Skip to main content

Full text of "A handbook of the Swahili language, as spoken at Zanzibar. Edited for the Universities' mission to Central Africa"

See other formats








> — 



= co 



- i 

,111X11 . t: 












A. C. MADAN, M.A., 




43, U.UEEM VICTORIA S T^ B I^ J ^ M . B rMM WWMKW ^,^ yCT „ lw J ^ i ^ 


Lav* AUG "9 1989 


oi \$70 



The First Edition having been at the last sold out 
with unexpected rapidity, I have not been able to add 
so much as I should have wished to this. The chief 
novelty is the omission of what I called the second 
class of Substantives, which proved to be only the most 
common instance of the general rule, that Substantives 
of any and every form denoting animate beings are 
constructed with Adjectives and Pronouns in the forms 
proper to the first class. Some words have been added 
to the Vocabularies and a few mistakes corrected. 

During the last four years the work of translation 
and collection has been going steadily forward, Swahili 
preaching has been going on, and some Elementary 
School-books printed in Zanzibar for our vernacular 
schools. The great work of evangelizing Africa seems 
to grow in magnitude the more one understands what 
is required for it ; but our hopes still grow with the 
growth of our knowledge. 

Edwabd Steers 

London, January 1875. 




This Edition may be taken to represent substantially 
the final form which the Handbook assumed in the 
hands of its compiler, the late Bishop Steere. No 
estimate can be attempted here of his services to 
philology in general, and the student of African 
languages in particular, still less of their bearing on 
the spread of Christianity in Central Africa. What- 
ever the relative purity of the dialects of Mombasa and 
Zanzibar, and however great the debt Bishop Steere 
undoubtedly owed to his distinguished predecessor in 
their study, Dr. Krapf, the broad fact remains that 
Bishop Steere took the language as he found it spoken 
in the capital city of the East Coast, reduced its rules 
to so lucid and popular a form as not only to make it 
accessible, but easy to all students, and finally made a 
great advance towards stereotyping its forms and ex- 
tending its use by embodying it in copious writings 
and translations. 

Some of the last hours of his life were apparently 
spent in preparing this Handbook for a new edition. 
Those who were familiar with the many cares and 
anxieties then pressing on him, will not be surprised 
that there were signs of haste a,nd pressure in his 


xviii V Hi: FACE. 

revision. With Part 1. v.r, he seems to have 

ii satisfied. Tho cornet inns of the texl were few 
and unimportant, and thongh the Lists of Words might 
ha\ largely added t«>. he seems to have preferred 

leaving them as they were, in view of tlio strictly 
tical purpose of tho whole book. 
With Part II. (the Swahili-English Vocabulary, &c.) 
the case is rather different. AVith the aid of various 
members of the Mission, the Bishop had made some- 
what large collections in order to expand and complete 
it. Probably from the pressure of work hefore alluded 
to, he had only prepared a selection of them for this 
Edition. It has been thought better, however, to in- 
corporate all the words found in his notes and added 
with his approval. But it must be remembered that 
tin.- Bishop never regarded Tart II. as ranking as a 
Dictionary, even in embryo, but rather as a tolerably 
full list of words to serve as a useful companion to 
Part I. Even with this reservation, there remain 
many traces of imperfection in arrangement, spelling, 
and inter] >n-tation of words, which would doubtless 
have been removed if he had been allowed time to pass 
the whole list under revision finally. 

This final revision no one is in a position adequately 

to supply. Minor corrections and additions have been 

cautiously and sparingly made. One Appendix (No.V.), 

likely to subserve the practical aim of the whole, has 

n added, with the Ven. Archdeacon Hodgson's ap- 

provaL There still remain among the Bishop's notes 

us specimens of Swahili verses, pro- 

., which might have formed another. 


It is thought best, however, to reserve them, and leave 
the whole book, as far as possible, as the Bishop left it. 
Subsequent editors may find something to add. They 
probably will not find much to alter. 

A. C. M. 

P.S. — Dr. Krapf's great Dictionary of the Swahili 
Language, in its printed form, was in the Bishop's 
hands too short a time to allow of his making any use 
of it for this Edition of the Handbook. 

Zanzibar, Christmas, 1882. 



• » • ••« 

Introduction ... 

The Alphabet 

Substantives : — 

Grammatical rules 
List of Substantives 

Adjectives: — 

Grammatical rules 
Irregular Adjectives 
Comparison of Adjectives 
Numerals ... 
List of Adjectives ... 

Pronouns : — 

Personal Pronouns 
Possessive Pronouns 
Reflective Pronouns 
Demonstrative Pronouns . 
Relative Pronouns 
Interrogatives, &c 

Verbs : — 

Irregular Verbs 
Auxiliary Verbs 
Derivative Verbs 
Lii '^ of Verbs 

... ... 








7'. 1 1! l. !■: F ( '0 .V TEN TS. 


Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions 209 

I - i - 1 oi Adv< rbs, &c 212 


Formation of Words 226 

le of Noun Prefixes in nine languaj 234 

leof the Preposition -o in four languages 235 


Preliminary 01,?prv;i lions ,., 23!) 

Swahili-English Vocabulary 245 

Appendices: — 

1. Specimens of Kuyume 425 

II Specimens of Swahili Correspond n<v jjy 

III. Part of a Swahili Tale, with the Prefixes marked 

and explained i::i 

IV. rjgp.ful and Idiomatic Phra u:; 

V. Uu Money, Weights and measures in Zanzibar ... 455 


There is probably no African language so widely known 
as the Swahili. It is understood along the coasts of 
Madagascar and Arabia, it is spoken by the Seedees in 
India, and is the trade language of a very large part of 
Central or Intertropical Africa. Zanzibar traders pene^- 
trate sometimes even to the western side of the conti- 
nent, and they are in the constant habit of traversing 
mor^ than half of it with their supplies of Indian and 
' ^ropean goods. Throughout this immense district 
any one really familiar with the Swahili language will 
generally be able to find some one who can understand 
him, and serve as an interpreter. 

This consideration makes it a point of the greatest 
importance to our Central African Mission that Swahili 
should be thoroughly examined and well learnt. For 
if the members of the Mission can go forth from Zan- 
zibar, or, still better, can leave England already well 
acquainted with this language, and provided wilh 
books and translations adapted to their wants, they 
will carry with them a key that can unlock the secrets 
of an immense variety of strange dialects, whose very 
names are as yet unknown to us. For they will not 

a 2 

iv Fill: FACE. 

only lio nl >lo at once to communicate with new tribes, 
but in mastering this really simple and far from 
difficult language they will have learnt how to set 
rning ami writing all others of the same class, 
since they agree with Swahili in all the chief respects 
in which it differs from our European tongues. 

The work, then, which is here "begun is not to he 
arded as though its utility were confined to the 
islands and the narrow strip of coast of which this 
language is the vernacular, but much rather as the 
broad foundation on which our labours in the far inte- 
i ior must for many years be built up. As there is no 
way by which those inner lands are so ordinarily or can 
be so easily reached as from Zanzibar and the coast 
dependent on it, so neither is there any way by which 
we can make ourselves so readily intelligible, or by 
which the Gospel can be preached so soon or so well as 
by means of the language of Zanzibar and its dependen- 
B, to which this work is intended as an introduction 
a language whir) i, through its Arabic relations, has 
a hold on revealed religion, and even on European 
thought, while, through its negro structure, it is 
• xactly fitted to serve as an interpreter of that re- 
ligion and those thoughts to men who have not yet 
even heard of their existence. 

When r.i-diop Tozer arrived in Zanzibar at the end of 
August 18G4, the only guides we had to the language 
re the grammar and vocabulary of Dr. Krapf, and his 
translation of part of the Book of Common Prayer. 
1 hiring Bishop Tozer's visit to Mombas in November, 
he made a copy of a revised vocabulary belonging to 


the Eev. J. Eebmann. However, although one cannot 
estimate too highly the diligence and linguistic ability 
displayed by Dr. Krapf and the patient sagacity of Mr. 
Eebmann, we soon found that, owing partly to the fact 
of their collections having been made in the dialect of 
Monibas, and still more to the confused and inexact 
style of spelling adopted unfortunately by both, their 
works were of scarcely any use to a mere beginner. 

I soon after procured copies of the manuscript voca- 
bularies collected by Mr. Witt and Mr. Schultz, then 
representing the firm of O'Swald and Co. in Zanzibar, 
and with such help as I could procure from any quarter, 
I began in July 1865 to print the first pages of my col- 
lections for a " Handbook of Swahili as Spoken in 
Zanzibar." When I had proceeded as far as page 33, I 
made the acquaintance of Hamis wa Tani and. of his 
son Mohammed, both of them well acquainted with 
English and French, and of pure Swahili extraction. 
To the disinterested kindness of Mohammed, who, 
while confined to his house by sickness, allowed me to 
spend every Saturday morning in questioning him 
about his language, I owe all that is best in my know- 
ledge of African tongues. With his help and revision I 
completed the list of substantives, and found my way 
through the intricacies of the adjectives and pronouns. 
Of how much importance an accurate guide in these 
matters would be may be seen from the " Table of 
Concords," first printed in Zanzibar, in a form sug- 
gested by Bishop Tozer, and now reprinted as part 
of this volume. 

Mohammed's sickness increasing about the time that 


I had begun to print the conjugation of the verb, I Was 
unable to continue my visits, and oompli ted the "Col- 
Lections" from Dr. Krapf, with the help of the voca- 
bulary collected by the late Baron von der Dccken 
and Dr. Kersten, and of that collected by the Kev. 
Thomas Wakefield of the United Methodist Free 
n\ lies' -Mission, both of which I was kindly allowed 
to copy. 

Alter Mohammed's partial recovery I continued my 
visits to him, and went through the verbs, making first 
a list of useful English verbs from a dictionary, and 
• lite-ring all the words contained in the collections of 
which I had copies. I thus checked and supplemented 
what others had already done, and obtained a tolerably 
mplete insight into that branch of the vocabulary. 
Before I could get much beyond this, Mohammed was 
far recovered as to be able to sail for Bombay. I 
have always much pleasure in acknowledging how 
much I owe to him. 

M an while I had begun my collection of short tales 

in Swahili, the first of which were print* d in Zanzibar 

with an interlinear version, under the title of " Speci- 

us of Swahili," in March 1866, and reprinted in 

early number of "Mission Life." I also began to 

use my Swahili to a practical purpose by making the 

collections for a handbook of the Shambala languaj 

first draft of which was completed in May 1866. 

Be collections were made with a view to the mission 

•e commenced in that country by the Eev. C. A. 

Alington; they were revised by the help of another 

ber, and printed in Zanzibar in the year 1867. 


Finding the Swahili tales most valuable as well to 
myself as to those who were studying with me, I pro- 
ceeded to print a further collection, with the title 
" Hadithi za Kiunguja," in Swahili only. For the tales 
then printed I was mainly indebted to Hamis wa Kayi, 
a very intelligent young Swahili, who always compre- 
hended better what a foreigner wanted to know, and 
explained more clearly what was difficult, than any one 
else I met with while in Zanzibar. 

At the same period I had begun and carried on from 
time to time the investigation of the Yao or Achowa 
language, one peculiarly interesting to us, as that of 
nearly all the released slaves under Bishop Mackenzie's 
charge, and as having now supplanted the Mang'anja 
in the country where our Mission was originally settled. 
From this study I first gained a definite notion of the 
wonderful effect the letter n has in African languages, 
and so came to understand the origin of several appa- 
rent irregularities in Swahili. 

I had begun even before Mohammed bin Khamis left 
Zanzibar to make some essays in translation, the best of 
which are embodied in a pamphlet printed in Zanzibar, 
with the title " Translations in Swahili : " it was com- 
pleted in January 1867. 

I was then getting help from many quarters, and on 
explaining to some of our native friends our wish to 
make a complete translation of the Bible into their 
language, one of them, Sheikh 'Abd al 'Aziz, kindly 
volunteered to translate for me the Arabic Psalter into 
the best and purest Swahili. I found, before long, that 
not only did his numerous avocations prevent any rapid 


progress, but that bis language was too learned to suit 
• sactly our purpose in making the version; it did not 
therefore proceed further than the Sixteenth Psalm. 1 
printed these as at once a memorial of his kindness 
and a specimen of what one of the most Learned men 
in Zanzibar considers the most classical form of his 

I cannot but mention at the same time the name of 
Sheikh .Mohammed bin Ali, a man of the greatest 
research, to whose kindness I was indebted for a copy, 
made by his own hand, of some very famous Swahili 
poetry, with an interlinear Arabio version; he also 
revised for me a paraphrase of it in modern languag 
for which I was chiefly indebted (as for much other 
help) to Hassan bin Vusuf, whose interest in our doc- 
trines and teachings has always been most marked. 
The verses and translation are both printed in the 
ahili Tales." 
At the end of 1867 I printed a translation of Bishop 
Forbes' little primary catechism, chosen as being the 

shortest and clearest I could find to begin upon. 

Though very imperfect, I am glad to think that it 

Las 1" en found of use. 

When I had completed the Yao collections, I went on 

to the Nyamwezi language, as being that of the largi 

and mast central tribe with which there is constant and 

tolerably safe communication. 

In November 1867 I lost, by the sadly sudden deaths 

of the Rev. <•■ E. Drayton and his wife, most useful 

helpers, who were beginning to be able t< L;ive mesul>- 
ntiul assistance. Their places were, however, well 


supplied by the Kev. W. and Mrs. Lea, who arrived 
opportunely just before the time of our bereavement. 
I was then engaged in preparing the translations of 
St. Matthew's Gospel and of the Psalms, as well as in 
beginning to put in order the materials for the present 
work. To Mr. Lea I was indebted, amongst other 
things, for the first version of the 119th Psalm, and to 
Mrs. Lea for the arrangement of the Swahili-English 
Vocabulary. The last thing I printed in Zanzibar was 
a translation of the Easter and Advent Hymns, and of 
Adeste Fideles, which I had the pleasure of hearing 
the girls of the Mission Orphanage sing most sweetly 
to the old tunes just before I left. 

I ought also to mention that, having been often under 
great obligations to the French Eomanist Mission, I 
had the pleasure of printing for them a Catechism in 
French and Swahili, which was indirectly valuable to 
me as showing how the great truths we have in 
common were rendered by a perfectly independent 
student of the language. I know not how sufficiently 
to regret that the excellent compiler, Pere Etienne 
Baur, should have been content to use the jargon (for 
it is nothing better) commonly employed by Indians 
and Europeans, and should have adopted an ortho- 
graphy adapted only to a French pronunciation. 

Only three weeks before leaving I had the advan- 
tage of consulting two large manuscript dictionaries 
compiled by Dr. Krapf, and brought to Zanzibar by 
the Eev. E. L. Pennell. I was able to examine about 
half the Swahili-English volume, with the assistance 
of Hamis wa Kayi, enough to enrich materially my 


previous collections, and to show how far oven now 
1 fall phort of in v first predecessor in the work of 
examining and elucidating the languages of Eastern 
Africa. There remains for some future time or other 
band the examination of the rest of Dr. Krapf's 
dictionary, as well as the collation of what will no 
doubt deserve to be the standard Swahili lexicon, on 
which the Rev. John Kebrnann has been for nearly a 
quarter of a century labouring unweariedly. Even 
then there will remain many dialectic variations, ami 
many old and poetical words and inflections, so that 
for many years one who loves such studies might find 
employment in this one language. 

Since my arrival in England, at the end of November 
1868, I have been able to superintend tho printing of 
the Gospel of St. Matthew in Swahili, liberally under- 
taken by the Bible Society, of translations of the 
n lurch Catechism and of their Scriptural Beading 
I.i'ssons out of the Old Testament, kindly undertaken 
by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 

r the Central African Mission I have carried through 
the press this work and the collection of Swahili 
Stories with an English version, published by Messrs. 
Bell and Sons, of which those previously printed at 
Zanzibar form a small part, and besides these a number 
of small pamphlets, including translations of the Books 
of Kuth and Jonah, and some slight specimens of the 
Gindo, Zaramo, and Ngazidja languages. There remain 
the Psalms, which the Bible Society has promised to 
print for us, and the collections in the Yao and Nyam- 
wezi languages, all which I should like to get through 


the press in the course of this year. I wish there were 
a chance of the Eev. John Rebmann's Swahili version 
of St. Luke's Gospel, of which I have seen a large part, 
being printed at the same time. 

This handbook is arranged on the principle of sup- 
plying with each portion of it such rules as are re- 
quired for the practical use of that portion. In the 
first part, after some introductory observations, Sub- 
stantives, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs have each 
a separate section, containing first the rules which 
govern their inflection and employment, and then an 
alphabetical list of the Swahili equivalents of our 
English words belonging to each part of speech. For 
the mere finding of words one general alphabet would 
perhaps have been more convenient ; but as the object 
of this work is not merely to tell what the Swahili 
words are, but also how to employ them correctly, it 
seems better so to group them as to bring the rules of 
grammar and the words which they control into as 
close a connection with one another as possible. The 
Editor has done what most readers would have had to 
do — sort out first the word and then the grammatical 
rules which must be observed in using it. The minor 
parts of speech are indexed together to avoid a multi- 
plicity of alphabets, except the Interjections, which 
cannot be said to have exact equivalents in any other 
language. The part ends with a section on the forma- 
tion of words, which may be of use where the other 
alphabets fail to give a satisfactory rendering, and 
may also be useful as a guide in turning Swahili into 
English, in the case of the many words which igno- 


ranee or some oversight in preparing the second part 
may have caused to be omitted. The roles and hints 
prefixed to the second part arc intended to enable any- 
one who sees or hears a Swahili word to ascertain the 
material part of it, so as to be able to use the dictionary 
which follows. It is evident that there must be great 
difficulties at first in either using or arranging an 
alphabetical list of words which may begin with, in 
some cases, nine or ten different letters, according to 
the grammatical position they hold in eaoh case. 
Bowever, the difficulty is greater in appearance than 
in practice. 

The Appendices contain some curious or useful 
matter which could not well find a place in the body 
of the work. The first contains a specimen of a curious 
kind of enigmatical way of writing and speaking called 
Kinyume. The second gives a specimen of the forms 
used in letter- writing, both in prose and verse. The 
third is part of a Swahili tale, with all the prefixes 
separated and the grammatical forms explained, in- 
tended as a guide and introduction to the art of 
reading, and through that of writing the languag'. 
The fourth Appendix consists of a small collection of 
phrases, some of them such as are wanted in ordinary 
conversation, some of them useful in illustrating the 
idiom or peculiar constructions used by natives. This 
collection might have been very much increased had 
it not been carefully confined to phra tually met 

with in conversation with persons reputed to speak 

PREFACE. xiii 

The name of the language — Swahili — is "beyond all 
doubt a modified form of the Arabic Saicahil, the plural 
of Sahil, a coast. The natives themselves jestingly 
derive it from Sawa hila, which a Zanzibar interpreter 
would explain as " All same cheat." 

Little Steeping, May 1870. 



The Swahili language is spoken by the mixed race 
of Arabs and Negroes who inhabit the Eastern Coast 
of Africa, especially in that part which lies between 
Lamoo and the neighbouring towns on the north, and 
Cape Delgado on the south. 

It is classified by Dr. Bleek as one of the Zangian 
genus of the middle branch of the Bantu languages. 
That is to say, it belongs to one of J Jie subdivisions of 
that great family of Negro languages, which carries on 
the work of grammatical inflexion by means of changes 
at the beginning of the word, similar to that whereby 
in Kafir, umuntu, a man, becomes in the plural abantu, 
people. All these languages divide their nouns into a 
number of classes, which are distinguished by theii 
first syllable, and bring their adjectives, pronouns, and 
verbs into relation with substantives by the use oi 
corresponding changes in their first syllables. None 
of these classes denote sex in any way. Dr. Bleek, in 
his comparative grammar of South African languages, 
enumerates eighteen prefixes which are found in one 
or other of the languages of this family ; but it must 

y b 


be remembered thai he reckons by the form of the 
prefix only, so thai the singular and plural forms of 
mosl words count as two, while the same form will 
Bometimes answer to two or more forms in the other 
number. Dr. Bleek's arrangement is the most con \ 
nient for his purpose, which is the comparison of the 
formatives used in different languages; but I have not 
followed it in this work, because I think that for practical 
purposes such a classification should be used as will 
enable the learner who sees or hears the noun in the 
singular at once to put it into the plural. Pr 
may be counted up separately ; but in practice we have 
to do with nouns, not with prefixes, and a noun cannot 
be put into a di fie rent class when it becomes plural 
or singular without great risk of confusion. Thus in 
Fredoux 1 Sechuana grammar, 4 and 6 are the plurals 
of 3, 10 and 6 are the plurals of 11, and 6 alone is the 
plural of 5 and 14. Can this be a dear arrangement? 
I have very little doubt that Dr. Bleek is right in 
.tiding these classes as substantially the e ith 

the genders in most of the European languages, which 
are even now only sex-denoting to a veiy limit' d 
extent. There is a distinction in Swahili as to words 
which denote living beings, called by Dr. Krapf, not 
very happily, a masculine gender, though it has no 
relation to sex, but to life only. 

It is very puzzling to a beginner, accustomed to 
languages which change at the end, to find the be- 
arings of words so very uncertain. Thus he ho; 
thai a means good; but when he begins to apply 


Lis knowledge he finds that natives use for the English 
word good, not only ngema, but mwema, weraa, mema. 
njema, jema, pema, chema, vyema, and Tcwema. Again, 
yangu means my, but he will hear also, wangu, zangu, 
ch-angu, vyangu, langu, pangu, kicangu, and micangu. It is 
necessary therefore to get at the very first a firm hold 
of the fact that in Swahili it is the end,.and not the 1 1- 
ginning of a word, which is its substantial and unchang- 
ing part. The beginning of the word when taken to 
pieces denotes its number, time, and agreements. 

The " Table of Concords" prefixed to the section on 
Adjectives, shows at one view the variables of the 
language ; and when that has been mastered, the diffi- 
culties for an English student will be over. The 
various forms will be explained, and the nicer distinc- 
tions mentioned in the grammatical parts of the book. 
In the preliminary observations prefixed to the second 
part will be found an account of all the changes which 
may occur at the end of a word, changes which in 
practice are very soon mastered, relating as they chiefly 
do to a few points in the conjugation of the verb. 

There is a broken kind of Swahili in use among 
foreigners, Indian as well as European, which serves 
for very many purposes, though it is of course utterly 
useless when one has to speak with exactness, or on 
Bubjects not immediately connected with the ordinary 
affairs of life and commerce. Its rules may be briefly 
laid down as follows : — If you are in doubt about how 
to make a plural, prefix ma, or use nyiagi, i.e. many. 
In conjugating the verb, always put the subject 

B 2 


I I fore and the object after it, for the present tense 
prefix no-, fox the pasl ma-, for the future ta-. For no 
or //"/, use haliuna. It is wonderful how intelligible 
yen can make yourself by these few rules; but it is 
just as wonderful what absurd broken stuff can be 
made to do duty for English. 

Let any one, however, who really wishes to speak 
the language set the Table of Concords well into his 
head, by any means bo finds best for the purpose, and 
he will have no need to resort to broken and incorrect 
ways of talking. 

[Swahili, like a ll lan gua ges of the s amo family, is 
very rich in Verbs, and poor in Adjectives and Prepo- 
sitions. There is nothing corresponding to the English 
.Article, the word when standing alone implying the 
indefinite article, while the definite article can in many 
cases be expressed by the use and arrangement of the 
Pronouns, but still must often be left unexpressed. 
Though the Verb is etymologically the most important 
part of speech, it is the Substantive which determines 
the form of all the variable syllables. The Substan- 
tive will therefore be first considered, and next the 
A'V< ctive, which very closely resembles it. The Pro- 
line will come next, as it is by their help that the 
Verb is conjugated, then the Verb itself, and after that 
tin minor parts of speech, Adverbs, Prepositions, Con- 
junctions, and, last of all. the [nterjections. A sketch 
of the grammar of each part of speech, which aims at 
being sufficient for ordinary and practical purposes, is 
M si -iven, and after that a list of words belonging to 


that part of speech, thus forming a combined grammar 
and English- Swahili dictionary. The second part con- 
sists of a Swahili-English vocabulary, and so completes 
the work. 

The Swahili language has been hitherto but lit do 
written by those who speak it, and they know and use 
only the purely Arabic alphabet. There are copies of 
religious and secular verses, and possibly other works, 
composed in the old or poetical dialect, which is not 
now, and I believe never was, thoroughly understood 
by the mass of the people. The modern dialect is used 
in letters ; but they have always a string of Arabic 
compliments at the beginning, and Arabic words and 
phrases freely interspersed throughout. 

Any one who tries to read a letter or a poem written 
in Arabic characters, will at once see why it is impos- 
sible to adopt them as the standard Swahili alphabet. 
It is absolutely necessary to have a good idea of what 
you are to read before you can read at all. The reason 
is that Swahili has five vowels, Arabic only three, and 
of Swahili consonants the Arabic supplies no means of 
writing ch, g, p, or v, nor can consecutive consonants be 
written without shocking Arabic notions of propriety. 
Thus the Swahili are driven to write the ba for p and 
for mb as well as for b ; the ghain for g, ng, and ng\ as 
well as for gh ; the fa for v and mv, as well as for / ; 
the ya for ny as well as for y ; the shin for ch as well as 
for sh ; and to omit altogether the n before d, j, y, and z. 
Initial vowels and consecutive vowels are only to be 
expressed by hemzas or 'ains. In. the first piece of 


written Swahili I ever possessed (the Story of the Ox 
and the Ass the words ng'ombe and punda were written 
ghube and />/'</<». It will T»o easily seen how imperfect 
and ambiguous a means of writing Swahili the Arabic 
character must be. An instance occurred while I was 
in Zanzibar of a letter written from Kilwa with the 
account of a fight, in which it was said that one of 
^Aj^\ tin principal men, amehufa, had died, or amevulca, had 
' got away, and which it was no one could certainly 

tell; the last two consonants were fa and qaf, with 
three dots over them. If two of the dots belonged 
to the first letter, the man was dead ; if two belonged 
to the next letter, he was alive : but the dots were 
- equally placed that no one could tell how to divide 
them. If the Arabic had possessed a v, there could 
have been no mistake. It would no doubt be possible 
to express Swahili sounds by using letters with addi- 
tional dots and affixing arbitrary sounds to the letters 
of prolongation, as is done in Persian and Hindi, but 
the result would puzzle a genuine Swahili and could 
never be quite satisfactory in any respect. 

There seems to be no difficulty in writing Swahili 
in Human characters, there being no sound which does 
not so nearly occur in some European language that 
the proper way of writing it can readily bo fixed upon, 
ami illustrated by an example. When this is the (■■■■ 
there is no need to look for anything further. I think 
those who try to settle the alphabets of new languages 
are too apt to forget how essential simplicity is to a 
really good alphabet. If the Eoman alphabet can be 


made to distinguish all the sounds used in that lan- 
guage, it does all for it that it does for any. To at- 
tempt to distinguish the sounds used in that language, 
from the sounds used in another, or to mark all the 
varieties of tone which occur in speaking, is always 
useless and embarrassing, and not one man in a thou- 
sand has sufficient accuracy of ear to do it properly. 
It is practically easier to learn to attach a new J 
sound to a known letter, than to learn a new sound 
and a new letter too, especially when the new letter 
has to be printed and written, and the learner is en- 
tangled in a maze of italics and letters with a point 
below and a point above, or a line through them, or 
some Greek letter which has not the sound one gives it 
in Greek, or some new invention which will fit well 
neither into printing nor writing, and looks at its ease 
neither as a capital nor a small letter. It generally 
happens that the sounds of a language, though not 
identical with those of another, correspond with them 
sufficiently to make the corresponding letters appro- 
priate symbols. Thus an English and a French t are 
not identical ; but which nation would or ought to 
submit always to put a dot somewhere about its t to 
show that it is not the t which it never will want to 
use, and never did, and could not pronounce, if it met 
with it ? Or, to take a stronger instance, ought Ger- 
mans, Englishmen, and Spaniards always to cross the 
tails of their fs, or print them in italics, or deform their 
books with new symbols, merely because they do not 
pronounce their fs as Frenchmen do theirs ? 



The Towels are to be pronounced as in Italian, the 
Consonants as in English. 

A = a in father. 

B = o in hare. 

< !h = ch in cherry. Italian <* before i or e. 

D = d in do. D occurs very frequently in the Mombas dialect 

where j is used in thai of Zanzibar. 
E = ai in chair. 
F = / in fine. German v. 
d — ij Ld gate, never soft as in genius. 
H = h in /ki/. 
I = ee in /ee£. 
J = j' in Joy. Sometimes more like cty or di in cordial. French 

di, German dj, Italian gi. 
K = 7; in Calendar. 

L = ?in /ong. Zr and r are generally treated as the same 1 
31 = 971 in man. 
N = n in no. 

= o in &oy, more like au than the common English o. 
P = y> in paint. 
R = r in raise. An English, not a Scotch, Irish, Germau, or 

French r. See L. 
B = v in .;„. German ss. It is never pronounced like a z or 

the English s in arise. <S' and sh are commonly used for 

one another indiscriminately. 
T = fin itn. T frequently occurs in the dialect of Mombas 

where ch is used in that of Zanzibar. 


U = oo in tool. 

V = v in very. German w. 

W = w> in ttra. French ou. It is merely a u pronounced as a 

Y = y in yonder. Germany. It is merely an i pronounced as a 

consonant. Y is frequently used in the Lamoo dialect 
where j occurs in that of Zanzibar. 
Z = z in zany. German s. Z frequently occurs in the dialect of 
Lamoo where v is used in that of Zanzibar. 

There are several sounds introduced from the Arabic 
which do not occur in purely African words. 

Gh = the Arabic gliain ; it is a guttural g, resembling 
the Dutch g. It may be obtained by pro- 
nouncing a g (as nearly as it can be done) 
with the mouth wide open. Most Europeans 
imagine, the first time they hear it, that 
there is an r sound after the g, but this is a 

Eh = the Arabic Jcha ; it is a very rough form of the 
German ch, the Spanish j, or the Scotch ch in 
loch. It resembles the sound made in trying 
to raise something in the throat. It may 
always be replaced in Swahili by a simple h, 
but never by a k. 

Th = the four Arabic letters ilia, thai, thod, and thah. 
The first of these is the English th in think, 
the second that in they. The third and fourth 
are thicker varieties of the second sound. In 
Swahili they may all be replaced by a z. No 
attempt is ever made to distinguish the last 
three letters; but as the first is generally 


marked in pronunciation, it is in the first 
part of this handbook marked by printing 
tho th in italics wherever it is to be pro- 
nounced as in the English word think. The 
sound of the English th in that occurs in 
some Swahili as a dialectic variation for z. 
In vulgar Swahili z is not merely put for 
the Arabic th, but th is also put for the 
Arabic z, as wathiri for icaziri, a vizir. 

There are several compound consonantal sounds 
which require notice. 

Ch, a very common sound, representing what is 
sometimes a t and sometimes hi — in other 
dialects. C is not required for any other 
sound, as it can be always represented by h 
when hard, and by s when soft. It would 
probably be an improvement always to write 
the ch sound by a simple c. 

» rn, see ng'. 

Kw represents the sound of qu in queer. 

31 frequently stands for mu, in which cases it is pro- 
nounced with a half-suppressed u sound 
before it, and is even capable of bearing the 
accent of the word, as in mtu, a person, wh 
the stress of voice is on the m, which has a 
dull nasal semivowel sound, not quite um. 
Where m occurs before any consonant except 
b or to, it must have this semivowel sound. 


SI, standing for mu, has generally its semi- 
vowel sound before u. Before a or e it 
becomes mw, and before o it frequently loses 
the u altogether, and is pronounced as a 
simple m. 

N has frequently a nasal semivowel sound, a half- 
suppressed i being suggested by it. N has 
always this semivowel sound where it is 
immediately followed by ch, f, h, m, n, or s. 

Ny has the sound of the Spanish n, the French and 
Italian gn, the Portuguese nh, and the English 
ni in companion, only a little thicker and 
more nasal. 

Ng' is a peculiar African sound, much resembling 
the -ng which occurs at the end of many 
English words. If we could divide longing 
thus, lo-nging, without at all altering the 
pronunciation, it would come very near 
the African sound, which is never a final, 
because all Swahili syllables must end in a 
vowel. Some prefer to write this sound gn-, 
as it resembles the sound given by Germans 
and others to those letters when they occur 
as initial letters in Greek. This sound must 
be distinguished from the common sound of 
ng-, in which the g distinctly passes on to 
the following vowel, as in the English word 
engage; in ng'- both sounds are heard, but 
neither passes on to the vowel. 

Sh is the Arabic shin, the English sh, the French ch, 


the German xrh. Sh and 8 arc commonly 
treated as identical. 

P, T, K. and possibly some other letters, have occa- 
sionally an explosive or aspirated sound, 
such as an Irishman will often give them. 
This explosive sound makes no chango in 
the letter, but is an addition to it, probably 
always marking a suppressed n. Thus npcpo 
is a wind, with both p's smooth as in English ; 
but the plural, which should regularly be 
npepo, is p'epo, with a strong explosive sound 
attached to the first letter. This explosive 
sound may be marked by an apostrophe ; it 
is, however, very seldom necessary to tin- 
sense of a word, and is noticeably smoothed 
down or omitted by the more refined and 
Arabizcd Swahili. 

There are other niceties of pronunciation which a 
fine ear may distinguish; but as they are 
by no means essential, and are seldom noticed 
by the natives themselves, it is not worth 
while here to examine them particularly. 

As a rule, the vowels are all pronounced distinctly, 
and do not form diphthongs. When, however, a for- 
mative particle ending in -a is placed before a wnr<l 
beginning with e- or i-, the two letters coalesce into a 
long e sound. It is not, however, even in such a case 
as this, always incorrect to pronounce the two vowels 
distinctly, though it is not usually done. The instances 


of and rules for this union of sound will be found 
where the several prefixes which give occasion to it 
are dealt with. 

When two vowels come together at the end of a 
word, they are often to the ear one syllable, and have 
the sound of a diphthong ; they are really, however, 
two syllables of which the former bears the accent. 
This is at once apparent in the Merima dialect, in 
which an I is put between the vowels. Thus Jcafaa, to 
be of use, which sounds as if written kufa, is in the 
Merima dialect Imfala. The shifting of the accent 
sometimes shows that the vowels are really separate. 
Thus a common fruit tree is called mzambarau, in which 
word the last two vowels apparently unite into a 
sound like that in the English word how ; but when -ni 
is added, making Mzambarauni, at the zambardu tree — 
the name of one of the quarters of Zanzibar — the u is 
quite separated from the a, and the last two syllables 
are pronounced like the English ~oony. 

It may be assumed in all cases in which two vowels 
come together that an I has been omitted between 
them, and will appear in some modification of the word 
or in its derivatives. 

The shifting of the accent above referred to takes 
place in obedience to the universal rule in Swahili, 
that the main accent of the word is always put upon 
the last syllable but one, a rule which often changes 
the sound of a word so materially as to baffle a beginner 
in his endeavour to seize and retain it. The syllable 
-ni is the chief disturber of accents ; and words which 



end in it may be always suspected of being plural 
imperatives if they are verbs, or of being in what is 
known as the locative case if they are nouns. There 
only a very few words which end in -ni in their 
simple forms. 

The formation or division of syllables is so closely 
connected with the powers of the letters, that this will 
be a proper place to mention it. The rulo is that all 
Swahili syllables end in a vowel, and that the vowel 
must be preceded only by a single consonant, or by 
one preceded by n or m, or followed by w or y. 

There are a few half-assimilated Arabic words in 
which double consonants occur ; but there is a strong 
tendency in all such cases to drop one of the consonants 
and attach the other to the vowel which follows them. 

W can be placed after all the other consonants, 
simple and compound, except perhaps F 
and V. 

Y can follow F, N, and V. 

These two letters are used in the formation of Verbs, 
-w- being the sign of the passive, and -y- being used to 

e a transitive meaning. In several cases -fy- stands 
for -py-; -py- occurs in one word only, ' ' mpya, new. 

N can be placed before D, G, J, Y, and Z. 

M can be placed before B, and perhaps Ch and V. 

M in these instances represents an n- used as a suh- 

•itival and adjectival prefix. Used in this way, n 
before b becomes m; before I or r it changes the I or r 
into d, making nd- instead of nl- or nr-; before to it 

nges into m, and the w i b, making ml- 


instead of nw-. It is curious that w can be made to 
follow n without any change, but that n cannot be put 
before w. Before k, p, and t, the n is dropped, and 
they become h\ p\ and f ; before the other letters eh, 
f, h, m, n, and 8, it is merely dropped. 

The resulting syllables are not always easy of pro- 
nunciation to a European, as, for instance, nywa in hu- 
nywa, to drink, nor is it very easy to pronounce ngu 01 
nda ; but to a native such sounds present no difficulty, 
whilst he can scarcely pronounce such a word as black. 

Instances of the division of syllables will be found 
in the specimen of Kinyume, which forms Appendix I. 
Kinyume is made by taking the last syllable from the 
end of a word and putting it at the beginning, so that 
each instance is a specimen of the native idea as to 
what letters belong to the final syllable. Some Swahili 
are very ready at understanding and speaking this 
enigmatical dialect. 

At the head of each letter in the second part will 
be found some observations on its use and pronun- 



Swahili nouns have two numbers, singular and plural, 
(vhich are distinguished by their initial letters. Upon 
the forms of the Substantives depend the forms of all 
Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs governing or governed 
by them. It is, therefore, necessary to divide them 
into so many classes as there are different forms either 
of Substantives or of dependent words, in order to be 
able to lay down rules for the correct formation of 
sentences. For this purpose Swahili Substantives may 
be conveniently divided into eight classes. 

I. Those beginning with M-, 'M-, Mu-, or Mw-, in 
the singular, and which denote living beings. They 
make their plural by changing M- &c. into Wa-. 

Mtu, a man ; watu, people. 

The singular prefix represents in all its forms the 
syllable Mu-, which is itself very rarely heard. Before 
a consonant it is almost always pronounced as a semi- 
v. iwel m, with the u sound before rather than after it. 
Before a and e the u becomes a aant, and the 

prefix appears as //"*•-. Before o and u the u is very 


frequently dropped, and the m alone is heard. The 

prefix is treated as a distinct syllable when followed 

by a consonant, but very rarely so when followed by 

a vowel. 

Mchawi, a wizard ; wachawi, wizards. 

Mjusi, a lizard ; wajusi, lizards. 

Mwana, a son ; v-aana, sons. 

Miooga, or moga, a coward ; waoga, cowards. 

Muumishi, or mumishi, a cupper ; waumishi, cuppers. 

When the plural prefix wa- is placed before a word 
beginning with a-, the two a's run together, and are 
seldom distinguishable by the ear alone. When wa- is 
placed before a word beginning with e- or »-, the -a 
flows into the other vowel and produces a long e sound. 

Mwenzi, a companion ; loenzi, companions. 
Mwivi, a thief; wevi, thieves. 


II. Substantives beginning with M-, 'M-, Mu-, or 
Mw-, which do not denote living or animate beings. 
They make their plural by changing M- &c. into Mi-. 

Mti, a tree ; mitt, trees. 

The same observations apply to the singular prefix 

in this class as in Class I. 

Mfupa, a bone ; mifupa, bones. 
Mwanzo, a beginning; rnianzo, beginnings. 
Mwembe, a mango tree ; miembe, mango trees. 
Mwiba, a thorn ; miiba, or miba, thorns. 
Moto, a fire ; mioto, fires. 

The names of trees belong to this class. 

III. Those which do not change to form the plural. 

Nyumba, a house ; nyumba, houses. 

18 SW All 111 HANDBOOK. 

The simple description of nouns of this class is that 
they begin with n, followed by some other consonant, 
li is probable that Ni- is the ground form of the prefix 
of this class, since it always appears as ny- before a 
vowel. The singular powers and antipathies of the 
Letter n- very much affect the distinctness of this class 
of nouns. As n must be dropped before ch, f, h, h, p, s, 
or /, nouns beginning with those letters may belong to 
this class;* and as n becomes to before b, v, and w, 
nouns beginning with mb or mv may belong to it. There 
is a further complication in Swahili, arising from the 
fact that foreign words, except only foreign names of 
persons and offices, whatever their first letters, are 
correctly placed in this class. The popular instinct, 
however, refuses this rule, and in the vulgar dialect 
classes foreign words according to their initial letters, 
regarding the first syllable as a mere prefix, and treat- 
ing it accordingly (see also p. 20). In some cases words 
are handled in this way even in polite Swahili ; thus the 
Arabic Kitabu, a book, is very often made plural by 
treating the lei- as a prefix, and saying Vilabu, for books. 

Kamba, a rope ; kamba, ropes. 
Mbegu, a seed; nJjegu, seeds. 
Nyumba, a house; nyumba, houses. 
Meza, a table ; meza, tables. 
Bundulci, a gun ; bunduki, guns. 
Ndizi, :t banana; ndizi, bananas. 
Njia, a road ; njia, roads. 

» There is nothing to show whether nouns beginning with these, 
Utters belong to this class or to the fifth ; but it is always safest in 
cases of doubt to treat them as belonging to this class, unless some 
special largeness is intended to be intimated concerning them. 


IY. Those which begin with Ki- before a consonant 
or C%- before a vowel. They form their plural by 
changing Ki- into Vi- and Ch- into Vy-. 

Kitu, a thing ; vitu, things. 
Chombo, a vessel ; vymribo, vessels. 

Substantives are made diminutives by being brought 
into this class. 

Mlima, a mountain ; Kilima, a hill. 
Bweta, a box ; kibweta, a little box. 

If the word stripped of all prefixes is a monosyllable, 
ji- must first be prefixed. 

Mti, a tree ; kijiti, a shrub. 

Mwiko, a spoon ; kijiko, a little spoon. 

Words beginning with Ki- may be turned into 
diminutives by inserting -ji- after the prefix. 

Kitwa, a head ; kijitwa, a little head. 

Kiboko, a hippopotamus ; kijiboko, a little hippopotamus. 

In regard to animals, the use of the diminutive has 
a depreciating effect. 

Mbuzi, a goat ; kibuzi, a poor little goat. 

V. Those which make their plural by prefixing ma-. 
Kasha, a chest ; makasha, chests. 

Nouns are generally brought into this class by re- 
jecting all prefix in the singular. If, however, the 
word itself begins with a vowel, /- is prefixed ; if it be 
a monosyllable, ji- is prefixed. The/- ovji- is regularly 

C 2 


omitted in the plural, but may be retained to avoid 
ambiguity, where the regular word would have re- 
Bembled one formed from another root. 

Jambo, an affair; mambo, affairs. 
Jicho, an eye ; macho, ryes. 

ho, a large vessel ; majombo, large vessels. 

If the word begin with i- or e-, the -a of the plural 
prefix coalesces with it and forms a long -e-; this 
distinguishes dissyllables with j- prefixed from mono- 
syllables with/*- prefixed. 

Jino, a tooth ; meno (not mano), teeth. 

Foreign names of persons and offices belong to this 


Waziri, a vizir ; mawaziri, vizirs. 

In the vulgar dialect of Zanzibar all foreign words 
which have a first syllable that cannot be treated as a 
j >re fix, are made to belong to this class, and ma- is 
prefixed to form the plural (see p. 18). 

Anything which is to be marked as peculiarly large 
or important is so described by bringing the word into 
this class. 

Mjuho, a bag ; fuho, a very large bag. 
Mtu, a man ; jitu, a very large man. 
Kyuruba, a house ; jumba, a large house. 

If a word is already in this class, it may be described 
as larger by prefixing ji-. 

Matanga, sails ; majitanga, great sails. 


Maji, water, Mafuta, oil, and other nouns in that 
form are treated as plurals of this class. 

VI. Those which begin with TJ- in the singular. 
They make their plural by changing TJ- into Ny- before 
a vowel, or N- before a consonant. 

Uimbo, a song ; nyimbo, songs. 

Udevu, a hair of the beard ; ndevu, hairs of the beard. 

This class is not a large one ; but the formation of 
its plural is full of apparent irregularities produced by 
the letter n. 

1. All nouns of this class, which are in the singular 
dissyllables only, retain the u- in the plural, and are 
treated as beginning with a vowel. 

Ufa, a crack ; nyu/a, cracks. 
Uso, a face ; nyuso, faces. 

2. Words in which the TJ- is followed by d, g, j, or z, 
take N- in place of TJ-. 

3. Words in which the TJ- is followed by I or r, take 
N-, but change the I or r into d. 

Ulimi, a tongue ; ndlmi, tongues. 

4. Words in which the TJ- is followed by b, v, or w, 

take n-, but change it into m-, and their first letter is 

always b. 

Ubau, a plank ; mhau, planks. 

Uwingu, a heaven ; mbiitgu, the heavens. 

5. Words in which the TJ- is followed by k, p or t, 


drop the U-, and give an explosive sound to the first 

Upepo, a wind ; p'epo, winds. 

6. Words in which the U- is followed by ch, f, h, n, 
or 8, merely drop the JJ-. 

Ufunguo, a key ; funguo, keys. 

Nouns of this class are so few in Swahili that it is 
scarcely worth while to notice these distinctions ; they 
are, however, important as explaining what would 
otherwise seem anomalies, and represent influences 
which have a much larger field in other African 

Abstract nouns generally belong to this class. 

V I I. The one word Mahali, place or places, which 
requires special forms in all adjectives and pronouns. 

VIII. The Infinitives of Verbs used as Substantives. 
All Infinitives may be so used, and answer to the 
English Verbal Substantives in -iwj. 

Kufa, to die = dying. 
Kwiba, to steal = stealing. 

All Substantives of both numbers maybe put into 
what may be called the locative case by adding ni. 
This case has three great varieties of meaning, which 
are marked by differences in all dependent pronouns. 

1. In, within, to or from within. 

2. At, by, near. 

3. To, from, at v of places far off). 


Nyumbani mwangu, in my house. 
Nyumbani pangu, near my house. 
Nyumbani kwangu, to my house. 

Htoni, by the river. 

Njiani, on the road. 

Vyomboni, in the vessels. 

Kitwani, on the head. 

Mbinguni, in heaven. . 

Kuanguhani, in falling. 

The possessive case is expressed by the use of the 
Preposition -a, which see. The objective or accusative 
is the same as the subjective or nominative. 

In the following list of Substantives the plural form 
is o-iven in all caseo in which, if commonly used, it is 
not the same as the singular. 




The letters in parentheses denote the several dialects: (A.) Kiamu. that of 
Lamoo;(M.) Kim vita, that of Mombas; (Mer.)Kimerima, that of the main- 
land opposite Zanzibar; (N.) Kingozi, the poetical dialect; (Ar.) Arabic. 

.t vhat-is-it, a thing the name of 
which you do not know or can- 
not recall, duile, pi. madude. 

Such-a-one, a person whose name is 
not known or is immaterial, 

Al>n.*/>mpnt, nnenyekeo. 
Abhorrence, machukio. 
Ability, uwezo. 
Abridgment, muhtasari. 
Abscess, tumbasi, nasur. 

ndance, wingi, ungi (M.), mari- 


an, Habeshia, pi. Maba- 

Acceptance, ukubali. 
Accident, tukio, pi. matukio. 

Accounts, In -s;ibu. 

"ni booh, daftari. 
Accusation, matuvumu. 

tation (before a judge), m.-hta- 
ka. pi. mi>htaka. 
Ache, iiiawuiivu, uchungu. 
Action, kitendo, pZ. vitendo, amali. 
Addition in arithmetic), jumla. 

Address (of a letter), amvani. 
Adornment, kipambo, jil. vipambo, 

pambo, pi. mapambo. 
Adultery, zani, uziui, uziuzi. 
Advantage (profit), fayida. 
Aih-i rsiti/, mateso, skidda. 
Advice, sbauri, pi. masbiuri. 
Adze, sboka la bapa, sezo. 
Affair, jambo. 

Affairs, mambo, shughuli, uli- 
Affection, ni^penzi, mapendo. 

Mutual affection, mapendana 
Affliction, teso, p>l. mateso. 
Age, umri. 

Old age, uzee. 

Extreme old age, uknngwe. 

Equal in age, birimu moja. 

Former ages, zamani za kale. 
Agent, wakili, pi. mawakili. 
Agreement, maagano, makatibu, 

mwafaka, mapatano, sharti. 
Aim, sbabaha. 
Air, hawa, bewa, upepo. 

For change cf air, kubadili hawa. 
Almond, lozi, pi. maluzi. 
Alms, sadaka. 



Aloes, subiri, shibiri. 

Aloes wood, uudi. 

Altar, mathbah, mathabahu. 

Alum, shabbu. 

Ambergris, ambari. 

Amulet, talasimu, pi. matalasimu. 

Amusement, mazumgumzo, mao- 

Ancestors, babu, wazee. 
Anchor, nanga, baura. 
Ancle {see Anklets), kiwiko cha 

mgnu, ito la guu (A.). 
Angel, malaika. 
Anger, hasira, gbathabu. 
Angle, pembe. 
Angoxa, Ngoje. 
Animal, nyania. 

The young of a domestic animal, 

A young she-animal that has not 
yet borne, mtarnba, pi. mitamba. 

Native animals. See under their 
several names : — 

Buku, a very large hind of rat. 

Toi, a hind of wild goat. 

Buga (?). 

Ndezi (?). 

Xjiri (?). 
Anklets (see Ancle), mtali. pi. mitali, 

furaugu. pi. mafurungu. 
Answer, majibu, jawabu. 
Antelopes. See Gazelle. 

Bora, Heleobagus arundinaceus. 

Dondoro, Dyher's antelope. 

Koru, icater buch. 

Kuguni, haartebeest. 

Mpofu, pi. Wapofu, eland. 

Nyumbo, wildebeest. 


Antimony, wanja Tva manga. 
4nfs,chuiigu,tungu(M v ,sisiujizi(?). 

Siafu, a large Trown hind. 

Maji a nioto, a yellow hind which 
lives in trees. 

White ants, mchwa. 

Ants in their flying stage, kutubi- 

Anthill, kisugalu, pi. visugulu. 
Anus, nikunda, fupa. 
Anvil, fuawe. 
Ape, nyani. 

Apostle, nitump, pi. mitume. 
Appearance, umbo, pi. niaumbo. 
Arab, Mwarabu. pi. Waarabu. 
Arab from Sheher, Msbibiri, pi. 

Arab from the Persian Gulf, Msbe- 
mali, pi. Washemali, Tende 
Arabia, Arabuni, Manga. 
Arabic, Kiarabu. 
Arbitrator, mpatanishi. 
Arch, tao, pi. matao. 
Areca nut, popoo. See Betel. 
Arithmetic, hesabu. 

Addition, jumla. 

Subtraction, baki. 

Mult ipl ica t ion , tbaruba. 

Division, mkasama. 

Proportion, or division of profits, 
Arm, mkono, pi. nrikono. [uirari. 

Under the arm, kwapani 
Armpit, kwapa, pi. makwapa. 

Perspiration of the armpit, 
Arrangements, madaraka. 
Arrival, kifiko, kikomo. 
Arrogance, gbururi. 
Arrow, msbale, pi. misbale, chenile, 

pi. vyembe (X.)- 
Arrowroot, uwanga, kanji. 
Artery, vein or nerve, uishipa, pi. 



Artifice, kitimbi. pL vitimbi. 
Ascriptions of praise, tasbiih. 

I, jifu. ;>/. majit'u, ivu, pL 

mnivu (M.). 

Assafa tida, mvuje. 
Assi mbly, jamaa, jumaa, makutano, 

Place of «.»>•< mhly, makusanyiko. 
Asthma, pumu. 

Astonishm< ut, mataajabu, msangao. 
A ttrologer, mnajiimi. pi. wanajimu. 
Astronomy, falaki, f&lak. 
.1 ■fitment, wambiso. 
Auction, ninada, pi. minada. 
Auctioneer, dalali. 
Aunt, sbangazi, pi. masbangazi 
Authority, nguvu, mauilaka, bu- 

Avarice, choyo, bakbili, tamaa. 
Awl, uuia, pi. nyuuia. 
Awning, cbandalua. 
Axe, slioka, pi. mashoka. 

Baby, mtoto mcbanga, kitoto 

kicbanga, malaika. 
Bad; niaungo, mgongo. 

Back of the head and neck, ki- 

Backbone, uti wa maungo. 
Badness, ubaya, uovu. 
Bag, mfuko, pi. mifuko, fuko, pi. 
mafuko, kifuko, pi. vii'uko. 
Mkoba, pi. mikoba, a scrip. 
Kibogoebi, pi. vibogosbi, a small 
bug made of skin. 
Matting bags. 
Kikapu or Cliikapu, pi. vikapu. 
Ivipu, pi. makapu, very large. 
Kanda, pi. makanda, long and 
narrow, broadest at the bottom. 

Junia, used for rice, Ax., gunia. 
Kigunui, used for dates, sugar, 

Kif umbo, pi. vifumbo, very large 
used for cloves. 
Baggage, vyombo. 
Bad, lazima. 

Bait, cbambo, pi. vyambo. 
Baking place for pottery, &c, joko. 
Balances, mizani. 
1 i<i Illness, upaa. 
A shaved place on the head, kipaa, 
pi. vipaa. 
Ball, tufe. 

India-rubber ball, mpira, pi. 

Any small round thing, donge, pi. 
Ballast, farumi. 
Bamboo, 'mwanzi, pi. miwanzi. 
Bananas, ndizi. 
Banana tree, mgomba, pi. mi- 

Bunchlets of fruit, tana, pi. 

The fruit stalk, mkungu, pi. mi- 
Band (stripe), utepe, pi. tepe. 
Band (of soldiers, &c.), kikosi, pL 

Baiulage, utambaa, pi. tambaa. 
Bangles. See Anklets. 
Bank (of earth, sand, (fee), fungu, 
pi. mafungu. 
Bank of a river, kando. 
The opposite bank, ng'ambo. 
Baobab. See Calabash. 
Barber, kinyozi, pi. vinyozi. 
Bargain, mwaf'aka, maaukano. 
Bargaining, ubazazi. 
Bark of a tree, gome (hard), ganda 



Barley, shairi (Ar.). 

Barque {a ship), merikebu ya mili- 

ngote miwili na nuss. 
Barrel, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Basin, bakuli, pi. mabakulL 
A small basin, kibaba. 
A brass basin, tasa, pi. matasa. 
See Bowl. 
Basket. See Bag. 
Cbikapu, pi. vikapu. 
Pakacba, pi. mapakacha, made 
of cocoa-nut leaves plaited to- 
Dohani, a very tall narrow basket 
made of slips of wood supple- 
mented by cocoa-nut leaves. 
Tunga, a round open basket. 
Ungo, pi. maungo, or uteo, pi. 
teo (M.), a round flat basket 
used for sifting. 
Kiteo, pi. viteo, a very small one. 
Kunguto, pi. makunguto, a 

basket used as a colander. 
Jamanda,pZ. majamanda, a round 
basket of thick work, with a 
raised lid. 
Bat, popo. 

Batcheior, msijana (?). 
Bath, birika, chakogea. 
Bath room, cboo, pi. vyoo. See 

Public baths, hamami. 
Battle, mapigano. 
Battlements, menomeno. 
Bay, ghubba. 
Beach, pwani, mpwa (M.)- 
Beads, ushanga, pi. shanga. 
Kondavi, pi. makondavi, a large 

kind worn by women, 
(rosary), tasbiih. 
Beak, mdomo wa ndege. 
A parrot's beak, mbango. 

Beam, mti, pi. niiti, boriti, mkimili, 

pi. mihimili. 
Beans, kuuiide. 

Cliooko, a very small green kind. 
Fiwe, grow on a climbing plant 

with a white flower. 
Baazi, grow on a bush something 
like a laburnum. 
Beard, ndevu, maderu. 

One hair of the beard, udevu. 
The imperial, the tuft of hair on 
the lower lip, kinwa mchuzi, 
kionda mtuzi (M.). 
Beast, nyama. 
Beauty, uzuri. 

A beauty, kizuri, pi. vizuri, baiba. 
Bed (for planting sweet potatoes), 

tuta, pi. matuta. 
Bedding, matandiko. 
Bedstead, kitanda, pi. vitanda. 
The legs, tendegu, pi. matendegu. 
The side pieces, mfumbati, pi. 

The end pieces, kitakizo, pi. vita- 

The head, nichago. 
The space underneath, mvungu 
Bee, nyuki. 
Beehive (a hollow piece of wood), 

mzinga, pi. ruizinga. 
Beggar, mwornbaji, pi. waombaji. 
Begging, maomvi. 
Beginning, mwanzo, pi. mianzo. 
Start in speaking or doing, feli, 
pi. mafeli. 
Behaviour, mwenendo. 

Good behaviour, kutenda vema. 
Ill behaviour, kutenda vibaya. 
Bell, kengele. 

Njuga, a small bell worn as an 
ornament, a dog beU. 



I'. Uowing, kivnini. vuini. 
Bellows, mifuo, mivukuto. 
/?• lhj, inatuinbo. 
I, pindo. 
The arm stiffened in a bent form, 
kigosho cha mkono. 
atooka bay, Mjanga. 
Betel biif, tambuu. It is c7<<tr. ,1 
until areca nut, lime, and to- 
bacco folded up in it, and gin-* 
its name t<> fin irhub-. 
Beverage, kinywaji, pi. vinywaji. 
Bhang, bangi. 

Biceps muscle, tafu ya mkono. 
Bin r, jeneza, jenaiza. 
Bifurcation, panda. 
BiL . nyongo. 
Biliousness, safura (Ar.\ marungu 

(M. . 
Bill. See Beak 
(account), hesabu, barua. 
Bill of fab , ankra. 
rl,.,j,j„ ,), niumlu, pi. miutidu ; 
npamba, )./. pamba. 
Bird, ndege, nyuni (M.). 

Young of birth, kiuda, pi. ma- 

Bird* if tltr air, ndege za anga. 
Bird if ill omen, korofi, mkorofi. 
Nativt bird*. 
Pugi, a very snudl kind of dove. 
Koron^o, crane. 
Mbango, a bird with a hooked 

I "fi I;. 
Ninga, a green dove. 
'/. waridi, << ./nm sparrow. 
Mb lyuwayu, a swoIa 
Bundi, an owl. 

Luanga — pungn — tendawala '?). 
Birth, uzazi, uvyasd, kizazi, kivyazi. 
lit, biakwiti 
.1 very thin kind, kaki. 

Bishop, aakafa (Ar.). 

A cli, y.< bieltop, kh.iini. 
/; / (./ horn '.-• . lijamu. 
Bitterness, ucbungu, ukali. 
Blabbi r of seen ts, payo, pi. mapnvo. 
Blacksmith, mfufl ohuma, ///. wafua 

cbuma, mhunzi (Mer.), pi. 

Blackwood, sesemi. 
Bladdi r. kibofu, ]>l. vibofu. 
Blade, ken 
Blade of grass, uchipuka, pi. cbi- 

Blame, matuvunra. 

Blank* I, bll-buti. 

Blemish, ila, kiptmguo. 

Blessing, baraka, mbaraka, pi. mi- 
ll iraka. 

Blindness, upnfu (loss of sight), 
chongo (loss of one ey>). 

Blinders (used for camels umen 
grinding in mills), jamanda (of 
hud.-' I work), kidoto (of cloth > 

Blister, lengelenge, pi. nialen:. r >'- 
1< nge. 
A vesicular eruption of the skin. 

Block. See Pulley. [uwati. 

A block to dry skull caps upon, 

Blood, ilamu. 

Blood-vessel, msbipa, pi. misbipn. 

Blotch, waa, pi. mawaa. 

Blowing and bellowing noise (often 

Hindi; ivith a drum), VUOlL 

Blue vitriol, mrututu. 
Jio'irif, ubau, pi. mbaa. 

Piece of board, kibau, pi. vibau. 
Boat, masbua. 
Body, mwili, pi. miili. 

Tin human trunk, kiwiliwili. 

A dead body, mayiti. 

The body of soldiers, &c, jamiL 



Boil, jipu, pi. majipu. 

Bomb, kombora. 

Bombay, Mombee. 

Bone, mfupa, pi. mifupa, fapa, pi. 

mafupa (vtry large). 
Booh, chuo, pi. vyuo, kitabu, pi. 
A sacred book, msabafu, pi. misa- 

An account booh, daftari. 
Booty, mateka, nyara. 
Border (boundary), mpaka, pi. mi- 
An edging woven on to a piece of 
cloth, taraza. 
Bother, utbia, buja. 
Bottle, cbupa, pi. macbupa, tupa 
(M.), pi. matupa. 
A long-necked bottle for sprinkling 

scents, mrasbi, pi. mirashi. 
A little bottle, a phial, kitupa, pi. 
Bottom, cbini. 
Bough, kitawi, pi. vitawi. 
Boundary, mpaka, pi. mipaka. 
Bow, upindi, pi. pindi, uta, pi. 

mata, or nyuta. 
Bowl {wooden), fua. See Basin. 
Bowsprit, mlingote wa maji. 
Box, bweta, pi. mabweta, ndusi, 
kisanduku, pi. visanduku. 
Small, kibweta, pi. vibweta. 
Large, kasha, pi. makasba, san- 

Small metal box, kijaluba, pi. 

Small, long-shaped metal box, often 
used to keep betel in, kijamanda, 
pi. vijamanda. 
Small paper box, kibumba, pi. 
Boy, kijana, pi. vijana. 

Bracelet, kekee (fiat). 

Kikuku, pi. vikuku (round). 

Kingaja, pi. vingaja (of beads). 

Banagiri(orarimeM<ed with points). 

Braid, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Brains, bongo, mabongo. 
Bran, cbacbu, makapi. 

Husks of rice, kunivi. 
Branch, tawi, pi. matawi, utanzu, 

pi. tanzu. 
Brand (apiece of wood partly burnt), 

kinga, pi. vinga. 
Brass, sbaba, nubas (Ar.). 
Brass wire, mazoka (?). 
Bravery, ushujaa, u(fcabiti. 
Brawler, mgomvi, pi. wagomvi. 
Bread (loaf or cake), mkate. 
Breadth, upana. 
Break. See Orach, Notch. 
Breakfast, cbakula cha subui, 
kifungua kanwa, cha msha 
Breaking wind (upward), kiungulia, 
pi. viungulia. 

(downward), jamba, pi. majamba, 
Breast, kifua, kidari, mtima. 

Breasts, maziwa, sing. ziwa. 
Breath, pumzi, nafusi, roho. 
Bribe, rusbwa. 
Bride, bibi harusi. 
Bridegroom, bwana harusi. 
Bridle, hatamu (halter, reins, &c), 

lijamu (bit). 
Brink, ukingo, mzingo. 
Brook, kijito, pi. vijito. 
Broom, ul'agio, pi. fagio. 
Brother, ndugu, ndugu mume, 
kaka (Kibadimu). 

Foster brother, ndugu kunyonya. 

Brother-in-law, shemegi. 



Husband's brother, mwamua. 
Wifi '« hrothi r, will. 
Brow, kikomo cha nso, kipaji. 
Bruise, vilio la damn, alama ya 

Brush (see Broom), buniahi. 
Brushwood, koko, makoko. 
Bubble, povu, ^J. niapovu. 
Bucket, inloo. 
Buckler, ngao. 
Buffalo, mati. 
1?h : /. kunguni. 
Building, jengo, ^?. majengo. 
Building materials, majengo. 
jP/rm and good building, mtomo. 
Bull, fahali, pi. mafahali, ng'ombe 

mume or ndunie. 
Bullet, poopoo, risasi ya bunduki. 
1 hillock, maksai. 

Bunch, tawi, pi. matawi, kitawi, pi. 
vitawi, kichala, pi. vichala. 
The bunch is said to be of the 
tree and not of the fruit. 
Tawi la mtende, a bunch of dates. 
Kichala cha mzabibu, a bunch of 
grapes. See Bananas. 
Bundle, peto, pi. niapeto, mzigo, pi. 
In a cloth, bimdo, furushi, ki- 

Of straw, mwenge, pi. inienge. 
Of sticks, titi, pi. matiti. 
Buoy, chilezo, pi. vilezo, mlezo, pi. 

Burden, mzigo, pi. mizigo. 
Burial-place, mazishi, maziko. 
Burier (i.e. a special friend), mzishi, 

pi. wazislii. 
Bush, kijiti, pi. vijiti. 

Bushes, koko, pi. makoko. 
7. iness, shughuli, kazi. 
Urgent business, ainara. 

A complicated business, visa 

His business, amri yake. 
I have no business, &c., sina amri, 
Butter, siagi. 

Clarified butter (ghee), samli. 
Buttermilk, mtindi. 
Butterfly, kipepeo, pi. vipepeo. 
Buttocks, tako, pi. matako. 
Button, kifungo, pi. vifungo. 
Button loop, kitanzi, }>1. vitanzi. 
Button by which the wooden clogs 
are held on, msuruake, pi. mi- 
Buyer, mnunuzi, pi. wanunuzi. 

Cabin (side), kipenu. 

Cable, amara. 

Caffre corn, mtama. 

Cage, kizimbi, pi. vizimbi, tundu, 

pi. matundu. 
Cake, mkate, pi. mikate. 
Cake of mtama meal, mkate wa 

Cake of tobacco, mkate wa tu- 

Bumunda, pi. mabumunda, a sort 

of dumpling or soft cake. 
Kitumbua, pi. vitumbua, a cake 

made like a fritter. 
Ladu, a round ball made of 

semsem seed, spice, and sugar. 
Kinyunya, pi. vinyunya, a little 
cake made to try the quality of 
the flour. 
Calabash, buyu, pi. mabuyu. 
Inner part of the calabash fruit, 

Calabash used to draw wat>r, 
kibuyu, vibuyu. 



Calabash tree or baobab, mbuyu, 

pi. mibuyn. 
A pumpkin shell used to hold 
liquids, dundu, pi. madundu. 
Cola in%,masaibu, msiba,p£. misiba. 
Calico. See Cloth. 

Fine, bafta. 
Calf, ndama, ndama wa ng'ombe. 
Call (calling), mwito, pi. niiito. 
(a cry), ukelele, ukemi. 
Kikorombwe, a signal cry. 
Calm, shwali. 
Calumba root, kaomwa. 
Camel, ngamia. 
Camelopard, twiga. 
Camphor, karafumayiti, kafuri. 
Candle, tawafa, meshinaa. 
Candlestick, kinara, pi. vinara. 
Cannabis Indica, bangi. 
Cannon, mzinga, pi. lmziuga. 
Canoe, galawa (icith outriggers , 
mtumbwi, pi. mitumbwi (with- 
out outriggers), bori, pi. mahori 
(with raised head and stern). 
Canter, mghad (of a horse). 

Thelth (of an ass). 
Cap, kofia. 
A cup block, faroma. 
A gun-cap, fataki. 
Capacity, kadri. 
Cape (headland), rasi. 
Captain, nakhotha, naoza, kapitani. 
Caravan, msafara, pi. misafara. 
Caravan porter, mpagazi, pi. wa- 
Carcase, mzoga, pi. mizoga. 
Cards (playing), karata. 
Cardamoms, iliki. 
Care, tunza, pi. matunza. 

(cautiony, bathari. 
Cargo, sbebena. 
Carpenter, seruiala, pi. masermala. 

Carpet, zulia. 
Carriage, gari, pi. magari. 
A gun carriage, gurudumo la 
Cartridge, kiass cba bundnki. 
Carving, naksb, nakisbi. 
Case or paper box, kibumba, pi. 

Cashew nut, korosbo, pi. makorosho 
Immature nut, dunge. 
Cashew apple, bibo, pi. mabibo, 

kanju (M.), pi. makanju. 
Cashew nut tree, mbibo, pi. mibibo, 
mkanju (M.), pi- mikanju. 
Cask, pi pa, pi. mapipa. 
Casket, kijamanda, pi. vijamanda. 
Cassava, mubogo. 
A piece of the dried root, kopa, pi. 
Castle, geieza, ngome. 

A chess castle, fil (Ar. elephant . 
Castor oil, mafuta ya mbaribt, 
mafuta ya nyonyo (?), mat'ut;t 
ya mbono (?). 
Castor oil plant, mbarika, pi. mi- 
barika, mbono (?), pi. niibono. 
Cat, paka. 
Catamite, haniti, hawa, hawara, 

sboga (A.). 
Cattle, ng'ombe, nyama. 

Cattle fold, zizi, pi. mazizi. 
Caudle made on the occasion of a 
birth, of rice, sugar, and spice, 
and given to visitors, fuka. 
Caulking, khalfati. 
Cause, sababu, kisa, asili, maana. 
Cautery and the marks of it, pisho, 
Caution, batbari. [pi. mapisbo. 
Cave, paango, pi. mapaango. 
Censer, a small vessel to burn incense 
in, chetezo. pi. vyetezo. mkebe, 
pi. mikebe. 



Centijn '/■ . taandn. 
d rtainty, yakini, kite. 
' iff, kapi, /7. makapi. 

(of ria ). kumvi. 

(l>ra it and crush* d grains), wishwa. 
Chain, mkufu, i>l. mikufu, mnyo- 
roro, pi. minyororo, silesile, 

I ' ■/• chain, riza. 
Chair, ki:i. pi. \iti. 
Chalk, chaki. 

I leleon, kinyonga, jjZ. vinyotiga, 
Chance, nasibu. [lunibwi (?). 

Chandelier, thurea. 
Change or changing, geuzi, j>Z. 

ChapU r, Bora, bah. 
Character, sifa. 
( 'haracters, hcrufu. 
Oiarcoal, makaa ya ndti. 
Charm (talisman), talasimu, pJ. ma- 

Chatter, upuzi. 
< 'batterer, lujiuzi, pi. wapuzL 
Cheat, ayari, mjanja, pi. wajanja. 
A great chmt. patiala. 

h (the part over the cheek-bone), 

kitefute, pi. vitefute. 
(Tlie part over the teeth), chafu, 

pi. machafu, tavu (A.), pi- 
Cheese, jibiui. [matavu. 

Che$8 t Bataranji. 
Chest 'of men), kifua, pi. vifua. 
(of animals or men ., kidari. 
(a large box), kusba, pi. raakasha, 

Chicken, faranga, pi. mafaranga, 

kifarauga, pi. vifarauga. 
Chief, mfalme, pi. wafalme, jumbc, 

pi. majuinbe, muuyi. 
Chieftainship, ujumbe. 
Child, intoto, pi. watoto, kitoto, /</. 

yitoto, mwana, pi. waana 

A child which cuts its upper teeth 

jir*t, mt'l is therefore considered 

unlucky, kigego, pi. vigego. 
Childhood, utoto. 
' himnt y, dohaan. 
Chin, kidevu, pi. videvu, kievu 

(A.), pi. vievu. 
Ornanu nt hanging from the Vt il 

below the chin, jebu, pi. nia- 

Chisel, patasi, chembeu. 
Juba, a mortirt chisel. 
Uina, a small chisel. 
Choice, lnari, hiyari, ikhtiari, na- 

Your choice, upendavyo (as you 

Cholera, tauni, wabba, kipindu- 

Church, kanisa, pi. inakauisa. 
Cinders, makaa. 
Cinnabar, zangefuri. 
Cinnamon, mdalasini. 
Cipher (figure of nought), sifuru, 

Circle of a man's affairs, &c, uli- 

mwengu wake. 
Circumcision, tohara, kumbi 

(Mer.) (?). 
Circumference, kivimba, lnzingo. 
Circumstances, mambo. 

A circumstance, jambo. 
Cistern, birika. 

Citron, balungi, pi. mabalungi. 
Civet, zabadi. 
Civet cat, f'ungo, ngawa (a large* 

animal than the fungo). 
Civilization, ungwana. 
Civilized people, wangwana. 
Clamp for burning lime, tanun. 
Clap of tli under, radi. 
i, divai. 



Class for study, darasa. 
Claw, ukucha, pi. kucha. 

(of a crab), gando, pi. rnagando. 
Clay (?), udongo. 
Clearness, weupe. 
Clerk, karani. 
Clergyman, padre or padiri, pi. ma- 

padiri, khatibu. 
Cleverness, kekinia. 
Climate, tabia. 
Clock, sua. 

What o'clock is it ? Saa ngapi ? 
According to the native reckon- 
ing, noon and midnight are at 
the sixth hour, saa a sita; six 
o'clock is saa a Menaskara. 
Clod, pumba, pi. mapumba. 
Cloth {woollen), joko. 
{Cotton), nguo. 

(American sheeting), amerikano. 
(Blue calico), kauiki. 
Cloth of gold, zari. 
A loin cloth of about two yards, 

sbuka, doti. 
A loin cloth with a coloured border, 

kikoi, pi. vikoi. 
A turban clotli, kitambi, pi. vi- 

A woman's cloth, kisuto, pi. vi- 

A cloth tivisted into a kind of rope 
used as a girdle, and to make 
the turbans worn by the Hindis, 
ukumbuu, pi. kumbuu. 
Clothes, nguo, miguo, mavazi mavao. 
Cloud, wiugu, pi. mawingu. 
Bain cloud, gkubari, pi. niagbu- 

Broken scattered clouds, mavu- 
Cloves, garofuu, karofuu. 
Fruit-stalks, kikonjc, pi. vikonyo. 

Club, rungu. 

Coals, makaa. 

Coast, pwani. 

Coat, joho (a long open coat of 

broadcloth worn by the Aral**). 
Cob of Indian corn, gunzi, pi. ma- 

Cock, ]ogoo,pl. majogoo, jogoi. jirubi. 
A young cockerel, not yet able to 

crow, pora. 
A cock's comb, upanga. 
A cock's wattles, ndefu. 
Cockles, kombe za pwani (?). 
Cockroach, ruende, makalalao (Ma- 

Cocoa-nut, nazi. 

Cocoa-nut tree, mnazi, pi. miuazi. 
Heart of the growing shoot, used as 

salad, &c, kicbikma, sbaha. 
Cloth-like envelope of young leaves, 

Leaf, kuti, pi. makuti. 
Midrib of leaf, uchukuti, pi. 

Leaflets, ukuti, pi. kuti. 
Leaf plaited for making fences, 

makuti ya kumba. 
Half leaf plaited together, makuti 

ya pande. 
Leaflets made up for thatching, 

makuti ya viungo. 
Part of a leaf plaited into a 
basket, pakacba, pi. ruapakacka. 
Woody flower sheath, kaiara. 
Bunch of nuts, tawi la mnazi. 
Flower and first forming of nuts, 

upunga, pi. punga. 

Small nuts, kidaka, pi. vidaka. 

Half-grown nut, kitale, pi. vitale. 

Full-grown nut before the nutty 

part is formed, dafu, pi. 

madafu. In this stage the shell 


'/;/ full of (he milk or 

juice (maji), and die nuts ore 

oft* » ipilhi ii d for drinking. 
Haif-ripi nut, wfo n the nutty part 

is formed and the mUk begins to 

wabble in the shell, koroma, pi. 

Rtpi hut, nazL 

.1 /.at which //<(< grown full of a 
substana without 

any hollow or mUk, joya, pi. 

.) nut which lias dried in the shell 

so as to ratth in it without 
• "tilt, mbata. 
The fibrous case of the nut, cocoa- 

fibri . mikumbi. 
Cocoa-nut fibre thoroughly cleaned, 

A stick stuck iti the grovn-l to rip 

off the fibre, kifuo, pi. vifuo. 
The shell, kifuu, pi. vifuu, ki- 

fufu (M.). 
Instrument for scraping the fr< sh 

mit for cooking, mbuzi ya ku- 

knnia nazi. 
Oily juice squeezed out of the 

"■raped cocoa-nut, tui. 
A small bag to squeeze out the tui 

in. hafombu, pi. vituinbu. 
Ih' scraped nut after the tui has 

been pressed out, chicba. 
( 'opra,th< nut dru dand ready lobe 

pressed in the oil WW, nazi kavu. 
Cocoa-nut oil, mafuta ya nazi. 
1 e, kabawa, (plant) mbuni. 
Cqffi  In tries, buni. 
r "ffeepot, mdila, pi. midila. 
Coin a coin), Barafu. See Dollar, 

Hupi i . &c. 
Colander (in basket nark), kunguto, 

£il. makunguto. 

< 'old, baridi. 

Baridi and upepo are often used 
In mean wind or cold indiffer- 
Cold in tin head, mafua. 

I have a cold in the head, siwi zi 
Collar-bone, mtulinga,pl.mituli 
Colour. rangL 

Colours are generally described by 
reference to some kno\ 
stance : raugi ya kahawa, 
colour, brown : rangi ya majani, 
leaf colour, green ; rangi ya 
niakuti, colour of the dry cocoa- 
nut leaves, grey. 
Comb, kitaua, pi. vitann, sbanuu, 
pi. masbanuu (a large woodt n 
A cock's comb, upanga. 
Comfort, faraja. 
Comforter, nil'ariji, pi. wafaiiji. 
Coming (arrival), kitiko, pi. vifiku. 
(Mode of coming), uiajilio. 
Coming down or out from, msbuko, 
pi. rnishuko. 
Command, amri. 

Commander, y-m<uhm, pi. majema- 
dari, mkuu wa asikari. 
Second in command, akida. 
Commission, agizo, pi. maagizo. 
Comoro Islands, Masiwa. 
Great Comoro, Ngazidja. 
Comoro men, Wa ngazidja. 
Johanna, Anzwani. 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
Moh ill n, Moalli. 
Companion, inwenzi, pi. wenzi. 
Company, jamaa. 
Compass (mariner's), dira. 
Completeness, uzima, ukainilifu, 



Compliments, salaamu. 
Composition (of a word), rakibyueo. 
Composition for a murder, money 

paid to save one's life, dia. 
Concealment, maficbo. 
Conclusion, mwisbo, hatima. 
Concubine, suria, pi. masuria. 

Born of a concubine, suriyama. 
Condition (state), hali, jawabu. 
(A thing necessarily implied)^ 

Confidence, matumainL 
Confidential servant, msiri, pZ.wasiri. 
Conscience, thaimri, moyo. 
Conspiracy, mapatano, mwafaka. 
Constipation, kufunga choo. 
Constitution, tabia. 
Contentment, uratbi. 
Continent, raerinia. 
Continuance, maisha. 
Contract, maagano, sbarti. 
Conversation, mazumgurazo, mao- 

ngezi, usemi. 
Convert, mwongofu, pi. waongofu. 
Cook, mpishi, pi. wapisbi. 
Cooked grain, especially rice, wali. 
Cooking pot (metal), sufuria, pi. 

masufuria, kisufuria, pi. visu- 

(earthen), nyungu, cbungu, pi. 

vyungu. mkungu, pi. mikungu. 
(o pot to cook meat in with fat, to 

braze meat in), kaango, pi. ma- 

kaango, ukaango, kikaango, pi. 

A pot lid, mkungu wa kufunikia. 
Tliree stones to set a pot on over 

the fire, manga, sing, figa, 

mafya, sing, jifya. 
Cross pieces put in to keep the 

meat from touching the bottom of 

the pot and burning, nyalio. 

Coolie, hamali. pi. mahamali 
Copal, sandarusi. 
Copper, sbaba, sufuria. 
Coral (red), marijani ya fetbaluka 
(marijani alone does not always 
mean the true red coral). 
Fresh coral for building, cut from 
below high'Water mark, matu 
Cord, ugwe, ukambaa (M.), pi. 

kambaa, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Cork, kizibo, pi. vizibo. 
Com, nafaka (formerly used as 
Mubindi, Indian corn. 
Mtama, millet (the most common 

Mwere, very small grains growing 
in an upright head something 
like the flower of the bulrush. 
Corner, pembe. 

Comer of a cloth, tamvua, uta- 
Corpse, mzoga, pi. mizoga, mayiti. 
Corpulence, unene. 
Corruption, uovu, kioza. 
Dalia, a yellow composition. 
Yasi, a yellow powder from India, 
Liwa, a fragrant wood front 

Cotton, pamba. 
Couch, kitanda, pi. vitanda. 
Cough, kikobozi. 
Council, baraza, diwani. 
Councillor, diwani, pi. madiwani. 
Counsel, sbauri. 
Countenance, uso, pi. nyuso. 
Country, inchi, nti (,M.). The names 

D 2 



are made from the 
name of the people by no mix of 
//.• I"-. 

Uuyika, the country of the Wa- 

I gala, the country of tin Wagala. 
1 zuDgU, the country of the \Ya- 

zuugu, Europe. 
In the country, masbnmba. 
A country dialect, lugba ya ki- 

rage, ushujaa, urnabit, moyo. 
h (of a ship), majira. 
rtesy, jamala, adabu. 
tyard (< ncloeun ), ua, pi. nyua, 
uanda or uanja. 
Court within a house. behewa,kati. 
Cousin, mjukuu, pi. wajukuu. 
Covenant, maagano, sliarti. 
r (a lid , kifuniko. 
A dish cover made of straw and 
ofU n profusely ornamented} 
A booh cover, jalada. 
townees, tamaa, bakbili. 
Cow, ng'ouibe mke, pi. ng'ombe 

- id. mwoga, pi. waoga. 
Cowardice, uoga, 
ory, kauri, kete. 
ib. k:ia. 
Crack, ufa, pi. nyufa. 
Cramp, kiliarusi. 
A crump. •.'■■■■ magango. 
■in, siagi. 
Creed, imani. 

'■. horL 
Crest, Bhnngi (used aho for a way 
of dressing (he hair in two large 
Crew, baharia. 

( 'rime, taksiri. 

Crocodile, mamba, mbulu (?). 

V. k<>t:i. 
Crookedness, knmbo. 

A crooked thing, kikombo. 
Cross, msalaba, pi. raisalaba. 
Cross roads, njia panda. 
( Wossing place, kivuko, pi. vivuko. 
( Wow, kunguru. 

Crowbar, mtaimbo, pi. mitaimbo. 
Crowd, kundi, pi. makundi, ma- 

kutano, matangamano, umaati, 
Crown, taji. 

Crown of the head, upaa, utosi. 
Crumbs, vidogo, sina. kidogo. 
Crutch for oars, kilete, pi. vilete. 
Cry, kilio, pi. vilio, ukoluiu, pi. 

kelele, ukemi. 
(for help), yowe. 
( of joy), hoihoi, kigelegele. 
Cucumber, tango, pi. ruatango. 
Cubit (from the tip of the middle 

finger to the point of the elbow), 

thiraa, mkono, pi. rnikono. 
(from the point of the elbow to tlce 

knuckles when the fist is closed), 

tbiraa konde. 
Cultivation, kilimo. 
Cultivator, mkulirna, pi. wakulima. 
Cunning, cherevu, werevu. 
Cup, kikombe, pi. vikombe. 
Cupboard, eanduku. 
Cupper, mumishi, pi. wauniishi. 
Cupping horn, chuku. 
Curiosity (rarity , kioja, pi. vioja, 

hedaya, tunu. 
Curlew, sululu, kipila. 
Current, mkondo wa maji. 
Curry, mcbuzi, mtuzi (M.). 
A small seed used in malcing it, 

An acid thing put into it, kiungo. 



Curse, laana, pi. malaana. 
Curtain, pazia, pi. rnapazia. 
Curve, kizingo. 
Cushion, mto, pi. mito. 
A large cushion, takia, pi. ma- 

Cuatard apple, topetope, mstofole, 

konokono, matoiaoko. 
Custom, desturi, matbekebu, ada. 
Custom-house, fortba. 
Customs' duties, asbur. 
Cut, a short cut, njia ya kukata. 
Cutting (breaking off), kato, pi. 

Cuttle-fish, pweza. 
Arms of the cuttle-fish, rnnyiiiii, 

pi. minyiriri. 
Cutwater of a dhow, banamu. 
Cypher. Sen Cipher. 
Cymbals, matoazi, sing. toazL 


Dagger, jambia (the curved dagger 
generally worn). 

Damascus, Sham. 

Dance, nicbezo, pi. micbezo. 
Names of dances, guugn, msapata, 
bauzua, kitanga cba pepo, 

Dandy, malidadi. 

Mtongozi, pi. watongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to attract 

Danger, batari, khofu, kicbo. 

Darkness, kiza, giza (these are only 
two ways of pronouncing the 
same word, but the first is some- 
times treated as though the ki- 
were a prefix and it belonged to 
the fourth class, while the second 
is taken as belonging to the fifth : 
it is probably, however, most 

correct to refer them both to the 

Dark saying, fumbo, pi. mafumbo, 

maneno ya fumba. 
Darling, kipendi, pi. vipendi. 
Dates, tende. 

Bute-tree, mtende, pi. mitende. 
Daughter, binti, mtoto mke, mwaua, 

Daughter-in-law, mkwe, pi. we- 

Dawn, alfajiri, kucba. 
Day (of twenty-four hours, reckoned 

from sunset to sunset), siku. 
(time of daylight), mcbana, mtana 

All day, mcbana kutwa. 
Day labourer, kibarua, pi. vibarua 

(so called from the ticket given 

to workpeople, which they give 

up again when paid). 
Daylight, mcbana, mtaua (M.). 
Dazzle, kiwi. 
Deal (wood), sunobari. 
Death, kufa (dying), mauti, ufu, 

Debt, deni. 
Deceit, bila, madanganya, udanga- 

nifu, badaa, uwougo. 
Deck, sitaba, dari. 
Deep water, kilindi, pi. vilindi. 

Great depths, lindo, pi. malindo. 
Defect, upungufu, ila, kombo, ki- 

punguo, pi. vipunguo. 
Deficiency, kipunguo, upungufu. 
Defilement, ujusi. 
Deliverance, wokovu. 
Demand in marriage, poso, pi. 

Dependant, mfuasi, pi. wafuasi. 
Depth, kwenda, cbini, uketo. 
Derision, mzaba, tbibaka. 

swahili HAxnnooK. 

m, kusudi, /</. makusudi, oia. 
ut. mshuko, pi. mishuko. 
'. wangwa, jangwa, ph ma- 

►, ukiwa. 
ttclton, kuharibika, kupotea. 
ucfa'tn /(,>■>'. uharibivu, upotevu. 
/'< tachrm nt (of soldiers, etc.). kikosi, 
}>\. vikosi. 
. Iiila, shauri. pi. mashauri. 
l> vil, shetani, )<1. mashetani. 
mtaowa, pi. wataowa. 
/< ". umande. 

 (native craft), cbombo, pi. 

vyombo; when very large, jombo, 

/</. majombo. 

Kinds of dhows : — 

Dau, jil. madau, a small open 

iharp at //" tU rn,with a square 

matting sail. They belong t<> tl" 

 il inhabitants of Zanzibar, 

.///</ are chiefly < mployed in bringing 

: tn tin town. 

Mtepe, pi. mitepe, a large open 

' sharp ut the sU rn. with a large 

 matting sail; the prow is 

,. !'!■ to resemble a camel's head, and 

,. ornamented "'Hit painting and 

I it tli' dreamers. Th'e planks are 

together. There is always a 

pennon at the masthead. These 

'- belong chiefly to Lamoo, and 

• -in a try near it. 

Betela, the common dhow of Zan- 
 : it has a square stem, u-ith a 
 ;i and a head much like those 
of Europi "a bouts. 

15 Igala, pi. mabagala, large dhows 

with very high square sterns and tall 

. and bun projecting prows. 

Indian dhows ore mostly of this 

they have very often u 

id mast rising from the poop 
(mlingote wa kalmi). 

Gkangi, they resemble the Bi- 
galaa except in not being so high in 
tin i>oop or so lomj in the prow. 

Batili, a low vessel with a long 
projecting prow, a sharp stem, and 
high rudder-head. They have often 
a flying poop and a second mast 
Tiny belong to the piratical Arabs 
from the Persian Gulf. 

lied, ni, a dhow with a sharp stern 
and high rudder-head, and a per- 
//< mlicuJar cutwater ; there is ofU u a 
piece of board attached to it, malting 
a kind of head ; when this is absent 
the vessel is an Awesia. Bedem 
may easily be distinguished among 
other dhows by their masts being 
upright ; in all other dhoios the musts 
i neline forward. Tiny belong to the 
coast of Arabia, especially that on the 
Indian Ocean. 

Dhow sail, duumi. 

Prow, gubeti. 

Poop, sbetri. 

Quarter galleries, makanadili. 

Joists of deck, darumeti. 

Chunam for bottom, deheni. 

Place for stoiving things likely to 
be soon wanted, iV.uli. 
Dialect, maneno, luglia. 

Dialects and languages are usually 
expressed by prefixing ki- to the 
name of the place or people. 

Kiunguja (for Maneno ya Kiu- 
nguja), the dialect of Zanzibar 

Kiinvita, the dialect of Mombas 

Kianiu, the dialect of Lamoo 



Kigunya, the dialect of Siwi, &c. 
Kiarabu, Arabic. 
Kigala, the Galla language. 
Kimasbamba, a country dialect. 
Kishenzi, the talk of some uncivil- 
ized nation. 
Kiungwana, a civilized language. 
Kizungu, the languages spoken by 
Diamond, almasi. 
Diarrhcea, tumbo la kuenenda. 
Diet, maakuli. 
Difference, tofauti, sivimoja. 
Difficulty, sbidda, ugumu, mashaka. 
Dinner (mid-day), cbakula cba 

Direction (bidding), fundisbo, pi. 
mafundisbo, agizo, pi. maagizo. 
Dirt, f aka. 

Disease, maratbi, tnveli, ugonjwa. 
Disfigurement, lemaa. 
Disgrace, aibu, ari, fetbeba. 
-Disgust, macbukio. 
Dish, sabani. kombe, pi. makombe, 
mkungu wa kulia, buugu, 
kitunga, pi. vitunga (the first 
is the usual icord for European 
An earthen dish to bake cakes on, 
Disorder (confusion), fujo. See 

Display, wonyesbo. 
Disjiosal, amri. 

To put at his disposal, kumwamria. 
Dispute, masbiudano, tofauti. 
Disquiet, fatbaa. 
Dissipation, asberati, wasberati, 

Distortion (by disease), lemaa. 
Distress, sbidda, tbulli, utbia, msiba, 

District of a toicn, mta, pi. mita. 
For the districts of Zanzibar see 
Part II., p. 330. 
Disturbance (riot), fitina. 

(trouble), kero. 
Ditch, bandaki, shimo, pi. mashimo. 
Divine service, ibada ya Muumru. 
Division (arithmetical), mkasama. 
Divorce, talaka. 
Dock for ships, gudi. 
Doctrine, elimu, ihn, matbhab. 
Document, khati. 
Dog, mbwa. 

Very large, jibwa, pi. majibwa. 
Bize, a icild hunting dog. 
Mbwa wa koko, the houseless dogs 
outside Zanzibar. 
Doll, mtoto wa bandia. 
Dollar, reale, rea. 

Spanish Pillar dollar, reale ya 

Black dollars, reale ya Sham. 
American 20-dollar piece, reale ya 

French silver 5-franc piece, reale 

ya kifransa. 
For the parts of a dollar see in the 
section on Adjectives under 
Numerals — fractions, p. 93. 
Dome, zege. 

Dominion, mamlaka, bukumu. 
Donkey, punda. 

Donkey from the mainland, kio- 
ngwe, pi. vioiigwe. 
Door, mlango, pi. milango (vulgarly, 
mwango, pi. miango). 
Leaf of door, ubau, pi. mbau. 
Centre piece, infaa. 
Door-keeper, mgoja mlango. 
Door chain, riza. 

Door frame, top and bottom pieces, 
kizingiti, pi. vizingid. 



- ' '■ . mwii  i, miimo. 
i hit' r beading, upapi. 
Dotage, mapiswa, 

baka, ta 
bM, waswas. 
/  • . lni:i. S Pigeon if- Birds. 
■i/, paid by tin- husband to (he 
wife's fru mis. mahari. 
Dragon-fly, kering'ende. 
Dragon' 8 blood, maziwa (or macho), 
ya watu wawili. 
n, ndoto. 
Dregs, chembe. 

Di -. uguo, mavazi, mavao, uvao. 
Slav* < and very poor m< n wear 
'ally mi nguo only, that is, a 
loin cloth of white or blue calico. 
a wear « kisuto, or long cloth 
of blue, or printed, or coloured c 
wrapped tightly round the body 
immediately under the arms, anil mi 
tin- head an ukaya, a piea of bhu 
calico vith two long ends; it has a 
string passing undt rthe chin,to which 
n eilvi r ornaim ut, jebn, is attached. 
Well-dressed men mar a loincloth 
vith ii coloured borcU r, kikni, a long 
shirt-like garment in white calico, 
kanzu, a shawl, aniazu. twisted 
■!!■■ waist, a waistcoat, kisibao, 
-i/i./ a long loose runt. joho. On tin ir 

h' ml t ii /■■ I :>r wltiti- skull- 

 : i ind it a 
aba. 77/-//- feet are 
slippt dint i .-, viatu. 

II ili, a 

h I ZU Of '■ It •"■ d licit' rials ii ml ii 

kofia (cap) adormd with gold and 

. or more commonly a 
handkerchief, dusamali, folded "ml 
tied on the head so as to hidt tin 
hair. I'l" j also wear torn* h 

kisibao (/ mbroidt red waistcoat"), awl 
nearly always « mask, barakoa 

117//// tin y go nut tin ij throw over all 

a large square of black sill;, lebwani. 

On their /ut they rani/ wooden eloijs 

In hi by a button (msuruake) graspt <l 

l,i tin, n tin toes. 

Dressing of calico, dondo. 

Drill, keke. The iron is called 

kekee; the wood ii is fixed in. 

msukano; tin handle in which it 

turns, jivu ; and the how, uta. 
Driiih, kinwa(or kinywa), pi. vinwa, 

kinwaji, jil. vinwaji. 
Drinker, mnywa, ;>/. wanywa 
DiijijiiiKj (fat rooked out of meat), 

uto wa nyama. 
Drop, tone, pi. niatone, kitone, pi. 

Droppings (dung), mavi. 
Dropsy, istiska. 

Drowsiness, leppe, leppe za uzingizi. 
Drum, ngoma. 

Chapuo, a small drum. 
Kuinbwaya, a drum upon feet. 
Msondo, a very tall drum, beaten 

on special occasions. 
Tin' shin of a drum, or anything 

sir, tched Wee it very tightly, ki- 

wambo, pi. viwambo. 
Drunkard, mlevi, pi. walevi. 
Duck, bata, pi. mabata. 
Duryan, fines i la kizungu. 
Dust, vi i ii i !>i, i >l. (much dust) ma- 


Dust and sand on a road, tifutifu. 
Duties. See Customs. 

Duties of one's position, kiwango, 
pi. viwango. 

Dwarf, kibeti, pi. vibeti 
Dwelling, tnakao, makazi, makani, 
Dye, rangi. [masikaui. 



Mkasiri, a tree whose bark is used 
to dye fishing-nets and lines 

Ungamo, a yellow dye used to dye 
Dysentery, tuinbo la kuhara daniu. 


Eagerness (excessive haste), pupa. 
Eagle (?) koho, firkomba, tai, pu- 
ngu, kipanga (all these words 
seem to denote some large bird of 
Ear, sikio, pi. masikio. 
Hole pierced in the lower lobe of 

the ear, ndewe. 
Ear ornaments, a large round 
ornament in the lower lobe, 
jassi, pi. majassi. 
Ornaments in the upper part of 
the ear, if dangling, kipuli, pi. 
vipuli ; if shaped like a stud, 
kipini, pi. vipini. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio. 
Ear of corn, suke, pi. masuke. 
See Buiwli, Cob. 
Earnest money, arabuni, stakabathi. 
Earth, inclii, udongo. 

The earth, inclii, uliniwengu, 
Ease, raha. [dunia. 

After pain, faraja. 
East wind, matlaa. 
Eaves, rachilizi, pi. michilizi. 
Eavesdropper, dukizi (or duzi), pi. 

Eliony, mpingo. 
Echo, mwangwi. 
Edge (of a precipice), ukingo. 
(Of a piece of cloth), pindo, pi. 
Edging woven into a piece of cloth, 

Effort, jubudi, bklii. 

Effusion {of blood), vilio (la damu), 

pi. mavilio. 
Bgg, yayi, pi. mayayi. 

White of egg, ute wa yayi. 
Yolk of an egg, kiini cba yayi. 
Eggshell, ganda la yayi. 
Empty eggshell, kaka. 
Egypt, Misri, Masri, Massara. 
Elbow, kisigino, pi. visigino, kivi, 

pi. vivi. 
Elder, mzee, pi. wazee, sbeki, pi. 

Elegance, jamala. 
Elephant, tembo, ndoru. 
Elephantiasis (leprosy), jethamu. 

{Barbadoes leg), teende. 
Embarrassment, matata, uthia, ma- 

Embroidery, almaria. 
(stitching), darizi. 
(piping), kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Embroilment, matata. 
Emetic, tapisho.^Z. matapisho, dawa 

la kutapika. 
Employment, kazi, utumwa. 
Emulation, bidii. 
Encampment (of a caravan), kituo, 

pi. vituo. 
Enclosure, uanja, ua, pi. nyua. 
Enclosure made by a fence of 
cocoa-nut leaves, ua wa nia- 
Enclosure made by a fence of 

mtama stalks, ua wa mabua. 
Enclosure with a stone fence, 
kitalu, pi. vitalu. 
End, mwisbo, pi. miisbo (finishing), 
batima, kikomo, pi. vikoino 
Qeaving off), 
of a journey, kifiko, pi. vifiko. 
of a piece of cloth, mialamu. 



rnersofa turban cloth, <fcc, 

tamvua, kishungi, j'l. vishungi. 

my, adui, />/. adai or maadui. 
n, nl, sbngbuli, utumwa. 
kitendawili, pi. vitonda- 

Enmity, wadui, adawa, kbusuma. 
Entrails, matumbo. 
Entrance, kuingia, pakuingiba, 

E vy, hasidi. kijicbo, kijito (NL). 
Epilepsy, kifafa. 
Equal {in age), bin'mu, marika, 
Equivalent, badala. 
Error, kosa, makosa. 
Eructation, kiunguba.pZ. viungulia. 

pe, wokovu, kuokoka. 
{'■titer course), buddi. 
/ • m, niapendo, mauiikano. 
1 ,nate, maafikano. 

itty, milele. 
Eunuch, tawasbi, maksai. 
Euphorbia, mtupa, pi. mitupa. 
Europe, Ulaya, Wilaya, Uzungu. 
European (or any one wearing a 

European dress), Mzungu, pi. 

E>-e. Hawa. 
/."<■< ning, jioni. 
/ startling), shani. 

Evil, uovu. 

itukufu, atbama. 

nple, mfaiio, pi. mifano. 

 ment, mavi. 
. gbarama. 
Extinguisher, mzima (a person), pi. 

wazima, kizima (a thing), pi. 

Eye. jiclio, pi. macho, jito (M.), pi. 

Loss of an eye, chongo. 
Eyebrow, nyushi, nshi (A.). 

lash nr /•'./• lid, kope. 
A stye in the eye, cliochea. 

Fable, ngano. 
Face, uso, pi. nyuso. 
Fxces, mavi 
Faggot, tita,, pi. matita. 
Faith, imani. 
Fall, taaangnko. 
Falsehood, uwongo. 
Familiarity, mazoezo. 
Family, janiaa. ndugu. 
Famine, njaa, ndaa (M.). 
Fan, upepeo pi. pepeo, pepeo. pi. 
mapepeo, kipopeo, pi. vipepeo. 
Fare, nauli. 
Fast, funga. 

Fasting month, Ramathani. 
Fat. shaliamu, mafuta. 

A piece of fat, kipande kili^ho- 

Fat cooked out of meat, uto wa 
FaU . ajali. 
Fath r, baba. 

In speaking of one's own father it 
is 'polite to call him bwana. 

Stepfather, baba wa karabo. 

Fatln r-in-lnu; inkwe. pi. wakwe. 
Fathom, pima, pi. mapima. 
Fatigue, utufu, ulegevu. 
Fatting, kinono, pi. vinono. 
Fault, hatiya, kosa, pi. makosa. 
Favour, upendeleo. 

A favour, fatbili. 
Favourite, kipendi, pi. vipendi, 

mpenzi, pi. wapenzi. 
Fear, khofu, uoga, kitisho, pi. 

vitislio, kicbo, pi. vicho. 
Feast, k;iramu. 

Feast day, siku kuu. 



Feather, unyoa, pi. nyoa, nyoa (or 
nyoya), pi. mauyoya. 
A icing feather, ubawa, pi. mbawa. 
Feeder, mlishi, pi. walisbi. 
Ftllow-servant, mjoli, pi. wajoli. 
Fence, ua, pi. nyua. 

Stone fence, kitalu, pi. vitalu. 
Ftnugreek, watu. 
Ferry, kivuko, pi. vivuko. 
Fetters, pingu. 
Fever, homa. 

Swelling of the glands of the groin 

followed by fever, mtoki. 
Dengue fever, kidinga popo. 
Field, koonde, pi. tnakoonde, mgu- 

nda (Yao). 
Field labourer, mkulima, pi. waku- 

Fierceness, ukali. 
Fig, tini. 

Fig-tree, mtini, pi. mitini. 
Fight, rnapigauo. 

Figure of speech, mfano wa maneno. 
Filagree work, temsi. 
File, tupa. 

Filh. t, utepe, pi. tepe. 
Filth, ucliavu, janaba. 
Fin, pezi, pi. mapezi. 
Fine for a murder, dia. 
Fineness, uzuri. 

Finger, kidole, pi. vidole, kidole cha 
mkono, cbanda (M.),£»Z. vyanda. 
Fire, mo to, pi. mioto. 
Pieces of wood to get fire by twist- 
ing, upekecbo. 
Fireicood, kuni, one piece, ukuni. 
A half-burnt piece of firewood, 

kinga, pi. vinga. 

Tlie act of pushing the wood further 

into the fire, or an instrument for 

doing so,kichocheo,kitoteo (M.). 

Fireplace, jiko, pi. meko, iueko, 

pi. mieko, hence "kitchen, jikoni, 
Tliree stones to set a pot over the 
fire upon, jifya, pi- mafya, figa, 
pi. maflga. Jifya is the word 
most used in the town, figa that 
used in the country. 
Firefly, kiraurimuri, pi. vimurimuri, 

kimetimeti, pi. vimetiraeti. 
Firmament, anga (?). 
Firmness, usimume, uf/iabiti, (in 

building) intomo. 
Fish, samaki. 

Dagaa, very small, small fry. 
Njombo, barred with black and 

Taa, a very large flat fish. 
Pono, a fish said to be nearly 

always asleep. 
Other kinds, Cbafi, Changa, 
Cbewa, Kungu, Mcbumbuluru. 
IMkizo, Mwewe, Mzia, Ngunx, 
Nguva, Panzi, Pungu. Tlie 
varieties of fish are exceedingly 
Ckinusi, a kind of fish or evil 
spirit never seen, but which is 
supposed to seize men and hold 
them under water until they are 
Fish-trap, dema, lema, ema. 
Fish poison from a species of 
Euphorbia, utupa. 
Fisherman, mvuvi, pi. wavuvi. 
Fist, konde, pi. makonde. 
Fits, kifufa. 
Flag, bandera. 
Flat (of a sword, &c), bapa. 
Flatterer, msifu, pi. wasifu, msifu- 
Self-flatterer, rawajisifuni. 
Flattery, kusifu. 



Flavour, luththn, t .mu. 

, katani, kitanl 
Flea, kiroboto, pi. viroboto. 
Flesh, nyama. 
Fleshiness, lanofu. 
Flint gun, bunduki ya gumegnme. 
; i irika. 
•. chini. 
( 'hut I ft r, j ikafu. 

Upper floor or roof, dim. 
Flower, ua, pi. uiaua. 
Flue, vumbi, pi. (much) mavumbi. 

A flue , dohaan. 
Flute, liliinlii, pi. mafilimbi 
Fly, inzi, pi. mainzi. 
, vu. 
, amande, knngn, shemali. 
Fold <*f cloth), upindo. 
Cattle-fold, zizi, pL mazizi. 
. majani. 
Folloirrr, mfuasi, pi. wafoasi, cbo- 
kora, pi. macliokora (a hangi r- 
V<>lhj, upumbafu. 
Fondness, mahaba. 

I, nluikula, makuli (Ax.), kande 
Food saved from an evening meal 
to be eaten in the morning, wali 
wa mwikuu, bariyo (A.). 
Bokoboko, a dish made of wheat 

and meat. 
Bumbwi, rice flour pounded up 

villi cocoa-nut. 
Pilao, mi Indian pillaw. 
Fool, mpumbafu, pi. wapumbafa. 
Foot, niguu, pi. miguu, guu, pi. 
magna, mjigau, pi. mijigan 
kijiguu, pi. vijiguxi 
Footprint, uayo, pi. 'iyayo. 

Footing — to mah him pay hi* foot' 

ing, kumsbika lmkuli. 
Forbidden thing, haramu, marufuku. 

. nguvu. 

Ford, kiruko, pi. vivuko. 

Foreh ml. paji la uso. 
/.'/(///•, kikomo cba uso. 

Foreigner, mgeni, ;//. wageni, mja 
na maji, pi. waja na maji (from 
over Beat). 

For' loch, pan ja. 

Foreskin, govi mbo. 
I, niwitu, msitu. 

Fork, kiuui; ., pi. viuma. 

Forking of a road, tree, &c, panda. 

Form (outward shape), umbo, pi. 

Fort, gereza, ngome, lmsuni. 

Fortune, bahati, naaibu. 

Fortune-teller (by means of diagrams'), 
mpiga ramli, pi. waptga ramli. 

Foster brother or sister, ndugu 

Foundation, rasingi or msinji, pi. 

Fowls, k'uku. 

Fox, mbweha. 

Fraud, hadaa, niadanganya. 

Freedom {from,shu> ry) hum, (per- 
mission) ruksa, ruliusa. 

Freight, nauli. 

Friday, Jumaa. 

Frit n'l, taBMfpl. rafiki or marafiki, 
Bahibu, pi. a^'iiabu, ehoga 
(amongst women, and in Zanzi- 
bar only. See Catamite). 

Friijlit, khot'u, woga. 
<a start), kituko. 

Fringe, matamvaa. 

Frog, chula, pi. vyula. 

Fruit, tunda, pi, matunda, zao, pi. 



Bungu, pi. mabungu, about the 
size of a medlar, with a thick 
russet skin. 
Mazu, a kind of banana. 
Zainbarau, like a large damson. 
Cbokochoko, a red prickly skin, 
a large kernel, and white pulp. 
Kunazi, something like a sloe. 
Kitoria, pi. vitoria. — Koma, pi. 
niakonia. — Fuu, pi. mafuu. 
— Mtofaa. 
Fruit which drops prematurely, 

pooza, pi. mapooza. 
Fruit-stalk, (of cloves) kikonyo, 
pi. vikonyo, (of bananas) mku- 
ngu, pi. mikungu. 
Frying-pan, (metal) tawa, pi. 
matawa, (earthen) kaango, pi. 
Fugitive, mkimbizi, pi. wakimbizi. 
Fume, azma, fukizo. 
Fun. mchezo, mzalia. 
Funeral, kuzikani. 
Furnace (for melting metal), kalibu. 
Furniture, pambo la nyumba, 

Gain, fayida. 
Gait, mwendo. 
Galago, koinba. 
Galbanum, ubani. 
Gall, safura. 

Galla, Mgala, pi. Wagala. 
Game, (produce of hunting) mawi- 
iido, (amusement) mchezo, ma- 
cs hezo. 
Bao, played on a board with thirty- 
two holes in it. 
Muliyandimu, a game in which 
one holds down his head, some 
other knocks it, and he guesses 
who struck him. 

Tiahu, played by throwing up 
sticks, &c, and watching their 
Dama, played on a board like 

Tasa, a game of touch. 
Tiuge,« game consisting in follow- 
ing the movements of a leader. 
Garden, bustani, shamba. 
Gate, mlango, pi. milango. 

Gate of Paradise, kilango cba 
Gazelle, paa. 

General, jemadari, pi. majemadari. 
Generation, kizazi, pi. vizazi. 
Generosity, ukarimu. 
Genius, Jini, pi. Majini. 
Gentleman,mug wana, pi. wang wana. 
Gentleness, upole. 
Georgian woman, Jorjiya. 
Gettings, pato, pi. mapato. 
Ghee, samli. 

Ghost, kivuli, pi. vivuli. 
Ghoid, zimwi, pi. mazimwi. 
Giddiness, masua, mbasua, kizu- 

Gift, zawadi (a keepsake), tunu (a 
choice thing), bashishi (largess), 
ada (customary gift), kilemba 
(gift on the completion of a icurk 
or to the bride's father), wapo. 
Ginger, tangawizi. 
Giraffe, twiga. 

Girder, mhimili, pi. mihimili. 
Girdle, mshipi, pi. mishipi, masombo 
(of cloth), maaznmu (a shawl), 
kibobwe, pi. vibobwe (a piece 
of cloth tied round the body 
during hard work). 
Girl, kijana, pi. vijana. 

Slave girl, kijukazi, pi. vijakazl 
Girth, kivimba. 



ltd, flriirisi. 
GladtH M, furaha. 

Ola iri. 

(,hir< . an 
6lo88, kioo. 
Loohing-glas8, kioo, pi. vioo. 
Drinhing-glass, bilauri. 
Glut, r. kimeta. 

;. .-ii'a. fakhari, utukufu. 
I, embwe. 
Glutton, tnlafi, jpL walafi. 
Goa<, nibuzi. 

.4. strong he-goat, bebcra (Ar.). 
< ', < -hi'tween, kijumbe, pi. vijumbe. 
GOD, MUUNGU, pi. miungu. 
i -"it re, tezi. 
GoM, tliahabu. 
Goldsmith, mfua tliahabu, pZ. wafua 

Goorf luck, ghanima, jaba. 

hiess, wema. 
Goods, mali (possessions), vyombo 
(utensils), bithaa (merchandise). 
Goose, bata la Bukiui, pi. niabata 

ya Bukini. 
Gonorrhaza, kisunono. 
Gourd. See Pumpkin. 
Gout, jongo. 

Governor, wali, liwali, pi. maliwali. 
Government, serkali, daulati. 
An official, mtu wa serkali. 
Grain. See Corn. 

Cleaned grain, mchele. 
Cooked grain, wali. 
Grains of corn, punje, chombe. 
Grandchild, mjukuu, pi. wajukuu. 
Grent-grnii'lrhil'l, kijukuu, ///. 
vijukuu, kitukuu, pi. vitukuu, 
kilembwe, pi. vilembwe. 
Great-great-ijrti ndch ihl, kin iugina, 
pi. finingina. 
Grandfather, babu. 

GrandmoGu r, bibi. 

Qreat-grandmoiher, mzaa bibL 
Grammar, ssiruf. 
Grapes, zabibu. 
Gratitude, Bhukrani. 
Grass, nyasi, majani, nyika. 

grass cut for fodder, ukoka. 
Grasshopper, panzi, /</. mapanzi. 
Grave, kaburi, pi. makaburi. 

In the grave, ajter death, ahera, 
Greatness, ukubwa, ukuu, utukufu. 
Greediness, choyo, rubo, tamaa. 
Grey hairs, mvi. 
Gridiron, uma wa kuokea nyama, 

pi. nyuma za kuokea nyama. 
Grief, sikitiko, kasarani, msiba, 
buzuni, baiiiu, simauzi. 

(for a loss), majonzi. 
Grime (on a pot), masizi. 
Grit (small stones), changarawi. 
Groom, mcbunga, pi. wachunga, 

mtunga (M.), pi. watunga. 
Ground, chini, inchi. 
Ground nuts, mjugu nyasa, (a hard 

round kind) mjugu raawe. 
Grudging person, Liana. 
Gruel, uji. 

Guard, mlinzi, pi. walinzi. 
Guava, nipera, pi. mapera. 

Guava-tree, mpera, pi. mipera. 
Guest, mgeni, pi. wageni. 
Guide, rubani, kiongozi,p£. vioncjozi, 

inkuu genzi. 
Guitar, kinanda, pi. vinanda 
Guinea fowl, kanga. 

(a crested kind), kororo. 
Gum (birdlime, &c), ulimbo. 

Gum (of the teeth), ufizi, pi. tizi. 

Gum Arabic, haba, sumugb. 

Gum Amini or Copal, sandarusi. 
Gun, bunduki. 



Flint ijmn.bunduki ya gumegume. 

Gun-barrel, kasiba. 

Nipple, kifa, pi. vifa. 

Gun-cap, fataki. 

Gun-lock, mtambo, pi. mitambo. 

{cannon), mzinga, pi. niiziuga. 

Gun-carriage, gurudumo la 
Gunpowder, baruti. 
Gut, tpmbo, pi. ruatunibo. 

H. The guttural Arabic h, ha ngoe. 
The softer Arabic h, be mdawari. 
Hab<ts, mazoezo, ruatbebebu. 
Hemorrhoids, bawasir. 
Haft, mpini, pi. niipini, kipini, pi. 

Hair, nyele (or nwele), sing, unyele. 
(of the beard), ndevu, sing, udevu. 
(0/ the body, especially of the 

pubes), mavuzi, sing. vuzi. 
(of the eyebrow), nyusbi, sing- 
any ushi. 
(of the eyelash), kope, sing, uknpe. 
(of the hand and arm), malaika, 

sing, laika. 
(of an animal), siriga. 
Straight hair, nyele za singa. 
Woolly hair, nyele za kipilipili. 
Half, nusu. 

A half orange, cocoa-nut, <£c.,kizio, 
pi. vizio. 
Halyards, benza. 

Ropes passing through the pulley 
of the halyards, jarari. 
Hammer, nyundo. 

Hand (or arm and hand), mkono, 
pi. mikono. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cha 
mkono, pi. vitangavya mikono. 
Front of the hand, kofi, pi. niakoli. 

Inside of the fingers, kikofi, pi. 
Handful (that will lie on the hand), 
ukufi, pi. kufi. 
(that which will lie on the two 

hands), chopa, pi. maehopa. 
(that can be grasped in the hand), 
konzi, pi. makonzi. 
Handkerchief, leso. 
Pocket handkerchief, leso ya ku- 
futia kamasi. 
Handle (like a knife-handle), mpini, 
pi. mipini, kipini, pi. vipini. 
(projecting like that of a sauce- 
pan), kono, mkono, pi. mikono. 
(bowed like that of a bucket), 
utambo, pi. tambo. 
Handwriting, kbati, mwandiko. 
Hanger-on, ckokora, pi. machokora. 
Happiness, furaha, furahani, raba. 
Harbour, bandari, buudari. 
Hardness, uguniu. 
Hare. See Rabbit. 
Harm, matbara. 
Harness, matandiko. 
Harp, kinubi, pi. vinubi. 
Harpoon, cbusa, pi. vyusa. 
Harvest, mavuno. 
Haste, baraka, bima. 
Hat, chapeo. 

Hatchet, kishoka, pi. visboka, kitoka 
(M.), pi. vitoka, upamba, pi. 
Hatred, machnkio, buotbu. 
Hawk, mwewe. 
Hawker, dalali. 

Head, kitwa (or kicbwa), pi. 
A little head, kijitwa, pi. vijitwa. 
Head of a ship, omo. 
Head winds, pepo za omo. 
Head cloth worn by women, ukaya 



(of blue calico), dusamali (of 

]!■ ndship, ujumb 
Sealing things, mapoza. 

Jf- n!th, uzima, alia, li di [state"). 
Heap, fungu, 2'1- wafungu, 
of et -. boma, pi. maboma. 
of /run, I and sticks, l>i\vi. pi, 

mabiwi, kichaka, pi. vicbaka. 
of earth, kisugulu, pi. visugnlu. 
(a raised bed), tula, pi. matuta. 
Heart, moyo, pi. mioyo, or nyoyo, 

Ultima, pi. mitiiua. 
Heat, moto, bari (sweat), harara 

(prickly heat). 
Heaven, mbingu, sing, uwingu, 

samawati (Ar.). 
Heaviness (weight), uzito. 

(sorrow), hanm. 
Hedge, ua, pi. nyua. 

II ilijr made in the sea for taking 
fish, uzio, pi. nyuzio. 
//.-/, kifundo (or kisigino) cha 

Heifer, mtamba, pi. mitamba. 
//. ir, mi'ithi, pi. wuvithi. 
Ih ip, msaada. 
//> m, upindo. 

Hemp. See Cannabis Indica. 
Il< mpen rope, kamba ulayit i. 
//- a. k'uku. 
Laying hen, koo, pi. makoo. 
Ih n, full grown, hut that has not 
in i<l, t'embe. 
II nna, bina. 

Ih rd, kundi, pi. makundi 
Hi rdsman, mchunga, pi. wachunga, 

mtnuga M. , pi. watun 
Hero, shujaa, pi. mashujaa, fahali, 

pi. mataliali. 
m shujaa. 

Il< sitation, mBangao. 
(in spi aking), kubabaika, 

Hickup, kwikwe. 

Hi In', n thing, fumbo, pi. mafumbo. 

Hide, ngozi. 

Hill, kilima, pi. vilima. 
A rocky hill, jabali, pi. maja- 

Hill, kipini, jil. vipini. 

Hindrance, kizuizo, kizuio, kiauizi. 
It is said thai I'r. Krapf, I" ing 
on one occasion delayed from 
day to day, in obedit net to 
superior orders, said to those 
who delayed him:— Kesho aa 
kesho ni madanganya, ao oi 
makatazanya. " To-morrow 
and to-morrow is deceiving or 
forbidding;" to which they re- 
plied: — Si madanganya wala 
si makatazanya, ni mazuiza- 
nya. " It is not direiving, awl 
it is not forbidding, it is <b lay- 

Hinge, patta, bawaba. 

Hip, oyonga (?), tokono (A.). 

ilijijiopotamus, kiboko, pi. viboko, 

Hire, taja, ijara, ujira. 

History, hadithi. 

Hoarseness, kupwewa na 6auii. 

Hoe, jembe {or gem be), pi. ma- 

Hot ing-up time, mapalilo. 

Hulil (of a ship), ngama. 

Hole, tundu, pi. matundu. 

(through anything), kipi nyo, pi. 

(dibbled for seeds or plants), ko- 

rongo, pi. makorongo. 
Hob- to give light and air, mwa- 
ngaza, pi. miangaza. 



Hole in the lower lobe of the ear, 
Holiness, utakatifu, matakatifu. 
Hollow (of a tree), nivungu. 
Hollowness, uvurungu. 
Home, kwangu, kwako, kvvake, 
kwetu, kwenu, kwao, according 
to the person whose home it is. 
1 have some at home, iko kwangu. 
Honey, asali ya nyuki. 
Honour, besbima, ukarimu, utu- 

Hoof, ukwato, pi. kwato, kwata. 
Hook (fish-hook), doana. 

(used to steady work with), 
Hope, matumaini. 
Hordeolum, chokea. 
Horn, peinbe, pi. pembe or ma- 
An antelope's horn used as a 
trumpet, baiagumu. See 

Musical Instruments. 
Horse, farasi, fras. 
Host (army or multitude), jesbi, pi. 
Host (entertainer), rnweuyeji, pi. 
Hostility, wadui, adawa. 
Hour, saa. 
House, nyuraba. 

(large), jumba, pi. majumba. 
(small), kijuruba, pi. vijuiuba. 
Household of slaves, kijoli. 
Hum, mavunii. 
Humility, unenyekeo. 
Hump (of an ox), nundu. 

(of a humpback), kigongo. 
Hunger, njaa, ndaa (M.). 
Hundred, mi a. 

Two hundred, miteen. 
Hunter, inwinda, pi. wawinda. 

Hurry, haraka. 

Husband, mume, pi. wanme. 

Husk, ganda, pi. maganda. 

Husk and bran of rice, kuravi. 

Husk of the cocoa-nut, makumbi. 
Hut, kibanda, pi. vibanda. 
Hysena, fisi, pisi. 

Spotted hysena, kingubwa. 
Hydrocele, mahipa, putabo, kito- 

nga (?) 
Hypocrite, mnafiki, pi. wanafiki. 


Ibo, Wibo. 

Idiot, bayawani. 

Idleness, uvivu. 

Idolater, kafiri. pi. makafiri. 

Ignorance, ujiuga. 

Image, sanamu. 

Imperial. See Beard. 

Imprecation, apizo, pi. rnaapizo. 

Imprisonment, kifungo. 

Incense, bubmi, ubani, uvuiiil):!, 

uudi. ^ee Censer. 
Income, pato. 
Independence, upweke. 
Indian (heathen), Banyani, pi. Ma- 

Indian (Mahommedan), Mubindi, 

pi. Wahindi. 
Indian rubber, mpira. 
Indian corn, muhindi. See Maize. 
Infection, kuambulviza. 
Infidel, kafiri, pi. makafiri. 
Infirmity, utbaifu. 
Information, babari. 
Ingenuity, uyuzi, umabeli. 
Inheritance, \\r\tM. 
Inheritor, mxilhi, pi. vt&x'xthl. 
Ink, wino. 

Inkstand, kidau cba wino. 
Inlaid work, njumu. 



Innovation, mzuzi, pi. niiziizi. 

 itnr. mzushi, pi. wazushi. 
Inst ct, mduda, r L wadudu. 

i ' ' '.'';/• 

yi'ga, hot 
Dudu vulr, a boring hornet. 
Bunzi, pi. ruabunzi, a stinging 

Vunja jungo, a mantis. 
Boroalioa, a long-shaped black 
in- I in dust-ht a | 

(« if-sufficu net/), kiuava. 
uction, mafandiaho. 
Jn.-tiuni' ut.< (nautical), vipande vya 

Instill, tukatio, pZ. matukano. 
Intellect, akili generally treated at 

a /Jural noun of Class III.'). 
Int' ntion, nia, kasidi. 
JnA /_/(/•• tation, tafsiri. 
Jnfc rpri /< r, mkalimani, pi. wakali- 

mani, posoro. 
Intestines, matumbo. 

Small intestines, c-hango. 
Inti rruption, kizuizo, pi. vizuizo. 
Intoxicating thing, kilo, pi. vileo. 
Intoxication, kileo, kulewa. 
Intruder, kizu-hi, 77/. vizusld, ti-adi 
(one teno enters a house without 
lawful purpose). 
Imalid, mgonjwa,pZ. wagonjwa. 

J piece 0/ iron, chuma, pi. vyuma. 
Iron liar, mtairnbo. pi. mitaimbo. 

I., pi. visiwa. 
Itch, uj*le, pele. 
Itching, mnyeo. 
,. p rnbe. 
a large tuah, buri. 


Jacl.a', mbwa wa u ,, .lu. 

fruit, Urn >i, pi. mnfinesi. 
Jackfruit tret, uiiiuesi, pi. mi- 
Jar {for carrying water), lntungi, 
pi. mitongi. 
Jar {large, ksisiki. 
ine, jasmiui. 

JaW, t;iV:.. 

,/. alousy, uwivu. 

J( 'ilous anger, ghoiri. 

To weep for jealousy, kulia ngoa. 
Jewel, johari. 
Jin, jini, pi. raajini. 
Johanna, Anzwani. 
Joint, kiungo, ]il. viungo. 

{in a cane), l'undo, pi. mafundo. 

{piece between two joints in a 
cane), pingili. 
Joist, boriti. 
Johe, ubiski. 
Journey, safari, mwendo. 

Two days' journey, mwendo wa 
siku nibilL 
Joy, furaba. 

Judge, kathi, pi. makathi, mwa- 
inuzi, pi. waamuzi, mwomua, 
pi. waamua. 
Judgment, hukumn, raaamuzi. 
Jug, kopo, pi. makopo. 
Juice, lnuji. 
Justice, bakL 

Kiel, mkiiku, utako fMer.). 
Kt mel, kisa, pi. visa. 
K> tile, kanderinya. 
Ki y, ufunguo, pi. funguo. 
Kick, teke, pi. mat< 
Kidney, nso, figo (M.). 
Kind, namna, gin.-i, aina. 

Kiml, sort or ttyli is expressed by 
ki. prefixed to the place, thing, 



or people. Kihindi, the Indian 
sort. Kizungu, the European 
Viatu vya Kihindi, shoes like 

those worn by the Indians. 
Viazi vya Kizungu, sweet potatoes 
of the European sort,i.e. potatoes. 
Mavazi ya kifaume, robes cf the 
kingly sort, royal robes. 
Kindness, wema. 
Every kindness, killa jambo la 

A kindness, fathili. 
Kindred, ndugu, jamaa. 

Utani, the belonging to a kindred 

Mtani, pi. watani, a person of a 
kindred race. 
King, mfalme, pi. wafalme, malki, 
Chess king, sbah. 
Kingdom, ufalme, ufalume, ufaume, 

milki, mulki. 
Kinsman, ndugu, jamaa. See 

Kiss, busu. 

Kitchen, jikoni, mekoni. 
Kite (bird), mwewe. 

{toy), tiara. 
Knee, gote, pi. magote, ondo, pi. 

maondo (A.). 
Knife, kisu, pi. visu. 
(large), jisu, pi. majisu. 
Kotama, a curved knife used in 

getting palm wine. 
Shembea, a kind of curved knife. 
Knight (chess), frasi. 
Knot, fundo, pi. mafundo. 
Knowingness, ujuvi, ujuzi, werevu. 
Knowledge, maarifa, elimu, bekima. 
Koran, korani, furakanu, msahafu. 
It is divided into thirty juzuu, 

which together make a kbitima 

Labour, kazi. 

Labour pains, utungtu 

Lac (100,000), lakki. 

Ladder, ngazi. 

Ladle made out of a cocoa-nut, kata, 
pi. makata (deep, used to dip 
up water with) ; upawa, pi. 
pawa (shallow, used for gravy, 
curry, &c). 

Lady, bibi, mwana mke wa kiu- 
Lady of the house, mwana. 
Ladylove, mchumba. 

Lake, ziwa la maji, pi. maziwa. 

Lamoo, Amu. 

Lamp, taa. 

Lampstand, a piece of wood ivith 

tivo flat pieces projecting at 

right angles on which the lamp 

is placed, mwango, pi. miango. 

Lampwick, utambi, pi. tambi. 

Land, incbi, nti (M.). 

Landing-place, diko, pi. madiko, 
liko, pi. maliko. 

Language, lugba, maneno. 77*e 
language of a place or nation 
is expressed by the use of the 
prefix ki-. Maneno ya Kiu- 
nguja or Kiunguja,i7ie languagi 
of Zanzibar. Kinyamwezi, the 
language of the Nyamwezi 
tribe. See Dialect. 
Filthy and insulting language, 

Languor, utepetevu. 

Lantern, fanusi, kandili, pi. ma- 

Lappet, kishimgi, pi. visbungi. 

E 2 



Largess, takarima, bashishi. 

Lath c. keezo. 

Laugh, chi k<>. pL macheko, kicheko, 

pL vicli< k' >. 
Liar, Bheria, huknmu. 
7-: if. 7 , risasi, rusasL 

(for sounding), bildL 
/ r, ! ongozi, pi. viongozi. 
Leaf [of a tret ), jani, pi. majani. 
(q/ a cocoa-nut tree , kuti, t>7. 

Leaf (of a book), ukurasa, pi. 
km tsa. 
/,' an-to, kipenu, pi. vipenu. 
/.■ arning, i lirau. 
.4 man of learning, niwana wa 
Leather, ngozi, ngovi. 
Leave, ruksa, ruhusa. 

To take leave, k»i 
Li " '. cliachu, hamira. 
Lee side, upande wa chini. 
Leech, mraba, pi. miruba, mdudu 

afyonzaye damu. 
Lefihandt dness, shoto. 
Leg (or fool ), mguu, pi. miguu. 
(of a native bedstead), tendegu, 

pi. matendegu. 
Loss of the use of the legs, kitewe, 
Leg ring. See Anklet. 
I. ;■ ."/, hadithi. 
Leisure (private time), fera 

Lemon, limao, pi. malimao. 
/.■ ngth, urefu. 
Leopard, chui, tui (M.). 
Leprosy, ukorxia, balanga, jethamu, 

Letter, waxaka, pi. nyaraka, lama, 
/.' tU i- (of the alj habet), hern: 

Lever, mvukutn, pi. mivuknto. 

Liar, mwongo, pi. wawongo. 

Libt rality, ukarimu. 

Lict ntiousness, washerati. 

Licorice, sus. 

Lid, kifuniko,pZ. vifuniko, kihia, pt. 

vibia, mkungu wa kul'unikia. 
Lie, wongo, u wongo. 
Life, uzima (health), maidha (con~ 

tinuance), rolio (soul). 
Light, nuru, weupe, niwanga, pi. 
mianga, anga, pi. maanga 
Lighthole, mwangaza, pi. rma- 

Lights (of an animal), yavuyavu. 
Lightning, umeme. 
Like (similar thing), kifani, pL 

Likeness, mfano, pi. rnifano, kifano 

pi. vifano, sananiu, sura. 
Lime, chokaa. 

Lime (fruit), dimu. 
Sweet lime, dimu t;imu. 
Limit, mpaka, pi. mipaka (boun- 
dary), kinga (block), upoo 
(what cannot be surpassed). 
Line, mstari, pi. mistari (drawn), 
Bafu (row), ugwe (cord), sbairi 
line of verse). 
Lint n. kitani. 
Lining of a kanzu round the throat, 

Lion, simba. 
Lip, mdomo, rnlomo, or mwomo, pi. 

midomo, milomo, or ruiomo. 
Lip-ring, ndonya. 

id, maji, kiowevu. 
l.i p, kitembe. 
Litter (carried by four men), 

Little pieces, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 



Liver, ini, pi. maini. 
Lizard, mjusi, pi. wajusi. 
Large water lizard, kenge. 
Kinds of lizards, raguruguru, pi. 

waguruguru — gorong'ondwa — 

kiuma mbuzi— mjumbakaka — 

Load, mzigo, pi. mizigo. 
Loaf, nikate, pi. mikate. 
Loan, maazinio, karatha. 
Lock, kitasa, pi. vitasa (box lock), 

komeo or goineo (a native 

wooden lock), kut'uli, pi. maku- 

fuli (padlock). 
Locust, mzige, pi. wazige, nzige. 
Log, gogo, pi. magogo. 

(nautical), batli. 
Loin cloth, nguo, doti, kikoi, pi. 

vikoi (with a striped border). 
Loins, kiuno, pi. viuno. 
Longing, uchu, taniaa, hawa. 
Look, natkari. 

Looking-glass, kioo, pi. vioo. 
Loop, kitanzi, pi. vitanzi. 

Loops to haul up a boat by, 

Loss, kasara. 
Lots, kura. 
Louse, chawa, tawa. 
Love, sbauko, mapenzi, habba, 

makabu, pendo, mapendo. 
Luck, bakati, nasibu. 

