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Dr. Harold H. Punke 


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18 5 3. 


Entered, according^to Act of Congress, in the year 1853, 


In the Clerk's Office for the Southern District of New York. 


216 vvTr,r,iA.M strbkt, n. y. 







There is no book of reference more useful to all classes of readers 
than a good Gazetteer ; and such a work was, therefore, necessarily 
embraced in the plan of Putnam's Home Cyclopasdia. Sensible that 
the utility of this volume must depend entirely upon its accm-acy, the 
editor has spared no pains to attain that object, by careful revision, 
and by comparison with the best and most recent authorities. In 
fullness of nomenclature, it is believed that the work will compare 
favorably with any that has been pubhshed. By means of a well- 
considered system of abbreviation, and by mentioning only the more 
important particulars under each head, the editor has been enabled 
to give some account of more places than are enumerated in M'Cul- 
loch's and other works of greater size. The largest gazetteers pub- 
hshed in Europe, and reprinted, or in circulation in the United States, 
are exceedingly deficient, and often erroneous, respecting American 
geography. The fuUest of these foreign publications is Johnston's 
Dictionary of Geography, which has been employed as the basis of 
the present work. Since Johnston's compilation, however, new cen- 
suses have been taken in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, 
Ireland, France, Belgium, and other countries, and new places have 
sprung up into importance in California, Central Axaerica, and else- 
where. These have been duly noted, and the names of nearly all the 
townships and counties in the United States, which Johnston over- 


looked, have been incoqDorated. To make room for these improve- 
ments and additions, the names of all " the parishes of Great Britain, 
which are of little or no interest to the people of this country, have 
been omitted. In short, the editor has endeavored to make the volume 
as useful as possible to American readers. It would be unreasonable 
to suppose that there are no errors of omission and commission, but 
the general accuracy and fidelity t)f the v^ork may be relied upon. 

The editor acknowledges his obligations to the Hon. William H. 
Seward, Senator of the United States, and to his Excellency the 
French Minister, M. de Sartiges, for documentary information ; also 
to J. C. G. Kennedy, Esq., sujDerintendeiit of the census bureau in 
4ihe Department of the Interior, at Washington, for his kindness in 
permitting statistics of population, &c., to be compiled from the 
manuscript returns in his office. 

Most of the abbreviations used are so obvious that explanation is 
unnecessary, but to prevent misapprehension, a list is subjoined of all 
.those that can possibly be misunderstood. 



Affl. and Afflts. 

Affluent, or Affluents. 



Arr. and arrond. 

Arrondissement (French 




B., r. b., and 1. b. 

Right and left banks. 








Capital. , 









Ch. or chf. 





Colony, or colonial. 




Commune, or Conmnmal. 









Dist., Dists. 

District, districts. 







Emp. ^ 








Fortfd. or fortif. 





Government (Russia, 





Haut, Haute (upper). 


Hessen, as H.-Darmstadt. 







Impts. ^ 





Inferior (lower). 








Landroostei, a division of 

Hanover, &c. 
A district of Sweden, Lap- 






Left bank (of a river). 











Mkt. or Mkts. 

Market, or Markets. 















p. or Pop. 







Pashahc (Turkish pro- 


Pont, or Pontif. 



Presidency (India). 













R., rt. b. 

Right bank. 



Reg. (circ, or dist.) Regierungsbezirke (Prua- 








Sanjak (Turkish district). 












Summer. • 






TeiTitory, or territorial. 



Tribut. or tributs. 

Tributary or tributaries. 









Ciirlnpeiia nf (©tngrnpfii|. 


Aa, the name of numerous small rivers 
in different parts of Europe. 

Aalborg, a seaport of Denmark, on an 
inlet of the Kattegat. P. 7,500. It is a 
bishop's see. 

Aar, a river of Switzerland, partly 
navigable, rises in Bern, falls into the 

Aargau, a canton of Switzerland, on 
the Rhine. Area, 502 sq. m. P. 183,800 
who speak German, & are about equally 
divided into Protestants & Catholics. Chief 
towns, Aarau, Laufenberg, Oberbaden, 
& Zoffingen. 

Aarhuus, a seaport of Denmark, on 
the Kattegat. P. 8,000. It is a bishop's 

Abaco or Lucaya, the largest of the 
Bahama isls., 80 m. in length by about 
20 in breadth. P. 1,900. A natural 
perforation of the rock at its S.E. point, 
forms a landmark known as the Hole in 
the Wall. Lat. of Lighthouse, 25° 51' 30" 
N. ; Ion. 77° 10' 45" W., elev. 160 feet. 

Abadeh, a town of Persia, prov. Fars, 
110 m. N. Shiraz, to which city it sends 
fruit. P. 5,000. (■]) 

Abai, a town & harb. on the N.W. coast 
of Borneo. II. a riv. of Abyssinia, trib- 
utary of the Nile. 

Abakansk, a fortfd. town of Siberia. 
Lat. 54° N.; Ion. 91° 30' E. P. 1,000. 
Is regarded as the mildest & niost salu- 
brious spot in Siberia. 

Abalak, a town cf Siberia, on the 
Irtish, a celebrated place of pilgrimage. 

Abancay, a town of Peru. Has im- 
portant sugar refineries. 

Abano, a town of Lombardy. P. 2,600. 
Has celeb, mud baths. 

Abany, a town of Hungary, 50 m. S.E. 
Pesth. P. 7,784, comprising many Jews. 

Anq, a town of Arabia, Yemen, in a 

mountainous tract, 77 m. E. Mocha. P. 
5,000. (7) 

Abbadia, a port of Brazil, on the Aro- 
guitiba, near the Atlantic. P. 1,200. 

Abba-Jaret, a mnt. of Abys., elev. 
14,918 ft. 

Abbeville, a district of South Carolina, 
between the Savannah & Saluda rivers. 
Surface varied, well-watered, & fertUo. 

P. 32,318. II. cap. of the above dist., on 

Little river, 97 m. W. Columbia. P. 371. 

III. cap. of Henry co. Alabama, 211 

m. S.E. Tuscaloosa. P. 400. IV. a 

fortfd. town of France, dep. Somme, on 
the Railw. du Nord, & the Somme. P. 
17,035. It is well built, but dirty, with 
houses mostly of brick, some fine public 
edifices, especially the cathedral, a large 
cloth factory founded under Colbert in 
1669, & manufs. of velvet, serges, &c. 
Vessels of 150 tons come up the Somme 
to Abbeville. 

Abbiategrasso, a town of Lombardy, 
having considerable trade. P. 6,803. 

Abbitibbe, the name of a dist., riv., & 
trading-station in Brit. N. America, near 
Hudson bay. Lat. of sta. 49° N. ; Ion. 
78° 10' W. 

Abbot, a town of Piscatiquis co. Maine, 
on the Piscatiquis river, 70 m. N.E. Au- 
gusta. P. 661. 

Abensbeeg, a town of Bavaria. P. 
1,200. Napoleon defeated the Austrians 
here, 20th April, 1809. 

Aberafon, a bor. & pa. of Wales, on 
the Afouj near Swansea bay. P. 3,665. 

Aberayhon, a dist. of Cardiganshire, 
Wales. P. 13,220. 

Aberdeen, a pari. & munic. bor. & 
seaport of Scotland, between the rivers 
Don and Dee, at their entrance into the 
North sea, 90 m. N.E. Edinburgh. P. 
71,945^ The pari. bor. consists of the fol- 
lowing towns, one mile apart : Old Aber- 
deen, on the Don, here crossed by two 
stone bridges, & Neio Aberdeen, on 



the Dee. The new town is a handsome 
city, with spacious streets & houses 
built mostly of granite. A granite pier 
1500 ft. in length, & a breakwater, have 
made the harbor one of the best in this 
part of Scotl. At its entrance is Girdle- 
ness lightho., with two lights. New Aber- 
deen has flourishing manufs. & a consid- 
erable foreign & coasting trade. Exports 
estim. at from IJ mill, to 2 mill, pounds 
sterling yearly. King's College, Old 
Aberdeen, chartei-ed by papal bull in 
1494, has spacious buildgs., a librai-y of 
30,000 vols., a museum, 9 professors, & 
128 bursaries of 51. to 50Z. each. Average 
no. of students, 365. Marischal College in 
New Aberdeen, founded in 1593, has ele- 
gant new buildings, numerous professors 
& lecturers, & 106 bursaries of from 51. to 
261. Average number of students, 250. 

Aberdeenshire, a county on the E. 
coast of Scotland. Area, 1,260,800 ac. P. 
214,658. Nearly 2-3ds of surface moun- 
tainous & waste. Chf. rivs. Dee & Don. 
Large quantities of granite are shipped 
for London ; & more cattle are bred in 
this than in any other Scotch co. Exten- 
sive salmon fisheries on the coast, & in 
the Dee. Princip. manufs. woollen, cot- 
ton, & liaen goods. Chf. towns, Aberdeen, 
Peterhead, & Fraserburgh. 

Abergavenny, a town & pa. of Mon- 
mouth CO. Engl., with trade in wool & 
manufs. of flannel. P. of the town & pa. 
about 6,000. 

Abergeley, a town on the N. coast of 
Wales, resorted to for sea bathing. P. 2,661. 

Abernethy, a town of Scotland, at the 
estuary of the Tay, supposed to occupy 
the site of the ancient metropolis of the 
Picts. P. 1,920. 

Ajberystwith, a seaport of Wales, on 
Cardigan bay. Imports timber from 
America, coal & lime ; exports lead, oak- 
bark, flannel, &e., to Liverpool. P. 4,975. 
- Abimes (Les), a town of Guadeloupe. 
P. 4,597. 

Abingdon, a town of Engl., co. Berks, 
well built, and has many antique edifices. 
Princip. trades, malting, sacking & carpet 
making. P. 5,585. II. cap. of Wash- 
ington CO. Virginia, 304 m. S.W. Rich- 
mond. Here is a bank with $100,000 cap. 
P. 1,000. 

Abington, a town of Plymouth co. 
Massachusetts, 20 m. S.E. Boston. a 
bank with $100,000 cap., hardware man- 
ufs. tanneries, &c. P. 3,214. II. a 

town of Montgomery CO. Pa. P. 1,704. 

III. a town of Wyoming co. Pa. P. 1,770. 

IV. a town of Wayne co. Indiana. P. 


Ab-istada (Lake), in Afghanistan, 18 
m. in length, 8 in breadth, 44 in circ, & 
7,076 ft. above the sea. It is shallow & 

Abkasia, an Asiatic territ. subordinate 
to Russia, having S.E. Mingrelia, S. & 
W. the Black sea, & N. the Caucasus. 
Area 3,000 sq. m. P. 52,300, principally 
breeders of cattle & horses. Chf. town, 

Abo, a seaport of Russia, until 1819 cap. 
of Finland, now cap. prov., on the Aura- 
joki, near the gulf of Bothnia. Lat. 60° 
26' 58" N. ; Ion. 22° 19' E. P. 14,000, 
mostly of Swedish descent. It is an arch- 
bp's see ; & was formerly the seat of a 
University, removed to Helsingfors in 1827. 
Abo has some trade with Sweden & S. 

Abomey, cap. of Dahomey. Lat. 7° 
30' N. ; Ion. 1° 40' E. P. 24;000. (?) 

Aboukih, a vill. of Egypt, 15 m. N.E. 
Alexandria, at the W. end of Aboukir bay, 
which is celeb, for Nelson's victory over 
the French fleet, 1st August, 1798. 

Abrantes, a fortfd. town of Portugal, 
on the Tagus, 80 m. N.E. Lisbon. P. 

5,000. II. a town of Brazil, 20 m. N.E. 

Bahia, near the Atlantic. 

Abrolhos, a group of low, rocky isls. 
off the coast of Brazil. Lat. 17° 58' S. ; 
Ion. 38° 42' W. 

Abrud-Banta, a town of Transylva- 
nia. P. 4,100. 

Abruzzo, a country of Naples, forming 
the provinces of Abruzzo Citra, & Abr. 
Ultra I. & II., on the Adriatic. Area, 
5,000 sq. m. P. 788,028. M. Como, 
10,154 ft. high, the loftiest of the Apen- 
nines, is in Abruzzo Ultra. Cattle rearing 
employs most of the rural pop. It has no 
good ports. Chf. towns, Chieti, Aquila, 
Teramo, Sulmona, Lanciano, & Civita 

Abu-Arisch, a town of Arabia, cap. of 
the petty state of same name, 24 miles 
from the Red sea. P. 5,000. (?) 

Abyssinia, a country of E. Africa, ex- 
tending betw. lat. 7° 40' & 16° 40' N. ; & 
Ion. 34° 20' & 43° 20' E., bounded E. by 
Adel, N.E. by the Red sea, N.W. by 
Nubia, & S. & S.E. by the country of the 
Gallas. It forms an elevated table-land, 
& contains many fertile valleys watered 
by numerous river courses, the chief of 
which are the Abai (or Blue Nile), the 
Tacazze, & the Hawash. Ivlany of its 
rivers are lost in the sands, or only reach 
the sea during the rainy season. Lake 
Dembea or Tzana, abt. 50 m. in length, is 
the largest in the country. The highest 
mtn. range is in the S.W. table-land, 



where the peak of Abba Taret attains a 
height of 15,000 ft. The temp, of Abyss, 
is much lower than that of Nubia or 
Egypt, owing to the elevation of the soU, 
the numerous rivers, & the abundant 
summer rains. The mineral products are 
iron-ore, rock-salt, & a small quantity 
of gold. The cultivated grains are wheat, 
barley, oats, maize, rice & millet; — ^fruits, 
cotton, & coffee are also produced. All the 
wild animals indigenous to Africa, are found 
in Abyss. ; & domestic animals are reared 
in great abundance. In industry & com- 
merce the Abyssinians have made some 
progress, they uianuf. tanned skins for 
tents, shields of hide, agricultural imple- 
ments, coarse cotton & woollen cloths, & 
pottery ware. The imports include raw 
cotton, pepper, blue & red cotton cloths, 
glass, & tobacco. Abyssinia, comprised 
in the anc. Ethiopia, appears to have been 
the cradle of African civilization, but the 
present inhabs. have preserved nothing of 
their former power. For more than a 
century the empire has been divided into 
several petty states, the -chf. of which are 
Shoa, Tigre, & Amhara. Ankobar is 
the only place deserving the name of a 
town. [Massouah.] 

AcAPULco, a seaport of Mexico, on the 
Pacific, 185 m. S.S.W. Mexico. Lat. 
16° 50' N. ; Ion. 99° 52' W. P. 4,000. 
The harbor is one of the largest and best 
in the world. It formerly engrossed trade 
between Spanish colonies in America & 
those in the East ; & it is now the most 
important port of Mexico for steamers on 
the Pacific. 

AcAEt, a town of Peru, dep. Arequipa, on 
a plain 20 m. from the Pacific. P. 6,000. 

AcARNANiA, a dep. of Greece, having 
N. the gulf of Arta & a part of Albania, 
E. the deps. of Eurytania & Trichonia, S. 
.^tolia, & W. the Ionian sea. P. 25,083. 
Surface uneven, richly wooded, with seve- 
ral small lakes. Ch. riv. the Astro Pota- 
mo. Chf. towns, Vonitza & Ambrakia. 

AccoMAc, a CO. of Virginia, on the E. 
shore of Chesapeake Bay. Area, 480 sq. 

m. P. 17,890. Soil sandy, 'but fertile. ■ 

II. cap. of said co., a small village, 193 
m. E. Richmond. 

Accra, a country of Africa, on the 
Guinea coast, about lat. 5° 35' N'. ; Ion. 
0° 12' W. The British, Dutch, & Danes 
have small forts here, & claim jurisdic- 
tion over surrounding districts. 

AccRiNGTON, a town of Laneashii'e, 
England, with large cotton factories. P. 

AcERENZA, a city of Naples, & an arch- 
bishop's see. P. 2,000. 

AcERNA, a city of Naples, on the Agno. 
P. 6,300. Here is a fine cathedral. 

AcHAetTAs, a town of Venezuela. P. 

AcHAiA, a dep. of Greece, 65 m. from 
E. to W., with an average width of from 
12 to 20 m. along the S. side of the Corin- 
thian gulf The interior is mountainous, 
& the coast low, with few good ports. Chf. 
town, Patras. 

AcHEN, a town of Sumatra, near its 
N.W. extremity, cap. of an indep. kgdm. of 
same name, on a riv. near the sea. Lat. 
5° 34' N. ; Ion. 95° 34' E. It is said to 
comprise 8,000 houses. It has a limited 
trade with Singapore, Pulo-Penang, & 
Malacca. The -entrance is dangerous, & 
the port insecure. The kgdm. of Atchin 
was formerly a powerful state, now nearly 
extinct. Achen Head is the name of the 
N.W. point of Sumatra. 

AcHiLL, an isl. off the "W. coast of Ireld., 
CO. Mayo. Circumf. about 30 m. Area 
35,283 ac. P. 6,392, mostly occup. in 
fishing. At its N.E. end is a Protest, 
mission. Its W. point forms Achill head, 
2,222 feet in elev., lat. 53° 59' N. ; Ion. 
10° 12' W. Achil Beg is an isl. imme- 
diately S. the foregoing. 

AcHTYs-KA, a' town of European Russia, 
60 m. N.W. Kharkov. Has considerable 
trade, & an image of the Virgin, visited 
by many pilgrims. P. 14,205. 

Aci REAtE, aseapt. of Sicily, 7 m. J^.B. 
Catania. It is celebrated for mineral 
waters, & for the cave of Polyphemus, & 
grotto of Galatea, in its vicinity. The 
harbor is small, but trade is active, & 
there are manufs. here of linen, silk, &c. 
P. 19,800. 

AcKLiN, one of the Bahama isls., 120 
m. N.E. Cuba. 

Aconcagua, a mountain of Chile, 
23,200 ft. above the sea, & said to be the 

highest volcano in the world. II. a 

province of Chile, containing wide & fertile 
valleys, & the towns San Felipe, Santa 
Rosa, & Quillota. 

AcooNO-CooNO, a town & ■ dist.' of 
Africa, on old Calabar or Cross riv. P. 

AcQuTACKANONCK, a town of Passaic 
CO. New Jersey, at the head of sloop navi- 
gation on the Passaic riv. P. 2,483. 

AcQUAPENDENTE, a town & bishop's 
see, in the Pontif. States. P. 2,400. 

AcatTAvivA, a town of Naples, 16 m. 
S.S.W. Bari. P. 5,400. 

Acq.TJi, a walled town of Piedmont, 
much frequented for its sulphur baths. 
P. 7,800. 

Acre, or St. Jean d'Acre, a seaport 



of Syria, on a prom, at the foot of Mt. 
Carmel. Lat. 32° 55' N. ; Ion. 35° 5' B. 
P. 10,000.(7) Bonaparte attempted to 
Btorm this place in 1799, but retreated 
after a siege of 61 days. It was taken by 
IbraMm Pasha in 1832, & again by the 
comb. Engl. & Austr. squadrons in 1840. 
The bay of Acre is much frequented by 
French, Italian, & Austrian vessels. 

AcEi, a town of Naples, 15 m. N.E. 
Cosenza. P. 7,861. 

Acs, a town of Hungary, 6 m. S.W. 
Komorn. P. 3,237, employed in rearing 
sheep. Battle here July 16, 1849. 

AcT.s:oN Islands, a group of 3 low 
■wooded islands in the Pacific ocean, dis- 
covered 1837 ; centre isl. lat. 43° 34' S. ; 
Ion. 146° 59' W. 

Acton, a town of York co. Maine. P. 
1,401. II. a town of Windham co. Ver- 
mont. P. 170. III. a town of Middle- 
sex CO. Massachusetts, incorporated in 
1735. P. 1,121. 

AcTOPAN, a town of Mexico, 65 m. 
N.N.E. Mexico. P. 2,800. Trade in tallow, 
sheep & goat-skins. 

AcuL, a seaport of Hayti, N. coast, 
10 m. W. Cape Franjiais. Lat. 19° 47' N. ; 
Ion. 72° 27' W. 

AcwORTH, a town of Sullivan co. New 
Hampshire, incorp. in 1712. P. 1,450. 

Adair, a co. in S. part of Kentucky, 
drained by Green river & branches. 
Soil fertile. Cap. Columbia. Area, 440 

sq. m. P. 9,898. II. a co. in N. part 

of Missouri, drained by Chariton river. 
Cap. Hopkinsville. Area, 567 sq. m. P. 

Adams (Cape), at the mouth of the 
Columbia riv. Oregon. It is ]ow& thinly 
wooded. A sand bar, which during high 
winds is covered by dangerous breakers, 
runs from this point to within a mile of 
Cape Disappointment, 7 m. distant. The 
sloop of war Peacock of the TJ. S. Explor- 
ing Expedition was lost near here, IBth 
July, 1841. 

Adams, a co. in S. part of Pennsylvania. 
Soil fertile. Cap. Gettysburg. Area, 

528 sq.m. P. 25,981. II. a co. in W. 

part of Mississippi. Soil hilly, but fer- 
tile. Cap. Natchez. Area, 440 sq. m. 

P. 18,622. III. a CO. in S. part of Ohio. 

Surface varied, with veins of iron ore. 
Cap. TVest Union. Area, 550 sq. m. P. 

18,883. IV. a co. in E. part of Indiana. 

Drained by the Wabash & St. Mary rivs. 
Cap. Decatur. Area, 336 sq. m. P. 

5,797. V. a co. in W. part of Illinois. 

Cap. Quincy. Area, 768 sq. m. P. 

26,503. VI. a CO. of Wisconsin. P. 187. 

VII. North & South, two villages 5 

or 6 ms. apart, in Berkshire co. Massa- 
chusetts. The Hoosack river supplies 
water power for numerous cotton fac- 
tories. The Adams Bank has a cap. of 
$250,000. Graylock, the higl^pst peak 
of Saddleback mountain in this town- 
ship, is 3,600 ft. above the sea. There 
is a curious natural bridge here worn 
out of the lime-stone rock by a branch of 
the Hoosack riv. P. of the township, 

3,703. VIII. a town of Jefferson co. 

New York. P. 2,966. IX. a town of 

Coshoctin co. Ohio. P. 838. X. a 

town of Guernsey co. Ohio, on the Na- 
tional road. P. 867. XI. a town of 

Seneca co. Ohio. P. 1,250. There are 
also small towns of this name in Henry, 
Allen, Monroe, Muskingum, Dark, & 
Champaign cos. Ohio, Hillsdale co. Michi- 
gaji, & Decatur & Hamilton cos. Indiana. 

Adam's Peak, a mountain in the 
central part of Ceylon. Height, 7,420 ft. 

Adana, a pash. of Asiat. Turkey, hav- 
ing on the N. Karamania, B. the pash. 
of Marash, W. Anatolia, & S. the Medi- 
terranean. II. capital of Adana, on 

the Sihoon riv., 30 m. from the sea. P. 
10,000. Well built & has trade in wool, 
corn, fruit, &c. 

Adare, a decayed town of Ireland, 10 
m. S.W. Limerick. P. 1,095. 

Adda, a riv. which rises in N. Italy, 
flows through lakes Como & Lecco, & 
after a course of 80 ms., joins the Po, 
near Cremona. II. a Danish settle- 
ment on the Guinea coast. 

Addison, a co. of Vermont, on Lake 
Champlain. Soil fertile along the lake, 
& elsewhere adapted to grazing. Cap. 
Middlebury, near which is a quarry of 
fine marble. Area, 700 sq. m. P. 26,549. 

II. a town in said co., settled in 1770, 

on the lake op. Crown Point. P. 1,232. 

III. a town of Steuben eo. New 

York, on Canister areek. which is here 

navigable for boats. P. 1,920. IV. a 

town of Washington co. Maine. P. 1,053. 
V. a town of Somerset co. Pennsyl- 
vania, on the Yonghiogheny riv. P. 

1,301. VI. a town of Gallia co. Ohio, 

on the Ohio riv. P. 692. VII. a town 

of Oakland co, Michigan. P. 537. 

Adeghem, a vill. of Belgium. P. 3,534. 

Adel, a country of Africa, extending 
along its N.E. coast from Abyssinia to 
Cape Guardafui. P. Mohammedan, & 
subordinate to an Imam. It is marshy 
& unhealthy, but exports wax, myrrh, 
ivory, gold dust, & cattle. Chf ports, 
Zeila, & Berbera. 

Adelaide, the cap. of South Australia, 
on the Torrens riv., near its mouth in 



Gulf St. Vincent. Lat. 34° 55' S. ; Ion. 
138° 28' E. P. (1849) 8,000. It stands 
on rising ground, backed by woods, & is 
divided by the Torrens into S. &, N. Ade- 
laide ; was founded in 1836. All the 
trade of the colony centres here. The 
harbor is safe, accommodating ships of 
600 tons. 

Adelaide Island, the W.-most of a 
chain of isls. off the S.W. coast of Pata- 
gonia. Lat. 67° S. ; Ion. 68° W. 

Adblie, a tract of barren land in the 
Antarctic ocean. Lat. 66° 30' S. ; Ion. 
136° to 142° E., discovered by D'Urville 
in 1840. 

Adelsberg, a town of Illyria, 22 m. 
N.E. Triest. P. 1,500. Celeb, for its 
stalactite caves. 

Ademuz, a town of Spain, 62 m. N.W. 
Valencia. P. 3,033. 

Aden, a seaport of Arabia, which 
since 1839 has belonged to the British, 
on the E. side of Cape Aden. Lat. 12° 
46' 15" N. ; Ion. 45° 10' 20" E. P. 39,- 
938. Its fortifications are greatly im- 
proved ; & it will probably become the 
Gibraltar of this part of the Bast. Aden 
is well supplied with water, and before 
the rise of Mocha, was the chief trading 
port of Arabia. It is now a station of 
the steam-boat passage to India, <fc has 
a magnetic observatory. 

Aderno, a town of Sicily, at the S.E. 
foot of Mount Etna. P. 14,000. 

Adige, a riv. of JN. Italy, formed by. 
streamlets, from the Helvetian Alps, which 
unite at Glurns, where it takes the name 
of Etsch. Near Bolsano, it is called the 
Adige, & receiving the Eisach, becomes 
navigable. It enters the Gulf of Venice 
after a course of 220 m. 

Admiralty (Island), off the coast of 
Russian America. Lat. 58° N. ; Ion. 134° 
W., 90 m. long & 25 m. broad. {Isl- 
ands,) a cluster of small isls. in the 
Pacific, N.E. of Papua. Lat. 2° S. ; Ion. 
147° W 52" E. {InleQ in Terra del 

Adony, a town of Hungary, on the 
Danube, 28 m. S. Pesth. P. 3,180. 

Adorf, the S.-most town of Saxony, on 
the Elster. P. 2,800. 

Adour, a riv. of France ; rises in the 
Pyrenees, near Bareges, becomes navi- 
gable, & after a course of 95 m. falls into 
the Bay of Biscay, N. Bayonne. 

Adowa, a town of Abyssinia. P. 8,000. 
It is the chief entrepot of trade between 
Tigre & the coast. 

Adpar, a town of "Wales, co. Cardigan. 
P. 1,619. 

Adha, a seaport of Spain, on the Medi- 

terr. P. 7,400, chiefly employed in ex- 
tensive lead mines in the vicinity. , 

Adramyti, a seaport of Asia Minor, 
S3 m. N. Smyrna. P. 5,000. Exports, 
olives, wool & galls. 

Adria, a town of Lombardy, between 
the Po & Adige. P. 10,400. It was 
anciently a seaport of such importance 
as to give its name to the Adriatic sea, 
from which it is now 14 m. distant, & 
its port is quite obliterated. 

Adbiampatam, a marit. town of Brit. 
India, presid. Madras. 

Adrian, cap. of Lenawee co. Michi- 
gan, 67 m. Detroit. It is one of the 
most flourishing towns in the state. P. 
3,006. A railroad from this place to 
Toledo was opened in 1836. 

Adrianople, a city of Europ. Turkey, 
prov. Rumelia, on the Tundja riv., 137 
m. N.W. Constantinople. P. 100,000. It 
possesses important manufs. of silks, 
woollens & linens, has celeb, dye works 
& tanneries, & an active commerce 
in manufr. goods, & the products of a 
fertile district. The chf. outlet for this 
commerce is the port of Enos, which was 
taken by the Russians 20th August, 1829. 
Adrianople was the cap. of the Ottoman 
Emp. from 1366 to 1453. 

Adriatic Sea, is that part of the 
Medit. which extends from the S.E. at lat. 
40° to the N.W. at lat. 45° 46' N. be- 
tween the coasts of Italy, Illyria, & 
Albania. It takes its name from the 
city of Adria, & forms on the W. the 
gulf of Manfredonia, on the coast of the 
kingdom of Naples. The N.W. part 
bears the name of the gulf of Venice. 
On the E. side are the gulfs of Triest, 
Eiume, & Cattaro, on the coast of Aus- 
tria, and of Drino in Albania. The wa- 
ter of this sea contains more salt than 
that of the ocean, & the influence of 
the tides is little felt. Its greatest depth 
is only 22 fathoms ; greatest length, from 
Cape Leuca to Trieste, 450 m. ; main 
breadth, 90 m. 

Adur, a small river of England ; falls 
into the Eng. channel at Shoreham. 

Adventure Bay, is near the S. ex- 
tremity of Van Diemen's Land, lat. 43° 
20' S., & Ion. 147° 30' E. 

^gades, a group of small isls. off the 
"W. coast of Sicily. 

. ^gean Sea. (See Archipelago, Gre- 

^gina, a small island of Greece, in 
an inlet between Attica & the Morea. 
P. 5,000. Its port, of same name, has 
an active trade. 

Aelteee, a vill. of Belgium, on tho 




railw. from Ghent to Bruges. P. witli 
comm. 5,964. 

Aeboe, an isl. of Denmark, duchy 
Schleswig, in the Baltic, 14 m. in length 
by 5 m. in breadth. P. 10,200. Chief 
towns, Aeroeskiobing & Marstal. 

Aesschot, a town of Belgium, 23 m. 
N.B. Brussels. P. 3,895. 

Aertsycke, a vill. of Belgium, 8 m. 
S.W. Bruges. P. 3,185. 

Aerzeele, a vill. of Belgium, 15 m. 
N.E. Courtrai. P. 3,558. 

Aerzen, a town of Hanover, with 
powder works. P. 1,000. 

^TOLiA, a govt, of Greece, on the 
continent, cap. Missolonghi. P. (1840) 
25,144. It is mostly mntnous,but along 
the Corinthian gulf, barley, rye & olives 
are raised. Chf. river the Phidaris. 

Affoltern, a vill. of Switzrl., 8 m. 
S.W. Zurich. P. 1,794. There are other 
vills. of same name in the cants. Zurich 
and Bern. 

AFFRiatTE (St.), a town of France, dep. 
Aveyron on the Sorgue. P. (1846) 4,811. 

Afghanistan, an inland country of 
Asia, lying betw. lat. 28° 50' & 36° 30' 
N., & Ion. 62° & 72° 30' E., having E 
the Punjab, S. Bwhalpoor, Sinde & 
Beloochistan, W. the Persian dom., & 
N. Indep. Turkestan (Balkh, Koondooz, 
Kafirstan), from which it is separated by 
the Hindoo Koosh & its prolongations. 
Area estim. at 225,000 sq. m., & the 
p. at about 5,000,000. Pour fifths of the 
country consist of rocks & mntns. Chief 
rivs. the Cabool, Helmund, Gomul, Lora, 
&c. ; but none is of great size. In the 
low lands, rice, cotton, the sugar-cane, 
millet, maize, & turmeric, are raised. 
In the uplands the timber-trees, herbs, 
& fruits of Europe, grow wild; & wheat, 
barley, beans, turnips, mustard, & arti- 
ficial grasses, are cultivated. Gold, sil- 
ver, mercury, iron, lead, copper, antimo- 
ny, coal, sulphur, & naphtha are met 
with. Arts & husbandry are in a very 
low condition. Imports, coarse cottons, 
indigo, muslins, silks, & brocade, ivory, 
wax, sandal-wood, sugar & spices from 
India ; horses, gold & silver, cochineal, 
& broad cloth from Turkestan : cutlery, 
hardware, & other European goods ; 
silks, cottons, embroidery, & chintz from 
Persia ; slaves from Arabia & Abyssinia ; 
silks, tea, porcelain, dyes, & precious 
metals overland from China ; & dates k 
cocoa-nuts from Beloochistan. Altogeth- 
er the imports may amount to 500,000Z. 
a year. The exports consist of madder, 
assafoetida, tobacco, fruits & horses, with 
furSj shawls & chintz to India ; shawls, 

turbans, indigo, & other Indian produce 
to Turkestan ; & the same articles, with 
Herat carpets, to Persia. Transit trade 
is wholly conducted by means of camels 
& horses, wheeled vehicles being imprac- 
ticable. The Afghans are divided into 
numerous tribes or clans, the most noted 
of which are the Dooraunees, Eusfozyees, 
Ghiljies, & Lahonees; the last named 
being the princip. traders, & the first the 
tribe in which the monarchy has long 
been hereditary. The country is subdiv. 
into the principalities of Cabool, Canda- 
har, & Herat. Chf. cities Cabool, Can- 
dahar, Herat, Peshawer. Jelalabad, & 

Afium-Kara-Hissab, a city of Asia 
Minor, in Anatolia, 50 m. S.S.E . Kutaiah. 
P. 60,000. (?) It is well built, & has a 
large trade in opium, grown near it, 
whence its name. 

Afragola, a town of Naples. P. 13,000. 
With extensive manufs. of hats. 

Africa, one of the great divisions of 
the globe, bounded N. by the Mediter- 
ranean, E. by the Bed sea & the In- 
dian ocean, S. by the Southern ocean, 
& "W. by the Atlantic. Africa forms an 
immense peninsula, joined to Asia by the 
isthmus of Suez, & extending from Ras- 
el-Krun, lat. 37° 20' N., to Cape Agul- 
has, lat. 34° 50' S., about 5,000 m. ; & 
from Cape Guardafui, Ion. 51° 22' E., to 
Cape Verde, Ion. 17° 32' W., nearly an 
equal distance. Area estim. at 12,000,000 
sq. m. P. 60,000,000. (?) The principal 
indentations of coast of Africa, are the 
gulfs of Sidra & Cabes on the N. in the 
Mediterranean, the gulf of Guinea on 
the W. in the Atlantic, & the Arabian 
gulf or Red sea on the N.E. in the In- 
dian ocean. The isls. of Africa consist 
of 14 principal groups, of which there are 
in the Atlantic ocean, the Azores, the 
Madeira, & Canary isls., the Cape Verds, 
the isls. of the gulf of Guinea, St. Ma- 
thew. Ascension, & St. Helena. In the 
Indian ocean, the isls. of Socotra, the 
Seychelles, Zanguibar, the Comoro isls., 
Madagascar, & the Mascarene isls. The 
most prominent capes, are Bon, Blanco, 
Ceuta, & Serrat on the N. ; Blanco, 
Verde, Rouge, Palmas, 3 Points, Lopez, 
& Negro on the W. The C. of Good Hope 
& C. Agulhas on the S. ; & Capes Delgado 
& Guardafui on the E. Africa appears 
to consist of a series of terraces gradu- 
ally rising from the coast to the interior, 
forming extensive plains & elevated 
table-lands. The best known of its mnt. 
systems are the range of Mt. Atlas in 
the N.W., extending, with its branches 



from lat. 27° to 32° N. ; & attaining, iii 
some of its peaks, an elevation of more 
than 12,000 feet. The Mts. of Kong betw. 
Nigritia & N. Guinea, to the E. of which 
extend the Komri or Mts. of the Moon, 
the existence & extreme elevation of 
which, are inferred from the great rivs. 
to which they give rise, although they 
have not been visited by Europeans ; the 
Mts. of Lupata in the S.E. of Africa, 
those of Madagascar in the isl. of the 
same name, & the Mts. of Abyssinia in 
the N.E. The princip. rivs. of Africa, 
are the Nile, the Senegal, Gambia, 
Niger or Joliba-Quorra, the Zaire, the 
Orange, the Zambeze, & the Jubb. The 
only known lakes of importance, are L. 
Tchad, L. Dembea or Tzana, & L. Lou- 
dieh. OfL. Nyassi, in lat. 8° S.; Ion. 
30° E., little is known except its great 
size. Owing to the position of Africa, 
the greater part of it being within the 
torrid zone, & the great extent of its 
arid plains, its climate is excessive, & its 
temp, higher than that of any other con- 
tinent. The great characteristic feature 
of Africa, is the Sahara, an immense des- 
ert region stretching across the N. por- 
tion of the continent, betw. the Atlantic 
& the Red sea, composed of burning 
plains covered with shifting sands, or arid 
rocks, interspersed occasionally with fer- 
tile oases. The mineral riches of Africa 
are little known, but supposed to be very 
iHiportant. Gold dust is found in most 
of the rivers ; diamonds have recently 
been gathered in Algeria ; salt occurs in 
many parts of the continent and in the 
islands. Iron, copper, silver, lead, & 
tin are also among its products, & in- 
dications of coal have recently been ob- 
served. Africa presents the most striking 
contrasts in its vegetable productions ; 
in the vicinity of arid deserts, there are 
countries covered with the richest ver- 
dure ; wherever the land is sufficiently 
watered, as on the banks of rivers, & on 
the declivities of mntns., vegetation is 
characterized by the utmost vigor & 
magnificence. Among its vegetable pro- 
ducts, are the baobab, one of the giants 
of the vegetable world ; a species of teak 
or oak valuable for building ; the cocoa- 
nut tree, the date, the palm, orange, cit- 
ron, olive, the papyrus, & nums. dye- 
woods, the coiFee-tree. sugar-cane, cotton 
& indigo. The fauna of Africa is still 
very imperfectly known ; it comprises 
the chimpanzee, a species of monkey, 
which most resembles man ; the ele- 
phant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, zebra, 
giraffe, buffalo ; the lion, leopard, pan- 

ther, the wolf, fox, jackall, hyena, ante- 
lopes, & bears. The chief domestic ani- 
mals, are the camel, horse, buffalo, ox, 
sheep, goats, & dogs. Among the birds 
of Africa may be noticed the ostrich, 
eagles, vultures, hawks, owls, cuckoos, & 
sun-birds. The commerce of the interior 
of Africa is conducted by means of cara- 
vans, & consists chiefly in gold-dust, 
copper, ivory, coral, gums, dye-wood, 
dates, & indigo, which are exchanged 
for European goods by traders who visit 
the coasts. Africa has long been the 
principal market for the supply of slaves 
to the European colonies. It is calcu- 
lated that 200,000 Africans are annually 
sold as slaves. From 1831 to 1841 inclu- 
sive, 150 vessels, with crews amounting 
to 12,501, were employed on the W. coast 
of Africa, in the suppression of this infa- 
mous trade ; 327 slavers were taken with 
52,188 slaves, at a cost of 1,628,812Z., or 
311. 4s. 6d. for each slave. The inhabi- 
tants of Africa comprise many varieties 
of the human species ; the most remark- 
able & best known of these are the Hot- 
tentots & Caffres in the S. ; the Negro 
races on the S.W., & in the interior ; the 
Moors on the N. ; the Caucasian races 
in Abyssinia, & the Copts of Egypt. 
FSticism, a degraded superstition, is the 
religion of the greater number of the 
inhabs., being professed by nearly all the 
negroes, & the natives of Madagascar. 
A corrupt form of the Christian religion 
is professed in Abyssinia & part of 
Egypt, & Mohammedanism prevails in 
all the other regions. Africa is usually 
divided into the following countries : — 
N. Egypt & Barbary, Tripoli, Tunis. Al- 
giers, & Morocco, S. of Barbary, the des- 
ert of Sahara, with the oases of Fezzan, 
Dar-fur, & Kordofan ; on the W. Sene- 
gambia & Guinea; on the S. the Cape 
Colony, Cafifraria, & the Hottentot coun- 
try ; on the E. Nubia, Abyssinia, Adel, 
Zanguebar, Mozambique, & Sofala ; & in 
the centre, Soudan. A notice of each of 
these will be found under their proper 
heads. The English, French, Portu- 
guese, Spaniards, Danes, Dutch, &Amer- 
icans, have colonial establishments in 

African Islands, a group of low 
islets in the Indian ocean. Lat. of N.- 
mostisl., 4° 55' 30" S. ; Ion. 53° 33' B. 

Afrikeah, a seaport of Tunis, near 
Cape Afrikeah, on the Mediterranean. 
P. 3,000. 

Agably, a town of Africa, on the route 
from Tripoli to Timbuctoo. Lat. 26° 40' 
N. ; Ion. 0° 58' E. It is a station where 




the mercliants of Morocco meet with 
those of Tripoli, Tunis, & Fezzan. 

Agades, a large city of Africa, cap. 
kgdm. Asben, in an oasis of the Sahara. 
Lat. 18° 10' N.; Ion. 13° E. Here the 
merchants of Soudan meet at stated pe- 
riods those of the N. African states. 

Agadik, the most S. seaport of Mo- 
rocco, on the Atlantic. Lat. 30° 26' 35'' 
N. ; Ion. 9° 35' 56" E. P. feOO. (?) It 
has a large & safe harbor. 

Agana, cap. of Guam, one of the La- 
drones, on its W. coast. P. 3,000. It is 
the resid. of a Spanish governor. 

Agata (St.), a small town, Piedmont. 

P. 4,170. II. a town of Naples, with 

rems. of mag. amphitheatre & ruins of 

ancient Minturno. P. 6,800. -III. 

Nuova, a town of Naples, with cotton mills. 
P. 2,170. 

Agde, a town of France, on the Herault 
riv., 2 m. from the Mediterr. & 30 m. S.W. 
Montpellier. P. 8,884. It has an active 
coasting trade. 

Agen, a town of France, on the Ga- 
ronne, 73 m. S.E. Bordeaux. P. 15,517. 
It is an entrepot for trade betw. Bor- 
deaux: & Toulouse. 

Agger, a natural canal, formed betw. 
the Lymfiord & the North sea, in Denmark, 
during a storm in 1825. 

Aggersoe, a small isl. in the Great 
Belt. P. 700. 

Aggershuus, a prov. of Norway ; cap. 
Christiana. P. 567,833. It is the most 
important prov. in the kgdm. for agricul- 
ture, mines & commerce. 

Aghmat, a fortfd. town of Morocco, on 
the N. declivity of Mt. Atlas. P. 6,000, of 
whom 1,000 are Jews. 

Agincourt, a vill. of France, dep. Pas 
de Calais, near which on 25th Oct. 1415, 
the English won a celeb, victory over the 

Aglie, a town of Piedmont. P. 4,300. 
It has a royal palace, &c. 

Agnes (St.), a town of England, co. 
Cornwall, on the Bristol channel. P. 7,757. 
The harbor can only be entered at high 
■water. St. Agnes' s Beacon in the vicinity 
rises to the height of 664 ft. 

Agnone, a town of Naples, said to pro- 
duce the best copper wares in the kgdm. 
P. 7,460. 

Agon, a small seaport of France, on the 
N. coast opposite Jersey. P. 1,561. 

Agordo, a town of Lombardy, with rich 
copper mines. P. 3,500. 

Agosta, a fortfd. city of Sicily, on a 
peninsula, 14 m. N. Syracuse. P. 14,000. 
It is we^ll laid out & has a safe harbor. 
Exports, salt, oil, wines & honey. 

Agra, a district of Brit. India. Area, 
45,000 sq. m. P. 7,000,000. It is mostly 
a level plain, watered by the rivs. Jumna, 
Ganges & Chumbul. Wheat & barley 
are the common grains, of which there are 
two harvests in the year. The soil being 
too dry to grow rice, millet & pulse form 
the chief food of the people. Agra, the 
cap. of the district, is a fortfd. city of great 
extent, on the Jumna, 115 m. S.S.E. 
Delhi. P. 95,250. A considerable trade 
is carried on with the W. provs. & Persia. 
From 1504 to 1647, Agra was the seat of 
the Mohammedan emp. in India. It was 
taken by the British 17th Oct. 1803. 

Agrakhan, a cape in the Caspian sea, 
Russian territ., lat. 43° 40' N. ; Ion. 48° 
10' E., with a bay of same name on its N. 

Agram, a city of Croatia, near the Save, 
160 m. S.S.W. Vienna. P. 14,300. It js 
the resid. of the Ban, & seat of the sup. 
courts of Croatia, Slavonia, & the Banat. 

Agramunt, a town of Spain, Catalonia. 
P. 2,680. It has a cathed. 

A&reda, a town of Spain, Old Castile. 

P. 3,847. II. a town of New Granada, 

with gold mines. 

Agreve (St.), a town of France, dep. 
Ardeche. 2,485. 

Agua, Volcan de, a mntn. of Centr. 
America, state & 25 m. S.W. Guatemala, 
its crater is 15,000 ft. above the sea. 

Aguadilla, a seaport of Porio Rico, on 
its N.W. coast, 65 m. W. San Juan. P. 
2,500. (7) The anchorage is good. 

Aguano, Lake, 3 m. W. Naples, occu- 
pies the crater of an extinct volcano, J m. 
in diam. 

Aguas Calientes, a town of Mexico, 
N.E. Guadalaxara. P. 7,000. It is a hand- 
some toivn, with a cloth manufactory, & a 
considerable trade. It has hot springs in 
its vicinity. 

Agctilar de la Frontera, a town of 
Spain, 22 m. S.S.E. Cordova, remarkable 
for the salubrity of its atmosphere. P. 

Aguilas, a town of Spain, on the Medi- 
terr., 37 m. S.W. Cartagena, with a small 
but secure port ; resid. of vice-consuls of 
Engld., France, & Portugal. P. 4,832. 

Ahiolo, a seaport of European Turkey, 
on the Black sea, 48 m. S.S.W. Varna. 
It has some trade in salt. 

Ahlen, a town of Prussian Westphalia. 
P. 2,750, with distilleries, oil mills, & linen 

Ahlfeld or Alfeld, a town of Han- 
over, landr. Hildesheim, on the Leine & 
Warne, 27 m. S. Hanover. P. 2,370. 

Ahmed AB AD, a dist. of British India, 




presid. Bombay, at the head of Cambay 
gulf. Area, 4,072 sq. m. P. 528,073. 
Ahmedabad, cap. above distr., on the Sa- 
bermatty, 120 m. .N.N.W., Surat. P. 
estim. at 100,000. Here are the head- 
quarters of the N. div. of the Bainbay 

Ahmednuggur, a distr. of Brit. India, 
presid. Bombay. Area, 9,910 sq. m. P. 
667,376. Akmednus^gur, a city & fort, 
cap. above dist., on the Seena, 64 m. jST.E. 
Poonah. P. 20,000. (?) It was taken by 
the British Aug. 12, 1803. 

Ahmedpoor, the name of several towns 
in Hindostan, the largest of which is 
in the Bhawlpoor. P. 20,000. 

Ahrweiler, a walled town of Prussia. 
P. 2,600. 
, Ahun, a town of France, dep. Creuse. 
P. 2,212. In its vicinity are extensive 
coal mines. 

Ahus, a vill. of Sweden, on the Baltic, 
9 m. S.E. Chrislianstadt, of which it is 
the port, having a good harbor at the 
mouth of the Helgeo. 

Aidone, a town of Sicily, 35 m. S.W. 
. Catania. P. 3,800. 

AiGNAN (St.), a town of France, dep. 

Loire et Cher. P. 3,146. II. Sur- 

Roe {St.), dep. Mayenne. P. 574. 

AiGyEBELLE, a town of Savoy. P. 
1, 150. Celeb, for the victory of the French 
& Spanish over the troops of Savoy, 1742. 
Near it begins the road constructed- by 
Napoleon over Mt. Cenis. 

AiGUEPERSE, a town of France, dep. 
Puy de Dome; with manufs. of linen, & 
mineral springs. P. 2,671. 

AiGUES-MoRTES, a town of France, dep. 
Gard, with considerable trade in fish. It 
is 3 m. from the Mediterr. P. 3,965. 

AiGUEs-ViVES, a vill. of France, dep. 
Gard, with large distilleries of brandy. 
P. 1,687. 

, AiGuiLLON, a town of France, at the 
•junction of the rivs. Lot & Garonne. P. 

AiLSA Craig, an insulated rock of co- 
lumnar basalt at the entrance of the firth 
of Clyde, Scotland, rising to the height of 
1,000 ft. 

AiN, a frontier dep. in the B. of 
France. Area, 584,822 heot. P. 372,939. 
On the E. it is mountainous, & in the S. 
& W. marshy. The Pihone bounds it on 
the S., the Saone on the W., and the Ain 
traverses its centre. Climate temperate. 
Minerals, iron, asphaltum & lithog. stones. 
Products, corn, cattle, timber & wine. 
Chf towns, Bourg, Belley, Gex, Nantua 
& Trevoux. 

AiNTAB, a town of Asiat. Turkey, on 


the S. slope of Mt. Taurus, 60 m. N.N.E. 
Aleppo. P. 20,000. It has large bazaars, 
manufs. of goat skins, cotton & woollen 
cloths, & trade in hides, tobacco & honey. 
Here is an American missionary station. 

Airaines, a town of France, dep. 
Somme, with important manufs. of vegeta- 
ble oils. P. 2,080. 

AiHDHiE, a town of Scotland, co. Lanark. 
P. 16,000. It is well built, & lighted with 
gas ; its rapid growth is owing to iron & 
coal in its vicinity, & to its proximity to 
Glasgow, in the manufs. of which city its 
weavers are employed. 

Aire, a fortfd. town of France, dep. 
Pas de Calais. P. 9,591. It has bar- 
racks for 6,000 men, & manufs. of woollen 

stuffs, hats, soap, &c. II. a town of 

France, dep. Landes. P. 4,667. It is a 
bishop's see. 

Airola, a town of Naples, 23 m. N.E. 
N.aples. P. 4,260. 

AiRoi-o, a vill. of Switzerl., cant. Tes- 
sin. P. 1,850. This was the scene of a 
sanguinary battle betw. the Russians & 
French, 13th Sept, 1799. 

AisNB, a dep. in the N. of France. Area, 
7,285 kil. P. (1851) 558,989. Temp, 
cold & humid. Surface flat, soil fertile, 
agriculture good, & a surplus of corn & 
live stock is produced. Chf. rivs. Marne, 
Oise & Aisne, all navigable. Manufs. 
cotton & linen goods, shawls, mirrors, 
bottles, iron wares, beet-root sugar, <fc 
chemical products. Princip. towns, Laon, 
St. Quentin, Soissons, Chateau-Thierry, 
& Vervins. 

AiTHSTiNG, a marit. pa. of Shetland 
mainland, united with Sandsting. P. 
2,478. The bay of Aith affords good 

Aix, a city of France, dep. Bouches- 
du-Rhone, 17 m. N. Marseilles. P. 27,- 
715. It still retains its feudal walls & 
gates. The hot saline spring used by 
the Romans still exists in a suburb. 

Manufs. cotton, thread, silk, &e. II. a 

town of Savoy, much resorted to for its 
thermal waters. P. 3,500. 

Aix, Ile d', a small isl. off the W. 
coast of France, 14. m.N.W.Rochefort. It 
has works for military culprits. There 
are vills. of this name in several deps. 
of France. 

AixB, a town of France, dep. H. Vi- 
enne. P. 1,439. 

Aix-en-Othe, a town of France, dep. 
Aube, with a manuf. of fine cotton thread. 
P. 1,997. 

Aix-la-Chapelle) German Aachen), 
a frontier city of Prussia, on the railw. 
from Liege to Cologne. P. 49,698. It 




is surround, by a wall with ramparts, & 
fosses, is well built & bas numerous & 
important factories for cloth, needles, 
copper & brass wares, & carriage build- 
ing. Two CBlob. treaties of peace were 
concluded here, (1) betw. France & Spain, 
by which France secured possession of 
Flanders in 1688 ; & (2) in 1748, which 
terminated the war of succession in Aus- 
tria. A congress was held here in 1818. 
Charlemagne & his successors were 
crowned here. 

Ajaccio, the cap. of Coisica, on its AV. 
coast, at the N. of the gulf of the same 
name. P. 11,985. . Napoleon was born 
here, 15th Aug. 1769. 

Ajan, a country of Africa, extending 
along its E. coast from Cape Guardafui 
to Zanguebar, between lat. 4° & 11° N"., 
bounded N. by Adel, E. by the Indian 
ocean. Chf. towns, Brava, Magadoxo, k 

Ajello, a town of Naples, prov. Cala- 
bria. P. 4,000. 

Ajeta, a town of Naples, prov. Cala- 
bria. P. 3,490. 

Ajmeer (Rajpootana), a prov. of 
Hindostan, presid. Bengal. The city of 
same name, is on a hill-slope crowned by 
a fortress, 220 m. S.W. Delhi. P. estim. 
at 25,000. It is one of the most flourish- 
ing towns of the Brit. dom. in the East. 

Ajofkin, a town of Spain, 9 m. S. To- 
ledo. P. 2,833. 

Ajuntah, a large fortfd. town of Brit. 
India, presid. Bombay. Near it are some 
remarkable cave-temples. 

Akabah, Gulf of, an inlet of the Red 
sea, in lat. 28° N., bounding the penin- 
sula of Sinai on the E, Average breadth 
12 m. It is unfit for navigation. The 

isl. Tiran lies at its entrance. II. a 

fortfd. vill. of Arabia, on the E. side of 
above gulf. 

Aken, or AcKEN, a town of Prussian 
Saxony, on the Elbe, 25 m. S.E. Magde- 
burg. P. 4,290. Chf. trade, in cloth, lea- 
ther, & tobacco. 

Akermann, a fortfd. town of Russia, on 
the Dniester, near the Black sea, 20 m. 
S.W. Odessa. P. 16,000. It has a port, 
& an e.xtensive trade in salt. The famous 
treaty concluded at Akermann in 1826, 
exempted the Danubian provs. from all 
but a nominal dependence on Turkey. 

Akhah-shehe, a small seaport town, 
Asia Minor, on the Black soa. Some 
ship-building is here carried on. ' 

Akhalzikh. a city of Asiatic Russia, 
prov. Georgia,' 103 m. W.Tiflis. P. 10,- 
000, most of whom are Armenians. Its 
slave- market has been suppressed. 

Ak-hissar, a town of Asia Minor, 58 
m. N.E. Smyrna. P. 6,000. (?) It ex- 
ports cotton goods. 

Akron, the cap. of Summit co. Ohio, 
at the junction of the Ohio & Erie, & the 
Ohio & Pennsylvania canals, 38 m. S. 
Cleveland, 116 m. W. Pittsburg, 123 m. 
N.E. Columbus. By a succession of locks, 
the Ohio & Erie canal is here raised to 
the Portage summit. The Great & Lit- 
tle Cuyahoga rivs. supply much water 
power, & Akron enjoys an active trade. P. 

Akreyri, a town of Iceland. Lat. 65° 
40' N. It has a good harbor. 

Ak-serai, a town of Asiatic Turkey, 
pash. Karamania. P. 5,000. (7) It has 
many Saracenic remains. 

Ak-su, a town of Chinese Turkestan, 
250 m. N.E. Yarkand. Lat. 41° 7' N. ; 
Ion. 79° E. P. 6,000, besides 3,000 Chinese 
soldiers, it being the military head-quar- 
ters of this part of the empire. It has 
manufs. of woollen stuffs & jasper, & is 
resorted to by trading caravans from all 
parts of central Asia. 

Akyab, a seaport of Bengal, on the isl. 

Ala, a town of the Tyrol, on the Adige. 
P. 3,600. 

Alabama, one of the U. S. of A. betw. 
lat. 30° 10' & 35° N. & Ion. 85° & 88° 
30' W; having N. Tennessee, E. Georgia, 
W. Mississippi, S. Florida & the Gulf of 
Mexico. Area, 50,722 sq. m. P. 771,671, 
of whom 342,892 are slaves. Alabama is 
divided in 49 counties ; 17 in the north- 
ern district, & 32 in the southern district. 
The southern part of this state, which 
borders on the gulf of Mexico, is low & 
level, in the middle hilly, & in the north 
broken. The soil of the state is in gene- 
ral excellent. The Alleghany mountains 
terminate in the N.E. section of this 
state, sinking here to hills. Climate in 
southern part unhealthy ; in the north- 
ern salubrious. Cotton is the staple pro- 
duction of the state. Iron ore is found, 
& coal abounds. The exports of this state 
are from 12 to 15 millions. Home-made 
or family manufactures amount to about 
2,000,000. Alabama has 60 m. seaport. 
This includes Mobile bay, which is 30 
m. long. The University of Alabama 
founded in 1820, & Le Grange Coll. 
founded in 1830, are flourishing insti- 
tutions. State debt, §10,000,000. One 
Bank in the state with a cap. of $3,389,- 
739. Alabama was admitted into the 
Union in 1820. It has a liberal con- 
stitution, but with well-devised checks & 
balances. II. riv. Alabama, formed by 




the junction of the Coosa & Tallapoosa 

rivs. L. 600 ni. III. p-t . Genesee co. 

N.Y. There is an Indian reservation in 
the town. P. 1,798. 

Alabaster Island, one of the Ba- 

Alachua, a co. of Florida, watered by 
the Suwanee & Withlacooehee rivs. It 
is on the W. part of the peninsula, & em- 
braces some of the richest soil in the 
state. Area, about 2,500 sq. m. Cap. 
Newlnansville' P. 2,524. 

Alacbane Islands, a group in the 
gulf of Mexico, 70 m. N. Yucatan, on«a 
reef 15 m. in length & 12 m. in breadth. 

Alagoa, a town on the S. shore of the 
isl. St. Michael, Afores. 

Alagoas, a prov. of Brazil, having N. 
& W. the prov. Pernambuco, S. the riv. 
San Francisco, & E. the Atlantic. Area, 
19,300 sq. m. P. 120,000. Exports, su- 
gar, cotton, hides. Brazil-wood, & rose- 
wood. Chief towns, Mafayo, Alagoas, 
Unna, & Penedo. , 

Alais, a town of France, dep. Gard, 
. 25 m. N.W. Nimes, with which it is con- 
nected by railway. P. 18,697. It is 
situated in a productive coal field, & has 
consid. manufs. 

Alajuela, a city of Costa Rica. P. 
8,000, incl. suburbs. 

Alamance, a new co. of N. Carolina. 
P. 11,444. 

Alamos (Real de los), a town, of 
Mexico, dep. Sonora. P. 7,900. (?) 

Aland Islands, an archip. of about 
80 inhab. isls., in the gulf of Bothnia. 
P. 15,000, of Swedish descent. Exports, 
salt beef, butter, cheese, hides, cured 
fish, & firewood ; imports, salt & manuf. 
goods. These isls., taken from Sweden 
in 1809, are of great importance to Rus- 
sia, & contain several fortified ports. The 
chief isl. Aland, has an area of 28 sq. 
m.i a p. of 9,000, & a good harbor on its 
W. side. 

Alapapaha, a riv. of Georgia, about 
190 m. in length ; flows into the Suwanee., a riv. of Florida, falls into 
Choctawhatchee bay, & is naVig. 15 m. 
by vessels drawing 5 ft. water. 

Alaro, a town of the isl. Majorca. 
P. 4,081. 

Ala-Shehr, " The exalted city," 
Philadelphia, founded 200 years B.C. by 
Attalus Philadelphus. a walled city of 
Asia Minor, 83 m. E. Smyrna. P. 15,000. 
It is an archbishop's see. 

Alassio, a seaport of the kgdm. of 
Sardinia, near Genoa. P. 6,500. 

Alassona, a town of Burop. Turkey. 
P. 3,000. 

Ala-Tagh, a mntn. chain of Asiatic 
Turkey, separating the two heads of the 

Alatamaha, a riv. of Georgia, formed 
by the union of the Oconee & the Ock- 
mulgee, after which it flows 100 m. into 
Alatamaha sound, an inlet of the Atlan- 
tic, 60 m. S.W. Savannah. The bar at 
the mouth has 14 ft. water. The Alata- 
maha is navigable on the Oconee branch, 
300 m. from the ocean, for boats of 30 
tons, & for steamboats to Milledgeville ; 
& for a like distance on the Ockmulgee 
branch. The whole length of the riv. to 
its source is 500 m. Darien city is situ- 
ated 12 m. above the bar. 

Alatri, atownofPontif. sta. P. 9,000. 
It has some perfect remains of Cyclopean 

Alatyr, a town of Russia, 80 m. N.W. 
Simbirsk. P. 4,407. 

Alausi, a valley^ of the Andes, & town 
of Ecuador. It has woollen & cotton 

Alava, Spain, one of the 3 Basque 
provs., mntns.. & rich in iron mines. 
P. 71,237. 

Alaya, a decayed town of Asiatic 
Turkey, on n promont. in the Mediterr. 
P. 2,000. It has a good anchorage, but 
no harbor. 

Alba, a town of Piedmont, 30 m. S.E. 
Turin. P. 8,286. 

Albacete, a town of Spain, cap. of 
province of the same name, 138 m. S.E. 
Madrid. P. of town, 13,143; of the 
prov. 180,773. 

Alba de Tokmes, a town of Spain, 14 
m. S.E. Salamanca. P. 2,176. The 
French won a victory over the Spaniards 
here, 26th Nov. 1809. 

Alban, St., a town of France, dep. 

Tarn. P. 696. -II. dep. Cotes-du- 

Nord. P. 1,378. III. dep. Isere. P. 

1,050. IV. dep. Lozere. P. 2,530. 

Albania, a prov. of Europ. Turkey, 
betw. lat. 39° & 43° N., & Ion. 19° & 21° 
30' E. ; has S. Greece, & W. the Adriatic. 
Area, 13,800 sq. m., & p. 500,000. It is 
mostly mntns., but has some fertile 
plains. Chf. rivers, Diin, Scumbi, Ma- 
roshti, & Vojutza; chf. lakes, Scutari & 
Ochrida. The safest port is Avlona. The 
plains yield nearly all the products of 
S. Europe (including cotton at Ochrida). 
The Albanians, or Arnauts, mostly pro- 
fess to be Christians of the Roman ot 
Greek churches ; but many are Moham- 
medans ; & all are in a very rude con- 
dition. Much of it is only nominally 
dependent on the Porte. Chf. cities, 
Janiua, Scutari, Prisrend, Dulcignoj 




Kroya, Petsh, 'Avlona, Berat, Durazzo, 
Jacova, & Kavaya. 

Albano, a lake & mountain of Italy, 

13 m. S.E. Rome. II., an episcop. city 

of Pontif. States, 14 m. S.E. Rome. P. 
5,600. It is a favorite summer resort of 

the Roman nobility. III., a town of 

Naples. P. 2,700. 

Alban's, St., a borough & town of 
England, co. Hertford, 19 m. N.W. 
London. P. 6,246. 

Alban's Head, St., a conspicuous 
promontory on the coast of Dorsetshire, 
England. Lat. 50° N. ; Ion. 20° 10' W. 
Albany, the capital of the state of 
New York, on the Hudson rir., 145 m. 
by water above the city of New York, in 
lat. 42° 39' N. ; Ion. 73° 32' ^Y. It is 
370 m. from Washington, & 164 m. from 
Boston. Albany was founded by the 
Dutch in 1623, and was by them called 
Beaverwyck, afterward "VVilliamstadt. In 
1664, it was surrendered to the English, 
who gave it the present name in honor 
of the Duke of York & Albany. It was 
incorporated in 1686. Its population at 
each census has been: — in 1790, 3,498; 
in 1800, 5,349 ; in 1810, 9,356 ; in 1820, 
12,630 ; in 1830, 24,238 ; in 1840, 33,721 ; 
& in 1850, 50,771. The ground on which 
Albany is built, has a flat, alluvial tract 
from 50 to 100 yards in width, along the 
margin of the riv., back of which it rises 
somewhat abruptly, attaining in half a 
mile an elevation of 153 ft., & in one m. 
a height of 220 ft. above the level of the 
river. Beyond this, the surface is level. 
The older parts were not laid out with 
regularity, & some of the streets are 
narrow ; but the modern portions of the 
city have spacious & regular streets. The 
capitol is a large stone edifice, 115 ft. in 
length by 90 ft. in breadth, fronting on a 
fine square at the head of State street. 
The State Hall, for the public offices, & 
the City Hall, are two large & handsome 
buildings, on another side of the same 
square. The other public buildings are, 
a Medical College, the Albany Academy, 
the Female Academy, & the Albany Ex- 
change. The Albany Female Academy 
has obtained an extensive and deserved 
celebrity. The Albany Library contains 
9,000 vols. There are two Orphan Asy- 
lums — the Albany Orphan Asylum, & the 
St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum, a Roman 
Catholic institution, for females only. 
Albany has 100 streets & alleys, built on 
eleven public squares. The city contains 
30 places of worship. The old State 
House is now converted into a Museum, 
for the reception of a Geological Cabinet, 

collected by the state geologists in their 
surveys. The situation of Albany, for 
trade & commerce, is commanding, being 
on a fine river, and having a rich back 
countrj' ; its natural advantages are 
great, while it has a ready access to a 
widely extensive country In all directions 
by canals & railroads. The manufs. of 
Albany are flourishing, especially of 
carriages, hats & caps, soap & candles, 
musical instruments, combs, copper, tin, 
& sheet iron. Albany has 10 furnaces, 
3 malting houses, & 9 breweries. Cap. in 
manufs. about $2,000,000. There are 
about 50 commission houses engaged in 

foreign trade. II. the county in which 

the above city is located, lies on the W. 
side of the Hudson river. Area, 515 sq. 
m. The soil is fertile & well cultivated 
near the river, but sandy & unproductive 

in the interior. P. 93,279. III. there 

are numerous villages & townships of 
this name in different parts of the U. S. 

IV. a riv., fort & dist. of British N. 

America : the riv. connected by a series 
of lakes with L. Winnipeg, flows E.N.E. 
through 8 degs. of Ion., & enters James' 

bay, near Fort Albany. V. a seaport 

of W. Australia, on K. George sound; 
lat. 35° 3' S. ; Ion. 117° 52' 40" E. 

Albahbacin, a town of Spain, Arragon. 
P. 1,530. It is a bishop's see. 

Albay, a town of Luzon (Phillippino 
Islands), cap. prov., and residence of a 
governor. P. 13,115. 

Albayda, a town of Spain. P. 3,130, 
who manuf. linens. 

Albemakle, a central co. of Virginia, 
having S. James' River, & N.W. the 
Blue Ridge. Area, 700 sq. m. Cap. 
Charlottesville. . Soil diversified. P. 

Albemarle Island, the largest of the 

Albemarle Sound, an inlet of the At- 
lantic, in the N.E. part of North Carolina. 
It is 60 m. in length, & from 4 to 15 m. 
in breadth ; & is connected with Chesa- 
peake bay by a canal through Dismal 

Albendokp, a vill. of Pruss. Silecia. 
P. 1,260. Near it is the sanctuary of New 
Jerusalem, said to be visited yearly by 
80,000 pilgrims. 

Albenga, a seaport of Italy, 44 m. 
S.W. Genoa, belonging to Sardinia. P. 

Alberona, a town of Naples. P. 2,900. 

Alberobello, a town of Naples. P. 

Albert, a town of France, dep. Sonmio. 
P. 2,828. 




Albert- ViLLB, a city of Upper Savoy, 
founded in 1835. It has royal foundries of 
lead "5; silver, & a royal college. P. 3,406. 

Albi, a town of France, dep. Tarn, 41 
m. N.E. Toulouse. P. 14,492. In the vi- 
cinity is the most important steel manuf. 
in France. The sect of Albigeois origi- 
nated here in the 12th cent. 

Albino, a town of Northern Italy. P. 

Albion, a town of Kennebec co. Maine. 

P. 1,604. II. cap. of Orleans co. New 

York, 250 m. W; Albany, on the Erie ca- 
nal. P. 1,400. III. a town of Oswego 

CO. New York. P. 1,503. There are also 
several small places of the same name in 
other states. 

Albion (New), the name given by 
Sir Francis Drake to California & the 
adjoining coast. 

Albisola Marina, & Superiore, two 
towns of Piedmont. P. of the former, 
1,569; the latter, 2,317. 

Alblasserdam, a vill. of Holland, 9 
m. S.E. Rotterdam. P. 2,046. 

Albona, a town of Istria, 42 m. S.E. 
Triest, with a college & 1,100 inhabs. 
. Albon, a town of France, dep. Drome. 
P. 2,633. 

Albohan, a small isl. in the Mediterr. 
belonging to Spain, J m. long, J m. broad. 
Lat. 35° 56' N. ; Ion. 3° 0' 40" W. In- 
habited by fishermen. 

Albostan, a town of Asiatic Turkey. 
P. 9,000. 

Albreda, a town of Senegambia, on 
the Grambia, below the British fort James. 
The French have a trading station here. 

Albuera (La), a town of Spain, 13 m. 
S.E. Badajoz. On the 16th May, 1811, 
the British & allies here gained a victory 
over the French. 

Albufeira, a seaport of Portugal, on 
the Atlantic, 46 m. E. C. St. Vincent. P. 
2,800. Its harb., which admits the largest 
vessels, is defen. by a citadel & batteries. 

Albufera, a lake of Spain, on the 
coast ; it communicates by a narrow chan- 
nel with the Mediterr. 

Albula, a mountain pass of Switzer- 
land, Grisons, from the basin of the Rhine 
to that of the Inn. 

ALBuauERQUE, a town of Spain, near 
the Portug. frontier. P. 5,470.—— II. a 
town of Mexico, & 90 m. S.S.W. Santa 
Fe, near 1. b. of the Rio del Norte. P. 
6,000.^ III. a vill. of BrazU, on the Pa- 


Keys), a group of isls. in the Carib. sea, 
110 m. E. the Mosquito Coast. Lat. 12° 
4' N. ; Ion. 81° 50' W. 

Alburg, a port of entry on Lake Cham- 
plain, in Grand Isle co. Vermont, 83 m. 
from Montpelier. P. 1,344. 

Alcala de Chivert, a town of Spain. 
P. 4,954. 

Alcala de los Gazules, a town of 
Spain, 30 m. E. Cadiz. P. 6,116. 

Alcala de Guadaira, a town of Spain. 
P. 6,702. 

Alcala de Henares, a walled city of 
Spain, 17 m. E.N.E. Madrid. P. 5,153. 
Since the removal of its university to 
Madrid, it is in a state of rapid decay. 
Cervantes was born here in 1547. 

Alcala la Real, a city of Spain. P. 
6,848. The French defeated the Spaniards 
here, 28th Jan. 1810. Alcala is the name 
of many small Spanish towns. 

Alcamo, a town of Sicily, with edifices 
of Moorish origin. P. 15,500. 

Alcanede, a town of Portugal. P. 

Alcaniz, a walled town of Spain, 60 
m. S.E. Zaragoza. P. 5,100. 

Alcantara, a fortfd. town of Spain, on 
the Tagus, near the Portuguese frontier. 

P. 4,273. II. a seaport of Brazil, on 

W. side of the estuary of the Maranhao, 
near its mouth. -III. a riv. of Sicily. 

Alcantavilla, a town of Spain. P. 

Alcandete, a town of Spain. P. 6,242. 

Alcaraz, a town of Spain, at the foot 
of the Sierra de Alcaraz, with mines of 
copper & zinc. P. 7,325. 

Alcazar de San Juan, a town of 
Spain. P. 7,540. Manufs. of soa,p, gun- 
powder, and nitre. 

Alcazar' Kebir. a city of Morocco, 80 
m. N.W. Fez. P. 5,000. 

Alceste, a small isl. in the Pacific, 
gulf of Pe-tche-lee, 3 m. N.W. the N.E. 
point of Shan-tung. 

Alcest^r, a town of Engl., co. War- 
wick. P. 2,399. It is the principal seat 
of the needle manuf. 

Alciha, a walled town of Spain, on an 
isl. in the Xucar. P. 13,000. Near it is 
a remarkable stalactitic cavern. 

Alcobaca, a town of Portugal. P. 
2,000, with an ancient abbey, in which are 
the tombs of many kings of Portugal. 

Alcora, a town of Spain, 45 m. N.N.E. 
Valencia. P. 5,609. Exjports fruit. 

Alcover, a town of Spain. P. 2,812. 

Alcoy, a town of Spain, 24 m. N.N.W. 
Alicante. P. 27,000. It has numerous 
paper and woollen factories. 

Alcudia, a town of Majorca, on a pen- 
insula at its N. extrem., with a p. of 1,116, 
&, consid. trade. — Alcudia is the name of 
several Spanish towns. 




Alcuescae, a town of Spain. P. 3,560. 

Aldabra, an isl. in the Indian ocean, 
N. of Madagascar, lat. 9° 26' S. ; Ion. 46° 
35' E. 

Aldan, a riv. of Siberia, rises near the 
Chinese frontier, and joins the Lena in 
lat. 63° 12' N., Ion. 129° 40' E., after a 
course of about 300 m. 

Aldan Mountains, a chain of mntns. 
in B. Siberia, rounding the sea of Ochotsk 
under different names, & terminating at 
Behring strait. Their average height is 
4,000 ft. Many summits are active vol- 

Aldbobough, a seaport of England, co. 
Suffolk. P. 1,557. It has become a place 

of resort for sea bathing. II. a town 

of England, co. York. P. 2,424. III. 

a pa. of England, co. Norfolk. 

Alde, a riv. of England, co. Suffolk ; 
joins the North sea at Orford. 

Aldea Galega, a town of Portugal, on 
the estuary of the Tagus, 10 m. E. Lisbon. 
P. 4,000. 

Aldea Davila, a town of Spain, on 
the Duero. P. 1,490. 

Aldea Velha, a to^vn & harbor of 
Brazil, on the bay of Espiritu Santo. 

Alden, a town of Erie co. New York, 
22 m. B. Buffalo. 

Alderney, an isl. in the English chan- 
nel, off the coast of Normaady, belonging 
to Great Britain, dioc. Winchester, 10 m. 
W. Cape la Hogue. Lat. of telegraph 49° 
41' 5" N. ; Ion. 2° 13' 7' W. Circumf. 
about 8 m. Pop. 1,030. It is well cultiv., 
& noted for its breed of small cows, but 
has no good harb., & little trade. In its 
centre is a town of same name. 

Alderney (Race of), a strait. between 
the above isl. & Cape la Hogue, dangerous 
from the strength & rapidity of its tides. 

A ld STONE, a town of England, co. Cum- 
berland. P. 1,650. 

Alemouth, a seaport of England, co. 
Northumberland, at the mouth of the 
Alno, in the North sea. P. 440. 

Alemtejo, a prov. of Portugal, having 
E. Spain, & W. the Atlantic. Area, 
10,255 sq. m. P. (1841) 276,590. Clim. 
e.xtrem. hot & dry. Surface undulating, 
liisbon is mostly supplied with com from 
hence, & rice is grown in the low grounds. 
Manufs. of woollen cloth & earthenware. 

Alencon, a city of Prance, cap. dep. 
Orrie, in a plain on the Sarthe, 105 m. 
AV.S.W. Paris. P. (1846) 14,755. The 
manuf. of the celeb, lace called point 
d'Alenfon still occupies 5 or 6 princip. 
houses. The crystals called Alenjon dia- 
monds are found in its vicinity. 

Alenqtjer, a fortfd. town of Portugal, 
25 m. N.N.E. Lisbon. P. 3,200, with 
extensive paper-mills. 

Aleppo, a city of Syria, & one of the 
principal emporiums of the Ottoman Emp., 
on the Koeik 70 m. E. the Mediterranean. 
Lat. 36° 11' N. ; Ion. 37° 10' E. P. estim. 
at from 60,000 to 85,000 ; but previously 
to the earthquake of 1822 it is said to 
have been upwards of 200,000. In ancient 
times the city rose to importance on the 
destruction of Palmyra, & became the 
great emporium of trade between Europe 
& the Bast. Aleppo has numerous mer- 
cantile houses, & is resorted to bj' large 
caravans from various parts of Asia Minor. 
Consuls of most European nations reside 

Ales, an episcopal town of isl. Sardinia. 
P. 1,135. It has mineral springs. 

Alesandria, a fortfd. city of Pied- 
mont, in a sterile plain, on the Tanaro, 
46 m. E.S.E. Turin. P. of town, 18,955, 
with 'suburbs, 39,853, excl. of a garrison 
of 4,039 men. It is well built, & has a 
cathed., large barracks, & many good 

public edifices. II. a town of Naples. 

P. 1,500. 

Aleshki, a town of Russia, on the 
Dnieper, opp. Kherson. P. 1,500. 

Alessano,^ a town of Naples. P. 1,745. 

Alessio, a town of Albania. P. 3,000. 
Scanderbeg was buried in its fortress. 

Aleutian Islands, a group of isls. 
belong, to Russia, in the N. Pacific, ex- 
tending betw. Kamtchatka & the peninsula 
Aliaska, Russ. America, from lat 52° to 
53° N., & Ion. 172° to 178° E. They 
mclude several subord. groups, viz. the 
true Aleutian, Andreanov, & Fox isls., 
& are rocl^y & volcanic, having some voles, 
in constant activ. The inhab. estim. at 
8,700, subsist mostly by himting & fishing, 
vegetation being scanty, & agric. almost 
unknown. Chief exjoorts, otter, fox, & 
other skins, the trade in which is monopo- 
lized by the Russo-American Company. 

Alexander, a co. in the S. part of Il- 
linois, having S.E. the Ohio, & S.W. the 
Mississippi. Area, 375 sq. m. Soil allu- 
vial & fertile. P. 2,484. Cap. Unity. 

II. a CO. of North Carolina P. 5,220. 

-III. a town of Washington co. 

Maine. P. 513. IV. a town of Gene- 
see CO. New York. P. 3,313. V. a 

town of Athens co. Ohio, one of the town- 
ships granted to the Ohio University. P. 

AlexAndrapol Fort, Russia. [Gum- 


Alexandretta, Aleppo. [Scande- 





Alexandria, a celeb, city of Egypt, 
near the westmost branch of the Nile, 
on the Mediterr., 112 m. N-W. Cairo, 
with which it communicates by the Mah- 
mudiyeh canal & the Nile. Lat. of Pha- 
ros 31° 12' 9" N.; Ion. 29° 53' E. P. 
about 60,000, including 8,000 troops & the 
artisans employed in the arsenal. In the 
new streets & squares it has more the as- 
pect of a Burop. than of an African or 
Asiatic city. The Turkish quarter is 
irreg. & dirty. There are two ports, in 
the best of which ships anchor in from 22 
to 40 ft. water. A castle called Farillon, 
& serving as a landmark to sailors, re- 
places the famous Pharos of anticjuity. 
Alexandria is the emporium of Egypt. 
Principal exports, corn, cotton, wool, gums, 
soda, rice, dates, senna, feathers, & other 
African products, hides, & a few manuf. 
goods. In 1840, 66,342 bales of cotton 
were exported, mostly to England, France, 
& Austria. Principal imports, cotton, 
woollen, & silk goods, hardware & ma- 
chinery, with timber, coal, drugs, & 
colonial products. In 1840 the value of 
the imports amounted to 1,327,396Z., & 
that of the exports to 1,072,033Z. Alex- 
andria is an important station in the over- 
land route to India, & consuls of the chief 
European nations reside here. Among 
the most celeb, relics of antiquity in Alex- 
andria are Pompey's Pillar & Cleopatra's 
Needles, a column & two obelisks of red 

granite. II. a co. of Virginia, on the 

Potomac riv., & adjoining the District of 
Columbia, of which it formed a part until 
1846, when it was retroceded to Virginia 
by the Federal Government. Area, 36 sq. 

m. Soil poor & uneven. P. 10,016. 

III. the cap. of said county, 115 m. N. 
Richmond, 43 m. S.S.W. Baltimore. It 
is a port of entry, well situated on the 
Potomac, which is here navigable by ves- 
sels of the largest class. P. 9,967. The 
tonnage of the port in 1850 was 1,011,187. 
Flour, wheat, Indian corn, & tobacco are 
exported in considerable quantities, but 
the city is not flourishing. There are 3 
banks here, with an aggregate cap. of 

$657,000. IV. a town of Grafton co. 

New Hampshire. P. 1,284. -V. a town 

of Jefferson co. New York, on the St. 
Lawrence. Part of the Thousand Islands 

belong to this town. P. 3,475. VI. a 

town of Huntingdon co. Pa. P. 575. 

VII. a town of HMtingdon co. New Jer- 
sey. P. 3,420. VIII. a vill. of De 

Kalb CO. Tennessee. P. . IX. a 

town of Louisiana, Rapides parish, on the 
Red riv., 291 m. N.W. New Orleans. P. 
500. ^X. Si. Paul, a vill. Russ. Ameri- 

ca, on the isl. Kadiak, with a good port. 

XI. a vill. of Scotland, co. Dumbarton. 

P. 3,039, chiefly employed in cotton print- 
ing. XII. Troas, a small town on the 

coast of Asia Minor. 

Alexandrov, a town of Russia, in which 
Ivan IV. established the first printing 

press known in that empire. II. a town 

of Poland, 60 m. W. Warsaw. P. 3,200. 
III. a Russian fort in the Caucasus. 

Alexandrovsk, a fortfd. town of Rus- 
sia, on the Dnieper. P. 4,000. It is the 
place of embarkation for all products ex- 
ported by that river to the Black sea. 
There are several stations of the same 
name in Orenberg, the Caucasus, & Russ. 

Aleyoe, a town of the isl. Minorca. 
P. 3,000. 

Alfaques, a seaport of Spain, at the 
mouth of a branch of the Ebro, in the 
Mediterr., with extensive salt-works. 

Alfaho, a town of Spain, on the Ebro. 
P. 4,084. 

Alford, a town of Berkshire co. Mas- 
sachusetts. P. 481. 

Alfred, a town of York CO. Maine. P. 
1,309, among whom are a society of Sha- 
kers. II. a town of Alleghany co. New 

York, on the Erie railroad. P. 1,630. 

Alfreton, a town of England, co. 
Derby. P. 7,577. Near it are extensive 
collieries & iron works. 

Algajola, a small fortfd. seaport of 

Algansi, a town of Branch co. Michi- 
gan. P. 424. 

Algarinejo, atownof Spain. P. 4,383. 

Algarv, the S.-most prov. of Portu- 
gal, with the title of a kingdom, having 
E. Spain, S. & W. the Atlantic. Area, 
2,100 sq. m. P. 130,329. Exports, dried 
fruits, kermes, wine, salt, & tunny fish. 

Algayda, a town of the isl. Majorca. 
P. 2,859. 

Algeciras, a seaport of Spain, 6 m. 
W. Gibraltar. P. 11,077. It has a well- 
frequented harbor. Exports, charcoal & 
tanned leather. 

Algemesi, a town of Spain. P. 4,492. 

Algeria, a country of Northern Africa, 
having N. the Mediterranean, S. the desert 
of Sahara, E. Tunis, & W. Morocco. It 
lies between lat. 35° & 37° N. ; extending 
from Ion. 2° 11' W. to 8° 53' E. ;. & is 
about 550 m. in length, & 200 m. in 
breadth. Cap. Algiers. P. estimated on 
Jan. 1st, 1847, at 2,808,881, composed of 
97,760 French soldiers ; 7,048 auxiliary 
do. ; 109,400 European civilians ; & 
2,594,673 natives. Algeria is traversed 
by. the Atlas mountains. The coast is 




steep, & deficient in good ports. Tlie chf. 
plains are those of Oran, Metidjah, & 
Shelif ; the principal rivs. are the Wad- 
el-Gedy, which rises S. of the Atlas range, 
& flows to the Melgig lake ; the Shelif, 
which rises on the borders of Sahara, & 
flows to the Mediterr. ; the others are the 
Sebus, Isser, Harna, & Jafna. There 
are several lakes filled in the rainy pea- 
son, dry in summer ; the chf. of these are 
the Zagries, the Shott, the Sebkha, & the 
Melgig. The climate is temperate & 
healthy on the N. slopes of the mountains, 
but pestilential in the marshy plains. The 
heat is often excessive under the influence 
of the sivioovi. From April to Oct. the 
sky is ..serene; the winter is mild, & 
marked by abundant rains. The mean 
temp, of winter is from 54° to 65°, & of 
summer 74° to 104° Fahr. ; but this elev. 
temp, is moderated by constant sea 
breezes. The mountains contiiin mines 
of iron, copper, & lead. The country 
is divided by the natives into the Tel, 
or country of grain .crops, in the N., 
& the date country in the S. Vegetation 
is developed with great activity. The 
level part of the Tel, occupied by Arabs, 
is very fertile in cereals ; & the mntns. 
country, occupied by the Kabyles, has 
extensive forests, & rich & varied vege- 
tation. The Algerian Sahara is not, as 
was long supposed, a sterile desert, but 
a vast archipelago of oases, each of which 
presents an animated group of towns & 
vills., surrounded by olives, figs, vines, & 
palms. Throughout the Tel, wheat, 
barley, & legumes are cultivated,. & in 
some places maize, millet, & rice. Cot- 
ton, indigo, & the sugar-cane also succeed 
well. The natives rear cattle, sheep, & 
goats. The horses, which are of an ex- 
cellent breed, are employed only for the 
saddle ; the camel, dromedary, ass, & 
mule are used for draught. Among wild 
animals may be noticed, the lion, pan- 
ther, jackal, & antelope. The harvests 
are sometimes ravaged by locusts. Ex- 
cellent coral & sponge are fished on the 
coasts. The industry of the natives is, 
since the French domination, nearly con- 
fined to mining ; the Jews alone engage 
in the manuf. of jewellery. Public in- 
struction is making rapid progress in the 
state ; on the 1st Jan. 1845, the number 
of pupils in the government schools was 
3,327. During the first- 9 months of 
1846, 5,606 vessels entered the different 
ports of Algeria ; the total imports in 
1846 amount, to 111,457,395 /r., & the 
exports to 9,043,066 Jf. ; & the public 
revenue,which in 1840 was only 5,610,707 

fr., amounted in 1846 to 24,773,625 fr. 
This country, originally inhabited by 
the Moors & Numidians, was afterwards 
under the power of the Romans & Van- 
dals. In the 16th cent, it was invaded 
by Spain, but Barbarossa expelled the 
Spanish, & founded, under the sovereign- 
ty of Turkey, the state of Algiers, which 
became redoubtable to Christians on ac- 
count of its corsairs, & compelled many of 
the European states to pay tribute for 
the protection of their merchant vessels. 
Repeated attempts were made by the 
different European powers to subdue this 
nest of pirates, without, effect, till 1816, 
when the city of Algiers was bombarded 
by the British under Lord Exmouth, 
after which they continued comparatively 
quiet until 1827, when the French, to re- 
venge an insult to their consul, resolved 
to send an expedition on a great scale to 
take possession of the country. This was 
accomplished in 1830. Algcrie is divided 
into the provs. of Algiers, Constantine, 
& Oran, & governed by a governor-gene- 
ral, whose authority is chiefly military. 
Chf. towns, Algiers, Constantine, Phil- 
lippeville. Bona, Setif, Blidah, Oran & 

Algezares, a town of Spain, prov. 
Murcia. P. 2,117." Exports grain & 
fruit to Gibraltar. 

Algezirah, the Arab name of Meso- 

Alghero, a fortfd. town of the isl. 
Sardinia, on' W. coast. P. 8,000. The 
port for large vessels is at Pto. Corte, 9 
m. N.W. Alghero. 

Algiers, cap. of the French terr. of 
Algeria, on the W. side of a bay of saine 
name, in the Mediterr. Lat. of light-ho. 
36° 47' 20" N. ; Ion. 3° 4' 32" E. P. 
(1847),includ. suburbs & comm., 97,389, 
of whom 72,393 were Europ., & 24,996 
natives. The city, sit. on a slope facing 
the sea, & crowned by a citadel, is 2 m. 
in circ, and strongly walled ; since 1830, 
the French have been actively engaged 
in extending its defences & improving its 
port. Its streets have been widened, & 
it in part resembles a European town. It 
is a bishop's see, & the seat of the gover- 
nor-general of Algeria & of many foreign 

Algoa Bay, an extens. bay on the 
S.B. coast of Africa, Cape Colony, betw. 
Capes Recife & Padfcn, 425 m. E. the 
Cape of Good Hope. It is open to S. 
winds, but has good anchorage. The 
Sunday & Baasher rivs. flow into the 
bay, & at the mouth of the latter is Fort 
Elizabeth. Fort Frederick is on a hill 




adjacent. Lat. of Croix isl. in the bay, 
33° 47' 6" S. ; Ion. 25° 46' 7" W. 

Algodonales, a town of Spain. P. 

Alhama, the name of several towns 

of Spain. 1, prov. Granada. P. 6,284. 

It has celeb, warm baths. II. prov. 

Murcia, with 6,935 inhabitants. 

Alhandra, a town of Portugal, on the 

Tagus, 18 m. N.E. Lisbon. P. 1,800. 

II. a town of Brazil. 

Alhaukin de la Torre, a town of 
Spain. P. 2,717. 

Alhacrin el GrRANDE, a town of 
Spain. P. 5,514. 

Alhendin, a town of Spain. P. 2,275. 

Alhucemas, a small isl. & fortress 
belonging to Spain, in the Mediterr., on 
the coast of Morocco. Lat. 35° 15' N. ; 
Ion. 4° 12' E. 

Ali, a town of Sicily ; with sulphur 
baths. P, 1,300. 

Ali-Abad, a town of Persia, on the 
Caspian sea. Also the name of seve- 
ral other vills. in Asia. 

Aliashka, a penins. of Rus. America, 
in the Pacific, betw. lat. 50° & 55° N. ; 
Ion. 155° W. ; 350 m. in length N. to S. 
by 25 m. in average breadth ; having 
several active volcanoes. 

Alicante, a fortified city & seaport 
of Spain, cap. prov. of same name, on a 
bay in the Mediterr. Lat. 38° 20' N. ; 
Ion. 0° 27' W. P. 19,021 ; having an 
extensive trade in wine, fruits, potash & 
soap. The mole has a fixed light, 95 ft. 
■^ igh, visible for 15 m. Consuls of most 
European nations reside here. The 
prov. of Alicante is fertile, & has 294,906 

Alicata, a seaport of Sicily. P. 
13,465. Exports, corn, macaroni, fruit, 
sulphur, soda & wines. 

Alicudi, one of the Lipari islands. 

Alighur, a dist. of British India, 
presid. Bengal. Area, 2,300 sq. m. 
Alighur, a fort 50 m. N. Agra, was taken 
by the British, 4th Sept. 1803. 

Alimena, a town of Sicily. P. 3,400. 

Aliwal, a vill. of N.W. India, on the 
Sutlej, near which the Sikhs were de- 
feated, 28th Jan. 1846, by a British force 
under Sir H. Smith. 

Alkmaar, a fortfd. town of the Neth- 
erlands, 19 m. N.W. Amsterdam. P. 

Allahabad, one of the old Moham- 
medan provs.of Hindostan, betw. lat. 24° 
& 26° N., & Ion. 79° & 83° E., bounded 
on N. by Oude & Agra, S. by Gundwana, 
E. by Bahar, W. by Malwah. It is about 
270 m. in length, by 120 in breadth, and 


is divided into 8 zillahs or dists., 1 Alla- 
habad, 2 Benares,, 3 Mirzapoor, 4 Juan- 
poor, 5 Rewah terr., 6 Bundelcund, 7 
Cawnpoor, 8 Manikpoor. It is watered 
by the Ganges, Jumna, & other rivs. 
The flat country is very fertile. The 
elevated table-land of Bundelcund con- 
tains the diamond mines of Poonah. 
Principal articles of export, sugar, cot- 
ton, indigo, opium, saltpetre, cotton 
cloths, diamonds. It also produces all 
kinds of grain, & great variety of fruits. 
The whole prov. is under British govt. 
P. 775,000. Seven eighths are supposed 
to be Hindoos, the rest Mohamjmedans. 
— Allahabad, cap. of prov., at the union 
of the Ganges & Jumna, 77 m. W. Bena- 
res. Lat. 25° 27' N. ; Ion. 81° 50' E. 
P. 45,000, excl. of troops. Allahabad is 
held so sacred by the Hindoos, that at 
some periods 200,000 pilgrims have met 

there from all parts of India. II. a 

town of Bhawlpoor, 'N.W. Hindostan. 

Allaire, a vill. of France, dep. Mor- 
bihan. P. 2,018. 

Allamakee, a co. of Iowa. P. 777. 

Allan, a riv. of Scotland, co. Perth. 

II. another small Scotch riv., co. 


Allariz, a walled town of Spain. 
P. 1,752. 

Allauch, a town of France, 6 m. N.E. 
Marseilles. P. 1,666. 

Alla-yar-ka-tanda, a town of Sinde. 
P. 5,000. It has cotton manufs. & dye- 

Allegan, a co. of Michigan, on lake 
Michigan. Area, 840 sq. m., watered by 
the Kalamazoo, Black, & Rabbit rivs. 
Great quantities of lumber & maple 
sugar are produced. P. 5,125. The chf. 
town, of same name, on the Kalamazoo, 
has a p. of 634. 

Allegany, one of the S. cos. of New 
York, bordering on Pennsylvania. P. 
37,808. Area, 1,185 sq. m., watered by 
the Genesee riv. & smaller streams. Soil 
fertile, but better for grazing than agri- 
culture. Minerals, limestone & iron. 
The Erie railroad passes through this co. 
Cap. Angelica. 

Alleghany, or Appallachian Moun- 
tains, a range from 50 to 200 m. in 
breadth, extending from ' Georgia to 
Maine, through 11 degs. of lat., nearly 
parallel to & from 50 to 130 m. W. of the 
Atlantic (bearing the former of the above 
names N., & the latter S. of the Potomac 
riv.) The chain consists of several ranges 
called the Blue ridge, North, Jackson's, 
Laurel, Cumberland, &c. The height of 
these mountains does not generally ex- 



ceed 2,500 ft. They divide the waters 
which flow into the Mississippi^ & the 
lakes, from those which flow into the 
Atlantic. Betw. the ridges are some fer- 
tile valleys, but the land among them is 
mostly rocky & sterile. These mntns. 
consist of granite, gneiss, & clay slate, 
primitive limestone, &o., & are generally 
wooded to the summit. 

Alleghany, a co. of Maryland, in the 
extreme W. part of the state. Being 
traversed by the main branch of the 
Alleghany mntns., its surface is very 
rough & broken, but much of the soil is 
fertile. 'The line of the Chesapeake & 
Ohio canal, & the Baltimore & Ohio rail- 
road, run through this co., & at Cumber- 
land (its cap.) commences the National 
road. P. 22,769, many of whom are en- 
gaged in extensive coal mines. II. a 

central co. of Virginia, intersected by the 
Alleghany mntns., & drained by the head 
waters of the James riv. Area, 521 sq. 

m. P. 3,515. Cap. Covington. III. 

a town of Armstrong co. Pennsylvania. 

P. 1,839. IV. a town of Venango co. 

Pennsylvania. P. 805. V. a town of 

Huntingdon co. Pennsylvania. P. 2,225. 

VI. a tovrn of Somerset co. Pa. 

VII. a town of Potter co. Pa. P. 633. 

VIII. a town of Westmoreland co. 

Pa. P. 2,641. IX. a town of Cambria 

CO. Pa. P. 1,217. 

ALI.EGHANY CiTY, IS situatcd in Alle- 
ghany CO. Pennsylvania, on the Alleghany 
river, opp. Pittsburg, with which it is con- 
nected by a bridge. It has considerable 
trade in lumber, and large iron works, 
tanneries, cotton factories, &c. P. 21,262. 
The Western Penitentiary of Pa. and the 
AVestern Theological Seminary of the 
Presbyterian denomination are located 

Alleghany River, rises in Potter co. 
Pa., flows circuitously as far N. as Clean, 
N. Y., returns to Pa. & joining the Mon- 
ongahela at Pittsburgh forms the Ohio. 
Length, 375 m. Nav. only for rafts & 
small boats. 

Allegranza, the most N. of the Ca- 
nary isls., 10 m. N. Lanzerote. 

Allegre, a town of France, dep. Haute 
Loire. P. 2,133. 

Allen (Bog of), in Ireld., is a collec- 
tive term applied to the bogs E. of the 
Shannon, in King's county and Kildare, 
comprising in all about 233,500 Engl. ac. 
It consists of a series of contiguous mo- 
rasses, about 250 ft. above the sea, and 
separated by ridges of dry ground. 

Allen (Lough), a lake of Ireld. co. 
Leitrim, 7 m. in length N. to S., by 1 to 3 

m. in breadth, 144 ft. above the sea. It 
is the source of the Shannon. 

Allen, a co. in the S. part of Kentucky. 

P. 8,742. Cap. Scottsville. II. a co. 

in the N.E. part of Indiana. Area, 650 
sq. m. intersected by the Wabash and Erie 
canal, and watered by the St. Mary's, St. 
Joseph's & Maumee rivers. Soil fertile. > 

P. 16,919. Cap. Fort Wayne. III. a 

CO. of N.W.- Ohio. Area, 554 sq. m. wa- 
tered by the Auglaize river. P. 12,109. 
Cap. Lima. 

Allen Centre, a town of Allegany co. 
New York. P. 867. 

Allendorf, two tovras of W. Germany. 

1. H. Cassel. P. 3,935. II. H. 

Darmstadt. P. 1,100. Several vills. of 
Ilessen have this name. 

Allenstein, a town of Prussia. P. 

Allenstown, a vill. of Merrimac co. 
New Hampshire, on the Suncook riv. 

Allentown, cap. of Lehigh co. Penn- 
sylvania, 87m. N.E. Harrisburg. P. 2,493. 
It is sometimes called Northampton. 

Aller, a riv. of Germany, rises near 
Magdeburg, flows N.W. into the Weser ; 
length, 100 m. 

Allevard, a town of France, dep. 
Isere. P. 1,666. Celeb, for its iron 

Allextar, a town in the peninsula of 

Allier, a riv. of France, traversmg it=l 
centre, partly navigable. It rises in Lo- 
zere, flows N. and after a course of 200 m. 

joins the Loire, below Nevers. II. a 

dep. in the centre of France, enclosed by 
the deps. Nievre, Cher, Indre, Creuse, 
Puy-de-Dume, Loire and Saone-et-Loire. 
Chf. town Moulins. Area, 723,981 hect. 
P. 336,758. - Surface undulating, with 
many marshes which cause epidemics. 
Chf. rivs. Loire, Allier, <& Cher ; climate 
temperate. Soil generally fertile, yield- 
ing timber, and a surplus of corn & wine 
over consumption. Many sheep & cattle 
are reared. There are mines of coal, iron, 
sulphur, and antimony, and quarries of 
marble and granite. Manufs. of cutlery, 
earthenw., cloth, yarn, and paper. Prin- 
cip. towns of its 4 arronds., Moulins, Gan- 
nat, La Palisse, and Montlufon. 

Alligator Swamp, an extensive 
marshy tract, N. Carolina, between Pam- 
lico and Albemarle sounds. 

Alloa, a seaport town of Scotland, on 
the Forth, 25 m. N.W. Edinburgh. P. 
6,417. In the harbor there is 24 ft. water 
at spring tide. Here are shipyards, brew- - 
eries, collieries, glassworks, &c. 

Allonby, a vill. of England, co. Cum- 




berland, on a bay of Solway firth, resorted 
to for sea-bathing. P. 811. 

Allos, a town of France, dcp. Basses- 
Alpes. P. 1,513. 

Alloway, a vill. of Wayne co. New 

York. P. 300. II. Kirk, a ruined 

church, in Scotl. near the Doon, celeb, by 
"^Burns's Tarn O'Shanter. 

Allowaystown, a vill. of Salem co. 
New Jersey, on Alloway creek, a stream 
20 m. in length & navigable for wood 
boats 12 m. from its mouth in the Dela- 
ware river. 

Allstadt, a town of Saxe-Weimar. P. 

Allum Bay, a harbor of the Isle of 
Wight. Lat. of Needles light-house, 50° 
39' 54" N. ; Ion. 1° 33' 55" W. 

Almada, a town of Portugal, on the 
Tagus, op. Lisbon. P. 4,000. Near it is 
the gold mine of Adissa. 

Almaden, a town of Spain, in the Sier- 
ra Morena. P. 8,645. It has a school 
of mines, estab. 1835, & a hospital for 
the cure of those employed in the works. 
The quicksilver mines of Almaden are 
considered the most productive, the most 
curious, & the most ancient in the 

world. II. New Almaden, the name 

of rich quicksilver mines in California, 14 
m. from San Jose. They were opened in 

Almagell (Pass of), Switzer.,Valais, 
11,663 ft. in elev., being the highest pass 
in Europe. It is seldom practicable on 
account of the depth of snow. 

Almagro, a town of Spain. P. 12,605. 
It has celeb, manuf. of lace. 

Almaguer, a town of New Granada, 
on a table-land 7,440 ft. in elevation. 

Almali, a town of Asiat. Turkey. P. 

Almansa, a town of Spain. P. 8,731. 
Near this is a monument on the spot 
where the French, under the Duke de 
Berwick, gained a victory over the Arch- 
duke Charles, 25th April, 1707. 

Almaraz, a town of Spain. P. 493. 
The Tagus passes 2 m. S. of the town, &-is 
crossed by the celeb, bridge of Almaraz, 
built 1552. On 18th May, 1812, Lord Hill 
gained a victory over the French, from 
which he took the title of Almaraz. 

Almazan, a town of Spain, on the 
Douro. P. 2,400. 

Almazora, a town of Spain. P. 3,636. 
Almeida, a fortified town of Portugal, 
prov. Beira, on the Coa, 95 m. N.E. Coim- 
bra. P. 6,200. Almeida is one of the 
most important strongholds in the kgdm. 
It was taken by the Spaniards 1762, again 
by the French 1810. On 5th Aug. 1811, 

the allies under Wellington here defeated 
the French under Massena. — This is the 
name of several small towns in Brazil. 

Almelo, a town of the Netherl. P. 

Almeria, a seaport of Spain, cap. 
prov. of same name, on a bay of the 
Mediterr. Lat. 36° 52' 30" N. ; Ion. 2° 
39' 51" W. P. 17,800. Chief trade ui 
wine, soda, nitre, pitch, & lead, & a con- 
traband traffic with Gibraltar. Near it 
are the baths of Alhamilla. 

Almeyda Bay, on the E. coast of 
Africa, Mozambique, is in lat. about 13° 
30' S. ; Ion. 40° 30' E. It has a safe & 
sheltered anchorage. 

Almissa, a town of Dalmatia, at the 
mouth of the Cettina sea. It was for- 
merly a nest of pirates. 

Almodovar, a town of Portugal. P. 

2,600. II. {A del Campo), a town of 

Spain. P. 5,620. 

Almogia, a town of Spain. P. 4,068. 

Almonacid de Zorita, a town of 
Spain. P. 1,265. Near this the French 
gained a victory over the Spaniards, Uth 
Aug. 1809. 

Almonaster la Eeal, a town of 
Spain. P. 2,007. 

Almond, the name of two small rivs. 

in Scotl. II. a town of Allegany co. 

New York. P. 1,434. 

Almondbuhg, a town of England, co. 
York. P. 8,828. 

Almonte, a town of Spain. P. 3,779. 

Almunecar, a seaport of Spain on the 
Mediterr. P. 5,000. Chief trade in cot- 
ton, sugar, & espt. fruit. 

Almunia de Dona Godina, a town 
of Spam, 25 m. S.W. Zaragoza. P. 3,563. 
It is built in the form of a circle, & di- 
vided in two parts by a regular wall. 

Alna, a town of Lincoln co. Maine. 
P. 990. 

Alne, the name of 3 small rivers in 
England, in cos. Cumberland, Northumb. 
& Warwick. 

Alnwick, a town of England, co. 
Northumberland, on the Alne, 34 m. N. 
Newcastle. P. ,6,626. Alnwick Castle, 
the seat of the Duke of Northumberland, 
adjoining the above town, is supposed to 
have been founded by the Romans. It 
covers five acres, is one of the noblest 
mansions in England, & has belonged 
to the Percy family since the reign of 
Edward II. Fitze Greene Halleck's fine 
poem has made this castle familiar to 
American readers. 

Alora, a town of Spain. P. 6,794. 

Alosno, a town of Spain. P. 2,884. 

Alo§t, a walled town of Belgium. P. 




14,850. It was the cap. of imperial 

Alouchta, a town of Eussia, on the 
Black Sea. 

Alozayna, a town of Spain. P. 2,432. 

Alpera, a town of Spain. P. 2,432. 

Alpes (Basses or Lower), a frontier, 
dep. of the S.E. of France, having E. the 
Sardinian states. Area, 682,643 hect. 
P. 152,070. Cap. Digne. It is chiefly 
mountainous, so that only one fourth of 

the land is cultivated. II. {Hautes, or 

Upper), a dep. of France, adjoining the 
foregoing. Area, 553,264 hect. P. 132,- 
038. Cap. Gap. The mntns. render culti- 
vation impossible on 4-5ths of the soil, 
the rest is fertile. Many of the inhabs. 
emigrate as pedlars, &c. 

Alphen, a town of Holland, on the old 

Rhine, 7 m. E. Leyden. P. 2,794. II. 

Alphen- en- Riel, a vill. of N. Brabant. 
P. L725. 

Alphonse Islands, two small isls. 
surrounded by reefs, in the Indn. ocean, 
N. point in lat. 6° 59' 30" S. ; Ion. 52° 
41' E. 

Alpignano, a town of Piedmont. P. 

Alpirsbach, a town of ^urtemberg. 
P 1,600. 

Alpnach, a vill. of Switzerland, cant. 
TInterwalden. P. 1,300. 

Alps. The Alps are the most remark- 
able mountains in Europe. They form a 
crescent-shaped chain, extending frota 
the Mediterranean, betw. the gulf of 
Lion & Genoa on the W., to the plains of 
Hungary on the E., a distance of about 
600 m. Mont Blanc, which attains an 
elevation of 15,810 ft. is the culminating 
point of the Alps & of all Europe ; the 
other princip. summits are Mt. Rosa, 15,- 
208 ft., Finsteraarhorn, in the Bernese 
Alps, 14,106 ft., Mt. Viso, 12,585 ft., the 
Ortler Spitz in the Rhetian Alps, 12,852. 
ft., the Gross Glockner in the Noric Alps, 
13,100 ft., the Terglou in the Carnic 
Alps, 9,380 ft., & the JEiscnhut in the 
Sty rian Alps. The most frequented passes 
are the Col de Tende in the Maritime 
Alps, 5.890 ft. ; the pass of Mt. Genevre 
in the Cottian Alps, 6,560 ft. ; that of 
Mt. Cenis, 6,775 ft. ; the pass of the great 
St. Bernard, 8,150 ft., & the Simplon, 
6,592 ft., both in the Pennine Alps ; the 
pass of Mt. St. Gothard, in the Lepontine 
Alps, 6,976 ft., the Spliigen, 6,939 ft., in 
the Ehetian Alps, the Loiblberg in the Car- 
nic Alps, & the Semmering ia the Noric 
Alps ; the Stelvio, in the emp. of Austria, 
9,100 ft., is the highest carriage pass in 
the Alps, & that of St. Gothard is the 

only one which is carried over the crest 
of the mntns., the others generally cross 
by the beds of torrents. The higher Alps 
are covered with perpetual snow, & pre- 
sent in their magnificent glaciers, the 
innumerable cascades which are precipi- 
tated from th«ir summits, & the forests 
& meadows which cover their flanks, the 
most imposing & picturesque scenery in 
Europe. It is calculated that in the 
range of the Alps there are fields of ice 
covering an area of 1,500 sq. m., of 100 
ft. in thickness ; the glaciers which de- 
pend from these move more or less rapid- 
ly according to the mildness or severity 
of the season ; their mean rate of motion, 
is from 12 to 25 ft. in a year, the greatest 
velocity, as in rivs., being at the centre. 
The largest rivs. of Europe, includ. the 
Danube, Rhine, Rhone, Inn, Drave, 
Save, & Po, rise in the Alps, or their 
subordinate ranges. The central & higher 
ridges of the Alps consist of granite, 
gneiss, & oth^r prim, rocks, flanked by 
a wide extent of limestone, sandstone, & 
slate. The higher summits ascend con- 
siderably above the lower level of per- 
petual snow (which in this lat. averages 
8,900 ft. above the sea) : the glaciers de- 
scend as low as 3,400 ft. above the sea. 
Wheat is raised at an elevation of 3,600 
ft. ; oats at 4,900 ft. ; barley at 5,100 ft. ; 
the oak is found to the height of 4,500 ft. ; 
pines & larches as high as 6,500 ft. 
above the sea ; & the Alpine rose reaches 
the limit of perpetual snow. Mineral 
products are chiefly iron, copper, & lead ; 
but quicksilver, rock-salt, & some gold 
& silver, are met with. In the French 
Alps, near Grenoble, small veins con- 
taining native gold have been worked ; 
after being neglected for half a century, 

the works were resumed in 1837. II. 

a vill. of Rensselaer co. N. Y. 

Alpuente, a town of Spain. P. 2,356.. 

Alpujarras, a mntnous. region of 
Spain, Granada, extending from the Medi- 
terranean to the Sierra Nevada, divided 
in 1834 betwn. the provinces of Granada 
& Almeira. 

Alresford (New), a town of Engl., 
CO. Hants. P. 1,578. 

Alsace, one of the old German provs., 
having E. the Rhine, & W. the Vosges 
mtns. It was ceded to France in 1648, 
& now forms the deps. Haut & Bas 
Rhine. II. a town of Berks co. Penn- 
sylvania. P. 2,498. 

Alsdorf, a vill. of Prussia. P. 1,095. 

Alsen, an isl. of the duchy Schleswig, 
in the Baltic, separated from the main- 
land by a narrow channel. Area, 130 sq 




m. P. 22,500. Exports fruit. Chf. towns, 
Nordborg & Sonderborg. 

Alsfeld, a town of Hessen Darmstadt. 
P. 3,700. 

Alsh (Loch), an inlet on the W. coast 
of Seotl. 

Alsleben, a town of Pruss. Saxony. 
P. 1,945. — —II. AUdorf- Alsleben, an adj. 
vill. P. 1,434. 

Alstahoug, a vill of Norway, the most 
N. bishopric in Europe, on the S. sjiore 
of the isl. Alsten. Lat. 64° 55' N. 

Alster, a riv. of Denmark, Holstein, 
rises about 20 m. N. Hamburg, through 
which it passes (forming the basin of 
Binnen Alster) to the Elbe. 

Alta Geacia, towns of — I. New Gra- 
nada, on the Orinoco, 40 m. S. Bogota. — 
II. Venezuela., at the mouth of the Mara- 

eaybo strait III. also a town, repub. 

of Cordova, La Plata, prov. 25 m. S.W. 
Cordova. P. 4,000. 

Altai, an extensive tantn. system of 
Upper Asia, stretching from the 80th deg. 
of E. Ion. to the shores of the sea of Okr 
hotsk, & forming the entire line of sepa- 
ration betvT. the emps. of Russia & China. 
Length from E. to W., including the 
Aldan range, nearly 5,000 m. This 
chain, however, has various names in its 
diiferent sec.tions, & the term Altai is 
usually confined to the W. portion of 
the system, betw. the rivs. Irtish and 
Selenga, or from Ion. 83° to 107° E. 
The mean elev. may be from 3,000 to 
5,000 ft., but Mt. Bialukha, near the 
head of Obe, is estim. at 10,300 ft. The 
summits are not peaked, but are nearly 
level plains of considerable extent, inter- 
spersed with isolated masses of granite. 
The points above the line of perpetual 
snow are all betw. lats. 49° 30' & 50°. 
There are many large lakes on the ter- 
races and valleys, & the Irtish, Obi, Yeni- 
sei, & Selenga rivs. all rise within its 
limits. The princip. roads over the Altai 
are — 1. That from Irkutsk by Lake Bai- 
kal to Kiakhta, which is the chief route 
for the trade betw. Russia & China. — 2. 
From TJdinsk, on the Selenga, to the 
mining distr. of Nertchinsk, on the Shilka, 
a tribut. of the Amoor. The mntns. in 
the western range consist chiefly of gran- 
ite & prim, rocks, with newer formations 
of porphyry intruded. Mines of gold, 
silver, & lead have been extensively 
worked by the Russians. Many parts 
indicate volcanic agency, & are rich in 
cornelian, onyx, topax, amethyst & other 
gems. Some of the valleys are fit for 
agricultnre, but the region is chiefly suit- 
able only for pasturage. The ancient 

inhabitants, named -Tshudes, are extinct^ 
& the present population is nomadic. 

Altamura, a town of Naples, at the 
foot of the Apennines. P. 16,000. It 
has a fine cathedral, a hospital, & a uni- 

Altavilla, two towns of Naples. — I. 
prov. princip. Ultra. P. 2,600. — II. prov. 
princip. Citra. P. 2,400. 

Altdorf, a town of Baden. P. 1,400." 
It has a botanic garden. 

AxTEA, a seaport of Spain, in a bay 
of same name, on the Mediterranean. 
P. 5,502. 

Altena, a town of Pruss. Westphalia. 
P. 4,100. Manufs. of iron & steel. 

Altenau, a mining town of Hanover, 
in the Harz mountains. P. 1,620. 

Altenberg, a town of Saxony, 20 m. 
S. Dresden. P. 2,036, employed in tin 
mines, & in manufs. of lace. 

Altenbhuch. a town of Hanover, 4 m. 
S.E. Cuxhaven.' P. 2,500. It has a tol- 
erable harbor. 

AltenburGj cap. duchy of Saxe- Alten- 
burg, 24 m. S. Leipzig, on the railw. 

from Berlin to Bavaria. P. 14,080. 

II. AUenburg or Magyar Ovar, a town 
of Hungary. P. 3,500. Some small towns 
in Austria, Bavaria, Baden, Switzer- 
land, & Transylvania, have the same 

Altengaard, a seaport of Norway, 
cap. prov. Finmark. Lat. 69° 55' N. ; 
Ion. 23° 6' 20" E., near the N. limit c. 
the cultivation of barley. 

Altbnsteig, a town of Wurtemberg. 
P. 2,000. 

Alter-do-cham, a town of Brazil, on 
the Tapajoz, at its junction with the Ama- 
zon. — Alter-do-chao, a town of Portugal. 

Ai.T-GRADisKA, a fortrcss of Austria, 
Slavonia, on the Save, opp. Berbir, or 
Turkish Gradiska. P. 2,300. 

Althaldensleben, a town of Pruss. 
Saxony, near Magdeburg. P. 1,740. 

Altkirch, a town of France, dep. 
Ilaut Rhin, on the 111. P. 3,316. 

Altmuhl, a riv. of Bavaria, rises 7 m. 
N.E. Rothenburg, & joins the Danube at 
Keilheim. The project of Charlemagne 
to join the Altmiihl with the Regnitz, <fc 
so unite the Rhine with the Danube, has 
been recently executed by the Bavarian 
government ; & the Ludwigs canal, or 
canal of the Maine & Danube, betw. Bam- 
berg on the Regnitz, & Dietfurt on the 
Altmuhl, thus connects the Black sea with 
the German ocean. The iron boat Amster- 
dam, en Weenen performed the first voy- 
age direct from Amsterdam to Vienna in 
Aug. 1846. 




Alt-oetting, a town of Bavaria. P. 

Alt-ofen, a^town of Hungary, on the 
Danube, adjoining Buda. P. 11,730. 

Alton, a city of Madison co. Illinois, 
on the Mississippi, 2 m. above the mouth 
of the Missouri, & 18 m. below that of 
the Illinois. It has an excellent "steam- 
boat landing, & bituminous coal exists 
in abundance in the vicinity. It is one 
of the most flourishing places in the state. 
P. 3,885. A railroad is being constructed 
hence to Springfield, a distance of 65 

m. II. a vill. of "VVayne co. N. Y. 

III. a town of Belknap co. New 

Hampshire. P. 2,000. IV. a town of 

Engl., CO. Hants. P. 3,139. Also seve- 
ral pas. in Engl, of this name. 

Altona, a town of Denmark, duchy 
Holstein, on the Elbe, adjoining Ham- 
burg on the W., at the head of the railw. 
from Altona to Kiel. Lat. (of observatory) 
53° 32' 45" N. ; Ion. 9° 56' 40" E. P. 
32,200. It is well built & has a celeb, 
royal observatory, & a free port, with 
manufs. of cotton, woollen, silk, oil,~& soap, 
sugar-houses, breweries, distilleries, & 
docks for ship-building. It is the most 
important commercial city of Denmark, 
next to Copenhagen. 

Altorf, a town of Switzer., cap. cant. 
Uri. near the lake of Luzern. P. 1,650. 
It has a tower said to mark the place 
where Tell shot the apple off his son's 
head. Burglen, the reputed birth-place 
of Tell, is a vill. in the immediate vicin- 
ity. — Vills. of Bavaria & Wiirtemberg. 

Altorff, a vill. of France, dep. Meur- 
the. P. 1,168. 

Altrincham, a mrkt. town of Engl., 
CO. Chester, 8 m. S.W. Manchester. 

Altsohl, a town of Hungary. P. 

Alstadt, atown of Bohemia. P. 1,100. 
II. a town of Saxony. P. 1,000. 

Altstatten, a town of Switzerl., cant. 
St. Gall. P. 1,800. 

Alvar, a large town of Hindostan, cap. 
the Maeherry. 

Alvarad.o, a town & river Mexic. con- 
fed., dep. Vera Cruz, the town at the 
mouth of the river in the gulf of Mexico, 
40 m. S.E. Vera Cruz. P. 1,600. Its 
harbor is ' inaccessible to large vessels. 
The river has a tortuous course from the 
centre of state Oaxaca, & before entering 

the sea, expands into a lake. II. a 

small river of same name, m Centr. 
America, falls into the gulf of Nicoya 
(Pacific) . 

Alverca, two towns of Portugal. 

I. prov. Estremad., on the Tagus, 16 m. 

N.E. Lisbon. P. 3,000. II. prov. 


ALVERiNGHAM, a viU. of Belgium. P. 

Alvignano, a town of Naples. P. 

Alvincz, a town of Transylvania. P. 
3,300, mostly Magyars & Bulgarians. 

Alvito, a town of Naples. P. 3,200. 

Alzano-Maggiore, a vill. of N. Italy. 
P. 2,100. 

Alzey, a walled town of Hesaen Darm- 
stadt. P. 4,583. 

Alzonne, a town of France, dep. Aude. 
P. 1,600. 

Amactjra, a riv. of S. America, falling 
into the great S. mouth of the Orinoco, in 
lat. 8° 34' N., & Ion. 60° 7' W., & in the 
lower part of its course, forming the l)oun- 
dary between British & Colombian Guiana. 
It is seldom more than 500 yards broad, 
"but is navig. for small vessels to the influx 
of the Yarakita, lat. 8° N. 

Amagansett, a vUl. of Suffolk co. New 
York, near the E. end of Long Island. 

Amak or Amager, an isl. of Denmark, 
immed. S. Copenhagen, & on which its 
suburb Christianshavn is built. P. 6,500 
(excl. of Christianshavn). 

Amakutan, an isl. of the Pacific 
[KuRiLE isls]. 

Amal, a town of Sweden, with 1,457 
inhabs., a harbor on L. Wener, & trade in 
iron, steel, and deals. 

Amalfi, a seaport of Naples, on the N. 
shore of the G. of Salerno. P. 3,439 (in 
the 12th cent, it was upwards of 50,000). 
It is an archbp's. see. Amalfi was at one 
period an independent & prosperous com- 
mercial republic ; in 1020 its inhabs. took 
an active part in the crusades. 

Amand (St.), a town of France, 4ep. 
Cher. P. 6,943. — There are a number of 
small towns of the same name in different 
deps. of France. 

Amanda, the name of 3 towns in Ohio. 

1, in Hancock co. P. 490. II. in 

Fairfield co. P. 1,987. III. in Allen 

CO. P. 280. 

Amand-les-Eaux (St.), a town of 
France, dep. Nord, much frequented for 
its thermal baths. P. 6,312. 

Amanhs, a vill. of France, dep. Ille- 
et-Villaine. P. 2,801. 

Amans (St.), sev. comms. & vills. of 

Amantea, a seaport of Naples. P. 

Amarante, a town of Portugal, on the 
Tamega, 38 m. N.E. Oporto. P. 4,000. 

Amabapura, a fortfd. city, formerly 
cap. of Burmah, on the Irrawadi, 6 m. 




N.E. Ava. In 1800, the p. was estim. at 
175,000, but since the removal of the seat 
of govt, to Ava in 1819, it has much de- 

Amarin (St.), a vill. of France, dep. H. 
Rhin. P. 1,995. 

Amaro (Santo), a town of Brazil, 
prov. & 45 m. N.W. Bahia, with a port 
& an active export trade. — Also small 
towns in other parts of Brazil. 

Amasia, an ancient city of Asia Minor. 
p. 25,000, with considerable trade in silk, 
of which 132,000 lbs. were produced here 
in 1840. 

Amastra, a fortfd. seaport of Asia 
Minor, on the Black sea. P. 800. 

Amatitlan, a dist. of Central America, 
20 m. N.N.W. Guatemala. It is a fertile 
valley surrounded by mountains of vol- 
canic origin, & watered by two rivers & 
a lake of same name. Cochineal is largely 
produced. P. 12,000. 

Amatrice, a town of Naples. P. 

Amaxichi, the cap. of the Ionian 
island Santa Maura, on its E. coast. P. 
6,000. A British governor & a Greek arch- 
bishop reside here. The harbor is shallow. 
Amay, a town of Belgium. P. 2,470. 
Amazon, the chief riv. of S. America," 
& the largest in the world. It is formed 
by the union of the Tunguragua & Ucay- 
aIe-4 the former rising in Lake Lauricocha 
(Peru), in lat. 10° 30' S., Ion. 76° 10' W. : 
& the head stream of the latter, the Apu- 
rimac, originating about lat. 16° S., Ion. 
72° W. Both rivs. have a general course 
at first northward ; the Tunguragua, near 
lat. 6° S., bends eastward, and after re- 
ceiving the Huallaga from the S., joins the 
Ucayale, about lat. 4° 25' S., Ion. 72° 30' 
, W. Here the stream has depth sufBc. 
for almost any class of ships. Thence- 
forth the Amazon flows through Brazil to 
the Atlantic, which it enters nearly under 
the equator, & between Ion. 48° & 50° 
W., its estuary widening until it is 180 
m. across. Taking the Apurimac as its 
source, its direct length is estim. at 1,769 
m., & including its windings, nearly 
4,000 m. ; for great part of which (viz. 
from the ocean to Pongo de Manseriche, 
Ion. 76° 50' W.), it is navig. & uninter- 
rupted by any rapid cataract. At least 
20 noble rivers, navigable to near their 
sources, pour their waters into it, besides 
numerous other less important streams. 
Chief tributs., the Napo, Putumayo, Ya- 
pura, & Eio Negro, from the N. ; the 
Yavari, Jutay, Jurua, Coary, Purus, Ma- 
deira, Tapajos, & XLngu, from the S. 
By the Casiquiare, a branch of the Rio 

Negro, the Amazon has a direct & remark- 
able connection with the Orinoco. The 
Amazon & its tributaries afford an im- 
mense inland navigation, estimated at 
50,000 m. ; & the extent of its basin has 
been computed at about two millions of 
sq. m., or about 2-5ths of the whole con- 
tinent of S. America. The depth of tho 
riv. is great ; in mid current no bottom is 
found with 20 faths. The velocity of tho 
current is pretty uniform, at the rate of 
3 J ms. an hour. Tides ascend this riv. 
for 400 m. from the Atlantic — as far as 
Obidos, where the Amazon is still more 
than a mile in width ; & near the fitU 
moon the rise of the tide occasions a for- 
midable rush of water into the channel, 
sometimes bringing in several waves from 
10 to 15 ft. in height; this phenomenon, 
called the bore, is witnessed on a smaller 
scale in the Ganges, & in some Europ. 
rivs. The upper part of the riv., as far 
as the mouth of the Yavari, which forms 
the boundary line betwn. Brazil and Peru, 
is called Maranon, tlience to the mouth of 
the Rio Negro it is called Solimoes or Soli- 
mas, & fmm the Negro to its mouth, 
Amazon. The tropical rains swell the 
riv. annually to 40 & 50 ft. above its ordi- 
nary level. The Maranon attains its 
greatest height in Jany., the Solimoes in 
Feby., the Amazon in middle of March. 
In the lower part of its course, the Ama- 
zon abounds with islands, & in its estuary 
are Marajo & Caviana, of considerable 
extent. Santiago (Ecuador), S. Borja, S. 
Joaquim, Tabatinga, Olivenza, Matura, 
Serpa, Santarem, Montalegre, Para, 
Arayates, & Gurupa, are towns on its 
banks; but, with trifling exceptions, the 
whole country which it traverses is still in 
a state of nature. In 1848, a steamboat 
made a passage from Para, up the river 
as far as the Negro. The estuary of the 
Amazon was discovered by Pinion in 
1500; in 1539, Francis d'Orellana sailed 
down it from the Napo, & it obtained 
its name of Amazon from his having re- 
ported that he had seen armed women on 
its shores. 

Ambares, a vill. of France, dep. Gi- 
ronde. P. 2,299. 

Ameazac, a town of France, dep. Haute- 
Vienne. P. 2,825. 

Ambelakia, a town of Turkey in Eu- 
rope, Thessaly, 14 m. N.E. Larissa. P. 

Amber, a vill. of Onondaga co. New 

York. P. 100. II. a town of Hindos- 

tan. — Cape Amber is the N. extremity 
of Madagascar. Lat. 11° 57' 30" N.; 
Ion. 49° 8' 48" E. 




Amberg, a walled city of Bararia, 31 
m. N.N.W. Regensburg. P. 10,800. Near 
this, the French were defeated by the 
Austrians in 1796. 

Ambergris Key, an uninhabited isl. 
in the Atlantic, off the N.E. shore of 
British Honduras. Length 20 m. N.E. to 
S.W. ; average breadth 3 m. Its E. coast 
is firm & well wooded ; its W. is swampy. 
Its name is derived from the ambergris 
found on its shores. 

Amberieux, a town of France, dep. 
Ain. P. 2,677. 

Ambert, a town of France, dep. Puy- 
de-DOme. P. 3,658. Its cheese is much 

Ambialet, a vill. of France, dep. Tarn. 
P. 3,271. 

Ambil, one of the smaller Phillippine 
isls. 70 m. S.W. Manila, 12 m. in cir., & 
containing a lofty volcanic mountain. 

Amblauw, an isl. of the E. Archip., 
12 m. S.E. Booro. Lat. 3° 52' S., Ion. 
127° 16' E. It is 10 m. long, & depend- 
ent on the Dutch government of Amboy- 
na. P. 733. 

Amblecote, a hamlet of Engl., co, 
Stafford. P. 1,623. 

Ambleside, a town of Engl., co. "West- 

Ambleteuse, a decayed seaport of 
France, on the English channel, 6 m. N. 
Boulogne. P. 581. 

Amboise, a town of France, on the 
Loire, & on the railway from Orleans to 

Tours. P. 4,859. II. a cape, isl., & 

anchorage of Africa, coast of Benin. 
Lat. 3° 58' N., Ion. 9° 15' B. 

Ambon, a town of France, dep. Morbi- 
han. P. 2,175. 

Amboy, a town of Oswego co. New 

York. P. 1,010. II. a town of Lucas 

CO. Ohio. P. 452. 

Amboyna, an isl. belonging to the 
Dutch in the E. Archipelago, off the 
S.W. extremity of Ceram, between lat. 
3° 26' & 3° 48' S., & Ion. 127° 57' & 128° 
27' E. Length 35 m.; average breadth 
10 m. P. 29,592, mostly Malays, with 
some Chinese, besides the Dutch resi- 
dents. Surface mountainous, but fertile, 
well watered & wooded. Chief product, 
cloves, of which about 300,000 lbs. are 
an average crop. These, with sago & 
indigo, are the chief exports. Opium & 
European goods, are the chief imports. 
The government, subordinate to that at 
Batavia (Java), is located at Fort Vic- 
toria, which with the town of Amboyna, 
p. 8,966, is on the bay of Binnen. 

Ambrim, an isl. in the Pacific, New 
Hebrides, lat. 16° 9' 30" S. ; Ion. 167° 

50' E. It is 50 m. in circumference, fer- 
tile & cultivated. 

Ambriz, a small indep. Negro kgdm. 
of Africa, on the Atlantic coast. Cap. 
Quibanza, with a port at the mouth of the 
river Ambriz, 70 m. N. Loanda. Slavery 
is unknown here, & among other singu- 
lar customs, horses & beasts of burden 
are prohibited. Exports, gum & ivory. 

Ambrizettb, a kgdm. of Africa, be- 
tween the Congo & Ambrizette rivs., 
with a town on the coast. 

Ambroix (St.), a town of France, dep. 
Gard. P. 3,210. 

Ambrose (St.), an isl. in the Pacific, 
in lat. 21° 17' 50" S. ; Ion. 79° 35' W. 

Ameland, an isl. of the Netherlands, 
in the North sea, off the coast of Fries- 
land. Lat. 53° 30' N. ; Ion. 6° 15' E. 
P. 1,936. 

Amelia, a co. in the E. part of Vir- 
ginia, drained by branches of the Appo- 
mattox riv. Area, 300 sq. m. P. 9,770. 

Cap. Amelia, (a small vill.) II. an isl. 

of Florida, 10 m. N. of the mouth of St. 
John's river. It is 15 m. in length, & 4 
in width, & forms a part of Nassau co. 
Soil fertile. Fernandina, a vill. at the 

N.W. end, has a good harbor. III. a 

city of Pontif. states. P. 4,000. 

Amenta, a town of Dutchess co. New 
York. P. 2,179. It has saw & flour 
mills, an iron furnace, & a bank with a 
cap. of $50,000. 

America, or the " New World," is one 
of the great divisions of the earth, sur- 
passing in magnitude all the others ex- 
cept Asia. Including Greenland, it ex- 
tends through 135° of lat. & 145° of Ion., 
viz. : from about lat. 80° N. to 55° S., & 
Ion. 20° to 165° W. ; separated from Eu- 
rope & Africa, by the Atlantic, & from 
Asia & Australia, by the Pacific. Its 
area is thus estimated by the best au- 
thorities : — 

sq, miles. 

North America 7,400,000 

South America 6,500,000 

Islands 150,000 

Greenland, & the isls. N. of 

Hudson's Straits 900,000 

Total 14,950,000 

It is divided N. of the equator by tho 
gulf of Mexico, into two continents, con- 
nected by a narrow region extending 
through about 15° of lat. termed Central 
America, & the S. extremity of which 
(Isthmus of Darien or Panama) is only 
28 m. across. N. America, like Europe 
& Asia, is deeply indented by bays & 
gulfs, having extensive lakes ; while S- 




America, resembling Africa & Australia 
in general outline, has its coasts little 
broken by inlets, & its lakes are compar- 
atively small. America boasts the two 
largest rivers in the world, the Amazon 
& the Mississippi, & all its physical fea- 
tures are on the most stupendous scale. 
The great mountain system of this hem- 
isphere is the most extensive in the world, 
extending under the various designations 
of Andes, Sierra Madre, Anahuac, & 
Rocky mountains, from its S. to its N.. 
extremities, a distance of about 9,000 

North America, including Central 
America, extends N.-ward of lat. 8° N. 
& between Ion. 55° & 165° W. On its E. 
side are Hudson & James' bays, the G-. 
of St. Lawrence, the bays of Eundy, 
Chesapeake, & Delaware ; on its S. the 
G. of ilexico ; on its W. the gulfs of Ga-l- 
ifornia & Georgia, Cook inlet, Bristol 
bay, & Norton & Kotzebue sounds. 
On the N. the Arctic ocean separates it 
from Melville & Bathurst isls., Victoria 
Land, Boothia, &c. BafBn bay & Davis' 
strait divide Coekbum Land from Green- 
land. Ch. peninsulas of N. America. Lab- 
rador, Nova Scotia, Florida, & Old 
California. The mnts. of N. America are 
divided into several chains, of which the 
Alleghanies on the E., & the Rocky mnts. 
on the W., bound the great central region 
of N. America, drained by the Mississippi 
& Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, Arkansas, 
Rio Brava, &o. The E. part of this re- 
gion is fertile, & its centre is a vast prai- 
rie ; but much of its W. pn.rt appears to 
be rocky & barren. N. of this region the 
five great, lakes, Superior, Michigan, 
Huron, Erie, & Ontario, discharge their 
waters E.-ward by the river St. Lawrence 
into the gulf of same name. Still farther 
N. is the Boreal region, occupying all the 
surface from Canada no'rthward to the 
shores of the Arctic ocean & Hudson 
bay ; here are the Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
AVollaston, (Jreat Slave, Great Bear, 
& Athabasca lakes, & the Mackenzie, 
Athabasca, Great Slave, & Great Fish 
rivs., mostly flowing N.-ward. The Colo- 
rado, Columbia, & Great Snake rivs , with 
the unexplored territ. of Russian America, 
are W. of the Rocky mnts., which rise 
much further inland from the Pacific tha,n 
the Andes in S. America. Around this 
continent are numerous isls., incl. New- 
foundland, Prince Edward, Cape Breton, 
& the W. Indian archipelago on the E , 
& several archipelagos lining the' Russian 
& British coasts in the N.W. 
S. America extends S.-ward from about 

lat. 13° N., & from Ion. 35° to 81° 30' 
W. It consists mainly of three immense 
plains respectively watered by the Am- 
azon, Plata, & Orinoco rivs. The basins 
of the two former are inclosed by the 
Andes W.-ward, & the mntns. of Brazil 
on the E. ; that of the last is bounded 
N.-ward by a cordillera of the Andes, & S. 
by the sierras dividing Colombia from 
Brazil. All the great rivs. of this conti- 
nent discharge their waters into the At- 
lantic, except the Rio Magdalena, which, 
with its affls., flows between the Cordil- 
leras of the Andes N.-ward to the Carib- 
bean sea. Next to these large rivs. & 
their tributaries, are the Tocantins, Par- 
anahyha, San Francisco, Belmonte, Rio 
Grande do Sul, & Rio Negro of Patago- 
nia, all of which enter the Atlantic. Chf. 
inlets, the gulfs of St. George & St. Mat- 
thias in Patagonia ; & in Colombia the 
gulf of Guayaquil & the lake of Maracay- 
bo, united by a strait to the Caribbean 
sea. L. Titieaca is the only inland lake 
of consequence ; it is much inferior in 
size to L. Nicaragua in Central America. 
Tierra del Fuego, the largest isl. belong- 
ing to S. America, is at the S. extrem. of 
Patagonia, the W. coast of which country, 
with a part of that of Chile, is lined by 
numerous isls., interspersed with some of 
the best harbors in the Pacific. 

The climate of America is almost as 
remarkable for its extreme vicissitudes as 
that of Africa for its continual heat ; this 
is partly due to its high N. & S. latitudes, 
& to the great elevation of its surface. 
The products of every climate abound in 
its different regions, & in some its vegeta- 
tion is most exuberant. It furnishes vast 
quantities of sugar, cotton, tobacco, coffee, 
cocoa, dyewoods, mahogany, medicinal 
barks ; & in the precious metals it has 
hitherto proved richer than any other divi- 
sion of the globe. Earlj^ in the present 
century, Humboldt estimated the annual 
produce of S. American gold k silver at 
8,700,O0OZ. ; & at present (1848) it may 
be estima.ted at 3,500,000/^. a-year. The 
silver mines of Mexico, & the gold' 
mines of California are much more pro- 
ductive, & it is believed that the store 
of precious metals in both the N. & S. 
parts of this hemisphere have yet been 
imperfectly discovered. Though the most 
gigantic fossil animals have been discov- 
ered in this continent, America has now 
few large quadrupeds, except the bison, 
the musk ox, the reindeer, & some bears 
in the remote north. The largest beasts 
of prey, besides the last named, are the 
jaguar & puma, chiefly in S. America. 




But in useful animals this continent is 
more prolific ; the llama, alpaca, guanaco, 
& Tieimna, are substitutes for the camel, 
sheep, & goats of the Old World ; & im- 
mense troops of wild horses originally im- 
ported from Europe, & cattle, wander 
over the Pampas. The inferior animal 
tribes are in great variety, & many of 
them are peculiar to this hemisphere. 
The native inhabitants, or red Indians, 
are also peculiar to this continent, having 
the physical characters of a distinct race. 
The tribes of the N. & S., though differing 
in civilization, & using varied dialects of 
one primary language, seem to have had 
a common origin. They are, however, 
much mixed by intercourse with Europe- 
ans & Negroes, & are rapidly becoming 
extiuet. Since Columbus discovered this 
country, 11th October, 1492, a tide of emi- 
gration has flowed from Europe to Amer- 
ica, & by far the greater proportion of 
the pop. is now of European descent. 
Virginia was discovered by Sir Walter 
Raleigh in 1584, & the colonies of Vir- 
ginia & New England were planted in 
1607 & 1620. North America is princi- 
pally peopled by Britons & their descend- 
ants, a considerable number of French in 
Canada, some Germans in Pennsylvania^ 
& N. York, & Dutch, Swedes, & Spaniards^ 
in other localities. At one period nearly 
the whole continent was nominally, if not 
actually, possessed by European sove- 
reigns ; at present, except the wide regions 
claimed by Gt. Britain & Russia, in the 
extreme N., very few portions of territ. on 
the American main belong to European 

powers. Russian America compreh. 

the N.W. coasts from lat. 55° to 70° N., 
& Ion. 141° to 168° W. British Amer- 
ica is bounded on the N. by the territory 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, & on the 
S, by the United States, comprising the 
provinces of Upper & Lower Canada, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, 
Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, 
Labrador, Antieosti Isl., & part of Ore- 
gon. tinited States extend from the 

British possessions in the N., to the gulf 
of Mexico S., & from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific. The republic of Mexico extends 
from lat. 16°to 42° N. Central Amer- 
ica includes the republic of Guatemala, 
adjoining Mexico on the S., Yucatan, & 

Belize. Soutli America compreh. on 

the N. the republics of Granada, Vene- 
zuela, & Ecuador ; on the W. coast the 
republic of Peru, & S. of this Bolivia & 
Chile. Between these states & the At- 
lantic lie the United Provinces of La Plata. 
The empire of Brazil lies to the E., wa- 

Table of the different States and Colonies in 
.America and the West Indies, with their 
estitn. Area and Population. 

States, Terr, and Colon. 

Area in sq. m. 

Estim. Fop. 
(latest can.) 

British N. America. 
Russian America.. . 
Danish America ) 

(Greenland) . . . ( 
United States & ) 

Territories \ 

Mexican Confeder.. 
Indep. Ind. Terr... . 







23,263,488 ' 

Total N. America 



Cent. Amer. Confed. 



472 870 

British Hondui-as.. . 


Total Cent. Amer. 









Spanish W.I.(Cu-( 
ba,P. Rico,&c.) \ 

British W. I. Isls., . 

French do. 

Dutch do. 

Danish do. 

Swedish do.(St. ; 
Bartholomew) . \ 







Total W. I. Isls.. . 



n !„«, ( Venezuela 

C"!^"'- 5 N.Granada 

°'^ ( Ecuador. . 

i British . . . 
Guiana < French . . . 















300,000 V 














Peru (N. and S.)... 


Plata Confederation 

Uruguay (Banda > 

Oriental) S 

Chile and Araucania 

Patagonia, Tierra 1 

fiel Fuego, and > 

the Falkland Is. ) 

Total S. America 



Grand Total 



tered by the Atlantic, adjoining which is 
the small state of Paraguay. Uruguay, 
or Banda Oriental, lies immediately to 
the S. of Brazil, & Patagonia & Tierra 
del Fuego form the southern limits of the 

continent. Ciuiana, on the N.E. coast 

N. of the Amazon r., contains the British 
possessions of Demerara, Essequibo, Ber- 
bice, the French possess, of Cayenne, & 
Dutch col. of Surinam. The West In- 
dia Islands in the Columbian Archipel- 




ago, consist of the Bahama islands, Great 
Antilles, including Cuba, Jamaica, St. 
Domingo, Porto Rico. Smaller Antilles 
includ. Barbuda, Antigua, Guadaloupe, 
Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucie, Barba- 
does, Granada, Tobago, St. Christopher, 
St. Vincent, Trinidad, &c. 

Americcs, a small vill. &, cap. of 
Sumpter co. Georgia, 104 m. S.S.W. Mil- 
ledge ville. P. 400. 

Amersfooet, a town of the Nether- 
lands, with a port on the Eem, 12i m. 
N.E. Utrecht. P. 12,889. 

