoktha (Brah. Up. IV-13). He is the 
mediator (Ish. Up.) He is Sama i. e. harmoniser 
(Brah. Up. IV-13). He is the most High (Brah. 
Up. 1-3). He is the supporter of the universe- 
VISHWAMBHAR ( Brah. Up. 1-5 ), He is the thread 
of actions ( Brah. Up. 1-5 ). He is superior among 
all deities ( Broh. Up. i-v-22 ) because, Pranadoes 
not fade even in Pralays while every other deity 
fades away. Prana does not lose his conscious- 
ness even in Pralaya while every other deity loses 
its consciousness. (Bra. Up. ii-m). He is the God 
of Gods; Prana was born of God (Pr. Up. Vf-4-and 


Mu. Up. n-1-3). He is the leader of all senses: 
without his presence no sense organ can work 
while he can alone work without their assistance 
and perform all their functions (Brah Up. vi; Chh, 
1-7-3). Prana is called Amrata ( Brah. Up. v-14 ). 
He was the leader of Deva.s in their fight with 
Asuras (Chh. 1-2; Many of the Vedas Upanishads 
GA-VIDYA (Chh. iv-3), treat of -him. Chh. Up. 
in Khar.da^ describes his cosmo-logical aspects, 
Chh- Up I. vni and ix treat of the hierarchy of 

Mukhya-Prana is not to be confounded with other 
Pranas such as Prana, Apana, Vyana, Samana and 
Udana. They are lower ones. They are called 
the sons of this Chief Prana. (Chh. i-xi) Here I 
shall say some thing about PRANA-YAMA (Control 
of Breath). Madhwa does not give suprme impor- 
tance to breath-control. Of course, it has its place 
in the exercise which helps us to control our body 
and mind. But Madhwa's chief advice to us is 
that we should control ; the whole Prana i. e. this 
Mukhya-Prana. It is the Grace of this Mukhya-Prana 
that gives SALVATION. It is this Mukhya Prana 
who carries on, the functions of all senses in MUKTI 
and after MUKTI (Brah. vi-1). So, no eccentric 

f 120] 

- - .=-'. _ .- /-' -/ 

feats of Hatha-Yoga or even of Raja-Yoga are 
allowed for* their own sake. The Vayu-Vidya that 
is treated in Upanishads is of higer type. Pranayama 
is of mere control of breath - the lower breath or 
Prana. While this Mukhya-Prana represents the 
whole stock of energy. He is the treasure house of 
energy as well as wisdom. For, Wisdom also is 
energy or power. It is clear that Madhwa was 
himself the embodiment of wisdom and power. 
In Brah. Up-vi-i it is taught by Shruti, that if you 
were to tell to a pillar, branches would grow, and 
leaves spring up from it. Why should it not? For 
it is possible that there may be many souls in the 
vacuum of that pillar. Madhwa has twice shown 
miraculous powers by mere singing (for He was 
a very good songster) certain hymns, he made the 
seeds grow into creapers with flowers etc. It 
must have been due to such Vayu Vidyas. 

In conclusion, if Brahman is Para-Brahma, Mu- 
hhya-Prana is Apar-Brahma- ( Chh. IV ). If Vishnu 
is the Root-Soil and Laxmi the Root. Mukhya 
Prana is the Rasa - essence flowing through every 
branch and leaves. 

HANUMA - BHEEMA & MADHWA :- Lastly, about 
these three AVATARAS. These 3 Avataras are of 
Vayu who is the highest God. The essential tea- 
ching of the whole BHARAT- asserts Madhwa, is 
[ 121 ] 

mainly spiritual ( Adhyatma ) ( Maha. Bha. Ta. II- 
149). Madhwa says Harm means wisdom in Br. 
Soo-n-4-9 Prana is Anu. So may Hanuman not be 
Anu-mahan ? Perhaps it is in consideration of this 
that at Dicholi in Goa State, the Madhwa Mut is 
called Aiiu-jeevottam mut.Goa Province especially 
has big Hanuman (Mangesh.) Templs Hanuma 
and Bheema are really the embodiments of the 
following virtues :- Jnana, true Vairagya Hari- 
Bhakti-Bhava. Dhruti (Courage). Stiti (Stead- 
fullness), Prana-bate, Yoga and Buddhi ( Maha. Bha. 
Ta. n-153). So, Bheema is really the hero of 
Bharat after Krishna and not Arjuna as is gene- 
rally supposed. For, Arjuna many times wavered 
but never so Bheema. He was a man of fullest 
and truest convictions. Madhwa has quoted the 
authority of Krishna for Bheema's Supeiority, (in 
Udyoga-parva, - Yudhisthira\ and of Duryodhana 
also in Virat-Parva ( Maha. Bha. Ta. 11-159 ). 
Of Course, Madhwa is silent here about himself. 

SYMBOLS:- The central Vayu is of really 
invisible. So his first Avatar only is symbolised. 
In my opinion, the shape of Hanuman has a signi- 
ficance. It is so shaped as to assume any form. 
It is plastic. His face is like that of a songster 
while singing at his best. Hanuman can float in 
the air but he is not merely a bird, for, he can 

C 122] 

walk on earth too. He has the strength of Bhee- 
ma. But whatever it is, it is certain we are not 
the descendants of ' Darwin V physical ancestor 
but are the descendants of Hanuman's spiritual 
ancestor i. e. Vayu or Brahma. So Hanuman assu- 
mes such extra-ordinary shapes. 


Summing up: I have, in the preceding few 
Chapters, tried to explain the theory of POOR- 
NATWA which I had dimly envisaged long ago, 
but, which had remained . simply as an idea, until 
I came across MADHWA'S main Propositions. I 
have tried to explain it in terms of mathematics 
also. But we must remember that GOD is not 
mere mathematics. GOD is really a substance, 
in whom all possibly conceivable and in-conceiva- 
ble qualities inher. We cannot accurately define 
HIM, but we can conceive that behind these quali- 
ties there must be some permanent Person. His 
qualities are not material; of all qualities, KNOW- 
LEDGE and BLISS appear to be more spiritual. 
So, God is generally described as ^CHIDANANDA- 

r 1231 

The theory of God's Poornalwa explains in a 
better way the conception about God than any 
other theory. Various Teachers - all perfectly 
honest - have propounded all sorts of theories. 
CHARWAKA advised us to dismiss thinking about 
GOD and to enjoy the world spread before us, ne- 
ver mind if you are a glutton. NAIYMKAS argued 
No, Sir, You cannot easily do so for, you are a 
thinking being and think you must, and find out 
by reason the Cause of this world and they posi- 
ted God as the CAUSE. VAISHESHIKAS knocked at 
the head of that God and the world to find out 
what they contained and came to the couclusion 
that they contain nothing but atoms and thus re- 
duced GOD and the WORLD to atoms. Others 
brushed aside both GOD and UNIVERSE as mere 
strings of our own imagination or ideas. SANKHYAS 
were more rational and took the Universe seriously 
and tried to group things of the world under diffe- 
rent heads as now the chemists and scientists do 
and came to the conclusion that all things can be 
brought under only 2 SANKHYAS i. e. numbers na- 
mely PRAKRITI and PURUSHA. They asserted that 
Prakrit* or Matter is the real LORD, while PURU- 
SHA or SOUL was her slave. Their analysis of the 
world is a very valuable contribution and VEDAN- 
TINS have generally accepted it. But, Vedantins 

F 1241 

did not admit the superiority of PRAKRITI over 
PURUSHA. MADHWA thinks that our greatest oppo- 
nents are SANKHYAS not even CHARVAKA for he 
admitted a modicum of independence to Purusha 
while SANKHYAS completely denied it to Purusha. 
With these few remarks, let me come to the 
subject of the present Chapter namely JEEVAS. 

JEEVA-TATWA : The subjects that were trea- 
ted in the last Chapters were rather remote to us 
in a certain sense. For, God and God's Will are 
invisible; they are rather theories only, though of- 
course, their Knowledge is indispensable. Universe 
is more near to us and to some extent visible also. 
The influence of the SUN, the MOON, STARS and 
PLANETS is real, yet that too is remote and too 
subtle. But, not so is the case with JEEVAS. Here 
we come to a subject with which we are directly 
concerned. If God is the centre of the whole 
Universe, in a sense, JEEVA is the centre even of 
God and Universe. For, it is for the sake of 
Salvation to Jeeva that the whole Universe is 
created. Hence, this is a subject most important 
to us. All SHASTRAS, all WORLDS, all objects of 
the world exist for Jeeva s Salvation. 

What are these Souls ? They are mere refle- 
ctions of God in JAD-PRAKRITI, which is as it were 
a mirror. So, naturally, the impurities of 


PRAKRITI appear to be attached to these Souls. 
In their pure state, since they are reflections they 
have the inherent capacity of The Great Lumianry. 
Because, as pure soul these reflections possess in 
whatever infinitesmally small quantity all that God 
possesses. But, in souls, these qualities are in 
their potential state. So God gives Jcevas an op- 
portunity to develop these potential faculties, to 
their utmost capacity. 

culties give no pleasure to man. It is only powers 
that you actually use that give you highest plea- 
sures. Soothe World is created by God as a 
Gymnasium Hall for Jeevas, for taking physical, 
mental and spiritual exercises and thus by deve- 
loping them,& use those faculties for the good of the 
world. The happiness thus derived is real happi- 
ness. These souls are floated into the world-cu- 
rrent in order to learn the art of swimming and 
thus going on swimming and swimming, join the 
source from which they came into the world i. e. 
God. JEEVAS loose their knowledge of themselves 
and of God, when they are thrown into the world- 
flood. In order, therefore, to he\pjeevas to learn 
the art of swimming,God gives them some adjuncts 
such as Pumpkins,or life-boats,Ropes,etc which we 
use while we are learning to swim, These aregene- 

F 126 1 

rally called bondages but I think they should be 
called helpers. If they are boncjs, they are bonds 
of marriage. For, really, I think the joining of 
JEEVA with PRAKRITI is a marriage bond, in which 
no divorce is allowed until Salvation of both. 
Matter is wife and Soul is husband. KALA-Time, 
AN ADI -KARMA - past actions and others assist us 
in exhausting all our fruits of action and thus be- 
come free from every bondage. 

Definition of ' JEEVA ' : - It appears that this 
word is used in two senses - (1) Pure Soul and 
(2) the Soul that is found in this world. Pure 
Souls are in some respects, just like God. They 
are all in their original essence JNANAand ANANDA 
only. Just as God's body is nothing but Know- 
ledge and Bliss only. Of course, there is vast di- 
fference between them in their degrees, but no 
difference between God and Souls in kind. Our 
Souls too are as NITYA i.e.eternal as God.God is the 
Eternal of all Eternals. ( Katha. V-5-13 ). Because 
Souls, though eternal are born in this world, while 
God is not born like Souls. So, God is more eter- 
nal than souls. After MUKTI, the souls again be- 
come pure and join God. This is one kind of Souls. 

JEEVAS & their 4 Bodies:- (1) SWAROOPA- 
DEHA. But, pure souls are not to be found in this 
world; when they are ushered into this world, they 

[ 127 ] 

are besmeared with matter or PRAKRITI. At first, 
there is the thinnest layer of PRANA over pure 
soul. Just as MUKHYA-PRANA is the first born 
son of God, in the Universe, so also in this world 
souls are at first covered with the thinnest layer 
of MUKHYA-PRANA who is also himself a soul like 
all of us. MUKHYA-PRANA is in his essence Prakriti 
But it is most transparent and full of illumination. 
This is the first body or cover over the pure soul. 
It is called SWAROOPA-DEHA of Soul i. c. its esse- 
nce is pure PRANA. This Swaroopa-Deha conce- 
ption is not to be found in other schools of thought. 
It is peculiar to MADHWA. Madhwa has got the 
authority of Upanishads for conceiving such a 
body (Chh. I-II-9). You should remember that 
MUKHYA- PRANA is not mere lyreath. PRANA or 
BREATH is quite inferior. It is grosser. PRANA, 
APAN A and others are, therefore, called- sons of 
MUKHYA-PRANA. Though they receive their energy 
from MUKHYA-PRANA, they are not themselves 
MUKHYA-PRANA. This BODY - essence of MUKHYA- 
PRANA remains attached to the soul till the soul 
gets salvation. It is through the GRACE of this 
MUKHYA-PRANA, that all the souls get their Salva- 
tion. In short, MUKHYA-PRANA is the presiding 
Deity of this first body i. e. SWAROOPA-DEHA. 
There are no other organs of sense as yet born in 


JEEVA's body. It is this Prana alone who per- 
forms the functions of all other organs. This Prana 
being always pure, never gets defiled by any im- 
pure touch. It absorbs only good smell, good food, 
good colour etc. This is also the reason why bet- 
ween the fight among all senses MUKHY-PRANA 
was declared to be the Victorious,(Brah. Up. etc.) 

Here, I may also suggest that at the time of 
death, though all the senses, fade away, MUKHYA- 
PRANA remains upto the last. And I think a dying 
man, therefore, must be full of knowledge which 
this Prana preserves though the dying man has no 
power to express his feelings then, because he has 
lost all other senses thro ugh which he could express 
in words, what he feels in his he:irt. The custom 
of keeping a thread tied to a peg for 10 days may 
have some thing to do with this PRANA. Is it not ? 
While all other senses depart and partly join their 
original stock and partly follow JEEVA in his jour- 
ney to other worlds after death, MUKHYA-PRANA 
alone docs not go to join his original stock buffo- 
Hows wholly, JEEVA in its journey to other worlds. 

LINGA-DEHA : Now let me go further. The 
second cover over pure soul is that of matter in 
more gross form. It is called c LlNGA DEHA ' ! This 
is the symbol of JADA-PRAKRITI attached to soul 
when it comes to earth, just as Universe is born of 


Jada-Prakriti. This minature Universe that is 
1 PINDANDA ' is born exactly in the same way as the 
Universe. This Linga or small portion of Prakriti 
is the real cause of other 2 bodies such as 'SoOK- 
SHMA-DEHA ' and c STHOOLA-DEHA. ' From this 
Linga-Deha, Mahat, Ahankar, Buddhiand Mana etc. are 
born in the same order as in the Universe. In all 
24 Tatwas L e. Subtle Forms of Jada- Prakriti go to 
form the Lingas and other 2 Dehaa. Now, about 
the constitution of the Linga-Deha. It consists of 16 
Parts ' Shodasha Kalas ' namely, 5 Organs of Know- 
ledge and 5 Organs of Action -in their minute forms 
and 5 Gross Pr&nas, namely Prana t 'Apana^nd others 
and Manas Mind. Thus, in all, these 16 parts are 
to be found in LlNGA-DEHA. This Linga-Deha gives 
birth to the third body called c SOOKSHMA ' or 
ANIRUDDHA DEHA. The speciality of this Linga- 
Deha is that it remains attached to Jeeva up to the 
end of its SAMSAR i. e. Worldly existence. At the 
last moment, man becomes liberated from this 
little mud of matter by bathing in c VIRAJA RIVER ' 
of PURE SATWA and gets Salvation. 

Over the Linga - Deha, there is this subtle or ast- 
ral body. Between Linga Deha and this ' SOOK- 
SHMA DEHA ' there are the 2 minutest particles of 
MAYA or GOD'S WILL POWER, Ichha-Shakti ' and 


AVIDYA - Ignorance. These 2 areas if they ~, are 
its curtains, the Maya curtain hides from Jeeva, 
Knowledge of God and Avidya curtain hides from 
Jeeva its own knowledge. They are called PARA- 
MA-CHHADIKA and JEEVA-CHHADIKA i. e. curtains 
of 2 kinds of ignorance. Sookhama Deha consists 
of all 24 Tatwaa. But the 5 gross elements of 
Akaaha, Vayu, Teja, Apa and Prithvi are in their 
subtle forms as yet. 

(4) c STHOOLA-DEHA ':- This is, of .'course, 
the visible body with all 24 Tatwas in their grosser 

NATURE OF SOULS--Pure Soul is but an ANSHA 
or part of God a separated part c BHINNANSHA. * 
God is Anshi ( Gita and Gcwapavana Shruti ) Jeeva 
is not God's SWAROOPANSHA which means God 
Himself exhibiting forms such as Vaaudev etc. Jeeva 
from CHATUR-MUKHA down to an insect or a 
Jeeva in a blade of grass all are equal in size and 
are separate Anshas ( Bhinnamshas ). 

In short JEEVAS have 2 characteristics one, 
Jeevas are those pure souls over whom there is the 
cover of ignorance and secondly they are ushered 
into the world for gaining experiences of the world 
and then fully realise God through these experienc- 
es. All ]eevas from Brahma (Chatur-Mukha) down- 
wards come under JEEVA-KOTI. All of them are 


bound up with Prakriti i. e. matter. This matter 

like mud attaches itself to their souls and it must 
be washed off before one gets Salvation. 

Their Number & Size:- Jeevas are infinite in 
number. Vedznfa asserts that in fact, there is no 
space in which they are not found. Even such a 
small space in the tip of a nail is sufficient to acco- 

modatq, numberless souls, ( Vishnu Tat-Ni ). Then 
think how great their number must be. As to the 

size, you cannot even imagine it. I do not think 
even the most powerful instrument now designed 
or to be ever designed will ever be able to see 
.with your eyes these souls. The whole Universe 
is fully filled with these souls. Another fact to be 

remembered is that there are various kinds, de- 
grees and grades among these souls. E ich soul is 

different from the other ( Brah. Soo. II-3-28; II- 
3-43; III-2-18; 2-1-14 ). The souls are eternal not 
born at all. They existed before PRALAYA and they 
will continue to exist even after PRALAYA in the 
womb of God. God gives a coating to them and 
pushes them in the stream of life (Brah. Soo, II- 
13-18; II-3-29; II-3-30). Though they are atomic 
in size, they are powerful enough to obtain the 
experiences of the whole world, by the Grace of 
God. They all reside in the hearts of every crea- 
ture. It serves as a mirror to refleet God's 


' ADHYATMAYOGA ' :- Among all souls, man is 
the most important being; say, if you want, it is 
man's pure selfishness. I shall prove that it is not 
so, because if it had been selfishness, man would 
not have yoked himself with the havy task of 
SADHANAS; for, we find that there are more rest- 
rictions for man to obtain Salvation than toothers. 
Insentient objects have no care; their evolution is 
secured. Gods also need not troubles themselves 
with Vedant for Gods are APAROKSHA JNANIS*. e. 
are those who have already got God-Vision, and 
their future path is quite safe. They go on doing 
their duty and comparatively speaking need not 
trouble themselves with Vedanta. Of Course if 
they take more trouble to know more of Vedant- 
their already secured happiness is intensified. So, 
excluding these 2, we come to souls on earth other 
than human beings. We can exclude other beings 
also from our serious consideration; for it is only 
Man who can intelligently practise the SADHANA, 
necessary for SALVATION, For, this human body 
alone is meant for intelligent Sadhana. For these 
various reasons, MADHWA gives utmost importance 
to ADHYATMA which YOGA is declared to be the 

Importance of MAN:- We may dismiss God & 
also the Universe as mere airy subjects. But we 


cannot treat Man so lightly. God may or may not 
be the centre of Universe, but certainly Man is the 
centre. In fact, all our Vedanta, all our sciences 
etc. are merely for the sake of Man. We can deny 
the existence of every other object but we cannot 
deny our own existence. So, it is quite incumbent 
upon us to know what man really is; What his aim 
should be and other allied subjects. MAN is a 
combination (SANGHATA ) of body, mind, soul, and 
God, Let us leave aside God for the present. 
The other three are not strangers to us like God. 
Every one feels that he is something. r I ' -AHAM 
is the first pronouncement a man makes. Some- 
times the expression is used for body, Sometimes 
for soul. Let us try to know what this c I ' means. 
Body is matter undoubtedly - no one questions it. 
So also, its limbs and organs are ' matter '. No 
one doubts it. As to the ' mind ', modern scien- 
tists and philosophers are divided in opinion. Some 
deny any c mind' apart from body. Some admit it 
as independent substance. All that I want to do 
is to place before my readers - what the ideas of 
MADHWA are in this respect. I cannot enter into 
arguments, for, which I refer the readers to read 

' BUDDH1 ' or 'Intelligence ':- Buddhi or gene- 
ral intelligence is of 2 kinds- (1) Buddhi-TATWA 


which is not a principal but actual matter and 
which forms one of the constituents out of 24 
TATWAS which go to form the body of Man; (2) 
Buddhi which as a faculty is not matter but 
KNOWLEDGE in general. Here we are concerned 
with the second kind only. It may be called Higher 
Reason, or simply Knowledge in general. It is 
also of 2 kinds - (1) Eternal Knowledge and (2) 
Temporary Knowledge. Again it is sub-divided 
into true and false. The original nature of good 
JEEVAS is permanent and true knowledge. It is the 
essence of High Class JEEVAS. Such High Class 
Jeevas are essentially of true and permanent kno- 
wledge. Eternal and true knowledge is the very 
constitution of such virtuous JEEVAS. It forms the 
very stuff of their constitution. While all other 
Jeevas have not this true and permanent know- 
ledge. Such high souls always possessing true 
and permanent knowledge are exceptional ones. 
In general, all Jeevas are subject to ignorance and 
wavering knowledge. 

The general intelligence or BUDDHI is again 
of two sorts - (1) c ANUBHAWA ' or Experience or 
Realised Knowledge; and (2) c SMRITI ' i. e. Me- 
mory or indirect Knowledge or Bookish knowledge 
we may call it. It is also called PAROKSH JNANA. 
Therefore, ANUBHAVA or actual realisation i of 


real importance. (Vishnu T. 1-111). Madhwa is 
so strong in this respect that he holds that if 
AGAMA contradicts ANUBHAWA, that AGAMA also, 
should be brushed aside ( Vishnu Ta. 1-99 ). Anu- 
bhawa means that which is tested on the anvil of 
SAKSHI ( which is treated else-where. ) 

MANAS OR MIND:- Now about Manasor Mind. 
In the west, there is confusion between mind and 
soul. But in Vedanta, it is not so. Manas is quite 
another and inferior faculty. Mind is not only an 
organ of sense, but is also a Talwa like BUDDHI 
Tatwa i. c. it is a substance which goes to form 
the body of man. But now, we are here con- 
cerned only with the organ c MiND ' This organ of 
mind is to be found in all JEEVAS. It is of two 
sorts - (l)Eternal Mind and (2) Temporary Mind. 
Eternal mind is the stuff of all Jeevas. It is the 
essence of ]eevas ( SWAROOPA-BHUTA ). It is c n 
account of this essential mind that we are called 
conscious beings ( CHETANAS ). While the tem- 
porary mind is the outside mind which is- not CHE- 
TANA, but matter. We may call the first kind 
c Natural Mind ' and the other Artificial or 
Matter-Mind, So MADHWA holds MANAS to be of 
mixed kind CHIT and ACHIT combined ( Anu.Vya.). 
This matter mind is an outside organ i. e. it belon- 
gs to the body of man and not to the soul of man. 


One is soul-mind, the other is matter-mind. It has 
5 faculties in all - namely (1) MANAS; (2) BuDDHl 
( lower intelligence); (3) AHANKAR; Egoism; (4) 
CHITTA or Purified mind or feeling or heart, and 
(5)* CHETANA - Consciousness. The nature of 
Manas is doubting, it is not steady, that of Buddhi 
is determination, that of Ahankar is of appropria- 
ting to oneself which is not really his; for instance, 
man calls himself that he is red or black, fat or 
thin. But, really, c I ' here does not mean Soul, 
which he really is but, means body, which JEEVA 
is not. Chetana is the total effect of all these. It 
comprehends many things at once. 

Source of KNOWLEDGE :- Let us try to know 
how we get Knowledge. It is in this way - Soul at 
first comes in contact with the mind, mind then 
with organs of sense; organs of sense come in con- 
tact with objects. When this takes place, the inner 
organ that is mind itself is changed or transformed 
into Knowledge i. e. mind itself assumes the form 
of Knowledge. The first condition is that ATMA 
or SOUL must come in contact with the mind. It is 
for this reason that we do not get any knowledge 
in sleep. For, then mind and all other senses cease 
their activities. Hence, Atma cannot come in con- 
tact with mind and senses. So, knowledge is not 
possible. If you ask What is the necessity of this 


Soul - mind contact; Is it not sufficient that there 
is contact between objects and senses ? We replj 
No. For, if that was sufficient, we should get know- 
ledge even in sleep, for, in sleep there is the actual 
contact of the sense of touch with our bed, yet 
there is no knowledge. So contact between ATMA 
and MIND is quite necessary for Knowledge. In the 
sanie way, our rule is that the particular sense 
organs which has the capacity of knowing that 
object must come in contact with Manas. If mind 
is absent, it cannot know the object. 3rdly the 
contact between object and senses is necessary. If 
there is a wall between my eye and table, I cannot 
see the table. 

