(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A hand-book of Tamil for the use of coffee planters"



AT; 



l* 





VL 



r- I/ 

University of California- Berkeley 

JOSEPH M.BRANSTEN 

COFFEE & TEA COLLECTION 

Acquired in memory of 

JOSEPH M. BRANSTEN 




HAND-BOOK OF TAMIL 



FOR THE USE OF 



COFFEE 



REV. WILLIAM CLARK, 

TAMIL COOLY MISSION, CEYLON. 



J&afcras: 

GANTZ BROTHERS, 
ADELPHI PRESS, 7 & 8, MOUNT KOAD. 

1876, 



PREFACE. 



THE following little work is intended for the use of 
those who have not time to study the Tamil Lan- 
guage fully. It makes no pretensions to merit ; nor is 
it quite original. A pamphlet by Mr. B. "Whetton, 
of a similar kind, first suggested the plan of it. 

The style of Tamil adopted in it is grammatical, 
but not high. It will be intelligible to any cooly 
Some words which have been employed to express 
hitherto unknown objects will of course be unintel- 
ligible to many ; but all other words are in common 
use. 

The first part contains a brief explanation of the 
Elements of Tamil Grammar, which will probably be 
sufficient for the purpose for which this book is 
intended. 

The second part contains most of the names that 
will be required by Planters, as well as a vocabulary 
of fully 1,800 other words of various kinds, which are 
in general use. 

The third part contains a large number of sen- 
tences, which a learner may commit to memory with 
great advantage. Any one familiar with these sen- 
tences will find but little difficulty in expressing 
himself on the subj ects they refer to intelligibly. 

Many other words and sentences, which would have 
been useful, might have been added. But had they 
been, the price of the book would have been increased, 
and the book itself have been made too cumbersome. 



11 



Some of the sentences have not been translated 
literally, but such a rendering has been given as 
would come most nearly to the way in which a Tamil 
would express himself. At the same time there are 
other ways in which the same direction might have 
been given, or the same thought expressed. 

But Planters should learn the native character, and 
read in it, and, if possible, study the language fully. 
This would give them greater facility in the manage- 
ment of their coolies, and would help to smoothen 
down many difficulties. 

WILLIAM CLARK, 



CONTENTS. 



PART FIRST ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 

Page. 

Letters 1 

Roman Equivalents ... 2 

Pronunciation 6 

Verbs, Positive 11 

Negative 16 

Causal 18 

Passive 19 

Variations 19 

Nouns 20 

Pronouns 24 

Adjectives 31 

Adverbs 32 

Prepositions ... ... ... ... ,.. ... ... ... 32 

Conjunctions 33 

Interjections .., 34 

Interrogation 34 

PART SECOND VOCABULARY. 

Coffee ... 35 

Coffee Estate 36 

Pertainings to Estate 37 

Soil 39 

Grass 40 

Hill 40 

Bock 40 

River 41 

Bridge 41 

Tank 42 

Drain 42 

Road 42 

Lines ... 44 

Cherry Loft .. ... 44 



IV 

Pag*. 

Pulping House ... "... 7.. 44 

Store 46 

Bungalow 47 

Furniture 54 

Persons connected with Estate 62 

Occupations ., 63 

Tools 61 

Animals 68 

Birds 69 

Conveyances ... ... ... ... ... ... 70 

Waggon^(Arnerican) 71 

Cart 72 

Harness ., .,. ... 73 

Buildings 75 

Building Materials , 76 

Man r 77 

Relationship ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 78 

Domestic condition 81 

Marriage 81 

Members of Body 82 

Five Senses , 84 

Articles of Food 84 

Articles of Clothing ... ... 89 

Diseases 90 

Mind and its Faculties 91 

Virtues and Vices 91 

Titles of Kespect 92 

Police Court and other Terms 92 

Eevenue Department 96 

Other Terms ... 97 

Numbers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 97 

Measure of Length 99 

Land Measure ... 99 

Measure of Capacity 99 

Weights 99 

Money 99 

Time 100 

Days of Week 101 

Seasons 102 

Weather 102 

Earth, &c 103 



Page, 

Heavenly Bodies < 104 

Religion 104 

OTHER USEFUL WORDS 105-158 

PART THIRD SENTENCES. 

Engagement of Coolies 159 

Morning Muster ... ... ... ... ... ' ... 162 

Evening Muster .,, 166 

Giving out Medicine ... ., 168 

Giving out Rice 172 

Blankets and Coats 174 

Coolies' Lines ... ... ... ... ... ... f .. 175 

Advance for Coolies.. 177 

Coast Advances Form of Agreement .,, ., 179 

Felling 183 

Burning , ]85 

Building Bungalow 186 

Do. Bridge 193 

Tracing Road 196 

Surveying 197 

Road Making 199 

Draining in Coffee 201 

Nursery 203 

Lining 206 

Holing 210 

Filling 213 

Planting 214 

Supplying 217 

Staking 219 

Topping 220 

Handling 220 

Pruning 221 

Weeding ... 225 

Hand Weeding 227 

Weeding with Scraper ... ... ... ... ,,, ... 228 

Weeding with Mamoty 228 

Manuring 230 

Cattle Manure ... 231 

Vegetable Compost ,. 232 

Bones and Poonac .., . t , ... ... ,,. 233 

Peruvian Guano and Bones 235 



VI 

Page. 

Wood, Ash and Bones 235 

Picking . ... 236 

Measuring Cherry , 241 

Pulping ... . .. ... ... 243 

Washing ..." 247 

Drying (Curing) ,.. 249 

Despatch.. 252 

Carrying Kice 257 

Cattle 259 

Directions to Appoo , 263 

Do, Cook 269 

Do. Horse-keeper , 270 



HAND-BOOK OF TAMIL. 



ELEMENTS OF TAMIL GRAMMAR. 



LETTERS. 

TAMIL. 

1. The Tamil Alphabet contains thirty letters, of which 
twelve are vowels and eighteen are consonants. 

2. The vowels have two forms, one initial, the other syl- 
labic. 

3. The following paradigm exhibits both these forms. 
The first line across contains the initial forms of the vowels. 
The first column contains all the consonants. 

The rest of the paradigm contains the syllabic combina- 
tions of the vowels and consonants. 

Two Sanscrit letters used in this book are added. 



ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 



TAMIL LETTERS. 



e? 



El 



ffi 



not in use. 
ffir 



is 
u 

in 
ir 
eo 

6U 

eir 
P 

Gff 



L-IT 



BIT 
LOT 



ujir 
Jin 

6UIT 

erriT 

or 



8 



L9 



US. 

GS5T 



tS 





crrl 



JP 



G5 



fii. 

@ 
^ 




& 



mi? 



SANSCRIT LETTERS. 



eru 



EOMAN EQUIVALENTS. 

In fixing the equivalents of Tamil letters in Roman 
characters, all long vowels have heen marked with a dash over 
them, as a ; all hard, rough, and strongly pronounced letters > 
with a dot under them, d ; all dentals with a comma under 



LETTERS. 



TAMIL LETTERS. 


er 


. 


8 


9 





ep&r 


Q* 


(2s 


mm 


O&K 


(J*/r 


Ossrr 














Of 


8* 




Of * 


0r 


Offetr 


QL- 

GW 

6t* 


fe- 
ttl 


Sfssr 

DjC 

60X5 


Qff 

Ofsir 


<?i_/T 

C/5/r 


Ot-CfT 

Glsssteir 
Qpetr 
0/seir 


Ou 


Gu 


GS3U 


Outr 


Gu/r 


OLJSYT 


OLA 


GLL 


6*>U> 


&wr 


(?^)/r 


OLC&IT 


OlLJ 


GUJ 


GSILU 


OtLtfT 


Giuir 


OuJ&r 


Off 


Gff 


CBff 


OfffT 


QUIT 


Offer 


Q 


Geo 


to 


Osvir 


Gsvir 


QffCerr 


Qeu 


Gsu 


oa, 


QeuiT 


Qmiir 


Qa/srr 


Q&r 


Gerr 


far 


Qmir 


G&rrrr 


Ot-psfr 


Qp 

Oar 


Gp 
Gear 


&3T 





i 
G (y i Q fQ cfr 


SANSCRIT LETTERS. 


^ 


Gap 


en-op, 


Q^ 


^ 


0^ 



them, as t ; the guttural with a dash under it, as h ; and the 
cerebral (#>) with a double dot under it, as 1. 

2. The following paradigm shews the equivalents of all 
the Tamil and Sanscrit letters and syllables contained in the 
above paradigm. 



ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 







a 


a 


i 


I 


u 


u 


a 


k 


ka 


ka 


ki 


ki 


ku 


ku 


s 


h 


ha 


ha 


hi 


hi 


hu 


hu 


& 


g 


ga 


ga 


gi 


g ! 


g u 


g u 


m 


ng 


nga 


not in use. 








* 


s 


sa 


sa si 


si 


sit 


su. 


f 


j 


ja 


ja 


jl 


jl 





jii 


& 


cb 


cba 


cba 


cbi 


cbi cbu 


cbu 


e 


n 


used only as a final. 






< 


ny 


nya 


nya 


nyi 


nyi 


nyu 


nyu 


tL 


d 


da 


da 


di 


<Ji 


du 


du 


L, 


t 


ta 


ta 


U 


ti 


tu 


tu 


6$r 


n 


na 


115, 


ni 


5?i 


nu 


nil 


fi 


t 

V* 


ta 


ta 


ti 


ti 


tu 


tu 


fi 


tb 


tba 


tba 


tbi 


tbi 


tbu 


tbu 


IB 


n 

N* 


na 


na 


ni 


ni 


nu 


nu 


U 


P 


pa 


pa 


pi 


P 1 


pu 


pu 


U 


b 


ba 


ba 


bi 


bi 


bu 


bu 


L> m 


ma 


ma 


mi 


mi 


mu 


rnii 


UJ 


y 


ya 


ya 


yi 


yi 


y u 


y fi 


ff r 


ra 


ra 


ri 


ri 


ru 


ru 


G) 


i 


la 


la 


li 


n 


lu 


lu 


eu 


V 


va 


va 


vi 


Tl 


vu 


vu 


P 


1 


la 


fa 


li 


ll 


lu 


lu 


sir 


1 


la 


la 


li 


11 


iu 


lu 


P 


r 


ra 


ra 


ri 


11 


ru 


ru 


P 


t 


ta 


ta 


ti 


tl 


tu 


tu 


P 


d 


da 


da 


di 


di 


du 


du 


ear 


n 


na 


na 


ni 


ni 


nu 


nu 


ep, 


sb 


sba 


sba 


sbi 


sb! 


sbu 


sbu 


em 


s 


sa 


sa 


si 


Bi 


su 


SU 



LETTERS. 



e 


e 


ei 








ou 


ke 


ke 


kei 


ko 


ko 


kou 


he 


be 


hei 


Ijo 


bo 


h.ou 


g* 


g g 


gei 


g 


g" 


gou 


se 


se 


sei 


so 


so 


sou. 


J Q 
che 


je 
che 


J ei 
^ehei 


jo 
cho 


jo 

cho 


jou 
chou 


nye 
de 


nye 
de 


nyei 
del 


nyo 
do 


nyo 
do- 


nyou 
dou 


te 


te 


tei 


(o 


to 


tou 


rie 


rie 


nei 


TlO 


rio 


110U 


to 


te 


tei 


to 


to 


tou 


the 


the 


thei 


tho 


tho 


N* 

thou 


ne 


ne 


nei 


no 


no 


nou 


pe 
be 


pe 
be 


pel 
bei 


po 

bo 


PO 
bo 


pou 
bou 


me 


me 


mei 


mo 


mo 


mou 


y e 


ye 


yei 


yo 


yo 


you 


re 


re 


rei 


ro 


ro 


rou 


le 


le 


lei 


lo 


lo 


lou 


ve 


ve 


vei 


vo 


vo 


vou 


le 


le 


lei 


.! 


lo 


lou 


le 


le 


lei 


TO 


io 


lou 


re 


re 


rei 


ro 


ro 


rou 


te 


te 


tei 


to 


to 


tou 


de 


de 


dei 


do 


do 


dou 


ne 


ne 


nei 


no 


no 


nou 


she 


she 


shei 


sho 


sho 


Bhou 


se 


se 


sei 


so 


so 


sou 



ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 
PRONUNCIATION. 

1. Learners should give much attention to pronunciation. 
The meaning of a word frequently depends on what appears 
to be only a minute difference of sound. Thus s&o, kalei, is 
a male antelope, #%rr, kalei, is a weed ; S&&LP, kalei, is a 
bamboo. 

2. In learning, great attention should be paid to the 
pronunciation of the people themselves. But the pronun- 
ciation of coolies is commonly so bad, that, if possible, only 
educated Tamils should be imitated. 

3. Attention should also be given to the position of the 
organs in the pronunciation of each letter. Without this it 
will be impossible to make such a distinction between the 
different letters as will enable a hearer to perceive what word 
is spoken. The Is produced by placing the tip of the tongue 
near the teeth, on the palate, and towards the throat, respec- 
tively, will be very different from each other, and will convey 
very different meanings. The examples given above will 
illustrate this. The difference of meaning in those words 
is determined solely by the difference in the sound of the 1. 

4. It is nearly impossible to convey in writing an accurate 
idea of the sound of each letter ; but as this is usually at- 
tempted, and not altogether without success, I will endeavour 
to do so. 

5. To illustrate the explanations given, a scheme of 
vowels is added below, the examples in which will be used to 
shew the proper sound of the Tamil vowels. 



PRONUNCIATION. i 

VOWELS. 

SHORT. LONG. 

i as in bit I like i in machine 

e do bet e do a in bare 

a do bat a do a in band (lengthened) 

u do but a do i in bird 

*a do bark a do a in bar 

o do not o do aw in crawl 

o do political o do o in pore 

u do pull u do oo in pool. 

DIPHTHONGS. 

The following are the diphthongs which occur in Tamil, 
ai (g>) like i in like. 

ei (g>) like ey in they, pronounced quickly, 
au (jysy) like the German au, and compounded of u 

in but and u in pull, 
ou (sjerr) compounded of o in political and u in pull. 

G. a O). Before hard and rough letters, also before ng 
(<E?),n ((55), ny (),and in O), tyc. this letter has the sound 
of u in but ; as, sangam (*sasu>), assembly ; sattam (fiLt-) 9 
frame, law. Before some letters it has a sound more like 
that of a in bat; as, arisi (jy.fl), r i ce - 

7. a (<$). This letter is usually like a in bar ; as par 
(u/r/f), look. But sometimes it is changed into its corres- 
ponding semi-vowel ; as, kattu pandi (&iri-Lusvrfl) } a wild 
pig. See scheme of vowels above. 

8. i (). This is exactly like i in bit ; as pinbu (L^L/) 
after. But when it occurs before hard letters, it is com- 



::is " a" is not very noticeable in English words, though it frequently 
occurs. It is often changed into the corresponding long vowel. But it is 
easily observable ia Tamil, as ia the^vord Msdu Matfcu. 

All the other vowels are well known and common. 



8 ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 

monly pronounced like e in bet ; as idam (edam) (@-u>) 
place, 

9. i (/F). This letter has two sounds, dependent on the 
following consonant. Before most it is like I in machine ; as ti 
(j?) fire. Before d (L_), n (gaw), r (p), it draws the sound of 
u after it ; as, vidu (d?) house, vin (eftorar) vain, siru (@j} 
hiss. These three consonants, being hard, cannot be cor- 
rectly pronounced without such a change in the vowel. 

10. u (e-). This is exactly like u in full ; as, rnul 
thorn. 

11. (esa:). This is like oo in pool; as, nul 
thread. 

12. e (er). This is like e in bet; as mettei 
cushion. 

13. e (z). This letter has two sounds, dependent on the 
consonants following it. It is commonly incorrectly pro 
nounced, by learners, like a in nay, but the English a is 
really a diphthong, the Tamil e, a simple vowel. Its proper 
sound is like that of a in bare ; as, ner (G/s/r), straightness. 
When it precedes d (L_), n (aw), r (/), it takes a sound which 
is compounded of e and a ; as ineadu (^Lo(9},hill ; veapdani 
(QajGnTttTLD'), do not want; seam (Gfjgu), mud; but it is often 
pronounced like i in bird ; as, rnedu. These consonants, 
being hard, cannot be properly pronounced without this 
change. 



o 



14. ei (g). This letter (go) is a diphthong composed of 
short e (er) and short i (@), and usually has a sound like that 
of ey in they, pronounced quickly ; as, athei (j|f*/ff), that. 
But at the beginning of words, and in words of one syllable, 
it is pronounced like ai, as if compounded of short a (^) and 
short i () ; as aikkiain fes@ojo), agreement ;mai (w/>), ink. 



PRONUNCIATION. 9 

15. 0(9). This vowel is like o in political; as, pottei, 
(Ou/r^ao^), hillock. It is never pronounced like o in pot. 
That sound is expressed in Tamil by a (455). A Tamil would 
say pattu, not pottu. 

16. 6 ($). This has the sound of 6 in port ; as, por (Quirt) , 
war. Care must be taken not to pronounce it like o in pole, 
which has a sound of u in it. 

17. ou (pw). This, as usually pronounced, is really com- 
pounded of short a (^) and short u (a.), but is represented 
both in English and Tamil by ou ; as soukkiyam (QfeiraQtuus), 
health. But sometimes the Tamils substitute avu (jyj) for 
it ; as, savukkiyam (^O/S^UJLO), health. 

18. k (<s). This is like the English k ; as kariam 
(sirifiiuut), a matter. 

Ji (&). This is a soft guttural ; as, raham (^/T^LD), tune, 
g (). This has a sound like that of g in go, never like 
that of g in the word general ; as, gejam (QssgLo), a yard. 

19. ng OE?). This is like ng in thing; as, inge (gjN/Q*), here. 

20. s (*). This has the ordinary sound of s. It may 
bo observed, however, that frequently, in pronunciation, a soft 
sound of ch, like ts, is substituted for s. Both are correct. 
Thus we may say sedi or chedi (Qfi^) t plant. 

ch (*), This is pronounced like ch in chat (never like sh) 
when it follows t (il),as, ratchahar (ffu.eair) t the Saviour, but 
more softly, almost like ts, when it follows t (for ^F), or occurs 
without t ; as, mitcham (u9^^Lo), excess ; chedi (Q**f ), a 
plant. 

j (*). Like j in join ; panjam (u^^), scarcity. 

21. n ((gj). Like n in not; as, panjani, scarcity. 

n y () These letters must be pronounced separately, as 
if n were the final letter of a previous syllable, and y the ini- 
tial of a succeeding one, and not as if they were one syllable, 
like ny in many ; as, nyayiru (^traSjv), Sunday. 

2 



1 ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 

22. d (t_). This is a hard letter and must be pronounc- 
ed with the tip of the tongue turned up to the palate ; as, 
kudei (<9a.6L_), a basket. 

t (tl). This too is a hard letter and must be pronounced 
in the same manner as d ; as pattanam (ui_Lt_awLb), a town. 

23. n (em). A hard letter pronounced with the tongue 
turned to the palate ; as, man (^eaw), earth. 

24. t (^). A dental pronounced with the tip of the 
tongue between the teeth; as pafctu (up^, ten. 

th (,#). This is usually a dental d with an aspirate ; but 
as the same sound in English is represented by th, that has 
been adopted. It is generally pronounced like th in the, 
seldom like th in thing ; as, antha (jyisg), that. 

25 n (/z>). A dental pronounced with the tip of the 
tongue between the teeth ; as, intha (^), this. 

26. p (u). Like the English p ; as, pambu (UITLDLJ^ a 
snake. 

b (u). Like b in bad ; as, pambu (U/T^L/), a snake. 

27. m (u>). Like m in man; as, mudi (g/>^0, a cover. 

28. y (tu). tike y in you ; as, yar (tuinr), who ? 

29. r (tr). A soft r pronounced with the tongue for- 
wards ; as, avar (jya^/r), he. 

30. 1 (cv>). A soft letter pronounced with the tongue 
forwards ; as, kal (*^>), a stone. 

31. v (a/). Like v in every ; as, aval (jyeij&r), she, It is 
not pronounced so strongly as v in English usually is at the 
beginning of words. 

32. 1 (/p). A very peculiar letter, which is seldom pro- . 
nounced correctly, even by the natives. It is really a cere- 
bral r, but as it is usually changed into 1, that has been adopt- 
ed as the corresponding letter in English. In pronouncing it 
the learner should turn his tongue back as far as possible 



VERBS. 11 

and then attempt to express r or 1 without bringing the 
tongue forwards; as malei (u>es>Lp), rain. But hard 1 is ge- 
nerally substituted for it. 

33. 1 (TT). A hard letter pronounced with the tip of 
the tongue turned up to the palate ; as, mul (GP^), a thorn. 

34. r (p). A hard r pronounced with the tongue drawn 
back, and raised towards the roof of the mouth ; as, eoru 
(Gffirjp), boiled rice. 

t 0). Like t in at ; as, pattu O-VDJ), seize. 
d (p). Like d in and ; as indu ($&*&}, to-day. 

35. n (OTT). Like n in near ; as, tan (?&*}, his, he, its. 

36. In order that the learner may speak Tamil correctly, 
he must be careful to pronounce the first of double conso- 
nants distinctly. It is never elided, as in English. Even the 
most uneducated observe this rule. With a view to this, the 
first consonant which will always be the final of a previous 
syllable, must be prolonged a little. Thus we must say 
pattu (up&), not patu, ten ; irukkirathu (@(5,0.0, not 
irukirathu, it is. 

VERBS. 

The following conjugation will illustrate the usual forms 
of Tamil verbs. 
The parts marked * are those most commonly used. 



I. POSITIVE VERB. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 
Singular. 

* Vecltugirea, I am digging. 

* Vedtugiray, Thou art digging, 

* Vedtugiran, He is digging. 

* Vedt.ugiral, She is digging. 

* Vedtugirathu, It is digging. 



12 



ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 



* VecUugirom, 

* Vedtugirir, 

* Yedtugirlrhal, 

* Vecltugirarhaj, 
Vedtuhindana, 



Plural. 

We are digging. 
You are digging, 

do. 

They are digging, 
do (neuter.) 



Past Tense. 



Singular. 

* Yedtinen, I dug. 

* Yedtinay, Thou duggest. 

* Yedtinan, He dug. 

* Yedtinal, She dug. 

* Yedtinathu, It dug. 



Plural. 

* Yedtin5m, We dug. 

* Yedtimr, You dug. 

* Yedtimrhal, You dug. 

* Yedtinarhal, They dug. 

* Yecltina, They (neuter) dug. 



Vedtiyirukkeren, 
Vedtiyirukkiray, 
Vedtiyirukkirarn, 
Vedtiyirukkiral, 
Yedtiyirukkirathu, 

Yedtiyirukkirom, 
Vedtiyirukkirir, 
Vedtiy irukkirirhal , 
Vedtiy irukkirarhal , 
Vedtiyirukkindana, 



Vedtiyirunthen, 
Veddyirunthay, 

% 

Vedtiyirunthan, 
Yedtiyirunthal, 
Yedtiyirunthathu, 



Perfect Tense. 
Singular. 

I have dug. 
Thou hast dug. 
He has dug. 
She has dug. 
It has dug. 

Plural. 

We have dug. 
You have dug. 
You have dug. 
They have dug. 
They (neuter) do, 

Pluperfect Tense. 
Singular. 

I had dug. 
Thou hadst dug. 
He had dug. 
She had dug. 
It had dug, 



VERBS. 

Plural. 

Vechiyirunthom, We had dug. 

Yedtiyirunthir, You had dug. 

Yedtiyirunthlrhal, You had dug. 

Yedtiyiruntharhal, They had dug. 

Yedtiyirunthana., They (neuter^ do, 

Future Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

* Vedtuven, I will dig. * Yedtuvom, We will dig. 

* Yedtuvay, Thou wilt dig. * Yedtuvir, You will dig. 

* Vedtuvan, He will dig. * Yedtuvirhal, You will dig. 

* Yedtuval, She will dig. * Yedtuvarhal, They will dig. 

* Vedtum, It will dig. * Yedtum, They (neu.) do. 

N. B.This tense is frequently used for the Present Tense, 
to denote what is customary : as, vedtuven, I dig. It is also 
used for the Past Tense. 

Future Perfect Tense, 

Singular. 

Vedtiyiruppen, I shall have dug. 

Vedtiyiruppay, Thou wilt have dug. 

Yedtiyiruppan, He will have dug. 

Vedtiyiruppal, She will have dug. 

Vedtiyirukkum, It will have dug. 

Plural. 

Vedtiyiruppona, We shall have dug. 

Vedtiyiruppir, You will have dug. 

Vedtiyiruppirhal, do. 

Vedtiyirupparhal, They will have dug. 

Yedtiyirukkum, They (neuter) do. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD, 

Present Tense. 

* Vedtinal, If I, thou, he, #c. dig. 
Yedtil, do. 



4 ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 

* Vedtinalum, Though I, thou,&c. dig (denoting uncertainty). 
Vedtiyum, do. (denoting fact). 

Perfect Tense. 

* Vedfiyirunthal, If I, &o, have dug (denoting uncertainty). 

Vedtiyirunthum, Though I did dig (denoting fact). 

* Vedtiyirunthalum, Though I should have dug (denoting 

uncertainty). 

ANOTHER FORM NOT COMMON. 

Present Tense. 

Singular. 

Vedtugiren anal (or ahil) &c. If I dig, &c. 
Yedtugiren analum, &c. Though I dig, &c. 

Plural. 

Vedtugirom anal (or ahil,) &c. If we dig, &c. 
Vedtugirom analum, &c. Though we dig, &e. 

Thus through all the other tenses, numbers and persons. 

POTENTIAL MOOD. 
ALL TENSES. 

Singular and Plural. 

* Vedtakudum, I, &c. can dig, 

* Vedtalam, I, &c. may dig. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. Plural. 

* Vedtu, Dig thou. * Vedtungal, Dig ye. 

* Yedtum, Dig thou (hon.) 

ANOTHER FORM. 

This is compounded of the infinitive of the principal verb, 
and of the third person singular, future, of the verb venclu 
f(?c/w), to beg, to want, to need, and is used to express 
command, need, or entreaty, as : 

* YecUavendum, J, thou, &c. must dig; or, It is needful 

that I, &o. should dig ; or, I entreat you 
to dig. 



VERBS. 1 5 

ANOTHER FORM. 

Vedtattum, Let dig. 

Vedtuha, Dig, 1 pray. 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

Vedtakadaven, &c. May I dig, i. e. I must dig, &c. 
Yedtuvenaha, &c. May I dig, i. e. I ought to dig, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

* Present Tense. Vedta, To dig. 

* Perfect Tense. Vedtiyirukka, To have dug. 

PARTICIPLES. 

VERBAL. 

* Pant Tense. Vedti, Having dug (or digging.) 

* Perfect Tense. Vedtiyirunthu, Having dug. 

RELATIVE. 

* Present Tense. Yedtugira, That digs, or that another 

digs. 

* Past Tense. Yedtina, That dug, or that another 

dug. 

* Future Tense. Vedtum, That will dig, or that ano- 

ther will dig. 

VERBAL NOUNS. 
RADICAL. 

Yedtuhei, A digging. 

Vedtal, A digging. 

Yedtuthal, A digging. 

PARTICIPIAL, REFERRING TO ACT. 

* Present Tense. Vedtugirathu, A digging. 

* Past Tense. Vedtinathu, A having dug. 

* Future Tense. Vedtubavathu, A digging. 

PARTICIPIAL, REFERRING TO ACTOR. 

Singular. 
/ Vedtugiravan, He who digs. 

* Present Tense. < Vedtugiraval, She who digs. 

\ Vedtugirathu, It that digs. 

Plural. 

f Vedtugiravarhal, They who dig. 

\ Vedtugiraveihal, do. (neuter) do. 



16 ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 

f Vedtinavan, He who dug. 

* Past Tense. < Vedtinaval, She who dug. 

r Vedtinathu, It that dug. 

* Perfect Tense. Vedtiyirukkiravan, He who has dug. 
Pluperfect Tense. Vedtiyirunthavan, He who had dug. 
Future Tense. Vedtubavan, He who will dig. 

Do. Vedtuvon, do. 

Future PerfectTense. Vedtiyiruppavan, He who will have 

dug. 
Do. Vedtiyiruppon, do. 



II. NEGATIVE VERB. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

Vedten, I do not dig. Vedtom, We do not dig. 

&c. &o. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD- 

* Vedtathe, Dig not thou. 

* Vedtatheyungal, Dig not ye. 

ANOTHER FORM DENOTING COMMAND OR ENTREATY. 

Vedtavendam, Do not dig; or I, &c. must not dig ; or I 
entreat you not to dig, &c. ; or I, &c. need not dig. 

PARTICIPLES. 
VERBAL. 

* Vedtamal, Not digging. 
Vedtathu, do. 

RELATIVE. 

* Vedtatha, That does not dig. 
Vedta do. 

VERBAL NOUNS. 
RADICAL. 

* VedUamei, A not digging. 



VERBS. 17 

RELATIVE. 

* Vedtathavau, He who did not dig. 

* Vedtathaval, She do 

* Vedtathathu, That which do 

* Vedtathavarhal, Those do 

* Vedtathaveiha], Those (neuter) which do 

ANOTHER FORM OF THE NEGATIVE VERB. 

In this form the verb " to be" (a)(9) is added to the ne- 
gative yerbal participles of the principal verb as an auxili- 
ary, and is conjugated in all its various moods, tenses and 
persons. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

* Vedtathirukkiren, I am not digging. 

* Vedtamalirukkiren, do. 

ANOTHER FORM OF THE NEGATIVE VERB. 

In this form the imperfect negative verb illei (g)>&)) is 
added to the principal verb, which retains its positive form. 
It is usually added to the infinitive mood and verbal nouns 
only. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

* Yedtugirathillei, I, &o. am not digging. 

Past Tense. 

* Vedtinathillei, I, &o. did not dig. 

More commonly. 

* Vedtavillei, I, &o. did not dig. 

Future Tense. 

* Yedtuvathillei, I, &o. shall or will not dig. 
Sometimes illei is added to the finite verb. This is ap- 
parently allowable, but not usual. 

Present Tense. 
Yedtugiren illei, I am digging. 



IS ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 

ANOTHER FORM OF THE NEGATIVE VERB. 

To express refusal or inability in the future tense, the de- 
fective verb mattu (u>irLL(B), can or will, in its negative form, 
is added to the infinitive mood of the principal verb. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Future Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

Yedtamatf.en, I will not dig. Vedfcamattom, We will not dig. 
&o. &c. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Verbal. Vedtamattamal, Not digging ('hereafter.) 

Not being able to dig, 
Vedtamattathu, Not digging. 

Not being able to dig. 

Relative. Vedtamattatha, That will not dig. 

That cannot dig. 

Vedtamatta, That will not dig. 

That cannot dig. 

VERBAL NOUNS. 

Vedtamattainei, A not digging. 

A not being able to dig. 



III. CAUSAL VERB. 

3 . When verbs take the middle particle giru (&&) in the 
present tense, vi (cfl) is added to the root, and g changed 
into kk (or doubled), to make a causal verb ; as, 
Vedtugiren, I dig. Vedtuvikkiren, I cause to dig. 

2. When verbs take kkiru (*&&), ppi (ud) is added to 
the root ; as, 

Nadakkiren, I walk. Nadappikkiren, I cause to walk. 

3. There are other causal forms ; as, 
Nadattugiren, I walk (actively), conduct, manage, 



VERBS. 19 

Verbs of this form are to be found in the dictionary, and 
therefore need not be explained more particularly. 

All causal verbs are conjugated in the same way as other 
verbs. 



IV. PASSIVE VERBS. 

Verbs Passive are formed by adding the verb padu (u), 
in its different parts, to the infinitive mood of the principal 
verb ; as vedta + padugirathu, It is being cut. Occasion- 
ally it is formed by adding padu (u) to the root of the 
verb; as, areipadum, it will be ground. Frequently it is 
formed by adding u$ to a noun ; as, adipattan, He was 
beaten. 

Sometimes the verb un (JLSOT) to eat, in its different parts, 
is added to the root of a verb to form a passive ; as, kolei -f- 
irnrian, he was killed. But this form, though known to all, 
and sometimes used, is not common. 

The use of the passive voice is avoided as much as possible 
by Tamils, 



VARIATIONS IN VERBS. 

There are slight variations in many verbs from the forms 
given above, in the middle particle of the different tenses ; 
but any one who knows these forms will find no difficulty 
in understanding the variations. The personal terminations, 
with the exception of that of the third person singular 
number neuter gender of the past tense, are the same in all. 

The following list contains all the variations. From the 
particles shown in it all the different parts of any verb may 
be formed. It will be seen that with respect to these middle 
particles there are nine classes of verbs. All verbs fall under 
one or other of these classes. These particles are added to 
the root, and the personal terminations are subjoined to 
them. In joining the personal terminations to the middle 
particle tho u of the latter is dropped, 



20 



ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 



Present. Past. Future. 

1. (.#0 giru (uSesr) in (a/) v 
Yedtugiren, I dig. Vedtinen, I dug. Vedtuven, I will dig. 

2. (l) giru (<-) d (a>) v 
Padugiren, I suffer. Patten, I suffered. Paduven, I shall suffer. 



3. (Qjp) kiru 
Zedkiren, I ask. 

4. (j) giru 
Arigiren, I know. 

5. (Qjpi) him 
Seyhiren, I do. 

6. (j) giru 



(*-H (") p 

Kedten, I asked. Zedpen, I will ask. 

(/F^) nth (a/) v 

Arinthen, I knew. A riven, I shall know, 

(&) th (a;) v 

Seytheu, I did. Seyven, I will do. 

(p) d fa/) v 
Sellugiren, I go, pass. Senden, I went, passed. Selluven, I 

will go, pass. 

(JD) d (u)b 
Eaden, I said. 

GM) tt 
Partten, I looked. 

(is?) nth 
Irunthen, I was. 



7. (J) giru 
Engiren, I say. 

8. (* 
Parkkiren, I look. 

9. (*Qjp) kkiru 
Irukkiren, I am. 



Enben, I will say. 

(uu) pp 
Parppen, I will look. 

(uu) pp 
Iruppen, I shall be. 

In the vocabulary of <l Other useful words," only the roots 
of verbs are given, and the learner is referred to the above 
list for the class of verbs under which each comes. The 
number of the class corresponding with the above number is 
given after each root. 



NOUNS. 

1. Nouns form their plurals in several ways. 
By changing the final consonant of the singular, n, (esr\ 
into r (IT) ; as, manithan, man ; manithar, men. 

By adding hi or gal (sen) to the singular ; as vldu> 
house, viduhal, houses ; maram, tree, marangal, trees. 



NOUNS. 21 

Note. m (u>) is changed into ng (<E/), when g follows it. 
Thus maram becomes maranggal ; and, one g "being elided, 
we have marangal. 

By adding hal to the plural ending in r ; as, manitharhal, 
men. 

By changing the singular ending in on into or; as 
vedtuvon, a digger, vedtuvor, diggers. 

By adding ar to the name of a place, to denote connection 
with that place ; as, vidu, house, vidtar, inmates of a house. 

Note. If a vowel precedes ar it is dropped ; as, vidu, 
vidtar. "When the name of the place ends in m, the ni is chang- 
ed into tt before ar ; as, pattanam, city, pattanattar, citizens. 

By adding mar to the norn. sing, of a noun, to denote a 
class; as turei, gentleman, tureimar, gentlemen. 

By adding hal to mar; as, tureimarlial. 

2. Nouns ending in m (u>) change m into tt (&p) before 
the signs of the cases ; as, maram (U>JTU>), wood, marattal, of 
wood. 

3. Nouns ending in du () change d into tt ; as, vMu, 
house, vittil, in a house. 

4. Nouns ending in ru (JP) change r into tt ; as soru, 
rice, sottukkaha (G&pgvs&frs), for rice. 

5. The noun ellam (er^gtf/r^), all, changes m into alt, v 
being inserted to prevent the hiatus that would occur between 
a and a, and um (a.o>) added to make the sense universal ; as, 
ellavatteium, all, Ace. ellavattukkum, to all. Dat. 

6. Nouns of one short syllable ending in a consonant 
usually double that consonant before the casal signs ; as, ma7i 
(UJOTS-) earth, marmal, with earth. 

7. Nouns precede their verbs ; as, kuthirei odittu, tho 
horse ran. 



22 ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 

8. The following example will suffice to shew the way 
in which nouns are usually declined* The casal endings are 



MANITHAN, 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. * Manithan, Man. 

Ace. * Manithanei, Man. 

Gen. * Manithanufleia, Of man 

it 

* Manithanin, do. 

s 

Manithanidatt'i, do. 

Manithanathu, do, 

* Manithan (Nom. for. Gen.) do. 
Dat. of giving * Manithanukku, To man. 

Do. motion to * Manithanidattirku, To man. 

Do. final cause * Manithanukkaha, For man. 

Abl. of instrument * Manithanal, ) With, by, of 

or material * Manithaninal, 3 man 

Do. of society * Manithanodu, odu, With man. 

Do. locality * Manithanil, In man. 



* Manithanidattil, ) In, with, at 

* Manithanidattu, 3 man. 
Do. motion from * Manithanilirunthu, From man. 

* Manithaninindu, do. 

* Manithanidattilirunthu, do. 
Yoc. * Manithane, o, a, man ! 

Those forms marked * 



NOUNS. 2o 

the same in all. 

A MAN, THE MAN, MAN. 
PLURAL. 

Nom. * Manitharhal, Men. 

Ace. * Manitharhalei, Men. 

Gen. * Manitharhaludeia, Of Men. 

* Manitharhalm, do. 
Manitharhal idattu, do. 



Manitharhal athu, do. 

* Manitharhal (Nom. for Gen.) do. 
Dat. of giving. * Manitharhalukku. To men. 

Do. motion to * Manitharhalidafctirku, To men. 

Do. final cause * Manitharhalukkaha For men. 

Abl. instrument * Manitharhalal, -j By, with, of 

or material Manitharhalinal, / men. 

Do. society * Manitharhalodu, odu, With men. 

Do. locality * Manitharhalil, In men. 

* Manitharhalidafctil, ^ In, with, at 
Manitharhalidafctu, 3 men. 

Do. motion from * Manitharhaliliruntha, From men: 

- ~ 

Manitharhalinindu, do. 
Manitharhalidatiilirunthu, do. 

Voc: * Manitharhale, o, a, Oh, men ! 

are most used. 



ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 



M, 





--- 



.--- 



$3 tO 50 feC fee 



&D 



bfi &p fee fco &0 

a acaa 
pq pqw^s 



I' 

-*! 

~. s " . 









m 



1 'I'i'i'l 'I "I 
to 



g 
1 

PH 



Singular 



I- 

fl'f5 
3.-S-3 



; i 

ai'si 

^ 'I I '.If 
SraSa .SS' 






o 

s 


s 

1 



o 



Ill 




I 

CQ 

g 

a 

CD 



PRONOUNS. 



25 






=3 



I I'll 

- ' 



80 | 



a 

I 



' 



' >; 



,'sssaasaa a 



laj 
aaaaaag 

p^ppppg 



BQ 

I 






* * 



, 
^Dpppppp p pppppp^ 



o o ^ o o 



* 



'8 

a 
o 

^3 

S 
S 
a 
S 



su 



2G 



ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 



? 



f.i 

?1 




.-.'g-'S -*4-*l -3 
O> 3 *g 3 .x d >cS 



- 



^3 r^4 rr- 

* . P Ss' 





TJ- 

'-> I* *?H - 



K8 Ip' ^'^ 



? 'ii 



>>^>>>>> > 



CO 

w 
oc 

d 







' 






c rt 



^ -Jfl^ 
p '3 d 'd 



SJ3 pq 



: 3 



.2 '-S "3 43 
> S d^ 



'So 



sg-a 



* ft 

S~ d " !>-fe*-H d 
cd .= ^ -EP-S 

Vl-9 

I 



) qcd -S^^ 

'o 'o "s i ' 



PRONOUNS. 



27 



la 



d 

!.=.! 



1 



Sf 



xi X! 



$ 

<J <J 



M 

$?$$ 

<d <1<! <J 



1 

1 

a> 



OQ > 



* 



"B 



O 
fc 

O 






S-g-S 



-58 



1111 

- --- 






ppq 



'"3 

o d 



51 



d 

-2 



o. o 
o o 



^ a 

o o 

p p 



I 

I 

s 

o 

X 



1 



.2 



28 



ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 



|o 



. 



CO 

25 
& 
O 
525 
O 



\ 

a 



W 

CO 

6 



*. 



, 

Q3 fl "0 ss 

.^- E .S S' 
'- S 






o 

'is" 

1 ll 



GOO 



.a 



Ulifli; 

Uliif 

(^ ^ Q ___ M (/} 

+5 O O 



o 

P 



T3 

I 



PRONOUNS. 



29 



CO 



O 

eg 



05 

sz; 





o 







OQ 



CO 
4) 



^ o> 



.. pOJ 

. ,c3 



W) 



H "TJ r c- r2 T2 i TO * c "c- 

.^ 3 .^ 3 103 D .^4 H3i 175 "- 1 .r-i ioj 
tD 5^jO fcJO t0 tJO bD tiD c6 ^ bJO &0 fcJO 






saaa 



d 



. 

- '* 



' 

aa 



1 ^ . a a 

a aaaaaa 

ctf w TO cS eo so 3 

H H >H ,H >H H >H 



- 



-a.- 



* 

T-. 



-03 



g 
d 

eg !8 

H j EH 



f 

C ^ .M 

^ a .2 s- 



? 






tl 



. 

1 ii 

* 



' 



" - 

- 



1 



^ o 



ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 



I 



CO 



.2 



p p 
p p 



Cu 

p 



p p p 
p p p p 

r-f] ryi |V| r-fj 



r-H 2 ^ 

_ 'p ^ *p "3 



p p p p p 
p p p p p 

^ pq pq P^ jvj 



CO 



l,f 



M4I 






"S * 



<% 



r 



|| |f| ,. ||1| 
sis -3 3' -3 -3 ^P a % S .5 ? 



g 



OQ 



o 



> g 



o 

00 

< a 



a I 

o o 

Q ft 



. 

> 



ADJECTIVES. 31 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FOREGOING. 

(1) The nominative singular, tan, may be joined to any 

noun or pronoun in any person, number, or case for emphasis- 
Tan is used reflexively in all its cases with any noun or 

pronoun in the third person singular number. 

(2.) The nominative tarn is used in kindness or conde 

scansion for nir. It is also used after mr and nlngal for 

emphasis. 

Tarn is used reflexively in all its cases with pronouns in 

the honorific form. 

(3.) The nominative, tangal, is used in the second per- 
son singular honorifically. 

Tangal is used reflexively in all its cases with pronouns 
in the third person plural. 

(4.) Intha, antha, are demonstratives, entha an interro- 
gative, and are used, without change of form, with nouns in 
any case. 

(5.) This ennaisan Interrogative Adjective Pronoun, 
and is joined, without change, to nouns in the singular or 
plural number, and in any case. 

(6.) This enna is an Interrogative Personal Pronoun, and 
admits of change of case. 

ADJECTIVES. 

1. Some adjectives are what may be called natural ; as, 
pala (USD), many ; sila (&v>), some. 

2. Most are formed from nouns. 

By adding ana (4^) ; as, nalam, goodness ; nalamana, 
good. 

By adding ulla (&.srerr) ; as, vellei, whiteness ; vejjeiyulla, 
white. 

By dropping the last letter ; as, maram, tree ; mara koppu 
tree-branch ; pad am, a lesson : pada pufctaham, a lesson book. 

By changing ru into ttu ; as, aru, a river ; attu mm, river 
fish. 



32 ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 

By changing the final du into ttu ; as, adu, a sheep ; attu- 
nianthei, a flock ; madu, ox ; mattu patti, a cattle-shed. 

By changing mbu into ppu ; as, sembu, copper ; seppu 
kudam, a copper (brass) water pot. 

By doubling t (&) ; as, eruthu, a bullock ; eruttu purei 
a bullock-shed. 

3. Sometimes a noun is used as in English, as an 
adjective ; as, man suvar, a mud wall. 

4. Adjectives are not declined. 

5. Adjectives precede their nouns. 

ADVERBS. 

1. Some adverbs are natural ; as, inge (g)(?), here. 

2. Some are formed from verbs. 

Infinitives are used as adverbs ; as uyara ponan, he went 
up ; literally, he went to rise. 

3. Some adverbs are formed from nouns. 

By adding ay to the noun ; as, nandu -f- ay = nanday 
pesugiran, he speaks well. 