Amersham, a town of England, co. 
Bucks. P. 3,645. 

-Ames, a vill. of Montgomery co. New 
York. P. 175. 

Amesbtjry, a town of Essex co. Mass. 
on the Merrimac, 44 m. N.E. Boston. P. 
2,471. Large ships are built here, & 
floated down the Merrimac to the ocean. 
Here also are numerous fulling mills & 

other factories. II. a town of England, 

CO. Wilts. P. 1,171. 

Amesville, a vill. of Athens co. Ohio. 
P. 1,431. 

Amhara, a kgdm. Of Abyssinia, cap. 
Gondap. It comprises all the country 
W. of the Tacazze. 

Amherst, a seaport of the British 
territ. in Further India, .30 m. S.W. 
Maulmein. P. 5,000. Harbor spacious 

& secure. II. a town of Hancock co. 

Maine. P. . III. cap of Hills- 

borough CO. New Hampshire, 30 m. S. 
Concord. P. 1,565.-- — IV. a town of 
Hampshire co. Massachusetts, 82 m. "W. 
Boston. P. 2,250. Amherst college was 
founded here in 1821. It has 182 stu- 
dents, 12 instructors, a library of 14,000 
vols., & complete philosophical appa- 
ratus. Its list of alumni numbers 963, of 

whom 432 have been ministers.- V. a 

town of Erie co. New York. P. 2,451. 

■ VI. a town of Lorain co. Ohio. P. 

1,184. VII. a central co. of Virginia, 

on the N. side of James river. Area, 
418 sq. m. P. 12,699. Cap. Amherst, 
a vill. 115 m. "W. Richmond. P. 

Amherstburg, a town of Up. Canada, 
on the Detroit riv. 14 m. S. Detroit. 

Amiens, a city of France, on the 
Somme, & on the railway from Paris to 
Brussels, 71 m. N.Paris. P. 47,332. Its 
Gothic cathedral, founded in 1220, is one 
of the finest in Europe. Here are a pub- 
lic library of 50,000 vols., & numerous 
manufs. of cotton, woollen, & other fab- 
rics. The treaty of "the Peace of 
Amiens" was signed 27th March, 1802. 
Amiens is a bishop's see. 

Amirante Islands, in the Indian 

ocean. Lat. of the S.-most island 6° 53' 
15" S. ; Ion. 53° 8' 24" E. They consist 
of eleven small, low isls., & are visited 
for the land turtles, with which they 

Amite, a S.W. county of Mississippi. 
Area, 900 sq. m., watered by the Amite 
riv. P. 9,694. Cap. Liberty. The Amite 
riv. runs hence through Louisiana into 
the Iberville riv. 

Amititan, a vill. and lake of Central 
America, state and 20 m. S. Guatemala. 

Amity, a vill. of Aroostook co. Maine. 

P. 169. II. a town of Allegany co. 

New York. P. 1,354. Also, towns in 
Erie & Berks counties, Pa., & a vill. in 
Orange co. New York. 

Amla, one of the Andreanov isls., N. 
Pacific. Length E. to W. 40 m., breadth 
10 m. 

Amlwch, a seaport of Wales, co. An- 
glesey, on its N. coast. P. 3,373. 

Ammer, two small rivs. 1. Wiir- 

temberg. II. Bavaria. 

Ammerschwihr, a town of France, 
dep. H. Rhin. P. 2,169. 

Ammon, a vill. of Switzerland, cant. 
St. Gall. P. 1,500. 

Ammonoosuc, Upper & Lower, small 
rivers of New Hampshire, both rising in 
the White mtns., & falling at difi'erent 
points into the Connecticut, after courses 
of about 50 m. 

Amoor, or Saghalist, a large river of 
E. Asia, formed near lat. 53° "IST. ; Ion. 
125 E., by the union of the Shilka & 
Argun. It enters the gulf of Saghalin, 
op. the isl. of same name, lat. 52° 27' 
N. ; Ion. 140° E. Entire course, 2,200 m. 

Amorbach, a town of Bavaria. P. 

Amorgos, an isl. of the Grecian archip. 
Length 13 m. ; breadth 6 m. P. 2,800. 

Amoskeag, a vill. of Hillsborough co. 
New Hampshire. The falls of the Mer- 
rimac here supply much water power, 
which is employed in numerous cotton 

Amou, a town of France, dep. Landes. 
P. 2,176. 

Amour (St.), a town of France, dep. 
Jura. P. 1,939. 

Amoy, a seaport of China, prov. Fo- 
kien, on the isl. of Amoy, in a bay of the 
Chinese sea, op. Formosa, & 320 m. E.N.E. 
Canton. Lat. 24° 10' N. ; Ion. 118° 13' 
E. P. 250,000. The city is separated 
from the suburbs by a line of rocky hills, 
commanded by a citadel. The harbor is 
excellent. This port was open to Euro- 
peans till 1734, when all trade with them 
was suppressed. On the 26th Aug. 1841, 




Araoy was taken by the English, who 
held the fortified isl. Kolungsoo, com- 
manding the entrance to the harbor, 
until the final payment of the sum of six 
million dollars exacted from the Chinese 
gov. by the treaty of Nankin. There is 
now a considerable trade, espec. with 
Formosa; manufs. of porcelain, grass 
cloths, umbrellas, paper, &o., which, with 
sugar candy & congou tea, compose its 
principal expts. Imports comprise rice, 
sugar, camphor, & European produce, 
which in 1844, amounted in value to 
80,659Z., the exports by sea amounting 
to 12,612Z. In 1848 the total amount 
of foreign trade was £212,416, of which 
£97,373 were British. 

Ampanam, a town of the E. Archip., 
on the W. coast of the isl. Lombok. 

Ampaza, a seaport of Zanguebar, & 
cap. of a state of the same name, at the 
mouth of the Pate, in lat. 20° S. ; Ion. 
40° 50' E. 

Ampfing, a vill. of Bavaria. Here 
Moreau commenced his famous retreat 
in 1800. 

Amphila, a bay and isl.. Red sea, 
Abyssinia, the bay in lat. 14° 42' N. ; 
Ion. 40° 22' E. 

Amplepuis, a town of France, dep. 
EhOne. P. 1,961. 

Ampthill, a town of England, co. Bed- 
ford. P. 2,001. 

Ampudia, a town of Spain. P. 1,836. 

Ampurias, Castle de S. Martin de, 
a poor hamlet of Spain, with a small 
harb. on the Mediterr., 24 m. N.E. Ge- 

Ameitsie, the sacred cap. of the Pun- 
jab, 36 m. E. Lahore, with which it com- 
municates by Runjeet Singh's canal. P. 
120,000. Von Hugel states that Amritsir 
is larger than Lahore, & the most wealthy 
& commerc. place in N. India. The rich 
temple here is the chief seat of the Sikh 
religion. Here in 1846 a treaty was 
signed, by which the terr., comprised 
betw. the rivs. Beas & Sutleje, was ceded 
to the English. 

Ameum, an isl. of Denmark, near the 
"W. coast ; 6 m. long, & 2 m. broad. P. 

Amstel (Nieuwer), a town of Hol- 
land. P. 5,084. 

Amstel (Ouder), a town of Holland. 
P. 2,016. 

'Amstelveen, a vill. of Holland. P. 

Amsterdam, one of the most import, 
cities of Europe, cap. of the Netherlands, 
is built in the form of a crescent, on the 
Amstel, at its entrance into the Ye, lat. 

52° 22' 5" N. ; Ion. 4° 53' 2" E. P. 
(1847) 221,349, of whom 23,000 were 
Jews. The city is connected by railws. 
with the Hague, Rotterdam, & Arnhem. 
It is built on piles of wood driven into 
the alluv. soil ; & is divided into 2 parts 
by the Amstel, & intersected by nums. 
canals, which form 90 isls. commung. by 
290 bridges. The streets, almost all 
ranged on the sides of canals, are well 
paved & lighted ; the houses are built 
of brick, painted different colors. Am- 
sterdam is the seat of the administration 
of the marine, of which the magazines & 
building-yards are most extensive ; an 
observatory, a cabinet of nat. history, a 
royal museum with a splendid & unique 
callee. of paintings ; the most remarkable 
buildings are the palais-royal, the hotel 
de ville, the mansions of the E. & W. 
India cos., the buildings of the Felix Me- 
ritis soc, the exchange, the arsenal, the 
barracks, & many eccles. edifices, besides 
extens. charitable institutions, "rhe port 
of Harlem, the handsome bridge over the 
Amstel, the fine quays along the Y, & 
the vast basins, aT-e also worthy of notice. 
Amsterdam attained its greatest pros- 
perity after the closing of the Scheldt in 
1648, when it rnonopolized nearly all the 
commerce of the Indies. Its commerce 
decreased with the decline of the republic 
of Holland, by the opening of the Scheldt, 
& the rivalry of Antwerp & Rotterdam ; 
but the canal of N. Holland, & the 
railws. which now afford such facilities 
of communication with other parts of the 
kingdom & the adjoining countries, will 
probably restore its former prosperity. 
There is regular steam communic. betw. 
this city & Kampen, Enkhuizen, Harlin- 
gen, & Hamburg. The bank of the 
Nethds. was establ. here in 1814. Its 
industry comprises manufs. of woollen, 
cotton, linen, & silk fabrics, jewellery & 
gold lace, sugar, borax, sulphur, & other 
refineries, soap, oil, glass, iron, dye, & 
chemical works, distilleries, breweries, 
tanneries, tobacco factories, & ship-build- 
ing docks. Chf. imports, the products of 
the colonies & N. Europe, hides, linen, 
cotton, & woollen stuffs, hardwares, rock 
salt, tiji plates, coal, Ac. Chf. exports, 
the produce of the Neth'ds., E. & W. 
India possessions, cheese, butter, &c., 
corn & linens from Germany, Span., 
Germ., & Engl, wools, French, Rhenish, 
& Hungar. wines, brandy, &c. Amster- 
dam has a large transit, as well as insur- 
ance & bill-broking trade. Imports in 
1840, amounted in value to 7,944,958/., 
& the exports to 6,225,083Z. ; in the same 



year, 4,177 ships entered the port. 
About 250 or 260 large ships, belonging 
to Amsterdam, trade to the E. & W. In- 
dies, the Mediterr., & the Baltic. II. 

a town of Montgomery co. New York, on 
the Mohawk riv., 32 m. W. Albany. The 
Utica & Schenectady railroad passes thro' 
the place. Here are fm-naces, carpet, & 

scythe factories, &o. P. 5,333. III. 

a vill. of Botetourt eo. Va. 

Amsteedam Island, an isl. in the S. 
of the Indian ocean, about 60 m. N. the 
isl. St. Paul, lat. 38° 53' S., Ion. 77° 37' 
E. It is 4J m. in length, 2J m. in 
breadth, 2,760 ft. in elev., & evidently the 
crater of an extinct volcano, having a 
burning soil & numrs. hot springs. It is 
destitute of vegetation ; but sea-birds, 
shell-fish, & seals, abound on it. 

Amsterdam (New), a seaport of Brit. 
Gruiana, near the mouth of the Berbice, 
founded by the Dutch. Three strong 
batteries protect the entrance. P. 6,633. 

Amstetten, a vill. of Austria, near 
the Ips, 28 m. E.S.E. Linz. The French 
here defeated the Austrians & Russians, 
5th Nov. 1805. 

Amtzell, a vill. of Wiirtemb. P. 2,130. 

Amucu, a lake of S. America, betw. 
the Essequibo & the Amazon : in the dry 
season it nearly disappears. 

Amusco, a town of Spain. P. 1,743. 
It was nearly depopulated by pestilence 
in 1804. 

Amwell, a town of Hunterdon co. 
N. J. P. 3,071. 

Anabon, an isl. belonging to Spain, in 
the gulf of Guinea, 180 m. W. Cape 
Lopez. Lat. of N. point, 1° 24' S. ; Ion. 
5° 37' E. ; 4 m. long, 2 m. broad. P. 3,000 
negroes, who profess the Roman Catholic 
relig. It is mntns., & affords safe anchor- 
age, except during equinoctial storms. 

Anacapki, a town of isl. Capri. P. 

Anadyr, a riv. of Siberia, traversing 
the Tchuktchi country, N. of Kamtchat- 
ka. It rises in L. Ivachno, about lat. 66° 
30' N. ; Ion. 173° E. ; falls into the sea 
of Anadyr (N. Pacific), about Ion. 178° 
E. Anadyrsk, the only station on its 
banks, is in lat. 65° 10' N., Ion. 167° 
10' E. 

Anagni, a town of Pontif. sta., 37 m. 
E.S.E. Rome. P. 5,450. It is the seat 
of a bishopr. 

Anah, a town of Asiat. Turkey, on the 
Euphrates. P. 3,000. 

Anahuac, the great central table-land 
of Mexico, betw. lat. 15° & 30° N., & 
Ion. 95° & 110° W. ; comprising 3-5ths 
of the territ. of the Mexican confed., & 

elevated from 6,000 to 9,000 ft. above the 
sea. It is bounded E. & W. by the two 
great mntn. chains into which the cor- 
diilera of Central America subdiv. in its 
progress N.-ward. Many lofty mntns., 
including JoruUo, Popocatepetl (17,720 
ft. high), & other volcanoes, rise out of 
this plateau, but much of its surface is 
tolerably level. N. of Mexico, in the 
Sierra Madre, are the silver mines of 
Zimipan, the richest in the world. The 
rivs. Tula, Zacatula, Rio Grande de San- 
tiago, Rastla, & Nasas, originate in this 
region, in which also are the cities of 
Mexico, La Puebla, Guanaxuato, & Za- 
catecas. The name Anahuac is also ap- 
plied to the Rocky mnts. S. of lat. 40° N., 
which extend into Mexico & join this 

Anaklia, a seaport of Abkasia, on the 
Black sea. 

Anam, an emp. of S.E. Asia, occupy- 
ing the E. part of Further India, betw. 
lat. 10° & 23° N., & Ion. 102° & 109° E. ; 
comprising Cochin-China, Tonquin, & a 
part of Camboja ; & having N. the Chi- 
nese provs. Quangsi & Yun-nan, W. the 
indep. Laos & Siamese territs., & S. & E. 
the China sea & G. of Tonquin. Area 
estim. about 98,000 sq. m. ? ; & popula- 
tion at 15,000,0007 of whom 380,000 are 
supposed to be Christians. Surface gen- 
erally fertile, rising progressively from 
the sea to the great mntn. chain separ- 
ating Cochin-China from Camboja. Chief 
rivs. the Menam-kong, forming the 
boundary on the side of Siam, & the rivs. 
of Tonquin, Saigon, & Hue. Climate 
healthy, the heat being tempered by sea 
breezes. Inhab. similar in race to the 
Chinese, with an intermixture of Siam- 
ese, Malays & Moi, or dark negro race. 
Coasts generally bold, & abound with 
some of the best harbors in the world. 
Products, rice, sugar, cinnamon, carda- 
moms, pepper, & other spices, indigo, 
dye-woods, iron-wood, teak, & other tim- 
ber, varnish, gums, an inferior tea, bam- 
boos, ivory, silk, copper, iron, & the pre- 
cious metals. These articles, with edible 
birds' nests & pearls, form the princip. 
exports. Impts., manuf. silks, porcelain, 
drugs, fine teas, & household utensils 
from China ; spices, sandal wood, & tin 
from the Malay penins. ; opium from 
India; cottons from Canton & Singa- 
pore, & a few Brit, coarse woollens, with 
serges, camlets, iron, & arms from Eu- 
rope. The king is said to monopolize 
the legal trade, in which five square 
rigged ships are employed, on voyages 
to Canton, Batavia, & British India. In 




1844 the imports from Anam, at Singa- 
pore, amounted in value to $177,606, & 
the exports thither to $229,413. Chf. 
cities and seats of trade, Hue, the cap.. 
Ke-cho (Tonquin), Sai-gdn, & Faifo. 
The governm. is an hered. milit. despot- 
ism ; the central administration is under 
six mandarins, heads of bureaux ; & the 
provinces are each under a mandarin of 
the first or military class. Standing 
army was, some years since, between 
40,000 & 50,000 men, besides the royal 
guards & 800 elephants. Navy includes 
abt. 200 gun-boats, 100 galleys, & 500 
smaller vessels; the people excel most 
Asiatics in ship-building. The popular 
religion is Buddhism. Before the French 
revol., the gov. of Louis XVI. made 
great endeavors to establish French 
ascendency in Anam ; & by the efforts 
of the French residents, several of the 
cities were fortified in the European 
fashion, & European policy was intro- 
duced into the govnmt. ; but these in- 
cipient reforms have since become obso- 
lete ; a more recent attempt, on the part 
of the French, to gain an ascendency, 
having also failed. The emperor sends 
presents, at stated periods, to the court 
of Pekin, which affects to consider Anam 
tributary to China, & invests its succes- 
sive rulers with their sovereignty. 

Anamaboe, a Brit, fort on the Guinea 

coast, 11 m. E.N.E. Cape Coast Castle. 

Lat. 5° 10' N. ; Ion. 1° 5' W. P. 4,500. 

Anambas Islands, a group in the 

China sea, consisting of about 50 gran- 
itic & wooded isls., between lat. 2° & 3° 

N. ; Ion. 106° & 108° 30' E., 150 m. E. 

the Malay peninsula. P. 2,000, of Ma- 
lay descent. 

Anapa, a seaport of Circassia, on the 

Black sea. P. 3,000. 

Anastasia, an island off the N.E. 

coast of Florida, 18 m. in length by 

about H ni. in breadth; with a signal 

tower at its N. end, in lat. 29° 50' N. ; 

Ion. 81° 23' W. 

Anatolia, the W. part of Asia Minor, 

between lat. 36° & 42° N., & Ion. 26° & 

35° E. 

Anatolico, an isl. of Greece, 6 m. 

N.W. Missolonghi, covered by a town of 

400 houses. 

Ancenis, a town of France, on the 

Loire, 21 m. N.E. Nantes. P. (1846) 


Ancebville, a town of France, dep. 

Meuse. P. 2,208. 

Ancholme, a riv. of Engl., joins the 

Humber, 9 m. N. Glanford Brigg, to 

which town it has been made navigable. 

Anciaes, a walled town of Portug., 
70 m. E.N.E. Oporto. P. 2,000. 

Ancober, a riv. of Africa, on the Gold 
Coast. ■ Lat. 4° 54' N. ; Ion. 2° 16' 15" 
W., forming the W. limit of the Dutch 
possessions on this coast. 

Ancomarca, a post station, Bolivia, 
S. America, 15,724 feet above the level 
of the sea, inhabited during summer 
months, & highest human residence in 
the world. 

Ancona, a marit. city of Pontif. sta., 
on the Adriatic, . 134 m. N.E. Rome. 
Lat. 43° 37' 42" N. ; Ion. 13° 30' 35" E. 
P. 36,000, exelu. of about 5,000 Jews, 
who inhabit a separate quarter. The 
port, one of the best & most frequented 
in Italy, is defended by several forts, & 
enclosed by two moles, on one of which 
is a lighthouse. In 1798, Ancona was 
taken & occupied by the French ; & in 
1799, General Meunier here sustained a 
memorable siege. It was again taken 
by the French in 1801, & restored to 
the pope in 1802. After this it was incor- 
porated with the kgdm. of Italy till 1814, 
when it was restored to the Papal doms. 
A detachment of French troops held its 
citadel from 1832 to 1838. Manufs. of silk 
stockings, leather, paper, wax, candles, 
and verdigris. Princip. exports, corn, 
hemp, bacon, sulphur, tallow, &c. ; chief 
imports, colonial goods, drugs, & metals. 

Ancona (Marca, or March of), an 
old division of territ. in Central Italy, 
which in the middle ages included the 
country betw. the Duchy of Urbino & 
the March of Fermo, cap. Ancona. 

Ancram, a town of Columbia co. N.Y., 
45 m. S.E. Albany, on Punch & Ancram 
creeks, which supply water power for 
several iron forges. P. 1,770. Rich 
veins of lead ore in the vicinity are not 
much worked. 

Ancy, a vill. of France, dep. Rhone. 

P. 949. II. a vill. in dep. Moselle. 

P. 1,164. 

Ancy-le-Franc, a town of France, 
dep. Yonne, on the canal of Bourgogne. 
P. 1,423. 

Andalusia, a division of the S. of 
Spain, bounded N. by Estremadura & 
New Castile, E. by Murcia & the Medi- 
terr., S. by the Atlantic, & W. by Portu- 
gal. It is now div. into the following 
provs., which are named from their chief 
towns, Almeira, Grana.da, Jaen, Malaga, 
Cadiz, Cordova, Huelva, Sevilla. Anda- 
lusia is traversed by the sierras Morena 
& Nevada ; the climate on the coasts is 
extremely warm ; its chief minerals are 
lead, copper, iron, & mercury. It is 




very fertile in grain, wines, olives, figs, 
sugar, & cotton, & furnishes a consider- 
able quantity of silk & cochineal. On 
its pasture is raised a celebrated breed 
of horses, & sheep which yield fine wool. 
The manufs., formerly important, have 
greatly declined. 

Andaman Islands, a group in the 
bay of Bengal, betw. lat. 10° & 13° N., 
& nearly under the 93° of E. Ion. Total 
area about 3,000 sq. m. P. scanty, & 
in the lowest state of barbarism. In 
1793, a British settlement was estatbl. at 
Port Cornwallis, in the N.E. of Great 
Andaman, but was abandoned in 1796.:; 
Andelfingen, a town of Switzerl., 
cant. Zurich. P. 2,400. 

Andelot, a town of France, dep. H. 
Marne. P. 992. Manufs. of cutlery. 

Andelys (les), a town of France, dep. 
Eure, 20 m. N.E. Evreus, & near the 
Seine. P. 3,456. 

Andennes, a town of Belg., 10 m. E. 
Namur. P. 4.990. Manuf. porcelain, & 
tobacco pipes. 

Andeol de Bourleng (St.), a vill. of 

France, dep. Ardeche. P. 1,594. II. 

(De Fourchades, St.), a vill. Ard8che. 
P. 1,099. 

Andermatt, a viU. of Switzerland, in 
the val. of Ursern, cant. Uri, 18 m. S. 
Altorf, with 600 inhabs., & a remarkable 
anc. church. Near it is the celebrated 
Devil's bridge, crossing the Reuss, & 
forming part of the route across Mount 
St. Grothard into Italy. 

Andernach, a town of Prussia, 10 m. 
KW. Coblenz, on the Rhine. P. 3,182. 
Manufs. of hydraulic cement made from 
volcanic tufa & empl. in the construction 
of the dykes in Holland. 

Anderson, one of the N.W. dist. of 
S. C, between the Savannah & Saluda 
rivs. Area, 800 sq. m. P. 10,531. Cap. 

same name. II. a central co. of Ky. 

Area, 170 sq. m. P. 6,260. Cap. Law- 

renceburg. III. a central co. of E. 

Tenn. Area, 750 sq. m. P. 6,938. Cap. 

Clinton. IV. a town of Hamilton co. 

Ohio, on the Ohio riv., 10 m. N.E. Cin- 
cinnati. P. 2,311. V. a town of Rush 

CO. Indiana. P. 1,423. VI. county 

Texas. P. 2,884. 

Andes, the great mountain system of 
S. America, extend, through 65° of lat. 
along its W. coast from Cape Horn to the 
isthmus of Panama, with a breadth of 
from 40 to 400 m., forming along the 
highest part, a length of 4,360 m., & 
covering with its chains, plateaus, and 
declivities, nearly a sixth part of that 
continent. From its S. extrem. the main 

chain runs along the W. shore of Tierra 
del Fuego, & consists of rocky summits, 
rising in many places to 2,000 or 3,000 ft., 
the culminating point of this portion (Mt. 
Sarmiento), being 6,910 ft. above the sea. 
The Andes are composed . partly of 
granite, gneiss, mica, & clay slate, but 
chiefly of greenstone, porphyry, & basalt, 
with limestone, red sandstone, & con- 
glomerate. Salt & gypsum are also 
found, & seams of coal at a great eleva- 
tion. The topaz, amethyst, & other 
gems are abundant. Volcanoes are nu- 
merous in the Chilean Andes, where 
there are no less than nineteen in a state 
of activity ; & the mntns. of Ecuador 
consist almost altogether of volcanic sum- 
mits, either now or formerly in active 
ignition. Of these, the most dreaded is 
Cotopaxi. By the government returns 
for 1849, the amount of gold & silver 
coinage & of silver bars, was as follows : 

Peru.. $3,441,965 

Bolivia 2, 104,605 

Mexico 12,040,000 

Total value $17,586,570 

These returns, however, do not express 
the accurate produce of the mines, as 
much smuggling takes place. The limit 
of perpetual snow in the Andes reaches 
the height of 18,300 ft. in the W. Cordil- 
lera of Chile ; near the equator it is 
15,000 ft., & in the Bolivian Andes 
(lat. 21° S.) 17,000 ft. above the sea. 
The potato is cultivated in the Andes at 
an elev. of 9,800 to 13,000 ft. Wheat 
grows luxuriantly at a height of 10,000 
ft., & oats ripen in the vicinity of L. Titi- 
caca, at an elev. of 12,795 ft. Glaciers 
are numerous in Tierra del Fuego, & on 
the "W. coast of Patagonia. The follow- 
ing are the principal summits & passes 
of the Andes, arranged from S. to N., 
with elevations in feet : 

Patagonian Andes. 

Yanteles (vole.) 8,030 

Corcobado (do.) 7,510 

Minchinadom (do.) 8,000 

Chilean Andes. 

Antuco (vole.) 13,0007 

Portillo pass 14,365 

Aconcagua , 23,200 

La Cumbre pass, between Mendoza 

& Santiago 12,454 

Descabezado 12,102 

Nevado de Chorolque 16,546 

Bolivian Andes. 
Cerro de Potosi 16,040 




Pass of Potosi 14, 320 

Gualtieri (vole.) 22,000 

Nevado de Chuquibamba 21,000 

" Illimani 24,200 

" Sorata 25,250 

Pas of las Gualillas '... 14,8307 

Analache Mt. 18,500 

Peruvian Andes. 

Arequipa (vole.) 18,400 

Pass between Lima & Tarma, ex- 
treme hgt - 15,7607 

Pass of Alto de Jacaibamba 15,1357 

" . Laehagual 15,480 

Ancles of Quito. 

(Mean elevation) 18,380 

Mountains of Assuay 15,500 

Pass of do. highest point 12,385 

Chimborazo. .'. 21,420 

Cotopaxi (vole.) 18,887 

Antisana (vole.) 19, 137 

Pichincha (vole.) 15,922 

Cayambe %. 19,648 

Earthquakes generally accompany the 
volcanic eruptions, & are felt over all the 
adjacent continent. The Andes are cele- 
brated for producing gold & silver in 
large quantities, with platina, mercury, 
copper, lead, tin, & iron. Humboldt esti- 
mated the annual product of the mines, at 
the commencement of the present century, 
at 43,500,000 dollars. Mr. Jacob calcu- 
lates the total product during the 20 
years terminating in 1829, at 379,937,731 

dollars. Andes, Delaware co. N. Y., 

87 m. W. Albany, 344 "W. The surface 
is hilly, & the soil adapted to grazing. 
P. 2,672. 

Andoen, one of the Loffoden isls. off 
W. coast of Norway, 20 m. in length, 10 
m. broad. Lat. 69° 20' N. ; Ion. 15° 15' E. 

Andorra, (Valley of), a neutral 
country with, the name of a republic, sit. 
on the S. slope of the Pyrenees, betw. the 
French dep. Ariege, & the Spanish prov. 
of Lerida, extend, from lat. 42° 22' to 
42° 43' N., & from Ion. 1° 25' to 1° 55' 
E., surrounded by high mntns., on which 
the snow lies for six months in the 
year. Its climate is cold, but healthy. 
Soil unproductive, but contains rich 
mines of iron & one of lead. The valley is 
divided into 6 par. or comm., & contains, 
besides the cap., thirtj'-four hamlets. 
The govt., a mixture of monarchy & de- 
mocracy, is vested in twenty-four consuls, 
elect, by the whole pop. Its constitution 
was, till 1848, subject to the mutual sov. 
of the king of the French, & the bishop 
of Urgel, & under the prot. of the queen 
of Spain. The inhabs. mostly shepherds, 
speak the Catalan language. They are 

all Ptom. Catholics, & public instruction 
is in the lowest state. Industry confined 
to three iron forges, & a small quant, 
of coarse cloth, chf. comm. export of iron 
to Spain, & skins and wool to France. 
The princip. necessaries of life are imp. 
from Spain, & the repub. carries on an 
extensive contraband trade betw. the two 
states. The p. of the valley, which has 
been annually increasing, was in 1845, 
estim. from -5,000 to 6,000. The indep. 
of this little state dates from Charle- 
magne, in 790. 

AxDOVER, a town of Engl., co. Hants, 

63 m. W.S.W. London. P. 4,941. 

Andover, Oxford co. Me. It was incor- 
porated in 1804. The land is of a good 
quality, & the town is surrounded by 

mountains. P. 551. II. Merrimack 

CO. N. H., it is watered by Blackwater riv. 

P. 1,168. III. Windsor co. Vt. P. 

0,000. IV. Essex co. Mass. The vill. 

contains 5 churches, a bank, a savings 
institution, an insurance office. Philips 
academy, & the Andover theological sem- 
inary. P. 6,945. 

Andeaix, a port on S.W. coast of 
•Majorca. P. 4,609. 

Andeahum, a town of Sweden, 24 m. S. 
by W. Christianstadt, with extens. alum 

Andre (St.), a town of Hungary, 10 
m. N. Pesth, on the Danube. P. 2,980. 
It has a Roman Catholic & nums. Greek 

churches. II. a town of Savoy. P. 


Andreanov Islands, a group of vole, 
isls., N. Pacific, belong, to Russia, & 
forming the \Y. div. of the Aleutian isls., 
lat. 52° 57' N. ; Ion. 170° E. & 173° W. 
They are scantily inhabited. 

Andreaseerg, a town of Hanover. 
P. 4,400, employed in mining, & manufg. 
lace & thread. 

Andre-de-Cubzac (St.), a town of 
France, dep. Gironde, 12 m. N.E. Bor- 
deaux. P. 1,554. 
_ Andee-de-Sangonis (St.), a town of 
France, dep. Herault. P. 2,079. — Andre 
{St.), is the nameof many vills. in France. 

Andres (San), a town on the E side 
of the isl. of Teueriffe. P. 2,635. 

Andretta, a town of Naples, in the 
Apennines. P. 4,450. 

Andrew County, Missouri, on the 
Missouri riv., cap. Savannah. P. 9,433. 

Andrews (St.), a city of Scotland, on 
the E. coast of Fifeshire. P. 6,017; situ- 
ated on the rocky edge of a bay of same 
name ; 39 m. N.N.E. of Edinburgh. 
The university is the oldest in Scotland, 
founded 1411. 




Andrews (St.), a town of New Bruns- 
wick, ISO m. N.E. Portland.— 5;;. An- 
drew's bay 4" sound, on the S. coast of 

Florida, extending 30 m. inland. II. 

an inlet on the coast of Guinea.— (Si. An- 
drew's Islands, Pacific ocean, betw. Pa- 
pua & the Pellew isls., are in lat. 5° 32' 
N. ; Ion. 128° W. — St. Andrew's chan- 
nel <^- sound, Conception strait, W. 

Andria, an episcop. city of Naples. 
P. 14,600. 

Andros, an isl. of the Grec. Arcbip., 
25 in. long, 6 m. broad, & forming with 
Tenos a gov. of Greece. P. 15,200. (?) 
The isl. is mntns., soil fertile, & yields 
corn, wine, silk, oil, & fruit. — Andr-os, 
the cap., on its E. coast, has 5,000 inhabs., 
& a harbor for small vessels ; but the 
best port in the isl. is that of Gaurio, on 

the W. coast. II. one of the Bahama 

isls. ; lat. of S. point, 24° 4' N. ; Ion. of 
do. 78° 45' W. 

Androscoggin riv., Me., is formed by 
the junction of Magalloway riv. & the 
outlet of Umbagog lake. It runs 40 m. 
in N. H. & 100 in Maine. 

vVndrychov, atownofGalicia. P. 3,000. 
In its vicin. the extens. sulphur mines of 

Andujar, a town of Spain, at the foot 
of the Sierra Morena, & near the Gua- 
dalquivir. P. 9,353. 

Anduze, a town of France, dep. Gard. 
P. 4,412, mostly Protestants. Manufs. 
of hats, silk, hosiery, & earthenware. 

Anegada, the mostN. of the Antilles, 
Brit. W. Indies. Area, about 13 sq. m. 
P. 211. It is low, & of coral formation ; 
at its S.E. extrem. is a dangerous reef, 
extending for 10 m. outwards, & has 
together with the isl., an unhappy celeb, 
for shipwrecks. 

Anet, a vill. of France, dep. Eure-et- 
Loir. P. 1,421. ' 

Angaziya, an isl. of the Indian ocean, 
the largest of the Comoro isls. 

Angeja, a town of Portugal. P. 1,600. 

Angel (St.), a vill. of France, prov. 
Corr^ze. P. 1,499. 

Angelica, C. H., p-v., cap. of Alle- 
gany CO. N. Y. Incorp. 1835. Cap. in 
manufac. $31,600. P. 900. 

Angelina, a CO. of Texas. P. 1,165. 

Angelo (St.), numrs. towns & vills.of 

Italy. 1, cap. dist. prov. Lodi & Creraa. 

P. 3,000. II. deleg. & 10 m.N.E. Pa- 
dua. P. 1,800. 

Angelo (St.), (de Lombaedi), Naples. 
P. 6,100. 

Angehbuhg, a town of E. Prussia. 
P. 3,620. 


Angermann, a navig. riv. of Sweden. 
Length, 120 m. 

Angebmunde, a town of Prussia, 42 
m. N.E. Berlin. P 4,300. 

Angern, a vill. of Prussian Saxony, 
P. 1,150. 

Angers, a city of France, cap. dep. 
Maine-et-Loire, on the Mayenne. P. 

Angerville, a town of France, dep. 

Seine-et-Oise. P. 1,534. II. a town 

arrond. Havre. P. 1,028. III. a vill. 

arrond. Yvetot. P. 1,385. 

Anghiari, a dist. of Tuscany. P. 6,417. 

II. a town of Tuscany. P. 3,000. 

III. a vill. of Lombardy. 

Angles, a town of France, dep. Tarn. 
P. 2,785. Many French communes have 
this name. 

Anglesey, or Anglesea, an isl. & co. 
N. Wales, in the Irish sea, connected 
with CO. Carnarvon across Menai strait, 
by the Menai bridge. Area, 173,440 ac. 
Inhab. houses, 11,487. P. 50,891. 

Anglet, a town of France, dep. B.- 
Pyrenees. P. 3,016. 

Angley's Bronch. p-v., Barnwell 
dist., S. C. 

Angoissb, a vill. of France, dep. Dor- 
dogne. P. 1,308. ■ 

Angola, a state of Lower Guinea, 
betw. lat. 8° & 10° S., having W. the S. 
Atlantic, N. Congo. Surface mostly 
mntns., well watered, & fertile. Chf. riv. 
the Coanza. 

Angola, p-v., Erie co. N. Y. 

Angola, p-v., cap. of Steuben co. la., 
174 m. N.N.E. of Indianapolis. 

Angora, a city of Asia Minor, on a 
hill, 140 m. N. Konieh. Lat. 39° 56' 30" 
N., Ion. 32° 50' E. P. 10,000 Mohamms., 
5,000 Armenians & Greeks, & 200 Jews. 

Angornow, a town of Bornou, centr. 
Africa, 15 m. S.E. Kouka, near the W. 
bank of L. Tchad. P. said to^ be at least 
30,000. It is the centre of a large trade 
in slaves, cotton, amber, coral, metals, &c 

Angostura, a city of Venezuela, on 
the Orinoco, 165 m. S. by E. Cumana, & 
about 240 m. from the sea ; riv. here 
navig. for vessels of 300 tons. P. 6,000. 
In the year 1849-50, the total val. of its 
impls. & expts. is stated to have been 

$807,950 II. a town of New Granada, 

on the Magdalena, 116 m. N. Bogota. 

Angouleme, a city of France, on the 
Charente. P. 17,237. It has paper mills 
& distilleries, a cannon foundry, manufs. 
of serges & earthenware, & an extensive 
trade. The naval school formerly here, 
has been transferred to Brest. 

Angouleme (Canal d'), a canal. N. 




France, extending from the canal of St. 
Quentin (Aisne), to the Engl, channel at 
St. Valery. Course mostly parallel to, 
or identical with the Somme ; length 76 
m. It passes Ham, Amiens, & Abbeville. 

Angoxa, a petty state, riv., harb., & 
small isls. off the Mozambique coast, E. 
Africa ; the isls. near lat. 16° 20' S.; Ion. 
40° E. 

Angoy, a territ. Lr. Guinea, about lat. 
6° S., bounded S. by the Congo riv., & W. 
the Atlantic. Chf. town Kabenda. 

Angra, cap. of the archip.of the Azo- 
res, on the S. coast of the isl. of Terceira. 
P. 13,000. Its fortifications have been 
considerably extended, & Mont Brazil, in 
the vicinity, is capable of being made a 

place of great strength. II. {Dos 

Reyes), a seaport town, Brazil, 67 m. 
"VV.S.W. Rio Janerio. 

Angra PEauENA, a bay on the W. 
coast of Africa, lat. 26° 38' 18" S. ; Ion. 
1.5° 0' 32" B. Nitrates of potash & soda 
have been discovered in its vicinity.. 

Angki, a town of Naples. P. 6,400. 

Angkogna, a town of Piedmont. P. 

Anguilla, or Snake Island, one of 
the Brit. W. India isls.. Leeward group, 
8 m. N. St. Martifi. Area, 35 sq. m. 
P. (1842) 2,934. Off its N.E. coast is the 
little island Anguilletta^ 

Angxjillara, a vill. of N. Italy, on the 

Adige. P. 2,300. II. a vill., Pontif. 


Anhalt, three con tig. duchies, centr. 
Germany, mostly betw. lat. 51° & 52° 
N., & Ion. 11° & 13° E., surrounded by 
Prussian Saxony. The S.W. portion, ap- 
proaching the Harz, is hilly ; the centre 
is a fertile plain, watered by the Saale 
& Elbe ; E. of which the soil is sandy & 
poor. P. chiefly Protestants. The for- 
ests in Bernburg occupy 50 sq. m., & 
there are iron, lead, & copper mines. 
Manufs. of woollen goods, metallic & 
earthenwares, are carried on ; but the 
chf exports are the raw products. The 
duchies are distinguished by the names 

of their chf. towns. 1. Anhalt-Bern- 

BURG, in the W. Area, 339 sq. m. P. 
48,844. Public rev. 250,000 thalers yrly. 

Public debt, 345,000 thalers. II. An- 

halt-Dessau, in the E. Area, 360 sq. 
m. P. 62,691. Public rev. nearly 330,- 

000 thalers. III. Anhalt-Kothen, in 

the centre. Area, 318 sq. m. P. 42,106. 
Public rev. (1846) 390,000 thalers. These 
three states unite to furnish 1,224 men 
to the Germ. Confed. Armj'. 

Anholt, an isl. of Denmark, N. Jut- 
land, in the Kattegat. Lat. of light-he 

at its N.E. extrem. 56° 44' 17" N. ; Ion. 
11° 39' 8" E. It is 6 m. in length, by 2 
m. in breadth ; & is surrd. by danger- 
ous shoals. P. 200. Since 1842 a float- 
ing light vessel is stationed S.E. of the 

isl. from March to December. II. a 

town of Prussian Westphalia. P. 1,950. 

Aniane, a town of France, dep. He- 
rault. P. 2,615. 

Aniche, a vill. of Eranee, dep. Nord, 
P. 1,818, with extens. coal mines. 

Anjar, a dist. & town, TV. Hindostan. 

II. an uninhabited isl. of the Persian 

gulf, S.W. Kishm. Lat. 26° 41' N. ; Ion. 
55° 66' E. 

Anjengo, a seaport of S. India, Tra- 
vancore dom., 70 m. N.W. Cape Comorin. 

Anjer, a town & seaport of the 
Dutch E. Indies, on the W. coast of Java, 
in the str. of Sunda. Lat. 6° 3' 10" S. ; 
Ion. 105° 56' 43" E. , 

Anklam, a town of Pomerania, on the 
Peene, 7 m. from its mouth. P. 8,410. 

Ankobar, a town of Abyssinia, on a 
mntn. near lat. 9° 34' N., & Ion. 39° 53' 
E., at an elev. of 8,198 ft. P. 15,000. 

Anloo, a town of the Netherlands. 
P. 2,216. 

Ann (St.), a small lake in the basin of 
the St. Lawrence, N.W. Lake Superior. 
II. a port on the E. coast of C. Bre- 
ton. III. a marit. vill., Jamaica, on 

the N. coast, 20 m. W. Port Maria. 

Anna, an isl. of the Pacific ocean, 
Low. Archip., E. Tahiti. Lat. 17° 20' S., 
Ion. 145° 40' E. 

Anna, a town & caravan station of 
Syria. P. 3,000. 

Anna (St.), a lake of Guatemala. 

Anna (St.), a town of the French An- 
tilles, on the E. coast of the isl. Marie 

Annaberg, a town of Saxony. P. 
6,780. It has mines of silver, tin, & 
cobalt. II. a vill. of Lower Austria. 

Annabona, an isl. in the G. of Guinea, 
belong, to Spain. Lat. 1° 24' S. ; lon.,5° 38' 
E. Length, 4 m. ; mountainous. P. '3,000. 

Annabueg, a town of Prussn. Saxony. 
P. 1,600. 

Annagh, two isls. of Ireland, co. Mayo. 

Annagoondy, a small dist. of British 
India, along the N. bank of the Toom- 
budra riv. Chf. town, Bijanagur. 

Annaland (St.) a town, Netherlands. 
P. 1,694. 

annamooxo, one of the Friendly 

Annan, a town of Scotl., 15 m. E.S.E. 
Dumfries, on riv. of same name, IJ m- 
from the Solway firth. P- of do. 5,4717 
II. Annan, a riv. in Scotland. 




Annapolis, city & port of entry. 
Capital of Maryland, & of Anne Arun- 
del CO., it has been the seat of govern- 
ment in Maryland since 1699. The Uni- 
versity of Maryland has one of its 
branches here, called St. John's College. 
P. 3,011. 

Ann Arboe, p-v., cap. of Washtenaw 
CO. Mich. It is divided by Huron riv. into 
upper & lower towns. The University 
of Michigan is here. P. 4,868. 

Annatom, an isl. in the Pacific ocean, 
New Hebrides, lat. 21° S.; Ion. 170° E. 

Anne Arundel, county, Md., on W- 
side of Chesapeake bay. Cap. Annap- 
olis. Chief prod, wheat, manufs. of 
woollens, cottons, & iron ware. 3 newsp., 
1 coll., 13 acad. P. 32,393. 

Annecy, a lake of Savoy, 22 m. S. 

Geneva, 9 m. in length. II. a town 

of Savoy, at the N.W. extrem. of lake 
of same name. P. 9,000. 

Annemasse, a town of Piedmont. 
P. 1,140. 

Anne (St.), a jiv. of Lower Canada, 

length 120 m. II. a lake, British N. 

America, 50 m. N. Lake Superior, into 
which it discharges itself. 

Anne Ste, a marit. vill. Guadeloupe, 
on the S. coast of Grande Terre, 12 m. 
E.S.E. Point-a-Pitre. P. 6,727, of whom 
5,886 were slaves. II. a vill. Mar- 
tinique, near the S. extremity of the isl. 
P. 2,807, of whom 2,567 slaves.— Some 
other pas., "W. Indies, & one in the isl. 
AJderney, have the saine name. 

Annestown, a vill. of Ireland, lOi m. 
S.W. Waterford, on a small bay. P. 149. 

Annevoye, a vill., Belgium. 

Anneyron, a town of France, dep. 
Drome. P. 2,891. 

Annceulin, a town of France, dep. 
Nord. P. 3,040. 

Annonay, a town of France, dep. 
Ard^ehe, at the junction of the Cance & 
the Deaume, here crossed by a suspen- 
sion bridge, 37 m. S. Lyons. P. 9,893. 

Annone, a walled town of Piedmont. 
P, 1,990. 

Annot, a town of France, dep. B. 
Alpes. P. 1,178. 

Ann's Head (St.), apromontory at the 
W. side of the entrance of Milford Haven. 

Annsville, t., Oneida cOf N. Y. P. 

Annweileh, a town of Bavaria. P. 

Anor, a town of France, dep. Nord. 
P. 2,866. 

Anost, a town of France, dep. Saone et 
Loire. P. 3,480. 

Anotta, a bay and town on the N. 

coast of Jamaica, lat. 18° 19' N. ; Ion. 
76° 33' W. 

Anrath, a vill. of Prussia. P. 1,772. 

Ans, a vill. of Belgium. P. 3,852. 

Anse, a vill. of France, dep. Rhone. 
P. 1,750. 

Ansley Bay, or Gooe Ducnoo, an in- 
let of the Red sea (lat. 15° 6'). 

Anso, a town of Spain. P. 1,416. 

Anson, county, N. C, in the S. part 
of the state. Washed by Rocky & Zod- 
kin rivs. Area, 760 sq. m. Cap. Wades- 
boro'. Staple, cotton, distillery. P. 

13,489. II. t., Somerset co. Mo. 1 

acad. P. 1,941. 

Anson Bay, in the Canton river, 
China, on the rt. b. of the Boca Tigris, 
at its entrance. Here a Chinese fleet 
was defeated & destroyed by the British, 

Jan. 7th, 1841. II. a bay, N.W. coast 

of Australia, lat. 13° 30' S., Ion. 130° E. 

Antarctic Sea is that part of the 
great ocean extending from the Antartio 
circle, lat. 60° 30' S. to the S. Pole. It 
was long considered impenetrable for 
^hips, on account of the ice which ex- 
tends much further from the pole than 
in the Arctic ocean ; but many impor- 
tant discoveries have been made by Eng- 
lish, French, & American navigators, a 
description of which will be found under 
the heads Adelie, Balleny, Enderby, 
Kemp, Sabrina, and Victoria. 

Antequera, a city of Spain, 28 m. 
N.N.W. -Malaga. P. 17,031. Manufs. 
woollens & baize, paper, silk, & cotton. 

Antes, p-t., Huntingdon co. Pa. P. 

Antheme (St.), a town of France, dep. 
Puy-de-DOme. P. 1,003. 

Anthony's Nose, name of several ele- 
vated peaks in N. Y., one in the Highlands 
on the E. of Hudson riv. 

Antibes, a strongly fortified town of 
France, dep. Var, at the t&rm. of a penins. 
in the Mediterr., 10 m. S.E. Grasse. 
Lat. 43° 35' 9" N. ; Ion. 6° 67' 55" E. 
P. 4,515, mostly empl. in fishing, curing 
fish, & trading in dried fruits and oil. 

Anticosti, a large desert isl.. Lower 
Canada., in the estuary of the St. Law- 
rence, betw. lat. 49° and 50° N., & Ion. 
62° & 65° W. Area estim. at 2,600 sq. 
m. Interior mntnous. & wooded ; climate 
severe. N. coast high, & without har- 
bor, S. shore low, and very dangerous. 

Antignano, a town of Istria, 32 m. 

N.AV. Fiume. P. 1,200. II. a town 

of Piedmont. P. 1,750. III. a town 

of Tuscany, with a fort on the coast. 

Antigny, a vill. of France, dep. Vienna, 
P. 1,126. 



Antigua, a Brit. "W. India isl., Lee- 
ward group. Lat. of St. John's 17° 8' N. ; 
Ion. 61° 52' W.; 22 in. S. Barbuda, & 
50 m. N. Guadeloupe. Area about 108 
sq. m. P. 36,405. Coasts deeply in- 
dented & rugged, interior rich, & highly- 
diversified. Climate remarkable for dry- 
ness. In favorable years sufiicient grain 
is produced for home consumption. Legis- 
lat. entrusted to a governor, a council of 

12, & an assembly of 25 mems. II. a 

station, Philippine isls., with a fort & the 
only good anchorage on the isl. Panay. 

Antigua (La), a town of the isl. Fuer- 
teventura, Canaries, in a fertile plain. 
P. 1,780. 

Anti-Libanus, a mntn. range of Pal- 

, Antilles, great & small. [West 
India Isls.] 

Antioch (vulg. Antakia), a city of 
Syria, 57 m. W. Aleppo, on the Orontes, 
about 20 m. above its mouth. Lat. 36° 
11' N.; Ion. 36° 9' 30" B. P. estim. at 
10,000. Its anc. walls, varying from 20 
to 70 ft. in height, enclose an area seve- 
ral m. in circ, much of which is now 
taken up by gardens. There are manufs. 
of coarse pottery, cotton stuffs, & leather; 
but the culture of siUs is the eh. branch 
of industry. 

Antioch (Bay of), a bay of the Med- 
iterr., overlooked N. & S. by mntns. up- 
ward of 5,000 ft. in height. It is free 
from rocks, is generally well sheltered, 
& has deep water almost to the beach. 
The Orontes enters it near its centre. 
On its N. side are some ruins descr. as 
those of Seleucia Pieria, the anc. port of 
Antioch. The S. side of the bay is 
formed by C. Possidi. 

Antioche Pertuis, a channel on the 
W. coast of France, between the isls. Ole- 
ron & Ke. Light-house, in lat. 46° 2' 
52" N.; Ion. 32° 15' E. 

Antiochetta, a port of Karamania, 
on the Mediterranean, 88 m. S. Konieh. 

Antioco, an isl. in the Mediterr., near 
the S.W. coast of Sardinia, 8 m. long, 3 
m. broad. P. 2,219. 

Antioquia (Saxta Fe de), a town of 
New Grenada, 190 m. N.W. Bogota. P. 
4,000. It has an active trade in maize 
& sugar, & there are gold mines in the 

Antipahos, an isl. of the Grecian Ar- 
chip., H m. W. Paros, 10 m. long & 2m. 
broad. P. 500. It is celeb, for a stalac- 
titic cavern near its S. extremity. 

Anti-paxo, a small uncultivated isl., 
Mediterr., IJ ni. S.E. Paxo. 

Antipodes, a small isl. in the S- Pa- 

cific ocean, S.E. New Zealand, so-called 
from being the land most nearly opposite 
to Gt. Britain in the S. hemisphere. Lat. 
49° 32' S. ; Ion. 178° 42' E. 

Antisana, a volcano of the Andes, 
Ecuador, 35 m. S.E. Quito, 19,140 ft. in 

Anti-Taueus, a mntn. chain of Asiatic 
Turkey. It separates the basin of the 
Euphrates on the S. from the rivers flow- 
ing into the Black sea. 

Antivari, a seaport of Albania, on the 
Adriatic. The barb, is shallow. 

Antoine (St.), a town of France, dep. 
Isere. P. 2,007. There are several vills. 
in France of same name. 

Antoine (St.), on Tilly, a vill. of L. 
Canada, on the St. Lawrence, 20 m. S.W. 

Antoing, a town of Belgium, on the 
Scheldt. P. 2,152. 

Antongill, a bay, E. coast Madagas- 
car, 30 m. long, 20 m. broad, lat. 16° S., 
Ion. 50° E. 

Antonia (St.), a town of Texas, U. S., 
N. America, on riv. of same name near its 

Antonin (St.), a town of France, dep. 
Tarn-et-Garonne. P. 2,691. 

Antonina, a town of Brazil, on the 
bay, & 18 m. N.W. Paranagua. It has 
some trade in manioc, cordage, & timber. 

Antonio, a fort & harb. of Jamaica, 
lat. 18° 14' 40" N. ; Ion. 76° 31' W., 23 m. 
S.E. Anottabay. 

Antonio (Gape St.), the W. end of the 
isl. of Cuba, lat. 21° 51' 40" N. ; Ion. 84° 

58' N. II. a headland, Plata confed., 

S. the Plata estuar. Lat. 36° 20' S. ; 
Ion. 56° 46' W. 

Antonio (San), or Puerto Magno, a 
seaport of Spain, on the W. coast of the 
isl. Iviza, with a small fort which com- 
mands the harbor. Exports, fruit, char- 
coal, & wool. P. 3,539. 

Antraigues, a vill. of France, dep. 
Ardeche. P. 1,443. Near this is the 
singular C'hausee-des- Geants, formed by 
colonnades of basalt, 700 yards in length. 

Antrim, the N.E.-most co. of Ireland, 
Ulster, having N. the Atlantic, E. the N. 
Channel dividing it from Scotland, S. & 
W. the cos. Down & Londonderry; & 
S.W. Lough Neagh, separating it from 
cos. Tyrone & Armagh. Area, 1,164 sq. 
m. Pop. in do., 250,355, exclusive of the 
towns of Belfast & Ca,rrickfergus. The 
S.W. boggy. Chief rivers, the Baim, & 
the Lagan. The Giant's Causeway is on 
the N. coast. Carrickfergus is the cap., 
but the largest towns are Belfast, Lis- 
burn, & Ballymena. II. a town of 




the above co., 14 m. N.W. Belfast. P. 

Antrim, p.-t., Hillsborougli co. N". H. 
It has good water power, several ponds, 
one of which covers 200 acres. P. 1,225. 
• II. t., Franklin co. Pa., well water- 
ed. P. 4,061. 

Anteodoco, a town of Naples. P. 2,600. 

Antwerp, a frontier prov. of Belgium ; 
boundaries N. Holland, S. Brabant, E. 
Limbourg, W. Plaooders. Area, 1,094 sq. 
m. P. 391,113. Surface mostly level; 
principal rivs. the Scheldt, the Nethe, & 
Dyle. The soil is fertile. It is divided 
into the three arronds. of Antwerp, Mech- 
lin, & Turnhout, its chief cities ; besides 
which, the towaLierre is in this province. 

II. a city of Belgium, & the centre of 

its foreign trade on the Scheldt, at the ter- 
mination of railw. from Mechlin, 27 m. N. 
Brussels. P. 86,000. It has some noble 
streets, a strong citadel & numerous out- 
works, a cathedral & town-hall, an ex- 
change among the finest of Europe, acad- 
emies of the fine arts, pa'inting, sciences, 
& zoology, schools of medicine & naviga- 
tion, botanic garden, public library, with 
15,000 vols., numerous hospitals & asy- 
lums. Its port was greatly improved by 
Napoleon, who erected two large basins ; 
& ships anchor in the river opposite the 
city in from 32 to 40 feet water at ebb 
tide. Chief manufs. silk & cotton hosiery, 
thread, tape, & linen cloths, calico-print- 
ing, embroidery, bleaching, & sugar-re- 
fining. Shipbuilding is extensively car- 
ried on, & the diamond-cutters of this city 
are celebrated. In the 16th century Ant- 
werp was the richest & most commercial 
city in Europe, & contained 200,000 in- 
habitants. It was taken by the Spaniards 
in 1576 & in 1585, & by the French in 1792 
& 1794. It was the cap. dep. Deux Nethes 
under the domin. of the French, to whom 
. it again surrendered Dec. 24, 1832. 

Antwerp, Jefferson county, N. Y. 
P. 3,009. 

Anunghoy, an isl. of China, in the Can- 
ton riv., op]D. Tycocktowisl., bounds with 
Chucupee isl., the entrance of the Boca 
Tigris, on the E. Its strongholds were 
taken by the British, Feb. 25, 1841 ; & 
its works destroyed. 

Anville, t., Lebanon co. Pa. Consid. 
water power. Some manufs. P. 2,949. 

Anzerma, a town of New Grenada, 
near the river Cauca. 

Anzi, a town of Naples. P. 3,297. 

Anzin, a town of FVance, dep. Nord, 
on the railway from Douai to Valenc, 1 
m. N.W. Valenciennes. P. 3,132. It is 
the centre of the greatest coal works in 

France, & has iron foundries & glass 

Anzo (Porto d'), a small seaport on 
the Mediterr., 34 m. S.S.E. Rome. 

Aosta, a town of Piedmont, 49 m. 
N.N .W.Turin. P. 7,120. . 

AousTE, a town of France, dep. Drome. 
P. 1,255. 

Apam, a prov. of Africa, Gold Coast, 
belonging to Holland, with the fort of 
Lijdzaamheit, in lat. 5° 12' 30" N.; Ion. 
0° 41' 30" W. P. of dist. estimated at 
350 able to bear arms. 

Apari, a town in the isl. of Luzon, at 
its N. extremity. 

Apatin, a town of Hungary, on the 
Danube. P. 5,390. 

Apee, an island in the S. Pacific ocean, 
New Hebrides, about 70 m. S.E. Malli- 

Apenrade, a seaport of Schleswig, on 
a fiord of same name in the Little Belt, 
35 m. N. Schleswig. Lat. 55° 2' 46" N. ; 
Ion. 9° 25' 12" E. P. 4,100. 

Apennines, a chain of mntns. which 
traverses the Italian peninsula through- 
out its entire length to the strait of Mes- 
sina. None of the summits attain the 
limit of perpetual snow, although snow 
lies on Monte Corno during nine months 
in the year. The culminating point is 
10,154 ft., but the chain in general is of 
much lower elev. The S.W. part is vol- 
canic, comprising Vesuvius, & many 
thermal springs. The chain is chiefly 
calcareous, primary rocks are found only 
at tlje two extremities. It is poor in 
metals ; iron occurs in small quantities, & 
extens. saliferous depots occur near Co- 
senza; but the celeb, marble of Carrara, 
Serravezza, & Sienna constitutes the chief 
riches of the Apennines. Below 3,200 ft. 
in elev., the flanks of the princip. chain 
are covered with a varied vegetation, of 
which the orange, citron, olive, & palm 
form the lower zone ; but forests are 
rare in the Apennines. Above 3,200 ft. 
the mntns. are generally arid & devoid 
of vegetation. 

Apice, a town of Naples. P. 3,000. 

Apolda, a town of Saxe-Weimar. P. 

Apollonia, several ruined cities of 

Apolobamba, a town of Bolivia, 165 
m. N. La Paz, on a tributary of the Beni. 

Appalachicola, Bay, Florida. II. 

port of entry & cap. of Franklin co. 
Florida, on a bluff at the mouth of riv. 
of same name. Lt is a cotton mart. Ton- 
nage, 205,036. III. riv. formed by 

union of Chattahoochee & Flint rs., which 




unite in 6a. Whole surface drained by 
this riv. & branches, 20,000 sq. m. 

AppANOosE,anewco.of lovTa. P. 3,131. 

Apple riv., Illinois, 45 m. long. 

Appledohe, a small seaport, Engl., co. 

Appling co. Georgia, S. part of the 
state, on Ockmulgee riv. Area, 1,600 
sq. m., drained by Santilla riv., cap. 
Holmesville. Soil light. Common prod. 

of the climate. P. 2,949. II. C. H. 

cap. Columbia co. Ga. 

Appolonia, a petty kingdm. of Africa, 
on the coast of Guinea, about lat. 5° N., 
& betw. Ion. 2° 20' & 3° 20' W. P. estim. 
at 30,000. 

Appomatox, riv. Va., br. of the James. 
120 m. long. II. a co.of Va. P. 9, 193. 

Appoquinimink, hund., Newcastle co. 
Del. P. 3,075. 

Aphicena & ApRiGLiAiro, two towns 
of Naples ; the former with 4.560 inhabs. ; 
the latter 1,000.^ 

Apsheron, a penins., Russian dom., 
Georgia, extends 40 m. into the Caspian 
sea, and terminates in C. Apsheron, lat. 
40° 12' N. ; Ion. 50° 20' E. Its soil is 
famous as the place of the sacred flame, 
venerated by the fire-worshippers of 
Asia. About 237,000 poods of black 
naphtha, & 864 do. of white naphtha, are 
obtained annually in this peninsula, be- 
sides saffron, madder, & salt. 

Apsley (River), E. Australia, N. of 

the colony of New South Wales. 

(Strait), Timor sea, is betw. Melv'le & Ba- 
thurst isls., off the N. coast of Australia. 

Apt, a town of France, dep. Vaucluse. 
P. 4,377. 

Apulia, an anc. prov. of S. Italy. 

Apuhe, a riv. Columbia, rises in the 
Andes of New Grenada, near lat. 7° N., 
joius the Orinoco in lat. 7° 40' N., & Ion. 

66° 45' W. The Apunmac riv., Peru, 

is a head stream of the Ucayale. 

AauAMBO, a country of Up. Guinea, E. 
of the riv.Volta, with atownof same name. 

AauAPiM, a mar. state of Up. Guinea, 
in about lat. 6° N., & Ion. 0°,*having S. 
the gulf of Guinea. 

Aquara, a vill. of Naples. , P. 2,030. 

AduiLA, an epis. city of Naples, 58 m. 
N.E. Rome. P. 8,000. One of the best 
built &, most commercial cities in the 

Aquileja, a town of N. Italy, at the 
head of the Adriatic, 22 m. AV.N.W. Tri- 
est. P. 1,600. In the time of the Ro- 
mans, this was the centre of commerce 
betw. the N. & S. of Europe. 

AauiNO, a tovvn & bishop's see of Na- 
ples. P. 1,100. 

Arabat, a fortress of the Crimea, on 
the sea of Azov, 70 m. E.N.E. Simferopol. 

Arabgir, a town of Asiatic Turkey, on 
the route betw. Trebizond & Aleppo, 135 
m. S.S.W. Trebizond. It is enclosed by a 
forest of fruit-trees, & is reputed to have 
6,000 houses, 4,800 being occup. by Mo- 
hammedans, & 1,200 by Armenians. 

Arabia, the most W. of the three great 
peninsulas of S. Asia, betw. lat. 12° 40' & 
34° N., & Ion. 32° 30' & 60° E. ; bounded 
N. by Turkey in Asia, E. by the Persian 
gulf & the gulf of Oman, S. by the gulf 
of Oman & the Indian ocean, & W. by the 
Red sea. On the N.E. it is connec. with 
Egypt by the isthmus of Suez, & is divided 
in two parts by the Tropic of Cancer. 
Length from N. to S. about 1,500 m. j 
aver, breadth, 800 m. P. estim. from 
7,000,000 to 12,000,000. Ptolemy subdiv. 
the country into A. Petrcca, A. Felix, & 
Arabia Deserta; but this partition is un- 
known to the inhabs. All N. from Heijaz 
to the Euphrates, is a continuous plain of 
moving sands, & a similar region occupies 
most of the S. half of the peninsula ; 
mntn. ranges in various direc. traverse 
the central plateau, & the S.E. coast is 
lined by mntns. of 5,000 ft. in elevation ; 
the shores are generally bare & uninviting, 
& a deficiency of water is almost univer- 
sal ; but wherever a small riv. irrigates 
the soil, there is luxuriant vegetation. The 
dry season is prolonged during the entire 
year in the level parts ; & the rainy season, 
which in general lasts from the middle of 
June to the end of Sept., & in Oman from 
Nov. to the middle of Feb., occurs only in 
Dec. & Jan. in the N. deserts. The heat 
is excessive in the plains, but temperate 
in the mntns. regions of Yemen & Hadra- 
maut, & the winters are rigorous in the 
elevated regions of Nedj^d. The Simoom 
or Samiel, the hot wind of the desert, 
blows from the interior towards the coast 
in all direct's. Vegetable products com- 
prise maize, wheat, barley, millet, indigo, 
tobacco, the finest coffee, cotton, sugar, 
spices, tamarinds, dates, & numrs. other 
fruits, balm, acacia, & various gums, res- 
ins, & drugs. Some valuable woods are 
produced, but Arabia has no forest. The 
horse forms an import, branch of traffic; 
the camel is the principal beast of burden, 
& oxen, sheep, goats, & buffaloes are the 
other domestic animals. Mineral products 
are onyx, emerald, basalt, blue alabaster, 
iron, & silver. The inhabs. settled around 
the coast appear to have a distinct origin 
from the Bedwins or true Arabs. The 
Wahabees, who form a distinct sect of 
Mohammedans, occupy the interior of the 




country. Their cap. is at Der'ayyah. 
Agricul. processes are very rude, & 
manufs. perhaps at a lower ebb than in 
any other semi-civilized country. Holy 
cities, Mecca & Medina. Mocha & Loheia 
are centres of a large coffee trade. Mus- 
cat has lately risen to eminence as an 
entrepot for the trade with India & the 
Persian gulf, & dows or ships of a superior 
kind are built there, which occasionally 
perform voyages to India. Jiddah or 
Djidda, the port of Mecca, is the other 
principal commerc. town. 

Aracan, a Brit. prov. of Further In- 
diai, presid. Bengal, extending along the 
B. side of the bay of Bengal, betw. lat. 
16° & 22° 30' N., & Ion. 92° & 94° E., 
having E. the Burmese dom., from which 
it is separated by a high mntn. range, & 
N. the Brit. dist. Chittagong. Area 
estim. at 16,500 sq. m. P. 247,765. Coast 
swampy ; but there are many good har- 
bors & large isls. Chief rivs. the Aracan, 
Myoo, Aeng, & Sandoway. Forests very 
extensive. Chief products, rice, indigo, 
cotton, timber, salt, oil, buffalo hides & 
horns, ivory, tobacco, silk, & fruits ; iron, 
coal, & naphtha are found along the 
coast. — Aracan, the cap. is situated on a 
branch of the Kuladyne riv., 50 m. from 
the bay of Bengal. — Aracan or Kladyne 
river, rises in the Burmese dom., & after 
a course of 200 m., enters the bay of 
Bengal, 15 m. N.E. Akyab, navig. for 
vessels of 250 tons burden. 

Aeacati, a town of Brazil, on the 
Jaguaribe, near its mouth in the Atlan- 
tic. P. 1,600. 

Aracena, a town of Spain. P. 4,370. 

Arad (Old), a city of Hungary, on the 
Maros, 59 m. E.S.B. Szegedin, cap. co., 
with a citadel, & 17,135 inhabs., inelud. 
many opulent Jews. It is a Greek 
bishop's see, & the greatest cattle mrkt. 
• in Hungary. 

Arad (New), a town of Hungary, op- 
posite Old Arad. P. 4,000. 

Aragon (Kingdom of), one of the 
provs. into which, previous to 1833, the 
Spanish monarchy was divided, is situat. 
at the N.E. of the peninsula. P. 596,066, 
cap. Saragossa. It is divided into the 
provs. 9f Huesca, Teruel, & Saragossa. 
The kgdm. of Aragon was founded in 
1034, & was united to the crown of Cas- 
tile by Ferdinand the Catholic, who mar- 
ried Isabella in 1474. 

Aragon (Riv. of), a riv. of Spain, 
>7hich rises in the Pyrenees, & joins the 
Ubro, after a S.W. course of 80 m. 

Aragon (Imp. Canal of), Spain, 

jragon, extends in the direction Of the 

Ebro, from Tudela, to near Sastago & 
Tauste. Length opened, 80 m. ; average 
width, 69 ft. ; depth, 9 ft. It is mostly 
lined by massive high walls, is navig. for 
boats of from 60 to 80 tons, & crosses tha 
Jalon riv. by an aqueduct 4,300 ft. long. 

Aragona, a town of Sicily. P. 6,530. 

Araguaya, a large riv. of Brazil, 
rises in lat. 18° 10' S. ; Ion. 51° 30' W. ; 
flows N.-ward, & joins the Tocantins at 
San Joao, after a course of at least 1,000 
m., about the middle of which it separates 
into 2 arms, inclosing the isl. Santa Anna, 
200 m. in length. 

Aral, an inland sea of Asia, Kirghiz 
territ., betw. lat. 43° & 47° N., & Ion. 58° 
& 61° 30' E., & the most extens. lake in 
the E. hemisphere next to the Caspian. 
Area, 23,300 sq. m. Estim. height above 
the Caspian, 117 ft. It is shallow, con- 
tains numrs. isls., & has no outlet. 

Aramon, a town of France, dep. Gard. 
P. 2,640. 

Aranda-de-duero, a town of Spain, 
48 m. S. Burgos. P. 4,122. 

Aranjuez, a town & royal resid. of 
Spain, on the Tagus, 28 m. S.S.E. Madrid. 
P. 3,639. 

Aransas, a seaport of Texas, co. Re- 
fugio, on a headland projecting into the 
bay of Aransas, about 75 m. S.W. Mata- 

AsANYOs, a riv. of Transylv. II. a 

town of Hungary. P. 1,800. 

Ararat, Mount, a famous mntn. of 
Armenia, & the culminating point of "W. 
Asia, at the junction of the Russian, 
Turkish, & Persian empires. Lat. of 
princip. summit, 39° 42' N.; Ion. 44° 35' E. 
The N.W. peak is 17,210 ft. above the sea. 

Aras, a riv. of Armenia, rises near 
lat. 41° 30' N., & Ion. 41° 10' E. : flows 
eastward, dividing the territories of 
Russia & Persia, &, joins the Kur, within 
the Russn. dom., 60 m. W. of its mouth 
in the Caspian. Total course upward 
of 500 m., very rapid, but often fordable. 

Aratica, one of the Society isls. in 
lat. 15° 26' S. ; Ion. 145° 39' 46" W., & 
8 m. in length by 5 m. across. 

Araucania, an indep. territ. of S. 
Amer., betw. lat 37° & 39° S., & Ion. 70° 
& 75° W., having E. the Andes, W. the 
Pacific ocean, & N. & S. the territ. of 
Chile. Estim. area, 28,000 sq. m. Sur- 
face mntnous. Chf. rivs., the Biobio on 
the IST., & the Valdivia on the S. frontier. 
No aboriginal race in America has so 
boldly & successfully resisted Europeans 
as the Araucanians, who are still indep. 
of the Chileans, though the latter claim 
the nominal sovereignty of their country. 




possessed various useful arts before their 
intercourse with the Spaniards. The 
country is divided into 4 tetrarchies or 
districts, each having a governor. Their 
form of government is amixture of de- 
mocracy & aristocracy. 

Arauco, a marit. fortress of Chile, on 
the bay of Arauco, 35 m. S.S.W. Concep- 
cion, built to restrain the incursions of 

the Araucanians. II. a dist. of the 

dep. La Rioja, Plata Confed. 

Arbe, the most N. of the Dalmatian 
isls., on the coast of Croatia. Lat. 44° 
47' N.; Ion. 14° 51' E. P. 3,500. The 
town Arbe, on its S. coast, has 1,100 
inhabs., & is a bishop's see. 

Arbil, a town of Asiatic Turkey, 40 
ra. E. Mosul. P. 6,000. 

Arbus, a vill., isl. of Sardinia. P. 2,860. 

Arboga, a town of Sweden. P. 1,747. 
— The Arboga canal unites the lakes 
Mffilar & Hielmar. 

Arbois, a town of France, dep. Jura. 
P. 6,370. 

Arbon, a town of cant. Thurgau, 15 
m. S.E. Constance, on its lake, with 1,000 

Arbos, a town of Spain. P. 1,200. 

Arbroath, a seaport of Scotl., co. 
Forfar, at the mouth of the Brothwick, 
in the North sea, 16 m. N.E. Dundee. 

Arcachon(Bassin d'), abayofFrance, 
on the coast of the dep. Gironde. On 
its S. side is the Port de la Teste, which 
communicates by raihv. with Bordeaux. 

Arcadia, p-t., Wayne co. N. Y. The 
vill. is on the Erie canal. 2 acaJ. P. 

Arc-en-Barrois, a town of France, 
dep. II. Marne. P. 1,536. 

Arce, a town of Naples. P. 4,356. 

Arcene, a vill. of Lombardy. P. 1,250. 

Archaig (Loch), a beautiful lake of 
Scotl., CO. Inverness. Length about 17 m. 

Archangel, a gov. in the N.E. of 
European Russia, comprising most part 
of Buss. Lapland, & all the country W. 
of the Ural mntns.,.& N. of the govs. Vo- 
logda & Olonetz, with the isls. Waigatz, 
Dolgoi, & Novaia-Zemlia ; & having W. 
Olonetz, TJleaborg, & Lapland, & N. the 
White sea & Arctic ocean. Estiui. area, 
322,500 sq. m., & p. 253,000. It nearly 
surrounds the White sea, & is watered by 
the rivs. Petchora, Mezen, Dwina, Onega, 
Pinega, Outcha, &c. In the N. the rivs. 
are ice-bound from Oct. to May. Sur- 
face mntnous. in the N., flat & marshy 
iu the S., & abounding in excellent 
pasturage. A^'ery little corn is raised, 
but a good dea,l of hemp & flax. Forests 
very extensive ; & the inhabs. are mostly 

occupied in hunting & fishing. Near 
Kholmagory excellent cattle are reared ; 
& around Archangel they manuf. coarse 
linens, & engage in ship-building. The 
p.) originally Finnish, is now mostly 
Russian : the Samoyedes in the N.E. 
number only from 6,000 to 7,000 persons. 
Chf. towns. Archangel the cap., Chen- 
koursk, Onega, Mezen, Cola, Pinega, 
& Kholmogory, each of which gives name 

to a district. -II. an archp. cap. gov. 

of same name, on the Dwina, near its 
mouth, in the White sea, & in lat. 64° 
32' 8" N. ; Ion. 40° 33' E. P. 25,000. 
It is built of wood. Archangel is the 
seat of a dep. of the Russian military 
marine, & has exteu. commerce & herring 
fishing. Owing to the rigor of the climate, 
its port is open only from July to Sept. 

Archangelsk (Malo), a town of Rus- 
sia in Europe, 85 m. S.E. Orel. P. 1,500. 
II. gov. Olonetz. 

Archena, a town of Spain. 

Archer, p-t., Harrison co. Ohio. P. 

Archidona, a town of Spain, 33 m. 

N. Malaga. P. 7,611. II. a town of 

Ecuador, 90 m. E.S.E. Quito. 

Archipelago, a term formerly ap- 
plied exclusively to the isls. of the Egean 
sea. but now to any collection of contigu- 
ous isls. The Grecian archip. consists of 
all the isls. betw. continental Greece & 
Asia Minor, belonging partly to the 
kgdm. of Greece, & partly to Turkey, 
the principal being Naxos, Paros, Milo, 
Tinos, Lemnos, Thasos, Mytilene, Scio, 
Cos, & Rhodes. For the other archips., 
see their several prefixes, as the Asiatic 
or Eastern Archip., the Mergui Archip., 

Arcis-sur-Aube, a town of France. 
P. 2,665. 

Aeco, a town of Tyrol. P. 2,100. 

Arcola, a town of Piedmont. P. 

Arcole, a vill. of Italy, 15 ra. E.S.E. 
Verona, on the Alpone, an aflS. of the 
Adige. P. 1,600. Arcole is celeb, for 
the victory gained by Napoleon over the 
Austrians, 17th Nov. 1796. 

Arcos de la Frontera, town of 

Spain, 29 m. N.E. Cadiz, on an elevated 

rock near the rt. b. of the Guadelete. 

P. 11,272. There are several vills. in 

j Spain & Portugal named Arcos. 

Arcot (North & South), two contig. 
marit. dists. of British India, presid. 
Madras, comprising the whole country 
frcm Coleroon river on the S. to the 
frontier of the .Nellore dist., with the 
exception of the Chingleput district, 




Ij'ing round Madras. United area, 12,700 
sq. m. P. 1,057,000. Chief city & towns, 
Arcot, Vellore, & Cuddalore. 

Arcs (Les), a vill. of France, dep. Var. 
P. 1,910. 

Arctias, a small isl. of the Black sea, 
off the coast of Asia Minor. 

Arctic Highlands, a region of N. 
America, between Hudson sea & the 
mouth of the Mackenzie ri^er. The E. 
portion rises steep from the shore, the 
interior is unknown, & the W. portion is 
called the " Barren Grounds." The 
whole region is nearly destitute of wood, 
but its surface is covered by low hills. 

Arctic Ocean, is that part of the 
ocean which extends from the Arctic 
circle, lat. 66° 30' N., to the N. pole ; it 
bathes the whole of the N. coasts of Eu- 
rope, Asia, & America, & commun. on 
the N.W. of Europe with the Atlantic ; 
on the N.E. of Asia with the Pacific by 
Behring strait. It forms the White sea 
in Europe, & the gulfs of Kara, Obi, & 
Yenisei, in Siberia ; in N. Amer., where 
it takes the name of the Polar sea, it 
forms Baffin bay. The principal rivs. 
which flow into the Arctic ocean are the 
Obi, Yenisei, Anbara, Lena, & Kolima, 
in Asia, & the Mackenzie, in Amer. Its 
chief isls. are Spitzbergen, the Loifoden 
isls., Kalgouef, Waigatz, & Novaia-Zem- 
lia, in Europe ; the isls. of New Siberia 
in Asia, & the polar archipelago in Amer. 
During winter, ice extends in every direc- 
tion round the pole, covering a space of 
"rom 3,000 to 4,000 m. in diam. ; & even 
during the 4 months of summer, the sur- 
face of this sea is at the freezing point. 
Icebergs & fields of ice are continually 
drifting southwards into the Atlantic ; 
the former sometimes extending to 100 
m. in length, & from 25 to 30 m. in diam- 
eter. Sir E. Parry, in 1827 penetrated 
as far N. as lat. 82° 45' 15", which is, 
doubtless, the highest lat. yet attained in 
this ocean. The last expedition sent out 
in search of a N.W. passage through the 
polar seas, was commanded by Sir John 
Franklin, who sailed from England in 
1845 with two ships, the Erebus & Terror, 
& who has not since been heard of. Sev- 
eral expeditions have been despatched in 
search of the missing navigator, & among 
the rest, the Advance & Rescue, two ves- 
sels fitted out in New York by .the munifi- 
cence of Henry Grinnell, Esq., but none 
of them have been successful. 

Arcueil, a vill. of France, dep. Seine. 
P. 2,174. 

Ardatov, two, towns of Russia. 1. 

gov. Simbirsk, 14 m. W. Alatyr. P. 

3,872. II. gov. & 85 m. S.W. Nijnii 


Ardeche, a riv. of France, rises in the 
Cevennes, flows S.E.-ward, & joins the 
Rhone after a course of 40 m., for the last 

8 of which it is navigable. II. a dep. 

in the S.E. of France, cap. Privas. Area, 
538,988 hectares. P. 386,505. Chief 
rivers, the Rhone forming its B, bound- 
ary ; the Loire, Cance, Doux, Erieux, & 
Ardeche, all afBs. of the Rhone. Surface 
mntnous., rich in iron, antimony, coal, 
&c. Corn deficient, but wine abundant, 
as well as chestnuts & olives. The dep. 
is divided into the arrond. of Privas, Lar- 
gentiere, & Tournon. 

Ardee, a town of Ireland, co. Louth, 
on the Deo, 12 m. N.W. Drogheda. P. 
3,679. It consists mostly of wretched 

Ardelan, adist. of Persia. Chief towns, 
Senna, & Kumansha. 

Ardennes (forest of), a vast system of 
heights & forests, embracing part of Bel- 
gium, the gd. duchy of low. Rhine, & 
the N. of France. 

Ardennes, a frontier dep., N.E. of 
France, named from the mntns. & wooded 
country of which it forms a part. Area, 
517,385 hectares. P. 331,296. Rivs. the 
Mouse & its aflls., the Bar, the Vence, 
& Sermone ; the Aisne & its aflls., the 
Aire, the Vaux, & the Retourne. Cli- 
mate, cold & humid : soil mntnous. <fc 
contains iron mines, slate & marble quar- 
ries, potter's clay, & sand. Abundance 
of corn, cider, & beer, but little wine. 
Industry very active in iron ware. Ar- 
dennes is divided into the arronds. of 
Mezieres, Rethel, Rocroy, Sedan, & Vou- 
ziers, its chf. towns. The Canal of Ar- 
dennes connects the Aisne with the Mouse. 

ArdentesS. Martin, a vill. of France, 

dep. Indre. P. 1,054.- -11. St. Vincent, 

cap. cant., on the Indre, 5J m. S.E. Chii- 
teauroux. P. 2,162. 

Ardes, a town of France, dep. Puy-de- 
DOme. P. 1,793. It has an active com- 

Ahdesio, vill. of Lombardy. P. 1,800. 

Akdglass, a seaport of Ireland, co. 
Down, on the Irish sea. P. 1,066. 

Ardillats (Les), a vill. of France, 
dep. Rhone. P. 1,112. 

Ardmore, a marit. town of Ireland, 
CO. AVaterford. P. 716, mostly employed' 
in fishing. 

Ardnaglass Bay, an inlet, W. coast 
of Ireland, co. Sligo, extends inland 6 m. 

Ardore, a town of Naples. P. 2,400. 

Ardoye, a town of Belgium, 16 m. 
S.W. Bruges. P. 7,643. 




Ardres, a town of Trance, dep. Pas- 
de-Calais. P. 1,129. 

Ardrossan, a seaport of Scotland, on 
the firth of Clyde. P. 2,141. It is a 
fashionable bathing-place. 

Ahecife, a seaport of the Canaries 
cap. isl. Lanzarote on its S.E. coast. P. 

Arena, a town of Piedmont. P. 3,090. 

II. a town of Naples. P. 2,000. 

Arendal, a seaport of Norway, in the 

Skager-rack, 35 m. N.E. Christiansand. 

P. 3,229, Near it are extens. iron mines. 

Arendonck, a town of Belgium. P. 


Arendseb, a town of Prussia. P. 

Arensburg, cap. isl. Oesel, on its S. 
coast, in the gulf of Riga. P. 1,600. 
Its harb. being shallow, vessels anchor at 
the "Kettle," 5 m. W. the town. 

Arenys de Mar, a seaport of Spain, 
on the Mediterr., 25 m. N.E. Barcelona. 

P. 4,784, II. (dt Munt) a little N. 

the foregoing. P. 1,233. 

Arenzano, Tillage of Sardinian states. 
P. 3,250. 

Arequipa, the most S. dep. of Peru, 
extending along the Pacific, betw. lat. 
15° & 21° S., & Ion. 69° & 75° W., hav- 
ing N. the deps. Lima, Ayacucho, & 
Puno, & E. & S. Bolivia, & subdivided 
into 7 provs. Chief products, silver, 
copper, cotton, wool, sugar, & nitre. 
Chief towns, Arequipa, Arioa, & Camana. 
Arequipa, the cap. of this depart. & chf. 
city of. S. Peru, is sit. in an extensive 
vale in the Andes, 200 m. S.S.W. Cuzoo, 
founded by order of Pizarro in 1536. 
P. estim. at from 30,000 to 40,000. 
Having suffered often & severely from 
earthquakes, its houses are low, & 
strongly built of stone. It has a ca- 
• thedral, numerous convents, a college, 
workho., a bridge over the Chila, & a 
bronze fountain in its great square ; with 
manufs. of woollen & cotton fabrics, & 
stufis of gold and silver. 

Arequipa (Volcano of), the most 
celeb, volcano of the Ancles next to Co- 
topaxi, is in Peru, dep. & about 14 m. 
B. Arequipa. Height 18,300 ft. 

Ares, a seaport of Spain, 9 m. N.E. 
Coruna. P. 1,850, chiefly occupied in 

Arette, a town of France, dep. Lr. 
Pyrenees. P. 1,172. 

Arevalo, a town of Spain. P. 2,201. 
Arezzo, a city of Tuscany, 38 m. S.E. 
Florence. P. 10,402. Its walls are evi- 
dently Etruscan, & it abounds in archit. 
rems. of the middle ages.* 

Arg.s:us, Mount, the loftiest mntn. of 
Asia Minor, pash. Karamania. Circum- 
ference estim. at 60 m., area at 300 sq. 
m., & height at 13,100 ft. It is isolated, 
except on the S.E. side, where it is con- 
nected with a branch of the Taurus 
chain. Its flanks are studded all round 
with volcanic cones. The lower line of 
perpetual snow is elev. 10,700 feet. 

Arganda del Ret, a town of Spain. 
P. 2,772. 

Arganil, a town of Portugal. P. 3,000. 

Argaum, a vill. of Central India, Be- 
rar dom., 38 m.W.S.W.EUichpoor. Here 
the troops under the Duke of Welling- 
ton (then Gen. Wellesley) totally de- 
feated the Nagpoor forces, Nov. 28, 1803. 

Argeles, a town of France, dep. Pyrer 

nees Orient. P. 1,718. II. a vill., 

dep. E. Pyrenees. P. 2,136. 

Argenta, a town of Pontif. sta. P. 

Argentan, a town of France, dep. 
Orne. P. 4,760. 

Argentaria, a small rocky isl. of the 
Grecian archipelago. 

ArgentAro (Mount), a mntn. prom- 
ontory, at the S. extremity of Tuscany. 
Lat. 42° 24' N. ; Ion. 11° 10' E.; cul- 
minating point, 1,700 feet in elevation. 

Argentat, a town of France, dep. 
Correze. P. 2,076. 

Argenteuil, a town of France, dep. 
Seine-et-Oise. P. 4,569. 

Argentiere (L'), a vill. of France, 
dep. Haute Alps. P. 1,233. 

Argentine Republic, S. Amer. [La 

Argenton-sur-Creuse, a town of 
France, dep. Indre. P. 3,995. 

Argentre, two vills. of France. 

I. dep. Ille-et-Vilaine. P. 1,970. 

II. (sous Laval), dep. Mayenne. P. 

Argiko-Kastro, a town, Europ. Tur- 
key, 50 m. S.E. Avlona, with a fort. 
P. 4,000. 

Argo, an island in the Nile, Nubia 
Length, N. to S. 25 m. ; breadth 5 m. 

Argol, a vill. of France, dep. Finis- 

terre. II. a hamlet, dep. Pinisterre, 

arrond. Brest, with a small harbor on 

the German ocean. III. town, dep. 


Ahgolis, a depart, of the kingdom of 
Greece, Morea, cap. Nauplia. 

Argos, a town of Greece, dep. Argolis. 
P. 8,000. 

Argostoli, cap. isl. of Cephalonia on 
its S.W. side, with an excellent port in 
the gulf of Argostoli, lat. 38° 10' N. ; 
Ion. 19° 59' 3" E. P. 5,000. 




Argouges, a town of France, dep. 
Manche. P. 1,576. 

Arguenon, a river of France, falls 
into English channel 10 m. W.S. Male, 
navig. 4 m. from its mouth. 

Arguin, a small isl. about 8 m. from 
the W. coast of Africa. Lat. 20° 27' N. ; 
Ion. 16° 37' W. It is from 30 to 40 m. 
long & 1 m. broad. P. 60. The dan- 
gerous bank of Arguin exteniis N. to S. 
through li deg. of lat. from near C. 

Blanco to C. Mirik. II. a town, W. 

Africa, on the coast, S.E. Cape Blanco. 

Argun, two rivers, Russian dom. 

I. Circassia. II. gov. Irkutsk. Ar- 

gunsk is a palisaded fort of Kussia, gov. 

Abgyle, a marit. co. of Scotl., on its 
W. side, greatly indented by arms of the 
sea, & having N. Inverness-shire, E. the 
COS. Perth & Dumbarton, & on W. & S. 
sides the Atlantic & Irish channel. It in- 
cludes the isls. of Mull, Islay, Jura, Ti- 
ree, Coll, lona, &c. Area about 3,180 
sq. m., of which 2,735 sq. m. belong to the 
mainland, & 1,063 sq. m. to the islands. 

P. . Surface mostly rugged & 

mountainous. Great numbers of cattle 
are reared here for export. Chf. towns 

Inverary, Campbelton, & Oban. II. a 

CO. of N. S. Wales, mostly betw. lat. 34° & 
35° S., & Ion. 149° & 150° E., enclosed by 
the cos. Oamden. Georgiana, S. Vincent, 
King, & Murray. Its rivs. are aflSs. of 

the Warragamba. P. 5,000. III. p.-t., 

"Washington co. N. Y. It has the v. on 
MadeskUl. Manuf. of woollens & leather. 
P. 3,111. 

Argvro-Kastro, a town of Albania. 
Pop.-estim. 2,000 Albanian & 200 Greek 

Ahiano, two towns of Italy. 1, of 

Naples. P. 12,500. It has a fortress, a 
cathedral, a diocesan school, manufs. of 
earthenware, & trade in wine, & butter. 
II. of Pontif. states. P. 2,000. 

Arica, the chief seaport of Southern 
Peru, in lat. 18° 28' S. ; Ion. 70° 24' W. Its 
roadstead is safe & much frequented. 
Chief ©xports, copper ore, wool & silver. 
Arica is a mean low vill., close to the 
shore, it is often visited by intermittent 
fever, & desolated by earthquakes. 

Ariege, a dep. France, having S. the 
Pyrenees & Spain. Area, 455,000 hect. 
P. 267,435. Surface mountainous & 
wooded. It is rich in iron mines, marble 
quarries & min. waters. Chf. rivs. the 
Ariege, & the Salat. It is divided into 
the three arronds. of Fois, Pamiers, & 
St. Girons. 

Arielli, a town of Italy. P. 1,400. 

Arienzo, a town of Naples. P. 3,000. 

Arinthod, atownof France, dep. Jura. 
P. 1,578. 

Arippo, a marit. vill., Ceylon, on its 
W. coast, 35 m. N.N.E. Calpentyn. It is 
the residence of government authorities 
during the pearl-fishing season. 

Arispe, a town of Mexico, cap. dep. 
Sonora, on the Sonora riv., in the Sierra 
Madre. Pop. variously computed from 
3,000 to 7,600. There are extensive ruins 
N.W. of the town, & numerous mines in 
its vicinity. 

Akith, a town of Savoy. P. 1,220. 

Arizu, a vili., isl. of Sardinia, on a 
mntn. P. 2,200. 

Arjish, a riv. of Wallachia, rises in the 
E. Carpathian mntns., & joins the Da- 
nube 42 m. S.S.E. Bucharest, after a S.E.- 

ward course of 150 m. II. a town on 

above riv., 90 m. N.W. Bucharest, with a 
rich convent, many churches, & a fortress. 

Abjona, a town of Spain. P. 3,598. 

Arjonilla is a market town, 5 m. 

N.W. Arjona. P. 2,398. 

Arkansas, one of the Western states, 
lies between the Mississippi r. & the In- 
dian territory, & is bounded N. by Mo. 
It is 240 m. long & 228 wide. Area, 
54,500 sq. m. P. in 1840, 97,574 ; in 
1850, 209,639, of whom 46,982 are slaves. 
This state is divided into 40 counties. 
Little Rock is the capital. The E. part 
of the state bordering on the Mississippi 
is low, swampy & often overflowed. Cen- 
tral part undulated & broken, while in the 
western parts the Ozark mtns. rise to the 
height of 1 or 2 thousand ft. There is 
every variety of soil. On the margins of 
the river, it is exceedingly fertile. Back 
of this generally poor. In many parts 
there is a scarcity of water. Prairies 
abundant & of immense extent. Cotton 
& Indian corn are the staple productions. 
Wild animals & wild fowl abound. Near 
the centre of the state there are numer- 
ous hot springs. Iron ore, gypsum, & 
salt are found. Trade inconsid., manufs. 
do. Climate in the E. part of state un- 
healthy; in the western healthy. This 
state is well situated for commerce. The 
Arkansas, the principal riv. is navigable 
for steamboats to Little Rock. State debt 
$3,755,362. Revenue in 1850, $93,540. 
The Constitution of this state formed in 
1836 is a conservative one. Elections 
are viva voce. The legislature meets 
once in two years. Slaves cannot be 
emancipated without the consent of their 
owners. Arkansas, a part of the Louis- 
iana purchase, was admitted to the Union 
in 1836. II. principal r. of above state 




rising in the Rocky mtns. & flowing in a 
S.E. direction, falls into the Mississippi. 
It is navigable for boats some seasons 
1,980 m. Length of this r. 2,170 m. 
Whole surface drained by its tributaries, 

178,000 sq. m. III. county Ark., on 

both sides of Ark. r., near its mouth. Soil 
various. Staple, cotton. P. 3,245. 

Arkiko, a seaport of Abyssinia, state 
Tigre, on a bay of the Red sea, opp. the 
isl. Massowah, lat. 15° 35' N. ; Ion. 39° 
25' E. 

Arklow, a seaport in the co. "Wicklow, 
on the Ovoca near its mouth in the Irish 
sea, 13 m. S. by E. Wicklow. P. 3,254. 

Arkwright, p. t., Chautauque co. N.Y. 
Adapted to grain & grazing. P. 1,410. 

Arla, a town of France, dep. Jura. 
P. 1,638. 

Arlakc, a town of France, dcp. Puy- 
de-DOme. P. 1,532. 

Arles, a city & riverport of France, 
dep. Bouches-du-Rhone, c-ip. arrond., on 
the princip. branch of the Rhone, where it 
subdivides to form its delta, & at the head 
of the canal from Aries to Bouc, 15 m. 
from the Mediterr., & 44 m. N.W. Mar- 
seilles. A railway is being constructed to 
unite this town with Marseilles & Avig- 
non. P. 14,239. II. {Sur. Tech), a 

town, dep. Pyrenees Orientales. P. 1,939- 
It is much frequented for its mineral 
waters, & hot sulphur baths. 

Arles (Canal d'), a canal of France, 
commences on the Rhone at Aries, & ex- 
tends to P. du Bouc, on the Mediterr., 25 
m. ; it was constructed to evade the 
dangerous passage of the Delta of the 

Arleuf, a town of France, dep. Nievre. 
P. 3,036. 

Arleux, a town of France, dep. Nord. 
P. 1,721. 

Arlington, t., co. Vt. A good white 
marble is quarried here. There is a cha- 
lybeate spring & a curious cavern in this 
t. P. 1,038. 

Arma (Santiago de), a town of New 

Granada, prov. of Popayan. II. a town 

of Mexico, state Xalisco. P. 4,000. 

Armacao, a town of Brazil, prov. & 
isl. Santa Catherina. Lat. 27° 30' S. ; Ion. 

Armagh, an inland co. of Ireland, 
Ulster, having N. Lough Neagb, E. the 
CO. Down, W. the cos. Tyrone & Monaghan, 
& S. Louth. Area, 512^- sq. m. P. in 
1841,232,393; in 1851, 196,520. Surface 
mntnous. in the S.W., where Slieve-Gal- 
lion rises to 1,893 ft. in height; elsewhere 
flat or undulating. Chief rivs. the Callan, 
Blackwater, Bann, & Ne wry- water. Soil 

fertile. II. a city, cap. of the above 

CO., & the archiepisc. seat of the Primate 
of " all Ireland," 70 m. N. by W. Dublin. 
P. 10,245. It is connected by railw. with 
Belfast, is well-built, chiefly of hard red 

marble. Ill.t., Mifflin co. Pa. ,manufs. 

of woollens & leather. 

Armenia, a country of W. Asia, ex- 
tending from the Caucasus on the N. to 
the mntns. of Kurdistan on the S., & from 
the Euphrates (which separates it from 
Asia Minor) on the W., to near the Cas- 
pian on the B., being thus betw. lat. 37° 
& 42° N., & Ion. 39° & 50° E. It is 
subdivd. among the Turkish pashalics of 
Erzeroum, Kars, & Van, & parts of the 
Persian prov. Azerbijan, & the Russian 
gov. of Transcaucasia. Area, roughly 
estimated at 90,000 sq. m., & p. from 
1,500,000 to 2,000,000, including a great 
variety of races. The greater part of 
the surface constitutes an elevated table- 
land. Mt. Ararat, near the centre, rises 
to an elev. of 17,260 ft. It is watered by 
the rivs. Kur, Aras, Joruk, & the two 
heads of the Euphrates, of the three large 
lakes of Van, Urumiyah, & Sevan. Soil 
very various ; it has many fertile corn- 
lands & pastures, & its valleys produce 
excellent cotton, rice, tobacco, grapes & 
other fruits. Copper, lead, alum, & some 
silver mines are wrought. Manufs. un- 
important. The native Armenians, estim. 
at l-7th of the whole p., are distingd. for 
enterprise in commercl. & banking trans- 
actions. The Armenian Christians mostly 
belong to an ecclesiast. estab. of their 
own, similar in many respects to the 
Greek church ; but many have adhered 
to the Roman Catholic church ever since 
the 15th century. Until the present cen- 
tury, Armenia was shared betw. Turkey 
& Persia. Russia acquired Georgia, 
Karabagh, Erivan, & Nakhchevan, from 
Persia, betw. 1800 & 1828, & parts of the 
pash. Akhalzikh betw. 1829 & 1833. The 
chf. towns are the caps, of the several 
pashs. & provs., & mostly of same names. 
— Armenia- Minor is the anc. name of the 
country forming the mod. Turkish pashs. 
of Kaisariyeh, Sivas, & Marash, included 
in Asia-Minor, i)ut which were respec- 
tively termed first, second, & third Ar- 
menia — fourth Armenia having been the 
mod. pash. Diarbekir in Mesopotamia. 

Armenierstadt, a town of Transyl- 
vania. P. 3,400, including 400 Armenian 

Armeno, a town of Sardinia, 29 m. N". 
Novara. P. 1,420. 

Armentibres, a town of France, dep- 
Nord, 9 m. N.W. Lille. P. 6,675, em- 




ployed in manufs. of cotton, linen, lace, 
thread, & sail cloth. 

Armento, a. town of Naples. P. 2,800. 

Armstrong (Co.), Penn., central in 
the W. part of the state. Large quan- 
tities of bituminous coal & of salt ore 
are produced. P. 29,560.-^ II. t., In- 
diana CO. ■ Pa., drained by Crooked riv. 
P. 1,054. 

Arnac-Pompadour, a vill. of France, 
dep. Correze. P. 1.383. 

Arnau, a town of Bohemia. P. 1,500. 

Arnay-le-Duc, a town of Prance, dep. 
Cute-d'Or. P. 2,331. 

Arneburg, a town of Prus. Saxony. 
P. 1,590. 

Aenedo, a town of Spain. P. 3,335. 

Arnemuyden, a town of the isl. Wal- 
cheren. P. 1,340. 

Arnhem, a fortfd. town of the Neth'ds, 
on the Rhine, here crossed by a bridge of 
boats, 50 m. S.E. Amsterdam, with which 
& with Utrecht, it is connected by railw. 
P. 16,758. 

Arnhem Land, on the N. coast of 
Australia, comprises all the region betw. 
the gulf of Carpentaria & Anson bay, & 
is so named from having been discovered 
by the crews of the Arnhem & Pera in 
1618. — Arnhem bay is a deep inlet near 
lat. 12° S., &lon. 136° E.— Cape Arnhem 
is the E.-most point of Arnhem Land, in 
the gulf of Carpentaria, lat. 12° 19' S. ; 
Ion. 137° r E. 

Arnis, an isl. & fishing vill. of Den- 
mark, on the Schlei. P. 800. 

Arno, a riv. of Tuscany, rises in Apen- 
nines, at an elev. of 4,444 ft. above the 
sea. Its course is W. to the Mediterr., 
which it enters 7 m. below Pisa. Distance 
from source to mouth, 75 m. 

Arnoldsdorf' a townof Prus. Silesia. 
P. 1,410. 

Arnoult-en-Iveline (St.), a town of 
France, dep. Seine-et-Oise. P. 1,420. 

Arnsberg, a town of Prus. Westphalia. 
P. 4,300. 

Arnsdorp, a vill. of Prus. Silesia. P. 

Arnstadt, a toivn of Schwartzburg 
Sondershausen, 10 m. W. Erfurt. P. 5,000, 
with manufs. of woollen, linen, & cotton. 

Arnstein, a town of Bavaria. P. 1,396. 

Arnswalde, a town of Brandenburg. 
P. 4,622. 

Aroche, a town of Spain. P. 2,705. 

Aeokszallas, a vill. of Hungary, 44 
m. E.N.E. Pesth. P. 7,700. 

Arolsen, a town of Waldeck, on the 
Aar, 2-1 m. N.N.W. Cassel. P. 2,050. 

Akon, a riv. of France, joins the Loire, 
after a course of 25 m., the latter 10 of 

which "are navig. II. a vill. dep. May- 

enne. P. 1,722. 

Aeona, a town of Piedmont, on the 
S.W. shore of Lago Maggiore. P. 2,200. 

Aeoostook, county, Me., in the N.E. 
part of the state, extending to the Canada 
line, watered by sev. rivs. Wheat, oats, & 

potatoes are produced. P. 12,535. ■ 

II. r.. Me., branch of the St. John's. The 
lands on this r. are very fertile. 

Ahpaia, a vill. of Naples, near which 
the Romans suffered the defeat of the 
" Caudine forks." 

Arpajon (formerly Chatres), a town of 
France, 15 m. S.S.E. Versailles. P. 2,017. 
II. a vill. dep. Cantal. P. 2,300. 

Arpino, a town of Naples, in the Apen- 
nines, 6 m. S.S.E. Sora. P. 9,600. It has 
an active trade in woollen cloth, parch- 
ment, leather, & paper. 

Arqua, a vill. of N. Italy, 12^ S.W. 
Padua. Petrarch died July 19th, 1374, & 

is buried here. II. a vill., 5 m. S.S.W. 

Rovigo. P. 2,800. 

Arciuata, a town of Pontif. states. P. 

AnauATO, a town of~Parma. P. 2,000. 

Arquennes, avill. of Belgium. P. 1,667. 

Aeques, a town of France, dep. Seine 
Inf. The Argues riv., same dep., is nav. 

from Arques to the Engl, channel. II. 

a vill. dep. Pas de Calais. P. 1,854. 

Arean, an isl. of Scotland, in the firth 
of Clyde, & forming the larger part of the 
CO. Bute, about 6 m. S.W. Bute isl., & E 
Kintyre. Estimated area,- including islet 
of Pladda & Holy Isl., 100,000 acres. 
P. 6,421. 

Arran Isles, Ireland, eo. Galway, 
consist of a group of small isls. Lat. of 
lightho. on Inishmore, the lagest & most 
N.-erlv, 53° 7' 38" N. ; Ion. 9° 42' 22" 
W. United area, 11,287 ac. P. 3,000. 
— North Ai-ran or Arranmore island, co. 
Donegal, lies If m. W. of Artean point. 
Area, 4,335 ac. P. 1,000. A lightho. on 
the isl. e.xhibits a fixed light. 

Areas, a fortifd. city of France, cap. 
dep. Pa.s-de-Calais, on the Scarpe, & on 
the Railwaj'^ du Nord, 35 m. N.E. Amiens, 
& 100 m. N.N.E. Paris. P. 24,321. It is 
well built, & has a botanic garden, muse- 
ums, & public library of 36,000 vols. Chf. 
manufs., cotton thread, calico, hosiery, 
lace, coarse woollens, beet-root sugar, 
earthenware, & sonp. 

Arrayollos, a town of Portugal. P. 

Aeeayollos & Arrayas, small towns 
of Brazil, provs. Goyaz & Para. 

Abreau, a town of France, cap. cant. 
H. Pyrenees. P. 1,480. 




• Arresee, alake of Denm'k, lat. 55° N. ; 
formerly a bay of the Cattegat, communic. 
with Roeskilde-fiord by a small qanal. 

Arru or Aroo, a group of islands in 
the Asiatic archipelago, betw. lat. 5° 20' 
& 6° 55' S., & Ion. 134° 10' & 134° 45' B., 
80 m. S.W. Papua, the largest being 70 
m. long, & 20 m. broad. They are sepa- 
rated by narrow straits. To the E. of the 
group is an extensive coral reef, where 
pearls & trepang abound. The inhabs. 
are a mixture of the Malay & Austra- 
lasian negro races, & many have adopted 
Christianity. Dobbo, a town on the isl. 
Warud, inhabited by s^me Dutch & Chi- 
nese riberchants, is the greatest mart in 
the N. of Australasia. 

Arsacides, a group of small islands 
in the Pacific. [Solomon Isles.] 

Ars-En-Rb, a town of France, dep. 
Charente Inf., on the isK Re, 17 m. W. La 

Rochelle. P. 2,911. II. Sur-Moselle, 

P. 1,453. 

Arsiero, a vill. of N. Italy. P. 2,400. 

Art, a vill. of Switzerland, at the S. 
extremity of the lake of Zug. P. 2,200. 

Arta, Gulf of, a gulf of the Ionian 
sea, forming part of the N. frontier of 
Greece. It is nearly land-locked, having 
Acarnania on the S. & E., & Albania on 
the N. Length N.W. to S.E., 25 m., 

breadth, from 4 to 10 m. II. a town 

of Albania, 42 m. S. Janina, on 1. b. of 
the Arta, here crossed by a remarkable 
bridge 200 yards in length. P. from 
5,000 to 9,000. It has a large cathedral, 
a ruined convent of the 9th century, a 
citadel, & traces of its Hellenic walls, 
with manufs. of coarse cottons & woollens, 
leather, capotes, & embroidery, & an 

active general trade. III. a town of 

Majorca. P. 4,001. Chf. industry, man- 
ufs. of coarse linen, dyeing, & fishing. 
Commerce in fruit. 

Artajona, a town of Spain, prov. 
Navarra. P. 1,911. 

Artaki, a maritime town of Asia- 

Art AN A, a town of Spain, Valencia, 
prov. P. 2,077. 

Arteijo, a vill. of Spain, with mineral 
springs, on 1. b. of the Bolano. 

Artenara, a town of the Canaries, 
near the centre of the island Gran Cana- 
ria. P. 1,074. 

Artenay, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Loiret. P. 1,182. 

Artern, a town of Prussian Saxony. 
P. 3,052. 

Arthez, a eomm. & town, France, dep. 

B. Pyrenees. P. 1,731. II. (d'Asson) 

a vill. B. Pyr., arrond. Pau. P. 1,400. 

Arthur's Isls., a small group, Mul- 
grove archip. 

Arthur's Stone, a cromlech on the 
top of Cefn Bryn, a hill of Wales. It 
consists of a block of millstone, 14 ft. in 
length & 7 ft. 2 in. in thickness, resting 
on 8 supporters, & it is referred to in the 
"Welsh triads as one of the 3 most stupen- 
dous works in Britain, — Stonehenge, & 
probably Avebury, being the others. 

Artois, an old prov. of France, which 
with part .of Picardy, forms the present 
dep. of Pas-de-Calais ; Arras was its 
capital. It belonged to the Dukes of 
Burgundy, to Austria, & latterly to Spain, 
from which it was taken by Louis XIII. 
in 1640. Artesian wells derive their 
name from this prov. 

Artvin, a town of Asiatic Turkey, 
pash. Trebizond, cap. dist., in a ravine 
near the Joruk riv. P. 5,500. 

Aruba, isl., one of the Dutch Antilles, 
near the coast of Venezuela. P. 2,621. 

Arudy, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. B. Pyrenees. P. 1,971. - 

Arun, a riv. of England, co. Sussex. 

Arva, a district of Hungary. 

Arva, a quoad sacra pa. of Irelan(J, 
CO. Cavan, Ulster. P. 4,590. 

Arvert, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Charente-Inf. P. 2,360. 

Ahvillard, a vill. of Savoy. P. 1,430. 

Arzamass, a town of Russia. P. 4,700. 

Arzana, a town of the isl. of Sardinia. 
P. 1,380. 

Arzano, a vill. of France, dep. Finis- 
tere. P. 1,801. 

Arzew, a seaport town of Algeria, 
with fine Roman remains, & vast cisterns. 

Arzignano, a town of Lombardy. P. 

Arzilla, a small fortified seaport town 
of Morocco, prov. Fez. P. 1,000. It 
stands on an open beach, & has a battery 
with about 20 cannons. 

Arzobispo Isl., Pacific ocean. [Bonin 

AsAL, a remarkable salt lake of E. 
Africa. It occupies a volcanic basin. 
Length of lake about 7 m.; breadth 3 m.; 
surface 570 feet below the Red sea. . 

Asangaro, a town of South Peru. 

Asaph (St.), an epis. city, N. Wales. 
P. 3,338. 

AsARO, a town of Sicily, Catania. P. 

Ascension, pa. La., in the middle of 
the S.E. part of the state, on both sides 
of the Mississippi riv. Cap. Donaldson- 
ville. Chf. prod, sugar & cotton. Figs 
& oranges are also produced. 3 acad. 
P. 10,752. 

A si] 



Ascension, an isl. in the Atlantic, be- 
longing to Great Britain, 280 m. N.W. 
St. Plelena. It is of a triangular shape, 
8 m. long, & 6 m. broad, at W. end. 

Ascension Bay, E. coast of Yucatan, 
Central America. 

AscH, the most W. town of Bohemia. 
P. 5,000. 

AscHACH, a town of Upper Austria. 

Aschaffenbueg, a flourishing town 
of Bavaria. P. 8,400. It has a royal 
residence, collections of art, & a library 
of 22,000 volumes. 

Aschendorp, a vill. of Hanover. P. 

AscHEESLEBEN, a town of Prussian 
Saxony. P. 11,270. 

AsciANO, a vill. of Tuscany, prov. P. 

AscoLi, an anc. episcopal city of Italy, 
Pontif. states. P. 13,000. 

AscoNA, a vill., Switzerland, cant. 
Ticino, on L. Maggiore, 2 m. S.S.W. Lo- 
carno. P. 1,000. 

Ascot-Heath, England, co. Berks. It 
is known for its races. 

AscuTNEY, mountain of Windsor co. 
Vermont. At Windsor, it is 2,903 feet 
above the country, & 3,320 above the 
level of the ocean. 

Ash, a town of Monroe co. Mich. P. 949. 

AsHANTEE, .a country of Africa, and 
the most powerful native state of Upper 
Guinea, betw. lat. 6° & 8° N., Ion. 0° & 
3° W. The sovereignty of its chief over 
the petty states on the coast, ceased in 
1831, & its S. limit is now 60 m. from the 
gulf of Guinea. P. probably 1,000,000. (?) 
It is mntnous., well-watered, and healthy 
in the more elev. districts. Chief rivs. 
Volta & Assinie. Products maize, millet, 
dhourra, rice, yams, tobacco, the sugar- 
cane, cocoa, the pine-apple, & other fine 
fruits, with dye-woods, gums,' & timber : 
the chief exports are gold dust & palm 
oil. The inhabs. are intelligent, & excel 
in several kinds of manufs. 

AsHBURNHAM, p-t., Vforcester co. Mass. 
P. 1,652. 

AsHBURTON, t., Eng., CO. Devon. P. 

AsHBY, p-t., Middlesex co. Mass. P. 

AsHBY-DE-LA-ZoucH, town of Eng., CO. 
Leicester. P. 5,652. It has a ruined 
castie, in which Mary Queen of Scots was 
once confined. 

AsHDON, Eng., CO. Essex. P. 1,164. 
Four mounds in this pa,, reputed to be 
sepulchres of the Danes, mark the sup- 
posed site of Canute's victory over Ed- 
mund Ironside, in 1016. 

AsHE, county, N. C. in W. part of the 
state, between Bald mt. & Blue Ridge. 
Area, 480 sq. m., cap. Jefferson ville. 
P. 8,777. 

AsHFiELD, p-t., Eranklin co., Mass. 
P. 1,610. 

AsHFORD, t., Windham co. Conn. A 

manufacturing t. P. 1,295. II. p-t. 

Cattarau. co. N. T. P. 1,469. 

Ashland, a new co. of Ohio. P. 

Ashley, a new co. of Arkansas. P. 

AsHEiDGE, a hamlet, Engl. A par- 
liamt. was held here by Edward I., & 
Princess Elizabeth lived here in 1554. 

Ashta, a town of Hindostan, Gwalior 

Ashtabula, county, 0., in the 'N.Yi. 
part of the state, on Lake Erie. It oc- 
cupies the height of land between Lake 
Erie & the Ohio r. Capital, Jefferson. 
A good farming co., manufs. of woollens 

& leather. P. 28,766. II. v. in the 

E. part of the co. on Ashtabula. 

AsHTOLA, an uninhabited isl. of the 
Indian ocean. It abounds with turtle; 
& was formerly the haunt of the Jowasi- 
mee pirates. 

Ashton-undee-Lyne, t., Eng., co. 

AsHviLLE, c. h., p-v., & capital of 
Buncombe co. N. C. 

AsHviLLE, c. H., p-v., & capital of St. 
Clair CO. Ala. 

Ashelot, r. Cheshire co. N". H. 

Asia, the largest of the great divisions 
of the globe, comprehends all the coun- 
tries to the E. of Europe & Worthern 
Africa, and extends, with its islands, be- 
tween lat. 10° S., & 78° N., & Ion. 26° 
E. to 190° E. (170° W.) Its whole area 
is supposed to amount to upwards of 16 
millions of square miles, & its population 
to 626 millions. Central Asia is com- 
posed of two great elevated table-lands, 
a higher & a lov/er, each descending by 
gradual slopes & terraces to the level 
lowlands. The length of the elevated 
regions, from the Black sea and Persian 
gulf on the W., to the Corean Coast on 
the E., is upwards of 5,500 m. The 
greatest breadth, from 1,800 to 2,000 m. 
On the mountain ranges N. of the table- 
land, four great rivs. take their rise — the 
Irti^i, the Yenesei, the Lena, & the 
Amur, draining a surface of country 
more extensive than that of Europe. Two 
great rivers take their rise in the Eastern 
range, the Hoang-Ho and the Yangtse- 
Kiang, which, flowing through China, 
discharge their waters into the Pacific 




ocean. The principal rivers of S. Asia 
are the Cambodia, Irrawaddy, & Menam ; 
the Brahmaputra, Ganges, & Indus, tak- 
ing their rise in the Himalaya mntns., & 
traversing by diverging routes the coun- 
try known as India within the Ganges. 
Westward of Persia, in the countries of 
Kurdistan, Azerbijan, & Armenia, the 
rivers Euphrates & Tigris have their 
source, which, flowing through Mesopo- 
tamia & ano. Babylonia, enter the Per- 
sian gulf by one channel. The peninsula 
of Arabia forms a continuation of the 
Highlands of W. Asia. The Loiolands 
of Asia may be divided into, 1. Chinese 
Lowlands on the E. : 2. the Indo-Chi- 
nese, comprehending Cambodia & Siam ; 

3. Hindostan, bounded by the Ganges 
& Indus, forming a great triangle ; 

4. Syria & Arabia ; 5. the Northern Si- 
berian, in extent more than half all the 
others, stretching along the Polar sea 
from the Ural mntns. to the Pacific 
ocean; 6. Bucharia, on the Caspian sea 
& L. Aral. The Mineral products of 
Asia are numerous, & have been known 
from remote antiquity. Precious stones 
are abundant. Volcanic products -are 
found near Mt. Taurus, in Armenia, W. 
Anatolia, & in Japan & Sunda isl. ; coals 
in Hindostan & China; rock salt in the 
Ural mntns., N. China, & 'Turkey ; gold 
or gold-dust in various localities. Mer- 
cury in China & Japan. Copper & iron 
in Ural mntns., & lead in Da-Uria, Chi- 
na, Armenia. Fossil shells are found in 
great quantities at an elevation of 16.000 
to 18,000 ft. in Tibet, mammalian re- 
mains in the lower Himalaya, & the allu- 
vial soil of Siberia, is full of bones of ex- 
tinct quadrupeds. 

The vegetation of Asia varies with its 
different regions. N.of lat. 60° scarcely 
any vegetable products are seen except 
birches, mosses, & lichens. In S. Siberia, 
& as far S. as the chain of the Hima- 
laya & Hindoo-Koosh, the vegetation in 
a great nieasure resembles that of N. 
& Central Europe. Ginseng & rhubarb 
are products peculiar to this region. In 
the cultivated plains of Bokhara & Ca- 
bool, grapes, melons, pears, figs, & other 
fruits common in Europe, grow to perfec- 
tion. N. of the Caucasus, the counti-y is 
thinly covered with vegetable products, 
but immediately S. of that chain, the 
fruits common to S. Europe, begin to 
flourish luxuriantly ; & rice, cotton, in- 
digo, sugar, tobacco, dates, are among the 
products of the fruitful provs. of Turkey 
& Persia. The region of Asia S. & E. of the 
Himalaya, is unrivalled for the number 

& richness of its vegetable products. 
The teak-tree, tea, sago, camphor, cloves, 
mace,. & nutmegs, are peculiar to this 
part of the globe. Wheat is raised at an 
elevation of 10,000 feet in the Himalaya 
mountains. The zoology of the N. of Asia 
partakes of the character of that of N. 

Asia is the cradle of the human race, 
from whence the various nations & tribes 
have issued to people the other parts of 
the world. The races inhabiting Asia 
may be divided into 1. The Semitic, in- 
cluding Syrians, Jews, Arabs, & the de- 
scendants of the ancient Chaldeans or 
Aramoeans ; — 2. The Persian Kurds, Os- 
setes, Armenians, Georgians, Mingreli- 
ans ; — 3. The Turks, forming a numerous 
race of central Asia ; — 4. The Samoiedes, 
N. Asia ; — 5. The Mongols, Burials, Kal- 
mucks, Tungooses, & other tribes N.E. • 
Asia; — 5. The Japanse, Chinese ; — 6. The 
Malays, inhabiting Malaysia & the isls. 
of the Eastern Archipelago. The polit- 
ical divisions of Asia include six empires, 
China, Russia, Britain, Persia, Turkey, 
Arabia. The British possessions are 
chiefly in India, or the peninsula within 
the Ganges. The Portuguese, whose set- 
tlements were formerly numerous, have 
preserved only Goa, Damaun, Macao, & 
a few others. The French possess Pondi- 
cherry, a settlement on the coast of Ma- 
labar, & two or three more. The Dutch 
occupy Java, Sumatra, the Moluccas, &c. 

AsiAGO, a town of Northern Italy, in- 
habited by a race of German descent. P. 
of the dist., 25,500 ; of the town, 4,670. 

Asia Isles, a cluster of low & thickly 
wooded isls. in the Asiatic Archipelago, 
E. of Gilolo. Lat. 1° N. ; Ion. 131° 17' E. 

Asia Minor, forms the western penin- 
sula of Asia. Area, estimated at 269,000 
sq.. m. ; & pop. at 4,000,000. Two moun- 
tain chains run nearly E. & W., the dis- 
trict between, forming an elevated table- 
land studded with mntns. The Taurus 
mntn. chain trends E. to W. near its S. 
coast, rising frequently to 8,000 or 10,000 
ft. in ht. ; & near the N. coast runs the 
other chain, less continuous & lofty, but 
comprising mts. Olympus, Ida, &" Gar- 
garus, famous in classic literature. On the 
N.E. are the mntn. ranges of Anti-Tau- 
rus ; elev. of the highest, Arjish Tag, 
13,000 ft. . N. of these is the Euxine or 
Lazian range. Shores greatly indented. 
Chief rivs. Kizil Irmak, Yeshil Irmak, 
Saharia, Kodus Sihun, & Euphrates. 
There are numerous fresh & salt water 
lakes ; Tuz-gol is the largest salt water 
lake, & yields a great quantity of salt. 





The climate varies with the locality, the 
elevated regions being cold & humid, the 
plains wax-m & fertile. The eastern part 
of the country is composed of volcanic 
rocks, the AV. of calcareous strata with 
tertiary fossils. The mines produce cop- 
per, silver, lead, iron ; alum, nitre, & 
rock salt are also abundant. The pop. 
consists mostly of Turks & Greeks, with 
some Armenians & Jews, & wandering 
tribes of Kurds, &c. Asia-Minor is di- 
vided into the pashalics of Anatolia, It- 
shil, Karamania, Sivas, Marash, & a part 
of Trebizond. Principal cities, Smyrna, 
Brusa, Trebizond, Kutayah, Angora, 
Konieh (anc. Iconium), & Kaisariyeh 
(anc. Ccesarea), with Scutari, opposite 
Constantinople. Smyrna, Trebizond, & 
Brusa, are the principal seats of_com- 
merce. This region was anciently the 
seat of the famous kingdoms of Troy & 
Lydia, & afterwards formed a proconsul- 
ship under the Romans. It produced 
Homer, Thales, Pythagoras, Herodotus, 
& many other of the most distinguished 
poets, philosophers, historians, & artists 
of antiquity ; & ruins scattered over al- 
most every portion of its surface, attest 
its former wealth & prosperity. 

Asiatic or Eastern Archipelago, 
the largest collection of ils. on the gliibe, 
extending along the equator, from the 
S.E. coast of Asia to the AV, of Australia. 
The numerous isls. may be arranged un- 
der 5 groups. 

1. Sumatra, Java^ Bali, Lombok, Ma- 
dura, Banka, Billiton, & the W. k larger 
poHion of Borneo. . 

2. Celebes, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, 
Sandalwood isl., & E. part of Borneo. 

3. Ceram. Booro, Gillolo (Molucca I.), 
Timorlaut. Arrooe I., & Papua, the latter 
coming within the range of Australasia. 

4. Mindanao, Sooloo I., Palawan, & 
N.E. part of Borneo. 

5. Luzon, & allthat portion of the Philip- 
pine isls. stretching from lat.lO° to 19°-N. 

The isls. of the Eastern Archipelago 
are all more or of volcanic origin, & 
exhibit at the present time, active vol- 
canoes in numerous localities. Gold, 
silver, copper, iron, sulphur & tin mines 
are abundant. The clove, nutmeg, & 
various aromatic trees, abound in the 
Moluccas. Pepper, ginger, cubebs, & 
various spices, in Java & Sumatra. 
Cotton, tobacco, sugar, sweet potato, in 
the Philippines, & other islands. The 
grains cultivated in the larger & more 
civilized isls., are maize, millet, pulses, 
& chiefly rice. Throughout the other 
isls., the amylaceous pith of the sago 

palm {Metroxylonsago) is the chief food 
of the inhabs. The elephant is found ia 
Sumatra, & the Malay peninsula adjoin- 
ing. The tiger, panther, & other preda- 
cious animals, are not uncommon. The 
ox & buffalo, both large & of excellent 
breeds, are used in agriculture ; deer & 
wild hogs abound, & the rhinoceros is not 
uncommon. Many species of the monkey 
tribe are found in various localities, 
& the ourang-outang in Borneo. Birds 
of the most varied kinds & beautiful 
plumage fill the woods. Two distinct 
races of men inhabit this region. The 
Malay, forming the great bulk of the 
pop., especially of the W. isls. is of a light 
brown or olive complexion, with long 
straight hair, short stature, & robust 
body, round face, & small features. 
Strong & active in habits, in many com- 
munities considerably advanced in civil- 
ization ; in other situations, roving & 
restless pirates. The Papuan or black 
race have negro features & curly hair, 
small stature, & spare & puny form. 
These are in a ruder state, are less sus- 
ceptible of civilization. The Hindoo faith 
is professed by a portion of the native 
races, but Mohammedanism is the pre- 
vailing religion. Christianity has been 
partially introduced into the Burop. set- 

AsiNALUNGA, a town of Tuscany. P. 

Asinara, a small isl. of the Mediterr., 
N.W. Sardinia. 

AsKALON, a seaport town of Palestine, 
pash. Acre, on the Mediterranean, at 
the mouth of the Sorek. The anc. city 
is quite deserted, & presents only a 
mixture of Syrian, Greek, & Gothic ruins, 
with remains of a Roman amphitheatre. 
In remote antiquity Askalon was a prin- 
cipal city of the Philistines (Phoenicians). 

Ask, or Asek, atown of Persia, prov. It comprises from 1,000 
to 1,500 houses. 

AsKEATON, a town of Ireland, prov. 
Munster, co. Limerick, on the Deel. P. 

AsKERN, England, co. York, resorted 
to by visitors for the sake of its sulphur 

AsKOE, a small isl. of Denmark, in the 
Great Belt. 

AsoLA, a town of Northern Italy. P. 

AsoLO, a town of Northern Italy. P. 

AsoNE, a riv. of Central Italy. 

Asopus, a riv. of Greece, dep. Thebes. 

AspALAGA, v., Gadsden co. Florida. 




AsPE, t.j Spain, prov. Valencia. P. 

AsPEBEN, a town of the Netherlands, 
P. 1,127: 

AsPERG, a town of Wurtemberg. P. 
1,500. Near it is the castle of Hohen- 
Asperg, on a steep rock. 

AsPERN, a vill. of Austria, 5 m. E.N.E. 
Vienna, celebrated for the defeat of Na- 
poleon by the Austrians under Archduke 
Charles, May, 1809. 

AsPET, a town of France, dep. H. Gar- 
rone. P. 2,573. 

AspiNWALL, a newly laid out city on 
the inland of Manzanilla, in the N.E. of 
Navy bay, on the Atlantic side of the 
isthmus of Panama, 7 m. B. from Cha- 
gres. It was founded by Panaipa E,. R. 
Co., & named after an eminent New York 

AsPRiEREs, a eomm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Aveyron. P. 1,443. 

AspROMONTE, a town of the Sardinian 
States. P. 1,590. 

AspROPOTAMO, the largest river of the 
kgdm. of Greece. Length 100 m. 

AspULL, a township, of England, co. 
Lancaster. P. 2,772. 

Aspuzi, a town of Asia-Minor, pash. 

AssACA, a prov. of Africa, Gold coast, 
with a town of same name. P. 2,000 

Assam, a Brit. prov. of Further-India, 
presid. Bengal. Area, 18,200 sq. m. P. 

AssAHLO, a town of Turkey in Europe. 

Assaye, a small town of Hindostan, 
prov. Berar, in Nizam's doms., memora- 
ble as the place where the Duke of Wel- 
lington (then Gen. Wellesley) commenced 
his' career of victory, 23d Sept. 1803, by 
defeating, with 4,500 men, the combined 
forces of Scindia & the iSTagpoor Raja, 
amounting to 30,000 men. 

AsscHE, a town of Belgium, prov. S. 
Brabant. P. 5,238. 

AssEN, a town of the Netherlands, on 
the Hoorn-diep. P. 1,316. 

AssENDELFT, a vill. of the Nether- 
lands. P. 2,711. 

AssENEDE, a vill. of Belgium, prov. 
E. Flanders. P. 3,984. 

AssENHEiM, a town of Germany, Hes- 
sen-Darmstadt. P. 704, with a castle of 
the count of Solms-Rodelheim. 

AssENs, a maritime town of Denmark, 
isl. Fiihnen. P. 2,700. 

AssERiA, a town of Dalmatia, with 
ruins which show that it has once been a 
splendid city. 

AssiNiBOiNB, a river of British N. 

America, N.W. territory, flowing into the 
S. extremity of lake Winnipeg. 

AssiNiE, a country of Upper Guinea. 

Assisi, a town of Pontif. states. P. 
5,000. Assisi has been a bishop's see 
ever since a.d. 240. ^ 

Asso, a vill. of N. Italy. P^ 1,500. 

II. a town & fort N.W. coast of the 

isl. of Cephalonia. 

Assouan, a town of Upper Egypt, on 
the E. bank of the Nile near the borders 
of Nubia. It has remains of a wall, a 
mosque, & other ruins of Syene. 

AssuAY, the most S. dep. of Ecuador, 
S. Amer. Area, 254,000 sq. m. It com- 
prises a part of the Andean Cordillera, 
& the upper basin of the Amazon riv. 
Chief towns,' Cuen^a, Loxa, Jaca, & 
Borja. The principal article of produce 
is the cinchona bark. There are silver 
mines at Los Azoques, but they are not 
wrought to advantage. 

Ai=s0MPTiOKr, pa.. La., in the middle 
of the S.E. part of the state. Cap. As- 
sumption c. H.. cotton, sugar, & some 
oranges, one college. P. 10,538. 

Assumption, one of the Marianne isls., 
Pacific ocean. [Asuncion.] 

Assumption, a vill. & riv. L. Canada, 
N. America. 

Assynt, a very extensive marit. pa. of 
Scotland, CO. Sutherland. Area, 100.000 
ac. P. 3,178. In this district the Mar- 
quis of Montrose was defeated & taken 

Assyria, the name of the first great 
empire of antiquity celeb, in Holy Writ. 
Assyria-Proper was a region E. of the 
Tigris, the cap. Nineveh, &. derived its 
name from Asshur, the second son of 

A^TAFFORT, a town of France, Lot-et- 
Gar. P. 1,318. 

AsTAHA, a riv. of Georgia, flowing into 
the Caspian sea. It has a Russian fort 
of same name on its banli. 

AsTEN, a vill. of the Netherlands, prov. 
North Brabant. P. 2,882. 

AsTi, an episcop. city of Piedmont, cap. 
prov. of same name, near the confl. of 
the Belbo with the Tanaro. P. 24,280. 

AsTiER (St.), a town and comm. of 
France. P. 2,546. Alfieri was born here, 
Jan. 17, 1749. 

AsTON, town of Delaware co. Penn. 
Cap. in manufs. $103,700. P. 1,469. 

Astor, or Hasara, a riv. & fort of 
Central Asia. 

Astorga, a walled town of Spain. P. 

Astoria, p-v., Newtown, Queens co. 
N. Y., just below Hell Gate. P. 2, 100. 





AsTOEiA, p-T., Butler co. Ohio. 

Astoria, p-v., Fulton co. Illinois. 

Astoria, a trading post, 8 m. from 
mouth of Columbia riv., founded in 1811. 

AsTEABAD, a city of N. Persia, cap. 
prov. of same name, situated near the 
S.E. corner of the Caspian sea & Astrabad 
bay. P. 4,000. 

Astrakhan, or Astracan, a gov. & 
administrative prov. of Russia. Area, 
50,000 sq. m. P. 234,400. 

Astrakhan, a city of S. Russia, cap. 
gov. of same name, formerly cap. of a 
Tartar kgdm., built on one of the isls. 
formed by the Volga, at its embouch. in 
the Caspian sea. P. 43,703. It consists 
of a citadel called the AremZire, the city- 
proper, & the suburbs. It has numerous 
churches, includ. the cathed. built by 
Peter the Great. 

Astros, a town of Greece, Morea, dcp. 
Cynuria. Here the seconddtiational con- 
gress of the Greeks was held in April, 

AsTUEA, a marit. vill. of Italy, Pontif. 
sta. P. 250. It has a small harbor, & 
a lofty tower, supposed to occupy the site 
of the villa of Cicero, & near which he 
was put to death by order of Antony, 
B. c. 43. Here Conradin, the last of the 
HohenstaufFen family, was betrayed after 
the battle of Tagliacozzo, in 1268. 

AsTURiAs, a divis. of Spain, of which 
was formed in 1833 the prov. of Oviedo. 
Area, 3,460 sq. m. P. 434,635. Surface 
mntnous. & wooded ; climate damp, & 
often foggy. Asturias having been the 
nucleus of the Spanish monarchy, as the 
refuge of the Christian princes when the 
Moors had estab. themselves in nearly 
all the rest of Spain, its inhabs. still enjoy 
peculiar privileges,; and the heir pre- 
sumptive to the Spanish throne has the 
title of Prince of Asturias. 

Asuncion, a town of the Rep. of Ve- 
nezuela, cap. & on N. side of the isle of 

Asuncion, the cap. city of Paraguay, 
on the Paraguay riv. P. 10,000. It is 
badly built, & un paved ; and its chief 
edifices, the cathed. and govern. -house, 
are very mean structures ; but it is the 
centre of a considerable trade in hides, 
tobacco, timber, Paraguay tea, & wax. 

Asylum, p-t., Bradford co. Pa., on the 
Susquehanna riv. Wyalusing falls are 
here. P. 947. 

AsYR or AcYR, an extens. prov. of 
Arabia, in the 'N. of Yemen. It is very 
populous, & its warlike inhabs. have 
long resisted the troops of Mohammed 

AszoD, a town of Hungary, co. Pesth. 

Atacama, a marit. prov. of Bolivia, 
dep. Potosi. 

Atalaya, a town of Brazil. P. 2,000. 

II. a singular town of the isl. Canary, 

near Las Palmas ; the habitations of 
which are excavated on the sides of 
Mount St. Antoine, and disposed in reg- 
ular terraces. P. 2,000. 

AsviTATADA, an isl. of a group, Indian 
ocean. [Queeimba Islands.] 

Ataeaipu ("Devil's Rock"), a mntn. 
& one of the greatest natural wonders 
of British Guiana. It is a pyramidal 
granite rock, rising abruptly to 1,300 feet 
above the sea, & wooded to the height 
of about 350 ft., but bare in the resf of 
its extent. 

Ataun, a decayed town of Spain, prov. 
Guipuscoa. P. 1,800. 

Atbara, a riv. N.E. Africa. [Ta- 


Atchafalaya, an outlet of the Mis- 
sissippi, 147 m. in length, & forming the 
W. boundary of the delta of that riv. It 
is not navigable on account of rafts. 

Atcheea. a town of British India, Bom- 
bay, on the Malabar coast. 

Atchison, a new ch. of Missouri P. 

Ategerat, a town of Abyssinia, state 
Tigre, on a mntn. 8,180 ft. in elevation. 
P. 2,200. 

- Ateeno, a riv. of Naples. Length, 50 
m. In its latter half it is called the Pes- 
cara riv. & separates Abr. Citra'from 
Abr. Ultra. 

Ateshga, the source of the sacred fire, 
which has burned & been worshipped from 
the most remote antiquity by the Ghe- 
bers of Asia,Russian Transeaucapsia,prov. 
Shirvan. In a court here, surrounded by 
the cells of anchorites, is a small temple, 
from the four corners of which the in- 
flammable gas issues ont of tubes placed 
in the earth, the vapor being a mixture 
of proto-carburet of hydrogen with a 
little naphtha. 

Atessa, a town of Naples. P. 8,000. 

Atfeh, a vill. of Lower Egypt, on 1. b. 
of W. branch of the Nile, at the mouth 
of the Mahmoudieh canal. 

Atfieh, a town of Middle Egypt. P. 

Ath, a .town of Belgium, prov. Hai- 
nault, on the Dender. P. 8,789. 

Athabasca, a lake & riv. in British 
N. America. 

Athelstaneford, pa. of Scotl. The 
tragedy of Douglas was written by Home 
while incumbent of this parish. 




Athenry, a town & pa. of Ireland, 
Connaught. P. 5,988 ; of town, 1,236. 

Athens, Athtnce, the Cap. of the king- 
dom of Greece, or Hellas, &, of the gov. 
of Attica, is situated in a small plain on 
the N.W. side of the gulf of Egina, betw. 
the rivs. Ilissus E., & Cephissus W., 5 
m. from its harbor, the Piraeus. P. 27,- 
800, incl. garrison of 1,500 men. It is 
the resid. of the sovereign, the seat of a 
university, & supreme courts of the 
archbishop of Attica. The Acropolis, 
or anc. centre of Athens, on which niost 
of its noblest monuments are placed, is 
an isol. rocky height, rising 150 ft. above 
the adjacent plain, & 1,138 ft. above the 
level of the sea. Its summit is enclosed 
by walls 2,330 yds. in circuit. The mod. 
city is built mostly on its W. & N. sides. 
The new palace, built betw. 1836 & 1843, 
at the foot of Mount Lycabettus, & about 
a ;|^ m. fronj the centre of the city, is a 
quadrangular building, 300 ft. in length 
by 280 in breadth, with two internal 
courts, a portico of Pentelic marble, & 
richly decorated apartments. In front 
is a square, in which the bloodless revolu- 
tion of Sept. 15th, 1844, was enacted. 
The university (founded in 1836), is the 
finest mod. building, & contains an ana- 
tomical theatre, & a library of 28,000 vols, 
with 34 professors & teachers, &, (in 1845) 
195 students. Athens is reputed to have 
been founded by Cecrops, e.g. 1336 ; itfell 
to Rome, B.C. 86, since then it has belonged 
successively to Goths, Byzantines, Bur--^ 
gundians, Franks, Catalans, Florentines, 
Venetians, & Turks. Princip. antiqui- 
ties the Acropolis or anc. citadel sur- 
mounted by the Parthenon, an edifice of 
white marble, 228 ft. in length by 100 
ft. in breadth, & still tolerably perfect ; 
the Erechtheium, a building 90 ft. in 
length ; remains of the Temple of the 
Wingless Victory, recently restored in a 
judicious manner by the gov. ; the Pro- 
pylaea, or grand entrance in front of the 
foregoing temples ; & the theatre of 
He^odes Atticus at the S.W. angle of the 
Acropolis. N. of the Areopagus is .the 
Temple of Theseus, one of the most per- 
fect monuments of anc. Athens, having 
34 remaining Doric columns outside, & 
containing a rich museum of antiquities. 
Areopagus or Mars' Hill, where St. Paul 
addressed the Athenians, the Pnyx, 
where popular meetings were held, the 
Eleusinium,, the prison of Socrates, & 
Tower of the Winds, vestiges of the tem- 
ple & theatre of Bacchus, the Grotto of 
Apollo & Pan. Outside of the city, 16 
Corinthian columns, 60 ft. in height, on 

a raised platform, reinain of the temple 
of Jupiter Olympius, & near the Ilissus, 
the Stadium or ancient race-course is 
still traceable. Athens became the seat 

of the Greek gov. in 1835. II. p-t., 

Somerset co. Maine. P. 1,427. III. 

p-t., Windham co. Vermont. IV. 

CO. Ohio, in the S.E. part of the state, on 
the Ohio riv. Area, 740 sq. m. Soil 
productive. Lime, freestone, clay for 
brick, & bituminous coal are found. 
Chf. prod., Indian corn, tobacco, sugar, 
& salt are produced. 1 newsp., 1 uni- 
versity, 1 acad. P. 18,215. V. p-v. 

& cap. of Athens co. Ohio, on a penin- 
sula, formed by a bend of the Hock- 
hocking riv. The Ohio university is 
here. It has a president, 5 professors, 
165 students. & alibrary of 2,500 vols. P. 

898. VI. 'p-t.. Green co. N. Y., on- the 

^Y. side of Hudson riv. P. 2,387. VII. 

town, Crawford co. Pennsyl. VIII. 

Harrison CO. Ohio. P. 1,439. IX. p-v. 

& cap. of Clarke co. Ga. The Georgia 

university is here. P. 3,795. X. p-v., 

cap. Limestone co. Ala. XI. p-v. 

cap. M'Minn co. Tenn. P. 1,000. 

XII. p-v., Sangamon co. 111. XIII. 

p-v. cap. of Izard co. Ark. 

Atherstone, town of Engl., co. War- 
wick. P. 3,743. 

Athis, a town of France, dep. Orne. 
P. 4,449. 

Athol, a town & pari. bor. of Ireland. 
P. 10,724. 

Athol, dis. of Scotl. & port of Perth- 
shire. II. p-t., Worcester co. Mass. 

P. 1,591. III. p-t., Warren co. N. Y. 

P. 1,210. 

Athos, Mount, a celeb, mntn. of Greece 
6,778 ft. high. Previous to the late 
Greek insurrection the flanks of this 
mntn. were occupied by several villages, 
& 22 convents, besides 500 chapels, cells 
& grottoes, which served as a habitation 
for more than 4,000 monks ; those called 
hermits lived in caves. This was the 
seat of the first ecclesiastical seminary 
of the Greek church, & its most cele- 
brated theological school ; here also was 
preserved the remains of the famous 
libraries which furnished to learned 
Europe the MSS. of so many master- 
pieces of anc. Greek lite'rature. 

Atienza, a town of Spain, Old Castile, 
prov. P. 2,000. 

Atina, a town of Naples, prov. T. di 
Lavoro. P. 6,000. 

Atitlan, a lake, town, & volcano, 
Central America, Guatemala. The lake is 
24 m. in length E. to W., by 10 m. in 
breadth, very deep, & surrounded by lofty 




nintns. The town, Santiago de Atitlan, is 
on its S. side, betw. two volcanoes. Ele- 
vation of the volcano of Atitlan 12,500 ft., a town of Russia. P. 1,300. 

Atkha, one of the Andreanov (Aleu- 
tian) isls. N. Pacific. 

Atkinson, p-t., Piscatiquis co. Me. P. 

704. II. p-t, Rockingham co. N. H. 

Here an isl. of 7 or 8 ae. in a meadow, 
sometimes overflowed by means of an ar- 
tificial dam, rises with the water to the 
■ height of ^ ft., & also settles as the water 
subsides. P. 557. 