Messenger of ill luck, korofi. 
Lukewarmness, uvuguvugu. 
Lumbrici, ckango. 
Lump, fungo, pi. mafungo, fumba, 

pi. mafuinba. 
Lump (as in flour), kidonge, pi. 

vidonge, vunibu, pi. mavunibu. 
Lump (of meat), ckinyango. 
Lunacy, kickaa, soda. 
Lunatic, mwenyi kichaa. 

Lungs, pafu, pumu, yavuyavu (of 

an animal). 
Lust, kawa. 


Mace (spice), basbasi. 

Machine, samani, mtambo, pi. mi- 

Madagascar, JBuki, Bukini. 
Madness, wazimo, makoka (country 

Magadoxa, Mkuchyo. 
Magic, uckawi (black magic), 

uganga (white magic). 
Maggot (funza). 
Magnesia (sulphate of), cbunivi ya 

Maiden, mwana mwali. 
Maize (plant), mubiudi. 
half-grown, matindi. 
(corn), mabindi. 
(corn cob), gunzi, pi. magunzi. 
(young cob), ngara. 
(parched corn), mbisi. 
Majesty, enzi, ezi. 
Malice, uovu. 
Man (person), ratu, pi. watu. 

(male), ruwanamume, pi. waa- 

(human being), mwana Adamu, 

bin Adamu (Ar.). 
A very large man, jitu, pi. majitu. 
A young man tvhose beard is 
beginning to appear, mvulana, 
pi. wavulana. 
Man of the world, mtu mwerevu. 
Mango, embe, embe (M.), pi. ma- 
embe. Embe za dodo, large 
Mango-tree, mwembe,pZ. micmbe. 
Mangouste, mcbiro, pi. wackiro. 
Mangrove, mkoko, pi. mikoko. 


r. pinsi. 
An i legant manru r. madaha. 
Mann* r«, d( sturi, mathehebu. 

I nautili re, adabu, tu*liJa.' 
Mantis, vunja jungo. 
Manure, samadl 
Manuscript, mwandiko, pi. mia- 

Mark, alama. 

Marks made by dragging anything 

along, mkokoto, pi. mikokoto. 
Tribal mark, neuiba. See Sjtot, 
Market, soko, pi. masoko. 
Marriage, ndoa, mikaba. 
(the ceremony), harusi. 
I inti rmarriage), kuoana. 
Mn row, bongo. 

Martyr, sbaliidi, pi. mashabidi 
Mask, barakoa. 
Mason, mwashi, pi. waashi. 

Masons trowel, mwiko, pi. miiko. 
M 188, the mass of, jamii ya. 
Mast, mlingote, pi. milingote, 
mgotc, pi. migote. 
Small mizen-mast, mlingote wa 
kalmi or galmi. 
Master of a house, or of slaves), 
I'V, una. 
MaeU r of a school), mwalimu, pi. 

MasU r'x son, bwana mdogo. 

Masti r wm I. man, fundi. 
One's own master, mweza mwe- 
Mat (coarse matting), jamvi, pi. 
Slet /ling mat, mkeka, pi. mikeka. 
ping mat modi UJu a bag with 
til'; open, fumba. 
Oral prayer mat, mu^ala, pi. mi- 

Round mat on which food it laid 
out, kitanga, pL vitauga. 

Strips of palm leaf for plaiting 

fine mats, myaa, pi. iniyaa. 
Strips of palm l<af for plaiting 

coarse mats, mwaa, pi. miwaa. 
Narroio strips ready to be sewn 
together to make coarse mats, 
sbupatu, pi. masbupatu. 
Strips for making fine mats, 

ukiri, pi. kiri. 
The thick edge of strips of 

matting, ng'ong'o. 
Busati, a sort of matting brought 
from Muscat. 
Matchmaker, kijumbe, pi. vijumbe. 
Matches, viberitL 
Matter (pus), usaba. 

A matter, jambo, jawabu. 
Wliat is the matter ? Kuna nini ? 
What is the matter with yout 
Una nini. 
Mattress, godoro, pi. magodoro. 
Mayotte, JMantwe. 
Meal (food), chakula. 

First meal after a fast, futarL 
Meal (flour), unga. 
Meaning, maana. 
Meanness, unyonge. 
Means, njia. 
Measles, churuwa. 

Measure, kadri, kiasi, cbco, kipimo. 
A measure, kipimo, pi. vipimo. 
Measuring rod, line, dec, chenezo, 

pi. vyenezo. 

See Cubit, Fathom, Span, Weight. 

The weights are usedas measures 

for such a capacity as would 

contain that weight of millet 

Meat, nyama. [ (mtama). 

Small pieces cooked on a skewer, 

m»liakiki, pi. misliakiki. 



Pieces cooked on two parallel 

sticks, subana. 
Meatiness, mnofu. 
3L 'Idler, pingamizi. 
Mediator {peace-maker),msel(>hisha., 

pi. waselehisha, rnsuluhislia, 

pi. wasuluhisha, mpatanishi, 

pi. wapataniski. 
Medicine, dawa, pi. dawa or mada wa. 
(medical knowledge), utabibu, 

Medicine man, mganga, pi. wa- 

Meekness, upole. 
Melancholy, huzuni, hamu. 
Memorandum (written), khati. 
Memorial, kumbukumbu, uku- 

Memory, ukumbuka, ufahamu. 
Menstruation, heth. 
Mention, kunibukunibti, 
Merchandise, bithaa. 
Merchant, mfanyi biashara, pi. wa- 

fanyi biashara, tajiri, pi. ma- 

tajiri {a rich man), taiAbiri, 

bazazi (huckster). 
Mercury, zebakh. 
Mercy, rekema, huruma. 
Merit, ajara. 
Merka, Marika. 
Message, maneno, habari. 
Messenger, mjumbe, pi. wajumbe, 

mtume, pi. watuine, tunie. 
Metal, madini. 
Middle, kati. 

Middle of a piece of cloth, mji. 
Midge, usubi. 
Midnight, usiku saa a sita, kati ya 

usiku, usiku wa rnanane. 
Midwife, mzalisha, pi. wazaliska. 
Mildew, kawa. 
Milk, niaziwa. 

Curdled milk, rnaziwa mabivu. 
Buttermilk, nitindi. 
Mill, diuu, pi. vinu. 

Steam mill, kiuu cha moshi. 
Oil mill, kinu cha kushindikia. 
Hand mill, mawe ya kusagia 
{this last only is used for grind- 
ing corn. Kinu is properly a 
wooden mortar, and the common 
oil mills consist of a lever turned 
in a mortar by camels). 
Millipede, jongoo. 
Millet, mtama. 
fully formed but unripe, mtarua 

Millet stalks, mabua, sing. bua. 
kinds of millet, kibakuli, kipaje. 
Mind, moyo (heart), akili (wits), 
Mine, niadini. [ilia (intention). 

3Iint (herb), nana, fidina (?/. 
Minute, dakika. 

Miracle, mwujiza,j>£. miujiza, ajabu. 
Miscarriage, kubaribu niiniba. 
Mischief, mathara, uharabu. 
Miser, bakbili, cboyo. 
Misery, shidda, thidli. 
Misfortune, msiba, pi. misiba, taabu. 
Missile, kimwondo, pi. zimwondo 
{used to mean shooting stars, 
because said to be cast at the 
Jins by the angels). 
Missionary, mpeekwa, pi. wa- 

Mist, kungu, umande, sbemali 
Mistake, kosa, makosa. 
Mistress (of slaves), bibi. 

{of the house), mwana. It is 

reckoned good manners in 

Zanzibar to speak of one's own 

mother as mwana. 

Mistress (kept woman), kinyumba. 

Mistress {sweetheart), ruchuinba. 



\-mast, mlingote wa kalmi or 

V' ry, asiman 
Mb U ration, kadri, kiosL 

■'•si i/, hays* 
MohiUa, Moalli. 
Mole, fuko (?). 
Mombas, M\ ita. 
Monday, Juma a tatu. 

Monfia, Mafya. 

Mod;, //. kirna. 

Tumbili, a smrt/l light-coloured 
moid:, ij. 

Ngedere, a small Hack monkey. 

Mbega, pi. wabega, a black 
monkey with long white hair on 
tl„ shouldt /■-. 

toon northi rly winds), musinii. 
th, inw. zi. ],!. miezi. 

J he months of the Arab year are 
(htirniined by the sight of the 
moon, or by the lapse of thirty 
full dayt months practi- 

cally begin from the end of the 
fasting month, and are cull<<l 
Mfunguo wa mosi, — wa pili, — 
wa tatu, — wa'nne, — wa tano, — 
wa tdtri, — wa saba, — wa nane, 
— wa kenda, Rajabu, Sbaabani, 
Ramatbani. See Time. 

A month of lest than thirty days, 
mwf-zi mpungufu. 

A month of thirty full days, mwc- 
7\ mwangamu. 

Mi - ira. 

Moon, in" 

», kiwi. 

Moonlight, bala mwezi. 
Morning, subui, aesubui, ussubui. 

Mor in'] nir, umande. 
.V . i ceo, Ma§ baribi 

Morsel, kidogo, pi. vidogo. 
Mortar fo ling and chiming 

grain, <Stc, l.iim. pi. vinu. 
Mortar for throning shells, ko- 

/•' />/. r's mortar, chokaa. 
Platters used as mortar boards, 
chano. pi. vyano. 
Mosque, meskiti, moakiti, mesjid. 
Mosquito, imbu. 
Moth, nonndo. 

Mnthi r, mama. It is polite in Zan- 
zibar to speak of one's own 
motlicr as niwana. 
Step-mother, mama wa kambo. 
Mother-in-law, mkwe, pi. wakwe. 
Mould, kalibu. 

(mouldiness), ukungu, kawa. 
Mound {of earth), kisugulu, pi. vi- 


Mound (of stones), boma, pi. ma- 
Mountain, mlima, pi. milima. 
timing (grief), msiba. 
To make ,a formal mourning, 

kukaa matanga. 
To finish a formal mourning, 

knondoa matanga. 
To live very privately during 
mourning for a husband, ku- 
kalia eda. 
The feast with which a mourning 
cm, '-hides, hitimu. 
Moustache, muomo, pi. miomo. 
Mouth, kinwa, pi. vinwa, kanwa, pi. 

Mucus 'from the nose), kamasi. 

(from the vagina), utoko. 
Mint, tope; much mud, matope. 

Muddini ss in water, vumbi. 
Mule, nyumbu. baghala. [ruba. 
Multiplication (arithmetical), tliii- 



Multitude, makutauo, kuncli, pi. 
makundi, jeshi, pi. majeshi, 
Mummy, mumyani. 
Mungoose, nichiro, pi. wachiro. 
Murderer, muuwaji, pi. wauwaji. 
Muscle, tafu. 

Mushroom, kioga, pi. vioga. 
Music, ngonia. 

Musical Instruments. See Brum. 
Baragumu, a spiral antelope's 

horn used as a trumpet. 
Kayamba, a sort of rattle. 
Kinanda, pi. vinauda, a stringed 
instrument, used of European 
instruments generally. 
Kinubi, a harp. 
Matoazi, sing, toazi, cymbals. 
Mbui, a buffalo's horn played by 

Paanda, a trumpet. 
Upato, a plate of copper sounded 

by beating. 
Vugo, a large horn sounded by 

Zeze, a three-strinaed lute. 
Zomari, a sort of clarionet. 
Musk, niesiki, meski. 
Mussel (shellfish), kijogoo, pi. vijo- 

goo, kome, pi. makome. 
Mustard, kharadali. 
Myriad, kikwi, pi. vikwi or zikwi. 
Myrrh, uianeniane. 

Nail (finger), ukucha, pi. kucha. 
(iron), msomari, pi. misoniari. 
Name, jina, pi. majina. 

What is your name ? Jina lako 
nani ? 
Namesake, somo, pi, masomo. 
Nape of the neck, ukosi, kikosi. 

Napkin, kitambaa, pi. vitambaa. 
Table napkin, kitambaa cba 
Narcotic, kileo, pi. vileo. 
Nation, taifa, pi. mataifa. 
Native, mzalia, pi. wazalia, kizao, 

pi. vizao, kivyao, pi. vivyao. 
Nature, asili, tabia. 
Nautical instruments, vipande vya 

Navel, kitovu, pi. vitovu. 
Necessaries (especially as supplied 
by God's providence), riziki, 
ziriki (M.). 
(usefid things), vifaa. 
Necessity, farathi, lazima, ukwasef'u. 
Neck, skin go, pi. mashingo. See 

Back, Nape. 
Need, uhtaji, kutaka, matakwa. 
Needle, sindano. 
Neighbour, jirani. 
Neighbourhood, upande wa, ki- 

yambo (?). 
Nest, tundu, pi. matundu. 

(a laying place), kiota, pi, viota. 
Net, rashipi, pi. misldpi. 

used to take gazelles, &c, wavu, 

pi. nyavu, cliavu, pi, vyavu. 
Stake net, hedge made in the sea, 

uzio, pi. nyuzio. 
Round casting net, kimia, pi. 

Seine made of European cordage, 

jarifa (or jarife), pi. majarifa. 
Seine made of cocoa-nut fibre, 

juya, pi. majuya. 
Fish trap made of basket work, 
Nettle, kiwavi, pi. viwavi (used also 
News, habari. [of sea-nettles). 

Night, usiku. 

All night, usiku kucha. 


Four whole nights, edku nne usiku 

Four dayt and nights, biku nne 
mchftiia na usiku. 
. x . ihtman . jinamisL 

'■, chuchu ya ziwa, titi, 
bubu (A.). 
of a gun, kifa, pi. vifa. 
A ' . si nitu. 

There is nobody, bapana (or 
hakuna) nitu. 
Noise, bauti. 
of voices, kelele, pi. makelele, 

See Bellow, Roar, Hum, Cry. 
Nonsense, upuzi, puo. 
Noon, atbuuri, jua kitwani. 

e, tanzi, pi. matanzi. 
North, kibula, kaskazinL 

Northerly winds, kaskazi 
A  , pua, pi. pua or mapua. 
Nose ornament shaped like a stud, 

kipini, pi. vipinL 
Nose ring, azama. 
Nostril, tundu ya pua, 'mwanzi wa 

Notch, a place where a triangular 

piece is broken out, peugo. 
Not* . barua, khatL 
Number, besabu, kiwango. 
Nurse, yaya (dry imrse), 'mlezi, pi. 
walezi (of a child), muguzi, pi. 
wauguzi (of a sick person). 
Nut, kokwa, pL makokwa. See 

heir, &c. 
Nutmeg, kungunianga. 


Oar, kasia, pi. mnkasia. 

Oath, aapo, pi. nyapo, kiapo, pi. 

viapo, yamini 
Obedience, inutia. 

ol'jirtions, makindano, inakalnzo. 
Occupation, Bhughnli. 
(Esophagus, undo. 
Offering, sadaka (gift), thabihu 

(sacrifice), kafara (a sacrifici to 

avert calamity ; it is buried or 

thrown away). 
Officer, akida, mkuu wa asikari. 
Oiiiriousness, f'utliuli, ufutbuli, 
Offspring, mzao, pi. wazao. [ujuvi. 
Oil, mafuta. 
Castor-oil, mafuta ya mbarika. 
Semsem-oil, mafuta ya uta. 
Ointment, marhamu. 
Old age, uzeo, ukongwe (extreme). 
Old person, mzee, pi. wazee, ki- 

kongwe, pi. vikongwe (ex- 
tremely old). 
Omelette, kiwanda, kimanda. 
Omen, fuli. 
Omnipresence, eneo la Muungu (the 

spread of God). 
Onion, kitunguu, pi. vitunguu. 
Open place, kiwanja, pi. viwanja, 

wangwa, wanda. 
piece of waste ground in a town, 

Opinion, wasia. 
Opium, afyuni. 
Opportunity, nafasi. 
Ophthalmia, weli wa macho. 
Orange, ehungwa, pi. machungwa, 

chungwa la kizungu, danzi la 

Bitter or wild oranges, danzi, pi. 

Mandarin oranges, kangaja. 
(a larger sort), ckunza, chenza za 

Order. See Command. 

(regularity, or a regular order), 




Ordeal, kiapo, pi. viapo. 
Origin, asili, chimbuko, nrwanzo. 
Ornament, pambo, pi. mapambo, 
kipambo, pi. vipambo. 
Dalia, a yellow cosmetic. 
Ndonya, lip-ring worn by the 

Nyassa women. 
Sarafu, a small gold plate worn 

on the forehead. 
Shangwi, an ornament worn 

between the shoulders. 
Urembo, black lines painted upon 

the face. 
Uzuri, cosmetic applications. 
Vidani, collars of gold or silver. 
See Anklets, Bracelets, Ear, Nose. 
Orphan, yatima. 
Os coccygis, kifundugu. 
Ostrich, buni. 
Otto of roses, bal waradi. 
Outlet, pakutokea. 
Outrigger (of canoes), matengo. 
Outskirts of a town, kiunga. 
Oven, tanuu, tanuru. 
Over-looker, msimamizi, pi. wasi- 
mamizi, mwangalizi, pi. waa- 
Owl, bundu 
Owner, mwenyewe. 
Ox, ng'ombe or gnombe, maksai. 
Oyster, cheza, kome (?), pi. ma- 
kome, kombe za pwanL 


Pace, mwendo. 

Package, packet, or parcel, robota, 

gora (of cloth), peto, pi. nia- 

Small packet, kipeto, pi. vipeto. 
Pad of grass, &c, used to carry a 

load on the head upon, generally 

twisted into a ring, kata. 

Pad used as a saddle for donkeys, 
Paddle, kafi, pi. makafi. 
Padlock, kufuli. 
Pail, ndoo. 

Pain, maumivu, uchungu, kunma. 
Paint, rangi. 

Pair, jozi, jura, jeuzi, jauzL 
Palace, jumba. 
Palanquin, machera. 
Palate, kaaka, kaa la kinwa. 
Palisading, zizi, kizizi. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cha 
mkono,^Z. vitanga vya mikono. 
A sail-maker's palm, dofra, pi. 
Palm-tree. See Cocoa-nut, Date. 
Leaf-stem of a palm-tree, upongoe, 

pi. pongoe. 
Mkoche, has an edible fruit. 
Mlala, hyphasne, branching palm. 
Mvuma, borassus palm. 
Palm-oil tree, mchikicki, pi. micbi- 
its fruit, cbikichi, pi. machikicbi. 
the small nuts contained in the 
fruit, kicbikicbi, pi. vicbikichi. 
Palm-wine, tembo. 
Spirit made from palm-wine, 

Palm-wine syrup, asali ya tembo. 
Palmar abscess, kaka. 
Palpitation of the heart, kiberebere 

cba moyo. 
Panniers, sboi, shogL 
Pap, ubabwa. 
Papaw, papayi, pi. roapapayi. 

Papaw-tree, mpapayi, pi. mipa- 
Paper, karatasi. [pavi. 

Parable, metbili, methali, mtano, 

pi. rnifano. 
Paradise, peponi. 


.9 TV A TTTLI n. I XD B OK. 

QaU of paradise, kilango cba 
Paralysis, kipooza, tiwo (?). 
Paralytic, mwenyi kupooza. 
Pared . mbisi. 

Pardon, aratbi, musama, masameho, 

Parent, mzaa, pi. wazaa, mzazi, pi. 

wazazi, mzee, pi. wazee. 
Part, fungu, pi. mafungu, schemu, 

upande, ;»/. pande, kisma. 
Partner, msharika, pi. washarika. 
Partnership, usharika. 
Partridgt . kwale (?). 

Kering'ende, the red-legged par- 

Party (faction), aria. 
Pass, or passport, cheti, pi. vyeti. 
Passage (by). pito,pl. kipito. 
(through), kipenyo, pi. vipenyo. 
A very narrow passage, kicho- 

choro, pi. vicliochoro. 
Patch (in cloth), kiraka, pi. viraka 

(in plan!;/ Ha), hasho. 
Path, njia, pito, pi. mapito. 
Patience, 6aburi, subiri, uvumilivu, 

Pattern, namna. 

(to work from) kielezo, pi. vielezo. 
Van per, kibapara, pi. vibapara (an 

insulting epithet |. 
I'aira (chess), kitunda, pi. vitmida. 
1'aij, ijara, njia, faritha, msbahara 

Pea, deniru they are not grown in 

Zanzibar, but are brought dry 

from ] ml in). 
A small pea-like bean, cbooko, 

Peace, amani, salamu. 
Peace-maker, mpatanishi, mscle- 

Lioha, nisuluhiaha. 

Peacock, (ansi. 

Peak, kilele, pi. vilclo. 

Pearl, lulu. 

Pebble (very small), mbwo. 

(or small pit a of stone), kokoto, 
pi. makokoto. 
Peel, ganda, pi. maganda. 
Peg, chango, pi. vyaugo. 
Pelvis, tokoni. 
Pen, kalamu. 

Reed pen, kalamu ya 'mwanzi. 
I 'i ,iis, mbo. 
People, watu. 

People of this world, walimwengU. 

Other people's, -a watu. 

People like us, kina si.^i. 

Alidallah's people, kina Abdallali. 
Pepper, piKpili manga, 

Red pepper, pilipili boho. 
Percussion cap, fataki. 
Perfection, ukamilifu, utimilivu. 
Perfumes, mauukato. 
Period (or point of time), kipindi, 

pi. vipindi. 
Periury, aziir, znli. 
Permission, ruksa, ruhusa. 
Persia, Ajjemi. 

Persian Gulf, Bahari il 'ali. 
Person, mtu. 

A grown person, mtu mzima. See 
Old, &c. 
Perspiration, bari, jasbo. 
Pestilence, tauni, wabba. 
Pestle, mchi (or mti), pi. michi, 

mtwango, pi. mitwango. 
Phantom, kivuli, pi. vivuli. 
Phlegm, belghamu. 
Phthisis, ukobozi. 
Physic, dawa, pi. dawa or madawa. 
Physician, tabibu, mtabibu, pi. 
wat.aliibu, niyanga. pi. wa- 



Pice, pesa, pi. pesa or nmpesa. 

Pirfde, achari. 

Picture, taswira, sura, sanatau. 

Piece, kipaude, pi. vipande. 

Piece of Madagascar grass cloth, 

ramba, pi. maramba. 
Piece let in by way of patch (in 
planking), basho. See Firewood. 

Pig, nguruwe, nguuwe. 
Jivi, a wild hog. 

Pigeon, njiwa, ndiwa (M.). 
Tame pigeon, njiwa manga. 
Wild pigeon, njiwa wa mwitu. 

Pile of sticks, &c, for burning, biwi, 
pi. mabiwi. 

Piles (haemorrhoids'), bawasir. 

Pilgrimage, baj. 

Pill, kidonge, pi. vidonge. 

Pillar, nguzo. 

Pillow, mto, pi. mito. 

Wooden head rest, msamilo, pi. 

Pilot, rubani. 

Pimple, kipele, pi. vipele, upele, pi. 
pele (large), kiwe, pi. viwe ia 
small kind). 

Pincers, koleo. 

Pine-apple, nanasi, pi. mananasi. 

Pinna (shell-jish), kaya, pi. inakaya, 
panga, pi. mapanga. 

Pipe (water), nelli. 
(clarionet), zomari. 
(tobacco), kiko, pi. viko. The 
native pipe consists of a bowl 
(bora), a stem (digali) hading 
from the boid into a small vessel 
of water, which last is properly 
the kiko; the stem from the kiko 
to the mouth is the sbilamu. 
The bubbling of the water when 
it is being smoked is the malio 
ya kiko. 

Piping, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 

Pirate, baramia. 

Pistol, bastola. 

Pit, shkoo, pi. masbimo. 

Pitch or Tar, lami. 

Pity, bmuina. 

Place, mabali, pabali. 

Place may often be expressed by 

the prefix pa-. 
Panyamavu, a quiet place. 
Pakutokea, a place to go out at. 
Panginepo, elsewhere, 
or by the use of penyi. 
Penyi mti, the place where the 

tree is, or teas. 
An open place, kiwanja, pi. 

A clear space in a town, uga. 
A place where offerings are made 
to propitiate spirits supposed to 
haunt it, mzimu, pi. miziniu. 
Plague, tauni. 
Plain, uwauda. 
Plan, sbauri, pi. mashauri. 
Plane, randa. 
Plank, ubau, pi. nibau. 
Planking, rubau. 

A plank laid over the body before 

the earth is filled in, kiuuza,^. 

Plant, inbegu, nibeyu. [viunza, 

A young plant, niche, pi. miche, 

cbipukizi, pi. vipukizi. 
Upupu, cowitch. 
Mbaruti, a thistle-like plant with 

a yellow flower. 
Nyinyoro, a bulbous plant throw- 
ing up a head of red flowers. 
Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Afu, the ivild jasmine. 
Kirukia, a parasite on fruit trees. 
Mpungati, a kind of cactus. 
Plantains, ndizi. 



Plantation, ehamba, pi. maahamba. 
l'lati , kisabani, pi. visabani. 

A plate of natal, bamba, pi. ma- 
Plath r of wood, ohano, pi. vyano. 
Pleasure, anasa, furaha. 

Pleasing (kings, mapendezi. 
Pledge, rahani, amani, kabatbi. 
]'l: iades, kilimia. 
Plenty, wingi, ungi (M.), uiari- 

Plumb-line (a stone hung by a strip 

of banana leaf), tiina/.i. 
Plug, ngurnzi, zibo, pi. ruazibo. 
Plummet, chubwi. 
Pocket, tafuko, pi. mifuko. 

Pocket-handkerchief, ieso. 
Poem, nmsbairi, utenzi {religious). 
Poet, mtunga masliairi, pi. watunga 

Poetry , masliairi. 

One line of poetry, shairL 
Point, iicha. 
Poison, sumu, uchnngu. 

Fish poison, utupa. 
Pole, mti, pi. miti. 
for carrying burdens on, mpiko, 

pi. mipiko. 
for propdling a canoe, upondo, pi. 
Politeness, adabu. 
Pomegranate, kamamanga. 
Vomeloe, furungu, pi. mafurungu. 
Pond, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 
Pool, ziwa, jil. maziwa. 
Pool left by the retiring tide, 
kidimbwi, pi. vidimbwi 
Poop, shetri. 
Poor free man, maskini ya Muu- 

Porcupine, nungu. 
Pores, ' ■■• leo, matokeo ya hari. 

Porpoise, pomboo. 

Porridge, ugali, uji, fuka, hasida. 

Portt r. Set Doorkeeper. 

{carrier), bamali, pi. mahamali. 
{in a caravan), mpagazi, pi. wa- 
Port Durnford, Burikao. 
Position in the world, cheo, kiwa 

Possessions, mali, milki. 
Possessor, mweiivi \v<-. 
Possessor oj, &c, mwcnyi, &c, pi. 
wenyi, &c. 
Post, mti, pi. miti. 

Bearing post, mkimili, pi. mihi- 
Posterity, wazao. 
Pot. See Cooking-pot, Censer. 

A lobster-pot, dema. 
Potash {nitrate of), shura. 
Potatoes, viazi vya kizuugu. 

Sweet potatoes, viazi, sing, kiazi. 
Raised beds for planting viazi, 
tula, pi. matuta. 
Potsherd {broken piece of pottery or 
glass), kigai, pi. vigai, gai, pi. 
magai (a large piece), kige- 
renyenza, pi. vigerenyenza (a 
very small piece, a splinter). 
Potter, mfinangi, pi. waflnangi, mfi- 
nyanzi, wafinyarjzi. 
A place to bake potter's work, joko. 
Poultry, k'uku. 
Poverty, uatasikini. 
Powder, unga. 

Gunpowder, baruti. 
Power, uwozo, nguvu, mamlaka, enzi. 
Practice, mtaala, mazoezo. 
Praise, sifa, hamdi. 
Prattle, vijineno. 
I'ruyi r (worship)), ibada. 
<- ntreaty), kuomba. 



(the prescribed forms), sala. The 
regular Mohammedan times of 
prayer are, Magaribi, directly 
after sunset ; Esha, an hour cr 
two later; Alfajiri, before sun- 
rise ; Athuuri, at noon ; Alasiri, 
about half-way between noon 
and sunset. 

Preacher, mwenyi kukbutubu, or 

Precept, mafundisho. 

Pregnancy, mimba. 

Present (see Gift), zawadi. 

Customary present, ada, kilemba. 
Customary presents at a wedding ; 
to the bride's father, mahari, 
kilemba ; to the bride's mother, 
nikaja, ubeleko ; to the bride's 
kungu, kiosha miguu, kifunua 
mlango; to the bride herself, 
kipa mkono. 

Press or Pressure, sbinikizo. 

Prey, mawindo. 

Price, kima, tham&ni. 

Prickly heat, vipele vya babara. 
A medicament for it, liwa. 

Pride, kiburi. 

Priest, kahini, pi. makabini (used 
in the sense of soothsayer). 
(Cliristian), kasisi, padre or pa- 
diri, pi. mapadiri. 

Prison, kifungo, gereza. 

Privacy, faragba. 

Privy, cboo. 

Proceeds, pato, pi. mapato. 

Produce (fruit, seed, &c), zao, pi. 

Profit, fayida, ghanima. 

Progeny, mzao, pi. wazao. 

Progress, kiendeleo. 

Prohibition, makatazo. 

Promise, abadi, wabadi. 

Promissory note, awala. 
Pronunciation, niata'ruko. 
Prop, nibiniili, pi. miliiruili, niate- 
A prop to keep a vessel upright 
when left by the tide, gadi. 
Property, mali, milki. 
Prophet, nabii, mtume, pi. mitume. 
Prosecution, mstaki, pi. mistaki. 
Proselyte, mwongofu, pi. waongofu. 
Prostitute, kababa, pi. makababa. 
Protection, bami, bamaya. 

Under British protection, fi ha- 
mayat al Ingrez (Ar.). 
Proverb, infauo wa maueuo. 
Provision, madaraka. 
Provisions, vyakula. 
Provocation, ekerabi. 
Prow, gubeti. 
of a small vessel, kikono, pi 

(head), orno. 
Prudence, busara, fikira. 
Pulley, kapi, pi. makapi, gofia. 
Pulpit, mirubara. 
Pump, bomba. 
Pumpkin, boga, pi. maboga. 
plant, mboga, pi. miboga. 
shell used to carry liquids in 

dundu, pi. madundu. 
Mumunye, pi. mamumuiiye, 

sort of vegetable marrow. 
Tango, pi. matango, eaten raw 

like cucumber. 
Kitoma, pi. vitoma, a sma 

round sort. 
Tikiti, pi. raatikiti, a round k nd 
of water-melon. 
Punch, keke. 

Purchaser, mnunuzi, pi. wanunuzi. 
Purgative, dawa la kuhara. 
Purity, masafi, utakatifu 



Purpose, kosndi, pZ. makusudi, 

kasidi, nia. 
Fur**, kifuko cha kiitilia fetba. 
Pusn in . ludukuo. 

Putrvlity, ki 
JV/ . 
Python, chatu. 

Quail, tombo, tomboroko. 

ty, tabia, ginsi, jisi, aina. 
Quantity, kiasi, kadiri, chco 

(nw asuri m ut). 
Quarrel, mateto, tofauti, nazar, 

Quamhomeness, ugomvL 
 r. rubo. 
Thru-quarters of a dollar, kassa 

Quarter of a town, rata, pZ. mita. 
Queen, mallda. 
(c7c .-•.-), ki.-iii. 
Qui ttion, maulizo, swali. 
Quieting thing, kiluli/.o. y>7. vitulizo. 

Iness, utulivu, makiiii, kiinya. 
Quiver, podo. 

BaXbit, sungura, kisungura, pi. 
visangura, kitungule, pi. viiu- 
nguli-. kitili. 
/: ice, ina^bindauo. 

,-. boriti (for a stone roof), 
kombamoyo, pi. raak 
moyo {for a thatched roof), 
pao, pi. mapao (very thin . 
Rag, kitambaa, pi vitainbaa, 
utai tambaa. 

. mvua. 
Bain cloud, gbubari, pi maghu- 
Rainy season, masika. [baii. 

L ier rain.,, mvua ya m-n 

bow, upindi \va mvua, kisiki 
i m\ ua (M. . 
Ramnu r for b< ating roofs, kipande, 

j'l. vipaade. 
"Rampart, boma, bi ra. 
Rank, daraja, obeo. 
Ransom, kombozi, pi makombozi, 

ukomboo, ukombozi, tidia, 

ufidiwa, ukombolewa. 
Rarity, t'unu, heda 
Rash {small pimples), vipele. 
Rat, panya. 

a very large hind, buku. 
Rations, posho. 
Ravmess {of meat, &c.), ubicbi. 

I dulness), ujinga. 
Razor, m i 

Reason, maaua, sababu, buja, akili 
U> asoning, lmja. 
Ri hellion, maasi. 
Recess, kidaka, pi. vidaka, kishu- 

baka, pi. visbubaka (a pigeon- 

hoh ). 
Wall at the bach of a recess, rati'. 

rmu i,, hit ion, maagizo. 
/.'■ ctitude, adili. 

Red coral, marijani ya fetbaluka. 
Red Si a, Babari ya Sham. 
Redeemer, mkotabozi, pi. wako- 

Reed, unyasi, pi. uyasi, mwanzi, pi. 

Refi r , nee, maregeo. 
/,'< gri l. majutio. 
/,'. gularity, kaida. 

m, ezi, enzi. 
kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
toraha, ehangwi. 
/,'. Uttions (/■• lativi i), akral a, ndugix, 

A near n lativt . karibu. 



Relaxation (loosening), ulegevu. 

Religion, dini, dua. 

Relish (something to he eaten icitlt 

rice or porridge), kitovreo. 
Remainder, rnsazo, masazo, mabakia, 
Remedy, dawa, niapoza. [baki. 

Reminder, ukumbusko. 
Remission (of sins), niagkofira, nia- 

Remnant, mabakia. 
Rent, ijara. 

Repentance, toba, majuto. 
Representative, wakili. 
Reproaches, matayo. 
Reprobate, baa, pi. mabaa. 
Reptile (?). 

Kenge, a monitor (?), a very large 

slender lizard. 
P'ili, a large snake. 
Cliatu, a python. 
See Snake, Crocodile, &c. 
Request, haja, niatakwa. 
Residue. See Remainder. 
A little left in ajar, &c, kishinda. 

pi. viskinda. 
Resin, ulimbo. 

Respiration, kutanafusi, kushusba 
Rest, raha, pumziko. [pitmzi. 

Resting-place, pumzikio, kituo, pi. 

zituo or vituo. 
Restlessness, fathaa. 
Resurrection, ufufuo, ufufulio, ki- 

yama (the general resurrection). 
Resuscitation, (actively) kufufua, 

kuhuisha, (neuter) kufufuka, 

Retainer, mfuasi, pi. wafuasi. 
Retaliation kasasi, kisasi. 
Return, maregeo, marejeo kuja 

zao, &c. 
Revenge inajilipa. 
Reverence, unenyckeo. 

Reviling, mashutumu, masbutumio, 
Revival. See Resuscitation. 
Reward, ijara, ujira, majazo. tlm- 
uabu (especially from God). 
Reward for finding a lost thing, 
kiokosi, pi. viokosi. 
Rheumatism, baridiyabis, uweli wa 

Rh inoceros, kifaru, pi. vifara, pea. 
Rib, ubanu, pi. mbavu, kiwavu 

chana (A.). 
Rice, growing, or yet in the husk, 
cleaned from the husk, mcbele. 
cooked, wali. 
watery, and imperfectly cooked 

cooked so that the grains are 
dry and separate, pukute ya 
scorched in the cooking ukoko, 

utandu (A.). 
left from overnight to be eaten in 

the morning, wall wa mwikuu. 
Kinds of rice, sena, buugala, 
shindano, garofuu, kapsvai, ki- 
fungo, madevu, mwanga, sifara, 
Riches, mali, utajiri, ukwasi, 
Rich man, tajiri, pi. matajiri, mwe- 
nyi mali, mkwasi, pi. wakwusi. 
Ridicule, mzaba, tkiliaka. 
Right, kaki, wajib, adili. 
Iliijhteousness, haki. 
Rind, ganda, pi. maganda. 
Rind of a lemon, &c, after the 
inside has been squeezed or 
extracted, kaka. 
Ring, pete, pi. pete or mapete. 
Rings on the scabbard of a sword, 
tic. ukoa, pi. koa. 

SWJTITT.T ruxpnooK. 

Ring where the blacL entert 
-. aoleo, pi. manoleo. 

iMr-rini, pete ya Uiu.>iliio. 
■worm, o 
Hippie, viwimbi. 

\g, juka. 
Rt»< r, mto, pZ. inito. 
Road, njia. 

. Dgarnmo, vtuni. 
Robbi r, mnyang'anyi, pi. wanya- 
ng'anyi, havamia. 
People icho wander about at night, 
robbing and committing violence, 
mrungura, mpakacha. 
Rod;, mwamba, ;)/. miamba. 
.4 email rock, kijamba, pi. vi- 

in the sra, kipwa, pi. vipwa. 
Rolling of u ship, mramnia. 
Roof, (hi: i, sakafu (stone roof or 
floor), paa, pi. mapaa (thatched 
roof). The thatched roofs con- 
'</ of a front and 
back elope, Mpaa cha mheleand 
kipaa cha nyuma, and hips for 
the ends, which ore, carried »/> 
under and within thi main 
slopes; these hips are called 
visusi, sing, ki.^usi. 
A lean-to, kipenu, pi. vipenu. 
The roof over a watching-place in 
the ju Us, dungu, pi. ruadunyu. 
Jlodk (chese), fil. 

n (space), nafasi. 
(. partmenf), chumba, pi. vyumba. 
Ukumbi, ho II or porch ; it is will, in. 
a stone house, but ovhide an 
initio a one. 
- .ul'- or sebula, parlour, r 

Hon room. 
 "1, 'irofa, or ghoi 

Ghala, a dork mom on the ground- 
floor, o etore-room. 
Root, sbina, ]>l. mashina. 
Rootlets, mizizi, ini/.i ( M.). 
kamha, ngole (Mer.). 

imba, ulayiti. 
Rosary (Mohammedan beads), las- 

/,' . waradi, waridi. 
Otto of roses, hal waradi 
Rose-water, marashi mawaridi. 
Rose apple, darabi, pi. ruadaiabi. 
Roundness, lnvhingo. 
Row (line), safu. 
Roto (noise), uthia, kcro. 
Royaltij, kifaume, ufanrae. 
Rubbish (from old buildings), fusi. 
(small articles), takataka. 

ler, skikio, sakani, msukatii, pi. 
misukani, usukani,pZ. suka 
Ruddle, used by carpenters to mark 

out tlieir work, ngeu. 
Rudeness, saflhi. 
Ruin or Ruins, maanguko. 
Runaway (from a master, home, &c), 
mtoro, pi. watoro. 
(from a fight, &c.), inkimbizi, pi. 
Rupee, rupia. 
Rupia or any similar skin disease, 

Rust, kutu. 
Rustling, mtakaso. 

Sabre, kitara, pi. vitara. 
Sacrifice, sadaka (an offering), fi<lia 
1 oiling up), tliabihu {sacrific- 
mathabuha {the victim), 
a (an animal or thing 
d but nut eat 



Saddle, kiti cha frasi, matandiko, 
seruji (an Arab saddle), khoij 
(the pad used for a donkey). 
Sadness (see Grief), rauunu. 
Safety, salamu, salama. 
Saffron, zafarani. 
Sail, tanga, pi. matanga. 
Dhow-sail, duumi. 
Sail-cloth, kitali. 
Sailor, babaria. 
Saint, walli. 
Sake, ajili, buja, maana. 

For my sake, unipendavyo (as you 
love me). 
Sale (auction), mnada. 
Salesman, dalali. 
Saliva, mate. 

Salt, chumvi, munyo (A.). 
Saltpetre, sbura. 
Salute (fired), mizinga ya salamu. 

(salutation), salamu. 
Salvation, wokovu, suudi, njema. 
Salver, sinia, pi. masinia. 
Sanction, itbini. 
Sand, mcbanga, mtanga (M.). 
Sandals, viatu, sing, kiatu, viatu 
vya ngozi. 
strap of a sandal, gidarn. 
Sandalwood, liwa (?). 
Sandfly, usubi. 
Sap, maji. 

Saturday, Juma a mosi. 
Saucepan, sufuria. 
Saviour, mwokozi, pi. waokozi. 
Savour, lutbtha, tamu. 
Scab, kigaga, pi. vigaga. 
Scabbard, ala, pi. nyala. 

The metal rings on a scabbard, 
ukoa, pi. koa. 
Scaffold (for building), jukwari. 
Scales (of a fish), magamba, mamba 

Scales (balances), mizani. 

Scale pans, vitanga vya mizani. 
Scar, kovu, pi. makovu. 
Scarf (often worn round the waist), 

Scent, barufu, manuka, nukato, pi. 
manukato, meski, marashi (a 
scent for sprinkling). 
Tibu, a kind of scent. 
See Rose, Ambergris, Aloes wood. 
School, cbuoni. 
Scissors, makasi. 
Scoop. See Ladle. 
Score (20), korja. 
Scorn, tharau, tbihaka. 
Scorpion, nge. 
Scraps left after eating, makombo, 

sing, kombo. 
Scrape (slide), para. 
Scratch, mtai, pi. mifai. 
Scream, kiowe, pi. viowe (cry for 
help), kigelegele, pi. vigelegrle 
(a trilling scream raised as a 
cry of joy). 
Screw, parafujo. 
Scrip, mkoba, pi. mikoba. 
Scrofulous and gangrenous sores, 

Scrotum, pumbo, mapumbu. 
Scull, kitwa, pi. vitwa, fuvu or 

bupuru la kitwa. 
Scum, povu, mapovu. 
Sea, baliari. 
A sea, mawimbi, wimbi. 
A seaman, mwana maji. 
One from beyond seas, mja na 

Seaweed, mwani. 
Seal, muhuri. 
Seam, msbono, pi. mishono, band 

(tacked), upindo (a hem). 
Season, wakati. 

F '1 


Tl<r principal seasons in Zanzibar 
are: — Musimi, the timt of tlie 
northerly winds (kazkazi), that 
is, December, January, and 
.nary. For March, April, 
ami May, the rainy season, 
masika ; after that, the cold 
time, kipupwe ; then, about (he 
end of August, dernani, or 
niwaka. The southerly winds 
(kusi) begin to drop in October, 
and in the intervals between 
them and the northerly winds 
come the times of easterly and 
westerly winds, malelezi or tanga 
, mbili. 
>■ atoning. See Relish. 
Si at, kikao, makazi. 

The stone or earth seat near a 
door, baraza, kibavaza. 
 nj, siri, faragba. 
Secrets, mambo ya «iri. 
Secretary, mwandisbi,^. waandi-bi. 
khatibu, karani. 
Secretary of State, waziri, pi. 
>• et, rnatbhab, matbebebu. 
Sediment, masbapo. 
Seed, mbegu, mbeyu. 
Seedling, mcbe, pi. niicbe. 
Self, moyo, nafsi, nafusL 
fif< I /'-content, kinaya. 
Semen, sliahawa, mannL 
Semsem, ufuta. 

Semsem oil, mafuta ya uta. 
What is left after the oil has been 
pressed out, sbudu. 
Senna, sanamaki. 
Sense, akdi. 

inel, mugoja, pi. wangoja. 
mtmnuhi, pi. wattm 
mluuiwa, vl. walumwa, i:oker. 

One who serves at table, rawa- 

ndikaji, pi. waandikaji. 

In a sihamba there are generally 

three chief servants. 1. Msi- 

mamizi, generally a free man. 

2. Nokoa, the chief slave. 3. 

Kadainu, th< second, head, slave,. 

S( rriee, utumwa. budunni, bidinia. 

Setting-out, things set out or the place 

for them, maaudiko. 
Shaddock, furungu, pi. mafuriuigu. 
Simile, uvuli, vuli, mvuli, mvili, 

kivuli, kitua. 
Shadow, kivuli, pi. vivuli. 
Shame (disgrace), aibu. 
(modesty), baya. 
(a thing causing confusion), ari, 

fetbeba, hezaya. 
having no shame, rajanja, pi. 
Shape, kiasi, kalibu,namna. 
Share, fungu, pi. mafungu, eeniebu, 

k is ma. 
Sharing, usbaiika. 
Shark, papa. 
Sharpness, ukali. 
Shaving (of wood), usafi. 
Sliaiol, sbali. 

worn round the waist, roabn/amu. 
Sheaf, or bundle of cut rice, niganda, 

pi. miganda. 
Slieath, uo, pi. mauo, ala, pi. nyala. 
Sheave (of a pulley), rorla, koradaiii. 
Sited, banda, pi. mabanda, kibauda, 

pi. vilianda. 
Sheep, kondoo. 
Sheet, ebuka. 

of a sail, demani. 
of a book, gombo, pi. macrnmbo. 
of paper, ukurasa, pi. kurasa. 
Shelf, kiljau, pi. vibau. 
in a recess, rufuf. 



Suso, pi. masuso, a kind of hang- 
ing shelf. 
Shell (sea shells),shel\e, pi. mashelle. 
(husk), ganda, pi. maganda. 
(empty shell), fuvu, pi. mafuvu, 
bupuru, pi. inabupuru, kaka. 
Shepherd, rulisbi, pi. walishi, ujcku- 

nga, pi. wacbunga. 
Slierd. See Potsherd. 
Shield, ngao. 

Shin, inuundi wa guu (A.). 
Ship, merikebu, mavikabu, jahasi. 
Man-of-war, rnanowari, merikebu 

ya mizinga. 
Merchant ship, merikequ ya taja, 
Steam ship, merikebu ya dubaan> 

merikebu ya mosbi. 
Ship belonging to the government, 

merikebu ya strkali. 
Full-rigged ship, merikebu ya 

milingote mitatu. 
Barque, merikebu ya miliugote 

inrwili ria nuss. 
Native craft, chombo, pi. vyombo. 
Shirt, kanzu. 
Shivering, kitapo, kutetema, ku- 

Shoal (bank), fungu, pi. mafungu. 
Shock, shindo. 

Shoe, kiatu cba kizungu or cba 

kihiudi, pi. viatu vya kizuugu. 

Slioemaker, msboni viatu, pi. wa- 

sboni viatu. 
Shoot, cbipukizi, ucbipuka, pi. 
A pointed shoot like that contain- 
ing a spike of flower, kilele, pi. 
Sttop, duka, pi. maduka. 

Shops vrith warerooms, bokhari. 
Shot (small), marisaa. 
Shot-belt, beti. 

Shoulder, bega, pi. mabega, fuzi, pU 
mafuzi (A.). 
Shoulder-blade, kombe la mkono. 
Shout, ukelele, pi. kelele, kelele, pi 

Shower, manyunyo. 
Showing, wonyesbo. 
Shrewdness, werevu. 
Shroud, saanda. 
Shrub, kijiti, pi. vijiti. 
See Thorn. 

Mwaugo, pi. miwaugo (?). 
Sick person, mgoajwa, pi. magonjwa, 

mweli, pi. waweli. 
Sickness, ugonjwa, uweli, marathi. 
Side, upande, pi. pande. 

Side of the body, mbavu, mata- 

The other side of a river, &c, 
Siege, mazingiwa. 
Sieve, kiyamba. 
Siftings of rice after pounding, 

Sighing, kuugua. 
Sign, dalili. 
Signal, ishara. 

Ukouyezo, pi. konyezo, a sign 

made by raising the eyebrows. 
Kikorombwe, a kind of signal cry. 
Silence, nyamavu, kimya 
Silk, bariri. 
Silliness, mapiswa, puo. 

Silly talk, upuzi. 
Silver, t'etba. 
Silversmith, mfua fetba, pi. wafua 

Simpleton, mjinga, pi. wajioga. 
Sin, tbambi, pi. thambi or ma- 

thambi, makosa, taksiri. 
Singleness, upweke. 
Sip, i'uuda (?). 


mui. i u.wnnooK. 


 i. ombu, pi. maumbu, ndugu, 

ndugu mke. 
As a tern) of endearrm nt. dada. 
.F< r, ndugu kunyonya. 

S •/- r-in-hur. Bhemegi. 
Situ r, mkaa, pi. wakaa. 
Sit/inn. kikao, ]>l. vikao, kitako, pi. 

. ukuu, ukubwa, kiasi, kadiri, 

• ton, nizoga (?) 

'ful workman, mstadi, pi. wa- 

U d or master-workman, fundi. 

v . uwingu. 

3 ickness, ulegcvu. 

der, masiugizio, fitina (soicing 

of discord). 

jhtt r-house, matindo. 
6 ', mtuinwa, ]>!■ watumwa, mu- 

hadimu,pZ. waliadiinu, mtwana, 

pi. Vffl\ .', aim. 

A si-"-, boy, kitwana, pi. vitwana. 
A slave girl, kijakazi, ;//. vijakazi. 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi. wa- 

A concubine slave, suria, pi. ma- 

A slave born in the house or 

country, mzalia, pi. wazalia. 
A runaway slave, mtoro, pi. wa- 

A fellow slave, mjoli, pi. wajolL 
A household of slaves, kijoli, pi. 

Pi a <>f IiiikI allotted to a slave 

for his own use, koondi , pi. 

:  ry, utumwa. 

Sleeping plaoi , malalo. 
Things to sleep upon, malazi. 
Sleeve, rnkono, pi. mikono. 
Sling, kombeo, pi. makonibeo. 
SUp of a tree, &c, mcbe, pi. miolio. 
A slip which has put forth leaves, 

mche uliocbanua. 
One which has made a new shoot, 

mche uliockipuka. 
Xli/iperiness, utelezi. 
Sloth, uvivu. 
Slovenliness, fujofujo. 
^,n, illness, udogo. 
Small-pox, ndui. 
Smell, harufu, manuka, azma. 
Smith (worker in metal), mfua, pi. 

wafua. See Blacksmith, &c. 
Smoke, moshi, pi. mioshi. 
Snail, koa, pi. niakoa, konokono. 
Snake, nyoka, joka, pi. majoka 

Chatu, python. 
P'ili, cobra (?). 
Snare, sliabuka. 
Sneezing, chafya. 
Snoring, kukoroma. 
Snuff, tumbako ya kunuka, or 

Snuff-box, tabakelo. 
Soap, eabuni. 
Soda, magadi. 
Solder, lihamu. 
Soldier, atdkari. 

Sole (of the foot), uayo, pi. nyao. 
Solitude, upekee, ukiwa. 
Somauli Coast, Banada. 
Somebody, mtu. 

Some one else's, -a mwenyewe. 
Child of somebody, i.e., of respect- 
able parents, mtoto wa watu, 

mwana wa watu. 
Somersaidt, kitwangomba. 



Son, mwana, pi. waana, kijana, 
mtoto niuine. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed's 

Bin Abdallak (Ar.), Abdullah's 

Hamisi wa Tani, Hamisi the son 

of Tani (Othman). 
Son-in-law, mkwe, pi. wakwe. 
Song, uimbo, pi. nyimbo. 
Soot, kaa rnoshi, makaa ya moshi. 
Soothing thing, kitulizo, pi. vitulizo. 
Soothsayer, kahini, pi. makahini. 
Sore, donda, pi. madonda, kidonda, 
pi. vidonda, jeraha. 
Sores in the leg, nyungunyungu, 
Sorrow, kasarani, huzuni, sikitiko, 
Sorrow for a loss, majonzi. 
Sorrow for something done, ma- 

Excessive sorrow, jitimai. 
Sort (kind), ginai, nartma, aina. 
The sort is often expressed by 
the prefix ki-. Kizungu, the 
European sort, kifaume, the 
kingly sort. 
Soul, roho. 
Sound, sauti. 
Soundness, uzima. 
Source, asili, chimbuko. 
South, kusini, suheli. 
Southerly icind, kusi. 
Sovereign, mwenyi ezi, mwenyi 
inchi, mwenyi mji. 
(coin), robo Ingrezi. 
Sovereignty, ezi, enzi. 
Space, nafasi. 
(of time), muda. 
(open space), tiwanda, uga. 
Spade, jembe la kizungu. 

Span, futuri, sMbiri, sliibri. 

Spangles, puluki. 

Spark, chechi, pi. macbechi. 

Sparkle, kimeta. 

Speaker, mneni, pi. waneni, msemi, 
pi. wasemi, msemaji, pi. wa- 

Speaking, kusema, kunema. 

A dark obscure way of speahiwj, 

kilinge cba maneno. 
An enigmatical way of speaking, 
in which the last syllable is 
taken from the end, and made 
to begin the icorrf, kinyumc, 
kinyuma. (See Appendix I.) 

Spear, fumo, pi. mafmno (flat- 
bladed) mkuke, pi. mikuke, 
(three-edged) sagai,^. masagai. 

Spectacles, miwani. 

Speech (speaking), kunena. 
(oration), mataguso, milumbe. 

Spider, buibui. 

Spinal column, uti wa maungo. 

Spirits, mvinyo. 
Evil spirit, pepo. 
Kinds of spirits, jhri, pi. majini, 
milboi, mahoka, dungumaro, 
kitamiri, kizuu, kizuka, koikoi, 
mwana maua, &c. 

Spit, uma, pi. nyuma. 

Spittle, mate. 

Spoil, mateka. 

Spleen, wengo. 

Splint, gango, pi. magango, banzi, 
pi. mabanzi. 

Splinter (of wood), kibanzi, pi. 
(of glass or eartlienioare), kige- 
renyenza, pi. vigerenyenza. 

Spoon, mwiko, pi. miiko, kijiko, pi. 
vijiko (a tea-spoon), mkamslie, 
pi. mikamsbe (a wooden spoon). 



. mohi eo. mzaba. 
. wna, /•/. mawaa, kipaku, /)/. 
\ ipaku. 

' ( from a >'">/), kopo la 
nyumba, marizabu. 
Sprain, kuteuka. 
Spread, eneo. 

Spreading a meal, maandiko. 
Sprit g, mtambo, pi. mitambo. 

oat< r, chemcbem, jicho la maji. 
Sprihkli . manyunyo. 
Sprinkler (for scents), mrasbi, jl. 

of a cock, kipi, kipia, pi. vipia. 
Spy, mpelelezi, pi. wapelelezi, 
mtumbuizi (A.). 
 n . mrabba. 
Squint, makengeza. 
Stable, banda la frasi, faja la frasi. 
Staff, gongo, pi. magongo, uikougo- 

jo, pi. mikongojo. 
Stagnation, vilio, pi. mavilio. 
stain, wan, pi. mawaa. 
Stain, daraja, ngazi. 
Up-stairs, juu, darioL 
Downstairs, <liini. 
Stalks, of mtama, bua, pi. mabua. 
of a kind of millet chewed like 

sugar-cane, kota, pi. makota. 
of cloves, &c, kikonyo, pi. vikonyo. 
Stall keeper, moburuzi, pi. wa- 

s>,i,, mi' ring, kigngumizi. 
Stamp, muhuri, chapa. 
Staple, pete, pi. mapete, tumbuu. 
Star, iiyota. 

Falling stars, nyota zikishuka. 
Shooting stars, kimwondo, pi. 
Starch, kanji, dondo. 
Start fright), kituko. 

beginning), feli, pi. mafeli. 

Startling thing, mzungu, pi. mi- 
A thing to fright n people, kinya- 
gO, pi. vinyago. 
State, hali. 
Statue, sanamu. 
Stealing, kwiba. 
Steam, mvuke. 

A steamshipi merikebu ya moshi. 
Stt i /, feleji, pua. 
Steelyard, mizani. 
Steersman, msbiki shikio. 
Stem of a tree, shina, pi. masbina. 

of mtama, bua, pi mabua. 
Step (stepping), hatua. 

{of stone, &c), daraja. 
Step-father, baba wa kambo. 

Step-mother, mama wa kambo. 
Steicard, msimamizi,p2.wasimamizi. 
Stick, fimbo, ufito, pi. fito (thin), 
bakora (a walking-stick with a 
handle bent at right angles). 
A short heavy stick, kibarangO, 
pi. vibaraugo, mpweke, pi. mi- 
A staff, gongo, pi. magongo, 
mkongojo, pi mikongojo (an 
old man's staff). 
Stillness, kimya. 

Stirrup, kikuku oba kupandia frasi. 
Stocks (for the feet), mkatale. 
Stomach, tumbo. 
Pit of the stomach, chembe cha 
moyo (A.). 
Stone, jiwe, pi. mawe or majiwe. 
A stone house, nyumba ya mawe. 
Small stones or pieces of stone, 

kokoto, pi. makokoto. 
Very small stones, not larger than 

an egg, mbwe. 
Very small grit, changarawi. 
Fresh coral, matumbawi. 



Precious stones, kito, pi. vito, 

Stones of fruit, kokwa, pi. ma- 
Stooping, kiinamizi. 
Stop (end), kikomo, kinga. 

(stopping), kizuizo, kizuizi, kizuio. 
Stoppage in the nose or wind-pipe, 

(stagnation), vilio, pi. mavilio. 
Stopper, zibo, pi. niazibo, kizibo, pi. 

Store (put by), akiba. 

Store-room, ghala. 
Storm, tbaruba, tufanu. 
Story, hadithi, habari. See Tale. 
Stoutness, unene. 
Strainer, kunguto, pi. makunguto 

(of basket-work). 
Straits (distress), sbidda. 

(narrow seas), kilango cba babari. 
Strands of a cord, meno, ncba. 
Stranger, mgeni, pi. wageni. 
Strap, ukanda. 
Stratagem, bila. 
Stream, mto, pi. mito, kijito, pi. 

Strength, nguvu. 
String, ugwe, uzi, katani. 

String of beads, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
String-course, usbi. 
Strip. See Mat. 
Stripe (line), uzi, pi. nyuzi, mfuo, 

pi. mifuo, utepe, pi. tepe. 
Study, mtaala. 
Stumble, kwao, pi. makwao. 
Stumbling-block, kwao, pi. makwao. 
Stump, shiiia, pi. mashina. 
Stupor, kurukwa na akili. 
Stye in the eye, cbokea. 
Style (of writing), dibaji, a good 

Subject, rayia. 

Substance, asili. 

Subtlety, busara, werevu. 

Subtraction (arithmetical), baki. 

Suburbs, kiunga. 

Sugar, sukari. 

Sugar-cane, mua, pi. miwa. 

Suit of clothes, kisua. 

Sulphate of copper, mrututu. 
of magnesia, chumvi ya haluli. 

Sulphur, kiberiti. 

Sidtanship, usultani. 

Sum, jumla. 

Summary, mubtasari. 

Summit, kilele, pi. vilele (used of 
any sharp-pointed top or peak, 
of the centre shoot of a cocoa- 
nut tree as well as of the peak 
of a mountain). 

Sun, jua, pi. majua. 

TJte coming out of the sun after 
rain, kianga. 

Sunday, Juiua a pilL 

Sundries, takataka. 

Sunset, magharibi, mangaribi. 

Supercargo, karani. 

Superciliousness, kitougotongo. 

Superintendent, mwaugalizi, pi. \ra- 
angalizi, msimaiQizi, pi. wa=i- 

Supper, cbakula cha jioni. 

Suppuration, kutunga. 

Surety, mthamini, thamin, thamana, 

Surf, mawimbi. 

Swallow (bird), barawai, mbili- 
wili (?), mbayuwayu (A.). 

Sweat, bari, jasbo, vukuto. 

Sweetheart, mcbumba. 

Siveet lime, dimu tamu. 

Sweetness, tamu. 

Sweet potatoes, viazi, sing, kiazi. 



- Indler, thulium. 
• i : ;. ]m ml' a. 

Swine, ngurawe, nguuwe. 
to, pi. fito. 
l. apanga, pL panga. 
curved sword, kitara, pZ. vitava. 
straight two-edged sword without 

any guard, upauga wa feleji. 
with a small cross hilt, apanga 
wa imani. 
Syphilis, sekeneko, kijaraha elm 
mboni, to.^o (a riruh nt hind 
posed to be the result of a 
>. Sham. 
p, a.sxli. 

Tii 1 ile, meza. 
Table-cloth, nguo ya meza. 
Table - napkin, kitambaa cha 
Tack of a sail, goshi. 
Tacking (sewing), bandi. 
Tail, Hilda, pi. mikia. 

'or, mshoni, pi. waahoni. 
Taking away, maoudoleo. 
Tale, hadithi, kisa, ngano. 
Tale-hearer, mzuzi. 
Talipes, kupinda na mguu. 
Talk, usi mi, 

Silly talk, upuzi. 
Talker, msemaji, pi. wasemaji. 
Tamarind, ukwaju. 

Tamarind tree, mkwaju, pi. mi- 
matata. [kwaju. 

T'lj,, bilula. 

. utepe, pZ. tepe. 
Tar, land, 
Tartar on the teeth, \ikojra. 

. tumu, tamu, luththa, nyonda, 
inaondi, maonji. 

Taster, mwonja, pi. waonja, m wo- 
ods (M.), pi- waonda, kionja, 
pi. viouja, kionda (M.), pi. 

Tea, cliayi, cha. 

Teacher, mwalimn, pi. waalimu, 
ndcufunzi, pi. wakufunzi. 

Teaching, mat undisko, elimu. 

Teak, msaji. 

Teapot, buli, pi. mabuli. 

Tear, cbozi, pi. machozi, tozi (M.), 
pi. matozi. 

Teazing, thihaka. 

Tediousness, ucliovu. 

Telescope, durabini. 

Temper, tabia. 

Temperance, tawassuf, kadiri. 

Temple, hekalu (a great thing, the 
temple at Jerusalem), baniya 
(a building, the tempJle at 

Temptation, majaribu, nyonda. 

Ten, kumi, pi. makumi. 

a decade, mwongo, pi. miongo. 

Tent, khema, hema. 

Tt nicies, mapumbu, tamboa. 

'/'• timony, ushahidi. 

Tim riks, slmkuru, ushukura, salamu, 
ansanta, marahaba. 

Thatch, makuti (of cocoa-nut lean i ). 
Thin sticks used to tie the makuti 

to, upau, pi. pau 
See Cocoa-nut. 

Theft, uizi. 

Thicket, kichaka, pZ. vicbaka, koko, 
pi. makoko. 

Tli ickness, unene. 

Thief, mwivi, pi. wevi, nrwibaji, pi. 

Thieving, kwiba, uizi, wibaji. 

Thigh, upaja, pi. paja, paja, pi. ma- 



Tliimble, subana. 
Sailmaker's palm, dofra, pi. ma- 
Thing, kitu, pi. vitu (a thing of the 
senses), neno, jambo, mainbo 
{things of the intellect). 
I have done nothing, sikufanya 

I see nothing, sioai kitu. 
A hind thing, jambo la wema. 
Strange things, mainbo mageni. 
Third (a third part), theluth. 
Thirst, Mn. 

Thorn, inwiba, pi. miiba or miba. 
Mckongoma, pi. michongoma, a 

thorny shrub used for hedges. 
Mkwamba, pi. mikwamba, a 
thorny shrub. 
Thought, wazo, pi. mawazo, fikara, 

tliamiri, nia. 
Thousand, elt'u, pi. elfu or alafu. 
a thousand or myriad, kikwi, pi. 

zikwi or vikwi. 
a hundred thousand, lakki. 
Thread, uzi, pi. nyuzi, katani. 
Threat, wogofya, tisho. 
Throat, koo, pi. makoo. 
Thumb, kidole cha gumba. 
Thunder, radi (near), ngururuo 

Thursday, Alhamisi. 
Ticket, kibarua, pi. vibarua. 
Tickling or tingling, mnyeo, kinye- 

Ticks, papasi (in houses), kupe (on 

Tide, maji kujaa na kupwa. 
Spring tides, bamvua. 
Neap tides, maji mafu. 
Tiller, kana, gana. 

Tiller ropes, mijiari, sing, mjiari. 
Timber, miti, mibau. 

Time, wakati, wakti, majira. 
(sufficient), naf'asi. 
(hour), saa. 
(leisure), faragha. 
(first, &c), mara. 
(fixed term), mobulla. 
Times (age), zamaui. 
Space of time, mnda. 
Period of time, kipindi. 
A short time, kitambo. 
Times, in multiplication, fl. 
iSi'a; times eight, sita fi the- 

Divisions of Time. 

There are two years in use in 
Zanzibar; that which is most com- 
monly heard of is the Arab year of 
twelve lunar months. It cannot be 
more than about 355 days long, and 
has therefore no correspondence to 
the seasons. The months are de- 
termined by the sight of the new 
moon, or by the expiration of thirty 
days since the beginning of the 
previous month. It happens some- 
times that some of the coast towns 
will begin their months a day before 
or after what was taken as its first 
day in Zanzibar. A gun is usually 
fired from one of the ships when 
the month begins. Practically the 
Ramathan is treated as the first 
month, and the rest are reckoned 
from it ; the word by which they 
are denoted seems to mean not 
fasting, as though the Ramathan 
being the month of fasting, the rest 
were the first, second, third, &c, 
of not fasting, until the months of 
Rajab and Shaaban, which have 
both a special religious character 



The following are the names of the 
Aral' months, with their Bwahili 




I'.il la al amtal. 

Rabia al akhr. 

Jemad al aowal. 

Jemad al akhr. 





Th'il ka'ada. 

Th'il hajjah. 


Mftingno a 'nne. 
no a tano. 
Mfunguo a Bita. 
Mfunguo a saba. 
Mfunguo a Dane. 
Mfunguo a kenda. 
1 : liani, 

Mfunguo a mosi. 
Mfunguo a pili. 
Mfunguo a tatu. 

The two great Mohammedan 
ta are held on the first of 
Shaoiral, when every one giv< s pre- 
sents, and on the tenth of Th'il 
hajjah. when every one is supposed 
to slaughter some animal and feast 
the poor. 

The other year in use among the 
Swahili is the Nautical and Agri- 
cultural year ; it is roughly a 
year, having 3G5 days. It is 
i >ned to begin from the Siku a 
■!:a (answering to the Persian 
Nairuz), which now occurs towards 
the end of August. The last day 
of the old year is called Kig 
and the days are reckoned by 
ides, called miongo, sing, mico- 
iii]o. Thus — Mwongo tea mia con- 
of the days between 90 and 
100. Mwongo wan ks which 

de it is. The Siku a mwaka is 
kept as a great day, and formerly 
a numb r of 8]  cial observances 
connected with it. in the night or 

early in the morning every one used 
to bathe in the sea; the womi n are 
particularly careful to do so. Tie y 
afterwards fill a large pot with 
grain and pulse, and cook them. 
About neon they serve out to all 
friends who come; all the fires are 
extinguished with water and lighted 
again by rubbing wood. Formi rly 
no inquiry was made as to any one 
killed or hurt on this day, and it is 
still the custom to go armed and 
to be on the guard against private 
enemies. It used to be a favourite 
amusement to throw any Indians 
that could be caught into the sea, 
and otherwise ill-use them, until 
the British Government interfered 
for their protection. The year is 
called alter the day of the week on 
which it began; thus, in 1805 it 
began on Thursday and was 
Mwaka Alhami&i ; in 18GG on 
Friday, and was Mwaka Juma, and 
so on. 

The seasons will be found briefly 
mentioned under that word. 

The week has been reconstructed 
on the Arab week, retaining only 
the Arab names of two days, Alha- 
misi and Juma (Thursday and 
Friday), which answer 1o our Satur- 
day and Sunday for Mohammedan 
religious purposes, and are the days 
which slaves in the country aro 
generally allowed for their own 
recreation or profit. Juma is so 
named from the assembly held on 
that day for public worship; the 
A rah names of the rest are merely 
those used by English Quakers, 
first, second, third, &c. 







Al dhad. 

Juma a pili. 


Ath ifteneen. 

Juma a tatu. 


At/i theluth. 

Juma a 'nne. 


Ar robua'. 

Juma a tano. 


Al kkamis. 






As sabt. 

Juma a mosl 

The day begins at sunset ; to-night 
therefore in the mouth of a Swahili 
means what an Englishman would 
call last night. As the days are of 
a very nearly uniform length there 
is little practical incorrectness in 
taking sunset as six o'clock in the 
evening and reckoning the night 
first and then the day from it, hour 
by hour. Thus, seven, eight, and 
nine are the first, second, and third 
of the night (saa a kwanza, a pili, 
a tatu ya usiku). Midnight is the 
6ixth hour, saa a sita. Five in the 
morning is the eleventh hour of the 
night, saa a edhashara. Nine 
o'clock in the morning is the third 
hour of the day, saa a tatu. Twelve 
at noon is the sixth hour, saa a sita, 
and four and five the tenth and 
eleventh hours, saa a kumi, saa a 
edhashara. Sunset is determined 
by observation, and a gun is fired, 
and tha Sultan's flag hauled down 
to mark it. During the Bamathan a 
gun is fired at half-past two in the 
morning to warn every one of the 
approach of morning, that they may 
get their cooking and eating over 
oefore dawn. This gun-fire is called 

There is another way of marking 
the time by reference chiefly to the 
hours of prayer (see Prayer); the 
following are the chief points 

Magaribi, sunset. 

Mshuko wa magaribi (coming out 

from sunset prayers), about 

half-past six. 
Esha or Isha, from half-past six 

to eight. 
Mshuko wa esha, about half-an- 

hour later. 
Nuss ya usiku, midnight. 
Karibu na alfajiri, between three 

and four in the morning. 
Alfajiri mkuu. rising of the morn- 
ing star, about four. 
Alfajiri mdogo, dawn. 
Assubui, the morning, i.e., after 

Mchana, the day from asoiibui to 

Mafungulia ng'ombe (letting out 

of cattle), about 8 a.m. 
Mafungulia ng'ombe malum, is 

earlier, mafungulia ng'ombe 

madogo, is later than eight 

Jua kitwani, noon. 
Athuuri or Azuuri, noon, and 

thence till three o'clock. 
Awali athuuri, between twelve and 

Alasiri, about half-past three, or 

from three to five. 
Alasiri kasiri, about five, or ihtnce 

to half -past. 
Jioni, evening, from about five 01 

half-past till sunset. 

Tin, bati. 

Tiv ncha, nta (M.). 
Tithes, zaka. 
Tobacco, tumbako 
To-day, leo. 



ki lole, pZ. vidole, kidole cha 
/ '■ n, dalili, buruhaui 

nb, kaburi, pi. niakaburi. 
To-morrow, kesho. 
the day after, keaho kutwa 
?/<-■ </-i_v ".'V' r that, mtondo. 
afhr that, mtondo goo. 
gs, koleo, ;>f. makoleo. 
Tongue, ulimi, pL ndiml 
A piece of cloth, &c, to lie under 
an opening, lisani. 
Tool, samani. 

Carpenter' 8 tool for marking lines, 
Tooth, jino, pi. meno. 
cuspids, chonge. 
Dirt on the teeth, ukoga. 
He has lost a front tooth, ana 

Tooth stick or brush, msuaki, pi. 
Top, juu. 

{the toy), pia. 
Torpor, utepi tufu. 
Tortoise, kobe. 
Total, jumla. 

Tou/C?, kitambaa cbakufutia uso, &c. 
Tower, mnara, pi. minara. 
Town, mji, pi. mijL 
Trace, dalili. 
Track, nyayo. 
Trade, biasbara. 
'/' -ler, mfanyi biasbara, 

'for, kbaini. 
Trap, mtego, pi. mitego. 
(with a spring), ratambo, pi. rai- 
Travt VU r, msafiri, pi. wasafirL 
/ vy, sinia, pL masinia 
le, asali ya maa. 
•it/t, bazina, kanzi, kbazana. 

Treatnu nt, mwamale. 
Tn i . iiit I , ]i!. miii. 

Mkadi, Pondanua. 

Mtomondo, BamngtoAift 

M umdoo,Calo})]njUuiu inophyllum. 
Tn nch, handaM. 

Tnii'li for Itnilng in foundations, 
msinji. msingL 
Trial, majaribu. 
Tribi . kabila, taifa, pi. mataifa 
(taifa is larger than kabila). 
Of what tribe are yowl Mtu gani 
Trick, bila, eherevu, madatiganya. 
Trot, nmskindo (of a horsi), matiti 

(of an ass). 
Trouble, taabu, utbia. 
Trousers, soruali. 

Trowel (mason's), mwiko, pi. miiko. 
Trumpet, paanda. 

Trunk, sbina, pL masbina, jiti, pU 
(cut down), gogo,pl. maem^ro. 
(the human trunk), kiwiliwilL 
Truth, kweli. 

A truth teller, msemi kwulL 
Trying, maonji, majaribu. 
l-ipa, pi. mapipa. 
day, .luma a nne. 
Turban, kilemba, pi. vilcmba. 

A turban cloth, utambi, pi. tainl.i. 
ends of turban cloth, utamvua. /-/. 
taravua, kishungi. 
Turkey, bata la mzinga, pi. inalala 

ya mzinga. 
Turmeric, manjauo. 
Turn, zamu, pi. mazamu. 

By turns, kwa zamu. 
Turner, mkereza, pi. wakereza. 
Turnery, zikerezwazo. 
Turtle, kasa. 
Hawkshead turtle, from which 



tortoise ■shell is obtained, ug'a- 

mba, gnauiba. 
Turtle clove, hua. 
Twin, pacha. 
Twist, pindi, pi. mapindi. 
Type {for printing,, chapa, pi. ma- 



Udder, kiwele. 
llcers, donda ndugu. 
Umbrella, mwavuli, pi. miavuli. 
Native umbrella, dapo, pi. ma- 

Uncleanness, janaba, uchavu. 
Uncle, mjomba, pi. wajoinba, baba 

nidogo (mother's brother), amu 

{father's brother). 
Undergrowth, magugu. 
Understanding, akili (pi). 
Underwood, makoko. 
Unity, umoja. 
Universe, uliniwengu. 
Uproar, fujo,kelele, makelele, uthia, 

Urine, mkojo. 
Use, kutumia, kufaa. 

(habit), mazoezo. 
Useful things, vifaa. 
Usurer, mlariba, pi. walariba. 
Usury, iriba. 
Utensils, vyoinbo. 
I'terus, rnji. 
Uvula, kimio. 


Vagabond, bana kwao (homeless). 

Vagina, kuma. 

Valley, boonde, pi, boonde or ma- 

Value, kima, tfiamani. kadiri, kiasi, 

upataji, uthani. 

What is it worth ? Cbapataje ? 
Vapour, mvuke, fukizo. 

Vapour bath, mvuke. 
Vault, or vaulted place, kuba, kubba. 
Vegetables, mboga. 

Dcdoki, pi. madodoki, a long 
many-angled seed pod. 

Fijili or figili, a large white 

Jinibi, pi. majimbi, a root very 
much like a hyacinth root. 
Vegetable marrow, muinunye, pi. 

Veil, utaji, shela. 
Vengeance, kasasi. 
Verses, masbairi. 

Utenzi, religious verses. 

Utumbuizo, verses sung at a dance. 
Vesicular eruption on tlie skin, 

Vial, kitupa, pi. vitupa. 
Vice, uovu, ulisadi, ufioki. 

(the tool), jiliwa, pi. majiliwa, 
Vicegerent, kaimu, pi. makaimu, 

nayibu, kalife. 
Victim, niathabuha. 
Victuals, vyakula. 
Vigil, kesha, j)l. ruakesha. 
Village, mji, pi. miji, kijiji, pi. vijiji. 
Vine, mzabibu, pi. mizabibu. 
Vinegar, siki. 
Violence, jeuli, nguvu. 

Kwa nguvu, by violence. 

Ana jeuri, he attacks people wan- 
Virgin, bikiri, kizinda. 
Viscera, matumbo. 
Vizir, waziri, pi. mawaziri. 
Vizirship, uwaziri. 
Voice, sauti. 
Vow, natbiri, naziri. 


Voyagi . safari. 
Vulture, tai. 


Wages, njira. 
monthly, mshahara. 

,-.- . halasa. 
Wailing, maombolezo. 

tcoat, kisibau, ^>/. visibau. 
sh i m ■!, cba mkono. 

m /< s«, kisicho mkono or cba 
Walk, mwendo. 
A walk, mat< mbezi. 
t-i go for a walk, kwenda teml 
Wall, ukuta, pi. kuta, kikuta, pi. 
vikuta, kitalu, pi. vitalu {of an 
enclosure), kiyainbaza (mud 
and stud). 
Wall-plate, mbati, inwamba, pi. mi- 

Walnut, jfzi. 
Wandering about, mzunguko, pi. 

Want, ulitaji, upungufu, kipunguo. 

(poverty), sbid'la, tunasikini. 
War, vita, kondo (Mer.). 
Wurcroom, gbala. 
Warehouse and shop, bokhari, 
Warmth moto, ubarara. 

Iiukewarmness, uvuguvugu. 
Wart, chunjua. 
WaAi< rman, dobi. 
Waste, upotern, ubaribivu. 
Waster, mpotevu, pi. wapofo vn. 

mubaribivu, pi. wabaribivu. 
Watch, ?aa. 

;//;. krsba, pi. makcslia. 
(time or plac>- of watching), ki- 

ugojo. pi. vingi 
(watching-place), lindo. 

Water, maji. 
Fresh water, maji matamu, maji 

y:i pi 

Wat' r-closet, ohon, cliiro. 

Water cooler {earthen hottl), 
guduwia, gudulia, kuzi (a 
larger hind uritli handles and 

Water jar, mtungi, pi. mitun'.'i 
Water melon, battikh. See 

Water shin, kiriba. 
Wave, winibi, pi. mawimbL 
Way, njia. 

the shqrtest tray, njia ya kukata. 
Weakness, uthait'u. 
Wealth, m&\\ mengi, utajiri, nkwaei. 
II  upon, selaha, inata (iveapons, i.e., 

bows and arrows). 
Weather, wakati. 

Weather side, upande gosbini, 
upande wa juu. 
Weaver, rnfurua, pi. wafuma. 
Wedding, harusi. 
Wi ^ne, kabari. 
II'' dnesday, Juma a tano. 
Weeds, magugu. 
Kinds of weeds, kitawi, n.dago, 
gugu mwitu, mbaruti. 
Week, jumaa. 

II' ight (see Measure), utbani. 
JIoiv much does it weigh % Ya 

kassi gam utbani wake? 
Natu i. Weights: 
Wakia, the weight of a silver 

dollar, about one ounce. 
Battel, sixteen wakia, about one 

Kibaba, pi. vibaba, one ratti I and 

a half. 
Mani, wo rattel and three- 



Pishi, four vibaba, or six rattel. 
Frasila, thirty- five rattel, or twelve 

Farra ya mti, seventy-two rattel, 

or twelve pishi. 
Well, kisima, pi. visima. 
Weeping, kilio. 
West, maghribi. 

West wind, umande. 
Wet, rataba, maji. 
Whale, nyarugumi, ngumi. 
Wheat, ngano. 
Wheel, guruduniu, pi. maguru- 

Wheeled carriage, gari, pi. ma- 

Wlietstone, kinoo, pi. vinoo. 
Whip, mjeledi, pi. mijeledi. 
A plaited thong carried by over- 
lookers and schoolmasters, ka- 

mbaa, kikoto (M.). 
Whirlwind, kisusuli, pepo za cha- 

Wliistling, msonyo, miunsi. 
Wliite ants, mchwa. 
White of egg, ute wa yayi. 
Whiteness, weupe. 
Whitening, chaki. 
Whitlow, mdudu. 
Wick of a lamp, utambi, pi. 

tambi. : 
of a candle, kope, pi. makope. 
Widow, nrjani, mjaani, mke aliofl- 

wa na mumewe. 
Width, upana. 
Wife, mke, pi. wake, mtumke, pi. 

watuwake, mwauamke, pi. wa- 

Wilderness, bara, nyika, unyika. 
Wild people, waskenzi. 
Wild animals, nyama za mwitu, 

nyama mbwayi, uyarua wakali. 

Will {mind), moyo, nia, kusudi. 

{testament), wasio. 
Wind, upepo, much wind, pepo. 
See Cold, Whirlwind, Storm, East 

Northerly Winds, which blow from 

December to March, kaskazi. 
Southerly winds, which blow from 

April to November, kusi. 
Head winds, pepo za omo {also 

stem winds). 
Wind on the beam, matanga kati. 
Winding, kizingo, pi. vizingo. 

of a stream, maghuba. 
Windlass, duara. [dirisha. 

Window, dirisba, pi. dirisha or ma- 
Wine, mvinyo {strong wine), divai 
Wing, bawa, pi. mabawa. [{claret). 
A icing feather, ubawa, pi. mbawa. 
Wink, kupepesa. 
Wire, masango, uzi wa madini. 
Wire-drawer's plate, cbamburo. 
Wisdom, bekima, busara, akili. 
Wit, ujuvi (?). 

Witch, mcbawi, pi. wachawi. 
Witchcraft, uohawi. 

One who uses witchcraft against 
another, wanga. 
Witness, sbahidi, pi. masliabidi. 

{testimony), usbahidi. 
Wits, akili. 

Wizard, mcbawi, pi. wachawi. 
Woe, msiba. See Grief. 
Woman, mwanamke, pi. waanaake 
or waauawake. 
A young woman, kijana, pi. vijana 
A young woman ivho has not 
left her father's lions 
breasts are not y 
A slave woman, m 
See Person, Old, £ 



Womb, tumbo, matumbo, mji. 
li otidi r, ajabu. 

Wbndi rs, mataajabu. 
H '<«></, mti. See Fin wood, Timber. 

A wood, insitu wa miti. 

.1 piea of wood, kijiti, pi. vijiti. 

Kinds of wood. 

Finessi, £Ae icood of (he jack-fruit 

tree; it has a yellow colour. 
Mche, a reddish wood much usi d 

in Zanzibar. 
Mkumavi, a red icood. 
Msaji, teak. 
Mtobwe, the wood of irhirh the 

best, bakora are made. 
Sesemi, Indian black wood. 
Simbati, a kind of wood brought 

from near Cape Delgmlc 
Sunobari, deal. 
Wooden clogs, viatu vya mti. 
The button which is graspi d by 
the toes, msuruaki, pi. misu- 
Woollen cloth, joho (broadcloth). 
Tliick woollen fabrics, blanketing, 
Word, neno, pi. maneno. 
find words, matukano. 
Work, kazi. 

Workman, mtenda kazi. 
(skilled), fundi. 

(skilful, a good hand), mstadi, pi. 
v. astadi. 
Workshop, kiwanda, pi. viwanda, 
kiwaiija, pi. viwanja. 
lorld, ulimwengu, dunia. 
''eop 1 " of this world, walimwengn. 
tfairs, malimwengu. 
agonango, cliango, 

See Value. 

luii'lu, ph madonda. 

kionda. pi. vionda, kidonda, pi. 

Wrath, ghathabu. 
Wriggle, pindi, pi. mapindi. 
Wrist, kiwiko cha mkono. kilimbili. 
Writer, mwandishi, pi. waattdishi, 

akatabao, pi. wakatabao (writi r 

of a letter). 
Writings, maandiko, iuaandishi. 
Writing-desk, dawat.i. 
Wrong, thulumu, sivyo. 


Yam, kiazi kikuu, pi. viazi vikuu. 

A kind of yam like a hyacinth 
root, jimbi, pi. majimbi. 
Yard (of a ship), foramali. 

(an enclosure), uanda, uanja, ua, 
Yawn, nriayo. [pi. nyua. 

)'. nr (see Time), mwaka, pi. miaka. 

Lust year, mwaka jana. 

Tlie year before last, mwaka jiuu 
Yesterday, jana. 

The day before yesterday, juzi. 
Yolk of an egg, kiini cha yayi. 
Young of birds, kinda, pi. makinda. 

See Chicken, &c. 
Youth, ujana, udogo. 

A youth, kijana, pi. vijaua. 

Zanzibar, Unguja. 

The language or dialect of Zanzi- 
bar. Kiunguja. In Zanzibar. 
Kiswabili is understood to ntu an 
chiefly the language used on the 
coast north of Mombas. 
The original inhabitants of Zanzi- 
bar, Muhadimu, pi. Wahadimu. 
Tfieir sultan is the Munyi 
Zeal (effort), juhudi. [mkuu. 

(jealousy), uwivu. 
Zei,ra, punda milia. 

C S3 ) 



Adjectives always follow the Substantives they 

agree with. 

Mtu mivema, a good man. 

Regular Swahili Adjectives are made to agree with 
the Substantives they qualify by prefixing to them the 
initial syllables proper to the class of their Substan- 
tives, in the singular or plural, as the case may be. 
The minor rules laid down in regard to the prefixes of 
Substantives are applicable to Adjectives and their 
prefixes. The following instances will illustrate the 
ary application of these rules : 

Class I. M-tu 'm-baya, a bad man. 

Wa-tu wa-baya, bad men. 
M-tu mw-eupe, a white man. 
Wa-tu w-eupe, white men. 

Substantives of whatever class denoting living beings 

may have their Adjectives in the forms proper to the 

first class. 

Mbuzi m-kubwa, a large goat. 

Mbuzi tca-kubwa, large goats 
Mbuzi mio-ekundu, a red goat. 
Mbuzi w-ekundu, red goats. 

G 2 


Waziri mtoi ma, a good vizir. 

Mawaziri wema, good vizira. 
Kijiimi mirciiiii. a good youth. 

\ijana wema, good youths. 

Class II. if-W m-:nri, a fine tree. 

l//-// iin'-:uri, fine trees. 
M-/t mir-ema, a good tree. 

jlfi-ri mi-ema, or m-ema, good trees. 

Class III. Ny-umba n-zuri, a fine house. 

Ny-wmba n-zuri, fine houses. 
Ny-umba ny-eupe, a white house. 
Ny-umba ny-eupe, white houses. 

Class IV. Ki-tu ki-refu, a long thing. 

F4-ta vi-refu, long things. 
2JLi-/i< ch-epesi, a light tiling. 
Fi'-iu vy-epesi, light things. 

Class V. Kasha zito, a heavy chc st. 

Ma -kasha ma-zito, heavy chests. 
Kasha j-ekundu, a red chest. 

Ma-kasha m-ekundu, red chests. 

Class VI. U-imho m-zuri, a beautiful song. 

Ny-imbo n-zuri, beautiful songs. 
U-bau m-refu, a long plank. 
M-bau n-defu, long planks. 

Ol \ss VII. Maluili pa-pana, a broad place, or broad places. 
Mahali p-eusi, a black place, or black places. 

Class VIII. Ku-fa ku-zuri, a fine death. 

Ku-fa kw-ema, a good death. 

It will be seen at once from the above examples how 
to make the Adjective agree with its Substantive in 
ordinary cases. The following rules must be remem- 
bered in order to avoid mistakes : — 

1. Adjectives beginning with a vowel require pre- 
fixes which end in a consonant, wherever possible, as 
in the above instances, mweujpe, mwekundu, mweina, 
< hepesi, Jcwema. 



2. Adjectives beginning with a vowel must have j- 
prefixed when they are made to agree with nouns like 
kasha, as in the instance given above of kasha jekundu, 
a red chest. Monosyllabic adjectives prefix ji, as in 
kasha jipya, a new chest. 

3. Prefixes ending in -a, when they are put before 
adjectives beginning with e-, merge the a into the 
first letter of the adjective, as in the instances, weupe, 
wekundu, mekundu, peusi. This suppression of the a is 
more noticeable in Adjectives than in Substantives, 
and occurs even in the few Adjectives which begin 
with -o- ; -a before i- coalesces with it and forms e. 

Weusi = wa-eusi. 
Pema = pa-ema. 
Wengi = wa-ingi. 

Meupe = ma-eupe. 
Mororo = ma-ororo. 

4. Adjec + " : >eginning with a consonant are subject 
to the same rules when n is to be prefixed as Substan- 
tives of the third class and plurals of the sixth. The 
rules are given at length under Class VI. of Substan- 
tives. The following instances will show their appli- 
cation to Adjectives : 

n prefixed. 

Nyumba ( ndogo, Jittle 
Mbau | ngeni, strange 
Nyimbo \ nzuri, fine ) 

ndefu, long — r becomes d. 

mbovu, rotten — n becomes m. 

mbili, two — nw becomes mb. 

hubwa, great 

nene, thick 

pana, broad 

tamu, sweet 

chache, few 

fupi, short 

n suppressed. 


Besides the many apparent irregularities in these 
v formations, there are two or three really irregular 
t nns. These are ngema or njetna (not nyema), good, 
ami 'mpya (not pya), new. 

Adjectives beginning with a vowel are, like the cor- 
responding Substantives, regularly formed by prefixing 
ny-, as in the instance given, nyeupe, from -eupe, white. 

Instances are given in the list of Adjectives where 
there is likely to be any practical difficulty in knowing 
what form to use. 

-Ote, all, and -enyi, or -inyi, having or with, are not 
treated as Adjectives, but as Pronouns. Instances 
illustrating their changes will be found under each. 
< >n the other hand -n/japi, how many? is treated as an 

Irregular Adjectives. 

Although Swahili is rich in Adjectives when com- 
pared with other African languages of the same family, 
it is very poor in comparison with English. The place 
of the English Adjective is supplied — 

1. By Arabic words which are used as Adjectives 
but do not vary. 

Rahisi, cheap. Laini, smooth. 

2. By a verb expressing generally in the present 
imperfect to become, and in the present perfect to be, 
possessed of the quality denoted. 

Fimbo imenyoka, the stick is straight. 

Fimho ilhjonyoha, a straight stick. 
Fimbo imepotoka, the stick is crooked. 

Fimho iliyopotolca, a crooked stick. 
Mtungi umejaa, the jar is full. 

Mtuntji uliojaa. a full jar. 


3. By a Substantive connected with the thing quali- 
fied by the particle -a, of. 

Mtu wa choyo, a greedy person. 

Mtu wa akili, a man of understanding, a wise man. 

If it is wished to predicate the quality of any person 
or thing, the verb hiwa na, to have, must be used. 

Ana choyo, he is greedy. 
Kina taka, it is dirty. 

4. By the use of the word -enyi or -inyi, which may 
be translated by having or with. 

Mtu mwenyi afia, a healthy person. 
Kitu chenyi mviringo, a round thing. 
Kamba zenyi nguvu, strong ropes. 
Embe yenyi maji, a juicy mango. 

When -enyi is followed by a Verb in the Infinitive, 
it answers to our participle in -ing. 

Mwenyi kupenda, loving. 

5. By the use of Adjectival Substantives which 
change only to form the plural. 

Kipofu, blind, or a blind persoD, pi. Vipofu, blind, or blind people. 

Where in English a special stress is laid upon the 
Adjective, in Swahili the relative is inserted. 

Jiwe kubwa, a large stone. 

Jiwe lililo kubwa, a large stone, literally, a stone that is large. 
Mtu wa haki, a just man. 

Mtu aliye wa haki, a, just man. 

The Comparison op Adjectives. 

There are not, properly speaking, any degrees of 
comparison in Swahili.. 


The Comparative degree as it exists in English is 
represented in several ways. 

1. By the use of kuliko, where there is, the idea heing 
that when the two things are brought together one of 
them is marked by the possession of the quality men- 
tioned, whence it follows that it must possess it in a 
mure eminent degree than the other. 

Saa hii njema kuliko He, this watch is good (or the best) where 

that is, i.e., this watch is better than that. 
Tama kuliko asali, sweeter than honey. 

2. By the use of zayidi ya, more than, or of punde, a 
little more. 

Unguja inji mkubwa zayidi ya Mvita, Zanzibar is a large town 
more than Mombas, i.e., Zanzibar is a larger town than 

Eitu kirefu punde, something a little longer. 

3. By the use of leupita, to pass or surpass. 

Salimu ampita Abdallah, Salim is better than Abclallah. 
Ndiyo tamu yapita asali, it is sweet, it passes honey, i.e., it is 
sweeter than honey. 

4. Comparison of one time with another may be ex- 
pressed by the use of the Verbs kuzidi, to increase, 
Lujmngua, to diminish. 

Mti umezidi leuzaa, the tree has borne more fruit than it did 

The Superlative may be denoted by the use of the 
Adjective in its simple form, in an absolute sense. 

Mananasi mema ya toapi ! Where are the best pines? 

Ndiyo mema, these are the best. 

Ni yupi alio mwema ! Who is the best of them ? 

"When this form is used of two only, it is more 



correctly Englished by the Comparative than by the 
Superlative. So conversely where the Comparative 
forms are so used as to apply to many or all, they 
must be translated by Superlatives. 

Saa Mi njema huliho zote, this watch is the best of all. 

All awapita ivote, Ali surpasses them all, or, is the best of all. 


There are two sets of numerals in use in Zanzibar ; 
one is properly Swahili, the other Arabic, but in a 
Swahiliized form. 

The numbers from one to ten are as follows : 





























Ken da 

Tissa or Tissia 




It will be seen that for six and seven there are only 
the Arabic names. The other Arabic numbers under 
ten are not very commonly used, but for numbers above 
ten the Arabic are more used than the purer Swahili. 





Kumi na moja 

Ed ashara 


Kumi na mbili 



Kumi na tatu 



Kumi na 'nne 



Kumi na tano 



Kumi na sita 



Kumi na saba 







Eigl ;■ 

Kami na nan<> 

In manyataehara 

Nin< 1 

Kumi »a kenda 



Mahumi mawUi 

Asharini or Ishrin 


Makumi matatu. 


1' r v 

Makumi marine 



Makumi matano 



Muhunii tita 



Makumi saha 



M \kumi manane 



Makumi kenda 


The intermediate numbers are expressed in the pure 
Swahili by adding na moja, na mbili, &c. Thus forty- 
one is makumi marine na mnja ; is makumi marine 
na tano, and so on. In the Arabic, the smaller number 
precedes the larger. Ticenty-one is icdhid u ishrin, forty- 
five is khiimsi u arohain. The mode of counting most 
usual in Zanzibar is to employ the Arabic names for 
the larger numbers, but to follow the Swahili order, 
thus — 


Twenty -seven 
<tc. &c. 

Axharini na moja 
Asharini na mhili 
Asharini na talu 
Asharini na 'nne 
Asharini na tano 
A-lmrini na sita 
Asharini na saba 
Asharini na iiane 
Asharini na kenda 
Thelathini na moja 
&c. &c. 

There is no negro word in use for a hundred ; the 
Arabic mia is universally employed, and for several 
hundreds the numeral follows it, as mia tafu, three 
hundred. If the Arabic numerals are used they pre- 
cede the word mia, thdatha mia = three hundred. The 


Arabic dual miteen is very commonly used to express 
two hundred. 

There is a Swahili word for a thousand, IciJcwi, hut it 
is very rarely used except in poetry. The common 
word is the Arabic elfu. This is used in the same way 
as mia ; thus, elfu tatu is three thousand, elfu iano, five 
thousand, &c. The Arabic dual elfeen, two thousand, 
is more common than elfu mbili. If the Arabic nu- 
merals are employed the small number comes first, the 
plural form aldf is employed, and the final of the small 
number is heard, thus iheldthat aldf is three thousand, 
khdmset aldf, five thousand, and so on. 

Lakki is used for ten thousand, and the word milyon 
is known, but is rarely employed, and perhaps never 
with exactitude. 

Fungate occurs for seven, as denoting the days spent by 
the bridegroom in his bride's company after marriage. 

Mwongo, plur. miongo, occurs for a ten or a decade, in 
reckoning the nautical year. 

Both these words occur in cognate African languages 
as cardinal numbers. 

When used in enumerating actual things, and not 
in mere arithmetical computation, six of the Swahili 
numbers are treated as regular Adjectives, the other 
four remaining unchanged. The following table will 
show the forms proper to each class of Substantives. 





1. mmoja 








2. wawili 




3. walatu 










4. wanne 

niii mo 



5. watano 







7. saba 




S. wanane 




'.'. kenda 




10 kumi 








1. moja 








2. rnawili 




3. niatatu 




4. manne 




5. rnatano 




6. sita 




7. saba 




8. manane 




9. kenda 




10. kumi 




The number always follows the Substantive. 
One man, mtu mmoja. 

If an adjective is employed, the numeral follows the 
adjective, thus exactly reversing the English order. 
Two good men, watu wema wawili. 

The Ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of the 
variable particle -a. (See Prepositions.) 

The third man, mtu wa tatu. 
The fourth house, nyumba ya 'nne. 
The fifth chair, kiti cha tano. 

The Ordinal numbers are : 

First, -a most, or more com- 
monly -a kwanza. 
Second, -a pili. 

Third, ~a tatu. 

Fourth. - ( ',,ne. 
Fifth, -a taruj. 


Sixth, -a sita. Tenth, -a humi. 
Seventh, -a saba. &c. &c. 

Eighth, -a nane. Last, -a mivisho. 
Ninth, -a kenda. 

Once, twice, &c, are denoted by the use of marra, or 

mara, a time. 

Once, mara, moja. 

The first time, mara ya kwanza. 
Twice, mara mbili. 

The second time, mara ya pili. 
How many times ? Mara ngapi f 

Often, mara nyingi. 

Fractions may be expressed by the use offungu, a 

part, as 

Fungu la thelathini, a thirtieth. 

The only fractions in common use are the parts of a 

dollar, which are thus expressed in forms borrowed 

from the Arabic : 

One-sixteenth — Nuss ya themuni. 

One-eighth — Themuni, or Themni, or Ze , mni. 

Three-sixteenths — Themuni na nuss ya themuni. 

One-fifth — Zerenge. 

One-quarter — Bobo. 

Five-sixteenths — Bobo na nuss ya themuni. 

Three-eighths — Bobo na themuni. 

Seven-sixteenths — Bobo na themuni na nuss ya themuni. 

O ne-h alf — Nuss. 

Nine-sixteenths — Nuss na nuss ya themuni. 

Five-eighths — Nuss na themuni. 

Eleven-sixteenths — Nuss na themuni na nuss ya themuni. 

Three-quarters — Kassa robo [i.e., a dollar less by a quarter}. 

Thirteen-sixteentlis— - Kassa robo na nuss ya themuni. 

Seven-eighths— Kassa themuni. 

Fifteen-sixteenths— Kassa nuss ya themuni. 

Numbers treated as Substantives make their plurals 
by prefixing ma- : 

Makumi mawili, two tens, i.e., twenty. 
Mamoja pia, all ones, i.e., all the same. 




Those words to which no hyphen is prefixed do nottake any variable syllable. 

A quality for which one cannot find 
a word, a sort of a, -in 

Kitn kinyang&lika gani? What 

sort of a kind of thing is thisi 

Ahle, having ability for, or power 
over, mweza. 

Abortive (fruit, Ac), -pooza. 

Active, -tendaji. 


Mpaka mmoja, having a common 

Kutangamana, to adjoin. 

Alike, sawasawa, -moja. 

A live, hayi. 

All, -ote, or -ot'e, varying as a pos- 
sessive pronoun and not as an 
Class i. wofe. 

„ n. sing, mote, pi. yote. 




yote, „ 





chote, „ 





lote, „ 





wote, „ 










-ote has special forms after the 
particles of time and place. 
po pote, whensoever- 
ko kote, whithersoever. 
mo mote, whereinsoever. 
Also after the first and second 
persons plural. 
si si sote, we all. 
ninyi nyote, you all. 
Sote has the meaning of together. 

tu sote, we are together. 
Wote has the meaning of both. 
sisi wote, both of us. 

2. Pia, the whole, all of it or 

3. Jamii. 

Jamii wa asikari, all the soldiers. 
Almighty, mweza vyote. 
Alternate, moja bado wa moja. 
Ancient, -a kale, -a zamani, -a 


Kuwa na pembepembe, to ha re 

Antique, -a kikale, of the old style. 
Artful, -a vitimbi. 
Awake, macho. 
lie is awake, yu macho. 




Bad, -baya, making mbaya with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 
-ovu or -bovu, making inbovu 
with nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo. -ovu expresses rather 
corruptness than mere badness. 
Utterly bad, baa, pi. mabaa. 
Good for very little, thaifu. 
Bare, -tupu, making tupu with nouns 
like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Bareheaded, kitwa kiwazi. 
Barren, of land, kame. 
of animals, tasa. 
of persons, si mzazi. 
Beautiful, -zuri. 
Bent, of persons, kibiongo, pi. vibi- 

Best, bora (pre-eminent). 
Bitter, -chungu ( -tungu (M.)), 
making ucbungu with nouns 
like nyumba, nyimbo, or kasha. 
Dawa uchungu, bitter medicine. 
Tunda uchungu, bitter fruit. 
Black, -eusi. Sometimes forms occur 
as if from -usi, such as wausi 
for weusi, mausi for meusi, and 
viusi for vyeusi or veusi. It 
makes nyeusi with nouns like 
nyumba or nyimbo, and jeusi 
with nouns like kasha. 
Blind, kipofu, pi. vipofu. 
Blue, samawi (sky colour). 

Maji a bahari (sea-water colour). 
Blunt, -vivu (see Idle). 

Kisu hakipati, the knife is blunt. 
Bold, -jasiri, shujaa, pi. mashujaa. 
Breeding (of animals), koo. 

Koo la mbuzi, a breeding goat. 
Broad, -pana, making pana with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Careless, -zembe. 
Castrated, maksai. 
Certain, yakini. 

A certain man, mtu mifloja. 
Cheap, rakhisi, rahisi. 
Checkered, marakaraka. 
Chief, bora, -ktiu. See Cheat. 
Choice, -teule, aali. 
A choice thing, hedaya, tunu, 
Civilized, -ngwana, -a kiungwana 

(of the civilized sort). 
Clear, safi, fasihi, -eupe (see White). 
Clear, kweu, mbayani, thahiri 
(manifest), -wazi (see Open). 
-eupe (see White). 
Clever, hodari, mahiri, -a akili. 
Clumsy, -zito (see Heavy). 
Coloured, -enyi rangi. 

Of one uniform colour, -takatifu. 

Comic, -chekeshaji, -testeshi. 

Common, vivi hivi, zizi hizi, &c, 

yee kwa yee, &c. (see Pronouns), 

A common thing, jazi. 

Complete, kamili, -kamilifu, -tinii- 

Confident, -tumaini. 
Confidential, -siri. 
Consecrated, wakf. 
Cool, wovisi. 
Correct, sahihi, fasihi. 
Countrified, -a kimasliamba. 
Covetous, bakhili, -enyi choyo, -enyi 

Crafty, -a hila, -erevu. 
Crazy, mafuu. 
Credible, mutaabir, -tabari. 
Crooked, kombokombo, mshithari. 
Cross, -kali (see Fierce). 

Cross roads, njia panda. 
Cunning, -orevu, -a hila. 


Damp, kimajL 
Daring, -josiri. 
Dark, -a giza (0/ dar/fness), -euai 

(see Black). 
Dead, -fa. 

e whose mother is dead, Mtu 

aliofiwa na mamaye. 
D 1/', kiziwi, p?. viziwi. 
D^r, ghali. 
/' aged, marel 1 emu. 

rmed, kilema, pi. vllema. 
/' etructive, -barabu, -haribivu. 
7'. oout, -taowa. 
Different, -ingine (see Other), mba- 

limbali, ilitikifu. 
Difficult, -gumu (see Hard), -zito 

(see ][• arii). 
hhjlgured by disease, -enyi 1< 
Disobedient, aasi. 
Distinct, nibalimbali. 
Double, maradufu. 
Dressed-up, -patnbi. 
Drunken, -levi. 
7>ry, -kavu, making kavu ?n77i nouns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Dufl, -vivu. See Idle, 
Dumb, bubu, j/Z. inabubu. 


Easy, -epesi. See Light. 
Eldi r or Eldest, -kubwa. See Great. 
I . quent, -semaji, -srmi. 
Empty, -tupu. See Bare. 
Equal, sawa, sawasawa, 
Eh mal, -a milele. 
European, Ulayiti, -a Kizungu. 
Even (level), sawasawa. 
(not odd), kamili. 
7. killa or kulla. It always 
precedes its substantive. 

Killa mtu, every man. 

Killa niendapo, whenever I go, 
or, < V( nj time I go. 
Evi h at, thahiri, -wazi. See Open. 
Extravagant, mubatliarifu. 


Fat, -nono. 
Faithful, amini. 
F( 1 ble, tbaifu. 
/ ( mah . -ke. 

On the female side, kukeni. 
Few, haba, -chache, making chache 

with nouns like nyumba or 

Fierce, -kali, making kali with nouns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Filthy, -chavu. 
Final, tama. 
Fine, -zuri. 
Firm, imara (of things), thabit (if 

Fixed (certain), maalum. 
Flat, sawasawa, panapana. 
Foolish, -purnbat'u. 
Foreign, -geni. 
Forgetful, -sabau. 
Forgiving, -samebe. 
Former, -a kwanza. 
Fortunate, beri, -enyi bahali, -a 

Free, bum, -ngwana. 
I'n li. -bicbi. See Raw. 
Fresh water, maji matamu, maji a 

Full, kujaa, to become full. 
FuU to the brink, fara, farafara. 
Full of words, mwingi wa ma- 

Full grown, -pevu. 
Future, mkabiL 




Generous, karimu, -paji. 

Gentle, -anana. 

Glorious, -tukufu, -enyi fakhari. 

Gluttonous, -lafi. 

Good, -ema, malting njema or ngema 
with nouns like nyiiruba or ny- 
inibo, and j ema with nouns like 
The idea of goodness may he ex- 
pressed by the suffix -to. 
Manuka, smells. 

Manukato, good smells. 
Kuweka, to put. 

Kuwekato, to put properly. 

Greedy, -enyi roho, -enyi taniaa, 
-enyi choyo. 

Great, bora, -kuu and -kubwa or 
-kuba, making kuu and kubwa 
tcith nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo. Kuu is used preferably 
of moral or figurative greatness. 
Kubwa, of physical size. 
Great, when applied to anything 
not material, is usually rendered 
by -ingi. 

Green, chanikiwiti, rangi ya majani. 
Fresh, or unripe), -bichi. See 


Handsome, -zuri. 

Handy, -a mkono. 

A handbook, chuo cha mkono. 

Happy, -a beri, furahani. 

Hard, -gumu. 

Having, tcith, being tcith, or who or 
which has or have, -enyi or 
-inyi. It varies like a possessive 
pronoun, as in the following 
examples : — 
Class I. Mtu mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) mali, a rich man. 

Watu wenyi mali, rich people. 
Class II. Mti mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) kuzaa, a tree in bearing. 

Miti yeuyi (or yinyi) kuzaa, 
trees in bearing. 

III. Nyumba yenyi (or yinyi) 
dirisha, a house with windows. 

Nyumba zenyi (or zi.iyi) 
dirisha, houses with windows. 

IV. Kikapu chenyi (or kinyi) 
nguvu, a strong basket. 

Yikapu vinyi nguvu, strong 

V. Neno lenyi kweli, a true word. 

Mabakuli yenyi mayayi, 
basins with eggs in them. 

VI. Upiudi wenyi nguvu, ti 
strong bow. 

Pindi zenyi nguvu, strong 

VII. Mahali penyi mtende, the 
place where the date-tree stands 

Healthy (of persons'), -enyi ana,-zima 

(of places, &c), -a afia. 
Hea ry, -zito. 
High, -refu. See Long, -kubwa 

See Great. 
Hollow, -a uvurungu, -wazi. See 
A hollow stone, jiwe la uvu- 
It sounds hollow, panalia wazi. 
The hollow or open space in or 
uiuh:r anything, mvungu. 
Holy, -takatilu. 
Hot, -a nioto. 

I am hot, nina bari. 
Hot-tempered, baiarii. 
Human, -a mwana Adamu, -a bina- 

damu, -a mtu. 
Humble, -nenyekevu. 
Humpbacked, -enyi kigongo. 



Idle, -vivu. 

Ignorant (like a simpleton), -jinga. 

ltl-miu ned, -korofi. 

Ill-tempt r, d, -kali. See Fierce. 

Tmmatun . -chauga. 

Infirm, tbaifu. 

nious, -juzi. 
Inquisitive, -pekuzi, -jasusi, -pele- 

1< zi. 

i lificant (mea}>), -nyonge. 
(unimportant), khafifu. 
Insipid, -dul'u. 


./■ alms, -vivu. 

Juicy, -enyi maji. 

Just, sawa, -a lniki, -cnyi hakL 

Kind, -ema. See Good. 
(doing kindnesses), -fathili. 

Knowing, -erevu, -juzi. 


Languid, -tepetevu, -ehovu. 

/. 'inj' . ,-kubwa or -kuba. See Great. 

I wt U-grown), -kuza. 
Lawful, balali. 

Lawful to you, balili yako. 
Laying (of birds), koo, jil. makoo. 

Koo la k'uku a laying hen. 
Lazy. Sec Idle. 
/.>. , -a danialini, -a cliini. 
Left (hand, &c), -a kushoto, -a kuke. 
/.■ vel, -awa, Bawasawa. 
Liberal, karimu, -pajL 
'.('/hi (not dark), -eupe. See White. 

(not /« a >•</), -epesi, making ny< 
with nouns like nyumba or 
Ti y i mbo, and jepesi with nouns 

 1 :l-lia. 

(unimportant), khafifu. 

Lined (of clothes), bitana. 

Little, -dogo, katiti (A.), -chache 

Little water, maji machacbe. 
(Maji and otic r similar noitnx 
being tteated as plurals, and 
therefore requiting few and not 
small as tht ir adjective.) 
Kidogo, pi. vidogo, is used as a 
substantive for a little or a little 
piece of anything. 

I. /ring, hayi, -zima. 

Long, -rcl'u, making ndefu with 
nouns lilce nyuniba or nyiuibo. 

Long-suffering, -vumilim 

Lukewarm, -enyi uvuguvugu. 

Mad, -enyi wazimu, -enyi mahoka 

(Country dialect). 
Male, -ume, making mume or ndnme 
(as from -lume) with nouns of 
the second class. 
On the male side, kuumeni. 
Manifest, thabiri, waziwazi, mba- 

yani, -wazi. See Open. 
Manly, -ume. See Male. 
Bebera (a strong he-goat). 
Fabali (a hull). 
Many, -ingi or -ngi, making nyingi 
with nouns like nyuniba or 
nyimbo, and jiugi with nouns 
like kasha. 
Maternal (on the mother's side), -a 
(motherly), -a mama. 
Mean, -nyonge. 
Merry, -chek< haji. 
Middling, kadiri. 
Mischit runs, -harabu, -tunda. 
Moderate, ka.liiL 



Much, -ingi (see Many), tele. 
Murderous, kiuwaji, nduli. 


Naked, -tupu, uchi. See Bare. 

iS a rrow, -embamba, making nyemba- 
mba with nouns like nyumba or 
nyinibo, and jernbamba with 
nouns like kasha. 

Necessary (unavoidable), laziin, fa- 
(indispensable), kanuni. 

New, -pya, making 'mpya with nouns 
like nyumba or nyimbo, jipya 
with nouns like kasha, and 
plpya with nouns of place. 

Noble, bora, -kuu. See Great. 

Notable, mashuhur, mashur. 

Nice, -ema (see Good), -tamu. See 

Nipping(pressing closely and tightly), 


Obedient, tayi, -tiL 

Obligatory, farathi. 

Obstinate, -kaidi, -shindani, -shi- 

Odd (not even), witiru. 

Officious, -futhuli, -juvi. 

Old (of things), -kukuu, making 
kukuu with nouns like nyumba 
or nyimbo. Kukuu implies 
being worn out. Where mere 
antiquity is to be expressed see 
(of persons), -zee. 
Extremely old, -kongwe. 
How old is he? Umri wake 
apataje ? 

One-eyed, -enyi chongo. 

Only, -a pekee, peke yake, &c. 

Open, -wazi. 

Other, -ingine or -ngine. 

Class I. Mgine or mwingiue. 

II. Mwingine or mgine. 

III. Nyingine (sing, and pi \ 

IV. Kingine or chingine. 

V. Jingine. 
mangine or mengine. 

VI. Mwingine or mgine. 

VII. Pangine or pingine. 
(The) other, -a pili. 
Other people's, -a watu. 
Another person's, -a mwenyewe. 
(not the same) is expressed • y 

adding the relative particle (see 
p. 117). 
panginepo, elsewhere, other places. 

Paternal (on the father's side), -a 

(fatherly), -a baba. 
Patient, -stahimili, -vumilivu. 
Perfect, kamili, -kamilifu, -timilifu. 
Perverse, -potoe, -tundu. 
Plain (evident), thahiri, -wazi. 
Pleasant, -tamu (see Sweet), -a ku- 

Plenty, tele. 
Polite, -a adabu. 
Poor, masikini, fukaia, fakiri. 

wretchedly poor, thalili. 

utterly destitute, hohe hahe. 
Printed, -a chapa. 
Profane, -najisi. 
Pure, safi, fasihi, -takatifu. 

J 00 


m borne, -goravi. 
Quirk, -peei. 

', -tulivu («<*7f)> -nyamavu 

Rare, nadira, -a tunu. 
Bow, -bichi, making mbichi with 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Bichi is used for raw, unripe, 

underdone, fresh, or any state 

which will or might change by 

keeping or cooking. 

• xperienced), -jinga. This word 

is specially applied to newly 

arrived slaves. 
Heady, tayari. 

(quick), -pesi, ruabiri. 
};. bellious, aasi. 
/.'< d, -ekundu, making nyekundu 

iriili nouns like nyumba or 

nyimbo, and jekundu with 

nouns like kasha. 
Regular, -a kaida, taratibu. 
S.ifu za kaida, regular rows. 
Mtu taratibu, a person of regular 

Remarkable, mashuhur, mashur. 
Etch, -enyi mali, -kwasi, tajiri, pi. 

Right (hand, &c.), -a kulia, -a 

kuume, -a kuvuli. 
Ripe, -bivu, making mbivu 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Bivu is used as the contradictory 

of biebi. See Raw. 
Rotten, -ovu or -bovu. See Bad. 
Bough, kuparuza, to be rough ami 

Sound, -a mviringo. 
Royal, -a kifaume. 

Safe, salama. 
Same, moja, pi. mainoja. 
Sanguine, -tuniaini. 
Satisfied or content, ratbi. 

Self-satisfied, -kiuayi. 
Savage, -kali (see Fierce), mbwai. 

Very savage, nduli. 
Second, -a pili. 

A second in command, akida. 
Secret, -a siri, ndaui kwa ndani. 
Separate, mbali. 
Severe, -zito. See Heavy. 
Shallow, [maji] haba, [maji] ma- 
Sharp, -kali. See Fierce, [chache. 
Short, -fupi, making fupi with nouns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Shrewd, -erevu, -enyi busara. 
Sick, -gonjwa, -weli. 
Silent, -nyamavu. 
A silent man, mtu wa kimya- 
Slim, -embamba. See Narrow. 
Slender, -embamba. See Narrow. 
Sleek, -nene. See Stout. 
Slmc, -vivu. See Idle. 
Smooth, laini. 

Soaked (with rain, &c), chepechepe. 
Soft, -ororo, making nyororo with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 
and jororo with nouns like kasha, 
-anana, laini. 
the soft, teketeke. 
Solid, yabisi. 

Some, baathi ya, akali ya. 
Some — others — , wangine — wa- 
ngine — . 
Sound (healthy, living, < ntire), -zinia. 
Sour, -kali. See Fierce. 
Spotted, madoadoa, marakaraka. 
St i a a re, mrabba. 
Steadfast, thabit 



Steep, -a kusimama. 

Still, -anana, -tulivu (quiet), -nya- 

mavu (silent), -zizima (very 

still water, &c). 
Stout (plump, thick), -nene. 
Strange (foreign, surprising), -geni. 
(startling), mzungu, pi. mizungu. 
Strong, hodaii, -enyi nguvu, -uine. 
Sweet, -tamu, making tarau with 

nouns like nyumba or nyinibo. 


Tall, -refu. See Long. 

A very tall man, -tambo. 
Thick, -nene. 

Thick syrup, asali nzito. See 

Thievish, kijivi, pi. vijivi, niwibaji, 

pi. webaji. 
Thin, -embamba (see Narrow),-epes.i. 

See Light. 
Tiresome, -chovu. 
True, -a kweli, bakika yako, &c. (it 

is true of you, <£c), yakiiii 

Trustworthy, amini. 
Truthful, -a kweli, -neni kweli. 


Uncivilized, -a kishenzi. 

Uncultivated, -gugu. 

Underdone (half-cooked), -bichi. See 

Unhealthy, -welL 
Unlawful, havamu. 
Unripe, -bichi. See Raw. 
Usual, -zoea. 

We are used to him, tuna mazoea 


Vain, ana makuu, he is vain. 
Valuable, -a Wtamani. 
Vigilant, macho. See Awake. 


Wasteful, -potevu. 
Watery, chelema. 
Weak, thaifu. 
Wealthy. See Rich. 
Weary, -chovu. 
Weather, -agoshini, -a juu. 
Well. See Healthy. 

Well done (cooked), -bivu. See 

Wet, majimaji, rataba. 
WJdte, -eupe, making nyeupe ivith 

nouns like nyumba or nyinibo, 

and jeupe with nouns like 

Very white is expressed by putting 

a strong accent on the last 

syllable, and sometimes raising 

the voice on it into a sort of 

Wliole, -zima. See Sound. 

pia, pia yote, zote, &c. 
Wide, -pana. See Broad. 
Wild (of plants), -gugu. 
(of animals), -a mwitu 
Willing, -epesi, -pesi. 
Worn out, -kukuu (of things), -ko- 

ngwe (of persons). See Old. 


Yellow, rangi ya manjano. 

Young (immature), -changa, making 

mchanga icith nouns like 

nyumba or nyimbo. 
Younger, youngest, -dogo. 



PersonaA Pronouns. 

The full forms of the Personal Pronouns are — 

I, Mimi. We, Sisi or Swiswi. 

Thou, Wewe. You, Nyinyi or Nwinyi. 

He or she, Yeye. They, Wao. 

The second and third persons singular are often con- 
t racted into Wee and Yee. The second person singular 
is always used where one person only is to be denoted. 

There are no special forms for it and they when 
referring to inanimate things. If any special emphasis 
makes it necessary, the Demonstrative Pronouns 

reeing with the nouns referred to must be used. 
Similarly, for he or she and they, the Demonstrative 
Pronouns proper to the first class may be used, when 
any special emphasis is to be expressed. 

The objective cases, me, thee, him, her, us, them, are 

i ressed by the same forms as those given above for 
the subjective case, J, thou, &c. 

The possessive case, of me, of thee, of him, &c, is 


generally expressed by the Possessive Pronouns (which 
see, p. 109); there is thus no distinction between of me 
and mine, of thee and thine, &c. 

Habari zangu, my news, or news of me. 

The Possessive Pronouns proper to animate beings 
may be used of inanimate things also ; -alee, its, and 
-ao, their, being used for of it and of them, in reference 
to all nouns of whatever class they may be. 

The possessive case may be regarded as an instance 
of the Personal Pronouns in a special form subjoined to 
the variable preposition -a, of. 

The Preposition na, with or and, is commonly joined 
with short forms of the Personal Pronoun to express 
and or with me, and or with you, &c. &c. 

Kami, and or with me. Nasi or Nasici, and or with us 

Nawe, and or with you. Nanyi or Nanwi, and or with you. 

Naye, and or with him or her. Nao, and or with them. 

JViao, Nayo, Nacho, Nalo, Napo, Nao, Nayo, Nazo, Navyo, Napo, 
Nalco, aud or with it and or with them. 

The above forms may be used for either the objective 
or subjective cases after and. Nami = and I or and me, 
Nawe = and thou or and thee, &c. &c. 

It will be seen that in referring to animate beings 
the latter half of the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
is suffixed to the na-, and in referring to inanimate 
things the syllable suffixed is that which denotes the 
relative (see Eelative Pronouns, p. 117), a syllable 
which occurs also as the final syllable of those Demon- 
strative Pronouns which refer to a thing mentioned 

Other Prepositions, that is to say, Jcwa and katika, are 


construoted with the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
referring to animate beings, and with the Demonstra- 
tive Pronouns, where necessary, referring to inanimate 
things. This rule distinguishes the preposition kwa, 
for, by, <fec, from the form of the variable -a required 
by substantives of the eighth class and sometimes by the 
case in -ni. 

Kwa mimi, for me. Kwangu, of me or my, to my [house]. 

The prefixes used in conjugating the verb to mark 
the subject and object may be regarded as shortened 
forms of the Personal Pronouns. The objective and 
subjective cases are denoted by slightly different forms. 

It will be most convenient to take the prefixes de- 
noting animate beings first, as they alone can be used 
in the first and second person. The following are the 
subjective or nominative forms : — 

I, Ni- or N-. We, Tu- or 7V. 

Thou, U- or W-. You, .1/-/-. 'M-, or Mio-. 

He or she, A- (or Tu-). They, Wa-. 

The rule for applying these prefixes is that the forms 
ending with a vowel are used when they are to be im- 
mediately followed by a consonant, and those ending 
in a consonant are used before a vowel. In the third 
person, both singular and plural, the vowel remains 
unchanged before o or u, it coalesces with e and i 
into an e, and merges into an a, so as to be no longer 
distinguishable. Thus, where the verb or tense prefix 

.rins with a, the third person singular is apparently 

without prefix and the third person plural is marked 

only by a w-. Examples of and further observations on 

prefixes will be found under Verbs, as playing an 



important part in their conjugation. The form yu- is 
but seldom used for the third person singular, and 
very rarely with any hut monosyllabic verbs. 

The syllables which stand for the objective or accu- 
sative case of the Personal Pronouns denoting animate 
beings, when they are connected with Verbs, are — 

Me, -ni- or -«-. Us, -tu- or -tw-. 

Thee, -ha- or -kw-. You, -ica-. 

Him or her, -m- or -mw-. Them, -tea-. 

The same rules as above app'y to the use of forms 
ending in a consonant before a vowel, and forms ending 
in a vowel before a consonant. 

As the forms proper to the first class of Nouns denote 
animate beings, there remain seven classes denoting- 
inanimate things, each of which has its appropriate 
subjective and objective pronominal forms when con- 
joined with a verb. The subjective pronominal prefixes 

are — 

or W- 

„ y- 



Here also the forms ending in a vowel are used 
before a consonant, and the forms ending in a conso- 
nant are used before a vowel. Examples of their use 
will be found in the sections on the conjugation of the 

There, used as the subject of a verb, is expressed by 
ku- or pa- employed as personal prefixes. Ku- is the 
more indefinite of the two. One, they, or people used 

Class II. sing. U- 


















or Y-. 
„ Z-. 
„ Vy-. 

„ Z-. 

„ P- 
„ Kw-. 



to denote what is customary, are expressed by the 
prefix hi-. 

The objective forms in reference to inanimate objects 
are very similar to the subjectives. 

Class II. sing, -u- 

in. „ -i- 

IV. „ -ki- 

v. „ -li- 

yi. „ -u- 

VII. „ -pa- 

VIII. „ -ku- 

plur. -i-. 

In these forms also u becomes w, and i y, before vowels. 

The following examples will illustrate the use of the 
objective syllables : they are parted off from the rest of 
the word by hyphens. Instances are given of both 
vowel and consonantal verbs. 

Class I. A-ni-penda, he loves me. 

A-n-ambia, hi tells me. 
A-ku-penda, he loves you. 

A-kw-ambia, lie tells you. 
Na-m-penda, I love him. 

Na-mw-ambia, I tell him. 
A-tu-penda, he loves us. 

A-tw-ambia, he tells us. 
A-ica-penda, he loves you. 

A-ir '. he tells you. 

A-wa-penda, he loves them. 

A-ica-ambia, he tells them. 
„ II. A-u-penda, he likes it (mti, a tree). 

A-^D-ona, he sees it. 
A-i-penda, he likes them (miti, trees). 

A-y-ona, he sees them. 
„ III. A-i-penda, be likes it (nyumba, a house). 

A-y-ona, he sees it. 
A-zi-penda, he likes them (nyumba, houses). 

A-zi-ona, he sees them. 


Class IV. A-ki-penda, he likes it (kitu, a thing). 
A-ki-ona, he sees it. 
A-vi-penda, he likes them (vitu, things). 
A-vi-ona, he sees them. 
„ V. A-li-penda, he likes it (kasha, a chest). 
A-li-ona, he sees it. 
A-ya-penda, he likes them (makasha, chests). 
A-ya-ona, he sees them. 
„ VI. A-u-penda, he likes it (uimho, a song). 
A-w-ona, he sees it (ubau, a plank). 
A-zi-penda, he likes them (nyimbo, songs). 
A-zi-ona, he sees them (jribau, planks). 
„ VII. A-pa-penda, he likes it or them (place or places). 

A-pa-ona, he sees it or them. 
„ VIII. A-ku-penda, he likes it (kwiba, stealing). 
A-ku-ona, he sees it. 

In all cases the Pronominal Syllable representing the 

subject is the first prefix, and therefore the first syllable 

of the word ; and the syllable representing the object 

is the last of the prefixes and immediately precedes the 


A-takapo-ku-ona, when he shall see you. 
Wa-lipoki-m-penda, when they loved him. 
A-ki-kw-ita, if he calls you. 

It is quite allowable for the sake of emphasis to use 
the full forms of the Personal Pronouns as well as the 
subjective and objective syllables. 

Mimi nakupenda weice, I love you. 
Weive wanipenda mimi, you love me. 

"When so used, however, a very strong emphasis is 
put upon the persons loving and loved, and unless such 
an emphasis is intended the full forms ought not to be 
used. The above phrases might be better translated 
by — For myself I love you the best; and, It is you 
who love me. 



In poetical Swahili an objective suffix is used as well 
as the objective prefix. The syllables used as a suffix 
are the same as those given before with na (see p. 103). 
The suffixes are not used in the dialect of Zanzibar. 

U-ni-hi/nthi-mi, do thou preserve me. (Both the -ni- and the 

■mi represent the object of the verb.) 
Aka-zi-anrjusha-zo, and be threw them down. (Both the -zi- and 

the-zo represent the object of the verb.) 
Na-wa-ambia-ni, I tell you. 

The use of the objoctive prefix implies a reference to 
some ascertained object : it is thorefore properly used 
wherever in English the object would be expressed by 
a Pronoun. "Where in English the object would not be 
expressed by a Pronoun, the objective prefix has the 
effect of a definite article, and its omission that of an 
indefinite article. 

Natalia liununua nyumba (no objective prefix being used), I want 

to buy a house. 
Natalia kuinunua nyumba (the objective prefix -i- being u.-*< d), 

I want to buy the house. 
Naona mtu, I see somebody. 
Namwona mtu, I see the man. 

"Where a Demonstrative Pronoun is used with the 
object, the objective prefix must always be used. 

Natalia liuinunua nyumba hit, I want to buy this house. 
Namwona mtu yule, I see that man yonder. 

The objective prefix is used where anything about 
the person or thing is about to be stated. 

Na-m-jua aliko [T know of him where he is], I know where he is. 
Nali-m-thauia ameliufa [I thought of him, be had died], I thought 

he was dead. 
Aka-m-kata kitwa [and he cut of him the head], and he cut off 

his head. 


Possessive Pronouns. 

The Possessive Pronouns are always placed after the 
Suhstantive denoting the thing possessed, and vary 
according to its Class and Number. 

The unvarying parts of the Possessive Pronouns are : 

My, -angu. Our, -etu. 

Thy, -alio. Your, -enu. 

His, her, or its, -ake. Their, -ao. 

The same forms are used for its and their, of what- 
ever class the thing possessing may he. 

In many dialects of Swahili the form of the third 
person singular is -aJcwe, and in some that of the second 
is -akwo. 

The above forms may be used as enclitics, and fre- 
quently are so with some common words, such as baba, 
father, mama, mother, micana, child, micenzi, companion, 
&c. When the final letter of the substantive is -a, -e, 
or -i, it merges into the first letter of the possessive 


Mwanangu, my child. 

Mwenzangu, my companion, 
Mimnako, thy child. 

Mwenzako, thy companion. 
Mwandke, his or her child. 

Micenzalie, his or her companion. 
Mwanetu, our child. 

Mwenzetu, our companion. 
Micanenu, your child. 

Mwenzenu, your companion. 
Mwanao, their child. 

Mwenzao, their companion. 


The initial letters proper to each class of Substan- 
tives are : 

Class I. sing, w- plur. \v-. 

»» II. „ w- „ y-. 

•t HI- ii y- ii z-. 

„ IV. „ cli- „ vy- 

Class V. sing. 1- plur. y-. 

» VI. „ w- „ ■/.-. 

„ VII. „ p- „ p-. 

„ VIII. ,, kw- „ kw- 

Besides these forms proper to the several classes, 
Substantives in the locative case in -ni require special 
forms of the Possessive Pronouns according to the 
meaning of the case. These forms are the same for 
all Substantives, of whatever class or number they 
may be. 

1. When the case denotes being within, or to, or from 
within, the Possessive Pronouns must begin with mw-. 

2. Where the case denotes mere nearness, and can be 
translated at, by, or near, the Possessive Pronouns must 
begin with p-. 

3. For all other meanings the Possessive Pronouns 
must begin with kw-. 

The following instances will show how all these rules 
are applied : — 

Class I. Mtn wangu, my man. 

Watu waho, thy men. 
Mbvzi wake, his or her goat, 

Mbuzi wetu, our goats. 
Waziri wake, his vizir. 
Mawaziri wake, his vizirs, 
„ II. Mti wenu, your tree. 

Mili yao, their trees. 
„ III. Nyurnba yangu, my house. 
X'/umbo zako, thy houses. 
„ IV. Kiti chake, his chair. 

Viti vyt in, our chairs. 
„ V. Kasha lenu, your chest. 

Mdkasha yao, their chests. 



Class VI. JJimbo wangu, my song. 

Nyimbo zaho, thy songs. 
VII. Mahali pake, his, her, or its place or places. 
VIII. Kufa kwetu, our dying. 

1. Nyumbani mwenu, in your house or houses. 

2. Nyumbani pao, near their house or houses. 

3. Nyumbani kwangu, to my house. 

All the Possessive Pronouns will be found in the 
Table of Concords (p. 82), arranged under the classes 
to which they are appropriate. The Personal Pronouns 
may be added to give emphasis. 

Kisu changu mimi, my own knife. 
Vyangu mimi, they are mine. 

The Possessive Pronoun is used for the preposition 
-a, of, where it is intended to mark particularly the 
person whose the thing is. 

Kiti cha sultani, the sultan's chair, or a sultan's chair. 

Kiti chake sultani, the sultan's own chair, or this sultan's chair. 

There is another and short enclitic form for the 
Possessive Pronouns of the second and third persons 
singular, which is much used with some common 
w irds, such as mume, husband, mice, wife, ndugu, brother 
or sister, &c. They consist of -o for the second person 
and -e for the third, with the appropriate initial letters 
for each class as given above (p. 110). 

