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Full text of "A hand-book to the birds of Great Britain"

WILFRID PARKINSON CURTIS, 
" Aysgarth," 

Parkstone Road, 

POOLE. 





BIOLOGY 
I IBR RV 



PLATE 




GOLDEN ORIOLE 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

EDITED BY R. BOWDLER SHARPE, LL.D., F.L.S., &c. 



A HAND-BOOK 

TO THE 

BIRDS 

OF 

GREAT BRITAIN. 



BY 

R. BOWDLER SHARPE, LL.D, 
'I 

ASSISTANT-KEEPER, SUB-DEPARTMENT OF 
VER'lEBRATA, BRITISH MUbEUM. 



VOL. I. 



LONDON : 

EDWARD LLOYD, LIMITED, 

12, SALISBURY SQUARE, FLEET STREET. 

1896. 



810LOGY 
R/ 

B 



** " * 

". 

*<"'.' 



PRINTED BY 
WYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED. 



PREFACE. 



EVERY ornithologist who, in the course of his career, may be 
called upon to write a book upon British Birds, will always find 
this to be one of the most interesting, but certainly one of the 
most difficult, tasks which he has ever undertaken. He is sure 
to discover that not only is the path well-worn, but that the 
work of his many predecessors has been so well done that 
little chance of originality remains to him. No country in the 
world has had more excellent books written about its birds 
than Great Britain, whether we consider illustrated works, such 
as those of Selby and Gould, or the attractive "Coloured 
Figures of British Birds," now being published by Lord Lilford ; 
or the many exhaustive books on the life-histories of our native 
birds, such as those of Macgillivray, Yarrell, and others ; or 
the excellent works on eggs published by Hewitson and 
Sctbohm. 

Of the two leading publications on the subject, viz., those 
of Macgillivray and Yarrell, the palm for scientific merit must 
be given to that of the Scotch naturalist, and the increasing 
value of his works, day by day and year by year, testifies to an 
appreciation of his labour which would have gladdened and 
cheered him in his work, had such regard been bestowed upon 
him during his lifetime. The popularity of Yarrell's " History 
of British Birds," with its exquisite little woodcuts, completely 
eclipsed the more modest publication of Margillivray, and it 



910513 



iy PREFACE. 

has been left to the present generation of ornithologists to 
recognise the full value of the varied and original work done 
by the last named naturalist. Not that I should wish by writing 
thus to de'ract for one moment from the worth of Yarrell's 
publications, for, had his work been anything but excellent, 
it would have been impossible, even for so good an editor 
as Professor Newton, to have founded on it that fourth 
edition to which English ornithologists owe so much. As 
completed by Mr. Howard Saunders, this edition of Yarreli's 
"British Birds " stands pre-eminent among the works on the 
sucject. 

There are many of us st'll living who remeti ber the enthu- 
siasm with which John Gould set about the production of that 
magnificent series of volumes on the " Birds of Great Britain," 
with which his rame will for ever be connected. The letter- 
press may be ordinary, as nv ch of it is, but no one can fail 
to apprecia'e the loving care wh ; ch must have animated the 
author in the production of the illustrations, and no country 
in the world can boast a finer presentment of its native birds 
than is to be found in the figures of Gould's work. 

One of the most valuable contributions to the history of our 
British birds published of late years is the " Manual " of Mr. 
Howard Saunders, a model of condensation and an epitome of 
useful information concerning the Avi-fauna of Great Brita'n ; 
but there is still another work on the birds of Great Britain 
which we have to notice Mr. Seebohm's four volumes on 
" British Birds." The constant use which I have made of my 
late friend's writings in the course of the present volume, is the 
best testimony if further testimony be needed to the opinion 
I have often expressed as to the excellence of Mr. Seebohm's 
work. I have no hesitation in repeating that, since the 
days of Macgillivray, no such original descriptions of the 
life-history of European birds have been published in any 



PREFACE. V 

country. Nor do I consider that this praise is exaggerated, for 
while the descriptions of the habits of birds in Dresser's " Birds 
of Europe " and other popular works are obviously compiled 
from the writings of serious field-naturalists like Naumann 
and Macgillivray, those of Mr. Seebohm are based upon his 
personal observation, and are the result of his many ornitho- 
logical expeditions in widely distant parts of the Paloearctic 
Region. The specimens collected by him during his travels, 
the nests and eggs which he gathered in some instances still 
the only ones in any museum and the notes which he made 
on the habits of so many European birds, furnished him with 
original material which has not been exceeded by any writer 
of the present day. I have, therefore, not scrupled to draw 
upon Mr. Seebohm's published writings during the preparation 
of the present work, for I have found his " History of British 
Birds " and Mr. Saunders' " Manual " both indispensable to me 
in my attempt to give a condensed idea of the Avi-fauna of the 
British Islands. Mr. Harting's " Handbook " and Colonel 
Irby's useful "Key-list" of British Birds have both been 
frequently consulted by me. 

I have written the present work in the form of a " Hand- 
book," as the most convenient form for the student of British 
Birds, and I can assure him that there is much useful work 
still to be done with regard to our native birds, in various 
directions, some of which I may particularise as follows : 

1. The study of the moulting of birds, the way in which the 
young gain the plumage of the adult, and the method of change 
from summer to winter plumage, &c. 

2. A record of the distribution of birds throughout the 
British Islands. This is a very important subject, and one 
which offers a fertile field of observation to any enthusiastic 
young ornithologist. A model can be found in Fatio and 
Studer's " Catalogue des Oiseaux de la Suisse " ; and so many 



VI PREFACE. 

useful books and lists of the birds of various districts of Great 
Britain have been published during recent years, that it ought 
now to be possible to gather together the threads and publish 
a useful volume on the geographical distribution of our native 
birds. 

3. The migration of birds in Great Britain. Much has been 
done during the past few years to improve our knowledge of 
this phenomenon, but the material is still rough and undigested, 
and many of the conclusions published are merely conjectural. 

4. The formation of local collections by the Museums of the 
capital towns of each county, which shall serve to illustrate its 
Avi-fauna, and exolain the distribution of every bird within its 
limits 

It would thus be possible to obtain an ornithological census 
of the British Avi-fauna, a work which is much needed in the 
present day. 

One word with regard to the nomenclature of the present 
volume. I have employed such names as I believe will 
ultimately be found to be the correct ones for the species when 
an International Congress of Ornithologists determines to settle 
what shall be the proper scientific designations of European 
birds. At present there is considerable confusion in the 
nomenclature of our British species, the names of the " List " 
published by the British Ornithologists' Union being by no 
means acceptable to some of us at the present day, and differ- 
ing in many instances from those employed by American and 
German Naturalists. Then again, Mr. Seebohm employed the 
simple method of adopting the name most in vogue since the 
time of Linnaeus, or, as he called it, auctorum plurimorum. He 
was also an advocate of trinomials such as Parus ater brittanni- 
cus for the Eng ish Coal-Tit, an arrangement I shall never 
adopt, as I consider it a clumsy and unnecessary method of 
nomenclature, and one that in the hands of unscrupulous 



PREFACE. Vl'i 

writers may be employed ad lib. to gain a little temporary 
notoriety, and end in making the study of birds impossible. 
Can any science bear the weight of such a system of nomen 
clature as would burden it with names like Caryocatactes 
caryocatactes brachyrhyncha //? 

Then as regards the changing of specific names of birds. On 
this subject a great deal of nonsense has been written, and 
some of my critics who have declaimed on the subject of 
nomenclature, have shown that they do not understand what 
they are writing about, nor what synonymy means. My 
position in the matter is very simple. I contend that when 
Linnaeus, or any other of the Fathers, gave a name to a bird, 
no power on earth should be allowed to change it, by taking 
the specific name and making it the title of a genus. The 
Linnean name, when perfectly capable of identification, as it 
generally is, should be held sacred, even when the result is 
the duplication of the specific name, as with the Linnet, the 
Fringilla cannabina of Linnaeus, and the Goldfinch, the Frin- 
gilla carduelis of Linnaeus. In process of time both these 
species have been separated (and rightly) from the genus 
JFringilla, and the earliest generic names turn out to be 
Cannabina of Boie, and Carduelis of Brisson. Hence the 
names Carduelis carduelis (L.) and Cannabina cannabina (L.), 
and I see no logical way to avoid these names. Nor is this 
system of nomenclature without one great advantage, viz., 
that in nearly every case the duplicated name descends upon 
the typical species of the genus, which becomes at once re- 
cognisable by such duplication of the generic and specific 
names. 

Lastly, there is one other matter to which I would direct 
the earnest attention of my brother ornithologists. It is a 
question that can best be settled by a general conclave of 
ornithologists, which should not be longer delayed ; and this 



vill PREFACE. 

is the question of the alteration of generic names, about the 
priority of which there can be little or no uncertainty. I 
allude to some of the names brought to light by the diligent 
research of our colleague Dr. Stejneger in America ; such, for 
instance, as the adoption of Plectrophenax instead of Plectro- 
phanes for the Snow-Buntings, and the name ^Egithalus instead 
of Acredula for the Long-tailed Tits. It is much better to face 
these changes fairly and squarely, and by their adoption, if they 
are found to be correct, to introduce an uniform system of 
nomenclature on both sides of the globe. 

In a work of the present size, published at a price which 
it is hoped will place it within the reach of every student, it 
has been found impossible to figure every species. The plates 
have all been coloured from specimens in the British Museum, 
and several pictures by Mr. Keulemans have been added to 
illustrate certain representative species of British Birds, while 
others will be given in the succeeding volumes. 

My especial thanks are due to the Council of the Royal 
College of Surgeons for permission to use the woodcuts from 
their " Osteological " Catalogue ; to Mr. Howard Saunders for 
the kindly help he has rendered during the progress of the 
volume through the press ; and to Mr. Robert Read, who wa. 
good enough to send us some original notes on nests and eggs, 
which unfortunately reached me too late to be included in their 
entirety. 

R. BOWDLER SHARPS. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



ORDER PASSERIFORMES 
SECTION A.-OSCINES 
FAMILY CORVID/E 

SUB-FAMILY CORVIN/E 

I. TRYPANOCORAX, Sund. 

i. ffugilegus (L.) 

II. CORVUS, L 

I. corax, L. 

III. COLCEUS, Kaup 

I. monedula (L.) 

IV. CORONE, Kaup 

1. cornix (L.) 

2. corone (L.) 

V. NUCIFRAGA, Briss 



. PICA, Briss 
I. pit. a (L.) 

VII. GARKULUS, Briss 

I. glandarius ^L.)... 

SUB-FAMILY FREGILIN^). 

VIII. GRACULUS, Koch. 

I. graculus (L. ) ... 

IX. PYRRHOCORAX, V 

I. pyrrhocorax (L.) 

FAMILY STURNID.E 

X. STURNUS, L 

I. vulgaris, L. 

XI. PASTOR, Temm 

I. roseus (L.) 

FAMILY ORIOLID/E 

XII. ORIOLUS, L. 

I. galbula, L. 

FAMILY ICTERID.E 
FAMILY FRINGILLID^E 



PAGB 

I 



4 

4 
4 

8 

9 
10 
ii 

12 
14 

16 
16 
17 
18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
22 
23 
23 

23 
24 
24 
26 
26 

27 

28 
28 

29 
30 



SUB-FAMILY I. COCCO- 

TIIRAUSTIN^ 30 

XIII. LIGURINUS, Koch 30, 333 
I. chloris (L. ) ... ... 31 

XIV. COCCOTHRAUSTES, Bliss. ... 33 

1. toccothraustes (L. ) ... 33 

SUB-FAMILY II. IRINGIL- 

LIN.E 35 

XV. -F-ftiiNGiLLA, L 35 

. l\ Coelebs, L. ... ... 35 

2. montifringilla, L. ... 37 

XVI. CARDUELIS, BrLs. ... 38 
I. carduelis (L.) ... ... 39 

XVII. CHRYSOMITRIS, Boie ... 40 
i. spinus (L.) ... ... 41 

XVIII. CANNABINA, Boie ... 42 

1. flavirostris (L.)... ... 42 

2. cannabina (L.) ... ... 43 

3. linaria (L.) 45 

4. holboelli (Brehm) ... 47 

5. rufescens (V.) ... ... 47 

6. exilipes (Coues) ... 333 

7. hornemanni (Ilolb.) ... 334 

XIX. PASSER, Briss 48 

1. domesticus (L.) ... 49 

2. montanus (L.) ... ... 51 

XX. SERINUS, Koch 52 

I. serinus (L.) ... ... 53 

XXI. CARPODACUS, Kaup. ... 54 
I. erythrinus (Pall. ) ... 55 

XXII. LOXIA, L 56 

1. curvirostra, L. ... ... 57 

2. bifasciata (Brehm) ... 59 

XXIII. PYRRHULA, Briss. ... 59 

1. europoea, V. ... ... 60 

2. pyrrhula (L.) 334 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XXIV. PlNICOLA, V 6 1 

I. enucleator (L.)... ... 61 

SUB-FAMILY EMBERIZ1N.E 63 

XXV. EMBERIZA, Briss 63 

1. schseniclus, L. ... ... 63 

2. pusilla, Pall 65 

3. rustica, Pall 66 

4. melanocephala, Scop. ... 67 

5. citrinella, L 69 

6. cirlus, L. ... ... 7 

7. hortulana, L. ... ... 71 

XXVI. MILIARIA, Brehm. ... 73 
I. miliaria (L.) ... ... 73 

XXVII. PLECTROPHENAX, Stejn. 75 
I. nivalis (L.) 75 

XXVIII. TALCARIUS, Bechst. ... 77 
i. lapponicus (L.) 77 

FAMILY ALAUDID^E ... 79 

XXIX. OTOCORYS, Bp So 

I. alpestris (L.) 80 

XXX. MELANOCORYPHA, Boie ... 82 
I. sibirica (Gm.) ... ... 82 

XXXI. ALAUDA, L 83 

i. arvenns, L. ... ... 84 

XXXII. CALANDRELLA, Kaup.... 86 
I. brachydactyla (Lelsl.)... 86 

XXXIII. GALERITA, Boie ... 87 
I. cristata (L.) 88 

XXXIV. LULLULA, Kaup. ... 89 
I. arborea (L.) 90 

FAMILY MOTACII.LID^E ... 91 

XXXV. MOTACILLA, L. ... 92 

1. lugubris, Temm. ... 93 

2. alba, L 95 

3. melanope, Pall. ... 97 

4. campestris, Pall. ... 99 

5. flava, L. .. ... 101 

XXXVI. ANTHUS, Eechst ... 102 

1. trivialis (L.) ... ... 103 

2. pratensis (L.) 106 

3 cervinus (Pall.) 108 

4. richardi, V. ... ... no 

5. campestris (L.) ill 

6. spipoletta (L.) ... ... 114 

7. obccurus (Lath.) ... 116 

8. rupestris, Nilss. ... 118 



FAMILY CERTHIID^E 



.. 119 



XXXVII. CERTHIA, L.... 
I. familiaris, L. ... 

XXXVIII. TlCHODROMA, 111 

I. muraria (L.) 
FAMILY SITTID/E ... 

XXXIX. SITTA, L. 

I. cresia, Meyer ... 

FAMILY PARIM; ... 

XL. PARUS, L 

1. major, L. 

2. caeruleus, L. 

3- ater, L 

4. britannicu?, Saarpe 

Dresser 

5. dresseri, Stejn. .. 
XLI. LOPHOPHANES, Kaup. 

I. cristatus (L.) ... 
XLII. ^GITHALUS, Herm. 

1. vagans (Leach)... 

2. caudatus (L.) ... 
FAMILY PANURID^ 
XLIII. PANURUS, Koch. 

I. biarmicus (L.) ... 
FAMILY REGULID^E 
XLIV. REGULUS, Koch.... 

1. regu!us(L.) 

2. ignicapillus (Biehm) 

3. calendula (L.) ... 
FAMILY LANIID^ ... 
XLV. LANIUS, L. 

1. minor, Gm. 

2. excubitor, L. ... 

3. sibiricus, Bogd. 

4. collurio, L. 

5. pomeranus, Scop. 
FAMILY AMPELID/E 
XLVI. AMPELIS, L. 

I. ganulus, L. 
FAMILY SYLVIID.E ... 
XLVII. SYLVIA, Scop. ... 

1. nisoria (Bechst.) 

2. sylvia (L.) 

3. curruca (L.) 

4. sub-alpina, Temm. 

5. orpheus, Temm. 

6. atricapilla (L.) ... 

7. simplex, Lath. ... 



and 



PAGB 

1 20 

120 
123 
I2 3 
126 
126 
126 
129 
129 
130 
133 
136 

... 137 

-. 139 

... 142 

... 142 

.- 145 

... 147 

... 149 

... 150 

... 150 

... 151 

... 153 

... 154 

154 

... 157 

... 159 

... 159 

... 159 

... 160 

... 162 

... 165 

... 167 

... i/i 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XI 



XLVIII. JjJpHiLUS, Learh 
I. undatus (Bodd.) 

XL1X. AEDON, Boie 

I. galactodes (Temm.) .. 

L. PHYLLOSCOPUS, Boie 

1. sibilator, Bechst. 

2. trochilus (L.) ... 

3. minor (Forst.) ... 

4. superciliosus (Gm. ) 
LI. HYPOLAIS, C. L. Brehm .. 

I. hypolais (L.) ... 
LII. ACKOCEPHALUS, Naum. .. 

1. aquaiicus (L.) ... 

2. phragmitis (Bechst.) .. 

3. turdoides (Meyer) 

4. streperus (V.) ... 

5. palustris (Bechbt.) 
LIII. LOCUSTELLA, Kaup. 

1. noevia (Bodd.) ... .. 

2. luscinioides (Savi) 

FAMILY TURDID/E 
LIV. OREOCICHLA, Gould 

I. varia (Pall.) ... , .. 
LV. GEOCICHLA, Gould....;*- .-. 

I. sibirica (Pall )..?.''... 
LVI. MERULA, Leactt . :!.' 

1. meru4f (L.) ' .-:. 

2. torquata (L.) 

3. atrigularis (Temtn.) 
LVII. TURDUS, L 

1. iliacus, L. 

2. inusicus, L. 

3. visc'.yi rus, L. ... 

4. pilaris, L. 

5. migra.orius, 
LVI 1 1. DAULIA. 

i. luscinia (L. ) 
LIX. ERITHACUS, Cuv. ... 

I. rubecula (L.) ... 
LX. CYANECULA, C. L. Brehm.., 

i. suecica (L.) 
LXI. MoiNTicoLA, Bo!e 

I. saxat lis (L.) 



PACK 
I 9 8 

I 9 8 

201 
202 
204 
205 
208 
211 
214 
217 
2.8 
221 
222 
224 
227 
230 
232 
235 
2 35 
238 

2 4 I 
242 
243 

245 
246 

249 
249 
253 
256 
259 
259 
263 
267 
269 
272 

273 
274 

276 
277 
2/9 

2.*0 

282 



LXII. RUTICILLA, C. L. Brehm 285 

1. phcenicurus (L.) ... 285 

2. titys (L.) 287 

LXIII. SAXICOLA, Bechst. ... 289 

1. cenanthe (L.) ... ... 290 

2. isabellina, Cretzschm 293 

3. stapaziua (L.) 295 

4. deserti (Temm.) ... 296 
LXIV. PRATINCOLA, Koch ... 298 

I rubetra (L.) 298 

2. rubicola (L.) 301 

FAMILY ACCENTORIM; ... 304 

LXV. THARRHALEUS, Kaup. ... 305 
I. modularis (L.) ... .., 305 

LXVI. ACCENTOR, Bechst. ... 308 
I. collaris (Scop.) 308 

FAMILY CINCLID^:... ... 309 

LXVII. CINCLUS, Bechst. ... 310 

1. aquaiicus, Btchst. ... 310 

2. cinclus (L.) 313 

FAMILY TROGLODYTID/E .. 314 
LXV1II. ANORTHURA, Rennie... 314 

1. troglodytes (L.) 314 

2. hinensis (Seeb.) ... 317 

FAMILY PYCNONOTID^E ... 318 

LX1X. PYCNONOTUS, 318 

I. capensis (L.) ... . . 318 

FAMILY MUSCICAPID^: ... 319 
LXX. MUSCICAPA, L 319 

I. grisola, L. 320 

LXXI. FICEDULA, Sundey ... 322 

I. atricapilla (L.) ... ... 323 

LXXII. SIPHIA, Hodgs. ... 324 

I. parva (Bechst.) 325 

FAMILY IIIRUNDIMD/E ... 327 

LXXIII. CHELIION, Boie ... 327 

i. urbica (L.) 358 

LXXIV. CLIVICOLA, Forst. ... 329 

I. jiparia (L.) 329 

LXXV. HIRUNDO, Schaeff. ... 331 

I. rustica (L ) ... ... 331 



LIST OF PLATES. 



I. Raven. 
II.- Jay. 

III. Fig. I. Common Starling. 
Fig. 2 Intermediate Star- 
ling. 

IV. Rose-coloured Starling. 
V. Golden Oriole. 
VI. Hawfinch. 
VII,- Brambling. 
VIII. Goldfinch. 
IX. Crossbill. 
X. Bullfinch. 
XI . Snow- Bunting. 
XII. Fig. I. Sky-Lark. 

Fig 2. Wood- Lark. 
XIII. Grey Wagtail. 
XIV. Nuthatch. 
XV. Blue Titmouse. 
XVI. -Fig. i. Coal- Tit. 

Fig. 2. Marsh-Tit. 
XVII. Fig. i. Gold-Crest. 
Fig. 2. Fire-Crest. 
XVIII. Great Grey Shrike. 
XIX. Wax-wing. 
XX. -Fig. i. Whitetbroat. 

Fig 2. Lesser Whitethroat. 
XXL Fig. T. Reed- Warbler. 
Fig. 2. Sedge- Warbler. 
XXII. Fig. i. Song-Thrush. 

Fig. 2. Blackbird. 
XXIIL Nightingale. 



XXIV. Black Redstart. 
XXV. Wheatear. 

XXVI. Dipper. 
XX VI L Wren. 
XXVIIL Chimney-Swallow. 

XXIX. Fig i. Egg of Dipper. 



Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3- 
Fig. 4. 
Fig. 5- 
Fig. 6. 
Fig. 7- 
Fig. 8. 

XXX. Fig. i. 
Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3- 

Fig. 4. 
Fig- 5- 
Fig. 6. 

XXXI. Fig i. 
Fig 2. 

Fig. 3- 
Fig. 4- 

Fig 5- 
Fig 6. 
fig- 7- 
Fig. 8. 



Raven. 

Redbreast. 

Wheatear. 

Goldfinch. 

Nightingale. 

Magpie. 

Hawfinch. 

Song-Thrush 

Gold-Cre ? t. 

Chimney- 

Swallow. 
Wren. 

Jay. 

Kingfisher. 
Brambllng. 
Green Wooc 

pecker. 
Grey Wag 
Red-backt 

Shrike. 
Hoopoe. 
Blackbird. 
Bee- Eater. 
Cuckoo. 



RITISH BIRDS. 



PERCHING BIRDS-ORDER PASSERIFORMES. 

To this order belong the bulk of the known species of birds 
in the world The characters which distinguish Passerine or 
Perching Birds from the rest of the Class "Aves" are principally 
anatomical, and the chief ones consist of the " aegithognathous " 
palate and the " Passerine " arrangement of the deep plantar 
tendons of the foot. 

The palate is said to be " aegithognathous," or " Passerine," 
when the vomer is broadened and blunt, or truncated, at the 
anterior end, and is not connected with the maxillo-palatines, 
which, consequently, are widely separated from each other. 
This arrangement is well shown in the skull of the Rook, one 
of our largest Passerine birds. 

The deep plantar tendons of the Passeres are of the simplest 
kind, the three front toes being served by the flexor perforans 
digitoruni) while the flexor longus hallucis serves the hallux or 
hind toe only. 

There are many other characters which can be adduced for 
the distinguishing of the Passeriformes, but the two above 
mentioned are the most important. The order is divided 
into four great sections, viz., A, Oscines, or Singing Passeres ; 
B, Oligomyodae, or Non-singing Passeres; C, Tracheo- 
phonae, or South American Passeres ; D, Atrichornithes, 
Australian Scrub-birds. 

Of these only Oscines are represented in the Palaearctic 
Region, of which Great Britain forms part, and it is with the 

I. B 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



representatives of this Section that we have to deal in the 
present volume. 




7*7 



- - siphcniuzit 



FIG. I. Ventral aspect of skull of Rook to show the segithognathous 
palate and bony- siphonium : v. vomer ; mpl. -p. maxillo-palatine pro- 
cess ; //. palatine ; pg. pterygoid ; q. quadrate ; b.s. basi-sphenoid ; 
s. r. sphenoidal rostrum. (From the Catalogue of Osteological 
Specimens in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. ) 

SINGING BIRDS. SECTION A. OSCINES. 

THE CROWS. FAMILY CORVID^E. 
AMONG the members of this family will be found some of 
the most perfect, if one may use such an expression, of all the 
Passeriformes. The structure of a Raven or a Crow presents 



THE CORVIDjE. 



as complete an equipment as one can imagine a bird to 
require a powerful bill, with well-developed nasal plumes 




FIG. 3 



FIG. 2. Foot of Rook, dissected so as to show the arrangement of the 
deep plantar tendons : F. L. H. flexor longus hallucis ; F". p. D. flexor 
fcrforans digitorum. (From the Catalogue of Osteological Specimens 
in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons.) 

FIG. 3. Plantar surfaces of foot of Rook, to show the proportions of the 
toes in a typical Passerine bird. (From the same.) 

a compact and regular plumage 1 strong wings and tail, with 
every series of wing- covert beautifully patterned and, lastly, 

B a 



4 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

powerful feet and claws, with every scale distinctly indicated. 
The Crows, therefore, have a right to be placed at the 
head of the Oscines, in preference to the Thrushes, which 
excel them only in singing, beauty of voice being a feature to 
which the Crows can lay no claim. It should be added that 
nearly all the Crows are " Ambulatores " or "Walkers," that is 
to say, they do not hop. Many of them throw up pellets 
after the manner of the Owls. 

THE TRUE CROWS. SUB-FAMILY CORVINE. 
THE ROOKS. GENUS TRYPANOCORAX. 

Trypanocorax, Sundev. Av. Meth. Tent., p. 43 (1872). 
Type, T. fnigihgus (Linn.). 

Distinguished from all the other Corvidcz by having the 
forehead and sides of face bare, and covered with a white 
scabrous skin. This is peculiar to the adult birds only, and 
is found in both male and female. The bill is more slender 
and lengthened than in any other of the British Crows. 

There are only two species of true Rook in the world, one 
being the Common Rook of Europe, which extends eastwards 
as far as Central Asia, and the other the Chinese Rook 
{Trypanocorax pastinator}, which takes its place in Eastern 
Siberia, Japan, and China. 

I. THE ROOK. TRYPANOCORAX FRUGILEGUS. 

Corvus frugilegus, Linn., S. N., i., p. 156 (1766); Macg., 
Br. B., i., p. 535 ; Seeb., Hist. Brit. B., i., p. 549, pi. 16, 
fig. 6; Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 551, pi. 264; Newt. ed. 
Yarr. Br. B., i., p. 289; Saunders, Man. Br. B., p. 237. 

Trypanocorax frugilegus (L.), Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iii., 

p. 9 (1877). 
Adult Male Black, with a gloss of rich purple on the head 

and neck ; sides of face greenish; wing-coverts like the back; 

wings and tail black, with a green or purple gloss; under 

surface of body black, with a purple gloss, the throat with 

a steel-blue gloss ; bill and feet black ; iris dark brown. 

Total length, 17 inches; bill, 2-25; wing, 12-4; tail, 7-5; 

tarsus, 2' 2. 



THE ROOKS. 5 

Adult Female. Similar in colour to the male, but slightly 
smaller. Total length, 1 6 inches; culmen, 2*2; wing, 12*2; 
tail, 7-4 ; tarsus, 2 '2. 

Young. Much duller in colour than the adult birds and 
much less glossy, and distinguished at a glance by the 
feathered face and nostrils, the latter being quite concealed 
by bristles. 

It can readily be understood that the young Rook, with 
its feathered face and feather-covered nostrils, may be mis- 
taken for a Carrion Crow (Corone corone}. The difference 
in size and shape of the bill is not easily appreciated unless 
the two birds can be compared together, but there is luckily a 
character by which a Rook at all ages may be distinguished 
from a Carrion Crow at all ages. On lifting the body feathers 
of the Rook, it will be found that the bases of the latter are 
grey, whereas the Carrion Crow has white bases to the 
feathers. Considerable discussion has taken place as to the 
method by which the Rook gains its bare face. It is certain 
that the young birds retain their feathered face after their first 
moult, and carry it through their first winter; and, though 
most Rooks seem to acquire their bare face by the ensuing 
spring, Mr. Service has sent some specimens to the British 
Museum, in which the face is only partially bared, though the 
birds were killed in May and had bred. The question has 
arisen as to whether the birds wear off these feathers of the 
face by contact with the hard earth in which they seek for 
food, or whether these feathers of the face drop off naturally, 
leaving the face bare. There can be little doubt that the 
latter is the case, and many Rooks killed during the winter 
season have their faces half bare of feathers, the white 
scabrous skin becoming apparent as the plumes fall off. 

Range in Great Britain Nearly universally distributed, but 
not yet recorded as breeding in Shetland or the Outer Hebrides. 
The Rook is to a certain extent migratory, and for a week 
together vast numbers may be seen flocking into England by 
the east coast, coming apparently from Scandinavia and other 
parts of Northern Europe, in company with Hooded Crows, 
Jackdaws, and Starlings. 

Kange outside the British Islands. Generally distributed and 



6 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY 

nesting throughout the greater part of Northern and Central 
Europe, extending eastwards in Siberia to the valley of the 
Irtisch river, and nesting in Turkestan. It breeds through- 
out the greater part of France, locally in Northern Italy, and 
the Danubian provinces, as well as in Southern Russia. In the 
Mediterranean countries it is principally known as a winter 
visitor, and probably the birds which breed in Central Asia are 
those which find their way to North-western India and Persia 
in winter. The northern range of the Rook extends to the 
Arctic Circle in Scandinavia, but only to about 64 N. lat. in 
Russia and Western Siberia ; its eastern range being limited 
by the yoth meridian of longitude. 

Habits. The Rook is a gregarious bird, being always 
found in flocks, both in winter and during the nesting-season ; 
therein again differing from the Carrion Crow, which is always 
seen in pairs. It is practically an omnivorous bird, devouring 
flesh, fruit, and gaibage, neither disdaining to scavenge on the 
sea-shore, or to hany an orchard. It will devour a number of 
walnuts when they have reached a good size and are almost 
ripe for picking, and in dry seasons, when other food-supplies 
fail, the Rook will undoubtedly feed on young birds, and also 
pilfer the eggs of birds which build in the open, such as 
Wheatears, Pipits, and Larks. On the other hand the amount 
of good done by the Rooks in the destruction of wire-worms 
and other noxious grubs is incalculable, and the bird, like the 
Starling, is a veritable friend to the farmer. In Scotland, 
where it is supposed to do some injury to young birds, the 
Rook is regarded with no more favour than it is in Holland, 
though it doubtless often suffers for the misdeeds of the 
Hooded Crow. 

Rooks are decidedly capricious in their choice of a 
nesting-place, but when once a rookery is established, it is 
seldom that the locality is deserted, and the birds will return 
year after year in spite of persecution. Thus some three 
years ago, in the town of Leiden, the Rooks took up their 
abode in the trees which line the principal streets, and came back 
the next year in spite of the previous destruction of their nests. 
On their return, however, the inhabitants objected to the 
noise and litter of the birds, and a man was employed by the 



THE RAVENS. 7 

municipality to shoot them down, though one would have 
fancied that the constant firing of a gun in a public 
thoroughfare would prove a greater nuisance than the " cawing" 
of the birds themselves. 

Nest. A stout and compact structure composed of turf and 
twigs, the inside consisting of roots and straws, and the whole 
nest being not unlike a huge Blackbird's ; it is by no 
means untidy, and is much more neatly finished than could be 
believed from the ragged appearance which the nests present 
in a rookery, when viewed from below. 

Eggs. Three to five in number, the ground-colour being 
green or bluish green, sometimes nearly white. The markings 
consist of spots and blotches of greenish brown, wilh darker 
spots of bluer or blackish brown. Axis, 1-4-1-65 ; diam., 

1*11*2. 

THE RAVENS. GENUS CORVUS. 

Corvus, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 155 (1766). 

Type. C. cor ax (Linn.). 

The nostrils always hidden by bristly feathers. Bill very 
stout and equal in length to the head. First primary quill 
long, equalling, or even exceeding, the innermost secondaries 
in length. 

The Ravens are spread over the greater part of the Northern 
Regions of both hemispherts, i.e., the Palsearctic and Nearctic 
Regions. They are birds which vary much in size, and many 
ornithologists believe in several races of the common Raven ; 
but, after the examination of a large series of specimens in the 
British Museum, we cannot allow that more than one form of 
Corvus corax exists, the most recognisable of the races being 
the Thibetan Raven (Corvus thibetanus of Hodgson), which 
has longer hackles on the throat. A desert form, Corvus 
umbrinuS) inhabits Egypt and Syria, and extends to Persia, 
Afghanistan, and North-western India, while a third Raven 
(C. tingitanus) inhabits Morocco and the Canary Islands. 
Australia possesses one species of true Raven, and Africa 
has two. 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



I. THE RAVEN. CORVUS CORAX. 

(Plate /.) 

Corvus corax, Linn., S. N., i., p. 155 (1766); Macg., Br. B., 
i., p. 498; Newt. ed. Yarr. Br. B., ii., p. 259; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iii., p. 14 ; Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 
567, pi. 265 ; Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 532, pi. 16, figs, i, 3 ; 
Saunders, Man., p. 233 ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. 
x. (1889). 

Adult Male Of large size. Plumage black, with purplish 
gloss, greenish on the wings and tail ; on the fore-neck some 
long lanceolate feathers, forming throat-hackles ; bill and legs 
black ; iris brown. Total length, 24 inches ; bill from front, 
3-15 ; wing, 17-5 ; tail, 10-5 ; tarsus, 2-85. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in plumage, and not 
inferior in size. 

Range in Great Britain. Local, and diminishing in numbers. 
A few pairs are still to be found in the southern counties, but 
it is only in the wilder parts of the north and west that the 
Raven now occurs regularly. 

Range outside the British Islands. Throughout the whole of 
the northern portions of the Old and New Worlds, in America 
from the high north to Mexico and Guatemala, and in the Old 
World to the North Mediterranean countries. Further east 
it reaches to the line of the Himalayas, and is found in 
North-western India, and extends through Central Asia and 
Siberia. 

Habits. Owing to continued persecution, the Raven is 
becoming rarer year by year throughout the British Islands. 
Its large size and undoubted power render it a formidable 
enemy to farmers, and although, like all members of the 
Corvida^ the Raven is an omnivorous feeder, it is well 
known as a slaughterer of lambs, fawns, and poultry, whenever 
it gets the chance ; but on the other hand it destroys 
numbers of rats and other vermin, and it also clears up 
carrion. In other countries, where it is not so persecuted, the 
bird is much tamer, and Mr. Howard Saunders says that in 
Majorca he has seen a pair of Ravens following the plough 




II 



THE JACKDAWS. 9 

just like Rooks, while in the wilder parts of Central Asia the 
bird is a regular camp-follower. 

Nest. This is a huge and bulky structure, placed in a lofty 
tree or on a cliff. When unmolested the bird occupies the 
same nest year after year, merely repairing or adding some- 
what to the structure, which consists of a mass of sticks and 
heather, with a dense lining of sheep's wool or something 
equally soft. The Raven breeds very early in the year, and 
the eggs are laid by the end of February or the beginning 
of March. 

Egg-s These are scarcely so large as might be expected from 
the size of the bird, and often do not greatly exceed those of 
the Carrion Crow in size. The clutch varies from three to six 
in number, and the ground colour is bluish or greyish green, 
thickly blotched and overlaid with brown. The ground- 
colour is sometimes pale greenish blue, and in such eggs the 
markings are fewer and more distinct. Axis, i'85-2'i inches; 
diam., 1-25-1-4 inch. (Plate XXIX., Fig. 2.) 

THE JACKDAWS. GENUS COLCEUS. 

Coloeiis, Kaup., Skizz., Natiirl. Syst., p. 114 (1829). 

Type, C. monedula (Linn.). 

The members of this genus resemble the Ravens in the form 
of the wing, having a long first primary, which equals or ex- 
ceeds the innermost secondaries in length. In general form, 
however, the Jackdaws are different from the last-mentioned 
birds, having a very short bill, which is not even as long as the 
head itself. They also generally build in holes of trees, or in 
buildings, under shelter. 

Five species of Jackdaw are known, one of them, the so- 
called " Fish-Crow," being found in North America, while the 
other four are peculiar to the Old World. Of these, our common 
Jackdaw is found throughout the greater part of Europe, while 
from Turkey eastwards to Central Asia its place is taken by the 
White-collared Jackdaw (Colceus collaris), and still further, in 
China and Japan, it is replaced by the Chinese Jackdaw ( Cola'us 
neghctus). In Eastern Siberia, China, and Japan occurs still 
another form, the White-collared Jackdaw (Colaus dauricus). 



IO LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 



I. THE JACKDAW. COLCEUS MONEDULA. 

Corvus moi:ediila, Linn., S. N., i., p. 156 (1766); Macg., Br. 
B., i., p. 552 (1837) ; Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 523, pi. 261 
(1875) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 305 (1878) ; B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 68 (1883) ; Seeb., Hist Br. B., i., p. 556 (1883) ; 
Saunders, Man., p. 229 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., 
pt. x. (1889). 

Colceus monedula, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iii., p. 26 (1877). 

Adult Male. Black, with a purplish gloss on the wings and 
tail, somewhat shot with green ; crown of head glossy blue- 
black, forming a cap by reason of the greyish shade which per- 
vades the hind neck and sides of neck, the latter part inclining 
occasionally to hoary white ; bill and feet black ; iris bluish 
white. Total length, 13 inches; culmen, 1-35 ; wing, 9-5 ; tail, 
6' i ; tarsus, 1*7. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour and size. 

Young. Duller than the adult, and not showing any grey on 
the neck. 

Range in Great Britain. Generally distributed, but is some- 
what local, and there are many localities where it does not 
breed, such as the Outer Hebrides and the Shetlands, though 
a few pairs nest in the Orkneys. There is a great migration of 
these birds every autumn from the east, and large numbers 
cross to England in October and November, in company with 
Rooks. Even earlier in the year there seems to be a migration 
along the south coast, as we have seen numbers at St. Leo- 
nards, in Sussex, passing from east to west in September ; 
but whether these were British-bred birds shifting their quarters 
or whether they were the forerunners of the great swarm which 
visits us every year from Northern Europe and passes over 
Heligoland, it is impossible to say. 

Range outside the British Islands. Throughout nearly the whole 
of Europe, breeding as far north as Trondhjemsfiord, and being 
found generally south of the Arctic Circle. Seebohm and 
Harvie Brown found the Jackdaw common in Russia at Mezen 
(lat. 66), noticed it at Ust Zylma (lat. 65), and in the Urals it 
is known to occur up to 61. Its range is evidently further north 



THE CROWS. 1 i 

in Scandinavia than in Siberia, where it reaches to the Valley of 
theYenesei, Seebohm having noticed it at Krasnoyarsk (lat. 56). 
In many parts of Southern Europe the Jackdaw is local, but it 
occurs in the countries north of the Mediterranean and in 
Algeria. It has not been found in Egypt, and in South- 
eastern Europe is replaced by Colceus collaris^ which takes its 
place to the eastward. 

Habits. The Jackdaw is decidedly a gregarious bird like the 
Rook, with which it is a close companion, especially in winter, 
migrating in flocks along with that species. Even in the 
breeding season many pairs nest in company, and we have 
known as many as ten nests in a single old tree. Cathedral 
and University towns are favourite haunts of the Jackdaw, 
which finds its favourite nesting-places in the old towers and 
churches. In many places, however, the bird builds in holes 
of cliffs and in rabbit-burrows, and not unfrequently in the 
open. We have ourselves seen a Jackdaw's nest on the ledge 
of a window-sill of an outhouse. 

Nest. The nest is an untidy structure, by no means equal to 
that of the Rook as a piece of architecture, and is composed of 
sticks, moss and grass, with a few feathers occasionally added. 

Eggs. From three to six in number, bluish green or bluish 
white, with obscure grey spots and bolder spots and markings 
of brown or greenish brown, distributed pretty equally over 
the whole egg. Axis, i '35-1 '55 inch; diam., 0-9-1-1 inch. 

In dry seasons, when food is difficult to obtain, the number 
of eggs is often only three, and many young birds perish in 
the nest. 

THE CROWS. GENUS CORONE. 

Corone, Kaup, Skizz., Natiirl Syst., p. 99 (1829). 

Type, C. corone (Linn.). 

The Crows are Ravens in miniature, and differ only in the 
form of the wing, the first primary quill being longer than the 
ordinary secondaries, but not equal to the innermost second- 
aries in length. They are found in the northern portions of both 
Hemispheres, ranging into Mexico in the New World, and 
occurring over the greater part of the Old World, except in 



12 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Africa below the Sahara, t.t. the Ethiopian region proper. 
Only one Crow is found in the Pacific Islands, viz., Corone 
hawaiensis of the Sandwich Islands : otherwise the Crows are 
not represented in Oceania. 

The genus Corone may be divided into two main groups, the 
Hooded, or Saddle-backed Crows, and the True Crows. Of the 
former group there are five species with grey necks, or mantles, 
while all the rest of the species, some fifteen in number, are 
entirely black. Of the grey-necked section our Hooded Crow 
is the most familiar species. It is found over the greater part 
of Europe, and in Western Siberia is represented by a very 
similar species, Corone sharpii, which winters in North-west- 
ern India. In Persia and Mesopotamia a third species occurs 
(C. capellanus). Of the True Crows, we have but one species in 
Europe, the Carrion Crow, but this is represented in the Indian 
and Australian Regions by many forms, so like one another 
that only a prolonged study can result in a proper understand- 
ing of the species. 

I. THE HOODED CROW. CORONE CORNIX. 

Coruus comix, Linn., S. N., i., p. 156 (1766) ; Macg., Br. B., i., 
P- 5 2 9 ( l8 37); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 543> P 1 - 26 3> % 2 
(1874); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 275 (1878); B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 69 (1883); Seeb., Hist. Br. B., i., p. 544 (1883); 
Saunders, Man., p. 235 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., 
pt. xi. (1889). 

Corone comix, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iii., p. 31 (1877). 

Adult Male. Above drab-grey; head, wings, and tail purplish 
black, with green reflections; sides of neck and under surface 
of body drab-grey ; bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. 
Total length, 17 inches; oilmen, 2^4; wing, 12-5; tail, 7-8; 
tarsus, 2 *2. 

Sexes alike in colour. 

Young. Duller in colour than the adult, the grey dusky, and 
the black dull without glossy reflections ; the lanceolate plumes 
on the throat not developed. 

The grey back of the Hooded Crow and its grey breast 
render it easily recognisable from all its brethren, and these 



THE CROWS. 13 

features are easily seen when the bird is flying. It is of the 
same size and shape as the Carrion Crow, and many ornitho- 
logists deny to it the rank of a species, because it often inter- 
breeds with the last-named bird. This seems to us a mis- 
taken idea, as there are many places where the Carrion and 
Hooded Crows breed perfectly true, and it is only in certain 
places and colonies that the two birds hybridise. We have 
ourselves come across such mixed colonies in Aberdeenshire, 
but there are also many places in the United Kingdom where 
Hooded Crows pair and rear their young. When hybridism 
takes place the young birds partake of the ground-colour of the 
Hooded Crow, but have the grey plumage smudged and 
streaked with black to a greater or less extent. In Siberia 
the interbreeding of the Carrion Crow and the eastern form of 
Hooded Crow (C. sharpii) takes place, and has been well 
described by Mr. Seebohm, whose specimens illustrative of the 
fact are to be seen in the Great Hall of the Natural History 
Museum at South Kensington. 

Range in Great Britain. Chiefly known as an autumn emi- 
grant, when great numbers arrive on the east coast and dis- 
tribute themselves inland. For a week together flocks of 
Hooded Crows are constantly arriving, and in Heligoland we 
have seen them continually for five days and nights, a flock 
being constantly in sight, either arriving or departing. In Ire- 
land, Scotland, and some parts of England and Wales, the 
Hooded Crow breeds regularly, sometimes pairing with a 
Carrion Crow, as already mentioned. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Hooded Crow has a 
curious distribution, and may almost be said to exist in 
scattered colonies throughout Europe, being in some districts 
plentiful, absent in others ; in some localities a winter visitant 
only, in others a resident ; in many places interbreeding with 
the Carrion Crow, as already mentioned. The great stronghold 
of the species is probably European Russia, whence migrate the 
large flocks which populate Western Europe in winter, but in 
many other parts of Central Europe, in Italy, Sicily, and Egypt, 
the Hooded Crow is a resident bird, though always local. The 
exact ranges of the European species and that of its eastern 
representative (C. sharpii) are not yet determined, and we only 



14 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

know of the latter that it breeds in Central Siberia, and winters 
in North-western India, so that its migrating line is probably 
north and south, whereas the migration of C. comix is east 
and west. 

Habits. The ways of the Hooded, or " Danish " Crow, as 
it is often called by the marshmen, are best observed in 
England on the east coast after the season of migration, when 
the bird is plentiful in the marshes and on the shores. The 
favourite food of the Hooded Crow seems then to consist of 
cockles. When the bird finds a difficulty in opening one of 
the latter, it flies up into the air and lets the mollusc fall 
upon a rock or hard ground, so as to break the shell. In 
Scotland and parts of the United Kingdom where this Crow is 
resident, it enjoys, with the Carrion Crow, the hatred of every 
gamekeeper for the damage it does to the eggs of game-birds, 
which it devours wholesale, and we have ourselves seen the 
ground under a Hooded Crow's nest strewn with the egg- 
shells of Grouse. It is quite as destructive a bird as the 
Carrion Crow, if not more so. 

Nest. This is a solid structure, and is placed on a tree or 
rock, being often built on cliffs. It is of the usual Corvine type, 
being largely composed of twigs, and branches, coarse roots, 
moss, and wool, with a few feathers. 

Eggs. From three to six in number, green or greenish blue, 
generally clouded with brown spots and mottlings and overlaid 
with larger mottlings of greenish brown. Sometimes, even in 
the same clutch, will occur eggs of a nearly uniform greenish 
blue, with the markings nearly obsolete. Axis, 1-55-1-8; 
diam., 1-25-1-15 inch. 

K. THE CARRION CROW. CORONE CORONE. 

Corvus corofie, Linn., S. N., i., p. 155 (1766) ; Macg., Br. B., i., 
p. 516 (1837); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 531, pi. 263, fig. i 
(1875); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 274 (1878) ; B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 69 (1883) ; Seeb., Hist. Br. B., i., p. 539 (1883) ; 
Saunders, Man., p. 233 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., 
pt. x. (1889). 

Corone coront, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., Hi., p. 36 (1877). 



THE CROWS. 15 

Adult Male. Steel-black above and below, with a purplish 
shade ; on the head and neck a green gloss ; throat-feathers 
purplish, and lanceolate in shape ; bill and legs black ; iris 
brown. Total length, 19 inches; culmen, 2*15; wing, 13*0; 
tail, 8*0; tarsus, 2 '5. 

Sexes alike. 

Young. Similar to the adult, but the whole plumage more 
dingy in colour. 

Range in Great Britain. Generally distributed, but more plen- 
tiful in some parts than in others, especially in the north and 
west. Rare in Ireland and generally replaced by the Hooded 
Crow. A considerable migration to the east coast occurs 
in autumn. 

Range outside the British Islands. Generally but locally distri- 
buted over Europe, but not occurring far north, while it is an 
inhabitant only of the more northern parts of the Mediterranean 
countries. Many naturalists recognise the Carrion Crow of 
Eastern Siberia as a distinct species (Corone orientalis], and it 
is probably this species which interbreeds with the Siberian 
Hooded Crow (Corone sharp it) in the valley of the Yenisei, 
as recorded by Mr. Seebohm (Br. B., i., p. 547). Like the 
Raven, which it much resembles in appearance and habits, the 
Carrion Crow is an omnivorous bird, and it will prey upon any- 
thing that comes in its way, young birds, sickly lambs, eggs of 
game-birds, rodents of all sizes, garbage, sea-shells, etc. Occa- 
sionally the Crows assemble in flocks like Rooks, and, like the 
latter, atone for their misdeeds by devouring insects and grubs. 

Nest. Generally built in a tall and isolated tree, about the 
middle of April, but sometimes in rocks, and when these suit- 
able situations do not occur, the nest will be placed on the 
ground. In structure it resembles that of the Hooded Crow. 

Eggs. Three to six in number, very similar in size and colour 
to those of the Hooded Crow, but the bluish ground-colour 
generally rather brighter. As with the eggs of C. cornix, there 
are many varieties in which the spots are sparsely distributed, 
and in some instances the mottlings show a tendency to crowd 
together at the larger end of the egg. Axis, i '6-1*9 inch; 
diarn , 1*1-1*25. 



1 6 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

THE NUTCRACKERS. GENUS NUCIFRAGA. 

Nurifragci) Briss., Orn., ii., p. 58 (1760). 

Type, N. caryocatactes (Linn.). 

The Nutcrackers differ in structure from the Rooks, the 
Ravens, and the Crows in the proportions of the wing-feathers, 
the first primary quill being very short, and not equal to the 
secondaries in length. The bill is very thin, conical, and long, 
resembling that of the Rook in shape, but of course having the 
nostrils always covered with bristles. The wing is somewhat 
rounded, the innermost secondary quills being gradually shorter 
than the outer ones. 

Four species of Nutcrackers are now recognised, one, N. 
columbiana^ being confined to the New World, and three to 
the Old. Of these, N. caryocatactes occasionally visits Great 
Britain, the other two, N. kemispila and N. multipunctata> 
being inhabitants of the Himalayan sub-region. 

I. THE NUTCRACKER, NUCIFRAGA CARYOCATACTES. 

Corvus caryocatactes, Linn., S. N., i., p. 157 (1766); Lilford, 

Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. iv. (1887). 
Nucifraga caryocatactes^ Macg.,Br. B., i., p. 583 (1837) ; Dresser, 

B. Eur., iv., p. 451, pi. 252 (1874) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 

Mus., iii., p. 53 (1877) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 330 (1878) ; 

B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 67 (1883); Seeb., Hist. Br. B., i., 

p. 583 (1883); Saunders, Man., p. 223 (1889). 

Adult Male. Back brown, with a triangular white spot on 
each feather ; head dark brown ; outer tail-feather white at tip, 
the basal half black; central primaries with a large patch of 
white near the base of the inner web ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts brown, uniform ; bill and feet black ; iris dark brown. 
Total length, 13 inches; culmen, 1-95; wing, 7-3; tail, 5*2; 
tarsus, i 'i. 

Sexes alike in colour. 

Young. Duller in colour than the adult and browner, the 
feathers generally more fluffy; wing-coverts tipped with dull 
white ; under tail-coverts dingy white. 

Two forms of Nutcracker in Europe are recognised by 



THE MAGPIES. I 7 

many naturalists, IV. caryocatactes^ and a short-billed form, N. 
brachyrhynchus, the supposed differences between which we 
have never been able to appreciate. 

Range in Great Britain. An irregular visitor. Sometimes, as 
in the case of the Waxwing and Pallas' Sand Grouse, a west- 
ward immigration occasionally takes place in Europe, but not 
many instances of the capture of this bird in England have 
been recorded. 

Range outside the British Islands. An inhabitant of the conifer- 
forests of Europe and Siberia, breeding very early in March, 
though in Siberia, according to Mr. Seebohm, it does not 
nest before the middle of June. It is found as high as 
67 N. lat. in Sweden, and its range extends across Siberia 
to Kamtchatka and Japan. To the southward it has been 
found breeding in the pine-forests of Transylvania, Switzerland, 
and France, and it probably nests in the Pyrenees and some 
of the mountain-ranges of Northern Spain. 

Habits. Mr. Seebohm states that, like most of the other 
European Corvida, the Nutcracker is almost omnivorous, and 
will devour eggs and nestlings of other birds. It also extracts 
seeds from the conifer-trees, and devours wasps and other 
insects. A very interesting account of the same author's 
experiences of the birds in Siberia is given by him in his 
"History of British Birds" (vol. i., p. 584). 

Nest. Somewhat bulky and ragged, composed of twigs of 
larch and spruce firs, and lined with dry grasses. 

Eggs. Three to five in number, the ground-colour nearly 
white, with numerous tiny spots of pale brown, sometimes a 
little larger towards the larger end. Axis, 1*4- 1*5 5 inch; 
diam., o'95-i'o. 

THE MAGPIES. GENUS PICA. 

Pica, Briss., Orn., ii., p. 35 (1766). 

Type, P. pica (Linn.). 

Five species of Magpie are known, one being our common 

British Magpie, which is found over the greater part of Europe 

and Asia, and also inhabits North America. In Central Asia 

the White-winged Magpie (P. leucoptera) takes its place, and 

I. C 



1 8 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

in the Eastern Himalayas a black-rumped form occurs (P. 
bottanensis\ while in South-eastern Spain an intermediate form 
is found, and further in Algeria and Morocco P. mauritanica 
replaces the ordinary European species. In California is found 
the Yellow-billed Magpie (JP. nuttalli}. 

1. THE MAGPIE. PICA PICA. 

Corvus pica, Linn., S. N., i., p. 157 (1766). 

Pica melanoleuca, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 562 (1837). 

Pica rustica, Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 509, pi. 260, fig. 2 (1873) ; 

Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 312 (1878); B. O. U. List Br. 

B., p. 68 (1883); Saunders, Man., p. 227 (1889). 
Pica caudata, Seeb., Hist. Br. B., i., p. 562 (1883); Lilford, Col. 

Fig. Brit. B., pt. xii. (1890). 
Pica pica, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iii., p. 62 (1877). 

Adult Male. Black, with green and coppery reflections ; 
rump with an ashy- white bar; a white shoulder-patch; tail dark 
green, black at the end, before which the feathers are coppery, 
and then purplish red to purplish blue ; throat black, with 
grey streaks ; rest of under surface pure white ; thighs and 
under wing-coverts black, with a green shade; bill and legs 
black; iris brown. Total length, 16 inches; culmen, 1*5; 
wing, 7-9; tail, 9-8; tarsus, 1-95. 

Sexes alike, the female being merely a little duller in colour. 
Young. Like the adults, but much more dingily coloured. 

Range in Great Britain. Generally distributed throughout the 
British Islands, though absent in some parts of Scotland, 
and the outlying islands. In many parts of the southern and 
south-eastern counties of England now of rare occurrence. 

Range outside the British Islands. Generally distributed 
throughout Europe and Northern Asia to China, and also 
occurring over the greater part of North America. 

Habits. A woodland species, still plentiful in some of the mid- 
land counties, but regarded with great enmity by the farmer and 
gamekeeper. As regards its food, it is practically omnivorous, 
devouring fruit and grain, small mammals and dead birds, eggs 
and young of poultry and game ; but also useful from the 



THE JAYS. IQ 

number of insects and grubs it destroys. Generally seen in 
pairs, but also assembles on occasions in considerable flocks, as 
many as forty having been seen together. Its flight is much 
more laboured than those of the other Corvida^ and is accom- 
plished by rapid flappings of the wings. Owing to the persecu- 
tion which follows it in England, the Magpie is a very shy bird, 
but in other countries it is comparatively tame, and frequents 
the neighbourhood of dwellings, building in bushes and even 
under the eaves of houses. 

Nest. Constructed of twigs, with a foundation of mud and 
clay, and generally, but not always, domed. The nest is lined 
with fine rootlets, and is so constructed with thorny sticks as to 
be difficult of access. 

Eggs. Four to seven in number. Ground-colour pale greenish 
or greenish blue, generally plentifully mottled and spotted with 
brown and greenish brown, with grey underlying spots and 
blotches. Considerable variation takes places in the eggs of 
the Magpie, both as regards colour and size, the spots often 
clustering at the end of the egg and forming a brown patch, 
while occasionally they are almost entirely devoid of markings. 
Axis, 1-25-175 inch; diam., 0-95-1-0. (Plate XXIX., Fig. 7.) 

THE JAYS. GENUS GARRULUS. 

Garrulus, Boss.. Orn., ii., p. 46 (1760). 

Type, G, glandarius (Linn.). 

The Jays, like the Magpies, belong to the short-winged group 
of Crows, and are very strongly represented in both the Old and 
the New World. They are of brighter colours than the ordinary 
Crows, some of the American Blue Jays being of beautiful 
plumage and possessing ornamental crests. The Jays of the 
Old World, though not so brilliant in coloration, are remark- 
able for a spangled blue wing-patch, which is a well-known 
feature of our British Jay. 

There are two groups of Jays, the white or vinous-throated 
birds, and the black-throated ones. To the latter section 
belong Garrulus lanceolatus of the Himalayas, and G. lidthi of 
Japan or Corea. Of the pale-throated section, there are some 
with striped heads like our British Jay, some with black heads 

C 2 



20 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

like the Jays of Algeria, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus, and 
some with uniform vinous coloured heads, the latter being con- 
fined to the Himalayas, China and Formosa. 

I. THE COMMON JAY, GARRULUS GLANDARIUS. 

(Plate II.) 

Corvus glandarins, Linn., S. N., i., p. 156 (1766). 
Garralus glandarius, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 576(1837) ; Dresser, 
B. Eur., iv., p. 481, pi. 254(1873) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., iii., p. 93 (1877) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 323 (1878) ; 
Seeb., Hist. Br. B., i., p. 569 (1883) ; B. O. U. List Br. 
B., p. 67 (1883); Saunders, Man., p. 225 (1889); 
Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. x. (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour vinaceous ; throat white ; 
under surface pale vinaceous ; vent and under tail-coverts 
white ; crown of head streaked with black ; forehead whitish 
with black streaks ; bastard-wing and primary coverts barred 
with black and cobalt-blue ; bill black. Total length, 13 inches ; 
culmen, 1-15; wings, 7-3; tail, 6'6 ; tarsus, 17. 

Sexes alike. 

Young. Duller in plumage than the adults, and the feathers 
more fluffy in texture. 

Range in Great Britain. Apparently diminishing in num- 
bers, owing to systematic persecution on account of its depre- 
dations in game preserves, the Jay is still to be found in 
woodland districts, and is common in some places. In Ireland 
it is now only found in the south and east, but appears to be 
spreading northward in Scotland, occurring as far as Inverness- 
shire. Occasionally large numbers migrate to our shores, and 
they have been observed by Mr. Gatke to pass over Heligoland 
in some seasons in vast quantities. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Throughout the greater 
part of Europe, but replaced in North-eastern Africa by an 
allied form ( Garrulus minor), and in South-eastern Europe and 
Siberia by other species. Its highest northern range in Russia 
is, according to Mr. Seebohm, about lat. 63, whence it 
extends to the valley of the Volga. In Scandinavia it occurs 
up to the Arctic Circle. 



THE CHOUGHS. 21 

Habits. The Jay is an extremely shy and wary bird, having 
no doubt learnt caution from the state of danger in which it 
constantly finds itself, not only on account of its depredations 
in the covert, but because of the brilliant blue feathers in the 
bird's .wing, which are much in request with fly-fishers. It 
is more often seen than heard, and its harsh note is the only 
indication of the bird's presence. Its name of glandarius, the 
bird of the acorn, has been amply justified during the past 
summer (1893), when we have noticed in many of the woods 
in the midland and eastern counties a considerable number of 
Jays gathered together to feed on the acorns which have been 
so unusually abundant. Although in the spring the Jay 
devours a large number of grubs, it is decidedly a mischievous 
bird later on in the fruit season, and will commit great havoc 
among peas in a garden, if the latter be near a wood inhabited 
by the birds. It is detested by the gamekeeper as a devourer 
of eggs and young birds, and at certain seasons of the year it 
is as omnivorous as any of its Corvine relations. When on the 
ground, it does not walk like the other Corvida^ but hops like 
the majority of Passerine birds. 

Nest. A cup-shaped structure adapted to its surroundings, 
placed on a branch of a bush or tree, sometimes at a con- 
siderable height from the ground. Composed of twigs and 
roots, and lined with finer rootlets. 

Eggs. Three to six ; axis, i -2-1 -4 ; diam., 0-9 ; colour varying 
from grey or clay-colour to olive brown, in the latter case almost 
devoid of markings ; but the ordinary type of egg is thickly 
clouded with minute spots of pale brown, sometimes forming 
a ring at one end or the other. (Plate XXX., Fig. 5.) 

THE CHOUGHS. SUB-FAMILY FREGILIN^E. 

The Choughs constitute a small section of the Crows. They 
belong exclusively to the Old World, and differ from the true 
Corvida in the position of the nostrils, which are situated 
low down in the bill, nearer to the lower edge of the mandi- 
ble than to the upper. Two genera are found in Europe 
and Northern Asia, and a third form (Ccrcorax) inhabits 
Australia. 






22 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

THE TRUE CHOUGHS. GENUS GRACULUS. 

Graculus, Koch, Syst. Baler, Zool., p. 91 (1816). 

Type, G. graculus (Linn.). 

The following species is the only representative of this 
genus : 

I. THE RED BILLED CHOUGH. GRACULUS GRACULUS. 

Corvus graculus, Linn., S. N., i., p. 158 (1766). 
Fregilus graculus, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 587 (1837). 
Pyrrhocorax graculus, Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 437, pi. 251, 

fig. i (1875); Newt, ed., Yarn, ii., p. 252 (1878); 

B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 66 (1883); Seeb., Hist. Br. B., 

i-> P- 578 (1883); Saunders, Man., p. 221 (1889); Lilford, 

Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. x. (1889). 
Graculus graculus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iii., p. 146 



Adult Male. Purplish black ; greenish on the wings and 
tail ; bill deep vermilion ; legs vermilion ; iris brown. Total 
length, 15 inches; culmen, 2'i ; wing, 12*0; tail, 8-7 ; tarsus, 
2-3. 

Sexes alike in plumage. 

Young. Dusky black, without the gloss of the adults ; bill 
and legs orange-yellow. 

Eange in the British Islands. Now restricted to certain 
localities in the South-western counties of England, parts of 
Wales, the Isle of Man, but still by no means rare in some 
localities in Ireland. It also occurs in some of the Western 
Islands of Scotland as far north as Skye. Its habitat is 
now almost entirely restricted to the sea-coast, but it was 
formerly found inland, as it is now on the Continent of Europe 
and the mountains of Asia, and the Himalayas. Occurs in 
the Channel Islands. 

Range outside the British Islands. An inhabitant of the cliffs 
and mountains, the Chough is found distributed over the 
countries on both sides of the Mediterranean, in Portugal, and 
Western France, but it does not range far to the north on the 
Continent of Europe, its limit being given by Mr. Seebohm as 



THE STARLINGS. 23 

lat. 58. It extends throughout the mountainous parts of 
Europe to Central Asia and Persia, as far as North-eastern 
China, while in the Himalayas a slightly larger race occurs. 

Nest. Generally placed in holes in cliffs or in caves, and 
always difficult to visit. It is made of sticks and stems of 
heather, and is lined with wool and hair. 

Eggs. Three to six in number, creamy white in colour, with 
grey underlying marks and brown spots, varying considerably 
in the extent and character of the latter. Axis, 1*5 inch; 
diam., IT. 

THE ALPINE CHOUGHS. GENUS PYRRHOCORAX. 

Pyrrhocorax, Vieill., N. Diet, vi., p. 568 (i 8 1 6). 

Type, P. pyrrhocorax (Linn.). 

Only one species of the genus is known, differing from the 
true Choughs in its shorter bill, and in having the base of the 
cheeks bare, not feathered as in the genus Graculus. 

I. THE ALPINE CHOUGH. PYRRHOCORAX PYRRHOCORAXT- 

Corvus pyrrhoccrax, Linn., S. N., L, p. 158 (1766). 

Pyrrhocorax alpinus. Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 445, pi. 251, 
fig. 2 (1875); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iii., p. 148 
(1877); Seeb., Hist. Br. B., i., p. 580, note (1883); 
Saunders, Man., p. 222 (1889). 

Only one specimen has ever been captured in England, as 
recorded and figured by Messrs. Aplin, in their "Birds of 
Oxfordshire." It may very probably have been an imported 
individual that had escaped. The range of the Alpine Chough 
outside the British Islands is very similar to that of the 
foregoing species, and it apparently extends as far east. The 
yellow bill will always serve to distinguish it from the 
Red-billed Chough. 

THE STARLINGS. FAMILY STURNID^E. 

The Starlings, like the Crows, are " Ambulatores," or "Walk- 
ers," progressing over the ground by a walking step, instead of 
by hops, like the Thrushes, Sparrows, and most "Passerine" 
birds. Though possessing a perfection of form little inferior 



24 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

to that of the Corvida as regards the wings and feet, the Star- 
lings are very different in the shape of their bill and swollen 
nostril, and also in the form of the wing, which is very much 
pointed and possesses only nine primary quills. All the true 
Starlings nest in holes, and lay eggs of a bluish white or pale 
blue colour, without spots. 

THE TYPICAL STARLINGS. GENUS STURNUS. 
Sturnus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 291 (1766). 
Type, S. vulgaris Linn. 

Starlings, of the same type as our familiar English bird, are 
about ten in number, and are all confined to the Old World. 
Of these no less than six are found in India, two being resident, 
and the other four winter visitants from their more northern 
breeding-places. Sturnus unicolor belongs to the Mediterranean 
sub-region, S. caucasicus and S. purpurascens to the Mediter- 
raneo-Persic sub-region, and S. poltoratzkii to the Mongolian 
sub-region. 

The typical species of the genus is Sturnus vulgaris of 
Linnaeus, from Sweden, and this bird is widely spread over 
Europe, but in Siberia it is replaced by a purple-headed race, 
S. menzbieri, which winters in India, and between those two 
forms an intermediate form, which I think ought to be 
separated from both and called by a separate name. It 
occurs in different parts of Europe, and even visits England, 
especially the eastern counties. 

1. THE COMMON STARLING. STURNUS VULGARIS. 

(Plate III. , Fig. /.) 

Sturnus vulgaris, Linn., S. N., i., p. 290 (1766); Dresser, B. 
Eur., iv., p. 405, pl.247 ( I ^74) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 
228 (1877) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 65 (1883); Saunders 
Man., p. 217 (1889); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xiii., p. 
27 (1890); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xxii. (1892). 
Sturnus guttatus, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 595 (1837). 

Adult Male. Black, with reflections of green and purple and 
violet ; the mantle bronzy purple ; head, sides of face, and 
ear-coverts green ; sides of body and flanks bluish purple, the 



PLATE III 




1 COMMON STARLING 2 INTERMEDIATE STARLING 



THE STARLINGS. 35 

latter inclining to steel-blue and steel-green ; wings variegated, 
the quills black, with a spot of ashy grey just before the ends 
of the inner primaries and secondaries, the secondary quills 
with a steel-blue or green line just before the tip ; bill yellow ; 
feet reddish brown ; iris light brown. Total length, 8 inches ; 
culmen, ro; wing, 5-0; tail, 2*4; tarsus, i'i. 

Adult in Winter Plumage. Similar to the summer plumage, but 
entirely obscured by sandy buff tips to the feathers, so that the 
colour, especially on the throat, can be traced only with diffi- 
culty. The bill is brownish black at this season of the year. 

The female resembles the male in colour, but the gloss of 
the plumage is never so brilliant. The sandy buff tips to the 
feathers, which are lost in the male by being abraded and worn 
off, never entirely disappear in the female, and are still to 
be seen to a greater or less extent in the breeding bird. 

Young. Entirely different from the adults, being almost 
uniform brown or dove-colour, the breast and abdomen white, 
streaked with brown. 

The intermediate form of Starling between our common 
birds and the Siberian Starling (S. menzbieri} is figured on the 
plate (PI. III., Fig. 2), and differs from the typical bird in 
having the head and throat washed with purple, but the ear- 
coverts green. In S. menzbieri the head, throat, and ear- coverts 
are all purple. 

Range in Great Britain. Almost universally distributed, and 
of late years becoming common in parts of Scotland, where 
it was formerly rare or unknown. Nor is this to be wondered 
at, as the autumnal migration to our shores is enormous, and 
for days together flocks of migrants pour into our eastern coasts. 

Range outside the British Islands. Found everywhere in sum- 
mer throughout Europe, but only occurring as a winter visitor 
in the countries of the Mediterranean. Its eastern range ex- 
tends as far as Egypt and Persia in winter, but in Central 
Siberia it is replaced by Stitrnus menzbieri. The range of 
the intermediate form, if the latter be a true species, is not yet 
determined. 

Habits. The Starling is gregarious in the winter season, 
sind is generally to be found in the society of Rooks, with 



26 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

which it associates in large flocks. During the nesting season 
it is more familiar, and frequents dwellings and farmyards, 
where it nests under roofs and in chimneys, or in holes of 
buildings or trees. It does an incalculable amount of good in 
the destruction of grubs and noxious insects, but it devours a 
quantity of fruit during the period of the year when the cherries 
are in season, at which time its good deeds as a grub-destroyer 
are apt to be forgotten. 

Nest. A rough structure of straw and grass, with a few 
feathers and wool for lining. 

Eggs. From four to seven. Pale blue or bluish white. 
Axis, 1*15-1*35 inch; diam., 0-8-0-85 mcn - 

THE FIELD STARLINGS. GENUS PASTOR. 

Pastor, Temm., Man. d'Orn., i., p. 83 (1815). 

Type, P. roseus (Linn.). 

In the " Rose-coloured Pastor," as this bird is sometimes 
called, the bill is of different shape to that of the true Star- 
lings, being shorter, higher, and more curved. Only one 
species of the genus is known, and this is an unfrequent 
visitor to the British Islands. In addition to its brilliant 
plumage, the Pastor has an enormous crest. 

I. THE ROSE-COLOURED STARLING. PASTOR ROSEUS. 
(Plate IV.} 

Turdus roseus, Linn., S. N., i., p. 294 (1766). 

Pastor roseus, Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 423, pi. 250 (1873); 

Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 243 (1877) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 

66 (1883); Seeb.,Hist. Br. B.,ii., p. 20 (1884); Lilford, Col. 

Fig. Br. B., pt. vii. (1888) ; Saunders, Man., p. 219 (1889); 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus., xiii., p. 63 (1890). 

Adult Male in Breeding Plumage. Clear rose-colour, with black 
wings and tail shot with green or purple. Total length, 8 
inches; culmen, 0-8; wing, 5-1; tail, 2-5; tarsus, 1-25. 

Sexes alike ; the female not quite so bright in colour, and 
with a shorter crest. 

Young. Different from the adults. Brown, with darker 



THE ORIOLES. 3] 

brown wings and tail ; cheeks, chin, and upper throat white ; 
under surface very pale brown, the flanks mottled with darker 
brown. 

In winter the plumage of the old birds is not so brilliant, the 
whole of the feathers being obscured by sandy-coloured edges 
and tips, which wear off and become abraded as the spring 
approaches. 

Range in Great Britain. An accidental visitor from the south- 
east. 

Range outside the British Islands. Very common in winter in 
the plains of India, staying in that country very late in the 
season (we ourselves saw a flock of some ten individuals in 
brilliant summer plumage near Futtehpur Sikri on the 3rd of 
July), but they disappear suddenly, and are back again with 
their young early in August. During their short absence from 
their winter quarters they visit Central Asia, and come to 
Asia Minor and South-eastern Europe to nest, as well as 
Bulgaria, the Dobrudscha, and the vicinity of Smyrna at 
irregular intervals, often following the locusts. They have 
even been known to breed in large numbers as far west 
as Verona. An interesting account of the nesting of this 
species will be found in Mr. Seebohm's " History of British 
Birds " (I.e.). 

Habits. In most respects resembling our common Starling, 
but differing in their mode of nesting, when they are gregarious, 
and build their nests in holes of buildings or rocks. 

Eggs. Five to seven, nearly white or pale grey. Axis, 
n-i'2 inch; diam., 0-8-0-9. 

THE ORIOLES. FAMILY ORIOLID.E. 

The Orioles are birds generally of a bright black and yellow 
plumage, or black and crimson. They are entirely confined to 
the Old World, the so-called " Orioles " of America belonging 
to a totally different family of birds, viz., the Icterida. They 
differ from the Crows not only in their brilliant coloration, but 
in having a notch in the upper mandible, such as is found in 
Thrushes and many other Passerine birds. Their mode of 



2 8 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

nesting is also very peculiar, the nest being suspended in the 
fork of a branch. 

THE GOLDEN ORIOLES. GENUS ORIOLUS. 

Oriolus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 160 (1766). 

Type, a galbula (Linn.). 

I. THE GOLDEN ORIOLE. ORIOLUS GALBULA. 
(Plate F.) 

Oriolus galbula, Linn., S. N., i., p. 160 (1766); Dresser, B. 
Eur., in., p. 365 (1875) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 233 (1877) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iii., 191 (1877); B - O. U. 
List Br. B., p. 36(1883); Seeb., Hist. Br. B., i., p. 589 
(1883); Saunders, Man., p. 137 (1889); Lilford, Col. 
Fig. Br. B., pt. ix. (1888). 

Adult Male. Golden yellow ; wings black, with a yellow 
speculum caused by the tips of the primary coverts ; the 
secondaries edged towards the tips with yellowish white ; tail 
black, the feathers tipped with yellow, increasing towards the 
outermost one, which is yellow with a black base ; bill dull 
red ; feet leaden grey ; iris blood-red. Total length, 9 inches ; 
culmen, 1*0; wing, 5-9; tail, 3-1; tarsus, o'8. 

Adult Female and Young Birds. Similar to the male above, but 
below greyish white, streaked with black on the throat and 
breast. The statement that the old female is entirely yellow 
and black like the male has not yet been fully confirmed. 

Eange in Great Britain. Rare visitor to most parts of England 
and Ireland, and seldom found in Scotland, but a regular 
migrant to Cornwall and the Scilly Islands in spring. 

Range outside the British Islands. Breeds throughout Europe 
and below the Baltic, extending to Lat. 63 in South Finland 
and in Russia to 60 N. Lat. east to Russian Turkestan and 
the Altai Mountains. Its place in Central Asia is taken by 
the Indian Oriole (O. kundoo), a species very like 0. galbula, 
but having the black coral spot extended beyond the eye. 
The furthest south-eastern range with which we are ourselves 
acquainted is Fao, in the Persian Gulf, whence specimens 



THE HANG-NESTS. 29 

have been sent to the British Museum by Mr. W. D. Gum- 
ming. The winter home of the species seems to be Southern 
and South-western Africa, viz., Natal, the Transvaal and Da- 
mara Land. 

Habits. Very much like those of a Thrush. In disposition 
the bird is very shy and by no means so easily observed as 
its brilliant plumage would lead one to suppose, though it is 
often found nesting in parks and gardens of continental towns. 
Its food consists mostly of insects, but in summer it feeds a 
great deal on fruit, especially cherries. The note is described 
as flute-like and very beautiful in tone. Mr. Seebohm, who 
has taken many nests of the Oriole' in Holland, says : "The 
call-note during the pairing season sounds like the words, 
' Who are you ? ' in a full rapid whistle ; and its song is a 
wheet, //, vee-o, whence its vernacular name in Holland of 
' Kiel-i-vee-vo. ' " 

Nest. Suspended from the fork of a branch, sometimes in a 
fir-tree, but generally in an oak, at a considerable height from 
the ground. It is composed of strips of bark, which are also 
used to bind it to the branch in which it is fixed. The lining 
consists of grass-stalks. 

Eggs. Four or five, white or pinkish white, spotted nearly 
all over with black or chocolate brown, the latter generally 
being the underlying colour, the spots not unfrequently congre- 
gated at the larger end. Axis, i*i 1*3 inch; diam., o'8-o'9. 

THE HANG-NESTS. FAMILY ICTERID^.* 

Three species of this American family have been allowed to 
swell the British List, (i) the Red-winged Starling (Agela>us 
pJmniceus\ of which about a dozen occurrences have taken 
place ; (2) the Rusty Grakle (Scokcophagus ferrugineus\ which 
has been captured once; and the Meadow Starling (Stur- 
nella magna\ of the occurrence of which three instances are 
known. There can be no reasonable doubt that they were all 
imported birds which had escaped or been turned loose. 

Gracnla religiosa^ an Indian Mynah, has also been recorded, but as it 
is a frequent cage-bird, no importance can be attached to its capture. 



30 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



THE FINCHES. FAMILY FRINGILLID.E. 

The great family of Finches is of wide distribution in both 
hemispheres. It is especially characteristic of the northern 
parts of both the Old and New Worlds, and its members 
possess an exceeding diversity of form, so that the characters 
of the family are not easily tabulated. They possess only nine 
primary quills, and are remarkable for their conical-shaped 
bill, which has gained for them the name of Conirostres in 
most systems of classification. 

I have, in the " Catalogue of Birds " (vol. xii.), divided the 
Finches into three sub-families, as follows : (i) Coccothrau- 
stinae, or Grosbeaks, (2) Fringillinae, or Finches, and (3) Emberi- 
zinae, or Buntings. 

THE GROSBEAKS. SUB-FAM. COCCOTHRAUSTIN^E. 

In these Finches the bill is extremely powerful, especially in 
the typical forms, and in the skull the nasal bones are 
extended backwards beyond the anterior line of the orbit. 
In this sub-family are found all the Hawfinches and large 
Grosbeaks of Europe and Asia, but there are no representa- 
tions in Africa or Australia. Both North and South America 
possess a large number of Grosbeaks, and some of the smaller 
forms, such as Spermophila^ are characteristic of the Neotropi- 
cal region. 

THE GREENFINCHES. GENUS LIGURINUS. 

Ligurinus, Koch, Syst. Baier. Zool., p. 230 (1816). 
Type, L. chloris (Linn.). 

The Greenfinches have a very stout and conical bill, with 
the nostrils placed high in the mandible, so that they are 
situated nearer to the culmen than to the cutting edge 
of the bill. The secondary quills are of ordinary form and 
are not falcated or " bill-hook " shaped as in the Hawfinch, 
which is the only other British Finch which has a stoutly- 
built bill like the Greenfinch. 

Five species of true Greenfinches are known, our English 
bird (L. chloris\ which extends throughout Europe to Central 



THE GREENFINCHES. 3! 

Asia, and is replaced in Syria and Palestine by a brightly- 
coloured race (L. chloroticus\ while in Eastern Siberia, China, 
and Japan occurs the Chinese Greenfinch (L. sinicus\ the two 
remaining species L. kawarahiba and L. kittlitzi being peculiar 
to Japan and the Bonin Islands respectively. 

I. THE GREENFINCH. CHLORIS CHLORIS. 

Loxia chloris, Linn., S. N., i., p. 304 (1766). 
Linaria chloris, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 365 (1837). 
Coccothraustes chloris, Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 105 (1876). 
Ligurinus chloris, Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 567, pi. 174(1875); 

B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 49 (1883) ; Saunders, Man., p. 161 

(1889). 

Chloris chloris, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 21 (1888). 
Fringilla chloris, Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xiv. (1890). 

Adult Male, Above olive-yellow, shaded with ashy grey, es- 
pecially on the head ; ear-coverts ashy ; cheeks and under sur- 
face of body bright yellow, slightly washed with ashy ; forehead 
and eyebrows brighter yellow ; lower abdomen white ; quills 
dusky brown, with yellow outer webs to the primaries, reach- 
ing to the shaft, and grey margins and tips to the secondaries ; 
bastard wing bright yellow; tail-feathers yellow at base, blackish 
at the ends ; bill fleshy pink ; feet pale brown ; iris hazel. 
Total length, 6 inches; oilmen, 0*55; wing, 3-35 ; tail, 2-25; 
tarsus, 0*7. 

Adult Female. Duller in colour than the male, and always 
to be distinguished by the primaries being merely edged with 
yellow at the base, while the tail is not yellow at the base, and 
the feathers of the bastard wing also show no yellow base. 

Young. Browner than the adults, and having dusky brown 
streaks on the throat, breast, and flanks. 

In winter the plumage of the adult birds is always overlaid 
with brown tips to the feathers, and it is by the wearing off of 
these tips that the Greenfinch attains its bright summer dress. 

Range in Great Britain. Found nearly everywhere if trees or 
bushes are present, and apparently extending its range north- 
ward, as it now breeds sparingly in the Orkneys, though to 
these islands and the Shetlands it is chiefly a winter visitor 



32 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

from the Continent. A large migration takes place to the 
east coast in autumn, and on the south coast there is also 
a regular migration every spring and autumn. Birds caught 
on passage at these seasons are brighter in colour than the 
resident British birds, which are, as in many other instances, 
more dingy than their continental representatives. 

Range outside the British Islands. Throughout the whole of 
Europe, up to 65 N. lat. in Scandinavia and to 60 in the 
Ural Mountains. Its breeding range extends to about long. 
70, and it is found as far as North-western Persia and North- 
west Turkestan. In the southern portion of its range the Green- 
finch is a much smaller and more brilliantly coloured bird than 
in the north, and has been recognised as a species (C. aurantii- 
ventris) by some writers. 

Habits. In summer the Greenfinch is somewhat shy, but in 
winter it is found in flocks in the fields and farmyards along 
with Sparrows and Chaffinches. The song of the Greenfinch 
is generally described as poor, but we have more than once 
heard a male, during the nesting season, giving forth a song 
not much inferior to that of a Canary. Its general food con- 
sists of seeds and grain, but it also devours quantities of 
insects, especially when bringing up its young, which are 
largely fed upon caterpillars. 

Nest. Most commonly to be found in shrubberies and ever- 
green trees, but not unftxquently found in woods far from any 
habitation, and occasionally in unexpected situations, as in a 
hollow at the top of a gate-post. Several nests have been 
found in close proximity to each other. The nest is rather a 
carelessly built structure, composed of moss with a few twigs 
and rootlets, the lining consisting of horse-hair and a few 
feathers. 

Eggs. Four to six. They vary very much in size and mark- 
ings. The ground-colour is white or bluish white, and the 
spots are pinkish, generally at the larger end, with larger out- 
lying blackish spots or small blotches, with occasionally a linear 
streak of the same colour. Axis, o"j$-o'g ; diam., o'55-o - 6 
inch. Small eggs of the Greenfinch are often difficult to dis- 
tinguish from those of the common Linnet. 



PLATE VI 



. 



\? ff ' *V V 1 

^ 
s&fP 




HAWFINCH. 



THE HAWFINCHES. 33 

THE HAWFINCHES. GENUS COCCOTIIRAUSTES. 

Coccothraustes, Briss., Orn., iii., p. 218 (1760). 

Type, C. Coccothraustes (Linn ). 

The Hawfinches are easily distinguished from nil the other 
Finches in the world by the peculiar form of their secondary 
quills, which are shaped like a bill-hook. They are among the 
largest of the family, and far exceed all other British Finches 
in size and in the massiveness of their bill. 

Three species of true Hawfinch are known, one (C. cocco- 
thraustes) believed to be peculiar to Europe, another (C. japo- 
nicus) to Eastern Siberia, Japan, and Northern China, while 
the third (C. humit) is only known from the extreme north- 
west of the Punjab, but may be found to range into Afghani- 
stan and perhaps into Central Asia. 

1. THE HAWFINCH. COCCOTHRAUSTES COCCOTHRAUSTES. 
(Plate VI.} 

Loxia coccothraustes, Linn., S. N., i., p. 299 (1766). 
Coccothraustes atrogularis, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 356 (1837). 
Coccothraustes vulgaris, Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 575, pi. 175 

(1875); Newt. ed. Yarn, ii., p. 98 (1876); B. O. U. 

List Br. B., p. 50 (1883); Saunders, Man., p. 163 (1889); 

Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xvi. (1890). 
Coccothraustes Coccothraustes , Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., 

p. 36 (1888). 

Adult Male. Chocolate-brown above, pale vinous brown 
below ; head cinnamon-brown ; sides of neck and hind neck 
bluish grey ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts cinna- 
mon-brown, as also the inner greater coverts; wings black, 
glossed with purple or steel-blue ; primaries with a large patch 
of white about the middle of the inner web ; a line of black 
on the forehead, and throat, black ; lower abdomen and under 
wing-and tail-coverts, white ; tail blackish brown, tipped with 
white, the centre feathers like the back ; bill leaden blue, the 
lower mandible flesh-colour at base ; feet greyish brown ; iris 
white or greyish white. Total length, 7 incb.es ; culmen, o'8 ; 
wing, 4-2; tail, 2*15, tarsus; 0*85. 

i. U 



34 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY 

In winter the colour of the plumage is as in summer, but 
the whole of the bill is fleshy white. 

Adult Female. Differs from the male in being duller coloured, 
the head being ashy brown, becoming chocolate-brown on the 
hinder crown ; forehead and sides of face dull ochre-brown ; 
under surface of body ochreous brown. Total length, 6-7 ; 
culmen, 075 ; w~'ng, 3-9 ; tail, 2*1 ; tarsus, 075. 

Young. Chocolate-brown above, the crown olive-yellow with 
dusky tips to the feathers ; throat pale yellow ; under surface 
light brown with dusky tips to the feathers. 

Range in Great Britain. Locally distributed, but increasing in 
numbers, and by no means rare in the vicinity of London, 
while in some of the southern counties it may be called 
even plentiful. In Scotland and Ireland it is an irregular 
visitor. 

Range outside the British Islands. Generally distributed over 
Europe and breeding also in Algeria, extending eastward to 
Asia Minor and the Caucasus, and even to Turkestan. 

Habits. The Hawfinch is a very shy bird, and even where it 
is known to nest it is not easy of observation. Its food con- 
sists largely of berries, seeds, and the kernels of stone-fruit, 
which it is able to crush with its strong bill, rejecting the fruit 
itself, and eating only the kernel. In this way Hawfinches do 
some damage to plum-trees, and they also devour a quantity 
of peas from the gardens. The young birds are especially 
fond of the last-named food. 

Nest Composed of twigs and roots with a little lichen added, 
the eutside of the nest having a considerable fdnge of out- 
standing twigs, as in the nest of the Bullfinch. The lining 
consists of fine roots and hair. 

Eggs. Four to six. Ground of eggs stone-colour, with scrib- 
bling marks and spots of grey or blackish brown, the grey 
being the underlying tint ; occasionally the markings are 
aimost obliterated. In some specimens the ground-colour of 
the egg is yellowish or creamy stone-colour. Axis, o'8-i -i inch; 
diam., 0-65-075. (Plate XXIX., Fig. 8.) 



THE CHAFFINCHES. J5 

THE TRUE FINCHES. SUB-FAMILY II. 
FRINGILLIN^E. 

Of this Sub-family, which contains the bulk of the birds 
ordinarily known as " Finches," our Common Chaffinch may 
be taken as the type. The bill is strong, ayd always more or 
less stoutly built, but does not exhibit the robusujess of that of 
the Grosbeaks. The nasal bones are not produced backwards 
beyond the base of the cranium, but on looking at the skull 
it will be seen that the angle of the chin is slightly out of 
line with the lower mandible of the bill. In the Grosbeaks 
the line is continuous, and in the Buntings the angle is 
extremely well marked, so that the Finches hold an inter- 
mediate position between the Grosbeaks and the Buntings. 

The distribution of the true Finches is very similar to that 
of the Grosbeaks, as they are not represented in Australia or 
in the Pacific Islands, but they are very plentiful in the northern 
portions of the Old and New World, less so in India and 
Africa, and again abundant in South America. 

THE CHAFFINCHES. GENUS FRINGILLA. 
Fringilla, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 318 (1766). 
Type, F. Calebs Linn. 

Two species of the genus Fringilla occur in England, and 
one of them, the Brambling, ranges right across Asia to 
Japan. In Algeria, Madeira, the Canary Islands, and the 
Azores, no less than six species of Chaffinch are known, most 
of the separate islands possessing a peculiar form of their 
own. 

I. THE CHAFFINCH. FRINGILLA CCELEBS. 

Fringilla Calebs, Linn., S. N., i., p. 318 (1766) Macg., Br. B., 
i., p. 329 (1837); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 3, pi. 182 
(1873) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 68 (1876); B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 52 (1883) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 
171 (1888); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. viii. (1888); 
Saunders, Man., p. 175 (1889). 

Adult Male. Chestnut-brown ; the lesser and median wing- 
coverts white; greater coverts black, tipped with white, forming 

D 2 



3 5 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

a band across the wing; lower back and rump olive-green ; 
centre tail-feathers ashy grey, the remainder black with a large 
wedge-shaped mark of white on the last feather but one, this 
white mark still more extended on the outer feather ; crown 
and hind neck slaty blue ; forehead black ; under surface 
pale vinous red; lower abdomen, thighs, and under tail-coverts 
white ; bill leaden blue ; feet brown ; iris hazel. Total length, 
6 inches ; culmen, 0-45; wing, 3-5; tail, 2-5; tarsus, 0*65. 

Adult Female. Different from the male. Above ashy brown, 
washed with olive-yellow ; under surface of body pale ashy 
brown, lighter on the throat, and tinged with pink on the 
throat and breast. Total length, 6-5 inches ; culmen 0-5 ; wing, 
3'4; tail, 2*6; tarsus, 0*65. 

Young. Like the adult female, but more dingy ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts olive-brown. 

Kange in Great Britain. Breeding nearly everywhere, but a 
winter visitor only to the Shetlands. A common winter migrant 
on all our eastern shores. 

Range outside the British Islands. Generally distributed through- 
out Europe, up to the line of the Arctic Circle, and extending to 
62* N. lat. in the Ural Mountains. Its western breeding range 
extends to about long. 70. 

