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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




5«l O'-aroXCyTurliy'^ 




'■.erviUet .. 

'it. ? Ai'''^'^ 




IRON ORE 

ZINC 

COAL 

COPPER 



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HAND-BOOK 



■OF 



X J_j1N in J J CD )0 I J I J. 



P K E P A 11 E D BY 



COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTUKE, STATISTICS, MIN'E.S AND 
IMMKiRATIOX, 



ASSISTED BY 

HENRY E. COLTON. 

PKACTICAT. CEOLOfHSr AXD MIXI.VG K^'Gl^'KKI^ 



NASHVILLE, TENX.. 1832. 



K N O X V I L L E, T E N N. : 
Whig and Chkoxicle Steam Book akd Job PfiiKxrN'J OifB'V3B. 

1882. 



Geography of Tennessee, 



Tennessee ii? houudwl on the east 1j}- North C'aroliua, on the 
north by Virginia and Kentucky, on the ^vest by the Missis.sippi 
River, Avhieh separates it from ^lissouri and Arkansas, and on 
the south by Missi?-'sippi, Ahibania and Oeoruia. It lies between 
the parallels :V)° and 80° 4r north latitude, and ><V 87' and 
90° 28' longitude west from ( h-eenwich.. The width of the .State 
from north to south is a])proximately 110 miles, while its len<jth 
is about 480 miles. 

MOIWTAINS. 

Within the Stute are partes bf two great uKjuntain ranges 
■which extend quite across, running from northeast t(j southwest. 
The first ai' these is the Apalachian chain, which by its greater 
axis forms the dividing line l)etween North Carolina and Tennes- 
see. These mountains, known locally as the I'nakas or (Jreat 
Smoky ^NEountains, occu])y a beir within the eastern portion of 
the State, and as before .-tatu<l, extend entirely across it. Their 
highest peaks rise to an altitude of more tliau six thousand feet. 
The mountain cliain is cut into deejt, roeky gorgt^, affording 
channels foi' the passage of tributJiries of the Holstuu and Ten- 
nessee Rivers, which enter the St:ite from North Carolina and 
Georgia. Entangled, as it were, between this mountain range 
and ii-s outliei-s are a number of <-oves aiid valleys of great 
beauty and feitility. 

The second, mountain chain is known in Tennessee as the ( 'um- 
berland Mountains, which enter frc^m Southwestei-n Virginia and 
Southeastern Kentucky juid cxteiKl to the Alabama and (Georgia 
line. This i-angc consists mainly of an elevated plateau or table- 
and, having a comparatively level surface and an elevation of 
about 2,000 feet. Its width v;irics fr(im thiity to -ixty miles. 
Its eastern escar]>ment is genei'ally i-egular and precipitous. 
Walden's Ridge, which, may be regarded as an outlier of the 
Cumberland ^lountains, Ls separated from the main plateau by 
the Sequatchee Valley, and extends along its eastern base nearly 



HAVD-MOOK OF TKNNKSHIOK. 



arnis? tlio S(al(% ami yivrs ri.so to soma poaU.s which townr con- 
sirlorably al)ovt> th(> ji^ciu'ral level of th(^ ])lat('an. South f)f the 
TeniiessiH' IJivir, near ('hattanouu;a, Jionkmit .Moiiiitiiin rir^-s 
just >Yithin the limits of Tennessee and extendi into (Jcor^ijia. 
The we.-Jtern faee of the jdateaii is inucli frin^i'efl and notched by 
coves whicli cut their way f:ir into the mountain. Some of the 
western outliers form ])eaks which rise to the level of the plat(!au. 
This mountain rantii:e forms the dividinj; line between the civil 
divisions of the State, known respectively as East and Middle 
Tennesset^ 

RIVERS, LAKES, ETC. 

Tennessee has three threat rivers which, with their tributaries, 
constitute ihree great river systems. The Hr^t of these, as it 
finally receives the waters of the other two, is the i\Iissi.s»ippi, 
which, in its tortiious, though generally southern course for sev- 
eral hundred mile^s, washes tjie western shores of Tennessee. 
The principal tributaries Avhich empty into it within the State 
are the Obion, Forked Deer and I5ig Platchee. These streams, 
rising in the interior, flow in a general northwesterly course 
until they reach the alluvial bottom of the ^Ii.<sissippi, when, 
taking a more southerly course, they debouch into that stream* 
The next, with regard to size, is the Tennessee, the headwatora 
of which are formed in the mountainous regions of Virginia. I'nder 
the mime of the Holston it enters Tennessee and forms a junction, 
with French Broad River near Knoxville, where it takes the 
luime of the Tennessee. In its <^ourse through East Tennc,-*soe 
its volume i,- in<'n';i.<»vl l)v the wntci's of tlu' ^Vulallga, the Nola 
Chucky, tlie French Broad, the Little Tennessee, the Iliawassoe 
and other streams which have their sources in the mount^iins of 
North Carolina, the Ocoec fro?n ( loorgia :\U(\ smaller streams 
from the Cmnberland ^^ouutains. Finally, l)rcaking through 
AValden's Kidge into the Scqiuitchee Valley e.nd following the 
trough of that vtdley, it crosses into Alalnnua, whence it again 
returns to T(Min(\-<see :md runs in a northwesterly course across 
the State into Kentucky, where it falls into the Ohio. In its 
second course through the State it separates the civil divisions of 
Middle and West TennCvSsee. Its 'princiiml tributaries, aftor re- 
entering the State, are Duck River from the east and Beech and 
Big Sandy from the west. The T(>nnessee Hiver is navigtible 
at all seasons from the mouth at Paducah, Kv., to the Mussel 



HAyD-BO(~)K OF TE-VXEvSSKE. I 

SShoals in Alali:un;i. A1)l)vo thc.-^e shoals it Ls again navigable to 
Kiug^toii, and in favorable seasons to Knoxville. 

The C'umberlaud Kiver rises in .Southeastern Kentucky, and, 
pur:^uing a generally southeasterly course, enters Tennessee in 
<Jlay County. With a beautiful curve it sweeps toward the cen- 
tral portion of the State and passes through the city of Nash- 
ville, thence by a northwesterly course it seeks an outlet into 
Kentucky and empties into the Ohio at Smithland. Its princi- 
pal tributaries are the Obed, Roaring, Caney Fork, Harpeth and 
Red Rivers. The entire length of the Cumberland is about 6r>0 
milas and, with proper improvements, it can be nuide navigable 
for nearly 600 miles. 

Besides these rivers and their tributaries, there are many 
streams of smaller size, rivei*s and creeks, which furnish excel- 
lent wat<^r-powers. These, however, will be noted in the descrip- 
tions of the counties to which they pertain. 

In the alluvial valley of the ]Mississippi there are many lakes 
and bayous, but only one of sufficient impoi-tance to demand 
;!*pecial notice. Reelfoot Lake is a curious body of water lying 
between the counties of Obion and Lake. It is about eighteen 
miles in length by from one to three miles in v.idth. In many 
places the water is shallow, but at some places is of unknown 
■depth. The waters have an outlet through Reelfoot Creek into 
the Obion River. Tliis lake is said to have been formed by the 
•earthquakes of 1811, which are supposed to have depressed the 
:area now covered by water below its former level. The lake ia 
a great })lace of resort for sportsmen who have a fondness for the 
srod and gun, as both fish and fowls are found in abundance. 



Topography, 



T(.p()L'-f:'.j>liic;illy considcicMl, Toiiuossco )ii'i'Sfiits ci^lit iiivtural 
divisions. Thc^e divisions are (Icscrihi'd as Inllows: 

I'^irst, the Unaht division, inchidiiiii- tlie extrenic <'astorn ])or- 
tion of the ^'tatc, and cniliraciiiL;' a l»elt ol' roimt iv l'ri;ni \'ii'::inia 
to tlie (leoriiia line, it ineludes tlie iireatei" portion of the eouu- 
ties of Jolmson, Cartel-, {Ireone, Sevier, Blount, Monroe and Polk. 
Tlie I'ace of the cniuitry is exeeedinulv rouLih. Majiv of the 
mountain |)eaks rise to t!ie altitude of from five to six thi^usand 
feet, and are on (op entirely destitute of timber. The ehaias of 
mountain ridges aie cul in nuiut'rous plaees by deep, roeky chan- 
nels, through whirh the iiiii])i<l mountain streams rush to the 
valley below. Xestlinir aniouLi' these iiiant I'nakas are many 
beautful coves an<l valleys which lifiiird homes for a (••)ntente(l 
and happy j)eoj)le. 

Our second division liaving distinct to})oiiraplncal features is- 
the Valley of Fjud Tennessee. This division extends aero.ss the- 
State from north to south, beino- limited on the east by the Una- 
kas and on tlie west by the Cumberland Mount-ains. Jt is called 
a valley with reference to the.se mountain ranges, and, with out- 
lying coves and valleys, emi>racc;s in whole or in part the fbllow- 
ing counties: Hancock. Hawkins, (iraingei-, I'nion, .Jefter.son, 
Knox, Roane, Meigs, liradley, Hambleji, Carter, .Johnson, "Wash- 
ington, ( Jreene, Sevier, Cocke, r)Iount, Monroe, I'olk, Claiborne, 
Anderson, Hhea, James, Ilamiitou, ]>iedsoe, Setjuatchie and 
Mariini. 

This so-called N'alley of ]]a-t Tennessee is. in point of fact, a 
guecessi(.n of narrow ridges and valleys, of gi-eater or less width, 
treiiding from northeast to south\si>^t. The ridges sometimes rise 
to the altitude of n)ountaius. Tlu' valleys are traversed by beau- 
tiful streams, some of which are navigable and all of which 
iiflbrd abundant watcr-jxiwer. This division ati'ords much val- 
uable arable land which has l)een converted into beautiful farms,, 
and which constitutes one of the l)est develoj)ed and most populous 
agricultural districts of the Stale. 



HAXD-IiOOK OF TKNNK.SSEK. 1> 

The Cv'inhcrland Plateon or Tiihle Land constitutes our tliird 
division, ernbraciiit,^ tlie whole or parts of the foUoAviuii- t^ountiesv 
to-wit: >Scott, ^lor^an, Cumberland, Fentress, Van Buren, Bled- 
soe, Grundv, Sequatchie, Marion, Clailxnne, Campbell, Anderson, 
Khea, Hamilton, Overton, Putnam, White, Franklin, Warren 
and Coffee. As this division has already i)een described under 
the head (»f the Cumberland Mountains a repetition is unnec- 
essarv. This is tlie coal region of Tennessee. 

The iburth and fifth divisions must of necessity be spoken of 
in connection with each other, as the fifth is entirely encircled 
by the fourth. In the very center of the State there is a depres- 
srcn of an oval form, extending n.early across the State from 
north to south, having in this direction a length of about 80 
miles, by a breadth from east to v.est of from 30 to (>0 miles. 
This depression is known as the Great Central Basin, and is our 
fifth division. Surrounding this basin is a circle of highlands, 
known as the Highland Eim of Middle Tennessee. This is our 
fourth division, and extends from the western base of the Cum- 
berlaHd INIountains to the western valley of the Tennessee River, 
and from the northern to the southern boundary of the State- 
ThL'^ highland rim has an elevation of about l.OOO feet a])ove the 
level of the sea-. These highlands, though called a rim, In many- 
places spread into extensive ])lateaus. The edges of tlie rim 
which immediately surround the Inisin are much cut and fringed 
by narrow valleys which reach out int(j the highlands. The 
stre4imi; which have their sources at high altitudes have cut dee[> 
channek, down which they rush impetuously over rapids or leap 
in cataracts to the basin ]»eiow. Tlie Cumberland River 
forcej; it^ way through the surrounding rim into the central 
basin, whence it escapes in a noithwesterly direction. 

The Central Basin is essentially different in its topographical 
features from the surrounding highlands. The surface is gener- 
ally undulating, though rounded knobs and hills are frequently 
met with. The land is generally fertile and well adapted to- 
cultivation, though considerable areas are found which are cov- 
ered with shaly limestone, w-hicli renders them unfit for tillag-e. 

These two divisions extend over all of the civil division ui 
Middle Tennes.see, except so much of it as lies upon the Cumber- 
land Plateau and in the wastern valley of the Tennessee. 

Our sixth divisi(jn is a comparatively small one, being restricted 
to the generally narrow and somewhat rugged valley of the Ten- 
nessee River in its western passage across the State afler its 



10 lIAMi-IJODK OK rr-NNKHSICF.. 

rrfurn from .\]al);ini;i. This vall<'y is irn>jriil;ir in form; so?nn- 
.tiincs fii;> ri(li;('s or s])iirs of liiL(lil!iii'ls \\]ti^u the one side or the 
.other jut (juilo into t.h(^ river hank. At some ]>;)ints whore the 
valley has ^n'ater .width it is {)artly oeeuj>ie<l with ia^oons tind 
marshes. Some points in tliis vallf-y j)resent considerable arena 
of fertile tillable laiiil. On some of the tributaries of thi.s Htreain, 
.especially Diu'k River on the eastern si<le and IViu; Sandy on the 
western, arms of the valley extend far into the interior and have 
much arable huid. The ascent from the valley on each side in 
tienerally al)nij)t aiid often precij)itous. 

The seventh division comprises the u;reat ])]at<^au or Slope of 
West Tennessee, extendin;;- from the valley last described to the 
bluffs borderin;^ the alluvial bottom of the Mississipin. Thus 
vast area, coveriiiiij nearly all of seventeen counties, is, for the 
anost i)art, a irently-undulating ))Iain. Ilisinu- rapidly from the 
Tennes.«ee Valley till an avera_L!;e elevation of about 700 feet is 
re^'iched, this plateau then gradually falls off to the west, or north- 
Avcst, till the v,(\stei'n blufi.s are reached, at a distance of about 
100 miles. Traversing this area are occasional ridges of low 
hills, generally irregular in direction, but with a tendency frona 
jiorthe^ist to southwest. There are also niinn'rous streams, nm- 
ning generally to the northwest, with broad valleys and sluggish 
currents. In some localities these valleys are marshy and unfit 
for cultivation, but, taken as a whole, this section is. one of great 
fertility, and capable of i^ustainiug a den.<c population. 

The eighth and last of tlu^e divisions embraces the Alhivml 
Valley of the jNIississippi, so far a.s it lies within the limits of 
Tennessee. On its eastern side, Avhere it is outlined by the bluffe, 
it pursues a tolerably direct line tVum northeast to southwest; 
but on the western side, Avhere its limits are marked by the devi- 
ous course of the river, it is quite irregular. At Fulton, Ran- 
(h^ljih and Ab:'m])his th.e river washes the foot of the bluffs, cutting 
the valley into sections. Tiie general aspect of this valley is low 
iind mar.'^hy. Many small Iake^s and lagoons are found in its 
limit"?. It is covered with densi' irnnvlh of timber and is of ex- 
•cecding fertility. T*ortions not Jiiarshy arc in cultivation and 
yield heavy cro(\s. 



Geological Features, 



It if- no part of my present purpose to enter into a. minute 
.examination of the geology of Tennessee, but to present merely 
:HUch outline of its various formations as will enable the intelli- 
gent reader to form a proximate estimate of the soils and min- 
erals of the various sections of the 8tate. 

As all soils have been formed either by the decomposition of 
the superincumbent rocks, gradually becoming intermingled with 
decayed vegetable matter, or by the deposit of earthy matter 
from water which may at some period have covercvd the surface, 
it follows that the soil nuist be such as ra^vdts from such decom- 
position and the character of tlie watei-y deposits. 

According to geologists, the rocks of Tennessee are referred to 
■eight diff'fM-ent groups, containing the formations of thirteen pe- 
riods. These, lieginning from the lower or oldest formations and 
upward to the hiter formations, are : 

1st. Mdamorphic, Metamorphic rocks. 

2d. L(^iver Siluriau, embracing the Potsdam, Quebec and Tren- 
ton periods. 

od. The Upper iSihirian, containing the Niagara and tiie 
Jvower Hehlerberg. 

4th. The Devonian, with a ^^ingle jx^dod, the flamiltou. 

5th. The Ckirhonifernus, containing the I.,ower Carboniliirous 
and the Coal Pleasure periods. 

fith. The f'reiaceons, with the Cretaceous periods. 

7th. The Tertiary, with the T(>rtiaiT period. 

8th. The (.^itctrterminj and Modern, embracing the Quart.cr- 
mary, the Terrace and tlio Human y)eriods. 

These thirteen j)eriods in their lurn contain twenty-six forma- 
tions : 

1st. The Metamorphir formation. 

LM. The Pid.^dam, containing the Oeoee and the Chilhowee 
Sandstones. 

;>d. The (^uehoe period gives the Knox Sandstone, the Knox 
^hale and the Knox Dolomite. 



12 HANIi-i;o<iK or TKNNKSh-KK, 

4tii. The 'rrrntoii. )>ci'i(irl has tlic 'I'i'» iitini nr Lcljaiioii and the 
]S:i.'^hvilh' (ir ( "iiiciiiiiati Liiiicstdiic. 

Ath. 7'/ir Nuujarn period has tlic Clinch Mcnintain Samlstnnp, 
the White Oalv iMoiiiitaiu Sand.-ti'iic, l!ie Dycstone f^ronp, and iho 
Nia!,fai':i Liiuoione. 

(•th. T lie Lower IJf.'/<hrl)rr(/ \\i\^ only the llei(h'jl)erii- Ijinie- 
stoiuv. 

7th. 7 Itc JJcvonian period iiives only the Black Shale. 

8th. The Lower Carbonljerons jn'riod ha.s the Barren uroup, 
the Coral or St. l.,oiii.< Limestone and the .Mountain Limestone. 

9th. TJie Coal Mc('.!<urc jieriod i-oniains onlv the C'oul .MeiLS- 
ures. 

10th. 21ie Cretaceous jieriod contains the Coffee Sands, the 
Rotten Limestone or Green Sand and the Kipley Sands. 

11th. The Terliury period j^ives the Flat Woods Santls ami 
Clay.s, and the Lao-range Sands. 

12th. 'TIte Qaarternary and Modern, period furnishes the 
Orange Saml or Drift, tlie Bluff' Loam or Loess and Alluvium. 

Thei^e formations occupy, with more or less distinctness, differ- 
ent portions of the State, and exercise their special influence 
uix)n the soils where they j)revail. 

I shall briefly refer in this chapter t(j the localities in which 
they res])ectively prevail, and the general character of tlie soil 
which tb.ey furnish and the jjrincijjal minerals which they con- 
tain. 

The ^-letanKjrphic rocks are found ojdy in the limited area 
occupic^d by the I'liak;'. Mountains on the North Cai-olina bor- 
der. The soil resulting from their disintegration is adapted to 
the growth of wild grasses, and in s;»me localities yields a fine 
growth of timber. The magnetic iron of Carter County and the 
copper of Polk are found in this formaticjn. 

The Ocoee group embracing conglomerates, slates and sand- 
stones, forms a belt extending from tj>e Georgia line running 
parallel with the North Carolina line jind including portions of 
Polk, Monroe, Cocke and Greene Counties. The soil is of the 
saiue general character as the preceding, but this section contains 
iaterpolated beds of limestone, which yields a more generous soil^ 
The greater part of this section is mountainous, but abounding in 
excellent sunnncr psisturage. Hoofing slate and some gold are 
found in this fornsation. 

Chllhowee iSandstone. This rock is found in the Chilhowee- 
and similiur mountains, outliers of the Unaka range. It 



HAXD-BOOK OF TKXXIvsSEE. 13 

occupies portion.- of the eastern counties of the State. The soil is 
of little value for tillage, but the mountains in summer are 
clothed with succulent grasses. 

Knox Sanrlsfonp, outcrops in the long narrow ridges which in- 
tersect East Tennessee from Northeast to Southwest. It is found 
in nearly every county in this division of the State. By its re- 
sistance to erosive influences, it maintains the ridge-like form. 
The soil which it yields lacks fertility. It contains many valua- 
ble beds of iron ore besides other minerals. 

Khox Slude. This may be called a group rather than a single 
formation, as the shale is largely intei'inixed Avith different forms 
of calcareous or siliceous rocks. This group occupies n)any 
beautiful valleys, which traverse East Tennessee. Owing to the 
presence of large quantities of calcareous and siliceous matter in 
the soil, it is highly productive and yields abundant crops. Some 
beds of ii-on ore are found in this formation. 

Knox Dolomite. This formation occupies a large portion of 
the valley of East Tennessee, but is found no where else in the 
State exce])t in a limited area in Hiiust«n Countv. It is a 
Maguesian limestone of great thickne.-<«. By disintegration, it 
affords an excellent soil. Mucii ot the fine arable land of East 
Tennessee rests upon Knox Doxomite. This formation contains 
many vaiuai)ie beds of iron ore besides Galena, ores of zinc, 
manganese, and other minerals. 

Trenton or Lebajion mid Ka-^hrine or Cincinnati Groups. 
These formations, for our present purpose, may l>e treated together. 
They consist mainly of blue limestone, but are not homogeneous, 
containing in'miuiy places, chert sandstone and various other rocks. 

In East Tennessee, these formations occupy c(m.«iderable ter- 
ritory. They also occupy nearly the Avhole extent of the great 
central basin of ]N[iddle Tennessee. P^or fertility and adaptation, 
for cultivation, the soil, resulting from these rocks is scarcely sur- 
])assed. Besides the localities named, these rocks are found in the 
"Well's Creek basin, and iii the bed of the Tennesse River in its 
western valley. Locally, these formations run into Hydraulic 
limestone, and in East Tennessee the Trenton contains many in- 
terpolated b(Mls of beautiful marl)l('. 

Clinch Mountain Sandstone, is' found principally in the 
Southern faces of Clinch. Powell's and Lone ^Mountains, in the 
counties of (Jrainger, Hawkins and Hancock. The soil which it 
yields is poor. 

"White Oak Mountain sandstone is found on White Oak, Lone 



14 iiANK-iiooK (.»K tknm;h^i:i;. 

auil Powfll's .MoiiiilMiiis. The ?i)i! i.< (if liltlo Viiluc, but v:i]ii:il)]r;- 
Ih'cIs ofinm uix- arc limii'l coiiiicctol with this fbrnintiuii. 

])tfe>itone (Jroup. Tlii.s lorinatioii contaitis nltcriiiitliij^ hiy- 
ors of shnlo, (^nudsitoju! mid I'ossiliibrous iron oic. It is foini'l 
in imrrow rid^c.-' niiiuiiiir j)urall(;l willi and inai- the; ha.-c of ljll^ 
CuinbcrliUid Mountains, fxtciidiiiij,- Avith oidy sliglit iiit(.'rru])tioii"^ 
ucrot-s tht; State. The soil, f houLfh cove riiip- 1)iil n liiiiite<l area, 
itf fertile. 

Niagara tSundstonc. The outcroiJ.s of tlii.s f(jrniation occur 
principally in the western valley of the Tennessee lliver, and 
some of the trihutai-y valleys of that streaiti. 'ilie MenLseu.s 
limestone, Avhii-h is the lowest nieniber of this foiiuation, at .some 
jioints in this section, yields a fair inaible. The disiiite<;i'ation ot' 
this rock yields an excellent soil. 

The Lower Ileiderberg occurs in the same regi<jn a.s the. pre- 
ceding, and tliouLdi its area it? small, furnishes an excellent soil. 

Black Shale. This formation outcrojis at various points in 
Middle and East Tennessee. Thoagh a ■« ide-spj'cad formation, 
being generally covered by other formations, it forms the basi.s of 
the soil in only a few unimj»oi-tant valleys in iOast Tennessee, 
The soil is not good. 

Barren Group. This group is found iji linear outcro]s in the 
valley oi' East Tennessee, where, liowever, it does not pos.sess 
niueli importance. It occurs again in the rim of higlilands sur- 
rounding the central basin of Middle Tennessee, confined. mainly 
to the inner circumference of the- rim. It is ci)mi)o.-ied of heavy 
chertz layers, with moi'e or less liniestoiu\ which sometimes a.s- 
sumes a shaly character. The snii is leechy, tliough produces, 
luxuriant growth of coarse grass. 

Coral or iSt. Louis Jjimcutone. Tliis fonuation covers by far 
the larger part of the Highland Kim. It is a grayish or blueish 
limestone with chertz layers and fossiiliforous corals. It contains 
oxide of iron from decom})osed chert, ^hich gives the soil a redtlish 
color. The lime which it contains makes it a truly calcareous 
soil. It is of various degrees of fertility, some of it being equal 
to the best in the IState. It contains many rich beds of iron ore.s. 

Mountain lAmestone. This rock has its principal ex])osure on 
the western slope of the Cumberland plateau, but is found also 
on the eastern face. Its geological position i.? above the coral 
or St. Louis limestone. By disintegration it yields a rich, 
strong soil, giving fertility to many of the slopes and coves of 
the plateau. 



HAND-BOOK OF TlCXNIiSiSKE, lo* 

The Coal Mea-mrf'^, occupy the entire area of tli(^ Cuml)erlanfl 
table-land. This formation iy made up of altcruating layerrJ of 
conglomerates, shales and sandstones, with interveniiipr seams of" 
coal. The coal is bituminous, generally of good quality, and the 
seams of varying th.ickness. The general character of soil which 
these rocks supply is sandy and poor, though yielding abundantly 
of coarse grass, and is adapted for the cultivation of fruits. 

I have now briefly presented the leading geological features of 
two great divisions of our State, East and Middle Teune.ssee. The 
Geological formations of West Tenne.ssee are entirely different 
from those already described, being of a later date and found in* 
less solidified condition. The older formations, already described,, 
terminate v.ith more or less abruptness in the immediate vicinity 
of the Tennessee River, the line of demarcation being for tlie most 
part a short distance to the west of the stream, where the beveled 
edges of the old and new formations meet. The great jDlateau or 
slope of West Tennessee is supposed to have been at some former 
time, the bed of a lake or inland sea of unknown depth, which 
has been filled up and elevated by the operations of natural 
forces in past ages. At what time, or in what manner the dry 
land was made to take the place of this " old time sea," 1 shall 
not undertake to discuss, ^[y business is v.-ith the formations aj* 
they now exist. These liave been referred to three; ep<)chs ov 
periods of time. 

The first of these formations is the Coffee Sand, which is found 
immediately t(.) the west of the old shore line. In Hardin 
County, it reaches the Tennessee River, and continues its cour.sc5 
in a narrow belt parallel, and near to it more than half way 
across the State, where it disappears. It is comjicsed of layei's- 
of sand and clay. The sand usually contains small grains of 
mica and fragments of wood pailially carboniz.ed. The soil i:^ of 
medium fertility. 

Green tSand. Tliis fonnation comes next in order, bordering 
the coffee sand on tlie west, and overlapping it in n)aBy places. 
It outcrops over an area a few miles in width, ami extends 
some sixtv miles in length, from the Southern line of the State 
northwardly. Beyond the area of its outcrops it is found as an 
underlying strata at jnany points westward. It is a clayey sand 
containing grains of a green mineral called glauconite,. to which 
its characteristic color is owing. So far as I know no satisfactory 
analysis of this material has ever been made. It is supposetf 
however, to possess valuable fertilizing i)roperties and sliould h^ 



16 iiAND-i'.rtoK or TKNNio.-vsr;i;. 

fairly trstcd. .At various puiuts in this h-lt, tlu-rc arc cxtcn.sive 
<k'posit.s of iiiariru' slu'lls in a l;-o(>(1 state of preservation. The 
soil is fairly itroduetive. 

The ItipU'ij (rroiij). Tiiis i'oi-iiiatinii oiiti'roi)s in a Ih'lt of from 
leu to fift<'0.n miles in wiiltii, extendiii^i; entirely acrosH the State 
from the Mississippi line. It eontuins at many f)laees masses of 
ien-iii;iiiiius .-andstone of u'reater or le,ss thickness. Those sand- 
stones are eo!npose<l of siliceous particles liold toji'ether hv hvdra. 
t(Hl oxide of iron, and are common to all the sandy formations of 
West IV'unessee. 

or the fertiary formations, we iiavc first, 'The Fkitivoods Sands 
■and (.'/tills. This name wa.s <riveu hy Prof Hiljrard, formerly 
State (Teol<)ui>t i'ov M!s>issippi, hut our own eminent (rcologist 
Dr. Safiiird, desiuiiates il as the I'oiier'^^ Creek- Group. It, like 
tlu' ])rece<liiiLr formations, is ((imposed of alternating layers of 
.-ands am! chiys, though the j)ro])ortions of laminated elay.s is 
)iiuc!i hirg', r. heing at some places iVom fifty to one hundred feet 
in thicknes.-. These clays ai'c usua'ly dai-k when wet, but 
l^ec-ime grayish when dry. .\i some points they are white and 
;are v.m'i] !o a limited extent for the manufacturi' of ))otterv, and 
are thought to he suited for tlie :uan\itactu!'c of poi-celain. The 
.sands are while, i)utf, yellow (u- variegated. This l)e!t, like the 
]n-ece!ling, extends entirely across th.e State. Dr. Satford gives it 
i\- width of not more than eight miles. My own oh.servation, 
however, leads to the belief that the area has a greater width than 
is given by Prof. Satford. The soil is of the same general character 
as the formation- already described. 

IVie LaGraiiffc Sand.-^. This group oceuj)ie> (|uite a consid- 
•erable portion of AVest Tennessee, being in width aj)proximately 
given at forty nule.s. and extending from Xorth to South, quite 
across {!>e State. It is bounded on the east liy tlie Porter's 
C reek gro\ip, and on the v.est by the J^luff Loatn or Loess, next 
to be described. The <astei'n p(trtion of this area is broken into 
gentle liilis or ridges, while the western part is more level. The 
soil possesses gi-eat fertility. As an agricultural region, it i? of 
jL^reat value. 

}>li[f\ Loam or Loes.-i. I'his is a deposit of iine silicious loam 
crowning the njilands of the western tier of counties. It extends 
"^vestwardly to the bluffs which border the Mississippi River. At 
some points it is brokcM into hills, but v.here level or undulating, 
the Soil is of excellent ijualitv and constitutes kiue of the fiuest 
farniin<i,- section^ In the State. 



riAND-r.OOK OF TENNESaEK. 17 

Alluvium. This is the last formation to be noticed. It is not 
'Confined to any one section of the State, but is found in the low- 
lands or bottoms along the course of nearly all our rivers. It 
occupies the entire area between the bluils and the Mississippi 
River. ^luch of it is subject to overflow. The soil is of richest 
quality. 



Coal, 



The superficial area in the State of Tennessee covered by coal 
hearing strata, amounts to 5,100 square miles, but this does not 
fairly represent the amount of coal in the State, as all this area 
h'H& at least one seam of coal, a large proportion more than two, 
and a very considerable area has six or more workable seams. It 
is thus seen that the mere area of a coal field, may be a very poor 
indication of the quantity of coal it contains, and without an 
examination into the thickness of the seams, and the quality of 
the coal therein, any judgment formed from area alone may be 
very incorrect. Missouri contains vastly more coal area than 
Tennessee, yet one seam in Tennessee is Avorth more for economic 
purj)Ofes than all the coal of Misscniri. 

In Pennsylvania there is a formation under the regular coal 
series known as the False Coal Measures, having only thin bands- 
of coal ; in Tennessee, these measures contain several workable 
seams of coal of excellent quality. The Lower and Upper 
Measures of Pennsylvania also aj^pearin this State, but the great 
mass of rocks of the barren measures appear in much reduced 
thickness. It is thus seen that while Tennessee has all the 
bituminous coals of Pennsylvania, this State has also a coal- 
bearing strata which in that is bare of any productive seams. 
While the area covered by our coal field is not so large, yet it is 
probable that A\e have as much or more of this mineral fuel — 
the anthracite field excepted — than the great iron State. 

The Tennessee coal field belongs to that division known in 
geology as the Appalachian Coal field, which, commencing in 
Pennsylvania, extends over Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, 
Tennessee, and ends in Alabama. AN^hile its width in Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio extends through nearly four degrees of longitude 
at the northern boundary of Tennessee, it is only about seventy- 
one miles, and at its southern boundary fifty miles. In its 
southern course into Alabama it expands into a heart-shaped 
area one Jumdred miles or more in width. The area of this coal- 
field in Tennessee includes within its limits the counties of Scotj, 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 19 

Morgan, Cumberland, the greater parts of Fentress, Van Buren 
Bledsoe, Grundy, Sequatchie and jNIarion, considerable parts of 
■Claiborne, Campbell, Anderson, Rhea, Roane, Overton, 
Hamilton, Putnam, White and Fi-anklin, and small portions of 
Warren and Coffee. 

The Cumberland Table-land has generally a broad flat top, 
capped with a layer of conglomerate sandstone, averaging pei'haps 
seventy feet iu thickness. This layer of sandstone on the 
western edges of the table-land forms a steep escarpment or 
brow, bold, distinct, and well marked from twenty to one hun- 
dred, and sometimes two hundred feet high. Beneath tliis often 
overhanging brow, the steep, woody slopes of the sides begin and 
run down to the low lands. These slopes below the cliffs usually 
rest against the lower Coal Measures and upon the Mountain 
Limestone. The eastern outline of the Cumberland Table-land 
is, for some distance, a nearly direct line, making, however, 
a curve, and taking in portions of Roane, Anderson and 
Campbell counties. The western edge is jagged, notched by 
innumerable coves and valleys, and presenting a scalloped or 
ragged contour, with outlying knobs separated from the main 
Table-land by deep ravines or fissures. In the southern portion, 
near the eastern side, is a deep gorge, canoe-shaj^ed, with steep 
escarpments rising eight hundred to one thousand feet above the 
valley, through which the Sequatchie river flows. This Ls the 
Sequatchie valley which separates the lower end of the Table- 
land iMo two distinct arms. Through the eastern arm the Ten- 
nessee River breaks, and after flowing down the valley for a dis- 
tance of sixty miles, turns at Guntersville, Alabama, and soon 
afterwards cuts through the western arm fifty miles from the 
Tennessee line. This Sequatchie Troug]i is one hundred and 
sixty miles in length, the Tennessee end being sixty miles, and 
the Alabama end one hundred. 

The eastern arm of the coalfield, on the western side of 
which this remarkable valley passes, is six to eight miles wide. 
Between the Tennessee River and the Nashville and Chattanooga 
Railroad, it is called Raccoon mountain. Separated from this by 
Wills' valley, rises up in massive proportions. Lookout Mountain. 
The latter is an outlier of the Cumberland Table-land, and 
geologically is closely allied to it. 

Passing now to the northeast corner of the coal region, we find 
a qmidrilateral block almost severed from the mountain mass by 
the valleys of Elk Fork and Cove Creek, the former running 



20 fiAND-nOOK Ol' TF,NNKS8E35. 

n'trtlioa.-it iiml i'.;ii)-)t yinjx jnto tlm Cuniberlaiul Rivo-, llio latter 
rinming southoacst into tho f -liuoli llivor. 

Tlu> aYorap:o !u ight of tli(^ Cuml)orIaii(i Tal)le-]nn(l i.s two 
thousand foot above, tidt'-Avatcr, but some of tlie ridges of the 
m^rtlu^istem parr rise to a Jiiueli greater heitrbt, reaohiiic,- at 
plaeov^, a8 at Cross Mountain. 3,370 feet, and at P>utt Mountain, 
near Coal Creek, ;),oOO. The valley of Cove Creek is 2,300 feet 
lower than the high points of Cros? Mountain. The part of the 
valley of East Tennc>s,-ee innuediatcly contiguous to the moun- 
tain is nlxnit 1,000 feet above the sea, so that, viewe<l from that 
valley, the Cuuibcrlaud Tahle-land stands out with .singular 
bolduess and s!harpne?s of outline. Everywhere in the norihern 
part it is marked by a succession of cliff?, elevated one above 
tlK^ other, with intervening wooded slopes. On the eastern side, 
])aralle] with tho main mountain mass, and separated from it by 
a narroM- vale, is a steep, roof-Iikc sandstone ridge, with the 
layers upturned on their edges, tlie only access b(;ing through 
a few gaps like that of Coal Creek. This ridge is known as 
Waldcn's Ilidge. FolloAving this ridge southAvard, the name 'la 
applied to the whole arm betMeen Bee,uatehie Vr.lley and the 
valley < if East Tennessee. 

We have said that this coal region is sheeted with a thick 
conglomerate sandstone, but upon this sheet, a .short distance 
from tlie edges of the precipiee,«, other strata are superimposed, 
rising in some places, one thousand feet and more above the 
conglomerate or general surface, and forming, as it were, moun- 
tains uj)on the tup of the table-lan<l. In the northern jiart of 
the (^oal region, its j)lateau chtiracter is ilestroyed by these super- 
in(-uin]>ent mountains. 

While there should be a division of the Tennes.see Coalfield 
into Lower, !\[iddle, and Upper measures, from the fact that the 
False measures contain w<-irkal:)le co:'.], and that the true Upper 
measures onlv apjuar nortli of ICuutv rivi'r, yet the line of 
demarcation between the two last has not been .so well defined, 
and the usual classification has been into Upper and Lower 
measures, the division being the tliick conglomerate which gives 
tlie clift-like a|)i)earance to the mountain on its Avestern side. 
The second conglomerate or sandstone which caps the plateau 
throughout its length, is over what should he called the Middle 
measures, really the Lower measures of Pennsylvania. A 
sectiou made near Ti-acy City by Dr. Satlord, will give an idea 
<>f the different stnitu and their relative positions at that place. 



HAND-BOOK Ol" TKXNirSSEE. 21 

Beginning at the top and descending, as t!iui:gli in u well (jr 
shaft, we have this Sewanec section. 

13. Conglomerate ; cap rock of the upp<^r plateau and the upper- 
most stratum in the region i'>0 feet. 

12. Coal, a few iuclies (G) 

11. Shale 23 feet. 

10. Coal, outcrop (F) ? foot. 

9. Dark Clayey Shale 1 foot. 

8. Sandy Shale 25 feet. 

7. Sandstone 86 feet. 

6. Shale, more or less sandy ■i~> feet. 

6. Coal, Main Sewanee, from (E) 3 to7ft. 

4. Shale, some of it sandy 45 feet. 

3. Coal, outcrop (D) .^ 1 foot. 

2. Shale '. 3 feet. 

1. Sandstone 17 feet. 

Total 200 feet. 

We here reach the bottom of the Upper coal measures, and 
come to^the thick conglomerate that caps the whole coal region. 
Descending, we pass successively through 

Conglomerate 70 feet 

10. Coal, outcrop from (C) ^tolft. 

9. Shale, with clay at top 10 feet. 

8. Sandstone, Cliff Kock (Lower Couglomerat« of .Etna Mines) Go feet. 

7. Coal, outcrop from (B) itoUft.. 

6. Shale, with a few inches of adultei-ated clay at top. ., 8 feet. 

5. Sandy Shale 22 feet. 

i. Sandstone, hard 78 feet. 

3. Coal, has occasional shale above and below it ; the coal from (A) 1 to 3 ft. 

2. Hard Sandstone, local 20 feet. 

1. Shale, including a thin sandstone 20 feet. 

Total 228 feet. 

Including the Upper and Lov.xt coal measures, there are 
seven strata of coal, aggregating a thicknet's of from seven to 
fourteen and a half feet. Mciuy of these beds, however, are too 
thin to work, and are given merely to shoAv the extent of the 
coal measures. 