NA1YAYIKAS say that Knowledge is born in 
soul itself and not in mind. We do not admit it, 
because Atma is AVIKARI i. e. is un-changeable like 
God. Atma cannot be transformed into kno- 
ledge. So, mind is the instrumental cause ( UPA- 
DANA KARANA ) of JNANA and not ATMA. All know- 
ledge is, therefore, produced in the ANTAH-KARANA 
i. c. mind. If you ask again " We shall have then no 
knowledge of Atma itself; for, according to your 
theory, there should be no knowledge of SELF at 
all.* The answer is YES. Your objection is see- 
mingly right. But our answer is Atma or Soul 
being the lord of the mind, Atma appropriates the 


knowledge born in mind to himself. Mind is sub- 
ject to Soul. This is what we call KNOWLEDGE OF 

Means of KNOWLEDGE :- Now, we shall speak 
about the means. They are mainly three (1) PRA- 
TYAKSHA - Direct Knowledge; (2) Inference and 
(3) SHABDA f - Words. These three are the chief - 
causes (KARANAS). These are mere instruments 
of Knowledge and not knowledge itself. The real 
knowledge means the knowledge of a thing as it 
actually is. But these instruments may also be 
giving us falbe knowledge, if there are defects in 
the instruments. So,unless they are further tested, 
their knowledge cannot be guarranteed. That test 
is made by SAKSHI which is called SWAROOPENDRI- 
YA i. e. natural or essential organ. Besides these 
artificial organs, soul itself possesses its own essen- 
tial organ which is technically termed Sakshi. 
Every knowledge becomes true knowledge only 
after it has been tested on this anvil. When JNANA 
is passed through this testing tube then only it 
becomes true JNANA. The evidence of this essen- 
tial organ ( Sakshi ) then becomes as strong as 
direct knowledge. This much is sufficient. The 
subject of inferential knowledge which is called 
TARKA or Logic is well-known. MADHWA has raised 
here also specific objections to the theories of 

[ 139 ] 

many other schools. Scholars would do well to 
consider them. Mad/twa says the above three are 
the only means of knowledge; others such as AR- 
THA-PATTI, UPAMANA are un-necessary. They all 
can be included in the " Inference." We MADAWAS 
do not admit ' NIRVIKALPA JNANA ' which NAIYA- 
YIKAS and SHANKARITES admit. We say all JNANA 
is ' SAVlKALPA. ' NIRVIKALPA means Knowledge 
which contains no particular knowledge. There is 
absolutely no such void knowledge. Mark also that 
PRATYAKSHAor direct Knowledge then is of eight 
sorts. Six kinds of knowledge produced through 
six organs of sense including mind and SWAROOPA- 
INDRIYA and the eighth is the True Knowledge 
( YATHARTHA JNANA ). True knowledge only is the 
final authority while the other knowledges are 
only instruments to produce true knowledge. They 


c BIMBA-PAROKSHA ':- This is a very spe- 
cial subject of MADHWA VEDANTA. It means the 
Vision of that Form of God which is reflected in 
the Heart of every JEEVA. It is called BIMBA- 
ROOPA. It is from the knowledge of this very 
BIMBA-RUPA that man gets MOKSHA and not from 
the knowledge of any other Form or Forms of 
God. Hence, its particular interest. This special 
JNANA is called ' VIJNANA.' No doubt, the UPASANA 

[ 140 ] 

( Worship ) of other Forms of God also is nece- 
ssary. But, they are useful only to remove all the 
obstructions that surround our Souls and bind them. 
Vision of this BIMBA Form gives us Salvation. At 
the time of creation of those souls who are fit to 
be created for getting liberation, in that KALPA 
(Brahma's day) God dwells with his consort RAMA 
in that subtlest matter, which is attached to pure 
soul when it is floated into the world current and 
this combination of God and Rama which dwells 
in all souls is called 4 LINGASHAR1RA. ' So, Linga- 
Sharira is that body of Jeeva which surrounds the 
soul and in, which God and His wife dwell. I have 
stated already that this Linga body or Root body 
consists of 16 KALAS or parts namely 10 INDRIYAS 
and 5 BHOOTAS plus Manas. This body consists 
of the 3 GUNAS i. e. SATWA, RAJA andTAMA. This 
Linga-Sharira has the power of concealing the 
pure light and action that inherently belongs to 
souls and it is this PINDA - round mass which is 
the combination of Soul ( CHIT ) and matter 
( ACHIT ) which is commonly called JEEVA. Is not 
the ISHWAR - PINDI that we see in temples a 
symbol of this ? Perhaps, this is the real expla- 
nation of Phallus mythology for Ishwara is as a 
matter of fact called Lingatma. Unless we 
forget God for a time and turn our minds to 


the world, we cannot have any experience of the 
world and unless we pass through the ordeal of 
experience, we shall not realise God fully. For 
this reason there are 2 curtains created over this 
Linga-Deha - one of Maya or that power of God's 
will which makes us forget God and 2nd AVIDY\ 
i. e. that power of ignorance which makes us forget 
our own souls. When there are these two covers 
over our Linga-Body, we begin to forget God and 
begin to identify ourselves with the out-side world. 
For actual contact, of world two more dense bodies 
are created ( 1 ) SOOKSHMA SHARlRA-Subtle body, 
(2)STHOOLA or Gross body. Thus we are able toha ve 
contact with wordly experiences. In these bodies 
there is AHANKAR TATWA i. e. Egoism which app- 
ropiates to the body that which does not really be- 
long to body but to soul; for body is pure dense 
insentient matter in itself. Thus after creating 
Linga and other bodies, God Himself enters into 
JEEVA, just as fire enters into coal; and thus gives 
man the opportunity to realise God through all 
the worldly experiences and get himself back to 
God. If we are to get the enjoyment of worldly 
pleasures, we shall have to identify ourselves with 
( though wrongly ) with material enjoyments and 
through world realise God and come to ' NA AHAM 
KARTA ' but HARI is real KARTA. 


Conclusion :- Thus I have tried to sketch out 
the theory of POORNA BRAHMA as far as possible 
in the space allowed. But it will not be complete 
unless I deal with the SADHANA for the REALISA- 
TION of that POORNA BRAHMA. That subject will 
be taken up by me in the second part of this book. 

It will be evident from what I have said that 
God fully and absolutely pervades every particle of 
the Universe,being its CREATOR, PROTECTOR, CONT- 
ROLLER and DESTROYER and it is God alone who is 
not only responsible for every activity of the 
world and of JEEVAS, but is the real and only one 
NCE and Binder of Souls with bondages and also 
Loosner of those bonds and LIBERATOR OF SOULS. 
In short, God is POORNA BRAHMA and POORNAT- 
WA sums up all imaginable qualities. 

At last, I may be allowed to illustrate the 
above fact with a symbol which will, in my opi- 
nion bring to the mind of even common people 
the nature of God's activities. The Doll's Play 
or the Idols ' play (Gombi Ata in Kannada ) which 
was very common in Karnatak, the home of that 
play, and which still survives to some extent, best 
illustrates the nature of God's activities as much as 
symbols can express. It may be called one jnpan's 


play, wherein the Sootra Dhar holds all images 
the idols of DURYODHANA and otbers with number 
of strings attached to the limbs of these images, to 
facilitate their different movements. He alone 
conducts the whole drama, by moving all the 
strings in his hand, himself standing behind the 
curtain and making all the speeches himself and 
making the idols dance in accordance with the 
sentiments and speeches. Even the female parts 
are played by himself imitating the female tones 
suitable to different occasions. Is this not what 
God does ? Really God is the ACTOR of all parts 
in the world's Drama. Sootra represents c MUKHYA- 
VAYU. ' This play was the root of all future 
Sanskrit Dramas. Those dramas are but poor imi- 
tations; for the Sootra Dhar and Nati (God's wife 
i. e. Laxmi or Will of God) are in those dramas 
are visible to spectators. Yet, the idea had been 
preserved by making Vishnu & Laxmi descend as 
if from heaven. That scene also has been now 
dismissed. So, the drama has lost its original 
vision. Cinema is the improved edition of that 
drama. But it is given to the audience without 
the life of its original teaching. We must incul- 
cate Poorna Brahma idea through all our custo- 
ms and manners. 


To Conclude :- Let us all be NARAS (Highest 
men - according to our capacity) and let us be 
always singing the GLORY OF Goo NARAYANA.This 
is the message that MADHWA has given to man and 
at-least in this sense, namely their message of 
POORNA BRAHMA TATWA will last for ever. 



Re-call to Memory : Let me recall to the 
memory of my readers the objects with which I 
started in writing this little book. The -main aim 
of my book as mentioned in Chapter I is the re- 
presentation of MadhwB. Philosophy as I have un- 
der-stoood it. My second object was to bring 
nearer to each other, the different prominent and 
current schools, on the basis of three borts of co ill- 
promises - (a) Practical Compromise (b) Philosophi- 
cal understanding and (c) Spiritual guidance. So 
far, I have dealt mainly with the second sort, 
namely that of philosophical understanding and 
have shown how they can be brought together 
with a little spirit of give and take. Of course, I 


myself have the fullest faith and firm conviction in 
Madhwa's Poornztwa. Siddhanta. But, I have tried 
to show that others too should have no objection 
to that theory as it does not violently offend any 
of their convictions. For, no school would like to 
call its God* Not Full ' apart from the other de- 
- tails about its conception. Then, why so many 
schools arose and still arise if the solution is so 
very simple ? Here I try to answer this question. 

Whirlpool of Hum-in Logic: It is the whirl- 
pools of human logic that are responsible for diffe- 
rent schools. As long as there was complete faith 
in Vedas, and as long as the people lived actual 
life in that atmosphere, there was no difficulty. 
But, -in course of time, the vital knowledge on which 
it was based was lost and so new presentation was 
required. Fpr, the Pandits found various cont- 
radictions in Shrutis and Upanishads etc. and they 
required a solution. This dilemma of contradictions 
between different texts was removed by Vyasa in 
his Brahma Sootras and other books. All went well 
for some time. But Buddha zndMahaveer came on 
the stage and cut the basement itself by denying 
Vedas and questioning to satisfy them on rational 
grounds. So, the controversy then was Vedas'^Vs. 
Reason. Buddha resorted to meditation to find out 
the truth but could find no God; Mahaveera depen- 


ded upon logic or reason and raised many doubts 
without satisfactory and definite soultions for 
those doubts. So, again, there was whirl-pool. 
Yes, Such whirlpools are bound to come into exi- 
stence when we depend mainly upon human logic. 
But they begin to vanish when we rise higher and 
higher. When you rise up and up, your horizon 
of reason goes on widening and things from there, 
appear quite different. When we reach the su- 
mmit, we come to God. Then, the whole field 
comes before our view. That kind of logic is called 
' BRAHMA-TARK ' i. e. ' DIVINE LOGIC ' logic from 
the stand-point of view of God, who is all know- 
ledge. It appears that there was a big book of 
that name, for, Madhwa has drawn many of his 
arguments from that book. The book appears to 
be not available now. But Logicians would do 
well to collect available passages and give to it 
a regular shape, Vedic injunction is that we can 
not solve any problem satisfactorily, much less the 
problem of God, merely depending upon human 
logic. So, the teachers again fell back upon Vedic 
texts, which were not mere logic but actual ex- 
periences,and asserted the existence of God boldly. 
It was Shri. SHANKAR especially who installed 
God on the throne. But what about the world ? 
BUDDHA had denied both God and the World. 


Shaiikar brought in his theory of MAYA OR ILLU- 
SION OF BRAHMA to solve this riddle and denied 
even the world before our eyes. So, there was 
again the dilemma as to whether world was real 
or not. In short, whirl-pools, are bound to arise, 
when we resort to logic. Logic is verily a veritble 
whirlpool. I have tried to explain it also by taking 
a historical view of the matter. (Page 83, 84). 

MADHWA'S METHOD : Madhwa has tried to 
resolve these riddles as stated on page ( 83,84) by 
depending upon three kinds of principles (a) 
Shruti; (b) Yukti i. e. Logic; (c) Apta Vakya i. e. 
evidence of those who had got actual God-vision 
(Sakshatkara). If we read Brahma Sootras in the 
light of the above three principles - Madhwa asse- 
rts that it is his first main proposition that is ex- 
presfly^stated there. This is about God. But the 
question about the relation between God and the 
world is not so explicit in Brahma Sootra. Madhwa 
admits this fact, and we too can see it because, as 
a matter of fact, Sootras have not touched this 
point so much as they have done about God. 
There is neither refutation ofShankar'a Maya theo- 
ry or so-called Adwaita theory nor is there the re- 
futation of the so-called Dwaita theory. Hence, 
I conclude that this controversy in its present 
form was not so very keen then. Whatever it is, 

human logic has landed us in this new .whirlpool 
and so we shall have to devise means of rising up 
from that whirlpool; fortunately, the whirlpool is 
not now very deep. For doing sr, Shankar, Kama- 
nuja and Madhwa have depended upon hypotheses. 
Shankar depending upon Maha-Vahyas i. e. a few 
sentences ( important in his eyes) and propounded 
the one-ness theory. Ramanuja depends on another 
advocated difference here and non-difference in 
Muhti. While Madhwa sets aside both these hy- 
potheses and advances his own hypothesis namely 
that of difference here and also in mukti. Shan- 
kara's hypothesis that God is one, necessarily leads 
to the theory that the world and souls must be 
illusory. They are the effects of the temporary 
Avidya or Ignorance which covers Brahma. The 
only substantial change proposed by Madhwa is to 
transfer the Ignorance from God to jeeva. Igno- 
rance can never cover Brahma,who is the Greatest 
Luminary. Can darkness cover the Sun? No, a 
globe can obstruct the light of a little wick. It is 
from this changed hypothesis that Madhwa has in- 
ferred his other theories. Between Ramanuja and 
Madhwa the difference is still narrow; Madhwa's 
contention is, if there is inherent difference here it 
must be so, also in mukti; for mukti means' getting 


back to one's own inherent nature. Here I do not 
want to enter into that controversy. But I want 
to state this much. Every teacher is obliged to 
have recourse to such hypotheses. Naiyayikas have 
deff ended their God on some hypothesis of their 
own.The question which hypothesis is stronger must 
ultimately depend upon individuals themselves. 
I therefore merely state that Madhwa has at-lea?t 
proved to my conviction his hypothesis. He de- 
pends upon Malta tatpraya i. e. the essence of tea- 
chings as a whole and not upon stray sentences 
here and there. To Madhwa, every Vakya of Veda 
is a maha-vakya. The essence of the teaching 
should be extracted by having recourse to the acc- 
epted rule of interpretation namely Upakrama, 
Upa-samhara, etc. With these few observations, I 
leave the matter to the readers themselves, imp- 
loring them first to read (without-prejudice) Ma- 
dhwa's main objections raised against the other 
theories before they come to any definite con- 

After all,this first part of my book has treated 
only Paroksha Jnana i. e. indirect knowledge. The 
more important question from the point of view 
of self-realisation is that of ' Sad/tana f which I 
take in my II part. 




" OM. " ' May we live long enough to listen 
with our ears the most auspicious news, and 
see with our eyes, always the most beautiful. 
Oh ! Holy one ! May we, with healthy and 
strong bodies and firm limbs extol you always 
and live full length of life ordained to us ' 
( Rhugveda 1-89. 8 ). 

In Part I of this book, the conception of God 
as conceived by Madhwa was given. God is not 
only One, not only many but Full, fully Full was 
the conclusion. God comprises both Unity and 
Multiplicity and also is above both Unity and 
Multiplicity. He is all possible attributes. He is 
SAGUNA in this sense. He is also NIRGUNA in the 
sense that he has none of the 3 main qualities-nam- 
ely SATWA, RAJA and TAMA. He is also Nirguna in 
the sense that He is beyond all Gunas and in the 
sense that He is Infinite. 

FIELD OF SftDHANA : In the first Part, I trea- 
ted about the theory of POORNATWA. But mere 
theoretical knowledge cannot give us Salvation. 
It is the Sadhanas or methods of self-realisation, 
which give us MOKSHA. So, I shall deal with this 


subject. The field of Sadhana is too vast, for, it 
covers all fields of our activities - physical, mental 
moral and spiritual. Though the field is vast, 
here my task is comparatively easy. For, Sadha- 
nas have been fully worked out in books like GITA, 
BHAGAWATA, etc. which are popular among co- 
mmon people. Moreover, in this field, fortunately, 
we have the greatest hope of practical compro- 
mise, between different existing schools ( which 
was one of the objects I had placed in writing this 
ttook ) of Vedanta. The main schools now existing 
are only 4 or 5, namely, SHANKAR, RAMANUJA, 
MADHWA; and BUDDHA and JINA too because they 
really belong to our fold. They owe their inspi- 
ration to Vedic culture and there is much in co- 
mmon in their Sadhanas. Other schools of thought 
have been beaten into the background. I have not 
tackled with western philosophies as it is beyond 
TOy scope but in my analysis, there are many side- 
suggestions, which will reveal the initial defects 
of the West. Its approach itself- is wrong. I write 
for average readers. My aim is to make the book 
readable and at the same time, to include facts 
which are outside the reading of many scholars. 
I shall try to put old things in a new way. 

ssarily depends upon our efforts. It is individuli- 


stic. Madhwa does not believe in the Salvation of 
the whole world at any time on earth. In PRA1.A- 
YA only, all JEEVAS are dissolved. If we are to 
get MUKTI we shall have to strive for ourselves. 
Humanity may help; Society may assist but after 
all, it is we who are to realise. The world to 
Madhwa is a world full of in-equalities. Equality 
is a myth. No two men are equal in any-thing; 
no two objects are equal. There is a regular gra- 
dation of quality and quantity. All that one can 
do is to prescribe rules and leave every body to 
his fate. The first and most important principle 
is that God is full in Sadhana. You cannot dis- 
pense with HIM at any stage of your practice. 
Whether it is your physical exercise, mental or 
moral, you shall have to depend upon God's help 
and favour. You are not free. Freedom of will 
is half-truth. For, if you had absolutely no free- 
dom, all the SHASTRAS etc. would have become 
useless. So, freedom you have, but only to a 
limited extent. It is circumscribed with so many 
conditions. God fully pervades all your Sadhanas. 
cally in agreement as to the chief Sadhanas, Shri 
Shankar has enumerated the chief Sadhans thus:- 
They are four - (1) NiTYA-NiTYA VIVEKA, (2) SHA- 


MA-DAMADI SAMPATTI ( Wealth of the supreme 
moral virtues such as - SHAMA, peace of mind 
born of faith in God, DAMA, control of senses etc, 
(3) VAIRAGYA - a spirit of renunciation for plea- 
sures of this world and also of other worlds, (4) 
MUMUKSHUTWA i. e. longing for MOKSHA, or in 
tense desire for Salvation. These are generally 
admitted by Madhwa, though there are differences 
in order and details according to the emphasis on 
final views of their respective philosophies (Ann. 
Vya. III. III. I). Madhwa further adds that 
Ekanta-Bhaktas - those who are one-pointed devo- 
tees of God,who want to remain always as the most 
obedient servants of God - Dasas or Sharanas - 
never aspire for Mukti even. They long for being 
born on earth again so that they may get the opp- 
ortunity of serving God always (Ami. Vya. III. 
III. 1 and Sudha). Of course, such souls are ex- 
ceptional. They are gods born on earth to help 
God in His endless LEELA. 

IS SADHANA NECESSARY ? :- Sadhana natu- 
rally involves effort. The summum boiium is ad- 
mittedly Mokshz. What Moksha is, we shall see 
afterwards. Whatever it is, we shall have to dis- 
cipline ourselves for attaining that state. The 
path to be followed is called * Sadhana.' This is 
simple matter, If this is so very plain as sun-shine, 


why then this strange question c Is Sadhana nece- 
ssary ' ? Yes. The question really appears wonder- 
ful. But, no. It is not so light a question. For, 
even accepting the principles of Vedanta, many ob- 
jections may be raised for showing that no Sadha- 
na is necessary for Moksha. They are :- (1) admi- 
ttedly Jeeves are of the same stuff as God i.e. 
Chldaiiada - essence, though lesser in degree and 
if, as Madhwa asserts that the original stuff of any 
object can never be changed (see his second pro- 
position in Chapt. IV. P. 42), after once God mani- 
fests them, what is the necessity of Sadhana on 
the part of man ? For, man cannot change it now, 
why, even God Himself will not wish to change it. 
So, God must give man Mukti or Salvation, if not 
today, on some day, without our effort. God can- 
not deprive me of my duss. Moksha simply mea- 
ns getting back to my essential nature. Nothing 
more. (Bhag). 

The answer is this :- that original nature is 
completely covered by ignorance, so effort is nece- 
ssary. (2) The objector argues; Why ? Inanimate 
objects get their ' Salvation ' as we may call it 
without any Sadhana. The energy that is endowed 
to them by God will work itself out and as soon 
as it is spent up there in an end of the matter. So 
also we see that the evolution of lower animals is 


secured. They too are not required to perform 
any intelligent Sadhana. Yet, they too must get 
and do get Mukti. In the same way, why should 
we not suppose that man too shall get it ? What 
fault has man committed so that he alone should 
be burdend with these Sadhanas i. c. extra trou- 
bles. No doubt, the objection appears to be valid. 
Even Gods are not required to have recourse 
to these Sadhanas compulsorily, but only optio- 
nally, for, they are already APAROKSHA JNANAES 
(have got the vision of God). So their future 
course is safe. Yes man is thus burdened no 
doubt. He is obliged to struggle hard in order to 
remove the thick cover of ignorance. If he does 
not do so, he will not get mukti. But it is for the 
benefit of man himself. This body of man is a 
special gift of God to man. It is mainly meant 
for Sadhana, so that he may get the extra plea- 
sures from the exercises in this gymanssium hall. 
This gift is not given to others. The pleasure we 
get from these exercises is hundred times more 
than the pleasure that we get from merely posse- 
ssing these powers. That is like the treasure of a 
stingy man. Mere possession is no pleasure. The 
objector may again argue - suppose, I refuse to 
take any exercise and suppose I insist upon not ta- 
king exercises, but be satisfied with the pleasures 


I get without them. What will be the result? Cer- 
tainly, God cannot prevent me from getting my 
Moksha. Is it not ? The reply is this:- Yes, you 
are right. God also promises in Gita that all men 
follow His path and are sure to come to Him one 
day (Gita IV. li). But take care, until then you 
shall have to suffer the miseries, throughout your 
innumerable births and deaths. Are you prepared? 
Even when you are happy throughout the year and 
suffer only for one day, you cry aloud for God's 
Grace ! Death is not the end of life, rather it is 
the beginning of new life. Moreover, even to wish 
or not is not within your choice. Gita says - nature 
will force you and will saddle you with Sadhanas 
(Gita XVIII. 59, 60). So, it is better to be wise 
beforehand. Moreover, you forget one most 
important thing. It is this, the more speedily you 
take up to Sadhana the sooner you get Mukti even 
after this one life. So, why not begin at once and 
save all the future miseries ? Vedanta gives you 
this assurance if you wish to work and worship,you 
are saved at once. Is this not a great consolation 
and an impetus to take up to Sadhana ? It is a great 
boon given to man alone. So, the question of time 
is important; otherwise, you will have to wait up 
to PRALAYA (492 millions of years)! 

WHAT IS MAN ? : Man is a complicated 

machine lorded over by God (Gita XVIII-61 ). 
Of all the bodies, human body is the most perfect 
body. It is not a dead machine. Every part of it, 

every atom of it fully bristles with life and con- 
sciousness. We do not know and we can never 

know what life is, nor can we know what CHIT or 
consciousness is. Body of man is generally com- 
pared to a clock. Certainly, a very useful idea; 
but not a true idea. Parts of the body are parts of 
the clock. The function of the heart is to pump 
up blood, all through the body. Nervous system 
raises a lot of questions, which we can not answer, 
unless we take some hypotheses such as God, Soul 
etc. There is a planned economy throughout the 
system. Who made the plan ? Language is too 

poor to express the relations between the parts and 
the whole. We can express it, unfortunately only 
in terms of fairly complicated Vedant terminolgy. 
Primitive men thought that breathing and life 
were one and the same Really it is not so. We can 
stop breathing yet live for long time. Life or Prana 
is only one function of chief Prana or the Fountain- 
head of energy. Vedanta therefore asserts it is a 
machine constructed, conducted, dominated and 

directed by God and God alone. In fact, in every 
Sadhana we shall have to depend upon God pri- 
marily if we are to succeed in our Sadhana. In 
fact God is full in every step of our Sadhana. 