Habits. The Chaffinch is a bird familiar to most people, and 
is to be found in great abundance in most parts of the British 
Islands, particularly in winter, when it associates with Sparrows 
and Greenfinches in the stubbles and in the farmyards. Its 
familiar note, " pink, pink," is heard everywhere in the spring, 
and in some of our southern counties the Chaffinch is an ex- 
tremely abundant species. It builds one of the most beautiful 
nests of any British bird, and it is so well concealed by protec- 
tive resemblance to its surroundings, that in the majority of 
cases it would pass undiscovered but for the anxious notes of 
the parent bird which lead to its discovery. Like most Finches, 
the food consists of grain in winter, but in summer the birds 
feed largely on insects. 

Hest. A pretty cup-shaped structure, placed in a bush or 
branch of a tree, composed chiefly of moss with a few rootlets 
and twigs, and clothed externally with cobwebs an$ lichens, so 



PLATF VII 




BRAMBLING 



THE CHAFFINCHES* 37 

as to resemble the surrounding of the branches on which it is 
placed. The lining consists of horse-hair, feathers, and down. 

Eggs. Four to six. Very variable in tint, ranging from 
bluish stone-colour to clear blue. In the former instance the 
markings consist of a reddish or pink wash over the eggs, 
which are dotted here and there with bold spots of black or 
reddish brown. In the blue type of egg, the underlying spots 
are pale violet and the upper spots and scratches are purplish 
or black, and are generally congregated round the larger end. 
Axis, o'75-o'S ; diam., o'55~o'6. 

II. THE BRAMBLING. FRINGILLA MONTIFRINGILLA. 

(Plate VII.} 

Fringilla montifringilla^ Linn., S. N., i., p. 318 (1766) ; Macg., 
Br. B., i., p. 335 (1837) ; Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 15, pi. 184 
(1871) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 75 (1876) ; B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 52 (1883) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 
178 (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 177 (1889). 

Adult Male. Differs from the Chaffinch in the white band 
across the rump and in its variegated plumage. Head and 
mantle blue-black ; flanks spotted with black ; a white specu- 
lum on the wing, formed by the white base to the inner 
primaries ; sides of face black like the crown ; under surface 
pale orange-rufous, the abdomen white; bill bluish black ; feet 
reddish brown; iris hazel. Total length, 6'2 inches; culmen, 
0-55; wing, 3-5; tail, 2-45; tarsus, 075. 

Adult Female. Differs from the male in being much duller 
and browner in colour. 

In winter, when the Brambling visits England, the colours 
of the adult bird are obscured by sandy-coloured margins to 
the feathers, which gradually wear off, leaving the feathers of 
the breeding plumage in their full beauty. The bill is yellow 
with a blackish tip. 

Range in Great Britain. A winter visitor only, arriving some- 
times in enormous flocks. 

Range outside the British Islands. Europe and Northern Asia 
to Japan. Breeds in Scandinavia up to lat. 60, and in 



38 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Eastern Siberia to lat. 50. Visits Southern Europe and the 
Mediterranean countries in winter, and eastwards it is found in 
Turkestan and the North-western Himalayas, Japan, Eastern 
Siberia, and China. 

Habits. When the Brambling arrives in late autumn it betakes 
itself generally to the beech-woods, roosting in evergreen 
shrubs in the neighbouring woods and sometimes traversing 
a considerable distance to reach its roosting-place. It feeds on 
beech mast and seeds of the alder, and occasionally visits farm- 
yards in company with Chaffinches, with which it consorts 
largely in the woods during the day. ' 

The Brambling has been said to breed in the British Islands, 
but these records are mostly untrustworthy, though one instance 
of a nest being found in Scotland by Mr. E. T. Booth 
seems to be authentic. 

Nest. Of the same type as that of the Chaffinch, but rather 
larger and not so neatly finished off. " Its principal beauty," 
says Mr. Seebohm, "is derived from the mixture of green 
moss, lavender-coloured lichens, and white birch-bark, inter- 
woven with cobwebs, thistle-down, and buff inner birch-bark ; 
it is lined with fine grass and feathers." The nest is built in a 
birch or spruce fir-tree, often at a considerable height from the 
ground. 

Eggs. Resemble those of the Chaffinch, but the ground- 
colour is darker and rather more olive or stone-colour. Markings 
similar to those of the Chaffinch. Axis, 07-0-8 inch ; diam., 
0-55-0-6. (Plate XXXI., Fig i.) 

THE GOLDFINCHES. GENUS CARDUELIS. 

Carduelis, Briss., Orn., iii., p. 53 (1760). 

Type, C. carduelis (Linn.). 

' It is difficult to define the exact differences of form be- 
tween the Chaffinches and the Goldfinches, but the latter are 
much more slender birds and have a longer and more pointed 
bill. By their style of plumage, however, the Goldfinches 
are easily recognisable, the crimson face and the golden patch 
on the wing making them very conspicuous. Two species of 
Goldfinch are known, our British bird occurring throughout 



PLATE VHI 




GOLDFINCH 



THE GOLDFINCHES. 39 

the greater part of Europe to Central Siberia and Central 
Asia, while the grey-headed Goldfinch (C. caniceps) is found in 
the Himalayas, and extends to Eastern and Central Siberia and 
Central Asia. In Siberia C. caniceps interbreeds with the 
ordinary Goldfinch, or rather with the larger and whiter race 
which occurs in Eastern Europe and Siberia, and which has 
been called C. major by Russian naturalists. 

I. THE GOLDFINCH. CARDUELIS CARDUELIS. 

(Plate VIII.} 

Fringilla carduelis, Linn., S. N., i., p. 318 (1766). 
Carduelis degans, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 393 (1837); Newt. ed. 
Yarr., ii., p. 117 (1877); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 527, pi. 
166(1877); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 47 (1883) ; Saunders, 
Man., p. 165 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xv. 
(1890). 
Carduelis carduelis, Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus., xii., p. 185 (1888). 

Adult Male. Above pale chocolate-brown ; greater wing- 
coverts golden yellow; quills black, tipped with white, the 
base of the primaries golden yellow, forming a conspicuous 
patch ; crown of head and a band behind the ear- coverts black ; 
forehead crimson ; bill rosy whitish, with the tip black ; feet 
fleshy brown; iris brown. Total length, 5-2 inches; oilmen, 
0-55; wing, 3-2; tail, 1-85; tarsus, 0*6. 

Sexes alike in plumage. 

Young. Light brown, with no red on the face ; underneath 
white, washed with brown on the fore-neck, breast, and sides of 
body, all of which are spotted with blackish. 

Range in Great Britain. Generally distributed, but now local 
where once it was common. In many parts of the north, and in 
Scotland, it is only an accidental visitor. Local in Ireland, 

Range outside the British Islands. Europe generally, occurring 
in Scandinavia to lat. 65 and in the Ural Mountains to lat. 
60. The exact limit between the range of our Goldfinch and 
of the larger Eastern race (C. major) has not yet been accu- 
rately determined. 

HaMts. The Goldfinch is essentially a bird of the country, 
and has in many of the southern counties been driven away by 



40 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

the development of the towns and the invasion of the bird- 
catcher into its favourite haunts. The gradual cultivation of 
waste-lands, with their accompanying plenitude of thistles, has 
doubtless likewise had something to do with the disappearance 
of the Goldfinch. An old bird-catcher has told us that in 
his youth he once caught twelve dozen Goldfinches in a single 
morning, placing his nets behind a hedge which then existed on 
the present site of the Great Western Railway at Paddington ; 
and we can remember when the Goldfinch was common in 
Berkshire, and flocks of young birds were to be found in 
autumn in places where a Goldfinch has probably not been 
seen for the last twenty years. In winter it frequents the 
alder-trees in company with Redpolls and Siskins, and is often 
to be seen on the thistles, the seeds of which form a staple 
article of its food. It nests in fruit-trees, and in many places in 
evergreen shrubs, away from habitations, but the nest is often 
built in the slender branches of a beech or oak tree in parks 
and woodlands. 

Nest. Cup-shaped and beautifully made ; composed of moss 
and lichens distributed externally ; lined with horse-hair and 
downy feathers. 

Eggs. Four or five in number, of the same type as those of 
the Greenfinch, but much smaller ; ground-colour creamy blue 
or bluish white, with grey underlying markings, and spotted or 
lined with reddish brown. The markings vary greatly in 
strength and intensity, and some eggs are practically without 
spots of any kind. Axis, 07 inch ; diam., 0*5. Mr. Seebohm 
points out that the eggs of the Goldfinch cannot be distin- 
guished from those of the Serin or Siskin, and can only be 
told from those of the Linnet and Greenfinch by their smaller 
size. The lighter ground-colour distinguishes them from the 
eggs of the Lesser Redpoll (Plate XXIX., Fig. 5.) 

THE SISKINS. GENUS CIIRYSOMITRIS. 

Chtysomitris, Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 322. 

Type, C. spinus (Linn.). 

Possessing a bill of similar shape to that of the Goldfinches, 
attenuated and pointed, the Siskins differ from the latter birds 



THE SISKINS. 4? 

in their style of coloration, which consists chiefly of green and 
yellow, the crown of the head being in most cases black. 

The Siskins are found all over South and North America, 
throughout Europe and Northern Asia, to the Himalayas, and 
they occur also in North-eastern Africa, the highlands of 
Equatorial Africa, and reappear in the Cape Colony. 

I. THE SISKIN. CHRYSOMITRIS SPINUS. 

Fringilla spinus, Linn., S. N., i., p. 322 (1766); Lilford, Col. 

Fig. Br. B., pt. xiv. (1890). 
Carduelis spinus, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 400 (1837); Newt. ed. 

Yarr., ii., p. 126 (1877). 
Chrysomitris spinus, Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 541, pi. 169 

(1876); B. O. U. List Br. B., 48 (1883); Sharpe, Cat. B. 

Br. Mus., xii., p. 212 (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 167 



Adult Male. Head black ; throat black ; back yellowish 
green, with dusky shaft-streaks on the feathers of the upper 
surface ; rump brighter yellow ; flanks yellowish, streaked with 
black ; tail-feathers yellow at base ; bill dusky, livid at base ; 
feet light brown ; iris brown. Total length, 4-5 inches ; culmen, 
0-45; wing, 27; tail, 17; tarsus, 0-55. 

Adult Female. Differs from the male in wanting the black 
head ; under surface white, tinged with yellow on the throat ; 
sides of body and flanks streaked with black centres to the 
feathers. 

Range in Great Britain. Breeding in Scotland and in certain 
parts of Ireland (co. Waterford and Wicklow). Generally 
known as a winter visitor to England, though it is said to have 
nested in most of the English counties. 

Range ontside the British Islands. Breeds throughout the pine 
districts of Europe, in Scandinavia to lat. 67, in Russia 
to the vicinity of Archangel, and in the Urals to lat. 58. 
Extends throughout Siberia to Japan. Winters to the south- 
ward. 

Nest. A pretty structure, cup-shaped, made of moss with a 
few feathers and lined with horse-hair. Mr. Seebohm says 
that there is generally a foundation of grass-stalks with a few 



4 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY 

heather-twigs intermixed. The nest is generally placed high 
up in a fir-tree, arid is difficult to find. 

Eggs. Five Of six in number, exactly like those of the Gold- 
finch in size and markings. 

THE LINNETS. GENUS CANNABINA.* 
Cattnabina t Boie, Isis, 1828, p. 1277. 
Type, C. cannabina (Linn.). 

The bill in the present genus is shorter and stouter than in 
the Goldfinches and Siskins, though of the same pointed 
shape. The absence of yellow in their plumage is another 
character of the Linnets, which have most of them a red top- 
knot or cap, as well as some red on the breast and rump, in 
the nesting season at least. 

T . THE TWITE. CANNABINA FLAVIROSTRIS. 

Fringilla flavirostris, Linn., S. N., i., p. 322 (1766); Lilford, 

Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. xiii. (1890). 
Linaria flavirostris, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 379 (1837). 
Linota flavirostris, Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 59, pi. 191 (1876); 

Newt. ed. Yarrell, ii., p. 160 (1877); B. O. U. List 

Br. B., p. 54 (1883). 
Acanthis flavirostris, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 236 

(1888); Saunders, Man., p. 185 (1889). 

Adult Male. Distinguished from the common Linnet by its 
dusky yellow bill. Brown above, streaked with blackish cen- 
tres to the feathers ; the head like the back, without any 
red cap ; breast and abdomen white, the throat reddish brown 
with darker streaks ; rump rosy ; no red on the breast ; bill 
yellow ; feet blackish ; iris brown. Total length, 5 inches ; 
culmen, 0-35; wing, 3-0; tail, 2-3; tarsus, 0-65. 

* Dr. Sclater having shown (Ibis, 1892, p. 555) that the generic name 
of Acanthis, Bechst., which I used for the Linnets in the " Catalogue 
of Birds," cannot properly be employed for these birds, being in fact a 
synonym of Carduelis, the next name in order of date is Linaria of Vieillot 
(1816). This generic name, however, is pre-occupied in Botany, and so 
the next in order of date is Cannadina of Boie (1828). 



THE LINNETS. 43 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but not having the 
vinous rump, this part resembling the rest of the back. 

Young. Like the old female, but with a dusky bill. 

Range in Great Britain. A northern bird, breeding throughout 
Scotland, and down to the Midland Counties. Breeds also in 
Ireland in suitable localities. In the south only known as a 
winter visitor. 

Range outside the British Islands. As in Great Britain, the 
Twite is a northern bird, and its breeding-range is confined to 
Western Europe, not extending beyond long. 25 ; it only 
nesting in suitable districts in Norway. It winters to the south, 
but rarely reaches the Mediterranean countries. 

Habits, The Twite is a moorland species, ard in all its 
ways resembles the Linnet, except in its mode of n jsting. As 
with most Finches, its food consists of seeds, but during the 
nesting season it consumes a great many insects and rears its 
young upon them. In winter it migrates south in large flocks, 
which frequent the neighbourhood of the coast, and enliven 
the marshes with their twittering song, which is very cheery 
when uttered by a hundred or more birds in concert. The note 
resembles that of a Redpoll or Siskin more than the voice of 
a Linnet. 

Nest. Cup-shaped and very neatly made, composed of moss 
and twigs of heather, lined with finer rootlets, wool, feathers or 
thistle-down. It is often placed on the ground, but sometimes 
in a tree or among heather. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. Ground-colour light blue or 
bluish white with red or purple spots and lines, generally 
clustered at the larger end of the egg, with an occasional larger 
spot or scribbling of blackish brown. Axis, 07-075 inch ; 
diam., 0-5-0-55. 

II. THE LINNET. CANNABINA CANNABINA. 

Fringilla cannabina, Linn., S. N., i., p. 322 (1766). 
Linaria cannabina^ Macg., Br. B., i., p. 371 (1837); Dresser, 
B. Eur., iv., p. 31, pi. 186 (1875). 



44 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY 

Linota cannabina, Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 153 (1877); B. O. U. 

List Br. B., p. 53 (1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. vii. 

(1888). 
Acanthi's cannabina, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 240 

(1888); Saunders, Man., p. 179 (1889). 
Adult Male. Reddish brown above, streaked with black; fore- 
head crimson ; no black on chin ; breast crimson ; wing- 
coverts not tipped with white, so as to form a wing-bar ; upper 
tail-coverts and tail-feathers black, edged with white, increasing 
on the outer feathers ; breast and abdomen dull buffy white ; 
bill lead-colour ; feet and toes brown ; iris hazel-brown. Total 
length, 5-5 inches; culmen, 0-4; wing, 3*05 ; tail, 2*25 ; tarsus, 
0-65. 

Female. Browner than the male, and wants the crimson 
on the crown and breast ; the latter sandy buff, like the sides of 
body and flanks, all streaked with dark brown. Total length, 
5-3 inches; culmen, 0-4; wing, 3-0 ; tail, 2'i ; tarsus, 0-5. 

Young. Resembles the old female, but is more reddish brown ; 
wings and tail as in the adults, but the white edgings washed 
with rufous brown ; below white, washed with sandy buff on the 
breast and sides of the body ; the throat spotted with dusky 
brown, the fore-neck and breast with dusky brown streaks, and 
the lower breast spotted with brown. 

In winter plumage the colours are much duller than in 
summer, the crimson of the head and breast being hidden by 
broad edgings to the feathers. These margins gradually wear 
off as spring approaches, till the crimson colour alone remains ; 
there is no spring moult. 

Eange in Great Britain. Generally distributed, but rarer in 
some parts of Scotland and not known in the Shetlands. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Found over the whole of 
Europe, as high as lat. 64 in Scandinavia, and in Eastern 
Russia to lat. 60. It extends to the Caucasus, but here and 
in Asia Minor the prevailing form is Cannabina fringillirostris, 
a paler race with the primary-coverts white-edged, which takes 
the place of the common Linnet throughout Central Asia. Our 
Linnet is also found in North-western Africa, the Canaries and 
Madeira. In spring and autumn a considerable migration of 



THE LINNETS. 45 

Linnets occurs on our coasts, the arrivals from the Continent 
being decidedly brighter in plumage than our resident birds. 

Habits. Throughout the autumn and winter Linnets are 
found in flocks, feeding on the stubbles and open ground, and 
at the former season they are very common in fields near the 
sea-shore. In the breeding season they are less gregarious, 
but many pairs may be found in close proximity to each other 
in gorse covered districts, the gorse-bushes being such a 
favourite nesting place that in many places the bird is known 
as the " Gorse " Linnet. It nests also in broom and heather, 
and sometimes has been known to build its home on the ground. 
Its song is heard to perfection in the spring, and while the hen is 
sitting, but during the breeding season the bird is much more 
shy than at other times of the year. Its food consists almost 
entirely of seeds, and it is not known to feed its young on 
insects to the same extent as most of the other Finches. As Mr. 
Howard Saunders remarks : " The food consists of soft seeds, 
especially those of an oily nature, such as the various species of 
flax and hemp ; grains of charlock, knot-grass, and other weeds 
are also largely consumed, while in winter various kinds of 
berries and even oats are devoured." 

Nest. Cup-shaped, composed of moss with fine twigs and 
grass, lined with hair, sheep's wool and a few feathers. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. Ground-colour bluish, with 
rufous spots confined to the larger end, where they form a ring 
or cluster of spots varied with overlying lines and streaks of 
purplish black. In some instances the larger end of the egg is 
clouded with purple, speckled over with dots and streaks of 
purplish brown. Axis, 07-075 inch ; diam., o'55-o'6. 



III. THE MEALY REDPOLL. CANNABINA LINARIA. 

Fringilla linaria. Linn., S. N., i., p. 322 (1766) - Lilford, Col. 

Fig. Br. B., pt. xv. (1890). 

Linaria borealis, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 388 (1837). 
Linota linaria^ Newt ed. Yarr., ii., p. 133 (1877) ; Dresser, B. 

Eur., iv., p. 37, pi. 187 (1877); B, 0. U. List Br B., p, 

53 (1883). 



4 5 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Aca nfhis linaria, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 245 (1888); 
Saunders, Man., p. 181 (1889). 

Adult Male. Light brown above, with dark bi own streaks ; 
forehead crimson ; wing-coverts tipped with white, forming 
wing-bars; chin blackish; throat, fore-neck, and breast beau- 
tiful rosy-pink, the feathers generally edged with hoary white ; 
rump ashy white, streaked with blackish, and slightly tinged 
with rosy ; bill yellow, with the tip brown ; feet and claws 
blackish; iris hazel-brown. Total length, 5-2 inches; oilmen, 
0-4: wing, 2*85 ; tail, 2*05; tarsus, o'6. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but lacking the crimson 
forehead and the rose-colour on the breast and rump ; chin 
and upper throat black ; remainder of under surface white, 
with blackish streaks on the side of the body. Total length, 

5 inches; culmen, 0-35 ; wing, 275 ; tail, 2-05 ; tarsus, 0-55. 

Kange in Great Britain. A winter visitor from Shetland south 
along the east coast of Scotland and England, but less re- 
gular in occurrence in the south and Midlands. In some 
seasons considerable flocks arrive, and we have known the 
Mealy Redpoll to occur in some numbers in the Thames 
Valley in winter. They are then found in company with Lesser 
Redpolls, from which they may be distinguished by their 
much larger size, especially as regards the feet. 

Range outside the British Islands. Throughout Northern 
Europe to the limits of the birch-region, across Siberia and 
North America, but replaced in Greenland by Cannabma 
rostrata, a large race of Mealy Redpoll, with a larger bill and 
coarser stripes on the under surface. 

Habits. Frequenting the birch and alder trees, the seeds of 
which form its principal food, in company with Common Red- 
polls and Siskins. 

Nest. Cup-shaped ; composed of bents and shreds of bark 
with lichens ; lined with catkins, hair, and feathers. 

Eggs. Five or six, resembling those of the Linnet, but with a 
deeper blue ground and, of course, much smaller in size ; the 
reddish shading at the larger ends often clouded with tiny spots 
of reddish brown and dots and lines of purplish black. In a 



THE LINNETS. 4; 

clutch of eggs taken by Mr. Seebohm in the Petchora there 
are distinct scribblings near the larger end, similar to those of 
a Yellow Bunting. Axis, 0-6-075 ; diam., 0-5-0-55. 

iv. HOLBOELL'S REDPOLL. CANNABINA HOLBOELLI. 

Linaria holboelli, Brehm., Vog. Deutschl., p. 280 (1831). 
Acanthis holboelli, Sharpe, Cat. B., xii., p. 250 (1888). 

Adult Male. Similar to the Mealy Redpoll, but larger and 
with a very much larger bill. Total length, 5 inches ; culmen, 
0-5; wing, 2-9-3-0; tail, 2*2; tarsus, 0-5. 

Range in Great Britain. Two specimens of this large Redpoll 
are in the British Museum. They were formerly in the col- 
lection of Mr. John Gould, and are labelled by him as having 
been obtained near Norwich in January. Professor Newton 
suggests that the longer bill of this Redpoll is due to the 
food on which the bird subsists at certain seasons of the 
year. 

V. THE LESSER REDPOLL. CANNABINA RUFESCENS. 

Linaria rufescens, Vieill. Mem. R. Accad. Torino, xxiii.,Sc. Fis., 

p. 202 (1816). 

Linaria minor, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 383 (1837). 
Linota rufescens, Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 146 (1877); Dresser, 

B. Eur., iv., p. 47, pi. 188 (1877); B. O. U. List Br. B., 

p. 54 (1883). 
Acanthis rufescens, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 252 

(1888); Saunders, Man., p. 183 (1889). 
Fringilla rufescens, Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xiii. (1890). 

Adult Male. A smaller bird than the Mealy Redpoll, much 
more rufous-brown in colour, with only a little white ; bill 
yellow, with a blackish tip ; feet and toes blackish ; iris brown. 
Total length, 4-5 inches; culmen, 0*35 ; wing, 2*7 ; tail, 1*95 ; 
tarsus, 0*55. 

Adult Female. Lacks the beautiful red colour on the breast 
and rump. Total length, 4-5 inches; culmen, 0-35 ; wing, 2-7; 
tail, i -9 ; tarsus, 0*5. 

Young. Like the old female, but the head and back streaked 
with whitish ; rump paler than tb<* back and mixed with white ; 



48 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

no black on the throat ; under surface white, with a little yellow 
on the abdomen ; breast and flanks spotted with broad marks 
of black. 

Range in Great Britain. Local during the breeding season, 
nesting generally in England, as Mr. Howard Saunders points 
out, " north of a line drawn through Shropshire, Leicester- 
shire, and Norfolk ; locally in Suffolk and Cambridgeshire ; 
sparingly in Gloucestershire and along the upper part of 
the Thames Valley; and more frequently than is generally 
supposed in the counties of Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent." In 
the Southern Counties it is very local as a breeding bird, and in 
the extreme south-west is rare at any time. In winter it is 
more generally distributed over Great Britain, and large num- 
bers are caught on the autumn and spring migrations. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Lesser Redpoll is a 
bird of Western Europe, but nests in the Alpine regions of 
Italy, Savoy, and Styria. It is also found breeding in France, 
Belgium, Holland, and Western Germany, and has once been 
known to nest in Heligoland. 

Habits. In winter it frequents the birch and alder trees, 
and was formerly quite common in the Thames Valley in 
winter, in company with Siskins and Goldfinches. It is now, 
however, not nearly so common near London during the winter 
months as it used to be. Its ways of life are very similar to 
those of the Siskin. 

Nest. A pretty and compact little cup-shaped structure, 
composed of moss and grass-stems, with a few twigs, and lined 
with vegetable down and hair, with some feathers. 

Eggs. Three to six in number, bluish, spotted with red, 
sometimes clouding round the larger end, with overlying spots 
of purplish brown dotted about the latter. Axis, 0*6 inch ; 
diam., 0*4. 

THE SPARROWS. GENUS PASSER. 

Passer, Briss., Orn., iii., p. 71 (1760). 

Type, P. domestic** Linn. 

In the genus Passer and the rest of the Finches to oe 
treated of, the bill is much more swollen and "globose," the 



THE SPARROWS. 49 

upper edge of the bill being gently curved towards the tip, while 
the line of the lower mandible is more abrupt. In the species 
which we have been considering before, the bill is more com- 
pressed and pointed and not so swollen. 

The introduction of the English Sparrow into America and 
many of our colonies has greatly widened the area of geo- 
graphical distribution of the genus Passer, which is, however, 
essentially a type of the temperate portions of the Old World, 
Europe alone possessing three distinct species, viz., the 
House-Sparrow (Passer domesticus}, the Italian Sparrow (P. 
italice.}, and the Spanish Sparrow (P. hispaniolensis}. Peculiar 
species occur in Central Asia, Thibet, Sind, and Palestine, but 
the larger number of the members of the genus Passer are 
found in Africa, though here the species are of a somewhat 
different type from the European ones. The Tree-Sparrow (P. 
montanus\ extends throughout the greater part of Europe and 
Asia, and in many countries it takes the place of the House- 
Sparrow in the towns. 



I. THE HOUSE-SPARROW. PASSER DOMESTICUS. 

Fringilla domestic^ Lmn , S. N., i., p. 323 (1766). 

Passer domes ticus, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 340 (1837) ; Newt ed. 

Yarn, ii., p. 89 (1876); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 587, pi. 

176, fig. i (1876); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 51 (1883); 

Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. vi. (1888) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus., xii., p. 307 (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 170 

(1889). 

Adult Male. Above chestnut, streaked with black ; throat 
black ; lesser wing-coverts uniform chestnut ; crown uniform 
dark ashy grey; lower back and rump uniform ashy brown ; 
sides of neck and a broad superciliary streak deep chestnut ; 
feathers below the eye black ; ear-coverts and sides of face 
ashy white, with a little white spot behind the eye ; bill leaden 
blue ; feet brown ; iris hazel. Total length, 6 inches ; culmen, 
'55; wing, 2-95; tarsus, 075. 

In winter the plumage is duller owing to the ashy brown 
margins with which the feathers are supplied. These edges 
gradually wear off and leave the full summer plumage, without 
L B 



50 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTOR\ 

a moult. The bill is horny brown in winter and becomes leaden 
blue in summer. 

Adult Female. Differs from the male in wanting the black 
throat and being altogether browner in colour; the back 
streaked with blackish ; over the eye a pale streak ; rump 
pale ashy brown; cheeks dingy brown like the ear- coverts. 
Total length, 5-2 inches; culmen, 0^45; wing, 3-0; tail, 2-2; 
tarsus, 075 

Young. Resembles the old female, but is whiter below, 
especially on the throat. 

Range in Great Britain. Universally distributed. 

Range outside the British Islands. Generally throughout Europe, 
" where grain will grow," as Mr. Howard Saunders puts it. Re- 
placed in Italy by P. italiz, and in most of the Mediterra- 
nean countries by P. hispanioknsis> though the Common 
Sparrow is often found in the same districts as the latter 
species. The Eastern form of the Sparrow, P. indicus, is only 
a smaller and somewhat purer coloured race of our bird, 
which may thus be said to extend eastwards to India and the 
neighbourhood of Lake Baikal. The Sparrow has been now 
introduced into North America, Australia, New Zealand, and 
other countries, to the detriment and, in some cases, the 
extinction of the native birds. 

Habits. These are too well-known to require a detailed 
description. Considerable controversy has taken place as to 
the harm done by the sparrows to the farmers, and on this 
point a pamphlet by Mr. J. H. Gurney, " On the Misdeeds 
of the House-Sparrow," may be read with interest, as also an 
excellent monograph of the species written by Mr. Walter B. 
Barrows, and published by the United States Department of 
Agriculture, " especially as to the relations of the Sparrow tc 
agriculture." Doubtless during the nesting season the Sparrow 
largely feeds its young on insects, and we have seen one she 
by our friend Major Wardlaw Ramsay, with its crop perfectl] 
full of the Bean Aphis (Aphis rumicis), but at other seasons of 
the year it is capable of inflicting great damage, from the amount 
of grain it devours. 

A rough structure of grasses and straws, hay, and al 



THE SPARROWS. 51 

kinds of materials, but thickly and warmly lined with feathers. 
It is usually placed in holes of buildings and trees, or under the 
eaves of roofs; it often occupies House-Martins' nests and even 
the burrows of Sand-Martins. Its reproductive powers are 
proverbial, and as many as three broods are often reared in the 
season. 

Eggs. Four to six in number, very variable in colour, even 
in specimens of the same clutch. Ground-colour white or 
greenish white, with spots and blotches of brown, purplish or 
greenish in tint. Occasionally the eggs are so thickly mottled 
with brown as to be nearly uniform, and a common type of 
Sparrow's egg is white, dotted all over with tiny black markings. 
Axis, o'S-ro inch; diam., o'6-o'65. 

II. THE TREE-SPARROW. PASSER MONTANUS. 

Fringilla montana^ Linn., S. N., i., p. 324 (1766). 

Passer mont anus ) Macg., Br. B., i., p. 351 (1837); Dresser, B. 
Eur., iii., p. 597, pi. 178 (1875) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 82 
(1876); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 51 (1883); Sharpe, Catr- 
B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 301 (1888) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. 
B., pt. ix. (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 173 (1889). 

Adult Male. Throat and fore-neck black; back streaked 
with black ; head uniform chocolate-brown ; lesser wing-coverts 
uniform brown, not chestnut ; ear-coverts ashy whitish, with a 
black patch on the lower parts ; sides of neck white ; under 
surface of body ashy ; bill black ; legs light brown ; iris 
brown. Total length, 5*6 inches; culmen, 0*45 ; wing, 275 ; 
tail, 2*0; tarsus, 07. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
5 -2 inches; wing, 2*65. 

Unlike the House-Sparrow, there is scarcely any difference 
between the plumage of the Tree-Sparrow in summer and 
winter, and the summer plumage is not acquired by any shed- 
ding of the pale tips to the feathers. Young birds resemble 
the adults, but are duller in colour. 

Range in Great Britain. According to Mr. Howard Saunders, 
the Tree-Sparrow is extending its range in the British Islands. 
It is an inhabitant chiefly of the eastern counties of Scotland 

E a 



5* LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

and England, and in the other portions of the country it is de- 
cidedly local. In Ireland this is especially the case ; it is not 
uncommon near Dublin, and has more recently been recorded 
from North Aran Island, co. Donegal. 

Eange outside the British Islards. In most parts of Europe, 
the Tree-Sparrow is a local species, as in Great Britain, but is 
extending its range northward in the western countries, having 
reached the Faeroes and settled there within the last twenty- 
five years, and it has now extended its range in Scandinavia 
beyond the Arctic Circle. In many other parts of Europe it 
is more abundant than the House-Sparrow, and its home 
extends throughout temperate and tropical Asia, along the line 
of the Himalayas to the Burmese countries and the Malayan 
Peninsula to Java, while to the northward the Tree-Sparrow is 
found throughout China to Manchuria and Japan. 

Habits. A more elegant and lively bird than the House- 
Sparrow, the present species has also a clearer and more musical 
note. It is also an inhabitant of the open country, avoiding 
the towns, where its congener is so much at home, though it 
occasionally builds its nests in barns and outhouses. A favourite 
nesting-place in this country is in the holes of pollard willows, 
and it will even build in holes of walls or in wells. 

Nest. Composed of straw, grasses, and rootlets, but not 
so rough or clumsy in construction as that of the Common 
Sparrow. The lining consists of wool, feathers, and sometimes 
a little hair, according to Mr. Seebohm. 

Eggs. Three to five in number, smaller than those of the 
House-Sparrow, but varying in markings and colour, as is the 
case with that species ; as a rule, however, the tendency of the 
Tree-Sparrow's eggs is towards a darker colour than the House- 
Sparrow's, and the majority of a series of clutches are more 
uniform. Axis, 07-0-8 ; diam., 0-55-0*3. 

THE CANARIES. GENUS SERINUS. 

Serinus, Koch, Syst. Baier, Zool., p. 228 (1816). 

Type, S. scrinus (Linn.). 

The members of this genus recall the Siskins in their mode 
of coloration, having a considerable amount of yellow and! 



THE CANARIES. 53 

green in their plumage. The bill is swollen and the curve of 
both mandibles is equally marked towards the tip, so that the 
bill is not pointed as in the Siskins, but is more like that of a 
small Grosbeak. 

The Canaries are mostly African, sixteen species being 
peculiar to that continent. In Southern and Central Europe 
the Serin Finch is found, and the true Canary Bird of the 
Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands is only a large form of 
the Serin Finch. A third species, S. canonicus, occurs in 
Palestine. A small Serin (S. pusillus] with a red forehead, 
recalling the appearance of the Redpolls, is found from Asia 
Minor and Syria eastwards to Central Asia and the North- 
western Himalayas. 

I. THE SERIN FINCH. SERINUS SERINUS. 

Fringilla serinus^ Linn., S. N., i., p. 320 (1766). 

Serinus hortulanus. Dresser, B. Eur., in., p. 549, pi. 170 (1875) ; 

Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. in (1877); B. O. U. List Br. 

p. 49 (1883); Saunders, Man., p. 169 (1889). 
Serinus serinus, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 368 

(1888). 

Adult Male. General colour above pale brown, streaked with 
black, the feathers also marked with yellow ; throat and breast 
yellow, with an ashy shade on the lower throat; forehead 
yellow ; sides of body ashy-brown, very distinctly streaked with 
black; abdomen white. Total length, 4-5 inches; culmen, 
0-3; wing, 2-8; tail, 1-9; tarsus, 0-55. 

The Female is coloured like the male, but the plumage is not 
quite so bright. Total length, 4-5 inches; wing, 2*6. 

Range in Great Britain. A very rare visitor, some eight ex- 
amples having been taken in England either in spring or 
autumn. 

Range outside the British Islands. An inhabitant of Southern 
and Central Europe, extending through the Mediterranean 
countries to Asia Minor and Palestine. Northwards its range 
extends to the Rhine Provinces and to Denmark, and it breeds 
near Frankfort and Darmstadt. The Canary (Serinus canarid) 



54 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

from the Canary Islands and the Azores is nothing but a large 
race of the Serin Finch.* 

Habits. Very much resembling those of a Siskin, but the 
Serin is of a more lively nature, and its clear and ringing call- 
note makes it very conspicuous as it sings from the top of a 
tree, or mounts into the air. "Its note resembles the word 
zi-zi-zi often repeated, and a flock of birds settled on a tree pro- 
duces a peculiar buzzing, or almost hissing sound." (Howard 
Sounder s.) 

Eggs. Resemble very closely those of the Linnet, but are 
smaller, with a bluish white ground-colour, mottled and spotted 
with reddish brown or pink with darker purplish black spots. 
Axis, o - 6-o'7 inch; diam., o'45-o'5. 

THE RED BULLFINCHES. GENUS CARPODACUS. 

Carpodacus, Kaup., Natiirl. Syst, p. 161 (1829). 

Type, C. erythrinus (Pall.). 

These birds are similar in form to the Canaries, but are 
somewhat more stoutly built, and have a good deal of crimson 
or purple in their coloration. 

Only one species has occurred in England, the Scarlet Bull- 
finch ( C. erythrinus\ which is a North European form occurring 
throughout Northern Asia. A large number of species inhabit 
the mountains of Asia, particularly the Himalayas, and at least 
half-a-dozen are found in North America, some of them ranging 
into Mexico. 

* Wild Canaries, identical with the resident bird of the Canary Islands, 
have been frequently caught in England. Some ornithologists consider 
these birds to have been imported, others believe that they may be occa- 
sional immigrants to our shores. It seems quite feasible to suppose that 
escaped Canaries of the orthodox yellow colour would, in a very short 
space of time, revert to the plumage of the wild stock from which they were 
derived ; and it is probably birds of this category which have been captured 
in England, rather than wanderers from the far distant home of the species. 
Other Canaries, S. canicollis and S. icterus, have also been captured in 
England ; but as these are by no means uncommon cage-birds, there is no 
4oubt tliat the individuals recorded had escaped from captivity. 



THE RED BULLFINCHES. 55 



I. THE SCARLET EULLFINCH. CARPODACUS ERYTHRINUS. 

Loxia erytlirina, Pall., N. Comm. Acacl. Sci., St. Petersb , xiv., p. 

587, pi. 23, fig. i. (1770). 
Carpodacus e> -ythrinus , Dresser, B. Eur.,iv.,p. 75, pi. 195 (1871) ; 

B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 55 (1883); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 

Mus., xii., p. 391 (1888). 
Pyrrhula erythrina, Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 189 (1877); Saun- 

ders, Man., p. 189 (1889) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xiv. 

(1890). 

Adult Male. Dark brown, washed with rosy or pale crimson ; 
lower back and rump dull rosy ; crown of head dull .crimson, 
this colour overspreading the nape and hind-neck ; cheeks, 
throat, and breast bright crimson, paler on the latter ; centre 
of breast and abdomen white, slightly washed with crimson ; 
bill greyish horn-colour, the ridge more dusky ; feet and toes 
brown ; iris hazel. Total length, 5-5 inches ; culmen, 0-45 ; 
wing, 3*2 ; tail, 2*25; tarsus, 0*75. 

Adult Female. Above olive-brown, with dusky centres to the 
feathers ; rump brown like the back, with no crimson ; wing- 
coverts tipped with yellowish white, forming a double wing-bar; 
throat dull white, streaked with brown ; fore-neck and breast, 
ochreous buff, streaked with dusky ; abdomen white. Total 
length, 5-2 inches; wing, 3-0. 

Young Male. Similar to the female, but not so distinctly 
striped on the throat and breast; wing-bars yellow and very 

distinct. 

Range in Great Britain. An accidental straggler, having oc- 
curred twice : near Brighton in September, and near Hamp- 
stead in October. As the species is one which is extending its 
range in Western Europe, these are not likely to have been 
individuals escaped from confinement. 

Range- outside the British Islands. Breeds from Eastern Prus- 
sia eastwards through Northern Russia and Southern Siberia to 
the Pacific, as well as from Asia Minor eastwards to Central 
Asia. It winters in India and the countries to the south of its 



56 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

breeding-range, and has occurred on migration in Southern 
Sweden, Heligoland, and France ; while Mr. Howard Saunders 
records two specimens from the south of Spain. 

Habits. Mr. Seebohm observes : " The marshy forest-banks 
of the great Siberian rivers are a very favourite resort of 
this bird ; and in the Baltic Provinces, where it is common, 
and in the valley of the Upper Volga, it is described as fre- 
quenting willows and other low trees in marshy districts." 

Nest. Described by Mr. Seebohm as built in the fork of a 
small bush, or amongst climbing-plants not far from the ground, 
and resembling rather that of a Warbler than that of a Finch. 
It is deep, carefully made, so slenderly put together as to be 
semi-transparent when held up to the light, and composed of 
long grass-stalks and lined with horse-hair. 

Eggs. Four to five in number, of a beautiful blue colour, 
with small underlying spots of reddish brown, and darker over- 
lying spots of purplish brown or black, chiefly collected round 
the larger end. Axis, 075-0-85 inch; diam., 0-55-0-6. 

THE CROSSBILLS. GENUS LOXIA. 

Loxia, Linn. Syst., Nat., i., p. 299 (1766, pt). 

Type, Z. curvirostra Linn. 

The Crossbills, so called from their mandibles crossing eacl 
other at the end of the bill, are easily recognised by this pecu- 
liarity. In the very young birds this feature is not noticeable, 
the bill being apparently like that of any other Finch, but the 
mandibles begin to be irregular in shape as soon as the birds 
are full-sized. 

The common Crossbill varies very much in size, the largest 
birds being found in Northern Europe, and possessing such big 
bills that they have generally been considered a separate species, 
and have been called the Parrot Crossbill (L. pytiopsittacus), 
while the American form (L. americana) is very much smaller, 
and the Himalayan one (L. himalayand] the smallest of all. 
They are all, however, mere races of the ordinary Crossbill of 
Europe (L. curvirostra). 



PIRATE IX 



- ^ 








CROSSeiLL. 



THE CROSSBILLS. 57 

There are also Crossbills which have white bands on the 
wing. Of these there are two, the European White-winged 
Crossbill (Z. bifasciata), which ranges to Eastern Siberia, and 
the American White-winged Crossbill (L. Ieucoptera\ which 
takes the place of Z. bifasciata in North America. 



I. THE CROSSBILL. LOXIA CURVIROSTRA. 
(Plate IX.) 

Loxia curvirostra. Linn., S. N., i., p. 299 (1766); Newt. ed. 

Yarn, ii., p. 187 (1877); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 127, pi. 

203 (1872) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 57 (1883) ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii. p. 435 (1888) ; Saunders, Man., 

p. 193 (1889). 

Loxia europcea, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 417 (1837). 
Loxia pytiopsittacus, Bechst, Orn. Taschenb, p. 106 (1882). 

Adult Male. General colour above pale vermilion, the rump 
clearer vermilion or pale scarlet ; under surface also vermilion ; 
bill and feet brown ; iris hazel. Total length, 6 inches ; cul- 
men, 0*8 ; wing, 3*8; tail, 2*2; tarsus, o'6. 

Adult Female. Not so brightly coloured as the male, being 
olive-yellow, where the latter is red. 

Young Birds are dull coloured like the female, but are 
streaked both above and below, the under surface being dull 
white, slightly tinged with yellow and streaked with blackish 
brown. 

Range in Great Britain. Breeds in the pine districts of Scot- 
land, and in Ireland. A nest from co. Waterford has been 
presented by Mr. R. T. Ussher to the British Museum, 
and it may be seen among the series of cases illustrating our 
native birds and their nests. In the southern counties of 
England the Crossbill also nests in suitable localities, but it is 
chiefly known as a winter visitant in the south. 

Range outside the British Islands. Over the greater part of 
Europe and Northern Asia, as well as North America, being 
everywhere an inhabitant of the pine regions. Several races 



58 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

are known, the most familiar to English ornithologists being the 
so-called " Parrot " Crossbill (Loxia pytiopsittacus\ which has a 
much larger bill than the ordinary species, and is an inhabitant 
chiefly of Northern Europe, whence it ranges occasionally into 
the British Islands. In the Himalayas the race of the Cross- 
bill known as Loxia himalayana is very small, and many 
ornithologists consider the American Crossbill to be separable 
as a race. As stated in the " Catalogue of Birds," we have 
not been able to recognise the differences of these various 
races. 

Habits. In winter, when the Crossbill is generally met with 
in the southern counties of England, it is gregarious, going 
about in small flocks or in parties. It is a bird of irregular 
migration, and its movements within the confines of the 
British Islands are also irregular. During the nesting season 
it is decidedly shy, but in winter is very tame, and it can 
be observed from a very short distance. The food in sum- 
mer consists largely of insects, on which the young are 
principally reared. The Crossbills feed also on the seeds 
of the pines, which they extract very dexterously from the 
cones, as well as on berries. The ordinary Crossbill de- 
vours the seeds of the larch and spruce-firs, but the large 
race, the so-called " Parrot " Crossbill, is said by Mr. See- 
bohm to find its principal food in the seeds of the Scotch 
fir, which its powerful bill enables it to extract from the 
larger cones of that tree. The Crossbill is a very early 
breeder. 

Nest. Cup-shaped, and generally placed in a fir-tree, often 
at a considerable height from the ground. It is composed of 
grass and moss, with a little wool and a few feathers in the 
lining ; outside the nest is composed of twigs, and in general 
appearance is like that of the Bullfinch. 

Eggs. Four to five. Ground-colour varying from stone- 
colour or creamy-white or pale bluish, with the usual reddish 
spots and darker purplish-brown overlying spots and scrib- 
blings. The spots are distributed over the whole surface 
of the eggs, but when strongly marked, they are collected 
round the larger end of the egg. Axis, 0-8-0*9 mc}l > 



THE BULLFINCHES. 59 

IT. THE TWO-BARRED CROSSBILL.* LOXTA BIFASCIATA. 

Cructrostra bifasriata, Brehm., Ornis., iii., p. 85 (1827). 
Loxia bifasciata, Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 211 (1877); Dresser, 

B. Eur., iv., p. 141, pi. 205 (1877); B. O. U. List Br. 

B., p. 58 (1883); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 58 

(1888); Saunders, Man., p. 195 (1889). 

Adult Male. Distinguished from the common Crossbill by the 
white bands on the wings, formed by the white tips to the 
median and greater coverts. Total length, 5-5 inches; cul- 
men, 07 ; wing, 3-65 ; tail, 2*1 ; tarsus, 07. 

Range in Great Britain. An accidental visitor, sometimes oc- 
curring in some numbers, as in 1889. 

Range ontside the British Islands. Accidental in many parts 
of Central Europe, but resident in Northern Russia and 
Northern Asia across Siberia to the Pacific. 

Habits. Like those of the common Crossbill. 

Nest and Eggs. Like those of the common Crossbill, but 
smaller in size, the egg said to be darker in colour than that 
of the last-named bird. 

THE BULLFINCHES. GENUS PYRRHULA. 
Pyrrhula, Briss., Orn., iii., p. 308 (1760). 

Type, P. turopaa (Vieill.). 

The peculiarly swollen and evenly rounded bill, which is 
very broad at the base, is the chief distinguishing character of 
the Bullfinches, apart from their coloration, which is also some- 
what peculiar. The sexes carry out the same style of colour, 
but the males are generally red-breasted, while the females are 
grey-breasted. In some species, however, like the Azorean 
Bullfinch (P. murina] and Cassin's Bullfinch (P. cassini), both 
sexes are equally brown or grey, with no red. Similar Bull- 
finches, with the sexes alike, occur in the Himalayas, which 

* The White-winged Crossbill (Loxia hucopterd) is the American 
form of the Two-barred Crossbill. It is rather more crimson in its colour, 
and has a little more black on the scapulars. Total length, 9 inches ; wing, 
3'55. It is said to have occurred in the British Islands on several occa- 



60 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

possess three species, but the genus is essentially a Palaearctic 
one, and is to be found throughout the region, one species 
only, P. casstni, extending its range to the Nearctic Region and 
occurring in Alaska. 

I. THE BULLFINCH. PYRRHULA EUROPiEA. 

(Plate X.} 

Loxia pyrrhula (nee. Linn.), Lath. Ind. Orn., i., p. 387 (1790). 
Pyrrhula pihata, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 407 (1837). 
Pyrrhula europcza, Vieill. ; Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 101, pi. 199 
(1876); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 166 (1877); B. O. U. 
List Br. B., p. 56 (.1883); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii, 
p. 447 (1888) ; Saunders, Man., p. 187 (1889). 

Adult Male. Bluish grey, with a conspicuous white band 
across the rump ; wings black, with a small spot of pale 
vermilion on the innermost secondaries ; crown of head black ; 
sides of face, ear-coverts, cheeks, and under surface of body 
dull vermilion ; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts white ; 
bill black; feet dark brown; iris brown. Total length, 6 
inches; culmen, 0-45; wing, 3-1 ; tail, 2-4; tarsus, 0*65. 

Adult Female. Differs from the male in having the back 
brown, the hind neck ashy-grey, forming a tolerably distinct 
collar ; ear-coverts, sides of face, and under surface of body 
vinous chocolate, paler on the abdomen, the under tail-coverts 
white. Total length, 6 inches ; wing, 3-1. 

Range in Great Britain. Generally distributed, and increasing 
its range in Scotland, though still somewhat local in most 
parts of the country, being absent in the Hebrides, and only 
an occasional visitor to the Orkneys and Shetland. 

Eange outside the British Islands. A bird of Western Europe, 
extending east to Germany and south to the Mediterranean 
countries and Algeria, but replaced in Scandinavia and Europe 
east of Poland by a larger and purer coloured form, commonly 
known as the "Russian Bullfinch," Pyrrhula pyrrhula. 

Habits. Shy and retiring, and always to be seen in pairs 
both in summer and winter. Its piping call-note is a feature 
of the woodland life of England, when the Bullfinch is 



PLATE X 




BULLFINCH 



THE PINE-FINCHES. 6 1 

by no means rare, and is to be recognised in flight by the 
white band across the back, which is very conspicuous. 
Its food consists almost entirely of seeds, fruits, and berries, 
but it is very partial to the young buds of fruit-trees, and 
numbers are shot in the spring by gardeners, who resent 
the havoc which the bird works among the buds of the 
currant and gooseberry bushes. 

Nest. A beautiful structure, on account of the network of 
fine twigs with which it is surrounded, the inside of the nest 
being neatly constructed of fine rootlets. 

Eggs. Four to six in number^ Ground-colour a clear 
blue, thickly spotted with red at the larger end, and having 
conspicuous spots and blotches of purplish brown, in most 
cases very distinctly pronounced. Axis, 0-75-0-8 inches; 
diam., 0-55-0-6. 

THE PINE-FINCHES. GENUS PINICOLA. 

Pinicola, Vieill., Ois. d'Amer., Sept., p. iv. (1807). 

Type, P. mucleator (Linn.). 

Only one species of the genus Pinicola is known, which 
occurs in the northern parts of the Old and New Worlds. It 
is generally called the Pine " Grosbeak," but it is not a Gros- 
beak at all, but a Bullfinch ; in fact, it might very well be 
placed in the genus Pyrrhula, as has often been done. Its 
large size, however, different style of coloration, and somewhat 
differently-shaped bill, render it convenient to separate the 
genus Pinicola from the true Bullfinches. 

I. THE PINE-FINCH, PINICOLA ENUCLEATOR. 

Loxia enucleator, Linn., S. N., i., p. 299 (1766). 

Pyrrhula enuclcator, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 411 (1837); Newt. 

ed. Yarr., ii., p. 177 (1877); Saunders, Man., p. 191 

(1889). 
Pinicola enucleator^ Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. ill, pi. 201 (1874); 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 459 (1888). 

Adult Male. Above rosy or crimson ; the upper surface 
mottled with darker brown markings before the tips of the 



62 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

feathers ; lower back and rump uniform rosy ; wings dark 
brown, with rosy margins to the feathers, broader on the inner 
secondaries ; crown uniform rosy or pale crimson, as also the 
under surface of the body, which is ashy whitish on the lower 
abdomen and under tail-coverts. Total length, 8-5 inches ; 
culmen, 0-65 ; wing, 4-15 ; tail, 3-25 ; tarsus, o'S6. 

Adult Female. Lacks the rosy colour of the male, the lower 
back being ashy like the rest of the back, with dusky centres 
to the feathers ; quills and tail-feathers edged with yellowish 
white or olive ; under surface of body ashy grey, washed with 
golden olive on the throat and breast ; abdomen and under 
tail-coverts pale ashy. Total length, 8 inches ; wing, 4-0. 

Eange in Great Britain. Accidental only ; the numerous re- 
cords of its capture in this country resting in nearly every 
case on unsatisfactory evidence. 

Eange outside the British Islands. An inhabitant of the pine- 
woods of Northern Europe, across Northern Asia, and North 
America, in the vicinity of the Arctic Circle. In Central 
Europe it has occurred only as an irregular wanderer. 

Habits. According to Mr. Seebohm, the Pine-Finch goes 
about in flocks during the winter, but disperses through the 
pine-woods during the nesting season. The call note is some- 
thing like that of the Bullfinch. In disposition it is some- 
what shy and frequents the tops of the trees, affecting the 
woods by the sides of streams. Its food consists of " buds of 
various forest-trees, the seeds of pine- and fir-cones, and the 
berries of various shrubs, especially those of the southern- 
wood." 

Nest. " Made on the same model as those of the Hawfinch 
and Bullfinch, but of coarser materials. The outside is a 
framework of slender fir-twigs, and the inside, which projects 
above the outside, is composed of roots, fine grass, and a 
lichen which grows on the branches of the trees, and which 
might easily be mistaken for hair." (Seebohm.} 

Eggs. Three to four in number. Something like large Bull- 
finch's eggs in appearance, but much deeper blue, with plentiful 
underlying spots of purplish grey, and overlying spots of brown, 
with darker blotches and spots of purplish brown, collecting 



I HE TRUE BUNTINGS. 63 

chiefly at the larger end, but in many cases distributed over 
the egg. Axis, I'o-i'iinch; diam., o'7-o'75. 



THE BUNTINGS. SUB-FAMILY EMBERIZIN^E. 

A very widely-distributed group of birds, especially developed 
in Northern and Southern America, and likewise spread over 
the greater part of the Old World, but not occurring in the 
Malay Archipelago, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. 

The form of the bill is the best character for separating the 
Buntings from the other Finches, for the angle of the chin is 
very strongly marked and the bill is usually gaping that is to 
say, there is a distinct gap in the outline of the closed bill. 
Many Buntings have a knob-like protuberance on the palate or 
roof of the mouth. 

THE TRUE BUNTINGS. GENUS EMBERIZA. 

Emberiza, Briss., Orn., iii., p. 257 (1760). 

Type, E. ritrinella Linn. 

In the true Buntings, as distinguished from the Long-spurs, 
the hind claw is not strongly developed, and is never longer 
than the hind toe. The wing is scarcely longer than the tail, 
the nostrils are hidden by little bristly plumes, and the tail has 
always a white pattern in it, very conspicuous during flight. 

I. THE REED-BUNTING. EMBERIZA SCH/ENICLUS. 

Emberiza schanidus, Linn., S. N., i., p. 311 (1766); Macg., 
Br. B., i., p. 453 (1837); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 23 
(1876); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 241^15.221-222(1878); 
B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 62 (1883) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., xii., p. 480 (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 211 (1889). 

Adult Male. Rufous above, streaked with black, and with 
pale edgings to the feathers; lower back and rump ashy 
grey, streaked with black ; scapulars and lesser wing-coverts 
chestnut, the former streaked with black ; head and throat 
black ; under surface of body white, streaked ivith black on the 



6 4 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

sides and flanks. Total length, 6 inches ; culmen, 0*15 ; wing, 
3-0; tail, 2'o tarsus, 075. 

In winter the bird is much browner than in summer, the 
feathers having sandy edges, which gradually wear away in the 
spring, leaving the full plumage in its entirety, without any 
moult. 

Adult Female. Differs from the male in wanting the black 
head and throat ; the under surface of the body white, with- 
out any yellow tinge; the sides streaked with dusky brown; 
breast distinctly streaked ; throat ashy fulvous, with a broad 
black streak on either side widening out on each side of the 
neck ; centre of crown brown, streaked with black, and re- 
sembling the back ; lesser wing-coverts chestnut. Total length, 
5 '2 inches ; wing, 2-9. 

Range in Great Britain. Found everywhere, and breeding in 
suitable places, except in the Shetlands, where it is only an 
irregular visitor. 

Eange outside Great Britain. Europe generally, extending 
east to the Yenesei Valley, and said to occur in Mongolia 
and Kamtchatka, but not extending north beyond the forest 
growth. It is certainly found in Central Asia and through- 
out Turkestan, occurring in North-western India in winter. 
In the countries of the Mediterranean it is replaced in many 
districts by the large Marsh Bunting (Pyrrhulorhyncha palus- 
tris). 

Habits. The Reed-Bunting is a familiar object on our 
marshes and rivers, the black-and-white head-dress of the male 
rendering him very conspicuous as he utters his twittering song 
from the top of some bulrush or low bush. It is a bird fre- 
quently to be observed in summer on the banks of the Thames 
and other rivers in England. In the autumn and winter the 
Reed-Buntings collect in considerable flocks and frequent 
the stubble-fields in company with Sparrows and Chaffinches. 
Large numbers visit our shores in autumn, and it was one of 
the most plentiful''- migrants which we saw in Heligoland. As 
is the case with most of our Finches, the food of the Reed- 
Bunting in summer consists largely of insects, but in winter it 
feeds chiefly on seeds and grain. 



THE BUNTINGS. 65 

Nest. Generally placed low down in some marshy bank, 
but we have often found it in a bush a yard or two above the 
water, though never suspended in reeds. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. Ground-colour, stone-brown 
or clay-colour, scribbled and blotched all over with black, with 
occasional spots of black, the " writing " marks always very 
distinct. Axis, 075-0-85 ; diam., 0-55-0-6. 

II. THE LITTLE BUNTING. EMBERIZA PUSILLA. 

Emberiza pusilla, Pall. Reise. Russ. Reichs., iii., p. 697 (1776) ; 
Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 34 (1876); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 
235, pi. 220 (1877) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 61 (1883) ; 
Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 144 (1884) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
xii., p. 487 (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 209 (1889). 

Adult Male. Above rufous-brown, broadly streaked with 
black, the rump duller in colour ; under surface white, the sides 
of the body streaked with blackish-brown, but without any tinge 
of yellow below ; breast distinctly streaked ; ear-coverts and 
throat vinous-chestnut ; bill brown, whitish on the lower man- 
didle ; feet reddish-grey ; iris brown. Total length, 4-8 inches ; 
oilmen, 0*4; wing, 2-8; tail, 2-1 ; tarsus, 0*8. 

Adult Female. Like the male, but not quite so richly tinted, 
j and less distinctly striped below. 

Young. Lacks the rufous colour on the throat, which is 
white. It may be distinguished from that of the Reed-Bunting 
its smaller size, chestnut crown, and especially by having the 
wing-coverts brown with dusky centres, not uniform chestnut. 

Eange in Great Britain. A very rare and occasional visitor, 
laving once been taken near Brighton. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Northern Russia, from the 
valley of the Dwina across Siberia to the Pacific; wintering 
n India, the Burmese countries, and China. In winter it has 
also occurred in most of the countries of Central Europe. 

Habits. Mr. Seebohm met with this Bunting on the Pet- 
:hora river and again on the Yenesei. He says that it was 
xtremely tame, and he found several nests. It is a very late 
iiilor too in the north, arriving only in the early part of June, 

I F 






66 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

when it Is common in the pine-woods and birch-forests. It 
has an " unobtrusive and quiet song." In winter, like othei 
Buntings, it assembles in flocks. 

Nest. This is described by Mr. Seebohm as "a hole made 
in the dead leaves, moss, and grass, copiously and carefully 
lined with fine dead grass." Two other nests found by him 
were lined with reindeer-hair. 

Eggs. Three to five in number. Like miniature eggs of the 
Corn-Bunting, the ground-colour varying from stone-grey tc 
pinkish-brown, with underlying grey markings, and conspicuous 
overlying spots and scribblings of purplish-black and reddish 
brown. Axis, o'7~o'8 inch ; diam., 0*5-0 '6. 

III. THE RUSTIC BUNTING. EMBERIZA RUSTICA. 

Emleriza rustica, Pall. Reise. Russ. Reichs., iii., p. 698 
(1776); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 29(1876); Dresser, B, 
Eur., iv., p. 229, pi. 219 (1877); B. O. U, List Br. B., p, 
61 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 140 (1884); Sharpe, Cat 
B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 490 (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 205 



Adult Male. Above chestnut, streaked with black, with 
ashy margins to the feathers; lesser wing-coverts chestnut 
under surface of body white, with a chestnut band across the 
fore-neck, the sides of the body also streaked with chestnut , 
breast distinctly streaked ; ear-coverts brown ; a broad white 
eyebrow; base of chin black. Total length, 5 inches; cul 
men, 0-45 ; wing, 3-0 ; tail, 2'o ; tarsus, 075. 

In winter the whole colour of the bird is duller, the feathers 
being margined with buff, these pale edgings wearing off in 
spring, and leaving the breeding plumage in all its brilliancy. 

Adult Female. Duller in colour than the male, and lacking 
the rufous colour on the head and throat ; lesser wing-coverts 
brown instead of chestnut ; under surface of body buffy-whit 
the throat more isabelline. Total length, 5-5 inches; 

Young. Resembles the old female, but has the thr( 
yellowish-buff, the fore-neck and chest streaked with blackis 



THE BUNTINGS. 67 

brown ; wing-coverts edged with sandy-buff, and not tipped 
with white. 

Range in Great Britain. A rare and accidental visitor. Has 
occurred three or four times : near Brighton; in Yorkshire ; and 
near London. 

Range ontside the British Islands. A Siberian bird, extending 
to the Pacific, and wintering plentifully in China. In the 
winter it wanders westward, and has been taken in most of 
the countries of Europe. It occurs as far west as Finland up 
to 64 N. lat., near Archangel to 65, in the Urals to 62, 
and Mr. Seebohm met with it on the Yenesei at the same 
latitude. 

Habita. These are described as resembling those of the 
Reed-Bunting, the bird frequenting the marshy pine-woods of 
Northern Europe. It is said to have quite a melodious song. 

Nest. Described by Mr. Dresser as a carelessly-built struc- 
ture, made entirely of fine wiry grass. 

Eggs. According to Mr. Dresser, these are like those of the 
Reed-Bunting, but the ground-colour is white, with a warm, 
almost reddish, tinge. The markings are redder than those 
of the above-named bird, bolder, and chiefly collected in 
a zone round the larger end of the egg. The two eggs in 
the Seebohm Collection from Archangel are greenish-white, 
mottled and clouded all over with greenish-brown, these 
mottlings distributed over the entire egg. Axis, o'8 inch; 
diam., 0*6. 

IV. THE BLACK-HEADED BUNTING. EMBER IZA MELANOCEPHALA. 

Embcriza melanocephala, Scop., Ann., i., p. 142 (1769); Dresser, 
B. Eur., iv., p. 151, pi. 206 (1872); B. O. U. List Br. B., 
p. 59 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 165 (1884); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Br. Mus., xii., p. 503 (1888) ; Saunders, Man., p. 
197 (1889). 

Euspiza melanocephala, Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 64 (1876). 

Adult Male. Light bay colour above, paler on the rump, 
which is orange-chestnut. A collar round the hind-neck, as 
well as the entire under surface, golden-yellow ; no streaks on 
the sides of the body ; upper mandible blackish ; head black ,- 

F 2 



68 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

no white eyebrow, Total length, 7 inches ; culmen, o'6 ; wing, 
3*65 ; tail, 2-9 ; tarsus, 0*9. 

In winter all the bright colours are obscured by ashy mar- 
gins to the feathers, the black head and chestnut back being 
entirely hidden by these margins, which wear off in springtime. 

Adult Female. Differs from the male, and is much duller in 
colour. The sides of the body are not streaked, the bill is 
blackish (bluish-grey in life) ; rump with concealed chestnut 
markings ; no black on the head ; under tail-coverts yellow ; 
abdomen isabelline. Total length, 6 inches ; wing, 3-35. 

Range in Great Britain. A rare and accidental visitor. Has 
occurred three times : near Brighton ; in Nottinghamshire; and 
in Scotland, near Dunfermline. 

Range outside the British Islands. From Italy to Greece and 
Turkey, eastward to Persia and the Caucasus, and wintering in 
the Indian Peninsula. Its migration is therefore strictly east 
and west. It arrives in South-eastern Europe at the end of 
April, and leaves again at the end of July or the beginning of 
August. 

Habits. According to Mr. Seebohm, who has studied the 
habits of the bird in Greece and Asia Minor, it is a thorough 
Bunting, and he gives some interesting notes on the species. 

Ifest. Placed in a small bush or on the ground ; a bulky 
structure, very rough outside, but neatly finished inside. " The 
main portion is constructed," writes Mr. Seebohm, "entirely 
of the yellow dry stalks of various small flowering-plants, the 
seed-capsules on which are the most prominent object and are 
conjoined with the stiffness of the stalks, which prevents them 
from bending easily ; this gives the nest a very slender and un- 
finished look. The lining is of entirely different materials, 
brown instead of yellow, and consists of dry grass, roots, and 
slender stalks without any seed-capsules, with not unfrequently 
a final addition of goat's-hair, or a few horse-hairs." 

Eggs. Four to six in number. Ground-colour very pale, 
greenish-white, speckled with numerous dots of light brown, 
with overlying spots of reddish-brown, these spots generally 
distributed over the egg, but in some instances collecting at 
the larger end. Axis, o'85-o'98 ; diam., 0*6-07. 



THE BUNTINGS. 69 

V. THE YELLOW BUNTING. EMBERIZA CITRINELLA. 

Emberiza citrinella, Linn., S. N., i., p. 309 (1766) ; Macg., Br. 

B., i., p. 445 (1837); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 171, pi. 

209 (1871); Newt. ed. Yarn, ii., p. 43 (1876) ; B. O. U. 

List Br. B., p. 60 (1883) ; Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 160 (1884) ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 515 (1888); Saunders, 

Man., p. 201 (1889); Wyatt, Br. B., pi. 17 (1894). 

Adult Male. Brown above, with black centres to the feathers; 

lower back and rump vinous-chestnut ; under surface of body 

yellow, greener on the fore-neck and sides of neck ; no stripes 

on the throat and breast, but \hsflanks distinctly streaked with 

blackish-brown ; crown yellow, greenish on the sides ; eyebrow 

yellow ; breast and sides of the body chestnut or bay. Total 

length, 7 inches; culmen, 0-45: wings, 3-6; tail,3*o; tarsus,o - 75. 

In winter the colours are much duller, and the bright 

plumage, especially of the chestnut breast, is much obscured. 

In the spring the dusky edges gradually become abraded and~ 

wear off, so that the full plumage is gained without a moult. 

Adult Female. Never so brightly coloured as the male, and 
having the yellow on the crown concealed, and the throat and 
breast striped. Total length, 6^3; wing, 3*2. 

Young. Resembles the old female, but is very distinctly 
streaked below. 

Eange in Great Britain. Universal, breeding everywhere, ex- 
cept in the Orkneys, where it is only known as a visitant. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Generally resident through- 
out Central Europe, but a summer visitor in the northern 
portion of its range, which extends as far as 70 in Scandi- 
navia, 65 1 in Eastern Russia, and 64 on the River Ob. It 
reaches Turkestan to the eastward, but is only a winter visitor, 
as it is also to the greater part of Southern Europe. 

Habits. In England a very common and familiar bird, 
ecognisable in every country lane and hedgerow by its some- 
vhat monotonous note, which sounds like " a little bit of 
sread and no cheese" In winter it joins with the Chaffinches, 
Sparrows, and Greenfinches in the stubbles and farm-yards, and 
f eeds largely on grain. The young birds, however, are entirely 
fed on insects and caterpillars. 



70 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Nest. Generally placed on the ground, but occasionally in 
a gorse bush. It is composed of dry grass and bents, with a 
few twigs and rootlets and a little moss. It is lined with fine 
roots. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. From the curious "scrib- 
bling" on the eggs the Yellow Bunting, or "Yellow Hammer," 
as it is generally called,* is in many places known as the 
" Writing Lark." By this name it was always familiar to 
us in our school-days in Northamptonshire. Ground-colour 
of eggs varying from stone-grey to reddish- or pinkish-grey, 
or even white. The markings always irregular, no two 
eggs being exactly alike, sometimes with greyish underlying 
blotches, but generally very distinctly spotted and lined with 
overlying marks of purplish-brown. Axis, o 1 7 5-0*97 ; diam., 
0-6-0-75. 

VI. THE CIRL BUNTING. EMBERIZA CIRLUS. 

Emberiza cirlus. Linn., S. N., i., p. 311 (1766); Macg., Br. B., 
i., p. 450 (1837); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 177, pi. 210 
(1871); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 50 (1876); B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 60 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 156 (1884); 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 525 (1888) ; Saunders, 
Man., p. 203 (1889); Wyatt, Br. B., pi. 17 (1894), 
Adult Male. Somewhat resembles the Yellow Bunting, but is 
chestnut above, streaked with black. The breast is chestnut 
and the abdomen yellow, the flanks streaked with blackish ; 
lower back and rump olive-greenish, streaked with dusky ; head 
and hind-neck olive-green, streaked with black ; eyebrow 
yellow; throat black, followed by a yellow patch. Tota 
length, 5-5 inches ; culmen, 0-45 ; wing, 3-9 ; tail, 2-45 ; tarsu 
0-65. 

The winter plumage is duller, the feathers being edged wit 
olive, and the summer plumage is attained by the gradua 
wearing off of the dull edges. 

Adult Female. Lacks the black and yellow markings on th 
face ; the throat and breast striped ; lesser wing-coverts greenisJ 
grey, different from the back. This last feature will alway 
distinguish it from the female Yellow Bunting. 

* If the vernacular name is to be employed, it should properly be Yello 
Amnter, as it comes doubtless from the German word " Ammer, " a Bunting 



THE BUNTINGS. 71 

Range in Great Britain. Very local, and chiefly confined to 
the Southern Counties of England. Unknown in Ireland ; 
only found as a rare straggler to Scotland. It has been known 
to breed as far north as Brecon, and in the Midlands, but 
further north it is only of accidental occurrence. 

Range outside the British Islands. Principally a western bird, 
and an inhabitant of Central and Southern Europe, extending 
east to Asia Minor, and breeding, it is said, as far east as the 
Crimea. It is also found in North Africa, and breeds there, 
but is principally known as a winter visitor. 

Habits. A much shyer and more woodland species than the 
Yellow Bunting, though its song is similar to that of the last- 
named bird, and its call-note is almost the same. There is, 
however, a difference in tone which can be detected by any- 
one accustomed to that of the Cirl Bunting, as the latter bird 
has not the prolonged final note of the Yellow Bunting. In 
autumn small flocks of the present species disperse themselves 
over the stubbles, in company with other Buntings and Finches, 
feeding, like the latter, on seeds and grain. 

Nest. A cup-shaped structure, made of roots and grasses, 
and lined with finer roots and leaves, with a little moss. Placed 
sometimes on the ground, like that of the Yellow Bunting, but 
is generally built in bushes, and sometimes at a height of six 
feet from the ground. 

Eggs. Four or five in number, very similar in character to 
those of the Yellow Bunting, but the ground-colour lighter, 
greyish or pinkish-white, and the lines and scribblings very 
distinct, purplish-black in colour, more pronounced, as a rule, 
than those of the Yellow Bunting. Axis, 0*8-0-85 ; diam., 
0-6-07. 

VII. THE ORTOLAN BUNTING. EMBERIZA HORTULANA. 

Einberiza hortulana^ Linn., S. N., i., p. 309 (1766); Macg., Br. 

B., i., p. 457 (1837) ; Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 185, pi. 211 

(1871); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 57 (1876); B. O. U. 

List Br. B.,p. 61 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 153 (1884); 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 530 (1888); Saunders, 

Man., p. 205 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above pale reddish-brown, with 
dusky streaks on the back and scapulars, less distinct on 



?2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

the lower back and rump ; wing-coverts and quills blackish- 
brown, with rufous edges; head greenish-olive; lores yellowish; 
eyelid white; cheeks pale sulphur-yellow, separated from the 
throat by a distinct moustachial streak of dusky greenish-olive ; 
under surface of body cinnamon ; throat olive-yellow , the chest 
more ashy ; no streaks on the chest or the sides of the body ; bill 
entirely red. Total length, 6 inches; culmen, 0-5 ; wing, 3-35 ; 
tail, 2-5 ; tarsus, 075. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but paler in colour, the 
lower throat and fore-neck streaked with dark brown. Total 
length, 5*8 inches; wing, 3-2. 

Young. Like the adult female, but yellower below, without 
any tinge of fawn-colour ; the throat, breast, and sides of body 
streaked with dark brown. 

Range in Great Britain. An occasional visitor, of which many 
specimens have been taken at different times. 

Range outside the British Islands. Generally distributed over 
Europe, but mostly as a summer visitor. It occurs as far east 
as Central Asia, and the Altai Mountains, and its northern 
range reaches to the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and to lat. 
57 in the Ural Mountains. Its winter home is supposed to 
be Northern and North-eastern Africa, but little is really 
known about it, which is not a little curious, considering the 
number of the birds which come north to breed. 

Habits. A late arrival in the north of Europe, reaching its 
breeding haunts in the middle of May. It is not shy, accord- 
ing to Mr. Seebohm, who says : " It frequently remains for a 
very long time on the same twig, generally near the top of the 
tree, especially in the evening, when its simple song harmonises 
with the melancholy stillness of the outskirts of the country 
village. The song begins something like that of the Yellow 
Bunting, but ends quite differently. It may be roughly ex- 
pressed by the words, ' tsee-ah, tsee-ah^ tsee-ah, tyur-tyur? 
Sometimes there is only one ' tyur* at the end. It seeks 
most of its food on the ground, where it hops with great ease, 
and probably picks up small seeds and insects of various kinds." 

West. On the ground ; formed of roots and dry grass, and 
lined with fine roots and hair. 



THE BUNTINGS. 73 

Eggs. Four to six in number. Ground-colour pinkish or 
greyish stone-colour, the underlying markings being grey and 
the overlying spots purplish-black. Writing lines are sometimes 
present, but never so strongly marked as in the eggs of the Yel- 
low and Cirl Buntings. Axis, 0-75-0-8; diam., 0-55-0-65. 

THE CORN-BUNTINGS. GENUS MILIARIA. 
Miliaria, Brehm., Isis, 1828, p. 1278. 

Type, M. miliaria (Linn.). 

While the other Buntings are remarkable for somewhat 
fariegated plumage, especially with respect to the tail-fea- 
thers, which generally have a patch of white on the outer 
ones, very conspicuous when the bird is flying, in the genus 
Miliaria the wing is shorter than the tail, and the inner 
secondaries are lengthened and nearly equal to the primary 
quills, like the wings of Larks and Wagtails. There is no 
white pattern on the tail. Only one species of Miliaria is 
known, the Corn-Bunting, which is singularly like a Lark in 
plumage. 

I. THE CORN-BUNTING. MILIARIA MILIARIA. 

Ember iza miliaria. Linn., S. N., i., p. 308 (1766); Macg., Br. 

B., i., p. 440 (1837); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 163, pi. 

208 (1871) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 38 (1876) ; B. O. U. 

List Br. B., p. 59 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 148 (1884); 

Saunders, Man., p. 199 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., 

pt. v. (1887); Wyatt, Br. B., pi. 17 (1894). 
Miliaria miliaria^ Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii. p. 552 (1888). 

Adult Male. Above brown, with black centres to the feathers, 
less distinct on the lower back and rump ; wing-coverts brown, 
with sandy-buff edges, whiter on the margins ; head like the 
back, and similarly streaked ; sides of neck ashy-white, streaked 
with black ; tail-feathers brown, with a shade of ashy-white 
near the end of the inner web ; cheeks and throat dull white, 
with a moustachial line of black spots ; under surface of body 
dull white, with some triangular spots of black on the throat, 
more distinct on the fore-neck and breast, which are tinged 
with rufous-buff; sides of body browner and streaked with 
black ; bill horn-brown, tinged with rufous, the lower mandible 
yellow ; feet pale fleshy-brown ; iris dark brown. Total length, 
7-5 inches ; culmen, o"6 ; wing, 3*85 ; tail, 2*75 ; tarsus, 0*95. 






74 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but smaller. Total 
length, 6-5 inches; wing, 3-45. 

In winter the general colour of the plumage is much more 

rufous. 

Bange in Great Britain. Nearly universal, extending even to 
the Shetlands, but is somewhat local. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Pretty generally distributed 
in Europe, but especially so in the southern and central parts 
of the Continent. Mr. Howard Saunders says that in the 
Spanish Peninsula and other great corn-producing countries of 
the south, as well as in North Africa and the Canaries, it is 
" resident and extremely numerous." It does not extend very 
high north, being only found in the south of Scandinavia, and 
thence its range tends south-eastwards, its most northern limit 
in Russia being the vicinity of Riga, and it is not known, 
according to Mr. Seebohm, to occur near Moscow or in the 
Urals. It is, however, found in the Caucasus, and its farthest 
eastern range is Bushire, in the Persian Gulf. Its supposed 
occurrence in Sind is not altogether authentic. The birds 
from the more eastern localities are paler in colour than those 
from Western Europe. 

Habits. The name of " Corn " Bunting for the present 
species is decidedly appropriate, at least as far as the south 
of England is concerned, for it is generally in the vicinity of 
corn land that the Bunting is observed. Its peculiar note 
attracts attention, as the bird sits on the top of a tree or bush, 
or, as is often the case, on a telegraph-wire. Beginning very 
much like that of the Yellow Bunting it trails off into a feeble 
ending, instead of the ascending note with which the last- 
named bird finishes its song. The Corn-Bunting is, to a 
certain extent, migratory, and flocks of the species are met 
with in winter. 

Nest. To be found towards the end of May, as the species 
is a late breeder. It is generally placed in a hollow in the 
the ground, generally in a corn-field, hidden under a tuft of 
grass or a small bush. It is an inartistic structure of bents or 
dry grass, or made only of rootlets, with a few finer grasses or 
hairs for lining. 



THE BUNTINGS. 



75 



. Very handsomely marked and blotched with purplish- 
black, which takes the form of bold spots and scribblings, 
lines, and dashes. The ground-colour varies from stone-grey 
to creamy-white and purplish-brown, the underlying blotches 
being lilac or ashy-grey or even pinkish-grey. The overlying 
marks and lines are strongly pronounced, and are generally 
distributed over the whole egg, more rarely clustered round the 
larger end. Axis, 0-85-1-0 inch ; diam., 07-0-75. 

THE SNOW-BUNTINGS. GENUS PLECTROPHENAX. 
PlectrophtnaX) Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v., p. 33 

(1882). 

Type, P. Jiiv.ilis (Linn.). 

The Snow-Buntings are easily recognised from the other 
Buntings by their long wings, which reach nearly to the end 
of the tail. The plumage of the adults is black and white. 
Two species of Snow-Bunting are known, one being our British 
bird, which inhabits the northern portions of the Old and New 
Worlds, and the other, P. hyptrboreus, being found in Alaska 
only. 

I. THE SNOW-BUNTING. PLECTROPHENAX NIVALIS. 

(Plate XL) 
Emberiza nivalis^ Linn., S. N.,i., p. 308 (1766); Seeb., Br. B., 

ii., p. 125 (1884). 
Plectrophanes nivalis, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 460 (1837) ; Dresser, 

B. Eur., iv., p. 261, pis. 224 and 225, fig. 2 (1873); Newt. 

ed. Yarr., ii., p. i (1876); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 63 

(1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xvii. (1891). 
fltctrophenax nivalis, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 572 

(1888); Saunders, Man., p. 215 (1889). 
Adult Male. Black above; wing-coverts white; primary quills 
black, white at the base ; tail black, the outer feathers white, 
with a small black mark at the end of the outer web ; head and 
neck all round white, like the whole of the under surface ; bill 
dull yellow, darker round the tip ; feet black ; iris dark brown. 
Total length, 7 inches; culmen, 0^5; wing, 4*45; tail, 27, 
tarsus, 0-85. 

Adult Female. Like the male, but not so black ; the feathers 
mottled with greyish-white edges to the feathers ; the crown 



76 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

slightly washed with fulvous ; wing-coverts blackish-brown, 
tipped with white ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and quills 
blackish-brown, edged with whitish ; eyebrow and under surface 
of body dull white ; the ear-coverts dull ashy ; sides of upper 
breast ashy-brown. Total length, 6 inches ; wing, 3-8. 

In winter, when the Snow-Bunting is chiefly captured in 
England, the plumage is altogether more rufous or even chest- 
nut, the paler edges to the feathers concealing the full plumage 
underneath. The summer dress is gained by the wearing, off 
of the light margins to the feathers. 

Range in Great Britain. Chiefly known as a winter visitant, 
large flocks occurring on the eastern coast, especially in severe 
weather, when the Snow-Buntings are found some distance 
inland. Within the last ten years the species has been dis- 
covered to breed in Scotland, a nest having been taken in 
Sutherlandshire in 1888 by Messrs. Peach and Hinxman, and 
again by Mr. John Young in 1888, while in 1893 a nest was 
found in Banffshire by a party of naturalists. It had already 
been said to nest in Unst, the most northern of the Shetland 
Isles. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Snow-Bunting is an 
arctic bird, and has been found nesting in Grinnell Land by 
Colonel Feilden during the voyage of the "Alert" in lat. 82 
33' N. It is a circumpolar species, being found in the 
Faeroes, Iceland, Novaya Zemlia, Spitzbergen, and also, as 
Mr. Seebohm says, " breeding on the tundras of the Arctic 
Regions, beyond the limit of forest growth." It also inhabits 
the arctic portions of North America, and migrates south in 
winter, reaching the Mediterranean countries in Europe, and 
Georgia, in the United States. 

Habits. Usually found frequenting the sea-shore or the 
adjacent lands. Here the birds keep in flocks, feeding on seeds, 
and are not very shy, their black and white plumage, however, 
rendering them always conspicuous. For the nesting season 
the flocks disperse, and the birds are only found in their breed- 
ing haunts in pairs, and an interesting account of the nesting 
of the species in different parts of Northern Euro DC and 
Siberia is given by Mr. Seebohm. On the Yenesei, 'where 



THE BUNTINGS. 77 

there are no rocks," the nest was placed amongst the piles of 
driftwood near the shore ; but in Banffshire the nest taken by 
Mr. Ogilvie Grant and his friends, Capt Savile Reid, Mr. Eagle 
Clarke, and Mr. Hinxman, was in the face of a very wild "scree." 
Indeed, the general situation of the nest is in precipitous and 
rough ground on high mountains, where it is *vell concealed in 
a hole among the loose debris of rock. Sucn, at least, was the 
position of the Banffshire nest, which is now in the British 
Museum. 

Nest. Composed of grasses and twigs, with a little moss, 
and lined with hair and a few feathers. Colonel Feilden found 
a Snow-Bunting nest in the Arctic Regions, in close proximity 
to that of a Snowy Owl, some of whose feathers were used for 
lining the bird's nest. 

Eggs. Five to seven, but sometimes eight. The ground- 
colour varies from stone-grey to cream colour, and bluish- or 
greenish-white. The underlying blotches are lilac-grey or violet, 
with overlying spots or streaks of purplish-black. In this type 
the ground is greenish-blue, and the egg is very Finch-like. In 
another type the underlying blotches are reddish-grey, and the 
overlying markings and blotches are generally darker rufous. 
The eggs vary greatly, and embrace many different types and 
styles of coloration. Axis, o-S-ro inch; diam., o*6-o*7. 

THE LONG-SPURRED BUNTINGS. GENUS CALCARIUS. 

CahariuS) Bechst, Orn. Taschenb., p. 130 (1802). 

Type, C. lapponicus (Linn.). 

The Long-spurs, of which the Lapland Bunting is the type, 
are three in number, two of the species being North American 
C. ornatus and C.pictus, while the third, C. lapponicus^ is an 
inhabitant of the northern portions of both hemispheres. The 
members of this genus may be recognised from all the other 
I Emberizine genera by the length of the hind claw, which is 
longer than the hind toe itself. 

I. THE LAPLAND BUNTING. CALCARIUS LAPPONICUS. 

Frlngitta lapponica, Linn., S. N., i., p. 317 (1766). 
Pltcirophants lappunica^ Macg., Br. B., i., p. 469 (1837). 



7 8 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Plectrophanes lapponicus, Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 223, pi. 253 

(1872); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 15 (1876). 
Cakarius lapponicus, B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 62 (1883); 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 579 (1888) ; Saunders, 

Man., p. 213 (1889). 
Emberiza lapponica, Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 131 (1884); Lilford, 

Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xvii. (1891). 

Adult Male. Above black, streaked with rufous or white ; 
wing-feathers blackish, edged with whitish or pale rufous ; 
tail-feathers the same, the outer one white, with a brown mark 
near the end of the outer web, the inner web also dusky near 
the base ; crown, sides of face, and throat black, with a broad 
collar of chestnut round the hind-neck and on the sides of the 
neck ; a creamy-buff eyebrow, and a broad line of white from 
the eyebrow down the sides of the neck to the sides of the 
breast, forming a patch on the latter ; under surface of body 
creamy-white, with black stripes on the flanks ; bill dull yel- 
low, dusky at the tip ; feet brownish-black ; iris dark brown. 
Total length, 6 inches; culmen, 0*4; wing, 3*5; tail, 2*35; 
tarsus, 0-75. 

Adult Female. Differs from the male in wanting the black 
head and rufous collar on the neck. Total length, 5 inches ; 
win g, 3'5- 

In winter the entire plumage is obscured by sandy-rufous 
edges to the feathers, and the young birds which visit this 
country as a rule are in winter dress, and resemble the winter 
plumage of the old ones, but the general tone of the plumage 
is more buff, with the white patch on the sides of the neck 
visible, and the eyebrow also plainly marked. 

Eange in Great Britain. An occasional visitor in autumn and 
winter, some fifty occurrences having now been recorded. 
These are principally from England; as for Scotland only 
two records have been noted, and for Ireland only one. 

Range outside the British Islands. Breeds in the high north oi 
both hemispheres, being very common in the tundras or barren 
grounds of Siberia and North America. It likewise nests on 
the high mountain ranges of Norway, such as the Dovrefjeld. 
In winter it migrates south, and has been procured in nearly 






THE LARKS. 



79 



every country of Europe, though its visits rarely extend to 
those bordering the Mediterranean Sea. 

Habits. These are described by Mr. Seebohm as resembling 
those of the Snow-Bunting. It is equally gregarious, and has 
a somewhat similar song, generally delivered while the bird is 
soaring in the air like a Lark. The female has nearly as loud 
a song as the male. 

Nest. " Almost always placed in some hole in the side of one 
of the little mounds or tussocks which abound on the marshy 
part of the tundra; it is composed of dry grass and roots, and 
profusely lined with feathers." (Seebohm. ) 

Eggs. Four to six in number. Egg very dark brown in 
appearance, the ground-colour olive or stone-brown, often 
uniform, with purplish-brown spots or streaks, and occasionally 
a few lines. Great variation is shown in the depth of the 
ground-colour, and in the amount of markings on the egg. 
Axis, 075-0-95 inch ; diam., 0-6-0-65. 

NOTE. A specimen of Brandt's Siberian Bunting (Emberiza cioides) 
has been obtained in Yorkshire. Two specimens of the White-throated 
Bunting (Zonotrichia albicollis) have been recorded, one from the neighbour- 
hood of Aberdeen, and another from Brighton ; while the Painted Bunt- 
ing (Cyanospiza ciris) was noted in 1802 as having been captured near Port- 
land. This individual, as Mr. Howard Saunders well remarks, "Montagu, 
with his accustomed good sense, naturally presumed to have escaped from 
confinement. " So many different kinds of foreign Finches are brought alive 
to England every year that it is devoutly to be hoped that in future the 
shooting of some of these aliens will not be deemed worthy of record in 
scientific journals, when it is so obvious that they must have been caged 
birds. 

THE LARKS. FAMILY ALAUDID^. 

The Larks have been designated by Sundevall as Scuielli- 
plantares, because the hinder aspect of the tarsus is divided 
into scales like the front aspect. In most Passerine birds the 
hinder portion of the tarsus is perfectly smooth, and not 
divided into scales. By these characters a Lark and a Pipit 
can be easily distinguished, for although our English Tit-larks 
or Pipits have much of the appearance and habits of a Lark 
(the Meadow-Pipit even having a Lark-like hind claw), yet they 
can be immediately told by the undivided scaling of the back 



8o LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

of the tarsus, or planta tarsi, as it is called. The Larks have 
also ten primaries, but the first one is so short that very often 
only nine are apparent. 

THE HORNED LARKS. GENUS OTOCORYS. 
Otocorys, Bp. Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat., Bologna, ii., p. 407 (1838). 
Type, O. alptstris (Linn.). 

In the birds of this genus the bill is short and stout like 
that of the Sky-larks, but they are at once recognised by the 
little tufts of black feathers, or hornlets, on each side of the 
hinder crown. 

The Horned Larks are principally northern birds, occurring 
throughout the greater part of North America, where there are 
many kinds, one species also being found as far south as 
Colombia, in South America. Besides the species which visits 
England and which extends across Siberia, there are other 
forms which inhabit the deserts from Algeria to Central Asia 
and Mongolia, and more than one form of Horned Lark is 
found in the higher ranges of the Himalayas. 

I. THE SHORE-LARK. OTOCORYS ALPESTRIS. 

Alauda alpestris, Linn., S. N., i., p. 289 (1766); Macg., Br. B., 
ii., p. 159 (1839) ; Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 284 (1884). 

Olocorys alpestris. Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 604 (1874); Dresser, 
B. Eur., iv., p. 387, pi. 243 (1874) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., 
p. 73 (1883); Saunders, Man., p. 249 (1889); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xiii., p. 541 (1890) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. 
Br. B., pt. xvi. (1890). 

Adult Male. Above ashy, with a tinge of vinous, the centre 
tail-feathers ashy, with black centres; the rest of the tail- 
feathers black, the outer one edged with white, the median and 
lesser wing-coverts vinous ; remainder of wing-coverts and 
quills dusky brown, externally ashy with whitish margins, the 
inner coverts and secondaries browner ; hinder crown and hind- 
neck pure vinous ; forehead and eyebrow yellow or yellowish- 
white ; across the crown a broad band of black, continued into 
the hornlet on each side of the hinder crown ; throat pale sul- 
phur-yellow ; nasal plumes, lores, and fore part of ear-coverts 



THE LARKS. Si 

black, the remainder of the ear-coverts yellowish-white, like the 
sides of the neck; across the lower throat and fore-neck a 
broad band of black ; under surface of body white, the sides 
of the body and thighs vinous, slightly streaked with blackish ; 
bill black, bluish-white at base of lesser mandible ; feet 
brownish-black, tinged with grey ; iris reddish-brown. Total 
length, 6'8 inches ; culmen, 0*55 ; wing, 4*25 ; tail, 2-9 ; tarsus, 
0-9. 