Mumewe, her husband. 

Mkewo, or mkeo, thy wife. 
Mwenziwe, his companion. 

Jinalo, thy name. 
Shogaye, her friend. 

It will be seen from the above tables that there is 
absolutely nothing to distinguish the singular and 
plural of Substantives in the form of the third class 


which denote animate beings, when joined with Pos- 
3ive Pronouns. It is probably for this reason, and 
to avoid ambiguity, that they are frequently treated as 
ordinary Substantives of that class. 

Ndugu yangu, my brother. 

Nduguye or Ndugu yake, his brother. 
tfduguzo 01 Ndugu zako, thy brothers. 

Mbuzi zttu, our goats. 

Possessive Pronouns are sometimes used in English 
where Personal Pronouns are used in Swahili. 

Wtika-m-funga mikono nyuma [and they tied him hands behind], 

and they tied his hands behind him. 
Ali-m-kata kitwa [he cut him head], he cut off his head. 

After verbs of coming and going Possessive Pronouns 

beginning with z- (or in other dialects with vy- or th-) 

are used somewhat as— his way, &c., were used in old 


Amckwenda take, he has gone away, or he has gone off. 

Twende zetu, let us be going. 

Wamekuja zao, they have come home, or they have come away. 

Reflective Pronouns. 

The Swahili verb is made reflective by prefixing -ji-, 
as if it were a pronoun in the objective form. 

Na-ji-penda, I love myself. 

Self may be translated by the Arabic word, nefsi, 

naf»i, or nafusi ; or by the word moyo, a heart, plur. 

mioyo or nyoyo. 

Na/si yangu, or moyo wangu, myself. 
Nafti zetu, or nyoyo zetu, oursulvea. 


Itself, themselves, &c, may also be expressed by the 
word -enyewe with the proper prefix. 

Class I. Mtu mwenyewe, the man himself. 

Watu wenyewe, the people themselves. 
Mbuzi mwenyeioe, the goat itself. 

Mbuzi wenyewe, the goats themselves. 
Waziri tnwenyeice, the vizir himself. 

Mawaziri wenyewe, the vizirs themselves. 
„ II. Mti mwenyewe, the tree itself. 

MM yenyewe, the trees themselves. 
„ III. Nyumba yenyewe, the house itself. 

Nyumba zenyewe, the houses themselves. 
i» IV. Kitu chenyewe, the thing itself. 

Vitu vyenyewe, the things themselves. 
„ V, Kasha lenyewe, the chest itself. 

Makasha yenyewe, the chests themselves. 
„ VI. Uimbo mwenyewe, the song itself. 

Nyimbo zenyewe, the songs themselves. 
„ VII. Mahali penyewe, the place itself. 

Mwenyewe may be used for myself and thyself as well 
as for himself or herself. 

Wenyewe may be used for ourselves and yourselves, as 
well as for themselves. 

By myself, by ourselves, &c, are expressed by peke 
with the appropriate Possessive Pronoun. 

Peke yangu, by myself, or I only. 
Peke yetu, by ourselves, or we only. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

There are three Demonstrative Pronouus. 1 , denoting 
objects at no great distance. 2, denoting objects pre- 
viously mentioned. 3, denoting objects at a distance. 
They have each forms proper to the several classes of 
Substantives and to the three meanings of the case 
in -ni. 


1. This or that, these or those, of objects at no grout 

i i.a88 I. Mtu Innpi, tliis man. 

]\'ntii hawa, these pe >ple. 
Mbuzi hui/u, this goat. hawa, tin 
Waziri huyu, this vizir. 

MavHiziri liawa, thus" vizirs. 
„ II. flftt /<■"«, this tree. 

.1//// A//, these trees. 
„ III. Nyumba hizi, this bouse. 

Nyumba hizi, these houses. 
„ IV. Kitu hiki, this thing. 

Yiin hivi, tl.ese things. 
„ V. Kasha hili, this chest. 

Makasha haya, these chests. 
„ VI. Uimbo huu, this song. 

Nyimbo hizi, the se songs. 
„ VII. Mdhali hapa, this place. 
„ VIII. 7v«/a 7iu7ru, this dying. 

1. Nyumbani humo (humu (?) ), here, in the house. 

2. Nyumbani hapa, here, by the house. 

3. Nyumbani huhu, here, to the house. 

It will be observed that the second syllable of each 
of these Demonstratives is the pronominal syllable 
given at p. 105, and that all begin with h-, followed l>y 
the vowel of the pronominal syllable. 

2. This or that, these or those, referring to something 
mentioned before. Both the other forms can also be 

i in tliis sense. 

Ci I. Mtu Uuyo, that man. 

Watu hao, tlmse people. 
Mbuzi huyo, that goat. 
Mbuzi hao, those goats. 
„ II. Mti huo, that tree. 

Miti hiyo, those trees. 
„ III. Sijiiuihn hiy>, tl at h" 

Nyumba hizo, thos houses. 



Class IV. Kitu hicho, that thing. 

Vitu hivyo, those things. 
i, V. Kasha hilo, that chest. 

Makasha hayo, those chests. 
„ VI. JJimbo huo, that song. 

Nyimbo hizo, those songs. 
„ VII. Mahali hapo, that place or those places. 
„ VIII. Kufa huko, that dying. 

1. Nyumbani humo, in that house. 

2. Nyumbani hapo, by that house. 

3. Nyumbani huko, to that house. 

3. That and those or yonder, referring to things at a 

Class I. Mtu yule, yonder man. 

Watu icale, those people. 
Mbuzi yule, that goat. 
Mbuzi wale, those goats. 
II. Mti vie, that tree. • 
Mitt He, those trees. 

III. Nyumba He, that house. 
Nyumba zile, those houses. 

IV. Kitu kite or chile, that thing. 
Vitu vile, those things. 

V. Kasha Hie, that chest. 

Mukasha yale, those chests. 
VI. Uimbo vie, that song. 

Nyimbo zile, those songs. 
VII. Mahali pale, that place or those places. 
VIII. Kufa kule, that dying. 

1. Nyumbani mle, in that house. 

2. Nyumbani pale, by that house. 

3. Nyumbani kule, to that house. 

It will be seen that these last Pronouns are made 
by adding -le to the second syllable of the first set of 
Demonstratives. Sometimes the whole of the first for:u 
is retained, making huyule, hawale, huule, Mile, hizile, 
hikile, huile, hilile, hayale, hapale, hukule. 

i 2 

116 Ml. I ////./ HANDBOOK. 

An increase of distance is denoted by a stress on the 

final syllable. 

Mtu yule, that man yonder. 
Tulee, that one further off. 
Yuleee, that one still further. 

The more stress is laid on the final syllable, and the 
more the voice rises into a falsetto, so much the greater 
is the distance denoted. 

When the substantive is mentioned the demonstra- 
tive always follows it. 

The demonstratives are frequently doubled, and then 
have the meaning of just this, that very, &c. 

Palepale, just there. 

Mti uleule, that very tree. 

Maneno yaleyale, just those words. 

With the first set of demonstratives the final or true 

pronominal syllable is doubled and prefixed to the usual 


Popahapa, just here. 

Vivihivi, just these things. 
Zizfliizi, those very, &c. 

Kuluhuku, just to this place. 

These forms are also used to denote that there is 
nothing special about what is mentioned. 
Zizihizi, just these and no more. 

Huyo is often used when people are chasing a man 
or an animal. 

Huyo ! Huyo ! = There he is ! There he is ! 

There are other form6 which ought probably to be 
regarded as demonstratives, as they have the force of, 
This is it, and, This is not it. 



ndisi, it is we. 
ndinyi, it is you. 
ndio, it is they. 

ndiyo, these are they. 





Class I. ndimi, it is I. 

ndiwe, it is thou. 
ndiye, it is he. 

„ II. ndio, this is it. 

„ III. ndiyo. 

„ IV. ndicho. 

„ V. ndilo. 

„ VI. ndio. 

„ VII. ndipo. 

„ VIII. ndiko. 

ndimo, it is here, or it is there. 



The negative is made by substituting si- for ndi. 
Siye, it is not he. Sicho, &c. &c, this is not it. 

Both forms may be used interrogatively. 

Ndiye ? Is it he ? Siye ? Is it not he ? 

Other demonstratives may be used with these for the 
6ake of greater emphasis or clearness. 

Kelative Pronouns. 

The Eelative Pronouns have special forms appropriate 
to the several classes of Substantives and the three 
meanings of the -ni case. 

Class I. Who and Whom, sing, ye or yee, plur. o or wo. 
II. Which, sing, o or wo, plur. yo. 



IV. „ 

v. „ 

VI. „ 

1. Wlierein 

2. Wliereat 

3. Wlitreto 



o or wo 













l'h ise relatives occur most frequently in their 
simple forms in connection with -ote, all. 

yet ote, wo wote, whosoever or whomsoever. 

loo wote, yo yote, zo zote, cho chote, vyo vyote, lo lote,po pote, what- 

- ViT. 

vm mote, whereinsoever, inside everything. 
po ]' ttt , wheresoever or whensoever. 
ho kote, whithersoever or wheresoever. 

When connected with the substantive verb, to be, 
i verb is represented by the syllable -U-. 

Class I. allye, [he] who is. walio, [they] who are. 

„ II. ulio, [it] which ia. iliyo, [they] which are. 

„ III. iliyo. zilizo. 

„ IV. Lilicho. vilivyo. 

„ V. lililo. yf'liyo. 

„ VI. ulio. zilizo. 

„ VII. palipo. palipo. 

„ VIII. huliko. kuliko. 

1. mulimo, wherein there is. 

2. palipo, where there is. 

3. huliko, where there is. 

There is a disposition in Zanzibar to make -o the 
ieral relative. Thus one very often hears alio for 
aliye, Ulio for lililo, and ilio for iliyo. 

When joined with the verb the syllable denoting the 
relative follows the sign of the tense if there is one. 

The relative may be joined with the verb to form the 
present, or rather, an indefinite tense, without the use of 
any ; ign of time whatever. It is made precisely as in 
examples given above of the use of the relative 
with the verb, to be, only substituting the particular 
verb for the syllable -U-. 

[he] who lovee, apendaye. 
[they] who love, wapendao. 


[the tree] which falls, uangukao. 

[trees] which grow, imeayo. 
[the house] which falls, yangukayo. 

[houses] which fall, ziangukazo. 

"Where the relative is the object of the verb the same 
form may be used, only introducing the objective prefix 
proper to the substantive referred to, and changing the 
personal prefix. 

[fruit] which I love, nilipendalo. -li- and -lo- being the syllables 
appropriate to tunda, a fruit, and other nouns of the Filth 

When taken to pieces the word is seen to be, ni-, I, 
-li-, it, -penda-, love, -Zo, which. 

Eelatives are rarely used in Swahili with any tenses 
except the present imperfect (the -na- tense), the past 
perfect (the -li- tense), and a peculiar form of the future 
(the -taka- tense). The following instances will show 
the way in which the relative is expressed with these 
several tenses both as subject and object. 

Class I. [the man] who is coming, ana-ye-huja. 

„ who came, ali-ye-kuja. 

„ who will come, ataka-ye-kuja. 

,, whom he is striking, ana-ye-mpiga. 

„ whom we loved, tuli-ye-mpenda. 

[the men] who will beat us, watuka-o-tupiga. 

„ whom we will beat, tutaka-o-wapiga. 

[the ox] which is eating, ana-ye-kula. 

„ which we shall eat, tidaka-ye-mla. 

„ II. [the tree] which fell, uli-o-anguka. 

„ which he cut down, ali-o-ukata. 

[the trees] which were visible, ili-yo-onekana. 

,, which we saw, tuli-yo-iona. 

„ III [the house] which fell down, ili-yo-anguka. 

„ which I bought, nili-yo-inunua. 


I III. [the houses] which fell down, ztTt-eo-angru&o. 

which I bought, nili-zo-zinunua. 
„ IV. [the knife] which cut me, Mli-cho-nikata. 
„ which I took, nili-cho-kitwaa. 

which I gave yon, nili-cho-Jeupa. 
[the knives] which fell down, trili^oyo-anguka. 
,, which I gave you, niU-vyo-kupa. 

„ V. [the chest] which is unfastened, lili-lo-funguka. 
which I unfastened, nili-lo-lifungua. 
[the chests] which were carried, yalvyo-chukuliwa. 
„ which they carried, wali-yo-yachukna. 

„ VI. [the song] which pleased me, uli-o-nipendeza. 
,, which I liked, nili-ompenda. 

[the letters, nyaraha] which I viToie,r>.iU-zo-zian<lih<i. 
„ which I sent to you, niU-zo-kupdehea, 

,, which reached me, zili-zo-nhcasilia. 

„ VII. [the place] which I live in, nina-po-pahaa. 
[the places] which I saw, nili-po-paona. 

The particles of place and time, mo, po, ho, are treated 
a- relal ive particles. 

alimo, where he is ("within). 
alipo, where he is (if near). 
allien, where he is (far off . 
anapulnctndn, when he is going:. 
annliohwenda, whither he is ,L">ing. 
alimokwenda, wherein he went. 
alljU'hiri -mlii, when he went. 
alikokwenda, whither he went. 

There is one ambiguity which cannot be avoided 
where both subject and object are of the same class. 
Alii/empiga may mean, who beat him, or, whom he beat ; 
Icilieholeikata may mean, which cut it, or, which it cut, 
supposing kisu, a knife, to be one substantive, and kitn, 
a thing, to be the other. 

The negative is combined with the relative by the 


use of -st-. There is but one negative tense, and it 
embraces all times, past, present, and future. 

asiye, [lie] who is not, who will not he, who was not. 
usioanguka, [the tree] which falls not, which is not falling, which 

did not fall, or, which will not fall. 
nisicltokupa, [the knife] which I did not give you, do not give 

you, or, shall not give, you. 

Where the relative is used in English with a prepo- 
sition, the relative particle is sometimes joined with the 
verb and also with the preposition ; but more commonly, 
the force of the preposition being contained in that of 
the Swahili verb, no special form is required. See 
Derivative Verbs, p. 157. 

The man whom I went with, mtu nali-o-hwenda naye. 
The man I went to, mtu nali-o-mwendea. 
Where I came from, nili-po-tolca. 
Where I am going to, nina-ko-kwenda. 

As the Swahili has no proper word for to have, but 
uses for it kuwa na, to be with, cases of double relatives 
are very frequent where having is mentioned. 

The knife I have, kisu nilicho nacho. 
The houses you have, nyumba ulizo nazo. 
The knife I had, kisu nilichokuu-a nacho. 
The houses you had, nyumba ulizokwwa nazo. 

The relative is used in some cases in which it is not 
employed in English. 

Who went by? Nani ali-ye-pita (who is he who passed) ? 

He likes this fruit, tunda hili ndilo alipendalo (this fruit is it 

which he likes). 
The boy is going, kijana aendno. 
Whosoever may come, yee yote afakayekuja. 

There is another way of expressing the relative by 


means of ambaye or ambaye kwamba, though not used 
in Zanzibar. When it is employed the final syllable of 
ambaye changes according to the rules given above, 
making ambao, ambazo, ambacho, ambavyo, &c. 

Sometimes an English relative can be expressed by 
the use of mwenyi, &c, having. 

The man whose house it is, mtu mwniyi nyumba. 

Interrogative and other Pronouns. 

There are four Interrogatives which are not variable. 

Nani? Who? Nin>? What? 

Lini? When? | Gani? What sort? 

Gani always follows the substantive it is connected 


Mtu gani? What man ? What sort of man ? 
Kitu gani ? What thing ? What sort of thing ? 

What? is sometimes expressed by the syllable -ni 
suffixed to a verb. 

Atapatani? What will he get? 

Amefanyani? What has he done? 

Knnanil What is there? What is the matter? 

Kinaninil What has it? What is the matter with it? 

Wanani ? What have they ? What are they at ? 

What o'clock is it? is rendered by Saa ngajpi? How 
many hours ? 

The interrogative Which? is expressed by -pi pre- 
ceded by the appropriate syllable, which is the same ae 
that used as the subjective personal prefix to verbs. 
It always follows the noun it refers to. 





[man] Ytcpi ? 

Lmen] Wap' ? 



[tree] Upi ? 

[trees] Ipi ? 



[house] Ipi ? 

[houses] Zz'pi? 



[thing] Kipi ? 

[things] Vipi? 



[chests] L£pi ? 

[chests] Yapii 



[song] 17m ? 

[songs] Zipi ? 



[place] Papi ? 

[places] Papi ? 


The Interrogative, if followed by a verb, requires a 

relative with it. 

Mtu yupi apendaye hioenda ? Which [or what] man likes to go ? 
Nyumba ipi ikupendezayo ? Which house do you like ? 

Nani ? who ? is also generally followed by a relative. 

Nani aliopo mlangoni ? Who is at the door ? 

It is, however, allowable to say nani yupo mlangoni, 
which is a literal translation of the English. 
The interrogative Where ? is wajpi ? or api ? 

Wenda wapi ? Where are you going ? 

When referring to a substantive wapi must always 
be preceded by the syllable which is the proper sub- 
jective personal prefix for that substantive. This prefix 
very probably represents the substantive "verb, and may 
often be translated by is it f or are they ? 



Yu wapi ? 


Wa wapi ? 



U wapi ? 


I wapi ? 



I wapi ? 


Zi wapi? 



Ki wapi ? 


Vi wapi ? 



Li wapi ? 


Ya wapi ? 



U wapi ? 


Zi wapi? 



Pa wapi ? 


Pa wapi ? 

A fuller form to represent where is it f or where are 
they f is made by adding -ho to the personal prefix. 
Yulco wapi1 Where is he ? Ziko vxipi? Where are they ? 


The noun refi rred to follows this interrogative. 
I icapi mcrikebii ? Where is the ship ? 

How ? is expressed by the syllable -je suffixed to the 

Nitakipatajef How shall I get it? 

Chalifanywajel How was it made? 

/ lip ndaje, ao kupika, ao bichi? How do you like it, cooked or 

raw ? 
Asemajel [How does he talk?] What does he say ? 
TJrefu wake yapataje ? How long is it ? 
TJmri wa];<- apataje? How old is he? 
Kwenda chini kwake chapataje [kisima] f How deep is it [a 

well] ? 

The use of Jcupata, to get, in these phrases nmst be 
noticed. There is no direct way of attaching the hoic ? 
to the adjective ; they say therefore, " His age, how 
gets he it ? " 

How many ? is expressed by -ngapi, which is treated 

as an adjective. 

How many people;? Wntu wangapi? 
How many goats ? Mbuzi wangapi or ngapif 
How many trees ? MM mingapi ? 
How many houses? Nt/urnba ngapil 
How many chairs? Viti vingapi ' 
How many chests ? Makasha mangapi ? 
How many planks ? Mbau ngapil 
How many places? Mahali pangapil 

How ? is in some cases expressed by the use of other 

How long ago? Tangu lini? [since when ?] 

How much? Kadri gani, or Kiaxsi ganil [what quantity ?] 

How often ? Marra ngapi ? [how many times ?] 

The exclamatory What ! is rendered by the inter- 

rogative pronoun in -pi. 

Furatui i/pi ! What joy 1 

( 125 ) 


Regular Swahili verbs always end in -a, as, Jcvpenda, 
to love, kupiga, to beat. 

Verbs derived from the Arabic may end in -e, -», or-M, 
as, kusamehe, to pardon, kusafiri, to travel, kuharibu, to 
destroy. Verbs in this form do not change the final 
vowel, where verbs in -a regularly do so. 

The simplest form of the verb is used in Swahili, 
as in English, for the second person singular of the 

Penda! Love! Pirja! Strike! 

Samehe! Pardon! Safiri! Travel! 

Haribu ! Destroy ! 

The second person plural imperative is made by 
adding -ni. All the other tenses and moods are made 
by prefixing syllables to the simple form, except that 
verbs in -a change -a into -e in the present subjunctive, 
and into -i in the present negative, and a -w- is inserted 
to mark the passive. 

There is a negative as well as an affirmative con- 
jugation, in which the tenses and persons are also dis- 
tinguished by prefixes. 

The various prefixes form in pronunciation o?^ word 


with the verb, and when taken to pieces denote its 
person, number, tense, mood, subject, and object. 

Ameliramhia = A-mekw-amhia = He-has-you-tell = He has told 

Wdliponipenda = Wa-ll-po-ni-penda = They-did-when-me-love 

= When they loved inc. 
Nitdkachokupa = Ni-taka-cho-ku-pa = I-shall-wbich-you-give-to 

= Which I shall give to you. 
Ningalimicona — Xi-it<i<ili-iuw-ona = I-shuuld-have-him-see = I 

should have seen him. 

The syllables used as prefixes have not the same 
meaning standing separately as they have when com- 
bined with the verb in their proper order; for this 
reason, therefore, as well as to show the proper pro- 
nunciation, they with the verb must all be written as 
one word. 

Lists of the several prefixes will be found at the end 
of the preliminary observations to the second part of 
this handbook (p. 237). The personal prefixes will be 
found described under Pronouns (p. 104), and seen 
arranged under their appropriate classes of Substantives 
in the Table of Concords, p. 82. 

Indefinite Tenses. 

1. Customary actions are expressed by prefixing hu- 
to the verb. In this form there is no distinction of 
number, person, or time. 

Hu-enda, one goes, they go, everybody goes, he used to go. 
Hu-penda, one likes, they like, one would like. 

2. The relative may be joined with the verb without 
any sign of time. The personal prefix only is put 
before the verb, and the relative sign suffixed to it. 

VERBS. 127 

Sing. Class I. Ni-penda-ye, [I] who love. 

U-penda-ye, [thou] who lovest. 
A-penda-ye, [he] who loves. 
„ II. U-angul:a-o, which falls. 

„ III. 1-anguka-yo, 

„ IV, Ki-anguka-cho, 

„ V. Li-anguka-lo, 

„ VI. U-anguka-o, 

„ VII. P-anguka-po, where falls. 
„ VIII. Kw-anguka-ko, whither falls. 

Plur. „ I. Tu-penda-o, [we] who love. 

M-penda-o, [you] who love. 
Wa-penda-o, [they] who love. 
M II. I-anguka-yo, or, Y-anguka-yo, which fall. 

„ III. Zi-anguka-zo, 

„ TV. Vy-anguka-vyo, 

„ V. Y-anguka-yo, 

„ VI. Zi-anguka-zo, 

The relative may represent the object of the verb, 
but in that case the objective sign (pp. 105-6) ought to 
be inserted between the personal prefix and the verb. 

Class I. Ni-m-penda-ye, [he or she] whom I love. 
Ni-ku-penda-ye, [thou] „ ,, „ 
Ni-wa-penda-o, [you or they] ,, „ „ 

Sing. „ II. Ni-u-penda-o [it] which I love. 

„ III. Ni-i-penda-yo, 

„ IV. Ni-ki-penda-cho, 

„ V. Ni-li-penda-lo, 

„ VI. Ni-u-penda-o, 

„ VII. Ni-pa-penda-po, 

„ VIII. Ni-ku-penda-ko, 

Plur. „ II. Ni-i-penda-yo, [those] which I love. 

„ III. Ni-zi-penda-zo, 

„ TV. Ni-vi-penda-ryo, 

„ V. Ni-ija-penda-yo, 

„ VI. Ni-zi-penda-zo, 

3. The negative form, expressing Who. or which dies 

L28 SWAHILI HAND BOOK. is made by the personal prefix, tho syllable -ei- 
[not] and the relative sign, followed by the verb. 

Sing. Class I. Nisi-ye^penda, [I] who love not. 

U-si-ye-penda, [thou] who love.>t not. 

A-si-ye-penda, [he or she] who loves not 
„ II. U-si-o-anguka, which falls not. 

,, III. Isi-yo-angulca, 

„ IV. Kisi-cho-anguka, 
,, V. TA-si-lo-anguka, 

„ VI. Usi-o-anguka, 

„ VII. Pasi-po-anguJca, where falls not. 

Kusi-ho-anguka, whither fulls Dot, 

Musi-mo-anguka, wherein falls not. 
Plur. „ I. Tu-n-o-penda, [we] who love not. 

M-si-o-penda, [you]. 

1 1 (i-si-O-penda, [they]. 
„ II. T-si-yo-anguka, which fall not. 

„ III. Zisi-zo-anguka, 

„ 1 \". Vv-si-vyo-anguka, 

,, V. Ya-si-yo-anguka, 

„ VI. Zisi-zo-anguka. 

Where the relative is the object of the verb, it is 

expressed as in the affirmative tenses, by the form of 

the relative particle and the insertion of the objective 


Nisi-zo-zi-penda, which I do not like. 

This negative tense may be applied with equal pro- 
priety to past, present, or future time, amounting in 
effect to a negative of the relation at the time and under 
the circumstances implied in the context. 

The application of the relative to the definite affir- 
mative tenses is explained under Pronouns (p. 119). 

The difference between — which I like — and — I who 
like it — is to be found in the form of the relative 

VERBS. 129 

[Nyumba] nili-yo-ipenda, [the house] which I liked. 
nili-ye-ipenda, I who liked it 

\Kitu] nUi-cho-Mpenda, [the thing] which I liked. 
nili-ye-kipenda, I who liked it. 

Definite Tenses. 

The important part of each tense is the tense prefix* 
It is preceded by the jperson al sign of the subject, and 
may be followed directly by the verb. If any signs of 
relation are used they are suffixed to the tense prefix, 
and the objective prefix (if any) must always imme- 
diately precede the verb: The tense prefix is the same 
for all persons and both numbers. The personal prefix 
is the same for all tenses, except the slight changes 
dependent upon the question whether the first letter of 
the tense prefix is a vowel or not. 

In order therefore to construct the proper form of 
verb, it is necessary first to ascertain the proper personal 
prefix, next the proper tense prefix, then the particles 
of relation and objective prefix, if they are required, 
and then to finish with the verb. Thus, to say, A house 
has fallen down. A house is nyumba, a word of the third 
class ; the proper personal prefix for a singular noun of 
the third class is -i, the tense prefix for the present 
perfect is -me-, the verb to fall is hu - anguka (the hu- 
being the sign of the infinitive : we have therefore — 

Nyumba imeanguka = a house has fallen down. 

If we wished to say, Six houses have fallen down ; we 
find that nyumba being of the third class keeps the same 
form in the plural ; sita is six, and must follow its noun ; 
the subjective prefix proper to plural nouns in the third 



class is 21- ; the tense prefix and the verb remain the 

Nyumba sita zimeanguTca, six houses have fallen down. 

To take one more complicated example, I saw the 
knife, which you gave him. The personal prefix for 
the first person is ni- or n-, the tense prefix of the past 
perfect is -ali-, to see is ku-ona, knife is hisu, a substantive 
of the fourth class. As some particular knife is intended 
we must use the objective prefix, and that for a singular 
substantive of the fourth class is -hi-. As the tense 
prefix begins with a vowel we must use the personal 
prefix which ends in a consonant. We have therefore —  

Nalikiona Icisu = I saw the knife. 

1 Which you gave him.' The relative referring to a 

singular noun of the fourth class is -cho-. It must 

fi 'How the tense prefix, which is -ali-, as before, for the 

past perfect. The sign of the second person singular 

is u- or w- ; the verb, to give to, is Jcu-jpa. The object 

of the verb is him, the objective prefix for nouns of the 

first class is -mu- or -m-. Putting these together we 


Which you gave him, ivalichompa. 

And the whole sentence, 

I saw the knife which you gave him, nalikiona Mm walichompa. 

It must not be forgotten that hu- and pa- may be 
used for there in an impersonal sense. 

Kulikuwa or VaXikvma, there was or there were. 
' apiga, ifc, and tl.erc btruck, &c 



Indicative Tenses. — Present. 

There are in the language of Zanzibar two Presents, 
one Indefinite and one Imperfect. 

1. The Indefinite Present answers to our common 
English present, I come, I love, &c. It is made by 
prefixing -a- to the verb. 


► a-penda \ 

( I love. 
Thou lovest. 
He or she 

It loves. 
We love. 
You love. 
They love. 

W-, Y-, Ch-, L-, W-, P-, Kw- 



Y-, Z-, Vy, Y-, Z- 

2. The Present Imperfect answers to our tense with 
am, I am coming, I am loving, &c. It is made by pre- 
fixing -na- to the verb. 


A-j U-, I-, Ki-, Li-, U~ 

Pa-, Ku- 


Wa-, I-, Zi-, Vi-, Ya-, Zi- 

I am 

Thou art 
He, she, 
or it is j. loving. 

* na-penda \ 

We are 
You are 
They are 

In the first person the ni- is often contracted into 'n-, 
and sometimes altogether omitted. This tense used 
after another verb may be translated by an English 
present participle. 

Namwona, or Nalimwona anahuja, I see him, or, I saw h5m 

In the dialect of Mombas this -na- tense is used of 
past time. In Zanzibar it is the more usual form of 
the present. 

K 2 



Present Perfect. 

The Present Perfect is ruado by the prefix -me- : it 
denotes an action complete at the time of speaking, and 
therefore answers to the English tense with have. 




' I have 

U-, I-, Ki- 

Thou hast 

Li-, J'rt-, Kn~ 

me-penda , 

He or she has 


It has 


We have 


You have 

/-, Zi- f Vi- 

.They have 



In verbs denoting a state or the possession of a 
quality the present has the meaning of to enter upon, 
to acquire, or to become, what the verb denotes. The 
-me- tense must then be translated by to have, or to be, 
&c. (p. 86). 

Jnajaa, it is getting full. 

Imejaa, it is full. 
Inapasuka, it is heing torn, 

Imepasulca, it is torn. 
Inapotea, it is becoming lost. 

Imepotea, it is lost. 
Anavaa, he is putting on. 

Amevaa, he has put on, therefore, he wears. 

When the -me- tense occurs in a narrative, it denotes 
an action complete at the time referred to, and must 
generally be translated by had. 

Kihamirona ameufunrjua mlango, and I saw that he ha< 
unfastened the door. 

The -me tense may sometimes be translated as a pas 



participle, signifying a state arrived at at the time of 
speaking or at the time referred to. 

Yu hayi ao amekufa ? Is he alive or dead ? 
Zalikuwa zimepotea, they were lost 

In this sense it may "be used to form compound tenses, 
somewhat as the past participle is in English. 

In some dialects of Swahili the prefix is pronounced 
-ma- rather than -me-. See the end of Appendix II. 

Past Perfect. 

The Past Perfect tense is made by the prefix -li- or 
-ali- : it denotes an action complete in past time. It 
must sometimes be translated in English by the tense 
with had, but more commonly it represents the indefinite 
past, which usually ends in -ed. 

N- } 


W-, Y-, Ch-, L- 

P-, Kw- 

) ali- ' 






Y-, Z-, Vy, Y- J 

He or she 


penda ' 




U-, I; Ki- 


Li-, Pa~, Ku- 

1 lir - 



I-, Zi-, Vi-, Ya-. 


When it is intended to denote the action as a 



continuous one, the syllable -hi- may be inserted after 
the tenso prefix. 

N-nJi-hi-mpevda, I loved him [not once but continuously]. 
W-ali-papi ndana, when they loved one another. 
W-ali-po-ki-pendana, while they loved one another. 

Narrative Past. 

In telling a story it is usual to begin with one verb 
in the -li- tense, and then to put all that follow in a 
tense made by the prefix -ha-. This tense includes in 
itself the power of the conjunction and. It can never 
properly stand at the beginning of a narrative, but no 
other past tense can properly be used for any verb 
except the first. It may occasionally be used after 
another verb, where the time being indefinite would 
in English be represented by a present. 



'And I 


And thou 

U; I-, Ki- 

And he or she 

ln-, Pa-, Ku- 

^ca-penda! An ' U 


And we 


And you 


And they 

I-, Zi-, Vi-, Ya- . 


Nika- is frequently contracted into Ha-. 

Hamwona = Niltamwona = And I saw him. 

The -ha- of this tense is often pronounced -hi- in rapid 
or careless talking. 




The Future Tense is made by the prefix -ta-. 

) love. 



' I shall 


Thou wilt 

U-, I; Ki- 

He or she will 

Li-, Pa-, Ku- 

1 1 a-ptei 

ida ' 

It will 


We shall 


You will 


They will 

I; Zi; Vt; Yd; 

In the first person the prefix Ni- is often omitted. 
Tapenda — Nitapenda — I shall luve. 

When particles of relation are introduced the prefix 
-ta- is very rarely used ; the tense prefix stands almost 
always as -taka-. 

AtahayeJcuja, [he] who will come. 

With particles of relation the difference between the 
present, indefinite, and future times is much more care- 
fully observed in Swahili than in English. 

Nilalapo, when I sleep, i.e., in the case of my sleeping. 

Ninapolala, when I sleep, i.e., at the time when I am sleeping. 

Nitakapolala, when I sleep, i.e., when I shall be sleeping. 

Mtu aendaye, the man who goes (at any time). 

Mtu anayehwenda, the man who is going (now). 

Mtu atdkayekwcnda, the man who goes (at some future time). 

Thus, if it is intended to send a man somewhere and 
pay him afterwards for his trouble, where it might be 
said in English — Tell the man who goes that I will 
pay him when he comes back — the Swahili verbs must 
all be in the future, Mwambie yule atalcayekwenda lewamba 



atakaporudi nitamlipia. "Where it is the fact and net 
the time, person, or thing, that is the important element 
of the idea, it is better not to use the particles of rela- 
\ but to employ the -hi- tense, which see. 

Conditional Tenses. 

There are four tenses which may be called Con- 
ditional. The first, made with -Jci-, expresses a state of 
tilings as supposed to be existing. The second, made 
with -jajpo-, expresses a state of things supposed as 
I m ssible. The other two refer to contingencies ; one of 
them, made with -nge-- or -nga-, expresses what would 
now be happening, and the contingency on which it 
would depend regarded as existing ; the other, made 
with -ngali-, expresses what would have happened, and 
the contingency on which it would have depended 
regarded as no longer existing. 

Actual Conditional or Participial Tense. 

This tense is made with the prefix -hi-, and may be 
translated by the English present participle, or by as, 
if, when, since, though, or any other words by which 
the idea of a state of things can be introduced and con- 

< ted with the rest of the sentence. 

I loving. 





1-. J-. Kir 

He <>r she 

Li-, Pa-, Ku- ) to 









I- Zi- Vi- Ya • 

VERBS. 137 

The prefix Nilci- may "be contracted into Hi-. 

Hifnkuza - Nikifukuza = As I was driving. 

Viewed as a present participle, the -M- tense can be 
nsed to form compound tenses, especially a past im- 

Alikuwa dkiogolea, he was swimming about. 

The following are a few examples of the use of this 
tense : — 

Nitafurahi nikikuona, [seeing you I shall rejoice] I shall be 

glad to see you. 
Akija Abdullah micambia, [Abdallah coming, tell him] Tell 

Abdallah when he comes. 
Nikiioa nacho, [I having it] If I have it — when I have it — if I 

should have it — in case of my having it — since I have it. 
Alipotea dkizunguka kwa siku mbili, [He was lost wandering 

for two days] He lost his way and wandered about for two 

Majivuno yakiwa mengi, [Puffings up being many] Much self- 
Cpepo ukiwa moto hutanua, [Air being hot] Air expands when 

it becomes heated. 
Akisema kweli, hasadikiwi, [Telling the truth, he is not believed] 

If he should tell the truth, he would not be believed. 

In this instance the use of the -lei- tense and of the 
negative present are both remarkable. It will be seen, 
however, upon examination, that there is no real con- 
tingency in such a sentence as this. It affirms a fact 
in a state of things, not a contingency upon a supposed 
state of things ; it is not his telling the truth which 
prevents his being believed. 

A corresponding past tense may be made by the -K- 
tense with the relative particle -po-. 

Walipxrpenda, when they loved, being that they then leved. 



Possible Conditional. 

This tense is made by the prefix -japcr-, and puts a 

case ; it generally implies that the case is an extreme 

or unlikely one. It may be translated by even if. 
Ni- -\ 

u- a 

A. thou 

U-, I-, Kir- he or she 

Li-, Pa-, Ku- \japo-penda, even if \ i* > love. 

Tu- we 

M- you 

Wa- Vthey 

I-, Zi-, Ft-, Ta- 

The prefix seems to be formed from hija, to come, 

and -po, the particle denoting when or where ; so that 

ujapo may be translated, "When you come, and so with 

the other persons ; this will give the force of the tense. 

Wajctpoliupiga, when they come to beating you, i.e., even if 
they beat yon. 

Japo with the personal signs may be used alone in 

the sense of — even if. 

Ujapo huhioni, even if you do not see it. 

Present Contingent. 
This tense is formed by the prefix -nge- or -nga-, and 
puts a condition and its results as present. It necessarily 
implies that neither are in existence. 


I should, or if I did 

Thou wouldest, or if thou 

He, she, or it would, or if 

he, she, or it did 
We should, or if we di<l 
You would, or if you did 
They would, or if they did 




I-, Ki- 


, Pa-. A'u- 





Zi-, Vi-, Yar 

: nge-penda 

) love. 



The -nga- form is used with monosyllabic verbs — 
angawa — though he be, or he would be. 

The two branches of the contingency cannot in 
English be represented by the same tense, as they are 
in Swahili. The pair would stand in English, (1) If I 
did— (2) I should, &c. (1) If it were— (2) it would 
be, &c. Or they might stand, (1) Though I did — 
(2) yet I should, &c. 

The second branch is sometimes represented in 
English by a past tense ; sometimes both are. 

Kama ungekuica na dkili, mali yako ungedumu nayo, [If vou 
were with wits, your property you would continue with itj 
If you were a man of understanding, your property would 
be (or would have been) yours still. 

Past Contingent. 
This tense is made with the prefix -ngali-. It sup- 
poses something at a past time, and concludes that 
something else would then have happened, also at a 
past time. It represents the English — If this had 
happened, that would have happened. It supposes that 
neither condition nor contingency did ever in fact 
occur. In English a past tense is often used to express 
a present contingency, but the Swahili seem to dis- 
tinguish them more carefully. 

Had I, or I should have 
Hadst thou, or thou 

wouldest have 
Had he, she, or it, or he, 

she, or it would have 
ngali-penda ( Had we, or we should \ loved. 

Had you, or you would 

Had they, or they would 





U-. I; Ki- 

Li-, Pa-, Kw- 

I-,Zi-, Vi-, Ya-. 


There is always an accent on the personal prefix and 

none on the tense prefix, thus ungalikuja, angaliona, &c. 

Kama ungalikuwapo hapa, ndugu yangu arujalipona, If you 
bad been bere, my brotber would bavo got well 

The Imperative. 
It has been mentioned above that the simplest form 
of the verb may be used for the Imperative as in 
English. The final letter of verbs in -a is frequently 
changed into e-. The plural is made by adding -ni. 

Penda, or Pende, love thou. Pendant, or Pendeni, love ye. 

Twaa, or Twae, take thou. Twaani, or Twaeni, take ye. 

Sifu, praise thou. Sifuni, praise ye. 

Fikiri, consider thou. Fikirini, consider ye. 

The form ending in -e is the more commonly used in 
Zanzibar. The other persons are supplied by the use 
of the Subjunctive. 

Ka- may be prefixed to the Imperative to connect it 
with a preceding verb. 

Kajificheni, and bide yourselves. 

The Subjunctive. 
The Subjunctive is made by prefixing the personal 
6ign, and when the verb ends in -a changing that 
letter into -e. It may be translated into a variety of 
English forms. It may be used as an imperative or 
jussive, and is the only form that can be so used in the 
first and third persons. 

Nipende, let me love. 

When used with an interrogative it may be translated 
— am I to — is he to, &c. 

Nifanyejet What am 1 to do ? 



It is the proper form to express purpose or object — that 
I may, &c. — and must be used in many cases where in 
English the infinitive is employed. 

Mwambie ahusayidie, tell him to help you, or speak to him 
that he may help you. 

"Where no purpose is implied the infinitive is used as 
in English. 

I want to sleep, nataka kulala. 

The force of the conjunction and may be expressed 
by inserting -ha- after the personal prefix. And is used 
in English in many cases where the second action is 
more or less the object with which the first is to be 
done, as in — try and find, &c. In such cases -Tea- must 
not be used, but only the subjunctive in its simple 


A; TJ-, I- 

Ki-, Li-, Pa- 

, pende, 

That i 


he or she 



Wa-, I-, Zi- 



Vi-, Ya- 

mav love. 

Verbs which end in -i, -e, or -u, keep the same final 
letter in the subjunctive. 

The Infinitive, 
The Infinitive is made in all cases by prefixing -ku, 

Ku-penda, to love. 
Ku-ona, to see. 


The -M- becomes -to- before a, e, and t, and often 
disappears before o. 

Kw-amhia, to tolL 
Kw-enda, to go. 
Kw-isha, to finish. 
K-oga, to bathe. 

The Infinitive may always be used to express the 
action denoted by the verb. 

Kicenda, going. 

Kufa, dying. 

Kupendana, mutual loving. 

[There are two idiomatic uses of the Infinitive Mood, 
which are common, and may be mentioned here, the 
one a logical, the other a grammatical, contrivance. 

Any finite form of a verb may be preceded by the 
infinitive of the same verb, the effect being rather to 
particularize and give prominence to the idea conveyed 
by the verb, than to emphasize the mode of an action. 

Thus kufa utalcufa, as to dying, you will die. Dying, 
that is what will happen to you. Not, you will 
certainly die. 

Again, when any finite form of the verb, and espe- 
cially a long form, would be closely followed by another 
verb in the same form, connected with the former verb 
by (at most) the simple copula ' na,' the second verb 
may be put in the infinitive mood. By this device the 
cumbrous repetition of a series of personal and other 
prefixes in a number of successive verbs is neatly 

Thus, " anayeabudiica na leutuhuzwa," for anayetukuzica, 
" who is worshipped and glorified." — A. C. M.J 

VERBS. 143 


There are properly no Participles in Swahili. The 
present participle in -ing may be represented by the 
-ana- tense of an incomplete action, by the -ki- tense 
of a state of continued action, or by the use of the 


The man sitting yonder, mtu akaaye kule. 

The past participle may be represented by the -me- 
tense of a completed action, or by the relative when 
used adjectivally. 

Nimekiona kisu kilichopotea, I have found the lost knife. 

The Negative Conjugation. 

All Swahili verbs may be employed with negative 
prefixes to denote the reverse of their affirmative 
meaning. It must be observed that the negative forms 
do not simply deny the affirmative forms but rather 
reverse them. 

Napenda kwenda, I like going. 

Nataka kwenda, I want to go. 
Sipendi kwenda, I dislike going, 
Sitaki kwenda, I want not to go. 

In English I do not want is not so strong as I do not 
like, but in Swahili sitaki is stronger than sipendi. 

The negative tenses are formed by negative personal 
prefixes, which, except in the first person singular, are 
made from the affirmative forms by prefixing ha-. 

For the negative combined with the relative, see 
p. 120. 



S WAI1ILI II. I xnuooK. 

Negative Present. 
In tin's tense verbs ending in -a change that letter 
into -i ; other final letters remain unchanged. 


IIa-, ILni-, IJ<ii- 
Haki-, Hali-, llapa- 
Haku- pendi ' 


Haica-, Eai-, Hazi- 
Huri-, llti>/a- 

This tense is a more general negative than the 
English do not tense. It is used for both past and 
future wherever the negative depends upon some cause 
which is not affected by the time referred to. 

The -i of si- in this and other tenses often disappears 

before a vowel. 

Sogojji, I do not fear. 




1 [e or 


love not 




do not love. 





He or she 

Negative Past. 

There is one negative form referring to past time 

generally ; it is made by the negative prefixes followed 

by -hu-. 


Iln-, J J ii a-. ITai- 

Jlnl.i-. Ilnli- 

llapa-, llnhu- 


Uaira-, Hair, TLazi- 

JJm /-. llnija- 

In a few rare instances negative prefixes may be 
followed by -me- or -U-. 

Simehuwa mwongol Have I not become a liar? 

hu-penda \ "• 
I They 

did not love 


liave not lovrd. 



have not yet loved. 

The not yet Tense. 

There is a negative tense made by the use of the 
negative prefixes followed by -ja-, which is a sort of 
negative present perfect, denying the action up to the 
time of speaking. 

Si- -\ 

Hu~ (I 

Ha-, Hau-, Hai- Thou 

Haki-, Halt- He or she 

Hapa-, Baku- )ja-penda Xt 

Hatu- We 

Ham- You 

Hawa-, Hai-, Hazi- They 
Havi-, Haya- 

The word bado is often used with this tense where 

it is intended rather to imply that what has not yet 

happened will some day come to pass. 

Hajaja, he is not yet come, he is not come even now. 
Hajaja bado, he is not come, at least not yet. 

The -a- of -ja- coalesces with i and e into a long -e- 


Hajesha = Hajaisha = He has not yet finished. 

Negative Future. 
The negative future is made from the affirmative 
future by merely using negative instead of affirmative 
personal prefixes. 


Ha-, Hau-, Hai- 
Haki-, Hali- 
Hapa-, Haku- 


Hawa-, Hai-, Hazi- 
Havi-, Haya- 

< ta-penda > 

I shall not 
Thou wilt not 
He, she, or it 
will not 

' love. 

"We shall not 
You will not 
They will not 



Condition ll Tenses. 

The case of not being or not doing is put by a tenue 

med by the affirmative prefixes followed by sipo-; 

it may be translated by the present participle with a 

negative, or by as, if, when, though, since, or any other 

word by which the case of not being, having, or doing., 

may be introduced. 


A-, U-, I-, Ki- 
IA-, Pa-, Ku- 


Wa-, I-, Zi-, Vi- 


sipo-penda i 



He or she 





i not loving. 

This tense may be also used to translate an English 

affirmative preceded by except or unless. 

Asipojua, unless he knows. 
Asipokuwa Abdullah, except Abdallah. 

Contingent Tenses. 
The negative contingent tenses, present and past, 
are made from the affirmative forms by merely using 
negative instead of affirmative personal prefixes. 

Did I or I should "^ 



Ha-. Umi-, TJai- 
Haki-, Hali- 
Hapa-, Haku- 


TTavm-, flai-, llizi- 
llavi-, Haya- 

l vae-penda 

Didst thou or Thou 

Did lie, she, or it, 

or He, she, or it 

Did we or We 

Did you or you 

Did they or They 
. would 

not love. 




Ea-, Hau-, Hai- 
Hoiki-, Hali- 
Hapa-, Hahtir 


Hawa-, Hai- 
Hazi-, Havi- 

Had I or I should 

Hadst thou or Thou 

wouldest have 
Had he, she, or it, 
J or He, she, or it 
ngali-penda\ would have 

Had we or We should 

Had you or You 

would have 
Had they or They 

would have 

not loved. 

Negative Imperative. 

The negative imperative is made by the use of si 
(not), with the affirmative forms. 

Si penda, love not. 
Si sifu, praise not. 

Si pendent, love ye not. 
Si sifuni, praise ye not 

The negative subjunctive is more often used in this 
sense than the imperative form. 

Negative Subjunctive. 

The negative subjunctive is made from the affirma- 
tive form by inserting -si- between the affirmative 
personal prefix and the verb. 


A-, U-, I- 
, Ki-, Li-, 
Pa-, Ku- 


Wa-, I-, Zi- 
Vi-, Ya- 

I may 

thou mayest 
he, she, or 

si-pende, That ( it may 
we may 
you may 
they may 

not love. 

L 2 


The -t of si- often disappears before a vowel. 
asende, that he may not go. 

The negative subjunctive may be Englished in 
^, vera! different ways. It may be used as above of a 
purpose not to do, or it may be used of a purpose to do 

which fails. 

Akamtafuta <i*imwone, he looked for him, but did not see him 
or, without seeing him. 

This form is commonly used for the negative 

Nisende, let me not go. Usende, don't go. 

A form of subjunctive connected with the not yet 
tense is made by the use of -sije- with the affirmative 
prefixi s. 

Ni- i 


I may 

A-, U; I- 

thou mayest 

l\i-. Li- 

he, she, or it 

Fa-, Ku-, 

sije-penda, That 



we may 


you may 

War, I-, Zi- 

k they may 

Yi-, Va- 

not have already 

This tense may often be translated by before. 
Utampata asijdala, you will catch him before he goes to sleep. 

sije with the personal prefixes may be used as a 
plete wonl followed by the -ha- tense. 

Nisije nihi fa, that I may not be already dead, or, that I may Dot 
die before, &c. 

VERBS. 149 

Negative Infinitive. 

The negative infinitive is made by the use of kutoa 
(to put out), often contracted into huto- and used as a 

Kutoa kupenda, or Kutopenda, not to love, or not loving, to 
dislike, or disliking. 

The Passive Voice. 

The Passive is made from the Active by merely 
inserting -w- before the final vowel. 

Napenda, I love. Napendwa, I am loved. 

Sipendi, I do not love. Sipendwi, I am not loved. 

Nimependa, I have loved. Nimependwa, I have been loved. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendwa, to be loved. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often use the passive of 
their applied form. See pp. 151, 161. 

The Passive is used in a sort of impersonal way to 
denote what is intended to be done. 

Maji yamekwenda kutetwa, some one has gone to get water. 
Pesa zimekwenda kuvunjwa, some one has gone to get pice in 
exchange for silver. 

Auxiliary and Irregular Verbs. 

As the Auxiliary verbs are mostly also irregular, it 
will be best to speak of their irregularities first, and 
afterwards of their use in making compound tenses. 

Monosyllabic verbs and most dissyllabic words be- 
ginning with a vowel, retain the hu- of the infinitive 
in those tenses in which the tense prefix ends in a 


Liable in< a pal tie of bearing the accent. These tense 
prefixes are -na-, -ame-, -ali-, -/a-, -japo-, -nge-, -ngali-, 
and sije-. The other prefixes, -a-, -7<:a-, -fl»-, -n#a-, -hi-, 
-ja-. -si-, are capable of bearing the accent, and the ku- 
is not retained when they are used. The personal 

us, both subjective and objective, can bear the 
accent, the relative signs cannot. 

Thus, from kuja, to conic, we have : — 

Naja, I come. Nindkuja, I am coming. 

Nilcaja, and I came. Nimekuja, I have coine. 

Nikija, I coming. Nalikuja, I came. 

8iji, I come not. Nitakuja, I shall come. 

Sikuja, I did not come. Nijapokuja, even if I come. 

Sijaja, I am not yet come. Ningekuja, I should come. 

Nitijt , let me not come. Ningalikuja, I should have come. 

Ni8ijekuja, before I come. 

Nije, let me not come. Nisipokuja, when I come not. 

Ajaye, he who comes. Aliyekuja, he who came. 
Nijaye, I who come. 

It is shown that this irregularity depends upon the 

power of certain syllables to support the accent by 

the changes which occur when an objective prefix is 


Amekula, he has eaten. 
Ame'mla, he has eaten him. 

The verb lcnpa, to give to, is peculiar in always re- 
aring an objective prefix, and therefore never having 
occasion to be irregular. 

With dissyllables b"ginning with a vowel it is gene- 
rally indifferent whether the hu- is retained or not. 

Arnekwisha or Ameisha, he has finished. 
Amekwanza or Ameanza, he ha.~ begun. 

VERBS. 151 

Many verts occur with or without a w-, which seems 
to be a relic of the -ku-. 

Kuiva or Kuwiva, to ripen. 
Kuaza or Kuicaza, to consider. 

The word kuja, to come, stands alone in having an 
irregular imperative. 

Njoo, come. Njooni, come ye. 

Monosyllabic verbs and some dissyllables make their 
passives in a more or less irregular way. The follow- 
ing is a list of the monosyllabic verbs with their 

passives : — 

Kucha, to fear. Kuchica, to be feared. 

Kula, to eat. Kuliwa, to be eaten. 

Kunywa, to drink. Kunywewa, to be drunk. 

Kupa, to give to. Kupawa or Kupewa, to receive. 

Kucha is used in the dialect of Lamoo for to fear, the 
word used at Zanzibar being kuogopa. Kucha means 
at Zanzibar to rise (of the sun), and kuchwa (or, in the 
dialect of Mombas, kutwd) means to set. The other 
monosyllabic verbs, hufa, to die, kuja, to come, kunya, 
to fall like rain, kuwa, to be, being neuters, do not 
make a passive. 

Two dissyllabic verbs make their passive by merely 

adding -wa to the active form. 

Kuua, to kill. Kuuawa, to be killed. 

Kufua, to beat. Kufuawa, to be beaten. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often insert an -I- in 

making their passive. See under Applied Forms, pp. 


Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzaica or Kuzaliwa, to be born 

Kukomboa, to ransom. Kukombolewa, to be ransomed. 

Kufungua, to open. Eufunguliwa, to be opened. 


The origin of tins use lies probably in the difficulty 
 l pronouncing distinctly the regular passive forms. 
Verbs ending in -c make their passive in -ewa. 

Kusamehe, to pardon. Kusameh wa, to be pardoned. 

Verbs ending in -i make their passives in -iwa. 

Kuhiri, to confess. Kuhiriwa, to be confessed. 

Verbs in -u generally make their passive in -iwa. 

Kuharibu, to destroy. Euharibiwa, to be destroyed. 

Where the -u is preceded by a vowel the passive is 
made in -idiica. 

Kusahau, to forget. Kusahauliwa, to be forgotten. 

The verb kuica, to be, has several peculiarities. The 
Present tense is very seldom used in its regular form. 
For the Present tense ni (or, in the negative, si) may 
be used for all persons and both numbers, or the per- 
sonal prefix appropriate to the subject of the verb may 
st md alone. Ni is apparently preferred where being 
is the important part of the idea ; the personal prefix 
is used where the being of that particular thing is 
intended specially to be noticed. Yu (not A) is used 
for he or she is. 

Si Jewell, ni kusifu tu, it is not true, it is only flattery. 
ZVi f'iri'iri, we are ready. 

When joined with a relative the regular form has 
the meaning of who may be. 

Awaye yote, whoever it be. 

Where no stress is intended to be laid on the being, 
the verb to be, when joined with a relative pronoun, is 

VERBS. 153 

represented by the syllable -U-. See Relatives, p. 118. 
Li is used, though but rarely, with the personal signs 
to form a tense with the meaning — continuing to be. 
A narative past is also formed with it in the sense of — 
I have continued to be. 

Nili halt ya kuwa juu yoke, I being on his back. 
Nikali nikipotea, and I go on wandering. 

In many cases where the verb to be is used in English 
merely to connect the parts of the sentence it is in 
Swahili omitted altogether. 

Kica nini weye kutoa kuonekana hizi siku nyingi? why [have] 
you [been] invisible, i.e., Why have you kept out of sight so 

Yupi mkuu wao? who [is] their chief? 

Nyama ya kifaro ngumu rrrno, rhinoceros meat [is] very tough. 

The Present Perfect has the meaning of has become. 

Manenoye yamekuwa uwongo, his words are become false. 
The Past Perfect must be used to translate was and 


Nilipokuwa Sultani, when I was Sultan. 

The English has or have been must be translated by 
a present. 

Nipo hapa siku nyingi, I have been here many days. 
The Imperative is used with an i prefixed. 
Iwe, be thou. Iweni, be ye.* 

In the negative present and with relatives si is used 
as ni and -li- are in the affirmative tense. The regular 
forms are also used, though but rarely. 

* The subjunctive forms uwe, mwe are commonly preferred in 
Zanzibar.— A. C. M. 


The verb to be is used in English sometimes to 
denote existence viewed as an ultimato fact, sometimes 
to denote existence in place and time, sometimes to 
d.'imtr . \istence as the possessor of certain qualities, 
or the doer or sufferer of certain acts. In Swahili these 
three uses are distinguished by the employment of 
di lie rent forms. 

The simple form of the verb is used only to denote 
existence as the possessor of qualities, or the doer or 
sufferer of acts. 

Existence merely in place and time, whether the 
place and time are in English expressed or no, is 
denoted in Swahili by the addition to the verb of -po, 
-mo, or -ho, as the case may be. See Eelatives, p. 120. 

He is at my house, Yulto kwangu. 
He is here, Yupo hapa. 
He is in the house, Yumo nyumhani. 
When he was here, AHpokuwapo hapa. 
Where are they ? Ziko wapit 

Existence viewed as a feet in itself is denoted by the 
addition of na to the vorb, being the same form as is 
used for the verbAto have. Na is joined to the personal 
prefixes to makeWie present tense, in all other tenses 
it is treated as aRparate word, and has generally the 
appropriate relative sign suffixed to it. 

Kiina mtu, there is a man. 
Kidikuwa na mtu, there was a man. 
Zinazo, they are. 
Zilikwwa nazo, they were. 

In Swahili there is properly no verb to have. They 
ploy for it huwa na, to be with. 

VERBS. 155 

Nina, I have. 
Nalikuwa na, I had. 
Nitakuwa na, I shall have. 
Niwe na, that I may have. 

Where the objective prefix would be used with an 

ordinary verb, the appropriate relative particle must 

be suffixed to the na as well as to the tense prefix. 

Ninazo, I have them. 
Aliyekuwa nazo, who had them. 
Alizohuwa nazo, which he had. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

The Verbs used as Auxiliaries are, Jcuwa, to be, Jcutoa, 
to take out, kuja, to come, hwisha, to come to an end. 

Can is represented by the appropriate tenses of 

Jcuweza, to be able. Must is expressed by sharti, of 

necessity, or by the negative tenses of Jcuwa na buddi, 

to have an escape from. 

Sina buddi, I must. 

Asiwe na buddi, that he may be obliged. 

After Jcuwa na buddi either the infinitive or subjunc- 
tive may be employed. 

OugJit may be represented by the tenses of Jcupasa, to 

concern, or, to come to concern. Should is expressed 

in the same way when it implies obligation, and by the 

contingent tenses when it expresses a contingency. 

Imenipasa hwenda, it concerns me to go, i.e., I ought to go. 
Imenipasa nisende, it concerns me that I go not, i.e., I ought not 
to go. 

Kupasa is also used as follows : — 

Haikunipasa mimi, it is no business of mine. 
Imekupasani ? What have you to do with it ? 
Amenipasa mimi, he is a connection of mine. 


May and might may be represented by Tcnweza where 
they imply power, by halali, lawful, where they imply 
lawfulness, and by the subjunctive where they imply a 

The use of Jcuja as an auxiliary has been mentioned 
under the -japo-, -ja-, and -sije- tenses, pp. 138, 145, Ids. 

Kutoa is used to convey a negation in cases where 
the regular negative tenses cannot conveniently be 

■\Yith the infinitive it is frequently contracted into 
-to-, and used as a mere formative. 

Kutoa kuja, or Kutohuja, not to come. 
Kutoa hup* nila, or Kutopenda, not to love. 

The meaning of these negative infinitives may be 
given as, putting out coming, barring coming, coming 
not happening. A transitive form may be made by the 
use of kutosha, to make to go out. 

Kutosha kumwuliza, to exclude asking him. 

In many cases kutoa may be translated by, to forbear, 
or, to neglect. 

Ametoa kuja, he has neglected coming, he has not come. 
Nikitoa kuja, if I forbear from coming, or, so long as I do not 

The negative tenses do not furnish a true present 
perfect. The past, hakuja, is, he did not come ; the 
present, haji, implies rather that he never will, that 
coming is not to be predicated of him at all. The 
difference between nisipokuja and nikitoa kuja is repre- 
sented in English by that between, if I come not, and, 
while I come not. In all cases the use of toa connects 

VEBBS 157 

the negation with the tense only ; the negative tenses 
imply that the opposite of the verb might be affirmed. 
Kwisha may often be translated by already. 

Amekwisha kuja, he has already come. 
Nimekwisha hula, I have done eating. 

It is used to strengthen the present perfect, convey- 
ing the meaning that something is not merely done, 
but fully done and over. 

A somewhat similar effect is produced on the present 
by using katika kwisha. 

Ni katika kwisha kula, I am finishing eating, I am just leaving 
off, I have very nearly done. 

Kuwa, to he, is used in Swahili very much as it is in 
English, the -ki- and -me- tenses of the principal verb 
being used as present and past participles. 

Nili nikienda, I continuing to be going. 
Nikali nikienda, and I am still going. 
Nikiwa nikienda, I being going, while going. 
Nikiwa nimekwenda, I being gone, having gone. 
Nikiwa nimekwisha kwenda, having already gone- 
Nalikuwa nikienda, I was going. 
Nalikuwa nimekwenda, I was gone, I had gone. 
Nalikuwa nimekwisha kwenda, I had already gone. 
Nitakuwa nikienda, I shall be in the act of going. 
Nitakuioa nimekwenda, I shall be gone. 
Nitakuwa nimekwisha kwenda, I shall have already gone. 
Nitakuwa niliokwenda, I shall be who has gone, I shall have 
gone, I shall have gone to or been at. 

Kuwa na, to have, is not used as an auxiliary. 

Derivative Verbs. 

There are four derivative forms which may be con- 
structed out of any Swahili verb, where in English 


we must use either another verb or some compound 

1. "What may he called the applied form is used in 
cases where in English a preposition would he em- 
ployed to connect the verb with its object. By the use 
of this form verbs which have things for their objects 
may be made to apply to persons. 

This form is made by inserting i or e before the final 
-a of the simple verb. I is used when the vowel of the 
preceding syllable is a, i, or u. E is used when the 
vowel of the preceding syllable is e or o. 

Kufanya, to make. Kufanyia, to make for. 

Kuleta, to bring. Kuletea, to bring for. 

Kusilcitika, to be sorry. Kuxikitikia, to be sorry for, to pity 

Kuolca, to bake. Kuohea, to bake for. 

Kuanguha, to fall down. Kuangukia, to fall down to. 

Where the simple verb ends in two vowels the sup- 
pressed I appears in the applied form. 

h'uzaa, to bear. Kuzalia, to bear to. 

Kukwea, to climb. Kukwelea, to climb for. 

Kusikia, to hear. KusiJcilia, to listen to. 

Kukarrdioa, to redeem. Kulcombolea, to redeem for. 

Kununua, to buy. Kununulia, to buy for. 

The following is a list of the monosyllabic verbs 
with their applied forms : — 

Kucha, to fear. Kuchdea, to fear for. 

Kufa, to die. Kufia, to die to. 

Kuja, to come. Kujia, to come to. 

Kula, to eat. Kulia, to eat with. 
Kunya, to fill (like rain). Kunyea, to fall upon. 

Kunywa, to drink. Kunywea, to drink with. 

Kuwa, to be. Kuwia, to be to. 

Kuza, to sell, makes Kuliza, to sell to. 

VERBS. 159 

Kupa, to give to, having already an applied meaning, 
has no applied form. There is a difficulty in expressing 
what would have been the meaning of the simple form. 
Kutoa is used for to give, in the sense of parting with. 
Such expressions as, which was given you, must be 
rendered by a change of person — uliopewa, which you 
had given to you, or, which you received. "Which he 
gave me, is very commonly rendered niliopewa naye. 

Verbs ending in -i and -u make their applied forms 
in -ia. 

Kufasiri, to explain. Kufasiria, to explain to. 

Kuharibu, to destroy. Kuharibia, to destroy for. 

The great paucity of prepositions in Swahili brings 
the applied forms of verbs into constant use. The 
only difficulty in their application lies in the exact 
discrimination of the meaning of the simple word. 
Many Swahili verbs imply in their simple form what 
can only be expressed in English by the use of a pre- 
position. Whenever a really good dictionary shall have 
been compiled it will supply all the necessary informa- 
tion. The applied form may be rendered by inserting 
any preposition which will suit the context. Thus, 
kushuhudia is, to bear witness about, for, or against, as 
the case may be, and kunenea, which means to speak 
about, may have to be translated by, to recommend, or 
to decry, to scold, or to describe. The simple word 
nena has in itself the force of to mention, so that it is 
not necessary to use the applied form as a translation 
of to speak of, where it means no more than to 

Sometimes the shape of the word will be a useful 


reminder to foreigners of its exact meaning : thus, 
Intpoiea, which may be roughly translated to lose, is in 
the Bhape of an applied form, and really is one, its 
exact meaning being, to become lost to. If, therefore, 
we want to say, I have lost my knife, the construction 
must be alii red iuto, my knife has become lost to me 
( hisu changu kimenipotea), the subject and object having 
to change places. 

Where in English a preposition connected with tho 
verb can stand by itself at the end of the sentence, the 
applied form must be used in Swahili. 

A knife to cut with, hisu rhn hukatia. 

Stones to grind wheat with, vmn-c y<>. knmrjia ngann. 

A place to come out at, mdhdli pa hutokea. 

A bag to put money in, mfuko wa kid ilia fetha. 

In these sentences the use of the possessive particle 
-a for the English to, denoting a purpose or employ- 
ment, must be observed and remembered. This particle 
turns what follows into a sort of adjective in this, as 
in all other cases in which it is followed by a word 
which is capable of denoting a quality. It is somewhat 
like the English expressions, a man of sense, a building 
of great solidity, dc. 

"When an applied form is followed by mbali it conveys 
the idea that as a consequence of the action denoted by 
the simple verb something is put out of the way, or 
got rid of. 

Afih, or Afie mhali, that, he may <lic out of our way. 
Twrwuoxdie mbali, let us kill him and done with it. 
Potelea mbali, perish out of my way = go and he hanged. 

The passive of the applied form has a meaning which 

VERBS. 161 

it requires some attention to remember and apply 
rightly, though it is strictly according to the rule that 
the object of the active becomes the subject of the 
passive voice. 

Kuletea, to bring to. Kuleteica, to have brought to one. 

Kufanyia, to make for. Kufanyiwa, to have made for one. 

It is often difficult in English to express this passive 
without using an altogether different word. What 
suggests itself at first to an English ear, that the 
passive of to bring to would be to be brought to, is wrong, 
and must be carefully avoided. Sometimes a change 
of prepositions will suffice to render the passive cor- 
rectly ; hupa may be translated to present to, and then 
hupewa is not to be presented to, but to be presented with. 

Passives made in -liwa and -lewa are used as the 
passives of both the simple and the applied form. 
Kufunguliwa may be used as the passive of kufungua, 
meaning, to be unfastened, or as the passive of kufun- 
gulia, meaning then, to have unfastened for one. It 
can never mean, to be unfastened for. If it is necessary 
to express a passive in that form it must be done by 
changing the construction. 

A cry was made at him, alipigiwa ukelele [he had made at him 

The door was opened for him, alifunguliwa mlango [he had 

opened for him the door]. 

2. The Causative form is made by changing the final 
•a into -sha or -za. 

Kupungua, to grow less. Kupunguzq, to make to grow less. 
Kuzidi, to grow greater. Kuzidisha, to make greater. 



When the final -a is preceded by a consonant the 
neral rule is to use the applied form as the basis of 
the causatrv e. 

nda, to like. Kuj 

Kufanya, to make. Kufanyiza, to o u -• bo make. 

Kupanda, to go up. Kupandisha, to make to go up. 

Verbs which etui in the simple form in -ta end in 
the causative form in -sa. 

Kutakata, to be clean. Kutakasa, to make clean. 

Verbs which end in -Tea may be turned into causa- 
tives by changing -Tea into -aha. 

Kuwdka, to be on fire. Kuwasha, to set on fire. 

Kula to be soft. Kulainwha, to make 

Kutoka, to go out. Kutosha, to make to ,^o out. 

Kushuka, to go down. Kushusha, to let down. 

The causatives of verbs ending in -e, -», or -m are 
constructed on the applied form. 

Kukaribu, to come near. Kukaribisha, to make to come near. 

3. The Neuter, or quasi passive form is made by 
changing the final -a into -lea. 

Ku ungua, to unfasten. Kufunguka, to be unfastened. 

Kuokoa, to save. Kuokoka, to be saved. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a consonant the 
neuter is constructed from the applied form. 

Kn ik. Kuvunjika, to be brokea. 

Kukata, to < lit Kukatika, to be cut. 

VERBS. 163 

Cansatives in -eha may be turned into neuters by 
changing -sha into -ha. 

Kustusha, to startle. Kustuka, to be startled. 

Verbs in -e, -i, and -u, construct their neuters on the 
applied forms. 

Kusamehe, to forgive. Eusameheka, to be forgiven. 

Eufasiri, to explain. Eufasirika, to be explained. 

Euharibu, to destroy. Euharibika, to be destroyed. 

The -ha form is used (like the English passive) to 
denote what is generally done or doable. 

Kulika, to be eaten, or, to be eatable. 

4. Eeciprocal forms are made by changing -a into 

Kupenda, to love. Eupendana, to love one another. 
Eupiga, to beat. Euptgana, to beat one another, to fight. 

Verbs in -e, -i, and -u construct their reciprocals 
upon the applied forms. 

Euharibu, to come near. Enkaribiana, to come near to one 


The reciprocal form of the -ha form may be translated 
by to be to be, &c. 

Eupatikana, to be to be got. 

Eujulikana, to be to be known, to be knowable 

Euoekana, to be to be eeen, to be visible. 

The derived forms are conjugated and treated in 
every way as though they were original words, and 
other derived forms may be made from them to any 
extent that may be required. 

M 2 



The applied form of an applied form generally sig- 
nifies i" '1" a thing to or for a person lor a purpose. 
Doubling the verb gives an idea of thoroughness. 

Eukata, to out. 
Kutafuta, to bi ek. 
Kuchafuka, to be in a mi 88. 

Kitpa*ul;a, to be torn. 

Kulatiha, to be cut. 

Kul.iitiikatu, to cut up. 
Kntii/uldtiii'iitii, to sick all about. 
KuchafvlkacTiafuka, to be all in a 

Eupasukapasfika, to be torn to 

KuJtatikahatika, to be all cut 


( 165 ) 


As it is necessary to put to before the English Verb to make the Infinitive, 
so it is necessary to prefix ku- to make the Infinitive in Swahili. Before 
.Monosyllabic Verbs the ku- bears the accent, and is retained in several o'f 
the tenses. See p. 149. 


Abase, thili. 

Abhor, chukia. 

be Able, weza. 

Abolish, batili, tangua, ondoska. 

Abound with, jaa. 

Absorb, nwa, pass, nwewa. 

Abstain from, epuka, epushwa (to 

be kept from). 
Abuse (by words), tukana. 
Accept, kubali, takabali, pokea (re- 

be acceptable or accepted, kuba- 
Accompany, fuatana na, andamaDa. 

(part of the way), siudikiza, adi. 
Accuse, tuhumu, shtaki. 
Accustom, zoeza. 

become accustomed, zoea. 
Ache, uma. 

My head aches, kitwa cbauma or 
Acknowledge, ungama, kubali, kiri. 
Acquiesce, nyarnaa, rithia. 
Acquit, acba. 

be acquitted, toka. 

Act, tenda. 

Adapt, fanya. 

Add to, ongeza, zidisha. 

Add up, jumlisba. 
Adjoin, tangamana. 
Adjourn, akirisba. 

stand over, akiri. 
be Adjudged, fetiwa. 
Adjure, apisba. 
Admire, penda. 

I admire him, amem'-^ideza. 
Admit, ingiza, acba kiuugia. 
Adorn, painba. 

Adorn oneself, fanya uzuri. 
Adulterate, gbosbi. 
commit Adultery, zini, zinga. 
Advance, endelea mbele. 

Advance money to a trader, ko- 
be Adverse, gomba, teta. 
Advise, pa shauri. 
Adze, cbonga. 
Affect to be, jifanya, jiona. 
Afflict, tesa. 

be Afraid, ogopa, cba (A.). 
Agitate, sukasuka. 



tm to an a i 

afikana, tuliliana, lekezanya, 
tnzanya (A.). 
mutually satisfied), rathiana. 
alih ), elekea, lingana. 

,. ogi fisha, ogofya, tisha. 
ofarnu d [ktf-]wa aa khofu, 
ingiwa Da khofu. 
. farakia 

'< d. farakana. 
a deft ct -in, umbua. 
Allot amongst many, awaza. 
. i ha, pa ruksa, 
. (neut .) badili, badilika, gcuka. 
'.) geuza, badili 
-■ . ajaabisba. 
a azed, toshea. 
1. lanyiza, t< iiireneza. 
(of a person refornihin), tulia. 
.l?/4/y.-.', zumgumza. 

Anchor, ti& nuIJ^a. 

r, tia hasira, ghathabi-ha. 

/, [kii-]\va na hasira, gba- 

[kii-]wa na pembe- 


' •  . hubiri 

sumbi a, sumbusha, taa- 
bisha, hatiki (A.). 

in . batili, ghairi 

- : "'/■ 'I. tanguJ 

• r. jibu. 

■'■■ r irl,, ,i called, itika, itikia. 
or, ''nea. 

• iharuki, taabika. 
Inxious, taharaki.-ha, taa- 

 (become ait. infidel), ku- 
Appear, onekana (become visible), 
tokt-a (come out to). 

Apply Out 8i If to. t< 

Appoint, nasibu, aini, chagua of 

teua («< led). 
Approach, kai Lbia jongea. 
Approach our another, karibiana. 
Bring near, jongoza, karibisha. 
Approvi . kubali, penda, rathi. 

ma, Bhindana (dispute 
Arise, ondoka. 
Arm. pa selalia. 

Arm oneself, twaa selafaa. 
Annuo,-, panga, andika, pangisha, 

ratibu, t'auya. 
be Arrogant, ghurika. 
Arrive, lika. wasili. 

arrive ut ones destination, knma. 
make to arrive, fikisba, wasilisba. 
reach a person, fikia, wasilia. 
Ascend, paa, kwea, panda. 
Ascertain, bakiki, uyuzi. 
be ascertained, kinika. 
be Ashamed, ona haya, tabayari. 
make ashamed, tia haya, tahaya- 
Ask, uliza, uza, saili. 
Ask for, laka. 

Make inquiries on behalf of any- 
one, ulizia, uuzia, sail i a. 
Ask how one does, uliza hali. 
Ask in marriage, posa. 
Assemble, (act.) kusanya, kutanisha. 
ut.) kutana, kusanyika, kusa- 
n y ana. 
Assent, kubali, itikiza, afikana, ra- 

Assert, sema. 

Hr asserts that he saw a ship, 

kamma alionajabasL 
He astt rt.< thai he walked on the 
water kamma alikvrenda mtoni 
kwu mguu. 



Astonish, ajabisha, taajabisha. 

be astonished, toshea, shangaa, 
taajabika, toshewa, ataajabu. 
Astound, sbangaza. 
Atone for, setiri. 

Attach, gandamia, gandamiza, am- 

be attached, ambatana (of things), 
arubisana (of people). 
Attach, shambulia. 

Attack people wantonly, [ku-]wa 
na jeuri. 
Attend (wait upon), ngojea, fuata. 

Attend to, sikia, pulika (A.), si- 

not to attend, ghafalika. 

refuse to attend, jfpurukusba. 
be Audible, sikiliana, sikizana. 
Avail, faa. 
Avoid, epuka. 

get out of the way of, epa. 

be avoidable, epeka, epukika. 
Avow, kubali. 
Aioake (neut.), aruka. 

waken (act.), amsha. 


Backbite, chongeleza. 
Betray, khini. 
Bake, oka. 

(pottery), tomea, chomea. 
Bale out water, vuta maji, teka 

Banish, fukuza (drive away), ondo- 

sha (make to go aivay), hamisha 

or tamisha (M.) or gurisba (A.), 

(to make to remove). 
Bar (a door), pingia. 
Bargain, fanya ubazazi. 
Bark (like a dog), lia. 
Barter, badili, awithL 

Batter (bruise), cbubuaobubua. 
be battered (like an old coppet 
pot), cbubukachubuka. 
Bathe, oga. 

Be, wa. See Irregular Verbs, p. 1 52. 
(to stay), kaa. , 

be on one's guard, [ku-]wa na 

be off one's guard, taghaf ali. 
Bear (fruit, children, &c), zaa, 
(carry), chukua, himili. 
(tolerate), vumilia, stahimili. 
bear with another person, chuku- 

Bear with me, niwie ratbi. 
bear witness, shubudu. 

about, for or against, sbuhudia. 
Beat, piga, puta, menya (Kiyao). 
Beat up together, funda. 
Beat to pieces, pouda. 
Beat a roof or floor, pigilia. 
be well beaten, piitika. 
be beaten upon (as a wreck by the 

waves), fuawa. 
See Conquer, Thresh. 
Beckon to, pungia nguo. 

The usual sign to beckon a person 
to come is to wave a cloth up 
and down. 
Become (be fitting), sulihi. 
Nimekuwa, I am become. 
Simekuwa, am I not become. 
The act of becoming is generally 
expressed by the present tense of 
the verb expressing the being in 
the state or possessing the quality. 
Become a fool, pumbazika. 
Beg, omba, bembeleza. 
(entreat), sihi, nasibi. 
I beg of you, tafathal. 
Beget, zaa. 

i< - 


J: in. ai 

/.'. gin upon, anzili a, 
/>'..;, . inuliki. 

/;. have, tenda. 
Behavt well, b nda wma. 
/: l \v. tenda v Lbaya. 
/;■'.! like an invalid, , 
11 j w  
Belrh, ongulia. 

/■'. !•■], out, kokouioka. 
Belit m . Badiki. 

/;. lu r, in. amini. 
/ f, (act. (neut.] pindana. 
j:. ,„l round, (act.) peta, («• »M 

petana, petemana. 
/: nddown,(act.)wandsh&,(neut.) 
/;. mi nth. faganza. 
Bequeath, wasia, a^hia. 
/;• siege, liusuru (Ar.). 
Bet, shindania. 
B< rare, angalia, [ku-]wa na ha- 

/.'< irilder, tekea. 

/;< iritch. fanyia uchawi, loga(Mer.). 
Bicker, papuriana. 
BitJ. See Com inn nil. 

Make a first bid, miinu. 
Bind, funga. 

Bind books, jelidi. 
Bind oneself, fanya sharti. 
Bind round (as when a stick is 
sprung), ganga. 
Bite, uma. 
Blab, payuka. 

,,e, laumu, tia batiyaiii, n< 

/./), patiliza (visit upon), 
karipia (call out nt). 
Blaze, waka. 

i. toka damu. 
(copiously), churuzika damu, tuza 
damn (M.). 

/.'/. ss, bariki (s-'( Copulate), barikia, 
■'. povua. 
/" ri//;(c blind, povuka. 
Block, kingamisha, pinga. 
Blos8om,to& maua (put forth flowers), 

fanuka (/" <v " )• 
Blow (as th' wind), vuma, vuvia. 
(with the mouth), puzia, puliza. 
(a horn, (fee), piga zomari, &c. 
(the nose), fata kaniasi. 

(/„ llows), vukuta 
/;/,./'• away, peperusha. 
Ill n ml* r, kosa. 

The Imife is blunt, ki-u hakipati, 
kisu ni kivivu (A.). 
lllm-t md. kokomoka. 
Blush, geuka (change colour). 

put to the blush, hizika. 
III. <ist. ii-ifu. jiganiba, tamba. 
Boil (bubble up), chc'mka, tutuma. 

coolc by boiling, tokosa. 

be cooked by boiling, tokota. 

be well boili d, tokoseka. 

boil over, furika. 
Bore tli rough, zua, pekeclia used 
also of boring with talk). 

with an awl, didimikia. 
Border, pakana. 
be Born, zawa, vyawa, zaliwa, vya- 

liwa, patbiwa. 
Borrow, azimwa, kiriflii. 
Bother, sumbua, hatika (A.)- 
Bow, (act.) inamisha, (neut.) inaraa. 
]'>"/ the ears, piga koii. 
Braise, kaanga. 
Bray (like an ass), lia 

pound in a mortar, pnnda. 

clean i-ura by pounding, twanga. 
Break, vunja, runda (M.)j (neut.) 
vunjika, katika. 



[Break'] through, toboa. 

into fragments, setaseta. 

by bending, ekua. 
to be sprung, ekuka. 

off the cobs of Indian corn, goboa, 

doicn the branches of a tree, kwa- 
nua, pass, kwauyuka. 

wind, jamba, ongulia. 
Breathe, pumua, puzia, tanafusi. 

inspire, paaza, pumzi. 

expire, shush a pumzi. 

hard, kokota roko, tweta (pant). 

breathe oneself (rest), pumzika. 
Breed, zaa, lia (M.). 
be Brilliant, ng'ara. 
Bring, leta. 

to or for, letea. 

Bring up, lea. 

Bring together, pambana. 

Bring near, jongeza. 

Bring to an agreement, patanisba. 

Bring to life again, fufua, huislia. 

Bring another ! Na ije ngine ! 
Brighten (act.), katua 

be bright, katuka (polished),^' ara 
Bruise, chubua. 

be bruised, chubuka. 

(batter), chubuachubua. 
Brush (clean), sugua. 

Brush off, epua. 
Bubble up, che'mka, tutuma. 
Bud, chupuza (spring), chanua(pw< 

forth leaves), mea (grow). 
Build, jeuga. 

in stone, aka. 

to point by ' putting in small 
stones, tomea. 

(ships), unda. 
Bully, onea. 
be a Burden to, lemea. 

Burn, waka (to be on fire), leketea 
(to be consumed), washa (to set 
on fire), teketeza (to consume), 
choma or chomea (to apply fire 
to), onguza (to produce a feeling 
of burning, to scorch). 

Burrow, fukuafukua. 

Burst, pasuka, tumbuka. 

Burst out, bubujika. 

Burst into tears, bubujika ma- 

Bury, zika. 

Buy, nunua, zabuni. 
Purchase for, nunulia. 
Buy bach, komboa. 

Buzz, like a bee, vuma. 


Cackle, like a hen, tetea. 
Call, ita, nena, taja (name), amkua 
(invite), lingana (A.). 
Call out to, pigia ukelele, pigia 

ukemi (Mer.). 
Call for help, piga yowe. 
Call to prayers, athini. 
become Callous, faganza. 
Calm, tuliza. 

be very calm, zizima. 
Can (kuweza, to be able). 
Siwezi, I cannot. 
Naweza, I can. 
Canter (of a horse), kwenka kwa 
mghad; (of a donkey) kweruia 
kwa thelth. 
Capitulate, selimu, sellim. 
Care (take care), angalia [kii-]\va 
na hathari. 
take care of, tunza. 
consider, waza, tafakari. 
be careless, [ku]wa mzembe. 
I don't care, haitkuru, mamoja 



y, chukua. 
. chukulia. 

on a ' r the shoulder, chu- 

kua mpikoui. 

on the lend or shoulders, pagaa. 

a child on (li< back, beba, 
astri/h on the hip or back, eleka. 
in front or on the lap, pakata. 

in a bundle or faggot, titika. 

off as spoil, teka. 

as cargo, pakia. 

on freight, takal>athi. 
Carve wood, &c, kata nakchi. 

cbora (adorn with carving). 

be carved, nakishiwa. 
Cad, tupa. 

upon or at. tupia. 

a g la nee, tupa nathirL 

one's eyes, tupa macho. 

{in a mould), it a. 

off all shame, jipujua. 

cast lots, piga or f'anya kura. 
Castrate, hasi. 
Catch, daka, nyaka. 

t'?t a trap, nasa, tega. 

_/?«/<, vua samaki. 

put som< thing in catch rain-water, 
kinga mvua. 

(see one who th inks himself unseen), 
fathehi, gundtfa. 

be in time to meet with, diriki. 
Caulk, kalafatL 
I in, pomoka. 

'e to cease, komesha. 
talking, mama/a. 
(of pain), nyamaza. 

kiza (uudi, &c). 
be Certain about, kinika, tasawarL 
( act.) geusba, geuza, badili, 
badilisha, (neut.) g<juka, ba'li- 

be changeable, badilibadili, ba« 

change one's mind about, gliairi. 
change (<i piece of money), vunja. 
Charge (direct), agiza, sisitiza (M.). 
Chase, winda, winga. 

away, fukuza. 
Chastise, atbibu. 
Chatter, puza. 

(of tin- 1 1 1 th), tetemeka. 
Cheapi n, rakhisisha. 
Cheat, danganya, hadaa, ghusubu. 
be cheated, danganyika, hadaika. 
Cheer, ondolea, huzuni. 
Chew, tafuna. 

Chirrup (as to a bird), fionya. Both 
word and thing are used in 
Zanzibar to express contempt. 
Clioke (throttle), kaba, sama. 
choke oneself with drink or spittle, 

palia na mate, &c, &c. 
irritate the throat, kereketa. 
Clwose, chagua, teua, khitari, penda, 
toa (send), 
as you choose, ikhtiari yako, upe- 
Chop, chanja (cut up), chinja or 
(M.) timla (cut), tema (slash), 
cbonga or tonga (cut to a point), 
katakata (chop up small). 
Circulate (intelligence), tangaza. 
I in it incise, tahiri. 
Claim, dai. 

Clap the hands, piga makofi. 
Clasp in the hand, shikana, kamata. 
in the arms, kumbatia, kumba- 
Claw, pa]>ura. 

■a, takasa, fanya safi, Bafisha. 

be clean, takata, safika, takasika. 

clean com by pounding, twanga. 

clean a second time, pwaya. 



[Cleaii] be quite clear of husks and 
dirt, pwayika. 

cotton, cloves, &c, chambua. 

cocoa-nuts from the husk, fua. 

by scraping, paa. 

cleanse by ceremonial ablutions, 

clean out from within a shell, 

clean out a man (get all his 
money), komba. 

be cleaned out (hse all one's 
money), kombeka. 
Cleanse. See Clean. 
Clear. See Clean. 

the sky is cZear,uwingu umetakata. 

(make clear or plain), eleza, yuza, 
fafanua, fafanulia. 

(be clear), elea, fafanuka, fafanu- 

ground in a forest, fieka nrwitu. 
Cleave, (split), pasua, cbenga. 

cleave to, gandama, ambatana. 
Click, alika, (act.) alisha. 
Climb, panda, kwea. 

a tree, paraga. 
Cling, ambata. 

together, guiana, ambatana, fu- 
ngamana, shikamana. 
Clip, kata. 
Close the eyes, &c, fumba. 

the fist, fumbata. 

a door, shindika. 

a book, funika. 
Clothe, vika. 
Coagulate, gandamana. 
Coax into, sbawishi. 
Cock (a gun), panza mtambo. 
Coddle, engaenga. 
Cohabit with, iugiliza. 
Cold. See Cool. 

be very cold, zizima. 

I have a cold in the head, siwezi 

Collect, kusanya, jamaa, (neut.) ku» 

sanyika, kutana. 
Comb, chana, cbauia. 
Come, ja, imp. njoo, pi. njooni. 
by, for, to, <fcc.,jia. 
to a person on a business, jilia. 
(arrive), fika, wasili. 
out, toka. 
in, ingia. 

upon (meet with), kuta. 
near, karibu, karibia, jongea, fi- 

Come near ! or Come in ! Karib ! 
Come no further ! Koma usije ! 
close to, "wasili, wasilia. 
together. See Assemble. 
to life again, fufuka, bui, huika. 
to an end, isha, koma, tekeza. 
be f idly come (of time), wadia. 
come to light, funuka, fumbnka. 
come to nothing (of plants, fruit, 

&c), fifia, pooza. 
come apart, katika. 
come out in a rash, tutuka, tutu- 

mka, tutusika. 
Comfort, fariji, tulizia robo (calm 

the soul), ondolea buzuni (taka 

away grief). 
Phrases used by way of comfort- 
ing : — 

Shukuru Muungu, thank God. 

Hemdi Muungu, praise God. 

Itoe buzuni, put aivay sorrow. 

Usiwe na buzuni, don't grieve. 
be comforted, farajika, sbiikuru 

Muungu, pendezewa, tawakaii 

(trust in God and take courage), 
be Comfortable, tengenea. 

I cannot be comfortable in tha 

house, nyumba hainiweki. 



Command, a'mru, arnbia (telT), 
Commission, agiza. [amrisha. 

Commit. Set Adultery. 
Compare, angalia kwamba ni sawa, 
pambanisha (bring together), 
parabanua (distinguish), linga- 
nislwt (match), fafanisha (make 
Compel, juliuru, lazimisha. 
Complete, timiza, timiliza, khati- 
ini.-ha, maliza (finish). 
complete one's education, liitimu. 
be complete, timia, tiniilia, islia 
!■■ h ml. See Understand. 
jua (know). 
kutana (take in), 
be compreht tided in, ingia. 
Conceal, setiri, iirha. 

be concealed, stirika. 
Concern, pasa. 
I Uiat* , patanisha. 
Condemn, laani (damn). 
Adi> fetiwa kuuawa, he was ad- 

judged to be hilled. 
Imempasa kuuawa, he ought to be 


I -■<■■ nd, nenyc-kea. 

lole, liana (join in a formal 
Conduct, peleka, leta, chukua. 
.-■-■ kiri, ungama, la'.ama. 
nfidt ni. tumaiui. 
have confidence, staamani. 
Confide in, amini, tumania. 
Confound, nhanganya (mix), batili 
be in Confusion, fathaika (of 
persons), chafuka (of things). 
Confuse, changanisha. 
put into confusion, fatbehL 
become confused, fathaika. 

Congeal, gandamana. 
I ratulate, furahisha, sbanfrilia. 
Connect, fungamana (tie together), 
ungana, nngamana. 

Conquer, shinda. 

( 'mis, crate, fanya wakf. 

Consent, kubali, rithia, penrla, ra- 

Consider, fikiri, tafakari, waza. 
Console (see Comfort), tuliza, tulizia 

Conspire, wafikana. 
Construct, jenga, jenzi. 
Consul/, taka shauri (ask advia ), 

fanya shauri (consult toy tin r). 
Consume, la, ttketeza (fry fire), 
be consumed, isha, lika, k-ketea 

(by fin ). 
Contain, chukua (contain as a bag 

does rice), 
be contained in, ingia, [ku-]wamo, 

'mna (it is contained in it). 
Contend with, skindana na, husumu. 
Content, rithika. 

be content, [ku-]wa rathi, kinayi. 
Continue, dumu, kaa, shinda (stay 

at work, &c). 
make to continue, dumisha. 
Contract, putiguza (lessen), fupiza 

(shorten), fanya ndogo (make 

small), kaza (press together). 
Contract, fanya shard (make a com.' 

tract), fanya ubazazi (make a 

Contradict, kanya wasa. 
< 'nut rot, a/./<al»iti.sha, zuia. 
Converse, zumgumza. 
Convert, geuza, fanya. 
Mwenyiezi Muungu ameimvo- 

ngoa, God has turned him from 

his evil way. 
to be converted, ongoka. 



Convince, <7rabutisba, iumainisha. 

become convinced, turnaini. 
Cook, pika, andaa. 

cook with fat, kaanga. 

cook without fat, oka. 

cook muhogo cut into small pieces, 

to become cooked enough, iva. 
Cool, (neut.) poa, poroa, (act.) poza 
(to cool by pouring backward 
and forward), zinnia (cool hot 
water by pouring in cold). 
Copulate, jami, tomba (vulgar). 

for the first time, bariki. 
Copy, nakili. fanya nakl. 

copy from, twaa ya. 
Correct, sahihi, sahihisha, rudi. 
Correspond (write to one another), 

Corrupt, haribu. 

go bad, oza, haribika. 
Cost, wakifu, simama. 

cost to, wakifia, siinamia. 
Cough, kohoa. 

Count, hesabu, wanga (Mer.), ba- 
Cover, funika, setiri. [zibu. 

as with a flood, funizika. 

cover, with leaves, put into embers, 
&c), vumbika. 

be covered, stiiika. 
Covet, tatnani. 
Crack, tia ufa. 

as the earth does in dry weather, 

become cracked, ufa. 
Crash, fanya kishindo. 
Crawl, tambaa. 
be Crazy, zulu. 
Crease, kunjia. 

be creased, kunjika. 
Create, nmba. 

be created, hulukiwa. 

Creep, tambaa. 

Crinkle up, finyana. 

be Crooked, potoka, komboka. 

Cross (lie across), pandana. 

(cross a river), vuka, kwenda 
ng'ambo ya pili. 

(cross a room), kwenda upande 
wa pili. 

get cross, vnna. 

be cross at having anything to do, 
Crow, wika. 

Crucify, sulibi, sulibisba. 
Cruize, vinjari. 

Crumble, (act.) fikicba, (neut.) fu- 
Crush, seta, ponda. [jika. 

crush and bruise one another, 

crush up, setaseta. 

crush in, (act.) bonyesha, (neut.) 
Cry, lia. 

cry about, lilia. 

cry out at, pigia, ukelele, karipia. 

cry for help, piga yowe. 

cry for mercy, lalania. 
Cultivate, lima. 
Cup, umika. 
Curdle, uandamana. 

curdled milk, maziwa mabivu. 
Cure, ponya, poza, ponyesba. 

make better, fanya ashekali. 

be cured, poa, pona. 

cure fish, &c, ng'onda. 
Curse, laani, tukana. 
Cut, kata. 

cut obliquely, kata hanamu. 

cut for, cut out for, katia. 

cut up, clianja, chenga. 

cut to shreds, pasukapasuka. 

be cut off from one another, ti- 



' . chachaga. 
Damagi , Inribu. 
Damn, laani, laanisha. 
. cheza. 
dance for joy, randa. 
Dare, tAubntu, weza, jasirisha. 
Dark' n, tin iriza. 
Darn, tililia. 
Daub, jiaka. 

kuna kwoupe, to he qrey dawn, 
pambazuka or pambauka, b" 
Dazzle, choma. 

I h e eyes are dazzled, macho yame- 
fanya kiwi. 
Deal in (trade in), fanya biashara 
ya, ice. 
Deal cards, trawa karata. 
Decay, haribika, oza. 
Decease, fariki. 
J 1 ive, danganya, padaa. 
deceive by promises, ongofya. 
be deceived, hadaika. 
Decide, kata maneno. 
Deck out, hamba. 
Declare, thihirisha, yuza. 
Decoy, patia or twalia kwa che- 

J i rease, pungua, punguza, pu- 

!)■ dicate, fanya or wekea wakf. 

t. vunja, kimbiza (put to 
to be defeated, vunjika, kiinbia. 
Defend, linda. 

guard oneself, kinga. 

. bikiri. vunja, ungo. 
■.id, thulium. 
1 '• ign, kubali, aeiiyi I 

Delay, (neut) kawia, kawa, fawiti. 

(net.) weka, kawisha. 
be Delirious, papayuka. 
oer, okoa, vna, toa. 
be delivered, vuka, okoka. 
Demand, taka. 

nand in marriage, posa. 
Demolish, vunja, haribu. 
Deny, kana, kaniska. 

deny to a person, nyiraa, hini. 
(refuse), kataa. 
deny all credence to, katalia. 
Depart, ondoka, toka, euda zangu, 
zako, &c. 
Depart from me! Oudoka ml 

yangu ! 
depart from (be alienated front), 
Depend upon, [kii-]wa na. 
Kunaye, depending upon him. 
fungamana na, be connected with. 
fuata, be a dependant. 
tungikwa, hang from. 
Depose, uzulu, uzulia. 
Depreciate (act), khashifu, umhua. 
Deprive of, twalia. 
Deride, cheka, chekea, kufuru, 

fanyizia mzaha. 
Descend, shuka. 
Describe, andika, fafanulia (by L 

ing), parabanulia (by distin- 
Desert, acba, hujuru. [guishing. 
Deserve, stahili. 

deserve well of, fathili. 
Desire, taka, ipa, tamani (long for), 

penda (like). 
Desolate, vunja, haribu. 
Despair, kata tamaa. 
Despise, tweza, tharau (pass, tha- 

rauliwa), hakirisha. 
Destroy, haribu, vunja. 
be destroyed, haribika, vunjika. 



Detain, kawisha, weka. 

Deter, kataza, zuia. 

Determine, yakinia, azimu, kaza. 

determine a matter, kata maneno. 
Devise, fanya sbauri. 
Die, fa, fakiri, ondoka katika uli- 
mwengu, toweka (A.), tekeza. 
make to die, fisha. 
lose by death, fivva na. 
Dig, chiiuba. 

dig out or away, chimbna. 
fukua, cut a small hole fit to 
receive a post. 
Dignify, tukuza. 

become dignified, or be raised to 
dignity, tukuka. 
Dilute, tia maji. 
Dim, tia giza. 

Diminish, (neut.) pungua, punguka, 

tilifika, (act.), punguza, tiliii- 

Dip, chovya. [ska. 

dip and leave in, cboveka. 
Direct, agiza (commission), ambia 
(tell), amuru (order), fundisha 
(instruct), vuska (put into the 
right way). 
Disagree, gombana, tetana. 
Disappear, toweka. 

(as a scar, &c), fifia. 
Disarrange, ckafua. 
Discharge from an obligation, feleti. 
Discover, vumbua. 
Discriminate, pambanua. 
Disembowel, tumbua, tumbuza. 
Disgrace, aibiska, bizika. 

be disgraced, aibika. 
Disgust, ckukiza. 

be disgusted, cbukiwa. 
Dish up, pakua. 

When you wish a meal to be served 
you should say, not pakua, but 
lete cliakula. 

Dislocate, teuka. 
Disquiet, fatbaisba. 

be disquieted, fatbaika. 
Dismiss, likiza, ondoa. 
be dismissed, tolewa. 
Disobey, asi. 

Disorder (put things in disorder), 
put an army in disorder, fathaisha. 
be in disorder or dishabille, cba- 

be all in disorder, cbafukacbafuka. 
Dissipate, tainpanyatapaiiya. 
Distinguish, pambanua. 
Distort, popotoa. 

Distress (put in low spirits), kefya- 
be in distress, thii. 
Distribute, gawanya. 

Don't disturb yourself ! Starebe ! 
Disunite, farakisha. 

be disunited, epukana, farakiaua. 
Dive, zama. 
Divide, tenga, gawa, gawanya, kata, 

Divorce, acba, tokana, taugua ridoa. 
Do, fanya, tenda. 

I have done nothing, sikufanya 

He has done nothing at all, baku- 

fanya lo lote. 
be done or doable, tendeka. 
do (be of use), faa. 

It won't do, haifai. 
do anything slowly and carefully, 

do wanton violence, busudu, fanya 

be done (finished), isba. 
be done (cooked), iva. 



]>■'!', piswa. 
Double, nullity:!. 

/' inya tashwishi [kii-"]wa aa 

There is no doubt, bapana sliaka. 
]><■:.<■. Mii/ia. 

wake up suddenly from a doze, 
zinduka, ztndukaaa. 
Drag, kokota, burura (haul along), 
drag out of one's hand, chopoa, 
Drain out, churukiza, churuzika. 
Draw, vuta. 

Dniir water, teka maji. 

Draw together, kunyata. 

Draw near, karibu, karibia, kari- 

Draw a line, piga mstari. 
Draw out nails, &c, kongoa. 
Draw breath, tanafusi. 
Draw in tin breath, paaza pumzi. 
Draw up th<' earth round growing 

crops, ] ml ilia. 
Draw the end of the loin cloth 
between th has and luck it in, 
piga uwinda. 
Dread, ogopa, ogopa mno. 
Dream, ota. 
J i  88, vika. 

Dress in, vaa, jit in. 
Dress up, paraba, jipoloa. 
Dress ship, paraba merikebu. 
J/,* 88 Pi ;/' tables for the mark' t, 
Drift, cliukuliwa. 

J /rink, nwa, or nywa; pass, nwewa. 
Drip, t'Jita. 

Drive, ongoza (lead, conduct), chu- 
nga (as a shepherd), fiikuza 
(drive away), fukuzia (drive away 
from), kirabizia (make to run 
away from). 

Drop (down), (neut.) anguka, (art.) 
into,(neut.) tumbukia, (act.) tum- 

(like leaves in autumn), pukutika. 
(fall in drops), torta. 
drop from, little by little, dondoka. 
Drown (act.) tosa, (neut.) tota, t'a 

he Drunken, lewa. 

Dry, (neut.) kauka, nyauka, (act.) 
becmiu- dry by water leaving it, 

pwa, pwea, pwewa, 
be left high and dry. pweleka. 
put out to dry, anika. 
dry or cure fish, ng'uuda. 
Dupe, dangauya. 
Dust, l'ula vumbi. 
/'c, //. kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 
Dwindle, kunjana, pnnguka, anga- 

mia (go down in the world). 
Dye, tia rangi. 

kutona liina, to lay on henna so 
as to dye the part red. 


Earn, pata. 

Ease, fariji, sterehisba. 
become easy, farajika. 
Ease oneself, kuuya. 
Eat, la. 
in, with, for, &c., Ha. 
be eaten or eatable, lika. 
have eaten enough, shiba. 
eat at the expense of each one in 

turn, la kikoa. 
eat where each contributes some- 
thing to the feast, la kwa ku- 
eat all the food away from others. 



Ametuima, he has eaten it all up 

before we came, 
overeat oneself, vimbiwa. 
make a person eat too much, 

eat without bounds, papia. 
eat over voraciously, la kwa pupa. 
Ebb, pwa. 
be Eclipsed, patwa. 
Educate, funda, fundisha, alimisha, 

adibu, or tia adabu (teach good 

manners), lea (bring up). 
Elongate, ongeza urefu. 
Embalm, tia madawa asioze. 
Embark, panda (go on board), ta- 

hassa (go on board with the 

intention of sailing). 
Embrace, panibaja, kumbatia, ku- 

Embroil, tia matata. 
Emerge, zuka. 

Employ, tuma (send about), tumia 
• (make use of), tuniika (be 

Empty out, mwaga, ntwaya. 
Enable, wezesha, jalia. 
Encamp, tua (put down loads). 
Encourage, tia moyo, thubntisha. 
End, (neut.) isha, konia, (act.) mali- 

za, komesha, khatimisha. 
Endow with, wekea wakf. 
Endure, islii (last), vuniilia (bear 

with), stahiniili. 
Enervate, tboofisha. 
Engage, afikana, twaa, fanya sharti. 
Engender, zaa, vyaa. 
Enjoy, furaki, ona raha, furahiwa na. 
Enlarge, ongeza, zidisba. 
Enlist (act), tia asikari 
be Enough, tosh a, toshelea. 
It is enough, bassi. 
have had enough food, sbiba. 

Enquire, uliza (ask), huji (enqu ■> 
into), hakiki (make sure about), 
ulizia (enquire on account of). 
Enrage, ghathabisba. 

be enraged, ghatbabika. 
Enrich, pa utajiri. 
Enslave, tia utumwanL 
Ensnare, tega. 
Entangle, tia matata. 
Enter, ingia. 
Entice, vuta kwa cherevu, twaa kwa 

Entreat, omba, sihi, nasihi. 
Entrust, wekea amana, amini rutu 
na kitu. 
be equal to (an undertaking, &c), 
Equalize, sawanisha, sawazisha, 
fanya sawasawa, linganisba (by 
Erect, siinikisha. 
Err, kosa, kwenda hapa na hapa 

Escape, okoka (be delivered), pona- 
(to get icell), vuka (to get across). 
kimbia (run aivay), fiatuka (to 
escape as a spring, to get free). 
Establish, tengezeka (?). 
Estimate, kadiri, kisi. 
Evaporate, nwewa. - 
Exalt, inua (lift), tukuza, atbiraisha. 
be exalted (great), tukuka, athi- 
Examine, onja (taste), tafiti, fatiishi, 

sayili (by questions). 
Exceed, pita. 
Excel, pita. 
Except, toa, tosha. 
Exchange, barlili. 
Excite, taharrakisba, fitini. 

be excited, hangaika. 
Excuse, uthui-u. saniebe (pardon). 



'■ . /urn. 
. j-i reia authority on r, hukumu. 
. fanya jubudi, jitahidi. 
•nya, nabibisba. 
/ cist by m • . punga. 

ua, krmjua (unfold), 
ridi (increase), linmka or 
kuuduka (beeorm opt n ). 

. tumaini. 
Expt I. toa, fukuza, 

il sjiiril laj music, &c, 
punga pepo. 
Expi ii'l upon, be at the expt n 

Explain, eleza, pambanua, fasiri, 
tafsiri, fumbulia, panibanulia 
(explain to), tambulLsba (make 
la ;•• cognise). 
Explode, pasuka (burst), waka 

Explort . iUtii.slii, jiinisi, angalia. 

I, I 
Express, thahiri, baini. 

( press out), kamua. 
Extend, (act.) . nyosha, (neut.) fika 
{reach to), kunjuka, euea (be 
spread over). 
Exterminate, og'oa pia yote (root up 
inguish, zinia, ziniia. 
o out, zimika. 
Extort, pokonya. 
Extol, -ifu. 
1. stiicaU Jrom, toa na, namua 

Mb r.). 
Exult, turahi. 


Fade, fa. kauka, fifia (pine away), 
pukutika (wither and 'ho/,), 
fika (grow weal: <m<l thin I. 
Fat7, pu:iguk t. 

Faint, zimia roho. 
/•Vi//. anguka. 

/a// K&e Mi/yi. nya. 

cause rot'ji to fall, nyesha, 

/a?£ into, turubukia. 

let fall into, frumbuMza 

fall flat an Hi' ground, lala inchi. 

fall in (car, i,, ). pomi 

fall short, punguka, tindika (A.). 
fall sick, ugua, 
Fall' r, sbangbaa, sita. 
Fan, pcpea. 
Fancy, kumbuka, fikiri. 

fancy oneself, jiona. 
Fast, fuDga. 
break a fast, or eat after a fast, 
Fasten, i'unga. 
Fatten (get fat), nona (of animal*), 

nenepa (of men). 
Fatigue, chosha, taabisha. 

be fatigued, choka, taabika. 
Favour, pendelea. 
Fear, ogopa, cba (A.), [ku-Jwa na 
be fearless, peketeka. 
Feast, keiimu. 
Feed, lislia. 
ca use to be fed, lishisba. 
put morsels into a friend's mouth, 
Fi i ', ona (perceive), papasa (touch). 
Feign, jifanya. 
F> II, kata. 
Fence, fanya ua. 
F< ml off a boat, tanua tnashua. 
Ferment, cliacha. 

J': rry over, vusba, vukidba, abirisha. 
Ft tch, leta. 
Fight, pigana. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 



Fill, jaza. 
fill, in [a hole], fukia. 
becornt full, jaa. The passive is 

used for being filled with some 

extraneous substance. Mtungi 

umejaa maji, the jar is full of 

water, but, maji yamejawa na 

dudu, the water is full of 

be half full (by remaining), shi- 

nda, maji yashiuda ya mtungi, 

the jar is half full of water, 
fill up, jaliza. 
fill with food, shibisha. 
to be full, to have had enough, 

Find, ona, zumbua, vumbua, pata, 

be to be found, zumbukana, pati- 

find out in a trick, fatbehi, 

be found out, fetheheka. 
find fault with, tia batiyani. 
Finish, (act.) maliza, (neut.) isba, 

finish off, tengeneza, tengeleza. 
finish a journey, koma. 
finish a scholar, bitimisba. 
Fire (set on fire), tia moto, wasba 

(apply fire to in any way), cboma. 
a gun, &c, piga buuduki, &c. 
Fish, vua samaki. 

fish a spar, &c, ganga, tia gango. 
Fit, faa (do well). 

Ni kiassi cbangu kama nalika- 

tiwa mimi, it fits as though it 

had been made for me. 
Fix, kaza. 

fix the eyes upon, kodolea. 
Flame, waka, toa ndimi za moto. 

Flap, piga 

make a sail flap by going too near 
the wind, pigiza tanga. 
Flash (lighten), piga umeme. 
Flatten, tandaza. 
Flatter, sifu, sifu mno, jipendekeza 

(ingratiate oneself with). 
Flavour, to get the right flavour 
Flay, chuna, tuna (M.). [kol< a 

lose the skin, cbunika, tunika (M.). 
Flee, kimbia. 

be Flexible, pindana, [kii-]wa laiui. 
Flicker, sinzia. 
Flinch, jikunja, ruka. 
Fling, tupa. 
Float, elea, ogolea. 
Flog, piga. 

Flood, gbarikisba,furika,tawanyika, 

be flooded, ghariki. 
Flourish, sitawi, fana, fanikiwa. 

make to flourish, sitawisba. 
Flow, pita (flow by), toka (flow 
out), bubujika (to burst and 
bubble out). 
Flower, toa maua. 
Flurry, zulisba. 
Flutter, papatika. 
Fly, ruka. 

fly off, puruka. 
Fold, kunja. 

fold together, kunjana. 

fold in the arms, kumbatia. 
Follow, fuata, andama (M.). 

follow a pattern, oleza. 
become Foolish, pumbazika. 
Forbid, gombeza, kataza. 
Force (see Compel), tia nguvu. la- 

He was forced to ao, alikwenda 
kwa nguvu. 

Force open, pepetua. 

N 2 



i. tabiri, bashiri. 
How has this year been predicted 
Mwaka bun ami 

\\ :ijc? 

Forft it, lazimishwa. 
I,, forfi Hoi by, i otea. 

iron, &c, i'ua ohuma, &c. 
weld on it tun- point or edge, tam- 

En forgottt n, Bahauliwa. 
Forgive, -: imi hi . achilia, mwafa. 

Forgive me, niwie rathi. 
J \ rsah . acha. 

Fortify, tia boma (jptd a rampart). 
Foster, lea, lisha. 

/Y-e (/rom slavery), wvLi Of acha 

(from prison), acba, fungua. 

/.. ft free (from prison), tokana. 
Freeze, ganda, gandamana. 

/ .;//</. 

payfn ightfor, takabathisha. 
raT-ry o/i fn ight, takabathi. 
hten, ogofya, tia khofu, ogo- 
fisba, kkofisba, tisba. 
become frightened, ingiwa na 

startle, stusha, kutusha. 
/ ront, kabili, lekea. 

jmt in front of, lekeza. 
Frown, kunja ubo, kunja \ ipaji. 
//. has a frowning face, ubo una- 
Frustrate, batili, vunja. 
J<V!/. kaa 

Fulfil, tiroiza, timiliza. 
fuljii a promise, fikiliza ahadl 
rl sails, kunja matanga. 
Furnish a house, pamba nyuiuba. 


Oain, pata, pata fayida. 

GaUop, piga mbio. 

Oape, piga nyayo, funua kinwa. 

GorfcZe ''7'"', *c-> chagua sanda- 

ru^i, &c. 
Gather (fruit), rbuma 
into n heap, zoa. 

fft< r (ac*.)i knsanya, kntani- 
sha, jamaa, jamii 
togi ther (neut.), kusanyika, kuta- 

up into a small spun-, fim 
ones, If up for on e/orf,jitutumui 
Kttle 6j/ Kftfe, lumbika. 
»p one's courage, piga moyo 
Gi ?</. 
be Genial (good-humoured and 

nj), changa'rnka. 
(!< t. pata. 
gf ( / hi tier, pona. 
y. / a little better, [ku-]wa ashe- 

get drunk, lewa, jilevya. 
get dry, kauka. 
get fire by working one stick 

against another, pekecha 
get for, patia. 

gt t foul of one another, pambana. 
get goods on credit in order to 

trade with them, kopa. 
gt t into, ingia. 
get into a well, a scrape, &c, (art.) 

tmnbukiza, (neut.) tunibukia. 
get into a passion (neut.), ingiwa 

na gbatbabu or basira. 
get into a quarrel (act.), vunibilia 

get [seeds] into the ground, vu- 

get mouldy, fanya vikungu. 



get out, toka. 

get out of the way, jitenga. 
Out of the way ! Siniilla ! 
get out of one's sigltt, tokornea. 
get palm wine, gema. 
get ripe, iva. 

get thin and watery, poroa. 
get through, (neut.) penya, (act.') 

get up, ondoka. 

rise to (a person), ondokea. 
get up or upon, panda. 
get well, poua, poa. 
be Giddy, levyalevya. 
Gild, chovya. 
Give (a thing), toa. 
(to a person), pa, %>ass. pewa, to 

give a complaint to, ambukiza. 
give a taste, an inkling, or a little 

specimen, dokeza. 
give bad;, rudisha. 
give into the hand, kabithi. 
give leave to, pa ruksa or rukusa, 

give light to, tia rmvangaza. 
give mutual gifts, pana. 
give presents to, tunza, tunukia. 
give rations to, posba. 
give room or space, nafisisha. 
give to drink to, nywesba. 
give to eat to, lisba. 
gii-p trouble, raabisba, fanya inda, 

give way under one, bonyea. 
Give way (roiv) ! Vuta ! 
Glance, natbiri, tupa inacbo or na- 
tbari (cast the eyes or a glance). 
Glare at, ng'ariza. 
Gleam, mulika, ng'ara. 
Glide, tiririka, teleza. 
Glisten, zagaa. 

Glitter, metameta, mekameka, me- 

riraeta, mulika. 
Glorify, tiikuza, sifu. 
Glow, ng'ara. 
Gnaw, guguna. 
Go, enda, enenda. 
you can go, ruksa. 
go after or for, endea. 

(follow), fuata. 
go alongside, parnbana. 
go ashore (of a ship), panda. 
be left high and dry, pweleka, 
pwewa na maji. 
go ashore (of a person), sbuka. 
go away, enda zangu, zako, zake, 
zetu, zenu, zao, according to 
the person. 
toka ondoka. 
go away from, acha, toka. 
go back, rudi, regea. 
go backward, endelea nyuma. 
go bad, oza. 
go before, tangulia. 
go before a judge, enda kwa 

go behind, fuata. 
go by, pita. 

go crooked, patoa, potoka. 
go forward, endelea nibele. 
go free, toka. 
go into, ingia. 
go marketing, enda sokoni. 
go off (like a spring), riatuka. 
go on (not to stop), fuliza, tuza, 

go on (icith a icork), sbimda. 
go on board, panda. 
go on board in order to sail, ta- 

go on with by turns, pokezana. 
go out, toka. 
(like a cajidle), zimika. 


£W All 111 HANDBOOK. 

!!■ has none mil for th 
amekw< ada sbinda. 
go oxn r, vi i' 
go past,  

go quickly down a steep place, 
ti I 'mka. 

ig, « ada mbio. 
.;.. to '-'/" nse about or upon, gha- 

,;.. to tru  t, laki. 

 it with shouting and joy, 
qr> ft i law with, teta. 
go up (neuL), paa. 
(act.) kwea, panda. 
kind, l'ana. 
piga pembe. 
Govern, tawala, miliki. 
Grant to, pa, jalia, ruzukn. 
', ipple, kamafana, sliikana. 
!-/,. ,-liika, fumbata. 
.. paruza. 
Graze, paruga, kwaruza. 
graze one another, paruzana. 

<ireat (of a person , tuknka. 

bi <>nme great to or hard for, kulia. 

Greedy, fkii-]wa na robo or 

choyo, fanya tamaa (be greedy 


. .-alimu, salimia, amkua, ba- 


e, (act.) sikitisha, tia huzuni. 
 rfMtika, ingiwana huzuni 
a meno. 

'/ coarsely, paaza. 
• i, Dgua. 
groan at, zomea. 
Grope, papasa. 

,kua (to become 
large), mea (of plant*, to grow 
or be growable). 

What is to b< grown herel Kill- 
mo oha nini ? 

grow to its full size, pea. 

become/uH-^roum, pevuka,komaa. 

grow up quickly, vuvumka. 

not to grow (of seeds), fifia. 

grow large enough to bear fruit, 

grow fat, nenepa (of persons), 
nona (of animals). 

gron- thin and lean, konda. 

groio larger, kua, kitliiri. 

groio less, pungua, tilifika, 

make to grow large, kuza. 
Growl, nguruina. 
Grudge, bini. 

grudge at, husudu. 
Unliable, nung'unika. 
Grunt, guna. 
Guarantee payment of a debt, ba- 

a result, tadariki. [wiii. 

Guard, linda, tunza, liami, ngoj< a. 

guard oneself against a blow, 
Guess, babatisba, kisi, thani. 
Guide, onyesha ujia (.<how the way), 

peleka (take). 
Gulp, gugumiza. 

gulp down, ak'ia. 


Ildlt, tua (put down burdens), si- 
mama (stand), sita (go lamt . or 
to stop), chechemea (to put one 
foot only flat on the ground). 

Hammer, gongomea (hammer in), 
fua pass, fuawa (beat as uilli a 

Hang, angika (as against a wall), 
tungika (be suspended), tu« 
ndika, aliki. 
(strangle), nyonga, Bonga. 



Happen, tukia. 

Which happened to him, kilicho- 
Harass, sumbua, uthi, utliia, clio- 
koza, sumbusha. 
be harassed, sumbuka, utkika. 
Harm, thuru, hasara. 

No harm .' Haithuru ! 
Harpoon, paga. 
Hasten, (act.) harakisha, himiza. 

(neut.) fanya hinia, haraka. 
Hatch, ongua, zaliwa, onguliwa (be 
hatched), angua (break the 
Hate, chukia, buothu, zira (M.). 
Have, [ku-]wa na (see p. 154). 
(possess), miliki. 
on board, pakia. 
power over, weza. 
in one's debt, wia. 
To have things done for one, is 
expressed by the passive of the 
applied form (see p. 161). 
Hawk about, tembeza. 
Heal, poza. 

be healed, poa, pona, ongoka. 
Heap up, kusanya, fanya fungu. 
Hear, sikia, pulika (A.). 

hear one another, sikilizana, pu- 

be to be heard, sikilikana. 
Hearken, sikiliza, pulika. 
Heat (get hot), pata moto. See 

Heave the log, tia batli. 
be Heavy. See Weigh down. 
Help, sayidia, auni. 
Hem, kunga. 

Hesitate, skangaa, sita, ingiwa na 
shaka (get into doubt), 
in speaking, babaika. 
Hide, ficba, settiri, sita (A.). 

You have hid the cap from me, 

umenifieha kofia. 
You have hid my cap, umenifi- 
cbia kofia. 
Hinder, zuia, pinga, fawili. 
Hint, dokeza. 

Hire, ajiri, panga (to rent). 
Hit, piga, pata. 

with a spear or arrow, fuma. 
Hoard, weka, weka akiba. 
be Hoarse, pwelewa sauti. 

I am, hoarse, sauti imenipwea. 
Hoe, lima. 
hoe up, palia. 

cause to be hoed, palililiza. 
Hoist, tweka. 

Hold, shika, kamata, fumbata 
(grasp), zuia (hold in), zuilia 
(hold off from), 
hold in the mouth, vuata. 
hold one's clothes or hands be- 
tween one's knees, ijata. 
hold a public audience, or council, 

hold up (not to rain), anuka. 
hold in contempt. See Scorn. 
Hollow out, fukua. 
Honour, heshimu, pa hesbima, 

Hop, rukanika. 

Hope, taraja, tumaini (feel con- 
I hope, roho yatumai. 
Humble, tbili, hakiri. 

be humble, nenyekca. 
Hunger, [kii-]wa na njaa. 

be ravenously hungry, rapa, lapa. 
I am very hungry, njaa inaniu- 
Hunt, winda, winga, saka. 
Hurry, haraka, himiza. 
Hurt, unia, umia, umiza. 



(Indian *>rn), nnnva, anilma 


»fe), fua. 
(or shell), papatua. 

be III H. Illness is expressed 

by the use of the n< gative pri s< nt 
of th verb kuweza, to &< 
Siwezi, I am ill. Ilawezi, he is 
ill, &c. Nalikuwa siw> zi, / 
was HI. Alikmva Lawezi, he 
was ill, &c. 
I Lure been ill for two months, 
Biwi zi yapata miezi miwili 

Imitate, ol< za, iga, fuata. 
rse, zamisha, chofya. 

Implore, pembeleza. 

}•■ Impossible, toa kufanyika. 
It is impossible, haiyamkini. 

Imprecate against, apiza. 

Imprison, Ida gerezani, funga. 

Improve, fci ngeleza, Bilihi, eitawisba. 

Incline, (neut.) inama, (act.) ina- 
incline to (like), penda. 

Increase, (act.) ongeza, siidisha. 
(neut.) ong( zeka, zi«li, kitliiri. 
/,<</< Med to, wiwa na. 
<lge in, zoeza, jizocza. 

Infect, ambuMza. 

Inform, arifu, hubiri, pa habari. 
/,i letter-writing arifu is a// 
employed, on other occasions 
kupata or kmva na habari is 
generally used for to be in- 
formed, and ambia (till) for to 

I rai If, jipendekeza. 

Inhabit, kaa, keti. 

Inherit, lilltL 

Injure, hasira, hasiri, hasirislia 

In injured, hasirika. 
Innovate, zua. 

In [/njui-iiliri , taflti. 

in- /:• •■!. kagua. 

Instruct, fundisha, funza, elemisha. 
It, Bhitumu, tukana, ohokoza. 

fnti nil. kusudia (purpose), azuau or 
azimia, or yakinia (r< solvi l, 
nia, or ania, or nuia (have in 
one's mint!). 

fnti r. zika. 

I nli rcedefor, ombea. 

Interpret, fasiri, tafsiri. 

Interrupt, zuia, katiza, hanikiza, 
utbia (bother). 

Tit tf i.rirnt,; lcvya. 
become intoxicated, leva. 

Intrude, fumania. 

Cuing into another person's home 
fur an unlawful purpose (ku- 
fisidi), or icithout lawful, /im- 
pose (ku-fmuaniana), bars lnj 
the law of Zanzibar any cla im 
on the part of the intruder in 
respect of any assault or injury 
while there. 

Inundate, gbarikisha, furika (swell), 
tawanyika (spread). 

Invade, shambulia. 
tit, lumi, zumbua. 

I n '■ ili\ ita, alilcu. 
invite to come in, karibisha. 

Irrigate, tia maji, nywesha. 

Irritate, tia hasira, gkathabisha, 
kasirisha, chokoza. 

Itch, — cause to itch, nyca. 
1 itch, imeninyca. 

Jam, kwamisha. 

become jammed, kwama, sakaina. 



Jar the teeth, like grit in food, 

kwaza meno. 
Jerk, kutua. 
Jest, fanya ubisbi or mzaha, thi- 

Join, (act.) uriga, («e?f£.)unganana. 
Judge, hukumu, bukurnia, amua. 

'Hie original meaning of amua 

is to separate, and it is used of 

separating two persons who have 

been fighting. 
Jumble together different languages 

or dialects, goteza. 
Jump, ruka. 


Keep, weka or cheleza (put away), 
tunza (take care of), linda 
(guard), hifathi (preserve), slii- 
ka (hold), fuga (keep animals), 
weka or kawisha (delay). 

be kept gossiping, puzika. 

be kept tame or in a cage, fugika. 

It cannot be kept, i.e., it toill 
either run away or die, hafu- 

keep awake, (neut.) kesba, (act.) 

keep from, epusba, zuilia. 

keep in order (a person), rudi. 

be kept, or capable of being kept, 
in order, rudika. 

keep on at, shinda. 

Keep your distance ! Korna usije ! 
Kick, piga teke. 

Kill, ua, pass, uawa, waga (Mer.), 
fisha (to cause to die). 

kill with, &c, ulia. 

kill for food, chinja, tinda (M.). 
be Kind, tenda mema. 

do a kindness to, fathili. 
Kindle, wasba, tia muto. 

Kiss, busu. 

lift to the lips and kiss, sogeza. 
Knead, kanda. 
Kneel, piga magote. 
Knit the brows, kunja vipaji. 
Knock, gonga, gota, piga. 
at a door, or to cry Hodi ! if the 
door be open, bisha. 
Knoio, jua. Kujua is often used in 
the sense of to know of, about, 
how, &c. 
I know where he is, namjua aliko 

(I know of him, where he is). 
I know how to speak the language 
of Zanzibar, najua kusema kiu- 
I can do blacksmith's work, najua 

kufua cburoa. 
(to recognize), tarubua. 
be knowable, julikana. 
make to know, julisba, juvisha. 
become known, tangaa. 
know what to do, tanababi. 


Lace in the rope or matting across a 
native bedstead, tanda, wamba. 
Lacerate, papura. 

be lacerated, papurika. 
be Lame, tegea, cbecbemea, tetea, 
kwenda cbopi, tagaa (walk with 
the legs far apart). 
Land, (neut.) sbuka, (act.) shuslia. 
Last, isbi. 
Laugh, cbeka. 

laugh at, cbekelea. 
Launch, sbua, pass, shuliwa. 
Lay, tia, weka. 

lay a wager, pinga, sbindania. 

lay by, weka akiba. 

lay down, laza. 


5 WA T1ILI II A XD r,<><>K. 

lay ktamia, or zaa. or nya 


lay hold of, shika. 
lay opt n, funua, weka wazL 
lay <"tf. andika, tandika, toa. 
lay <mt m"it* y, gharimu, gharlmia. 
J'ty tin beams of a roof, iki/.a. 
/.!./ th< table, andika meza. 
lay upon the tahle, weka luczani. 
lay to anyone's charge, tuhumu. 
lay upon some one else, kuinbisha. 
bt Lazy, [kii-]\va umvu. 

to he cross at having anything to 
do, kiinw .1. 
ieod, ongoa, oi ;oza, pek-ka, fikisha 
(make to arrive). 
lead astray, kosesha. 
lead </• notions, Bomesha. 
Leah, vuja, fu'nika {to open at the 

Lean upon, tcgemea, egemea. 
Uan upon a staff, jigongojea. 
b< '■i>me lean, konda. 
make lean or thin, kondeska. 
7 /•, ruka. 

i i, jifunza, pata kujua. 
/' arn manners, taadabu. 
/. . acha, ata (M.), toka, 
leave oy death, fia. 
leave to (bequeath), achit. 
leave go of, acha. 
Leave off! Wacha! Bass I 

K .ma! 
/ • i ''fisting, fungua. 

till fit or ready, limbika. 
leave (cause to remain), saza. 
be h ft (rt /«•"'»), Baa, salia, baki. 
taka, nik.-a. 
give leave, ruhusu, pa ml 
m about, ainria. 
e leave of, aga. 
take leave of one another, alalia. 

Leavi v. chacha. 

/.< ad, azima, kiritlii. 

/. :tln n, ongeza urefu. 

make long, fanya mrefo. 
Lessen, (act.) punguza, (neut.) pu- 

Let (permit), acha, pa ruksa,kubali, 
let alone, acha. 

let a house, pangiska nyumba. 
let down, shu.sha, tua. 
let down a bucket, puliza ndoo. 
let free a spring, tiatua, fiatusba. 
let go an awl,,,,-, puliza. 
let loose, fungua. 
let on hire, ajirisba. 
let water, vuja. 
L, Pi 1, fanya .^awasawa, taudaza, 
be level with, lingana na. 

make level with, linga, linga- 
level a gun at, lekeza bunduki. 
be Liberal to, korimu. 
[Jin rate, fungua, pass, funcjnliwa. 

from slavery, weka, or acha hunt. 
Lick, ramba. 

Lie (tell lies), sema uwongo 
(to be), kaa, [ku-]wako. 
lie across, kingama. 

a tree lies across the mud, mti 
umekingama njiani. 
lie across one another, pandana. 
lie down, jinyosha, jilaza, lala, 

lie heavy on, lemea. 
lie on the fac, wama, fuama (M). 
lit i m the side, jiinika. 
lie mi the back, lala kwa tani. 
In in wait for, otea. 

inua, tw< 
lift up the voice, paliza sauti. 



Light, wasba, tia nioto. 

be light, angaza. 

show a light, mulika. 
Lighten (lightening), piga umeme. 
Lite, penda. 

be an object of liking, tanianika. 
Liken, fafanisJia. 

reach its limit, pea. 
Linger, kawia, kawilia. 
Lisp, [ku-]wa na kitembe, 
Listen, sikiliza, pulikiza. 

listen secretly, dukiza. 

Live, kaa (stay or be), isbi (continue), 

[kii-]wa bayi (be alive), [ku-] 

wako uJiniwenguni (be in this 

Load, ckukuza. fworld). 

a person, twika. 

a ship, pakia. 

a gun, sarniri, shindilia. 

be laden with, pakia (of a ship), 
cliukua (carry). 
Lock, fuiiga. 

with a native lock, gomea. 
Loiter, kawilia. 
Loll, tandawaa. 
Long for, tamani. 
Look, tazaraa. 

look out, or look carefully, angalia. 

Look out ! Angalia ! Jiponye ! 

look out for, tazamia. 

lookfor, tafuta. 

look after, tunza. 

look over a property, aua. 

look up to see what is going on, 
Loose, fuDgua. 

be loose, regea. 
Loosen, regeza. 
Lose (money), pafa basara. 

potea (to be lost to). [nipotea. 

I have lost my knife, kisu kime 

lose by having taken from one, 

lose by death, fiwa na. 

lose one's senses, rukwa na akilL 
Love, penda, asbiiki. 

be loved by, kora. 
Lower, skusha, tua. 
Lull, pembeza, tumbuiza. 
Lurk for, otea. 
Lust after, lanaanL 


Magnify, kuza, tukuza. 

magnify oneself, jitapa. 
Make, fanya, fanyiza. 

make to do or be. See p. 162. 

make a floor or roof, sakifu. 

make a pen, cbonga kalamu. 

make a sign to, asbiria. 

make a ivill, wasia. 

make another love one, pendeleza. 

make brilliant, ng'aza. 

make cheap, rakbisislia. 

make clear, tbibirisba, eleza, weka 

make confident and hopeful, tu- 

make crazy, zulisba. 
make dear, gbalisba. 
make delirious, papayuza. 
make equal, like, &c, sawanisha, 

make for, fanyia. 
make [clothes'] for, katia [ngun]. 
make game of, tbibaki, fanyizia 

make haste, fanya bima, euda 

make ill, gonjweza. 
make into a ring, peta. 
make lawful, halilLsha. 



•/in/.-.- light cf a matter, jipuru- 

make lih . <>' 

make metal things, fua, fulia. 
r»ah< :><■■ r talkative, payuza. 
make pastry, andaa, andalia. 
make pi ''<■< /« twi en, Buluhisha. 
make plain, thahiri, eleza, thihi- 

risha. weka wazi. 
make pottery, finyauga. 
mah raw, chubua. 
ih<t!;< room for, nafisisha. 
make sorry, sikiti 
mala sun , hakiki. 
make to agree, patanislia. 
vmke to be at peace, suluhisha. 
make to enter, ingiza. 
make to go ?//>, pandisha, kweza. 
makt togrow lean, kondesha. 
mala toh\ aror understand, sikiza. 
make to weep, liza, lizana. 
mak'' unlawful, harimu, hara- 

make up afire, chochea moto. 

make up one's mind, tanababi. 

make vi r*es, tunga mashairi. 

make water, kojoa. 

make toi ak, thoo£ n;i. 

make well, ponya, ponyesba. 

Don! mah a noise 1 Tulial 
Manage, amili, fanya. 
Mark, tia alama. 