By adding aha ; as, vereivu + aha vereivaha odinan, 
he ran swiftly. 

Sometimes by adding e (57) : as, nere po, go straight. 
Adverbs precede verbs. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

1. Particles supply the place of prepositions in most in- 
stances, as, avanukku ; to him. 

2. Sometimes infinitives of verbs are used as preposi- 
tions ; as, avanodu kfida pouan, he went with him ; liter- 
ally, to join with him. 

3. Some nouns also are so used ; as, mel, (Gust) heaven 
or the space above, athin mel, on it. %>, space below, the 
lower world, meseiyin kil, under the table, 



CONJUNCTIONS. 33 

4. Prepositions follow the nouns they govern. 

5. For prepositions see vocabulary of " Other Useful 
"Words." 



CONJUNCTIONS. 

i. In good Tamil conjunctions are seldom used. Their 
place is supplied by the subjunctive forms of the verb ; as 
a van vedtinal. If Jie dig. 

ii. Those used are either particles or derivatives from 
verbs. 

1. Particle, um, and, even. . 

Um is added to each noun conjoined ; as, Kanganium 
alum vantharhal (sepsrsirGtyfliLfLD ^r^ui Gjpirtr&&T.') The Kan- 

gany and the man came. 

Um, when it occurs with only one noun or pronoun, signi- 
fies also, or, even ; as, avanum vanthan, he also came, or, 
even he came. But when the latter sense is intended kuda 
is sometimes added; as, avanum kuda- vanthan, even he 
came. 

When um occurs singly with a negative verb, it signifies 
not even; as oruvanum vara villei, not (even) one came. 

When it occurs more than once with a negative verb, ifc 
signifies neither, nor ; ivanum avanum velei seyya vellei, 
neither this man nor that worked. 

2. Derivatives from ahirathu, (gj<0^). To be, become. 
Anal, ahil. If. 

Analum, ahilum, ayinum. Though. If repeated they 
take the meaning of either or. 

Aheial, aheiyinal, ahoiyil. Because, therefore," where- 
fore. 

Anapadial, anapadiyinal, anapadiyinale. Because, 
therefore. 

Avathu. At least. When repeated, it signifies either 
or. 

5 



34 ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR. 



3. Derivatives from engirathu, (OTCT^). To say. 

Endu, ena. That. 

Endal, enil, with a verb, mean if; with en, (why ?) ep- 
padi, (bow ?) enna, (what ?) ethu, (which ?) they mean for. 

Endalum. Yet, repeated, either or. With a negative 
neither nor. 

Engilum. Though yet. 

Endameial. Therefore. 



INTERJECTIONS. 

The following are those commonly used. 
A ! Expressive of admiration. 
Aha ! do. do. 

Ehe ! do. do. 

O ! 6 ! do. do. 

Oh5 ! do. P^y. 
Amma ! do. admiration or surprise. 
Sichi ! do. disgust and contempt. 
Che ! do. do. 

Eiyo ! eiyeiyo ! do pity. 
Kuhu ! do. do. 

Ada! do. grief, anger, disgust, 

Appa ! do. astonishment and ridicule, 

Ketti ! ketti ! Clever ! clever ! 



INTERROGATION. 

1. A question is usually asked by adding a (,#) to the 
word respecting which enquiry is made ; as Avata vanthan ? 
Did he come ? Avan vanthana ? Did he come ? 

2. When interrogative pronouns are used the interroga- 
tive particle is not added ; as, Evan vanthan ? Which man 
came ? 

3. Sometimes o is used instead of a ; but o generally 
implies doubt. 



VOCABULARY COFFEE, 



35 



PART SECOND. 

VOCABULARY. 



Seed, 
Seedling, 
Coffeebush, 
Boot, 
Tap root 
Side do. 
Feeder, 
Stock, 

Bark, 
Bud, 
Sprout, 
Sucker, 

Branch, 
Primary branch, 

Secondary do. 
Tertiary do. 

Grormandiser, 
Leaf, 
Young leaf 

Leaf stalk, 
Blossom, 
Unseasonable do. 
Eaiiy do. 

Late do. 

Young berry, 



SSSTJJl 



<g$safl Qeinr, 
uss Q&jr 



&TIT, 



Q& IT Qg rs.gr, 



COFFEE, 

f , Kappi, Koppi. 

vithei, ko|tei. 
kandu. 
koppi chedi. 
ver. 

a//r, ani ver, mula ver. 
pakka ver. 



tur, adi mar am. 

pattei. 

tulir, kan. 

talir. 

kolunthu. 

* 

koppu, vathu. 
tayvathu. 

\ 

pakka vathu. 
simbu vathu. 
nasumbu vathu. 
gorman vathu. 
ilei. 
tulir. 

ilei kambu. 
pQ. 

vambu pii. 
muthal pu. 
pinthina pi/, 
pinju. 



36 



VOCABULARY. 



Unripe berry, 
Cherry, 

Cherry skin, 

Dried cherry, 
Parchment, 
Pounded coffee, 
Cured do. 
Pea berry, 
Triage, 
Tail, 
Light coffee, 



afflU, 
ULpLC, 



European estate, 
Native do. 



Company's do. 

Own do. 

Bented do. 

Leased do. 

Cultivated do. 

Abandoned do. 

.Good do. 

Bad do. 

Fertile do. 



kay. 
palam. 

pala tol, toli. 

vattal. 
kottei. 

kutt.ma koppi. 
arisi kottei. 
ottei kottei. 
kadi kottei. 
kappi koppi. 
pokku kottei. 



3i>rr 



COFFEE ESTATE. 

, Koppi tottam. 

, tureimar tottam. 

turei tottam. 
, suthesihal tottam. 

Tamilan tottam, 
-o, Singalavan tottam, 
Sonahan tottam. 
,compini tottam. 
sontha tottam. 
vafctei tottam. 
kuttahei tottam. 



ueysrsssruuu. syehei panriappatta 
GpniLL-LDj tottam. 

GpfftLi-.u> 9 pan tottam. 

iru.iu) t palanulla tottam. 
u&te&pp (SpiriLiLiby palanatta tottam. 
GpfnL gelippulla tottam. 



Barren estate, 



PEllTAINIXGS TO ESTATE. 37 

pirLL selippillatha tottam 



lU), 



Young 



do. 



Old do. 

Bearing do. 
Estate in bearing, 
Clean estate, 
Weedy do. 
Scattered do. 

Compact do. 
Steep do. 
Sloping do. 
Undulating do. 

Level estate, 
Rocky do. 

Large do. 

Small do. 

Upper do. 

Middle do. 

Lower do. 

North do. 

East do. 

South do. 

West do. 



l ilang koppi tottain 



u*>y>uj ^inLL-u, paleiya tottam. 
G?^/TLI<_LC, kaykkira tottam. 
(2,j/ri__u>,kayppulla tottam. 

ppuravana tottam. 
, kalei piditta tottam. 
tundu tundana t5t- 

*# w ** 

tarn 

jadakkamana tottam. 

>* 

sarivana tottam. 
say vana tortam. 

meclupallamana tot- 

tarn. 
LLiu), samatharei tottam. 



periya tottam. 
sinna tottam. 
mel tottam. 
nadu tottam. 

** v* 

paniya tottam. 
kila tottam. 
varlakku tottam. 
kilakku tottam. 
terku tottam. 
merku tottam. 



Division, 



PERTAININGS TO ESTATE. 

rr, Tottattin pahuthihal 
pahuthi. 



38 

Upper part, 

Middle part, 



Lower do. 
Front do. 
Back do. 

End, 
Field, 

Coffee land, 
New coffee, 
Old do. 
New clearing, 
Abandoned coffee, 



Grass land, (see 
grass 
Forest, 
Jungle, /j, 

Swamp, 



Grove. 

Hill (see hill.) 

Knowl, 

Hollow, 

Valley, 



VOCABULARY. 

CLOSO tottattu niel pnhutbi. 



L-LLC, 



uerrenu), 



niel to [tarn, 
tottattu nadupahu- 

thi. 

nadu tottam. 
paniya tottam. 
tottafctu inun puram- 
L9o8TL//Do! } tottattu pin puram. 
pin tottam. 
tottattu mudivu. 
malei, \elei tajam, 
malei tottam 
koppi kadu. 
putbu koppi. 
paleiya koppi. 
putbu kaHu. 
tallupadiyaua kdppi. 

pullu malei. 



perung kadu, venam. 
kadu, siru kadu, 
nirsuneippana idam. 
iralippn. 
solei, toppu. 
malei, pottei. 
kundu. 
pal lam. 
tavupallam. 
pallattakku. 



SOIL, GRASS, HILL, ROCK. 



Bavine, G^o suxresr usrrsrrp nerukkamana pal- 

pir&fsjy lattakku. 

Bock, (see rock.) uirenp, sevutrenp, parei, kalparei. 
Precipice, Qun-flajir&sruiZsi), Q&m porivana malei, sen- 

.^^j gUttll. 

Biver, (see river.) ^jv, left, iaru, nathi. 

Bridge, (see bridge) u/rv>Lo, palara. 

Brook, ^/D^jy, sittaru. 

Water course, ^*-, odei. 

Pool, esa:/r0jafl, PL-IT&LD, urant, tadajiam. 

Tank, (see tank.) @etru3, kulani. 

Drain, (see drain.) sireor, sirs*, kan, kal. 

Culvert, L06WL., madei. 

Boad, ^/reru^fl', utrsn r 3, o;i^,irasta, pathei, vali, 

vulg. GirffLL, rottu. 

Boundary, GGVSQS, &Mu>rtri*i elhei, elleimanam. 

Hedge, GeusQ, veli. 

Stile, a/LlL-, kavattei. 

Gate, a//r^ffo vulg. CJ tl vasal, ket vasal. 



Store, (see store.) eivpG(yir, istor. 

Pulping house, (see Qnns&p <, rothei vl:lu. 

P . h.) 

Receiving do. u/p^CTT-sS^aSL.^, palara alakkiraidam. 

Lines, (see Hues.) ffttuesr, layan. 

Cattle shed, Lc/n_Lu ULlqi, mattu patti. 

Stable, (ftes>nff{>iruju>, kuthirei lay am. 

Bungalow, u/nssnrr, bangala. 



SOIL, 

>, Man,Nilam. 
Earth, LOWT, iSsvu), man, nilam. 

Clay, 0rf?Loror, kalimari. 

Loam, u&3einjceair } pasalei mail, 

Black soil, &($*&), karusal. 



40 



VOCABULARY. 



Red soil, 
Gravel I} 7 soil, 



Man a grass, 
Guinea grass, 
Arugu do. 
Korei do. 



Toof-, 

Sede, 

Ridge, 

Top, 

Rise, 

Slope, 



Granite, 

Gneiss, 

Limestone, 

Quartz, 

Gravel, 

Hard rock, 



Soft do. 

Slab do. 

Boulders, 
Broken rocks, 



&trrr 



L/SV) 



sevval, gemma?. 
saral kalantha man, 



GRASS. 

Pul, Pullu. 

mana pullu. 
simei pul, kini pul. 
aruham pullu, 
korei pullu. 



HILL. 

, Malei, Pottei. 

, maleiyadi, adivaram, 
malei pakkam. 
muthuhu medu. 
utchi, siharam. 
ettam. 
ffiriuuLj, irakkam, sayppu. 



ROCK. 



fffferr, 



Q SB C. tf cu IT em ar eo 



,Karpar, Parei. 

karung kal. 

karung kal. 
, sukkan kal. 

vengitchang kal. 

saral. 

karung kal. 

kettiyanakal. 

kaclinamana kal 

ma kal. 

lesana kal. 

padarntha parei. 

urundoi kaL, 

tundu kal. 



RIVER, BRIDGE. 



41 



Source, 
Mouth, 

Bank, 

Bottom, 

Surface, 

Deep place, 

Shallow, 
' Ford, 

Bathing place, 
1 Washerman's do. 

Waterfall, 



Iron bridge, 
Stone do. 
Brick do. 
Wooden do. 
Wire do. 
Arched do. 
jrame do. 

Suspension do, 
Abutment, 

Wing, 

Pilo, 
Pier, 



QLD/D 



RIVER. 

^, Aru, Nathi. 

uttu. 
-D, kalimuham. 

karei. 
adi tarei. 
mel tarmlr. 

* 

tannerinmel. 
alamana id am. 
kalam, nir kalam. 
kadakkira turei. 
kulikkira turei. 
vannan turei. 
aruvi. 



jpetnp, 



BRIDGE. 
Palam. 



LDJTU UlTffDU) 



UITffi)U) ) 



iruppu palam. 

kal kattu palam. 

sengal palam. 

mara palam. 

kambi palam. 

kaman palam. 

sattang kattina pa- 
lam. 

tongal palam, 

sangili palam. 

karei tQn muhappu 
tun 



vila chuvar, 

chuvar. 
palam tangi. 
tun. 



pakka 



42 



VOCABULARY. 



Arch, 

Opening of arch- 
way, 

Intrados of bridge, sLorrear 
Extrados do. 
Key stone do. 
"Water way, 



Dug tank, 
Built do. 

Bund, 
Culvert, 

Surplus water 
drain, 



Natural drain, 

Cut do. 
Built do. 
Side do. 
Cross do. 
Covered do. 



TANK. 
Kularn. 



LCS)L< 



kaman. 
kanvay. 

kaman ulvay. 
kaman puravay. 
utchi kal. 
sala tarei. 



vettukulam. 
teppa kulam. 
karei. 
madei. 
kalingal. 



DRAIN. 

stresr, srr&t, Kan, Kal. 



siren-, 
srresr, 



sirssr, 



tanayirukkira kan, 

vettu kan. 
katf.u kan. 
pakka kan. 
kurukku kan. 
mudu kan, madei. 



Cart 

Bridle 
Foot path 
Upper 
Lower 



, QfftTLL 
road, 



do. 

do. 

do, 
do. 



(?/r/n_L, 



ROAD. 

, Irasta, Eottu, Pathei. 
karattei rottu 
vandi pathei. 
kuthirei pathei. 
ottadi pathei. 
uncap, mel pathei. 

uirenp, kil pathei. 



ROAD, 



43 



Principal road, Qutfttu 



Govenment do. 



Public 

Private 

Metaled 



Side 
Zigzag 

Mountain 
Jungle 
\ Village 
Street 
Steep 
Level 
Good 



do. 
do. 
do. 



Unmetaled do. 
Cabook do. 



do. 
do. 



do. to&ou u 
do. sinL(S)u 
do. 



road, 
do. 
do. 



Bad do. 

1 Dangerous do. 

Safe do. 

Long do. 

Short do. 

Circuitous do. 
Near do. 

Wide do. 

Narrow do. 
Hill side of do. 
f Lower side of do. 
Retaining wall, 
Bandy track, 
Cutting, 
Metal, 



utrenp, 



&6UIT, 



periya pathei. 
peruna pathei, 
sarkkar pathei. 
pothu pathei. 
tanathu pathei. 
kalp6t,ta pathei. 
man pathei, 
semniakki potta pa- 
thei. 
pakka vali, 

kurukku marukkana 
pathei. 

malei pathei. 
kattu pathei. 
ur pathei. 
vlthi, teru. 

v 

porivana pathei, 
samanana pathei. 

nalla pathei. 

* 

ketta pathei. 
mosamana pathei. 
suhamaha pathei. 
nedum pathei. 

s+ 

kifctina pathei. 
suttu pathei. 
kurukku pathei. 
ahala pathei. 
idukkamana pathei. 
malei pakkam. 
kll pakkam. 
man tangu suvar. 
vandi tadam. 

v* 

vettu vay. 
rottu kal. 



VOCABULARY. 



LINES. 

or, Lay an 

New lines, L\& 

Old do. ues)Lpuj 

Upper do. 

LoW9r do. &p etiuear, 

Thatched do. 
Iron roofed do. 



Shingled do, u>ir 



tutor, 



Verandah do. 

Double do. 

Single do. 

Eoof pole, 
Support of roof, 



Bushel, 
Trap-board 



Water wheel. 

Do. bucket, 
Shaft (driving), 

Wheel, 
Pully wheel, 

Coupling do. 
Cog do. 



puthu layan. 
paleiya layan. 
mel layan. 
kil layan. 

, pullu mey ntha layan 
iruppu tahadumudi- 

ya layan. 

mara odu potta la- 
yan. 

virantha layan. 
irattei layan. 
ottei layan. 
mallu. 
kal. 



CHEBEY LOFT. 

Palam alakkira vidu. 
busal. 
pala chippu. 



PULPING HOUSE. 

, Palpana vidu 

tannir rothei. 
rothei petti. 
Quifliu jyev alavangu,periya ala- 

vangu. 
r5thei. 
, euirirGinr patti rothei, var ro- 

thei. 

kappiling rothei 
pallu rothei. 



PULPING HOUSE, 



zjv>uL/<gj) 



Spur wheel, 
Pinion do. 
Pulper do. 
Crusher do. 

Crank do. 

Bevelled do. 

Fly do. 

Key of wheel, 

Cog, 

Spur, 

Wheelband, strap, 

Pulper, uetuuiea), 

Disc pulper, 

Breast do. 

Frame of pulper, 

Hopper, 

Crusher, 



<3a IT cap, mul pallu rothei,. 
, sinna pallu rotheL 
palpana rothei. 
nasukki rothei. 



Pulper (cylinder), 
Pulper sheet, 



Do. tooth (blunt) u9 

Do. do. (cut) 
Chop, 

Upper chop, 
Lower do. 
Chop screw, 
Coupling, 
Lever, 
Cross shaft, 
Crank do. 
Plummer block, 

Bearing, 
Cup bearing, 



kirangu rothei. 

GatremuuGtgx C^/rD^,konapallu rothei. 
pilay rothei. 
rothei appu. 
pallu. 
mul lupal.' 
patti, var, 
palpana. 
amei palpana. 
nalla pambu palpana, 

sattam. 
pala petti, 
nasukki, nasukki 

urulei. 

palpana urulei 
Jugo) urulei tahadu, pal- 
pana taljadu. 

kumil. 

pallu, mullu, 
sokkule. 
mel chokkull. 
kil chokkull. 

sokkull ani. 

kappiling, 

kei, kappiling kei. 

kurukku alavangu. 

kirangu alavangu, 

pun tangi. 

pun. 
koppei pun. 



46 



VOCABULARY. 



Spout, 

Sieve, 

Tray, 

Well, 

Chain, 

Bucket, 

Chain pulleys, 

Nut, 

Wrench, 

Drain, 

Cistern, 

Fermenting 

tern, 
Washing 

Wet 



CIS- 



do. 

do. 



Tail 
Sluice, 
Strainer, 
Sluice board, 



do. 



Ltf 



pili. 

salladei. 

kottei tattu. 

pala toni. 

57 sangili, petti chan- 
gili. 

sangili petti. 
, sangili, tukkurothei. 

nmritchi. 

skaruppu chavi. 

kan. 

totti. 

aluha veikkuni totti. 

kaluvum totti. 
naneiya veikkum 
totti. 

pokku totti. 
tarimr kathavu. 

salladei, vadippan. 
vadi palahei. 



See Bungalow. 
Mat (coir), 
Do. (wire), 
Upper story, 
Trellised floor, 
Steps, 
Balustrade, 
Pan, 



STOEE. 

/f, Istor. 



IJITILJ, 



kayattu pay. 
kambi pay. 
,mettei, mel mefctei. 
karathi talam. 

% 

padi. 

(padi) keipidi. 

kattu rothei. 



BUNGALOW, BASEMENT, WALL. 



BUNGALOW. 
Bangala. 



FOUNDATION (dug), 
Foundation (built), 
Stone foundation, 
Brick do. 
Concrete do. 
Deep do. 
Shallow do. 

Wide do. 
Narrow do. 



Strong do. Qu&*u>trear 



Weak do. 



BASEMENT, 
| FLOOR, 
Ground floor, 
Upper do. 
Brick do. 
Plaster do. 
Wood, do. 
Binding joist, 
Joist, 
Floor boarding, 

\ WALL, 

Enclosure wall, 



pens 



vanam. 

astivaram. 

kal astivaram. 

sengal astivaram. 

kalappi astivaram. 
, alamaua astivaram. 
, alang kureintha asti- 

varam. 
a^alamana astiva. 

ram. 
iT nerukkamana asti- 

N * ** 

varam. 
belamana astivaram. 



iv@ belavinamana astiva- 
ram. 

Tala mattam. 

Talam, Tala varisei. 

adi talam. 

mel talam. 

sengal paviya talam. 

sunnambu talam. 

mara talam. 

tala ufctiram. 

tala kattei. 

tala varisei palahei. 

Suvar, 
suttu chuyar, 



48 



VOCABULARY. 



House wall, eil.()& 6i;/f, 


vittu chuvar. 


Main do. iSin^ircsr <Srsuir } 


pirathana suvar. 


pinLjf *Fu/r, 


tay chuvar. 


t Partition do. i^ifi &6iJir, 


piri suvar. 


Longitudinal do. Q/5<gj #a//r, 


nedun chuvar. 


CrOSS dO. (8jU&(& ) <5 : <9?a//f, 


kurukku chuvar. 


Front do. (tpssr ^o//f, 


mun suvar. 


Back do. iSletr ffreuir, 


pin suvar. 


Gable do. Qi^p^tf Greuir, 


netti chuvar. 


High do. e_oj/f/5^ -ffrsuir, 


uyarntha suvar. 


Low do. &LLG&L& <9r6uir } 


kattei chuvar. 


Thick do. sax pp &QJIT, 


kanatta suvar. 


J-hin do. 006V)6u'<9r <F <ffrGUlT t 


mellisu chuvar. 


Verandah do. eflay/Bjirf G-suir, 


virantha chuvar. 


Parapet do. unQup&i& &auir } 


parapettu chuvar. 


Retaining do. /D^.^ &eu,T, 


kurattu chuvar. 


ARCH, &u>tr&r, 


Kaman. 


See Bridge. 




CEILING, ^o^pQu^n)SLLL^. ) 


Arei mel katti. 


Ceiling cloth, ^^D^QW^SLL^ & 


2so t arei mel katti chilei, 


HoOF, <3n.es>ff } 


Kurei. 


S. evaiTfftr. 


wahala. 


Terrace roof, ^irflsrs <^L65)^r, 


tarisu kurei. 


S. &piRiuir(5*iairar 


, lathiri yaru wahala. 


Gable do. (Lp&u~.& &.G&F, 


muhattu kurei. 


S. ^L-eusirefr, 


adawahaja. 


1 Wall plate, fLLt-ib, 


chafctam (or sattam.) 


Q <? 

?* 9 


yattall. 


T) 1 J 

1 OlO QO. QLDeti&LLtLD, 


mel^chattam. 


S. .<-.aju.^.eS, 


udayattall, 



ROOF. 



Tie beam, 


Ali-, aprA: 


..Lo,vittam, mngavittai 




Q * * 


balkka. " 


King post, 


wm.8msri t 


usikal. 




S. Quutreu, 


kuruppava. 


Queen do. 


LJ& f>!L<s;&ir&) 


pakka usikal. 




S. Lj&@&< S(S uun 


a/, punjikuruppava. 


Strut or brace, 


ff*.es)ir QfLLGlssiret 


j kurei muttu kal. 




S. rtA&QjGU, 


mukkuva. 


Collar or straining Gu>&> eStlL-Lo, 


mel vittam. 


beam, 








S. ^Bsnjirerr&S, 


anabalkka. 


Ridge pole, 


<y>&LL<s8tiL{, 


muhattu kambu. 




S. (Lf>&IEJlLILLl-($, 


muthung yattall. 


Principal, 


tSiTjSirsar &DS, 


pirathana kei. 




S. airuQu&&(& ) etr ) 


kappekakula. 


Purlin, 


enspirtaS, 


kei thangi. 




S. jytlt-ey/r^rr, 


attavalei. 


1 Common rafter, 


mm, 


kei. 




S. uffirerr, 


parala. 


! Corner do. 


Lprt&6S)&, 


mulei kei. 




S. ^^uuffirerr, 


mulapparala. 


Verandah do. 


euirffGGDS, 


vara kei. 




S. ^eW^/TLJL/ffl/L 


iu istoppuva parala. 




/r/reirr, 




Verandah plate, 


eSffyispir &-p$ffU) t 


virantha ufctiram. 




s.aA<*fi*uLt 


UJLL istoppuva yattall. 


Lath, 


m***-t*u* 9 


varitchu, rlppar. 


- 


S. fuu t 


rippa. 


| Tile, 


^> 


odu. 




S. e-(^, 


ulu. 


Square tile, 


#^/r g5, 


sathura odu. 




S. 0/^/r>/z9 a-^p, 


petti ulu. 


Pan do. 


/F/roR gj>, 


nali odu, 




S. Gu/r^(5 BL, 


"bokku ulu. 






'7 



50 

Glass tile, 

Spout, 



VOCABULARY. 



S. 



S. 



Support of spout, iSsQ pir/is, 

S, iSujev&uj&si 
Drain, liireijL^iLjd} fie, 

S. iSujeveo, 
Eidge, <y>& vulg. 

S. 
f Eve, 

S. 



palingu odu. 

vitharu ulu. 

plli. 

pihalla. 

plli thangi. 

pihalla yakkada. 

mr vadiyum plli. 

\* 

pihalla. 

muhadu, modu. 
muthuna. 
talvaram. 
aguva. 



VERANDAH, 



S. 



Virantha. 
istoppuva. 

Verandah steps, e$(y/s@rru uup., virantha padi. 

S. {jjm)G<$iruL]uLiL$uj, istoppu padiya. 



I Pillar, 

! Base of pillar, 
Shaft of pillar, 
Capital of pillar, 
Verandah rail, 
Trellis work, 

DOOR, 
I Glass door, 



S. 



S. 



S. 



S. 



S. 



S. Qpirjr, 

s 

S, 



tun. 

kuluna. 

adi tun, 

kuluna atibarama. 

nadu tun. 

kuluna. 

tun taleippu. 

\> * V* 

kulunu oluva. 
virantha kirathi. 
karathi vetta. 
pun ehedi kirathi. 

kathavu. 
dor a. 

kannadi kathavu. 
vithuru dora. 



DOOR. 



S. petti 



/ Venetian door, @&>s,s6y, 

S. S8<* 

I Swing do. 



Folding do. 

1 Double do. 

Sliding do. 

Ledge do. 

Trap do. 

Screen do. 

Wicket, 
1 Frame, 
1 Sill, 

Lintel, 
\ Post, 

f Stile, 
Mounting, 
Top rail, 



S. 

QjSITff, 

S. 
0* 

S. eQfffsr Qpirir, 

S. &GVtTLDSS,U 



S. 

LC 

S. 

S. 
m. 

S. 
S. 



S. 

E.U. &L-L-LD, 

S. 



51 

ilei kathavu. 
jallis dora. 
ottei kathavu. 
tani dora . 

madippu kathavu. 
afctarapiyan dora. 

irattei kathavu. 
teppiyan dora. 
tallu vasal (kathavu.) 
lisana dora. 
kambei kathavu. 
kalambei dora. 
nilavarei kathavu. 
bingey dora. 

inareippu kathavu. 
reti vetta. 

titti vasal, 
kadulla. 
kathavu nilei. 

uluvasa. 
kil nilei. 
elippatta. 
mel nilei. 
uda padiya. 
nilei. 

uluvakkanu. 
sattam. 
tigaregal. 

ul chattam. 
medaregal. 
mcl chattam. 
udaregal. 



52 




Bottom rail, 


& 


Lock do. 


^ 




S. , 


Freize do. 


^ 




S. . 


Panel, 


jysa 




S. i 


Beading, 


An 




S. 


Lock, 


LL 




S. 


Latch, 


*p 




S. 


Button, 


Pdi 




S. 


Bar, 


& 




S. 


Bolt, 


sir 




S. 


f Key, 


fflT 




S. 


Keyhole, 


fff 




S. 


Key plate, 


fir 

s 


} Handle, 


Ki/ 

> 




S. 


1 Hinge, 






S. 


Staple, 


0^ 




s, 



VOCABULARY. 



&L-L-LQ 



Listens 



Quirenefr, 



k!l chattam. 

yattaregal. 
kurukku chattam. 
aras vittam. 
kurukku mel chat- 
tam. 

fy a_j_diklt_ii>,aras udavittam. 
adei palaliei. 
penal, 
pirarnbu. 
poradama. 

puttu. 
yafctura. 
kathavu matti. 
kokka. 
tiruhu talpal 

kurulla. 
kurukku tappal. 

polla. 

talpal, tirangu. 

tarange. 

savi. 

yatfcura muthiruva. 

savi tuvaram. 

yatturukatta. 
, savi tuvara tahadu. 
munatahaduva* 
kathavu pidi, 
keippudiya. 
kll. 

saruneru, 
kondi. 
kokka. 



WINDOW. 



! WINDOW, 


MflTMj 


Sannal. 








jannala. 


Glass window, 


S 60V (GOT) Lq.& feSfffi 


srsb, kannadi ohannal. 


I Venetian do. 


fe. 0^(75 ggswearg 


, vitharu jannala. 
ilei channal. 


i 


S. sttrfeitf &ms 


urefl, jallis jannala. 


[ Frame, 


fSOTSf&i) l&<2o\) f 


sannal nilei. 




o 


ajffi, jannal uluvasa. 


| Post, 


*, 


nilei. 




S. SL^GlJf, 


uluvasa. 


Lintel, 


Guxh Ate, 


mel nilei. 




S. *.i-uui}iu, 


udappadiya. 


Sill, 


ff^p /^>, 


kil nilei. 




S. UJL-L^UUL^lU, 


, yattappadiya. 


f Top rail, 


Gu>pet-ii, 


mel chattam. 




S. SLL-Gff&ffO, 


udaregal. 


Bottom rail, 


QipsF fiLt-u>, 


kil chattam. 




S. tUL-L-Gffe& 9 


yattaregal. 


Middle do. 


/Effi fLLl-l*, 


nadu chattam. 




S. Qu>fsGff*&, 


metharegal. 


Stile, 


JfLLlLD, 


sattam. 




S. @sGffsa>, 


tigaregal. 


' Sash or lattice, 


SjSGj, 


kathavu. 




S LSuJirffUTy 


piyana. 


Sashbars, 


S GSSf @S8)Lf.& ffiGVgi 


v ^Ll.kannadi chillu chat- 




-li, 


tam. 




S. 6S^7(75 (J<S/TL 


1, vithuru kottu. 


/Pane, 


Gt&8T<6G)Lp.f &0i) ) 


kannadi chil (or sil). 




S fi2^(J5, 


vitharu. 


1 Putty, 


u>*@, uLl^, 


makku, patti. 




S. ULlf, 


patti. 


Shutter, 


^a-T^ @0ZE7 < 


s^ay, sannal mudung ka- 






thavu. 



VOCABULARY, 



BOOM 
Dining room, 

Drawing do. 
Bed do. 
Dressing do. 
Closet, 
Office, 

Bath room, 
Store do. 
Appoo's do. 
Kitchen, 
Kitchen oven, 

Sink, 

Out-house (go- 
down) 

FIREPLACE, 
Hearth, 

Fireplace, 
Chimney, 
Stove, 

Grate, 
Flue, 



Arei. 
y ffiruuiril. tini arei, 



sappat 



DINING BOOM, 
FURNITURE, 
Dining table, 
Chair, 



L?.ffiruS/E] 




tp/r/, 



arei. 

diraying rum arei. 
padukkei arei. 
udukkira arei. 
ullarei, sittarei. 
apisu. 

kulikkira arei. 
istor kidangu. 
appuvin arei. 
kusini. 
(?Lj/rbekkar aduppu, po- 

rani aduppu. 
salaham. 
kidangu. 



Aduppang arei. 
aduppu,aduppume- 

dei. 

aduppu. 
puhei kundu. 
irumbu aduppu, 

istov. 
neruppu kirathi. 

puhei kulay. 



FUBNITURE. 

sir, Saman, Tattu muttuhal. 



iu Sappat areikuriy a. 
samanga I . 
tini mesei. 
narkali, 



DINING ROOM FURNITURE. 



Sideboard, 
Cupboard, 
Shelf, 

Lamp, 

Standing lamp, 

Hanging do. 

Oil do. 
Paraphine do. 

Hand do. 

Night do. 

Bedroom do. 

Lampstand, 

Candle, 

Candlestick, 

Decanter, 

Bottle, 

Tumbler, 

Wine glass, 

Soup tureen, 

Soup ladle, 

Sauce tureen, 

Sauce ladle, 

Dish, 

Plate, 

Hotwater plate, 



Dessert 
Cheese 



do. 
do. 



Knife, 

Carving knife, 
Steel, 
Fork, 



<2u/r/fil, 
u(?u/r, 



.gar .5(5 



Guirppet, 



sayid pord. 

kappodu. 

tattu. 



v 



vilakku. 
kuttu vilakku. 
tukku vilakku. 
ennei vilakku. 
parapin vilakku. 
kei vilakku. 
vidi vilakku. 
padukkei arei 

lakku. 

vilakku tandu. 
meluhu vatti. 

* /senr, meluhu vatti tandu, 
dikkandar. 
pottal, putti. 
tambalar. 
vayin kilas, 
sup turin. 
sQp ladil. 
sas turin. 
eas ladil. 
dis. 

pingan. 
gGssressFiru fits sudu tannir pingan. 



arei pingan. 
r, @o EJ kal pingan, sis pin- 

gan, 
katti. 



p%x>Gu>es>ffB 



talei mesei katti. 
tittugira aram. 
mullu. 



VOCABULARY. 



Carving fork, 

Silver do. 
Plated do. 
Steel do. 
Spoon, 

Large spoon, 
Dessert do. 
Tea do. 
Mustard do. 
Salt do. 
Salt cellar, 
Mustard pot, 

Vinegar cruet, 
Pepper do. 

Oil cruet, 
Cruet stand, 

Finger glass, 

Napkin, 

Teapot, 

Coffee pot, 
Cup, 
Saucer, 
Milk jug, 
Sugar basin, 
Butter dish, 
Toast rack, 
Mug, 
Table mat, 
Tray, 



affemup., 
Quifioj GiremrLq.) 



eru 



firffir, 



Litre* 



QeuemfQemiu un 



UlTiU 



talei mesei mullu. 
velli mullu. 
kild mujlu. 
irumbu mullu, 
karandi. 
periya karandi. 
arei karandi. 
tey karandi. 

mustad karandi. 

uppu karandi. 

uppu kudu. 

mustad putti. 

kaduhu kuppi. 

kadi putti. 

kadi kuppi. 

milahu putti. 
0, milaliu kuppi. 

tp, ereffsr onnei putti, ennei 
, kuppi. 

I kuppi tattu. 

kurut istarid. 

pingar kilas. 

kei tuvalei. 

N* 

te potchu. 

koppei potchu. 
koppei. 
piris, sasar. 
pal jakku. 
Bini pattiram. 
^ii,vennei pattiram. 
tostu rekku. 

kuvalei. 
mesei pay, 
tattu. 



DRAWING ROOM & BED ROOM FURNITURE. 



DRAWING ROOM 
FURNITURE, 

Clock, 

Bound table, 
Teapoy, 
Work table, 

"Work box, 
Easy chair, 
Arm chair, 

Footstool, 

Couch, 

Sofa, 

Sofa cushion, 

Book shelf, 

Picture, 
Painting, 

Print, 
Piano, 

Harmonium, 
Carpet, 



BED KOOM 
NITURE, 

Bedstead, 
Headboard, 

Footboard, 
Post, 
Frame, 
Top, 



Diraying rum arei 

chamangal. 
oralosi. 
vatta mesei. 
sinna mesei. 
teiyal mesei* 
teiyal petti, 
saymana narkali. 
keiyulla narkali. 

kal manei. 

kavutchu. 

sopa. 

sopa mettei. 

pustaha tattu, pusta- 

ha alumaru. 
sittira padam. 
9^ varunam pusina 

sittira padam. 
ui- atchitta sifctira pa- 
dam. 
Qu tanthi kinnara petti. 



arumonyam. 
samukkalam. 



&srr, 



sired, 



f ffinoir Padukkei arei cha- 
manga]. 

kattii. 

kattil taleimadu. 

kattil kalmadu. 

kattil kal. 

kattil chattam. 

tdmtira. 

8 



58 



VOCABULARY. 



Curtain, 

Bed clothes, 

Mattress, 

Counterpane, 

Blanket, 
Sheet, 
Pillow. 
Pillow case, 

Chest of 

Almira, 

Chest, 

Box, 

Portmanteau 

Carpet bag, 

Window blind, 

Window blind 

ler, 
Curtain, 

DRESSING BOOM 
FURNITURE, 

1 Dressing Table, 
/ Drawer, 
! Table cloth, 

Looking glass, 

Pin, 

Pin cushion, 

Watchstand, 

Brush, 
Hair brush, 
' Clothes do. 



Stiuefl 



Qurfltu 



es>u, 



- ffer ear es 



tomtira challa. 

v* \* 

kattil pudaveihal. 

mettei. 

(kattilil virikkum) 

m el pudavei. 
kambali. 
tuppatti. 
taleiyariei. 
taleiyanei urei. 

latchi petti, 
alum aru. 
periya petti, 
petti, 
tol petti. 

samukkala pei. 
sannal mudum chi- 

lei. 
sannal mudum chi- 

lei kambu. 
sannal mOdum tirei. 

Udukkira arei cha- 
man. 

uduppu mesei. 

latchi. 

mesei tuppatti. 

kanriadi, 

kundOsi. 

kuridiisi mefetei. 

kadikaram taugi. 

purus. 

mayir elvum purus. 
uduppu tudeikkum 
purus. 



BATH ROOM & KITCHEN FURNITURE. 



Nail brush, 

Tooth do. 
Comb, 
Small tooth 
Hair oil, 
Hair oil bottle, 
Wash-hand stand, 
Wash-hand basin, 
Water jug, 

Do. decanter, 

Do. glass, 
Soap dish, 
Lid, 

Brush dish, 
Sponge, 

Do. dish, 
Clothes horse, 

Do. peg, 



Soap, 
Towel, 
BATHROOM 
NITURE, 

Water butt, 
Tub, 



ULJ, 



s-<SuL},5piTtB(9jij) 



r 



naha purus. * 

pallu purus. 
sippu. 

siru pallu chippu. 
talei ennei. 
ennei putti. 
kei kaluvum mesei. 
kei kaluvum besan. 
tannlr jakku. 
tanmr dikkandar. 
tanmr kilas. 
savukkara dis. 
Bavukkara dis mudi. 
pal purus dis. 
ispanju. 
ispanju dis. 
uduppu tangi. 

tangum 
mulei. 
savukkaram. 
tuvalei. 
jqenpfffruDir Kulikkira arei cha- 

man. 

tannir pippay. 
tannlr totti. 



KITCHEN 
TURE, 

Curry stone, 
Curry grinder, 
Mortar, 



*iru>ireir, 



Kusini chaman. 

ammi. 

amini kulavi. 
ural. 



VOCABULARY. 



Pestle, 

Bucket, 

Baking chatty, 

Curry do. 

Bice do. 

Waterpot, 

Brass waterpot, 

Saucepan, 

Kettle, 

Gridiron, 

Sieve, 

Ladle, 
Do. Rack, 
Cocoanut scraper, 
Rice strainer, 
Paste board, 
Paste roller, 

Chopping board, 

Shelf, 

Lime squeezer, 

Cake mould, 

Broom, 

Hand broom, 

Brush, 

Tin can, 



OFFICE FURNI- 
TURE. 
Desk, 
Pigeon hole, 



euireffi, 



GILS*, 
<$tf., 



, Guiressft, 



Gu&w, 



ulakkei. 

porani. 

kari chatti. 

panei, sottupanei. 

kudam. 

seppu kudam. 

sasu panei. 

kettal. 

kiril, 

sulahu, muram. 

ahappei. 
ahappei tukku. 

tengay tiruvi, 
tatfcu kudei, 

ma mesei. 
rol tadi. 

ireitchikofctumkattei. 

tattu palahei, selpu. 

tesikay idukki. 

\ 

kek atchu. 
tumbu kattei. 
tudeippam. 
purus tudeippam. 
pohani, poni, kuva- 
lei. 

Apisu ohaman. 

desku, 
desk arei. 
penei. 



OFFICE FURNITURE. 



61 



Steel pen, 
1 Penknife, 

Pen wiper, 

Lead pencil 

Colored do. 

Slate do. 

Paper, 

Foolscap paper, 

Letter do. 

Note do. 

Blotting do. 

Envelope, 

Paper knife, 

Ink, 

f Inkbottle, 
; Inkstand, 

Wax, 

Gum, 

Wafer, 

Wafer crusher, 

Seal, 

India rubber, 

Scissors, 

Paper weight, 

Paper clip, 

Letter scale, 
/ Euler, 
I Twine, 
; Letter, 

Postage stamps, 
Receipts, 



Q0il Ousar^a), 
euiressru Qusorffia 



i/f Guuuir, 
GtBinL Guuuir, 

Guuuir 



0S)LDU 



<2</rrt>, 

r, vulg, 



urukku penei. 
penei katti. 
pen tudeippam. 
led pensil. 
varrrn pensil. 
siled pensil. 
kaduthasi, kahitham. 
pulskap kaduthasi. 
lettar peppar. 
nod peppar. 
pilatting peppar. 
kaduthasiiirei kudu, 
kaduthasi vetti. 
mei, tinthei. 
mei putti. 
mei kudu, 
arakku. 
pisin. 
vebar. 

vebar amukki. 
mufctirei, mufctirei 
kol. 

*u. rappar, ottei tol. 

kafctari kol. 
kaduthasi amukki. 
kahitham idukki. 
kaduthasi tirasu, 
rul kambu. 
podi kayiru. 
kahitham, kadu- 
thasi. 

tabal muttirei. 
iraelthu. 



VOCABULARY. 



Memoranda, 

Memorandum book^tutrg 

Account book, 

Map, 

Plan, /-SsYT/naJr,/#tJL/, 



Cash box, 
Money chest, 
Do. bag, 



uemu onu 



yathastu. 

yathastu pustaham. 
kanakku puttaham. 
tesa padam, 
pilan kurippu. 
tallu kayitha kudei. 
kasu petti, 
pana petti, 
pana pei. 



Owner, 

Agent, 
Visiting Agent, 



PERSONS CONNECTED WITH ESTATE. 

rr, T5ttattei chernthavarhal. 

N* ^ 

Qffiir/f,& muthalali sonthak. 

karan. 
ejendu. 

visifcting ejendu 
turei. 

turei, peria turei. 

v. s* 

sinna turei. 
kandattar, kandak- 

ku." 

peria karigani. 
kangarti. 



Superintendent, 

Assistant, 

Conductor, 

Head Cangany, 
Cangany, 
Writer or Clerk, 
Accountant, 
Store-keeper, 

Mason, 
Watchman, 
Bandyman, 
Cat tie -keeper. 
Cooly, 



, QutfitugiGnir, 



reittar. 

kanakka pillei. 
ist5r karigani. 

mesan. 
kavalkaran. 
varjclikaran. 
roattukaran. 
kulial, kulikaran. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Contractor, 
Contract cooly, 

Appoo, 
Cook, 

Kitchen cooly, 
Horsekeeper, 
Gardener, 
Provision cooly, 

Post cooly, 



Qsirs, 



conthirattukaran. 
conthira&u al. 

N 

appu. 
kokki. 
kusini metti. 
kuthireikaran. 
tottakaran. 

V* 

ratti pettikaran. 
tapalkaran. 



1 Doctor. 
Carpenter, 

Blacksmith, 
Goldsmith, 

Washerman, 
Barber, 

Sawyer, 

Woodcutter, 

Shingle-maker, 

Farmer, 

Farrier, 

Bazaarman, 

Hawker, 

Chetty, 

Tailor, 

Shoemaker, 

Labourer, 

Porter, 



OCCUPATIONS. 

w, Tolilhal. 



eurr6rrssirffesr 9 



veittian. 
tatchan, odavi. 

kollan. 
tattan. 
vannan. 
, uifttumfl, navithan, pariari. 

valkaran. 
wilif, kadu vetfi. 

QftuSpeussr, mara odu seyhira- 
van. 

sarnusari. 

ladakaran. 

kacleikaran. 

pottariikaran. 

setti. 

teialkaran. 

Bemman. 

kulial. 

sumeikaran. 



VOCABULARY. 

TOOLS, &c. 

/Et&eir, Ayuthangal. 