The Lower measures, though irregular and uncertain, supply 
a large amount of coal in White, Putnam, Overton, Frentress, 
Franklin, and Marion counties. The seams in these counties 
are of good thickness and aflbrd coal of excellent quality. 

The main seam of the Upper measures on the western side of 
the Table-laud is the Sewanee. This seam will average four and 



22 !iANi)-i;<>()K or tennesske. 

a hiilf feel in thicknesr;, h^ largest development l)eiiig ten feet 
four inches, and its least two feet. 

The Sewanee seam furnishes a larger amount of coal than any 
other single seam in Tennessee, and has all the qualities that 
combine to make a useful and valuable coal. It varies in some 
of its characteristics and constituents indifferent localities, but 
that is a common freak of all coal seams in every coal-lield. It 
makes a good coke, is a good steam-making coal, makes a hot, 
durable fire in the grate, and is nearly free from sulphur. It is 
found at a certain elevation all over the Table-land, but in the 
horizontal strata of the Coal creek and "Winter's Gap section of 
the iield it has ])robably sunk far beneath the surface. It is the 
main seam of Walden's ridge, and continues with much persist- 
ency from Chattanooga to Coal creek. Where the ridge is 
regular in surface, and tlu; strata in place, the seam is of regular 
thickness and easiiy worked with a certainty of obtaining a 
constant supply, but where the strata are broken l)y ravines or 
gorges, it is also disturbed, sometimes lost entirely, and again 
rising into great thickness. 

Walden's ridge is an outlier of the Cumberland Table-land* 
for the greater part of its length a vast wall of upturned rocks, 
ranging from six hundred to twelve hundred feet high. This 
singular formation is best seen north of Big Emery Gap. A base 
line drawn horizontally through the ridge would probably give 
a width of twelve hundred feet. The- line of demarcation 
between the inclined strata of Walden's ridge and the hori- 
zontal layers of the Cuniberland mountains is sharp and v»"ell 
defined. Within a feAv feet one steps trom the almost vertical 
sandstones of Walden's ridge to those of the Cumberland Table- 
land lying horizontal. Behind he sees the steep inclined crags 
of Emery Gap, and in front the shales, slates, and sandstones 
lying one on the other. This ridge is most continuous and con- 
spicuous in its tilted strata from Big Emery (in}) to near Carey- 
ville, but those peculiar characteristics are gradually lessened to 
the southwest from Emery Gi\\\ until near Chattanooga the dip 
of the strata is very slight, and its top instead of being a* narrow 
ridge, flattens out into a plateau six to eight inilcs wide. The 
greatest action of the downthrow, therefore, took place between 
Emery Gap and Careyville, and to its action, says Prof. Lesley, 
is due the preservation of the numerous beds of coal in the high 
mountains on Poplar creek, at Winter's Gap, and on T'oal creek. 

It has been assumed that the inclined seaujs of Walden's 



HAND-BOOK OF TEXNSSSEE. 23 

ritlge pass dovrn under the surface strata of the CumheHand 
mountains, and become as nearly horizontal as the coals of that 
formation. No accurate demonstration of this has ever been 
made but the record of the borings of the salt well at Winter's 
•Gap, though not strictly accurate, gives an idea upon which may 
be based some foundation for the truth of this theory. The salt 
well was originally bored by Prof. Estabrook but allowed to fill 
up. Lately another was bored by Mr. E. A. Reed, of Ohio. 

On the western side of the coal field the general dij) of the 
strata is slightly to the northeast. The elevation of the sub- 
carboniferous limestone on the mountain side near Tracy City is 
about sixteen hundred feet above the sea. On a direct east line, 
near the foot of Walden's ridge, the same rock is only about nine 
hundred feet above the sea ; on the line of the Tennessee and 
Pacific road, in Putnam county, the limestone is about fourteen 
huiKlred feet above the sea, while in a direct east line, near 
Winter's Gap, in the valley, it is only eight hundred feet above 
sea level. The level of the valley at Cowan is nine hundred 
and seventy-three feet above sea level, and the level of the ScAvanee 
seam at Tracy City is nine hundred and forty-nine feet higher. 
This seam dips to the southeast about eight feet to the mile; 
hence from its location in Fentress, in the fifty miles distance to 
Winter's Gap, it would be deep down under the horizontal strata 
of the high mountains, though coming up again above the valley 
in Walden's ridge. * 

Towering high above the valley, in Anderson, Morgan and 
Campbell counties is the series of mountains heretofore men- 
tioned. They reach an altitude of over three thousand five 
hundred feet above sea level, and contain coal seams to their 
very summits. Here is the equivalent of the Upper Measures of 
Pennsylvania. And it is safe to assume that tlie carboniferous 
strata in this region, estimating by the data derived from the 
boring of the salt well at Winter's Gap, attain a thickness of 
full four thousand feet in a direct vertical line from the«top of 
the American Knob or Brushy Mountain to the lowest sub- con- 
glomerate coal. At Carsyvillo Prof Safford determined the 
elevation of Cross ^Mountain, with nine seams of coal, to be 
three thousand three hundred and seventy feet above the sea, and 
two thousand three hundred and twenty-nine feet above the val- 
ley. This is at the northeastern end of the Upper jMeasures, as 
the still higher Brushy Mountain is near the southv.estern end. 
In this distance of about forty miles, is the series of high ranges 



24 HAND-I!()f)K OF TKNNESKKK. 

and peaks nlliulctl lo abfivo. Honcc wo, have in tliin tli^triet aiv 
urea of jibout two thousaml Hfjuaro miles, tlu* greater portion 
of which contains, above water level, from four to ftev(!ii scams 
of coal over three feet thick ; thus showin;^', in this part of the 
Tennessee coal field alone au extent of thickness and a number of 
seams, available in the future, beyond the jtr(!vious calculations 
of geologists. 

The largest mining operation on the Tennot^sce coal field is 
that of the Tenues-see Coal, Iron, and Railroad Company at Tracy 
City. The seam of coal wctrked there is known as the Sewanee 
seam, and is so marked in the section previously given. The 
qualities of this coal have- also been spoken of in the preceding 
pages. They work four different mines, and besides selling coal, 
ha;ve six hundred ovens for making coke. Tlie company owns a 
railroad twenty-three mile.s long, which connects th<.-ir mines 
with the main line of the Naah villi', (Jhattanooga, and St. Louis 
roa<l at (x)wan ; and they also own tliree iron furnaces, one at 
Cowan and two at South Pittsburgh. They also have other 
coal mines and coke ovens at Vict<iria in Sequatchie valley. 
The coke from the latter aluKjst entirely go<^s to South Pittsburg 
furnaces. This company has a capitjvl of §3, 000,000, most of 
which is held in New York, and they cra])loy about fifteen 
hundred laborers. 

The Coal Creek Alining and Manufacturing Company is a 
corporation owning many thousand acres of land in Auderscm 
county, on which it has given leases for coal mining, but the 
eompiiny itself does not mine an}- coal. Coal creek, in Ander- 
son county, is the loc^ility where the mining is o;rriod on. There 
are now five companies engaged in mining there under leases. 
The Coal Creek ^Mining and Manufacturing Com])any, and 
two other companies nnne lands of their own. The joint 
product shipped from this locality amounts to about one hun- 
dred and fiily thousand tons per annum. Th«? coal here mined 
is entirely used for domestic anti steam purposes, and for making 
gas.' It finds an outlet to market over the Knoxville and Ohio 
railroad to Knoxville, and thence south and east by the East 
Tennessee, Virginia, and (jieorgia Railroad. The largest mining 
operation is carried on by the Knoxville Iron Company. They 
cmplo}" Jibout one hundred and fifty miners and other laborers, 
and ship about one hundred thousand tons of coal per annum. 
The company also owm- a large rolling-mill and foundry in. 
Knoxville. 



The Roane Iron C'ompimy ut Rockwood, on the Cincinnati 
Southern railroad, uiinos coal for nse in their iron furnaces, but 
does not furnish any for blupmcnt. They mine about sixty 
thousand tons per annuui. 

The Soddy Company's iiiiues at Rathburn station, on the same 
railroad, are the next largest mines in o})eration. They mine 
both for shipment in the raw state and made into coke. Their 
product amounts to fifty thousand tons. 

The Oakdale Iron Company mines from the Poplar Creek Coal 
field at "Winter's Gap, a large quantity of coal which is made into 
coke for their farnace. Their present output- reaches over one 
hundred and twenty tons per day, and preparations are being, 
made to increase it so as to ship coal next winter. Their coal 
is of the very best quality. They own a uarrow-guagc railroad 
sixteen miles long, which connects with tlie Cincinnati Southern 
at Oakdale junction. 

The Etna Mining Company owns mines on the Na.shville, Chat- 
tanooga, and St. Louis Railroad, about fourteen miles from 
Chattanooga. Their coal is of very superior quality for black- 
smith's purposes, as is also the coke made from it for use in- 
foundries. They mine about twenty-five thousand tons per 
annum, of v.'hich fully one-haif is made into coke. 

The other miuiug operations of the State are : — ■ 

The Campbell County Coal Company, Careyvillo, Knoxville 
and Ohio railroad. 

The Crooke Coal Company, Glen Mary, on the Cincinnati 
Southern Railroad. This is a concern of considerable magnitude, 
and has capacity to ship six hundred tons per day. 

The Helenwood Coal Company, ITeienwood, on the same rail- 
road, is owned by the same company. They have well opened 
mines. 

The AYalden's Ridge Coal Compauy operates on the mountain-. 
near Spring City. They have a narrow-guage road nearly 
finished. 

The Dayton Coal Company is an English concern which has 
for many years owned lands near Dayton, in Rhea county, and 
nov.' propose active operations. 

These companies are more fully noticed by a letter in the 
appendix. 

The Daisy Coal Company, IMelviile ; Parkes & Co. 

The Chattanooga Coal Company, Chattanooga. This ia a new- 
company vv-ho have commenced operations on a very large scale,. 



26 nANi)-i!<)r)K OK tkn'ni>.-i:k, 

on the [n\i (if "W'lil'lcii".- Uiil;r<', mar Cliattnnooga, TliCy liave a 
iiaiT(i\v-,!4iia;,'c road seven Tuile-i long, and liave nuide every prc- 
})arati(»n J'or a larire output, lion. E. A. James i.- prcv-ident of 
the company. 

A new com[)any is about oix'i-alin;,' at Nortli Cliie'aiiiaui;a. 

Near the University of tlie fSoutli, several .«mall mine.s are 
worked, ehiefly by the Univerriity Coal Company. 

In White county two or three mines are worked for local 
])urj)oses by Jolm Barnes tt Sons. The comi)letiou of the 
McMinnville liraneh of the Nashville, Cincinnati and ^t. Louis 
Railroad will lmvc them opjiortunity for shipment. 

The total coal product of the »:5tate of Tennessee, for the year 
1881, is not far from six hundred thousand tons. 

The prices of coal for the raonth of January, 1882, were — 

In KnoxvlUe : Domestic coal, at yards in the city, §3.75 per 
ton of 2,000 pounds; delivered, 25 cents more, i^team coal, on 
cara in the city, $2.20 per ton. 

In Morristown : Domestic coal, §4.70 ; steam coal, S3.50. 

Ill Jonexhoro: Domestic coal, S5.00. 

In Athens, $14.80. 

In Cleveland, 84,25. 

Low rates of freight are made by the East Tenn., Xa. & Ga. 
Ivailroad for steam coal. 

In Chattanooga: Coal Creek coal, domestic ; §3.50 per ton. 
Soddy coal, domestic, S3. 25 per ton. Soddy coal, for steam, 
§3.00. Hewanoe and Dade coke, 82.50 to 63.00 per ton. Extra 
Foundry coke, 12^ cents },>er bushel. 

In NashviUc : Domestic, lump, 83.80 per ton delivered ; 
small for cooking-, §3.20 ; steam coal ou cars, run of mines, 62.70 ; 
slack, 81.80; lump, §3.00 per ton of 2,000 pound.s. Anthracite, 
§10.00 to 812.00 per ton. 

Freight on the railroads three-fourths to one cent per ton per 
mile for over 25 miles. 



Iron Ores, 



The State of Tennessee contains every variety of iron ore 
known to commercial use, except the Spathic Carbonate. The 
area of the Magnetic ores, and of the azoic Hematites is not large, 
yet in the limited area where found, the magnetic ore exists in 
large quantity. The mass of unaltered deposit ores, however, is 
beyond the possibility of any accurate computation, and the area 
in which they are contained comprises nearl 3* three-fourths of the 
State. 

Geographically, these ores may be classed as the East Ten- 
nessee Iron Region, the Cuml^erland Mountain Iron Region, and 
the Middle Tennessee Iron Region. Geologically, they belong to 
the Metamorphic, the Lower and Upper Silurean, the Sub- 
Carboniferous, and the CarJ)oniterous periods. Physically, they 
are vein, stratified and deposit ores, and in practical nomen- 
clatius of ores ; they are magnetic, specular, red liematite, or really 
hematite, limonite, frequently called brown hematite, red fossil 
or lenticular red hematite, and carbonate of iron. Of these ores, 
those now used in the State are only the limonites and red fossil. 
The magnetics have been mined, and some j^ears ago used in a 
small v>'ay in forges, but none have yet been used in blast 
furnaces or shipped to any market, and the azoic hematites are 
known only by small openings and specimens of more or less size. 
The limonites are found over the largest territory and have 
been most generally used of the two chief ores of iron. They are 
found in nearly every county of the State in greater or less 
quantities, from the North Carolina line to the sand belt which 
borders on the Mississippi River. In some counties tlie quantity 
is enormoiLS, in others only scattered specimens, and flae quality 
is equally varial^le ; some beds are almost chemically free from 
phosphorus or sulphur, while in others those injurious elements 
are found to a greater or less extent. 

In East Tennessee, this ore lies in a series of ridges running 
northeast and southwest ; its greatest developments ])cing on the 
east side on the vrestern slopes 'of the Chilhowee and Uuaka 



28 IIAND-nOOK OF TK.VNllSHKK. 

Mountains and thoir tril)iitary ri(l;j:erf. Throughout the entire 
breadth <>f the State, in the counties of Johnson, Carter, Unicoi, 
VVa.«hin;/tou, Greene, Cooke, Sevier, Pdount, Monri>e and Polk ; 
they may truly be said to be one continuous bed of linxinite, at 
sooie poiuts in inuuense inai=.se.s like stratified or bdidder roeks, 
and at others intermintrlol with the »i>\\, but yielding large 
quantities of ore when subjected to the process of washing. The 
ores of thiis lead are all in the lower s'ilurean, and usually lie in slate* 
or between the Chilowee sandstones, and the dolomites of the Knox 
or Quebec periods, frequently intermingled or deposited between 
masses of the latter. In thi.>i position, it is found in a matrix of 
red or yellow clay, from the size of coarse sand to large boulders. 
These ai*e the ores from which a large part of the iron of the 
United States was made in times pa«t, and many beds are now 
worked in Pennsylvania, New York and i\Tas.sachusetts, from 
"which ore was taken a hundred years ago. The unsystematic 
and robbery-like chariu;ter of obtaining the ore irom many of 
the banks in Tennessee hi\s greatly impaired their value, and in 
some cases apparently exhausted the supply of ore. 

The limonite of this le^id varies very- greatly in quality, some 
being \evy free from any impunity, almost jiure hydrated oxide 
of iron, but the greater part containii silica, alumina, phosphorus 
and sulphur in greater or less proportions, none to such an 
extent as to make it wo:fthless. In some be<is manganese prevails 
in such proportion as to make the manufacture of speigcleisen or 
ferro-manganese a possible source of profit. These deposita 
become more vast in size toward the southeast corner of the 
State, and the deposits on Tellico River and I^ee's Creek, between 
the Little Tennessee and Hiwassee Kivei-s, challenge th.e admira- 
tion of the geologist and practical iron manufacturer. 

At intervals in every ridge of the Knox dolomite formation 
beds of limonite are found, some of them appear to be of consid- 
erable extent, though but few of them have been opened. When 
opened, the quality of tlie r.-re has proven to be good. On the 
summit of the Waldeu's Ridge, at various points from Emory 
Gap t« Carejville, beds of limonite are found, which are no 
doubt the result of local cliange of the (Carbonate oi" iron of the 
coal formation. 

The largest body-of limonltes in the State is found in Middle 
Tennessee, in what has been usually called the Western Iron 
Belt This vast deposit covers irregularly an area forty miles 
vride and extending entirely- across the State fi-om north to south. 



HANIvr.OOK OF TEN:N^Ei3SEK. 29 

It comprises the entire area of the counties of ^N'ayne, La.v.'rence> 
Levris, Perry, Hickman, Humphreys, Dick?on, Houston, Mont- 
gomery, Stewart, Benton, Decatur, and j)art of Hardin. 

The surface gooh')gy of this region be]i:)ng,« to the suij-carbon- 
iferous. It is in fact the counterpart of the Cum her hind phiteau 
of the ea.-?t with the coal measure rocks swept away. Tlie gen- 
eral elevation of the corresponding strata underlying the coal 
measure rocks is but a few feet more than tliat of Lawrence and 
Hickman counties. Almost at an identicul level on each side of 
the Middle Tennessee basin occur the same characteristic rocks. 
The vast body of coal which once may have ext('uded from Ken- 
tucky to Alabama is gone, but deposited In its underlying strata; 
from the slow action of ages, now remain immejisc bodieis of iron 
ore, in (piaiitity and quality hardly surpassed by any lik(; area 
in the United States. 1j) the injurious eleuuints of phosphorus 
and sulphur these ores frequently go down t.>;) ratr;'; trace, while 
they never rise to such an extent as to be in the slightest degree 
injurious for the very best gi'ades of fouufiry irons. 

The hicatii)u of this ore has been stated to be an elevated 
plateau-hind, yet il is well watered with, many spring?, and is 
also interseoted with streams which flow west from the Middle 
Tennessee basin, bein^- cut through on the north by the Cum- 
berland river, while the M'cstern edge is intersected from north 
t.o south, the entire middle of the. State, by the Tennessee river. 
AH these strcauis cut down rhrough the sub-carboniferous strata 
into the lower limestones, thus atlbrding ample facilitj" for ob- 
taining flux in the nuiuufactur';^ of iron. The two great rivers 
named also afford cheap trans-portation. to markets, while other 
means of transportation and access to tliis region is aiforded by 
the Memphis branch of the Louisville and ^'ashvilie Railroad 
through iloutgomei'v and Stewait counties, the Nashville and 
Korth western through Dickson. Humphreys, and [Jenton, a 
uarrew-gauge st»uth from Dickson station into Hickman county, 
and the railroad from Columbia ihrnugh Lawrence County to 
Florence, A hiba nia. 

This ore has been almost entirely u,si'(l fir the manufaiiture of 
iron with cluircoai, and there are now six furnaces oiierating in 
this region. All use charcoal for fuel ; three are cold blast and 
three are hot blast. Notwithstanding its contiguity to roliaVde and 
cheap transportation, but little of this ore has ever been shipped 
to uuirket in other States, nor to any coke furnace in this State. 
The connoctiou by the Duck River Valley Ivoad to the Nashville, 



00 IIAXD-r>OOK OF TEXNES8EE. 

Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad, already completed, 
gives an outlet for this ore directly to tlie coal, and it will 
then undoubtedly be shipped to furnaces on the line of that 
railroad or in Chattanooga. 

Near BroAvnsport, in the County of Decatur, occurs a bed of 
linionite, probably extcndingover a very considerable area which 
is not referable to any of the formations in which that ore has else- 
where been found in Tennessee. The ore occurs stratified in layers 
and masses just beneath the black shale of the Hamilton ]jeriod, 
Devonian age, and rests immediately on the Helderbcrg lime- 
stone. Immediately above the black shale is the siliceous group 
of the sub-carboniferous. A furnace was once run at this locality, 
and the stack and some of the houses are still in good order; the 
machinery is excellent. The ore at that point is in large quan- 
tity, and it appears to exist in the same geological position at 
about the same elevation over a considerable section of the 
Eurrounding country. The furnace, though thus eligibly located, 
was badly managed and has been idle for many years, being tied 
up in the meshes of the law. The nearness of this site and ore 
to the cheap transportation afforded by the Tennessee River 
should cause it to be utilized. The ore undoubtedly exists in 
great quantity over a large area of country — up and down the 
river. 

Along the western foot of the Cumberland mountains and the 
Middle Tennessee basin, in a formation identical vrith that where 
the ores of Stewart, Montgomery, and Hickman are found, 
exist some beds of limonite, the extent of which has not been 
fully determined. They are found chiefly in the counties of 
White, AVarren, Putnam, and Overton. At several points these 
beds appear to be of valuable extent, but no exploration has 
been made sufficient to test its quantity. The ^McMiunville 
branch of the Xashville and Chattanooga Railroad, now in course 
of extension' to Sparta, will afford means of transportation and 
access to this region. 

RED FOSSIL ORE. 

The next ore to be considered, and though occupying a less 
area, probably not less extensive in quantity, belongs to the true 
hematite series, and is known to mineralogy and the manufac- 
turer as the red fossil ore, but is known locally in Tennessee as 
Dvestone. It is almost entirelv confined to East Tennessee, but 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 31 

almost three-fourths of ihe pig-iron made in the State since 1870 
■was made from it. 

The geological position of this ore is in the Clinton group of 
the Xiagara period, below the black shale of the Dominion for- 
mation. In this State there are usually but thin strata inter- 
vening between the two; and while the latter is frequently 
found outcropping, it does not mean that the ore is found under- 
neath it. This is the case all around the Middle Tennessee basin- 
But in East Tennessee, all along the western base of the Cumber- 
land Mountains, from Chattanooga to Cumberland Gap, the two 
strata are found in close conjunction, and where one exists it is 
certain that the other is to be found in that vicinity, though it 
may becovered with drift. This ore is one of the most persistent 
strata of the Appalachian geological system. It is found in New 
York, bordering Lake Ontario, curving northward on the west 
and southward on the east, sinking there beneath the Hamilton 
shales and slates, rising again in Pennsylvania, and continuing 
thence in an almost unbroken outcrop southwest into the heart 
of the State of Alabama. The seams of ore in this State, how- 
ever, are much thicker than in Pennsylvania ; and besides the 
regular continuous seam at the foot of the Cumberland mount- 
ain, there is an independent seam almost as continuous, and at 
places much thicker, in what is called White" Oak mountain, 
a high ridge entering the State from Georgia, in the county of 
James, and passing northward is continuous to Virginia, though 
the northern end, in the county of Hancock, is called Powell's 
mountain. This is the Montour ridge of Pennsylvania. This 
ridge in Pennsylvania is only twenty-seven miles long, and from 
it in 1846, Prof. Rogers states, that twenty furnaces, making 
sixty thousand tons of iron per annum vrere deriving their sup- 
ply of ore, and in 1881 there were still nine large furnaces 
deriving their supply in whole or part from this same ridge. • 
The White Oak mountain has a continuous length in East 
Tennessee of over one hundred miles. 

This red fossil ore is also found in several detached ridges, 
from three to ten miles long, which lie parallel with the White 
Oak Mountain, at intervals, in a general southwest and northeast 
direction. 

This ore is less variable in quality than the limonites, and the an- 
alysis of a specimen from one point in a leading range will usually 
be identical with that from another point ten, twenty or fifty miles 
distant. Below water level, the ore on the White Oak jSIoun- 



32 nAND-BOOK OF TKN'NW^rfr.iO. 

tain, and at a (M-rtain tifpth llio oro in llio soani at t!io foot of 
tho CnniWrhind Mountain, hoconu's poorer in iix>n and rielirr in 
lime, llenco, for tlie [jrc^cnt, mining; U stopped whi'n this hard 
nnd poor ore is reached; tlu> j)roper course would l)o to mix it, 
as done in I'enn-sylvaiiin, with tlie riehcr soil ore from near the 
surfae(^. 

Two other bodi(!,'=> of this ore are oi' great extent in East Ten- 
;nossee, but detached i'rom the East Tenneifssee V^illey proper. 
These are in Elk Fork Valley and Sequatchie Valley. The 
former is about 25 miles long and extends into Kentucky ; the 
latter is about GO miles long and extends into Alabama. Thj'ough. 
out the whole length of the.se valleys tlie red fo.ssil ore appears, 
dipping slightly to the east. On the opposite side of (be moun- 
tain, at its eastern base, along the foot of NVylden's IJidge, the 
ore dips to the west, hence if the ovc is continuous for the eight 
to ten miles of distance under the intervening carboniferous 
strata, the amount of iron ore thus stored away for future use is 
simply cnvirmous. Tlie ore on the east side of the mountain is 
three feet thick and in the valleys much thicker. Tlierefore, 
<'ven if containing only 30 per cent, of iron, the amount of 
available ore the seuni would yield, to capital invented in scien- 
tilic mining, will ecpuxl if nut surpass that of .my known deposit 
of ore in the world. 

iVt present the morle of mining this ore is to get ore on the 
cheapest plan possible, without the slightest reference to the 
future. In the seam at the foc>t of the mountain it occurs in a 
series of knobs, witli short, narrow valleys between them. The 
ore is robbed from the knobs by rough tunnels as long as they 
think it pays, and then that knob is abandoned and another at- 
tacked. No mining is done below level of the little branches. 
Tn White Oak Mountain the dirt and shale is stripped with picks 
..luij sliovols off the seam of ore until the wall of shale reaches a 
height or thi(>kness of six or eight feet ; the stripped ore is then 
tak(!n (Hit and the rest abandoned. In so-eallerl v.orke<l-out 
leuocs near Ooltewah, are thousands of tonsoi ore whii-h. by intel- 
ligent mining can nc.w be gotten out as cheaj)ly as has bten any 
which had the thinner covering. The price of this ore in Chat- 
tanooga ranges fram $2 to §2.50 per ton. 

On the mountain seam are now iocated thnH' furnaees. two at 
Ivockwood and one at Oakdale. One furnace at Ohattanooga 
derives its supply from the White Oak Mountain near Ooitowaa, 
and South Pittsburg :ind Cowan furnaces get tlu-ir ore from the 



H.1lJMD-BOOK Of TENNESSEE. 33 

*iame mountain at Ooltewah and at Welker's, and some from 
Alabama. 

The r^eam^i of this ore liave very superitjr facilities for traas- 
portation. The Tenues-see River runs parallel between the Whita 
Oak Mountain ?ieam and that of Shin Bone Ridge, at tha 
foot of the Cumberland ^Mountain. The latter has aLso the Cia- 
cinnati Southern Railway iu a few hundred yards of it for nearlj 
Jiseventy 7nile?. Jt is also accessible by the Knoxville and Ohio 
Road at Coal Creek and Carey vilie. The White Oak Mountain 
ore is cut throuoh by tlie East TennesvSee, Vir<j::inia and Georgia 
Raih'oad near C)oltcwah and also by it>: Red Clay extension, and 
hy the Knoxville and ()liio branch of that i-oad from Knox- 
ville to Keutuckv near tin- town of ('liut<)n. The Tennessee 
River also cuts it at VVelk<'r"s, in Koane (Vanity. The Tennes- 
see Rivei' also cuts through the Half >[(K)n I>land lied for a dis- 
tance of ten miles. A sy stnn of cheap narrow-guage roada, 
would bring to the river and lailmads in sfiort distances a larjja 
amount of ore now too far distant for hauling by teams. 

The red fossil orp has udI been found in any jiarr of the ^Middla 
Tennessee region. I a Overton Count v a houatite oi-e is found, 
locally called dycstont>, but it is not the samr as the East Tea- 
neSvsee dycstc^ne, nor is it known to exist in large (|uantities. In 
the county of Wayne ai-o three knobs which contain a large 
amount of hematite. Its geological position has not l>een ex- 
actly iletermiucd. The location is near Clifton, on the Tennessea 
River, ami the ore is of good quality. Jt was once iise^l in a fur- 
nace located near by, and souie of it iias bccu shi])ped oil* and 
used for paint. 

The third most important <n-e, a^ ros|)ecis (piantity, in the State 
of Tennessee is the carbonate of iron of the Coal .MeasureH. This 
IS in Enghuul and Europe one of the chief ores from which iron Ls 
made. It Ls u.sed to some extent iu Ohio and Pennsvlvauia, but 
tis yet not at all in Tennes.see, though it is one of the most abun- 
dant and easily worked ores. There are j)oints in the Tenne.ss(^ 
coal Held where it can be mined very cheaply. It Ls found in 
the State underlying the coal seam, worked at Coal Creek and at 
Careyville ; at the latter i)lace it is specially abundant. There 
are a number of layers of it in the Tennessee coal-field. 

The least abnndant, but most valuable iron ores oi' the State, 
are the ores found in the metamorphic rocks, from which Bes- 
semer steel pig inay be made. There are the hematite and the 
rrkagttotlc. These are found at intervals in the strata just edging 



34 HANM-JtOOK OF TKNNE8RKE. 

on the I'otwlujii ^i^Il(l.-tolH■ Mini in llic lionibicinlic '^iicUs of 
C:irt<'r and .lohnsoii couut'u-i^. 'Ilif [i< iii:itit<! lias nut Im-cii <lcvtM- 
ojK'd t<i iinv s|Kciiil (!\trnt ; lioncc its t|ii;uitity is not known. In 
Sullivan and (.'ajlcf cduntio.s, in tht- r(M)|-liills of tin; Hol.-<t<in 
Moiinlnins, is liuind licniatitc ore of very (•<iiii)jact >li-ucHirf. It 
lias Ix^on used in iiirjics and made iiood iron, liiit no .-ufficirnt f;x- 
plonition has (!Vor hccn made to test it.x ijuality, lliouyh siuuli 
pieces ol' it an- scattered ovci- a lar;^t; area of country. 

The nia,un('tic ore exists in a limited area, Jjut is in liirf^G 
(juMjUity and of e.xcellont (luality. jjittle heyond (^xploratioiiH 
for the investment of capital, and a little difj<rinu tor forj^es, 
has }>een done in this State, but l)eyon<l the North ('arolina line, 
very exten.sive excavations have been made for the ownei-s of th»j 
East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad, and aj» 
immense aijtioiint of ore uncovered. That railroad is now com- 
pleted from Johnson City to those mines in North Carolina, and 
must also eventually be the moans of developing the ore of C'arter 
County. In the eastern part of Johnson County, magnetic ore L> 
also found, but transportation is so far distant, that there Is na 
likelihood of its d<!velopment for njany yeai-s. 

The followiiiii ai-e the iron furnaces in Tennes.^ee using] coke- 
for fuel : 

Oakdah' Iron Com])any, .lerk I*. ()., Roane County, Tem>.;. 
lion. John C>. Scott, President, Jerk P. O., (one stack). 

Koane Iron Company, Rockwood P. O., Roane County, Tenn> 
(two stacks), H. S. Chamberlain, l*re?;idenr, Chattanooga, Tenu. 

Chattanooga Iron Company, Chattanooga, Tenn., (one stack). 
Warren, Manager, Chattanooga Tenn. 

Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, South Pittsburg, 
Marion County (two stacks), J. C. Warner. President, Nashville. 
Tenn. 

Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, Cowan. Tejin. 
(one stack), J. C. AVarner, President, Nashville, Tenn. 

The cond)ined product of these furnaces is about 40d tons of 
pig iron per day. 

The Inrnaces now in ojieration in the State of Tennessee using 
diarcoal for fuel are: 

Napier Furnace Company, chief post-office, Lawrence Couniy, 
Tenn.; J. E. R. Carpenter, President, Columbia, Tenn., makes 
cold-blast cai--,vheol irons. 

Warner Furnace, Warner, Hickman County, Tenn.; J. C. 
Warner, President, Nashville, Tenn. Makes cold-hlast err- 



HAXB-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 35 

"wheel iron now, but will pr<>l>ab]y be tunieti into coke or hot- 
bliiPt oharooal. 

("uiiiberlaixl Funuioe Coiiipai)}", C'uiubei'liind Fiiruace, Dick- 
8t)u ("(uuitv : .]. r. DruKiillard. President, Nashville, Tenu ; liot- 
blast ehar((ml ircn. 

Cumberland Iron \Vorkj< ("oinpauy. Bear Spring Furnace, 
Stewart Cminty ; .1. P. Droniillard, Prer^ident. Nashville, Tenn. 
Make* etild-bh;s:t ehareual iion fur ear wlicels. 

The fonibined [jroduet of thei^e furuaees is abuiit 60 tons per 
day. 

Clark Furnace in |S(i\vart County \va«; burned last winter, and 
has not yet been repaired. L;Ui range Furnace, owned by the 
same company as Clark. \m;s rcluilt en the ncAv Idea, Corendolt 
mode], two years; ayo. but ciid n<,it do well, and is not noAV in 
blast. 



COPPER 



Tlio part of the !>tatc of 'ronnosHoe wliirh ha.^ prorlured ropper 
ore in any quantity is all in<'l)idorl in th(- county of Polk. 
Thoiiiili small in area, it is cai)ahle of being a o;reat source of 
weahli to the State. None of the mine.'« are now in operation, 
hnt tliev were worked with pi-otit for nianv years hy Ca])!. J. E. 
Kaht, and there is no oood nnison whv thev should not ac;ain 
beeoino a source of protlt to the f)]>erator, and of K'netit to the 
jH'onle of tliat I'cuion. 

These nunes are located in a troup-h-like basin ol' metnmorphic 
rocks, wliich is found in the extreme south-eastern corner of the 
i^tatc, it bcin;^ the hirLic-^t area y^i' these rocks to be finmd in liie 
fState. The veins of ore are ol' the 5eir.ii')'0jr<ited character, imd 
run with the strata to the northeast and southwest, the IxHlies of 
ore ocourrinii usuallv in sonicrhinii' of an echelon ari-ant'cmeiit. 
Some of these veins have l)ecn explored to a depth of over 200 
feet with a result showinu' that tlse veins are [lermanent. The 
ore--' found near the surface are rei| :\n(\ black oxidt's, but at 
greater dc|)ths the on- is tin* veilow -u!ph\irct. 

This body of ore was discov<'red iu lS4-">. but no retiiilar sys- 
t<'inatic mining- Avas doin^ iiefon> I''^')<). In l.'^oo, there "were 
fourteen mines in opiM'atiou, and over 81,000,000 Avorth of ore 
>va.s !shi])po<l North. In IS.IS, a number of the companies united 
under the name of tlie I'nion ('ons<didated Co])per (onipanv. 
The war cojninu on soon after, no ^reat results then occurred 
from the consolidalioii, Win in l.s(ii> operations were ajzain com- 
ntoiieed and that company shi[)])ed 000.0(1(1 ])ounds of ini^ot 
copi)er; and the other comjtanies ship]H'd 4()().00() pouuds. la 
1878, the consolidated compnnv (>nl(\re<l into a lawsuit with Capt. 
Elaht. which cau.sed a stoppage of operations, and since that time 
nothing has been done ex(;ep{ to keep the water ])uniped out of 
the East Tennuerfiee ^line, and to protect the machinery from 
rust. The title to the ('on.solidatcd Conipauy ])ropevty is now 
clear, and there i.-« no apparent reason why the luiue? should not 
be woike<l. 



HAXD-BOOK OP TENNESSEE. 37 

There are other mines of equal vahie to any belonging to the 
Consolidated Company, but that company owns the smelting 
works and until they commence operations, the other mines 
cannot be worked with profit, as the cost of hauling to the rail- 
road if? so great that it will not pay to ship the ores. There are 
also properties in this region entirely undeveloped. 

If the railroad now in process of construction from Asheville, 
N. C, to Ducktown is continued on to Cleveland, Tenu., then 
coke may be obtained at reasonable cost, and hence the mines 
can be worked and ores smelte<l with fair certainty of good 
profit. 

Copper ore has also been found in Monroe C^-'Unty, but not ex- 
tensive development made. 



"^^48910 



GOLD. 



Gold has been found in only one section of Tounejisoo, and 
that is within the ball rango of mountains on Wolf Creek, in 
Cocke CH-)unty, and on Coco CJreok in Monroe County. The 
discovery of gold on Wolf Creek i< recent, hut placer v\ar?hiug8 
have been worked on ('oco Creek for many yea»-?;, and are stiJl 
continued in a small way. Many hundreds of dollars are gotten 
from there every year, of which no record is kept. W>u'k was 
done here as early as 1831, and up to 1860, over -S.iO.OOO had 
hce.i received at the V. 8. Mint, known to have come from 
there. It is probable that fully twice that sum was the actual 
amount obtained. 

So fai% washing the gravel and dirt in and afljncent to the 
creeks has been the source of obtaining tlic gold, but active 
search is now being made for quartz veins, with prospects of 
success. Tliere is witliout doubt much room for caiTful explora- 
tion in this region, and the systematic worker will find himself 
well rei>aid. The same characteristic ftu-mation exi.-tvS in 
Unicoi, Oreene. ('arter and Johnson counties, aufl gold may 
also be found there. In view of the recent great discoverie<> in 
Virginia and Georgia, at points where gohl was not supposed to 
exi*t, il may not be unreasona.!)le to h ipo f )r valuable develop- 
ments in Tcnncvssoe. 



■ ZINC, 



Within a few years past, the ore,s of Lhii* iiieUil have become 
■of some importance. In 1872, works for the manufacture of 
y.inc oxide were erected at Mos-?)' Creek, and mines opened near 
that place. After a few Ye<irs of piickly exii^tence, the company 
failed, cliiefly from the fact that it wa.s started without any 
actual paid in capital, and also neither the ores or the location 
Tvere adapted to making oxide. If the manufacture of metal 
■zinc had been the object, at letu«t a temporary success might 
have been attained. In 187fi, the Passaic Fire Company pur- 
•chased mines on }*owell's Tliver in Union County, and com- 
menced operations there on an extensive scale. They contin- 
ued active operations to sometime in the spring of 1882. The 
mines are now abandoned on account of the large quantity of 
fiulphurets which liave come in — that company not using that 
character of 7,incj>re. During the time they <*ontinued opera- 
tion, over $100,000 worth of carbonate of zinc was shippe<l from 
this mine. In 187H, Mr. Ivichberg, of C-hicago, purchased some 
property on Straight Creek, near ('linch River, in the county 
of Claiborne and commenced mining for zinc ore ; soon after he 
•commeiifC'd tlv erection of works for the iuunufacture of 
metalic zinc at Clinton, wliere the Knoxville and Ohio Rail- 
road cross<'s Clinch lliver, and completed tiiem in 1881. Ore 
is used from the mines on Straight Creek, being fioate<l down 
the river 'and also from Mossy Creek. The works are still 
running nuil have a eai)neitv for making; ^^OOO pounds of metal 
zinc each 24 hours. 

Tiie lead of zinc ore which })asse.-! by Mossy Creek is contin- 
lious for aliout •>') miles in a northeast and southwest line, and 
in the sum total contains a large quantity of ore, though not of 
a quality very rich in metiil. lt< proximity to the East Teuu., 
Va. & Ga. Railroad, give^s it a special importance, the out- 
cropping of the ore being from only a few luindred yards to six 
miles from the line of the road for a distance of fifty milevS, The 
ore of this lea-d has in it onlv a mere trace of lead. 



40 II AND- !'/(>< »K »*J' 'rKNNF>ihr:;K. 

The (ttlicr Nad of <iic may l>c (iillcd I Ik- IV.wcHV Mivtj- l(;u<J. 
lUs cliief (levelojniH')it is in the uppci |iaii of I'liion hikI lower 
part of (Jlaiborno counties. ThiK lead may Ite linnid to contain 
vahiablc ore at oilier points tlian those now wdrked^as in a 
northeast line inasitniliar loi-mation in N'iiginia ;/o(>(i zinc orti 
has been di»5covered. 