Adult Female. Forehead yellower than in the male, the black 
band on the crown not so strongly marked ; hinder crown and 
nape browner, with less vinous tinge, mottled and streaked 
with black like the back. 

Range in Great Britain. A visitor in autumn and winter to the 
eastern coasts, and of pretty regular occurrence ; it has also 
been noticed on the spring migration. 

Range outside the British Islands. A strictly northern bird, 
breeding beyond the limit of forest growth in Northern Europe 
and Siberia, and migrating south in winter. Also found across 
the high northern portions of America. 

Habits. Generally noticed in small parties on the sea-shore, 
where it picks up small molluscs, and feeds on the buds of 
small plants. In the summer the principal food consists of 
insects, but in the autumn it lives principally on seeds. Mr. 
Seebohm says that the Shore-Lark appears to be entirely a 
ground-bird, and often sings on the ground ; but at its breed- 
ing places it sings incessantly, and mounts into the air like a 
Sky-Lark. The nest is placed on the ground, generally 1 1 some 
slight hollow. 

Nest. According to Mr. Seebohm, the nest is loosely made 
of dry grass and stalks, and the inside, which is rather deep, is 
lined with willow-down or reindeer-hair. 

Eggs. Three to five in number, more generally four. Ground- 
colour brown, thickly mottled with spots of darker brown 
distributed over the whole egg, and collecting in a broad ring 
round the larger end of the latter. This ring is generally very 
distinct, but is sometimes lighter, and occasionally absent 
altogether. Axis, 0*9-1 - o inch; diam., o*6-o - 65. 



82 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

THE CALANDRA LARKS. GENUS MELANOCORYPHA. 

Melanocorypha, Boie, Isis (1828), p. 322. 

Type, M. calandra (Linn.). 

The Larks composing this genus are birds of large size, and 
are peculiar to Southern Europe and the Mediterranean 
countries, extending eastwards to Southern Russia, and south 
to Abyssinia. Species of the genus are also found from Pales- 
tine and Asia Minor through Persia to Central Asia and North- 
western India, while some extend from the Eastern Himalayas 
to Thibet, and one at least inhabits Western Siberia and 
Northern China. 

The Calandra Larks are generally recognised by their large 
size and very stout bills. The wing is more pointed than in 
the majority of the Larks, the secondaries not reaching to 
the tips of the primaries as in most of the members of this 
family. 

The Calandra Lark of Southern Europe, Melanocorypha 
calandra, has been chronicled in some lists of British Birds on 
the strength of two specimens " recognised in the shops of bird- 
stuffers in Devonport and Exeter respectively ; but the evidence 
is not sufficient to warrant the introduction to the British List 
of a species which is very tolerant of confinement, and is one 
of the commonest cage-birds in Spain and Italy." (Howard 
Saunders.) 

I. THE WHITE-WINGED LARK. MELANOCORYPHA SIBIRICA. 

Alauda sibirica, Gm., S. N., i., p. 799 (1788) ; Seeb., Br. B., ii., 
p. 279 (1884); Saunders. Man., p. 247 (1889). 

Melanocoryphn sibirica, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 642 (1874); 
Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 373, pi. 240 (1873); B. O. U 
List Br. B., p. 73 (1883); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus 
xiii., P- 557 (1890). 

Melanocorypha kucoptera, Lilford, Col. Fig., Br. B., pt. xv 
(1890). 

Adult Hale. Brown, streaked with black, the upper tai 
coverts more rusty ; lesser wing-coverts and primary-covert 
bright rusty-red, forming a shoulder patch ; remainder of winj 
coverts and quills dark brown, with rust-coloured margins 



THE LARKS. 83 

secondary t/ui/ls white, with a black base ; crown of head rusty- 
ied; lores and eyebrow creamy white; ear-coverts rusty-red, 
the fore part white ; under surface of body white, with a tinge 
of tawny colour on the thighs and sides of the breast, with a 
few dusky spots on the sides of the throat and fore-neck ; sides 
of body streaked with dark brown ; axillaries and under wing- 
coverts white. Total length, 7 inches; culmen, 0*55; wing, 
47 ; tail, 2^5 ; tarsus, 0*9. 

Adult Female. Lacks the rufous crown, the head and ear- 
coverts being ashy brown, streaked with black like the back ; 
the sides of face and throat more distinctly spotted with 
black than in the male. Total length, 6'8 inches; wing, 
4'8. 

Range in Great Britain. An accidental visitor, one specimen 
having been caught near Brighton in November, 1869. 

Raage outside the British Islands. An inhabitant of Central and 
Southern Russia, as far east as Central Asia, the Altai Moun- 
tains, and the Irtisch river. In winter it wanders occasionally 
west to Poland and Galicia, and has been procured in Heligo- 
land, in Belgium, and in Northern Italy. 

Habits. In its native haunts it is a bird of the grassy and 
open districts, is said to be by no means shy, and has a song 
very like that of the Sky-Lark. Like the latter bird, it also 
ascends into the air for a short distance and sings during the 
breeding season. In the autumn these Larks collect in 
flocks. 

Nest. Built in a little cavity on the ground under a tuft of 
herbage or beneath a little bush, and is said to be made of 
grass. 

Eggs. Four or five in number. Ground-colour clay-white 
or greenish-white spotted all over with brown, with underlying 
spots of grey. Axis, 0-95 inch ; diam., 0*65. 

THE SKY-LARKS. GENUS ALAUDA. 
Alauda, Linn., Syst. Nat, L, p. 287 (1766). 

Type, A. arvensls y Linn. 

The Sky-Larks are familiar birds and favourites in every 
country where they are found, and are in as much request as 

G a 



84 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

cage-birds in China as they are in this country, on account of 
their beautiful song. They are to be recognised from the other 
Larks of Great Britain by their tiny first primary quill (which 
looks like a little wing-covert), combined with a long and straight 
hind claw. The Sky- Larks are entirely birds of the Old World, 
and are found throughout Europe and Asia to China and the 
Indian Peninsula, but they do not extend to the Malayan 
Peninsula or the islands. One species is confined to Abyssinia. 

I. THE SKY-LARK. ALAUDA ARVENSIS. 

(Plate XI 7. , Fig. i.) 

Alauda arvensis, Linn., S. N., i., p. 287 (1766) ; Macg., Br. B., 
ii., p. 163 (1839); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 307, pi. 231, 
(1871); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 614 (1874); B. O. U. 
List Br. B., p. 71 (1883); Seeb. Br. B., ii., p. 266 (1884); 
Saunders, Man., p. 239 (1889); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., xiii., p. 567 (1890) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. 
xvi. (1890); Wyatt, Brit. B., pi. 24, fig. 2 (1894). 

Adult Male. Brown, streaked with black centres to the feathers, 
many of which are edged with grey ; head like the back and 
crested ; wing-coverts and quills dark brown, edged with tawny 
buff, the secondaries tipped with white ; eyebrow isabelline ; ear- 
coverts dark rufous, broadly streaked with black ; under surface 
of body white, washed with tawny buff or rufous on the fore- 
neck, chest, and sides of body; the sides of the face and 
throat spotted with blackish, these markings longer and more 
distinct on the lower throat and chest, and developing into 
long streaks on the sides of the body ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries dark ashy isabelline; outer tail-feather white, 
except a wedge-shaped mark of brown at the base of the inner 
web ; penultimate feathers white only on the outer web ; bill 
greyish brown, yellowish at base of lower mandible ; feet flesh- 
coloured, with a livid tinge ; iris hazel. Total length, 7 inches ; 
culmen, 0-55 ; wing, 4'35-4'55 ; tail, 2*8; tarsus, ro. 

Adult Female. Like the male in colour, but smaller. Winj 
from 3 '9-4 -2 inches in length. 

NOTE. The resident bird in many parts of England is very rufous 
colour, much more so than the generality of Sky-Larks from other parts 
Europe. The birds which migrate into England during the autumn 
generally larger and much darker in colour. 




SKY-LARK ?- WOOD-LARK 



THE LARKS. 85 

Bange in Great Britain. Universally distributed, and resident 
everywhere except in the more northern portions, which it 
quits during the winter. A large migration of Larks takes 
place into England during the autumn. 

Eange ontside the British Islands. Generally distributed through- 
out Europe, where the form is identical with the general run 
of specimens from Great Britain ; breeding as far as the Arctic 
circle or a little beyond ; but only known as a winter visitant 
in the Mediterranean countries, where a paler and lighter form, 
generally called A. cantarella, takes the place of the true 
Alauda arvensis. This pale form extends to Central Asia and 
North-western India, while a more rufous race, known as Alauda 
liopus, inhabits the Himalayas, and extends to China and Japan. 
These races of Sky-Larks are scarcely worthy of separation from 
our British birds. 

Habits. These are almost too well known to need descrip- 
tion, as the Sky- Lark is a general favourite with everyone, &ut 
especially when its bright song is heard in the spring and 
during the nesting season, when it soars into the air and sings 
at such a height as to be often almost invisible. In winter, 
when the home-bred birds are reinforced by a vast invasion of 
migratory Sky-Larks, they distribute themselves over the 
stubble-fields, and as they devour a great number of seeds of 
noxious weeds they doubtless render good service to the 
farmer, but they also pick out a considerable number of grains 
of newly-sown corn. 

Nest. Placed on the ground, generally on a level with the 
surface, a cup-shaped depression being scratched out by the 
bird for its reception. It is nearly always well concealed, and 
sometimes hidden under grass or a tuft of herbage. The nest 
itself is made of dry grass, lined with fine roots and grasses, 
with a little hair occasionally. 

Eggs. Three to five in number. Ground-colour greyish- 
brown or brownish-white, more rarely greenish-white, the eggs 
generally thickly clouded with brown and grey, the latter being 
the underlying colour, the brown overlying markings occurring in 
the form of spots and blotches, the larger end of the egg being 
generally uniform, and the dark colour forming a ring. Axis, 
0-9-1-0 inch; diam., 0-6-07. 



86 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

THE SHORT-TOED LARKS. GENUS CALANDRELLA. 

Calandrella, Kaup., Nat. Syst, p. 39 (1829). 

Type, C. brachydactyla (Leisl.). 

Like the Sky-Larks, the members of this genus have a very 
rudimentary first primary, but they are distinguished from the 
species of Alauda by their smaller size, longer wings, and 
curved hind claw. As in Alauda, the secondary quills are as 
long as the primaries. Four species of true Short-toed Lark 
are known ; the best-known form, C. Irachydactyla, inhabiting 
Southern Europe across to Central Asia and North-western 
India, being replaced in the Indian peninsula by C. dukhunensis. 
C. thibetana inhabits the Himalayas and Thibet, while in Tur- 
kestan its place is taken by C. acutirostris. None of the Short- 
toed Larks exhibit a perceptible crest. 

I. THE SHORT-TOED LARK. CALANDRELLA BRACHYDACTYLA. 

Alauda brachydactyla, Lcisler, Wetterau Gesellsch. Ann., iii., 
PP- 357-359 (1814); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 274 (1884); Saun- 
ders, Man., p. 244 (1889). 

Calandrella brachydactyla, Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 341, pi. 235 
(1873) ; Newt. ed. Yam, i., p. 637 (1874); B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 72 (1883) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xiii., p. 
580 (1890); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xvii. (1891). 

Adult Male. Of small size, and distinguished by the cru 
racters mentioned above. Sandy brown, with blackish centre 
to the feathers; those of the wing and tail dark browi 
edged with sandy buff; the outer tail-feathers broadl] 
margined with isabelline, inclining to sandy buff towards th< 
end of the outer web and round the tip of the feather ; outer- 
most feather white, except for an oblique mark of blackish 
brown on the inner web, the white of the outer web tinged 
isabelline towards the ead ; head streaked like the back ; 
under surface of body white, with a distinct wash of isabelline 
on the fore-neck, chest, and sides of body ; on the former a 
few blackish spots ; a blackish patch on the side? of the fore- 
neck ; bill whity-brown, the culmen darker ; feet pale yellow- 
ish-brown ; iris brown. Total length, 5-5 inches ; culmen, 
0-45; wing, 3-45; tail, 2-05 ; tarsus, 075. 



THE LARKS, 87 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, and not perceptibly 
smaller, as in most Larks ; scarcely any streaks on the fore- 
neck, the blackish patch on the sides of the latter also smaller. 
Total length, 5-5 inches; wing, 3-6. 

Range in Great Britain. An accidental visitor, which has oc- 
curred about eight times in the southern half of England, and 
once, quite recently, in Ireland. 

Range outside the British Islands. A resident in many parts of 
Southern Europe, but migratory in others, departing in winter 
after nesting. It breeds in the south of France and through- 
out the Mediterranean countries, and as far east as Turkestan ; 
but is only of accidental occurrence in Germany and other 
more northern countries of Europe, as in England. 

Habits. An inhabitant of sandy districts, where it lives 
entirely on the ground. It arrives in its breeding haunts 
about the beginning of April, and the eggs are found in May 
and June, its song is like that of the Sky- Lark, but more 
feeble, and is uttered as the bird mounts into the air, though 
it also sings on the ground. It is of a very tame disposition, 
and during the winter congregates in large flocks. 

Nest. Placed on the ground in any kind of depression, such 
as a hoof-print, often concealed under the herbage. It is very 
like that of the Sky-Lark, being formed of dry grasses with 
vegetable down, and scantily lined with hair. 

Eggs. Four to five in number. There are two distinct types, 
one light, nearly uniform pale brown, the spots of brown very 
tiny and indistinct, sometimes showing a ring round the large 
and sometimes round the small end of the egg. The second 
type of egg is Sparrow-like, the ground-colour white, thickly 
spotted with brown, with underlying spots of grey. Axis, 
0-75-0-8 inch; diam., o'55-o'6 inch. 

THE CRESTED LARKS. GENUS GALERITA. 
Gahrita, Boie, Isis, 1882, p. 321. 

Type, G. cristata (Linn.). 

The Crested Larks, of which we have two species in Eu- 
rope, are distinguished by having the first primary quill well 



88 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

developed, the hind claw not as long as the bill, the latter being 
long and slender, and the crest very distinct, long, and narrow, 
and extending backwards in a point from the back of the head. 
Like the Sky- Larks, these birds vary greatly in the colour of 
the plumage according to the districts they inhabit, being paler 
in the desert countries. Four species are recognised, and the 
genus is found from Southern and Central Europe, across to 
Central Asia, and even to Northern China. Crested Larks also 
inhabit Abyssinia and the plains of Western Africa. 

I. THE CRESTED LARK. GALERITA CRISTATA. 

Alauda cristata, Linn., S N., i., p. 288 (1766); Dresser, B. Eur. ? 
iv., p. 285, pis. 228-229 (1873) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 632 
(1874) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 71 (1883) ; Seeb., Br. B., 
ii., p. 261 (1884); Saunders, Man., p. 243 (1889). 

Gakrita cristata^ Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xiii., p. 626 
(1890). 

Adult Male. Brown, streaked with blackish centres to the 
feathers ; lower back and rump more uniform ashy-brown, in- 
clining to vinaceous on the upper tail-coverts ; wings brown, 
the feathers edged with ashy or rufous ; tail-feathers brown, 
edged with ashy, the outer one pale brown sandy-buff exter- 
nally, with an oblique dark mark on the inner web ; crown of 
head streaked like the back, with a long median crest of pointed 
feathers ; ear-coverts brown, with a whitish patch below the 
eye ; cheeks and throat whitish, the former spotted with black- 
ish ; rest of under surface of body isabelline, the fore-neck and 
breast browner, the chest thickly spotted, and the sides of the 
body streaked with black ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
clear vinous isabelline ; bill brown, paler on the lower man- 
dible ; feet dusky yellowish flesh-colour ; iris light brown. 
Total length, 7 inches ; oilmen, 07 ; wing, 4*25 ; tail, 27 ; 
tarsus, 0*9. 

Adult Female. Like the male in colour, but smaller. Total 
length, 6-5 inches ; wing, 3-8. 

Range In Great Britain. Although comparatively common on 
the Continent, the Crested Lark can only be considered a rare 



THE LARKS. 89 

and occasional visitor, about half-a-dozen authentic records of 
its capture being known in the southern half of England. 

Range outside the British Islands. An inhabitant chiefly of 
Central and Southern Europe, but resident in Scandinavia and 
Russia up to about 60 N. lat. It varies slightly in colour. 
The range of the ordinary Crested Lark follows the distribution 
given by us for the genus Galerita. 

Habits. More of a frequenter of towns and villages than the 
Sky-Lark, and often to be seen dusting itself in the roads 
in the villages of Central Europe. Otherwise its habits seem 
to be very similar to those of the Sky-Lark. It does not soar 
in the air when singing, like the latter bird, though Mr. See- 
bohm says that he has seen it make short excursions into the 
air like a Pipit. It does not collect in flocks in the autumn 
to any extent. Its food is similar to that of other Larks, con- 
sisting of seeds and grain in the autumn and winter, but chiefly 
of insects in the spring and summer. 

Nest. Placed on the ground, like that of other Larks, in a 
depression scratched out by the bird itself, or in a footprint ; 
sometimes it is built in a wall of earth, or in the thatch of a 
low shed. It is composed of rootlets and dry grass, and is 
sometimes lined with a few hairs. 

Eggs. Four or five in number. Ground-colour light brown 
or ashy-white, with purplish-grey underlying spots or blotches, 
the overlying spots of brown being thickly distributed over the 
egg, appearing more distinct where the ground-colour is lighter. 
Axis, 0*9-1 *o inch; diam., o'65-o*7. 

THE WOOD-LARKS. GENUS LULLULA. 

Lullulci) Kaup., Natiirl. Syst, p. 92 (1829). 

Type, L. arborca (Linn.). 

The Wood-Lark, for there is only one species of the genus 
Lullula, agrees with the Crested Lark, and differs from the 
Sky- Lark in having the first primary quill well developed ; but 
it is distinguished from the Crested Lark by its much longer 
hind claw and by the shape of the crest, which is very full and 
rounded, not pointed, in shape. 



90 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

I. THE WOOD-LARK. LULLUI.A ARBOREA, 

(Plate XI L> Fig. 2.) 

Aiauda arborea, Linn., S. N., i., p. 287 (1766); Macg., Br. B., 
ii., p. 174 (1839); Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 321, pi. 232 
(1872) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 625 (1874) ; B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 71 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 256(1884); 
Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. iv. (1887); Saunders, Man., 
p. 241 (1889); Wyatt, Brit. B., pi. 24, fig. i (1894). 

Lullula arborea, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xiii., p^. 636 (1890). 

Adult Male. Sandy rufous, broadly streaked with black, 
except on the mantle, where the streaks are less distinct and 
the colour is rather paler ; lower back and rump ashy brown, 
with a reddish tinge on the upper tail-coverts; wing-coverts 
dark brown, margined with rufous ; primary coverts black, 
tipped with whitish, and forming a distinct patch on the wing ; 
tail-feathers black, with a triangular white spot at the ends, the 
outer feather smoky brown, with an oblique black mark on the 
inner web ; crown sandy buff, streaked with black, a broad line 
of white over the eye nearly meeting on the hinder crown ; 
ear-coverts rufous, with a dark brown upper edge ; under sur- 
face of body white, the breast and abdomen tinge4 with yellow ; 
throat, fore-neck, and chest, as well as the sides of the body, 
streaked with black ; flanks brown ; axillaries and under wing- 
coverts leaden grey. Total length, 5^5 inches; oilmen, 0*5; 
wing, 3*65 ; tail, 1*9 ; tarsus, 0*8. 

Adult Female. Similar in colour to the male and equal in 
size. Wing, 3-6-3-8. 

Range in Great Britain. A decidedly local bird, more plentiful 
in the Southern Counties of England, and decreasing in num- 
bers towards the north, though it has been found breeding in 
Stirlingshire by Mr. Harvie-Brown. In other parts of Scotland 
it is only known as a migrant. It is resident in Ireland in 
a few places only. 

Range outside the British Islands. Found generally throughout 
Europe, and as far east as Persia, but does not extend very far 
north, reaching to about 60 N. lat. in Scandinavia and 
Western Russia and the valley of the Volga in Eastern Russia, 



THE WAGTAILS. 91 

according to Mr. Seebohm. In the Me Hterranean countries 
it is chiefly known as a winter visitor. 

Habits. As its name implies, this species is a more wood- 
land bird than the other British Larks, and in many of its ways 
of life it resembles the Tree Pipit, frequenting the neighbour- 
hood of woods and plantations, but always affecting trees. On 
these it loves to sit, and from them it takes flights into the air, 
singing all the while. Its note is considered superior to that 
of the Sky-Lark, but like that bird it often sings when on the 
ground, on which it is thoroughly at home, and on which it 
roosts. 

Neat. Placed on the ground, and skilfully concealed under a 
tuft of herbage or a small bush. It resembles the nest of the 
Sky-Lark, but is rather more firmly put together. It is com- 
posed of dry grass and fine rootlets, and is lined with finer 
grass with a little hair. 

Eggs. Four or five in number. Pale in colour for those of 
a Lark, though darker examples are not wanting in a large 
series ; often very rounded in shape. Ground-colour white or 
reddish-white, numerously dotted with fine spots, reddish- 
brown, with indistinct underlying spots of grey. In some 
specimens the spots are clouded at the larger end, and form a 
ring. Axis, 0-8-0-9 inch; diam., 0-6-075. 

THE WAGTAILS AND PIPITS. FAMILY 
MOTACILLID^S. 

In this family are included the Wagtails and Pipits, birds 
which are intermediate in character between the Larks and 
the Warblers. They have a single-plated tarsus like the latter 
birds, but they have the same shaped wings as the Larks, the 
inner secondaries being about as long as the primary-quills. 
Like the Larks, too, they run on the ground, do not hop, and 
the nesting habits, especially those of the Pipits, are very similar 
to those of the Larks, even to the colouring of the eggs. 

Wagtails are found in every part of the Old World, excepting 
Australia and Oceania. One species, M. fiava^ even extends 
to Alaska. They breed, as a rule, in the northern portions of 



92 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Europe and Asia, and migrate south in winter to Africa, India, 
China, and the Malayan peninsula and islands. 



THE WAGTAILS. GENUS MOTACILLA. 

Motacilla, Linn. Syst. Nat., i., p. 328 (1766). 

Type, M. alba^ Linn. 

These birds get their popular name from the curious dipping 
motion of the tail, which accompanies every movement of the 
body. They are divisible into two groups, the " Pied " and 
"Yellow" Wagtails, or '| Water" and " Field" Wagtails, most 
of the water-loving species being black-and-white or grey, and 
the field-frequenting species belonging to the yellow group. 
No structural characters, however, can be found to divide these 
two sections of the genus Motadlla, and we have, therefore, 
included all the species under one generic heading. 

Of the black-and-white Wagtails fourteen species are known, 
and they are more or less migratory. This is certainly the 
case with the species which breed in northern latitudes, but 
there are at least three species peculiar to Africa, and two to 
India. Representing our European Wagtails, M. lugubris and 
M. alba in Eastern Asia, breeding in the north, and migrating 
south in winter, are three species, M. ocular is, M. lugens, M. 
leucopsis ; these are all birds of the Manchurian subregion, to 
which geographical area, a fourth species, M. grandis, seems to 
be confined. As is the case with the Yellow Wagtails, there is, 
among the Pied section of the genus, a tendency to found 
isolated colonies ; hence we find in Persia a race of the White 
Wagtail, which has been called M. persica, while in Central 
Siberia there is another race, which is known as M. baicalensim 
from its having first been noticed near Lake Baikal. 

The Wagtail of Madagascar, M. flaviventris, and the Grey 
Wagtail of Europe, M\ melanope, are " Water " Wagtails, with 
the colouring of Yellow Wagtails. Nearly every one of the 
latter come northward and breed every season, and retire south 
in winter. The Black-headed Yellow Wagtail, M. feldeggii, is 
perhaps the one which wanders least, and its two races, M. 
paradoxa^ from South-eastern Europe, and M. xanthophrys % 
from Lenkoran, have a very limited range. 






THE WAGTAILS. 93 

1. THE PIED WAGTAIL. MOTACILLA LUGUBRIS. 

Motacilla lugubris, Temm. Man. d'Orn., i., p. 253 (1820); Newt, 
ed. Yarr., i., p. 538 (1874) ; Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 239, 
pis. 125, fig. 3, 126, fig. 2 (1875) ; B. O. U. List Br. B.,p. 
30 (1883) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 460 (1885); 
Saunders, Man., p. 113 (1889); Wyatt, Br. B., pL 8, fig. 3 
(1894). 

Motacilla yarrelli, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 225 (1839); Seeb., Br. 
B., ii., p. 194 (1884); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B. pt., viii. 
(1888). 

Adult Male in Summer Plumage. Black above; throat and fore- 
neck black ; ear-coverts white ; breast and abdomen as well as 
under tail-coverts white ; the sides of the body ashy-grey ; 
median and greater wing-coverts black, externally margined 
with white; quills black, edged with grey, the inner secondaries 
with white ; tail-feathers black, the two outer ones white, black 
at the base and along the edge of the inner web ; bill and feet 
black ; iris dark brown. Total length, 7-3 inches ; culmen, 0*67 
wing, 3-55 ; tail, 37 ; tarsus, 0-95. 

Adult Female. Like the male, but never so entirely black on 
the body, the latter being dingy grey, more or less mottled with 
black feathers. Total length, 6*8 inches ; wing, 3-25. 

Adults in Winter Plumage. Easily distinguished by the white 
throat, which is followed by a black band across the fore-neck, 
extending in a crescent up to the ear-coverts ; the back is grey, 
with the forehead white, and the hinder crown and nape black. 

Young Birds have at first the head grey like the back. After 
the first moult they resemble the winter plumage of the adults, 
being dull ashy, with a white forehead, and a black patch on 
the hinder crown, as well as a black patch on the fore-neck. 
There is almost invariably a tinge of sulphur-yellow pervading 
the white on the sides of the face and neck. The method by 
which the black throat is assumed is curious, as it is chiefly 
acquired by a change in the colour of the feather, rather than 
by a complete moult. The white feathers of the winter dress 
become black at their tips, and this black gradually spreads 
over the whole of the feather, until the entire throat becomes 
black. We were at one time inclined to believe that there was no 
spring moult at all, at least, in the old birds, but we have seen 



94 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

some specimens which induce us to believe that there is a parti 
spring moult in all Wagtails and Pipits, and that some of the 
black throat-feathers in the former are really assumed by a 
direct moult. That the Tree-Pipit moults in spring we have 
proved by a pair of birds which we kept through the winter (vide 
infra, p. 105). 

Range in Great Britain. A resident, and breeding over the 
greater portion of our islands, but not remaining during the 
winter in the more northern parts. Although nesting in small 
numbers in the Orkneys and some of the Hebrides, it is only a 
spring and autumn migrant in the Shetland Islands. In most 
places a certain amount of migration takes place, and many of 
our Pied Wagtails leave the country, but in many parts of 
England the species remains through the winter. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Pied Wagtail is pecu- 
liarly a species of Western Europe. It breeds in the north- 
west of France, and sparingly in Holland, but in Belgium it 
appears to be only an accidental visitor. It likewise visits 
Denmark, passes over Heligoland, sometimes in some num- 
bers, and breeds in South-western Norway. It is a winter visitor 
to Southern France, Spain, extending to Morocco, and has oc- 
cured as a straggler in Italy. 

Habits. This very graceful little bird is familiar to most 
people, and in many parts of the country it is called a " Dish- 
washer." Its name of Wagtail is gained from the graceful way 
in which it balances and sways its tail up and down, with every 
movement. The flight of the species is undulating, and consists 
of a series of dips through the air, each dip being accompanied 
by an utterance of its call-note, which is very well imitated 
by the words chiz-zit. During the nesting season the Wagtail 
is very tame and trustful, nesting often in the neighbour- 
hood of habitations in the most easily detected places. At 
Cookham in our young days we often found the nest in the 
large rustic flower-baskets on the lawn, a little depression being 
scraped in the mould and the nest placed therein. It was diffi- 
cult to preserve the birds from prowling cats, but a still more 
relentless enemy was the Cuckoo, which seemed always to select 
a Wagtail's nest in which to deposit its eggs. The food of the 
Wagtail consists entirely of insects, in the pursuit of which it is 






THE WAGTAILS. 95 

untiring, running about with the greatest swiftness on the lawn 
or pasture, or chasing them by the river's bank. 

Nest. Placed in the hole of a bank or building, among roots 
of trees or even in the stems of an old ivy-tree, growing against 
a wall. The nest is a very rough structure outside, made of 
grass, roots, and moss, but neatly lined with hair, wool, and some 
feathers. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. Ground-colour bluish-white 
or stone-grey, numerously spotted all over with minute dots of 
purplish-brown, sometimes collecting near the larger end, but 
generally scattered over the egg. The underlying marks are 
purplish-grey, very inconspicuous as a rule, but occasionally 
causing a blotch. On one specimen in the British Museum 
the underlying markings are very distinct, and form irregular 
blotches of a light-brown colour, with streaks and hair-lines of 
blackish brown. Axis, 075-0*9 inch; diam., o'6. 

II. THE WHITE WAGTAIL. MOTACILLA ALBA. 

Motacilla alba, Linn., S. N., i., p. 331 (1766) ; Macg., Br. B., 
ii., p. 221 (1839); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 548(1874); 
Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 233, pi. 125 (1875); B. O. U. 
List Br. B., p. 29 (1883) ; Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 199 (1884) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 464 (1885); Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. viii. (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 115 
(1889). 

Adult Male in Breeding Plumage. Grey, not black, above; throat 
and fore-neck black ; ear-coverts white ; wing-coverts edged 
with white, with black bases ; head and nape black ; forehead 
white ; under surface of body white, the sides light ashy-grey ; 
bill and feet black; iris light brown. Total length, 67 inches; 
culmen, 0-5 ; wing, 3-35 ; tail, 3-35 ; tarsus, 0-85. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but the black on the 
crown generally not so strongly marked, being mixed with 
ashy. Tolal length, 6 '8 inches ; wing, 3-3. 

Adults in Winter Plumage. Distinguished by the white throat, 
followed by a crescentic band of black on the fore-neck ; the 
back grey, with a white forehead, followed by a black patch on 
the crown. 



96 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Young. At first recognisable by having the forehead ar 
crown of head grey like the body, and a tinge of yellow on the 
throat ; the fore-neck and chest dull ashy with a dusky spot on 
the former. After the first moult the young birds may still be 
recognised by the yellow tinge on the white throat ; the head 
is grey like the body, but the forehead is white. 

The White Wagtail may always be distinguished from the 
Pied Wagtail in summer by its pure grey back, which contrasts 
with the black head, whereas in the latter species both head 
and back are black. The female of the White Wagtail has a pure 
grey back like the male, whereas there is always some admix- 
ture of black in the back of the Pied Wagtail, though the 
female is never so entirely black as the male. In winter the 
two species are more difficult to distinguish, especially as the 
young birds of both have a grey back like the adults, but at 
all ages the greater amount of white on the wing-coverts serves 
to denote a White Wagtail. 

Bange in Great Britain. A regular visitant in spring, and has 
been identified as nesting in the British Islands on several 
occasions. It has doubtless often been confounded with the 
Pied Wagtail, and is probably more common than is supposed. 
It has been noticed in many parts of Scotland, and on one or 
two occasions the late Mr. E. T. Booth observed it in some 
abundance in the island of Lewis and near Inverness. It is 
probably a regular visitor in autumn on its way south, as in 
1890, and again in 1891, a White Wagtail frequented the lawn 
of our house at Chiswick, appearing in October for two years 
in succession, and remaining for two or three days in the 
neighbourhood. 

Eange outside the British Islands. A more eastern bird than 
the Pied Wagtail, but found along with the latter bird in its 
winter home in the South of France. It goes much further south 
than M. lugubris, and winters in Senegambia and North-eastern 
Africa. The White Wagtail also goes further to the northward to 
breed than does its congener, being found throughout Europe 
and extending to Iceland and the Faeroes in summer, and even 
reaching Jan Mayen and South Greenland. Its breeding quarter* 
extend into Siberia to the valley of the Yenesei, and it winters 
in the plains of North-western India and the Burmese countries. 






THE WAGTAILS. 97 

Habits. These are, as might be expected, very similar to 
those of M. liigubris, and, like that species, the White Wagtail 
is a very lively and active little bird, pursuing insects with the 
same elastic and rapid movements. 

Nest. Similar to that of the Pied Wagtail, with which 
species it certainly interbreeds on certain occasions. In the 
western corridor at the British Museum (N.H.) can be seen a 
Wagtail's nest sent by Lord Walsingham, and procured by his 
keeper in Norfolk. The male bird is undoubtedly a White 
Wagtail, while the female is a Pied Wagtail, and a second 
instance of such interbreeding has been noticed by Dr. Giin- 
ther in Suffolk. 

Eggs. Five to six. Generally indistinguishable from those 
of M. lugubris, but in the Seebohm collection in the British 
Museum are some very curious variations in markings. The 
ground colour is decidedly more bluish-white than in eggs 
of M. lugubris, and the same styles of eggs with the stone-grey 
ground and the fine specklings, which are seen in the latter 
species, are also frequent in a series of eggs of M. alba. 
There is, however, in the latter species an occasional tendency 
to produce a brownish egg, wherein the ground-colour is dull 
white, almost entirely hidden by marblings and spots of light 
brown or reddish-brown, especially marked in a clutch taken 
by Mr. Seebohm in the Petchora Valley, and again distinct in 
another clutch from Valkensvaard in Holland, but in the latter 
case the markings are not so strongly exemplified. One egg in 
the British Museum, from Holland, is white with the large end 
black, an unusual variation in a Wagtail's egg. Axis, 0-8-0-9 
inch ; diam., o'6-o'65. 

IIII. THE GREY WAGTAIL. MOTACILLA MELANOPE. 
(Plate XIII.) 

Motadlla melanope, Pall. Reise. Russ. Reichs, iii., App., p. 

696-{i776); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 251, pi. 128 (1875); 

. O. U. List Br. B., p. 30 (1883); Sharpe, Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus., x., p. 497 (1885); Saunders, Man., p. 117 

(1889); Wyatt, Br. B., pi. 8, figs, i, 2 (1894). 

Motadlla boarula t Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 235 (1839). 



98 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Motacilla sulphured, Newt. ed. Yarn, i., p. 552 (1874); Seeb., Br. 
B., ii., p. 203 (1884); Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. vi. 
(1888). 

Adult Male in Summer Plumage. Above blue-grey, the lower 
rump and upper tail-coverts brighter yellow; breast yellow, 
the under tail-coverts brilliant yellow; throat black, with a 
white moustachial streak on each side; wing-feathers dusky 
brown, edged with ashy olive, the inner secondaries dull white 
near the base of the outer web, forming a wing-patch ; bill 
black ; feet blackish ; iris dark brown. Total length, 6'8 
inches; oilmen, 0-55 ; wing, 3-25 ; tail, 3-55; tarsus, 075. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but with less black on 
the throat, the feathers edged with hoary white. Total length, 
7 inches; culmen, o'6 ; wing, 3-25 ; tail, 3-8; tarsus, o'8. 

Winter Plumage. Similar to the summer plumage, but with 
the throat white. 

Young Birds. Like the adults in their winter dress, but wit 
a wash of pale fawn-colour on the cheeks, throat, and fore-neck 
a fawn-coloured eyebrow. 

Eange in Great Britain. Somewhat locally distributed, an( 
breeding more particularly in the mountainous and hilly por 
tions of the British Islands. In the southern counties it i 
chiefly known as an autumn migrant, frequenting streams, bu 
it also breeds in the south, regularly in the south-westerr 
districts, more sparingly in the south-eastern parts of the coun 
try. 

Range outside the British Islands. A bird of very wide distri 
bution, extending throughout Europe and Asia to the Pacific 
but not extending very high north, nor reaching beyonc 
Central Russia, and only found in the extreme south o 
Scandinavia. In the countries of Southern Europe it is 
resident, but is migratory in the more northern parts of it 
range, and it visits in winter the high mountain ranges of North 
eastern and Central Africa, the peninsula of India, the Bur 
mese countries, and extends into the Molucca Islands. 

Habits. Although coloured like the Field Wagtails, the 
present species is a "Water" Wagtail in its habits, and is 
generally found in autumn along the sides of rivers and ponds 



THE WAGTAILS. 



99 



in the south of England, where many winter. Their move- 
ments and ways of capturing insects are the same as those of 
the preceding species. It is a more shy and retiring bird than 
the Pied Wagtail, and is a somewhat early breeder, as we have 
known the young to be on the wing in the early part of May. 

Nest. Resembles that of the Pied Wagtail, but generally to 
be found near a stream, built on the bank under a shelf of 
rock, and generally well concealed by the surrounding herbage. 
We found a nest for three years in succession in some ivy- 
covered trellis-work which grew over a disused bath-house at 
Avington Park, and Mr. Seebohm states that he once saw a 
nest built in the fork of three stems of an alder-tree, close to 
the ground, almost overhanging the water. The same observer 
remarks that he has found the nest lined with cow-hair, the 
preference being given to white, and he observed the same 
habits in Greece, the inner lining of the nest being made of 
white goats' hair in the last-named country. 

Eggs. Generally five, but occasionally as many as seven. 
In colour they vary considerably, the ground-tint being more 
olive than in the two foregoing species. Occasionally there is 
an approach to the markings and specklings of the White Wag- 
tail, but as a rule the tendency in the Grey Wagtail's egg is 
towards uniformity, one clutch procured by Mr. R. J. Ussher, 
in co. Waterford, being nearly uniform bluish-white, with only 
the faintest indications of rufous mottlings. Another clutch 
taken by the same gentleman is bluish-white, handsomely 
mottled and spotted with rufous-brown and with grey under- 
lying blotches and spots. As a rule the colour of each clutch 
of eggs is the same in character, but occasionally there is some 
variation in this respect, a clutch of four from the Vosges 
Mountains having two of the eggs nearly uniform pale olive, 
while the others are thickly spotted and blotched with pale 
brown, so that the olive ground-colour is all but concealed. 
Axis, 0-75-0-8 inch; diam., 0-55. (Plate xxxi., fig. 3.) 

IV. THE YELLOW WAGTAIL. MOTACILLA CAMPESTRI3. 

\Motacilla campestris. Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs, Hi., Anhang, 
p. 697 (1776) ;' Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 510, 
pi. vi., figs, i, 2 (1885). 

H 2 



ioo LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Budytes rayi, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 212 (1839). 

Motacilla rayi, Newt. ed. Yarn, i., p. 564 (1874). 

Motadlla raii y Dresser, B. Eur., h'L, p. 277, pi. 131 (1875); 
B. O. U. List. Br. B., p. 31 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., 
p. 212 (1884); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. vi. (1888); 
Saunders, Man., p. 121 (1889). 

Adult Male in Breeding Plumage. General colour olive-yellow 
above, and bright yellow below; the under tail-coverts bright 
yellow like the breast ; head also bright yellow, as well as the 
eyebrow, the hinder crown like the back. Total length, 6-3 
inches; culmen, 0-5; wing, 3*15; tail, 27; tarsus, 0-9. 

Adult Female Similar to the male, but not so bright in 
colour, and having the forehead greenish like the head, instea 
of being bright yellow as in the male. 

Adults in Winter Plumage. Greener than in summer, the fore 
head like the rest of the upper parts : a broad yellow eyebrow 
ear-coverts greenish; under-surface of body yellow, with 
slight tinge of saffron on the breast. 

Young Birds. Olive-brown above, more yellow on the lowe 
back and upper tail-coverts; a broad eyebrow of pale fawn 
colour ; ear-coverts brown ; chin and cheeks whitish ; throa 
and chest pale fawn-colour, with dusky spots on the latter 
lower flanks, abdomen, thighs, and under tail-coverts, brigh 
yellow. 

Eange in Great Britain. A summer visitor only, breeding i 
most parts of England and the south of Scotland, as well a 
near Lough Neagh and the neighbourhood of Dublin in Ire 
land. It is not known to breed west of Somersetshire, an 
occurs only on migration in our south-western counties, 
spring and autumn it is a very common migrant on the land 
near the coast. 

Eange outside the British Islands. The Yellow Wagtail 
chiefly a western bird, nesting in the north of France, bu 
elsewhere only known as a migrant on its way to or from it 
winter home in Western Africa. Specimens have been sen 
from the Zambesi and the Transvaal, but these may b 
migrants from Turkestan or Southern Russia, where the Yellow 
Wagtail is also found, and it is most probable that the line 



THE WAGTAILS. IQI 

southern migration of the Russian birds would be along the 
line of Eastern Africa. . . 

Habits. The present bird is more'of a ''Field " Wagtail than 
any of the foregoing species, and on its arrival in spring, often 
as early as March, it frequents the land by the sea-shore, as- 
sembling in the pastures in small flocks, and attracting attention 
by its brilliant yellow plumage, which rivals that of a Canary. 
For some time after its arrival inland the flocks keep together in 
the pastures, before they break up into pairs for the nesting 
season. In the autumn these Yellow Wagtails also assemble in 
flocks in the pasture lands near the sea-shore, feeding generally 
round the cattle, and catching the jmsects disturbed by the 
latter, in the usual graceful manner of Wagtails. At night they 
retire to roost in the neighbouring reed-beds in large numbers. 

Nest. On the ground, well-concealed, built under a turf or 
stone, sometimes in a bank. It is composed of rootlets or dry 
grass, and Mr. Cullingford informed Mr. Seebohm that the 
materials varied greatly, the lining consisting sometimes of hair, 
at other times of feathers or roots. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. They vary extremely in colour 
and markings. Some are uniform pale olive-brown, some 
darker olive, while others are nearly uniform pinkish-brown. 
Another type resembles the greenish-olive egg of the Sedge- 
Warbler, and even has an occasional hair-line of black, as is so 
often seen in the eggs of that bird. Other eggs of the Yellow 
Wagtail are like those of the Reed Warbler, having a greenish- 
white ground mottled all over with greenish-brown and under- 
lying markings of grey. Some of the eggs with the ground- 
colour greenish-white have the spots collected round the larger 
end so as to form a ring. Axis, 07-0*6 inch ; diam. 0-55-0-6. 

V. THE BLUE-HEADED WAGTAIL. MOTACILLA FLAVA. 

Motadlla flava^ Linn., S. N., i., p. 331 (1766); Newt. ed. 
Yarr., i., p. 558 (1874) ; Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 261, 
pi. 129 (1875); B. O. U. List. Br. B., p. 31 (1883); 
Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 208 (1884); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., x., p. 516, pi. vi., figs. 3, 5 (1885); Lilford, Col 
Fig. Br. B., pt. vi. (1888) ; Saunders, Man., p. 119(1889). 

Budytts flava> Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 208 (1839). 



T 2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Adult Male' in Breeding 1 Plumage. General colour olive-yellow, 
the rump lighter ; bfeast entirely bright yellow, the under tail- 
coverts 'of the same -colour; head blue-grey, with a distinct 
white eyebrow ; bill and feet blackish ; iris brown. Total length, 
57 inches ; culmen, 0-55 ; wing, 2-95 ; tail, 27 ; tarsus, 0-85. 

Adult Female. Duller in colour than the male, and slightly 
browner on the head and back : underneath paler yellow, 
whiter on the throat. Total length, 6 inches ; wing, 3-1. 

Young Still paler than a thedult female, and with dusky 
spots on the chest; over the eye a streak of tawny buff; ear- 
coverts brown ; cheeks and throat dull white, becoming 
browner on the fore-neck and chest. The young birds of 
the Blue-headed Wagtail are scarcely distinguishable from those 
of the Yellow Wagtail. 

Range in Great Britain. An accidental visitor in summer to 
England and Scotland, principally to the eastern coasts. We 
ourselves once shot a fine male bird in Sussex, near Pagham, in 
May, in company with Yellow Wagtails. Mr. John Hancock 
has certified to the nesting of the species in Northumberland, 
and Mr. Menteith Ogilvie has shown us some birds killed by 
him in Suffolk during the nesting season which appeared to be 
females of M.flava, though the latter are difficult to distinguish 
from the females of M. campestris when their plumage becomes 
worn. 

Nest. Similar to that of the Yellow Wagtail, and built in 
similar situations. 

Eggs. Four to six in number, and, as might have been ex- 
pected, very similar in character to those of the Yellow Wag- 
tail. As a rule they appear to be more uniform in tint than is 
the case with the latter bird, the series in the British Museum 
not showing the mottled Warbler-like eggs which are often 
found in a series of those of M. campestris. Axis, 07-075 
inch ; diam., 0*5 5-0*6. 

THE PIPITS. GENUS ANTIIUS. 

Anthus, Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl., iii., p. 704 (1807). 
Type, A. trivialis (Linn.). 

The Pipits differ from the Wagtails in having a brown 



THE PIPITS. 103 

plumage and more Lark-like appearance. The secondary 
quills are elongated and of about the same length as the 
primaries, and, in the style of plumage, the Pipits resemble 
the Larks, but in the formation of the wings and also in the 
curious " dipping " motion of the tail, they show their close 
relationship with the Wagtails. 

There are five genera of Pipits ; Anthus^ with thirty-three 
species ; Xanthocorys, from Brazil, with one species ; Neocorys, 
from the Upper Missouri and Manitoba in North America, also 
with one species ; Oreocorys, with a single species confined to 
the Himalaya Mountains; and Macronyx, with five species, 
confined to Africa. The birds of the last-named genus are 
the largest of all Pipits, and are remarkable for the bright 
yellow or pink colour of the breasts, an anomaly amongst 
these plain coloured birds. 

The True Pipits, of the genus Anthus, are found over the 
greater part of both Hemispheres, and are abundant in South 
America, Africa, and the Indian Region generally, extending to 
Australia and New Zealand, but not reaching the islands of 
Oceania. The genus comprises birds of different form and 
habits, and the shape of the hind claw varies almost as much 
as in the Larks, some of the species being frequenters of 
woodland, like our Tree-Pipit, while others are lovers of open 
country, like our Meadow-Pipit. 

I. THE TREE-PIPIT. ANTHUS TR1VIALIS. 

Alauda trivialis. Linn., S. N., i., p. 288 (1766). 

Anthus trivialis. Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 569 (1874); Dresser, 

B. Eur., iii., p. 309 (1874) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 33 

(1883); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 543 (1888); 

Saunders, Man., p. 123 (1889). 
Anthus arboreus, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 188 (1839) ; Seeb., Br. 

B., ii., p. 219 (1884). 

Adult Male in Summer Plumage. Above clear sandy-brown, 
streaked with black centres to the feathers ; below sandy-buff, 
the centre of the breast and abdomen inclining to buffy- 
white, clearer sandy-buff on the under tail-coverts ; the lower 
throat and fore-neck broadly streaked with black, more 
narrowly on the breast, sides of body, and flanks ; under wing- 



164 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

coverts sandy-buff; median and greater upper wing-coverts 
tipped with white, forming a double wing-bar ; the pattern of 
the outer tail-feathers white, with an oblique dusky-brown mark 
on the inner web ; bill dark-brown, the lower mandible fleshy ; 
feet dark-brown; iris pale-brown. Total length, 6*0 inches; 
culmen, 0-55; wing, 3-45; tail, 2-55; tarsus, 0-9. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but with narrower streaks 
on the under surface of the body. Total length, 6 inches ; 
wing, 3-45. 

Winter Plumage. Brighter than in summer, the general tone 
of the plumage richer buff, especially below, where there is a 
more tawny shade. The bird passes through a complete 
moult before leaving its winter quarters, as a pair which we kept 
in confinement through an entire winter moulted in March of 
the following year. 

NOTE. The Tree-Pipit can always be distinguished from the other Brit- 
ish species by its curved hind claw, which is not so long as the hind toe itself. 

Range in Great Britain. A summer visitor, affecting wooded 
districts, and breeding in most parts of the British Islands ; 
but becoming rarer in the northern portions of Scotland. 
Almost unknown in Ireland. 

Range outside the British Islands. Breeding throughout the 
greater portions of Central and Northern Europe, and as far 
east as the Valley of the Yenesei, reaching to lat. 62 in the 
latter country, to about lat. 65 in the Petchora Valley, and tO ( 
69 in Norway. In the Mediterranean countries it is a migrant,! 
though a few are said to breed on the mountains. It winters 
in Africa, and in North-western and Western India. Further 
to the eastward the Tree-Pipit disappears ; but its place is 
taken by a closely allied species, the Indian Tree-Pipit 
(Anthus maculatus), which inhabits the greater part of Eastern 
Siberia, and ranges west to the Yenesei. Its winter home is 
in the plains of India and Burma, but always on the eastern 
side of the Indian Peninsula. The Indian Pipit closely 
resembles our own bird, but is more olive-green in colour, and 
has much larger spots of black on the breast. 

Habits. At first sight, the present species might easily be 
mistaken for the Common Tit-lark, or Meadow-Pipit, but its 



THE PIPITS. 105 

habits are quite different. Its colours are also much brighter 
and purer in tint than the latter bird, its song is much superior, 
and it frequents, by preference, the woodland country. It 
affects the outside of woods and plantations, when it may be 
seen mounting into the air, and uttering its pretty and melo- 
dious song. The birds which we kept in our aviary during 
the winter were very tame, and kept themselves scrupulously 
neat and clean, having a Thrush-like appearance. They were 
always fond of bathing, and had to be carefully looked after 
to prevent their taking a chill in severe weather. They never 
uttered more than a whispered call-note, " chick," but when 
allowed to walk about the room, they took little flights from 
the ground, mounting and falling in a most graceful manner, 
and roosting on the highest point of the curtains or on a 
picture-frame. Having demonstrated to us the fact that both 
male and female moulted in the spring, they were allowed to 
fly away, and although they were in captivity the tamest of birds, 
they bolted straight away as soon as their cage was opened,- 
and never even visited the garden for food. 

The food of the Tree-Pipit consists almost entirely of in- 
sects, which it seeks for mostly on the ground, often frequent- 
ing pasture land, and running about among the cattle in 
pursuit of flies, after the manner of the Wagtails. Mr. Dixon 
also mentions that it devours corn when the seeds are in a 
soft and milky state. 

Nest. Placed on the ground, often on a bank by the side of 
a wood ; but sometimes in a corn-field at some distance from 
its favourite haunts. It is composed of dried grasses, with 
some moss and rootlets, being lined with finer grass and a 
little horse-hair. 

Eggs. Four to seven in number, and extremely variable in 

I tone of colour and markings. The series in the British 

Museum varies between a purplish- or pinkish-red, and stone- 

grey ground-colour. Between these two extremes occurs 

every shade of variation in tint, and the markings consist either 

j of minute dots, which cover the surface of the egg so as to 

I hide the ground-colour, or constitute bold spots and blotches, 

I sometimes collecting in a ring, or patch, at the larger end 

of the egg. There are always two kinds of these boldly- 



106 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

marked spots, the principal ones being reddish- or purplish- 
brown, and the underlying maikings purplish-grey. Axis, 075 
-0-9 inch ; diam., o'6o-'65. 

II. THE MEADOW-PIPIT. ANTHUS PRATENSIS. 

Alauda pratensis, Linn., S. N., i., p. 287 (1766). 
Anthus pratensis, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 181 (1839); Newt. ed. 
Yarn, p. 575 (1874); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 285, pi. 
132 (1874) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 32 (1883) ; Seeb., Br. 
B., ii., p. 224 (1884) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 580 
(1885) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. ix. (1888) ; Saunders, 
Man., p. 125 (1889); Wyatt, Br. B., ix., fig. i (1894). 
Adult Male in Breeding Plumage. Olive-brown above, with 
blackish centres to the feathers, those on the mantle with 
whitish margins ; rump uniform ; eyelid and eyebrow pah 
sandy-buff; throat uniform tawny-buff, as also the breast 
which is thickly streaked with black triangular spots, which 
become narrower on the lower breast ; flanks washed with 
olive and broadly streaked with black ; abdomen, vent 
and under tail-coverts isabelline white; axillaries smoky 
brown, washed with olive-yellow ; upper wing-coverts with con 
spicuous margins of dull white ; quills externally olive ; Ugh 
pattern of outer tail-feathers white. Total length, 575 inches 
culmen, 0-5; wing, 3*15; tail, 2*45; tarsus, 0*85. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but smaller and less 
strongly spotted below. Total length, 6 inches; wing, 2^95. 

Autumn and Winter Plumage. More decidedly olive-brown in 
colour, the black spots on the under surface strongly markec 
and the olive-yellow on the axillaries very plain. 

Young, Like the adults, but more dingy, less olive, and the 
black streaks on the upper surface broader ; a distinct mous 
tachial streak of black, as well as two more stripes on the sides 
of the throat. 

NOTE. The Meadow-Pipit is known by its small size, and nearly straigh 
hind claw, which is longer than the hind toe itself. 

Range in Great Britain. Universally distributed, frequenting 
the uplands as well as the lowlands in summer, but occurring 






THE PIPITS. 107 

more generally in the latter localities during the winter season. 
Many migrate south in winter, and it is noticeable that those 
which return to England in the spring are much brighter in 
plumage than those which are resident in the British Islands. 
On the south coast of England there appears to be a small 
resident race of Meadow-Pipit. 

Range outside the British Islands. Generally distributed through- 
out Central and Northern Europe, ranging eastwards to the 
Valley of the Ob. Principally known as a winter visitor 
to the Mediterranean countries, and wintering in Northern 
and North-eastern Africa. 

HaMts, As the name denotes, the present species is more 
a bird of the meadows than of the trees, like the foregoing 
bird, but it does occasionally perch on trees and bushes, 
though its life is principally passed on the ground. It is 
found in nearly every kind of situation, on moorland and the 
sides of hills, where its short song is often heard in the spring, 
as it takes brief flights into the air and descends again to the 
ground It is especially common near the sea-shore, and 
frequents the beach and the saltings, where numbers may 
be seen at any time of the year ; and though the species 
cannot be said to be gregarious during the breeding season, 
they are found in small parties in the autumn, and sometimes 
even in large flocks. During the shooting season, the Meadow- 
Pipit is a frequent object in the turnip-fields, as, when dis- 
turbed, it either flies away silently and drops down again a 
little further on, or flies round and round before settling, 
uttering a "peep "-ing note. It the winter it may be seen 
running along the edge of ice-holes in search of food, and 
then often frequents the shores of rivers, and is sometimes 
driven to seek its sustenance in farmyards. The food con-, 
sists almost entirely of insects, which it often pursues into the 
air like a Flycatcher. It is also said to eat small worms and 
fresh-water mollusca, while it has also been known to feed on 
seeds and grain when hard pressed. 

Nest. Composed of dry grass with an admixture of moss, 
and lined with finer grass or hair. It is always placed on the 
ground. 

From four to six in number, and somewhat variable 



io8 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

in tint, though generally uniform in appearance, brown 
being the prevailing colour. Sometimes the eggs are entirely 
brown with only a hair-like line here and there, but in most 
clutches the brown appearance is produced by the mottlings 
of the eggs, the ground-colour of which is dull white or even 
bluish-white. Both the brown cloudings and spots and the 
grey underlying markings are, as a rule, evenly distributed 
over the egg, and hence the uniform appearance which is 
created. Some clutches of eggs from the Faeroe Islands in 
the Seebohm collection vary from those obtained in the 
British Islands. Six eggs taken by Mr. Miiller in the Faeroes 
are of a pinkish-grey colour, very pale, and covered with a 
profusion of very minute greyish-brown dots. Another clutch 
taken by the same well-known collector, is of a "Wagtail 
type, being greenish-white, spotted all over with purplish 
brown and grey underlying markings, in some collecting 
the larger end. Axis, 075-0-85 inch ; diam., 0-6-0-65. 

III. THE RED-THROATED PIPIT. ANTHUS CERVINUS. 

Motadlla ceruina, Pall. Zoogr. Rosso.-Asiat., i., p. 511 (1811). 

Anthus cervinus, Dresser, B. Eur. iii., p. 299, pi. 136 (1874) 
B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 32 (1883) ; Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 22 
(1884); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 585 (1885) 
Saunders, Man., p. 127 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B 
pt. xi. (1889). 

Adult Male in Breeding Plumage. Like the Meadow-Pipit, bu 
the throat and breast not spotted or streaked, of a vinous re 
like the sides of the neck ; the rump and upper tail-coverl 
mottled with black centres and resembling the back ; bi 
dark brown, the base of the lower mandible and the gap 
yellow ; feet yellowish flesh-colour ; iris brown. Total length 
5-6 inches; culmen, 0-55; wing, 3-5; tail, 2*5; tarsus, 0*85. 

Adult Female. Like the male, and has the throat vinous, bu 
not the chest, which is sandy-buff like the rest of the unde 
surface. Total length, 5-3 inches ; wing, 3-2. 

Winter Plumage. Resembles that of the Meadow-Pipit, bu 
is distinguished by the. blackish centres to the feathers of th 
rump and upper tail-coverts ; the median wing-coverts tippe 
with whitish, forming a tolerably distinct wing-bar. 



THE PIPITS. lOQ 

Range In Great Britain. An accidental visitor in spring ; two 
examples having been obtained, one near Brighton in March, 
and another near Rainham, in Kent, in April. It is quite 
possible that the species, which has a very wide distribution 
throughout the Palaearctic Region, may occur more often than 
is supposed, as it may return in the spring migration with 
Meadow-Pipits, whose winter home it shares in many countries. 

Eange outside the British Islands. A more eastern bird than 
the Meadow-Pipit, being found during the breeding season 
from Northern Scandinavia to Kamtchatka and Bering Is- 
land, throughout the high latitudes of Europe and Siberia, 
beyond the limits of forest growth. Its winter range is some- 
what interesting, as it does not visit India, but is common 
throughout China and the Burmese countries as far south as 
the Philippines and Borneo. To the west it winters in Persia, 
Egypt, and Abyssinia, and has also occurred in most of the 
Mediterranean countries at this season. 

Habits. From Mr. Seebohm's description of the habits of- 
the species, these seem to be very like those of the Meadow- 
Pipit. He gives an interesting account of the nesting of the 
species in the Valley of the Petchora, and again on the Yenesei 
in Siberia. In Finmark he noticed the Red-throated Pipit 
beginning to breed in the last week of June. It was not so 
shy as the Meadow-Pipit, which was also plentiful in the same 
locality, and the song resembled rather that of the Tree-Pipit, 
the call-note being similar to that of the common Tit-lark or 
Meadow-Pipit. It is described by Mr. Seebohm as being 
very decidedly a swamp-bird, and rarely seen on the dry grassy 
hills, or on the rocky slopes. In North-eastern Russia he 
found the species very common, being almost as numerous on 
the tundra as the Lapland Bunting, which was the most abun- 
dant species of the region. As in Finmark, the species was a 
late breeder, arriving in the valley of the Petchora on the iyth 
of May, and passing further northward. On the 6th of June 
k arrived within the Arctic Circle on the Yenesei river. 

Nest. " Entirely made of dry grass, the coarser pieces being 
used for the foundation, and the finest reserved for the lining. 
It is placed in recesses on the sides of the tussocky ridges 
which intersect the bogs." (Secbohm.) 



no LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. In general appearance re- 
sembling those of the Meadow-Pipit, all the variations of the 
latter species being represented in a series of eggs of Anthus 
cervinus. Many of the latter, however, are of a richer and 
darker brown than is seen in the Meadow-Pipit's egg, and 
there is further an occasional clutch, not seen in the case of 
the latter bird, where the colour greatly resembles that of the 
Tree-Pipit's eggs, the mottlings and spots being extremeh 
bold and distinct, especially the brown overlying spots, whicl 
are distributed over the egg. Axis, 075-0*85 inch; diam. 



ANTHUS RICHARDI. 

Anthus richardi, Vieill., N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat, xxvi., p. 491 
(1818); Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 199 (1839) ; Newt. ed. Yarr. 
i., p. 598 (1874); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 328, pi. 138 
(1874) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 34 (1883) ; Seeb., Br. B. 
ii-> P- 2 33 ( l88 4); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 56, 
(1885); Saunders, Man., p. 131(1889); Lilford, Col. Fig 
Br. B., pt. x. (1889). 

Adult Male in Breeding Plumage. Of large size, with a power 
ful foot, the hind claw about equal to the length of the him 
toe. Dark brown above, with sandy-buff edges to the feathers 
like a Lark in appearance : lesser wing-coverts dull sandy 
rufous, the median and greater coverts as well as the quill 
dusky, edged with sandy rufous, the coverts tipped with pale 
fulvous ; axillaries and under wing-coverts sandy-rufous, wit! 
dusky bases ; flanks perfectly uniform, without blackish streaks 
light portion of outer tail-feather white ; bill black, the lower 
mandible flesh-colour, the gape yellow ; feet reddish flesh 
colour; iris dark brown. Total length, 7*7 inches; culmen 
0-6; wing, 3-95; tail, 2'8; tarsus, n. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour, but smaller 
Total length, 7 inches; wing, 3-55. 

NOTE. Richard's Pipit is easily distinguished by its large size, and large 
hind claw, which is equal to or longer than the hind toe itself. 

Range in Great Britain. An irregular visitor in autumn, princi- 
pally to the south-eastern and southern coasts. 



THE PIPITS. Ill 

Range outside the British Islands, A bird of Eastern Asia, 
breeding from the valley of the Yenesei and Eastern Turkestan 
to Eastern Siberia and Mongolia, whence it migrates south in 
autumn to China, India, and the Burmese countries and the 
Moluccas. At the same season of the year it journeys west- 
ward, and has been recorded from most of the countries of 
Europe. 

Habits. Mr. Seebohm says that this present species is 
" essentially a Steppe bird, delighting in wet pastures and rich 
meadows left for hay in the northern climates, where the 
harvest is late and it can build its nest in f .he long grass, and 
rear its young before the mowers come to disturb it, and 
where it can find abundance of food on the short grass after 
the hay is cleared away, just when its young are most 
voracious." The bird has a habit of hovering in the air, like 
a Kestrel, and is then easily procured ; otherwise, Mr. Seebohm 
says, it is a most difficult species to obtain, as it runs about in 
the grass and cannot be detected. Colonel Legge states that 
in its winter-quarters in Ceylon, Richard's Pipit frequents 
cattle-pastures, and is very fond of dusting itself in the road 
like a Lark. Everywhere it seems to be a shy species. 

Nest. Not yet described, but is doubtless similar to that 
of other Pipits. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. Axis, 0-85-0-9 inch ; diam., 
07. Ground-colour greenish-white, or brownish-white, pro- 
fusely spotted and clouded with spots of brown or greenish- 
brown, with underlying spots of grey, almost completely hiding 
the ground-colour of the egg. This is more particularly the 

.se in the browner type of egg in the British Museum. 

V. THE TAWNY-PIPIT. ANTHUS CAMPESTRIS. 

lauda campestris, Linn., S. N., i., p. 288 (1766). 

nthus campestris, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 592 (1874) ; Dresser, 

B. Eur., iii., p. 317, pi. 137 (1874); B. O. U. List. Br. 

B., p. 33 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 239 (1884); Sharpe, 

Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 569 (1885); Saunders, Man., p. 

129 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xviii. (1891). 

Adult Male. Sandy-coloured above, with dark centres to the 



Ill LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY, 

feathers; rump nearly uniform; cheeks, throat, and under 
surface of body whitish, with a wash of sandy-buff on the 
breast and sides of the body ; chest uniform ; wing-coverts edged 
with sandy-buff; outer tail-feather nearly entirely white^ with a 
brown edging to the inner web, the shaft of this feather white ; 
the next tail-feather blackish-brown on the inner web, the outer 
web entirely light fulvous, this colour extending obliquely along 
the inner web to the tip, the shaft brown ; sides of face whitish 
with a moustachial streak of dusky. Total length, 7 inches ; 
culmeri, 0-65; wing, 3-6; tail, 2*8; tarsus, 1*0. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but with the moustachia 
streak less marked ; sides of breast slightly streaked wit 
dusky brown. Total length, 6*5 inches ; wing, 3-3. 

Winter Plumage. Paler than in summer, the sandy margins t 
the feathers broader and more marked, especially on the quills 
moustachial streak not emphasised. 

Young Birds. Resemble the winter plumage of the adults, bu 
distinguished by dusky blackish triangular spots on the fore 
neck and chest. 

NOTE. The Tawny-Pipit may be distinguished by its slightly-curve 
hind claw, which is equal to the hind toe in length, or even exceeds th 
latter, by its uniform breast when adult, the broad sandy- coloured margin 
to the wing-coverts, the unstreaked flanks, and the pattern of the two oute 
tail-feathers. 

Range in Great Britain. A rare autumnal visitor, generally t 
the south coast. Several examples have been obtained nea 
Brighton. 

Range outside the British Islands. Formed throughout th 
sandy and arid districts of Central and Southern Europe, east 
ward to Turkestan and Eastern Siberia, wintering in Sene 
gambia, N.E. Africa, and the plains of North-western India. 

Habits. From its pale coloration this Pipit might be con 
sidered a desert-haunting bird, but it cannot be said strictl 
so to be, though it is undoubtedly a frequenter of sandy plain 
and prairie-ground. It inhabits the sand-dunes of the Baltic Pro- 
vinces, and even extends as far west as Holland and the north 
of France ; found as well as in other tracts of sandy and wast* 
land throughout the greater part of Europe, its furthest north 



tHE PIPITS. 113 

ern point being the south of Sweden. It arrives in South- 
eastern Europe at the end of March or the beginning of April, 
and reaches its more northern breeding ground at the end of 
the latter month, or early in May. One of the best accounts 
of the habits of this species is contributed by Mr. Dixon to 
Mr. Seebohm's " History of British Birds," and is quoted at 
length, as it illustrates a mode of life somewhat different to that 
of our own Pipits: "The Tawny-Pipit is very common in the 
more elevated parts of Algeria, and is a bird that cannot easily 
be passed unseen. To look at its plumage one might almost ex- 
pect to meet with it only in the desert ; but in summer, at any 
rate, it does not frequent that sandy waste, and we only met 
with it on the elevated plateaux beyond Constantine, and in 
the neighbourhood of Batna and Lambessa. The road be- 
tween these two latter places runs through rich meadows and 
barley-fields, and abounded with Tawny-Pipits in abundance. 
I saw them only in pairs ; they were very tame, and often 
allowed themselves to be almost trodden upon before they 
would take wing. I often saw them running about very quickly 
over the bare pieces of ground, stopping now and then to look 
round to see if they were being pursued. When flushed they 
would often fly for a little distance in a very straightforward 
manner, not undulating, as is their usual flight, and perch on 
a little tuft of higher vegetation, or on a boulder, or even a 
I paling. Many of the birds were on the road, where you could 
witness their actions very closely as they ran up and down like 
a Wagtail, often giving their tail a sharp jerk, accompanied by 
a flicking movement of the wings. They seemed to -especially 
prefer a large unenclosed plain of rough land on which no crop 
was sown, what we should call summer fallow in England. 
Here I repeatedly saw the birds soar into the air for a little 
way and sing their loud but simple song, which put me in 
mind of the Sky-Larks' notes, although not so rich or so sweet. 
The species does not soar so high as the Tree-Pipit, and seems 
anxious to get to the ground again. When alarmed by the report 
[of a gun, the birds close at hand would generally rise for some 
distance into the air and betake themselves to safer quarters in 
i drooping flight, uttering a short whit, or yhit, as they went. I 
bund an empty nest, which could only have belonged to this 
bird, placed amongst the growing barley, which was about 



ii4 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

twelve inches high, in exactly a similar place to that in which 
the Sky-Lark often builds, made of dry grass lined with hair. 

Nest. On the ground, generally concealed under a clod of 
earth or tuft of herbage, or under a bush ; sometimes in a bank 
near a dried-up streamlet, or even in the open plains among the 
growing crops. It is composed of dry grass, often intermixed 
with a few stems of coarse herbage or straws, together with 
roots, and lined with horse-hair, although in many cases fine 
roots alone serve the purpose. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. The general colour is 
very light, when compared with that of the eggs of the. other 
European Pipits. The ground-colour is white or greenish 
white, and the spotting varies in intensity and degree. In 
some eggs the whole surface is covered with tiny dots of black 
or blackish-brown, the grey underlying dots being scarcely per 
ceptible. On those which have the ground-colour greenish 
white, the spots are of a greenish-brown tint, and on those eggs 
which incline to a creamy-white ground, the overlying spots are 
reddish-brown, and, with the grey underlying spots, are dis 
tributed all over the egg. Axis, 0-8-0-95 i ncn > diam., 0-65-07 

VI. THE WATER-PIPIT. ANTHUS SPIPOLETTA. 

Alauda spinoletta. Linn., S. N., i., p. 288 (1766). 

Anthus spipoletta, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 581 (1874; nom 

emend.); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 34(1883); Sharpe, 

B. Brit. Cat. Mus., x., p. 592 (1885); Saunders, Man. 

p. 133 (1889) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xviii. (1891) 
Anthus spinoktta, Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 335, pi. 140 (1874) 

Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 248 (1884). 

Adult Male in Breeding Plumage. Above light brown, the 
mantle mottled with dusky centres to the feathers ; lower back 
and rump uniform ; head and hind-neck ashy-grey, slightly 
streaked with dusky on the crown ; a broad whitish eyebrow, 
cheeks and under surface of body pale rosy, extending over the 
abdomen, without any streaks upon the chest ; lower abdomer 
and under tail-coverts whitish ; wing-coverts tipped with dul 
white ; eyebrows and lores isabelline ; flanks slightly streaked 
with brown ; light pattern of outer tail-feather white. Tota 



THE PIPITS. IT5 

length, 6-6 inches; oilmen, 0-55 ; wing, 3-55 ; tail, 2-75 ; tar- 
sus, 0-95. 

Winter Plumage. Like the summer plumage, but without the 
reddish colour on the under surface, which is whitish with a 
brown moustachial line on each side of the throat ; the fore- 
neck, chest, and breast spotted with brown, less distinct on the 
sides of the body and flanks ; light pattern on outer tail-feather 
white, the penultimate feather with a conspicuous white tip. 

NOTE. The birds which visit England are always likely to be in win- 
ter plumage or to be immature birds. From the young of the Tawny- 
Pipit they can be told by the streaks on the flanks, which are uniform in the 
latter bird. From the Meadow-Pipit they can be distinguished by having 
the end of the penultimate feathers brown along the outer web ; in the 
Meadow-Pipit this part of the feather is white. From the Rock-Pipit, 
with which the Water-Pipit is most easily confounded, it can be recognised 
by having the light part of the outer tail-feather w&ite, instead of smoky- 
brown, as it is in A. obscurus. 

Range in Great Britain. An accidental visitor in autumn and 
spring, four specimens having been recorded, all from the 
vicinity of Brighton. One was killed there in 1864, another 
near Worthing in the same year, a third near Shoreham in 
October, 1868, and a fourth near Lancing in March, 1877. 

Range ontside the British Islands. An inhabitant of the moun- 
tain regions of Central and Southern Europe, throughout Cen- 
tral Asia to the Altai Mountains, occurring also in the high 
ranges of Persia and Baluchistan. A smaller race, named 
Anthus blakistoni, is found in Eastern Siberia and China. 

Habits. From its mountain-loving propensities, Mr. Seebohm 
prefers to call this species the " Alpine " Pipit, as it frequents 
only the higher mountain slopes above the forest growth during 
the breeding season, visiting the lowlands in the winter. He 
has given a good account of the nesting of the species in the 
Engadine, where he found it on the higher mountains, living 
in the same districts as the Marmot, " where the gentle ist of 
the Pipit contrasts with the loud mee-ik of the latter, these 
being almost the only signs of animal life in these regions." 
The ways of the species are very similar to those of the 
Meadow-Pipit, its food consisting of insects, small worms and 
land-shells, but it is said to eat seeds in winter, when insect 
life fails. Like other Pipits, it runs actively along the ground, 

I 3 



u6 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

and also flies up into the air to utter its song, which is de- 
scribed by Mr. Seebohm as being like that of the Meadow- 
Pipit, but not so sweet : its call-note also resembles that of the 
latter bird. 

Nest. Composed of dry grass, with some moss, lined with 
fine roots, and occasionally with horse-hair or wool. 

Eggs. Four or five in number. The ground-colour is dull 
white, obscured by the closely-set mottlings and numerous dots 
of purplish-brown, sometimes clouding round the larger end, 
where there are hair-like lines of black. Another type of egg 
is more like that of a Wagtail, wherein the brown spots are 
more sparsely distributed, except at the larger end, where they 
collect, the greyish underlying markings being also very dis- 
tinct. Both brown- and grey-tinted eggs occur in the same 
clutch. Axis, 0*8-0*9 mcn > diam., 0-65. 

VII. THE ROCK-PIPIT. ANTHUS OBSCURUS. 

Alauda obscura. Lath. Ind. Orn., ii., p. 494 (1790). 

Anthus aquaticus, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 194 (1839). 

Anthus obscurus, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 586 (1874); Dresser, 
B. Eur., iii., p. 342, pi. 141 (1877); B. O. U. List Br. B., 
P- 35 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 244 (1884) ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 599 (1885); Saunders, Man., p. 135 
(1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xviii (1891). 

Adult Male in Breeding Plumage. Olive brown above with dark 
centres to the feathers ; throat dull white ; under surface of 
body whitish, very thickly mottled with dark brown centres to 
the feathers; wing-coverts tipped with dull white; light pattern 
of outer tail-feather smoky-brown ; the penultimate feather also 
smoky-brown at the tip ; bill black ; feet fleshy-brown ; iris 
brown. Total length, 6'8 inches; oilmen, 0*7; wing, 3*45; 
tail, 2*6; tarsus, 0-95. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but less spotted under- 
neath. Total length, 6*4 inches; wing, 3-35. 

Winter Plumage. Resembles the summer plumage, but is 
more olive ; a narrow moustachial line of blackish-brown, 
widening out on to the sides of the lower throat ; throat dull 
white, marked with olive ; fore-neck and breast olive, the 



THE PIPITS. Iiy 

feathers broadly centred with spots and streaks of dark brown; 
flank-feathers olive brown, streaked with darker brown ; lower 
breast and abdomen as well as the under tail-coverts dull white, 
washed with pale olive-yellow. 

NOTE. The Rock-Pipit can be told by the smoky-brown tint of the 
light pattern of the outer tail-feathers, which is found in birds of all ages. 

Range in Great Britain. Resident on the rocky coasts of 
Scotland and Ireland, and also in England on suitable parts 
of the coast, but not breeding on the more open parts, where 
it occurs only as a migrant or winter visitor. 

Range outside the British Islands. This is not yet well under- 
stood, as few authors have recognised the validity of the Scan- 
dinavian form of Rock-Pipit. We ourselves have never seen 
an undoubted specimen cf our own Rock-Pipit from any other 
locality than the British Islands, but the spotted-breasted 
form is said by Mr. Howard Saunders to occur in the Channel 
Islands and along the shores of Northern and Western France. 
In the other portions of Northern Europe it is represented by 
the Scandinavian form, A. rupestris. 

Habits. In the south of England and on all our open coasts 
the Rock-Pipit is found on migration or in winter, and some- 
times in some numbers. Its actions are like those of the 
Meadow-Pipit, and it might be mistaken for the latter bird, were 
it not for its larger size and generally darker appearance. It 
runs along the shore or over the sea-weed, picking up its food, 
which consists of shore-insects and small mollusca ; it also 
feeds on seeds of marine plants, and the Rock-Pipits which 
we killed in Heligoland fed on some kind of insect which 
rapidly decomposed, so that on more than one occasion the 
skin of the gullet peeled off in a few hours, and the birds had 
to be attended to by the taxidermist very soon after death, to 
ensure their conservation. 

The Rock-Pipit breeds at the end of April or beginning of 
May, and during the pairing-season the song of the male is 
heard incessantly, as he springs into the air. Like other 
Pipits, the song is generally uttered as the bird descends with 
outspread wings and tail. Its notes are described as very 
musical, not unlike those of the Meadow-Pipit, but not equal 
to those of the Tree-Pipit. 



n8 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Nest. Differs considerably in the materials used for its 
construction, according to locality, being generally built of 
fine dry grass, sometimes intermixed with sea-weed and the 
stalks of shore-plants. Some of them have an admixture of 
moss, and are frequently lined with hair. As Air. Seebohm 
observes, when the birds can obtain hair, they use it ; where 
fine grass only can be procured, they generally employ it for 
the construction of the nest, whilst in localities affording a 
more extensive choice, the materials are more varied. The 
nest is generally placed in a well-concealed situation, but 
always close to the sea-shore. It is sometimes placed in a cliff 
several hundred feet above the level of the waves, more often 
close to the shore under a tuft or in the hole of a rock or a 
bank. 

Eggs. Four to five in number, and very dark as a rule in 
colour, the ground-tint being greyish-white or greenish-white, 
overlaid with spots and mottlings of dark brown or reddish- 
brown, so thickly distributed as to impart to the eggs a uni- 
form appearance. Some clutches are much paler than others 
and have a white ground, spotted with brown, very much after 
the pattern of a Tree-Pipit's egg ; these light-coloured eggs are, 
however, the exception, the general tone being very dark. 
Axis, 0-85-0*9 ; diam., 0-65. 

VIII. THE SCANDINAVIAN ROCK-PIPIT. ANTHUS RUPESTRIS. 

Anthus rupestris, Nilss. Orn. Suee., i., p. 245, pi. 9, figs, i, 2 
(1817). 

Adult in Breeding Plumage. Similar to the preceding bird, bi 
with the under surface of the body uniform vinous, without 
spots. Total length, 6'i inches; wing, 3-4; tarsus, 0-85. 

Winter Plumage. Indistinguishable from that of the ordinarj 
Rock-Pipit of the British Islands. 

Range in Great Britain. An autumn migrant to the east C( 
of our islands, and passing regularly along the south coast 
returning by the same route from west to east in the spring, 
which season the differences between this race and our owr 
Rock-Pipit are easily discernible. 

Range outside the British Islands. Occurs along the rockj 



THE CREEPERS. 1 19 

shores of the Baltic, Denmark, and Western Scandinavia as far 
as the White Sea. 

Habits. The same as those of A. obscurus. 

lf es t. Like that of A. obscurus. 

Eggs. --Also like those of the above-mentioned species 

THE CREEPERS. FAMILY GERTRUDE. 

These birds are mostly recognised from the rest of the 
Passeiiformes or Perching Birds of the Old World, by their 
peculiarly pointed tail, which is like that of a miniature Wood- 
pecker, and serves the same purpose, having stiffened shafts 
to the feathers, as a support to the bird when it is clinging to 
or climbing up a tree. In their mode of nesting, and in the 
colour of their eggs, the Creepers are very like Tits, to which 
they are undoubtedly closely allied; but they possess very long 
and slender bills, and their toes are also very long, especially 
the hallux, or hind toe, which has always a large claw. 

Just as in the Woodpeckers, which have not all stiffened 
shafts to the tail-feathers, there are among the Certhiida^ birds 
in which the tail is soft, like that of the Tits. Such forms are 
Tichodroma and Salpornis, the former a bird of the Mediter- 
raneo-Persic Sub-region, the latter of the Indian and African 
Regions. 

In all the Creepers the bill is long and curved, very different 
from that of the Tits, where it is stout and strong. The tongue 
is ordinary, and not capable of being extended, as is the case 
with the tropical Sunbirds (Nectariniida\ which have a very 
similarly shaped bill. The tail-feathers are twelve in number. 
The Creepers have no bristles at the gape, and in this respect 
they approach the Wrens, as they do also in the colour and 
markings of the eggs. They are poor nest-builders, much in- 
ferior to Tits in this respect, and far behind the Wrens in 
architectural skill. Although laying spotted eggs, they conceal 
them in the same manner as Tits and Wrens, the reason being 
doubtless the same in all three cases, viz., that the glossy white 
ground-colour of the egg is so conspicuous, that the few spots 
would not serve to hide them, were the nest built in the open. 



120 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

THE TRUE CREEPERS. GENUS CERTHIA. 

Ccrthia, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 184(1766). 

Type, C. familiariS) Linn. 

The true Tree-Creepers such as our British birds are 
about ten in number, and are found in the northern parts 
of boih Hemispheres, as far south as Guatemala in Central 
America, and over the greater part of Europe and Asia, as 
far as the Himalayas and the Burmese countries. The char- 
acters of the genus have been explained under the heading of 
the family (vide supra}. 



I. THE TREE CREEPER. CERTHIA FAMILIARIS. 

Certhia familiaris, Linn., S. N., i., p. 184 (1766); Macg., Br. 
B., iii., p. 33 (1840); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 468 (1874); 
Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 195, pi. 122 (1874); B. O. U. 
List Br. B,p. 45 (1883) - Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 511 (1883); 
Gadow, Cat. B., Brit. Mus., viii., p. 323 (1883); Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. iv. (1887); Saunders, Man., p. 109 
(1889); W\att, Erit. B., pi. 9, fig. 2 (1894). 

Adnlt Male. General colour above brown, with a tinge of 
golden buff, the head and back streaked with ashy-grey centres 
to the feathers ; the rump and upper tail-coverts orange-tawny, 
the feathers long and fluffy, and having a silky white mark just 
before their tips ; lores dusky, as also the feathers below the eye 
and along the upper edge of the ear-coverts ; above the eye a 
streak of silky white ; sides of face and under surface of body 
also silky white ; wing-coverts tipped with yellowish-buff, the 
greater coverts with white, before which is a black band ; the 
quills dusky-brown, chequered with a broad bar of bufify- white 
across the inner primaries and secondaries, bordered above and 
below with black; the inner secondaries externally buff towards 
their ends, the innermost black before their white tips ; tail- 
feathers brown, with reddish-brown shafts; bill dark brown, the 
lower mandible paler ; feet brown ; iris clear hazel. Total 
length, 5*5 inches; culmen, 07 ; wing, 2*5 ; tail, 2*3; tarsus, 
0-6. 

Adnlt Female. Similar to the male in plumage. Total length, 
5 inches; wing, 2-5 ; tarsus, 0-55. 






THE TRUE CREEPERS. 121 

Young. Much more mottled on the upper surface than the 
adults, the central buff markings to the feathers very much 
larger and occupying nearly the whole of the feather ; the 
pattern of the wing as in the adult, the cross bands on the 
quills all very strongly indicated; the under surface of the body 
dull white, the feathers of the breast obscured by dusky-brown 
tips. 

Range in Great Britain. Resident in nearly every part of the 
British Islands, as far north as the Isle of Skye and Caithness, 
and occurring as a straggler in the Orkneys and Shetland Is- 
lands. Mr. Ridgway considers that the British Tree-Creeper 
is a different species from that inhabiting the continent of 
Europe, and has named it Certhia britannica. He says that 
the form of the British Islands is browner in colour, the wings 
of a deeper tawny colour, and the under-parts duller. (Cf. 
Ridgw., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v., p. 113 (1882). The con- 
tinental bird is certainly greyer, the streaks ashy instead of 
buff; the rump is not so conspicuously tawny in the foreign 
specimens, but there is no difference in the colour of the under- 
parts. Such is our conclusion after comparing a series of 
skins in the British Museum, but the differences can hardly be 
called specific, as French specimens are intermediate. 

Range outside the British Islands. Throughout the Palaearctic 
Region, i.e., Europe and Asia north of the line of the Hima- 
layas. Mr. Ridgway, however, in his paper above referred to, 
recognises two races in Europe besides the one he calls C. 
britannica, and, according to the opinions cf recent writers, 
there are several races of the Common Creeper to be distin- 
guished in the Palaearctic Region alone, to say nothing of the 
American Creeper (C. americana\ which can scarcely be sepa- 
rated from its European representative. The Himalayas and 
the off-lying mountain ranges of the chain in Burma possess 
six species, these regions being very rich in Creepers, Tits, and 
Nuthatches. The northern range of the European Certhia is 
63 N. lat. in Scandinavia, 60 in Russia, and about 57 in 
Siberia. It is found in Algeria to the south of the Mediter- 
ranean, but not in those countries where no pine-forests 
occur. 

HaMts. Notwithstanding the name offamitiaris which Lin- 
naeus bestowed on the Creeper, it is by no means a familiar 



122 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 






bird to the majority of English people, though it is really quite 
a common bird in most of our counties. Its single not 
wheest, is somewhat ventriloquial, and the bird cannot always 
be detected by the sound. If once the note be recognisec 
however, it is not long before the bird can be discovei 
as it pursues a course along a tree or branch, and then flit 
down to a lower level, though even then it may escape obi- 
vation, owing to its small size and sober colouring. It runs uj 
the trees in the manner of a tiny Woodpecker, but its wi 
bill is not capable of hammering at the bark like the last 
named bird, or of prising off a large piece, as the Nuthatc 
can do. Its food consists of tiny insects, and spiders consti 
tute a large portion of its prey, in pursuit of which the bir 
climbs most actively, sometimes running up the trunk to the 
top of the tree or turning aside to follow the course of soi 
large branch, examining both the upper and under sides 
the latter, but always steadily pursuing its course towai 
the end of the bough. In many of its movements it is ver 
like a Tit, but it is never seen to turn back or move with 
head downwards, as a Nuthatch or a Woodpecker will 
Both male and female are very assiduous in the care of the 
young, but the latter are very noisy, and often lead to the dii 
covery of the well-concealed nest, by the squeaking that th< 
make on the arrival of the parent- birds with food. 
Creeper has been credited with a song, and some observe 
have recorded the fact in this country. Although we 
been acquainted with the species from boyhood, we have neve 
heard a Tree-Creeper sing in England, though the continent 
birds undoubtedly do sing, and we remember once hearing 
bird in France, which had a remarkably loud song, like that 
a Tit. So convinced were we that it was a Tit which 
singing, that we looked everywhere in the upper branches 
the tree for the songster, and at last caught sight of it- 
Creeper clinging to the trunk only a few yards off from wht 
we stood, and singing vigorously a song which we never hear 
our English bird give way to. So there may be something 
the belief that the Creeper of the continent of Europe is nc 
quite the same as our British bird. 

Nest. Placed in a hole in a tree or behind the beam of 
shed, often behind a crevice in the bark of a tree, but alwaj 



THE CRIMSON-WINGED CREEPERS. 123 

concealed and hidden. The nest is generally somewhat rough, 
composed of moss and small roots, with a good many chips 
of dead wood. 

Mr. Seebohm, however, calls it a handsome little structure, 
and says that " there is a rustic beauty about a Creeper's nest 
which few others possess. The crevice behind the bark which 
the bird usually selects is often too large for the nest itself; 
and the superfluous space is filled up with a quantity of fine 
twigs, chiefly of beech and birch. Round the edge of the nest 
is artfully woven a series of the finest twigs ; and the lining is 
made of roots, grass, moss, and sometimes feathers. But the 
chief characteristic of the Creeper's nest is the lining of fine 
strips of inside bark which is almost invariably there." 

Eggs. Four to six in number. Ground colour either pure 
white or reddish-white, the markings varying with the ground- 
colour of the two different sty!es of egg. Where the egg is 
creamy- or reddish-white, the spots are decidedly rufous 
character, with a tendency to cluster round the large end. In 
the whiter eggs, the spots vary from reddish-brown to blackish, 
with underlying spots of grey, not easily distinguishable from 
the overlying spots. Axis, 0*65 inch; diam., 0*5. 

THE CRIMSON-WINGED CREEPERS. GENUS TICHODROMA. 

Tichodroma, 111. Prod., p. 211 (1810). 

Type, T. muraria (Linn.). 

The present genus holds an intermediate position between 
the Tree- Creepers and the Nuthatches. Like the former, it has 
a curved and slender bill, and a powerful head ; but like the 
Nuthatches it has a soft tail, a grey upper plumage, and it shares 
with the Nuthatches the character of the white spots on the 
outer tail-feathers. 

There is only one species of the genus Tichodroma^ the 
range of which is given below. 

I. THE WALL-CREEPER. TICHODROMA MURARIA. 

Certhia muraria^ Linn., S. N., i., p. 184 (1766). 
Tichodroma muraria^ Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 207, pi. 123 
(1871); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 46 (1883); Gadow, Cat. 






124 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

B. Brit. Mus., viii., p. 331 (1883); Seeb., Hist. Brit. B , i., 
p. 518, pi. 18 (1883); Saunders, Man., p. in (1889); 
Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. xv. (1890). 

Adult. Above delicate pearly-grey, browner on the crown, 
and gradually shading off into blackish on the upper tail- 
coverts and tail, the latter tipped with white spots ; the wing- 
coverts beautiful crimson, the bastard wing black, and the 
greater coverts black on the inner web, crimson on the outer 
one ; the innermost greater coverts grey, like the outer web of 
the adjoining inner secondaries ; primary coverts and primaries 
black, externally crimson for the greater part of the outer web ; 
sides of face and throat greyish-white, remainder of the under 
surface from the fore-neck downwards slaty grey, verging int( 
black on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries dark crimson ; quills black below, with 
a white spot near the end of the second, third, fourth, am 
fifth primaries, and a second white spot near the base of th( 
same quills ; bill and legs black ; iris brown. Total length, 
6-5 inches; culmen, n ; wing, 4-0; tail, 2'i ; tarsus, 0-95. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male. Total length, 5-5 inches 
wing, 4-0. 

During the Nesting Season the birds assume a black throat am 
chest, which are not so distinctly marked in the female as ii 
the male. 

Eange in Great Britain. A very rare and accidental visitor, 
of which two occurrences have been recorded; one as long ago 
as 1792, as we learn from a letter written by Robert Marsham 
to Gilbert White, of Selbourne, in which he states that a Wall- 
Creeper had been shot at his house at Stratton-Strawless, in 
Norfolk. Mr. F. S. Mitchell had also a specimen in his collec- 
tion which was shot at Sabden, in Lancashire, on the 8th 
May, 1872. It was observed flying round a tall chimney, am 
attracted the attention of a number of mill-hands by its bright 
colour. It appeared to be a solitary bird and not to have 
mate with it. 