MADHWA'S OPTIMISM : The quotation given 
in the beginning of this Chapter fairly expresses 
our aim in Sadhana. Does it savour in the least 
of pessimism ? No. It is also the message of Madh- 
wa. It is full of optimism, tempred,of course with 
humility, modesty and faith in God. The highest 
aim of man should be to extol the Glory of His 
Majesty. Madhwa is a full believer in the reality 
of the world and also other worlds. His idea of 
Mukti means fullest life possible for man. His spe- 
cial aim of religious training i.e. Sadhana was to 
completely spiritualise every branch of human 
activity without giving any undue importance to 
any one branch, nor dragging it down too low. A 
sense of proportion is the hall-mark of his system. 
He never looked upon life with contempt, nor did 
he raise it to the skies. He never descarded phy- 
sical strength, mental equipment. His is a me- 
ssage of hope for the good. World has been crea- 
ted to give good men an opportunity for doing 
their best, for bad men to get themselves damned. 
Man is the centre of the world. God is seated in 
our heart. Heart is like a lotus with many petales 
where different mental and spiritual faculties are 
located. Open up those petals, one by one, and 
you get Mukti. Sadhana therefore is not our Birth- 
right but is our birth-duty. The conditions* that 

are involved in getting our Mukti are such that 
the modern ideas of humanism and social service 
are ipso facto fulfilled. 

THF GOAL AND THE PATH : Humanism is a 
subject which is now much in the brains of modern 
youths. If we look to the mentality of the world 
also, this is clear. We are yet living in BUDDHA- 
AWATAR and therefore it is but natural that Bu- 
DDHI or Higher Reason should be. pre-dominant. 
Modern age is moved in its highest levels from 
ideas that were the values of BUDDHISM, namely 
Ahimsa, Satya etc. and other moral virtues. Of 
course, if a nation is to live true high life, it is but 
incumbent upon it to inculcate these virtues. But 
to say that it is the whole of it is to say that spiri- 
tuality there can be none without these. It is, if 
not a flagrant lie, at-least is a half truth. Such 
half truths have done mischief to God and spiri- 
tuality and so they must be carefully guarded agai- 
nst. No sane man is generally deluded by false- 
hoods. Half truths on the other hand attack you 
from behind your back. They harm you without 
your knowledge. Even cinema Natis (barring a 
few bare-bodied exceptions in some countries) dare 
not come on the stage with open naked-ness. So, 
we should learn a lesson from the historical times, 
which followed BUDDHA. BUDDHA'S AVATARA- 

[ 162 J 

HOOD was not unrecognised by Shri. Shankar 
and others. But, they were far-seeing seers and 

so saw the dangers of it to spirituality and God-idea. 
Head long rush into it would turn us up into mere 

Indriya-Ramis and Kama-Kamees (pure materi- 
alists ) of Gita. There are other factois which 

come in the way of our Sadhana and temporarily 
deflect us from our right path. Our PRARABDHA, 

ADRISTA (invisible effects) and our temporary asso- 
ciations etc may impede our way some times. 
Moreover to say that humanism is be all and end 

all is to say that silent spiritual life has no value 
which is not the truth. In short, humanism though 

a virtue is not the true test of spiritualism. We 
who are believers in future life, in faith in God 
need not loose heart from such accidental derange- 
ments. They need not disturb us in our path. We 

have the assurance of Vedanta that we can exhaust 
them by our PUNYA and so need not despair. 

Madhwa advises us to see God in the world 
and through the world. He asks us to accept life 
as it is. with all its imperfections and responsibi- 
lities. Never to shirk your duty and run away 
even to mountains or to caves, with the object of 
never returneng from there, but to be completely 
absorbed simply in meditation on featureless God. 

TAPASCHARYA, no doubt, is necesssary for self- 
development. It is only a Sadhana and not* 'the 


goal. We should not ignore the goal. The path 
presented by Madhwa for that purpose is a royal 
road to the temple of God. Straight walking 

is recommended. No eccentric feats of Hatha 
Yoga, no extra-ordinary SIDDHIS of PATAN.TALA 

YOGA. No queer ways of realisation are tolerated 
such as intoxication for the sake of concentration 
etc. It is not complete Tyaga ( renunciation ) or 
fullest Bhoga (enjoyment). It is Yoga pure and 
simple. Yoga as Gita says is balance of mind 
(Samatwa). There is no bifurcation between 
public life and private life. At the same time, 

public good and social service are not indispensable 
conditions. The stress is not so much on the field 

of life, but on the quality of work. It is both the 
DHARMA-KSHETRA (Field of Dharina) and KURU- 
KSHRTRA (field of action), but Kuru-Kshetra in 
accordance with Dharma. The way of Madhwa 
is just like the climbing up the summits of Hima- 
layas. Keep the peak of the mountains steadily 
before your eyes and climb up with your feet 
firmly on earth. The Highest Peak is God and 
so remember Him at each step and at every mo- 
ment. It is like the walking over a wire. It is like 
dancing with a pot of water over your head-mind 
in thepot; feet firm on earth. So, let us try to dance 

in that way. It is the dance of SHIVA; it is the 

[ 164 ] 


4i OM ! May all my bodly organs such as organs 
of speech, smell, sight, hearing and vigour (BALA) 
and their senses be fully developed; May all Vedas 
and Upanishads be my all in all; May I not give 
up the study of the sacred lore; and may not the 
sacred lore abandon me; let there be no break in 
my studies ; let all the Dharmas that are taught 
in the Upanishds be mine; let them be mine; 

MADHWA & THE WORLD : Madhwa is an op- 
timisti of optimists, like the old Rushees. His 
name itself is ANAND-TEKRTH. He is himself a 
Rushee or seer. If you read the heading 
quotation of this and also other quotations 
you will know how full of optimism the Rushees 
were. The credit of this gift of optimism being 
given again to the world goes to Madhwa. 
They are ungrateful if they dont acknowledge it. 
To Madhwa, this world and all the worlds, the 
whole universe is but the outer-form (BAHISHTA- 
ROOPA) of God and therefore as sacred as God* 
So Madhwa regards the world with great respect 
and never with contempt. It is God's LfcELA- 


BHUMI. This body of man is Deva-Sadana - tem- 
ple of God ( CHH. VIII. II Bhashya ). It is the 
Ratha (Car) in which God and Soul are seated. 
The car-driving ceremoney in temples symbolises 
this fact.' God is said to pervade the whole body 
and not only the heart ( CHH. Ill XII.7 ). The 
same idea is conveyed in ISH. UP. 6. 7. when it 
asserts that we must see all being in ATMAN, 
because when every-thing exists in the SELF, the 
heart must also exist there-in. So, Madhwa 
gives special importance to human body and 

The first point to remember is that world is like 
a continuously flowing sea, in which we are thrown 
by God to obtain our Salvation, by our own effor- 
ts. It is * SAM-SARA ' or c JAGAT ' which both mean 
continous flow. No body knows its beginning and 
its end. We know only the present. It is compa- 
red to a big tree (ASWATHA-VRIKSHA). But its 
roots are upwards some where above in ViSHNU 
(Gita XV-1). It is a tree turned downwards. 
About the future, we know this much only that it 
will one day come to an end in the coming PRALA- 
YA which comes after 492 miilions of years. This 
world is like the river Ganges, We do not know 
whence Ganges has come to the earth. We know 


that after continuously flowing for hundreds of 
mile?, it will pour itself into sea. When we have 
been let into this current, we have been bound 
up with certain bonds, which also are eternal. 
These are the bonds of actions, of time, of our 
own inherent nature, of our JADA-PRAKRITJ. As 
I said before, they are not really bonds but our 
assistants in learning the art of swimming through 
this flow. We need not wait for the loosening of 
th'ese bonds up till PRALAYA. The pecularity of 
these bonds is that, by our own efforts, we can 
learn the art of swimming very soon and throw 
them aside, even after this one life. All depends 
upon our own efforts and energy. Here lies the 
importance of SADHANA, 

says that there are in all ten eternals i. e. NITYA 
things. We do not know and we cannot know the 
sources of these, because we cannot trace them to 
their origin in time. They are immemorial. These 
are - (1) GOD; (2) RAMA i. e. God's manifest- 
ation of WILL; (3) JEEVAS or SOULS; (4) KALA i.e. 
TIME; (5) PRAKRlTl i. e. subtle matter with SAT- 
WA, RAJA and TAMA in it; (6) Good or bad K AR- 
MAS of JEEVAS which also cannot be traced to 
their sources; for, JEEVAS must be doing some 
sort of actions, before they are born in this,world. 


But we do not know its nature; (7) PRANA - which 
is a peculiar force of AHANKAR -/- ness or Egoism; 

(8) Senses (Organs of sense in their subtle state); 

(9) SAMSKARAS /'. e. residual potencies /. e. impre- 
ssions left on our mind; (10) VEDAS (BRAH. I- 
BHASHYA). Of these, four are attached to our 
body - They are (1) PRKRIT1, (2) KALA,(3) KARMA 
and (4) SANSKARA. When these are attached to 
our body, we turn our attention towards the world 
and begin to take pleasure in the worldly affairs 
and forget God. But when we learn by experien- 
ce then we turn our torch of inner Soul again to- 
wards God. We have been endowed with some 
freedom just enough to know, that freedom given 
is a myth and that there is a higher sort of free- 
dom i. e. MOKSHA. For, souls are essentially of 
the same nature as God, for JEEVAS are the parti- 
al reflections of God. But the original nature is 
hidden by ignorance and it is to teach the JEEVAS 
that they too have got essential knowledge and 
bliss that God has created this real world. Man 
is, therefore, architecture of his fortune in this 

WHAT IS SADHANA ? In the first part of 
this book, I treated about the BRAHMA-JNANA. 
It is the science of VEDANTA. Sadhana is an Art. 
Science is co-ordinated, arranged andsystimatised. 


knowledge. Art of SadJian is the use of employ- 
ment of means to answer those Vedantic principles 
of knowledge; it is the right employment of means 
for the accomplishment of a particular end. 
Here the end is MOKSHA. So, Sadhan means a 
system of rules and observances to facilitate the 
performances of actions leading to the goal. The 
whole essence of this art is summed up by MADH- 
WA thus:- The greatest DHARMA (duty) enjoined 
upon man consists in the performance of actions 
proper to each mart, with full devotion to God, 
aiways bearing in mind, that whatever action you 
perform is but Worship of God and nothing else 
(Gita-Ta-Intro). So, it consists mainly in 
three things :- (1) KNOWLEDGE OF GOD; (2) FAI- 
TH IN GOD; and (3) PROPER ACTIONS, in accor- 
dance with them. The combination of JNANA- 
quired. Here lies the great difference between 
EAST and WEST. In the west, a philosopher need 
not be a man of good morals and good conduct.. 
Yet, he cm be a great philosopher. It is not so 
ho re. We do not regard such a man with any 
respect, hower great he may be if he is not aS\ - 
dhaka. So, there is a great difference in the 
initial outlock itself. 

SADHAN & SELF-HELP :- In this field, self-help 
[ 169 ] 

is the rule. GURU may advise, may guide, but 
it is you who are to act] Sadhan is severely indivi 
dualistic. It is not collective or universal. The 
promise of some to redeem the whole world at 
once by bringing heaven on earth is a chimera. 
Salvation means individual Salvation. Sadhan mea- 
ns individual effort. The world consists of nume- 
rous JEEVAS. Every JEEVA has its own part to play. 
Other JEEVAS may cooperate. Aparoksha-jnanees 
only are Gurus. Others are masters of primary or 
secondary schools or College Professors. Equality 
is not the real fact, at best it is similarity. In-equa- 
lity is the true fact. Everywhere you see innu- 
merable in-equalities. One man is quite different 
in all his limbs, organs, features etc. from another 
man. Where is the perfect equality ? The first 
impression is of identity or equality. When you 
look*at an army of western soldiers, you cannot di- 
stinguish between Germans, Britishers etc. But 
on close attention, you learn to know the numerous 
differences amongst them. Apparent equality is a 
gross idea. Science consists in knowing the nume- 
rous differences between gross and fine. After- 
wards, you co-ordinate and then make a whole of 
it. Then your knowledge becomes POORNA. The 
tendency of sceinces at first was to separate. Now 
the tendency is to unite. First, analyse and then 


synthisise. Gita's SAMA-DARSHANA is not SAMA- 
ROOPATWA; but, SAMA-BHAVATWA. So, equality 
is not the law but equanimity is the law. 

GENERAL REMARKS :- As I have said, there is 
a general agreement about SADHAN among our tea- 
chers. So, I shall note specifically wherever MA- 
DHWA differs from others in details. We are to 
take 5 things into consideration about any action. 
They are :-(!) ADHlSTHAN /:. e. our body; (2) KAR- 
TA (3) KARANAS /, e. instruments such as our or- 
gans of sense etc. and also other instruments, i. e. 
UPA-KARANAS(4)The activities performed by these 
organs (5) And DAIVA i. c. ADRISHTA invisible in- 
fluences or we may take by DAIVA God (Gita 18. 
14). In short, the above five again can be grouped 
into three - (1) JNANA - knowledge; (2) JNEYA - the 
known and (3) the KNOWER (Gita 18-15). 

WHO IS SADHAKA ? SADHAKA is one who is 
serious about his salvation. No one can give it as 
a boon. SADHAKA is different from a Pandit. Our 
* DASA ' cult of Karnatak which after some centu- 
ries spread itself into Maharasthra, where it is 
known as ' SANTA-PANTHA ' was of such kind. Those 
who belonged or belong to this cult care more for 
actual living of life according to JNANA, Their 
emphasis is on conduct rather than on learning. 
The so-called ' VYASA' cult (Study of VyasaVworks) 


in ancient times had combined in itself both the 
features. Now DASA cult is slowly dis-appcaring 
and VYASA cult which is still surviving to some ex- 
tent, does not give due importance to conduct. 
Modern youths are mere-critics, with no definite 
programme of religious work to substitute. In 
short, in my opinion, old is lifeless and new is 

other course of education, a Sadhaka also requires 
preliminary training and must pass the entrance 
examination. He must acquire the ordinary vir- 
tues - moral, social and universal such as SHAMA, 
DAMA, TlTlKSHA. Out of the requirements pre- 
are quite necessary an.d sufficient. PRANAYAMA to 
some extent for ATMA-SAMYAMA. (The sixth 
Adhyaya of Gita treats about thi? Atma-Samyama 
Yoga). Long term PRANYAMAS which are now 
practised are not only not necessary, but are in- 
jurious. Long term fasts also are not required. 
MADHWAS have only one fasting day in a fortnight 
and that is strict; no half fasting. Every other 
joyful occassion such as RAMA-NAVAMl t SHIVA- 
RATRA etc. are to us holidays and not fasting days. 
HATHA YOGA and other such Yogns are condem- 
ned by MADHWA. Many of the SHIDDHIS of 

[ 172 ] 

PATANJALA YOGA are expressly prohibitted for a 
SADHAKA of MOKSHA ( Mad-Si-Sara ). Higher 
or MUKHYA PRANA is to be developed by the me- 
thods prescribed in UPANISHDS (Brah. Chh. Up,)- 
The most important requisite for a student is 
that of study (see the quotation ). SHRAVANA 
includes all indirect knowledge from primary to 
the highest i. e. of VEDAS. Next comes MANANA 
i. t\ contemplation. The injunction of Veda-Vyasa 
is that these must continue until you get God vi- 
sion and even afterwards (Brah. Soo.) ASANAS 
are un-necessary. Madhwa says any easy Asana 
which gives you straight posture for concentration 
is sufficient. The chief thing is that your mind 
must be in a pleasing condition (Bra. Soo. IV Bha) 
So no teasing or torching of limbs and senses. 
Gita condemns such KARSHNA ( Gita ). Shrcwana 
and Manana are open to all without restriction 
of caste creed or colour. Only two conditions are 
laid upon a student - (1) Sham.i and other wealth 
of Sadkana; (2) ADHYAYANA. 

DHWA has sketched out the map of the whole path 
leading to the temple of God. It is a straight Rail- 
way line with inter-mediate small and big stations, 
reversing station?, central stations leading to the 
Grand Terminus - The temple of God, A Sdcthaka 


can take a ticket at any station and catch any 
train - Janata or Mail, slowly or quickly. It all 
depends upon so many other factors such as his 
past Karma present Pur.ya etc. There are Air- 
ways and air-stations for higher class of Sadhakas. 
All these whether small or big lines will help you 
in strengthening not only your faculties but also 
your MUKHVA-PRANA Powers,' for, there is the Mu- 
khya-Prana energy or electricity flowing through 
all our faculties. In Madhwa School there are 
various books like HARI-KATHA-MRITA-SARA a 
Kannada work which gives fullest description possi- 
ble about many details of Sndhana. That book is 
one of the greatest works. I must confess that I 
have yet to know many of its intricate points. But 
any casual reader will know that it is one of the 
most wonderful book which deserves translation in 
all languages. 

(1-1-7), we have the clearest expression of how 
our Sadhanas become most powerful and energetic. 
Therein it is stated that knowledge and ignorance 
are quite opposed to each other. The man should 
worship God, with full knowledge, that is possible 
to him. Knowledge is endless, hence study also is 
endless. The more you study, the more you will 
know about God. Definite course of study from 


primary to D.Lt. such as SHRAVANA, MANAMA, 
NIDI-DHYASA etc. are prescribed and described 
in our works. MOWNA is recommended but Mowna. 
is not mere silence or void, but it is full. It is posi. 
tive. Mow. ia is Manana i. e. silent thinking^ 
DHYANA includes concentration, meditation and 
worship. It is UPASANA, Concentration excludes 
all other objects and fixes your attention on one 
point. DHYANA or meditation includes all that is 
within the object of our worship; while worship 
welcomes all the Gunas that are in that object i. e. 
it draws the essence of all the Gunas ( UFA SAM- 
HARA); When you come to know all, world is inclu- 
ded in God. Worship inspires us with admiration 
and reverence. It illumines all our faculties; for 
all these, the chief torch is the torch of BHAKTI. 

VALUE OF BHAKTI :- MUKTI can be attained 
by BHAKTI only. What is BHAKTI ? It is the firm 
and un-shaking love for God, It must be backed 
up by full knowledge of God; otherwise, it would 
be only a. blind belief. The love must be constant. 
There must be continuous flow of love; you must 
love God, more than your wife, children or wealth. 
Not that you should forsake them, but that you 
must love them for the sake of God only (Brah. 
Up.)- Bk<\kti must be fully developed according 
to your capacity. The sign that Bhakti is fully 


developed in you is when there is in you direct visi- 
on of God. That only is perfect Bhakti. DHYANA or 
Meditation is not a sufficient sign, The performa- 
nces of routine ceremonies such as SANDHYA-VAN- 
DAN or of occassional rites, such as - SHRADHA etc 
or visiting of holy KSHETRAS or holy shrines, YAJNA 
or DANA O r TAPA O r JAPA, O r VRITAS study of VEDAS 
NAMA-SMARANA, o r TULASI PooJA and other acts of 
religious devotion, all these have only one object, 
that of generating love of God in your heart. When 
our women worship TULASI or pour milk over the 
carved figure of a snake, they are not ignorant of 
the fact that they worship God in them. No one 
need teach them this fact. All acts become fruit- 
less if there real love for God. Those Shas- 
tras that do not teach Bhakti are paths that lead 
you astray. They produce wrong notions. It is 
not possible for one to recognise fully the Glory of 
God, unless one knows the greatness of the world 
which is His own outward manifestation. Even 
merely by conquering mind and other internal 
organs of sense or subduing the external organs, 
by kindness to all beings, by speaking truth, by 
acquiring knowledge by meditation, a man cannot 
attain Mukti-if they be performed without Bhakti 
(Brah/Up. 'I. V, 11 - Bha. Padma-Pu) BHAKTI 
means BHAYA. 

[ 176] 

HAND-HEAD-HEART :- Human body is the per- 
fectest body that is created by BRAHMA. It is the 
Sadhan-Sharoera. Even Gods shall have to come 
down to earth for the sake of Sadahnas. Heaven 
worlds are mainly meant for BHOGA. All the phy- 
sical actions are summed up in KARMA- YOGA; all 
the mental actions, in JNANA-YOGA and all actions 
of love in BHAKTI-YOGA. Hand represents KARMA; 
Head represents mind and heart represents- love. 
But there are grades and degrees of importance in 
these. You cannot place all physical actions on the 
same level with mental and mental with spiritual. 
Proportionate importance to every subject is the 
main principle of MADHWA philosophy. Hand is 
inferior to head and head is inferior to heart. So, 
we must bear in mind their comparative values. 
Secondly we must remember the underlying prin- 
ciple. The lower faculty is always controlled by 
the higher. You cannot, therefore, say that phy- 
sical actions devoted to God are equal to mental 
and so on. Now, we see there is a tendency to 
bring them to one level. No doubt, all are wel- 
come to God. But Karma is welcome because it 
gives Knowledge; knowledge because it produces 
in us love or Bliakti. All occupations are not equal. 
Physical occupations are decidedly on a lower le- 
vel. Those which irivolve mental faculties K are 


superior. So also in education. Education through 
hand is inferior. There are levels in education 
also. Moreover, many forget that it is not mere 
occupation that gives it its value. It is the spirit 
with which you do : it and more than. that it is the 
devotion with which you do it. If you turn CHAU- 
KA thousand times a day it does not become YAJ- 
NA or worship, unless you have that worship of 
God in your heart, and not worship of wealth. 
Not merely because you take up to plough can you 
become a YOGI ? BHOO-DANA becomes YAJNA if 
you do so in right spirit. Even with the religious 
observances, it is the same thing. Mere mechani- 
cal repetition of Rama-Nama is not Japa. So, 
what is essential in all these is BHAKTI of God. That 
spirit of devotion to God must be inculcated through 
out such observances. 

to take up to SadJian must first study to the best of 
his ability all the Vedas and have correct know- 
ledge about God. He must be a JlJNASU i. e. he 
must have an inquisitive mind and therefore by rai- 
sing all sorts of objections himself, get them solved 
so that, his faith in God may become firm and 
then if he finds a proper Guru, well and good. He 
will advise you properly for which Sadhan you 
are fit by nature and- study. But in these days 


it is very difficult to get such Guru?, who are really 
APAROKSHA-JNANEES. My community is pitifully 
lacking in APAROKSHA-JNAN^ES, for, there are 
very very few who have taken up to long UPASA- 
NAS. Mere parrot-like or gramophone repetition 
either of sentences or substances is of no use. 
Hundreds of such ' Mangals ' (/'. c. completions of 
SUDHA etc)will give no benefit either to the hearers 
or to the speakers. A real P<mdit or Guru is he 
who is capable of answering all the doubts raided 
by a disciple. MADHWA was conscious of this fact 
and so has advised us what we should do (Ann. 
Vya. III. III. 1) in case we do not get any Guru. 
Then, he should himself go through the Shasiras 
as far as possible and get his doubts cleared. In any 
case, we should not give up our studies. But one 
warning MADHWA gives us here when we read for 
ourselves :- We should always remember the cent- 
ral thought of MADHWA philosophy which I have 
already given (Chan. IV). After this preliminary 
preparations, he must sit for Sadhan. The first 
definite step is that of VAIRAGYA (spirit of renun- 
ciation). For, if you have a keen hankering only 
about things of the world, you cannot turn your 
mind to God, You need not become a BAIRAGEE 
or SANAYSI. Vdiragya is the spirit of indifference 
to worldly things for their own sake. You shoulld 

C 179 ] 

not be engrossed in them. ' Fight without fever ' 
(Gita)-without feverish anxicety is Gita's injun- 
ction. A discrimination between eternal and non 
eternal things gives you this power of renunciation. 
The second step is that of firm devotion. Bhakti 
which you have, before Vairagya is not firm Bha- 
kti. Blidkli before renunciation is blind belief. 
Bhakti includes JNANA /. e, KNOWLEDGE about 
God. The third step is UPASANA which means 
DHYANA or deep meditation. It is this third step 
that gives you direct vision of God i. e. SAKSHATKA- 
RA. This UPASANA stage is a very, very long one. 
This is the last stage. SAKSHATKARA is the .direct 
fruit of this stage. There ends your SASHRAMA 
SADHAN i. e. SADHANAS in which you are to struggle 
hard. Afterwards Karma, Jnana and Bhakti all these 
become your natural and essential habits i. e. 
Sahaja-Sadhanas (Ann. Vya.. Ill-Ill). 