Atlantic Ocea^n, one of the five great 
hydrographical divisions of the globe, oc- 
cupies an immense longitudinal valley, & 
extends from the Arctic circle on the N. 
to the Antarctic circle on the S. Its ex- 
treme breadth is about 5,000 m., & its 
area is computed at 25,000,000 sq. m. It 
is naturally divided into three portions : 
1st, the N. ; 2d, the S ; & 3d, the inter- 
tropical Atlantic. The North sea, or Ger- 
man ocean, the Caribbean sea, & the Irish 
sea, form portions of the Atlantic. The 
principal gulfs of the Atlantic are, in Eu- 
rope, the bay of Biscay ; in Africa, the 
gulf of Guinea ; in America, the gulf of 
Mexico, & the gulf of St. Lawrence. The 
chf isls. are, in Europe, the British isles 
& Iceland ; in Africa, the Azores, Madeira, 
& Canary isls., & the archiiaelago of the 
gulf of Guinea ; in America, the Antilles, 
Newfoundland, & the islands of the gulf 
of St. Lawrence. The bed of the Atlantic 
is very unequal in elevation, in some 
places rising in immense sand banks to 
within a few fathoms of the surface, & in 
others sinking to unfathomable depths. 
The most extensive banks are those of 
Newfoundland, the Dogger bank in the 
German ocean, & the Agulhas bank off 
the S. point of Africa. The principal cur- 
rents of the Atlantic are, the Equatorial 
current, which flows from the coast of Af- 
rica to the Caribbean sea, with a velocity 
of from 30 to 70 m. a day ; & the Gulf 
Stream, which, leaving the gulf of Mex- 
ico, flows through the strait of Florida, 
with a velocity of 80 m. a day, & a temp, 
of 86° Fahr., & extends with a gradually 
decreasing velocity & diminished temp, to 

the Apores. II. co., N. J., in the S. 

part of the state. Area, 550 sq. m. The 
Atlantic ocean lies on its S.E. border. Soil 
light; cap. May's Landing. P. 9,961. 

Atlas, a celeb, but little known mntn. 
system of N. Africa. The principal chain 
appears to extend from near Cape Nun, 
on the Atlantic, to the E. of the great 
Syrtis in Tripoli. The highest known 
points of the system are situated in Mo- 

rocco. The name Little Atlas is applied, 
to the secondary range of the country of 
Sous, to distinguish it from the Great 
Atlas, which is confined tci the elev. mntns. 
of Morocco. The highest points are thus, 
Morocco, 12,789 ft.; Algeria, 7,673 ft.; 

Tunis, 4,476 ft. ; Tripoli, 3,200 ft. II. 

p-v.. Pike CO. 111. III. t., Lapeer co. 


Atoll, or Atollon, the name applied 
to the sev. groups of coral isls., composing 
the Maldive isls., in the Indian ocean. An 
atoll or lagoon island is a circular reef of 
coral formation, rising out of the sea & 
enclosing a lagoon. 

Atorkou, one of the Kurile isls. 

Atouai, one of the Sandwich isls., Pa- 
cific, lat. 21° 57' N. ; Ion. 159° 39' W. 
Estim. area, 500 sq. m. 

Atouquia, a marit. town of Portugal, 
Estremadura, 42 m. N. by W. Lisbon. 

Ateani, a maritime vill. of Naples, 
on the G. of Salerno, 1 m. N.E. Amalfi. 
P. 2,000. 

Athato, a riv. of S. Amer., New Gra- 
nada, dep. Choco, which, after a N.-ward 
course of about 200 m., enters the G. of 
Darien. It is navig. for small vessels to 
Citara, 140 m. from its source. 

Atki, a town of Naples, prov. Abruzzo, 
on a steep mntn., 5 m. froiii the Adriatic. 
P. 6,600. 

Athipalda, a town of Naples, prov. 
princip., near the Sabato. P. 4,000. 

Attah, a considerable town of Africa, 
Guinea, near the Quorra. 

Attaie, a town of Hindostan, S. of the 
Chumbul prov. 

Atttala, county. Miss., in central part 
of the state. Soil indifferent. Cap. Kos- 
ciusko. Tobacco, rice, & cotton ; 1 newsp. 
P. 10,999. 

Attam, a considerable town of Africa, 
on the Old Calabar riv. 

Attawal, an isl. of the Red sea, near 
the Arabian coast. 

ATTENnoRN, a town of Prus. Westpha- 
lia, 20 m. S.S.W. Arnsberg. P. 1,537. 

Attercliffe, a township of Engl., co. 
York. P. 4,156. 

Attert, a vill. of Belgium, ofi sm. riv. 
of sanje name. P. 2,216. 

Attica, a gov. of the kgdm. of Greece, 
in anc. times its most celebrated region. 
Princip. mntns. Oxea, 4,636 ft., & Elatea, 
4,629 ft., Pentelicus & Hymettus. Chief 
rivs. the Cephissus & Ilissus. Soil calca- 
reous & dry, producing little corn or pas- 
turage, but abounding with odoriferous 
plants ; honey, oil, & marble are its chf. 
products. It comprises the Greek cap. 




Atliens,^ its port Piraeus, & the towns Me- 

gara & Marathon. II. p-t., Wyoming 

CO. N. Y. P. 2,363. 

Attigny, Attiniacum, a town & coram. 
of France, dep. Ai-demieSj on the 1. b. of 
the Aisne. P. 1,365. 

Attinghausen, a vUl. of Switzerland, 
cant. TJri, on 1. b. of the Reuss. 

Attlebohough, a town of England, eo. 

Norfolk. P. 1,959. II. p-t., Bristol 

CO. Mass. Incorp. 1,694. P. 3,585. 

Attock, a fort & small town of Hin- 
dostan, Punjab, on the Indus. Elev. above 
the sea, 799 ft. P. 2,000. 

Attooe, a town of Brit. India, -presid. 
Madras, dist. 

Attou, the largest of the Aleutian isls. 
Pacific ocean. Lat. 52° 57' N., Ion. 172° 
15' W. 

' Attruck:, a riv. of Persia, Khorassan, 
near the frontier of Khiva. 

Atuees, a town of S. America, Venez, 
on the Orinoco. 

Atwatee, p-t.. Portage co. 0. 

Atwick, a pa. of England, co. York, 
E. riding. 

Atwood's Key, a small isl. of the 
W. Indies. 

Atzendorf, a vill. of Prus. Saxony. 
P. 1,235. 

Atzgersdoef, a viU. of Austria. P. 

AuBAGNE, Albania, a comm. & town of 
Prance, dep. Bouches-du-RhOne. P. 3,887. 
Birth-place of the Abbe Barthelemy. 

Aube, a riv. of Eranee, rises in the 
plateau of Langres, & joins the Seine, 
after a course of 90 m. 

Aube, a dep. of France. P. 265,247. 

AuBEL, a town of Belg. P. 3,156. 

Aubenas, a comm. & town, France, 
dep. Ard^che. P. 4,262. 

AuBENTON, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Aisne, with 1,593 inhabs. 

AuBEET (St.),' a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Nord, arrond. Cambray. 
P. 2,437. 

AuBERviLLiERs, a viU. of France, dep. 
Seine. P. 2,444. 

AuBETEREE, a comm. & small town of 
France, dep. Charente, on the Dronne. 

AuBiEHE, & Les Aubiers, two towns 
of France. P. 3,183. P. 1,800. 

AuBiGNY, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Cher, on the Nere. P. 2,381. 

AuBUEN, p-t., Worcester co. Mass. 

P. 649.^ II. p-v., capital Cayuga co., 

N. Y. A state prison is here, & one which 
is considered a model for such institu- 
tions ; also a theo. seminary of the 

Presbyterians. P. 9,548. III. p-t., 

Granger eo. 0. P. 1,198. IV. p-v., 

Sangamon op. 111. V. p-v., Susoiue- 

hanna co. Pa. P. 1,113. 

Atjbonne, a town of Switzerland. 
P. 1,600. 

AuBiN, or Albik, a town & comm. 
of France, dep. Aveyron. P. 1,537. 

AuBiN (St.), is the name of many vills. 
in France. 

AuBiN (St.), a small marit. town & 

fortress, isl. of Jersey. P. 2,131. 

II. a vill. Switzerl. P. 1,000. III. a 

vill. of France. lUe-et-Vilaine, arr. 
Rennes. P. 1,300. 

Aubin-du-Coemier, t. of France. P. 

Aubusson, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Creuse. P. (1846) 4,828. 

AucH, a comm. & city, France. Gers, 
on the Gers. P. (1846) 7,572. 

AucHTERARDER, a town of Scotlaud. 
P. 3,434. 

AucHTERMUCHTY, a royal burgh of 
Scotland, co. Fife. P. 3,356. 

Auckland, town of New Zealand, in 
the northern part of N. island, at the 
head of Waitimata bay. P. 2,754. 

Auckland Islands, a group of one 
large & several small islands in the S. 
Pacific ocean, S. New Zealand, lat 50° 
48' S. ; Ion. 166° 42' E. 

Aufois, a vill. of Savoy, 7,693 feet 
above the level of the sea, celeb, as the 
most elevated village in Europe. 

AuDE, Atax, a river of France, rises 
in the E. Pyrenees, near the vill. of 
Angles, flows at first N. to Carcassonne, 
then E. to the Mediterranean. 

AuDE, a marit. dep., S. of France. P. 

Audenarde, a town of Belgium, pro- 
vince of East Flanders, on the Scheldt. 
P. 6,262. 

AuDENGE, a comm. & vUl. of France. 
P. 1,078. 

AuDENHAiN-, a vill. of Pruss. Saxony. 
P. 1,070. 

AuDENSHAw, a tnship. of England, 
CO. Lancaster. P. 5,374. 

AuDiERNE, a town of FrancS, dep. 
Finist^re, port on the bay of Aude. 
P. 1,446. 

AuDiNcouRT, a town of France, dep. 
Doubs. P. 2,024. 

Audrain, county. Mo., central toward 
the E. part of the state. Area, 435 sq. 
m. Level & produc, cap. Mexico. Ind. 
corn & tobacco are produced. _ P. 3,506. 

AuDEuicci, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Pas de Calstis. P. 1,165. 

Aueebach, towns & vills., Germany. 

1, kgdm. of Saxony. P. 3,117. ■ 

II. Bavaria, circ. Upp. Franconia. P. 




1,750. III. Hessen-Darmstadt, proT. 

Starkenburg, with 1,600 inhabs. 

Atjersberg, a vill. & castle of Austria, 

AuEKSTADT, a vill. of Prussian Saxony, 
gov. Merseburg. 

AuGE (Vallee d'), a country of France, 
in the dep. Calvados. 

AuGEROLLEs, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Puy-de-Dume. P. 2,730. 

AuGGUR, a populous town of Hindos- 
tan, G walior dom. 

AuGHNACLOY, a town of Ireland, 
Ulster, CO. Tyrone. P. 1,841. 

AuGiLA, an oasis & t. of Africa, Sahara, 
on a route betw. Fezzan & Lr. Egypt. 

Auglaize, t., Allen co. 0. II. t., 

Paulding CO., 0. III. r. in Ohio & br. 

of Maumee. IV. a eo. of Ohio. P. 


Augsburg, a city of Bavaria, cap. circ. 
S^abia at the confl'. of the rivers Lech & 
Wertach. P. 37,000. Here is the palace 
of the former prince-bps., in which the 
memorable " Confession of Augsburg" 
was presented by the Protestants to 
Charles V. in 1530 ; arts, polytechnic & 
other schools, an extensive library, & a 
picture gallery. It publishes the cele- 
brated Allegemeine Zeitung or Augsburg 
Gazette, the circulation of which is up- 
wards of 10,000 copies. 

Augusta, p-t., capitj^.1 of Kennebec 
CO. & state of Me., is on Kennebec r. 43 
m. from the ocean.,' P. 8,225. It is 
regularly laid out and contains a state 
house, court house, TJ. S. arsenal, insane 
hospital & academy. The state house is 
a beautiful building of white granite. 
There is a splendid dam across the Kenne- 
bec half a m. above the village, built at 
an expense of $300,000. The pond form- 
ed by this dam extends 16 ms. II. p-t., 

Oneida co. N. Y. P. 2,175. III. p-t., 

Northumberland eo. Pa. P. 2,409. 

IV. p-t., Carroll co. 0. P. 1,234. 

V. p-v., Des Moines co. Iowa. 

VI. C. H. Bracken eo. Ky. P. 786. 

■ VII. county, Va., central in the W. 

dist. Area, 900 sq. m. Soil fertile. 
Chief prod, wheat. Cap. Staunton. 
Furnaces, tanneries, & distilleries. 1 

newsp., 2 acad. P. 24,610. VIII. city, 

& cap. of Richmond co. Ga., on the Sa- 
vannah riv. It is well-built with streets 
crossing each other at right angles. It 
has the county buildings, an arsenal, 
hospital & female asylum. It has an 
extensive trade in cotton & tobacco, 

6 newsp., 3 acad. P. 9,553. IX. p-v., 

capital of Perry co. Miss. X. t., 

Washtenaw co. Mich. P. 646. 

Augusta, a settlement, W. Australia, 
dist. Sussex. 

Augustenborg, St, Danish factory of 
Africa, Accra, Guinea coast. 
^ AuGusTiN (St.), a river & bay, Labra- 
dor, British K. America, near the S. en- 
trance of the strait of Belleisle. II. a 

cape, Brazil. Lat. 8° 21' S. ; Ion. 34° 56' 
W. This was the first discovered land in 
S. America, seen by Penzon, a.d. 1500. 

Augustine (St.), a bay on the S.W. 
coast of Madagascar. 

Augustine (St.), city and port of St. 
John's CO. Fla. P. 1,934. Pleasantly 
situated on a peninsula, 2 m. from the 
shore of Atlantic. Fort Marion, at N. 
end of the town, commands the harbor. 

Augustowo, prov. of Poland. II. 

to'.vn in prov. of same name. P. 7,321. 

Aula, a vill. of N. Italy, duchy of 
Modena, on the Aula. P. 1,800. 

AuLAY (St.), a com. & town of France, 
dep. Dordogne, on the Dronne. P. 1,397. 

Auldearn, a marit. vill. of Scotland, 
CO. Nairn, on Moray firth. P. 1,466. 

Auletta, a town of Naples, prov. 
princip. Cit., on the Calore. P. 2,100. 

Aulnay-sur-Odon, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. Calvados. P. 1,984. 

AuLNE, a riv. of France, dep. Finist^re. 

Ault, a comm. & town of France, dep. 
Somme, on the English channel. P. 1,371. 

Auma, a town of Germany, duchy of 
Saxe Weimar, on the Orla. P. 1,600. 

AuMALE, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Seine-Inf , on the Bresle. P. 1,695. 
In 1592, it was the scene of a combat 
with the Spaniards, in which Henry IV. 
was wounded. 

AuMNiER, a populous town of India, 
dom. Nagpoor, on the Wurda. 

AuNAY, a comm. & town, France, dep. 

Charente-Inf. P. 1,780. II. a vill., 

dep. Nievre. P. 1,144. III. a vill., 

dep. Eure-et-Loire. P. 1,021. 

AuNEAu, comm. & town of France, dep. 
Eure-et-Loire. P. 1,616. 

AuNEUiL, comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
Oise, cap. cant. P. 1,285. 

AuNis, an old prov. of France, bettr. 
Saintonge, Poitou, and the Atlantic. 

Aups, a comm. & town of France, dep. 
Var. P. 2,568. 

AuEAviA, p-v., Lumpkin co. Ga., in 
the richest part of her gold region. 

Auras, a town of Prussian Silesia. 
P. 1,020. 

AuRAY, a river-port of France, dep. 
Morbihan, on the Auray. P. 3,755. , 

AuRELius, p-t.,; Cayuga co. N. Y. P. 

2,645. II. town, Washington co. Ohio. 

III. town, Ingham co. Michigan. 




AuRiAc, and Aurignac, two small 
towns of France, dep. H. Garonne. 

AuRiCH, a town of the kgdm. of Han- 
over. P. 3,600. 

AuKiGNY, one of the Channel isls. 

AuRiLLAc, a town of France, cap. dep. 
Cantal, on right bank of the Jourdanne. 
P. 8,484. 

AuKioL, a coram. & vill. of France, dep. 
Bouches-du-Rhone. P. 2,971. 

AuEONZo, a town of INT. Italy, deleg. 
Belluno. P. 3,100. 

Aurora, the name of several isl.s. 

I. in the Red sen., in lat. 25*^ 15', & inhab. 

by Bedwin Arabs. II. Pacific, Espi- 

rltu Santo archipelago, in lat. 15° 2' 35" 

S.; Ion. 168° 25' 15" E. III. a town, 

Erie CO. N. Y. P. 2,903. IV. p-v., 

Cavuga CO. N. Y., on Cayuga lake. P. 

500. V. p-v.. Portage co. Ohio. P. 

906. VI. p-v., Racine co. Wisconsin. 

VII. p-v.. Dearborn co. Indiana. 

VIII. p-v., Galloway co. Kentucky. 

Aurungabad, an old Moorish prov., S. 

India. II. city & cap. prov. S. India. 

P. 60,000. 

AusABLE, town, Clintoi^ co. N". Y. P. 
3,222. II. riv, in N. Y. 

AuscHE, a town, Bohemia, circ. Leit- 
mcritz. P. 1,500. 

Auschwitz, a town of Austrian-Gali- 
cia, cap. duchy, on the Sola. P. 2,000. 

AuspiTz, a town of Moravia, circ. 
Briinn. P. 2,330. 

AussA, a decaj'ed town of E. Africa, 
Adel, on the sea of Bab-el-Mandeb. 

AussEE, a town of Austria, Styria. P. 
1,200. Its rich mines of rock salt have 
been worked for more than 1,000 years. 

AussEGG, a town of Austria, Bohemia, 
circ. Leitmeritz, on 1. b. of the Elbe. P. 

AussEN, a town of Rhenish-Prussia, 
circ. Saarlouis. P. 1,164. 

AusT, a vill. of England, co. Glo'ster, 
on the Severn. 

Austell (St.), a town of Wales, co. 
Cornwall. P. 10,320. 

Austin, co. Texas. P. 3,841. Cap. 

San Felipe de Austin. II. town of 

Texas, on the Colorado. III. a bay & 

town in Barbadoes. 

AusTiNBUHG, p-t., Ashtabula co. Ohio. 
P. 1,047. 

AusTiNTOWN, t., Trumbull co. 0. P. 

AusTONLEY, a township of England, 
CO. York, W. riding. P. 1,940. 

Australasia, a division of the globe 
forming part of Oceania, consisting of 
the continent of Australia, Tasmania 

(Van Diemen's Land), New Zealand, & 
those parts of the Eastern archipelago & 
Polynesia, between Ion. 130° & 170° E., 
viz., Papua, the Arru isls., Timor-Laut, 
New Britain, New Ireland, New Caledo- 
nia, & the Admiralty. Salomon, New 
Hebrides, & Q. Charlotte's isls. 

Australia, New Holland, a vast ex- 
tent of land composing the main portion 
of Australasia, & Ij'ing S. of the Asiatic 
archipelago. Length E. to W. 2,500 
m. ; greatest breadth about 1,800 miles. 
Area, 3 million sq. tn. P. of British col- 
onies 250,000. 'fhere are no data for 
the total aboriginal pop. of the country, 
which has been' vaguely estimated at 
300,000. Australia, like the continents 
of Africa & S. America, is but little in- 
dented with arms of the ocean, & pre- 
sents no wide estuaries of rivs. Botany 
bay, & Jervis' bay are inlets of small 
size, many of which are met with ; & 
some of these, with the estuaries of the 
larger rivers, afford tolerable shelter ; 
though, upon the whole, the coasts of 
Australia are deficient in good harbors. 
In the S.E. a succession of mntn. ranges 
stretches from Gipps'-land to lat. 26° S. 
at a distance from the coast varying 
generally from 50 to 100 m. Mt. York 
(Blue mntns.) rises to 3,292 feet ; & the 
Liverpool range, within the colony of N. 
S. Wales, reaches elevations of betw. 
6,000 & 7,000 feet. Immense ravines in 
the latter range are said to have a per- 
pend, height of 3,000 feet. In W. Austra- 
lia, the Darling & other parallel ranges 
e.xtend from King George sound N.-ward, 
rising frequently to 2,000 or 3,000 feet 
above the sea. The only river system 
of the interior hitherto explored is that 
of the Murray, which is swelled by the 
Darling, Castlereagh, Peel, Macquarrie, 
Began, Lachlan, & Murrumbigee rivers. 
Piincip. lakes are those of Victoria & 
Torrens in S. Australia. Granite, sand- 
stone, limestone, coal & slate are the 
chief minerals, & rich ores of gold, cop- 
per & lead have been recently discovered. 
The gold mines are very productive, & 
now rival those of California. Emigrants 
from Gt. Britain & other parts are conse- 
quently pouring into Australia rapidl3''. 
The kangaroo, & other pouched animals, 
are peculiar to Australia & its adjacent 
isl'ds. The native Australians are viewed 
by many as a distinct variety of the hu- 
man race. Their skin is of an earthy 
black, hair straight, forehead low & 
full, nose broad, lips thick, stature short, 
frame slight, & more adapted to feats of 
agility than of strength. They live in 




roving tribes ; & thougli not deficient in 
intellect, are in their habits among the 
lowest in the scale of humanity — many 
tribes going completely naked, practis- 
ing cannibalism, & having scarcely any 
notions of a Deity, or of social arts & 
order. The Dutch or the Spaniards, 
about the beginning of the 17th century, 
were the earliest European discoverers 
of Australia, though little was known of 
it until Dampier, "W'allis, & afterwards 
Cook, explored its various coasts. The 
favorable report of it by the latter was 
followed by the first British settlement 
at Port Jackson in 17SS. The name of 
New Holland given by the Dutch to the 
N. -western coasts, first discovered by 
them, is now supplanted by the more 
appropriate name of Australia. The 
British settlement of New S- Wales, or 
Sydney, was made in 1788. The settle- 
ment of Western Australia, or Swan 
River, was established in 1829. South 
Australia, established in 1834, extends 
along the coast from Fowler's bay in the 
W., to beyond Cape Northumberland, of 
which Adelaide is the capital. 

Austria (Archduchy of), the central 
prov. & nucleus of the Austrian empire, 
& seat of its cap. Area, 15,052 square 
miles. P. 2,227,524 ; viz. 1,417,783, in 
Lower Austria (including Vienna), and 
859,741 in Upper Austria. The Noric 
Alps, which form its S. boundary, next 
to Styria, extend their contrefoits to the 
banks of the Danube, which traverses the 
province from W. to E. ; the river Inn 
forms its N.W., & the March part of its 
E. frontier. Its mineral products are 
highly important, and comprise gold, 
silver, copper, lead, iron, arsenic, alum, 
coal, & graphite. This prov. is divided 
by the river Enns into the govs, of Upper 
& Lower Austria {Land Ober and JJnter 
der Enns). Lower Austria is subdivided 
into 4 circles, I. Lower Wiener-wald, 
cap. Vienna ; II. Upper Wiener-wald, 
cap. St. Polten; III. Lower Manharts- 
berg, cap. Korneuburg ; IV. Upp. Man- 
hartsberg, cap. Krems ; & the municip^J 
dist. of Vienna. The regency of Lower 
Austria has its seat at Vienna, & is 
charged with the civil administ. of the 
prov. Upper Austria is subdivided into 
5 circles, I. Miihl, cap. Linz ; II. Traun, 
cap. Steyer ; III. Hausriik, cap. Wels ; 
IV. Inn, cap. Ried ; V. Salzburg, cap. 
Salzburg ; & the regency is established 
at Linz. After Vienna, the chief cities 
are Linz, Wiener -Neustadt, & Salzburg. 

Austria, (Circle of), an old subdiv. 
of Germany. 

Austria, Empire of, bounded N. by 
Russia, Prussia, gaxony, & Bavaria; S. 
by Parma, Modena, the Pontif. states, 
the Adriatic, & the. Ottoman Emp. ; W. 
by Lichtenstein, Switzerland, & the Sar- 
dinian states ; & E. by the Russian Em- 
pire. Area, 257,830 square miles. P. 
38,000,000. 3 great mntn. systems cover 
the Emp. with their ramifications, the 
Alps in the S.W., the Bohemian (fc Mora- 
vian mntns. in the N.W., «fc the Carpa- 
thians. The most elev. summits are in 
the Alps of Tyrol, where the Ortlerspitz 
attains the height of 12,779 ft., next the 
Lomnitzerspitz in the Carpathians, 8,861 
ft.. The Austrian Empire has 6 great ri vs., 
viz., the Danube & the Dniester ; the Po 
& the Adige ; the Vistula & the Elbe ; 
it contains also a great many lakes. 
Austria is among the richest mineral 
countries in Europe ; there is gold in 
Transylvania & Hungary, silver in Hun- 
gary, Bohemia, Transylvania, & Styria, 
mercury in Carinthia, tin in Bohemia, 
copper in nearlj^ all the prov., lead in 
Carinthia, iron in all the countries ex- 
cept on the low shores of the Adriatic; 
antimony in Hungary, salt in Galicia, 
Transylvania, &, the Tyrol, & coal in all 
the provs. The pop. belongs to 4 prin- 
cipal families — the Deutsch or German, 
Slavonian, Italian, & Hungarian or Mag- 
yars. German is the language of the 
countries inhab. by the 1st named family, 
& the idiom employed by the superior 
administration ; the different Slavonian 
dialects by the 2d ; Italian, & a mixed 
dialect by the 3d; & the Magyar by the 4th. 

Autauga, county, Ala., near the centre 
of the state. Area, 1,000 sq. m. Surface 
various ; soil indifferent except on the 
rivers. Cap. Kingston. Staple, cotton. 
1 aead. P. 15,023. 

AuTEKivE, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. H. Garonne. P. 2,230. 

AuTEuiL, a comm. & vill., France, dep. 
Seine. P- 3,313. It is enclosed within 
the new walls of Paris, & agreeably sit- 
uated between the Bois de Boulogne & 
the rt. b/ of the Seine. Boileau, La Fon- 
taine, Franklin, & other illustrious men 
had country houses here. 

AuTHiE, & AuTHiON, two Small rivs. of 

AuTUN, a city of France, dep. Saone- 
et-Loire. P. 9,098. 

AuTUNCARAY, a seaport town of- Brit- 
ish India, presid. Madras. 

AuvERGNE (Mountains of), a branch 
of the Cevennes. Of these the Mont Dor, 
6,188 feet; Cantal, 6,093 ft., & Puy-de- 
Dome, 4,806 ft. They contain a great 




number of extinct volcanoes, & present 
sites of the wildest & most picturesque 
grandeur. The cone of Mont Dor rises 
abruptly to a height of several thousand 
feet, & is composed of layers of scorise, 
pumice-stone, & fine detritus mixed with 
beds of basalt. 

AuvERGNE, an old prov. of France. It 
■was divided into upper & lower Auvergne. 
AuvEEs, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Seiae-et-Oise. P. 1,530. 

AuviLLAR, or AuviLLARs, a town of 
France, dep. Tarn-et-Garonne. P. 1,742. 
AcjxEBRE, a city of France, cap. dep. 
Yonne. P. 1,1,890. 

AuxoN, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Aube. P. 2,507. 

AuxoNNE, a to\vn of France, dep. Cote- 
d'Or. P. 2,944. 

Auxy-Le-Chateau, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. Pas-de-Calais. P. 2,342. 
Auzances, a comm. & town of France, 
dep.Creuse. P. 1,251. 

AuzoN, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
H. Loire. 

AvA, a city, formerly cap. of the Bur- 
mese domin., on the Irrawaddy. 

AvA, two princips. of Japan. 1, isl. 

Niphon.- — —II. isl. Sikoke. 

Availles Limousine, a comm. & town 
of Prance, dep. Vienne. P. 1,855. 

Aval Island, Persian Gulf. [Bah- 

Avallon, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Yonne, on the Voisin. P. 4,896. 
AvAsi, a t. of Japan, cap. isl. Sikoke. 
AvATCHA (Mount), a volcano of 
Kamtchatka, near its E. coast, rising to 
9,055 feet elevation. At its suirimit is 
a crater several hundred yards in circ, 
& on its E. side, 5,000 feet elevation, is 
another. In 1827, Avatcha was in vio- 
lent eruption, & discharged, with lava ^ 
stones, a vast quantity of water. 

AvEiRAs D£ CiMA, a towu of Portu- 
gal, prov. Estremadura. P. 1,073. 

AvEiHO, a seaport town of Portugal, 
prov. Beira. P. 5,000. — —II. Avciro, a 
town of Brazil, prov. Para. 

AvELGEHEM, a viU. of Belgium, prov. 
West Flanders, on 1. b. of the Scheldt. 
P. 4,711. 

Avella, a town of Italy, kgdm. .Na- 
ples. P. 5,600. 

AvELLiNO, a fortified episc. city, 
kgdm. Naples, cap. prov. princip. Ult. 
P. 13,500. 

AvEN (Loch), a small. lake of Scot- 
land, CO. Banif. Aven is the name of sev- 
eral Scotch rivers. 

Avenches, a small town of Switzer- 
land, cant. Vaud. P. 1,800. ; 

Avenwedde, a vill. of Prussian West- 
phalia. P. 1,380. 

Avenza, a town of Italy, duchy Massa- 
Carrara. P. 1,910. 

AvEREEsT, a vill. of the Netherlands, 
prov. Overyssel. P. 3,781. 
AvERiLL, t., E-;sex co. Vt. P. 7. 
AvERNAKOE, a small isl. Oi Denmark, 
near the S. coast of Fuhnen. P. 350. 

AvERNO (LAi£E of), a famous lake, 
near the bay of BaiiB. 

AvERSA, a town of Naples, prov. T. di 
Lavoro. P. 16,000. 

Averysbor'ough, p-v., Cumberland co. 

AvEs, is a small group of isls. in the 

Dutch W. Indies. II. an uninhabited 

island, 147 m. W. Dominica. 

AvESNEs, a town of France, dep. Nord. 
P. 2,827. 

AvEsTAD, a small town of Sweden, on 
the Dal-elf. 

AvEYRON, a riv. of France, dep. Avey- 

AvEYRON, a dep. S.France. P. 94,483. 
AvEzzANO, a town of Naples, prov. 
Abruzzo Ult. II. P. 2,850. 

AviANO, a town of N. Italy. P. 4,800. 
AviGLiANA, a town of Piedmont, prov. 
Susa. P. 2,840. 

AviGLiANO, a town of Naples, prov. 
Basilicata. P. 9,670. 

Avignon, a comm. & city, S. France, 
on the Rhone. P. 26,185. 

AviaNONET, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. H. Garonne. P. 1,031. 

AviLA, an anc. city of Spain, Old Cas- 
tile. P. 4,000. 

AviLEs, a seaport town of Spain, As- 
turias. P. 6,000. 

Avio, a town of the Tyrol, circ, b. of 
the Adige. P. 3,200. 

Aviz, a town of Portugal, prov. Alen- 
tejo. P. 1,500. 

AvizE, a comm. & town of France, dep. 
Marne. P. 1,725. 

AvLONA, a town & .seaport of Albania. 
P. from 8,000 to 10,000. 

AvoLA, a seaport town of Sicily. P. 

AvLONA (Gulf of), an inlet of the 
Adriatic sea. 

AvoLD (St.), a town & comm. of France, 
dep. Moselle. P. 2,99^. 

Avon, a- comm. & vill. of France, dep. 

Seine-et-xMarne. P. 1,216. II. p-t., 

Franklin co. Me. , P. 827. III. p-t., 

Hartford co. Conn. P. 1,001.- IV. v., 

Livingston co. N. Y. P. 2,999. V. 

p-t., Lorain co. 0., on Lake Erie. P. 1,220. 

VI. t., Oakland co. Mich. 

Avoyelles, pa.. La., W. of the Miss. 




riv. The Red riv. passes through it. Sub- 
ject'to inundation. A portion, table-land 
& dry. Staple cotton. Cap. MarksvUle. 
P. 9,326. 

Awe (Loch), a lake of Scotl., co. Ar- 

Axe, two small rivs. of England. 

Axel, a small fortfd. town of the Neth- 
erlands, prov. Zeeland, on an isl. in the 
Scheldt. P. 2,250. 

AxiM, a town of Africa, on the Guinea 
coast, belonging to Holland, 73 m. W. 
Cape Coast Castle. 

AxMiNSTER, a town of Engl., co. Devon. 
P. 2,139. 

AxuM, an anc. town of Abyssinia, stat€ 

Ay, a town of France, dep. Marne. P. 

Ayacucho, a de^. S. Peru. 

Ayamonte, a town of Spain, Andalu- 
cia. P. 6,509. 

Aybar, a town of Spain, Navarra. P. 

Ayerbe y Aldeas, a town of Spain, 
Aragon, prov. P. 2,500. 

Aymaville, a town of the Sardinian 
states, prov. P. 1,520. Over a torrent 
S. of the town, is a remarkable bridge, 
built in the year 750 of Rome, & composed 
of a single arch of great height, thrown 
.over a deep chasm. 

Ayora, a town & riv. of Spain, prov. 

Ayotla, a town of Mexico, dep. Mexico. 

Ayr, riv. of Scotland. II. seaport 

t., on r. Ayr, Scotland. P. 15,749. 

Ayrshire, co., Scotland. P. 164.336. 

Ayrao, a town of S. America, Brazil, 
prov. Para. 

Ayuthia, the old cap. of Siam. [Yu- 


Azambuxeira, a town of Portugal, 
prov. Estremadura. P. 1,636. 

AzAMOR, a seaport town, dom., prov. 
Morocco, on the Atlantic. 
- AzANi, a eiiy of Asia-Minor. 

Azeoytia, a town of Spain. 

AzEiTAo, a town of Portugal. P. 1,600. 

Azerbijan, most N. prov. of Persia. 
P. 200,000. 

Azille, a town of France, dep. Aude. 
P. 1,580. 

AziMGHUR, a disfc. of British India, 
presid. Bengal. P. 779,555. . 

Azio, a dist. & promon. of Grre'ece, gov. 

AzMERiGUNGB, a town of Further In- 
dia, presid. Bengal. 

Azores, or Western Islands (Portu. 
Azores), a group of 9 isls. in the N. Atlan- 
tic ocean, belong, to Portug. They consist 

of, St. Mary, St. Michael, Terceira, Graci- 
osa, St. George, Pico, Fayal, Flores, & 
Corvo, with some rocky islets, & have an 
united area of about 700 sq. m., & a p. of 
214,300 (in 1841). They are of volcanic 
origin, with steep & rugged coasts, & 
abounding with deep ravines & eler. 
mntns., the lowest of which, Pico Alto ia 
St. Mary's, is 1,869 ft., & the most elev., 
the peak of Pico, 7,613 ft. in height. 

Azov, an immense lagoon of S. Europe. 
Length S.W. to N.E. about 235 m. ; 
greatest breadth 110 m. 

Azov, a town & fort of Russia, near the 
mouth of the Don. P. 1,200. 

AzpEYTiA, a town of Spain, on the 
TJrola, prov. Guipuscoa. P. 1,200. 

AzTALAN, p-t., Jefferson co. Wis. 

AzuA, a town of Hayti, on the Bia. 

AzuRARA, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Minho. P. 2,500. 

AzzANO, a vill. of Northern Italy, de- 
leg. Verona. 

AzzARA, a vill. of the isl. Sardinia, 
prov. Busachi. P. 1,228. 


Baaden, a town of Austria. 

Baadsted, a seaport town of Sweden. 

Baagoe, two small isls. of Denmark. 

Baalbec, a ruined town of Syria. Its 
remains, more extensive than those seen 
anywhere else in Syria, except at Pal- 
myra, comprise three temples, two formed 
with immense stones, besides numerous 
columns, altars, & the vestiges of the city 
walls 3 to 4 m. in circuit. The date of 
its origin is lost in remote antiquity. A 
great temple, one of the wonders of the 
world, was erected by Antoninus Pius. It 
continued a place of great importance 
down to the time of the Moslem invasion, 
was sacked a.d. 748, & finally pillaged 
by Timur Bev in 1400. P. 2,000. 

Baar, a vill. of Switzerland. P. 2,200. 

Baarle, a town of the NetherlandSj 
prov. N. Brabant. P. 1,853. 

Baba, a seaport town & cape of Asia- 
Minor. P. 4,000. II. a town of Eu- 

rop. Turkey, Thessaly, on the Salembria. 

P. 2,000. III. a town of S. Amer., 

Ecuador, prov. Guayaquil. P. 4,000. (?) 

Baba-Dagh, a town of Turkey, prov. 
Bulgaria. P. 10,000. — Baba-dagh, a 
celeb, mntn. in Asia-Minor. 

Babahoy(!), a town of S. Amer., Ecua- 
dor,' prov. Guayaquil. 

Babba, an isl. of the Asiatic archipel- 
ago. Length, 18 m. ; breadth, 6 m. 




Babek, a town of Persia, prov. Fars. 

Bab-el-Mandeb, a strait uniting the 
Bed sea with the Indian ocean. 

Babelthuap, the larg..of the Pelew 
isls., Pacific ocean, 50 m. in circ. Lat. 
7° 30' N. ; Ion. 134° 40' E. 

Babenhausen, two small towns of 
Germany. I. in Hesse Darmstadt. P. 
1,650. II. in Bavaria, 34 m. S.W. Augs- 
burg P. 1,700. 

Babinovitchi, a town of Russia, gov- 

Babuyan Isl., Patific ocean. 

Babye, a town of British India, presid. 

Babylon, the earliest post-diluvial 
city, & the oldest in the world of which 
there are any traces remaining. An- 
ciently the capital of the Babylonio- 
Chaldean empire, in an extensive plain 
on the Euphrates riv., pash. & 60 m. S. 
Bagdad. The modern town Hillah occu- 
pies a portion of its site. According to 
Herodotus, the walls of Babylon were 60 
m. in circumference, 87 ft. thick, & 350 
ft. high, built of brick, & containing 25 
gates of solid brass, & 250 towers. The 
ruins of Birs-Nimrod on an elev. mount, 
are supposed to be the tower of Babel of 
the sacred scriptures, & the temple of 
Belus minutely described by Herodotus. 
The base of this tower measures 2,082 ft. 
in circumf. ; its remains, constructed o^ 
the most beautiful brick masonry, are 28 
ft. in breadth. 

Babylonia, the ancient name of a prov- 
ince in middle Asia, now called Bagdad. 
The country in ancient times was famed 
for its fertility, now it is a desolate waste. 

Bacalar, a seaport vill. of Central 
America, Yucatan, at the mouth of the riv. 
San Josef, 80 m. N.N.W. Balize. P. 4,000. 
The San Josef is not navigable by. other 
than small vessels. 

Baccahat, a town of France, dep. 
Meurthe, on the Meurthe. P. 2,794. 

Bacchighone, a riv of N. Italy. 

Bacharach, a walled town of Rhenish 
Prussia, on lower bank of the Rhine. 
P. 1,900. 

Bachellekie (La), a town of France, 
dep. Dordogne. P. 1,446. 

Bach-Ynys, a small isl. of S, Wales. 

Backergunge, a dist. of British India, 
presid. & prov. Bengal. Area, 4,000 sq. 
m. P. 686,640. 

BAcknang, a town of "Wurtemberg, 
circ. Neckar. P. 3,600. 

Back's Land, British N. America, 
region around the Arctic circle. 

Bacqueville, a town of France, dep. 
Seine Inf. P. 1,494. 

Bacs, a town of Hungary, on a tribut. 
of the Danube. P. 2,770. 

Badagry, a town & port of Upper 

Guinea, on the Gold Coast. Mi. JJa- 

dagry, near it. 

Badajos, a strongly fortfd. frontier 
city of Spain, cap. prov. of same name. 
P. 12,000. 

Badakhshan, a territory of Central 
Asia, forming a part of the Koondooz 
dom., betw. lat. 36° & 38° N., & Ion. 69° 

Badalona, a town of Spain, province 
Barcelona. P. 3,775. , 

Baden (Grand Duchy of), a state of 
the German Confederation ; cap. Carls- 
ruhe. Surface mountainous, covered for 
four-fifths of its extent by the mass of 
the Schwarzwald {Black Forest). The 
culm, points are the Feldberg, 4,675 ft. ; 
the Kandel, 4,160 ft.; the Blauen, 3,822 
ft. ; the Katzenbuckel, sumiA. of the Oden- 
wald, 2,300 feet; the Randen, 2,600 ft. 
The whole W. part of the territory is a 
continuous plain, formed by the valley of 
the Rhine. Principal rivers, the Rhine, 
the Murg, Kinzig, & Weisen-Mayn, Neck- 
ar, & Danube. The lake of Constance 
forms part of the S.E. frontier, & there 
are several small lakes in the interior. 
The climate is very mild in all the valley 
of the Rhine ; rigorous in the mountain 
districts, the summits of which are only 
free from snow during the height of sum- 
mer. The vine is cultivated at an elev. 
of 1,400 ft. The soil is in general very 
fertile, especially in the vaUoys of the 
Rhine & Neckar. Agriculturer constitutes 
the chief wealth of the state, & is con- 
ducted with more skill than in any other 
part of Germany. Great attention has 
been bestowed on improving the breeds 
of sheep, & cattle are extensively reared. 
Mineral products comprise salt from 
springs, alum, vitriol, sulphur, & coal, 
iron, copper, lead, & a little silver. The 
duchy is extremely rich in mineral spgs. 
Gov. exercised by the grand duke, a 
chamber of peers, & a chamber consisting 
of 22 deputies from towns, & 41 from rural 
districts ; & was known as the most tole- 
rant & liberal in Germany. The major- 
ity of the population is Roman Catholic, 
but the reigning family is Protestant. 
The grand -duchy possesses an excellent 
system of public instruction, & the schools 
are numerous. Attendance at school is 
obligatory on all children ; & each village 
has at least one primary school. Baden 
has two universities, among the most an-. 

cient & celebrated in Germany. II. 

Baden, a town & celeb, watering place, 





grand duchy of Baden. P. 6,000. In 
summer it is frequented by visitors 
from all parts of Europe ; in 1845 these 
amounted to 32,000, of whom 5,000 were 

English, & 4,000 French. III. a town 

& watering place of Switzerland, cant. 
Aargau, on the Limmat. P. 1,800. Its 
sulphur baths are frequented chiefly by 

the Swiss. IV. a town & bathing place 

of Lower Austria, on the Schwechat. P. 
4,000. It has an imp. castle, many rich 
private mansions, & military baths for 
200 men. It has several hospitals & publ. 
charities, & has been frequented annually 
by 10,000 visitors. The springs are sul- 
phureous, & vary in temp, from 92° to 97° 
Fahr. In the baths here persons of both 
sexes, " attired in loose flowing robes, 
promenade arm-in-arm, as if at a soiree." 
Pop. 627. 

Badenoch, highland dist. of Scotland. 

BadenweileR; a vill. of Baden, circle 
upp. Rhine. P. 2,050. It has alkaline 
thermal springs (temp. 81° Fahr.). 

Badia, two towns of N. Italy. 1. 

deleg. Rovigo. P. 3,700. II. deleg. 

Verona. P. 2,000. 

Badolato, a town of Naples, prov. 
Calab. P. 3,000. 

Badong, the chf. commercl. state of 
the isl. Bali, Asiatic archipelago. Area, 
100 sq. m. It has a seaport town of same 

Badonviller, a town of France, dep. 
Meurthe, on the Blette. P. 2,090. 

Badooe, principal riv. of Beloochistan. 

Baelegem, a vill. of Belgium, prov. 
E. Flanders. P..2,882. 

Baelen, a town of Belgium, on the 

Great Neethe. P. 3,039. II. a viU., 

prov. Liege. P. 1,916. 

Baena, a town of Spain, prov. Cordova. 
P. 12,944. 

Baerum, a vill. of Norway. 

Baesrode, a vill. of Belgium, on the 
Scheldt. P. 2,910. 

Baeza, a town of Spain, prov. Jaen. 
P. 10,851. 

Baeza, a town of S. America, Ecuador, 
on the Coca riv. 

Baffa. a seaport town of Turkey in 
Asia, on the isl. Cyprus. 

Baffin Sea, a sea of N. Amer., betw. 
Greenland & the lands or isls. N. of Hud- 
son bay. It communic. with the Atlantic 
ocean by Davis strait on the S., & with 
the Arctic ocean by Lancaster sound & 
Barrow strait on the W. Its greatest as- 
certained depth is 6,890 ft., & the tides do 
not rise more than 10 ft. 

Bafra, a town of Asia-Minor, on the 

Baganga, a seaport town & bay, on 
the E. coast of the isl. Mindanao (Phi- 

Bagaria, a town of Sicily. P. 4,000. 
Bagdad (Pashalic or), an extens^jre 
region of Asiatic Turkey, of which it forms 
the S.E. portion. Length from N.W. to 
S.E. 550 m. Breadth, 350 m. The Eu- 
phrates & Tigris flow through the dist. for 
about 950 m., when both these rivs. unite 
at Koma. The united riv. now called 
Shat-al-Arab flows into the Persian gulf. 
The p. of the pashalic is very mixed, 
consisting of Arabs, Kurds, Turkomans, 
Armenians, Turks, Jews. Princip. cities, 
Bagdad, Bassorah, & Mosul. In this re- 
gion may be traced the sites of the anc. 
Babylon, Nineveh, Ctesiphon, & Seleucia; 
the memorable field of Arbela, where 
Alexander finally broke the power of 
Darius, & many other localities famous 
in sacred & profane history, are within its 

Bagdad, a city of Asiatic Turkey, cap. 
of above pashalic, & formerly of the Sar- 
acen caliphate, on the Tigris. P. 65,000. 
(?) It stands on both sides of the riv., 
its two portions being connected by a 
bridge of boats ; it is enclosed by a brick 
& earthen wall, flanked with large towers, 
& is about 5 m. in circumf. Streets nar- 
row, irregular, & houses in gen. meanly 
built ; but some fine old structures re- 
main, comprising the " gate of the Talis- 
man," a lofty minaret built in 785, the 
tomb of Zobeide, wife of the caliph Ha- 
roun-al-Rasehid, the tomb of a Turkish 
saint of the 12th century. The edifice of 
its famous college, founded in 1233, now 
serves for a caravanserai & the custom- 
house. There are about 100 mosques, 
many of them with lofty domes & mina- 
rets. The bazaars are large, & abound 
with most of the goods sold in European 
mkts. This city, built out of the ruins of 
Ctesiphon, was founded by Almanzor in 
763, & continued to flourish under suc- 
ceeding jcaliphs, until sacked by Hoolagoo 
in 1259. 

Bage, two vills. of France, dep. Ain. 

Bagenbun Head, a cape of Ireland, 
CO. Wexford. At this point Earl Strong- 
bow made his descent on Ireland in 1170. 

BagH, or Baugh, a town of Afghanis- 

Baghtsche-sehai, a town of S. Russia, 
Crimea, Simferopol. P. 14,000. This 
interesting town is the only one in the 
Crimea which preserves the characteris- 
tics of its Tartar origin. Its inhabitants 
manufacture pottery & cutlery in primi- 
tive simplicity. It has 32 mosques. 




Baghul, a Sikh state, N.W. Hindostan, 
under Brit, protec. P. 40,000. 

Baglen, a Dutch residency on the isl. 
of Java, on the S. side. Fertile. P. 
300,000. Cap. Poerworedjo. 

Bagna, a town of Turkey, on the 

Bagnacavallo, a town of Italy, 
Pontif. sta. P. 3,491. 

Bagkalstown, a town of Ire!., Lein- 
ster, CO. Carlow, on the Barrow. P. 2,225. 

Bagnaea, a seaport town of_ Naples, 

on the gulf of Gioja. P. 2,800. II. a 

town of the Ponlif. -sta., leg. Ravenna. 

Bagnaeea, a town of Italy, Pontif. 
sta. P. 3,000. 

Bagnasco, a tovra of Piedmont, on the 
Tanaro. P. 1,500. 

Bagnehes-de-Luchon, a town of 
France, dep. Garonne. P. 2,415. It has 
celeb, sulphureous thermal springs. 

Bagneres-en-Bigorhe, a town of 
France, dep. II. Pyrenees. P. 6,401. 
There are 20 hathicg establishments. 
Its waters were resorted to by the Ptomans, 
& are annually visited from May to Oct. 
by from 5,000 to 6,000 strangers. 

Bagnes-le-Chable, a vill. of Switzer- 
land, Valais, on the Dranse. P.of vail. 9,000. 

Bagnoles, a Till, of France, dep. Orne. 
It has hot saline springs, & cold ferrugiuous 
springs & baths much frequented. 

Bagnoli, two towns of Naples.^ — I. 

prov. Molise. P. 4,200. II. princip. 

Ult. P. 4,700. 

Bagnolo, two towns of N. Italy. 1. 

cap. dist. P. 2,700. II. a town of 

Piedmont. P. 5,000. 

Bagnols, vill. of France, dep. Gard, 
on a rock near the Ceze. P. 3,803. 

Bagnols-les-Bains, a vill. of France, 
with warm baths, dep. Lozere. 

Bagolino, a vill. of N. Italy. P. 3,650. 

Bagulcot, a town of British India, 
presid. Bombaj-. P. 7,500. (?) 

Bahadukpoor, two towns of India. 
1, dom. Baroda.— — II. dom. Gwalior. 

Bahama-Bank (Great & Little), 
are shoals among the W. India isls. 

Bahama Channel (Gulf of Florida), 
the narrow sea between the coast of 
America & the Bahama isls., 135 m. long 
& 76 wide. The currents here are most 
violent, formed by an inflection of the 
gulf stream passing at the rate of from 4 
to 5 m. an hour. 

Bahama, a group of nearly 500 isls. & 
islets (called Keys), in the Atlantic, com- 
prised in the W. Indies, & belonging to 
Great Britain. United area, 4,400 to 
5,450 sq. m. P. 27,519 (in 1851.). Disc, 
by Columbus in 1492. 

Bahar, or Behah, one of the old Mo- 
hammedan provs. of India, occupying 
part of the valley of the Ganges, & trav- 
ersed by this riv., which divides it in two 
nearly equal portions. Area, 52,000 sq. 
m. P. 12,000,000. 

Bahak, a town of British India, presid. 
Bengal. P. 30,000, 

Bahia, a maritime prov. of Brazil. 
Length, 400 m . breadth, 150 to 200 m. P. 
650,000. Bahia, founded in 1549 by 
Thomas do Souza, first Capt. Gen. of 
Brazil, is one of the most important com- 
mercial cities in America. 

Bahia Blanca, an inlet of the At- 
lantic, on the E. coast of 'S. Amer., state 
Buenos Ayres. Many fossil remains have 
been discovered here. 

Bahia de Todo.s-os-Santos, a bay of 
Brazil, prov. Bahia. It forms one of the 
best <fc most extensive harbors in the 

Bahia Honda, a barb, of Cuba, on its 
N". coast, 60 m. S.W. Havana. 

Bahlingen. a town of Wiirtemberg. on 

the Eisach. P. 3,250. II. a vHl. of 

Baden, circ. Upp. Rhein. P. 1,750. 

Bahn, a town of Prussian Pomerania. 
P. 2,150. 

Bahrein, an isl. in the Persian gulf, 
near the coast of Arabia. Cap. Manama. 
P. 68,000. (?) 

Bai^e, an anc. city of Italy (now in 
ruins). P. 800. It was princip. port, & 
favorite watering-place of the anc Ro- 
mans, & the sites of several temples, villas, 
& baths, are still distinctly traceable on 
its shore. 

Baieout, a town of Asiatic Turkey. 
P. 3,000. 

Baiersbronn, a* vill. of Wiirtemb., 
Black Forest. P. 4,400. 

Baikal (Lake), lake of Asia, in Si- 
beria. L. 400 m. ; breadth 45 m. The 
surface is frozen from Nov. to April. 
Its seal & sturgeon fisheries are valuable, 
& about 100,000 poods of small herrings 
are taken in it yearly. 

Baikuntapoor, a large town of Brit- 
ish India, on the S. bank of the Ganges. 
It is a famous place of Hindoo Worship. 

Baildon, a vill. of England, co. York, 
W. Riding. P. 3,280. 

Bailieboeough, a town of Ireland, 
Ulster. P. 1,203. 

Bailleul, a town of France, dep. 

Nord. P. 5.988. II. a vill. dep. 

Sarthe. P. 1,0C7. 

Baily Islands, the most S. isls. of 
the Bonin group, N. Pacific. 

Bainbridge, p-t., Chenango co. N. Y., 
on the Susquehanna riv. P. 3,324. 




II. Geauga co. 0., on Chagrin riv. P. 

988. III. p-v., cap. Decatur co. Ga., 

on Flint riv. IV. v., Cape Girardeau 

CO. Mo., on the Mississippi riv. 

Baincthun, a vill. of France, dep. 
Pas-de-Calais. P. 1,687. 

Baindt, a vill. of Wurtemberg, cir. 

Bains, several vills. of France. 

I. dep. Vosges. P. 1,505. II. dep. E. 

Pyrenees. P. 1,800. III. dep. Ille- 

ct-Vilaine. P. (with comm.) 3,915. 

Bains - Du- MoNT-DoEE, a vill. of 
France, dep. Puy-de-DOme. P. 1,010- 

Bairdstown, p-t., cap. Nelson co. Ky. 
P. 1,492. St. Joseph's College (R. C.) is 
here. It has 14 professors, & 7,000 vol. 
in its libraries. 

Bais, a vill. of France. P. 2,354. 

Baise, a river, S.W. France. L. 145 

Baisieux, a vill. of France, dep. Nord. 
P. 1,808. 

Baisy-Thy, a vill. of Belgium. P. 
1,200. With ruins of a castle in which 
Godefroy de Bouillon was born. 

Baitool, a town of British India, pre- 
sid. Bengal. 

Baix, a vill. of France, dep. Ard^che. 
P. 1,314. , 

Baixas, a town of France, dep. E. 
Pyrenees. P. 1,960. 

Baja, a town of Hungary, co. Baes, on 

the Danube. P. 14,537. II. a town 

of Moldavia. III. atown of Wallachia. 

Bajada-de-Santa-Fe, a town of the 
Plata Confed., on the E. bank of the Pa- 
rana. P. 6,000. 

Bajour, a territ. of N. Afghanistan. 
P. 120,000. 

Bakabanya, a royal mining town of 
Hungary, co. Honth. 

Baker's, r., Grafton co. N. H. 

Baker's Island, Mass., off Salem 
harbor, on. the N. end of which is a light- 

Baker's Falls, on Hudson r., Sandy 
mil t., Washington co. N. Y. The falls, 
with the connected rapids, descend 70 
feet in 100 rods. 

Baker, county, Ga., is situated in the 
S.W. part of the state. It is watered by 
Flint r. Soil sandy, but productive for 
sugar. Cap. Newton. P. 8,12.0. 

Bakersfield, p-t., Franklin co. Vt. 
P. 1,238. 

Bakewell, a town of England, co. 
Derby, on the Wye. P. 10,363. 

Bakhmut, a town of Russia. P. 4,000. 
It has coal mines. 

Bakhteghan (Lake), Persia, prov. 
Pars, is 60 m. in length, with breadth of 

8 m. The lake yields a large quantity 
of salt. 

Bakir-kureh-si, a small town of Asia- 
Minor, Anatolia. 

Bakony-wald, a mntn. range of Hun- 
gary, S. of the Danube, elevation5,000ft. 

Baku, a seaport town of the Russian 
dom. S. of the Caucasus, on the Caspian 
sea. P. 9,000. 

Bala, a town of Wales, co. Merioneth. 
P. 1,257. 

Balabac, an isl. of the Asiatic archi- 
pelago, Philippines. 

Bala-bagh, a town of Afghanistan, & 
the most important mart in the valley 
of Jelalabad. 

Balachef, a town of Russia, on the' 
Khoper. P. 2,000. 

BALACHNj^ifHl 'town of Russia, on the 
Volga. P. 3,000. 

Balaklava, a seaport of Russia, on 
the Black sea. P. 1,000. 

Balaguer, a town of Spain, on tho 
Segre. P. 4,642. 

Balagueres, a town of France, dep. 
Ariege. P. 1,289. 

Balakhna, a town of Russia, on the 
Volga. P. 3,500. 

Balambangan, an isl. of the Asiatic 
archipelago, off Borneo. 

Balan, a vill. of France, dep. Arden- 
nes. P. 1,068. 

Balasfalva, a town of Transylvania. 

Balasore, a maritime dist. of British 
India, presid Bengal. P. 500,000. 

Balassa-Gyarmath, a town of Hun- 
gary, near the Eipel. P. 4,580. 

Balaton Lake, the largest lake in 
Hungary. Length, 48 m. ; breadth, 10 m. 

Balaze, a vill. of France, dep. Loire. 
P. 1,236. 

Balbriggan, a marit. town of Ireland, 
on the Irish sea. P. 2,959. 

Balcony Falls, Rockbridge co. Va., 
on James riv., at the passage of the Blue 

Baldegg, a vill. of Switzerl., on small 
lake of same name. 

Baldenburg, a small town of W. 
Prussia. P. 1,200. 

, Balderas, a town of Spain., prov. Leon. 
P. 4,320. 

Baldissero, 3 vills. of Piedmont. 

Baldo (Monte), a mntn. of Lombardy 
7,100 ft. high. 

Baldone, a town of Russia, gov. Cour- 
land, frequented for its hot baths. ' 

Bald Eagle, t., Clinton co. Pa. 

II. r., branch of the Susquehanna^ 50 m. 
long. III. mountains, Pa., on the con- 
fines of Huntingdon and Centre counties. 
N.E. of Juniata riv 




Balfrush, a town of Persia, prov. Ma- 
zanderan, on the Bahbul, here crosisoi by 
a bridge of 9 arches. -P. 200,000. (?) 

Balj, an isl. of the Asiatic archip., im- 
med. E. of Java, 70 m. long by 35 m. in 
breadth. P. 700,000. Two mntn. ch^iins 
traverse it. 

Bald Head, cape, on the S.W. point 
of Wells bay. Me.- — II. the S.W. end 
of Smith's island, at the mouth of Cape 
Fear riv. N.C. . 

Baldwin, t., Cumberland co. Me. 

BALDVi^iN, CO. Ga., in the central part 
of the state. The Oconee riv. passes 
through it. The capital of the co., & 
also of the state, is Milledgeville. P. 

8,148. II. Baldwin.^ co. Ala., in the S. 

part of the state. Cap. Blately. P. 4,414. 

Baldwinsville, p-v.,*^nondaga co. 
N. Y. P. 1,000. 

Baleaeic Isles, a group of 5 isls. in 
the Mediterranean, consisting of Majorca, 
Minorca, Iviza, Formentera, & Cabrera, 
& forming adminis. proy. of Spain, cap. 
Palma. P. 229,197. 

Bahzac, a Till, of France, dep. Gi- 
ronde. P. 1,038. 

Balize, a British colony, Yucatan, 
Central America. Shores studded with 
numer. small isls ; along the coast, land 
swampy, interior wooded, & soil of val- 
leys fertile ; watered by Balize riv., Rio 
Hondo, & Siboon. Country adapted for 
raising sugar, coffee, cotton, indigo. Ma- 
hogany, cedar, saTsaparilla, logwood, 
fustic, brasileto, k other dyewoods are 
articles of export. P. chfly. composed of 
negroes, may amount to 10,000. Ba- 
lize, is the cap. of this colony, sit. on the 
bay of Honduras, at the mouth of the 

riv. Balize. P. 2,543. II. a vill. of 

Louisiana, on the S. side of "the N.E. 
Pass," the mouth of the riv. Mississippi 
most frequented by European vessels. 
The bar. in the riv. here has abt. 17 ft. 
water ; & off it steam-tugs are generally 
in waiting. The vill. is mostly inhabited 
by pilots. 

Balk, a vill. of the Netherlands, prov. 
Friesland. P. 1,227. 

Balkan, an important mntn. chain of 
Europ. -Turkey, which extends from the 
plain of Sophia, to Cape Emineh on the 
Black sea. The chain in general is 
4,900 ft. in elev., N.W. of Kalofer it rises 
to 5,325 ft. 

Balkash, an extens. lake of Central 
Asia. It is sit. near the N. edge of the 
great Central basin of the continental 
streams, & receives the waters of the Hi, 
& several smaller streams, but has no 
outlet. Length 150 m. ; breadth 75 m. 

Balkh, a prov. of Centr. Asia, the anc. 
kgdm. of Bactria, now subordinate to the 
Khanat of Bokhara. Length 250 m. ; 
breadth 120. — Balkh, the cap. city, is sit. 
on the Adirsiah riv. P. 2,000. (f) 

Baltchan Bay, an inlet of the Caspian 

Ballaghaderin, a town of Ireland, 
CO. Mayo. P. 1,342. 

Ballahulish, a pa. of Scotland. P. 
1,255. A large slate quarry has been 
wrought here since 1760. 

Ballan, a vill. of France, dep. Indre- 
et-Loire. P. 1,192. 

Ballanteae, a marit. pa. of Scotland, 
CO. Ayr. P. 1,651. 

Ballard, co., Ky., taken from Hick- 
man & McCracken cos. in 1842, sit. in the 
W. part of the state. The Ohio riv. bounds 
it on the JT. & N.W., & the Mississippi 
riv. on the W. Cap. Columbus. P. 5.496. 

Ballenstedt, a town of Germany, 
duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg. P. 3,800. 
It is the residence of the Dukes of Anhalt- 
Bernburg, & the original seat of the 
house of Prussia. 

Balleny Islands, a group of 5 small 
volcanic isls. on the Antarctic ocean. 
Discovered 1839. 

Balleeoy, a town of France, dep. Cal- 
vados. P. 1,267. 

Ballina, a town of Ireland, co. Mayo. 
P. 5,813. 

Ballinahinch, barony, pa., demesne, 
lake, riv., of Irel., prov. Connaught. The 
barony comprises the mntn. group of the 
" Twelve Pins," & the seaport of Clifden. 
P. 33,465. 

Ballinakill, a town of Ireland, 
Queen's co. P. 1,540. 

Ballinamuck, a vill. of Ireland, co. 
Longford. '-' 

Balunaskelligs Bay, Ireland, co. 

Ballinasloe, a tovs^n of Ireland, cos. 
Galway & Roscommon. P. 4,934. 

Baluncollig, a town of Ireland, co. 
Cork. P. 1,287. 

Ballingarhy, a town of Ireland, co. 
Limerick. P. 1,690. Here ruins of 
anc. relig. houses. II. co. Tipperary. 

Baluneobe, a town of Ireland, co. 
Mayo. P. 2,678. 

Ballintoy, a marit. vill. of Ireland, 
CO. Antrim. P. 4,816. 

Ballon d' Alsace, one of the loftiest 
mntns. of the Vosges chain in France, 
4,688 ft. in elev. — Ballon de Guebwiller, 
is another mntn. of the Vos. chain, 4,300 
ft. in height. 

Ballon, a town of France, dep. Sarthe. 
P. 2,184. 




BALLSTOjiT, t., Saratoga eo. N. T., is 
■washed by small lake of same name. P. 

Ballston Spa, p-T. & cap. Saratoga 
CO. N. Y. It contains the usual county 
buildings, & a banking house. There are 
several mineral springs at this place, 
which were once quite celebrated. They 
have now lost some of their properties. 
P. of v., 1,500. 

Ballville, Sandusky co. 0., lying on 
both sides of Sandusky riv. 

Ballybay, a town of Ireland, Mona- 
ghan CO. P. 1,768. 

Ballycastle, a seaport of Ireland, 
CO. Antrim. P. 1,697. 

Ballyjamesduff, a town of Ireland, 
CO. Ciivan. P. 1,071. 

Ballylongford, a town of Ireland, 
CO. Kerry, on the estuary of the Shannon. 
P. 1,143. 

Ballymahon, a town of Ireland, co. 
Longford. P. 1,229. 

Ballymena, a town of Ireland, co. 
Antrim, on the Braid, here crossed by a 
stone bridge. P. 5,549. 

Ballymoney, a town of Ireland, co. 
Antrim. P. 2,490. 

Ballymore, several pas. & vills. of 

Ballyovey, a pa. of Ireland, co. Mayo. 
P. 4,605. 

Ballyragget, a town of Ireland, co. 
Kilkenny, on the Nore. P. 1,577. 

Ballysadaee, a town & pa. of Ire- 
land, CO. Sligo, on the Owenbeg. P. of 
pa. 7,822 ; of town, 869. 

Ballysax & Ballyscullion, two pas. 
of Ireland. P. 6,979. 

Ballyshannon, a seaport town of Ire- 
land, CO. Donegal. P. 3,513. 

Balme (Col db), a peak of the Alps, 
which forms the limit between Savoy & 
the Vallais, 7,218 feet above the level of 
the sea. 

Balsthal, a town of Switzerland, on 
the Diinnern. P. 1,000. 

BaltaJ one of the Shetland isls. 

Balta, a town of Russian Poland. P. 

Baltanas y Dehesa de Valverde, 
a town of Spain, prov. Palencia/ P. 

Baltic Provinces, the Russian gov- 
ernments situated on the Baltic sea. 

Baltic, sea of N. Europe, enclosed by 
Sweden, Russia, Prussia, Mecklenburg, & 
Denmark, & communicating with the 
Kattegat & the North Sea, bj' the Sound' 
& the Great & Little Belts. Length, 
900 m. ; breadth, 180 m. No sea has, in 
proportion to its size, so great an influx 

of fresh water, hence it contains but little 
salt. In proportion to the North sea this 
is found to be as 194 to 373. The depth 
of the Baltic on the W. is not more than 
15 fathoms, & in general it is only from 
8 to 10 fathoms deep. The Baltic has 
no tides, or rather- the effect of the tide 
is so little felt as not to be observable ; 
but it- is subject to changes of level, de- 
pending on the winds, retarding or accel- 
erating the passage of the water through 
the sound & the belts. During winter 
this sea is usually frozen to a greater or 
less distance along the coasts ; & in 
severe winters, not only the sound & 
the belts, but a great part of its surface, 
is covered with ice. In the reign of King 
Christopher (1324) the Baltic was frozen 
so hard, that for 6 weeks the people trav- 
elled beiween Denmark & Germany on 
the ice. 

Baltimore, a seaport town of Ireland, 
CO. Cork, on a small bay of the Atlantic. 

Baltimore, co. Maryland, situated in 
the N. part of the state, contains 900 sq. 
m. The surface is hilly but not moun- 
tainous. It is watered by Gunpowder & 
Patapsco rivs. P. 41,292. Cap. Balti- 

Baltimore, the third city in popula- 
tion, & fifth in commerce, in the U. S. ; is 
situated on the N. side of the Patapsco 
riv., 14 m. from its entrance into the 
Chesapeake bay, & 200 m. from the 
Ocean by ship channel. P. in 1790, was 
13,503; in 1800, 26,514: in 1810, 35,583; 
in 1820, 62,738; in 1830, 80,625; in 1840, 
102,313 ; in 1850, 169,054, of whom 2,946 
are slaves. It has 4 colleges, with 537 
students; 67 academies, with 4,500 pu- 
pils ; 71 primary & public schools, with 
8,892 pupils. The city as 'laid out in- 
cludes 4 m. square, & is built around the 
bay, which sets up from the N. side of 
the Patapsco, the harbor of which is very 
fine, & consists of three parts ; the first, 
between Fort M'Henry and the Laza- 
retto, above 600 yds. wide, with 22 feet 
of water. Opposite Pell's point, the 
width is contracted to one fourth of a 
mile. This is the entrance to the second 
harbor, & is about 12 feet deep ; but it 
widens above into an ellipse a mile long, 
half a mile broad, & fifteen ft. deep. The 
third or inner harbor has a depth of ten 
feet, &r penetrates to near the centre 
of the city. The amount of the tonnage 
of this port was in 1850, 16,051,164: 
Among the public buildings are the City 
Hall, the Court House, State Peniten- 
tiarj', County Prison, & House of Refuge. 
But the most imposing public structure 




is the Washington Monument ; its base 
is 50 ft. square & 20 fteet high, on which 
is a pedestal supporting a dorie column 
160 ft. high, on the top of which is a 
statue of Washington, 13 feet high. The 
column is 20 feet in diameter at the bot- 
tom, & 14 feet at the top, & is ascended 
by a circular staircase on the inside. 
The Battle Monument was erected in 
1815, in commemoration of the successful 
defence of the city against an attack of 
the British in 1814, & is 52 feet high, 
including an elegant statue on the top, 
emblematical of the city of Baltimore. 
The names of those who fell in the battle 
are inscribed on the column in letters of 
gold. Baltimore is well supplied with 
pure & wholesome water. The commerce 
is great, for which it enjoys peculiar 
facilities. It is the greatest market for 
tobacco in the U. S., & the greatest flour 
market in the world. Exports (in 1851) 
S6,466,165. Imports $7,243,963. Arri- 
vals from foreign ports, 490 ; clearances 
for do. 484. Capital invested in manu- 
factures, $6,541,922 ; value of raw ma- 
terial, $9,444,244; of annual products, 
$20,416,511. There are upwards of 100 
churches in the city, many of which are 
elegant structures. Baltimore was laid 
out as a town 1729, & was chartered 

as a city in 1797. II. p-v., Liberty t., 

IS'airfield co. 0. P. 500. III. hundred, 

Sussex CO. Del. P. 2,241. IV. p-v., 

Warren eo. la., on the W. side of the 
Wabash riv. 

Baltinglass, a t. of Ireland. P. 1,928. 

Baltrum, a small low isl. of Hanover, 
E. Friesland, in the German ocean. 

Baltschik, town of Europ. Turkey, on 
Black sea. 

Balvano, a town of Naples, prov. 
Basilicata. P. 4,000. 

Balwiekziski, a town of Poland on 
the Niemen. P. 1,300. 

Balzac, a vill. of France, dep. Cha- 
rente. P. 1,000. 

Balzola, a town of Piedmont. P. 2,440. 

Bamba, a town of Congo. 

Bambarra, an independent state of W. 
Africa, Soudan. The Bambarras are 
negroes of the Mandingo race, & toler- 
ably advanced in agriculture : they spin 
& dye various fabrics, work in iron & 
gold, manuf. leather, & carry on a pretty 
extensive trade with most of the countries 
from Timbuctoo to Guinea. Gov. oli- 
garchical, & 3-4ths of the pop. are slaves. 

BAMBEcauE, a vill. of France, dep. 
Nord. P. 1,139. 

Bamberg, a city of Bavaria. P. 
21,Q00. Its cathedral, in the Byzantine 

style, was founded in 1004, & contains the 
tombs of the Emperor Henry II. & his 

Bamboora, a ruined city of Scinde. 

Bambouk, a country of W. Africa, 
Senegambia. Gold-washings are numer- 
ous, & veins of iron are worked. The 
inhabs. of the Mandingo race, have few 
arts or manufs. ; they import cotton cloths, 
ornaments, other manufactured goods, & 
salt, mostly in exchange for gold dust. 
Gov. oligarchical. 

Bambuch, a ruined town of Syria, pash. 

Bamian, a famous valley & pass of 
Afghanistan. Turkestan (Eoondooz), 
betw. the Hindoo Koosh range & Paro- 
pamisan mntns., & important as the only 
known pass across the Himalaya chain 
practicable for artillery. Lat. 34° 50' 
N. Here are numerous caves, & some 
remarkable gigantic statues cut in the 
rock. The whole valley is strewed with 
the ruins of the city Ghulghuleh, de- 
stroyed by the Mongols under Zinghis 
Khan about the year 1221. 

Bammakoo, a town of W. Africa, state 
Bambarra, on the Niger. 

Bampoora, a town of Hindostan, Raj- 
pootana, dom. 

BambtoNj several parishes in England. 

Ban, a town of N. Hungary, co. Tren- 
tschin. P. 2,300. 

Baistaganpilly, a town of British In- 
dia, presid. Madras. In a low range of 
hills near it diamonds are found. 

Banagher, a town of Ireland, King's 
CO., on the Shannon. P. 2,827. 

]3analbufar, a town of the isl. Ma- 
jorca, with marble quarries. P. 5,000. 

Banam, a la. vill. of A. Minor, Anatolia. 

Banara, a large vill. of Persia, prov. 

Banas-Chai, a riv. of Asia-Minor, 
Anatolia. Length, 70 m. 

Banassac, a vill. of France, dep. Lo- 
zere. P. 1,818. 

Banat, that portion of S. Hungary 
betw. the Maros & the Danube. Chf. 
town, Temesvar. It is divided info 2 
circles or regiments, under 2 generalats 
& 1 general commander. (1.) the Germ. 
Banat regiment, occupied by 93,317 
Sclavonians. AVallachians, Croatians, Ger- 
mans, & Hungarians. (2.) the Wal- 
lachian Illyrian regiment. P. 81,727, 
Wallachians & Sclavonians. 

Banaul, a vill. Cashmere. 

Banawaram, a town of S. India, My- 
sore dom. - ^ 

Banbridge, a town of Ireland, co. 
Down, on the Up.p. Bann. P. 3,324. 




Banbury, a pari. & munic. bor., mkt. 
town, & pa. of England, co. Oxford. 

Banca, an isl. of the Malay archi- 
pelago, off the N.E. coast of Sumatra. 
Est. area, 3,200 sq. m. P. 160,000. It 
is remarkable for its abundant produce 
of tin from an alluvial soil over a granite 
formation. The Strait of Banca, betw. 
it & Sumatra, varies from 8 to 20 m. in 
breadth. — Banca is also the name of a 
small isl. 12 m. N.E. Celebes. 

Bancallan, a seaport town of the isl. 
Madura, Malay, archipelago. 

Bancapoor, a town of British India, 
presid. Bombay. 

Bance Island, a small isl. in the estu- 
ary of the Sierra Leone riv. (W. Africa). 

Bancoorah, or West Burdwan, a 
dist. of British India, presid. Bengal. 
Area, 3,000 sq. m. P. 500,000. (?) Ban- 
coorah, its princip. town. 

Bancoot, a town of British India, 
presid. Bombay. 

Banda, a town of Hindostan, Bundel- 
cund. II. a small t., presid. Bombay. 

Banda Isles, a group of 12 small, but 
important isls., Molucca archip., belong- 
ing to the Dutch. P. 4,065. They are 
all lofty & volcanic, & the four larger are 
exclusively appropriated to the cultiva- 
tion of nutmegs, from 90,000 to 100,000 
lbs. of which, & 25,000 to 30,000 lbs. mace, 
are produced here annually. Six of the 
isls. G-reat Banda, Banda Neira, Ay, 
Crunong-Api, Rhun, & Rosingyn are in- 
habited. Gt. Banda is the largest ; Gu- 
nong-Api is the highest, & has an active 
volcano of same narne ; Banda Neira is 
the most important isl. of the group, & 
is the residence of the governor. 

Banda Oriental, S. America. 

Bander, a small port of S. Arabia, 
Akrabiterrit., 12 W. Aden. II. a sea- 
port of Scinde, in the delta of the Indus. 

P. 1,200. Bander is the name of many 

small bays on the coast of Arabia. 

Banditti Isle, Malay archipelago, 
in the strait of Lombok. 

Bandol, a vill. of France, in the isl. 
Pomegue, on the Mediterranean. P. 

Bandon, a riv. in the S. of Ireland. 
Length, 40 m. 

Bandon, a town & pari. bor. of Ireland, 

Bandong, a town of the Dutch E. In- 
dies, on the W. coast of Java. Near it 
is the volcano of Gunong Guntonr, by an 
eruption of which, in 1822, 80 villages 
were destroyed. 

Bandoogur, two towns of India. 

Baneras, a town of Spain, prov. Ali- 
cante. P. 2,30(J. 

Baneza (La), a t. of Spain, prov, Leon. 
P. 2,270. 

Banff, a royal & pari, bor., seaport 
town, & pa. of Scotland, cap. co., on the 
Doveron, at its mouth in Moray firth, 
38 m. N.N.W. Aberdeen. P. 3,958. 

Banffshire, a marit. co. of Scotland. 
P. 49,679. Cairngorm mntn., 4,095 ft. 
in height, is mostly in this co. Chf. riv. 
the Spey, Avon, & Doveron. 

Bangalore, a large town, S. India, 
Mysore dom. It is enclosed by double 
walls, & has a citadel, containing the 
palace of Tippoo Saib. Being the head- 
quarters of the British resident & Ma- 
dras officers in Mysore, & a good deal fre- 
quented by Europeans owing to its sa- 
lubrity, it is furnished with many Euro- 
pean shops, assembly & reading rooms, 
& good barracks. Temperature rarely 
exceeds 82°, or sinks below 56° Fahr. 

Banganapilly, a small town of Brit- 
ish India, presid. Madras. 

Bangassi, a large t. of TV. Africa, Se- 

Bang-kok, the cap. city of Siam, &on9 
of the most commercial places in Asia ; on 
the Menam, about 20 m. above its mouth. 
P. 60,000. It has numerous Buddhic 
temples ; & in the palace is a spacious 
audience-hall. The more solid buildings 
are of brick; but the majority of the 
dwellings are of wood, mounted on posts. 
Most of the intercourse is carried on by 
water, & the Menam is navigable to tbe 
city for vessels of 250 tons. 

Bangor, a vill. of France, in the isl. 
of Belle-Isle. P. 1,638. 

Bangor, a city, pari, bor., seaport, & 
pa. of N. Wales, at the head of Beau- 
maris bay. The cathed., date 525 (?), is 
an embattled cruciform structure, with a 
low massive tower : its choir is appro- 
priated to the cathedral service ; its nave, 
141 ft. in length, is used as the pa. church, 
& in one of the transepts, service is cele- 
brated in the Welsh tongue. 

Bangor, pa., on the Dee, Wales. P. 
1,257. This is the supposed seat of one 
of the largest monasteries in Britain, 
which, according to Lambard, was inhab. 
in the 6th centui-y by 2,100 monks, 1,200 
of whom were massacred early in the 7th 
by the Northumbrian Saxons. Gildas, 
the earliest British historian, is said to 
have been a monk of this community. 

Bangor, a seaport of Ireland, co. 
Down. P. 3,116. 

Bangor, city & p-t., the capital of Pe- 
nobscot CO., Me. It is situated at the 
head of the navigation on the W. side of 
Penobscot river, 60 miles from the ocean. 




Tonnage, 27,571. P. 14,432. The har- 
bor is spacious. The principal article of 
trade is lumber. More than 1,200 vessels 
of over 100 tons burden each, are em- 
ployed in this. The Bangor theo. seni. 
is located here. It has 3 professors & 
4,3 students. In its library are 7,000 

Bangor, p-t., Franklin co. N. Y. P. 

Bang-pa-soe, a seaport town of Siara. 

Banguby, an isl. of the Malay archi- 
pelago, oft' the N. extremity of Borneo. 
Turtle are plentiful on this island. 

Banho, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Beira. P. 2,000. 

Baniak Islands, a group in the In- 
dian ocean, off the W. coast of Sumatra. 
A conical shaped hill on Pulo Baniak 
island, is a conspicuous sea-mark. 

Banialuka, a town of Europ. Turkey, 
prov. Bosnia. P. 7,800. 

Banias, two vills..of Syria. 

Banjermassin, an extensive country 
of Borneo, occupying the S.E. part of the 
isl. P. 120,000. It is governed by a sul- 
tan, whose power is absolute, except in 
so far as limited by treaties with the 
Netherlands government ; all the dia- 
monds, above 5 carats, found in the mines 
of Banjermassin, are considered the prop- 
erty of the saltan ; but the Netherlands 
government receives a tribute equal to 
1-lOth of the value. Banjermassin has 
an extensive trade with China: its chief 
ex.ports consist of pepper & other spices, 
gold dust, diamonds, wax, camphor, rat- 
tans, edible birds' -nests, & small arms. 
The Dutch have had a factory here since 
1748, & the territory was ceded to them 
in 1787. 

Banjoemas, a town of the Dutch East 
Indies, on the S. coast of the isl. of Java. 

Bankalan, a town of the Dutch East 
Indies, on the W. coast of the isl. Ma- 

Banks' (Island), British N. Ameri- 
ca, is in the Pacific. — (Islands), a group 
of 17 isls.. Pacific 0. — Also a group, S. 
Australia, in Spencer's gulf. — {Land), 
British N. America, Arctic ocean. — 
{Cape), E. Australia. — {Peninsula), New 
Zealand, Middle Isl., near the centre of 
its E. coast. — {Strait), between Van Die- 
men's Land & Fourneaux Islands. 
Breadth 15 m. — {Town), New South 
Wales, CO. Cumberland. 

Bankybazab, a small town of British 
India, on the Hooghly. 

Bann, two rivs. of the N. of Ireland. 

Bannalec, a town of France, dep. 
Finist^re. P. 4,183. 

Banne, a vill. of France, dep. Ardfeche. 
P. 1,755. 

Bannister, r., Halifax co. Va. 

Bannockburn, a vill. of Scotland, co. 
Stirling, on the Bannock, famous for the 
great victory gained here, 24th June, 
1314, by the Scots under Bruce, over the 
English, commanded by Edward II. & 
his generals. The latter are stated to 
have lost 50,000, & the Scots only 
4,000. Near it, at Sauchie Burn, in 
1488, James III. of Scotland was de- 
feated by his son. 

Banolas, a t. of Spain, prov. Gerona, 
with mineral springs & baths. P. 2,377. 

Banrou, a vill. of France, dep. Ome. 
P. 1,054. 

Banstead, a pa. of England, co. Sur- 
rey. P. 1,168. In the vicinity are nu- 
merous country seats, the most noted of 
which, "The Oaks,' gives name to one 
of the great stakes at Epsom races, the 
subscription to which in 1847 amounted 

Banswaba, a town of Hindostan, 
prov. Gujerat. 

Bantam, a residency of the Dutch E. 
Indies, of the isl. of Java. P. 362,242. 
It is divided into 3 regencies, N. Ceram, 
or Serang, S. Lebak, W. Tjiringin. 

Bantjar, a town of the Dutch E. In- 
dies, on the N. coast of Java. It has a 
fine port, with extens. shipbuilding docks. 

Bantrv, a seaport town of Ireland, 
eo. Cork, near the head of Bantry bay. 
P. 4,082. 

Bantry Bay, a large bay, S. of Ireld., 
CO. Cork, & one of the finest harbors in 
Europe. Within it are Bear & Whiddy's 
isls., between which & the mainland, 
the water is from 20 to 40 feet deep, & 
the anchorage is everywhere good. 

Bantzenheim, a vill. of France, dep. 
H. Rhin. P. 1,133. 

Banwell, a pa. of England, co. Somer- 
set. A fine park here belongs to the 
Bishops of Bath & Wells, who have held 
the manor since the time of Edward the 

Banya (Felso),at..of Hung'y. P. 4,536. 
It has mines of gold, silver, copper, lead, 
& iron, with foundries, forges, & pottery 

Banya (Nagy), a t jwn of Hungary, co. 
Szathmar. P. 4,928. It has mmes of 
gold, silver, & lead, which have been 
long worked, & are very productive. 

Banyulis-sur-Mer, a town of France, 
dep. Pyrenees Orient. P. 1,337. Nenr 
it are 4 one. towers, one of which, the 
Ban de Caroch, marks the limit betw. 
France & Spain. 




Banyuwangy, a seaport town on the 
E. coast of the island Java, belonging to 

Banz, a vill. of Bavaria, on the Main, 
with a palace of Duke William of Ba- 

Ban-Zardah, a strong mntn. fortr. of 
Persia, prov. Irak-Ajemi, in Mt. Zagros. 

Bapaume, a town of France, dep. Pas- 
de-Calais. P. 2,973. 

Bar, a tovvn._of British India, presid. 

Bar, a riv. of France, dep. Ardennes. 

Bar, a vill. of France, dep. Corr^ze. 
P. 1,228. 

Bar, a town of Russia. P. 3,000. 

Bara, a riv. of Afghanistan. 

Baeaba, a' vast steppe of Siberia, ex- 
tending bet\V. the Oby & the Irtish, 
covered with numerous salt lakes & 

Bahacoa, a seaport town of the Span- 
ish W. Indies, on the N.Fj. coast of the 
isl. of Cuba. P. 2,000. In its vicin. is a 
remark, table-mntn. termed the Anvil 
of Baracoa. 

Barahat, a town, N. Hindostan, on 
the Bhagirathi. 

Babaitche, a town of Hindostan, 

Barak, the principal river of Cachar 
(Further India). 

Baranbllo, a town of Naples, prov. 
Molise. P. 2,500. 

Baeanow, a town of Austrian-Galicia. 

P. 1,000. II. a town of Poland, on the 

Wieprz. P. 1,300. 

Baranquilla, a town of S. Amer., 
New Granada, with a port on 1. b. of the 
Magdalena, at its mouth. 

BARANTCHiNSK,avin.of Asiatic Russia. 

Baranya, a CO." of Hungary, on the 
Danube. P. 213,573. It is partly moun- 
tainous, & partly marshy, but Very fer- 

Barataria, Jefferson par. La. P. 

1,176. II. an isl., Louisiana, in the 

gulf of Mexico, at the entrance of the 
bay of same name. It is a strong mili- 
tary position, with a spacious port for 
small vessels. 

Barau, a town of Bohemia. P. 1,315. 

Bareacena, a town of Brazil, in the 
Sierra Mantiqueira. P. of town & dist. 

Barbacoa, a vill. of New Grenada, 25 
m. W. of Aspinwall, on the railroad from 

Navy bay to Panama. II. a town of 


Barbados, or Barbadoes, the most 
E. of the W. India isls., belonging to Gt. 
Britain, windward group, in the Atlantic, 

105 m. E. St. Vincent. Cireumf. 55 m. 
P. (in June 1851) 135,939. 

Barbadoes (New), a tnshp., U.S., N. 
Amer., Bergen eo. N. J. P. 2,104. 

Barbania, a t. of Piedmont. P. 1,760. 

Barbant (St.), a vill. of France, dep. 
H. Vienne. P. 1,273. 

BA.aBARA (Sta.), a town of Mexico, 
190m. S.E. Monterey, with a port on the 

Pacific ocean. II. a t. of Chile, in the 

isl. Laxa. Santa Barbara is also the 

name of sev. vills. in Brazil, & of a marit. 
estab. on the coast of Upper California. 

Barbary, an extensive region, com- 
prising all the N. portion of Africa, from 
Egj'pt to the Atlantic ocean, & from the 
Mediterr. to the Greater Atlas. It is di- 
vided by the Atlas mntns. into 2 regions, 
that on the N. comprising the 4 Barbary 
states, viz., the empire of Morocco, the 
prov. of Algeria, & the b»ylics of Tunis 
& Tripoli, & the S. region called the 
Beled'-ul-Jerid, or country of dates. 
Barbary & Egypt formed nearly all of 
Africa known to the ancients. It attained 
great celebrity under the dom. of the 
Carthaginians ; was afterw. subject to 
the Romans, & occup. for nearly a cent, 
by the Vandals. The Arabs took it finally 
from the Romans about B.C. 697. 

Barbaste, a vill. of France, dep. Lot- 
et-Garonne. P. 1,530. 

Barbastro, a town of Spain, Aragon, 
on the Cinca. P. 6,043. It has a cath - 
dral, with some paintings of the 16th 
century, & 3 convents. 

Barbentanne, a town of France, dep. 
B.-du-RhOne. P. 1,831. 

Barberino-di-Mugello, a town of 
Tuscany. P. 2,016. 

Barbezieux, a town of France, dep. 
Charente. P. 2,335. 

Barbona, a vill. of N. Italy, gov. 
Venice. P. 2,500. 

Barbonne, a town of France, dep. 
Marne. P. 1,276. 

Barbour, co., Ala., in the E. part of 
the state. Cap. Clayton. Staple product 

cotton. P. 23,632. II. a co. of W. 

Virginia. P. 9,005. 

Barbouhsville, cap. Knox co. Ky. 

II. cap. of Cabell co. Va., on the Great 
Guyandot riv. 

Barbuda, one of the Brit. "W. India 
isls., leeward group, in the Atlantic. 
Area, 75 sq. m. P. 1,600.' The greater 
part of the isl. is flat & fertile, producing 
corn, cotton, pepper, & tobacco ; but no 
sugar. There is no port, but a roadstead 
on W. side. 

Barby, a town of Prus. Saxony, on the 
Elbe. P. 3,400. 




Barca, a town of Portugal. P. 1,900. 

Barca, a marit. region of N. Africa, 
forming the E. divis. of Tripoli. The pop. 
consists of Bedwin Arabs, with a few 
Jews in the towns. This region was an- 
ciently the seat of the Fentapolis, or five 
Greek cities of Berenice, Arsinoe, Barca, 
ApoUonia, & Cyrene. 

^AECARROTA, a town of Spain, proT. 
S. Badajos, with 4,285 inhab. 

Barcellos, a town of Portugal. P. 

3,892. II. a town of Brazil, prov. 

Para, on r. b. of the Eio Negro. 

Barcelona, a seaport town of S. 
Amer., Venezuela, on the 1. b. of the 
Neveri. Founded in 1634* Houses 
mostly of mud ; & its sit. is unhealthy. 

Barcelona, a city & seaport of Spain, 
& formerly cap. of Catalonia, on the 
Mediterranean. Its buildings within the 
walls are cro^»ded, but mostly good ; & 
it has excellent public promenades. 
Princip. edifices, catlied., Dominican con- 
vent, old jDalaee of the kings of Aragon, 
opera-house, new prison, an extens. arse- 
nal, & barracks. The harb. has 18 to 20 
ft. water, but owing to a bar at its mth., 
large ships are obliged to anchor outside ; 
an immense sea wall has been commenc- 
ed, which, if completed, would render the 
port one of the most extensive & commod. 
on the Mediterranean. Barcelona has 
nums. estabs. for public instruc, a theol. 
seminary, 8 colleges, a school of artillery, 
a school of medicine, an institution for 
deaf & dumb, courses of lectures on navi- 
gation, agriculture, & the fine arts, a 
botanic garden, 4 public libraries, one of 
which is very rich in MSS. & archives of 
the kingdom of Aragon. Bai-celona is 
supposed to have derived its anc. name 
from its Carthaginian founder, Hamilear 
Barcino, B.C. about 200. The city was 
taken by the French in 1714, & again in 
1808. It was desolated by the yellow 
fever in 1821, & bombarded by order of 
the Regent Espartero in 1843. — JBarcelo- 
neta is a suburb of Barcelona, often re- 
garded as a distinct town. P. 5,000. 

II. p-t., on Lake Erie, Chautauque co. 
N. Y. 

Barceloneta, a town of S. America, 
Venezuela, on the Paragua. 

Barcelonnette, a town of France, 
dep. Basses- Alpes. P. 1,905. 

Bargelore, a marit. t. of British In- 
dia, presid. Madras, on the Malabar coast. 

Barchfeld, a town of Hessen-Cassel, 
prov. Pulda, on rt. b. of the Werra. P. 

Barcus, a vill. of France, dep. B. Py- 
renees.- P. 2,497. 

Bard, a fortress & vill. of Piedmont, 
on 1. b. of the Doire. 

Bahdenberg, a vill. of Rhen. Prussia, 
with coal mines. P. 1,290. 

Bardis, a town of Upper Egypt. The 
French gave battle here, 6th April. 1799. 

Bardney, a pa. of England, co. Lin- 
coln. On a large barrow, in this pa., 
there is a cross to the memory of Ethel- 
red, king of Mereia, said to be buried 

Bardolino, a town of Venice. P. 

Bard ONNE CHE, a vill. of Piedmont. 
P. 1,060. 

Bardos, k vill. of France, dep. Basses- 
Pyrenees. P. 2,468. 

Bardowieck, a town of Hanover. P. 

Bardsey, an isl. of N. Wales, co. 
Carnarvon, in the Irish sea. It is acces- 
sible only at a small harbor on the S.E. 
side. It has no church, but the inhabs. 
meet to read prayers in its ruined ab- 

Bareily, a dist. of British India, pre- 
sid. Bengal. Chief towns, Barerly, Pilib- 

heet, & Shahjehanpoor. Bareily, a 

city on a tribut. of the Ganges. P. 
66,000. It has several mosques, a cita- 
del, Engl, college, Persian & Hindoo 

Barentin, a vill. of France, dep. Seine 
Inf. P. 2,278. 

Barenton, a town of France, dep. 
Manche. P. 3,106. 

Barete, a town of Naples, with cele- 
brated baths. P. 1,000. 

Baretoun (Al), a town of Egypt, on 
the Mediterranean. 

Baretschweil, a vill. of Switzerl. P. 

Barfleur, a seaport town of France, 
dep. Manche, on the English channel. 
It was formerly one of the best ports in 
Normandy, but now its harbor is partly 
filled up with sand. It is asserted that 
William the Conq. set out from this port 
for the conquest of England. 

Barga, a vill. of Tuscany, on the Ser- 
chio. P. 2,540. 

BArgarran, a vill. of Scotl., co. Ren- 
frew. Here the manuf. of fine thread 
was first established in Scotland. 

Bargas, a town of Spain. P. 3,457. 

Barge, an anc. town of Piedmont. P. 
8,602. it has slate quarries. 

Baegemont, a town of France, dep. 
Var. P. 1,750. 

Bargouzin, a riv. of Siberia, gov. 

Baex (Terra di), a prov. of Naples. 




It is mostly fiat, & very fertile in grain, 
■wine, & fruit. Climate dry, & yery warm 
in summer. P. 476,638. 

Bari, a city & seaport of Naples, on a 
penins. in the Adriatic. P. 21,500. It is 
defended by walls towards the sea ; the 
Corso is a fine new street, but in general 
the town is mean & dirty. Principal build- 
ings, a citadel, cathedral, a college of no- 
bles, lyceuin, large diocesan seminary. 
JSari, conquered by the Normans in the 
11th century, was for some time cap. of 
their duchy of Apulia. The prov. of Bari 

is well cultiy. P. 426,000. II. a vill. 

of Greece, gov. Attica, near which is a 
stalactitic cave in Mt. Hymettus, with 
anc. inscriptions. III. a vill. of Sar- 
dinia. P. 1,500. 

Barigazzo, a vill. of Italy, duchy of 
Jlodena. Near this is observed a phe- 
nomenon similar to that at Pietramala. 
Natural fire issues from the soil, ascends 
several feet, & continues for some days 
without intermission. 

Baeigiano, a town of Naples. P. 
Barile, a town of Naples. P. 3,200. 
Barima, a riv. & headland of British 

BaRiNG, p-t., Washino;ton co. Maine, 
on the St. Croix r. P. 376. 

Barjac, a town of France, dep. Gard, 
cap .cant. P. 1,748. 

Barjols, a town of France, dep. Var. 
P. 3,181. 

Barker, t., Broome co., N. Y. P. 

Barkhamstead, p-t., Litchfield co. 
Conn. P. 1,571. 

Barking, a town & pa. of England, 
CO. Essex. P. 8,718. 

Barkisland, a tnship. of England, co. 
Fork. P. 2,391. 
Barkol, a town of Chinese Turkestan. 
Barlassina, a vill. of Lombardy. 
Bar-le-Duc, a town of France, dep. 
Meuse, on the Ornaih. P. 12,673. Birth- 
place of the Duke of Guise, & of Gen. 

Barletta, a seaport city of Naples, 
on a rocky isl. in the Adriatic. P. 17.690. 
It has a citadel, cathedral, college, & a 
colossal statue of the Emp. Heraclius. 
Its harb., formed by a mole on which is 
a light-house, admits only small vessels. 
Barlovento, a town of the Canary 
isls., on the isl. Palma. P. 2,148. 
Barlow, p-t., Washington co. 0. 
Barmbeck, a vill., N. Germany. P. 

Barmen, an extensive manuf. dist. of 
Rhenish Prussia, gov. Dusseldorf. P. 

33.000. It has several churches, a high 
school, a deaf & dumb asylum, exchange, 
police court, commercial tribunal, & nu- 
merous clubs. 

Bahmstedt, a vill. of Denmark, Hol- 

Barnabe (St.), a vill. of France, dep. 

COtes-du-Nord. P. 1,047 II. a vill. 

dep. B. du Rhone. P. 1,026. 

Barnagore, a town of British India, 
on the Hoogly. 

Bernard, p-t., Windsor co. Vt., adapt- 
ed to grazing. It has" good mill seaAs. 
P. 1,774. 

Barnard Castle, a town of England, 
CO. Durham, on the Tees. P. 4,452. It 
has a hospital for poor persons, founded 
in 1229 by John Baliol, king of Scotland 
(a native of this place), & the ruins of 
the stately castle, whence the town de- 
rives its name, Isuilt by Barnard, the 
grandfather of Baliol. 

Barnaul, the principal mining town 
of W. Siberia, on the Barnaul Oby. 
P. 9,927. It is under the immedi- 
ate authority of the cabinet of St. Pe- 
tersburg, & is the seat of a mining 
board, & the cap. of a mining dist. "-as 
extensive as the whole kgm. of Hungary." 

Barnbgat Bay, is separated from the 
ocean by Island beach, & Squam beach. 

Barnesville, v., Warren t., Belmont 
CO. 0. 

Barnes, a pa. of England, on the 
Thames. P. 1,461. Rose's bequest of 
20Z. per annum, made 1623, to the poor 
of Barnes, is conditional upon rose bushes 
being kept trained round his monument. 
At Barn-elms, in this pa., Walsingham 
entertained Q. Elizabeth, Cowley the 
poet resided, & the Kit-Cat club held 
its meetings. 

Barnet, a town of England, co. Hertf. 
An obelisk near the town commemorates 
the battle fought there in 1471, betw. the 
York & Lancaster armies, when the latter 
were totally defeated, & their leader, the 

great Earl of Warwick, was killed. 

II. p-t., Caledonia co. Vt. P. 2,030. 

Barneveld, a vill. of the Netherlands. 
P. 2,390. 

Barneveld Island, S. ocean, off 
Tierra del Fuego. 

. Barneville-^ur-Mer, a town of 
France, dep. Manche. P. 1,083. 

Baensley (St. Mary), a town of 
England, co. York. P. 12,310. 

Barnstable, co., Mass., includes the 
whole of Cape Cod, in the E. part of the 
state. The cape is 65 m. long, & has a 
medium breadth of 5 m. A greater por- 
tion of the cape is sandy & dry, & inca- 




pable of furnishing the necessary subsist- 
ence to the inhabitants, who depend chiefly 
upon the cod, & other fisheries. P. 35,276. 

II. a seaport of Engl., co. Devon, on 

the Taw, here crossed by a stone bridge of 
16 arches. The town is said to have been 
founded by Athelstan, & was incorp. by 
Henry I. It is well built, has a large 
ancient church, & a grammar school, en- 
dowed in 1649, occupying part of an old 
monastery, in which Bishop Jewel & the 
poet Gay were educated. III. Barn- 
stable, p-t., seaport, & capital of Barn- 
stable CO. Mass. The town extends across 
the cape, & the village is on the S. side 
of Barnstable bay, which opens into Cape 
Cod bay. Betw. 50 & 60 fishing & coast- 
ing vessels belong to the place. P. 4,901. 

Barnstead, p-t., Belknap CO. N.H. 

Barnstoef, a vill. of Hanover, co. 
Hoya. I, 

Barnwell, a vill. of England, co. of 
Cambridge. P. 6,909. II. S.W. dis- 
trict of S. C, contains an area of 1,680 
sq. m. It lies between the Savannah riv. 
& the Edisto riv. Soil, moderately good. 
Cotton is the chief production. It com- 
municates with Savannah by the Savan- 
nah riv. & with Beaufort, & the adjoinmg 
isls. by the Salkahatchie r. There are 
several sulphur springs in the district, 
one of which affords water sufiSeient to 
propel an ordinary grist mill. Capital, 
Barnwell C. H. P. 26,608. 

Baroach, a dist. of British India, 
presid. Bombay. P 229,527. Baro- 
ach (probably the anc. Barygaza), cap. 
of the above dist , is on the Nerbudda. 

Baroda, a city of Hindostan. P. 
100,000. (?) 

Baros, a town of the Dutch E. Indies, 
on W. coast of the isl. Sumatra. 

Barquesimeto, a city of Venezuela, 
cap. prov. P. 12,000. (?) It was entire- 
ly destroyed by an earthquake in 1802. 

Barr, a town of France, dep. Bas- 
Ehin, at the foot of the Vosges. P. 3,585. 

Barra, an isl. of Scotland, Hebrides. 

Barra. a town of Naples. P. 5,900. 
II. atown S.E. Reggio. P. 2,600. 

Barra, sev. towns of I5razil. 

Barraconda, a town of Senegambia. 

Barrackpoor, a seat of the governor- 
general of Brit. India, presid. & prov. 
Bengal, on the Iloogly. Here is a fine 
park 4 m. in circ, & laid out in European 
style, near which is a large military vil- 
lage with cantonments. 

Barrafranca, a town of Sicily, dist. 
Piazza. P. 6,600. 

Bareamahl, a dist. of British India, 
presid. Madras. 

Barra Mansa, a town of Brazil, prov. 
Rio-de- Janeiro, on the Parahiba. P. 

Barran, a town of France, dep. Gers. 
P. 1,821. 

Barranca, a town of New Granada, 

on the Magdalena riv. Barranguilla 

is a seaport town at the mouth of same 

Barrataria (Bay of), an inlet of the 
gulf of Mexico, 50 m. 'VV.N.'W. the mouth 
of the Mississippi. It is wide, shallow, & 
entered by an intricate channel. Previ- 
ously to 1814, it was the retreat of La- 
fitte, the pirate of the gulf. 

Barrax, a town of Spain, prov. Alba- 
cete. P. 2,576. 

Bahraux, a vill. of France, dep. Isere. 
P. 1,452. Near it is a fort built 1596. 

Barre, p-t., Worcester co. Mass., it is 
watered by Ware river & its branches. 

P. 2,976. II. p-t., Orleans co. N. Y. 

The Erie canal passes through the town ; 
it contains several villages, the chief of 
which are Albion & Barre Centre. P. 

5,539. III. t., Washington co. Vt. A 

grazing town, watered by Onion riv. P. 

Barreah, a neatly built town of Hin- 

Barreges, a vill. & celeb, watering 
place of France, dep. H. Pyrenees, on the 
Gave-de-Bastan, 3,240 ft. above the sea. 
It consists of about 60 houses, most of 
thera temporary sheds, abandoned during 
winter on account of the cold & the danger 
to which it is exposed from avalanches 
It is frequented annually by about 1,500 
invalids, for the sake of its sulphureous 
springs, which have a temp, varying from 
104° to 122° Fahrenheit. The baths, 
which for a century have enjoyed the 
highest reputation, were founded by Louis 

Barren Island, one of the Hunter 
isls. oiF the N.B. extremity of Tasmania, 

1. 15 m. b. 4 m. II. a volcanii isl., bay 

of Bengal, with a cone 1,848 feet in 
lieight, frequently in eruption. 

Barren, CO. in the S. part of Kentucky. 
P. 20,240. Cap. Glasgow. Staple, to- 
bacco. Distilleries. II. two small riv- 
ers of Ky. 

Barretsville, p-v. Lumpkin co. Ga. 

Barhead, avill. of Seotl.,co. Renfrew. 
P. 3,492. • 

Barriga Negha, a town or vill. Uru- 
guay, S. America. In its dist. are large 
breeding estates, each stocked with from 
60,000 to 200,000 head of cattle, 

Barrington, p-t., Strafford co. N. H. 
There is a curious cave in this town, 





called the Devil's Den, having several 
chambers, one of which is 60 fb. long ; 15 

feet high & 8 ft. wide. P. 1,844. II. 

p-t., Bristol CO. R. I. P. 549. III. 

p-t., Yates CO. N.Y. P. 1,868. 

Barrios (Los), a town of Spain. P. 

Barrois. an old divis. of France, in 

Barrow, a river of Ireland, next in 
importance to the Shannon, rises in the 
Slievebloom mountains, Leinster, & after 
a course of about 90 m., joins the Suir to 
form the estuary, "Waterford harbor. 

Barrow (Island), Pacific ocean, is in 
lat. 20° 45^ S.; Ion. 139° 3' W. It is 
small, but well wooded, & affords fresh 

water, (Rocks), off the S. coast of 

Arabia,about 50m. N.E.Aden. (Cape), 

Russian America, is a headland on the 

Arctic ocean, lat. 71° 23' N. (Strait), 

the passage from Baffin bay westward 
into Prince Regent inlet, lat. 74° N. 

Barrowford, a township of England, 
CO. Lancaster. P. 2,630. 

Barry, county in the W. part of Mich- 
igan ; it is drained chiefly by Thorn Ap- 
ple riv. P. 5,072. Cap. Hastings. Com- 
mon grain produced. II. co. Missouri 

in the S.W. part of the state ; the soil is 
generally good. P. 3,467. Indian corn, 
wheat & cotton. 

Barry, p-t., Schuylkill co. Penn. P. 

Bahryton, cap. "Washington co. Ala. 

Barsac, a town of France, dep. Gi- 
ronde, on the Garonne. P. 1,701. Its 
vicinity produces the fine white Bordeaux 

Barsch, a town of Hungary, co. Pesth. 

Barsoe, a small isl. & vili. of Den- 
mark, in the Little Belt. 

Bar-sur- AuBE, an anc. town of France, 
dep. Aube. P. 4,134. This little town, 
the environs of which are picturesque, 
was the scene of two battles betw. Napo- 
leon & the allies in 1814, in consequence 
of which it was nearly destroyed. 

Bar-sur-Ornain, a town of France. 

Bar-sur-Seine, a town of France, 
dep. Aube, on the Seine. P.'2,162. This 
was an important town in the middle 
ages, & often ruined during the wars of 
Burgundy. It was the scene of a severe 
engagement betw. Napoleon & the allies, 
25th May, 1814. 

Bart, p-t., Lancaster co. Penn. P. 

Bartan, a t. of Asia- Minor, Anatolia. 

Barten, a town of E. Prussia. P. 1,600. 

Bartenheim, a vill. of France, dep. 
H. Rhin. P. 1,865. 


Bartekstein, a town of E. Prussia, 

on the Alle. P. 3,700. II. a vill. of 

Wiirtemberg. P. 1,100; <fc a castle, the 
residence of the princes of Hohenlohe- 

Bartfa, a town of N. Hungary, on the 
Tepla. P. 4,658. Its hot baths are the 
best frequented in Hungary. 

Barth, a seaport town of Prus. Pome- 
rania. P. 4,643. 

Barthe-de-Neste (La), a vill. of 
France, dep. H. Pyrenees. 

Barthblemy (St.), several comma., 

towns, & vills. of France. 1, a comm. 

& town, dep. Lot-et-Garonne. P. 1,422. 

II. a comm. & vill. dep. Maine-et- 

Loire. P. 1,074. 

Bartholomew (St.), an isl. in the "W. 
Indies, & the only colony of Sweden in 
America. P. 18.000. Shape very irreg- 
ular; soil fertile, though the island is 
remarkably destitute of fresh water. 
Being surrounded by rocks & shoals, it is 
difiicult of access, but the careenage on 
its W. side is a good harbor. The chief 
town was almost entirely destroyed by 
fire in 1852. 

Bartholomew, county, la., a little S. 
the centre of the state. P. 12,428., Cap. 

Bartholomew, town, Jefferson co. 
Ark.- P. 148. 

Bartlett, town, Jefferson co. Pa. P. 

259. n. p-t., Coos CO. N. H. It lies 

at the foot of the White mntns., on the 
E. side. 

Bartolome (San), a town of NeW 
Granada. P. 1,000. 

Bartolomeo (San), a town of Naples. 

P. 5,400. II. a vill. dist. Salerno. P. 

1,100. III. two isls. in the S. Pacific 

ocean, one in the archipelago of the Car- 
olines, the other off the S. coast of 

Barton, p-t., Orleans co. Vt. It is 
watered by Barton riv. & its branches. 

P. 892. II. p-t., Tioga co. N. Y. P. 

1,224. It has the Susquehanna riv. on 
the S.E., & the Chemung riv. on the S.W. 

Barton-upon-HumbeRj a town of 
England, co. Lincoln. 

Bartsch, a riv. of Prussia, in the S. 
of the prov. of Posen. 

Ba^iugh, or Bargh, a tnshp. of Engl., 
CO. York, W. rid. P. 1,266. 

Baruth, a town of Prussia. P. 1,570. 
II. a vill. of Saxony. 

Bakwalde, two small towns of Prussia. 

1; prov. Brandenburg. P. 2,260. 

II. prov. Pomerania. P. 970. 

Barwallah, a large brick-built town, 
dom. Pattialah, India. 




Bartsz, a town of Austrian Galicia. 
P. 1,900. 

Bas, or £atz, - a small isl. of Erance, 

dep. Munehe, in the English channel. 

II. vill. of France, dep. Haute-Loire. P. 

Bascons, a vill. of France, dep. Lan- 
des. P. 1,150. 

Basel,- or Bale, one of the cantons of 
the Swiss confederation since 1501, on the 
frontiers of France, & the grand duchy 
of Baden. Principal rivs., the Rhine & 
its tributaries, the Birz & Ergolz. Corn 
enough is raised for home consumption, 
& some wine is produced. 

Basel, or Basle, a city in the N. of 
Switzerland, on the Rhme. P. 24,000. It 
is well built. It has nums. scientific & lit. 
estabs., & a cathedral built on the site of 
the anc. Roman fort Basilia, which con- 
tains the tomb of Erasmus. Its university 
was founded 1460 ; it has also a grammar- 
school, botanic garden, & museum, & its 
library contains 5O,OO0 vols., with many 
important MSS. It is the most commercl. 
city of the Swiss confederation. Basel 
dates from the 4th century. In the 11th 
century it was the most powerful city of 
Helvetia ; it was the seat of a great 
council from 1431 to 1447, & of a memo- 
rable treaty betw. France & Prussia in 
1795. Near it the French were defeated 
by the Swiss at the celeb, battle of St. 
Jacob, 1444. It is the birth-place of the 
two Holbeins, Bernouilli, & Euler, & was 
long the residence of Erasmus, who died 
here in 1536. 

Baselice, a town of Naples. P. 4,100. 

Bashee, or Bashi Islands, a group 
of isls., archip. of the Philippines. 

Basht, a pitadel & vill. of Persia, 
prov. Fars. It resembles the castles of 
the old feudal barons in Europe, the 
chief's fort being surrounded by the 
habitations of his vassals. 

Basidoh, a decayed vill. of the isl. 
Kisham, Persian gulf. Its vicinity is quite 
barren, & is tolerably hot in summer. 
It has become the principal station for 
British ships in the gulf, & has a small 
bazaar, a hospital, & subscription rooms 
supported by Indian officers. Near it are 
the ruins of the old Portuguese town & 
fort of same name. There is good an- 
chorage in the roads ; but the port is of 
difficult entrance. 

Basiento, a riv. of Naples. L. 50 m. 

Basilan, one of the Philippine isls., off 
Mindanao, & separated from it by Basilan 
strait, with a village inhabited by pirates. 

Basile (St.), a vill. of France, dep. 
Ard^ohe. P. 1,138. 

Basilicata, a prov. of the kingdom 
of Naples. P. 486,270. It is mostly 
mountainous, being traversed by the 
Apennines, & is not very fertile. It has 
a fine plain on the shores of the gulf, 
watered by several small streams. Chf. 
towns, Potenza, Francavilla, & Tursi. 

Basiho (San), a vill. of Sardinia. P. 

Basiluzzo, one of the smaller Lipari 
islands in the Mediterranean. 

Basingstoke, a munic. bor. & pa. of 
England, co. Hants. P. 4,066. It has a 
church built in the reign of Henry VIII., 
an anc. free school, with an income of 
200Z. a-year ; a blue coat school, founded 

Basinwerk, a vill. of N. AVales, co. 
Flint, containing ruins of ancient abbey 
& chapel of Knights Templars, erected 
by Henry II. 

Baskinmdge, a town of New Jersey, 
15 m. N. New Brunswick. The American 
general Lee was made prisoner here in 

Baslow, a chapelry of England, co. 
Derby. P. 9,962. 

Bason Harbor, p-v., Addison co. Vt., is 
an important port on the E. side of Lake 

Basouda, a town of Central Inditf, 
dom. Crwalior, 

Basque Provinces, a country of 
Spain. The three Basque provinces a,re 
Biscay, cap. Bilbao ; Guipuzcoa, cap. 
Tolosa; and Alava, cap. Vitoria. The 
Basques, who are nearly all shepherds, 
have always been celebrated for their 
bravery and vivacity. They speak a 
language which has no analogy with any 
other living tongue, & which, in remote 
ages, appears to have been used over all 
the peninsula. 

Basqueville, a town of France, dep. 
Seine. P. 2,685. 

Bass, a large insulated greenstone 
rock of Scotland, at the mouth of the 
Firth of Forth. It is about a mile in 
circumference, & 420 feet elevation ; a 
cavernous passage penetrates through 
the rock from N.W. to S.E. On it are 
the ruins of a castle, & about 7 acres of 
fin &- pasture land. 

Bass's Strait separates Australia 
from Tasmania. First explored by Bass, 
a surgeon, in 1798. Av. b. 150 m., & much 
encumbered with rocks & coral reefs. 

Bassain, a principal seaport town, 
Burmese dom. P. 3,000. 

Bassam (Grand), a town of Africa, 
Upper Guinea, on the gold coast, near 
the mouth of the Assinie river. The 




French established a station here in 

Bassano, a small episcopal city of N. 
Italy, prov. Venice, dist., on a height at 
the foot of the Alps, near the Brenta, in 
a country which produces excellent wine 
& fruits. P. 12,000. 

Bassee (La), a com. & town of France, 
dep. Nord. 2,248. 

Bassein, a seaport town, Brit. India, 
presid. Bombay. It was taken possession 
of by the Portuguese in 1531, captured 
by the Mahrattas in 1750, and ceded to 
the British in 1802. 

Bassersdohf, a vill. of Switzerland. 
P. 2,200. 

Basses (Gkeat), a ledge of rocks in 
the bay of Bengal, off coast of Ceylon. 
Little Basses is the more dangerous of 
the two groups. 

Basse-Teere, several towns, "West 

Indies.; 1, a seaport and cap. of the 

French isl. Guadeloupe, on its S.W. coast. 
It is the residence of the governor, the 
seat of a royal court and courts of assize, 
and has several schools and a botanic 
garden. There is no harbor, & the road- 
stead is exposed. The comm. of Basse- 
Terre has a p. of 12,414, of whom 7,536 
are slaves, but the town has only 5,500 

inhabitants. II. a seaport & the cap. 

■ of St. Christopher,' one of the British 
Antilles, on its W. coast. P. 6,500. 

Bassignana, a town of Piedmont, 
prov. AUesandria. P. 2,800. 

Bassobah^ a frontier city & riv. port 
of Asiatic Turkey, pash. Bagdad, on the 
Shat-el-Arab. P. 60,000. Ships of 400 
tons burden can come up to the city, the 
trade of which is mostly carried on in 
Arabian bottoms. 

BasscM', a town of Hanover. P. 1,609. 

Bastad, a town of Sweden, with a 
small port in the gulf of Laholm, in the 
Kattegat. P. 600. 

Bastan, vail., Spain, prov. Pamplona. 

BAstelica, avill. of Corsica. P. 2,528. 
. Bastia, a seaport town, & formerly 
the cap. of Corsica, on its N.E. coast. P. 
(1846) 12,571. It has a citadel, & a port 
for small vessels. It is the seat of the 
royal court for the isl., & a tribunal of 
commerce; & has a comm. college. 

Bastide (La), several small towns of 

Bastion, a vill. of Algeria, near Con- 
stantine ; near it is the bastion, built by 
the French African Company in 1520. 

Bastogne, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Luxembourg. P. 2,265. 

Bastrop, co., Texas. Cap. Bastrop. 
P. 3,099. 

Bastrop, a town of Texas, on the Col- 
orado riv. 
Batabano, a seaport vill. of Cuba, on 

its S. coast. 

Batalha, a town of Portugal, Estre- 
madura, with 1,550 inhabs., & a hand- 
some convent, founded by John I., to 
commemorate the victory of Bljubarrota 
in 1385. 

Batalin, an isl. of the Malay archi- 
off the E. coast of Celebes. 

Batang, a vill. & seaport on E. side 

of the isl. Gilolo, Malay archipelago. 

II. an isl. off the Malay peninsula, near 

Batangas, a seaport town, Philip- 
pines, on the S. side of the isl. of Luzon. 

Batavia, a city and seaport of Java, 
cap. of the Dutch possessions in the E., 
at the mth. of the Jaccatra riv., on the 
N. coast of the isl., with a free port, ex- 
tensive and safe. P. 118,300; of whom 
2,800 were Europeans ; 25,000 Chinese ; 
80,000 aborigines ; 1,000 Moors & Arabs ; 
9,500 slaves. It is built on marshy 
ground, & intersected by canals in the 
Dutch style. Batavia was long very un- 
healthy, but has been much improved by 
draining. The Jaccatra is navigable by 
vessels of 40 tons, 2 m. inland ; ships of 
from 300 to 400 tons anchor in the bay, 
IJ m. from shore. Batavia is the great 
commercial emporium of the Asiatic 
archipelago, and absorbs by far the 
greatest proportion of the trade of Java 
& Madura. In 1841, 1,905 ships, aggre- 
gate burden 124,228 lasts, entered the 
port — of which 1,454, aggregate burden 
97,142 lasts, were Dutch, and the rest 
chiefly Asiatic, English, American, & 
Portuguese. Batavia has a bank, with 
branches at Samarang & Surabaya ; & 
manufs. of leather & earthenware, mostly 
conducted by Chinese residents. It was 
founded by the Dutch in 1619 ; taken 
by the English in 1811, and occupied by 

them till 1816. II. t., & p-v., capital 

of Genesee co. N. Y. The Tonawanda 
cr. flows through the t. P. 4,461. The 
p-v. contains a court house, jail, county 
clerk's ofBce, state arsenal, & general 
land office of the Holland Land Com- 

Bate Island, an isl. W. Hindostan, 
in the gulf of Cutch. It has a good har- 
bor, & a famous Hindoo temple. 

Bates, a co. of Missouri. P. 3,669. 

Bath, England, capital co. Somerset, 
on the Avon, here crossed by 2 stone, 2 
iron, & 3 suspension bridges. P. 52,346, 
but this number is said to be frequently 
augmented by 14,000 visitors. Bath was 




known to the Romans under the name 
of Aquae Solis; & baths were erected 
in the reign of Claudius. The city stands 
enclosed by an amphitheatre of hills, on 
the W. declivity of which its finest quar- 
ters extend in successive terraces; & 
being mostly built of white freestone, in 
a highly embellished style of architec- 
ture, is allowed to be the handsomest 
city in Britain. Principal edifice, the 
Abbey church, in the latest Gothic style, 
210 feet in length, & with a tower 170 ft. 
in height. Bath has many educational 
& other establishments. The hot springs, 
to which this city owes its origin, are 
saline & chalybeate, temp. 90° to 117° 
Pahr. ; they rise immediately on the 
bank of the riv., & supply five distinct 
establishments, the King's, Queen's, 
Cross, Hot, & Abbey baths. The first 
four belong to the corporation. To the 
King's bath is attached the great pump- 
room, a saioon 85 ft. in length, 48 in 
b'dth, & 34 in height, & containing a mar- 
ble statue of the celebrated "Beau Nash." 
Bath, p-t., Grafton co. Nt H., is on 
the E. bank of Connecticut river. P. 

1,595. II. p-t., & cap. Steuben co. 

N. Y., watered by Conhopton riv. The 
village has a court house, jail, county 
clerk's ofiSce, & 1 bank. P. 4,915. 

III. p-t., Summit co. 0. P. 1,425. 

IV. a central co. of Va. It is watered by 
the head branches of James, Cowpasture, 
& Jackson rivers ; the soil is moderately 
fertile. P. 3,426. Cap. Bath. The 

common grains & some sugar. V. c.h. 

p-v., Bath co^ Va. Here is a medicinal 
spring called Warm Spring, with a tem- 
perature of 96°, & another about 6 m. 
S.W. called Hot Spring, with a temper- 
ature of 112°, and at some seasons suf- 
ficiently hot to boil an egg ; they are 
useful in rheumatic & other complaints. 

VI. county, N.E. part of Ky., on 

Licking river. P. 12,115. Cap. Owens- 

ville. VII. t., Allen co. 0. P. 1,382. 

VIII. t., Greene co. 0., on Mad riv. 

P. 1,721. IX. v., Richmond co. Ga. 

This is a resort in the sickly season. 

X. seaport, Lincoln co. Me., on the W. 
bank of Kennebec, 12 m. from the ocean. 
An important commercial t. Ship build- 
ing an extensive busine.=!S. Tonnage 

10,379,591. P. 8,020. XI. a town of 

Hungary, N. of the Danube, co. Honth. 
P. 2,358. 

Bathgate, a burgh of barony, town, & 
pa. Scotland, co. Linlithgow. P. of t. 2,809. 

Bathuhst, a seaport town of "W. Africa, 
cap. of the British colony, Senegambia, 
on Isl. of St. Mary's, at the mouth of the 

Gambia. P. 2,825. II. a town of g. 

Africa, Cape Colony, dist. Albany. ■ 

III. a tnship. of New S. Wales, cap. co., 

on the Macquarrie. IV. a town & bay 

of New Brunswick. V. (Cape), Brtsh. 

N. America, on the Arctic ocean. VI. 

{B. Inlet), British N. America. VII. 

(S. Island), off N. Australia, immedi- 
ately "VV. Melville isl. {Lake), near 

the centre of Newfoundland, is 40 m. in 1. 

Batignolles-Monceaux, a town of 
France, dep. Seine. P. 19,380. 

Batindah, a town N.W. India, Raj- 

Batley, t. & pa. of England, co. York. 

Baton Rouge, E. pa. La. on the E. 
bank of Mississippi riv. It is the first 
land elevated above the overflow in as- 
cending the Mississippi ; it is very pro- 
ductive of cotton & sugar, has 1 college 
with 70 students, 5 academies, 196 stu- 
dents, & a weekly newspaper. P. 11,977. 

Cap. Baton Rouge.— II. p-v., cap. E. 

Baton Rouge, pa. La., on the E. bank of 
the Mississippi, 120 m. above N. Orleans. 
It is mostly situated on a plain, some 25 
to 80 ft. above high water. The town 
contains a court house, jail, Shanks, state 
penitentiary, & U. S. land ofiBice. P. 3,905. 

III. W. pa. La., lies opposite E. 

Baton Rouge, on the W. side Mississippi 
riv. The land on the streams is very 
productive ; cotton is principally culti- 
vated. P. 6,270. 

Batrun, a small town & port of Asiatic 

Batshian, an isl. of the Dutch E. In- 
dies, Molucca archip. in the Ternate 

Batstad, a small seaport town of Swe- 
den, on Laholm bay. 

Battaglia a town of North. Italy, 
Venice, deleg. P. 2,700. With thermal 
springs (temp. 158 Fahr.) & well frequen- 
ted baths. II. a vill. of Naples. P. 


Battalah, a town of the Punjab. 

Batte-Katchee, riv. in Ala., a branch 
of the Tombigbee, 70 m. long. 

Battam, an isl. of the Malay archi- 

Battanta, an isl. of the Asiatic archi- 
pelago. Area, 200 sq. m. 

Battaszek, a town of Hungary, co. 
Tolna. P 5,370. 

Battecollah, " the round town," Hin- 
dostan, prov. Canara. 

Battenheim, a vill. of France, dep. 
H. Rhin. P. 1,092. 

Batten-Kill, a small riv. rising in 
Vt. & emptying into the Hudson. L. 
50 m. 




Batticaloa, a town & seaport on the 
E. coast of Ceylon. 

Battice, a town of Belgium. P. 4,280. 

Battle, a town & pa. of England, co. 
Sussex. The town, enclosed on three sides 
by wooded hills, consists mostly of a single 
street, | m. in length, terminated by the 
fine gateway of its old abbey. In its 
church are numerous antique monuments 
<S devices. It derives its present name 
from the great battle (usually called the 
battle of Hastings), fought on the heath 
betw. it & Epiton, Oct. 14, 1066, by which 
the Saxon dynasty in England was finally 
overthrown by the Normans, under Wil- 
liam the Conqueror. Battle Abbey, 
founded by William on the locality where 
Harold's banner had been planted, was of 
great extent, as is attested by its remains. 
On a part of its site stands the mansion 
of the Websters, lords of the manor. 

Battleboro', p-v., Edgecombe co. N.C. 

Battle Bridge, a suburb of London. 

Battle Field, a pa. of England, co. 
Salop. It derived its name from the great 
victory gained here in 1403 by the troops 
of Henry IV. & the Prince of Wales over 
those of the Earl of Northumberland, 
whose son. Hotspur, was killed in the 
battle, & his ally, the Earl of Douglas, 
taken prisoner. 

Battle- Creek, p-v., Calhoun co. 

Mich. P. 993. II. branch of Kal- 

mazoo riv. 

Batu, a volcanic isl. of the Malay 

archipelago. Area, 400 sq. m. II. 

(-B. Saru), a town on the E. coast Su- 
matra ^ 

Batum, a town & seaport of Russia, 
on the Black sea. Its harbor- is toler- 
ably good. 

Baturin, a town of Little Russia. P. 
9,000. It was the residence of the Het- 
man of the Ukraine Cossacks, from 1699 
to 1708. 

Baturska-wola, a large vill. of Austr. 
Poland. P. 2,300. 

Batz, a vill. of France, dep. Loire-Inf. 
P. 1,286. 

Bauco, a town of Italy, Pontif states. 
P. 3,000. 

Baud, a town of France, dep. Morbihan. 
P. 1,082. 

Baudmannsdorf, a vill. of Prussia. 

Bauerwitz, a town of Pruss. Silesia. 
P. 2,300. 

Baug, a town of Hindostan, Holkar's 
dom. Near it remarkable cave-temples. 

Bauge, a town of France, dep. Maine- 
et-Loire. P. 3,107. The English, under 
the D. of Clarence, were defeated here 
in 1421. 

Baughman, town, Wayne co. 0. ; 
drained by Newman's cr. P. 1,741. 

Baule, a vill. of France, dep. Loiret. 
P. 2,095. 

Bauleah, a populous commerc. town 
of British India, presid. Bengal. 

Baulon, a town of France, dep. Ille- 
et-Vilaine. P. 1,416. 

Bauma, a vill. of Switzerland. P. 1,550. 

Baume (St.), a mntn. in the S.E. of 
France, dep. Var. Height 2,850 ft. 

Baumes-les-Dames, a town of 
France, dep. Doubs. P. 2,211, with rich 
quarries of gypsum. 

Baumgarten, a vill. of Pruss. Silesia. 

P. 1,250. II. a vill. of Austria, near 

Vienna, with a castle of the Prince Es- 
terhazy — & many other vills. in Germ'y. 

Baumholder, a town of Rhen. Prussia. 
P. 1,370. 

Baunach, a town of Bavaria. P. 1,000. 
In its vicinity is the grotto of the Mag- 
dalene, freq. as a place of pilgrimage. 

Baune, a vill. of France, dep. Maine- 
et-Loire. P. 1,197. 

Baunei, a vill. of Sardinia. P. 1,460. 

Bauntwah, a town of British India, 
Grujerat peninsula. 

Baupettah, a town of British India, 
presid. Madras. 

Bauskea, a small town of Russia. 

Baussaine (La), a vill. of France, 
depr Ille-et-Vilaine. P. 1,223. 

Bautsch, a town of Moravia. P. 2,669. 

Bautzen, a town of Saxony. P. 8,676. 
It has a cathed. common to Rom. Catho- 
lics & Protestants, a gymnasium, 2 pub- 
lic libraries, & manufs. of woollen, linen, 
leather. & paper, & an active general 
trade. The battle of Bautzen, gained by 
Napoleon over the allies, was fought May 
21 & 22, 1813. 

Bauvechain-Tourrines, a comm. & 
vill. of Belgium, prov. Brabant. P. 1,852. 

Baux-de-Breteuil, a comm. & viU. 
of France, dep. Eure. P. 1,621. 

Bauzac, a vill. of France, dep. H. 
Loire. P. 2,597. 

Bauzille-de-Putois (St.), a town*f 
France, dep. Herault. P. 1,622 ; with a 
curious grotto. 

Bavaria (Kingdom of), a state of 
central Europe, forming part of the Ger- 
man confederation, cap. Munich. This 
kingdom is composed of two "isolated 
masses of territory, the E.-ward & larg- 
est of which is bounded N. by Hessen- 
Cassel, Saxe-Meningen, & Coburg Gotha, 
the princip. of Reuss, & the kngdm. of 
Saxony ; E. by Bohemia & Austria ; S. 
by the Tyrol; & W. by Wiirtemberg, 
Baden, & Hessen Darmstadt. The W.- 





ernmost, forming Rhenisli Bavaria, or the 
Palatinate, the original possession of the 
reigning family, is situated on the W. 
side of the Rhine. Area. 29,637 sq. m. 
P. 4,504,874. The E. part of the terr. 
lies betw. the Alps & the mntns. of 
Central Germany. All the N. part of 
the princip. terr. is drained by the Main. 
Rhenish Bavaria belongs exclusively to 
the basin of the Rhine ; it is watered by 
the Lauter, the Queich, & the Nahe. A 
small portion of the lake of Constance 
belongs to Bavaria; its other principal 
lakes are the Ammer-See, the Wiirm-See, 
& the Chiem-See, formed by the riv. Alz. 
The country is in general elevated & 
mntns. ; the Alps, on the S., have, in the 
Zugspitz, an elev. of 10,150 ft. The 
highest points of the Bohmerwald, are 
Arber, 4,613 ft., & Rachelberg, 4,561 ft. 
The N.-most chain of Bavaria is the 
Rhongebirge, culm, point the Kreuzberg, 
3,000 ft. in elev. In Rhenish Bavaria 
the chief mntn. is the Hardt, the culmin. 
point of which, the Donne rsberg, is 2,300 
ft. in elevation. The soil is one of the 
most fertile in central Europe ; the 
mntns. yield excellent pasturage, & are 
covered with vast forests of valuable 
timber. Grain is cultiv. to an elev. of 
3,280 ft.; forests reach to 5,300 ft. ; & 
grazing extends to 8,500 ft., or the line 
of perpetual snow, which occurs only on 
the higher Alps. The wealth of the 
country consists almost entirely in its 
agricultural produce. Salt, coal, & iron, 
are the principal products.* Manufg. in- 
dustry is but little developed in this 
country. Its principal branch is the 
brewing of beer, which is much esteemed, 

6 carried on to a vast extent, there being 
upwards of 5,600 breweries in the kngdm. 
Linen weaving is carried on. to a consid. 
extent. Bavaria is a kingdom, & its 
form of government is a constitutional 
monarchy. The throne is hereditary in 
the male line. ' The executive power be- 

-loi^s to the king ; the ministers & all 
functionaries are responsible. The legis- 
lative functions are exercised concur- 
rently by the king & the two chambers 
of the national states, but the royal pre- 
rogative is very extensive. The kngdm. 
possesses 3 universities, 2 of which (Mun- 
chen & Wiirzburg) are Catholic, & 1 
(Erlangen) Protestant. In 1847 the univ. 
of Miinchen had 76 professors, & 1,471 
students, of whom 125 were foreigners ; 
in 1846-7, AViirzburg had 521 students, 
72 of whom were foreigners ; & Erlangen 
had, at same date, 364 students, of whom 

7 were foreigners. The regular army of 

Bavaria consists during peace of 20,500, 
& in time of war of 56,269 men. The 
country is divided into eight districts 
styled circles, viz. TJpp. Bavaria ; Lower 
Bavaria ; Upper Palatinate & Ratisbon ; 
Upper Franconia ; Central Franconia ; 
Lower Franconia & Aschaffenburg ; 
Swabia & Neuburg ; & the Palatinate. 

Bavay, a town of France, dep. Nord. 
P. 1,635. 

Baveno, a vill. of Piedmont, on the 
W, bank of the Lago Maggiore. P. 1,000. 
Near it are celeb, quarries of granite, 
employed in the cathedral of Milan. 

Bawtry, a town of England, co. York, 
on the Idle. P. 1,083. Near it an hos- 
pital for the poor, founded in the 14th 
century ; & a mile dist. a farm-house, 
which originally formed part of the palace 
of the archbishops of York, & was once 
occupied by Cardinal Wolsey. 

Bayamo (San Salvador de), a town 
of Cuba. P. 14,000. 78 m. N.W. San- 

Bayas (ane. Baies), a town of Syria, 
pash. Aleppo. 

Bayazid, a town of Turkish Armenia. 
P. 15,000. It surrounds a hill crowned 
by a citadel, & has a mosque, a palace, a 
monastery, & arsenal. 

Bayender, a town of Asia- Minor, pash. 
Anatolia. P. 2,000. 

Bayeux, a city of France, dep. Calva- 
dos, on the Aure. P. 9,106. It has a 
venerable cathedral, in which is preserv- 
ed the celeb, tapestry of Bayeux, said to 
be the work of Matilda, wife of William 
the Conqueror, & representing his ex- 
ploits in the conquest of Engl. 

Baylen, a town of Spain, prov. Jaen. 
P. 4,976. The capitulation of Baylen, 
the commencement of the French disas- 
ters in the Peninsula, was signed June 
20, 1808. 

BAYLiduE, an isl. off the coast of 

Bay of Islands, New Zealand. 

Bayona, a seaport town of Spain, on 
Bayonabay. P. 1,719. 

Bayonne, a city of France, dep. B. 
Pyrenees. P. 13,850. It is well built & 
agreeably situated, with handsome quays 
& promenades. Its cathedral is small, 
& of the 12th century, & its citadel is one 
of the finest works of Vauban. It has a 
mint, theatre, schools of commerce & nav- 
igation, naval & commercial docks, tri- 
bunal & chamber of commerce. It im- 
ports fine wool, liquorice, & olive oil. In 
1841, 230 vessels, aggregrate burden 
9,026 tons, besides coasters, entered the 
port. It sends annually several vessels 




to the whale fishery. The military weapon, 
the bayonet, takes its name from this 
place, near which it was invented. This 
city, though often besieged, has never 
been taken. 

Baypooh, a seaport town of British 
India, presid.- Madras. Teak ships of 
400 tons are built here. 

Baza, a town of Spain, prov. Granada. 
P. 11,485. It is ornamented with 9 iron 
cannons, by the aid of which it was taken 
from the Moors in 1480. 

Bazar-khan, a town of Asia-Minor, 
pash. Anatolia. 

Bazaruto Islands, a small group E. 
coast of Africa, 110 m. S. Sofala. 

Bazas, a town of France, dep. Gironde. 
P. 2,325. 

Bazeilles, a vill. of France, dep. Ar- 
dennes. P. 1,631. 

Bazele, a vill. of Belgium, on the 
Scheldt. P. 4,407. 

Bazetta, p-t,, Trumbull co. 0. It is 
a fine farming t., well cultivated. 

Bazin, a town of Hungary, co. Pres- 
burg, with mineral springs & celeb, 

Bazoche, Bazoches,& Bazouge, sev- 
eral communes & vills. of France, the 
principal being Bazouges la Perouse, 
dep. Ille-et-Vilaine. P. 3,928. 

Bazzano, a town of Italy. P. 2,610. 

Beachy Head, the most lofty headland 
on the S. coast of England, proj. into the 
English channel. It consists of chalk 
cliffs, rising perpendicularly to 564 feet 
above the sea. 

Beaconsfield, a town & pa. of Engl., 
CO. Bucks. The town is situated on an 
eminence, on which beacon-fires were for- 
merly lighted ; has 4 streets & a church, 
in which lie the remains of Edmund 
Bnike. In its churchyard is a monument 
to the poet Waller, who owned the manor. 

Beahrahm, a ruined town of Asia- Mi- 
nor, Anatolia, onthe N. shore of its gulf, 
with an acropolis, surroimded by a Greek 
wall, covered with remains of antiquity. 

Beal, a small river of Engl., co. Kent. 

Beaminsteb, a town of Engl., co. Dor- 
set, on the Birt. P. 3,270. A handsome 
town with a large church, a free school. 

Beamish, a tnship. of Engl., co. Dur- 
ham. P. 2,074. 

Beara, a considerable town of British 

Bear (or Bere Island), a rocky isl. 
of the W. coast of Ireland, co. Cork, in 

Bantry bay. II. isls. off the coast of 

the U.S. & two isls. in James' bay, Brit. 

Bear Creek, t., Columbia co. Pa. P. 

1,905. II. cr., one of the branches of 

the Tenn. 70 m. long. 

Beardstown, p-v., Cass co. 111., on the 
E. side of Illinois riv. 

Beahfield, t.. Perry co. 0. 

Bear Lake (Great), a lake of British 
Amer. Shape very irreg. ; area maybe 
estim. at 14,000 sq. m. ; height above the 

sea at 230 ft., & depth at 400 ft. (7) 

Bear River (Great), Upp. Canada, West- 
ern dist. 

Bearn, an old prov. of France, of 
which the cap. was Pau. 

Bear's cr., 54 m. long, in a direct line, 
enters the Maumee IJ m. above the Au- 
glaize. II. branch of Tenn. r. III. 

t.. Col. CO. Pa. 

Bbas, one of the great rivs. of the 
Punjab, W. India, rises on the S. verge 
of the Ritanka Pass, Himalaya mntns., 
13,200 ft. above the sea level. L. 220 m. 

Beas'de Segura, a town of Spain, the 
Guadalimar. P. 2,695. 

Beat (St.), a town of France, dep. H. 
Garonne, on the Garonne, here crossed 
by a stone bridge. P. 1,374. Town dark 
& gloomy from its position in a ravine of 
the Pyrenees. 

Beath, a pa. & village of Scotland, co. 
Fife, 5i m. N.N.W. Aberdeen. P. 973. 

Beaucaiee, a town of France, dep. 
Gard, on the Rhone, opposite Tarascon, 
with which it is connected by a noble 
suspension bridge. P. 8,536. Its annual 
fair, July the 22d to 28thj was formerly 
the largest in Europe. 

Beaucamps-le-Vieux, a village of 
France, dep. Somme. P. 1,802. 

Beauce, a dist. of France, part of 
the anc. Orleanais. 

BEAtjcHiEF Abbey, chapelry of Engl., 
CO. Derby. The tower of its chapel formed 
part of the abbey built here, according 
to Dugdale, by Fitz-Ranulph, lord of 
Alfreton, in expiation of the murder of 
Thomas a Becket. 

Beattcourt, a vill. of France, dep. 
Haut-Rhin. P. 1,987. 

Beaufay, a vill. of France, dep. Sarthe. 

Beattfort, an extensive inland dis- 
rict of the Cape Colony, S. Africa. Area, 
20,000 sq. m. P. 5,904. Beaufort its 
cap. town. II. a dist. of W. Australia. 

Beaufort, a town of Savoy, on the 

Doron. P. 3,052. II. a town of France, 

dep. Maine-et-Loire. P. 3,062. III. 

a vill. of France, dep. Jura. P. 1,210. 

Beattfort, county, N. C, in the E. part 
of the state, on Pimlico river & sound ; 
the surface is low & at times extensively 
overflowed. P. 13,816. Cap. Washing- 




ton. ' Cotton & rice are the chief produc- 
tions. II. district, S. C, in the S. 

extremity of the state, between the Com- 
bahee & Savannah rivs. The surface is 
level; chief productions, corn, rice, & 
cotton. P. 38,805. Cap. Coosawhatchie. 
— ■ — III. p-t. of entry & cap. Carteret eo. 
N. C. It has a safe & spacious harbor 
with 14 feet water & has considerable 
commerce. On Bogue point at the en- 
trance of the harbor, stands fort Macon. 

P. 1,100. IV. p-t. & port of entry, S. C. 

on the W. bank of Port-Royal river. The 
harbor is spacious, 16 m. from the sea, 
but of shallow entrance. P. 878. 

Beaugency, a town of France, dep. 
Loiret, on the Loire. It has manufs. of 
woollens, & an extensive trade in wines. 
P. 4,028. Part of the town walls, & the 
donjon tower of the castle, still exist, & 
near it is an enormous Celtic monolith. 

Beaujeu, a town of France. P. 2,469. 

Beaujolais, a dist. of France, part of 
anc. Lyonnais. In 1626 it passed to the 
Orleans family, who held it till the rev- 

Beaulieu, a riv. of England, co. Hants. 

II. a pa. on this river, at its mouth, 

6 m. N.E. Lymington. P. 1,339. Beau- 
lieu, which owes its name to the beauty 
of its position, has the remains of an 
abbey, founded by K. John. In this 
sanctuary Margaret of Anjou, & after- 
wards Perkin Warbeck, took refuge, & 
within its manorial bounds exemption 
from arrest for debt is still enjoyed. 

Beaulieu, a town of France, dep. Cor- 

rSze. P. 2,151. II. dep. Indre-et- 

Loire. P. 1,887. Beaulieu is the 

name of many comms. and vills. of 

Beauly, a riv. of Scotland, co. In- 
verness. The villages Beauly & Kilmo- 
rack are on its banks, & here is a pictu- 
resque waterfall. 

Beaumarches, a town of France, dep. 
Gers. P. 1,367. 