Range outside the British Islands. An inhabitant of the moui 
tains of Southern Europe, extending into Central Asia as fa 
east as China, and found in nearly all the mountain-chains 



THE CRIMSON-WINGED CREEPERS. 125 

eastwards from the Caucasus. It is also an inhabitant of Abys- 
sinia to the southward. The northward range of the species 
in France, as Mr. Howard Saunders has recently pointed out 
(Bull., Brit. Orn. Club, i., p. xlix), is more extended than is 
generally supposed, and it has been noticed on the Rhine as 
far north as Coblentz ; so that its appearance in England is 
not so strange as might otherwise have been imagined. 

Habits. Everyone who has had the opportunity of observing 
this bird in a state of nature, agrees that it is a most beautiful 
object in the mountainous localities which it frequents, the 
bright red on the wings rendering it generally conspicuous. 
Like other Creepers, its food consists of small insects, such as 

! spiders and beetles, while Bailly, the ornithologist of Savoy, 
says that it also devours ants' eggs and small worms, sometimes 

I also capturing an insect on the wing. The same observer states 
that its cry resembles the syllable pli pli pli pli^ a note like 
that of the Lesser Spotted- Woodpecker. On the face of the 
rocks which the bird frequents it climbs in a zigzag fashion, 
sometimes head-downward, "with a crab-like sidling motion," 
according to Canon Tristram, " rapidly expanding and closing 
its wings in a succession of jerks, and showing its brilliant 
crimson shoulders at each movement." The flight of this species 
is described as very peculiar, and more like that of a Butterfly. 

Nest. Placed in the crevices of rocks, sometimes in perfectly 
inaccessible positions. Mr. Seebohm writes : "A handsome 
nest of this bird in my collection is very elaborately built. Its 
chief material is moss, evidently gathered from the rocks and 
stones, intermingled with a few grasses, and compactly felted 
together with hairs, wool, and a few feathers. The lining is 
almost exclusively composed of wool and hair, very thickly and 
densely felted together. The nest is about one and a half 
inches deep inside, and the internal diameter is about three 
inches; outside it measures two and a half inches in depth, 
and is about six inches in diameter. 

Eggs. Three to five in number. Almost pure white, save 
for certain tiny black or reddish-brown dots, scarcely percep- 
tible on some eggs, and sparsely scattered over the surface of 
others, in no case very perceptible. Axis, o'8-o*85 inch ' 
diam., 0-55. 



126 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



THE NUTHATCHES. FAMILY SITTID^. 

These little birds hold an intermediate position between tl 
Creepers and the Tits. They have a soft tail like the latter, 
not a spiny tail like the Creepers, and they differ from both 
the above-mentioned families in having a wedge-shaped and 
Woodpecker-like bill, with which they are enabled to hamme 
and prise off the bark of trees in a manner which would n< 
disgrace their larger Picarian relatives. 

The Nuthatches are chiefly inhabitants of the northern parts 
of both Hemispheres, extending in America as far south as! 
Mexico ; and, in the Old World, they are plentifully represented! 
in the Himalayas, while in the mountains of Burma the largest; 
known species of the genus, Sitta magna, is found. In the 
Indian region an allied genus, Dendrqphila, is plentifully dis-; 
tributed, finding in Madagascar an outlying and isolated repre-i 
sentative in the genus Hypositta, while in Australia and New 
Guinea occurs the genus Sitella. 

THE TRUE NUTHATCHES. GENUS SITTA. 

Sitta^ Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 177 (1766). 

Type, S. europcea, Linn. 

Of the European Nuthatches there are four species, two 
which are southern and two northern. Of the former, both| 
of which are black-headed, Sitta krueperi is an inhabitant 
Asia Minor, and Sitta whiteheadi of the high pine-forests 
Corsica. Of Sitta ccesia, the distribution is given below, am 
Sitta europcza with certain variations extends from Scandi- 
navia, across Asia, to Kamtchatka. 

I. THE NUTHATCH. SITTA CJESIA, 

(Plate XIV.) 
Sitta europaa. Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 261 (1790); Macg., Br. 

B., in., p. 48 (1840) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 473 (1873) 

Wyatt, Brit. B., pi. 9, figs, i, 2 (1894). 
Sitta ccesta, Meyer; Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 175, pi. 119(1873) 

B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 28 (1883); Seeb., Brit. B., i. 

p. 523 (1883); Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., viii., p. 34;! 

(1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. viii. (1888); Saundersj 

Man., p. 105 (1889); Wyatt, Brit. B., pi. 9, fig. i (1894) 



PLATE XIV. 







NUTHATCH. 



THE TRUE NUTHATCHES. 127 

Adult Male. General colour above clear grey or slaty-blue, 
ncluding the wings and centre tail-feathers ; quills dusky-brown, 
xternally slaty-blue, the primaries whitish near the base of the 
mter web ; tail-feathers, except the centre ones, black, with 

grey tip, the inner web of the three penultimate feathers 
white at the tip, the outermost tail-feathers with a white sub- 
erminal band extending obliquely across both inner and outer 
webs ; over the eye a faint streak of greyish-white ; a black band 
enclosing the lores and the feathers below the eye, extending 
n a broad line down the sides of the neck ; cheeks and throat 
ashy-white ; remainder of under surface of body light fawn- 
colour or isabelline ; the flanks vinous chestnut ; under tail- 
coverts white, mottled with chestnut edges to the feathers ; 
under wing-coverts like the breast, with ashy- white bases, and 
laving a large patch of black near the edge of the wing ; quill- 
ining ashy white ; bill slaty blue, the lower mandible paler ; 
feet pale reddish-brown; iris hazel. Total length, 5-8 inches; 
culmen, o'8; wing, 3-4; tail, 17; tarsus, 0*8. 

Adult Female. Similar in colour to the male. Total length, 
5-4 inches; wing, 3-35. 

Young. Similar to the adults, but with paler and more yel- 
owish feet, the colours all duller, the black streak on the sides 
of the head and the chestnut flanks not so strongly marked 
as in the adults. 

Range in Great Britain. Pretty generally distributed over 
England, but becoming rarer in the north, scarcely known 
in Scotland, and altogether absent in Ireland. Mr. Howard 
Saunders says that the species appears to have decreased in 
numbers in the northern counties of late years, but in other 
parts of England it is increasing. It has been obtained only 
in the south of Scotland, in Berwickshire and Haddington- 
shire, though there are one or two other records. 

Range outside the British Islands. The distribution of our Nut- 
hatch on the continent of Europe is somewhat singular and 
interesting. It is spread over Southern and Central Europe, 
and extends eastward as far as Asia Minor and Palestine, 
northward to the Baltic Provinces as far as the peninsula of 
Jutland. Here its range coalesces with that of the Scandi- 



128 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

navian Nuthatch (Sitta eurofcea), a species which has the und< 
parts white, and which ranges from Scandinavia and Northei 
Russia, across Siberia to Japan and Kamtchatka. Gradi 
variations in plumage occur throughout the range of the Whit 
breasted Nuthatches, which have been divided into seven 
races and species, but Mr. Seebohm affirms that intermedia! 
forms occur between all of them, not excepting Sitta europaa 
and S. ccesia. 

Habits. These are a combination of the habits of a T 
and a Woodpecker. Like the former bird, the Nuthatc 
seeks diligently for its insect food on the trunks and branch* 
of trees, over which it runs like a Woodpecker, with th 
difference, that its tail is not pressed into the service of climb- 
ing a tree, nor does it gradually ascend from the bottom to th 
top, as a Woodpecker so often does. On the contrary, 
Nuthatch will generally be found in the higher branches, an 
will work its way from the end of the branch down toward 
the trunk, and is just as much at home on the under side o 
a limb as it is on the upper. Its movements are like those ( 
a Mouse, rather than those of a bird, and it often runs, heac 
downward, or hangs on the under side of a branch an 
hammers away at the bark with its powerful little bill. Th 
noise produced by one of these birds, when tapping at a tree, 
is really astonishing for a bird of its size, and, if undisturbed, 
it can be approached pretty closely. We have often watche< 
a Nuthatch at work, and the pieces of dead bark which th 
bird prises off with its wedge-shaped bill, are sometimes as larg 
as the bird itself. Its general food consists of insects, and ii 
the winter the Nuthatches join the wandering parties of Tit 
and Creepers which traverse the woods in search of food. A 
a rule, however, the Nuthatch evinces a partiality for park-lane 
and old timber, and its cheerful note, often repeated as it run 
along a bough, sounds like " t'wee, t'wee, t'wee." It has also 
a scolding note, or note of alarm, not unlike the churr of a j 
Warbler. In the autumn it feeds on hazel-nuts and beech- 1 
mast, breaking them open by constant hammering, and, like 
Tits, the Nuthatches can be tempted to the vicinity of houses 
in winter, and become quite interesting by their tameness. 

. The nesting commences in the middle of April, a | 



THE TITS. 129 

hole in a tree or wall being selected, and, in the former 
instance, the entrance to the nest is plastered up by the birds, 
leaving only a small hole for ingress. The nest is scarcely 
worthy of the name, consisting only of a few grasses or dead 
leaves. The most remarkable nest of a Nuthatch is to be seen 
in the Natural History Museum, to which it was given by the 
late Mr. F. Bond as a natural curiosity. It is built in the side 
of a haystack, to which the birds had carried as much as 
eleven pounds' weight of clay, and had thus constructed a solid 
nest in this apparently unfavourable position. 

Eggs. Five to eight in number. Ground-colour pure white, 
thickly spotted with rufous, with underlying spots of grey. 
The rufous markings are generally large and bold, and often 
encircle the larger end of the egg, but in many clutches the 
markings consist of a sprinkling of red dots all over the egg, 
occasionally relieved by some larger spots of dark rufous. 
Axis, o - 7-o'85 inch; diam., o*5-o'6. 

THE TITS. FAMILY PARID^S. 

The members of this family are generally distributed over 
the northern parts of the Old and New World, ranging as far 
south as Southern Mexico in America, and in the Old World 
all over Europe, Africa, and Asia, as far as the Indo-Malayan 
Islands. The Tits are remarkable for their powerful little 
conical bills, which are densely beset with feathers at the base, 
so as to entirely hide the nostrils. The tarsus is scutellated. 
The family may be roughly divided into True Tits, Crested 
Tits, Long-tailed Tits, and Penduline Tits, all but the latter 
group being represented in England. The Reedlings (Panurus) 
are also generally classed in this family, but have little to do 
with the other Paridcs. By some recent writers, notably by 
Mr. Oates, the Tits have been placed in close proximity to the 
Crows. With these birds, in our humble opinion, they have 
little in common, beyond a certain carnivorous propensity. 

THE TRUE TITS. GENUS PARUS. 

Partis^ Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 341 (1766). 

Type, P. major, Linn. 

The genus Parus includes not only the True Tits, such as 

1. K 



LLoVb'S NATURAL KiSTGRY. 



P. major and P. c<zrnlc:is, but also the Coal-Tits, of vvhici. 
P. ater is the type, and the Marsh-Tits, of which P. palustris 
is the typical representative. The range of the genus Parus is, 
therefore, coincident with that of the family. They are all 
builders in holes of one kind or another, and their eggs are all 
of a similar type, and, in most cases, numerous. 

1. THE GREAT TIT. PARUS MAJOR. 

Pants major, Linn., S. N., i., p. 341 (1766) ; Dresser, B. Eur. 
iii.,p. 79, pi. 106(1871); Newt. ed. Yarn, i., p. 479 (1873)5 
B.O. U. List Br. B., p. 26 (1883); Gadow., Cat. B. Brit, 
viii., p. 19 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 463 (1883); Lil- 
ford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. vi. (iS8S) ; Saunders, Man., 
p. 95 (1889) : Wyatt, Brit. B., pi. 8, fig. 2 (1894). 

Parus fringillago, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 425 (1839). 

Adult Male. General colour above green, inclining to yellow 
towards the nape, where there is a patch of white ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts greyish-blue, like the tail-feathers, which have 
the shafts and the inner webs black, the outer tail-feathers white 
along the outer webs and at the tips ; wing-coverts bluish slate- 
colour, the greater series darker, and tipped with yellowish- 
white ; primary-coverts and quills dusky, externally edged with 
slaty-blue, the inner secondaries with greenish ; crown of head, 
sides of neck, throat and fore-neck black with a gloss of blue, 
and relieved by a large white patch, which occupies the cheeks 
and ear-coverts, and is very conspicuous ; rest of under surface 
of body yellow, the centre of the breast and abdomen glossy 
blue-black ; flanks greenish ; vent white ; thighs and under tail 
coverts black; under wing-coverts white; axillaries yellow; bil 
black; feet leaden-grey; iris dark brown. Total length, 
inches; oilmen, 0-5; wing, 2-85; tail, 2-4; tarsus, 075. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but distinguished b] 
the narrower and duller black streak down the centre ot 
the abdomen. Total length, 5^3 inches; wing, 2^85; tarsus, 
0-8. 

Young, Coloured like the adults, but much more dingy it 
appearance, with the patch on the hind-neck and sides of fk< 
yellow instead of white, and the central streak on the under- 



THE GREAT TIT. 131 

parts dusky black, and not so strongly marked as in the 

adults. 

NOTE. The Great Tit is the largest of the family in England, and is 
easily distinguished by the black head and the black line which parts the 
centre of the yellow breast. 

Range in Great Britain. May be considered a constant resi- 
dent in all three kingdoms, though it becomes rarer in the 
north of Scotland, and is only an accidental visitor to certain 
islands of the north, such as the Isle of Skye and the Shet- 
lands. 

Kange outside the British Islands. The Great Tit is distributed 
over Europe, and extends eastward through Asia across to the 
Pacific Ocean, being found in Palestine, Persia, and Central 
Asia, but does not occur in any part of the Indian Region, being 
replaced by allied forms in the Himalayas, in China, and the 
Japanese Islands. Its northernmost range is the Arctic Circle 
in lat. 66}4 , and it gradually decreases towards the east. Thus 
Mr. Seebohm describes its occurrence in the valley of the 
Yenesei up to lat 58, and on the Pacific coast the most nor- 
therly point known is Middendorffs record of 55. 

Habits. The Great Tit is a very cheery bird, and is found in 
all kinds of places, visiting along with the Blue Tit even the 
parks in the centre of London. It can at any time be enticed 
into gardens and the neighbourhood of houses, by the simple 
expedient of suspending some morsels of fat, or little bladders 
of lard, and it is while clinging to these, in every imaginable 
attitude, that the graceful motions of this active little bird can 
best be studied. During the breeding season it is rather shy, and 
does its best to escape observation, but in the winter it becomes 
much more in evidence, and its bright colours render it a 
somewhat conspicuous object as it frequents the woods or the 
bushes in the neighbourhood of a house. Even in winter it is 
often found in pairs flying about in the undergrowth of the 
woods, but it not unfrequently joins in a merry party of other 
Tits, Creepers, and Nuthatches as they course through the 
woods on a fine winter's day. This habit of assembling is not 
confined to Tits in this country, for we remember on one oc- 
casion in the pine-woods of Simla, where there was generally 
silence and an absence of bird-life, how pleasing it was to 

K 2 



132 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



hear in the distance the approach of a party of Tits and to see 
them pass along with some of their friends, the Creepers, within 
a few yards' distance. Like the Bullfinches and Chaffinches, 
the Tits are not regarded by gardeners with a friendly eye, on 
account of the number of buds which they are said to destroy 
in the spring, but they are generally most useful birds, and 
devour a vast number of insects, the young being entirely fed 
on grubs and small caterpillars. , , 

Nest. This is often an extraordinary structure. It is always 
placed in a hole, generally of a wall, or in a tree, and Mr. 
Seebohm says that the deserted nests of Crows and Magpies 
are sometimes utilised, while it is occasionally found among 
the sticks in the foundation of Rooks' nests, and, according 
to Mr. Dixon's observations, it has been known to nest in a 
hole in the ground. The variation in the nesting place of the 
Great Tit is altogether extraordinary, for, while Montague asserts 
that the eggs are sometimes deposited on the powdered wood 
at the bottom of a hole without any attempt at a nest, there is 
no bird, which, for its size, can build a more laborious structure. 
Given a hollow, no matter of what dimensions, the Great Tit 
will accumulate materials and fill it up to within a short dis- 
tance of the top. There is a certain railing in Hyde Park where 
a defect in the iron-work has left a small hole in one of the 
posts. This is the annual nesting place of a pair of these little 
birds. Some day, we have no doubt, the interior of this 
post will be found to be filled nearly to the brim with moss, 
and we have no hesitation in betraying the secret of the birds, 
as it will not easily be detected, and it was only by accident 
that we discovered the nesting place. Passing in a cab, we 
saw a Great Tit alight on the post, and, apparently surmising 
that we were not likely to arrest our journey to search for its 
nest, the bird turned sharply round, and disappeared like a 
flash of lightning backwards down the hole. 

An instance 
built a nest in 

inside of the latter for several feet with moss. Another 
curious selection of a nesting place is to be seen in the Natural 
History Museum at South Kensington. The bird selected the 
inside of a wooden post-box at Rowfant, in Sussex, and occupied 



has been known where a pair of Great Tit 
a disused pump, and gradually filled up th 



PLATE XV. 




BLUE TITMOUSE 



THE BLUE TIT. 133 

it for three years in succession, filling up more than half the 
box with moss, regardless of the letters which were posted 
every day, and dropped on to the back of the sitting bird. The 
latter never moved when the box was opened to take out the 
letters. Another favourite breeding place of the Great Tit is 
the inside of a large flower-pot or the stand of a statue in a 
garden. Both these situations demand a great deal of labour 
in filling up the inside to the required height, and we have 
known one instance where the hollow pedestal of a statue in 
the pleasure-grounds of Sir Edward Shelley's seat at Avington 
was selected. Inside this pedestal the birds had filled up the 
base with moss to the extent of nearly a foot, and had excavated 
more than one nest. There were only two young ones in one 
of the nests. A few years ago a second instance of multiple 
nests of the Great Tit came under our notice, when a pair 
occupied a large flower-pot. This pot, with the base filled up 
with moss, and its three nests, is now in the British Room at 
the British Museum. Mr. Dallen, who found the nest, declared 
that there were eggs in all three of the cups, but we fancy that 
they must have been placed there by someone who had ex- 
amined the nest, and not by the birds themselves, especially as 
there is every appearance of the three nests having been used in 
successive years. There is, therefore, some method in the mad- 
ness of these little birds, for, when once the wide base of the 
flower-pot has been filled with moss, there is always a foun- 
dation in which to sink another nest in the following year. 

Er :s. From five to nine in number, sometimes, according 
to Mr. Seebohm, as many as eleven being laid. Ground- 
colour white or creamy-white, with numerous red spots and 
faint underlying grey spots. As a rule the rufous spots and 
dots are universally distributed over the egg, but occasionally 
form a ring round the larger end. The variation in intensity 
of the rufous colour is very marked in a series, but, as a rule, 
the eggs in the same clutch are all similar. Axis, 075 inch; 
diam., o'6. 

II. THE BLUE TIT. PARUS CffiRULEUS. 
(Plate XV.} 

Farus caruleiiS) Linn., S. N., i., p. 341 (1760); Macg., Br. B., 
ii., p. 431 (1839); Dresser, B. fiur., iii., p. 131, pi. 113, 



134 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

figs. i, 2 (1871); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 483 (1874); 
B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 27 (1883) ; Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., viii., p. 27 (1883) ; Seeb , Brit. B., i., p. 468 (1883) ; 
Saunders, Man., p. 101 (1889); Wyatt, Brit. B., pi. 8, 
fig. i (1894). 

Adult Male. General colour above light green ; the wings 
and tail blue, the greater coverts tipped with white, forming a 
bar, the inner secondaries also tipped with white ; crown of 
head blue, the forehead whitish, the crown also surrounded 
with a ring of greyish -white, followed by a band of blue, which 
commences behind the eye as a narrow stripe and widens out 
on the nape as a broad band, the latter extending down the 
sides of the neck, and occupying the chin and throat ; behind 
this blue-black band is an indistinct patch of greyish- white ; 
the whole of the cheeks, sides of face, and ear-coverts greyish- 
white ; remainder of under surface of body yellow, greener on 
the flanks, whiter on the centre of the breast and abdomen ; in 
the centre of the breast a streak of dusky blue ; under wing- 
coverts yellow ; quill-lining white ; bill dusky horn-colour ; 
feet leaden-blue ; iris dark brown. Total length, 4^5 inches ; 
culmen, 0*35 ; wing, 2*5 ; tail, 1*85 ; tarsus, 0-65. 

Adult Female. Like the male, but a trifle duller in colour. 

Young. Much more dingy than the adults ; the crown and 
neck-markings dusky olive ; the whole of the sides of the 
face, which are white in the adult, are pale yellow in the young, 
the under surface being entirely of the latter colour, without 
any central streak of dusky blue on the breast. 

Bange in Great Britain. Universally distributed throughout 
the three kingdoms, and very common in Ireland. It is also 
found throughout Scotland, even to the far north, but has not 
yet been recognised in the Outer Hebrides. A western migra- 
tion from the Continent takes place in autumn, when numbers 
of Blue Tits pass over Heligoland, and the birds arrive on oui 
east coasts in quantities. 

Range outside the British Islands. Found generally throughout 
Europe, reaching eastward to the Ural Mountains and the 
Caucasus, in Russia as high as 61 N. lat, and in Norway 
even further north, to 64. To the south of the Mediterranean 



THE BLUffi TIT. 135 



136 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



E^gs. From five to eight in number, sometimes as many a! 
twelve being found. The eggs, as might be expected, are smal 
editions of those of the Great Tit, but the reddish markings 
are much less developed, and are represented in many cases by 
a sprinkling of tiny dots, which are sometimes also collected at 
the large end of the egg, leaving the small end unspotted. 
Axis, o - 6 inch; diam, 0*5. 

III. THE EUROPEAN COAL-TIT. PARUS ATER. 

Pants ater, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 341 (1766); Gadow, Cat 
B. Brit. Mus., p. 40 (1883, pt); Lilford, Col. Fig. Ur, 
B.,pt. iv. (1887, pt). 

Adult Male. General colour above slaty-blue, a little tinged 
with olive on the rump and upper tail-coverts j lesser am 
median wing-coverts slaty-blue like the back ; the greats 
coverts dusky, externally washed with slaty-blue, and, like the 
median series, tipped with white, forming a double wing-bar; 
quills dusky-brown, externally edged with olive, the inner 
secondaries tipped with dingy white ; tail feathers dusky, 
washed with ashy-grey ; crown of head and hind-neck glossy 
blue-black, divided in the centre from the nape to the hind- 
neck by a broad patch of white ; lores, cheeks, and sides of 
face white, extending down the sides of the neck ; entire 
throat black, spreading on to the sides of the upper breast; 
breast and abdomen greyish-white, the sides of body an( 
flanks, as well as the under tail-coverts, isabelline ; under wins 
coverts and quill-lining white ; bill black ; feet leaden-grej 
iris hazel. Total length, 4-2 inches ; culmen, 0-35 ; wing, 2-45 
tail, 1 7 5 ; tarsus, 0*6. 

Adult Female. Not to be distinguished from the male 
colour, but the gloss on the head a little less marked. T< 
length, 4-2 inches; wing, 2-4. 

Young. Similar to the adults, but yellow below ; a littl 
more rufescent on the flanks ; the white sides of the face an( 
nape-patch of the adults replaced by pale yellow ; the black 
the head, more dingy, and the black of the throat and ches 
represented in the young birds by a patch of dusky black 01 
the throat only. 

Eange in Great Britain. An occasional visitor from the Coi 



PLATE 




1 COAL TIT 2 MARSH TIT 



THE COAL-TITS. 137 

tinent to the east coast. We have seen some specimens killed 
in summer in the British Islands which were scarcely to be told 
from the grey-backed Coal-Tits of the Continent, and Mr. 
Howard Saunders doubts the migration of the true P. ater to 
our shores, and believes that we have grey-backed as well as 
olive-backed individuals in our islands. We have carefully 
looked through the series of Coal-Tits in the British Museum, 
and on comparing the series of true P. ater with a number of 
P. britannicus^ we find no difficulty in recognising them at any 
season of the year. British birds occasionally, during the 
breeding season, when the plumage gets worn, lose somewhat 
of their olive-brown dress, which is so distinct in winter, and 
are greyer than at the latter season, but they never attain the 
clear slaty-blyje colour of their continental relatives, and we re- 
iterate the opinion which we held in 1872, when we first 
described the British bird as distinct, that the two forms are 
well worthy of recognition. 

Range outside the British Islands. Generally distributed in 
Europe, but replaced in Algeria by Pants ledouci, and in Cyprus 
by P. Cypriotes. It is found as high north as 65 N. lat. in Scan- 
dinavia, and extends throughout Europe and Northern Asia, 
the form of Eastern Siberia and Japan having a slightly longer 
crest and being distinguished as P. pekinensis. In the Hima- 
layas several representative species of Coal-Tits are found. 

Habits. Similar to those of P. britannicus. 

Nest. Similar to that of P. britannicus. 

Eggs. Six to ten in number, scarcely distinguishable from 
those of the Blue Tit ; white, spotted with rufous in exactly 
the same way as the eggs of the latter bird, but the red mark- 
ings on some of the eggs occasionally very faint, and, in most 
clutches, showing two shades of rufous. Axis, 0-6-07 inch ; 
diam, 0*5. 

IV. THE COAL-TIT. PARUS BRITANNICUS. 

(Plate XVI. , Fig. i.) 

Parus ater (nee. L.), Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 440 (1839) '> Newt, 
ed. Yarr., i., p. 489 (1874 pt.) ; Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., viii., p. 40 (1883 pt.) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B.. 
pt. iv. (1887); Saunders, Man., p. 97 (1889, pt.). 



138 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Parus britanntcus, Sharpe and Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 93, pi. 

107, fig. 2 (1872); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 26 (i 88 3); 

Seeb., Brit. B., i., p. 472 (1883); Wyatt, Brit. B., pi. 4, 

fi g- 3 (1^94). 

Adult Male. Similar to P. ater, but distinguished by the 
olive-brown, instead of slaty-blue, back, and by the richer buff- 
colour of the sides of the body. Total length, 3*9 inches ; 
culmen, 0*4 ; wing, 2*35; tail, 1*65 ; tarsus, 0-65. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
3-8 inches; wing, 2-35. 

Young. Differs from the adult exactly as the young of P. 
ater differs from the adults, having the white parts of the plu- 
mage pale sulphur-yellow. 

NOTE. Like the Great Tit, the present species has a black head, a white 
nape-patch, white cheeks, and a black throat. It may, however, always 
be distinguished from that species by its much smaller size and plain- 
coloured breast, the under surface not being yellow as in the Great Tit, nor 
has it the very evident black band down the centre of the breast and 
abdomen. 

Bange in Great Britain. Found nearly everywhere, but in most 
places not so plentiful as the other species of British Tits. It 
is met with especially in Scotland, as far north as Sutherland- 
shire and Caithness, but is not found in the Outer Hebrides, 
nor in the Shetland or Orkney Isles. 

Habits. In most parts of England the Coal-Tit is a rare 
bird, or at least is not so often noticed as the other species. 
Since the severe winter of 1881 there are many places, where 
the Coal-Tit was comparatively plentiful, which know it no 
more, whereas in the same districts the Marsh-Tit has increased 
in numbers. Near London the latter bird is not often seen, 
but Coal-Tits frequent our garden at Chiswick every winter, 
and share the food which we supply for Tits in general. In 
the pine-woods of Scotland, however, the Coal-Tit is a com- 
mon species, and its call-note is often heard, without which 
signal it would be easy to pass the bird over, as it is not only 
of such small size as to escape observation, but it frequents the 
thickest woods and is not easily seen. Occasionally it comes 
to the outside of a fir-tree, when it may be observed hanging 
on tp a cone and extracting its food. As is the case with most 



THE MARSH-TIT. 139 

Tits, the food consists mainly of insects, and its ways of feeding 
are like those of its relations, save that it frequents the birch- 
woods more particularly than the latter. We have also procured 
specimens on the alder-trees in winter, when the bird was in 
company with Siskins and Redpolls. 

Nest. A loosely-made structure of grasses and moss, and 
plentifully lined with feathers. Like that of other Tits, it is 
placed in a hole, either of a tree or a wall. We have ourselves 
found but few nests of this species in the south of England, and 
borrow the following account from Mr. Seebohm : " Birch- 
woods are favourite haunts of this bird during the breeding- 
season, when the abundance of holes suitable for nesting pur- 
poses are most probably the chief attraction. Here, it may be, 
where a large limb has fallen into premature decay, leaving a 
hollow cavity in the parent stem, or where a trunk has been 
riven by the storm, the bird will build its nest. It will also 
select a hole in a large pine-tree, or in the decaying alders near 
the stream. Orchard-trees are more rarely chosen ; but a hole 
in some stump of a hedgerow is a favourite place. The birch" 
will also occasionally seek out a nesting-site in the ground, 
generally a hole under some half-exposed root or old stump. 
In some cases the bird will enlarge a hole for itself." 

Eggs. Five to eight in number, sometimes nine. White, 
spotted with rufous, the underlying dots being lighter rufous 
occasionally, the rufous markings very thickly distributed, 
generally towards the larger end of the egg. As with the other 
Tits, occasional clutches are very faintly marked. 

\. THE MARSH-TIT. PARUS DRESSERI. 

(Plate XVL, Fig. 2.) 
Parus palustris (nee. Linn., S. N., i., p. 341); Macg., Br. B., ii., 

p. 445 ( l8 39); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 99, pi. 108 (1871); 

Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 495 (1874); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 27 

(1883); Seeb., Brit. B., i., p. 476 (1883); Gadow, Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus., viii., p. 49 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., 

pt. vi. (1888) ; Saunders, Man., p. 99 (1889) ; Wyatt, 

Brit. B., pi. 8, fig. 3 (1894). 
Parus palustris dresseri, Stejn., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix., p. 

?oo (1886). 



140 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



Adult Male. General colour above ruddy brown, paler and 
more isabelline on the rump and upper tail-coverts; wings light 
brown, the feathers externally edged with the brown colour of 
the back, slightly tinged with olive on the quills, the greater 
coverts with a faint tip of whitish, forming an indistinct wing- 
bar ; tail-feathers ashy-brown with olive-brown margins ; crown 
of head glossy blue-black, forming a cap which extends back- 
wards down the nape ; eyelids black, dotted with white ; sides 
of face and ear-coverts ashy-white, like the under surface of the 
body, the sides of which are clear isabelline buff; chin and 
upper throat black ; thighs, axillaries, and under wing-coverts 
like the sides of the body, the latter white near the edge of the 
wing ; quill-lining ashy-white ; bill black ; feet leaden-grey ; 
iris hazel. Total length, 4-5 inches; oilmen, 0-35 ; wing, 2-45; 
tail, 1*95 ; tarsus, 0-6. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
4-5 inches ; wing, 2-4. 

Young. Has the colours of the adult, but has the cap duller 
black, not glossy, and confined to the crown of the head, not 
extending down the nape; the white colour of the under-parts 
very pure, and the light tips to the greater wing-coverts forming 
a distinct bar. 

NOTE. Dr. Stejneger has separated our British Marsh-Tit as a sub- 
species on account of its darker colour, more olive back, clearer and 
more bumsh-brown rump, much browner flanks and shorter tail, the 
outer pair of tail-feathers being shorter than the others. On comparing 
a series of specimens from different localities of Europe we find that 
Dr. Stejneger's conclusions are borne out to a small extent. The 
differences in the case of the Marsh-Tits are not so marked as in the 
Coal-Tits, and as the former group vary much with locality and altitude, it 
may be that connecting links will be found between our British bird and 
its continental ally. 

With regard to the shortness of the outer tail-feathers in the 
British bird, we find no difference, in this respect, between P. 
dresseri and P. palustris of the continent of Europe. The same 
may be said of the supposed difference in length of tail ; our 
series in the British Museum does not confirm Dr. Stejneger's 
supposition. As regards the darker brown colour, this is un- 
doubtedly a feature of the British Marsh-Tit, and the rump is 
more clearly marked than in the continental bird ; the flanks 



THE MARSH-TIT. 141 

are also more rufescent or buff. On these characters only 
can the British race be recognised, and we find some French 
examples exhibiting a similar tendency to dark coloration. 

Bange in Great Britain Generally distributed, and even com- 
mon in some counties of England. In Scotland it becomes 
very local in its distribution, but, according to Mr. William 
Evans, it breeds as far as Dunipace, near Stirling, where Mr. 
Harvie Brown has pointed out to us the portion of his estate fre- 
quented by the species. In Ireland the only counties where 
it is met with are Antrim, Kildare, and Dublin. 

Range outside the British Islands. Parus palustris is generally 
distributed in South and South-western Europe, but is decidedly 
rare in the Mediterranean countries, though it occurs as far 
eastward as Greece and Asia Minor. In Scandinavia north- 
ward of about 61 N. lat, as far as the Arctic Circle, and in 
North-west Russia, according to Mr. Seebohm, is found the 
Alpine form, Parus borealis^ which is also noticed in equally 
high latitudes in Switzerland. Mr. Trevor Battye says that in 
Sweden, where both species occur, the two birds have perfectly 
different notes and habits. From North-eastern Russia and 
across Siberia to China and Japan, there are other races which 
have been recognised by modern ornithologists, and certainly 
some of these are not more worthy of recognition than the 
English race, which has been called P. dresseri. 

Habits. The name of " Marsh "-Tit is by no means an ap- 
posite designation of this bird, for it is not a marsh-haunting 
species any more than the other British Tits, and we have 
found it often far away from any water, in the midst of the 
woodlands, consorting with other species of Tits, Creepers, and 
Nuthatches. Although we cannot say that we have ever seen it 
in the suburbs of London, like the Coal-Tit, it frequents every 
kind of locality in the country, and is seen in gardens, in the 
undergrowth of woods, or in bushes which fringe the country 
lanes. It seems to be somewhat of a migratory bird, as it ap- 
pears on the east coast in autumn, and it is one of the Tits 
which passes over Heligoland. 

The food of the Marsh-Tit consists principally of insects, but 
it is, like the other members of the family, really omnivorous, 
and in parts of the country where the bird is common it can be 



142 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

attracted to the vicinity of houses by hanging up a bone or a 
piece of fat. Mr. Howard Saunders says that this little bird 
prises off the scales of the rough bark of a Scotch fir in the 
pursuit of its insect food. 

Nest. Apparently a neater construction than that of most 
Tits, though composed of the same materials, viz., moss, wool, 
and hair. A willow-tree is often selected for its home, and the 
nest is not, as a rule, far from the ground. In a decayed tree it 
will often excavate its own hole, which is as neatly rounded as 
that of a Woodpecker, and there is frequently a second exit from 
the nest. The entrance hole is always remarkably small, as 
may be imagined from the kindly way in which the bird takes 
to a human skull when the latter is put up into a tree for its 
benefit, as we have known done by our friends, Wm. Birket 
Foster and Bryan Hook ; the occipital foramen, the hole at 
the back of the skull, forms the entrance to this strange abode, 
and the skull being turned upside down, the nest of the Tit is 
amply sheltered by the palate of the deceased. 

Eggs. From five to eight in number. Ground-colour white, 
like china, rather thickly spotted with red and reddish-brown, 
the overlying spots being the brighter. Sometimes the egg is 
dotted all over with rufous, but very often the spots are col- 
lected at the larger end. Axis, 0-6-0-65 inch; diam., 0-45-0-5. 

THE CRESTED TITS. GENUS LOPHOPHANES. 
Lophophanes, Kaup., Naturl. Syst., p. 92 (1829). 

Type, L. cristatus (Linn.). 

The type-species of this genus, L. cristatus, shows such a 
preponderance of crest over the ordinary members of the genus 
Farus, that it can scarcely be said to belong properly to the 
latter genus, and the Crested Tit is only one of many large 
tufted-species which are found over the northern parts of 
Europe and of the New World. In the latter, they range as far 
south as Mexico, and in the Old World outside Europe there are 
several species in the Himalayan chain. 

I, THE CRESTED TIT. LOPHOPHANES CRISTATUS. 

Pants cristatus, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 340 (1766); Macg., Br. 
B., ii., p. 450 (1839); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 499 (1874); 



tHE CRESTED Til. 143 

tl. O. U. List Br. B., p. 28 (1883) ; Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., viii., p. 27 (1883); Seeb.,Brit. B., i., p. 481 (1883); 
Saunders, Man., p. 103 (1889) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. 
B., pt. xvi. (1890); Wyatt, Brit. B., pi. 4, fig. i (1894). 
Loplwphanes cristatus. Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 151, pi. 115 
(1871). 

Adult Male. General colour above olive-brown, clearer and 
more fulvescent on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; wing- 
coverts and quills ashy-brown, washed with the same colour as 
the back, the primaries edged with ashy; tail-feathers ashy, 
edged with brown ; head crested ; sides of face, as well as the 
sides of the neck, ashy-white ; the feathers of the crown black, 
tipped with white, the crest-feathers long, black, with a white 
edging; behind the ear-coverts a crescentic patch of black; 
throat black, connected to the nape by a line of black, which 
crosses the sides of the neck ; remainder of under surface of 
body ashy-white, with the flanks and sides of the body ruddy 
isabelline, as well as the under tail-coverts ; thighs and under 
tail-coverts white ; bill black ; feet leaden-grey ; iris hazel. 
Total length, 4*3 inches; culmen, 0*45; wing, 2'6 ; tail, 1*9; 
tarsus, 0-75. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour, but has a little 
less black on the throat, and a shorter crest. Total length, 
4-4 inches ; wing, 2-5. 

NOTE. Between the Scotch specimens in the British Museum and others 
from the Continent we cannot find any difference in colour, and they all 
clearly belong to one and the same species. 

Ean^e in Great Britain. Resident only in the forests which 
clothe the valley of the Spey and the adjacent rivers. In 
other parts of Scotland, and also in various localities in Eng- 
land the Crested Tit has occurred in isolated instances. 
Some of these appear to be authentic, but only two cases of 
the occurrence of the bird in Ireland have been recorded. 

Ean^e outside the British Islands The present species is an- 
inhabitant of the pine-forests of Europe, its northern range 
being about 64 N. lat, and extending to the Volga ; it has 
also been found in Turkey, but has not been noted from Asia 
Minor, Greece, or Italy south of the Alps. 

Saints. Although principally known as an inhabitant of 



t44 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY 

conifer woods, the Crested Tit is likewise said to affect birch- 
trees, and in winter to wander into plantations and gardens ; 
in some parts of the Continent it breeds in oak-trees, and in 
the vicinity of Gibraltar in the cork-woods. 

Mr. Seebohm says that in the pine-woods of Arcachon, in 
South-western France, it is the commonest bird, and is often 
found in company with other Tits, Gold-Crests, Fire-Crests, 
and Creepers. He says : " They are very active birds, flitting 
from branch to branch, running over the pine-cones, in search 
of insects ; and they seem to have taken a leaf out of the book 
of their associates the Creepers, and may often be seen on the 
trunks of the pines, where they search for insects in the 
crevices of the bark. Sometimes they run up the stems of the 
pines exactly as the Creepers do. It is not difficult toj 
recognise the Crested Tit on the wing. In the bright sun 
shine, which is such a distinguishing feature of the Arcachon 
winters, the white edges of the black feathers of its head an 
generally very conspicuous when flying, and often enough when 
the little bird is hanging under a branch of a lofty pine, th< 
outline of its erected crest is easy to see against the sky. The 
surest way, however, of detecting its presence is to listen to it 
note. The call-note is a not very loud st, si, si, which seems tc 
be common to many of the Tits ; but this is often followed by 
a spluttering note difficult to express on paper, which, as far a 
I know, is peculiar to the Crested Tit. It is a lame attempt a 
a trill, a sort of phtr, re, re, re, ree. The pine-trees in th 
Arcachon forest are tapped for their resin. Three or fou 
longitudinal scores are made on the trunks ; and these are 
lengthened as they dry up until they reach a considerable 
height from the ground. When the tree gets old the weathe 
rots the part where the bark has been removed, and the trunk 
swells out and cracks, and all kinds of convenient nooks anc 
crannies are formed, where Tits and other birds, who like such 
situations for their nests, can breed. Some of these trees in the 
old forests of La Teste attain a diameter of four and even fiv< 
feet ; and occasionally one comes across a fine old oak. The 
Crested Tits seem, however, to prefer the pines ; and althougl 
the GREAT and the COAL-TITS are very fond of searching fo 
insects on the ground amongst the fallen oak-leaves, I hav< 
never seen the CRESTED TIT on the ground. In the pine-forest 



THE LONG TAILED TITS. 145 

"of Pomernnia and of the Alps I found this bird equally 
common.''' 

Nest. A very rough and inartistic mass of dry grass, with a 
little moss or wool, and occasionally a feather or two. The 
nest is nearly always placed in the hole of a tree, which the 
bird sometimes excavates for itself. At other times it nests in 
the foundations of large nests (Crows, or birds of prey), or even 
occupies deserted nests of Crows or Magpies, or even that of a 
Squirrel or a Wren, according to Mr. Seebohm. 

Eggs. From four to seven in number. The general app:ar- 
ance of the eggs separates them at a glance when they are 
placed side by side with those of the other British species of 
Tits, on account of the rufous marking being so pronounced. 
The eggs are very pretty, and have a white or pinkish -white 
ground, with bright purplish-red underlying spots, and over- 
lying spots of brighter red, sometimes confluent, and forming 
a patch at the larger end. The majority of clutches are boldly 
marked, and there are not so mnny pale clutches of eggs as are 
met with in all the species hitherto considered. Axis, 
c'6-0'65 inch ; diam., o'45-o'5. 

THE LONG-TAILED TITS. GENUS /EGITIIALUS.* 

digit halus, Hermann, Obs. Zool., i., p. 214 (1804). 

Type, y^i. caudatus (Linn.). 

The long tail is the principal character of the genus 
jEgithalus ; it is always longer than the wing, whereas in the 

* However annoying it may be to have to change well-known generic 
and specific names, there is no help for it, when the names are beyond 
question correct. Thus we consider that Dr. Stejneger has proved his 
point (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix., p. 382, 1886) with regard to the super- 
se^sion of Acredula of Koch by sEgithalus of Hermann. The "Obser- 
vationes " of the latter author is a work far more entitled to respect than 
the nominal lists of Forster, Leach, and others, and it is not Hermann's 
fault, but thai of his successors, that his generic name was not recognised 
sooner. sEgithxlus was employed for the Penduline Tits by Boie in 1822, 
but, being preoccupied, must be replaced by Remiza of Stejneger (I.e., 
p. 387). We do not agree with Dr. Stejneger that the " Pipria (?) curopad" 
of Hermann was the British species, usually called Acredula vagans 
(Leach). The only species known in Switzerland appears to be the true 
sE. caii.latus (L.), cf. Fatio & Studer, Cat. Ois. Suisse, p. 22. 



14 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

genus Parus the wing is longer than the tail. It is a Palrcarctic 
genus, and the uniting of the Himalayan genus jEgithaliscus with 
sEgithalus seems to us to be a great mistake, as from the 
measurements given by Dr. Gadow himself in the British 
Museum " Catalogue of Birds," the wing and tail are evidently 
equal in length in sE git hali sens. The range of the genus 
/Egithahfs may, therefore, be said to extend over Europe, and 
eastwards through Siberia to the Pacific and to the Japanese 
islands. It is a very curious fact, often remarked upon by ornitho- 
logists, that in Japan, so far away from Great Britain, there re- 
occur certain striking elements of the British Avi-fauna. Many 
species are precisely the same, others are closely allied and re- 
presentative. Thus our English Siskin and Brambling are 
found in Japan, while our Greenfinch is replaced by a closely 
allied form. Our Hawfinch is scarcely distinguishable from the 
bird of the Japanese islands, and in the case of the Long- 
tailed Tit, the Japanese species, sEgithalus trivirgatus, is more 
like its British ally, j. vagans, than the white-headed form, AZ. 
caudatus^ which is the species of the intervening area from 
Scandinavia to Eastern Siberia, though Mr. Seebohm recog- 
nises a Siberian form, JE. macrurus. 

AL. vagans, the British species, was at first supposed to be 
confined to Great Britain, but it certainly extends over France 
and into Northern Italy, to judge by the specimens in the 
British Museum, but little really is known of its distribution. 
In the Rhine Provinces of Germany, Count von Berlepsch 
has found a form which he pronounces to be intermediate 
between ^. vagans and ^. caudatus of Northern Europe. He 
has very kindly sent several specimens to the Museum, and 
we must say that we are not yet convinced of the intergrada- 
tion of the two races. The young of both are indistinguishable, 
and have a black band on each side of the crown. In adult 
<. caudatus this entirely disappears, and the head becomes 
snow-white, while in ^E. vagans the black band becomes per- 
manent in the adults, and is one of the features of the species. 
The specimens which are considered to be intermediate be- 
tween the two forms have a white head with more or less 
remains of a lateral stripe on the crown. This may very well 
be the remains of the immature plumage, and does not neces- 
sarily afford evidence of interbreeding or even of the imperfect 



THE LONG-TAILED TITS. 147 

segregation of the two forms. The specimens sent to the 
British Museum by our friend Count von Berlepsch have the 
other character of the true AL. candatus, viz., the whiter second, 
aries, and there is nothing, therefore, to show that they are not 
the immature birds of the northern race, <&. caudatus. 

In Spain and the greater part of Italy a distinct species of 
Long-tailed Tit, ^. irbii^ occurs. How far this form extends 
into France has never yet been determined, but that it occurs 
in that country is shown by a specimen which we ourselves 
shot at Mongeron (Seine-et-Oise), not far from Paris. 

The members of the genus digithahis do not breed in holes, 
but make a moss nest in the open, and in this feature the 
genus sEgithaliscus follows suit. 

I. THE LONG-TAILED TIT. ^EGITHALUS VAGANS. 

Medstura vagans, Leach, Cat. Mamm, &c., Brit. Mus., p. 17 

(1816). 
Medstura rosea, Blyths ed. White's Nat. Hist. Selborne, p. 1 1 1 

(1836). 

Mtcistura longicaudata, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 454 (1839). 
Acrcdula caudata (nee. Linn.), Newt. ed. Yarr., Br. B., i , p. 504^ 

(1874); Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. iv. (1887); Saun- 

ders, Man., p. 93 (1889). 
Acredula rosea, Sharpe, Ibis, 1868, p. 300; Dresser, B. Eur., 

iii., p. 63, pi. 103 (1872); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 25 

(1883); Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., viii., p. 61 (1883); 

Wyatt, Brit. B., pi. 7 (1894). 

Adult Male. General colour black and rose-colour above, the 
hind-neck and mantle being glossy black ; the scapulars, lower 
back, and rump rosy, always more or less mottled with the 
blackish bases to the feathers ; upper wing- and tail-coverts 
black ; quills black, the inner secondaries rather broadly edged 
with white; tail-feathers black, the three outer ones white along 
the outer web and diagonally across the tip, the white increasing 
j towards the outermost ; crown of head dull white ; lores and a 
I broad eyebrow black, extending in a band along the side of the 
: crown ; feathers round the eye purer white ; ear-coverts, cheeks, 
and throat, ashy-white, with some blackish streaks on the fore- 
neck ; remainder of under surface of body light rosy, the under 

L 2 



r 4 LLOYi/3 NATURAL HISTORY. 

tail -coverts deeper a'irl more chestnut ; imder wing-coverts and 
quill-lining white ; bill, black ; feet, dark brown ; iris, hazel ; 
eyelids red. Total length, 5-5 inches; oilmen, 0*3; wing, 
2-45; tail, 3-2 ; tarsus, 0-65. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male. Total length, 5-2 inches; 
wing, 2-35. 

Young. Differs from the adult in being duller, blackish-brown 
where the adult is black, and not having any of the rosy colour 
on the back and under-parts. 

Eange in Great Britain Generally distributed over the three 
kingdoms, becoming rarer in the north of Scotland, but not 
yet recorded from the Outer Hebrides, and apparently not 
known in the Orkney and the Shetland Isles. In the latter 
Dr. Saxby once observed a party of four Long-tailed Tits 
in Unst, in April, 1860, but whether they were the British 
form, <d. vagans, or the Continental ;. caudatus, was not 
decided. 

Habits. No more restless little birds exist, and to a casual 
observer they might well appear to be "here to-day, and gone 
to-morrow." Although to a certain extent they are the com- 
panions of the winter assemblages of Tits, GoMcrests, and 
Nuthatches, which are seen in the woods, they more often con- 
stitute little flocks of their own, consisting doubtless of the old 
birds and their progeny, which is numerous enough to enable a 
single family to make quite a respectable appearance as regards 
numbers. The note of the Long-tailed Tit is unmistakable, 
for besides the zi-zi utterance, which seems to be characteristic of 
all Tits, it has a kind of " churring " note peculiar to itself. Al- 
though they frequent the tops of trees in pursuit of their insec 
food, they are as frequently found far away from the woods, i 
hedgerows and scattered bushes, where the parties keep we 
together, and when the leader flies off to another feedin 
ground, the rest follow him in line, with a rapid and undulatin 
flight. They build one of the most extraordinary and beaut 
ful nests in the world, a domed structure of soft moss, with 
hole in the side near the top, and some naturalists have statec 
that there is a second entrance to this remarkable structur 
which the little creatures build. This we have not verifiec 
from personal experience, but we have seen the two paren 



THE LONG-TAILKD TITS. 149 

V 

birds covering their numerous progeny at night, with their long 
tails, which seem such a weighty matter to carry in the daytime, 
tucked up side by side in the nest, and resting against the back 
of the latter. They are said to protrude sometimes from the 
entrance hole. 

Nest. An oval structure, large in comparison with the size 
of the tiny architects, beautifully soft, and made principally of 
moss, lined with feathers, and covered thickly with lichens, 
grey moss, and spiders' webs. If placed on a moss-covered 
bough, like that of the Chaffinch, the outside aspect of the nest 
might prevent its detection, but the nest of the Long-tniled 
Tit is generally easy to find, for, unlike the rest of its family, it 
does not seek the shelter of a hole in the wall or in a tree. On 
the contrary, the bird builds in various situations, more or less 
in the open, and often quite early in the year, even before the 
leaves have covered the trees. All kinds of places are selected, 
a thorn-hedge, where its discovery would seem certain, or a furze- 
bush or holly-tree where the nest is more concealed. Sometimes 
the bird builds at a great height from the ground, but as a rule 
the nest is low down, and within easy reach. As an instance 
of the warm lining which the bird provides for its nest, Gould 
states that he counted no less than 2000 feathers of various sorts 
in one which he took to pieces. 

Eggs From six to ten or eleven in number. Ground-colour 
pearly- or pinkish-white, very finely sprinkled with light red 
dots, and having underlying dots of purple. Sometimes the 
eggs are spotless. Axis, 0*55-0-6 inch; diam., 0-45-0-5. 

II. THE WHITE-HEADED LONG-TAILED TIT. ^EGITHAI,US CAUDATUS. 

Pints caudatus, Linn., Syst. Nat. i., p. 342 (1766). 
Acredula caudata, Koch, Syst. Baier. Zool., p. 199 (1816). 

Adult Male. -Rather larger than sE. vagans, and distinguished 
by the pure white head without the black band on each side of 
the crown ; the inner secondaries very broadly edged with white, 
the innermost white, with a longitudinal black streak down the 
shaft. Bill, feet, and iris as in ^. varans. Total length, 5-8 
inches; culmen, 0*25 ; wing, 2-65 ; tail, 3*25; tarsus, 0-7. 

AdnHFema 1 e. Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
6 inches ; wing, 2*4. 



1 5 d LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Young Duller than the adults, and wanting the rose-colour, 
the entire back being black, and the under-parts ashy-white; 
on each side of the crown a dusky band. 

Range in Great Britain Purely an accidental visitor from the 
Continent. More than one example has been said to have been 
seen, in company with our own British species, but such evi- 
dence is absolutely unreliable, for we can confidently assert 
that it is almost impossible to distinguish the two birds on a 
tree, as we have ourselves verified by shooting both species in 
winter on the Continent. 

Kange outside the British Isles. An inhabitant of Northern Eu- 
rope below the Arctic Circle, and ranging into Central Europe in 
winter. The birds of Russia and Siberia have longer tails, 
and specimens from high latitudes are purer in colour, but we 
believe that it is virtually the same species from Scandinavia 
to Kamtschatka, and the occurrence of the White-headed Long- 
tailed Tit in the northern island of Japan is of peculiar interest 
as showing the affinity of the Avi-fauna of tins island to that of 
Siberia, the southern islands having a resident species, ^E". tri- 
virgatus. 

Habits. These appear to be the same as those of our British 
bird. 

Nest. Like that of At. vagans. 

Eggs. Not to be distinguished from those of ^E. vagans 

THE REEDLINGS. FAMILY PANURID/E. 
This family contains but a single genus. 

PanuruS) Koch, Syst. Baier. Zool., p. 202 (1816). 

Type, P. biarmicus (Linn.). 
These curious little birds have been called " Bearded Tits/' 
but it is questionable whether they are Paridce at all. Some 
naturalists have even considered them to be an aberrant kind 
of Bunting. They have not the feathered nostril of the 
Tits, but rather an open nostril, oval, not rounded, with a 
covering skin or operculum, which is absent in the Paridcz. 
But the most characteristic feature of the genus Panurus is its 
plumage, which is unlike that of any Palaearctic Tit, but which 
closely resembles that of the Reed-birds of the Lower Hima- 
layas and China, the genera Paradoxornis^ Cholornis, &c. It is 






THE REEDLING. 15! 

true that the long tail of the Bearded Tit somewhat recalls that 
of the species &githalus; it is strongly graduated, and consists 
of twelve feathers, the first one very short. 

It may be said that there is only a single species of Bearded 
Reedling, though an eastern form has been called Panurus 
sibiricus, Bp. This is a pale race from Central Asia, but its 
li.nht plumage is sometimes approached by specimens from 
other localities. 

I. THE BEARDED REEDLING. PANURUS BIARMICUS. 

Pants biarmicus, Linn., S. N., i., p. 342 (1766). 

Calamophilus biarmicus, Macg., Br. B., iii., p. 694 (1840); 

Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 49, pi. 102 (1871^ 
Panurus biarmicus, Newt. ed. Yarrell, i., p. 511 (1874) ; B. O. 

U. List. Br. B., p. 24 (1883) ; Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 

viii., p. 77 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 492 (1883); 

Saunders, Man., p. 91 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., 

pt. xxiv (1893). 

Adult Male. General colour above cinnamon-rufous, the 
upper tail-coverts vinous ; the tail pale vinous chestnut, the 
three outer feathers white at the ends for a considerable dis- 
tance, and blackish towards the bases ; scapulars externally 
hoary-whitish; wings cinnamon-rufous, the median coverts 
black, the inner greater coverts and inner secondaries black in 
the centre, the inner webs of the latter white, forming a broad 
band on either side of the back ; the edge of the wing and the 
outer aspect of the primaries, white ; head and sides of face 
pearly-grey, the forehead hoary ; lores and feathers in front of 
the eye black, continued down the cheeks into a kind of 
moustache ; throat and breast greyish-white with a rosy 
tinge; the thighs and abdomen sandy-buff; sides of breast 
rosy, extending on to the sides of the neck ; sides of body 
and flanks cinnamon ; under tail-coverts black ; under wing- 
coverts white, as also the quill-lining, with a sandy tinge, 
especially on the latter; bill yellow; feet black; iris pale 
yellow. Total length, 67 inches; culmen, 0*4; wing, 2*4; 
tail, 3-3 ; tarsus, o'8. 

Adult Female Not so brightly coloured as the male ; and not 
| nearly so suffused with rosy pink underneath; the head is 



i5 2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISIORY. 

brown like the back ; the lores and moustache are ashy-white, 
and there is none of the black which distinguishes the male ; 
the under tail-coverts are cinnamon-buff, like the flanks. 
Total length, 5-8 inches; wing, 2-35. 

Young. Resemble the female in not having any black mous- 
tache, but they differ in being more tawny buff, with the middle 
of the back black, and a black stripe on either side of the 
crown. Even after the first moult, young birds retain a good 
deal of black striping on the head and back, and even full- 
plumaged adult males, with grey head and black moustache, 
sometimes show some traces of black on the back. 

Range in Great Britain. Said to be found at the present time 
only in two counties of England, viz., Devonshire and Norfolk. 
The destruction of many of its reedy haunts by the drainage c f 
the fens has doubtless been the prime cause of the decreasing 
numbers of this species, which used to breed in Sussex, Kent, 
Essex, and the fen-lands of Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, 
and Lincolnshire. On the Broads of Norfolk (and possibly 
of Suffolk), the Bearded Reedling still occurs, but in diminishing 
numbers. 

Range outside the British Islands. Extends, in suitable localities, 
from France and Spain, eastwards as far as North-eastern Thibet, 
frequenting marshes and swamps, and, as mentioned above, 
becoming gradually paler towards the eastern portions of its 
range. It does not extend north of Pomerania in Europe, nor 
does it cross the Mediterranean. To its Dutch and German 
habitats it is a summer visitor, differing in this respect from our 
British bird, which is resident, and does not seem to migrate 
at all. 

Habits. It is now very difficult to observe the habits of the 
Bearded Reedling in this country, as it is only in certain 
favoured localities in Norfolk, where the bird is protected, that 
there is any likelihood of meeting with it in a state of nature. 
It is now almost equally rare in many parts of Holland, in 
which, not long ago, it could have been seen in numbers. 
The primary cause of the disappearance of the species is the 
same in both instances, viz., the draining and reclaiming of the 
fens and meres; but it must also sadly be confessed that in 
England the unrestrained zeal of the collector and private 



THE GOLD-CRESTS. 153 

dealer in birds and eggs has largely contributed to the threat- 
ened extermination of the species. 

The Bearded Reedling is never found away from marshes 
or reedy localities, but even in its natural haunts it is not 
easily observed, as it often skulks away into the undergrowth 
of smaller reeds and sedges when approached. In summer its 
food consists of insects and tiny mollusca, but in winter it 
feeds upon the seeds of the reeds, a mode of sustenance un- 
like that of Tits, with which family this species has been 
associated by most writers. Mr. Seebohm states that the long 
tail of the bird is somewhat in the way in windy weather, and 
it then keeps entirely to the shelter of the reeds. The call- 
note, he says, "appears to be a musical ping ping, something 
like the twang of a banjo; the alarm-note is said to be a 
chir-r-r, something like the scold of a Whitethroat ; and the 
cry of distress is a plaintive ee-ar, ee-ar" 

Mr. Howard Saunders observes that even in the winter the 
birds are lively and musical, and at that season they may be seen 
in flocks of from forty to fifty together, often roving from the 
frozen inland waters to those which are kept open owing to the 
influence of the tide. 

Nest. Placed in a bunch of reeds ot far from the ground. 
It is somewhat deep, and composed of flat grass, and is lined 
with fine grass and the down or flowers of the reeds themselves. 

Eggs. From four to seven in number, china-white in 
ground-colour, and varying much in size. They are rather 
large for the size of the bird, and are faintly dotted and 
streaked with dark brown, the streaks and lines somewhat re- 
sembling those on the eggs of a Bunting. There is no at- 
tempt at a cluster of spots round the large end. Axis, 0-6-07 
inch ; diam., 0-55-0-6. 

THE GOLD-CRESTS. FAMILY REGULID^E. 

The little birds which constitute this family have been con- 
sidered by some ornithologists to be akin to the Warblers, 
by others to the Tits. To us they seem to be an isolated 
family, not distantly related to the Tits, but not to be included 
within the confines of the family Paridce, nor to be admitted 
into the Sylviida. The diminutive size, the brilliant crest, the 



X 54 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

fluffy plumage, and the peculiar nests which the Gold-Crests 
make, are all characteristic of the family Regulidce^ the mem- 
bers of which have also a most peculiar nostril. This is oval, 
situated at the base of the bill, and has a slight operculum, 
the whole being covered with a little stiff plume, this last 
character being peculiar to the Gold-Crests. 

THE GOLD-CRESTS. GENUS REGULUS. 

ReguluS) Koch, Syst. Baier. Zool., p. 199 (1816). 

Type, R. regulus (Linn.). 

The genus Regulus is the sole representative of the family. 
It contains about six species, which are found in the northern 
and temperate parts of the Old and New World, extending as 
far south as Mexico in the latter. In the Old World the genus 
Regulus is principally Palaearctic, as it is found almost through 
out the entire extent of this region, and occurs also in the 
Himalayas, where a species indistinguishable from the English 
bird is met with. The Common Gold-Crest of our islands 
represents one section of the genus Regulus^ while the Fire-Crest 
represents another section, distinguished by the golden patch 
on the side of the neck. In Madeira a separate form of Fire- 
Crest, R. maderensiSj is found, and in the Canaries another 
form, R. teneriffcB ; while in the Azores occurs the long-billed 
Regulus azorensis, the last-named being an outlying representa- 
tive of the Gold-Crest. 

I. THE GOLD-CREST. REGULUS REGULUS. 

(Plate XVI L, Fig. I.) 

Motactila regulus, Linn., S. N., i., p. 338 (1766). 

Regulus auricapillus, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 408 (1839). 

Regulus cristatus, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 449 (1873); Dresser, 

B. Eur., ii., p. 453, pis. 71 and 72, fig. 2 (1874) ; B. O. U. 

List. Br. B., p. 14 (1883); Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 

viii., p. 80 (1883) ; Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 453 (1883) ; Lilford, 

Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. iv. (1887); Saunders, Man., p. 55 

(1889). 

Adult Male General colour above green, inclining to lighter 
and more yellowish-green on the lower back, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts, all of which parts are mottled with ashy-whitish 
spots, more or less concealed ; lesser wing-coverts like the 






PLATE XVII 




1 GOLDCBEST 2 FIflECBBST 



THE GOLD CRESTS. 155 

back , median and greater coverts dusky, externally edged 
with green and tipped with yellow or yellowish-white, forming a 
double wing-bar ; quills blackish, edged with yellow, turning 
to white near the base of the primaries; the base of the 
secondaries yellow, followed by a band of black, forming a 
conspicuous pattern ; the inner secondaries tipped with white ; 
tail-feathers ashy-brown with greenish-yellow margins ; on the 
crown a beautiful patch of brilliant orange, flanked on both 
sides by a band of black feathers, streaked with yellow ; fore- 
part of coronal patch also bright yellow ; forehead dingy olive ; 
lores ashy-white ; eyebrow and sides of face dingy olive ; cheeks 
and throat isabelline-buff, the chin whitish; breast and centre 
of body ashy-white, tinged with yellow, the flanks and sides of 
body greenish-olive ; under wing- and tail-coverts white with 
yellowish tips ; quilts ashy below, edged with whitish ; bill 
nearly black; feet brown ; iris hazel. Total length, 37 inches ; 
culmen, 0*4; wing, 2*15; tail, 1*5; tarsus, 0*65. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but rather duller and 
greener in colour, and at once distinguished by the colour of 
the crest, which is bright yellow, instead of orange, with a very 
broad streak of black on either side of the crest. 

Young. Coloured like the adults, but are much duller, and 
entirely lack the bright crown, this part of the head being dull 
green like the rest of the upper-parts ; under surface of body 
ashy-white. 

Eange in Great Britain. Almost universal throughout the three 
kingdoms, and breeding wherever it is found, except in the 
Outer Hebrides, the Orkneys, and Shetland Isles. The 
numbers of our indigenous birds are vastly increased by the 
arrival on our eastern coasts of numbers of Gold-Crests from 
the Continent. Mr. Howard Saunders has thus summarised 
some of the facts of the migration of this species : " In autumn 
immense flocks sometimes arrive on our east coast, extend- 
ing quite across England, and the Irish Channel, and into 
Ireland. In 1882 the migration-wave of this description com- 
mencing on August the 6th, and lasting for ninety-two days, 
reached from the Channel to the Faroes ; in 1883 the migration 
lasted eighty-two days; and again, in 1884, for a period of 
eighty-seven days. Sinnliai ' waves' passed over Heligoland, 



156 LLOYD'S NATUHXL HISTORY. 

with the exception of the last year, when, strange to say, the 
numbers were below the average. An unusual spring ' rush } 
took place in 1882. On such occasions bushes in gardens on 
the coast are covered with birds as with a swarm of bees ; 
crowds flutter round the lanterns of lighthouses ; and the 
rigging of fishing-smacks in the North Sea is thronged with 
weary travellers. In April a return migration occurs." 

Range outside the British Islands. Generally distributed through- 
out Europe, in most parts being resident, but in the north it is 
a migratory species. It is found as far as the Arctic Circle in 
Scandinavia, in North Russia to 63 N. lat., and eastwards up 
to 60. It appears to vary slightly towards the Pacific, and in 
the Japanese islands the Gold-Crest has a greyish nape. This 
Japanese form is approached in character by the Himalayan 
Gold-Cresr, and at the present time Regulus regulus is recog- 
nised as the dominant form of the Palaearctic region, with cer- 
tain variations in its eastward habitat, which are not considered 
worthy of specific recognition. Thus Mr. Gates states that 
the Himalayan Gold-Crest cannot be separated from the Euro- 
pean bird, and Mr. Seebohm will not allow that the Japanese 
race is specifically distinct. 

Habits. In speaking of the Tits, the Creepers, and the Nut- 
hatches, we have referred to the sociable companionship which 
induces these birds to unite together in family parties during 
the winter. There is still one other companion of these 
winter gatherings, the little Gold-Crest, the smallest of European 
birds, and consequently the smallest of our British species. It 
is, however, a very active and vigorous little bird, quite as 
sprightly as the Tits with which it consorts, and remarkable 
for its loud call-note, which is singularly piercing for such a 
small creature to utter. Its song is decidedly superior to that 
of the Tits, and is more Warbler-like, though somewhat weak. 
The Gold-Crest may be found in almost any situation, in 
pursuit of the tiny insects which constitute almost its sole 
sustenance, and in winter it is found in the open woods, flying 
in company with its friends the Tits and Creepers, and 
foraging through the bushes and undergrowth as well as the 
oaks above. At all times, however, it shows a preference for 
yew-trees or firs, either for their nesting association or for 



THE GOLD-CRESTS. 157 

particular insects which it finds in those trees. Yew-avenues, 
therefore, and fir-woods are sure to be tenanted by plenty of 
Gold-Crests, whose note quickly leads to their detection, and 
the birds may be seen hanging on to slender twigs or 
climbing about the branches like little Mice, the males now 
and then stopping to emit a musical little song. 

Nest. This is a beautiful structure of green moss, usually 
suspended, like a hammock, under a branch of a pine- or 
yew-tree, and very well concealed; but, according to Mr. Howard 
Saunders, it has occasionally been found on the upper surface 
of a branch, and even in a low bush. Besides the green moss, 
of which the nest is generally composed, other materials, such 
as spiders' webs and hair, are interwoven in the nest, and the 
latter is also interlaced with the foliage of the bianch on which 
it is hung, while the inside is softly lined with feathers. 

Eggs. From five to eight in number. Ground-colour 
dark isabelline, or creamy-white, with a darker ring round the 
larger end. In the isabelline-coloured eggs this darker portion 
appears uniform, the spots being so thickly clustered together 
as to produce this effect. In the whiter eggs the large end is 
distinctly spotted with reddish-brown, forming an irregular 
zone, in which appear dark underlying markings. Axis, 0*5- 
0-55 inch ; diam., 0-4-0-45. (Plate XXX., Fig. 2.) 

IT. THE FIRE-CREST. REGULUS IGNICAPILT/US. 

(Hate XV1L, Fig. 2.) 
Sylvia ignicapiUa, Brehm, in Tcmm. Man. d'Orn., p. 231 

(1820). 

Regulus ignicapHtus, Macg., Br. ?.., ii., p. 416 (1839); Newt. 
ed Yarr., i., p. 456 (1873); Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 459, 
pi. 72 (1874); Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 458 (1883); B. O. U. 
List Br. B., p. 15 (1883); Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
viii., p. 83 (1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. v. (1887) ; 
S mnders, Man., p. 57 (1889). 

Adult Male. Bright yellowish-green above ; the wings and 
tail as in R. regulus, the wing-bars being very distinct ; crown 
golden-orange, with a buff forehead and a broad band of black 
along each side of the crown ; feathers through the eye blackish, 
with a conspicuous streak of white between it and the black 



T 5S LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

band of the crown, running parallel to the latter streak ; ear- 
coverts bluish-grey on the upper margin, the rest of the sides of 
the face isabelline-buff like the threat and sides of body, the 
breast and centre of body ashy-whitish ; on each side of the 
neck a patch of golden-yellow ; bill and feet dark brown ; iris 
hazel. Total length, 4 inches; culmen, 0-4; wing, 2-2; tail 
i -5 5 ; tarsus, 0-6. 

Adult Female. As with the Gold-Crest, the hen bird of the 
Fire-Crest differs from her mate by the less brilliant crown. 

Note. The Fire- Crest, as its name implies, has a more 
brilliantly-coloured crown than the Gold-Crest, and is easily 
distinguished by the golden-yellow patch on the sid^ of the 
neck, and by the white eyebrow, which is very well marked in 
1?. ignicapillns. 

Eange in Great Britain. A winter visitant, probably of more 
frequent occurrence than is generally supposed. Its capture 
has been recorded in nearly all the eastern and southern 
counties of England, but its occurrence in Scotland and Ire- 
land has not yet been established. The Fire-Crest is quite as 
migratory as the Gold-Crest, and in Heligoland in 1876 there 
were even more killed of the former than of the latter during 
our visit, but it is certain that the Gold-Crest comes to England 
on migration in much larger numbers than its ally. 

Kange outside the British Islands. The Fire-Crest is a bird of 
much more restricted range than the Gold-Crest, and, although 
found in Western, as well as in Central and Southern Europe, 
it does not extend to Scandinavia, nor does it occur north- 
east of the Baltic Provinces, though it is found in Southern 
Russia and Asia Minor also. 

Habits. These are stated to be similar to those of the Gold 
Crest, though many writers consider it a more restless bird, 
and in its ways it has been compared to a Willow-Warbler. 
Mr. Seebohm says that it affects the pine-trees more per- 
tinaciously than the Gold-Crest, and does not descend so much 
to the undergrowth. Its food consists, like that of the Gold- 
Crest, almost entirely of insects. 

Nest. Like that of the last-named bird, and similarly slung, 
under a bough. 

Eggs. Form five to ten, sometimes even exceeding the 



THE SHRIKES. 159 

letter number. They are distinguished from those of the Gold- 
Crest by their reddish tinge, which almost amounts to pale 
chocolate. Most clutches show a faint ring round the larger 
end of the egg, where the reddish dots are clustered together, 
but in many specimens the whole of the egg is dusted with 
tiny dots. Axis, 0*55 inch ; diam., 0*4. 

III. THE RUBY-CREST. REGULUS CALENDULA. 

An example of this American species is in the British 
Museum, by which institution it was acquired with the rest of 
the Gould collection after Mr. John Gould's death. It is 
said to have been shot by the late Mr. Dewar, near Loch 
Lomond, in 1852, but the history of this specimen seems 
scarcely authenticated. 

THE SHRIKES. FAMILY LANIID^E. 

The " Butcher"-birds, as they are sometimes called, from the 
way in which some of them impale small animals, insects, &c., 
on thorns, are a somewhat large assemblage of insectivorous 
birds, which have generally a hooked bill with a notch near the 
end of the upper mandible. This resemblance to the bill of a 
Hawk caused many of the older naturalists to class the family 
near the Accipitres, or Birds of Prey. The likeness is, howeverj 
merely superficial, and a study of the other characters proves 
that the Shrikes are thoroughly Passerine birds. Osteologically 
considered, the skull of a Shrike has certain features which, 
distinguish it from the majority of the Passeres, and the princi- 
pal character is the spiny process which forms the prolongation 
of the inner posterior angle of the palatine-bones. Another 
characteristic of the Shrikes is the barred plumage of the nest- 
lings, which in the bulk of the Passerine birds are uniform in 
colour, or else spotted or streaked. The Shrikes are a very 
numerous family, and in some form or another are spread 
over nearly the whole extent of the globe. The genus Lanius, 
however, embraces the northern forms of the family, with which 
alone the present work is concerned. 

THE TRUE SHRIKES. GENUS LANIUS. 
Lanius, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 134 (1766). 

Type, L. cxcubitor, Linn. 
The characters enumerated above are those which distm- 



160 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

guish the True Shrikes, as far as the European species have to 
be considered. There are about fifty species of Lanius, and 
these are found over the greater part of Europe and Asia, 
Africa, North America, and the northern parts of Cemuil 
America. The Grey Shrikes constitute a well-marked section 
of the genus, and the parti-coloured Shrikes another section. 
In this work are enumerated five British species, three be- 
longing to the grey section of the genus, and two to the parti- 
coloured section. 

I. THE LESSER GREY SHRIKE. LANIUS MINOR. 

Lanius minor, Gm., S. N., i., p. 308(1788) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., 
i., p. 205 (1872); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 393, pi. 149 
(1872); Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 603 (1883); B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 38 (1883) ; Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., viii., p. 
235 (1883) ; Saunders, Man., p. 141 (1889); Lilford, Col. 
Fig. Br. B., pt. xv. (1890). 

Adult Male. General colour above clear blue-grey or slaty- 
blue, the scapulars like the back; wings black, the lesser wing- 
coverts ashy-grey, with a large patch of white at the base of the 
primaries, forming a big speculum ; tail-feathers black, the four 
centre ones not tipped with white, the next pair on each side 
white at the base and having a white spot at the tip, the two 
outer tail feathers entirely white with a blackish shaft-streak 
. head slaty-blue like the back ; a broad frontal band, feathers 
round the eye and the ear-coverts, black ; cheeks and thrca 
white, as well as the abdomen and under tail-coverts : the 
breast and sides of the body delicate rosy pink ; under wing 
coverts and axillaries whitish, ashy on their inner webs ; the 
quill-lining white, with a dusky patch near the edge of the 
wing, formed by the dark lower primary coverts ; bill and fee 
black ; iris brown. Total length, 8'5 inches ; wing, 4*6 ; cul 
men, 0*65 ; tail, 3-2 ; tarsus, ro. 

Adult Female. Scarcely to be distinguished from the male, bti 
having the frontal band less broad and pronounced. Tota 
length, 8 -5 inches ; wing, 4*7. 

Young. Differs from the adults in being browner, the uppe 
surface being brownish-grey, freckled with a few cross-lines o 
blackish or dusky-brown on the head and back ; the lores an< 



THE SHRIKES l6l 

ear-coverts dusky-blackish; their penultimate tail-feather with a 
good deal of black on the inner web, the outermost one being 
entirely white, as in the adults. 

NOTE. In addition to the black forehead of the adult, this species may 
always be recognised, at any age, by the very short first primary, which is 
less than one-third of the second primary. In adult birds, too, there is 
always a beautiful rosy blush on the breast. 

Range in Great Britain. A rare visitor in autumn and spring, 
having been captured four times, viz. : in November, 1851, in , 
the Scilly Isles; near Great Yarmouth in the spring of 1869, 
and again in the spring of 1875 j an ^ in September, 1876, near 
Plymouth. 

Range outside the British Islands. A summer visitor to most 
parts of Europe, but not reaching Scandinavia regularly, though 
it is occasionally found in Holland, Belgium, Denmark, and 
South Sweden. Eastwards it is found as far as Persia, Turkes- 
tan, and South-western Siberia. It winters in Africa, extend- 
ing down the Nile Valley, and doubtless passing through the 
Lake Regions till it comes to the Lower Congo, Damara Land, 
and the Transvaal. 

Habits. Mr. Seebohm writes : In both Greece and Asia 
Minor I occasionally met with this bird ; but it was nowhere 
so common as either the Woodchat or the Red-backed Shrike; 
nor did it, like the latter bird, ascend into the pine-regions. It 
seemed also to be very rare in the forests of olives which fill 
many of the plains. The ground it preferred was the outskirts 
of cultivation, where trees and bushes of various kinds small 
oaks, hollies, oleanders, pomegranates, white and pink roses, 
and abundance of clematis struggle for existence amongst 
the broken rocks. Here and there a little patch is cultivated 
with wheat, tobacco, or Indian corn, with a tree or two in the 
middle (olive, almond, or walnut) ; and abundance of cleared 
places grown over with rank vegetation attest the former 
presence of a dying-out civilisation. In these places the 
Lesser Grey Shrike was to be seen, occasionally perched 
| conspicuously on the top of a bush. It also frequented the 
gardens near the villages, and is said to regale itself on the 
\ cherries, figs, and mulberries which grow in the hedges that 
divide them from each other. Its principal food is un- 



1 62 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

doubtedly beetles (which swarm to a incredible extent in these 
climates), butterflies, grasshoppers, and other insects. The 
flight of this Shrike, like that of its congeners, is undulatory, 
but easy and comparatively noiseless; and it skims through the 
air like a Partridge for a moment or two before it alights on 
some perch, on to which it drops with a scuffle of the wings. 
The song of the Lesser Grey Shrike is a not unmusical 
chatter, something like the twitter of the Swallow or Starling, 
but louder and mixed with some harsher notes. It has a 
variety of notes, some very harsh, which are probably alarm 
notes, and others somewhat plaintive, which may be call-notes. 
'This bird is said occasionally to impale insects on thorns, as 
most of its congeners are in the habit of doing." 

Nest. Like that of other Shrikes, composed of moss with 
twigs and rootlets, and lined with wool, hair and a few feathers. 
Mr. Seebohm describes one taken by himself in Greece as 
follows : " With the exception of a twig or two, a piece of 
flag-like rush, and a little wool at the foundation, the whole 
nest is composed of a downy-leaved cudweed (Gnaphalium 
dtoicum), some in flower and some in seed, and most of them 
puUed up by the root." 

Eggs. From four to seven in number. The ground-colour 
varies from greenish-white to pale greenish-blue. In both 
these types of egg the markings are much the same, being 
brown or greenish-brown, with the underlying markings of 
light purplish-grey very distinctly indicated. In nearly every 
case the markings cluster more thickly round the larger end of 
the egg, but sometimes the whole of the egg is spotted. Axis, 
o'Q-i'o inch; diam., o*7-o - 75. 

II. THE GREAT GREY SHRIKE. LANIUS EXCUBITOR. 

Lanius excubitor, Linn., S. N., i., p. 135 (1766) ; Macg., Br. B., 
iii., p. 492 (i8-;o); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 375, pi. 145 
(1871); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 199 (1872); Seebohm, Br. 
B., i., p. 598 (1883) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 37 (1883); 
Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., viii., p. 237 (1883); Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. viii. (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 139 
(1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above blue-grey or French-grey; 



THE SHRIKES 163 

the scapulars externally white, and the lower rump and upper 
tail-coverts somewhat lighter grey, the sides of the rump pure 
white ; wings black, with two white wing-patches, one formed by 
the white bases to the primaries, and the second by the white 
bases of the outer secondaries ; all the latter tipped with white 
and having a considerable amount of white near the base of 
the inner web, some of the inner primaries having a small 
white spot at the ends, and the outer primaries narrowly 
fringed with whitish ; tail-feathers black, tipped with white, 
this white tip obsolete on the centre feathers, but gradually in- 
creasing in extent towards the outermost, which is also white 
along the outer web ; crown of head like the back, and the v 
sides of the neck also grey ; the base of the forehead somewhat 
whiter, and a slight streak of white over the eye ; lores, eyelid, 
and ear-coverts, black; cheeks and under surface of body, 
white, with a faint grey shade on the breast and sides of body ; 
under wing-coverts and quill-lining white ; bill black, the base 
of the under mandible lighter ; feet and claws brownish-black ; 
iris dark brown. Total length, 9 inches ; oilmen, 0*9 ; wing, 
4-4; tail, 4-35; tarsus, 1-05. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but with the white 
patches on the wing a trifle smaller. Total length, 8-5 inches^ 
wing, 4-5. 

Young. Differs from the adult in having the scapulars grey 
like the back, the whole of the upper surface being washed 
with brown ; wings as in the adult, but the wing-coverts tipped 
with brown ; lores and ear-coverts brownish-black ; under sur- 
face of body ashy-whitish, the breast suffused with brown, with 
darker brown margins to the feathers. 

Range in Great Britain. A winter visitor, having occurred in 
all three kingdoms, and being regularly met with in England 
every cold season. 

Range outside the British Islands. A resident species in most 
countries of Europe below the Baltic, but a summer visitor 
only to Scandinavia and North Russia, ranging in the former 
country up to lat. 70 N. Its eastern range, according to Mr. 
Seebohm, extends to the Ural Mountains and the River Volga, 
where it interbreeds with Pallas's Grey Shrike, L. sibiricus, in 
the former lor^lty, and with the white- winged Grey Shrike, 

M 2 



1 64 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Z. kucopterus, on the Volga. Professor Collett has also 
recorded the hybridising of L. excubitor and Z. sibiricus in 
Norway. 

Habits. As the Great Grey Shrike only visits England in the 
winter, there is no opportunity of observing its nesting habits 
in this country, and although a belief exists that in Willoughby's 
time, towards the end of the seventeenth century, a Butcher- 
bird, which may have been the present species, was to be 
found in the mountainous parts of England, as for instance, 
in the Peak of Derbyshire, there has never been any 
authentic record of the breeding of the species in Great 
Britain. In the parts of Europe where the Great Grey 
Shrike nests, it is a very conspicuous object, generally select- 
ing a perch in the open, from whence it can keep a good 
look out and perceive danger from a distance. So wary is it 
that in Germany it is called the "Sentinel," and at Valkens- 
vaard, in Holland, the bird's prodigious power of sight is made 
use of by the falconers when they are trapping Hawks on 
passage. Long before the eye of a man can detect the 
approach of a Falcon, the latter is detected by the Shrike, 
but it is even then some little time before the appearance of 
a speck on the far horizon shows the accuracy of the Shrike's 
vision, and enables the fowler to b2 ready with his nets and 
his lure for the approaching bird. In many respects the 
Shrike resembles a bird of prey, and it is even said to hover 
in the air like a Kestrel, or to fly down a small bird, like a 
Merlin. It has its so-called "larder," like other Butcher- 
birds, and Mr. Seebohm says that it has probably a dozen 
"larders" in various parts of the district haunted by it. 
He writes : " Like many birds of prey, he has his favourite 
feeding-place, some convenient spot in a hedgerow, probably 
chosen because the footing is good, and the thorns sharp; 
and to this place he brings his prey during the day, and there 
an accumulation of the remains of his meals are discovered. 
I remember finding one of these so-called ' larders ' in a 
hedge on a roadside a few miles from Valkensvaard, close 
to a gate. The thorns were very long and sharp, and there 
were the dried-up remains of half-a-dozen mice which had 
evidently been eaten except the feet, tail, and part of the skin. 




**? 



THE SHRIKES. 165 

Like many of the birds of prey, the Great Grey Shrike throws 
up pellets, and, according to Nauman, remains of beetles 
and grasshoppers, frogs, lizards, and blind-worms are found 
among its castings in summer time, but in winter only bones 
of mice and feathers of birds are found in the Shrike's 
pellets." 

Nest. Composed of twigs, grass, and moss, with a lining 
of roots, wool, and hair. It is a somewhat clumsily built 
structure. 

Eggs. From five to seven in number. The ground-colour 
is either pale greenish-white or brownish-white, the latter 
being the more usual type of the two. A few have the 
ground-colour white, without any greenish tinge. The spots 
are rather heavy and of an olive-brown or greenish -brown tint, 
sometimes distributed over the egg, but in other instances 
clustering round the larger end, and occasionally clouding the 
whole of the egg. Axis, i'o-i'i inch ; diam., o'75-o'8. 

III. PALLAS'S GREAT GREY SHRIKE. LANIUS SIBIRICUS. 

Lanius major (" nee. Wilkes," teste Stejneger), Pallas, Zoogr. 

Ross. Asiat, i., p. 402 (1811); Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 

viii., p. 239 (1883) ; Seebohm, Brit. B., i., p. 595 (1883); 

Saunders, Man., p. 139 (1889). 
Lanius sibiricus^ Bogd. ; Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi., 

p. 217. 

(Plate XVIII.} 

Adult Male. Similar to Z. excubitor, but having only one 
white wing-patch, formed by the white base of the primary- 
quills, the secondaries entirely black at the base and not show- 
ing any trace of the second white patch so conspicuous in true 
Z. excubitor ; there seems to be also less white on the inner 
webs of the inner secondaries underneath, and the lower primary 
coverts are also somewhat more pronounced ashy-brown ; bill, 
feet, and iris, coloured as in Z. excubitor. Total length, 9-5 
inches; culmen, 075; wing, 4*5; tail, 4*4; tarsus, 1-05. 

Adult Female Similar to the male in colour. 



*. 



l6 & LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Young. Similar to the adults, but having a brown shade 
over the grey of the upper parts, and slightly obscuring the 
white scapulars; the under surface regularly barred with 
fine crescentic markings on the feathers, excepting OB the 
throat, abdomen, and under tail-coverts, which are all pure 
white. 

Range in Great Britain. Like the foregoing species, it is an 
autumn and winter visitant, and appears to be quite as common 
as Lanius excubitor in some years. 

Range outside the British Islands. Extends from Eastern Siberia 
south of lat. 65 N., as far west as Northern Russia. In many 
of its western habitats it is said to interbreed with L. excubitor. 
Much has been written about the distribution of this species, 
and the various allied forms. Mr. Dresser has contributed a 
long article to the "Ibis" for 1892 (pp. 374-380), which does not 
seem to lay down any definite conclusions. Much more to 
the purpose are the remarks of Mr. Stejneger (l.c.\ who, as 
usual, puts forward some tangible results of his work. Two 
propositions are set before us, either to consider that there is 
but one species of Great Grey Shrike, ranging over the whole 
of the Palsearctic and Nearctic Regions, including L. excubitor^ 
L. sibiricus (L. major, auct.), and even L. borealis of Nortl 
America or to recognise three forms, L. excubitor from Cen- 
tral and Southern Europe, L. sibiricus^ which ranges from th( 
Japanese Sea all through Northern Siberia and Northern Russia 
to Norwegian Finmark, and L. borealis, confined strictly to 
North America. This latter conclusion, which commends 
itself also to Dr. Stejneger, seems to be the most scientific 
explanation of the distribution of the three races of Grej 
Shrike under consideration. It is the present race which \\ 
figured in the plate (XVIII). 

Habitg. These appear to be similar to those of L. excubitor. 

Nest. Not yet described, but doubtless similar to that of th< 
foregoing species. 

Eggs. Of these nothing has as yet been recorded, but they 
will doubtless be found to resemble those of L. excubitor 



I 



tilE SHRIKES. 167 

IV. THE RED-BACKED SHKIKE. LANIUS COLLURIO. 

Lanius collu rio, Linn., S. N., i., p. 136 (1766); Macg , Br. B., 
iii., p. 505 (1840); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 399, pi. 150 
(1871) ; Newt. ed. Yarn, i., p. 209(1872); B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 38 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 606(1883), 
Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., viii., p. 286 (1883); Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. v. (1887); Saunders, Man., p. 143 
(1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above vinous chestnut ; the 
rump grey ; the upper tail-coverts reddish-brown, greyer at the 
tips; wing-coverts like the back; primary-coverts and quills 
dusky brown, edged with rufous, more broadly on the inner 
secondaries ; tail-feathers blackish, with a narrow white tip, all 
but the centre feathers white for more than the basal half, the 
outer feather edged with white externally, the shafts of all 
blackish ; head and hind neck delicate blue-grey, becoming 
lighter towards the forehead, which has a black line at the 
base, joined to the lores and ear-coverts, which are also black ; 
above this black line is a narrow line of whitish, extending 
above the ear-coverts ; cheeks and under surface of body 
vinous pink, becoming whiter on the lower abdomen and under 
tail-coverts ; under wing-coverts and axillaries whitish ; bill and 
feet black ; iris, dark hazel. Total length, 7 inches ; culmen, 
0-65; wing, 3*6; tail, 3*0; tarsus 0-9. 

Adult Female. Differs considerably from the male. Reddish- 
brown above, instead of chestnut, and having the rufous colour 
on the wings of the same tint ; the grey of the head duller, 
and washed with brown ; lores and eyebrows buffy-white, 
and the ear-coverts rufous, instead of black ; tail-feathers 
brown, with only a little whitish-red near the base of the outer 
ones, which are narrowly tipped with white, the outermost 
white along the outer web ; throat and abdomen white ; the 
cheeks, fore-neck, and breast, as well as the sides of the body, 
yellowish-buff, with crescentic bars of brown. Total length, 
7 inches ; wing, 3*65. 

Young. Like the old female, but more chestnut, and with 
blackish-brown ear-coverts ; the under surface of the body as in 
the adult hen bird, but the upper surface also mottled with 
pale tips and crescentic bars of black on all the feathers. 



1 63 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Range in Great Britain, A summer visitor, occurring over the 
greater part of England and Wales, but of irregular occurrence 
in the northern counties and in Eastern Scotland. The records 
of its having bred in the latter kingdom are apparently not 
authentic. The late Dr. Saxby records his having seen in 
Shetland a female bird, with three young birds able to fly well, 
on the 9th of June, 1870. This has been commented upon 
by the author of the excellent " Manual of British Birds " as 
being extraordinary, if a fact, " seeing that even in the south of 
England eggs are hardly laid by the middle of May, and 
require a fortnight's incubation." Mr. O. V. Aplin, however, 
who has written a careful account of the distribution of the 
Red backed Shrike in Great Britain, suggests that Saxby was 
too careful an observer to have made a mistake, and that the 
month of " July " was probably intended. A misprint of this 
kind is very possible, as Saxby's work was published after his 
death. In Ireland only one instance of the bird's occurrence 
has been noted, near Belfast, in August, 1878. 

Mr. Aplin sums up its distribution in England as follows : 
"One may almost say that lat. 53 marks off the country south 
of which the Red-backed Shrike is a common summer migrant ; 
but a boundary-line drawn here would have, of course, to be 
deflected in places. Turning to the south-west we find the 
species rare in Pembrokeshire, Cornwall, and South-west 
Devon. Possibly 45 W. long, might be laid down as a 
western boundary, beyond which the bird ceases to be a 
regular and common visitor, but as in the case of its northern 
confines no very strictly defined marches can be prescribed." 