SADHANAS & CUSTOMS :- Customs, habits and 
religious observances have a great part to play. 
If we just consider deeply we shall see that all our 
observances such as daily Sandhya-Vandana, (pu- 
blic prayer is a poor substitute) 5 daily Yajnas, 
bur Pooja details (worship should be in secret 
Chh. Up. I-I) and occassional duties such as Shra- 
dha, numerous other practices have been based 
not only upon religious principles but have at their 


basis - AYURVEDA, YOGA and other Shastras. 
There are mainly triple objects in each of such 
customs - (1) Physical, (2) mental and (3) spiritual 
Take for instance, bathing. It has three objects- 
physical purity, mental purity and spiritual purity. 
The Mantras to be repeated at the time, will con- 
vince you of it. When in large gatherings, it is 
impossible to accomodate bathing in a sacred tank 
or river, we find that physical purity is un-avoi- 
dably sacrificed for the sake of mental purity. 
Those who are not properly imbubed with the 
basic principles of our culture do not understand 
this. The same is the case with POOJA. Bathing 
of Shaligram etc. is for our spiritual purity. We 
give great attention to the custom of wearing sac- 
red clothes and we do not even touch any one 
when we worship. Why ? Even the remembrance 
of a bad person or even language (YAVANA-BHA- 
SHYA) disturbs our concentration and so we prohi- 
bit it. Such and other precautions about un-tou- 
chability have in them principles which must be 
preserved when making new adjustments. Now, 
they have lost the ancient spirit. Such restrictions 
are chiefly necessary for middle class men. The 
classes that do not care for spiritual purity have 
no such restrictions. So al^>, those of the highest 
class who can intelligently guide themselves* are 


also comparatively free from these restriction?. 
These restrictions around ourselves are like hedges 
to a field to protect the corn from cows and other 
animals. We can afford to bzKarma-ljhnslas. i.e. 
lacking in our action-, hut we should not be JNANA- 
BHRISHTAS. For, no one can ever perform all his 
actions quite faultlessly. Every one is prone to 
commit mistakes. But that is no reason to cut at 
the root of the principle. There is no denying the 
obvious fact that mechanical repetition has now 
become habitual. Old customs have become pet- 
rified, or have become lifeless police parades or 
routines; yet parades also are necessary for disci- 
pline. It is necessary that there should be written 
brochures explaining the customs and their prin- 
ciples mere texts are not sufficient. The modern 
youths who are more intelligent cannot be expected 
to observe them without explanation. So books on 
Sandhya-Vandana, various Samskaras, should be 
written as far as possible explaining them from the 
points of hygeine, Ayurveda and mental sciences. 
For, even in these degraded days, they have 
powerful hold on the minds of the people- Fullest 
scope is given in our ShustrsiS for adjustments of 
time, place and cirumstances. Bathing, Bhajana, 
Yajana (worship), Stfriy; Manana (digesting) Dh- 
yana are common to all and so they are the true 


ways of reform & not merely a spirit of revolt. 
Mere change of dress & name will be of no help 
to a Sadhak. 

The secret of our customs is to make all our 
senses keener and keener. We do not want to 
make them blunt, but sharp and sensitive, so much 
so that,] ike cats and dogs we smell bad smell from 
a long distance. Our eyes cannot tolerate even to 
look at bad flowers. God wants good flowers, fresh 
flowers. That is the secrot of all our ACHARAS. 



VEDANT & OTHER SCIENCES : Vedant is spe- 
cially MOKSHA - SHASTRA and I have so far treated 
it in that light. It has not neglected other scien- 
ces, for, our Seers held that the knowledge of 
PARA-BRAHMA includes all other knowledge and 
that to know God is to know All. No doubt, it is 
not within the scope of this book nor am I an 'ex- 
pert in those sciences.' So, all that I want to do 
is to indicate the lines on which our ancients tried 
to bring in, the fulfilment of other sciences; at v the 

[ 183 ] 

same time, I shall show how the further growth of 
those sciences suffered owing to the neglect of our 
people and how that gap is now being filled up, 
by modern scientists. 

MOKSHA means in itself fullest life; So, it must 
ipso facto include the fullest benefit to be derived 
from all other sciences. It is for this reason that 
we find in most of the prayers of VEDAS and UPA- 
NISHADAS, prayers for full physical health, full in- 
tellectual knowledge and full spiritual bliss. VE- 
DANTEES have, for this purpose, developed many 
VEDANGAS, which treat other sciences such as SHI- 
KSHA (science of proper articulation\ CHHANDAS 
grammer, NIRUKTA (etymology), Astronomy and 
KALP (ritual); these were regarded as auxiliaries. 
Such was their scrupulousness in guarding the 
sacredness of VEDAS ! Other secular sciences are 
referred to in Upanishads. In CHH. UP. (VI I -I), 
NARADA mentions other sciences they are:- 

(1) ITIHASA, (2) SHRADHA - Science; (3) RA- 
SHi - Mathematics and Algebra; (4) Science of 
DEVATAS i.e. their gradation;(5) Science of finding 
hidden treasures; (BHOOGATA-DRAVYA) (6) YEKA- 
YAN-supplementary science of ROOT-VEDA which 
was only one and which was afterwards divided 
into 24 branches; (7) DEVA-VlDYA i. e. Science 
known only to Gods(8) BRAHMA-VIDYA UPANISHADS 


(9) BHOOTA-VlDYA -^10) KSHATRA-VlDYA i. . Po- 
litics (11) NAKSHATRA-VlDYA - Astronomy (12) 
VlDYA - science of officials of DEVAS. In many 
other works, there is mention of many Sliastras 
such as Dkarma Shastra Artha-Shastra Kama- 
Shastra etc. They knew 64 KALAS. In short, there 
were works dealing with all PURUSHARTHAS. There 
was strict order that the thread of producing chil- 
dren should never be cut off (CHH, irpj There was 
the special science of Life after death etc. Science 
of Eugenics is taught in BRAH. UP. etc (VIII. 
Chh. Up.) in the plainest language possible. Sex- 
tual science was not kept as a secret. But, of course 
its object was pure and noble, not merely emotio- 
nal. Its object was to control passion and preserve 
Brahma -chary a. Ayurveda was an important 
science. In short, no branch was neglected; As to 
the physical sciences, such as Chemistry, Physics, 
we find no special mention. To me, it appears 
that this was due to the fact that they regarded 
in-animate objects with indifference, if not, with 
contempt. Perhaps, the time was not then ripe 
for the growth of these sciences. Even in the 
west, it is comparatively very recent. But, hu- 
man body was not neglected; for, for MOKSHA, a 
human being required a human body. Modern 

[ 185 ] 

sciences have supplemented this great want of 
VEDANTA and now it is the duty of VEDANTISTS to 
prove their theories as against Scientists and esta- 
blish their claim. 

SCIENCE OF VEDANT :- Science of Vedanta is 
a very comprehensive scince. It treats of the 
creation or formation of the whole* universe-Cos- 
mology as a whole and gives in detail the chief 
steps of creation from the birth of BRAHMA up to 
the creation of all inanimate objects. VEDANTINS 
have dug the earth and found out the roots of this 
world - tree called 'ASWATHA' in Gita. They 
found that the roots of the world which they right- 
ly called JAGAT (moving) were upwards in VISHNU. 
In fact, it was a tree turned downwards- roots up- 
wards, branches and flowers and fruits downwards. 
The source was called GOD. Modern science asserts 
that the source is in matter. VEDANTINS made 
further discoveries about thejir science and asser- 
ted that, that first principle of the creation of the 
world namely God pervades the whole creation 
through and through. BRAH. UP.(I-II) says from 
this God VAYU was born. He is the essence of all 
energies of the world. This chief VAYU divided 
himself into three - ' ADITYA ' (The Sun), ' VAYU ' 
(Air) and c AGNI ' (Fire). I need not enter into- 
details. God was always associated with his wife 


i. e. JADA-PRAKRITI in the work of creation of the 
world. Originally, this MoOL-PRAKRiTl was un- 
differentiated (AVYAKRITA). This Prakriti is the 
causal form of the world. Both JEEVAS and JADAS 
are born from this CHIT and ACHIT-PRAKRITI. 
After creating them, God entered into them 
through and through (BRAH. UP. I-V-1) upto the 
very end of their nails - just as a razor fits into its 
case or a sword enteres into a scabbard or as 
PRANA pervades all the living bodies. In this way. 
our evolution proceeds. The evolution of VEDAN- 
TA is from subtlest to the grossest, while that of 
the scientists is quite the reverse of it - call it 
evolution or involution. But Vedanta is emphatic 
when it declares that by BRAHMA-VIDYA men be- 
come all and attain fullness and perfection accor- 
ding to t.heir capacities- Their promise is that by 
BRAHMA-ViDYA, direct perception of God as oppo- 
sed to mere belief in God, man obtains every thing 
(BRAH. Up. I-V-3). In this way, Science of Ve- 
dant has co-ordinated, arranged and systematised 
all sorts of knowledge, pertaining to the world. It 
does not make water-tight compartments, such as 
science of matter,science of mind, science of spirit 
etc; but it treats them all as one science and seeks 
its source in God. Hence, we find that in Vedant 
books the treatment of subjects begin with G6d 


and then descends to Gods, than to man. Wixnt 
faces existence us a whole God is the centre of 
this science; no conclusion is complete without 
being traced to God ultimately. We must know- 
MADHWA asserts two things about God. His trans- 
cendantality and his eminence in the world, 
There are two ways of knowing this. (1 ) We may 
point out to all the objects of the world and say 
God is not this, God is not that - NETI NETl. This 
is the negative method and (2) we must know God 
thus, in this way (Bu. UP.) that God is full in all 
physical, mental and spiritual objects. The con- 
ception of God's fullness in the flux of this world 
must be first fully comprehended It is the pivot 
of all our philosophy, physics and meta-physics. 
MADHWA does not regard the world as phenome- 
nal in the sense in which many others understand it 
for scientists where they can exercise their brains 
to their fullest extent. The field of modern science 
is matter. Vcdant too has not denied matter alto- 
gether. Vedanta deals with four things:-( 1) Goo; 
(2) Goo-SoyLS (3) Other JEEVAS; and (4) PRAKRI- 
TI. JADA-PRAKRITI is pure matter. Let us leave 
aside, the first three as in visible, and not fully know- 
able. But certainly MOOL-PRAKRITI or Root- 
matter is nothing but matter. It is knowable. From 


root-matter downwards every thing in th e univer- 
se is nothing but matter, so MADHWA has absolute- 
ly no objection to consider about matter which is 
also the actual field of scientists. MADHWA is 
therefore a materialist in this sense. Vedantins 
admit - why, they assert that the whole universe 
can be reduced at-last to MOOL-PRAKRITI etc. and 
so, they welcome modern scientists in their attem- 
pt to solve the riddles of the world on that basis^ 
But their challenge to scientists is that they can 
never be able to demonstrate their pet doctrines 
without the help of the other three, namely, God, 
Gods and other souls. Scientists too admit that 
the finer the matter, more delicate instruments 
will be required to discern its components. So, do 
evolve such instruments and reduce the world to 
its root. We welcome it gladly. But inspite of 
all their finest instruments and their experiments, 
they will never be able to explain the world-pro- 
blems satisfactorily; In the meanwhile, their fai- 
lures will be our success. The instruments of Ve- 
dantins are mainly mental and spiritual; with those 
the Vedantins have fully worked out their sciences 
and have also shown that one JEEVA like yourself 
& myself called CHATURMUKHA-BRAHMA (for, he 
also is a JEEVA) has created this world. OH ! scien- 
tists^ you too are JEEVAS like Chatitrmukha.'* His 


soul is not bigger in size than yours. So, if you 
want, you can construct the whole universe, if you 
have the power. Our JEEVA - Chaturmukha con- 
fessed, at the beginning of creation that he could 

not create the world without the help of God and 
sought for his help by prayer. But you live in an 

age of sceptiasm and general weakning of religious 

standards which have made you atheists or at best 
agnostics. One JEEVA called Chaturmukha or MU- 

KHYA-PRANA as he is called in his executive capa- 
city created the world and VEDANTlNS actually 
worship HIM, as creator. We honour him as our 
Great-Grand-father. So, they will be glad if 
you yourself become BRAHMA or MUKHYA-PRANA 

and reconstruct the universe and then they will 
worship you also. 

an while, let me state a few principles on which 
they proceed. MADHWA has laid down these three 
propositions(Anu.Vya.I.IV.6)(l) Matter is the out- 
er form of God. It is pure JADA i. e. in-animate. 
There is a real difference between JADA or ACHE- 
TAN A and CHETANA - animate. An Achetana can 
never become Chetana. (2) Secondly on the other 
hand, Chetana also can never be reduced to 

Achetana. Hence soul is different from matter. 
(3) Thirdly, there is one other extra-ordinary 
principle namely God who is neither CHETANA nor 


ACHETANA and is above both. On these three 
principles, the whole edifice of MADHWA PHILOSO- 
PHY is built. Scientists are free to prove the fal- 
sity of any of these principles. MADHWA also has 
laid down other auxiliary principles such as grada- 
tion ot JEEVAS, difference between the above three 
etc. Matter in its subtlest state was the first thing 
that was produced by God. It is called APA (BR- 
AH. I-II) APA is not gross water but matter in its 
subtlest state:it was like the nebulae of Astronomy. 
It is the priemeval cause of the world. Second 
step in the creation is that of VAYU or PRANA - the 
essence of all sorts of powers and energies in this 
world. It is the next finest matter. Another spe- 
ciality of our Vedanta as I said is:- The subtlest is 
in power the fullest. The subtler is the store-house 
of more virtues than the grosser. MUKHYA-PRANA 
possesses all the qualities such as wisdom, power, 
will, intelligence in more degrees than the grosser. 
Here therefore, the readers should not be misled 
by mere common meanings. Prana really means 
power or energy of intelligence, energy of will, 
energy of mind, etc. In short, all energies or 
SHAKTIS are represented by the word PRANA. So, 
corresponding to this Vedanta had got the Science 
of Prana and Art of Prana called PRANA-ViDYA or 
VAYU-ViDYA (CHH. Up.I. II. 11.22). I have already 


described how from MOOL-PRAKRm other princi- 
MANA, and others and organs of sense were evol- 
ved and four kinds of bodies, sheaths of body.(Chh 
VIII) This in short is the line on which VEDANTA 
has proceeded. 

one full and complete science which comprises 
many branches such as (1) BRAHMA-JNANA vision 
of God. It is full knowledge of God which brings 
you directly to the Gate of God's grand temple, 
from which you can see, of course, with your inner 
eyes the figure of God directly. It is called 
often spoken of in VEDANTA is not ordinary know- 
ledge. It is the actual presence of God felt in our 
heart of hearts seen with our eye of eyes - mental 
eye. We must note this distinction between 
the knowledge of objects in the world and the 
knowledge of God; so also, the distinction between 
indirect knowledge PAROKSHA JNANA which is 
only bookish knowledge and APAROKSHA which is 
actual experience i. e. ( ANUBHAVA. ' In short, 
BRAHMA JNANA is ' Science of God/ (2) BRAH- 
MA VIDYA which is the art of obtaining BRAHMA 
by Sadhan. In Upanishads, often many Vidyas are 
spoken of such as PARA-BRAHMA VlDYA, 

[ 192 ] 

VIDYA etc. VIDYA means method of meditation 
or worship. As you worship so you become,-is the 
general rule. According to the capacity of one's 
enjoyment, the objects of enjoyment are different. 
One may wish for a thing, but mere wish is not 
sufficient. It must be backed up by effort and 
knowledge. Meditation without Knowledge is not 
real meditation. IN MADHWA philosophy there is 
no room for blind worship. So, we must worship 
with knowledge, faith and according to our capaci- 
ty and to the utmost of our capacity and then 
only,such worship becomes fruitful (CHH. UP. 1-1-7) 
VIDYA is full knowledge and not half knowledge. 
Those devotees who pose themselves as Sadhakas 
but do not at all care to acquire the full knowledge 
to be had from the VEDA, UPANISHADS and various 
explanatary, notes upon them are simply misled. 
Half knowledge is a dangerous thing. We may 
worship God, under any name butiwe must reme- 
mber that the inferior Gods are only inferior Gods. 
The method of getting any desire fulfilled is laid 
down thus:- (1) Intensity of that desire; (2) Pra- 
yer of that particular deity which has got jurisdi- 
ction over that desire. (3) But we must remember 
that lower deity is but an agent of God and (4) 
that we must have faith that it is God alone who 


is the bestower of that desire. (CH. 1-3-12), and 
not the lower God or Gods. Besides those Vid- 
yas which are mentioned in the first four Adhyayas 
are many others mentioned which are subsidiary 

ments with truths are allowed in the field of Sa- 
dhan. From the beginning to the end, Sadhan is a 
field of personal experience, and the regular stages 
have been marked out by our Seers for that pur- 
pose. So, no amount of Panditya in the field of 
physical sciences will make us real Sadhakas. 
Sadhan depends upon the use you make of the 
knowledge you get in any field. Vedantins welcome 
any extension of knowledge in any field. There 
are three greatest wonders in this universe as Gita 
(II Chap) says. They are :- God; (2) Soul; (3) 
World. So the extension of knowledge about the 
world derived from the experiments of scientists 
will certainly add to the knowledge of the universe 
and thus aid the Sadhan of men, But what Ve- 
dantins protest is that there are certain handicaps 
jn the very methods of scientists,which debar their 
conclusions from being taken in to in Sadhana; for 
instance a suregon may disect or bisect a body and 
add to the science of anatomy and surgery etc. but 

-[ 194 ] 

the intitial mistake is as soon as you take any livi- 
ng cell out of the body, it dies. Another mistake 
of scientists is that scientists make experiments on 
frogs, dogs, mice and try to draw conclusions about 
the body or mind of man. This is quite wrong. 
For, the human body though it is also a machine 
is absolutely different from the bodies of other li- 
ving beings. Their structures differ widely. So, 
no amount of experiments of scientists will help us 
in Sadhan. Thirdly, the experiments that are con- 
ducted regularly in some American Universities 
about the reach of mind, take abnormal men for 
there experiments and draw conclusions about nor- 
mal man. That is a wrong method. For,no amount 
of knowledge derived from such sources will be of 
use for a Sadhaka. On the other hand, our Seers 
also seem to have made mental experiments not 
only about normal man, but about supernormal 
men. For, in our Vedanta and other books, we 
find that there is mention of extra-ordinary births 
such as that of DRONA, CRAPA, DRUPAD and others 
who were born in extra-ordinary way and so it is 
not impossible to have births without sex-combi- 
nation. But that is in super-normal cases. That 
is the difference between scientists and Vedantists. 
To say that because we find that in certain cases 
in lower beings there is an arrangement in the .very 

[ 195 ] 

body of the animal where there are segments of 
both male and female and to apply that conclusion 
to man and say that for man also sex is unnecssary 
is a wrong way of procedure. All that I want to 
drive at is that the experiments of scientists will 
not help you much in your Sadhan. For one who 
is after Sadhan, experience is the true method. 
Expand your phys : cal mental and spiritual know- 
ledge in accordance with those Sadhanas. One can 
go not only to Mangal-Loka but to many Lokas 
without the help of any material instruments. As 
a matter of fact Vedantins assert , that those who 
have got God-vision do go to even higher words 
such as Maha, Jana, Tapa & Satya. We must re- 
member that the structures of men in this world 
differ from those living in other worlds. Our bodies 
have more of water while the bodies of gods arc 
more of Tejis. 

What is wrong with Vedantins is that they 
are like the sons of rich men simply inheriting big 
spiritual treasure, but making no use of that wealth. 
They are content with mere possession. But they 
must know that mere possession of such wealth 
will be of no use to them in their Sadhan. Actual 
experience is the true test of knowledge. Scien- 
tists are at least serious in their serach after truth. 
But how many pandits are there who have taken 


up to actual Sadhan and have got God vision 
through experience ? At best they are like hooded- 
serpants guarding the hoarded wealth of experi- 
ences of their seer-forefathers. But it is a very 
poor consolation indeed. 



" From all Asat i. c. un-real lead me to Sat 
i. c. Real " 

" From Tamas i. e. darkness, ignorance lead 
me to Jyoti i. c. light, Knowledge." 
" From Mrityu i. e. death lead me to Amri- 
tyu i. e. Immortality." (Brah. Up. I-iii-28). 
The prayers are for the full enjoyment of all 
joys of physical mental and spiritual planes. So, 
Mukti means fullest physical life, fullest mental 
life and fullest spiritual life. At first, some obser- 
vations of my own are necessary. I have used the 
word "Spirituology " in a particular sense of my 
own. The word spirit in English has many senses 
such as, soul, life, ghost etc- "Spiritualists" are 
those who believe that, intercourse may be. held 

[ 197 ] 

with departed souls or spirits and they have been 
trying to have a new science. We too have a 
science of life after death. But it is quite diffe- 
rent. Spirit in the sense of soul means our Jeeva. 
Originally, it is derived from Spiro to breathe and 
I have used this rather new word spiritualogy in 
order to express the science which deals with the 
functions of Cheif Prana. Asu i. e. Prana (from 
As to breathe; Ish. Up.) Chief Prana is the first 
begotten /'. e. spirit. He is Matarishwa (son of 
of mother space Ish. Up.)Mukhya Prana is in cos- 
mos and also in human body. It may be called 
Pranology, Prana-Vidya or Vayu-Vidya. 

Creation begins with God and Jada-Prakriti. 
God does not create the universe like a pottar in 
the pressence of all. He first creates Vayu God 
(Highest Soul) and entrusts to him this business. 
This Vayu (Prana) is associated in this creation 
with his wife Rayior Bharati (Matter) (Pras Up.); 
it has the power to animate. This power or ener- 
gy electrifies as it were Bharati:- thinnest matter. 
Prana is life and also consciousness. Prana is called 
husband and Rayi or Bharati is called wife. Prana 
is invisible, Rayi is visible. Prana is the active prin- 
ciple; Rayi is the Passive principle. Rayi in itself 
is incapable of motion. So, the world is indwelt 
by God by his representative Prana (Brah. Soo. 


Bha.I-i-12) Sun, Air, Fire & other Gods are also 
created. These Gods are souls like us: but are 
higher in power and degree. Inanimate objects 
such as sun etc. are illumined by these gods and 
hence they are able to act. This is about cosmos. 
Now, about human body. God and Laxmi take 
their seats in the human body together with soul. 
And this chief soul i. e. Mukhya Prana stands there 
at the feet of God with folded hands to carry out 
God's commands. He is the Das of God (The idol 
of Mukhya Prana on our worshipping bells repre- 
sents this fact). Mukhya Prana fills the whole body 
with his various energies and power conducts this 
machine of man. Sheriff saheb, a recent muslim 
Saint of Karnatak a Vedantist, saw everywhere 
nothing but God. He has beautifully described 
a gin factory at Hubli when he first saw it, in terms 
of Vedant.A weaver-woman's loom also taught him 
Vedant. Mukhya Prana is the motive power of 
all spiritual, mental and physical organs of senses 
etc. In this way, we descend from upwards down- 
wards - up to all the physical limbs and Sapta 
Dhatus i. e. Mamsa (flesh), Majja & Bones etc, 

Spiritulogy :- This subject has not been ex- 
haustively treated in any of the modern sciences 
or even in old sciences. Chief Prana is not the 
elemental air. Mukhya Prana, who occupies" the 


whole body has nothing to do with Prana, Apana, 
etc. or with Pranayama directly. They are the 
sons of Mukhya Prana. Here, I may be allowed to 
bring to the notice of my readers that, in my opi- 
nion, this Mukhya Prana occupies almost the same 
position as that of Atma in Jain philosophy. For, 
this our Prana is also said to fill up the whole body 
of any creature in which he enters. (Brah. Up.) 
Whatever the size or nature of the body may be, 
Atma of Jains fills that boy fully. In the body of 
a bug the Atma becomes small as bug, and in the 
body of an elephant Atma becomes as large as an 
elephant. Modern scientists are quite ignorant cf 
all the functions of this Mukhya Prana who is 
vitality total. He does not die with the death of 
human body. There is a regular series of worlds, 
in " life after death ." Mukhya Prana takes the 
soul through physical, astral, mental and spiritual 
planer of other worlds. All this science is foreign 
to the west. They depend upon material instru- 
ments. We depend upon our head and heart as 
our laboratories. Our experiences are our experi- 
ments. Mental, moral and spiritual faculties are 
our instruments. 