Lead. 



Lead ore is fouud at many places in the State of Tennessee^ 
but is worked regularly at only one. Sporadic effortf^ at mining: 
have been at one time or anotlier attempted, but all for some 
reason were susjiended without reaching ?ny definite result. 
The question whether there is any lead ore of value in the State 
is as uncertain a.< ever. 

In Henry county sj^ecimens have been found, but undoubtedly 
came from the North in the great glacial drift. In Clay county 
good specimens have l)een obtained from the sub-carboniferous 
limestone, and there are indications of a good vein. In East 
Tennessee lead is found in all the zinc mines of the Powell's 
River region, but nnly in a "very small quantity, as stated, in the 
Mossy Creek ores. Lead ore is found in the counties of Bradley, 
McMinn, Monroe, Loudon, Roane, Jefi'erson, Grainger, Anderson, 
Campbell, Union, Claiborne, Greene, Washington, Johnson and 
Carter. In Bradley, ^NFonroe, Loudon and Roane it is found 
associated with Baryta, and has been worked a little in each 
county in past years, and at some of the old diggings there are 
indications that with ])roper work a paying quantity of ore might 
be obtained. The oie does not exist in a regular vein, but rather 
in a series of lenticular deposits, occui-riug at regular intervals ux 
a regular line along with the strata. These deposits, however. 
are continuous from the Georgia line through the counties of 
Bradley, ]\[cMinn, Monroe, Loudon, Jefferson, Blount and 
Greene. The lead ore in Roane is found in a similar position, 
but is tobe found out of the general line of the deposits. In Carter 
county lead ore has been found in a location which gives the 
appearance of being a true vein running across the strata m an 
anticlinal, as a fauh o!" the P()tsdam sandstone. It is said also 
to appear in Johnson county. This ore is the only lead ore m 
Tennessee containing any appreciable amouiit of silver. The 
gangue is a siliceous breccia, and the ore is largely intermingled 
with supplementing iron. In the southwest corner of Claiborne 
county, near the line of Union county, Ls another locality where 



42 IIAND-nOOK OK Tr;N.Nj;HHl-,K. 

]cni] is foniul apjM-'iirin'^ to l)c in a tnio vein. Tho '^aivjjm' h'^rc iji 
a silioeout* breccia, but the loiul ore is mixed with a ,Hiil})hiirf4, fvf 
zinc instcnd of aulphuret of iron, a.s in (^'artor county. It in a 
notable point that both thowo veins have the ship*- rlin!cti<>n 
north, 77'' toH0''cji8t. This locality, in Claiborne founty, is a very 
remarkable one, and the vein may be trae+MJ a^rroiw 
the county for n\any miles — the outerop plainly showinj; 
in the bottom of Powell's River. This vein has l)«H>n 
opened to a depth of thirty feet, and it. is .^tate<l 
that the sulphuret of zinc grew less with the depth, and at 
the point where the shaft was stopped for want of proper punip- 
ing apparatus, the ore had concentrated into three or four veinu 
of very pure galena traversing gangiie — one of these said t^) be 
solidly six inchcvS thick. For many years no work has been 
<lone at this place. Many years ago coiLsiderable work wa.s done 
for lead in Bompas's Cove, and a small stamp mill ereeted. It in 
not known for what cause it was abandoned. ^ 



MANGANESE, 



At various ]>i>ints in the Chilhowee Mountain and its attendant 
ranges are Extensive beds of the oxi'le of manganese of the best 
quality. Except in Johnson county none of these have ever been 
worked for slu]imont, several hundred tons having been mined 
from a locality in Johnson county. Large quantities have alao 
been found in Carter couutv. 



Marble, 



The Marble industry of Tennessee is the result of the increase 
of wealth in our nation and a consequent indulgence in the 
ornamental and beautiful, combined with the useful, rather than in 
the useful alone. The pure white marble which for centuries has 
ornamented the houses of the rich and given a ghastly look to the 
home of the dead, does not exist ifi Tennessee. The marbles of 
the .State have been warmed into attractiveness and brilliancy by 
the commingling of one or more of the brighter colors with the 
pearly tints of the sea shell. It was this rare beauty and 
brilliancy which drew the attention of an artist architect to the 
marble of Hawkins countv and caused it to be brought to the 
notice of the world in the Capitol at Washington. From this 
nucleus has originated a business spreading all over East Ten- 
nessee, employing a large number of workmen, adding greatly to 
the fi'eight lists of our railroads and giving comfortable returns 
to all capital invested. 

The development of this industry is one of the instances of how 
much may be done by individual enterprise in giving publicity 
and calling attention to a product, however insignificant it may 
appear. Orville Rice conceived the idea, and he and five friends 
had ])rei">ared and sent to the Washington Monument ablock of the 
then unknown Hawkins county marble. It attracted the eye and 
}>leased the taste of the architect of the new Capitol ; tests proved 
ittobeoi good quality, a quarry was purchased and large quanti- 
ties of it used in that building. And the same quarry is yet 
worked and furnishes an average of 10,000 cubic feet annually. 

Nearly all the Tennessee marble belongs to the variegated class ; 
some has a solid drab or dove color, and in other localities it is 
gray or j)iukisli gray. Of this class it has no rival east of the 
Rockv Motiittains, exeept in a limited area of the State ♦)f Ver- 
mont. The sienna and variegated marbles of Italy have Ikjcu 
supplanted by the more brilliant stone from the land whose people 
delight to call it the Switzerland of America. 

The geological position of this marble is in the upper part of 
tiie Lower Silurean, one of tlie strata of the grouji ol" Tronton 



44 HANI»-l«)OK OF ■/LNMCHHKK. 

llint'rtUnH't;, lifiiiii ilio iifxl III the lo\V(^l uk-ihIkj' oI' tliiil H-rif-s. 
Iii the I'ounty <•(' Heiii-y and :ilf(» iu BcijUhi, sire ioiimi local In'dh 
of iiiarl)i(' wl.icii aic in tlicXiaLMni loriuatioii. I»ut liiev. while oi' 
truly liautisdinc aiiixaraiicc, dn not liavc iIr- lniHian<-y ol' the 
Kast THuiessci' iiiari)l<'s. Jn Lincoln county a variety of .-'hell 
marble is found in the Trcntun liuicstoncs, which very much 
re.-*en)hh's the true varicuatcd .species! aiul may aH'ord handsome 
blocks- ol'con.'nicrcial si/.c, hut by far the j^reatest body of marble 
is foun<l in East Tcniuv-sec, and fntm tlint section alone shi])- 
ments fnon tlic Siat»' have been nuide. 

The oriijiiial opcninu' of the Tennessee nuirble was in Hawkins 
county, and until witiiin a few years past thei'e was its i:rcate,st 
development. Now the lartrfst busiiia-^s is done in Knox county, 
ajid there are ((uarries in Hawkins, Knox, Haiublen, Jetierson, 
Loudoji, Monroe and Bradley. For the year ending June -SOth. 
1871, the amount of marble shipped over the East Tennessee, 
Virginia & (ieoruia Kailroad was 1.2(12,422 pounds, and of this 
Hawkins county furnished 1,109,94.) pounds. For the year 
ending June oOth, l^-Sl, the amount shij)ped over the .same rail- 
road \vas 14,.312,4H7 pounds, of wliich only l>,G51,000 pounds was 
from Hawkins county, and more than 10,000,000 pounds from 
Knox county, 'i'he total may be roughly estimated at <S0,000 cubic 
leet, which, at an average price of SS per cubic foot, would be the 
sum of ^240,000, now being brought into East Tennessee for an 
article lately valueless, an<l the demand foi' which is steadily 
increasing. 

The marble beds of Hawkins county an- in a narroM ridge run- 
ning northeast and southwest with the general line of all Easr Teu- 
nei«t«ee strata, the outcropping being usually on the western side 
of the ridge. This ridge commences about six mile- north of 
Rogersville and ends abruptly about eight miles southeast of 
that place, being a])parently isolated, though careful examina- 
tion proves that its strata connect.'^ with Clinch Mimntain on thu 
north and continues in the strut^t to the south, though losing for 
some distance its elevated ridge-like position above the general 
face of the country. In this )-idgc are nine quarries, of which 
seven are vigorously worked. Four of them ship their marble 
through Rogersville, and tlirec haul by wagon to Whilesburg 
and ship from that jjoint. The railroad from Rogersville connects 
■with the main l-'ast Tennessee, Virginia ct Georgia Kailroad. 

The amount iA' marble in Hawkins county is verv great, 
and therein are ilund varleirated marbles of more brilliaucvthan 



HAND-BOOK OF TKNNE^^KK. 45 

in any other section. The hu^iQe.'*!^ has not increased in the same 
proportion as in Kuox county because of the pom- facilities for 
transportation. If the railroad to Ri-ygersville were extended 
over to the mari)le valley, the amount of handsome variegated 
marble shipped would be largely increa-sed, the cost much de- 
creased, and orades of marble not now (piarrie<^l would come \nt^ 
tise. 

The quarn'e.< now in operation are: Prince A Co., Che.^tnut 
& Chestnut, John Harnn & Co., Chestnut i"C' Fulkerson, who 
ship from Rooei-sville, and Capt Jas. White, the old Dou^:hert.7 
(piarry, Joseph Stam]>s. the Baltimore Marble Coinpany. who ha\i.i 
to White-sburg. on the East Tennessee, N'irginia iV < norgia Rail- 
road. 

For the year eudinu .In no .'>Olli, 1 -'^''^1 , there was shipped from 
5uch of these i|iiarrie< as were operating then >>,ool ,1."v'^ pound.-? of 
marble, or jihout 2<),0l)0 ciiliic feet. All of this wms of the finest 
grade of variegated marlile for (UMiamental purposes only, and 
can certainly be estimated as worth .S4 pw cubic foot on the 
cars. Some sold as liich as .?7. thus giving a j^ross j)nHluct of 
$80,000, while tlu' actual capital invested is vei'v sma.l'. Em- 
ployment is given to about one hundred men. 

The business is not juished by anv one of the f|uarrie5 to the 
extent it might be on account of the difficulty of trausjwrtat.ion 
heretofore albideii to. Machinery is little used. In the Haf^scn 
quarrv is a chuiiueler anrl a steam drill. Mr. Siami>s has two 
steam drills. 

The chief markets of this marbli; arc Pliiladri()lii:\. Baltimore, 
New York, Boston and other cities. It is seldom use<l for outside 
work, but from sclectetl blocks very handsome and durable door- 
.*teps and banisters hav<' licen made, which stoo<l the weai- of 
weather an<l time equally with any stone. An iu.itaiic.e of this is 
?eeu at the house of ^[r. Ha.sson in Uogersville. 

In Tfaml)leu coiinlv Mr. ^!. Carriger. of .Morristown. produces 
some marbles of good quality, chietly for local use. 

Jetferson county (contains a large <|uantity of marble, t'roin the 
beds of which beauiii'ul specimems have been obi;iiiu'd, but no 
extensive quarrying has yet been dune. 

The largest business now carried ou in quarryingand >l)ip|)ing 
marble is in Knox county. The n)arbl(> of Kuox ismoic varies! 
in its quality and the uses to which it is adapted than that of Haw- 
kins county, and the facilities of transportation are nuuui better. 
The quality varies from the plain gray colored building stf.>ne to 



4() lIANlt-btioK OF TEVKKHSKF. 

tJie most beautiful pink ami varie^alod (niianu utal niail)lt«._ 
The gray or wliitisli drah wiili pinlc liutro, ha;- no superior lus a 
huildiiig i^toue. It lias bivu umhI in the rnit(;(l iState.s ('ustoni 
House at Knoxville, at Memphis, and the State llou.seat Ailjany, 
New York, and in many other jjrivatc and j)ul)lic buildinj^ in 
other eiries. For (hirahility and ics.istanee to mois-ture it lias no 
Buperit)r in the world. An analysis gives itseoiitents ofcarbonateoi" 
lime at yH.4'?(i, and tests shoAv its capaeity K; bear 12,000 pounds 
pressure to the sipiare ineh. The first (|uan-y of this extensively 
opened, was by the United .States (Tovernmeiit, and is loeated at 
the junction of the French Broad tiiid Tennessee liiveiv, and is 
now extensively operated by tiie Knoxville 3Iarble Company, of 
which General Patrick, of St. Louis, is President, and (Jeo. W. 
Ross, of Knoxville. Secretary and Treasurer. This marble has 
been sent to all parts of this country, from San F>aucL>^co to Xew 
York City. The interior of the Governor's room in the new 
Capitol at Albany is built of it. trimmed witl; Mexican onyx. 
When polished it hai- a rich mottled pink color, but bush ham- 
mered and rouirh for building purposes, has the ap})earance of 
being a white marble. 

There are three marble leads in Knox county now worked ; 
two, however, are undoubtedly mei'ely the north and south side(= 
of a synclinal trough, lienee, really the same beds. These two 
are south of the river. TIk- third is north of the city and sceni.s. 
to have only one outcrop, like the marble of Hawkins county. 
Near Concord extensivt; (piarries have been o])ened, which 
appear to be in the northern outcrop of the synclinal basin here- 
tofore alluded to. 

The total capital invested in the niai-ble business in Knox 
county is about S2r)0,000, and I'ully three b.undred men are 
employed. The two largest (juarries are the Knoxville [Marble 
Company arid [Morgan tfe ^Villiams. These ai-e the only ones 
using machinery. The former has live steam drills, seven steaiti 
derricks, and run.s a sawing mill with two gangs of saws. Wil- 
liams & Morgan have three stram channeling machines and ii 
mill with one gang oi'saws, but use only the horse derricks. All 
the concerns use the ordinary derricks. In Knoxville, Beach 
& Co. have a mill fcr sawing and machinery for ])olishin<j^ 
marble. 

The following is a list of the quarries in Knox county : 
Kuoxviile Marble Comj^any, ]V[organ vl' Williams, Jno.M. Ross, 
Ci-aig & McMulleu, T. P. Thomas & Co.,R. U. Armstrong & 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 47 

Cr).,H. H. Brown & Co., Hsu-v'ey & Smith, Franklin Marble 
Company, Beach & Co., C. B. Ross & Co. 

The demand for the marble is constantly increasing, and tliere 
is still room for capital invested in quarries located near to 
transportation. 

In Loudon county are beds of good marble, but none of them 
are now worked. 

In M(jnroo, Reynohls, Huling & Co. for some time worke<l a 
bed on Tellico River, but it is now abandoned. 

In SIcMinn county, near Athens, marble beds ol" good quality 
exist, but have not been worked for several yeai-s. 

In Bradley county, on the Hiawassee River, above Charleston, 
exist extensive beds of excellent marble, owned by Capt. Juo. S. 
Crary, at which nuachinery has lately been erected and prepara- 
tions made for work on a large scale. South of Cleveland, near 
the Georgia line is the quarry of Patrick & Smith, from which 
a beautiful grade of pink marble is obtained. They have two 
steam drills. 

The marble in Henry and Benton counties, West Tennessee, 
has been mentioned. It does not have the brilliancy of 
the East Tennessee marbles, but is, nevertheless, handsome 
and intei'csting, from the number of crinoid stems it 
contains. In this respect difiering from the Lower Si- 
lurian marbles, where a crinoid is only occasional. Its 
location in Benton is on Birdsing Creek, in Henry on Bis; Sandy 
River, both places being convenient to the Tennessee River, and 
the latter very easy of access to the ^NlemphLs bran('h of the 
LouLsville & Nashvilc Railroad. Considera])]e stone from the 
quarry on Big Sandy, near Springville, has been taken out and 
used for foundations, caps, steps ami for monuments. As seen 
in Paris, it seems to have good qualities for resisting weai- from, 
exposure to the weather. 



Building Stones, Roofing Slates Clays, and 
Glass Sand. 



Teiine.-«soc L? woU supplied with iniildiiif; -clones. In tin? extreme 
<*ast, near the Nortl\ (iirolina line, a variety of granite b to be 
f'oiiud : there are ali«i> iiiarhle-s of every variety of color and unsur- 
jiassed in (|Uality. Tlie (innberland Mountains artonJ an 
abundance of lin-ht CDlored sand-stones, und th<' Niajrara ridi^ea 
nn excellent hrovvn sandstone. Just below the nii>unr.ain lime- 
stone is an oolitic limestone of very excellent (|Uality. Thw 
»stone is found at various poiut^ on the Cincinnati SiHithern 
Railway, near the ternunal, on the N.-ushville, ('hatlanoou;a <k St. 
Loui<, in < lilcs connry, and on the Nashville t^ Decatur Kail- 
road. It is v(My wl!ir(\ work< easily and stands exjKKsure to the 
weather very well.^ It is ueolo>:ically the same as the oo litic 
limestone of Bowlinir Gn^on, Kentuckv. but. unlike that .stone, 
docs not contain any petroleum, ami hence, docs not turn tlark. 
<m exposure ar4a yreat deal of that from Bowlini;- (rreen does. 

Kverywhere lhrou<>hout the State except in the extreme of the 
\vesteru division, tlu' various liniesfoucs are a<'ce!<sible for founda- 
dations and thi' i-oarser cla.><ses of buildiniis. In the ■\ve>st^rn 
<livision in some sections an iron samlstonc is found which is 
<.^xtensively used for foundations and chimneys. The liinccstone 
marble of Henry county is a valuable buildin<i stone, and from 
its location could be easily transporte<l to sections where no .«tone 
exists. Large quantities of stone are shijjped from Clarksville to 
the towns of the western division. In the middle basin the prev- 
alence of the easily worked Trenton and Nashville limestones 
inakes building stone both abumlant and cheap, and Avitii care 
in selection, much of excellent rjuality ;inil uniformity i>f color 
<'an be obtained. The Ca])itol at Nashville is built of tliis stone, 
b\it, unfortunately, has irx it many bhx^ks ol' inferior (piality. 
On the line of the North we-'*teni Railroad, at NVhite Rlutl' and 
other points, a, cream colored sandstone is found, which is soft 
and easily dres-sed when just taken out of the gr(-)Uiid, Vtiit rapidly 
heeomt^ hajtl on expn^ure. and is a very durable stone. 



IIAXD-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 49 

The gray unci pinkisli gray marble of KnoxvilJc and that 
vicinity has no superior as a building stone. The Custom 
Houses at Kuoxvillo and Memphis are built of it and much of it 
has been used in other public buildings. It has greater specific 
gravity than the best granites, and as proven by t^hts published 
in the New York Underwriter, it is a better stone for resisting 
the con)biued action of fire and water than any granite or sand- 
stone. 

The brown stone of the Niagara ridges, Clinton formation, has 
not been much used as a building stone, but where so used has 
proven very good. It is abundant in East Tennessee and is 
convenient to transportation, both by rail and water. 

Roofing slate is found in several counties along the eastern 
border of the. State, but has not yet been worked for shipment. 
The quality is good and the various colors are also to be found. 
As yet transportation for it is uncertain, but if that existing in 
the \\"oli Creek country should prove to be of good quality, the 
North Carolina branch of the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia 
Railroad will now furnish a reliable route to the North, East 
and West. 

No first-class fire clay has yet been worked in ti- 
Many trials have been made of clays convenient to transportation, 
but none of the best quality. A good article exists in Stewart 
county, but whether of sufficient quantity to be of value beyond 
local use has not been ascertained. 

Potter's clay is abundant, and the best of ware can be made 
from that found in Carroll, Henry and Madison counties. 
These have all been opened to sufficient extent to show that they 
exist in large quantity and have all been tested as to qualitv. 
The beds are located near to transportation on great trunk lines, 
hence are available for shipment abroad, or aflford facilities for 
transporting their ware if manufactured in the vicinity of the 
.beds. 

Good glass sand is found at several points in the State, esj^c- 
cially in that part west of the Tennessee River, but so far none 
has been shipped. A deposit near Knoxville was once used at 
that place in making glass. Good building sand is abundant. 

Lime burning is carried on at various pciuts in the State, and 
that article is furnished of as good quality and at as low average 
price as in any section of the Union. 

Lithographic stone has been found in McMinn, Jefferson, 
Clay and Overion counlies. That in McMinn was worked a 



50 IIAM»-i:()<>K or Tr,N'M:Mr-i;R. 

■wliilcbv some piirtics lVi;!u ( 'iii<'iini!iti ; ii'i'.v tlic <in!y ([miD'y workcl 
is in Clay ciiuiity, wliicli is opf rtitcd ]»y Mr. N. O. (jrco^hc^'ar, of 
Louisville, Ky. It is said to lie nf wry exfcllc-iit liuality and 
took the fii"st ])i-eniiuMi at tlio Atlanta Exposition in IHsi. 

Hydraulic lin)€.stone is found at various ])ointH in the State, 
and has been burned and Lrround for cement. Probably the 
most available place for this manufacture is neui- ("liilon, 
"Wayne county, iinmediately on the Tennessee River. A manu- 
factory was established here just beibre the war and the cement 
made is said to have been of the best quality. Tlie locality is 
certainly conveiiier.tto cheap transportation. 

Sulphate of baryta, or " barytes," as it it is connnonly called, 
is very n,bundant in Tennessee. It can be found throughout the 
length of Chilhowee Mountain, and at various points in the 
dolomite ridges of the East Tennessee valley. It is associated 
with lead ore in Roaue, Bradley and Loudon counties. It has 
been mined at AVhetwell, on the North Carolina branch of the 
East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroad, and near Greeue- 
ville, on the main line, and a considerable quantity shipped 
therefrom, but the work is noAV suspended. It has no legitimate 
use in the arts or manufactures, but is used entirely as an adul- 
terant of various white substances. 



Petroleum, 



Coii.si<leral)le search lias been made in Tennessee for Petroleum ; 
at some points -witli riicccss, at others the result -was utter fiiilure. 
All iilonar th.e -western foot of the Cumberland Table Lands and 
circling the 3[iddle Tennessee Basin, on all sides is a belt of 
country, the geoh):rical basin of which is such as to warrant that 
there Petroleum may be found. At various localities in this belt 
petroleum oozes through cracks in the strata, but these are by no 
means reliable indications of where a well shoitld be bored as 
the petroleum may have come up between layers of rock from a 
reservoir far distant. Wells vrere many j'ears ago sunk in Over- 
ton and Fentress counties and large quantities of oil obtained, 
but they have long since been abandon_od for v,ant oi proper 
trausp>ortatioii. More than 10,000 barrt^ of oil Avere obtained 
from these wells. Several Avells were bored in Dickson county 
and about 500 barrels of oil obtained. From the record of the 
strata, throug-i which tlie boring was made it appears that a good 
quaiitiiy of oil might ])e obtained in that region. 



Tn\(BER, 



Few (States of t lie riiioii li:;ve a lai-ger projtoi-tioiiuto area of 
valuable timber lands than Tennessee. Of her twenty-six inil!- 
iiin? of aeres of territory, only about nine millions are in cultiva- 
tion, leaving seventeen million acres, nearly all of which is more 
or lew densely covered with valuable timber. If we deduct one 
million acres for un[)roductive portions, and I am sati.sfied that this 
is more than the just })rot)(n-tion, we a\ ill still havesixtecn millions 
of aeres of timber land, much of which has been but slightly, if 
at all, disturbed by the woodman's axe. If, in cninection with 
this vast area, we consider the great variety of our valualile woods, 
we cannot fail to see that in her forests alone Tennessee possesses an 
element of wealth which is by no means contemptible. In the 
past history of our State, outside of a few localities, compara- 
tively little value has been attached to the timber contained in 
our forests, but within the last few years it ha.-f rapidly appre- 
ciated in value, and is fast becoming a source (if very considera- 
ble revenue to the jjcoplc of Tennessee. 

In the number of species aiid varieties of trees, Tenne.ssee is 
probably not sur])assed by auy State in the Union. 

I am not aware that there has ever been made a full catalogue 
of all the trees of our forests, but the following may be men- 
tioiud : (^aks of many varieties, including th^ red oak, black 
oak, white oak, post oak, water oak, pin oak, chestnut oak, 
blackjack oak, &q., yellow and blue poplar, yellow* and white 
pine, black and Avhite walnut, hai'd and soft maple, balsam anil 
black iir, white and blue asli, beech, birch, chestnut, red cedar, 
dogwood, buckeye, cottouwood, sycamore, catalpa, cypress, wild 
cherry, elms of several varieties, linn, black and honey locust, 
hickory of a half dozen varieties, pecan, mulberry, sassafras, 
hotly, paw paw, persinniuni, sweet gum, black gnni, tupelo gnn\, 
cncuniber, black and red baw, plum, crab apple, service, sour- 
wood, wahoo, willow, box elder, hemlock, itc.t'Jrc. It is unnec- 
essary specifically to descri I . valuable arc 
generally well known. . 

Of these the oaks abound throughout the State. The'pines are 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 53 

abundant in many portioiL-- of East Tennessee, in the eouthwest- 
ern part of Middle Tennessee, and in the southeastern part of 
West Tennessee. Pophir is abundant in portions of East Ten- 
nessee, in the hilly and undulating |)arts of Middle Tennessee, 
and is very generally ditfused in West Tennessee. Hemlock is 
confined to the mountains of East Tennessee. The maples grow 
in all sections of the State. Ash and beech are found in every 
division. Cottonwood is generally confined to the river valleys, 
cypress to the marshy lands in West Tennc-ssee, hickory almost 
everywhere, sweet gum most al)undant in the valleys of Middle 
and West Tennessee; black walnut within reach of transportation 
is becoming scarce. The chestnut oak, so valuable for its bark 
for tanning purposes, is abundant on the high lauds of Middle 
Tennessee and those bordering the Tennessee River on the west. 
Red cedar is most abundant in some portions of Middle Ten- 
nessee, though found also in East Tennessee. For white oak, 
poplar and sweet gum, three very valuable timbers, portions of 
West Tennessee are perhaps unsurpassed by any localities in the 
world. In the belt of counties lying along the western base of 
the Cumberland Mountains there is much valuable timber which 
has never been drawn upon except for local use. The same is 
true in all parts of the State where transportation has not been 
convenient and cheap. These timbers are now being eagerly 
sought after by Northern manufacturers and shippers. The 
counties bordering on the Mississippi aiford perhaps the grandest 
supply of poplar of any similar area in the world. In a single 
county (Obion) there Avere a short time since as many as fifty- 
five mills in operation, with an aggregate production of about a 
million feet of lumber per day. 



LAKES, BAYOUS, RIVERS AND CREEKS, 



In defcribinji; the Mississippi bottom I spoke of the hike«, 
bayous and swamps to bo found in its limits. There are a 
number of these which are not of sufficient importance to demand 
special description. 'riicin(8t important and the only one which 
I shall describe is Ueelfoot l^ake. This is a body of water about 
eighteen miles in length and from one to three miles in width. 
It lies within the Mississippi bottom, in the northern part i^f the 
State and reaching a short distance into Kentucky. The 
water over much of tins area is shallow, though in some places it 
possesses great depth. Fish of many species are found in the 
lake and wild fowl in c(nintless numbers make it a winter resort. 
Reelfoot Lake is said to have been formed by the earthquakes of 
1811. The bed of Reelfoot Creek is said to have been filled up 
«o as to interrupt the outflow of its waters while the area which 
now forms the bed of the lake is supposed to have sunk several feet 
•below its former level. The lake is a gi-eat place of resort for 
purposes of shooting and fishing during the later fall and winter 
months. There are numerous other lakes in the " bottom," but 
they are smaller and of minor importance. 

Tennessee has thi-ee great rivers, which, with their tributaries, 
constitute three river systems. The first of these is the Mississippi, 
which washes the western boundary of the State from the north to 
the south, giving in its tortuous course several hundred miles of 
river front, and affording unlimited means for transportation. 
The principal tributaries of the Mississippi in Tennessee are th« 
Obion, Forked Deer and Big Hatchee. These streams are at 
some seasons navigable for small steamers for some distance from 
their mouths and are the avenues of considerable commerce. 
Their general direction is from the southeast to the northwest. 
The smaller streams of this system will be noticed in speaking of 
the counties o/ West Tennessee. 

Next in point of importance is the Tennessee River, which 
rises in noi-thwestern Virginia. Under the name of HoUton it 
enters Tennessee and form.s a junction with the Clinch near 
Kingston, iu Roane cmiuty, where it takes the name of the Tea- 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 00 

nessee. Befoi-e reacliing Kingston it receives the waters of the 
Watauga, the Kola Clmcky, the French Broad, the Little Ten- 
nessee and other streams which have their ultimate sources in the 
mountains of North Carolina. The Clinch, which also rises in 
Virginia, receives the waters of a number of conflucnt.s, the most 
important of which is Powell's Kiver, Pursuing a general south- 
western course, it receives the waters of the Ocoee and Hiwassee 
-and reaches Chattanooga, where, cutting through Walden's 
Ridge, it reaches the Seijuatehee Valley, j-eceives the waters of 
•*Sequatchee River and soon crosses the State line into Alabama. 
In its course through Alabama its most important confluent is 
Elk River, which comes from Tennessee. Reaching the Missis- 
sippi border and forming for a short distance the boundary 
between Alabama and ^Iississi]>pi, it again enters Tennessee and 
pursues a general northerly course entirely across the State into 
Kentucky where it falls into the Ohio at Paducah. In this latter 
course through Tennessee its most important tributaries are Duck 
River from the east, and Big Sandy from the west. From the 
head waters of the Holston this stream is 1,100 miles long, and 
has a drainage area of 40,000 square miles, embracing parts 
of seven States. 

From Paducah to the Alabama State line Tennessee River Ls 
navigable for steamers at all stages. Thei'e is a series of obstruc- 
tions or shoals in Alabama which prevent the passage of boats, 
except during a favorable stage of water. A canal is now being 
constructed around these shoals, supported by appropriations 
made by Congress. This, with the other improvements which 
are being made above this point, it is hoped will soon give unin- 
terrupted navigation to Kingston for the entire year. In a good 
stage of Avatcr boats can ascend to Knoxville, and even pass up 
some of the larger tributaries beyond that city. 

The Cumberland River, which, with its trilnitaries, con- 
stitutes the third system, takes its rise in the southeastern part of 
Kentucky. It entei-s Tennessee in Clay County, and pursues a 
very tortuous, though generally southwest, course to Carthage, ia 
Smith (Jounty ; thence more westwardly, and again southwest to 
Nashville. Fi-om Nashville to Clarksville, its general course is 
northwest. At Clarksville, it again turns to the southwest, but 
once more turns northwest, and crossing the State line, re-enters 
Kentucky, ajid finally pours its waters into the Ohio at Smith- 
land. In its course through Tennessee, its principal tributaries 
are, from the eastern and soutliern side, the Obed, Roaring, 



66 HAND-ItOOK (M' TENNEPPKE. 

Cancy Fork find ll:n-]tcib 'ivci-g. From the north, the con- 
fluents arc lct58 importiuit, the chief one being ]{(.<\ Kiver. The 
(■umberland is about 650 miles in lenj^tli. Of this distance, 
nearly G0() miles are, or can be made navi<:;ahle. Improvements 
are now in progress which it is hoped will remove ^ome of the 
difficulties and add immensely to the already great value of this 
Btream as a medium for the transportation of the varied and 
valuable products of the section tiiroutrh which it flows. 

Besides these principal rivers, are many smaller rivers and 
creeks, which traverse every section of the State, affording, in 
many cases navigation for keel and flat boats, and furnishing 
water-power sufficient to drive a vast amount of machinery. On 
these smaller streams are numerous cataracts, some of which 
possess great beauty. The great majority of these smaller 
streams arc fed by perennial springs, and consequently the 
streams are unfailing. 



RAILROADS, 



The East Tennes&^ee, Virgiuia & Georgia Railroad system 
commences at Bristol, on the Virginia line, Avhere it connects 
with the Norfolk & Western to Eichmond and Norfolk, Va., and 
north to Washington City and New York. From Bristol the 
main line extends through Knoxville and Cleveland to Chatta- 
nooga, from Cleveland, Tenn., via Dalton, and Rome, Ga., and 
Selma, Ala., to Meridian, Miss., and from Rome Ga., via Atlanta 
and Macon to the sea at Brunswick, Ga. It also has the jSlem- 
phis & Charleston R. R. from Chattanooga to Memphis leased, 
and has branches from Knoxville to the Kentucky line, connec- 
ting with the Louisville & Nashville to Louisville, and the Ke»- 
tucky Central to Cincinnati ; also a branch from Morristown to 
Paint Rock, on the North Carolina line, where it connects with the 
Western North Carolina Railroad, which extends through North 
Carolina to the sea at Wilmington, N. C, and Norfolk, Va., and 
by connecting roads in South Carolina, also reaches Charleston 
and Columbia. The total mileage directly under its control is 
1,432 miles, but it is vii'tually under the same managtment as the 
Norfolk & Westorn and the Shenandoah Valley roads in Vir- 
ginia, thus making a total of 2,170 miles; and by a contract with 
the Louisville & Nashville, the East Tennessee, Virginia & Geor- 
gia cars go into New Orleans over the trai-k of that road. Thus 
there is a continuous track laid for the saviie car from Washing- 
ton to New Orleans, virtually under the same control. 

The length of the line of this road from Bristol to Chattanooga 
is 242 miles, from Cleveland to Dalton 30 miles, about 10 of it in 
Tennessee, an.l fi-om Ooltov»'ah to Rod Clay 12 liiiles— all in Ten- 
nessee. The 01- io Division, from Knoxville to the Kentucky 
line, is 58 miles long, and the North Carolina Division, from 
Morristown to Paint Rock, is 45 miles in length. 

The main line commences at Bristol, in the county of Sulli- 
van, and passes southwest from that county through cue corner 
of Carter, the center of Washington, touching Lhe towns of Jones- 
boro, Telfords and Limestone, diagonally through the northern 
part of Greene, touching Fullens. Home, Greeneville and Mid- 



58 ITA.N'l)nO(-)K OF TKNNFoS.'SKr:. 

way, directly tliroiijili tli<^ cMinity of Iliiinhlen, toiicliing Rogers- 
ville Junction, \vhcrt! it (Ujnuects v.itli a road to Kojrorsviilp, and 
the center of the fertile county of Hawkins, the great niarblo 
])rodiu-ing region, thence through the northern part of JfflIVr8on, 
tQuching Talbott'.s, Mossy ('reek, New Market, Strawberry 
Plains into the heart of Knox and t'> Knoxville, also touching 
McMillan's, Kbenczor and Concord, thence through the county 
of Loudon, the e<lge of Monroe, of McMinn, to Cleveland in 
Bradley, and through .lames to Chattanooga, in Hamilton 
county, passing through the flourishing towns of Loudon, Sweet- 
water, Athens, Riceville, Charleston and Ooltewah, and the 
manufacturing village of Lenoir. The Ojiio Division pae^ea 
through Anderson and Campbell counties and the towns of 
Powell, Haskell, Clinton, Coal Creek and Carey villc — the last 
two mining towns. The North Carolina Division pa.ssca through 
"Witts, White Pine, Leadvale, Newport, Whitwell and Wolf 
Creek. 

The principal officevS of this company are at Knoxville, Tenn. 
The officers are : Pres-ident, Samuel Thomas, New York City ; 
First Vice President, C. M. McGhee, Kuoxvillle; Second Vice 
President and General Manager, Henry Fink ; General Superin- 
tendent, Jno. F. O'Brien, Knoxville'; Superintendent, ^fain Line, 
F, K. Huger, Knoxville ; J. R. Ogden, General Passenger and 
Freight Agent. 

Louisville, Nashville and Great Southern. This road 
originates in Louisville, Ky., but its main line terminates in the 
State, and by its branches, leased and controlled lines, it extends 
across and over a large part of Tennessee. The main line is 
from Louisville to Nashville, 185 miles, with a branch from 
Bowling Green, Ky., to Memphis. But the system of roads it 
operates extends to Mobile. Pensacola and New Orleans, and it 
controls, but does not directly operate to Chattanooga, Atlanta 
and Savannah. 

The entire line of road under its operation in the State is 
377 miles, and consists of the main line from the Kentucky 
boundary to Nashville, the Nashville and Decatur roads to 
Alabama ; the Nashville and Florence, and the Memphis branch 
from Guthrie to Memphis. The main line enters the State in 
Sumner County, and thence into Davidson to Nashville, passing 
through the thriving town of (rallatin. The Memphis branch 
ent<>rs the State in the county of Montgomery, and paasing 
through its center, and the beautiful and flourishing city of 



HAND-BOOK OF TEXXE.-SEE, 59 

Clarksville, toviches a comer of Stewart ; pas.-es thnough the 
northern part of Houston and Benton, goes directly through 
Henry and the town of Paris, its county seat ; through the 
northAvest corner of Carroll, the southeast corner of Gibson and 
Crockett, through the center of Haywood and the city of 
Brownsyille ; through a corner of Fayette and through Shelby 
to Memphis. At McKenzie, it connects with the Nashville, 
Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad; at Milan v.ith the Chicago^ 
St. Louis and New Orleans, and at Humboldt with the Mobile 
and Ohio Railroad. At Guthrie, it connects v.ith the St. Louis 
and Southeastern Road, on the north to Eyansyille, and on the 
south for Nashville. It passes through the thriving towns of 
Paris, McKenzie, Milan, Humboldt, Gadsden, Bells, Stanton, 
Mason and Galloway. The St. Louis and Southeastern Road 
enters the State at Guthrie, and passes through the county of 
Robertson and its county seat, Springfield, into Davidson 
to Nashville. The Nashville and Decatur road passes from 
Davidson County through the center of the counties of 
Williamson, Maury and Giles into Alabama, touching the towns 
of Franklin, Columbia and Pulaski, and traversing the finest 
agricultural region of the State. The Nashville and Flor- 
ence Road extends from Columbia to Sandy Hook Station, 
at the foot of Highland Rim, about twenty miles, and ia being 
continued into Lawrence County. 

The officers of this road are. President, C. C. Baldwin, New 
York City; 1st Vice-President, E. P. Alexander, Louisville; 
2d Vice-President, G. A. Washington, Nashville ; General 
Manager, F. DeFuniak, Louisville; General Superintendent and 
Master Transportation, D. T. C. Rowland, Louisville ; General 
Passenger Agent, .C. P. Atmore, Louisville ; Superintendent 
Nashville and Decatur Division, J. Geddes, Nashville. 

Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis exteuds from Chat- 
tanooga to Hickman, Ky. The entire length of the line is 821 
miles. For the purpose of getting a good passage through the 
Cumberland Mountain, this line deflects out a general south- 
west course from Chattanooga, and runs for a short distance in 
the State of Alabama, and to reach the terminus on the 
Mississippi, a few miles are in Kentucky. At Hickraau, it 
connects with the Iron Mountain Road to St. Louis ; at Union 
City, with the Mobile and Ohio Road; at Paducah Junction, 
with the Chesapeake, Ohio and Southwestern ; at Martin with 
the Chicago, St. Louis and New Orleans Road ; at McKenzie 



60 IIAND-I'.OOK OK TKNNEPSKE. 

Avitli tlu" Mciiipliis brancli of tlie J^<jui.<ville & Naj-livillo; at Nash- 
ville with the Louisville it Xasliville .system north and .south and 
at Chattanooj^a with tlie niinicrous roads converj^ing at that city 
froiii all .scction.s of the country. The company controls and 
operates the following branches: Ja.sper Branch, from Bridge- 
port to South I'ittsburg, Jat-per, Victoria and other points in 
Se(iiiatchce Valley, 22 miles ; Fayetteville Branch from Decherd 
to Fayetteville,- 40 miles; there connecting with the Duck River 
narrow gauge to Columbia ; Shclbyville Branch, fi'om Wartrace 
to Shelby ville, eight miles; McMiunville Branch, from Tul- 
lahoma to Rock Island on Caney Fork River, 35 miles, and 
being rapidly comjileted to Sparta ; the TeniLse^ee and Pacific 
from Nashville to Lebanon, CI miles, and the Nashville and 
Tuscaloosa from Dickson to Centerville in Hickman County, 32 
miles. This road is a narrow gauge, and is being steadily con- 
tinued southward. 