COOLIES' TOOLS, 

&c., 

Mattock, 
Weed mattock, 
Weed scraper, 
Pruning knife, 
Sack, 

Small sack, 
Basket, 
Coffee rake, 
Scoop, 
Bushel, 
Large mortar, 

Pestle, 

Winnow (sieve), 

Hammer, 

Sledge-hammer, 

Ramrod, 

Scraper, & new up. 

Pickaxe, 

Crowbar, 



Rammer, .QLtirm&rrsyr, 

Powder, 

Fuze, 

Hatchet, 

Long-handled do. /rtl t-ifteuirtir 

Axe, 

Hand-axe, 

Bill-hook, 



Kulikararukkuriya 

ayuthangal. 
manvetti. 
pulvetti. 

suraiidi, karandi. 
kavattu katti. 
sakku. 

kutti chakku. 
kudei. 

kindu palahei. 
iskoppei. 
pushal, busal. 
kunthani. 

ulakkei. 

sulahu, muram. 
suttial. 
siles amar. 
ramrod, 
karandi. 
pikkasu, pikkan. 
kadapparei, ala- 
vangu. 

mongan. 

vedi marunthu. 

marunthu tiri. 

kei kodali. 
kattarival. 

k5dali. 

kei kodali. 

vettu katti, kei katti. 



CARPENTER'S TOOLS. 



Sickle, 


jy.t/a//rwr, 


arival. 


Bake, 


QjTS(5, 


rekku. 


Picket peg, 


GQ%W, Vulg. &*- 


6D&, mulei, kuni. 


Do. (small) 


o*, 


kutchi. 


CARPENTER'S 


pff&ir ^iLj^isia 


ICTT, Tatchar ayuthangal 


TOOLS, 






Adze, 


eared, 


vatchi. 




Singalese Ceoi 


uy leya. 


Saw, 


euirerr, 


val. 




S. tsujpp, 


klatta. 


Hand-saw, 


GS>& QJlTsk, 


kei val. 




S. vpQiupp, 


atklatta. 


Bow-saw, 


mem euirw, 


nan val. 




S. JPjSp!S@tUp 


p y tunukkiafcta. 


Cross-cut saw, 


gyasfisiJirvr, 


kurukarival. 




S. ^tTireK^iu^ 


p t araskiatta. 


Saw set, 


eutrerru uetip 


^(5^^, vai pal tirufcti. 




S. ppfecurQat. 


, tattanduva. 


Jack plane, 


&>pCjLjeti, 


ileippuli. 




S. Q&LLL-lLJ/Si 


&, gettayattu. 


Smoothing plane, 


@e>je&, 


Bivuli. 




S. LLl.U.UJ^& 


i, mattayattu. 


Plough plane, 


!L0fr&@e>]Gfl, 


ula chivuli. 




S. L]6(F > &@UJ i 5} 


f, pulukkiatta. 


Beading plane, 


LffU)L-l& @e*l<5& 


J, pirambu chivuli. 


Spokeshave, 


@(ZaDffl/*/SI0, 


iluvei uli. 




S. tfujirujp?, 


piyayatta. 


Bench vice, 


U>ffU> @l&@, 


maram idukki. 




S. ^/r^0 ^ 


wra/, taridu anduva. 


Cramp, 


jy^e, 


allu. 




S. QfflTlMU), 


kiramma. 


Mallet, 


QsinLi-fruLj 


iJ), kottapuli. 




S. jifpp&Q&i 


r<5e/, attakoluva. 




* 


9 



VOCABULARY. 



Flat chicel, 

Chisel for cutting 
iron, 



S. iStueor, 



Mortice chisel, 


&f> 




S. 


Bound chisel, 


mi 




S., 


Brace bit 


^6 




S. 


Centre bit, 


ec, 




S. 


Drill, 


&D 


Drill cord, 


&D 

Q 




S. , 


Gouge, 


tf^ 




S.. 


Auger, 


pu 




S. , 


Gimlet, 


jg?/j 




S. 


Screw driver, 


Ol>(2 




S. 


Pincers, 


@5 




S. 


Gauge, 


eua 




S. 


Hasp, 


U>ff 




S. 



takattuli. 

v 

niyana. 
vettirumbu. 



S. iu&&t&&u ueors yakkadakka pana 
*!, kattu. 

sittuli 
ununiyana. 
vatta uli. 
roun niyana. 

burumei. 
burumei. 
usi. 

kattuva, 
turappanam 
turappana. 
or turappana kayaru, 

or Til, 
turappana lanu, 

kamanuli. 
pokkuniyana. 

tamarusi. 

alakkara. 
turappanam. 

buruma. 

skuru mudukki. 
, ekuruppu niyana. 

idukki. 

anduva. 

vareikol. 

varaikothu. 

mara aram. 

raskuTa. 



Eule, 



BLACKSMITH'S & MASON'S TOOLS, &c. 67 

s mulakol, adikol. 





S. Gsir&ajy 


kothuva. 


Compass, 


&suff[rffu> t 


kavarasam. 




S. SGUSSL-G), 


kavakattu. 


Line, 


&re9, 


nul. 



S. 



BLACKSMITH'S 
TOOLS, &c., 

Forge, 

Furnace, 
Bellows, 

Anvil, 

Sledge-hammer, 

Tongs, 

Vice, 

Rasp, 

File, 



Kollar ayuthangal, 

ulei kudam. 

ulei. 

turutti. 

adei kal. 

sammatti, kudam. 

kuradu. 

pidittiravi. 

padiaram. 

aram. 



MASON'S TOOLS, 

Trowel, 

Pointing trowel, @opmr& 

Tracing trowel, 
Plummet, 

Smoothing rule, 
Level, 

Square, 

Polishing board, 
Polishing stone, 



USIL-.U3 



Mesan ayuthangal, 
karandi, kollaru, 
kustara karandi. 

pu karai.idi. 
tukku. 

matta palaheL 
nlr mattam. 
mulei mattam. 
maniasi palahei. 
manias! kal. 



63 



VOCABULARY. 



ANIMALS. 

rr, Miruhangal. 



DOMESTIC ANI- <$LL d^stis^, 


Yittu miruhangal. 


MALS, 




Horse, (gj^Gnir, 


kuthirei. 


Mare, QULL&X-& <go/r, 


pettei kuthirei, me- 


GlAlfi, 


ri. 


Pony, LDLLis (gjffisiDir nnL 


matta kuthirei, mat- 


t-U), 


tarn. 


C^Olt, (W^L^-fl., 


kutti. 


Aoa 

XXbtoj &Q-Qc8)d;y 


kaluthei. 


She-ass, QuLL.68)L~& sn^s6>s t 


pettei kaluthei. 


Jb Oal, <2>(T 68)^45 O^-^-j 


kaluthei kutti. 


Mule, Q&irQsiJ^il S(~LD<SS)S 


koveru kaluthei, ve- 


Gmifffi, 


sari. 


Bull, sirfar, 


kalei. 


Young bull, @0yr/Q 5/rSarr, 


ilang kalei. 


Bullock, LO/T, OTO^, 


madu, eruthu. 


Cow, u& t 


pasu. 


Milch COW, UtTffi) U<3r, 


pal pasu. 


Cow with calf, &&STU U&, 


sinei pasu. 


Heifer, t_/r//?, 


kidari. 


Calf, ****,, 


kandu. 


Buffalo, crfTjjOT^o, 


erumei. 


Buffalo calf, er^GKL&s eGwjpt, 


erumei kandu* 


Bam, ^CJBs SIIT, 


attu kada. 


Ewe, $, 


adu. 


Lamb, ^tl iltf , 


attu kutti. 


He-goat, Qayyrrr/rtl<s <SL-/T, 


vellattu kada. 


She-goat, Oaysfrerr/r, 


veil adu. 


Kid, Q6usneiTfnL(B!& tltf , 


vellattu kuttL 


Boar, ^^ jr/s9, 


an pandi. 


Sow, Qugwr uearfl, 


pen pandi. 


Young Pig, UCTT^ oltf , 


pandi kutti. 



BIRDS. 



6D 



Dog, isirtu, 


nay. 


Bitch, GLJL!DL_ fsrriu, 


pettei nay. 


Pup, Girtus @ *-!<, 


nay kutti. 


Cat, 4&BT> 


punei. 


Kitten, tltf, 


kutti. 


Hare, (*/>-?*>, 


musal. 


Habbit, @i$ (Lpfsv, 


kuli musal. 


WILD ANIMALS, sirtLL8@s/Ei&&r t 


Kattu miruhangal 


Elephant, luir&ar, 


yanei. 


Cheeta, usQ, 


puli. 


Wolf, eprsiriu, 


onay. 


Jackal, /sift, 


nari. 


Bear, ^tf, 


karadi. 


Wild Pig, aiTLLQu umfl, 


katcu pandi.- 


Sanibar, u> stiff, 


marei. 


Spotted Deer, Ljsrr&ft Loiresr, 


pulli man. 


Monkey, (5^-, 


kurangu. 


Black Monkey, UHB&, 


manthi. 


Porcupine? (jt/jsrcyrio usisr/Q, 


mull am pandi. 


Mongoose, @if)u LS/gyrSsrr, 


kiri pillei. 


Bandycoot, QuQ&ffirefR, 


perutchali. 


Rat, OT$, 


eli. 


Musk Eat, QptgjQffieQ, 


mQnjeli. 


Mouse, srem Q^_^, 


sundeli. 


Squirrel, jysra^eo, 


anil. 



BIRDS. 

rr, @(n)sSls6rr 9 Patchihal, Kuruvihal. 



DOMESTIC FOWL, <&LLuuLL@s&r, Yittu patchihal, 

&c. 
Turkey, ew/r^r Gairtfl, van koli. 



70 
Goose, 

Duck, 

Guinea Fowl, 
Cock, 
Hen. 

Chicken, 
Pigeon, 

WILD BIRDS, 

Wild Duck. 

Snipe, 

Sparrow, 

Swallow, 

Crow, 

Kite, 

Jungle Fowl, 

Pea Fowl, 
Parrot, 
Mina, 
Dove, 



VOCABULARY 

QuQ/sgirffir, 



utiSet, 
Qefi, 



perum tara, kus 

vattu. 
vattu. 
kinni koli. 

seval, saval. 
pettei koli. 
koli kunju. 
pura. 

Kattu patchihal. 

kulattu vattu. 

ullan. 

adeikkalan. 

taheivillan. 

kakkei. 

parunthu. 

kattu koli. 
mayil, 
kili. 
naganavay. 

kattu pura. 



CONVEYANCES. 



Horse Bandy, 
Carriage, 
Palanquin C a r - 

riage, 
Waggon, 
Dog Cart, 



QL-ITS 



Bullock Cart, 
Hackery, 



Lo/rzJL 



Vahanangal. 

kuthirei vandi. 
socli karafctei. 
pallakku varidi, 



vekkan. 
dokkarattei. 
irandu rothei varidi. 
mattu vandi. 
ottei mattu 



WAGGON. 



WAGGON (Ameri- 
can) 

Front seat, 
Back do. 
Flap, 
Cushion, 
Side, 
Rail, 

Box, 

Foot board, 

Splash board, 

Wing, 
Step, 
Tent, 
Standard, 
Standard iron, 
Blind, 
Blind strap, 
Knob, 
Hook, 
Ring, 
Buckle, 
Reins bar, 
Reins holder, 
Apron, 
Apron strap, 
Whip rest, 
Lamp iron, 
Front iron, 
Circle, 
Cross tree, 



(year 



Qsira, 



Vegan. 

rnun iruppidam. 

pin iruppidam. 

tongal chllei. 

mettei. 

pakkam. 

rel kambi, pakkattu 

kambi. 
pakkis petti, 
mithi palahei. 
rnun seru tangi. 
mun tirappu, 
jStriEiS, Qffdsns, seru tangi, rekkei. 
padi. 

mel katti, mel tappu. 
mel katti, kal. 
mel katti thangi. 
mareippu. 
mareippu var. 
kumil matti. 
kokki. 
valeiyam. 
pakkils, varputtu. 
rens tangi. 
rens pidi. 
malei tangi. 
malei tangi var. 

savukkurei. 
vilakku pidi. 
vandi mun tangi. 
sakkaram. 
sakkaram tangi. 

sakkarafetin atchu. 



GUITIT 



eutrir 



VOCABULARY. 



Linch bolt, 
Crank iron, 

Trace Jiook, 
Shaft, 



vulg. 



sakkarattu atchani. 
allu, pattirumbu. 



Breeching holder, @sQfEJBir<siv u>tnLi$. 

Catch, 



Spring, 

Crawl iron, 

Grasshopper springg) 

Block, 

Bracket, 

Axle, 

Wheel, 

Nave, 

Nave ring, 

Bush, 

Cap, 

Spoke, 

Felloe, 

Tier, 



CART, 

Frame, 

Side, 

Front, 

Back, 

Pole, 

Pole rest, 

Yoke, 

Yoke pin, 

Yoke rope, 



tires maiti. 
arir-ssirev, GUIT/B&UILJ, erkkal, ponkambu. 



U3&1J), 



sikkinthiras matd. 
erkkal pakkils matti. 



villu. 
vil pidi. 
irattei vil. 
kattei. 

vil kattei irukki. 
atchu. 

rothei, urulei, sil. 
kudam. 
kuda pun. 
kudattu ul pun. 
atchu kuppi, koppu, 
areikal. 
alahu. 

ilsro^., Girir urulei pattei, rothei 
pattei, pattam. 



Vandi, karattei. 
sattam. 
pakkam, 
mun pakkam. 
pin pakkam. 
erkal. 
muttu kal. 
nubattadi, nokkal. 

kadei kutchu, kadei 
put tang kayiru. 



HARNESS. 



73 



Seat, 
Axle, 
Axle tree, 

Linch bolt, 
Linch pin 
Linch pin ring, 
Wheel, 
Top, 

Stretchers, 
Supports, 
Mat, 



Drag, (to check Q&(reir<g$ t 
speed), 

Do. (to rest), 
Grease, CBLD 

Grease-horn, 
Driver's basket, 



utrtu t 



iruppidam. 

atchu. 

atchu maram, teppa 

kattei. 
atchani. 
kadeiyani. 
valeiyam, 
sakkaram, sillu. 
kundu, kudu, 
kfindu pirambu. 
kundu kutchu. 
', pay, tennang klfc^u, 

tennang kiduhu. 
kollu. 

valla. 

mei, koluppu. 
mei kudu, 
vandi pefti. 



HARNESS. 

, Kuthirei uduppu. 



DRIVING HAR- 
NESS, 
Head stall, 
Head piece, 
Forehead strap, 
Cheek do. 
Blinker, 
Blinker strap, 
Nose band, 
Bit, 



uq, 



eu/r/, 
euirir, 



euro-, 



Vandi kuthirei udup- 

pu. 

muha patta. 
talei var. 
netti var. 
kaluttu var. 
muha patta. 
muha patta var. 
mukku var. 
kadivalam, lahan. 
'lO 



VOCABULARY. 



QuGveist eh 



Curb, 



Rein, 

Bearing rein, 

Bearing loop, 

Open collar, 

Shut do. 

Hames do. 

Hames strap, 

Hames head strap^^efu 

Hames tug, 

Trace, 

Saddle, 

Saddle tree, 

Saddle wing, 

Saddle turret, 

Bearing rein 

Crupper, 

Back band, 

Belly do. 

Shaft tug, 

Breeching, 

Breeching strap, @a9/i>@ 

Breeching holder, 



seru kadi, kadivala. 

changili. 
r, Gffevreh, kadivala var, rens. 
berens. 

berens valeiyam. 
tirantha kallar. 

puttu kallar. 
ems kallar. 
ems var. 
ems mel var. 
ems pakkils. 
tiresu. 

sini, senam. 
sini kattei. 
sini rekkei. 
sanguttiruhi. 
berens matti. 
tumbitchu var. 

muthuhu var. 
tangu. 

,erkkal, pukkils var. 
sikkiu thiras. 
sikkin thiras var. 

v* 

sikkin thiras matti. 



eulrir, 



BIDING HARNESS, sr 

Saddle, 

Stirrup, 

Do. strap, 
Bridle, 
Snaffle, 

Martingale, 
Bridle rein, 



ea>ff 



, ifl&SITU, 



er kuthirei uduppu. 
senam, sini. 
angapadi, rikkap. 
rikkap var. 
muha patta. 
sinna lahan. 
sinna kadivalam. 
matting kallar. 
r, cu/rey, kadivala var, vavu, 



BUILDINGS. 



Girth, 
Girth strap, 
Knee cap, 

Spur, 

Shoe, 
Kug, 
Waterbit, 

Halter, 

Picket peg, 

Picketrope(front), 

Do. do. ( 
Gram bag, 

Bucket, 
Brush, 
Curry comb, 
Comb, 



a/ir/f 



(Lpsrr, 



sntr, 



tangu. 

tangu var. 

puts. 

kuthi mul. 

laclam. 

sul. 

tanmr lahan. 

payudar kayiru. 

mulei. 

kaluttu katti. 

atchadi kayiru. 

topra. 

vali 

purus. 

kara. 

sippu. 



Fortress, 

Citadel, 

Palace, 

Mansion, 

Hall, 

Church, 

Mosque, 

Temple, 

Devil temple, 

College, 

School, 

Houso, 

Hut ; 



BUILDINGS. 



Kattidangal. 

kottei. 



ueireft eu/r^sb, 



aran. 

aran manei. 
malihei. 
salei. 
D, kovil, tevalayam, 

palli vasal. 
D, kovil, tevalayam. 
pey kovil. 
kalvi chalei. 
palli kudam. 
vidu. 
kudisei. 



VOCABULARY. 

BUILDING MATERIALS. 

Kattumanafctukkuria 
talavadangal. 

Stone, set, kal. 

Rough stone, V-<T$GII& set, urulei kal. 

Cut stone, QeuLLQs set t vettu kal. 

Lime stone, ffi&siresr set, sukkan kal. 

Laterite, cabook, &<$& set, turu kal. 

Lime, sressr^un, churmambu. 

Sand, uoessret, marial. 

Brick, Q&m&et, sengal. 

Arch brick, suiren- Gens set, kaman sengal. 

Pillar do. grew Offset, tun sengal. 

Paving brick, petr Qf inset, tala chengal. 

Square do. f&fff Offset, sathura chengal. 

Mud, (offgv, Beru. 

Mud brick, ufenfQeuL-* Of is patchei vettu chen- 

*, gal. 

White-wash lime, Qaiehfarf ^war^^L^, vellei chunriambu. 
Cement, ^/F^, simanthu. 

N* 

Timber, u>nu>, maram. 

Margosa, (?a/^L/, vembu. 

Tulip tree, ^ysunsr, puvarasu. 

Almilla, jqetLSecev, almilla. 

Dool, &re*, tul. 

v 

Ora, gj>/r, ora. 

Keena, @ar, kina. 

Hoolanhick, $_etssr %$&, ulan hik. 

Davatta, ^a/zlL., * tavatta. 

y+ 

Peembia, i3t^i^ujfr > pimbiya. 

Kubuk, ^H s r kubuha. 

Kaduberia, Gurfiuj. kadu peria. 

Jackwood, uetir U^ITLD, pala rnaram. 

Wild do. M@iftu UGW, asini pala. 



MAN. 



Mango, 


LD IT LD IT LJD * ma maram. 


Iron wood, 


(zp^6^ muthurei. 


Sandal wood, 


&iSj5emu>iru), santhana maram. 


Cocoanut, 


Q^ewevr u>nu) 9 tenna maram. 


Palmyra, 


u$sor t&jrii, panei maram. 


Kittool. 


Qp^pffb iLiiL) t kifetul maram. 


Arecanut, 


&0ps LDtru), kamuha maram. 


Dhoom, 


^/ro'Ly, tambu. 


Bamboo, 


gBv), mungil. 


Teak, 


Gps& LDiru>, tekka maram. 


Ebony, 


GQ^sireSI u>ffu) t karungali maram. 


Chambaca, 


Of emus u>ffu>, chenpaha maram. 


Jambo, 


&LDLJ rstTeu&j sambu naval. 


Jungle tamarind, 


>* 

s6Q@tuu>u&rir } kalasiyam pala, kal 




affituLjefl, pull. 


Vattadumba, 


c/Lli-^iiu/r, vatta tumba. 


Milla, 


iSfftiffv, milla. 


Bomby, 


GuirtiiS, p5mbi. 


Koombiya, 


($u)t3ujir } kumbiya. 




MAN. 




u>G$-563r, Manithan. 


MAN, 


LDofipesr, LDepGp.&r, manithan, manu- 




shan. 


Woman, 


u>gas$, QusiOT-L9errSsrr, manushi, penpillei. 


Old man, 


Qipeuevr, kilavan. 


Old woman, 


QpeSI, kilavi. 


Young man, 


cw/r^Sucsr, valiban. 


Young woman, 


euireQuu Qua*, valiba pen. 


Boy, 


cnuuj&ir, peiyan. 


Girl, 


Qjpi QLJCOTT, siru pen. 


Male child, 


^eyar LSefrSsrr, an pillei. 


Female child, 


Quern LSskfar, pen pillei. 



78 



VOCABULARY. 



Male infant, 

Female infant, Quessr 

Infant-in-arms, 

Sucking child, 

Elder (man), 
Elder (woman), 
Younger (man) 
Younger (woman), 
Adult man, 
Do. women, 



Child (boy), 
Do. (girl)) 
Tall man, 

Short do. 
Stout do. 

Thin do. 



Ouifiuj 



Quifiiu 



an kulanthei. 
pen kulanthei. 
kei kulanthei. 
pal kulanthei. 

muttavan. 

mufct aval. 

ileiyavan. 

ileiyaval. 

periya al. 

periya pen pillei, 

periya al. 
sitta], podiyan. 
sittal, siru pillei. 
nettei al. 

kuttei al. 
pushdiyulla al, pa- 

ruttaal. 
olliyal. 



Great grandfather. 
Do. grandmother. 
Grandfather, 
Grandmother, 
Grandson, 
Granddaughter, 
Father, 
Mother, 
Son, 

Daughter, 
Elder paternal 
uncle. 



RELATIONSHIP. 
<2/>ao/z?, Uravu murei. 

pufctan. 

putti. 

pattan, peran. 

patti. 

peran. 

petti. 

tahappan, appan. 

tay, amma. 

mahan. 

mahal. 

periy appan. 



Guff ear, 



LD&6YT, 



RELATI ONSHIP. 



79 



Younger paternal 

uncle, 
Elder paternal 

aunt, 
Younger paternal 

aunt, 
Elder maternal 

uncle, 
Younger maternal 

uncle, 
Elder maternal 

aunt, 
Younger maternal 

aunt, 
Nephew, 
Niece, 
Brother, 
Sister, 

Elder brother, 
Younger brother, 
Elder sister, 
Younger sister, 

Elder sister's hus 

husband, 
Younger sister's 

husband, 
Elder brother's 

wife, 
Younger brother's 

wife, 

Husband, 
Wife, 

First wife, 
Second do. 
Elder do. 



QuiRiu 



&>&<$ 



V(LI 



u($u>3esr, 



#G&irptR, 



sittappan. 
periya ayi. 
sinnayi. 
mufcta amman. 
ileiya amman. 
mutta afctei. 
ileiya attei. 

maru mahan. 

maru mahal. 

sahotharan. 

sahothari. 

annan. 

tambi. 

akkal. 

tangatchi. 

matchan, afctan. 



Qs/r^^cjr^matchinan, kolun 

than. 
mathini, anni. 

kolunthi. 



purushan. 

penchathi, maneivi. 
muthal taram. 

irandam taram. 
mutia kudiyal. 



80 



VOCABULARY, 

j if OJ/TOTT, 



Younger wife, 

Joint do. 

Father-in-law, 

Mother-in-law, 

Son-in-law, 

Daughter-in-law, 

Husband's elder 

brother, 
Husband's elder 

sister, 
Husband's y 

brother, 
Husband's younger /s/r^^gp/f, 

sister, 
Wife's elder bro- u>&iTeor 9 

ther, 

Wife's elder sister, 
Wife's younger 

brother, 
Wife's younger 

sister, 
Wife's sister's bus- 

band, 
Wife's brother's ^satire*, P/EJ&&&, 

wife, 

Husband's sister's 

husband, 
Husband's brother's 

wife, 
Brother's son (to 

brother), 
Brother's son (to 

sister), 
Brother's daughter 

(to brother), 



ileiya kudiyal. 

sakkalatti. 

maman. 

mami. 

maru mahnn. 

maru inahal. 

afctan. 

nafctina. 
kolunthan. 
nafctiuar, sambanthi. 
matchan, afctan. 

mathani. 
meittunan. 

meittuni. 

sahalan. 

akkal, tangatchi. 

aTinan, tambi 

akkal, tangatchi. 

mahan. 

maru mahan. 

inaha). 



DOMESTIC CONDITION. 



81 



Brother's daughter u>(g 

(to sister), 
Sister's Sou (to bro- 

ther), 
Sister's son (to sis 

ter), 
Sister's daughter 

(to brother), 
Sister's daughter u>aeir, 

(to sister,) 



maru mahal. 
maru ma^an. 



maru mahal. 
mal^al. 



DOMESTIC CONDITION. 
, Illara nileimei. 



Married man, 

Do. woman, eu 

Unmarried man, 

Do. woman, 
Widower, 

Widow, 
Orphan, 



samusarakkaran. 
uLLL.eu<>ir t valkkei pattaval. 

ondikkaran. 
kanni, kumari. 
taram ilanthavan, 
keimpen. 
tr pettar illatha pillei. 



Friendless child, jt/sir<L3err2sir, 
Parents, Qujb(2(yir, 

Children, 



anatha pijlei. 

pettor. 

pilleihal. 



MARRIAGE, 

Bridegroom, 
Bride, 
Wedding day. 

Wedding room, 
Wedding tie, 

Wedding cloth. 



Kaliyanam. 

mapillei. 
pen. 
muhurtta nal. 

manavarei. 

tali, mangiliyam. 

^ew^tnuhurttachelei, kii- 
rei. 

11 



82 



VOCABULARY. 



Saffron water, Lo^f&r i /f, manjal mr. 

Bestman, ^/ru^errSsrr^ C?^/ripsOT-,mapillei tolan. 

Bridesmaid, Quern (Spirtf!, pen toli. 

Bridegroom's rela- Lo/ruLitarr&yr e^il^/r/r mapillei 

tions, ffs/r, 

Bride's relations, Quorar ^tli_/r/f^6rr, pen 



Body, 

Head, 

Hair, 

Crown, 

Ear, 

Forehead, 

Brow, 
Eyebrow, 
Eye, 
Eye ball, 

Eyelid, 
Eyelash, 
Nose, 
Nostril, 

Lip, 

Mouth, 

Tooth, 

Gum, 

Tongue, 

Palate, 
Throat, 

Cheek, 
Dhi, 



MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 

Sarira avayavangal. 

sariram, tegam. 
talei. 
mayir. 
utcham talei. 

% 

kathu. 
netti. 
puruvam. 
puruva mayir. 
kan. 

kan vili. 
kannimeL 

LLuSir, kannimei mayir, 
mukku. 
mukku tuvaram. 

uthadu. 

C//TOJ, vay. 

uv>, pal. 

FFJP, iru. 

/sirs, nakku. 

annam. 
tondei. 

kannam. 
mo vay, nadi. 



MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 



83 



Neck, &(]&) 


kaluMu. 


Nape, i3trft, 


pidari. 


Back, G^g*, 


muthuhu. 


Backbone, QP& erg&tiLf, 


muthuhu elumbu. 


Shoulder, G^irerr, 


tol. 


Arm, t-fuju), 


puyam. 


Right arm, euffbgi LJIULD, 


valathu puyam. 


Left arm, L -^i LJUJLD, 


idathu puyam. 


Armpitj <&&gUD 9 &QAS3n,(B ) 


kakkam,kamukkudu. 


Elbow, Qpipisa ens. 


mulang kei. 


Wrist, LAGH&&&LL, 


mani kattu. 


Pulse, yF/rtf, 


nadi. 


Hand, e5r, 


kei. 


Back of hand, Lfp/a soar, 


purang kei. 


Palm Oi hand. SLsyrcrrffiJ &D3>. 


ullang kei. 


Knuckles, e5/^eo Gio/r^, 


viral moli. 


Finger, ff^c<>, 


viral. 


Thumb, Gu(5 eS0-v>, 


peru viral. 


Nail, /FSJLD, 


naham. 


Chest, G/F(g5^, 


nenju. 


Breast, LDITITI-J, 


marpu, 


Female breast, QP%V, 


mulei. 


Stomach, euuSjp, ^emffumu 


, vayiru, ireipei. 


Waist, ^D^, 


arei. 


Hip, , g)^H> 


iduppu. 


Belly, euiu&t, 


vayiru. 


Seat, @)($uLSiLb, 


iruppidam. 


Thigh, Qj$rren, 


todei. 


Knee, G^^^ sir ^ 


mulang kal. 


Calf, ^J fSenf, 


adu tasei. 


Ankle, sggas /rev>, 


kanu kal. 


Anklebone, @Bf, 


kanu. ' 


Foot, U/TaFLo, jy/o 


patham, adi. 



84- 



VOCABULARY. 



Instep, 
Sole, 
Toe, 

Great toe, 
Skin, 

Flesh, 
Vein, 

Artery, 

Blood, 

Muscle, 

Bone, 

Joint, 

Rib, 

Brain, 

Lungs, 

Heart, 

Liver, 

Bowels, 

Bile, 



Sight, 

Hearing, 

Feeling, 

Taste, 

Smell, 



MEAT, 
Beef, 
Mutton, 
Pork, 



> eft/rev, 



OutfilLI ffg 



pnrang kal. 
ullang kal. 
kal viral, 
kal peru viral, 
tol. 

sathei, mamsam. 
ira&a narambu. 

, periyairattanarambu. 
irattam. 
tasei narambu. 

elumbu. 

kartu, kuleitchu. 

vila elumbu. 

mii lei. 

iral kulei. 

irutbayam. 

kal Ural. 

kudal. 

pifctam. 



FIVE SENSES. 

n, Eimporihal. 



Q&eveSl, 



parvei. 

kelvi. 

ilru. 

rusi. 

niopparrr 



ARTICLES OF FOOD. 

u p irir $ prats sir, Poscna patharttangal, 
Ireitchi. 
mattireitchi. 
attireitchi. 
pandi ireitchi. 



usvr 



FISir, FOWL, CEREALS. 



85 



FISH, i(xr, 


Min. 


Fresh fish, U&GOF tSsar, 


patchei mm. 


Seer fish, &eoir iJr, 


sila mm. 


Ghee fish, Qtstu <&, 


ney mm.. 


Sole, tsirsfaj tEeisr, 


nakku mm. 


Dry fish, a^eutr, 


karuvadu. 


IVIaldive fish, LO/T^, 


masL 


Shrimp, &.<sdl $<*?&>, 


kuniral. 


Prawn, D(2^, 


iral. 


Lobster ^siSlffirs^^ 


singiral. 


Crab, ,si_6\> is ess, 


kadal nandu. 


FOWL, uiL& e/oo*, 


Patchi vahei. 


Turkey, eurrar QgirL$, 


van koli. 


Goose, QUQJJG pfrfffT) 


^.ru perun tara, kusvattu. 


Duck, fiy/r^^r, ^irnir y 


vattu, tara. 


Fowl, Q sir if, 


koli. 


Chicken, QSITL^S @^, 


koli kunju. 


Wild duck, liff/s f &irffir, 


nlr tara. 


Teal, 8?8, 


sirahi. 


Snipe QmffLLiffevr, 


kortan. 


CEREALS, fireduj evens, 


Taniya vaiei. 


Rice, Qiseo, jfif)&, 


nel, arisi. 


Boiled rice, Gfirjy, 


Boru. 


Pearl barley, uirirsS #//?$, 


barli arisi. 


Sago, &Gueutfl&>, 


savvarisi. 


Kurakan, raggy, @^<s5Br, Qsu* 


eu, kurakkan,, keppei. 


Maize. Co^/rGyr/i, u>&&n 


f C?^/rsolam, makka chd- 


etTLD, 


lam. 



86 

PULSES, 
Gram, 

Bengal gram, 
Green gram, 
Thasel bean, 

FLOUR, &c., 
Wheat flour, 
Corn do." 

Tapioca, 
Arrowroot, 

BREAD, &c., 

White bread, 

Brown do. 

Toast, 

Cake, 

Biscuit, 

Hopper, 

Puttu, 

Idiappam, 

Sinakki, 

Tothal, 

Slvaria, 

BUTTER, &c., 

Ghee, 

Sugar, 

Jam, 

Jelly, 

Honey, 

Milk, 
Cream, 



VOCABULARY. 

UILJJ0I6UGD3, 



LJILJJP) 



LDSgffi Q&ITGtT tLIT 



QeuestffQtsmiu 



UlT&Dy 



Payaru vaheL 
kaii am. 
kadalei. 
pasi pay am. 
ulunthu. 

Ma vahei. 
kothumei ma. 
makka chola ma. 
kan pilavar. 
elilei kilangu ma., 
kuva ma. 

Rotti vahei. 

vellei rotti. 

karuppu rotti. 

vattu rotti. 

kekku. 

visukofctii. 

appam. 

pittu. 

irliappam. 

sinakki. 

tothal. 

siveria. 

Yermey muthaliya- 

vei. 
ney. 

sini, sakkarei. 
jam. 
jelli. 
ten. 

pal. 

paladei. 



VEGETABLES, CURRY STUFF. 



87 



VEGETABLES, @&>tr Q^m^ &&>& Kirei kilangu vahei- 



sstr, 



utujv 



&inu 



Potato, 
Yam, 
Cabbage, 
Nolkol, 

Bean, 
Pea, 

Carrot, 

Cucumber, 

Serpent cucumber, 

Melon, 

Ash-colored melon, &ITLDUG 

Pumpkin, 

Brinjall, 

Long brinjall, 

Vendikay, 

Drumstick, 

Bottle gourd, 

Furrowed do. 

Smooth do. 

Small fringed 

gourd, 
Avarei bean, 

Do. do. Bmaller,Gujr(Gff GITIU, 
Small avarei bean, 
Ash-coloured 

tain, 



s>nti y 



urulei kilangu. 
yams kilangu, 
kovis. 
nokkol. 
pins. 

pattani payaru. 
karattu kilangu. 
vellari. 

pudalang kay. 
simei pusani kay. 
sambal pusani kay- 
peria pusani kay. 
kattari kay. 
valuthalang kay. 
vendei kay. 
murungei kay. 
surei kay. 

pirkkang kay. [kay, 
i/ GiriLt, meiuhu pirkkang 
kappiri ponji kay. 

avarei kay. 
ponji kay, 
koli avarei. 
ajrrGDLps&rruj, sambal valei kay. 



sirtu, 
srriu, 



SITUJ, 



CURRY STUFF, 

Pepper, 

Chilly, 



Masalei, 

/566V) iBetr(, milahu,nallamilahu. 
, 0/r patcheimilakay,kot- 
chi kay. 



S3 

Dry chilly, 

Coriander. 
Saffron, 
Mustard, 
Onion, 

Garlic, 
Fenugreek, 

Dark margosa 

leaves, 
Tamarind, 
Cocoanut, 
Cumin, 
Large cumin, 
Black cumin, 
Anise seed, 
Cinnamon, 
Cloves, 
Cardamom, 
JNutmeg, 
Mace, 
Lime, 



FHUIT, 
Mango, 
Plantain, 
Custard apple, 
Jack, 

Bread fruit, 
Bullock's heart, 

Pine apple, 



VOCABULARY. 



L/P, 



tfff&LC, 



7500), 



LDI1U) 



ffiru>& 



LJLE>U>, 



vattal kot- 
chi kay. 
kotta malli. 
maujal. 
kaduim. 
vengayam. 
ira ven gay am. 
vellei vengayam. 
venthayam. 
karu veppilei. 

puli 

tengay. 

Biraham. 

perum chiraham. 

karum chiraham. 

sombu. 

karuva putfei. 

kirambu. 

elam. 

sathi kay. 

sathi patjiri. 

elumitchani palam. 

tesik kay. 

Pala vahei. 
mam palam. 
valei palam. 
sifcta palam. 
pala palam. 
Ira pala kay. 
rania chitta palam. 
annasi palam. 



ARTICLES OF CLOTHING. 



SO 



Orange, 
Gruava, 



D, pan! totf am palam, 
naranju. 
koyya. 



Hat, 
Cap, 
Coat, 
Over coat, 
Rain coat, 

Bug, 
Jacket, 
Waist coat, 
Trousers, 
Necktie, 

Wrapper, 

Collar, 

Shirt, 

Woollen shirt, 

Banyan, 

Drawers, 

Stockings, 

Socks, 

Boots, 

Shoes, 

Shoe lace, 

Slipper, 

Glove, 

Pocket, 

Purse, 

Native man's coat, f^Lem-., 

Native man's jacket,, 



ARTICLES OF CLOTHING, 

evens, TJduppu vahei. 
toppi. 
siru toppi. 

kottu. 
Qu><b 



l 



uifiuj Gup 



euirir 



u/ru,y9r, 
, 8fftreusn) ) 



uevsruaou. 



mel kottu. 
malei chattei. 

kambalam. 
arei kottu. 
vasikattu. 
kal chattei. 
kaluttu katti. 

kalufctu kuttei. 

kallar. 

kamisu. 

kambili kamisu. 

baniyan. 

ul kal chattei. 

periya mel chodu. 

mel chodu, kal mesu. 

nedum chappattu. 

chappattu. 
chappattuvar. 
silippar, pappusu. 
keiyurei, kilavs. 
,seppu, sattei chakku. 
panappei. 
sattei. 

arei chattei. 
12 



90 



VOCABULARY. 



Native man's 
Native woman's do. 
Comboy, 
Handkerchief, 

i 

Turban, 

Shoes, 
Sandals, 



Cholera, 
Diarrhoea, 

Dysentery, 
Fever, 

Intermittent fever, 
\ Eemittent do. 
Continual 
High 
Low 
Bilious 
Convulsions, 
Indigestion, 
Flatulency, 
Gonorrhoea, 
Syphilis, 
Paralysis, 
Leprosy, 
Madness, 
Grout, 

Bloody flux, 
Scurvy, 
Itch, * 



do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 



tetti. 

chelei. 

kambayam. 

lenji, lenji kutteL 

kei lenji. 

taleippa, 

jodu. 
seruppu. 



DISEASES. 

Viyathihal. 

visha pethi. 
_t/>, vayittottam. 

vayittu kalitchaL 
vayittaleitchal. 
kaytchal, juram. 
kulirum kaytchalum 
3iriu&&ffi> 9 murei kaytchal. 
vida kaytchal. 
kadung kaytohal. 
veppu. 

pitta kaytchal. 
sanni. 



jl@ffeatru> t 
&JIHLJU 



semij'amei. 
vayu porumal. 
pura mehanir 
kiranthi. 
timir vatham. 

kushda rokam. 
peittiam. 
vatha kal. 
iratta kalitchaL 

sori karappan. 
sirangu. 



VIRTUES AND VICES. 



91 



Cold, 
Cough, 
Sore eyes, 
Worms. 
Head-ache, 

Belly-ache, 
Tooth-ache, 
Ear-ache, 
Boil, 

Wound, 



eueQ, 



Mind, 
Spirit, 
Soul, 
Perception, 

Memory, 

Judgment, 

Conscience, 



Innocence, 

Guilt, 

Honesty, 

Dishonesty, 

Truth, 

Falsehood, 

Industry, 

Idleness, 



ffinuu> ) 



tadiman,jalatosham. 
irumal. 
karmovu. 
kirumi, pulu. 

talei novu. 
vayittu vali. 
pallu vali. 
cathu vali. 
pnrappadu, 

kaUu. 
kayam. 



paru, 



MIND AND ITS FACULTIES. 



a, Manathum athin tattuvarigaluni. 

manam. 
avi. 

attuma. 
terintharithal. 

nyabahani, yathu. 
bufcit. 

mana chatchi, mana 
satchi. 



finL 



@<D>DI> 



VIRTUES AND VICES. 

Sarkunangalum, 
turkunangalum. 

kuttam illamei. 

kuttam. 

unmei, nermei. 

tiruttutfcanam. 

mey. 

poy. 

surusuruppu. 

sombal. 



QLDIU, 
Quinu, 



VOCABULARY. 



Obedience, 
Disobedience, 

Patience, 

Impatience, 

Mercy, 

Cruelty, 

Forgiveness, 

Revenge, 

Kindness, 

Unkindness, 

Chastity, 

Lewdness, 

Contentment, 

Envy, 



Q U IT V 6S>L>,$ 



kilpadithal. 
kil padiyamei. 

porumei. 
porumei taltchi. 

irakkam. 
kururam. 
niannippu. 
pali vanguthal. 

tayavu, dayavu, 
kadinam. 
karpu. 
turttam. 

raanarammiam. 
porainei. 



TITLES OF RESPECT. 

u)ifituir6s>,$L) Gun-gerr, Mariyatheiperhal. 



Gentleman, 
Lady, 

Sir, 
Madam, 



g\u>u>ir, 



turei. 
tureisani. 

jt 

eiya. 

amma, ammal. 



POLICE, COURT, AND OTHER TERMS. 

/8iutruje3firff2sof68)uj<?(D<Pir.'5 i &, Judicial. 
SUPREME COURT, a-ufSiuis G&n, Quifi supriang kodu, peria 

ujQ&fr, kodu. 

Chief Justice, &ufliu/Ej G&ir nit&tr supriang kodu raja 

(or &fdeuiT8r), (or mthavan), 

(T/^eo/TLo ils>uSffirffiir, muthalam nithirasa. 
Senior Puisne Jus- ^nemrtirLD /^tf9/r/r^/r,irar)dam nithi rasa. 

tice, 

, @)ff supriang kodu iran- 

?af/rOTr, dam rasa. 



POLICE, 

Junior Justice, 

Fiscal, 
Advocate, 

Proctor, 

Jury, 

Secretary, 

Clerk, 
Interpreter, 



Plaintiff, 

Complainant, 

Deponent, 

Defendant, 
Accused, 



Witness, 
Prisoner, 
Bench, 

Dock, 
Jail, 



COURT, AFD OTHER TERMS. 93 

fiiflfftr&ir, mundam nithi rasa, 
is G&n (jpssr supriang k5du mun- 



f, /5a;/r, 



eussr 



<3 



, vulg. 



dam mthi rasa. 
piscal turei. 
jyu attuvakafctu, appu- 

kattu. 
perukkuth5r, veikel. 



yurimar, panjayatiar 

naduvar. 
r, sakkirathar, sakra- 

thar. 
irayason. 
kilark, gumasta. 

tolanga pesugiravan. 



tupasi, tolukku mu- 

thaliar. 
, valakkali, vathi. 
a IT near, mureipattukaran. 
Q&ir sattia kaduthasi ko- 

dufctavan. 
@, ethirali,pirathi vathi. 

ethirali. 
ULL kuttangsattapattavan, 



satchikaran. 

mariarkaran. 

niyayasanam,nithia- 

sanam. 
marial kudu, 
marial vidu. 



94 
Charge list, 

Civil case, 
Criminal case, 



VOCABULARY. 



L-ITULJ, mureipaUu dappu, 

sarch list. 
slvil valakku. 

athaneifctei pattia 
valakku. 



Summons, 
Subpoena, 
Warrant, 



Search Warrant, 
Writ, 



kiriminal valakku, 
adipidi valakku. 

sifctasi. 

satchi sifctasi. 
viranthu, varantliu. 
G&, alei pidikka viran- 

tbu. 

sothanei viranthu. 
, e/ sathanam, kattalei, 
oppam. 

Do. of Execution, ren;S 3r uupfslffu), eskisupatjiram, 

Qaj6$tutr,5&, veliattu. 

Do. of Sequesta-^t-iv>iJu ( ff^/7'a>, tadangal patjiram. 

tion, 

a, nadu katium patji- 



Notice, 

Libel, 

Answer. 

Eeplication, 

Joinder, 



Eejoinder, 



l, vilarn- 
baram, notis. 
, todarchi kaduthasi. 
, marumoli kaduthasi. 
maruttaram, pirithi- 

uttaram. 

viyatchia kalappu. 
viyatchia serpu. 
Lcu/5<3Lc, vijatchia samban- 

tham. 

jp& Q&@ pirathi u&aratiukku 
ethir uttaram. 



POLICE, COURT, AND OTHER TERMS. 95 

DISTRICT COURT, tf6iu^/<s(2*/r (or distirik kodu (kottu.) 



sillakodu. 
r, distirik iiithivan. 

sillakodu uithivan. 