Beaumarib, a pari. & munic. bor., sea- 
port, mkt. town, & pa. of N. Wales, cap. 
isl. & CO. Anglesea. The town is neatly 
built. The bay of Beaumaris affords safe 
anchorage, but the town has little trade, 
k its inhabs. live chiefly by sea-bathing 
visitors from Liverpool, with which it 
communicates by steamboats. 

Beaumont, a town of France, dep. 

Puy-de-Dume. P. 1,820. II. {de 

Lomagne), dep. Tarn-et-Garonne, on the 
Gimone. P. 3,217. It is regularly & 
very neatly built round a spacious square, 

has manufs. of coaree cloth, hats. III. 

( Le Vicomte), a vill. on the Sarthe. P. 

1,893. IV. {Sur Oise), dep. Seine-et- 

Oise, Isle-Adam. P. 2,030. 

Beaumont, atown of Belg'm. P. 2,091. 

Beaune, an anc. town of France, at 
the foot of the Cute-d'Or. P. 10,753. It 
has a noble hospital founded 1443, a 
library of 10,000 vols., & extensive trade 
in the wines of Burgundy. 

Beaupre, a group of islands. Pacific 
ocean. Discovered by D'Entrecasteaux in 

Beaupreau, a town of "France, dep. 
Main-et-Loire. P. 2,117. 

Beauhuesne, a vill. of France, dep. 
Somme. P. 2,671. 

Beaurepaire, a town of France, dep. 
Isere. P. 2,030. 

Beausset (Le), a town of France, dep. 
Var. P. 2,050. 

Beauvais, a city of France, cap., dep. 
Oise. P. 12,355. It has clean open 
streets, & pleasant boulevards ; its cathe- 
dral is one of the largest in France, but 
incomplete. It was formerly fortified, & 
was besieged in vain by the English in. 
1443, & defended against Charles the 
Bold ■ by the female inhabitants under 
Jeanne Fouqiiet, surnamed J. Hachette, 
in 1472. 

Beauval, a town of France, dep. 
Somme. P. 2,562. 

Beauville, a town of France, dep. 
Lot-et-Garonne. P. 1,578. 

Beauvoir-sur-Mer, a town of France, 
dep. Vendee. 

Beaver, Big, a river of Penn. L. 80 

m. II. county, Penn., in the W. part 

of the state, watered by the Ohio & Bea- 
ver rivers ; the soil is fertile. P. 26,689. 
Cap. Beaver. Wheat & oats are the 

chief prod. Bituminous coal. III. 

cap. Beaver co. Penn., on the N. bank of 

Ohio river. P. 551.- IV. t., Venango 

CO. Penn. P. 1,611. V. p-t., Pike co. 

0. P. 1,099. VI. t.. Union co. Penn. 

P. 2,609. VII. Columbiana co. 0., t. 

If is a rich agricultural town. VIII. 

t., Guernsey co. 0. 

Beaver Creek, t., Greene co. 0., on 
the Little Miami. P. 1,767. 

Beaver Dam, t., Erie co. Penn. P. 

Beaver Islands, a group, 5 or 6 in 
number in Lake Mich. 

Bebayh-el-Hagar, a ruined town of 
Egypt, & having more extensive remains 
of antiquity than any other town of the 
delta of the Nile. 

Becceril de Campos, a town of Spain, 
prpv. Valencia. P. 2,569. 

Beccles, a munic. bor., port, mkt- 
town, & pa. of England, oo. Suffolk. P. 




4,086. Its large Gothic church, founded 
1369, is richly ornamented with sculp- 

Becelare, a town of Belgium. P. 

Bechin, a town of Bohemia. P. 1,200. 
Bechtheim, a town of Germanv, 
Darmstadt. P. 1,600. 

Bechuana Country, a region, S. 
Africa. Chf. towns, Lattakoo & Mashow. 
Beckenried. a vill. of Switzerl., cant. 
Unterwalden. JP. 1,500. 

Becket, p.t., Berkshire co. Mass., a 
grazing town. P. 1,342. 

Beckstein, a vill. of Upper Austria, 
with important gold & silver mines. 

Beckum, a town of Prussian West- 
phalia. P. 1,800. 

Becskerek, town of Hungary, on the 
Bega. P. 12,623. 

Beqzko, a town of N. Hungary. P. 

Bedale, a town of Engl., co. York, 
N. EirliLg. Church erected in the time 
of Edward III., with a tower which the 
inhabitants successfully defended during 
an inroad of the Scots. 

Bedaeieux, a town of France, dep. 
Herault. P. 8,722. It is neatly built, & 
has manufs. 

Bedarrides, a town of France, dep. 
Vaucluse. P. 2,117. 

Bedford, a pari. bor. & town of Eng- 
land, on the Ouse. P. 9,178. 

Bedford, county, Penn., is in the S. 
part of the state, on branches of Juniette 
& Potomac rivs. It yields iron and bitu- 
minous coal. P. 23,052. Cap. Bedford. 

II. county in Va.,^ in the S. part of 

the state, occupying a high position on 
the E.- of Alleghany mountain range. It 
is drained by Staunton river & the head 
branches of Soanoke riv. Productions, 
tobacco, Indian corn & oats. P. 24,080. 

Cap. Liberty. III. county, Tenn., is 

in the central part of the state, on Duck 
riv. Soil fertile. Produc. wheat, In- 
dian corn, tobacco. P . 21,512. Cap. 

Shelbyville. lY. p-t., Hillsboro' co. 

N. H. P. 1,555. V. p-t., Middlesex 

CO. Mass. P. 929. VI. p-v., West- 
chester CO. N. Y. It, together with 
White Plains is the cap. of the county. 

P. of t. 2,822.- VII. p-t., Cuirahoga 

CO. 0. P. 1,244. VIII. p-t., Calhoun 

CO. Mich. IX. t., cap. Bedford po. 

Penn. Celebrated for its mineral springs 
which contain carbonic acid, magnesia, 
sulphate of lime, ruuriate of soda, car- 
bonate of iron, lime, &c., useful in chron- 
ic diseases, & possessing laxative & su- 
dorific powers. They are much resorted 

to. P. 1,022. X. p-v., and cap. of 

Trimble co. Ky. It has a mineral spring 
charged with Epsom salts & sulphur. 

P. 148. XI. p-v., & cap. Lawrence 

CO. la. XII. t., Monroe co. Mich. 

P. 499.. XIII. t., Coshopton co. 0. 

P. 1,141. XIV. t., Meigs co. 0. P. 


Bedford Island, S. Pacific. It is 
low and wooded, & apparently a coral 
reef, inclosing a lagoon. 

Bedfordshire, an inland county of 
Eng. P. 107,936. 

Beddizole, a vill. of Lombardy. P. 

Bedminster, town, Somerset co. N. J. 

Soil fertile. P. 1,589. II. t., Bucks 

CO. Penn. P. 1,640. 

Bednore, a town of S. India, Mysore 
dom., formerly a city of wealth. 

Bedouin, a town of France, dep. Vau- 
cluse. Manufactures of pottery- ware & 
silk spinning. P. 1,494. 

Bedoune, or Petoone, a town, Man- 
chooria, on the Songari. 

Bedous, a vill. of France, dep. B. Pyr- 
enees. P. 1,289. 

Beek, a vill. of Netherlands, pro v. 
Limburg. P. 2,358. 

Beekman, p-t. Dutchess co. New York. 
Soil, rich, gravelly loam. P. 1,400. 

Beekmantown, p-t. Clinton co. N. Y. 
It extends 37 m. acr6ss the co. Chazey 
& Chateaugaj'- lakes lie in the W. part 
of the t. P. 2,769. 

Beemah, a riv. of S. India. L. 400 m. 

Beemster, the most populous of the 
Folders, or drained grounds of the Neth- 
erlands, prov. N. Holland. P. 2,971. 

Beer-Alston, a town of England, co. 
Devon, near the Tamar. 

Beerfelden, a vill. of Hessen-Darm- 
stadt, prov. Starkenberg. P. 2,600. 

Beeren (Gross), a vill. of Prussia, 
well knovim as the scene of a great victory 
gained by the Prussians over the French, 
22d and 23d Aug. 1813. P. 242. 

Beersheba, a ruined border town of 
Palestine. A favorite station of the pa- 
triarch Abraham, and the S. limit of the 
Promised Land, while Dan formed the 
N. frontier. Here are still two deep 
wells of pure water, built up with ma- 
sonry, very ancient, and the scattered 
ruins of a former town. 

Beeskow, a town of Prussia, prov. 
Brandenburg. P. 4,150. 

Bega, a riv. of E. Hungary. 

Bbgard, a vill. of France, dep. COtes- 
du-Nord. P. 3,821. 

Begharmi, a country, Central Africa, 




Beghram, a plain, and the remains of 
an ancient city in Afghanistan. 

Begkos, a large vill. in Asia Minor, 
Anatolia, on the Bosphorus. In ancient 
Greek mythology, this locality was famed 
as the scene of contest between Pollux 
& Amyous. 

Begles, a vill. of France, Gironde, on 
the Garonne. P. 2,657. 

Beg-shehr, a lake, river, & town of 
Asia Minor. ' 

Behar, a prov. & town of India. 

Behbehan, a town of Persia, prov. 
Fars. P. 4,000. 

Behle, a vill. of Prussia. P. 1,750. 

Behneseh, a town of Egypt. Euins 
of ancient Oxyrynchus, celeb, for its vast 
number of monasteries, established in the 
4th century. 

Behring (or Admiralty) Bav, an in- 
let of the Pacific ocean, Russ. America. 

Behring Island, the most W. of the 
Aleutian isls., N. Pacific, & where Beh- 
ring was wrecked, & died in 1741. 

Behring Sea is that part of the N. 
Pacific ocean betw. the Aleutian isls., & 
Behring Strait, by which latter it com- 
municates with the Arctic ocean. It 
contains several large isls., & receives 
the Anadyr riv. Fogs are almost per- 
petual in this sea. 

Behring' s Strait, the channel which 
separates Asia & America at their nearest 
approach to each other, & connects the 
Arctic with the Pacific ocean (Behring 
sea). It was discov. by Vitus Behring in 
1728, & first explored by Cook in 1788. 

Bex-Bazar, a town of AsiaMinor, 

Beiertheim, a vill. of Baden, circ. 
Midd. Rhine. 

Beilan, a town & pass of Syria, on the 
E. side of the gulf of Iscanderoon. The 
pass, between mtns. Rhossus & Amanus, 
is considered identical with the Amanian 
gates of antiquity, it being the only route 
commonly practicable from Cilicia into 
Syria. The town has about 5,000 inhab- 
itants, llei'e the Egyptian troops totally 
defeated the Turks in 1832. 

Beilngries, a town of Bavaria, on the 
Altmuhl. P. 1,104. 

Beilstein, a small town of Wlirtem- 
berg. P. 1,200. 

Beine, a vill. of France. P. 1,019. 

Beira, a prov. of Portugal. Area, 
5,817 sq. m. P. 615,238. Surface moun- 
tainous, traversed by the Serra Estrella; 
soil not fertile. Chief rivs., the Douro, 
Tagus, Aguada, & the Mondego. Prod., 
wine, wheat, barley, maize, olives & 
fruit. On the mntns. many sheep are , 

pastured, & celebrated cheese is made ; 
marble, iron, & coal are wrought ; man- 
ufactures are unimportant. Chf. towns, 
Coimbra, Ovar, Aveiro, Viseu, & Lamego. 

Beirut, a seaport town of Syria. 

Beisan, a vill. of Palestine) pash. Da- 

Beit-el-Fakih, a marit. town of Ara- 
bia, on the Red sea. P. 8,000. It is a 
large open town, with a strong citadel, a 
mosque, & houses of brick & clay, roofed 
with date leaves. It is thecentre of the 
Yemen trade in coffee. 

Beit-el-Ma, a vill. of Syria, pash. 
Alei^po, On the Orontes. 

Beith, a pa. of Scotland. P. 5,795. 

Beitstad, a town of Norway. P. 2,700. 

Beja, a town of Portugal, prov. Alem- 
tejo. P. 5,500. Its walls are flanked by 
40 towers ; & it has a castle, cathedral, 
hospital, & Latin school, with tanneries, 

& a manuf. of earthen-wares. II. a 

vill. of Brazil, prov. & on the Rio Para, 

35 m. S.W. Para. III. a town, Africa, 

dom. & 60 m. W. Tunis. 

Bejar, a town of Spain, prov. Sala- 
manca, in a valley of the Sierra de Bejar. 
P. 4,664. It has cloth manufs., & a trade 
in hams. 

Bejawee, a town, British India, Bun- 

Bejighur, a town, British India, within 
Mahratta territory. 

Bejer, a town of Spain. 

Bejetsk, a town, Russia, gov. Tver. 
P. 3,200. 

BEJis,Ta town of Spain. P. 3,155. 

Bejucal, a town of the island of Cuba. 

Bekenfield, a vill. of Switzerland, on 
the S. bank of the lake of Lucerne. P. 

Bekes, a town of Hungary, at the 
confl. of the White & Black Koros. ' P. 

Bela, a t. of Beloochistan, cap. prov. 
Lus, near the Poorally riv. P. 5,000. 
It consists-of about 800 houses, built of 

mud. II. a town of British India, 

presid. Bengal, dist. 

Bela, a town of N. Hungary, eo. Zips. 
P. 3,400. 

Belair, cap. Harford co. Md. 

Belalcazar, a town of Spain. P. 

Belaspooh, a town, N. Hindostan, 
cap. rnjahship of Cahlore, on the Sutlege. 
It is regularly built & roughly paved. 

II. a town, British India, presid. 

Bengal, dist. Moradabad. 

Belbeys, a town of Lower Egypt, on 
the B. arm of the Nile. P. 5,000. It is 
end. by earth ramparts, has numerous 




mosques, & is a station on the route 
from Egypt to Syria. 

Belcastro, a town of Naples, prev. 
Calab. P. 1,000. 

Belcele, a vill. of Belgium, prov. E. 
Flanders. P. 2,856. 

Belcher Islands, two small groups 
in Hudson bay. 

Belchertown, p-t., Hampshire co. 
Mass. It has a good soil & is well culti- 
vated. P. 2,554. 

Belchite, a town of Spain. P. 2,655. 

Beled-ul-Jerid, or country of dates, 
a vast region of Africa, extending S. of 
Mt. Atlas, E. of Morocco, & S. Algerie, 
to Tunis & Tripoli on the E. It- is gene- 
rally arid, & covered with sterile plains 
of sand & rocks ; but contains sev. oases 
fertile in dates, & is inhab. by nomadic 

Belem, a town of Portugal, near the 
mouth of the Tagus. P. 5,000. It has 
a fortress, with a remarkable tower. It 
was taken by the French in 1807, & by 
the troops of Don Pedro in 1833. — JBelem, 
3 vills. of Brazil, provs. Bahia, Eio 
Grrande, & Parahiba. 

Belenyes, a town of Hungary, on the 
Koros. P. 3,250, with marble quarries, 
& mines of iron, &c. 

Belesta, a -town of France, dep. 
Ariege, with iron foundries & marble 
works. P. 1,212. 

Belfast, two baronies of Ireland, co. 
Antrim, Upper & Lower. The Upper 
bar. extends nearly to the S.E. extremity 
of the CO. 

Belfast, a pari. & munic. bor., & 
manuf. & seaport town of Ireland, Ulster, 
CO. Antrim, at the head of Belfast Lough. 
It has a college & 2 large schools open 
to all religious denominations, also the 
Belfast academy & numerous other 
schools ; a union workhouse, lunatic, deaf 
& dumb, & blind asylums, & various 
other hospitals. An exchange, custom 
house, public library, theatre, museum, 
& a botanic garden ; five banking cos. ; 
a chamber of commerce, societies of his- 
tory, natural history, music & fine arts. 
Ten newspapers are published in the 
borough. Belfast is the principal depot 
of the Irish linen trade & the chief seat 
of the cotton manufacture of Ireland. It 
has many large linen & cotton mills ; 
extensive distilleries, breweries, foun- 
dries, ship-yards, sail cloth & tobac- 
co factories ; regular value of imports 
about ^£4,500,000; of exports about 
£5,600,000; tonnage, 624,113. Belfast 
sends two members to Parliament. P. 
96,660. II. seaport, port of entrj', and 

cap. Waldo co. Me., beautifully situated 
at the head of Belfast bay, on the W. side 
Penobscot riv., 30 ms. from the ocean. 
It has a spacious & safe harbor rarely 
obstructed by ice & sufficient depth for 
vessels of the largest class. It is exten- 
sively engaged in foreign & coasting 
trade, in the fisheries & ship building-; 

its tonnage is 4,483,522. P. 5,051. 

III. p-t., Alleghany co. N. Y., on the 
Genesee riv., & its tributaries. The 
Genesee valley canal here leaves the 
riv. & passes up the valley of Black cr. 
P. 1,646. 

Belfort, a town of France, dep. Haut 
Rhin., on the Savoureuse. P. 4,114. Its 
citadel was constructed by Vauban, & it 
has a fine church, college, & public li- 
brary of 20,000 vols., with iron foundries 
& wire factories. 

Belgard, a town of Prussian Pome- 
rania, on the Persante. P. 3,330. 

Belgaum, a town of British India, 
presid. Bombay, on a high & healthy 
site. P. 7,650. Its works are strong; 
& it held out vigorously against the 
British, until captured in 1818. It is 
now the head-quarters of the S. division 
of the Bombay army. 

Belgerst, a town of Prussian Saxony, 
on the 1. b. of the Elbe. P. 3,010. 

Belgiojoso, a town of N. Italy, Lom- 
bardy. P. 3,000. It is well built, & has 
a noble castle of the princes of Belgiojoso, 
in which Francis I. spent the night afte"r 
his defeat at Pavia, Feb. 24, 1525. 

Belgium, a kingdom of Central Eu- 
rope, having X. the Netherlands, E. 
Dutch Limburg & Luxemburg, & Rhen. 
Prussia, S. & S.W. France, & W. the 
North sea. Area, 11,313 sq. m. P. 
4,407,241. Chief cities, Antwerp, Bruges, 
Ghent, Mens, Liege, Brussels, Hasselt, 
Arlon & Namur. The coasts are low & 
protected against the encroachments of 
the sea by dykes & sand downs, as in 
Holland, ^though no part of Flanders is 
below the sea-level. The whole territory 
belongs to the basin of the German ocean, 
& is among the best watered countries 
of Europe. Chief rivers, the Mouse 
(Maas) & Scheldt, with the Rupel, De- 
mer, Senne, Dendre, the Haine, Durme, 
& the Lys, tribut. to the former; & the. 
Ourthe, Vesdre, & Ambleve, Mark, Dom- 
mel, Geer, Mehaigne, & Sambre, afflts. 
of the latter. Climate humid & cool j 
unhealthy in the low parts of Flanders 
& in the prov. of Antwerp. The soil is 
in general fertile, especially so in Flan- 
ders ; sandy & sterile in great part of 
the provs. Antwerp & Luxemburg. In 




the mountainous regions the riches con- 
gist in fine forests & abundant mineral 
products. The country is estimated to 
yield double the quantity of corn re- 
quired for home consumption. Wheat, 
rye, barley, oats, & buck- wheat are ex- 
tensively cultivated. Flanders is famous 
for its agriculture. Horticulture is an 
important branch of industry. Horned 
cattle are most numerous in Flanders. 
From 7,000 to 10,000 of the large Flemish 
draught horses, & about 2,600 colts, are 
annually exported. Mining is one of the 
chief sources of wealth ; in 1837 there 
were in the country 352 mines, occupying, 
or extending under, more than 640 sq. m. ; 
the principal products are iron, coal, cop- 
per, zinc, marble, slate, & stone. Liege 
has produced 150,000 tons of iron in a 
single year ; & the whole kingdom 
4,960,077 tons of coal. Ostend is the 
principal port for the herring fishery. 
Manuf. industry is the chief source of 
prosperity in Belgium ; in this it surpasses 
every country iu Europe, except England. 
According to a recent census 355,000 per- 
sons are employed in Belgium in spinning 
& weaving ; 50,000 more engaged in 
subsidiary occupations. The manufs. of 
woollen cloths & cassimeres employ 40,000 
hands in & about Verviers ; & there were 
produced annually 100,000 pieces of fine 
cloth, of an aggregate value of 1,000,OOOZ. 
In 1839,69 smelting furnaces, & 175 iron 
forges were in active operation, the prin- 
cipal being at Liege, where the royal 
cannon foundry is one of the best estabs. 
of the kind in Europe. Steam engines 
are built at Liege, Brussels, Charleroi, 
Tirlemont, & Bruges. General imports, 
11,535,506^. General exports, 8,078,823Z. 
The native shipping of Belgium com- 
prises 161 vessels ; tonnage, 22,770. 
Antwerp, Ostend, & Nieuport, are the 
chief ports. Government is a- consti- 
tutional monarchy, based on the broad- 
est principles of rational liberty. The 
sovereignty is hereditary, except in fail- 
ure of heirs male ; the senate & the 
house of representatives are both elected 
by the people. Punishment of death has 
been abolished ; universal toleration, 
freedom of the press, & trial by jury are 
established. Each prov. has its governor, 
& a council of from 50 to 70 members. The 
kingdom has 4 universities, the seats of 
which are Ghent , Liege, Louvain & Brus- 
sels. Belgium has 22 fortified places ; the 
armed force in 1847 amounted to 180,000 
men, of whom 90,000 belonged to the 
troops of the line, & 90,000 to the civic 
or burgher guard. Public revenue (1846) 

4,520,163Z. ; expenditure, 4,508,969^ ; 
public debt, 37,883,237Z. 

Belgohod, a town of Russia, on the 
Donetz. P. 10,318. It is divided into 
an old & a new town. 

Belgrade, an important fortfd. city 
of Servia,on r. b. of the Danube, at the 
confluence of the Save. P. 30,000. It 
is the largest & best built city of Servia, 
& one of the strongest places in Europe, 
being garrisoned by 6,000 Turks. Bel- 
grade had formerly quite an oriental ap- 
pearance, but it is becoming abandoned 
by wealthy Turks ; churches are super- 
seding mosques ; new buildings are being 
constructed in the German fashion ; & the 
bazaars have now glazed shop-windows. 
The streets, however, remain filthy, ill- 
paved, & the public baths & inns wretch- 
ed. It has manufs. of arms, carpets, 
silk goods, cutlery, & saddlery. It is the 
entrepot of commerce betw. Turkey & 
Austria, & the seat of the principal au- 
thorities of Servia. It was taken by the 
Turks, under Solyman II., in 1522 ; & 
re-taken by Prince Eugene in 1717. It 
was partly ruined during the Servian in- 
surrection in 1813, & its repair was com- 
menced by the Porte in 1836. — —II. p-t., 
Kennebec co. Me. This town has 3 largo 
& beautiful ponds on its border. 1 acad. 
P. 1,748. 

Belgham, a town of India, dom. Oudo. 
It has decayed buildings in the best style 
of Mogul architecture. 

Belhelvie, a marit. pa. of Scotland, 
CO. Aberdeen. P. 1,594. 

Belici, a riv. in the "W. of Sicily. 

Belida, a town of Africa, Algeria. 

Belin, a vill. of France, dep. Gironde. 
P. 1,550. 

Behtz. a town of Prussia, prov. Bran- 
denburg. ■ P. 2,350. 

Belize, a British colony. Cent. Amer. 

Belknap, co. N. H. in the S.E. part 
of the state, is bounded by Winnipis- 
siogee lake in the N.E., & Squam lake on 
the N., & Pemigewasset riv. on the W. 
Cap. Ossipee ; it contains 8 townships. 
P. 17,721. 

Bella, a town of Naples, prov. Basili- 
cata. P. 5,000. 

Bellac, a town of France, dep. H. Vi- 
enne. . P. 3,166. 

Bellaggio, a small town of N. Italy. 
It has numerous rich villas & gardens. 

Bellano, a vill. of Lombardy, gov. 

Bellary, one of the Balaghaut ceded 
dists. of British India, presid. Madras. 

Area, 12,703 sq. m. P. 1,112,839. IL 

cap. above dist., & head-quarters of a 



div. of the Madras army. It has a square 
fort on a roeky height ; below which is 

the town, with a good bazaar. II. a 

decayed town, presid. Bengal. It was 
formerly extensive, & near it are some 
fine Hindoo temples. 

Bellas, a town of Portugal, prov. Es- 
tremadura, on the Ancelva, with mine- 
ral baths, & a fine castle. P. 4,000. 

Belle Alliance (La), a hamlet of 
Belgium, prov. Brabant, 2 m. S. Mont 
St. Jean. , It was the centre of opera- 
tions in the field of Waterloo, & the place 
where Napoleon commanded the battle 
called by the Prussians the Battle of La 
Belle Alliance, 18th June, 1815. 

Belle-fontaine, p-v., & cap. of Logan 
CO. 0. It has a court house & jail ; a 

weekly newspaper is published here. 

II. V. St. Louis, Mo., on the S. bank of 
Missouri riv. 

Bellefonte, cap. Centre co. Penn. 
situated on Spring cr. It has an exten- 
sive iron trade. P. 1,032. II. p-v., 

cap. Jackson co. Ala., on Paint Rock riv. 

Bellegahdb, a hamlet of France, dep. 
E. Pyrenees, on the Spanish frontier, with 
an important citadel built by Louis XIV. 

II. {Pont de) dep. Ain, arr. Nantua, 

with a custom house. Near it is the celeb. 

Perte du Rhone. III. dep. Gard. P. 


Belleghem, a town of Belgium, prov. 
E. Flanders. P. 3,182. 

Belleisle, an isl. of British N. Amer., 
in the Atlantic ocean, at the entrance of 
the strait of same name, betw. Labrador 
& the N. extremity of Newfoundland. 
Wheat is said to ripen well on it, & it 
yields potatoes & other vegetables. 

Belleisle-en-Mer, an isl. of France, 
in the Atlantic, 8 m. S. Quiberon Point. 
Length, about 11 m. ; greatest breadth, 
6 m. P. 9,391. The isl. is noted for its 
excellent wheat, & its fine breed of draught 
horses. It is nearly surrounded by rocks, 
& has a good anchorage, & several small 
ports. The isl. forms a canton. It was 
taken by the English in 1761, & held by 
them till 1763.—^^ — Belleisle-en-Terre is a 
small town, dep. Cutes-du-Nord, cap. 
cant., 10 m. W. Guingamp. P. 1,378. 

Bellem, a vill. of Belgium, prov. E. 
Flanders. P. 1,630. 

Belleme, a town of France, dep. Orne. 
P. 3,241. It has manufs. of coarse linen 
<& cottons. 

Bellerica, t., Washington co. Mis- 

Belle, r., a br. of the St. Clair, 50 m. 1. 

Belleview, t., Washington co. Mo. 
P. 173. ' ' . * 

Belleville, p-v., Essex co.N. J., situ- 
ated on W. side of Passaic riv.; it abounds 

with fine mill streams. P. 2,466. II. 

Belleville, p-v., cap. St. Clair co. III., 

a flourishing village. P. 700. III. v. 

cap. Desha co. Ark., on S. side Arkansas 

riv. IV. a vill. of France, dep. Seine, 

forming a suburb of Paris, & enclosed 
by new fortifications. P. 24,235. Cap. 
of Hastings co. Upper Canada, on the 
bay of Quinte, 110 m. E. of Toronto. 
P. 4,569. 

Bellevue, p-t., Eaton co. Mich. P. 

Belley, a town of France, dep. Ain, 
near the Rhone. P. 3,666. In its vicin- 
ity are the best lithog. stones in France. 
It has manufs. of maslins, & trade in 
Gruyere cheese. Belley served as a 
place of arms to Csesar against the AUo- 
broges. Alaric burned it in 390 ; pos- 
sessed in the middle ages by the Dukes 
of Savoy, it was ceded to France in 1601. 

Bellie, a marit. pa. of Scotl., on the 
Spey. P. 2,434. 

Bellingham, a town of England, co. 

Northumberland. II. Bellingham, p-t., 

Norfolk CO. Mass., watered by Charles r. 
P. 1,055. 

Bellingshausen IsLAND,Society isls., 
Pacific ocean. 

Bellingwolde, a frontier vill. Neth- 
erlands. P. 2,784. 

Bellinzona, a town of Switzerland. 
P. 1,520. 

Bellou, two comms. & vills. France, 
dep. Orne. 

Bellovar, a town & post-station of 
Croatia. P. 2,800. 

Bellow's Falls, Windham co. Vt., 
at the falls in the Connecticut. The river 
above which is about 350 ft. wide, is here 
compressed into a channel of 16 feet, & 
descends by successive pitches in a half 
mile. A canal has been cut in the rock 
around these falls. 

Bell-Rock, or Inch-Cape, a reef of 
rocks in the German ocean, off the E. 
coast of Scotland. 

■Bell Town, the cap. of a self-styled 
regal chief of Guinea, on the Cameroons 
riv., near its estuary. It is large, & regu- 
larly built, consisting of neat bamboo 
houses. Merchant vessels may lie in the 
river quite close to the town. 

Belluno, a city of N. Italy. P. 9,700. 
It is end. by old walls ; it has a fine 
aqueduct, a cathedral designed by Pal- 
ladio, a rich hospital, diocesan & high 
schools. The title of Duke of Belluno 
was conferred by Napoleon on Marshal 




■ Bellye, a vill. of S. Hungary, with a 
castle, CO. Baranya. P. 1,075. 

Belmont, county, 0., on the Ohio riv., 
is hilly & broken. It is an agricultural 
county & has two weekly newspapers. P. 

34,600. Cap. St. Clairsville.- 11. p-v., 

Waldo CO. Me. P. 1,378. III. t., 

Franklin co. N. Y. IV. Belmont, a 

town of France, dep. Loire. Also several 
small cantons & vills. 

Belmonte, a town of Naples, prov. 

Calab. P. 2,914. -II. a town of Spain, 

prov. Cuenca. P. 2,694. This is the 
name of many small towns in Italy & 

Portugal. III. a river of Brazil, prov. 

Bahia, formed by the union of two riv- 
er.i, which rise in the Sierra Frio. 

Belobanya, a royal free t. of Hun- 
gary, CO. Honth. P. 1,740. 

Belceil, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Tournai. P. 2,267. Extens. breweries. 

Beloit, Rock CO. Wisconsin. 

Beloochistan, an extensive country 
of Southern Asia, forming the S.E.part of 
the old dom. of Persia, & extending on 
the S. for 600 m. along the shores of the 
Indian ocean. Area, 160,000 sq. m., & 
p. 480,000. It is subdiT. into the 6 
provs. of Kelat, Sarawan, Cutch-Gundava, 
Jhalawan, Lus, & Mekran. Nearly the 
whole country is mountainous. Its mutns. 
in the E. are connected with those of 
South Afghanistan, & rise to considerable 
elevation; the Bolan pass, & even the 
bottom of some valleys are upwards of 
5,700 feet in height, & the cap. Kelat is 
6,000 ft. above the sea. In the N., the 
peak of Takkatoo is considered to have 
an elev. of 11,000 ft. The rivs. are very 
insignificant, except after heavy rains ; 
the largest, the Dustee, though supposed 
to have a course of 1,'000 m., has been 
found at its mouth only 20 inches deep, 
& 20 yards in width. In the low & wa- 
tered plains of- Cutch-Grundava & Lus, 
rice & sugar-cane, with cotton, indigo, & 
tobacco are raised ; in other parts wheat, 
bii.rley, madder, & pulses, with European 
fruits, on some of the mountain sides, the 
tamarisk ifcbabool attain the size of large 
timber trees. Mineral products comprise 
copper, lead, antimony, iron, sulphur, 
ilium, & sal-ammoniac. Prepared skins, 
woollen felt & cloths, carpets & tentoovers 
of.goats' or camels' hair, & rude firearms, 
are all the manufd. products. Trade 
comparatively small, & almost monopo- 
lized by Hindoos. Sonmeanee is the 
only seaport. Mekran is in barbarous 
anarchy ; most of the E. provs. are un- 
der the uncertain authority of the khan 
of Kelat. 

Beloeado, a town of Spain, prov. 
Burgos, on r. b. of Tiron. P. 2,450. 

Belp, a vill. of Switzerl. P. 1,500. 
On its S. side is the Belpberg; a mntn. 
2,940 ft. high, containing many petrifac- 

Belpasso, a town of Sicily. P. 

Belpech, a town of France, dep. Aude. 
P. 1,146. 

Belper, a town, of England, co. Derby. 
P. 9,835. 

Belpre, p-t., AYashington co. 0., on 
the Ohio r. 

Beet (Great & Little), two straits 
of the Baltic sea, by which it communi- 
cates with the Kattegat. The Great Belt, 
betw. the Danish isls. Seeland & Laland' 
on the E., & Fiihnen &Langeland on the 
W. has an average breadth of 15 m. The 
Little Belt, betw. the mainland of Den- 
mark on the W., & the isl. Fiihnen on 
the E., has an average breadth of from 
6 to 8 m., though, at its N. extremity, it 
is less than a mile across ; depth 5 to 14 

Belturbet, a town of Ireland, Ulster. 
P. 2,070. 

Belvedere, a town of Naples, prov. 

Calab. P. 3,400. II. a town, Pontif. 

sta. III. a hamlet of Saxe-Weimar, 

with a summer pulace of the grand, 

Belves, a town of France, dep. Dor- 
dogne. P. 1,851. 

Belvidere, p-v., cap. of Warren co. 
N. J. It contains the usual county 
buildings. Considerable water power. 
An elegant bridge here across' the Dela- 
ware. II. t., Boone co. 111. 

Belvoir, an extra-parochial dist. Engr 
land, cos. Leicester & Lincoln. Belvoi- 
castle stands on an isolated mount, over- 
looking a rich vale. 

Belz, a town of Austrian Galicia. P. 

2,400. II. Belz, a vill. of France, dep. 

Morbihan. P. 1,390. 

Belzig, a town of Prussia. P. 2,550. 

Bembatooka, a bay & town on the 
N.W. coast of Madagascar. The bay is 
said to be capable of containing the larg- 
est fleet. 

Bembridge, a vill. & small watering- 
place, isle of Wight. 

Bemfica, a town of Portugal. P. 
3,873. Magnif. aqueducts. 

Bemini I.SLANDS, a small group. Ba- 

Bemmel, a town of the Netherlands, 
prov. Geklerland.. P. 3,720. 

Benabarre, a town of Sp.ain. P. 2,211. 

Ben-Ahin, a vill. of Belgium, prov. 




Liege. P. 1,200. Mines of lead, zinc, 
& iron. 

Benaguacil, a t. of Spain, prov. Va- 
lencia. P. 3,034. 

Benameji, a t. of Spain, prov. Cordova. 
P. 4,525. 

Benanoir (the "mountain of Gold"), 
one of the peaks or "paps" of the island 
of Jura, Scotland, elevation 2,420 feet. 

Benares, a dist. of British India, pre- 
sid. Bengal, between the rivers Ganges & 
Sye. Climate hot & dry in summer 
months, & chill in winter. The dist. was 
ceded to Britain in 1773. The sugar-cane 
is cultivated, & opium & indigo raised to 
a considerable extent. P. 3,000,000.'? 

Benares, a large & famous city of 
Hindostan, & which maybe considered its 
Hindoo (as Delhi was its Mohammedan, 
& Calcutta is its British) capital. It is 
the cap. of a division of the Bengal pi'e- 
sid. P. 600,0007 ; but at certain festivals 
the number is incredible, this city being 
"most holy," & resorted to by pilgrims 
from all parts of India, & even from Tibet 
& Burmah. Its external appearance is 
highly imposing. Principal edifices, the 
great mosque of Aurungzebe, numerous 
other mosques, a great number of Hindoo 
temples, an anc. observatory, & the Hin- 
doo Sanscrit college, the chief seat of 
native learning in India. 

Benasque, a t. of Spain, prov. Huesca, 
on 1. b. of the Esera, 2,830 feet above the 
sea. P. 1,234. 

Benatek, a town of Bohemia. Seve- 
ral vills. in Bohemia have the same 

Ben-Aven, amntn. of Scotland, Gram- 
pians. Height above the sea, 3,967 feet. 

Benavente, a town of Spain, prov. 
Zamora. P. 2,561. Roman remains. 

II. a town of Portugal, prov. Alem- 

tejo, with a royal castle. P. 1,954. 

Benbaun, a mntn. of the Binabola 
group, or "Twelve Pins,"^ Ireland, co. 
Galway. Elev. 2,395 feet. 

Benbecula, one of the Hebrides isls. 

Bencoolen, a residency and seaport 
town of the Dutch E. Indies, on the W. 
coast of the island Sumatra. P. of resi- 
dency 94,000, of the town 12,000. Chief 
trade, import of goods from Batavia, 
Bengal & Europe. It wag founded by 
the Engl., 1685, & ceded to the Dutch in 
exchange for Malacca in 1824. 

Bencruachan, a mountain of Scot- 
land, CO. Argyle, between lochs Etive & 
Awe. Height 3,670 feet. 

Bendemeer, a river of Persia. 

Bender, a town of Russia, on rt. b. 
of the Dniester, 48 m. from its mouth. 

P. 10,000. (?) In its environs is Vamitza, 
the retreat of Charles XII., after the 
disastrous battle of Pultowa. 

Bendorf, a town of Rhenish Prussia. 
P. 2,227. 

Bendramo, a town of Asia-Minor, 
Anatolia, on the sea of Marmora. 

Bene, a town of the Sardinian sta., 
Piedmont. P. 5,687. 

Beneschau, a town of Bohemia. P. 
1,800. Several vills. in Bohemia, & 
Pruss. Silesia, have this name. 

Benest, a vill. of France, dep. Cha- 
rente. P. 1,480. Here Charlemagne 
gained a signal victory over the Sara- 

Benevente, a seaport town of Brazil, 
prov. Espirito Santo, at the mouth of riv. 
Benevente in the Atlantic. P. 3,000. 

Benevento, a city of S. Italy, on a 
hill near the confluence of the Calore & 
Sabato. P. 16,500. With its castle it 
occupies the site of the anc. town, out of 
the ruins of which it was built, & except 
Rome, perhaps no Italian city can boast 
of so many remains of antiquity. The 
Arch of Trajan, now the Porta Aurea, 
Is still nearly perfect. 

Benfbld, a toym. of Erance, dep, Bas- 
Rhin. P. 2,642. 

Bengal, a presidency & prov. of Brit- 
ish India. It is by far the largest of the 
three presidencies into which India is 
divided. Area, 860,204 sq. ms. P. 57,- 
986,156. The greater proportion of this 
territ. consists of the immense plain or 
valley of the Ganges. The eastern divi- 
sion of the country is traversed by the 
Brahmaputra. Both these great rivs. 
divide into numerous branches before 
reaching the sea, & their united deltas 
form a tract of rich alluvial soil, exceed- 
ing 30,000 sq. m. in extent. There are 
no inland lakes, but numerous lagoons <fc 
marshes. The surface of the country 
generally exhibits a deep clay alluvium, 
interspersed with sandy tracts, with ter- 
tiary deposits in some localities. Nitre 
is found in great quantities in Bahar. 
Diamonds are found^ in a conglomerate 
in Bundelcund ; & gold dust & silver are 
in some of the rivers. Coal & iron are 
found in Sylhet & Burdwan. Indigo is 
largely cultivated from Dacca to Delhi, 
there being upwards of 400 indigo fac- 
tories in the presidency. Opium is a 
government monopoly. The gov. is in- 
vested in the Governor-General of India, 
& a Council of five mems., three appoint- 
ed by the E. I. Company, a fourth also 
appointed by the Company, but not one 
of their number, & the fifth the Com- 




mander-in-cliief. [India.] Numerous 
schools for the natives have been estab- 
lished by government throughout the 
presidency, & colleges at Calcutta, Delhi, 
Agra, Benares, besides several mission- 
ary stations & schools for the religious 
instruction of the natives. The Pop. of this 
presid. embraces a great variety of races, 
the prevailing religions are the Brah- 
minical & Mohammedan. The Protes- 
tant establ. consists of an archdeacon & 
about forty chaplains. The Roman Cath- 
olic establ. is under the vie. apostolic of 
Agra, & a legate at Calcutta. 

Bengal (Bay of) a part of the In- 
dian ocean, extending between Hither & 
Further India., including the sea from 
Cape Negrais on the E. to the delta of 
the Godavery on the W. Its chief affls. 
are the Ganges, including the Brahma- 
putra, & the Godavery. 

Bengazi, a marit. town of N. Africa, 
Barca, on the gulf of Sidra. P. 2.500. 
It has a castle, the residence of a bey-; 
& some trade with Barbary & Malta. 

Bengore Head, a promontory on the 
N. coast of Ireland, co. Antrim. — JBen- 
gower, a mntn. of the Binabola group, 
CO. Gal way. Elev. 2,336 feet. 

Benguela, a marit. country of W. 
Africa., nominally claimed by Portugal. 
Surface mountainous, & rises progres- 
sively inland by a series of terraces. 
Principal rivs. have all a W. course. 
The climate is very unhealthy, & fever 
is prevalent. 

Benguela (Nev/, or St. Philip de), 
a seaport town, & the Portuguese cap. 
of above country, with a noble harbor on 
the Atlantic, near the river Catumbella. 
P. 3,000. Its principal inhabs. are slave 
dealers, & their iniquitous trade is so 
flourishing that, in 1838, nearly 20,000 
slaves were exported. 

Ben-Hope, a mountain range of Scot- 
land, CO. Sutherland. Elevation 3,l50 

Beni, a riv. of S. America, Bolivia, 
formed by the junction of the Chuqueapo 
& Mapiri. It flows mostly N.-ward 
through the dep. Santa Cruz-de-la-Sierra. 
L. 2,000 m. 

Beni Adin, a town of Upper Egypt, 
on the border of the Libyan Desert. It 
is a place of rendezvous for the caravans 
entering Egypt from Darfur. 

Benicarlo, a seaport town of Spain, 
on the Mediterr. P. 6,160. 

Benicia, one ef the flourishing towns 
which have sprung up in California, since 
its conquest by the United States. 

Benidorm, a town of Spain, near the 

Mediterranean. P. 4,502. Near the 
coast there is an island of same name. 

Beniganim, a town of Spain, prov. 
Valencia. P. 3,257. 

Beni-Hassan, a vill. of Central Egypt, 
on rt. b. of the Nile. In its environs are 
numerous sculptured grottoes. 

Benin, a marit. kgdm. of W. Africa. 
Area, 50,000 (7) sq. m. Surface rises 
progressively inland to the height of 
2,500 ft. ; it is well watered, & extremely 
fertile. Principal rivers, the branches 
of the Niger (Quorra) at its delta. 

Benin, a town of W. Africa., cap. above 
state, on the Benin riv. P. 15,000. 

Benin, a riv. of W. Africa, being the 
W. arm of the Niger at its delta. 

Benin (Bight of), the northern por- 
tion of the gulf of Guinea, between the 
slave coast & the Calabar river. The 
coast is iron-bound. 

Beninguet, a small i,sl. off the N.W. 
coast of France, dep. Finist^re. 

Benisa, a town of Spain, prov. Ali- 
cante near the Mediter. P. 3,678. 

Beni-Sabih, a town of Morocco, on 
the Drah, E. of Mt. Atlas ; said to be 
populous, & to have an active trade in 

Beni-Souef, a town of Central Egypt, 
on rt.b. of the Nile. P. 5,000. It is the 
entrepot for the produce of the rich val- 
ley of Fayoum, & has cotton mills, & 
alabaster quarries. 

Benkah, a vill. of Bootan, on a nearly 
inaccessible rock, 3,100 ft. above the sea. 

Benlawers, a mntn. of Scotland, on 
the W. side of Loch Tay. 3,945 feet in 

Bbnledi, a mntn. of Scotland, co. 
Perth, 2,863 ft. in height. Its scenery 
has been immortalized by Sir "VY. Scott, 
in the " Lady of the Lake." 

Ben-Lomond, a famous mntn. of Scot- 
land, CO. Stirling-. Height, 3.190 ft. On 
the N. this mntn. terminates by an ab- 
rupt precipice 2,000 ft. in height; on its 

W. side is Loch Lomond. II. a mntn. 

of Tasmania (Van Diemen's Land), about 
25 m. E. of Launceston, elev. of 5,002 ft. 

Ben-Macdhui, the summit of a lofty 
mntn. range in Scotland, co. Aberdeen. 
Height, 4,305 feet. 

Ben-More, a mntn. of Scotland, Heb- 
rides. Height, 3,097 ft. II. {or Fair- 
head), a promont. on the Irish coast, co. 
Antrim, consists of a columnar basaltic 
rock, rising abruptly to 636 feet above 
the sea. 

Bennebeola (Twelve Pins of), a 
group of mountains in Ireland, co. Gal- 
way, their loftiest summits being Ben- 




corr, 2,336 feet, & Benbaun, 2,395 ft., 
above the sea. 

Benneckenstein, a town of Prussian 
Saxony. P. 3,614. 

Bennetsville, p-v., cap. Marlebor- 
ough. District of S. C. 

Ben-Nevis, a famous mountain of 
Scotland, & the loftiest in Britain, co. In- 
verness, elev., 4,368 ft. Circutnf. at base, 
24 m. On its N.E. side it terminates by 

a precipice 1,500 ft. in height. II. a 

mouTitain of Tasmania (Van Diemen's 
Land). Height, 3,910 ft. 

Bennington, co. of Vermont, in the 
S.AV. corner of the state. Maple sugar, 
to the amount of near 200,000 lbs. is 
manufactured. P. 18,589 ; the caps, are 

Bennington & Manchester. II. p-v., 

semi-cap. of Bennington co. Vermont. In 
this place the British were defeated by 
G-enl. Stark in August, 1777. One week- 
ly newspaper. P. 3,923. III. p-t., 

Wvoming co. N. Y. Soil fertile. P. 
2,368. IV. t., Shiawassee co. Mich. 

Bennisch, a town of Austrian Silesia. 
P. 2,686. 

Bennshausen, a vill. of Prussian Sax- 
ony, Erfurt, cir. Schleusingen, with iron 
forges. P. 1,775. 

Benoit (St.), a town of the Island 
Bourbon. P. 11,376. 

Benoit (St.), several comms. & vills. 

of France. 1, de Leyssieu, dep. Ain, 

Belley. P. 1,221. II. du Sault, a town, 

dep. indre. P. 1,243. III. Sur Loire, 

arrond. Gien. P. 1,540. 

Benoob, Omphis, a vill. of Lower 
Egypt, on the E. arm of the Nile. 

Benowm, a town of Soudan, near the 
border of Senegambia,& a principal cara- 
van station on the route from the Senegal 
to Timbuctoo. 

Bectsalen, t. Bucks co. Pa. P. 1,731. 

Bensheim, an old fortfd. town of H.- 
Darmstadt, on the Bergstrasse. P. 4,000. 

Benson, p-t., Rutland co. Vt. on Lake 
Champlain. P. 1,703. 

Bentheim, a town of Hanover, on the 
Dutch frontier. P. 1,972. It is the seat 
of royal & manorial courts ; & has manu- 
factures of linen cloths & parchment, with 
stone quarries, & sulphur baths. 

Bentinck Island, a low, wooded isl. 
in the gulf of Carpentaria, 10 m. from 
the mainland of North Australia. Lat. 
17° S.; Ion. 139° 40' E. 

Benton, county, Alabama, is watered 
by a branch of Coosa r. & by Tallapoosa 

•r. P. 17,163. II. county, Tenn. W. 

part of the state on the Tenn. river. P. 

6,315. III. county, Mo. in the S.W. 

part of the state. P. 5,015. Cap. War- 

saw. IV. CO. Ark. in the S.W. part of 

the state, drained by White river & head 
branches of Illinois. P. 3,710. Cap. 

Bentonville. V. eo. Florida. P. 926. 

VI. CO. Iowa. P. 672. VII. co. 

Indiana. P. 1,144. VIII. co. Oregon. 

terr. P. 814. =IX. co. Minnesota terr. 

P. 418.: X. p-t., Yates co. N. Y. It 

has considerable water power & soma 

manufactories. P. 3,911. XI. p-v., 

Lumpkin co. Ga. XII. t. Hocking co. 

0. XIII. cap. Scott CO. Mo. XIV. 

cap. Yazoo co. Miss. XV. six towns 

in Mo. 

Bentonville, cap. of Polk co. Tenn. 

Ben-Wyvis, a mountain of Scotland, 
CO. Ross, height, 2,720 feet. 

Benzerta (Lakes of), N. Africa, dom. 
Tunis. The N. & larger, 5 J m. in length, 
& salt ; & the smaller, 3J m. in length, 
turbid & fresh. They are the principal 
sources whence Tunis is supplied with 
fish, & are let at an annual rent of nearly 

Beodra, a town & post sta. of Hungary, 
Banat, Temeswar. P. 3,120. 

BEauiA, the most N. of the Grenadines, 
West India isls. 

Bebat, a town of European Turkey, 
Albania, on rt. b. of the Ergent, here 
crossed by abridge of 8 arches. P. 10,000. 
It consists of an upper town or citadel, 
containing the vizier's palace, several 
Greek churches, & 250 houses ; & the 
lower town, mostly inhabited by Turks, 
with numerous mosques, & a good bazaar. 

Beraun, a town of Bohemia, on tha 
Beraun river. P. 2,200. 

Beebeba, a seaport station, E. Africa, 
Somauli, on a deep bay of the gulf of 
Aden. A large annual fair is held here 
from October to April, at which from 
10,000 to 20,000 persons assemble. 

Berbice, the most W. district of Brit- 
ish Guiana, extending along the coast, & 
up the Berbice river. P. 22,370, of whom 
670 are whites. Principal prod., sugar, 
coflFee, & cotton. 

Behchem, a town of Belgium, on the 

Scheldt. P. 2,342. II. a vill., prov. 

Antwerp. P. 2,729. III. a vill. of the 

Netherlands, prov. N. Brabant. P. 1,841. 

Beeching, a small town of Bavaria. 
P. 1,354. 

Berchtesgaden, a town of Bavaria, 
circ. Upper Bavaria, with 1,800 inhabs. 
In the royal salt mines in its vicinity 200 
miners are employed, & the annual pro- 
duce is 16,000 cwt. of rock salt. 

Berck^Sur-Mer, a vill. of France, 
dep. Pa3j4e Calais, on the English chan- 
nel. P. 2,100. 




Bercy, a vill. of France, on rt. b. of the 
Seine. P. 8,641. It is an entreput of 
articles for consumption in Paris, espe- 
cially wine & brandy. 

Berba, p-v., Cayuga co. 0. A manual 
labor seminary here. 

Beregh, a county of Upper Hungary, 
tbig side the Theiss. P. 121,500. Chf. 

towns, Bereghszasz & Munkacs. II. a 

town in above co. P. 1,750. 

Bereghszasz, a town of E. Ilungary, 
CO, Beregh. P. 3,560. 

Bereguaedo, a vill. of Lombardy. 
* Berenice, a ruined city of Egj'pt, on 
a bay in the E-ed sea. It has the remains 
of a temple of Scrapis. 

Bereny (Jaz), a town of Hungary, on 
the Zagyva. 

Beresina, a river of Russia, gov. 
Minsk. Length, 200 m. It is connected 
with the Diina by a canal, which thus 
establishes a communication between the 
Baltic & Black seas. This river is mem- 
orable for the disastrous passage of the 
French army during Napoleon's retreat 
from Moscow in 1812. 

Berezna, a town of Russia, on the 
Desna. P. 5,500. 

Berezov, a town of Siberia, gov. To- 
bolsk, on 1. b. of the Sosva. It is impor- 
tant as the sole trading station throughout 
a wide extent of country. II. a gold- 
mining village of Asiatic Russia, gov. 

Berga, a town of Spain, prov. Barce- 
lona. P. 6,333-. 

Bergama, a ruined city of Asia-Minor, 
Anatolia. It has extensive remains of 
a palace, an amphitheatre, triumphal 
arches, & bridges. 

Bergamo, a city of Lombardy. P.. 
30,504. It is one of the most picturesque 
cities in N. Italy. It has a college, 
athenaeum, academy of the fine arts, a 
public library, a military asylum, with 
extensive manufs. of silk, woollen, cotton, 
& linen fabrics, silk twist, & iron goods. 
The largest fair in N. Italy is held here 
annually in August, the aggregate sales 
at which sometimes amount to 1.200,000/. 
Bergantino, a town of N. Italy. P. 

Bergedorf, a town of N. Germany, 
belonging jointly to Hamburg & Lubeck. 
P. 2,151. 

Bergen, a city and seaport of Norway, 
cap. prov., on a penins. at the end of a 
deep bay, on the Atlantic. P. 25,611. 
It is well-built & picturesque : it rises in 
the form of an amphitheatre, & has a 
cathedral, several other churcj|^s, hos- 
pitals, charitable institution, a theatre; 

national museum, diocesan college, naval w 
academy, & other schools, & 5 public 
libraries. It is the station of a naval 
squadron. Its harbor, deep & shel- 
tered, but rocky, is defended by several 
forts ; which, with the town-walls, mount 
about 100 guns. Manufs. of earthenware, 
tobacco, & cordage ; distilling and ship- 
building are carried on ; the fishery is, 
however, the principal source of employ- 
ment. The foreign trade is mostly with 
the countries of N. Europe. Principal 
imports, corn, brandy, & wines, cotton & 
woollen manufs., colonial prod., & hemp ; 
exports, dried & salted fish,- lobsters, oil, 
horns, iron, rock-moss, skins & timber. 

II. CO. N. J., in the N.B. part of the 

state, by Haokensack & Saddle rs. The 
palisades on Hudson riv. lie in this co. 

P. 14,725. Cap. Hackensack. III. p-t. 

Genesee co. N. Y. on Black creek. ^IV. 

p-t. and cap. Hudson co. N. J., settled in 
1616, by Danes, who came over with the 
Hollanders. Some manufs. P. 5,225. 

Bergen, a town of Prussian Pomera- 
nia, near the centre of the isl. Riigen, of 

which it is cap. P. 3,024. II. a town 

of the Netherlands, prov. Limburg, on 
r. b. of the Maas. P. 3,442. This is the 
name of several vills. in Germany. 

Bergen-op-Zoom, a strongly fortfd. 
town of the Netherlands, on the Zoom. 
P. 7,451. It has a good harbor, 2 arse- 
nals, a town-house, a Latin school,, a 
school of architecture, manufs. of earth- 
enwares, & a considerable trade in an- 
chovies. It was long styled the "maiden" 
on account of the numerous sieges it had 
sustained, especially by the Spaniards in 
1588 & 1622. It was taken by the 
French in 1747 & in 1794, & defended by 
them against the English in 1814. 

Bergerac, a town of France, dep. & 
on r. b. of'the Dordogne, here crossed by 
a noble bridge of five arches. P. 6,805. 
It has a comni. college & public library, 
tribunal of commerce ; & manufs. of pa- 
per, iron. & copper wares, serges, & ho- 
siery. It was taken by the English in 
1345, retaken in 1370. Its fortifs. were 
razed by Louis XIII. in 1621. 

Bergeijk, a vill. of the Netherlands. 
P. 1,761. 

Berghetm, a vill. of France, dep. H. 
Rhin. P. 3,663. 

Bergreichenstein, a town of Bohe- 
mia. P. 4.100. Its once productive gold 
mines are now nearly abandoned. 

Bergstadt, a town of MOravia. P. 
1,320 ; with iron mines ; its silver mines 
have been occasionally worked since 




Bergues, a town of France, dep. Nord. 
P. 5,827. It has a comm. college, hos- 
pital, & public library ; with distilleries, 
salt & sugar refineries, manufs. of soap, 
tobacco, & earthenware, & considerable 

Bergum, a vill. of the Netherlands, 
prov. Friesland, on the Bergum -lake. 
P. 2,028. 

Bergzabern, a town of Rhenish Ba- 
varia. P. 2,565. 

Berhampoor, a town of British India, 
presid. Bengal, on the Bhagirathi riv. 

Beringen, a vill. of Switzerland. P. 

Berislav, a town of S. Russia, on rt. 
b. of the Dnieper, here crossed by a 
floating bridge. Trade with the Crimea. 

Berja, a town of Spain, prov. Almeria. 
P. 9,840. It is the centre of extens. lead 
mines, of which several hundreds are 
opened in the mntn. 

Berka, two vills. of Cent. Germany, 

duchy Saxe- Weimar. 1, on the Ilm. 

P. 1,228. Ruined castle, & sulphur baths. 
II. on the Werra. P. 1,180. 

Berkeley, a town of England, co. 
Glo'ster, near the Severn. Has a hand- 
some church, which is the burial-place of 
the celebrated Dr. Jenner ; a grammar- 
school, founded 1696.— Berkeley Castle is 
regarded as one of the most perfect 
feudal structures in the kingdom. The 
apartment is still shown in which Ed- 
ward II. was murdered, a.d. 1327. 

Berkeley Sound, the most frequented 
inlet of the E. Falkland isl. in the At- 
lantic. It is of difficult entrance, but 
contains several good harbors. 

Berkley, p-t., Bristol co. Mass. P. 

886. II. county, Va., in the N.E. part 

of the state, on the Potomac. P. 11,771. 
Cap. Martinsburg. 

Berkley Springs, Morgan co. Va., a 
fashionable place of resort. 

Berks, county, Penn., in the S.E. part 
of the state, traversed by Schuylkill riv. 
P. 77,129. Cap. Reading. 

Berkshire, county, Mass., the most the state. The Green mntn. range, 
which is here about 1,200 high on an 
average, passes through it. The head 
branches of the Housatonie & Hoosaek 
rivs., which drain the co., afford valuable 
water power. It has a gocd white mar- 
ble, & iron ore. P. 49,592. Cap. Lennox. 

II. p-t., Franklin co. Vt., watered 

by Misisque riv. & its branches. It has 

good water power. P 1,818. III. p-t., 

Tioga CO. N.Y. IV. p-t., Delaware 

CO. 0. ; one of the richest townships in 
the CO. P. 1,417. V. an inland co. of 

England. P. 199,154. Surface beauti- 
fully varied, & generally well wooded. 
The Thames forms all its N. boundary ; 
other principal rivers are its affls. the 
Kennet & Loddon. A tract of downs ex- 
tends through its centre ; its S.E. & B. 
parts are occupied by Windsor forest & 
park. About 260,000 acres are 
be under tillage ; 72,000 do. in pastures ; 
& 30,000 do. waste. The soil is fertile. 
Agriculture is rather backward. Manufs. 

Berlaer, a vill. of Belgium, prov. 
Antwferp. P. 2,925. 
Berlanga, two small towns of Spain. 

1, in the prov. of Soria. P. 1,692. 

II. in the prov. Badajos. P. 4,128. 

Berleburg, a town of Prussian-West- 
phalia. P. 2,152. It has a castle, the 
residence of its princes. 

Berlengas, a group of small rocky 
isls. off the W. coast of Portugal, prov. 

Berlikum, a vill. of the Netherlands. 

P. 2,222. II. another vill. of same 

name, prov. W. Friesland. P. 1,220. 

Berlin, town, Oxford co. Me. II. 

p.-t., Washington co. Vt. It has good 

water power. P. 1,598. III. p-t., 

Hartford co. Conn. It has extensive 
manufs. of tin-ware. Cap. in manufac. 
One acad. P. 3,411. IV. p-t., Rens- 
selaer CO. N. Y. The village is on Little 

Hoosick creek. P. 1,794. V. p-t., 

Holmes eo. 0., in the E. part of the co. 

P. 1,199. VI. t., Erie co. 0. P. 1,628. 

VII. t., Knox CO. 0. P. 1,091. 

VIII. p-t., Trumbull co. 0., on Mahoning 

cr. P. 1,283. IX. an important city 

of Germany, cap. of the Prussian mon- 
archy, & of the prov. Brandenburg. P. 
in 1852, including garrison, 430,500. It 
is built in a sandy plain, oh both banks 
of the Spree, & is one of the finest & most 
handsomely constructed cities in Europe, 
the city is surrounded by a wall 16 feet 
high, & is entered by 16 gates, one of 
which, the Brandenburg gate on its W., 
is a colossal structure, surmounted by a 
victory, in a car drawn by 4 horses, & 
one of the most elegant of the kind in 
Europe. It was carried to Paris in 1807, 
& restored in 1814. Of the 40 bridges 
which cross the Spree & its branches, the 
principal are the long bridge, with an 
equest. statue of the great elector Frede- 
rick William; the Schlossbriicke, with 
groups of heroes in marble. Berlin is 
the great centre of instruction & intel- 
lectual development in Northern Ger- * 
many ; its educational estabs. are nume- 
rous & celebrated. The university, 




founded in 1809, & comprising schools of 
jurisprudence, medicine, & philosophy, 
had, in 1843-4, 1,656 students. There 
are 6 gj'mnasia, 2 Protestant theol. 
seminaries, a milit. school, schools of ar- 
tillery, military engineering, architec- 
ture, sculpture, painting, & music ; a 
preparatory school of music, & many 
elementary schools. It has extens. pub- 
lic libraries, among which the royal 
library, founded in 1650, has 600,000 
printed vols. & 500 MSS. Among its 
valuable collections are royal museums 
of painting, sculpture, antiquities, coins, 
& medals, a museum of nat. history, a 
royal astronom. & magnet, observatory, 
& a royal botanic garden, one of the 
richest & most complete in Europe. 
Berlin is the first city in Germany for 
the variety & importiince of its manuf. 
products. Origin of the city dates from 
the 13th century. 

Berlinchen, a town of Prussia, prov. 
Brandenburg. P. 3,620. 

Behmeo, a seaport town of Spain, on 
the bay of Biscay. P. 3,625. 

Bermuda, The Bermudas, a group 
of about 300 small isls. belonging to Gt. 
Britain, in the Atlantic. Area, about 
20 sq. m. P. 12,930. Surface mostly low 
& composed of a shelly coralline rock. 
Many rocky reefs surround the Bermudas, 
which are visited by severe gales in win- 
ter ; but among the isls. are severjil good 
anchorages. Climate mild & salubrious. 
It is the great convict station. Gov. 
vested in a governor, a council of 8 mems., 
& an assembly of 36 mems., 4 being re- 
turned by each pa. The princip. isls. are 
St. George, Ireland, St. David, Somerset, 
Paget, Longbend, & Smith's. This group 
of isls. was discovered in 1522 by Ber- 
mudez, a Spaniard ; Sir G. Somers was 
wrecked here in 1609, & soon after this 
they were colonized from Virginia & Engl. 

Bern, or Berne (Canton), a state of 
central Europe, one of the three govern- 
ing cantons of the Swiss confederation. 
P. 407,913, the greater part of whom are 
protestants. The country is very moun- 
tainous, comprising, in the S., many of the 
highest points of the Alps. The N. part 
of the cant, is covered b}' the Jura mntns., 
the two regions being separated by the 
valley of the Aar. Nearly the whole 
territory belongs to the basin of the Rhine, 
& is drained by the Aar & its tributaries. 
Climate healthy ; excessively cold in the 
region of the Alps, where the perpetual 
snow forms the most extensive glaciers 
in Switzerland, but mild at the foot of 
the Jura, & in the valley of Interlacken. 

The canton has mines of iron, lead & cop- 
per, marble & gypsum quarries. Iron is 
worked extensively in the Jura. Among 
the many mineral springs, those of Weis- 
senburg, Blumenstein, Frutigen, & Gur- 
nigel, are most frequented. 

Bern, a town of Switzerland, cap. cant, 
of same name, on a small peninsula 
formed by the Aar, here crossed by two 
stone bridges, one of which, opened 1844, 
is 900 ft. in length. Elev. (of observ.) 
1856 ft. P. 22,422. Bern is the seat of 
the federal diet, alternately with Zurich 
& Lucern. It is the finest town in Swit- 
zerland, & one of the most handsome in 
Europe. Bern was surrounded by walls 
in 1191, declared a free city in 1218, & 
admitted into the Swiss confederation in 
1352. Bears have for many centuries 
been maintained here at the public ex- 
pense, & the effigy of Bruin is a favorite 
emblem on coins & fountains of the canton. 

Bernalillo, a co. of New Mexico. P. 

Bernard (Great St.), a remarkable 
mntn. pass in the chain of the Alps, betw. 
Piedmont & the Valaie. It owes its mod. 
nameio the great celebrity of the hospice, 
said to have been founded by Bernard de 
Menthon, in 862, for the succor of travel- 
lers, who have been assisted to the num- 
ber of 600 in one day. The hospice, a 
strong stone building, is situated on a 
summit of the pass at an elevation of 
8,150 ft. above the level of the sea. It 
is the highest habitation in the Alps. 
During the whole year, the philanthropic 
inmates, monks of the order of St. Augus- 
tine, with their valuable dogs, hold them- 
selves in readiness to assist travellers 
arrested by the snow, which in winter 
accumulates to the depth of from 10 to 
40 ft. In the chapel is a monument to 
General Desaix, erected by Napoleon in 
1805. This gorge, which was traversed 
by Roman armies, by Charlemagne, & 
by Frederic Barbarossa, is chiefly celeb, 
for the passage of Bonaparte at the head 
of the French army of 30,000 men, with 
cavalry & artillery, 15th to 21st May, 

1800. Little St. Bernard, is a mntn. 

of the Graian Alps, S. of Mont Blanc, 
elev. of convent, 7,076 ft. 

Bernard, t., Somerset co. N. J. P. 

Bernardino (St.), a vill. of Switzer., 
cant. Grisons, in the valley of Misocco, 
with mineral springs. 

Bernardston, p-t., Franklin co. Mass. 
betw. Fall & Conn. riv. P. 992. 

Bernau, a t. of Prussia, prov. Bran- 
denburg, on Stettin railw. P. 3,640. 




II. a t. of Baden, circ. Upp. Rhine. P. 
1,600. — Also several villages in Germany. 

Bernay, a town of France, dap. Eure, 
on the Charentonne. P. 5,490. It has a 
comm. coll., & manufs. of woollen cloths, 
linens & yarn : it is the largest horse fair 
in France, frequented by 40,000 persons. 

Bernburg, a town of N. Germany, 
cap. duchy Anhalt-Bernburg, on the 
Saale, here crossed by a massive bridge. 
P. 6,772. It consists of an old & a new 
■town, both enclosed by walls, &, has a ducal 
castle. Manufs. porceln., paper, & starch. 

Berne, p-t., Albany co. N. Y. Here 
the Helderberg hills rise precipitously 
from 100 to 500 ft. It has 22 saw-mills. 
P. 3,740. The land belongs to the Van 

Kensselaer Manor. II. t., Athens co. 

0. P. 381. III. t., Fairfield CO. 0. P. 

2,419. IV. t., Berks eo. Penn. Wa- 
tered by Schuylkill riv. P. 3, 149. V. 

a town of N. Germany, duchy, E. Olden- 
burg. P. 3,725. 

Berneck, a town of Bavaria, circ. Up. 
Franconia, at the mouth of the Oelsnitz. 

P. 1,042. Pearl-fishery in the riv. 

Also y'AlW. in Bavaria, Austria, & WUr- 

Berneck, a vill. of Switzerland, with 
1,300 inhabs. 
. Bernera, 3 i-ls. of the Hebrides. 

Bernese Oberland, Switzerland. 

BernieJ!, a small island, W. Australia. 

Bernina, a mntn. of the Rhastian Alps, 
S.witzerland, remarkable for its extens. 

Bernkastel, a town of Rhenish Prus- 
sia, situated beneath a ruined fortress 
on the Moselle. P. 2,100. 

Beenstadt, a town of Prussian Silesia. 
P. 3,600. It has a ducal castle, & inanufs. 

of woollen & linen fabrics. II. a town 

of Saxony. P. 1,650. III. a vill. of 

Wiirtemberg, circ. Danube. 

Bernstein, a town of Prussia, prov. 

Brandenburg. P. 1,650. II. a town, 

W. Hungary, co. Eisenburg. P. 1,200. 

Beronda, a petty state of Ilindostan, 
Bundeleund. P. 24,000. 

Berravol, an indep. territory & town 
of N. Afghanistan. 

Bebre, a town of France, dep. Bou- 
ches-du-RhGne. P. 1,871. 

Berre (Etang de), a vast lagoon of 
France, dep. B.-du-RhOne. 

Berriedale. an extensive raarit. pa. 
of Scotland, co. Caithness. P. 1,264. 
, Berrien, co. Michigan, in the S.W. 
corner of the state, is 'drained by St. Jo- 
.seph's. Pawpaw, & Gali^re rs. P. 11,417. 

Cap. St. Joseph. II. town, Berrien eo. 

Michigan. P. 543. 

Berriew, a pa. of N. "Wales, co. Mont- 
gomery. P. 2,259. 

Berry (Canal de), a canal of France, 
connects the waters of the Loire with the 
canal of Digoin. 

Bersham, a township of N. Wales, co. 
Denbigh. P. 1,716. 

Bersrand de Comminges (St.), a 
town of France, dep. H. Garonne. P. 
909. It was founded in 1100. In it are 
quarries of fine marble. 

Berthelsdorf, a vill. of Saxony, the 
seat of the central conference of the sect 
of Herrenhuter Christians. 

Bertholdsdorf, a town of Austria, 
Lower Ens, near the railwayfrom Vienna 
to Triest. P. 2,226. 

Berthoud, a vill., Switzerland. [Burg- 


Bertie, eo. N. C, in the N.E. part of 
the state, bounded on the S. by the Roan- 
oke riv., contains 1,000 sq. m. P. 12,851. 
Cap. Windsor. 

Bertignat, a vill. of France, dep. 
Puy-de-Dume. P. 3,035. 

Bertincourt, a vill of France, dep. 
Pas-de-Calais. P. 1,527. 

Bertinoro, a town of Italy, Pontif. 
sta., celebrated for its wines. P. 4,780. 

Bertrand, town, Berrien co. Mich. 
Some manufactures. P. 1,298. 

Bertrich, a vill. of Rhen. Pruss., in a 
romantic glen, with mineral baths, known 
since the time of the Romans. 

Bertry, a vill. of France, dep. Nor''.. 
P. 2,273. 

Bervie, a pari, bor., seaport & pa. of 
Scotland, co. Kincardine, on the N. sea. 
The town near the mouth of the river 
Bervie, the harbor at Gourdon, 1 m. S. 
Bervie has linen manufs. & an active 
trade in corn. 

Berwick, p-v., Columbia co. Penn. 
There is a bridge here over the Susque- 
hanna river, 1,260 feet long. II. town, 

York CO. Maine,- on Salmon fall. Con- 
siderable trade in lumber. Vill. at the 
falls on the riv. is called South Berwick. 

P. 1,698. III. town, Adams co. Penn. 

P. 1,462. 

Berwick (North), a pari. bor. seaport 
of Scotland, co. Haddington, at the mouth 
of the Firth of Forth. It has a shallow 
harbor, but an active trade in corn ; and 
it is frequented as a bathing- place. 

Berwick-on-Tweed, a seaport, munic. 
& pari. bor. of England, co. Northumber- 
land, on the N. bank of the Tweed. P. 
of pari, borough, 12,578. The town is 
surrounded by a wall & fortifications. It 
is connected with its suburbs, Tweed- 
mouth & Spittal, by a stone bridge of 




15 arches, built in the reign of Charles I. 
It has an indifferent harbor, sheltered by 
a long pier. 

Berwickshiee, a co. of Scotland, on 
the coast of German ocean. The princip. 
division was formerly called the Merse 
(March or border dist.). P. 36,287. The 
barren Lammermoor hills are in the N. 
part. Principal rivers, Tweed, Eye, & 

Besancon, a city of France, cap. dep. 
Doubs, on the Doubs,. & on the canal of 
the Rhone & Rhine. P. 27,854.' It is 
well built, though the houses are old, & 
the streets gloomy ; its citadel, on an 
elevated rock, is considered impregnable. 
Chief edifices, a Gothic cathedral, court- 
house, town-hall, royal college, arsenal, 
hospital, public library, & museum ; it is 
an important entrepot for the produce of 
the south of France, & a great part of 
Switzerland. This city is very ancient, 
& was a fortified place in the time of 
Caesar. It was twice taken by Louis 
XIV., & united to France in 1678. 

Besigheim, a town of Wiirtemberg. 
P. 2,430. 

Besni, a town of Asia- Minor, in a nar- 
row glen, 2,340 ft. above the sea. 

Bessan, a town of France, dep. He- 
rault, on the Herault. P. 2,186. 

Bessarabia, prov. of New Russia. 
P. 792,000. The climate is healthy, & 
the soil very fertile. Principal rivs., the 
Danube & Dniester. These rivs. wholly 
enclose the prov., except at its 'N.W. ex- 
tremity. Manufs. nearly confined to soap, 
leather, candles, & spirituous liquors. 

Bessastadir, a small town of Iceland, 
with a gymnasium, a class, school, & a 
library of 2,000 vols. 

Besse, a town of France, dep. Puy-de- 
Dome. P. 2,075. It is situated on the 

E. declivity of Mont-Dore. II. a vill. 

dep. Var. P. 1,720. III. (sur Braye) 

a town, dep. Sarthe. P. 1,195. 

Bessenay, a vill. of France, dep. 
Rhone. P. 2,054. 

Bessines, a t. of France, dep. Haute- 
Vienne. P. 2,713. 

Betaghstown, a vill. of Ireland, co. 

Betaisor, a town & place of pilgri- 
mage, British India, on the Jumna ; near 
it are rems. of an anc. Hindoo city. 

Betanzos, a town of Spain, on riv. of 
samename, near its mouth. P. 4,780. It 
is the oldest town in Galicia, & has re- 
mains of anc. fortifications. The bay of 
Betanzos is an inlet of the Atlantic, 
branches of which form the harbors of 
Ferrol & Coruna. 

Beteta, a vill. of Spain, prov. Cuenca. 
P. 1,100, with mineral springs & royal . 

Bethabara, v. Stokes co. N. C. It is 
a Moravian village. 

Bethania, p-v., Stokes co. N. C. Mo- 

Bethany, t., New Haven co. Conn. 

P. 1,771. II. t., Genesee co. N. Y., on 

little Tonawanda & Black crs. P. 2,286. 

III. Wayne co. Pebn. IV. p-v., 

Brooke co. Va. One college. V. a 

vill. of Palestine, on the E. slope of the 
mount of Olives, 2 m. E. Jerusalem. It 
is now a poor place, inhab. by some 
twenty families. Of Bethphage, a vill. 
formerly a little further E., no trace 

Bethel, p-t., Oxford co. Me. on the 

Androscoggin r. P. 2,253. II. p-t., 

Windsor co. Vt. on White r. P. 1,886. 

III. p-v., Fairfield co. Conn. IV. 

p-t., Sullivan co. N. Y., on branches of 
the Delaware r. P. 1,483.— — V.- p-t., 
Berks co. Penn. P. 1,458. VI. t., Bed- 
ford CO. Penn. P. 1,402. VII. t., Dela- 
ware CO. Penn. VIII. t. Clark co. 0., 

on Mad creek. P. 2,033. IX. t. Posey 

CO. la. P. 449. X. t., Branch co. 

Mich. P. 335. XI. St. Clair co. Mich. 

XII. t., Monroe co. 0. P. 545. 

XIII. t., Miami co. 0., on Miami r. P. 
1,574. XIV. v., Wayne eo. Ga. 

XV. t., Lebanon co. Penn. P. 1,662. 

XVI. a ruined town of Palestine, pash. 
Damascus, 10 m. N. Jerusalem. 

Beth-horon, two vills. of Palestine, 

fash. Damascus, 9 m. N.W. Jerusalem, 
n the former are some traces of ancient 
walls, a reservoir, &c.; & between the 
two vills. is a pass, down which ' Joshua 
drove the Amorite kings. 

Bethlehem, p-t., Grafton co. N. H. Pina 
& the sugar maple abound, some iron ore. 

It has mineral springs. P. 779. II. 

p-t., Hunterdon co. N. J. P. 2,370, 

III. t., Albany co. N. Y. P. 3,238. 

IV. North Hampton co. Penn., on the N. 
bank of the Lehigh r., was settled by the 
Moravians under Count Zinzendorf. It is 
compactly built. There is a bridge over 
the Lehigh 400 feet long ; a female school 
of a high order, conducted by the Mora- 
vians in which many highly respectable 
ladies of the middle states have received 

their education. P. 2,989. V. p-t.. 

Stark CO. 0., on the Turcarawas r. P. 

2,019. VL t., Coshocton co. 0. 

VII. p-v., Clark co. la. on the Ohio r. 

VIII. v., Oglethorp co. Ga. 1 acad. 

IX. a famous city of Palestine, which, 

though insignificant in point of size, will 




be ever memorable as the birthplace of 
the founder of Christ.ianity. It stands 
on the mntn. chain of Anti-Libanus, 5J 
m. S.W. Jerusalem. P. said to be 3,000, 
nearly all Christians. It is a large 
straggling vill., with one broad street, at 
the extremity of which there is a magni- 
ficent church, erected in the 4th century 
by the empress Helena, over the site (the 
" Grotto of the Nativity,") traditionally 
celebrated for the birth of the Saviour. 

Bethlem, town, Litchfield co. Conn. 
P. 776. 

Bethnal Green, one of the E. sub- 
urbs of London, co. Middlesex. 

Bethsaida (op Galilee), an ane. 
town of Palestine, which probably stood 
on the shore of Lake Tiberias ; but its 
site is undetermined, and its name dis- 

Bethshan, a vill. of E. Palestine, on 
the route from Jerusalem to Damascus, 
in the valley of Jezreel. It is now called 
Beisan, and consists of 60 or 70 houses. 
The Philistines suspended the body of 
Saul from its walls, after the battle of 

Beth-shemesh, an anc. city of Pales- 
tine, the remains of which are supposed 
to be at Ain Sh. a. vill., pash. Gaza. 

Bethune, a town of France, dep. Pas- 
de-Calais, on a rock near the r. Lawe & 
the canal of Aire. P. 7,150. It has a 
castle constructed by Vauban, a comm. 
college, Gothic church, & commerce in 
cheese, grain, oil, & lint. 

Betisbooka, a considerable river of 
Madagascar, enters Mozambique chan- 
nel on its N.W. coast. 

Betwah, a riv. of Hindostan, rises in 
the Vindhyan mntns., Bhopaul, 340 m. 
in leng^th. 

Beutelsbach, a town of Wiirtemberg. 
P. 1,850. 

Beuthen, two towns of Prussian Si- 
lesia. 1, near the Polish frontier. P. 

4;950. 11. reg. Breslau, on the Oder. 

P. 3,740. 

Beuzeville, a town of France, dep. 
i^ure. P. 2,735. 

Bevagna, a town of Italy, Pontif. 
states. P. 3,720. 

Beveland (North & South), two isls. 
of the Netherlands, prov. Zeeland, in the 
mouth of the Scheldt. 

Bevenais, a vill. of France, dep. Is^re, 
P. 1,064. 

Bevensen, a town of Hanover. P. 
. 1,288. 

Beveren, a town of Belgium, prov. E. 
Flanders. P. 1,560. It has a fine church, 
and manufactures of lace. 

Beverley, a pari. & munic. borough & 
town of England, CO. York. P. 8,671. It 
is a remarkably clean & handsome town, 
with a main street nearly 1 m. in length, 
terminated by an anc. gateway. 

Beverley, p-t., Essex co. Mass., con- 
nected with Salem by a bridge 1,500 feet 
long. p. 4,689. Commerce & fisheries. 

Considerable manufs. II. p-v., cap. 

Randolph co. Va. III. p-t., Washing- 
ton 00. 0. 

BEyERN, a town of Belgium, prov. E. 

Bevern, a vill. of Germany, duchy 
Brunswick. P. 1,170. 

Beverungen, a t. of Prussian West- 
phalia, on 1. b. of the Weser. P. 1,918. 

BEVERVi?YK, a town of the Netherlands, 
N. Holland. P. 2,252. In its vicinity 
the expedition of the Prince of Orange 
to England, & the Eevolution of 1688, 
was planned. 

Bevilacqua, a vill. of N. Italy, gov. 

Bewcastle, a pa. of England, co. 
Cumberland. It was anciently a Roman 
station, & has remains of a fortress, built 
soon after the conquest. In its church- 
yard is a curious obelisk, bearing inscrip- 
tions supposed to be Danish. 

Bewdley, a pari. & munic. bor., town, 
of England, co. Worcester, on the Severn, 
across which it communicates with its 
suburb Wribbenhall, by a stone bridge. 
P. of pari. bor. 7,458. 

Bexar, county, Texas. P. 6,052. Cap. 
San Antonio de Bexar. 

Beyah, a river of the Punjab. 

Beyerland, an isl. of S. Holland, be- 
tween the Old Maas on the N., & Hol- 
land's Diep. 

Bbyhar, a town of British India, 
presid. Bengal. 

Beykout, a seaport, & flourishing com- 
mercial town of Syria, pash. Acre, on a 
bay of the Mediterranean. P. 12,000. 
Its walls are about 3 m. in circumference, 
outside of which are suburbs equalling 
the town in extent. It has some large & 
well-supplied bazaars. Streets narrow, 
but clean, it being plentifully furnished 
with springs. The harbor, protected by 
a mole, is adapted only for small boats ; 
but in the bay beyond it, ships may an- 
chor in from 6 to 1 1 fathoms. The town 
has some manufs. of silk stuffs, & gold & 
silver. thread. 

Beze, a vill. of France, dep. Cote d'Or. 
P. 1,100. 

Beziers, a city of France, dep. He- 
rault, on the Orb. P. 16,322. It is built 
in a delicious situation, remarkable for 




the salubrity of its climate, & has a comm. 
college, an aqueduct of Roman origin, & 
ruins of a Roman amphitheatre, a public 
library, & manufs. of silk, hosiery, dimity, 
parchment, gloves, verdigris, & confec- 
tionery, with tanneries, & extensive 
brandy distilleries ; & it is the centre of 
a considerable trade. In 1209 this city 
was the scene of a barbarous massacre 
of the Albigenses. 

Bezons, a vill. of France, dep. Seine- 
et-Oise, on r. b. of the Seine. 

Bezora, a town of British India, 
presid. Madras, on the Kistnah. 

Bhadrinath, a town of N. Hindostan, 
in a valley of the Himalaya, 10,294 feet 
above the sea, & remarkable for a temple 
reported to be endowed with the revenues 
of 700 villages, & visited annually by 

50,000 Hindoo pilgrims. II. a peak 

of the Himalaya, 17 m. W. the town, & 
23,441 feet in height. 

Bhag, a town of Beloochistan. It has 
a manuf. of gunpowder, from sulphur 
procured in an adjacent mine. 

Bhamo, a town of Burmah, & the prin- 
cipal mart of its trade with China, on the 
Irrawadi. It comprises 2,000 houses, 
many of brick, inhabited by Chinese, & 
around it are many populous vills. 

Bhanpooea, a town of Hindostan. 

II. a town of British India, presid. 


Bhatgong, a decayed city of Nepaul, 
& the favorite residence of the Nepaul 

Bhatneek, a town of British India, 
presid. of Bengal. 

Bhavani-Kudal, a town of British 
India, presid. Madras. Here are famous 
temples of Vishnu & Siva. 

Bhawlpoor, an independent state of 
N.W. Hindostan. P. 250,000, mostly Jets, 
with some Hindoos, Belooches, & Afghans. 
Surface level, & chiefly desert, except 
along the Ghara, where is a strip of ter- 
ritory, about 10 m. in width, of high fer- 
tility. Cattle, wild hogs, game & poultry, 
are plentiful. Annual public revenue 
about 150,000Z. The rajah maintains a 
standing army of nearly 7,000 men, with 
6 field-pieces ; & he can raise an irregu- 
lar force of 20,000 men. His adherence 
to the British, in the late Afghan war, 
was rewarded, in 1843, by the annexation 
to his dominions of some districts in N. 

Scinde. II. Bhawlpoor, the cap. of the 

above state, on a branch of the Ghara. 
P. 20,000. It is enclosed by gardens, & 
by a mud wall 4 m. in circumference. 
Bhawlpoor is famous for its scarfs & tur- 
bans ; & chintzes, & other cotton goods 

are woven here, to the estimated annual 
value of about 52,000Z. It is also an en- 
trepot for European & Indian goods. 

Bheer, a town of India, Deccan. 

Bhind, a town of Hindostan, dom. 

Bhirjan, one of the most E. towns of 
the Persian dom. in the desert. It com- 
prises from 4,000 to 5,000 brick houses, 
several caravanserais, mosques & baths, 
a citadel, & a governor's palace. It has 
a local repute for the excellence of its 

Bhobaneser, a ruined town of Brit- 
ish India, presid. Bengal. It has nu- 
merous remains of temples & sculptured 
figures, & a tower 180 feet in height, sup- 
posed to date from the 7th century. 

Bhooj, a city of Hindostan, cap. of 
Cutch, & in a plain near its centre. P. 
30,000. (?) 

Bhoong-Bara, a dist. of Scinde, com- 
prising 15 vills. 

Bhopaui,, a state of Hindostan. Soil 
fertile & well watered ; the country pros- 
perous & tranquil. Pub. rev. estim. at 

180,000?. annually. II. Bhopaul, the 

cap. of the above state. 

Bhowanipook, a village or sta. of 
British India, presid. Bengal. Here a 
great annual fair is held, from April 7 to 
17, at which 100.000 persons often as- 

Bhownugger, a seaport town of Brit- 
ish India, presid. Bombay, on the W. 
side of the gulf of Cambay. 

Bhujee, a petty state. of Hindostan. 

Bhubtpoor, a state of Hindostan, 
presid. Bengal. Surface well watered. 
Products, cotton, corn, sugar, & salt from 

Bia, a vill. of Hungary, co. Pesth. P. 

BiAFRA (Bight of), an inlet of the 
Atlantic, on the W. coast of Africa, betw. 
Cape Formosa & Cape Lopez. Of Biafra 
kngdm., E. of the bight, little is known. 

BiAGio (S.), a town of Naples, prov. 
Calabria. P. 3,000. 

BiALA, a town of Austrian Galieia, on 
the Biala, across which a stone bridge 
connects it with Bielitz, in Moravia. P. 

4,000. II. a town of Poland, prov. 

Podlachia. P. 3,600. — Also several vills. 
in Galieia. 

BiALLA, a small town of E. Prussia. 
P. 1,120. 

BiALYSTOK, a prov. of Europ. Russia, 
& formerly a part of Poland. P. 265,944. 
Surface flat & fertile. Forests extensive 
& valuable. Principal rivers, the Bug, 
Narew, & Bober. Large quantities of 




wheat, rye, &c., are raised. — Bialystok, 
the fortified cap. above prov., on the 
Bialy, an affluent of the Narew. P. 
8,218. It is well built, & handsome ; its 
chief edifice is the castle of Count Bra- 
nicki, which has been entitled the " Ver- 
sailles of Poland." 

BiANA, a town of Hindostan, Bhurt- 
poor dominion. 

BiANCAViLLA, a town of Sicily, on the 
declivity of Mount Etna. P. 5,870. 

Bianco (Cape), several headlands in 
the Mediterranean, the principal in Sicily. 
Bianco is the name of some vills. in 

Italy, & the Ionian isls. II. a town 

in the kingdom of Naples, prov. Calab. 
P. 1,300. 

Biandeate. a vill. of Piedmont. P. 

Biab, a town of Spain, prov. Alicante. 
P. 2,963. 

BiABEiTZ, a marit. vill. of France, dep. 
B. Pyrenees, with well-frequented baths 
& curious grottoes. P. 1,892. 

BiAscA, a town of Switzerl. P. 1,912. 
In 1512 it was- nearly destroyed by. an 
inundation of the Blegno. 

Bibb, county, Ga., in the central part 
of the state, on Ocmulgee riv. P. 12,699. 

Cap. Macon. II. county, Ala., in the 

central part of the state, drained by Ca- 
hawba riv. P. 9,969. Cap. Centreville. 

BiBBiENA, a vill. of Tuscany, on the 
Arno. P. 1,600. 

BiBBONA, a small town of Tuscany, 
prov. Pisa. 

BiBEEACH, a town of Wiirtemberg. P. 

4,800. II. a vill. of Baden, on the 

Kinzig. P. 1,207. 

BiBiANA, a vill. of Piedmont, prov. 
Pinerolo. P, 2,850. 

BiBLis, a vill. of Hesse-Darmstadt, 

pro^'. Starkenburg. P. 2,050. II. a 

pa. of England, co. Glo'ster, 3J m. N.W. 
Fairford. Area, 6,300 ac. P. 1,077. 

BicANEEE, a Rajpoot state of Hindos- 
tan. It is comprised in the Indian desert. 
Surface elevated, but flat & sandy, & the 
crops are precarious. — Bicanere, a fortfd. 
town, cap. above state, is enclosed by a 
strong wall, flanked with towers. 

BiccABi, a town of Naples, prov. Ga- 
pitnnata. P. 3,400. 

Bicester, a town of England, co. 
O.^ford. It is neatly built, & its large 
church, erected in 1400. contains some 
curious sculptures. 

BiCETRE, a hamlet of France. 

BicHANA, a consid. town of Abyssinia. 

BiDACHE, a town of France, dep. B. 

BiDAssoA, a small river, forming part 

of the boundary between France & Spain. 
On an isl. in its mouth the treaty of the 
Pyrenees was concluded in 1659. 

BiDDEFOBD, town, York co. Me., on 
the S. side of the Saco riv., & connected 
with the t. of Saco by a bridge. It also 
borders on the ocean. Some manufs. 
P. 2,579. 

BiDEFORD, a seaport of England, co. 
Devon, on the Torridge. P. 5,211. The 
town consists mostly of old brick houses, 
with timber frame-work. It has a stone 
bridge of 24 arches, built in 14th century, 
maintained by a bridge-estate, producing 
400Z. per annum. The trade of Bideford 
was formerly very e.xtensive. 

BiDscHow (New), a town of Bohemia. 
P. 3,831. 

BiEBRicH, a vill. of W. Germany, 
duchy Nassau, on r. b. of the Rhine. 
Pop., with Mosbach, 2,882. Its ducal 
residence is the finest palace on the 

BiEcz, a town of Austr. Poland, Gali- 
eia, on the Roppa. P. 1,920. 

BiEDENKOPF, a town of Germany, 
Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Lahn. P. 3,200. 

BiELAU, 4 contiguous vills. of Prussian 
Silesia, with an aggregate pop. of 6,995. 

BiELAYA, a large river of Russia, gov. 
Orenburg. Length 500 m. 

Bielefeld, a walled town of Prussian 
Westphalia. P. 6,955. 

BiELGOROD, a town of Russia, on the 
Donetz. P. 8,000. 

BiELEv. a town of Russia, circ, on 1. b. 
of the Oka. P. 7,000. It has manufs. 
of soap, leather, & hardwares, & a con- 
siderable trade. 

BiELiTz, a town of Silesia, on 1. b. of 
the Biala riv., across which a stone bridge 
connects it with the town Biala^ in Austr. 
Gallicia. P. 6,000. 

BiELLA, a town of Piedmont, prov. 
same namCj on the Cervo. P. 8,677. 

BiELOi, a town of Russia, on the Ob- 
schtscha, an afii. of the Diina. P. 3,476. 

BiELO-OzEBO, a lake of Russia, gov. 
Novgorod. Length, 25 m. ; breadth, 20 m. 

BiELOPOL, a town of Russia, on the 
Vira. P. 9,000, who distil spirits, & carry 

on an active general trade. II. a 

town of European Turkey, Herzegovina. 
P. 3,000. 

BiELOzERSK, two towns of Russia. — I. 
gov. Novgorod, on the S. shore of the 
Bielo-Ozero. P. 3,090.— II. gov. Tobolsk, 
on the Tobol. 

BiELSK, a ^oWn of Russian Poland, 
prov. Bialystok P. 2,400. 

BiENNE (Lake of), Switzerland, cant. 
Bern. Elev. above the sea, 1,419 ft. It is 





traversed hj the riv. Thiele. Its shores, 
though pleasing, are not of striking 
beauty, & its chief interest arises from its 
containing the island St. Pierre, the resi- 
dence of Rousseau in 1765. 

BiENNE, a town of Switzerland, cant. 
Bern, at the N. extremity of the above 
lake. P. 4,248. 

BiENTiNA, a t. of Tuscany, prov. Pisa. 

P. 2,209. The Lake of Bientina, IST. 

of the town, & partly in the duchy 
Lucca, is 5 miles in length, & 2 miles in 

BiENVENiDA, a town of Spain, prov. 
Badajoz. P. 3,280. ^ - 

Bienville, a new pa. of Louisiana. 
P. 5,539. 

BiERLEY (North), a tnship. of Engl., 
CO. York, West Riding. P. 9,512, partly 
employed in quarries & coal-pits. 

Biervliet, a small town of the Neth- 
erl'ds, prov. Zealand. P. 1,675. 

BiES- Bosch, a marshy lake of the 
Netherl'ds, forming the B. extension of 
the branch of the Maas, called Holland's 
Diep. It is very shallow, & contains 
numerous islands. This lake was formed 
19th Nov. 1421, by an inundation which 
is said to have submerged 72 vills. & 
100,000 inhabitants. 

BiESHiEM, a vill. of France, dep. H. 
Ehin. P. 1,762. 

BiETiGHEiM, a town of Wiirtemberg, 

on the Enz. P. 2,920. II. a vill. of 

Baden, circ. Middle Rhine. P. 1482. 

BiEVENE, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Hainault. P. 3,270. 

BiEVREs, a vill. of France, on the 
Bievre. P. 1,142. 

BiFERNO, a riv. of Naples, prov. San- 
nio. L. 40 m. 

BiGGA, one of the Shetland isls. 

BiGGAR, a town of Scotl., co. Lanark. 
P. 1,395. It consists mostly of one long 
& wide street. 

Big Beaver, a t., Beaver co. Penn. 
P. 1,339. 

Big Black, riv., in Miss., 100 m. in 
length, falling into Mississippi riv. 

Big Blue, r. rises in the Ind. terr. & 
falls into the Missouri. 

Big Creek, p-t.. Philips co. Ark. P. 

392. II. t.. Van Buren co. Mo. P. 

1,106. III. t., Crawford co. Ark. 

Big Flatts, p-t., Chemung co. N. T., 
watered by the Chemung riv. & its 
branches. The vill. is on the N. side of 
the riv. P. 1,375. 

Big Hatchy, r., Tenn., 100 m. long, 
falls into the Miss. 

Big Island, p-t., Marion co. 0. 
Big Lick, t., Hancock co. 0. 

Big Prairie, t., Madrid co. Mo. 1 
acad. P. 624. 

Big River, t., Jefferson co. Mo. P. 

Big Sandy, riv., rises in Va., & falls 
into the Ohio. It forms the boundary 
betw. Va. & Ky. for nearly 200 m. 

Big Springs, >t., Seneca co. 0. P. 

Big Walnut, r., branch of the Scioto, 
0. Length, 55 m. 

Bihach, a town & important strong- 
hold in European Turkey, on an isl. ia 
the Unna. P. 3,000. 

Bihar, a town of Hungary, beyond 
the Theiss, co. Bihar. P. 2,440. 

BiJANAGUR, a once famous city of S. 
India, presidency Madras, on the Toom- 

BiJAWAR, a state of Hindostan, Bun- 
delcund. P. 90,000. 

BiJBAHAR, a town of Cashmere, on the 
Jailum, here crossed by a remarkable 
timber bridge. 

Buna, a petty state of Hindostan, 
Bundelcund. P. 2,800. 

Bijnee, a town of Hindostan. 

Busk, a- town of Siberia, gov. S. 
Tomsk. P. 3,500. 

Bilbao, a city of the N. of Spain, on 
the Nervion. P. 11,900. Bilbao has su- 
perior schools, supported by its consulado 
or tribunal of pommerce. Principal man- 
ufactures, hardwares, anchors, leather, 
paper, hats, tobacco, & earthenware ; for 
building merchant-vessels, with iron & 
copper mines in the vicinity. Bilbao 
was founded in ISOO. 

BiLGORAY, a town of Poland, on the 
Lada. P. 1,800. 

BiLiARSK, a vill. of Russia. P. 2,500. 

BiLiN, a town of Bohemia, on the 
Bila. P. 3,100. It has two castles, & 
celeb. & much frequented min. springs, 
the acidulated waters of which form an 
article of export to the extent of 500,000 
jars yearly. 

BiLiNBAEvsK, a mining town of Rus- 
sia, in the Ural mntns. It has extensive 

BiLiRAN, one of the Philippine isls. 

BiLLERBECK, a Small town of Pruss. 
Westphalia. P. 1,440. 

BiLLERicA, p-t., Middlesex co. Ms., on 
the Concord & Shawsheen rivs. P. 1,632. 

BiLLERicAY, a town of England, co. 
Essex. P. 1,284. 

BiLLiERs, a vill. of France, dep. Mor- 
bihan. P. 1,085. 

BiLLiGHEiM, a town of Rhenish Bava- 
ria. P. 1,760. 

BiLLiTON, an isl. of the Dutch E. In- 




dies, intermediate between Sumatra & 
Borneo. P. 6,000. It is surrounded by 
rocks & islets, & is rich in iron ore & val- 
uable timber. 

BiLLOM, a town of France, dep. Puy-de- 
Dume. P. 3,265. It has a comm. college, 
& some manufs. of fine earthenwares, 
called the "'pottery of Bretagne." 

BiLMA, a town of central Africa, Ni« 
gritia, on the route from Fezzan to Lake 
Tchad. It is said to have abundant sup- 
plies of water. 

BiLSA, a town of Hindostan, dom. S. 
Gwalior, on the Betwah. It is encld. by 
a stone wall, & in 1820 had 5,000 houses. 
Excellent tobacco is grown in the vicinity. 

BiLSEN, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Limbourg, on the Demer. P. 3, 085. 

BiLSTOx, a town of Engl., co. Stafford. 
P. 20,181. It is very irregularly built, 
but has many good residences; Coal &, 
ironstone abound in the vicinity. 

BiMA, a seaport town of the Dutch E. 
Indies, cap. state of same name, in the 
isl. Sumbawa. 

BiMBER, a town of the Punjab, on an 
affl. of the Chenab. 

BiMBiA, a riv. of W. Africa, enters the 
bight of Biafra. 

BiMiNi, a small group of isls. sur- 
rounded by reefs, in the Bahama archip., 
E. of Cape Florida. 

BiMLiPATAji, a seaport town of Brit. 
India, presid. Madras. 

BiNAB, a town of Persia, on the Sofi 
Chai, a tribut. of Lake Urumiyah. It is 
of modem origin. 

BiNABOLA, a lofty mntn. range of Ire- 
land, CO. Galway ; the culm, point, Knock- 
annahiggen, is 2,400 ft. above the sea. 

BiNAsco, a town & fortress of N. Italy, 
Lombardy. P. 5,000. 

BiNBROOKE, a vill. of England, co. 
Lincoln. P. 1,187. 

BiNCHE, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Hainault, on the Haine. P. 5,235. 

BiNCHESTER, a tushp. of England, co. 

BiNDRABiTND, a Considerable town of 
Brit. India, presid. Bengal, on the Jumna. 
It has several sacred pools & caves, & 
numerous tsmples of Krishna, one of 
which is among the most massive works 
of Hindoo architecture. 

BiNGEN, a town of Germany, grand 
duchy Hessen-Darmstadt, on the 1. b. of 
the Rhine. Pop. 4,500, who manuf. 
leather, & raise superior wines. It owes 
its origin to the Roman castle or klopp 
of Drusus. 

Bingham, a town of England, in the 
rich vale of Belvoir, co. Nottingham. P. 

1,998. II. p-t., Somerset co. Me. P. 

751. III. t., Clinton co. Mich. 

BiNGHAMTON, p-v., Broome co. N. Y., 
at the junction of Chenango & Susque- 
hanna rivers, & on the Erie railroad. P. 

BiNGLEY, atownof England, co. York, 
"Vy. Riding. P. 11,850. It has a grammar 
school founded in the time of Henry VIII. 

BiNic, a vill. of France, dep. COtes- 
du-Nord. P. 1,828. 

BiNTANG, an isl. of the Dutch E. In- 
dies. P. with the small isls. in its vicinity, 
13,000. It is estim. that 70,000 piculs 
of- gambeer (an astringent gum) are 
annually procured here. 

BioBio, a riv. of Chile, rises in the 
Andes. Length 200 m. 

BioGLio, a vill. of Piedmont. P. 2,227. 

BiOfiNEBOEG, a seaport town of Fin- 
land, on the Kumo, at its mouth, in the 
gulf of Bothnia. P. 4,567. It has some 
ship-building, & an export trade in tim- 
ber, pitch, tar, & fish. 

BioT, a vill. of Francs, dep. Var. P. 

BiE, Turkish, a walled town of Asiatic 
Turkey, on the Euphrates. It has from 
1,800 to 2,000 houses. 

Birbeck-Fells, a dist. of England, co. 

Birbhoom, g dist. British India, pre- 
sid. Bengal. P. 1,580,600. Coal & iron 
mines are wrought in this dist. * 

BiRCHiNGTON, a soaport vill. of Engl., 
and a member of the cinque port of 
Dover, co. Kent, Isle of Thanet. 

Bird Island, one of the Sandwich 

Islands, North Pacific ocean. II. one 

of the Low Isl. Pacific, near the middle 

of the group. Bird Islands, South 

Africa, are in Algoa bay. 

BiRDSALL, p-t., Alleghany co. N. Y., 
on Black creek. - 

BiRiouTCHE, a town »f Russia, on 1. b. 
oftheSosna. P. 5,451. 

BiRKENFELD, a principality of W. 
Germany, belonging to Oldenburg. Area, 
143 sq. m. P. 28,669. Surface moun- 
tainous & well-wooded. Princip. riv. the 
N-ahe, an affl. of the Rhine. Chf. pro- 
ducts, cattle, iron, flax, hemp, & oil seeds. 

BiRKENFELD, a towu of Germany, near 
the Nahe. P. with vill. of Bckweiler, 

Birkenhead, a town & tnshp. of Eng- 
land, CO. Chester, on the estuary of the 
Mersey. P. 20,000. It has wholly 
risen up since the formation of ship-build- 
ing docks in 1824. 

BiRKET, the name of several lakes & 
places in Egypt. 




Birk-Fell, a mntn. of England, co. 

BiHMiNGHAM, one of tlie principal man- 
ufacturing towns of England, near its 
centre, co. Warwick. P. 182,922: The 
town, on the river Rea, occupies the decliv- 
ity of three undulating hills. Its lower 
part consists of unprepossessing streets, old 
houses, & workshops; but its upper portions 
comprise many broad streets & good resi- 
dences. The superb town-hall, one of 
the finest edifices in Engl., occupies a 
commanding site, & is in classic style- 
Queen's College, lately established, & 
munificently endowed, is in connection 
with the University of London ; attached 
to it are a flourishing medical school & 
Queen's hospital. Birmingham origi- 
nally consisted of but one parish : it is 
now divided into four — St. Martin, St. 
Philip, St. George, & St. Thomas. Pub- 
lic institutions comprise a society of arts, 
with a drawing academy, & annual exhi- 
bition of paintings ; public library, with 
27,000 vols.; philosophic & mechanics' 
institutions ; Springhill college, for In- 
dependents & Baptists ; & a great variety 
of other educational establishments. The 
town has extensive baths, & a place of 
amusement termed "Vauxhall." Bir- 
mingham has made most rapid progress 
in manufacturing industry within the 
present century. Its manufactures com- 
prise almost every description of iron & 
steel goods, brass & iron foiinding, sad- 
dlery, fire-arms, cutlery, gold, silver, 
plated, bronze, or-molu, & japanned 
wares ; papier-mache goods, toys, jew- 
ellery, electro-plated goods, buttons, 
steel-pens, glass, tools, steam-engines, & 
all kinds of machinery. In 1G49, the 
steam-engines employed in its factories, 
were supposed to have an aggregate 
power of 5,400 horses, & to consume 
377 tons of coals daily, & the annual 
value of manufactures has been estimated 
at .£4,000,000. This town is supposed 
to have been a place where arms wore 
manufd. in the time of the anc. Britons; 
its high commei'C. importance dates, how- 
ever, only from the 17th century. In 
1791, a disgraceful riot took place here, 
in which the library of Dr. Priestley was 
burnt by the mob, with other property, 
to the total amount of i;60,000. 

Birmingham, t., Huntingdon co. Penn. 

Some manufac. II. t., Chester co. 

Penn. III. p-v., Erie co. N. Y. A 

growing vill. IV. a manufac. vill.. 

New Haven co. Conn. V. p-v., Oak- 
land CO. Mich., on one of the head br. of 
the Kouge. 

BiRNAM, a mntn. of Scotland, co. Perth. 
It was anciently included in a royal 
forest, which Shakspeare has immortal- 
ized as '• Birnam Wood," in his tragedy 
of Macbeth. 

BiENBAUM, a town of Pruss. Poland, on 
the Warta. P. 2,637. 

BiRNEE (Old), a large town of Central 
Africa, Bornou, on the Yeou. P. 10,000. 

BiRON, a town of France, dep. Dor- 
dogne. P. 1,124. 

Bier, a vill. of Switzerland. 

Birr, a town of Ireland, co. Leinster. 
P. 6,336. 

BiRRESBORN, a ham. of Rhenish Prus- 
sia. Well-frequented min. springs ; near 
it is the acidulated spring of Brudeldreis. 

BiRSK, an anc. town of Russia, gov. 
Orenburg, on the Bielaia. P. 3,500. 

BiRTLE, a tnship. of England, co. Lan- 
caster. P. 1,753. 

BiRZB, a town of Russia, gov. Vilna. 

BisAcciA, a town of Naples, prov. 
princip. Ult. P. 5,700. 

BisAcauiNO, a t. of Sicily, with an ex- 
tensive trade in grain, oil, & lint. P. 8,000. 

BisAGNO, a fertile & highly cultivated 
district in the vicinity of Genoa. 

BisANO, an island, Asiatic archipel- 
ago, off the N.E. extremity of Celebes. 
Circum. 20 m. 

BiscHOF-TEiNiTZ, a town of Bohemia. 
P. 2,200. 

BiscHwiLLER, a town of France, dep. 
Bas-Rhin, on the Moder. P.' 6,242. 
Manufs. of coarse woollen & linen cloths, 
gloves, & earthenwares. 

BisENTi, a town of Naples, prov. Ab- 
ruzzo Ult. P. 2,500. 

BisENZ, a town of Moravia. P. 2,650. 

Bishop & Clerks, two groups of rocky 
islets. — — I. in St George's channel, off 

the coast of Pembrokeshire. II. in 

the Pacific ocean, S.W. of New Zealand. 

Bishop's Castle, a town of England, 
CO. Salop. 

Bishop's Stortford, a town of Eng., 
CO. Hertford, on the E. co. railw. P. 4,681. 

BisBAL (La), a town of Spain, prov. 
Gerona. P. 3,110. 

Biscaea, a town of Algeria, cap. dist. 
Zaab, S. of Mt. Atlas. Occupied by the 
French since 1844. 

B iscARi, a town of Sicily, on the Dirillo. 
P. 2,700. 

BiscAEEOssE, a vill. of France, dep. 
Landes. P. 1,551. 

Biscay, a prov. of N. Spain, one of 
the 3 Basque provs. Area, 1,200 sq. m. 
P. 111,433. Cap. Bilbao. 

Biscay, a town of New Mexico. 

Biscay (Bay of), a vast bay or gulf 




formed by the Atlantic, & extending be- 
tween Ouessant isl., on the W. coast of 
France, & Cape Ortegal on the N. coast 
of Spain. Its N. & S. coasts are bold & 
rocky ; but on the E., from the mouth of 
the Qirondc to the Adour, the coast is 
composed of sand downs, & interrupted 
by numerous lagoons. The depth varies 
from 20 fath. on the W. of France, to 
200 fath. on the N. of Spain. Navigation 
is much impeded by the heavy seas, & by 
a current (Kennel's) which sets in from 
the Atlantic. 

BiscEGLiA, a seaport town of Naples, 
on the Adriatic. P. 13,500. 

BiscHHEiM, a vill. of France, dep. Bas- 
Rhin. P. 2,929. 

BiscHOFSBURG, a town of E. Prussia, 
on the Dimmer. P. 2,450. 

BiscHDFSHEiM, several small towns in 
Germany, &c. 

Bischofs-Laak, a town of Illyria. 
P. 1,850. 

Bischofsstein, a town of E. Russia. 
P. 2,836. 

Bischofswerda, a town of the kgdm. 
of Saxony, on railw. from Dresden to 
Bautzen. P. 2,486. 

BiscHOFSZELL, a towu of Switzerland, 
cant. Thurgau, on the Sitter. P. 2,000. 

BisHOPTHOHPE, a pa. of Engl., CO. York, 
on the Ouse. The palace here has been 
the residence of the archbishop of York 
since the destruction of Cawood castle in 
the parliamentary war. 

BisiGNANO, a town of Naples, prov. 
Calab. P. 3,200. It has a castle on a 
lofty height, acathadral, several churches, 
a diocesan school & some trade in silk. 

BisLEY, a town of Eng., co. Gloucester. 

Bismark, a town of Pruss. Saxony. 
P. 1,600. 

BissAGOS, an archip. off the W. coast 
of Africa, consisting of 16 large & nume- 
rous .small isls. The isls. appear to be 
densely peopled, but the natives are of a 
savage negro race. & little is known of the 
interior ; they contain many fine ports. 
Chief produce rice & fruit, & many cattle 
are reared. 

BissAo, an isl. & Portuguese settle- 
ment of W. Africa, Senegambia, one of 
the Bissagos group, opposite the delta of 
the Jeba riv. P. 8,000. This isl. "is 
the great stronghold of the Portuguese 
slave trade." 

BissiNGEN, a town of Bavaria. 

BissoLEE, two towns of India. 

BissuNPOOR, an ancient town of Brit- 
ish India, presid. Bengal. 

BisTAGNO, a town of Piedmont, prov. 
Acqui. P. 2,000. 

BisTAM, a town of Persia, prov. Kho- 

BisTENEAu, lake, Claiborne pa., La, 
Length 35 m. ; width 2 m. 

BisTRiTz, a river of Transylvania. 

II. a riv. which rises at the E. extremity 
of Hungary ; joins the Sereth after a, 
course of about 110 m., & is named the 
"Golden Bistritz" from its auriferous 

sands. III. two rivs. of Galicia, tribut. 

to the Dniester. 

Bistritz, a town of Transylvania, 

Saxon-land. P.' 6, 500. II. a town 

of Moldavia, on the " golden" Bistritz. — ■ 
Also sevl. vills. in Moravia, Bohemia, & 

BisuLi, a town of British India, Pun- 
jab, on the Ravee. It has a large ba- 
zaar, & a vast palace, regarded by Vigne 
as the finest of its kind in the east, & re- 
sembling a European feudal mansion. 
II. a town, presid. Bengal. 

BxsuTUN, a ruined town of Persia, prov. 
Irak-Ajemi. Here are some remains of 
Sassanian buildings, Greek inscriptions, 
& traces of works ascribed to Semiramis. 

BiswAH, a small town of British India, 
Oude territory. 

Bitburg, a town of Rhenish Prussia. 
P. 2,040. 

BiTCHE, a town of France, dep. Mo- 
iselle, in a pass of the Vosges. P. 3,131. 

BiTETTO, a town of Naples, prov. Bari. 
P. 3,300. 

BiTLis, a town of Asiatic Turkey, pash. 
Van, on the "W. side of Lake Van, & 5,156 
feet above the sea level. P. 2,000 Moham. 
& 1,000 Armenian families. Near it the 
army of Solyman the Magnificent was 
signally defeated by the Persians, ad. 

BiTONTO, a town of Naples, prov. Bari. 
P. 14,370. It is handsomely built & 
thriving, & has a fine cathedral. Excel- 
lent wine is raised in its vicinity. 

BiTRiTTO, a town of Naples, prov. Bari. 
P. 2,300. Commerce in wine. 

BiTscHwiLLER, a town of France, dep. 
H. Rhin, on the Thuren. P. 2,847. It 
has extens. iron foundries. 

BrTTERFELD, a town of Pruss. Saxony, 
on 1. b. of the Mulde. P. 3,959. It was 
founded by a colony of Flemings in the 
12th century. 

BiTTEscH (Gross), a town of Moravia. 
P. 1,602.- — II. {Klein), a vill. of Moravia. 

BiTTi, a vill. of the isl. Sardinia- P. 

BiTTOOR, a town of British India, pre- 
sid. Bengal, on the Ganges. 

BiviERE, a lake of Sicily, intend. Syr- 
acuse. In winter it is about 19 m. in 




eirc, but much of it is in summer a mere 

BivoNA, a town of Sicily, intend. Gir- 
genti. P. 2,382. 

BiZE, two vills. of France. 1, dep. 

Aude. P. 1,166. II. (B.-Nistos)., dep. 

Hautes Pyrenees. P. (with comm.) 3,419. 

BlzERTA, the most northern town of 
Africa, & a fortfd. seaport of Tunis, at 
the head of a gulf of the Mediterranean. 
P. 8,000.(7) Though its port now admits 
only small vessels, it was formerly one of 
the best in the Mediterranean. 

Black, town, Posey co. Indiana. It 
has 10 stores, 1 weekly newspaper, & 
some manufs. 

Black Beook, p-t., Clinton co. N. T., 
drained by the Saranac, with some smaller 
rivers. P. 1,064. 

Blackburn, town, of England, co. Lan- 
caster. It stands in a barren district, & 
is irregularly built. The church was re- 
built in a magnificent style in 1819, at a 
cost of 26,000Z. ; & in the parish are 22 
perpetual curacies. Blacliburn is the 
seat of flourishing manufe. of cotton goods. 

Black Creek, a br. of the Genesee r. 

Blackford, co. Indiana, towards the 
N.E. part of the state, is on Salamahic r., 
& several small creeks. SoU good. P. 
2,860. Cap. Blackford, C. H. 

Black Forest, a mountainous region 
of S.W. Germany, in the grand duchy of 
Baden, separating the basins of the Bhine 
& Neekar. It is remarkable for its ex- 
tensive forests, & its mines of silver, cop- 
per, zinc, lead, & iron ; in many places 
it is 3,700 ft. above the sea, & the Feld- 
berg, 4,675 feet in elev., is the loftiest 
mountain in W. Germany. 

Black Hawk, anew co. of la. P. 135. 

Black Head, the name of several 
capes of the United Kingdom. 1. Eng- 
land, CO. Cornwall. II. Ireland, co. 

Antrim, N. the entrance of Belfast Lough. 
III. Munster, co. Clare, S. side of Galway 

Blackheath, an open common in 
England, co. Kent. It is bordered by 
numerous handsome villas & rows of 
houses ; & on it are two episcopal chapels 
& Morden college ; the last named, found- 
ed for decayed merchants by Sir J. Mor- 
den, Bart., in 1695, has an annual reve- 
nue of about 5,000Z., & supports a chap- 
lain & 30 brethren above 50 years of 

Blacklow-Hill, Engl., is in the co. 
.Warwick. A stone cross here marks the 
gpot where Piers Gaveston, the favorite 
of Edward II., was beheaded by the 
barons in 1312, 

Blackkess, a, vill, & seaport of 
Scotland, co, Linlithgow, on the Firth of 

Blackpool, a vill. of Engl., co, Lan- 
caster. P. 1,304. It is a sea-bathing 

Black Biver, Windsor co. N. T., a br. 

of the Conn. II. riv. Loraine co. Ohio, 

formed of two branches which unite near 
Elyria. Just above their junction, they 

have each a fall of 45 feet. III. riv. 

N. T., the third in size, flowing wholly 
within the state. At Leyden, in Lewis 
CO., it has a fall of 63 feet. L. 108 m. 

IV. riv., br. of Cape Fear riv. N. C. 

V, riv., br. of Great Pedee riv. S. C. 

VI. riy., Arkansas, br. of White. 

VII. riv., Mich., falls into L. Mich. 

VIII. riv., Jamaica, co. Cornwall. IX. 

a small river of Ireland, tributary to the 

Black River, p-t., Loraine co. Ohio, 
on both sides of Black riv., & near Lake 
Erie. The vill. has considerable trade. 

P. 668. II. t., Washington co. Mo. 

III. t., Wayne co. Mo. IV. t., 

Independence co. Ark. V. t., Law- 
rence Co. Ark. 

Black Rock, a town of Erie co. N. T. 
near the foot of Lake Erie. It has seve- 
ral stores & warehouses, & some manufs. 
The harbor is formed by an immense 
stone pier, projecting into Niagara riv. 
Black Rock has an immense water power. 

Trade in wheat extensive. P. 7,508. 

II. t., of Ireland, Leinster co., on the S. 
shore of Dublin bay. 

Black Sea, great inland sea between 
Europe & Asia ; extreme length 700 m., 
greatest breadth 380 m. It is surround- 
ed by the countries of Russia, Armenia, 
& Asiatic & European Turkey, & commu- 
nicates with the sea of Azov & with the 
sea of Marmara. Its shores are bold & 
high on the N.E., E., & S.W.,but flat on 
the N. & N.W. ; its depth varies from 4 
to 48 fathoms near its shores, but in the 
middle no soundings have been obtained 
at J.60 fathoms. The water contains l-7th 
less salt than the ocean, & is so fresh that 
it freezes very easily. There are several 
islands near the mouth of the Danube, 
but few rocks or shoals — the largest of 
these, Serpent island, is furnished with a 
lighthouse. It is calculated that the 
Black sea receives one third of the run- 
ning waters of Europe. The Black sea 
has no tide ; it is liable to frequent 
storms, such as are generally met with 
in great lakes & inclosed seas. It is 
traversed regularly by steam-paokets 
between Constantinople & the mouths of 




the Danube, & betw. the principal ports 
of Russia. 

Blacksod Bay, an extens. inlet on the 
coast of Irel., co. Mayo. 

Blackstairs, a cintn. range of Ire- 
land, betw. COS. Carlow & Wexford. Mt. 
Leinster, 2,610 ft., is the highest peak. 

Blacjcstone-Edge, a range of high 
hills, mostly moorland, forming part of 
" the Backbone of England," cos. York 
& Lancaster. 

Blackstone, riv.j Rhode Island. It 
aflPords immense water power. 

Blacksville, p-v., Monongalia co. 

Blacktail, a large shoal off the Eng- 
lish coast, CO. Essex. 

Blackwall, a suburb of the English 
metropolis, co. Middlesex. 

Black Warrior, riv., Ala., br. of 
Tombigbee,,80 m. in length. 

Blackwater, r., Merrimac co. N. H. 

II.r.,Va.,br. of ]Srotaway,70m.l. 

III. two rivs. of Ireld. — 1. Munster, co. 
Cork, 1. 100 m. Affls. the Dundalo, Aw- 
beg, Funcheon, & Bride. — 2. Ulster, cos. 
Tyrone & Armagh, falls into Lough- 
Keagh. Blackwater is the name of sev- 
eral smaller rivs. in Ireland & also in 

Blackwater, a neat vill. of Engl., co. 
Hants, on the Blackwater river. 

Blackwell's Island, in the East r. 
opposite N. Y. ; it is the seat of the City 
penitentiary ; also of the lunatic asy- 

Bladek, county, N. C. in the S. part cf 
the state, & watered by Cape Clear riv., 
contains 1,200 sq. m. P. 9,767. Cap. 

Elizabeth. TL. Bladen, avill.of Pruss. 

Silesia. P. 1,071. 

Bladensburg, p-v., Prince George co. 
Md. There is a mineral spring here. It 
is a celebrated place of resort for duel- 
lists. P. about 500. 

Blagnac, a town of France, dep. H. 
Garonne. P. 1,538. 

Blain, a town of France, dep.- Loire 
Inf P. with comm., 5,441. 

Blainville is the name of numerous 
comms. in France ; the principal in dep. 
Manche. P. 1,770. 

Blair, a co. of Pennsylv'a. P. 21,777. 

Blair-Athol, a large pa. of Scotland, 
CO. Perth. P. 2,231. In it are the mntns. 
BenyglOe (3,725 ft ), & Bendearg (3,550 
feet elevation), witli the pass of Killie- 
crankie, Athol forest, & Blair-Athol cas- 
tle, the seat of the duke of Athol. 

Blair-Gowrie, a pa. of Scotland, co. 
Perth. P. 3,471. 

Blairsville, Indiana oo. Penn. 

Blaise (St.), a vill. of Switzerland, 
cant. Neuchatel. P. 1,000. 

Blaison, a town of France, dep. Maine- 
et-Loire. P. 1,142. 

Blakely, p-t., Luzerne co. Penn., wa- 
tered by Lackawanna r. II. p-v., cap. 

Early, Ga. It contains a court house, 
jail & acad. III. port of entry & cap- 
ital of Baldwin co. Ala., on the E. side 
of Tennessee r. The harbor admits ves- 
sels of 11 feet draught. 

Blakeney, a seaport of England, co. 
Norfolk. Its^arbor affords good shelter. 

Blamont, t. of France, dep. Meurthe. 
P. 2,671. 

Blanc (Le), a vill. of France, dep. 
Indre. P. 4,770. 

Blanc (Mont), the most celebrated 
mountain of Europe. 

Blanchard, t., Hardin co. 0. II. t., 

Putnam co. 0. -III. t., Hancock co. 0. 

Blanchland, a vill. of England, co. 
Northumberland, in a deep vale on the 

Blanco (Cape), the name of numerous 
headlands in Africa, America, the Phil- 
ippines, Greece & Spain ; the principal, 
W. Africa, Sahara, on the Atlantic. 

Blandford, t., Hampden co. Mass. 
Some manufacs. P. 1,427. 

Blandfoed-Forum, a town of England, 
CO. Dorset, on the Stour, here crossed by 
3 bridges, & near the ford called by the 
Romans Trajectus Belaniensis. 

Blanes, a seaport town of Spain, on 
the Mediterranean. P. 5,043. 

Blangy, a town of France, dep. Seine 
Inf. P. 1,717. 

Blankenberghe, a' marit. town of 
Belgium^ prov. W. Flanders. P. 1,800. 

Blankenburg, 2 towns of Germany. 

1, duchy, Brunswick, cap. of circ. 

P. 3,500. II. a town of Schwarzb.- 

Rudolstadt, on the Rhine. P. 1,315. 

Blankenese, a town of Danish dom., 
duchy Holstein, on the Elbe. P. 3,000. 

Blankenhayn, a town of Central Ger- 
many, gr. duchy, Weima^. P. 1,600. 

Blanquefort, two comms. & vills. of 

France. 1, dep. Gironde. P. 2,074. 

II. dep. Lot-et-Garonne. P. 1,760. 

Blanquilla, an isl. of Caribbean sea, 
belonging to Venezuela. 

Blantyre, a pa. of Scotland, co. Lan- 
ark. P. 3,047. 

Blanzy, a vill. of France, dep. Saone- 
et-Loire. P. 2,664. 

Blasendorf, a town of Transylvania. 
P. 4,000. ■ 

Blasket Islands, a group of rocky 
islands on the W. coast of Ireland, at the 
entrance of Dingle bay. 





Blasienzella, a town of Germany, 
Saxe-Coburg Gofha. P. 1,330. 

Blatchinwoeth, a tnshp of England, 
CO. Lancaster, in the itnnied. vicinity of 
the Manchester & Leeds railw. P. 

Blatna, a town of Bohemia, on the 
Uslawa. P. 1,500. 

Blaton, a comm. & vill. of Belgium, 
prov. Hainault. P. 2,319. 

BLAUBBiJREN, a towu of Wlirtembei'g, 
circ. Danube, on the Blau. P. 1,965. 

Blaydon, a vill. of Engl., co. Durham. 

Blaye, .1, comm. & seaport town of 
France, dep. Gironde, cap. arrond. P. 
3,348. It has a strong modern citadel, 
in which the Duchess de Berri was im- 
prisoned in 1833 ; a handsome public 
fountain, with considerable exports of 
wine, brandy, corn, fruits, & soap. All 
vessels inward bound to Bordeaux, &c., 
are required to anchor in the road of 
Blaye, & tn exhibit their papers. 

Bleckede, a town of Hanover, prinelp., 
on 1. b. of the Elbe. P. 1,485. 

Bledsoe, county, Tenn., in the S.E. 
part of the state ; is watered by Sec- 
quatchie riv. ; mountainous in some parts. 
P. 5,959. Cap. Pikeville. 

Blegno, a riv. of Switzerland, cant. 
Tessin. * 

Bleibach, a vill. of Illyria, near the 
celeb. Bleiberg (lead mntn.), in which 1 
copper & 3 lead mines are in operation. 
P. 5,600. The lead mines at Bleibach 
are the most extensive in Austria, & 
yield annually from 33,000 to 35,000 cwt. 
excellent metal. 

Bleicherode, a town of Pruss. Saxony, 
on the Bude. P. 2,760. 

Bleistadt, a mining town of Bohemia. 

Bleiswuk, a vill. of the Netherlands, 
prov. S. Holland. P. 1,279. 

Bleking, a prov. of Sweden. 

Blendon, p-t., Franklin co. 0. Alum 
& Big Walnut crs. aiford mill sites. P. 

Bleneau, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Yonne. P. 1,313. The Prince of 
Conde was here vanquished by Turenne 
in 1652. 

Blenham, Schoharie co. N. Y. P. 2,725. 

Blenheim, a vill. of Bavaria, circ. 
Swabia, famous for the decisive victory 
gained near it by the English & Imperi- 
alists, over the French & Bavarians. 

Blenheim Park (formerly Woodstock 
Park), an extra-parochial dist. of Engl., 
CO. Oxford, being the demesne attached 
to Blenheim house, the seat of the duke 
of Marlborough. This edifice, constructed 
by Vanbrugh in the reign of Q. Anne, at 

the cost of 500,000Z., was given by the 
nation to the first Duke of Marlborough, 
in honor of whose great victory, in 1704, 
it received its name. Blenheim is held 
by the descendants of the duke, on the 
tenure of presenting yearly, at Windsor, 
on the anniversary of the battle, a stand- 
ard emblazoned with 3 fleur-de-lis. 

Blenjo, a riv., valley, & dist. of Switz- 
erland, cant. Ticino. P. 11,000. 

Blenod-les-Toul, a comm. & vill. of 
France, dep. Meurthe. P. 1,550. 

Blere, a town of France, dep. Indre- 
et-Loire. P. 1,972. 

Blessington, a town of Ireland, co. 
Wicklow,- near the Liffey, 18 m. S.W'. 

Bletchingly, a town of England, co. 
Surrey. P. 3,546. The town, on an 
eminence, commands extensive views, & 
has a fine church in the early English 
style, a school endowed in the reign of 
Elizabeth, & almshouses founded in 1663. 

Bleville, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Seine Inf., with mineral springs. P. 

Blevio, a vill. of Lombardy, near lake 
of Como. 

Blidah, a considerable town of Algeria, 
prov. Algiers. Taken by the French in 
1830, & occupied by them since 1838. P. 
9,103, of whom 2.290 were Europeans. 

Bueskastel, a town of Khenish Ba- 
varia, on the Blies. P. 1,874. 

Bligh, a frontier co. of New South 
Wales. — Sligh's islands are a group of 
the Feejee archip.. Pacific ocean, named 
after their discoverer in 1789. 

Bligny-sub-Ouche, a town of France, 
dep. cote d'Or. P. 1,254. 

BuLiNG, a seaport town of the isl. af 
Bali, Malay archipelago. 

Blissfield, ]}-v., Lenaweed co. Mich., 
on the riv. Asin. P. 778. 

Block Island. Newport co. R. I., lies 
in the Atlantic ocean, 14 m. from Point 
Judith. It is 80 m. long, & from 2 to 4 
m. bro'sd. Soil gravelly loam ; it has 
no harbor. Population chiefly employed 
in fishing. 

Blockley, town, Philadelphia co. 
Penn. ; watered by Mill & Cobb crs. 
Here is a county almshouse ; some 
manufs. of woollen & cotton, with dying 
& printing establishments. P. 3,318. 

Bloemendaal, two vills. of the Neth- 
erlands ; one*in S. Holland, the other in 
N. Holland; with 1,500 inhabs. 

Blois, an anc. city of France, cap. dep. 
Loir-et-Cher, on both sides of the Loire, 
& on the railw. from Orleans to Tours. 
P. 13,132, Blois is situated on a steep 




slope, crowned by its ancient castle. The 
most remarkable edifices are the Hotel de 
Villej episcop. palace, old castle of the 
counts of Blois, where Louis XII. was 
born, in which the States-General of 1576 
& 1588 were held, & where the Due de 
G-uise was assassinated. There is here 
an anc. aqueduct cut Jn the rock by the 
Romans. The magnificent dykes for the 
protection of the valleys from the en- 
croachments of the Loire, one of the most 
remarkable works of the kind in Europe, 
commence at Blois. 

Blokulla, a small rocky isl. in the 
Baltic, between Oeland & the mainland 
of Sweden. 

Blokzyl, a marit. town of the Nether- 
lands, prov. Overyssel, on the E. coast of 
the Zuiderzee. P. 1,666. 

Blomberg, a vill. of Central Germany, 
Lippe-Detmold. P. 1,960. 

Blonie, a town of Poland. P. 1,000. 

Bloody-Faeeland, a prpmontory of 
Ireland, on its N.W. coast. 

Bloom, p-t., Seneca co. 0., on Honey 

cr. P. 1,168. II. t., Columbia co. 

Penn., watered by Susquehanna riv. & 

Fishing or. P. 1,774. III. t., Morgan 

CO. 0., on the Muskingum riv. 3_saw 
mills & 7 schools. P. 1,388.— —IV. t., 

Sciota CO. 0. P. 913. V. t., Fairfield 

CO. 0. P. 2,301. VI. t., AVood co. 0. 

Bloomfield, p-t., Somerset co. Me., 

on the Kennebec riv. P. 1,093. II. t., 

Hartford co. Conn., drained by Vv''ood r. 

P. 986. III. p-t., Essex co. N. J., 

manufacs. of woollen, cotton & paper. 

P. 2,528. IV. v., Perry co. Penn. 1 

acad. V. p-t., Knox co. 0. P. 1,251. 

——VI. t.. La Gfange co. la. VII. 

cap. Greene co. la. P. 700. VIII. 

p-v., cap. Stoddard ccVa., contains a 

court house. IX. Oakland co. Mich., 

on N. br. of Rouge r. X. t., Trumbull 

CO. 0. XI. t., Richmond co. 0.— — 

XII. t., Logan co. 0. XIII. t., Jack- 
son CO. 0. 

Bloomingburg, p-v., Sullivan co. 
N. Y., a pleasant vill. 

Blooming Grove, p-t., Orange co. 
N. Y. Scunnemunk mt., a part of the 
highlands, is in this town. Soil prcduc- 
tire. P. 2,369. 

Bloomington, p-v., cap. Monroe co. 
la. The Indiana University is lociited 

here. P. 879. II. M'Lean co. 111., 

situated on the margin of a fine prairie. 

III. p-v., cap. Muscatine, Iowa, on 

the W. bank of the Mississippi. P. 200. 
IV. cap. Macon co. Mo., near -Charl- 
ton r. V. Buchanan co. Mo. 

Blossburg, p-v., Tioga co. Penn. In 

its vicinity is the celebrattxl Blossburg 
bituminous coal mine. 

Blotzheim, a vill. of France, dep 
Haut-Rhin. P. 2,230. 

Blount, county, Ala., in the N. part 
of the state, on the head-waters of the 
Black-warrior river. 1,650 sq. m. P. 

7,367. Cap. Blountsville. II. county, 

Tenn., in the E. part of the state border- 
ing on N. C. P. 12,382. Cap. Marys- 

Blountsville, cap. of Blount co. Ala. 
II. cap. Sullivan co. Tenn. 

Bludenz, a town of the Tyrol, circ. 
Vorarlberg. P. 1,865. 

Bludowitz, 3 eontig. vills. of Austr. 

Bluefields, a riv. & town of the Mos- 
quito territory, Centr. America, the riv. 
entering an inlet of the Carribean sea. 
At its mouth is the town on a command- 
ing height, with a good harb., & the mod- 
ern residence of the king of the Mos- 
quito country. 

Blue Hill, p-t., Hancock co. Me. The 
village is on a bay. P. 1,891. 

Blue Mountain, t., Izard co. Ark. 

Blue Mountains, a range in B. Aus- 
tralia, New South Wales. 

Blue Ridge, or south mountains east- 
ern range of the Alleghany, a branch 
from the main range in N. C. Most ele- 
vated summits are in Bedford co. Va. 

Blue River, Hancock co. la. P. 731. 
II. t. Harrisson co. la. P. 1,429. 

Blue Rock, pt., Muskingum co. 0., on 
both sides of Muskingum r. Manufacs. 
of salt. P. 1,183. 

Blue-Stack Mountain, Ireland, co. 
Donegal, elevation 2,213 feet. 

•Blue Sulphur Springs, Green Briar 
CO. Va., a popular watering pi. situated 
in a valley with mountains on 3 sides. 
Scenery wild & picturesque. 

Bluffton, p-v., cap. Wells eo. la. 

Blumenstein, a vill. of Switzerl., 
cant. Bern, with min. springs & well-fre- 
quenled baths. 

Blumenthal, a vill. of Hanover, 
duchy Bremen, near the AYeser. Also 
other vills. in Germany. 

Blythe, t., Marion co. Ark. II. t., 

Caldwell co. Mo. III. severai small 

rivers of England. 1. co. Suffolk. 

2. 00. Northumberland. 3. co. 


Bnin, a town of Prussian Poland, prov. 
Posen, circ. Schrimm. P. 1.210. 

Boa Island, in Ireland, co. Ferma- 
nagh, is the largest island in Lough 

BoAD, a large vill. of British India, 




presid. Bengal, prov. Orissa, on the Maha- 

BoARDMAN, p-t., Trumbull co. 0., 
watered by Mill, Indian & Yellow crs. 
Soil fertile. P. 929. 

BoAviSTA, or BoNAviSTA, an island 
of Africa, the most B., & next to Santi- 
ago, the largest of the Cape Verd isl- 
ands. It is of a pentagonal form, & 
about 20 m. in length. The surface is 
flat, with two basaltic peaks in the cen- 
tre ; soil suitable for the production of 
cotton & the cocoa-tree, but cultivation 
is neglected, the pop: being chiefly occu- 
pied in the manuf. of salt, which forms 
the principal source of wealth. 

BoBBio, a town of the Sardinian states, 
div. Genoa, cap. prov., on the Trebbia. 
P. with comm. 3,743. 

BoBER, a river of Prussian Silesia, a 
branch of the Oder, 115 m. in length. 

BoBERSBERG, a town of Prussia, prov. 
Brandenburg. P. 1,460. 

BoBiA, a small island of Africa, in the 
bay of Amboises, off the ceast of Guinea. 
It is the rems. of a once large isl., & con- 
tinues to decrease by action of the waves. 
Shores abrupt & difiicult of access, but 
densely populated. 

BoBiLEE, a strongly fortfd. town of 
British India, presid. Madras. 

BoBiNGEN, a vill. of Bavaria, ciro. 
Swabia. P. 1,403. 

BoBLiNGEN, a town of "VYiirtemberg, 
circ. Neokar. P. 3,300. 

BoBHKA, a town of Austrian Poland, 
Galieia, circ. Brzezany. P. 2,700. 

BoBROv, a town of Russia, gov. Vo- 
ronej, cap. circ, on the Bitiug. P. 

Bobruisk, a town of Russia., gov. 
Minsk, on r. b. of the Berezina. . P. 5,500. 

Boca (" mouth"), a tsrm applied to 

numerous straits & rivers. 1. {B. 

Chirxi), the Channel, 28 m. l:)elo_w, & 
leading to the port of Cartagena, New 

Granada. II. {cle Nmnos), the S. & 

largest mouth of the Orinoco river, S. 

America. III. {Crrandc), a bay of 

the Carib. Sea, Central America, Costa- 
Rica, at the mouth of the Zucar river. 

IV. {del Tord). Carib. Sea, Costa 


Boca Tigris, or the "Bogcte," the 
-entrance to the Canton river, China. All 
the estuary of the riv. S.-ward of this is 
called the " Outer Waters." 

Bocairent, a town of Spain, prov. 
Alicante. P. 4,070. 

Bocca-di-Falco, a vill. of Sicily, 
prov. Palermo, with a rich botanic gar- 
den. P. 4,000. 

BocCHETTA (Mt.), One of the W. Ap- 
ennines, traversed by the road from Ge- 
noa to Novi. The summit of the pass is 
2,536 feet above the level of the sea. 

BoccniGiiERO, a town of Naples. P. 

BocHNiA, a town of Austrian Poland, 
Galieia, cap. circ. P. 5,300. It has 
mine? of rock salt, which employ 500 
miners, & j'ield annually 250,000 cwt. of 
salt. P. of circ. 178,760. 

BocKOLD, a town of Prussian West- 
phalia, circ. Borken, on the Aa. P. 4,271. 
II. a vill. of Belg., Limbourg. ' 

BocHUM, a town of Prussian West- 
phalia, cap. circ. P. 4,290. It is the 
seat of a mining court. 

BocKAu, a town of Saxony, circ. 
Zwickau. P. 1,700. Extens. chemical 
manufs. & mines of cobalt & silver. 

BockenejW, a town of Hanover. P. 

BocKENHEiM, a towu of H.-Cassel, circ. 
Hanau. P. 3,300. It has manufs. of 
, piano-fortes, snuff-boxes, jewellery, & 

BocKFLUss, a town of Lower Austria. 
P. 1,490. 

BoczA, a town of Hungary, eo- Liptau. 
P. 1,220. Its once important gold rnines 
are rendered useless by inundations. 

Bodega, a port of N.W. America, 
Upp. California, on tlie Pacific, 90 m. N. 
San Francisco. 

BoDEGRAVEN, a vill. of S. Holland, on 
the Old Rhine. P. 2,120. 

BoDBNsTADT, a towu of Moravia, circ. 
Prerau. P. 1,200. 

BoDENswEiER, a vill. of Baden, circ. 
Midd. Rhine. P. 1,050. 

BoDENWERDER, a towu of Hauover,, 
princip. Calenberg, on an isl. in theWeser,,' 
enclosed by the territ. of Brunswick. P. 

BoDBiANN," a vill. of Baden, circ. Lake, 
on Lake Constance, at the mouth of thQ 

Bodmin, a town of England, cap. co. 
Cornwall. The town consists of a long 
street, in a holIowbeLw. two hills. Church 
spacious ; & rebuilt about 1472. 

Bodrogh-Keresztur, a town of Hun- 
gary, CO. Zemplin, on the Bodrogh. P. 
4,15Ci0, mostly Magyars. 

BoEN, a town of France, dcp. Loire. P. 

BoEO, Cape, the most W. point" of 

BcEOTiA, adep. of the kng'hu. of Greece, 
cap. Lebadia, on the continent of Hellas. 
P. 31,679. Surface well watered & fertile. 
Mt. Helicon is on its S.E. border. 




BoHEscH, a eomm. & vill. of France, 
dep. B. Ellin. P. 1,358. 

BcEUFF, t., Franklin co. Mo. P. 1,662. 

II. r. in Arlj. & La., 180 m. long, & 

breadth of the Washita. III. creek 

of La., rises in Rapide pa., & separates 
into 2 channels, one of which connects 
with Red riv., the other with CrocodUe r. 

Bog, two rivs. of European Russia. 

BoGAN, or New- Year Rivek, a riv. 
of E. Australia, 300 m. long. 

BoGAKRA, a town of Spain, prov. Al- 
bacete. P. 2,096. 

BoGDO OoLA, a mntn. of S. Russia. It 
rises abruptly out of the flat steppe, & is 
held sacred by the Kalmucks. On its N. 
side is a lake of same name, 26 m. in 
circumf , yielding large quantities of salt. 

BoGEN, a town of Bavaria, circ. Lower 
Bavaria, on the Danube. P. 1.143. 

BoGENHAUSEN, a vill. of Bavaria, on 
the Isar, with the royal, observatory of 
Munchen, one of the best in Europe. 

BoGENSE, a small seaport town of Den- 
mark, on the N. coast of the isl. Fiihnen. 
P. 1,400.- 

BoGGAH, a town of Brit. India, presid. 
Bengal, on the Gunduch. 

BoG3s, t., Clearfield co. Penn. on the 
main ridge of the Alleghany. 

BoGHAz KiEui, a vill. of Asia-Minor, 
pash. Sivas. Here are portions of a large 
temple, supposed to be that of Jupiter, 
mentioned by Strabo (lib. xii.), & of a 
Cyclopean wall, & 2 fortresses, besides 
various bas-reliefs. 

Bogie, a small riv. of Scotland, co. 