Range outside the British Islands, Generally distributed through- 
out Europe, as far as 64 N. lat., but is very rare as a breeding 
bird in the countries of the Mediterranean, being found only in 
the mountainous parts of Greece, Asia Minor, and Palestine, 
and thence through Northern Persia to Central Asia, as far as 
the Altai Mountains. The principal winter home of the species 
appears to be Southern Africa, and it doubtless migrates by 
way of the Nile Valley and East Africa to its winter quarters. 
It has even been said to breed during its absence from Europe, 
but we think that there is some mistake with regard to this 
assertion. Mr. F. J. Jackson, however, noticed this species 



THE SHRIKES. 169 

on the plains of Eastern Africa sitting about on the thorny 
bushes, and behaving much as the species does in England, 
and he considered that it was likely they were about to nest, 
as they were in beautiful spring plumage. As is well known, 
however, many of our migratory species gain their most bril- 
liant plumage before they leave their winter quai ters, and come 
to Europe only after their breeding-dress is perfectly donned ; 
and up to the present there is no evidence of the nesting of 
the Red backed Shrike in any part of Africa. Another winter 
home of the species is the Persian Gulf, where it has been 
found by Mr. W. D. Gumming, and it also visits India, in the 
extreme north-west of which country it has been found in the 
cold season. 

Habits. There is much that reminds us of a Flycatcher in 
the way in which the present species captures its food, for it has 
undoubtedly favourite perches, on which it sits, and to which 
it returns after the capture of an insect. It is frequently to be 
seen on telegraph-wires, whence it keeps a sharp look-out in 
every direction, and a favourite resort is a field of freshly- 
cut grass. It also captures a good many mice and small birds, 
not pursuing them in the open like birds of prey, but dropping 
down on them suddenly. In the British Museum is a very 
good specimen of the larder of a Red-backed Shrike, taken with 
the nest of the bird by Lord Walsingham in Norfolk, and 
showing the way in which the Shrike spits insects and birds on 
thorns, and the species has been known, according to Captain 
Clark-Kennedy, to hang up birds even bigger than itself, such 
as Blackbirds and Thrushes, as well as Tits of several kinds, 
Robins and Hedge-Sparrows, while it will also occasionally 
seize young Partridges and Pheasants. Wherever the bird 
occurs it is somewhat local, and Mr. Aplin, in the paper above 
referred to, says that the distribution of the Red-backed Shrike 
" seems, within certain limits, to be determined mainly by the 
nature of the soil and climate, and the bearing of these upon 
the insect life of a particular district. The favourite food of 
'this Shrike during its residence with us consists of large-bodied 
insects, especially beetles and bees; and I believe that the 
comparative abundance or scarcity of that food in any given 
district largely determines the numerical strength or weakness 
of this species therein. A warm soil (e.g., sand, gravel, lime- 



1 7& LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

stone, or chalk) is attractive, though not absolutely necessary 
to this Shrike, which is also affected indirectly by climate. 
The * tall tangled hedge-row ' or * Bullfinch,' so often insisted 
upon as attractive to this bird, is certainly not essential to its 
welfare, although the Butcher-bird is undoubtedly fond of these 
big hedges with their long thorns for impaling prey, and the 
convenient nesting sites they afford, but they will not of them- 
selves induce the Shrike to adopt a particular district. In 
North Oxfordshire and in Northamptonshire tall hedges are 
common, but this Shrike is not ; and I gather from a recent 
writer that even in ' High Leicestershire ' the Butcher-bird is 
decidedly scarce. On the other hand, open commons, and 
huge wild sides of sheltered valleys, if they are furnished with 
scattered bushes and overgrown clumps of the same, are often 
favourite localities. It likes also to haunt the neighbourhood 
of gardens, and late in July and in August it often brings its 
young brood into both pleasure- and kitchen-gardens." 

The note of the present species is a kind of chack, generally 
uttered as the bird sits on its perch, and is accompanied by a 
jerk of the head to one side or the other, Besides the small 
birds spoken of above, the Red-backed Shrike feeds principally 
on insects, and devours humble-bees, as well as other kinds of 
bees and wasps, but it will also catch lizards and mice. 

Nest. A ragged and untidy structure, composed of tangled 
moss and roots, lined with dry grasses, wool, and a little 
hair ; it is generally found in a thorny hedge or a thickly- 
wooded dell. Judging from the specimens exhibited' in the 
British Museum, the young birds must have some difficulty in 
keeping in the nest provided for them, as jsoon as they get 
to any size. 

Eggs. From four to six in number, and very variable in 
colour and markings. The ground-colour is mainly of two 
types, creamy-white or greenish-white. The former varies from 
a rich cream-colour to a clay-white, or even rufescent. The 
markings consist of clearly defined spots of rufous, with numer 
ous and distinct underlying spots qf violet-grey. There is in 
most cases a tendency to form a ring, generally, but not invari 
ably, at the large end of the egg, which is sometimes covere( 
by confluent spots, which form a cloud. In the greenish-white 



THE SHRIKES. 17 1 

type of egg, the tint varies from olive to pale green, and the 
markings are brown, the underlying spots being violet-grey, the 
latter being very large and distinct ; there is the same tendency 
to form a ring near the larger end as in the cream-coloured 
type, but many eggs have the spots distributed over the whole 
surface. Axis, o'8-o'95 inch ; diam, 0-65-07. (Plate XXXI., 
Fig 4-) 

V. THE WOODCHAT. LANIUS POMERANUS. 

Lanius rutilus, Macg., Br. B., hi., p. 502 (1840) ; Lilford, Col. 

Fig. Br. B., pt. xv. (1890). 
Lanius auriculatus, P. L. S. Mull. ; Dresser, B. Eur., in., p. 

407, pi. 151 (1871); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 215 (1872), 

Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., viii., p. 283 (1883). 
Lanius pomeranus, Scop.; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 38 (1883); 

Saunders, Man., p. 145 (1889) 
Lanius ru/us, Briss. ; Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 610 (1883). 

Adult Male. Back black, with conspicuously white scapulars; 
lower back bluish-grey ; the rump and upper tail-coverts white; 
wings black, with a large white speculum formed by the white 
bases to the primaries ; tail-feathers black, with a narrow white 
tip, the bases of the feathers white, scarcely visible on the 
centre ones, but extending gradually towards the outer ones, 
which are more broadly tipped with white, the outermost one 
white along its outer web ; crown of head and hind-neck rich 
chestnut ; a broad frontal band, as well as the feathers round 
the eye and the ear-coverts black, extending in a band down 
the sides of the neck; a basal spot of white on each side of the 
base of the /orehead ; cheeks and under surface of body, in- 
cluding the under wing-coverts, creamy-white; the lower primary- 
coverts dusky blackish, forming a patch near the edge of the wing ; 
quills dusky below, white along the inner webs ; bill and feet 
black; iris hazel. Total length, 7-5 inches; oilmen, 0*75; 
wing, 4-0; tail, 3-1 ; tarsus, 1-05. 

Adult Female, Similar to the male, but browner, the parts 
which are black in the male being blackish-brown in the 
female; the frontal band, as well as the ear-coverts, and the 
sides of the neck mixed with brown, and therefore not so 



*7 2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

distinct as in the male ; otherwise as in the latter sex. Total 
length, 7-5 inches; wing, 3-9. 

Young Paler brown than the adult female, the scapulars 
and margins of the wing-coverts and quills sandy-buff; rump 
and upper tail-coverts also sandy-buff; crown and hind-neck 
pale rufous, mottled with sandy-buff and dusky cross-lines ; 
ear-coverts dusky blackish ; no black on the forehead ; under- 
parts white, freckled with narrow dusky lines on the chest. 

Range in Great Britain. A rare and occasional visitor to the 
southern and eastern counties of England. Two instances 
its breeding near Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight, are apparently 
well established. It has occurred as far west as Cornwall, an< 
as far north as Northumberland and Cumberland, but there are 
no Scotch or Irish records. 

Range outside the British Islands. A summer visitor throughou 
the greater part of Europe, being very common in the countrie 
of the Mediterranean. It ranges as high north as the Bald 
and the valley of the Vistula, and it is found as far to the east 
ward as the Caucasus and Western Persia, and occurs frequentl] 
in Asia Minor, Greece, and Palestine. Its winter home lies ii 
North-eastern Africa and in Senegambia, and the bird pro 
bably migrates to a certain extent across the Sahara. It doe 
not follow the usual route of migration down the Nile Valley 
so far south as the Red-backed Shrike, as the Woodchat is no 
found in Southern Africa at all, and is replaced on the wes 
coast of Africa by a distinct species, L. rutilans 

Habits Resemble those of other Shrikes, feeding largely on 
insects, especially grasshoppers and beetles. The note is saic 
to be a harsh krah hack krah, but, according to Mr. Howarc 
Saunders, the male has a low and rather pretty song in spring 
and shows great capacity for imitating the notes of other birds 
The Woodchat is a very conspicuous object in the countries 
frequents, its white breast being easily seen, as it sits on the top 
most twig of a bush or tree, on which it mounts guard. It is sak 
to display great affection for its young. Mr. Seebohm writes 
" In Greece and Asia Minor I found the Woodchat very com 
mon. With the exception of the Black-headed Bunting I founc 
more of its nests than those of any other bird. It is only a 






THE SHRIKES. 173 

summer visitor to both of these countries, belonging neither to 
the earliest nor to the latest birds of passage. It arrives about 
the first of April, at least three weeks after the Swallows, whose 
range extends into the Arctic Regions, but three weeks before 
the Tree-Warblers (Hypotais elaica and H. olivetorum\ whose 
range does not extend north of the basin of the Mediterranean. 
It is a very conspicuous bird, and cannot easily be overlooked, 
and is very common in the olive-forests. As you descend the 
mountains, the olives in the valley look like a dense forest, 
often extending twenty miles or more ; but when you descend 
into them you find that the trees are planted at some distance 
from each other, and that a considerable cultivation of vines, 
mulberries, and sometimes Indian corn, is carried on between 
them. But it is perhaps on the lower slopes of the hills, where 
the trees are more stunted and the ground is less cultivated, 
that the Woodchat is oftenest to be seen. Perched conspicu- 
ously upon the top of a bush, or even a lofty tree, it appears 
ever to be on the watch for the chance of pouncing down upon 
some unwary insect that may come within its range. Its song 
is by no means unmusical, and very gentle to proceed from 
such raptorial jaws. It reminded me very much of the 
twittering of a Swallow or the warble of a Starling. Some of its 
call-notes, however, are loud and harsh enough ; and I at first 
thought that it was imitating the notes of other birds in order to 
attract them within reach; but inasmuch as the greater number 
of notes it apparently imitated were of birds far too powerful 
for it to grapple with, such cannot be the case. The first nest 
I found in Greece was at Delphi, not very far from the ruins of 
the Temple of Apollo. This nest contained six eggs on the 5th 
of May. Higher than 2,000 feet above the level of the sea the 
bird became much rarer ; and in the pine-region, 4,000 feet 
above the sea-level, its place seemed to be entirely taken by 
the Red-backed Shrike ; but as soon as we descended below 
the pine-region it again became extremely common ; and we 
found the greater number of full clutches during the last 
fortnight of May." 

Nest, Compact and well-built, and placed in the fork of a 
tree, generally without any attempt at concealment. In 
Greece Mr. Seebohm found the nest almost invariably in the 
fork of an olive-tree, and " composed principally of cudweed 



J 74 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

(GnaphaUum), a little hairy-stemmed, hairy-leaved, plant with 
three or four small thistle-like flowers, growing from two to 
four inches high. ' These the Woodchats pulled out by the roots, 
and wove together into a compact warm nest, which did not 
differ very much in colour from the bark of the olive-trees. 
Occasionally a twig or two was introduced ; but for the most 
part the cudweed, with its flowers and its root, was foundation, 
wall, and lining for the nest." 

Eggs. From four to six in number. They present the same 
divergent colours as do the eggs of the Red-backed Shrike 
some of the eggs have the ground-colour greenish-white, wit! 
coarse spots and markings of greenish-brown and underlying 
mottling and spots of pale violet-grey ; these markings are 
sometimes distributed over the larger end of the egg, and have 
a tendency to form a ring. In another type of egg the ground 
colour is clay-brown with olive-brown mottlings and spots, am 
very distinct underlying spots of violet-grey. In a third typ 
the colour is creamy-buff, of a more or less rich tint, the over 
lying spots being reddish-brown with very distinct under-lyini 
spots and mottlings of grey : these grey spots are as distinc 
as in the greenish-white type of egg, but the over-lying marking 
are darker. Axis, 0-85-0-95 inch ; diam., 0-65-0-7. 



THE CHATTERERS. FAMILY AMPELID^E. 

These birds, familiarly known as Wax-wings, must not b 
confounded with the American Chatterers, or Cotingida. Th 
peculiar wax-like appendages to the quills and tail-feathers ar 
the chief external characteristics of the family, and on tha 
account the name of Wax-wings would have been the mor 
suitable one ; but there are in America certain genera, such a 
Phainoptila and Ptilogonys, which are apparently referable tc 
the same family as Ampelis, but which do not possess the wax 
like appendages to the wings and tail, and, therefore, the nam 
of " Wax "-wing is inapplicable to them. The Ampelida hav 
only nine primaries in the wing, the bill swollen with a roundec 
nostril, and are also remarkable for a long silky crest 



THE WAX-WINGS. 175 

THE WAX-WINGS. GENUS AMPELIS. 
Ampelis, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 297 (1766). 
Type, A.garru/us, Linn. 

I. THE WAX-WING. AMPELIS GARRULUS. 

(Plate XIX.) 

Amfelis garriilus. Linn., S. N., i., p. 297 (1766) ; Dresser, B. 
Eur., Hi., p. 429, pi. 155 (1873); Newt. ed. Yarn, i., p. 
523 (1874); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 39 (1883); Seeb., 
Br. B., ii., p. 3 (1884) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 
212 (1885); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. vi. (1888); 
Saunders, Man., p. 147 (1889). 
Bombycilla garntla, Macg., Br. B., iii., p. 533 (1840). 

Adult Male. General colour drab-brown, greyer towards the 
rump, and pure grey on the upper tail-coverts; wing-coverts 
like the back, the bases grey ; primary-coverts black, tipped 
with white ; quills black, white at the tip, and yellow towards 
the end of the outer web ; the secondaries grey, with a subter- 
minal blackish shade before the white tip, the innermost 
secondaries browner, the white-tipped feathers with produced 
and flattered shafts forming a wax-like appendage ; tail grey, 
tipped with yellow, with a broad subterminal bar of black, and,. 
in old individuals, a tiny shaft-tip of wax-like red ; head and 
an ample crest drab-brown ; fore part of crown and region 
above the eyes chestnut ; the base of the forehead, region of the 
eye, black, extending above the latter to the nape ; sides of 
face and ear-coverts pale rufous-drab, a little more chestnut on 
the hinder cheeks ; on the fore part of the cheeks a white spot ; 
a narrow line of white above the ear-coverts ; throat black ; 
remainder of under surface light drab, greyer on the breast and 
abdomen, the vent inclining to yellowish-white ; under tail- 
coverts deep chestnut ; thighs ashy-grey ; bill black, paler at 
the base; feet and claws black; iris hazel. Total length, 7*25 
inches; culmen, 0*6 ; wing, 4*6; tail, 2*55; tarsus, 075. 

Adult Female. Only differs from the male in having a smaller 
crest, and the wax-like appendages fewer in number on the 
wings, and never apparently developed on the tail. Total 
length, 7 inches ; wing, 4*4. 

Yo:m. Not like the adults, being dark olive-brown above, 
the feathers edged with whity-brown ; head brown, with a 



i 7 6 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



frontal band of black, and margined behind with a narrow lin< 
of white ; ear-coverts and cheeks brown, with a white spot or 
the fore part of the latter ; a narrow moustachial line of black 
under-parts white, tinged with yellow, which becomes mor 
marked on the vent ; the throat, breast, and flanks browi 
streaked with pale fulvous edges to the feathers. 

Eange in Great Britain. An irregular visitant in autumn an< 
winter, sometimes coming in large numbers, though it occui 
nearly every year. The years when great invasions have 
taken place in this country have been recorded as follows 
1830-31, 1834-35, 1849-50, 1866-67, and 1872-73; but th< 
earliest notice of the species in England dates back to 1681, 
when an account of its occurrence near York was published ii 
the " Philosophical Transactions." The Wax-wing has occurred 
in nearly every part of England and Scotland, but the Irisl 
records are fewer. As might be expected, the bulk of th( 
specimens are obtained in our eastern counties, where, in 
some of the years above-mentioned, large numbers have been 
shot. During the migration of the winter of 1872 many were 
noticed in the neighbourhood of the north of London. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Wax-wing is a circum- 
polar bird, and is an inhabitant of high northern latitudes in 
Europe, Asia, and North America. In the temperate portions 
of the latter continent its place is taken by an allied species, 
the Cedar-bird (Ampelis cedrorum\ which is smaller, and is 
distinguished by its white under tail-coverts and olive-yellow 
flanks. 

The Wax-wing is found in winter in most of the countries of 
Europe, though of irregular occurrence ; it has not yet been 
found in the Pyrenees or the Spanish peninsula, but has been 
known to reach the south of France, and the northern provinces 
of Italy, as well as of Turkey. At the same time of year it visits 
Central Asia, North China, and the northern island of Japan. 
Its breeding quarters are the pine regions in the north of the 
Old and New Worlds, about the line of the Arctic Circle. It 
has been recorded as nesting in North-eastern Norway, in Lap- 
land, in Finland, and Mr. Seebohm says that he met with it 
during the breeding season in the valleys of the Petchora and 
the Yenesei. Although the species occurs in the interior of 



HE WAX-WINGS. 177 

Alaska, apparently somewhat plentifully, only once has its nest 
been found in the territory ; this was by Kennicott, near Fort 
Yukon, in July, 1861. The species must surely nest elsewhere 
in the Arctic portions of North America, as it has been ob- 
served on the Anderson river during the breeding-time ; but 
at present the Alaskan record is the only one for the whole of 
North America. 

HaMts. Although such a common bird in collections, very 
little has been recorded of the habits of the Wax-wing, and even 
those naturalists who go in search of the nest do not always 
succeed in finding it, for both in summer and winter the bird 
appears to be very erratic in its choice of a home, being plentiful 
in some years in certain districts and then not appearing again in 
the neighbourhood for a long time. In its motions the Wax- 
wing is a very active bird, and is a beautiful creature in life, the 
crested head and the yellow bands on the wings and tail 
rendering it very conspicuous. The food consists of insects 
during the summer, varied with a few berries, but in the 
autumn and winter the bird subsists on berries of such plants 
as privet, white-thorn, guelder-rose and dog-rose ; at this time 
of year they become very fat, and are sold in large numbers 
for food in the Russian markets, being occasionally sent overto 
London. 

Mr. Seebohm says that a pair of birds which he kept in con- 
finement were most voracious eaters, and their cage required 
cleaning several times a day. They were very active and rest- 
less, and even when perched at rest seemed to be continually 
moving their heads. If alarmed they would stretch out their 
necks to almost double the usual length. They were remark- 
ably silent birds, the only note heard by him being a "rir-ir-ir- 
ir-re" very similar to a well-known note of the Blue Tit. 
Occasionally this succession of notes was repeated so rapidly 
as to form a trill like the song of the Redpoll. 

Nest According to Mr. Seebohm, the nest is a large and 
very compact structure, the outside diameterof one in hisposses- 
sion being seven inches and the inside four inches; it is about 
mr inches high outside, and nearly two inches deep. The foun- 
tion is made of twigs of spruce-fir and reindeer-moss. The 
itself is composed of feathers and black hair-lichen, inter- 



IjS LLOYD^S NATURAL HISTORY. 

woven together with very slender twigs and a little moss and 
inner bark, the feathers being most numerous in the lining. 

Eggs From five to six and occasionally seven in number. 
They are quite unmistakable, being of a lilac-grey or stone- 
grey ground-colour, with spots of black or blackish-brown, 
varying in size and intensity, but pretty equally distributed 
over the surface of the eggs, and accompanied by underlying 
spots of violet-grey, more or less distinctly indicated. Axis, 
0*95-1*05 inch; diam., o - 65-o*75. 

THE WARBLERS. FAMILY SYLVIID^. 

This is one of the largest families of birds in the Old World, 
and embraces within its limits an assemblage of widely differ- 
ing forms. Thus it is extremely difficult to lay down charac- 
ters by which a student of ornithology may recognise a 
Sylviine bird, when he sees one alive or has a specimen in his 
hand. The form of bill is no certain indication, for the form 
of this organ varies greatly in the Warblers, as it does in the 
Thrushes. In most instances the bill is rather long, furnished 
with a small notch before the end of the upper mandible, and 
having rictal bristles at the gape. In many Warblers, how- 
ever, the rictal bristles and the notch in the bill are obsolete, 
while the latter organ is in many forms so flattened that 
the birds might well be taken for Flycatchers. Warblers can, 
however, be distinguished from Thrushes by the scuteiiation 
of the tarsus, the members of the latter family always having 
a plain surface to the tarsus both before and behind, while 
in the Warblers there are indications of scales on the front 
aspect of the tarsal envelope. 

There is, however, one great and fundamental difference 
between the Sylviidcs and the Turdidce, first insisted upon by 
Mr. Seebohm in the fifth volume of the " Catalogue of Birds," 
and that difference consists in the nature of the plumage of 
the young birds. Warblers never have spotted young, the 
latter resembling the adults in plumage, or at least differing 
very slightly from the latter. Accompanying this peculiarity 
of the immature plumage, there ensues a corresponding differ- 
ence in the method of moulting in the two families. Thus a 
young Warbler, during the first autumn of its life, goes 



THE WARBLERS, 179 

through an entire moult, but the plumage thus acquired is not 
very different from the one it wore before, and its first winter 
dress is very similar to that of its parents. If there is any 
variation in the winter plumage of the adult and young birds, 
it generally consists in the under surface of the latter having a 
tinge of yellow. Before returning, however, to its breeding 
place in the following spring, a migratory Warbler (and most 
Warblers are migratory) goes through another complete moult 
in its winter quarters, so that the spring plumage of both old 
and young bird is precisely the same. In the Thrushes, as 
will be seen later on, the method of moulting and the plumage 
of the young birds is different from that of the Warblers. 

THE TRUE WARBLERS. GENUS SYLVIA. 
Sylvia, Scop., Ann. I. Hist. Nat., p. 154 (1769). 
Type, S. sylvia (Linn.). 

The classification of the Warblers depends as much on the 
style of plumage as upon structural characters, and it is not 
surprising, therefore, to find that it is a task of extreme diffi- 
culty to classify these birds in a satisfactory manner. The^ 
monographic work done by Mr. Seebohm in the " Catalogue 
of Birds " is of great assistance in the study of the Warblers, 
but it is remarkable that the characters assigned for the dif- 
ferentiation of such obviously distinct forms as, for instance, a 
Garden-Warbler and a Reed- Warbler, should be of so trivial a 
character. 

Thus, if we summarise the peculiar features which are sup- 
posed to be distinctive of the genus Sylvia we find that they 
amount to the following : Bill typical, not flattened like that of 
a Reed- Warbler, but somewhat slender, with rounded culmen 
and exposed nostrils, and the base of the lower mandible paler ; 
the bastard-primary considerably less than half the second quill, 
but extending well beyond the primary-coverts, occasionally 
not reaching to this distance ; the axillaries never yellow, but 
either white or grey or brown ; the bill from the gape to the 
tip less than the length of the middle toe and claw; the 
nctal bristles, three in number, weak, and the supplementary 
hairs nearly obsolete, according to Mr. Gates, who also gives as 

N 2 



180 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

characters that the feathers of the forehead are decomposed 
and rough, the tarsus stout and short, and the tail very slightly 
graduated. 

The true Warblers all appear to subsist on insects during 
the summer, and to feed largely on berries during the autumn, 
before they migrate. 

I. THE BARRED WARBLER. SYLVIA NISORIA. 

Motacilla nison'a, Bechst., Naturg. Deutschl., iv., p. 580, pi. 

xvii. (1795). 
Sylvia nisoria, Dresser, B. Eur.,ii., p. 435, pi. 68 (1874); Seeb., 

Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 6 (1881) ; id. Hist. Br. B., i., p. 

387 (1883); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 13 (1883); Saun- 

ders, Man., p. 51 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. 

xv. (1890). 

Adult Male. General colour above greyish-brown, the head 
and rump, as well as the upper tail-coverts being greyer than 
the back, and the wing-coverts and quills browner, especially 
the inner secondary quills, which are broadly tipped with white; 
the upper surface barred with greyish-white, with which colour 
the feathers are margined and tipped, and the pale tips to the 
feathers are made more distinct by a subterminal bar of dark 
brown ; under surface of body greyish-white, the sides of the 
body and flanks slightly washed with brown, a shade of which 
colour also appears on the breast and under tail-coverts; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries also greyish-white, barred across 
with dark grey ; bill dark brown, the base of the lower man- 
dible pale ; feet and claws slaty-brown ; iris pale yellow. Total 
length, 6-5 inches; culmen, 0-55 ; wing, 3-3 ; tail, 2-5 ; tarsus, 
0-85. 

Adult Female Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
6-3 inches; wing, 3*35. 

Winter Plumage. Similar to the summer plumage, but a little 
browner. 

Young Like the adults, but uniform underneath and browner 

on the upper surface, which is slightly mottled with lighter 
brown or buff edges to the feathers, the wing-coverts and inner 



THE WARBLERS. l8l 

secondaries distinctly edged with buffy-white; the under surface 
washed with ochreous buff on the breast and sides. 

NOTE. The Barred Warbler may be distinguished from all the other 
European species by the barring of the upper and under surface, and there 
is no other species which has the upper and under tail-coverts barred. The 
wing is very pointed, the second and third primaries being the longest, and 
about equal in length ; the first or bastard-primary is very small, and falls 
short of the primary-coverts by about O'4 inch. The rictal bristles are few 
in number and slender. 

Bange in Great Britain A rare accidental visitor, but perhaps 
occurring more frequently than is generally supposed. The first 
specimen recorded as British was exhibited by Professor Newton 
at a meeting of the Zoological Society, in March, 1879. In 1884 
three specimens were procured : one by the Rev. H. H. Slater, 
on the coast of Yorkshire, at the end of August, and another 
near Blakeney, in Norfolk, in the beginning of September ; 
the third specimen was shot on the i6th of August, in the Isle 
of Skye. In 1884 a specimen was procured at Belmullet, in 
Ireland; another in Norfolk, in 1888; and two more specimens 
were obtained in Yorkshire in 1892 and 1893 respectively. 

Eange outside the British Islands The northern breeding-range 
of this species appears to be Denmark and Southern Sweden, 
nor is it known to breed west of the Rhine. Throughout 
Central Europe it is a summer visitor, and extends as far east as 
Turkestan and Kashgar, in Central Asia. Mr. Howard Saunders 
considers that the vicinity of Nice is about the western limit of 
this Warbler's migration, "and in Italy it appears to be re- 
stricted to the northern and north-eastern provinces." 

One winter home of this species appears to be North-eastern 
Africa. It has not been found in any part of the Indian pen- 
insula, but occurs in winter on the Persian Gulf, which locality 
is, in all probability, the winter residence of the Barred Warblers 
which breed in Central Asia. 

Habits The present species is a rather late arrival at its 
breeding quarters in Europe, though it is said that the spring 
migration lasts for about eight weeks, from towards the end of 
March to about the middle of May ; but more than half of the 
summer migrants have arrived before this species is seen. 
Owing to its skulking habits it is not easy of observation, but is 
more readily detected by its song, which is said to be like that 



1 8a LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY, 

of a Whitethroat, but in some of its melody to rival that of the 
Black-cap. Like the latter bird it evinces great partiality for 
elderberries in the autumn. Naumann renders the call-note 
of the Barred Warbler as chek, and like the Whitethroat it has 
a sort of snarling rhar when alarmed ; like the last-named 
bird it ascends into the air for a short distance, and sings while 
descending. 

Negt. Unlike that of most Warblers, being a somewhat bulky 
structure and not semi-transparent, like those of its allies. Mr. 
Seebohm says that it is "composed of dried grass-stalks and 
roots, with generally some small-leaved plants, cobwebs, thistle- 
down, or other woolly material mixed with it. Outside it is 
rough enough; but inside it is very neat and round, rather 
deep, and lined with a few fine roots, cobwebs, or horse-hair. 
The nest is well concealed, and is usually built on a thorn-bush, 
not far from the ground. It is said to be sometimes almost on 
the ground; but an instance has been recorded of a nest being 
built on the topmost twigs of a birch at a height of 25 feet from 
the ground." 

Eggs From four to five in number, rarely six. They can- 
not well be confounded with those of any other European 
Warbler, as they are so very faintly marked in comparison with 
most Warblers' eggs. Where they are plainly marked, they 
resemble most the eggs of the Common Whitethroat. The 
ground-colour is creamy-white or very pale olive, faintly spotted 
and mottled with greenish-brown, but the spots so slightly indi- 
cated as to appear in most cases obsolete, and the only visible 
marking are the underlying spots of violet-grey. Where the 
overlying spots are obvious, they are distributed over the whole 
egg, but cluster more particularly round the larger end, the 
underlying grey spots being for the most part hidden. Axis, 
0-8-0-9 incn ; diam., 0-55-0-65. 

II. THE WHITETHROAT. SYLVIA SYLVIA. 

(Plate XX., Fig. i.) 

Motadtta sylvia, Linn., S. N., i., p. 330 (1766). 

Sylvia dnerea, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 350 (1839); Seeb., Cat. 

B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 8 (1881) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. u 

(1883) ; Seeb., Hist. Br. B., i., p. 405 (1883) ; Lilford, Col. 

Fig. Brit. B., pt. i (1885) ; Saunders, Man., p. 41 (iS8p) 



THE WARBLERS. 183 

Sylvia rufa, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 406 (1873); Dresser, B. 
Eur., ii., p. 377, pi. 57 (1876). 

Adult Male. Greyish-brown above, with the wings rather 
darker, the head ashy-grey, contrasting somewhat with the 
back, the upper tail-coverts also ashy-grey ; the tail-feathers 
dark greyish- brown, the outer ones paler and broadly edged 
with white; wing-coverts edged with pale chestnut, and the 
innermost secondaries with broad chestnut edges ; under sur- 
face of the body white, the breast pinkish or vinous, contrasting 
with the pure white of the throat and abdomen, the flanks 
rather browner; axillaries and under wing-coverts pale grey; 
quill-lining light brown ; bill dark brown, paler at the base of 
the lower mandible ; feet and claws pale brown ; iris light 
hazel. Total length, 5*6 inches; culmcn, 0*55; wing, 27; 
tail, 2 -3 ; tarsus, o'S. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but rather browner, the 
head and upper tail-coverts being more greyish-brown like the 
back ; the under surface of the body is whiter, the pink tinge 
of the breast being less distinct, or altogether absent. Total 
length, 5-5 inches; wing, 2-8. 

Winter Plumage. The grey of the head and the pink colour 
on the breast entirely disappears in the male, which is exactly 
like the female at this season of the year. The birds in winter 
plumage are rather browner than they are in summer, and, like 
the young, have the head like the back. 

Young. Browner than the adults, the head being like the 
back, the rufous on the wing-coverts strongly pronounced ; 
throat and abdomen white ; the lower throat, breast, and sides 
of the body sandy-buff, without any tinge of pink. 

NOTE. The Whitethroat can always be distinguished at any age by its 
very small first, or bastard, primary quill, which never extends beyond the 
tips of the primary-coverts. The upper and under tail-coverts are never 
barred as in the preceding species, and the pale chestnut edgings to the 
wing-coverts and quills are also a distinguishing character. 

Range in Great Britain. A summer visitor, arriving early in 
April. It is found everywhere in Engand, Wales, and Ireland, 
and also over the greater part of Scotland, excepting the north- 



1 84 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

ern portion, and the Outer Hebrides. It is an occasional visitor 
only to the Orkneys and Shetland Isles. 

Range ontside the British Islands. Occurs throughout the greater 
part of Europe, but is rarer in the Mediterranean countries, 
where it is known chiefly as a winter visitor, or more especially 
as a migrant. Its breeding range extends as high as 65 N. 
lat. in Scandinavia, and to 60 in the Ural Mountains, and it 
apparently extends eastwards as far as Persia and Turkestan, 
but in the latter country it is probably replaced by an allied 
race, Sylvia fuscipika, which inhabits the Altai and Tianschan 
Mountains, and it is this race which winters in North-western 
India. The specimens in the British Museum show the 
slightly darker head, from which the eastern race takes its 
name; but they seem to be approached in this respect by many 
European examples, though Mr. Seebohm says that they are 
not only larger birds, as a rule, but lay larger eggs. 

In winter the Whitethroat migrates by the Nile Valley, 
through North eastern Africa, to the Cape Colony and Damara 
Land. 

Habits. This is a very lively little bird, and one of the best 
known of our summer visitors, arriving towards the end of 
April, and leaving for its African winter home in the end of 
September. It is found in all sorts of situations, and builds 
its nest in a variety of places, but is, perhaps, more often seen 
in the hedge-rows than anywhere else, particularly where 
brambles or beds of nettles clothe the sides. In the latter it 
often places its nest, suspended in the stalks and well hidden 
from sight ; it is doubtless this fact that has gained for the bird 
the name of " Nettle-Creeper " in many districts. In North- 
amptonshire we always knew it as the " Hay-Chat," and 
another myth connected with its nestng in our schoolboy 
days in the above-named county, was that when one could 
see through the nest, the latter was ready for eggs. As its 
framework is very slight, the nest is always more or les 
transparent. As a rule, the Whitethroat is easily observed, 
and is a frequent object in any walk in the country near 
London, especially in the market-gardens in the western 
suburbs, and the white throat of the bird renders him at once 
conspicuous, as he flies across the road on to the top of a 



THE WARBLERS. 185 

hedge, and, with a flick of his tail, disappears on the other 
side. The feathers of the head are also much puffed out, 
giving the appearance of its being too big for the little body of 
the bird. The female is less frequently seen, as she keeps 
much more to the lower parts of the hedges, or to the thickest 
brambles and bushes. The male, on the other hand, often 
springs up into the air like a Tit-Lark, and descends singing to 
his perch, often in a jerking manner, with his tail expanded. 
In the autumn, like other Warblers, it devours numbers of cur- 
rants and berries, and Mr. Dixon states that it also eats the 
corn when it is in a soft and milky state. We have known 
them to work great havoc in a row of peas. During the 
summer, however, the food of the Whitethroat consists almost 
entirely of insects, and it eats large numbers of Daddy Longlegs, 
and it may often be observed flying off from its perch and 
catching insects in the air, like a Flycatcher. 

Nest. A very slight, but deep, structure, composed of dry 
grass-stems and bents, and lined with thin roots and horse-hair. 
It is generally placed low down in the overhanging boughs of a 
white-thorn or other bush, or amongst the smaller bramble- 
stems, or, as said before, suspended in the nettles. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. The ground-colour 
varies much. The predominant colour is olive, the ground- 
colour of the egg being brownish-white, thickly speckled with 
olive-brown, and very plainly spotted with violet-grey, of which 
the underlying spots are really composed, but in many instances 
these are so distinct that they appear to constitute the over- 
lying spots, and are generally congregated at the larger end of 
the egg. Other types of eggs have the ground-colour greenish- 
white, and the spots are greenish-brown and violet-grey, never 
o strongly indicated as in the first-mentioned variety. A 
rarer type of egg has the ground-colour light green, with tiny 
brown dots and larger markings of violet-grey. One remark- 
able clutch from Epping Forest, in the Salrin-Godman collec- 
tion, has the greenish-white ground-colour of the eggs almost 
entirely obscured by blotches of reddish-brown, while the 
darker markings are almost black, and are congregrated at the 
large end of the egg in great blotches. Axis, 0*7-0*8 inch 
diam., Q'5-0'6. 



1 36 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

III. THE LESSER WHITETHROAT. SYLVIA CURRUCA. 

(Plate XX., Fig. 2.) 

Motacilla curruca, Linn., S. N., i., p. 329 (1766). 
Sylvia garrula, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 357 (1839). 
Sylvia curruca, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 410 (1873) ; Dresser, B. 

Eur., ii., p. 383, pi. 58 (1876); Seeb., Cat B. Brit. Mus., 

'v., p. 16 (1881); id. Hist. Br. B., i., p. 410 (1883); B. O. 

U. List Br. B., p. 12 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. 

ii. (1886); Saunders, Man., p. 43 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above pale ashy- brown or Mouse- 
grey ; the head light slaty-grey, contrasting with the back ; 
lores, sides of face, and ear-coverts dusky ash-colour ; the eye- 
lid whitish ; over the eye a faintly indicated eyebrow of hoary- 
grey; wing-coverts like the back, the greater series externally 
lighter and more sandy-brown ; quills sepia-brown, with a pale 
fringe to the tips, externally lighter brown, the secondaries more 
sandy-brown like the greater coverts ; tail-feathers sepia-brown, 
edged with ashy, the outer feathers dingy ashy-whitish along the 
outer web and near the end of the inner one ; under surface ol 
body pure white, with a pinkish blush on the fore-neck and 
breast, deepening into rosy-isabelline on the sides of the body 
and flanks ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white, with a rosy 
isabelline tinge on the latter, and on the quill-lining ; bil 
dusky grey, pale at the base of the lower mandible ; feet anc 
claws leaden-grey; iris light brown. Total length, 5-2 inches 
culmen, 0-35; wing, 2'6; tail, 2*15; tarsus, 0-85. 

Adult Female. Similar in colour to the male, but having the 
brown of the back a little further extended on to the crown 
Total length, 5 inches; wing, 2-55. 

Winter Plumage- Scarcely differs from the summer plumage 
but is a little browner on the breast and flanks, without any 
pinkish tinge. 

Young. Resembles the adults, but is still more plainly washec 
with brown below, and has the white on the outer tail-feather 
much more marked, the greater portion being white with a 
black shaft, and leaving an oblique black mark along the greater 
part of the inner web. 



PLATE XX 




i WH1TETHROAT 2 LESSER WHLTETHROAT 



THE WARBLERS. 187 

NOTE. The Lesser \Vhitethroat is, as its name implies, a smaller bird 
than the Common Whitethroat, though not to any remarkable extent, for 
the wing in the smaller species measures 2*45 to 2*65 inches, while in 
S. sylvia it measures 2-5 to 2 '9, so that large examples of the former 
exceed in length of wing small examples of the latter. The Lesser White- 
throat belongs to the group of Warblers, which have the first, or bastard- 
primary, longer than the primary-coverts, thus differing from the ordinary 
Whitethroat and Garden Warbler, but agreeing in this respect with the 
Blackcap and Orphean Warbler. The wing, however, is less than three 
inches in length, and the grey head likewise distinguishes the Lesser White- 
throat from the above-mentioned species. 

Range in Great Britain. Not so universally distributed as the 
Whitethroat, though it is found over the southern and midland 
counties of England, becoming gradually rarer towards the 
north and west. In Durham, Northumberland, and Cumber- 
land it is scarce, and according to notes published by Mr. 
Howard Saunders in his " Manual " from the pen of Mr. Robert 
Service, it is "seldom met with in Kirkcudbrightshire, although 
better known in Dumfriesshire and down by the borders, where 
its nest has been twice obtained ; it is said to breed sparingly 
and locally as far as Stirlingshire ; but in the northern counties, 
and in the outlying islands, the evidence tends to show that 
it is at most a rare straggler." One specimen has been recorded 
as shot in Aberdeenshire,. on the 4th of November, a somewhat 
extraordinary date, but confirmed by the capture of a specimen 
near Brighton in the same month, while the late Dr. Saxby saw 
a specimen in Unst in September. Only a single occurrence 
in Ireland is known. 

Range outside the British Islands' The present species is known 
to breed throughout the greater part of Europe, extending 
northward beyond the Arctic Circle, but not to the limit of 
forest-growth. It is also found as far east as Asia Minor and 
Palestine, but to the eastward its place is taken by Sylvia 
affinis from the Lower Volga and Northern Persia to Siberia 
and even North-eastern China. The winter home of the 
Lesser Whitethroat is in Africa, but it does not go so far south 
as 6". sylvia ; it visits North-eastern and Northern Africa, and 
Mr. Howard Saunders states that it likewise winters sparingly in 
South-eastern Spain. 

Habiu. These differ somewhat from those of the Common 



1 88 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Whitethroat, inasmuch as the Lesser Whitethroat is a more 
retiring bird, and does not place itself so much in evidence 
as its ally. It is quite as unobtrusive as the Garden Warbler, 
and, like that species, frequents the most secluded localities. 
It arrives in England somewhat later than S. sylvia^ and as 
the foliage is then more advanced, this may be one reason 
why the Lesser Whitethroat is less noticed than that species. 
Like the latter it frequents hedgerows and lanes, but is mor 
often seen in the higher trees than the Whitethroat. Its fc 
consists of insects, in pursuit of which it hops from twig to t 
and examines all the leaves, after the fashion of Warblers ; it 
also varies its diet with fruit, and is said to be especially fom 
of cherries and red currants, while we can affirm that, like tl 
Whitethroat, it is capable of doing considerable damage amon< 
the peas. In the autumn it feeds on berries. The song of tl 
Lesser Whitethroat is described by Mr. Seebohm as " a mono- 
tonous trill, sometimes like the first notes of the song of the 
Yellow Bunting, but it is frequently preceded by a few notes, 
which, though they are not very varied nor very loud, are by no 
means unmusical, and somewhat resemble the twittering of a 
Swallow. Its call-note resembles the syllable check several times 
repeated and sometimes varied with a more guttural cry." Like 
other Warblers, it utters a harsh grating note when alarmed or 
disturbed near its nesting-place. 

Nest. Not so deep as that of the Common Whitethroat, 
very similar in construction, though somewhat more coarsel 
made. The materials are fine grass-stems, and spiders' wet 
or the cocoons of caterpillars are used to bind it together, while 
the linings consist of fine rootlets or horsehair. It is sometime 
placed in the higher branches of a tall hedgerow or in bustu 
but is also to be found in brambles or furze. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. The ground-colour is chir 
white, spotted with light brown or greenish-brown, and havii 
very distinct underlying blotches and spots of violet-gn 
generally forming a ring near the larger end of the egg. 
some instances the darker markings are accompanied by al 
solutely black spots, distributed irregularly over the egg. Axis 
Q-65-0'75 inch ; diam., 0-5-0-55. 



THE WARBLERS. 189 

\ 

IV THE ORPHEAN WARBLER. SYLVIA ORPHEUS. 

Sylvia orphea^ Temm.; Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 423 (1873); 

Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 411, pi. 64 (1874) ; B. O. U. List 

Br. B., p. 12 (1883) ; Saunders, Man., p. 45 (1889); Lil- 

ford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. xv. (1890). 
Sylvia orpheus, Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 14 (1881); 

id. Hist. Br. B., i., p. 390 (1883). 

Adult Male. General colour above slaty-grey, a little clearer 
on the hind-neck ; wing-coverts like the back ; the bastard- 
wings, primary-coverts, and quills blackish-brown, edged with 
ashy-grey ; tail-feathers blackish, edged with ashy, and slightly 
tipped with white, increasing in extent towards the outermost, 
which is white along the outer web and at the tip of the inner 
web for a considerable extent ; head dusky blackish, including 
the lores and ear-coverts, forming a cap which extends as far 
as the nape ; cheeks, throat, and under surface of body white ; 
the sides of the breast and flanks ashy-grey with a slight 
pinkish tinge, becoming browner on the lower flanks ; thighs 
creamy-white ; under tail-coverts white, mottled with ashy-grey 
centres to the feathers ; under wing-coverts and axillaries ashy- 
white, with greyish bases; bill dark brown with a yellowish-- 
base to the lower mandible ; feet and claws leaden-grey ; iris 
pale yellow. Total length, 6-3 inches; culmen, o'6 ; wing, 
3- 1 ; tail, 2-4; tarsus, 0-85. 

Adult Female. Rather browner than the male, and not so dis- 
tinctly grey; the flanks more isabelline-buff; the breast washed 
with creamy-buff; the head not so distinctly black as in the 
male, and in many specimens scarcely to be distinguished from 
the back in colour. Total length, 57 inches ; wing, 3-15 

Young in Autumn Plumage. After the first moult, the young 
birds are very like the old females, but have the quills externally 
browner ; the head is a little greyer and more dusky than the 
back, and the black lores and ear-coverts are indicated by a 
dusky shade. The principal characteristic of the young bird is 
the colour of the under-parts, the throat being white with a 
pinkish tinge, the fore-neck and chest rosy isabelline, deepen- 
ing into clear vinous on the sides of the body, flanks, and 



190 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

especially rich in coiour on the under tail-coverts ; axillaries 
vinous like the flanks ; under wing-coverts white. 

NOTE. The large size of the Orphean Warbler is one of its chief charac- 
ters when compared with that of the Whitethroats, as the wing is three 
inches in length, but it might possibly be confounded with the Blackcap 
which sometimes equals it in length of wing. Like the latter species it has 
the first, or bastard, primary-quill rather long, equalling the length of th 
primary-coverts, or extending as much as O'2 inch beyond them, and the 
second primary is equal to the fifth, whereas in the Blackcap it is a little 
longer than the sixth. The white throat, however, will always distinguish 
the Orphean Warbler ; in the Blackcap, the throat is ashy-grey. 

Range in Great Britain. The two reported occurrences of this 
species in England are scarcely satisfactory for its recognition 
among British Birds, and the statements that the nest and eggs 
have been taken in this country are quite unreliable. Sir 
William Milner had in his collection a specimen said to have 
been shot near Wetherby, in Yorkshire, in July, 1 848, but, not 
withstanding that a pair of birds was stated to have been seen, 
the authority for the genuineness of the occurrence is not al 
that could be wished. The second instance of the capture o: 
an Orphean Warbler is said to have taken place near London 
when a young bird was caught at Holloway, in June, 1866, wai 
kept alive by Sergeant-Major Hanley for nearly six months, anc 
was identified as belonging to the present species by the late 
Mr. Edward Blyth. It would have been more satisfactory if the 
history of this specimen had been followed up, as is necessary 
in the cases of all birds which may be kept as cage-birds at any 
of our military stations in the Mediterranean, and, like the 
Calantlra Lark, gain a footing in the list of " British " species 
The occurrence of the present bird in England is the less likely 
to happen, when it is considered that no specimen has ever 
been recorded from the countries opposite to our own shores. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Orphean Warbler is 
principally a bird of the south of Europe, being found in all 
the Mediterranean countries as far east as Asia Minor and 
Palestine, though Mr. Seebohm says that the birds of these 
countries are intermediate between the west-European birds 
and the Indian Orphean Warbler (Sylvia jerdoni). It is a j 
common bird in Spain and Portugal, and extends northward I 
into France, breeding sparingly in the Brenne district, and! 



THE WARBLERS. tgi 

more frequently in Potiou, while it also occurs as far as the 
Vosges and Luxembourg : it has also occurred at Heligoland. 
In Italy it is somewhat local, but is found plentifully in Greece. 
Its winter home appears to be North-eastern Africa, and it has 
also been met with in Senegambia. 

Habits. In these, says Mr. Howard Saunders, there is 
nothing particular to record as different from those of the other 
Warblers. Mr. Seebohm states that he was disappointed in the 
song, which is louder and harsher than that of the Blackcap, 
and its alarm-note is very loud, as loud, he says, as that of a 
Blackbird. Lord Lilford has given the following account of 
the bird in Spain : " I found it exceedingly common in the 
neighbourhood of Madrid and Aranjuez. In these localities I 
generally met with it frequenting the avenues of elm and 
deciduous bushes in the gardens and open country, as a rule 
avoiding thickly-wooded districts ; in Andalucia, on the other 
hand, our bird appeared especially to frequent the pine-woods, 
and the willows that grow thickly along certain portions of the 
Guadalquivir. The nests that we found were placed at various 
heights, from five to twenty feet from the ground, often resting 
on the young growers from the trunks of the elms, and perhaps 
as often in the forks of willows, tamarisks, and olive-trees. 
The nest is very much more substantially built than that of the 
other Warblers of this family. The song of the bird, though 
more powerful than that of our Blackcap, cannot, in my 
opinion, be compared with it for melody or sweetness. In 
fact, I have always been puzzled to know why the name of 
'Orpheus' should have been bestowed on this species." % 

tfest. Generally placed, without any attempt at concealment, 
the branch of a tree, at about four or five feet from the 
ound, or near the top of a bush, and found by Capt. 
illoughby Verner in the summit of young cork-trees near 
ibraltar, at a height of twelve feet. The nest, says Mr. See- 
dim, is a tolerably substantial one, and deep, composed of 
y grass and leafy stalks of plants. Inside it is built of" 
icr grasses, and sparingly lined with thistle-down, or the 
>wer of the cotton-grass. 

Eggs. From four to five in number. They look at first 
jht like large eggs of the Lesser Whitethroat, though there 






19* LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

are some variations in the type of egg from those of the latter 
species. The ground-colour is white or greenish- white, and 
the spots vary from olive-brown to black, in the latter case 
being dotted over the egg. The underlying spots and blotches 
are violet-grey, but often pinkish-grey. As with many of the 
eggs of this group of Warblers, the grey blotches are very 
prominent, and sometimes overwhelm the fainter overlying 
spots. One type of egg has almost the appearance of a Pied 
Wagtail's, both the overlying and underlying dots being very 
small, and a little more clustered round the larger end. Axis, 
o*75-o'8 inch; diam., 0-55-0-6. In Spain the Cuckoo is very 
partial to the nests of this Warbler, and lays eggs exactly like 
those of the birds it victimises (cf. Saunders, Man., p. 46). 

V. THE BLACKCAP. SYLVIA ATRICAPILLA. 

Motacilla atricapilla^ Linn., S. N., i., p. 332 (1766). 

Sylvia atricapilla, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 339 (1839); Newt. ed. 

Yarr., i., p. 418 (1873); Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 421, pi. 

66 (1875) ; Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 23 (1881); 

id. Hist. Br. B., i., p. 394 (1883) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., 

p. 12 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. i. (1885); 

Saunders, Man., p. 47 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above light olive-brown, a little 
greyer towards the rump and on the upper tail-coverts ; wing-j 
coverts like the back ; quills sepia-brown, edged with oliven 
brown, greyer on the primaries ; tail-feathers sepia-brown, 
edged with ashy-grey ; crown of head glossy black, extending 
as far as the nape and forming a cap ; hind-neck and sides ofl 
head slaty-grey, like the ear-coverts and sides of the face and 
lores ; eyelid whitish ; throat, breast, and abdomen ashy-white^ 
the fore-neck, chest, and sides of body light slaty-grey, be 
coming tinged with brown on the lower flanks, and darker 
brown on the thighs ; under tail-coverts white with dusk) 
ashy centres ; axillaries and under wing- coverts ashy with n 
tinge of isabelline ; quills dusky below, with an ashy lining 
bill dark brown ; feet and ciaws leaden grey ; iris hazel* 
Total length, 5*8 inches; culmen, 0*45 ; wing, 2-95 ; tail, 2-25 j 
tarsus, o'8. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but distinguished b]| 
having the cap rufous or rusty-brown, the hind neck beinj; 
grey as in the male. Total length, 5-5 inches; wing, 2 '8. 



THE WARBLERS. 193 

Young. Both males and females are alike in having the 
cap rusty-coloured, therein resembling the old female. The 
back is more olive-brown than in the old birds, and there is 
no grey on the neck, which is coloured like the back. There 
is considerable doubt as to the way in which the young male 
gains his first full black-headed plumage, and Mr. Seebohm 
mentions his having secured a specimen in Heligoland, on the 
2nd of October, which had a black head, but with every 
feather edged with rusty-brown. Such specimens are not un- 
frequently shot in the winter quarters of the species, and if, as 
must undoubtedly be the case, the Blackcap, like other 
Warblers, goes through an entire spring moult, the blackish 
head would be worn through the first winter, and the black 
cap assumed in the following spring by a moult, or, as Nau- 
mann declares, by a partial change of feathers. This is, 
however, by no means the invariable method of passing from 
the young plumage to that of the adult, for there is, in the 
collection of the British Museum, a young male caught at 
Lancing on the i3th of August, which is in full moult, and has 
nearly assumed the perfect black head of the adult, without 
any brown-tipped feathers. The birds which exhibit the last- 
named peculiarity may be those of later broods. 

NOTE. The black cap of the male, and the rufous cap of the female 
distinguish the Blackcap from all the other Warblers, except the Orphean 
Warbler, which also has a black head. As already stated the grey throat 
of the Blackcap will always distinguish it from that species. In the 
wing the fourth and fifth primary-quills are equal and longest, and the 
second primary is a little longer than the sixth ; the first, or bastard, 
primary, extends about 0-15 inch beyond the primary coverts. 

Range in Great Britain. A summer visitor, found throughout 
England and Wales, but becoming rarer in Scotland, visiting, 
however, the northern parts and the Orkneys and Shetland 
Isles on the autumn migration, but not breeding, as a rule, 
beyond the Firths of Clyde and Forth. In Ireland it also 
nests, and appears to be more or less sparingly distributed. 

Range outside the British Islands. Pretty generally distributed 
throughout Europe, during the summer ranging north to 66 
in Scandinavia, in Russia to 62, and in the Ural Mountains 
to 57 N. lat. In the collection of Dr. Slovzow, at Omsk, 
is a specimen said to have been obtained in the neighbour- 
i o 



194 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



hood, but, according to Mr. Seebohm, its westward range is the 
yoth degree of east longitude. It is found in the Caucasus 
and Western Persia, and winters in North- eastern Africa and 
Senegambia. 

Habits. The Blackcap arrives in this country at the end of 
April or early in May, and apparently begins at once to build 
its nest, as we have found hard-set eggs as early as the i2th of 
May. Its song, more sustained than that of the Nightingale, 
rivals, if it does not surpass, that of the latter bird's, and the 
song generally commences in the same way first a few notes, 
sounding some distance off, and then bubbling forth into beauti- 
ful and sustained melody. Both male and female take turns at 
incubation, and Mr. Dixon says that the former even sings 
while sitting on the eggs. This we have never heard, but we 
have several times found the male bird sitting on the nest, and 
generally loth to quit his charge. When disturbed, the bird 
flits off suddenly and quietly, retiring into the bushes and 
scolding vehemently in the usual harsh voice of the Warblers. 
The female, on the other hand, will evince great anger, and 
often come close to the intruder, scolding and hissing. The 
birds, if often disturbed, will forsake the nest, even when the 
eggs are far advanced towards hatching, and will also not lay 
eggs in a nest if the latter be much disturbed by touching it 
The food of the Blackcap consists chiefly of insects, but also 
of a few berries, and many observers believe that the latter 
constitute more of its food than insects. In the autumn they 
devour elderberries to a great extent, and on migration they 
even stop in the suburban districts of London, and may then 
be seen in small parties on the elder-bushes. The Blackcap 
undoubtedly remains sometimes in the warmer parts of Great 
Britain during the winter, being enabled to subsist by the 
abundance of berries. 

Best. This is placed in various situations, in brambles, in 
hedges, and small bushes, and in the branches of small trees in 
the undergrowth. We have also found it in the " growers " of 
an elm- tree in a dark, ever-green shrubbery. In the British 
Museum is a nest, found by ourselves, in Sussex, suspended in 
a privet-bush overhanging a ditch, at a very little height from 
the ground. The nest is a slightly-made, cup-shaped struct 



THE WARBLERS. 195 

consisting chiefly of dry grass, with a. little moss, a few cob- 
webs, and a scanty lining of horsehair. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. There is great variation 
in the colours and markings. The most common type is 
olive-brown or 'dull white tinted with olive-brown, and then 
smudged, as it were, with darker olive all over the egg, and 
clouded with grey round the larger end. This type of egg has 
also some blackish-brown spots or blotches scattered promiscu- 
ously over the surface. A scarcer type has the ground-colour 
white, and the overlying spots and blotches are very faintly 
indicated, the underlying grey markings predominating. A 
very handsome egg is sometimes found, which is salmon-pink, 
streaked or spotted with underlying reddish-brown markings, 
with a spot or streak of blackish-brown scattered here and there. 
Axis, 075-0-85 inch ; diam., 0-55-0-6. In the Canaries a 
curious egg is laid by the Blackcap, pale greenish-white, 
with a ring of tiny dark greenish dots round the larger end. 
Mr. Meade-Waldo procured several clutches of this form of egg. 

VI. THE GARDEN-WARBLER. SYLVIA SIMPLEX. 

t MotciciUa salicaria. Linn., S. N., i., p. 330 (1766). 
Sylvia simplex, Lath., Gen. Syn. Suppl, i., p. 287 (1787). 
Sylvia hortensi^ Bechst. ; Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 345 (1839) ; 

Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 10 (1881); id. Hist. Br. 

B., p. 400 (1883); B.-O.U. ListBr. B., p. 13 (1883); Lil- 

ford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. ii. (1886) ; Saunders, Man., p. 49 

(1889). 
Sylvia salicana, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 414 (1873) ; Dresser, B. 

Eur., ii., p. 429, pi. 67 (1876). 

Adult Male. General colour above warm olive-brown, the 
wing-coverts like the back ; quills dark brown, edged with 
olive-brown like the back, the secondaries slightly paler at the 
ends ; tail-feathers brown, with olive-brown margins ; the head 
like the back, with a slight shade of ashy-grey on the sides of 
the neck ; lores and eyelids ashy-whitish ; the ear-coverts pale 
olive-brown, lighter than the back; above the eye a faint streak 
of buff; throat, breast, and sides of body, ochreous-buff, 
deepening on the flanks and vent j the centre of the breast, 



196 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

abdomen, and under tail-coverts greyish-white, the latter with 
dusky centres ; under wing-coverts and axillaries orange-buff; 
quills dusky below, ashy-whitish along the inner web; bill 
dark brown, the lower mandible pale at the base; feet and 
claws leaden-grey ; iris hazel. Total length, 6 inches ; culmen, 
0-5 ; wing, 3-0; tail, 2-15 ; tarsus, 075. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in plumage. Total length, 
6 inches ; wing, 3*0. 

In Autumn Plumage the upper parts incline to russet-brown 
rather than to olive-brown, and the buff of the under surface 
of the body is deeper in tint and more reddish, the white of 
the breast being very pure. 

Young Birds resemble the autumn plumage of the adults. 

NOTE. The Garden-Warbler is very easily recognised by its sober 
coloration, the buff colour of the throat and chest distinguishing it from those 
of other species, which have the head coloured like the back. It has the 
same shaped wing as the Whitethroat, the first, or bastard, primary being 
very small, and falling short of the primary-coverts by O'l or 0*2 inch. 
The second primary-quill is nearly equal to the third. In shape and bulk 
the Garden Warbler is about the same as the Blackcap, but the black or 
rufous caps always serve to distinguish the latter. 

Eange in Great Britain. A summer visitor to most parts of 
England, more locally distributed than the Blackcap, though 
in the Solway district of Scotland Mr. R. Service says that 
it is more abundant than the last-named species. Its 
breeding range does not extend beyond Pembrokeshire and 
Breconshire, in Wales, nor is the bird known to breed in the 
west of Cornwall. In Scotland it seems to be less generally 
distributed, though recorded from Banffshire and from the 
Shetlands during the autumn migration. In Ireland it is a 
rare and local bird, and has been recorded as breeding only in 
the counties of Antrim, Fermanagh, and Tipperary, and pos- 
sibly in Cork. 

Range outside the British Islands. Found everywhere through- 
out Europe, nesting as far north as 70 N. lat. in Scandinavia, 
and to about 65 in Russia, but it does not extend east beyond 
85 E. long., according to Mr. Seebohm ; its most easterly 
record being apparently the vicinity of Omsk, in Siberia, in 
the neighbourhood of which town specimens are said to 



THE WARELKRS. 197 

have been procured by Professor Slovzow. In the Ural Moun- 
tains its range is given as 50 N. lat. It occurs in the Caucasus 
and North-western Persia, and breeds in Palestine, according 
to Canon Tristram. In winter it migrates to Africa, as it has 
been found in Damara Land, the Transvaal, and the eastern 
Cape Colony. The route taken by the species is mostly by the 
Nile Valley and through Equatorial Africa, as it has been pro- 
cured by Emm Pasha at Tingasi, and has also been obtained in 
Nyassa Land ; it occurs, moreover, on the Gold Coast. 

HaMtg. The Garden-Warbler is a somewhat later arrival 
than the bulk of our summer birds, only reaching our islands 
in the beginning of May, and leaving again in September. Its 
unobtrusive plumage and retiring habits render it much less 
observable than the Blackcap, which in form and habits it so 
closely resembles. Its song is scarcely inferior to that of the 
last-named species, and, like the Blackcap and the Nightingale, 
it seldom sings in the open or from a perch, but generally from 
the thick undergrowth, in which it loves to skulk. Some- 
times, however, it may be seen to fly out into the air in pursuit 
of an insect, of which its food almost entirely consists, though 
it also devours berries and fruits. This is certainly the case in 
autumn, when the birds may often be seen on elder-bushes 
devouring the berries, in company with Blackcaps. At other 
times of the year, however, these two species do not consort 
together, but, on the contrary, seem to occupy different locali- 
ties, so that where the Blackcaps are common there are few 
Garden-Warblers, and vice versa. 

Nest. Generally placed near the ground in some secluded 
spot, and usually so well concealed that neither the eggs nor 
the sitting bird can be seen. Sometimes it is suspended in 
nettles, like that of the Whitethroat, and at other times among 
the thin twigs of the briars which are overhung with foliage, so 
as to conceal the nest. The latter is very slightly constructed 
of dry grasses and a few small rootlets, with a little moss or a 
few cobwebs, and lined with horsehair. 

Eggs. Four or five in number, more rarely six. In general 
appearance the eggs are just like those of the Blackcap, but, as 
a rule, the markings appear to be bolder and coarser than is 
usual in that species. The red type, which is such a beautiful 






198 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

variety in the eggs of the Blackcap, is seldom found, and there 
is only a single specimen of a red egg in the British Museum, 
which was taken by Mr. Gould at Taplow, and is, therefore, 
doubtless authentic. The ground-colour is white, or stone- 
colour, with plentiful spots and blotches of greenish-brown, 
the underlying grey blotches being generally subdued, but in 
some cases prominent and clouding the larger end, though in 
some rare instances the markings are very few and scattered. 
Axis, 07-0*85 inch; diam, o'55~o'6. 

THE FURZE- WARBLERS. GENUS MELIZOPIIILUS. 
Melizophilus, Leach, Syst. Cat. Mainm. and Birds, Brit. Mus., 

p. 25 (1816). 

Of the genus Melizophilus, two species are known, the 
English M. undatus, and the Sardinian Warbler, M. sardus. 
Both of these birds resemble Whitethroats in form, especially 
the species of Sylvia of Southern Europe, such as S. subalpina> 
and they lay eggs of a Whitethroat type, but they may con- 
veniently be separated from the genus Sylvia on account of 
their longer tail, which exceeds the wing in length. 

I. THE DARTFORD WARBLER. MELIZOPHILUS UNDATUS. 

Motacilla undata, Bodd, Tabl., pi. Enl., p. 40 (1783). 
Melizophilus provindalis, Macg., Br. B. ii., p. 383 (iS3< 

Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. iv. (1887). 
Melizophilus undatus, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 398 (1873); ' 

Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 441, pi. 69 (1873); B. O. U. List 

Br. B, p. 14 (1883). 
Sylvia provinciate , Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 31 (1881); 

id. Br. B., i., p. 414 (1883). 
Sylvia undata, Saunders, Man., p. 53 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above dark slaty-grey washe 
with brown ; the crown, sides of the face and sides of necl 
slaty-grey like the back, this colour also extending on to the 
sides of the upper breast ; wing-coverts like the back ; the 
quills sepia-brown, edged with lighter brown, rufescent on the 
margins of the secondaries ; tail-feathers blackish, edged with 
slaty-grey, the outer feather white on the outer web, and edged 
with white round the tip of the inner web ; under surface of 



; 

>ck 






THE FURZE-WARBLERS. 199 

body vinous chestnut, the abdomen pure white ; the feathers 
of the throat and fore-neck tipped with hoary white, these tips 
forming a faint moustachial streak along the cheeks ; under 
tail-coverts ashy grey, with hoary margins ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries dark slaty-grey ; bill dark brown, with a pale base 
to the lower mandible ; feet and claws pale brown ; iris orange 
yellow. Total length, 5 inches; culmen, 0-5; wing, 2'o; tail, 
2-4; tarsus, 075. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour, but paler below, 
inclining more to cinnamon-rufous than chestnut. Total length, 
5 inches ; wing, 2*0. 

Winter Plumage. Much darker than in summer, being more 
of a sooty brown, the hoary white tips to the feathers of the 
throat more distinct, these wearing off a good deal during 
the breeding season. 

Young. Dusky chocolate-brown above, the edges of the 
wing-coverts and quills more rufous-brown ; under surface of 
body pale tawny buff, the sides and flanks being sooty brown, 
the throat clearer tawny buff. 

Range in Great Britain. A resident bird in the southern coun- 
ties, having been known to breed in nearly every one of them 
from Kent to Cornwall, and it is even said to occur in the 
midlands, its most northern breeding record being one on Mr. 
Dixon's sole authority in the neighbourhood of Sheffield. As 
Mr. Howard Saunders very properly says, it is such a skulking 
bird that it may very easily be overlooked even by a practised 
observer. In many parts of the south of England it has be- 
come much rarer of late years, having been apparently ex- 
tinguished by the severe and prolonged cold of some recent 
winters, such as that of iSSi. 

- Range outside the British Islands. The Dartford Warbler may 
be said to be a bird principally of the Mediterranean, whence 
it extends into France. It is common in most parts of Spain 
and Portugal, as well as in Southern France, but it does not 
appear to be resident in any part of Europe east of Italy, 
though it has been recorded from Palestine and Lower Egypt. 
In the Balearic Islands, as well as in Sardinia and Corsica, and 
also in Liguria its place is taken by the Sardinian Warbler, 



2oo LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Melizophihis sardus. It appears to be resident in most of the 
countries which it inhabits, but must be, to a certain extent, 
migratory in some parts of its range, especially as it is known 
to ascend the mountains in Southern Europe for the purpose 
of nesting, and to descend to the low country in winter. 

Habits. The Dartford Warbler, wherever found, seems in 
England to be an inhabitant of the furze-covered districts, at 
least during the breeding season, and it is only in the winter that 
it may be found in such places as turnip-fields or in the vicinity 
of the coast. It is pronounced by every observer to be a bird 
of feeble flight, and it is, therefore, curious to note that on two 
occasions specimens have been procured in Heligoland. Mr. 
Howard Saunders says that in its habits it is a restless little bird, 
flitting from the top of one furze-bush to another, with a quiet 
and undulating flight, alighting in a very abrupt manner as if 
the action were the result of an afterthought, the tail being 
spread for an instant as if to aid the bird in an effort to retain 
its balance. On the wing the bird looks very dark, in fact, like 
a black, long-tailed Wren. The note which he most often heard 
uttered was a pit-it-chou, whence the French name, " Pitchou " ; 
but he says that it has a scolding note, cha-cha, when the bird 
is irritated. Mr. Seebohm gives the following note on the 
habits of the species as observed by him in winter near Biarritz, 
where the birds were frequenting the reeds on the banks of a 
small lake. " The first sight I had of one was that of a little dark 
bird with a fan-like tail suddenly appearing amongst the reeds, 
crossing a small patch where they had been cut down, and as 
suddenly and silently disappearing amongst the reeds on the 
opposite side. Occasionally, as we walked on the bank of the 
lake, we heard a loud, clear, melodious pitch-oo repeated once 
or twice amongst the reeds. The note was so musical that for a 
moment one might imagine that a Nightingale was beginning 
to strike up a tune. Now and then we saw the bird appear for 
a moment above the reeds, as if thrown up by a battledore \ 
but it dropped down again and disappeared as suddenly. We 
have rarely seen so skulking a bird. Once only it flew up 
from the reeds and perched in a willow near a pair of furze- 
bushes. Like most other Warblers, this bird is very active, 
scarcely resting for a moment, except when warbling its hurried 
little song from the top of a furze-bush. It flits up the bush, 



THE RUFOUS WARBLERS. 2OI 

dodging in and out the side branches in search of insects, 
perching for a moment on the topmost spray ; but before you 
have time to get your binocular on to the bird, the latter 
catches sight of your movement, and drops down into the 
furze as if shot." 

Nest. This is a very neatly constructed cup, rather deep, and 
more strongly built to outward appearance than that of most 
Warblers. It is made of fine grass-stalks, very neatly inter- 
twined and supported by a little moss and wool, with the 
grass-stalks sticking out in every direction. The inner lining is 
of finer grass-stems with a little horsehair. 

Eggs. Four or five in number. The markings partake of 
the character of the Whitethroat's eggs, but those of the Dart- 
ford Warbler are more regularly and thickly clouded with spots. 
The general type of egg has the ground-colour greenish-white, 
almost hidden by spots of greenish-brown, thickly sprinkled all 
over the egg, though in some cases clouding the larger end. 
The underlying grey markings are also distinct. In the lighter 
type of egg the ground-colour is greenish-white, spotted with 
greenish-brown all over the egg, but more thickly at the larger 
end, where the grey underlying markings are distinct. Axis, 
07-075 inch; diam., 0*5. 

THE RUFOUS WARBLERS. GENUS AEDON, 

Aedon, Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 972. 

Type; A. galactodes (Temm.). 

The Rufous Warblers, formerly named, by a curious mis- 
apprehension of the habits of the birds, the Rufous " Sedge- 
Warblers," are two in number, and they are aptly called by 
Salvadori the Nightingale of Africa and the Nightingale of the 
Levant. The first is a bird of the Mediterranean countries, 
while the second, Aedon familiaris, is the Eastern representa- 
tive of the genus, and instead of migrating north and south 
like A. galactodes, its movements are east and west, as it is said 
to occur in Italy, which brings its range across that of A. galac- 
todes. Count Salvadori, however, does not regard its occur- 
rence in Italy as completely proved. 

The Rufous Warblers are both species of somewhat large size. 



202 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

They have sometimes been placed with the True Warblers in the 
genus Sylvia, but they are totally different in colour from the 
members of that genus, are inhabitants of dry countries, and 
have much longer feet than is usual in the genus Sylvia ; they 
also have the rictal bristles, according to Mr. E. W. Gates, 
placed in a horizontal row, without any supplementary bristles, 
as in the above-named genus. 

I. THE RUFOUS WARBLER. AEDON GALACTODES. 

Aedon galactodes (Temm.), Newt. ed. Yarr., i.. p. 355 (1873); 

Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 547, pi. 85 (1874); B. O. U. 

List Br. B., p. 18 (1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B. ; pt. 

xi. (1889) ; Saunders, Man., p. 67 (1889). 
Sylvia .galactodes, Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 34 (iSSi); 

id. Br. B., i., p. 418 (1883). 

Adult Male. General colour above light cinnamon-rufous, the 
whole of the upper surface being uniform, but the rufous 
colour deepening towards the rump and upper tail-coverts, 
which incline to darker cinnamon-rufous or light chestnut; 
the four centre tail-feathers are not tipped with white, but have 
a blackish-brown spot at the end, reduced to a small shaft-spot 
on the two middle feathers ; all the other tail-feathers with a 
broad white spot at the ends, increasing in size on the outer 
ones,. and having a large, subterminal spot of black ; lesser and 
median wing-coverts like the back, but inclining to whity- 
brown on their edges ; the greater coverts dusky, inclining to 
rufous externally and to whity-brown on the margins ; primary 
coverts and quills dusky-brown, edged with rufous like the 
back, the secondaries fringed with whitish round their ends ; 
head like the back, with a creamy buff eyebrow ; a dusky 
streak from the lores through the eye; sides of face sandy- 
buff, the ear-coverts a little browner ; a faint moustachial line 
of dusky brown ; cheeks and under surface of body sandy-buff, 
inclining to creamy-white on the throat, breast, abdomen, and 
under tail-coverts ; flanks washed with cinnamon, as also the 
under wing-coverts ; quill-lining rufous ; bill brown, the lower 
mandible yellowish horn-colour ; feet and claws brown ; iris 
hazel. Total length, 6-5 inches ; culmen, 6-65 ; wing, 3-45 ; 
tail, 2 '8; tarsus, n. 






THE RUFOUS WARBLERS. 203 

Adult Female. Similar in colour to the male. Total length, 
6-5 inches; wing, 3-4. 

Range in Great Britain. A rare and accidental visitor from the 
south, having occurred on three occasions only, and always in 
the autumn. One was shot by the late Mr. Swaysland, in Sep- 
tember, 1854, near Brighton ; a second specimen, now in the 
British Museum, was procured in a half-starved condition, and 
\vithout its tail, at the Start, in Devonshire, by Mr. W. D. 
Llewellyn, in September, 1869; while the third instance oc- 
curred near Slapton, in Devonshire, in October, 1876, and is 
vouched for by a well-known naturalist, Mr. H. Nicholls. 

Kange outside the British Islands- The Rufous Warbler is found 
in most of the Mediterranean countries from Morocco to Pales- 
tine, and it winters to the southward in Abyssinia. In summer 
it visits the southern parts of Spain and Portugal, and, more 
rarely, Italy. It is also found in Palestine in summer as far as 
Beyrout, but to the north of the Lebanon only the Grey-backed 
Warbler, A.faniiliariS) occurs, and this species takes the place 
of A. gatactodes, from Greece, eastwards through Asia Minor 
and the Caucasus to Turkestan, wintering in N.W. India and 
probably in Arabia, as it is known to extend to Eastern Africa. 

HaMts. In some works this species is described as a very 
wary bird, while in others its tameness is referred to as remark- 
able. Mr. Dixon, in Algeria, had the greatest difficulty in pro- 
curing a specimen, while Canon Tristram speaks of it as " seen 
everywhere" in Palestine, "on upland and lowland alike, ex- 
panding, jerking, and fanning its tail, with its conspicuous white 
bar, on the bare fig-trees, among olives, on the top of any little 
shrub, or on the pathway in front of the horseman, hopping 
fearlessly on at his close approach." In Southern Spain, 
according to Mr. Howard Saunders, it is not at all shy, until 
it becomes conscious of being watched and followed; it is 
very lively in its habits, constantly flirting its tail, whence the 
Spanish name of " Alza-cola" and "Alza-rabo." 

Nest. Mr. Osbert Salvin has given the following account of 
the birds, as observed by him in Algeria in 1858: "Near 
Am Djendeli I used frequently to notice the present species 
about the trees that overhung the dry, stony watercourses that 
run from the hills into the plain beneath. We never found a 



204 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

nest, however, in one of the above-mentioned p>aces ; and it 
would seem that the bird prefers a moister soil for its breeding 
haunts, such as is afforded by the lowlands near Ain Djendeli, 
where the tamarisk-trees grow on the banks of the Chemora 
and the small Ain or spring. The nest we found usually placed 
conspicuously in the fork or on a branch of one of these trees, 
and with apparently no attempt at concealment. The heights 
at which the structure is placed vary from one to six feet from 
the ground. In one instance I found a nest among the roots 
of a tree in a bank-side, in a place where one would have 
expected in England to have found the nest of a Robin. The 
materials employed are the dead shoots of the tamarisk, which 
form the outside the inside and the lining being usually Coot's 
or Duck's feathers, mingled with wool or camel's-hair ; and, 
in nine cases out of ten, a small piece of serpent's skin is 
loosely placed in the bottom of the nest." It is curious that the 
presence of this piece of snake-skin is also mentioned by Mr. 
Howard Saunders, Canon Tristram, as well as by Mr. Seebohm, 
who found it in the nests of A. familiaris in Greece, where the 
natives declared it was woven by the birds into the nest as a 
charm, to prevent natives from sucking their eggs. 

Eggs. Three to five in number. The ground-colour varies 
from dull white to bluish-grey, profusely marked with overlying 
streaks and spots or blotches of reddish-brown, being more 
densely clustered round the larger end, and with underlying 
spots of violet-grey ; one type is of a pale blue colour with tiny 
spots of reddish-brown uniformly scattered all over the egg. 
Axis, 0-85-0-95 inch ; diam., 0-65-07. 

THE WILLOW-WARBLERS. GENUS PHYLLOSCOPUS. 

Phylloscopus, Boie, Isis., 1826, p. 972. 

Type, P. sibilator (Beehst.). 

The members of the genus Phylloscopus are small birds of 
delicate form and colour, the principal tints of the latter being 
green and yellow. Four species of the genus occur in Eng- 
land, three as breeding birds from the south, and one as an acci- 
dental visitor from the far east. The bill is somewhat like that 
of some of the Flycatchers, which these little Warblers to a 
certain extent resemble in their habits. The bill is beset 



THE WILLOW- WARBLERS. 205 

with small rictal bristles, and there are some supplementary 
bristles in front of the rictal series. The tail is slightly forked, 
and consists of twelve tail-feathers. The axillaries and under 
wing-coverts are yellow, a character which will distinguish them 
from all the other English Warblers. 

I. THE WOOD-WARBLER. PHYLLOSCOPUS SIBILATOR. 

Motodlla sibilatrix, Bechst, Naturg., Deutschl., iv., p. 688 



Phyllopneuste sylvicola, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 364 (1839). 
Phylloscopus sibilatrix. Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 427 (1873); 

Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 497, pi. 77 (1876) ; Seeb., Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus., v., p. 54 (1881); id. Br. B., p. 436 (1883); 

B. O. U. List. Br. B. p. 17(1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. 

Brit. B., pt. iii. (1885) ; Saunders, Man., p. 65 (1889). 
Phylloscopus sibilator, Salvad. Elench. Ucc. Ital., p. 133 (1886). 

Adult Male. General colour above yellowish-green, rather 
clearer on the head and rump ; wing-coverts dusky-brown, 
edged with yellowish-green, inclining to paler yellow towards 
the ends of the greater series ; primary-coverts and quills dusky- 
brown, edged with yellowish-green, more broadly on the inner 
secondaries, which are fringed with whitish at their ends, a 
small white fringe being also present at the tip of the primary- 
quills ; tail-feathers dusky-brown, edged with yellowish-green 
and narrowly fringed with white at the ends ; sides of face 
clearer yellow ; a very broad eyebrow of sulphur-yellow ex- 
tending from the base of the forehead to above the ear-coverts, 
and followed by a dusky streak through the eye from the lores 
to the upper margin of the ear-coverts ; under surface of body 
white, the sides ashy-grey washed with sulphur-yellow; the 
throat clear sulphur-yellow, followed by a faint greyish tinge 
on the breast ; axillaries pale yellow ; under wing-coverts 
whitish, tinged with yellow ; bill brown, the base of the lower 
mandible pale horn-colour ; feet and claws light brown ; iris 
hazel. Total length, 4'8 inches; culmen, o'6 ; wing, 3-1; 
tail, 2*0; tarsus, 07. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but rather greener and the 
throat not so pure yellow. Total length, 47 inches ; wing, 



206 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Young. Like the adults, but greener, and the j^ellow of thi 
throat more diffused and extending over the fore-neck an< 
upper breast. 

Winter Plumage Does not differ appreciably from the summer 
plumage. 

NOTE. The Wood-Warbler is the largest of the three species which 
breed in Great Britain, and is brighter in colour than the Willow- Warbk 
or the Chiffchaff, neither of which have such a clear yellow eyebrow c_ 
throat, the latter contrasting markedly with the white breast and abdomen. 
The first, or bastard, primary is shorter than the primary-coverts, and 
measures only o'3 to 0-4 inch. The second primary is always longer 
than the fifth. 

Eange in Great Britain. A summer visitor to most parts of 
England and Wales, and also found over the greater part of 
Scotland, having been seen in Caithness and" in the Outer 
Hebrides, on North Uist. The most northerly breeding place 
yet recorded in our islands is the south-east of Sutherlandshire, 
where it is said to nest by Messrs. Buckley and Harvie-Brown. 
In Ireland it is only known as a rare visitor, but doubtless 
breeds in certain parts of the country. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Found over the greater part 
of Europe in summer, but, to a certain extent, local in its dis- 
tribution. Thus it has never been found in Norway, but 
occurs in Sweden up to the vicinity of Upsala, is common in 
the Baltic Provinces, and extends to Finland, and even to the 
neighbourhood of Archangel. Its eastern limit in Russia 
appears to be the district of Kazan, but further south it has 
been found in Lenkoran. In Turkey it also breeds, but is 
only a migrant in Greece, Asia Minor, and Palestine. In 
Italy it nests on the mountains of the northern and central 
provinces, but is principally known as a spring migrant to that 
country. The same may be said regarding Spain, but in Por- 
tugal the species is almost unknown, though Mr. Tait says 
" there is one in the Lisbon Museum, obtained at Barranhos " 
(Ibis, 1887, p. 92). It nests sparingly in North-eastern Africa. 
The winter home of the Wood-Warbler appears to be in 
North-eastern Africa, but it also winters in Western Africa, ! 
having been procured at the Gold Coast by Captain Shelley j 
and Mr. T. E. Buckley. 






THE \VILLO\V-WARBLERS. . 207 

Halnts. The Wood-Warbler is one of the most beautiful 
little birds which visit England in the spring. It appears 
about the end of April, and its presence is at once made 
known by its cheery song. Its name of " Wood- Warbler," or 
" Wood-Wren," is in every way appropriate, for it is essentially 
a bird of the woods, and it is just when the latter are putting 
forth their fresh green leaves that the Wood-Warbler appears in 
our midst. By listening for the trill of the little songster he can 
soon be discovered, sitting probably for an instant on a bough at 
some distance from the ground, and then flying off to the slender 
twigs to examine the leaves above and below in search of 
insects. Then he will sometimes fly out from the tree and 
catch a passing insect, after the manner of a Flycatcher ; and, 
returning to its perch, break out into song again. When the 
birds first arrive, several are to be heard in the same wood, 
answering each other's song, and trilling joyously. Sometimes 
the bird begins to sing in mid-air as he is flying from one tree 
to another, and finishes his song as he lights on his new perch, 
and in every movement the Wood- Warbler is an embodiment 
of grace and elegance, while its easy flight often resembles 
that of a Butterfly. The song is imitated by Mr. Seebohm by the 
following words, chit-chit chit-chit chitre tr-tr-tr-tr-tre ; this_ 
really gives a very good idea of the opening note, which is pro- 
nounced as if the bird were bubbling over with the idea of a 
song and could not get it out quickly enough ; but the mellow- 
ness of the final trill cannot be produced by any form of words, 
and must be heard to be appreciated and remembered. The 
female is a very shy bird, and is not often seen ; but the neigh- 
bourhood of the nest is often pointed out by the singing of 
the male bird, who warbles continually near the spot until the 
hatching of the eggs gives him a more important occupation. 
But even if the vicinity of the nest be discovered, it is by no 
means easy to find the nest itself, for it is always well con- 
cealed on the ground hidden among the grass, and scarcely 
to be distinguished from the surroundings. 

Nest. Partly domed over, and made of grass, with a few 
dead leaves or a little moss, but is lined with horsehair, not 
with feathers, as in the allied species of Warbler. 

Eggs. From five to seven. Ground-colour white, thickly 



208 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 



dotted, and in some instances blotched with purplish-brown, 
and having tolerably distinct underlying spots of violet-grey. 
In some clutches the purplish-brown markings are so thickly 
collected together as to cloud the larger end of the egg, and 
there is very seldom an attempt at a ring round the latter. 
Axis, 0-6-07 inch ; diam., 0-5-0-56. 

II THE WILLOW-WARBLER. PHYLLOSCOPUS TROCHILUS. 

Motadlla trochilus. Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 338 (1766). 
Phyllopneuste trochilus^ Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 371 (1839). 
Phylloscopus trochilusy Newt. ed. Yarn, i., p. 432 (1873) ; Dres 

ser, B. Eur., ii., p. 491, pi. 76, fig. 2 (1879); Seeb., Cat. 

B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 56 (1881); id. Hist. Br. B., i., p. 43^ 

(1883); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 16 (1883); Lilford, Col. 

Fig. Br. B., pt. v. (1887); Saunders, Man., p. 63 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above olive-greenish, somewhat 
clearer on the rump ; the head like the back ; lesser wing- 
coverts like the back, the rest of the wing-coverts and quills 
dusky brown, edged with the same colour as the back ; tail 
dusky brown, externally with narrow greenish margins, and 
ashy-white edges to the inner webs, with, in freshly moulted 
specimens, a narrow whitish margin extending to the tips of 
the feathers ; head like the back, with a tolerably distinct eye- 
brow of dull sulphur-yellow; eyelid also yellow; lores and sides 
of face dull olive-greenish ; sides of neck like the back ; throat 
and fore-neck ashy-whitish, with streaks of pale sulphur-yellow, 
with which the feathers are margined; breast and abdomen purer 
white, the under tail-coverts also whitish, but washed with 
yel!ow near the vent ; the flanks inclining to olive buff, and 
slightly washed with yellow ; thighs yellow ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries sulphur-yellow, as also the edge of the wing; 
quills dusky below, ashy-whitish along the inner margin ; bill 
dark brown, with a slightly paler base to the lower mandible ; 
feet and claws brown ; iris hazel. Total length, 4-8 inches ; 
culmen, 0-5; wing, 27; tail, 2*1; tarsus, o'8. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male. Total length, 4-6 inches; 
wing, 2-45. 

Young. After the autumn moult the young birds are much 



THE WILLOW-WARBLERS. 209 

more olive-brown above than the adults, and entirely yellow 
below. Before the first autumn moult the colour is a dull 
olive-brown above, the throat and breast dingy ashy-brown; 
the abdomen white, with a wash of sulphur-yellow in the 
middle; the feet very pale. 

Winter Plumage. The adults in winter have the plumage very 
like that of the spring, but rather more yellow. 

NOTE. The Willow- Warbler is easily distinguished from the Wood- 
Warbler by its smaller size and duller coloration. The third and fourth 
primaries are the longest quills, and the second primary is intermediate 
between the fifth and sixth. It is with the Chiffchaff that the Willow- 
Warbler is often confounded, but, as will be seen below, the wing of the 
Chiffchaff is much more rounded, and the proportion of the quills is quite 
different. In the Willow- Warbler the wing is much more pointed, as befits 
a bird of such extended migration. The feet are also much paler in the 
Willow- Warbler than in the Chiffchaff. 

Range in Great Britain. A summer visitor to nearly every por- 
tion of the British Islands, though somewhat local in the west 
of England and parts of Wales. It is only known as a straggler 
in the Orkneys and Shetland Isles. It arrives in England about 
the beginning of April, and departs in September. 

Range outside the British Islands. Occurs in nearly every part 

I of Europe, but in many countries only on migration. Its 

breeding range extends to the extreme north of Scandinavia, 

and in the valleys of the Petchora and the Yenesei Mr. See- 

jbohm found the species up to yo Q N. lat. In the northern 

[countries of Europe it breeds, but chiefly in the mountains, 

iand is decidedly local, while for its eastern range Dr. Pleske 

gives ample data to show that it nests in most of the provinces 

}f Russia, and even in the Caucasus and the isolated woods of 

he Kirghis-steppes. The principal winter home of the Willow- 

kVarbler is Africa, where it is found not only on the west coast 

)ut also in South Africa down to the Cape Colony itself. It 

bccurs in most collections from the Transvaal, and it is also 

net with in Damara Land during the cold season in the north. 

t is even said to winter in some of the Mediterranean countries, 

I nd certainly does so in the oases of the Sahara. 

Habits. Although the Willow- Warbler is frequently noticed 
i the woods, especially on its first arrival in spring, it is by no 
: leans so exclusively a denizen of them as the Wood-Warbler. 
i t 



216 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

It is equally to be found in gardens and orchards, and even 
in the parks and shrubberies of towns. In the suburbs of Lon- 
don it is a common visitor during the spring and autumn 
migration, and is to be seen at the last-named time of year 
feeding with the Blackcaps on the elderberries. The song of 
the Willow- Warbler is more feeble than that of the Wood- 
Warbler, but is of the same trilling character, though the song 
is not so prolonged and is in a descending scale. After the 
breeding season and the autumnal moult has been accomplished, 
the bird recommences to sing, but as a rule at that season of 
the year it is generally silent, uttering only its " whit "-like 
call-note, and searching diligently for food, not only in the 
inland woods, but more particularly in the trees by the river- 
side. It is at this time of year that it more especially merits 
the name of " Willow "-Warbler, for it is a very common thing 
in the Thames Valley to see little parties of these birds feed- 
ing among the willows in August. 

Nest. As with the Wood-Warbler, the nest of this species 
placed on the ground, and is very difficult to discover. Wit 
both of them the best way is to beat the ground with a sticl 
and so drive out the hen-bird from the nest. Not only is the 
entrance to the nest very small, but the materials of which it is 
composed greatly assimilate to the surroundings and aid in its 
concealment. The nest is half-domed, the rim of the entrance | 
being built at an angle of about 45. 

A nest taken in Sussex is now before us. It is neatly con- ; 
structed when taken away from its ragged surroundings, and is I 
composed principally of dry grass-stems, with a good deal of 
moss near the top, and a few dead leaves interwoven ; on the 
outside are also a few feathers, among them one from the 
breast of a Cuckoo. Inside the nest is scantily lined with 
feathers. 