Marry, oa (of the husband), olewa 
of th in'h ), nana (of the 
couple , oza (of the parents). 

ask in marriage, posa. 
.I/./-/- r, ghelibn, sbinda. 

fce nwwfc r o/, weza, tamalaki. 
Match, lingana 

make to match, Linga, linganiska. 

be a moicA /'or. weza. 
Mi an, taka, uia, kiuudia. 

Measure, pima, fcwaa clieo. 
• (/;•'' /•■;/« ///- r, enenza 
Mi diafa /« faoe< », Belehisha. 
1/ fo'fote, tafakari, waza. 
.1/. . /, onana, kutana, kutanika, ku« 
Ban] Lka. 
meet with, kuta. 
go to iii<  l , laki. 
.1/- //, (newt.) yeyuka, ayika, (act.) 

Mi ml, fanya, fanyiza. 
(seio up), Shu 
(darn), tililia. 
(bind up), ga 
Ml nstruate, [kujwa na heth. 
.1/. ntion, ni'iia, taja. 
be all in a mess, chafukachafuka. 
make a mess of one's work, boro- 
Mi rcy (have or show), rehemu. 
Mildew, fanya kawa. 
Milk, kama. 

Mind, tunza (take care of), angalia 
(lake care), kuuibuka {bear in 
Never mind, baithuru, usitia 

I don't mind, mamoja pia. 
Mingle, changanya. 

be mingled, changanyika. 
Miscarry, haiibu mimba. 
Miss, kosa. 
(to go near to without touching), 

(not to go direct to), cp<a. 
to be missed (not found), kosckana. 
Mislead, poteza, kosesha. 
Mi take, kosa. 
Mix, changanya. 
mix up by knocking and beating, 
buruga, f'uuda. 



Mock, iga, tkihaki, komaza, kufuru. 
be Moderate, [ku-]wa kadiri. 
Molest, sumbua, ckokoza, liasirisha. 
Mould (cast in a mould), ita, fanya 
kwa kalibu. 
grow mouldy, fanya uktragn. 
Moulder, fujika, fuiijika, h;iribika. 
(go into lumps Wee spoilt flour), 
fanya madonge. 
Mount, panda, kwea. 
Mourn (in a formal manner), kaa 
join in a formal mourning, 
Move, (neut.) jongea, (act.) jongeza. 
Move into the shade, jongea 

(as a carpet does when a mouse is 

under it), furukuta. 
(shake), tukusa, tikisa, sukasuka. 
(change place of dwelling), haina, 

tama (M.), gura (A.). 
cause to remove, hamisha, tamiska, 
Multiply, (act.) zidisha, ongeza, 

(neut.) zidi, ongezeka. 
Murder, ua, pass. nawa. 
Murmur, nung'unika. 
Must, lazimu, skarti, Laua buddi. 

See p. 155. 
Mutilate, kata. 

Name, taja, nena, ita, pa jina (give 

a name to). 
Need, taka, ihtaji, ihtajia. 
Neglect, gbafilika (not to attend to), 

acbilia (leave undone). 
Nfl>ble, tafuna. 
Nod, sinzia (<?oze ),asbiria kwa twaka 

(as a signal). 
Notice, ona, angalia, nathiri. 

notice a defect, toa kombo. 

take no notice, taghafali. 
Nourish, lisba. 
Nurse (a child), lea, lisba. 

(a sick person), ugnza. 


Obey, til, fuata, sikia, tumikia. 
Object to, kindana, sbindana, nidi- 
Oblige (compel), lazimisba, juburu, 
be obligatory upon, lazimu. 
hold under an obligation to do, 

&c, juzu. 
(by kindness), fatbili, tendea zeina. 
Observe, angalia. 
Obstruct, kataza, pinga. 
Obtain, pata. 

O'-cupy (keep engaged), fawiti. 
Offend, cbukiza, tia gbaiii, tia 
be easily offended, [ku-]vva na 

not to be offended, ku-wa ratbi. 
don't be offended with me, niwie 

ratbi, kunratbi. 
I am not at all offended,, ratbi 
Offer to, tolea, jongeleza (bring near 
offer for sale by auction, tembeza 
make a first bid, rissimu. 
Omit, acha. 
Ooze, tiiirika. 

ooze out, vujia, tokeza, tokea. 
Open (act.) funua (uncover), fungua 
(unfasten), panua (make wide), 
fumbua (unclose the eyes, d"c), 
sindua (set open a door), pepe- 
tua (force open). 
(7teu(.)[kii-]wa wazi (to lie clear 



funuka or kunduka (to opt n 

 I flower), panuka (become 

uridt ). funguka (to get un- 

fastt ncd). 

Oppose, gomba, khalifu.kataza, tcta, 

Bbindania, ingia kati. 

be opposite, lekea, kabili, elekea, 

i lekeana, kabilia. 
put opposite, lekeza, kabiJisba, 
elekt za. 
Oppress, onea, lcmt a, thelimu. 

r, amuru, amrisba, ambia, 
agiza {commission). 
arrange in order, panga, tuuga. 
put iido good order, fanyiza, 
tengeneza, ganga. 
Ought. See p. 155. 

ihtajia, taka, pasa. 
Overbear, by loud talhing, &c, pa- 

mbanya, pambanyiza. 
Overburden, lemea. 
be Overcast, tanda [vringu]. 
Overeat oneself, vimbika, vimbiwa. 
' >- rfeed, vimbisha. 
Overflow, miminika, tawanyika, 

ghariki, furika. 
Ovt rsee, eimaniia, angalia. 
Ovt ilurn, pindua. 

be overturned, piuduka. 
Ovt rtake, pata. 
Overwhelm, gharikisba. 
Owe, wiwa. 
I owe him, aniwia. 
to have in one's debt, wia. 
Own, miliki (possess), kiri (confess), 
ungaiiia (acknowledge). 

Pack »p, ftmga. 

Paddh . vnta kwa kafi or kapi. 
Pain, unia, umi.i. 

Paint, Ida rang! 
I'tuif, tweta. 
1'aralyse, poozesba. 

be paralysed or paralytic, pooza. 
Pare, ambua. 

Pardon, samclic, afu, gbofira, gho- 
Forgive me, nipo bisa yangn. 
Ash mutual pardon and so take a 
last farewell, takaua buriaui. 
Parry, bekua. 
7 'art out, gawa, gawanya. 
Pats, i»ita, pisha. 
make to pass, pitisba. 
pass going in opposite directions, 

pass through, penya. 
pass over (a river), vuka. 

(a fault), acbilia. 
pass close to without touching, 

be passable, endcka. 
Pasture, chunga, lisba. 
l'ntrh (thatch, &c), chomelca. 
be Patient, vumilia, subiri. 
Paw [the ground], parapara. 
Pay, lipa. 
pay to, lipia. 
cause to be paid, lipiza. 
pay freight for, takabathisba. 
Peck, dona, dondoa. 
Peel, ambua, puna. 
P< i p, cliungulia, tungulia (M ). 
Pelt, tupia. 
Penetrate, penya. 
/'■ rceive, ona, sikia, fahamu. 
Perfect, kamili.sha. 
be perfect, kamilika. See Com- 
Perforate, zua, zua tundu. 
/'. rform a promise, fikiliza ahadi. 
ablutions, tohara. 



devotions, sali. 
a vow, ondoa nathiri. 
Perish, fa, potea, potelea, haribika. 
Perjure oneself, apa uwongo, sbu- 

hudia zuli or aziir. 
Permit, rukusu, pa ruksa, acha. 
Perpetuate, duinisba. 
Perplex, tia matata, cbanganyisha. 
become perplexed, ingia matata, 
Persecute, fukuza, tkulumu. 
l'< r severe, dunm, duinia, dawamu. 
Perspire, taka haii. 
Persuade, shawiski, kinaisba, pa 

Pick (as with a knife point), 
(gather), cbunia. 
stalks, &c, from cloves, &c, cba- 

pick out (select), cbagua, teua. 
pick up, okota. 
pick up bit by bit, dondoa, lura- 

pick holes in one another's cha- 
racter, papu riaua. 
Pickle, fanya acbari. 
Pierce, zua, penyesha, penya. 
Pile up [plates, &c.\ andibanya. 
Pinch, finya. 

be pinched up, fin y ana. 
Pine away, fifia. 

Pity, burunaia, sikiiikia, rekemu. 
Place, weka. 

an arrow on the string, a knife in 

the belt, &c, pachika. 
Tltere is no place for vie in the 
house, nyumba bainiweki. 
Plait, suka, sokota. 
Plane, piga randa. 
Plant, panda. 
Plaster, kandika. 

prepare a wall for the white plaster 
by smoothing it and tapping in 
small stones, tomea. 

put on a plaster, bandika. 
Play, cheza, laabu. 

play the fool, peketeka. 

play upon an instrument, piga 
zomari, &c. 
Please, pendeza, furakisba. 

(like), penda. 

as you please, upendavyo. 

Please > Tafatbali ! 

be pleased, pendezewa. 

make pleasing, pendekcza. 
Pledge, weka rabaui. 
Pluck, ckuma (gather), nyakua 
(snatch), nyonyoa (pick off 

pluck up a courage, piga moyo 
Plug up, ziba. [konde. 

Plunder, teka, twaa nyara. 
Point, cbonga ; fanya 'ncba. 

point out, onyesba, ainisba. 
Poison, pa sumu. 
Poke, choma. 
Polish, katua. 

Ponder, fikiri, waza, tafakarL 
Possess, miliki, [kii-]wa na. 

(of an evil spirit), pagaa. 

be possessed by an evil spirit, 
pagawa na pepo. 
be Possible, [kii-]wa yamkini, weze- 

kana, fanyika, tendeka. 
Postpone, akirisba. 
make Pottery, finyanga 
Pound, ponda, funda. 

clean corn by pounding, twanga. 
Pour, mimina. 

pour away, mwaga, mwaya. 
have Power over, weza. 
Practise, jizoeza, taala. 

practise witchcraft, i'anya ucbawi. 



-:!'u, hemidi. 
prat '. ji.-ifn, jigamba. 

Pratt, puza. 

rform the fixed 
ih notions), abudu (worship), 
pray for, taka (a*i /or), ombea 
(/»/. rcedefor). 

kbutubu, ayithi 
I rfi . tangulia. 
/• Pri cipitous, chongoka. 
P  ftrf, agua, basbiri, tabid. 

r, penda, kbitari, stabiba. 
' Pregnant, cbukua mimba, bamili. 
are, weka tayari. 
/ooiZ. andaa, andalia. 
Present to, tunikia, pa. 

make presents to, pukusa, pa 
baslii-hi. tmiza. 
Preserve, bifatbi, afu. 

be i>r> 8( rved, hifatbika, 
Press, kaza, shindilia, .-inikiza. 
• out, kamua. 
press upon, kandamiza. 
press Ju avtly upon, lemea. 
],,-' u with the U i £&, vuata. 
md/.-e aw impression (as with the 

fingers), bonyesha. 
press and crush food for invalids 

or children, vinyavinya. 
press against one another, like 
sheep in a flock, sougaDasu- 

. jifanya. 
/'/-■ pi '. zuia, kataza. 
Prick, cboma. 
Pride oneself, ji.-dfu. 
Print, piga cbapa. 
Prize up, t< kua. 
Proceed, enenda, fuliza. 
Proclaim, tangaza, bubiri, nadi, 
Procure for, patia. [eleza. 

be procurable, patikana. 

Profess, uiigama. 

Profit, pata fayida, fayidi, clmma. 

tunia (M.). 
Prognosticati . bashiri. 

by ll"' stars, piga falakL 
Prohibit, kataza, gombeza. 
Proj* -•/, tokeza, tukiza. 
Prolong, ongcza urofu, tuiliza, en- 

Promise, abidi, b>a abadi. 

give a promise to, pa abadi. 
Pronounce, ta'mka. 
J'nijj up, ti gemeza, shikiza. 
bt propped, tegen 
prop up a vessel to prt vent iff 
falling over when left by the 
tidt . gada. 
Propose, nena, tna sbauri. 
Pri>.i> cute, sbtaki. 
Prosper, fanikiwa, sitawi, kibali, 

Prostrate oneself, Bujudu. 
before, to, &c, sujudia. 
Protect, lianii, Hilda, bifathi, kinga 

( icnn! off). 
Prove, i/mbutisha. 

be proved, tfmbutu. 
Provide, w< ka aMba. 
Provoke, kirihi, kirildsha, tia liasira, 

Prune, chenga, feka. 
Pry, dadisi, fatiishi. 
Puff, puliza. 
be puffed up, tuna, fura, jetca, 
Pull, vuta. 
pull out, ng'oa. 
/<■ /lulled out, ng'oka. 
Moyo unaning'oka, my heart ha* 
jumped into my throat, used of 
a person much startled, 
pull out feathers, nyonyoa. 



pull out of one's hand, cbopoa. 
pull up [roots'], ng'oa. 
Pump, piga bomba. 
Punish, atbibu, athibisha, tesa 
(afflict), sumbusba (give annoy- 
ance to), patiliza (visit upon). 
Purify, takasa, safisba. 
by ceremonial ablutions, tohara. 
be purified, safiba, takasika. 
Purpose, kusudia, ania. 
Pursue, fuata (follow), winda 
(chase), fukuza (drive away), 
tafuta (seek for). 
Push, sukuma. 
push against, kumba. 
push aside, piga kikumbo, 
push off upon, kumbisba. 
Put, tia, weka. 
put across [a river], vusha. 
put a pot on the fire, teleka. 
put an end to, komesba, gbairi. 
put aicay, weka. 
put down, tua. 
put forth leaves, cbanua. 
put in a line, panga. 
put in order, tunga. 
put in under anything, vumbika. 
put into, tia. 

Tia motoni, put it in the fire. 
Tia moto, set it on fire, 
put into the right way, vusba. 
put off, akirisba. 
put off upon another, sukuniiza. 
put on [clothes], vaa. 
put on his guard, tabatbirisba. 
put on a turban by winding the 
cloth round the head, piga 
put out, toa. 

put out [fire], zima, zimia. 
put out of joint, shtusba, shtua. 
put ready for use, sogezea, 

put ropes to a native bedstead 
tanda wamba. 

put to (shut), sbindika. 

put to flight, kimbiza. 

put to rights, tengeneza, tengeleza 

put to straits, tbiiki. 

put through, penyesba. 
Putrify, oza. 
Puzzle, tatanisba. 

be puzzled, tatana, tatazana. 


Qualte, tetemeka, tetema. 
Quarrel, gombana, nenana, nazi- 

with, teta, gomba. 
Quarry [stone], cbimba, vunja. 
Quell, tuliza. 
Quench, zima. 
Quicken, bimiza (make quicker). 

be quick enough (be in time), 
Quiet, tuliza. 

become quiet, tulia, nyamaza, 
Quit, acba, toka. 
Quiver, tetema. 


Eace, sbindania. 
Rain, nya. 

It rains, mvua inakunya, mvua 

yanya (M.). 
cause it to rain, nyesha. 
leave off raining, atraka. 
Raise, inua (lift), paaza (make to 
rise), tweka, kweza, pandisba, 
raise the eyebrows by icay of sign, 

! I 


raise the eyebrows by way of con- 
t, mpt, kuuia. 
flange together, paugauri. 
Ransom, komboa, fidi (of tfte price), 

fidia (of thi \ 
Rap tilth the knuckles, piga konzi. 
be mad' I iiv. chubuka. 
Reacli. See Stretch, 

(arrive at), fika, wasili. pata. 
reach a person, fikia, wasilia. 
cause to reach, fikiska, wasilisha. 
put within hi* reach, [mw-jeneza. 
reach its limit, pea. 
Read, Boma, fyoma (M.). 
teach to read, soniesba. 
/.'■ up, vuna. 
(break off the heads of Indian 
corn), goboa. 
Rear [a child'], lea. 

ason, tefua. 
Rebel, a-i, khalifu, tagbi. 
Rebuke, ncnea, laumu, lawana. 
Rebut, dakuliza. 
Rt ceive, poki a, pewa, twaa. 
(accept), kubali, takabali. 
receive for some one else, pokelea. 
receive a stranger, karibiaba. 
IV ckon, hesabu, wanga. 
/,.'■ cite, karirisha. 

Recline, jinyosha, tandawaa, pu- 

agnize, tambua, tambulia, fafa- 
be recognizable, tambulikana. 
B collect, kumbuka, fabamu. 
Recommend, ueuea, agiza, arifu, 

Reconcile, patanifiha, seklii.-ha. 
Redeem, komboa, fidia. 
Reduce, punguza. 

f a ■""''• i tauga. 

). . b , i . a. 

i (think), kumbuka, waza, 
Reform, silibi, silibisba, sahihi, 

Refresh, burudisha, sterehisha, ta- 

Refuse, kataza, kataa, iza. 
refuse to, nyiina. hini. 
refuse to believe, katalia. 
Refute, batili. 
Regret, juta, sikitika. 
/,'■ hearse, kaiiri.sba. 
Reign, miliki, tawala. 
Reject, kataa. kaaia. 
Rejoice, (neut.) furahi, furahiwa. 
rejoice in, furaliia. 
malic to rejoice, furabisha. 
shout and triumph, sbangilia. 
Relate, hadithia, nena, toa. pa. 
Relax, reg( z u 

be relaxed, regea. 
/,'. It ase, acba, likiza. 

from an obligation, feleti. 
//< lish, ona tamu, ona luththa. 
/.'. ly upon, fungamana. jetea. 
E< main (stay), kaa, kaa kitako, 
keti (M.). 
be left, eaa, salia, baki. 
remain awake, kesba. 
remain quiet, starehe. 
to remain as he wishes, kumkalia 
Remedy, poza. 
Remember, kumbuka, fahamu. 

remember against, patiliza. 
Remind, kumbusha, fahanii.-.ha. 
Remit [sins'], ghofiri. 

remit to, ghofiria, ondolea. 
Remove, ondoa, tenga, ondolea. 

from an office, uzulu. 
1: ,/</, rarua, paeua. 
be rent to pieces, pasukapasuka 



Renounce, acha, kana. 

Rent, panga (hire), pangisha (let). 

Repair, fanyiza, fanya. 

Repay, lipiza. 

Repent, tubu. 

repent of, tubia. 
Reply, jibu (give an answer), itika 

(answer when called). 
Repay, regeza, lipa. 
Reproach, shutumu, kamia, taya. 
Request, taka. 
Rescue, toa kunako hatari, toa 

mnamo hatari, okoa. 
Resemble, fanana na. 

make to resemble, fananisha. 
Resent, fanya ghathabu, ingiwa na 

Resign, jiuzulu, jitoa katika. 
Resist, khalifu. 
Resolve, yakinia, azimu. 
Rest (neut.) purnzika, tulia, starehe. 
(act.) pumzisha. 
He never rests, hana zituo. 
I cannot rest in the house, nyumba 
Restore, rudiska, rejeza. 
Restrain, zuia. 
Resuscitate, fufua, huisha. 
Retaliate, twaa kasasi, lipia sawa, 

Retire (go bach), endelea nyuma. 
Return, (neut.) rudi, regea. 

(act.) rudisha, regesha. 
Reveal, funua. 

Revenge, nahma, lipia maovu, toa 
revenge oneself, jilipiza (or lipia) 
Reverence, nenyekea. 
Reverse, pindua. 
Revile, shutumn. 
Revive, (neut.) fufuka, hui, buika. 

Revive, as a plant in water, chupuza. 

(act.) fufua, huisha. 
Revolt (disgust), kinaisha. 

revolt at, kinai. 
Reicard, jazi, jazilia, lipia, fatbili 
Ride upon, panda. 
Ridicule, fanyizia mzaha. thil.aki. 
Ring a bell, piga kengele. 
Rip, pasua. 
Ripen, iva. 
Rise (ascend), paa. 

(get up), ondoka. 

(stand up), sirnama, inuka. 

(rise to, or out of respect for), 

(come to the top of the water), 

(of the sun), [kii-]cha. 
Roar, lia, nguruma, fanya kishindo 

(make a crash). 
Roast, oka. 
Rob, ibia (steal from), nyang'anya. 

(take by force), poka. 
Rock, pembeza. 
Roll, (act.) fingirisha. 

(neut.) fingirika. 

(of a river, time, &c), pita. 
Root out, ng r oa. 
Rot, oza. 

be Rough, paniga, paruza. 
be Round, viringa. 

(spherical), viringana. 
Rouse from sleep, amsha. 
Row, vuta makasia. 

be in rows, panga7ia. 

put in a row, panga. 
Rub, sugua. 

the skin off, chubua. tuna. 

rub to pieces, fikicha. 

rub in ointment, &c, paka. 
Ruin, angamisha. poteza, vuna 



be mint d. angamia, tilifu, iili.-iUa 

RttU . tawala. 

nil* >' lint . paga mstari. 
iatt . (■ uka. 

mbio, rukhuthu. 
run a risk, hatirisha. 
run against, 1'ulia. 
run away, kimbia. 

fee to run away, kimbiza. 
run away from a master, home, 

,1 ... toroka. 
run asliore, panda, tekeza. 
run down, likt usatt r, or lih a 
p, rson down <t st< < p plnr< . u - 
run down with blood, churuzika 


run hard, kaza mbio. 

run over, tiirika. 

run with <i shuffling noire likt a 

rat, gugurusha. 
run (in .-■< n-iiiij), [ i i ira bandi. 
h along, enda kassi. 
/ i t in nl.). ingia kntu. 
Bustle, piga mtakas .. 

Salute, salimu, sulimu, amkua, 
amkia, salimia. 
fire a salute, piga rnizinga ya 
Salve, bandika. 
Sanction, toa ilhini. 
Satisfy, rithika. 

satisfied or content, [ku-]wa 
satisfy with food, shibigha. 
be satisfied, shiba. 
}* never t atisfit d, nyeta. 

'fsatisfit 'l. kinai. 
be enough, tooba. 

be of use to. faa. 

satisfy lust, limia ngoa. 
Save, okoa, ponya, vuaha, 

be saved, okoka, poua, vuka. 

(put away), weka. 
. kata kwa msumeno, kereza. 
Say, srma. 

say to, ambia. 
Scald, onguza, unguza. 

be scalded, ungua. 
Scare, fukuza, tin khofu. 

scare bird* from corn, tie., linda 
Scatter, tawanya, tapanya (M-X 

be scattered, tawanyika. 

scatter about, tawanyatawanya, 
tapanyatapanya (M.). 
Scent {put scent to), Muga 

smell out, nuki/.a. 
Scold, fanyizia ukali, nenea, laumii, 

Scoop up, wangua. 
Scorch, unguza, onguza. 

be scorched, ungua, ungnlia. 
Scorn, tharau, twtza, piketi k.i. 
Scour, sugua. 
Scrape, kuna. 

scrape along, kwaruza. 

scrape for, with, &c, kunia. 

scrape into a coarse meal, )>naza. 

scrape off, puna. 

scrape off bark, dirt, scales, &c+ 

to eh an to/ sera piiuj, pan. 
scrape on the around, para. 
scrape out, komba. 
scrape up, kwangua. 
Scratch, kuna, kunyua. 

(make a scratch'), piga rntai. 
scratch deeply, papura. 
scratch like a hen, pekua. 
•u, piga kiowe, piga yowe. 



Scrub, sugua. 

Search for, tafuta, tefua. 

search all about, tafutatafuta. 
Seal, tia muhuri. 
Seduce women, tongoza. 
See, ona. 

be seen, or visible, onekana. 
see any one off, saiirisha. 
Seek, taka. 

seek advice, taka skauri. 
seek out, kuji. 
seek for, tafuta, zengea. 
seek out for, look out for, tafutia. 
It seems to me, naiona. 
seem sweet to, kora. 
Seize, kamata, guia, shika. 
seize for debt, filisi. 
go quietly and secretly up to any- 
thing in order to seize it sud- 
denly, nyemelea. 
Select, chagua, teua. 
Sdl, uza. The u- of this word is 
very unimportant, it is generally 
merged in the -u of ku-, the 
sign of the infinitive, which is 
retained in most of the tenses, 
sell to, liza. 

be ordinarily sold, uzanya. 
Send-, peleka, leta. 

to a person, pelekea, letea. 

cause to reach a person, wasi- 

send away, ondosha, toa. 
send back, rudiska, rejeza. 
send upon some business, tuma. 
Separate, teuga, weka mbali. 

(leave one another), ackana, atana 

(M.), tokana. 
(alienate), farakisha. 
become alienated, farakana, ta- 

separate people who are fighting, 

(distinguish), pambanua. 
be cut off from one another, like 

friends separated by great dis- 
tances, tindikiaua. 
be Serene, [ku-]wa saff, tulika 

Moyo wake umekunduka, hit 

heart is at peace. 
Serve, tumikia. hudumia. 
be a servant, tumika. 
serve for, faa kwa. 
Set, weka. 

(plant), panda. 

(of the sun), ckwa, twa (M.). 

Tlie sun is not yet set, jua hali- 

set a dog on one, tomeska mbwa. 
set a trap, tega. 
set aside, tangua, ondoa. 
set fire to, tia moto, waska, koka 

sc l in order, panga, tunga. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 

set open [a door], sindna. 
set out on a journey, safiri, shika 

set the teeth on edge, tia ganzi la 

set up (put upwards), panza. 
(make to stand), simikisha. 
set wide apart, panulia. 
Settle, (neut.) tuana. 

settle an affair, kata tnaaeno. 
settle down, tulia. 
settle in one's mind, yakinia. 
Sew, shona. 

sew through a mattress to confine 

the stuffing, tona godoro. 
Sliade, tia uvuli. 


. im-t.) likiea. 
•n.) tikitika. 
ike off, i pua, kupua, 
slial.e out, kung'uta, kumunta 
: ne Shalloir, punguka. 

.1 haya, tahayarisha. 
put to*hti;iit, fi 1L1 lieka, aibika. 
• /»»>, kamla. 
, uniba. 
p ;rt out in shares, gawa, bnssu. 
bi partners in, shariki, sbarikiana, 
■pen on a stone, noa. 
• , nyoa. 
shave round the h ad, It aving Lair 

on the crown only, kata denge. 
shave all save one long tuft, kata 
. pukutika. [kinjunjuri. 

S 11, papatua. 
sin II beans, &c., pua baazi, &c. 
.«/(•// nuts, &c.,by beating, banja, 
Shelter, tia kivuli. 

Shift a bunb n from one to another, 
shift over a soil to the other side, 
kisi tanga. 

g'ara, zagaa, m< kameka. 
r (neut.), tapatapa, tuteraa, 
meka, tapa. 

with a gun], piga [kwa 
(at . chupnka, cbupuza. 

•ten, fapiza. 
be short and small, kundaa. 
fall short, punguka, tindika (A.). 
it, piga kelele. 

out of the way, piga kikumbo. 
v, onyesha, om :<. 
• a light, mulika. 
thou: one's teeth, loa mono. 

become Shrewd and knowing, en* 
make Shrewd, erevusha. [vuin, 

Shru k, piga kiyowe. 

Shrink {become smaller), puDgua. 
(from something), jikunja. 
shrink up, jikunyata, fingana. 
Shrivel (neut.), nyauka, iinyana. 

Shrug the shoulders, inua mabega. 
Shudder, tetenieka. 
Shun, epuka. 

He along, gngurusha. 
shuffle cards, tanganya kanta. 
Shut (/nit in), shind 
(fasten), fuuga. 
(close), funiba. 
shut against, fungisha. 
be Sick or ill, ugua, [kii-]wa mwi li. 
[kii-]wa hawezi, &>•. Set III 
and Vomit. 
lie feels siek or sea-sick, mnyo 
wamchafuka, moyo umeimu 1( a 
(31.), ana ng'onga (A.). 
Sift, chunga (by shaking), peta or 
pepeta (by tossing), pepua 
(separate large and small, whole 
and broken grains). Sifting is 
always done by tossing and 
shaking in a round flat basket. 
Sigh, ugua, kokota rono (draw 

breath with an effort). 
Silence, nvamazisba. 
become silent, nyamaza. 
continue silent, uyamaa. 
be Silly, piswa. 
Sin, fanya tliambi, kosa. 
Sing, imba, tumbuiza (lull). 
Sink (act.), zamiflha, tosa (drown), 
didimisha (into a solid 
(neut.), zama, tota (elrown), didi- 
iuia (sink into a solid substance}. 



Sip, nywa funda (? to take in by 

Sit, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 
Take a seat, kaa kitako. 
sit like a hen, atamia. 
Skin, chuna, tuna (M.). 
Slander, singizia, fititii, aiuba, tku- 

Slap, piga kofi- 
Slash, tema. 

Slaughter, chinja (to kill by cutting 
the throat), tinda (M.). It is 
not lawful to eat any meat that 
has not been so killed. 
Sleep, lala. 
Sleep well ! Lala unono ! 
doze, sinzia. 

I am sleepy, ninao uzingizi. 
be slept upon, lalika. 
Slide, teleza. 
Sling, tupa kwa kombeo. 
Slip, teleza. 

It is slippery, pana utelezi. 

slip down a steep place, poromoka, 

slip away grain by grain like 

sand or corn, dondoka. 
slip off, or out of one's hand, &c, 
chopoka, ponyoka. 
Slit, pasua. 
Slope, inama. 
be Sluggish, pumbaa. 
Smart, waka. 

make to smart, nyonyota. 
Smear on, paka. 

Smell (emit a smell), uuka, nusa. 
I smell ambergris, inaninuka 
ainbari (ambergris makes a 
smell to me). 
Do you not smell it ? Huisikii 
ikiuuka? (Do you not perceive 
it making a smell '?) 

Smell at, nukiza. 

Smile, tabassam, cheka, kunja 

Smoke, toka moshi. 

smoke tobacco, vuta tumbako. 

smoke (meat, &c), piga mvnke. 
Smoothe, lainisha. 
Smoulder, vivia. 
Smuggle, iba ushuru. 
Snap, alika (neut.), alisha (act.). 
Snare, tega. 
Snarl, toa meno. 
Snatch, nyakua, pokonya. 
Sneeze, chafya, shamxia, enda or 

piga chatya. 
Snore, koroma, piga misono (make 

a whistling sound). 
Snort, piga pua. 
Snub, kemea. 
Soak, woweka. 
Sob, ingia na shake la kulia. 
Sober, levusha. 

become sober, levuka. 
Soften, lainisha. 
Solve, watbaisha, weka wazi 

Soothe, tuliza, pembeza, tumbuiza. 
be Sorry, sikitika, kasirika (be 
vexed), juta (regret). 

I am sorry for it, sioni verna. 
Sound, pima maji. 

It sounds hollow, panalia wazi. 
Sow seeds, panda, yaa (A.). 

sow discord, fitini. 
Sparkle, merimeta, mekameka, me- 

metuka (A.). 
Speak, nena, sema (say), tamka 
(pronounce), ambia (say to). 

speak about, at, for, or against, 

speak against, amba. 

speak distinctly, pauibazua. 

2 .. , 


- ah out ! Sema sana ! 
mah a tp "■//, tagusa, lumba. 

/.- Arabic, sema Kiarabu. 
speoA; " jumble of different lan- 
guages or dialects, ^"tuza. 
iml I . ayamaa. 

- /. endeleza. 

!, tumia, kliarij. 

- nd upon or about, harijia, glia- 

spt ml time, ongea. 
Spill, mwaga, niimina. 

'■ spilt, mimii.ika. 
Spin, idkota. 
Spit, tenia mate. 
 •//. (act.) rusbia. 
(neut.) rukia, tawanya. 
Splice [a rope], in 
[a spar], ganga. 
Split, {act.) pasua. 

splii up, ii' at.) pasukapasuka. 
split down (branches), (act.) 

be split down, as when mnjonehas 
been try inn to climb up by them, 
/. baribu, vunja. 
(neut.), baribika, oza. 
I with, laabu. 
ut out, ruka. 
The wliale spouts, nyamgumi 
anatoa moshi. 
in, shtusha msbipa, teuka. 
be sprained, Bhtuka msbipa 
ad, (m ut.) in, a, farisbi. 
• ) eoeza. [ka. 

opened and spread o»er,kunju- 
11! a cloth or a bed, tandika. 
spread out, tanda. 
•/■read [news'], tangaza. 
(income known), tangaa. 
inkle, nyunyiza. 

Sprout, mea, cbupuka, tokeza (show 
itself), cbanua (put forth 
l<n res). 
Spy out, peleleza. 
Squabble, bisbana, gombana. 
Squander, t'uja, tapanyatapanya. 
Squeak, lia, 
Squeeze, kamua. 

(grasp), fumbata. 

squeeze togt tht r (act.), songa. 

(neut.) soiigana. 

squeeze oneself into a hedg> or 
against a wall to l 1 ofht rs pass, 
Squint, [kii-]wa na makengi z;u 
Stab, cboiria. 
Stagger, pepa. 

be staggered, tosbea, bbangaa. 

(astonish), sbangaza. 
Stain, tia waa, tia niadoadoa (spot). 
Stalk [an animal], nyemelea. 
Slammer, [ku'-]wa na kigugmuizi. 
sin nip, piga cbapa. 
Stand, simama, kaa. 

up or still, simama (of persons). 

make to stand, simaraisha, simiki- 

stand aghast, ghumiwa. 

stand by, simamia. 

stand in the way of, kindana. 

stand over, akiri. 

stand staring, .shangaa. 
Stan at, kodolea. 
Start (be startled), sbtuka, gutuka. 

(set out), ondoka, safiri. 

start out of the way, kwepa. 
Startle, sbtua, atusha, kutusba. 
Starve, (neut.) fa kwa njaa. 

(act.) fisha kwa njaa. 
Stay, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 

//< stayed all day, alishinda 



(wait), ngqja, subiri. 
(loiter), kawia, kawilia. 
(remain over long), hajirika. 
(stop) (act), zuia. 
be Steady, tungamana, tulia. 
Steal, iba, jepa (A.). 

steal from, ibia. 
Steep, choveka, owamisha. 

be steeped, owama. 
Steer, shika shikio. 

Steer northwards, shika majira ya 

[a vessel], andika. 
Step over, kiuka, kia. 
Stick, (neut) sbika, gandama, a- 
(act.) ambatiza, ganda. 
stick together, ainbatana, ganda- 

ruana, guiana (Mer.). 
stick fast, kwama, sakama. 
stick into [the embers to be roasted], 

stick out, (neut.) toktza. 
(act.) benua. 
Stifle, zuia pumuzi. 
Still, tuliza, nyamazisba. 

be very still, zizima. 
Stimulate, taharrakisha. 
Sting, uma. 

St ink, nuka, nuka vibaya. 
Stir, boruga, vuruga, kologa. 
stir up and knock about, tibua. 
stir up, turn over, and press 

together, songa. 

stir up (fire, strife, &c), ohoche- 

Stnop. inaina. [lezea. 

Stop, (act.) zuia (hold in), komesha 

(make to cease), kingamisha 


(neut.) simama (stand), koma 

(leave off), 
stop and stagnate, vilia. 

stop short of its purpose or per- 
fection, via. 
stop up, ziba. 
Store up, weka akiba. 
Stow, pakiza. 
Straddle (icalk with the legs far 

apart), tagaa. 
Straighten, nyosha. 

be straight, nyoka. 
Strangle, nyonga, songa. 
Strain (a liquid), ckuja, tuja 01.). 
See Sprain, pojiotoa. 
(make a violent effort), kakaniuka. 
Stray, potea, zunguka. 
Strengthen, tia nguvu. 
Stretch, nyosha. 

stretch up to reach anything, chu- 

stretch one's legs, kunjua miguu. 
stretch the threads for weaving, 

tenda nguo. 
stretch across an opening (act.), 
tanda, wamba. 
Strew, mwagia, nyunyiza. 
Strike, piga. 

strike on the ground, piga na nchi. 
strike the foot against anything, 

strike with the hoof, piga kwata. 
strike out (in icriting), futa. 
strike a sore place, tonesba. 
String (beads, &c), tunga. 
Strip off, ambua, pua, menya, 
(branches, leaves, &c), pagua. 
Strive with, shindana na, teta, hn- 
(make an effort), fanya bidii or 

strive for breath, tweta. 
Stroke, papasa. 
Stroll about, zutigukazmiguka. 



be Strong and well-knit, pirikana, 

Struggle, fanya juhudi. 
Study, taalL 

:/<»■/ in a claw for study, durusi. 
Stumble, jikwaa. 

mafce to stumble, kwaza. 

be st unn< <l, potca na akili, rukwa 
na akili. 
Stunt, viza. 

be stunted, via. 
Stutter, [kii-]\va na kigugumizi, 

Subdue, tiisha, Bhiuda. 
Submit to, tii, fuata. 
Succeed {follow), ja mahali pake. 
Such a one succeeded him, baada 

yake alikuja na fullani. 
{prosper), fanikiwa, kibali. 
succeed in doing, pat;i kufanya. 
Suck, nyonya, amwa (M.), fyonda, 
such up, nwa. 
such out, sr.ida. 

I have sucked him dry (got all the 
information, &c, I can out of 
him), nimemzua. 
Suckle, nyonyesha, amwisha (M.). 
Sue for (at law), dai. 
Suffer, teswa, taabika, umwa. 

what he suffered, mambo ynlio- 

suffer loss, pata hasara. 
. fcosha, tosheleza, kifu. 

faa (be of use to), lingana 
(match), wafiki (be suitable to). 
Sum up, jumlisha. 

intend, -imamia, angalia. 
ply, iiwini, ruzuku (used es- 
pecially of God). 

supply a trader with goods on 
'•/•- dit, kopesha. 
Support, tegemeza, himili, chukua. 
he supports Ids parents, awachn- 
kua wazee waive. 
Suppose, tliani (think), thania (think 

of), kisi (gut-ss). 
Suppurate, ton uzalia. 
become Surety, thamini. 
Surpass, pita. 

Surprize, toshea, taajabisha. 
be surprized, fcaajabu, toshewa. 
(come upon suddenly), fumania, 
Surrender, sellini. 
Surround, zunguka, tandama (?), 

Survey, ana. 

Survive, [kii-]\va hayi baada ya. 
Suspect, thania, tuhumu.ingiaab.aka, 
Swagger, taniba, wuyawaya. 
Swallow, meza. 
Sway, punga. 
sway ai/out, like a drunken man, 

lewalewa, umbaumba. 
sway backwards and forwards, 

away like a tree loaded with fruit, 

sway about in the wind, yumba. 
Swear, apa. 

swear at, apiza. 
make to swear, afya, apislia. 
Sweat, toka hari, fanya jasko. 
Sweep, fagia, pea (M.). 
sweep together, zoa. 
sweep away all there is, kuml>a. 
Swell, fura, vimba, tuna, vuna. 
rise into little swellings, tutuka, 
tutumka, tutusika. 
Swim (of a man), ogolea. 
(float), clea. 



moyo unaelea (M.), I feel dis- 
turbed in my inside. 

(make to float), eleza. 
Sioindle, punja. 
Swing. See Sicay (neut.), ning'inia. 

(act.~), uing'iniza, hembesha. 

swing the arms, which is reckoned 
an elegance in a woman's car- 
riage, punga mikono. 

swing round the head in dancing, 

Tack (in sewing), piga bandi. 

(in sailing), pindua kwa goshini. 
Take, twaa. 
(receive), pokea, pewa. 
(to a person), pelekea. 
(to aplace), peleka, clmkua, fikiza. 
take a portion from the dish in 

eating, mega, anibua. 
take a piece in chess, la. 
take a walk, tembea, enda tembea. 
take across, vua, vukisha, vusha. 
take as spoil, teka. 
take away, ondosha, toa. 
take away from a person, twalia. 
take away from, or off from, epua, 

take away the desire of anything 

more, kinaisha. 
take by force, nyang'anya. 
take care, angalia. 
take care of, tunza. 
take civet from the ngawa, zabidi. 
take courage, tawakali, piga moyo 

take down, angua. 
take leave of, aga, agana na. 
take off (clothes), vua. 

(the fire), ipua. 
take one's due, jilipizt.. 

take one's revenge, jilipiza kisasi. 

take out, opoa, ondoslia, toa. 

take out of a trap, namua (Mt-r.). 

take out of the sun or rain, anua. 

take out of the pot, pakua. 

take suddenly and violently, poka. 

take the responsibility, tadariki. 

take to pieces, kongoa. 

take up, tweka. 

take up a little at a time, chota, 

take upon oneself the obligations 

of another, hawili. 
Talk, nena, sema, jizumgumza. 
talk about, to, of, at, for, or against, 

talk against one another, ncnana. 
talk a person over into doing or 

telling something, nyenya. 
talk and murmur in one's sleep, 

talk English, &c, sema Kiingrezi, 

talk nonsense, puza, puzika. 
talk scandal about, amba, izaia. 
talk through the nose, semea puaiii, 

[kii-]wa na king'ong'o. 
Tangle, tia matata, tatanisha. 
be tangled, tatana, tatazana. 
Tap, gota, gouga, cbapa. 
Tarry, kawa, kaa. 
Taste, onda, onja, thuku, limbuka 

(taste a new crop, &c, for the 

first time). 
Tax, fanya ushura (?). 
Teach, fundisha, funza, fnnda, ele- 

misha (instruct), juvya, juvis,ka 

or julisha (make to know). 
Tear, rarua, babua, papua, papura. 
be torn, raruka, babnka, papuka. 
tear down [branches, &c.], kwa- 


•_' ! 


be torn down and broken, kwa- 
T •'• . chokoza, kefyaki fya. 
T-ll. ambia. 
till a tale, haditbi, liadithia, ncna 

or toa haditbi. 
1>]l tal<* about, chongeleza. 
T' mpt, jaribu {try), eliuwislii (per- 

dto, lekea. 
Tend {sheep, &c), chunga, tunga 

(M.), lisha. 
Terrify, ogofya, tisha, kbofisha. 
!'• stify, shuhudu, sbubudia, sema 

']'■ ther, funga. 
Thank, ambia asanti, shukuru (very 

seldom used except of God). 
Thank you, assant, marababa 

(this last is tl' "proper answer 

to a slavt '« salutation). 
Thatch, \ iniba, ( zi ka. 
Think (consider), aza, likiri, tafa- 

kari, kumbuka. 
(oipposc), tbani, tliania. 
think oneself, jiona. 
//</'/(/: oneself a man, jipevua. 
</</»& o/, tia maanani, kumbuka 

(remember), ma, ania, or nuia 

i featx iTi one's mind). 
Third, nna kiu (y'o-l third), P<u-] 

wa na kiu (%ave third), 
'j h, •!>■ re, ogofya, ogofisha, kbofisha, 

karaia (?). 
Thresh, piga, pura (6ea< out com), 

fikiclia kwa miguu (tread out), 

fikicba kwa mikono (rub out). 
11, rill, tetema. 
Thrive, eitawi, fanikiwa (of p< i 

Tliroh. ]»uma. 
Titrottb , kaba. 

Thrior. tupa. 
<Arow) </ rz<£< -r, ruslia. 
(ftrOMJ <r stern , cfec, \ ui'innis' a. 
//(/•ice iilmiit, tawanya, tapauya 

CM.), chafua, tefua(M.). 
throw a!, tupia. 
throw away, tupa. 

Ilinnr down, uliiusha. 

throw nr, rboard, tosa. 
///row up, or off, rusba. 
//'/•«('• a burdi n <<//' Me shoulhr. 
<\-i\. bwa i 
I'hiiiui, r. [kii-]wa na ngurumo (d&- 

tant), piga radi (m «r). 
Thwart, balifu. 

Tickle in tl<< ribs, tek< nya, shtua. 
77. , funga. 
<iV « /.•/('//. pi;:a i'mido. 
tie tip into a bundle or faggot, 
Tightt a. (act.) kaza, tia kassi, (m 

kazana, kazika. 
Tingle, nna kinyenyefu. 
Tip off the head, shoulder, &c., 

he Tijixij. lcwa. ji!- vya. 

ma/ce lips?/, levya. 
Tire, chosha, taajazi. 
become tired, choka. 
be tiresome, refuse to be pleased, 
Toast, oka. [deka. 

be Together. 

IT- are Together, tu sote. 
Tolerate, stabimili, vumilia. 
Torment, atbibu, utbi, atbibisha. 
Toss, rueha. 

Totter, tetemeka (tremble), pepe- 
suka (be shaken), kon a 
(totter in one's walk). 
Touch, gusa. 

foucA </• //////. papasa. 
touch up, tengeneza. 



Tout for custom, &c, sapa. 
Tow, fungasa. 
Track, fuata nyayo. 
Trade, fauya biashara. 

trade in a small ivay, keep a stall, 
Train up, adibu, lea. 
Trample, finyanga, kanyaga. 
Transcribe, nakili. 
Transform, geuza, badilL 
be Transparent, ng'ara. 
Transgress, tagki, hahfu. 
Translate, tafsiri, fasiri, geuza. 
Trap, tega. 
Travail (of a woman), shikwa na 

Travel, safiri. 

Tread, kanyaga, vioga (M.), finya- 
nga (trample). 
Treat, tendea. 

he treats me badly, kunitendea 

Tie treats mewell, kunitendea zema. 
Tremble, tetema, tetemeka, tapatapa. 
Trickle, tiriiika. 
Trim, tengeneza. 

trim vegetables, &c, for sale, cba- 

trim (sail), rausi. [mbua. 

Triumph, skinda, fanya sbangwi. 
Trot, enda maskindo (of a horse), 

enda matiti (of an ass). 
Trouble, taabiska, sumbua. 

be troubled, taabika, sumbuka, 

be troubled in mind, fatkaika. 
Trust in, amini, jetea, tumauia. 

entrust to, aminisba, weka, amini. 

(have confidence), tumaini. 

trust in God and take courage, 
Try. jaribn, onja (taste). 

try hard, jitabidi, fanya bidiL 

Tuck into the girdle, dc, fulika. 
Tumble, anguka, pomoka. 

tunibukia (fall into). 
Turn or turn into, (act.) geuza, geua. 
(neut.) turn, turn into, turn itself, 

turn over, or the other way, 
pindua (act.), pinduka (neut.). 
turn round something else, zu- 
nguka (neut.), zungusba (act.). 
He turned round, aligtuka. 
The river turns, mto unazunguka. 
The ship turned, meiikebu ilipi- 
turn (prevent its going on in the 

same direction), pinga. 
turn aside (neut.), potoa, potoka. 
turn bottom upwards, fudikiza. 
turn in a lathe, kereza. 
turn out well for, f'anikia. 
Ttceak, nyukua. 

Twist, (act.) nyonga, songa, popotoa. 
(neut.) potoka. 

[a rope~] sokota, suka, pakasa 


Unclose, fumbua. 

be Uncomfortable, taabika, sumbuka, 

toa kuona raba. 
Uncover, funua. 
Unfasten, fungua. 
Understand, sikia, jua, fafanua, 

tambua (recognize). 
I understand, yamenk-lea, yame- 

make to understand, sikiza. 
to be mutually intelligible, make 

one another understand, siki- 

Undertake, tkamaini, jilazimiska 




Undt rvalue, rakhisisba 
l',,<1i) (unfasten), fungua. 

untie (i knot, fundus. 

(ruin), poteza. 
Undress, vua nguo. 
Unfold, kunjuu. 
('nil: . unga, angana. 
Unpick or Unrip, fumua. 

/>-(•',»), uns( ii-ii, t'umuka. 
Unroof, ondoa sakafu (take off a 
stone roof), ezua paa, or zu- 
mbua paa (A.), (take off thatch ). 
Unseic, fumua. 

come unsewn, l'umuka. 
Unthatch, czua, zumbua (A.) 
Untie, fungua. 

a knot, fundua. 
Upbraid, nenca, tuliumu, taya. 
Upsi t, pindna. 
Urge, ,-ukuraa, kaza. 
Urinate, kojoa. 
Use (mah use of), tumia. 

To have been used for something, 
knlikuwa na kitu. 

be of use, faa. 

be of use to one another, faana. 

use bad language to, tukana. 

use words well and correctly, 
Use (accustom), zoeza. 

'/' come used to, zot a. 
Utter, ta'inku. 

Value, tia kima (put a pricp upon), 
penda (h 
be valuable, faa, faa sana, [kii-] 
wa na manfaa. 
Vanish, toweka, toa kuonekana, 
potfa, tokoiin a (get out of one's 
Go awl hidi .' Tokoinea ' 

Vi nture, hatirisha, //ailmtu. 
Vex, kasirisha. 

be vexed, kasirika, chukiwa. 
be Visible, onekaua. 
Visit, enda kuangalia, kutazama, 
or kuzuru, jia (come to), endea 
(go to), 
be visited, jiwa. 
visit upon, patiliza. 
Vomit, tapika, ki komoka (belch out). 

make to vomit, tapisha. 
Void, tangua. batili. 

be made void, tanguka. 
Vow, weka natliiri (make a vow), 
perform a vow, ondoa uatl.iii. 


Wail, omboleza. 

Wait, or wait for, ngoja, saburi, 

Wait a bit, ngoja kwanza. 

wait upon, ngojea. 
Wake, (neut.) a'mka. 

(act.) a'msha. 

remain awake, kesha, angaza. 

be awake, [kii-]wa macho. 

wake up suddenly with a start, 
zinduka, zindukana. 
Wale, alia. 
Walk, enda, enrla kwa miguu. 

(of a horse or ass), enda delki. 

walk about, tembelea. 

take a walk, tembea. 

walk up and down, i nda ma*ia. 

walk lame, chechea, enda chopi. 
Wander, zunguka, potea. 

in mind, papayuka. 
Want (need), taka, ihtajia, ihtaji. 

(wish to have), taka, ipa. 

be wanting, ihtajiwa, pungnka. 
Ward off, kinga (receine on some- 
thing), bckna (knock off again) 



Warm up, kanga moto, pasha moto. 
Warn, onya, anabia, nasi, hatha- 

risba (put on ones guard). 
Warp, benuka (as wood does in 
Wash, osba. [drying), 

wash clothes, fua; by dabbing 

gently only, chackaga. 
oneself, nawa. 

wash one's hands, nawa mikono. 
Waste, (act.) tilifu, tilifisba, fuja, 
thii. baribu, tawanya, tapanya 
(neut.) pungua, tilifika. 
Watch, (act.) vizia, ngqjea, angalia. 
keep watches, ngojea kwa zamu. 
watch over, linda. 
(not to sleep), kesha, angaza. 
Water, tia maji, nyweska maji 

make water, kojoa. 
Wave, (act.) punga. 

(neut.) tangatanga. 
Waver, shangaa. 
Waylay, otea. 
Weaken, tboofisha, toa nguvu. 

become weak, thoofika. 
be Weaned, acba ziwa (leave the 

breast), sbishwa. 
Wear, — the past tenses of kuvaa, 
to put on, are used to express 
He wears, amevaa. 
He wore, alivaa. 
Wear away, (neut.) lika, pnngua, 
(act.) la, punguza. 
Wear out, (neut.) chakaa (by age or 
He wore out my patience, alinon de- 
lea saburi. 
Wear ship, pindua kwa damalini. 
Weary, cbosba. 
become Weary, cboka. 

Weave, fuma. 
ten da nsruo, to stretch the threads 

ready for weaving. 
tarizi, weave a border on to a piece 
of cloth. This is the only kind 
of weaving done in Zanzibar. 
Weed (hoe up weeds), boruga, pali- 
Weep, lia. [Ha. 

weep together, lizana. 
burst into tears, bubujika macbozi. 
Weigh, pima. 

weigh down, lemea, topeza. 
Weld on a piece of steel or iron, 

Wet, tia maji, cbofya niajini (dip in 

Whet, noa. 
Whisper, nong'ona, nong'oiiezana, 

Whistle, piga mbinda, miunzi, mi- 
sono, or rniao. Most, if not all, 
of these refer to an involuntary 
whistling sound; to whistle 
voluntarily is regarded in Zan- 
zibar as profane. 
Widen, panua (act.), panuka (pass.). 
Will, taka, penda. 
If God will, insliallah, Muungu 
akinijalia (if God gives me the 
Win, pata. 

Wind (neut.), zongazonga, zungu- 
wind thread, kunja uzL 
Wink, kopesa, pepesa, pesa. 
Kukonyesba, to raise the eyebrmcs ; 
this is a sign used as winking 
is in England. 
Wipe, futa, pangusa. 

wipe the nose, futa kamasL 
Wish, taka, penda 
Wither, nyauka, fa, fifia. 



Withhold from, nyiroa, liini. 
Witness, ona i 
l,.,ir witness, ehuhudu. 
wii it, for or against, shu- 


ibu, staajabu. 
. fanya kazi. tenda kazi. 
work in metal, fua. 
{/'■nm nf), cbacba. 

/, sumbua, Bumbusha. 
Worship, abmlu. abudia. 
'■ II <>rth< pata kima (get a pria ). 
What is it worth 1 Chapataje? 
Wouml, nmiza. 
be wounded, jerubi. 
wound by striking or piercing un- 
awares, vuaza. 

Wrap, kunja. 
Wreck, vunja. 

be irn oh <l. vunja, vunjika. 

go on shore, panda. 

be on short . pw< L< ka. 
Wrestle, pigana kwa mbavu. 
Wriggh . nyonganyonga. 
Wring, sonjoa, kamua, popntoa. 
Wrinkle, nyeuka. 

become wrinkled, kunjana. 
Writhe (like a wounded snake), 
Write, aiidika. [fingirika 

Wrong, thulumu. 


', onda, or piga miayo, fuuua 

( 209 ) 



Adverbs in Swahili follow the words they qualify. 

Sema sana, speak out. Njema sana, very good. 

Adjectives may be used as Adverbs by prefixing vi- 
or vy-. 

Kunuka vibaya, to smell badly. 

Verbs in the Infinitive and Substantives generally 
may be made to serve as Adverbs by the use of the 
Preposition kwa. 

Ewa uwongo, falsely. Eica Ttujua, knowingly. 

Many English Adverbs may be translated by sana 
(very), which intensifies the action or quality expressed 
by the word to which it is subjoined. 

Vuta sana ! Pull hard ! 
Sliika sana ! Hold tight I 
Enda sana '■ Go fast 1 


There are in Swahili very few Prepositions. Indeed 
there are scarcely more than four, na, ya, hwa, and Tcatiha. 


•J 1<) 

Ml'.l ////./ HANDBOOK 

Katika has the Bame force as the case in -ni, it dem.t. s 

1 tlity in nearly every form in which locality can 

require to be expressed. Kwa denotes instrumentality 
and object. Na is and or with, and by of the agent after 
a passive Verb ; in this last sense ni is used at Mombas 
an<l in other dialects. Ya, or rather -a with a variable 
initial letter, denotes possession ; it is treated as a pos- 
isive pronoun, and changes its first letter according 
to the class of the noun which precedes it, that is of tin- 
person or thing possessed; it can very nearly always 
be translated by/. Its forms appropriate to each cl. 
of substantives are : — 

iss I. siiii:. "•". plur. "". 

,, II- „ "". 

„ JIT. „ ya, „ za. 

„ IV. „ cha, „ vya. 

Class V. sing, la, plur. ya. 
VI. „ va, „ za. 
„ VII. „ pa, „ pa. 
„ VIII. „ kwa, „ hwa. 

Aee p. 209 in original. 

Many of our Prepositions are expressed by a Noun or 
Advi-rb followed by -a. Many others are expressed by 
Verbs in their simple or applied forms (p. 159). Some 
can scarcely be expressed at all. The Preposition from 
Beems to be almost wholly wanting in Swahili It is 
sometimes implied in the Verb, as in kutoha, to come or 
go from, or to come or go out of, but generally it ie 

irked only by katika or the case in -ni, which denote 

rely the locality in which the action commenced. 
From, of time, may be translated by tangu, or by tol:<t, 
or tokea, which do not seem to be used of space or deri- 
vation, but to be boat translated by since or beginning 


Until to, as far as, of time and space, are frequently 
translated by hatta, and (less elegantly) by mpaka, 
followed by a substantive. 


Conjunctions are often dispensed with by the use of 
the tenses with -ka-. And, but, or any other mere con- 
nective in a narrative, is unnecessary where the -Jca- 
tense is employed, as in all ordinary cases it must be. 
The Imperative and Subjunctive may also have -J:a- 
prefixed with the force of the Conjunction and. 

Katupa ! And throw it away. 

Enenda sokoni Jccdeta ndizi ! Go to the market and fetch some 

Uone, uhasadiki, that you may see and believe. 

If and other Conjunctions introducing a state are 
generally expressed by using the -hi- tense of the Verb 
(see Verbs, p. 136). 

In order that is generally expressed only by putting 
the Verb which expresses the purpose into the sub- 

P 2 




About, (near) karibu na, kama. 
(in tin n< ighbourhvod of ), iipande 
Above, (adv.) juu. 
(prep.) juu ya. 
At . \idantly, tele, sana. 
After, (adv.) nyuma, baada. 
(prep.) nyuma ya, baada ya. 
Nyuma is more correctly used of 

plan . a ltd baada, of time. 
Afti r fhi.<. akiisha (he finishing), 
akaisha (and he finished). 
Afterwards, nyumaye, baada yake, 
baadaye, tena, kiisha, halafu, 
Ann m, inara ya pili, tena. 
Against, juu ya. Against is com- 
monly expressed by the use of 
the applit d form of the vi 
long ago, zamani za kale, zamani, 

I lorn long agol Tangu lini? 
ti„ din/,- ago, leo riku kumi, kwa 
uiku kurni, tangu siku kun,;. 

(by himself, 
Tu always 


Alike, sawasawa, ginsi moja, tna- 

Almost, karibu na. 
Alone, peke yake, &c. 

&c), tu (only). 

follows the word 

qualified by it. 
Along, kandokando ya. 

along with, pamoja na. 
Alongside, mbavuni. 
Aloud, kwa sauti kubwa. 
Already, mbele (before), sasa (now). 
He is already gone away, ame- 

kwisha kwenda zake (p. 155). 
Also, na, tena. Na always pre* 

what it is connected with. 
Although, kwainba, ikiwa. 
Altogether, pia yote, kabisa. 
Always, sikuzote, dayima, abadan, 

kipindi, milele (for ever). 
Amidst, katikati ya. 
Among, katika. 

among tliemselves, wao kwa wn<>. 
\m imtly, zamani za kale, kwanza 
And, na. 

And he, and 1, &c. See p. 103. 



And is very often expressed by the 
use of the -ka- tense. See p. 134 
and p. 141. 

And followed by a negative must 
be translated by wala. 

And so, and then, &c, bassi. 
Any is expressed by using the word 

Anywhere, po pote. 

1 dorCt see anything, sioni kitu. 

Anything whatever.kitu cbo chote. 
Apart, mbali. 

Around, pande zote, mzingo wa. 
As (when, orif), -po-,-M-. Seep. 136. 

(as if), kama, kana, kwamba. 

(like), -vyo, -vyo-, added to or 
inserted in the verb. 

As you please, upendavyo. 

As it teas formerly, yalivyobuwa 

As followed hy as is generally 

As big as a house, kubwa kama 

As it stands, shelabela. 
Ailwre, pwani. 

go ashore, panda (of a ship), sbu- 
ka (of a person). 

be ashore (of a ship), pwelewa. 
A*ide, kando. 

At, kwa, katika ; case in -ni, followed 
by pronouns in p-, when it de- 
notes nearness only, but by pro- 
nouns in kw- when it is inde- 

At first, awali, kwanza. 

At home, kwangu, kwako, kwake, 
kwetu, kwenu, kwao, nyumbani. 

He is not at home, bako. Hayuko 
is commonly used by slaves in 
Zanzibar, but is toholly incorrect. 

At last, nrwisbo, hatima, batta. 

At length, hatta, batima. 
At night, usiku. 
At once, mara, mara moja. 
At the top, juu. 
At the bottom, cbini. 
An: ay. 

go away, enda zangu, zako, See., 

according to the person going, 
come away, ja zake, &c. 
He is away, bako. 


Bach, nyuma. 

He went bach, alirudi nyuma. 
upon the bach, kwa tani, cbali. 
Backwards, kingaligali (M.). 
Because, kwa sababu. 

because of, kwa sababu ya, kw^ 
ajili ya, kwani (for). 
Before, (adv.) mbele, kwanza. 
(prep.) mbele ya or za, kabla ya. 
Kabla is used preferably of time, 
mbele of place. 
To go before, tangulia. 
Before he goes to sleep, asijelala. 
Before I die, kabla sijafa. 
Behind, (adv.) nyuma. 

(prep.) nyuma ya. 
Below, (adv.) cbini. 
(prep.) cbini ya. 
Beside, kando la, kandokando ya, 

zayidi ya (more than). 
Besides, tena, zayidi; ni (also), pre- 
ceding the thing mentioned. 
Better, afatbali, beri or kheiri. 
You had better go, afatbali uene- 

nde, u beri uenende. 
Afatbali is preferably, beri means 
it would be a good tbing. 
Between, katikati ya, beina. 
Beyond, (adv.) kwa kuko. 
(prep.) zayidiya, juu ya. 

2! 1 


upande wa 

pili W8. 
-and — , nu- 

l'.ntlt of tin m, wote wawili, zote 
ml>ili, &c, &c. 

But. lakini, vrallakmi (and however), 
illakini (except however), ilia, 
bali. In many cases but may 
be best translated by the use of 
ih> -ka- tense of the verb. 

By (after a passive verb), na, ni 

(of an instrument), kwa. 
(in a r) katika), ease in -ni followed 
by pronouns in p-. 


linly, yakini, hakika, hapana 
You certainly, &c, Hakika yako, 

I, tobtob. 
' '/'/, abadan, dayima. 

Crookedly, kumbukoinbo, niishithari. 


\y, killa siku. siku kwa siku. 
Directly. See Now. 
Distinctly, kiada. 

/' /(, cbini. 
During, wakati wa. 

During his journey, alipokuwa 
akbafiri, akiwa akisaliri. 

Early, rnapema. 

.. up. -I. 

Either — or — , ao — ao — , ama — 

a ma — . 
Elsi where, panginepo. 
/ tirely, pia, kabisa, yote, pia yote. 

kabla vu, mbele yu. See L!>for . 

/ ft, lmtta. 
Even if, -japo. Seep. 138. 

sikuzote, dayima, kipindi. 
for ever, milele. 
Everywhere, mahali pote. 
Exactly, halisi, khassa, bawaba. 
Exceedingly, 'mno subjoined to Hie 

word qualified, sana. 
Except, ilia, ela (M.). Except may 
often be expressed by the use 
of the tense with -sipo. See 
p. 146. 
except by, billa. 
Excessively, 'mno subjoined to the 
word qualified, chapa, ohapara. 

Far or far off, mbali. 
First, kwanza, mbele. 

to go first, kutangulia. 
Fluently, kama maji. 
For, (conj.) kwani. 

(prep.) kwa. For is generally 
expressed by the use of the up- 
plied form of the verb. 

(in the place of), mahali pa. 

for the space of, muda wa. 

for the sake of, kwa ajili ya. 

for my sake, unipendavyo (as you 
love me). 
Formerly, kwanza, zamani. 
Forth, 'nje. 

to go forth, kutoka. 
Forward, mbele. 

go forward, endelea mbele. 
Forwards (upon the face), t'ulifnlL, 
fudil'udi, kwa kufahamia (M.J. 
Frequently, mara nyingi. 
From, katika, case in -ni 

from among, miongoni mwa. 

from time to time, mara kwa mara. 

(since), tangu, toka, tokea. 



I had it from (of) the Sheikh, 
nalipokea ya Sheikh. 
Further, teua. 
Further on, rnbtle. 


Gently, polepole, tavatibu, tahafifu. 

Gladly, furaha. 

Gratis, burre, attia, bilashi. 


Hard, kassi. 

to work hard, kutenda kazi sana. 

to run hard, kaza nibio. 
Hastily, hima, kwa haraka. 
Here, hapa, huku. 

He is here, yupo. 

I am here, mimi hapa. 

Here and there, hapa na hapa. 
Hereafter, baadaye. 
Hither, hatta hapa, hapa. 

Hither and thither, kuku na 
Hitherto, hatta leo, hatta sasa. 
How 1 ? -je subjoined to tlie verb. 
Seep. 123. 

kamaipi? Kwaje? 

How is it ? Ginsi gani ? 

How often ? Mara ngapi ? 

How much ? Kassi gam ? Kadri 
How, ginsi with -vyo- joined with 
the verb ; ginsi is often omitted. 

How he was, &c., ginsi alivyo- 
kuwa, &c. 
However, lakiui. 

If, kana, kwamba, kama; -ki- or 
-po- inserted in the verb. See 
pp. 13d, 146. 

Immediately, mara, niaia moja. 

now immediately, sasa hivi. 
In, katika, case in -ni followed by 

pronouns in m-. 
in the shoulder, ya bega. 
in front, pambele, mbele. 
[I] in going, nikienda, nikiwa 

in good time, at its proper tirm , 

in heaps, chungu chungu. 
in order that, illi. See p. 141. 
in place of, mahali pa. 
in the middle, katinakati. kati, 

in the middle of, kati ya, katikati 
in the morning, assubui. [\ a. 

Indeed, kusema kweli 

great indeed, kubwa sana. 
Inside, ndani. 

inside of, ndani ya, case in -ni 

followed by pronouns in m-. 
He is inside, yumo ndani. 
Into, katika, case in -ni followed by 

pronouns in m-. 

Just, see p. 116, halisi. 

Tliat is just it, ndiyo yalio. 

Lastly, kwa mwisho, mwisho. 

at last, hatima, mwisho. 
Late, kasiri. 
Less, duni. 

to become less, kupungua. 

Less by, kassa. 
Like, kama, methili, hesabu ya. 

People like us, kina sisi. 
Little, kidogo. 

a little more, punde. 

a httle longer, -refu punde. 



Merely, tu, bassi. Botfi words follow 
the word or phrase they qualify. 
Mod* rat* hj, kadiri. 
. zaj idi. 
nmr, than, zayidi ya. 
• i little more, punde. 
Moreov* r, tena, na. 
Much mort . or much less, sembuse, 
- nze. 


A ir {adv. . karibu. 

Near to, karibu na, karibu yn. 

Nearly, karibu na or ya, kadri ya. 

A essarily, of necessity, kauuni la- 
zim, ukwasefu. 

N* ither — nor — , wala— wala— . 

\ r, kabisa (with a negative pre- 
ceding), kamwi (M.). 

\  xt, -a pili yake, kiisba. 
next )o, -a pili ya. 

.\<.. ahaa, hahaa, la, siyo, hakuna, 
hapana, bamna. Tliese last 
three words mean, there is not, 
or there is none. 
Xo, by no means, hasha. 

Nor, wala. 

si. See Negative Tenses of Verbs, 
p. 143. 

Not only — , but also — ; si— 1 
— lakini tena; si — tu, ilia — . 

A ( yet, bade, asitasa, haitassa, &c 
(M.). Tliese words are us* d to 
'te incompleteness, whatever 
th* subject referred to may be. 
Not yet may generally be ex- 
pressed by the negative tense 
irith -ja- (seep. 145), after which 
 bado is generally added. 

Now, sasa, leo (to-day), wakati bun 
at this time), zamani hizi (in 

these Huns), zamani zetu (in our 

times), siku hizi (in these da^s). 
Now din eih/, .sasa liivi. 


Obliqu* ly, banamn. 

Of, -a, with a first letter varying 
according to the class of tl<>' 
preceding word, that is of th< 
thing possessed. 
I. JMtn wa Ali, Ali's man. 
Watu wa Ali, Ali's people. 
Mbuzi wa Ali, All's goat. 
Mbuzi wa Ali. Ali's goats. 

II. Mnazi wa Ali, All's cocoa- 

nut tree. 
Minazi ya Ali, Ali's cocoa- 
nut trees. 

III. Nyumba yu Ali, Ali's funis, . 

Nynmba za Ali, All's 
iv. Kisu cha Ali, Ali's knife. 

Visu vya Ali, Ali's Jcnivt s. 
v. Kasha la Ali, Ali's chest. 
Makasha ya Ali, Ali's 
vi. Uimbo wa Ali, AIVs song. 

"Syimbo za, Ali, Ali's sunt i.  . 
vii. Mahali pa Ali, Ali's place. 
vni. Kuta kwa Ali, Ali's dying. 

1. Nyumbani mwa Ali, in Ali' s 


2. Nyumliani pa Ali, by Ali't 


3. Nyumbani kwa Ali, to Ali's 

Ya is sometimes pronounced a. 

saa a sita, twelve o'clock. 

Where it is intended to mark spec in 1 7 y 

the individuality of the j)oss< ssor 

the possessive pronoun may l<e 

*jcd instead of the preposition -a. 



Kiti chake Sultani, means the 
chair in which no one but the 
Sultan sits, or the Sultana own 
Of is included in some words which 
are therefore not followed by -a. 
Kina Abdallah, Abdullah's people, 

or people like Abdallah. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed's 

Binti Mohammed, Mohammed's 

In some common phrases -a is 
omitted apparently for shortness 
Often, mara nyingi. 
On, juu ya, the case in -ni. 
Put it on the table, weka mezani. 
Put it on the top of the table, weka 

juu ya meza. 
on both sides, pande mbilL 
on every side, kotekote. 
on foot, kwa miguu. 
o?i one side, onesidedly, pogo. 
on purpose, makxtsudi. 
on the part of, miongoni mwa. 
Once, mara moja. 

at once, mara moja, mara. 
once only, mara moja tu. 
Only, peke yake, &c. (by itself, 
alone), tu, bassi, both following 
the word or phrase qualified. 
Orderly, taratibu. 
Out, nje. 
out and out, tama. 
Speak out, sema sana. 
Outside, nje, kwa nje. 

■outside of, nje ya. 
Outwardly, kwa nje. 
Over, juu ya (of place), zayidi ya 
(of quantity). Over in the sense 
of excess may be expressed by 

kupita, to pass ; and in the seme 
of finished, by kuisha, to come 
to an end. 
The battle is over, mapigano ya- 

Patiently, stahimili. 

Perhaps, labuda, hwenda, kwenda, 
kwa nasibu, inshallah. 

Perpetually, dayima, abadan. 

Possibly, labuda, yamkini (it is pos- 
sible), kwa yamkini (by possi- 

Presently, halafu. 

Properly, vema, halisi, bawaba. 
-to, used as an enclitic subjoined 

to verbs and substantives. 
Amejiwekato, he has placed him- 
self properly. 


Quickly, hima, hiniahima, kwa ha- 

raka, upesi, mbio (running). 
Quietly, taratibu, polepole. 
Quite, kabisa, pia halisi. 


Bather, zayidi (more), afathali (pre- 
much rather, sembuse, seuze. 

Secretly, kwa siri,ndani kwa ndani. 
Side by side, kandokando. 
Silently, kimyakimya. 
Since, tangu, toka, tokea. 
Slowly, polepole, taratibu, kiada. 
So, when followed by as is generally 
omitted, when standing alone it 

•2 IS 


may be expressed by ginsi, and 
-vyo inst rU </ in tin >■< rb. 
lb is not so tall as you are, si 

mrefu kama wewe. 
1 ,{<<l ,. was so tall, si- 

kumjua ginsi alivyo mrefu. 
' '/• as, hatta. 
Bonn tim>*. mara, mara kwa mara. 
- .•■times he laughs, somrtiiw s )i< 
cries, mara hucheka, ni;ira hulia. 
Soon, sasa hivi (immediately), upeai 
(quickly), bado kidogo (yet a 
little), karibu (near). 
SHU- t ma, hatta leo. 
Strongly, kwa nguvu. 
Sud>i> ilia, ghafala, mara moja, thu- 
ruba moja. 

That (hotc that), kwamba, ya kwa- 
( in 'ordt r that), illi. See p. 141. 
J if a. is often expressed by the use of 
the -ka- tense, or by the vcrhs 
kwisha, to finish, or, kwenda, 
to go. 
Akiisha akatoka, having finished 
this, he went out = then he went 
Akaenda ukamkamata, and he 
»/•< at and seized him = then he 
edh im. 
(after this), baadaye, baada yake, 

nyumaye, nyuma yake. 
[then il was), ndipo. 
(in those days), zamani zile, siku 

(at that time), wakati ule. 
There, pale, huko, kule. Pale 
points to what is nearest, kule 
hat is, farthest off. 
Therefore, kwa sababu bii. 

Though, kwamba; the -lei- tense, 
p. 136, "■//( a tin case is put as 
an existing one; the -nge- tense, 
ji. I '.s. irhere the case is put us 
not • xisting. 

Though In is, aMwa. 

Though he h . angawa. 

(even if), -japo, p. 138. 
Thus (in this way), hivi, hivyo. 

just thus, vivi hivi, vivyo hivyo. 

(in the same win/), vivyo. 
Till, hatta, mpaka wa. 
To (ax the sign of the infinitivi ), 
ku-; the u becomes w befon a,e, 
or i, and is often omitti d before 
o and u. 

Kwisha = ku-isha, to finish. 

Kwenda = ku-enda, to go. 

K ga = ku-oga, to bathe. 

To before a verb where it expri 
the purpose or the object aimed 
at, is expressed by the use of the 

I stood up to look, nalisimawa 

Tell him to help you, mwambia 

I want him to go, namtaka ai i 

I want to go, nataka kwenda. 
(In such cases as this the verb 
in the infinitive is used as a 
substantia .) 

(unto) is generally contained 
the verb, kupa = to give tc 
to give). If not contained in 
the meaning of the, original 
it may be expressed by the use of 
the applied form. In Gu 
cases in which to cannot he 
brought into the meaning of the 
verb, it must be rendered by 



(as far as), hatta. 
(to the house of), kwa. 
Together, pamoja, wote. 

When joined with persons together 
is expressed by forms of -ote, 

twende sote, let us go together. 
mwende nyote, go together. 
wende wote, let them go togefhi r. 
both together, wote, wote wawili. 
Topsy-turvy, kitwakitwa, vitwav - 

Totally, kabisa, pia. 
Truly, kweli. hakika, yakini, inna. 
Twice over, kuwili. 


Unawares, ghafala. 

Under, chini ya. 

Until, hatta. 

Up, juu. 

Upon, juu ya, case in -ni. See On. 

Upicards, juu. 

Utterly, kabisa, pia yote, tikitiki. 


Vainly, burre. 

Very, sana. Sana always folloivs 

the word qualified by it. 
Vigorously, kwa nguvu, sana. 
Violently, kwa nguvu, kassi. 

Well, venia, sana, -to. See Properly. 
What 1 ? See p. 122. 

What do you want ? Wataka nini ? 
What tree is it ? Mti gani huu ? 
What man ? Mtu yupi ? 
What = that which. See Relatives. 

p. 117. 
When? Lirti? 

When (if, as soon as, &c), the -ki 
tense, p. 130. 

(at the time when), -po, treated as 
a relative particle and joined 
with the verb, p. 119. 
(during the time), wakati wa. 
when it rains, wakati wa mvua. 
When the harvest comes, wakiti 

wa kuvuna, [wa]vunapo. 
(even if), -japo, p. 138. 
Whenever, wakati wote, killa -po. 

Whenever I go, killa nendapo. 
Where ? Wapi, api. p. 123. 
Where are you going ? Wenda 
Where, po, ko, mo, treated as relative 
particles and joined with the 
verb. Po implies nearness, and 
mo the being inside. 
1 don't hnow where he is, simjui 

I don't know where I am going, 

sijui ninapokwenda. 
1 don't hnow where I came from, 

sijui ninakotoka. 
Where the tree is (or was), penyi 
Wherever, po pote, ko kote, mo mote. 
Wherever I go, killa nendako. 
Wherever I enter, killa ningiamo. 
Wherever I am, killa nilipo. 
Wherefore, kwa sababu hii or hiyo. 
Wlhether — or — , ao — ao — . 
Whether it be, licha. 
(if), kwamba. 
While, maadam, maazal. 

While, is generally expressed by 
the use of -ki- prefixed to the 
verb, p. 136. 
While it is yet early, kungali na 
mapema bado. 
Why ? Mbona ? Kwani ? Kwa 
nini ? Ya nini ? Kwa sababu 
gani ? Giusi or Gissi gani ? 



With, na, pamoja na. 
(as on itufrumi / 1, kwa. 

;ituitin<j. having), -enyi /See 
p. 97. 
Within, mlani. 
Without, nje. 

Without (prep.), pasipo (where there 
is 7iot). 
Without is generally expressed by 
the -sipo- terwe (p. 146). 7/ 
fn'/y ?>e represented by a simph 
He in without shame, hana haya 

= he has no shame. 
Without, followed in English by 
tlie participial or verbal in -ing, 
ma;/ be r> ndered by the negative 
subjunctive of the verb. 
Without seeing him, asiniwone. 
Without (hen being, pasiwe. 
Wonderfully, ajib, ajabu. 

Yearly, mwaka kwa inwaka. 

I ■:< ■<  i ii a •. na'aiii. vema, njema, 

yakini, ndio, kweli. 
Ewaa or Ec wallah are ofk n usi d 

by slaves <>r inf< riors to express 

a Killing </.->•< lit. 
Inshallab is used as a promis, to 

do som< thing. 
Lebeka or Labeka, contracted 

into lclu I or even be, is 

ii.<xl by in/, riors as an an*u-er 

niii n called. Sttpi riors or 
(ipmh generally use naani. the 
Arabic yes. 
Ndiyo yalio, that is just it. 
Yonder, kule, kulee, p. 115, 116. 


Zigzag, upogoupogo. 

( 221 ) 


There are in Swahili, as in all languages, some 
scarcely articulate Interjections, and many of the natives, 
especially of the lower class, use a great deal of action, 
often joined with half-articulate exclamatory sounds, 
to illustrate and enforce their meaning. The following 
are the most usual Interjections, and those which can 
best be written. The words used for Yes and Xo are 
given in the preceding list, pp. 216 and 220. 

The ordinary salutations are in practice a sort of 
Interjections, not being very easily explained under 
any other head. 

A slave addressing a superior says Sikamoo or NasiJca- 
moo, for nasMJca miguu, I embrace your feet. The 
superior replies Marahaba, thank you, or welome, the 
word being originally an Arabic form of congratulation 
and well-wishing. 

Equals very commonly say when they meet Jambo or 
Yambo, to which the reply is Jambo or Jambo sana. There 
is a playful or very affectionate way of continuing the 
dialogue thus — Jambo. Jambo. Jambo sana. Jambo sana. 
Sana sana. Sana sana. Kama lulu (like pearls). Kama 


marijani i like coral), <(V., <{•<•. The more correct expres- 
sions are — Hu jambo? Are you well? and the answer, 
Si jambo, I am well. It is difficult to explain these 
phrases intelligibly. Hu jambo? is literally, Are you 
not a matter or affair? or still more strictly, Are you 
not a word ? The meaning is very nearly that of the 
English, Is nothing the matter with you ? Sometimes 
Ha jambo is used to express, He is well, or Ha jambo 
kidogo, He is not very ill, or He is a little hetter. One 
may ask, U hali gani ' What state are you in? i.e., How 
are you ? to which a proper reply is, Njema, hemd il Ilhthi, 
Good, praise be to God. The Arabic Sabalkheir, Good 
morning, and Masalkheir, Good afternoon, are often 
heard. The more elegant forms are Subahk Allah bilk- 
ln ir and Masak Allah bilkheir. It is not usual to inquire 
about the health of a wife or of the women of a house- 
ii Id, unless among very intimate friends, or for some 
special reason. When necessary, one should say, Hu- 
jambo nyumbani ? or U hali gani nyumbani ? How are 
you in the house, i.e., How are your household, or 
those in your house ? It is proper, if you are asked 
how you are, always to answer, well, for the sake of 
the omen; and similarly if you are asked Habari ganif 
What news ? to answer Njmna, good, and then after- 
wardfi to give a true account of the matter. 

In Swahili Interjections a final h is often distinctly 
heard. It requires much practice to enable a European 
to make this sound properly. 

*- — 


Ah! An exclamation of mingled 
grief and surprize. The final 
h must be distinctly sounded. 

Aksdnt or asanti, thank you. Ah- 
sdnt is an Arabic word mean- 
ing, You have done well. It is 
sometimes used profusely by 
way of mere compliment. 

Amina. Amen, used at the end of 
a prayer. 

Aii '. Look you ! I say ! It is 
used generally as a means of 
calling attention to what has 
been said, or is about to be said. 
It is a sort of vocal note of 


Bam'! or Bass! That will do! 
Enough ! Stop ! No more ! 

Chub! An exclamation of impa- 
tience and contempt ; the ch 
is the sound most heard, the 
vowel being very short and in- 


Ee! O! The interjection of in- 

Ewe! plw.Enyi! You there ! A 
rather contemptuous way of 
demanding attention. It is 
used for Hi ! I say ! and any 
exclamation merely meant to 
attract notice. It must not be 
used to a superior and rarely 
only to an equal. It is custo- 
mary to call to them Bwana ! 
i.e., Master ! The answers 
will be found in the previous 
list, p. 220, under the word 


Haya! An exclamation borrowed 
from the Arabic ; it means, 
give your attention to this, go 
on with it. It is used where 
we say, Come along ! Look 
sharp ! Be quick ! Go on ! 
If it has been proposed to do 
anything, Haya ! means, Let 
us set about it. Haya ! is 
commonly used by a master 01 



overl i ket to hasten men about 
tin ir work. 

Hima! Quick! Be quick! Make 
haste ! Often double 1, Bit na 
hima I 

Hddi '. with a great stress on the 
o. It is not right to enter any 
house or room (not your own) 
without first crying Hddi! and 
waiting fur someone to come, 
or at 1' asl to answer, Karib, 
Come in ! 

Je! or y. .' Hi llo! What now! 
Well! What is it? 


Kdrib '■ i.e., come near ! It is used 
to invite people into a house, 
to join a party, or to sit down 
and put themselves at their 
ease. Kdrib ■' may generally 
be translated, Come ami Bit 
with us ! and a common an.-u er 
kaa kitako, I am set 

An exclamation of con- 

Eva fori! Good-bye! Farewell! 
Sometimes a plural is made, 
Kuaherini, though it seems to 
be an incorrect form. 

uetimes a special friend 
adds, Ya kuonana, as much as 
to say. May we soon meet again. 

Kumbel What! What then! An 
expression of surprize, espe- 
cially u.-eil when things turn 
out not to be as they were 
represented to be. 

Laitil Oh thai I Would that! 

An exclamation of regret, a 
wish that things had been 
Looo! An exclamation of surprize; 
the o is more dwelt upon in 
proportion to the amount of 


Marahabal Thank you! It is 
well ! used by way of acknow- 
ledging a gift or a compliment. 

Miyei M.e ! I ! I am the one! 

.1/" ' mjewel You did it yourself ! 


Ole! An exclamation foreboding 
evil. Woe! Olewenu! Woe 
unto you! Ole wanguf Woe 
is me! 

Saa ! You ! I say ! It is put 
after a word to give emp 
to it. Njoosaa! Come on, ilo' 

Salaam! Peace! Hail! It is 
used as a salutation by the 
Indians. The regular Arabic 
Salaam aleikum! Peace be 
with you ! and the answer, ^Ya 
aleilt salaam! And with you 
peace! is not very commonly 
il. Salaam is often used 
in the sense of compliments : 
Salaam Bibi! With the mis- 
tress' compliments, — said in 
presenting anything. 

Si in ilia! Out of the way! Ori- 
ginally, as it is said, BismiUah, 
In the name of God. It is now 



the common cry by which people 
are warned of something com- 
ing. Similla punda! Make 
way for a donkey ! Similla 
ubau .' Take care of the plank ! 
Two servants frequently go 
before a great man to clear the 
way for him, and call out to 
any one in the road, Similla! 
Similla ! 

A plural Similleni ! is some- 
times made as though it were 
the imperative of a verb. The 
more correct phrase for Get out 
of the way ! is Jitenge ! 
Starehe! Don't disturb yourself I •; 
When a new-comer enters, the | 
rest rise to do him honour, j 
which he tries to prevent by 
Baying, Starehe ! Starehe J It j 

is properly used to deprecate 
any trouble or disturbance on 
the speaker's account. 


Tendeni ! Go on I Let us go ! 
Probably the imperative of ku- 
tenda, to do or to be employed 

Tutu ! Don't touch ! Used to a 
child meddling with what he 
had better leave alone. 

Vema ! "Very well ! 
That will do I 

So be it! 

Weye ! Yo^ ! 
It's you I 


You are the one! 



The formation and introduction of new words go on 
bo freely in Swahili, that no guide to the language 
would be complete without a section on the subject. 

Foreign words are adopted in a shape as nearly like 
their own as the rules in regard to Swahili syllables will 
allow. At first indeed a word may be used in its crude 
original shape, but it soon has vowels introduced into, 
and subjoined to it, so as to bring it into a regular form. 
Arabic words seldom present great difficulties when 
once the gutturals have been toned down. Thus khabar 
(news) softens into liabdri, wakt (time) becomes first 
tcakti and then wahdti, Icabr or gabr (a grave) is softened 
aiifl expanded into Icaburi. It is seldom that an Arabic 
word presents so much difficulty as did these three. 
Tortuguese has furnished some words, as kasha (caxa), a 
large box ; meza, a table ; mvinyo (vinho), wine. French 
aives a few, as bweta (boite) a box; divai (du vin) 
claret. An instance of English adaptation occurs in 
manoicari, which is the current designation of an English 



Some rules have been given at the end of the section 
on Verbs for the formation of several derived forms 
(p. 157). Verbs in the causative and neuter forms may 
be made from other parts of speech, especially from 
foreign Adjectives, by changing their final syllable 
into -isha or -esha, -iha or -eka, as though they had been 
originally Verbs. 

Ghali, dear. Kughalisha, to make dear. 
Laini, smooth. Kulainisha, to make smooth. 
Kulainika, to be made smooth. 

Beside those formations which are in daily use, it is 
a great help to the understanding of the language to 
bear in mind the traces of formations not now ordinarily 
employed. In regard to Verbs it is a constant rxile that 
those ending in -ua reverse the meaning of similar verbs 
ending in -a only. 

Kufunga, to fasten. Kufungua, to unfasten. 

Kufuka, to fill in a hole. Kufukua, to clear out a hole. 

Several verbs show traces of a rule, which prevails in 
some other African languages, that the change of -a into 
-ya gives the Verb a causative meaning. 

Eupona, to get well. Kuponya, to cure. 
Kuogopa, to fear. Kuogofya, to frighten. 

There are many questions about the form of Verbs 
which need much more investigation. What is the rule 
by which some causatives are made in -sha and some in 
-za ? Has the -sha termination the effect of to make to 
be, and -za that of to make to do f What is the explana- 
tion of the apparently neuter form of some active Verbs, 



such ns hifuniJca, to cover? "What is the effect of the 
terminations -ma and -ta, as in huungama and l.-u/innbataf 
What dialect did they originate in? What are the 
rules for the termination -aivja, which seems to be 
common in the most northerly Swahili? 

It has been shown in the section on verbs how somo 
tenses are formed by the use of an auxiliary, and some 
by a tense prefix which has no independent meaning. 
An example of the transition between the two is sup- 
plied by the three forms of the negative infinitive : 1. 
hutoa Jcupenda ; 2. hitoa penda ; 3. Jcutopenda. In the 
first form both words have a substantial independence ; 
in the second the principal verb, penda, is already 
drawn out of its proper form, and depends for its 
meaning upon the first verb, toa, as upon a prefix ; in 
thp third it has swallowed up the final of the first verb 
and appropriated its prefix Jcu-. The form of the future 
prefix which is used with relatives points to taha as the 
i iriginal form, and the verb JcutaJca is so like our own 
word to will that one can hardly be wrong in supposing 
that in both cases the change from a verb expressing 
volition to a mere sign of tense expressing futurity has 
proceeded in a similar manner. Now, if the tense pre- 
fixes were ever independent words, the principal verb 
must have been in the infinitive ; and, if so, the presence 
of the hi- before monosyllabic verbs, wherever the accent 
requires it, is fully explained ; it was dropped wherever 
it served no purpose, and retained where it was con- 
venient to retain it. The original independence of the 
tense prefix and of the principal verb would also go to 
account for the way in which the objective prefix clings 


to the principal verb; it would then have originally 
followed the leu-, and so been severed by it from all the 
other prefixes. The only cases in which the natives 
separate the prefixes from the verbs in writing seem to 
be where a particle of relation is joined with the -na-, 
-U-, and -taJca- prefixes, and in the past conditional or 
-ngali- tense. It is curious to have in such a word as 
atakayekuja the same letters exactly used to form a 
tense prefix and to express an independent verb. Ata- 
kaye Tcuja means, who desires to come, atakayekuja, who 
will come, in the sense of a simple future. 

Adjectives are made from Verbs in correct Swahili In- 
substituting -vu or -fu for the final -a. Where the final 
is preceded by a consonant the Adjective is made from 
the applied form. 

Kunyamaa, to remain silent. -nyamavu, silent. 
Kuharibu, to destroy. -haribifu, destructive. 

Verbs that end in -ka change this into -vu in making 
the Adjective. 

KuchoJca, to become tired, -clwvu, tired. 

These forms do not now appear to be freely made or 

used in the common dialect of Zanzibar. A somewhat 

similar meaning may be expressed by the use of the 

variable Preposition -a followed by the Infinitive of the 



Substantives may be freely made by prefixing to the 
simple form of the Verb the initial letters proper to the 
first, or to the fourth class, according to whether it is 


a living being or a thing which does what the Verb 
expresses. It must be observed, that this form is so 
purely verbal that it takes an object after it just as a 
Verb would. 

Mfanya biashara, a trade maker, i.e., a merchant 
Vifaa, things which arc of service, necessaries. 
Kifungua mlango, the door opener. 

The final letter is somel Lmes changed into -i, and the 
word ceases to govern an object. 

Meemi, a speaker. 

"Where the final -a is preceded by a -b- it becomes -«-. 

Kwiba, to steal. Mwivi, a thief. 

Kugomba, to quarrel. Mgomvi, a quarrelsome person. 

AVhere the above rules would produce a common 
w.-rd with another meaning, the leu of the Infinitive is 

Kulima, to cultivate. Mkulima, a cultivator. 

Minna, a mountain. 

There are a few traces of a formation of verbals by 
changing the last letter into -e, as in -teule, chosen, from 
lndeu[T\a, to choose. 

The habitual doer of an action may be denoted 1 »y 
adding -ji to the simple form of the Verb and prefixing 
the initial letters proper to the first Class. 

Kuomba, to beg. Mwombaji, a beggar, 

Kuiba, to steal. Mvribaji, an habitual thief. 

Another way of denoting a person who does what the 
Verb expresses is formed by changing the final letter 
JL,to si, -shi, or -zi, and employing the usual prefix 


When the Yerb ends in -ha the -ha becomes shi ; where 
the Verb ends in -ta the -ta becomes -si. 

Kuokoa, to save. Hiookozi, a saviour. 

Kununua, to buy. Mnunuzi, a purchaser. 

Kuaka, to build (in stone). Mwashi, a mason. 

Kufuata, to follow. Hfuasi, a follower. 

The result of the action denoted by the Verb may be 
expressed by changing the final -a into -o and using 
some appropriate prefix. 

Euzaa, to bear. Mazao, fruit, produce. 

Kutenda, to do. Kitendo, an action. 

Kioenda, to go. Mwendo, a journey, or going. 

Of the Substantival prefixes those of the fourth (Ki-) 
Class are most often used. 

The same forms especially in the fifth Class are used 
to express the place where an action is generally done. 

Kuoka, to bake. Joko, a baking place. 

Kukusanyika, to be assembled. Makusanyiko, a gathering place, 

or an assembly. 

Words of similar meaning are also made by the termi- 
nations -zi -shi, -si. See above. 

Mavao, or Mavazi, dress, garments. 
Kizao, or Kizazi, birth, a generation. 
Pendo, or Penzi, love. 

Where the Verb and Substantive are both borrowed 
from the Arabic, it is useful to remember that the Sub- 
stantive has generally a where some other vowel occurs 
in the Verb. 

Kudbudu, to worship. Poada, worship. 

Kusafiri, to travel. Safari, a journey. 


Sometimes both the Arabic and the Swahili forms 
Kujihu, to answer. Jaicabu and majibu, an answer. 

Verbs joined with relatives, or with the particles of 
place or time, may be treated as Substantives. 

Wi iidalco hote, whithersoever thou goest 
Killa nendapo, every time I go. 
Zikerezvoazo, turnery, turned goods. 

Substantives of place may be made from Adjectives 
by putting them into the form required by Mahali, 
place (Class VII.). 

I'anyamavu, a quiet place. 

The place where something is may be expressed by 

1" i"j' 1 - 

Penyi mtende, where the date tree is, or was. 

The place for doing anything may be expressed by 
pa followed by the Infinitive of the Verb. 

Palcutohea, a place to go out at, an outlet. 

Abstract Substantives are ordinarily formed by means 
of the prefix V- or W-. 

Karimu, generous. Ulcarimu, generosity. 

-eupe, white. Weupe, whiteness. 

Mwizi, a thief. Vizi, thievishness. 

Mnuaji, a murder. Uunji, murders. 

Waziri, a vizier. Uwaziri, viziership. 

An instance in which both Arabic and Swahili forms 
are used occurs in the word for enmity. 

Adui, an enemy. Wadui or Adawa, enmity. 

Nations, their country and language, are regularly 


expressed by the prefixes of the first, sixth, and fourth 

Mgala, a Galla. Ugala, Galla land. Kigala, the Galla 

Mzungu, a European. Uzungu, the native country of the 

Europeans. Kizungu, the language which European 


It is to be observed that the U- form would also 
express the being a Galla, European, &c, and that the 
Ki- form denotes the sort or kind of anything, not of 
language only. It is seldom used absolutely except of 
the language, but when preceded by -a (of) its true 
meaning becomes evident. 

Mavao ya Kizungu, European dress. 
Viazi vya Kizwlgu, potatoes. 

The Ki- form may be made from other substantives. 

Mavao ya Mfaume, royal robes (form mfaume, a king, and 
ufaume, kingdom or kingship). 

The formation of Adverbs and Prepositions has been 
described in the section on the smaller parts of speech. 

( 234 ) 

c .A 

pes . /"N 

£.2 ^^S^^HOkW 

g ,3 H £h « W U> 

"i'SsSS^ job j&S jrf 






B|jS'4&-A,g 1 ! 1 »j.iS5g .5 

-£ O O — ^~n ^^ / ~~' j"*> fv A^ p £J> 3 

>^/ \^ O" *0" 'O 'O* 'O' 'O* 'O W ^-^ S— ' *w 

< O i C/ -A , , " = ,± J> PI • e ~ k 3 



i * i 






* a 


Ads' A ' ,— ' ~ 3 i • 3 rt 3 

I I '^ 


A . i .« i 3 

£ t3 fc ^ US W H 

2 P 














3 ,5 , 

,-; -~ i«=« <«= 

4 3 . i i i ^ 

i ' *  ^ 

~ i c; ^ d ,— s 

hJ fc a m w S> 

Ai ij i . -A .A 

* . . i s 

; ■; •; c -c c •; ~ •; !~ ;; ~ 


=' 3 

— — .> 

£ g a 

( 235 ) 

Table of the Preposition -a (of) 

in four Languages. 




























































































Part II. 



In using the following Vocabulary it is necessary to remember that 
Swahili words change very much at the beginning and not often at 
the end. 

In searching for the meaning of a word, which is not to be found 
exactly as written, it is well to examine first the final syllable, so as to 
correct, or remove, any termination or enclitic which may be attached 
to it. These are as follow : — 

1. The passive of the verb is made by changing -a into -tea. Verbs 
ending in two consecutive vowels frequently use as their passive the 
passive of the applied form which ends in -litva or -lewa. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendwa, to be loved. 
Kufungua, to unfasten. Kufunguliwa, to be unfastened. 
Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzaliwa, to be born. 
* Kukomboa, to buy back. Kukombolewa, to be bought back. 

2. Verbs ending in -a change the -a into -e in the subjunctive and 
imperative, and into -i in the negative present. 

Pende, love thou. 
Apende, that he may love. 
Hapendi, he does not love. 

The change of the final vowel distinguishes hapendi, he does n't 
love, from hapenda, a contracted form of nikapenda, and I loved. 

3. The plural of the imperative is made by adding -ni to the 

Pendant or Pendent, love ye. 
Sifuni, praise ye. 
Fikirini, consider ye. 

E 2 

'_' Id PR EL I MIX- 1 R 7 OBSER I '. 1 TIO NS. 

4. Substantives form the Locative case by adding -ni. 

Nyumbani mwangu, inside my house. 

\ imbam hirudin, to or at my house. 

\ a ai pangu, by or near my bouse. All from Nyumba. 

5. -nt may stand for ninif What? 

Watakani ? What <lo you want ? 

ti. i/e? How? is subjoined to the verb expressing the action in* 
quired about. 

Asemaje 1 How does he speak ? i.e., What does he say ? 

7. mno, exceedingly, always follows the word it qualifi. is, and may 
be treated as an enclitic. 

8. -to, which, however, rarely occurs in the dialect of Zanzibar, 
denotes goodness and fitness. 

K '•• ka, to place. Kmr, halo, to place properly. 
Manuka, smells. Manukato, scents. 

9. 3»he relative signs and the particles denoting time and place are 
subjoined to the verb when there is no tense prefix, otherwise they 
follow the tense prefix. 

Tulala-po, when we sli ep. 
Tuna-po-lala, while we are sleeping. 

The particles denoting time and place are, 

-po, when or where. 
-ho, whither or whence. 
-mo, wherein. 

Tie Be preceded only by the personal prefix imply the substantive 
rb to be. 

Tupo, he is there, not far off. 

y.'ipo, &c, &c, they are there, not far off, &c, &c. 
Yvko, he is there, far off. 

Ziko, Ac, dec, they are there, far off, &c, &c. 
Ywno, he is there inside. 

Zimo, &c, &c, they are there inside, &c, &c. 

'1 lie relative si^ns are, -cho, -hi, -o, -po, -vyo, -v>0, -ye, -yo, -zo. 

'■ith na prefixed have the meaning of and, or irilK 
hint, or them. 


10. The possessive pronouns may be used in enclitic forms. 

Tliy, or your, may be expressed by subjoining, according to the 
class of the substantive, -clio, -lo, -o, -pn -vyo, -wo, -yo, or -zo. 

His, hers, or its, may be expressed by subjoining -che, -e, -le, -pe, 
rye, -we, -ye, or -ze. 
Other enclitic forms of the possessive pronouns are, — 

-nyu, or -angu, my. -etu, our. 

•ho, or -ako, thy. -enu, your. 

-he, or -ahe, his, &c. -ao, their. 

The final letter of the substantive generally merges into the initial 
of the pronoun. 

Mwanangu, my child. Mivanetu, our child. 

Mwanako, thy child. Mwanenu, your child. 

Mwanake, his child. Mwanao, their child. 

11. New verbs may always be formed when wanted by changing the 
final vowel into -ia or -ea, -lia or -lea, to make the applied form ; into 
-za or -sha, -iza or -eza, -isha or -esha, to make a causative form ; into 
-ana, to make a reciprocal form ; and into -ha, -iha, or -eha, to make a 
neuter or quasi-passive form. 

12. In old and poetical Swahili the object of the verb is suffixed as 
well as prefixed, as in U-ui-hifathi-mi, Do thou preserve me; where 
both the ni and the mi denote the object of the verb. 

The syllables thus used are -cho, -lo, -ni, -nyi, -o, -po, si, -vyo, -me, 
-vo, -ye, -yo, -zo. 

Having cleared the word of all adventitious terminations it wil/ 
probably be found at once ; if not, look for the first syllable, and so 
on, taking syllable by syllable until the word, its number, person, and 
tense, will all have been explained. It must, however, be borne in 
mind that nouns in u- or w- generally drop the initial letter in the 
plural and frequently substitute for it n- or ny-. 

Verbs and adjectives are here indexed under the first letter of the 
simplest form, or of that to which the prefixes are joined. 

Kupenda will be found as Penda hu-, to love. 
Mabaya will be found as -baya, bad. 

Words which may be used as adjectives or as substantives, but from 
their nature can hardly be applied to any but animate beings, will be 
found under m- or mw- t as they can very rarely in the singular take 
any other prefix. 


i are indexed by the prefix with which they are generally 

used. It must be remembered, however, thai the use of particular 

prefixes may be nearly always varied to suit any particular ahade ol 

rag, so that it' the word is not to be found under one, it may 

happen that its meaning can be found under some other. 

■\Vliure no plural is mentioned, it is to be understood that the plural, 
if used at all, is in the same form as the singular. 

The following table of prefixes may be found useful. The os< 
each will be explained in the Vocabulary. 







































!'.■.< 'NOMINAL 




















Verbal PREFIX] 

1. Personal or subjective prefixes, which take precedence of all 





























2. Tense prefixes which precede all except the signs of person. 


















* These may all be preceded by Hi, to form negative tenses In the indicative mood, 
and personal prefixes followed by -si- make negative subjunctives. 



3. Particles of place, time, and relation, which follow the tense 
prefix, or, if there is no tense prefix, are subjoined to the verb. 













4 Objective prefixes, which always immedi 

ately precede the verb. 
















A suppressed I or r always exists between two consecutive vowels. 
It is often heard in the Merima dialect, and frequently appears where 
otherwise three or more vowels would follow one another. However, 
the more classical the Swahili, the less tolerant it is in any case of an 
I between vowels, or even as an initial letter. 

keee = kelele. ete — lete. 

The following letters are interchanged ; 

I and r, s and sh, and vulgarly hi and chi, and th and z. 

Zanzibar ch = t (M.). 

e = a (M.). 

h = kh (Ar.). 

j = d (M.), y (A.) (N.). 

t = ch (Ozi.). 

v = z (A.), 

z = v (Mer.), th (Patta and Ozi.), j (vulgar). 

The letters enclosed in parentheses denote the various dialects. 
(M.) = Monibas (kimvita). (Mer.) = Southern Coast dialect 

(A.) = Lamoo (kiamu). (Ar.) = Arabic. 

(N.) = Poetical Swahili (kingozi). 



The sound of a in Swahili re- 
sembles that of a in the English 
word "father." It is, perhaps, — 
except when doubled — somewhat 
sharper and lighter. 

When the final a of any prefix — 
except the negative prefix ha — is 
brought by composition to precede 
immediately either e or i, it coalesces 
with them and produces the sound 
of a long e. 

Aka-enda is pronounced akenda. 

Akawa-ita is pronounced akaweta. 

A and u have a tendency to 
coalesce into an o sound. 

Arabic substantives incorporated 
into Swahili have often been made 
by changing -i- in the verb into -a- 
ln the substantive. 

Kubarizi, to hold a public 
audience. Baraza, a public 

Kusafiri, to travel. Safari, a 

A occurs in some dialects where e 
is used in Zanzibar. See E. 

A = ya, of. 

-a with a varying initial letter, 

of. -a is used in such phrases 

as the following for in: Unitie 

iva macho, put it in my eyes. 

Akamchoma ya kitovu, and he 

stabbed him in the navel. 
A-, the sign of the third person 
singular prefixed to verbs when 
governed by substantives which 
denote animate Deings — he, she. 
or it. 

Where the tense prefix begins with 
a, one of the a's disappears. 

The following are instances of the 
way in which this a occurs. 

A-penda (for a-a-penda), he loves. 

A-na-penda, he is loving. 

A-m-penda, he has loved. 

A-li-penda (for a-ali-penda), he 

A-ka-penda, and he loved. 

A-ta-penda, he will love. 

A-ki-penda, he being in the con- 
dition of loving. 

A-nge-penda, he would love. 



i ngali-penda, he would have 

la, even if he loves. 
penda, he not 1<>\ in^. 
A-pende, let him, or thai he may 

A-ti-pende, let him not, or that 
he may not love, or without his 
•a-, the sign of the present in- 
definite; it follows the prefix 
di noting the person of the 
subject or nominative, and 
precedes that denoting the 
object or accusative. 
X-a-nt -penda, I love him (I do 
him love). 
Aali, choice, good. 

, disobedient, rebellious. 
Ian, oiabadi, always, constantly. 
A WW ku , to pass over, go across (a 
Abiria, passengers. [river, &c). 

isha ku-, to put across, to ferry 
Abudia ku-, to give worship to. 
Abudisha ku-, to cause to worship. 
Abudu ku-, to worship. 
Aclia ku-, to leave, leave alone, let 

be, let go, allow, acquit, divorce. 
Achanaku-,to leave one another, to, 

Achari, pickle, a relish made of 

I* nion-juice and red pepju-r. 
Achia ku-, to leave to or for, to be- 
queath to. 
Achilla ku-, to pass over what a 
reon has done, to forgive, to 
A da,& custom, especially a customary 

bu, good manners, politeness. 
Kutia ddabu, to make polite, to 
teach good manners. 

Idamu, Adam. 

Mir, nut Ailnnn, or Bin Adamu, a 
human being, a man. 
A/hunt, enmity. 
Adi leu-, to accompany a person part 

of his way 
Adibu ku-, to educate, to teach 

Adili, right, right conduct. 
Adiliku-, to learn to behave rightly. 
Adilisha ku-, to teach to behave 

Adui, plur. Adui or maadui, an 
Aee, Yes. [enemy. 

A/a, plur. maafa, an enemy. 
Afathali, rather, better of the two, 

best, preferably. 
Afia, health, good health. 
Afikana ku-, to come to an agree- 
ment, agree. 
Afiuni, opium. 
Afu, wild jasmine. 
Afu ku-, to save, to deliver, to par- 
don, to preserve. Also, to get 
A/ya. See Afia, health. [well. 

Afya ku-, to make to swear. 
Aga ku-, to take leave of, to agree 

Agana ku-, to take leave of one 

another, to make an agreement. 
Agga ku-, to be lost, to perish. 
Agiza ku-, to commission, direct, 

give in charge, appoint to. 
Agizo, plur. maagizo, commission 

Agua ku-, to predict. 
Agulia ku-, to predict of. 
Ahaa! No I 
Ahadi (vulgarly wahadi), a promise, 

Ahadiana ku-, to promise mutually, 

agree. 4 / I 

Alfi^l, family, relations. 






Ahem, in the grave.under the earth, 
after death, at the end of the 
world. [Ar. akhr, the other.] 

Ahidi ku-, to promise. 

Alisdnt, or Ahsanti, or Asanti, 
thanks ! thank you ! 

Aibika ku-, to be disgraced, to be 
put to shame. 

Aibisha ku-, to disgrace, to put to 

Aibu, a disgrace, a reproach. 

Aina, kind. 

Aini ku-, to appoint. 

Ainisha ku-, to show, point out. 

Aitiwalo, pronounced Etiwalo, what 
he is wanted (or called) for, o- 

Ajabisha ku-, to astonish, amaze. 

Ajabu, a wonderful thing, wonder- 

Ajali, fate, death. 

Kusalimika ajali, to be altogether 
come to an end (to be saluted 
by its fatej. 

Ajara, merit. 

Ajib ! or 'Ajab ! Wonderful ! Won- 

Ajili, or djili, sake, cause ; 
Kica ajili ya, because of, for the 
sake of. 

Ajiri ku-, to hire. 

Ajirisha ku-, to cause to hire, to let 
on hire. 

'Ajjemi, Persian. 

Aka ku-, to build in stone, to do 
mason's work. 

Akali, some few, some. 
Akali ya watu, ya vitu, &c, some 
few men, things, &c. 

-ake, or -akwe, his, her, or its, of 
him, &c. 
-ake yeye, his own. 

Akenda, for Akaenda, and he went. 

Akhera = Ahera. 
Akhtilaf, to quarrel. 

Atafanya akhtilaf, she will scold. 
Akia ku-, to build for. 
Ak'ia ku-, to swallow, gulp down. 
Akiba, store, a thing laid by. 
Kuweka akiba, to lay up, to put 
Akida, an officer, a second in com- 
Akida wa asikari, an army officer. 
Akidi ku-, to suffice. 
Akiisha or Akisha, then, he having 

finished this business. 
Akika, a funeral feast for a child. 
Akili, intelligence, wits, under- 
standing (generally treated as a 
plural noun). 
Akina, you — addressed to young or 
inferior persons. Akina bwana 
young sirs. Akina bibi, my 
young ladies. 
Akiri ku-, to stand over, to remain 

Akirisha ku-, to adjourn, put off, 

make to stand over. 
ako, thy, your, of thee. 
-ako wewe, your own. 
Akraba, relations. 
Akraba ya kuumeni, paternal 

Akraba ya kukeni, maternal 
Al, the Arabic article the. It is 
retained in many words derived 
from the Arabic, as Alf ajiri for 
Al Fajr, the dawn. Sometimes 
its form is varied, as Liicali for 
Al Wali, the governor. 
In Arabic phrases the definite 
article prefixed to the second of 
two nouns is the sign of the 
possessive case, as Eayiat al 


A T. A 

A M B 

9 ubj t ofthe English, 
i.< .. a British sub 
Ala,p\ur.maala or nt/ala, asheath, 

a Bcabbard. 
'Aloha, a tusk "f ivory. 
Ala/u, thousands. 
Alaniii, a mark, marks. 
Alasiri, on- of the Mohammedan 
hours of prayer, about half-past 

3 p.m.. afternoon. 
Afbunseyidi (Ar.), of the sons of 


Alt' = Elfu, a thousand. 

Alfajiri, the dawn, the earliest Mo- 
hammedan hour of prayer, about 

4 a.m. A stress on the Becond 
syllable denotes very early dawn. 


Kofia alfia, a chiefs cap. 
Alhamisi, Thursday. 
-ali- or -li-, the sign of that past 
tense which denotes an action 
complete in time. 
-li or -li- sometimes stands for 
the verb to be, as in a-li-ye, he 
who is, or merely, who. AM, 
he is, or, he being. Niha-li, 
and I am. 
A Via hu . to make a mark by striking, 

to wale. 
Alifu, Alif, the first Arabic letter, 

the alphabet. 
All ha hu-, to invite, to call, to call 
invited guests to a wedding, to 
inform, to split, to click, to give 
a crack, to snap. 
Alihwa hu-, to go through a certain 
course of medicine, consisting 
chiefly of various fumigations and 
a very strict regimen. 
Aliki hu-, to hang. 
Aliko, where he is, or was. 
Alimisha hu-, to instruct. 

o, w herein he is, or wns. 

Alisa, a dancing plaoe, a house of 

Aliaha hu . to cause to snap. 

Kualisha mtarnbo wa bunduhi, to 
click the lock of a gun. 

Allah (Ar.), God, more reverently, 
Allah ta'ala, God the most high. 

Allah Allah, without delay or pre- 

Allah bilkheir, may God make it 
good. A common answer to the 
usual morning and afternoon 

Almaria, embroidery. 

Almost, a diamond. 

Ama — ama, either — or. 
Ama tiyo ? Isn't it so ? 

Amali, an act, a thing done. 

Amali, a kind of amulet. 

A urn ma (Ar.), a turban ? 

Amana, a pledge, a thing entrusted, 
a dcposit,a presentsent byanother 

Amani, peace. 

Amara, urgent business. 

Amara (ya nanga), a cable. 

Amba hu-, to speak against, to talk- 
scandal, to speak, to say. 

Amha. See Ambaye. 

Anibaa hu-, to go near to without 
touching, not to reach, to leave 

Ambari, ambergris. [unhurt. 

Ambata hu-, to attach, to stick. 

Ambatana hu-, to cleave together, 
to be mutually attached. 

Ambatiza hu-, to make to stick. 

Ambaye or Ambaye hwamba, who. 
The final syllable is variable, 
making ambazo, ambayo, &c, 

aza hu-, to cause to pass near 
without touching. 




Ambia ku-, to tell, to say to. 

Pass. Kuambiwa, to be told, to 
have said to one. 
Amhika ku-, to put (or be put?) 

firmly together. 
Ambilika ku-, to be spoken to. 
Ambisana ku-, to be cemented to- 
gether, to stick together. 
Ambisha ku-, to make to hold to- 
Ambua ku-, to peel, to husk, to take 

a morsel in eating. 
Ambukiza ku-, to give a complaint 

to, infect. 
Amdelhan, a silky kind of stuff. 
Amerikano, American sheeting, best 
cotton cloth used in trading in 
the interior. 
Njia, &c, ya Amerikano, the best 
Amili ku-, to manage. [way, &c. 
Amino-, Amen. 

Amini ku-, to believe in, trust. 
Kuamini mtu na kitu, to trust a 
man with something, to entrust 
something to some one. 
Amini, or Aminifu, trustworthy, 

Aminisha ku-, to entrust to, have 

perfect confidence in. 
Amiri, plur. maamiri, an emir, an 
Amka ku-, to awake. [officer. 

Amkia ku-, to salute. 
Amkua ku-, to invite, summon (?). 
Am rawi, a dipping line, made fast 

to the foremost yard-arm. 
Amri, order, command. 
Amri ya Muungu, a matter in 

God's hands. 
Sina amri, &c, I have no busi- 
ness, &c. 
Amria ku-, to put a thing at one's 
disposal, to give leave concerning 
some thing. 

Amrisha ku-, to cause to be ordered, 

Amru ku-, to order, command. 
Amsha ku-, to waken, cause to 

awake, rouse. 
Amu, Lamoo. 

Kiamu, the dialect of Lamoo, ot 
the Lamoo kind. 
Amu, father's brother. 
Amua ku-, to judge, to separate two 
people who are fighting. 

Passive, Kuamuliica, to be judged. 
Amuka ku- — Amka ku-. 
Amaru ku- = Amru ku-. 
Amusha ku- = Amsha ku-. 
Amwa ku-, to suck (M.). 
Amwisha ku-, to suckle (M ). 
Ana, he has. 
Anakotoka, whence he is coming, 

where he comes from. 
-anaria, gentle, soft. 

Upepo mwanana, a soft breeze. 

Maji manana, clear, quiet water. 
Anapokivenda, whither he is going. 
Anapolala, while he is sleeping. 
Anasa, pleasure. 
Andaa ku-, to prepare for cooking, 

to make pastry, &c. 
Andalia ku-, to prepare for, to make 

made dishes for. 
Andama ku-, to follow (M.). 

Mwezi umeandama, the month is 
up — the new moon has begun. 
Andamana ku-, to accompany (M.). 
Andika ku-, to put in order, to lay 

out, to describe, to write) to steer 

a vessel. C^ M ' - , * &^g) 

Andikanya ku-, to put tEings one 

upon another, as plates in a pile. 
Andikia ku-, to write, to lay out, 

&c, for or on account of. 
Andikiioa ku-, to be written, laid 

out, &c. for. 




Andikiana ku-, to write to one 

another, to oorrespond. 
Anfu, knowing, ingenious. 

. a great light, the firmament. 

Ndegt za anga, birds of the air. 
Anga fcu-, to jump or dance about 

liko a wizard. 
Angaika feu-, to be in a great bustle. 
Angalia ku-, to look attentively, 

regard, take notice, observe, be 

'■artful, beware of. 
Angama ku-, to be caught in falling 

(as by the boughs of a tree). 
Angamia ku-, to be ruined, to fall, 
come to poverty. 

utaungamia mwituni, you will be 
lost in the jungle. 
Angamisha ku-, to ruin. 
Angaza ku-, to be light, to be bright, 
to remain awake, to keep watch. 

Eutia mwangaza, to give light to. 
Angia ku-, to bewitch by dancing 

and jumping about. 
Angika ku-, to hang up, to hang 

against a wall. 
•angu, my, of me. 

-angu mimi, my own. 
Angua ku-, to take down, to hatch 
A mjuka ku-, to fall down. [eggs. 
Angukia ku-, to fall down to, or 

Angwiha ku-, to make to fall down, 

throw down. 
A iiia ku-, to purpose, think of doing. 
Anika ku-, to spread out to dry. 
Anion, a bill of sale. 
A mm ku , to take out of the sun or 

Anuka ku-, to leave off raining. 
Anwani, the address of a letter. 
Anza ku-, to begin. 

The ku- is frequently retained, as 
Alikvcanza for Alianza. 

Anziliza ku-, to make a beginning. 
.1/' tram, Johanna. 
Ao, or. 

Ao — an, either — or. 
-ao, their, of them. 
Apa ku-, to swear. 
Apendalo, what lie likes. 
Apt ? where ? 

The o sometimes is so run into 

the final a of the preceding 

word as to be scarcely separable 

from it. 

Apia ku-, to swear to, or about. 

Apisha ku-, to make to swear, to 

Apiza ku-, to swear at, to impn 

against, to wish bad luck to. 
Apizo, plur. maapizo, aa imprecation. 
Arabuni, Arabia, in Arabia. 
Arabuni, earnest money. 
Arathi, pardon. 
Arba'a, four. 
'Art, a thing to make one blush a 

disgraceful thing. 
Aria, following, party, faction. 
Ariaa, lower ! let out the rope ! 
Arifu, knowing, ingenious. 
Arifu ku-, to inform. 
Arobaini, forty. 
Arobatanhara, fourteen. 
Asa ku-, to forbid. 
Asali, syrup. 

Aeali ya nyuki, honey. 

Asali ya mua, the boiled juice of 
the sugar-cane, treacle. 

Asali ya tembo, fresh palm wine 
boiled into a syrup. 
'Ashara, ten. 
Asharini, twenty. 

Askekali, better in health during 

K a ini ashekali, to improve. 

Kufanya ashekali, to make bett« r 




Asherati, dissipation, a dissipated 

Ashiiki ku-, to love, to love ex- 
Ashiria ku-, to make a sign to. 
At-hiir, customs duties. 
Asi ku-, to neglect one's duty to, to 
rebel, to be disobedient. 
Kuasi mkewe, to quarrel with his 
wife, and not do his duty by 
Asikari, plur. asikari, or waasikari, 
a soldier. 
Kutia asikari, to enlist. 
Asili, origin, nature, source. 
Asisha ku-, to cause to leave, to 

cause to cease. 
Asitasa, not yet. 
Assubui, in the morning. 
Asusa, that which assuages bitter- 
ness or pain, takes away an un- 
pleasant taste. Also Azuza. 
Ata, Atana, Atia, Atilia, (M.) = 

Acha, Achana, &c. 
Atamia ku-, to sit on eggs, to hatch 

Atamisha ku-,to put under a sitting 
Atgul, average. [hen. 

Athabatisha ku-, to control. 
Athama, highness. 

Micenyi athama, the Most High. 
Athari — Hathari. 
Athibu ku-, to chastise, to punish. 
Athibisha ku-, to punish. 
Athima = Athama. 
Athirnika ku-, to be exalted. 
Athini ku-, to call to public prayers. 
Athuuri, noon, one of the Moham- 
medan hours of prayer. 
Ati ! look you ! I say ! 
Atibu, a fragrant herb used in the 

composition of kikuba. 
Attia, gratuitously, for nothing. 

Atuka ku-, to crack as the earth 

does in very dry weather. 
Aua ku-, to make a survey of, to go 

over and look at. 
Auka ku-, to grow large enough to 

bear fruit. 
Auni ku-, to help. 
Avya ku-, to produce, to spend, to 

give away. 
Awa ku-, to go out or away (Mer.). 
Awala, a promissory note. 
Awali or Aoivali, first, almost, 

Awaza ku-, to dispose, to allot to 

each his share. 
Awesia, a kind of dhow like a bedeni 
(which see), without any prow or 
head, with merely a perpendicular 
Avoini ku-, to help, to supply. 
Awithi ku-, to barter. 
Ayari, a cheat. 
Ayari, a pulley, the stay of a dhow's 

Ayasi, a sort of grass. 

Ayasi ya shaba, brass wire. 
Ayika ku-, to dissolve, to melt. 
Ayithi ku-, to preach. 
Aza ku- = Waza ku-, to ponder. 

Azama, a nose ring. 
Azima, a charm used to bring back 
a runaway slave and to drive 
away evil spirits. 
Azima ku-, to lend. 

Azimica ku-, to borrow. 
Azimia ku-, to make an azima 

Azimia ku-, to resolve. 
Azimu ku-, to resolve (generally 

pronounced dzimu). 
Azizi, a rarity, a curiosity. 
Azma, sceut, fume. 



Azur, perjury. 
Aeuza, > 


B has the same sound as in 

A changes into m before b, as 
mbaya for n-baya, bad. 
mowa for n-bwa, a dog or dogs. 
A also becomes mb. 
mtringu for n-Utt'ngru, the heavens. 
/.' '. a shortened form of bwana. 
Baa, evil 

plur. mabaa, a worthless 
person, an utter reprobate. 

••/./. afterwards. 
Baada ya, after (used preferably 

of time). 
Baadaye, or baada yake, after it, 
then, afterwards. 
Baathi, some. 

Baathi ya vcatu, some persons. 
Baazi, a sort of pea growing on a 
small tree somewhat resembling 
Bai Ar.), a gate, chapter. 
i?a6 Ulaya, goods for the Euro- 
pean market. 
Bab Eachi, goods for the Cutch 
J!"!, il amana, something entrusted, 

lent to one. 
Baba, father. 

Baba mdogo, mother's brother. 
BaJja tea karnbo, stepfather. 

Baba wa vcaana, ) , 

_ , ' $ an owl. 

Ii'ihii wa watoto, ) 

Babaika feu-, to hesitate in speaking. 

to stutter, to talk in one's sleep. 
Babata ku-, to pat, to tap, to flatten 

Bali", trrandfatler. ancestors. 

Bnhna ku , to strip off. 

Babuka ku-, to tear, to become tern. 

Badala or Badali, a thing given in 

exchange for something else, an 

Badani. See Katmt. 
ll'tdili. ku-, to change, exchange, 

alter, become changed. 
Badilika ku-, to be changed, to be 

Ba<lo, not yet, used generally to 
express that the matter in ques- 
tion is as yet incomplete. ^^^ 

Bado kidogo, soon. 
Bafe, a kind of snake. 
Bafta, a sort of fine calico. 
Bagala or Bdgala, a buggalo, a 

large kind of dhow square in the 

stern, with a high poop and a 

very long prow. Most of the 

Indian trading dhows are of this 

build ; they have generally a 

small mizen-mast. 
BdgJiala, a mule. 
Bagua ku-, to separate. 
Baguka ku-, to be separate. 
Bagukana ku-, to be in hostility, to 

be on two sides. 
Bahari, sea. 

Bahari il'ali, the Persian Gulf. 

Bahari ya Sham, the Red Sea. 
Baharia, a sailor, sailors, the crew. 
Bahasha, a square bag or pocket 

with a three-cornered flap to tie 

over the opening, frequently 

used to keep books in. 
Bahatior Bahhti, luck, good fortune. 

Bakhti mlu, that depends on the 
Bahatisha ku-, to guess. [person. 
Baini, &c. See Bayini, &c. 

Baini ya, between. 
B ijin, small cakes of ground !«• i n - 

and pepper. 




Bajuni = Mgunya. 

Bakaku, to dispute, to argue. 

Bakhili, a miser, covetous, miserly. 

Bakltii. See Bahati. 

Bala, the remainder, what is left. 

Baki (in arithmetic), subtraction. 

Baki ku-, to remain, to be over, to 
be left. 

Bakora, a walking stick with the 
top bent at right angles to the 
stem. The best are made of a 
white, straight-grained wood 
(mtobwe), which will bend nearly 
double like a piece of lead without 
breaking or returning. 

Baksha, a packet, of clothes, &c. 

Bakuli, plur. mabakuli, a basin. 

Bakwia few-, to snatch out of the hand. 

Balaa, sorrow. 

Balamwezi, moonlight, moonshine. 

Balanga, leprosy. 

Balasi, a large kind of water jar. 

Bali, but. 

Balighi,aboy who is a virgin, a youth. 

Balungi, plur. mabaluugi, a citron. 

Bamba, plur. mabumba, a plate, a 
flat thin piece. 

Bambo, an instrument like a cheese- 
taster thrust into a bag to draw 
out some of its contents for ex- 
Mabambo, large mats for beating 
out mtama upon. 

Bamvua, spring-tides. 

Bana ku-, to squeeze, press as in a 

Banada, the Somauli coast. 

Banajiri or Banagiri, a kind of 
bracelet ornamented with points 
or blunt spikes, much worn in 

Banda, plur. mabanda, a large shed. 
Banda la/rasi, a stable. 

Bandari, a harbour. 

Bandera, a flag, red stuff the colour 

of the Arab flag. 
Bandi, a seam. 

Kupiga bandi (in sewing), to 
tack, to run, to baste. 

Mtoto wa bandia, a doll. 
Bandika ku-, to put on a plaster or 

any medicament. 
Bandua ku-, to strip off, to peel off. 
Banduka ku-, to peel off, to come 

out of its shell, to be peeled. 
Bangi, bhang, Indian hemp. 
Banika ku-, to roast en a spit over 

the fire. 
Baniya, a temple, a building, 

especially that at Mecca. 
Banja ku-, to crack nuts, &c, to 
break off the shell or husk by 
Banyani, plur. mabanrjani, used in 
Zanzibar as a general name for 
the heathen Indians who come 
as traders from Cutch. 

Kujibanza, to squeeze oneself 

against a wall or into a hedge 

to allow some one else to pass. 

Banzi, plur. mabanzi, a small thin 

piece of wood, a splint. 
Bao, the tiller of a small craft (A.). 
Bao, a game in card-playing. 
Mabao sita = Nvumo. 
Kulia bao, to mark, in card-play- 
Bao or Bao la komwe, a board with 
thirty-two small holes, each 
about the size of a teacup, for 
playing a very favourite game 
also called bao, with komwe, or 
with pebbles. The holes are 
sometimes merely scooped out 

B A P 


in the ground, and any small 
things asi I to play with. 

Kuch< za bao, to play at the above 
'. the flat of a Bword, &c. 
Kupiga bapa, to strike with the 
flat of a sword. 
Bora, a species of antelope (Ilelgo- 

bagus arundinaceus). 
Bara or Barra, wild country, coast. 
The Arabic name. Ze'njibarr, is 
compounded of this worcTand 
/- njor Za7ij, a negro : hence the 
Zanguebar and Zanzibar of our 
maps mean only the negro 
coast. The Swaliili name for 
Zanzibar ia invariably Unguja. 
Barr Faris, the piece of Persian 

coast belonging to Oman. 
Barr SwdhU, the Swahili coast. 
Bnraba, proper, just, exactly. 
I',ir<ibara, a broad open road. 

afu, ice. 
Baragumo, a spiral horn used as a 
musical instrument; it is blown 
through a hole at the small end. 
Barai, an after brace carried on the 
lee side to steady the yard of a 
Bardka, a blessing. Also common 

as a proper name. 
Barakoa, a mask reaching down t<> 
the mouth, universally worn by 
the women of Oman and Zan- 
zibar of the upper class. 
Bar asi, a disease. 
Barathuli, an idiot, dupe, simpleton. 

Also barazuli- 
Barawai, a swallow. 
Baraza, a stone seat or bench table, 
ner outside the house or in 
the hall, or both, where the 
m a er sits in public and re<< 

hi- friends ; In nee the durbar, er 
public audience held by the 
sultan, and the council then held. 
Baridi, cold, wind. 

Maji i/a baridi, fresh water. 
Baridiyabis, rheumatism. 
Bartki hn-. t" bless. 
N.B. — Young people are said in 
Zanzibar to bariki, when they 
first have connection with tin 
opposite sex. Girlsare thought, 
old enough between nine and 
Barikia ku-, to give a blessing to, 

to greet. 
Bariyo (A.), what is left from the 
evening meal to be eaten in the 
Barizi leu-, to sit in baraza, to hold 

a public reception. 
Barra. See Bara. 
Barua or Bdrua, a summons from a 

judge, a bill, a letter. 
Baruti, gunpowder. 
Barzuli, a fool. 
Basbasi, mace, the inner husk of 

the nutmeg. 
Bashire kheri .' may it be lucky ! 
Bashiri Itu-, to prognosticate, t" 

foretell by signs. 
Banhishi or Bakhshiehi, a gift, a 

Basiri ku-, to foresee. 

or Bassi, enough, it will do. 
When it begins a sentence it 
means — well, and so, and then. 
When it follows a word or phrase 
it means — just this and no more. 
Bastola, a pistol 
Bala, plur. mabata, a duck. 
Bat'i la bukini, a goose. 
Bata la mzinga, a turkey. 
Batcla,the common dhow of Zan- 




zlbar ; it ha 1 ? a square stern and 
fin ordinary boat-like head. 
Bati, tin, block tin. 

Batil. See Betili. 
Batili few-, to annul, to abolish, to 
reduce to nothing. 

Batli, the log (nautical). 

Batobato, plur. ma-, various colours 
and marks on an animal. 

Ban, a wizard's fortune- telling 
Kupiga bau, to divine. 

Baura, a European anchor. 

Bavuni, alongside, at the side. 

Baiva, plur. mabaiva, the wing of a 
bird. Also, the scales of a fish. 

Bawaba, a hinge. 

Bawabu, a house-porter, door-keeper. 

Baicasir, bajmorrhoids. 

-baya, bad. It makes mbaya with 
nouns like nyumba. 

Bayini ku-, to recognize, to know. 

Bayinika ku-, to be notorious, to be 
well known. 

Bayinisha ku-, to distinguish be- 
tween, separate distinctly. 

Bazazi, a trader, especially a cheat- 
ing, over-sharp trader, a huck- 

Beba ku-, to carry (a child) on the 
back in a cloth. 

Bebera, a he-goat given to covering, 
strong, manly. 

Bedari, the fixed lower pulley for 
hoisting a dhow sail and yard, 
bitts to which and through which 
the jirari are passed and secured. 

Bedeni, a kind of dhow with a per- 
pendicular cutwater, or merely a 
piece of board by way of prow, a 
sharp stern, and high rudder head. 
The mast of a bedeni is per- 
pendicular; in other dhows it 

bends forward. They come from 
the Arab coast. 
Bee, a bargain, a trade, transaction. 

Beek, for Lebeka. 

Bega, plur. mabega, the shoulder. 

Behewa, the inner court in a stone 
house. All large houses in Zanzi- 
bar are built round an inner 

Beina, between. 

Beina yako nini ? what do you know 
about it ? Compare Bayini. 

Bekua ku-, to parry, to knock off ;i 

Belghamu, phlegm. 

Bembe, food and confectionery 
cooked by a woman for her lover, 
and sent to him during the 

Bembeleza ku-, to beg. 

Bembesha ku-, to swing. 

Bembeza ku- \ to beg, to caress, to 

Bembeleza ku- / pat. 

Benua ku-, to put forward, to stick 
Kubenua kidari, to walk with the 
chest thrown forward. 

Benuka ku-, to warp. 
Kubenuka kiko kwa kiko, to warp 
and twist this way and that. 

Besa, vulgar Arabic for pesa. Bes- 
teen = Pesa mbili. 

Besera, canopy of a bedstead. 

Betela = Batela. 

Beti, a pouch for shot or cartridges. 

Beti (Ar.), a house, a line in verses. 