Mukhya Prana nourishes or protects the uni- 
verse and also human body. Pindanda (body) is 
similar to Brahmanda (universe). It is formed 


exactly in the same way as Brahmanda with all 
the 24 Tatwas. There are also 7 planes above 
and 7 planes below in the human body. In the 
rurnan body also there are mountains, rivers, etc. 
I have in my possession a Pindanda picture drawn 
by a Pandit long ago, in which he has combined 
h sciences such as Vedanta, Yogn, Ayurveda, Ast- 
6onomy, Phyisology and Geography, showing the 
particular places of Shat-Chakras, of rivers, of 
stars, of places in which fevers and other diseases 
are born. I must confess I have yet to know its 
details. Well, all the laws that apply to the uni- 
verse apply to this Pindanda. 

He is the first born and is called Ti jo- Rasa 
(Brah. Up. II ). He is the prime mover. He 
who knows the see rets of Praiia-Vidya becomes a 
Mukta, through Mukhya-Prana's Grace and then 
he can go wherever he likes, as long as he pleases. 
All the life-breaths are but lower Pranas. At 
first there are the 5 forms of God Himself as 
Chief Vayu. The second 5 forms are of Mukhya 
Prana himself. He also like God, assumes 5 forms 
and rules over the third set of Pranas i. e. Prana 
Apana, etc. So, Mukhya Prana is Pancha-Mukhi 
and is of three kinds. The lower Pranas are indi- 
vidual entites. The higher Pranas are the five- 
fold aspects of Mukhya-Prana and so are not sep- 


rate entities. The higher prcina appoints the lower 
ones. Lower Prana performs the sensory life-fun- 
ctions; Apana digestive functions i. e. execretory 
functions; Samana is assimilative; Vyana - the cir- 
culation of the Chyle and Udana's function is not 
accurately known. Perhaps it has something to do 
with the taking of Jeeva at the time of death. 
There are 101 chief Nadis and each has 100 sub- 
nadis and each sub-nadi has 72000 branch nadis. 
Jeeva does not come in contact with the outside 
objects directly. The objects are perceived thro- 
ugh 7 rays or wires. They are called 7 flames. 
The food that is digested by the gastric fire Vai- 
shwanaragni is carried to them through these na- 
dis. This is the function of Samana, These 7 
flames are called Kali, Karali, etc. (Mund.Up. II). 
So, the seven modifications of the perceptive sen- 
ses or organs of Knowledge are called seven flames. 
These are all connected with the heart. In the 
same way, Mukhya Prana's function extends to 
Mind and Buddhi Chitta, Chetana or Tejas. Che- 
tana is the pervasion into the objects of Chitta; so 
Chetana is full consciousness. There are 5 Koshas. 
(Mundak.Up.)InMadhwa Vedanta they have been 
classified in all their details according to their de- 
grees and gradation. For instance, Mukhya Pra- 
na has more of all auspicious qualities such as 


wisdom etc. in far greater degree than others; so 
on with other lower faculties. The principle is 
that subtler and finer is more powerful &has more 
qualities. The grosser has few and specialised 
qualities, for instance lower Prana, is wisdom, 
Apana is mere strength and so on. 

Phychology : Evolution then descends from 
heart to mind. Mind or Mams and Prana are 
both shadows of Jeevas. They always accompany 
Jeeva. As they are born together with Jeeva, no 
separate cause of their entering the body need be 
sought. Mukhya Prana is spread out from God, 
like His shadow so by the mere mental act of God 
he enters the body. Swaroopendriya or Sakhi- 
organ consists of Mukhya Prana. It is the organ 
of direct self perception. But in human body, it 
is not yet organised fully. If our Swaroopendriya 
is well organised, we could have full sense of intu- 

tion i. e. we can know at once what a thing exact- 

ly is, without the intermediary sense organs. 
All mental faculties as also all organs of senses 
such as organs of touch, smell etc. and cells and 
tissues etc - are Pranas. The^e sense organs 
are called Yasho-Viryas i. e. Glorious energies. 

Phyisology like Psychology in Vedanta is no- 
thing but Prana energy. All our limbs organs, 
veins, artaries, flesh and bones-in fact ourjanatomy 


is mainly governed by Mukhya Prana. So, there is 
no distinction in Vedanti between physics and 
meta-physics. All other senses are powerless wi- 
thout this Mukhya Prana energy. This fact has 
been described in many Upanishadsin the form of 
an allegory as a fight between all senses, & Prana, 
in which Prana became victorious. Without him 
no sense can perform any function, while Mukhya 
Prana is in no need of any of these senses and he 
can perform the functions of all senses himself. 
Pranas are by swir-npi atomic (Ami); yet, by 
their Prakaslvi i. e. illuiTViutio.i, they are perva- 
ding just as souls are. So, there is the possibility 
of our getting the powers of Djora-Dirshan;i, 
Door-Shravana etc. by this Pnma-Vidya. I need 
not dwell much upon physiology and anatomy. 
Modern science has much advanced and finer in- 
struments have been invented; so, it is but natural 
that their . observations are likely to throw more 
light on the subject. Vedantins should not hesit- 
ate to take the benefit of, these sciences and 
explain their own system in modern terms and 
correct if necessary. Any how, every one will be 
wonder-struck to see how the anc : ents have arri- 
ved in those remote days at so many minute de- 
tails without the help of such instruments. The 
importance of the heart is not yet fully recognised 

[ 204] 

by the scientists. To them, it is only a blood cir- 
culation centre. But to Vedantins it is far more. 
Manas or mind is said to be in the heart and not 
in the head. Head is perhaps only a Telephone 
Exchange. For, mind is said to be there, where 
At ma is. Soul is in the heart and particular 
places have been marked out in the heart as the 
seats of particular mental faculties. This subject 
needs further consideration. I may yet doubtful 
about the exact locality of heart. Ayurveda also 
needs in my opinion ^-consideration. The three 
text-books of present Ayurveda are based, mainly 
on Sdnkhya. No doubt, Sankhya is admitted to 
some extent but not totally. Mukhya Prana is 
certainly different from Vayu of Ayurveda. So, 
Ayurveda should be revised and brought up to 
date by reference to Upanishads. The influence 
of stars is also calculated, I think, in tissue reme- 
dies. This science of spirituology or Prana Vidya 
is the greatest of our sciences. 

Prana Vidya & How to Develop it : No spe- 
cial Sadhana is necesssary for this Vidya. All the 
S idhanas that are prescsribed for Brahma-Vidya 
are the very Sadhanas which develop this Prana 
Vidya also - namely Shravana, Manana, Dhyana 
etc. So, Mukhya Prana Upasana is the immediate 
and direct means of getting the Sakshalkar-i of 


Mukhya Prana. ( Ramanuja seems to regard Chit- 
Prakriti most and not Prana. ) Mukhya Prana 4 is 
A para-Brahma: God is Para-Brahma (Chh. Up.) 
A poor Sadhaka like myself, who does not know 
himself and who does not care to know on what 
rung of the ladder of Sadhana he is, cannot and 
should not dare to tell more and must point his 
fingers to Upanishads and Gurus, who have actua- 
lly realised that Vidya also. In Chh. Up. as stated 
by me in Chapter VIII, it is emphatically stated 
many times that if you (ise. of course a proper 
Adhikari) were to tell this Prana Vidya to a dry 
stick, it will sprout into tree with branches and 
flowers. Such is the wonderful effect of this Pra- 
na Vidya. Mukhya Prana is called Sootra (He is 
real Sootra) the thread which runs through all 
souls and is the connecting link between God and 
human soul. Mukhya-Prana has by his Sadhana 
attained to that position, In Brah. Up. (II 2- ) 
Mukhya Prana is declared to be the pet child of 
God. Brahma and Prana are equal in status; &are 
mutually dependant on one another. If there 
was no Prana in Brahma's body, his body would 
become putrid and without Brahma the body of 
Prana would dry up (Brah. Up-V. 12-1). The 
laws of conservation of energy, its production, 
protection, distruction of the total stock of our 


energy in our body and also in the universe all be- 
long to this branch namely spirituology.I think rese- 
arch on proper lines in this Vidya will substantiate 
many of the Yoga-Vidyas now practised and also 
explain extra-ordinary cases of living without food. 
The discovery of Ami-Bomb is perhaps the des- 
tructive power of this Vidya and so must be imme- 
diately prohibited. This Prana-Vidya on proper 
lines will enable us to develop all the planes above 
mind such as Buddhi Tatwa, Ahankar Tatwa and 
Mahat-Tatwa, which will take us to higher planes 
of the universe such as Maha-Loka, Jana-Loka, 
Tapo-Loka and Satya-Loka. 


" Expand my knowledge of Self and intensify my 
knowledge of the non-self, so that by Thy Grace 
I may be able to see that Form of Thine, which is 
the most auspicious/' (Ish. Up.) 

Before I take up this and other Chapters, I 
must explain their groupings. The whole Path of 
Sadhana ( though it is really a continuous one ) 
may be divided into the following broad stages. 


They are halting stations, Dharma-shalas for fu- 
ture progress. (1) Preparatory (Poorva SadhanaV, 

(2) Practising with effort (Sashrama Saclhana ; 

(3) Frution or Aparoksha; (4) Realised or Siddha. 
In all these stages, Karma, Jnana and Bhakti, are 
to be cultivated. Aparoksha or Snkshatkara is the 
central Station, and Moksha is the Terminus. Upto 
Sakshatkara or God-vision, Karma, Jnana and 
Bhakti are compulsory; after that, they are optio- 
nal. In this Chapter, I treat these 3 together, in 
their secondary stage. I have alredy dealt with 
the first in previous chapters. The real Sadhana 
of a Sadhaka begins with this stage. 

VAIRAGYA : The first important requisite of 
a Sadhaka is Vairagya - spirit of renunciation of 
wordily - pleasures and second is the attachment 
or love for Godly pleasures. It is not giving up 
absolutely of any of your duties. We have no birth- 
rights; we have birth-duties. They are not rest- 
ricted to any caste or colour or nation, nor to any 
Ashrama. Madhwa does not mean by Vairagya 
Sanyasa - Ashrama only. Some sects emphasise 
Sanyasa to the utmost and deny Moksha to all 
others. Madh\va is against this view. His Mok- 
sha is open to all. Some refuse Moksha to women. 
This too is wrong. So, in short, Vairagya is the 
spirit of renunciation. It is a negative virtue. 


It must be joined with the positive virtue of doing 
all your proper Karmas i. e. duties proper to your 
station and nature. 

Life after Death:- But, this spirit of renunci- 
ation requires faith in future life. Life after death 
is an essential factor of our religion. That gives 
us hope. Otherwise, however much you strive, 
you cannot, speaking in general, hope to achieve 
in one life the full Sadhana. Hence, our religious 
books have fully mapped out the path after death. 
This is the crucial point on which our religion di- 
ffers from all other religions. It is no use saying 
that all religions are one. We must note down 
the special features. In short, the bondage of 
Elements (Bhootas) do not end with death. 

Karma: Karma generally means any acti- 
vity - physical, mentdl or spiritual. But it is 
commonly applied to physical activities only.Those 
actions done before the age of 14 are not taken 
into account. It is age of ignorance. From that 
age onwards, every action is taken into account. 
There are no fresh actions done after this death. 
Otherworlds are simply for enjoying the good or 
bad fruits of action in this life. After enjoyment 
you shall have to return. The importance of this 
world is that this world is Sadhana-Bhumi and 
this human body is the Sadhana- Sharira. EvSfy 


one shall have to be born again for performing 
Sadhanas. Even Gods are not exceptions. The 
chief characteristic of Karma is that it contributes 
directly or indirectly to Punya (no proper equiva- 
lent in English) i. e. merit and Papa - sin. Dharma 
and Adharma mean the same thing. So also, 
Adirashta is nothing but Dharma or Adhrama. All 
these' are invisible. They are the effects of 

Divisions of Karma : They are divided into 

three kinds- (1) Vihita i. e. proper for you; (2) 

Nishiddha i. e. prohibited and (3) Udasina i. e. 

indifferent. Again Vihita Karmas are divided as 

(a) Kamya i. c. desired or selfish; (b) Akamya i. e. 

Un-selfish - not only un-selfish but Godly. It is a 

positive and not merely negative. The utility of 

Kamya is not much. It can at most assist you in 

acquiring knowledge. But, Akama or Nishkama 

Karma, if it is done with knowledge God helps 

you to realise God. Such a Karma is called Ni- 

vritta Karma (Bhagwat). Many people take 

Nivritta Karma to mean Sanyasa Karma. It is 

wrong. Madhwa always understands Nivritta 

Karma in the sense given above. Many great men 

have committed the fault of not understanding 

Madhwa, because, they have not borne in mind 

the proper meaning of that word used by Madhwa. 


Hence.this caution. Nivritta therefore is that which 
is done with no other desire except Moksha. In 
short, it is positive Godly Karma, Such Karmas 
are compulsory for all Sadhakas. On this point 
there is a great difference between Madhwa and 
some others. Madhwa emphatically protests such 
a view. In his opinion, even Sanyasis have to do 
their duties. They have to do 2 most important 
duties - (1) Swadhyaya i. e. study of Vedas; (2) 
Jnana-dana. These 2 Yajnas are prescribed for 
them. For all, Sarva-Samar^ana i. e. dedicating 
every thing to God is the culminating Sadhana in 
this Karma path. In short, Sa-Karma is to be 
transformed into Niskama, Niskama into Nivritta, 
Nivritta into Bhagawat Karma. Bhagawat Kar- 
ma becomes Sarva - Samarpana in Aparoksha and 
continues till Moksha. 

Karma-Kshaya or liberation from the Chain 
of Karma:- Here is a dilemma. The chain of 
Karma has no beginning. We cannot trace it to 
its original source, and as stated above, if every 
action of yours bears fruit, good or bad, where is 
the end to this Chain ? For, unless you end this 
chain there is no liberation for you. Karma Kshaya 
is the first kind of liberation. The way out of it 
lies in this :- There are certain actions which bear 
no fruit good or bad. They are acts done without 


the least desire for any benefit to you and if you 
go on doing such selfless and godward actions, you 
stop the further effects of any action and then all 
that you are to do is to exhaust the fruits of those 
which are already ripe for bearing fruit, by comp- 
letely exhausting them by enjoyment. So, the 
future chain is cut off.The peculiarity of Vedanta is 
that it wants you to exhaust the Punya Karmas 
also. For, good actions too have fruits and you 
shall have to bear their consequences. In short, 
Godly actions are the only actions and they must 
be performed. There is no scope in Vedanta for 
accidents. Every thing has some cause, known or 
un-known. Unknown cause is called Adrashta. 
God's hand in any action also is not known to us, 
ind cannot be known. Birth in a particular coun- 
try or family etc. is not an accident. Volcanoes, 
garth-quakes etc. are not accidents. If proper 
Sadhana is practised, these can be known- God- 
vision gives fullest knowledge of these. Just as 
:he smallest disturbance in any of the wheels of 
;lock affect the whole of the machinery, ' so is the 
:ase with this world-machinery and human-machi- 
iery. All these subjects belong to Karma and 
Sarma Kshaya. 

Jnana :- Now to come to Jnana. Jnana means 
cnowledge- It is of 2 kinds- (1) Paroksha Jnana - 


Indirect knowledge; (2) Aparoksha Jnana - direct 
knowledge. The first kind of knowledge gives 
you only wordly happiness. It does not give you 
liberation. If you do good acts you will get good 
fruity if not, bad fruits. But these will help you 
to give heavens only and not Moksha. The subject 
of Psychology has been already treated by me at 
some length. In Rome or Greece, there was a 
custom that he who had no light at night should be 
allowed to light his lamp from the lantern of 
his who had. In the same way a wise man 
should give the light of his knowledge to the 

Ignorance is the root of Knowledge .--This may 
sound strange, yet it is a truth. If you want to get 
the knowledge of the world, you must, for the 
time being, forget God and soul. In order to get 
one thing, you should forget all other things. So, 
forget before you get is the rule. This kind of ig- 
norance about God is called Mool-Ajnana i. e. 
Root-Ignorance. God shines in the inner temple, 
together with His partial reflection i. e. soul, in 
the heart of every man. But the illumination of 
God is too strong for the soul to gaze at Him dire- 
ctly. So, the soul comes out of the heart as it 
were, and gazes at the world with his dim light. 
He is over- joyed with the beauty of the world 

[213] ' 

become wholly engrossed in it, forgetting God and 
even his own self. This is the natural ignorance 
(Swabhava-Ajnana). When you turn your eyes 
towards the world, God hides Himself from you, 
in the so-called darkness in the inner temple i. e. 
your heart; for, the soul has no eyes in its back. 
The body of the soul hides the self with its thin- 
nest globe. The little wick of soul's illumination 
(for, soul also has like God some illumination) with 
its weak power, is not strong enough to penetrate 
through the thick body. In this way soul loses 
both the knowledge of the self and knowledge of 
God. God and soul both disappear as it were. It 
is in this way that Root-Ignorance covers over 

When you forget both yourself and God you 
look outward and get the experience of world 
knowledge. You see the sun-shine and you are 
delighted. But you do not then realise that, that 
sun-shine is merely " Moon-Shine. " The light that 
you see is really the light not of sun, but of God. 
But, you have one advantage; there-by your men- 
tal faculties are developed. You get the power 
of many candles and so if you sit for Sadhana, 
you are likely to get the vision of your own self 
and that of God sooner. This in short is the 
utility of ignorance. 


Gradation of Mental faculties :- Madhwa has 
fully worked out this subject. He has classified 
all these faculties in regular order f in every detail. 
Next to Prana, MANAS occupies the most impor- 
tant place. The difference between the two seems 
to be this. Chief Prana can work without the help 
of organs of senses. But, ordinarily Manas cannot 
do so. It must work through the organs of senses. 
There is a higher and subtler kind of Manas, which 
is called SWAROOP -INDRIYA or Sakshi. Every soul 
has got Swaroop organs, which are Nitya - eternal. 
There are as many such Sakhi Indriyas as there are 
organs. There are in all 12 organs of knowledge 
and so there are 12 Swaroop Indriyas. They are 
all Pranas. They are called Sakshi. These essen- 
tial organs have the power of knowledge of the 
particular organs only. For instance, the Sakshi 
Indriya of hearing can only hear, that of eye can 
only see; that of mind can only know. In this world 
pleasure, pain etc. so also Avidya, Kala, Eternal 
Space are the subjects of direct perception of 
Swaroop Indriya. While other outside things 
become known to Sakshi through the medium of 
their respective senses. 

The mental field is very large (Desire, deter- 
mination, curiosity, faith, un-belief, steadiness, in- 
toleration, modesty, intellect, f ear-these and others 

[ 215 ] 

are mindonly(Brah.Up.I-V-3).In many Upanisha- 
ds the gradation of numerous mental faculties are 
given. Here you have to note one tiling. It is 
this. Gradation list is given in the form of grada- 
tion of Gods; for, every nuntal faculty is presided 
by a God. He is in charge of that particular 
mental faculty. There are various kinds of Gods 
such as Dharaka Gods, Prakashaka God^, Preraka 
Gods, etc. It is they, who illumine your mind; 
when it is said that Gods inspire you, it does not 
mean that they whip you into action just as a cow- 
herd whips a cow, but it simply means,that in your 
mental faculties, fresh illumination is seen which 
intensifies that faculty (Maha Bhag.). Psycholo- 
gists would derive great benefit from the study of 
Madhwa's exhaustive list of gradation of Gods and 
the corresponding faculties they represent,, since 
no one except Madhwa has worked out in their 
minutest details in this subject.Here,! give a small 
list of Gods in their due order. Gods here may 
be taken to mean their respective mental faculties. 
Before beginning to worship God, we are required 
to remember this list of Gods presiding over 24 
Tatwas. It is called Tatwa-Nyasa. At first we are 
required to bow down to God's own forms. To 
Bhu i. e. Agni form of God in our heart. His form 
there is Form of Anirudha, His Pradyumna form 


is in the head. It is BHUVAHA. His Sankarshafta 
form is also there. His Vasudeva form in all tfce 
three i. e. BHOO, BHUVAHA and SWAHA. His Na- 
rayan form is Satya form. Then Tatwa-Nyasa 
is to be performed through our Mukhya Prana, for 
we can approach God only through our Mukhya 
Prana and not independently. The following 12 
mental faculties have their seats in our hearts. 
They are:- (1) Shakti (Energy) (2) Pratishta 
(Stability) (3) Samvit (Experience) (4) Sphoorti 
(Inspiration) (5) Pravritti (Progress) (6) Kala 
(Skill) (7) Vidya (Knowledge) (1) Mati (Intelligen- 
ce) (9) Niyati (Self-restraint) (10) Maya (Will- 
power); (11) Kala (TimeV, (12) Purusha (Soul). 

Then begin the actual 24 Tatwas in their due 
order: (1) Purusha - Brahma - Vayu; (2) Avya- 
kta - deities - Brahmani and Bharati; (3) Mahat 
deities Brahma and Vayu; (4) Ahankar - deities- 
Garuda - Shesha and Rudra; (5) Manas deities - 
Skanda and Indra; (6) Shrotas - ear - deities of 
Directions; (7) Touch - lower Prana; (8) Eye-Sun. 
(9) Tongue - Varuna; (10) Smell - Aswinis; (11) 
Spech - Fire. (12) Hands - Daksha; (13) Feet - 
Jayanta; (14) Payu - Mitra; (15) Upastha - Manu; 
(16) Shabda - Brahaspati; (17) Sparsha - Apana; 
(18) Roopa - Vyana; (19) Rasa -Udana; (20) Gan- 
dha - Samana; (21) Akasha - Ganapati; (22) Vay\i- 


Pravaha; (23) Ap - Varuna; (24) Prathvi - Shani. 
The Sadhana for Jnana begins with Shravana, 
Manana and Nidi-Dhyasa (Dhyana); but this is 
all Paroksha. Dhyana gives us the fruit i. e. Apa- 
roksha that gives us Mukti. 