This road pas.ges through more counties than any other road 
in the State, and is essentially a Tennessee road. Though nom- 
inally controlled by the Louisville & Nashville, its actual man- 
agement is entirely distinct. The main line and branches pass 
through from Chattanooga and Hamilton county, and the follow- 
ing counties : Marion, Franklin, Lincoln, Coffee, Bedford, War- 
ren, Rutherford, Davidson, Wilson, Cheatham, Dickson, Hick- 
man, Humphreys, Benton, CaiToll, Weakly and Obion. 

Abug its lines, the following are the principal towns and 
cities: Chattanooga, Jasper, ]\Ianchester, Fayetteville, Tulla- 
homa, McMinnville, Shelby vilie, Murfreesboro, McMiun, Dick- 
son, Centerville, Waverly, Camden, Huntingdon, McKenzie, 
Di-esdeu and T'niou City. 

The principal officers of this company are located at Nash- 
ville. Its officers are : President, Jas. D. Porter ; General 
Manager, F. DeFuniak ; General Superintendent, J. W. Thom- 
as ; General Freight Agent, Geo. R. Knox ; General Passenger 
Agent, W. L. Danlcy ; Agent of Chattanooga, J. L. McGoilum. 

The Memphis & Gharlcsion Railroad extends by its onyu line 
from Memjihis to Stevenson, from whence, by lease, it runs into 
Chattanooga over the line of the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis Railroad. It is now consolidated with the East Tennessee, 
Virginia & Georgia Railroad. This road has a bi-anch from 
Moscow to Somerville. From Memphis and Shelby county, it 
passes through Fayette, Hai'deman and ^IcNairy counties into 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNIvSSEK. 61 

Alabama and does not again reach Tennessee until after its unioa 
with the N. C. & 8t. L. E. R. 

R. B. Peagrani, jr., Memphis, is Superintendent of this 
division of the East Tennessee Virginia & Georgia systein. 

Chicago, St. Louis & New Orleans Railroad enter? the State 
from Kentucky in Obion county, passses through Weakly, (Tib- 
sou, Madison, and Hardeman into Mississip})i. ( )n the north 
it extends to St. Louis and Chicago, and on the south to Kew 
Orleans. The length of the line in this State is 112 miles. It 
connects at ^.lartin with the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis road, at Milan Vi-ith the Memphis branch of the Louisville 
& Nashville, at Jackson with the Mobile tt Ohio, and at Grand 
Junction with the Memphis & Charleston. 

The principal towns through which it })asses in Tennessee arc 
Martin, Milan, Jackson and Bolivar. Its, principal offices are 
located at New Orleans. Its principal officers are Jas.C. Clark, 
Vice President and General Manager ; D. B. Morey, General 
Freight Agent, and J. W. Coleman, General Passenger and 
Ticket Agent. 

The Mobile «.■. v^a / lUiilroad extends iVuni JMubile to Colum- 
bus, Ky., where it connects to St. Louis by the Iron Mountain 
road, and to Chicago by the Chicago, St. Louis & New Orleans. 
It enters the State from Kentucky in Obion county, near Union 
City, . and passes through Gibson, Madison and McNairy into 
Mississippi, having a length in this State of 112 miles. It con- 
nects at Union City with the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis ; at Rive.=; with the Chesapeake, Ohio & Southwestern ; at 
Humboldt with the J.Iemphis branch of the Louisville & Nash- 
ville ; at Jackson with the Chicago, St. Louis & New Orleans, 
and at Corinth, Miss., with the Memphis & Charleston. 

The principal offices are at Mobile, and the officers are : W. 
Butler Duncan, President ; A. L. Rives, Vice President and 
General Manager, and ( . i. \V::lker, General Freight and Pas- 
senger Agent. 

Chesapeake, Ohio Sz ^;nitl!W!^f-t':^rn Knilrof.d extends from 
Paducah, Ky.. i ■ Tho 

completed line i.- H'!;i; i':;;;iu;:iu ui .'srv. ocr;!, i '.iiii.,, o.> huics, of 
which 86 is in Tennessee; on the Memphis end it is completed 
from Jklemphis to Covington, 87 miles. It connects at Paducah 
with steainers oil the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers, and with the 
Elizabetlitoii & Paducah road for Louisville and the East ; at 
Fulton v.ith the Cliicago, St. Louis & New Orleans road: at Pa- 



C2 IIAND-IiOOK OK TICXN1X8KIC. 

diU'iili Juiictii-n with tlic Isualivillo, Cljatl:iuu)'»gu it St. L'»iii.s, 
and :it Tiivcv witli tlie iMt^bile A Ohio road. 

The officers are: C. P. Iliuitington, Provident; P. (Jore, Su- 
perintendent ; Itohert Weeks, General Manatjer, 

Cincinnati, New Orleans, Texas and Pacific Railroad extends 
from Cincinnati to Vicksl)urg, Miss., and thence to Sin-tjvepfirt, La., 
by road being constructed ; also from Meridian. Miss., to New Or- 
leans by road now being construct erl. I'rom Cincinnati to Mr.u- 
roe, Ija., to wliicli point the road is n(tw eonn)letc(i, tr.o distance is 
84') mileB. The same mai.agement is also constructing- a road 
from Eur.aw, Aln., to ^[eniphis. The part of the line in tliis 
Stafee Avas formerly kn.own as the Cincinnati .Southern liailway, 
and is consolidated by lea-)e with the Alabama Greai Soutliern. 
The length of track in Tennessee is 108 miles. It comes into 
the State from Kentucky in the county of Scott, passes through 
that county, Morgan, Roane, Rhea and Hamiitou to Chatta- 
nooga ; thence by the Alabama Great Soutliern it passes into 
Alabama. It will probably be the great coal and mineral road 
of the State and of the South. It cnnjiects at Oakdale Junc- 
tion with the Walden's Ridge Railroad to Oakdale Furnace and 
Winter's Gap ; at Rockwood v.'ith the Roane County NarroAS'- 
Gauge to the Tennessee River ; at Spring ('ity with the Se- 
quatchce Valley Railroad, and at Chattanooga witii the numer- 
ous raih'oad lines ccjitering at that city. 

The principal office is at Cincinnati. 'I'hc (i+licers are : Presi- 
dent, Theodore Cook ; Vice-President and Genoi-al ^Manager, 
John Scoit ; Sui«n*intc'ii(1o!:t, Ci'oil Flcir.in'^- : (IfiunLl Passenger 
Agent, C. 1'. Wilson. 

The Duck River Valley Railroad is a narrow-gauge, extend- 
ing from Columbia to Fayettcville, at which ]K)int it connects 
with the Fayetteville Branch of the Nashville, Ciiattanooga 
and St. Louis Road. Superintendent, George Childross. 

The Rogersville and Jeifersoii Railroad extends from Rogei-s- 
ville Junction, on the East ♦Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia 
R6ad, to Rogersville, in Ha^\■kins County, lo miles. President, 
H. M. Aiken, Knoxville. Bul^lness office at Rogersville. 

The East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad is 
a narrow-gauge road, extending fi'om Johnson City, on the East 
Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Road. I'orty-fivc miles to the 
Cranberry Iron jliues in North Carelina. h is almost wholly 
in the county of Carter. The officers are : .\. I'ardee, Jr., Presi- 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE, 63 

dent, Philadelpliia, Pa.; T. E. !IMat.son, Chief I^iigineer and Su- 
perintendent, Eliza])etl]ton, Carter County, Tenn. 

The Walden's Ridge Kailrciad is a narrow-gauge ; extends from 
Oakdale Junction, on tlie Cincinnati Southerri Road, neai-^ 
Emery Gap, over the leased line of the Oakdale and Cumber- 
land ]Mountaiu Road, to Oakdale Furnace, and ihence, bv its 
own line, to Winter's Gap Coal Mines. It is a narrov.-gauge, 
but the road bed is graded for a wide track. It is in tlie coun- 
ties of Morgan and Roane. Tlie principal office is at Jenks, 
Roane County, Tenn. The officers are : Presideait, Jno. G. 
Scott ; Secretary and Treasurer, B. V. Jenks. 

The Roane County Narrow-Gauge is five miles L^ng, and ex- 
tends from the furnaces at Rockwood to King's Creek P. O., on 
the Tennessee River, where it connects Avith steamboat lines. 
General ^Manager, PI. Clay Evans, Chattanooga. 

The Sequatchee Valley Railroad is in course of construction 
from Spring City, on the Cincinnati Southern, to the Cumber- 
land Plateau and across to Pikeviile, in Sequatchee Vallev. It 
is completed about half the total length. OlSeers : President, 
Charles Clinton ; Superintendent, Isaac Britton. Oflices, Spring 
City, Tenn, 

The Tennessee Coal and Iron Company's Railroad leaves the 
Xashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Road at Cowan and ex- 
tends to the company's coal miles at Tracy City, tvvcniy-three 
miles. It passes by Sev/annec, the location of the University 
of the South, and gives access to the summer resorts on the 
Cumberland Table Land. President. J. C. Warner; General 
Manager, A. ]M. Shook. 



Agricultural Products, 



Tenncrisee i?< ^.n Imppily situated gcngrapliically and topo- 
gnlphically that her fields yield, in greater or less ahimdanec, 
nearly every agricultural product kuovvii to the temperate zones. 
Perhaps uo State in the Union can surpass her in this respect. 
The principal crops cultivated are corn, wheat, oats, rye, l)ar]ey, 
clover, a great variety of grasses, sorghum, tobacco, cotton, pota- 
toes, vegetables of all kinds and fruits in great abundance and 
variety. It has been truthfully said that were the State surround- 
ed by an impassable barrier, she could produce witiiin her own 
bordei*s every essential to the subsistence of a dense population. 

Hitherto our agricultural methods have been in the main 
quite primitive in character, and little attention has been given 
to fertilization of soil or to improved methods of culture. 
With better sy.-^tciiis of cultivation and the judicious use of 
fertilizers, I feel warranted in saying that the average yield per 
acre of all, or nearly all, of the crops cultivated in Tennessee 
may be doubled. There arc millions of acres of uplands now 
lying idle Avhich may be brought into cultivation and made to 
yield remunerative crops of grain or grass, and much of our 
low land which, bv a - li-l^.t rxpense for drainage, can be made- 
to equal in ;)rod,; most fertile lands of the world. 

According to tii;> cii-io Vv turns for 1880 the area devoted 
to the cultivation of corn in Tennessee was 2,904,873 acres, 
which produced ()2,T0-1,421) bushels, being an average of 21.6 
bushels per acre. The area devoted to wheat was 1,19(),563 
acres. The yield uf reported was 7,3.Sl,oo3 bushels, being an 
average yield of (>.12 bushels per acre. Of rye the acreage 
was 32,493 acres, the yield 150,419, and the average 4.8 bushels. 

The area sown to oats wis 4()S,,'ififi acres, which produced 
4,722,100 bushels, or .". 'd per acre of ten bushels. 

Of buckwheat th-- ■ -^. which yielded 33,434 

bushels, or 6.8 b . !. rley there were 2,(i00 

acres, from whii^^-l: ..--luls \\i ro harvested, or an average 

of ll.T) li;iv;i<]> 1 \., ;l!(. :, t-il population of Tennessee 



HAND-BOOK OF TKNNKSSEE. 65 

was 1,542,359, it will thus be seen tJiat forty-two bushels 
of the cereals were produced in the State for each miiu, woman 
and child within her limits. 

According to the same retui-ns, cotton for that year was 
grown in only twenty-five of the ninety-five counties of the 
State, the area being 722,562 acres, and the yield being 330,621 
bales, Shelby County being next to the largest cotton producing 
county in the Union. The average yield per acre in pounds 
for the State was 217 pounds lint. 

Tobacco was grown in every county in tlie State, the aggre- 
gate acreage being 42,532 acres and the yield 29,365,052 pounds; 
being an average of 690 pounds per acre. 

For the cultivation of grasses the soil of Tennessee is well 
adapted. Blue grass grows s])ontaneously on all our limestone 
lands. Timothy, herds grass and many varieties of wild grasses 
grow with great luxuriance. Orchard grass does well and 
yields heavy crops, giving excellent grazing during the winter 
and early spring. Bermuda grass yields rich pasturage during 
the dryest and hottest portions of the year. Red clover gives 
a bountiful crop, making from two to three tons of excellent 
hay. 

Irish potatoes will grow from one hundred to three hundred 
bushels per acre and of good quality. Sweet potatoes are 
equally productive and are unsurpassed as to quality. Melons 
of all kinds, pumpkins, squashes and kindred products yield 
largely. Beans, peas and vegetables of nearly all kinds are 
raised in great abundance. Turnips grow to several pounds' 
weight. The stock pea furnishes heavy crops of forage and is 
regarded by many as being superior to clover as a renovator ol 
exhausted soils. Sorghum grows to great perfection and pos- 
sesses saccharine properties in a high degree. Fruits of nearly 
all kinds common to temperate climates thrive well in Tennes- 
see. Peaches, M'hen the orchards are judicously located, seldom 
fail to bear full crops of delicious I'ruit. Apple orchards, when 
properly eared for, bear heavily. Pears, plums and cherries 
are successfully grown all over the State. Strawberries are 
largely cultivated at many localities for distant markets, and 
repay the care given them with large profits. Blackberries and 
dewberries are indigenous and grow in great profusion. Rasj)- 
berries, gooseberries, currants, etc., grow to perfection. In the 
last few years the cultivation of grapes is receiving much atten- 
tion in varioijg sections of the State. They are successfully 



66 HAND-BOOK OK TENXES8EE. 

grown for market and for wine, which is made of excellent 
quality. Our plateau lands are well adapted for this industry. 
Recently various parties at different points have been giving 
attention to the rearing of silk worms, and have met with 
marked success, especially the Swiss colonists at Gruteli, on the 
Cumberland Plateau, and Mr. P. Wallace McKittrick, of Mem- 
phis. The mulberry, on which they feed, thrives on all our 
soils, and the silk which they produce is said to be of the finest 
quality. 



Climate, 



The climate of Tennessee is as varied as her topography. 
Differences in altitude and topography aft'ect climate equally 
with differences of latitude. The city of Vera Cruz in Mexico, 
lies within the tropics ; hence, has in point of temperature, 
continual summer, while jMount Orizaba, no more than seventy- 
five miles to the westward, has perpetual snow. We may there- 
fore expect to find in Tennessee, covering nearly two degrees of 
latitude, and nearly nine degrees of longitude, and varying in 
its elevation by more than 6,000 feet, crossed by two mountain 
ranges, intersected by valleys and great rivers, a great variety 
of climate. The lofty mountains of East Tennessee must neces- 
sarily differ greath' in climatic conditions from the low lying 
valleys of the west. The valley of East Tennessee sheltered 
from the winds by the surrounding mountains, having an 
elevation of 1,000 feet above the sea level, must necessarily 
differ from the land-locked basin of Middle Tennessee, with its 
lesser altitude of 700 feet. 

The Cumberland plateau, with an elevation of 2,000 feet, has 
a climate different from the plateau or slope of West Tennessee, 
with its varying altitude of from four to 700 feet. 

Accordingly, we find a greatly diversified climate, varying 
in humidity and temperature, according to these varying cir- 
cumstances. Observations reported by Prof Safford taken at 
six different stations, show differences of mean temperature as 
follows : Knoxville, average mean for three years, 57.03° ; 
Lebanon, two years, 57.76° ; Nashville, five years, 58.47° ; 
Glenwood, twenty-one years, 56.78° ; Memphis, two years, 
60.80°. 

Knoxville is in the valley of East Tennessee with an eleva- 
tion of about 1,000 feet. Nashville in Middle Tennessee with 
an altitude of 600 feet, shows a temperature 1.44 higher than 
Knoxville. For the year 1855, the difterence between these 
points was 2.08°. Glenwood, near the northern boundary of 
the State for the same year gave ^a mean temperature of 
57.34°^ being 2.49° lower than Nashville, and a fraction Ip-^er 



08 IIAM>-IU)()K OK TKNNKHHKIO. 

lluiii Kiioxvilli'. 'I'liis (liirciciicc must Ix; tlic i-e.siilt of its more 
Nortlici-ii location as its allitmlc is 100 I'cet below that of 
Nashville, Memphis, which is in the extreme southwestern 
portion of the State, for the years IHoH-O, had u mean of W).^0, 
hcin;.;; 2.86 higher than tliat of Nashville for the same years. 
On the Cumberland table-land, the teniperaturw is two to throe 
degrees lower than in the valley of East Tennessee, four to five 
lower than in the central basin, and from five to six less than on 
Uie slojjc of West Tennessee. These variations of temperaturt 
are sufficient to give rise to a marked difference in the agricul- 
tural inoducts of the different sections. In West Tennessee, 
cotton is the leading staple cultivated. Shelby County being 
the second largest cotton producing county in the Union. The 
cultivation of this crop grows less as the Kentucky line is 
apjiroachcd. In Middle Tennessee, only a few counties in the 
southern part are devoted in part to this crop, while in East 
Tennessee it is planted only in a few counties on a very small 
scale. The cool and bracing atmosphere of the Cumberland 
plateau, and of the elevated portions of East Tennessee, render 
those parts of the State delightful as resorts during the summer 
heats. 

Of course these variations in climate have, as already shown 
with reference to cotton, a decided effect in determining the 
character of the agricultural products of the different sections 
of the State, but of this I will speak more fully in another place. 

The growing season for the various crops may be computed by 
the number of days which elapse between the last killing frost 
in sjiring, and the first in autumn. From the observations of 
Prof. Stewart at Glenwood, on the northern boundary of the 
State for a period of 23 years, the average length of the growing 
season was 189 days. In the southern pai-t of the State, obser- 
vation Avould probably show about 200 days increased to 210 in 
the Avestern portion. 

The amount of rainfall during a year i-s a very important 
point in considering the climate of a country. If there be too 
much, it interferes with the cultivation of the soil, while if too 
little the growth of vegetation is checked. In this, as in other 
respects, Tennessee enjoys a happy medium. According to the 
observations of Prof. Stewart, already referred to, the average 
annual rainfall (including snow) for 23 years was approximately 
46 inches. 

Snow occasionallv fiills throughout the State, varying in 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 69 

quantity from the lightest covering to the earth to from four to 
six inches, and in rare instances reaching the depth of 12 to 18 
inches. Except in the mountain regions it seldom remains upon 
the ground more than a few days. Ice is sometimes formed 
from four to ten inches in thickness. 

For a period of ten years, during which Prof. Stewart has 
furnished us a record of the direction of the prevailing winds, it 
appears that the average number of days during which the 
wind blew from different points of the compass were as follows 
(the figures are given without decimals): North, 120 ; northeast, 
128; east, 105; southeast, 119; south, 17(>; southwest, 116; 
west, 75 ; northwest, 130 ; calm, 126. 

The climatic conditions of Tennessee are'highly favorable to 
health and longevity, as well as to the physical and intellectual 
development of the human family. 



Live Stock, 



In its adaptation for the rearing of stock Tennessee is scarcely 
surpassed by any State in the Union. The mildness of its cli- 
mate, both summer and winter, the healthfulness of its atmos- 
phere, the purity of its water, the richness of its pastures and 
the abundance of gcaiu, make it the Paradise of stock raisers. 
Where proper attention has been given to breeding, Tennessee 
can siiow as fine stock of all the different kinds as are to be 
found anywhere. 

HORSES. 

According to the census of 1880 the number of horses in 
Tennessee was 2G6.119, while the number of mules and asses 
was 173,488, making a total of 439,607. Many mules are an- 
nually sold from Tennessee to supply the demand in States fur- 
ther south. These animals are of good size and form and com- 
mand high prices in the market. Owing to the advantages 
which our State possesses they are cheaply raised, and add 
largely to the revenues of our people. 

Among the horses of Tennessee are some of tlie finest speci- 
mens of the equine race. Representatives of all the difiei'ent 
breeds which are considered most valuable are to be found here, 
and the fiict that when carefully bred here they retain all their 
original excellence, if, indeed, they do not attain a higher devel- 
opment, is proof conclusive of the adaptation of our soil and 
climate for rearing animals of the greatest value. One has but 
to visit the stables of some of our prominent breeders to satisfy 
himself that Tennessee horses are equal to the best. The sales 
at Gen. Harding's stables of yearling colts at $4,500 and $7,500 
each, attest the public confidence in the value of Tennessee-bred 
horses. 

CATTLE. 

The number of cattle reported in 1880 was : Milch cows, 
303,832; working oxen, 27,340;. other cattle, 452,462; total, 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 71 

783,634. What may he called our native hreed of cattle are 
hardy and serviceable animals. They usually receive but little 
care or attention. Their natural hardiness and the mildness of 
our climate enable them to endure our winters upon scanty feed 
and often without any sort of shelter. During the spring and 
summer they fatten upon the natural pastures, requiring no 
attention but an occasional portion of salt. When properly 
fattened they make excellent beef. As \Torking oxen on the 
farm, their hardiness, docility and agility make them highly 
valuable. Among the cows are many excellent milkers, both 
as to the quality and quantity of their milk. Doubtless if they 
were carefully and judiciously bred for a few years their value 
as dairy stock Avould be much enhanced. 

Of late years much attention has been given to the introduc- 
tion of the improved breeds of cattle. The Shorthorn finds a 
congenial home upon our rich meadows. Almost eveiy stranger 
who visited Knoxville during last year had occasion to admire 
Col. Dickinson's Babies, as he facetiously termed two mammoth 
Shorthorns reared by him. These animals were ultimately sold 
for the benefit of some charity, bringing something over twenty 
cents per pound. 

The small, though graceful and fawn-like Jersey cow, is at 
home upon our more hilly and broken pastures, where the 
sweeter herbage and grasses afford suitable pabulum for the 
delicious cream and butter for which this fairy among bovines 
is noted. Both these improved breeds are now widely dissemi- 
nated, and by their crossing with our native cattle are adding 
greatly to the value of our stock. 

Among the improved breeds of cattle the Ayrshires and 
Devons should not be omitted. For some purposes and by some 
of our stock-raisers these breeds are considered equal to the 
best. They all thrive well in Tennessee. 

HOGS. 

Perhaps there is no country in the world better adapted to 
the growth of swine than Tennessee. The number of hogs 
reported in the State in 1880 was 2,158,169, being an increase 
in the last ten years of 529,479. While this increase in the 
number of hogs has occurred, there has also been a marked 
improvement in value, from the more general diffusion of im- 
proved breeds, such as Berkshires, Essex, Sussex, Yorkshires, 



72 iiAND-iiooK OK ricNNr.sHioi:. 

Poland Oliiiuis, Jersey Rods, etc. Willi tlu; iiioic gcmral cul- 
tivation of the grasses and clover and a better system of farm- 
ing generally, there ui no reason why the rearing of hcigs for 
market should not l)i; largely increased and made mon; highly 
reninnerative than al |ir('scnt. 

SHEEP. 

Slieep husbandry should be one of the most profitable branches 
of farming in Tennessee. Ada])tation of soil and climate have 
certainly placed it within the power of our peoi)le to develoj) 
this branch of industry to a very profitable extent. The num- 
ber of sheep in Tennessee in I'iTO was 876,783 ;. in 1880 the 
number reported was only G7^),117, showing a decrease of 
204,666 in ten years. This diminution in the number of sheep 
kept is doubtless owing to the fact that there is practically no 
legal protection for the property of the flock-owner from the 
ravages of vicious dogs. Many sheep are annually killed by 
these depredators, and farmers are thereby discouraged from 
this, which would otherwise be one of the most profitable forms 
of agricultural industry. To encourage sheep husbandry ^ur 
Legislature enacted a law exempting fifty head of sheep in the 
hands of each head of family from sale by execution by the 
sheriff for debt, but there is uo law protecting them from exe- 
cution by the remorseless cur. A few years ago the Legislature 
was induced by the representations of some of our intelligent 
farmers to pass a law imposing a tax on dogs, which, for the 
brief period chat it remained on our statute books, had the 
eflect to largely decrease the number of dogs in the country. 
So great, however, was the opposition to the law among the 
people that it was repealed at the next session. LT^pon the 
repeal of the law' the dogs again increased while the sheep de- 
creased. It is gratifying, however, to have assurances that the 
"sober second thought" is returning, and that Avith the growing 
desire among all classes for developing the resources oi' the 
State, it will not be long until this industry will receive all the 
protection which legislation can give. 

While the number of sheep in the State has largely decreased, 
it is probable that the value of the flocks is fully equal to, if 
in fact it does not exceed, the valuation ten years ago. This 
is owing to the propnigation of the more valuable breeds of this 
animal. So far back as 1849-50, through the instrumentality 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 73 

of Mark R. Cockrill, Tennessee asserted her ability to compete 
with the world in the production of the finest grades of wool, 
having secured the grand medal at the World's Fair at London. 
Since that date her reputation in this respect has been fully 
sustained. More recently the long-wooled and mutton sheep 
have been introduced Avith success, and flocks are to be found 
which rival the best of other sections. 

POULTRY. 

As the population of our cities increases and facilities are 
given for speedy and cheap transportation to the populous cities 
of other States, the rearing of poultry for their flesh and eggs 
is becoming a matter of much interest and profit to our people. 
Those who pursue this business systematically find that for the 
small outlay of capital required, the profits are liberal. Our 
favorable geographical position enables us to reap the benefits 
of the markets while our Northern neighbors are still fettered 
with the frosts of winter, thus giving us the advantage of the 
very best markets v>'ith comparatively little competition. All 
varieties of domestic fowls do well in Tennessee. 

BEES. 

Bee culture may be classed with those sm;ill industries which, 
for the capital invested, often yield more satisihctory proiits than 
some of more pretentious character. Tennessee, from the mild- 
ness of its climate and the great abundance and variety of its 
honey-producing plants, is well adapted for bee-keeping. Al- 
most every thrifty farmer keeps a i'ew colonies of bees, looking 
only to a supply of honey for domestic use. Parties who engage 
in this business as a specialty find it highly remunerative. The 
Italian bee has been introduced and largely disseminated. 
Where it has been tried it is a decided favorite. 



State Polity, 



Under the Constitution of Tennessee the powers of the State 
government are distributed between three co-ordinate depart- 
ments, the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial. The chief 
Executive power is vested in a Governor, chosen every two years 
by the qualified voters of the State. He is assisted in the 
adminlLJt ration of the government by a Secretary of State, elected 
by the legislature every four years : a Comptroller, chosen by 
the same body every two years, and a Treasurer chosen for the 
same term. The Governor appoints a Superintendent of Public 
Schools and a Commissioner of Agi'iculture, Statistics and Mines, 
and Superintendent of Prisons. The Governor also appoints a 
Military Staff, one of whom, the Adjutant General, acts as his 
private Secretary. 

The Legislative power is vested in the General Assembly, 
consisting of the Senate and Plouse of Representatives, the 
former consisting of thirty-three, and the later of ninety-nine 
members, who are elected for two years and hold regular biennial 
sessions. 

The Judicial power is vested in Justices of the Peace and the 
Judges of the County, Circuit, Criminal, Chancery and Supreme 
Courts. The latter is comi^oscd of five Judges who hold their 
offices for eight years and who constitute the court of highest 
resort in Tennessee. The judges are all chosen by popular 
election. The Sheriffs and other county officers are elected by 
the people for two years. An Attorney General is also elected 
for each court having criminal jurisdiction, to prosecute on 
behalf of the State for crimes and misdemeanors. Punishment 
for crimes and misdemeanors is by fines and imprisonment in 
the county jails and in the State prison. The punishment of 
death may also be inflicted for capital oftenccs. The Governor 
has power to grant remission of fines, commutation of sentence, 
reprieves and pardoa?. 

The State Ofiicials at present are: Alviu Hawkins, Governor; 
D. A. Nunn, Secretary of State ; J. N. Nolan, Comptroller; 
Ernest Hawkins, Adjutant General and Private Secretarv. 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 75 

W. S. Doak, Superintendent of Schools ; A. W. Hawkins, Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, Statistics, Mines and Immigration ; 
Judges of Supreme Court — Chief Justice, J. W. Deaderick ; 
Justices — T. J. Freeman, Peter Turney,. W. F. Cooper and W. 
J. McFarland ; Speaker of the Senate, Geo. H. Moi'gan ; Speaker 
of the House of Re})resentatives, H. B. Ramsey ; Attorney Gen- 
eral for the State, B. J. Lea. 



Property and Taxation, 



Undei" tlie revenue laws of 'rciiiiet^.^ce, nil prupcrty (-wiicd in 
the State, excepting $1,000 Avorth of ])crsoii;iIty iK-lou^iinL' to 
the heads of fiunilies, is subject to titxation for State and c* ujiiy 
purposes. The tax on ])ro])erty levied by the State is forty 
cents on the hundred dollai's" worth, ten cents of which shall 
be for school purposes. Merchants pay ad valorem and ])rivi- 
lege taxes amounting to seventy cents on the hundred dollars' 
worth, ten cents of which is lor free scho(ds. Taxes are also 
levied upon v great number of ])rivileges and upon polls, the 
poll-tax being applied to school purposes. The county courts 
are authorized to levy taxes for general county purposes not 
to exceed the State tax. 

Tlie total amount of property (exclusive of railroads) ossesised 
for taxation in 1881 was $225,289,873, being an increase over 
the preceding yeai of $13,521,435. 

The assessed value of railroads* in the State is about 
$27,000,000, which, added to the i)ro})erty assessed, nial:es an 
aggregate of $252,289,87:3. About $17,000,000 of the railroad 
property is now paying taxes, and the remainder will bo in a 
short time. In 1880 the average value of land in the State as 
assessed for taxation was six dollars per aci'c. 



■f) 



Public Roads. 



Until recently the system of maintaining public roads in Ten- 
nessee lias been very imperfect. Ilecently, however, our laws 
on this subject have been radically changed and much im])roved. 
Under our present law, each county is divided into road dis- 
tricts, with three roiul commissioners -for each district, elected 
by the county court. Tlu' county court of each county as- 
sesses annually a road tax, which can not be less than Uxo nor 
more than fifteen cents on every $100 of taxable ])roperty in 
the county, and on privileges not exceeding one-fourth the 
assessment for county purposes. It also fixes the number of 
days' work Avhicli the road hands may be required to perform 
without compensation during tlie year upon public roads witliin 
their respective districts. The road hands are, all male citizens 
between the ages of eighteen and fifty years who have; not been 
excused for physical disability. Overseers of roads are ap- 
pointed by the commissioners. A portion of the road tax may 
be paid in work at rates fixed by law. 

Under the operations of this law our public roads have greatly 
improved during the last twelve months. 



MANUFACTURING, 



TeniK'Sfjee possesses advantages tor iDanufarturing industries' 
wliieh must soon give her a prominent position as a manufactur- 
ing (State. Her abundance of coal, iron, timber, and her super- 
abundant water power; lier contiguity to the great cotton fields 
of the South, taken in counection v\"itli the salul)rity and mildness 
of her climate stamp her as a field well adapted for the devel- 
opment of manufacturing enterprise. 

In point of fact, notwithstanding the unsettled financial policy 
of our State nas for years past greatly retarded development in 
this direction, many enterprises of great practical utility have 
been inaugurated, and by their success have demonstrated that 
manufactures in Tennessee will pay. 

Now that the odium of repudiation has been lifted from our 
State, w^e may confidently anticipate that an influx of capital 
and of skilled labor will soon give an impetus to manufacturing 
industry such as Tennessee has never before witnessed. 

So far Nashville, Chattanooga and Knoxville are the 
principal manuflicturing points in the State. 



n-l 



Educational 



Tennessee enjoys jiecu liar. advantages foi* the higher education 
of the youth of both sexes. The following universities are 
located within her limits : Vanderbilt University, Nashville ; 
Tennessee University, Knoxville; Wesleyan University, Athens; 
Cumberland University, Lebanon; University of the South, 
Sewanee ; Southwestern University, Clarksville ; Southwestern 
Baptist University, Jackson; Fisk University (colored), 
Nashville ; all of which maintain a high standard of scholarship. 

Besides these universities, all of which except the University 
of Tennessee, at Knoxville, are under the care of some one of 
the religious denominations of the country, there are large 
numbers of colleges, collegiate institutes, seminaries, acade- 
mies and high schools. The University of Tennessee has an 
Agricultural Department under the charge of Prof. McBryde, 
which is rendering invaluable service to the agricultural 
interests of the State. In many localities good private schools 
have been maintained for many years and have established for 
themselves quite enviable reputations. 

Under the laws of Tennessee, each city aaid incorporated 
town has authority to levy a tax for school purposes, and the 
large majority of them have availed themselves of the 
privilege and established graded schools of good character. 

The State has a well arranged system of free schools, which 
is gradually becoming efficient for the education of the masses of 
her children. 

The total expenditure for free schools in Tennessee during the 
past year was $835,629.22. The whole number of free schools 
taught in the State during the year was 5,603, with an average 
duration of four months and six days. The average daily 
attendance upon these schools was 180,509. 

It is confidently anticipated that within a very few years the 
rapidly growing interest which is being developed throughout 
the State will give to our free schools all the efficiency which 
fhe friends of popular education can desire. 



Churches, 



Nriu'ly all ri'li^idus (U'lKHuiiiatloii.- kiinwii in tln' riiitcd 
Siatrs have ()ru-anizr<l t^ot-ieliuri and al)l(' ministers in Tcnuos.scc 
'riic Methodist ICjiiseopal Churcli, i^outli, has throe annual con- 
f'crencet5, mostly in Tennessee; its nuinhership within the Htate 
is very large. The Methodist Episcopal Church has also three 
annual conferences. The Baptists, of different orders, are also 
nuniei-oiis and have many churches^ and ministers. Presl)yteriaiis 
of the diiierent orders, JOpiscojialians, C'iu'istian.s (Camplpellites i, 
Catholics and other denominations arc numerous. All have 
valuable properties and iieaily all have denominational schools. 
.Scareely a neirrhborhood in the State but ha.s one or more 
churches conveniently located, and all are zealous in the Mastei-'s 
work. 



n 



Benevolent Institutions. 



The benevolent institutions sustained by the State are, the 
Asylum for the Insane, located near Nashville ; the School for 
the Blind, at Nashville ; and the Asylum for the Deaf and 
Dumb, located at Knoxville. These institutions are supported by 
liberal appropriations from the treasury of the State, and are 
placed under the control of competent and faithful officials. 
Each coumty provides for its own indigent. 



EAST TENNESSEE, 



TABLE NO. 1. 

Shoiving Total Area of each County, Quantity of Improved Land 
Average Value per Acre of Land in the County, Pojndation 
and Value of Property Assessed for taxes. 



IX. 




281,600 
179,200 
402,800 
217,000 
250,00 
217,600 
217,000 
345,600 
204,800 
339,200 
96,000 
236.800 
217,600 
364,800 
128,000 
104,800 
249,600 
320,000 
147,200 
320,000 
307,200 
19,200 
320,000 
259,000 
256, COO 
217,600 
288,000 
409,600 
Sequatchie 140, 800 



Anderon.. 
Bledsoe..., 

Blount 

Bradle J . . . 
Campbell. 

Caiter 

Claibom.. 

Cocke 

Grainger . 
Greene.... 
Hamblen. 
Hamilton 
Hancock.. 
Hawkins . 

James 

Jefferson. 
Johnson . . 

Knox 

Loudon.. 
Marion ... 
McMinn. . 

Meigs 

Monroe... 
Morgan ... 

Polk 

Khea 

Koane 

Scott 



Sevier. 

Sullivan 

Unicoi 

Union 

Washington. 



332,800 
256,000 
307,200 
140,800 
224,000 



64,283 
46,375 

100,464 
76,938 
59,905 
47,119 
83.535 
78,971 
89,249 

178,917 
54,693 
55,854 
.53,708 

140, .503 
33,409 
76,940 
39,623 

172,301 
76.823 
49,646 

111,363 
.52,587 

101.133 
23,006 
38,460 
44,290 
77,345 
33,298 
17,217 
8.5,852 

128,670 
19,297 
63,465 

120,471 



Ave rage 


value of i 


lanrt per : 


acre. 


$4 88 


2 16 


4 56 


6 61 


2 69 


3 76 


1 13 


4 80 


6 41 


5 90 


9 34 


8 14 


4 68 


20 


4 98 


9 99 


2 25 1 


13 50 1 


8 27 


3 30 


5 98 


7 03 


4 58 


1 52 


3 75 1 


4 73 


8 32 ! 


1 10 i 


1 50 


! 2 95 


1 5 42 


1 70 


1 5 88 


! 6 04 



10,820 

5.618 

15,985 

12,124 

10,005 

10l',19 

13,373 

14,808 

12,384 

24,004 

10,188 

23,042 

9,098 

20,010 

5,187 

1.5,846 

7,776 

39,121 

9,148 

10,911 

15,064 

7,117 

14,283 

5,1.56 

7,269 

7,073 

15,237 

0,021 

2, .505 

15,541 

18,321 

3,045 

10,201 

16,181 



; $ 907,278 

551,729 

1,505,767 

1,226,584 

722,575 

821,390 

870,969 

1,185,780 

1,153,064 

2,345,843 

933,596 

1,811,240 

483,550 

1,839,. 541 

.520,587 

1,672,499 

480,217 

3,752,686 

1,163,613 

1,110,95^5 

1,634,862 

891,285 

1,669,,990 

557,125 

811,823 

931,984 

1,880,709 

456,547 

240, 122 

1,346,013 

1,530,761 

174,070 

707, .507 

1,433,125 



LIVE STOCK OF EAST TENNESSEE. 



TABLE NO. 2. 
Showing Total Number of Live Stock in each County. 



COUNTIES. 


HORSES 

AND 
MULES. 


CATTLE. 

.5, .588 
6,964 
8,728 
5,283 
7,750 
4,877 
7,137 
8,063 
6,369 
1,498 
4,148 
5,235 
4,689 

11,848 
2,756 
7,127 
4,841 

12,673 
5,439 
6,403 
6,838 
3,698 
8,592 
4,710 
3,795 
4,295 
7,939 
6,216 
2,904 
7,940 
9,525 
2,164 
4,293 
9,565 


SHEEP. 

6,371 
5,937 

11,992 
6,393 
7,156 
5,467 
9,136 
6,561 
6,524 

13,652 
5,467 
4,017 
5,956 

10,856 
2,247 
6,421 
5,766 
9,099 
5,269 
4,588 
8,473 
3,833 
8,212 
5,490 
5,724 
3,666 
6,688 
6,522 
2,470 
9,471 
9,867 
2,784 
5,481 
9,453 


HOGS. 