Eggs. Five to eight in number. Ground-colour white, 01 
creamy-white, either numerously sprinkled with reddish dots.; 
or having the spots larger, more scattered, and sometimes ir 
the form of blotches or tiny streaks, generally at the larger enci 
of the egg. The shape of the egg varies considerably, beinj 
sometimes elongated, and at other times almost round, but th< 
spots are always reddish. Axis, o'C-o'y inch ; diam., 0*4 5-0*5 



THE WILLOW-WARBLERS. 211 

The late Mr. Swaysland, of Brighton, used to affirm that 
there was a second species of Willow-Warbler in England, which 
built a nest off the ground, sometimes at a height of a few feet, 
had a different song, and laid a different coloured egg. At our 
request he procured us a nest of this "intermediate" Willow- 
Warbler, as he called it. The nest was taken from the rubbish 
and the runners near the base of a tree. It is similarly con- 
structed to the one described, but has perhaps not quite so 
many stems of dead grass. The eggs are sprinkled all over with 
reddish spots, belonging to the type first-mentioned above, while 
those which he forwarded as the eggs of the true Willow- 
Warbler are more sparsely dotted with darker and larger spots, 
as in the second type of egg mentioned in the description. We 
have not been able to detect any difference in the colour of the 
birds which Mr. Swaysland sent as belonging to the two forms 
of Willow- Warbler, but the subject is worth the attention oi 
some of our field-naturalists ; though the explanation is pro- 
bably that, like the Chiffchaff, the Willow-Warbler not un- 
frequently builds its nest away from the ground. 

III. THE CHIFFCHAFF. PHYLLOSCOPUS MINOR. 

Sylvia rufa (nee. Bodd.), Bechst., Orn. Taschenb., i., p. 

(1802). 

Trochilus minor, Forst., Syn. Cat. Br. B., p. 54 (1817). 
Phyllopneuste hippolais (nee. L.), Macg., Br. B., n, p. 379 

(1839)- 
Phylloscopus collybita (V.), Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 437 (1873) ; 

Dresser, B. Eur., p. 488, pi. 76 (1879). 
Phylloscopus ruf us (Bechst), Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 

60 (1881); id.' Br. B., i., p. 435 (1883); B. O. U. List 

Br. B., p. 16 (1883) ; Saunders, Man., p. 61 (1889). 
Phylloscopus collybista, Salvad., Elench. Ucc. Ital. p. 134 

(1886). 
Phylloscopus minor, Lilford, Col. Fig., Br. B., pt. v. (1887). 

Adult Male. General colour above dull olive-green, slightly 
:learer olive on the rump; wing-coverts and quills dusky brown, 
_'d with olive-green like the back ; tail-feathers also dusky 
jrown, very slightly margined with olive ; crown of head uni- 
omi with the back ; a narrow eyebrow of greyish-white, slightly 

p 7 



212 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

tinged with yellow, extending from the base of the bill to just 
behind the eye ; sides of face dingy olive, with a dusky line 
through the eye ; under surface of body dingy olive-yellow, 
whiter on the centre of the breast, abdomen, and under tail- 
coverts, the latter washed with olive-yellow; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries rather brighter greenish-yellow ; quills dusky 
below, ashy-whitish along the edge of the inner webs ; bill dark 
brown, the lower mandible slightly paler ; feet and claws dar 
brown, almost black; iris hazel. Total length, 4-6 inches 
culmen, o'5 ; wing, 2 '8 ; tail, 1*9 ; tarsus, o'8. 

Adult Female Similar to the male. Total length, 4-5 inches 
wing, 2-4. 

Autumn Plumage. Much more fulvescent in tint than in sum 
mer, the eyebrow being fulvous, and the throat, chest, an< 
sides of the body also of this colour, with a few yellow streak 
on the throat and breast. 

Young. Similar to the adults, but entirely olive-yellow undei 
neath, the under wing-coverts and axillaries, and the edge c 
the wings, being brighter yellow. 

NOTE. The Chiffchaff can be easily recognised by the shape of th 
wing, which is much more rounded than in the Willow- Warbler or Wooc 
Warbler, and has the second primary, i.e., the first long primary in th 
wing, about equal in length to the sixth. The general colour is mor 
dingy, and the size is rather smaller than that of the Willow-Warblei 
Both in life and in a prepared skin the feet are much darker, appearin 
black in the skin of a Chiffchaff, and brown in a Willow-Warbler. Th 
character and that of the more rounded wing of the Chiffchaff render th 
two birds easily recognisable one from the other. 

Eange in Great Britain. An early summer visitor, arriving in, 
the middle of March, and leaving in September and October.; 
Chiffchaffs occasionally remain in England during the winter, 
and Mr. Robert Read has presented to the British Museum 
a specimen obtained by him in Somersetshire on the 27th o| 
December, 1892. Mr. Howard Saunders says that the birc 
winters mostly in the south-western counties, when it elects t( 
stay in England during the cold weather. In all parts of Greaj 
Britain it is a rarer bird than the Willow- Warbler, but is com* 
moner in some districts than others, being rare or local in Nor 
folk, Lancashire, and in the north-west of Yorkshire, but agaii 
more plentiful in the northern counties of England, and th< 



THE WILLOW-WARBLERS. 213 

south of Scotland ; it is a common bird in Ross-shire, has been 
found in Caithness, but is only known as a straggler in the 
Outer Hebrides and in the Orkneys. In Ireland it is by no 
means rare. 

Range outside the British Islands. Found throughout the 
greater part of Europe, but nesting less frequently in the 
Mediterranean countries than in the north ; in Italy it breeds 
only in the mountains. It does not quite reach the Arctic 
Circle in summer, occurring in Scandinavia as high as 65 N. 
lat, and in Russia attaining the same latitude. Its eastern 
range extends to the government of Perm, where it is replaced 
by the Siberian Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus tristis^ which also takes 
its place in the Petchora Valley. According to Pleske,- our 
ChiffcharT breeds in the government of Orenburg, north of the 
Ural river, but in Central and Southern Russia is only seen on 
migration, and it is also a migrant to the valleys of the Amu 
Darya, wintering in Persia, Asia Minor, Greece, and Palestine, 
and as far south as Abyssinia. In the Canary Islands it is re- 
placed by an allied species, Phylloscopus fortunatus. 

Habits. These resemble those of the other members of the 
genus, but the ChiffcharT is less easily observed than either the 
Wood or Willow- Warblers, as it seldom sings in the open, but is 
more a frequenter of shrubberies and ivy-clad woods, in which 
it manages to conceal itself effectually. Its tell-tale note, from 
which the name of Chiffchaff is derived, betrays its presence, 
but the bird is by no means easy of observation, except in the 
vicinity of its nest. Its food consists of small insects and 
caterpillars, in pursuit of which it searches the leaves diligently 
like the Willow- Warbler, and it is quite as active as the latter 
bird, though it has not such a rapid flight, owing doubtless to 
its more rounded and less migratory wing. 

Nest. This is generally placed on the ground. It is half 
domed as a rule, but not invariably, and is composed of dried 
grass, rather roughly put together on the outside, but more 
neatly on the inside of the nest, which is usually lined with 
feathers. No moss is used, as in the case of the Willow- 
Warbler, and the feather-lining is sometimes very scanty, as is 
also the case occasionally with the nest of the last-named 
species. The Chiffchaff often builds in the open, by the side 



214 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

of a public road, and will place its nest in a stunted bush about 
a foot from the ground. On one occasion we found a nest in 
a shrubbery, at Avington Park, built in among the growers of 
an elm-tree among the dead leaves and rubbish, at a height of 
quite four feet from the ground. The nest was shaped like 
that of a Wren, and opened outwards, but was built of the 
usual rough grass of the Chiffchaff's nest. That there shoulc 
be no mistake about the species to which the nest belonged 
we caught the hen-bird in a butterfly-net, as she quitted the 
nest, and the skin is in the British Museum at this day, for, on 
finding that the eggs were just hatching out and could not be 
blown, we sought to let the little captive go, but found that she 
had died of fright in the net, and we were, therefore, obligee 
to make a specimen of her for the Museum. 

Eggs. From five to seven in number. Ground - colour 
china-white or creamy-white. As with the Willow-Wren, there 
are two distinct types of eggs, one with numerous small dots 
and one with more scattered but larger spots and blotches. The 
spots are deep chocolate or reddish-brown, or more often 
purplish-brown, almost black. Underlying spots of violet-grey 
are seen in many eggs, but there is seldom an indication of a 
ring round the larger end. Axis, 0-6-0-65 mcn > diam, 0-45- 



IV.THE YELLOW-BROWED WILLOW-WARBLER. PHYLLOSCOPUS 
SUPERCILIOSUS. 

Motatilla superciliosci) Gm., S. N., i., p. 975 (1788). 
Phylloscopus super ciliosiiS) Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 443 (1873); 

Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 469, pi. 474 (1874) ; Seeb., Cat. 

B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 68 (1881) ; id. Hist. Br. B., i., p. 441 

(1883) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 15 (1883) ; Lilford, Col. 

Fig. Br. B., pt. v. (1887); Saunders, Man., p. 59 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above olive-green, gradually be- 
coming lighter and more yellowish-green on the lower back, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts, so that the head appears some- 
what more dingy than the back ; down the centre of the crown 
an indistinct line of yellow; lesser and median wing-coverts | 
like the back, the latter with yellow tips forming a band ; the 
greater coverts dusky brown, externally yellowish-green and 






THE WILLOW- WARBLERS. 215 

pale yellow at the tips, forming a second wing-band ; primary- 
coverts and quills dusky brown, externally greenish-yellow, 
these margins not reaching to the base of the secondaries, so 
that there appears a dusky patch on the wing formed by the 
primary-coverts, and a second one at the base of the 
secondaries, caused by the absence of yellow margins ; the 
inner secondaries more broadly edged with white ; tail-feathers 
dusky brown, edged with yellowish-green, and with a narrow 
pale fringe along the tip of the feathers ; sides of face dusky 
olive, with a dusky line through the eye and along the upper 
edge of the ear-coverts ; eyelid and a distinct eye-stripe pale 
yellow; under surface of body ashy-whitish, clearer on the 
abdomen, with streaks of yellow on the breast ; the flanks 
greenish, washed with yellow ; under wing-coverts white, 
washed with yellow ; axillaries and edge of wing bright sul- 
phur-yellow ; quills dusky below, whitish along the inner web ; 
bill dark brown, paler at the base of the lower mandible ; 
feet and claws brown ; iris hazel. Total length, 3 '8 inches ; 
oilmen, 0-4; wing, 2'i ; tail, i'4$ ', tarsus, 07. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male. Total length, 3-5 
inches ; wing, 2*15. 

Winter Plumage. Decidedly more olive than in the summer 
time, when the plumage gets bleached and worn, and presents 
an ashy appearance. The central streak on the crown becomes 
whiter and more distinct, as does also the eyebrow, but the 
double wing-bar is never completely abraded or lost. 

Range in Great Britain. The present species has occurred oc- 
casionally in the British Islands, some seven specimens having 
now been met with since the first was procured by the late Mr. 
John Hancock, in Northumberland, on the 26th of September, 
1838. Since that date the species has been procured in Lin- 
colnshire, Gloucestershire, the Scilly Islands, in the Shetlands, 
and even in County Kerry in Ireland. 

Range outside the British Islands. This is a Siberian species 
which wanders westward in autumn, when it has been met 
with near Berlin, Vienna, and Leyden, and has occurred at 
least sixty times in Heligoland, over which island it appears to 
pass nearly every autumn on migration, between the last week 



2 1 6- LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

in September and the end of October or the first week in 
November. According to Dr. Pleske, the Yellow-browed 
Warbler nests throughout the whole of Siberia, from the Valley 
of the Ob to the Sea of Ochotsk, but has not yet been founc 
in Kamtschatka. It winters in Southern China, the Burmese 
countries, and in India. 

HaMts. Mr. Seebohm describes his meeting with this species 
on the Yenesei. He writes : " On the willows of the steep bank 
of the river little birds were feeding, industriously picking up 
insects on the naked branches, and sometimes making flights in 
the air to catch a gnat upon the wing. Presently I heard 
plaintive ' weest,' which reminded me of Heligoland ; and on 
shooting the bird I picked up a Yellow-browed Willow 
Warbler, as I expected. There was quite a little party of 
these diminutive creatures ; and they were so tame after their 
long journey that I watched them for some time hopping from 
twig to twig, diligently seeking for food. I was often within 
four feet of one of them, and could distinctly see the white 
eye-stripe, and the two bars across the wing. . . . But 
although the Yellow-browed Warbler was thus early in arriving 
(June 2), it did not appear to be in any hurry to commence 
building operations. It soon became very common, frequent- 
ing almost exclusively the pine-forests on the banks of the 
Koorayika and the Yenesei. It was not particularly shy; 
and on more than one occasion I watched it for some time at 
a distance of only a few feet. On one occasion only I heard it 
make any attempt at a song; this was on the 2ist of June. 
The bird was perched on the extreme summit of a spruce, and 
stood shivering its wings, uttering a few plaintive notes, most 
of them poor feeble variations of its call-note. On the 26th 
of June I was fortunate enough to find its nest. Curiously 
enough I was this time also in company with a Heligolander, 
Mr. Boiling, the ship-builder of Yen-e-saisk. Late in the eve- 
ning we were strolling through the forest between the 
Koorayika and the Yenesei. As we were walking along a 
little bird started up near us, and began most persistently to 
utter the well-known cry of the Yellow- browed Warbler. As it 
kept flying around us from tree to tree, we naturally came to 
the conclusion that it had a nest near. We searched for some 
time unsuccessfully, and then retired to a short distance and 



THE TREE-WARBLERS. '217 

sat down upon a tree-trunk to watch. The bird was very un- 
easy, but continually came back to a birch tree, from which it 
frequently made short flights towards the ground, as if it were 
anxious to return to its nest, but dare not do so whilst we 
were in sight. This went on for about half an hour, when we 
came to the conclusion that the nest must be at the foot of the 
birch-tree, and we commenced a second search. In less than 
five minutes I found the nest, with six eggs. It was built in a 
slight tuft of grass, moss and bilberries, semi-domed, exactly 
like the nest of our Willow-Warblers." 

Nest. Composed of dry grass and moss, and lined with rein- 
deer-hair, according to Mr. Seebohm. 

Eggs. The above named author describes these as having the 
ground-colour pure white, spotted very thickly at the large end, 
in the form of an irregular zone, with reddish-.brown, and more 
sparingly on the remainder of the surface ; some of the spots 
underlying and paler, but not grey, and on one or two of the 
eggs they are confluent. Axis, o - 6 inch ; diam., 0*45. Mr. 
Seebohm remarks : " The markings are well-defined, like 
those on the eggs of the Chiffchaff ; but the colour is decidedly 
more like that of the Willow-Warblers, while they approach 
much more closely the eggs of the Indian Willow- Warbler, P. 
iiy both in colour and size." 



THE TREE-WARBLERS. GENUS HYPOLAIS. 

Hypolais, C. L. Brehm, Isis, 1828, p. 1283. 

Type, H. hypolais (L.). 

Certain groups of Warblers have a typical coloration of 
egg, known to every ornithologist. Thus anyone can tell the 
peculiar egg of a Cettia, which is of a brick-red colour, and this 
style of coloration runs through the eggs of all the species 
allied to Cetti's Warbler. The same may be said of the mem- 
bers of the genus Hypolais^ for the eggs of these birds are 
equally peculiar, having the ground-colour of a purplish-grey or 
salmon-pink. All the members of the genus are like Willow- 
Warblers in general aspect, but they have a much longer and flat- 
ter bill, approaching that of the Reed-Warblers (Acrocephalus) in 
shape, and having three weak rictal bristles, with some supplemen- 



218 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

tary bristles, as in most Warblers, but in Hypolais these are very 
small, and all but obsolete. The tail is only slightly rounded. 
In the two species which are found in Central Europe the colour 
of the under surface is yellow, but in all the other species of the 
genus the tints are of the plainest description, being brown or 
grey, with the under surface white. These plain-coloured 
species, however, never approach the shores of England, and are 
not likely to occur here, but of the two yellow-breasted species 
of Europe, one has been found within our limits, and the other, 
H. polyglotta, is an inhabitant of Western France, and might 
easily occur in England. It may, therefore, be worth while to 
mention that the two species may be distinguished by the pro- 
portions of the primaries. In H. icterina the second primary 
(/.., the first long one) reaches a point between the fourth and 
fifth, and in H. polyglotta it extends to between the sixth and 
seventh. In the latter bird the legs are pale brown instead of 
bluish-grey, and the first, or bastard, primary is long, and exceeds 
the primary-coverts by 0*1 to 0*25 inch, whereas in H. icterina it 
is generally shorter than the primary- coverts, and never extends 
more than 0-05 inch beyond them. 

I. THE COMMON TREE-WARBLER. HYPOLAIS HYPOLAIS. 

Motatilla hypolais. Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 330 (1766). 
Hypolais icterina^ Newt ed. Yarr., i., p. 361 (1873); Dresser, 

B. Eur., ii., p. 321, pi. 81 (1874) ; Seeb., Cat. B. Brit Mus., 

v., p. 77 (iS8i);B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 17 (1883); 

Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B. pt. iii. (1886); Saunders, Man., 

p. 69 (1889). 
Hypolais hypolais, Seeb., Hist Br. B., i., p. 381 (1883). 

Adult Male. General colour above olive-green, the head like 
the back ; lesser and median wing-coverts like the back ; the 
greater series, primary-coverts and quills light brown, edged with 
ashy-olive, a little yellower on the primaries, the inner secon- 
daries with very pale margins ; tail-feathers light brown, with 
olive-green edges, and with a narrow whitish fringe along the 
inner web and round the tips in fresh feathers ; ear-coverts a 
little paler than the back ; lores dusky, surmounted by a yellow 
eye-stripe, which extends from the base of the bill behind the 
eye ; eyelid and under surface of body yellow, deepening on 






THE TREE-WARBLERS. 219 

the chest; the sides of the upper breast washed with olive- 
green, the flanks also slightly washed with greenish ; axillaries 
and edge of wing yellow ; under wing-coverts white, washed 
with yellow ; quills dusky-brown below, whitish along the inner 
web ; bill dark brown above, yellow below (in skin), the lower 
mandible horn-colour in life ; feet and claws pale lead-colour ; 
iris hazel. Total length, 5-2 inches ; culmen, 0-55 ; wing, 2-95 ; 
tail, 2*0 ; tarsus, o - 8. 

Adult Female. Does not differ from the male in colour. Total 
length, 5 -4 inches; wing, 3-0. 

NOTE. The large size, the flattened and Flycatcher-like bill with its 
yellow lower mandible, and the bright yellow under surface, seem to dis- 
tinguish this species from any of the Willow-Warblers in this country. 

Range in Great Britain. Only an accidental visitor, which has 
not occurred more than half-a-dozen times. This is the more 
curious, as the species ranges on migration to the south of 
Africa like the Willow-Warbler, and, on its return to Europe, 
is plentiful almost within sight of the shores of Great Britain. 
Of the five recorded examples of H. hypolais in this country, 
four have occurred in summer, viz., at Holderness, in Lincoln- 
shire, in May, 1891 ; near Dover, in June, 1848; near New- 
castle, in June, 1889; and in co. Dublin in June, 1856, the 
only autumn-killed example being the one procured by Mr. 
Power, near Blakeney, in Norfolk, in September, 1884. 

Range outside the British Islands. In the south of Europe this 
Warbler arrives towards the end of April, but does not reach its 
northern habitats till the early part of May. It is generally dis- 
tributed over Central Europe, and inhabits Denmark, Holland, 
Belgium, and the north-east of France during the summer, and 
ranges, so Mr. Howard Saunders believes, to about the line of 
the Somme, to the west of which river, as indeed throughout 
the greater part of France and the Peninsula, it is replaced by 
H. polyglotta. In Southern Scandinavia the Tree- Warbler 
is common, but becomes rarer to the northward, reaching 67 
N. lat. in Norway, and about 65 in Sweden. It occurs near 
Archangel, and is found in the Ural Mountains up to 57 N. 
lat. Mr. Seebohm says that it has been found to the east of 
the Urals, in the valley of the Tobol river ; but Dr. Pleske re- 
marks that if the species really occurs in Siberia it can only be 



220 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

exceptionally the case. Its northern range in Russia is coin 
cident with that of the birch region, according to Dr. Pleske, 
who says that it has twice been noted from the Caucasus, and 
Mr. Seebohm has received a specimen from Lenkoran. It 
passes through Asia Minor, Greece, and North-east Africa in 
migration, making its way to South Africa and Damara Land, 
where it passes the winter. H. polyglotta preserves its western 
character as a species even in the winter season, and migrates 
to Senegambia. 

Habits. These are well described by Mr. Seebohm, who, 
however, does not think much of the bird's song, nor will he 
allow that it deserves the name often given to it of the " Melo- 
dious Willow- Warbler." In Germany it is called " Spottvogel," 
or "Mocking Bird," from its supposed adaptation of the notes 
of other birds. Mr. Seebohm says : <f Perhaps, on the whole, 
the song of the Common Tree- Warbler comes nearest to that 
of the Marsh -Warbler; but it often reminds you strongly of the 
song of the Sedge-Warbler. At other times you may trace a 
fancied resemblance to the chirping of the Sparrow, the scold- 
ing of the Whitethroat, or the scream of the Swift; but all rattled 
off at such a rate, one after the other, and repeated so often, 
that it arrests the attention at once. I have heard it in widely- 
different localities, and very often ; but in spite of its wonderful 
variety, I think the song is original, and can see no reason for 
supposing the bird to be more of a ' mocking ' bird than a Song- 
Thrush or a Nightingale. Some writers have compared the song 
to that of the Nightingale ; but in quality of voice, in the rich- 
ness of its tones, and the melody of its notes, it is immeasurably 
inferior to that bird, and the best one can say of its voice is 
that it is a very high soprano. If it were a common bird, one 
might say that it screamed, or even shrieked : the song does 
not fill the ear like that of the Nightingale." 

" The Common Tree- Warbler is essentially a lover of isolated 
trees. He does not seem to care very much for the thick 
forest, but delights to sing his song and build his nest in the 
trees in the gardens and the hedgerows. Like the Robin, he 
seems to like to be close to the houses ; and, like that bird, he 
has the reputation of being very quarrelsome and very jealous 
of the approach of any other of his species on his special do- 



THE REED-WARBLERS. 221 

main. His alarm note is a tek-tek-tek, often heard in an angry 
tone. In its habits the bird combines the actions of a Tit with 
those of a Flycatcher, feeding for the most part on insects ; but 
in autumn it is said to vary the diet with ripe cherries, currants, 
elderberries, etc." 

Nest. Described by Mr. Seebohm as a very beautiful struc- 
ture, generally built in the fork of a small tree, eight or ten feet 
from the ground. He says that the nest is quite as handsome 
as that of the Chaffinch, but slightly smaller, more slender, and 
deeper. It is composed of dry grass, deftly interwoven with 
moss, wool, spiders' webs, thistle-down, strips of bark, and 
lichens, lined with fine roots, grass-stalks, and horsehair. 

Eggs. Four or five in number, rarely six. They are pinkish 
stone-colour, with spots, and lines, and scratches, of black or 
purplish-brown. The clutches vary in the extent of the spot- 
ting, some being sprinkled with fine dots, while others are more 
boldly spotted, like those of a Bunting. In the latter small 
underlying dots are visible, but in the smaller spotted eggs 
the underlying dots are scarcely perceptible. Axis, 0*65-075 
inch ; diam., 0-5-0-6. 

THE REED-WARBLERS. GENUS ACROCEPHALUS. 

Acrocephalus, Naum., Nat. Land- und Wasser- Vog., nordl. 
Deutschl. Nachtr., iv., p. 199 (1811). 

Type, A. turdoides (Meyer). 

The Reed-Warblers form a very natural group of birds, found 
in nearly every portion of the Old World. They have a larger 
bill than the majority of the Warblers, having this organ rather 
depressed and widened near the base, the rictal bristles strong 
and well-developed, and arranged in a horizontal row. The 
wing and tail are about equal in length, the latter being more 
rounded than in Hypolais, but not so much as in Locustella. 
The outer feathers are more than three-quarters the length of 
the tail. The first, or bastard, primary is so small that it does 
not reach to the tip of the primary-coverts, and is less than a 
third of the length of the second. It is, however, a little 
longer in birds of the year. 



222 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

1. THE AQUATIC WARBLER. ACROCEPHALUS AQUATICUS. 

Motacilla aquatica, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 953 (1788). 

Acrocephalus aquaticus, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 380 (1873); 
Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 591, pi. 89 (1876); Seeb., Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., v., p. 89 (1881); id. Hist. Br. B., i., p. 357 
(1883); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 20 (1883); Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. ix. (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 79 
(1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above tawny-buff, becoming 
clearer on the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts, the 
whole of the upper parts broadly streaked with black centres 
to the feathers, less distinct on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; 
wing-coverts blackish, edged with pale tawny-buff, the inner- 
most secondaries similarly coloured ; primary-coverts and quills 
dark brown, with narrow tawny-brown margins, broader on the 
secondaries, which appear more uniformly rufous near the 
bases ; tail-feathers dark brown, with narrow tawny edges ; 
crown of head pale tawny-buff in the centre, with a broad 
black streak along each side of the crown, followed by a broad 
eye-brow of pale buff; cheeks and under surface of body light 
tawny-buff, a little whiter on the throat and abdomen, and 
deeper on the sides of the body and under tail-coverts ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries whitish, slightly tinged with buff; 
bill very slender, dark brown above, paler on the lower man- 
dible ; feet pale clay-yellow ; iris hazel. Total length, 5 inches ; 
oilmen, 0*55; wing, 2*4; tail, 2*0; tarsus, 0-85. 

In Summer Plumage there are some narrow blackish streaks on 
the fore-neck and sides of the body. This is rather an unusual 
circumstance with a Warbler, the possession of streaks on 
the under parts being generally considered to be a sign of 
immaturity. 

NOTE. The Aquatic Warbler can only be mistaken for the Sedge- 
Warbler in this country, and from this bird it is easily recognised by the 
broad mesial streak on the crown, flanked by the two black bands which 
extend above the pale eyebrow for the whole length of the crown. The 
bird is hardly a true Acrocepkalus, for its bill is small and weak, and more 
like that of the Grasshopper Warbler. The first, or bastard, primary is 
very small, and does not reach to the end of the primary-coverts. The 
second and third primary-coverts are equal and longer than the fourth. 

Kange in Great Britain. An accidental visitor, but one which 



THE REED-WARBLERS. 223 

may very easily have been overlooked and mistaken for the 
Sedge-Warbler. Three authentic instances of its occurrence 
have been recorded, the first specimen having been identified 
by Professor Newton in Mr. Borrer's collection. This bird was 
shot near Hove, in October, 1853. Mr. Harting received a 
second example from Leicestershire, obtained in the summer 
of 1864, and there is a third specimen, killed near Dover, in the 
Museum of the latter town. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Aquatic Warbler breeds 
in most portions of Central Europe, as far as the south of Den- 
mark and the Baltic Provinces, but is of rare occurrence in 
Holland and Belgium, and only visits Northern France on 
migration. It also occurs in Heligoland occasionally. In 
Italy, as well as in Sicily and Sardinia, it breeds, but is recorded 
by Mr. Howard Saunders as an autumn migrant only in 
Spain. In Poland and South Russia it also occurs, reaching 
to the Ural Mountains as high as 56 N. lat. The winter home 
is probably North Africa. 

HaMts. Arrives at its nesting quarters towards the end of 
April, a week or two before the Sedge-Warbler, and breeds a 
little earlier than that bird. Lord Lilford has found it to be 
less of a reed-loving species than the Sedge- Warbler, and Mr. 
Seebohm says that its home is more in the swamps, neglecting 
the large reed-beds, and choosing the ditches, ponds, and banks 
of lakes and rivers, which abound in coarse aquatic vegetation, 
and being especially partial to sedges, in which it delights to 
hide. "Tangled masses of wild-roses, brambles, and thorn- 
bushes are also places where it is often found. Like all its 
congeners it is an active and restless bird, and is remarkably 
cautious and sly, concealing itself on the least approach of dan- 
ger. It is said never to hop, but on a branch or on the ground 
to run almost like a Mouse. The song is described as like that 
of the Sedge-Warbler, but is not so long, and lacks the clear 
flute-like notes of the latter bird." (Seebohm^ I.e.) 

Nest. Placed near the ground, sometimes at a height of a 
foot or so, but never actually upon it, never suspended in reeds, 
but built in a bunch of sedge or water-plants, or in a thorn- or 
willow-bush overgrown with rank herbage. It is suspended 
between the stalks of the adjacent plants, which are woven into 



224 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

its sides. The material consists of coarse grass, with finer grass 
and roots, and always neatly lined with horsehair. Spiders' 
webs, the flowers of the cotton-grass, and occasionally feathers, 
are also used in the construction of the nest. 



3. From four to five. Like the eggs of the Sedge- 
Warbler, next described. Mr. Seebohm says that there is no 
character by which they can be distinguished from the eggs of 
the latter bird, excepting that perhaps they are a trifle smaller, 
and not so yellow in tint. Axis, 0-67-07 inch; diam., 0*5- 
0-52. 

II. THE SEDGE-WARBLER. ACROCEPHALUS PHRAGMITIS. 

(Plate XXL Fig. I.) 

Sylvia phragmitis, Bechst. Orn. Taschenb., p. 186 (1802). 
Calamoherpt phragmiliS) Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 390 (1839). 
Acrocephalus schcznobanus (L.), Newt. ed. Yarr., L, p. 376 
(1873) ; Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 597, pi. 90, fig. 2 (1876). 
Acrocephalus phragmitis, Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 91 
(1881); id. Hist. Br. B., p. 352 (1883); B. O. U. List 
Br. B., p. 20 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. 2 
(1886); Saunders, Man., p. 77 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above russet-brown, with dusky 
brown centres to the feathers, the crown like the back, but the 
rump and upper tail coverts more distinctly tawny and nearly 
uniform ; lesser wing-coverts like the back, the median and 
greater series, as well as the innermost secondaries blackish, 
edged externally with tawny-buff ; primary-coverts brown, 
blackish at the ends, forming an indistinct alar speculum ; 
quills and tail-feathers dark brown, with tawny edgings, the 
latter with faint margins to the tips of the feathers, more dis- 
tinctly seen underneath ; a very well marked eyebrow extend- 
ing from the lores to above the ear-coverts, and accompanied 
by a less defined black band along the side of the crown ; 
lores dusky; ear-coverts dull tawny-buff; throat and centre of 
breast and abdomen white ; fore-neck, chest, and sides of body 
tawny-buff, deepening in colour on the flanks and under tail- 
coverts ; axillaries like the breast ; under wing-coverts white, 
with a slight tinge of tawny-buff; quills dusky below, whitish 
along the edge of the inner web ; bill dark brown above, with 






E XXI 




1 REED WARBLER ?. SEDGE WARBLER 



THE REED-WARBLERS. 



225 



the mandible paler; feet pale brown; iris hazel. Total length, 
5 inches; oilmen, 0-55 ; wing, 2-5 ; tail, 1-85; tarsus, cr8. 

Adult Female. A little duller in colour than the male, and 
less rufous on the rump. Total length, 5 inches; wing, 2-35. 

Young. Similar to the adults, but with a yellowish tinge 
below, and distinguished by dusky triangular spots on the fore- 
neck. 

In Winter Plumage, i.e., after the autumn moult, the general 
colour of the under surface is much more rufescent both in 
young and old birds, the young ones still retaining the spots 
on the fore-neck. The eye-brow is more suffused with buff. 

NOTE. The Sedge-Warbler is easily recognised from the Reed-Warbler 
by its striped upper surface, and by its distinct eyebrow. There are many 
minor characters for differentiation, such as its more slender bill, rufescent 
rump, &c., as well as pronounced distinctions in the song, method of nest- 
ing, colour of eggs, &c. From the Aquatic Warbler the Sedge-Warbler is 
easily recognised by the light band down the centre of the crown and the 
striped rump of the former species. 

Range in Great Britain. A summer visitor, apparently breeding 
everywhere, though becoming more local in the northern parts, 
and not recorded from the Shetlands or the Hebrides. In 
Ireland it is a very well-known visitor throughout the island. 

Kange outside the British Islands. Distributed generally over 
Europe, breeding nearly everywhere, except in some of the 
Mediterranean countries, in the southern portion of which it is 
only known as a migrant. Mr. Howard Saunders says that he did 
not actually find it breeding in Southern Spain, but he has speci- 
mens procured at Malaga as late as the 25th of July. These may 
be, however, early migrants on their way south. To the north- 
ward it has been found as high as 70 N. lat. in Norway, 
but eastwards it does not reach quite such a high latitude, 
occurring near Archangel and again in the Petchora up to 68, 
and on the Ob and Yenesei rivers to 67 N. lat. Dr. Pleske 
states that it is only known as a migrant in the Crimea, but 
nests sparingly in the Caucasus as well as in the Altai moun- 
tains and Northern Turkestan, though in the valley of the 
Amu-Darya and on the western shores of the Caspian it is 
only a migrant. 

The winter home of the Sedge-Warbler is in South Africa, 
i Q 



226 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

whither it migrates apparently by the eastern side of the conti 
nent, as it has been obtained in East Africa on passage. 

HaMts. Although not often seen by the ordinary observer 
the Sedge- Warbler's note is familiar to most dwellers in th 
country, and those who do not know the bird by sight are 
well acquainted with its noisy and chattering song, which can be 
heard from early morning till late at night, and even when dark 
ness has fallen, the Sedge-Warbler and its companion, the Reed 
Warbler, may be heard singing, keeping company with th 
richer notes of the Nightingale. It does not, as its name 
would imply, confine its habitat to the sedges, for it is founc 
in all kinds of situations, seldom very far from water, 
will hunt for food by the side of a lake or river, keeping wel 
out of sight, excepting when it is tempted to ascend to the toj. 
of a reed or small bush and give forth its song as it works its 
way up. It may, however, be just as often met with in a reed] 
ditch, and as often as not in bushes and shrubberies at somi 
little distance from the water, to the neighbourhood of which 
however, it always returns before long. In the autumn th 
family parties frequent the willows and reed-beds in th 
Thames Valley, and the young birds may often be seer 
running, like little Mice, over the masses of dead rushes anc 
plants which collect in some of the reed-beds and back 
waters. The song of the Sedge- Warbler is unmistakable, anc 
is uttered from the depths of its retreat. A stone thrown in tc 
start the bird generally results in setting it off singing, and it i< 
very difficult to dislodge it and drive it into the open. Wher 
not alarmed, however, it may often be seen flying across th 
rivers to the other bank, or taking short excursions to the 
neighbouring hedge-rows. Most of the notes of the song arc 
harsh and not altogether musical, but some of them are ver) 
clear and pleasing. When alarmed it gives vent to a kind o 
li churr"-\\\<g note, especially when anyone approaches the 
vicinity of the nest. 

Nest. This is not suspended between reeds like that of the 
Reed- Warbler, but, when built among the rushes, is either sup- 
ported on dead cross-stems of the latter, or it is placed on an 
overhanging branch. Occasionally it is placed in a bush 
some height from the ground, generally at a little distance 



THE REED- WARBLERS. 227 

from the latter, and more rarely on the ground itself, concealed 
among the herbage. It is an artless structure, somewhat 
shallow, composed of dry grass-stems, pieces of dead water- 
plants, with a little hair for the lining, and some scraps of 
vegetable down. Mr. Robert Read draws our attention to the 
fact that there is nearly always a feather, and sometimes two, 
left projecting over the eggs in the nest, and serving to hide the 
latter from view. This is especially the case when the nest is 
built low down in a damp situation. The nest is often found 
at a considerable distance from any water, sometimes a quarter 
of a mile away. 

Eggs. From four to six in number, and very uniform in ap- 
pearance. The ground-colour is greenish-white, but this is 
seldom to be seen, owing to the uniform clouding of the eggs, 
which vary from olive to brown or stone-grey. The mottlings, 
when present, are yellowish-brown or dark brown, occasionally 
reddish-brown, and there is generally a hair-like line of black 
at the larger end, these pencilled lines being more characteris- 
tic of the uniform clutches than of the mottled ones. Axis, 
o - 7-o'8 inch; diam., o'5-o'55. Mr. Robert Read informs us 
that he has taken eggs of this bird, near Glasgow, of a beauti- 
ful salmon-pink colour. 

III. THE GREAT REED WARBLER. ACROCEPHALUS TURDOIDES. 

Turdus arundinaceus y Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 296 (1766). 
Acroccphalus arundinaceus (L.), Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 364 

(1873) ; Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 379, pi. 88 (1878). 
Acrocephalus turdoidcs (Meyer), Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v. 

p. 95 (iSSi); id. Br. B., i., p. 361 (1883); B. O. U. List 

Br. B., p. 19 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. ii. 

(1886) ; Saunders, Man., p. 75 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above, brown, rather more dingy 
on the head, and a little more rufescent on the lower back and 
rump, and upper tail-coverts ; wing-coverts like the back, the 
bastard-wing darker brown and contrasting with the rest of the 
coverts ; primary-coverts and quills dark brown, edged with 
rufescent-brown ; tail-feathers lighter brown, with whitish 
fringes at the ends, and margined with reddish-brown ; lores, 
sides of face, and ear-coverts ashy-brown, dusky in front of the 

Q 2 



228 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

eye, with a distinct white eyebrow, reaching from the nostrils 
to a little beyond the eye ; eyelid also whitish ; cheeks, throat 
and under surface of body white, the breast and sides of tin 
body tawny-buff, as well as the thighs and under tail-coverts 
under wing-coverts, axillaries, and quill-lining, rich tawny-buff 
bill dark brown, the lower mandible lighter and more yellow a 
the base and at the gape ; feet pale horn-colour ; iris brown 
Total length, 7-8 inches; culmen, o'8 ; wing, 3-6 ; tail, 2-95 
tarsus, 1-3. 

Adult Female. Does n'ot differ from the male in colour 
Total length, 7-5 inches; wing, 3-6. 

In Autumn and Winter Plumage the colours are a little mor 
fulvescent, especially on the eyebrow and on the under 
parts. 

Younj Birds, after the autumn moult, are decidedly mor 
tawny than in summer, and have some indistinct streaks on th 
lower throat and fore-neck. During the nesting season, th 
plumage gets much abraded and worn, so that the throat an 
breast become bleached white, and the narrow whitish tips t 
the quills and tail-feathers wear off. 

Kange in Great Britain. A rare and occasional visitor, th 
authentic instances of its appearance not exceeding half-a 
dozen, while many supposed records are unworthy of credence 
as is the case with all the statements of its breeding in thi 
country. Not that there is any reason why the species shoul 
not do so, for it is common on the Continent in countrie 
almost within sight of England. 

Bange outside the British Islands. The Great Reed-Warbl( 
nests throughout the greater part of Europe south of th 
British Islands and the Baltic, and is only an accidental visito 
to the south of Sweden. On the western shores of the Balti 
Sea it occurs, according to Dr. Pleske, as far north as 59 
W. lat, thence its range tends southward to 54 on the Volgj 
and rises again in the Urals to 57, but the above-named autho 
believes that its frontier line in the Volga district may requir 
rectification in a northerly direction. It breeds as far east as^ 
Turkestan, and through Persia, Asia Minor, and Palestine. To 
the eastward it crosses the range of Acroctphalus stentoreus,\ 



THE REED-WARBLERS. 229 

which is a resident form in Egypt, Persia, Transcaspia, and 
Turkestan. The winter home of the Great Reed- Warbler ex- 
tends south to the Transvaal in Africa, but it would also appear 
to follow many of the river-systems in the last-named continent, 
as the late Mr. Jameson procured it on the Aruwhimi river, 
and it has also been met with on the Lower Congo. 

Habits. In the reed-covered marshes affected by this bird, 
it is very easily discovered by its powerful song and large size, 
which identify it at once when it flies. It often sings as it 
ascends a reed to the top, its note commencing with a harsh 
"caragh) caragh" and then continuing like an enlarged edition 
of the Sedge-Warbler's song. When it has attained to the 
summit of the reed, it finishes its song, and flies off for a 
little distance, again drops like a stone into the reed-bed, and 
commences to sing again. When threading our way through 
the Hansag marshes in Hungary, after the International Con- 
gress of Ornithologists in 1891, we saw and heard numbers of 
these birds, and afterwards obtained specimens in a little patch 
of reeds near the Neusiedier lakes, where there were several 
pairs of them. It has several croaking notes which it intro- 
duces into its song, and it is heard late into the evening. Its 
food consists of insects, but it is also said to feed on elder- 
berries in the autumn. 

Nest. Suspended in reeds, and very skilfully attached to the 
latter. It is made of dead reeds, with a few roots interwoven, 
and lined with grass-stems and the flower of the reed. Some- 
times a little moss or the leaves of other water-plants are 
added. 

Eggs. From four to six in number, and very handsome. 
The ground-colour varies from pale blue to greenish-blue or 
greenish-white, and the eggs are very boldly blotched and 
spotted. The blotches, which are generally at the larger end 
of the egg, are greenish or reddish-brown, sometimes clouding 
the larger end entirely ; in many cases they are so dark 
as to appear almost black. The underlying markings of 
violet-grey are strongly pronounced, and often partake of the 
nature of blotches, almost as large as the brown overlying 
markings. Axis, o'8-ro; diam., o*6-o-65. 



230 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

IV. THE REED-WARBLER. ACROCEPHALUS STREPERUS. 

(Plate XXL, Fig. 2.) 

Sylvia strepera, Vieill., N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xi., p. 182 

(1817). 

Calamoherpe arundinacea, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 395 (1839). 
Acrocephalns strepcrus^ Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 369 (1873); 

Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 567, pi. 87 (1877) ; Seeb., Cat. B. 

Brit Mus., v., p. 102 (iSSi) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 18 

(1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig., Br. B., pt. iii. (1886) ; Saunders, 

Man., p. 71 (1889). 
Acrocephalus arundinaceus, Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 367 (1883). 

Adult Male. General colour rufescent olive-brown, the lower 
back, rump, and upper tail-coverts showing a slight inclination 
to ruddiness in the tint of the brown ; wing-coverts like the 
back, the bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills dusky brown, 
edged with the same colour as the back ; tail-feathers 
brown, edged with lighter brown, and having a faint indication 
of a pale fringe at the tips ; crown slightly more dingy than the 
back, but like the mantle, lores, and ear-coverts dusky brown, 
with a faint streak of whitish above the eye ; cheeks, throat, 
and under-parts white, with a fulvescent tinge on the breast and 
sides of the body, the flanks browner ; under tail-coverts white, 
with a slight fulvous tinge, as also the under wing-coverts, 
axillaries, and quill-lining ; bill dark brown above, the under 
mandible paler ; feet and claws purplish-brown ; iris brown. 
Total length, 5-1 inches; culmen, o'6 ; wing, 2-5; tail, 2-0; 
tarsus, 0-9. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
5-4 inches; wing, 2-5. 

Young. More dingy and reddish-brown than the adults ; the 
under surface of the body fulvescent, and inclining to tawny- 
buff on the flanks ; the throat dingy fulvous ; and the abdo- 
men ashy white. 

Range in Great Britain. Generally distributed over the 
southern and midland counties, becoming somewhat rarer 
in the south-west, but fairly common in Wales. To the 
north it becomes gradually rarer and more local, and authen- 
tic records from Scotland and Ireland are wanting. 



PLATE 




I. SONG-THRUSH 2 BJ.ACKBIRD 



THE REED-WARBLERS. 231 

Range outside the British Islands. The northern limit of the 
range of the Reed-Warbler in Europe appears to be about 58 N. 
lat., but the species extends into Southern Sweden ; else- 
where, below that line, it appears to breed regularly, and appar- 
ently winters in certain of the Mediterranean countries, and 
passes through Egypt and Nubia, but its winter quarters in Africa 
are not yet determined. From the southern part of the 
Baltic Provinces, according to Dr. Pleske, its breeding range 
extends across Russia to the government of Kief, and it 
probably nests in the Crimea, as it certainly does in Trans- 
ca-casia, the eastern districts of the Volga, and the Ural Moun- 
tains, the Transcaspian countries to Turkestan, and the 
southern slopes of the Altai Mountains. Its eastern limit is 
Baluchistan, and we have seen specimens collected by Mr. 
Gumming at Fao, on the Persian Gulf. 

Habits. The Reed- Warbler is common enough in summer 
in the south of England, and is abundant in the Thames 
Valley ; but, from its retiring habits, it is not often seen. Its 
song is, however, a constant feature in a walk by the river-side, 
and is heard not only from the dense reed-beds, but also 
from the willows and alder-trees, in both of which situations 
the nest is often built. In fact, we have more often found 
the nest of the Reed- Warbler in willows near Cookham than 
in reeds, and it is sometimes placed at a considerable height 
from the ground. In the south of England, however, in the 
reed-covered ditches which Mr. Seebohm so well describes as 
the haunt of the Reed- Warbler in his "History of British Birds," 
the nest is nearly always suspended between the stems of 
reeds, and so common is the bird in this locality that he 
found eleven nests in the course of a couple of hours. 

When the weather is hot and the nights calm, the Reed- 
Warbler, like the Nightingale, sings nearly through the night, 
and its song is always more frequently heard towards the 
twilight. It resembles that of the Sedge- Warbler, and is of 
the same chattering nature, but is not so loud or so harsh in 
quality. As a rule, the bird is an inveterate skulker, and 
seldom quits its retreat, unless driven from it by repeated 
efforts, and its presence is generally made known only by its 
song, or by the shaking of the reeds as it hops from one to 



2 3 2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

the other. When the young are able to fly, however, the 
Reed- Warblers are often to be seen in the bushes, accom- 
panied by their families, and in certain places they form quite 
a little colony, the old birds feeding the young of the second 
brood, while the first brood are flying about in the neighbour- 
hood also. The species is even said to nest far away from 
water ; and Mr. Mitford says that he has known them to build 
in lilac-bushes in his garden at Hampstead. 

Nest. Made of dry grass and roots, with a little wool or 
thistle-down. When built in the reeds, some of the latter are 
generally intertwined in the nest. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. Ground-colour, 
greenish-white or greyish-white, and thickly mottled and 
spotted with greenish-brown, often collecting round the larger 
end of the egg, and forming a broad ring. The underlying 
spots of violet-grey are so mixed with the overlying mark- 
ings as to be difficult of observation, but they are in reality 
very numerously represented. Axis, 07-075 inch; diam., 



V. THE MARSH-WARBLER. ACROCEPHALUS PALUSTRIS. 

Sylvia palustris, Bechst, Orn. Taschenb., p. 186 (1802). 
Acrocephalus palustris, Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 573, pi. 87, 

fig. 2 (1876); Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 101 

(1881); id. Br. B., i., p. 375 (1883); B. O. U. List Br. 

B., p. 19 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. iii. (1886); 

Saunders, Man., p. 93 (1889). 

Adult Male. Similar to the Reed- Warbler, and very difficult 
to distinguish from that species, but it may be recognised by 
the olive tone of the plumage, which does not show the red- 
dish-brown colour of the rump, which is always more or less 
perceptible in the Reed- Warbler. The feet are also said to be 
pale horn-brown, instead of slaty-brown as in the last-named 
bird. Mr. Se^bohm gives the measurements of the wing in the 
Reed- Warbler as from 2*35-27 inches,and of the Marsh- Warbler 
from 2 '45 to 2*8 ; but we find that in the few undoubted speci- 
mens of the latter bird in the British Museum the wing is de- 
cidedly longer in A. palustris than in A. streperus, and extends 
further down the tail; that is to say, its tip reaches to at least two- 






THE REED-WARBLERS. 233 

thirds of the extent of the tail, so as to be almost level with the out- 
stretched feet ; whereas in A. streperus the wing is much shorter, 
only reaching about half the extent of the tail, and falling far 
short of the outstretched feet. These characters depend much 
upon the preparation of the skins ; but we have compared only 
those which seem to have their natural proportions preserved. 
The colour of the legs, said to be different in life, is not visible 
in the dried skin, and the character which seems to us to be the 
most constant is the olive-colour of the upper-parts in A.palustris 
and the want of the rufous shade on the lower back and rump. 
Many specimens presented to the British Museum as Marsh- 
Warblers seem to us to be only Reed- Warblers after all. ( Cf. 
also Saunders, Man., p. 93). Total length of A. palustris, 5-5 
inches ; wing, 2-9. The proportions of the quills are the same in 
both species, the bastard-primary not reaching beyond the 
primary coverts, and the second primary exceeding the fifth in 
length. We have carefully gone over the series of both these 
Reed- Warblers in the British Museum, and endorse Mr. Howard 
Saunders' definition of the Marsh- Warbler as being more of a 
" greenish olive-brown " in tint, with a sulphur-buff instead of 
rufous-buff colour on the flanks and upper breast. The same 
observer says that the feet are pale brownish flesh- colour in 
life instead of being purplish-brown. 

Range in Great Britain. At present only known from a few 
isolated instances of its capture, and identified more by the 
eggs and the nest than by actual birds shot in this country. 
It may, however, occur more frequently than has been sup- 
posed, and it is quite possible that Marsh-Warblers are doing 
duty for Reed- Warblers in many collections, as the two birds 
are so difficult to separate. It is said to visit the vicinity of 
Taunton, in Somersetshire, every spring, and the nest has 
been taken in Oxfordshire and near Bath, and also in Cam- 
bridgeshire. Mr. Robert Read has three nests and eggs taken 
near Yeovil. Mr. Saunders says that he has seen an undoubted 
nest of this bird in Mr. Bond's collection, but we agree that 
the birds which our late friend presented to us at the Museum 
as " Marsh "-Warblers from the above-mentioned county are 
really only Reed- Warblers. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Marsh-Warbler occupies 



2 34 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

in Europe almost exactly the same range as its congener, the 
Reed- Warbler, and breeds everywhere south of Denmark and 
the Baltic Provinces, but is a somewhat less western bird in its 
distribution, as there are parts of Western France whence the 
bird is not recorded, and no examples have yet been identified 
from the Spanish peninsula. Its eastward range is given by 
Dr. Pleske as reaching to the Ural Mountains and to the govern- 
ment of Ekaterinburg. Mr. Seebohm considers that it ranges 
further to Turkestan and Persia, but more information and a 
larger series of specimens are needed for the correct definition 
of the range of this species. It is said to winter in N.E. Africa 
as far as the Equatorial Provinces, and it reaches Natal on its 
winter journey. With regard to the occurrence of the species 
in Africa, we have re-examined the specimen shot by Captain 
Shelley in Natal, and there is little question that we have 
rightly identified the species. 

Habits. Arrives in its nesting quarters about the middle o 
May, and departs at the end of August. The bird is said to 
be much more restless than the Reed-Warbler, sitting in the 
open and singing, and taking long flights from tree to tree. Its 
song is superior to that of the allied species, and much more 
melodious, being, according to Mr. Seebohm, almost as rich as 
that of the Nightingale, and decidedly more varied, though not 
so loud. Sometimes, he adds, we might imagine that we were 
listening to the song of a Reed- Warbler with an unusually rich 
voice; but more often the melody recalls the song of the 
Swallow, the Lark, or that of the Tree- Warblers ; while we 
might also come to the conclusion that the singer had hac 
lessons from a Nightingale or a Bluethroat. 

Nest. According to Naumann, the nest is never placed over 
water, but always on more or less firm ground, so that it can 
always be reached by the hand, if the situation chosen be by the 
side of a stream. The nest is often placed at some little distance 
from the water in low bushes overgrown with reeds, or in nettles 
and other water-plants. If the Reed- Warbler is found in the 
same neighbourhood, as is often the case, the nests of the two 
species are differently situated, the Marsh-Warbler's being in 
the herbage near the water, the Reed- Warbler's in the reeds 
over the water. The nest is composed of round grass-stalks 



THE GRASSHOPPER WARBLERS. 235 

and lined with horsehair ; in some nests a little moss or dry 
leaves are occasionally found. 

Eggs. From five to seven in number. Many of the eggs 
referred to this species, and said to resemble those of the Reed- 
Warbler are undoubtedly nothing but light varieties of the 
eggs of the latter bird. The eggs of the Marsh- Warbler are 
in fact unmistakable, being of a china-white or greenish-white 
ground, with the underlying markings of violet-grey or pur- 
plish-grey, very strongly developed, and quite as prominent as 
the overlying spots. These consist of greenish-brown blotches, 
sometimes light brown, and with purplish-black spots in strong 
contrast. Axis, o"j-o'S inch; diam., o'5-o'55. 

THE GRASSHOPPER WARBLERS. GENUS LOCUSTELLA. 

Locustella^ Kaup, Natiirl. Syst., p. 115 (1829). 

Type, L. navia (Bodd.). 

The species of Locustella^ of which some eight different kinds 
are known, are all inhabitants of the Pabearctic Region, breed- 
ing in the northern parts, and wintering in Africa, India, and 
the Burmese countries, and even as far to the south-east as the 
Molucca Islands. 

They very much resemble the Reed- Warblers in structure 
and general appearance, but they have a more rounded tail, 
the outer feathers being very much shorter than the centre 
ones, and the under tail-coverts are very long. The bill is 
slender and not flattened ; the rictal bristles are weak and 
scarcely perceptible. The first primary is very small, and does 
not reach to the end of the primary-coverts, and the second 
primary-quill is the longest 

I. THE GRASSHOPPER WARBLER. LOCUSTELLA N^EVIA. 

MotadUa navia, Bodd., Tabl. PI. enl., p. 35 (1783). 
Sylvia locustella^ Lath., Ind. Orn., ii., p. 515 (1790). 
Sibilatrix locustella^ Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 399 (1839). 
Acrocephalus ncevius^ Newt. ed. Yarn, i., p. 384 (1874); 

Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 611, pi. 91 (1874). 
Locustella locustella, Seeb., Cat. Brit. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 115 

(1881); id. Br. B., i., p. 340 (1883). 



236 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Locustella nczvia, B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 20 (1883) ; Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. ix. (1888); Saunders, Man., p. 81 
(1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above olive-brown, all the 
feathers centred with dark brown, producing a mottled ap- 
pearance, the markings being smaller on the head, almost 
obsolete on the sides of the neck, and not very distinct on the 
lower back and rump, disappearing entirely on the upper tail- 
coverts ; lesser and median wing-coverts like the back, the 
greater series, as well as the primary-coverts and quills, dusky- 
brown, externally olive-brown, the margins rather broader on 
the innermost secondaries ; tail feathers dark brown, with 
olive-brown margins, and ribbed across with dusky bars, very 
distinct in certain lights ; lores and sides of face dark brown ; 
over the eye a very faint line of whitish ; cheeks, throat, centre 
of breast and abdomen whitish ; the sides of the throat, breast, 
and sides of the body brown, washed with buff; under tail- 
coverts buffy-white, with dark centres; axillaries and under 
wing-coverts ashy-fulvous, the latter with dusky centres ; bill 
dark brown, paler on the lower mandible ; feet flesh-colour or 
pale brown ; iris clear brown. Total length, 5*3 inches ; cul- 
men, 0-5 ; wing, 2*3 ; tail, 2'o ; tarsus, 0-85. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour and markings, 
but somewhat warmer brown above, and more fulvescent 
below. Total length, 5*4 inches; wing, 2*4. 

Young. Slightly more rufescent and not so clear olive-brown 
above than the adults, and tinged with sulphur-yellow on the 
throat and breast, with numerous tiny spots of blackish-brown on 
the lower throat and fore-neck ; the under tail-coverts are ru- 
fescent, with ashy whitish tips and dark brown centres to the 
feathers. Even after the spring moult there are often remains 
of the stripes on the fore-neck, and the under parts are dis- 
tinctly suffused with yellow. Such specimens are probably 
birds of the previous year. 

NOTE. The Grasshopper Warbler is easily recognised by its striped 
back and olive-brown colour. The only Warblers, therefore, with which 
it might be at first confused are the Sedge- Warbler and Aquatic Warbler, 
both of which have striped backs. They are, moreover, not only more 



THE GRASSHOPPER WARBLERS. 237 

tawny-coloured birds, but can be recognised at once by their broad whitish 
eyebrow. The obsolete rictal bristles and the more graduated tail also 
serve to distinguish a Locustdla. 

Range in Great Britain. Found in summer nesting throughout 
the greater part of England and Wales, and being numerous 
in the northern counties of Northumberland and Durham, while 
it becomes rarer further north, though its range is known to ex- 
tend to Arisaig below the Sound of Sleat, according to Mr. 
Howard Saunders, and further to the Isle of Skye. In Ireland 
it is also found, and breeds in the eastern and southern districts. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Nests throughout Central 
Europe to the south of the Baltic and throughout Central and 
Southern Russia, on the northern slope of the Caucasus, 
according to Pleske, who says that it also extends to Turkes- 
tan and the southern slope of the Altai Mountains. It is 
supposed to winter in Northern Africa, and also in Southern 
Europe ; but it has not been recorded from Greece or Asia 
Minor, is only known to occur on migration in Italy, only an 
autumn and winter bird in Southern Spain, as stated by Mr. 
Howard Saunders. 

HaMts. This bird is a greater skulker than any of the othei 
Warblers, and it is more difficult to procure than any of them. Its 
nest is always well concealed, and the actions of the bird are more 
like those of a Mouse, as it threads its way through the grass, 
when disturbed from its home. It is, therefore, one of those 
species whose presence would never be detected were it not 
for its extraordinary song, which resembles the note of a Grass- 
hopper, except that it is more powerful and is continued for a 
longer period, sometimes for as long as two minutes together. 
Mr. Seebohm does not agree that the sound is ventriloquial, 
but we have always found it to be somewhat difficult to trace 
down on the few occasions that we have noticed the species in 
Berkshire, and it is certainly the case with the allied species, 
LocustellafluviatiliS) in Hungary. The Grasshopper Warbler 
is sometimes found in considerable numbers together on its 
arrival in spring, and Mr. Gates records the same fact with 
some of the Eastern species, which winter in Burma. Even 
in the nesting season many pairs frequent the same district. 

The species is sometimes to be observed in the early morn- 



238 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

ing, when it ascends to the top of a reed or bush to utter its 
monotonous song, which is often to be heard in the twilight, 
and even after darkness has set in. It by no means affects 
entirely marshy or even swampy places, though the fens of 
Cambridgeshire are still one of the strongholds of the species in 
England \ but it is often found in shady plantations or frequent- 
ing hedgerows. The flight is uncertain and dipping, the bird 
carrying its tail spread and depressed, and dropping suddenly 
into the densest herbage, where it creeps away like a Mouse. 

Nest. On the ground or close to it, and occasionally ap- 
proached by a kind of "run," or "creep," as Lord Lilford calls 
it, but it is as often situated in a clump of grass, or at the 
bottom of a hedgerow, and is by no means invariably well- 
concealed, though, as a rule, it is very difficult to find, unless 
its site is betrayed by the flight of the hen-bird from the nest. In 
Somersetshire, the nest, so Mr. Robert Read tells us, is found 
amongst clover and vetches, and one nest in his collection was 
built in a large stalk of cow-parsnip. He has also found it in 
hawthorn- or blackthorn-bushes in a site similar to that of the 
Common Whitethroat. 

Eggs. From four to seven. Pinkish in general appearance, 
sprinkled all over with dots of reddish-brown, and varying in 
shape from round to long ovals. The grey underlying mark- 
ings consist of dots which are sprinkled in exactly the same 
manner as the overlying ones. Occasionally the effect is very 
dark, the eggs appearing nearly uniform pinkish-brown, while 
others are very light, showing the white ground very distinctly, 
and having the spots collected round the larger end so as to 
form a ring. Axis, 0-65-0-8 inch ; diam. 0-5-0-6. 

II. SAVI'S WARBLER, LOCUSTELLA LUSCINIOIDES. 

Svlvia luscinioideS) Savi, Nuovo Giorn. de Letterati, vii., p. 341, 
(1824). 

Acrocephalus lusdnioides^ Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 389 (1874). 

Locustella lusdnioides^ Dresser, B. Eur. ii., p. 627, pi. 93 
(1875); Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 112 (1881), id 
Br. B. i., p. 346 (1883); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 21 
(1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. ii. (1886); Saunders, 
Man,, p. 83 (1889). 



THE GRASSHOPPER WARBLERS. 239 

Adult Male. General colour above, uniform russet-brown, the 
wing-coverts like the back ; quills sepia-brown, externally 
russet-brown, like the back ; the outer edge of the bastard- 
wing feathers and the first long primary (/>., second quill) 
ashy ; tail dark brown, slightly paler on the margins, and 
ribbed with dusky cross-bars under certain lights ; head like 
the back ; sides of face lighter brown than the head ; eyelid 
and a faint eyebrow whitish ; cheeks, throat, and centre of 
breast and abdomen dull white; lower throat and chest, as 
well as the sides of the body and under tail-coverts, pale 
fulvous-brown, deepening on the flanks and under tail-coverts ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries light fulvous-brown, like the 
breast ; quills dusky-brown below, ashy along the inner webs ; 
bill dark brown, the lower mandible paler and light horn-brown ; 
feet clear horn-colour, yellowish-brown in skin; iris yellowish 
brown. Total length, 5*8 inches; culmen, 0*55; wing, 2*5; 
tail, 2'2 ; tarsus, 0*9. 

Adult Female. Somewhat darker and more rufous-brown than 
the male, especially on the under surface of the body. Total 
length, 57 inches, wing, 27. 

NOTE. Although it is not very probable that a specimen of Savi's 
Warbler will again be captured in England, a few notes as to its distinctive 
characters may be useful. Although it agrees with the Grasshopper 
Warbler in having the rictal bristles nearly obsolete and in the graduated 
tail, it is always recognisable from that species by its uniform plumage and 
generally more russet colour. In the uniformity of the upper surface it 
approaches, therefore, the Reed-Warblers (Acrocephalus), but, in addition 
to the different structure of the tail, Savi's Warbler may always be dis- 
tinguished by the vinous buff or reddish colour of the lower flanks and 
under tail-coverts, while it is of a much darker brown above than any of 
the true Reed- Warblers* 

Range in Great Britain. Formerly a regular visitor to the Fen 
districts of England, but no longer to be found there, owing to 
the drainage and reclamation of the meres, which it inhabited. 
It appears never to have been an abundant species, and British- 
killed examples exist in very few collections. Its breeding 
places were confined to the counties of Norfolk, Cambridge- 
shire, and Huntingdonshire, and the last recorded instance of 
its occurrence in England was in Norfolk in June, 1856. 

Range outside the British Islands^ Locally distributed through 



240 



LLOYD S NATURAL HISTORY. 



Central and Southern Europe, wherever its peculiar kind of 
habitat still exists, but in Holland, where the bird was once 
common, the same causes of its restriction have been at work, 
and, owing to the extensive drainage of recent years, it 
become much rarer. 

It inhabits the Camargue in Southern France, is found again 
in Andalucia in Spain, in Tuscany and Venetia in Italy, in 
Austrian Galicia, and from Poland through Central and 
Southern Russia, east to the Delta of the Volga, and occurring 
also in Transcaspia and Turkestan, whence the specimens are 
somewhat paler in colour. In Palestine it has been once 
noticed by Canon Tristram, but in the Egyptian Delta is not 
rare, and it breeds in the marshes of Algeria and Morocco, 
and, according to Canon Tristram, in the oases of the Sahara, 
as far south as 32 N. lat. 

Habits. Savi's Warbler is said to be less shy than the other 
species of Reed-Warbler, and does not sing so much at night 
as the latter. Its song, which is a monotonous whirr, is to be 
heard all day when the weather is fine, but the bird becomes 
silent if the weather is boisterous or the nights are cold. It 
frequents large reed-beds, and diligently climbs up reed after 
reed, but is only to be seen when it perches on the top of one 
of them to run off its monotonous reel, as Mr. Seebohm puts 
it. The call-note is a short Krr. From its note it used to be 
called the "Red Craking Reed- Wren" or "Reel-bird" by the fen- 
men, just as the Grasshopper Warbler is called the " Reeler " 
at the present day. From the account of the bird's habits 
published by Count Casimir Wodzicki we learn that both sexes I 
take part in the construction of the nest, and the male takes j 
part in the duties of incubation. It is a decidedly quarrel- 
some bird. 

Nest. As with other Reed-Warblers, the nest is carefull] 
concealed. It is not, however, suspended on reeds, but is 
placed on the tangled blades, or in a tuft of spiky rush, and 
according to Count Wodzicki, resembles that of a miniature 
Crake. It is a compound of flat leaves of grass, generally "sweet 
grass," with narrower leaves for the lining. The English nest 
in the British Museum is entirely composed of dead rushes and 






THE THRUSHES. 241 



flags, beautiful and compactly intertwined. The lining is also 
of twisted reeds, which, with the exception of a fragment of 
moss, seem to constitute the entire material of which the nest 
is composed. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. Ground-colour dull 
white or brownish-white, thickly sprinkled with light brown 
overlying and violet-grey underlying spots, which collect round 
the larger end of the egg, and form a more or less defined dark 
zone. In many of the eggs the dark appearance of the large 
end is due to the predominance of the underlying spots. Axis 
o'75-o'S inch ; diam., o'55-O'6. 

THE THRUSHES. FAMILY TURDID^. 

The Thrushes are by many naturalists considered to be thr 
highest of all birds in the natural system, on account of their 
powers of song, which place them at the head of the " Oscincs? 
or " songsters." They are certainly highly-developed birds, and 
possess great perfection of structure. Many of them evince 
affinities with the Flycatchers, while others are allied to Warblers. 
There is, however, one character which separates the Thrushes 
from the latter family, and that is the spotted plumage of the 
young birds, a peculiar feature, by which we learn that the 
Nightingale, the Robin, and the Chats are all Thrushes, 
though for so many years they have been associated with the 
Warblers in works on natural history. The latter birds, too, 
have a double moult, in autumn and again in spring, whereas 
the Thrushes moult but once in the year, viz., in the autumn, 
when the young birds throw off their spotted plumage and 
assume that of the adults. 

The tarsus in the Turdidcz is plain on both aspects, with the 
entire laminae smooth and without scutellations, though in a 
few instances young birds show a slight tendency to a scute, 
but this only occurs in a very few species. 

Thrushes may be said to be cosmopolitan in their range, and 
they occur even in the Pacific Islands, where very few forms 
which flourish in the Palaearctic and Nearctic Regions find a 
home. In fact, the Thrushes are even more universally distri- 
buted over the earth's surface than the Crows. In America, 



Robins and Chats, Nightingales and Redstarts are wanting, 
but their places are taken by the Blue-Birds (SiaZia) and other 
forms. 

The bill in the Turdidce varies considerably in shape, being 
sometimes flattened and beset with many bristles like a Fly- 
catcher's, but the nostrils are always exposed, not covered with 
hairs as in the last-named family. There is a slightly-indicated 
notch near the end of the upper mandible. 

The family has been divided by Mr. Seebohm, who has mad( 
the Turdidce. his special study, into two main groups, one with 
a white pattern extending across the under surface of the wings 
and the second without any such patch. The genus Oreocichla 
with White's Thrush, and GeocichZa, with the Siberian Thrush 
come under the first heading. All the other Thrushes are 
divided by him into three sections, i, the True Thrushes 
Turdus, in which both male and female are alike in plumage 

2, the Blackbirds, in which the sexes differ in colour; am 

3, the Robins, Chats, and Redstarts, in which the sexes ma] 
or may not differ in colour, but in which the bill is dark, not 
pale as in the Blackbird group. Mr. Gates separates the 
Turdidce into five sub-families, but the characters are some 
what artificial, and we do not agree with his conclusions 
entirely. (Cf. Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind. Birds, ii., p. 57.) 

THE GOLDEN THRUSHES. GENUS OREOCICHLA. 

Oreocichla, Gould, P. Z. S., 1837, p. 145. 

Type, O. varia (Pall.). 

There is a certain character in the mottled plumage of 
W'hite's Thrush and its allies which separates them from all 
the other members of the family, and renders it convenient to 
recognise them as belonging to a separate genus from Turdns 
and Merula. They have the white pattern on the inner face of 
the wing, as in the Ground-Thrushes (Geocichla), and, as in the 
latter birds, the axillaries are of a different colour from the 
under wing-coverts. The sexes are alike in colour, and the 
under surface of the body is "lunulated," with distinct spots: 
or bars. The rictal bristles are few and lateral. 

Of the genus Oreocichla about a dozen species are known, 
all of the same peculiar type, and most of them confined to the 






THE GOLDEN THRUSHES. 243 

Indian and Australian regions, and the species inhabiting these 
areas are mostly stationary, or at best only slightly migratory 
within the limits of the regions they inhabit. White's Thrush, 
which comes to England occasionally, is, on the contrary, 
a decidedly migratory bird, breeding in Eastern Siberia, and 
wending its way south in winter to Japan, South China, and 
the Philippines. It has fourteen tail feathers instead of 
twelve, as in the majority of Thrushes, a peculiarity which 
it shares with Oreodchla horsfieldii of Java and O. hancii of 
Formosa. 

i. WHITE'S THRUSH. OREOCICHLA VARIA. 

Turdus varius, Pall. Zoogr., Rosso-Asiat, i., p. 449 (1811); 
Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 146 (1839); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 251 
(1872); Dresser, B.Eur.,ii.,p 77, pi 10(1878) j B. O. U. 

List Br. B., p. 3 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig Br. B., pt. iii. 
(1886); Saunders, Man., p. u (1889). 

Geodchla vart'a, Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 151 (1881); 
id. Br. B., i., p. 200(1883). 

Adult Male. General colour above ochreous-brown, varied 
with black circular margins to the feathers, all of which have 
whitish shaft-lines, and a golden-buff subterminal shade ; this 
banded plumage somewhat closer on the head, and the spots 
smaller; lesser wing-coverts like the back, the median- coverts 
blackish, with broad ochraceous ends; the greater series blackish, 
externally paler brown, with slightly indicated buff tips; bastard- 
wing-feathers light brown ; primary-coverts brown at bases, golden- 
buff in the centre, and black at the ends, forming a well-marked 
pattern on the wing ; quills brown, the primaries light brown 
at the base, the feathers being here ochreous-brown externally, 
the centre of the primaries dark brown nearly to the edge, and 
the pale edge increasing towards the end of the quills ; the 
secondaries blackish with a tip of golden buff, and with an in- 
dentation of ochreous-buff on the margin near the end; four 
centre tail-feathers (fourteen in number) light brown, without pale 
tips, the rest blackish, externally ochreous-brown, the feathers 
tipped with white, the outer ones more broadly ; sides of face 
pale ochreous-buff, the feathers edged with black, and a black 
spot behind the ear-coverts ; cheeks white, spotted with black, 

R 2 



244 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

and having a narrow moustachial line of black ; throat white, 
as also the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; the fore-neck, 
breast, and sides of body with crescent-shaped black edges, 
before which is a subterminal shade of golden-buff, narrower 
than on the upper surface; sides of the upper breast light 
brown with white shaft-lines and the same margins as the rest 
of the flanks ; under wing-coverts black, the axillaries white 
with the terminal half black ; quills dusky brown below, with 
a broad white band across the base of the inner web of the 
quills ; bill dark brown, paler below ; feet yellowish brown ; iris 
dark brown. Total length, ii'8 inches; culmen, i'i ; wing, 6 '4; 
tail, 4-1; tarsus, 1-35. 

Adult Female. Similar in plumage to the male. Total length, 
ii inches; wing, 6.0. 

Eange in Great Britain. An accidental visitor in late autumn 
and winter. The species has occurred at least a dozen times 
or more, most of the captures having been made in England, 
but one instance is known from Berwickshire, and three from 
Ireland. The first time that it was met with in England was 
in 1828, when a specimen obtained in Hampshire was described 
as Turdus whitei by Eyton, who believed it to be a new species, 
and named it in honour of Gilbert White of Selborne. The 
title of White's Thrush, thus acquired, has been universally 
recognised by British naturalists, and may well commemorate 
the name of an observer of bird-life, than whom no one is more 
venerated in this country at the present day. 

Range outside the British Islands. White's Thrush is a Siberian 
bird, breeding in the south-eastern and south-central districts 
of Siberia, in China north of the Yangtze, and probably in 
Japan. It winters in Southern China and the Philippine 
Islands, and it is at the latter season of the year that specimens 
occur in Europe. The species has been obtained in Norway 
and Sweden and as far south as Italy and the Pyrenees, but it 
is in Heligoland that it most frequently occurs, and no one j 
who has visited that island can forget the sight of the beautiful | 
specimens in Gaetke's Museum, all in perfect plumage, andi 
mounted by the hands of the old naturalist himself. 

Habits. Not much has been recorded of the habits of 
White's Thrush beyond the fact that it seems to be essentially! 



THE GROUND-THRUSHES. 245 

a ground-bird, searching for its food in humid situations, 
among the dead leaves under the trees and shrubs. Its 
golden-spangled plumage serves to conceal it, and it seems to 
frequent in England, when it occurs, similar situations to those 
it affects in its native home. Its food consists, as with most 
other Thrushes, of worms and grubs, spiders and snails, and as 
it is not a noisy species, it may easily be overlooked. In autumn 
it feeds also on berries. Whether it has a song has never been 
yet recorded, but such is doubtless the case. 

Nest. The only authentic nest of White's Thrush yet recorded 
was obtained near Ningpo,in China, by the late Consul Swinhoe, 
and is now in Mr. Seebohm's collection. He describes it as 
follows : " It was built on a fork of a horizontal pine-branch, 
and is about 2^ inches deep inside, and about 4 inches deep 
outside, 7 inches in outer and 4^ inches in inner diameter. 
The outside is composed of withered rushes, fine and coarse 
grass and moss, with an occasional twig and withered leaf, and 
plastered most copiously with mud. Here and there are a few 
pieces of some green wood, apparently conveyed in the mud 
from the swamps. The inside is lined with a thick coating of 
mud like the nests of our own Ring-Ouzel or Blackbird ; and 
is then finally lined with fibrous rootlets, quite as coarse as 
those which the Magpie uses, and one or two pieces of sedgy 
grass. In general appearance the nest resembles most closely 
that of a Common Magpie without the sticks just the mere 
cup, and is far more coarsely made than the nests of the true 
Thrushes." 

Eggs. These, according to Mr. Seebohm, are greenish-white, 
with minute reddish spots. They most resemble those of the 
Mistle Thrush, but the ground-colour is slightly paler, and 
the spots much finer, more numerous, and more evenly dis- 
tributed. They measure 1*2 inch in length and 0-9 inch in 
breadth. 

THE GROUND-THRUSHES. GENUS GEOCICHLA. 
Geocichla^ Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1837, p. 174. 

Type, G. rubecula (Gould). 
The members of this genus are birds of somewhat varie- 



246 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY, 

gated plumage, differing in the colour of the sexes, and having 
the same white patch on the inner face of the wing as in 
Oreocichla, but not possessing the golden banded plumage of 
the latter genus. The axillaries, however, are of the same 
type as in the Golden Thrushes, being exactly the opposite of 
the under wing-coverts i.e., if the under wing-coverts are 
black with white tips, the axillaries are white with black tips. 
The GeocichlcR are inhabitants of the African, Indian, Eastern 
Palasarctic, and Malayan Regions. One species from America, 
Georichla navia, is included by Mr. Seebohm in the genus. 



I. THE SIBERIAN GROUND-THRUSH. GEOCICHLA SIBIRICA. 

Turdus sibiricus, Pall. Reis. Russ. Reichs., iii., p. 694 (1776); 

Saunders, Man., p. 12 (1889). 
Geocichla sibirica, Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 180 (1881); 

id. Br. B., i., p. 204 (1883), 

Adult Male. General colour above dark slaty-grey ; the 
feathers paler slaty-grey on the margins ; wing-coverts like 
the back; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and quills dark 
brown, externally slaty-grey ; centre tail-feathers like the back, 
the remainder black, washed with slaty-grey on their outer 
edges, the two outer feathers white at the tips ; head a little 
darker than the back, relieved by a very broad white eyebrow, 
which extends to the sides of the nape; lores dusky; ear- 
coverts and sides of face slaty-black ; under surface of 
body slaty-grey, a little more dusky on the throat, and paler 
on the sides of the body and flanks ; centre of breast and 
abdomen pure white, the under tail-coverts white, mottled 
with slaty-grey bases ; thighs slaty-grey ; under wing-coverts 
black ; edge of wing white ; axillaries white, with dusky black 
tips ; quills blackish below, the base of the inner webs white, 
forming a broad band ; bill black ; tarsus in front, toes and 
claws greenish-yellow, the hinder aspect of the tarsus dirty 
yellow ; iris brown. Total length, 9 inches ; culmen, 0*8 ; wing, 
4-65 : tail, 3'i ; tarsus, i'i. 

Adult Female. General colour above warm olive-brown, in- 
clining to slaty brown on the lower back and rump; wing-coverts 



THE GROUND-THRUSHES. 247 

russet-brown ; quills dusky brown, externally russet-brown, with 
a pale margin to the first primary ; tail-feathers dusky brown, 
with a russet tinge, the two outer ones with a tiny spot of white 
at the tip ; head a little more russet than the back, the eye- 
stripe fulvous and not so distinct as in the male ; ear-coverts 
ochreous-buff mottled with blackish edgings to the feathers ; 
cheeks ochraceous with a blackish line above and below, form- 
ing a distinct moustachial streak ; under surface of body ochra- 
ceous, whiter on the throat, which is spotted with dusky ; the 
fore-neck and breast slightly more rufous, and mottled with 
blackish subterminal bars to the feathers, less marked on the 
sides of the body and flanks ; lower breast and abdomen pure 
white ; thighs brown ; under tail-coverts white, with dusky 
bases ; under wing-coverts ochraceous brown ; axillaries white 
with brown tips ; quills dusky below with the wing-band bufly- 
white j " bill dark brown, the lower mandible and gape dirty 
yellow to the angle of the gape ; feet and claws orange-yellow ; 
iris dark brown." ( W. Damson.) Total length, 9 inches ; cul- 
men, o'8; wing, 4-5 ; tail, 3-0; tarsus, 1-05. 

Young birds of the year may be distinguished by the pale ochre 
tips to the wing-coverts. 

Range in Great Britain. The late Mr. Frederic Bond pos- 
sessed a specimen of this bird, which was sold to him 
by a dealer as a variety of the Redwing, which had been 
killed between Guildford and Godalming in the winter of 
1 860-6 1. Mr. Bond thoroughly believed in its genuineness, 
and the specimen was one of the few which he wished to come 
to the British Museum on his death, and which he bequeathed 
to that institution in his will. Mr. Saunders has reason to 
believe that a second example was picked up exhausted at Bon- 
church, in the Isle of Wight, in the winter of 1874, but he does 
not consider the evidence good enough to include the species 
in the British List. After all, however, there is nothing so 
wonderful in the occasional visit of this bird to Great Britain, 
as it has occurred in several countries of Europe, and Mr. See- 
bohm very aptly draws attention to the fact that thirty years 
ago it would not have been easy for any dealer to have obtained 
a specimen of the Siberian Thrush, even if he had wished to 
palm it off as British-killed, so rare was the bird in collections 



248 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

at that date. Again, it must be remembered that this specimen 
was sold to Mr. Bond, not as a Siberian Thrush, but as a 
melanistic variety of the Redwing. Under these circumstances 
we think that the bird has a claim to be admitted into the List 
of British Birds, as a very rare and occasional visitor. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Siberian Ground-Thrush 
breeds in the valleys of the Lena and the Yenesei, between 67 
and 68 N. lat, and also near Yokohama, in Japan. Its winter 
quarters are in Southern China, Burma, and Tenasserim, and it 
ranges as far as Sumatra and Java. It also straggles to Europe, 
for, besides the reputed British occurrence, it has been captured 
in Germany on more than one occasion, and has been also re- 
corded from France, Belgium, Italy, and Turkey. 

Habits. Scarcely anything has been recorded of the habits 
of this species. Mr. Seebohm tells how he met with the bird 
in Siberia, not far from the village of Koorayika, on the Arctic 
Circle, but it was so shy and wary that he did not succeed in 
shooting a specimen till the igth of June. In a dense birch 
plantation, where the snow had recently melted and had left 
exposed a dense bed of leaves, the accumulations of some years, 
he saw a dark bird with a white eyebrow engaged in searching 
for food amongst the dead leaves. He managed to secure the 
specimen, which proved to be a Siberian Ground-Thrush, and 
he also saw others, but could not procure any more examples. 
The natives told him that it was not uncommon near Tooro- 
kansk during the breeding season, and was called the " Chbrnoi 
Drozht? or " Black Thrush." In Japan, Mr. Jouy found it 
equally shy, frequenting the dense woods on Fuji-yama as high 
as 5,000 feet. It has a fine song, and is a favourite cage-bird 
with the Japanese. 

Nest. Not yet described. 

Eggs. A clutch of three eggs are in the Seebohm collection, 
obtained by the late Harry Fryer in Japan. The ground-colour 
is bluish-green, and the eggs are spotted all over with reddish- 
brown, in Blackbird fashion. The underlying spots are slightly 
lighter brown, but are scarcely distinguishable from the over- 
lying ones. Axis, 1^05 inch; diam., 0*8. 



THE BLACKBIRDS. 



249 



THE BLACKBIRDS. GENUS MERULA. 

Manila, Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm. and Birds, Brit. Mus., p. 20 
(1816). 

Type, M. merula (Linn.). 

The separation of the genus Merula from the genus Turdus 
is rather difficult to justify, as in structure the two genera are 
almost identical, and the character most to be relied on, viz., 
the difference in the colour of the sexes, is not found to exist 
in a few species, which, nevertheless, must be considered to 
belong to the " Blackbird " group of Turdidce. As far as the 
European species are concerned, however, the distinctions are 
well marked, and the difference in the colour of the sexes 
separates the Blackbirds from the Thrushes. They resemble 
the latter in not having the white pattern on the inner face of 
the wing, and are thus easily distinguished from Oreodchla and 
Geodchla. The members of the genus Merula are distributed 
over the Palaearctic, Indian, and Australian regions, being 
confined in the latter to various Pacific Islands. In the 
Neotropical Region nearly twenty species occur, but the genus 
is unrepresented in the Nearctic Region. 

I. THE BLACKBIRD. MERULA MERULA. 
(Plate XXII., Fig. 2.) 

Turdus merula, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 295 (1766); Macg., Br. 

B., ii., p. Si (1839); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 280 (1872); 

Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 91, pi. 13 (1872); B. O. U. List 

Br. B., p. 4 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. vii. 

(1888); Saunders, Man., p. 13 (1889); Wyatt, Br. B., pi. 

i., figs. 3-4 (1894). 
Merula merula. Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 235 (1881); 

id. Br. B, i, p. 235 (1883). 

Adalt Male. Entirely black above and below, and including 
the wings and tail ; bill orange-yellow ; feet and claws dark 
brown or black ; iris hazel ; eyelid orange. Total length, 10*5 
inches; oilmen, 0-9; wing, 5-0; tail, 3*8; tarsus, 1*3. 

Adult Female. Differs considerably from the male, being 
browner, and mottled underneath. The general colour is 



250 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

blackish-brown, washed slightly with dark olive ; the tail black ; 
ear-coverts dark brown, with pale shaft-lines ; throat and chest 
rufous, mottled with black, the feathers having longitudinal 
black centres, widening out at the ends ; breast and rest of 
under surface of body blackish. 

With age, the female bird becomes much greyer, especially 
underneath, when the breast and abdomen are hoary-grey, 
the throat whitish, regularly streaked with rows of brown spots ; 
the chest pale rufous. The bill in old birds inclines to 
yellow. 

Young. Rufous-brown, mottled with pale rufous centres to 
the feathers of the upper parts, imparting a streaked ap- 
pearance, less distinct on the head ; the median and greater 
coverts like the back, and similarly streaked; greater-coverts 
chocolate-brown ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and quills 
blackish-brown ; lores rufous-brown ; ear-coverts dark brown, 
with hair-like shafts of rufous ; cheeks and under surface of 
body reddish-buff, the throat spotted with blackish-brown at 
the tips of the feathers, the breast and sides of the body barred 
with blackish-brown ; breast and abdomen uniform pale 
rufous ; thighs brown ; under tail-coverts black, with rufous 
tips. 

At first both male and female are alike, but the darker 
colour of the former is shown after the autumn moult, when, 
however, there are still some rufous mottlings on the throat 
and chest. The bill also is black, and even when the birds 
gain their entire black plumage, the young of the previous 
year can always be recognised by the browner wings. 

Eange in Great Britain. Generally distributed and breeding 
everywhere throughout the three kingdoms, but only known as 
an autumn and winter visitor to some of the Outer Hebrides 
and the Shetland Isles. It is said to be gradually extending its 
range northward in Scotland. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Almost universally met with 
throughout Europe, and inhabiting the whole of the countries 
on both sides of the Mediterranean from Palestine on the east 
to the Azores, the Canaries, and Madeira on the west. The 
northern range of the Blackbird in Scandinavia extends up to 



THE BLACKBIRDS. 251 

the Arctic Circle, about 67 N. lat., but it has not yet been 
found in Northern Russia, where its range is said to be bounded 
by the valley cf the Volga. Further east, in Turkestan, Afghani- 
stan, and Cashmere, its place is taken by a larger race, Merula 
maxima, which has a wing of 5 ^ or 6 inches. 

Habits. Except in spring-time, when the Blackbird is seen 
and heard more frequently than at other times of the year, it 
is a shy and retiring bird, seeking its food among the dead 
itaves in thickets and hedgerows, or inhabiting the evergreen 
shrubberies. Its well-known chattering note as it flies away, 
when startled, is familiar to everyone, as also are the beautiful 
flute-like notes, which are heard on all sides at the commence- 
ment of the nesting season. In England the Blackbird does 
not seem to be found so much in the centre of the towns as it 
is in some of the Continental cities, but it is a frequent denizen 
of the suburbs, and may often be seen in the London parks. 
It is to a certain extent migratory even in England, and large 
numbers come from the Continent every autumn, while on the 
south coast we have noticed many together in September, 
evidently about to cross the Channel, and we have seen at 
least a dozen fly out of a little patch of reeds in a ditch, where 
they had been feeding in company. With such exceptions, the 
Blackbird cannot be called gregarious, and, as a rule, each bird 
seems to feed on its own account, and flies off separately, when 
disturbed. 

The food of the Blackbird consists chiefly of insects and 
worms, but it also devours numbers of small snails, breaking 
the shells by repeated blows against a stone or on the ground. 
It is also a well-known pilferer of fruit, and undoubtedly does 
some damage in this respect, a crime which is never atoned for 
in the eyes of the gardener by the good which it does in 
destroying numbers of grubs and insects during the rest of the 
year. To the ordinary individual, however, the sight of the 
bird and the pleasure of hearing its tuneful song at all hours 
of the day, amply atone for any harm which it may do in the 
fruit-gardens, and we know several friends who will not have 
the birds disturbed or their nests harried in their grounds, 
holding that they are welcome to some of the fruit, in return 
for the charm which their presence affords. In a circumscribed 



252 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

area, however, it is quite possible for the Blackbird to be 
somewhat of a nuisance, for it is extremely quarrelsome, not 
only fighting with others of its own species, but driving off 
other birds which seek to feed or to nest near its own particular 
domain. In most places, however, where the birds are cared 
for, they live in peace with the Thrushes and other neighbours, 
remembering perhaps that they have shared the same friendly 
hospitality during the hard days of winter, and been sustained 
by the same friendly hands. Thus there is no prettier sight 
than to see the Blackbirds in summer descending gently and 
with a sweeping flight on to a lawn, and as they alight, raising 
their tail gracefully, before proceeding to search for worms. 
This action of the tail is characteristic of the Blackbird, and is 
not seen in the Thrushes under similar circumstances. 

Nest. This is found in all kinds of situations, sometimes 
well concealed and hidden in the recesses of an evergreen or 
yew-tree, at others built in such exposed situations as to ensure 
discovery. The outside of the nest is often ragged, and the out- 
lying grasses and twigs often lead to its detection. It is a firm 
and compactly-built structure, and is placed in the thick stems 
of an ivy trunk or against the trunk of a big tree, often in the 
middle of a park or on the edge of a plantation, and at a good 
distance from the ground, while at other times it is to be found 
near the dense bottom of a hedge-row, and has even been found 
under the eaves of a shed, or amongst the roots of a large tree, 
or under a bank, in just such a situation as a Wren would choose, 
according to Mr. Seebohm. The latter gentleman observes : 
" The nest passes through three stages before it is completed. 
It is composed first of coarse grasses, amongst which a few 
twigs are sometimes woven, a little moss, and dry leaves. This 
somewhat loosely-built structure is lined with mud or clay, 
when it is a difficult matter to distinguish it from an unfinished 
nest of the Song-Thrush. This mud-formed cavity is finally 
lined very thickly with finer grasses, admirably arranged, and 
forming a smooth bed for the eggs." Mr. Robert Read tells 
us that he once found a Blackbird's nest at Blackheath very 
early in the spring, in which the bird had laid a single egg. A 
spell of frost and snow supervened, and no more eggs were 
deposited for a fortnight, when mild weather once more set in, 



THE BLACKBIRDS. 2$3 

and two more eggs were laid precisely similar to the first, and 
evidently by the same bird 

Eggs. From four to six .n number. The eggs vary to any 
extent in colour and shape. The ground-colour is greenish- 
blue and the overlying markings are reddish-brown, arranged 
as spots or blotches, sometimes so thickly that the egg appears 
reddish, but the blotches are often collected at the larger end. 
From this type of egg, which is the ordinary one, every varia- 
tion seems to take place, some eggs being so minutely spotted 
with reddish-brown as to recall those of the Jay, while not 
unfrequently they are so sparsely spotted as to appear almost 
entirely blue, and are sometimes actually blue. Those in a 
clutch from Waterford, in the Seebohm collection, have the 
ground-colour white instead of blue, and the markings light 
reddish-brown. (Plate xxxi., fig. 6.) 

II. THE RING-OUZEL. MERULA TORQUATA. 

Turdns torquatuS) Linn., Syst. Nat, i. ; p. 296 (1766); Macg., 
Br. B., ii., p. 100 (1839); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 287 
(1872); Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 113, pis. 14, 15 (1872); 
B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 5 (1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. 
B., pt. i (1885); Saunders, Man., p. 15 (1889). 

Merula torquata, Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 246 (1881) ; 
id. Br. B., i., p. 243(1883). 