BHAKTI :- Bhakti is nothing but love. Love 
for superiors is called Bhakti or devotion; for equ- 
als, is called Sneha and for inferiors is called Daya 
or Krapa i. c. compassion. There is a great diff- 
erence between love and passion. Love is peace 
of mind, passion is excitament of mind. The 
substance of real Bhakti is love. So, God 
can be defined thus; That love for God which 
is a continuous flow, and which is unobstructed by 
any other obstacles, and which exceeds all other 
sorts of love and which has no other object except 
God is Bhakti. Bhakti is both the beginning and 
end of all Sadhanas. Sadhana without Bhakti is 
barren. It is its own end, while:all other Sadha- 
nas -have an end in Bhakti only. At first it is blind 
belief as it developes,it becomes firmer and firmer. 
The true test of Bhakti or devotion is whether 
you love God better than your wife, children, fri- 
ends, wealth, etc. This kind of devotion is expl- 
ained in Sudha (Anu. Vya. 1-1-12). The knowledge 
that God is the repository of endless virtues and 
that He is quite faultless should arise in your mind, 


and should be rooted firmly. It should be fully ripe. 
Such an extreme love of God does not arise in 
mind at once. When you go on doing your daily 
duties, it slowly crops up, and as you go on practi- 
sing the Sadhanas, it goes on becoming firmer and 
firmer. The more the knowledge about God, the 
more the love for God. Therefore, one must re- 
member that for true Bhakta, study, meditation 
etc. are ever required. You should not deceive 
yourself that you know everything about God and 
therefore no further study etc. are necessary. 
Those GURUS who advise you to stop studying 
and at once begin sadhana are deceiving you; for 
knowledge of God is endless. This world itself is 
like an examination hall to test your devotion. 
Numerious calamities occur in your life when it is 
tested. Very few pass that test. How many are 
there who bear with calmness and fortitude the 
shocks of life? Poverty, diseases etc. should be 
turned into opportunities for increasing your love 
for God. God is not different from the world. 
He is in every particle of the world. True love 
of God is not different from love of the world. So, 
a strict illusionist can not be a Bhakta. Always, 
one must think that it is really God that is the 
real performer of all actions and that every bit of 
action you do is but his worship. In short, BKdkti 


begins with Vairagya. Bhakti is then transformed 
into Dradha-Bhakti (firm Devotion). Dradha Bha 
kti becomes Pakwa Bhakti which futher is turned 

into Ati - Paripakwa Bhakti after Aparoksha, 
and that Bhakti gives us Moksha- 


I. UPASANA : This subject is already trea- 
ted generally. Here, I shall touch a few special 
points. In the first stage, moral virtues such as 
Shama, Dama etc. are necessary and mental facu- 
lties are to be developed by ADHYAYANA and MA- 
NANA i. e. Contemplation. In the second stage, 
begins real Sadhana with VAIRAGYA spirit of renu- 
nciation and cultivation of Bhakti and then you sit 
for Dhyana or Upasana. (Bfah-Soo-Bha. III). 
This third stage is the real stage of Self-realisation. 
This Dhyana includes concentration, worship etc. 
and directly -leads to APAROKSHA or SAKSHATKAR. 
You come to the gate of the temple and begin to 
peep in, through the hole and see the figure of 
God. This Dhyana can be done in 2 ways- (a) 

Shut your eyes and bring before your mind nothing 
but God. Of course, you shall have to concentrate 

[ 220] 

your mind on the essence of some of the qualities 
of God-for, that is Upasana-and then meditate; (6) 
There is a higher kind of Dhyana, It is through 
the study of Shastras (Anu. Vya.). But mind, this 
Dhyana also is not mere parrot-like repetition of 
Shastras. It is self-absorption in some qualities of 
God. You must imbibe those qualities in yourself. 
It is not mere study. It is Dhyana through study. 
This Dhyana requires higher powers; for, it goes 
on developing the mental and spiritual faculties. 
It expands your consciousness and intensifies your 
knowledge of the world also (Isha. Up.)- In this 
Dhyana, you need not necessarily shut your eyes. 
You can, with open eyes, think of the glories of 
God and feel His Presence at every moment. At 
first, this requires seclusion, but after a time, you 
get the habit of concentrating your mind, even in 
the bustle of a train or market; your Aradhya De- 
vata comes at once before your mind (Mental eye- 
Rudra). How God comes before your eye is a 
mystery. But the fact of experience is that He 
does. As you worship, so you become is the rule. 
Then that Qod or god fulfills your desires. In 
Chh. Up I-iii, this point is explained. It is also the 
secret of Faith-cure. Intense thinking is intense 
becoming. Woildly desires such as wife, sons, 
wealth etc. also are mentioned in Upanishads. 


But for Sakshatkara of God the real desire is to 
get God. In the case of other desires, your past 
actions and other 'factors may impede your ways 
and you may not get your desired object. So, you 
should not blame God, for not fulfilling your desir- 
es. But, when you desire God, and see God by 
your intense Dhyana, you get rid of all other lower 
pleasures etc. They are completely immersed as 
it were, in Bhakti for God. Madhwa does not ask 
us to retire completely from the world, at any 
time. No eccentric feats are allowed. Live in the 
world, love the world and conquer nature is his 

Method of Meditation:- Yama and Niyama 
are necessaryjfor, without these no concentration is 
possible. Owing to excess of sensuous pleasure, 
your mind will be wafted away from God. Bhakti 
of course is an indispensable factor in all stages. 
Bhakti means love. If you have no love you can 
never meditate. Every one has got some secret 
desires lurking some-where in his mind and heart 
and they pounce upon you and disturb Dhyana. 
What a man wills, he thinks, what he thinks he 
utters, and what he utters he sends it forth in a 
name and meditates upon it. So Sankalpa (deter- 
mination) is necessary. There are various grades 
of Upasana. One higher than the other. The lowest 


is Nama (name); above that there are fourteen 
objects more (Chh. Up. VIM4-2; Tait. Up. II-8-1) 
The last and highest is Mukhya-prana. So, Pra- 
no-pasan.i is the best; and it is through this Upa- 
sana only, that you can come at once to the pre- 
sence of God. All the objects mentioned such as 
Nama etc. should be taken in the sense cf Gods of 
those objects and not insentient objects. For, it 
is really gods that illumine the f acuities (Rhugveda 
X- 11 2-9; X-33-2; VI 1-47-1; X-6-9). The inanimate 
objects get all their essential attributes, actions, 
powers and various modifications from sentient 
beings and the sentient beings get their power 
from the Supreme Prana and Supreme Prana gets 
his powers from God. God do not whip you as 
a cowherd whips his cow; they illumine and inspire 
your mental faculties (Maha Bha). 

Dhyana and Samadhi :- Others make a sharp 
distinction between these 2 state?. Some say, in 
Dhyana there is complete void; some say it is 
filled with featureless God onlyjsome deny self-con- 
sciousness in that state; some(Ramanuja etc,)argue 
that our state of intense Dhyana itself is transfor- 
med into God-vision. The sadhana prescribed for 
Samadhi also are various. Hatha-Yoga, mere void 
or mere silence, aloofness from the activities etc. 
are recommended. But Madhwa differs fronj.aH 

[ 223 ] 

these with some, on principles and with others in 
details.To Madhwa, Dhyana is nqt a state of God- 
vision in itself, however intense Dhyana may be. 
Dhyana after all is mental. So, it is a kind of Jnana 
only. It is after practising for long time,that man 
gets Sakshatkar. So it is the fruit of knowledge, 

derived from Dhyana. To Madhwa, Dhyana and 
Samadhi are not quite independent states. Both 
mean Anu-Chintan constant thinking or remembe- 
ring. If it is un-interrupted it is Samadhi. The 
readers will remember that on page 1 Part I, 

I had to use a rather climsy sentence about Sama- 
dhi. Here and in the next sections, I have given 
the explanation. I attach here a list of mental 

faculties and their presiding deities. After Nama 
comes Vak (speech). Presiding deity is Swaha- 

wife of Agni. Then comes mind (Deity Parjanya). 
Then Sankalpa (will - Deity Mitra). Then Chitta 
fleikering memory Agni). Then Dhyana (Varu- 
na). Then Vijnana (Understanding - Soma). Then 

Bala - power both physical and spiritual (Prava- 
ha). Then Anna(Aniruddha). Then Apa i. e. Pra- 

na-Satisfaction of spiritual knowledge. Then 
Teja (genius) - Indra. Then Akasha (Steady light 
of genius- U ma). Then Smara- memory - Rudra). 
Then Asha - Hope i. e. Bliss of devine vision. La- 
stly, Vayu or Mukhya Prana-Sum- total of all the 
above powers. 


II. APAROKSHA: So far I have considered 
the main steps of Sadhana. Before launching 
upon Aparoksha,! must make it clear that I do not 
claim myself to be an Aparoksha-jnani. Upto the 
end of Upasana, every Sadhaka like myself has 
some experience in a more or less degree and has 
perhaps also some sort of realisation. All that I 
write in this and in the next section of Moksha is 
from what I have learnt and practised a little. I 
am yet a Sadhaka living in a corner of a bye-lane 
of Sadhana. With this apology, I begin. 

What is Aparoksha ? It is direct perception. 
In many Upanishads various Brahma -Vidyas are 
mentioned. They are various sorts of Upasanas 
that teach you how to obtain the presence of God. 
The promise is given that by such Brahma-Vidya 
you get supreme, happiness and perfect knowledge 
of God (Brah. Up. 1-5-3). This statement is fur- 
ther strengthened by removing certain objections 
and mis-conceptions. Brahma-Vidya is not mere 
belief in God. This vidya enables you to get uot 
only Moksha, but all Purusharthas according to 
your fitness. " The essential nature of Jeeva is to 
be free from pain and misery. The pains and 
miseries of this world are accidental-due to ignor- 
ance and past actions etc. Remove the thick veils 
and you get back to your original nature. -God 

C 225 ] 

vision enables you to do this. All your miseries 
end as soon as you are in the presence of God and 
you get your innate freedom from pain and full 

bliss. Brahma -Vidya enables you to do this. You 
do not acquire by Brahma-Vidya any new thing;. 

Other Sadhan-is cannot do this. When one gets 
Sakshatkara he gets all knowledge directly with- 
out the intervention of other kinds of evidence ; 
such a Jnani alone can say what the essential natu- 
res of other souls are. Moreover, such jnani gets 
miraculous powers. He can have Dooia-Darshana, 

Door-Shravana etc. but Midhwa*,has warned us 
not to be led astray by j-uch powers. In Gita, 
Arjuna was given Divya Chakhsu and then he 
could see with his own eyes all that is in the uni- 
verse. But such high class Aparoksha-Jnanis are 
to be found in gods or their Avataras only, There 
are other examples of Yashoda etc. In short, 
Sakshatkara has got several ranges. 

God must come before my eyes is the Prati- 
jna of man. I can make Him sumd before my 
eyes, by my Sadhana. Of course, God's Grace is 
necessary. Grace does not mean mere whimsical 
favour of God. I do not beg any body in the world 
except God; but Him too not without deserving. 
Rather, I ask it as a matter of right for my deserts. 
It is a sanction and seal for my sacrifice, just as a 
jailor wants the sanction for his freedom. 


Effects of Aparoksha : All our actions except 
Prarabdha Karma are burnt away by such Jnana, 
such a Jnani shall have knowledge not only of thi3 
world and of its awakening state, but he will get 
the knowledge of all planes of the universe and of 
other states such as dream state and sleep-state. 
He can rise above these states to Turiya- Upper- 
most. All these dreamland and other lands are 
to Madhwa real lands, having access to a Aparok- 
sha Jnanee, as true as that of Jagrat Avastha. All 
these states are real dream lauds and so are closed 
to scientists. The highest Aparoksha J name's State 
is beautifully described in Upanishads. He can 
swim too and fro through this world and other wor- 
lds (Brah. IV-3-34) like, a Hamsas (flamingos), of 
course-not those persons who undeservedly apply 
before their names a long list of such names and 
titles. Not even the thought or ambition of be- 
coming such a jnani crosses their mind ! It is dis- 
posed of, by the remark that this is Kali Yuga,but 
not when they claim honour. They forget th^t in 
Kali Yuga Madhwa ask? us to do acts of Krita 
Yuga(Atha-Up-Bha).In short,an Aparokshi throws 
away all bonds attached to him except that of 
Prarabdha Karma and Linga Sharira and begins 
to swim freely like that beautiful bird Hamsa. 
An Aparokshi can get over the effects of ' 


grahas. He does not care for their bad effects, for, 
faith in God is a sufficient antidote. On others 
they shall have some effect; for, in the clock of the 
body and universe, the least derangement in any 
part of the machine must have some effect, whe- 
ther we know it or not. Aparoksha Jnani would 
take all diseases to be so manv occasions to exhaust 
his past karmas and occasions for service of God. 
He is not in need of Shradha by his sons. 

Instinct and Intution:- Instinct is not only not 
intution but is the very opposite of it. Instinct is 
blind. Intution is open-eyed. Instinct is the faculty 
of lower animals, while intuition is the faculty of 
highest souls. Instinct is animal nature. Intuition 
is divine. Intuition, Inspiration and Revelation 
are far higher. After Aparoksha the path is safe. 
It is called Sahaja-Sadhana i. e. natural Sadhana. 
No Guru is wanted. You become your own Guru. 
All Aparoksha-Jnanees are not of the same grade. 
According to different grades, they get different 
kinds of Lokas, before they get final Mukti. The 
first three planes Bhoo, Bhuvah and Swah are 
planes of enjoyment and you return from Swarga 
after exhausting the fruits of your actions. But if 
you, by your deeds deserve higher worlds i. e. 
Mahar-Loka, Jana-Loka and Tapo-Loka and Satya- 
Loka, you never return. You live in those worlds 


doing actions fit for those Lokas. The bodies of 
human beings have more of Apa or water, while 
those of Gods are Tejomaya. So, your body be- 
comes more illumined in those planes. Some say 
that even from Mahar-Loka, Jana-Loka etc. 
Jeeva returns to the earth. Mainly there are two 
kinds of Aparoksha Jnanees. (1) Those who get 
general God-vison (Samanya-Darshan) and (2) 
those who get Vishesha Darshan by Bimba- 

Kanaka-Das & Aparoksha : Lastly, I wish to 
give my own spiritual explanation and historical 
imagination about the story of Krishna idol at Udipi 
turning its face from east to west, because as an 
un- touchable Kanaka had no entrance in Krishna's 
temple. It is stated that God Himself turned his 
face towards Kanakadas and gave him his Darsha- 
na. Hence, in Udipi, the face of God is turned 
towards the west, though the front gate is to the 
east. Hence, I give my own spiritual explanation of 
it. Kanaka was admittedly the most revered of Da- 
sas just as Purandar-Das was. In those days some 
Dasas and Saints of Maharashtra, who were non- 
brahmins never themselves insisted upon forceable 
temple entry. They obeyed the customs then 
prevailing. Moreover, what do they care for such 
trifling things? They were themselves true Apa- 


roksha Jnanees and so could see God at any mo- 
ment they wished. Especially Saints like Kanaka, 
Tukarma etc. luci lull God vision through their 

own heart. In Madhwa philosophy, I have already 
stated that worship through the heart ' Bimba- 

Paroksha' is most important. The saints of Ma- 
harashtra were also, in my opinion, followers in 
practice of the tenets of Madliwa,directly or indir- 
ectly, knowingly or un-knowingly. There so-called 
Adwaita is not exactly the Adwaita of Shri. Shan* 

kar, for, they were more or less Sagunopasakas. 
Jnaneshwara, I find was an out and out Poorna- 
Brahmawadi like Kanaka and Purandar just as I 
have described in my Part T. So, Kanakadas must 
have been seeing God at any time, through the 

window of his own heart and this fact was nlso 
admitted by the then Gurus of Muths and I think 
it is tocommemoiate this fact namely that they too 
recognised his worth - that they of themselves 
allowed him to see God Krisona through a window 

specially prepared by Gurus for Kanaka's seeing 
the sacred image of Shri. Krishm at Udipi. The 
window, therefore, represents the heart of Kanaka, 
It is a symbol of his heart. This my spiritual expla- 
nation tallies with the historical fact that there 
was absolutely no revolt on the part of Kanaka or 
any body, at that time. Historical research may 
thr6w further light on the subject. 


Adhyatma Yoga:- In many Upanishads, wor- 
ship in the heart is stressed. You get all the know- 
ledge as if by a snap-shot of your spul. The pre- 
sence of God gives you that power. It is not mere 
spiritual excitement. Mere emotional tendencies 
are sometimes mistaken for Sakshatkar. That is 
not true vision. To know God is to know all; for, 
the world is in God's wornb. True Knowledge is 
inseparable from true devotion. Fullest knowledge 
therefore is fullest Bhakti. Though such a state 
of Bhakta appears to others as 'excited ' Intoxi- 
cated ' really it is all peace and happiness within. 
Mere excitement is feverfsh. Fill yourself with 
featureless Brahman says Shankara; with full God 
says Madhwa. Madhwa's Yoga may be called 
Adhyatma Yoga, for, in Giti Adhyatma Vidya is 
declared to be the best (Gita X. 32). For a long 
time, as an admirer though not a follower of Shri. 
Aravinda, I was wondering what Yoga Aravinda 
himself must have been practising. But in my opi- 
nion, it is really this Adhyatma Yoga (Bhag. III- 
25-13; Bhag. IX-2). In this Adhyatma Yoga your 
own soul becomes you rlense,th rough which you can 
peep freely through the world and see God in 
every object. 

III. MOKSHA :- This is the culmination of all 
our Sadhanas. According to Madhwa, it is, *as 

[231 ] 

I have repeatedly said, fullest life. It is full exi- 
stence, full knowledge and full bliss. In such a 
freedom, Jeeva enjoys his highest spiritual bliss 
(Bhag. n-10-6). In Moksha Jeeva is in the embra- 
ce of God. To give a worldly illustration of that 
bliss, Upanishads have compared it to the embrace 
of wife by the husband (Brah. Up- iv-3-21). Madh- 
wa who has commented upon one such Mantra 
(left without comment by others) of the great 
Vamadeva Rishi has explained in details the spiri- 
tual stages involved in it (Chh. Up. ii-xm-2). It 
is not only freedom from all bonds, as some schools 
Suppose, nor is it a negative state, but a positive 
perfect state of knowledge and bliss. All souls are 
essentially of that nature. God gives us an oppor- 
tunity of getting the experiences of this world and 
then bestows this highest spiritual full life. 

What is Moksha ? :- It is here that acutest di- 
fferences exist among all schools. But I am of 
firm opinion that we need not trouble ourselves 
with a discussion about it. Because, no amount 
of wrangling will settle the point finally. A Veera- 
shaiva Sharana has compared that state to the 
dream of a child in a cradle. The child dreams and 
laughs within itself .The Sharan says that as soon as 
you open your mouth, you fall into Dwajta. More- 
over, a Mukta is he who never returns again. So he 


cannot tell you what his real experience is, in that 
state. Even if he conius to this world, by his own 
will as servant of God to help God in His work, 
he comes in the form of human being and so you 
cannot recognise him as Mukta. So, after all, this 
question must depend upon faith and Vedas. It is 
not so upto our Aparoksha - Central Station. Our 
journey is safe there. Aparoksha Jnana is our quota 
of ration of food due to us. There is no use begg- 
ing for more. Aparoksha gives us all knowledge 
and all bliss that we deserve. 

Objections answered :- Here, some objections 
can be raised against the position I have taken. It 
may be asked - Is it not the nature of sutnmum 
bonum that determines our Path? Does not our 
idea of freedom affect our Sadhanas from the very 
beginning ? It is the ideal that we place before our- 
selves that guides us in our path. It is the goal 
which gives us light in our journey. So, if, in 'this 
way the final idea over-shadows the whole of our 
journey how do you say that the discussion about 
the nature of MUKTI is useless ? Yes. I do admit 9 
some part of what you say andjyet contend that 
there is no use in wrangling over that question. 
I have given above the main '.reason. But there 
are other reasons why I held that opinion. I have 
discussed them fully in my Kannada books. Here 


I give only their purport - (a] There are practi- 
cally very few substantial differences until we come 
to Aparoksha. Madhwa. lias accepted in the main, 
the four (S.idhana Chatushtaya) of 
Shankar. There are some differences about the 
emphasis.(/;) After Aparoksha there are real diffe- 
rences. They are mainly about 2 points:- (1) 
Whether Karma is necessary after Jnana;Brahma- 
Jnani is necessrily a Sannyasi s.iys Shankar and so 
no Karma is necessary; according to Ramanujasuch 
Jnani is one who absorbs himself in Dhyana hence 
no necessity of Karma. While Madhwa's 
stand is that Brahma-Jnana and Moksha are not 
the monopoly of Sanyasis. They are open to all 
without exception of creed, country, sex or colour. 
So, every one must continue actions proper to his 
or her status. Moreover, no human being can ab- 
sorb himself for all the 24 hours of the dayand 
during all his life either in meditation or in know- 
ledge. Hence when he comes down from his Dhya- 
na he shall perform the duties proper to him. It 
is sufficient if we note down these differences and 
continue our Sadhana till we become Aparoksha 
Jnanee?. Moreover, Shankar admits Karma until 
almost the last stage in Sannyasai.. Parama-hamsa 
stage; he holds that a Sannyasi should perform 
Loka-Sangraha actions and he himself has actually 

done so throughout his life. I am of opinion that 
Shankar has advanced his extreme theory of total 
Karma-Sanyasa as the extreme logical conclusion 
from the hypothsis from which he started. It is an 
academical discussion.Shankar was Vishnu Bhakta 
throughout his life and did Loka Sangraha. Kar- 
ma Sannyasa is allowed in some manner by Madh- 
wa also for, we can ignore even our Sandhya Van- 
dan etc. when we are really absorbed in m ^ditation 
on God. 

Points of keenest differences :- I simply note 
down the keen differences without discussing them 
in detail, but shall give the views of Madhwa. 
Those are as under :- (1) Whether self-conscious- 
ness remains in Mukti or not is the chief point of 
contention; (2) Whether the world exists as real 
world to a Mukta; (3) Whether Muktas return to 
the. world at times or not (4) Whether Mukta 
Purusha enjoys worldly happiness after Mukti etc. 
According to Madhwa, there is Bheda between 
Jeeva and Jeeva and God etc; self-consciousness 
remains in Mukti. Consciousness of the world is 
not lost. In fact Mukti according to Madhwa is a 
state of fullest self -consciousness, fullest world- 
consciousness and fullest God-consciousness. For, 
according to Madhwa God includes self and world. 
They are in His womb. Moksha consists in knowing 

[ 235 ] 

Vishnu and in knowing all objects and enjoying bliss 
by Mukta Jeeva. If there were absence of such 
knowledge, where would be there happiness in 
Mukti ? There can be no knowledge in the absence 
of an object of knowledge. In the absence of know- 
ledge, there results Shoonyatwa or annihilation. 
Therefore, Moksha is always accompanied with 
objects of knowledge (in the shape of various for- 
ms of God) and the nature of Moksha is full eter- 
nal joy and happiness. (Brah. Up, IV-V and Bha- 
shya). Immortality or Moksha of the ever-conci- 
ous Jeeva consists in this; that the Mukta Jeeva 
should know in Mukti the wisdom and the activities 
and of the supreme God and in order to emphasise 
the fact that At ma is eternal that YAJNA-VALKHYA 
cries ' AVINASI VA ARE AYAMATMA ' So also to re- 
move the false notions about Mukti of Vaisheshikas 
who hold that Moksha consists in the extinction of all 
specific- knowledge of God, that Yajna-Valkya says 
God is ' ANUCHHITTI DHARMA, etc ' i. e. the speci- 
fic knowledge is never destroyed. So also, the 
notion of those who hold that pure consciousness 
without any object of consciousness rermins in 
Moksha is misleading and to emphasise this point 
Madhwa in his Bhashya emphatically affirms that 
44 There can be no consciousness without an object 
of consciousness." He quotes for his position 


(Brah Up. VII-25-21 plus 26 plus 1-1-6 and Ka- 
tha Up. IV-15 and Mund Up. IIM-5 etc). Muktas 
are bodyless in the sense that they have no ma- 
terial bodies. Their bodies consist of pure bliss 
and knowledge, just as that of God, only in a far 
lesser degree. Muktas have no sense-organs they 
do not consume any food nor excrete anything. 
As to the Bheda in Mukti, it follows ipso facto 
from the premises. Here I wish to remind my 
Madhwa brotheren that this Bheda refers to Mukti 
state and this Bheda is experienced only in Mukti 
state. It does not refer to Bheda in this world at 
all; for, Shankar was not a fool to question Bheda 
in the present state nor was Madhwa such a fool 
to attack Shankar on that ground. Bheda mea- 
ning Bahu-Bhava is what Madhwa means and 
which Shankar admits. About self-consciousness 
Madhwa is very emphatic. He says there is little 
wisdom or knowledge in knowing that the dead 
have no consciousness so,that was not what Yajna- 
Valkya meant. Moreover, the attainment of com- 
plete Neiscience or AVIDYA cannot be the aim of 
any school. It is rather the attainment of know- 
ledge that every school covets. What can there 
be a more dreadful thing than the condition of a 
drowned consciousness ? So ,Mukta must retain con- 
ousness. They have no contact with Jada-Prakri- 

[ 237 ] 

ti and when a new creation begins, Prakriti has no 
P9\ver over Muktas. Madhwn admits that there 
are various anomalies in scriptures but they are 
apparent only; they disappear when the texts are 
read in the light of difference. Then all contra- 
dictions melt away. Ne ; ther a word, nor a sylla- 
ble nor even an accent in the Mantras of Vedas is 
redundant. It is to be noted that some great men 
are not quite definite about the exact idea of Muk- 
ti and so make doubtful statements saying that it 
may or may not he Adwaita or Dwaita. If these 
had studied the works of Madhw,\ who has raised 
definite objections and <*iven' his clearest conclusion 
on the matter and aimed that condition as Poor- 
natwa, they would not have wavered in that way. 
Some others.strangely enough say that Upanishads 
and Brahma-Sootras too,are not clear on the point 
and give no definite leading. They are wrong. 
They have raised same objections against Shanka- 
ra's Maya-vada and yet are not liberal enough to 
accept Madhwa's decision on the matter and to 
acknowledge their debt to him ! They pass re- 
marks without even caring to study him in the 
original. Some petty politicians assume a patro- 
nising mood and say well - all sects are true, all 
of them lead to the same God ! I have already 
answered it clearly. All these persons would have 


changed their opinion if they had carefully studied 
Madhwa works and would have expressed their 
opinion boldly if they were frank and sincere and 
if they had not assumed the tone of undeserving 
patronage. The so-called Adwaiti of Vivekananda 
and some others is not exactly the Adwaita of 
S nankar. Let us not quarrel about mere words ! 
Let us look to the substance. 