2,869 
1,502 
4,141 
2,746 
2,135 
1,911 
3,172 
3,181 
3,111 
7,036 
2,240 
2,205 
1,875 
.5,374 
1,268 
4,301 
1,464 
6,836 
2,521 
2,052 
3,396 
2,033 
3,698 
1,071 
1,369 
1,606 
3,526 
1,463 

785 
3,728 
4,936 

703 
2,506 
4,595 


14,008 


Bledsoe 


1.5,890 


Blount 


19,476 




11,242 


Campbell 


15,141 


Carter 


12,830 


Claiborne 


21,182 


Cocke 


22,496 


"Grraiuger 


15,617 




29,778 


Hamblen 

Hamilton 


9,724 
11,323 




12,406 


Hawkins 


22,284 


James 


6,316 


Jefferson 


19,711 


Johnson 


8,4r,G 


Knox 

Loudon 


26,219 
12,303 


Marion 


16,698 


McMinn 


16,276 


Meigs 


10,531 




18,938 


Morgan 

Polk 

Rhea 

Roane 

Scott 

Sequatchee 

Sevier 


13,363 
8,452 
10,774 
17,775 
11,472 
6,961 
19,516 


SuUivan 


20,071 


Unicoi 

Union 

Washington 


6,525 
13,475 
17,653 



Cereal Products of East Tennessee, 



TABLE NO. 3. 
Showing the Cereal Productions of East lennessee by Coxmties. 



Counties. 





«1 


153 

84 

114 

37 

47 

4,704 

135 

725 




Blount 


13 








Carter 


282 




Cocke 


115 

102 

1,288 

1,906 


Grainger 


Greene 


3,688 
121 


Hamblen 








140 

839 


Hawkins 


73 


James 


Jefferson 


111 


235 

5,132 

284 


Johnson 


Knox 


974 


Loudon 


Marion 






McMinn 






Meigs 






Monroe 




35 
523 
60 
78 
73 
369 


Morgan .* 




Polk 




Rhea 




Roane 


326 


Scott 


Sequatchie 




Sevier 


15 

1,533 

40 


32 
7,523 

1,283 

221 

4,514 


Sullivan 


Unicoi 


Union 


Washington 


2,658 



iiarlej vviieat. 



Indian 
Corn. 



396, 95« 
342,240! 
450,011 
337,446 
341,945 
243.906 
496,262 
553,567 
356,128 
719,465 
231,184 
461,070 
292,195 
706,899 
223.701 
506,592 
147,388 
752,559 
319,283 
474,115' 
480,8981 
444,106 
566,356 
11.5,327 
239,224 
362,801 
697,787 
185,646 
14.5,532 
493,885 
550,374 
81,8.52 
319,702 
407,633 



Oats. 


1 
Rye. 


Wheat. 


86,198 


1,208 


44,609 


21,282 


2,405 


18,106 


95,367 


1,027 


110,196 


25,672 


693 


88,961 


68,834 


2,725 


25,549 


51,141 


2,094 


.55,150 


74,921 


2,422 


44,192 


.50.165 


1.901 


94,763 


83,078 


617 


61,. 563 


139,134 


1,237 


237,302 


51,270 


432 


66,057 


45,378 


2,675 


45,925 


41,625 


1.180 


32,189 


117,578 


1,210 


115,636 


15,148 


139 


34,657 


83,035 


445 


125,849 


39,496 


4.906 


31,022 


228,786 


3,162 


227,705 


91,298 


1,212 


90,5.55 


54,. 582 


788 


18,275 


78,372 


1,383 


1W,873 


45,124 


.518 


47,797 


80,793 


1,855 


114,884 


19,490 


4,880 


2,832 


10,505 


1,847 


37,126 


38,650 


851 


31,290 


130,821 


3,248 


.54,276 


23,060 


3,003 


2,297 


6.337 


1,519 


6,735 


53,274 


1,353 


89,499 


111,662 


2.063 


131,319 


22,501 


2,266 


9,365 


62,233 


i 916 


39,208 


109,579 


794 


153, 2©4 



CIVIL DIVISIONS, 



Tennessee is divided into East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, 
and West Tennessee. Each of these divisions constitutes a Fed- 
eral district. The Federal Courts for East Tennessee are held 
at Knoxville and Chattanooga ; for Middle Tennessee, at Nash- 
ville, and for West ^Tennessee, at Memphis and Jackson. As 
these divisions are in many respects different, in giving a more 
detailed description by counties, they will be treated separately. 



EAST TENNESSEE. 

It is bounded on the south by the State of Georgia, on the 
east by North Carolina, on the north by Virginia and Kentucky, 
on the west it adjoins Middle Tennessee near the center of the 
Cumberland Plateau. East Tennessee is noted for the fertility 
of its valleys, the beauty of its mountain scenery, the salubrity 
of its climate and its rich mineral deposits. It embraces the fol* 
lowing counties, which will be described in alphabetical order' 
to-wit : 



Anderson, 


Hancock, 


Morgan, 


Bledsoe, 


Hawkins, 


Polk, 


Blount, 


James, 


Rhea, 


Bradley, 


Jefferson, 


Roane, 


Campbell, 


Johnson, 


Scott, 


Carter, 


Knox, 


Sequatchee, 


Claiborne, 


Loudon, 


Sevier, 


Cocke, 


Marion, 


Sullivan, 


Grainger, 


McMinn, 


Unicoi, 


Greene, 


Meigs, 


Union, 


Hamblen, 


Monroe, 


A^"ashington 


Hamilton, 








ANDERSON 


COUNTY. 



Anderson county lies partly in the Valley of East Tennessee 
and partly on the Cumberland Plateau. The county presents a 
broken surface, but fairly productive soil. Clinch River is 



88 IIAN1)-!5<XJK OK TENNE8.SEE. 

navigable throUL^h tlie entire length of the county. 
The county is well wutered with numerous creeks. Clint n, 
the county town, Ls on Clinch Rivci- and on the Kluoxville and 
Ohio Railroad, and has a population of 263. Other towas are, 
Andersonville, Coal Creek, a mining tnvn, and Oliver's, a water- 
ing place and summer resort of considerable repute. 

Anderson county i)os.sesses great mineral wealth, consisting of 
iron, coal and zinc. The iron ore is the fossil red hematite or 
dyestone ore of good quality, but not at present mined to any 
large extent. Coal of excellent quality is extensively mined at 
Coal Creek. Six companies are now engaged in this business 
and employ about 360 miners. Zinc is also found near Clinton, 
and the mines are worked with proht. There is a broom-handle 
factory at Clinton. The county is well supplied with valuable 
timber, among which is oak, poplar, ash, hickory, walnut and 
pine. There are good schools at Andersonville, Clinton and 
Poplar Creek. 

The religious denominations most numerous are Baptists and 
Methodists. The tax for county purposes is 30 cents per 8100 ; 
road tax 10 cents. 

BLEDSOE COUNTY. 

This county lies partly on the Cumberland Plateau, but in- 
cludes the Sequatchee Valley, which has an average width of 
about four miles, and runs entirely through the county. The 
soil in the valley is good but on the mountains is sandy and 
poor. The county is well watered by tlie Sequatchee River and 
its tributaries. The Sequatchee furnishes excellent water power 
during the greater part of the yeai". Timber is abundant, con 
sisting of oak, chestnut, poplar and walnut. Coal and iron are 
abundant, but are not mined to any extent for want of transpor- 
tation. Pikeville is the county seat, and has 146 inhabitants. 
Melville is the only other town in the county. The principal 
agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, tobacco, syrup 
and fruits. ]Much stock is annually fattened .and driven to mar- 
ket. 

There are two colleges and one institute located in Bledsoe 
county. 

The most numerous religious denominations are Methodists^ 
Baptists, Presbyterians and Disciples. The taxes are : school tax 
on SlOO, 15 cents ; for county purposes, 10 cents ; road tax, 12 
cents. 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 89 

BLOUNT COUNTY. 

Couuty seat, Maryville ; population, 1,098. Other towns, 
Louisville, Pi-iendsville and Rockford. Navigable streams, Ten- 
nessee and Little Tennessee rivers. Other streams. Little 
River, Nine Mile and Pistol creeks. The face of the country is 
formed of valleys separated- by narrow ridges; mountainous in 
southeastern portion. Timber is abundant, consisting of pine, 
hickory, oak, ash, sweet gum, walnut, poplar, beech, &c. 
Water power is excellent. The valley lands are fertile but the 
ridges are inferior. Iron ore is found in abundance in the 
southeastern part of the county, and marble of fine quality in 
the w^estern. Copper is also said to be found in some localities. 
About 25 persons are engaged in mining, principally in marble 
quarries. The chief agricultural products are com, wheat, oats» 
potatoes and fruit. 

Maryville College, the Normal College (colored), Normal and 
Preparatory School (Quaker), and the Porter Academy are the 
principal schools. There are one cotton, two woolen, one sash 
and blind and one button factory located in this county. The 
button factory makes beautiful buttons, resembling pearl, from 
mussel shells found in the streams of the county. The capital 
invested in manufacturing is about $100,000, and the number of 
persons employed about one hundred. 

The religious denominations are Methodists, Baptists, Pi-esby- 
terians, Friends and Christians. The taxes on $100 of property 
are : for schools, 25 cents ; for roads, 15 cents ; for county, 30 
cents ; for railroad debt, 60 cents. This debt was contracted to 
build theKnoxville and Augusta Railroad, and will be liquidated 
in a year or two. 

BRADLEY COUNTY 

Is situated on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia 
Railroad, which has its eastern terminus at Bristol, and its 
southern and western termini at Dalton and Chattanooga. 
Cleveland is the county seat, and has 1,874 inhabitants. Other 
towns are, Charleston, Chatata and McDonald's Station. The 
face of the country is diversified with valleys and ridges, some 
parts mountainous. The soil in the valleys is excellent, the 
ridges less fertile. The Hiwassee River is navigable during a 
portion of the year. Other streams are Candy's, Chatata, Black 



00 HAND-BOOK OF TKNXK8fiEE. 

Fox, Chostua, Mouse and a number of other creeks, afTording 
excellent water power. Tlir county is well timbered with oak, 
pine, hickory, walnut nml pnplai-. Tlic minerals are iron, lead, 
coal and mai'ble. Aliout liU handrf are employed in the marble 
quarries. Considerable iron has also l)een mined in this county, 
giving employment to 200 hands. It is said, to the praise of 
Bradley county, that tlicre is not a single retail lifpior shop in 
the county. The j)rincipal manutacturing establishments are a 
woolen mill, a number of flouring mills and a foundry ami plow 
factory. Capital ililOO.OOO ; number of hands employed, 50. The 
principal agricultural })ni(lucts are corn, wheat, oats, rye, grass, 
clover, cotton, sorghum and potatoes. 

Taxes on $100 are : ihv scIkoIs, 15 cents ; for roads, 15 cent.? ; 
for county, 30 cents. Religious deIlo^Hnatiou^i: E[jiscopalian, 
Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist. 

CAMPBELL COUNTY. 

This is a mountainous county, but has some beautiful and 
very fertile valleys. The county seat is Jacksboro, which has a 
population of 274. Other towns are Careyville and Fincastle. 
The Knoxville and Ohio Railroad passes through the county. 
Powell's River, which runs through the county, is navigable for 
flat boats. Other streams are. Clear Fork River, Big Creek, 
Cove Creek, Cedar Creek, Hickory Creek, Rock Creek and nu- 
merous others, affoi-ding excellent water power. Timber is 
abundant, consisting of wrdnut, ash, poplar, hickory, oak, (X*dar, 
etc. 

The minerals of Campbell county are coal, iron and zinc 
Coal is mined at a number of points and is of excellent quality 
Iron is mined to a limited extent. The number of hands em- 
ployed in mining is about 100. The principal agricultural pro- 
ducts are, corn, wheat, oats, rye, potatoes, turnips, grass, clover 
and fruit. 

The i)riucipal religious denominations are Baptists and Meth- 
odists. There are good schools at Jacksboro, Well Springs and 
Fincastle. Taxes per $100: for schools, 20 cents; for roads, 
15 cents ; county purposes, 40 cents. 

CARTER COUNTY. 

Carter is one of the extreme eastern counties of the State, and 
is very mountainous, having only a small propcu-tion of arable 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 91 

land, lying along the streams, which is generally very fertile. 
Elizabethton is the county seat and has a population of 362. 
Other towns are, Hampton and Carter's Depot. The Watauga, 
Doe and Buffalo rivers are navigable in favorable st:.ges. The 
water power in Carter county is excellent. The timber is abund- 
ant, consisting of white pine, oak, hickory, poplar, hemlock, 
chestnut and many other varieties. The minerals are iron, lead, 
silver, and manganese. Considerable iron w'as formerly made 
in the county, but the furnaces ai"e now out of blast in conse- 
quence of litigation. The principal agric»lturnl products are 
corn, wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat and potatoes. There are two 
woolen mills at Elizabethton, which is situated at the junction 
of the Doe and Watauga rivers, and is reached by the Western 
iforth Carolina Railroad. The East Tennessee, Virginia and 
Georgia Railroad passes through the county. The principal re- 
ligious denominations are Methodists and Baptists. 

CLAIBORNE COUNTY. 

The topograi^hy of Claiborne county is diversified with hills, 
mountains and valleys. Some of the ridges have a poor, sandy 
soil, though for the most part the soil is good, though rough and 
stony, interfering with cultivation. Tazewell is the county town 
and has a population of 342. Other towns are, Springdale, Old- 
town, Compensation and Speedwell. Powell's River runs through 
the county and is navigable' for flat boats in high water. Pow- 
ell's Valley is a fertile section. The minerals of this county are 
coal, iron and manganese. Iron was formerly worked at several 
points, but owing to the difficulty of transportation the work was 
discontinued. Tiisiber is abundant and of excellent quality. 
Water power is extra good. Cumberland Gap, a point which 
has become historic, is in this county. A railroad is in contem- 
plation from Carey ville to Cumberland Gap, and when built 
will open up a valuable agricultural and mineral region. Taze- 
well College, at Tazewell, enjoys a good reputation. Local tax- 
ation is moderate, the county being in a good financial condition. 
The principal agricHltural products are corn, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, rye, etc. 

COCKE COUNTY. 

Cocke county is generally broken and mountainous. It has 
some fine valleys with excellent soil. The- county seat is New- 



92 HAM)-i!f)()K (ji' 'ri:NNi:.s.si:j;. 

port, whidi Ims lU? iiilifihitants. The county is well watercfl by 
the French Broiid :\ii<l the Big Pigeon rivers imd their trihutarie*, 
which iiHbrd ample water powers. Timbor is abundiint and 
good, .ii branch ol" the Etist Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia 
Kiiilroad, from Morristown ruus through the C(Hnity to Wolf 
Creek on the North Carolina State line. Cocke county i,-- rich in 
iron ores of finest quality, though but little developed. It ha^ 
good schools and the usual religious denominations. Its stajjle • 
joroducts are corn, wheat, oats, grasses, etc. 

GRAIIs'GEil COUNTY. 

County seat, liutledge, having 12G inhabitauts (Jtlier towns 
are, Tate Springs and Mineral Hill Springs, which are both noted 
summer resorts. Navigable streams are the Ilolston and Clinch 
rivers, which afibrd water for flat boats. Besides these rivei-s 
there are a great nu.mber of creeks which furnish abundant water 
power. The general surface of the county is made up of a num- 
ber of flute-like valleys and ridges running i'rom northeast to 
southwest. The soil is generally good. There is great abund- 
ance of timber of many varieties, the oaks and pines predoiiii- 
Hating The mineral resources of Grainger county are undevel- 
oped, though valuable minerals are believed to exist. The ag- 
I'icultural products are corn, wheat, oats and the various grasses, 
clover predominating among the grasses. In the county there 
area number of manufacturing establishments on a small scale. 
The principal religious denominations are Methodists, Baptists 
and Dunkards. County taxation on §100: for schools 15 cents; 
for roads, IT) cents; for county purposes, 80 cents; special tax to 
payUndebtedness, 25 cents. 

GREENE COUNTY. 

The county seat of Greene county is Greeueville, on the East 
Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad. Its population is 
1,066. Other towns are, Rheatown, Midway and Warrensburg. 
The topography of Greene county presents an extended plain, 
hemmed in between two mountain ranges. This plain is inter- 
sected by valleys and ridges. Along the valleys are numerous 
rapidly flowing streams affording abundant water power. Tim- 
ber of excellent quality is abundant. The principal streams 
are Chucky River, Lick Creek, Little Chucky, Horse Creek and 
Camp Creek. The minerals are, iron in abundance, lead, copper, 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNi:S3EE. 93 

zinc, and marble. But little mining is done at present. The 
principal agricultural products arc corn, wheat, rye, oats, sor- 
ghum, hay and tobacco. Much attention has been given to the 
raising of fruit and poultry which have proven highly remuner 
ative. There are in Greene county three colleges and a num- 
ber of academies. About §250,000 are invested in manufactur- 
ing establishments. 

The principal religious denominations are Methodists, Bap- 
tists, Presbyterians, Lutherans and Cumberland Presbyterians. 
Taxation per SI 00: for schools, 25 cents ; for roads, 1"> cents ; 
for county purposes, SO cents. 

HAMBLEN COUNTY. 

Hamblen is a small county on the East Tennessee, Virginia 
and Georgia Railroad. The county seat is Morristown ; its popu- 
lation is 1,350. Other towns are, Russellville, Whitesburg and 
Witt's. The topography is varied, comprising river and creek 
bottoms, valleys, low Apalachian ridges, but no mountains. 
Holston nnd Chucky rivers form the north and south boundaries, 
while a number of suialler streams afford very considerable 
water power. The soil is generally good. Timber is sufficient 
for form purposes. Iron, zinc and marble are found in the coun- 
ty, though but little has been done in the way of nnuing. Tiie 
principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats and hay. 
Much attention is given to poultry and fruits, and large quanti- 
ties are annually shipped. Dairying also receives considerable 
attention, and large quantities of butter are shipped to distant 
markets. The educational institutions are male and female 
high schools at Morristown; also a college for colored students' 
and the AVhitesbnrg Academy. 

Religious denominations are Baptists, Methodists, Presbyteri- 
ans and Lutherans. 

Hamblen county has a sash and blind factory, a wagon and 
carriage factory, several steam flouring and saw mills, etc. Taxes 
per $100 : for schools, 20 cents ; for roads, 10 cents ; for coun- 
ty purposes, 30 cents ; for railroad debt, of which only a small 
mount remains to be paid, 30 cents. 

HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Hamilton county possesses vast mineral resources, which are be- 
ing rapidly developed. Its annual output of coal amounts to . 



04 HAND-BOOK OF TENNCTHEK. 

about 2()(),0()0 tons, and of iron ore- to ahoiit oO. ()()(). (^nitn a 
nunibcr of mines are l)ein;; worked, and tin- iiiiinl)cr of" miners 
employed i.s about 500. 

Chattanooga, the county seat, has a jxipidation of 1'2,>S02 
which is rapidly increasin<r. As a manufacturing point the city 
is rapidly growinpf in im])ortance. With the advantaL'^es of the 
Tennessee Kiver and its network of jail roads for transportation, 
it bids fair to become, at no distant day, the chief manufacturing 
ciiy of the South, if, indeed, it does not already occujiy that po- 
sition. The manufactures of iron and steel are doubtless des- 
tined to be in the future, as at present, the leading industry of 
the city: but while this is true, other branches of manufacturing 
are not neglected. The whole number of manufacturing estab- 
lishments is 65. The amount of capital invested is estimated at 
from two and a half to three and a half millions, and the number 
of laborers employed at about 3,500. 

The topography of the county is greatly varied. The larger 
portion is mountainous and wild, but the beautiful and fertile 
valley of the Tennessee and its tributaries occupies no inconsid- 
erable space. Some of the ridges also are highly productive. 
The principal agricultural products are corn, cotton, wheat and 
fruit. Besides the iron and coal already mentioned, Hamilton 
county has marble, fire clay and hydraulic cement. 

Chattanooga has a good system of graded schools, with an av- 
erage daily attendance of 2,400, and thirty teachers, at an annual 
expense of $18,000. It is well supplied Avith churches of the 
various denominations common to the country. The taxes levied 
by the county are on each $100: for schools, 10 cents; for 
roads, 10 cents, and for county purposes, 20 cents. 

HANCOCK COUNTY. 

Hancock is one of the northern counties of Tennessee, bor- 
dering the State of Virginia. Its county seat is Sueedville, Avith 
a population of 167. Other towns are, Meadowfield, Clinch, 
New Sedalia and Yellow Si)ring. Its principal Avater-courses 
are Poan-cH's and Clinch rivers, Avhich are navigable part of the 
year, and Big War Creek, These streams and their confluents 
aflbrd abundant Avater power. The general surface of the country 
is rough and mountainous, but interspersed Avith some fine 
valleys. Timber is abundant and excellent. Schools are good, 
and the county levies the usual taxes. The agricultural pro- 



ItANB-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 95 

flucts arc corn, wlieat, oats, rye, hay and tobacco. Of religious 
denominations, there are Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians. 
Iron ore is found in the county, but is undeveloped. 

HAWKINS COUNTY. 

Rogersville is the county town, and has a population of 740. 
The Rogersville and Jefferson Railroad connects it with the 
• East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad. Other towns are, 
Rogersville Junction, St. Clair and Mooreshurg. A portion of the 
county is mountainous, but for the most part it is made up of a 
succession of valleys and ridges. In the valleys and on the 
northern slopes the soil is rich. On the southern slopes, gen- 
erally rocky and poor. The navigable streams are the Holston 
and Clinch rivers. There arc numerous smaller streams and 
excellent water powers 'at many localities. Timber, of excellent 
quality, is found in abundance. During the war, large quan- 
tities of salt were made in this county from a well 200 feet in 
depth. Mint^'al springs, which are frequent throughout East 
Tennessee, ar» most abundant in Hawkins county, and some of 
them are celebrated for their curative properties. Petroleum is 
found floating on the streams in some localities. Hawkins 
county is justly celebrated for its beautifully-variegated marble, 
which for its quality and beauty of coloring is perhaps not sur- 
passed by any in the world. A number of quarries are being 
worked and about 300 hands employed. The business is ra-pidly 
increasing. Hawkins County has five academies and one female 
college. The religious denominations are. Baptists, Methodists, 
Presbyterians and Dunkards. The agricultural productions are 
those common to East Tennessee. The taxes levied by the 
county are, on $100: for schools, 20 cents; roads, 15 /sents; 
county purposes, 40 cents. 

Hawkins county has two woolen factories?, a leather and shoe 
factory, a number of steam mills, etc. 

JAMES COUNTY. 

County seat, Ooltewah, with 26o inhabitants. Otiier towns 
are, Birchwood and Harrison. The Tennessee River separates 
James from Hamilton county. Other streams are, Wolftaver, 
Long Savannah, Grasshopper and Gunstocker. Water power, 
good ; timber good, oak, pine, poplar, hickory, walnut, etc. 

The surface of the country is broken and irregulju-j witli con- 



9G irAND-llOOK OF TENNIiMSEE. 

sidcrablc viillcys of iiii(3 arable land. The iniiuirals arc coal, 
iron find lead ; the two Ibrnicr of whicli are mined to a consider- 
able extent, giving employnieuL to u!)out 100 hands. The iron 
ore i.s the fossil Lfer oils red hematite, and exists in large quan- 
tities. The coal is of good quality. The agricultural products 
are corn, wheat, o:its, rye, barley, hay, tobacco, sorghum, pota- 
toes, peanuts, etc. There are two high schools at Ooltewah, and 
one at Harrison. The churches arc Baptist, Methodist and 
Presbyterian. 

There are thirteen manufacturing establi.-htncnts iji the 
county, with a capital of $100,000. 

The taxes on $100: for schools, 20 cents; road.=i, 10 cents; 
county purposes, 35 cents. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

Jefferson county is crossed by the East Tennessee, Vii'gina and 
Georgia Railroad and touched on its eastern boundary by the 
branch road from Morristown to Wolf Creek. The county seat is 
Dandridge, which has 431 inhabitants. Other* towns are. New 
Market, Mossy Creek, Talbott, Mt. Horeb, Kansas and other 
villages. Its navigr.ble streams are the French Broad and 
Holston. It is also watered by a number of smaller streams, 
furnishing fine water power. The surface of the country is un- 
dulating, made up of valleys and rounded hills. The soil is 
fertile, yielding large crops of the products common to East 
Tennessee. It is well timbered with the usual varieties of timber, 
and contains depc.sits of marble, some of which are exquisitely 
beautiful. It has good schools and the usual religious de- 
nominations and the usual local taxation. Much attention is 
given to the improvement of stock, and the farmers are, as a 
class, thrifty and independent. 

JOHNSON COUNTY. 

Johnson is the extreme northeastern county of the State, 
touching both the Virginia and North Carolina lines. The 
county seat is Taylorsville, which has 278 inhabitants. It is 
watered by the Watauga River, Roane and Laural creeks, and 
has excellent water power. Timber is abundant and in great 
variety. The county is largely mountainous, but is traversed by 
a broad and beautiful valley of great fertility. Its productions 
are corn, wheat, oats, grass, clover, sorghum, potatoes, fruit, etc. 



HAND-BOOK OF TEN^XESSEE. 97 

It has immense beds of valuable iron ore, and only lacks facil- 
ities for transportation to naake it one of the richest m.inina- 
sections of the State. Its educational facilities are c.-ooil. It has 
the u^ual religious donominntions and the usual rate of ciainty 
taxation. 

KNOX C'OrXTY. 

Knoxville, the county seat of Knox County, is a beautiful 
and flourishing city, and may be regarded as the educational 
center of East Tennessee ; the populatioia of the city in 18^0 v/as 
9,693. It is rapidly increasing. O^her towns arc, Concsrd, 
Ebenezer, ^[cMillan and Cooper on th.e East Tennessee Virgina and 
Creorgia Railroad, besides a number of villages situated in various 
portions of the county. The navigable streams are the Hoiston, 
French Broad and Clinch rivers. Besides these there are 
numbers of small streams which aflurd good water i)o\ver. The 
topography of the county presents a succession of ridges, some- 
times broken into hills, and valleys. The soil is generally good ; 
some of the valleys are exceedingly fertile. The agricultural 
products are corn, wheat, oats, rye, grass, clover, potatoes, fruits, 
etc. Much attention is given to raising fruits and vegetables for 
shipment. A large business is also done in poultry and in 
dairy products. Knox County has much fine stwck. 
. Of minerals, Knox has numerous beds of iron ore, which, 
however, have been but slightly developed. Hydraulic cement 
of good quality is also found. The great mineral wealth of the 
county, however, consists in its extensive beds of variegated 
marbles. Some of these are very beautiful and are susceptible 
of high polish. Within the past few years an extensive trade 
in marble has grown up, of which Knoxville is the center. 
Many quarries of this marble are now being worked, and a large 
number of men are employed in this business. The University 
of Tennessee, with the State Agricultural College, the Knoxville 
College, the Deaf and Dumb Asylum are located at Knoxville. 
There are also a number of high schools located in diiterent 
parts of the county. The usual religious denominations are 
found in the county. Knoxville has sixteen churches. A large 
number of manufacturing establishments are locattM^l in and 
around Knoxville, and quite a large business is done in various 
kinds of manufactures. A large capital is invested in these and 
many laborers are employed. 



98 IIAN'D-UOOK Ol" TRNNRSSKi:. 

The taxes on $100: lor scliool.s, 10 coiiLs; loi' cidiniy pmixi.seH, 
)'() ci'iits ; road Uix, 15 cx'iits. 

LOUDON COUNTY. 

IjoikIou is tiie (!ouiity seat of Loudon county; pojjiilation, 
M32. Other towns are, Stockton, Philadol{)hia and J^cnoir's. The 
Tennessee River passes through the county ; other streams are, 
Sweetwater, Pond, Fork and Town creeks. These streams 
furnish good water power. The face of the country is undula- 
ting, and the soil good. Timber is plentiful, of usual varieties. 
The East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad 
runs through the c unty. The agricultural products' 
are those common to East Teuuessee. Stock raising 
is hirgely pursued by the farmers. Loudon county has 
good schools, and ihe usual rates of county taxation. 
At Lenoir, a cotton l;'.;;tory ;fand large milling operations are 
carried on. Loudon county has large deposits of iron ore ot 
good quality, though little mining is now being done. 

AIARION COUNTY. 

Marion county is irivautainous, but includes some fine valley 
lands on the Tennesoj.' and Sequatchee rivers and their tribu- 
taries. There is fine v, ater power on the Sequatchee. Jasper 
is the county seat, and has a population of 541. Other towns 
are, Victoria (a mining town), Mount Eagle (a watering place), 
and Whitesides. The toil in the valleys is excellent ; on the 
table-lands it is adapted to fruit growing. There is great abun- 
dance of good timber iiicluding many varieties. The county 
contains vast quantities of iron and coal which are extensively 
mined. South Pittsbiir,^^ is the principal manufacturing point. 
It has capital investc;! in mining and manufacturing iron and 
railroad cars to the :i:;iount of about a million and a half of 
doUais. A branch of t e Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad 
extends from Bridgepoil, Alabama, to Victoria. Corn, cotton, 
wheat, oats, potatoes and ^ruits are cultivated. There is a good 
school at Jasper, the Sa:n Houston Academy. Religious de- 
nominations are Baptis: -, Methodists, Presbyterians and 
Christians. Taxes on $10J : for schools, 20 cents ; for roads, 10 
cents ; county purposes, 20 tx nts. 



HAND-BOOK OP TENNPi^SKE. ^ 

McMINN COUNTY. 

Athens is the county seat of McMinn county, arid has a pop- 
ulation of 1,100. Other towns are, Mouse Creek, Riceville, 
Calhoun, Turley Town and Williamsburg. The face of the 
country is agreeably diversified with ridges and valleys. The 
soil is generally good, and the county well tinjbered. The 
Hiwassee River forms the. southern boundary of the county. 
Other streams are Spring Creek, Rock Creek, Mouse Creek, 
Brush Creek, Chestua, Estenaula, Connesauga and Rogei-s 
Creek. These streams aSbrd ample water power. The staple 
products are oorn, wheat, oats, grass, clover and fruits. Athens 
is the seat of the East Tennessee Wesleyan University. Other 
good schools are located in the county. The minerals are iron, 
marble and lithographic stone. The iron was formerly mined 
to considerable extent, but is not worked at present. Comid- 
erable marble has been quarried at intervals during the last few 
years. The principal churches are Baptist, Methodist and 
Presbyterian. Manufactures are woolen, cotton and flouring 
mills; capital, $100,000 ; employes, 75. Taxes levied by county 
on $100 : for schools, 10 cents ; for roads, 15 cents; for county 
purposes, 20 cents. 

MEIGS COUNTY. 

Meigs county is bounded in its entire length on the northwest- 
ern side by the Tennessee River. The Hiwassee River runs 
through the southwestern portion of the county. There are eev- 
eral smaller streams. Decatur is the county seat. Its popula- 
tion is 175. Other towns are. Big Spring, Lucknow, Goodfield^ 
Sewee, Pinhook and Euchee. The valleys in thii county are 
extensive and fertile. There are some ridges where the land is 
inferior. The county is well timbered. The usual crops of East 
Tennessee are grown in great abundance. Meigs county has ex- 
tensive deposits of iron ore which is mined to considerable ex- 
tent, the ores being shipped to Chattanooga. The educational 
and religious advantages are similar to those of adjacent coun- 
ties. 

MONROE COUNTY^ 

Monroe county lies in the southeastern portion of the State 
adjoining the North Carolina line. The southern portimn of the 
county is exceedingly rough and mountainous, wlvile the northern 



100 HANIJ-BOOK OF TBXNiKSSKE. 

|>arl, lyii:i; in llic N'ulley (»i' JOiist Tciiiu'ssfc, is !i line airri- 
fullurul sccLinn. The ^Avcot wjiUt X'a'icy, i-wpecially, i«^ one !(f' 
the loveliest in ihe ^^t•nto. The county seat is Madisonville, 
which has a ])o])ulaLion of ."^00. Other towns are, Sweetwater, 
(jienloek ami IJelltown. The Little Teniiesseeand Tellieii rivers 
rurnish )iavigation, and the ICast Tennessee, Virginia and (ieor- 
gia Kailroad passes through the county. The county is v.ell tim- 
bered and the valley lands are very productive. The principal 
educational institution is Hiwassee ('ollegc. The county has 
the usual rates of taxation. Monroe county is very rich in min- 
erals. The principal of these is iron, which exists in large (juan- 
tities and of excellent quality. Besides iron, lead, marble au<l 
gold and silver are found in the county. 

MORGAN COUNTY. 

Morgan county is situated on the Cumberland Plateau. Wart- 
burg is the county seat ; population 159. Other towns ai-e, Ilon- 
eycutt, Nemo, Kismet, Auadell, Sunbright and Rugby. The 
Cincinnati Southern Railroad passes through the county. The 
soil is generally of inferior quality, though on the northern 
slopes and in some of the small valleys is more productive. The 
v,ater courses are Emory and Obed rivers, Crooked Fork, Clear 
Creek and White? ©ak. On the flat table lands the timber is 
small, but in the valleys and on northern slopes there is much 
valuable timber. The agricultural products are corn, wheat, 
oats, grasses, fruits, etc. Valuable coal mines have been opened 
in this county and some three hundred miners ai'e employed. 
The manufacturing consists of lumber of different kinds in which 
about 500 laborers are employed. There is a high school at 
Wartburg. The churches are Methodist, Baptist, etc. The 
taxes per SlOO are: for schools, 10 cents; roads, 15 cents; 
county purposes, 30 cents. 

POLK COUNTY. 

Polk is the extreme southeastern county in the State. It ad- 
joins Georgia on the south and North Carolina on the east 
Benton, which has a population of 1<S3, is the county seat. 
Ducktown is the only other town in the county. It is watered 
by the Hiwassee and Oci)ee rivers, the first of which is naviga- 
ble, and by a number of creeks. "Water power is abundant. The 



HAND-BOOIC OF TENNESSEE. ^^l 



county is, iur the luost p.rt, mountainous. There are_ some val- 
leys ^vhich affbnl good tillable land. Timber IS plentiful. The 
staple productions arc corn, ^vheat and cotton. 

Polk county has large deposits of copper :ind iron ore, the hrst 
of ^vhich^vas'formerlv exten.sively mined, but ov.-mgto litigation 
the work ^vas some years since. uspended. The ruigious denomi- 
nations are Baptists, Methodists and Presbyterians. School tax, 
20 cents; road tax, 10 cents; tor county purposes, SO cents. 

RHEA COUNTY. 

Ehea countv lies on the northwestern side of the Tennessee 
River The county seat is Washington, which has 126 inhabi- 
tants The countv in the western part is mountainous, the re- 
mainder divided between yalleys and low ridges or sometimes 
knobs. The yailey portion of the county is qui^ fei-tde^ Be- 
sides the county seat are the; following towns: Roddy, feprmg 
City, Eyansyille and Dayton. Rhea Springs is a watering tow«. 
Th^ Tennessee Riyer furnishes navigation. Other streams are 
Piney River, Clear, White's and Big and Little Richland creeks. 
Thei; is .a-eat abundance of water power and plenty of good timber. 
Rhea county contains large deposits of iron and coal, ihese 
minerals ar^ mined at several points and give employment .o 
about two hundred men. The agricultural products of the coun- 
tv are corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, grass, clover, peanuts, sor- 
Jhum, cotton, tobacco and iVuits. Educational insututions are, 
Tennessee Valley College, Richland and Mar's Hill Academies. 
The churches are Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian and Christian. 
School tax, 15 cents ; road tax, 15 cents ; county tax, 20 cents. 

ROANE COUNTY. 

Kingston is the countv seat of Roane county and has apop- 
ulation of 858. Rockwood and Oakdale are important mining 
towns on the Cincinnati Southern Railroad. The topograpnyo. 
the county is similar to that last described though less mountain- 
ous. The navigable streams are the Holston and Clinch, 
which unite at Kingston, forming the Tennessee river, and the 
Em-ory. There are numerous smaller streams and abundant 
water-power. The county is well timbered. The yaltey lands 
are very productive, gro'wing all the crops common to Eastien- 
nessee. Coal and iron are abundant and are extensively mined 
Several furnaces are in operathm iiuaking large quantities ot 



192 IIAM)-H()()K OK TKNNICSMKK. 

iron. Mai'blf! of vory fine (luality.is also fuiiiid. ('oiiffiderable 
iniuuifactiiriii;,' is done in tli« county. BeKidos the furnaces 
there if* a woolen mill, a liuh and spoke factory, and a nund)erof 
paw and jiianing mills, giving altogether cniploymeut to about 
800 hands. There are several good academies and the usual re- 
ligious denominations. Taxes are: for schools, per $100, 15 
rents ; for roads, 13 cents ; for county ])urposes, 20 cents. 

SCOTT COUNTY. 

Scott county lias on the Cumberland Plateau. The soil is gen- 
erally thin ; narrow strips of i)roductivo land are found on some 
of the streams. Huntsville is the county seat and has a popu- 
lation of llf). The principal streams are New River, Elk Fork^ 
and White Oak. These streams furnish excellent water power. 
Timber is very abundant. The Cincinnati Southern Railroad 
runs through the county. In the tillable lands, corn, wheat and 
grasses grow' well. A large part of tke county is well adapted 
to'grazing and fruit growing. Coal exists in large quantities, 
and when properly developed w^ill add greatly to the wealth of 
the county. 

SEQUATCHEE COUNTY. 

Seqnatchee county lies upon the Cumberland Plateau , with 
the Sequatchee Valley passing through its center. Dunlap is 
the county seat and has 183 inhabitants. Other towns are. 
ftlount Airy and Fillmore. The valley lands are exceedingly 
fertile, growing the staple productions in abundance. Timber is 
altundant. Iron and coal are found in large quantities, but for 
want of transportation are not yet available. The county is 
watered by Sequatchee River and its tributaries. A railroad, in 
course of coBstruction, will open up this section, when its miner- 
als will become valuable. 

SEVIER COUNTY. 

Sevierville is thf county seat and has a population of 253. 
Other towns are, Catlcttsburg, Harrisburg and Ilendei-son. Se- 
vier county is largely mountainous, with many coves and 
beautiful valleys interspersed among the hills. The 
soil is generally good, and covered with magnifi- 
cent ibi"e.s4; growth. The water courses of this 
county are the French Broad, Little Pigeon and numerous 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE, 103 

smaller streams. Water power is good. The products are corn, 
wheat, oats, etc. Stock raising receives much attention and 
grazing is excellent. Sevier county contains abundance of iron 
ore, but which, for want of transportation, has never been f'evel- 
oped. 

SULLIVAN COUNTY. 

The county seat of Sullivan county is Blountville, with a ])op- 
ulation of 317. Other towns are Bristol, Paperville, I'iney 
Flats, Union, Kendrick and Fordtown. The county is Avatered 
by the Holston and its tributaries, which furnish plenty of water 
power. The East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Rail- 
road passes through the country. Bristol, which is 
on the Virginia line, is a point of considerable manu- 
facturing and other business. The surface of the county 
is beautifully undulating and the soil good. The staples of the 
county are corn, wheat, oats, sorghum, buckwheat, grass and 
clover. Much attention is given to stock raising. The educa- 
tional facilities of the county are good, and it has the usual re- 
ligious denominations. Iron ore of good quality is al)uudant, 
and some progfess has been made in mijiing. 

UNICOI COUNTY. 