BoGLiPOOR, a dist. of British India, 
Bahar prov., presid. Bengal. P. 2,019,900. 
The Ganges traverses it, & forms most 
part of its E. boundai-y. The hills in the 
S. are inhabited by a wild people, sup- 
posed to be of the aboriginal race of Hin- 

dostan. Bos;lipoor is the cap. of the 

above dist. P'. 30,000. 

BoGNOR, a marit. t., Engl. co. Sussex. 

Bogota, a city of S. Amer., cap. of the 
repub. of New Grenada, on a plateau 
8,958 ft. above the sea. P. 40,000. It is 
built on the San Francisco riv., & has a 
fine external appearance ; streets regular, 
though narrow, & all are paved. Houses 
mostly of sun-dried bricks,lo w built, white- 
washed, tiled,, & placed around a central 
court ; shops numerous. It ha,s several 
squares, in the chief of which are the 
cathedral (nearly ruined in 1827 by an 
earthquake), palace of the president, & 
custom-house. Nearly one half of the 
city is occupied by religious structures. 
Bogota has a university, 3 colleges, a 

school of mineralogy, Lancasterian school, 
national acad., museum, & public library. 
Bogota owes its importance to its having 
been for a long time the seat of govern- 
ment. At the cataract of Tequendama 
the cleft betw. the rocks is only 36 ft. 
wide, & the waters descend in an unbroken 
mass 900 ft. North of the city fossil 
bones of a gigantic size have been found. 
The Campo contains also coal-fields, & 
towards the N. border the rich salt mines 
of Zikaquira. Here also is Lake Guata- 
vita, into which it is supposed the ancient 
inhabitants threw theu- treasures when 
conq. by the Spaniards. 

Bogutshak, a town of Russia, gov. 
Voronej, cap. circ, near the Don. P. 

BoGWANGOLA, a large town of British 
India, presid. Bengal. 

BoHAiN, a town of France, dep. Aisne. 
P. 3,748. 

BoHALLE (La), a vill. of France, dep. 
Maine-et-Loire. P. 1,144. 

BoHARM, a pa. of Scotl., cos. Banff & 
Moray. P. 1,261. Here are ruins of 
castle Galvall, built by De Moravia in 
11th cent. 

Bohemia (King-dom of), a political & 
administrative division of the Austrian 
empire, forming the E. part of the Ger- 
manic confederation. Area, 20,000 sq. 
m. P. 4,347,962. The territory forms 
an enclosed plateau, nearly surrounded 
by elevated chains of mntns. The inte- 
rior is traversed by the contreforts of 
these chains. Its principal valleys are 
those of the Elbe & Moldau. Forming 
the" upper basin of the Elbe, to which 
nearly all its streams are tributary, 
the country is richly watered by the 
Aupe, Mettau, Erlitz, Moldau, & Eger, 
The Moldau is the largest riv. in the 
kngdm. The climate is in general healthy, 
mild in the valleys, but cold in the mntns. 
regions ; the higher mntns. being covered 
with snow during great part of the year. 
Soil in general fertile. It is very rich in 
metals, minerals, & ijrecious stones ; the 
productive part of the land forms nearly 
13-16ths of the superficies. Bohemia is 
both an agricultural & a manufacturing 
country, but especially rich in the pro- 
duce of its agriculture. The produce of 
the mines, especially in precious metals, 
has been for centuries one of the principal 
sources of wealth. The gold mines, for- 
merly so valuable, are now entirely aban- 
doned, & the silver mines have lost much 
of their importance ; but the produce of 
iron & coal is greatly on the increase, 
Bohemia possesses a great number of 




mineral springs of all kinds. In manufg. 
industry this country has long been con- 
sidered one of the naost important provs. 
of the empire. The Emperor of Austria 
bears the title of King of Bohemia, & is 
crowned at Prague. It came into the 
possession of the house of Austria in 1526. 
The uuiversity of Prague is one of the most 
anc. & celeb, in Germany ; it had in 1842, 
71 professors & teachers, & 2,741 students. 
Bohemia, a large cr. in Maryland, a 
branch of Elk r. 

BoHMERWALD, a chain of mntns. in 
Germany, between Bohemia & Bavaria, 
separating the basins of the Elbe & Da- 
nube. The principal summits are the 
Aber (4,613 ft.), & the Rachelberg, 4,561 
feet in elev. 

BoHODUKHOV, a fortfd. town of Russia, 
gov. Kharkov, on the Merle. P. 5,000. 

BoHUL, one of the Philippine isls., 1. 40 
m. 5 av. iy. 30 m. 

BoHORODczANY, town of Austr. Galicia 
Tribunal of mines. P. 1,920. 

BoHORODiTSK, a town of Russia, gov. 
Tula, cap. circ. P. 2,900. 

Boi-AvAD, a town of Asia- Minor, An- 
atolia. P. 2,000. (?) 

Bois Blanc, island of lake Huron, S.E. 
of Mackinaw, is 10 m. 1. & 3 broad. Soil 
productive. It has a lighthouse. 

Bois d'Arle, t., Hempstead co. Ar- 
kansas. II. t., Jefferson co. Ark. 

Bois-GuiLLAUME, a vill. of France. 
P. (with comm.) 2,048. 

Bois (Le), a eomm. & vill. of Erance, 
dep. Charente Inf , arrond. & 14 m. W. 
La Rochelle, in the iie de Re. P. 2,062. 
Bois-LE-Duc, a city of the Netherl'ds, 
cap. N. Brabant, at the junction of the 
Dommel & the Aa. P. 18,904. It is 
about 5 m. in circumference, & well built. 
Its buildings comprise one of the finest 
catheds. in the Netherlands, a town-hall, 
a grammar school in which Erasmus was 
partly educated, a college, academy of 
arts, arsenal, several hospitals, & a prison. 
It has manufs. of linens, thread, needles, 
cutlery, & mirrors, with breweries & dis- 
- BoisLEux, a vill. of France. 

BoissEzoN, avill.of France, dep. Tarn. 
P. (with comm.) 2,946. 

BoissY, a vill. of Prance, dep. Seine-et- 
Oise. Near it is the superb chateau of 
Gros-Bois. — Other vills. of France have 
the same name. 

Boitzenburg, a town of N.Germany, 

Meklenburg-Schwerin, on the Elbe. P. 

3,184. It has an extensive wool-market, 

& various manufg. establishments. 

BoJADOR (Cape), a bold headland of 

W. Africa, formed by the termination of 
a range of Mount Atlas. It was long the 
limit of European navigation S.-ward, 
until doubled by the Portuguese in 1433. 
BoJANA, a river of European Turkey, 
Upper Albania^ 1. 65 miles. 

BoJANO, a town of Naples, prov. Molise. 
P. 3,000. It was sacked by the Romans 
in 298 B.C., & was nearly destroyed by an 
earthquake in -1805. 

BojANOWo, a town of Pruss. Poland. 
P. 2,450. 

BoKiJARA, a state, Central Asia, indep. 
Turkestan. Area, 235,000 sq. m. P. . 
1,000,000. Surface level ; fertile where 
watered by the Oxus, Kohik, & Kurshee, 
its principal rivs., but elsewhere mostly 
a sandy waste. Rice, wheat, barley, 
maize, cotton, indigo, & fine fruits, are 
chief objects of cultur^. Timber is very 
scarce. Cotton thread, silk stuffs, sEa- 
green, sabres, & other cutlery, gold, sil- 
ver, & turned articles, & fire-arms are 
manufactured. The Khan, though nomi- 
nally despotic, is greatly under the influ- 
ence of the priesthood. Publie revenue 
estimated at about 400,000Z. annually. 
Armed force about 20,000 horse, & 4,000 
foot ; indep. of a militia of 50,000 cavalry. 
Principal cities Bokhara, Samarcand, 
Balkh, & Kurshee. 

Bokhara, a celeb, city. Central Asia, 
cap. above Khanat, near the Zer-afchan 
river. P. 160,000. It is said to be 8 m. 
in circ, enclosed by earthen ramparts, 
entered by 12 gates, & intersected by nu- 
merous canals. In the centre is the cit- 
adel, containing the palace, harem, & 
residences of the state-ofScers. Bokhara 
is said to have 360 mosques, several of 
great architectural beauty, & at least as 
many colleges & schools ; this city having 
been long famous as a seat of Moham- 
medan learning. There are 20 caravan- 
saries & 100 ponds & fountains. 

BoLABOLA, one of the Society isls.. Pa- 
cific ocean, nearly 30 m. in circ, well- 
wooded & populous. 

BoLAN Pass, a remarkable defile in 
mntns. of Beloochistan, consisting of a 
succession of ravines, about 55 m. in ag- 
gregate length. The greatest elevation 
of the pass is 5,793 feet. 

BoLAWADUN, a considerable town of 
Asia-Minor, Anatolia. 

BoLBEC, a manufacturing town of 
France, dep. Seine Inf P. 8,658. It is 
well built, & ornamented with fountains, 
& is the seat of a chamber of manufs., 
with large & thriving manufs. of cotton 
fabrics ; also woollen & linen factories, 
dye-works, & chemical factories. 




BoLECHOw, a town of Austr. Galicia, 
on a tribut. of tbe Dniester, & with pro- 
ductive salt-works. P. 2,300. 

Boles KiNE & Abertarff, two united 
pas. of Scotl., CO. Inverness. P. 1,875. 

BoLGARY, a vill. of Russia, gov. Kazan, 
on the Wolga, near which are the ruins 
of Briakimov, anc. cap. of the Bulgarians. 

BoLi, a town of Asia-Minor, pash. 
Anatolia. It is a poor place, with about 
1,000 houses, a dozen mosques, & a ruined 
castle. Near it are mineral baths. 

Bolivar, county, Miss., in the W. 
part of the state, on the Mississippi. 

Contains 1,700 sq. m. P. 2,577. II. 

pv., Tuscarawas co. 0. III. p-v., cap. 

Hardiman co. Tehn., on the Big Hatehee. 

IV. p-v.. cap. Polk CO. Mo., 4 m. from 

Pommes-des-Terre riv. V: p-v., cap. 

Bolivar co. Miss., on the E. bank of the 

Bolivia, or Upper PeBu, a repub. 
state of S. America. Extreme length, 
1,100 m.; extreme width, 800 m. Area, 
374,480 m. P. 1,030,000. Chief cities. 
La Paz, Potosi, Gruro, Chuquisaca, 
Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Tarija, & 
Cobija. All the centre of the country is 
covered with ramifications of the Andes, 
which here divide into two Cordilleras, 
enclosing the lake of Titicaca. The W. 
Cordillera forms the boundary on the side 
of Peru, & here are the highest peaks of 
the Andes (Sorato being 25,250 feet), & 
the volcanoes of Atacama, Tacora, &c. 
The region between the Pacific & the 
Andes is nearly barren, & is called the 
desert of Atacama. The valley of Titicaca 
is rather fertile. The long valleys S. of 
the Sierra de la Cruz, are the most popu- 
lous & best cultivated parts of Bolivia. 
Principal rivers, the Beni, Mamore, Rio 
Grande or Guapai. The Desaguadero 
has its entire course, about 200 m., in 
Bolivia, & falls into Lake Titicaca, the 
largest lake in S. America. Beside L. 
Titicaca, the S.E. half of which is in this 
republic, many others exist in the wide 
plains in the E. Amongst the vegetable 
productions are cacao of the finest quality, 
cotton, indigo, rice, &c. Gold is found in 
al 1 the rivers in the E. Cordillera of the 
Andes ; & the productiveness of the silver 
mines of Potosi were for a long time very 
great, though now on the decline. New 
gold mines have recently been discovered 
in a part of the Andes, about 7 days 
journey from La Paz. Among the wild 
animals are the tapir, jaguar, leopard, 
several species of monkeys, & amphibious 
reptiles, birds, & fishes in greatwumbers. 
The climate of the plains is too hot for 

but vast herds of cattle feed on 
the banks of the rivers. More than 
3-4ths of the population are Indians, the 
rest Mestizos, Spaniards, & a few Afri- 
cans. The foreign commerce of Bolivia 
is small, owing to its being almost shut 
out by the Andes from contact with the 
sea. Imports are mostly confined to iron, 
hardwares, silk, & a few other articles ; 
& the exports to the precious metals,' 
wool, &c. The executive government is 
vested in a president ; the legislative 
functions are exercised by a senate, trib- 
unes, & censors. Annual rev. about 
$1,700,000. Standing army about 2,000 
men. There is said to be no public debt. 
Bolivia, under the name of Upper Peru, 
was formerly a part of the Spanish vice- 
royalty of Buenos Ayres. Chuquisaca ia 

the cap. II. t.. Gasconade co. Mo. 

P. 779. 

Bolkenhain, a town of Pruss. Silesia, 
cap. cire. onthe Neisse. P. 2,450. Linen 
& woollen manufs. 

BoLKHov, a town of Russia, on the 
Nougra. P. 10,000. It is well built. 

Boll, a-vill. of Wurtemberg, circ. Dan- 
ube, with 1,500 inhabs., & mineral springs 
& baths. 

Bollene, a town of France, dep. Vau- 
cluse, cap. cant, arrond. Avignon. P. 2,860. 

Bqllen-Tee, a tnship. of England, co. 
Chester. P. 2,212. 

Bollingen, a vill. of Switzeidand. 
with mineral baths, cant. Bern.. P. 1,400. 

BoLLiNGTON, a tnship. of England, co. 
Chester. P. 4,350. 

town of Spain, prov. Hue-lva. P. 4,536. 

BoLLwiLLER, a vill. of France, dep. H. 
Rhin. P. 1,300. 

Bologna, a famous city of Italy, & 
the second in rank in the Pontif. states. 
Elevation 205 ft. above the sea. P. 
75,000. It forms an oval, enclosed by a 
brick wall, about 2 m. in length, by 1| 
m. in breadth, entered by 12 gates, & 
intersected by the Reno canal. With its 
rich & varied colonnades, well-paved 
streets, noble institutions, & a flourish- 
ing, intelligent, & learned pop., it rivals 
Rome in all except classical & religious 
interest, & the extent of its museums. 
It is said to have 74 churches, 35 con- 
vents for monks, & 38 for nuns, all of 
which are adorned with fine works of art. 
No Italian city, except Florence, has 
produced so many men distinguished in 
science & the arts ; 8 popes, nearly 200 
cardinals ; the painters Guido, Albano, 
Domenichino, &c. 

BoLONCHEN, a thriving vill. of Centl. 




Amer., Yucatan. P. 7,000. In the vi- 
cinity is a deep cavern in the limestone 
rock, where there is a copions supply of 

Bolor-Tagh, a great mntn. chain of 
Central Asia, which separates the Chi- 
nese Empire on the E. from Koondooz, 
& Kafiristan oh the W. Its culmina- 
ting points are supposed to exceed 19,000 
ft. in elevation. 

BoLOTANA, a town of Sardinia, near 
its centre, prov. Nuora. P. 3.250. 

BoLSAs, a riv., confed. & dep. Mexico. 

BoLSENA, a town of Italy, Pontif. sta. 
on the N. shore of the lake of Bolsena. 
It was one of the 12 Etruscan cities, cap. 
of the .Volsci, & birth-place of Sejanus ; 
but it is now a miserable village. The 
lake of Bolsena is 10 ni. long t& 8 m. 

BoLSON DE Mapima, a wild & rocky 
dist. in the N. part of the Mexican con- 
federation. Area, 60,000 sq. m. Peo- 
pled only by Indian tribes. 

BoLsovEE, a town of England, co. 

BoLswARD, a town of the Netherlands, 
prov. Friesland. P. 4,223. 

Bolton, p-t., Chittenden co. Vermont. 
Bough & mountainous. It lies on the TV. 
range of the Green mntns., & on both.sides 

of Onion r. II. p-t., Worcester co. Mass. 

betw. Concord & Nashua rivs. P. 1,186. 
III. t., Tolland 00. Conn., on an ele- 
vated range of hills, & watered by brs. 

of Hop. r. P. 739. IV. p-t., Warren 

CO. N. Y. It has Lake George on the E. 
& is drained by a branch of the Hudson 

riv. P. 937. -V. Bolton (le Mocks), 

a large manuf. town of England, co. Lan- 
caster, on an affluent of the Irwell. P. of 
the tnship & Little Bolton, 50,163. The 
woollen manufs. of Bolton, introduced by 
Flemings in 1337, wore in a flourishing 
state before the reign of Henry VIII. ; 
but the great prosperity of the town 
dates from the introduction of the inven- 
tion of Arkwright & Crompton, construct- 
ors of the mule-jenny, both natives of 
this parish, which has since become, 
through their labors, one of the princip. 
seats of the English cotton manufacture. 
In 1838 there were 69 cotton mills, em- 
ploying 9,918 hands; & the average 
quantity of cloth bleached in the parish 
aiinuallv, has bsen estimated at from 
6,000,000 to 7,000,000 pieces. Bolton 
has also large paper, flax, & saw mills, 
chemical works & foundries. 

BoMBA, a vill. of Naples, prov. Ab- 
ruzzo Cit. P. 2,200. 

Bombay, p-t., Franklin co. N. Y., 

drained by Little Salmon & St. Kegis 
rivs. Here are the reservation & settle- 
ment of the St. Regis Indians. P. 1,446. 
Bombay Presidency, the most wes- 
terly, & the smallest of the three piresids. 
of British India. Area, 68,074 sq. m. 
P. 6,940,277. The W. Ghauts separate 
the W. or marit. from the E.dists. which 
latter form a part of the great table- 
land of the Deccan. In the N. the mntns. 
belong to the Sautpoora & other ranges. 
Princip. rivs., the Nerbudda, Taptee, 
Mhye, & Sabermutty, falling into the 
gulf of Cambay. Climate for the most 
part less hot & more healthy than in 
the other presids. Rice & cotton are the 
princip. articles of culture. Some sugar 
& indigo are raised in Candeish. The N. 
dists. are famous for their great variety 
of fruits. Wool has lately been exported 
in considerable quantities from Bombay* 
The cattle of Gujerat, are. a large & 
fine breed ; 'SY. of the ghauts the ox & 
buffalo are almost the only domestic ani- 
mals. • Princip. manufs. are embroidered 
silks, & woollen & cotton cloths. The 
Parsees are now almost confined to this 
part of Asia. Total net rev. in 1842-3, 
2,091, 395Z.; expend. 2,124,299Z. Etph- 
instone college was founded in 1837, & 
there are 120 schools for the native Hin- 
doos, in which from 8 to 900 boys receive 
education, besides nearly 2,000 native 
village schools. Bombay was the earli- 
est possession of the British in the east. 
It was ceded by the Moguls to the Portu- 
guese in 1530, & it came into the pos- 
session of the English in 1662, as a part 
of the dowry of the Infanta of Portugal, 
on her marriage with Charles II. 

Bombay, a city,- seaport & cap. of the 
above presidency, is situated on a narrow 
neck of land at the S.E. extremity of the 
island of Bombay. P. 235,000. Of these, 
two thirds are Hindoos, 20,000 Pai-sees, 
& the -rest Mussulmans, Jews, & Chris- 
tians. Principal edifices in the fort are 
the court-house, secretariate, & other 
government ofBces. The harbor of Bom- 
bay is one of the handsomest in India, & 
affords good anchorage for ships of the 
largest burden. Nest to C-alcutta & Can- 
ton, Bomb.^y is the principal commercial 
emporium in the east. Total value of 
the imports 8,992,212Z., of which piece 
goods amounted to 1,436,084/., metals 
514,697/., and cotton 417,155/. Value of 
exports 8,742,237/. including cotton to 
the value of 2,105,815/.; of which, goods 
amounting to 3,557,567/. went to China. 
& others to 1,704,624Z. were shipped for 
Great Britain. 




BoM-FiM, sev. towns & vills. of Brazil. 

1, prov. Goyaz. II. prov. Rio de 

Janeiro ; others in provs. Minas, Geraes, 
Maranhao, & Bahia. 

Bom-Jardim, a town of Brazil, prov. 

Crato. P. 6,000. II. a vill., prov. 

BaMa, dist. S. Amara. P. 1,200. 

BoMMEL, a town of the Netherlands, 

prov. Guelderland. P. 3,600. ll. den 

Bommel, a vill. S. Holland, isl. Over- 
flakkee. P. 1,199. 

BoMMEL-FioRD, a Strait bet\r. the isls. 
Storen & Bommel-Oe, on the W. coast of 

BoMMELWAARD, an isl. of the Nether- 
lands, prov. Guelderland. 

BoMST, a town of Prussian Poland, 
cap. circ, reg.' Posen. P. 2,250. 

BoM-SuccEsso, a vill. of Brazil, prov. 

Bona, a fortified seaport town of A\r 
geria, prov. Constantine, on a bay of 
the Mediterranean; near the mouth of 
the Seboos. P. 9,799. But Bona has 
greatly improved since possessed by the 

BoN-AiRE, an isl., W. Indies. . 

Bona-Bona, one' of the Society Isls., 
Pacific ocean. P. 1,800. 

Bon (Cape), a headland of N. Africa, 
in the Mediterranean. 

BoNATi, a town of Naples, prov. prin- 
cip. Citra. P. 3,038. 


BoNAviSTA, a bay, cape, & station on 
the E. coast of Newfoundland. 

Bond, county, III., drained by a 
branch of the Kaskaskia r. P. 6,144. 
Cap. Greenville. 

BoNDENO, Padinum, a town of N. 
f Italy, Pontif. states. P. 3,160. 
* - - BoNDOu, a little known country of W. 
Africa. Climate healthy. Sijrface ele- 
vated & well-watered ; the rivs. are 
tributs. of the Gambia & Senegal, & the 
Faleme forms the E. boundary. Cattle 
^re a prinoix^al source of wealth. Bon- 
dou has a transit trade in slaves, salt, 
iron, butter, & gold-dust. The pop., 
which is said to be very dense, is sup- 
posed to be of Arabic origin, and is 
mostly Mohammedan. Government mon- 
archical. Principal town, Bulibani. 

BoNDUES, a town of France, dep. 
Nord. P. 2,841. 

Boi^DY, a vill. of France, dep. Seine, 
near the forest of Bondy. P. 2,385. 

BoNEFRO, a town of Naples, prov. Mo- 
lirc. P. 3,700. 

Bong, prov. of Burmah. 

BoNi, an indep. state of the isl. Ce- 
lebes, S. Pacific, on E. coast of the W. 

penins. & on the bay of Boni. This state, 
though of recent origin, is the most 
powerful in Celebes. — The gidf of Boni, 
called also Bughis bay, is about 200 m. 
in length, by from 40 to 80 m. in breadth. 
Bonifacio, a seaport town of Corsica, 
cap. cant., on a small penins. in the 
strait of same name. P. 3,120. It has 
a secure harbor, & a considerable trade. 
BoNiFATi, a town of Naples, prov. Ca- 
labria Citra. P. 2,300. 

BoNiLLA & BoNiLLO, two towns of 
Spain, the former, prov. Avila, with 
1,700 inhabs. ; the latter, prov. Albacete. 
P. 5,980. 

BoNiN, in N. Pacific, consists of three 
groups, the most northerly, called Parry 
Isls., & the most southerly, Baily Isls. 

BoNiN-SiMA, a group of small isls. in 
the Pacific ocean, inhabited by a colony 
of Japanese. 

BoNisTALLO, a dist. & vill. of the grand 
duchy of Tuscany, with a grand ducal 
villa & priory. P. 1,425. 

BoNiTO, a town of Naples, prov. prin- 
cipi Cit. P. 3,700. 

BoNMAHON, a marit. vill. of Ireland, 
CO. Waterford, at the mouth of the 
Mahon. P. 1,771. Near it are the cop- 
per mines of Knockmahon. 

Bonn, a vill. of Switzerland, cant. 
Fribourg, with mineral springs & baths. 
Bonn, a town of Rhenish Prussia, on 
1. b. of the Rhine, cap. circ. P 14,369. 
Bonn is the seat of a celeb, university, 
founded in 1818, & occupying an old 
castle of the electors of Cologne. It has 
a library of 100,000 vols., with a museum 
of Rhenish antiquities. In 1844, it was 
attended by 714 students. Connected 
with the university there is an observa- 
tory, a rich botanic garden & museum of 
natural history. Bonn is the seat of a 
superior mining court, & has an active 
commerce, & manufs. of cotton, silk, & 
tobacco. It is a very ancient town. 

BoNNAT, a town of France, dep. Creuse. 
P. 2,702. 

Bonne Femme, t., Howard co. Mo. 
P. 988. 
Bonne Homme, t., St. Genevieve co. 

Mo. P. 436. II. t., St. Louis co. Mo. 

1 acad. P. 2,51.6. 

Bonne Caere, cap. St. John Baptist 
pa. La., on a remarkable bend in the 
Mississippiof same name. 

Bonnet-le-Chateau (St.), a town of 
France, dep. Loire. P. 2,035. — There 
are numerous comms. & vills. in France 
of the name of St. Bonnet. 

Bonnetable, a town of France, dep. 
Sarthe. P. 3,247. 




BoNNEvAL, a town of France, dep. 
Eure-et-Loir, on the Loir, here crossed 
by numerous bridges. P. 1,780. 

BoxNEviLLE, a town of Savoy, cap. 
prov., circ. Eaucigny, on the Arve. P. 

BONNIERES & BONNIEUX, twO vllls. of 

France. 1, dep. Seine-et-Oise, on the 

Paris & Havi-e railway. II. dep. Vau- 

cluse, cap. cant. P. 1,256. 

BoNNiNGHEiM, a town of Wiirtemberg, 
circ. Neclcar. P. 2,270. It has a roj'al 

Bonny, a town of France, dep. Loiret, 
on the Loire. P. 1,608. 

Bonny River, one of the arms of the 
Niger, at its delta between the Old & 
New Calabar rivs. Bonny-town is on the 
E. bank near its mouth. 

Bono, a vill. of isl. Sardinia, prov. 
Nuoro, on the Tirsi. P. 3,080. 

BoNOA, an isl. of the Malay archip., 
with a Dutch trading station. 

BoNORVA, a vill. of the isl. Sardinia. 
P. 4,572. 

BoNTHAiN, a seaport town of the isl. 
Celebes, at the S. extremity of the W. 

Boo Islands, a small group, Asiatic 
archip. Inhabite'd & fertile. 

BooDROOM, a seaport town of Asia- 
Minor, Anatolia, on the N. shore of the 
gulf of Kos. P. 11,000. (?) It stands on 
a declivity facing a deep bay, & has a^ 
small but good harbor. Principal edifices, 
a castle, built by the knights of Rhodes ; 
a governor's residence, & some mosques. 
II. a ruined city, Anatolia, the re- 
mains of which comprise 7 or 8 temples, 
a theatre, &o. 

BooJNOORD, a consid. town of Persia, 
prov. Khorassan. 

BooLEY, a town of Guinea, dom. Benin, 
on the S. side of Benin riv. 

BooLUNDSHAHUR, a dist. of British 
India, presid. Bengal, Upper provs. P. 

Boom, a town of Belgium, prov. Ant- 
werp, with a small port on the Rupel. P. 
6,223. It has an active trade, & the most 
extensive brick & tile works in the kgdm. 

Boondee, a state of Hindostan, tribu- 
tary to the British in Rajpootana. 

BooNDEE, a city of Hindostan, cap. 
above state. It consists- of anew & an 
old town, the former enclosed by a high 
stone wall, & having a noble high street, 
stone houses, a palace, & numerous tem- 
ples, fountains, & sculptures. 

BooNE, CO., Ky., in the extreme N. part 
of the state on the Ohio r. ; surface une- 
ven ; soil productive. Produces large 

quantities of wheat, Indian corn, & to- 
bacco. Some manufacs. Three acad. 
P. 11,185. II. CO., Indiana, in the cen- 
tral part of the state. P. 11,631. Soil 

fertile. Cap. Lebanon. III. co.. 111., 

in the N. part of the state. Soil excel- 
lent, drained by Kishwaukie r. P. 7,626. 

IV. CO., Mo., in the central part of 

the state ; drained by Rock & Cedar crs. 
It has numerous tanneries & distilleries. 

P. 14,979. V. new co., W. Virginia. 

P. 3,237. VI. CO., Iowa. P. 735. 

VII. t., Warrick co., la. P. 1,722. 

VIII. t., Harrison co., la. P. 2,058. 

IX. t., Franklin co.. Mo. 
BooKESBOROUGH, p-t., Washington co. 

Md. II. p-v., Madison co. Ky. 

Boone Lick, t., Howard co. Mo. P. 

BooNEviLLE, p-t., Oneida co. N. Y., is 
on the Black r., & the head- waters of the 

Mohawk. P. 5,516. rll. p-v., cap. 

Scott CO. Ark. III. p-v., cap. Warrick 

CO. la., tietween Pigeon & Cypress crs. P. 
240. — __ — IV. city, p-v., & cap. Cooper co. 
Mo., situated on the S. bank of Missouri. 
Its foundation is lime-stone rock. P. 2,581. 

BooRHANPOOR, a city of India, Gwalior 
dom., on, the Taptee. It is one of the 
largest & best built cities of the Deccan. 

Bo'ORLOs, a lake of Lower Egypt. 

BooRO, an island of the Asiatic archip. 
P. 60,000. It is mntns., well watered, & 

BooROJiRD, a town of Persia, prov. 
Irak-Ajemi, in a fertile valley, & said to 
have 12,000 inhabitants. 

Boosnah, a town of British India, pre- 
sid. Bengal. 

Bootan; a country of N. Hindostan. 
The Himalaya here rises to 25,000 feet 
in elev. P. r,500,000. (?) Surface wholly 
mntnous., with a general slope southward. 
Among its principal products are oak, 
pine, & other timber. Some wheat, bar- 
ley, rice, maize, & buckwheat are raised 
in terraces along the hillsides. Except 
potter's clay, iron appears to be the only 
mineral raised, though Bootan is reported 
to be rich in copper & other metals. Chf. 
manufs. are of woven goods, paper, a spe- 
cies of satin from bark, tobacco-pouches, 
gunpowder, arms, & hardwares. Princip. 
trade is with Bengal. Towns are few; 
the principal are Tassisudon & Punakka. 
The state religion is Buddhism, & Bootan 
swarms with priests, the monastic endow- 
ments absorbing a large part of the na- 
tional property. 

BooTHAUK, a-vill., Afghanistan. Here 
commences the series of defiles between 
Cabool ■& Jelalabad. 




Booth Bay, p-t., Lincoln co. Maine, 
betvveoa the Sheepscot & Daniariscotta 
rivs. It has an excellent harbor. Many 
persons emploj'ed in the fisheries. P. 

Boothia Felix, an insular portion of 
British N. America, e.-stending into the 
Arctic ocean. Boothia gulf, on its E. 
side, a southward continuation of Prince 
Kegent inlet, separates it from Cockburn 
isl. & Melville peninsula. 

BooTLE, a town of England, eo. Cum- 
berland, on the Irish sea. II. a tnshp., 

CO. Lancaster, at the mouth of the Mersey. 
P. 1,962. 

BpOTON, an isl. of the Asiatic archip. 
Area, 1,800 sq. m. The island is elev. 
& fertile. The Dutch formerly sent an 
officer here annually to destroy the clove 
trees, so as to secure their monopoly of 
the clove trade. The town Booton is at 
the S.W. extremity of the isl. The strait 
of Booton, from 15 to 20 ni. in width, sep- 
arates this island from Pangaosani & 

BoPFiNGEN, a town of ^iirtemberg, 
circ. Jaxt, on the Eger. P. 1,'560. 

BoppARD, a town of Bhenish Prussia, 
on the Rhine. P. 3,680. It owed its 
origin to a fort built by Drusus. In the 
middle ages it was an imperial city. 

BoRAHOLM, an uninhabited island, 

Boras, a town of Sweden. P. 2,328. 

BoBBA, a vill. of Portugal, prov. Alem- 

tejo. P. 3,500. II. a town of Brazil, 

prov. Para, on the Madeira. 

Bordeaux, a city in S.W. of France, 
cap. dep. Gii'onde, on 1. b. of the Garonne. 
p. 120,203. It communicates by railway 
with the port of La Teste, & by another 
(in course of construction) with Paris. 
Bordeaux is one of the most flourishing 
cities of Europe in point of industry, com- 
merce, & the cultivation of the arts & 
sciences. Situated on a navigable river, 
in this part about 2,600 ft. broad, & from 
60 to 90 ft. deep, which puts it in com- 
munication on one side with the ocean, & 
on the other with the Mediterranean, by 
the Canal du Midi, it has become the 
first port in the South of France. Its 
basin, formed by the Garonne, is capable 
of containing 1,200 ships of any size, &, is 
accessible even for ships of 600 tons at all 
times of the tide ; it hasdooks & building 
yards for every size of vessels, even for 
ships of the line. Its commerce extends 
to all parts of the world. Its principal 
exports are wines, brandy, & fruits ; chf. 
imports, colonial merchandise, cotton 
goods, iron, coal, & building timber. 

Reg. shipping (1841), 68,566 tons. For- 
eign shipping to the amount of 103,461 
tons entered, & 101,719 tons sailed from 
the port in 1842. Before the revolution 
the annual export of wine amounted to 
100,000 hogsheads; in 1827, the amount 
was 54,492. The principal fruits exptd. 
from Bordeaux, are plums and almonds. 
The exchange, the Palais Royal, the 
triumphal arch of the port Bourgogne, 
& especially the magnificent bridge 
across the Garonne, which consists of 17 
arches, & is 1,595 feet in length. Under 
the name of Burdigala, this was a rich 
& important place at the time of the con- 
quest by the Romans. The wines of Bor- 
deaux were celebrated as early as the 4th 
century. The city was sacked by the 
Visigoths, who were driven from it by 
Clovis. It was ravaged by the Saracens 
& Normans in the 8th & 9th centuries, 
& came into the possession of the dukes 
of Gascony in 911. In 1152 it passed, 
by the marriage of Henry Plantagenet 
with Eleonore of Guienne, under the do- 
minion of England ; since 1453 it has 
belonged to France. 

BoRDENTOWN, Burlington co. N. J., on 
E. bank of the Del." riv. It is built on a 
plain, 65 feet above the level of river. A 
viaduct of the Camden & Amboy R. R. 
passes through the place, beneath its 
principal streets. It is an attractive & 
healthy place, & the favorite resort of 
the peo-ple of Philadelphia in the summer 
season. A splendid mansion was erected 
here by Joseph Bonaparte, who chose 
this village for his place of residence 
while in the U. S. P. 2,500. 

BoRbEREs, a vill. of France, dep. H. 

Pyrenees. P. 1,631. Les Bordes is a 

small town of France, dep. Ariege. 

BoRDESHOLM, a viU. of Denmark, Hol- 

BoEEE, a fortfd. town of Afghanistan, 
prov. of Sewestan. 

BoRERAY, a small fertile isl. of the 

Hebrides. II. an island, 2 m. N. St. 


BoBGENTREicH, a town of Prussiau 
Westphalia. P. 1,820. 

BoBGHETTO, the name of several towns 

&, vills. of Italy. 1. Lombardy. P. 

2,200. II. deleg. Verona, on the Mm- 

cio. P. 2,500. III. Sard. dom. Genoa. 

P. 1,500. 

BoEGHOLM, a town of Sweden, cap. isl. 
Oeland, with a harb. 

BoRGHOLZ, a vill. of Prussian West- 
phalia, on the Bever. P. 1,270. 

BoRGHOLZHAUsEN, a town of Prussian 
Westphalia. P. 1,390. 




BoBGiA, a town of Naples, prov. Calab. 
TJlt. II., cap. cant. Catanzaro. P. 3,300. 

BoRGNE, lake or bay connected with 
the gulf of Mexico by Pascagoula sound, 
& on the N.W. with Lake Ponehartrain, 
by 2 bayous. Length, 40 m. ; breadth, 
15 m. 

BoHGo, a seaport town of Finland, on 
a bay of the gulf of Finland. P 2,038. 

II. a vill., Austrian empire, Tyrol, 

ontheBrenta. P. 2,000. There are vills. 
of same name in Cephalonia, Greece, & 

BoRGO is a prefix to the-names of many 
places in Italy.- — ■ — -I. (i?. a Buggiano) 

Tuscany. P. 1,677. II. {B. Mozzano) 

Lucca. III. {B. forte) Lombardy, on 

L b.of the Po. P. 3,500. IV. {B. La- 

vezzano) Piedmont. P. 2,170. -V. {B. 

Masino) Piedmont, prov. Ivrea. P. 2,066. 

VI. {B. Nuovo] Piacenza. P. 2,830. 

VII. Parma, P. 1,200. VIII. (B. San 

Dalmazzo) Piedmont,- prov. Coni. P. 

3,600. IX. (Sesia) Sard, dom., prov. 

JSTovara. P. 3,000. X. {B. San Lo- 
renzo) Tuscany, on 1. b. of the Sieve. P. 

BoRGOMANEHO, a town of Piedmont, 
province Novara. P. 7,095. It is well 

BoRGO San Donino, a town of N.Italy, 
duchy of Parma, cap. dist. P. 4,000. 

BoRGO San'Sepolcro, a town of Tus- 
cany, prov. Florence, on the Tiber. P 
4,297. Its cathedral, & numrs. churches 
are adorned with fine works of art. 
Borgo is also the prefix of the following 
towns : {B. Taro), Parma, on the Taro. 

II. {B. Ticino), Sard, dom., div. & 

prov. Novara. P. 1,851. III. div. 

Novara, prov. Vercelli. P. 2,586. 

BoRGOO, a kingdom of Africa, Soudan, 
W. of the Quorra. Principal towns, 
Boussa, Kiama, & Nilii. II. a king- 
dom of Africa, E. Soudan. 

BoKGUE, a marit. pa. of Scotland. P. 

BoRiNAGE, a small dist. of Belgium, 
prov. Hainault, important for its coal' 
mines. P. 32,000. 

BoRissoGLBBSK, two towns of Eussia. 

■ 1, gov. Tambov, cap. circ, on the 

Vorona. P. 2,500. II. gov. Yaroslavl, 

on the Wolga. P. 4,000. 

BoRissov, a town of Russia, gov. 
Minsk, on the Berezina. Near this, at 
the vill. of Studienka, the disastrous 
passage of the Berezina was elFected by 
the French army, 26th & 27th Nov. 1812. 
— Borispol is a town of Russia, gov. 

BORJA, a town of Spain, Aragon, prov. 

Zaragoza. P. 3,242. II. a town of S. 

Amer., Ecuador, on the Amazon. 

BoRJAs, an anc. town of Spain, prov. 
Lerida. P. 2,019. 

BoRKEN, two towns of Germany. 1. 

Prussian Westphalia. P. 3,000. II. a 

town of Hessen-Cassel, prov. Lower Hes- 
sen. P. 1,373. 

BoRKAL, a river of Rhenish Prussia, 
60 m. long.^Borkulo is a town on its left 
bank, in Gelderland. P. 1,200. 

BoRKUM, an island in the North sea, 
belonging to Hanover, at the mouth of 
the Ems. P. 485. 

BoRMEs, a vill. of France, dep. Var. 
P. 1,599. 

BoRMiDA, a river of Piedmont. 

BoRMio, a town of N. Italy, Lombardy, 
prov. Sondrio, near 1. b. of the Adda. P. 

BoRNA, a town of Saxony, circ. Leipzig. 
P. 3,804. 

BoRNAND, 2 towns of Savoy. 1. 

{Grand), prov. Faucigny. P. 2,500.— — 
II. (Pe^i/;), same prov. P. 2,000. 

Borne, a small river of England, co. 

Borne, a vill. of the Netherlands, 
prov. Over Yssel. P. 2,600. 

Borneo, an isl. of Malaysia, near the 
centre of the Eastern archipelago, in the 
Pacific ocean, divided by the equator into 
two nearly equal portions. Borneo is, 
next to Australia, the largest isl. on the 
globe. It is of a compact form, & has 
few great indentations of the sea, but 
many extensive bays & creeks. Length 
800 m., breadth 700 m. Estimated area, 
300,000 sq. m. P. 3,000,000. The shores 
are in general low & often marshy ; they 
are surrounded by numerous islets & 
rocks. Mt. Kini Balu is 13,698 ft. in 
elevation. The chief rivers are, the Bor- 
neo or Brunai, the Seriboe, the Batang- 
lopar, a magnificent river, the mouth of 
which is 4- m. wide, the Morotaba or Sa- 
rawak, the Pontianak, the Majak, the 
Pembuan, Sampet, & Mendawa, the 
Kahajan & Murong. The only known 
lake of importance is that of Kini Balu, 
about 35 m. long, & 30 m. broad. The 
climate is tropical in the interior, but on 
the N. coast it is qujte European. Min- 
eral riches are very valuable ; they com- 
prise gold, silver, diamonds, ajutimony 
ore, tin, iron, & coal. The chief diamond 
mines are those of Landak, in the Chi- 
nese territory, 50 m. N.E. Pontianak, on 
river of that name, where, 300 years ago, 
one of the largest known diamonds, weigh- 
ing 367 carats, was found. The gold of 
Sambas yields half a million sterling an- 




nually. Excellent coal is worked in 
several places. The animals which have 
been observed comprise the elephant, 
rhinoceros, & leopard. The Dyaks are 
thg aborigines of Borneo ; are divided 
into numerous distinct tribes, the chief 
being those of the interior, or hill Dyaks, 
& the Dyaks of the coast, many of whom 
are daring pirates, &■ cannibalism exists 
among many of them. The Malay in- 
habitants have adopted some European 
customs, & are capable of a great degree 
of civilization. The Chinese, settled on 
the "W". & S. coasts, are industrious & ac- 
tive. The capital is Sarawak. P. 12,000. 
The authority of the Dutch extends over 
a great portion of the island. 

BoBNEO, or BsAinsri, cap. prov. of same 
name, near the N. coast of the island of 
Borneo, & on 1. b. of the riv. Brauni. It 
is built on piles in the river. P. 22,000. (?) 

BoRNHOLM, an island in the Baltic, 
belonging to Denmark, off the S. coast 
of Sweden. Area, with 3 small, islands, 
Christiansoe, Fredericksholm, & Glra- 
sholm, 230 sq. m. P. 26,600. Surface 
in general mountainous ; shores steep & 
rocky;, highest point, Rytterknagten 
mntn., 506 ft. It yields a good building- 
stone, blue marble, potters' clay, & coal. 

BoRNOs, a town of Spain, Andalucia, 
prov. Cadiz. P. 4,826. 

BoRNOu, a country of central Africa, 
Soudan, having N. Kanem & Sahara, E. 
Lake Tchad & Begharmi, S. Mandara, & 
W . Houssa. Lake Tchad appears to re- 
ceive all the waters of Bornou. - The chf. 
rivers are the Shary & the Yeou. Cli- 
mate excessive ; temperature in summer 
(March to June), 104° to 107° Fahr. 
The dry season is from April to October, 
& the rainy season during remainder of 
the year. Surface level & fertile ; an- 
nually inundated ; chief products, millet, 
barley, beans, maize, cotton, & indigo. 
The principal wealth of the inhabitants 
is in slaves & cattle. ""'Chief exports, 
slaves, gold-dust, & civet. The mass of 
the people (Kanowry) are negroes, pro- 
fessing feticism, divided in tribes, & 
speaking different idioms. 

Borodino, a vill. of Russia, gov. Mos- 
cow, on the Kologa,- celebrated for the 
great victory 'gained by the French over 
tlie Russians, 7th September, 1812, & 

called the battle of Moskwa. New 

Borodino is a recent settl. of exiles in 
Siberia, gov. Yenisiesk. 

Boeoojird, a town of Pe'i;sia, prov. 
Irak- Aj mi, on the Ab-Zal. P. 12,000. 

Borough, a vill. of S. Wales, co. Car- 
marthen. P. 6,846. 

BoROUGHBRiDGE, a towD of England, 
CO. York, on the riv. Ure. P. 1,024. 

BoROviTCHi, the name of several 

towns of Russia. 1, gov. Novgorod, 

cap. circ. P. 4,000. II. gov. Tcherni- 

gov. III. gov. Pskov. 

BoROvsK,' a town of Russia, gov. Ka- 
luga, on the Protva, cap. dist. P. 5,000. 

BoRRioL, a town of Spain, Valencia. 
P. 2,069. 

BoRRis, a vill. of Ireland, co. Carlow. 
P. 950. 

Borris-O'-Kane, a town of Ireland, 
CO. Tipperary. Pi 1,625. 

Borris-O'-Leagh, a small town of 
Ireland, co. Tipperary. P. 1,438. 

BoRROMEAN Islands, a grouja of 4 
small isls. of Sard, dom., prov. Pallanza, 
in the bay of Tosa. 

BoRROwsTOUNNEss, a s'caport of Scot- 
land, CO. Linlithgow, on a low peninsula 
in- the firth of Forth. P. 2,347. The 
coal mines of the pa. extend under the 
bed of the Forth so as almost to meet 
those of Culross from the opposite side. 
Near Bo'ness is Kinniel house, long the 
residence of the philosopher Dugald 

BoRSA, a vill. of Hungary, co. Mar- 
maros, on the Viso. P. 3,478. Silver & 
cop{)or mines in its ■sicinity. 

BoEsNA, a town of Russia, gov. Tcher- 
nigov. P. 1,200. 

BoRSOD, prov. Hungary.- The dist. 
extends oa both sides of the riv. Sajo, & 
is one 'of the most fertile in the kgdm. 
Chief products grain, wine & fruits ; cat- 
tle are e.xtens. reared, & its commerce is 
important. P. 183,184. 

BoRT, a town of France, dep. Correze, 
cap. cant. P. 1,685. Birth-place of 

BoRTHwicK, a pa. of Scotland, co. 

BoETiGALi, a vill. of Sardinia, proT. 
Cagliari. P. 2,920. 

BoRYSTHBNES, a riv. of Russia. * 

BoRzoNAscA, a vill. of Sardinian sta. 
P. 4,810. Manufs. of cloth. 

BosA, a seaport town of the isl. Sar- 
dinia, at the mouth of the Termo. P. 
6,250. Its harbor is safe. 

BoscAwEN, p-t., Merrimack eo. N. H. 
on the W. side of Merrimae r. Black- 
water r. which passes through the town 
affords fine mill seats. Some manufacs. 
of leather. P. 2,063. 

BoscAwEN Island, a small isl. of the 
Pacific 0., Navig. group. 

Bosco, a town of Piedmont, prov. 

Alessandria. P. 3,450. II. {Tre- 

case), a town of Naples, Castellamare, on 




the S. declivity of Mt. Vesuvius. P. 
8,500. It has a royal inanuf. of arms & 

BosDARROs, a vill. of Prance, dep. B. 
Pyrenees. P. 1,935. 

BosJEAN, a vill. of France, dep. Saune- 
et-Loire. P. 1,015. 

Bosjesman's country, a region of S. 
Africa, N. of the colonial territory of the 
cape of Good Hope. The inhabitants, a 
race of Hottentots, are the most diminu- 
tive & savage of these regions. 

BosKOOP, a vill. of the jSTetherlands. 
P. 1,834. 

BosKOwiTZ, a town of Austria, Mora- 
via. P. 2,962. 

BosMiTCH, a riv. & village of Persia, 
prov. Azerbijan. 

BosNA, ariv. of Europ. Turkey, Bosnia. 

BosNA Serai, a town of European 
Turkey, cap. of the prov. of Bosnia. P. 
40,000'. (7) It is the seat of many of the^ 
chief authorities of the prov. ; has ma- 
nufs. of fire-arms, jewellery, leather & 
woollen goods, & is the principal entrepot 
for the commerce of Turkey, Dalmatiia, 
Croatia, & S. Germany. In the vicinity 
are extensive iron mines, & the mineral 
baths of Sera'ievsko. 

Bosnia, a prov. of European Turkey, 
comprising Bosnia Proper, Turkish Croa- 
tia, & Herzegovina, situated at the ex- 
treme W. part of the empire. Area 
18,800 sq. m. P. 900,000. Surface al- 
most wholly mntns., is traversed by the 
chain of the Uinaric Alps. A great part 
of it is situated in the basin of the D.m- 
ube. The soil is in general ill suited for 
cultivation, except in the valley of the 
Save. On the N. slopes of the Dinaric 
Alps are extensive forests. Wheat, bar- 
ley, & maize, are raised; and in the S. 
districts, flax, tobacco, wines, & olives. 
Fruits are cultivated in great abundance, 
especially prunes, of which a species of 
wine is prepared. The rearing of cattle 
is an important branch of agriculture. 
Croatia is renowned for its honey. The 
mntns.' contain gold mines. Manuf in- 
dustry is limited to fire-arms, leather, 
woollen & cotton stuifs, & gunpowder. 
Chief exports, le;ither. The Bosniaks are 
of Solavonian origin, & a good many be- 
long to the Greek church. As a frontier 
province, Bosnia is one of the most im- 
portant in the empire. 

BosPHORus, or the Channel of Con- 
stantinople, a celeb, strait of Turkey, 
which separates Europe & Asia, & con- 
nects the Black sea with the sea of Mar- 
mara. Length N.E. to S.W. about 17 
m., breadth varies from J m. to 2 m. 

Shores generally elevated & very pictur- 
esque; on them are the town of Scutari, 
the castles of Europe & Asia, Buyuk- 
dere, Therapia, Pera, the" city of Con- 
stantinople, & numerous villas. One of 
its chief gulfs is the harbor of Constanti- 
nople, or the "golden horn." II. 

Cimmerian Bosphorus, an inlet of the 
Black sea. 

Bossier, a new parish of Louisiana. 
P. 6,962. 

Bossut-les-"Walcouht, a vill. of Bel- 
gium, prov. Hainault. Near this the 
French gained a victory over the Aus- 
trians in 1792. 

Bostan (El), a town of Asiatic Tur- 
key, pash. Marash, on the Sihoon, & on 
the N. side of Mt. Taurus. P. 9,000. 

Boston, city, cap. Mass., in Suffolk co., 
principally situated on a peninsula 3 m. 
long & 1 broad, at the W. extremity of 
Massachusetts bay. The p. in 1790 was 
18,038; in 1850, 138,788.— Boston, con- 
sists of three parts, old Boston on the 
peninsula. South Boston once part of 
Dorchester, & East Boston formerly Nod- 
dle's island. " The Neck," over a mile 
long, was the only original communica- 
tion of the peninsula with the main land; 
but now a comoiunioation has been 
opened in various directions by numerous 
bridges, some of which are of great length. 
The chief of these are Charles river bridge, 
West Boston bridge. Canal bridge, &, 
Boston Free bridge. Besides these, the 
Western avenue leads to Brookline. This 
constitutBs a tide-dam enclosing a pond 
of six hundred acres, which, by a parti- 
tion, makes an avenue from the main 
d im to Roxbury. The peninsula pf 
Boston, had originally an uneven surface ; 
& attempts to level the inequalities have, 
in the main, failed of success. The 
streets, laid out upon no systematic plan, 
are crooked & narrow. The common, 
originally a town cow-pasture, is now one 
of the first public grounds in any city in 
the country. Some- of the public build- 
ings are imposing, & many of the private 
residences elegant. South •vBoston ex- 
tends about 2 ms. along S. side of the 
hai'bor, & contains about 600 acres. It 
is regularly laid out in streets & squares. 
In the centre of this tract are the •' Dor- 
chester Heights," 130 feet high. East 
Boston is on an island containing about 
660 acres of land & extensive flats. It 
is connected to Old Boston by a steam 
ferry, & to Chelsea, by a bridge. Here 
is the wharf of the Liverpool stea mships, 
1,000 feet long. The harbor of Boston is 
spacious, safe, & easily defended ; there 




is no better in the TT. S. ; 500 vessels may 
ride at anchor in it with a good depth of 
' water. The principal wharves of Boston 
are Long wharf, 1,650 feet long, & Cen- 
tral wharf, 1,240. Public buildings, the 
State-House on Beacon hill 110 feet above 
the level of the sea ; Faneuil-Hall mar- 
ket, built of granite 536 feet long, 50 
wide, & 2 stories high; Faneuil-Hall 
celebrated in revolutionary history, & 
the City ball, another venerable build- 
ing ; the Massachusetts hospital, the 
Custom-house, & some fine churches. 
The Common is the most distinguished 
public place. Boston, iu point of com- 
merce, is the second place in the Union, 
& her commercial enterprises in general 
have been crowned with great success. 
There is a packet line of large steamships 
between this city & Great Britain, also 
sailing packets to every important port 
in the U. S.; fifty lines in all. The ton- 
nage of Boston in 1850 was 235,879 ; arri- 
vals from foreign parts, 2,828; clearances 
for do. 2,839. Here are 32 banks, with 
an aggregate capital of $24,560,000. 
City debt (in 1851), $7,161,360. Boston 
has. long been celebrated for the excel- 
lence of its schools. Besides numerous 
private schools, there are many public 
free schools. The Medical branch of 
Harvard has its seat in Boston. There 
is an institution, for the blind. The Bos- 
ton Atheua3um has two large buildings; 
in one of these is a library of 30,000 vols. ; 
in the other a picture gallery & hall for 
public lectures. This city has 100 lite- 
rary, religious & charitable societies. 
Among the literary societies, are the 
American acad. of arts & sciences ; the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, & the 
Boston Natural History Society. Among" 
the religious & charitable, are the differ- 
ent missionary societies, the American 
education society, &c. There are up- 
wards of 30 newspapers published in Bos- 
ton, one fourth of which are daily ; be- 
sides these, many magazines & reviews. 
Boston has 100 churches, of which the 
Unitarians have a greater number than 
any othor denomination. There are two 
theatres. This city continued a town & 
was governed by a body of selectmen 
until 1821, when a city government was 
adopted. ' 

Boston was founded in 1630 ; first 
church built 1'632. The American Revo- 
lution commenced in Boston in 1775, the 
British army, 10,000 strong, held the 
plaiJe ; but were at length compelled by 

the American troops to withdraw. 11. 

vill. Erie co. N. T. on Cayuga cr. P. 

1,745. III. p-t.. Summit co. 0., on the 

Ohio canal. The Chirahoga river passes 
through it & affords numerous mill-seats. 
IV. t. Franklin co. Ark. V. sea- 
port town of England, co. Lincoln, in a 
rich agricultural district, on the estuary 
of the Witham, 5 m. from the sea. The 
town is divided into two nearly equal 
parts by the Witham, here crossed by an 
iron bridge of one arch, 86 feet in span. 

BoswoRTH, t. in England near Leices- 
ter. On a moss in the vicinity, on the 
22d of August, 1485, was fought the deci- 
sive battle which terminated the wars of 
the Roses, with the life of Richard III. 
(the only English monarch slain in battle 
since the conquest). A well is still shown 
at which Richard is reported to have 
drunk during the battle ; also an emi- 
nence, called Crownhill, where Lord 
Stanley placed the crown upon the head 
of the victor, Henry VII. 

BoszoRMENY, two towns of Hungary. 

L 00. Bihar. P. 17,000. II. co. 

Szabolcz, Cap. of the Haiduck dist. 

Botany Bay, a bay of the Pacific 
ocean, on the E. coast of Australia, New 
South AVales. It was discovered by Ca.p- 
tain Cook in 1770, & derived its name 
from the variety of new plants then ob- 
served on its shores. It became an Eng- 
lish penal colony in 1787. On its coast 
is a column erected in 1825, to the mem- 
ory of the French navigator. La Perouse. 

BoTCHA, a vill. of Asiatic Turkey, ol. 
the Joruk. 

BoTEL Tobago, an isl. in the China sea. 

BoTESDALE, a towu of England, co. 
Suffolk. In the chapel are deposited the 
remains of Sir Nicholas Bacon, & Lord 
Chf. Justice Holt. 

Botetourt, county, Va.,W. of the Blue 
Ridge, contains 1,000 sq. m. & is drained 
by tributaries of the James r. P. 14,908. 

BoTHNANG, a vill. of Wlirtemberg, circ. 
Neckar. P. 1,130. 

Bothnia, a country of E. Europe, N. 
& W. of the gulf of Bothnia, now divided 
into Russian Bothnia & Swedish Bothnia. 

Bothnia (G-ulf of), a igulf of Europe, 
forming the N. part of the Baltic sea. 
L. 400 m. ; av. b. 100 m. 

Bothwell, a pa. of Scotland, co. Lan- 
ark, with a vill. on the Clyde. P. of pa. 
11,175. In it are extensive collieries, iron 
works, & freestone quarries. 

Botsorhel, a vill. of France, dep. Fin- 
isterre. P. 1,645. 

Bottwar (Great), a town of Wlir- 
temberg, circ. Neckar. P. 2,549. II. 

Little Bottwar, a vill. S. the former. P. 




BoTZEN, a town of tie Tyrol, cap. eirc. 
P. 9,000. It is built in the Italian style, 
& has a gymnasium ; it is protected from 
sudden inundations of the riv. by a strong 
dyke nearly 2 m. in length. Its inhabi- 
tants manuf. linen & silk fabrics, silk 
twist, hosiery, leather, <tc. 

BouAFLE, avill.of Erance, dep. Seine- 
et-Oise. P. 1,092. 

BocTAYE, a Till, of France, dep. Loire- 
Inf. P. 1,297. 

BoucE, a vill. of France, dep. Orne, 
with iron works. P. 1,533. 

BoucHAiN, a small frontier town of 
France, dep. Nord, cap. cant, on the 
Scheldt. P. 1,183, who refine salt, & 
manuf. beet-root sugar. It was taken by 
the D. of Marlborough in 1711 ; re-taken 
by the French in 1712. 

BoucHEMAiNE, a vill. of France, dep. 
Maine-et-Loire, on the Loire, P. 1,333. 
^ Bouches-du-Rhone, a marit. dep. of 
the S.B. of France, formed of a part of 
Provence, cap. Marseilles. P. 428,989. 
It is divided into 3 communal arronds., 
Marseille, Ais & Aries ; 27 cantons & 
106 comms. There are numerous small 
islands, the chief of which are Pom^gue 
& Ratoneau, opposite Marseilles. Climate 
dry & warm ; surface interspersed with 
mountains. Cattle, horses, & sheep are 
extensively reared. The dep. contains 
marble quarries, salt marshes, & mineral 
waters, & has an active export & import 
trade with the Levant, Africa, & Italy ; 
it has celebrated manufs. of white soap, 
olive oil, chemical products, essences, & 
perfumes ; brandy distilleries, sugar, & 
sulphur refineries. 

BoucHET (Le), a hamlet of France, 
dep. Seine-et-Oise. 

BoucHoux (Les), a vill. of France, 
dep. Jura. P. 2,119. 

BouDRY, a vill. of Switzerl., cant. Neu- 
chatel, on the Reuss. P. 1.430. 

BouE, a vill. of France, dep. Aisne, 
arrond. Vervins. P. 1,434. 

Bouexiere (La), a vill. of France, 
dep. Ile-et-Villaine. P. 2,016. 

BouFARiii:, a vilL of Algeria. P. 1,600. 

BouFFiouLX, a vill. of Belgium, prov. 
Hainault, arrond. Charleroi,with manufs. 
of pottery & iron foundries. P. 1,027. 

Bougainville, a bay, island, & strait, 
so designated from the French navigator 

of that name. 1. {Bay), S. America, 

Patagonia, in the strait of Magellan. 

II. {island), Salomon group, Pacific. 

III. {Strait), between the island Espiritu 
Santo & MallicoUo, New Hebrides. 

BouGiAH, a mai-it. town of Algeria, 
prov. Algiers, on a bay of the same name 

in the Mediterranean. It has no harbor, 
but secure anchorage at thejnouth of 
the Aduse. 

Bgugival, avill.of France, dep. Seine- 
et-Oise. P. 1,057. 

BouGUENAis, a town of France, dep. 
Loire-Inf. P. 3,287. 

Bouillante, a town of the French col- 
ony of Guadeloupe. P. 2,067. 

BotjiLLARGUEs, a viU. of France, dep. 
Gard, arrond. Msmes. P. 1,718. 

BouiLLE (La), a town of France, dep. 
Seiiie-Inf., arrond. Rouen, on the Seine. 
P. 1,772. 

BouiLLB-LoRET, a vill. of France, dep. 
Deux-S^vres. P. 1,088. 

Bouillon, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Luxembourg. P. 2,703. It was the cap. 
of the duchy of the same name, possessed 
by Godfrey of Bouillon, the famous leader 
of the first crusade. 

BouiN, an island off the "W. coast of 
France, dep. Vendee. P. 1,266. 

BouiNSK, a town of Russia, on the 
Carla. P. 3,168. 

BouLAc, a town of Egypt, on the Nile. 
It is the port of Cairo, & at which all 
the ships navigating the Nile, discharge , 
their cargoes. It was burned by the 
French in 1799, & rebuilt by Mehemed 
Ali, who has estab. a large cotton spin- 
ning, weaving, & printing work, a school 
of engineering, which has 180 pupils, & a 
printing press, from which issues a weekly 
newspaper in Arabic. 

BouLAY, a town of France, dep. Mo- 
selle, arrond. Metz. P. 2,894. 

Boulogne-Sur-Mer, a seaport t. of 
France, cap. arrond., dep. Pas de Calais, 
on the English -channel at the mouth of 
the Lianne, & at the head of the railway 
from Amiens to Boulogne. P. 29,741. It 
is divided into the Upper & Lower towns. 
The first on a hill, whence the English 
coast is distinctly visible. The Lower, 
or new town, stretching from the Upper 
town to the sea. This part has fine pub- 
lic baths, a eomm. college, & a museum, 
including a library of 23,000 vols., .an 
hospital, custom-house, & barracks. 
Boulogne has also two English churches, 
several excellent hotels, a great number 
of boarding schools (both French & Eng- 
lish), a school of navigation, tribunal of 
commerce, societies of agriculture, com- 
merce, & arts : manufs. of coarse v/ool- 
lens, sail cloth, cordage, bottl6 glass, & 
earthenware. In its vicinity are impor- 
tant marble quarries. Its fisheries are 
very extensive ; but the town is mainly 
indebted for its prosperity to its English 
residents. Steamers make the passage 




to Dover in 3J hours, & to London in 
about 12 hours ; & the number of pas- 
sengers who disembarked here annually, 
prior to 1848, exceeded 50,000. It was 
on the heights of Boulogne that the 
Emperor Caligula, a.d. 40, encamped 
an army of 100,000 men for the fruitless 
purpose of invading Britain, & here also 
in 1804, nearly 18 centuries later, the 
Emperor Napoleon assembled an army 
of 180,000 men & a flotilla of 2,400 trans- 
ports with the same design. The Colonne 
Napoleon, a column 164 feet high, nearly 
1 mile from the town, commemorates the 
latter futile attempt. 

Boulogne, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. H. Garonne, cap. cant. P. 1,597. 
Chief trade in salted jDoultry, grain, & 

chestnuts. II. a town, dep. Seine, 

arrend. S. Denis. P. 6,932. 

BouLoiRE, a town of France, dep. 
Sarthe. P. 2,094. 

Bounty Islands, a small group, S. 
Pacific ocean, S.E. New-Zealand. 

BouftBON, county, Ky., toward the 
N.E. part of the state, on S. fork of 
Licking riv. Soil fertile. 13 distilleries, 
& some manufac. of woollen & cotton. 
P. 14,466. Cap. Paris. — —II. town, Cal- 
loway CO. Mo. P. 1,100. III. an isl. 

of the Mascarene group, Indian ocean, 
forming a French colony, cap. St. Denis. 
L. 38 m. ; b. 28 m. P. 108,000. The 
island is of volcanic origin, & of an ellip- 
tical form. It is travetsed from N. to 
S. by a chain of mntns. which divides it 
into two portions, diifering in formation, 
climate, & productions.' The chief sum- 
mits are the Piton de Neiges, an extinct 
volcano, 10,100 ft.; Grand Benard, 9,500 
ft.; Cimandef 7,300 ft.; & Pitoa de la 
Fournaise, an active volcano, 7,218 ft. 
above the level of the sea. It is watered 
by numerous streams, all of which are 
rapid, & none navigable. The climate 
has recently undergone a great change. 
Bourbon, which long enjoyed the repu- 
tation of being the most healthy spot of 
the colonial world — -an insular paradise — 
is now visited by the bloody flux & the 
typhoid fever of Bourbon, which attacks 
every European after a residence of 4 or 
5 years. The soil is very fertile in the 
vicinity of the coast. The chief products 
are sugar, coffee, cloves, maize, rice, & 
tobacco. Principal exports, sugar, coffee, 
cloves, dye-woods, & saltpetre ; imports, 
wheat, oil, wine, cattle, timber, salt, 
glass, & manufactured goods. Bourbon 
was discovered in 1545 by the Portuguese. 

IV. Lancy, dep. SaOne-et- Loire. P. 

2,848. It has remains of Roman anti- 

quities, mineral springs & baths. V. 

{L' Archambault), dep. AUier. P. 1,615. 
It has mineral springs, baths, & reoiains 
of the anc. castle of the Bourbons, built 
in the 13th century. 

Bourbon- Vendee, formerly ia Roche- 
Su7-- Yon, a town of W. France, cap. dep. 
Vendee, on the Yon. P. 5,280. 

Bourbonne-les-Bains, a town of 
France, dep. H. Marne, cap. cant., arrond. 
Langres, at the confl. of the Borne & 
Aspance. P. ,3,683. It has some fine 
promenades & fountains, & 2 magnificent 
establishments connected with its saline 
hot springs, which were known to the 

BouRBOULE (La), a hamlet of France, 
dep. Puy-de-Dume, arrond. Clermont, on 
the Dordogne, with mineral springs & 

Bourbourg-villb, a town of France, 
dep. Nord, arrond. Dunkerque, on canal 
of same name, which connects Dun- 
kerque to the Aa. P. 2,438. II. S. 

Campagne, a vill. in the above cant. 
P. 2,040. 

BouRBRiAC, a vill. of France, dep. 
Cotes-du-Nord, cap. cant., arrond. Guin- 
gamp. P. 3,613. 

BouRDEAux, a town of France, dep. 
Drome, cap. cant. P. 1,281. 

BouRDEiLLES, a town of France, dep. 
Dordogne^ arrond. Perigueux, on the 
Dronne. P. 1,638. 

BouRG, numerous towns & vills. of 

France. 1. B. en-Bresse, cap. dep. Ain. 

P. 8,863. It has a comm. college, normal 
school, a pyramidal monument in honor 
of Gen. Joubert, a magnificent hospital, 
church founded by Margaret of Austria, 
& containing her tomb, a library of 19,000 
vols., & a botanic garden. Commerce 

considerable. -11. B. (Le), vill. dep. 

Vendee, arrond. Bourbon Vendee. P. 
1,768. — —III. B. sur Gironde, aep. Gi- 
ronde, cap. cant., with extens. quarries, 
from which Bordeaux is almost entirely 
built. P. 1,356. — ■ — IV. B. Lastic, dep. 
Puy-de-Dume, arrond. Clermont. P. 

2,707. V. B. la Heine, dep. Seine. P. 

1,435. VI. B. les Valence (Le), dep. 

DrOme. P. 2,820.—— VII. B. Argental, 
dep. Loire. P. L68.5.- — VIII. B. d' 
Oysans, dop. Isere. P. 1,643. There 

are la ad mines in its vicinity. IX. B. 

du Pcage, dep. DrOme, cap. cant., on 1. 

b. of the Isere. P. 3,360. X. B. Si. 

Andeol, dep. Ardeche, cap. cant., on the 
Rhone, arrond. Privas. P. 3,751. 

BouRG (Grand), a town of the French 
Antilles, cap. of the isl. Marie-Galante. 
P. 1,889. 




BouRG (Petit), a town of Frencli An- 
tilles, in the isl. Guadeloupe. P. 3,318. 
BouRG (Le), a vill. of Switzerland, 
cant. Bern., with sulphur springs <& baths. 
BocRGACHARD, a towu of France, dep. 
Eure. P. 1,216. 

BouRGANEUF, a town of France, cap, 
arrond., dep. Creuse. P. 2.480. 

BouRGAs, a town of Europ. Turkey. 
BouRGES, a city in the centre of France, 
cap. dep. Cher, on the canal du Berr^, 
& on the railway du Centre. P. 18,235. 
It is a very anc. town ; it is ill-built, & 
thinly populated. It has a; royal college, 
a normal school, & public library of 25,- 
000 vols., a magnificent cathedral, larger 
than Notre Dame at Paris, & considered 
one of the finest structures in Europe ; 
a noble Hotel de Ville, formerly resi- 
dence of Jacques Cceur. It has manufs. 
of cloth & cutlery, & commerce in grain, 
hemp, & the porcelain of Foeoy. 

BouRGET, a small town .of Savoy, 
Chambery, at the S. extremity of the 
beautiful lake of Bourget having 1,200 

inhabs. The lake of Bourget, or 

Chdtillon, 11 m. in length. 

Bourgneuf-en-Retz, a small sea- 
port town of France, dep. Loire-Inf. P. 

BouHGOiN, a town of France, dep. 
Isere, cap. cant, on the Bourbre. P. 3,337 . 
BouRG St. Maurice, a townof Savoy, 
prov. Tarantasia, near the Little St. Ber- 
nard pass. P. 3,300. 

BouRGUEtL, a town of Erance, dep. 
Indre-et-Loire. P. 1,729. 

BouRLON, a vill. of Fr'ance, dep. Pas 
de Calais, arrond. Arras. P. 1,615. 

BouRLOs, a "lagoon of Lower Egypt, 
in the delta of the Nile, about 5 m. E. 
Bosetta. Length, 38 m. ; av. b., 17 m. 

BouRMONT, a town of France, dep. H. 
Marne. P. 1,118. 

Bournabat, a vill. of As i a- Minor, An a- 
toli.a, at the head of its gulf. 

Bourne, a town of England, co. Lin- 
coln, near the Fens. 

BouRO, one of the Moluccansls. W. of 
the isl. Ceram. L. 85 m. ; b. 35 m. P. 
30,000. (?) Very fertile. Chf. town, Ca- 
jeli. P. 1,800. 

BouRTANGE, a Small town & strong 
fortress of the Netherl'd.s, in the vast 
morass of same name, on the Hanoverian 

BouRTH, a town of France, dep. Eure. 
P. 1,946, manufs. pins. 

BoussA, a large town of Central Africa, 
W. Soudan, cap. a principal of same 
name, on an isl. in the Niger. P. 18,000. 
Here Mungo Park met his death. 

BoussAc, a t. of France, dep. Creuse, 
cap. arrond., on a steep rock. P. 995. 

BoussiEREs, a vill. of France, cap. 
cant., dep. Doubs, arrond. Besan^on, near 
1. b. of the Doubs. In its vicinity is the 
celebrated grotto of Osselle, composed of 
a long series of caves remarkable tot 
beautiful stalactites & the number of 
fossil bones it contains. 

BoussoLE Strait is the channel which 
connects the sea of Okkotsk with the 
Pacific, in the centre of the-Kurile isls. 
Boussu, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Hainault, cap. cant., on the Haine. P. 
2.984. Exports coal. 

Boutonne, a riv. of France, deps. 
Deus-Sevres, & Charente Inf., 1. 65 m. 

BouviGNEs, a vill. of Belgium, prov. 
Namur, on the Maese. It has iron works, 
& manuf. of tobacco. 

BouviNEs, a vill. of France, dep. Nord, 
celeb, for the victory gained by Philip 
Augustas over the Emperor Otho, in 1214. 
BouxviLLER, a town of France, cap. 
cant., dep. Bas.-Rhin. P. 3,951. ■■ It has 
a communal college, fine gothic castle ; 
mines of alum, manufs. of chemical prod- 
ucts & rdetal buttons. 

BouzoNviLLE, a town of France, dep. 
Moselle, arrond. Thionville. P. 1,580. 
BouzouLOUK, a town of Russia, gov. 
Orenburg, on the Samara. 

BovA, a town of Naples, prov. Calab. 
P. 2,500. 

Bo VEND EN, a town of Hanover, landr. 
Hildesheim. near the Leine. P. 1,800. 
BovEs, a town of Piedmont, prov. Cu- 

neo. P, 8,709. II. a vill. of France, 

dep. Somme. P.. 1,690. 

BovEY, t., St. Genevieve co. Mo. P. 

BoviNA, p-t., Delaware co. N. Y., 
drained by Little Delaware r. P. 1,403. 
BoviNo. a town of Naples, prov. Capi- 
tanata. P. 5,200. 

Bovolenta, 2 vills. of N. Italy, gov. 

Bow, p-t., Merrimac co. N. H., W. of 
Merrimac r., on Turkey riv. P. 1,001. 
II. an isl. of the Low Archip., Paci- 
fic 0. It is of coral formation, 30 m. in 
1. by 5 m. in b. 

. BowDoiN, p-t., Lincoln co. Me. P. 

BowDOiNHAM, p-t., Lincoln co. Me., 
on the W. side of Kennebec riv. Lum- 
ber trade & ship building. P. 2,402. 
BowEN, t., Madison co. Ark. P. 453. 
Bowie, co., Texas, cap. Boston. P. d 

Bowfell, a mntn. of Engl., co. West- 
moreland. Elev. 2,911 ft. 




BowLAND - FoRJEST, Engl., COS. York 
(W. Riling), Laneas., ■"& has aa area of 
25,701) acres. 

Bowles, t., Franklin co. Mo. P. 1,449. 

Bowling - (iRIGEN, cap. Caroline oo. 
Va. In the centre is a beautiful Green 
ornamented with trees & shrubbery. The 

usual county buildings. -11. p-v., cap. 

AYarren co. Ky. situated on Big Barren 
r., accassible by steamboats of 200 tons. 
Considerable trade in tobacco. P. 1,400. 

III. t, Licking co., 0. P. 1,464.- — 

IV. p-v., cap. Clay co. la., on Eel r., 

a branch of White r. V. t., Pettis co. 

140. rVI. t., Marion co. 0., on the S. 

side of Sciota r. 

Bowling, a tnshp. of Engl.j co. York, 
^Y. Riding. Pop. 8,918, chiefly employed 
in quarries, mines, & iron works. 

BowMORE, a seaport vill. of Sootl., co. 
Argyle, on Lochindaal. P. 4,025. 

BoxBOi(,ouGH, t., Middlesex co. Mass., 
between Concord & Nashua rirs. Maa- 
ufacs. of shoes, hats, & bonnets. Hops 
extensively cultivated. 

BoxFORD, t., Essex co. Mass. 

Box-hill, Engl., co. Surrey, forms 
part of the range of North-downs. 

BoxMEER, a vill. of the Netherl'ds, 
prov. Brabant. P. 2,002. 

BoxTEL, a vill. of the Netherlands, 
prov. N. Brabant, p. 4,013. 

BovACA, a vill. of the repub. New 
Granada, S. Amer., dep. Boyaea, celeb, 
for the victory gained by Bolivar over 
the Spaniards, 7th Aug. 1819, which se- 
cured the - independence of Columbia. 
II. The dep. Boyaea extends be- 
tween the plain of Bogota & the borders 
of Venezuela, comprising the whole of 
the E. Andes, & divided into the provs. 
Pamplona, Socorro, Tunja, & Cazanare ; 
cap. Tunja. It is watered by the Mag- 
daleiia, the Sogamozo, Zulia, Cazanare, 
& Meta ; & expts. wheat, cacao, cotton, 
coffee, tobacco, & indigo. 

Boya:!Ja, a bay & town on the N.W. 
coast of Madagascar. 

BoYDTON, p-v., cvp. Mecklenburg co. 
Va. Here is Randolph Macon college, 
a Methodist institution. 

BoYLB, CO., Ky., i-5 in a central part 
of the state, on the head branches of Salt 
& Dick's rivs. Soil excellent. P. 9,116. 
Cap. Danville. 

BoYLSTON, t, Worcester co. Mass., 
watered by Nashua r. P. 797. — —II. t., 
Oswego CO. N. Y., hilly & rough ; drained 
by Little Sandy & Trout crs. P. 481. 

BoYNE, a riv. of Ireld., Leinster. It 

is navigable fjr barges of 70 tons to 

N.ivan, 19 m. from the sea!^ & at high 


water, far vessels of 200 tons to Droghe- 
da. About 2j m. W. the last named 
town, a lofty obelisk marks the spot where 
the forces of William III., on the 1st 
July, 1690, gained the great victory over 
those of James II., so well known in Brit. 
history as the " battle of the Boyne." 
BoYNE, a river, E. Australia. 
BozRAH, t.. New London co. Conn., on 
the Yantic r. P. 1,067. — —II. a ruined 
town of Syria, pash. Damascus. It is 
mentioned in Scriplijre as a chief town 
of the Edomites, & also as in possessioa 
of the Moabites. 

BozzoLO, a town of N. Italy, Lom- 
bardy. P. 4,900. 

Bra, a town of Piedmont, prov. Alba. 
P. 11,466. Manufactures of silk, & a 
large trade in corn, cattle, & wine. 

Bhaake, a vill. of N. Germany, with 
a barb, on rt. b. of the Weser, & ship 
building yards. P. 1,397. 

Brabant, North, a prov. in the S. of 
Netherlands, can. Bois-le-Duc. Area 
2,000 sq.m. P.' 402,353. Chf. rivs. the 
Maese, Dommel, Aa, Donge, & Dintel. 
The country is uniformly flat, marshy 
in some places, soil in general infertile, 
&■ wood rare. Chf. products, rye, oats, 
wheat, lint, & fruits. The rearing of 
cattle & sheep is the principal branch of 
rural industry. Manufs, comprise wool- 
len, linen, & cotton fabrics, leather & 

Brabant, South, a prov. of Bel- 
gium, near its centre, cap. Brussels. 
Area 1,290 sq. m. P. 676,406. Surface 
hilly, only in the S. well watered, & gen- 
erally fertile. Princip. rivs. the Senne, 
Dyle, & Demer. Chief products, corn & 
oilseed, flax, hemp, & hops. Woods ex- 
tensive, & include the forest of Soignies. 
Cattle & sheep numerous. Iron & stona 
abundant. Principal manufs. cotton <fc 
linen fabrics, lace, leather, woollen cloth, 
soap, & chemical products. 

Bracciano, a town of Italy, Pontif. 
sta. P. 1,330. 

Bhacbsille, p-t., Trumbull co. 0. 

Brachelen, a vill. of Rhen. Pruss., 
reg. Aachen. P. 2,146. Paper mills. 

Braciglianq, a town of Naples, prov. 
prinoip. Citra. P. 3,000. 

Bracken, county, Ky., in the N.E- 
part of the state, on the Ohio. Soil pro- 
ductive. P. 8,90i. 

Bhackley, a town of Engl., co. North' 
ampton, on the Ouse. 

Brackenheim, a town of Wiirtemberg, 
circ. Neckar, on the Zaber. P. 1,520; 

Bradano, a riv. of Naples, prov. Basi- 

^ ^It 




Bradford, town, Steiiben ■ so. N. Y 

P. 1,547. ir. t., Penobscot co. Me. P. 

1,000.— -III. t, Merrimao co. N. H., 
about midway between Merrimac & Con- 
necticut rivs. P. 1,331.- IV. t., Orange 

CO. Vt., on the Connecticut riv. The first 
globes manufactured in the U. S. were 
made here. There are also maniifacs. of 

cloth & paper. V. t., Essex co. Mass., 

on Merrimac riv. ; connected with Haver- 
hill by a bridge, 650 ft. long. P. 2,222. 

VI. CO., Peon., in the N.E. part of 

the state ; contains 1,200 sq'. m. ; ^yatered 
by Chemung riv., & a branch of the Sus- 
quehanna riv., also by Towanda & Sugar 
crs. Though mountainous, it has much 
good land. Here is bituminous coal. 
There are 2 furnaces, 213 saw mills, 4 
distilleries, & several laanufacs. of wool- 
len & leather. P. 42,831. Cap. Towanda. 

VII. t., McKcan co., Penn. VIII. 

t., Lincoln co. Mo. P. 1,319. IX. t. of 

England, co. of Yorli, W. riding. Brad- 
ford is now tli3 principal seat of the 
worsted, yarn, & stuff laanufac. in Eng- 
land, and the great mii.rt for the long 
wool used in these fabrics. Every year 
a festival is held here in honor of St. 
Blase, the reputed inventor of wool- 

Bradford (Great), a town of Engl., 
CO. Wilts, on tbe Avon. P. 3,836. 

Brading, a marit. town, near the E. 
extremity of the Isle of Wight, Engl., co. 

Bradley, co., Tenn., in the S.E. part 
of the state ; drained by Hiwassee riv. 
Surface mountainous. Land fertile on the 
margin of the streams. Products, Ind. 
corn, .wheat, & tobacco, with some cotton 
& sugar ; sereral distilleries & tanneries. 

P. 12,259. Cap. Cleveland. II. a new 

county of Arkansas. P. 3,829. III. t., 

Penobscot co. Me. 

Brady, town, Clearfield co. Pa. P. 

692. II. p-t., Kalmazoo co. Mich. ; 

drained by Portage riv. P. 1,175. 

Bradninch, a town of England, co. 
Devon. P. 1,714. The t. has »n ancient 
church, a guildhall with a jail beneath. 

Beadshaw-Edge, a towash. of Engl., 
CO. Derby. P. L850. 

Braekel, a town of N. Germany, 
Brunswick. P. 2,700. 

Braga, a city of Portugal, c.ip. prov. 
Minho. P. 17,000. It is the seat of an 
archbishop, who is primate cf Portugal. 
It has a rich cathedral, & some manufs. 
of fire-arms, jewellery, cutlery, & hats. 
In its vicinity is the celeb, sanctuary of 
Jesus do Monte. 

Bbaganca, a town of Portugal, prov. 

Tras-os-Montes, near the N.E. frontier, 
cap. Comarca, on the Ferrenza. P. 5,000. 
It has a citadel, a college, & manufs. of 
velvet & other silk fabrics. The ances- 
tors pf the present reigning families of 
Portugal & of Brazil were dukes of Bra- 
ganfa, until called to the Portuguese 

throne in 1640. II. a seaport town of 

Brazil, prov. Para. P. 6,000. III. .i 

town of Brazil, prov. San Paulo. P. 10,000. 

Brahestad, a seaport of Piuss. fin- 
land, on the gulf of Bothnia. P. 1,160. 

Brahilov, the principal port of Wal- 
lachia, on left bank of the Danube. 
P. 6,000 

Brahmaputra, one of the great riv.s. 
of S. Asia. & forming the proper E. boun- 
dary of Hindostan. It is supposed to 
take its origin in Tibet. Its entire course 
is estim. at 1,500 m. Princip. tributs. in 
Bengal, the Soormali, Barak, Goouity, 
Teesta, & Megna. In As«am, it receives 
at least 60 aiilts., & encloses many large, 
isls. Its current is so violent as generally 
to unfit it for navigation. It inundates 
the country S. of the Himalaya from 
April to Sept., discharging into the sea 
a greater quantity of water than tha 

Brailoff, a town of Wallaehia. 

Braine-le-Comte, a town of Belgium, 
prov. Hainault. P. 4,507. 

Braine-la-Leude, a vill. of Belgium, 
prov. Brabant. P. 2,771. 

Braintree, p-t., Orange co. Vt. P. 

1,232. II. p-t., Norfolk co. Mass. 

Some shipping engaged in coasting trade 
& fisheries. Excellent granite is quarried 

here. P. 2,168. III. a town of Eng., 

CO. Essex, near the river Blackwater. 

Braintrim, p-t., Luzerne co. Pa. 
Exports lumber largely ; has the Sus- 
quehanna riv. on the S. P. 1,355. 

BR4.KEL, a town of Pruss. Westphalia, 
reg. Minden. P. 2,820. 

Brakel (Neder), a town of Belgium, 
prov. E. Flanders. P. 3,807. Numerous 

Bralin. a town of Pruss. Silesia, cire. 
Breslau. P. 1,470.' 

Brambach, a town of Saxony, near 
the Bohemian frontier. P. 1,200. 

Bramhali., a tnshp. of England, co. 
Chester. P. 1,395. 

Brampton, a town of Engl., co. Cum- 

Bramsche, a town of Hanover, on the 
Haase. P. 1,550. 

Bramstedt, a town of Denmark, 
Holstein, on the Bramaue, With sulphur 
baths. P. 1,700. 

Bran, a^ver of Scot'anl, co. Perth. 




Bhancaleone, a town of Naples, prov. 

Branch, county, Mich., in the S. part 
of the state ; is drained by branches of 
St. Joseph's riv. Surface rolling ; soil a 

rich bandy loam. P. 12.472. II. cap. 

of the above, situated on W. branch of 

Coldwater riv. III. t., Schuylkill co. 

Pa. Anthracite coal abounds here. P. 

Branchier. (St.), a town of Switzerl., 
cant. Valais. 

Beanco, one of the Cape Verd isls., S. 
St. Lucia. It is small, lofty, rugged, & 
uninhabited. A long sandy spit stretches 
from its S.E. side. 

Branc'o (Rio), a river of Brazil, rises 
in the Parime mntns.^ & flows S. 400 m. 
to the Rio Negro. 

Brancourt. a vill. of France, dep. 
Aisne. P. 1,617. 
^Brand, a town of Saxony. P. 2,150. 

Brandenburs, p-v., cap. of Mead co. 

Ky., on the S. bank of the Ohio. -11. 

a prov. of Prussia, in the centre of the 
kngdm., of which it formedthe nucleus, 
cap. Berlin. 15,781 sq. m. P. 2,066,993. 
Surface almost uniformly flat & sandy, 
but rich in lakes. It is situated in the" 
basins of the Elbe & the_Oder, &, watered 
by these' rivers & numerous affluents. 
Soil fertile. Chf. crops, buckwheat, rye, 
potatoes, hemp, flax, tobacco, & hops. 
Sheep are extensively reared, & wool is 
an important product. The prineip. min- 
eral prod, are iron, gypsum, alum, & 
.vitriol. There are numerous mineral 
springs & baths ; manufs. iu great vari- 
ety. The prov. has many breweries, dis- 
tilleries, tanneries, potash, charooal, lime, 
& sulphur works. Brandenburg possesses 
the most celeb, estabs. for public instruc- 
tion in the kingdom. III. a town of' 

Prussia, in the prov. of same name, reg. 
Potsdam, cap. eirc. W. Havelland^ on the 
Havel. P. 16,210. It is the seat of 
several high tribunals, & has manufs. of 
woollens, linens, hosiery, & paper ; brew- 
eries, tanneries, boat-building, &, an ac- 
tive commerce. IV. (New) a town of 

Mecklenburg, Strelitz, near the N. shore 
of Toilensee lake, at the outlet of riv. of 
same name: P. 6,003. 
Brandhof, a vill. of Austri.a, Styria. 
Brandon, town, Rutland co. Vt., on 
both sides of Otter cr. Bog iron ore'& 

marble are found. P. 2,835. II. p-v., 

cap. of Rankin co. Miss. III. t., Oak- 
land CO. Mich., on headwaters of Flint. 

P. 442. IV. t., Franklin co. N. Y. It 

has several lakes. P. 531. V. a town 

o£,Engl., CO. Suffolk, on the Little Ouse. 

VI. a mntn., headland, bay, & vill 

of Ireland, co. Kerry. The mntn., 22 m. 
^Y. Tralee, is 3,126 ft. in elevation, & 
terminates N.E. in the headland. 

Brandt, town, Erie co. N. Y., on Lake 
Erie. P. 1,088. 

Brandy, town, Williams co. Ohio. 
Brandywine Creek, Pa. & Del. rises 
in Pa., & flows througii Bel. into Del. riv. 
It forms the harbor of Wilmington. It 
affords mnny excellent mill-seats & is 
navigable to Brandywine vill. & mills. 
Brandywine, t., Hancock co. la. P. 

693. II. Cnester co. Pa , watered by 

Brandy wide & Beaver crs. M-mufac. of 
leather & paper. P. 1,672. III. hun- 
dred, New Castle co. Del. Manufac. of 
woollens & cotton. P. 3,387. 

Brandford, t.. New Haven co. Conn., 
on Long Island sound. On the W. border 
of the t. is Saltohstall's lake, a beautiful 
sheet of water. Thimble & Indian isls. 
in L. I. sound are within its limits. It 
contains 3 fine churches. Has manufac. 
of leather & paper. Settled, 1644. P. 

Bhansk, a town of Russia, prov. Bia- 
lystok. P. 1,350. 

Brantford, a town of Wentworth co., 
U. Canada, near Hamilton. P. 3,377. 

Brantomb, a town of France, dep. 
Dordogne, cap. cant. P. 1,413. 

Branxholm, the ancient seat of the 
dukes of Bucoleugh, Scotland, co. Rox- 
burgh, on the Teviot. It has especially 
acquired renown as the scene of Sir Wal- 
ter Scott's " Lay of the Last Minstrel." 

Brasher Falls, p-v., St. Lawrence 
CO. N.Y. on Beer r., where are falls & 
rapids, furnishing extensive water power. 
P. 2,118. 

Braslaf, a town of Russia, gov.Wilna. 
Braspart, a town of France, dep. 
Finesterre. P. 2,640. 

Brass, a riv. & town of Africa, Guinea, 
the river, one of the arms of the Niger at 
its delta, & the town on this arm. 

Brassac, several vills. of France. — '- 

I. dep. Tarn. P. 1,301. II. Puy-de- 

Dome. P; 2,017. III. Dordogne, arr. 

Riberac. P. 1,910. 

Brasschaet, a vill. of Belgium, prov. 
Antwerp. P. 2,222. 

Bhathay, a small riv. of England, co. 

Beattleborough. t., Windham co.Vt. 
on the W. bank of the Connecticut riv. 
The earliest settlement in the state & 
originally called Fort Gunner. It has an 
E. & W. village ; the E. village is a beau- 
tiful, flourishing, & wealWiy place. The 
Whetstone branch of the Connecticut 




here furnishes vast water power. Chief 
manufac. estab. is the Brattleboro' Typo- 
graphic Co., which has a very large cap- 
ital. There is also a paper mill & a 
large publishing estab. P. 3,816. 

Bbatz, a t. of E. Prussia, prov. Posen, 
circ. Meseritz, on the Obra. P. 1,410. 

Bratzlaf, a -town of Russ. Poland, 
gov. Podolia. P. 2,600. 

Bratzkoi, a town of Siberia, gov. 

Braubach, a town of Germany. P. 
1,507. lu its vicinity are silver & copper 
mines, the mineral springs of Dinkhold. 

Braunau, a frontier town of Upp. 

Austr., circ. Upp. Inn. P. 2,000. 

II. a town of Bohemia, circ. Koniggratz. 
P. 3,100. 

Braunfels, atown of Rhenish Prussia, 
reg. Coblenz, with a pop. of 1,472. 

Braunhirschen, a vill. of Lower Aus- 
tria. P. 2,000. 

Braunlingen, a town of Baden, circ. 
Lake. P. 1,572. 

Braunsbach, a town of Wiirtemberg, 
circ. Jaxt. P. 1,000. 

Braunsberg, a town of E. Prussia, 
reg. cap. circ. P. 8,360. It is the resid. 
of the bishop of Ermeland, with a theol. 
seminary for the education of R. Cath. 

clergymen. II. a town of Moravia. 

P. 2,787. 

Braunsdorf, a vill. of Saxony, circ. 
Dresden. P. 1,834. 

Bhaunseifen, a town of Moravia, 
circ. Olmiitz. P. 2,062. Iron mines. 

Brava, an isl. of Africa, Cape Verd 
archip. P. 600. 

Brava, a town of E. Africa, on the 
coast, with a port on the Indian ocean, 
& active trade with Arabia & India. 

Braxton, county, Va., lies N.W. of 
the Alleghany mntns. in the N.W. part 
of the state, on the Elk & Little Kana- 
wha. P. 4,212. II. c. H., cap. Braxton 

CO. Va., situated on the North side of 

Bray, a marit. town of Ireland, on 

the- Bray at its mouth. P. 3,169. 

II. a small dist. of Prance, in the dep. 

Seine Inferieure. III. (Sur-Seine), 

a town, dep. Seine-et-Marne, on the 
Seine. P. 1,992. Several smaller places 

in France have this name. IV. a riv. 

of France, between deps. Sarthe & Loire- 

Brazey, en Plains, a vill. of France, 
dep. COte-d'-Or. P. 1,836. 

Brazil, an extensive empire of S. 
America, occu Jibing a large proportion 
of the eastern & central part of that 
country. Length from N. to S. about 

2,600 m., greatest breadth 2,540 m. The 
empire is divided into 18 provinces, 14 
sit. along the shores of the ocean, & 4 in 
the interior. P. 4,000,000. Chief cities, 
Porto Alegre, Desterro, S. Paulo, Rio de 
Janeiro, Victoria, Babi<i(San Saiviidor), 
Sergipe or S. Christuv^io, Macayo, Recite, 
Parahiba, Natal, Foitaleza, Oeiras, Ma- 
ranhao, 13elem, Cuj'aba, Goyaz. The 
surface of Brazil is about equally divided 
into uplands & lowlands, or vallcj-s. Two 
parallel mountain ranges traverse the 
counfry from N. to S., forming elevated 
ridges of table-land. The greatest height 
of the central range being from 6,000 to 
7,0u0 ft. Several minor ranges intersect 
the country. The N. part of Brazil con- 
sists of the greater part of the vast plain 
through which flows the river Amazon, 
& its tributaries ; & varying in width 
from 350 to 800 m. The rivers, lakes, 
& Water courses are numerous. S.E. 
of this is another plain. The principal 
rivs. in this direction are Tocantins, 
Araguay, Paruihiba, San Francisco, 
Belmonte, Doce, Pararba do Sul, & 
Rio Grande do Sul, all of large size, but 
of difficult navigation, in consequence of 
rapids, &c. The table-land on the W. is 
separated from the Andes of Bolivia by 
a. large & extens. plain ; the elev. of this 
plain is from 1,200 to 1,500 ft. On the 
banks of the Iriuana, & W.-ward to the 
N. branch of the Serra Paricis, extends a 
saiidy and nearly barren desert, called 
Campos dos Parcels. From 7 lakes (Sets 
Lagoas) on this table-land rises the river 
Paraguay. The latter has a course of 
1,000 m. The Uruguay flows S. througlj 
another table-land of smaller dimensions 
to the plain of the Missiones. The prin- 
cipal lakes are Patos, an enlargement of 
the Rio Grande & L. Mirim. The har- 
bors are generally good, particularly 
those of Rio de Janeiro & Bahia. The 
pop. of Brazil consists of Europeans, 
whites born in the country, who call 
themselves Brazilians; Mulattoes ; Ma- 
malucoes, or offspring of whites & native 
Indians ; Negroes ; Mestizoes, or Zam- 
boes, mixed castes between Negroes & 
Indians ; & the Aborigines, or American 
Indians. There is little political division 
of castes ; & intermarriages among the 
different races are common. Aboriginal 
slavery has been legally abolished. 
African slavery is still tolerated. There 
are in Brazil 88 titles of nobility ; but 
these are not hereditary. Little has 
been done for education ihroughout the 
empire; schools, &even school-books are 
very deficient. The ecclesiastical estab- 




lishment is also at a low ebb. The dense 
forests furnish almost every variety of 
useful & ornamental timber. Cocoa, 
caoutchouc, & manioc, are indigenous 
products ; maize, sugar, coffee, cotton, 
rice, wheat, & tobacco, have been intro- 
duced by European culture. Paraguay 
tea is an abundant product of the W. 
provs. Wild animals comprise the jag- 
uar, hyena, tiger-cat, & other rapacious 
genera ; with the tapir, wild-hog, &o., & 
a great variety of birds of the richest 
plumage. The diamond mines of Minas 
Geraes are the most productive at pres- 
ent known. Other gems, and large 
quantities of gold, besides silver, copper, 
iron & platinum, are among the mineral 
products of the same prov. Manufs. 
are almost wholly in their infancy in 
Brazil. Brazil is most favorably sit- 
uated for trade, which, though exten- 
sive, is not yet nearly commensurate 
with the resources of the Empire. Coffee 
is the chief staple. The government is an 
hereditary limited monarchy ; the legis- 
lative power is vested in a senate of 54 
members & a chamber of deputies. Trial 
t>y jury exists in both "civil & criminal 
cases. The standing army, in 1844, con- 
sisted of 17,095 men, & the navy of 67 
vessels, carrying 350 guns ; the latter 
comprised no ships above the size of a 
frigate. Brazil was first discovered by 
Pedro Alvares Cabral, in 1500; & began 
to be colonized by the Portuguese in 
1531. In 1808, King John VI. of Por- 
tugal took up his residence in Brazil; & 
in 1815, constituted it a kingdom. In 
1822 it declared itself an independent 
state ; & it obtained a constitution in 
1825. Rio de Janeiro is the cap. of the 
empire & the seat of government. 

BrazorIa, county, Texas, on the Col- 
orado. Cap. Brazoria. P. 4,841. II. 

a small but thriving town of Texas, cap, 
CO. same name, op the Brazos, 22 m. N.W, 
from its mouth. P. 500. A good deal of 
cotton is shipped here in coasting vessels. 

Brazos de Digs, one of the largest 
rivers of Texas, rises among the mntns. 
in the N.W. part of that state, & after a 
course estim. at 900 m., enters the gulf 
of Mexico. 

Brazos, county, Texas. Cap. Boon- 
ville. P. 614. 

Brazza, an isl. of Dalmatia, in the 
Adriatic. P. 15,495. Surface mntnous. 
& rugged ; but the isl. is industriously 
cultiv., & yields oil, figs, almonds, saffron, 
& the best wine in Dalmatia. 

Breal, a town of EranCe, dep. Ille-et- 
Vilaine. P. 2,200. 

Breathitt, a county in Ky., in the E. 
part of the state, on the Kentucky riv. & 
its branches. Bituminous coal is found 
here. Several distilleries. P. 3,795. 

Breaute, a town of France, dep. Seine- 
Inf. P. 1,300. 

Brecey, a town of France, dep. 
Minche. P. 2,172. 

Breche-de-Roland, a defile of the 
Pyrenees, betw. France & Spain, forming 
a difficult passage, from 200 to 300 feet 
wide, in a rocky wall from 300 to 600 ft. 
high, surrounded by the rocks called 
Tours de Marbore, at an elevation of 
9,500 ft. above the sea. 

Brechin, a pari. bor. & pa. of Scotl., 
CO. Forfar, on the S. Esk. 

Brecht, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Antwerp. P. 2,823. 

Breckerfeld, a town of Pruss. West- 
phalia, circ. Hagen, 14^ m. E. Elberfeld, 
with paper manufactures & powder mills. 
P. 1,320. 

Breckenridge, county, Ky., on the 
Ohio riv., in the N. part of the state. 
Manufacs. of leather, & numerous grist 
mills & saw mills. P. 10,583. Cap. 

Brecknock, town, Berks co. Pa. 

II. t., Lancaster co. Pa.,,on branches of 
Marshy cr. P. 732. 

Brecknockshire, an inl. co. of S. 
Wales. Surface mostly mntns. ; the 
Brecknock Beacon (the loftiest summit in 
S. Wales), is 2,862 ft., & Cradle mntn., 
2,545 ft. above the sea. The Wye forms 
all the N. boundary ; other rivs. are the 
Usk & its afils. Agriculture rather back- 
ward. Prinoip. products, oats, barley, 
wheat, wool, butter, cheese, & cattle. 
The CO. yields copper, lead, iron, coal, & 
limestone ; & on its S.-most border are 
some large iron works. Principal towns, 
Brecon, Crickhowell, & Builth. P. 60, 162. 

Breda, a town of the Netherlands, 
prov. Brabant, in a wide marsh, on the 
Merk. P. 12,692. It is regularly & well 
built. Breda has a magnetic observatory, 
& is the seat of a commerc. tribunal ; it 
has a latin school, manufs. of woollen & 
linen fabrics, & musical instruments. 

Bredbury, a tnshp. of England, co. 
Chester. P. 3,301. 

Bredevoort, a townoftheNetherl'ds, 
prov. Gelderland. 

Bredon, a vill. of France, dep. Cantal. 
P. 2,400. 

Bredstedt, a vill. of Denmark, duchy 
Schleswig, cap. dist. near the North sea. 
P. 1,800; of dist. 1^,900. 

Bhee, a town of Belgium, prov. Lim- 
bourg. P. 1,610. 





Bbeede, a riv. of S. Africa, Cape Col- 
ony. It is tli8 deepest & one of the 
largest rivs. of the colony; but its navig. 
is impeded by a bar at its mouth, with 
only 13 ft. water at low, & 19 ft. at high 
spring tide. 

Bregancon, a small fortfd. islet of 
France, dap. Var. 

BaEGENz, a frontier town of Austriaj 
Tyrol. P. 4,000. It has some cotton 
manafs. ; it exports a large number of 
ready made wooden houses for the Alpine 
"dists. of Switzerland. 

Breglio, a town of Sardinia, pro v. 
Nice, on the Roia. P. 2,476. 

Brehar, one of the Soilly isls., co. 
Corawall, Engl. It is mntnous., & has 
some druiJical remains. P. 121. 
' Brehal, a town of France, dep. 
Manche. P. 1,732. 

Brbhat, a small isl. of France, in the 
English channel, oif the coast of Brittany. 
It has a vill. P. L560. 

Brehna, a town of Prussia, prov. 
Saxony. P. 1,033.- 

Breisach (New), a frontier town of 
France, dep. Haut-Rhin. P. 1,742.^— 
II. (Old), a town of G-ermany, duchy 
Baden, circ. Upp. Rhine, on rt. b. of the 
Rhine. P. 3,100. 

Breisgau, an old divis. of Germany, 
in S.W. of Swabia. It was-ceded in 1806 
chfly. to Baden, with a small portion to 
Switzerl. & Wlirteoiberg. 

Beeisig, a town of Rhen. Prussia, on 
I. b. of the Rhine. P. 1,1-50. 

Beeitenbach, a town of Cent. Germ'y. 
P. 2, 100, engaged in manufs. of porcelain, 
wooden wares, & musical instruments. 

11. a vill. of Hessen-Cassel, circ. 

Ziegenhain. III. a vill. of Switzerl. 

IV. a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 

Bas-Rhin. P. 1,595. 

Breitenfeld, a vill. of Saxony, re- 
markable for two battles gained by the 
Swedes during the 30 years war ; the one, 
7th Sept. 1631 ; the other, 2d Nov. 1642. 
A monument was erected on the battle- 
field, 1831. 

Brejo, a town of Brazil, prov. Mar- 
anhao, cap. Coinarca of same name, near 
1. b. of the river, 3. Luiz. P. 3,000. 

Brelade (St.), a vill. of Jersey, on St. 
Brelade's bay. P. 2,170. 

Breme, a town of Piedmont, prov. 
LonioUln.a, on 1. b. of the Po. P. 1,950. 

Bremen, one of the 4 free eities-of 
Germany, on both banks of the Weser. 
P. 53,153. The city is divided by the 
river into the old town on the right, & 
the new town on the Mi bank. The ri\'. 
is crossed by an old & a new bridge; the 

quays are extensive. The princip. build- 
ings are St. Peter's church or the Dom 
Kirche, the church of St. Ansgarius, re- 
markable for its spire, upwards of 300 ft. 
in ht., a town-hall, the observatory of 
Olbers, & a museum, with a library of 
25,000 vols., & a public library of 20,000 
vols. Bremen has an extens. foreign 
trade, especially with N. Amer., & it is 
the great emporium of Brunswick, Hes- 
sen, & Hanover. The greater number 
of German emigrants to N. Amer., have 
embarked at Bremen; its shipping has 
been recently greatly on the increase, 
bat owing to the sanding up of the river 
large ships cannot reach its harbor. The 
chief industry of Bremen consists in ship- 
building, & manufs. of woollens & cottons, 
paper, starch, colors, chicory, & cigars; 
it has also e.Ktens. sugar refineries, beer 
breweries, & brandy distilleries. The 
territory of the free city of Bremen, ex- 
tending on both sides of the river, com- 
prises a space of 112 sq. m., with a pop. 
of 72,000.-11. (Duchy of), an old 
dueby of Germany, in the circ. of lower 

Saxony. III. to^vn, Lincoln co. Me. 

It has an extensive border of navigable 
waters. P. 837. 

Bremerhafen, a town of Germany, 
belonging to the republic, in the Hano- 
verian territory, on the rt. b. of the estu- 
ary of the We,-er, at the mouth of the 
Geests. P. 2,380. This thriving port 
v/as built by Bremen in 1830, for the ac-, 
commodation of large vessels connected 
with its trade. 

Bremerlehe, a town of Hanover. P. 

Bremervorde, a vill. of Hanover, 
landr. Stade, on the Oste. P. 2,481. 

Bremgarten, a town of Switzerland, 

cant. Bern, on the Aar. II. a town, 

cant. Aargau, on the Reuss. P. 1,000. 

Brenditz, a vill. of Moravia, circ. 
Znaym. This was the head-quarters of 
the Archd. Charles during the battle of 
Znaym in 1809. Porcelain clay is ex- 
ported from its vicinity for the imperial 
manaf. of Vienna.. 

Brendola, a Yill. of N. Italy, gov. 
Venice. P. 3,319. 

Brenets (Les), a vill. of Switzerland, 
cant. Neuchatel, on the rt. b. of the Doubs. 
which here forms a fine cascade, 85 ft. in 
height, & turns numerous mills. P. 1,400. 

Bhenne, a riv. of France, dep. COte-d'- 

Brenne (La), an old dist. of France 
in the provs. Touraine & Berry. Many 
leeches caught. 

Brenner, a mntn. of Austria, one of 




the culminating points of the Tyrol, betw. 
the Inn, the Aieha, & the Adige. Elev. 

6,783 ft., 

Breno, a town of Lombardy, cap. dist., 
on the Oglio. In its vicinity are extens. 
stalactite grottos. P. 2,466. 

Brent, two small rivs. of Engl. 

Brenta, a navig. riv. which rises in 
the Tyrol, & traverses Lombardy. 

Brentford, a town of Engl., & the 
nom. cap., co. Ivliddlese.x, on the Thames. 

Brexton Bay, an inletj N. coast of 
MelviU« isl., Australia, betw. SmokyPoint 
& Point Byng. It a.bounds with turtle. 

Brentsville, C. H. cap. of Prince 
William co. Va. 

BRENTWooa, p-t., Rockingham co. 
]Sr. H. on bol;h sides of E.xeter i: Iron ore 
& vitriol combined with sulphur have 
been found hero. P. 893. 

Brenz, a town of Wiirtemberg, cire. 
Jcixt, 10 m. S.E. Heidenheim, on the 
Brenz. P. 833. 

Bresca, a vill. of Illyria, on S. coast 
of isl. Veglia, in the Adriatic. P. 2,500. 

Brescella, a walled town of N. Italy, 
Modena, on rt. b. of the Po. P. 2,000. 

Brescia, a city of Italy, Lombardy, 
on the Grarza & on the railway from Mi- 
lan to Venice, elev. 512 ft. P. 34,955. 
It is handsome, flourishing, & enclosed 
by ramparts, now dismantled. Princip. 
buildings, the new cathed., entirely of 
marble, begun in 1604, the old cathed , 
numerous churches richly adorned with 
works of art, the epis. palace, hall of 
justice, the Broletto, or old palace of the 
republic, & many remains of antiquit}'. 
In a Roman edifice, excavated 1822, a 
fine museum of antiqs. has been deposited. 
It has a public librarj' with a collection 
of rare MSS., a college, high school, athe- 
naeum, & many endowed charit. estabs. 
The arms & cutlery made here have long 
been considered the best in Italy. Bres- 
cia has also manufs. of silk, woollen & 
linen fabrics, paper &, leather. Near it 
are large iron works & oil mills ; & its 
wine enjoys repute. 

Brbscou, a small isl. of France, <iep. 
Herault, near the coast. 

Breslau, a city of Prussia, cap. of the 
prov. of Silesia, on the Oder. P. 112,- 
200. It has many fine squares. & good 
public edifices ; archp's palace, mint, 
exchange, barracks, & university build- 
ings. In one of the squares is a col- 
lossal bronze statue of Bllicher. The uni- 
versity, transferred hither from Frank- 
fort on the Od^ir in 1311, has a public 
library of 250,000 printed vols., & 2.300 
MSS. ; & (in 1844) 70 students. Breslau 

has 3 other libraries ; & is the seat of 
courts for the prov. & reg., & a mining 
council. It is the great emporium for the 
linens of Silesia, & the greatest mart for 
wool in Germany. It; has manufs. of 
linen, woollen, cotton, & silk fabrics, 
lace, needles, plate jewellery, earthen- 
ware, colors, &c. ; & an extensive trade 
in mining produce, timber, flax, &c. It 
has an active trade on the Oder. 

Bresle, a small riv. in Fiance, betw. 
the 3ep3. Somme, & Seine Inf. 

Bresles, a vill. of France, dep. Oise. 
P. 1,824. 

Bressay, one of the Shetland isls., E. 
of Mainland, from which it is separated by 

Bressrty sound. P. 904. Bressay sound 

is a rendezvous of the English & Dutch 
herring-boats & whale- ships, & often 
affords shelter to ships of war. 

Bressb, an old divis. of France, in the 
prov. Bourgogne, cap. Bourg, now comp. 
in the dep. Ain. It was obtained by ex- 
change from Savoy, in 1601. 

Bresse (La), a vill. of France, dep. 
Vosges. P. 2,833. 

Eressoire, a town of France, dep. 
Deux-Sevres. P. 2,320. 

Brest, a coram. & city of France, cap. 
arrond., dep. Fitiisterre, on the N. shore 
of a- small gulf called the Road of Brest. 
P. 33,163. Brest is a fortified city of the 
first class, & the most important military 
port of France. Its bay, which is capable 
of containing all the ships of war in Eu- 
rope, communicj. with the German ocean 
by a strait called the "Goulet." Its 
inner harbor is one of the most secure in 
Europe, & could accommodate 60 ships 
of the line. Among its most important 
works, are 5 large basins, extensive 
quaj's, an arsenal, vast magazines, build- 
ing j'ards, &o. The city, built on the 
slopes of considerable hills, is divided by 
the port in two parts, which cominunicata 
only by boats. Brest has many impor- 
tant educ. establishments, a med. school, 
naval school, C'lmmunal college, & a school 
of hydrography, a public library, botanic 
giirden & observ.atory. It has few manufs. 

Bretagne (Engl. Brittany), an old 
prov. in the N.W. of France, forming an 
e.'ctensive peninsula between the English 
channel & the Atlantic ocean, now com- 
prised in the deps. Finisterre, Cotes-du- 
Nord, Morbihan, & Loire Inferieure. 
This prov. derives its name from the 
Britons, who establi.-hed themselves here, 
after having been driven from Britain by 
the Saxons, in the 5th cent. 

Bsetenoux, a town of France, dep. 
Lot. P. 800. 




Breteuil, two towns of France, dep. 
Eure, on thsS Iton. P. 1,487, engaged in 

extens. iron works. II. dep. Oise, on 

the railw. dii Nord. P. 2,474. 

Bretherton, :i tnshp. of England, co. 

Bretigny, a vill. of France, dep. Eure- 
et-Loir, on the Paris & Orleans railway. 

Bretten, a town of W. Germany, Ba- 
den, circ. Midd. Rhine. P. 3,000. Me- 
lancthon was born here, 1497. 

Breukelen, a vill. of the Netherlands, 
prov. Utrecht, on the Vecht. P. 1,599. 

Brevig, a town of Norway, stift Ag- 
gershuus, wiih a port on the Langesunds 
Fiord. P. 1,166. Trade in iron. 

Brevine (La), a vill. of Switzeri., cant. 
Neuchatel, in the valley of .same name. 
P. 2,319, engaged in watch & lace making, 
& working in metals. Near it is a bed 
of coal, suppo.'scd to be the fossil relic of 
a forest swallowed up during an earth- 
quake, Sept. 18, 1356. 

Brewer, town, Penobscot co. Maine, 
on E. side of Penobscot riv. Manufs. of 

roi^es & leather. P. 1,736. -11. town, 

Pike CO. Ark. P. 281. 

Brewster, t., Barnstable co. Mass., 
on Cape' Cod, It has some good mil 
seats. Inhabs. mostly employed in the 
fisheries. P. 1,522. 

BriaStc^on, a town of France, dep. H. 
Alpes. P. 1,419. It is the most elevated 
town of France, occupying a picturesque 
site, 4,285 ft. above the sea, & surrounded 
by still loftier heights. 

Brian^onnais, an old dist. of France, 
in Haut-Dauphine. 

BRiANSK,at- of Russia, gov. & cap. circ, 
on the Desna. P. 6,000. It has a cannon- 
foundry, & a manuf. of small arms. 

Briare, a town of France) dep. Loiret, 
cap. cant.,' on rt. b. of the Loire. P. 2,587. 
The canal de Briare, connecting the Loire 
with the Seine at Montargis, 34i m. in 
length, is the oldest work of the liind in 
France, having been commenced in the 
reign of Henry IV., in 1606. 

Briatexte, a town of France, dep. 
Tarn, on the Adou. P. 1,453. 

Bribiesca, a town, Spain, prov. Bur- 
gos, on the Oca. P. 2,040. 

Brice (St.), a vill. of France, dep. H. 
Vienne. P. 1,127, 

Bricherasco, a town of Piedmont, 
prov. Pinerolo. P. 3,421. 

Bricksville, p-t., Cuyahoga co. Ohio, 
on the Cuyahoga riv. & Oliio canal. 

Bricquebec, a town of France, dep, 
Manche. P. 1,953. 

Bride, two rivs. of Ireland, Munster. 

Bride's Bay (St.)^ is an inlot of the 

Irish sea, at the W. estrem. of the co, 
Pembroke. Length & breadth, about 8 
m, each. 

Bridgend, a town of S. Wales, co. 

Bridgenorth, a town of England, co. 
Salop, on the Severn. P. 5,770. The 
town consists of an upper & lower part, 
connected by a bridge of 6 arches. The 
upper town is picturesquely built on a 
rock, crowned by the ancient castle ; be- 
tween them is a large public reservoir, 

Bridgeport, city, Fairfield co. Conn. 
It is situated on the W. side of an arm 
of Long Island sound. The barb., though 
80 rods wide, & with 13 feet water on the 
bar at its entrance at high water, is very 
narrow, & of difficult access at low tide. 
The Pequonock, a small stream, entei-a 
into it at its head, A mile & a lialf up, 
the harbor is crossed by a toll bridge, 
1,237 feet long. The city is neatly built. 
It has 4 banks, & several vessels engaged 
in the eoasting trade & in the fisheries. 
Extensive manufac. of carriages & sad- 
dles. It is connected with New York by 
a steamboat line, & by the N. Y, & N, H. 

railroad. P, 7,560. II. p-v., Belmont 

co, Ohio, on the Ohio riv. It has consid- 
erable trade in flour & tobacco, III. 

Fayette co. Pa. 

Beidgeton, p-t., Cumberland co. Me., 
sitaated on a long pond. P. 1,987. 

Bridgetown, port of entry & capital 
of Cumberland co. N.J. It is on Co- 
hansy cr., 20 m. from Delaware bay. 
1 bank, a public library, & various man- 
ufactories. A large number of coasting 
sloops. 'Extensive iron works. P. 2,446. 

Tonnage 1,483,507. II. the cap. town 

of the isl. Barbadoes. P. 19,362. 

Bridgewater, p-t., Grafton cO. N. H, 
It lies between Peraigewasset r, & New- 
found pond, P, 747, II. t , Plymouth 

CO. Mass., watered by branches of Taun- 
ton r. P. 2,790. — -III. t., Windsor co, 
Vt. AVatered by Queechy riv, & ita 
branches. Some water power. Iron ore 
& an inexhaustible quarry of soapstone 

is found here. P. 1,363. -IV. p-t., 

Oneida co. N. Y. The Unadilla r. rises 

here. P. 1,413. V. t., Somerset co, 

N. J,, manufac. of woollens & leather, 

P. 3,983, VI, v., Beaver co. Pa. 

VII, t., Washtenaw, co. Mich. VIII. a 

port of Engl., co. Somerset, on both sides 
of the Parret. 

Bridport, t., Adlison co. Vt. IVlies 
on Lake Champlain, opposite Crown 
Point. The water of the town is impreg- 
nated with Epsom salts to such a degree 
that a pailful has been known to yield a 





pound. P. 1,480. II. a seaport town 

of Engl., CO. Dorset, on the Brit or Bride 
riv., here crossed by sev. bridges. Tlie 
town consists of 3 princip. streets, & has 
many handsome hos., branch bank, alms- 
ho., mechanics' institute with manufs. of 
sail-cloth, shoe thread, lines, nets, &c. 
The harb., about 1 m. S. of the town, ad- 
mits vessels of 200 tons. 

Brie, an old dist., France. 

Brie-Comtb-Robert, a t. of France, 
dep. Seine-et-Marne. 
■ Briec, a vill. of France, dep. Finis- 
terre. P. 4,481. 

Brieg, a town of Pruss. Silesia, cap. 
circ, on 1. b. of the Oder, & on tlw railw. 
from Breslau to Oppeln. P. 12,150. 

Brieg, a town of Switzerl., caut. Va- 
lais, on 1. b. of the Rhone, at the com- 
mefncement of the Siiuplon pass. 

Briel, a seaport town of the Neth'ds., 
prov. S. Holland, on the isl. Voorne. P. 
4,504. It has many military magazines 
& a good harb. It was the nucleus of 
the Dutch repub., its capture by William 
de la Marck, on the ist of Ajsril, 1572, 
having been the first important event in 
the struggle betw. Holland & Spain. 

Brienne-le-Chateau, a town of 
France, dep. Aube, near rt. b. of the 
Aube. P. 1,830. It takes its designa- 
tion from a superb chateau built here 
shortly before the revolution by the last 
Compte de Brienne; but is more cele- 
brated as the place where Napoleon re- 
ceived the rudiments of his military edu- 
cation, and where, on 29th Jan. 1814, he 
met the Allies in a bloody battle, in 
which the French had the advantage. 

Brienon, a vill. of France, dep. Yonne, 
near the canal de Bourgogne. P. 2,661. 

Brienz, a vill. of Switzerland, cant. 
Bern, on the N. shore of lake of same 
name. P. 3,102. The Briemer-see, or 
lake of Brienz, is formed by the riv. Aar, 
at the foot of the valley of Hasli & above 
the lake of Thun. 

Brienza, a town of Naples, prov. Ba- 
silioata. P. 4,300. 

Briercliffb, a tnshp. of Engl., co 
Lancaster. P. 1,493. 

Briesen, a town of N. Hungary, co. 
Sohl, on the Gran. P. 3,767. 

Brieuc (St.), a town of France, dep. 
COtes-du-Nord, in the bay of St. Brieuc. 
P. 9,398. The most remark, objects are 
a cathedral of the XIII. cent., a granite 
bridge of 3 arches over the Gouet, & a 
statue of Du Guesclin. It has a comm. 
college, public library, chamber of com- 
merce, & a consdble. expt. trade in butter 
& cider. Its pqrt is at the vill. of Legue, 


1 m. lower on the Gouet. It sends seve- 
ral vessels to the whale & seal fishing. 

Briey, a town of France, dep. Mo- 
selle. P. 1,900. 

Briezen, a town of Prussia, circ. Ma- 
rienwerder. P. 1,160. 

Briga, a vill. of the Sard, sta., pror. 
Nice, on the Livenza. P. 3,000. 

Brightlingsea, a marit. pa. of Engl., 
CO. Essex, forming a penins. betw. the 
Colne & Brightlingsea creek. 

Brighton, p-t., Somerset co. Me. P. 

803. II. p-t., Middlesex co. Mass. 

"Watered by Charles r. The most exten- 
sive cattle market in the country. Neat 
cattle, sheep & swine have been sold here 
to the value of $2,500,000 in a single year. 

P. 1,425. III. p-t, Monroe co. N. Y. 

Watered by Genesee r. Some manufac. 

of powder.- IV. p-v., Beaver co. Pa., 

on the W. side of Bigg Beaver r. Ma- 
nufac. of paper & cotton goods. P. 902. 

V. p-t., Livingston co. Mich., on 

branches of Huron r. VI. Brighton, 

a seaport town & watering-place of 
Engl., CO. Sussex, on the Eng. Channel. 
The town, sheltered on the N. <& N.E. 
by the South-downs, extends for 3 m. 
along- the coa,st, fronted by a sea-wall 
about 60 ft. in ht., principal structures are 
the suspension chnin pier, extend. 1,014 
ft. into the sea, & St. Peter's church, 
containing a font reputed to have been 
brought from Normandy at the time of 
the conquest; 

Brightside-Bieklow, a township of 
England, CO. York. W. Riding, pa. & 3 m. 
N.E. Sheffield. P. 10,089, chiefly artisans. 

Brignais, a town of France, dep. 
Rhone, on the Garon. P. 1,901. 

BniGNANO, a vill. of N. Italy, Lom- 
b-ardy. P. 2,400. 

Brignoles, a town of France, dep. 
Var, cap. arrond. P. 4,707. It is well 
built, & has several squares planted <fc 
decorated with fountains, a public library, 
a normal school, manufs. of silk twist & 
leather, & a considerable trade. 

Bhihuega, a town of Spain, New Cas- 
tile, prov. Guadalajara, on the Tajuiia. 
P'. 4,364. It has manufs. of linen & wool- 
len fabrics. Here in 1710, the French, 
under the duke de VendOme, defeated the 
allies under Lord Stanhope. 

Brilon, a town of Pruss. Westphalia, 
reg. Arnsberg, cap. circ. P. 3,537. Its 
large pa. church is said to date from the 
time of Charlemagne. It has manufs. of 
linens, & near it are mines of lead, cop- 
per, zinc, & iron. 

Brimfield, p-t., Hampden co. Mass. 
Watered by Chicopee & Quinnebaug rs. 




Manufae. of leather & cotton goods. P. 
1,419. II. p-t., Portage co.O. 

BniNGiERs, c. H., St. Jaujes pa., La. 
on the S. side Miss. r. 

Beinkburn, a tn?hp. of Engl., co. Nor- 
thumberland, N.N.Vf. Morpeth. Here 
are the ruius of a priory in a situation of 
singular beauty, on the b'ks of the Coquet. 
Coal & limest. found in great abundance. 
- Brinnington, a tnshp. of Engl., co. 
Che.ster. P. 5,331. 

Bkiones, a town of Spain, prov. Lo- 
groiio, on 1. b. of the Ebro. P. 3,021. 

Brioni Islands, a group of small isls. 
in the Adriatic, on the coast of lUyria. 

Brionne. a town of France, dep. Eure. 
P. 1,902. 

.Briocde, a town of France, dep. II. 
Loire,onl. b of the Allie'r. P. 4,795. It 
lias a fine church in the Byzantine style, 
founded in the 9th cent., a commercial 
college, & a public library. At Old 
JBrioude, 3 m. S S.E. Brioude, are the re- 
mains of a bridge over the Allier, which 
fell in 1822, it consisted of a single arch 
88 ft. high, & 206 ft. in span. The Marq. 
de Lafayette was born at Brioude in 1757. 

Brisbane, a co. of E. Australia, New 

S. Wales. II. the cap. town of same 

CO., Brisbane river. It ceased to be a 
penal settlement in 1842. — —Brisbane- 
douns are in tlie S. part of New S.Wales, 

Jibout 2,000 ft. in average height. 

Brisbane river, co. Brisbane. 

Brissac, a town of France, dep. Maine- 
et-Loire, with 1,000 inhabs., & an old 
castle of singular grandeur. 

BsissAGO, a town of Switzerld., cant. 
TeFsin. It is finely situated, & has an 
active transit trade. 

Brissarthe, a vill. of France, dep. 

Bristol, t., Lincoln co. Me., on the 
Atlantic. Watered by Pemiquoit riv. 
which affords mill-seats. It has good 
harbors & considerable shipping in coast- 
ing trade k fisheries. The oldest settle- 
ment in Me. P. 2,931. II. t., Grafton 

CO. N. H. It has Newfound lake on its 
N.W., the outlet of which affords good 
water power. P. 1,153. III. t., Ad- 
dison CO. Vt. It borders on the Green 
mountain. Watered by New-Haven r. 

P. 1,233. IV. county, Mass., in the 

S.E. part of the state, on the Atlantic 
ocean & Buzzard's bay, watered by Taun- 
ton r., which affords good water power. 
S'lil indifferent. Its extensive sea-coast 
afifords great advantages for navigation. 
New Bedford its chief town, in tonnage, 
is the second in the state. The common 
agricultural fruits are produced. Large 

nu+nbers- of neat cattle, sheep & swine 
are here. Heavj- trade in lumber. Fishing 
intere.«t immense, employing capital of 
more than 6 millions. Extensive manu- 
fae. of cotton & woollen goods & of leather ; 
nunjerous furnaces & potterie.--'. P. 
74,577. Cap. New Bedford & Taunton. 

V. cnunty. P.,. I., in theN.E. part of 

state between Mount Hope . & Narra- 
gansett baj's. Chief manufae. of leather, 
cStton, & rojies. The fishing interest is 
large & important, over $300,000 in the 
com mercial stores. P. 8,514. Cap. Bris- 
tol. -YI. port of entry & cap. Bristol 

CO. Rhode I. on the E. side of Narragansett 
bay, has a good harbor & is extensively 
engaged in the coasting trade & the fish- 
eries. Tonnage, 1,217,763. In this town 
lies Mt. Hope, elev. 300 feet above tide- 
water. Here the celebrated "King 
Philip," chief of the Pequods, held his 
court. It has .=everal for. commission 
houses, & near fifty retail stores. Lar-ge 
cap. invested in fisheries, & manufae. of 

cotton. P. 4,616. VII. t, Hartford 

CO. Conn., watered by branches of Farm- 
ington r. Distinguished for manufacs 

of clocks & buttons. P. 2,884. yill. 

t., Philadelphia co. Penn., watered by 
Tacony er., which affords water power. 

P. 1,734. IX. t., Ontario co. N. Y. 

Watered by Mud cr. It has an inflam- 
mable spring. P. 1,953. X. t., Mor- 
gan CO. 0.. drained by Meig's cr. P. 

1,645. XL p-v., Bucks co. Penn., on 

the W. bank of the Delaware r. 20 m. 
above Philadelphia ; a great amount of 
coal passes through. It has a bank, sev- 
eral churc>ies, & about 12 stores. P. 

1,438. XII. t., Bucks CO. Penn. P. 

1,450. XIII. p-t.. Napier co. Mich. 

■ XIV. v., Racine, Wis. XV. a 

city, seaport, & co. of Engl., sit. chiefly 
in Glo'stersh., k partly in Somersetsh., 
on the Avon, at its confl. with the Frome. 
P. in 1801, 39,914, & in 1841, 123,188. 
Bristol extends over several hills & in- 
termediate valleys. The old city betw. 
the Avon & Frome is ill built; Princlp. 
edifices, the cathed., a beautiful struc- 
ture, founded in the time of King Ste- 
phen, 175 ft. in length, 128 ft. in breadth, 
& having a tower 140 ft. in height, &, 19 
pa. churches. In 1841, there were stated 
to be 598 schools in the city, educating 
21,864 pupils ; of which 12 were endowed 
institutions. Queen Elizabeth's hospital 
educates 100 boys, & has a rev. of £5,000 
a year. Alms-houses, & medical, & other 
benevolent institutions are very nu- 
merons. Bristol has a new proprietary 
college belonging to the Baptists, a 




school of medicine, a public library with 
30,000 vols., law & medical libraries, & a 
mechanics' institution. It long ranked as 
the second commercial emporium of Engl., 
but its progress has not kept pace with 
that of other ports. It has, however, large 
iron & brass foundries ; copper, tin, zinc, 
& glass works; chemical & color works; 
sugar refineries & distilleries. The Avon 
at Bristol, though narrow, is deep enough 
for large ships, & early in the present 
cent., its course was turned for some dis- 
tance, at a cost of £700,000, & its old 
channel now forms a harb., furnished 
with locks & quays 6,000 ft. in length. 
Ships of large burden, & first-rate steam- 
ers, load & discbarge cargo at Kiugroad, 
in the mouth of this riv. The city re- 
tains a large share of the West India 
trade. It sends 2 mems. to H. of C. 

Bristol Channel, an arm of the At- 
lantic, entering between St. Ann's Head 
on the N. & Land's End on the S. 

Britain, including Engl. &' Scotl., is 
the largest island of Europe, & the prin- 
cipal of the group British isles, bounded 
N. & E. by the German ocean, on the S. 
by the Eng'lish channel, which separates 
it froQi Frnnce ; on the W. by the Irish 
sea, & on the N.W. by the Atlantic ocean. 
Extreme 1., 587 m. ; greatest b., 360 m. 
In general form; it is wedge-shaped. Its 
B.-ern coast forms a waving continuous 
line ; but its W.-ern is very irregular, & 
deeply indented with bays & arms of the 
sea, interspersed with numerous isls. 
Surface of Britain in the S.E. level; in 
th~e centre, hilly; in the W. mountainous. 
In the middle districts, coal, lime, saltj & 
ironstone are abundant. A mntn. range, 
varying in elev. from 1,500 to 3,000 ft., 
extends through the isU from I^. to S. 
In addition, there is a branch near 3,000 
ft. high ; the Cheviots, the Lammermoors, 
& the Great Grampian range, whose ex- 
treme altitude, measured by Ben Nevis, 
is. upward of 4,300 ft. The most consid- 
erable rivs. are the Severn, Medway, 
Dee, Mersey, Clyde, on the W. coast ; & 
the Thames, Trent, Humber, Tyne, Forth, 
Tay, & Spey on the E. coast. The prin- 
cipal lakes are those of Cumberland & 
Westmoreland in Engl., & L. Lomond, 
Tay, Maree, &c., in Scotland. The prin- 
cipal bays & estuaries are the British 
channel, Cardigan B., Lancaster B., the 
Solway Firth, Firth of Clyde on the W., 
& the Thames mouth, the Wash, the 
, Humber, the Firths of Forth, Tay, Mur- 
ray, & Cromarty on the E., while on the 
S. there are Falmouth, Plymouth, Ports- 
mouth, & other important bays & harbors. 

I The British islands include Ireland, the 
Isle of Wight, Anglesea, Man, the Scilly 
isls., Bute, Arran, the Hebrides, Orkney 
& Shetland isls. All the grains & grasses 
& the common European fruits grow in 
almost all districts & situations, not too 
elevated, & are of the best description. 
Of wild animal?:, the fox, badger, deer, & 
wild cat, are the princip.xl ; of birds, the 
bittern & the eagle. Mineral products 
are silver, copper, tin, lead, iron & coal. 
A great proportion of the land of the 
united kingdom is under cultivation & in 
pasturage. Total value of agricultural 
produce is Very great ; while the annual 
value of Briti-h mmufactures is estim. 
at 121,750,000/. The mercantile shipping 
of Great Britain amounts to over 30,000 
vessels, with a tonnage of 3,700,000. 
Great Britain has the largest naval ar- 
mament in the world, & possesses 147 
war steamers, including 3 in Canada. 
During the 1 ist 40 years, 13,600 m. of 
railroad, requiring a capital of 320 mil- 
lions, have been authorized by parlia- 
ment. A large portion of this has been 
built. Very extensive lines of electric 
telegraph have been established. Britain 
is historically known from the invasion 
of Julius Caesar, about 55 b.c. It is con- 
jectured to have been originally peopled, 
first by the Celts from Gaul, & after- 
wards by Teutonic tribes from Germany 
& Scandinavia. The original G»lic name 
is Albion. Britain is derived from the 
Britannia of the Ilomans, who formed 
the name from Britin. The Romans oc- 
cupied the country till about a.d. 420. 
After the termination of their power, the 
conquest of the greater part of Britain 
was made by the Saxons, Jutes, & An- 
glians, the latter giving their name to 
England. This conquest occupied about 
130 years. In 1066, the Normans made 
a descent on England, & poss'essed them- 
selves of the greater part of the count-ry. 
Ireland was subdued, & brought under 
the British government in 1172. In 1215 
Magna Charta was obtained by the bar- 
ons. In 1283 Wales was united to Eng- 
land ; & in 1604 there was a union of the 
crown of Scotland to that of England. 
The legislative union of Ireland with Gt. 
Britain took. place in 1799. The govern- 
ment of the united kingdom is a limited 
monarchy; the legislative authority is 
vested in the sovereign & the parliament 
or houses of Lords & Commons. The 
house of Peers consists of the Lords spir- 
itual & temporal. The H. of C. is com- 
posed of 656 members chosen by counties, 
cities, boroughs, &g- The courts of law 




& local government vary in different ill- 
visions of the empire, fcut each county 
throughout the kingdom is governed by 
a lieutenant, sheriff, & other officers ap- 
pointed by the crown. The Episcopal is 
the state established religion in England 
& Ireland, & the Presbyterian in Soot- 
land. There is, however, complete reli- 
gious toleration. P. of Great Britain, 
20,936,468. Net revenue in 1851-'52, 
48,320,078/. National debt in 1851, 
£782,869,382. The capital of Gt. Britain 
is London. 

Britannia Islands, a group of small 
isls. in the Pacific ocean, N.E. of New 
Caledonia, the largest of which (Uea) is 
30 m. in length, the others are all small. 
Climate salubrious. 

Brittany, a prov. of France. [Bee- 


Brittnau, a vill. of Switzerl., cant. 
Aargau, on the Wigger. P. 2,075. 

Brive, a riv. of France, dep. Loire 
Inf., joins the Loire on the right, above 
St. Nazaire, length 30 m. 

Brives-La-Gaillarde, a comm. & t. 
of France, dep. Corr^ze, in a rich plain, 
on the Correze. P. 5,983. It is built of 
stone, enclosed by planted boulevards, 
has a comm. college, manufs. of wool- 
lens, muslins, silk, handkerchiefs, & cot- 
ton yarn, with bleaching works, distil- 
leries, & an active trade. 

Brivio, a town of Lombardy, deleg. 
Como, on the Adda. 

Brix, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
Manche. P. 3,088. 

Brixen, a town of the Tyrol, S. of the 
Alps, circ. Pusterthal, on the route from 
Italy to Germany, by the Brenner pass. 
P. 3,000. 

Brixham, a mrkt. & seaport town of 
Engl., CO. Devon, on the Torbay. The 
town has an ane. church, a large nation- 
al, & 19 daily' schools, a good harbor, 
subordinate to the port of Dartmouth, & 
about 100 vessels, employed in. the coast- 
ing trade. William III. landed in Engl, 
at Brixham, on the 5th Nov. 1688. 

Broad, r., Ga., branch of the Savan- 
nah. II. r. S. C., an arm of the sea, be- 
tween Port Royal isl. & the main land. 
III. r., S. C. & uniting with the Sa- 
luda forms the Congaree. 

Broadalbin, p4., Fulton co. N. Y. P. 

Broad Creek, hundred, Sussex co. 
Del. P. 2,640. 

Broadhaven, a bay on the W. coast 
of Ireld., CO. Mayo. 

Broad Kill, hund., Sussex co. Del. 
P. 3,741. 

Broad Sound, an inlet on the E. coast 
of Australia L. 50 m. ; b. 22 m. 

Beoadstairs, a small seaport town of 
Engl., CO. Kent, on the E. coast of the I. 
of Thanet. P. 1,459. It has of late be- 
come a. favorite watering-place. 

Broad Top, town, Bedford co. Penn. 
P. • 

Brocken, a mntn. of Prussia, prov. 
Sasony, in the range of the Harz mntns., 
of which it is the culminating point, 
3,740 ft. above the level of the sea. It 
is cultivated nearly to the summit, & 
commands an extensive prospect. 

Brockport, p-v., Monroe co. N. Y. 
on the Erie canal. P. 1,249. 

Brockville, cap. of Leeds &Xjrrenville 
COS., U. Canada, on the St. Lawrence r., 
139 m. W. of Montreal. P. 3,246. 

Brod, many small towns in central & 

S.E. Europe. 1. (Deutsch), Bohemia, 

circ. Czaslau, on the Zasawa. P. 3,987. 
It has a custom-house & gymnasium, 
with mineral baths, silver mines, & 
manufs. of woollen cloth. II. {Bohe- 
mian), circ. Kaurzim. P. 1,600. III. 

{Hungarian), Moravia, circ. Hradisch. 

P. 3,381. IV. (Turkish), a fortress 

of Bosnia, on the Save. 

Brodick Bay, isl. of Arran, Scotl., on 
N. side. 

Brody, a frontier town of Austrian 
Galicia, cap. circ. Zloczow. P. 24,000. 
It is filthy, unpaved, & built mostly of 
wood ; it has, however, an imperial cham- 
ber, a commerc. tribunal, Jewish, Bom. 
Cath., grammar & commerc. schools, & a 
castle. It was made a free commerc. town 
in 1779, & enjoys an extensive trade with 
Russia, Poland, & Turkey. 

Broek-in-Waterland, a vill. of the 
Nether'lds, prov. North Holland. P. 

Broglie, a small town of France, dep. 
Eure, arr. Bernay. P. 1,000. 

Broken Bay, a fine inlet of the S. 
Pacific, in New South Wales. 

Broken Straw, t., Warren co. Penn. 
Several furnaces, about 20 saw-mills. P. 

Bromberg, a town of Pruss. Poland, 
cap. reg., on the Brahe, prov. Posen. P. 
9,600. Besides the courts for its reg., it 
has a gymnasium & normal school, with 
manufs. of chicory, tobacco, Pruss. blue, 
linen & woollen fabrics, & an active tran- 
sit trade. 

Bromley, a town of Engl., co. Kent, 
on the Ravensbourne. P. 4,325. The 
town consists mostly of a single neatly 
built street, on the road from London to 
Tunbridge. Bromley has a handsome & 




well-endowed college, founded in 1666, 
for the resid. & support of 40 clergymen's 

Bromsebho, a ham. of Sweden, near 
the mouth of the Bromse, celeb, in his- 
tory for the treaties betw. Sweden & 
Denmark in 1541 & 1641. 

Bhomsgrove, a town of England, co. 

Bromwich (Castle), a vill. of Engl., 
CO. Warwick. 

Bromwich (West), a vill. of Engl., co. 

Bromyard, a small town of Engl. co. 

Brondolo, a vill. of North Italy. 

Broni, a vill. of Piedmont, prov. Vog- 
hera. P. 6,000. 

Bronnitza, 2 towns of Russia. 1. 

gov. Novgorod, on the Msta, here crossed 

by a large floating bridge. II. gov. 

Moscow, cap. circ. on the Moskwa, with 
an imperial stud, which in 1830 com- 
prised 237 horses. 

Bronson, p-t., Huron co. 0., watered 
by brs. of Huron r. P. 1,291. 

Brokson's Prairie, Branch co. Mich. 
P. 622. 

Bronte, a town of Sicily, intend. Ca- 
tania, at the W. foot of Mt. Etna. P. 
9,150. It has a college, & manufa. of 
coarse woollens & paper. 

Brooke, county, Va., in the extreme 
N.W. part of the state, on the Ohio riv. 
Some iron ore & bituminous coal are 
found here. Some manufacs. of woollens, 
cotton goods, leather, glass, earthenware 
& paper. Large number of grist m. & 
saw m. P. 5,054. Cap Wellsburg. 

Brookfield, t., Carroll co. N. H. 
There are large ponds in & about it. 

P. 553. II. t., Worcester co. Mass. 

P. 2,472. III. t.. Orange co. Vt., has 

an inexhaustible bed of marl. 1 acad. 

P. 1,789. IV. t., Morgan co. 0., in 

the N. part of the county. P. 1,426. 

V. v., Stark co. 0. — ^VI. t., Milwaukie 

CO. Mich. VII. Fairfield co. Conn., 

watered by the Housatonic. P. 1,488. 

• VIII. p-t., Madison co. N. Y., on the 

Unadilla r. & its tributaries. Soil cal- 
careous loam. P. 3,695. IX. Tioga co. 

Peon. P. 431. ^X. p-t., Trumbull co. 

0., on the Penn. line. P. 1,302. 

Brookhaven, t., Suffolk co. Long 
Island, N. Y. It has several good har- 
bors on Long I. sound. South Bay 
which borders this town on the S., affords 
fish, clams & oysters. P. 8,595. 

Brookline, t., Windham co. Vt. A 
deep valley runs through this town, 
coursed by a br. of West river. II. t., 

Hillsboro' co. N.H. It lies on the S. side 
of the state, & is watered by a br. of 

Nashua r. P. 652. III. t., Norfolk 

CO. Mass. 