Betili or Batil, a dhow with a vers 
long prow, and a sharp stern 
with a high rudder head. They 
generally belong to the jShemali. 
or Persian Gulf Arabs. 

Beyana, legible, clear. 


s 2 


P. I A 


Kula bia, to subscribe to a meal 
in common, to go shares in a 

BiaiJiara, trade, commerce. 
Kufanya biashara, t<> tnide. 
M/anyi biaehara, a trader, a mer- 

hili, grandmother. It is used as a 
title answering to my lady, and 
for the mistress of slaves. 

Bibo, plur. mabibo, a cashew apple. 

-bichi, fresh, green, unripe, raw, 
under-done. It makes mbichi 
with nouns like myumba. 

Bidii, effort to surpass, emulation. 

Bikira, a virgin. 

Btkiri leu-, to deflower. 

BUashi, gratis, for nothing. 

Bilauri, a drinking glass. 
t, the lead (nautical). 

Bilisi = Iblis, the devil 

2?tQo, except by. 

BUula, a tap. 

Bima, insurance. 

Btma ku-, to insure against acci- 

Binadamu, a human being (a son 
of Adam). 
lo, the loin-cloth held up to 
r< ceive or carry things, a bundle 
in a cloth. 
Kukinga bindo, to hold up the 
loin-cloth to receive things. 

Bingwa, shrewd, knowing. 

Binti. daughter. Women in Zan- 
zibar are generally mentioned by 
their father's name only, as, Binti 
Mohammed, Mohammed's daugh- 

Binka,plja. mabiril:a,& large vessel 
for holding water, a cistern. 

Birinzi, a dish composed of meat, 
rice, J • pper, &c. 

Bisha hu. to knock or cry H«dil at 
a door to attract the attention of 
the people within. It is held 
very wrong to go beyond the 
entrance hall of a house unlesB 
invited in. 

Bisha feu-, to work in sailing. Also, 
to make boards. 

Bishana ha-, to squabble, to quarrel. 

Bishara, a sign, a good sign. 

Bisho, tacking, working to the wind- 
Upepo wa bisho, a foul wind. 

Bisi, parched Indian corn. 

Bitana, lined, double, used of clothes 
wherever there are two thick- 

Bithaa, goods, merchandise. 

-bivu or -wicu, ripe, well done. It 
makes mbivu with nouns like. 

Hiiri, plur. mabiici, heap3 of garden 
rubbish, leaves, wood, &c. 

Bizari, a small seed used in making 

Bize, a wild hunting dog. 

/;/ ima, a buckle. 

-bofu or -ocu, rotten, bad, malicious. 

Boga, plur. maboga, a pumpkin. 
Boga is used as a general word 
for edible vegetables. 

Bogi = Pombe. 

Bogoa ku-, to strip off leaves, to tear 
apart, to chop away wood in 
making a point ? 

Bohari or Bohhari, a storehouse, a 
house with a shop and warerooms. 

Boko, a buffalo (?). 

Bokoboho, a kind of food made of 
wheat, meat, &c. 

Bohwa, jack fruit [Tumbatu]. 
Boma, plur. maboma, a heap of 
stones, a rampart. 




Bomba, a pump. 

Bomboromoka, plur. ma-. See Boro- 

Bomoa ku-, to make a hole through, 
to break down. 

Bomolca ku-, to have a hole broken 
through it, to be broken down. 

Bongo, plur. mabongo, brains, mar- 

Bonth, a bridge, a pier. From the 
French pont. 

Bonyea ku-, to give way, to crush 

Bonyesha ku-, to press so as to sink 
in, to make an impression with 
the fingers. 

Bonyeza ku-, to examine by feeling 
and pressing. See Tomasa. 

Boonde, a valley, a hollow place. 

Bora, great, very great, noble, best, 

Bori, the bowl of a native pipe. 

Boriti, a rafter, thick poles cut in 
the mangrove swamps and laid 
flat to support the stone roofs. 

Borohoa, a dish made of pounded 
pulse with flavourings. 

Boromoka ku-, to fall down a preci- 

Boromoka, plur. ma-, precipices, pre- 
cipitous places. Also bomboro- 
moka, plur. ma-. 

Borongaboronga ku-,to make a mess 
of one's work. 

Boroshoa, a long-shaped black in- 
sect found in dunghills. 

Boruga ku-, to stir, tocut up weeds. 

-bovu or -ovu, rotten, bad. 

Boza, a narcotic made by mixing 

bhang with flour and honey. 
Bozibozi, idle, dull. 
Brdmini, an agent (working for two 
per cent, commission.) 

Bua, plur. mabua, the stem of millet. 
Buba, rupia, applied to various skin 

Bubu, (A.), a teat. 
Bubu, plur. mabubu, dumb. 
Bubujika ku-, to bubble out, burst 

Eububujika machozi,to burst into 
Bubur (M.), dumb. 
Buddi, escape, other course. 

Sina buddi, I have no escape, ie., 
I must. 
Bueta, a box. Also bweta. (From 

the French, boite.) 
Buga, a hare (?). 
Bughuthu ku-, to hate. 
Buhuri, incense. 
Buibui, a spider. 
Buki or Bukini, Madagascar. 
Buki, a kidney. 
Buku, a very large kind of rat. 
Buli, plur. mabuli, a teapot. 
Bumbuazi, perplexity, idiotcy. 

Kupigwa na bumbuazi, to become 

confused and abashed, so as not 

to be able to go on with one's 


Bumbwi, rice flour pounded up with 

scraped cocoa-nut. 
Bumia, sternpost. 
Bumunda, plur. mabumunda, a sort 

of soft cake or dumpling. 
Bundi, a native bird, an owl. Owls 

are thought very unlucky. 
Bunduki, a gun, a musket. 
Bungala, a kind of rice. 
Bungo, plur. mabungo, a kind of 

fruit something like a medlar. 
Bungu, plur. mabungu, a dish. 
Bungu la kupozea uji, a saucer to 

cool gruel in. 
Buni, raw coffee, coffee-berries. 


B I" N 

Bunt, an ostrich. 

Bunt, (Ar.), b ins, the sons of. 

Bunt ku-, to begiu, to be thefirstto 

do u thing, to Lnv< at. 
Bunju, a poisonous fish. 
Bunzi, plur. mabunzi, a stiii 

thu ku-, to hate. 
Bupuru, plur. mahupuru, an empty 

Bupuru la kitwa, a skull. 
Burangeni, of two colours, neither 

black nor white; also painted of 

different colours, as a dhow with 

a white stripe. 
Buratangi, a whirring kite. 

Marashi ya Burdu, eau-de- 
Burt, large-sized tusks of ivory. 
ait, a final farewell, asking 
a general forgiveness. 

Kutakanaburiani, to ask mutual 
pardon and so take a last fare- 
Burikao, Port Dnrnford. 
Burre, for nothing, gratis, in vain, 

for no good. 
Jlnuda, a book of the prayers used 

over a dying person. 
BuruMka ku-, to be refreshed. 
Burudisha hu-, to cool, to refresh. 
Buruga ku-, to mix up, to knock 

Jlnruhani, token, evidence. 
Buruji, battlemenl 
Burura ku-, to drag, to haul along. 
Burnra, prudence, subtlety, astute- 
Bumti, a kind of matting made at 

Buthashi, a thin Bort of stuff. 
ku, tow, a gun-wad. 

Bushuti, woollen stuff, blanket, 

Bustani, a garden. 

Bum, a kiss. 

Busu ku-, to kiss. 

/■'»", plur. mabuu, maggots in meet 

Buyu, plur. mabuyu,a calabash, the 
fruit of the baobab tree, used 
to draw water with. 
Buzi, plur. mabuzi, a very large 

Bioaga ku-, to throw down what 
one has been carrying; to tip 
off one's head, &c; to rest by 
throwing down one's burden. 
Kubwaga nazi, to throw down 
Bwana, master of slaves, master of 
the house, lord, sir, used politely 
inspeaking of one's own father 
Bwana mdor/o, master's son. 
Bwanda — Gwanda. 

Ileale ya bwara, c dollar under 
full weight, a 5-franc piece. 
Biceta. See Bueta. 

(7 is required only in writing the 
sound of the English ch or of the 
Italian c before i and e. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar ch 
frequently stands for the t of more 
northern Swahili, as— 

Chupa, a bottle (Zanzibar) = 
Tupa (Mom has). 

Kueheka, to laugh (Zanz.) = 
Kutbka (Momb.). 

Chi, in the vulgar dialect, and 
amongst the slaves in Zanzibar, 
stands for hi in the more correct 
language. Several of the tribes in 



the interior follow the same rule as 
the Italian in always pronouncing 
the same root letter ch before i and 
e, and h before a and o. 

Thus slaves commonly say, Cliitu 
chidogo,a little thing, for Kituhi- 

As a rule, in all Swabili where 
the preformative hi has to be pre- 
fixed to an adjective or pronoun or 
tense prefix beginning with a vowel, 
it becomes ch, thus— 

Kisu changu, my knife, not Kisu 

Kisu chdkata, the knife cuts, not 
Kisu hiahata. 

Kitu cliema cho chote, every good 
thing whatsoever, not Kitu 
hiema hio kiote. 

Where ch represents hi, as the 
initial sound of a substantive, the 
plural is made by changing ch into 

Cliombo, a vessel, Vyombo, vessels. 

But where ch stands for t, the 
plural is made by prefixing ma. 

Machupa, bottles. 

Machungica, oranges. 

The Arabs confound in their 
pronunciation ch with sh, though 
the sounds are in Swahili perfectly 

It would perhaps be an improve- 
ment to write all ch's which repre- 
sent hi by a simple c, which has 
been usedfor this sound in Sechuaua, 
and to write all c7i's which repre- 
sent t by ty, which has been used 
for this sound in writing Zulu. But 
both are here represented by ch, 
because at least in the infancy of 
our studies it is puzzling to have 
two signs for one sound, and neither 

way of writing might be quite satis- 
factory in all cases. 

There is little doubt that the 
northern t becomes ch by the addi- 
tion of a y sound, as the same sort 
of change takes place with d, which 
becomes dy or j, and sometimes 
with n, making it ny or the Spanish 
n. The same sort of change in 
English vulgarizes nature into 
nachur, and Indian into Injun. 

Ch- = hi-, which see. 
Ch-, a prefix required by sub- 
stantives beginning with hi- or 
ch- representing hi-, in all pro- 
nouns and adjectives beginning 
with a vowel, and in tenses of 
the verb where the tense prefix 
begins with a vowel. 
CJia, of. 
Many quasi-substantives may be 
made by prefixing cha to a 
verb, ldtu being understood, as 
chahula (a thing), of eating, 
Cha or Chayi, tea. 
Cha hu-, to fear [A.] (the hu- bears 
the accent, and is retained in the 
usual tenses). 
Cha hu-, to dawn , to rise [of the sun] 
the hu- bears the accent, and 
is retained in the usual tenses. 
Kmnehucha, the dawn (it has 

Kunahucha, the dawning. 
Usiku kuclia, all night till dawn, 
all night long. See Chwa. 
Chaanzu, the beginning of a piece 

of uhiri. 
Chacha hu-, to ferment, leaven, 

Chachaga hu-, to wash clothes by 



('II A 

dabbing them gently on a stone 

01 board, not t>> tx .it them so hard 

as is implied in the more common 

word feu/ua. 
-chache, lew, little, not many or 

mnoh. Tt makes chache with 

nouns like myumba. 
Chachia feu-, to come with a press, 

to come much at once, to hurst 

upon one. 
Chachu, hran, leaven, ferment. 
Chafi, a kind of fish. 

Chafi cha mguu, calf of the leg = 
Chafu, plur. machafu, the check, 

especially that part which is over 

the teeth. 
Chafua hu-, to put in disorder, 

Chafvka hu-, to be in disorder, in 

Moyo umechafnha, (I) feel sick. 
Chafukachafuka ku-, to be all in a 

mess, to be all tumbled about 

and in confusion. 
fuo, a poisonous horse-fly. 
fya hu-, or hupiga chafya, or 

Jcwenda chafya, to sneeze. 
( hagaa = Tagaa. 
Chago, land crabs. 
Cliago, the place where the head is 

laid (on a kitanda, etc.). 
Chagua, feu-, to pick out, select, 

Choi, or Chayi, tea. 
Chakaa hu-, to become worn out, 

to become pood for nothing 

through age or use. 
Choke, or chahice, his, her, its. See 

Chaki, chalk, whitening, putty. 
Chako, thy. See -ako. 

Chakogea — [Kitu] cha, ku-ogea, a 
thing to bathe in, a bath. 

Chahula, something to eat, food, a 3 
Chahula cha subui, breakfast. 
Chahula cha mchana, dinner. 
Chahula chajioni, supper, which 

is the chief meal of the day. 
I'lur. vyakula, victuals. 

Cliale, a cut or gash made for orna- 

Chali, backward, on his back. 

Chama, a club, guild, baud of 
Waana chama, members of it. 

Chaniba chajicho, a white film over 
the eye. 

Chambo, plur. vyambo, a bait. 

CJiambua hu-, to dress, clean, pick 
over, as to pluck off the outer 
leaves of vegetables when sending 
them to market, to pick the 
sticks and dirt out of cotton, to 
pick cloves off their stalks, 

( 7 i rribulia hu-, to clean up, to dress 
up work or things. 

Chamhuro, a plate for wire drawing. 

Pepo za chamchela, a whirlwind. 

CluCmsha kanwa (something to 
wake the mouth), something 
eaten first thing in the morning. 

Cliana = Tana. 

Ghana hu-, to comb. 

Clianda, plur. vyanda (M.), a finger, 
a toe. 

Chandalua, an awning, a mosquito 

■changa, young, immature. 

Changa lu-, to sift away chaff and 
Kula hwa kuchanga, a feast 

*JH A 



■where each contributes some- 
thing to the entertainment. 
Ckanga'mka ku-, to be genial, to be 

hearty and pleasant. 
Changamusha ku-, to cheer up. 
Changanya ku-, to mix. 
Ghanganyika ku-, to be mixed. 
Changanyisha ku-, to perplex. 
Changarawi, girt,little white stones 

like those in coarse sand. 
Chango, plur. vyango, a peg to hang 

things upon. 
Chango, small intestines, round 

Changu, a kind of fish. 
Changu, a tribal mark (?). 
Changu, my. See -angu. 
Chant = Tani, on the back, back- 
Chania ku-, to comb for, &c. 
Chanikiwiti, green. 
Chanja ku-, tocut up [firewood, &c.]. 
Chanjiwa ku-, ndui, to be cut for 

small-pox, to be vaccinated. 
Chano, plur. vyano, a large wooden 

platter, a mortar-board. 
Clianua ku-, to put forth leaves. 
Chao, their. See -ao. 
Chapa, plur. machapa, a stamp, 
-a chapa, printed. [type, 

Kupiga chapa, to print. 
Chapa ku-, to beat, to stamp. 
Chapachapa, wet through, all 
Chapeo, a hat. From the French 

chapeau (?). 
Chappa or Chappara, excessively. 
Chapuo, a sort of small drum. 
Cliatu, a python, a crocodile (?). 
Chavu, plur. vyavu, a net. 
-chavu, filthy, unwashed. 
Chaiva, a louse. 
Chayi, tea. 

Chaza, an oyster. 

Chazo, a sucker fish. 

Cheche, a small box (such as a 

C7iec7ie,abrownniangouste. Also = 

Cheche, a spark. 
Chechen ku-, to walk lame. 
Chechele, an absent person, one who 

goes far beyond where he in- 
tended to stop through inatten tion . 
Chechemea ku-, to be lame. Also, 

to reach up, stretch up to. 
Chechi, plur. macliechi, a spark. 
Chegua ku-, to choose. 
Cheka ku-, to laugh, to laugh at. 
Chekelea ku-, to laugh at, because of. 
Cheko, plur. tnacheko, a laugh, a 

loud laugh. 
Clielea ku-, to fear for, about, &c. 
Chelema, watery. 

Chelewa ku, to be overtaken by 
something through thought- 
lessness, to wake up and find 
it broad daylight, to be struck 
foolish, to be dumbfounded. 
Also, to be too late. 

Sikukawia wala sikuchelewa, I 

did not delay, and I was not late. 

Cheleza ku-, to keep, to put on one 

side, to put off. 
Chelezea ku-, to keep or put aside 
Chelezo = Chilezo. [for. 

Chembe, a grain, grains. 
Chembe,j)\uv. vyembe (N\), an arrow, 

the head of an arrow oraharpoon. 
Chembe cha moyo (A.), the pit of 

the stomach. 
Chembeu, a chisel. 
Chemchem, a spring of water. 
Clie'mka ku-, to boil, to bubble up. 
Chenezo, plur. vyenezo, a measuring 

rod, line, &c. 


en e 

c II I 

iga In-, to cleave, to cut wood, 

small broken bits. 
Chenja — < 7u ma. 

tut, your. See -enu. 
i/i, having, with. Sec -enyi. 
Chenza, a large kind of mandarin 
Chenza :<i kiajjemi, Persian, i.e., 
good ehenzas. 
Clieo, plur. vyeo, measurement, 
measure, length, breadth, &c, 
j)i'.-ition in the world, station. 
<li-pechepe, wet, soaked with rain, 
nika hu- = Chipuka. 
Cherawi, a will-known mangrove 
swamp in the island of Zanzibar. 
• . a grindstone. 
Cherevu, cunning, subtlety. 
Cherkhana, machine. 

Cherhhana cha kushona, a sewing 
Cheruwa, measles. [machine. 

zo, plur. vyetezo,& censer, a 
pot to fume incense in. 
' '!.> ti, plur. vyeti, a pass, a passport. 
( 'hetu, our. See -etu. 
Cliewa, a kind of fish. 
Cheza leu-, to play, to dance. 

Kucheza gwaridi, to be drilled 

in European fashion. 
Kucheza komari, to play for 
Cheza, a kind of oyster. [money. 
•/ ku-, to play with. 
Kuchezea unyago, to deflower a 
virgin (?). 
- Kir. 
Chicha, the scraped cocoa- nut after 
the oil has been squeezed out. 
It is sometimes used to rub on 
hands to clean them of grime, 
but is generally thrown away as 

Chiehiri, a bribe. 

Chikapo = KiJcapu, a basket. 

Chikichi, plur. macnikichi, the fruit 
of the palm-oil fori e. 
Kichikichi, plur. vichikichi, the 
small nuts contained in the 
fruit of the palm-oil tree. 

Chilezo, plur. vilezo, a buoy. 

Chimba ku-, to dig (M. timba). 

< 'himbia In-, to dig for (M. tirribia). 

Chimbia ku- = Kimbia ku-, to rim 

Chirribua lu-, to dig out or away. 
nbuko, origin, first beginning, 

Ch/ni, down, bottom, below. 
Yuko chini, he is down stairs. 
Chini ya, under, below. 

Chinja /.«-, to cut, to slaughter 
animals by cutting the throat, 
which is the only manner allow i il 
by the Mohammedan law, hence 
generally to kill for food (M. 

Chinki,a. small yellow bird kept in 

Chinusi, a kind of water sprite. 
which is said to seize men when 
swimming, and hold them un- 
der water till they are dead, (?) 

Chinyango, a lump of meat. 
'ilia, &c. = Chupuka, &c. 

Chipukizi, a shoot, a young plant. 
See TepukuzL 
Chipukizi ndio mti, children will 
be men in time. 

Chiriki, a small yellow bird often 
kept in cages. 

Chiro, chironi = Choo, chooni. 

Chiroko = Chooko, a kind of pulse. 

( hiti - ' te of hand, a rote 

of any kind. 




Cho, -cho, -cho-, which'. 

Che chote, whatsoever. 
Choa, ringrorm. 
Chocha hu-, to poke out from, out 

of a hole. 
Chochea hu-, to make up a fire, to 

turn up a lamp. 
Cliochelezca ha-, to stir up and in- 
crease discord, to add fuel to the 
Chofya hu-. See Chovya. 
Choha hu-, to become tired. 

Nimechoha, I am tired. 
Ohohaa, lime. 

Chohea, a stye in the eye, hordeolum. 
Chohoa hu-, to clear out, to free 

from dirt, enlarge a small hole. 
Chohochoho, a kind of fruit with a 
red prickly rind, white pulp, and 
a large kernel. 
Chohora hu-, to pick (with a knife, 

Chohora, plur. machohora, a hanger- 
on, a follower, a dependant. 
Chohoza hu-, to teaze, to irritate. 
Chole, a place on the island of Zan- 
zibar famous for cocoa-nuts ; also, 
the chief town of Monfia. 
Choma hu-, to stab, to stick, to 
prick, to dazzle. Vulgarly in 
Zanzibar — to use fire to in any 
way, to burn, to roast, to parch, 
to fire, to apply cautery, to bake 
Chombo, plur. vyombo, a vessel, a 
pot, a dhow. 
Vyombo is used for household 
utensils, things used in a 
house, goods. 
Clwmea hu-. See Choma hu-. 
Chomeha hu-, to be stuck into, to be 

set on fire. 
Chomelea hu-, to take out a bad 

piece of cloth, thatch, &c, and 
put in a new one. 
Chomoza hu-, to be hot. 
Chonga hu-, to cut, to adze, to hollow 
out, to cut to a point. 
Kuchonga halamu, to make a pen. 
Clwnge, canine teeth, cuspids. 
Chongea hu-, to cut for, or with. 
Chongea hu-, to do a mischief to, to 
get (a person) into trouble, to 
inform against. 
Cliongeleza hu-, to cany tales, to 

Cliongo, loss of an eye. 

Kuiva na chongo, to have lost an 

Mwenyi chongo, a one-eyed person. 
Chongoha hu-, to be precipitous. 
Choo, plur. vyoo, a privy, the bath- 
room, which always contains one. 
Chooho, a small kind of pea, very 
much resembling the seeds of 
the everlasting pea of English 
Chopa, plur. machopa, such a quan- 
tity as can be carried in the two 
Kioenda chopi, to walk lame in 
such a manner as that the lame 
side is raised at every step. 
Chopoa hu-, to drag out of one's 

Chopoha hu-, to slip out of the hand. 
Chora hu-, to carve, to adorn with 

carving, to draw on a wall. 
Chorochoro, scratches, marks. 
Choropoha hu-, to slip out of one's 

Clwveha ku-, to put into water, to 

Chovya hu-, to dip, to gild. 
Chosha hu-, to tire, to make tired. 


c ii i) 


C7tosi = Kifoze. 

Chota In-, i" make up a little at a 

Chote, all. See -ote. [time. 

( %0VU, weary, tired. 

Clmyn, Lrr< < ilhicss. avarice. 

Aftci »;/< choyo, a miser. 
Ckozi, plur. machozi, a tear, a tear- 

/ sbt! nonsense ! 
Cliubua leu-, to take the skin off, to 

Ckvhuachubua l:n-, to bruise about, 

to batter. 
ChubuJca leu-, to be raw, to be 

Chubwi, a plummi t. 
' 'A ucAu ya ziica, a teat. 
Chuchumia l:u-, to stretch up to 

reach something. 
C/im/, a leopard, leopards. 
Chuja kit-, to strain. 
Clu'julca hu-, to have the colour 

washed out. 
Chuhi, the being easily disgusted 
or offended. 

Ana chuki kuiju, he is easily put 
Chuhia leu-, to bo disgusted at, to 

abhor, to hate, not to bear. 
Chuhiwa ItU; to be offended. 
Chukiza hu-, to disgust, to offend. 
Ckukizisha /cm-, to make to offend. 
Chuhu, a cupping horn. 
Chukua Itu-, to carry, to carry 
off, to bear, to support, to sus- 

Kii< h iikua mimba, to be pregnant. 
ChukvHa ltu-, to carry for a person. 

Pass, huchukuliwa, to be carried 
for, to have carried for one, to 
be borne, to drift. 
Chukuliana hu-, to bear with one 


Chulcuza hit. to make, to carry, to 

Cliiiln nr (Intra, plur. vyula, a frog. 
Chuma, plur. vyuma, iron, a piece 

of iron. 
Chuma hu-, to pluck, to gather, to 

make profit. 
Clniitiba, plur. vyumba, a room. 
( 'humvi, salt. 

Cliumvi ya haluli, sulphate of 
Clnoia lit, to Hay. [magnesia. 

Chunga hu-, to pasture, to tend 

Chunga hu-, to sift. 
Chungu, plur. vyungu, an earthen 

king pot. 

Cliungu, ants:. 
Cliungu, a heap. 

Cliungu chungu, in heaps. 
-chungu, bitter (uchungu, the 

quality of bitterness). 
Cliungulia hu-, to peep. 
Chungwa, plur. maclmwgwa, an 

Cltungica la hizungu, a sweet 


Chuniha hu-, to lose the skin, to be 

Chunjua, a wart. [flayed. 

Clt unuha hu-, to love exceedingly, to 

long for. 
Chunuzi = Cltinusi. 
Chunyu, an incrustation of salt, as 

upon a person after bathing in 

salt water. 
Cliuo, plur. vyuo, a book. 

Chuoni, school. 

Mtcana wa chuoni, a scholar, 
learned man. 
Cliupa, plur. machupa, a bottle. 
Chupia hu-, to dash. 
Chupuka hu- or Chipnha hu-. to 

sprout, become sprouted, to shoot, 

to spring. 




Chupuza hu-, or Chipuza hu-, to 
sprout, to throw out sprouts, to 
shoot, to spring. 
Churuhiza hu-, to drain out. 
Chururika hu- = Churuziha hu-. 
Churuica, measles. 
Churuza leu-, to keep a stall, to 

trade in a small way. 
Churuziha hu-, to run down with. 
Kuchuruziha damu, to bleed 
Chussa, plur. vyussa, a harpoon. 
Chuuza = Churuza. 
Chwa hu-, to set (of the sun) . The 
hu- bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mchana huchwa, or hntwa, all 
day till sunset, all day long. 


D has the same sound as in 
English. It occurs as an inital 
letter chiefly in words derived from 
the Arabic. 

Lor r and t become d after an 
n. Eefu, long, makes harnba nde/u, 
a long rope, not nrefu. 

Kanitafutia, and seek out for me, 
when pronounced quickly becomes 

D in the dialect of Mombas be- 
comes j or dy in that of Zanzibar. 

Ndoo ! Come (Momb.). Njoo! 

See C and J. 

Daba, a small tin box. Also, a fool. 

Dacha hu, to drop. 

Dada, sister, a term of endearment 

among women. 
D&.1 *si hu-, to pry into things, to 

ask impertinent and unnecessary 

Dafina, a hidden treasure. 

Daftari, an account book. 

Dafu, plur. madafu, a cocoa-nut 
fully grown before it begins to 
ripen, in which state it supplies a 
very favourite drink. When the 
shell has begun to harden and 
the nutty part to thicken, it ceases 
to be a Dafu and becomes a 

Dagaa, a kind of very small fish 
like whitebait. 

Daggla, a short coat. 

Dai hu-, to claim, to sue for at 

Doha hu-, to catch, to get hold of. 

Dahiha, a minute, minutes. 

Dahu, the midnight meal during 
the Kamathan. A gun is fired 
from one of the ships at Zanzibar 
about 2 a.m., to give notice that 
the time for eating is drawing to 
a close. The name is said to be 
derived from the saying : — 

" Lent uj>esi, Jcesho kuna ndaa kuu." 
"Eat quickly, to-morrow there will be 
great hunger." 

Dahuliza hu-, to contradict, to deny 

formally, to rebut. 
Dalali, a salesman, a hawker, an 

Dalia, a yellow composition much 

used as a cosmetic : it is said to 

give softness and a sweet smell 

to the skin. 
Dalili, a sign, a token. 

Hatta dalili, anything at all, even 
a trace. 
Dama, a game played on a board 

like chess. 
Damani = Demani. 



Danga ku-, to take up carefully. a> 
they take up a little water left 
at tin' l>"ttnin of a dipping plao 
to avoid making it muddy. 
Danganika /.•»-, to bo cheat* d, 
Danganikia /.'/-, to put to confusion. 
Danganisha hit-, to confuse. 

janya hu-, to cheat, to humbug, 
to impose upon. 
Danzi, plur madanzi, a bitter, 
scarcely eatable sort of orange. 
The Danzi is reputed to be the 
original orange of Zanzibar. The 
name is sometimes applied to 
all kinds of oranges, and sweet 
oranges are called madanzi ya 
Kizungu, European (Portuguese) 
Dao. See Dau. 
Ii'i/io, plur. madapo, a native 

Darabi, plur. madurabi, a rose 

Daraja, a step, a degree, a rank, a 

staircase, a bridge, a league. 
Dara#a,a, class for reading, a regular 

meeting for learning. 
Dart, a roof, an upper floor. 

Darini. up-stairs, or, on the ronf. 
Darizi, embroidery, quilting. See 

also Kanzu. 
Darumeti, part of a dhow, inner 

Dasili. a detergent powder made 
of the dried and powdered leaves 
of the mkunazi. 
Dasturi. See Desturi. 
Dau, plur. madau, a native boat 
sharp at both ends, with a square 
mat sail. They are the vessels 
of the original inhabitants of 
Zanzibar, and chiefly bring fire 

wood to the town from the south 
end of the island. 
l><uil<iii, the government. 
Dawa, plur. dawa or madut, 
"Dawa ya kuhara, a purgative. 
Dawa ya kutapika, an emetic. 
Dairamn ku-, to persevere. 
Daicali, a writing desk. 
Dayima, always, perpetually. 
Dayimara = Dayima. 
/'• be, tin can. See Daha. 
Deheni, lime and fat for chunam- 
ming the bottoms of native craft. 
Deheni ku-. to chunam the bottom 

of a dhow. 
Deka ku-, to refuse to be pleased, 

to be perverse, to be teazing. 
Delhi, a donkey's walk. 

Kicenda delhi, to walk (of a 
Dema, a kind of fish-trap. 
Demani, the sheet of a sail. 
Demani, the season of gentle 
southerly winds, beginning about 
the end of August. It is applied 
less correctly to the whole season 
of southerly winds from April to 
the end of October. 
Dendaro, a sort of dance. 
Kukata denge, to shave the hair 
except on the crown of the head. 
Dengu, peas, split peas. They are 
not grown in Zanzibar, but are 
brought dry from India. 
Deni, debt, a debt, debts. 
I )' raye (?), armour. 
Desturi, a sort of bowsprit, to carry 

forward the tack of a dhow-sail. 
Desturi, custom, customs. 
Deuli, a silk scarf worn round the 




Devai, claret, light wine. 

Dia, composition for a man's life, 
tine paid by a murderer. 

Dibaji, elegance of composition, a 
good style. 

Didimia ku-, to sink. 

Didimikia ku-, to bore with an awl, 

Didimisha ku-, to sink, to cause to 

Digali, part of a native pipe, being 
the stem which leads from the 
bowl into a vessel of water 
through which the smoke is 

Diko, plur. madiko, a landing-place. 

Dimu, a lime. 

Dimu tamu, a sweet lime. 

Dini, religion, worship. 

Dim, the mariner's compass. 

Diriki ku-, to succeed in one's pur- 
pose by being quick, to be quick 
enough to catch a person, to be 
in time. 

Dirisha, plur. madirisha, a window. 

Diwani, plur. madiivani, a council- 
lor, a title of honour among the 
coast people. 

Doana, a hook. 

Dobi, a washerman. 

Doda ku-, to drop. 

Dodo. See Embe. 

Dodoki, plur. madodoki, a long 
slender fruit eaten as a vege- 

Dodoa ku-, to take up a little at a 

Dofra, plur. madofra, a sailmaker's 

-dogo, little, small, young, younger. 

Dolman, Dokhaan, or Dohani, a 
Marikebu ya dohaan. a steamship. 

Hence Dohani, or Dokhani, a sort 
of tall basket in which fruit 
is brought on men's heads to 
market. The foundation is 
made of sticks about two feet 
long, loosely tied together, 
which are supplemented with 
plaited cocoa-nut leaves, until 
the whole becomes perhaps six 
feet high and fifteen to twenty 
inches in diameter. These 
dohani are often decked with 
flowers and green leaves. 
Dokaa ku-, to nibble. 
Dokem ku-, to give a little part of 

anything, to give a hint. 
Dokra, a cent. 
Kupiga domo, to tell a person in 
Dona ku-, to peck. 
Donda, plur. madonda, large sores. 
Donda ndugu, malignant ulcers. 
Dondo, pi. madondo, a tiger cowry . 
Used to smooth down seams with. 
Dondo, starch, the dressing of calico. 
Dondoa ku-, to pick up small frag- 
ments, to pick up rice, &c, to 
pick up bit by bit. 
Dondoka ku-, to drop from little by 
Mbegu zimenidondoka, the seeds 
dropped from my hand one by 
Dondoro, Dyker's antelope. 
Donea ku-, to flutter like a bird. 
Donge, plur. madonge, a small round 

thing, a ball. 
Donoa ku-, to peck, to sting. 
Doti, a loin-cloth, a piece of cloth a 

little less than two yards long. 
Doya ku-, to go as a spy. 
Dua, worship, theology. 



Duara, a windlass, anything round. 

Dude, plur. madude, & what-is-it? 

a thing "i" which you don't know 

or have forgotten the name. 
D'oln. plur. madudu, au insect, 

hn iuvule, a kind of hornet which 

bores in wood. 
■dufu, insipid, tasteless. 
Duka, plur. madulca, a 6hop. 
DuMza fcu-, to listen secretly. 
Dukizi, plur. madukizi, an eaves 

dropper, a tale-bearer. 
Dumbuza.a plant having big yellow 

flowers with dark centres. 
Dumia ku-, to persevere. 
DumUha l;u-, to make to continue. 
Dumu, ajar (?). 

Jhimu leu-, to continue, to persevere. 
Dun, a fine. 
l'umlu, jilur. madundu, a large 

pumpkin shell used to hold 

Dunge, the green skin of the ca- 
shew nut, an immature cashew 

Dungu, plur. madungu, the roof 

over the little stages for watching 

corn, &c. 
Dumgumaro, a kind of spirit, also 

thedrum, &c, proper for expelling 
Duni, below, less. [him. 

Dunia, the world, this world. 
Dwrdbini, a telescope, an eyegl iss. 
Kupiga dwrdbini, to use a glass, 

Duru ku-, to surround. 
Jjurusi leu-, to meet in a regular 

class for study. 
Lutamali, a striped silk scarf or 

handkerchief svorn upon the head 

by women. 
Duumi, a dhow sail. 

Dim, plur. maduzi, one who de- 
lights to find out and proclaim 
secrets and private matters. 


2? has a sound between those of a 
in gate and of ai in chair. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar it is 
often substituted for the a of more 
northern Swahili, especially as re- 
presenting the Arabic fet'ha. 

Merikebu, a ship, is in the 
Mom baa dialect Marikabu, and in 
the Arabic Marlcab. 

The sound of e often arises from 
the fusion of the final a of a prefix 
with an e or i which follows it, as — 

Akenda for A-lcaenrfa, and he 

Ahaweta for A-lca-wa-ita, and he 
called them. 

Some of the cases in which e in 
tie Zanzibar dialect stands for a in 
northern Swahili may be explained 
by the substitution at Zanzibar of . 
in for a mere 'n, as in the word for 
"land" or country," which is'n/i 
at Mombas, with so mere an 'n that 
the vowel of the preceding word may 
be run into it. as in the saying — 

tfi wnddnti, mwan&nti." 
"A country can be ruined only by Its own 

Whereas in Zanzibar, besides the 
usual change of t into ch, the first 
syllable has generally a distinct »' 
sound, and may be better written 

Thus at Mombas the root of the 
adjective " many " seems to be ngi, 
making the substantive " plenty," or 
"a large quantity," unrji, and with 




the proper prefix "many people," 
wa-ngi. But in Zanzibar " plenty " 
is w-ingi, and "many people" ivengi, 
as if wa-ingi. 

Elbe, for Lebeka. 

Ebu! Eebo! well then! come then! 


Ku kalia eda, to remain in ex- 
treme privacy and quiet for five 
months, as is usual by way of 
mourning for a husband. 

Edashara, eleven. 

Ee ! ! 

Ee Waa ! or Ee Wallah I the common 
answer of slaves and inferiors 
when called to do something, a 
strong assent. 

Eema (M.) = Dema, a kind of fish- 

Egemea ku-, to lean. 

Mee/ Yes! 

Ekerahi, a provocation, an irritating 
word or thing. 

EJcua ku-, to break by bending. 

Ekuka ku-, to be sprung, to be 

•ekundu, red. It makes jekundu 
with nouns like kasha, and 
nyekundu with nouns like ny- 

Ela (M.), except. [umba. 

Elafu, thousands. 

Elea ku-, to float, to become clear. 
Moyo wamwelea, he feels sick (M.) 
Tamekuelea ? Do you under- 
stand ? Have they (my words) 
become clear to you ? 

Eleka ku-, to carry a child astride 
on the hip or back. 

Elekea ku-, to be right, to agree, to 
be opposite to. 

Elekeana ku-, to be opposite to one 

Elemisha ku-, to teach, instruct. 
Eleza ku-, to make to float, to swim 
a boat, to make clear, to explain. 
Elfeen or Elfain, two thousand. 
Elfu, a thousand. 
Elimisha ku-, w instruct, to make 

Elimu, or e'limu-, learning, doctrine. 
-ema, good, kind. It makes jema 
with nouns like kasha, and njema 
or ngema with nouns like nyumba. 
•embawba, narrow, thin, slim. It 
makes jembamba with nouns like 
kasha,&nd nyembamba with nouns 
like nyumba. 
Embe, a mango. In Mombas the 
plural is Maembe, in Zanzibar it 
is Embe. 
Embe dodo, or Embe za dodo, a 
very large kind of mango, so 
named from a plantation in 
Pemba, where they first grew. 
Embe kinoo, a small kind of 
mango which is very sweet. 
Embwe, glue, gum. 

Embwe la ubuyu, a kind of paste 
made from the fruit of the 
calabash tree. 
Enda kw-, to go. The kw- is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Ktcenda is often used merely to 
carry on the narration without 
any distinct meaning of going. 
Sometimes it is employed as 
an auxiliary, nearly as we say 
in English, he is going to do 
it. Sometimes it expresses 
an action merely, as Kwenda 
chafya, to sneeze. Kicenda and 
Kupiga used in this way can- 
not be exactly translated. 
Kwenda Tcwa mguu. to walk. 
Kicenda ttmbea, to go for a walk. 


E N D 


Kwenda mghad, >vc., to go canter- 
ing, && 
Km nda tangu, zaJco, zake, &c, in 
other dialects, vyangu, vyaJce, 
and thangu, tliake, &c, to 
go away, to go, to go one's way, 
to depart. 
Imekwenda twaliwar, they have 
gone to fetch it. 
a lew-, to go for, to, or after. 
Endeka kw-, to be passable, to be 
capable of being gone upon, to 
be gone upon. 
Endelea kw-, to go either forward 
or backward. 
Ku- endelea mbele, to advance. 
Kwendelea nyuma, to retire. 
Enddeza ku-, to spell, to prolong. 
I ku-, to spread, to become 
Em nda kit-, to go, mostly in the 
sense of to go on, to proceed, to 
go forward. 
Enenza ku-, to measure together, to 

try which exceeds the other. 
Eneo, the spread, the extent covered. 
Eneo la Muungu, God's omni- 
Eneza ku-, to spread, to cause to 
spread, to cause to reach. 
MuHiinti amemweneza killa mlu 
iki zake, God has put within 
the reach of every man what 
is necessary for him. 
Enga hu-, to split mahogo for 

Engaenga ku-, to coddle, to tend 

over carefully. 
Engua ku-, to skim. 
-enu, your, of you. 

-enu ninyi, your own. 
Enyi or Enyie, You there! You 
there, I say 1 

-enyi, having, possessing, with. Tt. 

makes mwenyi, wenyi, yenyi, 

Z( ni/i, lenyi, chenyi, vyenyi, ami 

/" mi), which see. 

ku~, to ask news of a person. 
. or Ezi, sovereignty, dominion, 

Mwenyi ezi, the sovereign, ho who 
is supreme. See Ezi. 
Epa ku-, to endeavour to avoid (a 

stone, stroke, &c.) 
Epea ku-, not to go direct to, to 

miss a mark, not to shoot straight 

(of a gun). 
Epi ka ku-, to be avoidable, to be 

what can be got out of the way of. 
• i> i, light, not heavy, easy, quick, 

willing. It makes jepesi with 

nouns like kasha, and nyepesi 

with nouns like nyuniba. 
F.jma Int.-, to brush or shake off, to 

take away. 
Epuka ku-, to be kept from, to avoid; 

to abstain from. 
Epukana ku-, to be disunited. 
Epukika ku-, to be evitable. 

llairpttkikL ii is inevitable. 
Epitfha hu-, to make to avoid, tc 
keep from. 

Epushwa ku-, to be kept from, to 
be forbidden something. 
- rem, subtle, shrewd, cunning. 
En ruka ku-, to become shrewd, to 

get to know the ways of the 

world, to grow sharp. 
Erevusha ku-, to make sharp and 

Eria hu-, to ease off, let down. See 

Esha, the latest Mohammedan hour 

of prayer, which may he said to 

be from half-past G to about 

8 P.M. 




Esse (?), a screw. 
-etu, our, of us. 

-etu sisi, our own. 
Eua ku-, to sprinkle with water 
after praying by way of charm 
against a disease. 
-eupe, white, clear, clean, light- 
coloured. It makes jeupe with 
nouns like kasha, and nyeupe with 
nouns like nyumba. 
-eupee, very white. 
-eusi, black, dark-coloured. It 
makes jeusi with nouns like 
kasha, and nyeusi with nouns like 
Ewaa = Ee Waa. 
Ewe! You there ! Hi! I say, you! 

plur. Enyi. 
Eza ku-, to measure. 
Ezeka ku-, to thatch, to cover with 

Ezi = Enzi, sovereignty. 

Mwenyi ezi Muungu, or Mwenye- 
zimngu, Almighty God, God 
the Lord, representing in Swa- 
hili the Allah ta'ala, God the 
Most High, of the Arabic. 
Ezua ku-, to uncover. 

Kuezua paa, to strip a roof. 


F has the same sound as in 

Fand v are confounded by the 
Arabs, though in Swahili perfectly 
distinct, thus : — 

Ku-faa means — to be profitable to. 

Ku-vaa means — to put on. 

There is, however, in some cases 
a little indistinctness, as in the 
common termination ifu or ivu ; the 

right letter is probably in all cases 
a v. 

The Arabs in talking Swahili 
turn p's into /'s, and say funda for 
punda, a donkey ; and conversely, 
some slaves from inland tribes turn 
/'s intop's. P, however, does some- 
times become / before a y sound. 
as kuogopa, to fear, kuogofya, to 

There is a curious fy sound used 
in some dialects of Swahili, which 
is rarely heard in Zanzibar. 

Fa kti-, to die, perish, cease, fade 
away. The ku- bears the ac- 
cent, and is retained in the usual 
Faa ku-, to be of use to, to avail, 
to be worth something. 
Haifai, it is of no use, it won't do. 
Faana ku-, to be of use to one an- 
other, to help one another. 
Fafanisha ku-, to liken. 
Fafanua ku-, to recognize, to under- 
Fafanuka ku-, to become clear. 
Fafanukia ku-, to be clear to. 
Fafanulia ku-, to make clear to. 
Faganzi ku-, to become callous. 
Mguu wangu umenifdganzi, my 
foot is asleep. 
Fagia ku-, to sweep. 
Fahali, plur. mafahali, a bull, used 
of men in the sense of manly. 
Fahamia. [strong. 

Kwa kufahamia (M.), on the face, 
Fahamisha ku-, to make to under- 
stand, to remind. 
Fahamu ku-, to understand, to re- 
Fahari = Fakhari, glory. 

T 2 



Kufanya fahari, to live beyond 
one's means and Btation. 
Faja la /row, a stable. 
Fahefa, generous,a generous person. 
FakKati, glory. 
/ • . iri, poor, a poor person. 
Fala feu-, (Mer.) = Fan feu-. 
Falaki, oxfi&ah, astronomy. 
/v'»/./;/<( falaki, to prognosticate 
by tlif stars. 
Fait, an omen, omens. 

a feu-, to be very good of its 
kind, to become like (?). 
Fanana hit-, to become like, to 

- n isha feu-, to make to resemble. 
ikia feu-, to turn out well for. 
Kufanihiwa, to prosper. 
Fanust, a lantern. 

/-( feu-, to make, to do, to adapt, 
to mend. 
Kujifanya, to make one's self, to 

pretend to be. 
Kufanya hura, to cast lots. 
Kufanya tihauri, to take counsel. 
Fanyia feu-, to do or make for or to. 
\ikufanyiejet What am I to do 
with you ? 
Fanyika hu-, to be made or done, 

makable or doable. 
Fanyiza /.«-, to amend, to mend. 
Fanyiziha hu-, to be very good, to 

be well done. 
I'ara or Farafara, brimful, full to 

the brink. 
Faragha, privacy, secrecy, leisure. 
Faraja, comfort, ease after pain. 
Farajika hu-, to be comforted, to 

be eased. 
Farakana feu-, to be alienated. 
Farakiana hu-, to be alienated in 

.inl to one another. 
Farahisha hu-, to alienate. 


Faranga, pi. mafaranga, a chicken, 

a young fowl. 
Farad or Frasi, a horse, in Arabic 

a man . 
Fmi'i'i hu-, to comfort, to console. 
Furihi feu-, to become separated, lo 

Fdrine, a kind of rice and milk 

Farishi hu-, to spread. 
Faritha, pay. 

Faroma, a block to put caps on 
after washing them, to prevent 
their shrinking. 
Farrathi, necessity, obligation, obli- 
Farrathi, a place one habitually 
goes to. 
The th of this word is the Eng- 
lish th in that, the th of the 
preceding word is a little 
Farumi, ballast. 
/• '«.»■// ifashi, nonsense. 
Fashini, the sternpost of a dhow. 
Fasihi, correct, clean, pure. 
Fasili, spreading. 
J I a, hi dsili, wala fdsili, you have 
neither root nor branches, i.e., 

neither good birth nor great 

Fasiri hu-, to explain, to int< rpret. 

Faeiria hu-, to explain to, to into r- 
pret to. 

Fatahi, a percussion cap, a gun cap. 

Fail, an. restlessness, disquiet. 

Fathaiha hu-, to be troubled, dis- 
quieted, thrown into confusion. 

Fathali - Afathali, preferabl y . 


Fathehi hu-, to put to confusion, 
to find out a person in a trick, 




Fathili, a favour, a kindness, kind- 
Fathili ku-, to do a kindness, to 

deserve well. 
Fat ilia, a Mohammedan form of 

FatiisM ku-, to pry, to be over 

Fauluku-,to getpast,to get through, 

to weather. 
Fawiti ku-, to delay, to occupy, to 

Fayida, profit, gain, advantage, 

Fayidi ku-, to get profit. 
Fayiti ku-, to delay. 
Fayitika ku-, to be delayed. 
Fazaa, trouble, confusion, anxiety. 
Feka ku- = Fieka ku-, to clear 

forest lands. 
Felefele, an inferior kind of millet. 
Feleji or Felegi, a choice kind of 
Upanga via feleji, a long straight 
two-edged sword, used by the 
Feleti ku-, to discharge, to release 

from an obligation, to release. 
Feli, plur. mafeli, a beginning of 

speaking or doing. 
Fereji, a channel, a drain. 
Ferusaji = Forsadi. 
Fctha, silver, money. 
Fethaluka. Marijani ya fethaluka, 

the true red coral. 
Fetheha, a disgraceful thing, a 

Fetheheka ku-, to be found out in a 
disgraceful thing, to be put to 
Fetiwa ku-, to be condemned or 

adjudged to [a punishment]. 
Fetwa ku-, to give judgment on 

a question of Mohammedan 
Feuli, the place in a dhow where 
they stow tilings which may be 
wanted quickly. 
Ft, by. 

Sabafi saba, seven times seven. 
Fia ku-, to leave behind, to die to. 
Pass. Kufiwa na, to lose by 
death. j 

Fiata ku-, to hold one's hands or 
one's clothes between one's legs. 
Fiatika ku-, to be kept back, to be 

Fiatua ku-, to allow a spring to 

escape, to let off. 
Fiatuka ku-, to escape (as a spring) 
Ficha ku-, to hide. 

Kunificlta kofia-, to hide a cap 

from me. 
Kunifichia kofia, to hide my cap. 
Fidi ku-, to ransom (of the price 

Fidia, a ransom, a sacrifice (giving 

Fidia ku-, to ransom (of the person 

Fidina, mint (?). 
Fieka ku-, to clear. 

Kufieka mwitu, to clear ground 
in a forest. 
Fifia ku-, to disappear, to cease to 
be visible (as a scar or a mark ; 
it does not imply motion), to 
pine away, (of seeds) not to 
come up. 
Figa, plur. mafiga, the three stones 
used to set a pot over the fire 
upon. See Jifya. 
Figao, a movable fireplace. 
Figili, a kind of large white radish. 
Figo, kidney (M.). 
Fika ku-, to arrive, to reach, to come. 



V i » K 

Fikara, thought. 

Fikia hit-, to reach a person. 

hit-, to crumble, to nib to 
pieces, to rul> bard, to thresh 
corn. (Used also obscenely). in ku-, to come to a person on 
business of his, to arrive and 
return without delay. 
Fikiliza kit-, to cause to arrive for. 
Kufikiliza ahadi, to fulfil a pro- 
Fikisha ku-, to make to arrive, to 

lead, to take. 
Fikira, thought, consideration. 
Fihiri hit-, to consider, to ponder. 
Fil. a chess castle or rook (in 

Arabic, an elephant). 
Pita ku- = Fin ku-. 
AfiL nibali, that he may die out 
of the way. 
Filimht, a flute. 

Filisi ku-, to take away a man's 
property, to seize for debt. 

kit-, to come to want, to 
have been sold up, to have run 
through all one's money. 
Fimlii, a stick. 
Finessi, plur. majinessi, a jack fruit. 

Finessi la kizungu, a duryan. 
Fingirika kit-, to roll along, to be 
rolled, to writhe like a wounded 
Fingirisha ku-, to roll, to make to 
Finya ku-. to pinch. [roll. 

Finyana ku-, to be pinched to- 

ther, to be gathered up small. 
Finyanga ku-, to do potter's work, 
to make pots, to tread and 

ya 1:".-, to chirp, to make a 
chirruping noise with the mouth, 
to do so by way of showing con- 

Fim In-, to commil sodomy. 

Firana kit', to commit sodomy to- 
g< ther. 

Firigisi, tin- gizzard. 

Firinghi = Firigisi. 

Firkomha, an eagle (?). 

Firuzi, a turquoise. 

Fisadi, one who enters other peo- 
ple's houses for a wrongful pur- 

Fisha ku-, to cause to die. [pose. 

Fist, a hyaena. 

Fisidi kit-, to enter other people's 
houses for a w T rongful purpose, 
to commit an offence in another 
man's house. 

FitliuU = Futhuli, officious, over 

Fitina, slander, sowing of discord, 

a disturbance. 
Fitini ku-, to slander, to sow dis- 
Fitiri, alms and presents given at 

the end of the Ramathan. 
Fito (plur. of ufito), long slender 

Fiwa ku-, to be died to, to lose by 
Mwanamke aliofiwa «o mumeice, 
a widow. 
Fiwe, a sort of bean growing < a a 
climbing plant with a white 
Fqfqfu. [flowi r. 

Kufafqfofit, to die outright 
Fola, a gift expected from those 
who first touch a new-born baby, 
paying your footing. 
Foramali, a ship's yard. 

Dawati ya formash, a workbox. 
Forsadi, a small kind of edible 

fruit, mulberries. 
Fortha, a custom-house. 
Forthani, at the custom-house. 




Fras, Frasi, or Farasi, a horse, a 

Frasi, a chess knight. 

-fu, dead. 

Maji mafu, neap tides. 

Fua, a wooden bow 1. 

Fua ku-, to beat (?), to wash clothes, 
to clear the husk from cocoa- 
nuts, to work in metal, to make 
things in metal. 
Kufua chuma, to be a blacksmith. 
Kufuafelha, to be a silversmith. 
Kufua thahabu, to be a goldsmith. 
Kufua kisu, &c, to forge a knife, 

Fuama ku-, to lie on the face 

Fuata ku-, to follow, to imitate, to 

Fuatana ku-, to accompany, to go 

Fuatanisha ku-, to make to accom- 

Fuawa ku-, to lie on the side and 
be beaten by the waves, as when 
a vessel goes ashore broadside on. 
Pass, of fua (?). 

Fuawe, an anvil. 

Fucha = Futa. 

Fudifudi, on the face (of falling or 

Fudikiza ku-, to turn bottom up- 
wards, to turn cards backs upper- 

Fufua ku-, to cause to revive, to 

Fufuka ku-, to revive, to come to 
life again, (r |<^vp> j^^4Cc\) 

Fufuliza ku-, to cause to come to 
life again for some one. 

Fufumonye, in the kitchen (Pemba). 

Fuga ku-, to keep animals either 
tame or in captivity. 

Fugika ku-, to be capable of being 
kept, to be capable of domesti- 
cation, not to die in captivity. 

Fuja ku-, to waste, to squander, to 
leak. See Yuja. 

Fujika ku-, to moulder, waste away. 

Fujo, disorder, uproar. 

Fujofujo, slovenliness, laziness. 

Fuka, a kind of thin porridge. 

Fuku ku-, to fill in a small hole. 

Fuka moshi ku-, to throw out smoke, 
to fume. See Vuke. 

Fukara, very poor. 

Fukia ku-, to fill up a small hole. 

Fukiza ku-, to cense, to put the 
fuming incense pot under a per- 
son's beard and into his clothes, 
by way of doing him honour. 

Fukizo, vapour, fumes. 

Fuko (?), a mole. ' 

Fuko, plur. mafuko, a large bag. 

Fukua ku-, to dig a small narrow 
hole, such as those to receive the 
posts of houses ; to dig into a 
grave so as to get at the body ; to 
dig out, to dig up. 

Fukuafukua ku-, to burrow. 

Fukuta ku-, to blow with bellows. 

Fukuza ku-, to drive away, to chase. 

Fukuzana ku-, to chase one another. 

Fukuzia ku-, to drive away from. 

Fulia ku-, to work in metal for, to 
make things in metal for. 

Fulifuli, on the face, forwards. 

Fuliza ku-, to go on, not to stop ; 
also, to blow upon, to kindle. 

FuUani, such a one, such and such 
men or things. 

Fululiza ku-, not to stop or delay 
to go on fast. 

Fuma ku-, to weave. 

Fuma ku-, to hit with a spear, to 
shoot with arrows. 



F r m 


/ icmia hu-, to oome suddenly 

upon, to surprise. Intrude. 
Fumaniana hu-, to intrude into 
iple'a bouses without reason- 
able cause. Those who do so 
have ii" remedy if they arc beat* o 
or wounded. 

atiti, an owl (?). 
F'uuba hu-, to close, to shut (used 
of the eyes, the mouth, the 
hand, &c). 
Mm, no yafumba, a dark saying. 
Mdkuti ya fwriba, cocoa-nut 
Laves plaited for making en- 
Funiba, a lump. 

Furriba, a kind of sleeping mat, 
which is doubled and sewn to- 
gether at the ends, so as to make 
a large shallow hag. The sleeper 
"■ets inside, and draws the loose 
edge under him, so as to be com- 
pletely shut in. 

battka hu-, to be grasped. 
Fumbia /;»-, to talk darkly. 
Fumbo, plur. mafumbo, a dark say- 
ing, a hidden thing. 

hu-, to unclose, to open the 
. &c. 
Fumbuha hu-, to come to light 

bulla hu-, to lay open to, to 

:. a kind of fish. 
Fu'mka hu-, to become unsewn, to 
open at the seams, to leak (of a 
Fumo, plur. mafumo, a flat-bladed 

Fumo, a chief (Kingozi and Nyassa). 
a hu-, to unrip, to unpick. 
Kufumua moto, to draw out the 
pieces of wood from a fire. 

Fumuka hu- = Fu'mka hu-. 
Funda, a large mouthful making 
the cheeks .--well out, a sip ,( I, 
a draw at a pipe. 
Kupiga funda, to take large 
mouthfuls one by one. 
da hu-, to beat up, to mix by 
beating, to pound. 
/' /.( Lu-, to teach. 

Fundi, a skilled workman, a master 

workman, a teacher of any handi- 

Fundisha hu-, to teach, to instruct. 
Kuji/undisha, to learn. 

Fundisho, plur. mafundisho, instruc- 
tion, direction, teaching. 

Fundo, plur. mqfundo, a knot. 
Kupiga fungo, to tie a knot. 

Fundua hu-, to untie. 

Funga, a civet cat. 

Funga hu-, to fasten, to tie, to bind, 
to imprison, to fast. 
Kufunga choo, to become consti- 

Fungamana hu-, to cling together, 
to connect, to tie together, to rely 

Fungana hu-, to bind, to stick 

Fungasa hu-, to tow. 

Fungate, a period of seven days 
after the completion of the wed- 
ding, during which the bride's 
father sends food to the bride- 
groom and his friends. 

hu-, to shut against. 

Fungo, a civet cat. 

Fungu, plur. mafungu, a bank, a 
Bhoal, a heap, a part, a week. 

Fungua. See Mfunguo. 

Fungua few-, to unfasten, to op< a, 
to let loose, to leave off fast- 




Funguka ku-, to become unfastened, 

to be unfastenable. 
Funguliica ku-, to have unfastened 

for one, to be unfastened. 
Funguo (plur. of Ufunguo), keys. 
Funguza ku-, to present 'with food 

during the Ramathan. 
Funika ku-, to cover (as with a lid), 

to close a book. 
Funikika ku-, to become covered. 
Funikiza ku-, to cover (as with a 

Funo, a kind of animal. 
Funua ku-, to lay open, to uncover, 
to open a book, to unpick sew- 
ing, to show cards. 

Kufunua macho, to open one's 
Funuka ku-, to become opened, to 

open like a flower, &c. 
Funza, a maggot. 
Funza ku-, to teach. 

Kujifunza, to learn. 
Fupa, plur. mafupa, a large bone, 

the anus (?). 
-fupi, short. It makes fupi with 

nouns like nyumba. 
Fupiza ku-, to shorten. 
Fura ku-, to swell, to be puffed up 

from the effects of a blow only. 
Furaha, gladness, joy, pleasure, 

Furahani, with gladness, happiness. 
Furahi hu-, to rejoice, to be glad. 
Furahia hu-, to rejoice in. 
Furahisha ku-, to make glad. 
Furahiica ku-, to be made glad, to 

be rejoiced. 
Furijika ku-, to moulder away. 
Furika hu-, to run over, to boil 

over, to inundate. 
Furuhuta hu-, to move, as of some- 
thing moving under a carpet. 

Furumi, ballast. 

Furungu, plur. mafuntngu, a large 

citron, a shaddock, a kind of 

Furushi, a bundle tied up in a 

Fusfus or Fussus, precious stones. 
Fusi, rubbish. 
Futa ku-, to wipe. 

Kufuta kamasi, to blow the nose. 
Futa ku-, to draw a sword ( = vuta ? ). 
Futari, the first food taken after a 

Futi, plur. mafuti, the knee (A.) 
Futliuli, officiousness. 
Futika ku-, to tuck into the girdle 

or loin-cloth. 
Futua ku-, to open out a bundle, 

take out what was tucked in. 
Futuka ku-, to get cross or angry. 
Futukia ku-, to get cross with. 
Faturi, a span. 
Futuru ku-, to eat at the end of a 

fast, to break a fast. 
Fuu, plur. mafuu, a small black 

Fuvu, plur. mafuvu, an empty shell. 

Fuvu la kitwa, a skull. 
Fuza ku-, to go on, not to stop. 
Fuzi, plur. mafuzi, a shoulder 

Fwata ku- = Fuata ku-. 
Fyoa ku-, to answer abusively. 
Fyolea ku-, to answer a person with 

abuse and bad language. 
Fyonda ku- or Fyonja ku-, to suck 

Fyonya hu-, to chirrup. See 

Fyonza ku-, to suck. 
Fyoma ku-, to read (M.). 
Fyuha ku-, to go off, to drop, to 

escape like a spring. 


G A A 

( . A B 


G is always to be pronounced 
hard, as in "gate." Much con- 
fusion arises from the way in which 
the Arabic letters jim and kaaf or 
qaf are pronounced by different 
Arabs. Jim is properly an English 
/. and is so used by the Swahili, 
and qaf is properly a guttural k, 
but most Arabs in Zanzibar pro- 
nounce either jim or qaf as a hard 
g. This must be remembered in 
writing or looking for many Swahili 

The Arabic Gliain is retained in 
many Swahili words borrowed from 
the Arabic, and a similar sound 
occurs in African languages also. 
It is here written gh. Most Euro- 
peans think it has something of an 
r sound, but this is a mistake ; it is 
a hard grating g, made wholly in the 
throat. It resembles the Dnicii ;/, 
and the German g approaches it. 
- N. 

gaa /.»-, to turn over restlessly, 
to roll like a donkey. 
ri. See Kaburi. 
i, .rh\ a wooden prop to keep a 
vessel from falling over when 
left by the tide. 
Gadimu four, to put gadi. 

i, plur. magaga, rubbish, dirt. 
Gai, plur. magai, a large piece of 

t sherd. 
'inline. See Kalme, the small mizen 
mast of a dhow. 

ra. u canoe, a small canoe 
with outriggers. G are 

hollowed out of the trunk of ri 
tree, and have two long polos 
tied across, to the end of which 
pieces of wood pointed at both 
ends are attached, which servo 
to prevent the canoe upsetting. 
These outriggers are called 
mati'tigo. Sec Mlniuliwi. 

Gamba. See Jigamba. 

Gana, the tiller, the rudder handle. 

Ganda, plur. maganda, husk, rind, 
shell, hard bark. 
Ganda la tatu, the three of cards. 

Ganda ku-, to stick, to freeze. 

Gandama ku-, to cleave, to stick. 

Gandamana kit-, to cleave to- 
gether, to coagulate, to curdle, to 

Gandamia ku-, to stick to, to cleave 

Gando, plur. magando, the claw of 
a crab. 

Ganga ku-, to bind round, as when 
a stick is sprung to bind it 
round with string, to splice, to 
mend, to cure. 

Gauge, a soft v nito limestone. 

Gango, plur. magango, a cramp, a 
splint, something which holdt 
other things together in their 
right place. 

/ What ? What sort of? 
I he name of the thing queried 
Nt always precedes the word 

Imekufa ganzi, it has lost all 

feeling. See Faganzi. 
Kutia ganzi la meno, to set the 
teeth on edge. 

Gari, plur. magari, a carriage, a 
wheeled vehicle. 

Garofuu, cloves. Also, a kind of rice. 




Gauza, Gauka, etc. See Geuza, 

Geuka, etc. 
Gawa ku, to divide, to part out. 

Kugaica karata, to deal cards. 
Gawanya ku-, to divide, to share. 
Gay a ku-, to change one's mind, 

to vacillate. 
Gayami, a post with a cleat at the 

side of the poop, to fasten the 

sheet of a dhow sail to. 
Gayogayo, a flat fish, (?) a sole. 
Gema ku-, to get palm wine. They 

cut the immature flowering shoot 

and hang something under to 

catch what flows from the wound, 

which is the tembo, or palm wine. 

The cutting is renewed from 

time to time to keep up the 

Gembe, plur. magembe, a hoe. See 

-geni, foreign, strange. 

Mkuu genzi, one who knows the 
roads well, a guide. 
Gereza, a fort, a prison. 
Geua few-, to turn, to change (Mer.). 
Geuka ku-, to become changed, to 

turn, to change. 
Geuza ku- or Geusha ku- (?), to 

cause to change, to turn, to 

Geuzi, plur. mageuzi, a change, 

Ghdfala, suddenly. 
Ghafalika ku-, to be imprudent, not 

to attend to, to neglect. 
Ghdfula = ghdfala. 
Ghairi ku-, to annul, change one's 
mind as to, put an end to. 

Kutia ghairi, to offend, to irri- 
Ghala, a wareroom, a store place, 

especially the rooms on the 
ground-floor of Zanzibar houses, 
which have generally no win- 
dows, but merely a few small 
round holes (miangaza) near 
the ceiling. 

Ghali, dear. 

Ghalime. See Galme, Kalme 

Ghalisha ku-, to make dear. 

Ghangi, a kind of dhow resembling 
a bagala, except that it has not 
so long a prow. 

Ghanima, good luck, profit. 

Gharama, expense, payment to a 
native chief by a caravan. 

Gharika, a flood, the flood. 

Ghariki ku-, to be flooded, to be 
covered with water. 

Gharikisha ku-, to flood, to over- 

Gharimia ku-, to go to expense 
about, to be at the expense of. 

Ghasi, a measure of about a yard. 

Ghasi, rebellion. 

Ghasi ku-, to bother, worry. 

Ghasia, bother, coming and going, 
want of privacy. 

Ghathabika ku-, to be enraged, to 
be angry. 

Ghathabisha ku , to enrage, to make 

Ghathabu, anger. 

Ghelibu ku-, to master. 

Gheiri, jealousy, jealous anger. 

Ghiana, an aggravating person. 

Ghofira, plur. maghofira, pardon. 

Ghofiri ku-, to forgive sins ; used of 
God only. 

Ghofiria ku-, to forgive a person. 

Ghdrofa, an upper room. 

Ghoshi ku-, to adulterate. 

Ghuba (?), a sheltered place, a 

<; ii v 


•art, plur. maghubari, a rain 
Ghubba, a bay. 
Ghumiwa J;u-, to be startled, to 

stand aghast. 
Ghurika ku-, to be arrogant. 
Ghururi, arrogance. 

hi ku- = Gliodii ku-, to adul- 
mbu l:u-, to cheat, to swindle. 
Gidam, the Btrap of a sandal, 

passing between the toes. 
Ginsi, sort, kind. 
Ginsi ilivyokuwa njema, &c, it 

was so good, &c. 
Ginsi gaui ? or Gissi gani ? 
Why ? How is it ? 
Gf'za nr A'/.n/, darkness. 

niba or Ng'amba, a liawk's-head 
Gnombe or Ng'ombe, an ox, cattle. 
Goa. See Goo. 
Goboa ku-, to break off the cobs of 

Indian corn. 
Godoro, plur. tnagodoro, a mattress. 
Go/ia, a pulley. 
Gogo, plur. iwigogo, a log of timber, 

the trunk of a tree when fulled. 
GomJba ku-, to be adverse to, to 

oppose, to quarrel with. 
Gombana ku-,to squabble, to quarrel. 

ubeza ku-, to forbid. 
Gvmbo, plur. magombo, a sheet of a 

, plur. magorae, bark of a tree. 
Gomea ku-, to fasten with a native 

Gonteo, a native lock. 
Gonga J;u-, to knock. 
Gonjweza ku-, to make ill. 

Kwjigonjioeza, to make oneself 
out an invalid, to behave like a 
sick man. 

Gongn, plur. magongo, a large 

Qongqji a ku-. 

A ujigongojea, to prop oneself with 
a Btaff, i" drag oneself along by 
the help of a stick. 
."<( in n l:n-, to hammer in. 
Goo. See Mtondo goo. 
Gora, a piece of cloth, a package of 

cloth. See Jura. 
Gorong'ondwa, a kind of lizard. 
Goshi, the tack of a sail. 

Upandewa goshini, the weather 

Kupindua kwa goshini, to tack. 
Gota ku-, to tap, to knock. 
Gote, plur. magote, the knee. 

Kupiga magote, to kneel. 
Goteza ku-. to jumble together 

different dialects or languages. 
Govi mho, uncircumcised. 
Gvbeti, prow of a dhow. 
Gubiti, barley-sugar (?). 
Gudi, a dock for ships. 
Gudulia or Guduwia, a water-co< ler, 

a porous water-bottle. 
Gugu, plur. magugu, undergrowth, 

Gugu micitu, a weed resemhlin.r 
-gugu, wild, uncultivated. , 
Gugumiza ku-, to gulp, to swallow 

with a gulping sound. 
Guguna ku-, to gnaw. 
Gugurwha ku-, to run with a 

shuffling noise like a rat, to drag 

along with a scraping noise. 
Guia ku-, to seize (Mer.). 
Guiana ku-, to cling together. 
Gulegule, a dolphin. 

Kill nle cha gumba, the thumb. 


H A- 


Bunduki ya gumegume, a flint gun. 
•gumu, hard, difficult. 

Guna ku-, to grunt, to make a dis- 
satisfied noise. 

Gundua ku-, to see one who thinks 
himself unseen, to discover un- 
awares, to catch. 

Gunga ku-, (1) to warn against 
doing something, (2) to refuse 

Gungu, a kind of dance. 

Gungu la kufunda, danced by a 

single couple. 
Gungu la kukwaa, danced by two 

( J u ii ia, a kind of matting bag. 

Gunzi, plur. magunzi, a cob of 
Indian corn. 

Gura ku-, to change one's place of 
residence (A.). 

Gurisha ku-, to make to remove, to 
banish (A.). 

Sukari guru, half-made sugar. 

Gurudumo, plur. magurudumo, a 
Gurudumo la mzinga, a gun- 

Guruguru, a large kind of burrow- 
ing lizard. 

Gusa ku-, to touch. 

Gutuka ku-, to start, to be startled. 

Guu, plur. maguu, leg (A.). 

Gwa ku-, to fall [Tumbatu]. 

Gwanda, a very short kanzu. 

Gwia ku- = Guia ku-. 

Gwiana ku- = Guiana ku-. 


H has the same sound as in the 
English word " hate." 
There are in Arabic two distinct 

7i's, one wholly made in the throat, 
the other somewhat lighter than the 
English h. In Swahili there is only 
one h sound, which is used for both. 

The Arabic kh is pronounced as 
a simple h in all words which are 
thoroughly incorporated into Swa- 
hili. The kh is used by Arabs and 
in words imperfectly assimilated. 
Some people regard it as a mark of 
good education to give the proper 
Arabic sounds to all words of Arabic 

In Arabic a syllable often ends 
with h, which is then strongly pro- 
nounced ; but in Swahili the h is 
generally transposed so as to pre- 
cede the vowel. 

Kuih'timu, to finish one's educa- 
tion = Kuhitimu. 

H-, sign of the negative in the 
second and third persons sin- 

H-upendi, thou lovest not. 

H-apendi, he lovest not. 
Ha-, sign of the third person sin- 
gular negative when referring 
to animate beings, and of the 
negative when prefixed to 
the affirmative prefixes in the 
plural, and in the third person 
singular when not referring to 
animate beings. 

Ha-fupendi, we love not. 

Ha-mpendi, you love not. 

Ha-ivapendi, they love not 

Ha-ifai, it is of no use. 

The final a of this ha- never 
coalesces with the following 
Ha-, a contraction for nika. 

Hamwona, and I saw him. 

11 A B 


The third person singular present 
negative is distinguished by 
the final i. 
Hamvxmi, he does not see him. 
Haba, little, few, shallow. 
Hdbabi, my lord. 

Hahari, news, information, message, 
Habari eangu zilizonipata, an ac- 
count of what bad happened to 

Habushia, plur. mahdbushia, an 
Abyssinian. Many Galla women 
are called Abyssinians, and the 
name is sometimes used for a con- 
cubine of whatever race. 

Hadaa, deceit, cheating. 

Hadaa kit-, to cheat. 

Hadaika lair, to be cheated, to be 
taken in. 

Hadidi, the semicircular ornament 
to which Arab womeu attach the 
plaits of their hair. 

llii'Hmu, aservant, slave. See .1///- 

Hadithi, a tale, a story, especially 
one bearing upon Mohammedan 

Hadithia ku-, to relate to. 

Hafifu, light, insignificant. 

J I ifithtka ku- = Hijathika ku-, to 
be preserved. 

Hahithawahetha (Ar.), these and 

Eaiba, a beauty, not beauty gene- 
rally, but one good point. 

Hai-, sign of third person singular 
negative agreeing with nouns 
which do not change to form 
the plural. 
Sign of the third person plural 
negative agreeing with nouns 
in mi-. 

ITai = Hayi, alive. 

Haina, it is not, there is not. 

Ila/tassa, not yet. 

Haithuru, it does not harm, it is of 
no consequence, never mind, it 
would be as well. 

//.//. the pilgrimage to Mecca. 

Uaja, a request. 

liana haja, he is good for no pur- 
pose, he has no occasion. 

llnjni ku-, to go to live elsewhere. 

Hajirika ku-. to remain overlong, 


Kmnshika hdkdU, to require i 
>tianger who goes upon work- 
men's work to pay for his in- 
trusion, to make him pay his 

Haki-, sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns in ki- or ch-. 

Haki, justice, right, righteousness. 

Hakika, true, certain, certain ly 
Hakika yako, it is true of thee, 
thou certainly. 

Hakiki ku-, to make sure, to ascer- 
tain, to prove. 

JIakiri ku-, to humble. 

Ilakirisha ku-, to despise. 

Hako, he is not there. 

Haku-, sign of the third pi 
negative indefinite. 

Haku-, sign of the third person 
singular of the negative past, 
referring to animate beings. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the final Iettt i 
of the verb, which is -i in the 
indefinite and -a in the past tense. 

Hakuna, there is not, it exists not, 

Hal wdradi, otto of roses. 




Ealaf bilkithib, perjury. 

Halafu, afterwards, presently. 

Ealali, lawful. 

Halasa, sailors' wages. 

Unli, state, condition, health. i 

U halt gani ? How are you ? 

Wa halt gani ? How are they ? 

Amelmtoa kali ya kwanza, he is 
reduced to his former condition, 
he is as he used to be. 

It is also used as a kind of con- 
junction, being, if it be, when 
it is, supposing, so it was. 
Eali for Ahali, family, connections. 
Hali-, sign of the third person 

singular negative, agreeing with 

nouns which make their plural in 

Ealilisha leu-, to make lawful. 
Ealili yako, at your disposal. 
Ealisi or Edlisi l exactly, without 

defect or variation. 
Ealua, a sweetmeat made of ghee, 

honey, eggs, arrowroot (?), and 


Chumvi ya haluli, sulphate of 
Ea'm-, sign of the second person 

plural negative. 
H'ama ku-, to change houses, to 

Hamali, plur. mahamali, a porter, 

a coolie. 
Hamami, a public bath. There are 

now public baths in Zanzibar. 
Bamaya, protection. 

Fi hamayat al Ingrez, under 
British protection. 
Hamdi, praise. 
Hami, protection. 
Hami ku-, to protect. 
Hamili ku-, to be pregnant. 

Eamira, leaven, made by mixing 

flour and water and leaving it to 

turn sour. 
Eamislia ku-, to cause to remove, to 

cause to change one's place of 

residence, to banish. 
Ha'mna, there is not inside, no! 
Eanio, he is not inside. 
Eamsi, five. 
Eamsini, fifty. 
Hamstasliara, fifteen. 
Eamu, grief, heaviness. 
Hamwimbi ? Don't you sing ? 
Hana, he has not. 
liana ku-, to mourn with, to join 

in a formal mourning. 
Hana kwao, he has no home, a 

Eanamu, obliquely. 
Hanamu, the cutwater of a dhow. 
Handaki, a dry ditch, a trench. 
Eangaika ku-, to be excited. 
Hangoe, the guttural Arabic h, the 

hha. See Hdaivari. 
Eanikiza ku-, to interrupt people. 

to talk so loud and long as to 

prevent other people from doing 

Hanisi, a man sexually impotent. 
Haniti, a catamite, a sodomite. 
Hanzua, a kind of dance. 
Hao, or Hawo, these or those before 

mentioned, referring to animate 

Eapa-, sign of the third person 

negative, agreeing with mahali. 

place or places. 
Hapa, here, this place, in this place. 
Hapana, there is not, no ! 

Eapana refers rather to a par- 
ticular place, Eakuna is gene- 
Eapo, here, this or that time. 




Tangu hapo, once upon a time. 

H.ijni hale, in old timi 
/ hapo, ever bo long, 
a hapo ! get away ! get out of 
Hara ku-, to be purged. 

Harisha hu-, to act as a drastic 
Haraha, haste. 
Haraka /.'<-, to make haste. 
Harakisha ku-, to hasten. 
Haramia, a pirate, a robber. 
HaramUf unlawful, prohibited. 
Uarara, prickly heat, heat, hot 

Harara, quick-tempered. 
Hararii, hot-tempered. 
Hart, heat, perspiration. 

Kutolia hart, to perspire. 
Haribika hu-, to be destroyed, to 

llnrihu hu-, to destroy, to spoil. 

Kuharibu mimba, to miscarry. 
Tlarijia hu-, to spend money, to lay 

out money, to provide (a feast), 

Harimisha hu-, to make or declare 

Harimu hu- = Uarimiaha hu-. 
Harioe, a cry raised on seeing a 

dhow come in sight (M. ). 
limiri, silk. 
Harufu, Ilarufi, or //■ rufu, a letter 

of the alphabet, letters, cha- 
Harufu, ascent, a smell of any kind. 
llirim, a wedding; vulgarly, the 

Jin-ana harusi, the bridegroom. 

Bibi /<<■ bride. 

Haeai = Malssai, castrut* •]. 
Hasara, loss. 

J\Uj"i>'i l"i<nra, to lose. 

Hasara hu-, to spoil a thing so that 

its value is gone. 
Hasha, ooi at all, not by any means, 

a very strong negative. 
Hasho, a patch in planking, a piece 

li t in. 
Hoot hu- or Khasi ku-, to geld, to 

Hasibu /.»-, to count. 
Hasida, a kind of porridge. 
Hasidi, envy. 
Hasira, anger. 

Kuwa ua hasira, to be angry. 

Ku! in hasira, to make angry. 
Hasira hu-, to injure. 
Jln.-iri hu-, to vex, to do harm 

Hasirika ku-, to be injured, to be 

Hasirisha ku-, to injure. 
Hassa, exactly. 
//.</«. See Hafta. 
Hatamu, a bridle. 
Hatari, danger, fear. 
Hathari, caution, care. 

Kuwa na hathari, to beware, to 
be on one's guard. 

Kufanya hathari, to become care- 
ful, to become anxious. 
Hdtif, an angel. 
Hatiki leu-, to bother, to annoy 

Hatima = Khaiima, end, conclusion, 

at last. 
Ilatirixha ku-, to venture, to run 

the risk. 
JJatiya = Khatiya, fault. 

Kutiahathjani, to find fault with. 

Mwenyi hatiya nami, who has 
done me wrong. 
Jlutlii, until, so far as, to, at length, 
when a certain time had ar 
rived. It is used to introduce 




the time when something fresh 
Haifa siku moja, one day. 
Hatta assubui, in the morning, 

but in the morning. 
Hatta baada ya inwezi hupita, and 
when a month had passed. 
Hatlia, for nothing. 
Hattiya = Hatiya. 
Hatu-, sign of the first person plural 

Hatua, a step, steps. 
Hau-, sign of the third person 
singular negative agreeing with 
nouns in m- or mw; not denoting 
animate beings,or with those in u-. 
Havi-, sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
plural nouns in vi- or vy-. 
Hawa-, sign of the third person 

plural negative. 
Hawa-, Eve. 
Hawa. these, referring to animate 

Hawa or Hewa, air. 
Hawa or Hawat, longing, lust, 
Usifanye hawa nafsi, don't be 
partial, don't show favour. 
Hawa or Hawara, a catamite, a 

Hawala, transfer of a debt, bill of 

Hawezi, he is ill. See Weza ku-. 
Hawi, he is not. 

Hawili ku-, to take upon oneself 
what was due from another, to 
guarantee a debt, &c. 
Haya-, sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
plural nouns in ma-. 
IJaya, these, referring to a plural 
substantive in ma-. 

Haya, shame, modesty. 

Hana haya, he is shameless. 
Kuona haya, to feel ashamed, to 

be bashful. 
Kutia haya, to abash, to make 
Haya ! Work away ! Be quick ! 

Come along ! 
Hayale, those, those things. 
Hayamkini, it is impossible. 
Hayawani, a man without his 

proper senses, an idiot. 
Hayi, plur. wahayi (?), alive. 
Hayo, these or those before men- 
tioned, referring to plural sub- 
stantives in ma-. 
Hayuko, vulgarly used in Zanzibar 

for hako, he is not there. 
Hem'-, sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or with those 
which begin in the singular with 
Hazibu ku- = Hesabu ku-. 
Hazina, a treasure. 
Hazitassa, not yet. 
Hedaya, a choice thing, a tale. 
Hejazi, the Hejaz in Arabia. 
Hekalu, the temple at Jerusalem, a 

great or famous thing. 
Hekima, wisdom, cleverness. 
Hekimiza ku-, to make a man under- 
stand, to put him in possession of 
Hemidi ku-, or Hamidi ku-, to praise. 
Henza, halyards. 
Henzarani, cane-work. 
Heri = Kheiri, Lappy, fortunate, it 
is well. 
Ni heri, I had better, it will te 

well for me. 
Kua heri, good- bye. 



1 1 E II 


Mtu wa 1> ri. a fortunate man. 
//■ riii. a cry r;ii>t d on lirat seeing a 

dhow coining. Compare Hariowe. 
JL rt'mu = Marika. 
Hero, a wooden platter. 
IJ-ni/u or Harufu,& letter of the 

Hesabu, ac i m ts, an acoonnt. 

;aou /.'/-, to count, to reckon. 
!l'.<Limti. honour. 
Il.sliimu hu-. to honour. 
//'///. menstruation, menses. 

Kuira na htth, to menstruate. 
*ll<tima. [aucestors. 

Kiuor/ia hetima, to pray for one's 
//. <rrz or Hawa, air. 
/f- :oyo, a sham , a tiling causing 

///-. for Niki-. See-A-i-. 
Hiana, a grudging person, one who 

withh ihls things. Compare 

Ili'tri, choice. 

Hiba, property left after death. 
Hidima, service. 
Illfafhi hu-, to preserve, to keep. 
Hifaihika hu-, to be preserved. 
Hifukuza = Nilcifulcuza. 
]lii, this, referring to singular 

nouns which do not change to. 

form the plural ; these, referring 

to plural nouns in mi-. 
Hide, that, th 
Hikaya = Hedaya, a wonderful 

Jiihi, this, referring to singular 

nouns in hi- or ch-. 
Hikile, that, yonder. 
Hila, a device, a Btratagem. a deceit. 

Mtu wa hila, a crafty man. 
JIM, this, referring to singular 

nouns which make their plural 

in ma-. 

liiln. this or that before mentioned, 
referring to singular nouns which 
make their plural in ma-. 

Ilium, haste, hastily, quickly. 

EimaJiima ! be quick ! 

llimili ];><-, to bear, to support. 

llimiza hu-, to hasten. 

llinn, henna, a very favourite red 
dye, used by women to dye the 
palms of their hands and the soles 
of their feet, often used to dye 
white donkeys, &c., a pale red 

Hini hu-, to refuse to give, to with- 

Ilirizi, a written charm worn on the 

llirimu, an equal in age. 

Ilirimu moja, of the same age 

Ilisa, pardon. 
Nipe hisa yangu, pardon me. 

Hitari hu-, to prefer, choose. See 

Hitima, the feast which conclndi e 
a formal mourning. 

Ilitimu hu-, to finish one's learning, 
to leave off school, to know one's 

llitimisha hu-, to finish a scholar, to 
bring to the end of his learning of 
whatever kind. 

II in', thus, these, referring to plural 
nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Write, those. 

Uivyo, after which manner, these 
mentioned before, referring to 
plural nouns iu vi- or vy-. 

Hiyari, choice. 

Hi l/o. this mentioned before, re- 
ferring to singular nouns which 
do uot change to form the plural ; 
these mentioned before, referring 
to plural nouns in mi- or in ma-. 




Hizi, these, referring to plural 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or which begin 
in the singular with u- or w-. 
Siku hizi, some days ago, some 
days hence, now. 
Hizi hu-, to treat with contumely, to 

groan at, to cry out against. 
Hizile, those. 

Hizika hu-, to be put to the blush. 
Hobe ! now go on, be off. 
Kwenda hobe, to go wherever it 
may be. 
Holm, grandchild. 
Hodari, strong. 

Hodi! a cry made by way of 
inquiry whether any one is within. 
No one ought to enter a house 
until he has received an answer. 
Hogera hu-, to perform a particular 
washing customary after cir- 
Hogo, plur. mahogo, a very large 

root of cassava. 
Hohe hahe, a phrase used to denote 
extreme poverty and destitution. 
PUipili hoho, red pepper. 
Mhate wa hoho, a cake made with 
fresh palm-oil. 
Hoja = Huja. 
Homa, fever. 

Kongo, a present demanded by a 
local chief for liberty to pass 
through his country. 
Hongua, a Comoro dance. 
Horari, clever (?). 
Hori, or KJiori, a creek, a small arm 

of the sea. 
Hori, plur. mahnri, a kind of canoe 

with a raised head and stern. 
Hu-, a quasi-personal prefix de- 
noting a customary action. It 

applies to all persons and both 
Hunijihu, it is in the habit of 

answering me. 
Huenda, he, &c, commonly goes. 
Husema, they say. 
Hu- = h-u-, the negative prefix of 
the second person singular. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the termina- 
tion of the verb. 
Huenda, people go. 
Huendi, you do not go. 
Hia, a dove. They are said to cry, 
Mama aha fa, Baba ahafa, nime- 
salia mimi, tu, tu, tu, tu, tu, My 
mother is dead, my father is 
dead, I am left alone — lone— lone 
— lone. Another cry of the same 
class of birds is explained* as, 
Kuliu mfupa mtupu, mimi nyama 
tele tele tele, A fowl is bare 
bones. I am meat plenty, plenty, 
Hubba, love, affection. 
Hubiri, to announce, to give news. 
Hudumia hu-, to serve. 
Hudumu, service. 
Hui hu-, to revive, to come to life 

Huiha hu-, to be brought to life 

again, to live again. 
Huisha hu-, to revive, bring to life 

again, resuscitate. 
Huja or hoja, sake, account, con- 
cernment, reasoning. 
Kina huja nyingi, it is full of 

bother, it is troublesome. 
Hahina huja, it is all clear, it is 
plain sailing. 
Hujambo ? Are you well ? 
Huji hu-, to inquire into, seek out. 
Hujuru hu-, to desert. 

u 2 



Huko, there, at a distance. 

Hukona huko, hither and thither. 

. in r. . tin n . near. 

Ilnku no huhii, thid way and 
Hulnniu. judgment, authority, law. 
Jluhumu ku-, to act as judge, to 

have supreme authority over. 
Hukumia feu-, to judge, to exercise 

authority uj 
Hulukiwa ku, to be created, to be 

a creature. 
Humuma, plur. ma-, a man who 

knows no religion. 
Hundi, a draft, a bill of exchange. 
Hito, this or that before mentioned, 

referring to singular nouns in 

u- or w-, or which make their 

plural in mi-. 
Hunt, free, not a slave. 

Kuweka or Kuacha hum, to set 
free from slavery. 
Huru, plur. tnahuru, a freed man. 

Mahuru tra Balyozi, or Barvzi, 
Blaves freed by the British 
Huru, diamonds in cards. 
Unruma, pity. 
llururnia ku-, to pity, to have pity 

Hussu ku-, to divide into shares, to 

put each one's share separate. 
/ icJu ku-, to do wanton violence, 

to grudge at, to envy. 
Husumu ku-, to strive, to contend 

Jlufiuni, a fort. 
£Tu8uru ku-, to besiege. 
Huthuria ku-, to be present. 
//«ii, this, referring to nouns in 

the singular which mike their 

plural in mi-, or to singular nouns 

beginning with u- ox w-. 

Buttle, that. 

Huyo, this or that before mentioned, 

referring toan animate being. 

In chasing a man or animal, any 

ono who sees him erics out, 

Iluyo! huyo! huyo! Here he is! 

Iluyu, this, this person, this one, 

referring to an animate being. 
lluyule, that. 
llu:uni, grief, heaviness. 
Ilwenda, perhaps. 


I is pronounced like ee in feel. 

I before a vowel generally be- 
comes y. It is in many cases im- 
material whether t or y be written, 
but where the accent would other- 
wise fall upon it, its consonantal 
character becomes obvious. 

An unaccented i is often inter- 
changed with a short u sound. 
Thus the word for lead may be pro- 
nounced either risasi or rusasi. 

N has generally an i sound im- 
plied in it. It is sometimes ex- 
pressed following the n, as in the 
prefix ni. The final i of ni- disap- 
pears in rapid pronunciation, and in 
the first person of the future, as n 
cannot coalesce with t, both letters 
are often omitted. When n is fol- 
lowed by a vowel, or by d, g, j, 
or z, the i sound is lost. When n 
is followed by other consonants it 
either disappears altogether or the 
i sound is more or less distinctly 
prefixed, so as to make the n a syl- 
lable by itself. The i sound is more 
distinct iu the dialect of Zanzibar 
than in more northern Bwahili. 
Where i follows the final a of a 



prefix (except the negative prefix 
ha) it coalesces with a into the 
sound of a long e. 

1, is or was, governed by a singular 
noun of the class which does 
not change to form the plural ; 
are or were, governed by a 
plural noun in mi-. 

I-, or before a vowel, y-, the personal 
prefix used with verbs whose 
subject is a singular noun of 
the class which does not change 
to form the plural, or a plural 
in mi-, it or they. 

-i-, the prefix representing the ob- 
ject of the verb when it is a 
singular noun of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, or a plural noun in mi-. 

-i-, the reflective prefix in Kintfozi 
(and in Nyamwezi), self. 

Iba kw- (the kw- is frequently re- 
tained in the usual tenses), to 
steal, to take surreptitiously. 

Ibada, worship. 

lbia kw-, to rob, to steal from. 


Hayana idadi, there is no count- 
ing them. 

Idili = Adili, right conduct. 

Idili ku-, to learn right conduct. 

Idilisha ku-, to teach right con- 

Jftahi, brioger of luck. 

Iga ku-, to mock, to imitate (M. 

Ih-. See Hi-. 

Ihtahidi ku-, to strive. 

IKtaji ku-, to be wanting. 

nCtajia ku-, to want, to be wanting to. 

Ih'tilafu, different. Also a fault, 

Ih'timu ku-, to finish learning, to 

complete one's education. 
Ijara, pay, hire, rent. 
Ijaza, a reward. 
Ijaza ku-, to grant permission for 

Ikhtiari, choice. 
Ikhtiari ku-, to wish. 
Ikiza ku-, to lay the beams of a 

Kuku ya kuikiza, a fowl cooked 
with eggs. 
IJio, there is, it is there. 
Ha, a defect, a blemish. 
He, that yonder, referring to a 

singular noun of the class which 

does not change to form its 

plural; those yonder, referring 

to a plural noun in mi-. 
Hi = Eli. 
Hiki, cardamoms. 
Hioko, which is, or was there. 
Hiopandana, the composition of a 

llizi, a small round thing held 

to be a great charm against 

Hla, except, unless, but. 
lllakini, but. 
HU, in ordt-r that. 
Hmu, learning. 
Ima — ima, either — or. 
Ima ku-, to stand up (Ring'ozi and 

Njia ya kwima, a straight road. 
Ima ku-, to eat up food provided 
for other people. 

Ametuima, he has eaten our share 
as well as his own. 
Imani, faith. 
Imara, firm. 
Imba kw-, to sing. 
Imbu, mosquito, mosquitoes, 


1 M I 


Irnisha fcu-, to Bel up, to make to 

Tm ma. 

H'.i imma, to a certainty. 
Zha, it has, they have. 
Tnama fcu-, tobow,to stoop, to bend 

down, to slope. 
Inamisha hu . to make to bend 

down, t<> bow. 
/ arufara, it is bright. See luj'aa. 
h chi, land, country, earth. 

Eufanya inda, to give trouble. 

1 .j i leu-, to scare away hirds. 

-ingi, many, much. It makes jingi 

with nouns like hatha, and 

nyingi with nouns like nyurriba. 

Tngia hu-, to enter, to go or come 

Ingilia hi-, to go or come into, for, 

or to. 
Ingiliza ku-, to cohabit with. 
ingine, other, different. It makes 
hi gine or mvringine with nouns 
like mtu and rati; jingine with 
nouns like kasha ; ngine or nyi- 
ngine with nouns like nyumba; 
and pintjine or pangine with 
nouns of place. 
1 1 '< i w/i'ne — tr« n0ine,8ome — others. 
Ingiza htir, to make or allow to enter. 
Ini, plur. maini. the liver. 
Jnt'faa ku-, to hang down, to lay upon 

its Bide. See Jiinika. 
Inna, truly. 

JnshaUah. if God will, perhaps. It 
is used as a general promise to do 
as one is asked to do. 
Into - Nta. 

Inua ku-, to lift, to lift up. 
Inuka ku-, to be lifted, to become 

Inya, mother (A.). 

■inyi = -enyi, having, with. It makes 
mwinyi, wenyi,yinyi, rwij/i, ftwt/t, 
kinyi, vinyi, and penyi. 
Inzi, plur. miiinr.i. a fly. 
//»( /iw-, to want, desire to have. 
Kuipa roho rribele, to long for 
everything one sees, to have 
unrestrained desires. 

Kupiga ipi, to slap (,N.). 
J;;?' ? what ? 

Kama ipi ? how ? 
7/ma /i;io-, to take off the lire. 
Zn&a, usury. 
Iriwa, a vice (the tool). 
J«/ta 7«c, to finish, to come to an 
end. The kio- is retained in 
the usual tenses, but sometimes 
the w is dropped, as amekuha 
for amekwisha, he has done. 
Kwisha is commonly used as an 
auxiliary : thus, Amekwisha 
kuja, he has come already. 
Alipokwisha kuja, when he 
had come. 
Akauha, or Akesha, after that, 
when he had done this. 
Ishara, a sign, signal. 
7«/ti /.«-, to last, to endure, to live. 
Isimu or Ismu, name, especially the 
name of God. 
Ma ismah (Ar.)? What is your 
Istara, a curtain. 
Istisha, dropsy. 

Ita kw-, to call, to call to, to name. 
to invito. The kw- is fre- 
quently retained. 
Kwitwa, tobecalli d, is sometimes 
constructed as if it were ku- 
Ita hu-, to cast in a mould. 
Itala8si, satin. 




IthinL, sanction. 

Kutoa ithini, to sanction. 
Ithneen, two. 

Itia ku-, to call for some purpose. 
Itika ku-, to answer when called. 
Itikia ku-, to reply to, to answer a 

person when called to. 
Ittidza ku-, to assent to. 
Ito la guu (A.), the ankle. 
Iva ku- or Wiva ku-, to become ripe, 

to become completely cooked, to 

get done. The ku- is frequently 

Ivu, plur. maivu, ash, ashes (M.). 
Itoapi? where is it? 
Iza ku-, to refuse. 
Izara ku-, to tell scandal about, to 

make things public about a 

person improperly. 

J. The correct pronunciation of 
this letter, and especially that of 
the Mombas dialect, is a very pecu- 
liar one. The most prominent sound 
is that of y, but it is preceded by 
another resembling d. The French 
di is perhaps the nearest European 
representative. The Swahili write 
it by the Arabic jim, which is ex- 
actly an English j. 

In the more northern dialects and 
in the old poetical Swahili the j is 
represented by a pure y. 

Moya = mnja, one. 

Mayi = maji, water. 

A d in the dialect of Mombas 
very commonly becomes a j in that 
of Zanzibar. 

Ndia (M.), a road, Njia (Zanz.). 

Kutinda (M.), to slaughter ; Ku- 
chinja (Zanz.). 

Many words which are properly 

spelt with a z are vulgarly pro- 
nounced with a j in Zanzibar, as, 

Kanju, for kanzu. 

Chenja, for chenza. 

This is only carrying to excess the 
rule that a z in the neighbouring 
mainland languages becomes a j 
in Swahili. 

The Arabs and some Swahili 
confuse j with g. Thus the late 
ruler of Zanzibar was often spoke:;, 
of as Bwana Magidi, his proper title 
being Seyid Mdjid. 

J-, a prefix applied to substantives 
and adjectives in the singular of 
the class which make their plural 
in ma-, when they begin with a 
vowel. Seeji-. 
Ja, like. 

Ja ku- (the ku- carries the accent 
and is retained in the usunl 
tenses), to come. The impera- 
tive is irregular, Njoo, come. 
Njooni, come ye. 
Ja is used to form several tenses. 

1. With -po- added, meaning eveu 
if; iva-japo-kupiga, even if they 
beat you. 

2. With negative prefixes mean- 
ing not yet ; ha-ja-ja, he is not 
yet come. 

3. With negative prefix and sub- 
junctive form. An-je-Iala, be- 
fore he goes to sh ep, or that he 
may not have already gone to 

Jaa ku-, to become full, to fill, to 

abound with. 
Maji yanajaa, the tide is coming 

Mtungi umejaa maji, the jar is 

full of water. 
See Jaica ku-. 

J A A 


Shika mdjira yajaa, 9teer north- 
Jaa, a <lust heap. 
Jabali, plur. majabali, a rocky bill. 

Also s< e Kanza. 
J.i^ir/.iibsoluto ruler, a title of God. 
/adtliana feu-, to argue with. 

..'•!/,.[. good luok, unexpected g 1 

Kilango cha jdha, tho gate of 

izi, a vessel, a ship. 
Jul, Hi ku-, to dare, not to fear. 
Jalada, the over of a bound book. 
,/.«// A-!*-, to give honour to. 
./>j/f'<< feu-, to bless, to enable, to 
grant to. 
Muungu akinijalia, God willing. 
Jaliwa feu-, to be enabled, to have 
power, &c, given one. 
a l;u-, to fill up, used of vessels 
which have already something in 

no, family, assembly, gathering, 
society, company. 
aa ku-, to collect together, 
I 1 ler. 

vat (Uind.), a council of elders. 
da, courtesy, good manners, 
Jamanda, plur. majamanda, a solid 
kind i f round bucket with a lid. 
Jamba, breaking of wind down- 
Jamba ku-, to break wind down- 
Jambia, plur. majambia, a curved 
/.'it always worn by Muscat 
Jambo, plur. mambo (from huamba^) 
a word (?), a matter, a circum- 
stance, a thing, an affair. 

AkaniU nda kill a jambo la wema, 

and he showed me all possible 
Jambo for si jambo, hu jambo, ha 
jambo, &c, I am well, are yon 
well? ho is well, &o., &o. 

Jambo sana, 1 am very well, are 
you v. ry well ? &c. 
Jami ku-, to copulate, to have con- 
nection with. 
Jamii, many, a good collection, the 

mass, the company of, the body of. 
Jamiisha fell-, to gather. 
Jamvi, plur. miijamvi, a coarse kind 

of matting used to cover floors. 
| Jana, yesterday. 

Mwakajana, last year. 
Janna, paradise. 
Janaba, filth, uncleauness. 
Janga, punishment. 
Jangwa, plur. majangwa, a large 

Jani, plur. majani, a leaf. Majani 

is commonly used for any grass 

or herbage. *»<*** U' ,Jn 

Janvia — Jambia. 
■japo-, sign of a tense signifying 
even if. 

Ujapofika, even if yr.u arrive. 
Jarari, the ropes passing through 

the pulley attached to a dhow's 

Jaribu ku-, to try. 
Jarifa, plur. majarifa, a seine or 

drag-net made of European cord- 
age. See Juija. 
Jasho, sweat. 

Kufanya jasho, to sweat. 
Jasiruha ku-, to dare. 
Jasisi ku-, to explore. 
Jasmini or Jasmin, jasmine. The 

flowers are sold in tho streets of 

Zanzibar for their scent. 




Jassi, plur. majassi, the ornament 
in the lobe of the ear. It is 
generally a silver plate about an 
inch and a half across. 

Jathari, take care ! 

Jau-a, a coarse kind of Indian 
Kikombe cha Jawa, a cup of coarse 
Indian ware. 

Jau-a ku-, to be filled with, to be 
full of : used of something 
which ought not, or could not 
be expected to be there. 
Maji yamejawa dudu, the water 
is full of insects ; but mtungi 
umejaa maji, the jar is full of 

Jawabu, an answer, a condition, a 

Jawahir (Ar.), jewels. 

Jaza ku-, to fill. 

Jazi, a common thing, a thing which 
is abundant. 

Jazi ku-, to supply, to maintain. 

Jazilia ku-, to reward. 

Jet Hullo I Well! What now! 
-je ? how ? 

Jehu, an ornament worn by women, 
hanging under the chin. 

Jekundu, red. See -ekundu. 

Jelidi ku-, to bind books. 

Jema, good. See -ema. 

Jemadari, plur. majemadari, a com- 
manding officer, a general. 

Jembamba, narrow, thin. See 

Jembe, plur. majembe, a hoe. 
Jembe la kizungu, a spade. 

Jenaiza or Jeneza, a bier. 

Jenga ku-, to construct, to build. 

Jengea ku-, to build ,for, or ou ac- 
count of. 

Jengo, plur. majengo, a building. 

Majengo, building materials. 

Jenzi ku-, to construct. 

Jepa ku- (A.), to steal. 

Jepesi, light, not heavy. See -epesi. 

Jeraha, a wound. 

Jeribu ku- = Jaribu ku-, to try. 

JeruM ku-, to be wounded. 

Jeshi, plur. majeshi, a host, a great 

Jetea ku-, to be puffed up, to be 
over proud, to rely upon, to 
trust in. 

Jethamu, a leprosy in which the 
fingers and toes drop off, ele- 
phantiasis (?). 

Jeuli or Jeuri, violence. 

Ana jeuli, he attacks people wan- 

Jeupe, white. See -eupe. 

Jeusi, black. See eusi. 

Ji-, a syllable prefixed to subst m- 
tives which make their plural 
in ma-, if they would otherwise 
be of one syllable only. This 
syllable is sometimes inserted 
after a prefix to give the idea 
of largeness, or to prevent con- 
fusion witli someother word. Be- 
fore a vowel it becomes,/- only. 

-ji-, an infix giving a reflective 
meaning to the verb. 
Kupenda, to love. 
Kujipenda, to love oneself. 

Kuponya, to save. 
Jiponye, save yourself, look out ! 

Jia ku-, to come for, by, to. 
Njia uliyojia, the road you came 


Jibini, cheese. 

Jibiwa ku, to receive an answer, be 

Jibu ku-, to answer, to give aa 





Jibwa, plur. m<ijil»ra,an exceedingly 

large dog. 
Jicho, plur. macho, the eye. 

Jicho In maji, a spring of water. 
 Ji/u. plur. majt'/u, ashi S- 
Jifya, plur. ma/ya, one of throe 
>t .nes to support a pot over the 
fire. Ma/ya is the usual word 
in the town, mafiga is commonly 
used in the country. 
Ji nnba hu-, to boast, to praise one- 
Jiinika fcu-, to lie on the side. 
.///,<(, plur. meko, a fireplace, one of 
the stones to rest a pot on (?). 
Jikoni, in the kitchen, among the 
Jilia hu-, to come to a person on 

some business. 
Jilitra, plur. majUiwa, a vice (the 

Jimbi, a cock. 

JinrfA, Allocasia edulis. Both 
leaves and root are eaten : (a sort 
of Arum). 
Jimbo, plur. majimbo, a place a part 

of the country (Old Swahili). 

Kuosha najiml>n, to wash a new- 
born child with water and 
.Tina, plur. majina, a name. 
Jina lako nanif what is your 

Jina la kupangira, a nickname. 
Ji'/vimixi, nightmare. 
Jingi, much. See -ingi. 
Jingine, other. See -ingine. 
Jini, plur. majini, jins, spirits, genii. 
Jiuo, plur. rneno, a tooth, a twist or 
strand of rope, or tobacco, &c. 
Kamba ya meno matatu, a cord of 
thite strands. 

Jioni, evening. 

Jipu, plur. majipu, a boil. 

Jipotoa /.ft-, to dress oneself up 

Jipya, new. See -pya. 
Jirani, a neighbour, neighbours. 
Jiti, quality. 
Jisu, plur. mujisu, a very large 

Jitenga hu-, to get out of the way. 
Jiti, plur. majiti, a tree trunk. 
Jitimai, excessive sorrow. 
Jito, plur. mato = Jicho, the eye (M. ). 
Jitu, plur. maiu or majilu, a gnat 

large man, a savage. 
Jituza hu-, to make oneself mean or 

low. See Tuza. 
Jivari, purchase (of a dhow hal- 
Jivi, a wild hog. 
Jivu = Ji/u. 
Jiwa hu-, to be visited. 
Jiwe, plur. mawe, a stone, a piece 
of stone. Plur. majiwe, of very 
large pieces of stone. 
Jiwe la manga, a piece of freestone. 
Nyumba ya mawe, a stone house. 
Jodari, a kind of fish. 
Jogoi = Jogoo. 
Jagoo, plur. majogoo, a cock. 
Johari, a jewel. 
Joho, woollen cloth, a long loose 

coat worn by the Arabs. 
Joha, plur. majoha, a very large 

Joho, a place to bake pots in. 
Johum, charge, responsibility. 
Jombo, plur. majombo, eui exceed- 
ingly large vessel. 
Jongea hu-, to approach, come near 
to, move. 
Jongea mvulini, move into the 




Jongeltza ku-, to bring near to, to 

Jongeza ku-, to bring near, move 

towards, move. 
Jongo, gout. 

Jongoe, a large kind of fish. 
Jongoo, a millepede. 
Jorjiya, a Georgian, the most valued 

and whitest of female slaves. 
Jororo, soft. See -ororo. 
Josh, a voyage, a cruize. 

= Goshi, Luff! 

Kupata jotojoto, to grow warm. 
Joya, plur. majoya, a cocoa-nut 

which is filled with a white 

spongy substance instead of the 

usual nut and juice. They are 

prized for eating. 
Jozi, Jeozi, or Jauzi, a pair, a pack 

of cards. 
Jozi, a walnut. 
Jua, plur. majua, the sun. 

Jua hitwani, noon. 
Jua ku-, to know how, to under- 
stand, to know about, to know. 

Namjua aliko, I know where he is. 

Najua kiunguja, I understand the 
language of Zanzibar. 

Najua kufua chuma, I know how 
to work in iron. 
Juba, a mortice chisel. 
Juburu ku-, to compel. 
Jugo, ground nuts. 
JuJiudi, an effort, efforts. 

Kufanya juhudi, to exert oneself. 
Juju, plur. majuju, a fool. 
Juku, risk, a word used by traders. 
Jukwari, a scaffold, scaffolding. 
Julia ku-, to know about, see to. 
Julisha ku-, to make to know. 
Juma, Friday, a week. 

Juma a mod, Saturday. 

Juma a pili, Sunday. 

Juma a tatu, Monday. 

Juma a 'nne, Tuesday. 

Juma a tano, Wednesday. 
Juma, small brass nails used for 

Jumaa, an assembly. 
Jumba, plur. majumba, a large house. 
Jumbe, plur. majumbe, a chief, a 

head-man, a prince, a sultan. 
Jumla, the sum, the total, addition 

(in arithmetic). 
Jumlisha ku-, to add up, sum up, 

put together. 
Junta, a kind of matting bag. See 

Jura, a pair; a length of calico, 

about thirty-five yards. 

Haijusi, it is unfitting. 
Jut Kdsam (Hind.), perjury. 
Juta ku-, to be sorry for, to regret. 
Juu, up, the top, on the top. 

Yuko juu, he is up-stairs. 

Juu ya, upon, above, over, on the 
top of, against. 
Juvisha ku-, to make to know, to 

Juvya ku-, to make to know. 
Juya, plur. majuya, a seine or drag- 
net made of cocoa-nut fibre rope. 
Juza, obligation, kindness. 
Juza ku-, to make to know. 
Juzi, the clay before yesterday. 

Mwaka juzi, the year before laet. 

Juzijuzi, a few days ago. 
Juzia ku-, to compel, to have power 

to compel. 
Juzu, necessity. 

Jambo la juzu, a necessary thing. 
Juzu ku-, to oblige, to hold bound, 

to have under an obligation to do 




Jvzuu, a section of the Koran. 
There arc in all thirty, which arc 
often written out separately. All 
tli.' Juzuu together are Khitima 


K is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabs have two fe's, one, the 
kef or kaf, a little lighter than the 
English k; and one, the liahf or 
qaf, made wholly in the throat, and 
landed by many Arabs with a 
bard g. Thcro is a curious catch in 
the throat between the preceding 
1 and the qaf, very hard to 
explain, hut easy enough to imi- 
Although the correct pronun- 
ciation of these two k's is an ele- 
• , it is not necessary nor very 
commonly observed in speaking 

Ki is very commonly pronounced 
chi in Zanzibar, especially by slaves 
of the Nyassa and Yao trihes. 

Kh, the Aral >ic l:ha, occurs only 
in words borrowed from the Arabic, 
and subsides into a simple h so soon 
as the word is thoroughly natu- 
ralize 1. 

Khabari or Ualari, news. 

Kheiri or Heri, well, good, for- 

Ku-, -ka-, a syllable prefixed to or 
inserted in the imperative and 
subjunctive of verbs, with the 
force of the conjunction " and." 
-kctr, the si'_ r n of a pasl t' 

in carrying on a narration ; it 
includes the force of the con- 
junction " and." 

Akaimcambia, and he Baid to 

Nika-ia often contracted into ha-. 
Kaa I11-, to sit, to dwell, to stay, to 
live, to be, to stand, to remain, 
to continue to live in, or at. 

Kukaa kitciko, to sit down, to re- 
main quietly. 
Kaa, plur. makaa, a piece of char- 

Makaa, coals, charcoal, embers. 

Kaa la moshi or Makaa ya moshi. 


Kaa, a crab. 

Kaa makoko, small mud crabs 
with one large claw. 

Kaa la kinwa, the palate. 
Knaka or Kaakaa, the palate. 
Kaa nga ku-, to fry, to braze, to cook 

with fat. 
Kaango, plur. makaango, an earthen 

pot to cook meat in. 
Kaba ku-, to choke, to throttle. 
Kal " I*' knnzu, a sort of lining round 

the neck and a short way down 

the front of a kanzu, put in to 

strengthen it. 
Kabari, a wedge. 
Kabibu, narrow. 
Kabila, a tribe, a subdivision less 

than taifa. 
Kahili ku-, to be before, to be op- 
Kabilisha ku-, to put opposite, to set 

Kabisa, utterly, altogether, quite. 
Kri>,iihi ku-, to give into the hand. 
Kabla, before, antecedently. 

Kabla ya, before (especially of 
Kubuli, acceptance. 
Kahili, pill#w. 
Kaburi, plur. makaburi (pronounced 




by many Arabs Gabri), a grave, 
a tomb. 

Kadamu, a servant, the lowest of 
the three chief men usually set 
over the slaves on a plantation. 
On the Zambezi the man who 
stands at the head of the canoe 
to look out for shoals is called 

Kadiri or Kadri, measure, modera- 
tion, capacity, middling, mode- 
rate, about, nearly, moderately. 
Kndri gani ? how much ? 

Kadiri ya, as, whilst. 

Kadiri ku-, to estimate. 

Kadri = Kadiri. 

Kafara, an offering to avert evil, a 
sacrifice of an animal or thing to 
be afterwards buried or thrown 
away, a charm made of bread, 
sugar-cane, &c, thrown down in 
a cross-way. Any one who takes 
it is supposed to carry away the 
disease, misfortune, &c. 

Kafi, plur. makafi, a paddle. 

Kafiri, plur. makafiri, an infidel, an 
idolater, one who is not a Moham- 

Kafuri, camphor. 

Kaga ku-, to put up a charm to 
protect something. 

Kago, plur. mago, a charm to pro- 
tect what it is fastened to. 

Kagua ku-, to go over and inspect. 

Kahaba, plur. makahaba, a prosti- 

Kahawa, coffee. 

Kahini, plur. makahini, a priest, a 

Kai ku-, to fall down to, embrace 

the knees. 
Kaida, regularity. 
Ya kaida, regular. 

-kaidi, obstinate. 

Kaimu, plur. makaimu, a vice- 
gerent, a representative. 
Kaka, a lemon after it has been 
squeezed, the rind of a lemon, 
the shell of an egg, &c. 
Kaka, a brother {Kiliadimu, see 

Kaka, a disease with swelling of 
the hand and opening into sores. 
Kakakaka, very many. 
Kakamia, hard of heart. 
Kakamia ku, to be longsuffering, 

slow to be affected. 
Kakamuka ku-, to make an effort, 
to strain (as at stool, or in 
Kakawana ku-, to be strong, capable 
of great exertion, well-knit and 
firm in all the muscles. 
Kaki, a very thin kind of biscuit or 

Kalafati ku-, to caulk. 
Kalamika ku-, to prevaricate in 
giving evidence (?), to cry from 
pain caused by medicine (?). 
Kala'mka ku-, to be sharp, to have 

one's eyes open. 
Kala'mkia ku-, to outdo, to be too 

sharp for. 
Kalamu, a pen. The pens for 
writing Arabic are made of 
reed, and the nibs are cut 
Kalamu ya mwanzi, a reed pen. 
Kalamuzi, cunning, crafty. 
Kalasia, little brass pots. 
Kale, old time, formerly. 
-a kale, old, of old time. 
Zamani za kale, old times. 
Hapo kale, once upon a time. 
Kal/ati or Kalafati, caulking. 
-kali, sour, sharp, keen, savage, 


U' AL 


cross. Bevere, fierce. It makes 
kali witli nouuB like nyumba, 
Jun lcali, a hoi sun. 

J\.i//ri /.•>/-, 1" remain for. 
Ku'mhalia tamu, to remain as he 
would wish. 

Kalibu, a mould, a furnace. 

Kama, Kamma, Kana, or Kwarriba, 
as, as if, like, if, supposing. 

Kama ku-, to milk, to squeeze. 

Kamamanga, a pomegranate. 

Kamali,a game played by chucking 
pice into a hole. If only one 
goes in they say " Maliza," and 
the player throws a fiat stone on 
the one that is out. 

Kamasi, mucus from the nose. 
Kufuta kamasi, to blow the nose. 
Siwezi kamasi, I have a cold in 
my head. 

Kamaia leu-, to lay hold of, take, 
seize, clasp. 

Kamatana ku-, to grapple, to seize 
one another. 

Kamaii, balls of wheat-flour lea- 
vened with tembo. 

Kamba, a crayfish. 

Kamba, rope. 
Kamba ulayiti, European or 
hempen rope. 

Kambaa, plur. of ulcambaa, cord, 
string (M.). 
Kambaa, a plaited thong or whip 
kept by schoolmasters and 
overlookers in Zanzibar. 

Kambali, plur. rnakambali, a cat- 
tish living in fresh water. 

Kambarau, a forebrace carried to 
the weather side to steady the 
yard of a dhow. 

Kambi, plur. makambi, a circular 
encampment, a place where a 
caravan has hutted itself in. 


Baba >ra kambo, stepfather. 
Mama wa kambo, stepmother. 

Kume, quite dried up, utterly 

Kami, a bulbous plant with large 
head of red ilowcrs. 

Kamia ku-, to reproach. 

Kujihamia, to reproach oneself. 

Kamili, perfect, complete. 

•Jcamilifu, perfect, wanting nothing. 

Kamililea Am-, to be perfect. 

Kamilishaltu-, to make perfect. 

K<t mini ku-, to press, to press 

Kamusi, an Arabic lexicon. 

Kamwe (M.), not at all, never. 

Kamwi = Kamwe. 

Kana, a tiller. 

Kana, if, as. See Kama. 

Kana ku-, to deny. 

Kanda, plur. makanda, a long nar- 
row matting bag, broader at the 
bottom than at the mouth. 

Kanda ku-, to knead dough, to 
knead the limbs, to shampoo. 

Kandamiza ku-, to press upon. 

Kande, food (Mer.). 

Ka nderinya, a kettle. 

Kandika ku-, to plaster. 

Kandili, plur. mdkandili, a lantern. 

Kando, side, aside. 
Kando ya or Kandnkando y<i, 
beside, along by the side. 

Kanga, a guinea fowl. 

Kanga,a dry stem after the cocoa- 
nuts have been taken off. 

Kanga ku-. 

Kukanga moto, to warm. 

Kangaja, a small mandarin orange. 

Kania ku-, to deny a person. 

Kaniki, dark blue calico. 

Kanisa, plur. rnakanisa, a church. 




Kanislia ku-, to deny, to make to 

Kanji, starch, arrowroot. 
Kanju, plur. makanju, a cashew 

apple (M.). 
Kanju, vulgarly used for Kanzu. 
Kanuni, a thing implied, a neces- 
sary condition, of necessity. 
Kanwa, plur. makamva, the mouth. 
Kanya ku-, to contradict. 
Kanyaga leu-, to tread, to tread 

upon, trample on. 
Kanyassa hu-, to scold. 
Kami, a treasure. 
Kanzu, a long shirt-like garment 
worn both by men and women 
in Zanzibar. Men's kanzus 
are white or of a brown yellow 
colour, with ornamental work 
in red and white silk round 
the neck and down the breast ; 
they reach to the heels. Wo- 
men's hanzus are generally 
shorter, and are made of every 
variety of stuff, frequently of 
satin or brocade, but are always 
bound with red. 
P;.rts of ,a Kanzu (men's) : 
Tao la kanzu, bottom hem. 
Magonqp nene, seams. 
Badani, front and back pieces. 

Also Kimo. 
Taharizi, side pieces. 
Sija/u, pieces turned in at the 
wrists, to receive the darizi. 
Vikwapa, gores. 
Lisani, flap under the opening 

in front. 
Jabali, red line across the back. 
Wialbori, lining at the back of 

the darizi in front. 
Kaaha, lining of the neck and 

Shada, tassel at the neck. 
Kitanzi, loop opposite the tassel 

in front. 
Kazi ya sliingo, the elaborately 
worked border round the 
neck, including — 
Tiki, red sewing over of the 

edge of the neck. 
Mrera, lines of red round 

the neck. 
Viboko, small zigzag orna- 
ment in the middle of the 
Vinara, small spots forming 
the outer edge of the 
Darizi, lines of silk worked 
round the wrists and down 
the front. 
Njuzi (Ar. shararaji), orna- 
ment at the bottom of the 
strip of embroidery in front. 
Mkia wa mjuzi, line of silk 
running up the front from the 
Vipaji, or viguu, four little 
projections on the sides of 
the mjazi. 
Kanzu ya ziki, worked with white 
cotton round the neck instead of 
red silk. 
Kaoleni, one whose words are not. 
to be trusted, a double-tongued 
Kaomiva, calumba root. 
Kapi, plur. makapi, a pulley. 
Kapi, plur. makapi, bran, husks. 
Kapiana ku- (mikono), to shake 

Kapu, plur. makapu, a large basket 

or matting bag. 
Kapwai. a kind of rice. 
Karafati ku- = Kalafati. 




Karafu mayiti, camphor. 

ana, B Bpecial gift of Clod, nn 

answer to a holy man's prayer, 

id honour. 
Karamu, a feast. 
Karani, a secretary, a clerk, a 

Karani, tucks. 
Karara, the woody flower-sheath of 

the cocoa-nul trie 
Karata, playing-cards. 
Karatha, a loan of money. 
Karatasi, paper. 

Karib, near, come near, come in. 
Karibia feu-, to approach, to draw 

near to. 
KarCbiana ku-, to be near to one 

Karibuha, to make to come near, to 

invite in. 
Kari r. a near relative. 

Karibu na or ya, near to, mar. 
Karimu, liberal, generous. 
Karipia ku-, to cry out at, scold. 
Karirisha ku-, to recite. 
Kasa, a turtle. 
Kasarani, sorrow, grief. 
Kasasi, retaliation, revenge, ven- 

Kasha, plur. mahasha, a chest, a 

large box. 
Kashifu kur, to depreciate. 
Kashmir, the ace of spades. 
Kasia, jilur. makasia, an oar. 

Kuvwta makasia, to row. 
Kasiba, a gun barrel. 
Kasidi, intention, purpose. 
Kasi/a, inquisitivenees. 
Kasifu ku-, to be inquisitive. 
Kasiki. a large earthen jar for ghee. 
Kasimele, the juice of grated cocoa- 
nut before water is put to it. 

Tut la kn.-iintle. See Tui, 

Tui la kupopoloa, the same after 
mixing with water, and strain- 
ing again. 
Kasiri, towards the end, late. 
Kasirika ku-, to become vexed. 
Kasirisha ku-, to vex. 
Kasiri ku-, to hurt, vex. 

a --/'. the northerly wind which 
Mows from December till 
Kaskazvni, in a northerly direc- 
Kasoro, less by. 
Kassa, less by. 

Kassa rolx>, three-quarters of a 
Kaxsi. Sec Kiaxsi. 
Kasi, hard, with violence. 
Kirmda kassi, to rush along. 
Kutia kassi, to tighten. 
Kasumba, a preparation of opium. 
Kataa /.»-, to refuse. 
Koto, plur. makata, a ladle made of 
a cocoa-nut, only about a third of 
the shell being removed. A kata 
holds from a quarter to half a pint. 
Kata, a ring of grass or leaves put 
on the head under a water-pot or 
other burden. 
Kata ku-, to cut, clip, divide. 
Kujikata, to cut oneself. 
Kukata Imnanu, to cut obliquely. 
Kukata maneiio, to settle an affair, 

to decide. 
Kukata nakshi, to ornament with 

carving, to carve. 
Kukata tamaa, to despair. 
Njia ya kukata, a short cut, the 
nearest way. 
Kdtaba ku-, to write. 
Katakata ku-, to chop up. 
Katalia ku-, to deny all credence, 
to refuse to be convinced- 




Kutani, flax, thread, string, cotton- 
Kalaza ku-, to prohibit, to deter. 
Katkdlika, in like manner. 
Kathdwakatha, many, many more. 
Watu kathaioakatha, such and 
such people. 
Kathi, plur. makathi, a judge, a 

Kati, inside, middle, the court 

■within a house. 
Katia ku-, to cut for. 
Kulcatiwa, to have cut, or cut out 

for one. 
Ni Iciasi cJiangu kama nalikatiwa 
mimi, it fits as though I had 
been measured for it. 
■^y Katika, among, at, from, in, about. 
Katika implies nearness at least 
at the beginning of the action ; 
it has very nearly the same 
meaning as the case in -ni. 
Katika safari mle, during that 
Katika ku-, to come apart, to be cut, 

to break, to be decided. 
Katikati, in the midst. 

Katikati ya, &c, in the midst of, 
Eatili, a murderous, bloodthirsty 

person, an infidel. 
Katinakati, in the middle. 
Katiti (A.), little. 
Kaiiza ku-, to put a stop to, to 

break off, to interrupt. 
Kato, plur. makato, a cutting, a 

breaking off. 
Katu, a kind of gum chewed with 

Katua ku-, to polish, to brighten. 
Ealuka ku-, to be polished, to be 

Kauka ku-, to get'dry, to dry. 

Sauti imekauka, I am hoarse. 
Kauli, a word. 
Kauri, a cowry. 

Kausha ku-, to make dry, to dry. 
-kavu, dry. It makes kavu with 

nouns like nijumba. 
Kaica, a conical dish-cover of 
plaited straw, often ornamented 
with spangles, &c. 
Kaica, mildew, spots of mould. 
Kufanya kawa, to get mildewed 
or mouldy. 
Kaica ku-, to be delayed, to tarry, 

to be a long while. 
Kawadi (a term of reproach), a bad 

Kawaida, necessity, custom. 
Kawe, a pebble, a small stone (M.). 
Kawia ku-, to delay. 
Kawilia ku-, to loiter about a busi- 
Kawislia ku-, to keep, to delay, to 

cause to stay. 
Kaya, plur. makaya, a pinna, a kind 

of shell-fish. 
Kayamba, a sieve, a sort of rattle. 
Kaza ku~, to fix, to tighten, (of 
clothes) to fit tightly, to go 
hard at anything. 
Kukaza kwimba, to sing louder. 
Kukaza mbio, to run hard. 
Kazana ku-, to fix one another, to 
tighten together, to hold together 
tightly, to be robust. 
Kazi, work, labour, employment, 
Ndio kazi yake, that is what he 

always does. 
Kazi mbi si mtezo micema? Is 
not poor work (as good as) good 
play (mbi for n-ici) ? 
Kazika ku-, to become tight, to 
become fixed. 


K A Z 

KI1 E 

-kazo, nipping, pressing tight. 
-ke, female, f n inine, the weaker. 

A., A - ,/./- (N.). 
a- :o, a lathe, a machine for turn- 
Kt ''a!' ! an exclamation of con- 

Kefyakefya Am-, to tcaze, to put in 
Low Bpirits. 

A fee, a chill. The carpenters in 
Zanzibar always use drills, which 
are much better 6uited to the 
native woods than gimlets are. 
The iron is called kekee, the wood 
in which it is fixed msukano, the 
handle in which it turns Jivu, 
and the bow by which it is turned 

A- hee, a kind of silver bracelet. 

Kdde, plur. makelde, noise, uproar, 

Kern {At.), How much? How many? 

A. mea ku-, to rebuke, to snub, to 

Kenda — Kicenda and Kaenda. 

Kenda, nine. 

Yn kenda, ninth. 

Kendapif for kwenda wapi, going 
where, i.e., where are you going V 

Kmge, a large water-lizard witli 
slender body and long limbs and 

K'-ngea, the blade of a sword, knife, 

A" ngele, a bell. 
Kupiga kengele, to ring a bell. 

A>ra ku-, to worry, to nag at. 

Kerani = Karani. 

Kereketa ku, to irritate the throat, 
to choke. 

Kereza ku-, to saw, to turn, to cut 
a tree half through, aitd lay it 
down, so as to make a fence. 

Kerimu ku-, to feast, to be liberal to. 

Kcring'ende, a dragon-fly, the red- 
legged partridge. 

Kero, trouble, disturbance, uproar. 

Kesha, a watch, a vigil. 

Kesha ku-, to watch, to reumin 
awake, not to sleep. 

Kesheza ku-, to make, to watch, to 
keep awake. 

Kesho, to-morrow. 

Kesho kiilini or kuchwa, the day 
after to-morrow. 

Kete, a cowry. 

A* ti ku-, to sit down, stay, live(M.). 

Kliabari, news, information. 

Khadaa, fraud. 

Khafifu, light, unimportant. 

Kliaini, a traitor. 

Khalds, the end, there is no more. 

Khdlifu ku- or JIalifu ku-, to resist, 
oppose, rebel against. 

Khalisi ku-, to deliver. 

Khami, a chess bishop. 

Khamsi, five. 

Khamxini, fifty. 

Kha mstashara, fifteen, 

KharadaM, mustard. 

Khdrij ku-, to spend. 

Kliashifu ku- = Kashifu ku-. 

Khatari, danger. 

Khati, a note, letter, document, 
memorandum, writing, hand- 

Kliatibu, plur. makhatibu, a secre- 
tary, a preacher. 

Khatima, end, completion. 

Khatimisha ku-, to bring to an end, 

h'h'iliya, fault. Sec llnthja. 

Khazana, a treasure. 

Khema, a tent. 

Kheiri = Heri, well, fortunate. 

n;i ppy. g°od. 




Mtu tea hheiri, a happy roan. 
Kwa hheiri, for good. 
Ni hheiri, I had better. 
Khini hu-, to betray. 
Khitari hu-, to choose. 
Khitima nzima, a complete copy of 

the Koran. See Juzuu. 
Khofisha hu-, to frighten. 
Klwfu, fear, danger. 

Kuwa na hhofu, "i to become 
Kuingiwa na hhofu, \ afraid. 
Kutia hhofu, to frighten. 
Khorj, a pad used as a saddle for 

Khoshi (?), paint, colour. 
KJmbiri hu-, to inform, give news. 
Khusumu, enmity. 
Khutubu hu-, to preach. 
Khuzurungi or Huthurungi, a stuff 
of a brown yellow colour, of which 
the best men's kanzus are made. 
Ki-, a prefix forming a diminutive. 
It becomes ch- before a vowel, 
and in the plural it becomesiu- 
and vy-, or in other dialects zi- 
or ihi: 
Ki- as a prefix also means (es- 
pecially if prefixed to proper 
names), such a sort ; and when 
used alone, words of such a 
sort, i.e. such a language. 
Mavazi ya hifaume, royal robes. 
Viazi vya hizungu,, European 

Kiarabu, Arabic. 
Kiyao, the Yao language. 
Kir or ch-, the adjectival and pro- 
nominal prefix proper to words 
agreeing with substantives of the 
above forms. 
Ki- or ch-, the personal prefix of 
verbs having substantives of the 
above form as their subject. 

-hi-, the objective prefix of verbs 
having substantives of the above 
form as their object. 
-hi-, the sign of that tense which 
expresses a state of things, 
being that, which may be trans- 
lated by the help of the word?, 
if, supposing, when, while, or 
be treated as a present parti- 
ciple in -ing. 
Kihi- may be contracted into hi-. 
Alihuwa ahiogolea, he was bath- 
Ahija, if he comes, or when he 

The syllable -hi- is inserted in 
the past perfect tense to de- 
note a continuing action or 
JYalipo-hi-pendana, when or while 
they loved one another. 
Kia, plur. via, a piece of wood, a 

kind of latch, a bar. 
Kia hu-, to step over. 
Kiada, slowly, distinctly. 
Kitilio, plur. vialio, cross pieces 
put in a cooking pot to prevent 
the meat touching the bottom 
and burning. 
Kianga, the coming out of the sun 

after rain. 
Kiapo, plur. viapo, an ordeal, an 

Kiarabu, Arabic. 

Ya kiarabu, Arabian. 
Kiasi = Kiassi. 
Kiass cha bunduhi, a cartridge. 
Kiassi, measure, moderation. 

Kiassi gani ? or Kassi gani ? How 

much ? 

Kiatu, plur. viatu, a shoe, a sandal. 

Viatu vya mti, a sort of tall 

wooden clog worn in the house, 

x 2 


K I A 


and especially by women. They 
are held on by grasping a & rl 
of button (msuruaki) between 
the great and second toe. 
Kiazi, plur. viazi, a sweet potato. 
Kiazi hikuu, plur. viazi vikuu, a 

Kiazi sena, with white skin. 
Kiazi kindoro, with red skin. 
7v ■/•>/ haluli, a knot of makuti to 
light a pipe with. 

"i, a measure, about a pint 
basin full, a pint basin, about a 
pound ami a half. 
Kibakuli, a kind oimtama. 
Kibali &«-, to prosper. 