Sadhana is purely personal. But, for fullness 
of Sadhana, a congenial atmosphere is needed. 
Such an atmosphere depends mainly upon two 
factors;- (1) Free country and (2) Free Society. 
Politics is the body; Society represents mind; Re- 
ligion is the Soul. Bharat-Desha is our country. 
Its Social structure is its mind. Special culture is 
its chief Prana and Religion is its soul. Our Rhi- 
shis have succeeded in developing all these factors 
except the first. They did not build up the free- 
dom of the country. This is the first time that 
we have again freedom; and it is for the statesmen 
to utilise this freedom fully. As a nationalist and 


philosopher, I can only suggest the basic principles 
of such a freedom in a philosophical book like this. 
The future of a country finally hangs upon the 
religious, national and social philosophies. 

Group of Souls ;- Here, in our Universe, there 
are no group-souls, but there are groups of souls. 
A group is a miniature universe consisting of va- 
riety of souls - Satwika, Rajas and Tamas mixed 
together. In the scriptures, there is mention of 
Samasti (Collective) Jeevas but they are of Gods 
such as Brahma, Prana, Shesha, Garuda, Rudra 
etc. (Bra. Bha. Bha.) presiding over groups of 
souls. Prana or Bharat is the presiding deity of 
this country. Bharati is the wife of Prana and we 
are her sons - Bharateeyas. - The presding deity 
of Earth is called Bhoo-Devi. We have Samasti 
Devatas such as Jala-Devata, Vana-Devata, Gra- 
ma-Devata etc. The evolution of administrative 
unit of Bharat- Bhumi as a whole was checked by 
foreign in-roads. Under the changed circumstances 
I suggest the following principles :- (1) The fault 
committed by old Empires of over-centralisation 
should be avoided; (2) Linguistic groups which 
have now become living units should be formed; 
(3) inter-provincial links should be created to check 
the growth of over-provincialism and to foster 
ationnalism; (4) it must be remembred that 


administration is for the people and not people for 
the administration; (5) Government in these days 
has to be a secular Govt. Its duty is to keep 
peace and order and see to the economical pros- 
perity; (6) it should not intermeddle with religi- 
ous or social problems; (7) a secular Government 
means the protector of all religions and sects and 
not the destroyer (8) Govt. should not be a party 
affair; (9) Real Congress is the congress of all 
parties; otherwise it is purely a party affair; (10) 
the manias of one language and no religion should 
be abandoned; (11) Hybrid Hindi should be puri- 
fied, perfected and allowed to grow and become 
at best Lingua Franca; (12) no higher place should 
be allowed to it and it should not be forced upon 
people; (13) it should be made optional at all 
stages; (14) sacred Sanskrit should occupy the 
place of honour as it is the only one language in the 
whole world which is most scientific and fully 
developed; (15) Sanskrit should be made easy and 
should ever remain the language of the learned; 
( 16) English is necessary for the educated and for 
inter-nationalism. The cry of Akhand-Bharat 
has a meaning, though not exactly that which is 
given to it by a party. Country as a whole admi- 
nistrative unit is yet in the formation. This subject 
belongs to politics and is the field of Kshatriya 

[ 241 ] 

Class, who should be guided by the Brahmin or 
Religious class. Brahmin is the Hridaya (Heart) 
and Kshatriya is the body (Bhag. III-22-3). Brah- 
mins therefore should be satisfied to remain inside 
i. e. heart and allow Kshatriya-Anga to work in 
accordance with its dictates. 

Social system of Bharat:- The Eternal law of 
God is that the whole world should be evolved as 
far as possible, in accordance with His first plan 
of creation which is to offer opportunities to Jee- 
vas to redeem themselves by their Sadhana. The 
whole world is, knowingly, or un-knowingly -pro- 
gressing towards that destined ful-filment. To re- 
alise this eternal law in all its fullness requires the 
highest wisdom and greatest Tapascharya and 
fullest love for mankind. Our Rhishis as Super- 
men moulded the destinies of our country and gave 
to it a particular shape. The first principle of our 
social system is that it makes only two divisions in 
mankind - (1) good and (2) bad. Occupations may 
vary, but Sadhanas need not vary. So it wel- 
comes all those who accept its religious, social pri- 
nciples without any distinction of country, caste, 
creed or colour. It does not insist upon conversion 
either by force or by inducement. 

Root Principle of Varnashrama :- Our reli- 
gion is Sanatana-Dharma. It is in-separably mixed 


up with Varnashrama. To explain it I must go to 
first creation. The world is born from Triguna- 
Prakriti; this world is the result of Raja and not 
of Shuddha Satwa. But this Raja which is again 
the combination of the three gunas has Satwa in 
predominance. Varnashrama system is born out 
of this Raja in which Satwa is predominant. All 
the four Varnas - Brahmin* Kshatriya, Vaishya 
and Shoodra have Satwa in abundance. In the 
state of equilibrium of these qualities, there is no 
Sristi; when the equilibrium is disturbed, the 
creation begins. There is infinite variety. Out of 
endless varieties,Varnasharma takes satwik variety. 
It presupposes certain amount of culture. So, 
aboriginal tribes etc. do not come under it. Those 
only who wish for four Purusharthas come under 
this system. Those who did not accept our cul- 
ture were left out of account. Varnashramites 
do not want to force even their good qualities upon 
others. One should himself lead a model lifejothers 
may copy it. Compulsion even in education is not 
our method. One must be, so to say, sanskritised 
i. e. cultured before one can be taken into the fold. 
Souls are like pearls in the sea or diamonds or 
gold in mines. They must be taken out and cultured. 
Organisation of Varnashrama :- Society is a 
human institution; So, must have constitution - its 

[ 243 ] 

rules and regulation?. The first rule is that it is 
based upon Guna-Karma (Gita IV). By Guna is 
to be understood, not the apparent virtues and 
vices etc.-for,no one can be sure of them and there 
can be no safe test of them-hut upon inherent gu- 
nas and karmas. Birth has been taken as the only 
possible and uniform criterion, under the circum- 
stances and for more than 10 thousand years, it is 
firmly rooted in our country. Varnas, really are 
not the monopoly of India. In fact, they are all 
over the world. But they were not organised 
there as here. The Sanatanees are conscious of 
the fact that it is not an ina voidable test and a per- 
fect test, yet it is the only possible and safe test 
for continuity. It is a convention. Other count- 
ries have tried other method?, why, even in our 
country there were revolts against it from the be- 
ginning. But none have stood the test of times. 
Birth has its obvious flaws. So, in order to bring 
men in line with virtues, the second principle of 
Ashramas has been adopted. In my view, it is 
more important; for, it trains men on proper lines 
and can be adopted by all Sadhakas. Sects also 
have or rather had the same aim. They were 
training centres. Tradition too is a good training 
ground. In Bhagavat, besides birth, nine or ten 
qualities are mentioned to develop the virtues 


necessary for particulr standards. They are Aga- 
ma, Yajana, Deshn, Kala, Karma and Janma, 
Dhyana, Mantra, Sam^kara etc. Janma therefore 
is only one of them, 1/10 of it. All these go to 
develop real gunas required for each Varna. At* 
least one thing is certain- Varnashramites were 
sincere and honest. Do not judge the value of 
principles from the present degraded condition. 
Take for instance - Ahimsa. Can you blame it 
because there are so many violations? No, certain- 
ly not. Principles should be judged on their own 
merits. Brahmins burdened themselves more with 
duties, than, rights. They prohibited Vedas not 
only to Shoodras but to Brahmin-bandhus (false 
brahmins) also. Sift the principles from the 
chaff. A thick fog has been gathered over this 
subject owing to recent political and social revolu- 
tionary spirit. Freedom of society is in danger. 
It is a new danger in the life history of this nation. 
It is the first time that it is interfered with by a 
child - Govt. Philosophers like Shankar had 
sufficient patience and confidence to wait for their 
ideas for being percolated through, down to the 
masses. So they allowed the Smritikaras to be- 
come Law-givers, 

Madhwa and Castes ;- Varnashrama is too 
well known and so needs no further elucidation, 


Here, I state what Madhwa thinks about Varnas. 
He does not regard birth as the sole test. Here- 
dity too according to Madhwa is not the te-5t. N j 
doubt some constituents of the parents' body de- 
scend to children - some through father, some 
through mother; some diseases are hereditary, 
descending to number of generations. But it is 
not a uniform law. Past actions of Jeeva. that is 
born has its own part to play. Environment is a 
great factor, but it can be combatted to some ex- 
tent by Sat-Sang. More than all' these, the inhe- 
rent nature of the soul is the greatest factor. Mor- 
eover, there is the great influence over heredity, 
of the ideas prevailing at the time of actual union 
of husband and wife. Hence, the injunction to 
perform it in a spirit of Yajna. In short, it is a 
most complicated subject. Madhwa says a Brah- 
min in this life may be born in next life as a Shoo- 
dra or Antyaja according to his actions in this life, 
or a Shoodra today may be born as Brahmin. 
Birth is not merely accidental. It is Daiwayatta. 
The cause may be unknown and unknowable too, 
to ordinary men. So Madhwa makes a division of 
Varnas into 2 classes - (1) Bhaga vat Varnas (2) 
Varnas by birth. The spirit of his teaching is this- 
that f original Gunas, Karmas are the real tests. He 
has no objection to regard with respect Shoodra or 


a Chandala if he becomes a Bhagavat i. e. Das 
of God and he has no objection to give him 
Vaishnava Deeksha and honour him equally with 
Brahmins (Bhag. VIM 1-35). But following Shan- 
kar and also tradition he did not want to disturb 
the structure of society. For real Sadhakks what 
is really wanted is a field for Sadhana. He was 
not a Smritikara for the whole country. He has 
given Smriti for his sect. 

My Scheme of re-organisation :-\ am perfectly 
aware that I am writing against the modern trend 
of thought, when I speak about the re-organisation 
on the basis of Varnashrama. Yet I make myself 
bold to write, in the interest of my religion, count- 
ry and also of the world. I have a strong belief 
that until the whole human society is re-organised 
on the fundamental principles of Varnashrama, 
with suitable adjustments, according to changed 
times, there will be no peace. Every devise must 
fail, whether it is communism, socialism or any 
-ism. The society may be disturbed for a short or 
long time; a period of one or two hundred years 
is nothing in the life of a nation. But, apart from 
that, I give below my own scheme of reconstruct- 
ion. I have based it on as broad lines as possible. 
I shall be glad to re-consider my tentative scheme 
in the light of new suggestions. I recommend 

C 247 ] 

(for, I do not want to assume the role of a dictator 
or Smrtikar) two kinds of societies:- (1) based 
upon the Varnashrama, by birth; (2) new kind of 
Varnashrama societies based upon any other prin- 
ciple or principles such as virtues, deeksha, edu- 
cation, occupation etc. This will ^ive an opportu- 
nity for peaceful experiments without distrubing 
social frame. If Varnashramites themselves are 
unwilling to organise, let Brahmins organise their 
separate society (not for political power, but for 
their Tapascharya) for acquiring Brahma-VirH'as 
and for becoming true Brahmins.Let them see that 
at least one fourth of their society is completely 
devoted to Tapascharya and let it be supported by 
others Kshatriya-Brahmins, Vaishya-Brahmins, 
if, as is likely, they are not supported by others. 
To support such an intelligent sacrificing class, 
completely devoted to religion is not merely a 
charity but is the bounden duty of the whole na- 
tion. Now that Bhoo-dan is practically closed to 
them (for, I do not wish that Brahmins should take 
up to plough whole of their life) let them organise 
their own Dewa-Daya, Brahma-daya funds. But 
the whole Brahmin class must remember that 
their goal of life is not to become rich but always 
to serve the whole community by their Tapas- 
charya. If the commupity does not develop that 


mentality, they have no right to exist. So, oppre- 
ssion of Brahmins, I regard as a boon in disguise. A 
Brahmin has no right to become rich and he is not a 
real brahmin, who does not sacrifice to his utmost. 
In Bhagawat a rule is laid down that every one must 
spend at-least 1/5 of his wealth for Dharmai.e.Cha- 
rity (Bhag. VIIM9-37), How many rich men are 
there who observe this rule? Let capitalists keep 
their charity fund in public banks and give its 
account to the public. Then they will know how 
infinitely small is their charity fund ! Those must 
be ashamed who throw one or two coins to a poor 
brahmin or beggar and boast that they have done 
their duty to religion ! 

Meanwhile, let me ring my small warning bell 
for Government and social reformers. To force 
reform, by law - apart from the question whether 
it is good or bad - without the authorised consent 
of those concerned is nothing but mere puisalani- 
mity and pride of power. Such a policy is fraught 
with danger ! Hnnds off from such reform ! 
Compulsion, conscription, concentration of power 
are but indications of intoxication of excessive 
arrogance. In the west Clergy ruled the country ! 
Here it is not so. The Government here is not a 
representative body for religious and social reform- 
Religion is too sacred a subject to be touched* by 


defiled hands of mass mentality. Mass mentality 
is useful only for feeling the pulse of the country. 
Customs should be allowed to die but should not 
be killed. In the meanwhile, I also warn my reli- 
gious brethern that a new Smriti is an urgent ne- 
cessity. In the absence of a great Manu or Yajna- 
valkya, the task must be taken up by religious 
congress or by a select representative body of 
Mathadhipaties and religious experts. Re-constru- 
ction of society is hundred times more difficult 
than political reconstruction. 

Sadhanas :- For whom ?:- This question may 
appear strange. But really, it is not so; for, the 
Sadhanas prescribed by all our teachers are meant 
only for a particular class of people. Here I shall 
have to answer what those people are, I prefer 
to call them Vaidics, Sanatanees, or Bhagavatas 
and others as Hindis. I know, this my answer is 
not definite. Yes; I cannot define. It is always very 
difficult to define a thing. Such a class is now 
generally called Hindus and our religion is called 
c Hinduism. ' But these words connote nothing. 
Therefore I have suggested the above names as 
some of the best. This question did not seriously 
arise as long as our religion, culture, and country 
were one. We were all Bharateeyas. But other 
religions and cultures have entered this land, so we 


want some other word to express who the true 
Bharteeya's are. A few great men have tried to 
define c Hinduism ' but have failed to do so accu- 
rately Loknunya Tilak tried to define it. His defi- 
nition is imperfect. My friend Mr. Sawaikar has 
tried his best to define it. It is both vague and 
defective It is neither a definition nor a descri- 
ption. The name Vaidics became out of place, 
when Buddhas and Jains adopted our culture. The 
word Arya was in use at the time of Sanskrit dra- 
mas. But 'Dravid' word disturbed its use. If I re- 
member right, Shri. Aravinda holds that the di- 
stinction between Aryas and Dravidians is a myth. 
Any how, another word is required for common 
use. c Sanatanees * accurately describes it because 
according to Madhwa our religion and culture are 
Sada-Tana - Eternal. It is eternal wisdom. The 
word Bhagavat also expresses it beautifully and is 
meaningful. Madhwa distinguishes natural varnas 
from artificial varnas based on birth. But the 
question c who are we, ' is comparatively of less 
importance than the question * What are we 1 ? 
Common words conceal more than they can con- 
vey. So, I would like to follow the method of 
Madhwa in this respect. He named his God 
c Poorna ', c Vishnu ', * Hari ' etc. But he gave 
more importance to the characteristics of Gotfand 


so we find in his main tenet i. e. Poornatwa Siddh- 
anta about Para-Brahma the chief characteristics 
of that God. Therefore, here also I try to give 
Lakshanas i. e. characteristics of our eternal reli- 
gion, I have made them as elastic as possible. 

Characteristcs of Bharateeya culture :- There 
are two aspects to our Sanatana Dharma - (1) Its 
eternal or Sana-tana aspect; (2) Its special or 
Vishistha Swaroop. Its eternal aspect is such as 
would be acceptable to all the world. According 
to this, there is no division of country, race or 
religion or nation or province. One may even dis- 
believe God. But the Sadhanas advised therein 
can be practised by any one. But they shall have to 
accept the fundamental principles,underlying Sana- 
tana Dharma such asMoksha; Life after death etc. 
if they want to come into our society. Unless they 
accept at-least some minimum number of tenets we 
shall not take them into our fold and call them 
Sanatanees, Here I am confining myself to the 
second aspect; for, this book is miinly meant for 
those who pride themselves in being called true 
Bharateeas. If the first aspect embodies the spirit 
of eternal religion, the second aspect determines 
its form. It is necessary for every religion to frame 
its constitution in order to distinguish it from all 
others. So far, no such special characteristics 

[ 252 ] 

have been fixed.Hence my attempt.They are these:- 
(1) General acceptance of its universal aspect as 
stated above; (2) Faith in four Vedas, Upanishads in Vedicculture;(Jains are included. 
They too have got four Varnas and sixteen Sans- 
karas;) (3) Faith in four Purusharthas i. e. chief 
ends of life; (4) Faith in four Varnas by birth or 
varnas according to guna and Karma. So, only 
2 main classes of societies each being allowed to 
have their own sects, constitutions and (5) Four 
Ashramas i. c. orders of life. Belief in the above 
five principles is the minium requirement for being 
called a true sanatanee or bharatiya. Mere birth 
is a very poor consolotion unless we have respe- 
ct for the special culture. So, we are Bharateeas 
for 2 reasons :- (1) Birth; (2) Special Culture. 


quires highest sacrifice. Selfishness and Godliness 
are quite opposite to each other. The spirit of 
self-sacrifice is beautifully described by YAJNA- 
CHAKRA (Gita 111*16) in Gita. Every Jeeva depeffds 


upon another Jeeva. We cannot live in this world 
without the co-operation of other Jeevas. The art 
of harnessing others to their own work is known 
to many; but very few know the art and pleasure 
of harnessing themselves to other's work. That 
is the secret of Madhwa's Jeeva-Jeeva-bheda - not 
opposition between the two Jeevas but co-operation. 
We are all sons of God, and so are brothers. Se- 
condly, we have to sacrifice our lower nature. 
Every soul, however, great, has some lower nature 
too. It has its use in the economy of life. But lower 
passions need no licensing; thus no permits need be 
granted. They rather require controlling and ra- 
tioning. Conquer your passions and desires means 
control them. Lower nature is the real Pashu to 
be sacrificed. Madhwa boldly put a stop to the 
practice of sacrificing a real Pashu in Yajnas and 
substituted a Pashu-animal made of flour - Why ? 
in order to bring before the minds the necessity of 
sacrificing lower nature. In village Jatras of Dur- 
ga and Dyamavva, a buffalo is first fed fat and is 
killed by the lowest class of people. Holi festival 
?ilso is of the same kind. Lower passions are the 
real demons in our body - ' Asuras ' which mean 
those who revel in purely worldly pleasures (Asu- 
life) lovers of this life; while gods are lovers of 
light (Brah. Up. III-l). This is the secret of the 


fight between Devas and Asuras, in which at first 
Asuras become victorious and afterwards are de- 
feated. Ashwa-Medha-Yajna also means the same 
thing. Ashwa means senses (Katha. Up.). The 
example of Chatur-Mukha teaches the same fact. 
The first thing he desired was to worship the All 
Full God with All full sacrifice (Brah. 1-2) and 
this All Full sacrifice was Ashwamedha i. e. of Ash- 
wa i. e. senses. Other Gods have other Vahanas 
such as goat etc. The principle is the same - sac- 
rifice of lower nature. 

na requires a proper education. Consolidated, 
improved and revised publications of our religious 
books and the over-hauling of our studies are the 
very first necessities. Different systems for di- 
fferent classes of people. We should have separate 
institution to train up our intelligent classes and 
special institutions should be opened for special 
Sadhanas. To the intelligent class, health is more 
important than physical strength-spiritual strength 
should be aimed at. I see the danger to our Sana- 
tana Dharma under the pretext of mass education. 
Universities should give universal education of all 
philosophies while Ashramas are for Sadhakas. 
So, I understand Aravind-Ashrama, Guru-kulas 
etc;<but I cannot understand Aravinda University, 


where special perference is to be given to Aravind 
philosophy. The relationship of Guru and Shi- 
shya is a special feature. One Guru for one Shi- 
shya. So, the modern system of secular education 
huddling together hundreds of students in one class 
without even sorting according to different capaciti- 
es should be condemned. The education now given 
to our boys is to stuff or fill their heads, as if they 
are waggons,with bundles & parcels of information 
or with baggages useless to their future life. The 
duty of giving knowledge together with the duties 
of mercifulness and humanity is the first necessity. 
Those who are learned should not be egoistic; 
must learn to control themselves (Brah. Up.V-3). 
Isha, Up. goes further and says that sin is incurr- 
ed if they do not do so. So, it is the bounden 
duty of the learned to give the benefit of their 
Knowledge to the ignorant, Second virtue is 
that of Dana. One has no right to keep for 
himself more than bare necessity. Gita is 
Strict on this point. He is a thief who does 
So. I may give the example of a boiling rice. 
The boilng rice throws away the extra water 
from the cooking pot. The third virtue is compa- 
ssion, Daya for those who are less fortunate. 

SAMANWAYA METHOD:- Veda-Vyasa and Ma- 
dhwa were great harmonisers, Veda-Vyasa had 


several Shishyas such as Jaimim, Badari and oth- 
ers. It is worth noting how Veda-Vyasa has com- 
promised differences between them. He has not 
denied the different interpretations put by them 
but has explained them away,by pointing how they 
are all partial and not full; and has given his own 
full and complete explanation. The three Achar- 
yas were all Shishyas of Veda-Vyasa and there- 
fore if there are differences, they must be due to 
some other cause. I think a historical view also 
will go a%reat way to clear the point. Madhwa 
regarded Veda-Vyasa with the greatest respect 
un-equalled by any body. He regards Veda-Vyasa 
is an Avatar of Narayan Himself and Madhwa is 
also known to be a Samanwaya-kar himself and 
we can see that how beautifully he has welded into 
one whole (Poorna) all the different trends of 
thought. Sadhana especially is almost common to 
all. I have tried therefore, to find out the greatest 
common factor among Sadhanas of all schools.Let 
us all try our best to do our Sadhana and get our 
best. No one should be Zero and no one can be 
infinitely, perfect in Sadhana. The path is narrow 
and difficult (Brah. Up. IV-4). <l From every one 
according to his capacity and to every one accor- 
ding to his deserts and in accordance with universal 
justice." is Madhwa's motto. 


My Attitude :- When I made up my mind to 
write this book, I determined to take my stand 
on a high pedastal, and from there, to look at the 
reverential figures of Veda-Brahma, Veda-Vyasa 
and his three recogised Shishyas - SHANKAR, RA- 
MANUJA and MADHWA etc. Karnatak is the Home 
of all these Schools except Buddhism. Madhwa 
was born in Karnatak. Shankar has his Chief 
Math at Shringeri and Ramanuja is the Guru of 
King Vishnu-Vardhana. Jainism has its chief Di - 
gambar Sect here. So, I have got naturally a 
motherly and respectful affection towards all these 
schools.I do not think that any philosopher can give 
anything more in our philosophy than what these 
teachers have given.To assert that one is more ad- 
vanced than even the great Rhishis of old is a pre- 
posterous claim.Such a person must justify .'his claim 
by actually pointing out the defects of the above. 
Madhwa,as being almost the last,had an advantage 
over others and to me at-least he seems to have 
brought religious philosophy upto-date to his times, 
But new times require new adjustments and new 
presentations and also new attitude -and 'this is all 
that I have tried to do in this book. I mustjadmit 
that mine is rather a new approach. To sectari- 
ans,! appear to be a heterodox and to modern men 
I appear to be an out-and-out orthodox. But in 

[ 258 ] 

fact, Tarn neither and I am either. Mine is only 
a re-assessment of old values and nothing mere. 
So far, the emphasis was mainly on differences 
between these schools and now I want to turn it to 
points of similarities. In my opinion,the days of con- 
troversy and mass con versions are over,thedaysof 
compromise have come, and I have shown how we 
can do so without giving up our faith in our own 
Guru. The warfaring attitude has been sufficiently 
thrashed by both parties; with greatest zeal/ and 
we should be grateful to them for having brought 
forth the best they could. No use brandishing 
those old weapons now. Pandits are now doing 
nothing but repeating the old arguments. In short, 
this therefore is my attitude. As yet, no body, 
as far as I know, has tried systimatically to do so. 
Hence my Attempt. You may call this attitude 
new. But I have myself the fullest faith in Madh- 
wa and I have not artfully or skillfully -concealed 
that fact. 