Brooklyn, city, & cap. of Kings co. 
N.Y., situated on W. end of Long Island, 
opposite New York. The 2d place in 
population in the state, separated from 
New York by the East Kiver, an arm of 
the sea | of a mile wide. The ground 
on which the city is built elevated & un- 
even. It is regularly laid out. The 
streets are generally straight, 60 feet . 
wide & cross at right angles. Brooklyn 
has a beautiful situation, good air, & is 
a favorite place of residence. It is con- 
nected with New York by 5 steam ferries. 
Brooklyn is divided into 12 wards, & is 
governed by a mayor & comm. council. 
It has a magnificent city hall of white 
marble. From the number uf its churches, 
it is sometimes called the City of Churches. 
It has several banks & insurance com- 
panies, 3 newsps., about 20 acads. Cap. 
in manufacs. about $1,500,000. The 
U. S. navy yard is in this city on Walla- 
bout bay. It covers 40 acres of ground, 
& on the land side is enclosed by a brick 
wall. The naval hospital occupies a 
commanding eminence half a mile E. of 
the navy yard, & is surrounded by 33 
acres of cultivated ground also enclosed 
by a brick wall. Greenwood cemetery, in 
the S. part of Brooklyn has 200 acres of 
land of a beautiful variety of surface. 
The Atlantic dock, within Red Hook 
Point, which will contain 42| acres, & 
the outside pier of which will extend 
3,000 feet fronting on Buttermilk chan- 
nel. At the close of the Revolutionary 
war, there were but 56 houses in Brook- 
lyn. Near the navy yard, at the Walla- 
bcut, are interred the remains of 11,000 
Americans, who perished in the British 
prison ships moored in the bay. P. 

96,850. II. t, cap. Windham co. 

Conn., watered by Quinnebaugr.& Black- 
well's stream. P. 1,488. III. p-t., 

Susquehanna co. Penn., on Martin's cr. 

P. 1,474. IV. p-t., Cuyahoga co. 0. 

Ohio city was formerlv a part of this 
town. 1 acad. P. 1,409. 

Brookneal, p-v., Campbell co. Va. 

Brooks, t.,Waldo co. Me. P. 910. 

Brookville, t., Hancock co. Me., on 
E. side of Penobscot bay. It has navi- 
gable water on three sides. P. 1,246. 

II. p-v., Jefferson co. Penn. Contains a 

brick court-house & ofl&ces. III. p-v., 

cap. Franklin co. la. 

Broome, county, N. Y., in the S. part 
of the state, soil adapted to grazing, wa- 




tered by SusqLuehanna, Chenango, & 
Tonghnioga rs. It lias a large lumber 
traile, &a. Consid. manufacs. of cloth & 
leather, 150 saw-mills. P. 30,660. Cap. 

Binghamton. II. t., Sebohaiie co. 

N. Y., drained by Schoharie & Catskill crs. 
P. 2,404. 

Broons, a town of France, dep. Cotes- 
du-Nord. P. 2,502. Duguesclin was born 
in the castle of La Motte Broons, 1 m. 
from the town, on the site of which a mont. 
has been erected to his memory. 

Broos, a town of Transylvania, Saxon- 
land, with a pop. of 3,500. 

Broquies, a vill. of France, dep. Avey- 
ron. P. 3,676. 

Broque (La), a vill. of France, dep. 
Vosges, arrond. St. Die. P. 1,350. 

Brora, a riv. of Scotl., co. Sutherland; 
after a S.E. course through sev. lakes, 
enters the Moray firth. 

Brothers Valley, t., Somerset co. 
Pa. P. 1,548. 

Brothers (The), a group of 6 or 8 rocky 
islets, at the entrance of the Fied sea, off 
the African shore. 

Brotterode, a town of Germany, Hes- 
sen-Cassel, prov. Fulda. P. 2,359. 

Bhou, a t. of France, dep. Eure-et- 
Loire, on the Ozanne. P. 2,047. 

Brough, a town of Engl., eo. "West- 

Broughty Ferry, a vill. of Scotl., co. 
Forfar, on the firth of Tay, immediately 
opposite Ferrj'-port-on-Craig, with which 
"' it has frequent communicatidn by a float- 
ing bridge in connection with the Aber- 
deen railway. 

Brouwershaven, a small marit. town 
of the Netherl'iis, prov. Zeeland, on the 
isl. Schowen. P. 1,092. 

Brown, co., 0., in the S.W. part of 
the state, on the Ohio r. It has Eagle, 
Eed-oak, Straight & White-oak cr. Sur- 
face diversified, soil generally good. P. 

27,332. Cap. Georgetown. II. county, 

111., in the W. part of the state, on Illi- 
nois r. & Crooked cr. Surface undulat- 
ing, soil fertile. P. 7,198. Cap. Mount 

Sterling. III. county, la., central in 

tbe S. part of the state. Drained by salt 
cr. ; surface hilly; soil fertile. P. 4,846. 

Cap. Nashville. IV. county, Wis., lies 

an both sides of Green bay. Surface 
various ; soil good but wet, & cold. P. 

6,212. V- t, Lycoming CO. Pa.— VI. 

t., MitBin co. Pa. Vll. t., Hancock 

CO. la. VIII. "t., AVashington co. la. 

P. 1,451. IX. t., Athens co. 0., on 

Eacoon cr. X. t., Carroll eo. 0., on 

Sandy cr. P. 2,165. XI. t, Delaware 

CO. O!, on Alum cr. XII. Franklin co. 

0. XIII. t., Knox CO. 0., on Yellow 

cr. P. 1,210. XIV. t., Miami co. 0., 

drained by branches of Miami r. 

Brownfield, t., Oxford co. Me., on the 
Saco r. 2 acad. P. 1,238. 

Brownhelm, t., Lorain co. 0., watered 
by Vermilion r. ,P. 934. 

Brownington, t., Orleans co. V^t. 
Watered by a br. of Boston r. 

Brownsburg, p-v., Rockbridge CO. Va. 

Brownsea, or Branksea Island, 
Engl., CO. Dorset. 

Brownstown, p-t.," Wayne co. Mich. 
at the mouth of the Huron r. P. 793. 
II. p-v., capital of Jackson, la. 

Bbownsvllle, t., Piscatiquis eo. Me., 

on a br. of Piscatiquis r. P. 568. II. 

p-v., Jefferson co. N. Y. AVatered by 
Black & Perch rivs. Manufac. of cotton 
goods, satinets, machinery & whitelead. 
Several foundries. P. 4,282.— — III. p-v., 
Fayette co. Penn., on the E. bank of the 
Monongahela r. The National Road 
which passes through the place forms its 

principal street. P. 1,362. IV. p-v.. 

Licking co. 0., also on the National Road. 

V. cap. Edmondson co. Ky., on the 

S. side of Green r. VI. p-v., cap. 

Jackson co. 111., on the N. side of Big 
Muddy r. 

Brozas, a town of Spain, prov. Cace- 
res. P. 3,711. 

Bruay, a small riv. of Scotl., co. Perth. 

Bruar, a vill. of France, dep. Nord. 
P. 1,506. 

Bruca (La), a marit. town of Sicily, 
intend. Cataniti. 

Bruce, p-t.. Macomb CO. Mich. P. 1,128. 

Bruchsal, a town of W. Germany, Gd. 
Duchy Baden, circ. Middle-Rhine, on the 
Salzbach. P. 7,386. It is well built, & 
has a fine palace, the former resid- of the 
prince-bp. of Spires, a town-ho., gymna- 
sium, milit. hospital, barracks, & a paper 
mill. Its princip. trade is in wine. 

Bruck, "bridge," the name of many 

small towns in Germany. -I. Lower 

Austria, on the Leitha. P. 2,834. It has 
botanic gardens, & manufs. of spinning- 
jennies, & gold wire. II. Styi-ia, cap. 

circ, at the confl. of the Mur & Miirz. 
P. 1,500. It has manufs. of iron wares, 

& an active transit trade. III. Pru.ssia, 

prov. Brandenburg. P. 1,265. IV. 

Kloster-Bruch, a vill. of Moravia, circ. 
Znaim, on 1. b. of the Tnja. V. Bava- 
ria, eirc. Mi'ld. Franconia, on the Regnitz. 
P. 1,173. There are numerous vills. of 
same name in the different states of 

Bhuckenau, a town of Bavaria, circ. 
Lower Franconia, on the Sinn. P. 1,403. 




Bruel, a t. of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 
Elev. 88 feet above the sea. P. 1,491. 

Bruff, a town of Ireland, co. Limer- 
ick. P. 1,398. 

Bruges, a city of Belgium, cap. prov. 
W. Flanders. P. 50,272. Bruges is one 
of the most flourishing commercial cities 
in the kingdom. It owes its name to the 
number of its bridges (upwards of 50) 
which cross its canals, & is remarkable 
for the nrany fine gothic buildings which 
it contains. Most of these da,te from the 
14th cent., & are rich]5'' decorated with 
sculpture & paintings. It has a tribunal 
of commerce, espiscopal college, theolo- 
gical seminary, school of surgery, acade- 
my of painting & sculpture, a public li- 
brary, schools for blind, & deaf & dumb. 
Ghf. industry the manuf. of lace. Bruges 
has numrs. distilleries, breweries, tanne- 
ries, dye-works, sugar & salt refineries, & 
ship-building yards. Principal exports 
lace & other manuf. goods, grain, & cattle. 
Imports wool, cotton, dye-woods, wine, 

&c.- II. a town of France, dep. B. 

Pyrenees, arrond. Pau. P. 1,894. 

Brugnato, a small anc. town of Sar- 
dinia, prov. Levante, on 1. b. of the Vara. 
P. 600. 

Bruguiere (La), a town of France, 
dep. Tarn. P. 1,355. 

Bruhl, a town of Rhenish Prussia, reg. 
circ., on the railw. to Bonn. P. 2,020. 

Bruille, St. Am and, a vill. of France, 
dep.Nord, arrond. Valenciennes. P. 2,021. 

Bhulon, a town of France, dep. Sarthe. 
P. 1,526. 

Brumath, a town of France, dep. Bas- 
Rhin, cap. cant. ; on 1. b. of the Zorn. P. 

Brundel, a vill. of Bohemia, circ. 
Budweis, with mineral baths. 

Bhuneck, a town of Austria, Tyrol, 
cap. circ, on r. b. of the Rienz. P. 1,471. 

Brune Island, a long & irreg. isl. of 
Tasmania, dist. Hobart Town. 

Bruniquel, a town of France, dep. 
Taru-et-Garonne. P. 1,861. It has a 
ruined castle & extensive iron-works. 

Brijnn, a city of the Austrian empire, 
cap. gov. of Moravia & Silesia, & of a 
circ. of same name, on a declivity at the 
confl. of the Schwarza & the Zwitta. P. 
44,000. Streets narrow & crooked, but 
well paved & lighted. Briinn has nume- 
rous fine buildings. It is the seat of the 
chf. legal & milit. courts & authorities for 
Moravia & Austr. -Silesia. It has a phil- 
osophical institute, a royal gymnasium, 
a valuable museum, botanic garden, pub- 
lic library, & a great number of educa- 
tional & charit. establs. Its mauufs. of 

woollen goods are the most extensive in 
the Austr. dom. ; cotton goods, silk, glass, 
soap, tobacco, & machinery are also ex- 
tensively manufd. ; & its tanneries & 
leather factories are the most important 
in the empire ; the city is the centre of a 
large trade. 

Brunn-am-Gebirge, a town of Lower 
Austria, circ. Vienna. ,P. 1,630. 

Brunsbijttel, a marit. town of Den- 
mark, duchy Holstein, on r. b. of the 
Elbe. P. 1,200. 

Brunshal'sen, a vill. of Hanover, on 
1. b. of the Elbe, with a small port. 

BrunsTatt, a vill. of France, dep. H. 
Rhin. P. 1,544. 

Brunswick, county, Va., in the S. part 
of the state, drained by the Roanoke & 
its branches. P. 13,894. Cap. Lawrence- 

ville. II. county, N. C, in the S. part 

of the state, on Cape Clear riv., & on the 
Atlantic ocean. Surface flat & marshy. 
Soil poor. P. 7,272. Cap. Smithville. 

III. t., Cumberland co. Me., on the 

S. side of the Androscoggin riv., at the 
lower falls. A great amount of lumber 
comes down the Androscoggin. Bowdoin 

college is located here. IV. t., Essex 

CO. Vt., on Connecticut r V. t., Ren- 

selaer co. N. Y. P. 3,051. VI. port 

of entry & cap. Glynn co. Ga., on Turtle 
riv. It has a fine harbor, with 13 ft. of 
water on the bar, at the lowest tides. P. 

1,444. VII. p-t., Medina co. 0. P. 

1,110. VIII. p-v., Charlton co. Mo., 

on N. bank of the Mo. IX. Duchy of, 

a state, of N.' Germany. P. 268,943. 
Besides this, the reigning duke possesses 
the princip. of Oels in Silesia. The state 
is composed of 3 large & 6 small isolated 
& irregular portions of territory. The 
whole territory has an area of 1,526 sq. 
m. The country is mntnous. in the 
two S. portions ; the Worm-Berg, 3,230 
ft. in elev., is the highest point in the 
duchy. It is not abundantly watered ; 
there are several small lakes in the Harz, 
& mineral springs at Helmstadt& Seesen. 
Agriculture is the chief source of the 
wealth of the duchy. Timber forms a 
considerable article of export. Mining is 
extensively carried on in the Harz mntns.; 
its chf. products are gold, silver, lead, 
litharge, copper, sulphur, vitriol, & alum. 
The iron-works employ 9 smelting-houses 
& 10 furnaces ; marble & alabaster are 
also procured. The manufs. of Bruns- 
wick are not important. The library of 

Wolfenblittel is celeb. X. a city of N. 

Germany, cap. of the duchy of Brunswick, 
on the Ocker. P. 42,000. It is in gene- 
ral old-fashioned, but has many new 




streets. Chf. edifices, the new palace, a 
handsome edifice, with fine parks, bijora- 
house, mint, armory, with a museum & 
picture-gallery, college, 12 churches ; 
Several fountains & monuments, one of 
which, 60 ft. high, comniemor.ites the late 
dulie who was killed at Quatre-Bras. 
Brunswick has many educational & char- 
itable institutions, a considerable trade, 
& manufs. of woollen cloths, lacquered 
wares, &o. 

Brusa, aclty of Asia-Minor, Anatolia, 
cap. sanj., at the N. foot of Mt. Olympus. 
P. 60,000. It is beautifully situated on 
a declivity, in a very fertile neighborhood, 
& has a magnif. external appearance, 
with numerous minarets. Its houses are 
built mostly of earth or wood, & its 
streets narrow. It has between 200 & 
300 mosques, some very handsome ; large 
bazaars, numerous khans & colleges, sev. 
churches & synagogues, Armenian & 
other schools, & extensive suburbs. Its 
mineral baths have been famous in all 
ages. Brusa is one of the most flourish- 
ing commerc. emporiums in the Turkish 
dom. Its princip. trade is in raw silk. 

Brtjsau, a town, Moraviaj circ. & 31 
m. W.N.W. Olmiitz, on the frontier of 
Bohemia. P. 750. Celebrated for its 
fine flour called Briisauer Mehl. 

Beush Creek, t., Highland co. 0., 

drained by Brush creek. P. 1,502. 

II. t., Jefferson co. 0. III. t., Mus- 
kingum CO. 0. It has several salt facto- 
ries. P. 1,606. IV. t., S6ioto CO. 0. 

V. t., Washington co. Ark. 

Brusqe, a town of France, dep. Avey- 
ron. P. 1,200. 

Brussels, a city, & cap. of the king- 
dom of Belgium, is situated on the Senne. 
It is remarkable for the number & 
richness of its anc. buildings, as well as 
for the beauty of its modern quarter. It 
is well supplied with water & has many 
noble fountains. Its principal squares 
are the Place Royale, Place de la Mon- 
naie, Place des Martyrs, & the Grand 
Place. Brussels has numerous & excel- 
lent estab. of public instruction, among 
which are a free university, a normal 
school, a polytechnic school., & an acad. 
of painting & sculpture. It has also fine 
observatories, astronomical & magnet., & 
large libraries. Here is the seat of the 
principal banks, of the only mint in the 
kingdom. Brussels is celeb, for its man- 
ufactures, especially for its lace, which is 
the finest in the world. This city is very 
ancient, dating from the 7th cent. P. 

Brussow, a town of Prussia. P. 1,000. 

Bruton t , of Eng. co. of Somerset. 

Brutus, t., Cayuga co. N. Y. Gyp- 
sum &. lime-stone are found here. The 
Erie canal passes through the place. P. 

Brux, a town of Bohemia, circ. Saaz, on 
the Bila. P. 3,064 It has a high school, 
& a philosophical institute, coal mines & 
manufs. of salts from seidlitz waters. 
The celeb, mineral spring of Seidlitz is 
in its vicinity. 

Bruyeres, a comm. & town cf France, 

dep. Vosges. P. 2,276. II. {Sous 

Laori) a comm. & town, dep. Aisne. P. 
of comm. 1,168. 

Bruz, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
Ille-et-Vilaiue. P. 2,280. Near this the 
argentiferous lead mine of Pont- Pean 
was opened 1730, & abandoned 1797. 

Bryan, county, Ga., in the S.E. part 
of the state, on the Atlantic ; watered by 
Ogeedchee & Cannouehee rs. P. 3,424. 
II. t., capital of Williams co., 0. 

Brymbo, a tnshp. of N. Wales, co. Den- 
bigh. P. 1,217, empld. in extens. iron 

Brzesc, a town of Poland, gov. AVar- 
saw, on an affl. of the Vistula. P. 1,290, 

engaged in woollen & linen weaving. 

II. (B. Litewski), a fortf. t. of Russia, 
gov. Grodno, cap. circ, & formerly the 
cap of Lithuania, on the Bug. P. 8,000. 
It has a famous Jewish synagogue. 

Brzesnica, a town of Poland, prov. 
Kaliscz. P. 970. 

Brzesnitz, a town of Bohemia, circ. 
Prachin. P. 2,016. 

Brzezany, a town of Austr. Galieia, 
cap. circ, on the Zlota-Lipa. P. 6,899. 
It has a castle, gymnasium, & manufs. 
of leather, sail cloth, & linen fabrics. 
Brzezeny is a vill. of Poland. 

Brzezyn, a town of Poland, gov. War- 
saw. P. 3,167. 

Brzozov, a town of Austr. Galieia, 
circ. Sanok. P. 2,367. Manuf. of cloth. 
. Bu, a comm. & town of France, dep. 
E'ure-et-Loir. P. 1,519. 

BuA, an isl. of Dalmatia, circ. Spala- 
tro, in the Adriatic, immed. opposite the 
town of Trau, with which it is connected 
by a bridge. P. 4,000. It produces 
dates, wine, olives, & asphaltum. 

Buache, an isl. of W. Australia, co. 
Perth, in the Indian ocean. 

BuAGiE, a Sikh state of N.W. India, 
under Brit, protection. P. 25,000. 

BuARcos, a town of Portugal, prov. 

BuBASTis, a ruined city of Lr. Egypt, 
the remains situated on an arm of the 
Nile, at its delta, comprise some extensive 




mounds, with the ruins of temples of 
Mercury & Pasht. 

BuBENDORF, a vill. of Switzerl., cant. 
Bale-Campagne, with maiiuf:*. of ribbons. 
P. 1, 193. It its vicinity are saline sprinjjs. 
The baths, built 1764, have been recently 

BuBLiTZ, a town of Prussia, prov. 
Pomerania, circ. Fiirstenthum. P. 2,920. 

BuBROOAH, a town of Hindostan. 

BuBRY, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
Morbihan. P. 3,611. 

Buccaneer-Archipelago, a group 
of isls. in the Indian ocean, near the N.W. 
coast of Australia. 

BuccARi, a free royal seaport town of 
Austria, Croatia, on an inlet of the gulf 
of Quarnero (Adriatic). P. 2,200. It has 
a gcioJ harb. 

I3uccHiANico, a town of Naples, prov. 
Abruzzo Cit. P. 3,720". Excellent wine 
is produced in its vicinity. 

BucciNO, a town of Naples, prov. prin- 
cip. Citra, on the Botta, here crossed by 
a Koman bridge. P. 5,460. In its vicin. 
are quarries of fine marble. 

BucELLAs, a vill. of Portug. Bstrema- 
dura, which gives its name to a white 
wine raised in its vicinity. 

BucH, an old dist. of France, in the 
Bordelais, cap. La. Teste-de-Buch. 

Buchanan, county, Missouri, in the 
N.W. part of the state, on the Missoim 
r., & with the Little Platte passing through 
its centre. Prod. Ind. corn, tohacco, & 
sugar; numerous swine are raised ; iu- 
onsid. manufac. P. 12,975. Gap. Spar- 
ta. II. a CO. of Iowa. P. 517. III. 

v., Botetourt CO. V., on James r.— — IV. t., 
Berrien co. Mich. i. 

BucHAN-NEss, the most E. headland 
of Scotl., CO. Aberdeen, old dist. of Bu- 

Bucharest, a city of S.B. Europe, cap. 
of Wallachia, seat of the gov. & of an 
archbishop., situated in a swampy plain 
on the Dimbovetza. P. 60,788. It has 
a college, which in 1837 had 456 pupils ; 
it has also a museum with a public li- 
brary, & a central metropolitan seminary, 
both founded 1836, & 65 other schools, 
attended by 1,513 pupils. Bucharest is 
he entrepot for the commerce between 
Austria & Turkey ; its chief trade is in 
grain, building timber, wool, salt, & wax. 

Buchau, a town of Bohemia, circ. El- 
bogen- P. 1,235. In its vicinity are 

manufs. of porcelain. TI. Wiirtem- 

berg, circ. Danube. P. 1,830. 

BucHBERG, a town of lower Austria, 
circ. Vienna,, at the foot of the Schnee- i 

BucHEN, a town of Baden, circ. Lower 
Rhine, with manuf. of cloth, & tanneries. 
P. 2,400.— — II. a vill. & post station of 

BucHHOLZ, a town of Saxony, circ. 
Zwickau, on the Lehm. P. 2.478. it 

has manuf. of ribbons & lace. II. 

(Fi-anzosisch), a vill. of Prussia, reg. 
Potsdaui. P. 440, a colony of French 

emigrants.- III. {Wendisch), a town 

on the Dehme, rcg. Potsdam. P. 1,000. 
— Also several villages in Germany. 

BucHOLwiTZ, a town of Austria, Mo- 
ravia, circ. Hradisch. P. 1,890. In its 
environs are sulphur springs & baths. 

BucQuoY, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Pas de Calais. P. 1,561. 

BuczAcz, a town of Austrian Galicia, 
circ. Stanislawow, on the Stry, with a 
convent & gymnasium. P. 2,300. 

Buck, t., Luzerne co. Pa. 

BiJcKEBuRG, a town of N. Germany, 
on the Aue, an affl. of the Weser. It is 
well built, hS'S 5 gates, a castle & park, 
gymnasium, a normal school, & a public 
library. In the vicinity is the summer 
palace of Baum. 

BiJcKEN, a town of N. Germany, 
Hanover. P. 1,105. 

BucKFiELD, town, Oxford co. Me., 
watered by a br. of the Androscoggin. 
P. 1,629. 

BucKHAvEN, a fishing vill. of Scotland, 
CO. Fife, pa. \Vemyss, on the firth of 
Forth. P. 1,526, nearly all fishermen. 

' Buckingham, t., Wayne co. Pa. 

II. t., Bucks CO. Pa., inhabitants mostly 

Quakers. III. countj', Va., in the 

lower central part of the state on J ames 
r. Chief prod, wheat, Ind. corn, oats, 
cotton, & an immense amount of tobacco. 

P. 13,837. Cap. Maysville. IV. c.h., 

Buckingham co. Va. ^V. mkt. town 

of Engl., CO. Bucks, on the Ouse. 

BucKiNGHAM.sHiRE, an inland co of 
England. P. 143,670. Timber, espe- 
cially beech, is plentiful. The sheep of 
the vale of Aylesbury are noted for the 
weight & fineness of their fleeces. The 
CO. supplies large quantities of butter^ 
cattle, lambs, poultry, &c., to the London 
mkts. Princip. manufs. are of paper, 
straw-plait, & thread lace. ' 

BucKLAND, t., Franklin co. Mass., on 

Deerfield r. P. 1,084. II. p-v.. Prince 

William co. Va. An elevated & roman- 
tic place. 

BucKOw, a town of Prussia, on the 
Stebberow. P. 1,336. 

BucKOv^r (Neu), a town of Mecklen- 
burg, near the Baltic. P. 1,468. 

BucKLAND Island, N. Pacific ocean. 




Bucks county, Pa., in the S.E. part 
of the state, on the Delaware r. It is 
also drained by several crs. Surface di- 
versified ; soil various, but highly culti- 
vated. Plumbago or black lead is found 
in this CO. The common agricultural 
fruits produced in large quantities. Con- 
sid. amount of silk cocoons. Large num. 
of saw m. Some manufac. of woollen & 
cotton goods, & leather & earthenware. 

P. 56,091. Cap. Doylestown. II. t., 

Tuscarawas co. 0. P. 1,547. III. t., 

St. Josephs CO. Mich., on St. Joseph's r. 
P. 787. 

BucKSPORT, t., Hancock co. Me., on 
the E. side of Penobscot r. Consid. ship- 
ping. The harbor has sufficient depth 
for vessels of the largest class. Lumber 
trade extensive. P. 3,381. 

BucYRUs, town, capital of Crawford 
CO. Ohio, oh the Sandusky river. P. 

BuczAsz, a town of Austr.-Poland, 
Galicia, on the Sereth, an affluent of the 
Dniester. P. 2,200. 

Bud A, a free city of the Austrian Emp , 
cap. of the kgdui. of Hungary, on rt. b. 
of the Danube, opposite Pesth, with 
which city it is connected by a bridge of 
boats, the largest in Europe, & by a 
chain-bridge. P. 31,245. The city is 
situated on the slope of a hill, in the 
ftirm of an amphitheatre; in its centre is 
the citadel, an old firlress enclosing the 
royal palace, in which are preserved the 
insignia of Hungarian ro3'alty, & the 
buildings of the central administration. 
It has an observ. on the summit of the 
Blocksberg, one of the finest & best fur- 
nished in Europe, in connection with the 
univer. of Pesth. An extens. type- 
foundry^ a gymnasium, & sev. libraries. 
Connected with the arsenal is a cannon 
foundry & powder manuf. An extens. 
commerce in wine. Buda has an excel- 
lent estab. of baths in connection with 
the hot sulphur springs. The city is 
very ane. & was occupied by the Romans 
till the 4th cent. It was taken by Soli- 
man the magnificent in 1526, & retaken 
byFerdinandl. king of Bohemia, in 1527; 
it was again taken by Soiiman in 1529, 
& occupied by the Turks till 1686. 

Buda-Keszi, a town of Hungary, co. 
Pesth. P. 2,312. 

BuDAYOON, a town, Brit. India, presid. 

EuDDEEABAD, a strong fort of Afghan- 

BuDDHA-GrAYA, a widely spread col- 
lection of ruins in British-India, presid 

BuDDRUCK, a town of British India, 
presid. Bengal. 

BiJDERicH, or Blucher, a walled town 
of Ehenish Prussia, reg. Cleves, on 1. b. 
of the Khine, opp. Wesel. P. 1,180. 

BiJDESHEiM, a vill. of Hessen-Darm- 
stadt, prov. Rhine. 

BuDGEBUDGE, a town of British India, 
presid. Bengal. 

BuDiN, a town of Austria, Bohemia, 
circ. Leitmeritz. P. 1,200. 

BuDiNGEN, a town of Germany, II.- 
Darmstadt, prov. Upp. Hessen. P. 2,750. 
It has 2 castles, '& manufacs. of linens, 
hosiery, & needles. Near it are salt 

Budos-Hegy, a mntn. of Transylva- 
nia, near its E. border. P. 7.340. It is 
remarkable for extensive sulphur springs 
& caverns, which emit sulphuric exhala- 

Budrawar, a town, Punjab, IST-W. In- 
dia, near riv. Chenaub. P. 2,000, many 
of whom are Cashmere-shawl weavers. 
Elev. 5,000 ft. \ 

BuDRio, a comm. & town of Italy, 
Poiitif. sta. P. of comm. 5,960. 

BuDUA, the most S. town of the Austr. 
Emp., Dalmatia, circ. Cattaro, on a pe- 
nins. in the Adriatic. 

BuDWEis, a town- of Boheipia, cap*. 
circ. on the Maulda. P. 8,730. It is 
well-buitt, has a handsome council-ho., a 
cathed., sev. other churches, a gymna- 
sium, philosophical acad., & a high- 
school, with flourishing manufs. of woollen 
cloths, muslins, damasks & saltpetre. 

BuDwiTZ, a town of Austr., Moravia, 
Briinn. P. 1,995. It has a castle & 
several siviDurbs. 

BuECH, a riv. of France, affl. of the 

Buenaventura, a marit. vill. of N. 
Granada, S. Amer., dep. Cauca, cap. 
prov. & on the bay of Choco. It is 
wret<!hedly built, but is the port for a 
considerable extent of country. 

Buena-Vista, a town of Mexican con- 
fed., dep. Vera Cruz, 32 m. S. Tampico. 
Here, in an action, on the 22d & 23d 
Feb. 1847, the Mexican army of Santa 
Anna was repulsed by a far inferior U. 
S. force under Gen. Taylor. 

BuEN Ayre, one of the Dutch W. In- 
dia isls., ofl" the coast of Colombia. L. 
20 ra. Principal products cattle & salt. 
P. 1,955. It has a vill. with a tolerable 

Buenos Ayres, a country of S. Amer- 
ica, & the most important of the Plata 
confed. It extends from the Rio Negro 
along the Atlantic ocean to the mouth 




of the Riode la Plata, & along the whole 
southern shores of its estuary, & the S. 
banks of the Parana, as far as tbe Ar- 
royo del Medio river, which separates it 
from Santa Fc. The W. boundary ex- 
tends from the mouth of the Neposta riv. 
in a N.E. direction, to theW. extremity 
of the Sierra del Vuloan. Area, 75,000 
sq. m. P. 200,000. (?) N. part includes 
a portion of the eastern Pampas, & is fiat, 
with lakes & swamps. The S. part com- 
prehends the Sierra delA'ulcan, the S.E. 
the Sierra Ventana. Principal rivs. the 
Saldiina, Salta, Quequin. Climate of N. 
part mild,- — ice seldom oocurs ; mean 
summer heat 90°. The N. winds pre- 
vailing here have the disagreeable char- 
acter of the sirocco of Italy. In S. dist. 
the climate is colder, but healthy. The 
soil is fertile in many places, but there is 
not a thousandth part under cultivation. 
Cattle & their produce are the chief sour- 
ces of wealth. Number of black cattle 
on pampas said to exceed 1 mill. Jlides, 
hair, horns, tallow, & jerked beef are the 
e.Kports. Horses, mules, & asses ai-e also 
exported. Buenos Ayres became inde- 
pendent of the Spanish government in 
1810, & along with the neighboring states 
joined in a confederated republic (the 
Argentine or La Plata), which however 
was not long kept up, & now each state 
has a separate & independent administra- 
tion. Rosas, who ruled this country with 
an iron sway, has recently been over- 
thrown by Gen. Urquiza, who has made 
himself dictator. 

Buenos Ayres, the cap. city of the 
republic of same name, is situated on the 
S. side of the Plata estuary, about 150 
in. from the.sea. P. 81,000' (?) It cov- 
ers a surface of about 2 m. in length by 
IJ m. in greatest breadth, & is regularly 
laid out, all its streets crossing each other 
at right, angles, & now mostly paved with 
granite. Almost all its houses are but 
one story in height, fiat-roofed, & built 
around court-yards. It is ill provided 
with water, which is wholly brought by 
carriers from the river. PrinciiJal publ. 
edifices are its churches, most of which 
are, however, unfinished. The resid. of 
the dictator & the government offices are 
in a fort near the riv. The university 
occupies an extensive building, & has a 
•library of 25,000 vols. ; besides which 
there are a superior academy, a military 
college, various public schools, several 
printing establishments, & manufs. of 
cigars, carjiets, furniture, boots & shoes. 
The navigation of the Plata, here 36 m. 
broad, is difficult ; & ships drawing 16 ft. 

water are obliged to anchor in the A^nar- 
radero, a roadstead 7 or 8 m. distant. 
Trade considerable & increasing. The 
export of wool & corn has latterly in- 
creased; that of Paraguay tea has de- 
clined, with the progressive increase in 
the import of tea with other goods from 
China. Buenos Aj-res was founded in 
1534 ; in 1776 it became the seat of a 
vice-royalty. In 1806 it was taken by 
the English, but it was re-taken by the 
Spaniards in the same year. 

Buffalo, city & p-t., port of entry, & 
capital of Erie county, N. Y., lies on the 
outlet of L•^ke Erie, at the head of Nia- 
gara river, <& on Buffalo creek, which 
constitutes its harbor, 288 m. W.Albany, 
363 by the Erie canal. The city stands 
on land of gentle ascent. Its streets are 
broad & regular, & it has 3 publ. squares. 
The public buildings of the city are a 
court-house, jail, county clerk's office, 
markets, & churches ; banks, an orphan 
asylum, &c. Buffalo is well situated for 
commerce with Canada, & it is already 
the great depot for the W.-ern country. 
The harbor is spacious & safe, with 13 ft. 
water a mile from its entrance into the 
lake. A pier, constructed of wood & 
stone, extending 1,500 ft. from the S. side 
of the mouth of the creek, has closed the 
channel of the cr. by confining the water, 
so that vessels of 8 ft. draught can pass 
freely. Tonnage 4,360,313. Buffalo has 
several railroads, & is the W. terminus 
of the Erie can^al. P. 42,261. The city 
limits comprise 614,467 acres. The total 
assessed value of real estate in 1852 was 
$15,000.261 ; of personal do., $1,801,205. 

II. t., Armstrong co. Pa. P. 1,820. 

■ III. p-t., Washington co. Penn. P. 

1,116. IV. p-t., Guernsey CO. 0. P. 

1,627. V. t.. Pike CO. Mo. P. 2,174. 

VI. v., cap. Niangua co. Mo. 

VII. t., Butler co. Penn., drained by sev- 
eral crs. VIII. t., Perry co. Penn., 

on the W. bank of the Susquehanna riv. 
P. 1,820.- IX. t.. Union co. Penn. 

Buffalo-Bayou, a riv. of Texas, U.S., 
N. Amer., co. Harrisburg, after an E.- 
ward course of about 70 m. enters the bay 
of Galveston. Although very narrow, it 
is deep, & is navig. by numerous steam- 
ers. The town of Houston is on its banks. 

Buffalo-Lake, 3 lakes of British N. 
Amer., Hudson Bay territ. 

Buffalora, a town of N. Italy, Lom- 
bardy, prov., remark, for the magnificent 
bridge of 12 arches over the Tessin. P. 
1,257. - ' 

Buffon, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. COte-d'Or. Iron foundries. 





Bug (or Bog), two rivs. of Rus. Poland. 
1, forms a great part of the E. fron- 
tier of Poland; length 300 m. II. 

Russia, govs. Podolia & Kherson, flows 
mostly S.fl., & enters the estuary of the 
Dnieper, 30 m. W. Kherson. Total 
course 340 m. AfSs. the Siuiuke, Radima, 
& Negal. 

E'JGA, two towns of S. Amer., N. Gra- 
nada, dep. Cauoa, prov. Popayan. 

BuGARACH, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Aude, at the foot of the mountain of 
same name. P. 1,027. 

BuGEY, a small territory of France, in 
the old prov. of Bourgogne. 

BuGGENHOUT, a comm. & vill. of Bel- 
gium, prov. Flanders. P. 3,424. 

BuGGiANESE (Ponte), a vill. of Tus- 
cany, in the Val-di-Nievole. P. 5,841. 

BuGGiANO, a tovvn of Tuscany, in the 
centre of the Val di Nievole. P. 1,677. 

BuGHAT, a Sikh state, India, under 
British protection, between the Sutlej & 
Jumna rivs. 

BuGUE (Le), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Dordogne, on rt. b. of the 
Vezere. P. 1,240. It is the entrepot for 
the wines & other products of the basin 
of Vezere, sent to Bordeaux. In its vi- 
cinity is the grotto of Miremont. 

BuGuLMA, a town of Russia, gov. 
Orenburg. P. 2,000. It has an active 
trade in cotton & woollen fabric.^, & two 
large annual fairs, at which goods to the 
amount of 2 million rubles are often sold. 

JiUHL, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
Haut-Rhin. P. 1,555. 

BiJHL, a market town of W. Germany, 
grand duchy of Baden, circ. Middle Rhine. 
P. 2,800. It has manufs. of leather & 
large weekly mkts. This is the name of 
sev. vills. in the same circ, & in the 
Rhenish deps. of France. 

BuHLER, a vill. of Switzcrl., cant. Ap- 
penzell. P. 1,162. Manuf. of muslins. 

BuHULiEN. a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. COtes-du-Nord. P. 1,024. 

BuiNSK, a town of Russia, cnp. circ, 
gov., Simbirsk, on the Karla. P. 1,300. 

BuiRO>fFOSSB, a oomni. & vill. of 
France, dep. Aisne. P. 1,465. This is 
the centre of an extensive manuf. of 
wooden shoes. 

Buis (Le), a town of France, dep. 
Drome. P. 1,928. 

BuiTENSLUis, a town of the Netherls., 
prov. S. Holland, on rt. b. of the branch 
of the iMeuse. P. 2,265. 

BuiTENzORG, a town of the isl. of Java, 
cap. of Dutch residency of same name. 

BuiTRAGO, an ancient town of Spain, 
prov. Madrid. P. 1,076. It has an hos- 

pital, trade in wool, and manufs. of 

BuJALANcE, a town of Spain, prov. E. 
Cordova. P. 8,936. It is well built, & 
has a college, & extens. woollen manufs. 

BuJALEuF, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. H. Vienne, on the Vienne. P. 1,936. 

BuK, a town of Prussia, prov. Posen. 
P. 2,298. Manufs. of cloth & shoes. 

BuKHARiA, is a name given to a wide 
extent of territory in Central Asia, com- 
prising the E. part of Indep. & the W. 
part of Chinese Tartary, the latter sub- 
division being called Little Bukharia. 

BuKHTARMiNSK, a fortress of Asiatic 
Russia, gov. Tomsk, on the Irtish. 

BuKKUR, an isl. & fort of Scinde, in the 
Indus. The isl. is a limestone rock', 800 
yards in length, by 300 in width. 

BuKOwiNA, an old divis. of the Austrian 
Empire, part of E. Galicia. 

BuLACAN, a town of Luzon, Philippine 
isls , cap. prov., on riv. Bulacan, here 
crossed by a bridge of 5 arches. P. 9,803. 

BtJiACH, a town of Switzerland, cap. 
circ. of same name. P. 1,689. 

BuLAMA, the most E. of the Bissagos 
isls., off the W. coast of Africa, 20 m. S. 
Bissao. It is about 20 m. in length by 
10 m. in breadth, densely wooded, & very 
fertile, but unhealthy. ' It is now claimed 
by Portugal. 

TiULAvADiN, a town of Asia-Minor, 
Anatolia. P. 3,000. 

BuLGA, a mtn. & consid. t., Abyssinia. 

Bulgaria, a prov. of Europ. Turkey, 
separated N. by the Danube from Walla- 
chia, Moldavia, & Bessarabia, & S. by 
the Balkhan mntns. from Rumili, & hav- 
ing W- Servia, & B. the Black sea. Area. 
33,900 sq. m. P. 1,800,000. Surfiicej 
mountainous in the S., level in the N., 
generally well wooded, & abounding with 
rich pasture. Princip. riv. the Danube. 
At its N.E. extremity is the large lake 
of Rassein. Princip. products, cattle, 
tallow, hides, hemp, flax, skins, timber, 
& attar of roses. The Bulgarians, who 
are descendants of a Sclavonic tribe that 
crossed the Volga in the 7th century, are 
adherents of the Greek church : tliey 
speak the Servian language, & manuf. 
common woollens, rifle barrels, & moroc- 
co leather, in addition to their rural oc- 
cupations. I'rom the 7th century till 
1018, & again from 1196 till the middle 
of the 14th century, Bulgaria formed an 
indep. kingdom ; but it then became sub- 
ject to Hungary, & was finally conquered 
by the Turks in 1392. 

BuLGNEviLLE, a town of France, dep. 
Vosges. P. 1,012. 





BuLLAs, a town of Spain, prov. Murcia. 
P. 4,186. It is very ancient, & has many 
Eoman remains. 

BuLLE, a town of Switzerl., cant. Frei- 
burg. P. 1,513. It is the chief entrepot 
for Gruyere cheese, made in the adjacent 

EuLLES, a town of France, dep. Oise. 
P. 1,071. Important manuf. of linen. 

BuLLiT, county, Kentuck}', in the N. 
part of the state, on S.ilt river. Surface 
diversified. Soil fertile. Salt is made 
here. P. 6,774. Cap. Shepherdsville. 

Bullock, co., Georgia, S.E. part of the 
state, on the Ogeechee riv. P. 4,300. 
Cap. Statesboro'. 

Bull's Skin, town, Fayette co. Pa. 

EuLLUMGHuR, a fortfd. town, British 
India, presid Bengal. 

EuLOLA, a riv. & town of W. Africa, 

EuLSAUR, a populous seaport town of 
British India, presid. Bombay. 

BuLSUN, a Silih state of N. India, under 
British protection, between the Sutlej & 
Jumna. P. 5,000. 

BuLTi, a state of Central Asia, tribu- 
tary to the rulers of the Punjab, but N. 
the Himalaya, & surrounded, except on 
the N.W. by the Chinese dom. Area, 
12,000 sq.m. P. 75,000.(7) It consists of 
a part of the upp. valley of the Indus, 
having a general elevation of 6,000 or 
7,000 ft. above the sea, & enclosed by 
mountains, which rise to 6^000 or 8,000 
ft. higher. Europ. fruits are, however, 
plentiful. Animals comprise the sha, the 
large-horned goat, sheep, the musk deer, 
& ibis ; arsenic & sulphur are among the 
mineral products. The inhabs. are of 
Tartar descent. - 

Buncombe, co., N. C, in the W. part 
of the state, in a broad valley between 
two ridges of the Alleghany mountains. 
Contains 2,000 sq. m., drained by several 
small rivs. P. 13,425. 

EuNCRANA, a market town of Ireland, 
Ulster, CO. Donegal. P. 961. 

Bund, Switzerland. [Ghisons.] 

BiJNDE, two vills. of Germany. 1. 

Hanover, landr. Aurieh.- II. Prussian 

Westphalia, reg. Minden. P. 1,200. 

BuNDELCUND, a territ. of Hindostan. 
Surface mountainous. Princip. rivs. the 
Desan, Betwah, Cane. Princip. towns, 
Jhansi, Bandah, Chatterpoor. In it are 
the diamond-mines of Panna. 

Bund-emir, a river of Persia, prov. 
Pars, enters the Lake Eakhtegan, after 
a S.E. course of 150 m. 

Bungay, a mrkt. town of Engl., co. 
Suffolk, on the Waveney. P. 4,109. It 

is well built, & has a large market-place, 
containing 2 fine crosses. 

Bunker's Hill, Massachusetts, is a 
steep hill, 110 feet elev., about 1 m. N. 
Boston. It is surmounted by a lofty 
granite obelisk, to commemorate the ac- 
tion which took place here, 17th June, 
1775, betw. the Brit. & Amer., & in which 
the former, in carrying the height, suf- 
fered a heavy loss. Thia,was the first 
pitched battle of the revolutionary wars. 

BuNMAHON, a marit. vill. of Irel., co. 
Waterford. P. 1,771. It is frequented 
as a bathing-place, & adjacent to it are 
the mines of Knockmahon. 

BuNOL, a town of Spain, prov. Valen- 
cia. P. 2,470. Manufs. paper. Near it 
are some remarkable stalaotitic caves. 

Birf^oLA, a town of the isl. Majorca. P. 
1,752. Near it are marble quarries. 

EuNPOOR, a dist. of W. Beloochistan, 
prov. Mukran. The territ. appears to be 
fertile, & the chief obtains from his sub- 
jects an annual rev. of 2,600/., besides 
contributions of camels, sheep, dates, 
wheat, & matchlocks. His milit. force 
consists of 300 cavalry, & 2,500 infantry. 

BuNRATTY (Upper & Lower), two 
baronies of Ireland, co. Clare, Munster. 
Surface rocky, but adapted for grazing. 

BuNTWALLA, a town of British India, 
presid. Madras. 

BuNWOOL, one of the Philippine isls., 
Asiat. archip., in the great S. inlet of 

EuNZLAU, sevl. towns of E. German y^. 
1. [New, or Jung- Bun zlau), Bo- 
hemia. P. 5,074. It has a royal Piarist 
gymnasium, an old castle now used for 
barracks and manufs. of cotton & woollen 

fabrics, & leather. II. (OZd), a town, 

circ. Kaurzim, on rt. b. of the Elbe. It 
has a collegiate church, with a monument 
to St. Winceslaus, often resorted to by 

pilgrims. III. a town of Pruss. Silesia, 

reg. Liegnitz, on rt. b. of the Bober. P. 
6,360. It has a large orphan asylum, a 
normal school, manufs. of earthenware & 
hosiery, & in its mkt. place, a monument 
to the Russian general Kutusoff, who died 
here in 1813. 

BuocHS, a vill, of Switzerl., cant. Un- 
terwalden. P. 1,060. 

BuONABiTALco, a town of Naples, prov. 
Prineipato-Citra. P. 3,120. 

Buonalbergo, a town of Naples, prov. 
Principato Ult. P. 3,300. 

EuoNcONVENTO, a vill. of Tuscany, 
prev. Siena, on the Ombrone. In its 
castle the Emp. Henry VII. died in 1313. 

Eurano, a small island & town of N. 
Italy in the Adriatic. P. 4,900. 




BuBAZJOON, a town of Persia, prov. 

BuRDiEHOusE, a vill. of ScOtl., CO. of 

BuEDUR, a large town of Asiatic Tur- 
key, pash. Anatolia. 

BuRDWAN. a dist. of British India, 
presid. & prov. Bengal. Area, 2,100 sq. 
m. P. 1,487,300. It is generally under 
cultivatijp, & one of the most productive 
parts of India. It has exten.'!ive coal 
fields, yielding annually from 43,000 to 
46,000 tons of coal. Iron ore, & building 
stone are also plentiful. Princip. towns, 
Burdwan, Culna, & Cuttwa. Burdwan is 
the cap. P. 54,000. It has a large palace 
& gardens belonging to its rajah, govern- 
ment & missionary schools, & manufs. of 
silk & cotton fabrics. Near it are indigo 

BuRE, a riv. of England, co. Norfolk. 

Bureau, county, 111., toward the N. 
part of the state. P. 8,841. Cap. 

Bu-Regreb, a riv. of Morocco, & the 
S.W. boundary of the anc. Mauritania, 
enters the Atlantic at llabatt, by a 
mouth 500 yds. across. 

BiJREN, a town of Pruss. Westphalia, 

reg. Minden, on the Alifie. P. 2,130. 

II. a town of Switzerl., cant. Bern, 

on the Aar, here crossed by a stone b'dge. 

P. 1,100. III. (06er), a vill.of Switzerl., 

cant. St. Gall. P. 1,410. IV. a vill. 

Netherlands, prov. Gelderland. P. 1,500. 

BuRFOBD, a mkt. town of Engl., co. 

Burg, a town of Pruss. Saxony, reg. 

Magdeburg. 1, on the Thle. P. 14,570. 

It has been celeb, for its cloth manufs. 
since the 12th cent., & has still numerous 
woollen factories. It has also dye-works, 

& manufs. of glue & snuff. II. a town 

of Rhenish-Prussia, reg. Dusseldorf, on 
the Wipper, with 1,610 inhabs., & manufs. 
of counterpanes, horse-cloths, & hard- 
wares. III. a marit. town of Denm'k, 

duchy SchlcBwigj cap. isl. Femern. P. 
BuBGAu, a town of Bavaria, circ. 

Swabia, Augsburg. P. 2,063. II. a 

vill. of Styria, on the Hungarian frontier. 
BuRGBERNHBiM, a towu of Bavaria, 
circ. mid. Franconia. P. 1,379. 

BuRGDORF, a town of Switzerl., cant. 
Bern, on 1. b. of the Emmen, here crossed 
bya newbridge. P. 2,417. It is the de- 
pot for the Emmenthal cheese. Near it 

are the baths of Sommerhaus. II. a 

town of Hanover, landr. Luneburg on the 
Aa. P. 2,250, 

BuRGHAUN, a town of Germany, Hes- 

sen-Cassel, prov. Fulda, on the Haune. 
P. 1,400. 

BuRGHAusEN, a town of Bavaria, circ. 
Upper Bavaria, on 1. b. of the Salzach. 
P. 2,300. Manufs. cloth; breweries, & 
trade in leather & salt. 

BuRGHAz, a seaport town of Euro- 
pean Turkey, Rumili, on a promontory 
in the gulf of same name, in the Black 
sea. P. 6,000 (7) It is neat & clean, & 
has an extensive manuf. of clay & pipe- 
bowls, with an active trade in iron &, pro- 

Buhgh-Head, or Beough-Head, a 
viU. of Scotl., CO. Elgin, on a promontory, 
upon which are remains supposed to be 
those of the Alata Castra of Ptolemy, 
with ancient well. P. 829. It is well 
built, & has a good harbor. 

Burghorn, a vill. of the Netherlands, 
prov. N. Holland, near Alkmaar. P. 

Burgio, a town of Sicily, dist. Bivona, 
prov. Girgenti. P. 5,860. 

BuRGK, a vill. of Saxony, circ. Dresden, 
with extensive coal mines, numerous coko 
furnaces, & a gas work. P. 860. 

BuRGKUNSTADT, a town of Bavaria, 
circ. Upper-Franconia, on the Main. P. 

BiJRGLEN, a vill. of Switzerland, cant. 
Uri, & deserving notice as the reputed 
birth-place of William Tell. Near it is 
the chapel of Notre Dame of Loretto, a 

celeb, place of pilgrimage. II. a vill. 

in the cant. Thurgo via, with Jin ancient 
castle. P. 1,076. 

BuRGLENGEFELD, a town of Bavaria, 
cap. landr. same name. P. 1,425. 

BuEGO, a town of Spain, prov. Malaga, 
on the Ardales. P. 1,612. In its envi- 
rons are ruins of a Roman amphitheatre. 
BuEGO-DE-OsMA, a town of Spain, 
prov. Soria. P. 2,072. 

Burgos, a city of Spain, cap. prov. of 
same name, & formerly cap. of Old Cas- 
tile, on 1. b. of the Arlanzon. P. 14,790. 
The town is clean & handsome, but damp 
& cold. Its cathed. is one of the finest in 
Spain. Burgos has numerous other 
churches, and is the seat of a college, 
a school of surgery, & some manufs. of 
leather, woollens & hats. Its present 
importance is now chiefly due to its be- 
ing on the high road from Madrid to the 
French frontier. 

BuEGSTADT, a town of Saxony, circ. 
Leipzig. P. 2,719. It has manufs. of 

BuEGSTEiN, a vill. of Bohemia, cap. 
lordship of same name in the circ. Leit- 
meritx. P. 14,550. Important manufs. 





of crystal are carried on in this dist., & 
it is the depOt for the greater part of the 
glass mnnuf. in the kingdom. 

BuRGUETE, a town of Spain, Navarra, 
Paiidpluna, in the valley of Roncevaux. 
Here the troops of Charlemagne were 
defeated, & his neplie\y, the famous Ro- 
land, perished in 778. 

Burgundy, prov. of France. [BouR- 



BuRiAs, one of the Philipp. isls., Asiat. 

Burke, town, Caledonia co. Vt., on 
branches of Pasumpsic r. Burke mntn. 
in this town is 3,500 ft. high. Excellent 
oil stones are manufactured here. P. 

997. II. CO. N. C, in the W. part of 

the state, watered by Catawba r. & its 
branches. It is a mutnous. valley with 
soil generally fertile. P. 17,772. Cap. 

Morgeutown. III. co., Ga., in the E. 

part of the state, on the Savannah r. Cap. 
Waynesboro' . 

BuRKERSDGRF, a vill. of Lowcr Aus- 
tria, cire. & W. Vienna, on the Wien. 

BuRKHA, a marit. town of E. Arabia, 
dora. Muscat, on sea of Bab-el-Mandeb. 

BuRKHARDTSDORF, a vill. of Saxony, 
circ. Zwickau, with manufs. of linens & 
cottons. P. 1,850. 

BuRLATS, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Tarn, on the Agout. P. 1,500. It 
has several paper mills. 

Burleson, co., Texas. P. 1,713. 

Burlington, co., N. J. on Del. r. but 
extending across the state to the Atlantic 
ocean. The soil chiefly alluvial. Valu- 
able pine timber & bog iron are found. 
Marl also abounds. It is watered by a 
number of creeks. In this co. is a well 
which converts hickory wood into stone 

in 5 years. P. 43,203. II. a city & 

port of entry, Burlington co. N. J., on 
the E. bank of the Del. It has a city 
hall, Ij'ceum, bank, library, & a free 
school established in 1682. It is regu- 
larly laid out with streets crossing at 
right angles. The residence of the Bishop 
of New Jersey is a handsome gothic struc- 
ture. Burlington was founded 1678 ; in- 
corporated as a city 1784. P. 4,536. 

III. port of entry & cap. of Chittenden 
CO. Vt., is situated on a bay, on the E. 
side of Lake Champlain. From the S. 
part of the vil. the ground rises by a 
gradual slope, for the distance of a m. 
to the height of 250 ft. above the level of 
the lake. The vil. is regularly laid out. 
Near its centre is a handsome public 
sjquare, on which the courthouse is situ- 

ated. It is the largest & most commer- 
cial place in the state. The univer.sity 
of Vermont is located here. P. 6,110. 

IV. t., Middlese.x co. Mass. V. t., 

Hartford CO. Conn. P. 1,201. VI. p-v., 

cap. Lawrence co. 0., on the extreme 

point of the state. VII. p-t., Bradford 

CO. Pa., dr. ined by Sugar creek & its 
branches. P. 1,118. -VIII. p-t., Cal- 
houn co. Mich. IX. v., cap. Des Moines 

CO. Iowa, on the W. bank of the Miss. 
It is regularly laid out & has the usual 
CO. buildings. Its trade is already con- 
siderable. A government land office is 

here. P. 4,081. X. t, Licking co. 

0. P. 1,222. 

BuRMAH, or BiRMAH, the Burmese 
Empire, or kingdom of Ava, a state of 
Further India, & formerly the most ex- 
tensive & powerful in that penins. Area, 
200,000 sq. m. ; & pop. from 2 to 3 mil- 
lions. It is composed of the kgdms. of 
Burmah. Pegu, & Pong, with portions of 
the countries inhabited by the Khyen, & 
the Shan countries, & the Kubo valley; 
it is enclosed on both sides by rantn. 
ranges, in elev. from 2,000 to 5,000 ft. 
above the sea, its central part consisting 
of the basin of the Irrawadi. Lagoons 
are numerous. Annual fall of rain, 150 
to 200 inches. The soil is of very high 
fertility. Agriculture is generally in the 
most backward condition. Rice is the 
chief crop, especially in the S. ; pulses, 
Indian millet, & maize are raised in the 
N. ; & sessaoium is universally cultiv. for 
cattle. Other products are, cotton of short 
staple, indigo ; teak, oak, & other valu- 
able woods, abound on the mntn. ranges. 
Oxen, buffaloes, & goats are the principal 
domestic animals, a good breed of horses 
is also reared. Mineral products are nu- 
merous & valuable. The gold & silver 
obtained in the empire, has been estim. 
to amount in value to upwards of 200,000/. 
& the joroduce of petreoleum in pits along 
the Irrawadi. to 8 million lbs. annually; 
fine marble, serpentine, amber, sapphires, 
& other gems, iron, copper, tin, lead, 
antimony, sulphur, nitre, & coal are also 
found. In physical form, the Burmese 
are more allied to the Mongolians of E. 
Asia. From the. diffei'ence of dialect!5, 
they may be divided into five tribes or 
nations. They excel in boat-building, & 
they cast bells, work in gold & silver, & 
dye silk & other fabrics, weave silk & 
cotton goods, & manuf. lacquered wares. 
The gov. is hereditary & despotic. The 
religion of the mass of the inhabs. is 
Buddhism ; a few Christians & Jews are 
to be found amongst the pop., A the 






Kbyens & other wild tribes have a special 
idolatry of their o\vn. Education, in so 
far as mere reading & writing is con- 
cerned, is more diffused than might have 
been expected. The Burmese empire is 
divided into 7 provs. Ava & Monchubo 
have alternately been constituted the cap. 
of tie empire. The other principal towns 
are Amarapure, Sakaing, Rangoon, Bas- 
sain, Martaban, Setang, Taungo, Prome, 
Patango, Yandabo, & Bhamo. 

BuRNETsoN, t., Eranklin co. Mass. P. 

BusNHAM, t., Waldo CO. Me. 

Burnham-Westgate, a mkt. town of 
Engl., CO. Norfolk. 

Burnley, a town of Engl., co. Lancas- 
ter, on the Burn. P. 10,699. Manufs. 
of cotton & woollen fabrics, & machinery, 
with iron & brass foundries, breweries, 
tanneries, rope-walks. 

Burns, t., Alleghany co. N. Y. P. 876. 
II. t., Shiawassee co. Mich. 

Burns-Hill, a town & mission station 
of Brit. Kafraria, South Africa, on r. b. 
of the Keiskamma river. 

Burntisland, a seaport town, co, Fife, 
on the Firth of Forth. It is clean & well 
built; it has a town-ho., school-ho., & the 
best harb. on the Firth, with a flew low- 
water pier, a lighthouse, & a dry dock. 

Burra Burra, a mining dist. of S. Aus- 
tralia, 80 m. N. of Adelaide. [Adelaide.] 

Burra, & Burrav, two small isls. of 

BuRRAMPOOR, a town of British India, 
presid. Madras. It hus a large bazaar 
or mkt. place, a street occupied by weav- 
ers, & sev. remarkable Hindoo temples. 

BuRRiANA, a town of Spain, prov. S. 
Castellon de la Plana, on 1. b. of the Rio 
Seco. P. 6,204. 

Burrilville, t., Providence co. R. I. ; 
watered by a branch of Blackstone riv., 
which affords great water power. Manuf. 
of woollen & cotton goods. P. 3,533. 

BuRRisHOL, a town of British India, 
presid. Bengal, on an isl. of ths Ganges. 

BuRSEAH, a t. of India, Gwalior dom. 

Bltrslem, a mkt. town of Engl., co. 
Staffonl, & the princip. town in that im- 
portant dist. called " the Potteries." P. 
13,631. It has many large factories, con- 
venient dwelling houses of the work-peo- 
ple, & villas of proprietors, with a neat 
town-hall. As early as the 17th century 
it was the chief place in England for the 
production of earthenwares ; at first of a 
very homely kind, but latterly brought 
to great perfection by Josiah Wedgewood, 
born here in 1730. 

Burton, t., Cattaraugus co. N. Y. 

II. t., Geauga co. 0., on head branches 

of Cuyahoga riv. P. 1,022. III. t., 

Luzerne co. Pa. 

Burton-on-Trent, a mkt. town of 
Engl., co.s. Stafford & Derby, on the Trent. 
I P. 4,853. The town consists chiefly of 2 
streets, the princip. terminates by abridge 
of 37 arches, 1,545 ft. in ht., stated to be 
the longest bridge in Engl., &, which was 
built prior to the conquest. 

BuBTSCHEiD, a town of Rhen. Prussia. 
P. 5,530. It has manufs. of woollen 
cloth, cassimeres, yarn, Prussian blue, &c. 
with celeb, hot sulphur springs, & baths 
much frequented. 

Burwannee, a fortfd. eonsid'ble town 
of Central India, dom. Indore. It has a 
large palace, the residence of its rajah. 

Bury, a manufng. town of Engl., co. 
Lancaster, on the Irwell. The town hag, 
in late years, been much improved • & it 
possesses several public libraries, a me- 
chanics' institution, news-room, horticul- 
tural society, with important & flourish- 
ing manufs. of cotton, woollens, & maehin- 
erv, & calico-printing, & bleaching estab- 
lishments. P. 24,759. ■ 

Bury St. Edmunds, a town of Engl., 
CO. Suffolk, on the Larke. The town, on 
a gentle eminence, in a healthy & richly 
cultivated dist., is remarkably clean, well 
built, & cheerful. Princip. edifices, St. 
Mary's church, a fine Gothic structure ; 
St. James's, near which is a belfry 80 
ft. in height, & one of the finesi; remains 
of Saxon architecture extant in Britain. 
P. 12,538. 

Burzen, a riv. of Transylvania, an 
affl. of the Aluta atBrenndorf. It gives 
its name to the Burzenland, a mntnous. 
region which forms the dist. of Kronstadt. 
P. 80,000. 

BuRZET, a comm. & t. of France, dep. 
Ardeche. P. of comm. 3,516-; silk mills 
& woollen manufs. 

BusACHi, a town of Sardinia. 

BusACHiNO, a town of Sicily, prov. 
Palermo, in a mountainous dist. P. 8,100. 
Manufactures of linens. 

BusAco, a hamlet & convent of Portu- 
gal, prov. Beira. Here, on the 27th Sep- 
tember, 1810, the French under Massena 
were repulsed in an attack upon the troops 
under the Duke of Wellington. 

BiJSBACH, a vill. of Rhenish Prussia, 
circ. Aix-la-Chapelle, with wooll. manufs. 
and mines of lead & calamine. P. 1,216. 

BuscA, a town of Piedmont, cap. dist., 
prov. Cuneo, on an affluent of the Po. P. 
8,990. It has a college, an hospital, & 2 
botanic gardens. Good wine is produced 
in its vicinity. 




Bush Creek, t., "Washington co. Ark. 
P. 298. II. town, Scioto co. Ohio. 

BusHEAB, an isl. in the Persian gulf, 
11m. from its N. coast. It is low, & tiat ; 
at its AV. extremity is a small town, with 
,a tolerable harbor, which was visited by 
the fleet of Nearchus, admiral of Alex- 
ander the Great. 

BusHiHB, a seaport city of Persia, & its 
princip. entrepot on the Persian gulf, at 
the N. extremity of a sandy peninsula. 
P. 20,000. On the land side it is protected 
by a wall with round towers, & on the 
other sides enclosed by the sea, which on 
the N. forms a harbor lined by some 
wharfs. Being built of white stone & 
furnished with hollow turrets for ventila- 
tion, it has externally a handsome appear- 
ance. Ships of 300 tons are obliged to 
lie in a roadstead 6 m. from the city. 
Bushire has, however, a large trade with 
British India. 

BusHKiLL, town, Northampton co. Pa., 
on Bushkill creek. Some manufs. P. 

Bushman's River, S. Africa, Cape 

BusHwicK, town, Kings co. N". Y., on 
L. I. P. 1,295. 

BusiGNY, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Nord. P. 2,234. 

Busk, a town of Austrian Galicia, cire. 
Zloczow, on the Bag. P. 3,000. 

BusKO, a town of Poland, with mineral 
springs & baths. P. 800. 

BussAHEE, a Sikh state, N". India, 
under Brit, protection, immed. S. the 
Sutlej. P. 150,000. It embraces some 
fertile tracts in which rice & other grains 
are raised ; principal products are sheep, 
cattle, wool, ghee, iron, tobacco, fruits, & 

BussANG, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Yosges, on the Moselle. P. 2,349. 
It has an e.'jtensive commerce in mineral 
waters, of which upwards of 20,000 bot- 
tles are annuallj'- exported. 

BussBE, two towns of Hindostan. 

I. dom. Jeypoor. II. dist. Boolund- 


BussEROLLEs, a comm. & vill., France, 
dep. Dordogne. P. 2,187. 

BussETO, a town of N. Italy, duchy 
Parma, near the Ongina. P. 1,850. 

BussiSre, several comms. of France. 
P. 2,930. 

BussNANG, a vill. of Switzerland, cant. 
Thurgau, on left bank of the Thur, oppo- 
site Weinfelden. P. 2,000. 

Bussolengo, a vill. of N. Italy, gov. 
Venice, deleg. Verona. P. 2,400. 

BussoLiNO, a town of Sardinia, prov. 


Susa, on 1. b. of the Doire. P. 1,000. la 
its environs are quarries of green marble. 
BussoRAH, Asiatic Turkey. 
Bustar, a town & dist. of British India, 
Nagpoor dom. The dist. is mountainous 
& unexplored. 

Bustee, a t. of B. India, prov. of Oude. 
BusTi, p-t., Chatauque co. N. Y. P. 

Busto-Arsizio, a town of N. 'Italy, 
Lombardy. P. 9,619. It has a cotton 
thread factory, & an active trade. 

BusuLUK, a town of the Russian dom. 
It has tanneries, & an annual fair, the 
purchases at which are estimated to ave- 
rage 300,000 roubles. 
BusuM, a small seaport t. of Denmark. 
BusvAGON, one of the Philippine isls., 
Asiatic archip. Length about 50 m. ; ar. 
b. 12 m. Surface mountainous. 

Butcher's Island, a small isl. off the 
"W. doast of India, in Bombay harbor. 

Bute, an isl. of Scotland, in the firth 
of Clyde, forming, with Arran, &c., the 
CO. Bute, & separated from Argyleshire, 
by a winding channel (the Kyles of Bute), 
generally less than 1 m. across. It is in 
length about 16 m., & from 3 to 5 in 
breadth. Area, about 60 sq. m. P. 9,499. 
Its jM. part mountainous & rugged. In 
the centre are the small lakes Fad, 
Aseog, & Quein. On its E. coast is the 
town of Rothesay. 

Buteshire, a co. of Scotland, com- 
posed of Arran, Bute, the Cumbrays, Holy 
Isle, Pladda, & Inehmarnoch. P. 16,576. 
BuTERA, a town of the isl. of Sicily. 
P. 4,070. 

BuTi, a town of Tuscany, 9^ m. B. Pisa. 
P. 3,498. Its vicinity produces excellent 

Butler, co.. Pa., in the W. part of the 
state. Alleghany riv. touches it, drained 
by several small creeks. P. 30,346. Cap. 

Butler. II. CO., Kentucky, central in 

the W. part of the state, on Green river. 

P. 5,755. Cap. Morgantown. III. co., 

Ohio, in the S.W. of the state, on the 
Miami river. P. 30,789. Cap. Hamilton. 

IV. p-t., Wayne co. N. Y. P. 2,271. 

^V. v., cap. Butler co. Pa. P. 861. 

VI. t., Luzerne co. Pa. VII. t., Branch 

CO. Mich. VIII. Columbiana co. Ohio. 

P. 1,711. IX. t.. Dark co. Ohio. 

X. t., Montgomery co. Ohio. 

BuTOOL, a town of British India, pre-' 
sid. Bengal. 

BuTow, a town of Prussian Pomera- 
nia, reg. Koslin. P. 2,100. Woollen 

BuTRiNTO, a marit. town of European 
Turkey, Epirus, sanj. Delvino, at the 




mouth of a riv. immed. opp. Corfu. P. 
1,500. The town & fortress are of Vene- 
tian construction. — The Lake ofButrinto, 
N. of the town, is 5 m. in length, by 2 m. 
in breadth. 

BuTscHowiTZ, a town of Austria, Mora- 
via. P. 2,473. 

Butte, a co. of California. 

Butternuts, p-t., Otsego co. N. Y. 
drained by a riv. & creek. Manufs. of 
linen & cloth. P. 4,057. 

BuTTERWOKTH, a tnship. of Engl., co. 
Lancaster. P. 5,088. 

BuTTES, a vill. of Switzerland, has 
1,000 inhabs., & extensive manufs. of 

BuTTEVA^STT, a markt. town of Ireland, 
Munster, co. Cork, on the Arobeg. P. 
1,524. It was formerly enclosed by walls, 
& it has the ruins of numerous ecclesiastic 

BuTTiGLiERA, a town of Piedmont. 

P. 2,252. II. (Jlriola), a vill. Sard. 

states, in the prov. Susa. P. 1,190. 

BuTTisHOLz, a vill. of Switzer., near 
which is a large mound, called Tertre 
Anglais, because it is said to contain the 
remaiasof 3,000 Englishmen, followers of 
Ingelram de Coucy, defeated here in 1376. 

Butts, co., Ga., in the central part of 
the state. Borders on the Ockmulgee r. 
P. 6,488. Cap. Jackson. 

BuTTSTADT,atown of Central Germany, 
duchy Saxe- Weimar. P. 2,060. 

BuTYiN, a town of Hungary, co. Arad. 
P. 3,775. 

BuTZBACH, a t. of "W. Germany, H. 
Darmstadt, prov. Upp. Hessen. P. 2,246. 
Manufs. flannels, hosiery & leather. 

BiJTZow, a decayed t. of N. Germany, 
Mecklenb, Sehwerin, prineip. Schwerin, 
on the Warnow. P. 3,894. Manufs. 
paper & playing-cards. 

BuxAE, a town of British India, presid. 
Bengal, dist. Bakhar, on the Ganges, & 
famous for a complete victory obtained in 
1764, by Sir H. Monro, over a combined 
native army. 

BuxEDWAR, a strong & remarkable 
pass across the Himalaya mntns. 

BuxTEHUDE, a town of Hanover, landr. 
Stade, on th« Este, near its mouth in the 
Elbe. P. 2,200. Manufs. starch, leather, 
snuff & wax- lights. 

Buxton, a mrkt. town & fashionable 
watering-place of Engl., co. Derby, near 
the source of the Wye. P. 1,569. It is 
situated in a deep valley, & consists of 
an old & a new town, the latter contain- 
ing many fine ranges of buildings. The 
"Old Hall," once the residence of Mary 
Q. of Scots, is now an inn. The saline 

waters in the lower town, are from a hot 
& a cold spring, withia a few inches of 
each other ; there is also a chalybeate 
spring. Buxton is frequented annually 
by from 10,000 to 12,000 visitors, chiefly 
between June & Oct. From 1,000 to 1,200 
poor invalids annually avail themselves 
of the " bath charity," by means of which 
they are, 'on proper recommendation, 
maintained for a month, while using the 
waters. Many of the resident inhabs. 
are engaged in the manijf. of alabaster, 

spar, & other ornaments. II. t., York 

CO. Me., has the Saco r. on its S.W. border. 
The riv. here has a fall of about 80 ft. 
furnishing a very extensive water-power. 
P. 2,688. 

BuxY, a comm. & town of France, dep. 
SaOne-et-Loire. P. 1,954. 

BuzANgAis, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Indre, on the Indre. P. 3,139. 
Woollen manufs., ^ trade in wool ; in its 
vicinity are extensive iron works. 

Buzet, a comm- & town of France, 
dep. Lot-et-Gavrone. . P. 1,617. Excel- 
lent wine produced in its vicinity. 

Buzzard's Bay lies on the S. coast of 
Mass., 30 m. 1. & 7 b. 

Byam Martin's Island, Pacific 0. 

Byberry, p-t., Philadelphia co. Penn. 
P. 1,055. 

Byfield, t^ Essex co. Mass. Soil fer- 
tile, & highly cultivated. Good water- 
power. Dummer acad. located here, was 
founded 1755. 

Bygonbarry, a t. of Brit. India, pre- 
sid. prov. & Bengal, on the Brahmaputra. 

Byker, a tnship. of Engl., co. North- 
umberland, on the Tyne. P. 6,024. 

Bykhop, several towns in Russia. 1. 

gov. & 55 m. S. Tchernigov, II. {Novo- 

JB), gov. Moghilev. III. {Siaroi-B.), 

an old fortfd. town on r. b. of the Dnieper. 
P. 3,900. 

Bykund, a ruined city, indep. Turke- 
stan, khanat, Bokhara. It is said to have 
been one of the oldest cities in that region, 
& it retains remains of high antiuity. 

Byland, a township of England, co. 
York, N. Riding. Here are the remains 
of a noble abbej', founded in the 12th 

Byraghur, a town of India, Nagpoor 

dom , on the Mahanuddy. II. a vill. 

of Rajpootana, 5 m- W. Dillanpoor. — 
Byramghaut is a town of Oude, on the 

Byram river, in the S.W. part of Conn. 
Separates this part of Conn, from the 

state of New York. P. 1,153. II. t., 

Sussex CO. N.J., on South mountain. 
There are a number of forges here. 




Eyed, t., Cape Girardeau co. Mo. P, 

Byron, t., Genesee co. N. Y. It has 
several sulphur springs. P. 1,907. 

Byron's (Bay), E. coast of Labrador, 
N. Amer. — (Island), Pacific, Mulgrave 
archip. It is low, densely wooded, & was 
discovered by Admiral Byron in 1765. 

Byrria, a town of India, Gwalior dom, 

Bytown, cap. of Carleton co. U. Can- 
ada, at the junction of the Rideau canal 
with the Ottawa riv. about 110 m. W. of 
Montreal. P. 7,760. 


Cabaca, a town of Africa, S. Guinea, 
in the country of Ginga. 

Caeagan, a town of the Philippine 
isls., at the N. extrera. of the isl. Luzon. 
P. 11,185. 

Cabalunga, a town of the isl. of Sa- 
mar, Philippines, resid. of the Spanish 
alcalde of the island. 

Cabanes, a town of Spain, prov. Cas- 
tellon de la Plana. P. 1,619. 

Cabannes-et-Barres, vill. of France, 
dep. Tarn. P. 1,154. 

Cabarrus, county, N. C, in the S. 
part of the state ; drained by Rocky riv. 
Some gold is found. P. 9,747. Cap.. 

Cabeco DE Vide, a town of Portugal, 
prov. Alemtejo. P. 2,000. 

Cabell, county, Va., in the W. part 
of the state on the Ohio r. ; is drained by 
Guyandotte & Big Sandy rs. ; surface 
rough. P. 6,299. Cap. BarboursviDe. 

Cabenda, a seaport t. of "W. Africa, S. 
Guinea,40 m. N. the mouth of the r. Zaire . 

Cabes, a seaport town of N. Africa, 
dom. Tunis, in the gulf of Cabes ; it ex- 
ports a considerable quantity of henna. 

Cabes (Gulf of), an inlet of the Med- 
iterranean, on the N.E. coast of Africa, 
between the isls. of Kerkenna & Jerba. 

Cabeza del BiTEY, a town of Spain, 
prov. Badajoz. P. 5,994. It has manufs. 
of woollen cloths & linens. 

Cabezas de San Juan, a town of 
Spain, prov. Sevilla. P. 3,471. 

Cabezon, a mkt. town of Spain, prov. 
Valladolid, on the Pisuerga. 

Cabiao, a town of the isl. Luzon, Phi- 
lippines. P. 4,940. 

Cable Island, a small isl. of Irel., co. 
Cork, in the Atlantic. 

Cabo Frio, a city & seaport of Brazil, 
N.E. the cape of same name, prov. Rio 
Janeiro. P. 3.500. It has an elect col- 

lege. The town is situated at the S.E. 
extremity of Lake Araruama, & is con- 
nected with the continent by a stone 
bridge, built 1836. Climate unhealthy. 
Extens. commerce in salt. 

Cabool, or Caubul, a city, & the cap. 
of N. Afghanistan, on the Cabool riv., 
here crossed by 3 bridges. 6,396 ft. above 
the sea. P. 60,000. It is enclosed on 
the N.W. & S. sides by hills. This cita- 
del comprises the resid. of the chief, va- 
rious govern, offices, royal gardens, an 
inner fort. & a small town with 5,000 
inhabs. The outer town, about 3 m. in 
circ, is entered by 4 gates, & has two 
princip. thoroughfares running parallel 
to each other. The city is subdivided 
into dists., each enclosed with walls, & 
capable of being shut off from the rest so 
as to form a separate fortress. Streets 
intricate, often too narrow for two horse- 
men to pass each other. Houses in gen- 
eral 2 or 3 stories high, built of sun-dried 
bricks & wood, & with flat roofs. Out- 
side of the city are the tombs of the Em- 
peror Baber, who made Cabool his cap., 
& of Timour-Shah, the latter being an 
octagon of brick surmounted by a cupola. 
Cabool has an active trade. It has con- 
siderable mkts. for corn, cattle, & fuel, & 
is famous in the B. for its excellent sup- 
■ ply of vegetables & fruits. The inhabs. 
are tall, well made, not very dark, & have 
Jewish features. They are Mohamme- 
dans- of the Sonnee sect. The higher 
classes speak Persian, the common people 
the Pushtoo dialect. 

Cabot, p-t., Caledonia co. Vt. ; drained 
by Onion r. P. 1,440. 

Cabra, a town of Spain, prov. Cordova. 
P. 11,576. It has a college, & manufs. 
of tiles, bricks, linens, & soap. Its neigh- 
borhood is volcanic, & produces wine of 
superior quality. Sev. small towns in 
Spain, a vill. of Central Africa, & of one 
of the Nicobar isls. have this name. 

Cabras, a vill. in the isl. Sardinia, div. 
Cagliari. P. 3,392. 

Cabrera, one of the Balearic isls. in 
the Mediterranean, 9 m. S. Majorca. 

Cacapaba, a town of Brazil, cap. dist. 
same name, prov. S. Pedro do Rio Grande. 
P. 3,000. 

Caccamo, a town of Sicily, intend. Pa- 
lermo. P. 6,563. 

Cacoavone, a town of Naples, prov. 
Sannio. P. 2,543. 

Cachab, a territ. of British India, 
presid. Bengal, in Further India. Area, 
6,507 sq. m. P. 70,000. Surface mostly 
mntnous. In the S. are some fertile 
plains, but most part of the country is 




untilled. Chf. riv. the Barak. Rice, 
cotton, & sugar are raised. 

Caceres, a. town of Spain, cap. prov. 
formed of the N. part of Estremadura, 
on small river of same name. P. 9,521. 
It has a royal court, a fine convent & 
college, a large hospital, & some Roman 
antiqs., with flour & fulling mills, & dye- 
works. II. a town of S. Amer., New 

Grantida, prov. Popayan. 

Caceees (Nueva), a town of the Phi- 
lippines, cap. prov. S. Camarines, in the 
isl. of Luzon. P. 12,000. It is well 
built, & is the resid. of an alcalde & a 

Cachao, the largest city of Anani, 
S.E. Asia, cap. prov. Tonquin, on the 
Tonquin riv. P. 100,000. 7 (Crawfurd.) 
It is of great extent, defended by a bam- 
boo stockade. Streets wide & paved. 
Public edifices comprise one royal palace 
& the ruins of another. Though its riv. 
is navigable only for small vessels, it has 
considerable trade. 

Cache, t., Greene co. Ark. P. 804. 
— II. t., Monroe co. Ark. 

Cached, a town of W. Africa, Sene- 
gambia, Portuguese territ., near the 
mouth of the Cacheo river. 

Cachoeira, a populous & commercial 
city of Brazil, prov. Bahia, on the river 
Paraguacu, cap. Comarca, of same name, 
& seat of an elect, college. Chf. exports, 
tobacco & coffee. Pop. of dist. 15,000. 

■ II. prov. S. Pedro do G-rande, 220 m. 

N.W. Rio Grande. III. a new fortfd. 

town, prov. Para. P. 4,000. 

Cacongo, a town of W. Africa, S. Gui- 
nea, Angola. 

Cadalen, a CO mm. & town of France, 
.dep. Tarn. P. 2,206. 

CADAQ.UBS, a town of Spain, prov. 

Caddo, pa.. La., in the N.W. part of 
the state, between Rod & Sabine rivs. ; 
level & moderately fertile. It has Caddo 

lake. P. 8,884. Cap. Shreveport. 

II. t.; Clark CO. Ark. 

Caddo Cove, t., Hot Springs co. Ark. 

Cadeac, a comhi. & vill. of France, 
dep. H. Pyrenees, on the Nesle. It has 
hot sulph. springs & baths. 

Cadenet, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Vaucluse. P. 2,595. Around it are 
many Roman antiquities. 

Cadereita, a town of the Me.xican 
confed., dep., 42 m. E. Queretaro. P. 
4,000. In its vicinity silver mines are 
worked. > 

Cader-Idhis, the loftiest mntn. in 
"Wales, after Snowdon, co. Merioneth. It 
ascends precipitously to 2,914 ft. in elev. 

Caderousse, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Vaucluse, on the Rhone. 
P. 1,809. 

Cadiere (La), a comm. & vill. of 
France, dep. Var, & 10 m. N.W. Toulon. 
P. 1,340. 

Cadillac (La), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Gironde, on the Garonne. 
P. 1,967. 

Cadiz, a fortfd. city of Spain, cap. 
prov. of same name, formed of the S.W. 
part of Andaluoia, on the Atlantic ocean, 
at the extrem. of a penins. of the isl. of 
Leon, the narrow isthmus of which forms 
an immense bay. P. 53,922. It is a 
fortress of the first order ; is surrounded 
by walls & defended by batteries. The 
harb. formed by a mole projecting iuto 
the bay, is accessible only to small ves- 
sels, & ships of large burden anchor J m. 
from the shore ; its trade has greatly 
declined since the emancipation of the 
Spanish colonies. II. p-t., cap. Har- 
rison CO. 0. P. 1,366. III. p-v., Trigg 

CO. Ky., on Little riv. Some trade in 

tobacco. IV. (Bay of), an extensive 

inlet of the Atlantic, on the S.W. coast 
of Spain, prov. Cadiz. It has everywhere - 
good anchorage, & along its shores are 
some excellent harb's. In the islet La 
Carraca, on its B. side, are arsenals & 
ship-building yards, the most important 
in the kgdm., & among the best in Eur. 

Cadore, a town of N. Italy, on the 
Piave. P. 2,000. Celeb, as the birth- 
place of Titian. 

Cadsand, an isl., Netherlands, prov. 
Zeeland, at the mouth of the "W. Scheldt, 
& having on it a small town of same 
name. P. 1,156. 

Caen, a city of France, cap. dep. Cal- 
vados, & 9 m. from the English channel, 
on the Orne. P. 38,267. It is a hand- 
some city, & has a university academy, 
&• a chamber of commerce, a college, 
normal school, & school of hydrography, 
& a rich public library. The chf. edifices 
are the hOtel-de-ville, palace of justice, 
& the hospital with mineral springs. It 
has manufs. of lace, blonde, black & white 
crape, & cutlery. Caen has an extensive 
maritime commerce, especially with 

Caehleon, a mkt. town of Engl., co. 
Monmouth, on the Usk. 

Caermarthen, a maritime co. of S. 
Wales, on Bristol channel. Area, 623,360 

acres. ' P. 106,326. II. cap. of the 

above co., on the navigable riv. Towy, 
180 m. W. by N. London. P. 9,526. 

Caernarvon, a marit. co.of N.Wales, 
on the Menai straits. Area, 348,160. 




The most extensive & valuable slate 
quarries in Great Britain are in this co. 

P. 81,093. II. cap. of the above co., on 

the Menai strait, 7 m. from the celeb. 
Menai bridge, & 205 m. N.W. London. 

P. 8,001. III. t., Berks CO. Penn. 

IV. t., Lancaster co. Penn. P. 1,590. 

Cesar's Creek, t., Green co. 0., on a 
branch of the Little Miami. P. 1,736. 

C.ESAREA, 2 towns of Asiatic Turkey. 

Cagayan, an extens. prov. of the isl. 
of Luzon, at the N. extrem. of the isl. 
-p. 58,580. 

Cagayan-Sooloo, an isl. of Asiatic 
archip., in the Sooloo sea. 

Cagayanes, a group of small isls. in 
the Sooloo sea. 

Caggiano, a town of Naples, prov. 
princip. Citra. P. 3,200. 

Cagli, a town of Italy, Pontif. sta.. at 
the confl. of the JBosso & Cantiano. P. 
9,617. It has an active trade in tanned 
& dressed leather. 

Cagliari, a marit. city, & the cap. of 
the isl. of Sardinia, on an extensive bay 
of its S. coast. P. 27,989. Th^ ancient 
city, on the summit of a low hill, com- 
prises the citadel, viceregal palace, cathe- 
dral, & most of the residences of the no- 
bility. The Marina, extending thence 
down to the shore, is a well-built quarter, 
containing thB dwellings of most of the 
merchants & foreign_ consuls. Cagliain 
has about 30 churchf's, upwards of 20 
convents, several hospitals, a female 
orphan asylum, a public library, college, 
mint, several museums, & prisons for 
galley slaves. Its harbor is one of the 
safest in the Mediterranean. Cagliari 

has a royal tobacco factory. II. (Bay 

of), a bay of the Mediterranean, on the 
S. coast of the isl. of SarUinia, between 
Capes Pula & Carbonara. It affords se- 
cure anchorage. 

Cagnano, 2 towns of Naples. 1. 

prov. Capitanata. P. 4,030. II. prov. 

Abruzzo-Ult. P. 2,180. 

Cagnes, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Var. P. 2,036. 

Cagsana, a town of the Philippines, 
near the S. extremity of the isl. Luzon. 
P. 12,755. 

Cagua & Caguan, 2 towns of S. Amer.; 
the former, Venezuela, dep. prov. Cara- 
cas. P. 5,200. The latter. New Granada, 
dep. Cundinamarca, on the Cagnan riv. 

Cahaba, riv., Ala., a branch of the 

Alabama ; 120 m. long. II. p-v., cap. 

Dallas CO. Ala., on the W. bank of Ala- 
bama riv. 

Cahete, a town of Brazil, prov. Minas 
Geraes. P. 6,000. 

Cahir, a mkt. town of Ireland, co. Tip- 
perary, on the Suir. P. 3,668. 

Cahirciveen, a town of Ireland, co. 
Kerry. P. 1,492. 

Cahirconree, a mntn. of Ireland, co. 
Kerry, on the isthmus betw. Tralee bay 
& Casllemains harbor. Height 2,784 ft. 
II. or.. 111., branch of the Mississippi. 

Cahoes Falls, on the Mohawk riv. 
The falls are 70 ft. perpendicular ; the 
banks below formed by perpendicular 
rocks about 100 ft. high. 

Cahokia, p-v., St. Clair co. HI., on the 
E. bank of Mississippi r. ; an old French 

Cahors, a town of France, cap. dep. 
Lot, on a rocky penins., almost enclosed 
by the riv. Lot. P. 10,594. Principal 
edifices, a cathedral, public library, con- 
taining 12,000 vols., & three remarkable 
towers on one of the bridges. Cahors is 
the seat of a university academy, & a 
national college. It has manufs. of 
woollens, cotton yarn, leather, paper, 
glass wares ; an active trade in full-bodied 
red wines, brandy, truifles, & rural pro- 

Cahuzac, several vills. of France. 

Caicos, four of the Bahama isls., with 
some islets & rocks, on a bank in the At- 
lantic, between lat. 21° & 22 °N., & about 
Ion. 72° W. The principal are the Great, 
Little, & North Keys, & Providence isl. ; 
the first named is 30 m. in length. [Ba- 

Cailloma, a town of South Amer., S. 
Peru, dep. Cuzco. 

Cain, t., Fountain co. la. 

Ca Ika, p-v., Cumberland co. Va., on 
Willis's r. 

Cairn, a marit. vill. of Scotland, co. 
Wigton, on Loch Ryan. 

Cairngorm, a mntn. of Scotland, cos. 
BanflF & Moray, 4,095 ft. above the sea. 

Cairo, capital city of Egypt, residence 
of the viceroy & seat of government, near 
the rt. b. of the Nile, & 5 m. from the 
origin of its Delta. Pop., including the 
suburbs, 250,000, comprising about 125,- 
000 Mohammedans, 60,000 Copts, 3,000 
to 4,000 Jews, & numerous foreigners. 
Climate healthy & little variable. It 
never snows & very seldom rains, but dew 
is abundant. The city proper is built on 
a slope at the foot of one of the lowest 
ridges of the chain of Jebel Mokkatam, 
& occupies an area of about 3 sq. m. ; it 
is surrounded by old walls, & the highest 
part of the ridge is occupied by a citadel, 
which contains the palace of the vice- 
roy, the arsenal, mint, & public oflaces. 
Cairo is divided into several distinct 




quarters according to the religion & race 
of its inhabitants, as the Coptic quarter, 
Jew's quarter, & Frank quarter, which 
are separated by gates. The streets are 
narrow, crooked, ill-paved, & unfit for 
the passage of carriages ; the houses are 
substantial, & often lofty. The city is 
traversed by a canal of irrigation, which 
commences at Old Cairo. The remark- 
able edifices of Cairo, which comprise 
many of the finest remains of Arabian 
architecture, all date from the reign of 
the Arabs, & the anc. sultans of Egypt. 
Among these are from 3 to 400 mosques. 
In the isl. of Rodah is the celeb. Nilo- 
meter, a graduated column for indica- 
ting the height of the water during an 
inundation of the riv. ; numerous ancient 
cisterns & baths still ornament the city ; 
on the S., outside the walls, are the cele- 
brated tombs of the Mamelukes, & on the 
N.E. the obelisk of Heliopolis. There 
are four prim, schools in Cairo, a mag- 
netic observatory, a European theatre, 
several hospitals, & a lunatic asylum. 
Cairo was long the chief entrepot for the 
commerce of Egypt, but its trade has 
much declined. [Boulac] [Egypt.] 
Cairo was founded by the Arabs about 

A.D. 970. II. p-t., Greene co. N. Y., 

watered by Catskill cr. P. 2,862.- 

III. p-v., Sumner co. Tenn. IV. p-v., 

Alexandria co. 111. on the point of land 
formed by the junction of the 0. with the 
Miss, river. An important location but 

liable to be overflowed. V. a town of 

Piedmont, div. Genoa. P. 3,492. 

Caistoe, a market town of England, 
CO. Lincoln. P. 2,033. 

Caithness, the most northerly co. 
of Scotland. Area, 616 sq. miles. P. 

Cajano, a town of Tuscany in the Val 
Ombrone. P. 1,425. 

'Cajahc, a comm. & town of Erance, 
dep. Lot. P. 1,074. 

Cajazzo, an anc. town of Naples, prov. 
T.-di-Lavoro. P. 3,520. 

Cajou, a branch of the Mahanuddy 
riv., Hindostan. 

Calabar (Old), a river of Africa, 
Upper Guinea, which falls into the bight 
. of Biafra by a wide estuary. 

Calabozo, a town of S. Amer., Vene- 
zuela. P. 4,000. 

Calabria, the S. part of the kgdm. of 
Naples. Area, 7,200 sq.m. P. 1,083,632. 
It forms a long peninsula, and is trav- 
ersed throughout by the Apennines, 
which rise to an elev. of 3,000 or 4,000 
feet. Chief products, wine, silk, & oil, 
wheat, rice, olives, oranges, lemons, & 

saffron ; cotton & the sugar-cane are cul- 
tivated. Silk is the staple manuf. 

Calaceite, a town of Spain, prov. 
P. 2,600. Chief industry linen weaving. 

Calaf, a town of Spain, prov. Barce- 
lona. P. 2,794. It has manufs. of 

Calahorea, a city of Spain, prov. Lo- 
gronoj on the Ebro. P. 5,820.— — II. a 
town in the prov., of Granada. P. 2,050. 

Calais, a seaport town of France, cap. 
cant., dep. Pas- de-Calais, on the strait 
of Dover. P. 10,673. The town & har- 
bor are defended by a castle & several 
forts, & by means of sluices the whole 
adjacent country may be laid under 
water. Calais is regularly built & clean. 
In the great square are the town-hall, & 

an elegant belfry, 118 ft. in height. 

II. t., Washington co. Me., on the St. 
Croix r. Falls in the river here afford 
extensive water power. The tide rises 

20 feet at this point. P. 4,749. III. 

p-t., Washington co. Vt.. P. 1,709. 

IV. (St.), a comm. & town of France, 
cap. arrond. dep. Sarthe, on the Anille. 
P. 3,021. It has a comm. college, & ma- 
nufs. of woollen & cotton cloths. 

Calaisis, a dist. of France, in the old 
prov. of Picardy. 

Calamianes Islands, , a group, Asi- 
atic archip., Philippines, about midway 
between Mindoro & Palawan. , 

Calamo, a small island of the Ionian 
group, between Sta. Maura & the conti- 
nent. II. a small island of Asia- 

Calamota, a small island of S. Dal- 

matia, in the Adriatic. P. 300. II. a 

town of Greece, Morea. 

Calanca, a valley of Switzerland, 
cant. Grisons, Detween the Val Blegno & 
the Val Misocco. 

Calanda, a town of Spain, prov. Teruel. 
P. 3,576. 

Calang, a town, Malay penins., state 
Salangore, on the riv. Calang. Near it 
are some tin mines. 

Calanna, a town of Naples, prov- 
ince Calab. P. 1,120. II. a town of 

Central Africa, cap. kingdom of Tim- 

Calapan, a maritime town of the 
Philippine islands, cap. the island of Min- 
doro, on its N.E. coast, in the Str. of 
Mindoro. P. 2,790. 

Calata Bellota, a town of Sicily, 
intend. Girgenti, on riv. of same name. 
P. 2,000. 

Calata Fimi, a town in N.W. of Sicily, 
in a fertile valley. P. 10,000. 

Calata Gieone, an episcop. city of 




Sicily, prov. Catania. This is one of the 
most industrious & commercial towns in 
the island. P. 22,000. 

Calatanazor, a town of Spain, prov. 
Soria, celeb, for the victory of Almanzor 
over the Christians about a.d. 1001. 
P. 1,300. 

Calata Scibetta, a town of Sicily, 
near its centre. P. 4,788. 

Calatavuturo, a town of Sicily, prov. 
Palermo. P. 4,000. 

Calatayud, a town of Spain on 1. b. 
of the Jaion, prov. Zaragoza. P. 8,579. 
It has an imposing external appearance, 
but is dilapidated <fc dull. Chief manufs., 
common woollens, brown paper, & leather. 
Provisions are cheap, & the vicinity is 
fertile. Near Calatayud are some miner- 
al springs, stalactitia caverns, & the re- 
mains of Bilbilis, the birthplace of Mar- 

Calatrava la ViejAj a ruined city 
of Spain, prov. Ciudad Real. 

Calayan, one of the Babuyanes 
islands, Asiatic archip. 

Calboco, or El Fuerte, a small town 
of Chile, S. Amer., on the E. coast of the 
isl. Chiloe. P. 2,500. 

Calcahcen, a town of Yucatan, Cent. 

Calcar, a small town of Rhenish 
Prussia, on the Rhine. P. 1,900. 

Calcasieu, pa., La., in the W. part of 
the state, between Mesmenten & Sabine 
rs. Contains 5,000 sq. m. Coursed by 
Calcasieu r. P. 3,914. Cap. Lisbon. 

II. r., in the W. part of La., forming 

a lake 30 m. wide in its course, but finally 
contracting empties into the gulf of Mexi- 
co. Too shallow for nav. 

Calcinato, a town of Lombardy, on 
the Chiese. P. 3,000. 

Calcio, a town of Lombardy, deleg. 
Bergamo. P. 3,000. 

Calcutta, a city of British India, pre- 
sid. & prov. Bengal, & the cap. of the 
British dom. in the east, on the 1. b. of 
the Hooghly riv., an arm of the Ganges, 
& 100 m. from the bay of Bengal. P. 
229,700. It extends for 6 m. along the 
river, is enclosed on the land side by a 
mound & a canal, termed the Mahratta 
ditch, & is divided into the native quar- 
ter or " Black town," on the N. ; & the 
European quarter, or " Chowringhee," 
on the S. It presents externally a fine 
appearance. The government ho., which 
cost 40,000Z., is a showy palace. The na- 
tive town is a filthy place, with narrow 
streets, an abundance of pagodas, & num. 
pools ; in its principal square is a large 
tank 60 ft. in depth. Calcutta is the seat 

of the superior civil & criminal courts 
for the Bengal presid. ; of Hindoo, Mo- 
hammedan, Sanscrit, & Anglo-Indian 
colleges ; the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
public library, medical, agricultural, 
commercial, biJDle, missionary, & other 
associations, & many private seminaries. 
The Hooghly, here about 1 m. across at 
high water, is usually crowded with ship- 
ping ; & Calcutta is, next to Canton, the 
greatest emporium of the East. The 
great bulk of the pop. consists of native 
Hindoos & Mohammedans, of about 3,000 
EngUsh & 5,000 half-castes, about 3,000 
Portuguese, & the remainder Erench, 
Armenians, Jews, Persians, Chinese. In 
1698, the seat of the East India Com- 
pany's factory was removed from Hoogh- 
ly to Calcutta, previously to which Cal- 
cutta was an inconsiderable village sur- 
rounded with jungle. In 1756, an attack 
was made on the English factory by the 
natives, & 146 Englishmen were shut up 
in the black hole, of whom 118 died be- 
fore morning. 

Caldas, several small towns of Spain 
& Portugal, so named from their warm 

Caldas, a town of Brazil, prov. Minas- 
Geraes. comm. Sapucahi, with a school 
of primarv instruction, & hot sulphur 
springs. P. of dist. 2,000. 

Caldera, a small town of S. Amer., 

Plata confed., dep. Salta. II. a seaport 

of Chile, prov. Coquimbo, on the Pacific. 

III. a seaport of Hayti, on its S. 

coast. IV. a seaport of Costa- Rica, oa 

the Pacific, extremely unhealthy. 

Caldewgate, a suburb of the city of 
Carlisle, Engl., co. Cumberland. P. 5,528. 

Caldiero, a vilL of N. Italy, gov. 

Caldwell, co., Texas. P. 1,329. 

II. CO., N. C, in the N.AY. part of the 
state, drained by the Yadkin. P. 6,317. 

Cap. Lenoir. III. pa., La., on the 

Washita r. On one side of the r. soil al- 
luvial ; on the other surface hilly. P. 

2,815. Cap. Columbia., Ky.,on 

the Tenn. r. & coursed by the Cumberland. 
P. 13,048. Cap. Princeton.— V. co.. Mo., in 
the N. part of the state, drained by Shoal 
cr., & has a good water-power. P. 2,316. 

Cap. Earwest. VI. p-t., Warren co. 

N. Y. P. 752. VII. t., Essex CO. N. J., 

drained by tributaries of the Passaic. P. 
VIII. p-v., Caldwell pa., La. 

Caldy, a small isl. of N. Wales, co. 

Caledon, a vill. Cape Colony, S. 
Africa, dist. Zwellendam. It has some 
celebrated mineral baths. Caledon 




River, Hottentot country. Caledon 

Bay, N. Australia, is an inlet on the W. 
side of the gulf of Carpentaria. 

Caledon, a market town of Ireland, 
CO. Tjrone. P. 1,046. 

Caledonia, go., Vt., in the N.E. part 
of the state, on the Connecticut. Green 
mountains occupy its W. border. It con- 
tains granite, limestone, & a number 
of sulphur springs. P. 2S,085. Cap. 

Danville. II. p-t., Livingston co. 

!N. Y., watered bv the Genesee r. P. 
1,987. III. t.,"Shiawas3e co. Mich. 

Caledonia (New), an isl., S. Pacific 
ocean, beiween lat. 20? & 22° 30' S., & 
Ion. 164° .& 167° E. Length N.W. to 
S.E., 220 m., breadth 30 ui. Surface 
mountainous, rising in the centre to 

nearly 8,000 ft. in elevation. 1[. that 

portion of N. America, W. of the Pvooky 
mountains, between lat. 43^2 & 57° N. 

Caledonian Canal, Scotland, cos. 
Inverness &_Argyle, connects the North 
& Irish seas. Length 60§ m., of which 
the lochs compose 37J^ m., & the c.%nal 23 
na. It was begun in 1805, & opened in 
1822 ; up to the last balancing of accnts., 
it had coii 1,023,629?., & is still unfinished. 

Calella, a marit. town of Spain, prov. 
Barcelona, on the Mediterranean. P. 
3,035. ■ , _ 

Calenzana, a comm. & vill. of the isl. 
Corsica, arrond. Calvi. P. 3,437. 

Calf (The), a rock off the coast of 
Ireland, co. Cork, in the Atlantic. 

Calf of Man, a small isl. in the Irish 

Calhoun, CO., Texas. P. 1,110. II. 

CO., Fla., in the S.W. part of the state, on 
the gulf of Mexico. Contains 1,100 sq. 
m. Its shore is a narrow strip of high 

pine land. P. 1,377. IIL co., Mich., 

S. part of the state, on the St. Joseph's 
r., & the head branches of the Kalamazoo 
riv. It has sand-stone quarries, & ex- 
tensive water-power. Soilrich. P. 19,162. 

Cap. Marshall. IV. co., 111., in the W. 

part of the state, between the Illinois <fc 
Mississippi rivs. P. 3,231. Cap. Gilead. 

Cali, a town of New Granada, dep. &, 
near riv. Cauca. P. 4,000. 

Caliano, a town of Austria, Tyrol, on 
the Adige, celeb, for the defeat of the 
Venetians by the Austrians in 1487. 

Calicote, a town of British India, 
presid. Madras. 

Caliconlan, a town of S. India, Tra- 
vancore, dom. 

Calicut, a seaport town of Brit. India, 
presid. Madras, cap. dist. Malabar, on 
the Indian ocean. P. 25,000. Though 
it has only an open roadstead, it was for 

nearly 2 centuries the emporium of a 

flourishing trade. 

Calibogs Sound, South Carolina. 

California, the westernmost state of 
the U. S. It lies on the Pacific ocean, 
between the 32° & 42° N. Lit. Settled 
by Spaniards in 1769, it became a part 
of Mexico on the establishment of that 
republic, by the government of which it 
was ceded to the U. S. March 16, 1848, 
admitted into the Union Sept. 1850. Its 
area estim. at 180,000 sq. m. Cnp. San 
Jose. The population in 1848 was estim. 
at 33.000. Since, it h;^ rapidlj- increased 
by emigration from allparts of the world, 
& is now probably not far fr<im 200,000. 
Princip. rs. the Sacramento, Americii.nos, 
Liis Plumas, Bear, & the San Joachim. 
The yield of go"ld from the mines of Cal. 
was, from 1848 to the 30th of June, 1852, 
$174,780,877. Rich mines of copp'er, 
quicksilver, & lead ores are also known 
to e.xist in various localities. The sum- 
mits of the California rantns. attiiin an 
elev. of from 5,000 to 10,000 ft. E. of 
these is a vast desert plain composed 
chiefly of arid s:\nd, with mntns. occasion- 
ally rising to the line of perpetual snow. 
Through the eastern part of this country 
flows the large riv. Colorado. The cli- 
mate on the coast of the Pacific is very 
moist, & subject to frequent gales & hur- 
ricanes ; but a little further inland it 
becomes very serene, mild, & healthy. 
From November to April is the rainy 
season, but snow rarely falls e.xcept on 
the mountain tops. The summer is hot, 
with little or no rain, but copious dews. 
Coal has been found in two or three local- 
ities. All the fruits of Europe, from the 
apple to the orange, grow luxuriantly, & 
the vine of Europe thrives here to such 
a degree, that New California may here- 
after become tin important wine-growing 
country ; large quantities of brandy are 
also made from a native grape. Oak, 
elm, ash, plane, & pine timber is plentiful. 
Wheat, olives, flax, hemp, potatoes, & 
kitchen herbs thrive well. Live stock 
can be reared in untold numbers. In' 
May, 1848, on the fa!rm of Captain Sut- 
ter, New Helvetia, on the banks of the 
Sacramento river, a short distance from 
the bay of San Francisco, the discovery 
of the existence of gold was made. The 
discovery was accidentally made in the 
gravelly bottom of a mill-lead ; and, 
subsequently, gold in the form of grains, 
scales, & masses, has been found to pre- 
vail abundantly in the soil & shingly 
beds of the Sacramento, & in its tribu- 
taries, including an area of several hun- 




dred sq. m. The bay of San Francisco, 
in this state, forms a spacious harbor. 
Geographically, the position of California 
is one of the best in the world ; lying on 
the coast of the Pacific, fronting Asia, on 
the line of an American road to Asia, & 
possessed of advantages to give full eifect 
to its grand geographical position. 

California (Gulf of), an arm of the 
Pacific ocean, between lat. 23° & 32° jST. 
Length, 700 m. ; breadth varies from 40 
to 100 m. Its W. coasts are abrupt, & 
offer few places of shelter ; E. coasts low. 
It contains numerous isls. ; & at its N. 
extremity it receives the rivs. Colorado 
& Gila. The .vills. Loreto, La Paz, & 
Guaymas are- on its shores. Ever since 
its discovery, it has been noted for its 
pearl fishery. 

Calig, a town of Spain, prov. Castel- 
lon-de-la-Plana. P. 3,020. 

Calimera, two towns of N"aples. 1. 

prov. Otranto. P. 1,600. II. Calabria, 

Ult. II. P. 500. 

Calimere (Point), a cape on the coast 
of India. 

Calingapatam, a seaport town, Brit. 
India, presid. Madras, on the bay of 

Cahtri, a town of Naples, prov. prin- 
cip. Ult., near the Ofanto. P. 5,000. 

Calizzano, a vill. of the Sardinian 
states, div. Genoa. P. 2,432. 

Calkin, a vill. of Belgium, prov. E. 
Flanders, on the Scheldt. P. 4,950. 

Callac & Callas, two small towns of 
France, dep. Cotes-du-ISrord. P. 1,038. 

II. dep. Var, cap. cant. P. 1,980. 

.Callacand, a town of British India, 
presid Madras.' 

Callacoil, a town of British India, 
presid Madras, dist. Madura. 

Callan, a munic. bor. & market town 
of Ireland, Leinster co., on King's river, 
Kilkenny. P. 3,611, of whom 1,000 are 
said to have no regular employment. 
The town is a miserable assemblage of 
filthy hovels. 

Callao, a town of N. Peru, dep. Lima, 
of which it is the port, on the Pacific, in 
lafc. 12° S. P. 20,000. It is ill built, but- 
important — as its castle is the key of 
Lima ; & its roadstead, sheltered by the 
isl. San Lorenzo, is the best on the Peru- 
vian coast. 

Callao, an isl. of Further India, in 
the China sea, opposite the coast of Co- 
ohiii China. It has a peak about 1,400 
ft. in height. 

Callas, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Var, arrond. P. 1,980. 

Callaway, ec, Ky., in the W. part of 

the state, on the Tenn. riv. P. 8,096, 

Cap. Wadesboro'. II. co.. Mo., in the 

central part of the state, on the Mo. riv. 
Drained by several creeks. Soil excel- 
lent. P. 2,316. Cap. Fulton. 

Calle (La), the most E. town & sea- 
port of Algeria, on a penins. in the Med- 
iterranean, 300 m. B. Algiers. P. 400. 
It is the chief seat of the French coral 

Calliagna, a seaport vill., isl. St. Vin- 
cent, Brit. W. Indies, having the best 
harb. in the island. 

Callian, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Var. P. 1,600. 

Callianee, an inl. town of Brit. India, 
presid. Bombay. It is populous, & has 
some trade. II. a town, Nizam's dom. 

Calhano, a vill. of Piedmont, prov. 
Casale. P. 2,630. 

Calligray, smalLisl. of the Hebrides. 

Callinger, a town of British India, 
presid. Bengal, on a table-land, 1,200 ft. 
above the adjacent plain^. • 

Callier, a town of Pruss. Pomerania, 
reg. Coslin. P. 2,790. 

Callington, a town of England, co. 

Calloo, a vill. of Belgium, on the 
Scheldt. P. 2,229. 

Callosa, two towns of Spain. 1. 

[de Ensarria), prov. Alicante. P. 4,328. 
-II. {de Segura). P. 2,904. 

Calmina, a town of N. Guinea, Africa, 
kingdom Dahomey, usual residence of 
the king, & said to have 15,000 inhabs. 

Calmpthout, a comm. & vill. of Bel- 
glum, prov. Antwerp, with breweries, tan- 
neries, & oil mills. P. 2,258. 

Calne, a town of Eiigland, co. Wilts. 

Galore, two rivs. of Naples ; one in 
the prov. princip. Ultra ; the other, in 
princip. Citra. 

Calosso, a vill. of the Sardinian states, 
Piedmont, prov. Asti. P. 2,107. 

Calpentyn, a long narrow penins. of 
Ceylon, on its W. coast, & which during 
the N.E. monsoon becomes an isl. 

Calsi, a vill. & mart of N. Hindostan, 
cap. dist. Gurhwal, at the confl. of the 
Jumna & Tonse. 

Caltanisetta, a city of Sicily, cap. 
intend. P. 15,700. In its vicinity are 
mineral springs & e.xten. sulphur works, 

Caltura, a seaport town of Ceylon, 
on its W. coast, with an active trade in 

Oaluire, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Rhone. P. 5,048. 

Calumet, county. Wis. lies along Lake 

Winnebago. P. 1,743. II. t.. Pike co. 

Mo. P. 2,743. 




Calvados, a p. on the N-W. 
of France, formed of part of the old prov. 
of Lr. Normandy. Area, 2,200 sq. miles. 
P. 491,210, cap, Caen. Surface hilly in 
the S., with extensive plains & fertile 
valleys. Climate temperate ; the soil is 
well- watered. 

Calvary, t., Franklin co. Mo. P. 779. 

Calvello, a town of Naples, prov. 
Basilieata. P. 6,400. 

Calvert Island, British N. America, 
on its W. coast. II. Calvert Isls., Pa- 
cific ocean, in lat. 8° 55' N. 

Calvert, county, Md. in the S. part 
of the state, on Chesapeake bay. P. 9,046. 
Cap. Prince Fredericktown. 

CalvI; a seaport town of Corsica, cap. 
arrond., on a penins. in the gulf of Calvi. 
P. 1,457. It has a good harbor & road- 
stead. II. a decayed town of Naples, 

prov. T.-di-Lavoro. 

Calvin, t., Cass co. Mich. 

Calvisano, a town of N. Italy, Lom- 
bardy, deleg. Brescia. P. 2,700. 

Calvisson, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Gard. P. 2,593. 

Calvizzano, a vill. of S. Italy, prov. 
Naples. P. 2,110. 

Calw, a town of S. Germany,Wurtem- 
berg, circ. Black Forest, on the Nagold. 
P. 4,190. 

Calzada, a tovra of Spain, prov. Ciii- 
dad-Real. P. 2,480. 

Cam, a river of Engl., rises in Essex, 
flows N.E.-ward through co. Cambridge, 
& after a course of about 40 m., joins the 
Ouse, 3^ m. S. Ely. Current sluggish ; 
navigalale from the Ouse to Cambridge. 

II. a riv., CO. Glo'ster, tributary of 

the Severn, which it joins at Frampton- 


Camajore, a walled town of Central 
Italy, deleg. Lucca. P. 6J)00. 

Camamu, a bay, island, & flourishing 
town of Brazil, prov. Bahia. P. 2,000. 

Camana, a town of S. Peru, dep. Are- 
quipa, cap. prov., on the Camana, near its 
mouth in the Pacific. P. 1,500. 

Camanche, cap. Clinton co. Iowa, on 
the Miss. 

Camarata, a town of Sicily, intend. 
Girgenti. P. 5,200. 

♦ CamarSs, a town of France, dep. Avey- 
ron, on the Dourdon. P. 1,710. 

Camaret, a vill. of France, dep. Finis- 
tere, with a small port on the Aulne. P. 

Camargue (La), an isl. of France, dep. 
Bouches-du-RhOne, formed by the 2 arms 
of the riv. Rhone, at its mouth ; it is of 
a triangular shape. Length, 26 m. ; mean 
breadth, 11m. 

Camarinas, a marit. town of Spain, 
prov. Coruiia, on the N. side of the bay 
of Cainarinas, on which it has a harbor. 
P. 1,440. 

Camarota, a vill. of Naples, prov. 
princip. Citra. P. 2,600. 

Cambay, a scajjort town of Hindostan, 
Baroda dom., at the head of the gulf of 
Cambay. P. 10,000. It has a curious 
subterraneous Jain or'Buddhic temple, a 
fine mosque, & sevl. Hindoo temples; but 
a great part of the town is in ruins. 

Cambiano, a vill. of the Sard, states, 
near Turin. P. 2,425. 

Cambil, a town of Spain, on the Mata- 
vexis. P. 2,773. 

Cambing, a small island, Malay ar- 
chipelago, off the N. coast of Timor. 

Cambo, a vill. & pleasant watering- 
place of France, dep. B. Pyrenees. P. 
1,373. . 

Cambrai, a town of France, dep. Nord, 
on the Scheldt. P. 18,308. It is the 
seat of an arohbp., re-established 1841, & 
has a strong citadel ; a modern eathed., 
in which is a monument to Fenelon ; a 
handsome town-hall, a comm. college, ~& 
a public library. 

Cambresis, an old subdivision of 
French Flanders, of which Cambray was 
the cap. 

Cambria, county, in the "W. part of 
Pa., betw. the main branch of the Alle- 
ghany mountains & Laurel ridge. P. 

17,773. II. p-t., Niagara co. N. Y. 

P. 2,090." III. t., Cambria co. Pa. on 

the Alleghanies. P. 1,156. 

Cambridge, t., semi-cap. of Middlesex 
CO. Mass. This place was settled in 1631 
under the name of Newtown. It is the 
seat of Harvard University, the oldest 
college in the country, having been foun- 
ded in 1638. The usual county buildings. 
Harvard University has a president & 
27 professors, or other instructors ; has 
had 5,546 alumni, of whom 1,406 have 
been ministers of the gospel; has 53,000 

volumes in its libraries. P. 17,417. 

II. t., Lamoille co. Vt. P. 1,790. IIL 

t., Washington co. N. Y. P. 2,005. 

IV. t., Coos CO. N. H. V. cap. Dor- 
chester CO. Md., on Choptankr. 12 m. from 
Chesapeake b. 61 m. S E. AnnapoUs. 

VI. p-t., Lenawee CO. Mich. P. 644. 

VII. t., cap. Guernsey CO. 0., coursed by 
Wills cr. & the National Road. P. 2,488. 

YIII. a pari. & munic. bor., & mkt. 

town of England, cap. co. Cambiidge, & 
seat of one of the great English univer- 
sities, on both sides the Cam. The town, 
in an extensive flat, embosomed amongst 
lofty trees, has, with few exceptions only, 




narrow, winding, & irregularly built 
streets ; but its colleges are noble edifi- 
ces. The University of Cambridge, sup- 
posed to have been founded in the 7th 
century by Sigebert, king of East An- 
glia, consists now of 13 colleges & four 

Cambridgeshire, an inland co. of 
Engl, in its E. part. Principal rivs., the 
Ouse, Cam, Nen, & Lark. P. 191,856. 

Cambeils, a seaport of Spain, prov. 
Tarragona. P. 2,254. 

Cambus, a vill. of Scotland, co. Clack- 
mannan, with an extensive distillery. 

Cameyna, an island of the Asiatic 
archip., 15 m. S, Celebes. L. 20 m., 
br. 15 m. 

Camden, county, N. C, in the N.E. 
part of the state. Watered by Pasquo- 
tank r. Surface low & marshy. P. 

6,049. Cap. Camden c. h. II. county, 

Ga., in the S.E. part of the state, separ- 
ated from the Atlantic by Cumberland 
isl. St. Mary's r., aloiig its border, has 
a depth suf&cient for the largest vessels. 

P. 6,319. Cap. Jeffersonton. III. p-t., 

Waldo CO. Me., on Penobscot bay, & has 
^%pod harbor. Consid. nav. in the coast- 
ing trade & the fisheries. Some manu- 

fac. P. 4,005. IV. p-t., Oneida co. 

N. Y. Drained by Fish cr. Some man- 

ufac. P. 2,331. V. a county of N. J., 

on the Delaware riv. P. 25,422. 

Vr. port of entry & cap. of Camden co. 
N. J., on the E. side of Del. r., opposite 
Philadelphia. It is divided into three 
parts. Ships of the largest class come 
up to the lower part. Consid. manufac. 

& commerce. P. 9,479. VII. a new 

00. of Missouri. P. 2,338. VIII. cap. 

Kershaw Dist. S. C, on the E. bank of 
the Wateree r. Flat boats of 70 tons 
come to the place. 1 m. from the place 
are the De Kalb mills & cotton fac. Two 
celebrated battles were fought here dur- 
ing the revolution; one between Gen. 
Gates & Lord Cornwallis, & the other 
between Gen. Greene & Lord Eawdon. 
Here is a monument to the memory of 

Baron De Kalb. IX. c. h., p-v., cap. 

Camden co. N. C. The' usual county 

buildings. X. t., Lorain co. 0. 

XI. a marit. co. of N. S. Wales. 

Camden-Town, a suburb of London, 
CO. Middlesex. 

Camelon, a vill. of Scotland, co. Stir- 
ling. P. 1,340. 

Camel's Rump, a mntn., Vermont, one 
of the loftiest peaks of the Green mntns. 
Elev. 4,188 feet. 

Camen, a town of Pruss. Westphalia. 
P. 2^780. 

Camera-de-Lobos, a maritime vill. 
of the isl. Madeira. 

Cameri, a vill. of Sard, states. Pied- 
mont, prov. Novara. P. (with com.) 3,840. 

Camerino, a city of Central Italy, 
Pontif sta., in the Apennines. P. 5,182. 

Cameron, Star & Webb, united coun- 
ties of Texas. P. 8,541. II. p-t., Steu- 
ben CO. N. Y. Watered by Canisteo r. 
P. 1,359. 

Cameeoons, a riv. of Africa, Upper 
Guinea, which, after a S.W. course of 
uncertain length, enters the bight of 
Biafra. For 40 m. beyond the mangrove 
region, at its mouth, it is about 400 yds. 
in average breadth; depth in dry season 
from 2 to 20 ft., but during rains it is 
navigable for ships of any draught. 
About 90 m. from the sea it forms a 
cataract, as do several of its affls. iu 
passing through the Cameroons mntns. 

Cape Cameroons, on an isl. in its 

estuary, was so named by the Portuguese 
from the vast quantities of shrimps taken 

in the adjacent sea. Cameroons Peak, 

culminating point of the Cameroons 
mnts., is 13,000 (7) ft. in elev. 

Cameta, a populous & flourishing 
town of Brazil, prov. Para, on the To- 
cantins. The dist. which was assigned to 
Cameta in 1839, is extremely fertile, & 
contains a pop. of 20,000 employed in 
agriculture, commerce, & navigation. 

Camiglen, an isl. of Asiatic archip., 

Camillus, p-t., Onondaga co. N. Y., 
drained by Nine mile cr. Gypsum is 
found here. P. 3,957. 

Caminha, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Minho,*on the Minho. P. 2,520. 

Camisano, two small towns of Lom- 

Camlapoor, a town of British India, 
presid. Madras. 

Cammabata, a town of Sicily, in the 
Val Mazzara. P. 5,200. 

Ca:mmin, two towns of Pruss. dom. 

Camoghe, a mntn. of Switzerl., can- 
ton Tessin ; elev. 8,800. 

Camogli, a marit. town of Sard, states, 
on the gulf of Genoa. P. 5,809. 

Campagna, a town of Naples, prov. 
princip. Citra, in the middle of high 
mntns. P.,6J50. 

Campagna di Roma, an old prov. of 
the states of the Church, Italy, extend- 
ing along the W. coast from Civita 
Vecchia to Astura & the Pontine 
marshes, & inland to the Alban & Sa- 
bine hills. Rome being near its centre. 
Length about 70 m. ; breadth varying to 
40 m. It is an undulating region, rising 





to 200 ft. above the sea, & skirted on the 
Mediterr. by a strip of marsh-land from 
2 to 3 m. in breadth. Once the richest 
'& most populous country in the world, it 
is now destitute of inhabs., except in a 
few towns scattered over its surface, to 
which the laborers resort at night to 
avoid the effects of Tnalaria. 

Campagnac, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Aveyron. P. 1,300. 

Campan, a small town of France, dep. 
H. Pyrenees, Bagneres-en-Bigorre, on 
the Adour, in the fine valley of. same 
name. P. 3,442. 

Camp ANA, an isl. off the W. coast of 
Patagonia. L. 55 m.j av. br. 10 miles. 

Campana, a town of Naples, prov. 
Calab.-Citra. P. 2,400.-- — Gape Cam- 
panella, kgdm. & 20 m." S. Naples, opp. 
the isl. Capri. 

Campana (La), a town of Spain, prov. 
Sevilla. P. 5,374. 

Campanha, a modern city of Brazil, 
prov. Minas Geraes. P. 6,000. 

Campar, a river & town of the isl. Su- 
matra, on its E. coast. 

Campbell, county, Va., betw. James & 
Staunton rivs. Surface rough, & soil 
productive. P. 23,245. Cap. Lynchburg. 

II. county, Ga., in the N.W. part of 

the state, on both sides of the Chatta- 
hoochee riv. P. 7,232. Cap.Campbellton. 

III. county, Tenn., in the N.E. part 

of the state, on the Tennessee riv. The 
Cumberland mntns. cross its N.W. side. 
Here are forges, tanneries, 1 power mill, 

& 20 distilleries. P. 6,063. IV. co., 

Ky., in the N. part of the state, on the 
0. riv. Surface uneven, but soil fruitful^ 

P. 13,127. V. t., Warwick CO. Ja. 

VI. t., Steuben co. N. Y. ; watered by 
Conhocton riv. 

Campbell Island, S. Pacific ocean, is 
36 m. in circumf., mntns., & has several 
good harbors. It is volcanic, & its flora 
is very interesting. — Campbell is the 
name of capes in New Zealand & Kussian 
America, & a riv. in E. Australia. 

Campbelton, a seaport town of Scotl., 
CO. Argyle, on the E. coast of the penins. 
Cantire. Though not the cap., this is the 
most important town in the co. ; it has 
numerous distilleries & malt-houses, a 
tolerable harbor, & a good quay. 

Campbell-town, adist., VanDiemen's 
Land, enclosed by dists. Launceston, 
Norfolk Plains, Clyde, Oatlands, Oyster- 
burg, & having a settlement of same 
name on an affl. of the Macquarrie. 

Campeachy, the princip. seaport town 
of Yucatan, Cent. Amer. P. including 
suburbs, 15,000. It is enclosed by bas- 

tioned walls, & built wholly of stone, over 
a series of extensive anc. caverns. It 
has 6 churches, as many convents, a large 
cemetery, a college with 6 professors, & 
ship-building docks. Its harbor is shal- 
low, but it is the centre of a large trade 
in logwood, or " Campeachy-wood," & it 
exports cotton & wax. 

Camperdown, a vill. of theNetherl'ds, 
prov. N. Holland, in the North sea. 

Campi, a town of Naples, prov. Otranto. 

P. 3,440. II. a vill. of Tuscany, prov. 

Florence. P. 2,668. 

Campiglia, a mkt. town of Tuscany. 

P. 2,140. II. Piedmont, prov. Biella. 

P. 1,230. 

Campillo, several small towns of 

Campillos, a modern town of Spain, 
prov. Malaga. P. 6,417. 

Campina-Grande, a town of Brazil. 
P. with dist. 5,000. 

Campinas, a city of Brazil, prov.,S. 
Paulo. P. 6,000. ■ Its dist. produces a 
great quantity of sugar. 

Campli, a town of Naples, prov. 
Abruzzo Ult. P. 6,000.* It has a cathed., 
3 coUeg. churches, & an abbey. - ^ ' 

Camplong, a comrn. & vill. of FranTO, 
dep. Herault. P. 2,121. 

Campobasso, a city of Naples. P. 
7,700. It has considerable trade, & cele- 
brated manufs. of cutlery & arms. — 
Campo Bianco is a mntn. in the isl. 
Lipari, formed of volcanic scorise, which 
furnishes a great quantity of pumice 

Campobello, two towns of Sicily. 

Campo de Cbiptana, a town of Spain, 
prov. Ciudad-Real. P. 5,690. It has 
manufs. of coarse cloths, & trade in grain 
& fruit. 

.Campo-Foemio, a vill. of N. Italy. 

Campo-Freddo, a town of the Sardin- 
ian sta., prov. Genoa. P. 2,738. 

Campo-Grande, a vill. of Portugal. 
It has manufs. of silk. 

Campo-Lahgo, a town of Brazil, prov. 
Bahia, on the Rio Grande, 70 m. from its 
mouth, in the S. Francisco. P. 3,000. 

Cambolieto, a town of Naples, prov. 
Molise. P. 2,240. 

Campo-Mayor, a town of Portugal, 

prov. Alemtejo. P. 4,500.- II. a town 

of Brazil, prov. Piauhy. P. 5,000. 

III. {de Quixerajnobim), a town of 
Brazil, prov. Ceara. P. with dist. 8,000. 

Campos, a town of the isl. Majorca. 
P. 4,712. — Canal of Campos, Spain, 

Campos dos Goitacazes, formerly 
S. Salvador dos Campos, a city of 




Brazil, prov. Rio Janeiro, on the Para- 
hiba. P. 4,000. 

Campo S. Pietko, a town of N. Italy, 
gov. Venice. P. 2,400. 

Campeodon, a town of Spain, prov. 
Gerona, on the Ter. P. 1,162. It was 
twice taken by the French in 1794. 

Campton, p-t., Grafton co. N. H. P. 

Camptown, Essex co. N. J. 

Camtoos, a riv. of S. Africa, Cape 
Colony, dists. Beaufort & Uitenhage, 
about 200 m. long. ' 

Camueano, a vill. of Central Italy, 
Pontif. sta. — Camuscia is a vill. of Tus- 
cany, prov. Arezzo. 

Cana, a ruined town of Palestine, sup- 
posed to be the scene of the miracle re- 
corded in John. 

Canaan, t., Somerset co. Me., on the 

E. side of Kennebec riv. P. 1,379. 

II. Grafton co. N. H., drained by Mas- 
corny riv. P. 1,576. HI. t.,, Essex co. 

Vt., in the extreme N.E. of the state, on 

the Connecticut. P. 387. -IV. t., 

Litchfield co. Conn., on the E. side of the 
Ilousatonic riv., which has a perpendic- 
ular fall near here of 60 ft. Limestone 

is found here. P. 2,166. V. p-t., 

Columbia co. N. Y., watered by branches 

of Kinderhook cr. P. 1,957. VI. p-t., 

Wayne co. Penn., drained by branches of 

Lackawaxen cr. P. 1,462. VII. t;, 

Wayne co. 0. VIII. t., Madison co. 0. 

IX. t., Marion co. 0. X. t., 

Athens co. 0., on the Hockhocking riv. : 
contains salt works, & various mills. P. 

Canada, the most extensive & valua- 
ble of the British colonial possessions in 
N. Amer., extending between lat. 42° & 
53° N., & Ion. 64° & 90° W., having N. 
the Hudson bay territory, W. lakes Su- 
perior & Huron, S. lakes Erie& Ontario, 
E. the riv. St. Lawrence, & the U. S. 
New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, & 
Maine. Length from lake Superior to 
Anticosti island, about 1,000 m. ; average 
breadth 300 m. Estimated area & pop. 
as follows : — 

Pfov's. Area in sq. m. P. (1852). C. Cities. 
U. Canada, 141,000 952,005 Toronto. 
L. Canada, 205,860 904,782 Quebec. 

Total, 346,860 1,856,787 

Upper Canada is wholly on the N. side 
of the great lakes Erie & Ontario, & the 
river St. Lavdrence ; but Lower Canada 
comprises a considerable area S., of that 
riv., the great tributary of which — the 

Ottawa — separates the two provs. Other 
principal rivs. are the Thames, Ouse, St. 
Clair, Welland, Rideau, St. Maurice, 
Richlieu, & Saguenay, & the St. John, 
which forms a part of the boundary on 
the side of Maine. Surface extremely 
variable. It rises in the N.W.into a 
table-land, supposed to be from 1,200 to 
1,300 ft. above the sea. The uncleared 
tracts are mostly a wilderness of forests, 
marshes, & lakes. The sOil throughout 
a lai'ge part of Lower Canada is sterile ; 
but the peninsula of Upper Canada, be- 
tween lakes Ontario & Erie on the S., & 
St. Clair & Huron on the W. & N., is one 
of the most productive regions in its lat. 
Climate variable. The grains & fruits 
of N. Europe, tobacco, flax, & hemp, are 
the principal crops. Timber trees con- 
sist of pines, firs, oaks, Amer. ash, hick- 
ory, & maple, from which last a good 
deal of sugar is obtained. Wild animals, 
as bears, deer, wolves, boars, beavers, & 
otters, are numerous. Eish are abundant 
in the lakes, cod in the bays, & salmon & 
herring in great plent,y. Principal min- 
eral products, iron, with some argentif- 
erous lead, coal, copper, salt, & sulphur. 
Principal cities & towns, Quebec, Mon- 
treal, & Three Pavers, in L. Canada ; 
Toronto & Kingston in U. Canada. Can- 
ada, first discovered in 1499 by J. & S. 
Cabot, was acquired by the British be- 
tween 1759 & 1763. Lower Canada is 
subdivided i«to the 4 dists. of Quebec, 
Montreal, Three Riverg, & Gaspe, each 
of which has its judges, sheriffs, &c. The 
dists. are subdivided into 40 counties, & 
upwards of 200 seignories & fiefs, & 160 
tnships. The seignories are old French 
divisions, & mostly inhabited by a pop. 
of French descent. The following is a 
statement of the value of Canadian im- 
ports & exports for 1850, in the Halifax 
currency (four dollars to the pomid). 
About one third of the European imports 
passed through the canals of New York 
in preference to the St. Lawrence riv. : — 

Im. from. Ex. to. 

Great Britain £2,407,980 £1,521,279 

B.N. A. colonies, 96,404 1,237,789 

AVest Indies, 1,112 202,194 

United States, 1,648,715 2,094 

Other countries, 91,303 27,070 


£4,245,517 £2,990,428 

Canada Creek, a riv., New York, 
joins the Mokawk river after a course of 
60 miles. — Canadian river, Upper Texas, 
joins the Arkanses, after a course esti- 




mated at 800 miles. II. the W. & 

largest branch of Mohawk r., 60 m. long. 

CANADicE,p-t., Ontario co. N. Y. 

Canajoharie, p-t., Montgomery co. 
N. Y. The Erie canal passes through 
the centre of the village. P. 4,097. 

Canal, p-t., Venango co. Penn. P. 867. 

Canal Fulton, p-v., Tuscarawas co. 0. 

Canale, a town of the Sard, sta., 
Piedmont, prov. Alba. P. with comm. 
3,905. It has important saline springs. 

Canandaigua, p-t., cap. Ontario co. 
N. Y. Surface consists of gentle hills & 
beautiful plains. The village is delight- 
fully situated at the N. end of Canan- 
daigua lake. It is surrounded by a rich 
agricultural country. The town has 2 
banking houses, & a bank for savings. 

P. 6,143. II. lake, in western N. Y. 

14 m. long. III. v., Lenawee co. Mich. 

Cananea, a maritime town of Brazil, 
prov. S. Paulo, on a small isl. in the bay 
of Tarapande. P. 2,000, suburbs in- 

Cananohe, a seaport town of British 
India, presid. Madras, dist. Malabar, at 
the head of a small bay. It has, with 
its suburbs, about 11,000 houses, & is the 
cap. of a territory long governed by fe- 
male sovereigns, & comprising most of 
the Laccadive islands. It has an active 
trade with Bengal, Arabia, Sumatra. 

Canara, the most W. district of the 
Madras presid., British L^idia. Area, 
7,477 sq. m. P. 759,776. Surface une- 
ven, & the Ghauts form its E. boundary. 
Rice is exported hence in large quanti- 
ties to Arabia, Goa, & Bombay. Forests 
pf teak & other timber trees are exten- 
sive. Principal towns, Mangalore & Bar- 
celore. In S. Canara (as in Malabar) all 
inheritance descends in the female line, 
& instead of a man's own children, those 
of his sister or aunt are his heirs. It is 
estim. that 50,000 of the pop. are R. Cath- 

Canaries, an arehipelage, Atlantic 
oc, about 60 m. from the W. coast of N. 
Africa. They consist of 7 principal is- 
lands & several islets. Lanzarote & Fu- 
erteventura, with the islets Graciosn, Sta. 
Clara, Alegranza, & Lobos : Gran Cana- 
ria, Teuerife, Gomera, Palma, & Hierro 
(Ferro). Area of the whole 4,000 sq. m. 
P. 202,900. The coasts of these islands 
are rocky & abrupt, & they are covered 
with mountains, some, of which attain a 
great elevation, the Pico de Teyde in 
Teneriffe being 12, 182 ft. Their geologi- 
cal formation consists of a continuous 
series of volcanic mountains, which rise 
in a circular form from the coast around 

a principal crater, which serves as axis. 
The surf, is volcanic, presenting a succes- 
sion of mntns. &, plains, extinct craters & 
fertile valleys. There are no rivers, but 
numerous torrents. The tropical heat 
is moderated by the Atlantic breezes, <fc 
the climate is equable. The Canaries 
have been divided lately into separate 
governmental departments. One is to 
be eomposed of Teneriffe, La Gomera, 
Palma, Hierro, & the other of Grand Ca- 
nary, Puerteventura, & Lanzarote. The 
chief productions are wine, oil, grain, the 
sugar-cane, & exquisite fruits of all kinds. 
The principal foreign trade is carried- on 
with the U. S., Engl., & Hamburg. The 
annual produce is estimated at 170 qrs. 
of grain, 54,000 pipes of wine, 300,000 
quintals barilla, & 500,000 barrels of po- 
tatoes. The inhabitants are of European 
origin, mostly Spaniards. Since 1493 
these islands have belonged to Spain, of 
which kingdom they form a prov., gov- 
erned by the same laws as the peninsular 
portion ; the cap. of the whole archipel- 
ago is Santa Cruz de Teneriffe. 

Canary Island, an island near the 
centre of the group of the Canaries, of a 
circular form. Area, 758 sq. m. P. 
57,625. Length 35 m. ; at the N.E. point 
a portion detached from the mass is 
joined by a peninsula. Surface moun- 
tainous ; culminating point El Cumbre, 
6,648 ft. in elev. The cap. is las J'almas, 
the largest & best built town of the ar- 
chip. P. 17,382. It has a fine cathedral 
& a palace of justice. The other princi- 
pal places are Port la Luz, Teror, Ti- 
raxana, Atalaya, Aguimez, & Tilde. 

Canastola, p-v., Madison co. N. Y. 
on the Erie canal. 

Canaveral, the most E. part of Flor- 
ida, on the Atlantic. 

Canavezes, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Minho. P. 1,500. 

Cancale, a coram. & town of France, 
dep. Ille-et-Vilaine. on bay of same 
name, in the English channel. P. 2,682. 

Cancao, a seaport town of Further 
India, Camboja, on a riv. near its mouth, 
in the gulf of Siam. 

Cancellara, a town of Naples, prov. 
Basilicata. P. 3,230. 

Cancoupa, a town of India, Deccan, 
Mysore dom. 

Candahar, a city & the cap. of Cen- 
tral Afghanistan, in a fertile plain, 3,484 
ft. above the sea. P. variously stated 
from 25,000, to 100,000, mostly Afghans, 
but including many Pertians, Uzbeks, 
Beloochees, Jews, & Hindoos, which last 
almost monopolize the commerce. 




Cande, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Maine-et-Loire, on the Endre. P. 

Candeish, one of the old Mahratta 
provs. of Hindostan. Lon. 73° & 76° E., 
& now composing the Brit. dist. Candeish, 
with some parts of the Indore & Nizam's 
doms. Area, 12,527 sq.-m. P. 478,500. (?) 
The chief rivs. are the Nerbudda, & Tap- 
tee. The Bheels or Gonds, a rude people, 
inhabit the interior. 

Candela, a town of Naples, prov. 

Capitanata. P. 3,434. II. a vill., 

Mexican confed., dep. & 53 m. S.E. Coa- 

Candelaria, a town, Plata confed., S. 
Amer., dep. Corrientes, on the Parana, 

nearly opposite Itapua (Paraguay). 

II. a seaport town, Canaries, on the E. 

coast of the isl. Teneriffe. Candelario 

is a vill. of Spain, prov. Salamanca. P. 

Candelaro, a riv. of Naples, prov. 

Candelo, a town of the Sard, states, 
div. Turm. P. 2,538. 

Candhar, two towns of India. 

Candia, an isl.. Mediterranean sea. 

Candia, a seaport city, & the cap. of 
the isl. Crete, near the centre of its N. 
coast. P. 12,000, nearly all Mohamme- 
dans. Its massive fortifications, decayed 
docks, arsenal, extensive arched vaults 
for galleys, & a large cathed., were con- 
structed by the Venetians. Its harb., 
formed by two moles, each terminating 
with a fort, is now choked. Streets wide 
& roughly paved ; houses well built, & 
interspersed with gardens & fountains. 
Principal edifices, the pasha's palace, ba- 
zaars, & mosques, a synagogue, light-ho., 
& public baths. Chf. manuf. is that of 

Candia, t., Rockingham eo. N. H., oc- 
cupying the height of land between the 
ocean & the Merrimae r. P. 1,430. 

CanT)lemas Islands, S. Pacific ocean, 
are near Sandwich Land. Lat. 37° 10' 
S., lon. 30° ^Y. 

Candor, p-t., Tioga co. N. Y., drained, 
by the Cottotong & West Oswego crs. P. 

Candy, a town of the isl. of Ceylon. 

Cane, or Ken, a riv. of India, Bundel- 
cund. L. 250 m. 

Canea, a seaport t. of Crete. [Kha- 

Cancadea, p-t., Alleghany co. N. Y., 
on the Genesee r. P. 1,633. 

Canel, a town of W. Africa, Sene- 

gambia, on an affl. of the Senegal. P. 
6,000. (?) 

Caneles, a small mining town, Mexio. 
confed., dep. Sinaloa. Near it some veins 
of mercury have been discovered. 

Canelli, a makt. town of the Sard. 
states. Piedmont, prov. Asti. P. 3,422. 

Cane Spring, Bullit eo. Ky. P. 923: 

Canet-de-Mar, a marit. t. of Spain, 
prov. Barcelona, on the Mediterranean. 
P. 2,800. Fisheries & distilleries. 

Canete, a seaport town, N. Peru, cap. 
prov., on the Pacific. 

Canete de las Torres, a town of 
Spain, prov. Cordova, near the Caiialejo. 
P. 2,410. 

Canete-la-Real, a town of Spain, 
prov. Malaga. P. 4,090. Commerce in 

fruits & wine. II. {La Huergina), a 

town in the prov. P. 1,230. 

Caneva, a markt. town of N. .Italy, 
gov. Venice. P. 4,270. 

Canfield, p-t., Trumbull co^ 0. P. 

Canfranc, a frontier town of Spain, 
prov. Huesca, on a frequented route be- 
tween France & Spain, in the Pyrenees, 
9 m. N. Jaca. 

Cangas, a town of Spain, Asturias. 

Cangrejos, a small isl. of S. America. 
Venezuela, at the mouth of the Orinoco. 

Cangucu, a modern town of Brazil, on 
riv. of same name, prov. San-Pedro-do- 
Rio-Grande. ^ P. 5,000. 

Canicatti^ a town of Sicily, on the 
Naro. P. 18,000. In its environs are 
extens. sulphur mines. 

Canigou, a mntn. of France, dep. B. 
Pyrenees. It is one of the culminating 
points of the Pyrenees, & 9,137 feet in 

Caniles, a town of Spain, prov. Gra- 
nada. P. 4,234. Linen manufs. 

Canillas, a modern commercial town 
of Spain, prov. Malaga. P. 2,247. 

Caning, a town of Italy, Pontif. states. 
It has celeb, baths, & gave the title of 
prince to Lucien Bonaparte. 

Canisteo, p-t., Steuben co. N. Y., 
watered by Canisteo r. On the streams 

are rich alluvial flats. P. 941. II. r., 

N. Y., 50 m. long. 

Canister Islands, three small islets, 
Indian ocean. 

Canjayar, a town of Spain, prov. Al- 
meria. P. 2,700. 

Canna, one of the Hebrides, Scotl., co. 

Canne, a vill. of Naples, prov. Bari, 
near the Ofanto, on the site of the field 
of Cannce, still called the _" Campo di 
Sangue," where Hannibal gained a mem* 





orable victory over the Romans, b.c. 

Cannes, a comm. & sea.port town, S. 
France, dep. Var, cap. cant., on the Medi- 
terranean. P. 3,642. It stands on a 
declivity facing the sea, & surrounded by 
orange & olive plantations. It has an 
old gothic castle, & a good quay, but an 
indiiferent port. 

Canneto, a town of Lombardy, deleg. 

Mantua, on the Oglio. P. 3,000. II. 

town of Naples, prov. Ba.ri. P. 1,940. — 
• Cannetello is a vill. prov. Calab. tilt. I., 
dist. Reggio. P. 1,760. ^ 

Cannobio, a town of Sard, states, 
Piedmont, div. No vara. P. 2,137. 