This county lies almost wholly in the Unaka Mountain belt, 
on the North Carolina border. Comparatively little of it is 
adapted for cultivation, though hid away among the giant 
Unakas are many beautiful covt« luul small valleys of great 
fertility. The county seat is Erv/in, which has a population of 
150. The county is watered by the Nola Chucky and its tribu- 
taries. The scenery in Unicoi is magnificent. There are many 
picturesque waterfalls and cascades, which will, when the popu- 
lation requires, drive some useful machinery. Among the moun- 
tains are stores of valuable minerals which await the require- 
ments of commerce to call them from their hiding places and 
convert them into useful commodities. Timber is abundant and 
the coves and mountain sides furnish rich pasturage for numer- 
ous flocks and herds. 

UNION COUNTY. 

Mayuardville, witli a population of 178, is the couuty seat. 
There is no railroad entering the couuty. The surface of the 
county js generally hilly, but there are a number of valleys running 



10 I MANI)-I',f)itK OF 'J'KNNESSKI-:. 

lliiMiiuli llic (•(luiit y, riinii.-^liiiit.'' excellent soil. Tlic county is 
\('r\ •.veil \v:it( I'cd hy ,sj)riii^'',-< and running .ntreams. 
'riu' princiiial stfcanis arc PowcllV Uiver on the 
11 irlhcrn li.i'.nidaiy ; Clincli Ifivcr runs through from 
cast to west. J)csi(lcs these are ii number of creeks 
which aflord excellent water i)ower. The county is well 
tii!d)erc(l and contains rich deposits of iron ore, which is worked 
to only a liniited extent. There is also a silver-bearing lead ore, 
'/inc and vast quantities of beautiful marble. The principal 
agricultural j>roducts are corn, wheat, oats, grass and clover; 
much of the arable laud of the county is given to meadows and 
pasturage. Stock is largely raised, which is driven toKnoxville 
and shipped. 

The most numerous among religious denominations are Bap- 
tists and Methodists. County taxation on SlOO : for schools, 20 
cents; roads, 15 cents ;' county purposes 80 cents. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

This is ]>erhaps the oldest settled county in the State. Joues- 
b )ro, the c niiity seat, cl^iims to be the oldest town in Teunes.see. 
Its popuiiitii.n is 895. Other towns are. Limestone, Millbrook, 
Telford, Buffalo, Johnson City, BroAvnsborough, Carrville and 
Fall Branch. TliC East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia 
Railroad passes through the county, and the Western 
an<l North Carolina Railroad (narroAV gauge) has its 
termiuus at Johnson City. The Nola Chucky River 
runs through the county. There are also numerous 
creeks, Avhich afford good water power. Timber is abundant- 
The southern portion of the county is mountainous and the 
county generally broken. The valleys are fertile and there is 
much productive uj>land. Iron ore is found in great abundance. 
There is also some lead and zinc. Washington county is very 
largely an agricultural county. Its products are corn, wheat, 
oats, buckwheat and fruit. There is a fruit-canning establish- 
ment at Johnson City. Much dried fruit and poultry are ship- 
ped from the county. Some manufacturing is also done. The 
county has a foundry where agricultural implements are made 
and has also many inills propefled by water jiower. 

The prevailing churches are Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian 
and Cliristian. County taxes are, on §100 : for schools, 20 cents ; 
roads, 15 cents ; county purposes, 30 cents. There is a good 
^icademy at Jonesborp, 



41 DDLE TENNESSEE. 



The itortion of the State known as Middle Tennessee embraces 
the territory lying between the dividing line of East and Mid- 
dle Tennessee, passing over the central portion of the Cumber- 
land Phiteau, and the T^ennessee Eiver, where it crosses the 
southern boundary of the State, and pursuing a northerly 
course crosses the State line into Kentucky. It includes the 
great Limestone Basin and the surrounding Highland Rim, or, 
more properly. Plateau of Middle Tennessee, and a portion of 
the Cumberland Plateau. The basin is a rich and populous sec- 
tion, more fully developed than most portions of the State. The 
plateau portion, while generally less fertile, yet has much val- 
uable arable land. The eastern portion contains vast deposits 
of coal and also iron, while the v.estern part of the })lateau is 
one vast iron field. All portions of this division are bountifully 
supplied with timi)er. Limestone of good quality is found 
almost everywhere, and an excellent marble in some localities. 
The principal navigable stream is the Cumberland, though there 
are hundreds of smaller streams, aflbrding abundance of water 
power. This division contains the following counties, to-wit : 



Bedford, 

Cannon, 

Cheatham, 

Clay, 

Coffee, 

Cumberland, 

Davidson, 

DeKalb, 

Dickson, 

Fentress, 

Franklin, 

Giles, 

Grundy, 

Hickman, 



Houston, 

Humphreys, 

Jackson, 

Lawrence, 

Lewis, 

Lincoln, 

Macon, 

Marshall. 

^Maury, 

Montgo.n:!ery, 

Moore, 

Overton, 

Perry, 

Pickett, 



Putnam, 

Robertson, 

Rutherford, 

Smith, 

Stewart, 

Sumner, 

Trousdale. 

Van Buren, 

Warren, 

Wayne, 

White, 

Willi:: mson, 

Wilson. 



These will be ((escribed separately. 



IOC) UAN'I)-IU)()K <)I" KKNNKXSKK. 

BEDFOIM) COUNTY. 

Rhclltvvillc is the cxiiity sciit aixl liiis a po). illation of 1 ,HHO. 
Other towns iirc, Waitiaco, I^cll Jiiicklc, rnionville, Richmond, 
Fhit (Vork, Normandy, Fairfield, ralmetto, Hawthorne, Fall 
Creek, Bedford, Rover and Haley's Station. It,s water-eoursea 
are Duck River, Spring Creek, North J-'ork, Garrison Fork, Rig 
Flat, Wartrace, Sugar, Sinking and Thompson's creeks. The 
surface of the country is diversified with hills and valleys and 
is very well watered. The soi^ is of excellent (piality. The 
county is well improved, and as an agricultural connty is sur- 
])assed by very few counties in the State. It has excellent 
water power, and is well supi)lied with timber, such :!s oak, ash, 
hickory, {)oi)lar, hard maple, beech, walnut, red cedar, etc. 
The princii)al agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, rye, 
tobacco, cotton and hay. Much attention is given to stock-rai.s- 
ing. In the way of manufactures it has one cotton factory and 
one woolen factory, b(!side5 a number of saw mills, [)laniug mills, 
flouring mills, carriage factories, etc. The cai)ital invested in 
numufacturing is about S3oO,()0() and number of hands em- 
ployed 150. 

Bedford county is well sup])lied with schools, the principal 
Mue being the Shelbyville Female Institute. The principal 
religious denominations are Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, 
Cumberland Presbyterian, Episcopalian and Christian. County 
taxes on SlOO are : for schools, 20 ; for roads, 10 cents ; for county 
purposes, 30 cents. The Nashville and Chattanooga Kailroad 
runs through the county, with branch road from "Wartrace to 
Shelbyville. 

CANNON COUNTY 

Lies partly in the Basin and partly on the Highland Kim, giv- 
ing it a varied topography and diversified soils. The county 
seat is Woodbury, w hich has a population of 393. Other towns 
are Newbern and Bradyvillc. The principal water-courses are 
Stone's River, Rockhouse, Carpenter's, Lock, Rush and Braw- 
Icy's creeks. Nearly all of these afford excellent water power. 
Timber is abundant, consisting of oak, poplar, hickory, walnut, 
hard maple, beech, elm, locust, chestnut, etc. The principal 
prt)ducts are corn, wheat, oats, rye, tobacco and live stock. The 
principal churches are Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Cum- 
berland Presbyterian and Christian. Cannon county has some 
good schools and the usual rates of taxation. 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 107 

CHEATHAM COUNTY. 

Ashland City, ou the Cumberland River, is the county seat, 
and has a population of 170. Other towns are. Sycamore, 
Kingston Springs (a watering place), Pegram's Scation, Craggie 
Hope (a summer resort) and Thomasville. The Cumberland 
River flows through the county. Other streams are, Harpeth 
River, Sycamore, Half Pone, Barton, Marrow Bone, Brush and 
Sam's creeks. These streams afford abundant water j^ovver. 
Timber is plentiful, consisting of oak, ash, elm, hickory, beech, 
poplar, etc. Iron ore of good quality is found in some localities* 
but is not mined. The Nashville, Chattanooga and St Louis 
Railroad passes through the county. Much of the county is 
hilly, but the river and creek valleys are very productive. 
Limestone and sandstone furnish plenty of good building ma- 
terial. The chief productions are corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley 
and tobacco. There are extensive powder mills and plow fac- 
tories and lumbering establishments in the county. The capital 
invested is about $300,000, and the number of persons employed 
300. Cheatham county has the usual religious denominations 
and the ordinary county taxes. 

CLAY COUNTY. 

This county borders on the Kentucky line. Celina, which 
lies on the Cumberland River, is the county town, and has a 

population of . Other towns are Butler's Landing an4 

Centerville. The navigable streams are the Cumberland and 
Obey's rivers. Other water-courses are, Irvin's, Mill and Brim- 
stone creeks. These streams furnish excellent water power. The 
topography of the county presents a general plain, deeply cut 
into by numerous valleys. The soil is generally good, and the 
county well timbered with the usual varieties. 

Clay county possesses considerable mineral wealth, iron and 
petroleum being the principal minerals, though lead and other 
minerals are found. No mining of importance is done at pres- 
ent. The principal products are corn, wheat, oats, tobacco, grass, 
clover and live stock. There are several good schools in the 
county. The principal religious denominations are Methodist, 
Baptist, Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian and Christian. 
The taxes levied by the county on $100 are: for schools, 10 
cents ; for county purposes, 30 cents. 



K'.S HAND-rooK OK 'rKXNIvSKKE. 

('OFF!-:!-: corxTV. 

Til is ('Mil lit y lies |)iiiii-i]);i!!v .'ii ihc lii'ih!;iiiil> or pi at (an 'A .Mif!- 
(llc IViincsst'c, a small portion only ln'in<f in the ba.sir. The noil 
is generally light and sandy, though there are .some ferti!' viilcy.-. 
Mancliester is the eounty seat. Its j)()pulation i.s V-]^. Othci- 
towns are, Snniniitville, IJeech Grove, Hillshoro, P(>ealio)it{i.'i, 
Needmore and Tiillahoma, che hitter being a summer resort of 
considerable eelebrity. 'I'iie [)rineij)al water-courses are Duck 
River and its tributaries, which afford water power of the finest 
(juality. The county is amply supplied Avith timber. The prin- 
ripa.! ])roducts are corn, wheat, oats, rye, fruits and live stock. 
The plateau lands, though not adapted for heavy crops of grain 
are well suiterl for the growth of/ruits. The principal educa- 
tional institutions arc the Tullahoma College, the Tullahouia 
Grammar School, and the Manual School, of Manchester. The 
Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad passes through the county, 
and the IMraichester and Mc^Iiunville Railroad has its terminus 
at Tullahoma. There are in the county one paper factory, one 
!uib and spoke factory, one Hie factory, one axe-handle factory, 
one sash, door and blind factory and one woolen mill. The 
amount of capital invested is about 8250,000, and number of 
persons em])loyed 200. The prevailing religious dfenominations 
are Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian 
and Episcoj)alian. The county taxes are: for schools, 10 cents; 
for roads, to cents; for county purposes, 10 cents. 

CUMBERLAND COUNTY 

Is mainly on the Cumberland Plateau, but includes a small por- 
tion of Sequatchee Valley. ^\"ithiu the county is Crab Orchard 
Mountain, which rises to an elevation of one thousand fee^ 
above the plateau. Some coves and valleys furnish a small area 
of good arable land. Crossville is the county seat, and has a 
population of 99. Thtt water-courses arc Obed's River, Big 
Emory, Daddy's Creek and Sequatchee River. The agricultural 
l^roducts are corn, wheat, oMts, rye, iwtatoes, etc. The county is 
largely jnistoral. and much stock is raised on the wild grasses. 
The plateau lands are well adapted to fruit-raising. The min- 
erals are iron and coal, though these are but little developed. 
The religious denominations are Presbyterian, Cumberland Pres- 
byterian, Baptist, Chiistian and ^lethodist. The county has 
some good private schools and the usual rates of taxation. 



HAXD-BOOK OF TEXXESSEK. 109 

DAVIDSON COUNTY 

• 
Lies mostly within the basin, iind has a generally fertile soil. 
Nashville is the county seat .'.'nd alsvj the capital of the State. 
The eit}^ has a population of 4o,850, and is rapidly increasing. 
Other towns are, Goodlettsville, McWhirtcrsville, Edgefield Junc- 
tion, Bellcvue, Brentwood and Madison -Junction. The Cum- 
berland River, which flows through the county, is a fine, navi- 
s;able stream. Other water-courses are. Stone's River, White's 
Brown's, Richland, Little Harpeth, Mansker's, IMarrow Bone 
and Mill creeks, the most (jf which afford fair water powers. 
The timber is oak, elm, birch, poplar, ash, hard maple, walnut, 
cedar and chestnut. Tvro main trunk lines of railroad pass 
through the couirty, which, with their srdjordinate roads, give 
connection -with tdl parts of the world. These trunk lines are 
the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad and the 
Louisville, Nashville and Great Southern Railroad. Nashville 
has a very large trade with the Western, Southern and South- 
western country. Nashville is largely engaged in manufactur- 
ing, having large factories of woolen and cotton goods, ironware, 
furniture, doors, sash, etc., lumber, agricultural implements, car. 
riages, wagons and other articles. Capital invested in manufac- 
turing estimated at 83,000,000, and number of persons employed 
at 3,000. 

Nashville may justly claim to be the educational center of the 
South. The Vanderbilt University, the Nashville University, 
Fisk University, Tennessee Central College, School for the 
Blind, St. Cecilia Academy, the Baptist Normal and Theologi- 
cal Institute, Ward's School for Young Ladies, Price's School 
for Young Ladies and other private schools of high order. Be- 
.sides these are academies at all the villages in the county. Tlie 
city schools are Avell sustained, and are i)erhaps equal in effi- 
ciency to any in the United States. 

The products of Davidson county are corn, wheat, oats, rye, 
barley, grass, clover, millet, tobacco, fruits and live stock. No 
section of the South has given more attention to breeding fine 
stock than Davidson c(junty. Quite a large business is also done 
in dairying, and also in raising fruits and vegetables for ship- 
ment. 

All religious denominations common to the country are found 
in Davidson county. The M. E. Church, South, and the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church have extensive publishing interests 



no HANI)-I5()()K OF TENNEH8EK. 

located at Naslivillr. The State Asylum i'or llii; lii.-um- aii<l l\\(i 
State Prison are located at Waslivillc 

The taxes levied by tlje county on each $HH} are: i'ur schools, 
20 cents ; for roads, 5 cents, and ibr county purposes bO cents. 

DICKSON COUNTY 

Is situated on the highland plateau. The soil an the uplands 
of only medium fertility. The river and creek valleys are very 

rich. The county seat is Charlotte, with a population of . 

Other towns are White Bhilf, Dickson and Gillem. Harpeth 
and Cumberland Rivers form part of the eastern and north- 
eastern boundaries of the county. Other streams are Turnbull, 
Barton's, Jones', Piny, Yellow, Johnson's and Cedar creeks, 
which afford excellent water power. Timber is abundant. Iron 
ore exists in great quantity, but at present is worked only at one 
point. The Cumberland Furnace is located in the northeastern 
quarter of the county. Petroleum has also been found on 
Jones's Creek. About $200,000 are invested in manufacturing, 
and about 300 persons employed, principally in the manufacture 
of iron. Good schools are sustained at Dickson, Charlotte, 
Cloverdale and other points. The usual religious denominations 
are found. The county taxes on $100, are: for schools, 15 
cents; for roads, 10 cents ; for county purposes, 30 cents. The 
Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad passes through 
the county, and the Nashville and Tuscaloosa Railroad has its 
northern termiiuis at Dickson. 

DeKALB COUNTY^ 

Lies partly in the basin and partly on the plateau. The soil iu 
the basin is rich, while the plateau land is of lighter quality- 
Smithville is the county ^eat, and has a population of 580. 
Other towns are Alexandria, Liberty and Laurel Hill. Caney 
Fork River, which is the principal stream, is navigabk-. Other 
water courses are Pine, Sink, Hurricane, Holmes, Dry, Eagle, 
Mine Lick, Fall and Falling Water creeks. Iron ore in con- 
siderable quantities is found on each side of Caney Fork, which 
artbrds fine water powers. The principal agricultural pnoducts 
are corn, Avheat, oats, rye, tobacco, and grasses. Large numbers 
of live stock are raised in the county- There is one college and 
a number of academies in the county. There is one cotton 
factorv in the countv, and a nund>er of lumber ami flouring 



MAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. Ill 

mills. Religious denoininations are Methodist, Baptist, Presby- 
terian, Cumberland Presbyterian and Christian. The county 
taxes are: for schools, 80 cents; for roads, 12v cents; for 
county purposes, 30 cents. 

FENTRESS COUNTY. 

Jamestown, with a population of 86, is the county seat. Other 
towns, Travisville. Water courses, Wolf River, Obey's River, 
Clear Fork, Rock Castle, Cable and Poplar creeks. The 
timber is abundant, consisting of ])oplar, chestnut, walnut, oak 
and various other kinds. The minerals are coal and iron in 
abundance. The agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, 
grasses and tobacco, and live stock. 

Fentress County lies mainly on the Cumberland Plateau, but 
embraces some beautiful valleys which are exceedingly fertile. 
Water power in the county is very good. VanBuren Academy 
is the principal school in the county. The usual religious de- 
nominations are found, and the county has the ordinary rates of 
taxation. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Winchester is the county seat. Its population is Other 

towns are Decherd, Hunt's Station, Cowan, Sherwood and 
Salem. The county is well watered by the Elk River and its 
numerous tributaries, which aftbrd magnificent water power. 
The topography of the county is greatly diversified, a portion of 
it lying on the Cumberland Plateau, a portion in the valley of 
Elk River, and another portion on the Highland Rim. Some 
fertile lands are found along the base of the Cumberland 
Mountains, and also in the Elk River Valley. The plateau lands 
are less fertile, but well adapted for fruits and for suninier 
grazing. The county is well timbered. The principal agricul- 
tural products are corn, wheat, oats, rye, cotton and live stock. 
The minerals of this county are coal and marble. Coal is 
mined to considerable extent, and some marble has been 
quarried. A number of cotton factories, one woolen factory, one 
cheese factory, one ii-on furnace, a, number of tanneries and 
other manufactwring establishments are located in the county. 
The amount of capital invested is about ^250,000, and the 
number of persons employed is about 300. The religious de- 
nominations are Episcopalian, Baptist, Methodisjt, Presbyterian' 



112 HAND-BOOIC OF TKXNRSSKE. 

Cuiiiltcrljiiid I'resbyteriiui iiiid ( 'atholic. Tlicrc is ;i iiMi:;ial 
scIiudI at Wir.clicstcr; also an iiislitiitc : the UnivLTsity ol" the 
Soutli, at Sewancc, and acadciiiit-i ai all ilic (owns. 

The Nashville and ( "hattanooiia liaili-oa-i passes throK^li the 
county. The b ayettevillc Branch ivaiiroad, and tlie Tennc.'jsee 
C/oul and Iron Company's Railroad have their tc-rrnini in 
Franklin County. The county taxes are: for scliools, 10 
centf^ ; for roads, <S cents, and fori-ounty purijo.ses, 'J') cents. 

GILES COUNTY. 

Pulaski is the county seat, and has a population of 2,089. 
Other towns are Canipbellsville, J^ynnville, Elkton and Wales. 
The surface of the county is much diversified. A portion of the 
county lies on the Highland Plateau, and has a light soil. A 
large portion, however, lies within the Elk iliver arm of the 
central liasln, and though intersected by ridges and soinetimes 
rising into hills, has a rich und generous soil. The 2>r'ncipal 
water courses are Elk River and Richland Creek. These 
streams have numerous tributaries, and furnish considerable 
water power. The country is well timbered with oak, hickory, 
ash, beech, sugar tree, elm, maple, poplar, walnut, chestnut 
and other varieties. The principal agricultural products are 
corn, wheat, oats, rye, cotton and live stock. Blooded stock is 
extensively raised in the county. The Louisville, Nashville and 
(Jreat Southern Railroad passes through the county. Giles 
College and Martin Fenuile College are located at Pulaski. 
Other good schools are distributed through the county. There 
are two cotton factories in the county, and a number of flouring 
mills. The capital invested is about 8200,000, and the number 
(»f persons employed, 12o. Religious denominations are Meth- 
odist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Cumlierland Presbyterian, Episct)- 
palian, Christian and Catholic. The vounty taxes on SlOO are: 
for schools, 10 cents; for roads, 15 cents; for county purposes, 
25 cents. Considerable attention is given to grape culture in 
Giles County, and quantities of wine are made. 

GRUNDY COUNTY. 

County seat, Altamont ; })opulation, 110. Other towns, Tracv 
City, Pelhham, Gruteli and Beersheba (a noted watering place). 
The water-courses are Elk River, Collin's River, Laurel Creek, 
Fiery Gizzard, Fire Scald and some other creeks, furnishing fine 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 118 

water power. The county lies on the Cumberland Plateau, but is 
deeply serrated with valleys and coves, some of w'hich furnisli 
small bodies of very fertile soil. The general soil of the county 
is well adapted to fruit-growing, especially the grape. J^ colony 
of Swiss settlers are located in this county, and are succeeding 
well in wine-making and silk-culture. The county is well lini. 
bered with white pine, oak, poplar, walnut and other varieties 
of timber. The cove and valley lands produce corn, wheat, oats, 
tobacco, etc. The mountain lands produce much grass for pas- 
turage. The minerals consist of iron and coal, the latter of 
which is very extensively mined at Tracy City, the Tennessee 
Coal and Iron Co. operating with a capital stock of $3,000,000 
and employing GOO hands. This company owns a railroad run- 
ning from Tracy City to Cowan, where it connects with the 
Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad. The company is largely 
engaged in the manufacture of coke. Outside of the coke 
works the number of persons engaged in manufacturing is esti- 
nuited at 200. ' 

The religious denominations ai-e Methodist, Baptist, Lutheran, 
Catholic, Episcopalian and Cumberland Presbyterian. The 
usual county taxes are levied. 

HICKMAN COUNTY. 

Hickman county lies mainly on the Highland Plateau, but is 
intersected by the Duck River and Piney River valleys. The 
county seat is Centreville, which has a population of 286. Other 
towns are, Vernon, Pinewood, Beaver Dam and Shady Grove. 
The water-courses are Duck River, which is navigable during a 
portion of the year, Piney River, Boaver Dam, Sugar, Swan, 
Lick, Leatherwood and Cane creeks. Some fine v^ater power is 
found in the county. Timber in the greater part of the county 
is abundant, consisting of oak, hickory, chestuut, walnut, poplar 
and many other varieties. Iron in great abundance is found, 
and is mined to considerable extent, about 300 hands being em- 
ployed. The 'principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, 
oats, peanuts and live stock. A large cotton factoiy is located 
at Pinewood. About $250,000 are invested in manufacturing, 
and about 400 persons are employed. There is an academy at 
Centreville, and a number of good schools in the county. The 
prevailing religious denominations are Methodist, Baptist, Christ- 
ian at)(l Cumberland Presbyterian. The county taxes on $100 



11-1 irANI)-I50(lK OF TENNESSEE, 

tire: for schools^, lOccnt^;; for roiids, 15 cents; for county pur- 
poses, 30 cents. The Nashville and Tuscaloosa Railroad, in 
course of construction, passes through the county. 
* 

HOUSTON COUNTY. 

Houston County lies on the Memphis branch of the Louisville 
and Nashville Railroad. The county scat is Erin, which has a 
population of 485. Other towns are Danville, Cumberland 
City, Arlington and Stewart Station. The Tennessee River forms 
the western boundary of the county. Other streams are Wells 
Creek, Guices, White Oak, Cane, Hurricane and Yellow Creek. 
The surface of the county is much broken by narrow valleys 
and by the Tennessee Ridge, which crosses the county from 
north to south. The soil of the valleys is very rich, that of the 
ridges is lighter, but well adapted for grasses and for fruit. The 
timber is abundant, presenting the usual varieties. Iron ore is 
in large quantity, marble, hydraulic limestone and fire clay is 
also found.. Yellow and White Oak creeks afford good water- 
power. Excellent limestone abounds, and large quantities of 
lime are shipped to various parts of the country. The agri- 
cultural products of the county are corn, wheat, oats, grass, clo- 
ver, live stock, etc. There are good schools at Arlington, Erin 
and Tennessee Ridge. The usual religious denominations are 
found in this county, and the usual taxes are levied. 

HUMPHREYS COUNTY 

Lies on the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad. 
Tennessee River forms its western boundary, while Duck River 
flov/s through the county. Other streams are Buffalo River, 
Blue Creek, Trace Creek, Hurricane, Tumbling, White Oak, 
Bio; and Little Richland creeks. The face of the countrv is 
diversified with plateau, ridge . and valley lands. The soil 
varies greatly from fertile to poor. Duck River Valley is one 
of the most fertile in the State. Timber is abundant, and is of 
excellent quality. There is good water power on some of the 
streams. There are good schools at Waverly, the county seat, 
and at other points. Waverly has a population of 510. Other 
towns in the county are Johusonville, McEwen, Hurricane 
Mills, Bakerville and Cuba. Some iron ore is found in the 
county, but has not been developed. There is a woolen mill 
and a hub and spoke factory in the county. About 830,000 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 115 

are invested and 50 hands employed in manufacturing. Large 
quantities of tanbark (chestnut oak) are annually shipped froni 
the county. The principal agricultural products are corn, 
wheat, oats, peanuts, tobacco and live stock. The churches 
ar® Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, Christian, Cumberland 
Presbyterian and Catholic. 

The county taxes per $100 are: fbr schools, 10 cents; for 
roads, 10 cents, for county purposes, 30 cents. 

JACKSON COUNTY. 

Gainesboro, the county seat, is situated on the Cumberland 
River, and has a population of 352. Other toAvns are Gran- 
ville, Mayfield, Gladdice, Meigsville, and Whitleyville. The 
Cumberland River flows through the county. Numerous tribu- 
utaries, tlie principal of which is Roaring River, furnish abun- 
dance of water, and good water power. The county is divided 
into plateau, ridges and valleys. The valleys are rich, the 
ridges medium and the plateau lands light. The county has an 
abundance of fine timber, embracing all the usual varieties. 
The principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, rye, 
tobacco and live stock. There are some good private schools in 
the county; also, a number of small manufacturing establish- 
ments, in which some $50,000 capital are invested, and furnish- 
ing employment to about 50 hands. The usual religious organ- 
izations are found in this county. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

Lawrenceburg is the county seat ; population, 503. Other 
towns, Summertown, Henryville, Wayland Springs, West Point, 
and St. Joseph. The county is principally situated on the 
Middle Tennessee plateau. It has numerous streams, the prin- 
cipal of which are Buflalo River, Shoal Creek, Factory, 
Chisholm, Knob, Blue Water, Sugar and Butler's Creeks, on 
many of which there is excellent water power. The minerals are 
marble and iron, the latter of which is found in vast quantities. 
Iron is mined at only one point. Napier's furnace in the north- 
ern part of the county, gives employment to about 150 hands. 
Timber is abundant and excellent. The principal agricultural 
products are corn, wheat, oats, rye, peanuts, fruits and live 
stock. Grape culture is attracting considerable attention. 



IKi (IANI)-I5()<)K OF TENNI'»8KE. 

Tlierc arc academies at Liiwronr-cburir, ChinnV)ec, Wayland 
Springs and Summertown. 

Ixiwrcnce County has one wonlen factory and seven cotton 
f;ii tci'ies, with capital of about S(»<)0,0()0, and employing about 
-I ill) hands. The usual religious organizations prevail in the 
county." Couut}'^ taxes per $100 are: for schools, 10 cents; for 
roads, 10 cents ; county tax, 10 cents. 

LEWIS COUNTY. 

Ne^\burg is the county seat. Its population is 373. The 
county is a high rolling plateau. The soil is generally thin, 
but there is some good land in the valleys. The principal 
streams are Buffalo River, Swan, Cane, Rock House, Grinder's 
Brush, Chiefs, Cathey's and Bigby creeks. These stream? 
afford superb water-power. The timber is principally black- 
jack, post oak and chestnvit oak. There are numerous large 
deposits of iron, which, however, is not mined. The agricul- 
tural products are corn, wheat, oats, peanuts, etc. The religious 
organizations are Methodist, Baptist, Cumberland Presbyterian 
and Christian. 

LINCOLN COUNTY. 

Fayetteville is tin cgunty seat ; population, 2,104. Other 
towns are Petersburg, Molino, Mulberry, Oak Hill, Lincoln 
and Blanche. The water courses are Elk River, Bradshaw, 
Swan, Cane, Norris, Mulberry, Roundtree, Tucker, Farris, 
Shelton, Duke's, Stewarts, Coldwater and Kelley's creek*. 
Water power is abundant. Timber is plentiful, consisting of 
hickory, chestnut, mulberry, oak, poplar, beech, sugar tree and 
walnut. Marble of very handsome appearance exists, and has 
been quarried to a limited extent. 

The surface of the county i» diversified. A belt along the 
Alabama line is plateau land and the soil is thin. The remain- 
der of the county is divided into valleys and hills with gen- 
erally an excellent soil. The principal agricultural products 
are corn, wheat, oats, rye, cotton, grasses and live stock, being 
one of the best stock counties in the State. There is a college 
and a female academy at Fayetteville. Academies at Oak 
Hill, Petersburg, Mulberry, Lincoln, and other points. There 
is one cotton and one woolen factory, and a number of smaller 
manufacturing establishments in the county. The capital in- 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 117 

vested is about S300,000, and number of hands employed 600. 
The principal religious denominations are Methodist, Baptist, 
Christian, Associate Reformed and Covenanters. 

The usual county taxes are levied. The Fayetteville branch 
of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, and the Duck 
River Valley Railroad, have their termini at Fayetteville. 

MACON COUJv^TY. 

Macon County lies mainly on the rim or plateau. The 

County seat is Lafayette ; population, . Other towns are 

Hillsdale and Hayesviile. Red Boiling Springs is .a ■watering- 
place of note. On the plateau, the soil is generally thin, but in 
the southern part of the county, which lies within the basin, it 
is rich. The water-courses are Goose, Dixons, Long, Puncheon, 
White Oak, Salt Lick, Line and a number of other creeks 
affording ample water power. The timber consists of hickory, 
oak, chestnut, poplar, beech, walnut, hard maple and other 
varieties, and is abundant. There is some iron ore in the 
county, but its extent has not been developed. The principal 
agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, rye and tobacco. 
There is little manufacturing in the county beyond milling and 
lumbering. There are good private schools at various points in 
the county. The various religious denominations common to 
the State exist in the county. The usual county taxes are 
levied. 

MARSHALL COUNTY. 

County seat, Lewisburg; population, 460. Other towns, 
Chappel Hill, Cornersville, Farmington, Mooresville and 
Belfast. Water courses. Rock, Flat, Caney Spring, Richland, 
Bradshaw, Swan and Robinson's Fork creeks and Duck River. 
The river and some of these creeks afford fine water power. 
The surface of the country is diversified, and the soil generally 
fertile. The agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, rye> 
grasses, cotton and live stock. Timber is abundant, consisting of 
oak, chestnut, poplar, walnut, beech, elm, cherry and large 
quantities of red cedar. Little attention is given to manufac- 
turing. There is a female academy at Lewisburg, and other 
schools located in different portions of the county. The usual 
Protestant religious denominations are found in the county. 
County taxes : for roads, 5 cents ; for county purposes, 30 cents ; 



11'") IfAND-HOOK OF TKNNIWSRE, 

special tax, 30 cents on $100. TIm' Duck River \'allev Rail- 
if)afl passes tliroiij^h tlie county. 

MAURY COUNTY. 

Cnhiuibia is tlie county seat and has a population of 8,400. 
Other towns are Williarnsport, Mt. Pleasant, 8anta Fe, »Sprin<^ 
Hill, Culleoka, Bigbyville, Neapoli, and Hampshire. The 
water-courses are Duck River, Fountain, Bigby, Silver Knob, 
Carter's, Snow, Rutherford, Globe, Leiper's and Cathey's 
creeks. Some of these afford very considerable water power. 
The surface of the country is generally level or uAdulating, but 
at some points broken into hills. The soil is excellent, and 
produces heavy crops of corn, wheat, oats, rye, grasses, clover 
and cotton. The county is noted for its large production of 
fine stock, aud for its fine fruit and dairy product. There area 
number of manufacturing establishments, employing about 
§200,000 capital and 200 hands. The religious denominations 
are Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian, 
Christian, Associate Reformed, Episcopal and Catholic. 

The county taxes are : for roads, 12 cents ; for county pur- 
poses, 25 cents per $100. The Louisville, Nashville and Great 
Southern Railroad passes through the county. The Duck 
River Valley Plailroad, and the Nash^^lle and Florence Rail- 
road have their termini at Columbia. 

Columbia has a female institute aud Athenieum, and academies 
and seminaries are found at every village and neighborhood in 
the county. In the western part of the count}^ some iron ore is 
found. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 

Clarksville, the county seat, has a population of 3, SCO. It 
is situated on the Cumberland River, and on the Memphis 
branch of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Other towns 
are Palmyra, Hampton, Ringgold, Dotson, Shiloh and numerous 
other villages. The water-coui-ses are Cumberland River, Red 
River and their numerous tributaries, which furnish consider- 
able water power. Montgomery County lies on the Highland 
Plateau, but the streams mentioned have carved out valleys, 
which contain quite considerable areas of soil of like character 
with the rich basin lauds. Much of the plateau land is also of 
excellent quality, though some portions are poor. The surface 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 119 

of the country is greatly varied with valleys, plateaus and 
ridges. Iron ore is abundant, and a number of furnaces were 
formerly operated, but for various reasons they have all sus- 
pended. The agricultural productions are corn, wheat, oats, 
rye, grasses, tobacco and live stock. Montgomery County has 
one university and many schools of high character. Its reli- 
gious denominations are Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Cum- 
berland Presbytei'ian, Episcopalian, Christian and Catholic. 

Clarksville has considerable manufat-turing enterprise. The 
county taxes are: for schools, 20 cents; for roads, 10 cents J 
for county purposes, 20 cents per §100. 

MOORE COUNTY. 

Lynchburg is the county seat. It has a population of S45. 
Other towns are Charity, Marble Hill and County Line. The 
county is drained by Elk Elver and its tributaries, and has 
plenty of water power. Timber is abundant, consisting of oak, 
hickory, walnut, poplar, sugar tree, chestnut, etc. Marble of 
fair quality is found in the county. 

The principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, rye, 
barley, grasses and live stock. The surface of the country is 
greatly diversified, part of the county lying Avithin the basin 
and part upon the plateau. Elk Ridge, which divides the 
waters of Duck and Elk Rivers, runs through the county. 
The basin and ridge lands are fertile, but the plateau lands are 
poor. Lynchburg has a male and female institute. Other 
schools are located in the county. The religious denominations 
are Methodist, Baptist, Christian and Cumberland Presbyterian. 
The county levies the usual taxes. 

OVERTON COUNTY. 

The county seat is Livingston, w^hich has a population of 312. 
Other towns are Monroe, Oak Hill, Olympus and Hillham. 
The water courses are Roaring River, Obey's River, Flat, Mart- 
thew's and Nettle Carrier Creeks. The county lies largely on 
the foothills of the Cumberland INIountains and is deeply serrated 
with coves and valleys. Where these are of sufficient extent 
for farms the soil is rich and productive. Water power is excel 
lent and timber abundant, consisting of oak, ic-li, hickory, pop- 
lar, walnut, etc. Coal and iron both exist in large quantities 



120 HANT>-BOOK OF TRXNESSEE. 

though but littledevelopcd. Tho principal sigricultural products 
are corn, tobacco, wheat, oats, the grasses, clover and stock. 
There is an academy at Livingston and a good school at Pond 
Ividge. All the usual religious denominations are found in the 
county and the ordinary county taxes are levied. 

PERRY COUNTY 

Lies in the western portion of Middle Tennessee — the Ten- 
nessee River forming its western boundary. It is traversed by 
Buffalo River and by a large number of creeks which fall into 
the Buffalo and Tennessee Rivers. These streams afford plenty 
of water power. The face of the county is greatly diversified 
with ridges and valleys. The valleys are fertile, while the rid;^es 
generally have light soil. The timber is abundant, consisting of 
beech, ash, oak, chestnut, poplar, hickory, walnut, etc. Iron 
ore exists in large quantities, but is not at present mined. Lin- 
den is the county seat. Its population is 189. Other towns are 
Lobelville, Britt's Landing, Bardstown and Farmer's Vallev. 
The principal products are corn, cotton, wheat, oats, gra.sses, pea- 
nuts and stock. There are various private schools of good char- 
acter in the county. The ordinary county taxes are levied. The 
religious denominations are those prevailing in the State. 

PUTNAM COUNTY. 

Topographically this county is very much like Overton coun- 
ty. The soil, timber and agricultural products are very similar. 
The county site is Cookeville, which has 279 inhabitants. Other 
towns are Bloomington, Selby, Pekin, and Double Springs. 
The water courses are, Obey's River, Spring Creek, Calf Killer 
and Falling Water. Coal is mined for domestic use, about fifly 
persons being engaged in the business. Iron exists also in abund- 
ance. Th^re are in the county three academies and various pri- 
vate schools. About 200 hands are employed in various kinds 
of- manufactures. The i-eligious denominations are Baptist. 
Methodist, Cumberland Presbyterian and Christian. The coun- 
ty taxes are, for schools, 20 cents on the SlOO ; for roads, 10 
cents ; county purposes, 30 cents. 

PICKET COUNTY. 

This is a newly organized county lying on the Kentucky line 
and on the western base of the Cumberland Plateau. The coun- 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 121 

ty seat is B^'rclstown, which has iuha!)itant.s. The face of 

the county is much broken with mountain spurs and intervening- 
valleys and coves. The valleys and coves are very fertile. The 
timber is abundant and of excellent quality. Good water pow- 
er is also plenty. The countv is well watered by Wolf and Obey 
rivers and their tributaries. Coal and iron are among the min- 
erals of this county. The local institutions are similar to those 
of surrounding counties. 

ROBERTSON COUNTY. ' 

Springfield is the county seat. Population, 854. Other towns 
are, Cross Plains, Cedar Hill, Cooper Town, Turnersville, Black 
Jack and Barren Plains. The surface of the county is generally 
undulating or broken. In the southern and northern portions 
there is much level land. 

The water courses are Red River, Elk Fork,. Buzzard, Sul- 
phur Fork, Miller's, Sycamore and Carr's Creeks. Water ptjwer 
is good. Timber, such as ash, oak, poplar, chestnut, etc. The 
principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, tobacco, 
grasses, clover and stock. There are a number of good schools 
in the county. All the churches usually found in Tennessee 
have organizations in the county. 

The taxes levied by the county are, for schools per $100, 10 
cents ; road tax, 15 cents ; county purposes, 40 cents. 

The St. Louis and Southeastei'n Railroad passes through the 
county. 

RUTHERFORD COUNTY. 