<</'/. plur. vibanda, a hut, a 
hovel, a shed. 
Kibanzi, plur. vibanzi, a splinter, a 

\- ry small piece of wood. 
Kibao, plur. ribuo, a shelf, a small 
piece of plank. In Tumbatu a 
chair is called kibao. 
Kibapara, a pauper, a destitute 

person (an insulting epithet). 
Kibarango, a short heavy stick. 
Kibaraza, plur. vibaraza, a small 

stone seat. 
Kibarua, plur. vibarva, a note, a 
ticket. Kibarua is now used 
in Zanzibar to denote a person 
hired by the day, from the 
custom of giving such persons a 
tick* t. to be delivered up when 
they are paid. 
Kiberiti, sulphur. 

Kih'ti. a dwarf. 

Kuku /.'''<- ft, a bantam. 
a, plur. vibia, an earthen pot-lid. 
Kibiongo, plur. vibiongo, a person 

bent by age or iufirmity. 
Kibobice, plur. vibobice, a piece of 

cloth tied round the loins during 
hard work. 

Kibqfu, plur. vibofu, a bladder. 

Kibogotihi, plur. vibogoshi, a small 
skin bag. 

Kiboko, plur. viboko, a hippo- 
potamus. See also KailZU. 

Kibua, a small lish. 

Kibueta, plur. ;■/ ".»/. to, a box. 

Kibula, the k<l,ln, the point to 
which men turn when they pray. 
Among the Mohammedans the 
kibula is the direction in which 
BI( cca lies, which is in Zanzibar 
nearly north. Hence kibula is 
sometimes used to mean the 

Kibula kit-, to point towards, to be 
opposite to. 

Kibumba, plur. vibumba, a small 
paper box or case of anything. 

Kiburi, pride. 

Ki'niripembe, a native bird. 

Kicliaa, lunacy. 
Mwenyi kicliaa, a lunatic. 

Kichaka, plur. vichaka, a thicket, a 
heap of wood or sticks. 

Kichala, plur. vichala, a bunch. 
Kichala cha mzabibu, a bunch of 

Kicheko, plur. vickeko, a laugh, a 

Kichikichi, plur. vichikichi, the 
small nuts contained in the fruit 
of the palm-oil tree. 

Kichilema, plur. vickilema, the 
heart of the growing part of 
the cocoa-nut tree, which is 
eaten as a salad, and in various 

Kicho, plur. vicho, fear, a fear. 

Kichocheo, the act of pushing wood 
further into the fire, an instru- 




ment for doiDg it, exciting words 

to stir up a quarrel. 
Kichodhoro, plur. vichoclwro, a very 

narrow passage, such as is gene- 
rally left between the houses in 

Kichwa, plur. vichica, for Kitwa, the 

Kiddka, plur. vidaka, a recess in 

the wall. 
Kidaka, plur. vidaka, a cocoa-nut 

when just formed. 
Kidaka tonge, the uvula. 
Kidanga, a very small fruit, before 

it gets any taste. 
Kidari, the chest : Mdari is used of 

both men and animals, kifua of 

men only. 
Kidau, plur. vidau, a small vessel. 

Kidau cha wino, an inkstand. 
Kidevu, plur. videcu, the chin. 
Kidimbwi, plur. vidimbwi, a pool 

left on the beach by the falling 

Kidinga popo, the dengue fever. 
Kidogo, plur. vidogo, a little, a very 

little, a little piece, a morsel, a 


Kupiga kidoko, to click with the 
Kiddie, plur. indole, a finger, a toe. 

Kidoie cha gumba, the thumb. 
Kidonda, plur. vidonda, a sore, a 

small sore, a wound. 
Kidonge, plur. vidonge,& very small 

round thing, a lump in flour, a pill. 
Kidoto, plur. vidoto, a small piece of 

cloth tied over a camel's eyes 

while turning an oil press. 
Kielezo, plur. vitlezo, a pattern, 

something to make something 

else clear. 

Kievu (A.) = Kidevu. 

Kiendelezo, progress. 

Kifa, plur. vifa, the nipple of a gun. 

Kifa uwongo, the sensitive plant. 

Kifa fa, epilepsy, fits. 

Kifafa, plur. vifafa, sparks and 

crackling of damp firewood. 
Kifani, plur. vifani, the like, a 

similar thing. 
Kifano, plur. vifuno, a likeness. 
Kifaranga, plur. vifaranga, a 

chick, a very small chicken. 
Kifaru, plur. vifaru, a rhinoceros, 

a small rhinoceros. 
Kifaume, royalty, a royal sort. 

Ya kifaume, royal. 
Kifiko, plur. vifiko, arrival, point of 

arrival, end of journey. 
Kifu ku-, to suffice. 
Kifu ndugu, the os coccygis, the 

bone which the Mohammedans 

say never decays. 
Kifua, plur. vifua, the chest, the 

Kifufu, plur. vifufu, the shell of the 

cocoa-nut (M.). 
KifuJeo, plur. vifuko. a little bag, a 
pocket, a purse. 

Kifuko cha kutilia fetha, a purse. 
Kifumbu, plur. vifumbu, a small 

round basket or bag for squeezing 

scraped cocoa-nut in to get out 

the tui. 
Kifumbo, plur. vifumbo, a very large. 

kind of matting bag. 
Kifundo cha mguu, the ankle. 
Kifundo cha mkono, the wrist. 
Kifungo, plur. vifungo, anything 

which fastens, a button, prison. 

imprisonment, a kind of rice. 
Kifungua, an unfastener, an opener. 

Kifungua kanica, early food, 

K I F 


Ki/ungua wZonj/o, a preseni made 
by the bridegroom to the htingu 
of the bride ln-forc she allows 

him to enter the bride's room, 

on the occasion of his first 
visit to her. 
Kifuniho, plur. vi/uniko, a lid, a 

Kiftto, plur. vifuo, a stick stuck in 
the ground to lip the husk off 
cocoa-nuts with. 
Kifurushi, something tied up in the 

corner of a cloth 
Kifusi, rubbish, rubbish from old 

Kifuu, plur. vifuu, a cocoa-nut 

Kigaga, plur. vigaga, a Bcab. 
Kigai, plur. vigai, a piece of broken 

pottery or ^lass, a potsherd. 
Kiganda cha pili, the two of cards. 
Kigaogao, the Peuiba name for a 
chameleon, meaning changeable. 
Kigogo = Kijego. 

Kigerenyenza, plur. vigerenyenza, a 
very small piece of broken pottery 
or glass, a splinter. 
K /;/-'• f/< /',', plur. ri'1'ltijrle, a shrill 
trilling scream much used as a 
sign of joy, especially on the 
occasion of a birth. 
Kigogo, a little block of wood. 
Kigogo cha Jcushonea, a small 
ol'long piece of wood used by 
Kigongo, the hump of a humpbacked 
Mwenyi kigongo, a humpback. 
Kigono, plur. vigono (Yao), a sleep- 
ing place. 
Kigotiho, a bend. 

Kigosho cha mlcono, an arm that 
cannot be straightened. 

Kigugumizi, stammering, a stammer- 

Kigvlu, lame. 

Kigunni, plur. vigunni, an oblong 

matting bag of the kind in which 

dates are brought to Zanzibar. 
Kigunzi, the day before the Sihu a 

Kigwe, plur. rig we, a plaited cord. 

reins, a string of beads, a piping 

on the edge of a dress. 
Kiharusi, cramp. 
Kiherehere (cha moyo), trepidation, 

palpitation (of the heart). 
Kihindi, the Indian sort, an Indian 

Ya kihindi, Indian. 
Kihoro, sorrow at a loss, fright, 

Kiini, kernel, the heart of wood. 

Kiini cha yayi, the yolk of an 

Kiinimacho, a conjuror. 
Kiisha or Kisha, afterwards, next, 

this being ended. 
Kijakazi, plur. vijakazi, a slave girl. 
Kijamanda, plur. vijamanda, a 

small long-shaped box commonly 

used to carry betel and areca- 

nut in. 
Kijana, plur. vijana, a youth, a 

young man, a complimentary 

epithet, a boy or girl, a son or 

Kij'iluba, plur. vijaluba, a small 

metal box. 
Kijamha, plur. vijamba, a small rock. 
Kijaraha, plur. vijaraha, a small 

Kijaraha cha booni, sores on the 
penis, syphilis. 
Kijego, plur. vijego, a child which 

cuts its upper teeth first. They reckoned unlucky, and among 




the wilder tribes are often killed. 

Applied by way of abuse to bad 

Kijiboho, plur. vijiboko, a little 

Kijicho, envy, an envious glance. 
Kijiguu, plur. vijiguu, a little leg. 
Kijiko, plur. vijiko, a small spoon, 

a spoon. 
Eijiti, plur. vijiti, a little tree, a 

bush, a shrub, a small pole, a 

piece of wood. 
Kijito, plur. vijito, a small stream, 

a brook. 
Kijito (M.) = Kijicho. 
Kijitwa or Kijichwa, plur. vijitica, 

a little head. 
Kijici, thievish. 
Kijogoo, plur. mjogoo, a mussel, a 

kind of shell-fish. 
Kijoli, the slaves, belonging to one 

Kijomba, Swahili (M.). 
Kijongo = Kiijongo, a humpback. 
KijuJiuu, plur. vijukuu, a great- 
Kijumbe, plur. vijumbe, a go- 
between, a match-maker. 
Kijumba, plur. vijumba, a little 

house, a hovel. 
Kikaango, plur. vikaango, a sma 1 ! 

earthen pot for cooking with oil 

or fat. 
Kikaka, over-haste. 
Kikale, old style, the antique. 

Ya kikale, of the ancient kind, 
antique, of old times. 
Kikao, plur. vikao, a seat, sitting, 

Kikapu, plur. vikapu, a basket, a 

matting bag. 
Kikaramba, a very old person (dis- 

Kikisa ku-, to understand half of 
what is said. 
Eutti Mi yauik/kisa,I know some 
of the words, but not all. 
Kiko, plur. viko, a tobacco pipe, a 
pi] e. The native pipes consist 
of a vessel half full of water with 
two stems, one leading to the 
bowl and one to the mouthpiece : 
the water vess 1 is properly the 
kiko. See bori, digali, malio, and 
Kikoa, plur. vikoa. 

Kula kikoa. to eat at the expense 
of each one in turn. 
Kikofi, the inside of the fingers. 
Kiknhozi, a cough. 
Kikoi. plur. vikoi, a white loin- 
cloth with coloured stripes near 
the border. 
Kikombe, plur. vikombe, a cup. 
Kikombo, a little crooked thing. 
Kikomo, plur. vikomo, end, end of 
journey, arrival. 
Kikomo cha uso, the brow, es- 
pecially if prominent. 
Kikondoo. See Koncloo. 
Kikongwe, plur. rikongwe, an ex- 
tremely old person, a feeble old 
Kikomo, plur. vikono, the prow of a 

small native vessel. 
Kikonyo, plur. vikonyo, flower and 
fruit stalks, the stalks of cloves. 
Kikorombwe, a cry made into tke 

hand by way of signal, a call. 

Kikosi or Ukosi, the nape of the neck. 

Kikoto, plur. vikoto (M.), a plaited 

thong or whip carried by an 

overlooker and used in schools. 

Kikozi, plur. vikozi, a detachment, 

a band, company, division. 
Kikuba, plur. vikuba, a small packet 


K I K 

K I M 

of aromatic leaves, &c, worn in 
the dn sa by women. It is com- 
post '1 of n ku -/'. sprinkled with 
dalia, and tied up with a strip of 
the mJcadi. 

Kikuku, plur. vikuku, a bracelet, an 
arm rinpr. 
Kikuku cha kupandia fra*i, a 

Kikunazi (?), labia (obscene). 

Kit: umbo. 
Kupiga Jcikumbo, to push aside, 
to shove out of tlio way. 

Kiluta. plur. ril;utn. a small stone 

Kikwapa, the perspiration from the 
armpit. See also Eanzu. 

Kilu-i. plur. vikwi, a thousand, ten 

Kilango, a narrow entrance. 
Kilango cha bahari, straits. 
Kilango cha jalia, the gate of 

A'//. , that, yonder. 

I\'i'> ji, a round flat wheaten cake. 

KUele, plur. vilele, a peak, a sum- 
mit, a pointed top, a point' I 
shoot in a tree or plant. 

Kilema, plur. vilema, a deformed 
Si ri via kucheka kilema, it is 
wrong to laugh at one who is 

KUemba, plur. vUemba, a turban, a 
customary present at the comple- 
tion of a job and on many other 

Kill :iii>> t-grandson. 

Kileo, plur. trileo, intoxication, an 
intoxicating thing. 

Kilete, plur. vilete, metal rowlocks, 

V</' i ■< = Kid* in. 

Kili/u, plur. rili/u, the cloth-like 

envelope of the young cocoa-nut 

Kilima, plur. vilima, a hill, arising 

ground, a mound of earth. 
Kilimbili, the wrist. 
Kilimia, the Pleiades (?). 
Kilimo, cultivation, the crop planted. 

Kilimo cha nini) what is the 
crop to be ? 
Kilindi, plur. vilindi, the deeps, 

deep water. 
Kilinga popo (?), rheumatism. 
Kilinge cha maneno, cha uganga, 

speaking in a dark manner not 

generally understood. 
KUio, plur. r/7/o, a cry, weeping. 
Kiliza lni-, to chink money. 
/v"///(f or Kulla, every. 

Killa in ndapo, wherever I go, or, 
every time I go. 
Kiluthu, velvet. 
Kliuii, a monkey. 
Kiimi, price, measure. 
Kimaji, damp. 
Kimanda, an omelette. 
Kimandu, the piece of wood put on 

behind the sill and lintel of a 

door to receive the pivots on 

which it turns. 
Kimanga, a small kind of grain. 
Kimanga, of the Arab sort, fc-'ee 


Chui kimango, a full-grown leo 
Kimashamiba, belonging to the 
nitry. a country dialect. 

Ya kimashamba, countrifii d. 
Kimbaumbau, a chameleon. 
Kimbia /./<-, to run away, to flee. 
Kimbiza /,■»-, to make to run away, 

to put to flight. 



3 9 

Kimbizia leu-, to make to run away 

Kimerima. See Mer*ma. 
Kimeta, a sparkling, a glitter. 
Kimetimeti, plur. vimetimeti, a fire- 


Kimia, plur. vimia, a circular cast- 

Kimio, the uvula, an enlarged 

Kimo, it is or wns inside. 

Kimoja, one. See Moja. 

Kimporoto, nonsense. 

Kimurimuri, plur. vimurimuri, a 

Kimvunga, a hurricane. 

Kimwa ku-, to be tired, disgusted, 
to be cross at having anything to 

Kimwondo, plur. vimwondo, a mis- 
sile, a shooting star, because they 
are said to be thrown by the 
angels at the Jins. 

Kimya, silence, perfect stillness. 
Mtu wa Mmyakimija, a still man. 

Kina sisi, people like us. 
Makasha haya ya kina Abdallah, 
these chests belong to Abdal- 
lah's people. 

Kina, plur. vina, a verse, the final 
syllable of the lines, which is the 
same throughout the poem. 

Kinai ku-, to be content without, 
to withhold oneself from desiring, 
to be self-satisfied, to revolt at, 
to nauseate. 

Kinaisha ku-, to revolt, to make 
unable to eat any more, to take 
away the desire of. 

Kinamizi or Kiinamizi, stooping to 
one's work. 

Kinanda, plur. vinanda, a stringed 

instrument, applied to nearly all 
European instruments. 

Kinara, plur. vinara, a little tower, 
a candleslick. See also Kanzu. 

Kinaya, self-content, insolence. 

Kinayi ku- = Kinai ku-. 

Kinda, plur. makinda, a very young 
bird, the young of birds. 

Kindana ku-, to object to, to stand 
in the way of. i )-'»*-fv<-\ 

Kinena, the abdomen. 

Kinga, plur. -vinga, a brand, a half- 
burnt piece of firewood. 

Kinga, a stop, a limit put to a 

Kinga ku-, to put something to catch 
something, to guard oneself, to 
ward a blow. 
Kukinga mvua, to put something 
to catch the rainwater. 

Kingaja, plur. vingaja, a bracelet of 

Kingalingali, on the back (of falling 
or lying). 

Kingama ku-, to lie across. 

Mti umekingama njiani, a tree 
lies across the road- 

Kingamhha ku-, to block, to st; ip, 
to spoil. 

Kinge, too little. 

Chakula kinge, too little food. 

Kingojo, a watch, time or place of 

Kingozi, the old language of Me- 
linda, the poetical dialect, diffi- 
cult and ill-understood language. 

Kingubwa, the spotted hyaena. 

Kinika ku-, to be certain or ascer- 
tained about a person. 

Kukata kinjunjuri, to shave all 
the hair except one long tuft. 

Kinono, plur. vinono, a futling, 



K I P 

Kiuoo, phir. vinoo, a whetstone. 

Embe kinoo, a small yellow kind 
of piango. 

Kiuu, plur. vinu, a wooden mortar 
for pounding and for cleaning 
com, an oil-mill, a mill. 
Kinu cha Tnishindihia, a mill for 

pr< ssing oil. 
Kinu elm moshi, a steam mill. 

Kinubi, plur. vinvbi, a harp. 
J'.i Kinuhi, Nubian. 

Kinwa = Kinywa. 

Kinwa, plur. vimra, a mouth. 

Kinwa mchuzi, the imperial, the 
place where the imperial grows. 

Kinyaa, filth, dung. 

Kinyago, plur. vinyago, a thing to 
frighten people, such as a mock 
ghost, &c, &c. 

Kiiajegere, a small animal, a skunk. 

Kinyemi, pleasant, good. 

Kinyenye/u, a tickling, a tingling. 

Kinyezi. See Kinyaa. 

Kinyi, having. See -inyi. 

Kinyonga, plur. vinyonga, a chame- 

Kinyozi, plur. vinyozi, a barber, a 

Kinyuma = Kinyume. 

Kinyume, afterwards. 

Kinyume, going back, shifting, 
alteration, an enigmatic way of 
speaking, in which the last syl- 
lable is put first. See Appendix I. 

Kinyumba, a kept mistre.-s. 

Kimjunya, plur. vinyunya, a kind 
of cake, a little cake made to try 
the quality of the flour. 

Kingwa, plur. vinyua, a drink, a 

Kinywaji, plur. vinywaji, a beve- 
rage, a usual beverage. 

Kinza fair, to contradict, deny. 
Kioga, plur. vioga, a mushroom, 
Kiohosi, plur. vioJcosi, a reward for 

Qnding a lost thing and returning 

it to the owner. 
Kioja, plur. vioja, a curiosity. 
Kionda, a taster. 

Kionda mtuzi, the imperial, the 
place where the imperial grow.-* 
Kiongozi, plur. viongozi, a leader, a 

guide, a caravan guide. 
Kiongwe, plur. viongwe, a donkey 

from the mainland; they arc re- 
puted very hard to manage. 
Kioo, plur. vioo, glass, a gloss, a 

looking-glHSs, a piece of glass, — 

a fish-hook (M.). 
Kiopoo, a pole or other instrument 

to get tilings out of a well, &c, 

Kiosha miguu, a present made by 

the bridegroom to the leungu of 

(he bride on the occasion of his 

first visit. 
Kioto, plur. viota, a hen's nest, a 

laying place, a bird's nest. 
Kofo = Kiota. 

Kupiga lioice, to scream, cry for 
Kiowevit, a liquid. 
Kior.ii, putridity. 
Kipa mlono, a present mado by the 

bridegroom to the bride when he 

first sees her face. 
Kipan, plur. vipaa,& thatched roof, 
the long sides of a roof. 

Kipaa cha mbele, the front slope 
of the roof. 

Kipaa cha nyuma, the back slope 
of the roof. 
Kipaje, a kind of mlama. 




Kipaji, a kind of cosmetic. See 

also Kanzu. 
Kipahu, plur. vipaku, a spot or 

mark of a different colour. 
Kipambo, adornment. 
Kipande, plur. vipande, a piece, an 
instrument, a small rammer for 
beating roofs. 

Vipande vya kupimia, nautical 

Kipande kilichonona, a piece of 
Kipanga, a large bird of prey, a 

Kipangozi, a sluggish incurable 

sore on a horse or ass. 
Kipara, plur. vipara, a shaved place 

on the head. 
Kipele, plur. vipele, a pimple. 
Kipendi, a darling, a favourite. 
Kipenu, plur. vipenu, a lean-to, the 

side cabins of a ship. 
Kipenyo, a small place where some- 
thing passes through. 
Kipepeo, plur. vipepeo, a fan for 

blowing the fire, a butterfly. 
Kipeto, plur. vipeto, a jacket. 
Kipi or Kipia, a cock's spur. 
Kipigi, a rainbow (?). 
Kipila, a curlew. 

Nyele za Jcipilipili, woolly hair. 
Kipindi, a time, a period of time, an 

Kipindi chote, at every period. 

Kipindi cha aththuuri, the hour 
of noon. 

Kufa hipinda, to die a natural 
death, as cattle, &c. 
Kipindupindu, cholera. 
Kipingwa, plur. vipingwa, a bar. 
Kipini, plur vipini, a hilt, a haft, 

a handle of the same kind as a 
knife handle, a stud-shaped orna- 
ment worn by women in the nose, 
and sometimes in the ears also. 

Kipimo, plur. vipimo, a measure. 

Kipofu, plur. vipo/u, a blind per- 

Kipolepole, a butterfly. 

Kipooza, paralysis. 

Kipukuba, dropped early, cast fruit, 

Kipukute, Kipukuse = Kipukuba. 
Ndizi kipukute, little bananas. 

Kipuli, plur. vipuli, a dangling 
ornament worn by women in the 
ear; they are often little silver 
crescents, five or six round the 
outer circumference of each ear. 

Kipunguo, plur. vipunguo, defect, 

Kipupwe, the cold season (June and 

Kipwa, plur. vipwa, rocks in the sea. 

Kiraka, plur. viraka, a patch. 

Kiri ku-, to confess, accept, acknow- 
ledge, assert. 

Kiriba, plur. viriba, a water-skin. 

Kirihi ku-, to provoke. 

Kirihika ku-, to be provoked, to be 

Kirihisha ku-, to make offended, to 

Kirimba, a cage for wild animals, 
a meat-safe. 

Kirimu ku-, to feast. 

Kirithi hu-, to borrow, specially to 
borrow money. 

Kiroboto, plur. viroboto, a flea. The- 
Hathramaut soldiers are nick- 
named Viroboto, and their song 
as they march is parodied by, 
Kiroboto, Kiroboto, tia moto, tia 


K I E 


Kitvkanjia, a kind of mouse Found 

in Zanzibar. 
Eirukia, a kind of parasite growing 

on fruit tr« es. 
Kiruu, Mind rage. 
7\7.«<, plur. rtsa, a cause, a reason, 
a short tale. 
Visa vingi, many affairs, a com- 

plicated bus ness. 
Kiga cha koko, kernel of a stone. 
Kisaga, a measure equal to two 

Kisahani, plur. visahani, a plate, a 

small duh. 
Kisanduku, plur. vi>andu!;u, a small 

chest, a box. 
Kisarani, a gree ly fellow, a miser. 
Kisasi, revenge, retaliation. 
Kisliada, a tailless kite. 
Kisliaka, plur. vi<halca, a thicket. 
Kisheda,a bunch of grapes, a papi • 

fluttering in the air like a kite. 
Kishenzi, of the wild people. 

Lugha ya kisheuzi, a language of 
the interior. 
J\'i.<hi, a cli< ss-queen. 
Kishigino = Kisigino. 
Kishinda, a small residue left in a 
place or inside something, as 
in a water-jar less than half 
Fishinda vingi pi umr-tia? How 
many portions (of grain) have 
you put (in the mortar, to be 
Kishindo, noise, shock. 
KUliogo, the buck of the head and 
Akupaye kishogo si mwenzio, one 
who turns his bac ; upon you 
,<, ^Iftotvourjnnd. 
Ktshwara, a loop of rope to haul by 
in dragging a vessel into or out 

of the water, a loop in the side , I 

a dhow to puss an oar through 

for rowing. 
Kisi /.'(-, to guess. 
Kukisi tanga, to shift over a soil 

to the opposite Bide. 
Kisi, Kei p her away ! 
Kisibao, plur. visibao, a waistooat 
with or without sleeves; they 
are very commonly worn in 

Kisibao cha mikono, a sleeved 

Kisibao cha vikapa or vikwapa, a 
sleeveless waistcoat. 
Kisibu (?), a nickname. 
Kisigino or Kishigino, the elbow. 

Kisigino cha mguu, the heel. 
Kisiki, plur visiki, a log. Used in 

sialic language for a prostitute. 
Kisiki cha mvua, a rainbow (M.). 
Kisima, plur. visima, a well. 
Kisind (obscene), the clitoris. 
Kisitiri, a screen, screen-wall, 

Kisiwa, plur. visiwa, an island. 
Kisiyangu [Tumbatu] = Kizingiti. 

Kisiwiso cha choo chauma, consti- 
Kishoka, plur. vishoka, a hatchet, a 

small axe. 
Kishvbaka, plur. vishuhaka, a small 

recess, a pigeon-hole. 
Kisliungi, plur. vishungi, the ends of 

the turban cloth, lappets. 
Kisma, a part. 
Kisombo, a paste made of beans, 

171 '//u;/o, &e. 
Kisongo, plur. visongo, a piece of 

wood to twist cord or rope with. 
Kisoze, a very small bird with back 

blue, and breast yellow. 




Kisu, plur. visit, a knife. 

Kisua, a suit of clothes. 

Kisugidu, plur. visugulu, a mound 
of earth, an ant-hill. 

Kisungura, plur. visungura, a little 
rabbit or hare (?). 

Kisunono, gonorrhoea. 

Kisunono cha damu, with passing 

Kisunono cha uzaha, with passing 

Kisunono cha mkojo, with constant 

Kisusuli, a whirlwind (?) a boy's 
kite (?). 

Kisusi, plur. visusi, the hip of a 
roof. The main roof starts from 
the long front and hack walls, 
and is called the paa ; small 
roofs start from the end walls, 
and are carried to the ridge under 
and within the paa : these are 
the visusi. 

Kisuto = Kisutu. 

Kisutu, plur. visutu, a large piece 
of printed calico, often forming 
a woman's whole dress, a cover- 

Kiswa = Kisa. 

Kitabu, plur. vitahu, a book. 

Kitagalifa, a small matting bag for 
halua, &c. 

Kitakizo, plur. vitakizo, the head 
and foot-pieces of a bedstead. 

Kitako, sitting. 

Kukaa kitako, to sit down, to re- 
main in one locality. 

Kitale, plur. vitale, a cocoa-nut just 
beginning to grow. 

Kitali, sailcloth. 

Kitalu, a stone fence, a wall. 

Kitambaa, plur. vitambaa, a small 
piece of cloth a rag. 

Kitambaa cha kufutia mhono, a 

Kitambaa chameza, a tablenapkin. 
Kitambi cha kilemba, a piece of stuff 

for making a turban. 
Kitambo, a short time. 
Kitamiri, a kind of evil spirit. 
Kitana, plur. vitana, a small comb. 
Kitanda, plur. vitanda, a bedstead, 

a couch. 
Kitanga, plur. vitanga, a round mat 
used to lay out food upon. 
Kitanga cha mhono, the palm of 

the hand. 
Kitanga cha mzani, a scale pan. 
Kitanga cha pepo, the name of a 
Kitani, flax, linen, string. 
Kitanzi, plur. vitanzi, a loop, a 

Kitaowa, the kind proper for a 
Amevaa nguo za kitaowa, he is 
dressed like a devotee. 
Kitapo, plur. vitapo, a shivering, a 

Kitara, plur. vitara, a curved sword. 
Kitara, an open shed in a village, 
where people sit to talk and trans- 
act business. 
Kitasa, a box lock, a lock. 
Kitatangi, a cheat. Also a very 
bright-coloured sea-fish with 
spines, a sea-porcupine. 
Kitawi, a kind of weed. 
Kitawi, plur. vitawi, a branch, a 

bough, a bunch. 
Kite, feeling sure, certainty, faith- 
fully (?), affection. 
Kana kite haye, he has no affec- 
Kupiga kite, to cry or groan from 
inward pain. 


K I T 


Kitefiefu, Bobbing before or after 

Kitefute, the oheek, the part of the 

face over the chuek-bone. 
Kit- kit, a tosser. 
Kit' tribe, a lisp. 
Kit' mbwi, a thread of flax or fine 

K'ti nihiwili, plur. vitendawili, an 

enigma. The propounder says 

Kitendawili; tlie rest answer 

Tega; he then propounds his 

Kitendo, plur. vitendo, an action. 
Kit' ugenya, a small bird spotted 

with white, yellow, ami red. 
Kileo, plur. viteo, a small sifting 

KUeeo, a vase. 

Kitewe, loss of the use of the legs. 
K.thiri ku-, to grow large, in- 

Umekithiri kuzaa, it has borne 
more than before. 
KM, plur. viti, a chair, a Beat. 

KM cha frasi, a saddle. 
Kitimbi, plur. vitimbi, an artific ■, 

an artful trick. 
Kitinda miniba, the last child a 

woman will hear; 
Kitindi. See Vitindi. 
Kiti-ho, piur. vititho, fear, a terrify- 
ing thiug. 
Kiliti, plur. vititi, a hare, a rabbit, 

a little thiug (ML). 
Kititi, to the full, entirely, alto- 

irether, all at once. 
Kititi cha bahari, the depths of the 

Kititia, a chill's windmill. 
Kitiwanga, chicken-pox. Tbe 

natives say an epidemic of lciti- 

xranga, always precedes one of 

small-pox. Also tititranga, and 

perhaps trie ya hionnga. 
Kit", plur rito, a precious stone. 
Kitoha (M.) = Kishoka, 
Kitoma, plur. vitoma, a small round 

Kitoma, orchitis. 
Kitone, plur. vitone, a drop. 
Kitonga, hydrocele (?). 
Kitongqji, a village. 

Kutezama kitongotongo, to glance 
at contemptuously with halt- 
shut eyes. 
Kitoria, a kind of edible fruit. 
Kitotco (M.) - Kichocheo. 
Kitnto, plur. vitoto, a little child. 
Kitovu, plur. vitovu, the navel. 
Kitoioeo, plur. vitoioeo, a relish, a 

something to be eaten with the 

rice or other vegetable food, such 

as meat, fish, curry, &c. 
Kitu, plur. vitu, a thing, especially 
a tangible thing. 

Si Idtu, nothing, worthless. 
Kitua, plur. vitua, the shade of a 

tree, &c~ 
Kituko, startledness, fright. 
Kitukuu, plur. vitukuu, a great 

Kitulizo, plur. vilulizo, a soothing, 

quieting thing. 
Kitumbua, plur. vitumhua, a sort •! 

cake or fritter made in Zanzibar. 
Kitunda, plur. vitunda, a ch bb 

Kit'indwi, a water-jar [Tumbafu]. 
Kitunga, plur. vitunga, a small 

round basket. 
Kitungu (?) a small round earthen 

Kitungvle, plur. vitunguh, a hare or 
rabbit (?). 




Kitunguu, plur. vitunguu, an onion. 

Kitunguu somu, garlic. 

Kitungwa, a small bird like a 


Kituo, plur. viluo, an encampment, 

a resting-place, a putting down. 

Hana kituo, he is always gadding 


Kitupa, plur. vitupa, a little bottle, 

a vial. 

.Bahari ya kitutia, a boiling sea, 
deep and rough. 
Kitwa, plur. vitwa, the head. 
Kitwangomba, a somersault. 
Kitwakitwa, topsy-turvy. 
Kitwana, plur. vitwana, a slave boy. 
Kiu, thirst. 

Kuwa na kiu, to be thirsty. 
Kuona kiu, to feel thirst. 
Kiua, plur. viua, an eyelet hole. 
Kiuka ku-, to step over. 
Kiukia = Kirukia. 
Kiuma, plur. viuma. a fork. 
Kiuma mbuzi, a small dark-coloured 

Kiumbe, plur. viumbe, a creature, 

created thing. 
Kiumbizi, a peculiar way of beating 
the drum ; the people sing the 
while, Slieitani ndoo tupigane 
Kiunga, plur. viunga, a suburb, the 
outskirts of a town. 
Kiungani, near the town, in the 
Kiwigo, plur. viungo, a joint, — an 

acid thing put into the mchuzi. 
Kiunguja, the language of Zanzibar. 
Kiungwana, the free or gentlemanly 
Ya kiungwana, civilized, cour- 
teous, becoming a free man. 

MicanamJce wa kiungwana, a lady. 
Kiungulia, plur. viungulia, an eruc- 
tation, a breaking of wind. 
Kiuno, plur. viuno, the loins. 
Kiunza, plur. viunza, the plank laid 
over the body before the grave 
is filled in. (Coffins are never 
Kiuwaji, murderous, deadly. 
Kivi, the elbow. 
Kivimba, plur. vivimba, the girth of 

a tree, the circumference. 
Kivimbi, a small swelling. 
Kivuko, plur. vivuko, a ford, a ferry, 

a crossing-place. 
Kivuli, plur. vivuli, a shadow, a 

shade, a ghost. 
Kivumbazi, a strong-smelling herb 
said to scare mosquitoes : wash- 
ing in water in which it has been 
steeped is said to be a preventive 
of bad dreams. 
Kivumbo, lonely (?). 
Kivumi, plur. vivumi, a roaring, 

bellowing sound. 
Kivyao = Kizao. 
Kivyazi, birth. 
Kiwambaza, plur. viwambaza, a 

mud and stud wall. 
Kiwambo, something strained 
tightly over a frame, like the 
skin of a drum, a weaving frame. 
Kiwanda, plur. viwandn, a work- 
shop, a yard, a plot of land. 
Kiwango, plur. viivango, a number, 
position in the world, duties be- 
longing to one's position, a man's 
Kiwanja = Kiwanda. 
Kiwao, a great feast [Tumbatu]. 
Kiwavi, plur. viwavi, a nettle, a sea- 
Kiwavu chana (A.), ribs. 

K I W 


Kiwe, plur. ntM. 

EttM eAa uso, a small kiud of 
j'inipK- on the face. 
Kiwele, an udder. 
Kiwemhi . a pock< t-knife. 
Kivoeo (M.), thigh, lap. 
A'/>. /< . loss of t lie use of the legs. 
Kiwi, moon-blindness, a dazzle. 

Kufanya kiwi, to dazzle. 
A"/"/, plur. vivoi, a small stick, a 

piea of \\ uod, a bar. 

KhoiJco cha rrikono, the wrist. 

Kiioilco cha mguu, the ankle. 
Kiwiliwili, the human trunk, the 

body without the limb3. 
Kiyama, the resurrection. 
Kiyarribaza, a bulkhead, partition 

Also = Kiwambaza. 
Kiyambo, neighbourhood, a village. 
Kiza or G«:a, darkness. 

Kutia kiza, to darken, to dim. 
Kizao, plur. t-tzao, a native, one 

born in the place. 
Kizazi, plur. vizazi, a generation. 
Kizee, diminutive of mzee, gene- 
rally used of an old woman. 
Kizibo, plur. vizibo, a stopper, a 

Kizio, plur. vizio, half of an orange, 

cocoa-nut, &c. 
Kizimbi, plur. vizimbi, a cage. 
Kizin la, a virgin. 
Kizinia, plur. vizinga, a large log 

half burnt. 
Kizingiti, threshold, the top and 

bottom piecesof a door or window 

frame, bar of a river. 
Kizingo, turnings, curves of a river, 

&c, (?) a burial ground. 
Kizingo, Bharp shore sand used for 

buil ling. 
Kiziwi, plur. viziwi, deaf. 

Kizuio = Kh.ui:i. 

Kizuizi, plur. vizuizi, a stop, a thing 

w bich hinders or stays. 
Kizuizo, plur. vizuizo, a hindrance. 
Kizulca, plur. oieuka, a kind of evil 

spirit, a woman who is staying 

in perfect secrecy and quiet 

during the mourning for her 

husband. Bee Eda. 

igu, a European language. 

Ya kizungu, European. 
Kizunguzungu, giddiness. 
Kizuri, beauty, a beauty. 
Kizushi, an intruder. 
Kizuu, plur. vizuu, a kind of evil 

spirit, which kills people at the 

order of its master. 
Ko, -];<>, -ko, win re whither, whence. 

Ko hute, whil bersoever. 
Jfoa, plur. makoa, a snail, 
ifoa (plur. of Ulma), the silver rings 

on the scabhard of a sword, &c, 

plates of metal. 
Kobe, a tortoise. 
Koche, plur. makoche, the fruit of a 

kind of palm. 
/v»/i, rent. 
Kodolea ku-, to fix the eyes upon, 

to stare. 
Kofi, plur. makojt, the flat of the 

Kupiga Icofi, to strike with open 
hand, to box the ears. 

Kupiga makofi, to clap the hands. 
Kofia, a cap. 
Kdfila, a caravan. 
Kofua, emaciated. 
Kt>ija = Kuoga. 
Kohani, a small red fish like a 

Koho, a large bird of prey. 
Kohoa, kvr, to cough. 
Kohozi, expectorated matter. 




Koikoi, plur. makoikoi, a sort of 

evil spirit. 
Koja, a gold ornament for the 

Kojoa ku-, to make water. 
Koka = Kuoka. 
Koka ku-, to set on fire. 
Koko, plur. makoko, kernels, nuts, 

stones of fruit. 
Koko, plur. makoko, brushwood, 
thickets, bushes. 

Mbwa koko, a homeless dog that 
lives in the thickets and eats 
Kokomoka ku-, to vomit, to belch 

out, blurt out. 
Kokota ku-, to drag. 

Kukokota roho, to breathe hard. 
Kokoteza ku-, to do anything slowly 

and carefully. 
Kokoto, plur. makukoto, a small 

stone, a small piece of stone. 
Kokwa, plur. makokwa, nuts, stones 

of fruit. 
Kolekole, a kind of fish. 
Kolea ku-, to become well flavoured, 

to get the right quantity of a 

Koleo, plur. makoleo, tongs. 
Kologa ku-, to stir. 
Koma, plur. makoma, a kind of fruit. 
Koma ku-, to cease, to leave oft*, to 
end a journey, to arrive at a 

Koma usije ! Come no further ! 
Komaa ku-, to be full grown. 
Komaza ku-, to mock, to make game 

Komba, a galago. 

Komba ku-, to scrape out, to clean 

Dafu la kukomba, a cocoa-nut in 
which the nutty part is but just 

forming, which is then reckoned 
a delicacy. 

Kukomba mtu, to get allhismoney, 
to clean him out. 
Kombamoyo, plur. makombamoyo, 

one of the rafters of a thatched 

Kombe, plur. makombe, a large dish. 

Kombe la mkono (A.), the shoulder- 

Kombe za pwani, oysters (?), 
cockles (?), sea-shells. 
Kombeka ku-, to be cleaned out, to 

have had all one's money got from 

Kombeo, a sling. 
Kombo, plur. makombo, scraps, 

pieces left after eating. 
Kombo, a defect, crookedness. 

Kutoa k'ombo, to notice a defect. 
Komboa ku-, to ransom, to buy back. 
Komboka ku-, to be crooked. 
Kombokombo, crooked. 
Kombara, a bomb, a mortar. 
Kombozi, a ransom. 
Kome, plur. makome, a pearl 

oyster (?), a mussel (?), a shell. 
Komea ku-, to fasten with a native 

lock (komeo). 
Komeo, a kind of wooden lock. 
Komesha ku-, to make to cease, to 

put a stop to. 
Komwe, plur. makomwe, the seeds of 

a large climbing plant abundantly 

furnished with recurved thorns ; 

they are used to play the game of 

bao with. 
Konda ku-, to grow thin and lean. 
Kondavi, large beads worn by 

women, as a belt round the loins. 
Konde, a fist. 

Kupiga moijo konde, to take heart, 
to resolve firmly. 




Kondesha ku-, to make to grow lcau. 
ICondo, war (Merima). 
Kondoa, a sheep [Lindi]. 
Kondoo, Bheep. 

Yuafa kikondoo, he dies like a 
sheep, silently (whieh_J8_hjgh 
Kongo ku-, to grow old and feeble. 
ioa ku-, to draw out nails, &c, 
to take to pieces. 
Kongoea, Mombas. 
Eongoja ku-, to walk with difficulty, 

to totter. 
Kongolewa ku-, to be taken to pieces. 
Kongomero, throat. 
Kongoni = Kunguni. 
Ktmg'ota, a sort of woodpecker, 

hlack and yellow. 
Kongwa, a slave-stick. 
Kongwe. ? ~.«W» 

Kutoa kongwe, to lead off the solo 
part of a song, in which others 
join in the chorus. 
-kongwe, over-old, worn out with 
hono, a projecting handle, like that 

of a saucepan. 
Konokono, a snail. 
Kamjeslia ku- = Konyeza ku-. 
Kunytza ku-, to make a sign by 

raising the eyebrows. 
Komi, what can be grasped in the 
hand, a fiat full. 
Kupiga konzi, to rap with the 
Koo, plur. makoo, a breeding animal 
or bird. 
Koo la kuku, a laying hen. 
Koo la mbuzi, a breeding goat. 
Koo, plur. makoo, throat. 
Kt onde, plur. makoonde, cultivated 
land, fields, the piece of a ehamba 
allotted to a slave for his own use. 

Konyoa ku-, to break off the cobs of 

Indian corn. 
Kopa, hearts, in cards. 
Kopa, plur. mdkopa, a piece of dried 

muhoijo, which has been steeped 

and cooked. 
Kopa ku-, to get goods on credit for 

the purpose of trading with, to 

cheat, to swindle. 
Rope, plur. of Ukope, the eyelashes. 
Kope, plur. makope, the wick of a 

Kopcsa ku-, to wink. 
Kopesha ku-, to supply a trader with 

goods on credit, to give on trust. 

to lend. 
Kopo, plur. makopo, a large metal 

vessel, a spout. 
Kopoa ku-, to drag out of one's 

hand, = Chopoa ku-. 
Kora ku-, to seem sweet to, to be 

loved by. 
Koradani, a sheave of a pulley. 
Korija, a pucker in sewing. Also, a 
Korja, a score. [score. 

Koroana ku-, to steep in water. 
Korofi, a bird of ill omen, a 

messenger of bad luck. 
Korofisha ku-, to ruin a man. 
Koroga ku-, to stir, to stir up. 
Koroma, plur. makoroma, a cocoa-nut 

in its last stage but one, when the 

nut is formed but has not yet its 

full flavour. It has ceased to bo 

a dafu and is not yet a nazi. 
Koroma ku-, to snore. 
Korongo, a crane. 
Korongo, plur. makorongo, a hole 

dibbled for seed. 
Kororo, a crested guinea-fowl. 
Koroslw, plur. makorosho, cashew 

Koru, the waterbuck. 




Kosa ku-, to err, mistake, miss, go 

wrong, do wrong, blunder. 
Kosekana ku-, to be missed, not to 

be there. 
Kostsha ku-, to lead astray. 
Kosudia ku-, to purpose, to intend, 
— Kusudia. 
Kota, plur. makota, the stalks of a 

kind of millet which are chewed 
Kota, a crook. [like sugar-cane. 
Kota ku-. 

Kukota moto, to warm oneself. 
Kotama, a curved knife u^ed in 

getting palm wine. 
Kote, all. See -ote. 
Kotekote, on every side. 

Kupiga koto (M.), to strike with 
the knuckles. 
Kovo, plur. makovo, scar. 
Ku- or Kw-. 

1. The indefinite verbal prefix 
auswering to there in English. 
Ku-likuwa, there was. 
Ku-katanda, and there spread. 

2. The sign of the infinitive. 
Ku-piga, to strike. 
Kw-enda, to go. 

The infinitive may be used as a 
substantive answering to the 
English form in -trig. 

Kufa, dying, the act of death. 

Kwenda, going. 

The ku- of the infinitive is re- 
tained by monosyllabic verbs, 
and by some others in all 
tenses in which the tense 
prefix ends in an unaccented 

3. The prefix proper to adjectives, 
pronouns, and verbs agreeing 
with infinitives used as sub- 

Kufa kwetu kioetna kutampendeza, 
our good deaths will please him. 

4. The prefix proper to pronouns 
agreeing with substantives in 
the locative case (-nt)> where 
neither the being or going 
inside, nor mere nearness, is 

Enenda nyumbani kwangu, go to 
my house. 

Ziko kwetu, there are in our pos- 
session, at our place. 

5. In a few words a prefix signi- 
fying locality,commonlysoused 
in other African languages, but 
generally represented in Swa- 
hili by the case in -ni. 

Kuzimu, among the dead, in the 
ku-. [grave. 

1. The sign of the negative past 
always preceded by some nega- 
tive personal prefix. 

Sikujua, I did not know. 
Hazikufaa, they were of no use. 

2. The objective prefix denoting 
the second person jnnj^ular. 

Nakupenda, I love thee, or you. 
Alikupa, he gave thee, or you. 
Sikukujua, I did not know you. 

3. The objective prefix referring 
to infinitives of verbs, or to 
huku, there. 

Kua ku-, to grow, to become large. 
-kuba or -kubwa, great, large. 
Kubali ku, to accept, assent to, 

acknowledge, approve. 
Kubalika ku-, to be accepted, to be 

capable of acceptance. 
Kubalisha ku-, to make to accept. 
Kubba, a vaulted place. 
-kubwa, large, great, elder, chief. 

It makes kubioa with nouns like 


Y 2 




Kucha, or Kumekucha, the dawn. 

Uriku kucha, all night, ku-, 

Kamba imejikuchua, the rope has 
worn away, chafed, stranded. 
Kufuli, a padlock. 
Kufuru ku-, to become an infidel, 

m apostatize. 
Kufuru ku-, to mock, to deride. 
K ugu n /.tin haitebeest(boselaphus). 
Kuke. See -ke. 

Mkono wa kuke, the left hand. 
Kukeni, on the female side. 
Kuko, yonder, to yonder. 

Kwa kuko, beyond, on yon side. 
K'uku, a hen. a fowl, fowls, poultry. 
lyukp . na huku, backwards and for- 
-kukuu, old, worn out. It makes 

kukuu with nouns like nyurnba. 
Kulabu,& hook to steady work with. 
Rule, there, far off, yonder. 
A .'•■'. . yonder, very far off. As the 
distance indicated increases the 
e is more dwelt on, the voice 
raised to a higher and higher 
Kulekule, there, just there. 
Kulia ku-, to become great for, to 

become hard to. 
Kuliko, where there is or was. 
Kulikoni? Where there is what 

= why? (M.). 
Kuliko, isusedin theordinary way 
of expressing the comparative. 
Mwema kuliko huyu, good where 
this man is, and therefore 
better than he. Because if a 
quality becomes evident in any- 
thing by putting some other 
thin^ beside it, the first must 
] — 'ss the quality in a In 
degree than the other. 

Kulla. often pronounced killa,eveij, 
each one. 

Kululu, nothing at all. 
Nikapatakululu = Sikupataiu>nn. 

Kululu, tigercowries, Cyprseatigris. 

Kulungu, a sort of antelope. 

Kuma, the vagina. 

Kuntba ku-, to push against, to take 
and sweep off the whole of any- 
thing, e.(j. to clear water out of a 
box, to bale a boat. 

Kumbatia ku-, to embrace, to clasp. 

Kumhatiana ku-, to embrace (of two 

Kumbe? What? An expression of 
surprise used especially when 
something turns out otherwise 
than was expected, commonly 
joined with a negative verb. 

Kurribi (Mer.), circumcision. 
Anaingia kumbini, he is being 

Kumbi, plur. makumbi, cocoa-nut 
fibre, the husk of the cocoa nut 
and the fibrous mass out of which 
the leaves grow. Also, at Mgao, 
gum copal. 

Kuiuhikumbi, ants in their flying 

Kumbisha ku-, to push off upon, to 
lay upon some one else. 

Kumbuka ku-, to think of, to remem- 
ber, to ponder over, to recollect. 

Kumbukumbu, a memorial, a men- 
Kumbura, an explosive shell. 

Kunibusha ku-, to remind. 
Kumbwaya, a kind of drum stand 

ing on feet. 
Kumekucha, there is dawn, th< 

Kumi, plur. makumi, ten. 

Kumoja, on one side. 




Kumpuni, plur. makumpuni, a per- 
son who has obtained full know- 
ledge of his trade. 
Eumunta ku- (Mer.), to shake out 

or off. 
Kumunlo, a sieve of basket-work. 
Kumutika ku-, to desire (?). 
Kumvi, husks and bran of rice. 
Kuna, there is, 

Kunaye, depending upon him. 
Kunani ? What is the matter ? 
Kuna kwambaje ? What do you 
say ? [Tumbatu]. 
Kuna ku-, to scratch. 
Kunakucha, there is dawning, the 

Kunazi, a small edible fruit. 
Kunda ku- (M.) = Kunja ku-. 
Kunda, plur. makunda, a green 

vegetable like spinach. 
Kundaa ku-, to be short and small 

of stature. 
Kundamana ku- = Kunjamana ku-. 
Kunde, beans, haricot beans. 
Kundi, plur. makundi, a crowd, a 

herd, many together. 
Kundua ku-, to please (?). 
-kundufu, giving pleasure. 

Nyumba ni kundufu, the house 

is commodious. 
Muungu ni mkundufu, God is the 
giver of all good things. 
Kunduka ku-, to grow larger, to 
Moyo umekunduka, he is gratified 
Kunga ku-, to hem. 
Kunga, cleverness, clever. 

Kazi haifai ilia kwa kunga, it 
wants to be done cleverly. 

Kungali na mapema bado, while 
it is yet early. 

Kungu, mist, fog. 
Kungu manga, a nutmeg. 
Kunguni, a bug. 

Kunguru, a crow, a bird a little 
larger than a rook, black, with 
a white patch on the shoulders 
and round the neck : it feeds on 
Kung'uta ku-, to shake off, to shake 

Kung'ufo, plur. makung'uto, a sort 
of basket used as a sieve or 
Kuni, firewood. The singular, 
ukuni, means one piece of fire- 
Kunia ku-, to scrape or eeratch 

with, or for. 
Kunia ku-, to raise the eyebrows in 

Kuniita, telling me to come. 
Kunja ku-, to fold, to wrap up, to 
Kukunja uzi, to wind thread. 
Kujikunja, to flinch, to shrink. 
Kukunja uso or Kukunja vipaji, 
to frown, to knit the brows. 
Kunjana ku-, to fold together, to 

dwindle, to wrinkle. 
Kunjamana ku-. 

Uso unakunjamana, his face is 
sad, sour, and frowning. 
Kunjia ku-, to fold for, to wrap up 

for, to crease. 
Kunjika ku-, to become folded or 

doubled up, to be creased. 
Kunjua ku-, to unfold. 

Kukunjua miguu, to stretch one's 
Kunjuka ku-, to become unfolded, 

to spread over. 
Kunjuliwa ku-, to be open and un- 


K U \ 

K W A 

Kunrathi, donM be offended, excuse 

me, pardon me. 
Kunu alamu, be it known. 
Kunya ku-, to ease oneself. Seo 

Kunyata ku-, to draw together. 

Kujikunyata, to draw oneself to- 

gether, to shrink. 
Kuiujua ku- or Kunyula ku , to 

touch secretly (with a scratching 

motion) by way of signal or of 

calling attention privately, to 

make a scratch on the skin. 
Kupaa. See Makupaa. 
Kupe, a tick, a cattle tick. 
Kupua ku-, to shake something off 

one's dress, out of one's hand, 

Kura, the lot. 

Kupiga kura, to cast lots. 
Kuril, a sphere, a ball. 
Kurubia ku-. to come near to. 

Nalikurubia, &c, had a good 

mind to, &c. 
Kurumbizi, a small yellow bird, 

very inquisitive : they say if he 

sees a man and woman talking 

together, he cries, " Mtu anasema 

ua mume." 
Kuta ku, t/> make to grow. 
Kusanya ku-, to collect, gather, as- 
Kusanyana ku-, to gather together. 
Kusanyika ku-, to be gathered, to 

Kushoto, on the left 

Mkono v;a kushoto, the h ft hand. 
Kuai, the southerly winds which 
l.luw from May till ( Ictober. 

Kuzini, in the diiection of the 
Ku.<i, southerly. 
Kusudi, plur. makusudi, purpose, 


Kmudia ku-, to purpose, to intend. 

Kuta, plur. of Okuta, walls. 

Kuta ku-, to meet with, to see, to 

find, to come upon. 
Kutana ku-, to como together, to 

meet, to assemble. 
Kutanika ku-, to become assembled. 
Kutanieha ku-, to bring together, to 

l\~it(u, rust. 
Kutuka ku-, to bo startled, to be 

suddenly frightened. 
Kutusha ku-, to startle, to alarm 

■kuu, great, chief, noble. Kuu refers 
more to figurative, kubvoa to 
physical greatness. It makes 
kuu with nouns Like nywmba. 

Ana makuu, he is vain. 
Kuume. See •ume. 

Mkono wa kuume, the right hand. 

Kuumeni, on the male side. 

Mkono tea kuvuli, the right hand. 
Kuwa, to be, to become (?). See 

Kuwadi, also Kawadi, a procuress 

(Mtu anayewatonaosha ivatu). 
Kuwili, twice over, in two ways. 
-kuza, large, full grown. 
Kuza ku-, to make bigger. 
Kuza, to sell. See Vza. 
Kuzi, an earthen water bottle larger 

than a guduwia, with a handle 

or handles and a narrow neck. 
Kuzikani, a funeral. 
Kuzimu, in tbe grave, under the 

Kw-. See Ku-. 
Kwa, with, as an instrument, 

through, to a person, to or at 

the place where any one lives; 

for, on account of. 


K W A 



Kwa 'ngi (?), generally. 

Kica, of, after verbs in the infini- 
tive used as nouns, and after the 
case in -ni. 

Kwaa ~ku-, to strike the foot, to 

Kwaje? how? 

Kwake, to him, with him, to or at 
his or her house; his, her, or 
its, after a verb in the infinitive 
used as a substantive, or the 
case in -ni. 

Kwako, to thee or with thee, to or 
at thy place, your, thy, of thee 
or you, after verbs in the infini- 
tive used as a noun, and after the 
case in -ni. 

Kwale, a partridge (?). 

Kwama leu-, to become jammed, to 

Kwamha, saying (?), if, as if, though, 
Ya kwamba, that. [that. 

Kwamisha ku-, to jam, to make to 
stick in a narrow place. 

Kwamua ku-, to unjam, to free, to 

Kuangu, to or at my house, to or 
with me, my, of me, after the 
infinitives of verbs used as sub- 
stantives, and after the case in 

Kwangua ku-, to scrape up, to scrape 
oue's shoes, &c. 

Kwani for, because, wherefore, for 

Kwanua ku-, to split down, to tear 
down, to break. 

Kwanyuka ku-, to be split down 
like the boughs and branches of 
a tree, which some one has been 
trying to climb by them. 

Kwama, beginning, at first, for- 

Ya kwama, first, the first. 

Ngoja kwama, wait a bit. 
Kwao, plur. makwao, a stumble, a 

Kwao, to or with them, at or to 

their place ; their, of them, after 

verbs in the infinitive used as 

nouns, and after the case in -ni. 
Kwapa, plur. makwapa, the arm- 

Kwapani, under the armpit. The 
people of the African coast 
wear their swords by a strap 
over the left shoulder only ; the 
sword hangs under the armpit, 
and is said to be kwapani. 
Kwaruza ku-, to scrape along, to slip 

with a scrape. 
Kwata, or Kwato, a hoof. 

Kupiga kwata, to strike the hoof, 
to strike with the hoof. 
Kwatu, a horseshoe (?). 
Kwayo, a stumbling-block. 
Kwaza ku-, to make to stumble. 

Kukwaza meno, to jar the teeth 
like grit in food. 
Kivea ku-, to ascend, go up, climb. 
Kweli, true, the truth. 

Ya kweli, true. 
Kwelu = Kweu. 

Kwema, good, well, it is well there. 
Kweme, the seed of a gourd, very 

rich in oil. 
Kioenda, to go. See Enda, going. 
Kioenda, perhaps. 
Kwenu, with you, to or at your 

place, your, of you, after verbs in 

the infinitive used as nouns or 

after the case in -ni. 
Kwenyi, till, since, up to the time of, 

from the time of. 
Kwapa ku-, to start out of the way. 
Kweta ku-, to raise. 


K W E 


Kir-tu, to or with as, to or at our 
place, "iir, of us, after a verb in 
the infinitive used as a noun, and 
after the case in -ni. 

K>r, u, clear. 

Knot ii pe, white. See -eupe. 

Kuna /.•('•' ape, grey dawn. 
Kir, ;<i ];h-, to make to go up. to drag 

up a l>oat out of the water. 
Kweza In-, to bid up an article at 
an auction. 

Kukwezwa, to have things made 
dear to one by others bidding 
them up. 
Kvriba. See Iba hu-, stealing, to 

Kwibana, robbing one another. 
Kirikirc, hiccup. 

Kwikwe ya kulia, sobs. 
Kwisha. See Isha hu-, ending, to 

Kim, which. 

L is pronounced as in English. 
L is not distinguished from r 
in African languages of the same 
family asSwahili. The distinction 
becomes important in Swahili on 
account of the Arabic words which 
have been incorporated into it. 

Mahal i, means a place, but 

Mahari a dowry. 
Waredi means a rose, but Waledi 
a youth. Slaves, however, fre- 
quently confound even these. 
• When r can be used for I, it has a 
light smooth sound, as in English. 
There is a latent I sound betwi i n 
every two consecutive vowels in 
Swahili and at the beginning of 

some verbs, which appears in their 
derivatives and in other African 
languages : thus the common pas 
sive of hufungua is hufunguliwa. 

So far is this disposition to drop 
an I carried, that even huleta, to 
bring, is in old Swahili eta. It is 
characteristic of theMcrima dialect 
to retain these Vb. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged. 

Mlango, a door, is vulgarly pro- 
nounced Mtcango. 

Uf alme, a kingdom, may be 
written Ufaume. 

In these cases, however, both 
forms are probably contractions 
from Mulango and Ufalwme. 

L becomes d after n, and is some- 
times confounded with d in inexact 

Ndume = Nlume or Nume, male. 

L- or U-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by 
words iu the singular, of the 
class which make their plural 
in ma-. 

La, no. 

La ku-, to eat, to consume, to wear 
away, to take a piece in chess, &c. 
The ku-, bears the accent and is 
retained in the usual tenses. The 
passive of hula is Jculiwa. 

Laabu ku-, to play, to sport with. 

Laana, plur. malaana, a curse. 

Laani ku-, to curse, to damn. 

Laanisha ku-, to bring acuroe upon. 

Labcka = Lebeka. 

Labuda, perhaps. 

Ladu, sweet cakes composed of trea- 
cle, pepper, and flour or semsem 
seed, made up into balls. 




Laghai, a rascal. Also Bagai. 
Laika, plur. malaika, one of the 

hairs of the hand or arm. 
Laini, smooth, soft. 
Lainisha ku-, to make smooth or 

Laitil Would that! Oh that! 
expressing regret at something 
Lake or Lakwe, his, hers, its. See 
Laki ku-, to go to meet. [-ake. 

Lakini, but, however. 
Lakki, a hundred thousand, a lac. 
Lako, thy. See ako. 
Lala ku-, to sleep, to lie down. 
Nyumba imelala inchi, the house 
is fallen flat on the ground. 
Lalama ku-, to confess, to cry for 
mercy; used of extorted confes- 
Lalamika ku-, to be made to cry 
out, to be quite beaten, to shout, 
to scream. 
Lalika ku-, to be slept upon. 
Lalika ku- = Alika ku-, to inform, 

announce to. 
Lami. pitch or tar. 
Lana ku-, to eat one another. 
Landa ku-, to be equal with. 
Langu, my. See -angu. 
Lao, their. See -ao. 
Laomu ku-, to blame. Also Lau- 

Lapa ku-, or Eapa ku-, to be ra- 
venously hungry. 
Launi, sort, species, form. 
Laumu ku-, to blame. 
Lawa ku-, to come from (Mer.). 
Lawana ku-, to blame, to scold. 
Laza ku-, to lay down, to lay at its 
Kujilaza, to lie down. 
Ldzim, of necessity. 

Lazima, surety, bail, necessity. 
Lazimisha ku-, to compel. 
Lazimu ku-, to be obligatory upon. 
-le, his, hers, or its. 
Lea ku-, to bring up. 

Amelewa vema, he is well bred. 
Lebeka, the humble manner of re- 
plying when called, often short- 
ened into Ebbe, or even Bee. 
Legea ku-, &c, &c. See Begea ku-, 

&c, &c. 
Lekea ku-, to be opposite to, to tend 

Lekeza ku-, to put opposite to. 

Kutekeza bunduki, to level a gun 
Lekezana ku-, to agree, come to an 

Lelam, by auction. 
Lelimama, a dance to the music 

made by beating buffalo horns. 
Lema or Dema, a kind of fish-trap. 
Lemaa, disfigurement. 

Mwenyi lemaa, disfigured by dis- 
Lembuka ku-, to be weak, limp. 
Lemea ku-, to oppress, to lie heavy 

upon, to overburden. 
Lengelenge, plur. malengelenge, a 

Lenu, your. See -enu. 
Lenyi. See -enyi. 

Bakuli lenyi mayayi, a basin with 
eggs in it. 
Leo, to-day. 
Leppe, drowsiness, dozes, snatches 

of sleep. 
Leso, a handkerchief. 

Leso ya kufutia kamasi, a pocket- 
Leta ku-, to cause to arrive at the 

place where the speaker is, to 

bring, to send, to fetch. 



l.ft'.i ku-, to bring or send to or for 
a person. 
Kuli !■ wa, to have brought or sent 
to one. 
/.-/'/. our. See -etu. 

lea J: it-, to get sober. 
Levya ku-, to intoxicate. 

KujiU run, to make oneself in- 
toxicated, to get drunk. 
/ vyalevya ku-, to be giddy. 
Lewa ku-, to become drunk. 
].■ walewa ku-, to swing or sway 

about like a drunken man. 
Li, it is. 

Li- or 1-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by a 
singular noun of the class which 
makes its plural in ma-. 
-H-, 1. The objective prefix repre- 
senting a singular noun of the 
class which makes its plural in 
ma-, governed by the verb to 
which it is prefixed. 

2. -U-, or -ali-, the sign of that 
past tense which denotes an 
action complete in past time. 

3. -It- sometimes represents the 
substantive verb, as in aliye, he 
who is ; nikali, and I am ; ali, 
he is, or he being. 

Lia ku-, to breed (M.). 
Ida ku-, to eat for, &c. 

Chumba cha kulia, a room to eat 

Mkono wa kulia, right hand, being 
the only one ever used to eat 
Lia ku-, to cry, to weep, to cry out ; 
applied to the cries of animals 
generally. Also, to give a 
Kulia nana, to weep for jealous-7. 
Inalia wazi, it sounds hollow. 

Libasi, clothes. 

i, whether it be, Ihough. 
Lihamu, solder. 

Lihani, a cloth of a particular 
Lijamu, a horse's bit. [pattern. 

Lika ku-, to be eaten, to become 

worn away, to be eatable. 
Lilciza ku-, to dismiss, to give leave 

to go, to release. 
Lika, plur. maliko, a landing-place. 
Lilia ku-, to weep for, to cry about. 
Lima ku-, to cultivate, to hoe. 
Lima, the feast made by the bride- 
groom on the first day of the 

Limao, plur. malimao, a lemon. 
Limatia ku-, to delay, to loiter C A.). 
Limbika ku-, to leave till it is fit, to 

wait for fruit till it is ripe, or for 

water till it is collected in the 

dipping hole, to put aside till it 

is fit. 
Limbuka ku-, to taste the first of a 

new crop. 
Limbueha ku-, to bring to be tasted. 
Limiza ku-, to make to hoe, &c. 
Linalokuja, which is coming. 
Linda ku-. to guard, to watch, to 

Kuhnda ndtge t to scare birds from 
corn, &c. 
Lindi, plur. malindi, a pit, a deep 

Lindo, a watching place. 
Linga ku-, to swing the head round 

in dancing. 
Linga ku-, to make to match, or to 

be level. 
Lingana ku-, to match, to be level 

with or like one another. 
Lingana ku-, to call, to invite (A.). 
Linganisha ku-, to make to match, 

to compare together. 




Lini ? When ? 

Linyi = Lenyi. 

Lipa ku-, to pay (a debt). 

Lipia ku-, to pay (a person). 

Lipiza ku-, to cause to be paid. 
Kujilipiza, to take one's due, to 

repay oneself. 
Kujilipiza kasasi, to avenge one- 
self, to take one's revenge. 

Lisani, a piece of cloth put in 
behind an opening, a flap to 
obviate the effect of gaping at the 
fastening, a tongue. See Kanzu. 

Lisha ku-, to feed. 

Lishisha ku-, to cause to be fed, to 
cause people to give one food. 

Lima ku-, to be eaten, to be worn 
away, to be consumed. 

Liwa, a fragrant wood from Mada- 
gascar, which is ground up and 
used as a cosmetic, and as an 
application to cure prickly heat ; 
Madagascar sandal wood. 

Liwali, plur. maliwali, for Al Wall, 

Liza ka-, to sell to. [a governor. 

Liza ku-, to make to weep. 

Lizana ku-, to make one another 
weep, to cry together. 

■lo, thy, your. 

Lo, -lo-, or -lo, which, representing 
a singular noun of the class 
which makes its plural in ma. 
Lo lote, whatsoever. 
Hakufanya lo lote, he has done 
nothing at all (neno under- 

Loa ku-, to get wet with rain, &c. 

Loga ku-, to bewitch, to practise 
magic (Mer.; 

Lo or Loo ! Hullo ! An exclamation 
of surprise; the number of o's 
increases in proportion to the 
amount of surprise. 

Lote, all. See -ote. 

Lo lote, whatsoever. 
Lozi, an almond. 
Luanga, a kind of bird. 
Luba, a leech. 
Lugha, language. 
Lulu, a pearl. 

Lumba ku-, to make a speech. 
Lumbika ku-, to gather little by 

little, to pick up small pieces one 

by one. 
Lumbwi, a chameleon (?). 
Luththa, flavour, savour. 
Luva, sandal wood (?). 


M is pronounced as in English. 

M before b generally represents 
an n. Mb stands sometimes for 
rib, as nyumba mbaya, for nyumla 
n-baya ; sometimes it represents nw 
or nv, as mbingu for n-wingu. 

M is frequently either followed 
by w or u, or else has a sort of semi- 
vowel power, as if preceded by a 
half-suppressed u. 

The natives of Zanzibar very 
rarely say mu ; they change it into 
urn or rather 'm. Even Mwenyiezi 
Muungu, Almighty God, becomes 
' Mnyezimngu. 

It is important to write 'm, and 
not m only, where it represents mu 
if a b or w follow, because otherwise 
the m might be supposed to coalesce 
with them. If any other consonants 
follow, it is immaterial, for m must 
then always stand for mu, and be 
capable of being pronounced as a 
separate syllable. 

Any verb may be turned into a 
substantive by prefixing 'm or mw 



to mean one whodoes, &c.,followed 
immediately by the object <>f the 
verb or the thing done. The last 
letter is sometimes changed into i 
and if j* is added to the substantive 
it gets the sense of one who habit- 
ually does what the verb signifies. 

if-, 'm, nut-, or mw-, sign of the 
second person plural prefixed to 
M-. 'm, mu, or mw-, the singular 
prefix of those nouns which 
make their plural in wa-, if they 
denote animate beings, or in mi-, 
if they do not. 
M . 'm-, mu-, or mic-, the prefix 
proper for adjectives agreeing 
with a singular substantive de- 
noting an animate being, or with 
any substantive beginning with 
mu-, 'm-. mw-, or u-. 
-m-, -'m-, or -mw-, the objective 
prefix referring to a singular 
substantive denoting an animate 
M-, mu-, or mw-. the prefix proper to 
pronouns governed by the case in 
■ni, when it denotes within or in- 
side of. 
Ma-, the sign of the plural prefixed 
to substantives (and to adjec- 
tives agreeing with them) 
which have either no prefix 
in the singular or begin with j- 
or jir. 
All words intended to denote 
something specially great of 
its kind make their plural in 


Foreign words denoting a person, 
or an office, make their plural 
in ma-. In the vulgar dialect 


of Zanzibar nearly all foreign 
words are made plural by pre- 
fixing ma-. 
Many plural nouns in ma- must be 
translated as though they were 
singulars, the true singular 
being used only todenote Bome 
one exceptionally large or im- 
portant instance. 
When followed by an i or e, the a 
of ma coalesces with it and 
forms a long e sound. 
-ma-. See -me-. 
Maad im, while, during the time, 

Maadin - ttadini. 
Maadin ya Tcinywa, what rises 
into the mouth without inter- 
nal cause, water-brash. 
Maafikano, bargain, estimate, es- 
Maagano, contract, agreement, 

Maagizo, commission, direction, re- 

Maakuli, diet, food. 
Maalum, fixed, recognizable = MU- 

Maana, meaning, reason, cause, 
Kulia maanani, to remember, 
think about. 
Maandari, biscuits, cakes, &c, 

pastry, preserves. 
Maandiko, writing, place forputting 
out food, the act of spreading fl 
meal, a description, things writ- 
Maandishi, things which are writ- 
ten, put out, set in order, &c. 
Maanguko, ruin, fall, ruins. 
Maa'mzi, judgment. 
Maarifa, knowledge. 




Maaruf, understood, I understand. 
Maasi, rebellion. 
Maazal, while. 
Maazimo, a loan. 
Mabaya, bad. See baya. 
Mabakia, the remnant, what is or 

was left. 
Mabichi, raw. See -bichi. 
Mabiwi, heaps, piles of sticks and 

rubbish. See Biwi-. 
Mabovu, rotten. See -ovu. 
Machache, few. See -chache. 
Macliela, a litter, a palanquin. 
Machezo, a game, games. 
Macho (sing, jicho), eyes. 

Yu macho, he is awake. 

Macho ya watu wawili, or M.aziwa 
ya watu wawili, dragon's blood. 

Macho ya jua, the sun-rising, 
Machuhio, hatred, abomination, dis- 
Machwa ya jua, the sun-setting, 

Madaha, a graceful manner. 
Madanganya, deception, trick. 
Madaraka, arrangements, provision . 
Madefu, beard. 
Madevu, a kind of rice. 
Madifu, the fibrous envelope of the 

cocoa-nut leaves. 
Madini, metal, a mine. 
Madoadoa, spotted. 
Madogovi, a kind of drumming, &c. , 

used in exorcisms. 
Maficho, concealment. 
Mafu, death, dead things. 

Maji mafu, neap tides. 
Mafua, a chest complaint causing 

a cough, a cold in the head, a 

stoppage in the nose. 
Mafundisho, instruction, precept, 


Ma/undo, cross-beams in a dhow, to 
steady the mast, &c. 

Ma/ungulia, unfastening. 
Mafungulia ng'ombe, about 8 a.m. 

Mafupi, short. See -fupi. 

Mafusho, steam from a pot of ma- 
jani, used as a vapour-bath in 
fever, &c. 

Mafuta, oil, fat. 

Mafuta ya uta, semsem oil. 
Mafuta ya mbarika, castor oil. 

Mafuu, crazy, cracked. 

Mufya, Monfia. 

Mafya (sing, jifya), the three stones 
used to put a pot over the fire 

Magadi, rough soda. 

Magamba, scales of a fish. 

Maganda, peel, husks. 

Magarasa, 8, 9, and 10 in cards 
(not used in playing). 

Mageuzi, changes. 

Maghofira, remission of sins. 

Maghrebbi, or Magaribi, or Ma- 
ngaribi, sunset, the sunset prayers 
of the Mohammedans, the west, 

Maghrib ayuk, N.W. 

Maghrib akrab, S.W. 

Maghuba, the winding of a stream. 

Mago. See Kago. 

Magongonene. See Kanzu. 

Magugu, weeds, undergrowth. 

Magundalo, an instrument of tor- 
ture, in which the victim is sus- 
pended, and weights being at- 
tached to him, he is jerked up 
and down. Used for extracting 

Mahaba, love, fondness. 

Mahala or Mahali, place, places. 
Mahali pa, in place of, instead of. 
Mahali pote, everywhere. 




Mdhana (Ar.), exot ssive worry. 
Maharazi, a shoemaker's awl. 
Mahari, dowry paid by the husband ; 

bo the wifi '■- r< lations, 
Mahati, a carpenter's tool used for 

marking lines to a measure. 
Mahazamu, a shawl worn round the 


Mahindi, Indian corn, maize. 
Mahiri, clever, quirk. 
Mahoka, devil, evil spirits, madness. 
Maisha, life, continuance. 
Maisha na milch, now and lor 
Maiti — Mayiti, a dead body, a 

Majahaba, dock for ships. 
Majana (.?). honeycomb. 
Majani, grass. The singularja/u, 
means a leaf. 
Rangi ya majani, green. 
Majani ya ptcani, grass wort, 
'samphire (?). 
Majartbu or Majeribu, trial, tempta- 
Majazo, reward. 
Majengo, building materials. 
Majeribu = Mujaribu. 
Majeruhi, wounded. 
Maji, water, liquid, juice, sap. 
Maji maji, wet. 
Kama maji, fluently. 
Maji kujaa na kupwa, the tides. 
Maji ya /<■ po, Maji ya baridi 

Maji matamu, fresh water. 
Maji mafu, neap-tides. 
Maji a bahari, blue, sea-wat- r 

Maji a moto, hot water, a 1 
yellow kind of ant which makes 
its nest in trees. 
Vajibu, an answer. 
iajilio, coming, or mode of coming. 

Majilipa, revenge. 
Majira, time. 

M'nira, course of a ship. 
Majonei, grief for a loss. 
Majori, an elder. 
Majuni, a cake made of opium, &c, 

very intoxicating. 
Majutio, regret, sorrow for some- 
thing done. 
Majuto, regret, repentance. 
Makaa, coal, coals, embers. 

Makaa ya miti. charcoal. 
Mtilxdalao, cockroaches ; applied in 

derision to the Malagazy colony 

in Zanzibar. 
Makali, fierce. See -kali. 
Makanadili, places in the stern of 

native craft, the quarter gallerii-s 

of a dhow. 
Makani, dwelling, dwelling-place. 
Makao, dwelling, dwelling-place. ^ '•-* 
Makasi, scissors. 

Makatazo, prohibition, objections. 
Makatibu, agreement. 
Makavu, dry. See -kavu. 
Makazi, dwelling. 
Makengeza, squinting, a squint. 
Maki, thickness. 

Nguo ya maki, stout cloth. 
MakimbUio, refuge, place to run to. 
Makindano, objections. 
Makini, leisure, quietness. 
Makiri, a thumb-cleat in the side of 

a dhow. 
Makosa, fault, faults, mistakes, sin - 
Makoza (obscene) testicles. 
Maksai, a bullock, castrated. 
Makubwa or Makuu, great. S< i 

-kubwa and -kuu. 
Makukuu, old. See -kukuu. 
Makuli, diet. 

Mdkulya, food [Tumbatn]. 
'inhi, cocoa nut lil>re. 




Makumbi ya popoo, areca-nut 

Makumbi ya usumba, cocoa-fibre 
cleaned for mattresses, &c. 

Makumi, tens. 

Makumi mawili, twenty. 

Makupaa, the sheaves at the mast- 
head of a dhow, through which 
the henza leads. 

Makusanyiko, place of assembly, 

Makusudi, purpose, design, on pur- 
pose, designedly. 

Makutano, assemblage. 

Malcuti, leaves of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Makuti ya viungo, leaflets made 

up for thatching. 
Makuti ya kumba, leaves plaited 

for fences. 
Makuti ya pande, half leaves 
plaited for fences or roofs. 

Makwa, the notching and shaping 
at the end of a pole to receive 
the wall-plate of a house. 

Malaika (plur. of Laika), the hair 
on the hands and arms. 

Malaika, an angel, angels. A baby 
is often called malaika. 

Malaki or Malki, a king. 

Malalo, sleeping-place. 

Malazi, things to lie upon. 

Malazie — Mar at hie. 

Malele, orchilla weed. 

Malelezi, changes of the monsoon, 
time of the easterly and westerly 

Malenga, a singer. 

Mali, goods, property, riches. Pro- 
perly a singular noun making 
no change for the plural, but 
treated sometimes as a plural in 

MaHdadi, a dandy. 

Maliki ku-, to begin a building, a 
boat, or a house. 

Malimo, master, navigator. In the 
canoes on the Zambezi the steers- 
man is called malimo. 

Malimioengu, business, affairs, mat- 
ters of this life. 

Malindi, Melinda. 

Malio ya kiko, the bubbling sound 
of the water when a native pipe is 
being smoked. 

Maliza ku-, to complete, to finish. 

Malki or Malaki, a king. 

Malkia, a queen. 

Mama, mother. 

Mama wa kambo, stepmother. 

Mamba, a crocodile. 

Mamba, the scales of a fish (M.). 

Mambo, circumstances, affairs, 
tilings (plur. of Jambo). 

Mamiye (Mer.), his mother. 

Mamlaka, power, authority, domi- 

Mamoja, ones, same. 

Mamoja pia, it is all one, I don't 

Mana = Mwana. 

Manamize, a name for a hermit 


Vsiku wa manane, the dead of 

Manda, a loaf. 

Mandasi, a pudding. See Maan- 

Manemane, myrrh. 

Maneno, language, message, busi- 
ness, matters, things (plur. of 
Maneno ya fumba, dark sayings. 
Maneno ya Eiunguja, &c, the 
language of Zanzibar, &c. 

Manga. Arabia. 


M A N 


V i igaribi, sun.-et. See Maghn bbi. 
r\>* Jfangt, many. See-ngt. 

Mut'iiri or Mmikiri, a cross-piece 

at the bowsofadhow for fastening 
tack of the sail, 
flfango, 8 round hard black stone 

used to grind with. 
g'ung'um, 6ecretly, in fearful 

Muni (obscene), semen. 
Mmi. a weight, about three rattel. 
Manjano, turmeric. 

Rangi a manjano, yellow. 
Mankiri. See Mangiri. 
Maiit>l>ii(s\ng.noleo),the ringw bere 

the blade of a knife issues from 

the handle. 
Manuka, sm< II, scent. 
Manukato, scent, good smells. 
Manyang'amba, flour bulls in a 

Bweet sauce 
Manyiga, a hornet. 
Manyoya, feathers of a bird, hair of 

a goat. 
Manyunyo, a shower, a sprinkle. 
Maomboleza, loud wailing. 
Maomvi, begging, 
Maondi, taste. 

Uaondoleo, removing, taking away. 
Maongezi, conversation, ainuseim int. 
Maongo, the back. 
Maonji, tasting, trying. 
Maoteo, growth from old mtama 

Maotiot . Mayotte. 
Mapalilo, hoeing-up time, hoeing 

between the crops. 
\[a pana, broad. Sic -pana. 
Mapatano, agreement, conspiracy. 
Mapema, early. 
Mapendano, mutual affection. 
Mapendezi, pleasing things, the 

be; ed. 

Mapt ndo, affection, esteem. 

Mapt n;i\ liking, affection, pleasure, 
love, things which are low d. 

Mapepeta, a preparation of imma- 
ture rice. 

Mapigano, a fight, a battle. 

Mapiswa, silliness, dotage. 

Mn/ioza, remedy, healing things. 

Mapooza, things which do not serve 
their purpose, fruit which drops 

Mapululu, the wilderness. 

Mipumbu, testicles, the scrotum. 

Mnu, a time, sometimes, at once. 
Mint moja, once, at once. 
Mara mbili, twice. 
Mara ya pill, the second time, 
Mara nyingi, often. 
Mara kwa mara, from time to 

Mura ngapil bow many times, 
how often ? 

Maradufu, double. 

Mmahaba, thanks, very well, wel- 

Maralcaraka, chequered, spotty. 

Maraaharasha, a sprinkle, sprink- 

Marashi, scents. 

Ma rash i via waridi or ya mzomari, 

Marathi, disease, sickness. 

Marathie, sociable. 

Sina kiburi, marathie mimi, I am 
not above fraternizing. 

Marefu, long. See -refu. 

Maregeo, return, reference. 

Mn ri hnmu, that has obtained mercy, 

Marejeo, return. 

Mnfua, a desk, book-rest. 

Marhaba = Marahaba. 

Marhamu, ointment. 




Marigeli, a large pot. 
Marijani, red coral, imitation coral, 
gum copal. 
Marijani ya fethaluka, the true 
red coral. 

Narika, a person of the same age. 

Martha, Merka, a town on the So- 
mauli coast. 

Marikabu = Marikebu = Mtrikebu, 
a ship. 

Marindi, the little flap of beads 
worn by a string round the loins 
by native women. 

Marisaa, shot, small shot. 

Marithawa, abundance, plenty of 
space, material, &c. 

Marizabu, a spout. 

Marra = Mara, time, times. 

Marufuku, a forbidden thing, pro- 
Kupiga marufuku, to give public 
notice against. 

Marungu (M.), biliousness. 

Masahaba, the companions of Mo- 

Masafi, purity. 

Masaibu, calamity. 

Masakasa (Yao), an encampment. 

Masakini, or Maskini, or Meskini, 
poor, a poor pei son. 

Masal kheirL good afternoon. 

Masameho, pardon. 

Masango, wire. 

Masanufi, a kerchief used for throw- 
ing over the shoulders, &c. 

Masazo, what is left, remainder. 

Mashairi, verses, poetry. 
Shairi, one line of verse. 

Mashaka, doubts, difficulty. 

Mashamba, the country. Plural of 
Stiamba, a plantation. 

Mashapo, sediment. 

Mashariki, the east, easterly. 

Mashendea, rice which is watery 

and imperfectly cooked. 
Mashindano, a race. 

Kwenda kwa mashindo, to trot. 
Mashtaka, accusation. 
Mashua, a boat, boats, a launch. 
Mashiir or Mashuhur, remarkable. 

Mashutumio, reproaches, revilings. 
Mashutumu, reviling. 
Maslmzi, breaking wind. 

Fathili ya punda ni mashuzi = 
You cannot make a silk purse 
out of a sow's ear. 

Kwenda masia, to walk up and 
Masika, the rainy season, i.e., March, 

April, and May. 
Masikani, a dwelling. 
Masikini = Masakini. 
Masingizio, slander. 
Masi'wa, the Comoro Islands and 

Masizi, grime, soot, &c, on the 

bottom of cooking pots. 
Maskini = Masakini. 
Masombo, a girdle of cloth. 
Masri = Misri, Egypt. 
Masriif, provisions. 
Masua, giddiness. 

Nina masua, I am giddy. 
Masukuo, a whet-stone. 
Masuto, reproaches. 
Mata, bows and arrows, weapons. 
Alataajabu, wonders, astonishment. 
Matakatifu, holiness. 
Matako, the seat. 
Matakwa, request, want, desire. 
Matambavu, the side, a man's side. 
Mata'mko, pronunciation. 
Matamu, sweet. See -tamu. 

M A T 


Matamvua, fringe. 

Matandiko, bedding, harness, v.hat 

i- spread. 
Matana, leprosy. 
Matanga, large mats, sails. 

Kukaa matanga, to keep a formal 
mourning, generally for from 
five to ten days. 

Kuondoa matanga, to put an end 
to (he mourning. 

Matanga kati, wind abeam. 
Matangamano, a crowd. 
Matata, a tangle, an embroilment. 

Ki'iiti matata, to tangle. 
Matayo, reproaches; revilings. 
Mate, spittle. 
Mategemeo, props, a prop, support, 

Mat /.(t spoil, booty, prisoners. 

'. a walk. 
Matengo, 1 1 1 • - outriggers of a canoe. 
Mateto, afflictions, adversity. 
Mateto, quarrel. 
Mathabahu — Nafhhrih. 
Mathabuha, a victim, a sacrifice. 
Mathahabi oi Mathhdb, sect, persua- 
Mathara, mischief, harm. 
Wathbah, an altar. 

bu, manners, habits, customs, 
Mathahabi (?). 
Matilo, lift from the after part of a 

yard to the mast-head of a dhow. 
Malindi, half-grown Indian corn. 
Matindo, a slaughter-house, a place 

for killing beasts. 
Mattti. l /'H»<~&> »,cA/\ **Aifi 

Kir, nda kwa mattti, to trot. 
Mattaa, the east « ind. 

Mattaa ayuk, N.E. 
itlaa akrab, S.K. 
Mattai = Matlaa. 
Mato, Lyes. (M.). 

Mat'ini. cymbals. 
Matokeo, going-out places. 

Matolceo ya hari, pores of the 
Matomoko, a custard apple. 
Matubwitiibwi, mumps. 
Miituhnno, filthy ami insulting ex- 
pressions, such as — 

Mwana kumanyo 

Mwana • <-u haramu. 


Matukio, accidents, things which 

Matumaini, confidence, hope. 
Matumbawi, fresh coral, cut from 

below high-water mark: it is 

used for roofs and where lightness 

is an object. 
Mm a mho, tiie entrails. 
Matupu, bare. See -tupu. 
Maturuma, stiffencrs put on a door, 

the knees in a dhow, ribs of a 

boat, &c. 
Maluku, bad and abusive language. 
Matuvumu, accusation, blame. 
Maua (plur. of Ua), flowers. 
Maulizo, questions, questioning. 
Maumivu, pain. 

Maungo, the back, the backbone. 
Mauthuru, unable. 
Mauti, death. 
Minim, dress, dressing. 
Mavazi, dress, clothes. Plural of 

Mavi, dung, droppings, excrement. 

Mavi ija chuma, dross. 
Mavilio. See Vilio. 
Mavulio, clothes cast off and giv< a 

to another, clothes worn bj 

who is not their owner. 
Mavunda, one who breaks every- 
thing he has to do with. 




Mavundevunde, broken, scattered 

Mavumi, burn of voices. 
Mavuno, harvest, reaping. 

Alavuno ya nyuki, honeycomb. 
Mavuzi (plur. of Vuzi), the hair of 

the pubes. 
Mawazi, clear. See wazi. 
Mawe (plur. of Jiwe), stones, stone. 

Ya mawe, of stone. 

Mawe ya kusagia, a hand-mill. 

Mawe, a vulgar ejaculation, rub- 
Mawili, both. 
Mawimbi (plur. of Wimbi), surf, a 


Mawindo, game, produce of hunt- 

Mayayi. See Yayi. 

Mayiti, a dead body. 

Mayugwa, a green vegetable cooked 
like spinach. 

Mazao, fruit, produce. 

Maziko, burial-place. 

Mazinga ombo, sleight of hand 

Mazingiica, a siege. 

Mi zingombwe, magic, witchcraft. 

Mazislii, burial clothes, furniture, 

Maziwa, milk, (plur. of Ziwa) 
breasts, lakes. 
Maziwa mabivu, curdled milk. 
Maziwa ya watu wawili, dragon's 

Mazoea, custom. 

Mazoezo, habits, customs, practice. 

Mazoka, evil spirits. 

Mazu, a kind of banana. 

Mazumgu'mzo, amusement, conver- 

Mbali, far off, separate. 

Mbali mbali, distinct, different. 

Potelea mbali! Go and be hanged ! 
Tumiculie mbali, let us kill him 

out of the way. 
When used with the applied 
forms of verbs, it means that 
the person or thing is by that 
means got rid of, or put out of 
the w r ay. 
Mbango, a bird with a parrot-like 
beak, a person with projecting 
Mbano, a circumcising instrument. 
Mbau (plur. of Ubau), planks. 
'Mbau, plur. mibau, planking, tim- 
'Mbaruti, plur. mibaruti, a weed 
with yellow flowers and thistle- 
like leaves powdered with white. 
Mbasua, giddiness. 
Mbata, a cocoa-nut which has dried 
in the shell so as to rattle, with- 
out being spoilt. 
Mbati, wall-plate. 
Mbavu, ribs, side. 

Mbavuni, alongside. 
Mbawa, wing feathers. See TJbawa. 
Mbayani, clear, manifest. 
Mbayuwayu, a swallow (A.). 
Mbega, a kind of monkey, black, 
with long white hair on the 
Mbegu, seed, seeds. [shoulders. 


'Mbeja wa hani, young man of 
Mbele, before, in front, further on. 
Mbele ya, before, in front of. 
Kuendelea mbele, to go forward. 
Mbeleni, in the front. This word 
is used in Zanzibar with an 
obscene sense. 
Mbeyu = Mbegu, seed. 
Mbilo, plur. mibibo, a cashew-nut 

z 2 

M B F 


Mbiehi, fresh. See -birhi. 
}V i.jili. amal] thorns, briers. 
Ml Hi. u\ >. Bi e -totft. 

Mot'Zt mfttft, two by two. 
Ml, Mini;, the wrist (?). 
Mbingu, plur. of Uicingu, the skies, 
the heavens, heaven. 

'. running, fust. 
Kupiga rribio, to run, to gallop. 
Kbiomba, mother's sister, aunt. 

//;;'// r«7r<>, lie comforted. A 
Swahili greeting to one who has 
just lost a relative. 
Mbisi, parched Indian corn. 
M in. a proclamation, public notice. 
Ml'iru, ripe. See -bivu and -wivu. 
Kupiga rribizi, to dive. 

t, vegetables, greens. 
Mboga mnanaa, a kind of mint. 

•go, plur. miboga, a pumpkin 

ifboleo, manure. 

Mhoiial Why? for what reason? 

Used especially with negatives. 
Mboni ya jicho, the apple of the 
Mbono, castor-oil plant (?). [eye. 
Mboo, the penis. 

», a climbing plant yielding a 
superior kind of oil. 
Moi », bad, rotten, corrupt. See 

'/ and -bovu. 
Mbtt = Imbu, a mosquito. 
Jf&ut, a buffalo's horn, which is 

iten as a musical instrument. 
Mbuja, a bw< 11, dandy, gracefully. 
Knsema mbuja, to say elegantly. 
Mbulu, a crocodile (?). 
Mbungu, a hurricane (Kishenzi). 
i ostrich. 
'/, plur. rnibuyu, a baobab 
tr- calabash tree. They are 

gent.. ill;, looked upon a a haunted. 

Mbuzi, a goat, goats. 

Mbuzi ya kukunia nasi, an iron 
t .rape cocoa-nut for cooking 
with. , , . 

Mbwa, a dog, dogs. *-*** 

Mbwa ica mvritu, a jackal, 
Mbtoayi, wild, fierce. 
Mbtoe, little pebbles, little white 

stones larger than changarawi. 
Mbweha, a fox. 
Mbm u, eructation, belching. 
Mil, a, one who fears. 

Mcha M>ningu,aGod-{eanugmim. 
Mchafu, filthy. 

Mchago, the pillow end of the bed. 
Mckakacho, footsteps (?). 
Mchana or Mfana, daylight, day- 
time, day. 
Mchanga or Mtanga, sand. 
Mchawi, plur. wachawi, a wizard. 
Mrhayi, lemon grass. 
Mche, plur. Miche, a plant, a slip, a 

Mche, a kind of wood much used in 

Mchekeshaji, plur. uachekeshaji, a 

merry body, one who is always 

Mchele, cleaned grain, especially 

Mchelema, watery. 
Mcheshi, a merry fellow, a laugher. 
Mchezo, plur. michezo, a game. 

Mchezo wake huyu, it is this man's 
turn to play. 
Mchi, plur. michi, or If//, plur. m///, 

the pestle used to pound or to 

clean corn with. Also a screw 

of paper to put groceries in (?). 
Mchicha, plur. michicha, a common 

spinach-like plant used as a 

veg< table. 




Mchikkhi, plur. michikichi, the 
palm-oil tree. 

Mchilizi, plur. michilizi, the eaves. 

Mchiro, plur. wachiro, a mangouste. 

Mclwchoro, passage, an opening be- 

Mchofu = Mchovu. 

Mchongoma, plur. michongoma, a 
thorny shrub with white flowers 
and a email black edible fruit. 

Mchorochoro, a rapid writer. 

Mchovu, plur. wachovu, weary, lan- 
guid, easily tired, tiring, tire- 

Mchumba, a sweetheart, one who 
seeks or is sought by another 
in marriage. 
Mke mchumba, widow (?). 

Mchumbuluru, a kind of fish. 

Mchunga (or Mtunga), plur. wa- 
chunga, a herdman, a groom, one 
who has the care of animals. 

Mchungaji, a herdsman, shepherd. 

Mchuruzi, plur. Wachuruzi, one who 
keeps a stall, a trader in a very 
small way. 

M-huzi, or Mtuzi, curry, gravy, soup. 

Mchica, white ants. 

Mda or Muda, a space of time, the 
space, &c. 

Mda, plur*, mida (?), a piece of plank 
propped up to support a frame- 
work, &c. = 'munda. 

Mdago, a kind of weed. 

Mdalasini, cinnamon. 

Mdarahani, an Indian stuff. 


He mdaicari, the softer Arabic h, 
the he. 
Mdeli = Mdila. 

Mdila, plur. midila, a coffee-pot. 
Mdomo, plur. midomo, the lip. 
Mdomo wa ndege, a bird's beak. 

Mdudu, plur. wadudu, an insect. 
Mdudu, a whitlow. 
Mdukuo, a push in the cheek. 
Mdumu, a mug. 

Me-, see Ma-. Many words are pro- 
nounced with ma- at Mombas, 
and with me- at Zanzibar. 
-me-, the sign of the tense which 
denotes an action complete at 
the moment of speaking, an- 
swering to the English tense 
with have. Sometimes it is 
used to denote an action com- 
plete at the time referred to, 
aud must then be translated by 
This tense may often be used 
as a translation of the past 
Yu hayi, ao amekufa ? Is he 

alive or dead ? 

Most Swahili verbs denoting a 

state have in their present 

tense thi^ meaning of entering 

that state or becoming, and in 

the -me- tense the meaning of 

having entered or being in it. 

In some cases the -me- tense is 

best rendered by another verb. 

Anavaa, he is putting on, ameuaa, 

he wears. 
In some dialects the me is pro- 
nounced ma. 
Mea few-, to grow, to be growable. 
Medun, tortoiseshell. 
Mega leu-, to break a piece, or gather 
up a lump and put it in one's 
mouth, to feed oneself out of the 
common dish with one's hand, as 
is usual in Zanzibar. 
Mekameka hu-, to glitter, to shine. 
Meko (plur. of Jiko), a fireplace. 
Mekoni, a kitchen, in the kitchen. 

m i: m 

1V1 F U 

Mi meluka hu (A.), < kle. 

.U. /. ' oi ci roaches. 

Also a Blang term for a rupee. 
Mengi or Mangi, many. See -ngi. 
o (plur. of Jino), teeth, 
no, battlements. 
Menya Lit-, to Bhell, to husk, to 
)hui/n /.■(/-, to beat (Kiyao). [peel, 
Jf( riLthii. a ship, ships. 

Merikebu ya serikali, a ship be- 
longing to the government. 
.!/( rikehu i/n mkiiuja <>r umnnicari, 

a man-of-war. 
.1/ rikebuyataja,a merchant ship. 
Merikebu ya miUugote mitatu,& 

full-rigged ship. 
Merikebu ya milingote miwili na 

■■•i, a barque. 
Merikebu ya ddhaan or ya moshi, 
it steamship. 

-. the mainland of Africa, 
cially the coast south of 
Wamerima, people who live on 

the coast south of Zanzibar. 
Kimerima, the dialect of Swahili 
6poken on the coast south of 
Merimeta /;</-, to glitter, to shine. 
Meshmaa, a caudle, candles. 
Mesiki or Meeki, musk, scent. 
Meskiti Moskiti, a mosque. 
ftf< tank to, to shine, to glitter. 
Methili or Methali, like, a parable. 
Mi •'. a table. 
.i/<--za /.)/-, t<> swallow. 
Mezaurwen h 

Waraka mezawwereh, forgery t 
litre pi< ce of a door. 
M/alme, plur. wafalme, a king. 
M/ano, plur. mifano, a likeness. 
Mfano wa maneno, a proverb, a 

Mfanyi biashara, plur. teafanyi, a' 
man who does business, a trader, 
a merchant. 

Mfariji, plur. wafariji, a comforter. 

Mfathili, plur. wafathili, one who 
does kindnesses. 

M/i /'//. a water channel. 
Mfili&ika, a bankrupt. 
Mfinangi, plur. wafinangi, a potter. 
Mfinessi, plur. mifinessi, a jack fruit 

i ree. 
.1//''/. plur. ica/w, a dead person. 
Mfua, plur. wafua, a smith, a 
worker in metal. 

flf/ua chuma, a blacksmith. 

Af/ua / //"(, &c, a silversmith, &c. 
Mfuasi, plur. wafuasi, a follower, a 

retainer, a hanger-on. 
Mfuko, plur. mifuko, a bag, a 

M/uma, plur. wafuma, a weaver. 
.1// nbati, plur. mi/umbatiythv side- 
pieces of a bedstead. 
Mfunguo, a name applied to nine of 
the Arab months. 

Mfunguo ica must, is the Arab 

Mfunguo wa pili, is the Arab 
77/ '/Z Jlaacto. 

Mfunguo iva tatu, is the Arab 

nv; //".,;/. 

Mfunguo wa 'nne, is the Arab 

Mfunguo wa tano, is the Arab 

Mfunguo wa sita, is the Arab 

liabia al aowal. 
Mfunguo wa caba, is the Arab 

Eabia id alchr. 
Mfunguo wa nniie, is the Arab 

Jemart al aowal. 
Mfunguo wa Icenda, is the Arab 
Jcnuid ul akin: 




Mfunguo wa is often so pro- 
nounced as to sound like 
The other three months, Rajab, 
Shaaban, and Ramathan, keep 
their Arabic names. 
Mfuo, plur. mifuo, a stripe. 

Karatasi ya mifuo, ruled paper. 
Mfupa, plur. mifupa, a bone. 
Mfuto, winning five games out of 

six at cards. 
Mfyozi, an abusive person. 
Mgalct, plur. wagala, a Galla. 
Mganda, plur. miganda, a sheaf or 

bundle of rice. 
Mganga, plur. loaganga, a medicine 
man, a doctor, a dealer in white 
Mgao, a place near Cape Delgado. 
Mgawo, a deal in card-playing. 
Mgeni, plur. wageni, a guest, a 

Mghad, a horse's canter. 

Kwenda mghad, to canter. 
Mgine = Mwingine, another, other. 
Mgogoro, an obstacle in a road, a 
stumbling-block. In slang, a 
nuisance, crush, worry. 
Mgoja or Mngoja, plur. wagoja, one 
who waits, a sentinel. 
Mgoja mlango, a door-keeper, a 
Mgomba, plur. migomba, a banana 

Mgombice, bull's-mouth shell, Cassis 

Mgomvi, plur. wagomvi, a quarrel- 
some person, a brawler. 
Mgonda, a slave's clout. 
Mgongo, plur. migongo, the back, 
the backbone. 
Nyumba ya mgongo, a penthouse 

Mgonjwa or Mgonjua, plur. wagon - 
jwa, a sick person, an invalid. 

Mgwte = Mlingote, a mast. 

Mgunda, cultivated land. 

Hgunya, plur. Wagunya, a native of 
the country between Siwe and 
the Juba. 

Mguruguru, plur. waguruguru, a 
large kind of burrowing lizard. 

Hguu, plur. miguu, the leg from the 
knee downward, the foot. 
Kwenda hwa miguu, to walk. 

Wi-. See MmA. 

Mlialbori. See Kanzu. 

Mhimili, plur. mih'limi, a girder, a 
beam, a bearing post, a prop. 

Mhulu, a large tree lizard. 

Mhunzi, plur. wdhunzi, a black- 

Mi-, plural prefix of substantives, 
and of adjectives agreeing with 
them, which begin in the singular 
with m-, or 'm-, mu-, or mw-, and 
do not denote animate beings. 

-mi, an objective suffix denoting 
the first person singular. This 
suffix is poetical, not used in 

Mia, a hundred. 

Miteen, two hundred. 

Mialamu, the ends of a piece of 

Miashiri, pieces lying fore and aft 
to receive the stepping of the 

Miayo, yawning, a yawn. [mast. 

Miba or Miiba, thorns. 

Mibau, timbers. 

Mifuo, bellows. 

Milmha, marriage. 


Kupiga mikambe, in bathing, to 
duck down and throw over one 
leg, striking the water with it. 


M I L 

M J U 

Mihi, a custom. 

Kteenda milatriba, to go round by 
a new rond to avoid war or 
some other obstacle, to strike 
out a new way. 
Mihh . 1 1. mity. 

Ta >:,:'■ I . eternaL 
MUhoi, jins, which having been 

merely singed, not killed by the 

missiles of the angels, lurk in 

by-placis to deceive and harm 

Miliki = MUM. 

Miliki 1;h-, to reign, to possess. 
MUM, kingdom, possession, pro- 
MUumbe, a speech, an over-long 

• ch. 
Mirriba, pn gnancy. 

Kuwa na mimba or Kuchul;u<i 
mimha, to be pregnant. 

Kuharibu mimba, to miscarry. 
^ Mimbara, the pulpit in a mosque. 
|*ff- Mimi, I, me. 

Mimina ku-, to pour, to pour over. 
Miminika ku-, to be poured over, to 

be spilt, to overflow. 
Mingi, many. See -ingi. 
Miugine, others. See -ingine. 
Mini (At.), right, fc"**/ 

Mini vca shemali, right and left. 
Minyonoa, a kind of flowering 

Viongoni mwa, in respect of, as to, 

on the part of, from among. 
Mtraha, muscles. See Mrala. 
Mirisaa, shot. 
MukUhari, crooked. 
Mi$ko, Russia. 
Hurt, Egypt. 
Mitten, two hundred. 
Miumi, a whistling. 

Miusi, Mack. Sec -eus»*. 

Miwa (plur. of Mho), sugar-can* s. 

Miwali, midribs of a palm-leaf. 

Miwani, spectacles. 

Miyaa, leaves for making mats. 

Miye, me, it is I. 

Mi-.ani, balances, steelyard, scales. 

Mxsif roots i M.). 

Mi izi, roots, rootlets. 

Mja na maji, one who has come 
over the sea, a foreigner. Also, 
a slave. 

Mjakazi, plur. tcajakazi, a woman 

Mjanga, Bembatooka bay in Mada- 

Mjangao, melancholy, silent sorrow. 

Mjanja, plur. u-ajanja, a cheat, a 
shameless person. 

Mjani, a widow. 

Mjasiri, plur. irajasiri, a bold ven- 
turesome man. 

Mjasstm, inquisitive. 

Mj< ledi, a whip. 

Mjemba, a plough (?). 

Mji, plur. miji, a town, a city, a 
\ illage, the middle part of a piece 
of cloth. j? 

Mji, the uterus. 

Mjiari, plur. mijiari, tiller ropes. 

Mjiguu, plur. mijiguu, large long 

Mjinga, plur. vajinga, a raw new 
comer, a simpleton; applied es- 
pecially to newly arrived slaves, 
ignorant, inexperienced. 

Mjisikafiri, a kind of lizard. 

Mjoli, plur. tcajoli,a. fellow-servant. 

Mjomba, plur. wajomba, uncle. 

Mjugu nyassa, ground-nuts. 
Mjugu mawe, a hard kind of 

M J U 



Mjnkuu, plur. wajukuu, a cousin, a 

Mjumba, plur. wajumba, an uncle. 
Mjambakaka, a kind of lizard. 
Mjumbe, plur. wajumbe, a mes- 
Mjume, a weapon-smith. 
Mjumu, studded with brass. 
Mjusi, plur. wajusi, a lizard. 

Mjusi wa kanzu. See Kanzu. 

Mjusi kafiri, a rough kind of 
small lizard. 

Mjusi salama, a smooth kind of 
small lizard. 
Mjuvi, plur. wajuvi, a chattering, 

officious person. 
Mjuzi, plur. wajuzi, a person of in- 
formation, one who knows. 
Mkaa, plur. xoakaa, one who sits. 

Mkaa jikoni, Mr. Sit-in-the- 

Mkaa, an astringent wood used 
in medicine. 
Mkabala, opposite. 
Mkdbil, future. 
Mkadi, plur. mikadi, the pandanus 

tree; its flowers are valued for 

their smell. 
Mkaidi, obstinate, wilful. See 

Mkaja, a cloth worn by women, 

given as a present at the time of 

a wedding. 
Mkali, fierce. See -kali. 
Mkamilifu, perfect. 
Mkamshe, plur. mikamshe, a kind of 

wooden spoon. 
Mkandaa, plur. mikandaa, a kind 

of mangrove tree full of a red 

dye much used for roof beams. 
Mkanju, plur. mikanju, a cashew 

tree (M.). 
Mkaragazo,& strong tobacco. Also, 

manfully, again and again 

Mkarakala, a medicinal shrub. 
Mkasama (in arithmetic), division. 
Mkasnsi, a handsome tree, whose 

wood is useless. Hence the 


Uzuri wa mkasasi, 
Ukipata, maji, l/asi. 

Mkasiri, a tree whose bark is used 

to dye fishing-nets black. 
Mkataba, a written agreement. 
Mkatale, the stocks. 
Mkate, plur. mikate, a cake, a loaf. 

Mikate ya mofu, cakes of mtama 

Mikate ya kusonga, ya kumimina, 
&c, cakes of batter, &c. 

Mkate wa tumbako, a cake of 
Mkazo, nipping, pressing tight. 
Mke, plur. wake, a wife, a female. 

Mke aliofiwa na mumewe,& widow. 
Mkebe, a pot to burn incense in, a 

drinking pot. 
Mkeka, plur. mikeka, a fine kind of 

mat used to sleep upon. 
Mkeo = Mkewo. 

Mkereza, plur. wakereza, a turner. 
Mkewe, his wife. 
Mkewo, your wife. 
Mkia, plur. mikia, a tail. 
Mkimbizi, plur. wakimbizi, one who 

runs away. 
Mkindu, plur. mikindu, a kind of 

palm whose leaves are used to 

make fine mats. 
Mkizi, a kind of fish. 
Mkoba, plur. mikoba, a scrip, a 

small bag. 
Mkoche, plur. mikoche, a kind of 

branching palm with an edible 





i, urine. 

. plur. mikoko, a mangrove 
Wcokoto, plur. mikokoto, the mark 
made by a thing being drag 


'/. plur. mikoma, a large tree 
bearing an edible fruit. 

bozi, plur. yjukombozi, a 
redeemer. .r/WKtf^tfV? 

Mkondo tea maji, a current. 
Mkongojo, plur. mikongojo, an old 
man'* staff for him to lean upon 
as he walks. 

o, plur. tntkono, the arm, es- 
pecially from the elbow to the 
fingers ; the hand, a sleeve, a 
projecting handle Like that of a 
saucepan, a measure of nearly 
half a yard, a cubit. 
Ta mkono, handy. 
CItuo cha mkono, a handbook. 
Mkorofi, ill-omened. 
Mkvbwa, great, the eldest. See 

Mkuchyo, Ma;radoxa. 
Mku/u, plur. mikufu, a chain, es- 
pecially of a light ornamental 
Mkufunzi, plur. wakufunzi, a 

Mkuke, plur. mikuke, a Bpear with 
a sharp point and triangular 

Mkuku, the keel of a ship. 

Mkule, a gar-fish. 

Mhulimn. plur. wakulima, a culti- 
vator, a field labourer. 

Mkulimani, plur. iro!;uUmani, an 

Mktdo, plur. mikulo, a pottle-shaped 
matting bag to strain tut through. 

Mkumavi,B kind of red wood much 

ua d i:i Zanzibar. 
Mkumbii Rfgao.), gum-copal tree. 
MTcunga (?), midwife. 
Mkungu, plur. wikungu, the fruit 

Btalt "i' the banana. 
Mkungu, plur. vdkungu, a kind of 
earthen pot. 

Mkungu wa kufunikia, a pot lid. 

Mkungu wa kulia, a diah. 
Mkuu, plur. wakuu, a great man, a 

Mkuu wa asikari, a commanding 

Mkuu ica genzi, a guide. 
Mkuza, large, full grown. 
Mkwamba, a kind of thorny shrub. 
Mkwaei, plur. vcakwasi, a wealthy 

person, rich. 
Mkwe, plur. wakice, a father or 

mother-in-law, a son or daughter- 
Mlcweme, a climbing plant bearing 

a gourd with round fiat seeds 

rich in oil. 
Mkwezi, a climber, one who goes 

Mlafi, plur. walafi, a glutton. 
Mln In, plur. milala, hyphaene, a 

branching palm. 
Mlmnba, a dark-coloured bird that 

eats insects, aud drives away 

other birds, even the crows. 
Mlango, plur. milango, a door, a 

Mlanza, a pole for canning thii 
Mlariba, plur. ivalariba, usurer. 
Ml'-, there within. 
Ml< oi, plur. walevi, a drunkard. 
Mlezi, plur. u-alczi, a nurse, one 

who rears children. 
Mlezo, plur. milezo, a bnoy. 
Mlima, plur. milima, a mountain. 




Mlingote, plur. milingote, a mast. 

MHngote tea halmi or galmi, the 
small mizen-mast carried by 
large dhows. 
Mlingote tea maji, the bowsprit. 
Mlinzi, plur. walinzi, a guard. 
Mlishi, plur. walisM, a feeder, a 

Mlishf, the month Shaaban. 
MUzamu, a waterspout on a house. 
3/ /oZe, the comb of a cock. 
Mlomo, plur. milomo, a lip. Also, 

Mmoja, one, a certain man. See 

'Mna, there is within. 
Mnada, plur. minada, a sale, an 

Mnadi, an auctioneer, huckster. 
Mnadi hu-, to sell by auctiou. 
Mnafiki, plur. wanafiki, a hypocrite. 
Mnaja, a prophet going to ask a 

thing of God. 
Mnajimu, plur. icanajimu, an as- 
Mnajisi, plur. wanajtsi, a profane 

person, blasphemer. 
Mnara, plur. minora, a tower, a 

minaret, a beacon. 
Mnazi, plur. minazi, a cocoa-nut 

Mnena, one who speaks. 

Mnena laceli, one who speaks the 
Mnene, stout. See -n«ne. 
Mneni, plur. waneni, a speaker, an 

eloquent person. 
Mngazidja, plur. Wangazidja, a 

native of Great Comoro. 
Mngwana, plur. wangicana,& gentle- 
man, a free and civilized person. 
JMnfo (?). 
iV/io, exceedingly, excessively. il/no 

always follows the word qualified 
by it. 

Mnofu, meatiness, fleshiness. 

Mnono, fat. See -nono. 

Mnunuzi, plur. wanunuzi, a buyer, 
a purchaser, a customer. 

Mnyamavu, plur. icanyamavu, a 
silent person, still, quiet. 

Mnyang'anyi, plur. iranyaiufanyi, a 
robber, one who steals with vio- 

Mneyo, a tickling, itcMDg, a creep- 
ing sensation. 

Mnyiriri, plur. minyiriri, the arms 
of the cuttle-fish. 

Mnyonge, plur. icanyonge, an insig- 
nificant, mean person. 

Mnyororo, plur. minyororo, or mnyoo, 
plur. minyoo, a chain. 

Mnyica, plur. tvanyica, a drinker, 
one who drinks. 

3/o, -mo, or -mo-, the particle de- 
noting place inside something 
Mumo humo, there inside, [else. 

itfoaZft, Mohilla. 

Mofa, small round cakes of mtama 

Mohulla, a fixed time, a term. Also 

Moja, plur. mamoja, one, same. 
Mamoja pia, it is all one. 

-moja, one. 

iJfq/a mo/a, one by one. 

ATo/fl baada wa moja, alternately. 

Mm mmoja, a certain man. 

32q/a u - aj>o, any one. 

il/oZa, Lord. Used of God. 

Moma, a kind of poisonous snake. 

Mombee, Bombay. 

Moris, Mauritius. 

Kutoha Moris, to score twenty- 
nine or more in a game at 



M R A 

Kwenda Moris, to mark less than 
twi ni_\ -nine in a game at cards. 
Moron, Boft. Bee -ororo. 
Moshi, jilur. mio8hi, smoke. 
Afow, one | in counting). 

) si, first. 
»7t, a mosque, the ace of spades. 
Mot, , all. See -o<e. 

. i lur. ?)u'o/o, fire, a fire, heat. 

)'<( moto, hot. 

A"< ., '■>, to get hot. 

. plur. 7ti/'di/o or nyoyo, heart, 
mind, will, self. 

Ya moyo, willingly, heartily/ ' ' ' 
Mpagazi, plur. wapagazi, a caravan 

Mpaji, jilur. uxipaji, a giver, a 

libera] person. 
Mpaka, plur. mipaka, a boundary, 

Mpaka mmoja, adjacent, [limit. 
Mpaka, until, as far as. 

Tutacheka mpaka India, we shall 
langh till we cry. 
Mpambi, plur. wapambi, a person 

dressed up with ornaments. 
Mp'tnzi, a sower. 
Afpopoyi, plur. mipapayi,& papaw 

Mparamuzi, ]>lur. miparamuzi, a 

sort of tree said to be unclimb- 

Mpatanishi, plur. wapatantshi, a 

peac' maker, one who brings about 

an agreement. 
Jfpafo, into r! eed work, lattice. 
Mpeekwa, plur. wapeekwa, a person 

-nt, a missionary, = Mpelekwa. 
Mpekuzi, plur. wapekuzi, one who 

scratches like a hen, an inquisi- 
tive person. 
,V//« /'/<:.*', plur. wapehlezi, a spy. 
Mpenzi, plur. icapvnzi, a person 

who is loved, a favourite. 

Mpera, plur. mipera, a guava tree. 

'Mj'lu. new- See , 

Mpiga ra/trili, plur. wapiga, a for- 
tune-teller, one who progrx 
cates by diagrams. Formerly 
they did so by throwing sand, 
whence the name. 

Mpiko, plur. mipiko,& pole to carry 
burdens on. 
Kuchukua mpikoni, to carry on 
a pole over the shoulder. 

Mpingo, ebony. 

Mpini, plur. mipini, a haft, a 

I handle. 

Mpira, india-rubber, an india-rub- 
ber ball. 

Mpishi, plur. wapishi, a cook. 
', plur. vnapofu, the eland. 

Mpotevu, plur. wapotevu, a wasteful 

Mjmliif, plur. vwpofoe, perverse, 
wilful, good-for-nothing. 

Mpumbqfu, plur. toapwmbafu, a fool. 

Mpunga, rice, either growing <>r 
while yet in the husk. 

Mpungati, plur. mipwngati, a kind 
of cactus. 

Mpuzi. plur. wapuzi, a silly chat- 
)■ rer. 

Mpwa, the sea-beach (M.). 

Mpweke, plur. mipwelte, a shor 
thick stick, a bludgeon. 

Mpya, new. See -pya. 

Mraba, plur. miraba, muscles, 
ilfiw tea miraba minne, a very 
strong man. 

Nruhba, square. 

Mradi, preferably (?). 

Mramma, the rolling of a ship. 

Mrashi, plur. mirashi, a long-necl ed 
bottle, often of silver, used to 
sprinkle scent from; a woman's 




Mremo, plur. waremo, a Portuguese. 

Also Mrenu. 
Mrenaha, the thorn-apple plant. 
Mrenu, plur. Warenu, a Portuguese. 
Mrithi, plur. warithi, an heir, an 

Mruba, plur. miruba, a leech. 
Mrungura, people who rob and com- 
mit violence at night. 
Mrututu, sulphate of copper, blue- 
Msaada, help. [stone. 

Msafara, plur. misafara, a caravan. 
Msqfiri, plur. wasafiri, a traveller, 

one on a journey. 
Hsahafu, plur. misahafu, a koran, 
a sacred book. 

Msaliafu wa Sheitani, a butterfly. 
Msaliau, plur. wasahau, one who 

forgets, a forgetful person. 
Msaji, teak. 
Msala. See Musala. 
Msalaba, a cross. 
Msaliti, a betrayer of secrets. 
Msamehe, plur. wasamelie, forgiving. 
Msangao, astonishment. 
Msapata, a kind of dance, 
ilfsasa, sandpaper, a shrub with 

leaves like sandpaper. 
Msayara, kind, gentle. 
Msazo, remainder. 
Mselehisha, plur. waselehisha, a 

Msemaji, plur. wasemaji, a talker, 

an eloquent person. 
Msemi, plur. wasemi, a talker, a 

Mseto, a sort of food, a mixture of 

mtama and chooko. 
Msewe, plur. misewe, a sort of 

castanet tied to the leg. 
Mshabaha, similar. 
.Ms7ia?tara, plur. mishahara, monthly 

pay, wages. 

Mshakiki, small pieces of meat 
cooked on a skewer. 

Msliale or Mshare, plur. mishale, an 

Msharika, plur. washarika, a 

Mshayi = Mchayi. 

Msheheri or Mshehiri, plur. TPas/te- 
fcero, a native of Sheher in 
Arabia, many of whom are settled 
in Zanzibar. The butchers and 
coarse mat makers are almost all 
Sheher men. 

Mshiki, one who holds. 

MshiM shikio, the steersman. 

Mshindani, plur. washindani, ob- 
stinate, resisting. 

Mshindio, woof. 

Mshindo (obscene), coitus. 

Mahipa, plur. mishipa, a blood- 
vessel, a nerve, any disease affect- 
ing these, hydrocele. 

MsMpavu, plur. washipavu, obsti- 

Mshipi, plur. mishipi, a net, a girdle. 

Mshoni, plur. washoni, a tailor, a 
Mshoni viatu, a shoemaker. 

M^hono, plur. mishono, a seam. 

Mshtaka, plur. mishtaka, an accusa- 
tion, a charge before a judge. 

Mshtaki, a prosecutor. 

Hshuko, coming down, coming away 
from performing one's devo- 
Mshuko wa magaribi, about a 
quarter of an hour after sunset. 
Mshuko wa alasiri kasiri, about 

5 P.M. 

Hshuko wa eslia, about an hour 
after sunset, or from 7 till 

8 P.M. 

Mshumaa = Meshmaa. 


M s I 

M T A 

'ur. tnisiba, a calamity, a 
grief, mourning. 
M-i/u. a flatti 
Msifu'mno, plur. wasifu'mno, an 

. xceesive praiser, a Batterer. 
Msijana, a bachelor (?). 
Msimamizi, ]>lur. toostmamm, an 
ker, a steward, the head 
man over a plantation, who is 
nearly always a free man, often 
an Arab. 

.7, plur. misinji, foundations, 
trench for laying foundations. 
Msinzi, plur. misinzi, a sort of man- 

\e tree. 
M$io, a piece of stone to rub Uwa 

M io, a fated thing, what will de- 
stroy or affect a person. See 
M ',■/. plur. irasiri, a confidential 

1 ii rson, one trusted with secrets. 
Msitani [Pemba] = Barazani. 
U-/ ■■//. a forest. 

.1/ //« tea mift, a thick wood. 
Msomari, plur. misomari, a nail, an 

iron nail. See Marashi. 
Msondo, a very tall drum, beaten on 

ial occasions. 
Msonyo, a whistling. 
Mstadi, plur. wastadi, a skilful 

workman, a good hand. 
Mdaliamili or Mstiihiuiili, plur. wet- 
Htahimili, a patient, enduring, 
long-suffering person. 

'.i, plur. waalaki, a prosecutor- 
,««, a shoe; a piece of wood 
fixed to the keel, with a hole to 
receive the heel of the mast. 
M i, ni. plur. mietari, a line, a line 
Eupiga mslari, to draw a line. 
•dr, a custard apple. 

Msuaki, plur. litititalii, a tooth stick, 

a little stick of the eamborau 
tree, used as a tooth-brush. It 
is prepared by chewing the end 

until it becomes a mcro bunch of 
til ires. 
Msnji, plur. misitfi, a tree bearing a 
pod of soft cotton, Eriodendron 
Mmhani, plur. misulcani, a rudder. 
Msuhano. See Ki Tee. 
Msuluhiiva, a peacemaker. 
M< a mart = Msorfiari. 
Msumeno, plur. misumeno, a saw. 
Msumkule, the name of Lion go's 

1/ unobari, fir tree, deal. 
Msuruahi, plur. mimruaki, the 
wooden button which is grasped 
between the toes to hold on tbe 
wooden clogs commonly worn by 
women and in the house. 
Meuzo, the handle of a millstone. 
Msweni = Msueni, cholera. 
Mia or Mtaa, plur. mita, a district, 
a quarter of a town. 
The mita of Zanzibar, starting 
from the western point and 
going round the outside first, 
and then into the middle, 
are : Shangani, Baghani, Gere- 
zani, Forthani, Mita ya pwani, 
Kiponda, Mbuyuni, Malindi. 
Funguni, Jungiani, Kokoni, 
Mkunazini, Kibokoni, Kidu- 
tani, Mzambarauni, Kijuka- 
kuni, Vuga, Mnazimoja, Mji 
mpya, Mtakuja, Jumea, Soko la 
i\Iahogo, Kajiflcheui, Mfuuni, 
Migomboni, Tiuyani, Shun, 
Hurumzi, Kutani, Mwavi. All 
these are on the peninsula, 
which joins the mainland only 




at Mnazi moja. Funguni is 
on the point where the creek 
enters, which almost surrounds 
the town. Crossing the creek 
by the bridge, there are the 
following mita : — Ng'ambo, 
Mchangani, Gulioni, Kwa 
Buki, Vikokotoni, Kisimani 
kwa kema, Mchinjani, Mweni- 
be mjugu, Kikwajuni, Mkadini, 
and then Mnazi moja again. 
Mtaala — Mtala. 
Mtabari, credible. 

Mtai, a scratch, a slight superficial 
Kupiga mtai, to scratch. 
Mtaimbo, plur. mitaimbo, an iron 

bar, a crowbar. 
Mtajiri, plur. watajiri, a merchant, 
a rich man. More correctly 
Mtalcaso, the rustling of new or 
clean clothes. 
Kupiga mtahaso, to rustle. 
Mtala = Mtaala, practice, study. 
Mtali, plur. mitali, bangles, anklets. 
Mtama, millet, Caffre corn. 

Mtama mtindi, half-grown stalks 

of mtama. 
Mtama tete, fully formed but not 
yet ripe. 
Mtamba, plur. mifamba, a young she- 
animal which has not yet borne. 
Mtambo, plur. mitambo, a spring, a 

trap with a spring, a machine. 
Mtanashati, a swell, dandy. 
Mtandi, a loom. 
Mtando, the warp in weaving. 
Mlani, plur. watani, one who belongs 

to a kindred tribe or race. 
Mtaowa, plur. wataowa, a devout 

Mtaramu, shrewd, wise. 

Mtatago, a tree or beam thrown 
across a stream. 

Mtego, plur. mitego, a trap. 

Mtendaji, plur. watendaji, an active 

Mtende, plur. mitende, a date palm. 

Mtepe, plur. mitepe, a kind of dhow 
or native craft belonging chiefly 
to Lamoo and the coast near it. 
Mitepe are sharp at the bows 
and stern, with a head shaped 
to imitate a camel's head, orna- 
mented with painting and tassels 
and little streamers. They carry 
one large square mat sail, and 
have always a white streamer or 
pennant at the mast-head : their 
planking is sewn together, and 
they are built broad and shallow. 

Mtesi, an adversary, a quarrelsome 
litigious person. 

Mtesteslii, comic. 

Mteule, plur. wateule, chosen, select. 

Mthamini, a surety, 

Mthulimu, a cheat, a thief. 

Mti, plur. miti, a tree, pole, wood. 
Mti kati, a tall post set in the 
ground between a prisoner's 
legs, so that when his feet are 
fettered together he can only 
move in a circle round the post. 

Mtisliamba, a charm of any kind. 

Mti, scrofulous and gangrenous 

Mtiba, a darling, a term of endear- 

Mtii, plur. watii, obedient. 

Mtima, heart, chest (old Swahili 
and Kiyao). 

Mtindi, buttermilk. 

Mtindo, size, form, shape, pattern. 

Mtini, plur. mitini, a fig tree. 

Mto, plur. mito, a river, a stream. 




Mlo wa branching river, ;i 

2lf2o, plur. mil", a pillow, a cushion. 

. a kind of wood of whicb 
the best bakoras arc made. 
Mtofaa, plur. mitofaa, an apple 
like fruit. 

. a swelling of the glands al 
the bend of the thigh followed 
by fever. 
Mlomo, firmness, good building. 
Jtftomondo,plur. mitomondo,the Bar- 
ringtonia ; its fruit is exported to 

the day after the day 
Mtondo goo, the day after that. 

 loo, plur. mitindoo, Callo- 
phyllum inophyllum ; oil is made 
from its Bei da 
illongozi, plur. icatongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to allure 
wi 'men. 
Mtoro, plur. iraforo, a runaway. 
Mtoto, plur. wafolo, a child. Used 
also generally of anything 
small of its kind, when men- 
tioned in connection with 
something larger to which it is 
attached; e.g. young shoots, 
small boats, &c. 
Mtoto wa watu, a child of some- 
body, having relations, a woman 
of respectable family as dis- 
hed from one of slave 
e, a woman therefore 
who has somewhere to go if Bhe 
leaves her husband, or he her. 
Mtoto wa meza, a drawer of a 

>, without manners, shameless. 
Mtu, plur. watu, a pen on, a man. 
[y, anybody. 

Wakuna mtu, there is nobody. 
Mtu gani i of what tribe? 
Mtu wa .-v (•/,■«//, a limn in govern- 
ment employ. 

Mtulinga, plur. mitulinga, the col- 
lar bone. 

Mtulivu, plur. watulivu, a quiet 

Mtumaini, plur. tcatumaini, san- 
guine, confident. 

Mturriba, plur. mitumba, a bale of 
cloth made up for a caravan. 

Mtumbuizi, plur. icatumbuir.i,a spy, 
an inquisitive person (A.). 

Mtumbwi, plur. mitumhwi, a canoe 
hollowed out from the trunk of 
a tree, distinguished from a 
galawa by having 1:0 outriggers, 
and being generally of larger 

Mhnne, plur. mitume, an apostle, a 
prophet. Applied especially lo 
Mohammed as a translation of 
his title, Apostle of God. 

Mtvmhe, plur. watuwake, a woman, 
a wife. 

Mtumishi, plur. watumuhi, a ser- 

Mlumwa, plur. watumwa, a slave, a 

Mtundu, mischievous, perverse, 

Mtungi, plur. mitungi,a. water-jur. 

Ml >i pa, plur. mitupa, euphorbia. 

Mtupu, bare. See -tupu. 

Mtutu, plur. mitutu (Ar.), a mul- 
berry tree. 

Mtuzi, curry, gravy (M.). Also 

Mtwango, plur. mittcango, a pestle 
for pounding and cleaning corn. 

Mu-. See M-. 

Mua, plur 1 sugar-cane. 




Mubatharifu, extravagant. 

Muda or Mda, a space of time, term. 

Muda wa, the space of. 
Mudu Aw-. 
Kujimudu,to gain a little strength 
after illness. 
Muhadimu, plur. wahadimu, a ser- 
vant, one of the original inhabi- 
tants of Zanzibar. These waha- 
dimu pay two dollars a year for 
each household to the Munyi 
mliuu, of which Seyed Majid now 
(1870) takes one; they also work 
for him. They all live in vil- 
lages in the country, and speak a 
language of which there are at 
least two dialects, materially 
different from the Swahili of the 

Muharabu, plur. waharabu, mis- 
chievous, destructive. 

Muliaribivu, plur. waharibivu, a de- 
structive person, one who ruins 
himself, destroys his own chances. 

Muhdruma, a kind of silk handker- 
chief, worn instead of a turban. 

Muhindi, plur. Wahindi, a native 
of India, especially an Indian 
Mussulman, of whom there are 
two chief sects settled in Zanzi- 
bar, the Khojas and Bohras. 

Muhindi, plur. mihindi, the Indian 
corn plant. Also Mahindi. 

Muhogo, cassava, manioc. 

Muhtasari, an abridgment, a sum- 

Muhulla, time, a fixed period. 

Muhuri, a seal. 

Mujiza, plur. miujiza, a wonderful 
thing, a miracle. Also Mwujiza. 

Midi or Midia, clever, knowing. 

Muliha hu-, to show a light, to 

Mulki, a kingdom. 
Mume, male. See -ume. 
Mumimi, Azrael, the angel of death. 
Mumunye, plur. mamumunye, a kind 
of gourd resembling a vegetable 
marrow. It often grows of such 
a shape that its hard rind, when 
ripe, can be used for bottles, 
ladles, and spoons. 
Mumyani, a mummy. Mummy is 

still esteemed as a medicament. 
Munda, plur. miunda, a piece of 
plank to serve as cap to a post. 
See also Mda. 
Mundu, plur. miundu, a bill, a 

small hatchet. 
Munyi, a chief, a sheykh. Tbe 
Munyi mhuu is esteemed the true 
Sultan of the Swahili, at least in 
the island of Zanzibar and the 
parts adjacent. He is descended 
from an ancient Persian family, 
the heiress of which married, 
some generations since, au Arab 
from Yemen. The title is now 
(1874) in abeyance. His chief 
residence is at Dunga, near the 
centre of the island. 
Muomo, plur. miomo, the moustache, 

the lip. 
Musala, plur. misala, an oval mat 
used to perform the Mohammedan 
devotions upon. 
Musama, pardon. 

Musimi, the northerly winds, which 
blow in December, January, and 
February. The musimi is some- 
times reckoned to extend till 
Musimo = Musimi. 
Mustarehe, enjoyment. 
Mustarifu, with a competency, 
neither rich nor poor. 

2 A 

m i r 

}l w A 

Mutaabir, oredil 

Mutia, obedience. 

Mnuaji, plur. wauaji, a murderer, 

a slayer. 
Muuguzi, plur. toauguzi, a nurse, 

 who nurses sick people. 
Muumi.-ld\ plur. tcaumtsZtt, a cupper . 

, Muundi ira mguu (A.), the shin. 

^^ Sfuti , God, plur. miungu. The 
^_ bili rarely use Muungu or 

'Mungu alone. They almost 
always say 2M i '3I"u<jh. 

Vashini ya Muungu, a poor free 
Muzimo, a place where offerings are 
made to some spirit supposed to 
haunt there. Baobab trees are 
generally supposed to be haunted 
Mvi, grey hairs. [by spirits. 

Mvffi, the shade of a tree. 
Mvinje, Cassiorinus. 
Mvinyo, strong wine, spirits, wine. 
Mriringo, round, roundness. 
Mvita, Mombas. 
Mvivu, idle. See -vivu. 
Mvua, rain, rains. 