PHY:-A11 names are names expressing one or more 
qualities or attributes which they possess. There 
is no word without a meaning and there is no ob- 
ject without a name. God is He who 'possesses 
all qualities of all objects and also infinitely more. 
So to know God is to know All. But the'.reVerse 


is not true. A limited being cannot' know 
fully the Infinite God. But man can know about 
God, His All i. e. to his utmost capacity and by 
Sadhanas secure that goal. This is the basic 
principle on which the whole structure of Madhwa 
Philosophy is built. So, all names can be shown 
etymologically to be the names of God primarily. 
They are names of objects secondarily. Madhwa 
has shown how from every object, property or 
properties belonging to God can be extracted. 
Shruties declare (Aait. Up. and Anu. Vya. 1-4-2) 
that all Vedas, all words, letter*, accents, declare 
the Glory of God. All sounds-the roaring sounds 
of sea, the thundering sounds of clouds, the mild 
murmurs of waves of rivers,the flashings of lighten- 
ings-nay, the lisping sound of lizards even, all these 
proclaim the glories of God. They .are but par- 
tial expressions of His qualities. Therefore, God 
is the only person who is Poorna. He is the sum 
total of all virtues (Anu. Vya. III-2-212), God is 
an object of infinite demensions. 

Parallels between Madhwism and Zarathnst- 
rism:- Now, I wish tcx draw the attention of my 
readers to some of the striking parallels, between 
Madhwism and Zarathustrism i. e. the religion of 
Parsees. ZENDA AVESTA supports many of the so- 
called strained interpretations of Madhwa. Atten- 

[ 260] 

tion has already been drawn by some to the inter- 
pretations of Aham-Brahma-Asmi by Madhwa as 
the three different names of God. These words 
have kept their original meanings as names of God 
in that Parsee Religion. Like Madhwa, Parsees 
also believe thnt all the different deities worshi- 
pped by them are but facets of One Supreme 
Being (Rhug 1-164-46). Here I give some extracts 
from " The Gathas of Zarathustra " edited by 
Irach. J. S. Taraporewalla, B. A., ph. D., Bar-at- 
Law (1947). "One Supreme Being bears the 
names of Ahura-Mazda.This is a double name, and 
it means " The Lord of Life " (Ahura) and the 
Creator of Matter (Maz-da). The Supreme Being 
is thus recognised as the Lord of Life as well as 
of Matter. In the words of Hindu teaching, He 
is the Iswara, from whom have emanated both 
Purusha (Spirit) and Prakriti (Matter). "(Page 20.) 
These 6 Holy Immortals are grouped in 2 triads, 
representing the c active ' or Father-aspect of the 
Supreme and the other the * passive ' or Mother- 
aspect. " The verses in Bhagavat (X-l-17-18) 
foretelling the birth of Krishna have got almost 
parallel verse in Gatha Ahunasvarti and in Iran, 
in answer to this appeal of Mother-Earth, Zara- 
thustra was barn/' (Page 8). So, Madhwas would 
do well to study Zenda-Avesta which is likely* to 


throw more light on some of the Madhwa princi- 
ples. The same author draws the attention of the 
readers to the opinion of.'Maurice Maeterlink thus:- 
" The famous Belgian author Maurice Maeterlink 
in his work on "The Great 'Secret " has proved 
conclusively that the ideas and ideals embodied in 
their Sacred Books by the Rishis of India and by 
the ancient Sages of the Aryas, have never been 
surpassed by mankind, since their" days; indeed, 
these have been seldom even equalled." (pages 

Dark-age with New -light :- A dark shadow of 
agnosticism hangs over the intellectual world to 
day. The youths have rejected, rather hastily, 
some of the most sanctified ideals and customs. 
Even morality has been questioned. Old customs 
which have lost life are crumbling one by one. It 
is but natural. The present age is certainly an 
advanced age in some respects,than the immediate 
past. The youths are more sincere and honest. 
You cannot expect youths to go through the para- 
de of dead ceremonials. On the other hand, no 
new customs have yet been established in the 
minds of youths. But we need not despair. For, 
we are already beginning to see a change in the he- 
arts of the young. If they are shown a new philoso- 
phy and religious path, they are sure to be redee- 


mmed. The cruel wars must and will open their 
eyes. When the youths find that the new substi- 
tutes for religion such as democracy, communi- 
sm, socialism etc. and other remedies have faild 
completely, they are sure to turn their eyes to- 
wards religion. The sooner they do so, the better 
for them. The evils of today lie deep in the 
vdry hearts of men. Unless these false notions 
are eradicated root and branch evil cannot perish; 
and'this can only be done by Sadhanas prescribed 
by Vedic Religion. In the fight between Bhoosu- 
ras and Asuras Fight between brains and hearts 
with brute force-Asuras always win first. Devas 
envoke the help of God and by His Grace become 
victorious at last, God does not descend to the 
earth unitl the last moment. He gives the longest 
rope to Asuras to hang themselves with and gives 
Bhoosuras the greatest opportunity to increase 
their Tapa. When the sin of Asuras is filled to 
the brim and when the Tapa of Bhoosuras is com- 
plete, yet becomes in-effective without His help 
then God Himself takes His Avatar and fulfils His 
mission of redeeming the good souls. 

of his life bears witness to it. In the whole world, 
he is the one person to declare his own Avatara- 
hood very early in life, and to live long enough to 

[ 263 ] 

justify it by his actions. When once he was con- 
vinced of any fact, he is unsparing and bold in his 
criticism. He raised a revolt against some of the 
old schools. Madhwa 5 s revolt was inspired by his 
convictions. His were, certainly not the out-burst ; 
of wrath but were the cool convictions, after Ion j 
contemplation. That he was most humble and 
tolerant is evident from the fact that throughout 
his works, he has not even taken the names of his 
opponents. All that he says is that others had mis- 
understood the facts and that he would correct 
them. In the interpretations of some Upanishads, 
he has raised some Specific objections against 
other schools (Kath. Up. Isha. Chh. Up. etc ) 
Impartial Scholars would do well to ponder over 
them. Madhwa has tried to weld into his solid 
Structure various phases of philosophy from Char- 
waka down to Ramanuja. It took me many years 
to discover his real greatness and to discover his 
role and mission. I have tried my best to put it 
into this nut-shell of my hand book. I am confi- 
dent that- scholars more learned than myself would 
do full justice to the subject. Madhwa philoso- 
phy, understood in its right spirit and according 
to times would be a beacon-light to all scholars 
of philosophy and religion. Madhwa, certainly, 
is not only a Guru of a particular sect, as is now 


supposed, but a World. Teacher of first rank. His 
37 works will ever remain as his monument. 

Madhwa Siddhanta should properly be called 


(1) AnuVya. HI-2-16-211. (2) Maha-Bha. Tat. 
11-185. (3) Maha-Bha. Tat. XXXIM74. (4) Maya- 

Upa-samhar :- The sum and substance of my 
book is this :- I have shown in PART I that the 
theory of Poorna-Brahma can accommodate many 
schools of thought, with a little spirit of give and 

take. In the concluding chapter of Part I, I have 
brought to the notice of my readers that the main 

differences are due to the different view-points 
and that such differences shall have to remain as 
long as we depend upon human logic and that there 
is a divine logic; so we should learn to look at 

things from the divine point of view. That divine 
logic is embodied for us in Vedas and our Rishis 

have actually got God-vision by following that 
path. Madhwacharya's method especially is such 
as would satisfy every one, whatever the differen- 
ces may be in details. As to philosophy Madhw'as 

method is faultless. He asks us to depend upon 
three things (1) Shruti (2) Yukti and (3) Apta- 


Vakya. The few differences about which there is 
acute controversy belong to Moksha which, I have 
stated, we need not now bother about. Bacon has 
said that the more you drink of the world, the 

more you are intoxicated. But a Sadhaka has no 
fear of such a poison; and since he has faith in 
future life he need not fear death also; for, moksha 
is the death of deaths. Our faith in God can turn 

that worldly poison into ambrosia. We are in the 
midst of fight between Devas and Danawas; no 

doubt, this curdling ( Manthana ) must bring 
out strongest poison (hala-hala). But we need noc 
fear, for, there is Mukhya Prana - our Prana en- 
ergy which will not be tainted at all by this poison 
and Prana will soften its effect even on our human 

body. That softened poison Rudra will drink and 
for our sake will keep it in his own throat; so a 

Sadhaka will be safe, since that poison will not 
descend down his throat. In this way, Bacon's 
proposition will be falsified. But the chief thing 
a Sadhaka should do is to detach his compart- 
ment from the world - railway line and attach it 
to God-line. 

My symbols of Vaishnavism explained :- These 
two figures (see the plate inserted near page 89) 
have been specially designed by me to express 

Madhwa philosophy by symbols, as much as sym- 
bols can express. The first figure is shali-gram 


stone (shali = resplendent, gram (grawa?-stone). 
This sacred stone which is worshipped througout 
India is supposed to be symbolic of the Presence 
(Sannidhya) of Vishnu. I have inserted in the 
shaligram the beautiful figure of Vishnu who is the 
Moola-Rupa of Para-Brahma. The second figure 
is that of Shankha (Conch-shill) (see P. 86) which 
also is supposed to he* symbolic of the Presence 
(Sannidhya) of Laxmi. I. have therefore inserted 
in-ihc-Shankha the beautiful figure of Laxmi, 
in order to remind the readers that Shankha re- 
presents Laxmi. 

The whole universe has emanated from Vish- 
nu through His will & Power. (Laxmi is God's will 
& Power according to Madhwa Philosophy.) 

Shaligram represents zero number (P. 85-86) 
which is Poorna-number. It is a circle without cir- 
cumference (For, God is Infinite) and shanka is 
nothing but number one in Sanskrit. So zero = 
Poorna + one make up the whole philosophy in 
symbols. (See pages 85-89 and 113.) 

Here I may bring to the notice of my readers 
that Kanak-das himself has called Para-Brahma 
as Poorna-Brahma and that Purandar-das has 
stated that Vishnu is both Sakar & Nirakar too 
in a sense; for, He is beyond the grasp of any 
body. He can assume saguna form & may become 

[ 267 ] 

Nirguna too at any time he likes. In short He is 

The sec md picture (see near page 121) is 
that of Yantroddhar Prana-Deva at Hampi or 
Vijayana^ar. It is the most sacred idol of Mukhya- 
Prana, among all idols installed by Sri Vyasaraya 
swami,the Guru of the greatest king Krishna-deva- 
raya of Vijayanagar Empire. The speciality of 
this idol is that it represents all the three Avata- 
ras of Mukhya-Prana namely Hanuma, Bhima & 
Madhwa (see page 121) and it has got mystic 
letters in an yantra-mystic circle. (It is for the 
Pandits to discipher them). 

In conclusion, I finish the book with the follo- 
wing prayers from Isha Upapishad. 

11 Oh AGNI, (The First Leader) the first Ani- 
mator (of my body) lead us by that path (from 
which there is no return); the good path,-in order 
that we may obtain that treasure of SALVATION." 
Oh God, thou knowest all our efforts for Sadha 
na. Remove from us the sin attached to us. 
We offer Thee Salutations over and over again. 
" Oh Thou of the Form of Pure Knowledge ! do re- 
member me; do remember my deeds. Oh Thou, 
of the Form of Pure Knowledge, forget me not; 
do not forget what I did for winning THY GRACE." 


Achyuta-preksha 5 
Agni59, 60, 186 
Ambhrani-Sookta 49, 95 
Anand-Teertha 5, 20, 165 

Andhra 6 
Apte 96 

Aravinda 21, 25,231 Ashram 

24, 36, 255 
Ashwa-medha 255 

Badari 4, 5, 6 
Baka 92 

Bala-Krishna 112 
Bala-Ram 112 
Balitha-Sookta 10 
B. D. Basu 50 
Bengal 10, 33, 36 
Bergson 88 
Bhandarkar-Inst 26 
Bharat - Bhumi 21 Bharati 

98, 118,240 
Britishers 170 

Buddha 20, 21, 82, 83, 84, 

87, 116, 147, 154 
Badari 257 

Chakra 10, 27 
Chaitanya 21 
Chandra-hasa 112 
Channa-keshava 89 
Chaturmukha 15. 42, 46, 74, 
105, 113,114, 115, 131, 189 

Crapa 195 
Daiwarat 25, 35, 36 
Darvin 114.123 
Das-cult 171 
.Dayananda 21, 38 
Dramida 70 
Dravidians 185 
Drona 195 
Drupad 195 
Drowpadi 144 
Duhashasana 33 
Durga 95, 254 
Dyamowwa 254 
English language 44, 241 
Europeans 65 
Gargi 74, 75 

Garuda -Vidya 185 

Germans 170 
Gokarna 25 
Hanu - 112; Hanuman 9, 27, 
28,36, 116, 121, 122 
Harihara 89 

Hari-katha-mrata-sara 174 
Hari-vamsha 61 
Hindis Hindu 241 
Hillary 199 
Indra 59, 69..,. 
Ishwara-Iinga 89 
Jagannatha-das 98 


Jana-loka 196 
Jaya-sinh 7 
Jaya-Teertha 29 
Jina20, 21, 154, 196 Jains 

200 Digambar 

Jnaneshwara 230 
Jaimini 257 
Kabip 1 1 7 
Kama-shastpa 185 
Kanak-das 79. 89,98, 112,229 
Kapnatak 25, 143, 199 
Koopma 87 
Krishna 32, 52, 69, 94, 113, 

117, 122, 144,261 
Kumapali-bhat 20 
Kumudendu 27 
Kapali-shastpi 20 

Kupu-kshetpa 7 

Laxmi (Rama) 86, 92, 93, 96 
97, 98, 144, 261, 
Lights on Veda 20 
Lingall2; Lingayatas 112 
Machha 58 

Maurice Maeterlink 262 
Madh-soodan sapaswati 82 
Madhwa-vijaya 4 
Maha-pastpa8 2171, 
Maha-veepa 20, 146 
Mahmodeans 46 
Mangal-loka 196 

Mangalope 4, 6 
Maputi 118 
Mepu 88 
Manu 250 

Mukhya-Ppana 60, 61, 86, 
115,121. 128, 190, 198,239 
Nakula 33 

Nakshatpa-vidya 185 
Nanaka 117 
Napada 184 
Napahari-TeePtha 6 
Napayanachapya 4 
Napayan 8, 13, 32, 35, 46, 

49,60,80, 108, 109 
Orissa 6 

Padmanabhacharya 2 
Padmanabha-Teeptha 6 
Paingi 97 

Pandits 25, 39, 135, 145, 179 
Papvati 89 

Patanjala-Bhashya 37 
Patanjali-YogaSl, 91, 72, 

73, 100 

Phaulls 89, 141 
Pinaki 35 
Ppadyumna 52 
Pupandap-das 80, 229, 230 
Raghvendpa-swami 25 
Raja-mahendpi 6 


Raja-yoga 121 
Rama-das 117 
Rama-nama 178 
Rama-navami 172 
Ramanuja 2, 20, 21, 66, 70, 
85, 90, 108, 264 
Rayi 198 

Rhug-Bhashya 23, 36, 37, 38 
Rhugveda-Bhoomika 20 
Rukmini 95 
Rudra 35, 69,74... 
Sahadeva 33 
Samavarga-Vidya 126 
Sankarshane 100 
Sama 32 

Santa-panth 110, 172 
Sarpa-yaga 185 
Savarkar 251 
Sayan 24 
Shabar 37 
Shakuni 33 

Shaligram 85, 86, 168, 
.Shankar2, 4, 19,20. 21, 30, 
45,48,66,81,82,83, 84, 147, 
247,258,148, 154,155,163 245 
Shankar-naryan 89 
Sheriff saheb 199 
Shankha 85, 86 
Shiva 35, 89 
Shobhan&bhat 6 

Shodashi 106 
Shyma-shastri 6 
Sootra-dhar 144 

Tamil 28 

Tarapoorwala 261 
Tatwa-manjari 77 
Tatwa-prakasha 78 

Teekaeharya 25, 29, 30, 40, 
55, 78 

Ten-singh 68 
Tukaram 230 
Tulasi-das 117 
Udipi 6, 7 


Udhisntira- 33 
Vaisheshekas 124, 173 
Vaikuntha 41 
Vallabha21, 117 

Vamadeva 37, 232 
Varuna 59 

Vashitha 37, 64 
Vasudeva 59 

Veda-Hradaya 38 
Veda-vyasa OP Vyasa 1, 4,6, 
17,19,23,26, 32, 42, 48,49, 
54,83,89,92, 105, 111, 117, 

146, 186, 191,256,259 
Veera-shavais 39, 53 

Veera-shaiva-saint 232 

Vishnu 15,35,36,42,48, 49, 
73,83,86,89, 144 


Vyasa-cult 171 
Vasaraya-swami 117 
Vyash-yoga 31 
Vivekananda 82 
Vithal 113 
Vishwamitra 37 
Vishnu-vardhan 258 
Yaska 38 

Yajnyawalkya 17 


Yudhisthira 122 

Yantroddhar Pranadeva268 



Zend-Avesta 26 


Apara-Brahma-Vidya 193 
Adhyatma-yoga 23 1 
Attitude (my) chap 258 
Bahu-Bhava 69 
Bahu-rupa 57 
Bhakti 175,218 
Bheda 69 

Brahma- jnana 192 
Brahma-vidya 193 
Brahmins 248, 249 
Body-deva-sadan 166 
Buddhavatar 162 

Bhimas superiority 33 
Bimbaparoksha 140, 141 

Bharateeya culture 251,252 
Buddhism 87 

Buddha-Avatarhood 162,163 

Caste 19/245 

Cipher 86, 87 

Creation 100, etc. purpos 

104; etc. prociss 108, 109, 
113; steps of 110, 115, 198 

Congress 241 

Country 239 

Cimprimise 89 
Custom 73, 129 

Controvirseal topics 79, 80, 
81, 82, 85 
Common-points 18, 20, 66 

Das-cult 171 
Dark-age 262 

Death-time & Prana 129 
Divrne Logic 147 
Dwaita + popular errors 

43, 46, 70 
Dwaita-meaning 69 

Doora-darshan 91 
Doora-shravana 91 
Divya-chakshu 91, 92 

Dilemma of contradictions 


Dhy anal 12, 220 
Epoch of Acharyas 20 
English language 53, 241 
Evil-problem 71, 72 
Experience 102, 135 
Essence of teachings 265 
EastA West 169 
Evolution of Vedantal 86,1 90 
FuUnessof God 103 
Fight among senses 129 
Field of Sadhana 153 
Freedom of Will 155 
Faith cure 

God - Knowledge & attai- 
nable 51, 52 Uniform & 
multi form 56, 57, 58, 59, 
60, 69, full worship of 61 
not to be worshipped as 
sun etc. 60, 61. Homoge 
neous substance 5 9,60 Full 
of auspeeious qualities 
Full-everywhere 89, 60 
In objects & not as obje- 
cts 59, 60 

Godness of God Aprakra- 

ta gunas 56 Sum total of all 
qualitees 67 
Guna-poorna 55 
Guna-guni-Abheda 56 
*Ayavoy a- A va-y awabhedaS 7 

Guna-poornatwa 68 Inde- 
pendence 76, 77 exception- 
al nature 77 Vices becomes 
virtues in God 92; Poornat- 
wa an abstract idea Concen 
trated idea given in 92 
Hanuman 121, 122, Anu- 

Mahan 27, 28 

Human body+ Sadhana 162, 
163, a machine 195 
Hatha-yoga 164 
Hindi languge 241 
Hindis 241 

Historical view of philoso- 
phy 83, 94 
Humanism 162 
Intellectual-epoch & its be- 
nifits 20, 21 

Ignorance can never cover 
Brahma 149 

Inherent difference here & 
in mukti 149 

Inter provincal links 241 
Jailor & prisoner 76 
Jada defined 103 
Jeevatatwa 125, 126, 127, 
definition 127; bodies of 127, 
131; swrooop-deha 128 Ling 
deha 119 Sookma oa Ani- 
audha-deha 119 Stool deha 


their number + size 132; 
Jnana-Paroksha & Aparok- 
sha 212 Root of knowledge 
213 gradation of faculties 
215 Knowledge- Source 137 
Karma meaning 209, Dhar- 
ma-Adharma 210 Punya & 
Papa 210 Sannyasa 211 Ni- 
vratta 210 

Laboratory experimens 114 
Madhwa Life-incidents 2-5 
works 8; Avatar-hood 9, 10, 
27,28, 115, 121; mysterions 
disappearance' 4, tours 5-7 
Uniqueines of works 22-49, 
His Rhugbhashya : 24; opini- 
ans- Pioneer of Research 
26; main propositions 41-437 
Poorna-Brahma 61, 65, 149, 
moha-theory 73: his meira- 
culous powers 121; His opti- 
mism 161, 163, 165; equality 
a myth 155, 170; 
Maya & its meanings 99,101 
Mind 134. 136 organ of sen- 
se & also a tatwa 1 3 6;* eter- 
nal & temporary 136; Con- 
sciousness & mind 136, na- 
tural & artifical 136, My 
attitude 258, Male & female 

distinction 93, Mukhya Pra- 
na 103 his part in creation 
115; most popular God 115; 
Executive Enineer 116; al- 
ways sacked 116; Installa- 
tion 117; birth & occupation 
118, His wife Bharati 118 
Electrical Power-House 118 
Relation with prana, apana 
120; Sootra 119, superior 
Il9 Salvation through his 
Grace 1 20, Vayu-vidya 1 2 1, 
Anu-mahan 1 22; Anu ''ee- 
vottam Mutt 1 22, Pranology 
137, Panch-mukhi 20 1, Reli- 
gious obbervances 1 1 2, 
Science of name* 52, 53, of 
Vedanta & its handicaps 1 94 
Shoony a- Perfect number 86 
Sootra-dhar 1 44 
Saguna-Nirguna 79 
Sakar-Nir-ikdr 80 
Symbolism 67, 85, 96, III, 

1 22 

Social system 242 
Spirituology 1 97, 1 99 
Santa-pan th 171 
Sakhi 1 39 

Sadhan Field of 153 Practi- 
cal compromise 154, 156 we" 


stern approach wrong 154 
Individualistic 154, God full 
in Sadhan 155, why neces- 
sary 157-159, Body special- 
gift 158, world a gymnasum 
hall 158, God & Path 162, 
Five factors 171, Definite 
course 194, Self halp 169 
Definite slips 178, 179, 208 
& customs 180, 181, Abnor- 
mal experiments 194, Tat- 
tantratwa 63, 74, Universe 
body cf Vishnu 68, 69, crea- 
ted through Laxmi 97, Pro- 

cess of Creation 104, 108; 
steps 110. 

Vedas-Apowareseyatwa 14, 
15, 16. 

Vedant science 183, Cha- 
llenge to Scientists 189, ter- 
minology 93 
Vairagya 208 
Varnashram 242, 246 
Will-the creator 97 
Whirl-pool of- bgb 146 
Zarathustrism & Madhawi- 
sm- Parallels 260-261. 

ERRATA ( Some corrections) 

Page Line Read Page 

VI *6 given 30 

VII 14 accommodate 31 
8 9 Vyakhyana 31 

8 13 Purana 34 

9 18 been 35 
11 20 Permanent 53 
24 9 transcends 54 
26 18 mutilated 56 

23 'Tata* after 64 
II-3 65 

29 not have 68 

2& 6 Madhwa 75 

29 15 Pratyaksha 78 

Line Read 

6 omit 'been 1 

2 books 
15 omit 4 is' 

3 Katha-Lakshana 
12 Vocabulary 

18 the 

1 7 ofcourse 

2 excellences 

1 9 means 

8 decreases 

5 those 

9 Upakrama 











































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