Adult Male. General colour above sooty-black, the lesser 
wing-coverts like the back ; median and greater coverts, 
primary-coverts, and quills brownish-black, with narrow fringes 
of ashy on the outer web, scarcely visible on the bastard-wing 
feathers, which are blackish ; tail-feathers blackish-brown, with 
a slight fringe of whitish at the tips of the feathers ; sides of 
head, throat, and under surface of body sooty-black, with 
narrow whitish margins to the feathers of the breast and 
abdomen, thighs and under tail-coverts ; across the fore-neck a 
broad band of white, slightly shaded with brown, and reaching 
to the sides of the neck ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
a;hy-brown, barred with dull white at the ends and towards the 
tips of the feathers ; quills dusky below, ashy along the inner 
webs ; bill yellow ; feet and claws brawn ; iris dark brown. 



254 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Total length, 10 inches; culmen, 0-9; wing, 5-4; tail, 3*8; 
tarsus, 1-3. 

Adult Female. Rather browner than the male, and havii\ 
faint remains of pale margins to the feathers of the upper sur 
face ; the under surface more distinctly varied than in the 
male, and not so uniform, the feathers edged with ashy-whit 
on the throat as well as the breast ; the white gorget over- 
shaded with brown margins to the feathers. Total length, 10 
inches; wing, 5-3. 

Young birds after the autumn moult are thickly covered below 
with greyish-white margins to the feathers, the white gorget 
being almost obscured with brown, especially in the young 
females. 

Nestlings. Blackish, with obscure reddish-brown edgings to 
the feathers, and the wing-coverts streaked down the centre 
with white ; there is no indication of a chest-band, the chest 
being black, the feathers edged with sandy-buff ; the breast and 
abdomen barred with black and buffy-brown or white ; the 
throat clear buff, spotted with black. 

Ban ge in Great Britain. A summer visitor only, inhabiting the 
hilly districts of all three kingdoms, from Cornwall to Somer- 
setshire, and found throughout the higher ground of England 
and Wales, and almost the whole of Scotland and the outlying 
islands, except the Shetlands, which it only visits on rare occa- 
sions. 

Range outside the British Islands. Until quite recently there 
was believed to exist but one species of Ring-Ouzel in Europe, 
but the attention of ornithologists having been drawn by Dr. 
Stejneger to the fact that the Ring-Ouzel of the Alps and 
mountains of Central Europe was really a distinct species from 
the bird which breeds in England and Scandinavia, this sub- 
ject was investigated by Mr. Seebohm and Count Salvador!. 
Both of them confirm the distinctness of the southern bird, 
which must be known as Merula alpestris, Brehm, while Mr. 
Seebohm considers the Ring-Ouzel of the Caucasus to be still 
further different, and to be worthy of separation as Merula 
orientalis. 

The Ring-Ouzel which visits Great Britain in summer is, 
therefore, found on the continent in Scandinavia up to about 



THE BLACKBIRDS. 255 

58 N. lat, and breeds also in Northern Germany, on this 
side of the Riesenberge and Silesia, and it is probably our 
bird which nests in Guelderland in Holland and in Southern 
Belgium. Mr. Seebohm likewise considers that the Ring- 
Ouzel of the Vosges mountains will be found to be M. tor- 
qitata ; but as Mr. Howard Saunders found M. alpestris 
in the Jura, nesting at a height of from fifteen to forty 
feet, the bird of the Vosges will certainly be the same 
as that of the Jura. The latter form, which is distinguished 
by white centres ^o the feathers of the under parts (in ad- 
dition to the whr.e margins) is found in the Alps and the 
Apennines in Italy, and breeds in suitable places in Germany 
south of the Riesenberge and Silesia. In Transylvania Mr. 
Danford has found its nest not near the ground, but at a 
height of forty feet in a tree, so that the habits of the Alpine 
Ring-Ouzel evidently differ from those of its northern ally. 
It is probably M. alpestris which breeds in the Pyrenees and 
the mountains of Spain, but whether it is M. torquata which 
extends east to the Urals can only be determined by an ex- 
amination of specimens. In winter our bird appears to visit 
the countries of the Mediterranean and shares the winter-home 
of M. alpestris. 

Habits. The Ring-Ouzel is a bird of the moors and fells, and is 
rarely seen in the south-east of England, except during its migra- 
tions, when it is often to be observed near Brighton in the 
gardens near the town, resting for a short time on its southern 
journey. In most of its habits the Ring-Ouzel resembles the 
Blackbird, and has the same habit of elevating its tail, when it 
alights on the ground or perches. The song is also a harsh 
echo of the Blackbird's, though it is said to resemble those of 
the Starling and Song-Thrush in a certain degree ; it is, how- 
ever, inferior to that of both the Blackbird and Song-Thrush, 
and contains many rough notes not uttered by the two birds 
last-named. The food of the Ring-Ouzel consists of worms, 
snails, and beetles, while in autumn it feeds on all kinds of 
berries in its northern home and harries the vineyards of the 
countries through which it passes on its way south. In 
Heligoland at the end of September we found the Ring-Ouzel 
passing in some numbers, and they were plentiful for a few 
days in the bushes and grass on "Sandy " Island. They were 



256 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

very shy and not easily induced to fly. Some of them, on 
being disturbed more than once, mounted high into the air and 
flew straight away towards the coast of Germany. 

Nest. A compactly-built structure, formed exactly on the 
same lines as a Blackbird's, and built gradually, in the same 
way. There is, in fact, nothing by which the nest can be 
identified from that of the ordinary Blackbird, except its 
situation, which is generally different from that of the last- 
named bird. The Ring-Ouzel generally places its nest on the 
ground, but also in bushes of heather or ling, especially on 
banks where the heather conceals it. Occasionally a hole in a 
rock is selected. 

Eggs. Four or five in number. Mr. Robert Read tells us 
that in Scotland he has never found more than four in a nest, 
though in the north of England six are often met with. The 
eggs are generally like those of the Blackbird, but are more 
richly marked, and with a clearer blue ground. Equal variation 
in markings takes place to that which obtains in a series of 
Blackbird's eggs. In some the ground-colour is pale bluish, 
with the reddish markings small and distributed over the whole 
egg. Others are brighter blue, and these have the markings 
generally larger, and in the form of blotches. Others have the 
ground-colour greenish-olive, and in these, again, the reddish 
markings are large. Only a few eggs have a collection of spots 
at the larger end, and in all the underlying spots are never 
prominent, being of a lighter reddish-brown colour. Axis, i'i- 
1-3 inch; diam., 0-8-0-9. 

III. THE BLACK-THROATED OUZEL. MERULA ATRIGULARIS. 

Turdus atrogularis, Temm., Man. d'Orn., i., p. 169 (1820); 

Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 276 (1872); Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 

83, pi. n (1878); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 2 (1883); 

Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. ii. (1886); Saunders, Man., 

p. 9 (1889). 
Mtrula atrigulariS) Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 267 (iSSi) ; 

id. Br. B., i., p. 249 (1883). 

Adult Male. General colour above light olive-brown, the 
wing-coverts like the back ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and 






THE BLACKBIRDS. 257 

quills dusky-brown, externally washed with olive-brown, more 
broadly on the inner secondaries, where the olive colour occu- 
pies the outer web and forms a contrast to the dark brown of 
the inner web ; all the quills with pale fringes at the tips, more 
distinct on the inner secondaries ; the primaries edged with 
ashy towards the end of the outer web ; tail-feathers dark 
brown, with pale fringes to the tips ; crown of head more ashy- 
olive than the back, with the centres of the feathers rather 
darker ; lores, feathers in front of and below the eye, fore part 
of cheeks, throat and chest black ; the ear-coverts and hinder 
cheeks dark ashy-olive, like the sides of the neck, the latter 
slightly mixed with black ; breast and abdomen white, the 
sides of the body and flanks greyish, with a few dusky streaks 
on the sides of the upper breast ; thighs light ashy-brown ; 
under tail-coverts white, with brown bases ; axillaries and under 
wing-coverts rich chestnut, the former edged with white ; edge 
of wing white ; lower primary-coverts dusky, like the under sur- 
face of the quills, which are reddish along the inner web ; bill 
blackish-brown, dusky yellow at the base of the lower mandible ; 
feet and claws greyish-brown ; iris blackish-brown. Total 
length, 10 inches; oilmen, 0*8 ; wing, 5-4; tail, 37; tarsus, 
1-25. 

Adult Female. Different from the male, and lacking the black 
on the face, throat, and chest ; ear-coverts and sides of face 
ashy-olive, with a faint whitish eyebrow; cheeks and throat 
white, with dusky blackish spots on the cheeks, sides of throat 
and fore-neck ; breast and sides of body ashy-brown, streaked 
with dusky brown ; axillaries and under wing-coverts orange- 
chestnut. Total length, 9 inches ; wing, 5'i. 

Range in Great Britain. A very rare visitor, having only been 
identified once, when a young male was shot near Lewes on 
the 2 3rd of December, 1868, and passed into the collection of 
Mr. T. J. Monk. As the species has been several times ob- 
tained at various places on the continent of Europe it may 
j occur more frequently in the British Islands than has been 
| generally supposed. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Black-throated Ouzel 
I is a Siberian bird, breeding in the valley of the Yenesei, and 



258 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Mr. Seebohm thinks, in that of the River Ob also. It also 
nests on the Altai mountains, and in the mountains of Eastern 
Turkestan, and probably in the higher portions of the Hima- 
layan chain. In winter it is found plentifully in the latter range 
as far as Assam, and occurs at this season of the year in Afghan- 
istan and Baluchistan, as well as in Eastern Turkestan. It is on 
its autumn migration that it wanders into Europe, where it has 
been obtained in several countries, Russia, Denmark, Germany, 
Belgium, France, and Italy. 

Habits. As might be expected, little has been recorded of 
the habits of this Ouzel. Mr. Seebohm writes : " I met wit 
it twice in the valley of the Yenesay, on my return journey fro: 
the Arctic Regions, between 60 and 63 N. lat, early in August. 
I found it a very noisy, active bird. I was too late for the eggs 
but the not fully-fledged young, three of which I secured, wen 
a source of great anxiety to their parents, whose alarm-note 
resounded on the skirts of the forest on every side. The] 
principally frequented the neighbourhood of the villages on th 
banks of the river, where the forest had been cut down for fire 
wood, and clumps of small trees were scattered over the rougl 
pastures, where the cattle of the peasants are turned out t 
graze in the summer. They showed a marked preference fo 
the pines, and were very wary. The males kept out of gun 
shot, and I only secured one adult bird, a female. In it 
winter home it frequents a variety of situations, affecting in 
Eastern Turkestan, according to Dr. Scully, the trees lining the 
watercourses or growing near tanks, or it may be seen amongst! 
the sand-hills and scrub-jungle. In India it is found in the; 
more open woods at a level of from 3,000 to 8,000 feet, or it 
may be seen in the roads and pathways. Near Gwadar, in 
Baluchistan, Mr. Blanford found it frequenting the miserable! 
apologies for gardens in that ' most desolate of inhabited spotsj 
on the earth's surface.' The food of this Thrush consists oij 
worms and insects, and doubtless small snails, varied in autumni 
and winter with a diet of fruit and berries. In Eastern Tur 
kestan it is known as the * Jigda-churr, or ' Jigda-eater,' as Dr 
Scully informs us, from its feeding on the Eleagnus berries 
known as 'Trebizond dates,' and called 'Jigda' in Turki." 

Kest Not yet described. 



THE TRUE THRUSHES. 259 

. These are stated to be similar to and to vary as 
much as those of the Blackbird, and measure i*i5-i*2 inch 
in length, and from 0*7 5-0 '8 in breadth. 

THE TRUE THRUSHES. GENUS TURDUS. 

Turdus, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 291 (1766). 

Type, T. viscivorus, Linn. 

The birds which constitute the genus Turdus number among 
them the Thrushes best known to us, such as the Song-Thrush, 
and Mistle-Thrush, the Redwing, and the Fieldfare. In all of 
these species of the genus the sexes are alike in plumage, and 
the breast is spotted, while the young birds are also spotted on 
the back. This spotted back is lost after the first autumn 
moult, when the plumage is like that of the old birds, the only 
sign of immaturity being seen on the wing-coverts, which 
have a slight indication of a pale spot at their ends. Rictal 
bristles are evident, and the tarsus has both its laminae smooth, 
though in some young birds there is a tendency to a division 
by a single scale or two. The True Thrushes are plentifully 
represented in the Neotropical Region, fairly so in all other 
regions except the Indo-Malayan sub-region and the Australian 
region, where no True Thrushes occur. 

I. THE REDWING. TURDUS ILIACUS. 

Turdus t'tiacus, Linn., S. N., i., p. 292 (1766); Macg., Br. B., 
ii., p. 141 (1839); Newt. ed. Yarn, i., p. 268 (1872); 
Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 35, pi. 3 (1872); Seeb., Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., v., p. 189 (1881); id. Hist. Br. B., i., p. 220 
(1883) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 2 (1883) ; Lilford, Col. 
Fig. Br. B., pt. i. (1885) ; Saunders, Man., p. 5 (1889). 
Adult Male. General colour above olive-brown, the lesser 
| wing-coverts like the back; the median and greater coverts 
rker brown, edged with lighter brown, and tipped with buffy- 
lite, more distinctly on the latter, the inner greater coverts 
irgined with reddish-brown ; bastard-wing dark brown ; 
imary-coverts and quills dark brown, edged with lighter and 
)re ashy-brown, with narrow whitish fringes near the tips; 
"-feathers light olive-brown, shaded with ashy on the middle 
[feathers, and showing obsolete cross-bars under certain lights ; 

s 2 



260 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

head a trifle darker than the back, with a distinct eyebrow 
of white, inclining to buffy-white above the ear- coverts; 
lores, sides of face, and ear-coverts dark brown, streaked 
with buff below the eye and on the centre of the ear- 
coverts, which have pale shaft-streaks ; cheeks dull white, 
spotted with dark brown, and widening into a patch on the 
sides of the neck, which incline to golden-buff; a very dis- 
tinct moustachial line of blackish-brown ; under surface o 
body dull white, spotted with dusky brown on the chin, 
streaked on the upper throat very distinctly, but more broadly 
on the fore-neck, breast, and sides of the body ; on the lower 
throat a white space ; centre of breast, abdomen, and under 
tail-coverts, dull white, unspotted, but the latter with con 
cealed brown centres ; sides of body washed with rich chest 
nut ; under wing-coverts entirely of this colour ; quills dusky 
below, ashy along the edge of the inner web ; bill dark brown 
the lower mandible dull yellow towards the base; feet anc 
claws yellowish-brown; iris brown. Total length, 8*5 inches 
oilmen, 07; wing, 4-45; tail, 3-1 ; tarsus, i-i. 

Adult Female Similar to the male. Total length, 8 inches 
wing, 4-3. 

During the breeding season the light edges to the wing-coverts 
become abraded, and the spots on the breast become more 
distinct, as the edges of the feathers are worn off. 

Young. Resembles the adult, but has some pale tips to the: 
median and greater wing-coverts. 

NOTE. It seems rather absurd that the Redwing should be confoundedj 
with the Song-Thrush, but that this is frequently done, we can bear witness, 
from the number of instances in which the latter bird has been broughtj 
to us at the British Museum during the last twenty years, to prove that the 
Redwing really nests in this country. It may, therefore, be pointed out; 
that the Redwing has a broad white eyebrow and dark brown ear-coverts^ 
and has the sides of the body and the under wing-coverts and axillariea 
ruddy chestnut, and not golden buffvs in the Song-Thrush. 

Range in Great Britain. A regular autumn and winter visitant! 
arriving sometimes as early as the month of August, and stay! 
ing till March or early in April. The male described abovtj 
was obtained by the late Henry Swaysland, near Brighton, 01 .1 






THE TRUE THRUSHES. 261 



the ioth of April, 18833 very late sojourn. In winter, it 
gradually spreads over the three kingdoms as the season 
advances, arriving on the east coast from Scandinavia and 
then spreading westwards. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Redwing breeds through- 
out the greater part of the northern Palasarctic Region, from 
Norway to the valley of the Yenesei, east of which it becomes 
rare. Mr. Seebohm fixes the limit of its breeding range as the 
110 meridian. In Scandinavia it breeds up to the Arctic 
Circle, and in the Petchora Valley up to 68. Mr. Seebohm 
also found it in the Yenesei Valley, about lat. 71, nesting on 
the ground beyond the limit of forest growth. It has been found 
by Mr. Hartert breeding in Eastern Prussia, and has been said 
to nest in Poland, Austrian Galizia, and in the Harz Mountains. 
To the westward the Redwing breeds in Iceland, and has 
straggled even as far as Greenland ; it has also been known to 
breed on the Faeroe Islands, but all the supposed instances of 
its nesting in England may be set aside as not authenticated. 
In winter the bird wanders far, to the Mediterranean countries 
and North Africa, visiting also Southern Russia, Persia, and 
apparently North-western India, while in Siberia it reaches 
Lake Baikal. 

Habits. In winter the Redwing is a common object in this 
| country, and has all the manners of a Song-Thrush, excepting 
that it is gregarious, arriving in flocks, and remaining in 
| parties during the whole of the cold season. These frequent 
| the pastures, when there is no snow to prevent their feeding, 
land there they may be seen running along. like a Thrush, and 
ever and anon stopping, after a short run, to listen. As a 
rule the Redwings are very shy, and are not easily approached 
in mild weather, as one or two sentinels are posted on the 
topmost branches of the bare trees, and on the smallest alarm 
!the whole flock flies up and settles on the top of a tree, 
whence the birds fly off one by one, uttering their single 
I whispering note as they go. It is very seldom that they are 
peard to sing in this country. The Redwing suffers much 
jrom a continuance of cold weather, when the berries, to which 
[jit turns for food, become exhausted, and numbers perish of cold 
md starvation. They do not thrive on the food placed out for 






262 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

the other Thrushes and Blackbirds, although, in their distress, 
they become very tame, and we remember a little flock of 
eleven birds coming to the kitchen-door of our house at 
Chiswick a few winters ago, for several days in succession. 
Several of them were caught, with their breast-bones nearly 
through their skin, but all efforts to keep them alive failed 
The bird seems to be less able to accommodate itself to a diet 
of berries than the Mistle-Thrush and the Fieldfare, though 
we have known them, when hard-pressed, to feed on holly- anc 
ivy-berries. 

In its breeding haunts the Redwing is a very interesting 
bird, and though not nesting in colonies, it is generally to be 
found along with the Fieldfares, which do breed in numbers 
together. The nest is generally placed on a small fir-tree, close 
to the stem and not far from the ground ; sometimes it is 
placed actually on the latter, as is always the case in the 
Siberian " tundra " beyond the limit of forest-growth. In the 
latter locality it breeds as late as the middle of July, but 
further south generally early in June. 

Nest. This, according to Mr. Seebohm, passes through 
three stages of construction, like that of all Thrushes. H< 
says : "The birds form a loose nest of moss, dry grass, and a 
few fine twigs intertwined, the better to bind the materials to- 
gether. This structure is then lined and plastered with muc 
or clay, and finally a thick lining is made of fine dry grass, anc 
sometimes a few rootlets. It is neatly made, and somewha 
resembles the nest of the Ring-Ouzel, though it is smaller and 
perhaps more firmly put together. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. These are easily dis 
tinguished by their small size. Axis, 0-95-1 '05 inch; diam. 
07-0-8. The ground-colour is bluish-green, but is much con 
cealed by the clouding of the reddish markings which cove 
nearly the whole of the egg.' Occasionally the spots am 
blotches are larger, and the eggs then resemble those of a 
small Blackbird. Some eggs have such a uniform appearance 
as to appear almost entirely olive, while there is also an 
appearance of pencilled lines at the larger end. 












THE TRUE THRUSHES. 263 



II. THE SONG-THRUSH, TURDUS MUSICUS, 
(Plate XX '//., Fig. I.) 

Turdus musicuS) Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 292 (1766); Macg., 
Br. B., ii., p. 127 (1839); Dresser, B. Eur., i., p. 191, pi. 2 
(1871) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 264 (1872); Seeb., Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., v., p. 191 (1881) ; idfBr. B., i., p. 213 (1883) ; 
B. O. U. List Br. B.,p. i (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br.B., 
pt. i. (1885) ; Saunders, Man., p. 3 (1889); Wyatt, Br. B. 
pi. i., fig. i (1894). 

Adult Male. General colour above olive-brown ; the lesser 
ring-coverts like the back ; median and greater coverts, as 
well as the quills, dark brown, externally ochraceous-brown, 
with yellowish-buff tips to the coverts, distinct on the median 
series, but less marked on the greater coverts ; bastard-wing 
feathers and primary-coverts blackish at the ends ; the primary- 
quills lighter near the base of the outer webs; tail-feathers 
ruddy-brown; head like the back, the eyelid and lores buff; 
ear-coverts ochreous-brown, streaked with buffy-white and 
tipped with black ; cheeks buffy-white, minutely spotted with 
black, which forms a line above and below, the latter indicat- 
ing a moustachial line ; throat white, tinged with golden-buff; 
fore-neck, chest, and sides of body bright golden-buff, thickly 
marked with triangular or ovate spots of black, which become 
larger and more streaked on the sides of the body ; centre of 
breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts white, the latter with 
olive-brown margins ; flanks washed with olive-brown ; thighs 
ochraceous-buff; under wing-coverts and axillaries deep orange; 
quills dusky below, ochreous along the inner web ; bill dark 
brown, pale towards the base of the lower mandible; feet pale 
yellowish horn-colour; iris brown. Total length, 9 inches; 
culmen, 075; wing, 4*5 ; tail, 3^2 ; tarsus, 1*2. 

Adult Female. Does not differ in plumage from the male. 
Total length, 8-5 inches ; wing, 4*4. 

Young- More rufous than the adults, and having the feathers 
of the upper surface and the wing-coverts broadly edged with 
golden-buff: there is a spot of golden-buff on the ear-coverts 



2(5 4 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

and the yellow of the under parts is much deeper and the spots 
smaller than in the adults. 

Range in Great Britain. Breeds everywhere throughout the 
British Islands, but has not yet been known to nest in the 
Shetlands. The birds from the Outer Hebrides are said to be 
smaller and darker than those from the mainland. In autumn 
a considerable migration of Thrushes takes place, many of our 
home-bred birds moving southward, while many more visit 
us from the Continent. 

Range outside the British Islands. Breeds generally throughout 
the Palaearctic Region to the valley of the Yenesei. In 
Norway it is found slightly beyond the Arctic Circle, but 
in Siberia it only occurs up to about lat. 60. In the 
Jura, the Pyrenees, and Northern Spain, the Song-Thrush 
breeds high up in the mountains, but in Southern Europe 
it is better known as a winter visitor: it also winters in 
North Africa, but is said to have occurred as far south as 
Nubia. To the eastward it comes in winter to the Persian 
Gulf. In Northern and Western China it is replaced by 
Turdus auritus, which differs slightly in colour and has the 
second primary shorter than the sixth, whereas in T. musicus 
it is longer than the fifth. 

Habits, With the exception of the Robin and the Blackbird, 
the Song-Thrush is probably the most familiar species to all 
people in these islands, for it is not only found universally, 
but is such a general favourite that it is everywhere prized as a 
cage-bird. There is scarcely any excuse, however, for keeping 
this pretty songster in a cage, for it is so common that its song 
can be heard in every kind of situation throughout the country, 
and is much more freely given in the wild state. It is, in the 
opinion of most people, by far the finest songster that we have, 
for, if it lacks the richness of tone of the Nightingale and some 
of the Warblers, the song is far more sustained and varied. The 
clever attempt of Macgillivray to put its song into words is 
familiar to most of my readers, and need no longer be re- 
produced, and though this is one of the best word-imitations 
of a bird's song ever published, it does not give a full idea of 
that of the Thrush, for the simple reason that the bird never 
sings its song in the same order consecutively. When the 



THE TRUE THRUSHES. 265 

winter season shows its first signs of passing away, the Thrush 
begins to sing, and very soon the pair of birds are busy with 
their nest, so that it is not uncommon to see young birds by 
the end of March or the beginning of April. Cold weather 
ensuing stills the bird's song, and during a rainless spring it is 
to be heard less frequently, as the birds find sufficient employ- 
ment in seeking food for the young. They will quarter a 
lawn from end to end in search of worms, often the two 
parent birds in company, and it is amusing to see how one 
will copy the actions of the other. When one runs a few 
steps and halts, the other bird follows suit. After a little run, they 
wait with their head on one side, listening attentively, and then 
with a sudden bound they seize a worm and drag it out. 
The next process is to break the worm up, and when this is 
successfully accomplished the parent flies off to the nest to 
feed the youngsters. As soon as the latter can fly, they 
accompany the old birds and dog their footsteps, till their 
pertinacity must be somewhat of a nuisance ; but it is a pretty 
sight to see an old Thrush teaching one of its progeny to pick 
up a worm for itself. Having drawn the unwilling prey from 
the grass and broken it up so that there is no fear of its 
crawling away, the old bird places it before the young one, 
and pecks at the worm to show the latter how to take it up 
for itself. It then taps the bill of the youngster and lays 
the worm again in front of it, till the little one begins to feed 
itself. 

Both male and female sit upon the eggs, but the chief share 
falls to the female, and often, when she comes off to feed, the 
male bird drives her back to the nest, as is done also both by 
Blackbirds and Starlings, especially by the latter bird. When 
the young are first hatched, both male and female are inde- 
fatigable in searching for food for them, and this business 
occupies so much of their time that the male has no leisure to 
sing until the evening, unlike the Blackbird, who varies his 
marital duties by an occasional song, challenged thereto, 
maybe, by the notes of a rival cock-bird in a neighbouring 
wood or garden; but even then his beautiful mellow notes 
are spoiled by a sudden break off into a subdued cackle or a 
cat-like " mew." Not so with the Thrush. When he sings 
he means business, and a spring shower is enough to make 



2 66 



every Thrush forget the cares of his family, and betake him- 
self to the branch of a tree to sing lustily for a considerable 
time. 

The Song-Thrush is a tame and confiding bird, and does 
not forget the friends who feed and protect it during the 
winter. Like the Starling, it keeps to the vicinity of the 
houses where food is provided for it during the hard weather, 
and makes its nest in the adjoining trees or ivy. When the 
young are able to fly, they accompany the parent birds and 
feed on the lawns and paths. They devour numbers of insects, 
worms, and especially snails, the shells of which they break 
against a stone or on the hard ground, apparently selecting 
a special spot for this purpose. In the autumn, like other 
Thrushes, they feed largely on fruit. 

Nest. This is a bulky structure, with a lining quite different 
to that of the Blackbird's nest. It is composed of grass, with 
a little moss and twigs ; it is then thickly coated inside with 
mud or clay, to which is finally added a second lining of de- 
cayed wood. This is applied in a wet state, and is smoothed 
by the pressure of the bird's body, and sometimes even before 
it is dry the eggs are laid, but generally a day or two are 
allowed to elapse for the nest to dry before the eggs are 
deposited. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. Their beautiful blue 
colour is well known to everyone, and the eggs are spotted 
with purplish-brown or black, more rarely with reddish-brown. 
Eggs without spots are not uncommon, and in the British 
Museum are two eggs which have the ground-colour china- 
white with rufous markings. Axis, i'o5-i'2 inch; diam., o'S-o'g. 
Our friend Mr. Robert Read tells us that he once found eight 
eggs in a wood at Durham, which from their colour he judged 
to be the product of two females, as there were two sets of 
four each. He has found four spotless eggs and one normal 
one in the same nest. The occurrence of the eight eggs 
together apparently laid by two hen-birds is interesting, as it is 
known that occasionally the birds build two nests in con- 
junction. (Plate xxx., fig. i.) 



THE TRUE THRUSHES. 267 

III. THE MISTLE-THRUSH. TURDUS VISCIVORUS. 

irdus visdvorus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 391 (1766) ; Macg., 
Br. B., ii., p. 114 (1839) ; Dresser, B. Eur., i., p. 3, pi. i 
(1871) ; Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 258 (1872) ; Seeb., Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., v., p. 194 (1881) ; id. Br. B., i., p. 207 (1883); 
B. O. U. List Br. B., p. i (1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br, 
B., pt. i. (1885) ; Saunders, Man., p. i (1889) ; Wyatt, Br, 
B., pi. i., fig. 2 (1894). 

Adult Male. General colour above ashy-brown, the lower 
ick, rump, and upper tail-coverts washed with ochraceous- 
)uff, the latter only on the margins ; lesser wing-coverts like 
the back ; median and greater coverts darker brown, the for- 
mer tipped, the latter edged with dull white, inclining to buff 
on the inner greater coverts ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, 
and quills dark brown, edged with ashy-whitish ; tail-feathers 
light brown with ashy margins, all but the centre tail-feathers 
with a white spot at the end of the inner web, increasing in 
extent towards the outermost feather, where it is very large ; 
head grey like the back ; lores and eyelid white ; feathers 
below the eye and ear-coverts ochreous-buff, the feathers 
tipped with black and forming a line on the upper ear-coverts; 
cheeks, throat, and under surface of body clear ochreous-buff, 
spotted with triangular tips to the feathers, forming a line 
above and below the cheeks ; the throat scarcely spotted, and 
the tips to the feathers of the breast and sides of body 
rounded ; the lower abdomen, thighs, and under tail-coverts 
buffy-white without spots, the under tail-coverts edged with 
dusky brown ; axillaries and under wing-coverts white ; quills 
ashy below, white along the inner webs ; bill dark brown, yel- 
lower at the base of the lower mandible; feet and claws yel- 
lowish or yellowish-brown ; iris dark brown. Total length, 
10-5 inches; culmen, 0-85; wing, 6*0 ; tail, 4-0; tarsus, 1*35. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in plumage, but less 
richly spotted. Total length, 10-5 inches; wing, 5-85. 

Young. Not so largely spotted below ; the throat white with- 
out spots ; upper parts streaked with buff centres to the 
feathers, which have black tips; the wing-coverts broadly 
edged with buff, and having a triangular spot of the same 



268 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

colour at the ends. Young birds after their autumn moult 
may be told by their having somewhat larger buff tips to the 
median wing-coverts. 

Range in Great Britain. Generally distributed throughout the 
British Islands, and gradually increasing its range northwards 
in Scotland and the islands, in districts where it was at one 
time quite unknown. It is only met with as a straggler in the 
Orkneys, and has not yet been recorded from the Shetlands. 
A considerable migration to our eastern coasts takes place in 
the autumn. 

Range outside the British Islands. Found almost everywhere 
in Europe, extending in Scandinavia up to the Arctic Circle, 
and in Siberia it reaches Lake Baikal. In Central Asia and 
the Himalayas the Mistle-Thrushes are somewhat larger and 
paler in colour, and have been separated as Turdus hodgsoni, 
but Mr. Seebohm states that examples from Asia Minor are 
intermediate between the western and eastern birds. The 
Mistle-Thrush breeds in the Himalayas at a height of from 
9,000 or 10,000 feet, descending to the lower valleys in winter, 
at which season of the year the bird visits Southern Persia and 
also migrates to Southern Europe and Northern Africa. 

Habits. It is not only the larger size of the present species 
which makes it a conspicuous object in this country, but the 
wilder and bolder manners of the bird at once direct atten- 
tion to it. Excepting during the breeding season, the Mistle- 
Thrush is a very shy and wary bird, and is only to be observed 
in open country, never frequenting hedge-rows like the Black- 
bird or Song-Thrush. Its favourite haunts are parks, especially 
when there is plenty of pasture-land attached, while in the 
north it affects the pine-woods more particularly. It is a very 
early breeder, often building its nest in February and the 
early part of March, before any leaves are on the trees, but 
owing to its quiet and retiring manners, the nesting does not 
attract much attention. Family parties of Mistle-Thrushes, 
consisting of old and young birds, are often to be seen in the 
pastures during the autumn and winter, but the birds keep 
well out of danger, and fly off on the smallest alarm, their 
white axillaries being very conspicuous as they take wing, one 
after another. Notwithstanding the large size and bold nature 



THE TRUE THRUSHES. 269 

of the bird, it is one of the first to succumb in winter, if 
snow covers the ground for any length of time. Numbers 
perish in severe winters, and the bird is then forced to seek for 
berries in every place it can, and may then be found frequent- 
ing the gardens in the middle of the towns, while it is also 
driven in its distress to seek for food with the Song-Thrushes 
and Starlings at the hands of the bird-protectors. We have 
often seen Mistle-Thrushes feeding in our garden on the bar- 
ley-meal which is daily provided for the starving birds in hard 
winters. 

From its habit of singing from the top of a tree in boisterous 
weather, the bird has got the name of " Storm-cock," and it 
sings throughout the winter. The song is somewhat monoton- 
ous, but the notes are mellow, and may be compared to those 
of the Ring-Ouzel. 

Nest. A somewhat rough structure outside, composed of 
grass and moss, with pieces of wood, then lined with mud or 
clay, and neatly finished with finer grass inside. It is seldom 
found in evergreens, but is often discovered in old fruit or thorn- 
trees, where it is generally concealed by the decoration of 
lichens which the birds add to the outside of the nest, thereby 
rendering it indistinguishable from the lichen-covered boughs. 
It is sometimes built at a great height from the ground. 

Eggs. Four or five in number. Ground-colour stone-grey 
or clay-colour, spotted and blotched with reddish-brown, 
generally distributed over the eggs, sometimes inclining to 
purplish-brown or black. The underlying spots are distinct, 
and of a light brown or dull grey colour. Occasionally the 
ground-colour is creamy-buff, the spotting being the same. 
Axis, i 'i 5-1 '35 inch ; diam., 0*85-0*90. The shape of the eggs 
varies considerably, some being rounded and others very long. 

IV. THE FIELDFARE. TURDUS PILARIS. 

Turdus pilaris. Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 291 (1766); Macg., 
Br. B., ii., p. 105 (1839); Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 141, 
pis. 4, 5 (1870); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 272 (1872); 
Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 205 (1881); id. Br. B., i., 
p. 228 (1883) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 2 (1883) ; Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. i. (1885) ; Saunders, Man., p. 7 (1889). 



27 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Adult Male. Back and scapulars chestnut-brown, with slightly 
indicated greyish margins to the feathers; the lower back, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts ashy-grey, darker on the latter ; 
lesser wing-coverts like the back ; the median and greater- 
coverts dusky brown, washed with ashy and slightly tinged 
with rufous, the greater coverts and the bastard-wing with 
whitish margins ; primary-coverts and quills dark brown, edged 
with ashy-grey, a little browner on the secondaries ; tail- 
feathers blackish, edged with ashy, ribbed under certain 
lights with dusky cross-bars, and the outer feathers fringed 
with white at the end of the inner webs ; crown of head and 
hind-neck ashy-grey, extending on to the mantle ; the crown 
slightly streaked with blackish centres to the feathers ; the base 
of the forehead hoary-whitish, extending above the eye ; lores 
dusky black ; eyelid whitish ; sides of face and ear-coverts ashy- 
grey, streaked with whitish ; cheeks ochreous-buff, streaked 
with black, the stripes widening posteriorly, especially towards 
the sides of the neck ; cheeks, throat, and breast ochreous- 
buff, the cheeks scantily streaked with black, the throat uni- 
form, the lower throat and chest distinctly streaked, and the 
chest mottled with blackish centres to the feathers, which are 
continued down the sides of the body and tinged with chest- 
nut ; centre of breast and abdomen white, as well as the under 
tail-coverts, which have blackish margins ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries white ; quills dusky below, ashy along the inner 
webs ; bill yellow; feet black; iris reddish-brown. Total length, 
10 inches; culmen, 0-8; wing, 5-5; tail, 4*0; tarsus, 1-3. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male, but not so richly coloured, 
the markings on the sides of the breast and throat much less 
defined. Total length, 10 inches; wing, 5*6. 

Young. Dusky brown above, the mantle darker, the upper 
surface streaked with whitish along the shafts of the feathers, 
which are further mottled with black tips ; throat and fore-neck 
orange-buff, largely spotted with black tips to the feathers, the 
spots smaller and less pronounced on the breast and sides of 
the body. 

Eange in Great Britain. A regular winter visitor, arriving in 
large flocks and gradually dispersing over the country, so that 
its arrival in the western districts is later than the time when it 



THE TRUE THRUSHES. ?;i 

visits the eastern coasts. Its time of arrival varies, according 
to the severity of the winters in its European home, which 
force it to migrate, but it sometimes comes as early as the 
middle of September, though flocks are also seen to land as 
late as the end of November. It has been known to stay 
as late as May and even early June, according to Mr. Howard 
Saunders, but all statements of its breeding in the British 
Islands have so far been found untrustworthy, and the nests of 
the " Fieldfare " which have been sent to us from Ross-shire 
and other parts of Scotland have always turned out to be those 
of the Mistle-Thrush. 

Range outside the British Islands. A northern bird in Europe 
and Siberia, its breeding range extending east to IIO Q E. long. 
Its breeding range does not reach quite so far north as that of 
the Redwing, extending to the Arctic Circle, up to the limit of 
forest growth or a little beyond it, and Mr. Seebohm met with it 
in the Petchora up to 68S N. lat., and in the Yenesei up to 70^. 
It also breeds in Central Russia, the Baltic Provinces, Eastern 
Prussia, and Poland, and colonies are being formed in several 
places in Germany. In winter it migrates south, visiting North 
and North-eastern Africa and to the eastward Turkestan, while it 
is also said to occur in the Western Himalayas and Cashmere; the 
only Indian specimen known in collections, however, is one in 
the British Museum, procured by Dr. Jameson near Saharanpur. 

Habits. This is one of the most beautiful Thrushes in the 
world, and nothing can be finer than to see a flock of newly- 
arrived Fieldfares settling on a tree, after landing on our 
eastern coasts. Not only the size of the birds, but their rich 
contrast of colour, white breasts, and above all the way in 
which they hold themselves, with their ample white axillaries 
always more or less in evidence all these features tend to 
make the Fieldfares a remarkable object, as they sit on the 
leafless boughs and are outlined against the sky. These 
Thrushes are always gregarious, arriving in bands, feeding 
together throughout the winter, and nesting in companies on 
their return to their northern home. They are always shy 
during their stay in England, and are the less easily observed of 
all the Thrushes, though they become tamer in severe weather, 
and then visit parks and gardens, even in the middle of the 



272 

towns, to hunt for berries. Thus we have seen them in hard 
weather frequenting the gardens of the Natural History 
Museum at South Kensington along with Redwings and 
Mistle-Thrushes. 

The note of the Fieldfare is a harsh cry of tsak, generally 
uttered from the top of a tree, where the bird keeps a good 
look-out for danger, and they have also a chattering note which 
is often uttered by the birds as they fly high overhead, and is 
quite unlike the note of any of the other British Thrushes. 

In its northern home the bird nests in colonies in the birch- 
trees, and several nests will be found on the same tree. Farther 
north Mr. Seebohm says it loses its gregarious habits, and on 
the barren tundra the nest is placed on the ground like that of 
the Ring-Ouzel, the bird choosing a niche under the turf on the 
edge of a cliff. 

Nest. Built in the branches of a birch-pine, or an alder-tree, 
sometimes in out-houses, or in a low bush. Mr. Seebohm says 
that it is very similar in construction to that of the Blackbird 
or Ring-Ouzel, the outside being made of coarse dry grass, with 
sometimes a few birch-twigs or a little moss interwoven, then 
plastered with mud, and finally lined with a thick bed of fine 
grass. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. The colour varies im- 
mensely, scarcely two clutches being alike. The ground-colour 
is bluish-green, and the markings and spots are rufous or 
chestnut-brown, sometimes so thickly distributed as to hide the 
ground-colour of the egg, at other times consisting of large red 
blotches, distributed widely, or congregating round the larger 
end. Sometimes nearly unspotted eggs are found. The under- 
lying markings are light reddish-brown, scarcely to be distin- 
guished. Axis, i'i 1*25 inch; diam, o'8-o*8. 

V. THE AMERICAN THRUSH. TURDUS MIGRATORIUS. 

Turdus migratorius, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 292 (1766) ; Seeb., 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 220 (1881); Ridgw. Man. N. 
Amer. B., p. 577 (1887); Saunders, Man., p. 10, note 



Adult Male. General colour above ashy-grey, the lesser wing- 
coverts like the back ; lesser and median coverts dusky, 






THE NIGHTINGALES 273 



ernally slaty-grey, the former narrowly tipped, and the latter 
edged with hoary-whitish ; bastard wing-feathers blackish ; pri- 
mary-coverts and quills dusky-brown, edged with hoary-grey, 
the secondaries more broadly ; tail-feathers black, edged with 
grey, the outer ones fringed with white, increasing towards the 
outer feathers, which have a white tip ; head blackish, this 
colour extending over the nape and hind neck ; lores black, 
surmounted by a white streak ; upper and lower eyelids white ; 
ear-coverts black, washed with slaty-grey ; sides of neck slaty- 
grey ; cheeks and throat white, with a broad moustachial 
streak of black, the throat spotted with black ; under surface 
of body from the lower throat downwards clear cinnamon- 
chestnut or bay, the lower abdomen, thighs, and under tail- 
coverts white, the latter with dusky centres; sides of lower 
flanks ashy-grey ; under wing-coverts and axillaries bright 
cinnamon-rufous like the breast; quills dusky below, ashy- 
fulvous along the inner webs ; bill bright yellow, tipped with 
black ; feet brown ; iris brown. Total length, 9 inches ; 
culmen, 0-9; wing, 5*1 ; tail, 3*8 ; tarsus, 1-2. 

Adult Female. Similar in plumage to the male, but rather 
paler cinnamon below, with hoary margins. Total length, 9 
inches; wing, 5*0. 

Range in Great Britain. The American " Robin " has been 
procured near Dover, and once near Dublin. Mr. Howard 
Saunders thinks that the birds were in all probability escaped 
individuals, but it is by no means an unlikely bird to wander 
eastward, and has occurred in Heligoland. 

Range outside the British Isles. A bird of North America, es- 
pecially of the Eastern States, extending north to Alaska, and 
south to Mexico, while its western range is bounded by the 
great plains. 

THE NIGHTINGALES. GENUS DAULIAS. 
Daulias, Boie, Isis, 1831, p. 542. 

Type, D. luscinia (Linn.). 

There are three species of true Nightingale known, all plain- 
plumage birds, but all celebrated songsters. In their plain 
plumage they look like Warblers, but are shown to belong to 
the family of the Thrushes by their spotted nestlings. The 



274 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

tail is light chestnut, or russet-brown, the second primary 
longer than the sixth, and the first, or bastard-primary, is so 
small as to be less than one-third of the length of the second. 
The Nightingale which comes to England in the summer is 
replaced on the Continent from the valley of the Rhine and 
Southern Sweden eastward by Daulias philomefa, the " Thrush- 
Nightingale," which extends to Turkestan and South-west 
Siberia, and winters as far south as Nyasa-Land in Africa. In 
certain parts of Turkestan and Persia, a third species, Daulias 
golzij occurs and winters in Northern India. 

I. THE COMMON NIGHTINGALE. DAULIAS LUSCINIA. 
(Plate XXIII.) 

Motacilla luscinia. Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 328 (1766). 

Philomela luscinia, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 221 (1839). 

Daulias luscinia^ Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 312 (1872) ; Dresser, B. 

Eur., ii., p. 363, pi. 56 (1876) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., 

p. ii (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. 9 (1888); 

Saunders, Man., p. 39 (1889). 
Erithacus luscinia, Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 294 (1881); 

id. Br. B. i., p. 276 (1883). 

Adult Male. General colour above russet-brown, more rufous 
on the upper tail-coverts ; upper wing-coverts like the back ; 
bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills dusky-brown, ex- 
ternally rufous-brown ; tail-feathers light chestnut, brown on 
the edges and on the centre feathers ; head like the back ; 
lores grey ; eyelid whitish ; ear-coverts ruddy-brown like the 
back ; cheeks ashy, shading into the sides of neck ; throat and 
under surface of the body dull whitish, the lower throat, chest, 
and sides of body ashy-grey with a brownish tinge ; the under 
tail-coverts fulvescent ; thighs dark brown ; under wing- coverts 
buff, with ashy bases ; the lower primary-coverts ashy-brown, 
with buffy -white tips; quills dusky below, ashy-fulvous along 
the inner web; bill brown, the lower mandible horn-colour; 
feet and claws, brown; iris hazel. Total length, 6*5 inches; 
culmen, 0-55; wing, 3-4; tail, 275; tarsus, 1-05. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
6 inches; wing, 3-2. 



PLATE xznr. 




NIGHTINGALE . 



THE NIGHTINGALES. 275 

Young. Duller brown than the adults, and mottled on the 
upper surface with ochreous-brown markings near the tips of 
the feathers, which are edged with dusky brown ; the under 
surface of the body dingy-white, with dusky margins to the 
feathers of the throat and breast; wings and tail as in the 
adults, but rather darker chestnut ; the wing-coverts tipped with 
ochreous buff spots. 

Range in Great Britain. A summer visitor, arriving in the 
middle of April, but not extending to the northern counties of 
England, and up to the present unrecorded from Scotland or 
Ireland. It does not extend its range through all the western 
counties of England, and in Devonshire and the greater part of 
Wales it reaches its western limit in this country. To the north 
it is found in Yorkshire, and occasionally in Cheshire, but it is 
only of doubtful occurrence in Lancashire. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Nightingale is a summer 
visitor to the greater part of Southern and Central Europe, and 
breeds in all the Mediterranean countries, including North 
Africa and Palestine. Its range to the north-east extends to 
the valley of the Vistula, but the species is not found in North- 
eastern Germany, and in Russia it only inhabits the southern 
provinces during its stay. In winter it visits North-eastern 
Africa, and it was found by Captain Shelley on the Gold Coast. 

Habits. The male birds always precede the females in their 
arrival by a few days, and as soon as they reach our shores 
they are distributed over the woods and thickets of the 
southern counties, where their beautiful notes betray their 
presence. Several males may then be heard singing in the 
same wood, their liquid notes being heard in answer to one 
another throughout the whole day. As soon, however, as 
the hen-birds have come, building operations are com- 
menced, and the male sings more frequently towards night- 
fall, continuing at intervals throughout the night, if the weather 
be fine. Until recent years the song of the Nightingale could 
be heard in the western suburbs of London, and the bird 
regularly frequented the orchards near Bedford Park up to 1882, 
while many people are still living who can remember the 
Nightingale's song at Bayswater, and a specimen from this once 
rural district of London is in the British Museum. 

T 2 



276 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The favourite resort of the Nightingale for nesting purposes 
is the tangled bushes which clothe a lane leading along the 
outside of a wood, and in such places the bird may occasionally 
be seen flitting across the road or hopping out of its dense retreat 
to pick up some insect. On these occasions its ways recall the 
actions of a Robin, in which bird the Nightingale undoubtedly 
finds a very close ally. It is almost entirely a ground-feeder, 
and picks up worms, ants, and other insects and larvae, while 
the young are said to be fed entirely on caterpillars. In 
autumn it feeds on fruit and berries like the Warblers. 

Nest. This is very characteristic, being formed principally 
of dead leaves and grass, which give the outside a somewhat 
ragged appearance, the inside, however, being more neatly 
finished off, rather deep, and lined with grasses or rootlets and 
occasionally with horsehair. 

Eggs. Four or five in number, rarely six. Ground-colour 
olive-brown or olive-green, occasionally dull bluish-green. The 
olive-brown eggs appear perfectly uniform, but in the green 
type of eggs there is generally some olive-brown clouding the 
larger end, or forming a dense ring of brown spots. Occasion 
ally the eggs are of a deep bright blue colour. Axis, 0-8-0-9 
inch ; diam., o'6-o'65. (Plate xxix., fig. 6.) 

THE REDBREASTS. GENUS ERITHACUS. 
ErithacuS) Cuv., Lecons Anat. Comp., tab. ii. (1801). 

Type, E. rutecula (Linn.). 

The Robins are miniature Thrushes, having the spotted 
young which prove them to be members of the family Tur- 
didce. The brighter coloration of the birds has something to 
do with their separation as a distinct genus from the Thrushes 
on the one hand and the Redstarts on the other. The type of 
egg of the Robins, however, is different from that of any of the 
allied genera, whilst the similarity of the colour of the sexes 
separates them from the Redstarts, and allies them to the 
Thrushes and Nightingales. According to the divisions of the 
Turdidtz recently proposed by Mr. Oates, in his " Fauna of 
British India," the Redbreasts would come within his definition 
of the Ruticillincz (p. 81) and would come near to the genus 



THE REDBREASTS. 277 

Tarstger. The uniformity of colouring of both sexes is one of 
the chief characteristics of the genus Erithacus. The bill is 
plentifully beset with bristles, and the first primary is large, 
being nearly half the length of the second. 

I. THE COMMON REDBREAST. ERITHACUS RUBECULA. 

Motacilla rubecula^ Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 337 (1766). 
Erithacus rubecula, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 263 (1839) ; Newt, 

Br. B., i., p. 305 (1872) ; Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 329, pi. 

51 (1873); Seeb., Cat B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 299 (1881); 

id. Br. B., i., p. 262 (1883) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 10 

(1883); Saunders, Man., p. 37 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. 

Br. B., pt. xxii. (1892) ; Wyatt, Br. B., pi. 3, fig. 2 (1894). 
Adult Male. General colour dark olive-brown, with a slight 
greyish shade, the wing-coverts like the back, with pale ochreous- 
buff tips to the greater series ; primary-coverts, quills, and tail- 
feathers dark brown, edged with olive ; crown of head like the 
back ; base of forehead and lores orange-rufous, extending over 
the eye ; cheeks, throat, and chest also bright orange-rufous, 
with a broad shading of bluish-grey reaching from behind the 
eye and skirting the orange of the throat down the sides of the 
neck to the sides of the upper breast, which are also bluish- 
grey ; centre of breast and abdomen dull white, the flanks 
light olive-brown ; thighs darker olive ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries yellowish-buff, with ashy bases ; quills dusky brown 
below, ochreous along the inner web ; bill dark brown, lighter 
at the base ; legs brown ; iris very dark brown. Total length 
6 inches ; culmen, 0-5 ; wing, 3'! ; tail, 2*4; tarsus, IT. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male. Total length, 6 inches; 
wing, 2-85. 

Young. Ochreous-brown, the feathers centred with ochreous- 
buff, and mottled with blackish tips to the feathers, the wing- 
coverts all plainly centred with ochreous-bufT; underneath, 
ochreous-buff, paler on the throat and abdomen, the feathers 
of the breast and sides of the body edged with dusky brown. 

After the autumn moult the young birds resemble the adults, 
but can always be recognised by golden-buff tips to the median 
wing-coverts, forming a band which lasts even to the following 
spring. 



278 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Range in Great Britain. Is found as a resident in every part of 
the British Islands, but has not yet been met with as a breed- 
ing bird in the Hebrides. A considerable migration of Robins 
takes place every autumn from the Continent, and even our 
home-bred birds shift their quarters somewhat, and a good 
number of them leave the country. 

Range outside the British Islands. Breeds throughout Europe, 
but is local in the south of Spain. It likewise occurs in the 
Canaries and the Azores, and appears in a slightly modified 
form in Teneriffe, which has been named by Dr. Koenig 
Erithacus superb us. Its eastern breeding range extends to the 
Ural Mountains, but the bird is here not so abundant as it is in 
the west, and its place is taken in Persia by Erithacus hyrcanus. 

The Robin is much more of a migratory species than is 
generally supposed, and has been met with in the Faeroes and 
Jan Mayen, but is not yet recorded from Iceland. A letter 
received from Mr. Robson some years ago informed us that, as 
he was writing, swarms of Robins and Hedge-Sparrows were 
passing through the Buyukdere Valley, near Constantinople, 
on migration. This was in the autumn, and it is evident that 
numbers of Robins avoid the cold in the north during winter, 
and at such seasons the bird is found in Egypt and Palestine, 
and as far east as Persia and Turkestan. 

Habits. The migration of the Robin, just alluded to, is to a 
certain extent enforced, not only by the approach of the cold 
weather, but by the habit of the old birds of driving off their 
young ones as soon as the latter can shift for themselves. This 
is the more remarkable because there is no bird more solici- 
tous than the Robin in the care of its nestlings ; but it is 
jealous of any intrusion on its own domain, and fights other 
birds, as well as those of its own species, who dare to invade 
it. Thus, in the autumn, young Robins are seen in numbers 
scattered over the southern counties of England, mostly young 
birds in the spotted dress, with a patch of red on the throat, 
showing that the birds are moulting into their adult plumage. 
Even before the moult is completed, the young males give 
forth short snatches of a melancholy song, and as many as 
half-a-dozen may be heard answering each other from different 



THE BLUE- THROATS. 279 

parts of the village gardens before they finally take flight across 
the Channel. 

The Robin is a general favourite, not only on account of its 
trustful disposition and tameness, but also on account of its 
song, which is heard at all times of the year excepting during 
the moulting season, and is always welcome in winter, when the 
voices of most birds are silent. The call-note of the Robin is 
clear and musical, but the cry of distress, as when a cat comes 
near the nest, is a long drawn shrill note one of the most 
disagreeable and ear-splitting notes imaginable. 

Nest. All kinds of situations are chosen for the home of the 
Robin, and the nest may be found in the hole of a wall or a 
tree, whilst an old can or kettle, discarded by the housewife 
and thrown away amongst the rubbish of the garden, is often 
utilised. Very often the nest is placed amongst ivy or on the 
ground, particularly in a moss-covered bank, where the herbage 
conceals it. The foundation of the nest consists of dead 
leaves and moss, but it is neatly lined with rootlets and hair. 

Eggs. From five to eight in number. Ground-colour buffy- 
white or china-white. They vary a good deal in the tint 
of colour and markings, some being nearly spotless, while 
others are thickly clouded with rufous markings, collecting at 
the larger end. In some specimens the whole egg is thickly 
sprinkled with reddish spots, while in others the blotches 
are larger and sparsely distributed. Axis, o'S-o'g; diam., 
0*55-0 -65. Mr. Robert Read gives it as his experience that 
eggs from the North of England and Scotland are more heavily 
marked than those from the south. He has sets of white and 
pale blue eggs in his collection. (Plate xxix., fig. 3.) 

THE BLUE-THROATS. GENUS CYANECULA. 

Cyanecula, C. L. Brehm, Isis, 1828, p. 1280. 

Type, C. suerica (Linn.). 

These pretty birds have been placed along with the Robins 
in modern classifications, and there can be no doubt that they 
are closely allied to those birds, but they form a natural genus, 
remarkable for their style of coloration. They differ from the 
Robins in having the rictal bristles scarcely perceptible, and in 



2 So LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

having the sexes different in colour, both male and female 
having the tail for the most part chestnut. 

Two species of Blue-throat are recognised, one with a red 
spot (C. suecica) and one with a white spot (C. cyanecula). 
The latter is not nearly so wide-spread as the former bird, and 
only occurs in Central Europe, scarcely reaching as far east 
as Russia, but visiting Northern Africa and Palestine in winter, 
recurring in Gilgit, and wintering sparingly in India. 

I. THE ARCTIC BLUE-THROAT. CYANECULA SUECICA. 

Motadlla suecica, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 336 (1766). 
Rutirilla cyanecula, Macg., Br. B., i., p. 300 (1839). 
Ruticilla suecica, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 321 (1873). 
Cyanecula suecica, Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 317, pis. 49, 50, 

fig. 2 (1874); B. O. U. List. Br. B., p. 10 (1883); 

Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. ii. (1886); Saunders, Man., 

p. 35 (1889). 
Erithacus caruleculus, Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 308 

(1881). 
Erithacus suecica, Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 269 (1883). 

Adult Male. General colour above dark-brown, with a slight 
olive tinge; wing-coverts dark brown, externally lighter brown; 
central upper tail-coverts and centre tail-feathers blackish- 
brown with hoary margins ; the remainder of the coverts and 
tail-feathers orange-chestnut for the basal half and blackish- 
brown for the terminal half, forming a broad band ; crown of 
head like the back ; lores black, surmounted by an eye-streak 
of buffy-white ; feathers below the eye and ear-coverts light 
rufous-brown, with pale shaft-lines ; throat cobalt-blue, extend- 
ing down the sides of the neck, and crossing the fore-neck so 
as to enclose a large chestnut or orange-rufous spot on the 
lower throat ; the blue band on the fore-neck succeeded by a 
black collar, which in turn is succeeded by a white one, and 
then by a broad chestnut one which occupies the breast ; 
breast and abdomen white ; sides of body olive-brown ; thighs 
and under tail-coverts whitish, the latter washed with orange ; 
axillaries and under wing-coverts orange-buff; bill dark 
brown; feet brown; iris dark brown. Total length, 5-5 
inches; oilmen, 0*5; wing, 3^05; tail, 2*05; tarsus, 1-05. 



THE BLUE-THROATS. 28 1 

Adult Female. Different from the male, and wanting the 
blue on the throat, which is creamy-white, with black along 
the sides and across the fore-neck, slightly tinged with orange- 
buff on the chest, which is also mottled with blackish centres 
to the feathers. Total length, 5-3 inches; wing, 2*8. 

Range in Great Britain. Occurs in the southern and eastern 
counties of England mostly on the autumn migration, but has 
also been taken in the spring. In Norfolk, in iSSi and 1884, a 
considerable number were observed in September. It has 
never been recorded from Ireland, but three instances are 
known of its capture in Scotland. 

Range outside the British Islands. Breeds in the high north of 
Europe and Asia, within the Arctic Circle, and at elevated 
situations in the birch regions in the central portions of 
Europe and Asia ; it nests in Turkestan and Yarkand, and 
has been found in Kamtchatka and even in Alaska. It 
winters in India and Ceylon and the Burmese countries, as 
well as in Southern China. In Africa it has been found as 
far south as the equatorial provinces, and regularly winters in 
Abyssinia. 

HaMts. The Blue-throats seem to be everywhere swamp- 
loving birds, and the specimens of C. cyanecula which we pro- 
cured near the Neusiedler Lake in May, 1891, were noticed only 
in the dense beds of dwarf willows, where the ground was still 
moist under foot. Here only the males were observed, as they 
came occasionally to the top of a bush and uttered a short song. 
The females we never saw, and this accords with the testimony 
of other naturalists, that she is always more shy and retiring than 
her mate. Mr. Seebohm says that in Scandinavia the Blue-throat 
is one of the commonest of birds, and is not very shy on its first 
arrival. He writes : " His first attempts at singing are harsh 
and grating, like the notes of the Sedge-Warbler, or the still 
4wwsherjDnes of the White-throat ; these are followed by several 
variations in a louder and rather more melodious tone, repeated 
over and over again, somewhat in the fashion of a Song-Thrush. 
After this you might fancy the little songster was trying to mimic 
the various alarm notes of all the birds he can remember : the chiz- 
zit of the Wagtail, the tip-tip-tip of the Blackbird, and especially 






282 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

the whit-whit of the Chaffinch. As he improves in voice he 
sings louder and longer, until at last he almost approaches the 
Nightingale in the richness of the melody which he pours forth. 
Sometimes he will sing as he flies upwards, descending with ex- 
panded wings and tail to alight on the highest bough of some low 
tree, almost exactly as the Tree-Pipit does in the meadows of 
our own land. When the females have arrived, there comes at 
the end of his song the most metallic notes I have ever heard 
a bird utter. It is a sort of ting-ting, resembling the sound 
produced by striking a suspended bar of steel with another 
piece of the same metal. The female appears to shun the 
open far more carefully than her mate ; and while he will be 
perched on a topmost spray, gladdening the whole air around 
with his tuneful melody, she will remain in the undergrowth 
beneath him, gliding hither and thither, more like a mouse 
than a bird, through the branches." 

Nest. According to Mr. Seebohm, not unlike that of a 
Robin, the hole being well filled with dry grass and roots, and 
at the far end a neat, deep cup lined with fine roots and hair. 
Even when the bird has been frightened off, and the place of 
the nest assured, it is still difficult to find, so well is it con- 
cealed. 

Eggs. Resemble those of the Nightingale, especially the 
type of the latter where the ground-colour is bluish-green. 
The spots are reddish, and either cloud the whole of the egg 
or are collected at the larger end. Some, on the other hand, 
are almost uniform olive-brown. Axis, o 1 7-0*8 inch; diam., 
o'55~o'6. 

THE ROCK-THRUSHES. GENUS MONTICOLA 
Monticola, Boie, Isis, 1833, p. 552. 

Type, M. saxatilis (Linn.). 

Though possessing a bill and general appearance like the 
Thrushes, there is the character of the bright colours of the 
male and the remarkable difference in the colour of the sexes, 
which separate the genus Monticola from the true Turdidcz. 
They seem to connect the Chats and the Thrushes, the red 
tail being a feature which suggests an alliance with the Red- 
starts,, 



THE ROCK-THRUSHES. 283 

The Rock-Thrush is the sole representative of the genus 
Monticola, the Blue Rock-Thrushes having a much longer tail, 
more than half the length of the wing, and being distinguished 
as a separate genus, Petrophila. A species from Southern 
Europe, P. cyanea, was at one time stated to have occurred 
in Ireland, but the record was wholly false, 



I. THE ROCK THRUSH. MONTICOLA SAXATILIS. 

Turdus saxatilis, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 294 (1766). 
Monticola saxatilis^ Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 129, pis. 16, 17 
(1872); Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 292 (1872); Seeb., Cat. B. 

I Brit. Mus.,v., p. 313 (1881); id. Br. B., i, p. 281 (1883); 
B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 5 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. 
B., pt. i. (1885); Saunders, Man., p. 17 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour blackish with a slaty gloss ; 
centre of back white with slaty margins to the feathers ; rump 
slaty-blackish; upper tail-coverts orange-chestnut; wing-coverts 
slaty-blackish, like the scapulars, with obsolete white tips to 
the coverts ; primary- coverts and quills dusky brown, the 
secondaries with narrow white tips, the innermost pale brown 
at the ends ; tail-feathers orange-chestnut, except the two 
centre ones, which are ashy-brown ; crown of head and neck 
all round, as well as the entire throat, greyish-blue ; remainder 
of under surface from the lower throat downwards, bright 
orange-chestnut, with a few greyish edgings to the feathers of 
the lower breast ; under wing-coverts and axillaries like the 
breast ; quills dusky, ashy along the inner web ; bill, feet, and 
claws black; iris hazel. Total length, 7 inches; culmen, o'8 ; 
wing, 4*65; tail, 2*2; tarsus, i'o. 

Adult Female. Different from the male. Ashy-brown above, 
mottled with whity-brown edges to the feathers, before which 
is a subterminal blackish bar; the rump barred with pale 
ochreous edges to the feathers ; upper tail-coverts and tail 
bright cinnamon ; the two centre tail-feathers ashy-brown, and 
the others with a small brown mark near the end of the outer 
web ; crown of head like the back, the forehead more hoary ; 
lores dull white \ ear-coverts dull white, streaked with dusky 



284 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

brown edges to the feathers ; cheeks and throat white, mottled 
with dark brown margins to the feathers, the upper throat un- 
spotted ; breast and sides of body pale golden-buff, the feathers 
all edged with dusky brown, these markings becoming evanes- 
cent on the abdomen; under tail-coverts golden-buff; thighs 
white, washed with cinnamon ; axillaries and under wing-coverts 
bright golden-buff or orange. Total length, 6-3 inches ; cul- 
men, 075; wing, 4-55; tail, 2*2; tarsus, ro. 

Range in Great Britain. Only a single instance of the occurrence 
of the Rock-Thrush in our islands is authentic, a specimen 
having been procured at Therfield in Hertfordshire on the 
1 9th of May, 1843. This specimen was examined by Mr.Yarrell 
in the flesh. 

Eange outside the British Islands. The Rock-Thrush is a bird 
of Central and Southern Europe, ranging eastwards to Turkestan, 
Mongolia, and Northern China. It also nests in the valleys of 
the Rhine and the rivers of Eastern France and in the Vosges 
Mountains, as well as in some of the ranges of Central Ger- 
many. It has occurred in Belgium and in Heligoland. It is 
met with on migration in the Western Himalayas, at Gilgit and 
in Ladak, and was obtained by Mr. Blanford near Ava, in 
Burma. 

Habits. Canon Tristram describes the Rock-Thrush as very 
like a Redstart in its actions, while other observers notice its 
resemblance to a Wheatear, as it flits from rock to rock. Its 
food consists of insects, but in the autumn berries and fruit are 
eaten. The song is said to be rich and powerful, and almost 
to rival that of the Blackcap. 

Nest. Always well-concealed and placed in the hole of a 
rock or of a ruined building, more rarely in the hole of a tre 
or of a house. The nest is composed of roots and grass, an 
lined with finer roots, occasionally with a few feathers. It 
very like that of a Chat or a Redstart, and no mud is used i 
its construction. 

Eggs. Four or five in number. Blue, like the Song-Thrush' 
egg, but either spotless, or so faintly dotted with a few speck 
of brown as to be almost uniform. The size and shape varie 
a good deal Axis, 1-1-15 inch; diam., 0-75-0-8, 






THE REDSTARTS. 285 



THE REDSTARTS GENUS RUTICILLA. 

Rutidlla, C. L. Brehm, Isis, 1828, p. 1280. 

Type, R. phttnicurus (Linn.). 

The members of this genus have spotted young like that of 
a Redbreast, and are otherwise like that bird in form, but the 
sexes are different in colour, and much more variegated, with 
chestnut tails. The legs are always black like those of Chats, 
the eggs are blue like those of the latter birds, and the tarsus is 
smooth and not scutellated. The bill is slender, and rictal 
bristles are present. 

The largest number of species f Redstarts occur in the 
Himalayas, but species are also distributed over the mountains 
of the Mediterraneo-Persic Sub-region, these mountain forms 
being mostly residents, whereas our two European species are 
both migratory. 

I. THE REDSTART. RUTICILLA PHCENICURUS. 

Motadlla phoenicurus, Linn., Syst. Nat, p. 335 (1766). 

Rutidlla phcenicurus, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 305 (1839), Newt, 
ed. Yarr., i., p. 339 (1873) ; Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 277, 
pi. 41 (1874); Seeb.,Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 336 (1881); 
id. Br. B., i., p. 287 (1883) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 8 
(1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. i. (1885); Saunders, 
Man., p. 35 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above slaty-grey; the rump and 
upper tail-coverts orange-chestnut; lesser and median wing- 
coverts grey like the back ; greater coverts and quills dusky 
brown ; tail-feathers orange-chestnut, darker on the outer webs, 
the two centre feathers dark brown ; forehead white, extending 
in a line over the ear-coverts ; a narrow line at the base of 
the forehead, feathers above the eye, ear-coverts, sides of face, 
throat, and fore-neck, black ; breast and sides of body orange- 
chestnut ; the abdomen whitish, washed with orange ; under 
tail-coverts pale orange-buff; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
orange-chestnut ; bill and feet black ; iris dark-brown. Total 
length, 5-4 inches; culmen, 0-5; wing, 3*05; tail, 2'i; tarsus, 
0-8. 



286 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Adult Female. Different from the male, being ashy-brown 
above instead of slaty-grey ; the orange-chestnut colour of the 
rump and tail paler ; lores dull white ; ear-coverts earthy- 
brown ; cheeks ashy-brown ; throat dull white, as also the 
abdomen and under tail-coverts ; the fore-neck, breast, and 
sides of body sandy-brown ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
yellowish-buff ; quills dusky brown below, ochreous along the 
inner web. Total length, 5^3 inches; wing, 3*1. 

Young. Mottled like a young Robin, and having the upper 
surface varied with ochreous-buff spots and black edges to the 
feathers ; the under surface yellowish-buff, barred with dusky 
edges to the feathers ; the upper tail-coverts and tail orange- 
rufous, as in the adults. 

Winter Plumage. The whole of the upper surface grey, 
as well as the throat, the black and white facial markings 
being concealed by pale margins which wear off and leave the 
summer plumage visible. 

Range in Great Britain. A summer visitor to all the British 
Islands, though it is only quite recently that it has been known 
to breed in Ireland, where it was before considered to be a rare 
bird. Its breeding-range extends throughout England and 
Scotland, but the bird is rarer in the south-western counties, and, 
like the Nightingale, its range seems to be almost bounded by 
the River Exe, though the Redstart has been found breeding in 
Cornwall on rare occasions. It has also been known to breed 
of recent years in Sutherlandshire and Caithness, but is un- 
recorded from the Hebrides, and is only a rare visitor to the 
Orkneys and Shetland Isles. 

Range outside the British Islands. Breeds throughout Central 
and Southern Europe as far as the Arctic Circle, and east to 
the Yenesei. In the south of Europe it is principally known 
as a migrant, and breeds only on the mountains. In Greece, 
Asia Minor, and the Caucasus the Redstart is represented by 
an allied species, Ruticilla mesoleitca, which has white on the 
wing like the Black Redstart. Our species winters in Persia 
and Palestine, and it extends in Africa to Abyssinia and the 
eastern districts, as well as to Senegambia on the west coast. 

Habits. On their first arrival the males precede the female 



THE REDSTARTS. 287 

by a few days, and it is then that the birds are mostly observed, 
for at other times they are very shy and retiring in their habits. 
After the males have arrived they may be seen, sometimes in 
some numbers, on the outskirts of the woods in our southern 
counties, flitting along in front of the observer, and either perch- 
ing on the fences or the trees. At such times the red tail 
renders the bird a conspicuous object, and it is from the bright 
colour of this organ that the species gets its common name of 
" Fire-tail " in many parts of England. The tail is expanded, 
and moved up and down with a fanning motion, which causes 
the bird to be easily observed. As soon as the females have 
arrived, the birds disperse themselves over the country for the 
nesting-season, and are then not so easy of observation, and 
the quiet way in which the birds disappear after the breeding- 
season has been remarked by more than one writer. The Red- 
start haunts old ruins, in the holes of which it makes its nest, 
but it also builds in holes of trees and walls, and in queer 
places, such as a Robin sometimes selects. The nest, however, 
with its pretty blue eggs, is always well concealed. The birds 
evince great affection for a chosen site, and will not easily 
desert it, even if the eggs are taken more than once. 

The song of the Redstart is not very powerful or varied, and 
is far inferior to that of the Warblers, but, like some of the 
latter, it sings at night. In many of its ways it resembles a 
Flycatcher, especially in its habit of catching insects by darting 
after them in the air, and in this way it sometimes catches a 
passing butterfly. 

Nest. Made of dry grass and moss, with a little wool, and 
lined with hair and feathers. It is a loosely-made and in- 
artistic structure. 

Eggs. From five to six in number, but sometimes as many 
as eight. The colour is pale blue. Axis, o'65-o'85; diam., 
Q'55-0'6. 

II. THE BLACK REDSTART. RUTICILLA TITYS. 
(Plate XXIV.} 

Motacilla phanicura, B. titys, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 335. 
Ruticilla tithys, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 311 (1839); Seeb., Cat. 
B.Brit. Mus., v., p. 339 (1881); id. Br. B., i., p. 293 (1883) 



288 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Ruticilla titys, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 333 (1873); Dresser, B. 
Eur., ii., p. 293, pi. 44 (1874); B, O. U. List Br. B., p. 9 
(1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. i (1885); Saunders, 
Man., p. 33 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above clear slaty-grey, the rump 
and upper tail-coverts bright orange-chestnut ; wing-coverts 
black, edged with slaty-grey, the tips of the greater series lighter; 
bastard-wing black ; quills blackish, externally edged with hoary 
grey, the secondaries with white, forming a large wing-patch ; 
tail-feathers orange-chestnut, darker on the outer web ; the two 
centre tail-feathers dark brown, rufous towards the base of the 
outer web ; head like the back, a little lighter towards the fore- 
head, the base of which is black, like the lores, feathers round 
the eye, ear-coverts, sides of face, throat, and breast, the latter 
with grey margins to the feathers ; sides of body and flanks 
slaty-grey, the centre of the abdomen whitish ; lower flanks pale 
cinnamon, as also the under tail-coverts ; thighs black ; axil- 
laries grey, with whitish tips ; under wing-coverts black, edged 
with hoary grey ; quills dusky brown below, ashy- whitish along 
the inner web ; bill and feet black ; iris brown. Total length, 
3-2 inches; oilmen, 0-55 ; wing, 3-4; tail, 2-3; tarsus, 0-9. 

Adult Female. Different from the male. Uniform slaty- 
brown, with a slight tinge of olive above; only the upper tail- 
coverts chestnut ; wings like the back, the quills edged with 
ashy-brown; tail-feathers chestnut, brown at the tips and 
towards the end of the outer web; the two centre feathers 
dark brown ; ear-coverts a little darker brown than the head ; 
eyelid whitish ; under surface of body slaty-brown, lighter than 
the upper surface, the abdomen paler ; under tail-coverts cin- 
namon ; under wing-coverts and axillaries slaty-brown like the 
breast. Total length, 6 inches ; culmen, o'5 ; wing, 3-45 ; tail, 
2-35 ; tarsus, 0-95. 

The young males appear to resemble the old females during 
their first winter, and remain perfectly uniform like the hen 
birds. The summer plumage is gained by the shedding of the 
grey edges of the feathers, which leave the black face and breast 
without any moult. In fact, the black seems to spread over 
the feathers gradually, as spring approaches, as there is no 
sign of it in the young males which are killed m early winter. 



THE WHEATEARS. 



289 



Ran^e in Great Britain. A regular winter visitor, principally 
along the southern coast of England as far as Devon and Corn- 
wall. We have seen several specimens captured near Brighton, 
and the late Mr. Gatcombe used to obtain the species pretty 
regularly near Plymouth every winter. It also visits Scotland 
and Ireland in winter. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Black Redstart is chiefly 
a bird of Central and Southern Europe, extending northwards 
to Holland, but only straggling to Denmark and the south of 
Norway and Sweden. The eastern breeding limit is marked by 
Mr. Seebohm as 70 E. long., and the bird only occurs in 
Western Russia as a straggler, in the same way that it reaches 
occasionally the north of England and Scotland, the Faeroes 
and Iceland. Its winter range extends to North-eastern Africa. 

Habits. The present species is more like a Robin in its 
ways, and is found near houses rather than in the woods, 
where the common Redstart is so often observed, but it is 
also found nesting in the south of Europe among the rocky 
valleys. In most countries it not only frequents the towns, 
but more especially the neighbourhood of gardens and farm- 
houses, and, unlike the common Redstart, it sometimes seeks 
for its food on the ground. The song, as with the latter bird, 
is heard in the night, and especially in the early morning, but 
it consists only of a few rich notes. 

Nest. A large structure externally, and somewhat ragged and 
loose, but neatly lined inside. It is made of straw and grass, 
with moss and a few twigs, and lined with horsehair and a few 
feathers. It is built in holes of walls and ruins, and in summer- 
houses and sheds in gardens, verandahs, under eaves of houses, 
&c., often without any attempt at concealment. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. They are white, some- 
times with a very faint tinge of greenish. Axis, 0-75-0-85 
inch ; diam., 0-6. 

THE WHEATEARS. GENUS SAXICOLA. 
Saxicola, Bechst., Orn. Tascheub., p. 216 (1802). 

Type, S. (cnanthe (Linn.). 
The Chats have a longer bill than the Redstarts, but resemble 



290 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

the latter birds in their black legs and in the different colour of 
the sexes, though they never have red tails. On the contrary, 
they nearly all have the rump and base of the tail white, and 
the mottling of the young is somewhat different in character 
from that of Thrushes and Redstarts. 

The Chats are birds of desert and rocky countries as a rule, 
and are only found in the Old World, where they avoid the 
forest districts, so that no species of the genus Saxicola is 
found in the Indo-Malayan or Australian Regions. On the 
other hand, there are many Chats in the Ethiopian Region, and 
a large number of species inhabit the Mediterraneo-Persic Sub- 
region. In most countries they are resident, but some are migra- 
tory to a certain extent, none, however, equalling our Common 
Wheatear in this respect. 

I. THE WHEATEAR. SAXICOLA CENANTIIE. 
(Plate XXV.} 

Mot.uiUa ananthe. Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 332 (1766). 
Saxicola o>nanthe> Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 347 (1839); Newt. ed. 

Yarr., i., p. 289 (1872) ; Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 187, pi. 21 

(1874) ; Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 391 (1881) ; id. 

Br. B., i., p. 298 (1883) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 6 (1883); 

Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. i. (1885) ; Saunders, Man., p. 

19 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above slaty-blue, slightly washed 
with brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts white ; wing-coverts 
and quills brownish-black, with obsolete brownish margins, the 
secondaries narrowly fringed with ashy-whitish at the ends; centre 
tail-feathers blackish-brown, the remainder white, with the ter- 
minal third blackish-brown, forming a broad band ; crown of 
head grey, like the back; base of forehead white, with a distinct 
white eyebrow running from the base of the bill to beyond 
the line of the ear- coverts ; lores, eyelids, sides of face, and ear- 
coverts, black ; cheeks, throat, sides of neck, breast, and sides of 
body, pale tawny-buff; the centre of the breast, abdomen, thighs, 
and under tail-coverts creamy-white; axillaries white, with dusky 
bases ; under wing-coverts black with white edges ; quills ashy 
below; bill and feet black ; iris dark brown. Total length, 5 '8 
inches; culmen, 0-65; wing, 37; tail, 2*1; tarsus, i'o. 



THE WHEATEARS. 29 1 

Adult Female. Duller in colour than the male, being every- 
where browner, but with the same white rump and tail-markings; 
base of forehead slightly paler brown than the head ; the fore 
part of the eyebrow brownish-white, the hinder part purer 
white ; lores blackish ; ear-coverts brown ; under surface of 
body pale sandy-buff, lighter on the abdomen and under tail- 
coverts ; under wing-coverts and axillaries dusky brown, with 
white edgings. Total length, 5-8 inches; wing, 3-5. 

Young. Light chocolate-brown above, mottled all over with 
dusky blackish edgings to the feathers; the head and neck lighter 
brown, mottled with terminal spots and streaks of sandy-buff; 
lesser and median wing-coverts blackish, spotted with sandy- 
buff at the ends ; the greater coverts and quills broadly edged 
with rufous ; rump and upper tail-coverts white ; tail-feathers 
tipped with rufous ; ear-coverts dark brown with sandy-buff 
streaks ; under surface of body sandy-buff, lighter on the throat 
and abdomen ; the fore-neck and breast mottled with dusky 
margins to the feathers ; bill light brown, the lower mandible 
and gape yellow. After the AUTUMN MOULT the young birds re- 
semble the old females, but are more rufous, especially under- 
neath. 

Bange In Great Britain. A summer visitor, arriving early in 
March, and breeding throughout the British Islands, but much 
less frequently in the southern and midland counties than it 
does in the north. The birds which arrive in March are 
smaller in every way than those which arrive in April, about 
a month later; but the question of the differences between 
these two races and their geographical distribution has never 
been satisfactorily explained. The later arrivals always seem 
to us to be browner, as well as larger, than the first arrivals ; 
and it is this large form which passes through the Shetlands 
and Iceland on migration, and breeds in Greenland. Colonel 
Feilden even noticed it as high as 80 N. lat. 

Eange outside the British Islands. A nearly circumpolar bird, 
breeding in the high north throughout Europe and Northern 
Asia, but only on the higher ground in Southern Europe. 
The winter home of the Wheatear extends from the North- 
western Himalayas to Persia, and also to North-eastern and 
Eastern Africa, as well as to Senegambia. 

u 2 



292 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Habits. In the northern portions of our islands the Wheat- 
ear nests more frequently than in the south, where it is gener- 
ally observed on migration, and is a common object of the 
sea-shore in autumn and spring. At the latter time of year it 
is often to be observed on pasture-land in the interior of the 
country, perched upon a roil and displaying its white rump 
conspicuously as it flies off to perch upon the ground or a 
raised clod of earth the latter a favourite position. It may 
then be noticed in Hyde Park, to which the Wheatear is a 
regular visitor on its migrations. In the fields near the coast 
it is always to be seen in autumn, perched upon the low 
bushes or hedges and always sitting on the very topmost 
twigs, and flying off at the very first approach of danger. 
Most of the birds thus observed are young birds of the year, 
which have just completed their first autumn moult, and are 
resting before taking their journey southward. On being 
pursued they fly off rapidly and double close to the ground, 
appearing again at some little distance on the hedge, or flying 
out to the middle of a field and perching on a mound of 
earth, or even hiding behind it. In this way the bird pro- 
ceeds some distance and then flies back to the place from 
which it was first driven. 

The food of the Wheatear consists almost entirely of insects 
and worms, but small snails are also eaten. A bait of a meal- 

orm is almost sure to trap the bird. Both old and young 
birds frequent hay-fields in the neighbourhood of their nest, 
and may be seen flying gently down like a Flycatcher, to pick 
up an insect, and then returning to their perch, while they will 
also fly off and catch an insect in the air. In the autumn the 
birds also feed on berries. 

Nest. A plain structure of dry grass, with a little moss and 
a few rootlets, and lined with hair or a few feathers. It is 
exceedingly difficult to find, and is placed in various situa- 
tions. Mr. Walter Burton has presented to the British Museum 
a nest which he found on the open beach near Winchelsea, 
for which the bird had appropriated an old derelict can, 
which had once held tinned meat and had probably been 
washed up by the sea. In the wilder parts of Great Britain, 
where the Wheatear is more often to be seen during the nest- 



ffHE WHKATEARS. 2Q3 

ing season, it places its nest out of sight in various kinds of 
places, sometimes far under a ledge ot rock, or under a clod 
of earth, sometimes also in the hole of a wall. Mr. Seebohm 
likewise mentions a cairn of stones on the sea shore as a 
favourite resort, and also the stacks of peat on the moors, 
and he says that the nest is sometimes to be found at a 
distance of several feet from the place where the birds enter. 
A rabbit-burrow is also often selected, and the group which 
illustrates the nesting of the Wheatear in the British Museum, 
shows the nest, with the young birds, concealed just inside the 
burrow, and as the latter was occupied, the Rabbits must have 
been passing in and out during the whole time of the incubation 
of the eggs and the rearing of the young. 

Eggs. Four to seven in number. They are entirely pale 
greenish-blue, or greenish-white, usually without any spots, but 
occasionally showing some faint spots of purplish-brown, prin- 
cipally at the larger end. Axis, o*8-o'9 inch ; diam., o'6-o'65. 
(Plate xxix., fig. 4.) 

T' THE ISABELLINE WHEATEAR. SAXICOLA ISABELLINA. 

Saxicola isabellina, Cretzschm. in Riipp. All., p. 52 (1826); 
Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 199, pi. 22 (1874); Seeb., Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 399 (iSSi); Saunders, Man., p. 21 



Adult Male. General colour above earthy-brown, with an ashy 
shade, slightly more rufescent towards the rump ; the upper 
tail-coverts white ; wing-coverts dark brown, edged with sandy- 
brown ; bastard-wing blackish, narrowly margined with sandy- 
buff; primary-coverts and quills dark brown, edged externally 
with ashy-grey, less distinct on the latter, the secondaries 
fringed with white at the ends, the inner ones broadly margined 
with sandy-buff; centre tail-feathers black, with a white base, the 
rest of the feathers white for more than the basal half, the end of 
the tail black, forming a very broad terminal band, the feathers 
tipped with white ; head like the back ; a broad streak from 
the base of the bill to above the ear-coverts, white, the hinder 
part of this eyebrow sandy-buff ; lores black; ear-coverts and 
under-surface of body isabelline-rufous, paler and inclining to 
sandy-white on the cheeks and throat ; the abdomen and 
under tail-coverts paler isabelline ; axillaries and under wing- 



1 94 LLOYD'S NATURAL HisTofcV. 

coverts creamy-white; quills dusky below, creamy-whitish along 
the inner web; bill black; feet brownish-black; iris dark brown. 
Total length, 6 '5 inches ; culmen, o - 6 ; wing, 3*8 ; tail, 2*0 ; tar- 
sus, 1*2. 

Adult Female. Similar in colour to the male. Total length, 
6 inches ; wing, 375 ; tarsus, 1-15. 

The Isabelline Wheatear may easily be mistaken for the 
female of the Common Wheatear, but, as Mr. Howard Saun- 
ders has pointed out, the broader white lining to the quills will 
always distinguish it. This is a very good character, and 
another is the greater length of the tarsus in S. isabellina. 
This is 1-15-1-2 inch in length; whereas S. (znanthe never 
has a tarsus longer than i '05 inch. 

Kange in Great Britain. This species has only occurred once, 
a specimen having been obtained by Mr. Thomas Mann, near 
Allonby in Cumberland, on the nth of November, 1887. The 
bird was found in a ploughed field, quite alone, and was 
brought to the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, who showed it to Mr. 
Howard Saunders, afterwards had it mounted, and then very 
kindly presented it to the British Museum, where it remains as 
one of our great treasures in the British saloon. 

Eange outside Great Britain. The Isabelline Wheatear is a 
resident in Palestine and the whole of North-eastern Africa 
from Egypt to Arabia and Somali-land, and perhaps remains 
in Masai-land, where it has also been met with. To the east- 
ward its breeding-range extends to Thibet, S.E. Mongolia, 
Amoorland, and Northern China, but here it is doubtless only- 
a summer visitor, as it is to Afghanistan, Turkestan, Southern 
Siberia, and the Lower Volga and Asia Minor. The birds 
which breed in the latter places doubtless winter in N.E. 
Africa, but the more eastern birds visit Northern India, passing 
through Gilgit in spring and autumn. 

HaMts. According to Mr. C. G. Danford, this Wheatear 
frequents barren ground, bushy hillsides, and even fir- woods in 
Asia Minor. The call-note resembles the syllables zri-zri- 
zri, but Mr. Danford also says that its notes are very peculiar, 
the most striking being a cry resembling that of a Sandpiper, 
which is uttered as the bird descends, after its hovering flight 
and Lark-like song. 



THE WHEATEARS. 295 

Nest. Generally placed in burrows, sometimes at a consider- 
able distance. In construction it resembles that of the Wheat- 
ear. 

Eggs. Four or five in number. Pale greenish-blue with the 
faintest indication of pale brown spots on some of them. Axis, 
o'S5-o'9 inch ; diam., 0*65. 

III. THE BLACK-THROATED WIIEATEAR. SAXICOLA STAPAZINA. 

Motacilla stapazina^ pt. Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 331 (1766, 

<$ nee. ? ). 

Saxicola riifa, Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 203, pi. 23 (1874). 
Saxicola stapazina, Seeb., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., v., p. 387 (1881) ; 

id. Br. B., i., p. 307 (1883); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 6 

(1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. i. (1885); Saunders, 

Man., p. 23 (1889). 
Saxicola occide?italis, Salvad. Elench. Uc. Ital., p. 116 (1886). 

Adult Male. Head, neck, and mantle rich sandy-rufous, 
generally whiter on the forehead ; lower back, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts pure white ; scapulars, wing-coverts, and quills 
black, the former sandy-buff near the back ; centre tail-feathers 
black, with a white base ; remainder white, excepting a narrow 
black tip, which increases in width towards the outermost, 
where it forms a broad black band at the end, and extends 
some distance up the outer web ; extreme base of forehead, 
lores, line above and behind the eye, sides of face, cheeks, 
and upper throat, black ; remainder of under surface of body 
from the middle of the throat downwards rich sandy-rufous ; 
sides of body less distinctly washed with sandy-buff, the abdo- 
men and under tail-coverts creamy- white ; axillaries and under 
wing-coverts black; quills dusky below, ashy-whitish along the 
inner edge ; bill and feet black ; iris brown. Total length, 57 
inches; culmen, 0-55; wing, 3*55; tail, 2*3; tarsus, 0-9. 

Adult Female. Browner than the male, with brown wings and 
tail ; the head and back sandy-brown, the rump and upper 
tail-coverts white ; ear-coverts sandy-rufous ; throat ashy-brown 
with a blackish patch in the middle ; lower throat, fore-neck, 
breast, and sides of body sandy-rufous, the abdomen isabelline. 
Total length, 57 inches; wing, 3*45. 



296 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

NOTE. The male of the Black-throated \Vheatear is easily distinguished 
by its sandy-rufous head and back, and white rump, black wings, and black 
under wing-coverts. The female can be distinguished from the female of S. 
ananthe by its much smaller size and dark ashy, not whitish, under wing- 
coverts. 

Eange in Great Britain. A male of this Chat, in adult plu- 
mage, was shot near Bury, in Lancashire, about the 8th of May, 
1875. It was recorded by Mr. R. Davenport, and identified by 
Mr. Howard Saunders and other ornithologists. 

Eange outside the British Islands. There are two forms of 
Black-Throated Wheatear, one western (S. stapazina) and one 
eastern (S. melanoleiicd). It is the western bird which has 
occurred in England, and also in Heligoland, and this bird 
breeds in Algeria, Morocco, Spain, and the South of France, 
to about the line of the Loire. Both forms are met with in 
Italy, and the western bird breeds there, and it is said that inter- 
mediate specimens occur between the two races, which some 
naturalists do not admit to be distinct. The eastern Black- 
throated Wheatear occurs in Greece and Palestine, and in 
Asia Minor and South Russia as far as Persia, and winters in 
N.E. Africa : while the western one winters in West Africa. 

EaMts. Resemble those of our Wheatear, the bird inhabiting 
rocky localities on the hills of Southern Europe, and nesting 
in the grass, in the shelter of a crevice in the rocks, or in old 
ruins. 

Nest. Loosely made of moss and grass, and lined with roots 
and hair. 

Eggs. Four or five in number, of a light blue colour, sprin- 
kled with reddish dots, generally all over the egg, but some- 
times forming a ring round the larger end. Occasionally the 
eggs are spotless. Axis, 07-0-8 inch ; diam, 0-55-0-6. 

IV. THE DESERT WHEATEAR. SAXICOLA DESERTI. 

Saxicola deserti, Temm., PI. Col., iii., pi. 359, fig. 2 (1825); 
Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 215, pi. 27 (1874); Seeb., Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., v., p. 383 (1881); id. Br. B., i., p. 304 (1883) ; 
B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 7 (1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. 
B., pt. ii. (1886); Saunders, Man., p. 25 (1889). 