Murfreesboro is the county seat ; population, 3,800. Other 
towns are Lavergne, Smyrna, Florence, Henderson, Milton, 
Russel, Salem, Winsted, Beverly, .Readyville, Carlocksville, 
Versailles and Unionville. The water courses are Stone's 
River, Cripple, Bradley's Fall, Spring, West Fork, Lytle's, 
Long, Overall's, Stuart's, and Henderson Creeks. Nearly all of 
these streams furnish good water-power. Timber is good, con- 
sisting of hickory, ash, oak, elm, poplar, cedar, lynn, etc. The 
surface of the county is generally level or gently undulating, 
and the soil good. The principal agricultural })roducts are 
cotton, corn, wheat, rye, oats, etc. 

The principal educational institutions are the Union Uni- 
versity, Soule Female College, and Murfreesboro Female 



1122 HANT)-MOOK OF TIWNWiSKf:. 

Institute, besides g(fud schools in uli the villages. Aboiit 
!i!!ir)(),000 are invested in nianui':i(;tiiring industricH, giving 
employment to one hundred hands. The princi[)al religious de- 
nominations are Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Chri.stian and 
Episcopalian. County taxes per $100: for schools, 10 cents ; 
for roads, 5 cents; for county j)urposes, 13 cents. The Nashvill** 
and Chattanooga Railroad passes centrally through the county. 

SMITH COUNTY. 

County sejit, Carthage, population, 827. Other towns, Rome, 
New Middleton, Dixon Springs, Gordonsville, Chestnut Mound, 
Grantville and Montrose. 

Navigable streams, Cumberland and Caney Fork Rivers. The 
County is well watered by many smaller streams. Water-power 
is abundant. Timber plenty, consisting of oak, liickory, 
chestnut, poplar, beech, walnut, hard and soft maple, etc. The 
surface of the county is broken, containing many hills and 
valleys, with a generally rich soil. The principal agricultural 
products are corn, wheat, oats, rye, grass, clover, tobacco and 
stock. There are a number of good schools in the county. The 
county taxes are: For schools, 20 cents; for roads, 10 cents, 
and for county purposes, 25 cents on the SIOO. The various 
churches common to the State are well represented in Smith 
County. 

STEWART COUNTY. 

This e©unty lies upon the Kentucky line, and is bounded on 
the west by the Tennessee River, while the Cumberland River 
passes through it. The Memphis Branch of the Louisville and 
Nashville Railroad passes through its southeastern corner. 
Dover is the county seat, and has a population of 817. Other 
towns are Tobacco Port, Lime Port, Indian Mound, Big Rock 
and Cumberland City. The county is well watered by numerous 
tributaries of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, and has 
abundant water-power. The surface of the county is broken 
and hilly except in the northeastern quarter which is more 
level. The Tennessee ridge which extends across the county 
between the two rivers, is a notable feature in the topography 
of the county. Much of the county has a fertile soil, while 
other portions are inferior. Timber is abundant and of excel- 
lent quality. Iron ore is found in great abundance and is ex- 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 123 

tensively mined, two iron furnaces being in [operation in the 
county, and giving employment to about 1,200 hands. The 
capital invested in these operations is about ^500,000. The 
principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, rye, grasses 
and tobacco. 

There are a number of good private schools in the county. 
The religious denominations are Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, 
Cumberland Presbyterian and Christian. The county taxes 
are: For schools, 25 cents ; for roads, 10 cents, and for county 
purposes, 80 cents per $100. 

SUMNER COUNTY. 

Gallatin is the county-seat. Its population is 1,938. Other 
towns are Pleasant Grove, Hendersonville, Saundersvijle, 
Mitchellsville, Brackentown, Bethpage, Worsham and Castalian 
Springs — a watering place. About half the county lies in the 
central basin, and the remainder on the Highland Rim. The 
portion within the basin has an excellent soil. On the high- 
lands, though the soil is not so uniformly good, there are some 
good farming lands. 

The agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, rye, tobacco, 
grasses, and clover. Within the last few years much attention 
has been given to the cultivation of potatoes for shipment to 
northern markets, and the business has been found to be highly 
remunerative. Sumner County has long been famous for the 
attention given to the rearing of fine stock. 

The Cumberland river forms for a considerable distance the 
southern boundary of the county. Other streams are Garrett's 
Creek, Bledsoe Creek, Trammel Creek and Caney Fork. These 
streams afford some good water power. Timber of good quality 
is abundant. Marble is said to be found in the county. There 
are in the county two woolen factories, one cotton factory, two 
carriage factories, one agricultural implement factory and 
twelve wagon factories, with an aggregate capital of $350,000 
giving employment to 500 hands. The principal religious 
denominations are Presbyterian, Catholic, Methodist, Christian, 
Baptist and Cumberland Presbyterian. The Louisville and 
Nashville Railroad passes through the county. The usual 
county taxes are levied. 

TROUSDALE COUNTY. 

This county lies within the central basin but presents a broken 



124 HAND-llOOK OF TKNNF.SSKE. 

and hilly siirlac with very rich soil. Ilartsvillc is the county 
seat and has a [xipulatiun of (>04. Other towns are Dixon 
Springs and Knon (JollciiC. The (Jurnberland River forms the 
southern boundary. Other streams are Goose (.'reek, with its 
various l)ranches. Water power t^ood. The ai^ricultural pro- 
ducts are corn, wheat, oats, rye, grass, clover, etc. There are 
in the county two academies and a number of good private 
schools. The usual religious denominations prevail. The coun- 
ty taxes are, for schools, 20 cents ; for roads, 15 cents ; for coun- 
ty purposes, 30 cents per SI 00. 

VAN BUREN COUNTY 

Lies upon the Cunibei'land Plateau and upon the mountain spurs 
and intervening coves and valleys. It has all the characteris- 
tics of that section of the State ; the thin, sandy soil of the 
Plateau, and the rich, productive soil of the valleys and coves. 
Spencer is the county seat and has a population of 217. The 
water courses are Caney Fork and Rocky Rivers and Cane and 
Laurel Creeks. These streams afford excellent water power. 
Timber exists in large quantities and of good quality. Coal and 
iron ore are also abundant. The agricultural productions are 
corn,wheat, oats, rye, grasses, clover, etc. 

The principal educational institution is Burritt College, though 
there are a number of good schools in the county. The usual 
county taxes are levied. 

The principal religious denominations are Methodist, Baptist, 
Presiiyterian and Christian. 

WARREN COUNTY. 

County seat, McMiunville; population, 1,244. Other towns 
are Viola, Vervilla, Trousdale, Jacksboro, Dibrell, and Clar- 
mont. 

Water coui-ses: Collins River, Rocky River, Caney Fork, Bar- 
ren Fork, Mountain, Laurel, Charles, Cane and Hickory Creeks. 
The water power on these streams is excellent. A portion of 
the county lies on the Cumberland Plateau and has the charac- 
teristics of that section. The larger portion lying west of the 
Plateau has a rich, red-clay soil and is very productive. Tim- 
ber is abundant. The principal agricultural products are corn, 
wheat, oats, tobacco, cotton, rye, grass, clover, fruit, etc. ]\Iuch 
stock is raised in the countv. There is an academv at Mc- 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 125 

Miniiville, and good schools at various localities. There are in 
the couDty four cotton factories, one woolen factory, a number 
of tanneries, etc. The capital invested is $350,000 and num- 
ber of persons employed, 400. The principal churches are 
Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian and Christian. The count v 
taxes are, for schools, 8 ceuts ; for roads, 5 cents ; for c )unty 
purposes, 20 cents per $100. 

The McMinnviile and Mrnchester Railroad passes thfou!;li 
the county. 

WAYNE COUNTY 

Lies on the western portion of the Middle Tennessee Plateau. 
The surface is much cut with ravines and valleys. The general 
character of the soil is poor, but the valleys afford a soil of great 
fertility. The county seat is Waynesboro, which has a popula- 
tion of 236. Other towns are Clifton and Ashland. The coun- 
ty touches the Tennessee River on its northwestern part. Other 
streams are Buffalo and Green Rivers, Indian, Cyprass, Mill, 
Forty-eight, Hardin, Butler and Beech Creeks. Timber is very 
abundant and of great excellence. The minerals are iron in 
large quantities, hydraulic limestone and marble. The principal 
crops raised are corn, wheat, oats, rye, cotton and peanuts. 
Much of the land in Wayne county is well suited for grazing 
and considerable stock is raised. 

There are good private schools in various localities. The 
usual county taxes are levied. ' The religious organizations are 
Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist and Christian. 

WHITE COUNTY. 

Sparta, which has a population of , is the county seat. 

Other towns are Bunker Hill, Stone Fort, Yankee Town and 
Key. 

The water courses are Caney Fork River, Calf Killer, Cherry, 
Plum, Wildcat, Towns, Post Oak, Fletcher's and Falling Water 
creeks. These streams furnish excellent water power. Timber 
is abundant. The county is divided between mountain, barren 
and valley lands, the latter of which only can be regarded as 
fertile. The productions are corn, wheat, oats, rye, grass, clover, 
fruit, stock, cotton and tobacco. 

The principal educational institutions are Nourse Seminary, 
Greenwood Seminary and Lion Institute. The county taxes are. 



12H nAND-ROOK OF TRNNF.HHRK. 

tor scIiodIjs, 1.") cents; for ro'.irls, 10 cents, und for county pnr- 
posas, oO cents on the $U)0. 

The religious organizations arc Methodist, Presbyterian and 
Christian. 

The McMinnville and Manchester Railroad, in its Sparta ex- 
tension, has entered the southern border of the county. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

County seat, Franklin; population 1,682. Other towns are 
Hillsboro, Bethcvsda, College Grove, Triune, Nolensville, Brent- 
wood, Peytonsville, Thompson's, Williamsburg, Arrington and 
Boston. 

The water courses are Harpeth River with its various branche.s, 
which water the entire county and flirnish good water power. 
The county lies mainly within the Basin and has an excellent 
soil. The surface of the county is generally undulating, some- 
times rising into hills and knobs. 

The productions are corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, gra.ss, 
clover, cotton, fruits and stock. A great deal of interest is taken 
in blooded stock. Williamson county is well supplied with 
schools of high character — the principal of which is the Frank- 
lin Female College. The couhty is well supplied with Protest- 
ant churches and has a Catholic Church at Franklin. 

The county taxes are, for schools, 10 cents ; for roads, 8 cents ; 
for county purposes, 25 cents on the $100. 

The Louisville, Nashville and Great kSouthern Railroad passes 
centrally through the county. The county is well supplied with 
timber. 

WILSON COUNTY. 

Lebanon is the county seat. Its population is 2,296. Other 
towns, Beckwith, Rural Plill, Laguardo, Caniperton, Austin, 
Statesville, Gladeville and Greenvale. The Cumberland River 
forms the northern boundary of the county. Other streams arc 
Cedar, Spring, Barton, Spencer, Cedar Lick, Stone's, Suggs, Hur- 
ricane and Fall Creeks. The county lies within the basin and 
has a fertile soil. The surface is diversified with hills and val- 
leys. 

The productions are corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, grass, clo- 
ver, fruits and stock. There is a barrel and stave factory at 
Lebanon. Cumberland University is located at Lebanon, be- 
sides academies and seminaries at various points. 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 127 

The Tennessee and Pacific Railroad runs from Nashville to 
Lebanon. 

The principal religious denominations are Baptist, Cumber- 
land Presbyterian, Christian and Methodist. 

The county taxes are, for schools, 15 cents; for roads, 10 ©ents ; 
for county purposes, 25 cents on the SIOO. 



IDDLE TENNESSEE 



TABLE No. 1. 

Showing Total Area oj each Counti/, (Quantity oj Improved Land, 
Average Value per Acre of Improved Land in the County 
ropuldfio)! and Value of Property Assef<-'<ed for Taxen. 



COUNTV. 



Bedford 

(.'aniion 

Cheatham . . 

Clay 

ColTee 

Cmnbevland 
Davidson. . . . 

DeKalb 

Dickson 

Fentress 

Franklin 

Giles 

Gi'imdy 

Hickman 

Houston.. ... 
Humphreys 

Jackson 

Lawrence ... 

Lewis 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Marshall .... 

Maury 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Overton 

Perry 

Putnam 

Robertson... 
liutherf ord . 

Smith 

Stewart 

Sumner 

Trousdale . . . 
VanBuren... 

WaiTen 

Wayne 

White 

Williamson. 
Wilson 























Ola! Area. 


Iniprovi-i! 


~ 


•^S^ 


o^?: 




L;nul 


r. 


"=-■? 


W-^H 






5 


r: £ 1 


•S^c 






^ 


= "" 


< 


;^3L',800 


203.511 


26,027 


•$.5, 183, .560 


f!l4 07 


140,800 


75,682 


11.8.59 


1,2.58,480 


7 00 


236,800 


44,886 


7,9.55 


837,5.53 


5 53 


l(;(?.40O 


45.247 


6,987 


954,896 


4 46 


1!)2,00() 


78,792 


12,894 


1,3.59.630 


4 25 


141, (JOO 


15,869 


4,538 


381,141 


80 


320, (HKt 


167,387 


79,137 


23.910,290 


31 2.-'. 


192,000 


76,308 


14,814 


1,01.5.416 


3 12 


4(«,2O0 


63,377 


12,460 


1,627,667 


7 19 


320,000 


41,71." 


5,941 


337.206 


69 


377,t!0O 


99.272 


17,178 


1,767,417 


3 98 


377,000 


194,479 


36,016 


4,587,977 


8 82 


2.5«,300 


15.485 


4,592 


429,800 


1 02 


390,400 


76.215 


12,093 


1.142.336 


3 10 


16(;,400 


21,660 


4.295 


1,581,730 


3 77 


288,000 


57,432 


11,379 


399.844 


2 00 


179,200 


63,441 


12,008 


1.094.198 


5 72 


377,600 


50,352 


10,3'^3 


944,739 


2 29 


230,400 


12,399 


2,181 


243,901 


1 64 


345,600 


172,741 


20,960 


3.822,400 


8 41 


179,200 


64,342 


9.274 


835,211 


4 11 


224,000 


132,513 


19,260 


3,030,370 


11 32 


367.600 


242,240 


39,945 


8,125,190 


12 83 


34.5,600 


150,009 


28,401 


4,850,930 


7 09 


172,800 


41.S90 


6.233 


636,453 


7 54 


345,600 


80,813 


12,153 


657,246 


2 01 


256,000 


37,172 


7,174 


242.984 


3 43 


294,400 


6.5,339 


11.501 


965,270 


3 76 


320,000 


165,902 


18.862 


.3.117,670 


8 21 


377,600 


213,457 


36,741 


6.713,700 


13 04 


230,400 


127.110 


17.799 


2.933.000 


12 05 


320,000 


50,960 


12.090 


1,127,384 


4 03 


339,200 


173,627 


23,625 


4.160,9.55 


9 57 


115,200 


44.657 


6,646 


539,521 


11 10 


217.600 


19,003 


2,933 


237.132 


1 81 


281.600 


100,524 


14,079 


1,713,304 


5 03 


473,600 


59.0.56 


11,301 


1.110,740 


2 62 


281,600 


77,163 


11.170 


1,120.794 


3 78 


345,600 


177,050 


28.313 


5,. 599, 952 


12 02 


262,400 


196,180 


28,748 


5,075,380 


11 00 



LIVE STOCK. 



TABLE No. 2. 

Showing Toial Ntnnher of Live Stock in each Coiiniy. 




Bedford 

Cannon 

Cheatham 

Clay 

Coffee 

Cumberland 

Davidson 

DeKalb 

Dickson 

Fentress 

Franklin 

Giles 

Grundy 

Hickman 

Houston 

Hum^ahreys 

Jackson 

Lawrence. 

Lewis 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Marshall 

Maury 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Overton .. 

Peny 

Putnam 

Robertson 

Rutherford 

Smith 

Stewart 

Sumner* 

Ti'ousdale 

VanBuren 

"JiVarren 

Wayne 

White 

Williamson 

Wilson 



11,426 
4,839 
2,421 
2,104 
4,024 
1,138 
9,982 
4,477 
3,760 
1,505 
4,584 
11,123 
767 
4,688 
1,275 
3,808 
3,479 
2,742 
750 
9,325 
3,247 
9,344 
15,999 
6,849 
2,350 
3,722 
2,462 
3,406 
6.581 
13,944 
7,085 
3,931 
9,607 
2,845 
818 
4,548 
3,700 
3,625 
11,442 
15, 502 



14,188 
6,367 
4,250 
2,684 
5,866 
4,498 
14,9.53 
10,995 
7.970 
.5,403 
7,906 
15,126 
2,2.52 
7,779 
2,436 
7 548 
6,495 
5,663 
1.471 
14,090 
4,833 
9.808 
1.5,421 
8,690 
.3,160 
8,9.57 
4,806 
5,645 
6,824 
16,526 
8,623 
7,015 
13,423 
3,397 
2,190 
6,815 
7,990 
8,208 
12,906 
16,285 



l6,020 
6,327 
3,107 
4,693 
7,335 
6,612 
14,435 
7,057 
.5,640 
5,231 
6,296 
12,6.51 
2,006 
8,568 
2,242 
6,9.30 
6,727 
6,310 
1,923 
11,969 
6,031 
10,118 
19,066 
7,518 
2,741 
10,044 
4, 799 
7,556 
7,697 
14,481 
10,234 
4,707 
16,729 
.3,799 
2,6.32 
8,048 
9,405 
6,003 
15,809 
18.795 



46,2,52 
27,917 
14,514 
12,708 
20,809 
15,990 
32,749 
27,796 
22,670 
12,971 
25,373 
46,762 
7,763 
25,464 
7,872 
22,062 
22,324 
18,936 
4,267 
42,415 
15.866 
37,815 
.■53,851 
40,393 
10,9a7 
22,816 
16,764 
2,107 
28,528 
45, 775 
31,187 
22,945 
31,187 
10,825 
8, .558 
21,913 
22.078 
22,654 
43,132 
49,583 



PRODUCTION OF CEREALS, 



TABLE No. 3. 

Shoxoing the Cereal Productions in Bushels, by (Joiinties. 



County. 



Bedford 

Cannon 

Cheatham 

Clay 

Coffee 

Cumberland. . 

Davidson 

DeKalb 

Dickson 

Fentress 

Franklin 

Giles 

Gnindy 

Hickman 

Houston 

Hiimphreys. . 

Jackson 

Lawrence 

Lewis 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Marshall 

Manrj^ 

Montgomery. 

Moore 

Overton 

Peny 

Putnam 

Robertson 

Rutherford... 

Smith 

Stewart 

Sumner 

Trousdale 

VanBuren 

Warren 

Waj'ne 

White 

Williamson... 
Wilson 



m 



108 



:j,830 

149 

30 



1110 



V.)'l 



173 
'183 
1070 



165 

6270 

41'0 

300 



125 



2472 
590 

688 



759 
84 



^>^ 



4;t!t 
i22i; 






122 



207 
247 
326 



117 

275 

84 



28 
165 



213 



1,682, 

821 

457 

412 

658 

127 

1,436 

863 

616 

210 

475 

1,.545 

114 

828 

231 

826 

683 

434 

114 

1,2.52 

436 

1,176 

2,177 

1,2.36 

327 

550 

423 

511 

793 

1,.590 

1,071 

778, 

917 

396 

139 

670 

583 

637 

1,439 

1.806 



358 
012 
189 
287 
293 
636 
582 
207 
422 
416 
293 
605 
758 
117 
311 
941 
019 
215 
010 
919 
804 
.536 
071 
561 
956 
091 
461 
610 
702 
855 
050 
404 
940 
384 
070 
848 
305 
143 
445 
262 



x 


e 


a 


t>> 


o 


6145 


87,408 


22,802 


6985 


42,297 


96 


1.5,205 


1901 


34,160 


4040 


10,826 


3418 


133,807 


3939 


21,202 


4043 


50, 735 


555 


15,524 


1282 


71,980 


1282 


33.289 


5020 


8,507 


654 


42,488 


1221 


13,846 




24, .521 


177 


28,714 


4153 


30,097 


1684 


4,808 


281 


37,909 


1641 


34,581 


1338 


.59,. 56 7 


2051 


91,4.52 


1513 


86,026 


1154 


14,739 


992 


32,953 


2931 


23,874 


565 


24,160 


3289 


115,678 


311 


74,794 


3793 


47,240 


3228 


26,629 


99 


95,081 


3708 


26,197 


878 


6.008 


492 


.51,613 


2173 


27,442 


2514 


24.811 


2837 


585,522 


2265 


132, .506 


4869 



257,425 

94.1.50 

18,036 

34,424 

.58,1.55 

2,797 

157, .530 

75,803 

45,318 

11,092 

13.5,816 

190,205 

7,855 

37,491 

9,062 

25,371 

40,294 

43,331 

4,824 

275,463 

31,495 

172,584 

271, .592 

148,534 

66,866 

400,1.51 

16,051 

42,033 

134,426 

172,997 

104,945 

34,8.55 

140,895 

37,284 

13,007 

66,163 

40,038 

44,653 

315,966 

188,. 540 



WEST TENNESSEE. 



The portion of the State lying between the Tennessee and the 
Mississippi rivers, and known as West Tennessee, has already 
been described in its general geological and topographical fea. 
tares. This section, with fewer mineral resources than either 
East or Middle Tennessee, possesses, in its agricultural advan- 
tages, the elements of a boundless prosperity. Its timber, its 
soil, with its adaptation to the production of almost every article 
needful for man, mark it as a region of country calculated for 
the support of a dense population. The counties are: 



Benton, 


Hardeman, 


Madison, 


Carroll, 


Hardin, 


McNairy, 


*Chester, 


Haywood, 


Obion, 


Crockett, 


Henderson, 


fPerry, 


Decatur, 


Henry, 


Shelby, 


Dyer, 


Lake, 


Tipton, 


Fayette, 


Lauderdale, 


Weakley. 


Gibson, 







These will now be described separately. 
BENTON COUNTY. 

Camden is the county seat; population 200. Other towns: 
Chaseville, Coxburg, Big Sandy, West Danville and Eva. To. 
pography, broken and hilly, intersected with river and creek 
bottoms. 

Soil : Hills argillacious, bottoms sandy and black loam. 

Navigable streams: Tennessee River forms Eastern boundary 
for forty -four miles. 

Other streams: Morgan's Creek, Eagle Creek, Byrdsong 
Creek, Cypress Creek, Harman's Creek, Crooked Creek, Lick 
Creek, Cotton's Creek, Ramble Creek, Rushing's Creek and 
Sugar Creek. 

Water power: Sandy River is good. Other streams for 
part of the year. 

♦Recently organized. 

tLies east of Tennessee River, but is included in the district of West Tennessee. 



132 IIAM)-IU)<)K or TICNNE8SEE. 

Kailroiuls: N., ('. t\:St. !>., mid Mcnipliis tV Ldiiisvilic j)af-s 
tlii()ujj,li the coiiiity. 

Timber: Ahiiiidaiii, oak, poplar, hickory, ;^iim, Ix-ccli, cy- 
})rcss and other varieties. 

Minerals: Some iron near the Tennessee River, and marlile 
on Byrdsong Creek, but both undeveloped. 

Princii)al agricultural products: Corn, wheat, oats, hay, cot- 
ton, tobacco, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, rye and peanuts. 

Manufactures: One tobacco factory, with capital of SIO.OOO, 
em])loying 15 hands. 

Educational institutions: Academy at Camden. 

Religious denominations: Methodist, Baptist, Cumberland 
Presbyterian and Christian. 

Taxes : The rate of tax for county purposes is 20 cents per 
$100; school tax, 10 cents; road tax, 10 cents. 

CARROLL COUNTY. 

Carroll county is abundantly supplied with timber of excel- 
lent quality, consisting of hickory, oak (all varieties), poplar, 
gum, beech, &c. 

There is a plow^ factory at Trezevant, a number of saw and 
planing mills, at various points, and flouring mills, &c. 

The general toi)ography of the county is undulating and 
broken, with considerable plateaus of comparatively level 
country. 

The county is very well watered with numerous creeks, 
among which are Big Sandy, with numerous tributaries in the 
easterii part of the county, having a general northern direction, 
and emptying into the Tennessee River. The other principal 
streams are Rutherford's and South Fork of Obion River, 
Ready, Beaver, Gwinn's, Crooked and various other creeks, 
which, uniting in the western half of the county, form the 
Obion River, affording, in their^courses, numerous mill sites. 

The agricultural productions of the county are greatly diver- 
sified, consisting of corn, wheat, oats, hay, cotton, tobacco, Irish 
potatoes, sweet potatoes, sorghum and rye. 

The educational institutions are, Trezevant High School, 
McKenzie College, Bethel College (also at McKenzie), Hunt- 
ingdon High School, West Tennessee Seminary (at Hollow 
Rock), Macedonia Academy, Buena Vista Academy and Clarks- 
ville Academy. 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 133 

The county seat is HuntiDgf^on, with a population of 646. 

Other towns in the county are, Hollow^ Rock, Marlboro, 
BuenaA^'ista, Clarksburg, Lavlnia, Atwood, Trezevant, McLeni- 
onsville and McKenzie 

The principal religious denominations are, Cumberland Pres- 
byterians, Methodists, Baptists and Christians. 

The Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad, and the 
Memphis branch of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad pass 
through the county 

CHESTER COUNTY. 

This is a newly organized county, not given on the map. It 
is formed of fractions taken from the counties of Madison, Hen- 
derson, McNairy and Hardeman, and partakes of the topo- 
graphical and pother characters of those counties. Henderson 
is the county seat, and has a population of . 

The Mabile and Ohio Railroad passes through the county. 



CROCKET COUNTY. 

The eastern ])ortion of this county is somewhat hilly, while 
the western part is level. 

The soil is generally very good, being a sandy loam, resting 
upon a clay subsoil. 

The county is well timbered, the western portion especially, 
containing much valuable poplar and white oak. These furnish 
the material for business in lumber and staves, which are rafted 
down the Forked Deer River, and find a market at New Orleans. 

The principal streams are the South and North forks of the 
Forked Deer River, the former of which is navigable. 

Alamo is the county seat, and has a population of 276. 

Other towns are Bell's Depot, Friendship, Gadsden, Chestnut 
Bluff and Maury City. 

The principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, 
cotton, Irish potatoes and sweet potatoes. Small fruits, such as 
strawberries, raspberries and plums, are cultivated in some lo- 
calities, to considerable extent, and have proved highly remu- 
nerative. 

The principal religious denominations are, Baptists, Metho- 
dists, Presbyterians and Christians. 



134 HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 

Tax for county purposes, 40 cents per $100; school tax, 20 
cents ; road tax, 5 cents. 

DECATUR COUNTY. 

Decaturville is the county seat; population 252. (Jther towns 
are Perry ville, Etna and Sugar Tree. The Tennessee River 
forms the eastern boundary of the county. Beech River and 
various smaller streams pass through the county. A por- 
tion of the county lies within th* valley of the Tennessee River, 
and is very fertile. The other streams also have fertile valleys. 
The uplands are sandy, but reasonably productive. The princi- 
pal crops are corn, cotton, wheat, oats and peanuts. Timber is 
abundant. There is some good water power. The county con- 
tains rich deposits of iron ore, not now Avorked. The religious 
organizations are those common to the State. The usual county 
taxes are levied. • 

DYER COUNTY. 

Topography: Western portion in Mississippi bottom, level 
and subject to overflow. The bottom is bordered by a line of 
hills. The eastern half is level, or gently undulating. 

Character of soil: Generally fertile. 

Dyersburg is the county seat; population 1010. 

Other towns: Newbern, Trimble and Finley. 

Navigable streams : The Forked Deer and Obion rivers. 

Other streams : Lewis' Creek, Pond Creek and Coon Creek. 

Timber: There is much valuable timber, consisting of poplar, 
cypress, white oak, walnut, ash, Cottonwood and maple. 

Principal agricultural products: Corn, wheat, oats, hay, cot- 
ton, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes and sorghum. 

Manufacturing establishments : Seven saw mills, four flouring 
mills, one chair factory, two planing mills and one tobacco 
factory. 

Religious denominations: Baptist, Methodist, Cumberland 
Presbyterian, Presbyterian and Christian. 

Educational institutions: Normal Institute at Newbern 
County Acaden)y and Gordon's High School at Dyersburg. 

Taxes: County tax, 80 cents; road tax, 10 cents; school tax, 
15 cents per SI 00. 

Railroads: The Chesapeake, Ohio and Southwestern Rail-* 
road passes through the county. 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE^ 135 

FAYETTE COUNTY. 

The soil is generally a dark loam in the southern part, resting 
on a red clay subsoil, but in the western portion of the county 
the subsoil is of a lighter color. The northern half of the 
county is level, but the southern half is rolling. 

Somerville, the county town, has a population of 834. 

Besides Somerville, there are six other towns in the county, 
to- wit: LaGrange, Moscow, Rossville, Macon, Oakland and 
Hickory Wythe. 

The county is watered by the Loosa Hatchie and the north 
fork of Wolf River, which are both good mill streams. 

Timber is abundant, and of good quality, consisting of oak, 
poplar, hickory, ash, cypress, gum, &c. 

The principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, 
hay, cotton, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes and rye. 

Its educational institutions are the Somerville Female Insti- 
tute and the Williston Academy. 

The rate of tax for county purposes is 30 cents per $100; 
road tax, 15 cents; school tax, 10 cents. 

The religious denominations are Baptist, Methodist, Cumber- 
land Presbyterian, Presbyterian, Episcopalian and Christian. 

Railroads : The Memphis and Charleston Railroad passes 
through the southern portion of the county, and a branch road 
runs t^ Somerville, and the Memphis branch of the L, &. N 
Railroad passes through the northwestern corner. 

GIBSON COUNTY. 

Topography: Eastern portion undulating or hilly, western 
part level. 

Character of soil : The hilly portions argillacious, and the 
level parts loamy. 

Trenton is the county seat; population, 1383. 

Other towns : Milan, Humboldt, Medina, Dyer Station, Ruth- 
erford Station, Kenton Station, Bradford Station, Idlewild, 
Yorkville, Eaton and Brazil. 

Water courses: Rutherford's Fork of Obion River, Little 
North Fork and Middle Foi'k of Forked Deer River. 

Water power: Sufficient for mill purposes. 

Timber: Abundant, consisting of oak, poplar, gum, maple, 
walnut^ ash, hickory, chestnut, &c. 



136 HAND-nOOK OF TRNNKflHKE. 

Afiriciiltural jn-o'-lucts: Corn, wheat, oats, hay, cotton, to- 
bacco, Irish j)otato(!S, sweet potatoc^s, sorghum and ry<-. 

Educational institutions: I. O. O. F. Female College, at 
Humb )]dt, Milan College and other good schools. 

Manufactures: Three buggy and wagon factories, one woolen 
mill, two plow factories, and one cotton compress, and a number 
of saw mills and flouring mills. Number of hands employed, 120- 

Religious denominations: Methodist, Baptist, Cumberland 
and O. S. Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Christian and Catholic. 

Taxes: County, 40 cents; school, ;i5 cents, and road tax 10 
©ents per $100. 

The Memphis branch ofthe L. & N., the Mobile & Ohio, and 
the. Chicago, Ht. Louis & New Orleans Railroads all pass 
through the county. 

HARDEMAN COUNTY. 

The eastern and central portions of the county are broken 
and somewhat hilly. The western portion is generally level. 
The soil in the western half h an argillaeious loam, while the 
prevailing character in the east is a sandy loam. Bolivar is the 

county seat, and has a population of . Other towns in the 

county are Toons, Middloburg, Hickory Valley, Grand Junc- 
tion, Saulsbury, U Bet, Middleton, Pocahontas, Crainsville, New 
Castle, Whiteville, Cedar Chapel and Cloverport. H^tchie 
River runs through the county, and affords steamboat naviga- 
tion to Bolivar. The county is well watered with numerous 
creeks, among which Piuey, Porter's Creek, Pleasant Run and 
Spring Creek afford good water power. 

Timber is abundant, consisting of oak, hickory, ash, pine gum, 
walnut, cypress, poplar, etc. The principal agricultural pro- 
ducts are corn, wheat, oats, hay, cotton, Irish potatoes, sweet 
potatoes, sorghum and rye. 

There is a woolen mill near Bolivar, with a capital of S7,o00, 
employing ten hands. 

The principal religious denominations are Episcopalians, Pres- 
byterians, ]>aptists and Christians. 

County t-.i::, 20 cents per SlOO ; school tax, 10 cents ; road 
tax, .") cents. 

Railroads: The C.iicago, St. Louis and New Orleans Rail- 
road passes through the county. 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 137 

HARDIN COUNTY. 

About three-fourths of the county is comparatively level, with 
undulating slopes. The remainder consists of low hills, with 
fertile valleys intervening. The uplands have a light sandy 
soil, resting upon a substratum of clay. , The valleys are sandy 
and alluvial. 

Savannah, which is located on the east bank of the Tennessee 
River, is the county seat, and has a population of 1006. Other 
towns in the county are Hamburg, Pittsburg,- Coffee Landing, 
Cerro Gordo and Saltillo. 

The Tennessee River runs centrally through the county from 
south to north. Indian Creek, Horse Creek, Hardin's Creek, 
Turkey Creek, Chamber's Creek, Lick Creek, Mud Creek and 
White Oak Creek water various sections of the county and flow 
into the Tennessee River. Some of these streams, especially 
Indian and Horse creeks, afford magnificent water power. 

Hardin County is well supplied with valuable timber, includ- 
ing pine, poplar, oak, hickory, gum, wild cherry, etc. The soil 
of Hardin County produces freely of the crops common to Ten- 
nessee, as follows: Corn, wheat, oats, hay, cotton, Irish potatoes, 
sweet potatoes, sorghum, rye and peanuts. 

Its educational interests are represented by Hardin College, 
located at Savannah, and other schools. 

The tax for county purposes is 20 cente on §100 ; school tax, 
20 cents ; road tax, 5 cents; and bridge tax, 15 cents. 

The principal religious denominations are Methodist, Cum- 
berland Presbyterian and Baptist. 

HAYWOOD COUNTY. 

The county is generally level or gentlj^ undulating. The soil 
is a sandy loam and very productive. Timber is abundant and 
of good quality, consisting of hickory, ash, gum, poplar, walnut 
and numerous other varieties. The navigable streams are Big 
Hatchie and Forked Deer rivers. Other streams are Big 
Muddy, Lagum, Mud Creek and Sugar Creek. These streams 
afford fair water powders. 

Brownsville is the county seat, and has a population of 2564. 
Other towns are Dancyville, Stanton, Woodville and Wellwood. 
The principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, 
cotton, Irisji potatoes, sweet potatoes and rye, 



l.'Jy HAND-BOOK OF TKNNKSSEE. 

All kinds of fruits and vegetables common to the State, do 
well in Haywood dounty. 

The J5ai)tist Female College and Wesleyan Female Institute 
are located at J^rownsville. 

A cotton mill is located at Brownsville, with a capital stock of 
$120,000, James A. Rogers, President. It consumes 1200 bales 
of cotton annually. 

The county contains all the religious denominations common 
to the State. 

Rate of tax for county purposes, thirty cents per §100 ; road 
tax, ten cents and school tax ten cents. 

The Memphis branch of the Louisville and Nashville Rail 
road passes through the county. 

HENDERSON COUNTY. 

Lexington, the county seat, has a population of 329. The 
eastern portion of the county is quite broken, but the western 
portion is more level. Besides the county seat, there are several 
Villages in the county to wit: Wildersville, Scott's Hill, Jack's 
Creek, Newsom, Mifflin and Sardis. The soil except on the 
ridges is very productive. The principal streams are Big Sandy, 
Beech River and Forked Deer. Timber is abundant and of 
good quality. Some of the streams afford fair water power. 
Henderson County contains large deposits of green sand or 
marl, which is valuable as a fertilizer. There are some good 
schools in the county, and the usual religious organizations. 

HENRY COUNTY. 

Topograjiliy : Northwestern portion level ; other portions 
broken with wide bottoms. Character of soil : hills, argillacious 
"Valleys, sandy loam, fertile. County seat, Paris ; population, 1767. 
Other towns, Como, Cottage Grove, Conyersville, Buchanan, 
Springville, j\Iansfield, Manly ville, Henry Station. 

Navigable streams, Tennessee River on eastern border. 

Other streams. Big Sandy, AYest Sandy, Middle and North 
forks of Obion River, Baily Fork, Bear Creek and other smaller 
streams. 

Water power : All the streams named furnish good water 
power. . 

Timber, abundant ; poplar, oak, cyjjress, chestnut, maple 
elm, etc. 



HAND-BOOK OE TENNESSEE. 139 

Minerals, marble and iron ; not now worked. 

Principal agricultural products, corn, wheat, oats, hay, cotton, 
tobacco, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, rye and peanuts. 

Principal religious deneminatious : Baptists, Presbyterians 
Methodists and Christians. 

Educational institutions : Several academies in the county. 

Taxes : County tax, ten cents per $100 ; school tax, fifteen 
cents ; road tax, ten cents. 

Manufactures : There are in the county three cotton fac- 
tories, one flouring mill, two carriage factories, three tobacco 
factories and one woolen mill. Capital invested (estimated)? 
$200,000. Number of hands employed (estimated), 200. 

The Memphis branch of the Louisville and Nashville Rail 
road passes through the county. 

LAKE COUNTY. 

Topography, level, lying between Mississippi River on tJie 
west and Reelfoot Lake on the east. Character of soil, alluvial, 
mixed with sand. 

County seat, Tiptonville ; population, 946. Navigable 
streams, Mississippi River bounds it on the west. Other streams, 
none. Reelfoot Lake bounds it on the east. 

Timber, cottonwood, gum and cypress abundant. 

Agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, cotton, Irish 
potatoes, sweet potatoes, rye and barley. 

Religious denominations. Baptist, Methodist and Presbyterian. 

Taxes : County, twenty-five cents ; road tax, fifteen cents, and 
school tax, ten cents per $100. 

LAUDERDALE COUNTY. 

Topography : The western portion lying in the Mississippi 
bottom is level. The central and eastern portions broken. 

Character of soil, alluvial. 

County seat, Ripley ; population, 353. 

Other towns, Durhamville, Henning, Fulton and Double 
Bridges. 

Navigable streams, Big Hatchie, and on the western border, 
the Mississippi River. 

Other streams. Cold Creek and Cane Creek. 

Timber is abundant and of finest quality, including waluut, 
ash, hickory, poplar, oak, pecan, cypress, sugar, maple, gum, elm, 
sycamore and other varieties. 



140 HAND-BOOK OF TFNNEHSEK. 

Principal agricultural products, corn, wheat, oats, hay, tohac- 
co, cotton, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes and barley. 

Religious denominations, Methodist, Baptist, Cumberland 
Presbyterian, Presbyterian and Christian. 

Taxes : county tax, 40 cents per $100 ; road tax, 10 cents. 

Railroads : The Chesapeake, Ohio and Southwestern Rail- 
road passes through the county. 

MADISON COUNTY. 

The surface of the county is gently undulating, in some 
parts liilly with some broad alluvial bottoms. The soil is a 
sandy loam with clay subsoil, and is generally fertile, and has 
many fine farms and well improved homes. 

The county is well timbered with oak, poplar, hickory, ash, 
walnut, beech and various other kinds of timber. "NVat^r is 
abundant and good. 