Mvua ya mwalca, the rain which 
falls about August 
Mvuje, assafcetida. 
Mvuhe, vapour, steam. 
tfvukuto, plur. mivuhuto, a lever. 
Mralana, plur. wavulana, a young 
man whose beard is just begin- 
ning to grow. 
M>ule, the lesser rains, about 

October or November. 
Mvulini, in the shade. 
Mcuma, plur. mivuma, the borassus 

Mcumilivu, plur. xravumilivu 
patient, long-suffering. 

 mo, a rubber, 6ix g mes won by 
one side (in cards;. 

Mmmda,or Mvunja, plur. wavunda, 

a breaker, a destroyer, one who 

gu, the hollow of a tree, a 
hollow tree. 
Mvungu tea hitanda, the space 
under a bedstead. 
Mvuvi, plur. wavuvi, a fisherman. 
Mw-. See .1/ . 
Mwa, of. 

il/iraa, plur. miwaa, strips of the 
leaf of a tree called mJcoma (?). 
used to make coarse mats and 
Mwafa leu-, to forgive. 
Mwafaha, a conspiracy, an agree- 
ment, a bargain. 

:a hu-, to pour away, to ei i 
out, to spill. 
Mwagia hu-, to pour upon, to empty 

out for. 
Mwajisifuni, a self flatterer. 
Mwaha, plur. miaha, a year. The 
year commonly used in Zanzi- 
bar is the Arab year of twelve 
lunar months. There is also 
the Persian year of 365 days. 
beginning with the Nairuz, 
called in Swahili the Sihu a 
mwaha. From this day the yeai 
is reckoned in decades, each 
decade being called a mwongo. 
The year is called from the day 
of tho week on which it com- 
mences : Mwaha juma, Mwaha 
alhamisi, &c. 
Mwaha jana, last year. 
Mwaha juzi, the year before last. 
Mwdka kwa mwaha, yearly. 
Mwahe, his, hers, its. See -ahe, 
Mwaho, thy. See -alio. 
Mwali. See Mwana mwali. 
Mwali, plur. miwali, a sort of palm 


•with very long and strong leaf 
stalks, which are used for doors, 
ladders, and other purposes. 

Mwalimu, plur. waalimu, a teacher. 

Mwamale, treatment, mode of treat- 

Mwarriba, plur. miamba, a rock. 

Mwamba, plur. miamba, the wall 
plate in a mud and stud house. 

Mwamua, plur. waamua, a judge. 

Mwamua, husband's brother. 

Mwamuzi, plur. waamuzi, a judge. 

Mwana, the mistress of the house, 
a matron. It is polite in Zanzi- 
bar to speak of one's own mother 
as micana. 

Mwana, plur. waana, a son, a child. 
Mwanangu, my child. 
Mwanao, your child. 
Mwanawe, his or her child. 
Mwanetu, our child. 

Mwana Adamu, a child of Adam, 
i.e., a human being. 

Mwana maji, a seaman. 

Mwana maua, a sprite represented 
as a white woman with an ugly 
black husband. 

Mwana mke, plur. tcaana wake or 
waanaalte, a woman. 

Mwana mke wa kiungwana, a lady. 

Mwana mume, plur. waana waume 
or waanaume, a man. 
Mwana mwali, a young woman 
whose breasts are not )'et flat- 
tened, one who has not yet left 
her father's house. 

Mwanamizi, a soldier crab. 

Mwandikaji, plur. waandikaji, a 

. waiter, a table servant. 

Mwandiko, plur. miandiko, a manu- 
script, handwriting. 

Mwandishi, plur. waandifhi, a 
writer, a clerk, a secretary. 



Mwanga, plur. mianga, light, a 
light, a kind of rice. 

Mwangalizi, plur. waangalizi, an 
overseer, one who overlooks or 
looks to. 

Mwangaza, plur. miangaza, a light 
hole, the small round holes which 
are often left near the ceilings 
of rooms in Zanzibar. 

Mwango, plur. miango, a lamp-stand. 
a piece of wood about eighteen 
inches long, from near the bottom 
of which two small pieces project 
at right angles, to hold the com- 
mon clay lamp of the country. 
The mwango is generally hung 
against a wall. 

Mwango = Miango. 

'Mwango, plur. miwango, a kind of 

Mwangu, my. See -angu. [shrub. 

Mwangwi, echo. 

Mwani, seaweed. 

'Mwanzi, plur. mhoanzi, a bamboo. 
Miwanzi ya pua, the nostrils (?). 

Mwanzo, plur. mianzo, beginning. 

Mwao, a worry, bother. 

Mwapuza, a simpleton. 

Mwashi, plur. waashi, a mason. 

Mwathini, one who calls to prayer 
at the mosque, a muezzin. Also 

Mwavidi, plur. miavuli, an um- 

Mwawazi, the Disposer, a title oi 

Mwaya kur = Mwaga ku-, to pour 

'Mweli, plur. waweli, a sick person. 

Mwema, good. See -ema. 

Mwembamba, thin. See -embamba. 

Mwembe, plur. miemhe, a mango tree. 

Mwendanguu, a great and irre- 
parable loss. 


M W E 

M W I 

irfo, ^<>iiiL'. gait, jouni 
nendo, going on, behaviour. 
Mwenge, ]>lur. mienge, a lnimlle of 

Btraw, &c, used to carry a light. 
Mwenyeji, plur. wenyeji, a host, a 
piTson who has a homo in the 
Mm nij' we, plur. wenyewe, the owner, 
self, myself, thyself, himself, 
Mbau za mwenyewe, some one 
else's planks. 
Mwenyi, having, possessing. See 
Mwenyi ezi Muungu, Almighty 

Mwenyi chongo, a one-eyed per- 
Mwenyi inchi, the lord of the 

Mwi hiji kichaa, a lunatic. 
Mux nyi I uhutubu, a preacher. 
Mwenyi kupooza, a paralytic. 
Mwenyi mali, a rich man. 
Mr.nzangu, plur. wenzangu, my 

Mwenzi, plur. wenzi, a companion. 
Mr, re, a kind of corn or seed like 
linseed, growing on a close spike 
like a bulrush flower. 

rem, plur. werevu, a shrewd 
person, a man of the world. 
Mu-we, a hawk, a kite, a kind of 

M,r, 'in feu-, to steal. 
'Mweza, plur. waweza, able, having 
power over. 
Mweza mwenyewe, one's own 
Mwezi, the moon. 

Mwi .', plur. miezi, a month. The 
months in Zanzibar begin on 
the day on which the n. 

first seen, unless tho old month 
has already had thirty days ; if 
so, the day which would have 
been the 31st, is the 1st of the 
new month. 
Mwezi mpungufu, a month of less 

than thirty days. 
Mwezi mwandamu or mwangamu, 

a month of thirty full days. 
Mwezi ngapi ? what is the day of 

the month? 
Mwezi tea sita, the Gth day of the 
Mwiba, plur. miiba, a thorn. 
Mirihaji, plur. webaji, an habitual 

thief, a thievish person. 
Mwigo, a sort of large dove with n <1 
bill, white neck, and black body. 
It cries Kooo ! Then one answers, 
" Mwigo .' " Kooo ! — " Magulie ! " 
Kooo I — " Kwema nendaho ? " 
Kooo ! — then one may go on. If it 
answers not, it is a bad omen. 
Mwiko, plur. miiho, a spoon, a 
mason's trowel. Also a measure, 
direction, prohibition, especial- 
ly of a medical practitioner. 
Kushiha mwiko, to live by rule, to 
live abstemiously. 
Mn-ili, plur. miili, the body. 
Mwimo, plur. miimo, side piece of 

a door frame. 
'Mwinda, plur. wawinda, a hunter. 
Mwingajini, a common plant whose 
leaves are said, when rubbed in, 
to cure the aching of the limbs in 
fever ; a decoction of the roots is 
said to be useful in dysentery. 
Mwingi, much, full. 

Mwingi wa rrtaneno, full of 
Mwinyi = Mwenyi, having, with. 
See -enyi. 

M W I 

M Z O 


Mwisho, plur. miisho, end, conclu- 

Mioiihi (Patta) = Mwivi. 

Mwito, calling, summons. 

Mwitu, forest. 
Ta mwitu, wild. 
Mbwa wa mwitu, jackals. 
Mwivi, plur. wevi, a thief. 

'Mwivu, plur. wawivu, a jealous 

Mwizi (A.) = Mwivi. 

Mwoga, plur. waoga, one who fears, 
a coward. 

Mwohosi, plur. waohosi, one who 
picks up anything. 

Mwokozi, plur. waolcozi, om .who 
saves, a saviour. jPj*' 

Mwombaji, plur. waombaji, a beg- 

Mwombezi, plur. waombezi, an inter- 

Mwomo = Mdomo. 

Mwongo, plur. miongo, a decade of 
ten days, used in reckoning the 
nautical or Swahili year, from 
the siku a mwalca. 
Mwongo mwanga-pi, in what de- 
cade is it ? 

'Mwongo, plur. wawongo, a liar, a 
false person. 
Simekuwa 'mwongo ? am I not a 

Mwongofu, plur. waongofu, a con- 
vert, a proselyte. 

Mwujiza, plur. miujiza, a miracle. 

Mzaa, plur. wazaa, a parent. 

Mzaabibi, a great-grandmother. 

Mzabibu, plur. mizabibu, a vine. 

Mzaha, sport, ridicule, derision. 
Kumfanyizia mzaha, to deride 

Mzalia, plur. wazalia, a native, a 
slave bom in the country. 

Mzalixha, plur. wazalisha, a mid- 
Mzaramu, a pool of water. 
Mzazi, plur. wazazi, a parent,fruitful. 

&' mzazi, barren. 
Hfzee, plur. wazee, an old person, an 

ilfzem&e, plur. wazembe, a careless 

Mzige, a locust. 
Mzigo, plur. mizigo, a burden, a 

Mzima, an extinguisher, one who 

puts out. 
Mzima, plur. wazima, a Jiving or . 

healthy person. ^J^ . jZ^^w ^ i, - 

ilftw mzima, a grown person. «£*^< ** h- 
Mzimu. See Zimwi, Muzimo, 

Mzinga, plur. mizinga, a hollow 
cylinder, a hollowed piece of 
wood used as a beehive, a can- 

Reale ya mzinga, a pillar dollar. 
Mzingi or Mzinji, plur. mizingi, 

foundations, trench for laying in 

the foundation. Also Msinji. 
Mzingile mwambiji, a puzzle, a 

Mzingo, the circumference, brink. 

Mzingo wa, around. 
Mzio, that which wouldbe deleterious 

to any one ; each person is said to 

have his special mzio — of one it is 

cuttle-fish, of another, red fish, 

and so on. Also Msio. 
Mzishi, plur. wazishi, a burier, one 

who will see to one's funeral, a 

special friend, 
Mzo, sixty pishi. 
Mzofafa, on tiptoe. 
Mzoga, plur. mizoga, a dead body, a 

M Z O 


Miomari, Bee 2 '"■'■ 

. plur. ,iu':un>iu, a Btrail ■• 
and startling tiling. 

Mnmgu, plur. JPdzungru, a Euro- 
pean, ono who wears European 

Msungu ira ptli, queen in curds. 

Mzangu wa tutu, knave in cards. 

Mzungu wa '"«< ! , king in cards. 

Mzunguko, plur. mizunguko, a wan- 
dering about. 

Mzushi, a heretic, an innovator. 

?', plur. wazuzi, a tale-bearer, 
one who reports maliciously or 
untruly the word of others. 

3fzuzu, plur. tcazuzu, a simpleton. 

Mueea, used to. 


N is pronounced as in English. 

An t sound is generally connected 
with an initial n. It sometimes 
precedes more or less distinctly, 
and may be written in or '«, making 
n a distinct syllable. Some- 
times the n flows into the following 
letter, so that the i sound is alto- 
gether lost. Very often it follows 
i: as in the common syllable ni or 
vj. It is characteristic of the Zan- 
- dialect to make the initial i 
sound distinct. Thus inchi, a coun- 
try, is at Mombas 'nti. 

_Y< i- < itracted into 'nor 

u. and where n would be dropped 
nt sometimes is so, as in the first 
person of the future tense, nitapenda 
or 'ntapenda or tapenda. 

N cannot be placed before b, ch, 
/, /;. /, p, r, k, t, V, or iff. 

Before b, w, and perhaps v, i\ 
comes m, and w changes into b. 

Before ft, p, and perhaps f, it is 
dropped, and the consonant 

gets an explosive sound. 

Before I, r, and perhaps t, the n 
remains, but the other conso- 
nant becomes a d. 

Before ch, j T to, n, and s, it is 
merely dropped. 

N can stand before d, g, j, »/, 
and 2. 

N before Jc is in two cases at least 
contracted into h. 

Jl'tpenda = Niltapt nda. 

Uipcnda = Kihipenda. 

There is a sound in Swahili which 
is treated as a simple consonant, 
which does not occur in European 
languages as an initial sound. It 
is very nearly the same with the 
final ng in English, in such words 
as loving, going, &c. The sounds of 
n and g seem both audible, but so 
blended that neither of them can be 
eanied on to the following vowel. 
It is here written ng\ to distinguish 
it from the common sound ng, in 
which the g passes on to the follow- 
ing vowel. There is some little 
difference in the way in which dif- 
ferent persons pronounce it; it has 
sometimes more of a gn sound, and 
might be so written it it be under- 
stood that the two letters are so 
fused together that neither can be 
heard as if it stood alone. It has 
been sometimes written H, which is 
either a mistake or very misleading. 
That the sound really is ng, may be 
proved by the fact that such words 
as begin with it are treated as words 
beginning with n, and that when 
other prefixes are applied they are 




treated as if the root began with g. 
It is not, however, a very common 
sound in Swahili. 

There is another sound com- 
pounded of n and i, which is very 
fairly represented by the Spanish n, 
or by ni in such English words as 
companion, &c. It is pronounced 
perhaps in Swahili with a slightly 
broader and more nasal sound. It 
is here written ny, to distinguish it 
from the common syllable ni, in 
which the i has a vowel sound. 

The ny sound in the dialect of 
Zanzibar sometimes represents an n 
in more northern Swahili, as in 

Kunica or ktinywa, to drink. 

The change from n to ny has in 
many verbs the effect of giving a 
causative meaning, as in kupona, to 
get well, kuponya, to make well, to 

N-, or ni-, the sign of the first per- 
son singular of verbs, I. 

-H-, or -ni-, the objective prefix 
proper to denote the first person, 

N- (see ny-). 

1. A prefix frequently occurring 
in substantives which do not 
change to form the plural. If 
followed by d, g, j, or 2, it is 
pronounced with them and does 
not form a distinct syllable. 
Before other consonants it forms 
a distinct syllable, and may be 
written '«- or sometimes in-. 

2. The plural prefix of substan- 
tives which begin in the singular 
with u-, followed by a conso- 
nant. The u is dropped and n 
prefixed before d, g, j, and 2. 

Before b, and perhaps v, the n 
changes into m, before w the nw 
become mb. Before I or r the 
nl or nr become nd. Before k, 
p, and t, the n is dropped and 
the other consonant gets an ex- 
plosive or aspirated sound, and 
may be written k\ p\ and V ; 
before ch, f, m, n, and s, the n is 
merely dropped. Where, how- 
ever, dropping the u- would 
leave the word a monosyllable, 
the u- is retained, and ny pre- 
N- (see ny-). The prefix proper to 
adjectives agreeing with sub- 
stantives of the class which docs 
not change to form its plural 
of whichever number, or with 
plural substantives which make 
their singular in «-. Where the 
simple form of the adjective 
begins with a vowel, ny- is pre- 
fixed, except -ema, good, which 
makes njema or ngema. The 
changes before a consonant are 
the same as those given just 
above for the plural nouns in u-. 
Nyumba mbaya, not ribaya. 

„ chache, not nchache. 

» nclo jo. 

„ fupi, not nfupi. 

„ ngema. 

„ njema. 

„ kubwa, not nkubwa. 

„ moja, not nmoja. 

„ nane, not nnane. 

„ pana, not npana. 

„ 'mpya, not npya or pya. 

„ nde/u, not nrefu. 

„ tatu, not ntatu. 

„ mbili, not nioili or npili. 

» nzuri. 


N A 


No, and, also, with ; by, of the ap;ent 
of a passive, and with, of the 

sharer in the action of a reci- 
procal verb. 
Na when joined with a pronoun 
commonly forms one word with 
Nami, and I, or with me. 
Nawe, and thou, or with thee 
Nao, nayo, nacho, nalo, ami or 

with them, it, &c., &c, &c. 

Na joined with the verb kuwa, to 

be, or with the personal prefix 

only, constitutes the verb to 

have. The object is frequently 

joined with the na, — ana, or 

anazo, anaclio, &c, &c, he has. 

Alicho nacho, which he has 

AHchokuwa nacho, which he had. 

Atakachokuioa nacho, which he 

will have. 
Atahuvm nacho, he will have it. 
The verb kuwa na is used some- 
times in the sense of being, as 
Palikuwa na intu, there was a 
Hakuna, there is not. 
Kuna, there is. 
Zinazo, they are. 
-no-, the sign of the present tense 
of a continuing action. 
Analncenda, he is going. 
And'' ma, he is Baying. 
This tense lias sometimes the 

ct of a present participle. 
Alcamwona anakuja, and he saw 

him coming. 
N.B. — At Mombas the -na- tense 
is used as a past tense. At 
Zanzibar it is the most usual 
Na at 'Nna = Nina, I have. 
Noam or .Warn, yes. 

Nabihisha ku-, to exhort. 
Nabii, a prophet. 

Nadi kit, to proclaim, to make a 
l>id for a thing, to sell by auction. 
See Mnadi. 
Nddira, rare. 

Nafdka, corn, corn used as money. 
Mtama, or millet, was formerly 
used in Zanzibar as small 
change: it was superseded by 
the introduction of pice from 
India about the year 1845. 
Nafasi, space, room, time, oppr 

Nafisisha ku-, to give space, to make 

Nafsi or Nafusi, self, soul, breat'i. 
Nafuu, profitable. 
Nahau, spelling, grammar. 
Nahma ku, to revenge. 
Nahotha ya maji, water-tank. 
Nat, a sort of anvil fixed in a forked 

piece of wood. 
Najisi = Nejjis, profane. 
Nakhotha or Nahoza, captain of a 

vessel, master mariner. 
Nakili ku-, to copy, to transcribe. 
Nakishi, Naksh, or Nakshi, earring. 
Kukata naknh, to carve, to orna- 
ment with carving. 
Nakishiwa ku, to be carved or in- 
Nakl, a copy. 
Nako, and it was there. 
Ndkudi, cash, ready money. 
Noma ku- = Inama ku-, to bend 

down, to bow the head. 
Nami, and I, or with me. 
Na'mna or Namuna, sort, pattern. 
Namua ku- (Mer.), to take out of a 

trap, to extricate. 
Nana or Na'ana, mint. 
Nana, mistress (N.). 




Nnnazi, plur. mananazi, a pine- 
Nane, eight. [apple. 

-nane, eight. 

Ya nane, eighth. 
Nanga, an anchor. 

Kutia nanga, to anchor. 
Nangonango, a worm (?). 
Nani ? Who ? 

Nanigwanzula, a kind of lizard. 
Nao, and they or with them, and it 

or with it. 
Naoza = Nahhotha, a captain. 
Napo, and there, and here. 
Nasa hu-, to catch in a trap. 
Nasihu-, to warn. 
Nasibu, luck, fortune. 

Rica nasibu, by chance, perhaps. 
Nasibu hu, to appoint. 
Nasiha hu-, to suggest. 
Nasihi hu-, to entreat, to beseech. 
Nastahiba, I see it better, prefer. 
Nasur, an abscess. 
Nat a hu-, to be adhesive, to stick. 
Nathari, choice. 
Nathiri, a look, a glance, a vow. 

Kuweha nathiri, to vow. 

Kuondoa nathiri, to perform a 
Nathiri hu-, to glance. 
Natoa, a blemish (?). 
Nauli, freight. 
Nawa hu-, to wash oneself. 

Kunawa mihono, to wash one's 
Nazdr, quarrel. 
Nazi, a cocoa-nut, a fully ripe nut. 

Nazi havu, copra, cocoa-nuts dried 
fit for pressing. 
Naziri = Nathiri. 
Naziyana hu-, to quarrel. 
'Ncha, the point, the end, tip, a 

strand in cordage. 
Nchi. See Inchi. 

Ndaa (M.), hunger, = Njaa. 
Ndama, a calf, the young of a 

domestic animal. 
Ndani, within, inside. 

Ndani ya, inside of. 

Kiva ndani, inner, secret. 

Ndani hwa ndani, secretly. 

Kusema cha ndarobo, to speak a 
secret language. 
Ndefu = Ndevu, the beard. Sing. 

udevu, one hair of the beard. 
Ndefu, long. See -refu. 
Ndege, a bird, birds, an omen. To 

see a woman with a load is lucky, 

and would be called ndege njema. 

To see a man by himself carrying 

nothing is unlucky, and is ndege 


JJnga wa ndere, a magic poison. 
Ndewe, a hole pierced in the lobe of 

the ear. 
Ndezi, a kind of animal. 
Ndi-, a prefix used with the short 
form of the pronoun to express, 
it is this, this is the one, I am 
he, you are he, &c. 

I, Ndimi. 

Thou, Ndiwe. 

He or she, Ndiye. 

It, Ndio, ndiyo, ndicho, ndilo, 
ndipo, ndiho, ndimo. 

We, Ndisi. 

You, Ndintji. 

They, Ndio, ndiyo, ndivyo, ndizo. 

Ndiyo yalio, that is just it, that 
is how matters stood. 
Ndia (M.) = Njia. 
Ndimi, tongues. See TJlimi. 
Ndio, yes. 

Ndivoa (M.) or Njiioa, a pigeon. 
Ndizi, bananas, plantains. 


\ II I 


gala, a thick Bwei t 
kind of banaua. 
Ndiri mjt nga, a long kind of 

banana used in cooking. 
Nd a, a Large ridged kind 

of banana. 
•. mania 

. a lip-ring, worn by the 
Nyass i. 

1 NdooniQfi..) = Njqo, and 
Njooni, C'.me. ^f^* 

a pail, a bucket. 
Ndoto, a dream. 
Ndovu, an elephant 
Vdugu, a brother or sister, a cousin, 
a relation. 
Ndugu kunyonya, a foster brother, 
Ndui, small-pox. [&c. 

X'luli, savage, given to slaving, a 

man wholly without patii ace. 
Ndume, male, from -lame or -ume. 
Ndusi, a box. 
.Y. bit = Nabii, a prophet. 
a. grao , favour. 
uefha ku-, to enrich. 
Nefsi — Nafsi = Nafuri, self. 

•ha ku-, to charge with, to at- 
tribute falsely to. 
Akamnegesha mwivi, and he 
called him a thief. 
Nejjis, 'T Nejisi, or Xajisi, profane, 

X'Ui, a pipe, a water-pipe. 

bo, tribal marks. 
Nena hi-, to Bpeak, to name, to 

vna kn-, to talk against one 
another, to quarrel. 

. thick, Btout, fat, whole, com- 
plete, plump. bL ek. 

! ku-, to talk to. of, at, for, or 
tinst, to blame, to scold, to re- 
: i mend. 

V pa ku-, to grow fat, used es- 
pecially of persons. 

. plur. maneno, a word, a thing. 
Sikufanya neno, I have done 
Nenyekea kit-, to be humble, to con- 

desci ml. 
-nenyekevu, humble, condescending. 
Nepa ku-, to sag, to dip in the 

middle as a long rope does. 
Neupe or Nyeupe, white. See -eupe. 
X> usi or Nyt usi, black. See -eusi. 
-nga- or -nge-, the prefix of the 
present conditional tense. 
ni-nge-kuwa, I should be. 
-Ngadu, land crabs. 
-ngawa, though. 

Ng'aa ku- = Ng'ara ku-, to shine. 
-ngali-, the prefix of the past con- 
nt-ngali-kataa, I should have re- 
Ngama, the hold of a ship. 
Ng'amba, a hawkshead turtle, from 

which tortoiseshell is procured. 
Ng'ambo, the other 6ide of a riser 

or creek. 
Ngamta or Ngamiya, a camel. 
Ng'anda, a handful. 
Ngano, a tale, a fable. 
Ngano, wheat. 
Amekula ngano, he has been dis- 
graced ; that is, having been 
as if in paradise, he has now 
to eat the food of ordinary 
Ngao, a shield or buckler ; they are 

circular and very small. 
Ngara, the young cob of Indian 

Ng'ara ku-, or Ng'ala, or Ng'aa, to 
shine, to glitter, to be transparent, 
to be clear. 




Xgariba, a circumcisor. 

N'gariza ku-, to fix the eyes, to glare. 

Amening'ariza macho, he glared 
at me. 
Ngawa, a civet cat (?). 

The ngawa is a larger animal 
than the fungo. 
Ng'aza ku-, to make to shine, or to 

be brilliant. 
Ngazi, a ladder. 
Ngazidja, Great Comoro. 
'Agre, a scorpion. 

-nge-, sign of the conditional pre- 
sent, would. 

Yangedumu, they would still con- 
Ngedere, a small black monkey. 
Ngema, good. See -ema. 
Ngeu, ruddle used by carpenters to 

mark out their work. 
-ngi or -ingi, many, much. 
Ngiliza. See higiliza. 
-ngine, other, different. 

Wangine — wangine, some — other. 
Ng'oa ku-, to pull up, to root up, to 

pull out. 
JSgoa. lust. 

Kulia ngoa, to weep for jealousy. 

Kutimia ngoa yakwe, to satisfy 
his desires. 
Ng'ofu, the roe of a fish. 
Ngoja ku-, to wait, to wait for. 
Ngoje, Angoxa. 

Ngojea ku-, to wait upon, to watch. 
Ng'oka ku-, to be rooted up. 

Moyo unaning'oka, I was startled 
out of my wits. 
Ngole, rope. 

Ngoma, a drum, a musical perform- 
ance generally. 
Ng'ombe or Gnombe, an ox, a cov^ a 
bull, cattle. 

Ng'ombe nduine, a bull. 

Ngome, a fort. 

Ny'onda ku-, to cure or dry fish, &c. 


Ana 7ig'onga (A.), he is inclined 
to vomit. 
Ng'ong'e, the strips of leaf or fibre 

used for sewing matting, and for 

Ng'ong'o, the thick edge of a strip 

of matting. 
Ngono, the share of her husband's 

company which is due to each 

Ngovi = Ngozi, skin. 
Ngozi, skin, hide, leather. 
Nguchiro, a mangouste. Also, a 

sort of bird = Mchiro. 
Ngumi or Nyamgumi, a whale. 

Kupiga ngumi, to strike with the 
Ngumu, hard. See -gumu. 
Nguo, calico, cotton cloth, clothes. 

Nguo ya meza, a table-cloth. 

Nguo ya maki, stout cloth. 

Kutenda nguo, to stretch the 
threads for weaving. 
Nguri, a shoemaker's tool shaped 

like a skittle. 
Nguru, a kind of fish. 
Nguruma ku-, to roar, to thunder. 
Ngurumo, a roar, distant rolling 

Nguruvu, a kind of jackal with a 

bushy tail. 
Nguruwe or Nguuwe, a pig, swine. 
Nguruzi, a plug. 
Nguue = Nguruwe, a pig. 
Nguue, red paint. 
Nguva, a kind of fish. 
Nguvu, strength, power, authority. 

Kica nguvu, by or with streugt h, 
by force, strongly, rankly. 




Nguzo, a pillar, pillars. 
•ngtoana, free, oivilized. 

Ngwe,aa allotment or space for cul- 
Ngwena, a crocodile, a seal. 
Ngwiro, a large kind of aut. 
2W, I am, was, is. 

A T i is used to express is or was, for 
all persons aii' 1 both numbers. 
Ni (M.), by, with the agent of a 

I ssive verb. 
\ . X-, or N-, I, the sign of the 
first person singular. Before the 
-ta- of the future it sometimes 
-n i- or -?i-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person singular. 
-ni, added to substantives, forms a 
sort of locative case, signifying 
in, at, into, to, from, from ont 
of, near, by. 

1. When followed by pronouns, 
&c, beginning with 'm or into, 
this case implies within, inside 
of, or the coming or going to 
or from the inside of the tiling 

2. When followed by pronouns, 
&c, beginning with p, it signi- 
fies nearness to, or situation at, 
by, before, near. 

3. When followed by pronouns, 
Ac, in kw, it denotes going or 
coming to or from, or at, from, 
and in, in a vague sense, or of 
things far off. 

-n i. added to verbs in the impera- 
tive forms the second person 
plural. It is sometimes suffixed 
to common phrases, as kuaherini, 
good-bye, and tta ncU  Umi, lei as 
go, and is explained as a short 

form for enyi, or nyie, you ! yon 

there ! 
-nt, enclitic form for nini, what? 
•/</, enclitic for nyi as an objectiv. 
suffix (N.). 

Nawaambiani, I tell you. 
Nia, mind, intention, what one has 

in one's mind. 
Nia ku, to have in one's mind, to 

think to do. 
Nikaao, which I inhabit. 
Nikali, and I am or was. 

Nilcali nikienda, and I am going. 
Nil, blue (for washing). 
Nikwata, the little wall lizard. 
Nili, I being. 

Nili hali ya kuira juu yake, I 
being on his back. 
Nina, I have. 
Nina, mother (N.). 
Ninga, a kind of green bird some- 
thing like a dove, a woman's 

Ning'inia ku-, to swing. 
Ning'iniza ku-, to set swinging. 
Nini ? What T 

Kwa nini, or Ya nini ? why ? what 
Ninyi, ye, you. 

Ninyi nyote, all of you, all to- 
Nipe, give me. See Pa ku-. 
Nira, yoke. 
Nisha, starch (?). 
Njaa, hunger, famine. 
'Nje, outside, forth. 

'Nje ya, outside of. 

Kwa 'nje, outwardly, on the out- 
Njerna, good, very well. See -ema. 
Njiaor Ndia, a way, a path, a road, 

Njia panda, cross roads. 



3b* 1 

Nji'ri, a kind of animal. 

Njiwa, a pigeoD, pigeons. 
Njiwa manga, tame pigeons. 
Njiwa ya mwitu, a wild pigeon. 

Njombo, a fish barred with black and 

Njoo, come. 

Njooni, come ye. 

Njozi, an apparition, vision. 

Njuga, a dog-bell, a small bell 
worn as an ornament. 

Njugu, ground nuts. 

Njugu nyassa, soft ground-nuts. 
Njugu mawe, hard ground-nuts. 

Njumu, inlaid with silver, inlaying 
work. See Mjumu. 

Njuwa = Njuga. 

Nnaokaa, where I am living, which 
I am inhabiting. 

-tine, four. 

Fa 'tine, fourth. 

Noa ku, to whet, to sharpen on a 

Noker, a servant. \ 

Nokoa, the second head man at a 
plantation, generally a slave. 

Noleo, plur. manoleo, the metal ring 
round the haft where a knife is 
set into its handle. 

Nona ku-, to get fat, applied espe- 
cially to animals. 

Nong'ona ku-., to whisper, to mur- 

Nong'oneza ku-, to whisper to. 

Nong'onezana ku-, to whisper to- 

-nona, fat. 

Nonoa ku- (?). 

Noondo, or Nondo, a moth. 

Nshi (A.), eyebrow. 

Nso, the kidneys. 

'Nta, wax, bees'-wax. 

'Nti ■=■ Inchi, land, country, earth. 

Nuele or Nwele = Nyele, hair. 
Nuia ku-, to have in one's mind, to 

Nuka ku-, to give out a smell, to 
Tumbako ya kunuka, snuff. 
Nukato, plur. manukato, a good 

smell, a scent. 
Nukiza ku-, to smell out like a dog. 
Nukta, a point, a vowel point. 
Nuna ku-, to sulk. 
Nundu, a hump, a bullock's hump. 
Nungu, a porcupine. 
Nungu [Pemba], a cocoa-nut. 
Nung'unika ku-, to murmur, to 

Nunua ku-, to buy. 
Nunulia ku-, to buy for. 

Nunuliwa ku-, to have bought 
for one. 
Nura ku-, to say the words of an 

Nuru, light. 
Nusa ku-, to smell. 

Tumbako ya kunnm, snuff. 
Nuss, or Nusu, or Nussu, half. 
Nusuru ku-, to help. 
Nwa ku- or Nywa ku-, to drink, to 

Niveleo, plur. manweleo, pores of 

the skin. 
Nwewa ku-, to be absorbed, to be 

Ny-, a common prefix to substan- 
tives which do not change to 
form the plural, where the root 
begins with a vowel. 
Substantives in u- or w- followed 
by a vowel make their plural 
by substituting ny- for the -w. 
Dissyllables in u- make their 
plural by merely prefixing ny-. 
Ny-, the prefix proper to adjectives, 

N Y A 

N Y E 

agreeing with substantives of 
either numbi r of the class 
which do not change to form 
llnir plural, or with the plural 
of substantives in «-, when the 
root of the adjective b< gins 
with a vowel, except -ema, 
!. which makes njema or 
vi- ma. 
Nya kit-, to fall (of rain) ; the ku- 
bears the accent, and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
^[l■ua indkunya, the rain is fall- 
ing (Zanzibar). 
Mvua yanya, rainfalls M.). 
Nyaa, nails of the fingers (N'.). 
Nyaka ku-, to catch. 
Nydkua ku-, to snatch. 
Nyala, sheaths. See Ala. 
Nyalio, cross pieces put in the 
bottom of a pot to prevent the 
meat touching the bottom and 
Xyama, flesh, meat, an animal, 
animals, beasts, cattle. 
Syama mbwayi, savage beasts. 
Nyamaa hu-, to continue silent, not 

to speak, to acquiesce. 
-nyamavu, silent. 

Nyamaza hu-, to become silent, to 
leave off talking, to cease (of 
Nyamgumi, a whale. 
Nyanana, gentle. See -anana. 
-nyangdlika, a sort of a. 

Kitu kinyangdlika, a sort of a 

MnyangtHika ganit What sort 
of a man is it ? 

■ng'anya hu-, to rob, to take by 

vgari, large (spider) shells. 
Nyani, an ape, apes. 

Nyanya, a small rod Bruit used as a 
vegetable, &c. 

Nyanya ya kizungu, a sort of 
small tomato. 
Nyanyam ku-, to profane, contemn. 
Nyara, booty. 
Nyasi, grass, reeds. 
Nyati, a buffalo, buffaloes. 
Nyatia ku-, to creep up to, to stalk 

(an animal, &c). 
Nyauka ku-, to dry up, to wither, 

to shrivel. 
Nyawe, his mother (M.). 
Nyayo, plur. n{ uayo. 

• I; it-, to to itch, to itcb 

Imeninyea, I itch 
Nyefua ku-, to devour like a beast 

of prey. 

Ku >ra na nyegi, to be in heat. 
Nyekundu, red. See -elcundu. 
Nyele, or Nuele, or Nwele, the hair, 
sing, unyele, one hair. 

Nyele za kipilipili, woolly hair. 

Nyele za singa, straight hair. 
Nyembamba, thin. See -emibamba. 
Nyemelea ku-, to go quietly and 

secretly up to a thing in order 

to seize it. 
Nyt mi, a great dance. 
Nyenya ku-, to talk a person into 

telling something. 
Xii'-nyekea ku-, to be humble. 
Nyenzo, rollers, anything to make 

things move. 
Nyepesi, light. See -epesi. 
Nyesha ku-, to cause to fall. 

Kunyeslia mvua, to cause it to 
Nyeta ku-, to be teasing, ill-condi- 
tioned, never satisfied. 
Nyt <ipe, white. See -evpe. 
Ny< usi, black. See -euni. 



30 3 

•nyevu, damp. 

Nyie or Enyie, you there, I say ; 

used in calling people at a dis- 
Nyika, wilderness, cut grass (A.). 
Nyima ku-, to refuse to, to withhold 

from, not to give to. 
Nyiminyimi, into little bits. 
Nyingi, many, much. See -ingi. 
Nyingine, other, another. See 

Nying'inia ku-, to sway, swing. 

Also NingHnia. 
Nyinyi, you. 
Nyinyoro, a bulbous plant which 

throws up a large head of red 

Nyoa, plur. manyoa, a feather, = 

Nyoa ku-, to shave. 
Nyoi (?), a locust. 
Nyoka, a snake, a serpent, snakes. 
Nyoka ku-, to be straight, to be 

stretched out. 
Nyonda, temptation, trial. 
Nyondo, a moth. Also Noondo. 
Nyonga, the hip. 

Nyunga ya sarara (A.), the loins. 
Nyonga ku-, to twist, to strangle. 
Nyonganyonga ku-, to go from side 

to side, to wriggle. 
-nyonge, mean, insignificant, vile. 
Nyongo, bile. 
Nyong'onyeya ku-, to be weary, 

languid, to get slack and power- 
Nyonya ku-, to suck. 
Nyonyesha ku-, to suckle. 

Mafuta ya nyonyo, castor oil (?). 
Nyonyoa ku-, to pluck a bird, to 

pull out feathers. 
Nyonyoka = Nyonyoa. 

Nyonyota ku-, to make to smart. 
Nyororo, soft. See -ororo. 
Nyosha ku-, to stretch, to straighten, 
to extend. 

Kujinyosha, to lie down, to take 
a nap. 
Nyota, a star, stars, point of the 

Nyote, all, agreeing with ninyi, you. 

See -ote. 
Nyoya, plur. manyoya, feather. » ■? >- 

Nyoyo, hearts. See Moyo. C^J^ 

Nyua, plur. of ua, a courtyard, en- 
Nyuki, a bee, bees. 

Asali ya nyuki, honey. 
Nyukua ku-, to tweak, to pinch 

Nyuma, at the back, afterwards. 

Nyuma ya, behind, after. 

Nyumaye, after it, afterwards. 

Kurudi nyuma, to go back. o 9 

Nyumba, a house, houses. ^y 

Nyumbo, the wildebeest, catoblepas 

Nyumbu, a mule, mules. 
Nyundo, a hammer, hammers. 
Nyuni, a bird, birds (M.). 
Nyungo, plur. of Ungo. 
Nyungu, a cooking pot. 
Nyungunyungu, sores in the leg, 

said to be caused by the biting of 

worms bearing the same name. 
Nyunyiza ku-, to sprinkle, to 

sprinkle upon. 
Nyunyunika ku-, to murmur (?). 
Nyushi, the eyebrow. 
Nywa ku- or Nwa ku-, to drink, 

suck up, absorb. The ku- bears 

the accent and is retained in the 

usual tenses. 
Nywea ku-, to get very thin, to 

Taste away. 


N Y W 


Nyroaha kit-, to gi\e to drink. 
A i, jilur. manzi, a By. Also Zhei. 
Neige, a locust. 

\ jtuiziijii. a butterfly. 
Nzima, sound. Bee -:ima. 
.Xzt'to, heavy. See -z«7o. 

\ .ri, fine. See -zurt. 

Ois pronounced a little more like 
air than is usual in English. 

U before o sometimes becomes a 
w, but very often disappears, as: 
Koga for kuoga, to bathe. This 
word and some others in o are 
sometimes incorrectly conjugated 
as if beginning in ko. 

-o or -o-, sign of the relative, re- 
ferring to substantives in the 
singular which make their plural 
in mi-, or to singular substantives 
in u-. 

-o, the short form of wao, they or 

Oa feu-, to marry, used of the bride- 
groom. Passive, kuolewa. 

Oana feu-, to intermarry, to marry 
one another. 

Oavoa leu-, to become married (of 
the mau). 

Oaza ku-, to marry. 

Oga feu-, to bathe, frequently pro- 
nounced koga. 

Ogofisha ku-, to frighten, make 
afraid, to menace, to threaten. 

Ogofya ku-, to frighten. 

OgoUa ku-, to swim, to swim about. 

Ogopa ku-, to fear, to be afraid. 

Oka ku-, to bake, to cook by fire 

Okoa ku-, to save, to take away. 

Okoka ku-, to become saved, to 
Okota ku-, to pick up. [escape. 

Ole, woe. 

Ole wangu, icenu, &c., woe unto 
me, unto you, &c. 
Oh wa ku-, to marry or to be mar- 
ried, used of the bride. 
Oleza ku-, to make like, to follow a 

Omba ku-, to pray to, to beg of, to 

Ombea ku-, to intercede for, to beg 

on behalf of, to pray for. 
Omboleza ku-, to wail. 
Omo, the head of a ship. 

Pepo za omo, head winds (?). 
Ona ku-, to see, to perceive, to feel. 

Kuona kiu, to feel thirst. 

Kujiona, to think oneself, to 
affect to be. 

Naona, I think so. 
Onana ku-, to meet. 
Onda ku- (M.) = Onja ku-, to taste, 

to try. 
Ondo, plur. maondo (A.), the knee. 
Ondoa ku-, to take away. 
Ondoka ku-, to go away, to get up, 
to arise. 

Ondoka mbele yangu, depart from 

Ruondoka katika ub'mwengu htm, 
to depart out of this world. 
Ondokea ku-, to rise to, or out of 

respect to. 
Ondokdea ku-, to arise and depart 

Ondolea ku-, to remove, to take 
away from. 

Kuondolea huzuni, to cheer. 
Ondosha ku-, to make to go away, 

take away, abolish. 
Onea ku-, to see for to anticipate 

for, to bully, to oppress. 




Onekana ku-, to become visible, to 

appear, to be to be seen. 
Ongea ku-, to spend time, to waste 

time in talking. 
Ongeza ku-, to make greater, add to. 

Kuongeza urefu, to lengthen. 
Ongezeka ku-, to increase. 
Ongoa ku-, to convert, to lead 

Ongofya ku-, to deceive by promises. 
Ongoka ku-, to be converted, to be 

led aright, to be healed. 
Ongokewa ku-, to prosper. 
Ongonga ku-, to feel nausea. 
Ongoza ku-, to drive, to lead. 
Ongua ku-, to hatch. 
Onguliwa ku-, to be hatched. 
Onguza ku-, to scorch, to scald. 
Onja ku-, to taste, try, examine. 
Onya ku-, to warn, to make to see. 
Onyesha ku-, to show. 
Opoa ku-, to take out, to fish up. 
Opolea ku-, to fish up with, for, by, 

Orfa, or Orofa, or Ghorofa, an upper 

-ororo, soft, smooth. It makes jororo, 

with nouns like kasha, and 

nyororo with nouns like nyumba. 
Osha ku-, to wash. 
Osheka ku-, to have been washed. 
Osia, learning of old times. 
Ota ku-, to dream (kulota, Mer.). 
Ota ku-, to grow. 

-ote or ofe, all, every one, the 
whole. It varies like the pos- 
sessive pronouns. 

Merikebu zote, all the ships. 

Merikebu yote, the whole ship. 

Tivende sote, let us go together. 

Twende wote, let us both go. 

Lo lote, cho chote, &c, whatsoever- 
(kea ku-, to lie in wait for. 

-ovu or -bovu, rotten, bad, corrupt, 
wicked. It makes mbovu with 
nouns like nyumba. 

Ovyo, trash, any sort of thing. 

Owama ku-, to be steeped. 

Owamisha ku-, to steep. 

Oza ku-, to rot, to spoil, go bad. 
Also, to marry (of the parents). 


P is pronounced as in English. 

P, at the beginning of a word, has 
frequently an aspirated or rather 
an explosive sound, such as Irish- 
men sometimes give it. This is 
very marked in the name of the 
island of Pemba or P'emba. P'epo. 
the plural of upepo, wind, has a 
very strong explosive sound given 
to the first p, but in upepo both p's 
are smooth, like an ordinary Eng- 
lish p. It is probable that this 
explosive sound represents a sup- 
pressed n. 

P followed by a y sound some- 
times becomes/; kuogopa, to fear, 
kuogofya, to frighten ; kuapa, to 
swear, kuafya, to make to swear. 

Pa- or P-, the prefix proper to ad- 
jectives, pronouns, and verbs 
of both numbers governed by 
mahali, place or places. 

The prefix proper to pronouns 
following the case in -ni, when 
it denotes nearness, at, by, near. 

The prefix pa- is often applied to 
a verb in the sense of the 
English there. 

Palina or palikuica na, there was. 
Hapana, there is not. 
2 B 


p \ 

r a k 

It is Dot quite bo indefinite as &u-. 
I'n fctf-, to present with, to give to. 
The lu bears the accent ; 

cannot 1m- usi .1 without a p'i'.-njl 

!. and the objective 
prHix bears the accent. All- 
Jalpa, lio gave you; aWmpa, he 
gave him. The passive is four 
jimi-ii or kupewa, and means, to 
have given to one, to receive. 

. a gazelle, a 6inall kind of 

plur. mapaa,a thatched roof. 
Nyumba ya mapaa manne, a roof 
of four slopes. 
Paa ku-, to ascend, to go up. 
i ku-, to sera] 
Kupaa eamaki, to scrape the 

les off a (Mi. 
Kupaa sandarusi, to clean gum 

Kupaa moto, to take fire and 
carry it on a potsherd, &o. 
Paanda, a trumpet. 
Paange, a horsefly, a gadfly. 
Paango, plur. mapaango, a cave, 

a den. 
Paaza ku-, to make to rise. 

Kupaaza pumzi, to draw in the 
Pa < a ku-, to grind coarsely, not to 

make fine meal. 
Pa '". a i v, in. 
Kuzaliwa pacha, to be bora twins. 
I'd'],, i ya nje, a child of which 
its mother was pregnant while 
suckling a previous child. 
Pachika ku-, to put an arrow on 
the string, to stick a knife in 
one's girdle, &c. 

iri or Padre, plur. mapadiri, 
a padre, a priest, a clergyman. 
Pafu, lungs. 

Paga ku-, to strike hard, to harpoon 

a whale. 
Pagaa ku-, to carry on the shoulders, 
to possess (of an evil spirit), 

Amcpagaica na pepo, he is pos 
sesscd of an evil spirit. 
Pagaza ku-, to make to bear, appl Lei I 

to an evil spirit causing a man to 

fall sick. 
Pagua ku-, to take off, strip oil' (as 

boughs and leaves). 
PahaU, in the place, at the place. 
Paja, plur. mapaja, the thigh. 
Paji , red mtama [Pemba]. 
Pajl la uso, the forehead. 
Pakn, a cat, eals. 
Paha ku-, to rub in, to smear on. 
Pafoaa ku- = Paka ku-. 
Pakacha, plur. mapakacha, a baski t 

made by plaiting together part 

of a cocoa-nut leaf. 
Pakacha, plur. mapakacha, people 

who prowl about at night to do 

Pal-ana ku-, to border upon. 
Pakanya, rue. 

Pakasa ku- Qler.), to twist rope. 
Pakata ku-, to hold a child on the 

lap or in front. 
Pake, his, hers, or its, after jnahaK, 

or the case in -ni signifying 

nearness. See -ake. 
Pahia ku-, to load a ship, to be 

loaded with, to carry as cargo, 

to have on board. 
Pakicha ku-. 

Kupakicha migun,to cross the lc;r.s 
in sitting; reckoned improj^r 
in Zanzibar. 
Pakilia ku-, to embark for, to put 

on board for. 
Pakiza ku-, to stow on board ship, 





Pako, thy, your, after maliali, or 
the case in -ni denoting nearness. 
See -ako. 
Pakua ku-, to take out of the pot, 

to dish, to lade out. 
Pdkuna ku, to scratch. 
Pakutdkea, a place to go out at, an 

Pale, there, that place, of thiDgs 

not very far off. 
Palepale,- just there, at that very 

Palia ku-, to hoe. 
Kupalia moto, to pick up for, and 

take live embers to a person. 
Kupaliwa na mate or maji, to 
choke with spittle or with 
what one is drinking, so as to 
send it into one's nose, ears, 
Palikuwa na, there was or there 

Palilia hu-, to hoe up, to draw the 
earth up round growing crops, to 
hoe between crops. 
Paliliza ku-, to cause to be hoed. 
Paliza ku-, to lift up the voice. 
Palu, plur. mapalu, little cakes of 

sugar, bhang, and opium. 
Pamba, cotton. 

Pamba ku-, to adorn, to deck out, 
Kupamba merikebu, to dress a 

Ku'mpamba mayiti, to put cotton 
in ears, mouth, &c. of a dead 
person before burying him. 
Pambaja ku-, to embrace. 
Pambana ku-, to meet in a narrow 
place where two cannot go 
abreast; applied to ships it 
means, to go alongside, to get 
foul of one another. 

Pambanisha ku-, to bring together, 

to compare. 
Pambanua ku-, to distinguish, to 

separate, to discriminate. 
Pambanulia ku-, to describe by 

Pambanya ku-, or Pambanyiza ku-, 

to overbear by loud talking, &c. 
Pambauka or Pambazuka ku-, to 

become light in the morning. 
Pambazua ku-, to speak plainly. 
Pambele, in front. 

Pambo, plur. mapambo, adornment, 
Pambo la nyumba, house furniture. 
Pamoja, in one place, together. 

Pamoja na, together with, with. 
Pana, there is or are, was or were. 
-pana, broad, wide. It makes pana 

with nouns like nyumba. 
Pana ku-, to make mutual gifts. 
Panapana, flat, level, even. 
Panapo, where there is, are, was or 

Panchayat, five head men (Hind.), 

governing council. 
Panda (M.) = Panja. 
Panda, a bifurcation, as where a 
road divides into two, where 
two streams join, where the 
bough of a tree forks. 
Njia panda, cross roads, or where 
three ways meet ; there is a 
superstitious custom of empty- 
ing rubbish and dirt at such 
Panda ku-, to mount, to get up, 
ascend, ride, to go on board, to 
go ashore (of a ship). 
Panda ku-, to set aside. 
Panda ku-, to plant, to sow. 
Pandana ku-, to lie across Gnu 

2 b 2 


p A n 

Panda mbili, on both sides. See 

Pandieha ku-. to make to go up, to 

hoist, tn raise. 
1'muja lu-, to rent, to hire a hoUBe. 
Panga feu-, to put in a line, to 6et 

in order. 
Panga, plur. of upenga. 
Pangana ku-, to be in rows. 
Panotne, another place, other places. 
S i -u jine. 

Panginepo, elsewhere. 
Pangisha ku-, t<» let a house to. 
Pa igisha fat-, to make people sit in 

rows or in order. 
I'r.niju, my. See -angu. 
l'-unjusa ku-, to wipe. 
In a ja, the forelock. 

Mapanja, the receding of the 
hair on each side of the fore- 
I'anua ku-, to widen, to make 

Panulia ku-, to widen for, to set 

wide apart. 
Panuka ku-, to become broad, to 

Panya, a rat, rats. 
Panyamavu, a quiet place, a calm 

sj'ot. . See -nijiiui'i in. 
Paza ku-, to set up, to raise. 

Kupanza mtarnbo wa bunduki, to 
cock a gun. 
Panzi, a grasshopper, a kind of 

Panzi ya nazi, brown rind of the 

a-nut kernel. 
Poo, their. See ao. 
. clubs (in cards). 
I 'apa, a shark. 

i hapa, just here. 
Papa ku-, to transude, to allow 



Papasa ku-, to touch gently, to 

stroke, to feel, to grope., v fr**^ 
Papasi, t Loks, especially tliose found 

in native huts. 
Papatika ku-, to flutter like a bird. 
Papatua ku-, to shell, to husk. 
Papayi, plur. mapapayi, papaws, a 

common kind of fruit. 
Papayuka ku-, to be delirious, to 

Papaynza ku-, to make delirious. 
Papia ku-, to eat all one can get, to 

eat without bounds. 
Papua ku-, to tear. 
Papura ku-, to claw, to scratch 

Papuri, thin cakes flavoured with 

Papurika ku-, to be lacerated. 
Papuriana ku-, to pick holes in one 

another's reputation. 
Para, a scraping, sliding. 
Para, plur. mapara, cakes of sem- 

Parafujo, a screw. 
Paraga ku-, to climb a tree. 
Parahara, a largo kind of antelope. 
Parapara ku-, to paw the ground 

like a horse. 
Paruga ku-, to be rough and grat- 
Paruza ku-, to grate, to graze, to be 

harsh and rough, to strike a 

Paruzana ku-, to graze (as of two 

boats, &c). 
Pasa ku-, or Pasha ku-, to come to 
concern, to become a duty. 

Imekupasaje ? What have yon 
to do with it? 

Imenipa8a, I ought. 
Pasha ku-, to lend money to, to 
give privately or beforehand. 




Kupasha moto, to ■warm up, to 
■*' *set before the fire. 
Past, a clothes-iron. 

Kupiga past, to iron. 
Pasipo, without, where there is not. 
Pasiice, without there being. 
Pasua ku-, to cleave, to split, to 

Pasiika ku-, to become rent, to 

burst, to crack, to be split. 
Pasukapasuka ku-, to be split up, 

rent to pieces. 
Pata, a drawn game at cards where 

each side marks sixty. 
Pata ku-, to get, to reach, to suffer, 
to find an opportunity, to suc- 
ceed in doing, to happen to. 
Kupata is often used with other 
verbs where we use may or 
might : 
Apate kuja, that he may come. 
Kisu chapata, the knife is sharp. 
Kisu liakipati, the knife is blunt. 
Kilichompata, what happened to 

Chapataje ? What is it worth ? 
Kupata hasara, to lose. 
Fata ku, to make a lattice, as by 

weaving sticks or canework. 
Patana ku-, to agree, to come to an 

Patanisha ku-, to bring to an agree- 
Patasi, a chisel. 
Puthiwa ku-, to be born. 
Pati, a coloured kind of stuff. 
Patia ku-, to get for. 
Patiala, a great cheat, a thorough 

Patikana ku-, to be procurable, to 

be got. 
Patiliza ku-, to visit upon, to re- 
member against. 

Pato, plur. mapato, what is got, 

gettings, income, proceeds. 
Patta, a hinge. 
Patwa ku-, to be eclipsed. 

Properly, to be got, referring to 
the superstition that a 
snake has seized the moon 01 
Pau (plur. of TJpau), the purlins 
of a roof, the small sticks tied 
horizontally to fasten the thatch 
to. Also, rafters (?). 
Payo, plur. mapayo, one who can- 
not keep a secret. 
Payuka ku-, to blab, to talk without 

Payuza ku-, to make over-talkative. 
Tembo limempayuza, the palm 
wine has made his tongue go. 
Pazia, plur. mapazia, a curtain. 
Pea, a rhinoceros. 
Pea ku-, to sweep (M.). 
Pea ku-, to grow to full size, to get 
its growth, to become such that 
there is nothing more to do, to 
reach its limit. 
Pekecha ku-, to bore a hole, to get 
fire by twirling a stick, to trouble 
people by tales and tale-bearing. 
Peketeka ku-, to scorn, to have no 

fear about one. 
Pekee, onliness. 

Wa pekee, only. 
Peke yangu, &c, by myself, I alone. 
Peke is uever used in Zanzibar 
without a possessive pronoun 
following it, and signifies that 
the person or thing is alone, or 
that it is the only one. 
Pekeyetu, by ourselves, or we 
Pekua ku-, to scratch like a hen. 
Pele, plur. of upele, the itch. 




Peleka ku-, to cause to arrive nt a 
place distant from the i" reon 
B] ciiking, to bi ndj to take, to con- 
Pelekea ku-, to send, take, < ir o induct 

to a person. 
Peldeza ftu-, to spy out, to look 

curiously into. 
J"' tribe, horn, corner, ivory. 

Pembe ya nyoka, a small white 
horn, esteemed to be a great 
Kuxca na pembe pembe, to have 
corners, to be angular, to be all 
Pembeni, in the corner. 
Pembe zamvakn. the four seasons, 
points of tbe world. 
Pembea, a swing. 

beleza ku-, to beseech. 
Pembcza ku-, to rock, to lull. 
Penda ku-, to like, to love, to wish, 

to approve, to choose, to prefer. 
Pendekeza ku-, to make pleasing. 
Kujipendekeza, to ingratiate one- 
self with, to flatter. 
Pendelea ku-, to favour. 
!'■ wleleo, plur. mapendeleo, a favour. 
1 '• ndeleza ku-, to make another love 

Pendeza ku-, to please, to become 

lezevoa ku-, to be pleased, to bo 
Pendo, love. 

Pendo la malt, the love of riches. 
Pengi, many plao -ingi. 

J  "jo, a notch, a place where a 
triangular bit is broken out. 
Ana pengo, he has lost a front 
Pmu, your. Pee -enu. 
!'■ nya ku-, to penetrate. 

Penyesha ku-, to pierce, to put 
through, to cause to penetrate. 

Penyi, having (of place), where is 
or was. 

Penyi mtende, where the date tree 
Pepa ku-, to stagger. [was. 

I'epca ku-, to fan. 

Pepeo, plur. mapepeo, a fan, a screw- 
Peperuka ku-, to be blown away. 
Pepermha ku-, to blow away. 
Pepesa ku-, to wink. 
Pepesuka ku-, to totter. 
Pepeta ku-, to sift, to toss in a flat, 

basket, so as to separate the chaff 

and the grain. 
Pepetua ku-, to force open. 
Pepo, a spirit, a sprite, an evil 

Pepo mbaya, an evil spirit. 

Peponi, paradise, in paradise. 

Pepo (plur. of upepo), much wind. 

Pepo za chamchela, a whirlwind. 

Maji ya pepo, fresh water. 
Pepua ku-, to sift apart the whole 

from the broken grains. 
Pera, plur. mapera,& guava. 
Pesa, plur. pesa or mapesa, pice, the 

Anglo-Indian quarter anna, the 

only small coin in Zanzibar ; 

sometimes a dollar is worth 110, 

sometimes only 112. 
Pesa ku- (M.) = Pepesa ku-.' 
Peta ku-, to bend round, to make 

into a ring. 
Peta ku- = Pepeta ku-. 
Petana ku-, to bend round, to be 

bent in a circle. 
Pete, plur. pete or mapete, a ring. 

Pete ya masikio, an earring. 
Petemana ku-, to be bent round. 
l'i to, plur. mapeto,a, bundle, a tiling 

carried, a large matting bag. 




Petu, our. See -etu. 
-pevu, Ml grown. 
Fevua leu-, to make full grown. 
Kujipevua, to think oneself a 
Pevuka ku-, to become full grown, 

to reach its full size. 
Pewa ku-, to get from some one, to 

be presented with, to receive. 
Pezi, plur. mapezi, a fin. 
-pi subjoined to the personal sign 
makes the interrogative which ? 
See Api. 
Nitawezapi ? How can I ? 
-pia or -pya, new. 
Pia, all, the whole, entirely. 

Pia yote, completely, utterly. 
Pia, a top, a humming-top. 
Piija ku-, to strike, to beat, to flap. 
Kupiga na inclii, to strike on the 

Kupiga is used of many actions in 
which the idea of striking does 
not always seem to be implied. 
Kupiga bomba, tc pump. 

„ bunduki, bastola, &c., to 
fire a gun, a pistol, &c. 
„ chapa, to print. 
„ falaki, to prognosticate 

by the stars. 
„ fundo, to tie a knot. 
„ kelele, to shout. 
'„ kengele, to ring a bell. 
„ kilemba, to wind a cloth 
round the head so as to 
make a turban. 
„ kiowe, to scream. 
„ kofi, to box the ears, to 

„ kura, to cast lots. 
„ makofi, to clap the hands. 
„ magote, to kneel. 
„ mbinda, to whistle. 

Kupiga mbio, to run, to gallop. 
„ mbizi, to dive. 
„ miao, misono, or miunzi, 
to make a whistling 
„ mikambe, in bathing, to 
duck under water and 
fling over one leg. 
Kupiga mizinga ya salaamu, to 
fire a salute. 
„ mstari, to rule a line. 
„ mtakaso, to rustle like 

new clothes. 
„ mvuke, to smoke meat, 
„ nyiayo, to gape. [&c. 
„ pasi, to iron. 
„ petnbe, to gore. 
„ pigo, to strike a blow. 
„ pua, to snort. 
„ ramli, to prognosticate 

by diagrams. 
„ randa, to plane. 
„ teke, to kick. 
„ umeme, to lighten, to 

„ uwinda, to draw the ends 
of the loin cloth be- 
tween the legs and 
tuck them in. 
„ yowe, to cry for help. 
„ zomari, kinanda, &c, to 
play upon the flageo- 
let, guitar, &c. 
Pigana ku-, to fight. 

Kupigana kwa mbavu, to wrestle. 
Piganisha ku-, to make to fight, to 

set on. 
Piganishana ku-, to set on to fight 

Pigilia ku-, to beat as the stone 
roofs are beaten. Small wooden 
rammers are used, and a great 
number of people are engaged for 


r i o 


■ut three days, with music and 
songs ; the object of this beatiDg 
is to prevent the roof cracking us 
it dries, and to consolidate it 
while moist. /.»-, tn make to In at. 

Kupigiza tanga, to go so close to 
the wind that the Bail flaps. 
/V<70, plur. mapigo, a blow. 
Pika ku-, to cook. 
Pikia feu-, to cook for. 

Kupikiica, to have cooked for one. 
PUao, pillaw, an Indian dish. 
PHli, a large kind of snake. 
1'ibi, two (in counting). 

Fa j'ili, the second. 

Ta pili yoke, the next. 

Yule wa pili, the other. 

Mara ya pili, a second time, again. 
Philipili hoho, red pepper. 
Pilipili manga, common pepper. 
Pima, plur. mapima, a fathom. 
Pima ku-, to measure, to weigh. 

Kupima maji, to sound. 
Pinda ku-, to bend. 

Kupinda na mguu, talipes. 
i indana hu-, to bend togctl. r. 
Pindi, plur. mapindi, a twisting, a 

wriggle, cramp. 
Pindi, if, when (?), although. 
Pindo, plur. mapindo, the longer 

edge of a cloth, selvedge. 
lua ku-, to turn over, to upset. 

Kupindua hwa damaliui, to wear 

Kupindua hwa goshini, to tack. 
Pinduka ku-, to be turned over, to 

be upset. 
Pinga ku-, to hinder, to block the 
way, to lay a wag< r. 

Kupinga chombo kwa shikio, to 
turn a dhow on one side by 
means of the rudder. I 

Pingamizi, a meddler, one who in- 
terferes to spoil a bargain, or to 

give trouble. 
Pingia hu-, to fasten a door, &c, by 

means of a bar. 

Pingili ya mua, the piece of a 
6ugar-cane which lies between 
two knots. 
Pingo, plur. mapingo, a bar. 
Pingu, fetters, consisting generally 

of two rings and a bar. 
Pini, plur. mapini, a haft, a hilt. 
Pipa, plur. mapipa, a barrel, tub, 

cask, pipe. 
Pipya, new. See -pya. 
Pirikana ku-, to be strong and well 

Pisha ku-, to make to pass, espe- 
cially without intending to do so, 

let pass, make way for. 
Pishana ku-, to pass while going 

opposite ways. 
Pishi, a weight of about G lbs. = 4 

Pisho, cautery, marks of cautery. 
Pisi, parched maize. 
Pitt = F/'si. 

Piswa hu-, to become silly, to dote. 
Pita ku, to pass, surpass, excel. 
Pitisha ku-, to make to pass, to 

Po, -po, or -po-, a particle signifying 
where, or when, while, as, if. 

Po pote, everywhere, wherever. 
Poa ku-, to become cool, to become 
Podo, a quiver. [well. 

Pofu, plur. mapofu, scum, bubble, 

Pofua ku-, to spoil the eyes, to make 

Pofuka ku-, to have the eyes spoilt, 

to become blind. 




Pogo, on one side. 

Kwenda pogo, to go onesidedly, 
not straight. 
Point a, the wrist-stitching of a 

Pdka ku-, to take suddenly and 
violently, to rob. 

Kupokwa, to be robbed. 
Pohea ku-, to receive, to take from 

some one else. 
Pokelea ku-, to receive for or on 

account of another. 
Pokezana ku-, to go on with by 

Pokezanya ku-, to shift a burden or 

work from one to another as each 

gets tired. 
Pokonya ku-, to snatch away, to 

Pole, a little, slightly. 

Amengua pole, he is not very well. 
Polepole, gently, moderately,quietly. 
Pombe, native beer. 
Pomboo, a porpoise. 
Pomoka ku-, to fall in, to cave in. 

See Bomoka. 
Pomosha ku-, to cause to fall in. 
Pona ku-, to get well, to become 

Ponda ku-, to pound, to beat up, to 

Pondeka ku-, to be crushed. 
Pondekana ku~, to crush and bruise 

one another, as mtama stalks do 

after much rain and wind. 
Pono, a kind of fish said to be 
nearly always asleep. 

Ana usingizi kama pono, he is 
never awake. 
Ponoa ku-, to strip off. 
Ponya ku; to make well, to cure, 
to save. 

Jiponye ! Look out ! 

Ponyeslia hu-, to cause to be made 

well, to cure. 
Pony oka ku-, to slip off, slip out of 

one's hands. 
Ponza ku-, to put in danger. 
Poopoo, a bullet, a musket ball. 
Pooza, plur. mapooza, a thing which 

never comes to perfection. 
Pooza ku-, to become useless, to 
wither and drop. 

Mwenyi kupooza, a paralytic. 
Poozesha ku-, to paralyze. 
Popo, a bat. 
Popoo, the areca nut, commonly 

chewed with betel-leaf, lime, and 

Popotoa ku-, to wring, twist, strain, 

Popotoka ku-, to be distorted. 
Pora, a young cockerel not yet old 

enough to crow. 
Poroa ku-, to cool, to get thin or 

Poromoka ku-, to slip down a steep 

place. Also Boromoka. 
Posa ku-, to ask in marriage. 
Posha ku-, to give rations to. 
Posho, rations. 
Peso, a demand in marriage. 
Posoro, an interpreter, a middle- 
Pole, all, of time or place. See 

Potea ku-, to become lost, to get lost, 
to perish, to become lost to. 

Kisu kimenipotea, I have lost my 
Potelea ku-, to perish. 

Potelea mbali, go and be hanged. 
Poteza ku-, to cause to be lost, to 

cause to perish. 
Potoa ku-, to go crooked, to turn 

aside. See Jipotoa. 



-potoe, obstini I For nothing. 

a ku-, to become crooto d, to 
l>c tunud and twisted. 
Povu, Bcum, skimmings, bubble, 

Povuha ku- — Pofiika ku-, to be- 

ie blind. 
Poza ku-, to cure, to cool by lading 
up and pouring bach again. 

. the nose, the apex of an arch. 
Mwanzi wa pua, the division 
between the nostrils, the nos- 
Pua, steeL 

Pun ku-, to shell beans, pi as. &c. 
;/, a very small kind of dove. 
Pujua ku-. 

Kujipujua, to cast off all shame. 
Pukusa ku-, to rub the grains off a 
cob of Indian corn, to make to 
fall off, to shake fruit from a tree, 
to throw coins among a crowd, 

Pukute ya wait, rice so cooked 
that the grains arc dry and 
Pukutika ku-, to Bhed, to drop like 

leaves in autumn. 
7 lika ku-, to hear, to attend to 

Pvlikana ku-, to hear one another. 
i ku-, to puff or blow with the 
mouth. Also, to let go an anchor, 
let down a bucket into a well. 
PuUki, a spangle, spangli 
l'nlulu, plur. mapululu, wilderness, 
waste country. 

mi or Pululuni, in the wilder- 

B-, to tli rob. 
; i plur. mapumba, a clod, a 

r i n 

baa ku-, to be BluggiBh about. 
Pumba.iha ku-, to become a fool. 
Pumbo or pumbu, the scrotum. 
Mapumbu, or koko za pumbu, or 
mayayi ya pumbo, testicles. 
Pumu, an asthma, the lungs. 
Pumua ku-, to breathe. 
Pumuzi, breath. 

Kupaaza pumuzi, to draw in the 

breath, to inspire. 
Kushusha pumuzi, to breathe out, 
to expire. 
Pumzi = Pumuzi. 
I'lim lika ku-, to rest, to breath one- 

Pulhztkio, plur. mapumzikij, a rest- 
Puna ku-, to peel, scrape, scrape off. 
1' inula, a donkey, donkeys. 

Punda milia, a zebra. 
Punde, a little more. 

Mrefu punde, a little longer. 
Punga (sing. Vpunga), the flowi r 
and very first stage of the cocoa- 
Punga ku-, to swing, to sway, to 
wave. Swaying the arms in 
walking is thought to give 
elegance to a woman's carriage. 
Kupunga pepo, to expel an evil 

spirit by music, dancing, &c. 
Kukunga upepo, to be fanned by 
the wind, to beat the air. 
Pungia ku-, to wave to, to beckon 
Kupungia nguo, to wave a cloth 
up and down by way of beckon- 
ing to some one to come. 
P'ungu, a kind of fish, a large bird 

of prey. 
Pungua ku-, to diminish, waste, 

wear away. 
Punguani, a defect (M.). 




Punguka ku-, to become smaller, to 

fall short. 
Pnnguza ku-, to diminish, to make 
less, to lessen. 

Kupunguza tanga, to reef a sail. 
Punja ku-, to swindle, to sell a 

little for the price of a large 

Punje, grains of corn. 
Puo, nonsense. 
Pupa, eagerness, excessive rapidity. 

Kula kwa pupa, to eat so vora- 
ciously that one's companions 
get little or none. 
Puputika ku-, to fall in a shower. 
Pura ku-, to beat out corn. ^^ 
Puruka ku-, to fly off. 
Purukusha ku-. 

Kujipurukusha, to refuse to 
attend to, to make light of a 
Puta ku-, to beat. [matter. 

Putika ku-, to be well beaten. 
Putugali, a fowl [Pemba]. 
Puwo, nonsense. 
Puza ku-, to talk nonsense, to 

Puzia ku-, to breathe, to blow with 

the mouth. 
Puzika ku-, to talk nonsense, to be 

detained gossiping. 
Pwa ku-, to ebb, to become dry. 
Pwaga ku- = Kupivaya. 
Pwai ku-, to be loose, to waggle 

about. See Pwaya. 
Fwani, the shore, on the beach, 

near the shore. 
Pwaya ku-, to give a final cleaning 

to rice by repounding it. 
Pwaya ku-, to be loose (of clothes). 
Pwayika ku- to be quite clear of 

husks, dirt, and dust. 
Pwaza ku-, to cook muhogo cut up 

into small pieces. 

Pivea ku-, to be dry. 

Sauti imenipwea, I am hoarse. 
Pwekee, only, alone (A.). 
Pweleka ku-, to be dried up, to be 

left high and dry. 
Pwewa ku-, to become or be left 

Kupivewa na sauti, to become 
Pweza, a cuttle-fish. 
-pya, new, fresh. It makes 'mpya 

with nouns like nyumba ; jipya, 

with nouns like kasha ; and pipya, 

with nouns of place. 


B is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabic B is much stronger 
and more grating than the English, 
more so perhaps than even the 
Scotch and Irish r. In Arabic words 
it is correct to give the r this strong 
sound, but in Swahili mouths it 
is generally smoothed down to- 
wards that indeterminate African 
sound which is frequently written 
as an I. The Swahili, however, 
often prefer to write and pronounce 
it as a smooth English r. (See L.) 

Badi, a crack of thunder, crashing 
thunder, thunder near at hand. 

Badu = Badi. 

Baff, the wall at the back of a re- 

Bafiki, plur. rafiki or marafiki, a 

Baha, peace, joy, ease, pleasure. 

Baliani, a pledge, a mortgage. 

Bahisi = Bakliisi. 

Baliman, a chart, a map. 

T, A I 


Rat /."-. to put Tii food into 

a person's mouth as a mark of 

honour or al 

'■>/, the Beventh month of the 

Arab year. It is esteemed n 
red month because Moham- 
med's journey to Jerusalem is 

said to have taken place on the 

27th of it. 
Rakhisi, or Eahisi, cheap. 
Rakhisisha /;«-, to make cheap, to 

Rakibisha &«-, to put together, to 

up and put in order. 
Rokihyueo, the composition of a 

/,' imathani, the month of fasting. 
ba, plur. maramba, a piece of 

Madagascar grass cloth. 
Ramha ku-, to lick. 
Samoa, a chisel-shaped knife used 

by shoemakers. 
RarrUi, sand (Ar.). 

Kvpiga ramli, to divine by dia- 
li'nnmu, sadness. 
Randa, a plane. 

Kupiga randa, to plane. 
];<iuda hu-, to dance for joy. 
li'inr/i, colour, paint. 
Rarua hu-, to rend, to tear. 
Rag il mali, chief possession. 
Rashia ku-, to sprinkle. 
V.'//. head, cape. 
R&taba, wet. 
Rdtfl, or ratli, a weight of about a 

Rathi, satisfied, content, gracious, 
approving, approval, blessing. 

Kuwa rathi, to be satisfied, to be 
content with. 

Niurie rnthi, forgive me, excuse 

Kunrathi, don't lie offended. 
Ttathiana ku-, to consent, assent. 
Ratibu hu-, to arrange. 
Ratli = Rdtel. 
Uausi hu-, to trim a sail. 
Rayia, a subject, subjects. 

Rayiatal Tngn z, I!iitish subjects. 
Up or Rei, the ace in cards. 
Bi a or II all , a dollar. 

Iu ale ya thahabu, an American 

gold 20-dollar pi( 
Reale Fransa or ya Kifransn, i 

French 5-franc piece. 
Reale ya Sham or F< tha ya Sham, 
black dollars. 
-refu, long. It makes ndefu with 

nouns like nyumba. 
Regea ku- = Rcjea hu-. 
Regea hu- or Legea ku-, to be loose, 

slack, relaxed, feeble. 
R gt ikn hu- or Regeza hu-, to loosen, 

to relax. 
Ki fcani = Rahani. 

Kuweka rehani, to pawn. 
Rehema, mercy. 

// feemw /i«-, to have mercy upon. 
//■ i = Re. 

Rejea ku-, to go back, return, refer. 
Rejt ~a hu-, to make to go back, to 

Rtkabisha hu-, to put on the top of. 
l!< h liu hu-, to ride. 
r< mo, Portuguese. 

'id, a scented herb, sweet basil. 
„ ya kipata, with notched 

„ ya kiajjemi, with long 
straight leaves. 
Ringa ku- = Kulinga, to sway to 
l he tune of a song (only the chief 
men may do this). 

i, lead. Also Lisasi. 
Ritavi ya bunduli, a bullet. 




Bisimu leu-, to make a first bid 

when anything is offered for sale. 
Eith i ku-, to inherit {-th- as in thing). 
Bithia ku- (-th- as in this), to be 

contented with, to acquiesce in. 
Bithika ku-, to satisfy, to content. 
Biza, a door chain. 
Biziki, necessaries, all that a man 

has need of. 
Bobo, a quarter, a quarter of a 

Bobo Ingreza, an English sove- 
Bobota, a packet or parcel of goods. 
Boda, sheave of a pulley. 

Kupiga rofya, to fillip. 
Boho, soul, spirit, breath, life. 
Boho, greediness, the throat. 
Bubani, a pilot, a guide. 
Budi ku-, to return, to go back, to 

correct, to keep in order. 
Budiana ku-, to object to. 
Budika ku-, to be made to return, to 

be kept in order, to be capable of 

being kept in order. 
Budisha ku-, to make to return, to 

give back, to send back. 
Budufya ku-, to double. 
Bu/uf, the shelf in a recess. 
Euhusa = Buksa, leave. 
Euhusa ku- = Bukhusu ku-, to give 
Buka ku-, to fly, to leap. [leave. 
Bukaruka ku-, to hop. 
Bukia ku-, to fly or leap with, &c. 
Buksa, or Buhusa, or Eulhusa, leave, 

Aupa riUcsa, to give"< 

eave, to set 
at liberty, to dismiss. 
Buksa, you can go. 
Bukhusu few- or Buhusu ku-, to give 
leave, to permit, to allow, to dis- 

Eukhuthu ku-, to run. 

Eukica ku-. 
Kurukica na ahili, to lose one's 
senses, to be stunned. 

Bungu, a club, a mace. 

Bupia, a rupee. 

Bupta = Bobota, a bale. 

Busasi = Bisasi, lead. 

Busha ku-, to make to fly, to throw 
up or off, to throw a rider, to 
splash about. 

Bushia ku-, to throw upon, to splash. 

Bushwa, a bribe. 

Butuba, dampness. 

Butubika ku-, to be damp. 

Butubisha ku-, to make damp. 

Buwasa, a pattern from which any- 
thing is to be made. 

Buzuku ku-, to supply with needful 
things, especially of God provid- 
ing for His creatures. 


S is pronounced as in several, or 
like the ss in German. 

Sh is pronounced as in English, 
or like sch in German. 

S and sh are distinct in Arabic 
and are generally distinguished in 
good Swahili. There are, however, 
many words in which they are used 
indifferently, and in common talk 
the sh seems to be rather the more 
common. Many natives seem un- 
conscious of any difference between 

S is used for the Arabic tha by 
persons who cannot pronounce th. 

In the Pemba dialect sh is ofttn 
used for ch. 

Mashungwa = Machungwa. 


S A A 

S A K 

. hour, clock, watch. 
- > ngapil whal o'clock is it? 
According to Arab reckoning 
the day 1» jina at sunset. Mid- 
nighl i~ usiku saa ya situ; four 
a.m. saa a kumi; six A.M. saa 
a (henashara ; noon, saa " siia. 
Saa ! You ! I say ! You now 1 

N o saa! Come along, do 1 
.s'./.i ku-, to remain over, to be left. 

;, plur. masaala, a question. 
Saanda, a shroud, a winding-sheet. 
Saba, or Saba'a, seven. 

la saba, seventh. 
Sdbaa, a stay (in a dhow). 
Sababu, cause, reason. 
Kwa sababu ya, because of, be- 
Sabaini, seventy, = Sabwini. 
Sabatashara, seventeen. 
Sabuni, soap. 
Sabuni ku-, to bid, to be in treaty, 

to buy. 
8aburi, patience. 

- ■nri ku-, to wait. 
Sabwini, seventy. 

Sadaka, an offering, an alms, an act 
of charity, anything done for the 
love of God. 

Sadiki ku-, to believe. 

Safari, a journey, a voyage, used for 
"time" or "turn." 
Safari Mi, this time. 

- , serene. 
Safi, pure, clean. 
Safi leu-, to clean. 

Safidi ku-, to clear up, to maki 

smooth and i 
Snfihi, rudeness 

'■■/ /.«-, to In- purified. 
Safina (Ar.), a v< 

iriku- to travel, to set out on a 
journey, sail, start. 

Safirisha &«-, to make to travel, to 

see any one off. 
Safisha Ini-, to make puro or clean. 
Safu, a row, rows, a line. 

Safu za kaida, regular rows. 
Safura, biliousness, gall, a coui- 

plaint in which people take to 

eating earth. 
Saga ku-, to grind. 

Kusagwa na gari, to be run over 
by a cart. 
Saga/, a spear, a javelin. 
Sagia ku-, to grind with or for. 

Maice ya kusagia, millstones, a 
mill, a handmill. Two loose 
stones are often used, the upper 
one is called mwaua, and the 
lower mama. 
Sahani, a dish. 

Sahari, checked stuff for turbans. 
Sahau ku- or Sahao ku-, to forget, to 

make a mistake. 
Sahaidiwa ku-, to be forgotten. 
Sahib, sir. 
Sahibu, a friend. 

Kutia sahili, to sign. 
Sahihi, correct, right. 
Sahihi ku-, to be correct, to be 

Sahihi sha ku-, to correct. 
Saili ku-, to ask, to question. 
SnUia ku-, to ask on behalf of. 
Saka ku-, to hunt. 
Sakafu, a chunammed floor, a floor 

or roof of stone, covered with 

a mixture of lime and sand, and 

beaten for about three days with 

small wooden rammers. 
Sakama ku-, to become jammed, to 
Sakani, a rudder. [stick fast. 

Saki ku-, to come close to, to touch, 

to come home. 

S A K 



Sakifu ku-, to make a chunammed 
floor or roof. 

Sala, prayer, the prescribed Moham- 
medan form of devotion includ- 
ing the proper gestures. 

Salaama = Salama. 

Salaam, or Salaamu, or Salarnu, 


Salahisha ku-, or Selehislia, or £wZu- 
/ij's/ia, to make to be at peace. 

Salala, the meat near the backbone, 
the undercut of meat. 

Salama, safe, safety. 

fitoZi leu-, to use the regular Moham- 
medan devotions, to say one's 

Salia ku-, to be left, to remain. 

Salimu leu-, to salute. 

Salimia ku-, to salute, to send com- 
pliments to. 

Saliti ku-, to betray secrets. 

Saluda, a sweetmeat made of saffron, 
sugar, and starch. 

Sama ku-, to choke, to be choked. 

Samadi, manure. 

Samaki, a fisb, fish. 

Samani, tools, instruments, ma- 

Samawati, the heavens. 

Samaioi, blue, sky colour. 

Sambasa, a little pasty. 

Samehe ku-, to forgive, to pass over. 

Samiri ku-, to load a gun. 

Sa'mli, ghee, clarified butter. 

Sana, very, much. It is used to 
intensify any action. 
Sema sana, speak loud. 
Vuta sana, pull hard. 

Sanamaki, senna. 

Sanamu, an image, a likeness, a 
statue, a picture, an idol. 

Sandale, sandal wood. 
Sandarusi, gum copal, gum amiui. 
Sanduku, a chest, a box. 
Saniki ku-, to make excuse. 
Sapa ku-, to tout for customers. 
Sara/u, a small coin. 
Sarifa or Sarf, exchange, rate ot 
Sarifa gani ya niji sasa ? "What 
is the current rate of exchange ? 
Sarifa ku-, to use words well and 

Sdruf, grammar. 

Sarufu, a small gold plate with a 
devout inscription, worn on the 
forehead as an ornament. 
Sasa, now. 

Sasa hivi, directly, at once. 
Sataranji, chess. 
Sauti, voice, sound, noise. 
Sawa, equal, right, just. 

Kitu kisiclwkuka sawa naye, some- 
thing unworthy of him. 
Sawanisha ku-, to make alike, 

equal, even, &c. 
Saivasawa, like, alike, even, all the 

same, level, smooth, equal. 
Saivaica, peas (Yao.). 
Sawazisha ku-, to make equal or 

-sayara, gentle, quiet, long-suffering. 
Sayidia ku-, to help. 
Say Hi ku- = Saili ku-. 
Saza ku-, to leave over, to make 

to remain. 
Sazia ku-, to leave for. 
Sebabu = Sdbabu, cause, reason. 
Sebula or Sebule, reception room, 

Sefluti, a poultice. 
Sehemu, part, share, dividend. 
Sekeneko, syphilis. 
Selalia, a weapon. 


S E L 


Kupa st laha, to arm. 

kUha fcu- = Suluhisha, to make 
to be at peace, to mediate be- 

Selimu fcu- or SiUim ku-, to capitu- 

/ fcu-, to say, to talk, to speak. 
S ma «ina, 8peak out. 

Semadari, a bedstead, specially of 
the Indian pattern. 
huse, much less. 

- „a ku-, to say about. 
Kusemea puani, to talk through 
the nose. 

Semeji = Sliemegi. 

Sena, a kind of rice. 

Si ngenya fcu-. to make secret signs of 
coutempt about some one who is 

Senturi, a musical box. [present. 

Sera, a rampart. 

5 rkali or Serikali, the court, the 

Mtu wa serikali, a man in go- 
vernment employ. 

6 rmala, a carpeuter. 
Seruji, an Arab saddle. 
Sesemi, blackwood. 
Seta ku-, to crush. 

. tela ku-, to crush up, to break 
( into fragments. 
'a< fi, the seveu in cards. 

i i'/ca, &c. See Stiriha, &c 

5 .' Inii, sixty. 
.-■ttiri, mi iron (?). 

6 tfm /;u-, or Setiri, or 5ttfr«, to 
cover, to conceal, to hide, to atom 

ze, much less, much more. Also 

dia, lordly, belonging to the 
Seyedina (Ar.), our lord, your ma- 

8ezo, an adze. 

Shaabani, the eighth month of the 

A rait year. 
s !,,il in, copper, brass. 
Shdbaha, aim. 

Kutwaa ehabaha, to take aim. 

Simla tint, like. 

Nyama shabaha mbwa, an animal 
like a dog. 
Shabbu, alum. 
Shabuka, a snare. 
Shadda, a tassel. See Kanzu. 
Shah, a chess king. 
Shaha,. the heart of the cocoa-nut 

Shahada, the Mohammedan confes- 
sion of faith. Also L'uhuhada. 
Sliahamu, fat. 
Shahawa (obscene), semen. 
Shahidi, plur. mashahidi, a witness, 

a martyr. 
Shaibu (Ar.), an old person. 

Shaibu lajuzi, exceedingly old. 
Shairi, a line of poetry. 

plur. mashairi, verses, a poem. 
Shuka, a bush. 

Shaka, plur. mashaka, a doubt. 
Shake,, ' 

Kwingia na shake ya kulia, to sob. 
»S7iah', a shawl. 
Sham, Syria, Damascus. 

/' ilia ya Sham, German dollars. 
Shamba, plur. mashambu, a planta- 
tion, a farm, a piece of land in 
the country. {uL*Jfrft 0* . 
Shambidia ku-, to attack. 
Shamua ku-, to sneeze. Also Shu- 


.<L<t«na, a town near Melinda, long 

Shanga. [since ruined. 

Mtcana shanga, a northerly wind, 

not so strong or persistent as 

the regular katkazi. 




Shangaa ku- or Sangaa ku-, to be I 

astonished, to stand and stare, to 

stop short. 
Shangaza ku-, to astound, to as- 
Shangazi,plnr. mashangazi, an aunt. 
Shangilia ku-, to make rejoicings 

for, to go to meet with music and 

shouting, to be glad about. 
Shangwi, triumph, shouting and 

joy, an ornament of gold worn by 

women between the shoulders. 
Shani, a startling, unexpected event. 
Shanuu, plur. mashanuu, a comb, a 

large coarse wooden comb. 
Sharbu, a moustache. 
Shari, evil, the opposite of Heri. 
Sharia = Sheria. 
Shariki ku-, to share, to be partners 

Sharikia ku-, to share with, to be in 

partnership with. 
Sharikiana ku-, to be partners, to 

share together. 
Sharti, or Sharuti, or Slmruti, or 
Sliuti, a contract, of obligation, 
of necessity, must. Also, the 
iownhaul" of a dhow-sail, a 
truss. Acs** , |?v.<-»i>w 

Kufanya sharti, to bind oneself. 
Sltatoruma, shawl for the waist. 
Sliauko, love, exceeding fondness, 

strong desire, will. 
Sliauri, plur. mashauri, advice, 
counsel, plan. 

Kufanya shauri, to consult to- 

Kupa shauri, to advise. 
Shawi = Tawi. 
Sliawishi ku-, to persuade, to coax 

Shayiri, barley. 
Shehena, cargo. 

Sheitani, Satan, the devil, a devil, 
excessively clever. 

Shela, a black veil. 

Shelabela, as it stands, in a lot, with 
all defects. 

Shelele ku-, to run a seam. 

Shelle, plur. mashelle, a shell. 

Shema (Ar.), bees-wax. 

Sliemali (Ar.), the left, the north 
(because to the left of a person 
looking east) ; the Persian Gulf, 
Arabs (because to the north of 
Muscat) ; mist (because it comes 
on in the Persian Gulf with a 
northerly wind). 

Sliembea, a kind of curved knife. 

Sliemegi, a brother or sister-in- 

Sliena (Ar.), orchilla weed. 

Slieria, law. 

Sheriz, glue. 

Slietani, plur. mashetani = Sheitani. 

Shetri, the poop of a dhow. 

Sliiba ku-, to have had enough to 
eat, to be full, to be satisfied. 

Shibiri or Sliibri, a span. 

Shibisha ku-, to fill with food, to 
satisfy with food. 

SJiidda, difficulty, distress. 

Shika ku-, to lay hold of, to hold 
fast, to keep, to determine. »^W C 
Kushika njia, to take one's way. 

to set out. 
Shika lako, mind your own busi- 
Sliika ras He, steer for that point 

Shikamana ku-, to cleave together. 

Sliikana ku-, to clasp, to grapple, to 
stick together. 

Sliikio, a rudder, a thing to lay hold 
of. See Sikio. 

Sliikiza ku-, to prop up. 

Shilamu, the stem leading to the 
2 c 


B 11 I 


mouthpiece in a native pipe. 

- ■;.■(), plur. mashimo, a pit, an ex- 
cavation, ii large hole. 

Shina, plur. mashina, a stump, a 
trunk, a main root. 

Shinda Am-, to overcome, to conquer, 
to stay, to continue at. 
Maji yathinda, it is half full of 

Atnekwenda shinda, he is gone 

out for the day. 
Akashinda kazi, and he went on 
at his work. 

Shindana ku , to dispute, strive 
vrith, race. 

Shindania leu-, to het, to oppose, to 
object to. 

Shindana, plur. mashindano, a race. 
See Sindano. 

Shiitdika leu-, or Sindika, to shut, to 
put to, to press in a mill. 
Kushindika mafuta ya nazi, to 
grind cocoa-nuts into oil. 

Shindikia ku-, to show any one out, 
to escort a person on his way. 
See Sindikiza. 

Sh indilia ku- to press, to load a gun. 

Shindo, a shock. 

Shingari, a consort, a dhow sailing 
iu company with another. 

Shingari ku-, to sail in company (of 

Shingo, plur. manhingo, the neck. 

Shinikizo or 16 a press. 

izi, Shiraz, from Shiraz. Per- 
sian work is generally called 

Slushwa ku-, to be weaned. 

6hitumu ku-, to insult. See Shu- 

Shoga, a friend ; used only by wo- 
men in speaking of or to one an- 

other. In Zanzibar they rarely 
employ any other word. At 
Lamoo shoga means a catamite. 

SHiogi, panniers, a large matting bag 
with the opening across the 
middle, so as to form two bags 
when laid across a donkey's back. 

Shoi = Shogi. 

Shoka, plur. mashdka, an axe. 
Sh'ika la bapa, an adze. 
Shoka In tiss, an axe (Mer.). 
Shoka la pwa, an a<lzo (Mer.). 

Shola, an ear of corn, a head of 

Shona ku-, to sew. [grass. 

Shonea ku-, to mend for, to sew for, 
with, &c. 

Shonuka ku-, to become unsown. 

Slmli . 

Kwenda shote, to go with a rush. 


Wa kushoto, left. 

Ana shoto, he is left-handed. 

Shlaki ku-, to prosecute, to charge, 
to accuse. 

Sldua ku-, to startle, to tickle. See 

Shtuka ku-, to be startled, to start. 

Slma ku-, to launch. Pass, kushu- 

Shuba, the elders of a town. 

Shuhaka, plur. vtaahubaka, a ri cess 
in a wall. 

SI, ml a, what is left when the oil has 
been ground out of semsem seed. 

Shughuli, business, affairs, occupa- 
tion, engagement. 

Shughulika ku-, to be occupied, to 
be worried. 

Shughulisha ku-, to occupy, to dis- 
tract attention, to interrupt. 

Shuhuda, testimony. 

8 uhudia ku-, to bear witness about, 
for, or against. 




Sliukudu ku-, to bear witness. 


Shuhuti ya kutolea chant, a small 
piece of wood used by shoe- 
makers in cutting strips of 
coloured leather. 

Shujaa, plur. mashujaa, a hero, a 
brave man. 

Shuha, a sheet. 

Shuka Jtu-, to descend, go down, 
come down, be let down, to land 
from a ship. 

SJiuke, the flower of Indian corn. 

Shukrani, gratitude. 

Shuku leu-, to suspect. 

Shukuru, thanks. 

Shukuru ku-, to thank. This word 
is very rarely used in Zanzibar, 
except in relation to God ; and 
kushukuru Muungu means almost 
always, to take comfort, to leave 
off mourning, or to become re- 

Shuliwa ku-, to be launched. 

Shumua ku-, to sneeze. 

Shumvi, salt [Pemba], See Cltumvi. 

Shunga ku-, to drive away, to scare. 

Sh ungi, a crest, long hair (?). 

Shungi mbili, a way of dressing 
the hair in two masses. 

Shupatu, plur. mashupatu, a narrow 
strip of matting. The broader are 
sewn together to make floor mats, 
the narrower are interlaced to 
make the native couch or bed- 

Shupaza, spades (in cards). 

Shura, saltpetre. 

Shuruti = Sharti, of necessity. 

Shurutiza ku-, to compel, to force. 
Alishurutizwa ndani, he was 
pushed in. 

Shusha ku-, to let down, to make to 

descend, to land goods from a 
Kushusha pu'mzi, to breathe out, 
an expiration. 
Shtiti or Shuuti = Sharti, of neces- 
Shutumiwa ku-, to be reviled, [sity. 
Shutumu ku-, to revile. 
Shicali or Sliwari, a calm. 
Si, not. 

Si vema, not welL 
Si uza, sell not. 
Si, is or are not. 

Mimi si sultani, I am not a sultan ; 

or, Am I not a sultan ? 
Si yeye, it is not he or him. 
Si-, the opposite of ndi-, expressing, 
This is not it. Is not this it ? 
Simi, Sisisi, 

Siwe, Sinyi, 

Stye, Sio, sivyo, siijo, 

Sio, siyo, silo, Sizo, simo. 
Sicho, sipo, siko, 
Si-, sign of the first person negative. 
Sikubali, I do not consent. 
Sikukubali, I did not consent. 
Sitakubali, I shall not consent. 
In the present tense the final 
letter of verbs in -a becomes -i 
Sioni, I do not see. 
-si- inserted between the personal 
prefix and the verb, is the sign 
of the negative imperative or 
subjunctive, the final letter of 
verbs in -a becoming an -e. 
Nisione, that I may not see, let 
me not see, or without my 
•si-, sign of the negative in ex- 
pressing relation. 
Asio, he who is or was not, or 
who will not be. Also Asiye. 
 sipo-, sign of the tense expressing 
not being. 

2 c 2 




Asipoona, he not seeing, if he 
does not see, though he does 
not see, without his seeing, 
when he sees not. 
Sia /.»-. to give :i sentence, to pro- 
nounce as with authority, to de- 
Sto/u, a large reddish brown ant, 
that travels in great numbers 
and bites fiercely. 
Siagi, cream, butter. 
Sibn hu-, to get, to succeed. See 

Si/a, praise, character, character- 
Sifara, a kind of rice. 
Sifu hu-, to praise. Pass, husifiwa. 
Kujisifu, to magnify oneself, to 

Kusifu'mno, to overpraise, to 
Siftde (a term of reproach), a med- 
dlesome fool. 
Si/uru, a cypher, a figure of nought. 
Sigizia few-, to tack (in needlework). 
Sihi hu-, to entreat. 
Sijafu, the cuff, the hem. See 

>bo,I am well. The invariable 
answer to hu jwrribo ? how are 
Si jarribo punde, I am a little 

imo or Sihamoo, for Nashilea 
iwjuu, the salutation of a slave- 
to a master. 
Wei, vinegar. 

Sikia hu-, to hear, to obey, to under- 
Bikilia hu-, to listen to, to attend to. 
liana hu-, to be heard, to be 
Sihiliza hu-, to listen, to listen to. 

Sihilizana hu-, to hear one another. 

Sikio or Sliihio, plur. masihio, the 

Sihilika hu-, to be sorry. 

Sikitikia hu-, to be sorry for. to pity. 

Sikitiko, plur. masihitiho, sorrow, 

Sil.itisha hu-, to make sorry. 

Sihiza hu-, to make to hear, under- 
stand, &c. 

Sihizana hu-, to be mutually intel- 
ligible, to make one another heir. 

Sihu, a day of twenty-four hours, 
from sunset to sunset, days. 
Sihu huu, a great day, a feast. 
The two great feasts are the 
three days at the end of the 
Ramathan, when every one 
makes presents, and three days 
after the tenth of Thil hajj or 
M/unguo wa tatu, when every 
one ought to slaughter some 
animal, and feast the poor. 
Sihu a mwaha (see Mwongo, 
K/'junzi), the Nairuz, about the 
23rd of August, the beginning 
of the Swahili and nautical 
year. The old custom is for 
every one, but especially the 
women, to bathe in the sea 
in the night or morning : then 
they cook a great mess of grain 
and pulse, which is eaten about 
noon by all who like to come. 
The fires are all extinguished 
and lighted again by rubbing 
two pieces of wood together. 
Formerly no inquiry was made 
as to any murder or violence 
committed on this day, and old 
quarrels used regularly to bo 
fought out upon it. 
Sihu jsote, alv 

— £ 




Silihi ku-, to improve, to reform. 

Silihisha ku-, to make to improve, 
to reform. 

Silimu ku-, to become a Moham- 

Simama ku-, to stand up, to come 
to a stand, to stop, to be erect, 
to stand in, to cost. 

Simamia ku-, to stand by, to over- 
look workmen, to cost to. 

Simamisha ku-, to make to stand. 

Simanga ku-, to crow over, boast 

Simanzi, grief, heaviness. 

Simba, a lion, lions. 

Simba uranga, a well-known man- 
grove swamp at the mouth of 
the Lufiji. 

Simbali, a kind of wood brought 
from near Cape Delgado. 

Sime, a short straight sword used 
on the mainland. 

Simika ku-, to be erect, to be set 
up, to stand (often used in an 
obscene sense). 

Simikia ku-. 

Kusimikia mlango, to set up and 
build in a door. 

Simikisha ku-, to set up. 

Similla, Simille, Simileni, probably 

for Bismillah, the common cry 

in Zanzibar, meaning, make 

way, out of the way. 

Similla punda, make way for a 

Similla ubau, make way for a 

Simo, I am not in it, am not con- 
cerned, have nothing to do with 


Simo Mi si njema, this event is 
not good. 

Imeingia simo mpya, something 
new has turned up. 
Simu, the electric telegraph. 
Sindano, a needle (or shindano). 
Sindano, a kind of rice. 
Sindi, a long-tailed weasel. 
Sindikia ku-, to crush. 
Sindikiza ku-, to accompany part of 

the way. 
Sindua ku-, to open, to set open. 
Singa, hair of an animal. 

Nyele za singa, straight hair, 
European hair. 
Singa ku-, to scent, to put scent. -P^r- 
Singizia ku-, to slander, to spread 

false reports about. 
Sini, China. 
Sini, no matter. 
Sinia, plur. masinia, a circular tray 

used to carry and set out food 

upon, generally of copper tinned. 
Sinikiza ku-, to press. 
Sinzia ku-, to doze, to nod, to flicker. 
-sipo-, sign of the tense signifying 

the case of the thing mentioned 

not being. 
Siri, secrecy. 

Mambo ya siri, secret affairs, 

Kwa siri, secretly. 
Sisi, we, us. Sometimes pronounced 
swiswi, suisui, or siswi. 

Sisi sole, all of us. 

Sisi wote, both of us. 
Si*imia ku-, to sigh (?). 
Sisimizi, ants (?). 
Sisitiza ku- (M.), to charge strictly, 

to charge to keep secret. 
Sita, six. 

Ya sita, sixth. 
Sita ku-, to halt, to go lame (A.), to 

Sitaha, the deck. 




• ishara, Bixteen. 
Sitawi ku-. to flourish. 
Ngoma ipi inn ritawi, which dance 
is goiug best? 
Sitawuha hu-, to make to flourish. 

whistle (of a steamer or 
Sitti, my lady, lady. [engine). 

Stttina, our lady. Applied by the 
Arabs to St. Mary. 
mnja, different. 
Sivyo, it is not thus. See Si-. 
Siwa, an ivory horn only used on 

great occasions. 
Siwezi, I am not well. See Wezakur. 

i, that is not it, no. See Si-. 
Siyu or Sin, Siwi, the chief town 
of the district near Lamoo, the 
chief seat of old Swahili learning. 
. lunacy. 
Sodo, a woman's napkin. 
, wool. 

. Sogi, Sot, = Shogi. 
a hu-, to approach affectionately, 
to come near to. 

la ku-, to lift to the lips and 
kiss, to bring near to. 
Sogezea ku-, to put ready for, to 
bring for use. 
. plur. matolto, a market, a 
Kwenda sokoni, to go marketing. 
Sokota ku-, to twist, to plait, to spin. 
Soma ku-, to read, to perform de- 

i. plur. masoma, a kind of dance. 
Sombela ku-, to work oneself along 
on one's hands and seat without 
using the legs. 

tha ku-, to teach to read, to 
lead devotions. 

•. plur. masomo, something read, 
used as a title of friendship, a 

Sonda hu-, to suck out. 

' >, swelled (?) glands. 
Songa ku-, to strangle, to squeeze, 

to stir together. 
Songanasongana hu-, to press against 

one another like sheep in a flock. 
Songca ku-, to push through, to 

shoulder your way through a 
Sonjoa ku-, to wring. [crowd. 

Sonya ku- = Kvfijonya. 
Somali, trousers. 
Sosoneka ku-, to be hurt or ache, so 

as to writhe with pain. 
Sosonesha ku-, to make to writhe 

with pain. 
Sote, all ; agreeing with sisi, we or 
us. See -ote. 

Tu sote, we are together. 

Tivende sote, let us go together. 
Soza ku-, to beach a boat or vessel. 
Ssafi or Safi, pure, clean. 
Staajdbu ku-, to wonder much, to bo 

greatly astonished. 
Staamani hu-, to have confidence, 

to rest trustfully. 
Stahabu ku-, to be pleased, to prefer. 
Stahamili or Stahimili, jtatiently. 
Stahi ku-, to honour, to have respect 

Stahiba ku- (?), to prefer. See 

Stahiki ku-, to resemble, to be of 

one sort with. 
Stahili hu-, to deserve, to be worthy 
of, to be proper, to be right and 

Astahili, serves him right. 
Stahimili hu-, to bear, to endure, 

Stakabathi, earnest, fastening penny. 
Stambuli, Constantinople. 
Starehe ku-, to sit still, to be at rest, 
to remain quiet. 




Starehe ! Don't disturb yourself ! 
don't get up ! 

Sterehisha ku-, to give rest to, to 
refresh. Also Starehisha. 

Stirika ku-, to be covered, to be con- 

Stusha ku-, to startle, to sprain, to 
put out of joint. 

Subana, small pieces of meat roasted 
on two parallel sticks. 

Subana, a thimble. 

Subiri, patience. 

Subiri, aloes. 

Subiri ku-, to wait. 

Subii ku-, to cast in a mould. 

Subu ku- or Sibu ku-, to happen to. 

Subui, morning. 

Subulkheiri, good morning. 

Suburi, patience. 

Subutu ku- = Tliubutu ku-. 

Suduku hu-, to ascertain, to know 
the truth. 

Suff, wool. 

Suffi, a devotee, a hermit. 

Suffuf, a great variety or number. 

Sufi, woollen. 

Sufuria, copper. 

Sufuria, plur. sufuria or masufuria, 
a metal pot. 
Sufuria ya chuma, an iron pot. 

Sugu, amark, a callous place. Also, 
obstinate, insensate. 

Suaua ku-, to rub, to scrub, to 
brush, to scour. 

Suheli, south. 

Sui, an irrepressible, unconquer- 
able man. 

Sujudia ku-, to prostrate oneself to, 
to adore. 

Sujudu ku-, to prostrate oneself, to 
bow down. 

Suka ku-, to plait, to clean. 

Sukari, sugar. 

Sukari guru, half-made sugar. 
Sukasuka ku, to shake, to agitate. 
Suke, plur. masuke (or shuke), an 
ear of corn, a head of mtama, &c. 
Sukua ku-, to slacken, to loose. 
Sukuma ku-, to push, to urge. 
Sukumi, a steersman, quarter- 
Sukumiza ku-, to put upon another 
person, to say it is his business, 
to throw off from oneself, to push 
away in anger, to throw (a thing) 
at a person who wants it. Also, 
to avert (by sacrifice, &c). 
Sukutua ku-, to rinse out the mouth, 

to wash one's mouth. 
Sulibi ku-, to crucify. 
Sulibisha ku-, to crucify. 
SuiiM ku-, to become, to be fitting 

Sulika ku-, to turn about, become 

Suliinu ku-, to salute. 
Sultani, plur. masultani, a sultan, 
a chief man. Sultani at Zanzi- 
bar does not mean a king ; it is 
used of the head men of a vil- 
Sultan Rum, the Sultan of Turkey. 
Sulubika ku-, to be strong. 
Sulubu, strength, firmness. 
Suluhisha ku-, to bring to accord, 

to make peace between. 
Suluhu, concord. 
Sululu, a curlew. 
Sumba ku-, to sway away, to twist 

and turn oneself. 
Sumbua ku-, to worry, to annoy, to 

give trouble. 
Sumbuana ku-, to worry one an- 
Sumbuka ku-, to be put to trouble, 
to be harassed, to be annoyed. 



Sumbulia feu-, to speak sharply to. 
Sumbutha kit-, to vex, harass, 

trouble, worry, annoy. 
Sumu, poison. 
Sumugh, gum-arabic. 
Sungura, a rabbit (?), a hare (?). 
Sunni, advisable, recommended, a 

tradition, what is advisable or 

recommended, but not compul- 
se/ r/, deal wood, [soiy. 
Sunza ku-, to search for anything 

with a lighted brand at night. 
Supaa ku-, to be very hard or dry. 
Supana = Supaa. 
Sura, a likeness, a resemblance, a 

chapter of the Koran. 
Suria, plur. masuria, a concubine, 

a female slave. 
Suriyama, born of a concubine. 
Sururu, an insect that lives in 

cocoa-nut trees. 
>>iricali, trousers. See Somali. 
Sus, liquorice. 
Suso, a kind of hanging shelf, a 

S>!*upaa = Supaa. 
Suta ku-, to reproach, to charge a 

man with slander, to slander, to 

seek out a man and ask whether 

he has said sucli and such things. 
Su'udi, or Suudi njetna, salvation, 

Suza ku-, to stir up. Also, to 

Suzia ku-, to turn with (?). 
Swafi = Safi. 
Sicali, a question. 


Tis pronounced as in English. 
There are two f's in Arabic, one 
much thicker than the English t, 

but only very careful speaki. \ dis- 
tinguish them in Swahili. 

T at the beginniug of a word has 
sometimes an explosive sound, as in 
t'aka, dirt. It is probable that this 
represents a suppressed n. 

There is a slight difference in 
sound between the i's of tatu, three, 
and tano, five, the former being the 
smoother, but natives do not seem 
conscious of the difference. 

T in northern Swahili frequently 
becomes ch in the dialect of Zanzi- 

Kuteka, to laugh (M.) kueheha 
(Zanz.). Hutkuteka,to plunder, 
or to draw water, does not 

Kutinda, to slaughter (M.) ku- 
chinja (Zanz.). 

There is no sound similar to that 
of the English th in the original 
language of Zanzibar. It occurs in 
some dialects of Swahili in place of 
v or z. There are however in 
Arabic four th's. 1. Tha, pro- 
nounced like the English th in 
thing. 9. Thai, pronounced like 
the English th in this. 3 and 4. 
Tliad and Tha 1 or Dthau, which 
are scarcely distinguished by the 
Arabs themselves, and have a very 
thick variety of the thai sound. 
Practically the two English tt'sare 
quite sufficient, and the ear soon 
catches the right method of employ- 
ing them. 

The Indians and many Africans 
pronounce all these as z. Some 
Swahili confuse the various th's with 
z, and employ the thai sound for 
words properly written with a z, as 
wathiri for waziri, a vizir. 




-ta-, the sign of the future tense. 
When the relative or the par- 
ticles denoting time and place 
are inserted in the future, the 
prefix regularly becomes -taka-. 
It is possible however to retain 
-ta- to express a more definite 

Atakuja, he will come. 
Atakayekuja, who will come. 
Atakapokuja, when he shall 

Atapokuja, when he come, 
or, if he shall come. 
In the first person singular the 
ni-, which is the sign of the 
person, is often dropped. 

Takuja = Nitakuja, I shall 
Ta- at the beginning of Arabic 
verbs is the mark of the fourth 
or fifth conjugations or derived 
Taa, a lamp, especially the small 
open earthen lamps made in Zan- 
Taa, a large kind of flat fish. 
Taa, beneath one's feet. 
Taabika ku-, to be troubled. 
Taabisha ku-, to trouble, to annoy. 
Taabu, trouble. 

Taadabu ku-, to learn manners. 
Taajabisha ku-, to make to wonder, 

to astonish. 
Taajabu ku-, to wonder, to be as- 
tonished. See Staajabu. 
Taajazi ku-, to tire. 
Ta"ali ku-, to study. 
Taandu, a centipede. 
Taataa ku-, to throw oneself about. 
Tabaka, lining. 
Tabakelo, a snuff-box. 
Tabanja, a pistol (Ar.). 

Tabdssam ku-, to smile. 
Tabia, constitution, temper, temper- 
ament, climate. 
Tabibia ku-, to doctor. 
Tabibu, a physician. 
Tabiki ku-, to Hue, to close to or 
upon, to cling to as a fast friend. 
Tabikiza, to make to cling. 
Tabiri ku-, to foretell, to prophesy. 
Taburudu ku-, to refresh. 
Tadariki ku-, to accept the respon- 
sibility of, to guarantee the result 
Tadi, violence, hurry. 
Kwenda kwa tadi, to rush, to go 
Tadi ku-, to fight with. 
Tafakari ku-, to consider, ponder, 

Tafdthal or Tafathali, please, I beg 

of you. 
Tafiti ku-, to seek out matters 

secretly, to be over-inquisitive. 
Tafsiri ku-, to explain, to interpret. 
Tafsiri, interpretation. 
Tafsiria ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 
Tafu (M.) = Chafu, cheek. 
Tafu, gastrocnemic muscles. 

Tafu ya mkono, the biceps muscle. 
Tafuna ku-, to chew, to nibble. 
Tafuta ku-, to look for, seek, search 

Tafutatafuta ku-, to search all 

Tafutia ku- or Taftia, to seek out 

for some one, to look for. 
Tagaa ku-, to straddle, to walk 

with one's legs far apart. 
Tage, plur. matage, bow legs, crook- 
Taghafali ku-, to be off one's guard, 
to forget to take notice. 

' ' 




Taghaiari /.?<-, to be changed. 

Taghi ku-, to rebel. 

•../, branches, main branches. 

Tdhafifu, gently, in good time, 
light. Una. 
Nguo tdhafifu, thin calico. 

Tahamaka ku-, to look up to sec 
\\ hat is going on. 

Taharaki leu-, to be troubled, to 
be thrown into confusion. 

Taharalcisha ku-, to put iutoa state 
of auxiety, to excite, stimulate. 

Taharizi. See Kanzu. 

Taharuki lm-, to be troubled, to be 
anxious, to be thrown into con- 
fusion. Also, Taharaki. 

Tahassa ku-, to go on board a ship 
with a view to sailing. 

Tahathari ku-, to beware, to be on 
one's guard. 

Tahatharisha ku-, to warn. 

Tahayari ku-, to become ashamed. 

Tdhayarisha ku-, to shame, to make 

Tahidiku-. » > ,.^*^*^VV / <£? 

Kujitahidi, to exert oneself, to 
try hard. 
Tahirikn-, to circumcise. 
TahsUa, farewell, leavu-taking. 
Tai, a large bird of prey, a vulture. 
Taif a, plur. mataifa, a tribe, a 

Taja, hire. 
Taja ku-, to name. 
Taji, a crown. 
Tajiri, plur. matajiri, a merchant, 

a rich man, a capitalist, a prin- 
-taka-. See -to-. [cipal. 

Tcika, dirt. 
Takataka, rubbish, sundries, small 

Taka ku-, to want, to wish for, to 
ask for. 

Kutaka shauri, to seek advice. 
Takahali ku-, to accept; used of 

God's hearing prayer. 
Takabathi ku-, to carry on freight. 
Takabathisha ku-, to pay freight 

Takdddam ku-, to be in advance of, 

to get before. 
Takalika ku-, to be very faint or 

Takarimu, gift, largess. 
Talcasa ku-, to clean, to make clean 

and clear. 
Takaaika ku-, to become cleansed. 
Takata ku-, to become clean and 

Uwingu umetakata, the sky is 
-takatifu, holy, cleansed. 
Takhari ku-, to stay. 
Taki = Chicha. 
Takia, plur. matakia, a large 

Tako, plur. matako, the buttock. 
Taksiri, a crime. 
Takura ku-, to scratch, to dig with 

claws or fingers. 
Talakq, divorce. 
Taldssim or Talasimu, plur. matala- 

simu, a talisman, a charm, a 

figure divided into squares and 

marked with magic words and 

s\ mbols. 
Tali ku- or Ta'ali ku-, to study. 
Talik = Tarik. 
Taliza ku-, to smooth off, to smooth 

up, plaster, &c. 
Tama, out and out, final. 
Tama ku- (M.) = Hama ku-, to re- 
Tama ku-, to sit, crouch (Yao.). 
Kuslrika tama, to lean the head 




on the hand, reckoned unlucky 
in Zanzibar. 

Tamaa, longing, avarice, greedi- 
Kuhaia tamaa, to despair. 

Tamdldki ku-, to be master of. 
Kuj itamdlahi mwenyewe, to be 
one's own master. 

Tamani ku-, to long for, to lust 

Tamanika ku-, to be liked, to be an 
object of liking. 

Tamba ku-, to swagger. 

fainbaa ku-, to creep, to crawl. 

Tambi, vermicelli. 

Tambo, a tall man. 

Tamboa, testicles. 

Tambua ku-, to recognize. 

Tambulia ku-, to understand. 

TambuUkana ku-, to be recogniz- 

Tambulisha ku-, to make to recog- 
nize, to explain. 

Tambuu, betel leaf chewed with 
areca nut, lime and tobacco. 

Tambuza ku-, to put a new point or 
edge, to weld on fresh iron or 

Tamisha ku- (M.) = Hamisha ku-. 

Ta'mka ku-, to pronounce. 

Tamu, sweetness, flavour, taste. 

-tamu, sweet, pleasant. It makes 
tamu with nouns like nyumba. 

Tamuka ku- = Ta'mka ku-. 

Tamvua, ends or corners of turban 
cloth, &c. 

Tana ku-, to divide, to slit, to comb, 
to part. 

Tanatana ku-, to divide up into 
little bits. 

Tana, a bunchlet of bananas, &c. 
Bananas and plantains grow 
spirally in a large bmch, not con- 

tinuously, but in little groups : 
each group is a tana. 
Tanabahi ku-, to make up one's 

mind, to know what to do. 
Tanafusi ku-, to draw breath. 
Tanda ku-, to spread, to be spread 
out, to be overcast, to put ropes 
to a native bedstead. 
Kujitanda, to stretch oneself 
Tandama ku- (?), to surround. 
Tandawaa ku-, to recline, to loll at 

one's ease. 
Tandaza ku-, to make flat. 
Tandika ku-, to spread, to lay out, 

to saddle. 
Tandu, long slashes made on their 

faces by Makuas and others. 
Tandua ku-, to unsaddle, to take off 

Tanga, plur. ma tanga or majitanga, 
a sail. The sails of mitepe aud 
madau are made of matting. 
Tanga mbili, the seasons of 

changeable winds. 
Matanga kati, wind abeam. 
Kukaa matanga, to sit at home 
in sign of mourning, to mourn. 
Tangaa ku-, to come to be known. 
Tangamana ku-, to adjoin. 
Tangamuka ku-, to be cheerful. 
Tangamusha ku-, to cheer up. 
Tanganya, &c. (M.) = Changanya, 

&c, to mix, to shuffle cards. 
Tangatanga ku-, to go backwards 

and forwards, to wave. 
Tangawizi, ginger. 
Tangaza ku-, to spread news, to cir- 
culate intelligence. 
Tange, the trees and rubbish cleared 

off" a new plantation. 
Tangisha ku-, to make evident. 
Tango, plur. matango, a sort of 


T A N 

gonrd eaten raw, resembling in 
taste :i eiicumlxT. 
Tangu, Bince, from. 

/V;)i;;» Knt? Since when? How 
long ago ? 
Tangua ku-, to annul, to abolish, to 
separate, untwist, unplait, with- 
draw a promise, &c. 
Kutangua ndoa, to annul a mar- 
riage, to divorce. 
Tnnguka leu-, to be anmdled. 
Tangukana leu-, to separate. 
Tangulia leu-, to precede, to go be- 
fore, to go first. 
Nimetangulia kuleuarabia, I told 
you beforehand. 
Tangulifu advanced. 
Tani, Othmau. 


Kwa tani, backward, on his back. 
Tano or Tanv. five. 

Ya tano, fifth. 
-tano, five. 
Tantanbelwa, a great bother, a 

Tanua leu, to expand, to spread out, 

to fend off a boat. 
Tanuka leu-, to lie on one's back and 

spread oneself out, to sprawl. 
Tanuru or Tanuu, a clamp for burn- 
ing lime, an oven. 
Tanzi, plur. matanzi, a noose. 
Tanzia, news of a death. 
Too, plur. matao, an arch, an 

arched opening, a bay. 
Tapa leu-, to shiver. 

Kiijitapa, to magnify oneself, to 
make a great man of oneself. 
Tapatapa leu-, to jump about like a 

fish when taken out of the water, 

to shiver, to tremble. 
T'ljKinya ku-, to scatter, to throw 



Tapanyatapanya hu-, to dissipate.. 

to waste. 
Tapilea leu-, to vomit. 
Tapisha leu-, to make to vomit. 
Tapisho, plur. matapislio, an emetic. 
Tapo, plur. matapo, a detachment, 
a division, a part of an army 
larger than leileozi. 
Tarabe, side piece of a window, 

door of planks. 
Tarafu, on the part of. 

Tarafu yalee, on his part. 
Taraja ku-, to hope. 
Tarathia leu-, to persuade in a 

friendly way. 
Taratibu, carefully, gently, orderly. 
Taratibu, orderliness, an order or 

Taraza, an edging, a narrow silken 
border usually woven on to tur- 
ban and loin-cloths in Zanzibar. 
Tarazalee, business on a small scale. 
Tarazaki ku-, to trade in a small 

Tarile, a date, year, &c, the clew- 
line or bunt-line of a dhow-sail. 
Kitabu cka tarile, a chronicle. 
Tarirnbo = Mtaimbo, an iron bar. 
Tarizi leu-, to weave on an edging. 
Tartibu — Taratibu. 
Tasa, a brass basin. 
Tasa, a game of touch. 
Tasa, a barren animal. 
Tasaivari leu-, to do with certainty, 
to be fully able. 
Hatasawari, it is certain that he 
does not do it. 
Tasbihi, Mohammedan beads. 
Tasfida, good manners. 
Taxhwishi, doubt. 
Tasihili, quickness, quickly. 
j Taslimu, ready cash. 
I Tassa — Tasa. 




Tata. See Matata. 

Kicenda tatatata, to toddle. 
Tataga ku-, to go above or over, to 

cross a stream on a tree. 
Tatana ku-, to be in a tangle, to be 

Tatanisha ku-, to tangle, to puzzle. 
Tatanya ku-, to unravel, disen- 
tangle, solve a riddle. 
Tatazana ku-, to be tangled. 
Tathbiri, a mercbant. 
Tatia ku-, to wind, to tangle, to 

Tatiza ku-, to wind. 
tatu, three. 

Ya tatu, tbird. 
Tatua ku-, to tear. 
Tatuka ku-, to be torn. 
Taumka ku- = Ta'mka ku-. 
Taunt, plague, cholera. 
Tausi, peacock. 
Tavu (A.), the cheek. 
Tawa, plur. matawa, a frying-pan. 
Tawa, plur. tawa, a louse. 
Tawa ku-, to live secluded (Yao.), to 

Tawafa, a candle, candles. 
Tawakali ku-, to trust in God and 

take courage. 
Tawakdwakatha, many. 
Tawala ku-, to govern, to rule. 
Tawanya ku-, to scatter. 
Tawanyika ku-, to become scattered. 
Tawashi, a eunuch. 
Tawassuf, temperance. 
Tawaza ku-, to make to rule. 
Tawaza ku-, to wash the feet, to 

perform the ablutions. 
Tawi, plur. matawi. a branch, a 

bough, a bunch, an ear of millet. 
Taya, jaw, jawbone. 
Taya ku-, to reproach. 
Tayari, ready. 

Tayi, obedient. 

Tayo, plur. matayo, a reproach, re- 
Tazama ku-, to look. 
Tazamia ku-, to look out for. 
Tazwi, forgery. 
Teende la viguu, Barbadoes leg, 

elephantiasis (?). 
Tefna ku-, to reason, to searcb, fco 

throw about. 
Tega ku-, to set a trap or snare, to 

snare. See Kitendawili. 
Tegea ku-, to be lame. 
Tegemea ku-, to lean upon, to be 

propped up. 
Tegemeza ku-, to support. 
Tego, a virulent kind of syphilis 

supposed to be the effect of a 

Tegu, plur. mategu, a tape-worm. 
Tegua ku-, to take a pot off the fire, 

to remove a spell. 
Teka ku- (M.) = Cheka ku-. 
Teka ku-, to plunder, to take as 
spoil, to draw water. 

Kuteka 'mji, to plunder a town. 

Kuteka ng'ombe, to carry off an ox. 

Kuteka maji, to draw water from 
a well. 
Teke, plur. mateke, a kick. 

Kupiga teke, to kick. 
Tekelea ku-, to prove true, to come to. 
Tekeleza ku-, to perform a promise, 

restore a pledge. 
Tekenya ku-, to tickle in the ribs. 
Teketea ku-, to be consumed, to be 

burnt away. 
Teketeke, the soft, something soft. 
Teketeza ku-, to consume, to cause 

to be burnt down. 
Tekewa ku-, to become bewildered. 
Tekeza ku-, to run ashore, to come 

to an end, to die. 



T E T 

Tt kua J:u; to prize up, to toss, to 

throw up out of a noie. 
T< le, plenty, abundantly, abundant. 

Tt le, gold luce or braid. 

Telea ku-, to come down, descend, 

laud from. 
Tfleka ku-, to put a pot on the fire. 
Telemua ku-, to pull down, to cause 

to slip down. 
Telemuka ku- or Tdcmka ku-, to 

go down a steep place, to go 

quickly down in spite of one's 

self, to slither down. 
T'lemuko, the bed of a river. 
'!'■ Jeza ku-, to slip. 
Tema ku-, to slash as with a sword. 
Tema ku-. 

Kutema mate, to spit. 
Tenxbe, a hen full grown but which 

has not yet laid. 
Tembea ku-, to walk about, to take 
a walk. 

Moyo wangu umetcmbea, my 
thoughts are wandering. 
Tembelea ku-, to walk about. 
Ternbeza ku-, to offer for sale by 

auction, to hawk about. 
Tembo, palm wine, wine. 
Tembo, an elephant. 
TJmka = Ta'mka. 
Temsi, filigree work. 
Tena, afterwards, again, further. 
Tenda ku-, to do, to apply oneself to, 
to act. 

Kutenda zema or vema, to behave 

Tenda kani, a pole across a dhow to 

fasten the sheet to. 
Tendawala, a kind of bird. 
Tende, a date, dates. 

Tenda halwa or halua, Arabs 
from the Persian Gulf, who 
steal slaves by tempting them 

into their houses with dates 
and sweetstuff. 
Tendea ku-, to do to, to behave to, 

to treat. 
Tendcgu, plur. matendegu, the li s 

of a bedstead. 
Tendeka ku-, to be done, to be 

Tenga, a sun-fish. 
Tenga ku-, to separate, to remove. 

Kujitenga, to get out of the way. 
Tengea ku-, to be ready and in 

Duka limetengea, the shop is all 
ready and open. 
Tengeka ku-, to be put on one side. 
Tengelea and Tengeleza = Tengeneza 

and Tengenea. 
Tengenea ku-, to be comfortable, to 

be as it should be. 
Tengeneza ku-, to finish off, to put 

to rights, to touch up. 
Tengezeka ku-, to be established, 

made right. 
Tengua ku-, to put aside. 
Tepukua ku-, to cut away young 

Tepukuzi, plur. Matepukuzi, shoots 

from the root of a tree. 
Terema ku-, to be at ease. 
Tesa ku-, to afflict. 

Kuteswa, to suffer, to be afflicted. 
Teso, plur. mateso, afflictions, adver- 
Tela ku-, to oppose, to strive against, 

to be adverse to, to go to law 

with, to mention disparagingly. 
Tetea ku-, to cackle like a hen. - 
Tetea ku- (M.) = Chechea ku-, to 

walk lame. 
Tete ya kwanga, rubeola. 
Tetema ku-, to tremble, to quiver. 
Tetemea = Chechemea. 




Tetemeka ku-, to tremble, to shake. 

to shiver, to quake (as the earth), 

to chatter (of the teeth). 
Teteri, a small kind of dove. 
Tett za ku-, to rattle. Also, to lead 

a sick person by the hand. 
Teua ku-, to choose, select, pick 

out = Cliagua ku-. 
Teuka ku-, to dislocate, to sprain. 
•teule, choice, chosen. 
Tezama and Tezamia = Tazama and 

Tezi, a fibrous tumour, goitre. 
Tliabihu, an offering, a sacrifice. 
Thabit, plur. mathabit, firm, brave, 
Thahabu, gold. [steadfast. 

Thahiri, evident, plain. 
Thahiri ku-, to make plain, to 

Thaifu, weak, infirm, bad. 
Thalatha, three. Also Tlielatha, &c. 
Thalathatashara, thirteen. 
Tlialathini, thirty. 
Thalimu, a fraudulent person, a 

Tlialimu ku-, to wrong, to defraud. 
TJtaliH, very low, very poor. 
Thamana (th in this), a surety. 
Tliamani (th in thing), a price. 

Ya thamani, of price, valuable. 
Thambi, sin. 
Tlidmin, surety. 
Thamini ku, to become surety. 
Thamiri, conscience, thought. 
Thani ku-, to think, to suppose. 
Thania ku-, to think of a person, to 

suppose him, to suspect. 
Tharau, scorn. 
'Tharau ku-, to scorn. 
Thdruba, (Ax. a stroke), a storm, 
(in arithmetic) multiplication. 

Tlidruba moja, at one stroke, 

Thathu, a kind of jay brought down 

from Unyanyembe. 
Thawabu, a reward ; especially re- 
wards from God. 
Tlielatha, &c. See TJialatha, &c. 
Tlielimu ku-, to oppress. 
Thelth, a donkey's canter. 
Tlieluth, a third. 
Themanini, eighty. 
Themanini, a linen fabric. 
Tliemantashara, eighteen. 
Themanya, eight. 
Themuni, an eighth. 
Thenashara, twelve. 
Theneen, two. 

Thihaka, ridicule, derision. 
Thihaki ku-, to ridicule, to make 

game of. 
Titihirisha ku-, to make clear, to 

Thii ku-, to be in distress. 
Thiiki ku-, to be put to straits. 
Thili ku-, to abase. 
Tliiraa, a measure of about half a 
yard, from the point of the 
elbow to the tips of the fingers. 

Thiraa konde, from the point of 
the elbow to the knuckles of 
the clenched fist. 
Thoofika ku-, to be made weak, to 

become weak. 
Thoqfisha ku-, to weaken, to make 

Thoumu, garlic. 
Tlmbutisha ku-, to give courage to, 

to make certain, to convince, to 

Thubutu ku-, to dare, to have 
courage for, to be proved. 

Sithubutu, I dare not. 
Tliuku ku-, to taste. 
Thukuru ku-, to invoke. 
Thulli, distress, misery. 




Tlnilumu, wrong. 

Thulumu l;u-, to do wrong, to per- 
Thtduru, a kind of sandpiper. 
Tliuluth, a third. Also Thduth. 
Thumu ku-, to slander. 
Thurea, a chandelier. 
Thuru ku-, to barm. 
Haithuru, no harm, it does not 
Tia ku-, to put, to put into. 
Kutia nanga, to anchor. 
Kutia chuoni, to put to school. 
Tiara, a boy's kite. 
Tiba, a term of endearment. 
Tibika ku-, to be cured. 
Tibu ku-, to cure. 
Tibu, a kind of scent. 
Tibua ku-, to stir up and knock 

Tifua hu-, to cause to rise like dust 

or a mist. 
Tifulta ku-, to rise in a cloud. 
Tit ku-, to obey. 
Tiisha ku-, to make to obey, to 

Tika ku-, or tonka, to put a burden 

on a man's head for him. 
Tiki, just like, exactly as. 
Tikia ku-, to reply. See Itikia. 
Tikisa ku-, to shake. 
Tikiti, plur. matihiti, a sort of water 

Tihitika ku-, to be shaken. 
Tikitiki, utterly and entirely, to the 
last mite. Also, (M.) into little 
Tikiza ku-, to have patience with. 
Tilia ku-, to put to, for, &c. 
Tilifika ku-, to waste, to grow less. 
Tilifisha ku-, to diminish, to make 

to dwindle away. 
Tilifu ku-, to ruin, to waste. 

Tililia ku-, to daru. 

Timazi, a stone hung by a line, used 

as a plummet by masons. 
Timbi, bracelets. 
Timbuza ku-, to begin to show itself, 

like the sun in rising. 
Timia ku-, to be complete. 
Timilia ku-, to become complete. 
-timilifu, complete, perfect. 
Timiliza ku-, to make completeyjk'-'M 
Timiza ku-, to complete, to make 

Time, a woman's name. 
Timvi, an ill-omened child. 
Tinda ku- (M.) = Chinja ku-, t<> 
cut, to cut the throat, to slaughter. 
Tindika ku- (A.), to fall 6hort. 
Tindikia ku-, to cease to. 
Imenitindikia, I am out of it, I 
have no more. 
Tindikiana ku-, to be separated, to 
be severed, as friends or relations 
at a distance from one another. 
Tinge, a game consisting in imitating 

all the motions of a leader. 
Tint, a fig, figs. 
Tint (M.) = Chini, down. 
Tij.itipi, a brown bird, a mocking 

Tipua, ku-, to scoop out, to dig out, 

to dip out. 
Tiririka ku-, to glide, to trickle. 
Tig' a = Tissia, nine. 
Tisaini, ninety. 
Tisatashara, nineteen. 
Tisha ku-, to frighten, alarm, make 

Tissia, nine. 