District Judge, Lz 



eiiiTssr, 



JUSTICE OF 

Information or 
dictment, 



Attorney, 
Power of 

Notary, 



pirassft 



samatbaua nlthivan 
kuttam sattu kadu 

thasi. 
L si ^/r^mureipattu kadu 

thasi. 
tararii. 

tarani tattuvam. 

vakkalafctu nama. 
nofctaris, 



POLICE COURT, ' Guir<$ew Gen 
Police Station, 



Police Magistrate, Gui 



polls kodu. 
polls stanam. 
polls tesan. 
polls nithivan, polis 
kottu nithivan. 



Supt. of Police, Quir^eru 
G 

Inspector of Police, G 
u- 

Police Sergeant, G 

Police Constable, 



&irir&ssr, 



#p6lia majastrat'u. 

polis turei. 
polis taleivan. 
is inspekt. 
tanathar. 
polis sarjan. 
polls sariendu. 
konastappal. 
kostappu. 



96 



VOCABULARY. 



EEVENUE DEPARTMENT. 



KATCHERY, 
Govt. Agent, 
Asst. do. 



Writer, 



Rattamahatmaya, 

Korala, 
Arachchi, 
Vidhane, 
Headman, 

Peon, 

Mali a harvest, 
Yala do. 
Wet cultivation, 
Dry do. 
Eent, 
Tax, 

Commutation tax, 
Assessment tax, 
Possession, 

Do. in common, 

Do. in division, 
Cultivate for share, 

Tenents, 
Mortgage, 



Q 



tuff, 



katchery. 
esandu turei. 
irandavathu esandu 
turei. 

Vi 

uthavi esandu turei. 
OT-, eluttu kariastan. 
iligithan, sambira- 

thi. 
urtaleivan, retta- 

mattia. 
koral. 
araychi. 
vithanei. 
taleimeikaran. 

cSffi)fa)&ff sevagan, villeikaran. 

perum boham. 
siru boham. 
nan sey. 
pun sey. 
adei, kuttahei. 
vari. 

al vari, mattu vari. 
vittu vari. 
atchi. 
', Q&nifitu pothu atchi, sorial 

atchi. 

pirividta atchi. 
varattukku seyhei- 

parmuthal. 
varakuHiar. 
edu, adeimanam. 



NUMBERS. 



Mortgage, where 
produce is enjoy- 
ed in lieu of in- 
terest, 



Executor, 

Administrator, 
Assign, 



otti. 



OTHER, TERMS. 



irser 



f{r-- 



e* sirtresr 



Tiasathana tattu- 
vakaran. 

urimei tattuvakaran. 
sattuthal karan. 



Sixteenth, 

Eighth, 

Quarter, 

Half, 

Three-quarters, 

One, 

Two, 
Three, 
Four, 
Five, 

Six, 
Seven, 

Eight, 

Nine, 

Ten, 

Eleven, 

Twelve, 

Thirteen, 

Fourteen, 

Fifteen, 



NUMBERS. 
0, Tlakkam. 

LJS mahani. 

^/ areikal. 

a; kal. 

) arei. 

^ mukkal. 



VUlg. ^5OT 

(y>ev&, 



41*, 



CTLL 



0) 

tDff 



onnu. 
iraridu. 

mundu, muriu. 
nalu, nangu. 
einthu, anju. 

aru. 

elu. 

ettu. 

onbathu. 

pafctu. 

pathinondu. 

pannirandu. 

pathinmundu. 

pathinangu. 

pathinemthu. 

V. 

13 



VOCABULARY. 



Sixteen, 
Seventeen, 

Eighteen, 

Nineteen, 

Twenty, 

Twenty-one, 

Thirty, 

Forty, 

Fifty, 
Sixty, 
Seventy, 

Eighty, 
Ninety, 

Hundred, 
Two hundred, 
Three hundred, 
Four hundred, 

Five hundred, 
Six hundred, 
Seven hundred, 
Eight hundred, 
Nine hundred, 

Thousand, 
Ten thousand, 
Huudr< 
Million, 
First, 

Second, 
Third, 



pathinaru. 
pathinelu. 

pathinettu. 
pafctonhathu. 
irupathu. 
irupattondu. 
muppathu. 
narpathu. 
eimpathu. 
arupathu. 
67iD elupathu. 

<{& enpathu. 
s&<D tonnuru. 

rrr num. 
2-rrr iru nuru. 
mun niiru. 
na niiru. 

W V* " 

@rrr anyuru. 
sknr aru nuru. 
cr/rr elu niirui 

v* 

en nuru. 
tolayiram. 

d& ayiram. 
D# pathinayiram. 
ttrp lafccham. 

pafctu latcham. 
, Muthalaia, muthala- 

vathu. 
irandam, irandava- 

thu. 

, mundam, mundava- 
thu. 



Mile, 
Yard, 
Foot, 
Inch, 



Acre, 
Chain, 
Pole, 
Link, 



Bushel, 
Kottu, 
Sundu, 
Parei, 



.L.6V) 



MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. 

MEASURE OF LENGTH. 
l, Niftal alavu. 

N* 

tDuSIso, kattei, mayil. 

kejam, yaru. 
adi. 
angulam, inju. 



D, vulg. iuir@, 



LAND ME AS (IRE. 
Nila alavu. 

ekkar. 
sangili. 
kambu. 
linku. 



MEASURE OF CAPACITY. 

, Muhafetal alavu. 

pushal, busal, 
kottu. 

SUTidu. 
parei. 



WEIGHTS. 

^eyrffl/, Edutlal alavu. 
Ton, ^COTT, tari. 

Hundred-weight, jy^/f, anthar. 

Pound, (yppffo, rattal. 

Ounce, gen-smew, OuriS. 



MONEY. 

O, Panam. 



Pound, 

Shilling, 

Pence, 



silin. 

pensu. 



100 



Farthing, 


/ (u/r/f^/E/, J V parthing. 


Kupee, 


\* tyuiriLii _, J rupay. 


Anna, 


>% S^^, LdpgMr&2>^ ana, panam. 


Pie, 


Gouffir, fffve, peisaj salli. 


Cent, 


&BiJD t sathain. 




TIME. 




sj/rs^Lo, Kalam. 


Year, 


fla/^ffl^Lo, varusham. 


Month, 


tLirpLD) L&IT&U), matham, masam. 


Week, 


iLpea>i,> } GuttffLD, kilamei, varam. 


Day, 


iBST&r 9 nal 


Hour, 


LAemR) L>GOBflG>/5ffi t mani, mariineram. 


Minute, 


ifietffLL, /L5e^iz>, minittu, nimisham. 


Second, 


Q/siTLs.y nodi. 


MONTH,* 


tirffu> t Masam. 


January, 


6^, tei. 


February, 


ILIT, masi. 


March, 


utEi@G$ y panguni. 


April, 


ffi-sfisBir, sittirei. 


May, 


eroffly^ff^, veihasi. 


June, 


^oft, ani. 


July, 


^LJI, adi. 


August, 


^ojeoBfl, avani. 


September, 


L//rdL/r% purattasi. 


October, 


eguu, eippasi. 


November, 


sfrirpjUens, karfctihei. 


December, 


L&mrstJ)! markali. 



* Note. The Tamil months do not commence on the same day with the English 
months, but are generally about twelve days 



GSL&SIDLD, 



DAYS OF THE WEEK,. &C. 101 

DAYSOFTHEWEEK,sUp6a>i.ssrr Kilameijial. 

Sunday? @niS<bjpi& Qu^ss>u>, nyayittu kilamei, 

nyayiru. 
tingal kilamei. 
sevvay kilamei. 
puthan kilamei. 
viyala kilamei, viya- 

lam. 

velli kilamei. 
sani kilamei. 



Monday, 
Tuesday, 
Wednesday, 
Thursday, 

Friday, 
Saturday, 



DIVISIONS OF DAY,*/reri?i 
Day, us&>, 

^igH Qirir 9 

Morning, 



@LPSBU>, 



Nairn pirivuhal. 
pahal. 
ira. 
i>, kalei, vidiyarkalam. 



Early morning, jffffSx Q&ehQeiresr, athikalei, vellena. 

Evening, LC/T^D, firujfE^fftij malei, sayantharam. 

Midday, u>p@ujirGau>, matiiyanam. 

Midnight, IE ffirfgstB, nadu rattiri. 



Matta nalkal. 
iiidu, indeikku. 
nettu. 

naleikku, nalei. 
muntha naj . 

nalei kalittu. 

>* * *-, 

indu rattiri. 
nettu rattiri. 
nalei rattiri. 



OTHER DAYS, u><bp /siruserr 

To-day, 

Yesterday, 

To-morrow, 

Day before yester-Gp/z^/r ^/rrr, 
day, 

Day after to-mor- 
row, 



To-night, 

Yester night, Qispva 

To-morrow night, /s/r&rr 



102 



VOCABULARY. 



Hot season, 
Rainy season, 



SITGVLD, 



Southwest 
soon, 



mon- 



N ortheast do. 

February harvest 
August do. 



SEASONS. 

rr, Kalangal. 
QGIT&OL- &irsvu), koclei kalam. 

maii kalam, malei- 

kalam. 
mun ma-ri kalam. 



kar kalam. 
pin mari kalam. 
pisana kalam. 
pirum poham. 
siru poham. 



Sunshine, 

Cloud, 

Cloudiness, 

Sultriness, 

Freshness, 

Heat, 

Cold, 
Drought, 

Wet, 

Eain, 

Drizzle, 

Light rain, 

Heavy do. 

Continuous do. 

Thunder, 



WEATHER. 

Ahaya gunam. 
veyil. 



ea>& 



u>es)Lp 



va- 



meham. 
mantharam. 

pulukkam. 
,kattattam, kulirtchi 
5 sudu, kangei, vek- 

kei. 

kulir. 

nip malei illamei, 

ratchi. 
malei. 

malei. 
tQttal. 

lesana malei. 
kanafcta malei. 
vida malei, 

malei. 
idi, idi mulakkam. 



adei 



Lightning, 

Mist, 

Fog, 

Rainbow, 

Dew, 

Frost, 

Hail, 
Wind, 

Gentle wind, 
Strong wind, 
Storm of wind, 
Whirlwind, 
North wind, 
East wind, 

South wind, 
West wind, 



World, 

Sea, 

Land, 

Continent, 

Island? 

Country, 

Kingdom, 

Province, 

District, 

City, 

Town, 

Village, 

Hamlet, 



EARTH, &c. 

LSesrevrsV, 



e/> 

eurrssr 
ued, 



6UIT6S3I 



103 

minnal. 

masi. 

mudu pani. 

vana vil. 

pani. 

kulirtchial nir urei- 

thal. 

kal rnalei. 
kattu. " 
ilang kattu. 
perung kattu. 
pusal kattu. 
suravali. 
vadei. 
kil kattu. 
tendal. 
mel kattu. 



.<*< 



EAUTH, &c. 

(wfeSajoDaj, Pumi muthaliyavei. 
ulaham. 
kadal. 
tarei. 

kandam. 

tivu. 



tesam. 

ratchiyam. 

nadu. 

seharam, pahuthi. 
KmBLD, rssiBy utlt- naharam, 

GSSTUJ, pattanam, 

ULlLfjriz), esi/f, pattinam, Qr. 

BBLIT, Q(yLou>, ur, kiramam. 

GAjra; sittur. 



/BIT 



104 



VOCABULARY. 



HEAVENLY BODIES. 



Sun, 
Moon, 

Planet, 
Star, 

Comet, 

Morning star, 
Evening star, 
Moonlight, 



Christianity, 
Protestantism, 



QffSLD, 



GjfTffi) 



Qeusrrefi, 



*r, Yana chothihal. 
euriyan. 
santhiran, nila. 

kiraham. 
natchattiram. 

val velli. 
vidi velli. 
velli. 
% nila velitcham, san- 

thirihei. 



Qeuofil&fU), 



RELIGION. 

r&sLD, Markkam. 



LLfffT&U), 



Mohamedanism, 

Budhism, 

Hindooism, 

Idolatry, 

Devil worship, Quih 

Devil offering and 

ceremony, 
Cathirasan, 
Muniandi, 
Kali, 
Priest, 

Devil dancer, 
Andy (religious 

beggar), 



Ljpgi u>irira&u>, 



kiristu markkam. 
prottesttantu mark. 

kam. 

roman markkam. 
islam markkam. 
bufctu markkam. 
inthu markkam. 

vikkiraha arathanei, 
pey kumbiduthal. 
pey kodei. 

kathiresan. 

muniyandi. 

kali. 

pusari. 

peyadi, 

andi, pandaram. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



105 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



The numbers placed after the verbs refer to the rules for the 
formation of the tenses given in page 20. 



Able, a. 
About? pre. 
About, pre. 
Above, pre. 
Absent, a. 
Absent, v. 
Abuse, s. 

Abuse, v. 
Accept, v. 
Accident, .9. 
Accommodation, s. 
Accompany, v. 
According, pre. 
Account, s. 
Accumulate, v. 
Accuracy, s. 

Accuse, v. 
Accustomed, a. 

Ache, s. 

Acknowledge, v. 
Acrid, a. 
Act, . 
Active, a. 
Acute, a. 
Address, s, 



def, 



1, 



8, 



2. 68)^03 U/TS3T 



tiraniyulla. 

kurittu, sula. 

erakkureiya. 

mele. 

illatha. 

illei. 

tushanam. 

tittu esu. 

ettukol. 

vikkinam. 

vasathi. 

kudapo. 

padi. 

kaiiakku. 

ser, knttu. 

tittam. 

kuttam chattu. 
palahina. 

vali, novu. 

ottukol. 

ureippana. 

seykei, kiriyei. 

sakkiratheiyana. 

kilrmeiyana. 

mel vilasam. 



106 



VOCABULARY. 



Advance, 5. 
Advance, v. 
Affair, s. 
Afoot, adv. 

Afore, adv. 
After, pre. 

Again, adv. 

Against, pre. 
Age, 6. 
Age, s. 
Aged, a. 
Agitation, s. 
Agriculture, s. 

Aid, s. 
Alarm, s, 

All, a. 
Allow, v. 
Almost, adv. 
Alms, s. 
Alone, adv. 
Along, pre. 
Aloud, adv. 
Already, adv. 
Also, adv. 
Alter, v. 

Alternately, adv. 
Always, adv. 

Amid, pre. 
Amiss, adv. 

Among, pre. 
Amount, s. 
An, art. 



arrrfiiuu), 

G(TSd /SGML-l 



1$ SSI I-}, L$)6W<6B)?6fl, 



^(T^LDLD, 



Q -Sirens, 



. atcharam,murpaimm 
muntbi po. 

kariyam. 

kal nadeiyay. 

munname. 

pinbu, pinnale. 

marupadiyum. 

tirumpavum. 

virotbamay. 

vayathu. 

kalam, 

vayathu senda. 

kalakkam. 

vibasayam. 

ottasei. 

tiheippu. 

ellam, ellarum. 
idang kodu. 
koDjang kureiya. 
taruman. 

taniye. 

kuda, neduha. 

sattamay. 
munname. 
um, kuda. 
mattu, 
mari mari. 
eppoluthum. 

naduve. 
tappithamay. 

ulle. 
tohei. 

oru. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



107 



And, con. -^>, 


urn . 


Anew, adv. LJ@&ITIU, 


puthithay. 


Angry, a. QstrufytoirsTr, 


kobamulla. 


Annual, a. a/^Q^T/E^/r. 


varushanthara. 


Another, a. ^swQ,^)^, 


innoru. 


Answer, 5. L^^QLCITI^, 


maru moli. 


Ant, S. GT^LALj, 


erumbu. 


Ant, (white), s. s&opujtrsor, 


kareiyan. 


Anticipate, v. emreyuiriT, 8 


varavupar. 


Any, a. .. luaQ^ir^^^sr, 


yathoruvan. 


Apart, adv. Qeu&jQsu&cu, 


vevveray. 


Appear, v. G.jirssrjy, 1 


tondu. 


Appetite, s. u*d, 


pasi. 


Appoint, v. ifituiB, 8 


uiyanii. 


Around, pre. &p{8, @^p, 


sutti, sula. 


Arrack, s. firniruju^, 


sarayarn. 


Arrive, v. GuiriLi&Qfirj 4 


poytcher. 


As, adv. QUIT sv>, utf, LJLjia. 


HTSQ, pol, padi, padiyal 


Ascend, v. qjpi, 1, 7(z^, 4 


e r u, elu. 


Aside, ac?y. 9(5 u&.?$so, 


oru pakkattil. 


Ask, v. (?6yr, 3 


kei; 


Aslant, ctt?^. 9(5 firiuuufuj^ 


oru sayppay. 


Asleep, atZv. iS^^simrujiruj., 


nifctireiyay. 


Assemble, v. S^.LLL-/EJ^, ) 1 


kuttang kudu. 


Assent, s. Qenf, 


isei. 


Assist, v. sL&eSQ&tL, 5 


Tathavi sey. 


Asunder, adv. (jftnesirittuj, 


iranday. 


At, pre. , 0, 


il, ku. 


Attend, t ? . ^LL_L/QU/T, 1 ^ay^ 


a^, 8 kildappo, kavani 


Attention, *. seuesiL> 9 


kavanam. 


Authority, s. ^znnw, 


athikaram. 


Average, s. & HIT* (ft, 


sarasari. 



108 



VOCABULAllY. 



Avert, v. 


/#@, 1, aS?tfo^@, 1 nikku, vilakku. 


Away, v. 


&rn t efiril, tfira, vittu. 




B. 


Back, adv. 


tSearGssr. ^Qiiu, pinne, tirumba. 

v 


Bag, s. 


emu, piei . 


Balance, s. 


es)iSl($uL{ 9 keiyiruppu. 


Band, s. 


<u_lL_ir>, kuttarn. 


Bandage, s. 


sil, kattu. 


Bar, s. 


^CTOL-, tadei. 


Be, v. 


D<3, 9 iru. 


Bear, v. 


pitmtQi 1 <a?^>, 9 tangu, surna. 


Beat, v. 


c^, 8 adi. 


Because, con. 


uL$.iLUTffi> } padiyal. 


Beckon, v. 


&i3&6s> siTLi, 1 samikkei kattu. 


Become, v. 


*j%3, 1 aku. 


Before, pre. 


Qpssr, (LDovrQegr, mun, munne. 


Beg, v. 


!.$!&&& Q&err, 3 pitchei kel. 


Begin, v. 


&eu&&, I tuvakku. 


Behind, pre. 


LSe^-G'^r, LSp&itQsv, pinne, pirahale. 


Bell, s. 


LDGwft, mani. 


Belong, v. 


Gfir, 4- ser. 


Below, adv. 


@Gp t uesvfluj, kile, pai.iiya. 


Bench, s. 


6uirtEj(&) ) uioVo&s, vangu, palahei. 


Bend, v. 


o/Ssrr, 4, 8 valei. 


Besides, adu. 


ji/tyGs us &}&>, aruhe, pakkafctil. 


Besides, adv. 


^e$ir, tavira. 


Betel, s. 


Qeujbfl&v, vettilei. 


Between, pre. 


fitSGeij, mz.(cL-, naduve, fide. 


Beyond, pre. 


&UUIT0V, jfULfjDjffdffdj appal, appurattil 


Bid, v. 


eSISfa) Qsffrr, 3 vilei kel. 


Big, a. 


Ouiflujj u(nj^p, periya, parutta. 


Bill s. 


&.emLq.uj<s$ > uu.Ly. } uridiyal, patti. 


Bind, v. 


fftl, 1 kattu. 


Bird ; s, 


@(5 afl, uiL& 9 kuruvi, patchi. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



109 



Birth, s. 
Bite, v. 
Bitter, a. 
Black, a. 
Blade, s. 
Blame, 8. 
Bleed, v. 
Blind, a. 
Block, s. 
Blow, v. 
Blue, a. 
Bluntness, s. 
Boil, v. 

Bond, s. 
Borrow, v. 
Bottom, s. 
Bow, s. 
Bran, s. 

Brand, v. 
Brass, s. 
Break, v. 
Breath, s. 
Breed, s. 
Breeze, s. 
Bribe, s. 
Bright, a. 
Bring, v. 
Brink, s. 
Broad, a. 
Brooch, s. 
Build, v. 
Bundle, s. 
Burn, v. 
Burst, v. 



LAQglEJSSti, 

Qeirg, 8, jyefi, 4, 
4, 



<2o/r, 2 

,'s, 



, 1, 



*,2,6T 

Ofl/if, 8 



4, 8, 



pirappu. 

kadi. 

kasantha,kasappana. 

karufcta, karuppana. 

alahu, pidangu. 

kuttam. 

irattam vadi. 

kurudana. 

kattei. 

uthu. 

nilamana. 

malungal. 

kothi, avi, kaytchu; 

kadan slttu. [gu. 
iravtil, (kadan) vau- 
kil pakkam, adi. 
vil'. 
tavidu, 

sudu podu. 

pi fitalei. 
8 muri, udei. 

suvasam, ruutchu. 

sathi, varukkam. 

kattu. 

keikkuli. 

pirahasamana. 

konduva. 

vilimbu, dram. 

ahalamana. 

marbusi. 

kattu. 

muttei, kattu. 
4 sudu, eri ; ve. 

vedi. 



110 



VOCABULARY. 



Burst, v. 


&.6s>z_, 4, 8 uclei. 


Bury, v. 


Lyero^, 4, 8, <%i&&Lc puthei, adakkam 




uemejvU) 1 pan nu. 


Bush, s. 


Q^FLJJ., L/^/T, chedi, puthar. 


Business, s. 


jyjjji'ffl/ffo, aluval. 


But, con. 


^<g) jtfiJb, ,0 aB/r, analum, tavira. 


Buy, v. 


u/r/E7(^, 1, G>6ii6VBr 9 1 vaugu, vendu. 


By, pre. 


^a), Qaj/rsror, al, kondu. 




C. 


Cage, s. 


*-, kudu. 


Call, v. 


.SLULS, 2, /&!, 8 kuppidu, alei. 


Camphor, s. 


&wu^ffu> ) karppuram. 


Cancer, s. 


L9girss)a/ ; pilavei. 


Cane, s. 


iStnii-l, pirambu. 


Cannot, v. 


s^.Lfrga, def. erso/r^r, kiidathu, elathu. 


Capital, s. 


68)5(^^-60, keimuthal. 


Card, s. 


^^-1, sir.tu. 


Care, s. 


/fl,<F2br, karisanei. 


Carry, v. 


G-Lofs^Guir, \ } Gisnessr sumanthu po kon- 




Cou/r, 1 du po. 


Cartridge, s. 


(e^iTLLL-tr, totta. 


Case, s. 


CoULlqi, e_6^, /Tf^iL/Lo,petti, urei, kariyam. 


Cash, s. 


/r^, eeveQ, kasu, salli. 


Cask, s. 


i3uuiriu } pippa}% 


Caste, s. 


*ir& 9 sathi. 


Catalogue, 5. 


firiSpir, sabitha. 


Catch, v. 


L^LJI, 8 pidi. 


Caustic, s. 


airtyssinrti, kadikaram. 


Cave, s. 


Q&tSl, @sro<, ((Suir, l)kebi, kuhei. 


Cease, v. 


sptLj, 4, cp/^, 4, fttoxgi oy, oli, nindu po. 


Centre, s. 


/s, Lt>,&$, nadu, mafcti. 


Ceremony, s. 


^/_/E7(^, sadangu. 


Certain, a. 


/S&fftuLAir&r, nitchayamana. 


Chain, s. 


&iE2@<o$, QfitTiiT&@i) sangili, todartchi. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



Ill 



Chalk, s. 


@aoLo& &svsrgm>u)L{ ) shimei churmambu 


Charge, v. 


6$&u Q fired, vilei sol. 


Charge, v. 


<g)<h!Du) firfi&i, I kuttam chattu. 


Check, v. 


,5, 8 tadu. 


Cheerful, a. 


^(J^i/ro^Lo/rear, santhoshamana. 


Chess, s. 


Q<fir&LLu.iT6vr, sokkattan. 


Chew, v. 


OUDSV)^, 6 mellu. 


Chief, a. 


iSffpiTevr, pirathana. 


Chill, s. 


eifl/r, kulir. 


Chink, s. 


QeuLjiULj, vedippu. 


Chip, a. 


Piirinu, siray. 


Choose, v. 


Q^ifi.iQp, 8 terinthedu. 


Chop, v. 


Oa/tl, 1, r <5/tf, 8 vettu, tnri. 


Cinder, 8, 


^/P^o, taial. 


Cipher, s. 


euL-L-U), vattam. 


Circle, s. 


eSoZ^jSU), em-ii-il), viruttain, vattam. 


Civility, s. 


L&ifituireap, mariyathei. 


Claw, s. 


i5u> } naham. 


Clean, a. 


ffr^^SLoiresTj suttamana. 


Clear, a. 


G^erfi/F^, telintha. 


Cleft, s. 


iSsnuLj, pilappu. 


Clever, a. 


Q&il.Ly.ujiTe3r f kettiyana. 


Climb, v. 


-,#/, 1 eru. 


Cling, v. 


upfluiSlLf., 8 pattipidi. 


Clip, v. 


appiR, 8 katiari. 


Close, acZv. 


&IL-tT<5$tutTuj t adarttiyay. 


Close, v. 


g/), ^(szoi , 8 mudu, adei. 


Clot, s. 


5/-tfL, katti. 


Clothe, v. 


a.,^.^, uduttu. 


Coarse, a, 


(LpffL-iran, muradana. 


Coin, s. 


[EirsonuuD, nanayam. 


Cold, a. 


(& > <s$ir&&tLirrGsr ) kulirtchiyana. 


Colour, s. 


rSpu*, euiremu), niram, yarn am. 


Come, v. 


SUIT, 4 ya. 



112 



VOCABULARY. 



Comfortable, a. 

Common, <x. Quir^eurrevr, 

Commotion, s. 

Companion, s. 

Compare, v. eppgnuuirir, 8, 

Compartment, s. ^^p ) 

Complain, v. QpeinpuS, 2 

Condition, s. 

Conduct, s. 

Conduct, v. tBL-pgi, 1, 

Confess, v. jjjS&Gs>s$ } 2 

Confusion, s. 

Congy, s. 

Connection, s. 

Connive, v. 

Consign, v. 

Constipation, s. Lt&>&&&(9j, 

Consult, v. ^[Ssir& 9 8 

Contentment, s. 

Contiguous, a. 

Continually, adv. 

Contract, s. 

Contradict, v. u&i, 8 

Correct, a. 

Correct v. &($&, 1, 

Cost, s. 

Cottage, 6-. 

Cotton, s. 

Could, v. <&L.LD } def. 

Count, V. eresNgvj, 

Couple, s. Gen. 

Court, s. /&du^0otbj 

Cover, v. 50, 1 

Cowdung, s. 



vasathiyana. 
pothuvana. 
kalakkam. 
kuttali. 
ofctupar. 
arei. 

mureiyidu. 
nileimei. 
nadakkei. 

jjr } Inarlattu, tuneipo. 
arikkeiyidu. 
kulappam. 
kanji. 
sambantham. 

\ 

, 9 karisadeiyayiru. 
oppukodu. 
malatchikku. 
alosi. 

manarammiyam. 
adutta. 
adikkadi. 
poruttam. 
maru. 
, 1 tittamana. 

tirufctu, tittamayiru. 

kireiyani. 

kudisei. 

pauju. 

kudum. 

emiu. 

sodu. 

nlthistalam. 

mudu. 

sani eru. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



113 



Cripple, s. 


fuurressft, sappani. 


Crooked, a. 


GsfressreviTesr, konalana. 


Crowd, s. 


feerssn.LLiiJDf sanakuttam. 


Cry, v. 


fppLDGuir, 2, $y(T, 5 sattampodu, alu. 


Cultivate, v. 


uujifl, 2 payiridu. 


Cunning, a. 


p fB$ UIL IT ear, tantiramana. 


Cup, s. 


uir^jslffu), pafcjiram. 


Cure, v. 


G-suuGlpgi, suhappadufctu. 


Current, s. 


QLLiu), otfcam. 


Curse, v. 


eiS, 8 sabi. 


Custom, s. 


ei/i&&LD ) valakkam. 


Cut, v. 


^yj2/, 8, QeuLL, 1 aru, vettu. 




D. 


Daily, adv. 


/F/TofrC^/r^yLo, nal torum. 


Damage, s. 


G&&U), setham. 


Damp, s. 


FFjru> 9 iram. 


Date, s. 


GfP, tethi. 


Deaf, a. 


QffeSiirar, sevidana. 


Dear, a. 


cSl&viLfeirefr) vileiyulla. 


Dear, a. 


tSltfiujQpsrrGrr, piriy annul la. 


Debt, s. 


at-**, kadan. 


Decay, v. 


Lof&luGuir, I matchipo. 


Deceit, s. 


eij(gj&2sor, vanjanei. 


Decide, v. 


fiir, 8, jUrLQireS, 8 tir, tlrmani. 


Decrease, v. 


(genp, 4, 8, (9)<ss)pf5i kurei, kureinthupo 




QUIT, 1 


Deduct, v. 


e$, 8 kali. 


Deep, a. 


^LpuirGsr, alamana. 


Defraud, v. 


^u6B/ft, 8 abahari. 


Delay, v. 


piru>$, 8 tamathi. 


Deliver, v. 


GpuLjsS, 8, fftLQ, 8 oppuvi, ratchi. 


Demon, s, 


Quiu > L8fir&, pey ; pisasu. 



VOCABULARY. 



Dense, a. 


jqL-iT(5p } adarntha; 


Deny, v. 


Lojpi, 8 maru. 


Depart, v. 


(outriuGSI, 2 poyvidu, 


Descend, v. 


$)ptEJ(<9j, 1 irangu. 


Desire, v. 


eS^ui-i, 1 virumbu. 


Detain, v. 


$&>,&, 1 niruttu. 


Devour, v. 


uti&, 8, 6$<7fi7(35, 1 patchi, vilungu. 


Dibble, v. 


Qeaeru}. $00^, 1 kindi vitliei. 


Die, v. 


fir, 1, Q&p&uGuir, 1 sa, settupo. 


Diet, s. 


uffiiLiLD, pattiyam. 


Difference, s. 


eSpfdtuirfw, vittiyasam. 


Dig, v. 


Gpirem, 1 tondu. 


Digest, v. 


QffdSI) 8 semi. 


Dike, s. 


sirear, kan. 


Diligently, adv. 


&r)i Grgnuuinu, surusuruppay. 


Dimness, s. 


iLia&Gd, mangal. 


Dip, v. 


Q&tiiu 4, 8 ^o~y. 


Direct, v. 


iBL-pgi t 1, eui$Q<ffT6*j 1 nadafctu, vali sol.- 


Dirt, s. 


J-(y>*i alukku* 


Disgust, s. 


QeuQULj, veruppu. 


Dismiss, v. 


^errgrffeS?, 2 tallividu. 


Displease, v. 


eff^saruu^^, I visanapaduttu. 


Disregard, v. 


^y^LleaoL- Q&iu t 5 asattei sey. 


Dissolve, v. 


&mffis-& QUIT, 1 kareinthu pb". 


Distance, s.- 


&frffu>, Qpa'BsOy turam, tolei. 


Distemper, s. 


Gfsirujy noy. 


Distinctly, adv. 


Qpejfleuiriu, telivay. 


Distress, s. 


cStujir(9 > ffvLi ) ^ssruu), vij 7 ahulam, tunbana* 


Distribute, v. 


u/EfS, 2 pangidu. 


Distrust, s. 


^6ui5L,tSI&<o&8 } avanambikkei. 


Divide, v. 


LJ,^, 2, t5rf?, 8 pangidu, piri. 


Double? adv. 


) n L-o&Luj n iLi } ira'teryay. 


Doubt, s. 


&i5Gp&LD, santheham. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



115 



Down, adv. 
Drain, v. 
Draw, r. 
Drive, v. 
Drop, v. 

Drop, s. 
Drunk, a. 
Dry, a. 
Dull, a. 

Dumb, a. 
Dung, s. 
Durable, a. 
During, pre. 
Dust, s. 
Duty, s. 
Dwell, v. 



Each, a. 
Earn, v. 
Easy, a. 
Eat, v. 
Edge, 5. 
Educate, v. 
Egg, s. 
Either, a. 
Elsewhere, adv. 
Employment, 8. 
Empty, a. 
Enclose, v. 
End, s. 
Enemy, s. 
Engage, v. 
Engine, s. 



/if, 4, 8 



, 2 



trg, 



srrerr, 



, 9 



E. 



kile, pariiya. 

vadi. 

ilu! 

ottu. 

kile vidu. 

tuli. 

-** 

verifcta. 
kayntha. 

malungalana. 

umeiyana. 

eru. 

uruthiyulla. 

poluthu, il. 

tusi. 

kadamei. 
kudiyiru. 



ovvoru. 
sambathi. 
lesana. 
sappidu. 
oram, kur. 
padippi, pothi. 
muttei. 
avathu. 

verengeyavathu. 
aluval, velei. 
vernmeiyana. 
adei, veliyadei. 
mudivu, kadeisi. 
virothi. 

veleikku amarfc^u. 
Buttirarn, 



11G 



VOCABULARY. 



Enough, s. Quirjau], 


pothum. 


Enter, v. iSnGeu, 8 


piravesi. 


Enter, v. u@ t 4 


pathi. 


Entirely, adv f QppflgXLb, 


muttilum. 


ci i 

J&qual, c(. tfLDiresTLDfrw 


samanamana. 


Equivalent, s. /=F, 


idu. 


Erelong, adv. &a@ &<&$&, 


slkkirattil. 


Erect, c&. /$u9/f/s^, 


nimirnthu. 


Err, v. peujpt, tSl68>Lp Off 


iLtj 5 tavaru, pilei sey. 


Error? s. iSise>Lp ) 


pilei. 


Escape, v. puiSuGuir, 1 


tappipo. 


Estimate, v. LD@, 8 


mathi. 


Estimate, s. ^^uq, 


mathippu. 


Evaporate, v. ^eStiutiQiuQguiLj, 


aviyayelumbu. 


Even, con. &-m SLL_, 


un kuda. 


Even, CL. ff-LD^esfj 


samanana. 


Event, s. f/Ejs^ t 


sangathi. 


Every, cc. ^ei/Qay/r^, 


ovvoru. 


Evidence, s. &ITLL, 


satchi. 


Evident, a. Qpefiajiregr, 


telivana. 


Evil, a. Q&LL.L-, 


kefcta. 


Exact, ct. ^t-lt-Lo/rCTr, 


tittamana. 


Example, s. Lcirffiifi, 


mathiri. 


Excavate, v. @aDi_, 4 


kudei. 


Except, pre. peSir, GP$UJ, 


tavira, oliya. 


Excite, v. 5reS(siS/, 2 


evi vidu. 


Exclude, v. i&Q eS, 2 


nlkki vidu. 


Excuse, S. Gurrs, fir&(Bj, 


pokku, sakku. 


Expect, v. ^LDL/, 1 


nambu. 


Expense, s. Q^eoey, 


selavu. 


Experience, s. syuL9aj/r?^, 


appiyasam. 


Experiment, s. u/flLlat^, 


paritchei. 


Expert, a. ffnu^w^^ujQ^^iKi 


JIT, samarfctiyamulla. 


Extend, v. <snL, 1 


ettu. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



117 



Extend, v. 


/ft!, 1 nittu. 


External, a. 


L//r>iiu/rar, purambana. 




F. 


Fact, s. 


Qi&iu, &IEJ&J&, niey, sangathi. 


Fade, v. 


euirLf-uQuir, 1 [@, 1 vadipo. 


Fail, v. 


GfiriT/EgjQuir, 1, iSI^ sornthupo, pisahu. 


Fall, v. 


e(2, ^ vilu. 


False, a. 


Quiriuujir&r, poyyana. 


Family, s. 


(gO^Lj^o, kudumbam. 


Fan, s. 


fiww^, visiri. 


Fast, a. 


eSss)ffeuiT6sr 3 vireivana. 


Fasten, v. 


<-!, 1 pufctu. 


Fat, 8. 


0/T(T^UL/, koluppU. 


Fat, a. 


L/9^pLyrr, pushdiyulla. 


Fatigue, s. 


@SsrrtJL/, ileippu. 


Fault, . 


(aj^r/DLo, kuttam. 


Favour, s. 


^ojey, tayavu. 


Fear, s. 


^UJLO, payam. 


Feast, s. 


^CHJFi virunthu. 


Feather, s. 


P&> irahu. 


Fee, s. 


^^, pisu. 


Feed, v. 


^car, 7 (?^tt>, 4 tin, mey. 


Feel, v. 


s.gay/f, 4 unar. 


Ferrule, s. 


^6w-, pun. 


Fetch, v. 


QuiriLidQsiTemQeiiir, 4 poykoiidu va. 


Field, s. 


fiwtL'ev, eS/Ssrr, vayal, vilei. 


Fight, v. 


ffsesr&oi QffiLt, 5 sandei sey. 


Figure, s. 


fiu^KSj/, ^)0065/2), vadivu, ilakkam. 


Fill, v. 


$nuL\ t 1, /8ffu>Lj I nirappu, nirambu. 


Filthy, a. 


s@L<QD t &ujn'3r ) Q tteiyana. 


Find, y. 


ar L5Lf., 8 kandu pidi. 


Fine, s. 


Q^&nrL-u)) ten dam. 


Fine ; a. 


QtAffOeSuj, melliya. 



118 



VOCABULARY. 



Fine, a. Quifliu, 


periya. 


Finish, v. Qpty* 8 


mudi. 


Fire, s. @, QGQULJ, 


ti, neruppu. 


Fire, v. *, 2 


sudu. 


Firm, a. dvfiffLDiresr, 


stiramana. 


Fist, s, (^o^a,iji, 


mushti. 


Fit. c&. GS rhp. 


etta. 


Fit, v. QutTQKjp, 1 


porunthu. 


Flag, s. QstTLj., 


kodi. 


Flat, Ct. j$ LL0S) L-lLJfT GST 9 


tatteiyaua. 


FlOCk, S. LD/56S> r $, 


manthei. 


Flood, S. QaisveiTLc, 


vellam. 


Flow, v, g&, 1 


odu. 


Fly, s. 


i. 


Fly, v. tj^, 9 


para. 


Fold, v. tot?., 8 


madi. 


Fold, s. u>ijy.uL{ 9 


madippu. 


Follow, v. LSl^r Qff&, 6 


pin sel. 


Food, s. ^/r/Ju/r, .6zorsy, 


sappadu, uriavu. 


Fool, S. LDSSiU. IU6ST, 


madeiyan. 


For, co?l. ^^, uL$.iuir<sv } 


aha, padiyal. 


Force, 5, uevajiz^ii, 


balavantham. 


Forget, v. ^/D, 9 


mara. 


Forgive, v. LDssrctfl, 8 


roanni. 


Forth, acfo.' Oe^^Qiu, 


veliye. 


Forward, a<ii'. (ipesrQesr, 


munne. 


Fresh, ct. LJS!UJ u^cap, 


puthiya, patchei. 


Friend, s. &3iBp&sr t 


sinehitham. 


Frog, s. ^Q/Ssw, 


tavalei. 


From, ^9?'^. 05^^, 


irunthu. 


Fuel, s. *P(, 


virahu. 


Full, a. iSen/D/sp, 


nireintha. 


Furnace, g. 2.^, QSTO^, 


ulei, kuhei. 


Further, adv, >rw^ 


innam. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



119 



G. 



Gain, s. ^pa-tut*, 


athayam. 


Gait, 8. /*>*><_, 


nadei. 


Gang, s. <sE/r/E7@, 


kangu. 


Gap, s. G^/r53r, 


tondu. 


Gape, o. Q<s/r<_Lt_fl-fiM, 2 


kottaviyidu. 


Garden, tf. Gj^/nJLtLo, 


tottam. 


Gather, i>. <SLLI, 1, (?<<F/f ; 8 


kuttu, ser. 


General, a. Qutr&euirev, 


pothuvana. 


Gentl Q y tt. .y/rjpau/rcar, 


sathuvana. 


Germ, s. <2/>3srr, 


mulei. 


Give, i/. Qtf/r, 8 


kodu. 


Glad, a. F/E^^/rep.^/rcw, 


santhoshamanai 


Gnaw, v. jy^, 8, jy/fl, 4 


ara, ari. 


Go, v. Cou/r, 1 


po. 


God, 5. G^eueor, <5-a//rt$, 


tevan, suvami. 


Gold, s. Gu/rdr, 


pon. 


Good, a. /sstieVj 


nalla. 


Goods, 8. fffLDtresr, &ff&(&), 


eaman, sarakku. 


Grace, s. @@ss>u, 


kirubei. 


Gradually, adv. UL$.U UL^IUITUJ, 


padi padiyay. 


Grain, s, <strei$uJLD^ 


taniyam. 


Gram, s. &tr&!sru>, 


kanam. 


Grand, a. i Quifiiu, 


periya. 


Grant, v. Q<s/r, 8 


kodu. 


Grasp, v. up flu L2i^. ) 8 


patti pidi 


Gratis, adv. gftedeu&LAiruj, 


ilavasamay. 


Grave, 8. iSQffps @^, 


piretha kuli. 


Gray, a. . RQtoiun&Ksir, 


nareiyulla. 


Graze, v. QLLUJ, 4 


mey. 


Grease, s. Qsir^uL^, 


koluppu. 


Great, a. Qurfiuj, 


periya. 


Green, a. u&en&iuiTzgr, 


patcheiyana. 


Grind, v. jysw^r, 8 


arei. 



120 



VOCABULARY. 



Grindstone, s. <F/rwr, 


sanei. 


Ground, s. filsvu),, pes>ir t 


nilam, tarei. 


Grow,"v. fi/cw/f, 4 


valar. 


Guard, v. sr, 8 


ka.' 


Guide, t>, e/$ fi/ri-L, 1 


vali kattu. 


Guilt, S. gj/D/DLD, 


kuttam. 


Gum, s.' i-S^sw-, 


pisin. 


Gun, s. Qeuuf-f G>jir&(&i 9 


vedi tokku. 


Gunpowder, s. Qeut-p. L(nj/5gr r 


vedi marunthu. 


H. 




Habit, S. Ulp&&LD) e/i<f5<55a>, 


palakkam,valakkam 


Hack, v. ^jeysfL^L^ 8 ; a? tt 3 (<9y , 1 


tundi narukku. 


Hang, v. (neui.) O^/r@, 1 


tongu. 


Hang, v. (aci.) ^ar(5, 1 


tukku. 


Happen, v. C/s/fl, 2, Btl, 1 


neridu, nada. 


Happy, a. uir&QuJLtrrGir, 


pakkiyamana. 


Hard, C. au^evrLniresr, 


kadinamana. 


Harm, s. fse^tti, G&, 


nashdarn, kedu. 


Haste, s. &ifipu>, 


turitham. 


Have, v. <5, 9, e.r, 1 


iru, ul. 


He, p?'0. .gya/ear, 


avan. 


Heal, v. &auu<B)eg!, 1 


suhapaduttu. 


Health, 5. *<su>. 


suham. 


Heap, s. (SjeSujffv, 


kuviyal. 


Hear, i-. (?<ffsyr, 3 


kel. 


Heat, s. e-ffij^igzawLo, 


ushdanam, 


Heaven, 5, unGrtirsu*, aiireoru), 


paraloham, vanam. 


Heavy, ct. U/T^^/TCTT, 


baramana. 


Height, s. n-tuBLD, 


uyaram. 


Hell, s. &ffGu>, 


naraham. 


Help, S. epp-gireiDf) &.>$, 


ottasei, uthavi. 


Hemp, s. ffessrffi), ffL-LDLfi 


sanal sadambu. 


Hence, adv. ^C^a9(25/j^s7, 


inge irunthu, 



OTHEIt USEFUL WORDS. 



121 



Henceforth, adv. 
Herb, s. 
Herd, s. 
Here, adv. 
Hereabout, adv. 
Hereafter, adv. 
Hereby, adv. 
Hew, v. 
Hide, v. 
High, a. 
Hold, v. 
Hollow, a. 
Home, s. 
Honest, a. 
Horn, s. 
Hot, a. 
How, adv. 
Hunger, s. 
Hurt, v. 

Husk, s. 



LC/Tll 



LDGnjD, 8 . 

S-tUffLDirssr, 

t%, 8, Qs/r^, 2 



US, 



ithu mutual, 
pundu, kirei. 
mattu manthei. 
inge. 

ingganam. 
inimel. 
ithinal. 
vetti podu. 
inarei. 
uyaramana, 
pidi, ko|. 
uerr&mcirssr, kulalana, pajlamana. 
Vidu. 

nermeiyulja. 
kombu. 

sudan a, karamana. 
eppadi. 
pasi. 
novupaduttu, setha- 

padufctu. 
umi, kathambei. 