Canoga, p-v., Seneea co. N. Y., 1 m. 
W. &f Cayuga lake. 

Cannon, co., Tenn., in the central 
part of the state, drained by branches of 
Cumberland riv. Surface hilly ; soil 
fertile. P. 8,982. 

Cajstnonsburg, Washington co. Pa., 
situated on Chartier's cr. Jefferson coll. 
founded in 1802 is located here. It has 
a president, & 6 professors or other in- 
structors, 224 alumni, 3,300 volumes in 
its libraries. Its course is completed in 
three years. A medical department is 
attached to it, located in Philadel- 
phia. There is a theological school 
connected with the institution, under the 
care of the vice-president ; & it has 
supplied many clergymen to the western 
Cannouchee, riv., Ga., 140 m. long. 
Cannstadt, a town of Wiirtemberg, 
circ. Necliar. P. 5,350. It has mineral 

Canonicut, isl. in Narragansett bay, 

Canoon, a t. of Brit. India, Agra dist. 
Canosa, a town of Naples, prov. Bari. 
P. 7,120. 

Canossa, a town of cent. Italy, duchy 

Canouan, the central of the Grena- 
dine isls., Brit. W. Indies. 

Canourgue (La), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Loz^re. P. 1,969. 

Canso (Cape), the E. extremity of 
Nova Scotia. — The Gat of Canso is the 
passage betw. Nova Scotia & Cape Breton, 
from the Atlantic into Northumberland 
strait. L. 17 miles; av. br. 2J miles. 

Cantabrian Mountains in the N. of 
Spain, form a prolongation of the Pyre- 
nees, & extend from these mntns. in the 
E. to Cape Finisterre on the W. Height 
10,000 ft. 

Cantagallo, a town of Brazil, prov. 
Rio Janeiro. P. 4,000. , 

Cantal, a central dep. of France, 
formed of the S. part of the old prov. 
Auvergne, cap. Aurillac. Area 2,200 sq. 
m. P. 253,329. It is entirely mntnous. 
The surface is almost entirely covered 
with the debris of extinct volcanoes ; it 
furnishes marble & coal, & has numer- 
ous mineral springs. Chf rivers, the 
Alagnon, Truyere, Celle, & the C(^re. 
The climnte is salubrious. 

Cantalapiedra, two towns of Spain. 

Cantalbarry, a town of N. Hindos- 
tan, subject to Bootan. 

Cantalice, 2 towns of Naples. 

Canteleu, a commi & town of" France, 
dep. Seine Inf. P. 1,113. 

Canterb(jry, t., Merrimac co. N. H., 
on Merrimac r. It has several ponds, & 
a good shad fishery. Quinebaug r. is on 
the E. A num. of woollen & cotton facs. 
P. 1,643. 

Canterbury, a city, bor., & county of 
itself, Engl., & its metropolitan see, 
within CO. Kent, on the Stour. Its ca- 
thedral, erected in 12th & two following 
centuries, on the site of the first Christian 
church built in Saxon "Engl., is in the 
form of a double cross, with a central & 
2 W. towers, & presents a magnificent 
union of almost every style of Christian 
architecture. The choir is the largest 
& one of the finest in the kingdom, & the 
pavement of the chapel of the Holy 
Trinity is worn into hollows by the knees 
of the innumerable pilgrims who here 
worshipped at the shrine of Thomas a 
Beeket. A fine ancient gateway, & some 
remains of St. Augustine's abbey, & of a 
Norman castle, the old Cheequers' Inn, 
immortalized by Chaucer, & the Donjon 
or Danejohn field (now formed, with its 
mound of supposed Danish origin, into a 
beautiful planted walk), may be specified 
as objects of interest. In the immediate 
vicinity are several woollen mills, but 
the chief business is the export of agri- 
cultural produce. Canterbury was, pre^;^ 
vious to the Roman invasion, a place of 
note as a religious institution. It was 
made a princip. station by the Romans, 
& in the 2d century Christianity was intro- 
duced. It subsequ'cntly became the cap. 
of the Saxon kingdom of Kent, under the 
name of Caer-Cant, hence Cantuaria & 

Cantiano, a small fortifd. town of 
Italy, Pontif sta., on the i-iv. Cantiano, 
& on the road from Rome to Pesaro. P. 

Cantillana, a town of Spain, proV 
Sevilla, on r. b. of the Guadalquivir. 
P. 4,121. 




Cantire (Mull of), Scotland. 

Canton, a city & seaport of China, & 
the greatest commercial emporium of 
Asia, cap. prov. Quangtong, on 1. b. of 
the Canton or Pearl riv.,. about 70 m. 
from its mouth, in the China ?ea. Lat. 
23° 6' 9" N., Ion. 113° 15' E. P. estim. 
1,000,000. With its suburbs it occupies 
the N. bank of the river, extending inland 
nearly to a row of heights commanding 
it on the N. & N.E., but between which 
& the city is a broken ravine ; to the S. 
is an alluvial plain, formed hy the delta 
of the river. The city is enclosed by a 
will of brick, on a foundation of red 
sandstone, 6 or 7 m. in circ, & entered by 

12 gates ; it is unequally divided by 
another wall with 4 gates, into the old & 
n3W town. The suburbs are nearly as 
large as the city itself; on tlie S. they 
stretch all along the river side ; & at 
their S.W. corner are the hon^s or Euro- 
pean quarter— a range of buildings about 
IJ furlong in length, built upon a flat 
raised on piles, & separated from the 
riv. by a quay 100 yards in breadth, 
called Respondentia Vf alk. There are 

13 hongri, incluiiing those of the British, 
Dutch, Auierican, French, Austrian, 
Swedish,- "Danish, Parsee, & other mer- 
chants, & which merely consist of 4 or 5 
brick or stone houses, ranged around a 
closed court: 2 of them are partly occu- 
pied by good European hotels. Contig- 
uous to the hongs are Old & New China 
streets, & Hog Lane ; the 2 former are 
".mong the best streets in the suburbs; 
the last is a filthy narrow lane, well- 
known to foreign seamen, & where many 
disturbances between them & the Chinese 
have arisen. . The city & the suburts are 
laid out & built after one fashion. Streets 
narrow and crooked, varying from 2 to 
16 ft., but averaging 7 or 8 ft. in v/idth, 
paved & flagged, each closed by gates 
guarded at night, & each of the trading 
thoroughfares appropriated to one trade. 
Several canals intersect the city, & are 
crossed by stone bridges. A large part 
of the pop. resides on the veater; & for 4 
or 5 miles opposite the city, & both above 
& below, the river is crowded with vessels 
& rafts of all' kinds, on many of which 
large numbei's of poultry are reared. 
Upwards of 120 temples are enumerated 
in & adjacent to Canton, the princijial 
being the remarkable Buddhist temple 
of Ho-nan on art adjacent large island. 
Within the old city are two other con- 
siderable temples, & a- Mohammedan 
mosque, with a dome & minaret 160 ft. 
in height, & .outside of the walls, on the 

N. side, is a lofty pagoda. Canton has 
several hospitals, a grand hall for e.xam- 
ination of candidates for literary honors, 
14 high schools, k about 30 colleges, 3 of 
which have each 200 students. Manufs. 
various and extensive, <fc the shops are 
filled with articles of Chinese workman- 

Canton, t., Oxford co. Me., on the 
Androscoggin r. P. 919. II. t,, Nor- 
folk CO. Mass. It has two ponds which 
afford water power. Boston & Prov. 
railroad passes through the town. Fur- 
naces, forges, & a num. of woollen & cot- 
ton facs. P. 1,995. III. t., Hartford 

CO. Conn., on Farmington r. P. 1,736. 

IV. t., cap. St. Lawrence co. N. Y. 

Watered by Grass r. Marblu found here. 
Copperas & alum manufactured. P. 

4,685. V. t., Bradford co. Pa. Watered 

by Towanda cr. P. 1,254.- VI. t., 

Washington eo. Pa. Coal is abundant. 

Drained by Chartier's cr. P. 1,132.— 

VII. p-t., cap. Stark co. 0. 1 bank. P. 

4,322. VIIL v., Pulton co. 111., on the 

border of a large prairie. P. 762. 

IX. t., Wayne co. Mich. P. 1,081.: X. 

y-Y; oip. Madison co. Miss. 

Cantonment Gibson, p-v., & military 
station in the Indian terr., on the E. side 
of the Leosho r. 5 miles above its entrance 
into Red r. 

Canton River, is the lower part of 
the Pe-kiang, which has a navigable 
course for 300 m. further inland, through 
the provs. Quang-tong & Kiang-see, in 
China,^& is joined about 4 m. W. of Can- 
ton by a branch from the Si-kiang, oppo- 
site Canton ; it is deep enough for ships 
of from 800 to 1,000 tons burden ; but 
foreign ships come up only as far as 
Whampoa, about 15 m. lower, loading & 
unloading by means of native boats. At 
about 40 m. below Canton, it is called the 
Boca Tigris, & widens there into a large 
estuary, termed the " Outer Waters." 

Cantoria, a town of Spain, prov. Al- 
meria, on the Almanzor. P. 4,376. It 
has manufs. of woollen stuifs. 

Canturio, a town of N. Italy. P. 5,364. 
It has manufs. of iron wares, which have 
subsisted since the 10th cent. 

Cany, a comrn.. & town of France, dep. 
Seine Inf. P. l',261. 

Canzano, 2 vills. of Naples, Abruzzo 

-> Canzo, a mkt. town of Lombardy, dc- 
lig. Como. cap. of a rich dist., with many 
silk manufs. Near it is the cascade of 
Villaterga. P. of dist. 11,550. 

Caorlb, an isl. & vill. in the Adriatic, 
,a;ov. Venice. 




Capaccio, a town of Naples, prov, 
princip. Citra, near the ruins of .Pwstum. 
P. 1,740. 

Capdenac, a town of France, dep. Lot, 
on the Lot. P. 1,310. 

Cape. For all Capes not undermen- 
tioned, see the respective names. 

Cape Ann, a prom. Massachusetts, lat. 
(N: light) 42° 33' 21" N., Ion. 70° 34' 
48" W. 

Cape Bretcn, an insular colony of 
■ British N. Amer., at the E. extremity of 
Nova -Scotia, mostly between lat. 45° & 
47° N., & Ion. 60° & 61° 30' W. Extreme 
length from N. to S., 100 m. ; extreme 
breadth, 85 m. Area, 3,120 sq. m. P. 
(in 1852) 27,580. It is very irregularly 
shaped, & greatly indented with bays : 
almost intersected by ah arm of the sea 
called the Bras d'Or. Surface uneven. 
Granite, limestone, & prim, slates pre- 
vail; & gypsum, salt, & coal are found. 
The land to the N. has an elev. of 1,800 
ft. There are several fresh water lalies, 
& numerous rivs., but none navigable. 
Salt springs are found on the coast. The 
climate is varied, but not so rigorous as 
that on the adjoining continent. Vege- 
tation is very rapid. 

Cape Charles, a headland, Maryland, 
on the N. side of the entrance to Chesa- 
peake bay. II. a headland, British N. 

America, Labrador, immed. N. the strait 
of Belieisle. 

Cape Clear, the most S. headland of 
Ireland, Munster, co. Cork, on an island. 
P. 1,052 ; with a light-house on an abrupt 
cliff, 455 ft. above the sea, in lat. 51° 26' 
N., Ion. 9° 29' W. On the isl. are a pier, 
& a ruined castle & church. 

Cape Coast Castle, a town of Africa, 
capi. of the British settlements on the 
coast of N. Guinea. The town has a pop. 
of about 10,000 blacks & 13 Europeans. 
It is regularly built, & its streets are 
lined with trees. The soil in the vicinity 
is well-wooded, but deficient in water ; 
climate damp & unhealthy. 

Cape Cod, a peninsula of Massachu- 
setts, in the Atlantic, lat. of light-house, 
42° 2' 23" N., Ion. 70° 3' 55" W. It is 
"hook-shaped ; 65 m. in length, by 8 in 
average, breadth ; & enploses Cape Cod 

Cape Elizabeth, town. Me., consists 
chiefly of a peninsula. Cape Elizabeth 
is the S.E. point of the town. Another 
cape in the E. part of the town at the 
entrance of Portland harbor. P. 1.666. 

Cape Fear, a headld., N. Carolina, 
forming the S. point of Smith's lidand, 
at the mouth of Cape Fear riv., lat. 33° 

48' N., Ion. 78° 9'W. - Steamers may 
proceed at low water for 90 m. up the 

Cape Fear River, N. C. It is navi- 
gable by steamboats 90 miles. 

Cape Frio, a promontory on the coast 
of Brazil, 80 m. E. Rio Janiero, forms 
the terminus of the ridge of mountains 
which run parallel to the coast, & consists 
of a huge oval mass of granite. Elev. 
1,570 feet. 

Cape Girardeau, county, in the S.E. 
part of Mo. on the Mississippi riv., con- 
tains 864 sq. m. drained by White river. 
Iron ore & other minerals. P. 13,912. 
Cap. Jackson. 

Cape of Good Hope, an important 
colony of Great Britain, occupying the 
S. part of the peninsula of Africa, betw. 
lat. 29° 41' & 34° 51' S., & Ion. 17° 10' & 
27°32'E. Length, 550 m.;, 250 m. 110,000 sq.m. P. 179,709, 
mostly Africans, Dutch, Negroes, & a 
small number of Hottentots. The coun- 
try is formed of a series of terraces rising 
in successive stages from S. to N. The 
chief mntn. chains are the Drankensteen, 
Zwellendam, Zwartenberg, & Sneeuw- 
Bergen, in which last is the Spitzkbp, 
the culminating point of the whole, esti- 
mated at- 10,250 ft. in elevation. Table- 
mntn., at the S.W. extremity of the col- 
ony, is an insulated flat topped mass, • 
3,582 ft. in height, the S. point of which 
forms the promontory of the Cape of 
Good Hope, 1,000 feet in elev. It was 
discovered by Diaz, a Portuguese admi- 
ral, in 1486, & called by him " Cape of 
Storms." Cape Agulhas, the next re- 
markable promontory, is the southmost 
point of Africa, in lat. 34° 51' S., Ion. 20° 
2' E. The most extensive plain is the 
Great Karoo, an arid tract upwards of 
200 m. in length, & 50 m. in breadth, be- 
tween the Zwarteveld, & the Nieuwveld, 
mntns. The only passage from one ter- 
race to another is through the Kloofs, 
narrow & difficult mntn. gorges ; some 
of these have been made passable for 
wheeled carriages, but the roads in gen- 
eral are very bad. The principal bays 
are St. Helena, Table, False, St. Se- 
bastian, Mossel, Plettenberg, & Algoa. 
Streams are numerous, but rapid, mostly 
dry in summer & unfit for navigation ; 
the chief are, Keiskamma, Great Fish, 
Bushman, Sunday, Camtoos & Breede, 
Berg & Elephant, & sev'l small streams 
tributary to the Orange. Climate mild 
& healthy, but very dry ; rains irregular, * 
often falling in torj^ents on the coast, but 
rare in the plains of the interior. Snow 




falls only in the mntns., & is not perma- 
nent, even on the most elevated. Corn 
is raised more than requisite for con- 
sumption, & the cultivation of the vine is 
an important source of wealth; a good 
white vine is produced in the interior, but 
only the small vineyard at the foot of 
Table mntn. produces the celeb. liqueur 
called Constantia. Cattle rearing is the 
chief branch of rural industry ; & the in- 
troduction of the Merino sheep has ren- 
dered tie rural trade of the colony im- 
portant. The coasts abound with mack- 
erel & herrings. Some of the wild ani- 
mals of Africa are still met ^?ith, but the 
larger species decrease in proportion as 
colonization extends. The lion, hyena, 
buffalo, hippopotamus, & zebra are occa- 
sionally seen ; the rhinoceros is rare, & 
the elephant is driven beyond the bound- 
ary. The ostrich & eagle are found in 
the mountains, &. snakes are numerous. 
The commerce of the colony is extensive ; 
the ports are Cape town & Simon's town 
in the W., & fort Elizabeth in the E. 
The boars or farmers of the Cape colony, 
descendants of the original Dutch set- 
tlers, have lost much of their ancestral 
industry & cleanliness ; they are affec- 
tionate in their family relations, & strict 
in religious observances, but prejudiced 
& illiterate. Education has been long 
neglected in the colony ; the only institu- 
tions of importance were, till lately, the 
S. African college & the S. Ai'rican insti- 
tution at Cape town ; but a comprehen- 
sive system embracing primary & classi- 
cal schools, was instituted by the gov- 
ernment in 1839. In 1851 war broke out 
with the Caffre tribes on the N. frontier 
of the colony, & it has been carried on 
to this date (Oct. 1852), with great loss & 

Cape Hatteeas, a headld., U. S., N. 
Amer., N. Carolina, at the angle of a 
long reef which lines the coast. Lat. 35° 
14' N., Ion. 75° 30' W. 

Cape Haytien, a seaport town of the 
island of Bayti, on its N. coast, 90 m. N. 
Port au Prince. Lat. 19° 40' N., Ion. 
69° 54' W. P. 6,000. Previously to the 
Ilaytian revolution it was a handsome 
city, & it still has some fine buildings, 
with a secure & tolerably defended harb. 
& a considerable trade, chiefly with the 
U. States, Gt. Britain, France, & Germ'y. 

Cape Horn, or Hoorn, the most S. 
point of America, on the last isl. of the 
Eugeian archip. It is a lofty, steep, 
bare, black rock, with pointed summits, 
& was formerly considered very danger- 
ous to pass. 

Cape Island, p-v., Cape May co. 
N. J., in the extreme S. point of the 
state, on the shore of the Atlantic. Here 
are a number of boarding-houses, & sev- 
eral large hotels. The place affords 
great facilities for sea-bathing & fishing. 

Cape La Hogue, a headld. of France, 
Normandy, dep. Manche, forming the 
N.W. extremity of ttie penins. Cotentin, 
in the English channel, opposite the isl. 

Capellades, an episcop. town of Spain, 
prov. Barcelona. P. 2,798. It has man- 
ufactures of cloth & paper, & brandy 

Capelle (La), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Aisne. P. of comm. 1,514. 

II. (JMarival), a vilL, dep. Lot. P. 

1,331. — Also several vills., mostly in the 
central deps. 

Capelle-op-den Bosch, a viU. of 
Belgium, prov. S. Brabant. P. 2,500. 

Cape May, N. J., cape, on the N. side 
of the entrance into Delaware bay. — 

It is a fashionable bathing place. 

II. county, N. J., in the S. part of the 
state. Surface level ; watered by Tuck- 
ahoe riv. It has several lagunes, or salt- 
water lakes. P. 6,433. Cap. Cape May 
c. H. II. c. H., p-v.. Cape M. co. N. J. 

Cape Mount, a riv. of W. Africa, 
which falls into the Atlantic ocean, in lat. 
6°44'N., Ion. 11°25' W. 

.CapeNeddock, York co. Me., a head- 
land, extending in the Atlantic. 

Cape Kiver, a large riv. of Cent. 
America, Nicaragua & Mosquito Country, 
enters the Carib. sea, at Cape Gracios a 
Dios, after a N.E. course, estimated at 
from 250 to 300 m., through a territory 
mostly of high fertility. It is navigable 
from the sea for a considerable distance 
inland; beyohd which its course is im- 
peded by numerous cataracts & shallows. 
The city Segovia is near its source 

Capestang, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Herault. P. 1,831. 

Capesteehe (La), or Le Marigot, a 
town of the isl. Guadeloupe, French An- 
tilles. P. 3,784, of whom 3,089 are 
slaves. II. a town of Marie Galante. 

Cape Town, a fortifd. seaport town of 
S. Africa, cap. of the Cape colony on its 
W. coast at the N. declivity of Table 
mntn., & on the S.W. shore of Table bay. 
P. 22,543. The town,' which is situ, in a 
plain, is regularly laid out in the Dutch 
style, with canals in the princip. streets. 
From its situation, facing the noon-day 
sun, & backed by naked mntns., the town 
is exposed to excessive heat, & is often 
intolerable from dust ; it is also exposed 




to violent gales from the S.E. The only 
public building of importance is the 
governor's house, a plain but spacious 
edifice. It has a royal marine observa- 
tory, & a rnagnetic observatory. The 
educational establishments are the S. 
African college, & the S. African insti- 
tution, a good public library, & a 
valuable private botanic garden. There 
is a government bank which issues notes, 
& a joint stock bank with a branch at 
Graham's town. Table bay is capacious 
enough to contain any number of vessels, 
but is exposed to AV. winds, which from 
June to August produce heavy swells.' 

Cape Verd, the most W. cape of 
Africa, in the Atlantic ocean, betw. the 
rivers Senegal & Gambia. Lat. 14° 43' 
N., Ion. 17° 34' W. Its name is derived 
from a group of enormous baobab-trees 
which crowns its summif-. — The isls. of 
Cape Verd are situated 320 m. W. of the 
cape. The archip. consists of the follow- 
ing 10 isls.: Sal, Boavista, Mayo, Santi- 
ago, the largest, Fogo^ Brava, Grande, 
Ilombo, S. Nicolao, & S.Luz'ia, & 4 islets, 
Branco, Razo, S. Vicente, & S. Antao. 
Area estim. at 1,680 sq. m. P. 67,000 ; 
the white pop. in the whole archip. is to 
the colored as 1 to 20. The surface of 
the isls. is in general mntns., & some of 
their peaks have a considerable elevation. 
The volcano of Fogo is 9. 157 ft. in height. 
The soil is extremely various, but mostly 
fertile ; the absence of trees & the scarcity 
of water are the causes of frequent & 
severe distress. Climate very bot, but 
tempered by the sea breezes. Chief 
vegetable products, maize, rice, & French 
beans. Coffee, introduced in 1790, has 
completely succeeded ; tropical fruits are 
abundant. Cattle are extensively reared, 
& dried & salted provisions, form a con- 
siderable article of export. Amber is, 
found on all the coasts, which are fre- 
quented by immense numbers of turtle. 
The natives are quiet & docile, but ex- 
tremely indolent. Agriculture & the 
preparation of salt are chief branches of 
industry ; linens, pottery-ware, soap, & 
leather are manufactured in some of the 

Cape-Whath, forms the N.W. extrem- 
ity of Scot!., CO. Sutherlnud. It is a 
pyramid of gneiss rising to 300 ft., & 
having on it a light-house, with a light 
400 ft. above the sea. 

Capestrano, & Capisthello, 2 small 
towns of Naples. 

Capitanata, -a prov. of Naples, 
bounded N. & E. by the Adriatic ;'' cap. 
Foggia. Climate very warm. Its pas- 

tures are rich, & many cattle are reared. 
Chief produce, wine, saffron, fruit, & salt. 
P. 304,323. 

Capivari, a modern town of Brazil, 
prov. Kio de Janeiro. P. 3,000. 

Capiz, a city of the Philippines, cap. 
of the isl. Panay, on its N. coast. P. 

Capizzi, a town of Sicily, intend. Mes- 
sina. P. 3,400. 

Capo. d'Istria, a fortfd. seaport town 
of Austria, lUyria, gov. Triest. on a rock 
in the gulf of Triest, connected by a 
bridge with the mainland, 8 m. S.W. 
Triest. P. 5,981. 

Capon Springs, Hampshire co. Va. 

Caposelle, a tovra of Naples, prov. 
princip. Cit. P. 3,734. 

Cappaghwhite, a town of Ireland, 
Munster, co. Tipperarj'. P-. 1,046. In 
the' vicinity are some copper mines. 

CappAnacushy, a group of islets, 
Irel., Munster, co. Kerry, at the head of 
the estuary. 

Cappel, a vill. of Switzerland, Cant. 

Cappoquin, a town of Ireland, Mun- 
stei', CO. Waterford, on the Blackwater. 
P. 2,341. 

Capracotta, a town of Naples, prov. 
Molise. P. 2,780. 

Capraja, an isl. of the Sard, states, 
Medilerr., with port of same name, on E. 
side of Corsica. It is mntnous., & pro- 
duces a considerable quantity of wine 
& oil. 

Caprera, a small isl. off the Mediterr., 
N.E. coast of Sardinia. 

Caprese, a small town of Tuscany, 
prov. Arezzo. P. 1,560. 

Capri, an isl. of Naples, dist. Castel- 
lamare, at the S. entrance of the bay of 
Naples. It is entirely mntnous., coasts 
steep & inaccessible, except at the port 
of Capri, a small town with a fine cathed., 
a large seminary, & a pop. of 2,500, on 
its S. side. 

Capriata, a vill. of Sard, states, Pied- 
mont, prov. Novi. P. 2,365. 

Capriati, a town of Naples, prov. T. 
di Lavoro. P. 2,200. 

Capricorn Isls., a small group of isls. 
& rocks off the E. coast of Australia, on 
the tropic of Capricorn. 

Caprino,, two towns of N. Italy. 1. 

deleg. Bergamo, with extens. silk mills. 

P. 1,600. II. ccip. dist. deleg. Verona. 

P. 3,40». 

Caprvke, a town of -Belgium, prov. B. 
Flanders. P. 3,829. It has several brew- 
eries, & trade in timber. 

Capua, a city of Naples, cap. prov. T. 




di Lavoro, on the Volturno. P. 8,100. 
It was fortfd. by Vauban, & is consid. one 
of the keys of the kingdom. 

Capua, a town, Colombia, New Gra- 
nada, dep. Panama. 

Capurso, a town of Naples, cap. circ., 
prov. Bari. P. 2,760. 

Cara, an islet of Scotland, co. Argyle, 
off its W. coast. 

Caeaeaya, a small town of S. America, 
Bolivia, dep. La Paz. 

Carabobo, a prov. of Venezuela, S. 
America, with a, small town. 

Caracas, or Caeaccas, the cap. city 
of Venezuela, S. America, dep. & prov. 
Caracas, lat. 10° 30' 13" N., on a decliv- 
ity, 2,880 ft. in elevation, & 16 m. S.S.E 
La Guayra, its port, on the Carrlbean 
sea. P. estim. from 35,000 to 50,000. It 
is regularly built, well supplied with 
water, & has a healthy climate. Exports 
from La Guayra consist principally of 
cacao, cotton, indigo, tobacco, coffee, 
hides, & live cattle. B-y the earthquake 
of 1812, 12,000 persons perished; since 
which time most of its houses have been 
constructed of sun-dried bricks. It is the 
seat of a university, & the residence of 
the principal merchants, on whose account 
the trade of La Guayra is conducted. 

Caraglio, a town of Sard, states. Pied- 
mont. P. with comm.^,268. It has 
manufs. of silks, & 5 annual fairs, 

Caramagna, a vill. of Piedmont, div. 
Coni, prov. Saluzzo. P. (with comm.) 

Caraman, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. IL Garonne. P. 1,381. 

Caramanico, a town of Naples, prov. 
Abruzzo Citra. P. 3,300. 

Caramnassa, a riv. of British India, 
presid. Bengal, tribut. to the Ganges, & 
separating the old provs. Bahar & Be- 
nares. It is regarded with great abhor- 
rence by the Hindoos, who consider con- 
tact with its waters sufficient to undo all 
their good works & austerities. Hence its 
name, "the destruction of pious works." 

Caranj^, an isl. of British India, pre- 
sid. Bombay, in Bombay harbor. 

Carapella, a riv. of Naples, prov. 
Capi4;anata, after a N.E. course of about 
48 m. enters the Adriatic. 

Carasco, a vill. of the Sard, states, 
prov. Chiavari. P. 2J56. 

Carate, a town of Lombardy. P. 

Caravaca, a town of Spain, prov. 
Murcia, on an affl. of the Segura. P. 
9,910. It has a college, & a ruined cas- 
tle. In a mountain W. of the town is 
the stalactitic cavern of Barquilla. 

Caravaggio, a town of N. Italy, Lom- 
bardy, deleg. Bergamo. P. 5,998. It ia 
the birth-place of the renowned painters 
Polidoro Caldara & Michael Angelo 

Caravanchel, two contiguous vills. 
of Spain, prov. & near Madrid. 

Caravellas, a seaport town of Brazil, 
cap. Comarea, prov. Bahia, dist. Porto 
Seguro, on N. side of the bay of Cara- 
vellas in the Atlantic. It is well built ; 
& from its port, which is one of the best 
frequented in the prov., manioc flour & 
coffee are exported to Eio, Bahia, & Per- 
nambuco. P. of dist. 5,000. 

Carabajales, two towns of Spain. 

Carballo, a vill. of Spain, prov. Co- 
rmia,, with well-frequented minrl. sprlhga 
& baths. P. 365. 

Carbery, a dist. of Ireland, Mungter, 
forming the S. part of the co. Cork. 

Carbet (Le), a town of Martinique, 
cap. quarter, on ^Y. side of the isl. S. 
of the town is the Piton de Carbet, a vol- 
canic mntn. 5,200 (?) ft. in elevation. P. 
4,037,(2,860 slaves). 

Carbon, a new co. of Pa. P. 15,686. 

Cakbonara. several towns of Italy, 

&c. 1. Naples, prov. princip. Ult. P. 

2,800. II. prov. Bari. -P. 1,600. 

III- a vill. of Lombardy, on the Po. P. 

1,900. IV. a town of European Turkey, 

Albania, on the Vonizza. 

Careonara (Cape), lorms the S.E. ex- 
tremity of the isl. Sardinia. 

Carbon-Blanc, a' comm. & vill. of 
France, dep. Gironde. P. 1,894. 

Carbond-ale, "p-v., Luzerne co. Pa., on 
Laekawana cr. • This vill. owes its exist- 
ence to the Laekawana coal mine. Fall 
Brook in this vill. has a cascade 80 feet 
high. P. 4,945, 

Carbone, a town of Naples, prov. Ba- 
silicata. P. 2,620, 

Carbonera-el-Mayor, a modern town 
of Spain, prov. Segovia. P. 2,051. 

Careonne, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. H. Garonne. P. 1,328. 

OarcaBuey, a town of Sp,ain, prov. 
Cordova. P. 3,995. 

Carcajente, a 'town of Spain, prov. 
Valencia. P. 6,150. It is well built, & 
prosperous. Linen & woollen manufs. 

Cargavellos, a vill, of Portugal, prov. 
Estremadura, & famous for its wine 
(known in commerce as Calcavella). 

Carcassonne, a comm. & city of S. 
France, cap. dep. Aude, on the Aude & 
the Canal du Midi. P. 15,380. It is 
divided into the old city, & the new town, 
by the river, here crossed by a bridge of 
10 arches. The old city stands on elev. 




ground, & is interesting " as retaining 
ttnchanged, to a greater extent perhaps 
than any other town of France, the aspect 
of a fortress of the middle ages." It is 
enclosed by walls of great solidity, por- 
tions of which are supposed to be as old 
as the time of the Visigoths. It has been 
celeb, since the 12fch cent, for its manufs. 
of cloth, which are still important. Trade 
in agricultural produce is extensive. 

.Carcelen, a town of Spain, prov. Al- 
bacete. It has a school of primary in- 
struction, a celebrated annual fair in 
August, & numerous Koman ruins. 

Cahces, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Var, on the Argens. P. 2,101. Silk 
weaving, distilleries, & tanneries. 

Carculla, a town of Br. India, presid. 
Madras, dist. Canara. 

Cardaillac, a comm. & markt. town 
of France, dep. Lot. P. 1,260. 

Cardiff, a pari. & munic. bor. & sea- 
port of S. Wales, cap. co. Glamorgan, on 
the Taaf, here crossed by a fine 5 arched 
bridge. P. 10,077. The trade of Cardiff 
is large & increasing, it having become 
the port of Merthyr Tydvil, & the great 
outlet for the mining dist. of S. Wales. 

Cardigan, a pari. & munic. bor. sea- 
port town, & pa. of S. Wales, cap. co. on 
the Tewy, 5 m. from its entrance into St. 
George's channel. P. 2,925. Vessels 
exceeding 300 tons can enter the harbor, 
but a bar at its mouth renders the pass- 
age dangerous in rough weather. 

Cardigan BAY,un inlet of St. George's 
channel, Wales, between Braoh-y-Pwll 
& Stumble Headlands. , 

Cardiganshire, a co. of S. Wales. 
Pop. 68,766. Surface level on the coast ; 
mntnous. in the interior, but intei'spersed 
with fertile valleys. Plinlimmon, 2,463 
ft. in height, is in its F.E. part. Chf. 
rivs. the Teify, Dovy, Ridol, Ystwith, 
Arth, & Towey. Princip. industry is the 
rearing of live stock. 

Cardinale, a town of Naples, prov. 
Calab. Ult. P. 2,500. 

Cahdito, a vill. of S. Italy, prov. 
Naples, dist. Casoria. P. 3,220. 

Cardiva, one of the Maldive islands, 
Indian ocean, lat. 5° N. Ioq. 73° 40' E. 

Cardona, a town of Spain, prov. Bar- 
celona. P. 2,366. 

Careggi, a vill. of Tuscany. 

Cahennac, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Lot, with 1,000 inhabs. 

Carentan, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Manohe. P. 2,559. Manufs. of 
lace & cotton, & export trade in cattle, 
hogs, & corn. 

Carentoir, a comra. & vill. of France, 

cap. cant., dep. Morbihan. P. 5,277. 
Trade in cider & butter. 

Caresana, a vill. of Piedmont, div. 
Novara. P. 2,716. 

Carhaix, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Finistere. P. 1,827. 

Cariaco, a marit. town of S. Amer., 
Venezuela, prov. & 40 m. E. Cumana, in 
a fine plain watered by the Cariaco riv., 
near the head of the gulf of Cariaco. 
P. 7,000.— The G-idf of Cariaco is 40 m. 
in length W. to E., by 10 m. in greatest 
breadth, has in all pts. good anchorage, 
& has richly wooded shores. 

Cariati, a seaport town of Naples, 
prov. Calab. Citra. P. 1,400. 

Caribbean Sea, that portion of the 
Atlantic ocean which extends between 
Central & S. Amer., & the isls. of Cuba, 
Hayti, & Porto Rico, communicating on 
the W. with the gulf of Mexico. 

Carife, a town of Naples, prov. Prin- 
cip. Ult., in the Apennines. P. 2,230. 
It has a colleg. church & superior 

Carignan, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Ardennes, on the Chiers. P. 1,792. 
Tile & brick-works. 

Carignano, a town of Piedmont, prov. 
Turin, near 1. b. of the Po. P. 7,873. 

Carimata Isl., a small isl. in the 
China sea, in the middle of the Carimata 
or Billiton Strait, between the isls. Bor- 
neo & Billiton. Peak 2,000 feet high.— 
Carimata-passage, between Borneo & 
Billiton, is 120 m. across. 

Carimons, several isls. of the Asiat. 

archipelago. 1. {Great 4" Little), in 

the strait of Malacca. II. {Carimon- 

Java), a group N. of Java. 

Carinena, a town - of Spain, prov. 
Zaragoza. P. 2,648. 

Carini, a town of Sicily, intend. Pa- 
lermo. P. 7,000. 

Carinthia, a prov. of Austria. 

Carinhenha, a town of Brazil, prov. 
Bahi.a, on 1. b. of the San Francisco, & at 
the mouth of the Carinhenha. P. 2,000. 

Carinoi.a, a town of Naples, prov. T. 
di Lavoro. P. 4,815. Its vicinity pro- 
duces esteemed wine. 

Caripe, a town & valley of S. Amer., 
Venezuela, prov. Cumana, the valley 
noted for a cavern frequented by a spe- 
cies of night hawk, the young of which 
are destroyed in vast numbers for the 
sake of their fat. 

Gahla-le-Comte, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Ariege. P. 1,842. 

Carlbe, a vill. of British India, pre- 
sid. Bombay, famous for some remark- 
able cave temples, probably of Buddhio 




origin. The principal of these 6,000 ft. 
above the sea, is one of the finest exca- 
vations of its kind in India. 

Carlentini, a town of Sicily, intend. 

Carlet, a town of Spain, prov. Va- 
lencia, on the Requena. P. 3,822. Trade 
in grain, fruit, & wine. Linen weaving. 

Carlingford, a marit. town of Ire- 
larid, CO. Louth, on the S. shore of Car- 
lingford bay. P. 1,110. 

Carlinville, p-v., cap. of Macoupin 
CO. 111. Here is a Presbyterian theolo- 
gical seminary. 

Carlisle, t., Middlesex co., on Con- 
cord r. II. p-t., Schoharie co. N. Y. 

In its vicinity are numerous caverns. 

P. 1,850. III. p-v., cap. Cumberland 

CO. Penn. The place is regularly laid 
out with streets crossing at right angles. 
Dickinson college is located here. It has 
a president, 7 professors, 600 alumni, & 
a library of 10,600 vols. P. 4,351.— 
IV. p-v., cap. Nicholas co. Ky., on a 
small branch of Licking r. V. t., Lor- 
raine CO. 0., watered by branches of 
Black r., which afford good mill seats. 
P. 1,094. 

Carlisle, a city & river-port of Eng- 
land, cap., CO. Cumberland, on a gentle 
eminence, near the -eonfl. of Eden, Cal- 
dew, & Petrie rivs., at the termination 
of the London & N.W. railway. P. 23,- 
012. Its principal streets diverge from 
an irregularly shaped mkt. place, & are 
wide, handsome, & well-paved, & sup- 
plied with water. 

Carloforte, a town, Sard, sta., on the 
isl. San Pietro, near the S.W. coast of 
the island Sardinia. P. 3,235. It has 
extensive fisheries & important salt 

Carlopago, a seaport town of Aus- 
trian Croatia, on the Adriatic. P. 960. 
Active trade in wine, timber, & fish. 

Carlopoli, a town of Naples, prov. 
Calab. Ult. P. 2,200. 

Carlos (San), a town of S. Amer., 
Chile, cap. prov. & on N.W. coast of Chi- 
loe Island. 

.Carlos (San), a town of S. Amer., 
Venezuela, in a valley on the Aguare. 
P. 10,000. {!) 

Carlota (La), a town of Spain, prov. 
& 17 m. S.S.W. Cordova. P. 3,252. 

Carlow, an inland co. of Ireland, 
Leinster. Area 346 sq. m. P. (in 1840) 
86,228, (in 1850) 68,157. Surface, ex- 
cept in the S. flat. Princip. rivs., the 
Barrow & Slaney. 

Carlow, a town of Irel., cap. above 
CO., at the confl. of the Burren with the 

navig. Barrow. P. 8,734. It is clean & 

Carlsbad, a town of Bohemia, ciro. 
Elbogen, on the Tdpel, Prague, famous 
for its hot springs. Inhab. 3,000. It is 
the most aristocratic watering-place in 

Carlscrona, a marit. lasn or prov. in 
the S. of Sweden, between lat. 56° & 56° 
30' N., having S. & E. the Baltic. Area 
1,132 sq. m. P. 95,807. Principal 
towns Carlscrona & Carlshamn. 

Carlscrona, a seaport town of Swe- 
den, & the principal station of the Swedish 
navy, cap. Issn, near the S. extremity of 
the kgdm., on 5 small isls. in the Baltic, 
connected by bridges with each other & 
the mainland. P. 12,200. It has an ex- 
tensive & safe harbor, with depth of 
water sufficient for the largest ships. 

Carlsdal, the name of some extensive 
iron- works, with a cannon -foundry & 
manufs. of arms, Sweden. 

Carlshamn, a fbrtfd. seaport town of 
Sweden, on the Baltic. P. 4,040. 

Caelso. a small isl. in the Baltic, W. 
of Gothland. 

Carlsruhe, a city of "W. Germany, 
cap. grand duchy of Baden, & of the circ. 
of Midd. Pihine, on the railw. from Mann- 
heim to Basle, 4 m. E. of the Rhine. P. 
23,748. Its principal streets converge 
" like rays" towards the palace as a cen- 
tre, facing which is a fine circus, with the 
government offices. The grand ducal 
palace has a tower commanding a fine 
view, a museum, & a library of 80,000 

Carlstad, a Isen or prov. of Sweden, 
having. S. Lake Wener & Wenersborg, 
W- Norway. Area, 6,929 sq. m. P. 
195,546. Surface mountainous or hilly, 
interspersed with numerous lakes & rivs. ; 
the princip. of the latter is the Clara. The 
prov.. comprises some rich iron mines, 
& the towns Carlstad & Christineham. 

■Carlstad, an inland town of Sweden, 
cap. above Isen, on the isl. Tingvalla, 
near the N. shore of Lake Wener. P. 
3,040. It is regularly built, & has a 
handsome cathedral, a college with li- 
brary & observatory. 

Carlton, p-t., Orleans eo. N. Y., on 
Lake Ontario. P. 2,275. 

Carluke, a munic. bor. of Scotl., co' 
Lanark. P. 4,802. 

Carlysle, p-v., cap. Clinton co. 111., 
on the W. side of Kaskaskia r., 215 m. 
above its mouth. 

Carmagnola, a town of the Sard, sta., 
Piedmont, on the Po, prov. Turin. P. 
with comm. 12,382. It is well built ; its 




princip'. squares & streets are ornamented 
with porticoes. 

Caumaux, a eomm. & town of France, 
dep. Tarn, on the Ceron. P. 1,951. Ex- 
tens, coal mines in its vicinity. 

Carmel, p-t., cap. Putnam co. N.Y. 
In this town & vicinity are small lakes 
from some of which the head-waters of 
the Croton r. proceed. P. 2,442. — —II. 

t., Penobscot co. Me. III. (Mount), 

a famous mntn. of Palestine, forming the 
extremity of a range of hills, which ex- 
tend N.W. from the plain of Esdraelnn, 
rounding the bay of Acre on its S. side, 
& terminating in a steep promontory in 
the Mediterranean, elev. about 1,500 ft. 

Carmen, an isl. of Central Amer., Yu- 
catan, in the gulf of Mexico, 90 m. S.Vf. 
Campeachy, & bounding the Lake Ter- 
minos on the north. 

Carmen, an isl., gulf of California, 
immed. opposite Loreto. It contains a 
large salt lake, with a solid crust of salt 
several feet thick. 

Carmen, a township, of Ireland, Lein- 
ster, CO. Kildare. Hero are Druidical 

Carmen (El), a town of Buenos 
Ayres, on Eio Negro, 18 m.from its mouth 
in the Atlantic, & 500 m. S.W. Buenos 
Ayres. P. 2,000. 

Carmignano, a market town of Tus- 
cany, in the Val d'Ombrone, prov. Flo- 
rence. P. 1,389. 

Carmoe, an isl. of Norway, stift Chris- 
tiansand, cant. Stavanger, in the N. sea. 
L. 21 m., aver. br. 5 m. P. 6,390. 

Carmona, a city of Spain, prov. Se- 
villa. P. 13,072. It is picturesquely 
sit. on an isolated hill. 

Carmy, p-v., cap. White co. 111., on the 
W. bank of Little Wabash r. 

Carnac, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Morbihan. P. 3,437. The village 
* is remarkable for the druidical monu- 
ments in its vicinity. These consist of 
more than 5,000 granite blocks in the 
form of obelisks, on their points, 
& disposed in 11 rows parallel with the 
■* Carnai-rayaga, a vill. of N. Hihdos- 

tan, dist. Grurbwal, & one of tbe principal 
holy places of Hindoo pilgrimage. 

Carnatic (The), one of the old sub- 
divisions of India, constituting formerly 
the dotn. of Nabobs of Areot. 

Carneillb (La) & Carnet, two vills. 
of France, Normandy; the former dep. 
Orne, the latter dep. Manehe. 

Carnesville, p-v., cap. Franklin co. 

Carnew, a township of Irel., Leinster, 

CO. Wicklow. The town is well built, & 
has remains of a castle. 

Carnicobar, the most N. of the Nico- 
bar isls., bay of Bengal. It is about 40 
m. in cii'C, low, densely wooded & very 
productive, but unhealthy. 

Caenieres, a comm. & vill. of Bel- 
gium, prov. Hainault. P. 1,975. Ex- 
tens, coal mines & iron foundries & man- 
ufactures of nails, employing 300 work- 

Cahniola, aprov. of Austria. [Ksain.] 

Carnoustie, a marit. vill. of Scotl., co. 
Forfar. P. 1,268. - 

Carnsore Point, a headland forming 
the S.E. extremity of the Irish mainland, 

Caroche, a town of S. Amer., Vene- 
zuela, dep. Zulia, prov. Truxillo. 

Carolina (La), a town of Spain, prov. 

Jaen. P. 1,739. II. a town of S. 

America, Venezuela, dep. Orinoco, on the 

Arui. III. a t., dep. Cundinamarca, 

prov. Antioquia. 

Caroline, county, Md. in the E. part 
of the state, between Delaware & a branch 
of Choptauk r. * P. 9,692. Cap. Denton. 

II. county, Va., in tjie E. part of the 

state, bounded N. lay Rappahannock r. 

P. 18,456. Cap. Bowling Green. III. 

p-t., Tompkins co. N. Y. ; drained by W. 
Osw.ego & Six-mile era. 40 saw-mills. 
P; 2,4.57. 

Caroline Islands, or New Philip- 
pines, one of the great archips, of Oce- 
ania, Isetw. the Philippines, the Marian- 
nes, the Marshall isls. & Papua, & in- , 
eluding the Pelew isls. extend from W. 
to E. over a space of 2,000 m. They are 
divided into numerous groups. 

Caroline Isl., one of the Marquesas 
group, S. Pacific, lying N. of Eimeo, a low 
lying strip of land covered with verdure, 
about 5 m. in circumference. 

Carolinensyhl, a marit. vill. of Han- 
over, on the N. sea. P. 1,500. 

Cahomb, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Vaucluse. P. 2,100. 

Caron, a mi-kt. town of S. Wales, co 
Cardigan, on the Berwyn. 

Caronpelet, p-v., St. Louis co. Mo., 
on the AV. bank of the Mississippi. P. 

Caronia, a marit. town of Sicily, in- 
tend. Messina, on the N. coast of the isl. 
P. 2,200. 

Carony, a riv. of S. America, Vene- 
zuela, dep. Orinoco, rises in the Sierra 
Paoaraima, & after a generally N.-ward 
course of perhaps 400 m., joins the Ori- 
noco, 85 m. E. Angostura. 

Caroor, a town of Brit India, presid. 




Madras, on the Carery r. Near it are a 
fort & largo temple. 

Carora, a town of S. America, Vene- 
zuela, prov. &95m. S.W. Coro. P. 6,200. 
(?) It is well built, & has manufs. of 
saddlery, leather, ropes, hammocks. 
' Carotto, a vill. of Naples, on the 
S.E. side of the bay of Naples. 

Cahouge, a town of Switzerland, cant. 
Geneva, on 1. b. of the Arve. P. 4,400. 
It is regularly built, finely situated, & 
surrounded by elegant villas. Manufs. 
thread, watches, clay pipes, & leather. 

Carovigno, a town of .Naples, prov. 
Otranto. P. 3,000. 

Carovilh, a town of Naples, prov. 
Molise. P. I,90&^. 

Caepane, a vill. of N. Italy, gov. Ve- 
nice, on 1. b. of the Brenta. P. 1,750. 

Carpathian Mountains, form the 
N.E. porlion of the mntn. system of S. 
Europe, & extend, nearly in the form of 
a semicircle. They consist of a series of 
mntn. groups, connected by elev. plateaus. 
The culminating point is the Lomnitzer 
spitze, in the Tatra group, 8,779 ft. in 
elcv. ; the lower peaks vary fiom 200 to 
3,000 ft. They are extremely rich in met- 
als, including gold, silver, copper, lead, 
mercury, & rock salt ; their valleys pro- 
duce excellent grain, & their sides are cov- 
ered with valuable forests. 

Carpenedolo, a town of N. Italy, 
Lombardy. P. 4,500. 

Carpentaria (Gulf of), a large gulf 
of the S. Pacific ocean, indenting deeply 
the N. coast of Australia, between capes 
Arnhem & York. Average length & 
breadth about 350 miles each. Coasts 
generally low, but on the W. greatly in- 

Carpentras, a comm. & t. of France, 
dep. Vaucluse, on the Auzon. P. 7,691. 
It is surrounded by anc. walls. Chief 
edifices, a cathed., palace of justice, hos- 
pital, a modern aqueduct, & a Roman 
triumphal arch. It has a public library 
& museums, & is an entrepot for the pro- 
ducts of the S. of France. 

Carpi, two fortfd. towns of N. Italy, 

1, duchy Modena, on the canal of 

Carpi. P. 5,000. II. a town, gov. 

Venice, oa rt. b. of the Adige. 

Cahpignano, a vill. of Sard, sta, 

Piedmont. P. 2,171. II. a vill. of 

Naples, prov. Otranto. P. 1,000. 

Carpineti, a town of N. Italy, duchy 
Modena. P. 1,400.— — Carpineto is the 
name of several vills. in the Pontif. states, 

Carpino, a town of Naples, prov. 
Capitanato, on Mt. iSargano. P. 5,300. 

It is also the name of a mountain in 

Carpio, a small town of Spain, prov. 
Cordova, on the Guadalquivir. P. 2,696. 

Carpio (El), a town of Spain, prov. 
Toledo, near r. b. of the Tagus. P. 2,488. 

II. prov. & 35 m. S.W. Valladolid. 

P. 941. 

Carquefoit, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Loire Inf. P. 2,626. 

Carranca, a town of Brazil, in dist. 
of same name, erected in 1841, prov. Mi- 
nas-Geraes, on upp. course of the Rio 
Grande. P. of dist. 4,000. 

Carran-Tual, the highest mntn. of 
Ireland,- Munster, co. jKerry. Elev. 
3,414 ft. 

Carrar, Or considerable town of India, 

Carraha, a city of Italy, duchy Mo- 
dena, on the Avenza. P .6,115. It has a 
coll. an acad. of the fine arts, & an active 
industry in the preparation of marble. 

Carrega, a vill. of Sard, states, div. 
Genoa. P. (with comm.) 3,334. 

Carriacou, the largest of the Grena- 
dine isls. (British W. Indies), 20 m. N.E. 
Grenada. Length, 7 m., breadth, from 
2 to 4 m. It is well cultiv. ; chf crop cotton. 

Cahrickbeg, a town of Ireland, Mun- 
ster, CO. Waterford, on the Suir. P. 2,680. 

Carrickfergus, a seaport of Ireland, 
Ulster, CO. Antrim, on Belfast Lough. P. 
8,488. The town, formerly a place of 
strength, has some remains of fortfs. 
raised in 1576. Houses mostly of stone. 

Carrickmachoss, Magheross, a mkt. 
town of Ireland, Ulster, co. Monaghan. 
P. 1,997. 

Carrick-on-Shannon, a disfranchised 
pari. bor. & mrfet. town of Ireland, Con- 
naught, cap. CO. Leitrim, on the Shannon. 

Carrick-on-Suir, a mrkt. town of 
Ireland, Munster, co. Tipperary, on the 
Suir, here crossed by a bridge built in 
the 14 cent. P. 8,359. 

Carrig-o-Gunnel, a vill. of Ireland, 
Munster, co. Limerick. Its ruined castle 
on a lofty rock, was formerly a strong- 
hold of the O'Briens, kings of Munster, 
but blown up at a siege of Limerick, in 

Carrigufoyle, a small isl. of Ireland, 
Munster, co. Kerry, in the estuary of the 

Carrion, several towns of Spain. 

I. (G. de Calatrava), prov. Ciudad Real. 

P. 2,608. II. {de los Cespedes), prov. 

Sevilla. III. {de los Condes), prov. 

Palencia. on 1. b. of the Carrion. P. 2,500. 

Carr Rock, a portion of a reef in the 
N. Sea, off Fife-Ness (Scotland). A 




masonry beacon on this rock, was com- 
pleted in 1818, at a cost of 5,000/. Elev. 
30 ft. 

Carroll, co., N. H., in the E. part of 
the state. It has Winnipiseogee, a, lake, 
on the S.W. border. Ossipee lake & a 
part of Squam lake are within it. It has 
also Ossipee mntn. P. 20,156. Cap. 

Ossipee. II. co., Md., in the N. part 

of the state. Contains 500 square m., 
drained by Patapsco & Monococy r. It 
is a fertile & wealthy county. P. 20,616. 
Cap. Westminster. III. co., Ga., to- 
wards the N.W. part of the state, having 
Chattahoochee riv. on the S.E. Con- 
tains 800 sq. m. P. 9,357. Cap. Carroll- 
ton. IV. CO., Miss., near the centre of 

the state, between Yazoo & Big Black rs. 
It contains 950 sq. m. P. 18,491. Cap. 

Carrollton. V. pa., La., in the N.B. 

part of the state, with the Mississippi on 

the E. P. 8,789. Cap. Providence. 

VI. CO., Tenn., in the W. part of the 
state, between the Tennessee & Missis- 
sippi rivs. It contains 960 sq. m. Great 
numbers of cattle, sheep, & swine are 
reared. P. 15,967. Cap. Huntingdon. 

VII. CO., Ky., in the N. part of the 

state, on Ohio riv. P. 5,526. Cap. Car- 
rollton. VIII. CO., 0., in the E. part 

of the state, drained by Sandy, Conotten, 
& Yellow crs. Soil excellent. P. 17,685. 

Cap. Carrollton. IX. co., la., N. part 

of the state, traversed by Wabash riv. 
Has timber land & prairie. P. 11,015. 

Bap. Delphi. X. co.. 111., in the N. 

part of the state, on the Mississippi. Soil 

fertile. P. 4,586. Cap. Savanna. -XI. 

CO., Mo., between the Missouri & Grand 
rivs. It contains 700 sq. m. P. 5,441. 

Cap. Carrollton. XII. co.. Ark., in the 

N.W. part of the state, drained by bran- 
ches of Little White & Red riv. P. 4,614. 

Cap. Carrollton. XIII. a new co. of 

Md. P. 20,616. XIV. a new co. of W. 

Va. P. 5,909. XV. t., Coos co. N. H. 

It lies at the base of AVhite mountains. 

XVI. p-t., Chautauque co. N. Y. 

XVII. t., York CO. Penn. Tanneries & 

distilleries. XVIII. t., Washington 

CO. Penn. P. 1,235. XIX. t., Cambria 

CO. Penn. XX. t., Perry co. Penn. P. 


Carrollton, p-v., cap. Carroll co. 0. 

II. cap. Carroll co. Ky. III. cap. 

Carroll co. Ga. IV. cap. Carrol co. 

Miss. V. cap. Carroll co. Ark. VI. 

cap. Carroll co. Miss. VII. cap. Pick- 
ens CO. Ala. VIII. cap. Greene co. 111. 

Carron, a riv. & vill. of Scotland, co. 
Stirling, the riv. entering the firth of 
Forth, after an E.-ward course of about 

15 m. On its N. bank, 2 m. N.E. Falkirk, 
is the vill. with the " Carron ironworks." 
Carrouges, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Orne. P. 2,289. 

Carrowmore, a lake of Ireland, Con- 
naught, CO. Mayo. 

Carru, a town of the Sardinian states, 
Piedmont. P. 3,772. 

Carryall, t.. Calling co. 0. 
Carse, a term for several contiguous 
dists. in Scotland. 

Cart, two rivs. of Scotland, co. Ren- 
frew, the united stream of which enters 
the firth of Clyde, 6 m. below Glasgow. 

Cartagena, a celebrated city & sea- 
port, & the chief naval arsenal of Spain, 
on a noble bay of the Mediterr., prov. & 
27 m. S.S.E. Murcia. P. 27,727 ; in 1786 
it contained 60,000 iohabs. It occupies 
the declivity of a hill, & a small plain 
extending to the harbor, which is one of 
the best in the Mediterranean, & protected 
from all winds by surrounding heights, & 
by an island on the S. The city, though 
dull, dilapidated & unhealthy, owing to 
an adjacent swamp, has some good streets 

& houses. II. a strongly fortifd. city 

& seaport of S. Amer., New Granada, of 
which republic it is the chief naval arse- 
nal, cap. prov., t)n a sandy penins. in the 
Caribbean sea. Lat. of the dome 10° 
25' 38" N., Ion. 77° 54' 25" W. P. 10,000, 
9-lOths of whom are a mi.xed black race. 
It is well laid out, & built mostly of 
stone. It has a massive citadel, a college 
with about 200 pupils, various seminaries, 
& 2 hospitals. Its excellent port is de- • 
fended by two forts, & is the only harbor 
on the N. coast of New Granada adapted 
for repairing vessels. Cartagena is the 
principal depot for the produce of the 
provs. watered by the Cauca & Magde- 
lena rivers. 

Cartago, a riv. & bay of Cent. Amer., 
Mosquito coast, the river, rising about 
lat. 14° 37' N., & after a N.N.E. course 
of about 45 m., entering the bay, which 
is a large lagoon communicating with the 
Caribbean sea. 

Cartago, a ruined city of Central 
Amer., state Costa Rica., & formerly its 
cap., on the riv. Cartago, about 60 m. 
from its mouth in the Pacific ocean. It 
was so demolished by the earthquake in 
1841, that of '3,000 houses & 8 churches, 
only 100 of the former & one of the latter 

were left standing. II. a town of S. 

Amer., New Granada, dep. Cauca, prov. 
Popayan, on the Viega, an aflflt. of the 
Cauca. P. 3,000. It is handsome, & has 
some trade in fruits, coflFee, cocoa, 
tobacco, cattle, & dried beef 




Cartama, an anc. town of Spain, prov. 
Malaga, on the Guadaljore. P. 1,993. 

Cartaya, a town of Spain, prov. 
Huelva. P. 4,097. Manufs. of linens. 

Carter, county, Tenn., in the N.E. 
part of the state, drained by Watauga r. 
Contains 540 sq. m. Surface rooky & 
mountainous. P. 6,296. Cap. Elizabeth- 
town. II. county, Ky., in the N.E. 

part of the state ; drained by Little 
Sandy riv., & Tygard's cr. P. 6,241. 
Cap. Graysing. 

Carthage, t., Franklin co. Me. ; 

watered by Webb's river. II. p-v., 

Jefferson co. N. Y., on-the N.E. side of 

Black River. III. p-v., Hamilton co. 

0. IV. p-v., cap. Moore eo. N.C. 

V. p.-v., cap. Leake co. Miss. VI. t., 

Athens co. 0., in S.E. part of the co. 

VII. v., Monroe co. N. Y., at the lower 

falls of Geue?ee riv. VIII. p-v., cap. 

Hancock co. 111. 

Carteret, county, N. C, in the S.E. 
part of the state, containing 600 sq. m. 
It lies along the Atlantic, with sandy 
isles, & reefs in front, on one of which is 
Cape Lookout. Soil marshy. P. 6,803. 

Cap. Beaufort. II. isl.. Pacific ocean, 

Solomon archip.. is in lat. 8° 50' S., Ion. 

160° 48' E. III. a eomm. & vill. of 

France, dep. Manche, on bay of same 
name, opp. Jersey, in the Engl, channel". 

Carthage Cape, a promontory of N. 
Africa, in the Mediterranean. Lat. 36° 
52' 22" N., Ion. 10° 21' 49" E. Traces 
of the celeb, city of Carthage, the great 
rival of Rome, are found on the promon- 
tory N. of the lagoon of Tunis, which 
formed its port. 

Cartmel, a market town of Engl., co. 
Lancaster, on Morecombe bay. Area of 
pa. 22,960 ac. P. 4,927. 

Carupano, a seaport town of S. Amer., 
Venezuela, cap. prov. & 65 m. N.E. 
Cumana, on the Caribbean sea, at the 
mouths of two small rivers, defended by 
a fort. 

Carvalho, a town of Portuga,l, prov. 
Beira, at foot of mntn. of ssime name. 

Cahvin-Epinoy, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Pas-de-Calais. , P. 4,038. 
Manufs. beet-root, sugar, & starch. 

Carvoeiro, a cape of Portugal, prov. 
Algarve, lat. of light-ho., 39° 21' 48" N.; 
Ion. 9° 25' W. 

Carver, t., Plymouth co. Mass. Iron 
ore found. P. 995. 

Carwar, a ruined seaport town of 
British India, presid. Madras, at the 
mouth of the Cauly river, in the Indian 
ocean, Goa. 

Carysfoot Isl., Pacific 0., is a coral 

reef encircling a lagoon, in lat. 20° 44' 
S., Ion. 138° 22' W. 

Carysfort, a disfranchised bor. of 
Ireland, Leinster, co. Wicklow. 

Casaba, two towns of Asia-Minor. 

I. Anatolia, 30 m. N.E. Smyrna. It has 
2 handsome mosques, some dirty streets, 
& a bazaar. II. a town, pash. Kara- 
mania, sanj. Konieh. It is enclosed by 
ruinous walls, is mostly built of stone, 
& has a good bazaar. 

Casa-Branca, a new town of Brazil, 
prov. St. Paul, dist. Mogi-Mirin. P. 

3,000. II. a vill., prov. Minas-Geraes, 

dist. Ouro-Preto. P. 2,000. 

Casacalenda, a tovvnof Naples, prov. 
Molise. P. 4,670. 

Casal, a prefix of the names of numer. 

towns & vills. in Italy. 1. {C.Bellotto), 

Lombardy, deleg. Cremona. P. 1,340. 

II. (Bordino), Naples, prov. Abruzzi 

Citra. P. 1,600. III. {Bore), prov. 

princip.Ult. P. 1,640. IV. (Borgone), 

Sard, sta., prov. Turin. P. 2,091. V. 

{Buttano), Lomba,rdy, deleg. Cremona. 

P. 3,903. VI. {Cipriani), Naples, 

prov. Molise. VII. {di Principe), 

prov. T. di Lavoro. VIII. {duni), 

prov. Molise. P. 2,700. 

Casale, a city of the Sardinian sta., 
Piedmont, div. Alessandria, cap. prov., 
on rt. b. of the Po. here crossed by an iron 
bridge. P. 19,300. Principal edifices, 
the cathedral, with good paintings, a 
clock-tower of the 10th century, a town- 
hall, college, & public library. Its prin- 
cipal manuf. is of silk twist. II. a 

town of Piedmont, prov. Pallanza, on tho 

Strona. P. 1,900. III. a town of 

Naples, prov. T. di Lavoro. P. 1,600. 

IV. a vill., N. Italy, deleg. Treviso. 

^ — V. {delta Trinita), a town of Naples, 
prov. Capitanata, on Lake Salpi. P. 

3.800. VI. {di Lecce), prov. Abruzzo 

Ult. II. P. 1,072. VII. {Lo-Sturno), 

prov. princip. Ult. P. 2,130. VIII. 

{Nuovo), Tuscany, prov. Pisa. 

Casal- Maggiore, a town of Lom- 
bardy, deleg. Cremona, on 1. b. of the 
Po. P. 4,907. It has manufs. of glass, 
earthenware, & cream of tartar. 

Casalnocetto, a vill. of Piedmont, 
prov. Tortona. P. 1,130. 

CASALN0OVO, .a town of Naples, prov. 
Calab. Cit., near the gulf of Taranto. P. 

6,130. II. a town, prov. Naples. P. 

2,800. III. a town, prov. Princip. Cit. 

P. 1,700.- IV. a town, prov. Capita- 
nata. P. 2,400. 

Casal-Pusterlengo, a town, Lom- 
bardy. P. 5,601. 

Casalvecchio, a town of Naples, prov. 




Capitanata. P. 1,600. II. ~^a vill. of 

Sicily, on a mountain. P. 2,000. 

Casalvieki, a town of Naples, proy. 
T. di Lavoro. P. 3,670. 

Casamanza, a riv. of W. Africa, Sene- 
gambia, whiclj enters the Atlantic 60 m. 
S. the Gambia riv. 

Casamarciano, a vill. of Naples, prov. 
T. di Lavoro, with 1,790 inhabs. & a mag- 
nificent & rich convent, founded in 1134. 

Casamassima, a town of Naples, prov. 
Bari. P. 3,750. It has a convent & two 

Casamicciola, a town of Naples, dist. 
Puzzuola, at the foot of the M. Epomeo. 
P. 3,420. It has therm, springs & baths. 

Casanare^ a town of S. America, New 
Granada, cap. prov., on riv. same name, 
194 m. N.E. Bogota. 

Casandrino, a vill. of S. Italy, prov. 
Naples. P. 2,900. 

Casanova & Casapulla, two contig. 
towns of Naples, prov. T. di Lavoro. 

Casarabonela, a town of Spain, prov. 
Malaga. P. 4,666. It has considerable 
commerce in wine & fruit. 

Casarano, a town of Naples, prov. 
Otranto. P. 2,600. 

Casar-de-Caceres, a. town of Spain, 
prov. Caceres. P. 4,047. 

Casahes, a town of Spain, prov. Mal- 
aga. P. 4,500. It has active manufs. of 
leather, & brandy distilleries. 

Casarza, a vill. of N. Italy, Sardinian 
states, div. Genoa. P. 900. 

Casas-de-Ibanez, a town of Spain, 
prov. Albaceti. P. 3,270. 

Casbin, a town of Persia. 

Cascaes, a seaport town of Portugal, 
Estremadura, on the Atlantic. P. 2,500. 
It has a small harbor protected by two 
forts, & manuf. of woollens. 

Cascante, a town of Spain, Navarre, 
on the Queiles. P. 2,928. — -II. a vill., 
prov. Teruel. 

Cascavel, a new town, of Brazil, 
erected in 1841, cap. dist. same name, 
prov. Ceara, at the foot of mntn. of same 
name, on riv. & 40 m. S.W. the port of 
Ceara. P. 8,690. 

Cascia, a town. Cent. Italy, Pontif. 
sta., cap. gov. of same name. P. 3,200. 

Casciano (San), two vills.. Central 

Italy, Tuscany. 1, r.rov. Florence. 

P. 2,000. Manufs. artificial flowers & 

straw hats. II. {dei Bagni), prov. 

Siena. P. 2,800. It derives its name 
from its mini, baths, the best frequented 
in Tuscany. 

Cascina, a vill. of Tuscany, prov. Pisa, 
on the Arno. P. 2,588. 

Oasco (Bay of), Maine, co. Cumber- 

land, lat. 44° N., Ion. 68° W., is at its 
entrance 20 m. in width. Contains 300 
small isls. 

Caselle, a town, Sard, states, prov. 
Turin. P. 4,288. Manufs. of silk twist 

& paper. II. a town of Lombardy. 

P. 1,500. HI. {Landi), a vill., Lodi. 

P. 2,798. 

Caserta, a town of Naples, prov. T. 
di Lavoro, in a fine plain, 17 m. N.E. 
Naples. P. 5,000. 

Casey, co., Ky., in the S. part of the 
state. Drained by Green & Salt rivers. 
P. 6,556. Cap. Liper.ty. 

Casheen Bay, Ireland, Connaught, 
CO. Galwajr, is on the W. side of the isl. 
Garomna, easy of access, & with depth 
of water for large ships. 

Cashel, a city of Ireland, co. Tippe- 
rary, ou the road to Dublin. P. 7,036. It 
stands in the centre of a rich agricultural 
district, at the foot of the Rock of Cashel, 
a limestone height, on which is the most 
interesting assemblage of ruins in Ireland. 

Cashmere, a country of N.W. Hindos- 
tau, Punjab dom., consisting of the upper 
vail, of the r. Jailum, enclosed on all sides 
by ranges of the Himalaya. . Area, 4,500 
sq. m. P. in 1832, 800,000 ; but in 1836, 
owing to earthquakes, cholera, & famine, 
it had declined to 200,000. The valley 
of Cashmere has an average elevation .pf 
5,500 or 6,000 feet above the sea. Sev- 
eral mntns. around it rise to 15,000 feet, 
& one in B. Cashmere reaches to 19,650 
feet in height. The country well-watered 
by the Jailum riv. Cashmere contains 
lO towns, & upwards of 2,000. Principal 
towns, Serinagnr (or Cashmere), Cha- 
pinian, Islamabad, &, Pampur. It is con- 
sidered a holy land by Hindoos. 

Caskets, a dangerous group of rocks 
in the English channel, 7 ni. W. Alderney. 
Off these rocks Prince William, son of 
Henry I. of England, & his suite perished 
in 111? ; & the Victory, 110 guns, foun- 
dered in 1744. 

Casola, a town of Naples, dist. Castel- 

a-Mare. P. 2,780. II. a vill., Pontif. 


Casole, several vills. of Tuscany, the 
priocip. in the prov. Siena. P. 1,113. 

Casoli, a tovfn of Naples, prov. Ab- 
ruzzo-Citra, on a mntn. P. 5,530. 

Casorate, a town of N. Italy, Lom- 
bardy. P. 2,956. 

Casoria, a town of Naples. P. 5,670. 

Caspe, a town of Spain, prov. Zara- 
goza, near the Ebro. P. 7,401. It has 
a castle, & numerous religious edifices. 

Caspian Sea, an inland sea or salt- 
lake of W. Asia, <& the largest of its kind 




known on the globe, enclosed by the doms. 
of Russia, the Kirghis, Khiva, & Persia. 
Length, N. to S. about 700 m. ; greatest 
breadth, about 420 tn., though the ave- 
rage does not exceed 200 m. ; & in some 
places it is not more than* 120 m. across 
Estim. area, 140,000 sq. m. Coast-line 
irregular. It has no tides, & in winter 
its N. part is covered with ice. Stur- 
geons, salmon, sterlets, & seals are abun- 
dant, & many active fisheries are carried 
on in this sea. It forms the chief means 
of communication betw. Russia, Persia, 
& Cent. Asia. The navigation is difficult. 
Steam packets have now been established 
on it. 

Cass, co., Georgia, in the N.W. part 
of the state. Drained by Etowah river. 

P. 13,300. Cap. Cassville. II. co., 

Mich., in the S.W. part of the state. 
Drained by St. Joseph's & other rivers. 
Soil excellent. P. 10,907. Cap. Cassa- 

polis. III. CO., la., central in the N. 

part of the state. Watered by Wabash 
& Eel rivs. Common 'agricultural prod. 

P. 11,021. Cap. Logansport. IV. co., 

111., central in the W. part of the state. 
Drained by Sangamon riv. & several crs- 

Soil good. P. 7,258. Cap. Virginia. 

V. CO., Texas. P. 4,591. VI. t., Han- 
cock CO. Ohio. VII. a riv., Mich. L. 

20 ms. 

Cassandra, a penins. of Europ.-Tur- 
key, prov. Rumili, betw. the gulfs of 
Cassandra & Salonica. 

Cassano, several towns of Naples. 

I. prov. Calab.-Citra. P. 4,310, many of 
Albanian descent. It stands in the con- 
cave recess of a steep mntn. around an 

isolated rock.- II. prov. Bari. P. 

3,400. — -III. Princip. Ult. P. 4,430. 

Cassano, several yills. of N. Italy. 

1. {0. Magnago), Lombardy. P. 

2,433. -II. (sopra-Adda). deleg. Milan, 

on railway to Brescia, has extensive silk- 
works. III. {Spinola), Piedmont. P. 


Cassaro, a town of Sicily, intend. & 
18 m. W. Syracuse. P. 2,000. 

Cassay, Kathee, an independent 
country of Further India, mostly be- 
tween lat. 24° & 26° N., & Ion. 93° & 95° 
E.- Area 8,000 sq. m. P. 30,000. It 
consists of a valley about 2,500 ft. above 
the sea, enclosed by mntns., varying from 
about 6,000 to 8,200 ft. in height, & 
which are covered with dense forests. 
Its rivs. are tributary to the Barah or 
the Irrawadi ; the princip. is the Imphan- 

Cassei., a walled city of Germany, cap. 
of electoral Hessen & chief town of the 

circ. of lower Hessen, on the Fulda. P. 
32,516. It is the resid. of the sovereign, 
seat of government, &, of central adminis- 
tration. The Fulda divides it into two 
portions ; that on the W. bank comprises 
the old town & upper new town ; on the 
E. bank are the lower new town, & the 
Leipzig suburb. The upper (or French) 
new town, originally laid out by French 
refugees, is well built & handsome ; it 
comprises the elector's palace, a museum 
with valuable antiquities, & a library of 
82,000 vols. It has a college, an observ- 
atory, a seminary for teachers, military, 
mechanical, <& Jewish schools, an acad- 
emy of arts, & societies of agriculture, 
trade, & manufs. ; numerous charit. es- 
tablishments. Cotton, silk, & woollen 
fabrics. Under the emperor Napoleon, 
it was cap. of the kgdm. of Westphalia. 

Cassel, a town of Hessen-Darmstadt, 
prov. Rhenish Hessen, on r. b. of the 
Rhine. P. 2,500. 

Cassel, a town of France, dep. Nord. 
P. 2,839. It stands on an isolated hill, 
550 feet in height. 

^Casseneuil, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Lot-et-6aronne. P. 2,000. 

Cassim Pasha, a large suburb of Con- 
stantinople, Europ. Turkey, on the N. 
shore of the " Golden Horn." separated 
from Galata, E. by extens. burying- 

Cassine, a mkt. town of Sard, states, 
Piedmont. P. 4,169. 

Cassino (Monte), a mntn. of Naples, 
prov. T. di Lavoro, with a celebrated 
abbey, fhunded a.d. 529, in which origi- 
nated the order of the Benedictines. 

Cassis, a comm. & seaport town of 
France, dep. Bouches-du-Rhone, on the 
Mediterranean. P. 1,566. 

Cassolnovo, a vill of Sard, states, 
Piedmont, prov. Lomellina. P. 4,587. 

Cassopolis, p-v., cap. Cass co. Mich., 
situated on Stone lake. 

Cassville, cap. Cass co. Ga. The 

usual county buildings, & an acad. 

II. p-v.. Grant co. Wis., on E. bank of 
the Miss. 

Castagneto, a town of Naples, prov. 
Princip. Citra. P. 2,000. 

Castagneto, a vill. of Tuscany, prov. 
Pisa. 1,300 inhab. 

Castagnole delle Lanze, a vill. of 
Sardinian states. Piedmont, div. Ales- 
sandria, prov. Asti. P. 2,767. rIL 

prov. Pinerolo. P. 2,137. III. prov. 

Casale. P. 1,750. 

Castalla, a town of Spain, prov. Ali- 
cante, on the riv. Castalla. P. 3,022. 




It has linen manufs., & brandy distil- 

Castanaees, three mkt. towns of 
Spain, prov. Burgos. 

Castaneiha, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Bstremadura, on rt. b. of the Tagus. P. 

Castaneiro, a vill. of Portugal, prov. 
■ Beira, on r. b. of the Tavora. P. 2,000. 

Castano, a town of Lombardy. P. 

Castasegna, a vill. of Switzerland, 
cant. Grisons, B. Chiavenna, at the W. 
extrem. of the Val Bregaglia. The mul- 
berry ceases to flourish beyond this vill., 
which is therefore the limit of the culti- 
vation of the silk-worm. 

Casteggio, a town of Piedmdht, div. 
Alessandria. P. 2,733. 

Castel, a prefixed name of the follow- 
ing towns & vills. in Italy, &c. 1. {C. 

Alto), a viU. of Naples, prov. Abruzzo 

Ult. I. P. 1,124. 11. (Baldo), N. 

Italy, gov. Venice, on the Adige. 

III. {Belforte), deleg. Mantua. IV. 

(Bologne'se), Pontif states. Here, in 
1434, the Milanese, under Piccinino, de- 
feated the Florentines in a decisive bat- 
tle. V. (Bottacio), Naples, prov. San- 

nio. P. 1,200. VI. (Buono), a town 

of Sicily, mtend. Palermo. P. 7,080. It 

has mineral springs. VII. {Clemen- 

tino), a vill., Pontif states. VIII. 

(Cucco), Lombardy & Venice. It has 
manufs. of woollen fabrics. IX. {Cu- 
ller), France, dep- Lot-et-Garonne. 

X. {d' Agogna), Sardinian sta.. Piedmont. 

XI. (de Ffanchi), Naples, prov. 

Princip. Ult., on the Galore. P. 2,035. 

XII. (Delfino), Piedmont, at the 

foot of Mt. Viso. P. 1,295. XIII. 

(deir Abate), Naples, prov. Princip. Citra. 

P. 2,700. XIV. {della Pietra), Tyrol, 

on the Adige. XV. {del Monte), 

Naples, prov. Abruzzo Ult , on a moun- 
tain. P. 1.590. XVI. {del Rio), Pon- 
tif. states.^ — XVII. {G. Dieri), Naples, 

prov. Abruzzo Ult. II. XVIII. {di 

Sangro), a town of Naples, prov. Ab- 
ruzzo Ult. II., with 2,600 inhab. XIX. 

{C.-Pabi), Spain, Valencia. XX. {Fi- 

dardo), Pontif. states. XXI. {Fioren- 

tino), Tuscany, on the Elsa. P. 2,630. 

XXII. {Follit), Spain, prov. Gerona. 

XXIII. {Forte), Naples, prov. T. di 

Lavoro. P. 1,690. XXIV. {Franc), 

France, dep. & on the Lot. 

Castel-a-Mare, a city and seaport of 
Naples, on the S.E. side of the gulf P. 
16,000. It is placed at the foot of a hill, 
on which stood the anc. Stabice, near 
which Pliny the elder met his death 

during the eruption »f Vesuvius, a.d. 79. 

II. a seaport town of Sicily. P. 

6,000. Exports wine, cotton, fruit, man- 
na, & shumac. It is a mean, dirty town, 
with a decaying castle on a rocky point. 

III. a town, prov. Abruzzo Ult. I., 

near the Adriatic. P. 2,500. IV. 

{della Bruca), a vill., prov. of Princip. 
Citra, on the Mediterr. 

Castel- a-Mare (Gulf of), an exten- 
sive bay of Sicily, on the N. coast. 

Castelet (Le), several vills. of France, 
the princip. dep. Var. P. 1,946. 

Castel-Franco, several towns of 

Italy. 1. Pontif. sta. P. 2,000. 

II. a town, gov. Venice, on rt. b. of the 
Musone. P. 4,220. Silk & woollen ma- 
nufs. III. Naples, prov. Princip. Ult. 

P. 2,500. IV. {di Sotto), Tuscany, 

prov. Florence, on the Arno. P. 3,280. 

Castel-Gandolfo, a vill. of Italy, 
Pontif. sta., on the N.W. side of Mount 
Albano. P. 1,120. It is picturesquely 
situated on a volcanic peak, 431 feet 
above the lake. 

Castel-Goffredo, a town of Lom- 
bardy. P. 3,463. It has an hospital <fc 
manufs. of silk. 

Castel-Gombekto, a vill. of N. Italy. 
P. 2,388. 

Castelgrande, a town of Naples, 
prov. Basilieata. P. 3,080. 

Castelguelfo, a vill. of N. Italy, 
duchy Parma, on 1. b. of the Taro. 

Castel-Guglielmo, a vill. of N. Italy, 
gov. Venice, 2,900 inhab. 

Castel- Jaloux, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Lot-et-Garonne, on the 
Avance. P. 1,643. Iron & copper forges, 
manufactures of paper, glass, & woollen 

Castellamonte, a town of Piedmont, 
div. Turin. P. 5,050. 

Castellana, a town of Naples, prov. 
Bari. P. 6,300. 

Castellaneta, a town of Naples, 
prov. Otranto. P. 4,750. Cotton is raised 
in its vicinity. 

Castellanne, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. B.-Alpes, on the Verdon, 
here crossed by a remarkable single 
arched bridge. P. 1,454. It has man- 
ufs. of coarse woollens, & a trade in pre- 
served fruits. 

Castellaro, a town of Lombardy. P. 
2,071. Also three vills. in Sardinia. 

Castel-Lastua, a vill. of Dalmatia, 
with a lazaretto & quarantine station on 
the Adriatic. 

Castellakquato, a town of Italy, 
duchy Parma. It has a vast gothic pal- 
ace. P. 2,860. 




Castellazzo, a town of Piedmont, 
prov. Alessandria. P. 5,236. 

Castel-Leone, a vill. of Lombardy. 
P. 5,712. It is well built & enclosed by 
old walls. 

Castelletto, sevl. vills. of tbe Sard. 
8ta., Piedmont. 

Castellina, two vills. of Tuscany. 

GIastello, a prefixed name of several 
towns & vills. in S. Europe.— — I, (C. 
Branco), a town of Portugal, pro v. Beira, 

cap. Comarca. P. 6,000. II. {della 

Baronia), a vill. of Naples, prov. Princip. 
Ult., with 2,300 inhabs., a castle, mine- 
ral springs, & a manuf. of coarse wool- 
lens. III. {(T Aci), Sicily, on the Med- 
iterranean. IV. {de Vide), Portugal, 

prov. Alemtejo. P. 5,800. V. {di San 

Cataldo), Naples, prov. Otra.nto, 7 m. 
N.E. Lecce, with a small harbor on the 
Adriatic. — -—VI. (Melhor), Portugal, 

prov. Beira, on 1. b. of the Douro. - 

VII. (di Quatro), a t. of Tuso'y- P- 1,350. 

Castellon-de-Ampurias, a town of 
Spain, prov. Gerona, on 1. b. of the Muga. 
P. 2,706. 

Castellon-de-la-Plana, a town of 
Spain, cap. prov. of same name, 4 m. 
from the Mediterranean. P. 16,952. ' It 
is situated in a fine plain ; is enclosed 
by walls, is well built, & has a remark- 
able octagon tower 260 feet in height. 

Castellone, a town of Naples, on the 
Appian Way, & on the gulf of Graeta. P. 

Castellote, a town of Spain, prov. 
Teruel. P. 2,475. 

Castellucchio, a vill. of Lombardy. 
P. 3,161. 

Castelluccia, a vill. of Naples, prov. 
Princip. Citra. P. 2,000. 

Castelluccio, sev. small ts. of Naples. 

Castblmary, aeomm.& vill. of France, 
dep. Aveyron. P. 1,088. 

Castelmoron, a eomm. & town of 
France, dep. Lot-et-Garonne, on r. b. of 
the Lot. P. 1,013. 

Castelnau is the prefixed name of 
several comms., towns & vills. of France, 
in the S.W. deps. 

Castelnaudahy, a town of France, 
dep. Aude, on a declivity, near the Canal 
du Midi. P. 8,215. It has ship-building 
yards, & manufs. of woollen & silk fabrics, 
cotton twist, & earthen-wares. It was 
founded by the Visigoths. 

Castelnovo, a town of Italy. 1. 

deleg. Modena. P. 1,400. II. Naples, 

prov. T. di Lavoro. III. Sicily, intend. 

Messina. P. 3,230. IV. Sard, sta., 

div. Genoa. P. 2,626. 

Castelnuovo, sev. towns, &e., of Italy. 

Castelnuovo, a seaport of the Aus- 
trian Empire, Dalmatia. P. comm. 7,019. 

Castelorizo, a small isl. off the S. 
coast of Asia-Minor. Surface rugged. 
It has a pretty good port. 

Castel- Pagano, two vills. of Naples, 
prov. Molise. 

Castel-Rodrigo, a small town of 
Portugal, prov. Beira. P. 400. 

Castel-Sagrat, a town of France, 
dep. ,Tarn-et-Garonne. P. 1,300. 

Castel San, a prefix of the names 

of the following towns. 1. (Giorgio), 

Pontif. sta. P. 1,500. II. {Giovanni), 

deleg. Parma. P. 2,000. III. {Lo- 
renzo), Naples, prov. Princip. Citra. P. 

2,300. IV. (Pietro), Pontif sta., on 

the EmilianWay, near the Silaro. P. 

Castel Saraceno, a town of Naples, 
prov. Basilicata. P. 3,200. 

Castel-Sardo, a seaport of Sardinia, 
the strongest on the island. P. with, 
comm. 2,092. 

Castel-Sarrasin, a town of France, 
dep. Tarn-et-Garonne, on the Songuine. 
P. 3,400. 

Castel-Termini, a town of Sicily. 
Extensive mines of sulphur & rock salt. 
P. 4,600. 

Castelvetere, several towns of Na- 
ples. 1, prov. Calab. Ult., II., near the 

Mediterranean, with 3,370 inhabs. II. 

prov. Molise. P. with comm. 3,578. 

III. prov. Princip. Ult." P. 1,860. 

Castelvetrano, a town of Sicily. P. 

Castenedolo, a town of Lombardy. 
P. 3,000. 

Castera-Lectourois, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. Gers. P. 911. It has 
sulphur & ferruginous springs. 

Castera-Verduzan, a vill. of South 
France, dep. Gers. P. 1,000. It pos- 
sesses sulphur & chalybeate springs. 

Castets, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Gironde, on the Garonne, with 1,180 

inhabs. II. a comm. & town, dep. 

Landes. P. 1,446. It has iron forges. 

Castiglione, nums. ts. & vills. of Italy. 

Castiglione (Lake of), a lagoon of 
Tuscany, prov. Siena N. of Grosseto, 
about 10 m. in length. 

Castile, a former kingdom of Spain, 
which occupied the great central table- 
land of the peninsula. The marriage of 
Ferdinand, king of Aragon, with Isabella 
of Castile, in 1474, united under one 
sceptre all the Christian states of Spain, 
& the conquest of Granada, in 1492, led 
to the establishment of the kingdom of 




. Castile (New), an old prov. of Spain, 
foriuing (he S. portion of the anc. king- 
dom of Gaslile ; its cip. was Madrid. It 
is now diviilad info the provs. of Madrid, 
Toledo, Ciudad-Real, Caeu^-a, & Gua'lal- 
axara. This region forms p:5rt of the 
central table-land of Spain. Its rivers 
comprise the upper courses of the Tagus, 
Guadiana, the Guadalquivir, the Segura, 
& the Xuoar. Climate extremely dry & 
healthy. Agriculture is ia a very neg- 
lected state. The sheep of the Sierras 
Cuenca & Molina supply the celebrated 
Merino wool. The mntns. of the Sierra 
Morena afford the richest supplj^of min- 
erals in the kingdom. Tbo chief mines 
are those of Almaden. The province af- 
fords excellent marble & rock-salr,, & 
contains numerous mineral springs. The 
principal manufs. are those of cloth, silk, 
cotton, & paper. 

Castile (Old), an old proy. of Spain, 
comprising the N. portion of the ancient 
kingdom of Castile, & forming the new 
pro vs. of Burgos, Valladolid, Palencia, 
Avila, Segovia, Soria, Logroiio, & San- 

Castile, p-t.. AVyoming co. N. Y., on 
Genesee r. & Silver lake. P. 2,833. 

Castillo de Locubin, a t. of Spain, 
prov. Jaen. P. 3.971. . 

Castillon, a comm- & town of Franco, 
dep. Ariege. P. 1,215. 

Castillon, a comm. & town of Prance, 
dep. Gironde, on the Dordogne. P. 2,700. 

Castillones, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Lot-et-Garonne. P. 2,028. 

Castime, a small seaport town in the 
state of Maine, on Penobscot bay, 25 m. 
S. Bangor. It has a harbor accessible 
by the largest vessels, & considerable 
shipping, employed in the timber trade 
& fishing. 

Castione, two vills. of Lombardy. 

Castlebak, or Agush, a town of Ire- 
land, Connaught, cap. co. Mayo, on^ the 
Castlebar riv. P. 5,137. 

Castle-Blayney, a town of Ireland, 
at the W. extremity of Loch Blayney. 
P. 2,134. 

Castle-Cabey, a mkt. town of Engl., 
CO. Somerset. P. 1,942. 

Castle-Comer, a town of Ireland, co. 
Kilkenny. P. 1,765. 

Castle-Connel, a town of Ireland, co. 
Limerick, on the Shannon, close to the 
falls of Doonass. P. 1,106. 

Castle-Dermot, an aiic. town of Irel., 
CO. Kildare, on the Lear, an afiluent of 
the Barrow. P. 1,516. 

Castle-Island, a town of Irel., co. 
Kerry. P. 1,687. 

Castle-Maetyr, a small town of Ire- 
land, CO. Cork, on the Maine. P. 1,397. 

Castle-PollarDj a town of Ireland, 
Leinstsr, co. Westmeath. P. 1,310. 

Castle-Rea, a market town of Irel., 
CO. Roscommon, on the Suck. P. 1,233. 

Castlereagh River, Australia. 

Castleton, t., Rutland co. Vt. ; wa- 
tered by Castleton r. Some water power. 

P. Ij769. II. a town, Richmond co. 

N. Y., on the N. end of Staten Island. 
P. 2,263. 

Castletown, the cap. of the Isle of 
Man, Engl., in S. extremity of the isl., 
on W. shore of Castretown bay. P. 

Castletown-Roche, a town of Ire- 
land 00. Cork, on the Awbeg. P. 1,063. 

Casth'es, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Tarn, on both sides of the Agout, here 
crossed by two stone bridges. P- 13,590. 
It is the most populous & flourishing 
town in the dep. 

Castri, a vill. of Greece, gov. Phocis, 
on the S. declivity of Mt. Parnassus. 
About 250 yards E. is the famoas Casta- 
lian spring. 

Castries, the principal town of the 
isl. of St. Lucia, British W. Indies. P. 

Castro, a seaport town of Naples, prov. 
Otranto, on the Adriatic. P. 7,000. 

Castro, a town of Brazil, prov. San 
Paulo, W. the Sierra do Mar. P. of the 
dist. 8,000.— — II. a seaport town of ChilSj 
& the former cap. of the isl. Chiloe, on 
its E. coast. 

CastrOj a vill. of Italy, Pontif. sta., on 

the Olpeta. II. a vilL of the Pontif. 


Castro, a seaport town of Asiatic Tur- 
key, cap. the island of Mitylene, on its 
E. coast. P. 6,500. It extends in a sem- 
icircle aronnj a shallow harbor. 

Castbo-del-Rio-el-Leal, a town of 
Spain, prov. Cordova, near the Guada- 
joeillo. P. 9,092. 

Castrogiovanni, a city of Sicily, in- 
tend. Catania, on a table-land in the cen- 
tre of the island, 4,000 ft. above the sea. 
P. 11,140. 

Casteojeriz, a town of Spain, prov. 
■Burgos, betw. the Orda & Garbanzuela. 
P. 2,434. 

Castho-Marim, a town of Portugal, 
prov. Algarves, on r. b. of the -Guadiana. 
P. 2,250. 

Casthonuovo, a town of Sicily, intend. 
Palermo. P. 5,820. Near it are quar- 
ries of fine marble. 

Castronuovo, a town of Naples, prov. 
Basilieata. P. 2,560. 




Castropignano, a town of Naples, 
prov. Molise. P. 2,558. 

Castropol, a small seaport town of 
Spain, prov. Oviedo, near the mouth of 
the Ribadeo, in the bay of Biscay. P. 

Casteo-Heale, a city of Sicily, in- 

Casteo-Urdiales, a seaport town of 
Spain, prov. Santander, on the bay of 
Biscay. P. 2,936. 

Castroveede, a town of Portugal, 
prov. Alemtejo, in the plain of Ourique. 
2,000 inhabitants. 

Castrovillari, a town of Naples, 
prov. Calab. Citra,. P. 5,650. 

Castro- Virhyna, a town of S. Peru, 
dep. Ayaeucho. 

Castua, a town of Austria, lUyria, on 
the E. side of the pcnins. Istria. 

Castuera, a town of Spain, prov. Ba- 
dajoz, near r. b. of tlie Guadalefra. P. 
6,572. Trade in fruit & wine. 

Caswell, county, N. C.,- in the N. 
part of the state. Drained by Dan riv. 
Tobacco the staple prod. P. 15,269. 
Cap. Yanceyvilla. 

Cat Island, Bahamas. 

Catahoola, pa., La., in the N.E. part 
of the state, contains 2,100 sq. m. ; wa- 
tered by Tensas & Washita rivs. P. 6,982. 
Cap. Harrisonburg. — — II. riv., La.,^ in 
pa. of same name. — The Catahoola riv. 
is a trib. of the Washita. 

Cataldo (San), a town of Sicily, in 
the val-Mazzara. P. 8,900. In its vicin- 
ity are extensive sulphur mines. 

Catahna (Santa), an island. Pacific 
ocean,rseparated from Upper California 
by the channel of Santa Barbara,— — II. 
an islet, Caribb. sea, 90 m. E. the Mos- 
quito coast. III. a good harbor & an 

isl., Mopquito coast, Centr. Ameriea, lat. 

13° 23' 40" N., Ion. 81° 22' 10" W. 

IV. a harbor on the E. coast of New- 
foundland, immediately N. the entrance 
of Trinity bay. 

Catalonia, an old prov. of Spain, in 
the N.E. of the peninsula, now divided 
into the profs, of Barcelona, Tarragona, 
Lerida, & Gerona. Surface mntns., in- 
tersected by the contreforts of the -Pyre- 
nees, which separate it into numerous 
small valleys. Near its centre, Mt. Ser- 
rat. remarkable for its curious form, is 
4,054 feet in elevation. Coast bold & 
rugged. Chief rivs., the Ebro, the Llob- 
rcgat, & the Ter. 

Catamarca, a dep. of the Plata cnnfed., 
S. Amer. Area uncertain. P. 35,000. 
It produces corn & cattle. 

Catanduanbs, one of the Philippine 

isls., Asiatic archip., near the S.E. coast 
of Luzon, 40 m. long & 15 m. broad, fer- 
tile & well cultivated ; chf. town Virac. 

Catania, Catana, a celebrated city & 
seaport of Sicily, on its E. coast, near the 
foot of Mount Etna. P. 54,167. It haa 
been repeatedly ruined by earthquakes 
& eruptions of Etna, but always subse- 
quently rebuilt in a superior style. It 
has a noble appearance from the sea. 

Catania .(Gulf of), an inlet of the 
Mediterranean, on the E. coast of Sicily. 

Catanzaro, a city of Naples, cap. 
prov. Calab. Ult. II., on a mountain 
near the gulf of Squillace. P. 11,464. 

Gatarroja, a town of Spain, prov. 
Valencia. P. 3,585. 

Catas Altas, a well-built vill. of 
Brazil, prov. Minas Geraes. P. 3,000. 
In its vicinity are extensive iron mines. 

Catawba, a new county of N. C. P. 

Catawissa, p-t., Columbia co. Pa. 
P. 2,064. 

Catbalogan, a town of the Philip- 
pines, cap. of the isl. Samar. P. 6,328. ^ 

Cateau (Le), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Nord, on the Selle. P. 7,571. 
It is well built, & was formerly fortified. 
Manufs. of shawls, merinos, k calicoes. 

Caterina (Santa), a town of Sicily, 
on a hill near the W. bankof the Salso. 

P. 5,800. II. a market town, same 

prov., near tho sea. III. a castle on 

the highest point of the isl. Favignana, 

off the W. coast of Sicily. IV. a mkt. 

town of Naples, prov. Calab. Ult. II. ■ 

V. the most N, headland of the island 
Corfu. — The Canal of Santa Caterina, 
N. Italy. 

Caterli, a marit. town of Asia- Minor, 
Anatolia, on the sea of Marmara. P. 

Catharina (Santa), a small trian- 
gular-shaped marit. prov. of S. Brazil, 
having E. the Atlantic, & on other sides 
the ~provs. San Paulo & Rio Grande do 
Sul. P. 67,218. The coast is low ; sur- 
face elsewhere mntnous., traversed by 
Sierra Catharina. From the fertility of 
the soil, & the uniform mildness of thp 
atmosphere, it is called the " paradise of 

Brazil." II. an isl. of Brazil, forming 

the superb bay of same name, off the 
coast of the' above prov., between lat. 
27° & 28° S. ; len. 30 m., br. 8 m. P. 

Catharines, p-t., Chemung co. N. Y. 
Drained by cr. of same name. P. 2,424. 

II. (St.), a flourishing toivn of the 

Niagara dist. of U. Canada, on the Wel- 
land canal. P. 4,368. 




Cati, a modern town of Spain, prov. 
Castellon de la Plana. P. 1,666. 

Catmandoo, cap. of Nepaul. 

Cf TLiN, t., Chemung co. N. Y. P. 1,119. 

Cato, p-t., Cayuga co. N. Y., on Seneca 
riv. P. 2,380. 

Catoche (Cape), a headld. on the N. 
coast of Yucatan, Centr. Amer. ; lat. 21° 
31' N., Ion. 87° W. 

Caton, t., SteuTben co. N. Y. P. 797. 

Catorche, a town of Mexico, state & 
120 m. N. San Luis de Potosi. 

Catral, a town of Spain, prov. Ali- 
cante. P. 2,268. It has linen manufs. 

Catrine, a vill. of Scotland, co. Ayr. 
P. 2,659. 

Catskill, a tnshp., New York, cap. 
CO. Greene, on the Hudson, 31 m. S. 
Albany. P. 5,454. It has co. offices, a 
bank, & several churches. "Within its 
limits, 2,212 feet above the Hudson, is a 
vill.. Pine Orchard, much frequented by 
visitors, on account of the magnificent 

views which it commands. Catskill 

mountains are in the vicinity, & bend in 
the form of a crescent towards the Mo- 
hawk river. Round Top, the loftiest 
peak, is 3,840 feet above tide-water in 
the Hudson. .The scenery of these mntns. 
is very picturesque ; & in their recesses 
the wolf, bear, & wild d«er are still met 

Cattaraugus, a co., in W. part of 
NewY'^ork. Area, 1,232 sq. m. P. 38,950. 
Soil fertile, & adapted to grazing. Ex- 
ports cattle & wood. The Genesee valley 
canal, & New York & Erie railway, pass 
through this county. 

Cattaro, a seaport town of Austria, 
Dalmatia, at the head of the gulf of Cat- 
taro. P. 2,003. II. (Gulp of), a tor- 
tuous inlet of the Adriatic. It is pro- 
tected from winds on all sides by high 
mntns., & the best harbor in the Adriatic. 
Depth varies from 15 to 20 fathoms. 

Cattegat, an inlet Germ. 0. [jSTorth 

Cattenom, Germ., a comm. & vill. of 
France, dep. Moselle. P. 1,115. 

Catterall, a tnshp. of Engl., co. Lan- 
caster. P. 1,102. 

Cattillon-sur-Sambre, a comm. & 
vill. of France, xlep. Nord. Extensive 
manufs. of fine thread. P. 3,120. 

Cattolica, a town of Sicily- P. 7,200. 

It has productive sulphur mines. II. 

a vilt. oL Pontif. sta., near the Adriatic. 
P. 1,300. 

Catus, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Lot. P. 1,438. 

Caub, a small town of N. Germany, 
Nassau, on r. b. of the Rhine. A toll is 

here charged by the Duke of Nassau on 
all vessels navig. the river. 

Cauca, a considerable riv. of S. Amer., 
New Granada, rises near the frontier of 
Ecuador, flows N. between two Cordil- 
leras of the Andes, & joins the Magdalena, 
25 m. N.W. Mompox, after a course esti- 
mated at 500 m. 

Caucasus, an extensive mntn. chain 
in Russia, between Europe & Asia, of 
which it forms the boundary. Extreme 
length 750 m. ; breadth 65 to 150 m. 
The culminating point of the chain, Mt. 
Elburz, is 17,796 ft. high. The next in 
elevation is Mt. Kazbek, E., 16,000 fk. 
With few exceptions, the mntns. are cov- 
ered with perpetual ice & snow. W. of 
Elburz, the chain on the shores of the 
Black sea, it is only about 200 ft. in elev. 
The mntns. are not peaked, as in the 
Alps, but are either flat or cup-shaped. 
The existence of glaciers in the Caucasus 
is uncertain, & there are no lakes of im- 
portance ; hence the region in general is 
not well watered. The soil is remarkably - 
fertile in the valleys, & the mntns. are 
covered with valuable timber ; every 
species of grain is abundant, & is cul- 
tivated to a height of 8,300 feet, while 
the lower valleys produce cotton, rice, 
lint, tobacco, indigo, & wine. There are 
several tribes besides the Caucasians & 

Georgians, among the inhabs. II. (or 

the Caucasian region), is the name 
given to those portions of the Russian 
empire situated near the Caucasus mntns. 

III. a prov. of European Russia, at 

the S.E. declivity of the Caucasian 
mntns.. cap. Stavropol. P. estimated (in 
1841) at 526,400. This country is gen- 
erally flat & covered with salt marshes. 
Chief rivers, the Terek & Kuban on the 
S., & the Manitch on the N. 

Caudebbc, a comm. & seaport town 
of France, dep. Seine Inf., on rt. b. of the 
Seine. P. 2,332. 

Caudebec les Elbeuf, a comm. & 
town of France, dep. Seine Inf P. 4,617. 

Cauderan, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Gironde. P. 1,485. 

Caudete, a town of Spain, prov. Al- 
bacete. P. 6,000. 

Caudry, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Nord. P. 3,310. Manufs. tulle lace. 

Caugmary, a town of Briti'^b India, 
presid. Bengal. 

Caunes, (Les), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Aude. P. 2,040. 

,Cauquenes (Baths of), some remark- 
able mineral springs of Chile, dep. San- 
tiago. By an earthquake in 1835, their 
temp, was suddenly changed from 1 18° 




to 92° Fabr. The baths have been long 
celebrated as medicinal. 

Caussade, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Tarn-et-Garonne. P. 2,400. 

Cauterets, a comm., vill., & water- 
ing-place of France, dep. H. Pyrenees. 
P. 1,054. The village stands in a fertile 
basin, 2,900 feet above the sea, & enclosed 
by rugged mntns. The hot sulphur 
springs vary in temperature from 102° 
to 122° Fahr. 

Caux (Pays de), a small district of 
France, in the old prov. of Normandy, of 
which the cap. was Caudebec & after- 
wards Dieppe. 

Cava, a town of Naples, prov. princip. 
Citra. P. 9,000. Manufs. of silk, cot- 
ton, & woollen fabrics. 

Cavaglia, a town of Piedmont, prov. 
Biella. P. 2,719. 

Cavaillon, a towa of France, dep. 
Vaucluse, on the Durance. P. 3,914. 

Cavalcante, a town of Brazil, prov. 
Goyaz, with gold mines & gold washings 
in the river Almas. P. 4,000. 

Cavallermaggioee, a town of the 
Sard. sta. Piedmont. P. with comm. 

Cavallo, a town of European Turkey. 
[Kavala.] — Cape Cavallo, S. Italy, is a 
headland on the Adriatic. 

Cavan, an inland co. of Irel., Ulster. 
Area 746 sq. m. Inhab. houses 40,964. 
P. (in 1851) 174,303. Surface mountain- 
ous ou the borders, enclosing an open 
country, interspersed with bog. Princip. 
rivers the Woodford, Upper Erne. 
. Cava*?, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
Cotes-du-Nord. P. 2,124. 

Cavakzere, a vill. of N. Italy, gov. 
Venice, on the Adige. P. 3,300. 

Cavaso, a vill. of N. Italy, gov. Ve- 
nice. P. 2,500. 

Cave Hill, t., "Washington co. Ark- 

Cavendish, co., Vt. Watered by 
Black r. P. 1,427. 

C AVERY, or C auveey, a river of India, 
Deccan, rises near lat. 13° 10' N., & Ion. 
76° E., flows tortuously S.E.-ward. L. 
470 m. 

Caverypauk, a town of British India, 
presid. Madras, dist. N. Arcot. 

Caveryporam, a town of British In- 
dia, presid. Madras, On the-banks of the 

Cavi, a town of Italy, Pontif. sta. P. 

Caviana, an isl. of Brazil, prov. Para, 
mouth of the Amazon, on the equator. 
Length 35 m. ; breadth 20 m. It is level 
& fertile, & well stocked with cattle. 

Cavith, a fortified seaport town of Lu- 

zon, Philippines, in the bay of Manila. 
P. of town 5,115, of port 530. 

Cavor, or Cavocr, a town of the Sard, 
states, Piedmont, div. Turin. iWwith 
comm. 7,543. It has manufs. of silk 
twist, linens, & leather, & near it are 
slate & marble quarries. 

Cawnfoob, a dist. of British India, 
presid. Bengal, Upper provs. It consists 
of part of the territory of Nabob of Oude, 
ceded to British, & is mostly compre- 
hended within the Daob of the Ganges & 
Jumna. Area 2,650 sq. m. containing 
3,439 vills. Surface flat, & highly pro- 
ductive of grains & European vegetables. 
Princip. towns Cawnpoor, Kalpee, & Ko- 

rah. Cawnpoor, the cap. of above 

district, is situated on the Ganges. It 
extends for 5 m. along the river bank. 

Caxamarca, a city of Peru, dep. 
Truxiilo, in valley of Marafion, Andes. 
P. 7,000. Near it are the baths of the 
Incas, & the volcanic lake into which, 
according to tradition, were cast the 
throne & regalia of the Peruvian mon- 
archs, whose dynasty terminated here in 
the person of Atahualpa. 

Caxamarciuilla, a town of N. Peru, 
dep. Truxiilo, prov. Pataz, in the valley 
of the Upper Amazon. P. 8,000. (7) 

Caxatambo, a .town of Peru, dep. 
Junin, cap. prov. same name, 138 m. N. 
Lima. P. 6,000. Near it are some silver 

Caxias, a commercial town of Brazil, 
prov. Maranhao, on rt. b. of the Itapi- 
curu, 150 m. from its mouth. 

Caxoeiba, sev. towns of Brazil. [Ca- 


Cayambe, one of the loftiest summits 
of the Andes, Ecuador, on the equator, 
40 tn. N.E. Quito. Elev. 19,600 ft. 

Cayenne, a seaport town, & the cap. 
of French Guiana, on the W. point of the 
isl. of same name, at the mouth of the 
Cayenne, in the Atlantic. P. 5,220, of 
whom 2,379 slaves. It is built mostly 
of wood, & consists of an old town, with 
the government-house & Jesuit's college, 
& the new town. The island of Cayenne, 
in the Atlantic, separated from the con- 
tinent of S. America by a narrow channel, 
is 30 m. in circumference; chief pro- 
ducts, sugar, cotton, coffee, & fruits. P. 
(exclus. of the town of Cayenne) 2,713, 
of whom 2,644 slaves. 

Cayes (Les), a seaport town of Hayti, 
on its S. coast. A considerable smug- 
gling trade is carried on between it & Ja- 
maica; & in its vicinity are upwards of 

80 rum distilleries. ;-II. (de Jacmel)y 

a town on the Jacmel riv. 




. Cayettx, a marit. comm. & town of 
"Prance, dep. Somme, on the Englisk 
channel. P. 2,372. 

Ca€Lus, a eomm. & town of France, 
dep. Tam-et-Garonne. P. 1,437. It 
has a castle, & trade in corn. 

Caymans, three small isls. of British 
W. Indies, in the Caribbean sea. P. 
akpnt 200. 

Caymito, a riv. of So. Amer., New 
Granada, isthmus of Panama, enters the 
bay of Panama. 

Oayru, a town of Brazil, on the small 
isl. of same name. P. 800. 

Cayster, a riv. of Asia-Minor, Anato- 
lia, 75 m. long. 

Cayuga, a co., in N. part of New 
York. Area 648 sq. m. P. 55,458. It 
extends N. to L. Ontario, & has a fertile 
soil; salt, & gypsum, & sulphur springs 
abound; in the centre of co. is lake 
Owasco. Cayuga lake is 40 m. in length, 
from 1 to 3J m. across. It discharges 
its surplus waters N.-ward by the riv. 
Seneca into Lake Erie. At its S. ex- 
tremity is the township Ithaca. — The 
viU. Cayuga is at the N.E. extremity of 
the lake. 

Caytjta, p-t., Chemung co..N. Y. 

Cazalla-de-la-Sieera, a town of 
Spain, prov. Sevilla, in the Sierra Mo- 
rena. P. 7,240. 

Cazaubon, a eomm. & town of France, 
dep. Gers, on rt. b. of the Douze. P. 
2,602. It haa extens. distilleries. . 

Cazembe, a country of Africa, little 
known to Europeans. 

Cazenovia. p-t., Madison co. N. Y., 
watered by Cazenovia lake, & Chitte- 
nango cr. P. 4,812. 

Cazeres, a comm. & town of I'rance, 
dep. H. Garonne, on 1. b. of the Garotme. 
P. 2,318. 

Cazoela, a town of Spain, prov. Jaen, 
on the Vega. P. 7,383. 

Cazouls-les-Beziers, a comm. & t. 
of France, dep. Herault. P. 1,964. 

Cazza & Cazziola, two small isls. of 
Dalmatia, in the Adriatic. 

Cea, a small town of Spain, prov. Le- 
on, on l.b. of riv. of same name. II. 

a vill. of Galicia, prov. Orense. III. 

a vill. of Portugal, prov. Biera. P. 1,400. 

Ceara, a maritime prov. in the N. of 
Brazil, cap. Fortaleza, bounded N. by 
the Atlantic ocean. P. 160,000. It is 
traversed on the W. boundary by the 
sierra Ibiapaba. Chf. rivs. the Croyahu, 
Ceara, & Jaguaribe. Climate healthy. 
The surface rises in the form of an am- 
phitheatre from the coast. The prov. 
abounds in medicinal plants, including 

balsams, gums, resins & fruits. Among 
its minerals are gold, iron, copper, & salt. 

Cearcy, t., Philip's co. Ark. 

Cebazat, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Puy-de-Dome. P. 2,000. 

Cebolla, a town of Spain, prov. To- 
ledo, near r. b. of the Tagus. P. 2,357. 

Cebreros, a town of Spain, prov. Avila, 
on the Alberche. P. 2,744. Manufs. 
leather & cloth ; trade in grain & wine. 

Cebu, a city of the Philippines. 

Ceccano, a vill. of Italy, Pontif. sta. 
on the Sacco. P. 5,827. 

Cecil, co., Md., in the N.E. part of 
the state. Bounded on Chesapeake bay. 
It is favorably situated for commerce. 
Woollen & cotton factories, paper mills. 
P. 18,939. Cap. Elkton. II. t., Wash- 
ington CO. Pa. P. 1,027. 

Ceciliano, a vill. of cent. Italy, Pontif. 
sta., in the Sabine mntns. 

Cecina, a riv. of Tuscany. 

Ceclavin, an ancient town of Spain, 
prov. Caeeers. P. 3,090. 

Cedar, co., Iowa, in the central part of 
the state, watered by several small crs. 

P. 3,941. Cap Tipton. II. a new 6o. 

of Mo. P. 3,351. III. t., Boone co. Mo. 

P. 3,313. IV. t., Callaway co. Mo. P. 

1,896.— V. t.. Cooper co. Mo. 

Cedar Creek, hundred, Sussex co. 
Del. P. 2,420. II. t., Allen co. la. 

Cedar Mountains, a range of pri- 
mary mntns. in S. Africa, Cape colony, 
between the Elephant & Thorn rivers. 
They vary from 1,600 to 5,000 feet in ele- 

Cedar Town, p-v., cap. of Paulding 
CO. Ga. The usut^l co. buildings. 

Cefalu, a seaport town of Sicily, on 
the N. coast of the isl. P. 8,940. 

Ceglie, acity of Naples, prov. Otranto. 
P. 7,350. 

Cehegin, a town of Spain, prov. Mur- 
cia. P. 9,605. 

Ceilhes, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Herault, on r. b. of. the Orbe. P. 

Celano, a town of Naples, prov. Ab- 
ruzzo Ult. 

Celano (Lake), S. Italy. [Fucino 

Celanova, a town of Spain, prov. Or- 

Cblaya, a city, Mexican confed. [Ze- 


Celbridge, a town of Ireland, Lein-- 
ster, CO. Kildare, on the Liffe3^ P. 1,289. 

Celebes, a large isl., Asiat. archip., 
mostly between lat.-l° 50' N., & 5° 30 
S., & Ion. 119° & 125' E. It is of most 
irregular shape, consisting of 4 penin» 




sulas uniting in a common centre, from 
which they extend N.E. & S., separated 
by the bays of Gorontalo, Tolo, & Boni. 
Estimated area, 73,000 sq. m. P. 3,000,- 
000. It is stated to be superior in beauty 
to any other part of the archip. Surface 
greatly diversified, & well watered by 3 
principal rivs. & many smaller streams. 
The centre is mntuous., & of primary 
formation. Volcanoes exist in the N. 
peninsula, & volcanic mntns. prevail in 
S. Mineral products gold, iron, salt. Ex- 
tensive grassy plains in the low grounds. 
Timber is not generally plentiful, but in 
one part is a large teak forest. Princip. 
products rice, maize, cassava, tobacco, & 
Botton, with some yams, sago, sugar-cane, 
&r excellent breeds of horses, & other live 
stock. The pop. is composed of several 
distinct races. The Dutch have settle- 
ments here. 

Celenza, 2 market towns of Naples. 

1, prov. Capitanata. P. 3,370. 

II prov. Abruzzo Citra. P.. 1,630. 

Celestial Mountains, Central Asia. 

Celina, p-v., cap. Mercer co. 0. 

Cellardykes, a tnship. of Scotl., eo. 
Fife. P. 1,486. 

Celle, a town of Hanover, landr. Lii- 
neburg, on 1. b. of the AUer, which b^re 
becomes navigable. P. with suburbs, 
11,935. It is weir built & paved. ' 

Celle, a mrkt. town of Piedmont, 
prov. Savona. P. 2,072. 

Cellino,. two mrkt. towns of Naples. 

1, prov. Abruzzo Ult. I. P. 1,500. 

II. prov. Otranto. 

Cellio, a vill. of Sard. dom. Piedmont. 
p. (with comm.) 3,344. 

Celorico, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Beira, Guarda, at the foot of the serra 
Estrella. P. 1,800. 

Ceneda, a town of N. Italy, gov. Ve- 
nice. P. 4,900. 

Cenia, a town of Spain, prov. Tarra- 
gona, on 1. b. of small riv. of same name. 
P. 2,043. 

Cenis (Mont), Sardinia. [Monte 

Cenon-la-Bastide, a comm. & vill. 
of France, dep. Gironde. P. 2,541. 

Centallo, a town, Sard. sta. Pied- 
mont. P. (with comm.) 4,533. 

Cento, a fortfd. town of the Pontif. 
states, on 1. b. of the Reno. P. 4,572. 

Centorbi, a town of Sicily, prov. Cata-' 
nia, on a rugged mntn. P. 4,450. 

Central, a tnship., Missouri, St. 
Louis CO. 

■Central America is the long & com- 
paratively narrow region, between lat. 7° 

& 22° N., & Ion. 78° & 94° W., connect- 
ing the continents of N. & S. America, & 
comprising, besides the Central American 
confed., Yucatan, parts of Mexico & New 
Granada, Poyais, the Mosquito coast, & 
British Honduras. In a more limited 
sense the term is applied to the following 
republics, between lat. 8° & 18° N., & 
Ion. 78° & 94° W., bounded on the E. & 
N.E. by the Caribbean sea, on the S.W. 
by the Pacific, & S. by N. Granada. 


Area in 
sq m. 



Guatemala, 75,090 700,000 Guatemala. 

San Salvador, (),6I5 400,000 San Salvador. 

Honduras, 66,;iU 300,000 Balize. 

Nicurasua, 39,378 3.50,000 Leon. 

Costa-Rica, '1(5,239 150,000 SaaJose. 

Total, 203,966 1,900,000 

The greatest length from S.B. to N."W. 
is about 1,000 m. ; breadth varying from 
70 to 100 m. The table-land of Guate- 
mala extends from the Isthmus of Chi- 
qijimula to that of Chuantepec in Mexico, 
& extends into the peninsula of Yucatan. 
In some places this table-land is 5,000 ft. 
in elevation. It contains 2 volcanic 
mntns., upwards of 12,000 ft. in elev. 
The climate is hot & moist in the low- 
lands. On the coast of the Caribbean sea 
the rains are very copious. Earthquakes 
are very frequent, especially in the table- 
lands, & numerous volcanoes exist. Prin- 
cipal rivers, the Motagua, Ria Dulce, Rio 
Polochic, Chicsoi, Blewfields, San Juan. 
Principal lakes, Nicaragua & Leon, 
through which a communication between 
the Atlantic & Pacific oceans has long 
been projected. [Panama.] On both 
E. & W. shores there are many good 
ports. Below the elevation of 3,000 ft., 
indigo, cotton, sugar, & cacao are the 
chief crops; between 3,000 to 5,000 feet 
the coohineal plant is abundantly culti- 
vated. Maize is generally raised, but 
wheat only in the high table-land in the 
N. The pop. consists of aboriginal tribes 
of Europeans, & a mixed race. Several 
tribes live in an independent condition, 
without intercourse with Europeans, al- 
though those along the Mosquito shore 
consider themselves under the protection 
of the British. 

Centre, county, in the middle of Pa., 
contains 1,560 sq. m. Watered by several 
crs. Surface mountainous ; soil indiffer- 
ent. Some bituminous coal. P. 23,355. 

Cap. Bellfonte. II. t., Greene CO. 

Pa. P. 1.503. III. t., Indiana co. 

Pa. Drained by Yellow & Twoliok crs. 




P. 1,615. IV. t., Union co. Pa. Drnd. 

by several crs. V. t., Morgan co. 0. 

P. 1,171. VI. t., Monroe co. 0. 

VII. t., Guernsey co. 0. P. 1,159. 

VIII. t., Columbiana co. 0. It contains 
New Lisbon, the cap. of the co. P. 3,197. 

IX. t., Hancock co. la. P. 722. X. 

t., Wayne co. la. P. 3,058. XI. t., But- 
ler CO. Pa. P. 1,834. XII. t., Rush 

CO. 0. P. 1,385. 

Centbe Harbor, t., Belknap co., N. H., 
between Winnipiseogee & Squam lakes. 

Centreville, p-v., Kent co. N. J. 
Woollen & cotton fac. II. p-t., Alle- 
ghany CO. N. Y. P. 1,513. III. p-v., 

cap. of St. Joseph's co. Mich. A branch 

of the university of Mich. here. IV. 

p-v., Fairfax co. Va. V.'cap. of Bibb 

CO. Ala. VI. p-v., cap. of Hickman co. 

Tenn. on Duck cr. VII. p-v^ cap. of 

Wayne co. la. 

Cephalonia, the largest & second in 
rank of the Ionian isls., Mediterranean, 
off the W. coast of Greece. Area 348 sq. 
m. P. 63,197. Shape very irregular, & 
it is indented by the deep bays of Samos 
& Argostoli. Surface generally uneven ; 
Monte Nero, or the " Black Mountain" 
(anc. Mt. Enosa), in the S. part, rises to 
5,306 feet above the sea ; in the S.W. 
part, is a plain of considerable extent. 

Cephissia, a vill. Greece, 9 m. N.E. 

Athens. II. or Melas, riv. in Phocis, 

forming the N. boundary of Boeotia. - 

Cephissus, a r. of Greece, gov. Attica. 

Ceppaloni,' a market town of Naples, 
prov. Princip. Ult. P. 2,500. 

Ceprano, a market-town of Central 
Italy, Pontif. states. P. 3,175. 

Cera, an isl of the Asiatic archipel- 
ago, immediately W. of Timor Laut. 

Ceram, a considerable isl. of the Asi- 
atic archipelago. Estim. area, 6,000 sq. 
m. P. 26,704. A mountain chain trav- 
erses it from E. to W., rising to 7,000 
or 8,000 feet above the sea, and the val- 
leys between its spurs are very fertile. 
The Dutch claim the sovereignty of the 
isl. Princip. vill. and harb., Sanway on 
the N. coast. 

Cerami, a town of Sicily, prov. Cata- 
nia. P. 3,667. 

Cerano, a vill. of Piedmont, prov. 
Novara. P. (with comm.) 4,097. 

Cerdagne, an old division of Europe, 
in the Pyrenees. The princip. towns 
were Mont Louis in French, and Puy- 
Cerda in Spanish Cerdagne. 

Cerdon, a comm. and town of France, 
dep. Ain. P. 1,837. 

Cere, a river of South France, deps. 
Cantal and Lot. 

Cere. (St.), a comm. & town of France, 
dep.. Lot. P. 2,918. 

Cerea, a market town of Lombardy. 
P. (with comm.) 5,689. 

Cebences, a comm. and market town 
of France, dep. Manche. P. 2,296. 
Ceres, t., McKean co. Pa. 
Ceresole, a vill. of Piedmont, prov. 
Alba. p. 1,593. In its vicinity the 
French gained a celebrated victory over 
the Imperialists, 14lh April, 1544. 

Ceret, a comm. and frontier town of 
France, dep. Pyren. Orient. P. 2,863. 

Ceriana, a vill. of the Sard, sta., 
prov. San Remo. P. 2,161. 

Cergues (St.), a vill. of Switzerl., cant. 
Vaud, at the foot of Mont Dole. 

Cerignola, an episcopal town of Na- 
ples, prov. Capitanata. P. 10,130. It 
has a college, several convents, a hos- 
pital, & a trade in cotton & fruits. 

Cerigo, the most S. of the 7 princip. 
Ionian isls., Mediterranean, off the S. ex- 
tremity of the Morea, between lat. 36° 7' 
& 36° 23' N., & in Ion. about 23 E. 
Area, 116 sq. m. P. 8,707. Shores ab- « 
ruptj & dangerous to shipping. Surface 
mostly mountainous & rocky. 

Cerigotto, a small isl. of the Medi- 
terr., midway betw. Cerigo & Crete, 1. 5 m. 
Cerilly, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. AUier. P. 2,320. 

Cerina, a small seaport town of the 
isl. Cyprus, on its N. coast. 

Cehisy, several comms. & vills. of 

France, Normandy, the princip. in dep. 

Manche, cap. cant. It has 2,468 inhabs. 

Cerizay, a comm. & town of France, 

dep. Deux-Sevres. P. 1,000. 

Cernay, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Haut-Rhin. P. 3,610. 

Cerne- Abbas, a market town of Engl., 
CO. Dorset. 

Cernin (St.), acomm. &vill. of France, 
dep. Cantal, on 1. b. of the Doire. P. 

Cerreto, a town of Naples, prov. T. 
di Lavoro. P. 4,930. II. a market- 
town of the Pontif. states. 

Cerreto Guidi, a m irket town of Tus- , 
cany, prov. Florence. P. 2,396. 

Cerro, a market town of Naples, prov. 
T. di Lavoro. P. 2,040. 

Cerro Gordo, the first mntn. plateau 
on the route from Vera Cruz to Mexico. 
Here, on the ISthof Apr. 1847, the Mex- 
icans, under Santa Anna, were defeated 

by the United States foi-ces. II. (ilfo- 

rado Negro), two mntns. South Amer., 
Plata confed., dep. La Rioja, & the for- 
mer yielding gold ore. III. {de Pas- 
co), a town of Peru, dep. Junin. Elev. 




14,280 ft., & 140 m. N.E. Lima. P. 

estimated from 7,000 to 16,000. IV. 

{Azul), a considerable town, dep. Lima. 
V. (de Potosi), a famous metallifer- 
ous mntn., Bolivia. Elev. 16,037 feet. 

Cereo del Andevalo, a town of 
Spain, proT. Huelva. P. 2,728. 

Cerro Frio, Brazil. [Sbrro Frio.] 

Cerros, an isl. of Pacific ocean, off tlie 
coast of Lower California. 

Certaldo, a town of Tuscany, prov. 
Florence, on the Elsa. P. 2,000. 

/Cerulean Springs, p-v.,Triggs co. Ky- 
Cervaro, a riv. of Naples, prov. Cap- 
itanata, 50 m. long. 

Cervaro, a town of Naples, prov. T. 
di Lavoro. P. 3,330. 

Cervasca, a vill. of Sard, sta., prov. 
Cunes, near 1. b. of the Stura. P. 2,490. 

Cervera, a town of Spain. P. 5,312. 

II. {del Rio Alhama), prov. Lo- 

grono. P. 3,690. III. prov. Palencia. 

P. 2,000. IV. a cape inlheMediterr., 

part of the boundary between Spain & 

Cervetere, Ccere, a vill. of Central 
Italy, Pontif. states. 

Cervia, a town of Central Italy, Pon- 
tif. states, on the Adriatic. P. 5,082. Its 
salt-works in the adjoining marshes, are 
the most important in the Pontif. states. 

Cervin Mont, a mntn. of the Pennine 
Alps. Elev. 14,771 ft. 

Cervinara, a town of Naples, prov. 
Princip. Ult. P. 5,390. 

Cervione, a comm. & seaport town 
on E. coast of Corsica. P. 1,536. 

Cervoli, a small isl.of Tuscany in the 
Mediterranean, prov. Pisa. 

Cesario (San), a town of Naples, 
prov. Otranto. P. 3,499. 

Cesaro, a town of Sicily, intend. Mes- 
sina. P. 3,000. 

Cesena, a town of Centr. Italy, Pon- 
tif. states, on the Emilian Way. P. 
12,000. Principal buildings, the town- 
hall in the great square, the Capuchin 
church, with a fine painting by Guercino, 
& the library founded by D. Malatesta 
in 1452, & rich in MSS. 

Cesenatico, a seaport town of the 
Pontif -states, on the Adriatic. P. 8,043. 

Cesi, a vill. of the Pontif. states. P. 
1,134. Near it is the Grotta del Vento, 
whence a strong current of wind continu- 
ally issues. 

Cesson, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
lUe-et-Vilaine, -on rt. b. of the Vilaine. 
P. 2,366. 

Cestona, a vill. of Spain, prov. St. Se- 
bastian, near rt. b. of the Urola. Pi 1,111. 
It has mineral springs & baths. 

Cetignb, a town of European Turkey, 
cap. of Montenegro. ' 

Ceton, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Orne. P. 1,010. 

Cetona, a vill. of Tuscany, prov. 
Arezzo, in the Val di Chiana. It is built 
around the foot of Mt. Cetona, & has a 
castle, a palace, & a coUeg. church. 

Cetharo, a town of Naples, prov. 
Calab. Citra, cap. cant., with a small 
fishing port on the Mediterranean. P. 

Cette, a comm. & seaport of France, 
dep. Herault, at head of railway from 
Beaucaire, between the Mediterr. & the 
lagoon of Thau. P. 16,613. Its harbor 
is, spacious & secure, from 16 to 19 ft. in 
depth, formed by two piers with a break- 

Ceuta, a seaport of Africa, belonging 
to Spain, in Morocco, opposite Gibraltar. 
P. 8,200. The castle occupies the highest 
point of a mntn. Ceuta has many points 
of resemblance to Gibraltar ; it is well 
supplied with water, and, if properly 
garrisoned, would be all but impregnable. 
It is the chief of the Spanish presidios 
on the African coast, the seat of a royal 
court, & the residence of a military gov- 
ernor, & financial intendant. Ceuta is a 
Spanish penal colony. Many of the 
prisoners captured from the force with 
which Gen. Lopez invaded Cuba were 
sent here, but afterwards released. 

Ceva, a town, Sardinian states. Pied- 
mont, prov. Mondovi, on the Tanaro. P. 

Cevennes, a range of mountains in 
the S. of France. The highest points are 
Mezin, 5,794 feet, & Lozere, 4,884 feet 
above the level of the sea. The Ceven- 
nes served as a retreat for numerous 
Protestant families after the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes. 

Cevennes, an old country of France 
which formed the N.E. part of the gov- 
ernment of Languedoc, cap. Mende. 

Ceylon, an isl. of British India, sepa- 
rated from the S. entrance of Hindostan 
by the gulf of Manaar ; Shape pyriform, 
with apex to the N. Extreme length 
from N. to S. 270 m. ; greatest breadth, 
145 m. Area, 24,664. P. 1,421,661. The 
southern & central part of the isl. is ele- 
vated & mntnous. Adam's Peak rising 
to the height of 7,420 ft., & Pedro Talla- 
galla to 8,400 feet. The E. shore is bold 
& rocky, with.deep water. The W. shore 
is uniformly low, & indented with bays 
& inlets. The zoology of the isl. is much 
the same as the neighboring continent 
An extensive pearl bank of 30 m. length 




at Condachy, yields excellent pearls, & 
employs 2,000 divers for three weeks in 
spring. Ceylon was known to the Greeks 
in the time of Alexander, as also to the 
Romans. It was visited by traders in 
6th cent., by Marco Polo in 13th cent., 
& by Sir J. Mandeville in 14th. The 
Portuguese formed a settlement at Co- 
lombo in 1520. They were superseded by 
the^Dutch in 17th cent. It has belonged 
to England since 1815 

Ceze, a riv. of France, dep. Gard. L. 
50 m. 

Cezimbra, a seaport town of Portugal, 
prov. Estrema.dura, on a bay of the Med- 
iterranean. P. 5,000. It has active fish- 
eries. , ' 

Chabanais, a comrn. & town of France, 
dep. Charente. P. 1,895. 

Chabeuil, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Drume. P. 1,496. Manuf. silk. 

CHABLAis,''the most N. prov. of Savoy, 
on the lake of Geneva. Surface mntnous. 
Princip. riv. the Dranse. Chf. towns, 
Thonon, Evian, & Notre Dame d'Abond- 
ance. P. 54,690. 

Ci-iABLis, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Yonne, on 1. b. of the Seray. P. 

Chabkis, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Indre. -P. 2,077. 

Chacabuco, a town of Chile, prov. N. 
Santiago, on the Colina. 

Chacao, a small seaport town of Chile, 
with a good port, on the N. coast of the 
isl. Chiloe. 

Chacapoyas, a town of Peru, dep. 
Truxillo, near the Ecuador frontier. P. 

Chaco (El Ghan), a wide region of S. 
America, in the centre of the continent, 
territs. Bolivia & La Plata, bounded E. 
by the river Paraguay, & traversed by 
its tributaries the Piloomayo, Vermejo, 

Chad (Lake), Cent. Africa. [Tchad 

Chadda, a riv. of Guinea, flows "W. & 
joins the Quorra. 

Chagny, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. SaOne-et-Loir. P. 3,072. It is re- 
markable for quaint & curious architec- 

Chagres, a river of S. America, New 
Granada, isthmus of Panama, rises about 
30 m. N.E. Panama. 

Chagres, a seaport town of Central 
America, on the N. coast of the isthmus 
of Panama, at the mouth of the Chagres 
river, in the Caribbean sea. The Amer- 
ican steamers carrying the mails for 
California, stop here. 

Chaikal, a considerable vill. of Af- 
ghanistan, chiefship & 30 m. N. Cabool. 

Chaillac, a comm. & town of France, 

dep. Indre. P. 2,595. II. a comm. &, 

vill., dep. H. Vienne, on 1. b. of the Vi- 
enne. P. 1,188. 

Chailland, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Mayenne, on the Ernee. P. 2,583. 

Ckaille-les-Marais, a comm. & vill. 
of Frarnce, dep. Vendee. P. 2,136. 

Chaillevette, a comm. & seaport vill. 
of France, on 1. b. of the Seudre. P. 1,053. 

Chaise-Dieu (La), a comm. & town, 
of France, dep. H. Loire. ^^ 

Chai-Ya, a maritime town of Lower \ 
Siam, on the E. side of the Malay- penini 
sula & gulf of Siam. 

Chakha Mountains, a mntn. range 
of Abyssinia. 

Chalabre, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Aude, cap. cant, on rt. b. of the Lers. 
P. 2,855. It has a chamb. of manufs. & 
extensive manufs. of wooHen cloths & 

Chalain-Mew, a town of the Burmese 
dom. cap. dist. 

Chalamont, a comm. & town, France, 
dep. Ain. P. 1,422. 

Chalancon, a comm. & town, France, 
dep. Ardeehe. P. 1,043. 

Chalbuanca, a town, Peru, dep. Cuzco, 
cap. prov. Aymaraes. 

Chalcis, or Neghopont, a marit. town 
of Greece, cap. gov. Eubcea, on the Euri- 
pus at its narrowest part, here crossed 
by a bridge. P. 5,000. 

Chalco, a town of the Mexican confed., . 
state Mexico, on the lake of Chalco. 

Chaleur Bay, an inlet of the gulf of 
St. Lawrence, N. Amer. Lat. 48°N., Ion. 
65° W. Length E. to ^Y. about 90 m. ; 
breadth from 12 to 20 m. It separates 
Lower Canada from N. Brunswick. 

Chalky Bay, an inlet near the S.W. 
extremity of Middle isl., New Zealand: 

Challamoux & Challes, two comms. 
& viUs. of France ; the former, dep. Sa- 
Cine-et-Loire. P. 1,151. The latter, dep. 
Sjirthe. P. 1,258. 

Challans, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Vendee. P. 1,458. 

Challonais, an old division of France, 
in the prov. Burgundy. 

Chalonnes-sur-Loirb, a comm. & 
town of France, dep. Maine-et-Loire, on 
1. b. of the Loire. P. 2,238. Manufs. 
woollen & cotton. Brandy distilleries. 

Chalons-sur-Marne, a comm. & city 
of France, cap. dep. Marne, in an open 
country, & on rt. b. of the Marne. P. 
13,733. It is enclosed by old walls, & ir- 
regularly built, princip. of timber, lath, 




& plaster. Early iu the Christian era it 
■was one of the most important commer- 
cial cities of Europe, & under the Mero- 
vinigan kings it is said to have had 
60,0U0 inhabitants. 

Chalon-sur-Saone, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. SaOne-et-Loire, on r. b. 
of the Saune. Elev., 584 ft. P. 15,937. 
It is well built; & a handsome C[uay, 
lined by good houses, stretches along the 
SaOne, which here becomes navigable 
for the Lyon steamboats. Being at the 
junction of several great roads, & con- 
neoled with the Mediterranean, Atlantic, 
& N. sea, by the Rhone, Saone, Loire, & 
several large canals, it is the centre of a 
considerable trade, & it exports a good 
deal of wine, timber, charcoal, iron, lime- 
stone, & agricultural produce to other 
parts of France. 

Chalosse, an old divis. of France, in 
the prov. Gascogne. 

Chalus, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. H. Vienne, on the Tardouere. P. 

Cham, a pa. & vill. of Switzerl., cant. 

of the lake of Zug. P. 1,045. II. a 

town of Bavaria, circ. Upper Palat., on 

the Cham. P. 2,081. III. a marit. 

town of Siam, on the gulf of Siam. 

Chama, a riv. of S. Ainer., dep. Zulia, 
enters the lake of Maracaybo. L. 75 m. 
II. a riv.. Guinea, enters the Atlan- 
tic 26 m.W.S.AV. Cape Coast Castle. L. 
75 m. 

Chamalaei, one of the principal peaks 
of the Himalaya mntns.. Central Asia, 
between Tibet & Bootan. Elev. about 
27,200 feet. 

Chamalieres, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Puy-de-Dume, 1,033 inhab- 
itants ; a church of the 4th century. & 
manufs. of paper. In its vicinity are 
mineral springs & grottoes. 

Chamas (St.), a comm. & town of S. 
France, dep. Bouches-du-RhOne, on the 
N. bank of the lagoon of Berre. P. 2,709. 

Chambeeet, a comm. & mkt. town of 
France, dep. Correze. P. 2,827. 

Chambers, county, Ala., in the E. part 
of the state contains 700 sq.m. Washed 
by the Chattahoochee r. P. 23,960. Ca.p. 

Chambersbtjrg, p-v., cap. Franklin 
CO. Penn. oa a branch of the Potomac r. 
P. 4,D30. 

Chambertin, a famous vineyard of 
France, dep. Cute d'Or, arrond. Dijon. It 
produces annually from 130 to 150 pipes 
of the finest growth of Burgundy wine. 

Chambery, an episcop. city of the Sard, 
sta., cap. of Savoy proper, on the Leysse. 

P. of comm. 15,916. It has one good 
street, & some squares adorned with foun- 
tams, but it is otherwise irregularly laid 
out, & dull. Priacipiil buildings, the old 
castle of the dukes of Savoy, a cathedral, 
4 convents, & 3 barracks. It h;\s a royal 
Jesuit's college & a public lib. of 16,000 
vols. Manufs. of silk gauze & other fab- 

Chambly, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Oise. P. 1,307. 

Chambly, a tnshp. & fort of Lower 
Canada, eo. Kent, on 1. b. of the Riehliea 
or Chambly river. 

Chambon, sevl.comms. & small towns 

of France. 1, dep. Creuse, cap. cant., 

on the Tardes. P. 1,353. II. a vill., 

dep. H. Loire. P. 2,400. :III. {Feu- 

gerolles), dep. LoLi-e, cap. canton. P. 

Chambord, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Loir-et-Cher, on 1. b. of the Cosson. 
It has a magnificent chateau, commenced 
by Francis I. & finished by Louis XIV. 
It was long the residence of Stanislas 
Lecszinsky, king of Poland ; presented 
by Louis XV. to Marechal Saxe in 1745 ; 
by Louis XVI. to the family of Polignac ; 
& by Napoleon to Marechal Berthier ; & 
purchased by subscription in 1821 for the 
Due de Bordeaux. The park, which is 
about 21 m. in circum., & surrounded by 
walls, is one of the finest in Europe. 

Chamboulive, a comm. & vill. of 
France, dep. Correze. P. 3,093. 

Cham-Callao, an isl. in the China sea, 
off the E. coast of Cochin-China. 

Chamisso Island, Russian Amer., is 
near the head of the bay of Good Hope. 
Shores steep, except on its E. side, & it 
rises to 231 feet. 

Chamond (St.), a town of France, dep. 
Loire, cap. cant., at the confl. of the Gier 
& the Ban rivs. P. 8,236. It is well 
built & thriving. 

Chamonix, a valley of the Sard, sta., 
prov. Faucigny, forms the upper part of 
the basin of the Arve, elev. above the 
sea at the vill. of Chamonix, 3,425 ft. 
This valley is the most celebrated in the 
Alps for its picturesque sites, & the wild 
grandeur of its mntns. & glaciers. 

Chamoory, a town of Hindostan, Be- 
rar dom., on the Wynegunga riv. 

Champagne, an old prov. of France, 
of which the cap. was Troj-es, now form- 
ing the greater portion of the 4 deps. of 
Ardennes, Marne, Aube, & H. Marne, & 
part of those of Aisne, Seine-et-Marne, 
& Yonne. 

Champagne, a dist. of France, in the 
dpps. Charente & Charente-Inf. 





Champ AGNEY, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. H. SaOne. P. 3,000. 

Champagkole, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Jura, cap. cant., on the Ain. 
P. 3,201. It has manufs. of nails & iron- 

Champaign, county, 0., towards the 
W. part of state,; in some parts, rolling, 
in others, low & wet. P. 19,762. Cap. 

Urbana. II. county. 111., in E. part of 

state, contains 792 sq. m., drained by 
several rs. P. 2,649. Cap. Urbana. 

Champaubert, a comm. & vill. of 
France, dep. Marne. Here the advanced 
guard of the Russ. & Pruss. army re- 
ceived a check from Napoleon's troops, 
Feb. 10, 1814. 

Champdeniers, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Deux-Sevres. P. 1,380. 

Champeix, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Puy-de-Dome, cap. cant., on the 
Couze. P. 1,890. 

Champigny, several comms. & vills. 
of France; the principal in dep. Seine, 
with 1,467 inhabs. 

Champion, p-t., Jefferson co. N. Y. 
P. 2,206. II. t., Trumbull co.O. 

Champlain, port of entry, Clinton co. 
N. Y^ on Lake Champlain, drained by 
Chazy r. Furnaces, tanneries, & saw 
mills. P. 5,067. 

Champlain Lake lies between the 
states N. Y. & Vt. Length 120 m. 
breadth fr. J mile to 10 m. Its chief 
islands are North Hero, South Hero, & 
La Motte. The value of the trade on 
this lake in 1848, was officially stated to 
be $16,750,700. 

Champlitte, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. H. Saone, cap. cant. P. 

Champniers, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Charente. P. 4,000. 

Champoton, a marit. vill., Centr. 
Amer., Yucatan, at mouth of riv. Cham- 
poton, Campsachy bay, gulf of Mexico. 

Champsaur, a dist. of France, in the 
old prov. of Dauphine. 

Champsegret, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Orne. P. 4,049. 

Champtoce, a comm.- & town of 
France, dep. Maine-et-Loir, near r. b. of 
the Loire. P. 1,923. 

Chamusca, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Estremadura, on 1. b. of the Tagus. P. 

Chanac, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Lozere, cap. cant., on the Lot. P. 
1,881. It has manufactures of serges. 

Chanak-Kalessi, Asia- Minor, Ana- 
tolia, on the Dardanelles, is a miserable 
town of 2,000 houses, occupying a flat 

point opposite the Castle of Europe. It 
has some potteries, whence its Turkish 

Chancay, a seaport town of N. Peru, 
dep. Lima, cap. prov., at the mouth of 
the Chancay riv., in the Pacific. 

Chanceford, t., York co. Penn. 

Chanda, a dist., Hindostan, Berar 
dom., prov. Gundwana, 90 m. in length, 
& 60 m. in breadth. 

Chandahnee, a town, Punjab, prov. 

Chandeleur Island, a group, Gr. of 
Mexico, 50 m. N. the mouth of the Mis- 

Chandercona, a considerable town, 
British India, presid. & prov. Bengal. 

Chanderee, a large dist. of Hindostan, 
prov. of Malwa, 90 m. in length, & 70 m. 
in breadth. 