Tita ku-, to tie up together. 
Tita, plur. matita, a faggot, a bundle 

of firewood. 
Titi, the nipple. j 
Tilia hu-, to shake, to sink in 




Also (?) of the sea, when deep 
and rough, to boil. 
Titika ku-, to carry a bundle of 

sticks, &c. 
Titima ku-, to roar and roll like 

Titiwanga, chicken-pox. See Kiti- 

Tiwo (?), paralysis. 
•to, a suffix, denoting goodness or 
propriety, rarely used in Zan- 
Kuweka, to put ; 

Kuwekato, to put properly. 
Manuka, smells ; 
, Manukato, scents. 
Toa ku-, to put out, to take away, 
give, expel, to deliver, to except, 
to choose out. 
Kutoa meno, to grin, to show the 
teeth, to snarl. 
Toazi, plur. matoazi, cymbals. 
Tola, repentance. 
Toboa ku-, to break through, to 

break a hole in a wall. 
Tobwe, a simpleton, ignoramus. 
Tofaa, plur. mafofaa, a fruit shaped 
like a codling with rosy-coloured 
streaks, = Tomondo. See Mto- 
Tofali, plur. matofali, a brick. 
Tofauti, difference, dispute. 
Nimeingia tofauti kwa kuwa wee 
umeniibia fttha yangu, I have 
a quarrel with you for stealing 

my money. 
Tofaa' ku-, to hurt or put out an 

Tofuka ku-, to have an eye hurt or 

put out. 
Toga ku-, to pierce the ears. 
Togwa, unfermented beer. 
Tohara, circumcision. 

Tohara ku-, to purify by ablutions, 

to perform the Mohammedan 

Toi, a kind of wild goat. 
Toja ku-, to slash, cut gashes, as a 

means of bleeding, &c. 
Tojo, a cut made for ornament, &c. 
Toka or Tokea, from, since. 
Toka ku-, to go or come out or away 
from, to be acquitted, to go 

Kutoka damu, to bleed. 

Kutoka hari, to sweat. 
Tokana ku-, to go forth from one 

another, to divorce, to be set free. 
Tokea, from, since. See Toka. 
Tokea hapo, in old time, from old 

Tokea ku-, to come out to, or from, 

to appear. 
Tokcza ku-, to ooze out, to project. 
Tokomea ku-, to get out of one's 
Tokoni, the pelvis. [sight. 

Tokono (A.), the hips. 
Tokora ku-, to pick one's teeth. 
Tokosa ku-, to boil, to cook by 

ToJcoseka ku-, to be well boiled, to 

be done. 
Tokota ku-, to become boiled, to be 

cooked by boiling. 
Tolea ku-, to put out for, to offer to. 

Kutolewa, to have put out for 
one, or to be put out, to be 
Toma, orchitis, hydrocele. 
Tomasa ku-, to poke with the fingers, 

to feel, used of examining a 

living creature, as Bonyesha, of 

inanimate objects. 
Tomba ku-, to have sexual connec- 
tion with. 
Tombo, a quail. 

2 D 




Tomea ku- (M.) = < ' ku-. 

ea fcu-, to point by plastering 
over and putting small stones in 
in ike the work firm. 
Tomesha fcu-, to set on (a dog, &c). 
Junto, dross of iron, &o. 
Tomiee = Zbmo. 

wdo, a hippopotamus. 
Tomondo, plur. umlciiionilo — Tofaa. 
Tona feu-, to drop. 
i /.-«-. 
Kutona /una, to lay and hind on 
a plaster of henna until the 
part us dyed red. 
Kutona godoro, to sow through a 
mattress here and there to con- 
fine the stuffing. 
Tondoo, a small brown nut con- 
taining oil. 

 /.'«-, to strike against, to 
touch a sore place, to make a sore 

. plur. matone, a drop. 
Toneza ku-, to cause to dr »p. 
Tonga ku- (M.) = Chonga ku-, to 

Tongea ku- = Chongea. 
Tongosimba, a small bird black 
with white neck ; it makes a 
it noise in flj i 
Tongoza ku-, to seduce. 
rope, mud, plur. matope, much mud. 
ropea /.-"-. to sink in mire, to be 

' _id. 

a custard apple. 
Topeza ku-, to be to i heavy for one. 
Topoa ku-, to take out, to break a 
BpelL to clear for cultivation. 
■. plur. matora, a small spear. 
Torati, the law of Moses, the Pen- 
Twdka ku-, to run away from a 
. . fn >ra home, &c. 

Toroiha ku-, to abduct, to induce U 

run away. 
Tom hu-, tu cause to sink, to drown 

Kutona macho, to spoil the < v. .- 
To8d, plur. matosa, fruit just be- 
ginning to ripen, all but ripe. 
Tosha ku-, to suffice, to be enough 

for, to cause to come out. 
Toiltea ku-, to be astonished, to be 

Toshdeza ku-, to suffice. 
Toihewa ku-, to be astonished. 
Tota ku-, to sink. 
Totea ku- (M.) = Choehea ku-. 
Toteza maclw ku-, to spoil the eyes. 
Totoma ku-, to be lost, to wander. 
Totora ha-, to pick one's teeth. Also,  

Tooya = Cho'iya. 
'loir, a ku-, to eat as a relish or 

Toweka ku-, to vanish. At Lamoo 

tliis word is us d for to die. 
Towelea ku-, to eat by mouthfuls. 
Towesha ku-, to ruin, to put out of 

the way. 
Toweza ku-, to pour gravy, &c, over 

the rice. 
Tozi, plur. matozi (Ml), a tear. 
Trufu, trump (in cards). 
Tu, only, nothing but this, only 

just. The -« of tu is very short ; 

it always follows the word or 

phrase which it qualities. 
Tu, we are or were. 
Tu or Tit)-, the sign of the first 

person plural, we. 
-tu- or -tw-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person plural, u 
Tua ku-, to put down, to put down 
loads, to nst. to halt, to encamp, 
to set (of the sun). 

Jua likitua, at sunset 




Tua hu-, to grind by pushing a 

stone backwards and forwards. 
Tuama hu-, to settle, to clear itself. 
Tuana hu-, to settle. 
Tuhia hu-, to repent of. 
Tubu hu-, to repent. 
Tufanu, a storm, a tempest. 
Tufe, a ball. 
Tuhumu hu-, to accuse of, to lay to 

his charge, to suspect. 
Tui (M.) = Chui, a leopard. 
Tui, the oily juice squeezed out of 

the scraped cocoa-nut. 
Tuiliza hu-, to prolong. 
Tuja hu- (M.) = Chuja hu-, to strain. 
Tulca, posts of a verandah or long 

Tuhana hu-, to use bad language 

to, to abuse, to address with in- 
sulting or iudecent expressions. 
Tuhano, plur. matuhano, bad words, 

insulting or filthy language. 
2Wftafcu-,&c.(M.) = Chuhiahu-,&c. 
Tuhia hu-, to happen. 
Tuhio, plur. matuhio, a thing which 

happens, an accident. 
Tuhiza hu-, to project. 
Tuhua hu-, &c. (M.) = Chuhua 
•tuhufu, glorious, great. [few-, &c. 
Tukuka hu-, to become exalted, to 

grow great. 
Tuhusa hu-, to move, to shake. 
Tuhuta hu-, to move about restlessly, 

to shake nervously. 
Tukutiza hu- (obscene). 
Tuhuza hu-, to exalt, to make great. 
Tulia hu-, to become quiet, to settle 

down, to amend from a riotous 

Tulia, don't make a noise. 
Tulia leu-, to grind with. See Tua. 

Jiwe la hutulia, a stoue to grind 

Tuliha hu-, to be serene and tranquil. 
Tulilia hu-, to settle down tor or in 
regard to. 

Yamehutulilia ? have you under- 
stood me ? 

Yamenitulilia, I have. 
Tuliliana hu-, to come to an agree- 
Tuliza hu-, to calm, to still. 
Tulizia hu-, to calm for. 

Kutulizia roho, to calm, to console. 
Tuma hu-, to < mploy, to send about 

some business. 
Tuma hu- (M.) = Chuma hu-, to 
Tumaa hu-, to hope. [profit. 

Tumai hu- = Tumaa. 

Roho yatumai, I hope. 
Tumaini hu-, to be confident, to 

Tumainisha hu-, to make confident, 

to make to hope. 
Tumania hu-, to hope in, confide in. 
Tumba, a long rice-bag. 
Tumbaho, tobacco. 

K acuta tumbaho, to smoke. 

Tumbaho ya hunuha or hunusa, 
Tumbasi, an abscess. [snuff. 

Tumbili, a small kind of light- 
coloured monkey. 
Tumbo, plur. matumbo, gut, belly, 
viscera, womb. 

Tumbo la huenenda, diarrhoea. 

Tumbo la huharadamu, dysentery. 
Tumbua hu-, to disembowel, cut 

open, pick a hole in, open (an 

Tumbuiza hu-, to soothe, to sing to, 

to sing by turns. 
Tumbuha hu-, to burst, to be burst, 

&c. See Tumbua. 
Tumbuhia hu-, to fall into. 

Ametumbuhia, hisimani, he has 
got into a scrape. 

2 d 2 




Tumbukita feti-, to throw into, to 

oauee to fall into, to get a person 

into :i Bcrape. 
Twnbulia l;u-. 

Kutumbulia macho, to stare at. 
Tumbuu, a Btaple. 
Tumbuza ku-, to disembowel, to 

penetrate, to j^et through. 
Turne, a messenger. 
Tumia feu-, to employ, to spend, to 

ilea feu-, to be employed, to 

Tumikia feu-, t^> be employed by, to 

serve, to obey. 
I'mait, taste, tasting. 

'/, the month Rama than. 
Tuna ku-, &c. (M.) = CItunaku,&c. 
Tuna ];u-, to swell, to get cross. 
Tunda, plnr. matunda, a fruit. 
Tvndama few-, to gather, to settle at 

the bottom. 
Tundika feu-, to hang up, to be 

Tundu, plur. tundu or matundu, a 
hole, a cage, a nest. 

Tundu yapua, a nostril. 

'''ma feu-, to stand stockstill in 

wonder at, &c. 
Tunga, a round open basket. 
Tunga feu-, to suppurate. 
Tunga feu-, to put together in order, 

to string beads, to make verses. 
Tungama feu-, to clot, to congeal. 
Twngamana feu-, to be steady. 
Tungia feu-, to thread a needle. 
Tungua ku-, to let down, to pull 

down, to hook down. 
Tunguka ku-, to be pulled or let 

Tungika ku-, to depend upon, to 

bang from. 
Tungn (M.j = Chungu, ants. 

Tunguja, a common weed, a species 

of solatium. 
Tungulia ku- (M.) = Chungulia ku-, 

to peep 
Tit a ika ku- (M.), to lose the skin, to 

be flayed. 
Tumi, a rarity, a choice gift, a 

Tiinnl;a ku-, to love excessively, to 

long fur. 
Tn n a I. ia ku, to make a present to. 
Tunza, plur. matunza, care. 
Tunza ku-, to take care of, to look 

after, to make gifts to. 
Tuna, a tile. 

Tu mi, plur. matupa (M.), a bottle. 
Tupa feu-, to throw, to throw away. 

Kutupa nathari, or macho, to cast 
a glance, to cast the eyes. 

Kutupa mkono, to break olf friend- 
Tn j, ia ku-, to throw at, to pelt with. 
Tiijiiza ku-, to pass its proper mea- 
sure or time. 
-tupu, bare, empty. It makes tupu 

with nouns like nyumba. See 


Tupua feu-, to root out, to pull up. 

Turuhani, tare, allowance for pack- 
age, &c, in weighing. 

Tururna. See Maturuma. 

Turupuka ku-, to slip out of one's 

Tusbiih, ascriptions of praise, a 
rosary, the beads used by Mo- 
hammedans in praying. See 

Tusha ku-, to lower, to make mean 
or low. 

Tuehi, plur. matwlri, abuse, bad 
language. See Matusu. 

Tuswira, a picture. 

Tula, plur. matuta, a heap of earth. 




a raised bed for planting sweet 
Tutu! Leave it alone ! Don't touch ! 

Used to little children. 
Tutuka ku-, or Tutu'mha or Tutu- 
siJca, to rise in little swellings, to 
come out in a rash. 
Tutuma leu-, to make a noise of 

bubbling, to boil up. 
Tutumua ku-. 
Kujitutumua, to gather oneself 
up for an effort. 
Tuza ku-, or Tuuza ku-, to weep (of 
a wound). 
Kutnza damu (M.), to run down 
with blood, to bleed exces- 
Tuza ku- = Tunza ku-. 
Kujituza, to make oneself mean 
or low. 
Tuzanya ku-, to come to an agree- 
ment (A.). 

-tw- = -tu-. 

Twa ku (M.) = Chwa ku-. 
Twaa ku-, to take. 

Kutwaa nyara, to take as spoil. 
Twalia ku-, to take from. 
Twaliwa ku-, to be deprived of, to 

have had taken from one. Used 

also in the sense of, to be taken. 
Tirana ku- or Tuana ku-, to settle. 
Twana ku- = Twazana. 
Twanga ku-, to clean corn from the 

husk by pounding it in a wooden 

Twangia ku-, to clean corn for, 

with, etc. 
Twazana ku-, to resemble in face, 

to be like. 
Tweka ku-, to hoist, to raise, to 

take up. 
Twesha ku-, to go by night to see 

any one. 

Tweta ku-, to pant, to strive for 

Tweza ku-, to despise, to hold in 

Twiga, a giraffe, a camelopard. 
Twika ku-, to put a load on a man's 

head. Also Tika. 


U is pronounced like oo in food. 

U before a vowel takes a conso- 
nantal sound, and may be written 
w. This change is not so marked 
before a u as before the other vowels. 
Sometimes both it's keep their vowel 
sound. U before o is frequently 
dropped : 

Moyo = Muoyo. 

The syllable mu- is seldom so 
pronounced in Zanzibar; it becomes 
mw- or 'm, or a simple m. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged, as, 

Ufalme or TJfaume, a kingdom. 

Mlango or Mwango, a door. 

Nouns in u- or w- generally lose 
their u- in the plural, most of them 
substituting n- or ny- for it, but 
dissyllable nouns keep the w- and 
prefix ny-. See N. 

The insertion of a -u- before tin: 
final -a of a verb reverses its mean- 

Kiifunga, to fasten. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. 

There is a suppressed I between 
the u and the a (as always in 
Swahili between two consecutive 
vowels), which appears in the ap- 
plied forms. 

Kufungulia, to unfasten for. 

The passive of the applied forms 


. \i rbs in -ua is used also as tho 
passive of the Bimple form. 
Kufungidiina,to be unfastened, or 

to have unfastened for one. 
K ma, to kill, is irregular, and 
makes its passive by adding -wa, 
.tea, to be killed. 

I Ar.), and. 

U, thou art, it is, of nouns in u-, 
1 of those which make tl eir 
plural in mi-. 
U- or ?/:-, the sign of the second 

I rson singular. 
V • r ;/•-, the personal prefix of the 
third person singular denoting a 
substantive in u-, or one which 
makes its plural in mi-. 
-u-, or -ic-, the objective prefix de- 
noting a substantive in «-, or one 
that makes its plural in mi-. 
U- as a substantive prefix is used 
to form abstract nouns, and also 
to form the names of countries, 
Unyika, the Nyika country ; 
Uqala, the Galla country ; 
Uzungu, the country of Eu- 
r | eans. 
I a ku-, to kill. 

Passive, kuuawa, to be killed. 
f'n, plur. maua, a flower. 
Ua, plur. nyua, a yard, an enclosure, 
a fence. 
Ua voa mabua,&n enclosure fenced 

with mtama .-talks. 
Ua tea makuti,an enclosure fenced 
with plaited cocoa-nut leaves. 
Uai hi, a court, a yard. 
I anda = Wanda. 
JJanja = Uanda. 
I apo, plur. nyapo, an oath. 
Uaica ku-, to be killed. 

Uaya, plur. nyayo, the solo of tho 

In. >t, a footprint. 
Ubabvoa, pap, a 6oft food for chil- 
/ hiifu or UImvu, plur. mliavu, a rib. 

Mbavtini, in or at its side. 
Ubani, incense, galbauum. 
Ubatili, nullity. 
Ubau, plur. mbau, a plnnk. 
['liium, plur. mbawa,a wing feather. 
Kufanya ubazazi, to make a bar- 
Ubeleko, a cloth worn by women, a 
customary present to the bride's 
mother on the occasion of a 
Ubishi, a joke. 
Ubuyu, the inside of the calabash 

Uchafu or Uchavu, filthiness. 
Uchiujaa = Utagaa. 
Uchala, a raised stage to put corn 

&c. upon. 
Uchawi, witchcraft, black magic. 
Kufanya uchawi, to practise 
Uchi, nakedness. 
/ chipuka, plur. chipuka, a shoot, a 

blade of grass. 
Uehoehoro, a passage, opening be- 
Uchovu, tediousnesa. 
Uchu, a longing. 
Uchukuti, the leafstalk of the ;ocoa- 

nut leaf. 
Uchukuzi, carriage, cost of carry- 
Uchuhwi, a kind of rice. 
Uchumi = Utumi. 
Uchungu, bitterness, pain, poison, 
Uchungu, bitter. See -chungu. 
Dawa uchungu, bitter medicine. 


U K A 


Udaka, babbling, telling secrets. 
Udevu, plur. ndevu, one hair of the 

Udogo, smallness, youth. 
Udongo, clay, a kind of earth used 

to mix with the lime and sand in 

making mortar. 
Ufa ku-y to become cracked. 
Ufa, plur. nytifa, a crack. 

Kutia u/a, to crack. 
Ufagio, plur. /agio, a brush, a broom, 

a bundle of the leaves of a palm 

used to sweep with. 
Vfahamu, memory. 
Ufajiri = Alfajiri. 
Vfalmeoi U/aume,luugdom, royalty. 
Ufidiwa, a ransom. 
Ufisadi, vice. 
Ufiski, vice. 
Ufito, plur. fito, a thin stick, sticks 

such as those which are used as 

laths to tie the makuti thatch to. 
Ufizi, plur. Jizi, the gums. 
I 'r'u, death, the state of being dead. 
Ufufulio or U/n/u-o, resurrection, 

Ufukara, destitution. 
Ufukwe, absolute destitution. 
Ufumbi, valley, bottom. 
Ufunga, stone bench, = Kibaraza. 
Ufungu, relatives. 
Ufunguo, plur. fungtio, a key. 
Ufuo, sandy beach. 
Ufuta, semsem. 
Ufulhuli, officiousnesa. 
Uga, an open space in a town wl ere 

a house has been pulled down, or 

where a dance could be held. 
Ugali, porridge. 

Uganga, white magic, medicine. 
Ughaibu, the little packet of betel 

leaf, areca nut, lime, and tobacco 

made up for chewing. 

Ugo, enclosure, close. 

Ugomvi, a quarrel, quarrel soniem ss. 

Vgonjwa, sickness, a sickness. 

Ugrani, a general collection of debts. 

Ugua ku-, to fall sick, to groan. 

Ugumu, hardness, difficulty. 

Uguza hu-, to nurse, to take care of 

Ugive, string. [a sick person. 

Uharabu, mischief. 

Uharara, warmth. 

Uliaribivu, destruction, destructive - 

Ulttaji, want, thing wanting. 

Ulturu, freedom. 

Vimbo, plur. nyimbo,& song,a ballad. 

Uirari (in arithmetic), proportion, 
division of profits. See Worari. 

Vizi, theft, thieving. 

Ujahili, boldness. 

Ujalifu, fulness. 

Ujana, youth. 

Vjari, tiller-ropes. 

Ujenzi, building. 

Uji, gruel. 

Ujima, help of neighbours, assist- 
ance in work. 

Ujivga, rawness, dulness, ignorance. 

Vjio, coming. 

Ujira, hire, reward. 

Ujumbe, chiefship, headship. 

Ujuvi, knowingness, officiousness, 
pretended knowledge. 

Ujusi, defilement, whatever is re- 
moved by ablutions. 

Ukaango, plur. kaango, an earthen 
pot for cooking with oil or fat. 

Ukafu wa maji, a bubble on 

Ukali, fierceness, sharpness. 
Ku/anya ukali, to scold. 

Ukambaa, plur. kambaa (M.), cord 


D K A 


Ukamdifu, perfectness, perfection. 
UJtanda, a Btrap. 
Ukao. Btay, Btoppi 
UkarimU) generosity, liberality. 
Ukaim. delay. 

Ukaya, a long piece of blue calico, 
often ornamented with Bpangles, 
worn by slaves and poor women 
in Zanzibar over their heads: 
it bas two long ends, reaching 
nearly to the ground. 

le, I'lur. /.-• tele, a cry, a noise. 
Akapigiwa ukelele, and a cry was 
made at him. 
Ukemi, a call (Men). 

Nipigie ukemi. give me a call. 
Ukengele, a sort of knife made in 

Uketo, depth. 
Ukingo, the brink, a screen, an en- 

tre mad'- with cloths. 
JJhiri, plur. kiri, a strip of fine 
matting about an inch broad, out 
of which mikeka are made. 
Ukiwa, desolation, solitude where 
people once were. 
or Huko, there. 
Vkoa, pi nr. k'oa, a plate of metal, 
one of the rings on the scabbard 
of a sword. &c. 
Ukoga, the tartar and dirt on the 

• th. 
JJkohozi, phthisis. 
Ukoka, grass cut for fodder. 
Ukoko, the rice on the top of the 
pot, which is often dry and 
scorched through the custom of 
pouring away the water when the 
rice is done and heaping live 
embers on the lid of the pot. 
Ukoko CA.). a cough. 
Ukdlogefu, decay. 
! ma, lepr 

Vkomba, a scraper, a curved knife 

for hollowing out mortars, &c. 
Ukombolewa, a ransom. 
Ukombozi or Ukomboo, a ransom 
Ukonilr (}r,i f, nde , a (date) stone. 
Ukongwe, oldneas, extreme old age. 
Ukonyezo, plur. konyi to, a sign made 

by lifting tin- eyi brow. 
Ukoo, nastiness, uncleanness (?). 
Ukoo, ancestry, pedigree, family 

origin and connections. 
Ukope, plur. kope,& hair from the 

Ukosi, the nape of the neck. 
Ulcubali, acceptance. 

'lira, greatness, bigness. 
Ukucha, plur. kucha, a nail, a claw, 

a hoof. 
Ukufi, plur. k»fi, a handful, what 

will lie upon the hand. 
Ukumbi, an apartment at the en- 
trance, a hall, a porch. The 
ukumbi is within a stone bouse 
and outside a mud house. 
Ukumbuka, recollection. 
Ukumbueho, memorial, a reminder. 
Ukumbuu, plur. kumbuu, a girdle 
made of a narrow cloth, a turban 
cloth twisted tightly into a sort 
of rope such as the turbans of 
the Hindis are made of. 

dufu, pleasingness, comino- 
diousness, liberality. 
Ukungu, mould, mouldiness. 

Kufanya ukungu, to get mouldy. 
Ukungu, the first light of dawn. 
Ukuni, plur. kuni, a piece of firo 

Ukurasa, plur. kuram, a leaf of a 

book, a sheet of paper. 
Ukuia, plur. kuta, a stone wall. 
Ukuti, plur. kuti, a leaflet of the 
cocoa-nut tree. 




Uluiu, greatness, size. 
Ukwaju, a tamarind. 
£77iM;ase/w,necessity,having nothing. 
Ukwasi, wealth, riches. 
Ukicato, plur. kicato, a hoof. 
TJlalo, a tree or trees cut down so 

as to fall across a river and make 

a bridge over it. 
Ulaji, gluttony. 

Ulambiyambi, a very young: dafu. 
Ulanisi, a faul-mouthed person. 
Ula na or W'h' '% liome ; applied 

especially to the home of Euro- 
peans, Europe. 
Ulayiti, European, inferior calico. 

Kamba ulayiti, hempen rope. 
Tile, that, yonder. 
Uledi, a dhow boy, a cabin boy. 
Ulegevu, relaxation, the state of 

being slack. 
Ulia ku-, to kill for, with, &c. 

Tumulie rnbali, let us kill him 
out of the way. 
Ulili, a couch or bedstead (Kianz- 

Ulimbo, birdlime, gum, resin. 
Ulimbwende, dandyism. 
Ulimi, plur. ndimi, the tongue, a 

tenon, the heel of a mast. 
Ulimicengu, the world, the universe, 
a man's own world or circle of 
duties and pleasures. 

Kuwalto ulimwenguni, to be alive. 
Ulingo, a raised platform to scare 
Ulio, which is. [birds from. 

Ulitima, the last three cards of the 

Vliza ku-, to ask, to inquire of a 

Kumuliza Jiali, to ask how he 

Siwezi kuulizwa uiccngo, I cannot 
tell a lie. 

Ulizia ku-, to make inquiries on 

behalf of. 
TJlongo, falsehood. See TJwongo. 
Uma, plur. nyuma, a spit, a large 
fork, an awl. 

Umawa kuokeanyama, a gridiron. 
Uma ku-, to bite, to sting, to hurt, 

to give pain to, to ache. 
Umaheli, ingenuity. 
Umalidadi, dandyism. 
Umande, dew, morning air, mist, 

the west wind. 
Umasikini, poverty. 
Umati, a multitude, people. 
Umati lea, Christians. 
Umati Musa, Jews. 
Umati Muhammad, Mohammedans. 
Umba ku-, to create, to shape. 
Umba ku-, to bale out a boat. For 

Umbaumba hu-, to sway about like 

a drunken man. 
Umbo, plur. maumbo, form, outward 
likeness, appearance, character, 

Najiona umbo la huwa hiziwi, I 
feel getting deaf. 
Umbu, plur. maumbu, a sister. 
Umbua hu-, to allege a defect, to 

Umbwa, or better Hlbica, a clog. 
-ume (or -lume), male, strong. It 
makes ndume with nouns like 

Mkono wa kuume, the right hand. 
Umeme, lightning. 
Umia ku-, to give pain to« ' V* 
Umika ku; to cup. 
Umio, the oesophagus. 
Umito, heaviness, feeling heavy. 
Umiza ku-, to hurt. 
Umha hit-, to swell, to rise when 




V P A 

Umku (?) feu-, to call. 

Umo or Humo, there insido. 

/./, oneness. 
r»ir«, ago. 
I7mrt wake apatajef How old 
is he? 
Umua ku-, to take honey from the 

you have, thou bast. 
17na nt'ntf What is the matter 
vrith you? 

ozitaka, which you are asking 
Undo ku-, to build ships or boats. 
Undu, the comb of a cock. 
Unene, 6toutncss, thickness. 
Unenyekeo, humility, abasement, 

Unga, Hour, powder. 

I inja wa ndere, a magic poison. 
Unga feu-, to unite, to splice, to join. 
Ungama, a place near Melinda, 
.-wallowed up by the sea. 

una ku-, to acknowledge, to 
confess of one's own accord. 
Ungamana ku-, to bring together, 

Ungamo, a yellow dye used for 

dyeing malting. 
Ungana feu-, to unite, tojoin together. 
[ re-, the Bign of the second person 
Ungedumu, you would continue. 
Ungekutca, you would be. 
I'ntji, much, plenty. 
. the hymen (?). 
Euvunja ungo, to be deflowered, 
to begin to menstruate. 
Virgo, plur. maungo, a round flat 

basket used in sifting. 
I 'ufjun ku-, to be scorched or scalded. 
Ujiguja, Zanzibar. 
Vngulia ku-, to scorch or scald. 

Unguza ku-, to scorch or scald, to 

Ungwana, the state of being a free 

and civilized man, civilization. 
-ungwana, civilized, as opposed to 
•shenzi; free, as opposed to 

Kiungwana, of a civilized kind. 
Unuele, or Unwele, or Unyele, plur. 

nyele, a hair. 
Vnyago. See Kinyago* 

Kuchezea unyago, to teach wo- 
manho >d. 
Unyasi, reed, grass. 
Unyayo, plur. nyayo, the solo of the 

foot, a footprint. 
Unyele. See Unuele. 

Kupiga unyende, to cry with a 
f .hie thin voice. 
Unyflca, the Nyika country. 
Uinjna, plur. nyoct, a feather 
Unyo/u, straightness, uprightness. 
Unyogovu, idleness. 
Unyonge, vileness, meanness. 
I r nyungu. 

Kupiga unyungu, to strut about, 
to show oneself off. 
Unyushi, plur. nyushi, a hair from 

the eyebrow. 
Uo, plur. maun, a sheath. 
Uoga or Woga, fear. 

. rot teiii icss, badness, corrup- 
tion, malice, evil. 
Uozi, marriage. 
Upaa, baldness. 

U/iaa tea kitwa, crown of the 
head, baldness. 
Upaja, plur. paja, the thigh. 
Upaji, liberality. 
Upamba, plur. partiba, a bill, a small 

Upana, width, breadth. 




Upawle, plur. pande, a side, part. 
Up ande wa Mvita, near or about 

Upaiide wa chini, the under side, 

the lee side. 
Upande wa juu, the upper side, 

the weather side. 
Upande wa goshini, the side where 
the tack of the sail is fastened, 
the weather side. 
Upanga, a cock's comb. 
Upanga, plur. panga, a sword. 
Upanga wafelegi,& long straight 
two-edged sword carried by the 
Upanga wa imani, a short sword 

with a kind of cross hilt. 
Kuweka upanga, to set up a 
sword on its edge. 
Upao, plur. pao, one of the small 
sticks used as laths to tie the 
thatch to. 
Upapi, the outer beading of a door 

Upataji, value. 
Upato, a round plate of copper 

beaten as a musical instrument. 
Upawa, plur. pawa, a flat ladle made 
out of a cocoa-nut shell, used 
for serving out curry, gravy, &c. 
An upawa differs from a l<ata in 
being very much flatter and 
shallower : more than two- 
thirds of the shell are cut away 
to make an upawa ; scarcely a 
quarter is cut off in making a 
Upekecha, the piece of wood used 

to make fire by rubbing. 
Upeketevu, destruction, harm, quar- 
Upele, plur. pele, a large pimple. 
Pele, the itch. 

Upembo, curved end, hook, a stick 

to hook down fruit with. 
Upendaji, the habit of liking. 
Upendavyo, as you please. 
Upendtlto, favour. 
Upenzi, love, affection, liking. 
Upeo, plur. peo (M.), a sweeping 

Upeo, the extremest point visible, 

the extreme limit, something 

which cannot be surpassed. 
Upepeo, plur. pepeo, a fan. 
Upepo, plur. pepo, a wind, cold. 

See Pepo. The plural is used to 

denote much wind. 
Upesi, quickly, lightly. 
Upia = Upya, newness. 
Upindi, plur. pindi, a bow. 

Upindi wa mvua, the rainbow. 
Upindo, a fold, a hem. 
Upo, a water-dipper for a boat or 

Upofu, blindness. 
Upogo, a squint. 
Upogoupogo, zigzag. 
Upole, gentleness, meekness. 
Upondo, plur. pondo, a pole used to 

propel canoes and small vessels. 
Upongoe, plur. pongoe, the leaf stem 

of a palm tree. 
Upooza, paralysis. 
Upote, striug, bowstring. 
Upotevu, waste, destiuctiveness, 

Upumbafu, folly. 
Upungu, plur. punga, a flower or 

embryo nut of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Upungufu, defect, defectiveness. 
Upupu, cow-itch. 

Upuzi, nonsense, chatter, silly talk. 
Upweke, singleness, independence. 
Upya, newness. 
Uruthi, contentment. 




Urefu, length. 

I'n nihil, ornament, applied espe- 
cially to the black lines painted 
on their faces by the woniun of 
Zauzibai by way of ornament. 

J'rilhi, inheritance. 

Urongo = Uwongo. 

Urotfia, invoice. 

Cm, diamonds (in cards). 

Usafi t Bhavinga and chips. 

Usaha, matter, pus. 

Usemi, talk, conversation. 

Ushadi, plur. nyushadi, verses. 

I'xhuhidi, or Ushukuda, testimony. 

Ushambilio, haste, suddenly. 

Ushanga, plur. shanga, a bead. 

Usharika, partnership, sharing. 

Ushaufu, deo it. 

rati, dissipation. A\bo Asherati. 

Ushi, a string-course. 

/ hujaa, heroism, great courage. 

JJshukura, thank's. 

Ushungu,& vegetable poison, used 
to poison arrows. 

Ushupafu, perversity, crookedness. 

Ushuru, tax, duty, customs. 

TJ*ia leu-, to leave directions or 
"Tilers, by will, &c. See Wasia. 

Usikizi, bearing, attention, under- 

Usiku, night. The plur. sihu is used 
to denote days of 24 hours. Four 
whole nights must be roudere 1 
nihil nne u>-iku hucha. Four days 
and nights, sihu nne mchana na 

r imanga, mockery. 

!' imeme, firmness. 

r inga, plur. einga, a (straight, not 
woolly) hair. See Singa. 

!i i . plur. eingizi, sleep. See 

Ihiri, delay. 

Usiwa, on the high seas. 

plur. nyuso, face, countenance. 
Ussubui, for Astvbui, in the morning, 

the morning. 
Usubi, a sandfly, a midge. 
/ sufi, silk cotton from the msufi 

Usultani, plur. sukani, a rudder. 
Usvltani, sultanship. 
Usumba, sec Makwmbi. 
Via, plur. nyuta or mata, a bow, 
('In. [bow and arrows. 

Mafuta ya uta, semsem oil. 

Utaa, a raised stage to put corn, 
Utabibu, medical science, being a 

Utagaa, n, branch of a tree. 
Utaji, a veil. 
Utajiri, wealth. 
Utakaoho, what you wish. 
Utakatifu, holiness, purity. 
Utako (Mer.), keel of a dhow. 
Utambaa, plur. tambaa, a bandage, 

a rag. 
Utambi, plur. Iambi, a lamp- wick, a 

piece of stuff for a turban. 
Utambo {wa sufuria, &c), a swing- 
ing handle like that of a pail. 
Utamvua, end or coruer of a turban, 

of a cloth, &c. 
Utandu (A.) = Ukoko. 
I'hi mini hymen. 
Utani, a kindred race, the belonging 

to a kindred tribe, familiarity. 
r/niizH, plur. tanzu, a brand). 
Utashi, desire. 
Utasi, tongueticdness. 

Kupiga utawi, to drink grog to- 


Ute wa yayi, the white of an egg. 




Utelezi, slipperiness. 

Utembe, the chewed refuse of betel 
leaf, &c. 

Vtenzi, a poem, especially a reli- 
gious poem. 

Uteo, plur. teo (M.), a sifting bas- 

Utepe, plur. tepe, a tape, a baud, a 
fillet, a stripe. 

Utepetefu, languor. 

Uteei, strife. 

1'ihabiti, bravery, firmness. 

Uthaifu, weakness, infirmity. 
'Uthani, weight. 

Uthiku-, to harass, trouble, *w**y-A 

Uthia, bother, noise, uproar. 

Uthia ku-, to harass. 

Uthibaji, cheat, deceit, stratagem. 

Uthika ku-, to be harassed. 

TJtMUfu, calamity, great trouble. 

Uthuru ku-, to excuse. 


JJti ica maungo, the backbone. 

Utiko, the roof-ridge of a thatched 

JJtiriri, a provoking trick. 

Vtofu, dull, without amusement. 

Utofu, thinness, weakness. 

Utoko, mucus from the vagina. 


Uto wa nyama, fat cooked out of 
meat, dripping. 

Utonwa, thick white sap. 

Utondm, small dhows trading about 
Zanzibar, coasters. 

Utosi, the top of the head. 

Utoto, childhood. 

Utufu, fatigue. 

Utukufu, greatness, exaltation, 

Utule, wretchedness, weakness, un- 

Utulivu, quietness, patience. 

Utumbavu, thickness, swelling, 

Utumbuizo, a soothing thing, verses 

sung during a dance. 
Utume, sending people about. 
Utumi, use, usage. 
Utumo, business, place of business. 
Utumiva, slavery, employment, en- 
Kutia utumwani, to enslave. 
Utungu (M.) = Uchungu. 

TJtungu, is used in the dialect of 
Zanzibar only for the pains of 
childbirth, TJtungu wa uzazi. 
Utupa, a species of euphorbia used 

as a fish poison. 
Utupu, naked (vulgar). 
Mtu utupu, a naked man. 
Mtu mtupu, a mere man. 
Uuaji, murderousness. 
TJudi, aloes wood. 
Uuza ku. See Uza ku: 
Uvi, a door [Tumbatu]. 
Uvivu, idleness, sloth. 
Uvuguvugu, lukewarmness. 
Maji yana uvuguvugu, the water 
is lukewarm. 
Uvuli, shade. 

Uvumba, incense, galbanum. 
Uvundo, a smell of corruption. 
Uvurujika, tendency to crumble, a 

being spoilt and decayed. 
Uvurungu, hollowness. 

Jiwe la uvurungu, a hollow stone. 
Uvyazi, birth. 
Uwanda, a plain. 
Uwanga, arrowroot. 
Uwanga, a sweet dish made of 

wheat, flour, sugar, and ghee. 
Uwanja, a courtyard, an enclosure. 
Uwashi, masonry. 

Uwati, a vesicular eruption on the 


U W A 


>,'. tin' vizirship. 
Uueli, sickness, disi ise. 

Vuili wa riungo, rheumatism. * 
-■>, power, ubility. 

Kwpiga uwinda, to pass the ends 
of the loin-cloth between the 
legs and tuck them in, as is 
done loosely by the Banyans, 
and tightly by men at work. 
Uwingu, plnr. rnbingu, heaven, sky. 
The plural is the form more com- 
monly used. 
I'/rivu, jealousy. 
Vvxmgo, falsehood. 
Manenoye yamekuwa uwongo, he 
has become a teller of lies. 
J'liajuapo, if you know them. 
l~!i'><ja, a mushroom. 
Uyuzi, ingenuity. 
Vijuzi ku-, to ascertain. 
I':n leu-, to ask, to ask questions. 
/ :  feu- or Za ku-, to sell. 
The u in kuuza, or rather kuza, 
to sell, is very short and insig- 
nificant : it is possibly only a 
partial retention of the ku-, 
which bears the accent and is 
retained entire in the usual 
tenses. The w- in kuuza, to 
ask, is much more important, 
as is shown clearly in the ap- 
plied forms. 

Kuuliza, to ask of a person ; 

pres. pcrf. ameuliza, 
Kuliza, to sell to a person ; 
prea pcrf. ameliza. 
J'zanya ku-, to be ordinarily sold, 

t , he for sale. 
V tzt, birth. 
Uzee, old age. 

I indifference, apathy, slow- 


T;;'. plnr. nyuzi, thread, string, a 

Uziki, poverty. 

Uzima, health, heartiness, complete- 
ness, life. 

Izi. Pee Zinrjizi an<\ Udngizi. 

Uzinguo, disenchantment, as from 
tho power of the evil eye. 

Uzini or Uzinzi, adultery, fornica- 

Uzio, plnr. nyuzio, a hedge made in 
the sea to catch fish. 

Uzulia ku-, to depose. 

Uzulu ku-, to depose, to remove from 
an office. 
Kujiuzulu, to resign, to give up a 
place or office, to abdicate. 

Uzuri, beauty, fineness, ornament 
Kufanya vzuri, to adorn oneself. 

Uzushi, raising from the bottom, at- 
in fishing for pearls. 

TJzuzu, rawness, greenness (of a 


V is pronounced as in English. 
V,f, and b, are sometimes a little 

difficult to distinguish accurately in 
the dialect of Zanzibar. This i> 
probably owing to the want of ■* i 
in Arahic. 

V and vy change in some dialects 
into 2-, in others into tit-. 

Mirivi, a thief, becomes mwizi at 
Lamoo, and mwithi at Patta. 
Vaa ku-, to put on, to dress in. 
The past tenses arc used in the 

sense of, to wear. 
Am<raa, he wears. 
Alivaa, he wore. 
Yalta ku-. 




Mshipi tea huvalia nguo, a girdle 
to gird up one's clothes with. 

Vao, plur. mavao, dress. 

Yaranga, interrupting and bother- 
ing talk. 

Yazi, plur. mavazi, a dress, a gar- 

Vema, well, very well. 

Vema or Vyema, good. See -ema. 

Ft- or Vy-, the plural prefix of sub- 
stantives (and of adjectives and 
pronouns agreeing with them) 
which make their singular in ki- 
or ch-. 

Yi- or Vy-, sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs governed 
by nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Vi- or Vy- prefixed to adjectives 
often gives them an adverbial 

•vi-, the objective prefix represent- 
ing nouns in vi- or vy-. 

Via ku-, to stop short of perfection, 
to be stunted in its growth, to 
remain ouly half cooked for want 
of fire, &c, &c. 

Yiaa ku- = Vyaa ku-. 

Viatu (plural of Kia(u), shoes, san- 
Yiatu vya Kizungu, European 

Viatu vya ngozi, leather sandals. 
Yiatu vya mti. wooden clo^s. 

Viazi (plur. of Kiazi), sweet pota- 
Yiazi vya Kizungu, potatoes. 
Viazi vikuu, yams. 

Viberiti (plur. of Kiberiti), matches, 

Yidani, collars of gold, &c 

Viembe or Yyembe, arrows. 

Yifaa, necessaries, useful things. 

]~>jice, braid, reins. 

Yijinmn, little words, prattle. 
1 'iha ku-, to clothe, to dress. 
Vile, those yonder. 
Vileviie, just those things, like 

tilings, in like manner. 
Vilia ku-, to stop and stagnate, as 

the blood does in a bruise. 
Vilio, a stagnation, a stoppage. 
Ma vilio ya damu, bruises, effusion 
of blood. 
Yimba ku-, to swell, to thatch. 
I 'imbisha ku-, to overfeed a person. 
Vimbiwa ku-, to be overstuffed, to 

overeat oneself. 
Yimo, all of one size. 
Yinga vya molo, firebrands, sing. 

hinga cha moto. 
Vinyi, many. See -ingi. 
Vingine, others. See -ugine. 
Vinjari ku-, to cruise about, to go 
looking out for something, to 
Yinyavinya ku-, to press and crush 
food for children and sick people. 
Vinyi. See Muoenyi. 
Vinyu = Mvinyo. 
Vioga ku- (M.), to tread. 
Viombo = Vyornbo. 
Yiote or Vyote, all. See -ote. 
Vipande vya kupimia, nautical in- 
struments, sextants, &c. 
Vipele (plur. of Kipele), small 
pimples, a rash. 
Vipele vya harara, prickly heat. 
Viringa ku-, to become round. 

Imeviringa, it is round. 
Viringana ku-, to become spherical. 
Visha ku-, to give clothes to. 
Vita, war. 

Vitanga vya mizaui, scales, scale- 
Vitindi vya shaba, brass wire. 
Vitica vitwa, topsy-turvy. 


v IV 


r.v/.i i;u-, to Bmoulder. 

Vivi hiii. common, just there, just 

60, anyhow. 
-tint, idle, dull, slow. 

Kisu ni hivivu, the knife is blunl 

o, thus, in the way mentioned. 
Vivyohivyo, in like manner. 
Viirintl.i (plur. of Kiwimbi), wave- 
lets, a ripple. 
Viza ku-, to stunt, to prevent its 

attaining perfi ction, to interrupt, 

to stop or hinder in work. 
Vizia ku-, to watch, to spoil one's 

work for one, to hinder one from 

Vizuri, fine, finely. See -zuri. 
Vua ku-, to take off clothes. 
Vua ku-, to save, to deliver, to take 

Vua ku-, to fi li. tn catch fish. 
Vuuta /.''<-or Vwata In-, to press with 

the teeth, tohold in the mouth. 
Vuaza kit-, to wound by striking or 

running into unawares, to cut. 
Vugaza ku-, to put to (a door). 
Vugo, a horn played upon by beat- 
Vuja ku-, to leak, to let Water. Ling. 

• ku-, to ooze out. 
I uka ku-, to cross, to go over, to 

pass a liwr, to be Bared. 
- . sti am, vapour, sweat. 
Vukielca ku-, to take across, to ferry 

Vukiza ku-, to cause to fume, to 

give off vapour. 
Vultuta ku-, to blow bellows. 
Vukulo, sweat. 

JJwJu rule, an insect living in 
wood, a carpenter bee (?). 
Vuli, Bhade. 

Mluyito wa kuvuli, the right hana. 

Vulia ku-, to catch fish for, or 

Vuma ku-, to blow as the wind, to 

buzz like a bee. 
Vuma Am-, to lose (in card-playing). 
Vumbi, plur. mavumbi, dust, flue, 

muddiness in water. 
1 mribika hu-,to put in under some- 
thing, to stick into the embers, to 

cover with a heap of leaves, &c. 
Vumbikia ku-, to put seeds or plants 

in the ground before rain, to get 

them into the ground. 
Vumbilia ku-. 

Kuvumbilia vita, to get into a 
Vumbu, plur. mavvmbu, lumps in 

flour, &c. 
Vumbua ku-, to find after a search, 

to discover. 
Vurai, a noise as of blowing or 

bellowing, often made with a 

Vumilia ku-, to endure, to tolerate, 

to bear. 
Vumisha ku-, to win (in card-play- 
Vuna leu-, to reap. 
Vuna ku-. 

Kujivuna, to swell up, to be 
puffed up. 
Vunda, &c. = Vunja, &c. 
Vunda ku-, to rot. 
-vuwju, hollow. 

Vunja ku-, to break, to ruin, to 
spoil, to change a piece of 

Kuvunja jungo, to have a fina I 
feast, as before Eamathan. 
Vunja jungo or chungu, a ma; 
(Mantis religiosa), so called from 
the superstition that a persoi 
touching it will break the neH 


-W A- 


piece of crockery or glass he 

Vunjia Jtu-, to hreak for, with, &c. 
Vunjika Jcu-, to become broken. 
Vuruga ku-, to stir. 
Vurujika ku-, to break up into frag- 
ments, crumble. 
Vurumisha ku-, to throw a stone, &c. 
Vusha ku-, to put acros3, to ferry 

over, to put into the right way. 
Vuta ku-, to draw, to pull. 

Kuvuta maji, to bale out water. 

Kuvuta makasia, to row. 

Kuvuta tumbako, to smoke to- 
Vuvia ku-, to blow. 
Vuvumka ku-, to grow up quickly. 
Vuzi, plur. mavuzi, a hair of the 

pubes. Also, (A.) hair in gene- 
Vy- = Vi-. 
Vya, of. 
Vyaa ku-, to bear children, or fruit. 

Pass, vyawa or vyaliwa. 
Vyake or Vyakwe, his, her, its. 
Vyako, thy. 
Vyakula (plur. of Chakula), things 

to eat, victuals, meals, provisions. 
Vyaliwa ku-, to be born. 
Vyangu, my, of me. See -angu. 
Vyao, their, of them. See -ao. 
Yyetu, our, of us. See -etu. 
Vyenu, your, of you. See -enu. 
-vyo or -vyo-, as. 

Upendavyo, as you please. 

Unipendavyo, as you love me, for 
my sake. 

Alivyoagiza, as he directed. See 
gin si. 
Vyo, -vyo, -vyo-, which. See -o. 

Vyo vyote, whatsoever. 
Vyomljo (plur. of Chombo), vessels, 

household utensils, baggage. 


W is pronounced as in English. 

W is commonly in Swahili a con- 
sonantal m, and in many words w 
or u may be written indifferently. 
There are other cases, as in the 
passive termination -wa, where the 
sound can only be expressed by an 
English w. 

W- = JJ-, which see. 
W-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by substan- 
tives either singular or plural 
which denote animate beings. 
Wa, of. See -a. 
Wa nini, why. 

Hamisi wa Tani, Tani's Hamisi, 
i.e. Hamisi, the son of Tani. 
Wa or U, the Arabic and. 
Wa ! an Arabic exclamation. 
Wa-, the plural prefix of substan- 
tives in m-, 'm-, or mw- which 
denote animate beings. 
Wa-, the plural prefix of adjectives 
and pronouns agreeing with sub- 
stantives which denote animate 
Wa-, the prefix marking the third 
person plural of verbs governed 
by nouns denoting animate be- 
Where the tense prefix begina 
with an -a- that of the personal 
prefix coalesces with it, so that 
there is no difference between 
the second person singular and 
the third plural. 
•wa- the objective plural prefix 
referring to substantives which 
denote animate being" 
2 E 



W A L 

It'.i kit-, to be, to 1" oome (?) : the 
feu- beare seat and is re- 

tained in the usual cases. 
The presenl tense of the substan- 
tive verb is generally repre- 
sented by ntor by (lie personal 
prefix standing aloue. 
The present tense with the rela- 
tive is represented by the syl- 
lable -U-. Aliije, he who is. 
The present perfect amekuwu, &c. 
has the sense of, to have be- 
come. TJ 'as is represented by 
the past perfoct tense alihuwa, 

Kuica na, to have. 
6li)K Luica mwongo ? should I 
not be a liar ? 
Woo. ku-, to shine much, like the 

sun or the moon. 
Waa, plur. mawaa, a spot, a blotch, 

a stain. 
Wdbba, cholera. 

Waboondei, the people living in the 
low country between the sea and 
the Shambala mountains. 
Wadi, son of. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed's 
Wadi ku-, to complete a term. 
Watu wa " London" wamewadi, 
the (H.M.S.) " London's " com- 
mission has expired. 
Wadia ku-, to be fully come, to be 

quite time for anything. 
Wadinan for Walad ennas, born 
of people, that is, of decent 
Wadui, enmity, hostility. 
Wafikama ku-, to conspire together. 
Wafiki ku-, to suit, to be suitable 

Wayn ku- (Met.), to kill. 

Wagunya, the Swahili living north 

of !Si\vi. 
Wahadi, plur. nyahadi (?), for 

Ahadi, a promise. 
Wdhid, one. 
Wai I: it-, to be in time. 
Wainua, verily. 
Wdjib, rightness, it ought. 
Wiijilii ku-, to visit, to see face to 

Wajihiana ku-, to meet face to face, 

to see one another. 
Waka ku-, to blaze, to burn up, to 

Wakati, time, season. 

Wakati huu, now. 
Wake or Wakwe, his, her, or its. 
Wakf. [See-./,, 

Kufanya wakf, to dedicate, to si t 
apart for holy uses. 
Wakia, the weight of a silver dollar, 

about an ounce. 
Wakifu ku-, to cost. 
Wakifia ku-, to cost to. 
Wakili, an agent, a representative. 
Wako, thy. 
Wakti = Wakati. 

Wakti gani nijef at what time 
am I to come ? 
Wala, nor, and not. 

Wala — wala — , neither — nor — . 
Where or would be used in 

English after a negative wala is 

used in Swahili. 
Walai or Wallaye, the most com- 
mon Swahili oath. 
Walakini, but, and however. 
Walao, not even. 
Wale, those yonder. 
Wali, cooked grain, especially rice. 

Wall wa mwikuu, what is left 
from some meal overnight. to bo 
eaten in the morning. 




Wait, a governor. 
Liwali for Al Wall, the governor, 
is more commonly used in Zan- 
Walio. See Nyalio. 
Walio, they who are. 
Walimwengu, the people of this 

Walli, a saint. 

Wama Jcu-, to lie on the face. 
Wamba ku-, to lace in the ropes 
upon the frame of a kitanda, to 
fill up. 
Warribiso, attachment. 
Wana, they have. 

Hawana, they have not. 
Wanda Jcu-, to get very fat and 

Wanda, plur. nyanda, a finger, a 

Wanga ku- (Mer.), to count, to 

Wanga, one who uses witchcraft 

against another. 
Wanga, arrowroot. Also Uanga. 
Wanga or Wangwa, a cliff. 
Wangine, others, other people. 
Wangine — wangine — , some — 
others — . 
Wangu, my. See -angu. 
Wangua ku-, to scoop up. 
Wangwa, a desert, a bare waste 

Wongwana or Waungwana, gentry, 

free and civilized men. 

Wanja wa manga, antimony. 
Wano, plur. mawano, the shaft of 

an arrow or harpoon. 
Wao, they. 
Wao, their. See -ao. 
Wapi ? which people ? 
Wapi ? or apt ? where ? 

Commonly joined with the per- 
sonal sign of the noun. 
Yu wapi or Yuko wapi ? where is 

Zi wapi or Ziko wapi ? where are 
Wapilia ku-, to be laden with scent, 

highly perfumed. 
Wapo, a gift. 
Waradi, or Waredi, or Waridi, a 

Waraka, plur. nyaraka, a letter. 
Waria, a clever dhow-builder, a 

clever man at any business. 
Warr, a yard (measure). 
Wasa, plur. nyasa, small sticks to 
fill up between larger ones in a 
wall or roof. 
Wasa ku-, to contradict. 
Washa ku-, to light, to set fire to. 

Kuwasha moto, to light up a fire. 
Washarati, great dissipation, licen- 
Washenzi, wild people, uncivilized 

Wasi, rebellion. Also Vagi. 
Wasia, sentence, will, declared 

opinion. Also Wosia. 
Wasia ku-, to bequeath, to make a 

Wasili ku-, to arrive, to come close 

to, to reach. 
Wasili, receipt, credit side of ac- 
count, i.e. the left-hand column. 
Wasilia ku-, to reach a person, es- 
pecially of letters. 
Wasilisha ku-, to cause to reach. 
Wasio, who are not. 
Wasio = Wasia and Wosia. 
Wastani, middling, in the middle 
Waswas, doubt. 
Wathahisha ku-, to solve. 
Wathiki. narrow. 

2 e 2 


W A T 


Watia Lit-, to sit upon eggs. 
Watu, f< nugn 

Watu (plur. of Mln), poople. 
-a watu, othet people's. 

Han/, plur. »yaru,a net to catch 

■_'fl7('llt 3, &C 

)r,((o7(, two. two persons. 

Woti wawili, both. 
FPiaya, an earthen dish to bake 

cakes on. 
Wayaumya J:n-, to sway like a bough 

loadcil with fruit, to swagger, to 

be bent down and burdened. 
Wayo, plur. nyayo, sole of the foot, 

footprint. Also Uayo. 

Waza hu-, to think, consider, reflect. 

Wazao, progeny, offspring, posterity. 

■icazi, open, clear, manifest. It 

makes tcazi with nouns like 

n yumba. 

Kitwa kiimzi, bareheaded. 

Panalia wazi, it sounds hollow. 

Waziwazi, manifest. 

Ana wazimu, he is mad. 
Waziri, plur. mawaziri, a vizier, a 

secretary of state, a chief officer. 
Wazo, plur. maicazo, thoughts, 
-ice, his, hers, its, for wake. 

, thee, for wewe. 
Wea hu-, to become the property of. 
Wt ha ku-, to place, to lay, to put 
away, to keep, to delay. 

Nywriba hainiweki, I have no rest 
in the house, I cannot remain 
in the house. 
Wekea hu-, to put away for. 

Kuwehea omenta, to entrust to. 

Kuwehea wahf, to dedicate. 

K'/iia weko, to weld. 
Wekua ku-, to break up, to remove. 
Weleko, a cloth worn by women. 

Weli, sickness. 

II' li. wa macho, ophthalmia. 
Welti, saintly, a saint. 
II '« ma, goodness. 
Wembe, plur. nyembe (?), a razor. 
Wenga ku-, to cause to break out 

into sores. 
Wengi, many. See -ingi. 
II- ngo, the spleen. 
Wenu, your. See -enu. 
Wenzangu, my companions = Wa- 

enzi wangu. 
Werevu, cunning, shrewdness. 
Weu, a place_clcared for planting. 
Weupe, whiteness, clearness, light. 
Weupe, white. See -eupe. 
Wevi or Wezi, thieves. See Mwiri. 
Wewe, thou, thee. 
Weweseka ku-, to talk and murmur 

in one's sleep. Also Weweteka. 
Weye, you ! it is you. 
Weza ku-, to be able, to be a match 
for, to have power over, to be 
equal to. 

Siwezi, I cannot, or, I am sick. 

Nalikuwa siwezi, I was ill. 

Sikuweza, I was not able. 

Amehaicezi, he has fallen sick. 
-weza. See mweza. 
Wezekana ku-, to be possible. 
Wezesha ku-, to enable. 
-wi, bad (old Swahili and Nyam- 
Wia ku-, to be to. [wezi). 

Niwie rathi, don't be offended 
with me. 

2. to have in one's debt. 
Kuwiwa, to be indebted. 
Wibo, Ibo. 

117//, husband's sister. 
Wiha ku-, to crow like a cock. 
Wilaya = Ulaya, home, Europe 
-wili, two. It makes mbili with 

nouns like nyumba. 

W I M 



Wirnbi, plur. mawimbi, a wave. 

Mawimbi, surf. 
Wimbi, a very small kind of grain. 
Winda ku- or Witiga ku-, to chase, 

to hunt. 
Wingi = TJngi, plenty, a great 

TI mgu, plur. mawingu, a cloud. 

PFino, ink. 

Wishwa, chaff, the husks of rice, the 

flour sifted off along with the 

Witiru, odd, not even. 
Witiva (= Kwitwa ?), the being 

TTiuo ku- = Jot &M-. 
-wivu, jealous. 
-wivu = -bivu, ripe. 
Wiwa ku-, to owe, to be indebted 


Mayayi maiciza, eggs with 
chickens formed in them, hard 
Wo, -wo, -wo-, which, who, whom. 

Wo wote, whatsoever, whosoever. 
-wo, thy, = Wako. 
Wogofya, plur. nyogofya, a threat. 
Wokovu, deliverance, salvation. 
Wongo, falsehood. Also Uwongo. 
Wonyesho, showing, display. 
Worari, rateable division, sharing. 

Ar. Wora, to cast pebbles. 
Wosia, injunction, sentence, charge, 

wise saying. Also Wasia. 
Wote, all, both. 

Twende wote, let us both go. 

Wote waicili, both. 
Wovisi, cool. 
Woweka ku-, to soak. 

Y is pronounced as in English. 

Y is in Swahili a consonantal i, 
and it is often indifferent whether it 
be written i or y. The use of y 
is however important to distinguish 
such words as kimia, a cast-net, 
and kimya, silence. 

The insertion of a y sound before 
the final -a of a verb has in many 
cases the effect of giving it a causa- 
tive meaning. See P. 
Kupona, to get well. 
Kuponya, to cure. 
Kuogopa, to fear. 
Kuogofya, to frighten 

Y = 1. 

Y-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by singular 
substantives of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, by plural substantives in 
mi-, or by plural substantives in 

Ya, of. See -a. [ma-. 

Ya kitovu, in the naveL 
Ya kwamba, that. 
Yaninit Why? 

Ya-, sign of the third person plural 
prefixed to verbs governed by a 
plural substantive in ma-. 

-ya-, objective prefix denoting 
plural nouns in ma-. 

Yaa ku-, to sow seeds. 

Ydbis, or Yabisi, dry, solid. 

Yai = Yayi. 

Yaika ku-, to melt. 

Yake or Yakwe, his, hers, its. See 

Yakini, certainly, certainty, it is 

Ydkinia ku-, to determine, to set 
one's mind upon. 


Y A K 

Yakinisha lu-, to make certain. 
YaJco, thy, your. Sec -al;o. 
Yakowapi, where arc they? 
Ydkuti, emerald (?). 
Yalr, those yonder. 
Yuliomo, which are within. 
Yambo = Jairibo. 
Yamini, an oath. 

hint, possibly, possibility. 

Kira yamkini, possibly. 
Yamkini lu- (?), to be possible. 

Haiyamkini, it is not possible. 
Ynmur, deer. 
Yange, See -nge-. 

Yangedumu, they would remain. 
Yangu, my, of me. See -angu. 
Yani = Ya ntnt'f for what? why? 
Yao, their, of them. See -ao. 
Yasi, a yellow powder brought from 

India, and used as a cosmetic. 
Yntima, an orphan. 
Yavuyavu, lights, lungs. 
Yaya, a nurse, an ayah. 
Yayi, plur. mayayi, an egg. 

Yayi ya pumbu, testicles. 
Y«! = Je! Hullo 1 Weill What 

Ye, -ye, or -ye-, sign of the relative, 
referring to animate beiugs, 
who, which, whom. 

Ye yote, whosoever. 

Yeekwayee, common-place people. 
■ye, Mb, hers, or its, = Yake. 
Yee or, he or she, him or her. 
Yet, a child's good-bye, " ta-ta." 
Yemkini = Yamkini. 
i^J* Yenu, your, of you. See -enu. 
Yenyi, having. See -enyi. 

a, our, of us. See -etu. 
Yeyvka lew-, to melt, to deliquesce. 
uiha ku-, to cause to melt, to 

Yinyi = Y'utyi. 

-yo, thy, = Ynko. 
Yo, -yo, -yo-, sign of the relative, 
Yo yote, whatsoever. 
Yoe = Yowe. 
Yonga ku-, to sway. 
Yote, all. See -ote. 

Kwa yote, altogether, wholly. 
Yoice, a cry for help. 

Kupiga yowe, to cry for help. 
Yu, he or she is. 

Yu-, sign of the third person sin- 
gular, referring to an animate 
being. It is used chiefly before 
monosyllabic verbs and in the 
Mombas dialect. 
Yuaja, he comes. 
Yuko, yumo, &c, he is there, 
within, &c. 
Yule, yonder person, that person. 
Yuma ku-, to sway in the wind. 
Yuna, he has. 

Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Yuza ku-, to declare, to make clear. 


Z is pronounced as in zany, the 
German 8. Zin some dialects takes 
the place of v or vy in that of Zan- 

Z is used by people who cannot 
pronounce th, for the Arabic thai, 
thod, and dtha. See T. 

Z- or zi-, the sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs which 
are governed by plural substan- 
tives of the class which does not 
change to form the plural, or of 
that which makes its singular 
in u-. 

Z-, the prefix proper to prom 

Z A 



governed by plural nouns of the 
class -which does not change to 
form the plural, or of that which 
makes its singular in u. 

Za, of. See -a. 

Za ku-. See Uza ku-, to sell. 

Zaa ku-, to bear, to breed, to beget, 
to bear fruit. 

Zabadi, civet. 

Zabibu, plur. mazabibu (?), grapes, 

Zabidi ku-, to take civet from the 

Zabuni ku-, to buy. 

Zaburi, the psalter, a psalm. 

Zafarani or Zafrani, saffron, a wo- 
man's name. 

Zagaa ku-, to shine, to glisten. 

Zaidi or Zayidi, more. 

Zaka, tithes. 

Zake or Zakwe, his, hers, its. See 

Zako, thy, your. See -ako. 

Zakula (AO = Vyakula, victuals. 

Zalia ku-, to bear to. 

Zalisha ku-, to beget, cause to bear. 

Zaliwa ku-, to be born. 

Zama ku-, to sink, to dive. 

Zamani, times, long ago. 
Zamani za kale, old times, long 

ago, anciently. 
Zamani za Shanga, when Shanga 

Zamani hizi, nowadays. 
Zamani zetu, our times. 

Zambarau, a kind of fruit, in ap- 
pearance not unlike a large dam- 

Zamisha ku-, to make to sink. 

Zamu, a turn, turns. 
Kica zamu, by turns. 

Zangefuri, cinnabar. 

Zangu, my, of me. See -angu. 

Zani, adultery. 

Zao, plur. mazao, fruit, produce. 

Zao, their. See -ao. 

Zarambo, a spirit distilled from palm 

Zari, a precious kind of stuff, gold 
thread, gold brocade. 

Zatiti ku-, to set in order, arrange, 
prepare for. 

Zawa ku-, to be born. 

Zawadi, a present, a keepsake, a 

Zaicaridi, a Java sparrow. 

Zayidi, more. 

Zazi (?), afterbirth. 

-ze, his, her, or its, = Zake, 

•zee, old, aged. 

Zebakh, mercury. 

Zege, a dome. 

Zelabia, a kind of sweetmeat con- 
taining syrup. 

Zengea ku-, to seek for. 

Zenu, your. See -enu. 

Zenyi. See -enyi. 

Zetu, our, of us. See -etu. 

Zeze, a sort of lute with three 

Zi- = Z-. 

-zi-, the objective prefix denoting a 
plural substantive either of that 
class which doe3 not change to' 
form the plural or of that which 
makes its singular in u-. 

Ziba ku-, to fill up a hole in a wall, 
&c, to plug up, to stop. 

Zibana ku-, to be stopped up, to stop 
itself up. 

Zibo, plur. mazibo, a plug, a stopper. 

Zibua ku-, to unstop, to bore 

Zidi ku-, to increase, to do more 
than before. 
Kuzidi kujua, to know more. 


z i n 


Zididha hit-, to make greater, to 
add to. 

Zii'uri, a cipher, a figure of nought. 

Zika ku-, to bury, to inter. 

Zikerezwazo, turnery, turned goods. 
See Kereza. 


Kanzu ya zilti, worked with 
white cotton round the neck 
instead of silk. See Kanzu. 

ZOtika ku-, to be impoverished. 

Zikuri, plur. pifcu»(N.), a thousand. 

ZUe, those yonder. 

- ima, sound, whole, healthy, com- 

Zima ku-, to extinguish, to put out. 
Euzima roho, to faint. 

Zimia ku-, to put out. 

Ziiuiha ku-, to go out, to be extin- 

Zimiliza ku-, to rub out. 

Zimu. See Wazimu, 'Mzimu, Ku- 
zirnu, Zimvoi. ku-, to cool hot water by 
adding cold to it. 

Zimwi, plur. mazimwi, an ogre, 
a ghoul, an evil being which 
devours men, &c 
Nazi ina zimwi, i.e. the cocoa-nut 
has grown without anything 
inside the shell. 

Zina ku-, to commit adultery. See 

Zindika ku-, to hold an opening 
ceremony in, to open for use. 

Zindiko, an opening ceremony. 

Zinduka ku-, to wake up suddenly 
from a doze with a nod and a 

nhana ku-, to wake up sud- 

Zinga ku-, to commit adultery (?;. 
■I ku-, to Mil up. 

Zimjizi, sleep, great sleep. Also 

Zingizi /<< ku'mkom&ika mzazi, a 
sleep which is supposed to put 
an end to all further child- 
Zingulia ku-, to relieve from the 

evil eye. 
Zini ku-, to commit adultery or for- 
Zira ku-, to hate (M.). 
Ziriki (M.) = lliziki. 
-zito, heavy, difficult, severe, sad, 
clumsy, thick. 

Asali nzito, thick syrup. 

liana zituo, he never rests. 
Ziwa, plur. maziwa, a lake, a pond, 

the breasts. 
Zizi, plur. mazizi, a cow-yard, a 

cattle-fold, a stable, palisading. 
Zizi hizi, just these, common. 
Zizima ku-, to become very calm, 

very still, or very cold. 
Zizimia ku-, to sink to the bottom. 
Zo, -zo, -zo-, sign of the relative, 

Zo zole, whatsoever. 
-20, thy, = Zako. 
Zoa ku-, to gather into little heaps, 

to sweep together. 
Zoea ku-, to become accustomed, to 

become used to. 
Zoeza leu-, to accustom to, to make 
used to. 

Kujizoeza, to practise. 
Zomari, a kind of clarionet, a pipe. 
Zomea ku-, to groan at. 
Zongazonga ku-, to wind. 
Zote, all. See -ote. 
Zua ku-, to pierce, to bore through, 
to innovate, to invent. 

Niiiicmzua, I have sucked him 




dry, I have got all the informa- 
tion I can from him. 
Zuia ku-, to hold in, to restrain, to 

Kuzuia pumzi, to stifle. 
Zuilia ku-, to hold for, to keep off, 

to hold in its place. 
Zuka ku-, to emerge, to rise. 
Zuli, perjury. 
Zulia, a carpet. 
Zulia ku-, to invent to, to make a 

false excuse to, to say falsely that 

one has such and such a message. 
Zulisha ku-y to make crazy, to 

Zulu ku-, to be crazy. 
Zumarid, an emerald. 
Zumbili, consolation. 
Zumbua ku-, to find. 

Kuzumbua paa (A.), to take off 
Zumbukana ku, to be to be found. 

Zumgu'mza ku-, to amuse, converse 
Kujizumgu'mza, to converse, to 
amuse oneself. 

Zunguka ku-, to go round, to sur- 
round, to wind round, to revolve, 
to wander. 

Zungukazunguka ku-, to stroll about. 

Zungusha ku-, to make to go round, 
to turn. 

Zuri ku-, to lie, to swear falsely. 

-zuri, fine, beautiful, handsome. 

Zuru ku-, to visit. 

Kwenda kuzuru, to go to visit. 
Kuzuru kaburi, to visit a grave. 

Zurungi = Huthurungi, the brown 
material of which kanzus are 

Zuzua ku-, to puzzle a stranger, or 
a greenhorn. 

Zuzuka ku-, to be puzzled or be- 
wildered, not to know what to do. 


( 425 ) 

Appknwx I. 

Specimen of Kinynme, as written out by Johari, a native of the 
Bwahili coast a little south of Zanzibar. The Swahili is in the Merima 






An ox. 



A goat. 



A donkey. 



A camel. 



A house. 



A sleeping mat. 



A bedstead. 



A door. 



Buildings (?). 



Red earth. 



A ladder. 



A staircase. 






That will do. 



A woman. 












I lend. 



I will not give you. 



I will give you. 



I shall withhold from yau. 






A leg. 



A club. 



I pray you. 


APr/xnjx J. 

8« A1III.L. 

\ n-.i iiiiiniuma 



Si I: in li 





I'll; nil .'hi 

Samauati (Ar.) 
Aruthi Ai.j 


- iki 
1 :n:eta 

Kit id, a 

Knnri ui 

Raiijn mainaniu 

/,. riiln 



Sikw, ata 

Tut m mleze 









Mi' nnitu 







I ache with hunger. 
The neck. 
It is not true. 
A master workman. 
Not thus. 
A pen. 

Disli up. 
Let us be off. 
I am not going. 

You will go. 

A free man. 
A slave. 
I dislike it. 
A table. 
A box. 
A chest. 
A book. 
A Koran. 

C 427 ) 

Appendix II. 

Specimens of Swahili correspondence in prose and verse, containing : 
— 1. Two Swahili letters, the one on giving, the other on receiving a 
small present. The forms of address, &c, are those used in all letters, 
whatever their subject may be. 2. Two specimens of verses sent as 
letters, the first to excuse breaking an appointment, the second sent 
from Pemba by a Mombas man to his friends at home, who upbraided 
him for not returning. This form of writing is a very favourite one. 

Ilia jenab il moheb rafiki yangu, bwana wangu, bwana mkubwa, 
D. S., salamu sana, ama baada ya salamu, nalikuwa siwezi siku 
nyingi, lakini sasa sijanibo kidogo, ama baadahu, nimekuletea kitoweo 
kidogo tafathali upokee, nao k'uku saba'a, wa salamu, wa katabahu 
rafiki yako H. bin A. 

To the honourable the beloved, my friend, my master, the great, sir, 
D. S.,many compliments, but after compliments, I was unwell for many 
days, but now I am a little recovered, and after this, I have sent you a 
little kitoweo [i.e. something to be eaten with the rice or grain, which 
forms the bulk of all meals], and I beg your acceptance, they are seven 
fowls and compliments, and he who wrote this is H. son of A, 

Ilia jenab, il mohel), il akram, in nasih, D. S., il Mwingrezi, insha' 
Allah salaam aleik wa rehmet Allah wa barakatahu; wa baada, 
nakuarifu hali zangu njema wa thama nawe kathalik ya afia, wa 
zayidi amana yako ulioniletea imefika kwangu, ahsanta, Mwenyiezi 
Muungu atakujazi kheiri ukae ukitukumbuka, nasi nyoyo zetu zinaku- 


kumbuka ?ana. tunapenda uje 'nti ya T'nguja, wewe na bibi, naye nje 
tumwangalie, naye aje atazame 'nti ya Dnguja, nasi kulla siku tukilala 
tukia'mka tunakuombea Muungu uje 'nti ya Unguja, tuonane kwa 
afia na nguvu, nasi twapenda macho yetn yakuone wewe nssubui na 
jioni, na nsipoknja wewe, usitusahau kwa nyaraka allah allah. 
N 9alimie bibi mke wako salamu sana. Nasi tunakutamani, kama 
tungalikuwa ndege tungaliruka tukija tukaonane nawe mara moja 
tukiisha tukarudi. Nyumbani kwangu mke wangu salamu sana. M. 
bin A. akusalimu sana, wa katabaliu M. wadi S. 26 mwezi wa mfunguo 

To the honourable, the beloved, the noble, the sincere D. S., the 
Englishman, please God, peace be with you and the mercy of God ami 
1 lis blessing ; and afterwards, I inform you that my health is good, and 
may you be the same as to health, and further, your pledge which you 
Bent me has reached me, I thank you. Almighty God will satisfy you 
with good that you may continue to remember us, and as for us, our 
hearts think much of you ; we wish you to come to the land of Zanzibar, 
you and the mistress, and let her pome that we may behold her, and 
let her come that she may look upon the land of Zanzibar ; and we 
every day when we sleep and when we wake pray for you to God that 
you come to the land of Zanzibar, that we may meet in health and 
strength, and we, we wish that our eyes should see you morning and 
evening, and if you come not yourself, forget us not by letters, we 
adjure you. Salute for me the mistress your wife with many compli- 
ments. And w t c are longing for you, and if we had been birds we 
would have come flying to see you once and then return. At home my 
wife sends many compliments. M. son of A. salutes you much, and 
he who wrote this is M. the eon of S. 26 of the month Jemad al 


Kala es sha'iri. The Verse says. 

Risala enda kwa hima Go, message, qub-kly 

Kwa Edward Istira To Edward Steere, 

Umpe yangu salama Give him health, 

Pamwe na kumkhubira, Together with telling him, 

Siwezi yangu jisima I am ill in my body, 

Ningekwenda tesira I would have gone readily 

Kumtazama padira To see the Padre, 

Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 


Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 

Ilimu ya Injili The doctrine of the Gospel— 

Yuaijua habara He knows how its news 

Pia yote kufasili. To explain,— all of it. 

Ni muhebbi akhyara He is a choice friend, 

Kwetu sisi afthali. Especially in our house ; 

Edi ni mtu wa kweli. He is a man of truth. 

Eabbi, nipe tesira. O Lord, give me prosperity. 

Hatukiati kisiwa kwa uvambume na upembe 

Tukaifuasa bawa kulewalewa na ombe 
Ni mpunga na maziwa na kulla siku ni ngombe 

Twalalia kwa jivumbe, lipangine kwa rihani. 

We shall not leave the island for tale-bearing and plotting, 
And follow the fancy to be tossed on the sea. 

Here are rice, and milk, and every day an ox; 

We sleep among perf ames, and strings of sweet basil. 

Swahili letters are always written with a string of Arabic compli- 
ments at the beginning, and Arabic words are freely introduced 
throughout. In letter-writing kuarifu is used for to inform, and 
kuwasilia (not kufikia) for to reach, as in the phrase your letter has 
reached me — waraka icako vmeniwasilia. Swahili verses are written in 
an obsolete dialect full of Arabic words and foreign words generally, 
called Kingozi. It has not yet been studied by any European. Among 
its more remarkable peculiarities is the use of a present perfect made 
by a change in the termination of the Verb, similar to those in use in 
the Yao and in other languages of the Interior. Thus a poet may 
write mbwene for nimeona, and nikomile for nimekoma. Some speci- 
mens of this dialect will be found in the poetry at the end of the 
" Swahili Tales." • 

1<K * U '*^ ^T*rJ«t -£*rWM. £*W.Y~t /V.v 5 ,Sa»,,ru Uy, n 4*J*n 

3^;? ,n^ n^h,f,U *Z, ^ Zcr tr„ 

2 r 

( 431 ) 

Appendix III. 

Part of a Swahili tale with the prefixes marked and explained. It 
is printed first as in the main it would be written by a native ; next 
the compound forms are marked by hyphens and explained ; and last 
comes an English translation. 

Yule kijana akafuta upanga wake, akanena, mimi nitaingia humo I. 

The tale, of which this is a part, is called the Hadithi ya Waridi, II. 
na Ureda, na Jindi, na Sinebar. The portion of it here printed begins 
with a verb in the ka tense, because it is carrying on a narration 
already commenced. The first words of the story are — Aliondokea mtu 
tajiri. After this first verb in the li tense the rest are formed with ka, 
unless they are constructed with a relative or particle of time or place, 
which cannot be joined with ka but only with li. 

Yule, that; demonstrative (p. 115) referring to a singular sub- 
stantive of the first class, kijana being regarded as the name of a 
person. Ki-jana, a young man or woman, here a man. A-ka-futa, 
and he drew ; a-, sign of third person sing., appropriate to a noun 
of the first class or to any word denoting a living being; -ka-, 
sign of the narrative past tense ; -futa, draw. U-panga, a sword ; 
a sing, substantive of the sixth class. W-ake, his; possessive 
pronoun, third person sing.; w-, prefix proper to a pronoun agree- 
ing with a sing, substantive of the sixth class. A-ka-nena, and 
he said ; a- and -ka-, as before ; -nena, speak or say out. Mimi, I. Ni- 
ta-ingia, I will go in ; ni-, sign of the first person sing. ; -ta-, sign of the 
future tense ; -ingia, go into, enter. Humo, in here ; a demonstrative 

The youth drew his sword, and said, " I will go into this pit, whether III. 

2 f 2 


I. shinioni, nikafe no nikapone. Akaingia, akamwona mtoto amefungwa, 
aaye mwanamume. Akamwambia, nifungue nikupe khabari ya 
humo Bhimoni. Akamfungua, akaona vichwa vingi vya watu. Aka- 

II. proper to the -ni case, when it denotes being, &c., within. Shimo-ni, 
into the pit; shimo-,a singular noun of the fifth class; -ni, sign of 
the Locative case. Ni-ka-fe, and let me die; ni-, sign of first person 
sing.; -ha- and (p. 141) ; -fe, subjunctive form of fa, die. An, or. Ni- 
ka-pone, and let me live ; ni- and -ha-, as before ; -pone, subjunctive 
:n of pona, be saved. A-ha-ingia, and he went in; third sing., 
narrative past of ingia, go in. A-ka-mw-ona, and saw him ; a-ka-, and 
he did ; -mic-, objective prefix proper to a substantive of the first class 
(mtoto); -ona, see. M-toto, child ; sing, substantive of the first class. 
A-me-fungwa, bound; a-, sign of third person sing., governed by a 
substantive of the first class (mtoto) ; -me-, sign of the present perfect, 
which is here used as a sort of past participle: -fungwa, passive of 
funga, bind. Na-ye, and he (p. 103). Mw-ana-m-ume, a male; mu- 
sing, prefix of a noun of the first class; m- (for mu-), prefix agreeing 
with a substantive of the first class; -time, male; the whole word, 
mwanamume, is used for a man, or auy human being of the male sex. 
A-ka-mw-ambia, and he said to him; a-ka-, third sing, narrative past ; 
-mic-, subjective prefix denoting a person (kijana) ; -ambia, say to. Ni- 
fungue, unbind me; ni-, objective prefix, first person ; -fungue, impera- 
tive sing, of fungua, unbind. Ni-ku-pe, that I may give you; ni-, 
subjective prefix first person ; -7m-, objective prefix, second person ; -pe, 
subjunctive of pa, give to. Kliabari, news ; sing, substantive of the 
third class. Y-a, of; y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of 
the third class (khabari). Humo, here in ; a demonstrative agreeing 
with the -ni case when denoting within. Shimo-ni, in the pit ; -ni, sign 
of the locative case. A-ka-m-fungua, and he loosed him ; a-, ka-, third 
sing, narrative past ; -m-, objective prefix referring to a substantive of 
the first class (mtoto); -fungua, unbind. A-ha-ona, and he saw, third 
sing., narrative past. Vi-chwa, heads or skulls ; vi-, sign of a plural 
substantive of the fourth class ; vichwa is in more elegant Swabili vitwa. 
V-ingi, many; v- or vi-, adjectival plural prefix, marking agreement 
with a plural substantive of the fourth class (vichwa); -ingi or -ngi, 
many. Vy-a, of; vy-, marking the agreement with a plural noun of 

III. I die or live." And he went in and saw a boy, and he was bound. And 
'the boy] said, "Unl ind me, that I may tell you about what there is in 
this pit." And he unbound hiin, and saw many human skulls. And he 


mwuliza, habari gani hii? Akamwambia, mna nyoka humo, kazi I. 
yake kula watu, na mimi angalinila, lakini amenifanya mtoto wake, 
miaka mingi nimetoka kwetu. Akamwuliza, sasa yuko wapi nyoka? 

the fourth class (vichwa). Wa-tu, people ; wo-, plural prefix first class. II- 
Akamwuliza, and he asked him ; a-, ha-, third sing, narrative past ; 
-mw-, objective prefix referring to a person (mtoto) ; -uliza, ask or ask 
of. Habari or khabari, news, sing, substantive third class. Gani, 
what sort ? Hii, this ; demonstrative denoting a sing, substantive of 
the third class {habari). A-ha-mw-ambia, and he said to him; this 
word is of constant occurrence, it means that one person told or said to 
another ; there is no mark of sex or means of distinguishing which 
person of several mentioned before was the speaker, these points must 
be gathered from the context. M-na, there is inside ; m-na is part of 
the verb huwa na, to be with or to have, used as it often is to denote 
mere being (p. 153) ; it answers to the English there is; there may be 
represented by ku-, pa-, or m- ; the last is used where the place suggested 
is within something, it refers here to shimoni, in the pit. Ny-oka, a 
snake, a sing, substantive in the form of the third class, denoting an 
animate being. Humo, there within, referring to shimoni. Kazi, work 
or employment, sing, substantive, third class. Y-ake, his ; y-, prefix 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third class ; -ake, possessive 
pronoun, third person sing. Ku-la, to eat; ku-, sign of the infinitive ; 
-la, eat. Wa-tu, people; wa-, plural prefix first class. Na, and. 
Mimi, I or me. A-ngali-ni-la, he would have eaten me ; o-, third sing., 
agreeing with the name of an animal (nyoka) ; -ngali-, sign of the 
past conditional tense; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the first 
person ; -la, eat ; the tense prefix -ngali- cannot bear any accent, the 
word is therefore pronounced angalinila. Lakini, but. A-me-ni-fanya, 
he has made me ; a-, referring to nyoka ; -me-, sign of present perfect ; 
ni-, objective prefix, first person; -fanya, make. M-toto, child; m-, 
sing, prefix, first class. W-ake, his; w-, prefix agreeing with sing. 
substantive of the first class (mtoto). Mi-aka, years ; plural substan- 
tive of the second class (sing, mwaka) ; mi-, plural prefix. M-ingi, 
many ; m- or mi-, prefix, denoting agreement with a plural substantive 
of the second class (miaka). Ni-me-toka, I have left ; ni-, first person 
subjective ; -me-, present perfect ; -toka, go out of. Kw-etu, home ; 

asked, " What is this ? " And he said, " There is a snake in it, that eats HL 
men, and would have eaten me, but that it took me for its own son. It 
is many years since I left home." And he asked, " Where is the snake 


I Akamwambia, twende, nikakuonye mahala amelala. Akamwambia, 
twende. Walipofika, yule kijana akamkata kichwa kirnoja, akatoacha 
j'ili, akamkata, hatta vikatiniu saba. Wakarudi, wakaenda zao. 

II. ^M » prefix agreeing with a substantive (perhaps nyumha) in the case 
in -n»; -du (our). A-ka-miv-uliza, and he asked him ; a-, third sing. 
(kijana); -ha-, narrative past; -mw-, third sing, objective (mtoto); 
-uliza, ask. Sasa, now. Yu-ko, he is; yu-, sign of third person 
sing., referring to a substantive of the second class (nyoka); -ko, 
denoting existence in space (p. 154). Wapi, where? Ny-oka, snake; 
Bing. substantive. A-ka-mw-ambia, and he said to him. (See above.) 
Twende, let us go ; tw-, sign of the first person plural ; -ende, 
subjunctive of enda, go. Ni-ka-ku-onye, and let me show you; ni-, 
sign of first person sing. ; -ka-, and (p. 211); -ku-, objective second 
person sing.; -onye, subjunctive of onya, show. Mahala, the place, 
the place where. A-me-lala, he is asleep; a-, third sing, animate 
( nyoka); -me-, present perfect; -lain, lie down to sleep, to go to sleep. 
A-ka mw-ambia. (See above.) Tw-ende, let us go; tw-, first person 
jilur. ; -ende, subjunctive of enda, go. Wa-li-po-fika, when they 
irrived; tea-, sign of third person plural agreeing with substantives 
ileuoting persons (kijana and mtoto) ; -li- or -ali-, sign of the past 
perfect, or of past time generally when joined with a particle of 
I kition; -po-, sign of time when; -fika, arrive. Yule, that; demon- 
stral Lve denoting a person (kijana). Ki-jana, youth ; sing, substantive 
fourth class, but denoting a person, and therefore joined as here 
with pronouns and verbs in forms proper to the first class. A-ka- 
mkata, he cut him; a-, third sing, of a person (kijana); -ka-, narra- 
tive past; -m-, objective prefix, referring to the name of an animal 
' nyoka) (see p. 112); -kata, cut or cut off. Ki-chwa, head, sing, sub- 
ative fourth class. Ki-moja, one ; ki-, prefix denoting agreement 
with a sing, substantive of the fourth class (kichwa or kitwa); -moja, 
rne. A-ka-toa, and he put forth ; a-, third sing., referring to, a sub- 
ntive denoting an animal (nyoka); -ka-, narrative past; -toa, put 
rh. Cha pili, a second (p. 92) ; ch-, referring to a sing, substantive 
lurth class (kichwa). A-ka-m-kata, and he cut him. (See above.) 
Hatta, until. Vi-ka-timu, they were complete ; vi-, third, plural refer- 

Ill, now?" He said, " Let us go and let me show you where it is sleeping." 
1 1- 6aid, " Let u- go." When they got there the youth cut off one of it- 
heads ; it put forth a second, and he cut it off, until he had cut off 
n. And they returned, and went on their way. 


Akainwanibia sasa twenne zetu kwetu, lakini tukifika kwetu I. 
wenende wewe kwanza kwa baba yangu, ukamwambie kana mtoto 
wako nikikuletea utauipa nini ? Akikwambia, nitakupa rnali yangu 

ring to nouns of the fourth class, here to vichwa, heads, plural ofkichica ; II. 
-ka-, narrative past; -timu, be complete. Saba, seven. Wa-ka-rudi, 
and they returned ; tea-, third plural referring to persons (kijana 
and mtoto) ; -ha-, narrative past ; -rudi, return. Wa-ka-enda z-ao, and 
they went away ; wa-, third plural (kijana and mtoto) ; -ka-, narrative 
past ; -enda, go ; z-ao, their (ways) ; z-, a prefix denoting agreement 
with a plural noun of the third or sixth, or in the dialect of Lamoo 
of the fourth class ; -ao, their. Possibly zao agrees with njia, ways. 
(See p. 112.) 

A-ka-mw-ambia, and he said to him. Sasa, now. Tw-ende z-etu. 
let us go away ; tic-, sign of first person plural ; -ende, subjunctive of 
enda, go ; z-, sign of agreement with a plural noun of the third or the 
sixth class; -etu, our. (See above.) Kw-etu, home ; to-, sign of agree- 
ment with the case in -ni-; -etu, our. Lakini, but. Tu-ki-jika, when 
we arrive ; tu-, sign of the first person plural ; -hi-, sign of the partici- 
pial tense (p. 136) ; -fika, arrive. Kw-etu, home. W-enende, go ; w-, 
sign of the second person singular ; -enende, subjunctive of enenda, go, 
or go on. Wewe, thou. Kwanza, first ; originally the infinitive of the 
verb anza, begin ; kwanza, to begin, beginning, and therefore first. 
Kwa, to a person, or to his house. Baba, father. Y-angu, my ; y-, 
sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the third class, used here 
© Uoquially with one denoting a person (baba); -angu, my (p. 109). U- 
ka-mic-ambie, and say to him ; u-, sign of the second person singular ; 
-ka-, and ; -mw-, objective sign referring to a noun denoting a person 
(baba); -ambie, subjunctive of ambia, tell. Kana, if. M-toto, child. 
W-ako, thy ; tc-, sign of agreement with a singular substantive of the 
first class (mtoto). Ni-ki-ku-letea, if I bring to you ; ni-, sign of the 
first person singular ; -ki-, sign of the participial tense (p. 136) ; 
-ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person singular; -letea, 
bring to. U-ta-ni-pa, you will give me ; u-, sign of second person sing. ; 
-ta-, sign of the future tense ; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the 
first person singular; -pa, give to. Nini, what? A-kt-kw-ambia, if 
he tells you; a-, sign of the third person singular referring to a 

And [the boy] said, " Now let us go to my home ; but when we are III. 
getting near to it do you go first to my father and say to him, ' If I bring 
your son to you, what will you give me ? ' If he says to you, ' I will give 


I. nib.-u kwa nussu, usikubali, mwambie nataka koila yako uliyo ukivaa 
ujanani mwako. Atakupa kofia ya thahabu, u&ikubali, ela akupe 

II. person (baba) ; -W-, sign of the participial tense; -kw-, objective prefix 
r. ferring to the second person singular; -avibia, say to. Ni-ta-ku~pa, 
1 will give you; ui-, sign of the first person sing. ; -ta-, sign of the 
futtnv tense ; -Tat; objective prefix referring to the second person 
singular ; -pa, give to. Mall, possessions ; treated sometimes as a noun 
of the third class, sometimes as a plural noun of the fifth class. 
T-angu, my; y-, sign of an tent with a singular noun of the 

third or with a plural noun of the fifth class. Nussu, half. Kwa, 
by. Nussu, half. U-si-kuhali, do not accept ; w-, sign of second person 
singular ; -at-, sign of negative subjunctive (p. 147); -kubali, sub- 
junctive of kuhall, accept. Mw-ambie, tell him; mw-, objective 
prefix referring to a person (baba); -ambie, imperative of ambm, 
tell; mw- is known to be the objective third person, and not the 
subjective second plural, by the form of the word ambia ; being an 
applied form it must have the object expressed. N-a-taka, I want ; n-, 
sign of the first person singular ; -a-, sign of the present tense ; -taka, 
want. Kofia, cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. Y-ako, thy ; 
y-, 6ign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the 'third els 
U-li-yo, which you, or which you are, or were ; u-, sign of the second 
person sing. : -U-, used for the substantive verb ; -yo, relative sign 
referring to a singular substantive of the third class (kofia). TJ-ki- 
raa, putting on ; u-, sign of the second person singular ; -ki-, sign of 
the participial tense ; -vaa, put on. U-jand-ni, in youth ; u-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the sixth clas3 ; -nl-, sign of the locative case. 
Mic-ako, thy; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning of in. A-ta-ku-pa, he will give you ; 
- a-, sign of third person sing, of a person ; -ta-, sign of the future ; -ku-, 
objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; -pa, give to. 
Kofia, cap; sing, substantive of the third class. Y-a, of; y-, sign of 
Agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. Thahabu, 
gold ; substantive of the third class. U-si-kubali, do not accept ; «-, 
sign of the second person sing. ; si-, sign of the negative subjunctive; 
-kubali, subjunctive of kuball, accept. Ela, except. A-ku-pe, let him 
give you; a-, 6igu of the third person sing., referring to a person; 

III. you half of all I have,' do not accept that, but say, ' I want the cap which 
you used to wear in your youth.' He will give you a cap of gold ; do 
not accept it, unless he give you a cap quite worn out, take that. And 


kofia mbovu kabisa, hiyo pokea. Na mama yangu mwambie nataka I. 
taa uliyo ukiwasha ujanani mwako. Atakupa taa nyingi za thahabu, 
uoikubali, ela akupe taa mbovumbovu ya chuma, hiyo pokea. 

-ku-, objective prefix, referring to the second person sing. ; -pe, sub- II. 
junctive of pa, give to. Kofia, sing, substantive third class. M-bovu, 
rotten ; m-, being n- converted into m- by standing before -b (p. 85), 
sign of an agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (kofia). 
Kabisa, utterly. Hiyo, this one; demonstrative denoting a thing 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (kofia). Pokea, receive : imperative sing, of pokea, receive. 
Na, and. Mama, mother : sing, substantive in the form of the third 
class denoting a person. Y-angu, my ; y-, sign of an agreement with 
a sing, substantive of the third class, here used colloquially. Mw-ambie, 
tell her ; mw-, objective prefix referring to a person ; -ambie, imperative 
sing, of ambia, tell. N-a-taka, I want ; «-, sign of first person sing. ; 
-a-, sign of present tense ; -taka, want. Taa, sing, substantive third 
class. U-li-yo, which you, which you were or are ; -u, sign of the 
second person sing. : -U-, used for the substantive verb (p. 151) ; -yo, 
relative particle referring to a sing, substantive of the third class 
(tao). U-ki-washa, lighting; u-, sign of second person sing.; -M-, 
sign of the participial tense ; -washa, light. U-jand-ni, in youth ; u-, 
sign of a sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -ni, sign of the locative 
case. Mw-ako, thy ; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning in. A-ta- ku-pa, she will give you ; 
a-, sign of third person sing., referring to a person ; -ta-, sign of the 
future tense ; -ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
■pa, give to. Taa, lamps ; plural substantive of the third class (shown 
to be plural by the context). Ny-ingi, many ; ny-, sign of agreement 
with a plural substantive of the third class (taa). Z-a, of; z-, sign of 
agreement with a plural noun of the third class. Thahabu, gold. 
U-si-kubali, do not accept ; second person sing, negative subjunctive of 
kubali. Ma, except. A-ku-pe, let her give you ; a-, sign of third 
person sing., referring to mama; -ku-, objective prefix referring to 
second person sing. ; -pe, subjunctive of pa, give to. Taa, sing, 
substantive third class. M-bovu-m-bovu, all spoilt; m- (for n- before 
•b), sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (taa) ; 

§ay to my mother, ' I want the lamp you used to burn in your youth.' ni. 
She will give you many lamps of gold ; do not accept them, unless she 
give you an old worn iron lamp, take that," 


I. Wakaenda zao hatta walipofika karibu ya mji, yule kijana aka- 
mwambia, mimi 'takaa hapa, aa wewe enende mjini kwetu, ukafanye 
shuruti na baba yangu kamnia hiyo niliokwambia. Akaenenda. 
Alipofika akaoua mjiui watu hawaneni, wana insiba inkuu, akauliza, 

J I the adjective is doubled to sbow thoroughness. Y-a, of; y-, sign of 
witb a siug. substantive of the third class. Ch-uma, iron ; 
a sing, substantive of the fourth class ; it is used in the singular of iron 
as a metal, and in both sing, and plur. with the meaning of a piece or 
pieces of iron. ffiijo, this one ; demonstrative referring to something 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (taa). Fukea, receive ; imperative sing, of pokea. 

II u ka endaz-ao, and they went their way. (See above). Ilatta, until. 
Wa-li-po-fika, when they arrived. (See above). Karibu ya, near to- 
il/-//, town ; m-, sign of a sing, substantive of the second class. Yule, 
that. (See above). Ki-jana, youth. (See above). A-ka-mw-ambia, said to 
him. (See above). Mimi, I. 'Ta-l:aa, will stay ; ta-, 6ign of the future, 
the prefix of the first person sing, being elided before it ; the sign of no 
other person can be so elided. Hapa, here. Na, aud. Wewe, thou. 
I.ik nde, imperative sing, of enenda, go, go on. M-ji-ni, to the town ; 
in-, sign of a 6ing. substantive second class; -ni, sign of the locative 
case. Kw-etu, our ; lew-, sign of an agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case. TJ-ka-fa.nye, and make ; u-, sign of second person sing. ; 
-ka-, and ; -fanye, subjunctive of fanya, make. Shuruti, a covenant ; 
sing, substantive third class. Na, with. Baba, father. Y-anrju, 
my. (See above, and p. 112). Kamma, as. Hiyo, that ; demonstrative 
•rring to something mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, 
substantive of the third class (shuruti). Xi-li-o-kw-ambia, which I 
told you ; ni; sign of the first person sing. ; -U-, signToT thepast tense 
which must be used with a relative ; -o- (for yo), relative particle 
referring to shuruti (p. 117); -lew-, objective prefix referring to the 
second person sing. A-ka-enenda, and he went on. A-li-po-jika, when 
he arrived. A-ka-ona, he saw. M-ji-ni, in the town ; m-, sign of a 
«ing. substantive of the second class; -ni, sign of the locative case. 
Wa-tv, people ; wa-, sign of a plural noun of the first class. Hawa- 
neni, they speak not; hawa-, sign of the third person plural negative 

III. And they went on till they arrived near the town, when the boy said, 
"I will stay here, and you go on into the town, to our house, and make 
the agreement with my father a° I told you." And he went on and 
arrived in the city, where he saw the people not talking [but] in great 


msiba kuu wa nini? Wakamwambia, mtoto wa Sultani amepote siku I. 
uyingi. Akauliza, nyumba ya Sultani ni ipi, nipelekeni. Wakampe- 
leka watu. Alipofika akamwuliza baba yake, una nitri ? Akamwa- 
inbia, mtoto wangu amepotea. Akamwambia, nikikuletea utanipa 

agreeing with a plural noun of the first class (watu) ; -neni, negative II. 
present form of nena, speak. Wa-na, they have ; third person plur. 
present of kuwa na, to have, governed by watu. Msiba, grief ; m-, 
sign of a sing, noun of the second class. M-kuu, great ; m-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the second class (msiba). 
A-ka-uliza, and he asked. Msiba, grief. Huu, this ; demonstrative 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the second class (msiba). W-a, 
of; w-, sign of agremeent with a sing, substantive of the second class 
(msiba). Nini, what? Wa-lca-mw-ambia, and they said to him. 
M-toto, the child. W-a, of; w-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the first class (mtoto). Sultani, the sultan ; a sing, sub- 
stantive of the fifth class, but when viewed as denoting a person 
constructed with adjectives and pronouns as of the first. A-me-potea, 
is lost ; third sing, present perfect of kupotea, to become lost ; he has 
become lost, i.e., he is lost. Siku, days; plural substautive of the 
third class. Ny-ingi, many; ny-, sign of agreement with a plural 
substantive of the third class (siku). A-ka-uliza, and he asked. 
\i/-umba, house ; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class. Y-a, of ; 
y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class 
(nyumba). Sultani, sultan. Ni, is (p. 152). I-pi, which? i-, sign 
of reference to a sing, substantive of the third class (nyumba). Ni- 
pelekeni, take me; ni-, objective prefix referring to the first person 
sing. ; pelekeni, plural imperative of peleka, take. Wa-ka-m-peleka, 
and they took him. Watu, people. A-li-po-fika, when he arrived. 
A-ka-mw-uliza, he asked him ; observe here and elsewhere the use of 
the ka tense to carry on the narration, even where there would be no 
connective employed in English. Baba, father. Y-ake, his. (See 
above). U-na nini, what is the matter with you ? u-na, second person 
sing, of the present tense of kti-wa na, to have ; nini ? what ? A-ka- 
mw-ambia, and he said to him. M-toto, child. W-angu, my. A-me- 

nmurning, and he asked, " What is this mourning for ? " They told him, III. 
" The Sultan's son has been a long time lost." He asked, " Which is the 
Sultan's house? Take me there." And the people took him there. When 
he reached it he asked the boy's father, " What troubles you ? " He said, 
" My son is lost." And he said to him, " If I bring him to you what will 

I |0 Apr KM > IX TIL 

nini ? Akamwarabia, nitakupa mali yangu nussu kwa nussu. Aka- 
mwambia, marahaba. Akaenda akamtwaa, akaja naye. Alipomwona 
babaye na mamaye, Lkawa furaha kubwa mjini. Wakapouda Bana 
yule kijana kama mtoto wao. 

Halt. i alipotaka kwenda zakc, yulo kijana akamwambia, enendn 
kamwage baba na mama, mwambio akupe kofia na mama akupe taa. 

II, potea, is lost. (Seep. 132.) A-ha-mw-amlria, and he said tobim. Ni-ki- 
hu-letea, if I bring to you. (See above). U-ta-ni-pa, you will give me. 
(See above). Nini, what? A-ka-mw-ambia, and be said to bim. Ni- 
ta-ku-pa, I will give you. Mali, goods. (See above). Y-angu, my. ( 
uliove.) Nussu, half. Kwa, by. Nussu, half. A-ka-mw-ambia, aud ho 
said to him. Marahaba, very good. A-ka-enda, and he went. A-ka- 
m-twaa, and took him. A-ka-ja, and came. Na-ye, with him. A-li- 
po-mw-ona, when he saw him. Baba-ye, his father; -ye, enclitic form 
of the possessive pronoun proper to tho third person ; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class, used here with 
one denoting a person (p. 111). Na, and. Mama-ye, his mother ; -ye. 
(See above). I-ka-wa, it was; i-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the third class (furaha). Furaha, joy; sing, substantive 
third clac-s. Kubwa, great; agreeing with furaha ; as «-, which would 
be the regular sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third 
class, cannot stand before k, it is omitted altogether (p. 85). M-ji- 
ni, in the town ; m-, sign of sing, substantive second class; -ni, Bign 
of the locative case. Wa-ka-penda, and they (the father and mother) 
loved. Sana, much. Yule, that. Ki-jana, youth. Kama, like. 
M-Uito, child. W-ao, their. 

If'itta, at last. A-li-po-taka, when he wanted. Kw-enda z-ake, to go 
away. (See above and p. 112). Yule, that. Ki-jana, youth. A-ka-mw- 
ambia, he said to him. Enende, go; sing, imperative of enenda, go. 
Ka-mw-age, and take leave of him ; ka-, and ; -mw-, objective prefix 
referring to a person ; if mw had been the subjective second plur. the 
ka would have followed it ; m-ka-age = and do ye take leave ; -age t 

j ] ] you give me ? " He said, " I will give you half of all I have." He said, 
" I am content." And be went and took the boy and brought him. 
When his father and mother saw him, there was great joy throughout 
the town. And they loved that youth as though he had been their 
own son. 

When at last he wished to go away, the boy said to him, "Go and 
take leave of my father and mother; tell him t< give you the cap and 


Akaenda, akawaambia, wakampa kofia nyingi, akakataa akainwambia, I. 
nataka hiyo mbovu, wakampa, na mauiaye akampa taa. Akawauliza, 
kofia hii maana yake nini ? Wakamwambia, mtu akivaa, baonekani 
na mtu. Akavaa asionekane akafurahi sana. Akauliza, taa hii 
maana yake nini ? Wakamwambia, ukiwasha batta bapa watatoka 

imperative sing, of aga, take leave of. Baba, father. Na, and. II. 
Mama, mother. Mw-ambie, tell him; mw-, objective prefix referring 
to a person ; -ambie, imperative sing, of ambia, tell. A-ku-pe, that he 
may give you. Kofia, cap. Na, and. Mama, mother. A-ku-pe, that 
she may give you. Taa, lamp. A-ka-enda, and he went. A-ka-wa- 
ambia, and he told them (the fatber and mother). Wa-ka-m-pa, and 
they gave him. Kofia, caps. Ny-ingi, many. A-ka-kataa, and he 
refused. A-ka-mtv-ambia, and he said to him. N-a-taka, I want. 
Hiyo, this one. (See above.) M-bovu, rotten. (See above). Wa-ka-m-pa, 
and they gave him. Na, and. Mama-ye, his mother. (See above, 
uuder babaye). A-ka-m-pa, she gave him. Taa, lamp. A-ka-ica-uliza, 
and he asked them. Kofia, cap. Hii, this ; demonstrative referring 
to a sing, substantive of the third class (kofia). Maana, meaning, 
purpose ; sing, substantive third class. Y-ake, its ; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (maana). Nini, 
what ? Wa-ka-mw-ambia, and they said to him. M-tu, person, any 
one (p. 16) ; m-, sign of sing, substantive of first class. A-ki-vaa, if 
he puts on. Ha-onekani, he is not to be seen ; ha-, negative prefix of 
the third person sing, referring to a person ; onekani, negative present 
form of onekana. Na, by. M-tu, any one (p. 16). A-ka-vaa, and he 
put on. A-si-onekane, that he might not be seen : a-, prefix of third 
person sing, referring to a person (kijana); -si-, sign of negative 
subjunctive ; -onekane, subjunctive form of onekana. A-ka-furald, and 
he rejoiced. Sana, much. A-ka-uliza, and he asked. Taa, lamp. 
Hii, this. Maana, purpose. Y-ake, its. Nini, what? Wa-ka-mw- 
ambia, and they told him. U-ki-washa, if you light. Hatta, as far as. 
Hapa, here. Wa-ta-toka, they will come out ; wa-, sign of third person 

my mother to give you the lamp." He went and told them, and they III. 
gave him many caps t but he refused and said, " I want that worn-out 
one ; " and they gave it to him, and the boy's mother gave him the 
lamp. Then he asked, "What is the object of this cap?" And they told 
him, " When a man puts it on, no one can see him." He put it on so as 
to become invisible, and was very glad. " And he asked, What is the 
object of this lamp ? " And they told him, " If you light it as far as this, 


watu wawili wakutilie thahabu nyumbani mwako usiku kucha, na 
ukiwasha hatta bapa watatoka watu wawili wakupige kwa vigo- 
Dgo usiku kuoha. Akauena, inarahaba. Akafurahi eaua, akaenda 

II. I'lur. referring to a plural substantive of the first class (watu). Wa-tu, 
people. Wa-wili, two ; ica-, sign of agreement with a plur. substantive 
of the first class (watu). Wa-ku-tilie, that they may put for you ; wa- 
sigu of third person plur. referring to a plur. substantive of the first 
class (watu) ; -ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
-tilie, subjunctive form of tilia, put for. Thahabu, gold. Ny-umbd-ni, 
in house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class; -m, sign of 
locative case. Mw-alw, thy ; mw-, sign of agreement with a noun iu 
the locative case denoting within. Usiku, night. Ku-cha, dawning or 
sun-rising; used after usiku, it means all night until the morning 
comes. Na, and. UJci-washa, if you light. Hatta, as far as. Hapa, 
here. Wa-ta-toka, they will come out. Wa-tu, people. Wa-wili, two. 
Wa-ku-pige, that they may beat you; -pige, subjunctive form of piga. 
Kwa, with. Vi-gongo, cudgels: vi-, sign of a plural substantive of 
the fourth class; ki-gongo is a diminutive (p. 19) of gongo, a staff. 
Usiku, night. Ku-cha, till morning. A-ka-nena, and he said. 
Marahaba, thank you. A-ka-furahi, and he rejoiced. Sana, much. 
A-ka-enda z-ake, and he went away. 

HI. two men will come out and bring you gold into your house all night 
long; but if you light it as far as this, two men will come out and beat 
you with cudgels all night long." And he thanked them, and rejoiced 
very much, and went hia way. 

( 443 ) 

Appendix IV. 


The first fifty-four were collected towards a book of conversations, 
which was begun with the help of our lamented friend, Mrs. G. E. 
Drayton; the rest, which are arranged in alphabetical order, were 
noted from time to time, either as likely to be useful in conversation, 
or as illustrating some special rule or idiom. 

1. How many fowls have you there ? 

TJnao k'uku ngapi ? 

2. What do you want for them ? 

Kiad gani unakuza (At how much do you sell) ? 

3. Have you any eggs ? 

Unayo mayayi ? 

4. I will not give more than a pice apiece for the eggs. 

Nitakupa peso, moja tu kununua yayi, sitaloa zayidi (I will 
give you one pice only to buy an egg, I will not give more). 

5. I don't understand you, say it again. 

Sema mora ya pili, sikusikia. 

6. Let me hear it again. 

Sema mara ya pili, nipate kusikia (Say it a second time, 
that I may get to understand). 

7. Fetch me a basin for the eggs. 

Letee bakuli nitie mayayi. 

8. Bring the basin with the eggs in it. 

Letee bakuli lenyi mayayi. 

9. I don't want any to-day, come to-morrow. 

Leo sitaki, njoo kesho. 
10. Are lemons cheap now ? 

Malimao rahisi sasa f 


11. I won't bay them, they are too dear. 

Sitaki kumrnua, ni ghali. 

12. What <1<> you want ? 

ir,i/((/,(i ntntf 

13. I don't know what you want. 

i ulitakalo. 

14. Where do you come from? 

Watoka icapil 

15. Don't wait; I will send an answer immediately. 

Etu nda zako, usingoje, majibu yatakuja sasa hivi (Go your 
way ; do not wait for an answer, it will come immediately ). 
] 6. Is your master at home ? 
JJwana ynpo ? 

17. Master is not at home ; he is pone out. 

Bwana hako (or hayuko) nynmbani ; ametoka. 

18. Where are you going? 

Unakicenda wapi 1 

19. I have lost my way. 

Nimepotea, njia sijui (I am lost; the way I don't know). 
'20. Will you guide me to the English mission ? 
Nataka unionyeshe mosketini Ingreza t 

21. Can you understand English ? 

1! i we unajua maneno ya Kiingreza 1 

22. I cannot speak Swahili [of Zanzibar]. 

Sijui kusema Kiunguja. 

23. Did the water boil ? 

Maji yameche'mka ? 

24. Does the water boil? 

Maji yanache'mka ? 
2fj. These plates are not clean. 

Sahani hizi zina taka. 
2»J. Wipe them carefully. 

Futa vema kica kitambaa. 

27. Sweep this room well. 

Fagia vema katika chumha hiki. 

28. Dust the furniture. 

Pangusa vumbi katika vyomho. 

29. You have cracked that cup. 

Umekitia ufa kikombe kite. 
Throw it away. 
31. Fetch me the vinegar, the pepper, and the Bait 
Niletee tiki, na pilipili, na chumvi. 


32. Don't make so much noise. 

Usifanye uthia. 

33. Put a fresh wick in my lamp. 

Tia katika taa yangu utambi. 
M. Fold up the table-cloth smoothly. 

Kunja vema kitambaa cha meza, usikivunje (Fold well the 
cloth of the table ; spoil it not). 

35. When you have swept the room put on clean clothes. 

Kamma urnekwisha kufagia, vaa nguo safi. 

36. Take this to Miss T. 

Chukua, upeleke kwa bibi T. 

37. You have put all these books upside down ; turn them. 

Umepindua vyuo hivi vyote, uviweke upande mgine. 

38. Leave that alone ! 

Acha ! 

39. Come here, I want to speak to you. 

Njoo hapa, 'nna maneno nitakwambia (I have words J will 
say to you). 

40. Get ready to go for a walk. 

Fanya tayari upate kwenda kutembecu 

41. Are you ready ? 

Umekuwa tayari? 

42. Which way shall you like to go ? 

Njia gani utakao kupita ? 

43. How far is it to your shamba ? 

Kadri gani mbali ya shamba lako hatta kufika (How much 
farness of your shamba till getting there) ? 
4.4. Not very far ; perhaps an hour's walk. 

Si mbali sana, labuda ikipata saa moja. 

45. Shall you walk, or ride your donkey, or sail ? 

Utakwenda kwa miguu, ao utapanda punda, ao utukwenda 
kwa mashua ? 

46. We will go round the town and home by the bridge. 

Tutazunguka katika mji, halafu turudie darajani (Then let. 
us return by the bridge). 

47. Bring me some hot water after breakfast. 

Niletee maji ya moto, nikiisha kula. 

48. Half a bucket full. 

Nuss ya ndoo. 
t9. Turn the mattress over every morning. 

Geuza killa siku godoro, chini juu. 
50. Turn it top to bottom. 

Vpande huu uweke upande wa pili. 

2 o 


51. I am very glad to see you. 

Umependa moyo wangu kukutazama. 

52. What ship is that ? 

Marikebu gani hii ? 
Has she cast anchor yet ? 
Imetia nanga ? 
5 1 . No, she will come nearer the shore. 

Bado, inakuja karibu ya pioani. 

55. A good man does not desert his friends when they fall into 

Mtu mwema hawaachi rafiki zake wakipatika na thidda. 

56. Are you idle ? 

Ati mvinu ? 

57. At what time shall I come ? 

Wakti gani nijs ; 

58. Did he stay long ? 

Alikaa sana ? 

59. No, he went away directly. 

Hda, alikwenda zake mara. 

60. Does he drink wine ? 

Hunywa divai f 

61. He does not. 


62. Does this boat leak ? 

Mashua hii yavuja ? 

63. Do not draw water from the well, the owner forbids it. 

Usiteke maji kisimani, mwenyewe agombeza. 

64. Don't jerk this rope ; if you do it will break. 

Kamba hii usiikutue, ukikutua itakatika. 

65. Eat as much as you like. 

Kula kadri utakavyo. 

66. Find me a large hen. 

Kanitaftia koo la k'uku. 

67. Follow this road. 

Fuata [or andama'] njia hii. 

68. I want you to follow me. 

Nataka unifuate [or uniandame]. 

69. Give it only to me and not to them. 

Nipe mimi tu, usiwape wale. 

70. Go and see if the people have collected. 

Kaangalia watu wamekutana. 

71. Go and stop that talking. 

Enenda kakomeslia maneno haya. 


72. Stop this outcry. 

Makelele haya yakome (Let these cries cease). 

73. Go away, whoever you are. 

Enda zaho, kadri utakaokuwa. 

74. Guard yourself, I am going to hit you. 

Einga, takupiga. 

75. Has he a large box ? 

Ana kasha ? 

76. He has. 

Analo kasha. 

77. Have you a pipe at home ? 

Eiko kicako kiko ? 

78. He built a bridge across the river. 

Alijenga bonth katikati ya mto. 

79. He built a mosque by the river, aud endowed it with a shamba 

near ours. 
Alijenga moskiti ng'ambo, akawekea tcakf shamba karibu 
shamba letu. 
SO. He described Mombas as it was in early times, as it is now, and 
as it will be a hundred years hence. 
Aliandika Mvita ilivyokuwa kwanza, ilivyo sasa, na itaka* 
vyokuwa kwa miaka mia. 

81. He does not believe me though I saw it. 

Hanisadiki ningawa nimeiona. 

82. He had the toothache. 

Alikuwa na jino likimwuma. 

83. He has been abroad many years. 

Alikuwa safarini miaka mingi. 

84. He has presence of mind. 

Moyo wake uwapo. 

85. His mind is absent. Hapo ati. 

86. He is a troublesome fellow to deal with. 

Ana taabu kuingiana naye. 

87. He is absorbed in his own thoughts ; even if you speak to him he 

takes no notice. 
Tu katikafikara zakwe ; ujaponena naye hawepo. 

88. He is here. 

Yupo hapa. 

89. He i3 not here. 

Hapo hapa. 

90. He is yonder. 

Yuko kule. 

2 g 2 


91. II> is no! there. 

Hako hull'. 

I [< is no! yel dressed. 

He left us about ten days ac;o. 

Alittraeha kadri ya (or kama) siku kumi. 
:<i. He ought to be beaten. 
Aihtaji kupigwa. 

95. He pretends to be satisfied, but do not trust him. 

Ajifanya kuwa rutin', usimwamini. 

96. He rose up from bis chair. 

Aliondoka kitini ku-ake. 

97. He runs as fast as he can. 

Anakvx nda mbio kama awezavyo. 
-. He says he will walk on the water ! 

Ati atakwenda mtoni kwa miguu! 
99. He that hateth suretyship is sure. 

Mtu asiyekubali kuthamini ui katika amani. 

100. He that is not against us is with us. 

Mtu asiyekuvHijuu ijetu, bassi yee pamoja nasi. 

101. He that is not with us is against us. 

Asiytkuwa pamoja nasi, bassi huyujuu yetu. 

102. He tried to make himself agreeable, and he succeeded. 

Alijipendekeza ndipo akapendeza. 

103. He was changed from a man into a horse. 

Alibadiliwa mtu kuwa frasi. 
in). He was more energetic than his father. 

Huyu alikuwa akiweza zayidi ya baba yoke. 
105. His non-appearance is unaccountable. 

Kutowekana kwake haitambulikani. 
His self-conceit is no good to him. 

Majivuno yake hayamfai neno. 
]"7. How are your household (i.e. your wife, daughters, &c.)? 

U hali gani nyumbani kwako. 

I I iw far is it across the island ? 

Kupataji rribali wake hapa haita pwani i/a pili ' 
A fast walkerwould tike fromsunrise to the middle of the afternoon 
Akiondoka mtu assubui hatta alasiii, uliu hodari kwenda, 

110. How lone: has he been ill ? 

Tangu Uni hawt 

111. How long aero was his illness? 

Tangu lini alikuwa liavn zit 


112. How pleasant ! 

H3. How glad you must have been to hear that you were to go home. 

Furaha ipi mwaliposikia mioende zenu hwenu. 

114. I am amusiug myself with a book. 

Najizumgumza na chuo. 

1 1 5. I am here. Nipo liapa. 
lltj. I am never without pimples. 

Vipele havinitoka kabisa. 

117. I am sleepy. 

yinao usingizi. 

118. 1 cannot hold in this horse. 

Siwezi kuzuiafrasi huyu. 

1 19. I cannot see so far as you can. 

Sioni mbali, kama waonavyo iceice. 
120 I don't like his way of tying it. 
Sipendi ginsi afungavyo. 

121. I don't see what you show me. 

Sioni ulionyalo. 

122. I don't see it, though he does. 

Siioni angawa aona. 

123. Take care, though you don't see it. 

Kaangalia, ujapo hukioni- 

124. I feel myself at home. 

Hujiona niko kicetu. 

125. Make yourself at home. 

Usifanye haya, hapa kama kvoako (Feel no modesty, here is 
like your home). 
12G. I gave him good advice, though he would not take it. 

Nimemwonya illakini liakuonyeka. 
] 27. I had almost left off expecting you. 

Nalikaribia kukata tamaa ya kukuona. 

128. I had lost my way, and I came out close to your shamba. 

Nalipotea njia nikatokea shambani kwako. 

129. I have asked him again and again, but he will not tell me. 

Nimemwuliza mara kwa mara lakini hanambii. 

130. I have gained a hundred dollars. 

Nalipata fayida reale mia. 

131. I have made you my mark, if you step over it, look out (a common 

Nimekupigia mfuo wangu kiuka wangalie. 

132. I know where he is. 

Namjua mahali alipo. 


138. I pray God no! to visit it upon me. 

Vi M i Wuungu asinipatilize, 

134. I saw the flash of the gun, but did not hoar the report. 

Nimeona mwanga, lakini sikusihia mzinga India. 

135. I shall go by sea as far as I can. 

Nitaktcenda kwa bahari, hatta itnkaponifikisha. 

136. I shall go for a walk to stretch my legs. 

A itahwenda It rribea kiikunjua miguu. 

137. I thought myself a king. 

Nalikuwa 7tiliiicaza nimchuwa Sultani. 

138. I will .-hut the door that he may not go out. 

Nitafunga mlango atipate kupiia. 

139. If be strikes you, hit him again. 

Akikupiga, nawe mjriga tena. 

140. If you had been here he would not have been beaten. 

Kama ungalikuwapo hapa, haiiyalipigwa. 

141. Tt depends upon his coming. 

Kima at'tkapokuja. 
1 12, It is bad weather. 

Kumekaa vibaya. 

Halcweiuh 1; i. 

I !:;. It is being hawked about by a salesman. 

Kinatembezwa kwa dalali. 
141. It is not there, though you say it is. 

Hakipo, ungawa wasema kipo. 
1 to. It is time for us to go. 

Imekuwa wakati ica siei kwenda zetu. 
146. I* is quite time for us to go. 

Imevoadia wakati wetu wa kwenda zetu. 
1 17. It was a secret, but it oozed out. 

Yalikutca habari ya siri, iJtatokeza, 
Let him go. 

Mivachent enende. 
1 id. Moslems are forbidden wine. 

Waslimu wameepuzhwa divai 

150. Much self-exaltation ruins a man's position in the world. 

Majivwno yakiwa mengi ya'mvunjia mtu cheo. 

151. Nothing I do phases him. 

Killa na/anyalo halimpendezi (everything which I do 
pleases him not). 

152. Whatever I do he finds fault with me. 

Killa na/anyalo hunitia khatiyani. 


153. Put the water on the fire. 

Kateleka maji. 

154. Sit down. 

Kaa kitako. 

155. Don't get up. 


156. The baobabs are now coming into leaf. 

Siku hizi mibuyu inaclmnua majani. 

157. The fields are flourishing. 

Koonde imesitawi. 

158. The music is first-rate. 

Ngoma inafana. 

159. The news has spread. 

Khabari zimeenea. 

160. Spread the news. 

Zieneza khabari. 

161. The people who went to Bardera are come back. 

Watu icaliokivenda Baradera, wamekuja zoo. 

162. The room wants darkening. 

Chumba chataka kutiica giza. 

163. The top of this mountain is inaccessible. 

Juu ya mlima huu haupandiki. 

164. They [the trees] are almost all dead. 

Kama kwamba iliokufa yote. 

165. They are badly stowed. 

Mapakizo yao mabaya. 

166. They cut the boat adrift. 

Wakakata kamba ya mashua ikachukuliwa na maji. 

167. They like giving and receiving presents. 

Hupendelea kupana vitii. 

168. They shut themselves up in the fort. 

Wakajizuia gerezani. 

169. They told me what he had done. 

Walinambia alivyofanya. 

170. They were fighting, and I passed by and separated them. 

Walikuwa wakipigana, hapita mimi nikawaamua. 

171. This chest must-be taken care of. 

Kasha hili la kutunzwa. 

172. This has been worn. 

Nguo hii imevaliwa. 

173. This tree is not so tall as that. 

Mti huu si mrefu kama ule. 


171. Upon your oath ! 

Utaapa .' 
I T.">. Wash me these clothes. 

Nioshee nguo hi i. 
1 ~G. The clothes have been washed. 

Nguo zimeosheka. 
177. I have washed myself. 

X i menawika. 
1 7> W r ash ine ! Noslie! 

179. We attacked them and they fell into confusion. 

TwaliwashambvXia, icakafazaiha. 
1 — « * We like his company. 

Kikao chake chema (his sitting is good). 

181. What do you earn by the month ? 

Upataje killa mwezi ? 

182. What is become of him ? 

Amekuwaje f 

183. What is this news about Ali ? 

Habari gani tuzisikiazo za Ali f 

184. What are you talking about ? 

Mnneno gani mnenayot • 

Muktatha gani ? 
Mnenani ? 

185. What will yon ferry meajver for? 

1 * Utanivu&ha kwa kiasigani f 

186. When I have seen Mohammed, I will give you an answer. 

Nikiisha mwona Mohamadi, nitakupa jaicabu. 

187. Where is the knife I saw you with yesterday? 

Kiko wapi kisu nalichokuona nacho jana t 
188 Where is the pain ? 

Mahali gani panapouma 1 
1 89. Where is your pain ? 

Wauma wapi ? 
L90. Who is in there? 

Mna nani ? 

191. Yon cannot teach him anyhow. 

Kadri u'mfunzavyo hajui. 

192. We do not know whether he will not learn, or whether he cannot. 

Hatujui ya kwamba hataki hujifunza ao hana akili za 

193. You have made this thread too tight. 

Uzi huu umeutia kassi mno. 


194. You ought to love him very much. 
Wnstahili kumpenda sana. 

19f>. Kuamtxt na kusengenya. To talk of a person behind his back, and 
secretly to make contemptuous signs about him when 
present. This phrase is often used as a test of a stranger's 
knowledge of Swahili ; what it describes is counted as a 
special sin. 

196. To ask a man his name. 

Oh ! Rajiki yangu nambie jina lako (Oh ! my friend, tell 
me your name). Wajua, bwana wee, tumeonana mimi 
nawe, jina lako nimelisahau, tafdthal nambie jina lako 
(You know, sir, you and I have met [before], but I have 
forgotten your name, please to tell me your name). 

When you have heard it, say — Inshallah, sitalisahau tena 
(Please God, I shall not forget it again). 

197. A polite question and answer at leave-taking. 

Unayo haja tena ? (Have you any further desire ?) 
Eaja yangu ya kuishi wewe sana na fur aha (My desire is 
that you may live loDg and happily). 

( 455 ) 

Appendix V. 


The following account is based on scattered notices in the late Bishop 
Steere's collections, and on some tables furnished to the Rev. P. L. 
Jones-Bateman by a well-informed servant of the Mission in 

1. Money. 

The only copper coin in common use in Zanzibar is the Anglo- 
Indian quarter-anna, or pice, in Swahili pesa, plur. peso, or mapesa ; 
but the robo pesa, or quarter-pice (of which, however, three are equal to 
one pice), is also current. 

The silver coins current are the Anglo-Indian rupee and, less com- 
monly, the Austrian dollar. The eight-anna (half-rupee), four-anna 
(quarter-rupee), and two-anna pieces are also met with. 

The relative values of these coins and their equivalent in English 
money fluctuate considerably. For practical purposes, it is sufficient 
to remember that an English sovereign may be generally exchanged 
for 12 rupees, English bank-notes, cheques, drafts, &c, being subject 
to a small discount ; that an Austrian dollar is reckoned as equal to 2 
rupees and 8 pice, and that a rupee is worth usually from 60 to 64 
pice. It follows that, though accounts are usually kept in dollars 
and cents, and 5 dollars reckoned as equal to one pound English, it is 
more exact to consider — 



1 dollar 

= 3 


1 rupee 

= 1 


1 pice 




In larger 


the scale of legal tender is 

to reckon— 

47 dollars 

= 100 




= 200 




= 300 


and so on. 


On the mainland, dollars and pice are taken freely on the coast and 
main lines of traffic, and rupees are met with; but elsewhere, silver 
dollars only, and such objects of barter as calico, brass-wire, beads, &c. 

2. Measures of Lmijth. 

There is no exact standard or relationship of measures of length. 
Those in common use are merely taken from parts of the human body, 
viz. : — 

II anda. plur. nyanda, a finger's breadth. 

Shibiri, a span, the distance between the tips of the outstretched 

thumb and little finger. 
Mdrita, a slightly shorter span, from the tip of the thumb to that 

of the fore-finger. 
Thiraa or Mkono, a cubit, the distance from the finger-tips to the 
elbow joint. Of this again, there are two varieties: — 
Thiraa kamili, or full cubit, as just described, and — 
Thiraa konde, or fist cubit, from the elbow-joint to the- 
Wari, or yard, is one half of the — 

Pima, a man's height, or the distance he can stretch with his 
arms, a fathom. A doti is a measure of similar length. 
The uayo, or length of the foot, Arab khatua, is also used occa- 
sionally, and the English foot, futi, regularly by Indian carpenters and 
in other trades. Approximately, the relations of these measures may 
be tabulated thus : — 

1 wanda = 1 inch. 

8 or 10 nyanda = 1 shibiri kamili = 1 quarter-yard. 

2 shibiri = 1 thiraa or mkono ~ 1 cubit or half-yard. 
2 thiraa = 1 wari = 1 yard 

2 wari = 1 pima = 1 fathom. 

1 )istance is loosely estimated by the average length of an hour's walk- 
ing. Dunga, which lies almost exactly halfway across the island of 
Zanzibar, at a distance of perhaps twelve miles, is described as a walk 
o\ four h'nirs, saa 'nne; and Kokotoni, at the north end of the island, 
distant perhaps twenty miles from Zanzibar, as a walk of at least 
-ix hours, saa sita. On the mainland, a day's march is a common but 

gue measure of perhaps twenty miles. 

3. Measures of Weight. 

For gold, silver, silk, scent, and other costly articles, the unit is the 
wakia, or weight of an Austrian silver dollar, almost exactly an ounce. 
I r the names of fractional parts of any unit, see " Handbook," p. i)o  


but the weight of a pice is often used as a convenient though inexact 
measure of small quantities. 

For heavy articles, the usual unit is a rdtel, or rattli, equal to 16 
icaJiia, and corresponding to one pound. 
16 wakia = 1 rdlel. 
3 rdtel = 1 mani. 
6 rdtel = 1 pishi. 

6 pishi = 1 frasila, about 35 lbs. avoirdupois. 
10 frasila = 1 mzo. 
Hence, 64 frasila or 6| mizo may be regarded as = 1 ton. 

4. Measures of Capacity. 

No fixed liquid measure is used by the poorer classes. Shopkeepers 
sell their oil, treacle, &c, by tin-ladlefuls (kikombe), or by the bottle 
(chupa), or by the tin, i.e. the tins in which American oil is imported 
to Zanzibar (Jtanaki, tini, also debe). 

Corn (nafaka) or dry measure is, of course, of great importance in a 
country where grain is the staple of food and chief article of commerce. 

The smallest unit is the — 

Kibaba, a measure of perhaps a pint. 
Kibaba cha tele, if the measure is heaped up — the usual pro- 
Kibaba cha mfuto, if cut off flat. 
2 vibaba (vya tele) = 1 kisaga. 
2 visaga = 1 pishi, about half a gallon. 

The pishi connects the measures of capacity and weight, and for 
som of the common dry commodities, such as chiroko and kundi, the 
pishi may be regarded as equivalent either in capacity to 4 vibaba, or 
in weight to 6 rattli. 

Grain is sold wholesale by the kanda, or sack of grass-matting, or (if 
from India) by the gunia, a wide sack. The gunia often weighs about 
168 lbs. The kanda varies, both with the kind of grain and the place 
from which it is imported. For instance, while at Kwale, Mgao, and 
Mvita, towns on the Swahili coast, the kanda of rice at times contains 
10, 11, or 12 pishi, and the kanda of Indian corn 10 pishi, at Pangani, 
Tanga, and Mtang'ata the kanda of rice will contain 15, 16, or 17 
pishi, and the kanda of Indian corn 13 or 13| pishi. 

Various other terms are in use for different commodities, e.g. poles 
are sold by the korja, or score ; stone for building by the boma, a heap 
which may weigh 4 cwt. to 5 cwt. ; lime by the tanuu (clamp) or kikapo ; 
calico by the jura, 35 yards ; and various other things by the " mzigo " 
or load. 



5. Vointz of the Compass. 



X. by E. 

Faragadi MatlaL 

X X.E. 

Nash Matlai. 

N.E. by N. 

Nagr Matlai. 


Luagr Matlai. 

N.E. by E. 

Dayabu Matlai. 


Sernak Matlai. 

E. by N. 

Seria Matlai. 



E. by S. 

Sosa Matlai. 


Tiri Matlai. 

S.E. by E. 

Lakadiri Matlai. 


Lakarabu Matlai. 

S.E. by S. 

Ilamarcni Matlai. 


Seheli Matlai. 

S. by E. 

Sonoobari Matlai. 



S. by W. 

Sonoobari MagaribL 


Seheli Magaribi. 

S.W. by S. 

Hamareni MagaribL 


Lakarabu MagaribL 

S.W. by W. 

Lakadiri MagaribL 


Tiri Magaribi. 

W. by S. 

Sosa MagaribL 



W. by N. 

Seria Magaribi. 


Semak Magaribi. 

X.W. by W. 

Dayabu MagaribL 


Lnagr Magaribi. 

X.W. by N. 

Nagr Magaribi. 


Nash Magaribi. 

N. by W. 

Faragadi MagaribL 



PL Steere, Edward 

8702 A handbook of the Swahili 

S724 language