1 



I, 



I, pro. 

Idleness, s. 
If, con. 
Ill, a. 
Imitate, v. 
Imperfect, a. 
Improper, a. 
Improve, v. 

Impudent, a, 

In, pre. 



Guir0i>& 



j, 5 



nan. 

sombal. 

al, anal. 

viyathiyulla. 

pol chey. 

kureivana. 

tahatha. 

X* 

sirthirunthu, 

tudukkana. 

il, ul. 

16 



122 



VOCABULARY. 



Inattention, s. 

Incessant, , 
Incorrect, ct. 

Increase, v. 
Indebted, a. 
Indecent, a. 
Index, 6 1 , 
Infusion, s. 
Inhabit, v. 
Innumerable, a. 

Inquire, v. 
Insane, . 
Insect, s. 
Insensible, a. 
Insert, s. 
Instead, adv. 
Instruct, v. 
Instrument, .9. 
Insubordinate, a. 

Insufficient, a. 
Insult, s. 
Intention, s. 
Invite, v. 
Inward, adv. 
Iron, s. 
Irrigate, v. 



&6usvr.iri&& J 



, 8, 



5, 9 

>/&. 

eSftrffl 8, Qsstr, 3 



Qsrmmii, 



Havana talohi. 
oyatha. 
pileiyulla. 
athihari, peruhu, 
kadanpatta. 
ketta. 
attavaiiei. 

kashayam, kudinlr. 
kudiyiru. 
ermirantha. 
yisari, kel. 
payittiyamulla. 
puchi. 

unarchi illatha. 
idei3'ile ser. 
bathilaha. 
, 8, UL$ uiS ) 8 pothi, padippL 

ayutham, karuvi. 
kilpadiyatha. 

pothatha. 

avamanam, ninthei. 
nokkam. 
virunthukkalei, 

ullana. 

irumbu. 

paychu. 



Gear, 8 



Jail, s. 
Jar, s. 
Jewel, s. 
Join, v. 
Joint, s. 
Joy, s. 



8, 



marly al. 

jadi. 

nahei, aparanam, 

V* 

inei, poruttu. 

poruttu. 

kalippu. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



123 



Judge, .Q. 


ji$u<, $ SUIT ear, mthipatlri, mtbav 


Justice, ,?. 


jifi, Sojinuu), nlthi, niyayam. 




K. 


Keep, v. 


air, 8, 6a/, 8 ka, vei. 


Kernel, .9. 


u0uL/, paruppu. 


Kick, v. 


&.&)<, 8 uthei. 


Kill, v. 


Q$fT$so QffiLt, 5 kolei sey. 




Qsrresrjpi Quir(S } 2 kondupodu. 


Kiln, s. 


(gjSsrr, Sillei. 


Kindness, ,9. 


ptuey, uLLffil), tayavu, patcliam. 


Kindle, v. 


{JEULjjbpc&eu, S tT patta vei. 


Kindle, v. 


cr/0, 8 evi. 


King, s. 


fjyirirfir, irasa. 


Kingdom, s. 


$)C(i ffiduju), irachiyani. 


Knob, s. 


L^ip, kumil. 


Knock, v. 


^L!, 1 tattu. 


Knot, s. 


QpLp.ff&, mudichu. 


Know, v. 


^/z9, 4 ari. 


Knowledge, s. 


^y^ay, arivu. 




L, 


Labour, s. 


(Ja/Siu, iSffiuirfLc, velei, pirayasam. 


Lade, v. 


^'STT(g5 allu. 


Lake, s. 


er^, eri. 


Lameness, s. 


QP<-u> f mudam. 


Language, s. 


u/rDQ., pasbei. 


Lantern, s, 


60/5^/r, lanthar. 


Lap, s. 


LoLji, madi. 


Lap, v. 


/5^@, 1 nakku. 


Lard, ,9. 


ustrfls Qsn-QguLf, pandi koluppu. 


Large, a. 


Quifiiu, uqspp, periya, parufcta. 


Lasb, s. 


ffeysg) euirir, savukku var. 


Last, s. 


&sa>c-8ujirevr t & 9 kadeisiyanathu, 


Last, v. 


i8fa>, 8 nilei. 



VOCABULARY, 



Late, a. 


t$[/?r, pinthina. 


Late, adv. 


L$/^, pinthi. 


Laugh, v. 


$/fl, 8 ; /5sa>#, 8 giri, naheL 


Law, s. 


^ilL-Lo, sattam. 


Lay, v. 


GQSU , V61. 


Lead, s. 


FFUJL&I [jfi> 1 lyam. 


Lead, v. 


(Lp/sfiuQuir, 1, /?L_^ munthippo nadattUr 


Leak, s. 


sp^^^, olukku. 


Leanness, s. 


Loe^iay, melivu. 


Leap, t. 


LJ/TUJ, 4, @^, 8 pay, kuthi. 


Learn, v. 


ut^s., 8 padi. 


Leave, v. 


e$ LL u(3 u IT } 1 vittu po. 


Leech, s. 


^L!J)L_, attei. 


Left, . 


t&, idathu. 


Leisure, s. 


ffireusrrffu), savakasam. 


Lend, ?;. 


/ffeu&> GSR, 8 iraval kodu. 


Length, s. 


&6rru) 9 nllam. 


Leprosy, s. 


^a^t_(?^"/rJ) J kushda rdkam. 


Lest, c<m. 


i./if.igj, (with neg.) padikku. 


Let, v. 


G//ri_6<5S(5 sS, 2 vadaheikku vidu. 


Let, v. 


S, vidu. 


Letter, s. 


sirSipLD, &j3ir@, kahitham,kaduthasi 


Lick, v. 


/5@, 1 nakku. 


Lie, v. 


u, 8 padu. 


Lie, 1;. 


Ouinu Q<?/rev), 1 poy sol. 


Life, s. 


a-oS/r, uyir. 


Lift, v. 


^r@; 1, OT a 8 tukku, edu. 


Light, . 


Qffdffrrsvr, lesana. 


Light, s. 


Qeueiri&&u) i $effi, velitcham, oli. 


Like, . 


Gutitf), <$?, pol, ofcta. 


Limit, s. 


CT^)^, O, ellei, kedu. 


Line, s. 


/6ff euifl, auSjp, nirei, vari, kayiru. 


Linger, v. 


piTLzp, 8 tamathi. 


List, s. 


ernS^r. sabitha. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



125 



Listen, v. 
Little, a. 
Live, v. 
Live, a. 
Lizard, s. 
Load, s. 
Lock, v. 
Locust, s. 
Log, s. 
Long, a. 
Look, r. 
Loop, s. 

Loose, v. 
Loose, a. 

Lop, v. 
Lose, v. 
Lotus, 5. 
Low, a. 
Lower, v. 
Lump, s. 

Machine, s, 
Mad ; a. 
Maim, v. 
Make, v. 
Male, a. 
Manner, s. 
Manure, s. 
Many, a. 
Mark, s. 
Mark, v. 
Market, s. 
Mass, s. 



U/T/TLD, 



u/r/r, 8 



ujireisr 



uttu kel. 
sinna siru. 
, 8, L9asup,8 slvi, vasi, pilei. 
uyirulla. 
palli. 

bararn, sumei. 
puttu. 
vettu kili. 
kattei. 
nllamana. 

X* 

par. 
kuleichu. 

avil. 

avilntha, talarttiya- 

na. 
tari. 

ilanthu vidu. 
tamarei. 
talntha. 

irakki vidu. 
katti. 



M. 



, evens, 



u<s\) } 



Bufctiram. 

payifctiyam korida. 
unapaduttu. 
paniiu. 
an. 

vitham, vahei. 
uram. 
pala, aneha. 

kuri, adeiyalam. 
adeiyalam podu. 
santhei. 
kumukku, 



126 



VOCABULARY. 



Master, s. 
Mat, s. 
Matter, s. 
Mature, v. 
Maturity, s. 
May, v. 
Meal, s. 
Mean, v. 
Meanness, s. 
Meaning, s. 
Measure, s. 
Measure, v. 
Medicine, s. 
Meet, v. 
Meeting, s. 
Melt, v. 
Member, s. 
Memory, ,9. 
Mend, v. 

Mention, v. 
Merchandise, s. 
Merchant, s. 
Mercy, s. 
Mercury, s. 
Metal, s. 
Method, s. 
Midst, 5. 

Midway, adv. 
Mildness, s. 
Mill, s. 

Mine, s. 
Mineral, s. 
Mingle, r. 



U1TUJ 



Lorr, 



SQLCUJU), 



esaman. 

pay. 

porul, sangathL 

palu. 

pakkuvam. 

am. 

ma. 

karuthu. 

nisam, pisunam. 

karutlu, aruttam. 

alavu. 

ala. 

moruntbtu 

w 

santhi. 
kOttam. 

karei, uruhu. 

avayavam. 

nyabagam, yathu. 

paluthu par. 

sol. 

viyabaram, sarakku. 

viyabari. 

irakkam. 

irasam. 

loham. 

olungu, vithara. 
a, nadu, meiyam. 
S pathivali, ideivaliyil. 

santham. 
J, enthiram, enthira 

S* V* 

salei, mo lei- 
surangam. 
nirasa vastu. 
ser. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



127 



Minute, a. 


jpLLuu>iTffjr 9 nudpanmna. 


Mire, s. 


#8$, sahathi. 


Mirror, s. 


<saOTT(CW)/-^, kamiadi. 


Mischief, s. 


<2<s, jis&LD, kedu, timei. 


Misery, s. 


rSpuftptj, nirpantham. 


Misfortune, s. 


^snt-u^gi, ideiyuru. 


Miss, v. 


L9<9=@, 1 pisahu. 


Mistake, s. 


guiSpuo, tappitham. 


Mistress, s. 


er&LDtrLLLf., esainatti. 


Mix, v. 


so, 9 kala. 


Model, s. 


Lt>ir$ifl, mathiri. 


Modesty, s. 


/sir oar ti, &IL-&&M, nf^riam, adakkam. 


Moisture, s. 


FFJLD, iram. 


Money, s. 


LJtMiru), pariam. 


Moorman, s. 


Q&irsor&ssr, sonahau. 


Morality, s. 


ffesrLciriT&su), sanmarkkam. 


More, a. 


*@ S 9 ttTGXL, athiha, innam. 


Mortgage, s. 


typfl, otti. 


Mosque, s. 


Ljerreffiauir&sv, pallivasal. 


Moss, s. 


uuS) t pasi. 


Moth, 6'. 


&* t puchi. 


Motion, s. 


cSysro^Q/, aseiviL 


Mould, s. 


#(, karu. 


Mould, s. 


LfrQp.evvLD, pushanam. 


Mount, v. 


orjv, 1 eru. 


Mourn, v. 


j&L>Qsirt:y8TL-iT(fj), I tukkam korida/Iu. 


Move, v. 


jys3)^, 4, 8, , 1 asei, adu. 


Mow, v. 


<s!)&iua t 8 visiyaru. 


Much, s. 


^ijtffLD, iBgfi, athiham, mihuthi. 


Mud, s. 


Gff^u, ff&fd, seru, sahathi. 


Multiply, v. 


Qu^stS), \ } jqjsl&f), 8 perukku, athihari. 


Mumps, s. 


vgLss>LD&8LL, umeikkatiu, 


Murmur, <'. 


OLD/TJJ/QLO/TJI', 8 morumoru. 


Music, s. 


esiSffLb) sangltham. 



128 



VOCABULARY. 



Must, s. 
Myself, pro. 

Nakedness, s, 

Name, s. 
Narrowness, s. 
Native, s. 
Nature, s. 
Nearness, s. 
Nearly, adv. 
Necessity, s. 
Need, s. 
Needle, s. 
Neglect, s. 
Neigh, v. 
Neighbour, 5. 
Net, s. 
Never, adv. 
Newness, s. 
News, s: 
Next, a. 
Nibble, v. 
Niceness, s. 
Nip, v. 
No, adv. 
Nod, v. 
Noise, s. 
Nonsense, s. 
Noose, s. 
Nor, con. 
Not, adv. 
Notch, .s. 
Note, s. 
Note, v. 



N 



QUIT, 



, 8 



, 4, 



, 8 



eo) a/ 8 



vemlum. 
nane, nanthan. 



niruvanatn, 

.per. 

idukkam. 

suthesi. 

iyalbu. 

samibam. 

konjangkureiya. 

avasiyam. 

ievei. 

Osi. 

kavaleiylnam. 

kanei. 

ayalan. 

valei. 

orukalum illei. 

nu than am. 

seythi. 

adutta. 

ari. 

rusi, nefcti, nudpam. 

killu/ 

illei. 

talei aseifctalei. 

safetara, ireichal. 

buttiymam. 

surukku. 

avathu. 

illei, alia. 

vettu. 

kiirippu. 

kurifcturei. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



129 



Nothing, s. 
Notice, s. 
Notice, v. 
Notion, s. 
Nourish, v. 
Now, adv. 
Nowadays, adv. 
Noway, adv. 
Nowhere, adv. 
Numbness, s, 
Number, s. 
Number, v. 
Nut, ,9. 

Obedience, s. 
Object, s. 
Object, v. 
Objection, s. 
Obstacle, s. 
Obstinacy, s. 
Obstruction, s. 
Obtain, v. 
Occasion,*^ 
Odour, s. 
Of, pre. 
Off, adv. 
Offend, v. 
Office, s. 
Often, adv, 
Oil, s. 
Old, a. 
Omit, v. 
On, pre, 
On, adv. 



, 8, urrir, 8, 



0, 



, 8, 



., 4, fiDL., 8 

eurr&ckor, 



tBtl. 



cmdum. illei. 

vilambaram>. 

kavani, par. 

enriam. 

paramari. 

ippothu. 

innadkalil. 

evvitha&ilum iileL 

oridattilum illei, 

vireippu. 

ilakkam. 

nnu. 

kottei. 

kilpadithaL 
nokkarn. 
tadu, adchebi. 
adchebam, tadeL 

%* 

tadei. 

murattattam. 
adeippu. 
adei, kidei. 
velei, karanani. 
vasanei, mariam. 
udeiya, al, il. 
tura. 

>* 

visanapaduttu. 

uttiyoham. 

adikadi. 

onnei. 

palaya. 

vittu vidu, 

niele. 

munne. 

17 



ISO 



VOCABULARY. 



Once, aJi>. 
Only, adv. 
Only, a. 
Open, v. 

Oppress, v. 
Order, s. 
Order, v. 
Orifice, s. 
Ornament, .9. 
Orphan, s. 
Ought, v. 
Out, adv. 
Outward, a. 
Oval, s. 
Over, prc. 
Over, adv. 
Overcharge, v. 
OverfloVv, v. 

Overlook, v. 
Overseer, s. 

Overtake, v. 
Owl, s. 

Owe, v. 
Own, a. 

Own, v. 
Owner, s. 

Pace, s. 
Pack, s. 
Pack, f. 
Package, s. 
Packbullock, s. 



, 9 



), def. 



Ljpiiuirear, 



orutharam, oruvisei. 

mattiram. 

eha. 

tira. 

odukku. 

varisei, olungu. 

karpi. 

tuvaram, vay. 

alangarara. 

illatha pillei. 

vendum, 

purambe. 

purnmbaua. 

mutf.ei vadivu. 

mel. 

mele, mitchamay. 

athiha vilei podu. 

karei puraridodu, 
tathumbu. 

paramal vidu. 
', 8, GLDGV kangani, mel visari. 
8 

, 8 todarnthu pidi. 

anthei. 



6/&> QUIT, 2 

1 

', 2 



, 



t 9 



P. 



kadan pattiru. 
sontha, sonthamana. 

urittayiru. 
udeiyavan. 

nadei. 
pothi. 
adukku. 
kattu. 
pothi madu. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



131 



Pains, 5. iSlffujtrfu>, 


pirayasani. 


Paint, s. euirsarii, 


varnam. 


Paint, i'. c/ff6B0,8, euire^TL 


o L^<5?, 1 varni, varnam pusu. 


Pair, s. G&IT, 


sodu, 


Pale, s. Sfftr^ssili-jj 


kirathikambu. 


Paleness, s. Ga/^uLy, 


veluppu. 


Pan, s. fLLup. urrSssr) 


satti panel. 


Pandal, s. u&^ev, 


panthal. 


Parcel, s. tl, 


katfu. 


Parch, v. eajgt t 8 


varu. 


Pardon, s. t^ms^ui^, 


mannippu. 


Pare, v. cy, 1 


S1VU. 


Part, s. u/s?^, [<2 


'U"", 1 pangu. 


Part, v. uffiS, 2, tS/fl/j 


?^7 pangidu, pirinthupo. 


Partiality, 5. uiuruLLeiD, 


barapatcham. 


Party, s. <^.Llt_Lo, ULL& > 


gtrir, kuttam, patchattrir. 


Pass, v. stfB&Guir, 1 


kadanthup5. 


Passenger, s. &'LluQuir&svr y 


valipokkan. 


Pastry, s. LLiruuev&rtu! 


mapaiidam. 


Pasture, s, Guiuffst, 


meychal. 


Pat, v. ^^1, 1 


tattu. 


Pave, f. spuira/, 1 


karpavu. 


Paw, S. &iT6$ t 0ns , 


kal, kei. 


Pay, v. Qs/r, 8 


kodu. 


Peace, s. ^LO/T^/TSWLO, 


samathanarn. 


Pearl, s. Qf>P&3 9 


mufctu. 


T) 1 VI 

JL ebble, S. 3n.erririni <5sv?, 


kulang kal. 


Pick, v. Qsirpgi, 1 


kottu. 


Peculiar, d. e-ifl t &<rr<svr > GULP&& 


da* uritjana, valakkam 


Gtirp, 


illatha. 


Peel, v. a/0, 8 


uri. 


Peep, i>. 6TLLLp.uuirir, 1 C&L! 


.i$u ettipar, ottipar. 


u/r/f, 1 





Pendant, a. 



tongalana. 



132 

Perceive, v. 
Perfection, s. 
Perforate^. 

Period, s. 
Perish, v. 
Perjury, s. 
Perseverance, s, 
Person, s. 
Persuade, v. 

Pervade, v. 
Petition, s. 
Phial, s, 
Pick, v\ 
Pickle, s. 
Piece, s. 

Pierce* v. 
Pile, s. 
Pill, s. 
Pinch, s. 
Pipe, s. 

Pistol, s. 
Pit, s. 
Pitch, s. 
Pith, s. 
Pity, s. 
Place, s. 
Place, v. 
Plainness, s. 
Plant, 5. 
Plant, v. 
Plaster, s. 
Plaster, s. 
Plaster, v. 



\ r OCABULA.RY J 
', 3, * A 4 

8 



) } 4, 



yr, (Ju/f, 



, 9 



, I, 



, 8, (?LJ/T, 2 



, 1, 



; 1, 



kanu, an. 
pu rail am. 
uruva toIeL 
kalam. 
, 4 ali, nasapaduttu, 

poyyanei. 

vida muyarchi. 

al, per. 

inakkapaduttu, [nu. 
, 1 sammathikkapan- 

paraviyiru. 

vinnappam. 
8 kuppi. 
5 pidungu, terinthedn, 

iiruhay. 

tundu. 

kuttu. 
kuviyal. 

mattirei. 
killu. 
pili, kulaL 
kei vedi, 
kuli, kidangiu 

kii! 

soru. 

parithabam. 
idam. 
vei, podu. 
telivu. 

N. 

8edi, pundu. 
nattu, undu, 
pattu, servei. 
santhu, putchu; 
pusu^tittu. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



133 



Plate, S. ^, fsemewu!, 


tahadu, kirmam. 


Platform, s. Gu>san- t 


medei. 


Play, v. eti3s(fuj!T, 1 


vileiyadu. 


Plead, a. suips&rr, 1, uiB/s^ 


9 valakkadu, parinthu 


<?u*, 1 


pesu. 


Pleasantness, s. @*-aruJ>, 


inbam. 


Plenty, 6'. y^A /^ac/rey, 


purfcti, nireivu, 


Plough, S. rSStiUODU, SJ/f, 


kalappei, er. 


Plough, s. s_(T, 5 


ulu. 


Pluck, v. L9(5, 1 


pidungu. 


Plumb, s. &?&(&, 


tukku. 


Pod, s. Q/5/r>.gy, ffmr, 


nettu, saridu. 


Poetry, 5. Q<piLJtLjsir 9 


seyyul. 


Point, s. J06B0, 


nuni. 


Point, v. 4pilif4rtL0, 1 


suttikattu. 


PoiSOn, 5. IBfjtjGr, 6^ffl^,LO, 


nanju, visham. 


Portion, j. u(g, 


pangu. 


Position, s. a^ "*> 


iclam. 


Positive, a. &-jp>lslujirGvr, ^KSSL 


3/r uruthiyana, tirkka- 


en, 


mana. 


Post, s. .^yrsOTr, /ri), 


tan, kal. 


Post, s. jSurrffi) saQprir, 


tapal kanthor. 

>* ** 


Post, v. jSuireQih QUIT, 2 


tapalil podu. 


Postpone, v. ^suckisr QUIT, 2 


tavanei podu, 


si-^, 1 


kadattu: 


Pot, S. LJflcfafT, G>S{rU66)U 


panei, koppei; 


Potter, S. @<Fffl;6*r, 


kusavan. 


Pouch, s. firs, Gnu, 


sakku, pei. 


Pound, s. &PjS*i i-xsy&ir, 


rattal, pavun. 


Pound, v. <&&, 1, a^j 8 


kuttu, idi. 


Pour, V. e;/r/r, 8 


var. 


Poverty, 5. prfl-gfiiru), 


tarittiram. 


Powder, s. QUIT if., 


podi. 


Power, s. Qusvw, a/eveoao^ 


belan, valla mei, 



134 



VOCABULARY, 



Pox, s. 
Practise, s. 

Practise, v. 

Praise, s. 
Praise, v. 
Prayer, s. 
Prefer, v. 
Prepare, v. 
Presence, s. 
Present, a. 
Present, v. 
Present, s. 

Preserve, v. 
Press, v. 
Pretend, v. 

Pretext, s. 
Prettiness, s. 

Prevent, v. 

Price, s. 

Prick, i'. 

Prickly, a. 

Pride, s. 

Priest, s. 
Prince, s. 
Princess, 6\ 
Principal, s. 
Print, y, 
Prior, a. 
Proceed, v. 
Proceeds, s. 



^u \3mrrffiA 



, 4 



, 4 



enev^if), veisuri. 

appiyasam, payir- 

chi. 
1 appiyasam parnm, 

seythuva. 
puhalchi, tuthi. 

puhalu. 

sebam. 

terinthukol. 

ayafctapaduttu. 
muhatha. 
ajar. 
Q5^ ) 8,spuL/Q<s/r J 8 kodu, oppukoiu. 

vehumanam, santlid- 

sham. 
kappattu. 

, 1 amukku, nerukku. 
uireulsor /ril, 1, uir pavanei kattu, pa- 

sangu paniiu. 
pokku, sakku. 
alahu, netti. 

taclii. 

vilei, 

kuttu, tei. 

mull u 11 a, 

perumei. 

pusari. 

irasa kumarau. 

irasa kumarafcti. 

muthal. 

atchadi. 

munthina. 

v* 

purapadu. 

vittu muthal, varu- 
eorLD. inanam- 



, 1, 



^,8 



, 1, 



, 8 



L/^ULJ, 2 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



135 



Process? s. 
Proclaim, v. 
Produce, v. 
Produce, s. 
Product, s. 
Profanity, s. 
Profession, s. 
Promise, s. 
Promise, v. 
Pronounce, v. 
Proof, s. 
Prop, s. 
Proper, a. 
Property, s. 
Proportion, s. 
Prosper, v. 

Prostitute, s. 
Prostrate, adv. 
Protect, v. 
Protract, v. 

Protrude, v. 
Prove, v. 
Proverb, s, 
Provide, v. 

Provoke, v. 
Prune, v. 

Public, a. 
Publish, v. 
Pull, v. 

Pulley, s. 
Pulp, s. 
Pulp, v. 



USVSVT 



' 8 
', 8 



Utttir, 



SIT, S 



GUlSl, 

Gpirsi 

ULLD 



vahei, murei. 
kuri arivi. 
palan kodu. 
palan, vileichal. 
palan. 
avabatti. 
uttiyoham. 
vakkuttattam. 
,o vakkuttattam sey, 
utchari. 
attatchi, rusu. 
kal, muttu. 
tahuthiyana. 

udarnei, asti. 

takka, alavu. 
, 8, Q& sow sitti adei, selvava- 
, 1 nahu. 

vesi. 

sashtangamay. 

ka. 

tamathapadufctu. 

pithungu. 

oppi, meyppi. 

palamoli. 

sambathi, ayatj,a- 

paduttu. 
kobam muttu. 
kavattu soy. 

pirasittamana. 

arivi. 

ilu. 

kappi. 
t5l, tasei. 
pal am aroi. 



9L/L9, 8, QuxLutSl, 8 



, 8, 



136 



VOCABULARY. 



Punctual, a. 


Grsffu) geutyp, nerani tavaratha. 


Pupil, s. 


@6$*eor t Lo/T(C3S)6&<sw r J sishan, manakkan. 


Purge, v. 


QufsKcuir, 1 pethipo. 


Push, v. 


perrQsnj, 1 tallu. 


Put, v. 


ewair, 8, GLJ/T, 2 vei, podu. 


Putrid, a. 


^(2g@uj, aluhiya. 




a 


Quack, v. 


&&, 1 katta. 


Quality, s. 


pe&enLo, (^essru> t tanmei, gunam. 


Quantity, s. 


jvewfiy, alavu. 


Quarrel, s. 


mif*(tuffpu> t vakkuvatham, 




ff6sorcnL-, sandei. 


Quarter, s. 


ff/reb, siTffdeuir, kal, kalvasi. 


Queen, s. 


Qfffffffpfi, irasatti. 


Quick, a. 


@&&ffiLire8r, sikkiramana. 


Quickly, adv. 


(p&Qau), &ud&rrtLt, slkkiram, surukkay 


Quietness, s. 


jyszDz^^, ameithi. 


Quill, 8. 


p>(9)i irahu. 


Quite, adv. 


Opp/flgiu), muttiium. 




R. 


Race, s. 


@SOLO, g^cli-Lo, kulam, otfcain. 


Rag> s. 


a(568>p y kanthei. 


Raise, v. 


^r@, 1, cr, 8 tukku, edu. 


Rake, s. 


euir if) 9 vari. 


Ram, v. 


Q&LLL$.pgiu Quit, 2 kettittu podu. 


Rank, s. 


eutflenff, jy/F^gfu^r, varisei, anthastu. 


Rap, v: 


piL, 1 tattu. 


Rapid, a. 


cSlevirajiresr, vireivana. 


Rarity, s. 


jy(5D^, jyLfrirGULri, arumei, apurvam, 


Rasp, 3. 


jy/ru), aram. 


Rasp, v. 


jy^/r/, 1 aravu. 


Rate, s. 


<s^^u>, vitham. 


Rather, adv. 


^jj/j g)jfifLo ; sattu, iluni. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



137 



Raw. a. 


Ljffeaffujtretr, patcheiyaua. 


Razor, s. 


fsuff&s^tis), savarakatti. 


Reach, v. 


&L-, I ef,lu. 


Read, v. 


euir& 9 8 vasi. 


Readiness, s. 


<g,-ua;gLD, ayattam. 


Real, a. 


&.sr*rr, Q u> iij ILJ IT sa , ulla-, meyyaua. 


Reap, ?;. 


Jf^ 11 , 8, jfifi, 4 aru, ari. 


Rear, v. 


eusirir, 8 valar. 


Rear, i 1 . 


/SaS/f^^, 1 iiimirttu. 

N* 


Reason, s. 


fu^s^, t-jp.&t yutti, butti. 


Reason, 8. 


Q^atsffft 3 niuhanthiram. 


Rebuke, y. 


a oar if , 8 kaildi 


Recede, v. 


L$SVT eu/TOT^, 1 pin vangu. 


Receipt, s. 


u P&I&& LL } nQgi, pattuchlttu, raslthu; 


Receive, v. 


67/r5J/650<55/r?yr, 2 ettukol. 


Reckon, v. 


oT6ffsrsj} } 1 ennu. 


Relieve, v. 


tfirdj, 4 say. 


Recognize, v. 


j ( /z9, 4 ari. 


Recover, v. 


.frSLJu, 2 suhapadu. 


Recover, v. 


^Qf,ubu jijSSiL , 4 [^,1 tirumba adei. 


Rectify, v. 


0tfluu(B.3 t g! ) 1, ^(5^ saripafluttu, tiruttu. 


Red, a. 


Bajuuircffr, sivappana. 


Reduce, v. 


@ss)^D ) 8 kurei. 


Reed, s. 


Giremrsv, naual. 


Reform, v. 


Lj&uiS, 8, V68>c_, 4 puthuppi, siradei. 


Refresh, v. 


QtaiLjuffjbjp) 1 ileippattu. 


Refuse, v. 


^SYT^, 1 tallu. 


Register, s. 


iiruL], dappu. 


Regret, s. 


LAssreivjSiruu), inanastabam. 


Regular, a. 


^(^)S7<55/Tw, olungaua. 


Reject, v. 


f srr(e^, 1 tallu. 


Relate, v. 


Q&irsosy, 1, $u/fl, 1 sollu, vibari. 


Relax, v. 


{jysrr^, 1 ilahll. 


Release, v. 


G&QcSj 8 viduvi. 




.IS 



13S 



VOCABULARY, 



Relieve, v. 
Relish, v. 
Reluctant, a. 
Remain, v. 
Remainder, s. 
Remains, s. 
Remedy, s. 

Remember, ?;. 
Remove, v. 

Renew, v. 

Rent,'*. 

Rent, v. 

Repair, v. 
Repent, v. 
Report, v. 

Repress, v. 
Require, v. 
Resign, v. 

Resin, s. 
Resolve, v. 
Respect, v. 
Respiration, s. 

Rest, s. 
Rest, v. 
Restore, v. 
Restrain, f. 
Result, s. 
Retain, v. 
Retard, v. 
Retire, v. 
Return, v. 



QUIT 8 



8 



8 



unir, 8 



u Cu/r, 2 



, 8, 



, 8, 



uthavu. 
piriyamayira, 

manam illatha. 
tangu. 

initchara. 

nntlii. 

nivirtti. 

nineivu hur. 

eduttu podu, 
per. 

puthuppi. 
vadahei. 
vadaheikku edit, 
paluthti par. 
rnauastaba padu. 
8 arivi, terivi. 

adakki podu. 
r,7 vcndum, kel. 

tl oppukodu, vittu 

vidu. 

kungiliyyam. 
iirniani. 

, 1 mathi, ganampanriu, 

mutchu viduthal. 

mutchu vangnthal. 

ileipparuthal. 
4, ileipparu, 6y. 

tirumb kodu. 

adakku, tadu. 
palan, mudivu. 
veittukol. 
tadu, niruttu. 

2 vilahu, pinnidu. 
tirunibu, 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



Reveal, v. 
Revenge, s. 
Reward, s. 
Rheumatism, s. 
Riches, s. 

Ride, v. 
Ridicule, s. 
Right, s. 
Right, a. 

Rigid, a. 
Rine, a. 
Rise, v. 
Rivet, v, 
Roar, v. 
Rob, v. 
Rod, s. 
Roll, s. 
Roll, y. 
Round, s. 
Round, pre. 

Rouse, v. 
Row, s. 

Row, s. 
Rub, v. 

Rude, a. 
Ruffian, s. 
Rule, s. 
Rule, v. 
Ruminate, v. 
Run, v. 
Rush, v. 
Rust, s. 



I 



velipaduttu. 
pali. 

vehumathi. 
vatham. 

tiraviyam, asti. 

kuthirei eri po. 
(0*6^ ninthanei, keli. 

^, pa my am, nithi. 

fffflujirsvr, niyayamana, saii- 

yaua. 

madangatha. 
pal u fct a. 

1 elumbti. 

1 kadavu. 

1, (Lpt 57(5, 1 kerchi, mulaugu. 

kalavu sey. 

kol, kambu. 

surul. 

puralu, urulu. 

vattam, urundei. 
1 sutti, sula. 

1, eluppu, tundu, evu. 
nirei, varisoi. 

V* 

kukkural, saiidei. 
tudei. tey. 

tadittanamulla. 
tush tan. 

olungu, satfcam. 

u, 5 athiharam sey. 
j Qun ) 2 asei podu. 

1 odu. 

, 4 pay. 

turu. 



<si>Ly 

2, 



, 1, 



140 



VOCABULARY;, 



S, 



Sackcloth, s. 
Sacred, a. 

Sacrifice, s. 
Sadness, s. 

Safe, a. 

Sale, 8. 
Saleable, u. 
Salary, s. 
Salt, a. 
Salvation, s. 
Same, a. 
Sanction, s. 
Sap, s. 
Satisfaction, 

Save, v. 
Say, v. 
Scab, s. 
Scale, s. 
Scanty, a. 
Sear, s. 
Scarcity, s. 
Scarlet, s. 
Scatter, v. 
Scheme, s, 
School, 6'. 
Scold, v. 
Scoop, v. 

Scorched, a. 
Scorn, *,*. 
Scorpion, s. 
Scour, v. 



UBT 



, e_a//r, 



&ITIJLC, 



5, 8 
,1, 



1, 



, 8 



8, 
4, 



iratfu. 

tivviya, tiru, 

pali, 

tukkam, viyahulam. 

pattiramana, suha- 

iiiaiia. 
virpanei. 
virka takka. 
sambalam. 
uppar.a, uvar. 
iratohippu. 
ore, an tli a. 

\* 

sammathi, uj^aravu. 

saram. 

tirupti. 

iratchi. 

sol, en. 

sori. 

tirasu. 

konja, arpa. 

talumbu. 

kureichal. 

iiattambaram. 

sitharu, sitharadL 

vahei, ubayam. 

palli kucjara. 

kobi, kandi. 

kudei, a] lipodu. 

tlynthu pona. 
kureivay ennu. 
tfil. 

y 

teyttu kaluvu. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



Scrape, v. *<, 1 


surandu. 


Screw, s. jsQ^sirsssft, [<v5 


,1 tiruhcani. [riikku. 


Screw, v. ^^^iressfi iiS } 2, (tp^ 


y tiruhamyidu, mit- 


Scrofula, S. seysrtLDirSsv, 


kandamalei. 


Scull, s. p&vSsutT, 


taleiyodu. 


Scum, . jgjc-toff, 


iiurei. 


Scurf, s. Q&irtfl, 


sori. 


Scythe, s. <sfffifl SUIT sir, 


vltcliarival. 


Search, v. Q^(B } 1, ^cnnu^ 4 


tedu, aray. 


Season, s. airsoj?, 


kalam. 


Secret, s )ff&&ajt f 


irahasiyani. 


Section, s. u &, 


paugu. 


Security, s. iS&sat, ggw^ar, 


pinei, jamiu. 


See, v. uirir, 8 


par. 


Seedling, 5. &so:i>, 


kaudu. 


Seem, v. Q^n jbpuu, '2 


tofctapadu. 


Seize, v. L^, 8, L/^, .8 


pidi, pari. 


Seldom, cult/. ^jv^oi/SaT unrpfioui. 


silavelei mattiram. 


Select, v. QjiR.tejS, 8 


terinthedu. 


Self, p; -e. pirsir. pirGsar, 


tan, taiie. 


Sell, -V. effsv), 9 


vil. 


Send, tj. jy ggu u LJ } 1 


anuppu. 


Sense, 6-. H<&&, 


butti. 


Senseless, c(. L^^^U^SOS^IT^J ^.SSSIIT 


butti illatha, unar 


eijibp, 


vatta. 


Sensible, a. Lj^^iLjsrr&r, 


pufctiyulla. 


Sentence, i r . euirsStLiu), 


vakkiyam. 


Sentence, s. fifuLf, 


tirppu. 


Separate, ((. ^ ^s&^jS) Qaya/^a;,^?^ 


JT, tanifcta, vevverana. 


Separate, v. iSl.fi, 8 


piri. 


Series, s. O^/rL_/f^^, 


todarclii. 


Sermon, s. i$tj#E}3u> ) 


pirasangam. 


Servant, s. Cav^u-a-s/r^rsar, 


veleikaran. 


Set, v, <weu, 8, /5/rtl, 2 


vei, natlu. 



142 - 


VOCABULARY. 


Settle, v. (act.) 


jiff/sgauGuir, 2 tlrttupcdu. 


Settle, v. (neut.) 


O^erf?, 4 teii. 


Severe, a. 


a'-p-izarLciresr, kadinainaim. 


Sew, v. . 


an,*, 8 tei. 


Shadow, . 


/Stp^V, mlal. 


Shake, v. 


jy^, 8 asei. 


Shallow, s. 


^tpLofip, alamatta. 


Shame, s. 


Oa;iJL55LD, ved.k am. 


Shape, s. 


euLp.'sij ) vadivu. 


Share, s. 


uT<sti, paham. 


Sharp, a. 


&,_ff)S8)L>uj irssT , kurmeiyana* 


Shatter, v. 


gjffssriff& s_sroi_, 8 tundaha udei. 


Shave, v. 


&SIJIILD ussw^3 t 1 savarani painui. 


She, pro, 


^eu^, aval. 


Shed, v. 


^l.'s^j, I sinthu. 


Shell, ,9. 


&UL3, g5, 9sa^ sippi, odu, sangu. 


Shelter, s. 


gp^7-p@, ^(^^LO, othukku, tan jam. 


Shew, v. 


5/r/_L$, 1 kattu. 


Ship, 8. 


suuffo, k appal. 


Shop, s. 


<5isroL_, kadei. 


Short, a. 


@Ll3)i_(L//rsz(r, kutteiyana. 


Shout, v. 


fjspu> COLJ/T, 2, g{*fu sattam podu, ar- 




/-//^ 3 8 pari. 


Shrink, v. 


^(ff ) /Ej(^ ) 1 surungu. 


Shut, v. 


^sro^-, 8, ffrr^^i, 1 adei, safctu. 


Sick, a. 


eS!ujir$5)iLj6iTfffr 9 viyathiyulla. 


Sickness, s. 


e$ujn$, GIB trey, viyathi, novu. 


Side, s. 


Ljffi^ii, .eSffoir, pakkam, vila. 


Sift, v. 


0,3^(6$, 1, ^e^?, 8 tellu, sali. 


Sign, v. 


easQiLJiTuuLc GVHSU, 8 keiyoppam vei. 


Sign, s. 


^sKL-ujiTemliy adeiyalam. 


Silk, s. 


utl@, pattu. 


Silver, s. 


Qaiisnefl, velli. 


Simple, a. 


QupGnLDiuvm, pethameiyana. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



143 



Sin, s. 
Since, adi'. 

Sincere, a. 
Sing, v. 
Single, a. 
Sink, v. 
8it, v. 
Site, s. 
Slab, s. 
Slacken, v. 

Slate, *. 
Slave, s. 
Sleep, s. 
Sleep, v. 
Slice, s. 
Slide, v. 
Slim, a. 
Slink, v. 
Slip, v. 
Slit, -y. 
Slow, a. 

Slowly, adv. 
Smash, v. 

Smell, v. 
Smoke, s. 
Smoke, v. 
Smoothness, s. 
Snake, s. 
Snap, v. 
Snare, s. 
Snatch, v. 
Sneeze, v. 
Snuff, s. 



LJ/T, 1 
N-^LU. 

&iM, 
.**< 

@t_/, 



?, 4, 8 



Gutr, 1 



pa vain. 

athu muthal, atharku 

pinbu. 
unmeiyulla. 
pad u. 

ondiyana, ottei. 
1 amil, aniiltu. 

udkaru. 

idarn. 

kal tahadu, 

^ 

nehilf.u. 

karpalahei. 

adimei. 

5 tukkain, iiittirei. 

6 tungu, iiittirei sey. 
slva. 

sari. 

mellisana. 
olittu po. 
tavaru. 
klru. 

tamathaniaua. 
metlmvay. 
G/5/z9, 8, Oisir^vs^j ] neri, norukku. 
urrir, 8 monthu par. 

puh<?i. 
puhei kudi. 
miruthu. 
pambu. 
8 udei, teri. 
kanni. 
pari. 
tummu. 
mukku till. 



, 8 



, 4, 



U/S, 8 



1-14 



VOCABULARY. 



Snuff, v. 
So, ado. 

Soak, V. (ad.) earpeasu, 8, 

Soak, v. (neat.) eszjp, .1 

Sober, a. 

Socket, s. 

Soft, a. 

Soiled, a. 

Solitary, a. 

Some, a. 

Somebody, s. 

Somehow, adv. 

Something, s. 

Sometimes, adv. 

Somewhat, adv. 

Somewhere, adv. 

Song, s. 

Soon, adv. 

Soothe, v. $,FJy 9 1 

Sop, V. Q^ITCLJ) S, 

Sore, 8. USSST, 

Sorrow, s. 

Sot, s. 

Soul, s. 

Sound, s. 

Sour, a. 

Sow, v. 

Space, s. 
Span, s. 
Spare, v. eS, 2, 



Sparkle, v. 
Speak, i\ 
Spear, s. 



LJfffTUfffT LJUITUJ 

Gu&, 1, 



till urinju. 

appadi, ippndi. 
LI, 8 Qra vei. toy. 

v* 

urn. 

veri illatha. 
kudu 

methuvana, 
linrneiyana. 

tanimeiyana. 
sila, koivja. 
aravnthu. 
eppadiyavatliu. 
etlio. 
sila ve lei 
sattu. 
en gey o. 
pattu. 
sikkiram. 
attu. 

S toy, tuvei. 
pun. 
tukkam. 
kudiharan. 
attuma. 
sattam, osei. 
pulippana. 
vithei. 

id am, veli. 
sau, san alavu. 
LDITLI virlu, manni, inappu 

sey. 

jr0i, Ipalapalappay minnu. 
pesu, soil u. 



OTHER USEFUL WOKDS. 



145 



Speck, s. Lyorerf?, ses3ff } LDfr&r, 


pulli, karei, masu. 


Speed, s, eS&nir&j, 


vireivu. 


Spend, v. Qfe\)*uL$ } 8 


selavali. 


Spider, s. *>*, 


silanthi. 


Spill, r. #.7, 1 


sinthu. 


Spin, r. ./STTSV), 7 


nul. 


Spirits, s. fffTniriuLD, 


sarayam. 


Split, r. ^, 9 


pila. 


Spoil, p. 0, 2, jjr^, S 


kedu, ali. 


Spot, S. Lyswert}, 


pulli. 


Spread, . (eu.) LJBLL\-\, 1, fl<fl, 1 


parambu, vii i. 


Spread, v. (ac/.) UITULJ, 1, ciD/fl, 4, 8 


parappu, viri. 


Spring, s. es./bjpi y eSvof, 


uttu, visei. 


Spring, v- escj, 1, LJ/TUJ. 4 


uru, pay: 


Sprinkle, v. O^crB, 8 


bill. 


Sprout, i\ G^ 5Tr > 8, jS&Rir, 8 


mulei, talir. 


Square, s. ^^^LO, 


sathuram. 


Squeeze, r. ^9^9, 1 


pili. 


Stain, v. &e6>iruu(Bj& t 1 


kareipadufctu. 


Stake, 6\ siLGippfl, ^.<s^ t 


kattutari, kuni. 


Stake, v. &.&$ jytf , 8 


kOui adi. 


Stammer, v. @&&lu Gu&, 1 


tikki pesu. 


Stamp, t\ 6(9,^, 8 


mithi. 


Stand, v. /^>jiif, 7, /^^, 7 


nillu, nil. 


Start, v. L/^UU, 2 


purapadu. 


State, ?'. Of/lev, 1, eSuifl^jia'p 


sol, vibarittu sol. 


Station, s. fSeteaLD, t_t/>, 


nilamei, id am, 


e.,4p(2^/r^, 


uttiyoham. 


Stay, t?. P'HtS), 1 


tangu. 


Steal, t\ sffrr&i Qffiu, 5 


kalavu sey. 


Steam, s. ffire8 t 


niravi. 


Steel, 6 1 . s-O'^ 


urukku. 




19 



146 



VOCABULAUY. 



GUtLj, 



Stem, s. 
Stick, s. 
Stiff, a. 
Stillness, s. 
Sting, &'. 
Stink, s. 
Stir, v. 
Stone, s, 
Stoop, -v. 
Stop, v. 