Chandergiri, a town of Brit. India, 
presid. Madras, dist. Arcot. 

Chandernagore, a town and the prin- 
cipal of the French estab. in India, Ben- 
gal, on the Hooghly riv. Pop. 35,895, 
of whom 283 were Europeans. It is well 
situated, well built, & clean, but dull & 

Chandlerville, t., Somerset co. Me. 

Chandode, a large town of India, Ba- 
roda dom., on the Nerbudda. 

Chandore, a large town of Brit. In- 
dia, presid. Bombay, dist. Candeish. 

Chandpoor, two towns of Brit. India, 
presid. Bengal. 

Chang-Chow, a city of China, prov. 
Fo-kien, cap. dep., on a riv. P. has been 
estimated at 800,000; & it is stated to be 
as well supplied with merchandise as 

Change, two vills. of France. 1. 

dep. Sarthe. P. 2,815. II. dep. May- 

enne. P. 2,000. 

Chang-se-tchou, a town of Assam, 
prov. Tonquin, on the Chinese frontier. 

Channel Isls., a name employed to 
designate a group of isls. in the English 
channel, off the N.W. coast of France ; 
the princip. being Jersey, Guernsey, Ald- 
erney, Sercq & Herm. 

Channi-Khan-Digot, a town of Hin- 
dostan, Bhawlpoor dom. 

Chantelle, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Allier. P. 1,708. Commerce 
in wines. 

Chantenay, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Loire Inf., on r. b. of the 

Loire. P. 3,935. II. a vill., dep. 

Nievre. P. 1,423. III. a vill., dep. 

Sarthe. P. 1,358. ■* 

Chantibun, a large inland town, Siam, 
cap. prov., on a river near its mouth, in 




the gulf of Siam. It exports ft.-om 30,000 
to 40,000 pieuls of pepper annually. 

Chantilly, a comoi. & town of France, 
dep. Oise, on the Nonnette. P. 2,335. It 
has celeb, manufs. of lace & porcelain. 

Chantonnay, a cotnm. & town of 
France, dep. Vendee. P. 1,176. 

Chantrigne, a comm. & town of 
France, jdep. Mayenne. P. 1.970. 

Chanu, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
Orne. P. 2,763. Exten,sive manufs. of 
hardwares, & quarries of building stones. 

Chanza, a frontier riv. betw. Spain & 
Portugal, which, after a S.S.W. course of 
55 m., joins the Guadiana. 

Chao-de-Couce, a town of Portugal, 
Estremadura, cap. comarca. P. 3,000. 

Chao-Hing, a city of China, prov. 
Che-kiang, cap. dep., on a rir. near its 
mouth. It stands in a fertile plain, & is 
intersected by canals, well paved, clean, 
& healthy. 

Chao-Khing, a city of China, prov. 
Quang-tong, cap. dep., on the Si-kiang. 

Chao-ma-ing, a town, Mongolia, in 
the desert of Gobi. 

Chao-nan, a seaport town of China, 
prov. Fo-kien. 

Chaos, or Bird Islands, several small 
rocky islets of S. Africa, at the entrance 
of Algoa bay. 

Chao-Tchou, 2 cities of China, prov. 

Quang-tong. 1, cap. dep., on the Pe- 

kiang. II. cap. dep., on the Han- 


Chaource, a comm. & town of France, 
dep.-Aube, cap.- cant., on 1. b. of the Ar- 
mance. P. 1,534. 

Chao-wou, a city of China, prov. Fo- 
kien, in the tea district. Its woven fab- 
rics have a high repute. 

Chapada, several towns & vills. in 

Brazil. 1, a new town, prov. Maranhao, 

on upper part of the Rio Grajehu, cap. 

comm. II. MinasGeraes, N.E.Fanado. 

P. 2,300. III. {de Sta. Anna), the old- 
est market town of Mato-Grosso. P, 

Chapala, a considerable lake in the 
Mexican confed., between the states 
Mechoacan & Guadalaxara. Area, 1,300 
sq. ip. It contains many isls. 

Chapel-en-le-Frith, a mkt. town of 
Engl., CO. Derby. ^ 

Chapel Hill, p-v., Orange eo. N. C, 
on the New-Hope r. Elevated & healthy. 
It is the seat of the university of N. C. 
This institution has a president, 9 pro- 
fessors, about 800 alumni, & a library of 
12,000 vols. 

Chapelle (La), a prefixed name of 
numerous comms., towns, & vills. in 

France, the principal of which are : 

I. {C. Agnon), dep. Puy-de-DOme. P.- 

3,038. II. (d'Aligne), dep. Sarthe. P. 

1,533. III. (d'Angillon), a town, dep. 

Cher. P. 766. IV.. {aux Fots), dep. 

Oise, with extensive manuf. of pottery 

ware. V. {aux £ois), Vosges. P. 

1,258. VI. {Basse Mer), Loire Inf. 

P. 4,336. VII. {d'Armentieres). Nord. 

P. 2,000. VIII. {des Marais),' Loire 

Inf. P. 1,941. IX. {en Vecors), Drome, 

cap. cant. P. 1,343. X. {Janson), Ille- 

et-Vilaine, Fougeres. P. 2,031. XI. 

{La Reine), dep. Seine-et-Marne. P. 976. 

XII. (Si!. Denis), Seine^ P. 12,911. 

XIII. {St. Sauveur), Saune-et-Loire. 

P. 1,900. XIV. {St. Mesmin), dep. 

Loiret. P. 1,271. XV. {sur Erdre), 

Loire Inf. P. 2,294. XVI. {Volant), 

Jura. P. 1,907. 

Chaplin, t., Windham co. Conn.; 
watered by Natchaud riv. P. 704. 

Chapman, p-t., Union co. Penn. Some 

water power. P. 1,297. II. t., Clinton 

CO. Penn. 

Chapniers, a vill. of France, dep. 
Charente Inf. P. 4,257. 

Chapoo, an important marit. town of 
China, prov. Che-kiang. 

Chapola, riv., Florida & Ala., a branch 
of the Apalachieol&, 45 m. long. 

Chaprung, a town of Tibet, on the 

Chabalan, & Charapoto, two towns 
of S. America ; the former N. Granada ; 
the latter Ecuador, near the bay of Cha- 
rapoto, Pacific ocoan. 

Charbar, a large & well-sheltered bay, 
Beloochistan, prov. Mekran, in the Indian 

Charbonnier, & Charbonnieres, two 
comins. & vills. of France. 

Chard, a town of Engl., co. Somerset. 

Chard ak, Anava, a lake of Asia-Minor, 
Anatolia. Length, 16m.; breadth, 3 to 
4 m. Great quantities of salt are col- 
lected from it. 

Chardon, p-t., cap. of Georgia co. 0. 
P. 1,621. 

Charensat, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Puy-de-Dome. P. 1,900. 

Charente, a riv. in the W. of France, 
rises in the dep. H. Vienne. Length 20 m. 

Charente, a dep. of France (cap. An- 
gouleme), situated between lat. 45° 10' 
& 46° 8' N. Area, 2,270 sp. m. P. (in 
1851), 882,912. Surface undulating; it- 
contains many deep caverns ; hilly in the 
N.E., where there are many shallow 
lakes. Principal rivs., the Charente & 
Vienne. Vineyards comprise 112,600 
hect., but the wines are of inferior quality. 





The Cognac & Jarnac brandies are from 
this dep. 

Charente-Inferieube, a marit. dep. 
of W. Frtmce. Area, includ. the isls. Re 
& Oleron, 2,763 sq. m. P. (in 1S51) 
469,992. Cliniate'tetnp. Surface level. 
Princip. rivs. the Charente, Boutonne, & 
Sevre-Niortaise. Soil generally fertile. 
Value of annual wine prod., 800,000Z. 

Charenton, acomm.& town of France, 
dep. Seine, on rt. b. of Marne. P. 2,804. 

Charette, t., Warren co. 0. P. 1,332. 

CHARUiAR, a town of Afghanistan, 
Cabool. P. 5,000. 

Charite (La), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Nie'srre, cap. cant., on rt. b. 
of the Loire. P. 4,522. It has anchor- 
forges, button, hardware, & glass factories, 
& an active trade in iron, timber, corn, & 

Chariton, county, Mo,, situated cen- 
trally in" the N. part of the state. 
Washed by the Missouri r. Area 832 

sq. m. P. 7,514. Cap. Keytesville. 

II. r.. Mo., 130 m. long.- III. t., 

Howard co. Mo. IV. t., Macon co. 


Charjooee, a town of Independent 
Turkestan, Khanat, about 6 m. S. the 
Oxus. P. 5,000. 

Charkov, a gov., Russia. 

Charlemont, t., Franklin co. Mass. 
P. 1,127. 

Charleroi, a strongly fortified town 
of Belgium, prov. Hainault, cap. arrond., 
on the Satnbre. P. 6,300, employed'iii 
extens. coal mines, iron foundries. 

Charles (Cape), the most E. point of 

Labrador. British N. Amer. II. U. 

States, Virginia, forming with Cape 
Henry the entrance to Chesapeake bay. 
— (JsZonti), British N. Amer., in Hudson 
strait. Length 35 m., breadth 25 m. — 
One of the Galapagos isls. — {River), 
United States, Massachusetts, enters Bos 
ton harbor after a N.E. course of about 
50 m. 

Charles, county, Md., in the S.W. 
part of the state on the Potomac. P. 
16,162. Cap. Port Tobacco. 

Charles City, county, Va., situated 
centrally in the S.E. part of the state. 
Washed by James r. Area 208 sq. m. 
P. 5,200. Cap. Charles City c. h. 

Charles City, c. h., cap. of Charles 
City CO. Va. 

Charles, r., Mass., flowing into Bos- 
ton harbor. 

Charleston, district, S. C, in the S.E. 
part of the state. Contains 2.244 sq. m. 
It has the Santee r. on the N.E. Drained 
by Ashley & Cooper rs. Staple prod. 

rice & cotton. P. 83,644. Cap. Charles- 

Charleston, a seaport city of S. Caro- 
lina, cap. dist. of same name, on a low 
point of land formed by the confl. of the 
Cooper & Ashlev rivs., 7 m. from the 
Atlantic. Lrit. 32° 46' 33" N. P. 32,123. 
Tonnage 3,141,027. Streets mostly broad 
&, regular; houses of brick or painted 
wo'od, often adorned with piazzas & sur- 
rounded with gardens, with vines, orange, 
k peach trees. Chief buildings & insti- 
tutions, the city-hall, exchange, custom- 
ho., court-ho., jail, 2 arsenals, a theatre, 
circus, 'college, literary soc, the city 
libr. with 15,000 vols., acad. of fine arts, 
orphan asylum, hospital, 2 mkts., sevl.' 
banks, about 24 churches, & 2 or 3 fine 
hotels. The bay or harbor formed by 
the confl. of Cooper & Ashley rivs., is 
about 2 m. in breadth, & has deep water 
up to the city wharves. Principal ex- 
ports are the cotton & rice of S. Caro- 
lina. Imports consist of cotton, woollen, 
& linen fabrics, shoes, hardwares, colonial 
produce & provisions generally ; of which 
the greater part come from the N. & 
middle states. Steamers & lines of pack- 
ets run between the city & New York, & 
a railway connects it with the N. & mid- 
dle states on the one side, & with Geor- 
gia in the W. on the other. Charleston 
was founded in 1680. In 1690, a colony 
of French refugees exiled in consequence 
of the edict of Nantes, permanently set- 
tled here. It has frequently suffered by 
fire & by the ravages of yellow fever. 
The water in Charleston is bad & cisterns 
are generally used. In 1848, the imports 
here amounted to $1,485,299 ; exports 
(chiefly cotton & rice) $8,081,917; reve- 
nue from customs $324,468. Exports in 

1850, $12,394,497. II. t., Penobscot 

CO. Me. P. 1,269. III. t, Montgom- 
ery CO. N. J., on Schoharie r. P. 2,103. 

IV. t., Tioga CO. Pa. P. 1,010. 

V. Kalamazoo co. Mich. VI. p-v., cap. 

Clark CO. la. VII. t., Orleans co. Vt. 

VIII. a small maritime vill. of Engl., co. 

Cornwall, on its S.W. coast. IX. the 

cap. town of the British W. India isl. 
Nevis, on its N.W. coast. P. 1,806. 

Charlestown, a town & port of Mas- 
sachusetts, 1 m. N. Boston, with which 
city it communicates by bridges across 
Charles river. P. 17,216. Streets, 
though irregular, are spacious, & planted 
with trees. Chief buildings, a model 
state prison, a town house, hospital, alms 
ho., about 9 churches, & in the navy 
yard, covering 60 ac., a marine hospital, 
warehouse, arsenal, powder magazine, & 




covered docks, in. whicli the largest ves- 
sels Of war are built. Charlestown has 
also numerous timber yards, rope-walks, 
potteries, & distilleries. Immediately 
in the rear of the town is Bunker Hill, 
the scene of the battle of 17th June, 1775. 

— r-II. t, Sullivan co. N. H. III. t., 

Washington co. R. I., watered by 

Charles r. IV. p-v., cap. of Jefferson 

CO. Va. V. t.. Portage co. 0. VI. 

t., Chester co. Pa. P. 1,039. 

Charleval, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Eure, on the Andelle. P. 1,013. 
Manufs. of calicoes. 

Charleville, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Ardennes, with which it 
communicates by an avenue & suspen- 
sion bridge across the Meuse. P. 8,338. 
It is well built, clean, & handsome ; it 
has a college, an ecclesiastical school, & 
a public library with 22,000 vols. 

Charleville, Rathgogan, a town of 
Ireland, Munster co. Cork. P. 4,237. 

Charlieu, a coram. & town of France, 
dep. Loire. P. 3,532. 

Chaklois, a vill. of ISTetherlands, S. 
Holland, on the Maas. P. 2,000. 

Charlotte, a county, in S. part of Vicr 
ginia. Ai-ea, 600 sq. m. P. 13,953. 

Charlotte, town, Washington co. Me. 
— — II. t., Chittenden co. Vt. on Lake 

Champlain. P. 1,634. III. p-v., cap. 

Mecklenburg co. N. C. on a branch of the 
Catawga river. Here is a branch of the 
U. S. mint. E. of Charlotte are a num- 
ber of gold mines. IV. p-v., cap. 

Dickinson CO. Tenn. V. t., Chautauque 

CO. N. Y. P. 1,428. VI. ^^c. h. p-v., 

cap. Charlotte co. Va. near Little Ro- 
anoke riv. 

Charlotte Amalie, a town of the 
Danish. West Indies, cap. of the isl. St. 
Thomas. P. 10,100. It is built in the- 
form of an amphitheatre behind a spa- 
cious bay, which renders it one of the 
best trading places in the W. Indies. 

Charlotte Isls. [Queen Char- 
lotte's ISLS.] 

Charlottenbrunn, atown of Prussian 
Silesia, with mineral springs. P. 1,070. 
Manufs. of linens & cottons. 

Charlottenburg, a town of Prussia, 
prov. Brandenburg, on 1. b. of the Spree. 
P. 7,290, partly employed in steam cot- 
ton mills, cotton print-works, manufs. of 
hosiery, &c. 

Charlotte Hall, p-v., St. Mary's co. 
Md. An academy endowed bythe state. 

Charlottesville, a vill. Virginia, cap. 
CO. Albemarle. P 1,100. It is the seat 
of the Virginia university, an establish- 
ment well endowed by the state, & which 

has eight professors, an observatory, a 
museum, & lib. of 16,000 vols., attended 
by about 300 students. 

Charlotte-Town, the cap. of Prince 
Edward Isl., Brit. America, on Hillsbor- 
ough river, near the S. coast, with one 
of the best harbors in the adjacent seas. 
P. 3,500. 

Charlton, t.,AVorcester co. Mass. Some 

manufs. P. 2,015. II. p-t., Saratoga 

CO. N. Y., drained by a branch of the Mo- 
hawk. Some manufs. P. 1,933. 

Charly, several vills. of France ; tho 
chief in dep. Aisne, cap. cant. P. 1,603. 

Charmes-sur-Moselle, a comm. & 
town of France, dep. Vosges, cap. cant., 
on 1. b. of the Moselle, here crossed by a 
bridge of 10 arches. P. 3,011. 

Charneux, a vill. of Belgium^ prov. 
Liege. P. 2,300. It has manufs. of 
cloth, & the anc. abbey of Val-Dieu. 

Charnock-Heath, a tnshp. of Engl., 
CO. Lancashire. P. 1,062. 

Chaeny, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Yonne. P. 1,065. 

Charolais, an old subdivision of 
France in the prov. Burgundy. 

Charolles, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Saune-et-Loire. P. 2,962. 

Charonne, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Seine. P. 5,433. Manufs. of chem- 
ical products, wax candles, & colors. 

Charost, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Cher. P. 1,239. 

Charpey, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Drome. P. 2,770. 

Charroux, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Vienne. P. 1,740. 

Chars, a comm. & town of France, dep. 
Seine-et-Oise, on the Viosne. P. 1,019. 

Charshambah. a town of Asia-Minor, 
pash. Sivas, on the Yeshil Irmak river. 

Chartiers, a small riv. of Penn., 30 

m. long, flowing into the Ohio. I-I. t., 

Washington co. Pe»n. Coal abounds. P. 

Chartre (La), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Sai-the, cap. cant., on 1. b. 
of the Loir. P. 1,620. Trade in cattle 
& grain. 

Chartres, a comm. & city of France, 
cap. dep. Eure-et-Loir, on a steep decliv- 
ity beside the Eure. 

Charwah, a town of India, Hindostan, 
prov. Candeish. 

Chasgo, a cluster of vills. Afghanistan, 
8,697 feet above the sea. 

Chasma, a river of military Croatia, 
55 m. long. 

Chasselas, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. SaOne-et-Loire. 




Chasseneuil, a comm. & t. of France, 
dep. Charente. P. 1,821. Also vills. deps. 
Indre & Vienna. 

Chasseral, a mntn. of Switzerland, 
one of the culminating points of the Jura 
range, cant. Bern. Blev. 5,280 ft. 

Chasseron, a mntn. of the Jura range, 
between the French dep. Doubs, & the 
Swiss cant. Vaud. Eley. 5,280 ft. 

Chatauq.ue, a co. in the N.-most part 
of N. Y., on L. Erie. Area, 1,017 sq. m. 
It has a lake coast of 30 m. ; & about 5 
m. from the lake, an elevated ridge, 
1,400 feet high, divides the waters that 
flow into the lake, from those that take 
their course to the gulf of Mexico. — Chf. 
town of same name, near Portland, on 

Lake Erie. P. 50,493. Lake Cha- 

tauque, in its vicinity, is 18 m. in length 
N. to S., elev. 1,291 ft., navigable by 
steamboats, & connected by its outlet 
with the river Alleghany. 

Cha-Tchou, a t., Chinese Turkestan. 

Chateau (Le), a comm. & seaport 
t. of France, dep. Charente Inf., on the 
S.E. point of the isl. of Oleron. P. 1,314. 

Chateaubriant, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Loire Inf. P. 3,088. 

Chateau-Chalon, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Jura, on r. b. of the Seille. 
Excellent wine produced in its vicinity. 

Chateau-Chinon, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Ni^vre, in a mntnous. dist., 
near r. b. of the Yonne. P. 2,845. 

Chateau-d'CEx, avill. of Switzerland, 
cant. Vaud, cap. dist., Lausanne, on r. b. 
of the Sarine. P. 2,010. 

Chateau-du-Loir, a town & comm. of 
France, dep. Sarthe, cap. cant., on a hill 
near r. b. of the Loire. P. 2,736. It 
has manufs. of linens, cotton twist & leath- 
er, & a brisk trade in grain & chestnuts. 

Chateaudun, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Eure-et-Loire, near 1. b. of 
the Loire. P. 5,756. 

Chateaug ay, p-t., Franklin co. N. Y. 
P. 2,324. 

Chateaugiron, a comm. -& town of 
France, dep. lUe-et-Vilaine, cap. cant. 
P. 1,453. 

ChAteau-GtOntier, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. & on the Mayenne. P. 
6,254. It has manufs. of linen, & wool- 
len fabrics, & bleach-grounds ; & it is the 
entrepot for the wine, slate, coal, &c., of 
the dep. 

Chateau-Landon, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. Seine-et-Marne, cap. 

cant. P. 2,420. Chateau la Valliere 

is a comm. & town, dep. Indre-et-Loire, 
cap. cant. P. 1,239. 

Chateaulin, a comm. & t, of France, 

dep. Finistere, cap. arrond., on the Aulne. 
P. 1,523. 

Chateaumeillant, a comm. & t. of 
France, dep. Cher, cap. cant. P. 1,710. 

Chateauneuf, numerous comms., 
small towns, & vills. of Fance. 

Chateau-Porcien, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. Ardennes, cap. cant., on 
the Aisne. P. 2,463. Manufs. flannels. 

Chateau-Renard, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. Loiret, cap. cant. P. 

1,477. II. dep. Bouches, du Rhone, 

near l.b. of the Durance. P. 4,744. 

Chateau-Renault, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. Indre-et-Loire, cap. cant., 
on the Brenne. P. 3,079. Manufs. of 
coarse woollens. 

Chateauroux, a comm. & town of 
France, cap. dep. Indre, in a plain on 
the Indre, & at the terminus of the rail- 
way from Orleans, 61 m. S.E. Tours. P. 

12,554. II. a comm. & vill., dep. H. 

Alpes, arrond. Embrun. P. 1,772. 

Chateau-Salins, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Meurthe, cap. arrond. P. 

Chateau-Thierry, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. Aisne, on the Marne. P. 

Chateau- Villain, a comm. & t. of 
France, dep. H. Marne, cap. cant. P. 1,930. 

Chatelet, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Hainault, on r. b. of the Sambre. P. 2,971. 
Manufs. woollen cloth & leather. 

Chatelet (Le), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Cher. P. 1,368. 

Chatellerault, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Vienne, cap. arrond., on 
the Vienne, across which it communicates 
with a suburb by a stone bridge. P. 
9,738. It is one of the princip. seats of 
the manuf. of French cutlery, the pro- 
duction of which occupies about 600 fami- 
lies. • 

Chatel St. Denis, a vill. Switzerl. 

Chatel St. Denis sur-Moselle, a 
comm. & town of France, dep. Epinal, on 
the Moselle. P. 1,255. 

Chatelus, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Creuse, cap. cant. P. 1,438. 

Chatenay, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Seine. 

Chatenois, several com'm. & towns of 

France. 1, dep. B. Rhin. P. 3,560. 

II. a comm. & vill., dep. H. Rhin. P. 

1,128. III. a comm. & town, dep. 

Vosges, cap. cant. P. 1,593. Manuf. of 

Chatham, a riv., port, naval arsenal, 
town of England, on the E. bank of the 
Medway. Town well paved & lighted, & 
has many good shops ; but excepting its 




noble dockyard & handsome military 
suburb of Brompton, it presents little 
worthy of notice. The dockyard, inferior 
only to those of Portsmouth & Plymouth, 
contains 5 tide-docks, &, 6 building slips 
for vessels of the largest size ; with saw- 
mills, forges, machinery works & roperies. 

Chatham, co., N. C, in the central 
part of the state, contains 858 sq. m., 
watered by Haw & Deep rs. P. 18,449'. 

Cap. Pitboro. II. county, Ga., in the 

S-E. part of the state on the Savannah r. 

P. 23,901. Cap. Savannah. III. t, 

Barnstable CO. Mass., on the S.E. point of 
Cape Cod. Inhabs. employed in fisheries. 

P. 2,439. IV. t., Middlesex co. Conn. 

Watered by Salmon r. & Pine brook. It 
has a valuable quarry of freestone. P. 

1,525. V p-t., Columbia co. N. Y. 

Watered by Kinderhook cr. VI. t., 

Medina co. 0. VII. p-t., Morris co. 

N. J. Watered by Passaic r. P. 2,138. 

VIII. t., Carroll co. N. H., on the E. 

side of the White mountains. IX. t., 

Tioga CO. Pa. X. a vill. of New Bruns- 
wick, CO. Northumberland, on the riv. 

Miramichi, near its mth. XI. a vill. 

Upper Canada, W. dist., co. Kent, on the 

Chatham (Bay), Florida, gulf of 
Mexico, bounded by Capes Sable & St. 
Romans. — (Cape), W. Australia, dists. 
Lanark & Stirling. 

Chatham (Islands), a group, S. Pa- 
cific, about 380 m. E. New Zealand. 
They consist of Wairikaori (Chatham), 
Pitt, & some smaller isls., the first being 
about 90 m. in circumference. Coasts 
rocky; surface undulating & often 
marshy ; products similar to those of N. 

Zealand. II. a group in the Radack 

chain, N. Pacific ocean. Lat. 9° N., Ion. 

179° 50' E. III. (Island), off the W. 

coast of Patagonia- IV. one of the 

Galapagos isl.. Pacific ocean. Excellent 

coal has lately been discovered here. 

V. Chatham {Porf), an inlet on the E. 
coast of the S. Andaman isl., bay of Ben- 
gal. VI. {Sound), Russ. Amer., sepa- 
rates Geo. III., & Prince of Wales archi- 

Chatillon, numerous comms., towns, 
& vills. of France, the principal of which 
is on the Seine. P. 4,611. It has sev. 
good public buildings, with a castle & a 
park, long the property of the Marmont 
family, & in which, until lately, some 
model agrie. & iron-working estabs. ex- 
isted. Manufs. of woollen & linen fabrics, 
hats, leather, & paper goods. In Feb. 
1814, a conference was held here between 
Napoleon & the AUiei. 

Chatillon, a town of the Sard, sta., 
prov. Aosta, on 1. b. of the Dora-Baltea. 
P. 2,472. 

Chaton, a viU. of France, dep. Seine- 

Chatonnay, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Isere. P. 3,056. 

Chatke (La), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Indre, on the Indre. P. 

Chatsoo, a decayed town of British 
India, presid. Bengal. 

Chattahoochee, a riv., rises in the 
Appalachian mntns., flows S., forming a 
considerable portion of the boundary be- 
tween Alabama & Georgia, & after a 
total course of nearly 400 m., joins Flint 
riv., to form the Appalachicola, 40 m. 

N.W. Tallahassee. II. p-v., Gadsden 

CO. Florida. 

Chatterpoor, a town of Hindostan, 

Chattoga, county, Ga., in the N.W. 
part of the state. P. 6,815. Cap. Sum- 

Chattra, a town of N. Hindostan, 
Nepaul, with a temple of Vishnu, greatly 
resorted to by devotees. 

Chaudes-aigues, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Cantal, cap. cant. P. 1,422. 
It is an old rustic- looking town, in a nar- 
row gorge, with remarkable hot springs, 
varymg in tem. from 98° to 212° Fahr. 

Chaudiebe, a lake & riv. of Lower 
Canada ; the lake is an enlargement of 
the Ottawa riv. ; the river joins the St. 
Lawrence about 7 m. above Quebec, 
after a ]lf.N.W. course of 90 m.— The 
Falls of the Chaudiere are about 2J m. 
from the riv. mouth. 

Chauffailles, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Saune-et-Loire. P. 3,570. 
It has a manuf. of linens. 

Chaumont, a comm. & town of France, 
cap. dep. H. Marne. It has a public li- 
brary of 35,000 vols., with manufs. of 
coarse woollens, druggets, linen & cotton 
yarn, & gloves, & a considerable trade 

in iron & iron-wares. P. 5,608. II. a 

comm. & town, dep. Oise, cap. cant. P. 
1,126. — : — III. (stir Loire), a comm. & 

Till., dep. Loir-et-Cher, on the Loire. 

IV. a vill. of Savoy,_prov. Carouge. P. 

Chaumont, p-v., Jefferson co. N. Y. 

Chauny, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Aisne, on an isl. in the Oise. P. 
5,404. It has an active trade in cider, 
linen cloths, & hosiery. 

Chaussey, a group of bare & rocky 
isls. in the Engl, channel. They supply 
excellent granite. 




Chaussin, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Jura, cap. cant , near 1. b. of the 
Doubs. P. 1,328. 

Chauvigny, a comm. & to\m of France, 
dep. Vienne, on rt. b. of the Vienne. P. 

Chaux-de-Fond (La), a town of Swit- 
zerl., cant. Neufchatel. P. 8,481. It is 
situated at the foot of a narrow & savage 
gorge of the Jura, at an elev. of 3,070 fc. 
above the sea, each cottage being sur- 
rounded by a garden. With Locle, this 
is the chief seat of the manuf. of the cele- 
brated watches of the canton. 

Chavanges, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Aube, cap. cant. P. 1,081. 
- Chaves, a town of Portugal, prov. 
Tras-os-Montes, on rt. b. of the Tamega. 
P. 0,000. There is here a Koman bridge 
of 18 arches on the riv. It has hot saline 
springs (temp. 129° Fahr.). 

Chaves, a marit. town of Brazil, prov. 
Para, on the N. coast of the isl. Marajo, 

at the mouth of the Amazon. II. 

The cap. town of the island St. Thomas, 
gulf of Guinea. P. 1,137. 

Chaville, a vill. of France, dep. Seine- 
et-Oise, on the Seine. P. 1,562. 

Chayanta, a town of Bolivia, dep. 
Potosi, cap. prov. 

Chayar, a t. of Chinese Turkestan, on 
the Chayar riv., affl. of Erghenr 

Chayenpooe, a town of iSTepaul. 

Chaylabd (La), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Ardeche, on rt. b. of the 
Dome. P. 2,353. 

Chazelles-sur-Lyon, a comm. & town 
of France, dep. Loire. P. 1,920. 

Chazy, a township, New York, on Lake 
Champlain, & watered by Chazy river, 
which falls into the lake. P. 3,584. 

Cheadle, a town of England, co. Staf- 
ford. The town is pleasantly situated'in 
a valley. Coal & limestone abound in 
the vicinity. Copper, brass, <& tin works. 

Cheaput, a small town & important 
military post, Seinde. 

Cheat, riv., Va., a branch of the Mo- 

Chebucto, two bays, Nova Scotia ; the 
former near Halifax, the latter at the E. 
extrem. of the isl., opposite Cape Breton. 

Chebyn, a vill. of Lower Egypt, prov. 
Menouf, with a gov. school, & a cotton 

Checa, a town of Spain, prov. Guada- 
laxara. P. 1,201. 

Checing, a town of Poland, on the 
Czarna. P. 3,000. There are quarries 
of fine marble in its vicinity. 

Checo, a vill. of Chile, dep. Coquimbo, 
with some rich copper mines. 

Cheduba, an isl.. Further India, Brit, 
prov. Aracan, in the bay of Bengal. Area, 
300 sq. m. P. 5,000. 

Ckee-choo,' a city of China, prov. 
Ngan-Holi, cap.dep., near the Yang-tze- 

Chbera, a city of Chinese Turkestan. 
Cheerun, a town of British India, pre- 
sid. Bengal, dist. Sarun, on the Ganges. 
Chef (St.), a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Isere. P. 3,411. 

Chef-Boutonne, a comm. & town of 

France, dep. Deux- Sevres, cap. cant. P. 

1,372. It has manufactures of druggets. 

Chehl, a lofty mountain, Beloochistan, 

immediately S. Moostung. 

Che-kiang, a maritime prov. of China. 
P. 26,256,784. Surface greatly diversified, 
& the prov. is traversed by the Great 
canal. Coasts abrupt & greatly indented. 
It is one of the most fertile & commercial 
provs. of China. Silk is the principal 
article of export : other products are tea 
in the S., cotton, indigo, fruits, caniphoi', 
& coal. Its manufs. silk, crape, gold & 
silver stuffs, & paper. Che-kiang, com- 
prising the Chusan isls., is subdivided into 
11 deps. 

Chelek, a vill. of Asiatic Turkey, pasb. 
Diarbekir. sanj. Sert, with from 400 to 
500 houses of Koords "& Jacobite Chris- 
tians, & a strong rock fortress. 

Chehcut, a town of Abyssinia, king- 
dom of Tigre. ' — 

Chelindrejm, a small seaport town of 
Asia-Minor, pash. Ilshil. 

Chelles, a comm-. & town of France, 
dep. Seine- et-Marne, near rt. b. of the 
Marne. P. 1,632. 

Chellumbeum, a tovm of British India, 
presid. Madras, dist. near mouth of Cole- 
roon riv. 

Chelm, a town of Poland, gov. Lublin. 
P. 2,900. It has a fine convent & a Greek 
seminary. The Poles were defeated hero 
by the Russians. June 4, 1794. 

Chelmer, a riv. of England, co. Essex. 

Chelmsford, p-t., Middlesex co. Mass., 

on the S. side of the Mcrrimac. Some 

mauufs. of gLass & iron. P. 1,997. II. 

a market town of England, cap. co. Essex, 
at the confluence of the Qhelmer k Cann 

Chelona, a mntn. on the N. frontier 
of Greece, the most conspicuous of those 
encircling the gulf of Arta on the B., 
6,312 feet in elevation. 

Chelsea, a pa. of England, co. Middle- 
sex, forming a populous S.W. suburb of 
London, on the N. bank of the Thames. 

P. 40,179. II. t., cap. Orange co. Vt., 

watered by a branch of White river. P. 





1,938. III. p-t., Suffolk CO. Mass. 

Coiisid. manufs. P. 6,701. 

Cheltenham, a town & fiishionable 
watering-place of England, co. Gloucester. 
It is situated on the Chelt, a small tribu- 
tary of the Severn, in a beautiful vale, 
sheltered from the N. & E. by a semi- 
circular sweep of the Cotswold & other 
hills. The saline springs to which it owes 
its rapid increase, are frequented by, a 
Lost of fashionable visitors annually. The 
mineral ingredients of the springs are 
chiefly the sulphates of soda & magnesia, 
iodine, & iron, held in solution by car- 
bonic acid. 

Cheltenham, Montgomery co. Pa. 

Chelva, a town of Spain, prov. Valen- 
cia, on river of same name. P. 4,264. 

Chely (St.), a CO mm. & town of France, 
dep. Lozere, cap. cant. Mende. P. 1,651. 

II. (d'Aubrac), dep. Aveyron, cap. 

cant. Rodez. P. 1,500. 

Chemille, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Maine-et-Loire, cap. cant. Angers. 

P. 1,827. II. a comm. & vill., dep. 

Indre-et-Loire. P. 1,314. 

Chemnitz, a town of Saxony ciro. 
Zwickau, cap. dist., on the Chemnitz riv. 
P. 28,650. It is th« principal seat of 
cotton-weaving in the kingdom. 

Chemung, riv., N. Y., is formed by the 
junction of Conhopton & Tioga rivs., in 
Steuben co. X. Y., a branch of the Sus- 
quehanna; affords good mill seats; the 
main feeder of Chemung canal. 

Chemung, county, N. Y. in the S. part 
of the state. Surface broken, watered by 
Chemung riv. & several crs. P. 28,821. 

Cap. Elmira.- II. town, Chemung co. 

N. Y. P. 2,377. 

Chenango, riv., "N. Y., branch of the 

Susquehanna, 75 m. long.- II. county, 

N. Y., near the centre of the state. Area, 
800 sq. m., watered by Chenango & Una- 
dilla rivs., & by several crs. P. 40,311. 

III. Broome co. N. Y., watered by 

Chenango & Susquehanna rivs. 2 acads. 

P. 5,465. IV. p-t., Beaver co. Penn. 

P. 1,535. 

Chenaub, the centr. riv. of the Punjab, 
betw. the Jailum & the Ravee, both of 
which rivers are its affluents. Len. 700 m. 

Chene-Thonex, a vill. of Switzerland, 
cant. & 2 m. E. Geneva. P. 2,076. 

Chenerailles, a comm. -& town of 
France, dep. Creuse. P. 1,028. 

Chenit (Le), a prov. & vill. of Switz- 
erland, cant. Vaud, on the Orbe. P. 2,030. 

Chenonceaux, a comm. & vill. of 
France, dep. Indre-et-Loire, on the Cher. 

Cheonoquet, county, Mich., in the JST. 
part of the S.-ern peninsula; unorganized. 

Cheo-po, a seaport town of China, 
prov. Fokien, opp. Formosa, to which isl. 
it exports sugar, rice, & camphor. 

Chepillo, an isl. in the Pacific ocean, 
in the bay & off the S. coast of the isthmus 

Chepo, a riv. & town of S. Amer., N. 
Granada, dep. Panama, & in the narrow- 
est part of the isthmus. The riv. enters 
the Pacific, 18 m. E. Panama. 

Chepstow, a market town, riv. & port 
of England, co. Monmouth, on the Wye, 
near its junction with the Severn. 

Cher, a riv. of cent. France, a br. of 

the Loire ; 195 m. long. II. a central 

dep. of France, cap. Bonrges. Area, 2,853 
sq. m. P. 294,500. Climate temperate. 
Surface mostly level, & generally wooded; 
principal rivs. the Cher & Loire, along 
both of which is much fertile land. Mines 
of iron & coal are wrought. Chf. manufs. 
woollen goods. 

Cherasco, a town of the Sard, states, 
Piedmont, div. Coni, on the Tanaro. P. 

Cheraw, Chesterfield dist., S. C., on 
the W. bank of the Great Pedee riv. 1 
male & 1 female acad. Consid. trade in 
cotton. P. 1,050. 

Cherbourg, a comm & fortfd. seaport 
town of France, dep. Manehe, on the 
English channel. P. 22,460. Its climate 
is remarkably mild. Houses of stone, & 
slated ; principal buildings the military 
& naval arsenals. Its naval docks are 
cut out of solid rock ; & it has a commerc. 
harbor, lined with stone quays. Its road- 
stead is now one of the best in the chan- 
nel, being sheltered by a digue or break- 
water, 411 yards in length. P. 6,673. 

Cherchell, a seaport town of N. Africa, 
Algeria, prov. Algiers. P. 1,091. 

Cheribon, a seaport town, Java, on its 
N. coast. P. 11,000. It is the residence 
of a Dutch governor. 

Cherokee, county, N. C, in the N.W. 
corner of the state. Area, 1,000 sq. m. 
On the streams, the land is excellent, 
producing Indian 'Corn, wheat, rye, oats, 
& potatoes abundantly. White, blue, & 
flesh-colored marble is found ; also iron 
ore, with some gold, silver, & lead. Dis- 
tilleries & grist mills. P. 6,838. II. 

county, Ga., in the N. part of the state ; 
drained by Etowah riv. Staple products 
cotton & tobacco. Distilleries, smelting 
hos., & potteries. P. 12,800. Cap. Can- 
ton. IIL county, Texas. P. 6,673. 

IV. county, Ala., in the N.E . part of state. 

Staple prod, tobacco & cotton. Tanneries 

& distilleries. P. 13,884. Cap. Jefferson. 

Cheronea, a ruined city of Greece, 




gov. Boeotia, Lebadea, celeb, for the vic- 
tory of Philip over the Athenians, 338 
B.C., & for that of Sylla over the general 
of Mithridates, 86 B.C. 

Cherrapoonjee, a British station & 
vill. of Further India, in the Cossjah 
hills, Dacca, from 4,200 to 4,500 ft. above 
the sea. 

Cherry, t., Butler co. Penn. 

Cherry Creek, t. Chautauque eo. N. 
Y. Drained by several crs. P. 1,300. 

Cherryfield, t.. Washington co. Me., 
at the head waters of Narraguagus. 

Cherry Grove, v., St. Clair co. 111. 

Cherry Tree, p-t., Venango co. Pa. 

Cherry Valley, p-t., Otsego co. N.Y. 
Drained by several crs. It has extensive 
water power. 1 acad. ; 1 newsp. P. 4,186. 
II. p-t., Ashtabula co. 0. P. 1027. 

Cherso, an isl. of lUyria, gov. Trieste, 
in the gulf of Quarnero, Adriatic. Area, 
lOSsq.m. P. 14,000. 

Cherson, a gov. & town of Russia. 

Chersonesus, the anc. name of sevl. 
peninsulas of Europe. 

Cherta, a town of Spain, prov. Tarra- 
gona. P. 2,433. 

Chertsey, a mkt. town of England, co. 
Surrey, on the Thames. 

Chesapeake Bay, the largest bay in 
the states of Virginia & Maryland, which 
latter state it divides into two parts. It 
is about 200 m. in length, from 7 to ^0 m. 
in breadth, & generally about 9 fathoms 
in depth. The Susquehanna, Potomac. 
Rappahannock, Chester, & James' rivers, 
flow into this bay, which has many good 

Che SHAM, a mkt. town of England, co. 
Bucks. P. 5,593. 

Cheshire, a maritime county of 
England, having N. the Irish sea & the 
estuary of the Mersey. P. 423,438. The 
surface, except on its extreme E. & W. 
borders, is remarkably level, well wooded, 
& studded with small lakes or meres. 
Principal rivers, the Dee, Merse^^, & 
Weever. Soil chiefly a clayey or sandy 
loam. Climate moist. -This is one pf the 
principal dairy & grazing districts in 
England. The stock of milch cows of va- 
rious breeds is estim. at nearly 100,000, 
yielding 1,250 tons of cheese. Near 
Nantwich are apparently inexhaustible 
mines of rock salt & saline springs ; 
other chief mineral products are coal, 
copper, & lead. Manufs. of cottons & 
silks are extensive at Macclesfield, Stock- 
port, &c. 

Cheshire, county, N. 11., on Connecti- 
cut river. Grand Monadnook mountain, 
3,000 feet high, lies in this co. A good 

grazing & farming co. Manufs. of wool- 
lens, cotton goods, leather, glass & paper.' 
Two newsp.; 3 periodicals, & 11 acads. 

P. 30,144. Cap. Keene. II. p-t., 

Berkshire co. Mass. Watered by Hoo- 
sack riv. Celeb, for its cheese. P. 985. 
III. p-t.. New Haven co. Conn. Water- 
ed by Quinnipiac r. Tanneries, distille- 
ries, & powder mills. 1 acad. P. 1,529. 
-IV. p-t., Gallia co., 0. 

Chesil Bank, a sand & gravel shoal 
in the English channel, which connects 
the isl. Portland with the mainland. 

Chesnut Hill, a township, Pennsyl- 
vania, Munroe co. P. 1,318. . 

Chester, an episcopal city, co. of it- 
self, & river port of England, cap. co., on 
the Dee. P. 22,951. It stands on a 
rocky elevation, in great part enclosed 
by anc. & massive walls, which form an 
oblong quadrangle. The cathedral is an 
irregular massive structure, with a tow6r 
127 feet in height ; it has many fine 
monuments, with a handsome chapter- 
house, & adjacent to it are the remains 
of an ancient abbey, partly used for the 
grammar school. The bishop's palace & 
prebendal college occupy other portions 
of the abbey-precinct. 

Chester, county. Pa., in the S.E. part 
of the state. Highly cultivated. Drained 
by several crs. Staple product, wheat, 
Indian corn & oats. Many cattle, sheep 
& swine, are reared. Manufs. of iron, 
woollens, cotton goods, leather, earthen- 
ware, & paper. 20 oil mills, 115 grist ms. 
& 150 saw ms. 13 acad. & 4 newsp. P. 
66,438. Cap. Westchester. II. dis- 
trict, S. C. in the north part of the state, 
between Catawba & Broad rivs. Staple 
prod, cotton. Inconsid. manufs. 2 acad. 

P. 18,033. Cap.Chesterville. III. t., 

Rockingham co., N. H. A pond of 1,500 
acres in centre of the town. 1 acad. P. 

1,301. IV. t., Penobseot-co. Me. 

V, t., Windsor co. Vt. It has 2 pleasant 

vill'gs. P. 2,001. VI. p-t., Mich. 

VII. -t., Hampden CO. Mass. Adapted to 
grazing. Some manufs. P. 1,521. 

VIII. t., Middlesex co. Cona. Great wa- 
ter power & some manufs. P. 974. 

IX. t., Warren co. N. Y. Watered by 
Hudson riv. P. 2,033. X. p-t., Mor- 
ris CO. N. J. Drained by Black riv. 10 

distilleries. P. 1,321. XI. p-v., cap. 

of Del. CO. Pa. The usual co. buildings. 

1 newsp. P. 1,790. XII. t., Wavne 

CO. Pa., on Del. riv. P. 1,993. Xtll. 

t., Wabash co. la. P. 536. XIV. c. h. 

p-v., cap. of Chester, dist. S. C, on the 
ridge between Broad & Wateree rs. The 
usual 00. buildings. — — XV, p-t., Meigs 




CO. 0., on a branch of the Ohio. P. 1,598. 
XVI. t., Burlington co. N. J. Drain- 
ed by several crs. A good farming town. 

P. 2,603. XVII. t., Knox co. 0. Some 

water power. P. 1,295. XVIII. t., 

Clinton co. 0., on a br. of Little Miami. 

P. 1,784. XIX. town, Geauga co. 0. 

Adapted to grazing. P. 962. 

Chesterfield, a town &, township of 
Engl., CO. Derby, on the Rother, & a canal 
connecting it with the Trent. It is irreg- 
ularly built; principal edifices, a cruci- 
form church of the 13th century, with a 
remarkably twisted spire 230 feet high. 
It has mauufs. of cotton, silks, lace, hos- 
iery, worsted, earthenware, & machinery ; 
& in its vicinity are iron, coal, & lead 

mines. II. county, Va., betw. James 

& Appomattox rivs. Staple prod, tobacco. 
Some manufs. of cotton. P. 17,489. Cap. 

Chesterfield c. h. III. district, S. C, 

in the N.E. part of the state, between 
Great Peeks riv. & Lynch er. Not a pro- 
ductive dist. Staple, cotton ; 45 grist 
mills; 2newsp. P. 10,790. Cap. Ches- 
terfield c. H. IV. p-t., Cheshire co. 

N. H., on Connecticut riv. It contains a 
beautiful lake of 526 acres. 1 acad. P. 

1,765. V. p-t., Hampshire co. Mass. ; 

rough but productive. Many sheep are 

kept here. 1 acad. P. 1,132. VI. t., 

Burlington co. N. J. ; drained by several 
crs. It contains the village of Borden- 

town. Some manufs. P. 3,438. VII. 

t., Essex CO. N. Y., with Lake Champlain 
on the E. Forges, woollen facs., & fulling 

mills; 2 newsps. P. 2,716. VIII. 

cap. Chesterfield co. Va. The usual 
county buildings. IX. p-v., cap. Ches- 
terfield dist. S. C. The usual county 

Chester-le-Street, a vill. of Engl. 
P. 16,359. 

Chester Town, p-v., seaport, & cap. 
Kent CO. Md., on Chester riv., 30 m. above 
its entrance into Chesapeake bay. The 
usual county buildings. Washington col- 
lege is here. P. 1,000. 

Chesterville, p-t. Franklin co., Me. ; 
watered by Wilson's stream. P. 1,200. 

Chesuncook, lake. Me. 

Chetimatches, lake. La., between 
Atchafalaya & the Teche r. It is 40 m. 
long, & from 1 to 6 broad. 

Chetwa, a maritime town of British 
India, presid. Bombay, dist. Malabar. 

Cheux, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Calvados, on r. b. of the Mue. P. 

Chevilly, a comm. & vill. of France. 
dep. Loiret, on the Paris & Orleans railw. 
P. 1,281. 

Cheviot Hills, a mountain range ex- 
tending from N.E. to S.W., betw. England 
& Scotland. Cheviot peak is 2,684 ft., & 
Carter Fell 2,020 ft. in elev. 

Chevreuse, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Seine-et-Oise, cap. cant., on the 
Yvette. P. 1,507. 

Cheychun, a town of Scinde, on the 

Chezy L'ABBAYE,"acomm. & town of 
France, dep. Aisne. P. 1,216. 

Chiampo, a vill., N. Italy, gov. Venice. 
P. 3,000. 

Chiana, two small rivers of Central 
Italy, Tuscany, & the Pontif. sta. 

Chianciano, a vill. of Tuscany, prov. 
Arezzo. It is one of the most favorite 
watering-places in Centr. Italy. P. 2,166. 
Chiapa, or Chiapas, the most S. state 
of the Mexican confed. Area, 18,750 sq. 
m. P. 92,000, chiefly Indians. It com- 
prises a portion of the table-land of 
Centr. America, traversed by the rivs. 
Usumasinta, Tabasco, & their aifluents. 
European grains are raised on the up- 
lands ; the valleys yield maize, hemp, 
tobacco, sugar, &c. Principal towns, 
Ciudad de las Casas, the cap. Chiapa, & 

Chiapa de los Indios, a town qf 
Mexican confederation, state Chiapa, on 
the Tabasco. 

Chiaramonte, a town ef Sicily, co. 
Modica. P. 7,000. II. a vill. of Sar- 
dinia. P. 1,505. 

Chiaravallb, a town of Naples, prov. 
Calab. Ult II., cap. cant., near the gulf 
of Squillace. P. 2,500. 

Chiaeenza, or Clarentza, a cape & 
vill. of Greece. 

Chiari, a town of Lombardy, deleg. W. 
Brescia, on railw. from Milan to Brescia. 
P. 8,903. It has numerous churches, & 
flourishing manufs. of silk fabrics & twist. 
Here Prince Eug-ene gained a victory 
over Marechal Villeroi, 1st Sept. 1701. 

Chiahomonte; a town of Naples, prov. 
Basilicata, cap. cant., on a mntn., with 

2,620 inhabs. II. a market town of 

Sicily. P. 3,600. 

Chiavahi, a marit. town, Sard, sta., 
cap. prov., on the gulf of Rapallo, at the 
mouth of the Sturla. P. 1-0,619. It is 
enclosed by cultivated hills, & is well 
built & flourishing. Streets narrow, & 
bordered with arcades. 

Chiavenna, a town of Lombardy, 
Valtellina, on the Maira, 20 m. W.N.W. 
Sondrio. P. 3,539. It is enclosed by 
walls, & well built. Manufs. of silk twist 
& fabrics, & of pottery made from a pe- 
culiar stone, are carried on. 




Ghica-Balapoor, a town of India, 
Deccan, Mysore dom. 

Chicacole, a town of British India, 
presid. Madras, on N. bank of Cliicacole 
riv., near the bay of Bengal. It is large, 
irregularly built, has some neat barracks, 
several bazaars, many mosques, & its 
muslin manufs. have long enjoyed repute. 

Chicago, riv., forming harbor of Chi- 
cago, is composed of 2 branches — the one 

40 m. long, & the other 6. II. city, & 

cap. Cook CO. 111., on Lake Michigan, at 
the mouth of Chicago riv. The riv. here 
is from 50 to 75 yds. wide, & from 15 to 
25 ft. deep ; though the bar at the mouth 
has only about 3 ft. of water. An arti- 
ficial harbor, however, has been made by 
. the construction of piers. Chicago is 
very flourishing. Its gro^wth has been 
most rapid. Its navigation interest is 
extensive. Tonnage 23,103 45. Numer- 
ous steamboats & vessels ply between this 
place & Buffalo, & the various interme- 
diate places on the upper lakes. Back 
of the city is a very larg^ & fertile prai- 
• rie. A canal 60 ft. wide at top, & 6 ft. 
deep, & 105 m. in length, connects this 
place with Illinois riv. Chicago has a 
. flourishing trade. In 1848 its exports 
amounted to $10,709,333 ; imports, 
$8,562,639. P. (in 1850) 29,963. 

Chicamogloor, two towns of India, 
Mysore dom., Seringapatam. 

Chichacotta, a town of Bootan, near 
the Brit, frontier. 

Chicken, a vill., S. Amer., Yucatan, 
comprising a vast ruined temple, 450 ft. 
in length, a pyramid 550 ft. sq. at base. 

Chicheeowly, a town of N. Hindostan, 

Chichester, a city, co. of itself, of 
England, cap. co. Sussex. Area of city 
liberty, 1,680 ao. P. 8,512. It stands in 
a plain between the Southdown hills & 
the sea. It is neatly built, clean, well 
paved, drained, & lighted, & intersected 
by 4 principal thoroughfares, directed 
towards the cardinal points, & meeting in 
the centre of the city, where there is an 
elegant octagonal cross, erected in 1478. 
II. t., Merrimac co. N. H. P. 1,028. 

Chickacnauga, in the N.W. part of 
Ga., a branch of the Tennessee. 

Chickahominy, riv., Va., a branch of 
James riv., 60 m. long. 

Chickapee, r., a branch of the Con- 

Chickapee Falls, a flourishing man- 
ufac. village, Hampden co. Mass. 

Chickasaw, county, Miss., toward the 
N. part of the state, contains 970 sq. m., 
watered by Yalla Busha. Cap. Hous- 

ton. A planting county. Staple corn- 
mod, cotton. P. 16,366^. 

Chickooey, a considerable town of 
Hindostan, dom. Sattarah. Situated 
amid an amphitheatre of hills. 

Chicktawaga, t., Erie co. N. Y., 
watered by head branches of Buffalo cr. 
It contains an Indian reservation belong- 
ing to the Seneca tribe. P. 3,042. 

Chiclana, a town of Spain, prov. & 12 
m. S.E. Cadiz. P. 7,144. It has numer- 
ous country-houses of inhabs. of Cadiz, & 
near it a ruined Moorish castle. 

Chiclayo, a town of N. Peru, dep. 
Truxillo, prov. Lambayeque. 

Chicot, co., Ark., in the S.E. part of 
the state, contains 1,800 sq. m. Drained 
by several rs. Surface level. Cap. Co- 
lumbus. Staple commod. cotton. P. 

Chicova, a town of S.E. Africa, Mono- 
motapa, on r. b. of the Zambezi. It was 
formerly celebrated for its silver mines. 

Chiem-see, a lake of Upper Bavaria, 
42 m. S.E. Munich, celebrated for its 
fish. Length 12 m., breadth 9 m., height 
above the sea 1,549 ft., greatest depth 
480 ft. It has 3 small isls. 

Chienti, a riv., cent. Italy, Poritif sta. 
P. 1,680. 

Chieri, a town of Sard, states. Pied- 
mont, cap. mand., op a hUl, prov. Turin. 
P. 13,272. It has manufs. of silk, cot- 
ton, & linen fabrics. It is one of the 
most ancient manufacturing towns, of 

Chiers, a riv. of Europe, rises N.W. 
Esch in Luxemburg, & flows through the 
French deps. Meuse, Ardennes, & joins 
the Meuse, 4 m. S. Sedan, after a W. 
course of 50 miles. 

Chiesa, a riv. of the Tyrol & N, Italy, 
rises W. of Arco in the Tyrol, flows S., 
forming the lake of Idro, & joins the 
Oglio, 18 m. W. Mantua. Length 75 m. 
Asola, Coudino, & Montechiaro are on its 

Chieti, an archiepiscopal city of Naples, 
cap. prov. Abruzzo Cit., on a hill, near 
the Pescara. P. 12,700. It is badly laid 
out, but has some good edifices, compris- 
ing a cathedral, college, & handsome 
theatre ; the adjacent country is pleas- 

Chievbes, a town of Belgium, prov. 
HainJlult. P. 3,107. 

Chiftlik, a vill. of Turkish Armenia. 

Chignecto Bay, an inlet of British 
N. Amer., between Nova Scotia & New 
Brunswick, forming the N. extremity of 
the bay of Fundy. Length 30 m., av. 
breadth 8 va. 




Chignolo. a town of Lombardy. P. 

Chihuahua (pron. Chiwawa), a state, 
Mexic. confed., having E. a desert, & the 
Rio Bravo del Norte dividing it from 
Texas. Area 107,500 sq. m., & p. 190,- 
000. It is a mntn. table-land, mostly in- 
fertile, but abounding in nitre & other 
salts, & rich in mines of gold & silver. 
Chief towns, Chihuahua & San Jose del 
Parral. — Chihuhhua, the cap.' of above 
state, in an arid plain. P. 12,000, is of 
great extent & well built, but declining. 
It is the chief mart for the trade between 
Santa Fe & the U. States. Near it are 
many rich but unwrought mines, & ex- 
tens, cattle-farms. 

Chilapa, a t. of Mexico, 58 m. N.E. 

Chilapa, & Chilapilla, two rivers, 
Mexican confed., dep. Tabasco, & tribu- 
tary to the river Tabasco. 

Chilaw, a marit. town of Ceylon, on 
its W. coast. Opposite to it a pearl- 
fishery is carried on. 

Chilca, a seaport of Peru, dep. Lima, 
on the Pacific, near which is a vill. of 
same name. 

Chilecito, a vill., Plata confed., dep. 
Bioja, in the Famatina valley, & the 
head-quarters of its mining dist. 

Chile,- or Chili, a repub. state, S. 
Amer., situated along the W. shore of 
that continent, bounded by the Andes on 
the E., & Pacific oc. on the W. Length 
from N. to S., including isl. of Chiloe, 
1,240 m.; breadth from 100 to 200 m.' 
The boundary line separating it on the 
N. from Bolivia is near Huesco Parado, 
its southern limit on the mainland is the 
bay of Ancud. The mountain slopes of 
the Andes form the greater part of Chile. 
They are here a single range except at 
two places, where they separate. & en- 
close the elevated valleys of Tunyan & 
Uzpallata. The volcanic peak of Acon- 
cagua rises to an elev. of 23,200 ft., that 
of Maypu to 15,000 feet. There are 
several passes across the Chilean range, 
one in Aconcagua at an elev: of 14,000 
ft.; at Portello, 14.365; and at Tunyan 
& Cumbre, 13.210 ft. North of the Rio 
Chuapa the whole country is formed by 
the declivity of the Andes, except a nar- 
row belt of plain 60 to 80 ft. in elev., 
bordering the sea. In some of the val- 
leys, as Copiapo, years pass over without 
rain falling, but dews are frequent. The 
I'ivs. N. of the Maypu bring down to the 
coast little water. None are navigable. 
The Maule is navigable for vessels draw- 
ing 7 ft. water, & for barges for about 20 

m. The Biobio. the largest riv. in the 
country, has a course of 200 m., & is 2 m. 
wide at its mouth, navigable for boats 
for 200 m. The Calaealla riv. admits 
vessels of considerable size. There are 
several good harbors, such as those of 
Valdivia, Concepcion, Valparaiso, & Co- 
quimbo. The tracts through the valley 
& ravines are only passable by mules. 
The vegetation of the north of Chile is 
very limited. Tropical plants do not 
grow from the extreme dryness of the 
soil. Farther south Indian corn, wheat, 
barley, oats, beans, & hemp, are exten- 
sively cultivated. This is the native 
country of the potato. It is found grow- 
ing in the arid mntns. of Central Chile as 
well as in the moist temp, of Chonos & 
Chiloe isles. Among the animals of prey 
the puma is the most conspicuous. The 
guanacoe & llama abound in the plains 
of the S. provinces, & the pastures feed 
large herds of cattle, horses. Jerked 
beef, tallow, hides, & live stock are ex- 
ported. Gold is found in the sands of the 
rivs., & was formerly, though not now, 
collected. Silver mines exist in the S. 
Andes, but silver & copper mines are 
chiefly wrought in the more N. parts, 
lead & iron, are found, but are not 
wrought. The Pop. consists of the de- 
scendants of the Spaniards & the abo- 
riginal tribes. All the inhabitants of 
the Biobio are of European descent, 
with scarcely any mixture of Indian 
blood. The aborigines inhabit almost 
e.x:clusively the country south of this 
river. The present pop. is considered to 
exceed 1,400,000. Chile is divided into 
9 provinces. 


Area in 
sq. m. 









Araucania, (organized 1852.) 

Chief Town & 
Coquimbo, 8,000 
Quillota, 10,000 
Santiago, 60.000 
San Fernando 
Villa de Cauquenes 
Valdivia, 2,000 
San Carlos, 4,000 

The exports from Chili in 1851 amount- 
ed to $9,666,354; imports $11,788,193. 
Chili is the best governed & the most 
prosperous of the S. American republics. 

Chili, p-t., Monroe co. N. Y. Drained 
by a br. of Genesee r. P. 2,274. 

Chil-li, the most N. prov. of China, 
having N. Mongolia, E. the gulf of Pe- 
che-le, & other sides the provs. Shan- 




tung, Shan-se, & Ho-nan. P. 27,990,871 . 
It is well watered, but is the least pro- 
ductive prov. of China proper ; and it 
owes its chief importance to containing 
the capital, Pekin, & the great depots of 
rice & salt for the internal supply of the 
empire & of the cattle sent into China 
from Mongolia. Coal of inferior quality 
is raised in considerable quantities. The 
prov. is divided into 11 deps. ; chief cities 
Pekin & Yung-ping. 

Chi-li (Gulf of), an inlet of the Yel- 
low sea. Length & breadth about 150 
m. each. 

Chilicothe, city, cap. of Ross co. 0., 
situated on the W. bank of the Scioto r. 
The princip. streets, following the course 
of the river, are crossed by others at 
right angles. The usual county build- 
ings, & an elegant banking house. P. 

7,100. II. p-v., cap. of Livingston 

CO. Missouri. The usual county build- 
ings. P. 710. ' , . 

Chilka Lake, Brit. India, is a shal- 
low inlet of the bay of Bengal, between 
the presids. Madras & Bengal. Area 280 
sq. m. 

Chilkeah, a town of Brit. India, pre- 
sid. of Bengal, Upp. provs. 

Chillambarajm, a town of Brit. India, 
Carnatic, on the sea coast, 36 m. S. Pon- 

Chillan, a town of Chile, province & 
100 m. N.E. Concepcion, on riv. of same 

CniLLisauAQUE, p-t., Northumberl., 
Pa. P. about 2,000. 

Chillon (Castle of), a fortress of 
Switzerland, Canton Vaud, at the E. ex- 
tremity of the lake of Geneva, on an 
isolated rock, surrounded by deep water. 
Here was confined Byron's " Prisoner of 

Chilmary, a town 'of Brit. India, pre- 
sid. of Bengal, on the Brahmaputra, & at 
which from 60,000 to 100,000 Hindoos 
are stated to assemble at certain reli- 
gious & commercial festivals. 

Chiloe, a isl. on the W. coast of S. 
America, which with several smaller isls., 
forms a prov. of the Chilean republic. 
It is separated from Patagonia by gulf 
of Ancud. It is 120 m. in length & 40 
in breadth. P. 42,000, do. of prov. 44,- 
000. The isl. is hilly but not mntnous., 
& densely covered with wood, except 
around th? coast. The pop. consists of 
natives, originally of Spanish descent & 
aboriginal Indians, but the great bulk of 
the inhabitants are a mixed breed. All 
are nominally Chri.stians, but in general 
very ignorant &, superstitious. The In- 

dian language has become obsolete, & 
Spanish is that in general use. Agri- 
culture is in a very primitive state, & 
the trade carried on is a species of barter, 
money being very scarce. The people 
are indolent & poor. Schools are gene- 
ral, but the teachers & priests are of a 
very illiterate grade. 

Chilpanzingo, a town of the Mexican 
confed., dep. Mexico, on the road from 
Acapulco, & 4,800 ft. above the sea. 

Chiltepec, an arm of the river Ta- 
basco, Mexican eonfederation, 60 or 70 
m. long. 

Chiltern Hills, a range of chalk hills 
of England, c6. Bucks, the S. part of which 
they 'traverse between Goring in. Oxford- 
shire, & Tring in co. Herts. Breadth 
from 15 to 20 m. Height of principal 
summit, near Wendover, 905 feet above 
the sea. 

Chimalapa, a vill. of Centr. America, 
stale Guatemala, in a rich & fertile tract, 
on the Motagua. The Chimalapilla riv. 
is an affluent of the Coatzoooaleos, Mexi- 
can confederation, dep. Tobasco. 

Chimaltenango, a town of Central 
America, state Guatemala. P. 4,000. 

Chimay, a town of Belgium, prov. 
Hainault, cap. cant., on the Blanche. P. 
3,041. It has a college, several iron- 
works, & breweries, & near it are some 
valuable marble quarries. 

Chimbo, a town of S. Amer., Ecuador, 
on the Chimbo river, in the Andes, at the 
foot of Chimborazo mountain. 

Chimborazo, a celeb, mountain of S. 
America, & the culminating point of the 
Andes of Quito. Lat. 1° 30' S. ; Ion. 79° 
W.; elev. 21,420 feet. It is in the form 
of a cone, & perpetually snow clad. It 
was ascended by Humboldt, 23d June, 
1802, to an elev. of 19,286 feet, & again 
by Boussingault & Hall, 16th December, 
1831, to 19,695 feet. 

Chimera, a town of European Turkey, 
Albania, on the strait of Otranto, at the 
foot of the range of mountains of same 

China, a large & important country 
of E. Asia, constituting the princip. part 
of the Chinese empire. Greatest length 
about 1,600 m. ; breadth varies from 900 
to 1,300 m. It is shut out from its N. 
dependencies by the great wall, con- 
structed in the 3d century before the 
Christian era, & which extends over hill 
& dale for 1,250 miles, varies fi-om 15 to 
30 feet in height, & is strengthened at 
regular intervals by large square towers. 
This defensive barrier is now in decay. 
Estimated area, & population of the 




several provinces of China proper, are 
as follows : — 

P. (1825), 
Area in according 
sq-. m. ti) an officl. 

Chf. cities. 


92,661 j 


144,770 J 


I 154,008 

166,800 ' 


27,990,871 Pekin. 
28,958,764 Tsi-nan. 
14,004,210 Tai-yaen. 
23,037,171 Kel-fung. 
37,843,501 Nankin. 
.34,168,059 Ngan-king. 
30,426,999 Nan-chang. 
14,777,410 Foo choc. 
26,256,784 Hang-choo. 
37,370,098 Voii-chang. 
18,652,507 Chang-cha. 
10,207,256 Si-ngHn. 
15,193,135 Lan-choo. 
21,435.678 ChinL-too. 
19,147,030 Canton. 

7,313,895 a»ei-Iin. 

5,561,320 Vun-nan. 

5,281.219 Kevi-yang. 








Kiang si, 












Total, 1,298,000 307,632,907 

China, so far as Europeans have been 
able to ascertain, consists of an elevated 
region in the N.; a great alluvial plain 
in the centre ; & in the S. a region inter- 
spersed with broad valleys & lofty moun- 
tains. It is estimated that 2-3ds of the 
country are mountainous. It has nu- 
merous large rivers. Lakes arc both nu- 
merous & extensive ; that of Tong-ting, 
in the province Hou-nan, is stated to be 
nearly 300 m. in circuit. The coast line 
has been estim. at 2,500 m. in I'ength, & 
it is alternately bold & rocky, or low & 
swampy; it presents, however, many good 
harbors at the mouths of the rivers & 
elsewhere. There are no active volcanoes 
in China Proper ; but in sev'i localities 
there are hot springs & emissions of gas. 
The vegetable productions of the country 
belong chiefly to the temper, zone. The 
tea-plant is peculiar to this region, & the 
adjoining territory of Assam. The cam- 
phor tree grows to the height of 50 feet, 
& is a good timber tree. The wild ani- 
mals of China, if they ever abounded, 
have been long since almost extirpated 
by the cultivation of the land, & the dense. 
population. Rice is the principal article 
of culture, & being the main food of the 
pop., its export is prohibited ; wheat, 
barley, millet, & other grains of temper- 
ate climates are raised. Of the article of 
tea, it has been estimated that upwards 
of 72 millions lbs. are annually exported 
into foreign countries, of which amount, 
52 millions are taken by the British em- 
pire, the other principal customers being 

Russia, the United States, the Netherl'ds, 
& Hamburg. Manufs. are of the most 
varied, & often of the most exquisite de- 
scription. Chinese porcelain, silks, em- 
broidery, & lacquered wares are unequal- 
led for brilliancy, richness, & durability. 
They excel also in ship-building & bell- 
casting, & are apt in all branches of art 
conducive to the comfort of life ; but all 
their manufs. are carried on without any 
aid of machinery. The maritime trade 
is most important ; & many years ago 
Mr. Crawfurd estimated the commercial 
shipping of China at 70,000 tons, & that 
of Hai-nan at 10,000 tons, engaged in 
trading to Siam, Anam, Japan, & the 
Asiatic archipelago. From 70 to 80 junks 
also leave Siam in the summer with 
grain, sugar, &c. The total marit. ex- 
port & import trade of China with Euro- 
pean nations (Russia excepted), & with 
the U. States in 1845, has been estimated 
at 9,669,668^.,. that with Gt. Britain & 
British India amounting to 6,814,062/., & 
with the U. States to 2,265,885/. The 
emperor is of a Manchoo dynasty, which 
conquered China in the 17th century; & 
the large property of the great ofiBces of 
state are held by Manchoo Tastaos. The 
government is despotic. The standing 
military force, according to Teinhouslie, 
consists of 4 national divisions — the Man- 
choos in 678 companies of 100 men each; 
the Mongols in 211 do.; & 106,000 Chi- 
nese, all cavalry ; & 500,000 native in- 
fantry, besides 125,000 irregular troops 
or militia — in all 829,900 men. In phy- 
sical character the Chinese rank under 
the Mongolian family of man ; the harsh- 
er features of this family being consider- 
ably softened. The head & face are 
square-formed, or angular — the nose flat, 
lips thick, & eyes small, with oblique 
eyelids, cheekbones prominent. Color of 
skin lemon yellow, hair black, beard 
scanty. The Chinese intellect is shrewd, 
& takes a common sense view of things, 
not apt to be imaginative or speculative. 
The disposition is mild & peaceful, but 
deceitful ; filial affection, & parental rev- 
erence are cultivated. At a very remote 
period, the natives appear to have ad- 
vanced to a considerable state of civili- 
zation, & to the practice of the arts of 
domestic life, especially the arts of print- 
ing, the invention of the mariner's com- 
pass, & the manufacture of silk & porce- 
lain. The religion of Confucius is that 
adopted by the court & upper classes, & 
consists in a refined deism, with a great 
reverence for ancestors, & for the moral 
precepts of Confucius. 




China, t., Kennebec co. Me. "Watererl 
by a smnll lnke. Produces good vvbc;it. 

laca.i. P. 2,675. II. p-t., Wyoiuing 

CO. N. Y. Drained by Clearer. Some 

manufs. P. 1,961. III. p-t, St. Clnir 

\ CO. Mich., traversed by Belle r. P. 610. 

China Sea, is that pordoii of the Pa- 
cific ocean Trhich extend.s between China 
& Siani on the W., the Philip^pine isls. on 
the E,, Borneo on the S., & the isl. of 
Formosa on the W. It forms the great 
gulfs of Siam & Tonquin. 

Chinachin, a large town, Nepaul, on 
an afifluent of the Gcggra. 

Chinapatam. a town of Indin, Deccan, 
Mysore dom., & Which in 1820 had 1,000 

Chincha, a small seaport town of K. 

Chinchilla, a city of Spain, prov. Al- 
bacete. P. 12,609. It has an old castle, 
& is surrounded by anc. walls. Manufs. 
coarse cloths. 

Chinchon, a town of Spain, prov. 
Madrid, between the Tagus & ihe Tajuna. 
P. 5,392. It has uiin. spring.s & baths. 

Chin-Choo, a ma.rit. region of China, 
betw. lat. 23° & 26° N., comprising parts 
of the provs. Fo-kien & Quang-tong, & 
inhabited by a hardy & industrious peo- 
ple, who man most part of the imperial 
& commercial navy. It is stated that 
"Chinchoo men" are the principal bank- 
ers of the capital, cultivators of the tea- 

pl't, pedlars & colonists. II. a city, prov. 

Ilou-nan, cap. dep. III. a city, prov. 

Hou-nan, cap. dep., on the Yuen-kiang. 

Chinchoor, a town of British India, 
presid. Bombay. P. 5,000. 

Chinchorro (El), a reef oflF the E. 
coast of Yucatan, Cent. America. Length, 
23 ra. ; greatest breadth, 9 m. 

Chine (La), a vill. of Lower Canada, 
on the isl. & 70 m. above the city of Mon- 
treal. It is the centre of all the com- 
merce between Upper & Lower Canada. 
'There is a canal from this point to Mon- 
treal, to avoid the rapids of St. Louis. 

Chinendega, two contiguous towns of 
Central America, state Nicaragua. — New 
Chinendega, 9 m. from Kiaglio, & a do- 
put for the trade of that port with the in- 
terior, has from 8,000 to 10,000 inhabs. 
It stands in a fertile plain.— OZd Chi- 
nendega has from 3 to 4,000 inhabs. 

Ching, a prefi.^ed name of numerous 
cities of China. 

Ching-king, a prov. of China. [Lea- 


Chingleput, a maritime district of 
British India, presid. of Madras, having 
E. the Indian ocean, & on other sides the 

Arcot districts. Area, 2,253 sq. m. P. 
336,220. Surface low, with scattered 
hills. Princip. riv., the Palaur. Soil poor. 
The Pulicat lake & other lagoons skirt 
the coast. Principal towns Chingleput 
& Conjeveram. — Chingleput. SingaLa- 
petta, cap. the above dist,, in a valley, 
near a fine artificial lake. 

Chin-hae, a maritime city of China, 
prov. Che-kiang, at the mouth of the 
Yung-kiang river. 

Chini, a lRT2;e vill. of Scinde, & at an 

elev.of 10,000 ft^et. II. a large vill., 

N. Hindostan, Kunawar, 10,200 ft. above 
the sea. 

Chinian (St.), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Herault. P. 2,941. It has 
extensive manufs. of cloth for the Levant ; 
& tanneries. 

Chinini, a considerable town & palace, 
Punjab, on the Tani river. 

Chin-kiang-foo, a maritime city of 
China, prov. Kiang-su, on the Yang-tze- 
kiang river. 

Chinon, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Indre-et-Loire, on the Vienne. P. 

Chinrayapatam, a town of India, 
Deccan, Mysore dom. 

Chinsura, a town of British ■ India, 

Chiny, a town of Belgium, Luxem- 
burg, on right b. of the Semoy. P. 1,084, 
partly employed in manufg. ironwares. 

Chin- Yang, a city, Chinese empire. 

Chio, or Khio, an isl., Asiat. Turkey. 

Chioggia, a seaport town, N. Italy, 
gov. Venice, cap. dist , on an isl. in the 
S. estrem. of the Venetian lagoon. P. 
27,076. It is about 2 m. in circumfer- 
ence, founded, like Ai^sterdam, on piles, 
well built, & connected with the main- 
land by a stone bridge of 43 arches. It 
has a fine main street lined with porti- 
coes. It has high schools, important salt- 
works, yards for sMp-buildlng, fisheries, 
& a trade with the interior. 

Chipiona, a mkt. town of Spain, prov. 
Cadiz, at the mouth of the Guadalquivir. 
P. 1,559. 

Chippewa, county, Mich., situated in 
the N. peninsula, & contains 2,000 sq. m. 
It has Lake Superior on the north. A 

new CO. P. 898 II. riv., Wisconsin, a 

branch of the Miss, 150 m. long. III. 

county. Wis. P. 614. IV. p-t., Wayne 

CO., 0. ■ P. 1,787. 

Chippeway, a vill. of Upper Canada, 

dist. Lincoln. II. town, Beaver co., 


Chippewayan Fort, British N. 
America, is a commercial post in the 




Chippeway- territory, at the W. end of 
L. "Athabasca. 

Chippewayan Mntns., a name of the 
great N.W. American range, including 
the Rocky mntns. 

CnianiMULA (de la Sierra), a town 
of Centr. America, state Guatemala, cap. 
dep. P. 6,000. 

CHiauiMULA (Isthmus of), Central 
America, comprehending about 70 m. of 
coast, on the Caribbean sea, between the 
mouth of the Rio Motagua & the inner- 
most corner of the bay of Honduras. The 
distance across from the Atlantic to Pa- 
cific 0. is here 150 m. Greatest eleva- 
tion of the land, 2,000 feet. 

CmauiTOs, a tei-ritory of Bolivia, dep. 
Santa Cruz, & forming the middle part 
of the great Longitudinal PZam, which 
extends N. & S. of the eastern base of the 

Chirac, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Lozere, on 1. b. of the Rioulone. P. 

Chihcari, & Chirgong, two towns of 
Hindostan, Bundelcund. 

Chirens, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Isere. P. 2,030. 

Chirico (San), two mkt. towns of 

ISTaples. prov. Basilicata. 1. {Nuovo), 

on a hill. P. 1,500. II. {Raparo), 

cap. cant. P. 3,580. 

Chirkiui, a riv., lagoon, & arehip. of 
Centr. America, state of Costa Rica, dep. 
Veragua. The river, after a N.-ward 
course, enters the lagoon, which is sepa- 
rated from the Caribbean sea by the Chi- 
riqui archipelago. 

Chirra, a vill. of Cossyah country, 
Further India, presid. Bengal. Elev. 
4,000 feet. 

Chirripo, a volcano & river of Centr. 
Amer., state Costa-Rica. 

Chirton, a tnshp. of England, eo. 
Northumberland, on the Tyne. P. 4,360, 
mostly employed in collieries. 

Chiti, Citium, a marit. vill. of the isl. 
of Cyprus, on its S. coast, near Cape 

Chitore, a town of India, capital of 
the rHJahship. 

Chithal, a country of N.W. India, 
consisting of the Eooner valley, on the 
S. slope of the Hindoo Koosh. Length 
100 m., by from 15 to 20 m. in breadth. 
Chitral, the principal town. P. be- 
tween 3,000 & 4,000. 

Chi-tsien, a city of China, prov. 

Chittae, one of the Laccadive isls., 
Indian 0. 

Chittagong, a dist., British India, 

presid. Bengal, beyond the Brahmapu- 
tra riv. Length N. to S. 120 m., greatest 
breadth 50 m. Area 3,000 sq. m. Pop 
1,000,000. (?) Surface flat on the coast; 
mntnous. in the interior. 

Chittapet, a town, British India, pre- 
sid. Madras, district S. Areot. 

Chitteldeoog, atown of S. Hindostan, 
dom. Mysore. 

Chittenango, p-v., Madison co. N. Y. 

Mineral springs. P. 1,000. II. or., 

on affluent of Oneida lake. 

Chittenden, county, Vt., toward the 
N.W. part of the state. Onion r. passea 
through its centre. Extensive water- 
power. Surface near the shore of Lake 
Champlain is level ; but it becomes 
mountainous towards the E. Cap. Bur- 
lington. The com. agricultural fruits, 
with consid. sugar. More than 100,000 
sheep. Manufs. of woollens & leather. 
2 newsp., 1 college, 3 acad. P. 29,036. 

II. p-t., Rutland co. Vt. It occupies 

the height of land between Connecticut r. 
& Lake Champlain. 

Chittoor, a town of British India, pre- 
sid. dist. N. Arcot. 

Chittra, two towns of British India, 
presid. Bengal, prov. Bahar. 

Chiura, a vill. of Lombardy, prov. 
Sondrio, on rt. b. of the Adda. JP. 2,500. 

Chiusa (La), a town of the Sard, sta., 
Piedmont, on 1. b. of the Pesio. P. 5,751. 
It is well built, & has manufs. of silk 

fabrics & glass wares. II. a vill., on 

the Dora Riparia, with an hospice for 
travellers. III. a town of Sicily, in- 
tend. Palermo. P. 6,000. 

Chiusa, a town of the Tyrol. [Klau- 


Chipsano, a mkt. town of Naples, 
prov. prinoip. Ultra. P. 2,140. 

Chiusi, a city of centr. Italy, Tuscany, 
prov. Siena. P. 1,602. 

Chiva, a town of Spain, prov. Valen- 
cia. P. 3,954. 

Chivasso, a small city of the Sard, 
states. Piedmont, prov. Turin, cap. mand., 
in a fertile plain, on 1. b. of the Po. P. 

Chlumetz, a town of Bohemia, circ. 
Bidschow, on the Zydlina. P. 2,969. It 
has manufs. of cotton goods. 

Chmielnik, two towns of Russian 

Chocholna, a vill. of Hungary, co. 
Trentschin, on the Waag, with mineral 
springs & baths. 

Choco, a prov. New Granada, S. Amer., 
forming W. part of the dep. Cauca, wa- 
tered by the Atrato riv. 

Choctaw, county. Miss., near the 




centre of the state, contains 920 sq. m 
Drained by head branches of Big Black. 
Cap. Greensboro. Staple commod. cot- 
ton. P. 11,402. 

Choctawhatchbe, r., Ala., flowing 
into a bay of the same name 130 miles 

Chodziesen, a town of Prussia, prov. 
Posen. P. 3,250. 

Chogdah, a town of British India, 
presid. & prov. Bengal. 

Choiseul, a harbor of Madagascar, on 
the E. coast of the isl., in the bay of An- 

Choisy-sur-Seine, a comm. <fc town 
of France, dep., & on 1. b. of the Seine. 
P. 3,227. It has extens. manufs. of glass 
wares, porcelain, soap, morocco leather, 

& chemical products. II. (En-Brie), 

dep. Seine-et-Marne. P. 1,311. 

Chokeeghuh, a town of Hindostan, 
dom. Bhopaul. 

Choleechel, a considerable isl. of S. 
Amer., Plata confed., formed by the Rio 
Negro riv. 

Cholet, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Maine-et-Loire, on rt. b. of the 
Moine. P. 7,539. It is well built, & has 
manufs. of fine woollen & mixed cloths. 

Cholula, a decayed town, Mexican 
confed., state La Puebla. It is situated 
on the table-land of Anahuae, elev. 6,912 
ft. Pop. wholly Indians. Close to the 
town is a pyramid of clay & brick, erect- 
ed by the anc. Mexicans, 177 fU in 
height, measuring 1,440 ft. on each side, 
at its base ascended by 120 steps, & sur- 
mounted - by a chapel, erected by the 
Spaniards. Cortez, early in the 16th 
century, recorded that Cholula {Chu- 
rultecal) then contained 20,000 houses, be- 
sides as many in the suburbs, & more 
than 400 towers of temples. 

Chomeeac, a comm. & town of France, 
cap. cant., dep. Ard^che. P. 2,550. 

Chonos Archipelago, a,n isl. group, 
off the W. coast of Patagonia, mostly be- 
tween lat 44° & 46° S. Some of the isls. 
are large, but all, except a few outlying 
ones W.-ward, are bare, & very sca,ntily 

Choo-keang, Chinese name for Can- 
ton river. 

Choomp-hoon, a maritime town of 
Siam, cap. dist., on a river near its mouth 
in the gulf of Siam. P. 8,000. 

Choonga & Choonka, two vills. of 

Chooroo, a town of Hindostan, Raj- 
poo tan a. 

Chopor, a riv. of Russia, & branch of 
the Don ; 260 m. long. 

Chopersk (Novo), a small town of 

Chopeah, a considerable town of Brit. 
India, presid. Bombay. 

Choptank, riv , Md.. on the B. shore. 

Chorassan, a prov. of Persia. 

Chorges, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. H. Alps, cap. cant. P. 2,000. 

Choeillos, a vill. & watering place of 
Peru, dep. Lima, & a good deal resorted 
to by the inhabitants of that city in sum- 
mer, though it is wretchedly built. 

Choeley, a town of England, co. Lan- 
caster,j)n the Chor. 

Chorlton-on-Medlock, a township 
of Engl., CO. Lancaster. P. 28,336. 

Choeeera, a town of S. Amer., New 
Granada, on the isthmus, near the head 
of the river Chorrera, which enters the 
Pacific by a deep mouth 10 m.AV. Panama. 

Chorun, a town of Asia-Minor. 


Choezele, a town of Poland, prov. 
Plock, on the frontiers of Prussia. P. 
1,700. Manufs. Tvoollens & leather. 

Choteesghue, a large dist. of British 
India, prov. Gundwana, the most eastern 
possession of the Nagpoor Mahrattas. 
Length from S. 260 m. 

Chotieborz, a town of Bohemia, near 
1. b. of the Dobrowa. P. 2,000. 

Chotieschau, a town of Bohemia. P. 

Chotta, several vills. of Scinde. 

Chotusitz, a tOwn of Bohemia. P. 

Chotyn, or Choczim, a strongly fortfd. 
town of S. Russia, prov. Bessarabia, on 
the Dniester. P. formerly amounting to 
20,000, had in 1838 diminished to 1,690. 

Chotzen, a town of Bohemia, on the 
Stille-Adler. P. 2,000. 

Choubar, a seaport town, Beloochistan, 
S. Asia, prov. Mekran. 

Chouchuck, a town of the Punjab, on 
the Bavee, 62 m. S.W. Lahore. 

Choul, a marit. town of British India, 
presid. Bombay, dist. Aurungabad. 

Chouraghur, a town & strong fortress 
of British India, presid. Bengal. 

Chouze, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Indre-et-Loire, on the Loire. P. 

Chouzy, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Lnire-el-Cher. P. 1,239. 

Chowan, riv., rising in Va., & flowing 

into Albemarle sound. II. county, 

N. C, N.E. part of the state, with Albe- 
marle sound on the S. A productive co. 
Cap. Edenton. Staple commod. cotton. 
Numerous distilleries. 2 newsp. 2 acad. 
P. 6,721. 




Chowry Isl. [Nicobae, Isls.] 

Chrast, a vill. of Bohemia, Chrudim, 
with a summer palace of the bishop of 
Koniggratz. P. 1,648. 

Christburg, a town of W. Prussia, on 
the Serge. P. 2,630. 

Christchuhch, a town of England, co. 
Hants. It is a quiet town, with little 
trade, & named from its fine old church, 
formerly collegiate, founded early in 
Saxon times. 

Christian, county, Ky., in the S. part 
of the state, contains 612 sq. m. Soil 
various. One of the wealthiest cos. in 
the state ; watered by several small rivs. 
Cap. Hopkinsville. Staple commodities, 
wheat, Indian corn, hemp, flax & tobacco. 
Tanneries, distilleries, & potteries ; 1 

newsp. ; 4 acad. P. 19,580. II. co., 

111., in the central part of the state, 
drained by Sangamon & branches. Cap. 
EdLaburg. The common agricultural 

fruits. P. 3,202. III. t.. Independence 

CO. Ark. P. 500. 

Christiana, riv., in Penn. & Md., an 

afiBuent of the Brandywine. II. v., 

Newcastle co. Del. It has an active trade 
with Philadelphia in flour. Cotton facs. 
& powder mills. 1 acad. P. 3,725. 

Christiania, the cap. city of Norway, 
amt. Aggershuus, most picturesquely 
situated at the head of Christiania fiord, 
in lat. 59° 54' 1" N. P. 26,141. Town 
regularly laid out, & pretty well built. 
It has a cathed., a citadel, one of the 
chief fortresses, & the great arsenal of 
the kgdm., a royal residence, bank & 
exchange, a, university founded 1811, 
having usually about 600 students, & with 
a library of 130,000 vols. It has manufs. 
of woollen fabrics, tobacco, hardwares, & 
paper, numerous distilleries & breweries. 

Christianopel, a maritime town of 
Sweden, on Kalmar sound. 

Christians, a large amt. or dist., Nor- 
way, occupying its centre ; traversed by 
the Louzen riv. P. 106,840. 

Christiansand, a seaport town of 
Norway, near its S. extremity,- cap. stift 
of same name, on a fiord of the Skager- 
rack. A good deal of ship-building is 
carried on ; it hag a secure harbor, & an 
export trade. P. 8,548. 

Christiansbokg, the principal Danish 
fort of Africa, on the Guinea coast. 

Chhistianburg, a vill. of N. Germany, 
duchy Oldenburg. II. p-v., cap. Mont- 
gomery co: Va. The usual co. buildings. 

Christianstad, a Icen or dist. of 
Sweden, near its S. extremity. Area, 
2,400 sq. m. P. 165,880. Its centre is 

formed of the fertile valley of the Helge. 
Chief products, corn, flax, hemp, & hops. 
Chief towns, Christianstad, Cimbrisham, 
& Engelholm. 

Christianstad, a town of S. Sweden, 
cap. Isen of same nam«, on the Helge, 
near the Baltic. P. 4,500. It is well 
built, & has artillery barracks, & manufs. 
of gloves, linen, & woollen fabrics, &c. 

Christiansted, a town of the isl. St. 
Croix, Danish W. Indies, on the N.E. 
coast of the isl. P. 5,350., 

Christiansund, a seaport town of 
Norway, on 3 isls. in the Atlantic, which 
encloses its harbor. P. 2,634. 

Christina (Santa), one of the Mar- 
quesas isls. [Tahuata.] 

Christinehamn, a town of Sweden, 
Isen Carlstad, on the Yarn, from its mouth 
in Lake Wener. P. 1,800. 

Christinestadt, a seaport town of 
Kuss. Finland, lien Wasa, on the G. of 
Bothnia. P. 1,500. It has a good haibor. 

Christionydd-Kenrick, a tnshp., N. 
Wales,' CO. Denbigh. P. 4,-554. 

Christmas (Cataracts), are in the r. 
Berbice, Brit. Gmann.— (Harbor), Ker- 
guelen Land, Indian ocean, is in lat. 49° 
20' S., where there is a curiously arched 
basaltic rock. — (Island). Pacific. Was 
discovered by Cook, Dec. 24, 1777, & is 
about 60 m. in circuit. II. an isl. In- 
dian ocean. Lat. 10° 31' S. — (Sound), 
near the S. extremity of America. 

Christophe (St.), numerous comms. 
& vills. of France ; the princip. in dep. 
Indre-et-Loire. P. 1,504. 

Christopher (St.), or St. Kitt's, one 
of the British W. India isls.. Leeward 
group. Length N.AV. to S.E. 20 m., 
breadth 5 m. Area, 68 sq. m. P. whites 
1,612, colored 21,521, being 342 persons 
to each sq. m. The isl. is an irregular 
oblong,, traversed in th^e centre from N. 
to S. by a mntn. ridge of volcanic origin, 
in the middle of which rises the perpen- 
dicular craggy summit of Mt. Misery, 
elevation 3,7li ft. Four rivs. water this 
country, & in the N.E. there are several 
salt ponds, producing abundance of salt. 
This isl. was discovered by Columbus, in 
1493 & was then densely peopl'd byCaribs. 

Christoval (San), several small 

towns of South & Central America. 

I. Venezuela, prov. Merida, on an aifl. 

of the Apure. II. New Granada, prov. 

Antioquia. III. Cent. America, state 

Guatimala, prov. Vera Paz. — The Lake 
of San Christoval, confed. dep. Mexico. 

Chrudim, a town of Bohemia, cap. 
circ. of same name, on the Chrudimka. 
P. 6,107. 




Chbzanow, a town of the late repub., 
Cracow, on the Chechlo. P. 4,000, mostly 

Chu-Chow, a city of China, prov. Che- 
kiang, on a navigable riv. 

Chucuito, a decayed town of Bolivia, 
cap. prov., W. of L. Titicaca. P. 5,000 ; 
at the commencement of the 18th cent., 
it was estim. at 300,000, 

Chudleigh, a mrkt. town of England, 
CO. Devon. The town, on an acclivity 
near the Teign, has been neatly rebuilt, 
since a fire which almost entirely de- 
stroyed it in 1807. 

Chuenpee, a port of China, on an isl. 
opposite Ty-cook-tow point, in the Canton- 

Chule, a fimall port ef S. Peru, dep. 

Chulna, Crocofa, an islet of the In- 
dian ocean, Cape Monza, Beloochistan. 

Chulumani, a town of Bolivia, dep. 
La Paz, on a head stream of the Beni. 

Chumba, a t., Punjab, on the Ravee, 
at the foot of the Himalaya. 

Chumbul, a riv. of India, rises in the 
Vindhyan mntns., & joins the Jumna, 85 
m. S.E. Agra. Total course estim. at 500 m. 

Chumleigh, a small market town of 
Engl., CO. Devon, on the Dart; P. 1,647. 

Chumpaneer, a t. of India, Gwalior 
doni-, on an isolated rock. 

Chumpawut, a town of N. Hindostan, 
& the old cap. of Kumaon. 

Chunargur, a town & fortress of Brit. 
India, presid. Bengal, dist. Juanpoor, on 
the Ganges. 

Chun-khing, two cities of China, prov. 
Se-chuen, caps, of deps. 

Chun-ning, two cities of China. 1. 

prov. W. Yun-nan, cap. dep. II. prov. 

Chi-li, cap. dep. 

Chupat, a river of Patagonia, which 
after a long E. course enters the Atlantic. 

Caupparah, a town of British India, 
presid. Bengal. 

Chuprah, a town of Brit. India, presid. 
Bengal, cap. dist. Sarun. P. 50,000. It 
extends upwards of a mile along the N. 
bank of the Ganges. 

CHuauEAPO, a river of Bolivia, rises in 
the Andes near La Paz. 

Chuquibamba, a town of S. America, 
Peru, dep. Arequipa. In the vicinity is 
amntn.of the same name. Elev. 21,000 ft. 

Chuquisaca, a prov. of Bolivia, S. 
America, extending S. of the Sierra de 
la Santa Cruz. Also the cap. city of the 
state, formerly called Charcas, or La 
Plata. P. 25,000. It is built in a delight- 
ful valley, elev. 9,000 ft. 

CHuauiTO, a town of Peru. 

Chur, the cap. town of the Swiss cant. 
Grisonsin the valley of the Upper Rhine. 
P. 5,300. 

Churchill (Cape), British N. Amer., 
is a headland on the W. coast of Hudson 
bay. Lat. 58° 54' l^i.— Churchill River, 
which enters Hudson bay, 45 m- W., is 
the lower part of the Mississippi. 

Churchville, v., Clark co. Mo., on 
the W. bank of the Mississippi r. 

Chureis, a town of S. Russia, gov. 

Churgaon, one of the Bundelcund ra- 
jahships, India. P. 3,800. 

Caurkaree, a rajahship of India, Bun- 
delcund. P. 81,000. 

Churwell, a township of England, co. 
York, W. Riding. P. 1,198. 

Chusan, one of a group of isles, off 
the E. coast of China, prov. Che-kiang, 
opposite the estuary of the Tsien-tang- 

Chusistan, a prov. of Persia. 

Chuta Nagpoor, a large rajahship 
of British India, presid. Bengal, on the 
borders of the prov. Gundwana. 

Chutterbai, a stronghold,. N. Afghan- 
istan, in an almost inaccessible position, 
on the Indus. 

Chutturpore, a rajahship of India, 
Bundelcund, feudatory to the British. P. 

Chuwari, a small town, Punjab. 

Chynpoor-Baree, a considerable t. 
of Hindostan, dom. Bhopaul. 

CiANCiANA, a town of Sicily, pror. 
Girgenti. P. 3,400. Near it are exten. 
sulphur mines. 

CiBAO, the princip. mntn. of Haiti, near 
the centre of the island. Culminating 
point 4,590 ft. in elevation. 

CiBiNiuM, a town of Hungary. 

CiBOURE, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. B. Pyrenees. P. 1,537. 

CiBRiAN DE Castro (San), a small 
town , of Spain, prov. Zamora, near the 

Cicacole, a town of Br. India. [Chi- 


CicAGNA, a vill. of Sard, sta., prov. 
Chiavari, at the foot of the Apennines. 
P. 2,722. 

CicciANO, a town of Naples, cap. dist., 
prov. T. di Lavoro. P. 3,000. 

Cicero, p-t., Onondaga co. N. Y. Bor- 
ders on Oneida lake. P. 2,980. 

CiECHANOw, a town of Poland, prov. 
Plock, on 1. b. of the Lidinia. P. 2,400. 

CiECHANOwiEC, a town of Russian Po- 
land, prov, Bialystok, on 1. b. of the Nur- 
zek. P. 3,000. 

Ciempozuelos, a town of Spain, prov. 




Madrid, near rt. b. of the Jarama. P. 

CiENFUEGos. a town of the isl. Cuba, 
cap. jurisd. same name, dep. Centro. P. 

CiERP, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
H. Garonne. P. 1,141. 

CiERS (St.), several comms. & vills. of 
France, the principal St. Ciers-la-Lande, 
dep. Gironde, cap. cant. Blaye. P. 2,825. 

CiEzA, a town of Spain, prov. Murcia, 
near 1. b. of the Segura. P. 6,917. 

CiFUENTES, a town of Spain, prov. 
Guadalajara. P. 1,465. 


towns of Piedmont, div. Novara ; the 
former, prov. Veroelli. P. 4,475. The 
latter, prov. Lomellina. P. 3,251. 

CiLAvEGNA, a town of the Sardinian 
states, prov. Lomellina. P. 3,251. 

CiLLY, a town of Styria, cap. circ. on 
the San. P. 1,660. 

CiMBEBAsiA, a country on the S.W. 
coast of Africa, between Cape Frio, in S. 
Guinea, & the country of the Hottentots. 

CiMBRiSHAM, a town of Sweden, Isen 
Christianstadt, on the Baltic. P. 1,032. 

CiMiNNA, a town of Sicily, cap. circ. 
Palermo. P. 6,000. 

CiMiTiLE, a town of Naples, prov. T. 
di Lavoro, 1 m. N. Nola. P. 2,500. 

CiNALOA, a dep. of the Mexican con- 
federation, on the W. coast, now united 
with Sonora. P. 9,500. 

Cincinnati, a city & port of entry, 
& cap. of Hamilton co. Ohio, the most 
populous city west of the Alleghany 
mountains, is situated on the Ohio, near 
the S.W. corner of the state. P. in 1800, 
750; in 1850, 116,108. It is built on a 
slope rising from the river, & has broad 
handsome streets, mostly intersecting at 
right angles. The princip. buildings are 
a court-house, banks, medical & other 
colleges, & market-houses. Cincinnati 
has manufs. of iron, cabinet work, hats, 
cottons, woollens, chiefly conducted with 
steam-power. Large distilleries, flour 
mills, & docks for building steamboats. 
It is the largest pork market in the world. 
Its trade is extensive. The shore of the 
Ohio here forms a good landing for boats 
at all seasons of the year. The principal 
landing being paved at 4ow water mark 
in a substantial manner, & supplied with 
floating wharves, rendered necessary by 
the great rise & fall in the river at differ- 
ent times. Reg. shipping consists chiefly 
of steamers plying on the Mississippi & 
Ohio. Tonnage, 1,418,718. Its trade is 
greatly fneilitated by the Miami railroad 
& the Miami canal. Cincinnati was 

founded in 1789, on the site of Fort Wash- 
ington. Its rapid increase hUs been much 
aided by European emigration. 

CiNciNNATUs, p-t., Cortland co. N. Y. 
Watered by Ostelie creek. P. 1,206. 

CiNEY, a town of Belgium, prov. Na- 
mur, on the Haljoux. P. 1,435. 

CiNGOLi, a town of Central Italy, Pon- 
tif. states, on the Musone. P. 2,440. 

CiNisELLo, a market town, Lombardy, 
P. 2,408. 

CiNisi, a town of Sicily, near the coast. 
P. 3,400. 

Cinq,-Mars, a comm. & market town 
of France, dep. Indre-et-Loire, near r. b.- 
of the Loire, with 1,728 inhabs. 

CiNQUEFRONDi, a towu of Naplcs, prov. 
Calab. Ult. I. P. 3,000. 

CiNajjE-PoRTS (The), cos. Kent & Sus- 
sex ; had formerly important privileges, 
& consisted of the five ports, Dover, Sand- 
wich, Romney, Hythe, & Hastings, to 
which were afterwards added Winchelsea, 
Seaford, & Rye. 

CiNTEGABELLE, a comm. & town of 
France, dep. H. Garonne, on rt. b. of the 
Ariege. P. 3,971. 

CiNTi, a town of S. Amer., Bolivia, 
cap. dep. P. 2,000. Trade in wines. 

CiNTRA, a town of Portugal, prov. Es- 
tremadura, on the slope of the mntn. 
chain of Cintra, which terminates at 
Cape Roca. P. 4,000. 

CiNTRUENiGO, a town of Spain, prov. 
Navarra, on rt. b. of the Alhama. P. 
2,396. It has manufs. of woollens. 

CioTAT (La), a marit. coinm. & town 
of France, dep. B. du Rhone, on the W. 
side of a bay in the Mediterranean. P. 

CiRCARS (Northern), several dists. 
of British India. 

CiRcAssiA, a country comprising the 
N. slope of the Caucasus, & also a part 
of its S. slope, now nominally composing 
a part of the Russian empire. Its N. 
frontier is formed by the Kuban & Terek 
rivs. The people are, physically, amongst 
the finest of the human race, but Very 
little civilized, living partly by brigand- 
age, & the sale of slaves. The pop. is 
various, amounting in all to 650,000. 

CiRCELLO, a headland of S. Italy, on 
the Mediterr., near the S, extremity of 
the Pontif. sta. Ht. above the sea, 1,713 

CiRCLEVLLLE, p-t.. Cap. of Pickaway 
CO. 0. The V. lies on the E. bank of the 
Scioto r. Some manufs., 3 newsp., 1 
acad. P. 3,411. 

Cirencester, town of England, co. 
Gloucester, on a branch of the Great 





Western railway, & on the riv. Churn. 
It was a town of the anc. Britons, & oc- 
cupies a portion of the site of the ancient 
Koman town, the walls of which, about 
2 m. in circ, are still traceable. 

CiREY, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
Meurthe. P. 2,347. It has glass works, 

& manufs. of mirrors. II. dep. H. 

Marne, on rt. b. of the Blaise. 

CiRiE, a town of the Sard, sta.. Pied- 
mont div. prov. Turin, cap. mand., on 
a branch of the Stura. P. 3.353. 

Giro, a town of Naples, prov. Calab. 
Ult. II., dist. Cotrone, 3 m. from the Med- 
iterr. P. 2,900. 

CisoiNG, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Nord. P. 2,400. 

CisTERNA, several vills. of Italy. 

CisTERNiNO, a market town of Naples, 
prov. Bari. P. 3,600. 

CisTRiEREs, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. II. Loire. P. 1,670. 

CiTARA, a mkt. town of Naples, prov. 
Principato Cit., on the G. of Salerno. P. 

2,550. II. (or Quibdo), a town of New 

Granada, dep. Cauca, on the Atrato. P. 

CiTEAux, a hamlet of France, dep. 
Cute-d'Or, arrond., on r. b. of the Vouge. 

CiTHaiRON (Mount), a famous mntn. 
of Greece, forming part of the boundary 
between Attica & Thebes. Height above 
the sea 4,620 feet. 

CiTTADELLA, a town of N. Italy, gov. 
Venice, on r. b. of the Brentella. P. 6,599, 
partly engaged in paper & wool'n fact'ies. 

CiTTA-DELLA-PiEVE, a town of the 
Pontif. sta. P. 3,395. 

CiTTA Di Castello, a town of the Pon- 
tif sta., on 1. b. of the Tiber. P. 5,339. 

CiTTA DucALE, Naples. - 

CiTTA-NuovA, a town of Illyria, gov., 
eirc. Triest, on a headland in the Adri- 
atic, with a good harb. P. 1,000. II. 

a mkt. town of Europ. Turkey, sanj. 
Ochrida, on an alB. of the Drin. 

CiTTA Vecchia, a city of Malta, near 
the centre of the isl. It stands on a 
limestone hill, in which extensive cata- 
combs have been excavated at a remote 
period. On its S.W. side is the suburb 
Rabato, in which is the grotto of St. Paul. 
II. a seaport & mkt. town, on an inlet 
of the isl. Lesina, Dalmatia. P. 3,046. 

City Point, a port of Virginia, at the 
junction of the James' & Appomattox 
rivs., 20 m. S.E. Richmond. Great quan- 
tities of tobacco are shipped at this 
place, which is at the head of the navig. 
on James' riv. 

City West, p-v., Porter co. la., on 
Lake Michigan. It has a good harbor. 

CiuDAD DE LAS Casas, a towD, Mexi- 
can confederation, cap. dep," Chiapas. P. 
3,800. It has a cathed., sevl. convents, 
ail hospital, coll., seminary, &c. 

CiuDADELA, a city & seaport of the 
isl. Minorca, on its W. coast. P. 7,800. 
It was formerly cap. of the isl., & retains 
portions of its ancient walls. 

CiuDAD Real, a city of Spain, cap. 
prov. of same name, & formerly cap. of 
La Mancha, between the Guadiana & the 
Jabalon. P. 8,300. It has a large hos- 
pital, with several schools ; its manufs. 
' of woollens & leather, formerly impor- 
tant, have greatly declined. Chief com- 
merce in wine, fruits, oil, & mules ; large 
annual fair in August. 

CiuDAD Real, a town of S. Amer., 
Venezuela, dep. Cumanii, on the Ori- 

CiuDAD RoDRiGO, a fortified frontier 
city of Spain, prov. Salamanca, near r. b. 
of the Agueda, here crossed by a bridge 
of 7 arches. P. 4,612. It was taken by 
the Portuguese in 1706, by the French 
in 1810, & by the British under the Duke 
of Wellington in 1812. 

CiviDALE, a town of N. Italy, gov. 
Venice, on the Natisone, here crossed by 
a bridge, 220 feet in length. P. 6,027. 
Civita, several mkt. towns of Naples. 
Civita Castellana, a town- of the 
Pontif. sta. Close to it are remains of 
the anc. Falerium, with some sepulchral 
chambers, &c. 

Civita di Penne, a town of Naples, 
prov. Abruzzo Ult. I. P. 4,000. 

Civita Ducale, the most W. town of 
Naples, prov. Abruzzo Ult. II., on r. b. 
of the Velino. P. 3,331. 

Civita-Lavigna, a town of Centr. 
Italy, Pontif. sta. 

Civita Nuova, two small towns of 
Centr. Italy. - 

CivitaquAna, a market town of Na- 
ples, prov. Abiuzzo Ult. I. P. 1,920. 

Civita Sant-Angelo, a town of Na- 
ples, prov. Abruzzo Ult. I., cap. cant., 
near the Adriatic. P. 5,994.. It has an 
active trade in grain, wine, & oil. 

Civita Vecchia, the principal seaport 
city of the Pontif. sta., Central Italy, on 
the Mediterranean, 38 m. W.N.W. Rome. 
P. 6,878.— It i.3 enclosed by walls, & well 
built. Two large moles, enclosing its 
harbor, extend seaward, & are fronted 
by another mole. Chief trade is with 
Marseilles, Genoa, & England, from 
which last country most of the woven 
goods are received, with about 30,000 
quintals of salt fish, & 2,000 barrels of 
herrings annually. Impt. duties amount 




to about 250,000Z., & export duties to 
25,000Z. a year. 

CivRAY, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Vienne, on the Charente, with 2,109 

Clackamas, a county of Oregon. P. 

Clackmannanshire, the smallest co^ 
of Scotl., having S. the river Forth, & on 
other sides the cos. Perth, Stirling, & 
Fife. Area 48 sq. m. It consists chiefly 
of the valley of the Devon, some rich & 
well cultivated lands. 

Clackmannan, a town of Scotl., cap. 
CO., on the Devon, near its confl. with the 
Forth. P. 1,077. 

Olagenfurth, a town, Illyria. 

Claggan Bay, Ireland, Connaught, 
CO. Galway. It affords good shelter & 
anchorage for the largest vessels. 

Claiborne, county. Miss., toward the 
S.W. part of the state on the Miss, r., 
with Big Black r. on the N.W. Soil in- 
different. Cap. Port Gibson. Staple 
commod. cotton. 1 college, 3 acad. P. 

14,941. II. parish. La., in the N.W. 

part of the state, & bounded W. on Red 
r. It has Lakes Bisteneaux & Bodeau. 
The CO. consists mostly of fine land. Cap. 

Overton. 4 acad. P. 7,471. III. 

county, Tenn., toward the N.E. part of 
the state. Surface mountainous. Wa- 
tered by head branches of Tenn. r. Cap. 
Tazewell. It produces wheat, Ind. corn, 
& tobacco. Forges & distilleries. P. 

Clairac, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Lot-et- Garonne, on the Lot. P. 

Clairvaux, a comm. & hamlet of 
France, dep. & on the Aube. P. 2,030. 

Clais, a comtn. & market-town of 
France, dep. Is&re. P. 1,710. 

Clamart, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Seine. Extens. stone quarries in its 

Clamecy, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Nievre, at the confluence of the 
Yonne & Beuvron. P. 5,2.57. 

Clane, a town of Irel., Leinster, co. 
Kildare. The town is on the Liffey, here 
crossed by a 6-arched bridge. 

Clanwilliam, a dist. in the N.W. of 
the Cape Colony, S. Africa. Area 22,111 
sq. m. P. 9,416. It is traversed N. to 
to S. by the Karree Berg & Cedar Berg 
mountains, & watered by the Oliphant 
& its tributaries. — Clanwilliam, vill., cap. 
of the dist., is situated on the rt. b. of the 
Oliphant river. 

Clar (St.), France. [Claire St.] 

Clara, a market town of Irel., Lein- 

ster, Kings CO., near the Brosna, which 
here works exten. corn mills. P. 1,155. 

Clara, one of the Mergui isls. off the 
Canaries ; & a town of the isl. Cuba. 

Clara (Santa), an islet of S. Amer., 
Ecuador, dep. & in the gulf of the Guay- 
aquil. II. a settlement. Upper Cali- 
fornia, 20 m. S. San Francisco, near the 

Clah-de-Lomagne (St.), a comm. & 
town of France, dep. Gers. P. 1,638. 

Clare, a marit. co. of Irel., Muuster, 
having W. the Atlantic. P. (in 1841) 
286,394, (in 1851) 212,720. Surface hilly, 
with some tracts of lev. land ; coast preeip. 
Princip. r. the Fergus. Small lakes are 
numerous. Soil fertile in the low lands. 
Princip. crops, potatoes, oats, & barley. 

II. (or Clare- Morris), Connaught, 

CO. Mayo. 15 m. S.E. Castlebar. P. 2,256. 

III. (or Clara), an isl. oflF the W. 

coast of Irel., Connaught, co. Mayo, & at 
the entrance of Clew bay. Surface 
mountainous, its highest point rising to 

1,520 ft. above the sea. IV. a riv. of 

Connaught, co. Galway, after a S.-ward 
course of about 32 m., enters Lake Corrib. 

Claremont, t., Sullivan co. N. H., on 
Conn. r. A fine agricultural t., with some 

manufs 1 newsp. P. 3,750. II. a 

domain & royal pal. of Engl., co. Surrey. 

Clarence, p-t., Erie co. N.Y. ; drained 
by Ransom's & Tonawanda cr. 1 acad. 

P. 2,271. II. a vill. of Greece. 

(Island), S. Amer., W. of Tierra del Fu- 
ego. Length E. to W. 52 m. ; breadth 
23 m. It is rocky & greatly indented by 
bays. — (Island), Pacific 0., N. of Navi-' 
gator isl. — (Ilarb. or Port), Russian 
America, on E. side of Behring strait, 45 
m. S.E. Cape Prince of Wales. — (Peak), 
Fernando Po isl., is 10,700 ft. above the 
sea,.— (River), E. Australia, enters the 
Pacific at Shoal bay. — (Strait), Persian 
gulf, betw. the isl. Kishm & the mainland, 
varies in breadth from 3 to 13 m., & is 
studded with isls. 

C LAREND ON, t., Rutland co. Vt., watered 
by other crs. Some water power. Marble 
is found here. P. 1,549. II. p-t., Or- 
leans CO. N. Y. Drained by several crs. 
Surface broken. P. 2,251. 

Clarens, a vill. of Switzerland, cant. 
Vaud, on the lake of Geneva. 

Claridon, p-t., Geauga co. 0. Graz- 
ing town. P. 1,200. II. t. Marion co. 

0. P. 1,487. 

Clarion, county, Pa., in the N.W. part 
of the state. Contains 530 sq. m. It 
has the Alleghany r. on the S.AV., Red 
Bank cr. on the S., & drained centrally 
by Clariob, or Toby's r. & branches. The 




southern portion is moderately undulat- 
ing & fertile, the northern part, uneven 
& rough, abounding in iron ore & pine 
timber. There are II furnaces in the 

county. P. 23,565. II. p-t. & cap. of 

Clarion co. Pa. Surface hilly. Watered 
by several crs. The usual co. buildings. 
III. r., Pa., 75 m. long. 

Clark, county, Oregon. P. 643. 

Clarke, county, Va., situated in the 
N.E. part of the state, & contains 225 sq. 
m. The Shenandoah r. passes centrally 
through it. Surface, diversified. It has 
the Blue Ridge on the E. Soil, first rate. 
Cap. Berryville. Staple commod. wheat 
& Ind. corn. Tanneries & distillerie.s. 

8 acad. P. 7,352. II. county, G-a.. 

situated centrally in the N. part of the 
state, & contains 414 sq. m. Watered by 
branches of Oconee riv. Cap. Athens. 
Staple commodity, cotton. Distilleries, 
grist & saw mills. 1 college. 7 acad. P. 

11,119. III. county, Ala., situated 

between the Tombigbee & Alabama rivs. 
in the S.W. part of the state. & contains 
1,200 sq. m. The surface is uneven, & 
the soil indifferent. Cap. Macon. A cot- 
ton growing co. 5 acad. P. 9,786. 

IV. county, Miss., situated toward the 
E. border of the state, & contains 650 sq. 
m. Watered by Chickasawha river & 
branches. Surface generally level. Cap. 
Quitman. Staple commod. cotton. P. 
5,477. V. county, Ky., situated cen- 
trally in the E. part of the state, having 
Kentucky r. on its S. border. It contains 
about 300 sq. m. Capital, Winchester. 
Staple commod. Ind. corn, & flax & hemp, 
Distilleries, & woollen & rope fac. 2 

acad. P. 12,688. VI. county, 0., 

situated toward the S.W. part of the 
state, & contains 412 sq. m. It has a 
very fertile soil. AVatered by Mad riv., 
Beaver & Buck crs. The national road 
runs through the co., as will also the Mad 
r. & Lake Brie railroad. Capital, Spring- 
field. The common agricultural fruits, 
with some hops & sugar. Distilleries, 
tanneries, potteries, & woollen fac, & oil 

mills. 1 newsp. 1 acad. P. 22,178. 

VII. county, la., in the S.E. part of the 
state, on the Ohio r. Cap. Charleston. 
Chief prod, wheat, Ind. corn, oats, with 
consid. sugar. Some manufs. 6 acad. 

P. 15,828. VIII. county. 111., in the , 

E. part of the state. Contains 1,080 sq. 
m. Cap. Marshall. Common agricultural 

prod. P. 9,532. IX. county, Mo., in 

the N.E. part of the state, on the Miss. 
river. Cap. Waterloo. Drained by Fox 
& Wyaoonda rivs. Chief prod, wheat, 
Ind. corn, & tobacco. 1 acad. P. 5,527. 

X. county. Ark., toward the S. part 

of the state. Watered by Wachita riv. 
Surface uneven. Cap. Greenville. Ind. 
corn & cotton. P. 4,011. XI. t., Lin- 
coln CO. Mo. P. 1,218. XII. t.. Cole 

CO. Mo. P. 853. XIII. t.. Gasconade 

CO. Mo. P. 621. XIV. t., Johnson co. 

Ark. — -XV. t., Brown co. 0. P. 1,290*.A»*. 

XVI. t., Montgomery CO. la. " 

XVII. t., Clinton co. 0. P. 1,297. 

Clarksburg, p-v., cap. Harrison co. 
Va., on the Monongahela r. The usual 
county buildings. 1 newsp. P. 800. 

II. p-v., cap. Louis co. Ky., on Salt cr., 
4 m. S. of the Ohio r. The usual county 
buildings. III. t., Berkshire co. Mass. 

Clarksfield, p-t., -Huron co. 0., on. 
Vermillion r. P. 1,437. 

Clarkson, p-t., Monroe co. N.Y., drain- 
ed by Little Salmon & Sandy crs. The 
V. is on the Ridge road. Some manufs., 
1 acad. P. 4,556. 

Clark's River, Oregon terr., rising in 
the Rocky mtns., and after a N.W.-ward 
course of 500 ms., joins the Columbia. 
In its course, it expands into a lake 35 
m. in length, and at its mouth is nearly 
as large as the Columbia. 

Clarkstown, p-t., cap. Rockland co. 
N. Y. It is bounded B. by the Hudson, » 
and has Rockland lake on the N. The 
usual county buildings. P. 3,111. 

Clarksville, t., Coos co. N. H. It 
was granted to Dartmouth col' ge in 1789. 
II. t., Alleghany co. N. Y. P. 668. 

III. p-v., cap. Habersham co. Ga. The 

usual county buildings. 1 acad. IV. 

cap. Clark co. Ala. It has a court-house. 

V. p-v., cap. Montgomery co. Tenn., 

situated at the junction of Red r., with 
Cumberland r. It contains a court-house, 

3 churches, 1 acad., & 2 banks. VI. 

p-v., cap. Johnson co. Ark. 3 m. N. of 
Arkansas r. 

Clary, a comm. & vill. of France, dep. 
Nord. P. 2,230. 

Clashmore, a vill. of Irel., Munster, 
CO. Waterford. P. 3,777. 

Clatsop, county, Oregon terr. P. 462. 

Claud (St.), a comm. & market town 
of France, dep. Charente, cap. cant., on 
r. h. of the Son. P. 2,000. 

Claude (St.), a comm. & town of 
France, dep. Jura, at the confluence of 
the Bienne and Tacon. P. 4,460. 

Clausthal, a town of Hanover, cap. a 
dist. in the Harz. P. 9,799. It is situ'a- m 
ated on a hill, 1,740 feet above the level 
of the sea. It is the chief mining town 
of the Harz. Near it are the principal 
lead & silver mines in the Harz. 

Cavehack, t., Columbia co. N. Y., 




watered by Claveraek cr. A woollen & a 
cotton fiic. I acad. P. 3,208. 

Clay, county, Ky. Situated in the 
S.E. part of the state, and contains 880 
sq. in. Drained by the S.W. fork of 
Kentucky r. The soil is generally light. 
Salt springs and mineral coal are found 
in the co. Capital, Manchester. The 
common prod, is tobacco ; sugar, salt, & 
bituminous cqal are produced. Tanneries 

& distilleries. P. 5,421. II. county, 

la., situated in the W. part of the state, 
contains 360 sq. m. It contains good 
land for cultivation, & large portions cov- 
ered with heavy timber. In the S.W. 
part are some beautiful prairies. Water- 
ed by Eel r. and its branches. Capital, 
Bowling Green. Ind. corn, tobacco, & 
sugir. Tanneries & distilleries. P. 

4,289 III. county. 111. Situated in 

the S.E. part of the state. It contains 
475 sq. m. Surface level, soil fertile. 
Drained by Little Wabash r. Capital 
Lewisville. Common agricultural prod., 
with some sugar, tobacco, & cotton. P. 

5,139. IV. county, Mo. Situated in 

the N.W. part of the state, on the N. side 
of the Missouri r. It contains 432 sq. m. 
The surface is undulating, & the soil ex- 
cel lent. Drained by Fishing and a branch 
of Little Platte rivers. Capital, Liberty. 
Staple comuiod., Ind. corn '& tobacco. 
Tanneries, distilleries, & saw & grist 

mills. 2newsp., 1 acad. P. 10,372. 

V. p-t., Onondaga co. N. Y. Soil pro- 
ductive. P. 3,402. VI. p-t., St. Clair 

00. Mich. P. 400.^ VII. t., Lafayette 

CO. Mo. P. 1,305. VIII. t., Ralls co. 

Mo. P. 1,049. IX. t., Tuscarawas co. 

0., on the Ohio canal & Muskingum r. 
P. 864. X. t., Scioto CO. 0. It con- 
tains rich bottom land. P. 696. XI. 

t., Montgomery co. 0. P. 1,633. XII. 

t., Highland co. 0. XIII. t., Hamilton 

CO. la. XIV. t., Allen co. 0. XV. 

t.. Gallia CO. 0. P. 745. XVI. t., 

Knox CO. 0. 1 acad. P. 1,302. XVII. 

t., Owen CO. la. P. 804. XVIII. t., 

Wayne co. la. P. 923. 

Claye, a comm. & town of France, dep. 
Seine-et-Marne. P. 1,108. 

Clavette (La), a comm. &, town of 
France, dep. SaOne-et-Loire. P. 1,221. 

Claylane, a tnshp. of England, co. 
Derby. P. 1,478. 

Clayton, county, Iowa. In N. part of 
state drained by Turkey r. Some lead 
mines have been found. Capital, Prairie 
la Porte. The common agricultural pro- 
ducts, with consid. sugar. P. 3,873. 

II. p-t., Jefferson CO. N. Y. Bounded on 
the N.W. by St. Lawrence r. ; drained by 

Chaumont r. & French cr. P. 4,191. . 

III. cap. Rabon co. Ga. Situated at the 
base of the Blue ridge. The usual county 
buildings. 1 acad. IV. p-v., cap. Bar- 
bour CO. Ala. It contains a court-house. 
— V. t. Perry co. 0. P. . 

Claytonville, p-v., cap. Henderson 
CO. N. C. It has a court-house, jail, & 

Clear Creek, town, Fairfield co. 0. 

II. town, Warren co. 0. A good 

farming town. P. 2,882. III. t., 

Richiaud co. 0. 

Clearfield, co. Penn. Situated cen- 
trally toward the W. part of the state. 
It contains 1,425 sq. m. Rough & sterile. 
Cap. Clearfield. The common agricul- 
tural products. Tanneries & distilleries. 

1 newsp. P. 12,586. II. t., Butler co. 

Penn. P. 1,113. III. p-v., cap. Clear- 
field CO. Penn. Situated on a branch of 
the Susquehanna r. It has a court-house. 

IV. t., Cambria co. Penn. V. 

creek, Penn. A consid. branch of the 
W. fork of the Susquehanna. 

Clear Spring, t-., Legrange co. la. 

Clear- Water, Riyer, British North 

Clecy, a comm. & mkt. townof France, 
dep. Calvados, near 1. b. of the Orne. P. 

Cleden, two comms. & mkt. towns of 
France, dep. Finist^re. 

Clees (Le), a pa. & vill. of Switzerl'd, 
cant. Vaud. 

Cleguerec, a comm. & mkt. town of 
France, dep. Morbihan, cap. cant. P. 

Clement (St.), numerous comms. & 
vills. of France. 

Clemente (San), a town of Spain, 

prov. Cuenca. P. 3,120. II. a vill. 

of Naples, prov. T. di Lavoro. III. 

an isl., Pacific ocean, ofi" the coast of Upp. 

Cleobury-Mortimee, a market town 
of Engl., CO. Salop. 

Clercken, a comm. & vill. of Belgium, 
prov. W. Flanders. P. 2,845. 

Clerkenwell, a large dist. and out 
pn. of city of -London, co. Middlesex. P. 

Clermont, county, 0. Situated in S. 
W. part of state, on the Ohio r. Land 
rich, but some of it too wet for cultiva- 
tion. Watered by a branch of the Little 
Miami r. Cap. Batavia. Staple corn- 
mod., wheat & Indian corn, some tobac- 
co. Tanneries & distilleries. 2 newsp. 

2 acads. P. 30,455. II. p-t., Colum- 
bia CO. N. Y. On the E. side of Hudson 
r. Watered by Anacram cr. The v. is 




on the road between N. Y. & Albany. 
1 acad. P. 1,130. 

Clermont, ser. comms., towns, & vills. 

of France. 1, dep. Oise, cap. arrond., 

on the route betw. Paris & Amiens. P. 

3,105. II. {de Lodeve), dep. Herault. 

P. 5,700. Manufs. of coarse woollens. 

III. {en Argonnc), dep. Meuse, cap. 

cant. P. 1,450. 

Clermont-Ferrand, a comm. & city 
of France, cap. dep. Puy-de-Dome. P. 
.26,738. It has a university, academy, 
normal school, & botanic garden, a cham- 
ber of commerce, & school of design. It 
is composed of two towns, Clermont & 

Clermontois, a small dist. of France, 
in the old prov. Lorraine. 

Clermont-Tonnere, an isl. Pacific 
ocean. Low. island group, lat. 18° 32' 
49" S. 

Clerval, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Doubs, cap. cant., on the Doubs. P. 

Clery, a comm. & town of France, dep. 
Loiret, on 1. b. of the Loire. P. 2,570. 

Cleveland, city, p-t. of entry, & the 
cap. Cuyahoga co. 0. Cleveland is the 
emporium of Northern Ohio & next to 
Cincinnati, the most important town in 
the state. It possesses a commanding 
situation on Lake Erie at the mouth of 
Cuyahoga river, & the northern termina- 
tion of the Ohio canal, by which it is con- 
nected with the Ohio riv. P. in 1825 — 
500; in 1850—17,034. The city is situ- 
ated principally on a plain about 80 feet 
above the level of the lake. The streets 
are 80 ft. wide, & Main street passing 
through the middle of the place, 120 feet 
. wide. The streets cross at right angles. 
Near the centre of the place is a public 
square of 10 acres divided into 4 equal 
parts by intersecting streets. The harbor 
of Cleveland, one of the best on Lake 
Erie, is formed by the mouth of the Cuy- 
ahoga riv., & improved by a pior on each 
side, extending 425 yards into the lake, 
200 feet apart & faced with substantial 
masonry. The natural advantages of 
this place are unsurpassed in the West. 
It has an extensive commerce. The fol- 
lowing are the statistics of 1851 : — Its do- 
mestic imports have been S9, 262, 657 20; 
its exports, $9,817,897 28. Its foreign 
imports have been, $314,188 94; its ex- 
ports, $311,336 68. Amount of duties 
received, $94,568 98. Among its domes- 
tic exports have been 659,940 bbls. flour; 
2,141.913 bushels wheat ; 906,653 bushs. 
corn, valued at $3,898,130 90. Wool, 
26,261 bales, val'd at $1,969,575. Among 

its imports 815 tons copper, valued at 
$285,250. Its navigation interest is 
large. Tonnage, 3,607,050. Manufs. 
consid. Several acads. & many schools. 

II. county, N. C, iu S.W. part of the 

state ; contains 550 sq. m. Drained by 

Broad riv. Cap. Shelby. P. 10,396. 

III. p-v., cap. Bradley co. Tenn. 

Cleves, a town of Rhenish Pru.ssia, 
reg. Dusseldorf, cap. circ, near the Rhine, 
& the Netherland frontier. P. 8,000. It 
stands on a declivity (whence its name), 
& is neatly built in the Dutch style. It 
has a college, with manufs. of silk & 
woollen fabrics, hats, leather, hosiery, 

Clew Bay, Irel., Connaught, co. Mayo, 
is an inlet of the Atlantic ; it extends 
inland for about 15 m., with a nearly uni- 
form breadth of 8 m. 

Cley near the Sea, a small seaport 
of Engl., CO. Norfolk. 

Clichy-la-Garonne, a comm. & vill. 
of France, dep. & on r. b. of the Seine. 
P. 5,425. It has important manufs. of 
chemical products. 

Clifden, a seaport town of Ireland, 
Connaught, dist. Connemara, co. Galway, 
on an inlet of Ardbear harbor. P. 1,509. 

Clifton, Green CO. 0. It has extens. 

water power. II. a watering place of 

Engl., CO. Gloucester. P. 14,177. 

Clifton Park, Saratoga co. N. Y. has 
the Mohawk riv. on the S. P. 2,719. 

Clinch, river, 200 m. long, & uniting 

with the Holston forms the Tennessee. 

II. t., Van Buren co. Mich. 

Clinton, county, N. Y. Situated in 
the N.E. part of the state, & contains 932 
sq. m. It has Lower Canada on its N., 
& Lake Camplain on its E. border. Iron 
ore of a superior quality is found. Wa- 
tered by Saranae, Chazy & Great & Little 
Ausable rivers, which afford extensive 
water-power. Lake Champlain aflfords 
great facilities for trade. Capital, Platts- 
burg. A good agricultural co. Chf. pro- 
ducts wheat, Indian corn, & potatoes. 
Numerous sheep & swine are reared. 
Manufs. of iron, woollens, cottons, leather, 
&c., 170 saw mills. 3 acad. P. 40,047. 

II. county, Pa. Situated in the N. 

part of the state, contains 840 sq m. The 
W. branch of the Susquehanna riv. passes 
centrally through it. Surface mntnous., 
soil first-rate on margins of streams. Cap. 
Lock Haven. Staple products wheat & 
bituminous coal. Manufs. of iron& leath- 
er. 2 newspapers. P. 11,207. III. 

county, Ky. Situated on the S. border 
of the state, & contains 200 square miles. 
Drained by several small branches of 




Cumberland river. Surface diversified, 
soil fertile, Cap. Albany. Staple corn- 
mod, tobacco, some cotton A sugar ; dis- 
tilleries. 1 acad. P. 4,889. IV. co., 

0. Situated in the S.W. part of the state. 
& contains 400 sq. m. The surface is level, 
& the soil is fertile. It is particularly 
adapted to Indian corn & grass. Salt is 
found in the S.W. part. Watered by 
branches of Little Miami r., which afford 
good water power. Cap. Wilmington. 
Staple commod. wheat, Indian corn & 
sugar. Tanneries & woollen factories. 2 

newspapers. P. 18,838. V. county, 

Mich. Situated in the central part of the 
state, & contains 576 sq. m. Drained N. 
by Maple river, & S. by Looking-glass r., 
& branches. It has a level surface, & a 
good soil. Capital, De AVitt. An agri- 
cultural county. Considerable sugar. P. 

5,102. VI. county, la. Situated a 

little N.W. of the centre of the state, & 
contains 432 square miles. Drained by 
branches of Wildcat & Sugar crs. The 
soil is fertile & well timbered, except 
" The Twelve Mile Prairie." Capital, 
Frankfort. Wheat, Indian corn, & su- 
gar are " produced. P. 11,869. VII. 

county. 111. Situated in the S. part of 
the state, & contains 480 sq. m. Surface 
undulating, soil fertile. Kaskaskia riv. 
passes centrally through it. Cap. Car- 

lyle. Agricultural county. P. 5,139. 

VIII. county. Mo. Situated in the N.W. 
part of the state, & contains 425 sq. m. 
The surface is level & two thirds of it 
prairie. Soil very fertile. Drained by 
branches of Little Platte riv. Capital 
Plattsburg. A farming co. P. 3,786. 

IX. county, Iowa, in the E. part of 

the state, bounded on the E. by the 
Mississippi, drained by several creeks. 
The common agricultural products. P. 

2,822. Cap. Camanche. X. town, 

Kennebec co. Me., having Kennebec riv. 
on its AY. border. Extensive water-power. 
Soil adapted to grain or grazing. The 
V. is situated on Sebasticook river, & has 

some manufs. P. 2,818. XI. town, 

Middlesex co. Conn. P. 1,239. XII. 

t., Dutchess CO. N. Y. Hilly & gravelly. 

P. 1,830. XIII. p-v., Oneida co. N. Y. 

Situated on both sides of Oriskany creek. 
Hamilton college is located here. It has 
a president, 6 professors, about 100 stu- 
dents, & a library of 9,000 vols. P. 800. 

XIA''. t., Essex CO. N. J. P. 1,976. 

. XV. t., AVayne co. Penn. XA''I. t., 

Lycoming eo. Penn. It lies in a bend of 
the W. branch of the Susquehanna. P. 

P. 1,193. XVII. p-v., Lenawee eo. 

Mich., on a branch of the river Eaisin. 

Good water power. P. 600. XVIII. 

p-v., cap. Hickman co Ky. Situated on 
the N. side of Bayou de Sha. It contains 

a court-house. XIX. cap. Sampson co. 

N. C. Situated on a branch of Black r. 

It contains a court-house. XX. p-v., 

cap. Jones co. Gra. A court-house. 1 

acad. -XXI. p-v., Hinds county, Miss. 

Mississippi college is located here. 1 fe- 
male seminary. XXII. p-v., cap. Van 

Buren co. Ark. Situated on Little Red r. 

XXJII. p-v., cap. Anderson county, 

Tenn. Situated on the N. bank of Clinch 

river. It contains a court-house. 

XXIV. p-t., Vermillion co. la. P. 1,296. 
The V. is situated on the AV. bank of the 

Wabash riv. XXV. cap. De Witt co. 

111. Situated on Salt creek, a branch 

of the Sangamon. XXVI. t., Macomb 

CO. Mich., bordering on Lake St. Clair, 

watered by Red riv. 2 newspapers. 

XXVII. t., Franklin co. 0. XXVIII. 

t., Putnam eo. la. P. 1,218. XXIX. 

v., cap. Rives co. Mo. Situated near the 

N. bank of Grand river. XXX. town, 

Jackson co. 0. P. 824. XXXI. town, 

Seneca co. 0. 2 newspapers. P. 219. 

XXXII. Shelby co. 0. 1 newspaper. 

P. 783. XXXIII. t., Franklin county, 

0. P. 966. XXXIV. t., AVayne co. 0. 

P. 873. XXXV. p-t., Knox co. 0. P. 


Clintonville, p-v., Clinton co. N. Y. 
Extensive iron works. 

Clion, twe comms. & vills. of France. 

1, dep. Loire Inf. P. 2,110. II. 

dep. Indre. P. 1,600. 

Clisheim, or Cusseval, the highest 
mountain in the outer Hebrides, Scotland, 
isl. Harris. Height, 2,700 feet. 

CussA, a small fortified town of Dal- 

Clisson, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Loire Inf. P. 1,372. Manufs. wool- 
len cloths, paper, & yarn. 

CuTHEROE, a mkt. town of England, 
CO. Lancaster, on the Ribble, at the base 
of Pendle hill (which rises to 1,800 feet 
.above the sea). P. 11,324. 

Clogheen, a mkt. town of Ireland, 
Munster, co. Tipperary. P. 2,049. 

Clonakilty, a mkt. town of Ireland, 
Munster, co. Cork, on the Foilagh, near 
its mouth in Clonakilty bay. P. 3,993. 
Town once flourishing, but now in decay. 

Clonderalaw Bay, Ireland, Munster, 
CO. Clare. 

Clones, a mkt. town of Ireland, Ulster, 
CO. Monaghan, & near the Ulster canal. 
P. 2,877. 

Clonmel, a town of Ireland, Munster, 
on the Limerick & Waterford railway, & 




on both banks of the Suir, & some isls. in 
that riv., its several parts connected by 

5 bridges. 

Clontarf, a small town of Ireland. 
Leinster, co. & 3 m. E.N.E. Dublin, on 
the jST. side of its bay. 

Clonthal, a lake of Svyitzerland, in the 
beautiful val. of Sisme name, cant.Glarus. 

Clotze, a vill. of Pruss. Saxonj', reg. 
Magdeburg. P. 2,320. 

Cloud (St.), acomm. & town of France, 
dep. Seine-et-Oise, on the slope of a hill 
near 1. b. of the Seine, & on the railway Paris to Versailles. P. 3,051. The 
flue chateau of St. Cloud, originally the 
property of the dukes of Orleans, Tvas 
long the favorite summer residence of 
the kings of France ; it has an extensive 
park & elegant fountains. 

Cloyd, a riv. N. Wales, cos. Denbigh 

6 Flint. 

Cloves, a comm. & town of France, 
dep. Euve-et-Loire, cap. cant., on 1. b. of 
the Loire. P. 2,080. 

Cloyne, a market town, & formerly 
an episcopal city, Ireland, Munster, co. 

Clugnat, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. Creuse, on 1. b. of the Veraux. P. 

Cluis, two eontig. vills. of France, dep. 
Indre. United pop. 1,950. 

Clun, a market town of England, co. 
Salop, on a small riv. of same name. 

Cluny, a comm. & town of France, 
deps. SaOne-et-Loire, cap. cant., on 1. b. 
of the Grune, here crossed by two stone 
bridges. P. 3,467. 

Cluses, a town of Savoy, prov.' Fau- 
cigny, cap. mand. near rt. b. of Arve. 

Clusonb, a town of Lombardy, near 
the Serio. P. 3,200. In the vicinity are 

copper foundries & vitriol works. II. 

a riv. (anc. Cluso), Sard, states, div. 

Clwyp, a small river of N. Wales. 

Clyde, p-v., Wayne co. N. Y. P. 1,000. 
II. one of the largest & most impor- 
tant rivs. in Scotland. It takes its rise 
from numerous streams flowing from the 
mountain range in S. part of Lanarkshire, 
& expands into ajirth averaging about 
32 m. in width, & at the distance of 48 m. 
becomes identified with the N. channel. 

L. 75 m. III. riv. in Wayne co. N. Y., 

falling into Seneca lake. L. 20 m. 

Clymer, p-t., Chautauque co. N. Y. P. 

, Clythe-ness, a headland of Scotland, 
on the German ocean, co. Caithness. 

CoA, a riv. of Portugal, prov. Beira. 

Coahoma, co.. Miss., jn the N.W. part 
of the state. Area, 680 sq. m. Surface 
level & low. Chf. prod, cotton. P. 2,780. 

CoAHUiLA, or Cohauila, a dep. of 
Mexican confederation, separated JST. & 
N.E. from Texas by the Rio Bravo del 
Norte, & having on other sides the deps. 
Nuevo-Leon, Zacatecas, & Durango. 
Area, 30,740 sq. m. P. 75,340. Surface 
of N. part mntnous., with fertile valleys. 
It has some silver mines. S. part level 
& fitted for pasturage ; & catlle rearing 
is the chief branch of industry. Chief 
towns, Saltilla, Coahuila, & Santa Rosa. 
— Coahuila, or Montelovez, is a consider- 
able town in the above dep., 130 m. N.W. 
Monterey. P. 3,600. 

Coal, t., Northumberland co. Pa. P. 

Coanza, a riv. of W. Africa, Lower 
Guinea, enters the Atlantic after a rapid 
course of 500 m. 

Coarraze, a comm. & vill. of France, 
dep. B. Pyrenees. P. 1,388. Linen 

CoATZAcoALcos, a considerable river 
of Mexican confed., rises in the Sierra 
Madre, dep. Oaxaca, flows tortuously N. 
between Vera Cruz & Tabasco, & enters 
the bay of Coatzacoalcos (Caribbean sea), 
130 m. S.E. Vera Cruz. It is of interest 
as connected with the projected commu- 
nication across the isthmus. [Isthmus 
OF Panama.] 

CoAzzE, a mkt. town of the Sardinian 
states, div. Turin. P. 3,996. 

Coban, a city of Central America, state 
& 90 m. N.N.W. Guatemala, cap. dep. 
Vera Paz, on the Rio Dulce. P. 14,000, 
mostly Indians, who are stated to be 
more wealthy than the inhabitants of 
most cities of Central America. 

Cobb, co., Georgia, towards the N. part 
of the state. Contains 480 sq. m. Cap. 
Marietta. Staple prod, cotton. Some 
manufs. P. 13,843. 

CoBi, a wide desert of Central Asia. 

CoBiJA, or Port La Mar, the only 
legal seaport of Bolivia, cap. dep. La 
Mar, on the Pacific, with a vill. in the 
dist. Atacama. P. 793. It is a wretched 
place, & has been destitute of water until 
the very recent discovery of a spring, but 
it has some ship-building docks & mining 

CoBLENZ, a strongly fortified city of 
Rhenish Prussia, cap. reg. on 1. b. of the 
Rhine, at the influx of the Moselle, the 
former river here crossed by a bridge 
of boats, 485 yards across, & the latter 
by a stone bridge, 536 yards in length. 




P. exclusive of garrison, 18,730. It is 
well built, & has several fine churches, a 
noble palace of the former electors of 
Treves, an anc. Jesuits' college, a Roman 
Catholic seminary, hospital, orphan asy- 
lum, & theatre, manufs. of cotton & wool- 
len fabrics, & an active general trade. 

CoBLESKiLL, t., Schoharie co. N. Y. A 
stream here enters a subterranean pas- 
sage & reappears after a distance of 7 m. 
P. 3,583. 

CoBOuRG, cap. of Northumberland & 
Durham cos., U. Canada, on Lake Ontario, 
67 m. E. Toronto. P. 3,871. 

OoBKE, a town of the island of Cuba, 
E. dep. P. 2,661, of whom 614 are Eu- 

CoBUEG, a town of Central Germany, 
cap. princip. of Coburg (a portion of the 
duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), on the 
Itz, an afiluent of the Regen, and on 
the railway from Dresden to Munich, 
26 m. N. Bamberg. P. 10,092. It is 
irregularly built, but has some good 
edifices, & public walks separating it from 
its suburbs. 

CoBUKG Peninsula, N. Australia, is 
an irreg. penins., 50 m. in length B. to 
Vv''., by 20 m. across, connected S.E. with 
the mainland by a narrow isthmus, & 
separated W. from Melville isl. by Dun- 
das strait. 

CoccoNATO, a town of Piedmont, div. 
Alessandria, prov. Asti. P. with comm. 

CocHABAMBA, a dep. of the republic 
of Bolivia, named from the riv. Cocha- 
bamba, the head stream of the Guapey. 
Area, 55,120 sq. m. P. 250,000. It was 
formerly regarded as the granary of Peru, 
& produces also cotton, sugar, dye-woods, 
fine timber, & the precious metals. Chf. 
cities, &c., Coohabamba or Oropesa, Mis-