The Forked Deer River, which flows through the county, is 
navigable for small steamers. Besides this there are many 
streams of smaller size some of which aiford very good water 
power. 

Jackson, the county seat, is a thriving little city of 5877 in- 
habitants. 

Other towns and villages are, Pinson, Medon, Carroll, Oak- 
iield. Spring Creek, Claybrook, Denmark, Harrisburg, Hun- 
tersville, Mason's Grove and Beech Grove. 

Good potter's clay and tripoli are found in the county. 
The principal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, 
cotton, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, rye and syrup. Besides 
these, fruits and vegetables are grown in great variety and 
abundance. 

Madison county has an oil mill (cotton seed) at Jackson, a 
pottery at Pinson, an ice factory at Jackstni, planing mills and a 
number of saw and grist mills. The shops of the N. O., St. T,. 
tt C. R. R., and M. & O. R. R., are located at Jackson. 

The educational institutions of the county are, the South- 
western Baptist University, the Memphis Conference Feinale 
Institute, the Medon High School and St. Mary's Institute. 

The tax for county purposes is 40 cents j)er .^100 ; school tax, 
10 cents ; and road tax, 5 cents. 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 141 

About $500,000 is invested in manufacturing, giving employ- 
ment to 500 persons. 

Two railroads pass through the county — the New Orleans, St. 
Louis and Chicago, and the Mobile and Ohio — affording abund- 
ant facilities for transportation. 

McNAIRY COUNTY. 

The county is divided by a range of uplands, running cen- 
trally through it from north to south, with an eastern and a 
western slope. These slopes are divided into small valleys by 
spurs which run out from either side of the central ridge. The 
soil of the highlands is argillacious and sandy ; that of the val- 
leys a sandy loam and very productive. Purdy is the county 
seat. Its population is 243. Adamsville, Bethel, Falcon, Mc- 
Nairy, Montezuma, Ramer, Stantonville and Chewalla are located 
in the county. 

McNairy County is well supplied with timber, consisting of 
oak, cypress, poplar, yellow pine, gum, walnut, hickory, etc. 
The county is watered with numerous creeks, among which may 
be named Cypress, Tuscumbia, Snake, White Oak, Muddy, Ox- 
ford, Owl, Huggins, Sugar, Lick and Mud creeks. ' The ma- 
jority of these streams furnish very good water power for ma- 
chinery. The Mobile and Ohio Railroad runs through the 
western half of the county. 

The principal products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, cotton, Irish 
potatoes, sweet potatoes, sorghum and rye. 

The principal religious bodies are Methodists, Cumberland 
Presbyterians, Christians and Baptists. 

There are two high schools in the oounty — one at Purdy and 
the other at Montezuma. 

County tax, 30 cents on $100 ; school tax, 20 cents ; and road 
tax, 5 cents. 

The green sand spoken of in Plendersmi Coiuify is very abun- 
dant in McNairy. 

OBION COUNTY. 

Obion County is generally level, though in some localities con- 
siderable hills are found. The soil is a dark loam, with clay 
subsoil, and very fertile. Troy, the county town, has a popula- 
tion of 341. Other towns are Union City, Rives, Kenton, 



142 IIANli-BOOK OF TlCNNnSSEi:. 

Woodluiid Mills, TTarris, Fulton, Obion, East Troy, Palestine 
and Wilsonviilc. TIh; water courses of this county arc incon- 
siderable. 

The timber of Obion County is surpassinj^ly fine, consistiiiff of 
the various kinds of oak, poplar, beech, birch, gum, sassafras, 
ash, hickory, maple, walnut, etc. 

The principal products of the county are corn, wheat, oatS' 
hay, cotton, tobacco, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, sorghum and 
rye. 

There are two colleges in the county — one at Union City and 
one at Troy. 

The religious denominations are Baptists, Methodists, Cum- 
berland Presbyterians, Presbyterians, Christians, Episcopalians, 
Lutherans and Catholics. 

Obion County has four furniture factories, four ])laning mills, 
fifty-four saw^ mills, one Avoolen mill, four flouring mills and two 
wagon factories. The capital invested in manufacturing is about 
one million dollars. 

The taxes are as follows : county tax on SlOO, 30 cents ; road 
tax, 10 cents ; school tax, 20 cents. 

Three railroads run through the county, viz: the Mobile and 
Ohio, the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis and the Mem- 
phis and Paducah. 

The number of hands engaged in manufacturing industries is 
about 1 ,500. 

SHELBY COUNTY 

Lies in the extreme southwestern portion of the State. Mem- 
phis is the county seat with a population, according to the cen- 
sus of 1 880, of 33,593. The census was taken at a time when 
the city was seriously depleted of its population in consequence 
of epidemics. Since that time many of its former inhabitants 
have returned and the population, if enumerated at this time, 
would show a very large increase. By a well-devised system of 
sewerage recently adopted, and other sanitary improvements, it 
is confidently believed that the recurrence of disastrous epidem- 
ics is rendered improbable, and that henceforth there will be 
nothing to prevent the prosperity and rapid growth of the 
city. 

Memphis is favorably located as a commercial centre and com- 
mands a large trade. Its business in groceries is said to be 
larger than that of any city in the Union with the siilgle ex- 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 143 

ception of Baltimore. As a cotton market it j^ossesses great ad- 
vantages and does an immense business. It has a good system 
of city schools besides a number of important educational insti- 
tutions. Memphis?, though more of a commercial than manu- 
facturing city, has quite a number of manufacturing establish- 
ments. The Memphis and Little Rock, the Memphis and Lou- 
isville, the Memphis and Charleston, the Mississippi and Ten- 
nessee, and Chesapeake, Ohio and Southwestern Railroads centre 
at this point, and the Mississippi washes the foot of the bluff on . 
which the city stands. 

Other towns in the county are, Bartlet, Germantown, Raleigh 
Collierville, Kerrville, Woodstock, Cuba, White Haven, Ridge- 
way, Frayser, etc. 

Wolf River and a number of smaller streams water the 
county. 

The s.nl is generally good, the principal staple grown being- 
cotton, of which Shelby county produces more than any other 
county in the LTnion with the single exception of Yazoo county, 
Mississippi. Besides cotton, all the usual products of the coun- 
try are grown, much attention being given to fruits and vegeta- 
bles. The culture of silk is also attracting attention. 

Shelby county is well supplied with schools, and has the usual 
rates of county taxation. 

In religion the people are divided am^ng all denominations. 

TIPTON COUNTY. 

To2:>ography, generally level, northeastern part somewhat 
broken. 

Character of soil, black loam with clay subsoil, small portion 
calcareous. 

County seat, Covingtoji. Population, 798. 

Other towns, Atoka, Mason, Brighton, Randolph, Mt. Zion, 
Garland and Tabernacle. 

Navigable streams. Big Hatchie. Other streams, Indian 
Creek, Mathis' Creek, Cane Creek, Town's Creek. 

Timber abundant. Oak, poplar, gum, cypress, ash, hickory, 
walnut, maple, etc. 

Minerals, limonite and buhr in small quantities. 

Principal agricultural products, corn, wheat, oats, hay, cotton, 
Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, sorghum, rye. 

Educational institutions, Covington Male Academy, Tipton 



1 14 HAND-HOOK OF TRNXESSKK. 

Female Academy, Si)jnervillt; IIifi:li ScHodI at Ml. Zioii, Portcrs- 
ville Male and Female ('ollege. 

Railroads, Chesapcakf, Ohiu and Soiitliwcstci-ii runs tliroiiph 
the county. 

Principal reli'jjious denominations, Metiiodist, Baptist, Presby- 
terian, Christian and Episcopalian. 

Taxes per SlOO, county tax, .'>0 (!cnts ; schuol tax, 10 cent!?; 
road tax, 15 cents ; railroad, or judgment tax, 81.50. 

WEAKLEY COUNTY. 

The southern and western portions of the county are level» 
while the northern and eastern portions are undulating. 

The soil is generally fertile and especially the southern and 
western sections. Very fine farming lands are however found in 
the other portions of the county. 

Dresden is the county seat and has a population of 314. 
Other towns in the county are, Greenfield, Sharon, Martin, 
Gardner, Ralston, Gleason, Palmersville, Boydsville, Dukedom 
and Middleberg. 

The county is well watered by the three branches of the Obion 
River, Spring Creek, Cypress Creek, Mud Creek and Cane 
Creek. The three Obions and Spring Creek furnish considera- 
ble water power. 

The county is abundantly timbered wuth oak, poplar, gum, cy- 
press, hickory, beech, birch, maple, etc. 

The principal agricultural products are, corn, wheat, oats, hay, 
cotton, tobacco, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, sorghum, and rye. 
The institutions of learning are Dresden High School, Masonic 
Institute at Gleason, and the Martin Academy. 

The taxes levied by the county are, joad tax, 10 cents per 
SI GO ; school tax, 10 cents ; and for county purposes, 10 cents. 

There are two stave factories in the county, with a capital of 
about S10,000. 

Two railroads pass through the county, the Nashville and 
Chattanooga and St. Louis Road, and the New Orleans, St. Louis 
and Chicago Road. 

The usual reliuious ori^anizations are found in the countv. 



WEST TENNESSEE, 



TABLE No. 1. 

Showing Total Area of each County, Quantity of Improved Land, 
' Average Value per Acre of Land in the County, Population, 
and Value of Property Assessed for Taxes. 



COUXTY. 



Benton 243,300 

Carroll 352.000 

Crockett 166,400 

Decatur 198,400 

Dyer 364,800 

Fayette .... 409,600 

Gibson 352,000 

Hardeman 380,400 

Hardin 390,400 

Haywood 364,800 

Henderson 371,200 

Henry 352,000 

Lake 124,400 

Lauderdale 262,400 

Madison 371,200 

McNairy 441,600 

Obion 1 345,600 

Perry 256,000 

Shelby.... I 441.600 

Tipton I 211,200 

Weakley ' 396,800 



Total Area 
in Acres. 



Acres 
Improved 



2S 



50,060 
128.300 

69,288 

43,537 

79,185 
201,095 
155,426 
125,462 

75,364 
142,207 

99,171 
140,908 

34,738 

61,975 
129,946 

83,255 
117,073 

37,172 
204,432 
104,023 
135,151 



$3 30 
6 62 
9 72 

3 47 
6 49 
6 43 

10 16 

5 22 

4 04 

6 80 

4 25 

5 25 
9 37 

5 36 

6 67 
3 07 
8 65 
3 12 

11 11 

7 72 

8 00 



9,780 
22,104 
14,108 

8,498 
1.5,118 
31,871 
32,685 
22.921 
14,794 
26,054 
17,429 
22,141 

3,968 
14,918 
30,874 
17,271 
22,923 

7,174 
78,433 
21,033 
24,538 



<^S 



2,802,169 
1,741,860 

746,217 
2,-508,350 
3,485,300 
4,878,675 
2,857,722 
1,468,510 
3.036,254 
1,765,200 
2,416,420 

836,200 
1,733,809 
4,299,155 
1,668,798 
3,465,007 

769,556 

18,876,626 

2,423,217 

3,076,120 



LIVE STOCK. 



TABLE No. 2. 

Showing Total Number of Live Stock in each Connti/. 



COUNTIES. 



Bentou 

Carroll 

Croulvutt. . . 
Decatur .... 

Dyer 

Fa3'ette 

Gibson 

Hardeniau. 

Hardin 

Haywood. . 
Henderson. 

Henr>' 

Lake 

Lauderdale 
Madison.... 
McNairy. ... 

Obion 

Perry 

Shelby 

Tipton .... 
Weakley..., 



HOK8E8 

AND 
MULES. 



3,188 
7,428 
4.o9(J 
2,086 

8,631 
10,44!) 
6,257 
4,700 
6.462 
5,492 
7,697 
1,518 
4,079 
7,118 
4,950 
7,545 
2,462 
10,944 
5,421 
8,. 541 



7,C36 

10,754 

7,547 

6,557 

11,412 

18,612 

1.5,580 

1.5,1.54 

10,. 507 

13,226 

11,798 

9,. 599 

3, .560 

12,324 

12,562 

12,571 

12,614 

4,806 

22,184 

12,529 

12,462 



4,438 
7,166 
3,6.54 
5 710 
4,467 
4,360 
8,851 
6,842 
8.380 
4,048 
7,678 
8, 139 
500 
2,682 
4.43a 
10,107 
6,974 
4,799 
6,463 
4.651 
6,970 



19,321 
.35.398 
23,039 
17,140 
35,265 
28,. 536 
46,221 
33,768 
29,641 
27,434 
33,180 
40,095 
11,375 
26,916 
28,64. 
2.5,247 
46,924 
16.764 
44,315 
29,945 
4.5,717 



PRODUCTION' OF CEREALS. 



TABLE No. S. 

Shoiidng the Cereal Productions of West Tennessee by Counties 



County. 



Benton 

Carroll 

Crocket 

Decatur 

Dyer 

Fayette 

Gibson 

Hardeman. . 

Hardin 

Haywood .. 
Henderson . 

Henry 

Lake 

Lauderdale. 

Madison 

McNairy . . . . 

Obion 

Perry 

Shelby 

Tipton 

Weakley .... 



5^ 



12.-) 
80 
.51 



a 












o 


03 


>, 


o 


O 


118 


562,354 


26,832 


1,018,415 


37.694 


198 


626,762 


16,171 


219 


473.924 


26,399 


68 


900,726 


37,371 


325 


1,030,505 


38,129 


316 


1,449,633 


44,282 


32.-. 


767,324 


20,807 


333 


799,739 


3.5,620 


407 


730,949 


29,299 


319 


862,249 


42,176 


1424 


1,128,660 


35,407 


961 


.536,265 


4,266 




580,797 


17,398 


55 


906,255 


31,.542 


516 


678,059 


47,5.59 


190 


1,501,881 


35, 09^ 


162 


423,461 


23,874 


565 


996,210 


72,764 


1717 


762,731 


34,096 


2or, 


1,307,873 


22,583 


467 



19,787 
88,396 
54,431 
14,911 

101,. 523 
18,004 

162.477 
23,991 
29,248 
29,278 
46,941 

124, .537 
24,293 
24,9.53 
50,918 
30,678 

230,243 
16,051 
23,437 
.56,137 

171,835 



CONCLUSION. 



The design in preparing this Hand-book is to give the Avorld 
in convenient form such information in regard to the State of 
Tennessee as Avill enable those into whose hands it may fall to 
form an intelligent idea of its resources and advantages. To 
present these fairly, so as to do justice to the State, and at the 
same time to avoid making this volume so large as to interfere 
with its general circulation, has been found to be a task of much 
difficulty. 

Doubtless, to the mere student who reads purely for the pur- 
pose of storing his mind with information, a much more attrac- 
tive book might be written upon the resources of Tennessee. 
But for the busy, active world, for men who are engaged in the 
active pursuits of life, the comprehensiveness of such a book, 
with its fullness of detail, would serve as a bar to its perusal. 
In pursuance of this view these pages will be found to contain 
simple statements of facts and conditions, and the reader will be 
left to form his own conclusions. 

Tennessee has room for many thousands of industrious and 
energetic men — farmers, mechanics, tradesmen and laborers, as 
well as professional men — who will come and identify themselves 
with the country. Such as will come may be assured of a hearty 
welcome. 

The time is propitious, for those who are seeking new homes, 
to come to Tennessee. Our fields are now teeming with the 
most bountiful crops ever grown in the State. Large invest- 
ments are being made in mining and manufacturing enterprises, 
and activity prevails in all departments of business. 

Trusting that the preceding pages may prove useful to many 
who are seeking information for practical purposes, 
I subscribe myself, respectfully, 

A. W. HAWKINS, 

Commissioner. 



CORRECTIONS. 



Page 7, line 4, for southeasterly read southwesterly. 

Page 26, 20th line, for $14.80 read $4.80. 

Page 28, 21st line, for impunity read impurity. 

Page 31, 4th line, for Dominion read Devonian. 

Page 34, 7th line, for quality read quantity. 

Page 35, 4th and 7th lines, for Dromillard read Drouillard. 

Page 38, 2d line, for ball read Bald. 

Page 47, 24th line, for Birdsing read Byrdsong. 

Page 48, 10th line, after St. Louis, read, and in Giles County 
on the Nashville and Decatur Railroad. 

Page 61, last paragraph. Since this paragraph was in type 
the entire line of this road has been completed. 

Page 75, 1st line, for W. S. Doak read G. S. W. Crawford. 

Page 76. Since this page was in type tlie State tax on prop- 
erty has been reduced to 30 cents, and other taxes proportion- 
ately reduced. 

Page 78, 14th line, for Professor McBryde read Professor 
John W. Glenn. 



APPENDIX. 



COAL LANDS ALONG THE CINCINNATI 
SOUTHERN RAILROAD- 



Dr. A. W. Haivkiiis, Commissioner of Agriculhire, Statistic sand 

Mines : 

In response to your request for a short sketch of the coal 
lands and mines along the Cincinnati Southern Eailroad, I sub- 
mit the following, and call the special attention of the reader to 
the map of Tennessee, and then to the part colored red, showing- 
coal field of Tennessee. 

Beginning at the Kentucky State line, at Chitwood Station, 
on the Cincinnati Southern Railroad, there is found a fine vein 
of coal, of about an average of 06 inches in thickness, which, as 
you come southward along the Cincinnati Southern Railroad, 
appears well at Helenwood Station. There the vein has been 
opened in numerous places on the lands of the Helenwood Coal 
Company. Their mines are three-fourths of a mile east of the 
depot. The coal is of a very superior quality, and I think not 
excelled by any along the Cincinnati Southern Railroad. Com- 
ing on south this vein of coal is found entirely east of the Cin- 
cinnati Southern Railroad, at distances ranging from a half to 
four miles, the railroad passing below the level of this coal soon 
after leaving Helenwood. 

We next come to the Coal and ]Mining- Company mines, 
located one and a half miles southeast of Glen Mary Sta- 
tion. The vein they are now working is an average of 40 inches 
in thickness, and we have never been able to determine defi- 
nitely whether or not it is the same as the Helenwood vein. As 
we come on south, the railroad is nearer the high mountains of 
the great triangle, until at Pilot Mountain, 103 miles north of 
Chattanooga, the (Glen Mary) vein is found three-fourths of a 
mile east of the railroad ; and above that vein,, about 250 feet 
below the top of the mountain, is found a fine vein of 52 inches. 
The Pilot Mountain Coal and Mining Company have secured 



154 HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 

this coal field in their purchase of 7,000 acres, and are now de-' 
veloping it for the market. 

All the coal above mentioned has proven to be equal to the 
great Coal Creek coal, so long mined and shipped all over the 
South from the mines in Anderson county, Tennessee. 

South of this point the Cincinnati Southern Railroad may be 
said to leave the upper measures above mentioned, as no more 
high mountains are found near the Cincinnati Southern Rail- 
road, except the north end of the great Crab Orchard Mountain, 
and the Pilot Mountain west of Big Emory River, opposite 
Nemo Station, and from one and a half to three miles distant, 
and in which I am satisfied the two veins mentioned in Pilot 
Mountain above will be found ; but the heavy grades and the 
crossing of the Big Emory River will deter their development 
for some time, and one other high mountain known as Lone 
Mountain, two miles from the Cincinnati Southern Railroad and 
85 miles north of Chattanooga. This mountain is being devel- 
oped Avith the expectation of finding the two veins mentioned in 
Pilot Mountain, and for the formation of a coal company. 

We next come to the section known as Walden's Ridere, the 
Cincinnati Southern Railroad running along its southeast base 
from Big Emory Gap nearly to Chattanooga, a -distance of 80 
miles. About ten miles northeast of Big Emory Gap and at the 
southeast base of Walden's Ridge is located the OaK .lale Iron 
Furnace, now doing a large business and connectea with the 
Cincinnati Southern Railroad ; and the great Winters Gap coal 
property is also connected with the Cincinnati Southern Railroad 
by a narrow gauge railroad, whole length of 22 miles. 

Next we come to Rockwood, 70 miles north of Chattanooga, 
at which place are located the coal mines and iron furnaces of 
the Roane Iron Company, which have proven to be both large 
and profitable. 

The next is the Walden's Ridge Coal Company, located seven 
miles northwest of Spring City, on the Tennessee and Sequachee 
Valley Railroad, now being completed to their mines. Their 
coal is thought to be the western outcrop of the Rockwood vein, 
and of fine quality. 

The next are the mines of the Dajrton Coal and Iron Com- 
pany, on Big Richland Creek, three miles northwest of Dayton. 
The Company is now building a standard gauge railroad from 
their mines to the Cincinnati Southern Railroad at Dayton, and 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 155 

then on to the Tennessee Kiver, a distance of about seven miles. 
They have three veins of good working coal, and are preparing 
to build two large iron furnaces on their property at Dayton. 

The next is the Soddy Coal Company, located at Rathburn 
Station, 21 miles north of Chattanooga. This company is now 
among the largest shippers of coal in the South, and like the 
Dayton Coal and Iron Company, can work three different veins. 

Next is the Daisy coal mines, at Melville Station, 17 miles 
from Chattanooga This company is not in active operation at 
present. It seems to be at the most southern point on the Cin- 
cinnati Southern Railroad for successful coal mining ; and from 
this point the Cincinnati Southern Railroad gradually bears off 
from Walden's Ridge until it is about five miles from Walden's 
Ridge at crossing of Tennessee River. 

Yours, truly, 

WALTER ALLIN. 



TENNESSEE. 



THE MINERAL WEALTH OF THE OLD VOLUNTEER 

STATE. 



Professor Colton's Address Delivered Before the Press 
Association. 



At the meeting ot the Tennessee Press Association at Bon 
Aqua Springs, Prof. Henry E. Colton, Geologist of the Bureau 
of Agriculture and Mines, was invited to address the Associa- 
tion on the mineral resources of the State, and did so in a brief 
and pointed address. By request of many of the members of 
the Association, Prof. Colton has furnished a synopsis of his 
speech, as follows : 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Association: It gives me 
pleasure at any time to meet with members of the press frater- 
nity. I am proud of the honor of having belonged to that 
brotherhood. At one time I was the youngest editor in North 
Carolina, and I have since had the honor to serve under Horace 
Greeley and Manton Marble. I have " pulled " the same old 
press that Admiral Cockburn burned in the National Intelli- 
gencer office, and I have written editorial for a paper that was 
printed on the latest style, continuous sheet, lightning press. 
But, unfortunately, gentlemen, I am not now in your honorable 
guild ; I now deal in the dead past, you in the living present, 
and it is by your aid that I can make that dead past a part of 
the living present. I hate a fossilized idea so much that I dis- 



158 HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 

like to dcnl in the fonsil of the rocks around mc. T prefer to 
handle and to hriug to li<;ht the ores which, having passed the 
refincrt^' (ire, give us the metals which furnish the iron ways of 
travel, which aid u.s in making the lightning do our bidding^ 
convey our thoughts over thousands of miles of space, and enter 
into every form of comfort, convenience and luxury of commer- 
cial or domestic life. They are the living present of geology^ 
the fossils its dead past, full of poetic interest, but valueless in a 
practical view. 

But, gentlemen, this weather is too warm for generalities, nor 
have we time here for me to enter into anything like a full 
description of the mineral wealth of the State. It is the idea 
of some that all of it has been told. There can be no gi eater 
error. Dr. Safford's Geology of Tennessee is the most perfect 
book of its size I ever saw, and he may be said to have touched 
every point of the subject, but the foundation for elaborate 
search is only laid thereby. The Geology of the State of New 
York is twenty times as large, and Pennsylvania has just issued 
sixteen volumes, any one twice as large a* Safford's, at an 
expen.se of several hundred thousand dollai-s. while Tennessee, 
with greater and more varied mineral resources than either, rests 
with an expenditure for geological work proper of not over 
$25,000. I say greater resources ; some may challenge my 
statement. It is true, we have not the anthracite coal of Penn- 
sylvania, neither has any olher part of the world so much of 
that singular and valuable fuel, but with a less area of coal 
field we have more bituminous coal than Pennsylvania. That 
State has seldonl more than one workable seam available; we 
have all over our field more than one, and over a large part of 
it there are piled up a dozen seams, eight to nine of which are 
over three feet thick. And all these are far above water level. 
We do not go down into deep shafts for our coal, but simply cut 
into the side of a hill towering far above any possibility of flood-' 
ing or need of pumps. New York has not any coal, hence we 
easily surpass her there. In iron ores we have all that either or 
both States have, and much they have not. It is true that only 
a small part of the great Alleghany magnetic ore vein is in our 
State, but just in a stone's throw over the line in North Caro- 
lina is nn immense quantity which is entirely dependent upon 
us for smelting fuel, and just now one ot' Pennsylvania's most 
wealthy iron men has finished, at great expense, a railroad, 45 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 159 

miles long in our State, to reach these ores that he may carry 
them to Pennsylvania. New York has these magnetites, but 
not in any greater abundance than exist in our Alleghany 
region. The day will come when this Western North Carolina 
region, ours by the ties of trade and topography as it is in the 
relationship of a hundred years ago, will be as famed for its 
mines of magnetic and specular iron, ores of copper, nickel, man- 
ganese and chrome as is now the Lake Superior country, and all 
of them must come to our coal to be made useful, come to our 
coal not by the long lake and rail route, part of which is frozen 
half the year, but by only a few miles of direct railroad, with- 
out any trans shipment. Gentlemen, I may have stepped over 
into North Carolina a little in this, but it all means Tennessee, 
and it is only the m.other deeding some of her wealth to the 
child. The coal of Tennessee and the vast mineral wealth of 
that Alleghany region were destyied by nature to be joined 
together, and the railroads now being built are only completing 
the banns which nature proclaimed thousands of years ago. 

I said that Tennessee's resources were greater and more varied 
than Pennsylvania or New York, and I add of any other State 
in the Union Others have more of one or another specialty, 
but she is independent in herself. She has a little;of all, and a 
great deal of the two chief elements of wealth— iron and coal. 
She may not have as much zinc or lead as Missouri, but in her 
borders are rich mines of both; no State has in the same limited 
area a greater supply of copper ore; manganese of the best 
quality is in her mountains; cobalt and nickel are known to 
exist; and while her silver and gold may be scarce, yet both 
have been found, and it can not be said of them that they do 
not exist or that their quantity is positively known. Her 
petroleum has flowed out in hundreds of barrels, yet its quantity 
is equally an unsolved problem. Neither is West Tennessee, 
the fertile land of corn and cotton, deficient in a character of 
mineral wealth. Her clays have no superior in quality nor 
quantity, and the green sands of McNaiiy may yet be as great 
a source of profit to the miner and the agriculture of the State 
as those of Freehold and Monmouth, New Jersey. Hence, gen- 
tlemen, having as much bituminous coal as Pennsylvania, which 
New York has not, having in our reach and in our own moun- 
tains as much magnetic iron ore as either of these other States, 
having other iron ore in greater quantities than either State, 



160 ND-BOOK OF tknnk,sret:. 

having copper, wliich ncitlier lias, lead and zinc, .surpassing one, 
and perhaps fully equalling the other, comparing favorably with 
them in other minerals, having the green sands and clays which 
they bring from New Jersey, am I not sustained in saying that 
Tennessee's. mineral wealth is greater and more varied than 
Pennsylvania or New York? It is for you gentlemen to aid 
me in publishing this to the world. There is no paper so insig- 
nificant but it has an influence with some one. 

Besides the greatness and variety of her ores, Tennessee has 
iron ores of a character that exists in no other part of the world 
known to geological science except immediately on her border in 
Kentucky and a small strip in Illinois. I refer to the immense 
beds of iron ore in the fields now around you. Every shore in 
this great highland region, wherever you reach a certain altitude 
above that peculiar limestone which crops out of yonder hill, 
you will find iron ore, and the higher above that limestone the 
greater is likely to be the<ieposit of ore. This ore is found in a 
formation which nowhere else has any ore except in a few lim- 
ited instances. Its position is different from any other in this 
State ; there is none in like rocks in Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania 
or New York, nor in the budding and rich State of Virginia. 
This fact has caused many to think that its quantity was small. 
If it was not in Pennsylvania why it could not be much if any- 
where else. But the same nature that has given us the piled up 
seams of coal, that has given us a half dozen distinct seams of 
red fossil iron ore, where Pennsylvania has one, that has given 
us that wonderful work, to us so common, the Middle Tennessee 
Basin, also placed ail around the rim of that basin, near Cob 
Slatter's home in Winchester as well as here in Hickman, a vast 
belt formed of a series of beds of iron ore. The belt is rudely 
torn away on the north and somewhat on the south, but its crescent 
arms reach out to wliere they once were clasped. If the geology 
of Tennessee had no other point of interest, this vast deposit of ores 
and this peculiar location would of itself be a great attraction. 
I said many have stated that they were not in quantity, others 
said that they were local. I have paid particular attention to 
both ideas. My investigations show that the quantity is beyond 
any possible computation ; that they are persistent and continu- 
ous from in Kentucky to the Alabama line; that mere outside 
show is not a positive indication of the quantity under the 
ground, and the absence of any sign of ore not a positive sign 
that it does not exist. In Lawrence County I have ridden for 



HAND-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 161 

miles where every step of my horse's feet touched ore, and I have 
ridden in Stewart a long distance where there was hardly a brown 
pebble, but a shaft or cut every now and then showed ore to 
exist beneath, and at one end of the ridge 120 tons per day were 
being mined. There is an end to everything human, but it will 
be many years beyond the lives of many of us before the ores of 
this region will cease to be found in quantity sufficient for the 
profitable manufacture of iron. 

Beyond the Tennessee River is a belt of ore which has been 
looked upon with as much suspicion by Tennesseeans as the 
Highland ores have been by foreigners. I call this the Browns- 
port belt. There is no other ore like it in Tennessee, but it is 
largely used in Pennsylvania and Virginia. It was supposed to 
be of very limited area, but my examination shows that it is 
quite extensive, reaching up into Benton and probably into Hen- 
derson counties. 

I do not propose to enter into details, but to briefly summarize 
the ores of Tennessee, coming from the magnetite and specular 
ores of the Unaka Mountains. In their foot-hills, in the Chil- 
howee Mountains and its lateral ridges, are immense deposits of 
limonite, skirting with a vast wall of almost solid ore, sometimes 
dozens of feet thick, the whole eastern side of the East Tennes- 
see Valley. Coming across this valley we cross three lines of 
red fossil ore, the seams ranging from one to ten feet in thick- 
ness, and reach to the great continuous seam at the foot of the 
Cumberland Mountains — the seam that, without an interrup- 
tion, stretches from Chattanooga to Cumberland Gap, over 165 
miles, that is from three to five feet thick and pitches down into 
the earth, no one knows how far. A shaft 100 feet deep has not 
fathomed it. Then across this mountain in the Sequatchee Val- 
ley the same ore stretches out for seventy-five miles. In Penn- 
sylvania, from a few miles of this same ore, millions of tons 
have been taken, and the seam supplies ore for many furnaces. 
How vast in comparison is our supply ! 

Coming across the mountains in the highland region of the 
foot-hills of Franklin, Coffee, Warren, White, Putnam and 
Overton, is a store-house of ore almost unknown and entirely 
undeveloped. Of the highland region and that west of the 
Tennessee I have spoken, but I have passed over the immense 
ore body of the coal measures of the Cumberland Mountains, 
because as yet and for many years, likely, it will lie unneeded 
and unused. 



162 HANP-BOOK OF TENNESSEE. 

Gentlemen, our coal is unsurpasseil in quality ; the coke from 
it is no longer an experiment; for years St. Louis and Terre 
Haute furnaces have used it with satisfaction. Our own 
furnaces show it* good qualities in their goo<l results. No 
furnaces of like construction make iron with less fuel. The 
quantity of our coal is beyond any reasonable calculation, and 
our iron ores are of equal quantity. These are the great 
elements of wealth and prosperity. We need to have these 
elements better known and better appreciated. If we would be 
respected abroad we must respect ourselves at home. Few of 
oar owTi people have any idea of the wealth of our own State. 
It is your privilege and your duty to educate them. The State 
needs a Tennessee spirit. Unfortunately diA-ided in topography, 
in soil, products and climate, there has arisen a triple interest — 
a section partyism. It should cease forever. Every cotton 
plant that fails in West Tennessee adds to the burden on the 
iliddie Tennesseean's grass or the cost of the East Tennesseean's 
coal or iron ore. Every time the yellow scourge travels through 
the streets of Memphis the wealth of other sections is 
decreased. Every brick laid for factory or forge on the banks 
of the Tennessee or the Cumberland ; every new tunnel opened 
into the dingy seams which girt the sides of the Cumberland 
Mountains : every drift cut into the brown ma.sses of the High- 
land Rim or the blood-named seams of East Tennessee, adds to 
the aggregate wealth of the whole State, and lessens the pro 
rata burden of everyone in West Tennessee. Give us your aid. 
gentlemen, then, in building up all the State, and let me urge 
you that wherever a new enterprise, be it mine or factory, wher- 
ever a new resource is noted, give it to the world through your 
columns. 2so one knoAvs where the seed sown may bring forth. 
Some one in another State sees each and every one of your 
papers who sees no o^her paper from this State. A small item 
may start an inquiry that will cause the investment of thousands 
of dollars of capital. But above all, gentlemen, it is my viev; 
that Tennesseeans should be learned to appreciate Tennessee. 
Nowhere else on earth is there purer air or bettei" water, nowhere 
a kindlier soil, one which yields more willingly to the hand of 
industry. She has every variety of climate, tree growth, soil 
and minerals. He who seeks can spend his summers amid the 
balsams of Canada or westward amid the flora of the sourthern 
tropics. Up amid the mountains of Johnson one may grow the 
cranberries and buckwheat of Northern New York, and in 



HAXD-BOOK OF TE>rXE*?EE. 163 

Shelby the orange and the rice of Florida. The grand wild 
cherry towers 'mid the high dark cones of the Unakas, and the 
magnolia grows to perfection on the banks of the Hatchie and 
Forked Deer. Xo grander scenery exists in the world than lies 
hid amid the wild fastnesses of the Unaka!s ; from no point in 
the world is there a grander view than from Lookout ; nor can 
anywhere the eye rest on a* fairer scene of agricultural beauty 
than from the western cliffs of the Cumberland ; nor do nature's 
convulsions anywhere show a more wonderfiil piec« of work than 
Reelfoot Lake. But I can not here enumerate all her advan- 
tages. Why should any one leave the State ? Has any one 
ever left it who did not wish he was back, and has any one left 
it who would not have done as well here had he used the same 
economy and worked as hard ? But some will go, and there is 
room for many thousands more than will stay, and I ask your 
aid in so bringing to light and notice every advantage and every 
resource of the State that the vacant places may be more than 
filled, so that the Kght of a hundred furnaces shall glare over 
the State, the busy hum of the spindle be heard on huiidreds of 
now idle water powers, and not a bale of cotton be sent out of 
the State : every hill and vale of ]Middle Tennessee's feirtile lands 
be strained to feed thousands of diggers of iron and coal and of 
copper, and West Tennessee reap not the least part of her reward 
in growing the cotton to clothe them and in the manufacture of 
the pottery for their use, which can not be made anywhere more 
cheaply or of better qualitv. 



TA.BLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Geography of Tennessee 5 

Mountains 5 

Rivers, Lakes, etc., 6-7 

Topography 8-10 

Geological Features 11-17 

Coal 18-26 

Iron Ores 27-3 

Copper 36-37 

Gold 38 

Zinc 39-40 

Lead 41-42 

Manganese 42 

Marble 43-47 

Building Stones, Roofing Slates, Clays, and Glass 

Sand ; 48-50 

Petroleum 51 

Timber 52-53 

Lakes, Bayous, Rivers and Creeks 54-56 

Railroads 57-63 

Agricultural Products •. 64-66 

Climate 67-69 

Live Stock 70-73 

Horses 70 

Cattle 70-71 

Hogs 71-72 

Sheep 72-73 

Poultry 73 

Bees 73 

State Polity 74-75 

Property and Taxation 76 

Public Roads 77 

Manufacturing 78 

Educational 79 

Churches 80 

Benevolent Institutions 81 



1(56 



fOXTENTS. 



J'AGK 

Ivift Tennesf'ce Statistics H^ 

Table (1) 84 

Table (2 ) 85 

Table (3) 86 

Civil Divisions 87 

East Tennessee 87 

Counties of East Tennessee 87-104 

Anderson 87-88 

Bledsoe 88 

Blount 89 

Bradley 89-90 

Campbell 90 

Carter 90-91 

Claiborne ; 92 

Cocke 91-92 

Grainger 92 

Greene 92-93 

Hamblen 93 

Hamilton 93-94 

Hancock 94-95 

Hawkins 95 

James 95-96 

Jefferson 96 

Johnson 96-97 

Knox 97-98 

Loudon 98 

Marion 98 

McMinn " 99 

Meigs 99 

Monroe 99-100 

Morgan 100 

Polk : 100-101 

Rhea 101 

Roane 101-102 

Scott 102 

Sequatchie 102 

Sevier 102-103 

Sullivan 103 

Unicoi 103 

Union 103 

Washington 104 



CONTENTS. 167 

PAGE 

Middle Tennessee 105-130 

Counties of Middle Tennessee 106-130 

Bedford 106 

Cannon 106 

Cheatham 107 

Clay 107 

Coffee 108 

Cumberland 108 

Davidson 109-110 

Dickson 110 

DeKalb '. 110-111 

Fentress Ill 

Franklin 111-112 

Giles 112 

Grundy 112-113 

Hickman 113-114 

Houston ' 114 

Humphreys 114-115 

Jackson 115 

Lawrence 115-116 

Lewis 116 

Lincoln 110-117 

Macon ^. 117 

Marshall 117-118 

Maury 118 

Montgomery 118-119 

Moore 119 

Overton 119-120 

Perry 120 

Putnam. 120 

Picket 120-121 

Robertson 121 

Rutherford 121-122 

Smith 122 

Stewart 122-123 

Sumner 123 

Ti'ousdale 123-124 

Van Buren 124 

Warren 124-125 

Wayne 125 

White 125-126 

Williamson 126 



ir.8 CONTENTS. 

PAOK 

Wilson 126-127 

Statistics of Middle Tennessee 1 28-130 

Ttible 1 128 

Table 2 ] 29 

Table 3 130 

West Tennessee 131-147 

Counties of West Tennessee 131-144 

Benton 131-132 

Carroll 132-133 

Chester 133 

Crockett • 133-134 

Decatur ' 134 

Dyer 134 

Fayette 135 

Gibson 135-136 

Hardeman 136 

Hardin 137 

Haywood 137-138 

Henderson 138 

Henry 138-139 

Lake 139 

Lauderdale 139-140 

Madison 140-141 

McNairy I4I 

Obion 141-142 

Shelby 142-143 

Tipton 143-144 

Weakley 144 

Statistics of West Tennessee 145-147 

Table 1 145 

Table 2 146 

Table 3 147 

Conclusion 149 

Corrections 150 

Appendix 151-163 

Coal Lands along the Cincinnati Southern R. R 153-155 

Mineral Wealth of Tennessee — Address 157-163 



Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



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Form L9 — 15m-10,'48(B1039)444 




UNIVERSITY of CALIFORWiA 

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LOS ANGELES 



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Tennessee* Bur- 



107 eau of agricul^ 
T2A5 turS f statistics 
1832 "ana" mines . » 



H andbook of 
Tennessee. 



HC 
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T2A5 
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