Stop, r. 

Story, s.' (talc) 

Story., s. (oja house)$LL 

Stout, a. 
Straight, a, 
Strain, i\ 
Strange, a. 

Stray, v. 
Stretch, v. 
Stretch, v. 
Strict, a. 
Strife, s. 
Strike, r. 
String, s. 

Strip, s. 
Strip, t'. 



Strip, v. 
Strong, a. 
Struggle, r. 

Sturdy, a. 

Subdue, r. 



} 1, 



1 

QUIT, 1, /<g5, 

LL, 1 , 6$,fl, 



8, 



, 8 



kambu,kathir,tand u. 
kambu, tadi. 
vireitta, vaseiatha. 
ameithal, mavuuam, 
kodukku. 
nattam. 

kalakku, turidu. 

kal. 

kuni. 

nil, tari. 

niruttu, tadu. 

kathei. 
tattu, mettei. 

parutta, pushdiulla. 
neraua. 

* 

vadikatfu. 

anniya, navaniana. 
valitappu. 
po ullu. 
inttu, viri. 
kandippana. 
sandei,vakkuvathani. 
adi, arei. 
niil, kayiru. 
valam, turidu. 
valam, kili, 
tuni uri. 
ellam pidungu. 
balamulla. 
xnallukattu, tuditudi, 

>* * ^ 

(adifcta. 
arlakkui 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



147 



Submit, r. 


^'i_(3, 1 adangu. 


Subside, v. 


pesoft, 4, jyaou> } 4 tani, amei. 


Substance, s. 


Qcj/r0srr, Qfir^^j, porul, sottu. 


Substract, f. 


#:$, 3 kali. 


Succeed, v. 


Sl^fiujtr, 1 sittiyahu. 


Sucb, . 


^uuLpuUiLL-, appadipatta. 


Suck, v. 


uirsv o^f, S pal kudi. 


Suddenly, adv. 


ff@iuirdj, sadutbiyay. 


Suffer, v. 


un u, 2, fS y 8 padu padu, sahi. 


Sugar-cane, s. 


0i/>L/, karumbu. 


Suitable, a. 


g&jsiajtT&fr, tahutbiyana. 


Sum, s- 


QjSirens, tohei. 


Sunrise, s. 


JMtf+^ptuu), arunotbayam. 


Sunset, s. 


j|fcw^LorLo, astatnanam. 


Superior, a. 


(7toaJjrr, melana. 


Superior, s. 


Qu)^ IT ear eusisr, melanavan. 


Supple, a. 


ggjofr&sLcirsyr, ilakkamana. 


Support, s. 


piraa@ t ^^ff], ^angi, atbaravu. 


Support, v. 


sir/nig, 1, ^-^//?, 8 tangu, atbari. 


Sure, a. 


/8ffftuLDiTS3r i nitcbayamana. 


Survey, v. 


/^tfo/i jycrr, 9 nilam ala. 


Suspect, v. 


eiiQf&uu, 2 santbehapadu. 


Swallow, v. 


e&ZLftEJlvj, 1 vilungu. 


Swarm, s. 


$ffeir } Gn.iLLu), tiral, kuttam. 


Swarm, v. 


QiDinu, 8 nioy. 


Swear, v. 


^^aaraS, 2, fp@uju> arieiyiclu, sattiyam 




uszw-cp, I panriu. 


Swear, v. 


&r $&$, 8, <FL$, 8 tusbani ; sabi. 


Sweat, s. 


C^BrroM/j vervei. 


S weep, v. 


Qu(nj&.'3j } 1, . L!, 1 perukku kuttu. 


Sweet, a. 


fiffsluuircir, g$6>fluj, tittippana, iniya. 


Swell, v. 


<s^(5, 1, Ou0(^, 1 vlngu, peruhu. 


Swim, v. 


/f/p^r, 1 mntbu. 



148 



VOCABULARY. 



Sword, s. 
Symptom, 
System, s. 



Tail, s. 
Take, v. 
Talk, v. 
Tall, a. 

Tame, a. 
Tap, v. 

Tar, s. 
Task, s, 
Tax, s. 

Tea, s. 
Teach, v. 
Teacher, s. 
Tear, s, 
Tear, v. 
Teem, v. 

Tell, v. 
Temper, A 
Temperance, 5. 
Tempt, v. 
Tenacious, a, 
Tenant, s. 
Tend, v. 
Tender, a. 
Tenfold, adv. 
Tenon, 8. 
Tent, 8. 
Term, s. 



T, 



w, 8, ey/r/n? 25, 1 
^LOU/TC$, 8, Qu&, 1 



firjpeutrevr, 



<2u/r, 1 

M, 



i9t$.euirf(y)&r0ir 9 



pattayam, ka&i, 

kuri. 

olungu. 



val. 

edu, vangu. 
sambashi, pesu. 
nediya, netteiana. 

sathuvana. 
tattu. 
kil, tar. 
kuritta velei. 
vari, tlrvei. 
/f, te ilei, te tannir. 
pothi, padippi. 
vatti, pothikkiravan. 
kanriir. 
kili, pirn, 
nireivay iru, palu- 

hi po. 
sol, arivi. 
gunam. 

nithanam, adakkam. 
sothi. 

pidivathamulla. 
vatteikku edutiavan. 
adu madu mey. 
ilasana. 

pattu madangay. 
kalunthu. 
kudaram. 
tavanei 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



149 



Terms, s. 
Terrace, s. 
Terrify, v. 
Test, s. 

' Testimony, s. 
Than, con. 
That, con. 
That, pro. 
Theft, s. 

Then, adv. 
Thence, adv. 
There, adv. 
Therefore, con. 
Thick, a. 



Thief, S. sstreuireif) 

Thin, a. OLoetffff^j, 

Think, v. <$&*, 8 

Thirst, s. 

Thong, s. 

Thorn, s. 

Thorough, a. 

Thoroughly, adv. KsofftyiL, <ipp 

Thou, pro. /, 

Thought, s. iS&srey, iifi2ssr, 

Thrashing floor, s. <&etru>, 
Thread, 5. jarco, 

Threat, v. ^'^(^PJJ'^F^?, 1 

Thrive, v. 



Throb, v. &i+ t 8, jyip, 8 

Through, adv. egrri_, 
Throughout, adv. erniQib, 



oppantha vibarangal . 
tarisu. 

bay a paduttu. 
sothanei, paritchei. 
satchi. 

ilum, parkkiluin. 
endu, ena. 
a, athu, antha. 
kalavu, tiruttu. 
appothu. [muthal. 
, athilirunthu, athu- 



ff, ange, avvidattil. 
aheial. 
kanatta, adarntha, 

kattiyana. 
kajavali, tirudan. 
mellia. 
ninei. 
taham. 
var. 
mill. 

buraria, tlrntha. 
nanday, muttilum. 
iii. 
nineivu, sinthanei. 

kalam. 

nul. 

bayamurutu. 
, 9, seli, semamayiru, 
5,1, selippayuridahu. 

tudi, adi. 
:le, uruva, al. 



150 



VOCABULARY. 



Throw, v. 


sy9, 4 eri. 


Thrust, v. 


<&(&$, 1, /g, tallu, nikku, 


Thrust, v. 


($fi&, 1; utnL&&, 1 kufciu, paytehu. 


Thus, adv. 


$uutf. t g)s#aic0:t$9d ) ippadi, iuthavaheyil. 


Thyself, pro. 


jgpirGeor, EI taue. 


Ticket, s. 


&1, Bifru. 


Tie, v. 


ail, 1, (zp^f , 8 kattu, mudi. 


Tiger, s. 


&&jifiii, 4*^1 kacluvay, pull. 


Tight, a. 


$)lear, iruhina. 


Till, a<Zy. 


eussiSiLiLa^ LDLLQtPj varciuin, mattum. 


Timber, 5. 


iffu>, niaram. 


Tin, s. 


&a>DLL y tahararu. 


Tire, v. 


g)Sar^^u(Ju<r, 1 ileittu po. 


Title, s. 


ULLL-t, Guir } patfam, per. 


To, p'o. 


(^ } Qtjifeo, ku, id a till. 


Together, adv. 


ffiLL_, gj(5j95tf ; [i-l^f, kuda, orumikka. 


Tomato, s. 


p&afreffi, ULL&Di Qau takkali, rattei veiti. 


To-night, adv. 


^SST^JJ @j-ffl&o, indu iravil, 




jsvi u ffir^fiifiijSiev, iudu rattiriyil. 


Too, con. 


e.//), .^.u., urn, kuda. 


Tool, s. 


G5$, <g,u-jLD, karuvi, ayutham. 


Top, s. 


QL2IBU&&LD, GiLpsLi. niel pakkam, met 




* G ^? katti mudi. 


Torch, s. 


j^Qa/tlif, ti vetti. 


Torrent, s. 


iGffffLLt-jj> y f n uutriu inr ottam, nir pay- 




^<?si), dial. 


Toss, v. 


wff, 4, gy^v, 8 ^sro^jS eri, alei, asei. 


Total, s. 


G^/rD<5?, tohei. 


Totter, v. 


PSTTLQI-I, 1, t $sirerrir, 1 talambu, talladu. 


Touch, v. 


0^/r, 2 todu. 


Tough, a. 


eLffQ^srrfffTy uramulla. 


Toward, adv. 


Gf5oti t iieraha. 


Tower, s. 


G&iruinJD, koburam. 



Trace, s. 
Trace, y. 
Track, s. 

Trade, 5. 
Train, -s. 
Train, v. 

Trample, v. 
Transfer, v. 

Translate, c 
Trap, s. 
Travel, v. 
Traverse, v. 

Treasure, s. 
Treat, v. 
Treat, v. 
Tremble, v. 
Trench, s. 
Trespass, v. 
Trial, s. 
Triangle, .s. 
Trick, s. 
Trickle, v. 
Trifle, s. 

Trigger, s. 
Trivial, a. 
Trouble, 8. 

Trough, s. 
True, a. 

Trumpet, s. 



, 1, 



, 8 



8, QoS/rsaw 

ULj, 1 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. lol 

eo$*(fS) vali kuri. 

pin todar. 
Su tadam, suvadu, kattu 

pathei. 

st, viyabaram, tolil. 

/r, puhei vandi todar. 
1, palakku, vasakku, 

pndippi. 
, 1 mithi. 

kodu, koTidu po. 
tiruppu. 

pori, patteiyam. 
pay an am po. 
kadanthu po. 

pokkisliam. 
nadattu. 
marunthu par. 
nadungu. 

vaykal. 

nulei. 

visaranei, sothanei, 

mukkonam. 

tirukku, ettu. 

vadi. 

sorpam, arpa kari- 

3 T am. 
visei. 

arpa. [vu. 

sangadam, tonthara- 

tot.fci, pafctal. 
meyyana, nisamana. 

vanga. 



1 

utrir, S 



, Qfir<f3osr, 



31IBU&&IT 



&/EJ3L-.LD 



VOCABULARY. 



Trust, s. 
Trust, v. 
Try, v. 

Tube, s. 

Tuck, v. 
Tuft, ,9. 

Tumour, s, 
Tune, s. 
Turban, s. 

Twice, adv. 

Twilight, s. 
Twin, s. 
Twist, v. 
Twofold, adv. 
Type, s. 

Udder, s. 
Ugly, a. 
Ulcer, s. 
Unable, a. 
Uncleanness. s. 
Uncommon, v. 

Uncover, v. 
Under, pre. 
Undergo, v. 
Underground, ct. 
Underhand, a. 

Understand, v. 



} 2 



, 8, 



u. 

LO, 

& 
fi tSl err 6&3L' 



67, 8 

S<?0>, 

u, 2 



nambikkei. 
nambu. 

v* 

pirayasapadu, 

sothi. 
kulal. 

padi, soruhu. 
kudumbi, kondeik- 

katteij mudi. 
kattu, paru. 
iraham. 
taleipa. 

irandu tharam, 
irandu visei, 
santhi velitoham. 
irattei pillei. 
tiri, murukku. 
irandu madaugay. 
atohu. 



pasu madu. 
avalatcliariamana. 
iranam, pilavei. 
kudatha. iyalatha. 
asuttam. 
viseshamana, apur- 

vamana. 
edu. 
kile. 

padu. 

pumikku kilana. 
antharangamulla, 

kabadamujla. 
ari vilangu, tori. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



153 



Undertake, v. 

Underwood, s. 
Undo, i\ 

Undress, v. 
Unequal, a. 
Uneven, a. 
Unfair, a. 
Unfit, a. 
Unfold, v. 
Unfortunate, a. 
Unfruitful, a. 
Ungrateful, a. 

Unhurt> a. 

Uniform, a. 
Union, s. 
Unite, v. (act.) 
Unite, v. (neut. 

Universal, a. 
Unjust, a. 

Unknown, a. 
Unlawful, a. 

Unlike, a. 
Unnatural, a. 
Unpack, v. 

Unroll, v. 
Unsaddle, y. 

Unsafe, a. 

Unscrew, v. 
Unsold, ., 



6T, 

SIT, 



, 1, 
, 1 



LOIT6BT 



, 8 



, erpadu, ettukol. 

edu. 

siru kadu. 
avil. 

uduppu kalattu. 
vifctiyasamana. 
karadu muradana. 
nniyayamana. 

elatha, tahatlia. 
viri. 

sitti peratha, 
kani kodatha. 
nandi ketta. 
j setbam illatha, se- 

thapadatha. 
betham illatha. 
eikkiyam. 
, S poruttu, isei. 
porunthu. 

engumulla. 
anithiulla, 

aria padatha. 
sattafctukku virotLa- 

mana. 

, ottiratha- [mana. 
iyalbukku virotha- 
gjcSltjpp tiranthedu, aviltte- 

" clu, 
viri. 

, 8 senam kalattu. 
, RLZU pattiramillatha,nam 

ba idam illatha. 
tirukarii kalattu. 

, villathn/vileiyahath ^ 
20 



154 



VOCABULARY. 



Unusual, a. 

Up, adv. 

Upon, pre. QioQe\) 

Upper, a. 

Upside, s. 

Upside down, adv. 

Upward, adv. 

Urge, v. 

Usage, s. 

Use, v. 

Useful, a. 

Utmost, a. 

Utmost, s. 

Utter, v. 

Utterly, adv. 



ITS 



Qfirsv, 1 



valakkam illatha. 

uyara* mele, 

mele. 

melana. 

mel pakkam. 

kilathu rnelathalia. 

uyara, mele. 
evu. 

valakkam. 
), 1 valanguj keiyadu. 

pirayosanamulla. 
, kadeisij'ana, athiha. 
iyanda mattum. 
sol. 
muttilum. 



Vacancy, s. 
Vaccinate, v. 
Vagabond, s. 
Vain, a. 

Vanish, v t 
Vapour, s, 
Vast, a. 
Vehicle, s. 
Veil, ,9. 
Venom, s. 
Verdure, s. 
Verse, s. 
Vertebra, s. 
Very, adv. 
Vessel, s. 
Vex, v. 



V. 

eo6i/(^'f? (gi^^j 



LDQDJD, 4 

U QuifilLI, 



3 } suuev, 



ideiveli, kali. 

veisiiri kuttu. 

pokkiri. 

vinana. 

vilei, kirayam. 

marei. 

kanaL 

athiba periya. 

vahanam. 

mukkadu. 

visham. 

pasumei, pasum pul, 

vakkiyam, kavi. 

muthuhelumbu. 

mihavum, metta. 

pattiram, kappal. 

visanapaduttu. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



Vice, s. 

Vice, s. 
View, s. 
Vile, a. 
Violence, s. 
Virtue, s. 
Visit, v. 
Vivid, a. 
Voice, s. 
Vow, s. 



Wade, v. 
Wages, s. 
Wait, v. 
Wake, v. (neut.) 

Wake, v. (act.) 
Walk, v. 
Want, v. 

War, s. 
Warm, a. 
Warm, v. 
Wash, v. 
Wasp, s. 
Waste, v. 
Watch, 5. 
Watch, v. 
Water, s. 

Water, v. 
Wave, s. 
Wax, 5. 



pollangu, timmark- 

kam. 

pidittiravi. 
tdttam, katchi. 
pollatha. [mei. 

', balavantharn, kodu- 

sarkunam. 

santhi. [na. 

, athiha, pirahasama- 
sattam, kural. 
poru&anei, netti. 



w. 



rsL-, 9 tannlrukkul nada. 
killi, sambalam. 
kattiru. 
elumbu. 

eluppu, 
nada. 



, 9, (?a/ teveiyay iru, ven- 



>, (def.) 



GffUJ&ffr, 1 



iru, 
dum. 

sandei, yuttam. 
analulla; 
kaytchu. 
kaluvu. 
kulavi. 
Yinay chelavali. 

kadiyaram. 
kaval ka. 
ta^nlr, jalam. 

nir paytchu, 

alei. 

meluhu. 



156 
Weak, a, 

Wealth, s, 
Wear, v. 
Weave, v. 
Wedge, s. 
Weep, v. 
Weigh, v. 

Weight, *. 
Welcome, v t 
Well, adv. 
Wellnigh, adv. 
Wet, a. 

What, pro. 
When, adv. 
Whence, adv. 

Whenever, adv. 
Where, adv. 
Whereas, adv. 
Whereby, adv. 
Wherefore, con. 
Wherefore, adv. 
Wherever, adv. 
Which, pro. 
While, adv. 
Whirl, v. 
Whisper, v. 
White, a. 
Who, pro. 
Whoever, pro. 
Whole, a. 
Wholly, adv. 

Wicked, a. 



VOCABULARY. 



QUIT, 2, Gptu, 4 

(L/, 5 



4Wi 



OTffl/SW 



, 6, 



IUIT/T 



belavina, belavina- 

mana. 
asti. 

podu, tey, 
ney. 

appu. 

8 karmir vidu, alu. 
niru, 

nirei, barani. 

ettu kol. 
nanday. 

konjam kureiya. 
Iramana, naueintha. 

enna, ethuvo. 

eppothu. 

engirunthu. 

eppoluthanalum. 
, enge, evvidattil. 

pndiyal. 

ethinal, athinal. 

aheial, athalal. 

ennattukkaha. 

engeyahilum. 

ethu, even, eval. 

poluthu. 

sulalu, suttu. 
1 kathukkul sollu. 
, vellei, veljeiyana. 

yar, ar. 

yaranalum. 

ellam, mulu. 

muluthuniay, mutti- 
lum. 

pollatha. 



OTHER USEFUL WORDS. 



157 



Wide, a. 


jf s es LL IT ear } 6$&nev alialamaiia, visala- 




Lonevr, [BT, mana. [na. 


Wild, a. 


/Til@, gaopt, <s/rt_/r kattu, tushda, kada- 


Will, s. 


^^^^r, sittam. 


Wine, s. 


$inrLL& ffffu), tiratcha rasam. 


Wing, s. 


^/P, sirahu. 


Winnow, v. 


L/si_, 8 pudei. 


Wipe, v. 


^aot-, 8 tudei. 


Wire, s. 


^-9, kambi. 


Wish, v. 


eSt^di-i, 1 virurnbu. 


AVith ; >r#. 


^sv, Q&irem, &>.L- y al, kondu, kuda, 




e_L>3r, |B ; udan, odu. 


Within, pre. 


e-ehGffrr, ulle. 


Without, pre. 


iffVG$tru.6$, allamal. 


Witness, s. 


&IJLL&, satchi. 


Witness, v. 


&ITLL Q^/r^j^j 1 satehi sollu. 


Witness, v. 


u/r/f, 8 par. 


Word, s. 


euiriTf6S)^, varttei* 


Work, s. 


Quu3sv 9 velei. 


Work, v. 


(?&&> Q<<FUJ, 5 yelei sey. 


Worm, s. 


z^(z^, pulu. 


Worship, v. 


Qpirty, 5 tolu. 


Worthy, a. 


urrpfsiffLDfrGBr, pafctiramana. 


Wrap, v. 


&?> 1, SL?& } I suttu, udufctu, por. 




(?uff/f, 8 


Wring, v. 


(y2i/@, 1, ^(rj^, 1 murukku, tiruhu. 


Write, v. 


GQg&t 1 eluthu. 


Wrong, a. 


^ujJ^Lo/r^ar, QZL!L-, tappithamana, ketta. 




Y. 


Yard, s. 


(Lp>bjDu> t rauttam. 


Yawn, v. 


Q&iTL-L-nfS! flS?, '2 kottavi idiu 


Yellow, s. 


tL{g&sfr } manjal. 


Yet, adv. 


@3rcwu). innaru. 



153 VOCABULARY. 

Yet, con. 4K@)"> analum. 

Yield, v. Qs/r, 8, gDararffi/o, 1 kodu, inangu. 

Yon, a. W@PP) angutta. 

Yonder, adv. jfcjcStjfcn, avvidattil. 

You, pro. /f, fimssir, DI, inngal. 

Young, s. O^^f, @^<9?, seysrjp, kutti, kunju> kandu. 
Young, a. 



Z 



Zeal, s. GuuSfftT3i&uju>, vayirakkiyam. 

Zigzag, cc. Gsirzvsrffi), (os/rssweo/rsBr, koiial, konalana. 

tutta nahara. 



ENGAGEMENT OF COOLIES. 



159 



s 



5 I 

C-i ^ 

fc 






o 

s 




1GO 



SENTENCES. 



^ 



IO 

d 



!03 

a 

:^rt 

4 44 



g tJJ 

.S g 

^ S 

44 ^ 

"3 44 

4J 

10) g 

P" ice 

rf f^ 



be 



ice ^ 







44 


ci 

d 

c3 

T?- 


0) 

g 

00 


10 


1 


4? 

> 
p i 


J? 


13 
44 


CV. 


1l 




2. 


la 


c3 


irt 

g 


"d , 


Cv>. 

1 


44 
d 


'1 g 

P*.tr 
tJO 

d d 

3 -2 

&!, 


konduvar 


3 
43! 

Is 

IO 


inamay irv 


9 


sappattukk 


O> rf 




n J 


o3 


C j 


i ( 


^' 431 


iC6* 


Cv>. 


P*j 


CN" 


ic3 


!C8 




S r 


1 


10? ic8 

i i p^ 


d 

ic3 


II' 


i 


t*. ^"i 
^* t 

o o> 


s 

CO 


o 'o 
d j 


'f 

0, 


pfe 


-*-> 


Ir 1 




i ^3 


Pi 


o3 


c3 


O2 




oa 




^8 


3 


3 




3 


a 



(if 



c 



s 



tn 



^i. -^ 
B fe 

g 

CD 



s a 

a - 



1 \\ 

O CV. t I 



3S 



Cv. 


0) 

a 

O 



s 





^d 



o 
^ 



& 



a 

3 



w 5 



S 3 



Qb 



j 



44 

o 



1 



CV. 

~i-3 

ca 



^ ^" 
^3 2 



w 





_d 

H 



6 





*8 

? 
fc 

5 

fc 



-3 1 

T!^ ^s 

C3 i i 

G 5> 

Qi 

IQJ 

a -^ 

c3 .|? 

^3 



fcC 
3 


s 
o 

0> 

> 



o 

& 



5 3 

'^i 

K^ L 



C/J i J 

5 :! 

O *J 
O . 
O >~> 

2 

O CD 



w 



w 



3 |5 

H 



ENGAGEMENT OF COOLIES. 



161 



1 



a I 
'3 "Si 



ex. S p 

S , a o 

-j r I- ,_ 44 

h! 5. C 



ic8 



p < \j3i ** 

'^. |.-. 
05 ^ P- 

" 3 



d| 

g-^ S? 
f| 1 

IJ ^ 

2 ^ rj IO 

^ ^ > ^ 

S >r p -5. ^ 

s g f 
&, S' 

Ph S c co 

M '. e-3 3 

"Silica 

4 11 & -3 S 



ex. 

f 

-4-^ 3 



u 
an 



r 



10 





.1 -I 

*3 

% * 

J I 

dfc ? 

ll 

y 
I *8 

1 2 



ic3 



p- 
id 
t" 

cS 
fl 
5=1 
O> 

^ 

-a 

a 



ic3 ic3 

^> ^> 

'S '25 
i-p > 

!>! 



H . t , ) ^r; 
^ c3 io> ID 



.^ g p. 

'I 3 fr 

P O T3 

02 d 



TJ- 
O 



b N |J? & S 

|||f| 

i s "i'l i 

8 I ' 5 

I' I II * 



' _* & ^8 '- 1 

" -a 1 ^ & 



e 



li-H I(H 03 

P > H> P. 



1 



*8 \9 W k. 

?*.*1 

a CSi * " 9 

.? ^L 'I p* 

S J i ^ *J 

ex. , 

f S 2 






i i 







i 



el % 



1 i 

o I 



ala 
ida 



S- TS- 



3 c3 
I fl o P-i 



3 



b ' Qfl tfi 

3 D . ^ O 

^ r-3 -3 - 

m ^ *? -e 3 



GS 



1 1 






g 





8 

1 

C 

o 



CD 



It 

o5 ^* 

n 



ex. 

CD 



bcj2 
p ^ 

"&i O 

a -3 



^ 



g, 

r< ^j 

*r3 P 

g 



I 1 ] 

a SL E 



O o 



S'"-8|:'l 

>-i h-i CC C^ 



2 ^ "'S 

o> 



^ I ^ 



02 



t S 



^ 

ri4 



a 




^ o 

s- p^ 



21 



162 



SENTENCES. 



u perattu vei. 
pidu. 



vihil uthu. 



ratlu. 
manikku 
lei kuppi 
adi. 
bu Othu, 
u uthu. 
u adi. 



leipe 
aru 
lkal 
am 
ombu 
ngu 
ottu 



alk 
ma 
ko 
san 
kot 












<>,. 

ic3 

1 
1 




53 
"3* 

^i 

IS. 






leihaleiyum 


: i 
fe 

10) 

f 


c3 

rS 1 
'o 

'E. 

\ 
r (. 










1 

O 


E3 



ice 


"p* 

c- 


^ 




'S 

s 




f* 


c3 . 

.-S'^' 

. & 


t 

pq 
J3 

'3, 

& 

bo 

CJ 
^ . 

""3 * 


i 

a 

s 
f-i 

' 

~t-3 

o5 

QQ 

8. 


pesugirathu ar ? 
sirikkirathu ar ? 


nan pesamalirukka 


oruvanum pesa kud 


CD 

PH 

c3 
J3 

-4-> 

i-T 
fl 
i^ 
60 
p 

J 


^ 

r^3 

O 

03 

r^ 
|^. 

'c ' 

i- 

>* 

'i 


^d 

"3 ^ 
!S 

'o 

2 
' 
c 
> 

IFH 
fl 9 


anpil leihaleiyum, p^ 


.^* 
'CD 

IS' 
j| 

'o 

1; 


anpilleihal, penpil 
vevveraha nillun 



> 

tS! 



51 







1 4 

^ 9 



a 



613 

a o 



I 

^ 



o 



r^ J73 



60. 



-2 .2 M 



CQ CT CQ .'/~i rn 

r 1 ^ f"^ i P^ ^-. r^ 



.'S 

P 



,-^4 oa 

^ 

CD ,ja tw 

^>__j -4-3 ^ 

" s 'S 

03 CD O 



a >;- s 
S I 1 

O 60 g 
O ^ 

^ Q 



II 



TS 

a 

CJ 







S ^ 

S3 

tf ,- 
x $ 



*? 

1 i 

2 o 



o 

T* 



CJ "*-* 

% 

S 8 *. 
If-1 

H r/l 



MORNING MUSTER, 



163 



J 



'0 

, 





10 



IC8 




a 



si 

ff 
d 



a 



cv 

10) 

to 

d 


g~ 

^ s 

!C3 c3 
T^. CQ 

C- 'TO 



fcfl cv 

g 'S 



d 

g 



d> 5 



^ 03 



!3 

la. 
'| 

d 

a? fl 

^1 

^S 1 & 

rt ^ 

j> c3 



I 

^ 2 

'<. 03 

*: 

53 -^1 

3 

03 

d d 
^ ^ 

11 



rf 

a 



'1 

f-< 

o3 
> 



I0> 

^ 
M 

. 







Gb 



vi ^r 

I I 

o e3 



~S ^ 
02 02 



P o> 

a 

o o 



o 

P 



73 

.9 
^3 


rQ 



^ 

rt 2 

C3 > 



t; ^ 

^ 'I 

I 



^5 -3 I 

i -a i ;J 

3 S '1 



6 -S 
fc a! 





TJ 



_ 

oT S ^ b" 

% 2 ^ 

O ^^ ^ f^ 

:&: 1 .4:5 ; 5-J B 

r-l ^ CT< p p p 



o o 



a 

13. 

1 ^ C^- 

w i ? 



p ~ l OQ QJ 

2 ^ ^ 

o3 2 





3 






3 


1 



o 

I, 

1:1 



irj rf *o 



a 



-a S 



SENTENCES. 




MORNING MUSTER, 



165 







16C 



SENTENCES. 



3 -H- A 

CO O EH. 

44 13 



o3 

fco 

9 







j- 





-4 




p 


ie8 




CV-. 




<D 


a 

3 

i : 

r3l 
10 
ft 


sunangatheyungal . 
nadanthu ponsral. 

V. " N. A O < 

kandakttar, sananga 


:n3 
PH 

o3 
> 

S> 

GQ 

3 

IOJ 
> 

^ 

P- 


nan sonnathei nineivu 


ni bangalavukku va. 


' 

ic6 
1? 

1 

.03 
44 
44 

^ 
.b 

> K" 


vukku kuttikondu v 


I 


ettanei mam irukkum 


kiilikkararei kuppidu. 


j 5. 

o> s: 

o g 

S:& 

|.|: 
^44 

i* 

S ^ 

1 (. p 
c3 c3 

44 *& 






3 

^5 


' 






fc; 
g 




Tos 

a 












*-3 


t 






3 

















1 




18 


^ 




S 

3 


iT 


J 






9\ 

a 






H; 


^ 


* 




:r 


o< 


O 


a. 




S 




^;5 



pq 




EVENING MUSTER. 



167 



c3 

r^l 



5 A\ 

fl - 

i 3 

a > 

cc 



^ a 

a -a a 

'2 .a . 

Hi -I*. I 

,9 'S- a 

a 



^~ 

OS M 

ice P-I 
2 Jg 

*^ 2 

js 
&* 



II 

^5' 'S 

it i 

^ ^4 r*4 

I" * 

T3 b 3 



r ( 

I<U *" 

> .a 

c5 

351 < 



. 

123. ^ 

*T' c3 r^ 

JS-3 8 

" : & 

G 10 0> 



r 



Sh 

CV. .j 

1 1 

fc= ) 

I . 

*J ei 



2 *.? 

* * '2 

d* *S .5 



I 



li 

d S 

o ^oa 

c3 

^ a 



rrt *3 

"-> S 



a. 

g 



b ^ 

l-a 

P^ o3 to 



-" 



1 *. 

* I 4 "" 'rf 





1 



* fl 

^ ^ 

S^ ^ 

"S c & 

'S c3 S 

g fl 

Q 



1^1, i 

ic3 T?' -^ ' "- 

> 10 .M 

JH O* ,0 .,4 ^ 

' I0 pj g Ig 

tf rf 

ta 

0> 



it i 

E ** M 

J -3 ^ 

"S r-i O 

r 1 'o ' ' 
i^ .2' 'fl , 

O 






S 2 75 






1 



6 SO 

6 o 

!? i 

i 

t= w 



CO 

c 



o 

. a 
2 

o ^ 

"S $ 

O r-l 

1 I 

rH 



TS' -|. 

C; '5 





i 



o 

CO 



O 



fi 



a 







II 






*" i 

,2,1 





i l 

n 

rTj ' 

H H 



163 



SENTENCES. 



P 

10 

P* 



* -s 

5 3 

e$ o 



c 
fco 







-o 

' 






CM. 

c3 
^ 

. 












44 


pi 


cv. 


r-l 

CD 






> 


ukkirath 


3 
KQ 

.b 
p> 

c3 


g 

SI 

CD 

r4 

5: 


Cv. 

ice 
ns- 

' 


Co. 

ic3 
43 


"H 
o3 

1. 


1' 

44 


P 
P 
CD 


c3 
&i 

.& 1 


1 


1 


r-l* 

pdi 

p! 


1 
' 


44 

a 

p 
P 


43 
-t-> 

ie8 

.b 

p> 


1 


431 
iftj P! 
be *=l 
P ^ 
S 44 


44 

-3 
1 


| 












S 




^ 






Cv. 

t= 


< 




* 









I 



I 

o 

3 

w 

3 



o 

p 

I I 

O 



S5: J 

=i fe -1 



1 
* 

S 

'a 



M 



02 C5 

M 




g es 

n 



M 



GIVING OUT MEDICINE. 



169 




170 



SENTENCES. 



3 



d 
rt 



< 



^!3 



S o 



.ea 



^ S 
fr'S 

>c3 -j j 

-^ & 

CD 44 

Il' j 



icS 



3 



2 " '& 
^d f 

d CD ^ 

5-" >~j 103 ."^ 

85. S.fll 
asa-.,.jg.." 

2|.tl'|^.l 

^J3 " "^ li I , rj j C? C' 

^44 > s '.2 d ' 5 



A ng' S 



,-d Id) 
-*j i 

f ' I 

c. 44 44 

d iqj c* -. -4 ^ 

^3 44 d T3- d 3 

rH ,(_> ^ O. d rjw. Jf! 

al-l^ll 4 

ftli.il* 

IQJ IT-*** rH* * O Q * pH 

^ 'a 1 ^ " .S 

S^-i f- 1 " SI 
^ ' ^H '- =3 S 

g -I -J3 ^ d -^ J 

,S 41 



10 

PH ^ 



.a 1 ' fi 

'5- 
g J 





J' 5 
c3 

^d 

1 J 







(5 t= 

1 I 



2 



1 1 



3 " 



1 



3 



^ SM 

g T g 

o g 45 

o -^ 

05 ^ C3 

i? j 

.ss'a 

~^J > r-l S-l 

d d 3 

2.1 



OT 05 03 



dicine ? 



d 
o 

a 

d 
o 
>^ 

d 

CD 

& 

O 



^ ^ g 

1 f.,0* 

3 4 ^ 
K o^: J -J ^ 



d 



fe ., 



s 

O <:v ' 

S -o 

^ * 

g' s 

O CD 

a a 

O P t 

^^ n^j 

d 

? S 
fcc _S 

S * "o 
&. 

44 a I 

Cj O L_J 

H O M 



3 .1 



I 

f-i "^ 
i ' o> 



O .S 



3 &0 



O 

d. 



P 







t= -? L 

a -L * 

J .u 

10 T * 



^i d ' -J 5 

-; 3 t 
O O O 






o ^ d 

I".-! 

^^fj >^j 

-S "cS 







2 

o 

f^, 

fl 

o 



0> E vT o> " o 

? : .(5 fe a > M 



(S 



GIVING OUT MEDICINE. 



171 




172 



SENTENCES. 




(JIVING OUT RICE. 



373 



^ ^ ^ 

<F ~^ >-? !- 



de 



*^ "3 JH- 

A S ^ 



I: 

o 

P4 

t 


1 
| 

'S 


cu 


ftfl 

d 


a 


d 

1 

t> 




03 

GC 

d 

g 


aattavarha- 


u tirumba 


i 




i 

J 

a 


"8. 


c$ 

"C- 


icS 


*?H 

c3 


.1-4 

O 




"5l 


H 


5 








d 

r*4 

*S 

i 
? 


ovvoru ali 


edupparhal 


I 

SI 
o3 


^ 
!3 



d 

d 


^rt 
^ 


a 

1 


!i 

'I 1 
| 


S 

" 
id 

^4 

e3 
^. 


ra vendum. 


ic3 

f 

.4 


>i-i 


i 



J4 o-. 

,s'2 


ngammar 


'co 

i 

< 

T^. 
i-l 
J 1 


1 

fi 

d. 


oS 

^ 

| 


11 iy ay am 


f a 

^ T5- 
^ d- 

^ ICU 

03 p- 


M 

1 


> 

d 

^j 

>v 

d 

r ( 


o3 

> 

d 

T3- 
C- 

^ 


i 

d 


^i- 
id 
^ 


-*j 


oa 




ie 






d 


(-* 






|pH 


ic3 


OQ 
l-H 


pi4 




> 






d 


R 






fi > 


* > 



fe CV. 



48 e 



., 



O 



I o 8 



j .JJj 



.s 



O O2 



IV* SENTENCES. 

II F-J I I I 

8) -S a 3-1-3 

c, P r* ' ^4 42 43. 

P- .etf ^- ' 2 c3 

4^ ^ d '-. -M dl 

*s 2" a 3 

^ 'S ^ 

. : :g .- s, d a - 

rt - ' 0> .2* C3 > iC3 

g-5^4^ S f d >> 

^ S fi a i" -z- > j 'I '^' 

*""^ f^ ^Zi t> /-^ ^ fj C3 

rt ."H- j ^ -s* EJ g *o 44 . ^- p |: ^ 

^.^ -g,.; s i : ^! A-'P g | i 'g -g, . ^ 

^ -s i 1 g I f j i i :S 'i .? a 1 ' 

's -^ n I . . a s r .'S -S. a ^ -"S ? 3 

S u-' c5 io >^ J ^ g n:. H s - o "S g >:. 'g 1 

, 'I -i I 1 -^ f -;^l i ;l. : l '- a '- I I - 'S S 

g -ce - ^ ^ to ^ .s | 1- 3^ f 8 8 II 5 

^ g .5 P> 44 3f .'S *. SJ 3 S 3.-3I 

1-a" s -a M ^ . a - 

f I ' 1 'I | 

3 ' ^ J 'I- 

o i '. ^. 8 J ^ ^ 

1 1 it 4 } lii f i ( 

a , ^ 3- -fe -^ fe | i *. -J 

* ? ^ ci -Ki I (a I a '-3 * 



^ ' ^ ^ 'I p ' ^ % "4 ^ 9 ^ 

j 'L ^ P (o p ^ 3 ~ '1 

^^ i *? -'^fa'q, ^^^'f^cg^l 

Co ^ ri -fe" H * *' C) -'8 '^L .q 8 *8 3 ^l 9 

^i *| ? < ^ ^- 3 ^ @|. S ' J . O O. o (K O 

5 * e 0^5^ Ig'** 18 g. 

&> O Q^ ^^ ^fe^ala'C^(^(^ 

feooo^; j?; 4?o 4TO 

a> w r^ <j ^ p- \ H3 M 

'^ Cj ^ O /t 

I ^ | M | | = ' ^ ^ ' 3 

2 CD W .-.-{ ^ 44 =3 

^vS^U .Sg^-Se,. 

O ?3 uJ3 ^-j * r-^* < ~ V3 * 03 

.^^ K2 CD^3 12 ^ a f o"2a>44 

^ 3 o 4^ > ^ If - ^ , '^ ^ 

3 - : J I ? I I" 1 ^ &! | 

1 S ^ g l'\ 1- |\|.; ^ /- ^ .1 ^ 

^^i4 S .S'^'orf^^^^^S.S 

(T,0 r 3 ^ ^p, ^^Po'^'^ 



<r>Or> ^^-l^^^^^*"^ 00 

fcc^ ^^3-^_5or2^^ 



^ " ~ < * -ir r^ 

h^ EH ^HHP^HHH 



LINKS. 



175 










-i 

c3 







1 



13 

P-. 

J. '0) 



S3 
3 > 



ill 



fl 

_^ 
^ 

s i 



fr -5 

-3i 



C CD c5 

~ S 5 

'CD ^ .2" 

i- ' " CD 



~' - ^ g 

^4 PH 



od 
tc 
p 




> 

^ 



C5 



,c "9 g 'g^ 

^ ^ : 'j 3 

'Si O 



S 



g I a 



C 5 S 



D 

a 



TT* c 
C- 



fcO 





CD <3 

-s - 



- 

S 2 



s *> 

Ill 



II 

^, 



S j 

"8 <l8 , 
8L d 



a 



3 

. 



L 



-e 



3 t O 

J 3 

5 -3 

^ -D ^ 



o -jj w 

02 3 

"o - 

1-^ d 



3 to o 

O 2 ^_T ^3 



0. O 



a. 






5 d * 
&7 ^ 



^ 

>-> 02 

a 





I 



1 

cu 



W ft ft 



'- S 

co a 



co oa 

CD CD 

o ^d 

ft H 



O 



I 

J 



.5 '* 
\r*) 

3- j> 



s j 

I " 



' J 

-*-' * ^^ 

III! 

H H 



176 



SENTENCES. 



IO 

p4 

3 



ic3 



i" 




44 



5. A a 



S 



Ci 



o 

ft 



.1 



I- 10 

* 
3. 



>c3 *^ 

Cj Cw 

It 

Qri 



JO* laj 



.? 



s 

l 



I 

o 3 la) 

3 -I . I 

* **&* 

g ^ 

S a 

j"-5*1 1 1 



viyat 



a 
PS 



3 

G 

i 



JS 



'S, 



ka 



'j 

|i 

i<^3 ^i 
>^ -^ 

"> 

ci l( ^ 

^ 2 

.S * 

'h 



r 
m. 



44 

e3 

44 'J3 

11 

ii! 
n 



s- g , 

'g 5 *P. 

^ "- ice 

c8 fcO 

I 1 *! * 

P^ g 44 

"3 



.!5 5 



a d 



OL. 

,a 



i 

D 
1 

ta 



3 o ^ 
. 9 



o 



*-' 

CO 



CM* 

a 
J 





p 



a 
"I 

nd 
c3 



o 

a 



o es 

ll 

d ^ 

rH ^C3 
02 ' 

d o 



CD 



be fcO ^ 



1 



^ O d 

sl ^ J 

o c a 



& s 



e3 

Q] 



o 

1 



<a 



44 
* 

43 



" 
> ** 

*43 

a .9 
a a 

m P4 



r-J O 



o o 



1 J 



ADVANCES FOK COOLIES. 



.177 







fr, 

1 

C3 




thukondu 


i 

1 

a' 


5 


3", 

cS 








r"{| 




d , 


d 


Ti- 


^a 




CSi. 


<*-. 


10 




3 


t^ 




-M 




vendum inge 


S 

'j-i 

d 

<3 
t> 

1 

d > 


kuttikonclu p 


irukkirathu ? 
ibi. 


.53 

i i 
JSI 

1 

g 


um karuvattei 


^ 

U 

P^ 
d 



d 

3 


pohavittal ir 


Ida matten. 


unakkenna 


.2 

10 
to 
d 

(D 

'S > 


r-l 

l| 

d 


g a 

8-.1 

5 42 'S: 

:3 ;<tf d 

c3 P* P-. 


10 

^d 
o 


.b- 

o 
>> d 

: s-' 

3 ^9 


avanei vele 


ni veleikku 


> 

C3 

ri4 
4d 
^ 

. 






b= 




S 


J 




.^ 


f 






C9 






8 




(S 


J 


cv 




^^ 




^y 


* | 




VJ% 




18 




@ 




@l 


Is 


\ 


s 


1 


C9 




-ft 






i 





t: 


^ 



J 3 







.3 rg 

i) 
*g 
a | 

8L *| 
'i fc 



S 

^ 

| 

tf) 
O 

d 



- a I o- 

05 O O CO 

r^ g|^ O O "^^ 

rd CD g " ^ 

1 1 -a J, -a 

^ ^ d a s 






@i 

J 



9 
3 



d ! 



I'l 



-a 

1 



a 



^o P^o" a: d^ * 

4J; UM-j-3"^' 

33 Ifl^a I s -a 



ondu 



A 



ICfl 



c3 - 1 



J-i 

OQ 0> 



,9 
'I a 



"1 



O 



ADVANCES FOR COO 



povay 



PS 
^ 

^ ,53 ^. i 

d , J=M c8 

d g 103 

.S EH- d ^ 

" l a := 
r^ ,? P" J *S g 







<<3 3 
3 



O) > 

& ,4 



a 

d 



cl 



(i S 

a '& 



un s 
evva 



ey 



.^- vio ^ 

H -fe -1 

6 d te 



- 'g 

O3 y_j 

1 'g 



* S. 

o 
o ^4 





O 



a ~s 

.2 S 



23 



^ fco 

,2 



M 



178 



SENTENCES, 




w 



O H 



ADVANCE 



2 
^ 
^4 o,. 

d ^ 

g ig 






perukku melvilasam 
duthasi ureihal intha. 

kanganikkum vendam, 
re eluthu, 



ka 
u 



^ 'I 



e 



fco ^ 
o ^, 
CU ^ 

U 



> 



^. fc. 
-3 3 



.a a H 

lift 
I f 1 2 

* ic! 

23 a 1 





e> 

'o 

a 





1 

1 


1 

. 



l-g 



fto 



2 
f 






2 

<D 

B 



cS 
O '^5 



I 

O 

fr 

I 

^ 

< 

1 



a 

<D 

I * . 

-4-3 O -t- 3 

a> *H M 

^2^5 



g 3 
2 



>S cu.3 



^ ^ n 

IS g 8 










a 



H 






he 



of 



d 

1 t 1 3 

3 'S -3 o 

o a -g * 

g a 

M ff 


H 
H 


c3 

4-l ^ 


tf 


o ^ 


O 




4 


3 


fe 


^3 





00 


s 


"o 


i-T 


^ 


O 


s-> 


H 


.3 


ptS 




^ 


fcb 
n 



.g 



180 



SENTENCES. 






I- 


Jl 


EH 





.3 


k; 

w 


o 

s 

CQ 


1 


& 

H 


a 


O 


W 


M 


^* 


P5 


'oj 


"s 


O 


rt 




<J 


^5 





H 




.2 


W 
EH 


03 
,0 

*?H 


2^ 


O 



i 
i 


o 


u_ i 






B 

O 

w 


% 

i 

a 


1 s 

U-l 

O 


M 


0) 

."s 


a 


o 


*S 


& 



i 3 

<j CO 



fc 



s s 

d 3 

e 



O to 

f g 

I! 

I I fUi 

O M 

I 8 j 

S S | 

^ Ja s* 

a 2 



Pro 



PH *-i 



. S 



dm 
ree 



Proprietor say, " executors 
ited for performance of the 



COAST ADVANCE FORM. 



181 



fl - 
3 ^5 




182 



SENTENCES. 



3 (3 



t 1 
*L ^ 

es 3 



J 

s 



^ 

p *S 

II 

2 8 



a 

o si 

If 
l 



H T ^ 

la 

-a 9 
.1 



3 -3 

& 

% 'J 

p 5 

'I % 



* -3 





4 I 



I 






1 S 



.J vsa. -t 

,. J3 



3 

* 
O 



J i 



a 

r 



9) 

i 



o 

I 

3 



I 



t cs 

I * 

J <3S 



O 







J 
*J 

& 9 '3 

^g r 

s 



s @ 

I 1 1 

JP * -3 

I ri 

^ 3 QJL 



II 



WOKES. 



183 



I 



43! 

a 

-S- 3 

&"g: 
I.- 3 

<D i. 

a ' g 
? ' 



- * 
TI. SI K 



ha 



meijay iruk 



. "^ 

r p ( 

bC _ 



5 -3 I: a 



> ^C- 
rf cj' 



c3 
50 

P 

a 

'T 4 

1 

a 

-4- 

cs' rzi 



fl "H 



a-; 



O b 

S- ^ 



as 



5> 

r ~r~( ^j 



-2 

o 



p 





5 g 
o 8 



I 
.1 



'a 

T3 



IO CD 



CO 

M 



a 



f 

nc- 

M 



J 



c 

* ^ 



a t: 

c? *^ 

1 <! 

Id 



ex. 

t: 



? 

*i) 



s -f 



CD 

s=- . 



a 



'^ J 

'I " J 

3 O 






5 -^ '5 * 1 

^ -s .1 ^ 



O 



d 

J 

fee 

p 
o 

cT 

> C Q CD 



fco 



3 



- 'L 
5 J 



S3 6* a" ^ 

rj r~t ^3 ^3 M fl 

M ^ J ^ t3 

'(D ^ c3 Ci< T5 fl 
-^ T3 O .9 

3 OQ O O 



3 



a -5 



MU 

w 



SENTENCES. 



i- 

i <D 



f ? . 



* 


p 






> a. 


r^< 

o 




r-I 


'gj 


s' 






.5 


^4 

r-l 


* 
<rf 


S, 


d 

d 

i : 

c3 

I 


p 
d 

a 


talli podungal 


CV. 



4-S 

f-% 

ie8 

"CD' 
> 

1 
'w 


%'$ 

d c3 

f-< VH 

H ^ 
^ 

:o d 
lo -^ 

a 

I0> . 
.0 ^ ' 

1^ 
.& 


vidungal. 
sayntha marangalil 


vettina siru kattei t 


ovvoru koppeiyum 




j 






i 3 
















& 


B 


























5 I 

OB O 



BURNING. 



185 



CD 

. 1 

2 3 



I ** 

|; 1 S 

|^ ? ^*> 

* is 'S 






rg 
~C3 

I'M 

d > 



tari 



mpa 



P4 



d OH P. 

Q .. QJ 

53 d d^ 

f-H QJ Q^ 

|0 BK 



I- '5 

CD * *g & 

G d ^ ^ 

3 I I > 
^ 2 g" ,S 
> S, S,--g 

I ro n d 

^ -iS J2 : < ^' 

,3 a ^ 3> 



^ "I 



a 



, 
d ' 

10 






J 



1 



a 



a > 






li 



S ^ 

s " I 

a 3 



J 



-2 



--3 o 

^ fl 

s 

CQ rf 

r-( J 

1 



02 



a 



O 

O 

* 



^r ^g 
f |o 

M J- 



a 



(55 



Wj' fcp 

* -1 



ks 
*8 

O 

n 



"^ I 

O B 



a T 

-3 



2 * 



8 



1 



o 





.-2 

g 



<a 

3 

a 

o 

es 



4 



.??. a 

r> * ^ 

o v> PQ M -' 

e? 9s ^ '2 

3 C5 <3 ' 8 8 



-*- a 



tc 

a 



t> o 

-s -S 



CD CD CD CD CD 

02 OQ OQ C/2 OQ 



OQ 



T 
3 

I 

CD 






in 



" 



'- 



2 .2 

prl r 

o 

3 



^ 



to 

c3 

CD 

d 



1 

u> 



186 



SENTENCES. 




BUILDING A BUNGALOW. 



187 



s- 



& 



s a 
3 g 

P4 
1^ 



'2 



a 



rf _M 

S 3 

fr a ^ 

P- ^ H 

d ^ 
- 5. 

c3 a 

^ ,,~* 



o to 

fi 

5. 

3 r io* 



-3- 

1 



3 : 



ic3 Z ^ 















+* a 
2 ^ 

2 H 3 

d ^ ^ 
.b 5 U 'P- 

tl-fl i 

es c3 OS p 

a .'5- .s 






3 S 

a~| 



.9 

18 'J 



i 





N^ PJ .3 
*=. GS ^ 

5 -a i 



2 



- 



iliil 

1^3 I 

<D d 3 -*- 1 m 

* ^ ^ -s 

o o a 






. a 
2 o 



PH 



I | 
H 



d -S 







1 

? 
;-i 

' 

> _ 

Ice : 



103 ~ 
CO ". 



J4 1* 

"<D C3 



j- J3 

r^l ?3 



i^l ^ 

b 5 ai 

? a .^ - 

^ fl g 3 



3' 



* 







| -3 

^ ^ o 

H ^ 



I 
S) 



d 

.a 



10 

'^ 
^ 






' a ^ , 3 

! S: a ^ : 

rt "3 ^ ^ 

5' I ^ ^. i 

oa 



"lift 



5 

a > 






if. 

% e 5 



03 

t> r ^ 

o 

r O O. 

cj -^ 



S3 



VAU 

i) 



S- q * ^ 

^ 3 -is -Q 



fe ' 

i sh- 



J 

Q -j_y 



o .S 



jj 'U 03 i I 0> 

M 1 a SB* 

-M -tj ^j jj C 



> fe 
S o 

f ( O i i 



02 o 
<D f3 



O O " 

J * ss" ts 

O2 ^"i O C3 



*B 8-4 

H H 



I Tf 



Pi ^ 
.2 ^ 







P PQ 



183 



SENTENCES. 




BUILDING A BUNGALOW, 



189 



a 


1 






ic3 

1 


mudikk 


i mneiva; 


1 

a 


1 




~ 




>, 


r-t 




^ 


1C? 


t- 


'S 1 




p>^ 




S 


03 

fcD 

c 


fl 

^4 


rf 

&4 


5 

r^ 


c- 

t 

r> 


."H 


.c? 

pu, 
.& 




fl 

9 


-' 


r^ 
3 
SI 


'J 


"cl 

C, 


C3 

^ 
r^4 


rSl 


* 




Ti- 




03 

tf" 1 


? 








--> , 
fl 


t,. 

fl 
^4 


s 


^' 


^ } 


prf 

a 


O4 

fl 



1 


r-l 

a 


& 


i 


"rt 
S 

2 


3 
^ 


a 

3 

^4 


3 
> 


a 

fl 

TJ' 

C- r4 


samar 


3 
>> 
irt 

a 
g 


d 


r-H- 

1 


ce 

Cd 


o 

CU 

P- 


S' 

^fl 

-* > 


"3' 

> 

t> 


io> 
? 


^ 


~ 

"+2 > 


p 


<-i 









r-l 




13 





- fl 

a "s. 
I & 

c3 ic 
t> &i 

B.J 

' ~ * 

5 

g. > 

f 'I' 

P J r^ 

^ 



& tf 

fr 1 

3 
I 



i 
j 



havathu 



| M 
i a I 

O ^- r* 1 * 







U ^OW VJ 

fl 

III 



liill 1 

S -8 g o * 

^ M5'S 

H B H 



190 



SENTKNCES. 



3 



3 



d _r^ 

1-1 ""^ 



^ 



d 
-id 


"c3 

PH 


rd 

"S 


-J_) 

to 

P-i 


44 
i-t 




"i 




d 




^ 


"13 


c3 

> 


3 






<D 


3 


c:- 


c- 


4^ 


r3 


c3 




W 




a 


4 


'oS : 


*> 


^ 




^ 


-4-> 

d ' 


a 


a 


02 


c3 


cS 




10 

d 

cS 

Ti' 
d 


1= 

44 

1 


burmambil 


hunnambil 


JB> 

iS* 

J 
a 


f 

>^ 

ic3 
^ 



r-3 ^ 


| 

GQ 


O-. 

ic3 

-d 


P^ 


r ri* 


o 


o 


ic3 






r * 


o 


,& | 






d- 

r-^ 


1o 


c3 

_T3 


-3 





*3 


>-M 
P* 


> 


3 


.' 

15 




1 

d 











*? 


"1 







jsi 


mattamay i 


rS 

'!2 
1 

CG 




i 

d 
-i. 

"d> 

^ 


r-t 

^ 

1 
J 


tbavatbu. 


ia maram 


^. 








IOJ 


cS 


d 


g 





c3 

a 





. 


d > 


P-t 


d 


ic5 
P>> 


10 
d > 

p 

d 

OQ 


s 

CQ 

3 
> 

d 


-s 

,-d 

-+-> 


"3" 

r^l 

|JH 

Li- 

i-H 
K^ 


!s 

*c8 

d 

i 

cc 


maram 


44 
44 

IS 

10 
^ 


1 

rt 

a 




BUILDING A BUNGALOW. 



101 




192 



SENTENCES. 



?H """' 

C3 

^ d 

d rs- 

IC3 -I IO 



P- -J-J 



^d 
10 

I 1 




ic3 



r a 







i 



1 1 

| -g J j 

(^ | -| 

I* -"i 

1 * '^ 



I 



O 

'S 

d 



o 
o 
fco 



^ o 



^r -M 

: a 



SI 

d ^d 



o J * 

^ a : 



H 



rd CQ 

M H 



^ 



niha mara odu 
irukkirathu. 



1! 
3 



^. 3 

Ct r-J 

i 

_5 rt 

a 



10 



o 



-' 



- 



d 

g, 



05 *- -. -> 

-3 2 | 

^'1 fr I' 

CS ;_, 

c3 T-. IQ) o 

c3 d > P- 

'l-J 



ndu 



*j- rs j 



^^l O 



1 



o 



S d d 
S - o S 



'IJ 



d, 



O 



?L 



fe 

J^:^ 



I 
k 



t1* | 

^ ) ^ 3 .b -1 
3 eg 30 | O 

3 a 5 



3 . 



O 



too narrow 










2 ^U 
- 

w o -^ 9 

^ ^ * 

fcfl tw 

2 o o r^ 

13 P^ ^ 

to O rt ^ 



a 

d 

'I 
eu 



e 



^ . tf 1 

S " 

10 ^- r ~j' ^ 

C- 2, e3 

c3 10. ^' r^ 

j ^ *S P 
> 

c3 



eS 



1 



^ 



3 

18 

>1 8 ^ 

.3 | 

^ 1 

~5 9^ 

a *? 



bs eq 



o> ^ ^ 

fl'a/i 

"H H CD S 



, 



a 



rt O 
C3 fcO 



H 



BUILDING A BRIDGE. 



193 




194 



SENTENCES. 



I 



a 



1,1 



ic3 
> 103 

" 



.% 


| 




a 






C3 


fe 2. 






4S, 




&* 


1- 






# 




c5 


^ 


ej 


* ^ 


1 


1 




> 


c- 

IO 




io3 
3 


1- -a' 


^ 

r^ 


1 


a 
'>> 




i H 

c 

cS 
i- 

"S- 
1 


vendum. 
thu semmeiyayum pal 


tapada vendiyathu. 
ruthiyana talafctukku 


turn astiparafctukku t 


t 

^S- 

> 

& 

^A 

^4 
'$ 

l 


attatuvangum munna 
ondu pol akkikol. 


rS ^ 
S-i. i 1 

r^4 fl 

c3 
5. T^* 
12 
S 

J ^ s 
S & .9 

QJ C 
> 5 > 

f^s 


parungal. 
ntha kal tahuthryanat 


allei orumittu tukkuuj 


ntha kallei kadapparei 


thei udeikka vendum. 


P4 


03 




p 




PH 


^ 


> S 


a 


r-4 


03 


a 




BUILDING A BEIDGE. 



195 







3 
1 


3 
1 


- 






mayum 




d 

10 

i<r> 


t. 




b 

ft 

'i 

Q. 




IOJ 








3 


'3 


d; 


1 




S: 




d 
d 


5 




Pf .^1 

a -2 


s 


IO 




10 


^ 
"si 


1 

53 


|. 


. 




"sil 
d 

', 




I 


1 


'2 

a 


d r^4 

11 


s 

1 


P4 






CQ 


;-i 












Cf 


c* 










1 


f, 




O 


10 ' 


t> 

'2 


a 


a 




i 

> 

r 




t 


^2 
.^^ 


a 


5' 


C3 


j4 


& d 


13 


P-I 


S 


o 

f> 


>-> 




1/2 


.1-4 

<D 


ei-l 


s > 


a 


0> 


I 

!_ 


a 

c3 

1, 


d 

c3 53 

1'*' 


I. 

4-3 

10) 

fcc 




1 
o 

r-4 




g 

^ 
d 02 

^- .^ 
10 o 

^a 


r 

IO> 

d > 
'S 
^ 

ri4 


i suvarei nera 


kattungal. 


, siru karkalei 


C3* 

,) 

*O r4 

"^' 1 

' ,3 

a s 
i 7 


1 
c3 

1' 

4-3 

c3 


i 

ehurmambu ss 
santhei sariya 


r*-i . 

iO 

I 1 , 

a 


Is* 
^ 

f-l. 

: ' s, 



" 




196 



SENTENCES. 










'r3: O 



10 

f 
1 

M 

& 

^4 

<>' f k,j 

&C S 

g a 
d - 
p. . 






103 



IO> . <t 

TM H 



c3 cS IO IO 
CQ CQ Oj QJ 



. 



3 ^9 

^ d 08 



T* 
c3 









fcO 50 
S3 O 



CQ 



o ^ d 
^ P 
fee ^ ^ o 



<D 
^ 'S 



O O J3 <D 

& O H W 



O 

H 



SURVEYING. 



197 



i % 

3 ^ 

a* 10 a 

r-* S 



a 



c3 53 

02 ^3 

OJ JTfl "^ C3 



O 

I 
1 

i 

rt 

a' 

13 
rf 

T;- 

a 
J j 



CV. 



JS 



| 

II 



el 

# -fe 
I 8) 

il 



" I0 r-t 

II S" 

C! d ^S c3 
fl IH ^ -^J 



10 






S "S 

s I &l. 

*!!! 

3 bD 3 '3 -*3 J 



^: o .^ < 

J 

pfcd 

^ 

c5 



o o a 

rt c3 c! 
< 02 02 



I 



S 



f 

I 



a. 
.3 cv. 



bukkum 



k 



3 

'3 . 
K) 3* 



4 

9 



S 1 



ft P 

25 

"^ >-i 

=> w 

a > 

* 

f S 

04 
00 



r o 



i-r 



CV-. 

d 
"3 



2 tf 

j s: p 



o 



<j 

^ o -*-* 

g -e ;S o ^ 

^c2 S o"^ 

a P to ^ d 

d o J2 o -^j 

^ O -*J * *Z^ d 

^ &0 *^ -3 ^ g, 

cC Sz c tx P-I Q 





- 8 

1 



o 

P 



d C3 T? 

P .9 d , 

o ^g o .d ^ 

^ CD p2 .- 

O 2 r& O -g 

^ -4^ "^ ^ r^ 

3 ^4 2 S 8 



^ " o S S 

<D 3 O > 

60 ?-< ^ __ 

g O O CD ~ 

m ^ ^ ^ M 



dam 



a 

K6 



* a -3 

^ S'c. U 

1 i il- 
I '1 *' 

*- 3 ri c3 

lcp , d ^ > 

PI S3 C5 c3 

CV. 

s> 

*L 






O-. 

CD 
CD 



"^ 

d ^ -*a 

-i <D c3 

^ -3 ^d 






198 



SENTENCES. 




N 



110AD MAKING. 



199 







rdl 
P 

f 



10 

P3 

I 

? 

a 
O 

? 

^ 

cT 

^5 



S 

P 
-i 
o 

p^ 




200 SENTENCES* 



~J ' ' ;- H-il *" -iJi 

W3 T5 c3 ^" -* ' 

r-> . -^ < . r-1 

i f ! II I j i l^il ! 

IH .75 -o. ;Z, -2 ^ Ja H M cd j^Q oS 2 *^| 

c3 

r^ 
S 

^ r- <2 i "S 'S 'PH 5 ^ - -^, I0 .^ -2 B S 

3 & -S' 1 ^ 'o _ ^ 2 ii J-n a 8: * : y-_--i 

P, 2 M ' .^ - S O t^ =j eg ^ -51 J. ^' ! ^ ^ a 

-^r-i OJ 0> H"" 1 *? ' ''^f-* c3 'i o3 r^4 2 .IH is- o 

c3 ~t$,' <D t>^ wo M 3 K8 * 9 ^ i-r'. fl" tt* j i ^ *-' 

r-i. .^. g. ^fl g r^ ^3 ice f5 10) ^ ^ ^5 ,ja O ia) 

^^fl^rf 10^ ^r^fl^r^>^Efl^^P^ fcJD 

rj rJ ij M IC3 o3 ico f. > t> Jj ico c3 Ira 

3,^9 op^ .S'p-^acs rf Jff 3 _td^ J a. 



kanathu. 


a 
3 

rC|l 

C3 

fl 

^4 




i 

rt 

SI 

g 

fl 
T3 






In undakku. 




1 

13 

rfll fl 

C3 "*^' 


a 

fl 

ic3 
fl ^ 




1 
M 




tvj 

rX 



*!4 
fl 


i 


-! 

^ S 


1 s 

^ cJ 

10 ^ 




3 
1' 




f~- 
fl 


S. 


' JM 
c3 "^^j 

C3 M 

5 -g 

fl ; o 


PH ^ 

a! 

"icS rt 

- ^fl 

fl -4-J 

ice fl 

riij C3 


kanatha. 


i < 

'Si 

c3 

rs* 
*> 

5 


vendum. 


tavupallatti 


| 




fc; 




^ 




u 





es 

3 ! L e^ * 



.1 ** a t= ^- <* 

j s i .. I 1 j * J J 



! r a 



*^L ^ 3 tt*|fe x u wr\ ^^Pq J 

(eft O t^ Sr a ^ ^ % *! -w * I 

1 1 1 2 '3 1 11^1 -?| % I *J \, * 

5 '1'' il =t'*' 3 -^-i'l|a 

C.9 fc= * X S, 'tSfc'^ "^ fc= fe'^fcs *^ 

@ e> -3 es^ (siatssr ^ ^te^D ^ 

~0 ^2 ^fl ^^-TP^CD O r^cQ 

t | I 1| Iff! si? l| 

i J I |1 I 1 !! l^.a J , 



.8 o g 'p , 

11 '^ rr\ 



%- -%*i s - j: s" : a 

3 !? 1 'g-U i -I I 

2 ^ 2 . 1 ^| .-S-^- - 9 ^ * * - . I -5' 3 

.2 -=3"* ; '^ 5 ".-SSo'r2 <E 'S r S) s 2^ 

i O PH ** 7-i <-i t-i O CQ "^ Q C3 ' -4-) 

^ .'S .2 ^ ^ g- i a : - . M . "fl -s .3 s"^<^ 

-^^-.fli 8 cJ *S .S ^ > o S -^ ^ > & 

P flr^o^Pic-^^cs^^^cs ^^o 

^ Q N P Hl>< H^E-iH 3 f^PH02 



o ~ 



DR VISING IN COFFEE. 



201 



d -2 

O ; 

5. a 



^4 r ^ 

t*4 '; S C3 

g ^ a > 



.5* a 



5. 5 -S. 

CD' CD' 

.2 ,s ^ 

-d rd d 



^ 

1 'S | 
5. i* 3' I 

*'J..3^ 

, & 

^ 



u nilamu 



P-l r-<| 

103 O I ~ M 

^4 ^ S! 



is! 



d fl i=5 

d "-I r I 

CQ ir^ 

-a -g .: 



d o "3 
"I 3 

ss a .M 



P4 

c- 

io3 

w 



=5 a 

J3' tf 

d -g: 

a ^ 1 'I fl 






^ ^ d 

a a s 

2 d 

a a ^ 

* * 

' '.i, 

os a 

i- - 



g- s- 

s S 
s > 

1^ 

c >> 

103 ,c3 

I I 

^ rdl 



V|* 111 

f5 ? d T?. .^' ^ 




^ ?.. 

& ^ ^ 

^. c3 



3 ^3 
O <S 

.** 



3 

2 3 



!02 



SENTENCES. 



tcS ,*>. 



fcG 



S3 

' 






. 





;_, 


ht 




r-t 


'O 


d 






^4 

r* 


p-l 

o> 


c3 






P 3" 






~rf' 

r S l 

^ 
--J 

ICT3 
> 


^1 

"S 
> 

c3 
*l-l 

r ^- 


.udintha 


P 

."S" 
V 

S3 



o 



d > 

S3 



io3 

^ 
S3 
bO 

,i 
S 



Id) 15- r-t 

-5. > 10 . ic3 

c3 gg P-i ^d 

? ? d "S d 

Ml s > 

S- ^ a 4 

^!l *> 



p, ,g 

- * rt S3 .^ S ^ ^ 

^s|:l||;|r| 

S *-< ^ "~* IS * 'Ti 
i . d d ^_ 'S3 

IS3 C3 




NURSERY. 



203 




204 



SENTENCES. 



CJ 

to 



PS- 

JO, 



ICT3 



"3 

1 



3 





"S- 

& 
8, 



s JS. 

.b* * 

*qj ,}( 

-U r-J 

1 I 

.S ^ 

? 

n ? 

' .* 

> 02 

tS (5 

* ^ 



3 

3" G3t 

11 



b 
i ^ 

o <s 



!0 





0) 



kallu 
um v 



S-S-s - 

5^^ ^ ! g 



v-ra 

Stj 



,s . 

> S .,-, Jd 

r- -s : 2, ^ 

^ c3 SI 'H 

^ S ^3 
\^* S;< s 

.?S : t S 
!>.&. 

^> F^ ^j* * '^ 

"S p 

O^ G t> c3 
' & ' ' ^ 

-S a s ' 



10 

.S ' 

CD' 

!s: 



? 

|1 

* 3 *^ 

3" -SL (^ 


J 6 -3 

*3 ^" 
IP\ 3* ^ 

^ 5 



8 -9 *: 

| 4 J 

a-fi 



s 










o $ 

18 "* 

~ % M 

^ -I 5 
5- c '5 



3 t - 



J 3 
* 



o 



c 

3 



% a > 

5a*. PH Ti- '^. 
c3 ._ C- -fl 



- 

'^ 

r^ ^ 03 
fl > rf J1 



... 



f 






II 
l| t , 

* ** ^ ^ *\ 

9 M44 ^ 

L 'So 1 
1 ? ? 4 L 



l 



a 



-s 



3 s 
.&* 
ft ft 



s 



o 

rt 
3 



i 



7-1 O rH 

OJ O 
03 
O O 



H s-^ S-M & M > 

.5 ? fl S ."2 o 

o fco bn fep p t ^ 

S 5 S S EH 




NURSERY. 



205 



fee 

p 



^ , . SI __; 



fi- 



l 



~. S. 



H > Z 

lrJ 

_^ r ^ , 

.2 > M 



c3 

^1 



10 



^. ^3 



2 
C- 

C 
el 

PH 



10 



fee 

I 



|C8 iC8 "C- i*H 

SCI >O >J4 

ftj* & 

I ! C >^) 

ii) *^| *^| jg| 

.5 =3 g ^ 

10 p, p^ JH. 'g 

ft . r-l r-l ^ ""^ 

._. '<D '(D .^, 3, ^ 



I rS 1 rS 1 a -5 .TT 

O C} * C3 tJ3 jj 
o3 c3 p , *^ _ v/< 



hapadut$a 



.nduha 



c3 
P) > 

/c3 



J 

^d 
^ 
PJ- 
id 
02 

II. 

rSl 

7^ 










harku 



lak 



ha 




5 S 



206 



SENTENCES. 




LINING. 



207 




b ^ 

c EH a! a H 





o o 



CD 

^3 

H 



EH 



208 



SENTENCES. 



.3 

"* 



i 
cx, 



3 

a 



' 

5i CBL 

ca -^ 
-.1 J 



'& 

a 



a J & 

rH C3 . P>> 

O c3 ^3; ia 

s 1 1 .; 
=-i i i - 
!. J- 1 * * i 

5 p^3 E g J! 



PH 



a " 



PW ic8 

si ^ 



ir^ 

~o' 



,s? 



a| 



pakkafct 



SI 
a 
72- 

I 

a. 

PH 
c3 



fl 
03 > 



irukkirathu 



fr 



60 

P 



a r-H 

si * sf 

? .b to' 



s- 



g 



Sh 



' a 

i 
II 



'>> S S 



= 



11 



samlba 



f 



I 

a 






p- 

a 
to 



'3 cs 



f 

? ^s 



1 



p., 



PH 

02 



a ^ -3 
2 ^ 'PJ 



. 
3 

1 

'd 






1 3 



2 



II 



1 

i .J 

I *L 



.s E, 



^ fl 



S CD CD 

-*^ ^ -^ 

_o^ "o a 

"* rH 

ID a 

PH S 

03^0" 

a ^. * 

^ 2 to 

O r^ "- 



g ^ g ^ bo ^ ^ ^ 
S pd^^ps* s 5g"a 

H H fi OQ P-i 



a 

c3 

E 

PH 



M 



<D P-H 

5: i 

-2 



o o ^ 



CD a -^ 



LINING. 



200 



1 -9 



1 



io s 

Pf_l '*"' 

^ c- 



S 

1. 1 

c3 .Jn 



a a* 

C3 ,-j 

S" '^' 



c3 



JS 



f 



. 
'II 

d "* 



3 
5 

a 

IO 



US 



vay 



S 

i .4 

W g 

C 1 

- o 

* - a 



ji 




-73' cS 



AlftflM* 



C- 5 S ^ -2- 

o S ^ 10 ~3 

^4 .M ft 

^i .2 ^ c3 



d 
a .2 



m 




I 



- 



.9 



"t'3 .a 

^ sh- 



1 



3 
3 



a 
a 
S 



d 

1 
s ^ 



fe" of 



.s 



/d 2 



- 



a 



^- ^L '^. ^ 
J * J * 

& ^ ^ 






?D 

o 






-i 



** "t3 "i 

ag(5o 



tQ _j 5- -JJ 
O ^s c3 cd 

d o d 
:&)&** 

^ ft 2 " 



J 



c3 

EH 



t 
I f 



'9 - 



b 
O 



i a 

te *a 



3 

S c3 .; 

S -a i 

! s.i 

fc 'I O 



i * t **L 

U.S * 



II "I 



S. 

<D 

& 



a 



ft 



^d 
- I 

ois a 



CD i 

3 -a 



4 



o 

5 



| t* 

o 



__, rt 

^ ?3 



^ I 
o -^ 

W 

27 



i 



w 



210 



SENTENCES. 



M 



1 

a 




HOLING. 



211 




212 



SENTENCES. 



i 



c- 

103 

P- 

& 



5 

rS 
"^c- 

c5 



t!- 

P- 
lO 



.5 






6* 

> a 

c5 c3 



. 3 



'2. 



1 

10) 

a 



.S, 



54 

'3 

2i i 
*"o3 *~" 
& g. 

* a 

fl-i 

2'^ 

g -M 



p 
^ 









P 5 



ft. .3 ,3? J2 

* *3 * O* -;3 .5 
M ^ 3- e8 

*-d. ic3 _2 

7j ^ "S" fcb -^ a 
^ -5 g &'? I 



ss. **' - 

tS" r^l 'S 

? 'gJ 
3 : .|? 

^ ^ 5. 
'$5 ^ 

.^t P^ O jj 

il ' ^ "S' 

"irt" ^^^ 

lili 

g -^ a 2 

03 C3 



i 

C3 



1,- 



r 







II 

'^ b 



a 
J ^ 



es 



i 



> 

t 
i 

e? 



ri 



% 
o 



'2 

*b 

O 






J ^ 



e o 







P 



s ^ rt * ^ 

g ^ a P 

, a ^ 2 js 

(i <^H O O 

-3 _ 03 ^ 



,0 

<n *J 



-S .-a 

S 44 rt . 



o 

5 -P -*^ 



OQ 



1 



"S 

^5 

*" 



o ct^ 

a- 2 

2 

r-Q [> 



-*- O 

8 .-a 



ft 


O 






05 ^4 

j - 

o 






H 6 









- 

feD 

*fcD &0 

to P 





i; 

a ^ 

I * 
M H 



FILLING, 



213 



.-5' 

Id 
.*_> 

c3 

J* 

rX 
S. 

IC" 

d> 



e? 



^. =3 



fc= 

3 

fc! 

> 

I 



w 



3~ 

3 



a 



1 



-B 5 ^ 5 

j^. "=3 2 ' * 

T' r^ - *- -+-> 



d ,- 

*CD .rH 

" 4 ~ > 

C3 CQ 

a -g 

d r=-J 

_4J r-J 

-fcJ '- - 

I0> d 

^, ^y* 



I 
*1 



:4 f a^ 

2 .-5 

^ 



-. 

3' 



) 



.rt 1 =j 
CB -e- 



l 

3 'OS 



rj 'O 

10' 3' 

^3 a 

cJ 
^ 

a - S 

Kfl 

a ^ 

id 

CQ 



'3 I 

5 ^ 



a 

S |{ ^ 

ic3 -t- 3 



cb 10 

S 



> ^ 

C3 r^ 



r S 



s- 



SI 



m 



5 % 
1. 1 



19 



"5 2 

a d ^ 

A O r-l 



o fc 
bo 



1 
>> 



M 



g 

^ -I 









^r 2 
" ^ 



o> 

5 

.2 .2 



o 

o 



CD 

jd 





Afterwards pu 



fee 

-s 



o 

60 



1 



s 9 



.2 a 

a 5 



d j3 

rH C3 

r I 

3 o 



^ 



<D 



C3 
.OT g 

l 



SENTENCES. 






, 



^ ^ 

rt* a > 

S3 r H 

'^ Jd 



S- 



o 



I I" 



I 1 ^ 

; I 

*-* r^l 

w ^^' 

a 



I- 1 1- 

p- ^ 

i J 3 2 

53 : 

a g,.^ 
a ? 



s. a 

'tis" c3 

S f 

r-< & 







& 





M 
i 
-J 



c3 
P 

irf 



Ti- 

<D 



5. ?3 






+=> 5 



SI 



rg. KD 5 

rH P^ rt 

PH OQ 3 





TJ- ic3 

IO *"CJ* 

CL, 10 



J 



s a 

13 

pi =3 

.S ^ 

=2 S 

10 ,24 

p> ,_, 

'0 'rt 

r- .^ 

S' : 

C3 ICO 

a 







CQ 

a 

J 



' 

PH 



I 



CD - J > 

I ^ 

CD ^ 

"Jo 

^ g^"o 

"O 3 CD 

a s2 

03 -M O 

s > a 



o o 

,J3 



t? 

0? 



2 na fe 

5 'S O 

, B0 . rt 

- 1 ** 
, a ^ 

a o zn 

g "^ *3 

8V^ 

o S J 

" to I-*H ^3 



s | 

,3 a 



^ 



8 * ^ S 

-j-J CD -7? I-H 



CD c3 
j CD 



s 



a 



PLANTING 



Iff 

a -8 -8 

e I) 

8 "I 3- 



ri 
i " 



g 






a 



a a 

CD <X> 



fl EH 



_T O 



^ ^ 

l?i 

ui 

1 o 



CD O 



Jj Jd -4J _g! _rl 
n cd -^ o ^. ^3 



a g 

o ^ 



il 



PLANTING. 



215 



a 

d_ 
"S" 

r*4 



ru kanduha 






thumana 



rithum 
edu. 



I 
I, 






a 



ka 



, S.J3 - 



4*a*1 

p rd T: r>s 2 



o d !f 



ukk 



> 



: -7t ice w 



ay potta mann 
kuli tondu. 



0> 



M o 

3 P, 



11 



e "^ 2. a 9 e 

J -a- g -^ a .&> 5 -^ 3 

?.f|2:f f|.|:l|- 

-*-> ri 



g a 

.S ^ 




216 SENTENCES. 



9 . a o -3 

*'? ~ 1 5 'g ^ if 

~ * * 3 .* s. ' -a J3 

tdl ^"^ * d "*^* r . 

331 . r-i ^ jj .-j rj "-i ic3 .j' . ) t 

'"5* ~rf il M ^ 'o 3 S* * j - '&- 

a i & d -2 &* * i', * 



3 ^ : ;_ ^w. fl ' 

'^, ^ p 

> JS B^ ^ >> 



r^lCtf *- | <I)^^-4-> VW ,^q itu ^ f. ^. 

4 d ^^ K^ a _d ^ "^ * ^ ^* "-< -* J ' * rt FH 

"03 ^ P> 'i^ '-< ' 03 . 103 _( 



=| 'I, g 'I" ~> - ^ S '2 '2* -2 S PH 



i.-| : g| ; i ; f | I*-!?. 

'S ^ ^ ^ ,^ -g 43 J c3 

lo rr* ^ > ^"^ 



H ' d S - - ^ ,_ a 44 d -P 

r-i cJ. sji.^:zj3 <DSI S^J=1 

111 .!il!l I I-HI- I J5 



J ^- .tr 44 -gi .^ 42 > '5 , s 



d- &i 5 i S S , i* & > 



s * 

1 -. 



2' JS *i -g Q tf) 

t ^x A. * S - a *^i/ J 



^ 3 / ; . J? *. % ; T . J ' . S -1 1 

^L ^^ Q^ ^ *^L ^1 

*3 -li *i T r 5" 5 ' 



i ( fB 

-J ^ ^ . 



^ ^3 ^y ^i ** 

4- 5 ^ ^ = e 
3 -5 <| ? * 

^ ! -fe ^ e9 ^ i * -3 3 7 

o fe ra c* .o .S yr\ =3 

t "J ... fc= fcj J Cjx 

?1! 3 ?UI i sfl5 flit 

r.i i|||l | |>ij |" p 

l|lili^lii| lii.f s| 

^*S : ^-J''" J gc3 r o'| J _, ^^JS" j , O 

!:i a i Jili :il-:^-trl 



CD 

<D 43 -^ 1 w S "W 



cj rj*"^cj w O iS Tr S? 

O 0^2^ ^^,S!-^fcn<l 



J- d **^ e. ** r"1 ^ - 1 < (/J OT -i ^ LJ _j 

Of'ccODotlj , *-> 03 c rj(O05^j ? -j rf^? 

^ Pj .r-l j^ -^ < _jj |~~| Q QJ f) t **- ^ ^j 7^5 > , f | t*^ *"* 

^^o^ d^^^'2 ^43'~ l "d'H4 r . ^'rt 

1ls?>| i l~jJJ|li^g.s-l.j |J 

H H!Z;PHPH ftMH HK 



SUPPLYING. 



217 






a 



j3 

-3 



1 a ;& 

.9 '3, & 'Si a a 






2 

< .j . 

* 






s 

.3 * 

.,a 



a ^-' d o 3s .^ 

- ' M -^ pV'8 -g 

gj'-c IS g-l 4 . 1'S 

^ 2 .^ S 1 2 S 



>n a a ^ a 



^* 

i 

i' 
^ 

^ 

- 

ci 






Pi -^ 



ft 


to 

p 
o 



-c- 
p* 



10 jj 
- ^ 

to ic ^ 
p ^r 



to -3 

P P-H. rj 

o3 ^ 

cj _N ^ 

d d o3 

a a 




^ 










1 f 

3 *3 



3 J 

f * - i. J ., , 

c* $ <3 3^ 

K3 ^ * a SKi 



' 



^L -a -i 
^ j 

*J ei @ 



. ts 



O **L 

| 5 

* a 



^ d 
o .S 



S3 TJ r 
- g 'S 






i 



* tO 

N'l 

g'i.l 



M H 



I I 



Q) rj 

73 ^g 

."tJ 8 * 2 

-H o> 'S ^=3 



<p - 
^3 



| 

02 



'S ^ 

- * J-* P 

fLj PH PH PH 



a | 

II 



a 



d S. 

J3 o 

o 
C5 



I 

^ 

O 

~ O 



*J T3 

p 

? O 
O 



to o 

cp i^ 

S 

~ '. 

cs p: 
o 

g -s 



28 



o 
d 

cf ^ 

CD on 



i rf 

' i-d 

rf -4-> 

CU P-. 

d p 

3 .5P 

cS p 



218 



SENTENCES. 




STAKING. 



219 



.0 



!$ ^ > 

S ID ~v> 'S >^ 

^f.&l 

.a 1 ! '^^ 







fclu kattuthal. 



a 
i^ 

M 









g 

02 




220 



SENTENCES. 













J 



-S 






^ 

& 

M 



*T3 t 

-S- 



, 

*s a 



(55 






d 




fc: 

C5 



5 6 ^ 

L" ^Q "i ^l 

1 1 ^ | 

Y 3 8 

? o i 

^2 5 3 f~. 





la 

o 

g 

o 

3 



> 



.- 



P4 

H 















"S 






fee 
* 



c3 
SI 

r-( 

" 

O 

r3 

-4_! 

a ' 
a . 

'o ' 

ri4 
P" 

ifl 

I 
I 

M 



5 

r 
<^ 

I 
5 



I w 



r ! 

a 

s 



unthuhalei e 



-- 
o 

a 

ice 
i i 

" 

S 



- 



V_J 

a 

3 



IS 

i 5 



1 




a 

IC3 

Ti- 

f' 



i 






g) i 1 %i 3 

^ Sh fe 3 ^ 

o ^ o es 



oru kolunthum iruk 
ni atho oru kolunthe 

** N* 



3 eg 

. fc n 



a 


3 O 



is 

f 



a 



S\ W 
<P a 2 



- 



| - a 
9-1 

o 3 & 

O PH 



-*-3 

c3 

^a 



S 
2 

B 

5 i 

to * ra 

III 



o 

c3 

' 

i 
3 j 

a 
a ? 

a 2 

3 -5 
4 03 

^ s 

3 ._ 

^ J 

.> fl : 

es ,5 ; 
P^ o 

* 

c3 : 
B< 



es 
'I 

18 

I g" 



if 
I* 

e -s 



J 



M 



PRUNING. 



' *" "* ' ::: 



2-21 




S - -S a 

| 1 4 

'.,. :> ^ .3-1 1 |tt 

- 3 i i I 1. 1. 'I i ; *' I 

If j;ir*Sl: JYS t ' s>s 

I -a * a l. ^ ,. ^ _ - ^ a 

ICS fl r. s - 6 +3 10 CD J_. *"* 'g ^ "3 

a!: !tif|f|l,l,1. l.llil 

t-' ir-r^f.-ff 3 mi 

"S cT ^ cT i i "9 >9 5, -8 

1 H 3 , 5 5 4 ? . 

*J -3 J i v3 

s i r ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^i ' ^ 5 - 

3 ^ i 5 ! o ^ -I- fe -3 3 ^ 

<l9 5 a i ** j Si >2b5 ^ * -i ^. 

n P " * $ * & I 1 1 s 1 ^ f t f 

^ 5te^^5te 5L^ fe ^^^ 

i i *S^^'!>^ J ^%^^ ^ i^ss 8 

"iO -S- '* -fe O el -| 'j 5 ^ @> H '1 1 

o d^cs^ GO esaOoi 

S "S S - S 'S ?g gf g i 

^^^^Jfl -tjS'^^ CD* 

'* & s? .2 -^ "3 ^ & 1 5p ^ oT , fl 

fl CD O 
O g TO 

o m 

^3 3 S fco ~ g .3 - 

-SSJj.-^r. - o 



p i * iJ-j *r~ ye t-^-i *\ 

o 3 ^co l ^-4' ( - | '^3-4Jo ^P 

& -g S I o ^ J ^ I S .2 s 

1 j I el- 8 I | M| ! I 

iiUl^ g lli^l ri 2 

flft-Tr-^CDCDQTStj-MOflfe r/>^4 

g g ^ 5 ^ -^ J . S g, : l^^^px 

'g^^iG'C r fl r ig3 <D -2*fefete 

-^^g ^^o-gasi :^a 



OQ-WO-M^^ _ 

rojyr^^^-Jo^O^^ ^,^ v 

^t'-lS-MflS* a aa8 



222 



SENTENCES, 



. 

^ 



!O - 
o . ^ 

i "i 



- S3 



JO 
J ^ * 

5 ,ni 331 
| 

* 
*" 

* * 

J. ns- 

- 

p* 



kevalaman 



" 



2. 



S .S : 



r7^ J ^ 

.^. 'g' r5 



ice 

-s 

2 

.75 ' o 

^. ^ 
c3 ?^ 

I' 

-4 ^ y< J^ 

W 'g "io* 

i-, J> * 



^' a 
cs a 



^ " 

^ S3 S3 c8 

*^ > jd tr- leu 

^ ' * .' B 



I , 



;. to) 






* H 

4 TJ- 



a 


* 


10) 


08* 


P. 


*CD 


"S 


.1 


S3 


i? 


1 


f- 




-jj 


'3 


c3 


CD 


rM 


d ' 


r-^ 


C3 


331 


SI 


5 


d 


a 


2 


d 


c 

rH 


r^ 


S3 


c3 

a 


1 


1= 


i 


i-d 


S3 




r ^ 


t> 


~S3 


:2 


d 




S3 



i 

Q * 


t-i. 


331 -3 




a 


(03 ^ , 

P^ ^3 


g. 


3 


c3 ^ j 


1 


S3 

s- 


.t . 


" 


IrH 


cS 




9 


*8 cf 




e? 





1 







2 



S 1 



.S 



*C "^ 

rS O 





> ^ 



*; 



-a 1 ' 

J g* 

^ ^ d 

IT** 



OQ a 

CD ' ^ 

a ^ .d 

d '5 



I fill 

-*- g t-4 +-> eC 

CQ 






. VS) *& 

I 1 I f o 

"a (s* ..;? sr a 



c? 



o M r 

1 1 1 

s 3 S 



DO ) 

i j 

"to "* 

CD * 



d 

1 



O 



Ti, 

OO ,M 

F- i r ~3 

c^ ^ 

tl rd 

"S 



^5 

t= 

O 

ei 



c3 

m r 

S3 -"S 

^ g 

CD 



-s 



the tree wh 



W 



g 



11 



d o 

CD rd 



60 



d 

S 
-S 



3- S 

S3 n^ Q^ 



PRUNING, 



223 



_ - * 

Kfl 



|, a ' -g s- -a- ~. 



.5 a -3 ' ,3 2. ^ ,g> g. , 

<g j| S. *" 3 jjj s S 

si f & 1 I 3 - a J . | t f 

* cs a ? S I a ^ s* . 

> w SI *o> rS j3 t^ 10 >. J5 : 2 ^ , ^ : 



2 t^-5 

' ic3 io3 ^' Jdl ^ ft "** ' ..-i r^J. "j* 

f:&3: 1 1 I ^ f A I ^ . I ra I 

* &'A a i |, a _ |.b| |.'E, | 



'-i-i ivy i *a J3 "3 . -tJ jo rt ,?~, 

^ , c3 irt fl a? 01 >,, 03 SLrS : .tS : _2. S. '9 

W C3 en f ^* 

? 2 3 i "S 

&a M^-fr-J 2. ^ g -3- &_* - is i-- 

^ -g 4 -g, ^ .- S: 3 .-a 1 a a ^i ? .a a -g 

O Q! 8 c5 a d 

3 ,24a)P-ftft ^ C> 

I -m "J 9^. /-^; ^ *8 i fi! ~i * 

J Jj cs Ri .10 J ^* J Pa 

^ -^J @cS ?n9 ^C9^ 

cw . i _ * K ra C9 j^j ~ J Q J i 

w v^7ifq 5~3 5^C SI*J 

t <5 .^i 1 * U| 1 j <S 

oC '"s *S a M^ ^\ ^ * 9 a ' "3 _ t= 

3* l^^o^-nteP) /t= 



.1 < % S a. .S 

S F J f9fQ ^era B - I 

J r* :a ^^ v3 _ rx ! 8 *J 



aa cS 7 ^ ^ -T * '^ ^s s -3 

^ J 9 O 

^r '3 a, 9 -^ H," a ^ J .5 s *a 



^ 



- ^ 6 * a 1^3 I T ^ 1 

% | o .? & 3 ft .} S S .D J 

3 '.3 



I? lii It 

2 te te ^ is J i- e -=J ^ ^ . q ^ ^D Q 

i q J ta B J 8 t 9 ^ 3 _ j -to 3 



eg f ?4 *-i J.S -1 3 @ B f 



\& ^J^^CRJo M3*^* ^-*l^*j'iy Ml 

^^ J S 5 i i si^ H^^^^o-s!:-! 

O 4 *1 1 3 3 @ ^ GS3 

|l I II |1| JIJ | 1 

1* a I -f i i ? * il i ' a -ll 

ji, I ^iil ^ j j'g : 8 -i s -^ < 

s ^ $/ ^ ^ ' .8 S ^ b 

o - *M o , >; c 

OcS fl fl Ja M S w 

W O CJ^^^J " r ~" J o<;3-^3 d Wo3 r "f3 

III. '(i til ^'r4l ^' a l ,! ^ I- 

'|^^.S^ ^^Sd^^^^^^SSg g * S 

g a a 1 sr Ji ? |^8.2 - I =s I 

J 5 5 ^ ^ g g^-S^-^^s.^^g^.s^-S ga 

^ ^H<PPO Q O OP 



to 

^ 



SENTENCES. 



^ 


^ 


fc 




| 


i 
103 


i-t 

0) 


-4 > 

c3 


IC^ 


ic3 , 

^j ^ 5 




5 


> 


"^' 


a 


rw. 

c- 

IO> 

p> 


^ 


2 


1 


^ 
f!4 


3 


i 

*j 


03 
"C- 
10 

P4 
. fc 


a 

ic3 
i-t 

r-l 


d 

ic3 

Ti- 

i3 
^4 


03 

44 

t 


i 

. j.^ 


,j 









II 

a -5* 

,<D 



i8 -e- . a -5 

fl-Wl ><Dr-<,<D 

SI II 111 

pi4 ^"^^p^S 

' * 



ti 





g 


03 


<u' 


; j 


"S 




a 


f> 


O 


c3' 

r^l 

"S 
> 
c3 

5 


"o 

1l 

1 


i 

CQ 




| 

T3 

rt 
o 

3 


03 
JSI 

f 

Jv> 


ic3 

S 

^a 


t> 

f, 


3 

T* 
^ 
2 


J 

ic3 
p>. 


^1 

T?- 

c* 


-s 




rt 
<D 




3'. 







" 



e3 



rl ,JS 

o +- 



is 
i 

^ 




s 
'S 




1 




-S 

^ 

-*- 




3 
-t-> 

1 




es 
^ 

i 


^ 




^ 




nrf 

a 




.i 




S 


a^ 


j 

CQ 


S 

H 
C3 

t! 




-j-T 

^ 
<D 
02 

Cl 

8 


8 

0) 

C/J 



_d 
-)-> 

^ 


a" 

<D 

-4-> 
CQ 


8 
S 

o 

a 

r-H 

^ 


t/3 

T3 

r-l 
& 

P3 
| 


he secondar 


wnwards, 


he secondary 


<X> 

-4-> 
02 

O 
^ 
-j 

CQ 

73 

y 



secondaries 


*j 

g 

^ 


5^ 

a 


5H 




0) 
^ 
~U 

M 

/^ 


50 
o 


-)J 


+? 

^ 


o 
n3 

| 


+-> 

5K 
o 


O 

-M 
| 






-*J 


1 


^ 


o 

-a 


S 

J3 


1 


J 


03 


& 


j 


ID 


-^ 


5 




H 




H 




H 




H 




O 




WEEDING. 



225 



. 

^2 

a 

"C- 



10 



gl 



I & 3 "S' 

a l1,1- 

fill 

a S -a 

,-. f-fi C3 

S -' ^ c, 

f - - - 
S so? ? lc3 

5 i> a* ^* 
a a 



ns 




5 



1 



** 



I 

4 1 : a 

? j; *. 
a 3. ' 

" 03 > 

;=! XI .M 

O) 3 <2 

.,H X 03 

1f 

Sa.s 

S3 " 

5-t.l 

a^'g, 

111 

^ ' 3 
'I .J ^ 

O 6 O 

X 8 , 



and 



c3 
(N 

IQJ 3 

9^ 3 

g. ^ 02 

? 1 I* 

X H ^ ^ 

ill! 

I 1 1 * 

73 ^ 

C3 H O 



3 
8. 

es OB 

fe '18 

J 






$ 

to 



o 

3 

3 



es 






C9 



j 

a 

e3 



O CD w^ 

P ^ Jv 
** o o 

IP 

_s a 



S 

H 



I- 



C3 ^ 

^ o 

PI 

-J -^ 

CJ 

P P 



O 



a a 



^ o 



226 



SENTENCES. 



HS- 





I 

>- 

1 

1 ! 




(5 



9 



,& 



3 

fco 



I- 





3 Iff 
rS- fafi 



r "rt* o 

si 

' ^ 

^"^" ^ 

^ P, 
r-j p 

I: ^ 
10 d" 

s"f 

s- s : 



> 



ii 



be 



J 

J JK 



d 
*Si 

I, 







1 



r o 



5 
S' q -5- fl ' 



^ 3 






a 



a 






__;. | __;. * 



Q) i I rw. g. 

ll 1 Jv^ I 



10 

-= > 



eL *||^ 

I | ] ' | 1 

^ & 3 -s 'I i 



i i 
J -j 



O 



^?. 



.S 

a 



2 
'd, 

d 

O ' 

I 






O 'J 

18 1 

DO 



*ts j 2 





o 

g 





i 



s 1 



PH 



! * 

a rs 
8 a * 



j 







S ~ 

"S 



o 

& ^ 



r ^ J - r c? 
OQ 




. r-l fl 

* 



r^ 
03 





1 













.a 


*s 


.3 


03 


J 


i i 





H 


.9 


44 
^ 


d 




-2 




j 


i 



HAND WEEDING. 



227 






) 

g 



10 



I 



rfll 

*: 

'& .^ 

i-H ! llH 

.3 T3 
>> fl, 






a'SJS 2 g 

.* : | -= .0 'S , I 

.- * ^' J! I 

<P ^H. ^4 fcfc %3 .S rf 

53 j d S > "C- 

CJ .j-i 









T 



# 3 

^ S >:] 

'i 4 r 

5 * 1 

d d ^ 



a 

o a 

" 









fl . i 1 . rf . 

. , \z+ o * t*~ 

cT ts .. fcc o TJ 

JS .JEJ 3 > o 

^ ^ S S ^ 

o ^ .2 - 8 

rt ri4 



M 
C 







>6 

i o 

3 S 
"^ 



H 



n 



tC -M 





5 .S 



rs* jS iS 

PH f- 



a 

53 



o5 

ri4 



I 

1 



^ 
5 

55 

CO leg 

C ri4 

d 

% 1 

s .. 



c3 
fcid 

loJ d 

^3 ^ 



&' 



gun 
itheudu 



t d .PH 

'S 5>C O 

^ fl ^ 



^1^.1 



i O 



s-s- 



I- 3 -^ 
'S-JS.^. 



Jl 



3 

1 



18 * 
. "51 

* 



*8 
3. 



I S 

3 es 
o , 



* 



o 
PH 



O 

i": QQ 

5 r 



S g g.^Ji.Sp.! 

ft Q P4 ft 



228 



SENTENCES. 






P4 

e> 



.^ 10 
<D r^ 



I 

It- 














GQ 



muppathu 
vendum. 



's 

O 

_ \<U 

a 





"yr; 


CD 


~*. 


v*^ 


^ 




. 


\& 

CJ 


> 
i^ 
CD 


2* 
2. 


a 

^ 


^d 

^2 




"3 

-a 


ri 


"cl" 

V > 


J3 

OQ 


T3 
fl 


13 
^j 




s 

nz' 


ss" 

OJ 
*CD 
IS" 


i nalondukk 

v* 


marattirku 1 


a 

^ 
^ 

11 

s 

c3 


O 
(CD , 

M 

d 
"S 

1 


ireikkujium 


vidathe. 


M 


fl 




r^ 


a 


p^ 




-8" 


1 








fc 





L 


pa 


r\ 






GS 




< 


% 






8L 


3 






3 


1 




C3 

K. 









> 



, J 

13 







S3 ' o" 

It--! 

if: ^ 44 

'S 

^L 
a 5 



es 3 



es . a 







, 
s es 

3 08 



o 


ejg 

1 



CD 

J 



T3 

CD 
CD 



nit 



% 
p 

60 



1 



-j 





OQ 

I.'S 
2^2 


t, & 

-1-i 

CQ ^,0 

s i 






o o 

p p 



O r^J O 
fl S=| fl 
O * O 
P 



h 
a 



s, 5. .^i ^: ^cji 

"S -V3 'rH *g ICD *Q 

^- g ^ -a- ^ -a- 




WEEDING WITH A MOM AT Y. 



229 



P 
=3 



IO 

.-i ^ 

cT g 

-fl 



I- f 1 1 1 

* ^> > 2 

> .^ .^ 'g^ -5" 

g | I . 

r ^ j *~* C 

I -s- : B i 

-*J ' _!4 d > p> 



.^ ^ 



f 1 1 



2. 

C3 



10 



f f 

2. S 

d os d S 

rS* ^ ^ 'CD 



rS 1 ,0 

I | 

'3 > '-^ 



" 



rd 

s 



s: d 









0) CD CD CD ^ 
"eg" ^3" 



rq <X> 

C3 q 

ico c3 

10 c- 

p4 CS 

"So 3 

d -43 



03 CO \.*i tM qj r <-? r 

^ 'S 'S '3 'CD 'S *S c . g. ?''& 
.S "3" ^ "3" "3* "3"3' S i ^ o 



"3 > 



2 5- 

a a 



2 s 



o3 

|! 

2 







3 O 
^~ *^L 

S. . 






b 
e3 



o 



'3 ^o 

1 1 J a 

5- * j * 3 







& 

s 



<D _-> 



a > 



es 
~ 19 



s 



* ol e\ 

(a / ^* 

1 J 1 1 

s g ^ 

5 .2 "** 2 

r^^_i rj ^5 



ELCS 
* .3 



3 



3 







a 3 
'2 '2 

3 S 



O 7t^ 



- Q 

3 J 



3 1 

i j 



If 

O ^ 
^ O 



^ -s 

fc* s 

- a 

d 






c3 <D 

QJ .rH >. 

'B a 5 







"d d d ~g 

O O C3 



-4-' ;j '^ 

C3 ^ Q} C5 ^-( 

a -I - 1 . 
^ Sp-f a. rf |i 

a - s 1 1 1 



o r 



0) 



? ^ .9 1 ^ 

^ 4J c3 ,3 

3 ^ CD o 

p_i jrl ( "i 



PQ 



to ^* 

"o o3 

1 s 



o 



5H 
1 

fH 



ss 



230 



SENTENCES. 




CATTLE MANURE. 



231 



T^T ice 



a 




CJ 






d 


a: 


' a 


H 






r-i 




1 

a 


^ 


1. 




t 

a 


1 

1 


a 

"a 


&X) 

a 


ii 

OB 




I 


1 
a- 


a 
a 

a 


a 
tr- 
c- 

ICD 


<3 
5 




a 

T?- 


a 


o3 


4 


a 

FH 

O 




ce 
.^* 

* ^_. 


t>^ 


vetta tudangum : 


5. 

"eg" 

r^l 

a 
5 


.S ' 

"aT 

t> 

* r ~ l 
3 : 


avilfctu vidunga] 


a 

a 

"H 
V 

3 

I a 

3 s 

1 3 

^ a 


o' 

c 

:. 
'a ' 


"CD" 

a 

l 

a~ 
a 


mum, pannirar 


mumay vettungs 
marattukku mele 


kuli vettungal. 


marattinudeiya pe] 


veil dam. 
mannei turafctil err 



-3 



a, 44 
a a 

- 



a 
10 

i 

ip 



ice 







f- 

te I 1 'I 



5) ! 



a 



j 

a 

o 



fco 



fee ^ 

"CJ 



J sh 
J -J 



e 






f 1 



o 

J 



o 
^ 



,0 CD 



I u J 
I ' -s 1 1 

*a a ^ CEJ P 3 . 



a < 



Str 



3 

5 
? 

3 

& 
X 
t> 

<i 



H 



O 



-j- a 
^c o 



Cut holes e 
teen 



i- 1 







o 



Mr ** rt 

^ D J2 5 



s .fi 

3 j | 

1 1 -js 



S -a s 

K rrt 3 



2 42 

o 



1 

?* 



te 



C CC 

a 






3 

d 






Sl|| 



> -t 

o 72 
S ' 



232 



SENTENCES. 



.'3 

1 

SI 



IO 
PH 



1. 



~tJ 

C3 c3 

J-4 PH 

41 

10 "- 
PH o3 



kevalamana 







S .S- >c 

3 4 

rH T-l sL C- 

-S- * g ' 

S 



3 a 



tu vangiko 
arei per mafct 



-ta 
9 3 

e? e? 



a 



a '3 

a -e- 

S-a 

u _ 



fl 



~ "- 

P! J2 . T? 



s3 
PH 

g. a . 
Ifl 

*S * 

pi ,* 2* 

ic 43. ! 



s * 3 s. 



fl > 



-rt. d H 

CD ri4 3 , M 

^d 44 CD 

. e ^ . g: 
i : -- : 1 



kampo 



| 
I 

3 



Pi ^ 









t 






108 



? 



44 

'3 

( -( 
c5 

ri 

- 3. 
II a 

3 r-H- 



ice 

r^ll 
IC 
Jf- 

ca' 

ri4 PH 



? a 



6$ LL ireor 
iru> QU 



I 
1 



.2 
o> 



d i 



JS 




ea> 



00 ^ 

I a 
S 1 I 

3 111 

2 2 CD 
.^3 C3 CD 



, 

9 a 

f i 

' 






1:3 " 





. 9 -<l 



o 

P! 



QuiTu-Q 



CD jj 

'r-t r-t 

pj 

I -4-> 

i & 

_^_p 

1 

>* &JO 



2 i a 

2 o '3 

^ rj bO 



g 

O 
PH 

I 
o 

3 

W 

i 



f 





Q_) DO 

t> Pi 
* 



y 



t 

J (a 

i 3 






9 gU 

PH fl 

P 5 ?s . (-1 



BOXES AND POONAC; 



, 


i ^ 


c3 




a 


. 






"3 




s 


^ 


ovvoru si 


io* 
Pi 

a 

cS 

rdl 
J 


a" 

i 




-3 1 
** -^ 

ri4 

g g 
| 


*& 

d 
d 

'? 




.kkattum. 


J3 
fi 

*1 




I 

1 


1, 
3 


irvoru vali tanmrukkum 

* % 


rangei navatcbara kant 


JQJ 

"& 

>+ 
'> 

d 

r^ 

\> 
^4 

c3 
" 
^ 


+- 


veiyungal. 


" S 

2| 
^= ^. 
-g ^* 
g 

1-a 
^| 

S^ 
la 

Q-i 


I 
lo 

a 

~s 

1 

"^ - 
a 


ediyuppum appacli tan. 


C3 

r ti' 

15 
| 

a 

i 

iO 

0^ 

1 


d 

TJ- 
IO 

! 

s 

r-l 



rtf- 
13 
44 

d 

^1 

o 


elumbum serfctu podu. 


I I 

1 

a 

r 
\>f 

1? ' 
^ 

d 5. 

S o 

t> r 1 
> 


"I 

1 

1 


O 








& 




* 


"^ 


r-t 









i 
OS 


18 
L 
s 


^ 
18 

G 




is '3 

G 

if) ' 1 


*\ 




3 


1 


if 
a 


Hi 




" 


3 
^) 


18 






3 3 


i 

(8 




? 





a 


GS 


^ 




e? 



234 



SENTENCES. 



T* J5 & **' 
2 S ? 

.?3 c3 H 5 

0: 

r3 S 2 : a 



13 

-u > p 
c3 



adi 



2 i' 

r^ >r C!l 

n 

a 

r- (03 



E. 

icfl 

B g 

s I ' i 

i-^ o3 

rM -H- -g 

S ' a> | . 

S 'i- I S 



ht 

^ 

5t- 




PERUVIAN GUANO AND BONES. 



235 



a 






i 

o 

1 



M 



oi 

* 

I 



II 



. 



to 

I 


a 

i 



PERUVIAN GUANO 




23C 



SENTENCES. 



I 
3 

c3 

r^3 






1 

10 



10 

M 



& 

10 



I 



I .! 

CD 

I I - 

U " & 



a 



a 



& 

P 



J. 






P 

i 

g 



p 
3 

T?- 
^ 



s- * 

60 

| | 







P< ; * > J3 



3 a 3 



c3 
P* 






* , CJ , S. 

.& .& ' ? ' 



Id) 10) 10) 



3- .-s- 

P- PH 



CD CD 
S S 
"S > "S 3 

II 

fl, flj 
s p 

r-. rH 

1 if 



a ^ 






o 
M 

n 

, 5?; 



PH 



> e 

,q ^ 

i I o 



^ ^- 

II! 

es 



G-l O r^T 

a 1 & 

8 51 

s~ -i 



^it ^^ 

3 r^ 

i 

O .rt 

O -I 

O "-H 

o ^ 

s 

o p 

N S 



Q 



(5 -3 

Q ^I;> 

3 -a 

3 $ 

*Q) K\ 

\a :> 



- 










*l 



5 





- 

- 



^ ** 

o ^ * 

J -S e 



rrt i-d ^ ^ 

6 S a 

_T^ D2 i 7j rH 

^ J : ^ 

S PH PH PH 



c3 .y 

EH AH 



> 



J3 



d 
*b 



J 

O 

rQ 



s 



CD 

.9 



PICKING. 



237 












10 

ft 

fS 


s 




^3 

| 


1 

. 


pi4 

Js4 

Js 

*C i 




?_i 






I: 


*-a J 
10 a 


-4-2 ) 

r<D 

1o) 


Si 

p 




TrH ' 

r^ 


a 







238 



SENTENCES. 



J 



. "3 

4 .' H* - 

0> F> fr3 P 

a j ? 3 

03 -ri c8 '?. 



a 




m n~l ^ 

03 wo 00 bC uu _. 

^j -a ^ o^^^ 

P <D O ,r3 o _, i3 

o, ? > p r2 

."f O *r^ CC P 

<D > ' -4^ O> r^H O 

g ^ ^ - g -S M . 



S P fr 



. 

s 







PH F4 



S M 



PICKING. 



239 



> 




240 



SENTENCES. 







2. 
"c3* 

rSl 




f 


1 


iuvara 




1 




g^ 




d 

c3 

c- 

p 




, 




-*-> 

ic3 




1 


-*j 

P : 



> o 




13' 

rdl 




M 3 




03 




. r-i 
o' 

1 

f, 

IH 


inimel pattiramay iru. 
vathuhalei odikkathe. 


t* 
g 

-d 
-j 

: 

P4 
3 

a 

50 

p 
id) . 

S' 


piclikka ve~ndarn. 




T-- 
I 

1 
P! 

1 

1c8 


I 

C- 

o 

4l 

^ ICO 


poda matten. 
indeikku irandu pushal k 


vendum. 


ubariyay kondu vanthavar 


keiyil kasu kideikkum. 


13' 

M 

1'^ 

72 a 

^ cS 

*. r4 

, M 

o 

M 

f^ 

63 ^ 

r^-il ^ 

^3 ^ 


deikkum. 


O> 

1 

1 
i 1 

a 


konduvanthu alavungal. 



I 



o 



o 

o 



^ 
'd 

ta 

i 

g 



a. -v 



s S I 
J a 

c3 ^ m 



G 3 J 



51 Sh j 

3 es. 



202 



|| 

fl. ^ 



O 
ki 



3 rO ^ 

O 



f,- 

O @ 



C5 

.3 

50 

.9 



C9 .fe 5 



.2 



^ 50 



bo oT 

.a a 

50 

P 



t 

9 '18 



O 5- 

*^8 **fl 

fc: P3 

3 M 



J 










.a 

50 

I 
g 



lj 

& r 



O 



es 



% 3 
l.a 



O 



O ^3 

CD f> 

>~s f-i -i c3 

^C^ O ^ r^ 

g ^ 5 

S 03 rj 

oT P 50 O 

^ s- - 
I:-?- * 

o cj 

rt P O 



50 
P 



O 



MEASURING CHERRY. 



241 




242 



SENTENCES. 




* 

p 






A 


a 


1 


' P 




Ti- 
es 

& 


c3 

'S- 


3 


'S. 




^J 


^ 


r^4 


-__-.- 




rl4 


IO 





rc3 

a 




g' 


p. 


23 


c3 




P< 


^Q 




TJ- 






a 


P 


IO 




p-l 


r* 


^ 


P4 


^ 


03^ 


H 




cS 


"I 


108 

SI 

'. 


~c8* 

5 
*03 


i*3 > 


ri4 


& 
r 1 


C3 

PH 


r-l 


r4 


| 


P : 

a 


1-- 


|. 

"3 > 


"3 


2 

^ 

K^ 


.^S 1 

"55 


103 3 


a 


<3 
*"c3 


U 
: f^ 




.5 


-g '' 


PH 


^ 


'3> 


P 
r-l 


3* 




tf 




b 


^ 


< 


3 




J 

. -^ 


% 


3. 


j 




* J 

Ifl 


f9 


OS 


fc: 




1 


a 


18 


3 
J 




I 







k= 


\ 







Fa 


3 


3 


*3 




T 


^3 


b 


J 





1 






3 
e.9 *r 






fco 



o p 



,1 



ci o 

$~ 

CQ .M 

03 o 

8* 



I 



PULPING. 






5 >> 
<-C' ice 
2 > 



A 



ic3 
& 

ice 

-a 

33 rS" 
*03 13 

S * 



c3 

s : 

s" a . 

J^ 

A 

* 3 

.0 ^ 
3 *IQ 

9*j 'fc 
3 

g f 

E -a 
>-? ^ 



U 



53 



- 



s -a 



1 



liliti ill 

J-i_MCL.,' a4 ^ --t^'-r. 



I ' I >.^J 
j r^ P4 

^4 

d 



a ,s 



1 s 

a 1 s s- 

f .! -s JS J3 

g 'S .^-^ ^ 
jg| ' 2 *o3 

'^ '2g 1 



SI 



f ^i PJ 



c- > 



- 



Ig 






*'.s 

^. ^ 
p- ^ 

<x> 

3 . 

s 

s 



ice 



ca .5' 'S 
p P,^ 



H ' -* '5 O 

s -a si si 



Tw |J ~' rl "~^ pa _s S "" 

tf . ^ : ^ | -g ." .'^ ^ ^ B g 



-f ^"^ 

P*' -^ 



"I.i.1'1 

-3 ^4 ^> c3 cJ 

g. S g .& .? 



6 at 

f ! 
2^ 



I! 

"1 cs 

t) -8 

1 

^1 

1 1 

3 -^ 



^ 



5 



e 

ts 



*. . 



IJ 
I-J 



r.'i 



* < -\ 

*..: 






a .0" 
fi'J 



2 



:| J 'S 1 1 

a a o o d$ 





1 



.2 

. 











d "* ^ o ^ 

""* fc) - Q ^H 

1-jiljJ- 



- 




SENTENCES. 



tie 



iyan 



S* 

a ,& 






rs* 

r3 
a 



palaro 



S B 

|~* 



- 






CD A r-* I 

i| a 5 .! 

fl' c3 io3 



"JT 1 

ic3 ^ 

d_ o 

Jf3 *S ^S 



* 12 T5- c3 -4J . 

s -s ^ * -^^ 

J- J-4 ^| ^| CS W 

} 1: 'I'l I' I 

03 . c3 c3 c3 ^3 P 




PULPING. 



243 



4 S 



ID 
' T* 

I a 1 

r3 :^ 2 



| 



sr.fl s. 

S r c3' 

IB .f$ -PJ 



= 11:1 

cl c3 10 

u n p N 



S r^ 

^i .b 

G3 CD 

I'l 

i- : 

!'1 






athu. 



ice 

,JS 
-4-J 
PJ 

ri4 

r* 

1- 
^ 

^4 

CD 

r3 



rr- 1 . " 

^ 3 

M 9 



jj ^ - 

^4 .^ 1: or. 



sappu nerung 



P 

73" s 

*- > S 

X >s O 

Ij 

o> S 
^ : 'o 



ah 



Tohokili 
irrukku 



I 

'r3l 



.5 



r^i Ii ii 



r^ P- 



1 

* 

** 



er 

3 

a 

I 

3 



a 
-g 



t= 
o 



O O 

g 

-g 2 

: i 

' .a 



I 

3 
3 

5 



i 
1 



5 



i 

*& 



$9 





3 

- 



3* C5 ^ ?L 

18 a '3 O 

ill! 
Is ^ 

|l>4 

O -Q I ^*> 

3 (B , 
1 ^ '3 '1 



J -J ^ 



J 8 



O 

I 



fcc 

a 

!*3 



CD o 






a> 



to 

a 



8 * - 

- _ - DQ 



"^ 0> 



** n 

R *! 



r-H CD 



M 




o 






246 



SENTENCES. 







1 



I 

3 
3 tt 

a 



CD 

U 

fl 
pi 

.2 



.2 

^ 
-a 







CD <*" 
O nil 1 



WASHIKG, 



i 



SI ? 



'g 



S.-s 



d 5 
i 10 * 



'cS : 
PH 



. 

a a 



a 
*" .1-1 



p- 

c3 



t" M k>~j 

d *3 



rotheikkul 



d 2 . 44 

I'-* I "S 

a * | : a 



s : . '2 1 



. i : , s. 
-a tJ '^> a ri 



C- 

r-H 

44 



44 



c- 
44 



a 






r-* ^ 

I ^' 

r* 3 



t 

8L 

3 



(S ej 
I 

^ (3 

1; 

2d 



a 



O ^_> 



Oi 






-a 



t 



1 



-*J o, O 

I . 2 3 ^ 
^ ^ 5 P- 5 



'S .H & 

^ .-a 



02 



i 

o 3 



MO 



o 

S '? 

E i 

02 5 

^ * 

^ -J 

t 



i 



<D 



3^ 



1 
^ 



O 



Sfi 

^ J 3 CB 

B C5 

^ fe '? 






O 

o "5 





1 






.1 8 



> 





o 



2 "H 

<D ^ *4j 



-_ 






9 d 

HNS 

J3 'J3 S cn 

CQ 02 H O 



248 



SENTENCES. 




DRYING (CURING.) 



249 




SENTENCES. 




DRYING (CUBING.) 




252 



SENTENCES. 



s 

**4 

i-H 




EJ 
T5 
P- 
O 

ri4 








| 
"cs' 


S4 

g !B 

i : 3 

"t 

03 O 


^ 

CD 

"2" 
*P< 

.'1 






t 


J4 




1 

r3 

-4- 




3al 

3 
^1 


"CD" 

r^ 


&4 
iH 

. 

CD 


S- 

p^ 

IO 

rX 




. 


|l 


-5- 




10 

P4 

. 


"S 
t> 


'CD 

3 
+~> 

C3 


'S 

?3 

ri4 


s : 

r^l 

JS 


c3 

.S 

--i. 

"S" 





rS" 


i= : 


12. 




-4~> 

c3 

r3 
-M 


1- 


t> 

P-H. 

c3 


P" 


"^ 

a 9 


M 

P-H. 
c3 




S 

1 


ial CD 

g.b 

c3 O^ 

10 


a 

c3 



icS 


run gal. 


fl > 

.s- 

r^ 

P5 

d 


10 

k 

iH 

CD 

^ 

1 


penpilleih 


io' ss 
e.'^ 

S J 

g, 2 
fr' a 

r^ 


penpilleih 


a 

?s 

3 : 
pja 



1 

M 
Pi 



cS 

* 



10 

t 

c3 







I 



JS 

o 













(CD 
5 








ic3 




CV. 




t> 




& 




rC3 




~& 
^-> 


o> 


^3 

44 




s. 


>CD 

tie 


pS 




r5 
ri4 


a 

CD 


10* 

r*3 




2 

I-l 


rH 

P, 

cu 


-J-J 
J 


03 

r e8 > 


s 
f> 

c8 


10 

JX 
2 


-4-9 

c8 

a 


i-4 

CD 

r^3 


T 

> 


*x 

"3 


3 

^ 

-4 ' 


ta 


CD 


PH 


C3 






t 

9 a 

B O 



^ 8 



r3 ^ 

CD ~|J 

*a "- 

.a 



r^3 "^ 



s * 

CD 



DESPATCH. 



253 



l 



3 






_ '^ 


. 


"J 


^ 
44 


5, 


IO 




^ 


a 




^4 


"4?. 


02 




^ , 


IO 


P^ 


53 




a 

>>v 




49 
^ 


' 5 


j. 


^ < 

r^l 


3 

44 


n? 



-4-J 


'3 

-4-J > 


41 


: .s 

*GQ 




44 

3 


r^4 

ic5 

02 


s 

r5 
"3 


"o 

3 


s 

^4 
44 

^ 


10 
44 


1 


03 

10) 

?-! 

IO> 

> 


j5 

c3 

fl> 



% 




fl n 



254* 



SENTENCES, 




DESPATCH. 



255 




256 



SENTENCES, 







HH M 



CARRYING KICE. 



257 



1 



! 

TS- 



1 

*c3 



= -^ 



a ^: 



111 



o3 CL, j ^ 

.^- a i. s J 

JLi c3 - 1 ' ' 4J 

mis 



o ic8 



C*-. 





5 3.8 



^ P^ IO 

c '^ 



9" -5 

9 'b 
I 3 



iO 



43. 



B r-j 

SI ^, 

r-l SI 



'a J 






's- S : g 
,- s g 



i 






'I 
j 



1.3 

. 

P4 

1-3 



a '-:' 



tt 

13 

o 1 
a 8k 



5 | 



rf 



<D 

S 

O 

o 



1 



3 
^ 



2 




" 



5 7 -a a 

3<3 M 

.$ O 'IS 
"*. * fa 1 



S is 



I 

.2 



& 3 



3 o> 2 



o > 
S jj F 



O 







wif^a 



^ F3 



O 
OJ 

02 



jl 



1! 



^ o 



2=3 



BC 

o 

r3 3 



?^ 

*1 

J 






delivered 
e Chetty 



' 



o 

3 
3 



-- 

S 



1 



m & o 
2-1 



f 



*-Ji 5 







b 

18 

O 



fl o 

a 

*.? 

a 



a 



rS ^ <Cn 

- ^a 



33 



258 



SENTENCES, 




CATTLE. 



259 




b^.2 _S .3 g 
g r ^^S.2 ^ r S c3 
H H H f> M M 



260 



SENTENCES. 






J3 



T?' 
03 

PH 






-- 

10 



na- 



a 

p-^ O 

,-d cv. r-4 . 

S. 1 1' 

=J SI 

c3 



1, 

' 



S S 



O .S 



fe -^ 

> 2 

s. a 



P^, 0> 
io3 f> 






rqi o3 a 
' S d S' 

c3 *r c3 s-j * F ""j 

* J : Sii : si-r 

io3 %>H ^ 

5"&*1I 

CJ ICO , 03 

rt PI ' P< 






icS ic3 



r 
n 



Sj PH 



ttane 
alavu 



fl 
o 







1 



t> pa 

> S3 
O 



II 



O "ei -^ 
cT '* S 'a 

I (Do I 



1 



D 



3 -J 



i 



t -S 



f-? cf 

I b 

j I- -S 
I'J f 



f 

o 

S3 






il 



a 



f 



fc 0* 



S "^ 

05 



&JO 

S3 

"S 



r 



a 

o 






03 PH 
JH- -< 



^ fl 

"S ' T?. 

If 

1' 
. . 

icQ . 
kjj 3 

f 







O 



I 

2 " S 

d 

J9 



^ 



P4 nj 

CD -( 



^ s 

O ^0 

w 



r- 1 




I 



1 

S 



nneiyei 



oi' ^ 



icl' 







3 

5- 






2 8 .s 



M 



O 

w 



^ 



o3 lp3 

SI 

I'i' 

^ * 



wi 



to rub 



Be care 



prevent fl 



go sa oil 



CATTLE, 



261 



i a 
|| 

- 1 

2 2 






ice 

^4 

io> 

d 
d 
d 



um 

utann 



s."" 1 
l| 

i 'JU ^ |- 
S 1 '3 'S. 3 f 

Ej -d i 

llll'l 

!S*s 1 > 

s a 
=3 as- 



li 



1 2 

8L < 



I . ^ 

3 p n 



10 

a 

ice 



D 



g I 



I f a 

W Q^ 

J. iM f 

"rt' ^ M 

a .S ' 

"d c3 

S. <3 T3 



10 



I % 

J 

'I # 

J 'd 
s ? 

a S- 



1 1 * 

! I 



3 ice 

^ -* a 

I a* 



', 

Q* 
03 



a 



2 3: 

3 ;n 



9 ^ 

a" -3 
g I * 



a"Ty 
B' 



d 9 icy 

.2 JH- f> 

i: ^ . 

'i 1 1 



d > 



3- 'S 



=3 ^j 



3 'S- 



11 



1 1 

g CU 

-Si 

* 

a - 
8 S 







fllLJIT 



J c5 



1 






S ? 

^5 O 



a % t 
r- 1 "Q 



332 

T5 f r1 



"> CD 

o a 

cs a 



^ : 



OS 

2 * a- 

^ 3 ^ 

M ^3 ^ 

'3 

* a " 

^ ca cs 

d d 



S ^ 



or 






& 

a 

3 

19 



-I J 

| 

a 



'3 



3 - 

^ d 

_j -> Q 

^ 2 






|.| " 



l 



a 

Id 

1 



262 



SENTENCES. 




1 




2 

-3' 


ss 

& 

' > 


'i 


lo3 
P< 




'1 


a^ 

D 


Ti- 

, 


.S 




"S 


t> 


> 


"& 

1 




S 


eg 
SI 
CJ 


| 


a 
2 

IC3 




& 

O 

a 

si 


I 

ij. 


^ 

1 


P< 
J3 
S 

S 

3 
"T 4 

" r 3- 



sarivara podu 


2 

i- 

PH 

53 

s- 

a 

Ej 


ft 

r I 

IO 

^ 

r* 

p 1 

CD 



PH 


palavantham 


03 




?-i 






t> 











*3 




^ 


b 


3 


1) 






^ 





i 


fc; 






18 





3 




* 


<s 




*l 




J 

fe 


3 


SJ 




DIRECTIONS TO SERVANTS. 



263 



he, 



m. 
i pi- 



i 

*S 


44 ^. 

.f- 




_uj 
Kfl 


io> 44 s 


10* 


> 


^ a o 


eu 


Ci n! 

pS- 

B1L.& 


b- ^ 
^^ ^ 
M ^ g 


1 


o 

'1* 


?3 g 44 
> P- 44 

o3 ,. rf 


's ,i^ 


>^ ->J- 

ff-l 

^-^ 
s a 


^' =3 > 

^ ^'1 
* -73 &0 

1.S i 

^-^ .0 


si 

a s 

s- 


| 


a'J 

3 





. -a 

J 18 



5 6^ 

a 

a 

"S ^o 

~4_> 7-1 

W3 ^ 



^ 

O 



- 

~ 02 



44 






n -s 

Ml 

? <* -18 
^33 

51.3 

8 



a ^ 44 

I I r3 

c3 





P 



a ^ 

G3 to 

* i "3 

O CD 

a 2 J 



A 



8 |^ 

<D f-j iJ 

g|8 



(D 

OQ 




264 



SENTENCES. 



"3 



&c .* 







10 
PH 






S3 


s 

:!' 

g 




: is 


T .. 


1 




'S 


C/3 


K^ 




jrr 

ureiyei ni 


a 

"pL 

P. 

*- : 


J3 

^5 

i-i 
O 

,| 


> 


ukkaram i 


S 

*0 

"S" 

-^ 


burusheij 


|. 

+J > 

*0 


-1 

o 

;. ' 

! >> 
!: 2 

i 43 


nietteiyei 


1 

103 

!5 

-(-! 

ci 


*:3 

^ 

*0 

s 

'I 

r^ 


' > 

d 
cc 

fl 

I 


rf 
h 

iCfl 

^ 

^ 

| 

02 


sippeiyum 


SI 

!C3 

a 

i 







ts 
















3 






. 








N 


e? 















w 



DIRECTIONS TO SERVANTS. 



265 



kattu 



-2. 
"cs' 

r^l 
P-. 

o- 



> ic3 

EJ > 

:-4 v 

=: 5 

O ^ 



ies > 
> to 
^ to 

18 



a id) 

g a 

5 



"' 



S' ^ *s 

2 .1-1 >} 
<D .,-< 



o rs 



^ o -; 



.3 r^ 



kattu. 

pofctan 
keikko 



o 
J 



1 



I 

o 



feS t *k8 

^ I 



fil SI 



3 

t: 

a 

i 



O 


3 



G 



3 3 



S 'L ' 

a la 







c3 

S 

t 

C3 

a 








i| 




s 


K* 


3 
J3 




*T 


> 

r5 


f, 




^ 


' 






ji. 


^ 


1-4 

^3 








CD 




' 

f~t 

<o 


3 

|; 

P-. 

103 
GQ 


mattireit 




1 
' 



irukkir 



3 ic 






rathu 



kk 



kk 



S" f3 53 

L j f, r-4 






S S 

^ o 

* 



3 a 



5 



a, II 

To ' "** . 






^' S B 

J <* .| 

3 ^ 
o 



r^- 

(^ 3 

i ! 



I 
f 



r 



5 





k= 

^L 



J J 



O -^ 

I 






^ o 

i'-s ? 



o ^, 
^ ' 3 



jf O / 
? J 

1 'a 



o 

S -*> s 



l>i^ g>^ s 



~tj 

j 

^ -*0 



^ c3 



o 
, 



P 3 i 



O"* J " a ~'QS <p ^ ^ J 
* P "t^ *r! r^ .^ m c3 ' 



60 s fl *S L 

O j-i 5C 

^ ^ g g 

O 05 f> ,-j 

5 5^ 

fee 



PQ PQ 



.^ 
O 



ef e 



.s 



g g * j 

WH SH 



^ ^3 



.2 > 
^ - 

3 o ^ 

S3 I 

ill 



266 



SENTENCES. 



1 



J. 



^ 

ictf 







Z 5 *3rs a 

<tf P '2 - :S - s 
P- g g -g -go 

rj i> C3 p r-J 

I-S ~3'^| 

J i j a'? |;| 

* Jt-I'^l 1 4 

i a t 8 iii 

>iH r-4 r s PH -i-l 



1 

1 



. 

1C ^G 



a 



s 

,-id c3 

^ S 



a 



i 



Ti- 

o 



c3 

rd 



"<D IO 
> PH 



^ bo SI 

13 ^ ^. 

2-J2 -J, 

bo '^, p 
g "S J, 

,a - 
- >a ^- 

CO ^ C 

g.A:9 

g ,S s 

^S "53 >r<- 

P ' > ' 

c3 "< P. > 



a 



3 



S3 



< 



s 3 

^8 J 

s 

' 'a 
B? 






II 



. |j* Q 

J . Q 

fo J 

O 







l 



o 




(5 



'3 M 



J .g 

1 a 

G & 



- 



i 

cS 



ji 

ii 

o bo 

5.2 



bo 



j g a a 
fS^li 



1 
g 



l 



O c3 

a ^ 

o o 

02 t- 



61 ? ; -i:4-| 

* fe ^ ^ -s K 



bo ' _ , 

I | .S I i 

W W O H H 



o 5 



-s g 



W ^ 



^ O 

M fa.. QJ 

O .O -T? 



CO 

bo 



O) 

J 



w 

'S r5 



jr w 

03 O r-l 

"^ 03 CO 

2 ^ 

O QJ "^ 

- a -S 

C? Q 
CQ O 

bo 2 

rS P 5 

c3 



Pn 



^ 
Qfil 3 



PH 
o 

1 





t-l 02 

ess a 

PH 

2 * 



DIRECTIONS TO SERVANTS, 



267 



o o 

"3* ^ 

> a 



S S : I 

53 c PI r. 
^j 1 ? 







fir 







^' i 

: 1 



,^. 10 



3 

il 
11 

rM 03 



turcim 
um tm 
i mesei 

tuvaleih 



varum 
ndu v 



ndu 
siinikk 
velle 
mesei 
uko 



a 
^H 

O 

3 <3 
O S 



EJ 
M 
JA 

isi "S 



'* 



A! 



._, c3 ' 



^ : 53 



1 

=3 ^'. 



^4 -* p-l 



. a 



sappatte 



II 



1 

g 



3 A 






: ^ 



ec 



si 



TT- 
O 

fl 



& 3 I"' 
1- I ^'J 
S g 'g'^'S' 

i|5^ 

H 'pi- 

' ,^ 5* 
a M > 



p4 
f^ 

^4 

1 

3> 

I 

C ' 
cS 



O 



s '3 -3 

-J '-^ 



* 



a 

o 

fcfl 

o 

p 



GS 



*"* ? 

=2^ g^ 



3 



s^lf 



S-g 

il! 

O ^J ri4 

SH c3 



3 
9 

S 



I 



=3 

-*- 3 L>^ T 

=3 ^^ 

PH hH 






a 
I o 



CB 



J 

I 



-a 





p 

c3 



^3 
o 



11 



a .& 






^ *s ~s 

Pn P Pk 



M 



1 I 'I 



o i? 

g> s 

o 

r^j <^ 

-o ^ 






5 

ft 
o 
fc/3 






I i 






263 



SENTENCES. 



ICQ 


TJ 

IO 
& 
.11 

o- 


3i 


e3 

3 

44 

5 






"p 


d 

1C 

P- 


ic8 

> 

r5 






d 

pW. 










s 


f-i 


a 




>" 


d 

M 


PJ 






d 









3 

d- 



'3. 

lO 

^-( 
Q 


pinganei mattu. 
antha disile periya kari 


o 

f 

1 

c3 

cS ' 


mull urn kodu. 
antha tureisanikku 






44 
> 8 

c 

io 


M) 

. a 

a d 
T?- d 

-I'D 

d ^ 

,03 g| 

111 

C* -J- 3 

S '3 2 
t4 *-~^ '^3 

.? i-^j 

'3 TJ' 


diraying rumhii vilakl 


d 

^a 

to 

a 

'1 


a 

.&'? 
-2 d 

" : 

P, g 

a 02 
10 

1 % 

'tc'S 
g $ 

j a 


neruppu konduva. 


rCl 
OS 

J-i- 
'P 

d 

c 

_i0 

1 
g 

CD 

d. j 


kathavei safctu. 


sannalei puttu. 
kathavukku talpal po 


kathavei puttu. 




COOK. 



269 



i 



O 

a 




J5 



I'li'il- 
' 



* 

' ' 




p-- 

1 -j 1 * ? 






-_ 






M 







27.0 



SENTENCES. 




in 



-72.0-548