THE WHEATEARS. 297 

Adult Male. General colour above bright sandy-rufous, over- 
shaded with ashy margins to the feathers, the lower back and 
rump brighter sandy-rufous, the lower rump and upper tail- 
coverts creamy-white, washed with sandy-rufous ; scapulars like 
the back ; wing-coverts black, the inner, median, and greater 
coverts white or sandy-white, forming a large wing-patch ; rest 
of the wing black, the inner secondaries edged with sandy- 
brown ; tail-feathers entirely black, with a white base for about 
one-third the length of the feather ; head like the back, or a 
trifle greyer, with a white line across the base of the forehead 
extending back over the eye and forming an eyebrow; lores 
and feathers above the eye, sides of face and ear-coverts, and 
throat black ; remainder of under surface of body sandy-rufous, 
as also the sides of the body ; the centre of the breast, abdomen, 
and under tail-coverts whiter; axillaries black, tipped with white; 
under wing-coverts white ; quills dusky below, white along the 
inner web ; edge of wing black ; bill black ; feet and claws 
black ; iris deep brown. Total length, 6 inches; culmen, o'6 ; 
wing, 3-6; tail, 2-5; tarsus, 1-05. 

Adult Female. Differs from the male in wanting the black on 
the face and throat ; the whole upper surface sandy-brown ; 
the upper tail-coverts sandy-rufous ; tail as in the male ; wings 
not black, but brown, the feathers edged with sandy-rufous ; lores 
whitish ; ear-coverts light rufous ; cheeks and entire under sur- 
face of body pale sandy-rufous, inclining to isabelline on the 
abdomen and under tail-coverts ; under wing coverts and axil- 
laries white, with dusky bases ; quills ashy-brown below, white 
along the inner edge. Total length, 57 inches ; wing, 3-5. 

NOTE. The male of the Desert Wheatear is very distinct, but the 
female might be confounded with the hen of some of the allied species. 
It may be well to mention, therefore, that it can be distinguished from the 
females of S. ynanthe and S. stapazina by its blacker tail, the basal third 
of which only is white. 

Range in Great Britain. Obtained on two occasions : once near 
Alloa, in Scotland, on the 26th of November, 1880, and a 
second near Holderness, on the i;th October, 1885. The 
former was exhibited before the Zoological Society by Mr. J. J. 
Dalgleish, and the second by Mr. W. Eagle Clarke. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Desert Chat is an African 



298 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

bird, but has occurred on Heligoland on three occasions, in 
the month of October in 1856 and 1857, and again on the 
23rd of June in 1880. It is a desert-loving species and extends 
from Northern Africa to Egypt and India, Arabia and Palestine, 
east to Turkestan. It winters in the plains of Northern India, 
and a few may even breed there. In Africa its winter range 
extends as far south as Somaliland. 

Habits. As its name implies, this little Chat is an inha- 
bitant of desert countries, and it is emphatically the Wheatear of 
the Algerian Sahara. In its habits it resembles the Common 
Wheatear. 

Nest, Resembles that of the Black-throated Wheatear, and 
is placed on the ground, either under the shelter of a bush or 
in a fissure of a rock, and, like our Wheatears, it also nests in 
burrows. 

Eggs. Greenish-blue, with reddish-brown spots distributed 
over the whole egg, but rather more closely gathered towards 
the larger end. Axis, o'S inch ; diam., o'6. 

THE FURZE-CHATS. GENUS PRATINCOLA. 

Pratincola, Koch, Syst. Baier. Zool., p. 190 (1816). 

Type, P. rubetra (Linn.). 

The genus Pratincola forms an intermediate link between 
the Chats and Flycatchers. The bill is broadened and re- 
sembles that of the latter birds, and, as with the Muscicapid<& 
there are numerous rictal bristles. In the True Chats the bill 
is narrow and the rictal bristles are few in number and weak ; 
thus the members of the genus Saxieola are more closely 
allied to the Robins and Redstarts. The Furze-Chats, however, 
are Muscicapine Chats. They are entirely confined to the 
Old World and do not extend into the Australian Region proper. 
In Africa the genus is strongly developed and its members are 
also found over the greater part of the Palsearctic and Indi: 
Regions as far as Celebes. 

I. THE WHINCHAT. PRATINCOLA RUF.ETRA. 

Motacttla rubetra, Linn, Syst. Nat, i., p 332 (1766). 



llifc HJRZfc-CHAfS. 299 

Fnitidcola rubetra, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 273 (1839). 
Saxicola rubetra, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 344 (1873). 
Pratincola rubelra, Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 255, pis. 37, 38 

(1873); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iv., p. 179 (1879); 

Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 312 (1883); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 7 

(1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig., Br, B., pt. ii. (1886); Saunders, 

Man., p. 27 (1889). 

Adult Male. General colour above brown, streaked with 
blackish-brown centres to the feathers ; the rump and upper 
tail-coverts rather more rufous, the latter with white margins ; 
scapulars like the back, but with a blackish shoulder-spot on 
the sides of the mantle ; wing-coverts blackish, with sandy- 
brown edges, the inner, median, and greater coverts white, with 
dusky brown ends, forming a wing-patch ; primary-coverts 
white at base, with blackish tips, forming a speculum ; quills 
dark brown, the primaries white at the extreme base, the 
secondaries fringed with whity-brown at the ends ; centre tail- 
feathers brown, the remainder white, with the terminal third 
brown, forming a broad band ; crown of head darker than the 
back, the feathers edged with sandy-buff; a broad white eye- 
brow, commencing at the nostrils ; lores and sides of face 
blackish, the ear-coverts bronzy-brown; cheeks and chin white, 
extending on to the sides of the neck ; centre of the throat 
and breast light cinnamon-rufous, as also the sides of the body; 
centre of breast and abdomen, and under tail-coverts, light 
sandy-buff; axillaries light cinnamon, with dusky bases ; under 
wing-coverts dusky brown, with whitish edges ; quills dusky 
below, ashy-whitish along the inner web; bill and feet black; 
iris brown. Total length, 5-4 inches; culmen, 0-5; wing, 
3-05 ; tail, i '8 ; tarsus, o'8. 

Adult Female. Different from the male, and rather browner ; 
the rufous of the throat and sides of the body paler and more 
orange ; the sides of the face not so black, the ear-coverts and 
cheeks being brown, streaked with lighter brown, with a little 
blackish along the cheeks. Total length, 5 inches; wing, 3-0. 

Young Birds after the Autumn Moult much resemble the old 
birds, but may always be distinguished by the pale sandy-buff 
tips to the feathers, traces of which remain till the succeeding 



300 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

spring, and the white wing patch is very plain. In the autumn 
the fore-neck has some small black streaks. 

Kange in Great Britain. A summer visitant to the British Is- 
lands, visiting the North of Scotland, as well as the Orkney, and 
Shetland Islands, and also the Hebrides. In Ireland, however, 
it is still considered as a rare and local summer visitor. 

Range outside the British Islands. As in Great Britain, the Whin- 
chat is a summer visitor to most parts of Europe, and breeds 
as far north as the Arctic Circle. It extends eastwards to the 
Ural Mountains, and its breeding range even to 70 E. long. 
In the south of Europe, the individuals which stay for the sum- 
mer season only nest in the mountains. In winter the Whinchat 
visits North-east Africa, and is frequently to be found in collec- 
tions from Senegambia and the Gold Coast. 

Habits. The Whinchat is one of the prettiest and most 
engaging of our summer visitors, but is seldom noticed by 
anybody but the ornithologist ; and yet it is by no means 
uncommon. It is found in a variety of situations, in the open 
moorland, the fallows, and the grass fields before the hay- 
season begins. Wherever it is found its habits are very similar, 
and it may be observed on the open commons, sitting on the 
top of a furze-bush like a Stonechat, or flying over the stand- 
ing grass, and perching on a thistle or small bush in the middle 
of the field ; or it may be found on the slope of a hill, over 
which are scattered furze-bushes. On its first arrival in the 
early part of May, the Whinchat may be seen in pairs, but after 
the nesting season the female is seldom observed, and there is 
no more difficult nest to discover. The male is observed on 
the top of a bush, and from its actions one may fancy that the 
nest is below ; this generally turns out to be the case. The 
bird, however, will do everything in its power to mislead, flyim 
off rapidly and reappearing at the top of a neighbouring bush, 
uttering its note, u-tack, u-tack. This is a very good render- 
ing of the note of the Whinchat and Stonechat, both of whose 
calls resemble the sound of two stones being clinked together. 1 

* We notice that Mr. Seebohm says that the Whinchat is calle 
" U-tick," from its note, in some country districts. In Leicestershir 
in our young days, this name was always applied to the Wheatear. 



THE FURZE-CHATS. 30 1 

Then the male bird disappears altogether for a time, and the 
observer fancies that he must have been on the wrong scent 
altogether, when, after a long wait, the bird reappears on the 
top of the bush where it was first seen. On tapping the furze, 
a little brown object may be observed, scudding like the wind, 
and disappearing behind the first shelter it can find, or flying 
to a distant hedge, as if the nest were there. This is the female 
bird, and the nest is certainly located, but even then it is not 
visible. Only those who have taken several Whinchats' nests 
under such circumstances know the difficulty with which the 
nest is finally discovered, for, although it may be ultimately 
found, it is necessary first to spot the " run " by which it is 
approached. As with the Grasshopper-Warbler, this is some- 
times two feet in length, and at the end of it is the nest with 
the eggs. It is not always that the Whinchat builds in situa- 
tions so difficult to discover, as sometimes the nest is built 
amongst the grass, far away from any hedge or bush. 

In the autumn the old birds are seldom or never observed, 
but the young birds are common, pursuing their insect prey in 
the harvest-fields in the country, or frequenting the pastures 
near the sea-shore, where they perch upon the thistles or low 
bushes, or on the hedges which line the fields. The birds 
may often be seen flying after insects in the air, after the 
manner of Flycatchers, and they are very active in pursuit of 
gnats and other flies, as evening approaches. 

Nest. Composed of dry grass, with a very little moss, and a 
few straws on the outside. The interior cup is more neatly 
woven, with finer grass and horsehair. 

Eggs. Four or five in number, greenish-blue, faintly speckled 
with reddish-brown, the spots of the latter colour almost in- 
visible, but sometimes collecting at the larger end of the egg 
and forming a zone. Axis, o'7~o'8 inch; diam., o'55~o'6. It 
may be mentioned that the spotted eggs seem to be rather 
larger and paler blue than the unspotted ones. 

II. THE STONECHAT. PRATINCOLA RUBICOLA. 

Motacilla rubicola, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 332 (1766). 
Fruticicola rubicola, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 279 (1839). 



3 02 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Sixicola rubicola, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 339 (1873). 
Pratincola rubicola, Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 263, pis. 39, 40 

(1873); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iv., p. 185 (1879); 

Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 317 (1883); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 

8 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt ii. (1886); Saun- 

ders, Man., p. 29 (1889); Wyatt, Br. B., pi. 2, figs, i, 2 

(1894). 

Adult Male. General colour above black, generally with some 
obsolete sandy-buff edges to the feathers, these being lost only 
in the height of the breeding-season ; upper tail-coverts white, 
spotted with black ; wing-coverts black, the inner, median, and 
greater coverts white, forming a large wing-patch ; primary- 
coverts and quills blackish-brown, with sandy brown margins ; 
tail-feathers blackish-brown ; head, sides of face, and throat 
black, with a broad white patch on the sides of the neck, ex- 
tending from behind the ear-coverts to the shoulder ; fore-neck 
and breast orange-chestnut, inclining to pale cinnamon on the 
sides of the body, the feathers being blackish, with pale cinna- 
mon ends ; the abdomen and under tail-coverts isabelline-buff; 
thighs light brown ; axillaries white, blackish towards the base ; 
under wing-coverts black, with white edges ; bill and feet black; 
iris brown. Total length, 5-3 inches ; culmen, 0-5 ; wing, 2-7 ; 
tail, 1-8 ; tarsus, 0*9. 

Adult Female. Different from the male, and lacking the black 
on the head; the upper surface dark sandy-brown, streaked 
with black centres to the feathers ; the white wing-patch not so 
large, and the upper tail-coverts rufous, centred with black, not 
white as in the male ; tail-feathers dark brown, with narrow 
whitish edges; head like the back, and similarly streaked ; eye- 
lid whitish; lores dusky; ear-coverts dark brown ; throat ashy- 
whitish, with a large black patch on the lower throat ; sides of 
neck with a small white patch, much less than in the male ; 
remainder of under-parts from the fore-neck downwards orange- 
chestnut, the centre of the breast and abdomen isabelline. 
Total length, 5 inches ; wing, 2-55. 

Young. Dark brown above, spotted with triangular buff 
centres to the feathers, which have also blackish edges ; rump 
and upper tail-coverts rufous, spotted with black ; head darker 



THE FURZE-CHATS. 303 

than the back, ani lined with buff; under surface of body 
tawny-buff, mottled with brown spots on the lower throat and 
chest. 

NOTE. The black breast of the male Stonechat with its large white 
neck-spot always serve to distinguish the bird from the Whinchat, which 
has also a white base to the tail, very conspicuous when the bird is flying ; 
whereas the Stonechat has only a little white spot, formed by the upper 
tail-coverts. The hen Stonechat certainly resembles the Whinchat more 
closely, but is darker in appearance, has no white on the tail, and has a 
large black spot on the lower throat ; the breast and abdomen rufous, in- 
stead of creamy-buff. 

Range in Great Britain. The Stonechat is generally distributed 
over the British Islands, but is decidedly a local bird. It is 
generally resident, but is also a migrant to a large extent. 

Range outside '.the British Islands. A local bird in most parts 
of Europe, being more common in the south. Mr. Howard 
Saunders records it as breeding in Southern Spain, even in 
the hot plains below Seville ; and it is a species which occurs 
throughout the Mediterranean countries. Throughout Cen- 
tral Europe it is a local bird, and does not extend nearly so 
far north as the Whinchat, its northern range being almost 
bounded by the Baltic, with the exception of Southern Sweden, 
where the Stonechat is also found. Eastwards it extends to 
the Volga, but its breeding-range is limited, according to Mr. 
Seebohm, to 50 W. long. From the Petchora valley eastwards 
through Siberia to China and Japan, and southwards to India 
and the Burmese countries, our Stonechat is represented by an 
allied species, Pratincola maura, with unspotted white \ pper 
tail-coverts and entirely black axillaries. In winter the Stone- 
chat visits Senegambia. 

Habits. The ways of the present species are very like those 
of the Whinchat, but it is more of a heath-frequenting bird 
than the last-named species. It is, in fact, not seen so much 
in the pasture-land or grass-fields, and, being only migratory to 
a small extent, it does not frequent the coast-lands to the same 
extent as the Whinchat. Nevertheless, the two species are 
often found side by side, and they nest in the same districts. 
Their note is similar u-tack well expresses it and they have 
the same habits of sitting on the top of a furze-bush and flying 
from one bush to another, when they want to deceive an in- 



J4 

truder as to the position of their nest. Owing to the white 
patch on the neck, the bird is more easily observed than the 
Whinchat, and the females of both species are equally shy, and 
adopt the same tactics when driven from their nest. The 
Stonechat, like its ally, catches insects in the air, and some- 
times even captures butterflies on the wing ; but it is often 
seen on the ground, where it picks up worms and grubs. 

Nest. Always on the ground and well concealed, gener- 
ally with a " run " extending for some distance, and serving 
to make the discovery of the nest still more difficult. It is 
rather more roughly constructed than that of the Whinchat, 
and the materials are coarser, consisting of dry grass and 
rootlets, with a little moss and horsehair. The lining consists 
of finer grass and rootlets, with a little hair and an odd feather 
or two. 

Eggs. Four to six in number. The ground-colour is pale 
bluish-green, and the spots are light reddish-brown, but much 
larger and more distinct than in the eggs of the Whinchat. 
They are often found collected towards the larger end of the 
egg, where they form a zone or completely cloud the larger 
end. Some of the clutches incline somewhat to olive-greenish. 
Axis, 075-0-8 inch; diam., 0-5-0-6. 

THE ACCENTORS. FAMILY ACCENTORID.E. 

The Accentors are for the most part dwellers among the 
rocks, but some of them, like our Common Hedge-Sparrow 
frequent the lower ground, and are amongst our most familia 
birds in gardens and in the neighbourhood of houses. The] 
differ from the Turdidce in having the tarsus scutellated, as in 
the Tits, with which Mr. Seebohm has actually associated them 
In other characters, however, such as the shape of the bill anc 
its rictal bristles, the Accentors are allied to the Robins am 
Redstarts, while the spotted character of the young proves 
their affinity with the family of the Turdidtz. The Hedge 
Accentors differ from most of the latter in having a very roundec 
wing, but this peculiarity is not shared by the Alpine Accentors 
The family contains the two genera Tharrhakus and Accentor 
The former comprises the "Hedge-Sparrows," like our English 



THE HEDGE-ACCENTORS. 305 

bird, and all the species of the genus have a small and blunt 
wing, with the secondary quills almost as long as the primaries. 
There are six species in the Himalayas, three European, another 
Central Asian, and a third still more eastern representative of 
the genus in Japan. 

The species of the genus Accentor, which has a longer and 
more pointed wing, with the secondaries not nearly equalling 
the primaries in length, are found in the mountains of Asia 
and Europe, extending from Manchuria throughout the Altai 
and Himalayan systems to the Caucasus and the mountains of 
Central and Southern Europe. 

THE HEDGE-ACCENTORS. GENUS THARRIIALEUS. 

TharrhahuS) Kaup, Natiirl. Syst., p. 137 (1829). 
Type, T. modulciris (Linn.). 

The characters which distinguish this genus from Accentor 
have been alluded to above. The bill is about half the length 
of the head, rather wide at the base, and tapering laterally 
towards the centre, and ending in a somewhat fine point ; it 
has also a slight notch, and is furnished with rictal bristles, 
which, however, are few in number and weak. The Hedge- 
Sparrows lay blue eggs like Redstarts and Chats, but differ 
from these birds in having the sexes alike in colour, and in 
other structural characters. 

I. THE HEDGE-SPARROW. THARRHALEUS MODULARIS. 

Motacilla modularis^ Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 329 (1766). 

Accentor modularis, Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 251 (1839); Newt. ed. 
Yarr., i., p. 301 (1873); Dresser, B., Eur., iii., p. 39, pi. 101 
(1873); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., vii., p. 649 (1883^; 
B. O. U. List. Br. B., p. 22 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., i., 
p. 497 (1883); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. v. (1887); 
Saunders, Man., p. 85 (1889); Wyatt, Br. B., pi. xv., fig. i. 
(1894). 

Adult Male. General colour above brown, streaked with broad 
blackish-brown centres to the feathers; lesser wing-coverts 
i x 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTO. 

uniform ashy-brown ; median wing-coverts blackish-brown, with 
ashy-brown edges ; greater coverts and inner secondaries dark 
brown, edged with rufous, the latter with ashy-white tips; 
bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills dark brown, the latter 
with paler brown margins; rump and upper tail-coverts uniform 
olive-brown ; tail-feathers dark brown, the two centre ones 
paler ; crown of head and hind-neck dull slaty-brown ; lores 
dusky ; ear-coverts reddish-brown with whitish shaft-streaks ; 
sides of neck, cheeks, throat and breast slaty-grey, becoming 
paler on the lower breast, and shading off into dull white on 
the abdomen ; sides of upper breast uniform olive-brown; sides 
of body and flanks brown, the latter streaked with blackish- 
brown centres to the feathers ; under tail-coverts whitish with 
brown centres ; axillaries and under wing-coverts ashy-grey ; 
quills dusky brown below, ashy along the inner edge ; bill dark 
brown, the lower mandible paler ; feet light brown ; iris brown. 
Total length, 5-5 inches; oilmen, 0-5; wing, 275; tail, 2-4; 
tarsus, 0*85. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
5 '6 inches; wing, 2*6. 

Young. Similar in plumage to the adult, but much more 
mottled, with black centres and paler tips to the feathers ; the 
external aspect of the wings more rufous; the hind-neck 
spotted with ochreous buff; throat ashy-grey, spotted with 
dusky; throat and chest and sides of body ochreous-buff, with 
triangular spots of blackish-brown ; breast ashy-white. 

Range in Great Britain. A common resident throughout the 
British Islands, occurring and breeding everywhere, excepting 
in some of the Hebrides, the Orkneys, and Shetlands. Large 
numbers occur on migration, especially on our eastern coasts, 
and the species is also a winter visitant to the Orkney 
Islands. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Breeds nearly everywhere 
throughout Europe, excepting in the extreme north, reaching 
to 70 lat. in Scandinavia, to Archangel in Western Russia, and 
to about -0 in the Ural Mountains. In the south of Europe 
it nests only on the mountains, and is principally known as a 
winter visitor to the Mediterranean countries ; but it has been 






THE HEDGE-ACCENTORS. 307 

fecorded by Heuglin as wintering as far south as Arabia Petraea. 
In Palestine, according to Canon Tristram, it is a resident. 

Habits. Although not a real Sparrow, as its English name 
would suggest, the familiar title by which this little bird is uni- 
versally known must be preferred to the more correct one of 
Hedge-Accentor, which properly describes its relationships. 
It has been too long known as the "Hedge-Sparrow" for any ad- 
vantage to accrue from a change of English name. In all other 
respects except that of the similarity of colouring of the upper 
surface, it is quite different from the Sparrows, and as regards 
voice, nesting-habits, colour of eggs, etc., it has nothing in 
common with the latter birds. 

Like the Robin, the Hedge-Sparrow seeks the society of 
man, and is as frequent a pensioner in winter as that well- 
known type of Avian familiarity. The nest, too, is frequently 
to be found in our gardens, and is one of the first to be built 
in the year, as it is sometimes found as early as March. A 
clipped yew-hedge is a favourite shelter for the nest, but it is 
placed in all kinds of situations, though never at any great 
height from the ground. Hedge-rows and tangled thickets on 
commons are also selected as nesting-sites : we have also found 
the nest in furze-bushes, while it is sometimes placed in ivy or 
even against a tree-trunk. The late Robert Gray mentions his 
having found a nest in a cave on Ailsa Craig, placed in a ledge 
of rock at the base of a tuft of hart's-tongue fern, the floor of 
the cave being covered with water. 

The food of the Hedge-Sparrow consists almost entirely of 
worms and insects, but it will also, like the Robin, occasionally 
feed on grain in the winter. It sings all through the year, a 
poor little song, but cheerful enough when heard through the 
dismal days of winter, when the bird frequents the neighbour- 
hood of houses. 

Nest. Composed almost entirely of moss, with a few sticks, 
roots, and dry grass, but the chief material used is moss, which 
sometimes forms the lining. Very often, however, the latter 
consists of wool with hair and feathers. 

Egg S . From four to six in number. Entirely greenish-blue,with- 
out any spots. The shell is rough and not so shiny or so brittle as 
the egg of the Redstart. Axis, 07-0-8 inch; diam., 0-55-0-6. 

X 2 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORV. 

THE TRUE ACCENTORS. GENUS ACCENTOR. 

Accentor, Bechst, Orn. Taschenb., i., p. 191 (1802). 

Type, A. collar is (Scop.). 

As has already been explained, the Alpine Accentors are 
mountain-loving birds, with a differently formed wing to the 
Hedge -Sparrows. As in the latter birds the sexes are alike, 
but they appear to have a winter plumage, when the feathers 
are paler-edged, and the summer plumage is gained by the 
abrasion of these pale margins. 

I. THE ALPINE ACCENTOR. ACCENTOR COLLARI3. 

Accentor collaris (Scop.), Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 296 (1871); 

Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 29, pi. 99 (1873) ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B., vii., p. 661 (1883); B. O. U. List Brit. B., p. 23 

(1883); Lilford, Col. Fig., Brit B., pt. vii. (1888); 

Saunders, Man., p. 87 (1889). 
Accentor alpinus, Bechst.; Macg., Brit. B., ii., p. 258 (1839); 

Seeb., Brit. B., i., p. 501 (1883). 

Adult Male. Light ashy-grey above, all the feathers broadly 
streaked with black down the centre; rump more uniform ashy; 
scapulars externally rufous, like the inner secondaries, which 
are also broadly edged with rufous ; lesser wing-coverts ashy ; 
median and greater coverts black, tipped with white, the 
latter externally ashy-olive ; quills blackish, the secondaries 
tipped with whity-brown, and externally whity-brown or light 
rufous, the innermost ones rufous along both webs ; tail-feathers 
dark brown, edged with ashy-brown, with a white tip to 
the inner web of the outer feathers, rufous on the others ; 
head and neck like the back, and streaked with blackish 
centres to the feathers, with a faintly indicated pale eye- 
brow; sides of face and sides of neck ashy-grey, as well as 
the fore-neck and chest, enclosing the white cheeks and throat, 
which form a white gorget, spotted or barred with lines of black; 
breast and abdomen light ashy, as also the thighs, the vent 
whiter ; sides of body and flanks uniform cinnamon-brown, the 
flanks edged with white and centred with blackish-brown ; 
under tail-coverts white, with blackish centres; under wing- 
coverts and axillaries ashy, washed with rufous, the edge of the 



THE DIPPERS. 309 

wing barred with black and white ; bill blackish-brown, the 
base yellow ; feet reddish-brown ; iris brown. Total length, 
6-8 inches; culmen, 0-55; wing, 4*05; tail, 2-5; tarsus, ro. 

Range in Great Britain. A rare visitor, but one of which 
many authentic occurrences have been registered. The first 
instance happened as long ago as August, 1817, and two 
more birds were seen in the gardens of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1822. Other records refer to the occurrence of the 
species in various places in England and Wales : in Suffolk, 
Somersetshire, Devonshire, Gloucestershire, Yorkshire, Sussex, 
and lastly, the bird was observed by Mr. Howard Saunders 
himself on Snowdon on the 20th of August, 1870. 

Eange outside the British Islands. -The Alpine Accentor is an 
inhabitant of all the mountain ranges of Southern Europe, 
from Spain to Greece, and thence through Asia Minor and the 
Caucasus into Northern Persia. It has occurred as a straggler 
in the north of France, Belgium, Northern Germany, and even 
Heligoland, while it also is found nearly every autumn in the 
cliffs which fringe the River Loire. 

Habits. Like the Hedge-Sparrow of the gardens, the Alpine 
Accentor is a tame bird in the mountains which it frequents ; 
here it builds its nest on the higher grounds, descending in 
winter into the low valleys. Its food consists of insects and 
their larvae, but in winter it feeds upon seeds. The song is 
said to resemble that of a Lark, and the bird ascends for thirty 
or forty feet into the air and descends singing. 

Nest. Made of dry round stems of grass, mixed with fine 
roots and lichens, and sometimes lined with moss, wool, or 
hair. It is placed on the ground under an overhanging bush or 
rhododendron-tree. (Cj. Seebohm I.e.) 

Eggs. Pale greenish-blue, without any spots. Axis, 0-9-0-95 
inch ; diam., 0-65-07. 

THE DIPPERS. FAMILY CINCLID^). 

The Dippers or Water-Ouzels are comprised in a single genus 
Cinclus, and they might very well be called Water- Wrens. No 
one can examine the nest of the Dippers without recognising 



310 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

at once how similar they are in appearance and situation to 
that of a large Wren's nest, and there are other Wren-like 
characters to be observed in the Dippers. Not only do the 
short and rounded wings proclaim the affinity of the two 
families, but the absence of rictal bristles also serves to unite 
them. The Dippers are found in the mountains of Europe, 
Asia, and North America. They also occur in Central 
America and extend down the Andes from the United States 
of Columbia to Peru and Tucuman. 

THE DIPPERS OR WATER-OUZELS. GENUS CINCLUS. 

Cinclus^ Bechst, Orn. Taschenb., i., p. 206 (1802). 

Type, C. cinclus (Linn.). 

As there is but a single genus Cindus, the remarks made 
above under the heading of the family, refer equally to the 
genus. 

I. THE DIPPER. CINCLUS AQUATICUS. 

Cinclus europceuS) Macg., Br. B., ii., p. 50 (1839). 
Cinclus aquaticus, Bechst; Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 241 (1872) ; 
Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 167, pi. xix. (1874) ; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., vi., p. 307 (1881) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 
23 (1883); Seeb., Hist. Brit. B., i., p. 253 (1888); Lil- 
ford, Col. Fig. Brit. B., pt. xi., (1889) ; Saunders, Man., 
p. 89 (1889) ; Wyatt, Br. B., pi. v. (1894). 

(Plate XXVI.} 

Adult Male. General colour above dark grey, all the feathers 
edged with black ; wing-coverts and quills blackish-brown, with 
grey margins, the secondaries more broadly edged ; tail- 
feathers dark brown ; crown of head, hind-neck, and sides of 
neck, sides of face and ear-coverts, clear chocolate-brown ; 
cheeks, throat, fore-neck, and chest, pure white; above and 
below the eye a spot of white ; breast and remainder of under 
surface of body deep rufous, shading off into slaty-brown on 
the sides of the body ; abdomen, thighs, vent, and under tail- 
coverts, blackish, the latter tipped with rufous ; under wing- 
coverts dark brown, washed with slaty-grey, the axillaries tipped 
with white ; quills dark brown below, ashy-fulvous along the 
inner web ; bill black ; feet bluish-grey, tinged with brown ; 



THE DIPPERS OR WATER-OUZELS. 31 1 

iris pale brown, with a. ring of black in the middle. Total 
length, 7 inches ; oilmen, 0*85 ; wing, 3-55 ; tail, 2*15 ; tarsus, 
i'5- 

Adult Female. Like the male in colour, but rather browner, 
and not so ashy on the sides of the body. Total length, 6 '6 
inches ; wing, 3*3. 

Young. More mottled than the adults, the grey feathers of 
the upper surface having blackish margins ; wings blackish, with 
narrow whitish edgings to the coverts and quills ; head and 
neck somewhat browner than the back, the feathers margined 
with black; cheeks and entire under surface of body white, 
with dusky brown or blackish edges to the feathers ; flank 
feathers ashy-grey, with black margins ; under tail-coverts 
blackish, with rufescent streaks and tips. 

Young in Autumn Plumage. After the first moult the young 
birds much resemble the adults, but are much darker, especi- 
ally the head and neck, which are deep chocolate-brown. The 
rufous on the breast is not so bright, and is more brownish in 
tint ; it is more confined to the breast, and does not extend so 
far on to the abdomen as in the adult bird. 

Range in Great Britain. A bird of the mountain streams, found 
in Devonshire and Cornwall, as well as Somersetshire, through- 
out Wales, and northward from Derbyshire in suitable locali- 
ties to Scotland, throughout which kingdom it is universally 
distributed, as well as in the Outer Hebrides. In Ireland it is 
also found in the same situations as in England and Scotland. 
To the south-eastern counties of England the Dipper is chiefly 
an occasional visitor, though Mr. Robert Read has recorded his 
finding of the nest in Surrey (Zool., 1893 ; p. 308). 

Range outside the British Islands. The red-breasted form of 
Dipper which inhabits Great Britain is found within a very 
limited area on the continent of Europe. It appears to 
extend over France and Germany in suitable localities only, 
and it is also found in Holland and Belgium. In the Carpa- 
thians and the Alps, as well as in the Pyrenees, it is replaced 
by a race known as Cinclus albicollis, which is a paler and 
greyer bird, with the rufous on the breast extending on to the 
abdomen. 



3i2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

EaMts. The Dipper, or "Water-Ouzel," as it is called in 
England, the "Water-Crow" of Scotland, is a bird of the 
mountain streams in the southern part of its range, and of 
burns and rivers in the north. It is everywhere a shy and 
watchful bird, and, except in the breeding season, appears to 
be solitary ; at least, it is somewhat rare to see two birds in 
company. By hiding behind a rock near the Dipper's haunts, 
however, it is possible to observe the bird, and none are more 
interesting in their ways of life. They may be seen scudding 
over the surface of the water with a rapid flight and a vigorous 
beating of the wings, something like that of a Kingfisher, until 
they alight on a rock or large stone in the middle of the stream. 
The white breast of the bird stands out in bold relief, and, 
after pausing for a moment, it commences to edge to th side 
of the rock, and either walks deliberately into the water or 
disappears suddenly beneath the surface, seeking its food at 
the bottom of the stream. There the bird finds its insect 
food, consisting of larvae, caddis-worms, water-beetles, and 
small molluscs. The accusation brought against the Dipper 
of devouring the ova of trout has been upheld by some and 
denied by other naturalists. That the Germans believe in its 
truth has been proved during the last few years by the war 
which has been waged against the birds in the Rhine Pro- 
vinces, where hundreds have been slaughtered. 

Nest. A bulky structure of moss, like an overgrown Wren's 
nest, tucked into an opening in the rocks or under the roots of 
a tree, overhanging the water. Notwithstanding the size of the 
nest, it is exceedingly difficult to discover, owing to the way in 
which it assimilates to the surroundings. The entrance is very 
low down, 'and can generally only be seen from below. Mr. 
Seebohm says that the real nest is placed inside this dome of 
moss, and one. which he pulled to pieces was constructed of 
"dry grass, the^roots of heather, and slender birch-twigs, and 
lined with a profusion of leaves, layer after layer of birch- and 
beech-leaves, and, as a final lining, a mass of oak-leaves, 
laid on one another, like leaves in a book. The outside dome 
was so closely woven together of moss, with here and there a 
little dry grass, as not to be torn to pieces without considerable 
force ; and the inner nest was so tightly compacted that, when 



THE DIPPERS OR WATER-OUZELS. 313 

the materials were pulled to pieces, one could hardly believe 
that they could be made to take up so little room. Outside it 
appeared nothing but a large oval ball of moss, about 1 1 inches 
long, 8 inches wide, and about as high." 

Eggs. Four or five in number. Pure white, without any 
spots, but not glossy as are the eggs of Kingfishers. The 
shape varies a good deal. Axis, ro-n inch; diam., 07-075. 
(Plate xxix., fig. i.) 

II. THE BLACK-BELLIED DIPPER. CINCLUS CINCLUS. 

Sturnus rinchts, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 200 (1766). 

Cinclus melanogaster, Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 177, pi. xx. 

(1873) ; B. O. U. List Brit. B., p. 24 (1883) ; Lilford, Col. 

Fig. Brit. B., pt. xi. (1889); Saunders, Man., p. 89 (1889). 
Cinclus cincluS) Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., vi., p. 311 (1881). 

Adult Male. Similar in colour to C. aquaticus, but differing 
in having the breast dark chocolate-brown or black, not rufous, 
but sometimes having a slight tinge of rufous across the upper 
part of the breast. Total length, 7-5 inches ; wing 3-8. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
7'2 inches; wing, 3*5. 

Range in Great Britain. The Black-bellied Dipper has occurred 
in the eastern counties of England. Many naturalists consider 
that the two forms are not specifically distinct. It has been 
pointed out by Mr. Seebohm that there is a variation in depth 
of colour between examples found at different heights in the 
Peak district of Derbyshire, those from 1,500 feet elevation 
being darker than those from the lower elevations. Mr. Howard 
Saunders also observes that examples from the upper portions in 
the narrow valley of the Pyrenees above Luz and from the lofty 
Cantabrian Mountains, in N.W. Spain, are -indistinguishable 
from Scandinavian specimens, and this is certainly the case 
with a specimen from Coimbra, in Portugal, sent to the British 
Museum by Dr. Vieira. 

The Black-bellied form of Dipper inhabits Scandinavia and 
Northern Russia, occurring also in Denmark, Northern Ger- 
many, and Holland. It has also visited Heligoland. 



314 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Habits. The same as those of C. aquaticus. 

Uest. Like that of C. aquaticus. 

Eggs. Not distinguishable from those of C. aquaticus* 

THE WRENS. FAMILY TROGLODYTID^E. 

This family includes a number of small species of birds 
largely represented in the New World, and distributed exten- 
sively over the Palaearctic Region and the Himalayan system 
of the Indian Region. They have been placed by some 
ornithologists with the Creepers, which they resemble in the 
colour of their eggs and also in the fact of the absence of 
rictal bristles at the base of the bill. They have stout legs 
and a very rounded Timeliine wing, concave and fitting close 
to the body. 

I. THE TRUE WRENS. GENUS ANORTHURA. 
Anorthura, Rennie, ed. Mont. Orn.Dict., 2nded., p. 570 (1831). 
Type, A. troglodytes (Linn.). 

THE WREN. ANORTHURA TROGLODYTES. 

Motadtta troglodytes. Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 337 (1766). 
Anorthura troglodytes, Macg., Br. B., iii., p. 15 (1840); Sharpe, 

Cat. B. Brit. Mus., vi., p. 269 (1881). 

Troglodytes parvulus, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 460 (1873); 
Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 219, pi. 124 (1873); B. O. U. 
List Br. B., p. 29 (1883) ; Seeb., Hist. Br. B., i., p. 505 
(1883) ; Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. iv. (1887); Saunders, 
Man., p. 107 (1889); Wyatt, Br, B., pi. iii., fig. i 
(1894). 

(Plate XXVII.) 

Adult Male. General colour above dark brown, becoming 
more rufous towards the lower back and rump, and dull 
chestnut on the upper tail-coverts; lesser and median wing- 
coverts dusky brown, with tiny whitish spots at the end of 
the latter; greater-coverts, bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and 
quills dusky brown, externally dull chestnut, barred with 
blackish, the primaries chequered with whitish interspaces, 
and the innermost secondaries barred across with blackish 



PLATE X3CV11 




WREN . 






THE WRENS. 315 

and dull chestnut; tail-feathers dull chestnut, barred across 
with dusky blackish ; head like the back ; lores and sides of 
face dull ashy, the ear-coverts washed with brown ; eyebrow 
ashy-grey; cheeks and upper throat ashy; the lower throat 
and breast ashy, slightly washed with brown ; sides of body 
reddish-brown ; barred with dusky, especially distinct on the 
lower flanks and under tail-coverts, the latter having white 
tips to the feathers ; axillaries brown ; under wing-coverts 
ashy, washed with brown ; quills, dusky below, ashy along the 
inner web ; bill dark brown, paler below ; feet paler brown ; 
iris dark brown. Total length, 4-2 inches ; culmen, 0-5 ; 
wing, 1*85; tail, 1*2; tarsus, 07. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male. Total length, 4*0 ; wing, 
r85. 

Young. Very like the adults in colour, but has the wings 
and tail less distinctly banded ; the breast more rufescent, the 
feathers also obscurely mottled with brown edgings ; abdomen 
also rufescent, and with scarcely any dusky bars. 

Range in Great Britain. Generally distributed throughout the 
whole of the three kingdoms. The birds which inhabit the 
outlying islands of Scotland are larger than those found on the 
mainland. Thus the Wrens of the Shetlands are slightly larger 
than those found in Great Britain, while the S. Kilda Wren, 
A. hirtensis, is larger still, and approaches in size A. borealis 
from the Faeroe Islands. A considerable migration takes place 
every autumn on our eastern coasts. 

Range outside the British Islands. Distributed generally over 
Europe, extending as high as 64 N. lat. in Scandinavia and 
nearly as high in Northern Russia, its breeding range being 
limited by 110 E. longitude. It is found in Northern Africa, 
and occurs in Asia Minor and Northern Palestine as far as the 
Caucasus and Northern Persia. 

Habits. The Wren is one of our most familiar species, and 
is as great a personal favourite as the Robin. Its familiarity 
justifies the affection with which it is regarded, for, like the 
Robin, it is one of those tame little visitors which frequent the 
girden and the neighbourhood of houses in winter, where it will 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

often visit the verandah or dodge in and out among the creepers 
which skirt the window-frames, in search of the tiny insects on 
which it feeds. In its actions the Wren seems to resemble the 
Timeliine birds of Tropical Asia, and to be out of place in the 
temperate and cold climates of the more northern countries. 
It creeps about in the shrubberies and thick undergrowth, 
frequents the bottoms of hedges, and searches diligently among 
the fallen trees, especially if the latter be covered with ivy. 
Occasionally it comes into view and perches on a fence to utter 
its song. This is a rattling performance, wonderfully loud 
for the size of the bird, which can always be recognised by its 
small size and by the way in which its tail is erected at right 
angles to its back. 

The nest is placed in all kinds of situations, and it is curious 
to notice that a number of nests, apparently finished off with 
great care, are not inhabited by the birds. These " cock " 
nests, as they are called, do not appear to be lined with 
feathers like the real nesting home of the bird, and are 
supposed to serve as roosting-places. The number of them 
found in a small area, unlined, and never containing eggs, 
has suggested the idea that the Wrens desert a nest into which 
a finger has been inserted, and therefore many people have 
supposed that these were deserted nests. The other explana- 
tion, however, seems to be the more plausible one, that the un- 
lined nests are either roosting-places or are built to draw off 
attention from the real nest. 

Nest. A large structure compared with the size of the little 
architects, composed chiefly of moss, but largely constructed 
of materials belonging to the surroundings of the nest. Thus, 
if a moss-grown situation be chosen, green moss is employed; 
if amongst dead leaves, then leaves are chosen, and thus, 
by the assimilation of the nest to the surroundings it es- 
capes detection, and is never easy to find, except when the 
bird builds in the ivy at the top of a small stump, or in the 
head of a savoy cabbage, or in some such conspicuous 
place. 

Egg S . From four to six in number, sometimes as many as 
eight or nine, or even more. Ground-colour china-white, 



THE WRENS. 317 

with a few reddish-brown spots, intermixed with tiny dots, 
and generally congregated at the larger end, while in some 
specimens the dots are sprinkled all over the egg. Axis 
0-65-07 inch; diam., 0-5-0-55. (Plate xxx., fig. 4.) 

II. THE S. KILDA WREN. ANORTHURA HORTENSIS. 

Troglodytes hirtensis, Seebohm, Zoologist, 1884, p. 333; id. 
Br. B., iii., p. 661 (1885). 

Adult Male. Similar to A. troglodytes, but larger. It is sup- 
posed to be more distinctly barred on the upper surface, and 
to have the throat and breast free from any spots, Culmen, 
0-55; wing, 2-1 ; tail, 1-5; tarsus, 0-75. 

NOTE. The larger size of the eggs of the S. Kilda Wren is the only 
test of the difference between it and the bird of the mainland, which we 
are able to recognise. The characters of the barred back and the un- 
spotted throat are not really features for the separation of the island form, 
as they are equally found in examples from other parts of Europe. 

Habits. Mr. Dixon, who brought from S. Kilda the speci- 
mens originally described by Mr. Seebohm, gives the following 
account of the bird : " I had not been on S. Kilda long 
before the little bird arrested my attention, as it flew from rock 
to rock, or glided in and out of the crevices of the walls. It 
differs very little in its habits from its congener ; only, instead 
of hopping restlessly and incessantly about brushwood, it has 
to content itself with boulders and walls. It was in full song, 
and its voice seemed to me louder and more powerful than 
that of the Common Wren. I often saw it within a few feet of 
the sea, hopping about the rocks on the beach ; and a pair 
had made their nest in the wall below the manse, not thirty 
yards from the waves. I also saw it frequently on the tops of 
the hills, and in many parts of the cliffs. It was especially 
common on Boon, and its cheery little song sounded from all 
parts of the rocks. 

"As there are no bushes nor trees on S. Kilda (except 
those the microscopic eye of a botanist might discover), the 
Wren takes to the luxuriant grass, sorrel, and other herbage 
growing on the cliffs, and picks its insect food from them. It 
also catches spiders and the larvae of different insects in the 
nooks and crannies which it is incessantly exploring. It is a 
pert, active little bird, by no means shy ; and I used to watch 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

a pair that were feeding their young in a nest riot six yards 
from our door. Its breeding season must commence early in 
May, for the young were three parts grown by the beginning of 
June." 

Nest. According to Mr. Dixon the nest is made in one of 
the numerous "cleats," or in a crevice of a wall, or under an 
overhanging bank. The nest is exactly similar to that of the 
Common Wren, and abundantly lined with feathers. 

Eggs. Similar to those of A. troglodytes, but slightly larger, 
and with some of the reddish spots somewhat bolder and 
more strongly indicated than is usual in the eggs of the 
Common Wren. Axis, 0*75; diam., o'6. 

THE BULBULS. FAMILY PYCNONOTID^E. 

These birds constitute an assemblage of Thrush-like forms 
found in the tropics, and foreign to a northern country like 
Great Britain. They are usually crested, have great powers of 
song, are arboreal in their habits, and non-migratory. 

THE TRUE BULBULS. GENUS PYCNONOTUS. 

Pycnonotus, Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 973. 

Type, P. capensis (Linn.). 

T. THE SOUTH AFRICAN GOLD-VENTED BULBUL. PYCNONOTUS 
CAPENSIS. 

Turdus capensis, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 295 (1766). 
Pycnonotus capensis, Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 247 (1872); Dresser, 

B. Eur., iii., p. 361, pi. 143, fig. 2 (1876); Sharpe, Cat. 

B., vi., p. 130(1881); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 36(1883); 

Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 251, note (1883): Saunders, Man., p. 

136, note (1889). 

Adult. Brown, with the head and throat a little blacker ; 
under tail-coverts yellow. Total length, 7-6 inches; wing, 

3-65. 

NOTE. There are many species of birds in the British List 
which might well be struck out in future works on our native 



THE TRUE FLYCATCHERS. 319 

Avi-fauna. Some have been included by mistake, while others 
no have doubt been recorded on evidence which should have 
secured their suppression. The " Gold-vented Thrush," as 
it has been called for so many years in works on British Orni- 
thology, belongs to a group of birds of the most stay-at-home 
character, and the nearest inhabitant to our shores is the 
Bulbul of Algeria, Pycnonotus barbatus, which is not one of 
the gold-vented section of the genus. A specimen of a 
Pycnonotus is said to have been shot near Waterford in 
January, 1838, by Dr. R. Burkitt, and skinned by him. It 
turns out to be the Bulbul of South Africa, P. capensis, one of 
the most restricted of all the species in its range, being in fact 
confined to the Cape Colony below the Karroo country. There 
is not the slightest probability of the bird's having migrated 
from the Cape to Ireland, and the supposition that it might 
have been an escaped specimen might have been entertained 
but for the fact that an "Eagle-Owl" shot in Ireland by the 
same gentleman, turned out to be another South African 
species, viz., Bubo maculosus* There seems, therefore, to be 
some mistake connected with the occurrence of these African 
species in Ireland, and the birds had better be dropped out 
of the British List altogether. 

THE FLYCATCHERS. FAMILY MUSCICAPID^. 

The Flycatchers evince their affinity with the Thrushes by 
the mottled character of the young birds, but they have 
flatter and broader bills, and are remarkable for the number 
and strength of their rictal bristles, and for having the nostrils 
always more or less covered with hairs ; the culmen is generally 
provided with a keel. 

They are entirely birds of the Old World, and are distributed 
over all four regions, being found even in the Pacific Islands. 
The so-called " Flycatchers " of America are the Tyrant-birds, 
and belong to a totally different family, Tyrannidce. 

THE TRUE FLYCATCHERS. GENUS MUSCICAPA. 
Musdcapa, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 324 (1766). 

Type, M. grisola (Linn.). 
The bill in this genus is only moderately broadened, in com- 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

parison with some of the genera of Flycatchers. The wings 
are long, but fall considerably short of the length of the tail ; 
the second primary exceeds the length of the secondaries and 
almost equals the third in length, being about equal to the 
fifth ; the bill is somewhat long, the culminal ridge being more 
than twice the length of the bill at the gape. 

The stronghold of the genus Musdcapa appears to be the 
continent of Africa, where no less than six or seven species are 
resident. Africa is also the winter home of our own migratory 
M. grisola, which is represented in the East by an allied species, 
M. griseisticta, which inhabits China in summer and winters in 
the Philippine Islands and the Moluccas. 

I. THE COMMON FLYCATCHER. MUSCICAPA GRISOLA. 

Musdcapa grisola, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 328 (1766) ; Macg., 
Br. B., iii., p. 518 (1840); Newt. ed. Yarn, i., p. 220 
(1872); Dresser, B. Eur. iii., p. 447, pi. 156 (1875); Sharpe, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iv., p. 151 (1879); B. O. U. List Br. 
B., p. 40 (1883) ; Seeb., Br. B., i., p. 323 (1883) ; Saunders, 
Man., p. 149 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt xxvi. 
(1893). 

Adult Male. General colour above uniform ashy-brown, 
streaked with darker brown on the head, and slightly paler on 
the rump and upper tail-coverts, the latter having obsolete pale 
margins ; lesser wing-coverts like the back ; median and greater 
coverts dark brown, externally ashy-brown, inclining to whitish 
at the ends ; primary-coverts and quills dark brown, externally 
edged with reddish brown, the inner secondaries pnler at the 
ends ; lores, sides of face, and ear-coverts uniform dark brown ; 
cheeks and under surface of body dull white, the breast and 
sides of the body pale isabelline brown, faintly washed with 
brown streaks on the flanks, and more distinctly on the lower 
throat and fore-neck ; thighs brown ; under tail-coverts white ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries sandy-isabelline ; quills dusky 
below, ashy along the inner webs ; bill brown, paler at base of 
lower mandible ; feet black ; iris dusky brown. Total length, 
5-8 inches ; culmen, o'6 ; wing, 3-4 ; tail, 2-35 ; tarsus, 0*55. 

Range in Great Britain. Nests almost universally throughout 



THE TRUE FLYCATCHERS. 321 

the three kingdoms, becoming rarer in the north, and seldom 
reaching the Orkneys and Shetland Islands, where it occurs 
only as a straggler. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Spotted Flycatcher 
breeds almost everywhere in Europe, including all the Mediter- 
ranean countries, as far east as Persia and Siberia and Turkestan. 
According to Mr.Seebohm its eastern breeding range is bounded 
by 110 E. long. In Scandinavia it is found as far north as 
Tromso, and also at Archangel, but does not occur far north 
in the Urals, though it is found at Krasnoyarsk. In winter 
it is met with in North-western India, and in Africa, as far 
south as Natal, migrating by the Nile Valley and down the east 
coast. In Western Africa it is also an abundant winter visi- 
tant, and occurs in most collections from the Gold Coast. It 
probably migrates along the west coast of Africa, following the 
course of the rivers, as the late Mr. Jameson procured a 
specimen in the far interior at Yambuya, on the Aruwhimi 
River. 

Habits. The Spotted Flycatcher is a very late arrival in 
Great Britain, and comes to us some time after the bulk of the 
summer migrants have landed on our shores, appearing 
generally in the month of May, though earlier records of its 
visits in spring are related. In the summer it is a noticeable 
bird, and in most places a tame and familar species, taking up 
its abode in sheltered situations, and nesting in the verandahs 
and trellis-work on houses. A shelter seems indispensable to 
the Flycatcher's nest, and it builds the latter under the shade 
of overhanging creepers round a house, or in the crevice of the 
bark of a fruit-tree, where an overhanging bough protects the 
nest. As a rule the Flycatcher is seen in the open, sitting on 
a garden-fence, orchard-rail, or the bare branch of a tree, from 
which it sallies forth in pursuit of its insect food, generally re- 
turning to the perch from which it started. As a rule, the bird 
flies down on its prey and takes it in the air or off the ground, 
by a direct flight, but if the quarry is pursued for some distance, 
it is interesting to observe the way in which the Flycatcher 
turns and doubles in its flight after an insect. The food of the 
present species consists almost entirely of insects, flies, gnats, 
beetles, etc., but in the autumn it is said to feed on berries, 

i y 



322 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

and in Norway, according to Professor Collett, it is caught 
in snares set for Thrushes, and baited with mountain-ash 
berries. 

The sang of the Flycatcher is seldom heard, and has a very 
low tone. As a rule, the only sound it is heard to utter is its 
call-note, which resembles the sound of two stones being knocked 
together, a kind of " it-chick " : this it frequently utters as it 
sits on its perch. 

Nest. Made of dry grass and moss, often principally com- 
posed of the latter, thickly lined with horse-hair and fine roots. 
The outside is often decorated with cobwebs and lichens, which 
causes the nest to assimilate so closely to its surroundings that 
it is difficult to discover. A nest which we found in 1892 in a 
crevice in the bark of a birch-tree, about twelve feet from the 
ground, had the outside decorated with bits of birch-bark, so as 
to render it exactly like the rest of the tree. 

Eggs. From four to six in number. The ground-colour 
varies from stone-colour to light green, but in each case the 
eggs are thickly spotted and blotched with reddish-brown, these 
spots mixed up with underlying spots and blotches of grey. 
The markings are often collected near the larger end of the 
egg, but are sometimes so thickly distributed as to hide 
the ground-colour. The shape varies considerably, some 
of the eggs being very long. Axis, 07-0.8 inch ; diam., 
0-55-0-6 



THE PIED FLYCATCHERS. GENUS FICEDULA. 

Ficeduld) Sundev, Av. Meth. Tent., p. 23 (1872). 
Type, F. atricapilla (Linn.). 

The Pied Flycatchers, although not differing much in form 
from the typ cal Flycatchers, yet possess such peculiarities as 
to warrant their separation under a separate genus. The sexes 
differ markedly in colour. The neat is placed in holes of trees, 
and the eggs are blue. 



THE PIED FLYCATCHERS. 323 

I. THE PIED FLYCATCHER. FICEDULA ATRICAPILLA. 

Musricapa alricapilla, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 326 (1766); Newt. 
ed. Yarr., i., p. 229 (1872); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 453, 
pi. 158 (1875); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iv., p. 157 
(1879); B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 41 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., 
i., p. 328 (1883) ; Saunders, Man., p. 151 (1889). 

Musricapa luctuosa, (Scop.); Macg., Br. B., iii., p. 524 (1840). 

Ficedula atricapilla, Salvad. Elench. Ucc. Ital, p. 84 (1886). 

Adult Male General colour above black, as also the wing- 
coverts ; the median series tipped with white, and the greater 
coverts entirely white ; primary-coverts and quills dark brown, 
the inner primaries white at the base of the outer web, the 
secondaries with a conspicuous fawn-coloured spot at the base 
of both webs, and the inner secondaries white at the base, the 
innermost ones entirely white, with more or less black towards 
the end of the feathers; tail black, the three outer feathers 
marked with white, the outermost one being almost entirely 
white, with a brown mark near the end of the inner web; lores, 
sides of face, and ear-coverts, black ; cheeks and under surface 
of body white, as also the under wing-coverts and axillaries ; 
bill and legs black ; iris brown. Total length, 5 '5 inches ; 
culmen, 0-4; wing, 3*15; tail, 2-15; tarsus, 07. 

Adult Female. Different from the male, being brown instead 
of black above, the greater coverts tipped with white ; quills 
blackish-brown, the secondaries white at their bases, the inner 
primaries having a small white spot at the base of the outer 
web ; upper tail-coverts black ; tail-feathers blackish-brown, 
the three outer ones marked with white on the outer web ; fore- 
head and eyelid ochraceous-buff; sides of face, cheeks and throat, 
breast and sides of body pale ochraceous-brown, shading off 
into white on the abdomen and under tail-coverts; throat 
whitish in the middle. Total length, 5-1 inches ; wing 2-95. 

Range in Great Britain. A regular summer migrant, and a bird 
of very local distribution. It is said to have nested occasionally 
in most of the southern counties, and in the midlands, but, as a 
rule, it is only found in the south on migration. It nests, however, 
regularly in the northern counties, in Northumberland, Durham, 
Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, and the border counties be- 

V 2 



324 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

tween England and Wales, and in several districts in the latter 
principality. In Scotland it becomes scarcer, but has ap- 
parently nested in Inverness-shire, and has even occurred in the 
Orkney Islands on migration. 

Range outside the British Islands. The Pied Flycatcher breeds 
in most of the countries throughout Europe and North Africa, 
extending up to 69 N. lat. in Scandinavia, 65 in Finland, 
and 60 in the Ural Mountains, its eastern breeding range 
being limited, according to Mr. Seebohm, by 70 E. long. 
In winter it visits North-eastern Africa and Senegambia. 

NOTE. The Collared Flycatcher, Ficedula collaris, has also been re- 
corded as a British bird, but apparently on insufficient evidence. 

Habits. The Pied Flycatcher returns to its northern breed- 
ing home before the Spotted Flycatcher, and arrives towards 
the end of April. Although so differently coloured from the 
latter bird, its habits are very similar ; and it frequents gardens 
on the Continent, but in England it is a bird of the wilder dis- 
tricts as a rule. Its food consists almost entirely of insects, 
but it also feeds on worms and berries at certain seasons. Its 
song is feeble and short, and like that of a Redstart. 

Nest. Made of grass, leaves, and feathers, with sometimes a 
little wool and hair added. It is always placed under cover, 
in a hole of a tree, or more rarely in a crevice of a wall or 
rock. 

Eggs. From four to eight, the last number being by no 
means uncommon, of a pale blue, perfectly spotless. Axis, 
o'7-o'8 inch ; diam., o*55-o'6. Though coloured like those 
of the Hedge-Sparrow, the eggs of the Pied Flycatcher are 
smaller, and the shell is more fragile. 

THE RED-BREASTED FLYCATCHERS. GENUS SIPIIIA. 

Siphia^ Hodgson, Ind. Review, i., p. 651 (1839). 

Type, S. strophrata (Hodgson). 

This genus contains three species, which have been placed 
by ourselves and most ornithologists in the genus Muscicapa. 
Mr. Gates, however, one of the most careful systematic 



THE RED-BREASTED FLYCATCHERS. 325 

naturalists of the present day, considers that they belong to 
the genus Siphia, of which the type is the Himalayan 
Siphia strophiata. The difference of the colour in the sexes, 
we admit, is sufficient to separate them from the genus Musci- 
capa. The wing is differently shaped, the second primary 
being much shorter than the fifth, the rictal bristles being 
few in number, less than six, and the base of the tail conspi- 
cuously white. 



I. THE RED-BREASTED FLYCATCHER. SIPHIA PARVA. 

Musricapa pai-Vii, Bechst., Natiirg. Deutschl., iv., p. 505 (1795); 
Newt. ed. Yarr., i., p. 224 (1872); Dresser, B. Eur., iii., 
p. 465, pi. 189 (1875) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iv., p. 
161 (1879) ; B. O. U. List Br. B., p. 42 (1883) ; Saunders, 
Man., p. 153 (1889); Lilford, Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. xv. 
(1890). 

Erythrosterna parva, Bp. Comp. List B. Europe and N. 
Amer., p. 25 (1838). 

Siphia parva^ Gates, Fauna Brit. Ind. Birds, ii., p. 9 (1890). 

Adult Male. General colour above ashy-brown, the forehead, 
sides of face, and ear-coverts grey, this colour also extending 
on to the sides of the neck ; lores hoary-whitish ; round the 
eye a ring of white feathers ; wing-coverts ashy-brown like the 
back ; quills dark brown, externally ashy-brown, the primaries 
narrowly edged with this colour ; upper tail-coverts dark brown 
like the tail ; two centre tail-feathers dark brown, the remainder 
for the greater part white, dark brown for the terminal third, 
and for a little distance along the outer web ; cheeks, throat, 
and fore-neck clear orange ; remainder of under surface white, 
the sides of the body inclining to buff, the thighs more ashy ; 
under wing-coverts fulvous, like the sides of the body ; quills 
brown below, fulvescent along the inner web ; bill brown, the 
lower mandible paler at base ; feet dark brown ; iris brown. 
Total length, 5-1 inches; culmen, 0-4; wing, 2 '6; tail, 2*0; 
tarsus, 0*65. 

Adult Female. Different from the male, brown above, with no 
grey on the head or neck, the sides of the face and ear-coverts 
also brown ; wings brown, the greater coverts and quills edged 



3 2 ^ LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

with lighter brown ; throat, chest, and sides of body suffused 
with yellowish-buff, the abdomen and under tail-coverts white. 
Total length, 4*9 inches ; wings, 2 '6. 

Young. Mottled all over, the upper surface being ochraceous- 
buff, with dusky brown edges to the feathers ; upper wing- 
coverts with ochraceous tips ; under surface light ochraceous- 
buff, with dusky tips to the feathers. 

Range in Great Britain. An occasional visitor, having been 
captured near Falmouth, in the Scilly Islands, in Norfolk, 
Yorkshire, Berwickshire, and once in co. Kerry, Ireland. 

Range outside the British Islands. The breeding home of the 
Red-breasted Flycatcher extends from Central Europe as far 
east as Turkestan, and, it is said, to Lake Baikal. Many writers, 
however, have confounded it with the eastern Red-breasted 
Flycatcher (Siphia albicilla\ which breeds in Eastern Siberia 
and Northern China, and wanders south in winter to Southern 
China and the Burmese countries, reaching in the Indhn 
Peninsula to Nepal and the neighbourhood of Dinapore in the 
plains. On the other hand, S. parua is a western bird, occu- 
pying in winter the western and central districts of India, 
coalescing with the range of S. albidlla in Eastern Bengal, but 
extending south to Mysore and the Nilghiris. In Europe it 
breeds in the Baltic Provinces and the St. Petersburg district, 
and has been met with as a straggler in other parts of Europe, 
having occurred in South Sweden, Denmark, Heligoland, the 
south-east of France, and Mr. Howard Saunders believes 
that it visits the south-west of Spain occasionally. To the 
Mediterranean countries, however, it is principally known as 
a winter visitor. 

Hahits. Although this little species has more in common 
with the Spotted Flycatcher than the Pied Flycatcher, Mr. 
Seebohm describes its habits as differing from those of both 
the last-mentioned birds. He says that they reminded him 
both of a Flycatcher and a Tit, as he saw it catching insects 
on the wing with ease, and also fluttering before the trunk of 
a tree to pick an insect off the bark. The song was unobtru- 
sive, something between the notes of a Robin and a Redstart. 
" The alarm-note was a 'pink, pink, pink? something like the 
spink of a Chaffinch, but softer, clearer, and quicker." 



THE HOUSE-MARTINS. 337 

Nest. This is described by Mr. Seebohm as a " very hand- 
some little structure, almost entirely formed of green moss, with 
here and there a few scraps of lichen, and a downy feather or 
two. The inside is sparingly lined with fine dry grass and 
hairs. The nest-cavity measured about two inches in dia- 
meter, and one and a-half inch in depth." 

Egjs. From five to seven in number. They approach in 
colour the eggs of the Robin and the Common Flycatcher, but 
are not so heavily marked as those of the latter bird. The 
ground-colour is greenish-white, with reddish spots and blotches, 
sometimes collecting round the larger end. Others are nearly 
uniform creamy-buff, clouded with obscure reddish mottling. 
Axis, 0-65-07 inch; diam., o'55-o'6. 

THE SWALLOWS. FAMILY HIRUNDINID^E. 

These birds differ considerably from the other Passer if ormes, 
and they possess a striking difference in their pterylosis, the 
spinal feather tract being forked on the back. The primary- 
quills are only nine in number, the tail-feathers twelve. The 
bill is broad and flat, and the gape is very wide as with 
Swifts and Goatsuckers, which, like the Swallows, catch their 
food on the wing, The front of the tarsus is smooth, and the 
hinder aspect is bilaminated longitudinally. Swallows are 
found in nearly every portion of the globe, from very far north 
to very far south. In the northern portion of their range they 
are strictly migratory, and only come in summer, and, unlike 
other Passerine birds, they moult only in their winter home, 
and do not renew their plumage in the autumn before taking 
their long journey southward. 

THE HOUSE-MARTINS. GENUS CIIELIDON. 
Chelidoti) Boie, Isis, 1822, p. 550. 

Type, C. urbica (Linn.). 

The House-Martins are very easily recognisable by their 
feathered feet and toes, and by the broad white band across 
the rump, which is very conspicuous when the birds are flying. 
There are five species of Chelidon, one, C. urbica^ being the 
species which visits England ; a second, C. dasypus, represent- 
ing it in Japan and the far east ; while the intermediate area 
is occupied by the Siberian House- Martin, C. lagopus. Two 



3 2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

species, C. cashmiriensis and C. nipalensis, are Himalayan. 
It will thus be seen that all the House-Martins are denizens of 
the Old World only. 

I. THE HOUSE-MARTIN. CIIELIDON URBICA. 

Hirundo urbica, Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 344 (1766); Macg., 
Br. B., iii., p. 573 (1840); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 178 
(1884). 

Chelidon urbica, Dresser, B. Eur., p. 495, pi. 162 (1875); 
Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 349 (1880); B. O. U. List Br. B., 
p. 44 (1883); Saunders, Man., p. 157 (1889); Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Br. B., pt iii. (1886). 

Adult Male. Purplish blue-black ; wings and tail-feathers 
black, with a slight greenish reflection, externally ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts black; cheeks and under surface of body 
pure white, with a tinge of smoky-brown on the flanks ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries smoky-brown ; bill and feet black ; 
iris dark brown. Total length, 5-5 inches; culmen, 0-35; 
wing, 4-5; tail, 2-5 ; tarsus, 0-45. 

Adult Female. Similar to the male in colour. Total length, 
5 inches ; wing, 4-5. 

Young. Differs from the adults in being duller, and dis- 
tinguished by its yellow gape and the white tips to the secon- 
dary quills ; the^throat is smoky-brown. 

Bange in Great Britain. Occurs everywhere in summer, and 
breeds even in the Hebrides, and in the Orkneys and Shet- 
lands. 

Range outside the British Islands. The House-Martin appears to 
be found everywhere in Europe, but becomes rarer in the north 
of Scandinavia, and was not met with by Messrs. Seebohm and 
Harvie-Brown on the Petchcra, though it is said to occur on 
the Urals as high as 60. Its eastern range is established as 
far as Tashkend in Central Asia, and it may be the species of 
the Altai Mountains. In winter the Martin visits Africa as far 
south as Natal, and also occurs sparingly in North-western 
India, and has been met with as far south as the Nilghiris. 

Habits. Arrives a little later than the Common Swallow 



THE BANK-MARTINS. 329 

towards the middle or end of April, and leaves again from 
September onwards ; on rare occasions Martins have been ob- 
served in England in November and December. Like all of 
the family, the House-Martin is untiring on the wing in pursuit 
of the gnats and small flies on which it feeds. It is not only 
found in country districts, but even frequents towns and builds 
its clay nest under the sheltering eaves of many a suburban 
villa. Soon after its arrival it may be seen flying down to a 
puddle in the road or a pond to get the mud with which it 
makes its nest. Sometimes the nests are placed against recks, 
especially in those localities where there is no sheltering build- 
ing to be made use of. 

Nest. Made of small nodules of mud, the nest being lined 
with dry grass and a few feathers. It is rather large, and has 
the aperture near the top, from which the parent birds and the 
young are often seen protruding their heads. 

Eggs. From four to six in number, and glossy white. Axis, 
o'75-o'85 inch; diam., o'55-o*6. 

THE BANK-MARTINS. GENUS CLIVICOLA. 

Clivicola, Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. B., p. 58 (1817). 

Type, C. rip aria (Linn.). 

These birds are distinguished from the House-Martins and 
the Chimney-Swallows by several characters. They have a 
square tail, without the elongated outer feather, which dis- 
tinguishes the genus Himndo, and they lack the feathered toes 
which characterise the genus Chelidon. Curiously enough, 
however, this feathered element in the feet is not altogether 
absent in the genus Cotile, for at the back of the base of the 
tarsus there is a tiny tuft of feathers. 

There are nine different species of Cotile known to science, 
two Palsearctic, six Ethiopian, and one Indian. The species of 
Europe, C. riparia^ is also a common North-American bird, win- 
tering in the Neotropical Region. 

I. THE SAND-MARTIN. CLIVICOLA RIPARIA. 

Hit-undo riparia, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 344 (1766); Macg., 
Br. B., Hi., p. 595 (1840); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 184 
(1884). 



33 LLOYD'S NATURAT HISTORY. 

Clivicola europva, T. Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. B., p. 58 (1817). 
Cotile ripar.'a, B. O. U. List Br. B. 5 p. 44 (1883) ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 96 (1885); Saunders, Man., p. 159 

(1889). 
GotyU riparia, Dresser, B. Eur., iil, p. 505, pi. 163 (1874); 

Newton, ed. Yarn, ii., p. 355 (1880); Lilford, Col. Fig. 

Brit. B., part in. (1886). 

Adult Male. Brown above, including the wings and tail ; 
sides of face also brown ; cheeks and under surface of body 
pure white, with a broad collar of dark brown feathe s across 
the fore-neck ; sides of body also washed with brown ; under 
wing-coverts and axillaries dark brown ; bill blackish-brown ; 
feet dark brown ; iris hazel. Total length, 4-8 inches ; culmen, 
0-3; wing, 4-25; tail, 2'i ; tarsus, 0-45. 

Adult Female. Similar in plumage to the male. Total length, 
5 inches ; wing, 4-2. 

Young. Like the adults, but readily distinguished by sandy- 
rufous or whitish edgings to the feathers of the back and 
wings ; throat slightly tinged with pale rufous. 

Range in Great Britain. Occurs everywhere throughout the 
three kingdoms in suitable localities, and breeds. 

Range outside the British Islands. Breeds everywhere through- 
out Europe, up to the highest point of Scandinavia, but in 
lessening numbers in the north. It occurs commonly in 
summer at Archangel, was met with by Messrs. Seebohm 
and Harvie-Brown on the Petchora river, and is found 
in the Urals up to 50 N. lat. Elsewhere in Europe and 
Northern Asia it is a breeding bird, and extends right across to 
Eastern Siberia. It is also distributed over the greater part of 
North America during the breeding season, wintering in Cen- 
tral and South America, and in the Old World it winters in 
Burma and in India, and has been found in various localities 
in Africa at the same season. 

HaMts. Arrives in England in April, and leaves in September, 
seldom staying as late as October. Its nesting is conducted in 
a different manner from that of the other two British Swallows, 
for the Sand-Martin burrows in a hole in a bank, and makes its 



PLATE XXV1I1 




CHIMNEY SWALLOW 



THE CHIMNEY-SWALLOWS. 331 

nest at the end of a tunnel of considerable length. Thus its 
breeding haunts are determined to a great extent by the pre- 
sence or absence of suitable banks for the drilling of the tun- 
nels. The sandy banks are naturally soft, and are pierced 
with numerous holes, close together, for the Sand-Martin is 
gregarious in its nesting. In the autumn large numbers col- 
lect together on telegraph-wires, where they sit in company 
with Swallows and House- Martins, and they also roost in the 
reed-beds of the Thames Valley in great flocks. 

Nest. A very rough little foundation of grass and straw, with 
a few large feathers for lining. It is placed at varying depths 
in the sandy bank occupied by the bird, the tunnels varying 
in length from two feet to three feet, or even more. 

Eggs. Pure white, with very little gloss. Axis, 07-075 
inch ; diam., 0-5-0-55. 

THE CHIMNEY-SWALLOWS. GENUS HIRUNDO. 

Hirundo, Schaeffer, Elem. Orn., Genus 100, pi. xl. (1779). 

Type, H. rustica (Linn.). 

The Swallows differ from the Sand-Martins and House- 
Martins in having the tail much longer and the outer tail- 
feathers elongated, with a marked indentation on the inner 
web. 

The members of the genus Hirundo are found everywhere 
in the world, and about forty species are known. Those in- 
habiting the tropics are resident, while those which are 
characteristic of the northern and southern portions of the 
globe are migratory. 

I. THE CHIMNEY-SWALLOW. HIRUNDO RUSTICA. 
(Plate XXVIIL) 

Hirundo rustic^ Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 343 (1766) ; Macg., Br. 
B., iii., p. 558 (1840) ; Dresser, B. Eur., iii., p. 477, pi. 160, 
fig. i (1875); Newt. ed. Yarr., ii., p. 340 (1880); B. O. U. 
List Br. B., p. 42 (1883); Seeb., Br. B., ii., p. 171 (1884); 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 128 (1885); Lilford, 
Col. Fig. Br. B., pt. iii. (1886); Saunders, Man., p. 155 
(1889). 



33 2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Adult Male. Above glossy purplish blue-black, the wings 
and tail blackish, with a slight gloss of green externally ; head 
like the back ; the forehead deep rufous ; ear-coverts purplish- 
blue ; cheeks and throat deep rufous ; the rest of the under 
surface pale rufous-buff ; on the fore-neck a collar of purplish- 
blue; bill and feet black; iris dark brown. Total length, 
7-3 inches; culmen, 0-35; wing, 5-05; tail, 4-0; tarsus, 0-5. 

Adult Female. Differs from the adult only in having the 
outer tail-feathers rather shorter, and in not being so rufescent 
underneath. Total length, 6'6 inches; wing, 4-65. 

Young. Duller than the adults, and not so glossy ; the 
rufous frontal mark much smaller; many of the wing coverts 
and the feathers of the lesser rump and upper tail-coverts with 
rufescent edges. 

Range in Great Britain. A regular summer visitor to every 
part of our islands, but breeding less frequently in the north. 

Eange outside the British Islands. Found universally over 
Europe, even to the high north. It breeds as far as the Yenesei 
Valley, and in a few places in the Himalayas, being replaced 
in China and the far east by an allied species of Swallow, 
Hirundo gutturalis. Both species winter in the south, H. 
rustica in Africa and India, a few further east still; the 
winter ranges of the two Chimney-Swallows overlap, 
as H. gutturalis winters in Southern China, the Moluccas, 
the Burmese and Malayan countries, and the eastern portion 
of the Indian Peninsula. 

Habits. The ways of the Chimney-Swallow have been often 
described and are known to every one, the bird's graceful 
flight being observed in the open fields, and, more rarely, in 
the neighbourhood of towns, where, however, they often build 
in the chimneys of old buildings. Mr. Edward Bartlett has 
related how he discovered Swallows' nests with young birds 
eight feet down a narrow shaft of a chimney in an old 
Elizabethan mansion at Maidstone. All kinds of other situa- 
tions are chosen by the bird for its nest : this being sometimes 
on a beam in a shed, and at others in places of the most 
eccentric description, such as on the china shade over an 
eleciiic Limp in a stable, etc. 



ADDENDA. 333 

Nest. Composed of mud, mixed with grass and straw, the 
lining consisting of dry grass and feathers. In England the 
nest is generally built on a beam or rafter, which serves as a 
support to it, but on the Continent it is mostly built in the 
same way as that of the House-Martin, against a wall or a 
beam, while the bird is also sometimes noticed building against 
cliffs. 

Eggs. From four to six in number, varying a good deal ii 
size and shape, some being much longer than others. Ground- 
colour creamy or china-white, spotted with reddish or purplish- 
brown, with underlying spots of violet-grey intermixed, the 
large end being often clouded, but seldom a ring of spots being 
found. Occasionally the blotches and spots are much lighter 
and even greenish-brown in colour. Axis, 075-0-85 inch; 
diam., 0-5-0-6. 



ADDENDA. 

Page 30. Genus chloris. 

The name chloris being preoccup r ei in Botany, that of 
Ligurinus of Koch must be employed for the Greenfinch. 

Page 31, line 6 from top. CHLORIS CHLORIS should be 
LIGURINUS CHLORIS. 

Page 48. Before " The Sparrows," insert : 

VI. COUES' REDPOLL. CANNABINA EXILIPES. 

.dZgiothus fxilipes, Coues, Proc. Philad. Acad., 1861, p. 385. 
Acanthis exilipes, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit, Mus., xii., p. 254 (i^SS). 
Linota hornemanni (nee. Holboell), Lilford, Col. Fig. Brit. B , 
pt. xxx. (1895). 

Adult. Very similar to the Mealy Redpoll, but distinguished 
by its purer colour, and by having the rump pure white, with a 
rosy tinge, not streaked as in the Mealy Redpoll. Bill, 
orange-yellow ; the culmen and tip of the genys blackish ; feet 
blackish-brown; iris dark brown. Total length, 5 inches; 
culmen, 0-4; wing, 3*0; tail, 2*3 ; tarsus, 0*55. 

The changes of plumage are similar to those undergone by 
the Mealy Redpoll. 



334 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Range in Great Britain. Mr. Cordeaux has recorded a specimen 
of this white-rumped Redpoll from the Humber district, an i 
two specimens are in Dr. Bendelack Hewetson's collection from 
Easington in Yorkshire, where they were obtained in October, 
1883, and October, 1893 On- of these has been figured by 
Lord Lilford in his beautiful work on British Birds I have 
also seen a specimen caught near Tring, in the Hon. Walter 
Rothschild's collection. There can be little doubt thit the 
species occurs more frequently in Gieat Britain than is supposed, 
but is confounded with the Mealy Redpoll. 

Range outside the British Islands. This species has an extensive 
range, occurring from Noithern Scandinavia across Siberia, 
and throughout Arctic America. 

VII. GREENLAND REDPOLL. CANNABINA HORNEMANNI. 

Linota hornemanni, Holboell, Naturl. Tidskr., iv., p. 395 

(1843). 

Acanthis hornemannt, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 257 
(1888). 

Adult Male. Similar to Coues' Redpoll, but much larger. 
Total length, 5*3 inches; culmen, 0*4; wing, 3-4; tail, 2*5; 
tarsus, 0*65. 

Adult Female A little smaller than the male. Wing, 3*2 
inches. 

Range in Great Britain. A specimen of this large white-rumped 
Redpoll is recorded by the late John Hancock as having been 
obtained near Whitburn, in Durham, in April, 1855. 

Range outside the British Islands. The home of this species is 
in Eastern North America, Greenland, and Iceland. 



Page 6 1. Insert : 

II. THE GREATER BULLFINCH. PYRRHULA PYRRHJLA. 

Loxia pyrrhula^ Linn., Syst. Nat, i., p. 300 (1766). 

Pyrrhula major ; Brehm; Dresser, B. Eur., iv., p. 97, pi. 198 

(1876). 
Pyrrhula pyrrhula t Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 446 

(1888). 



ADDENDA. 



335 



Adults. Similar to P. europoca, but much larger, and the 
colours purer, especially the red colour of the breast. Total 
length, 6 inches ; culmen, 0-5 ; wing, 27 ; tail, 2'6 ; tarsus, 07. 

Range in Great Britain. Two specimens of the large Bullfinch 
were exhibited by Colonel Irby at a meeting of the Zoological 
Society on the igth of November, 1895. They were shot on 
the Yorkshire coast about the ist of November, 1893, and had 
been mounted by local bird-stuffers as common Bullfinches. 
A third specimen has been recorded by Mr. J. H. Gurney as 
having been obtained on the Caistor denes in Norfolk. 

Range outside the British Islands. Replaces P. europcea in 
Scandinavia, and from Poland eastwards throughout Siberia. 

Habits Exactly like those of its smaller western representa 
tive. The eggs are slightly larger than those of P. europcea. 



Page 189. Insert : 

THE SUB-ALPINE WAKBLER. SYLVIA SUB-ALPINA. 

S}lvia sub-alp ina, Temm., Man. d'Orn., i., p. 214 (1820, ex 
Bonelli, MSS.); Dresser, B. Eur., ii., p. 389, pi. 59 (1875). 

Adult Male. Slaty grey above ; wings brown, with pale edges 
to the coverts, the secondaries more broadly margined ; tail 
brown, the three or four outside feathers with more or less white ; 
chin, throat, and breast chestnut, shading off into paler chest- 
nut on the flanks ; the centre of the abdomen and under tail- 
coverts whitish ; under wing-coverts pale grey, with darker 
centres ; axillaries pale vinous grey ; a narrow white line along 
the sides of the head separating the chestnut of the lower 
surface from the grey of the upper ; bill dark horn-colour, the 
lower mandible light yellowish at the base ; feet dusky-brown ; 
iris brown; eyelid reddish. Total length, 4-6 inches ; culmen, 
0-45 ; wing, 2-3; tail, 2'i ; tarsus, 07. 

Adult Female. Browner than the male above, and not so 
ashy grey. The chestnut of the under parts replaced by buffy- 
white, with a vinous tinge on the sides of the breast. The 
birds of the year are buffy-brown on the breast and flanks, the 
male being a little greyer tha'.i the female. 



33 6 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Characters. This little Warbler is allied to the Whitethroats, 
but is smaller than any of them, the wing being less than 2-5 
inches in length, and the colour of the legs and feet is brown. 
It is distinguished from all the small Warblers of the Whit^- 
throat group by its chestnut chin and breast. 

Range in Great Britain. A specimen of a supposed " Darlford 
Warbler" was procured in St. Kilda on the i3th of June, 1894, 
by Mr. J. S. Elliott, who sent it to me for identification, and I 
was not a little surprised to find that it was an example of the 
present species. 

Range outside the British Islands Inhabits the countries of the 
Mediterranean, probably as far east as Persia. Winters in 
Senegambia, and in North-eastern Africa. 

Habits. Mr John Whitehead, who observed this species in 
Corsica, says that it is plentiful in that island, arriving about 
the middle of April. The first nest was taken on the 6th of 
May. He writes : " This little warbler spends nearly all its 
time in the thick scrub, sometimes mounting high into the air, 
and uttering a short but pretty song, then diving back into the 
dense bush, its whereabouts being only discoverable by a short 
chattering note." 

Nest and Eggs The same observer describes these as follows: 
" The nest is often frail, about i inches deep and 2 J inches in 
diameter. It is composed of dry stalks, often with a good 
many dead thistle leaves, and lined with fine dry grass, some- 
times with long horse-hairs The eggs, four in number, are of 
a pale yellowish or greenish white, speckled all over, but espe- 
cially at the larger end, with light brown and slate-blue." 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Acanthis, 42 


bLkistoni, Anthus, 115 


Grthiida?, 119 


Accentor, 304, 308 


Blue-throat, 279 


ccrvina, Motacilla, 108 


Acred ula, 145 


Arctic, 280 


ccrvii.us, Anihus, n.t>, 110 


Acrocephalus, 221 


boarula, Motacilla, 57 


Chaffinch, 35 


A6don, 201 


borealis, Anorthura, 3.5 


Chelidon, 327 


iEgithaliscus, 146 


brachydactyla, Alauda, 86 


cashmiriensis, 328 


ALgithalus, 145 


Calandrella, 86 


dasypus, 327 


Alauda, 83 
Alaudidaej 79 


Brambling, 37 
Brandt's Bunting, 79 


lag pus, 327 
nil alensis, 328 


alba, Motacilla, 95 


britannica. Cerlhia, 121 


urbica, 327, 328 


albicilla, Siphia, 326 


britannicus, Parus, 137 


Chifichaff, 211 


albicollis, Cinclus, 311 
Zonotrichia, 79 
alpestris, Alauda, 80 


Bubo maculosus, 319 
Bulbul, Gold-vented, 318 
Bullfinch, 59 


Chimney-Swallows, 331 
chloris, 30 
Chloris, 31 


Otocorys, 80 


Red, 54 


Coccothraustes, 31, 333 


alpinus, Accentor, 308 
Pyrrhocorax, 23 
Ambulatores, 4 


Scarlet, 55 
Bunting, bl ck-head>d, 67 
Brandt's Siberian, 79 


Fringilla, 31 
Ligurinus, 30, 31, 333 
Linaria, 31 


americana, Cerlhia, '21 


Cirl, 70 


Loxia, 31 


Loxia, 56 


Corn, 73 


Chough, 22 


Am;<elida;, 174 


Little, 65 


Chryi-omitris, 40 


Anorthura, 314 


Long-spurred, 77 


Cinclus, 310 


borealis, 315 


Ortolan, 71 


albicollis, 311 


hirtensis, 315, 317 
troglodytes, 314, 317, 318 


Reed, 63 
Rustic, 66 


aquaticus, 310, 313, 314 
cinclus, 313 


Aphis rumicis, 50 


Snow, 75 


europajus, 310 


aquatica, Motacilla, 222 


Yellow, 69 


melanogaster, 313 


aquaticus, Acrocephalus 222 
Anthus, 116 


coelebs, Fringilla, 35 


Sturnus, 313 
cinerea, Sylvia, 182 


Cinclus, 310, 313, 314 


caeiuleculus, iLrithacus, 280 


cioides, Emberiza, 79 


arborea, Alauda, 90 
Lullula, 90 


ca:ruleus, Parus, 133 
caesia, Sitta, 126, 128 


ciris, Cyanospiza, 79 
cirlus, Emberiza, 70 


arboreus, Anthus, 103 


Calaudra Lark, 82 


citr.nella, Emberiza, 63, 69 


arundinacea, Calamoherpe, 


Calandrella, 86 


Clivicola, 329 


230 


Calcarius, 77 


europa^a, 330 


arundinaceus/Acroce^ halus, 
227, 230 


calendula, Regular, 159 
campestris, Alauda, in 


riparia, 329 
Coal-Tit, European, 136 


Turdus, 227 


Anthus, in 


coccoihraustes, Co^co- 


arven>is, Alauda, 84 


Motacilla, 99, 102 


thraustes, 33 


ater, Parus, 136, 137 


canaria, Serinus, 53 


Loxia, 33 


atricapilla, Ficedula, 322, 323 
Motacilla, 192 


Canaiy, 52 
caniceps, Caiduelis, 39 


Coccothraustinae, 30 
Collared Flycatcher, 324 


Muscicapa, 323 


cannabina, Acanthis, 42, 44 


coliaris, Accentor, 308 


Sylvia, 192 


Cannabina, 43 


Colceus, ii 


Atnchornithes, i 


Fringilla, 43 


Ficedula, 324 


atrogularis, Coccothraustes, 


Linaria, 43 


corurio, Lanius, 167 


33 


Lino.a, 44 


collybUta, Phylloscopus, 211 


Merula, 256 


canonicus, Serinus, 53 


collybiia, Phylloscopus, an 


Turdus, 256 


cape lanus, Corone, 12 


Colceus, 9 


auriculatus, Lanius, 171 


capensis, Pycnonotus, 318, 


Common Flycatcher, 310 


aurantiiventris, Chloris, 32 


3'9 


corax, Corvus, 7, 8 


auricapillas, Regulus, 154 
azorensis, Regulus, 154 


Turdus, 318 
Cardueiis, 38, 42 
carduel's, Cardueiis, 39 


Corcorax, 21 
Corn-Bunting, 73 
cornix, Corone, 12, 14 


baicale"sis, Motacilla, ga 


Fiingilla, 39 


Corvus, 12 


Bank- Martins, 329 


Carpodacus, 54 


cot one, Corone, 15 


barbatus, Pycnonotus, 319 


caryocatactes, Nucifiaga, 


Corvus, 14 


Bearded Tit, i 5I 


16,17 . 


Corvidje, a 


biarmicus, Calamophilus, 151 
Panurus, 151 


cashmiriensis, Chelidon, 328 
cassini, P>rrhula, 59, 60 


Corvinae, 4 
Corvus, 7 


Parus, 151 


caudata, Acredula, 147, 149 


Cotile, 329, 330 


bifasciata, Cruclrostra, 59 
Loxia, f,g 


Pica, 18 
caudatuB, yEgithalus, 145 


riparia, 330 
Creeper, Crimson-winged, 


Black-bellied Dipper, 313 
Blackbird, 249 


Parus, 149 
cedrorum, Ampelis, 176 


123 
Tree, 120 


Blackcap, 192 


Certhia, 120 


Wall, 123 



33 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



cri<tata, Alauda, 83 


Flycatcher, Pied, 322, 323 


Hypo T ais, 217 


Galeriti, 88 


Red-breasted, 324, 325, 326 


hypolais, Hypolais, 218 


cristatus, Lophophanes, 142 


Spotted, 321 


Mota-illa. 218 


Parus, 142 


fortunatus, Phylloscopus, 


hyrcanus, Erithacus, 278 


Regulus, 154 


213 




C-ossbill, 56, 57 
American, 56 
Himalayan, 56 


Fregilinse, 21 
Fringilla, 35 
linaria, 45 


Icteridse, 27, 29 
icterim, Hypolais, 218 
icterus, Serinu<=, 54 


Pa-rot, 56 
White-wing-d, 57 
Crow, Carrion, 14 
Hooded, 12 


fringillago, Parus, 130 
Fringillidae, 30 
Fringillinae 35 
frugilegus, Corvus, 4 


ignicapilla, Sylvia, 157 
ignicapiHus, Regulus, 157 
iliacus, Turdus, 259 
ind'cus, Passer, 50 


cu ruca Motacil'a, 186 
Sylvia, 186 
curvirostra. LoxU, 57 


Trypanocorax, 4 
Furze-Chats, 298 
Fu ze- Warbler, 198 


isabellina, Saxi :ola, 293 
italise, Parser, 49, 50 


cyanea, Petrophila, 283 
Cyanecula, 279 


fu^cipilea, Sylvia, 184 


Jackdaw, 9, 10 


cyanecula, Ruticilla, 280 
Cypriotes, Parus, 137 


galactodes, Aedon, 202 
Sylvia, 202 


Jay, 19, 20 
jerdoni, Sylvia, 191 




galbula, Oriolus, 28 




Dirtford Warbler, 198 
davypus, Chelidon, 327 


Gileri a, 87 
Garden-Warbler, 195 
g rruH, Bombycilla, 175 


krueperi, Sitta, 126 
kand :o, Oriolus, 28 


1 )aulia<, 273 
deserti, Saxicola, 296 
Dippers, 310, 312 
Dipper, Black-bellied, 313 
dresseri, Parus, 139 
domestica, Fringilla, 49 
dom:sticus, Passer, 49 


Sylvia 186 
G-irrulus, 19 
garrulas, Ampelis, 175 
Geocichla, 245 
glandarius, Corvus, 20 
Garrulus, 19. 20 
Gold-vented Bulbul, 318 


lagopus, Chelidon, 327 
LaniHae, 153 
Lanius, 159 
lapponica, Emberiza, 78 
Fringilla, 77 
Plectrophanes, 77 
lapponicus, Calcarius, 77 


e'egans, Carduelis, 39 


Th ush, 319 
Graculus, 22 


Plectrophanes, 77 
La'k, Calandra, 82 


Emberiza, 63 


graculus, Corvus, 22 


Crested, 88 


Emberizinae, 63 
enucleator, Loxia. 61 


Fregilas, 22 
Graculus, 22 


Horned, 80 
Shore, 80 


PinicoU, 61 


Pyrrhocorax, 22 


Short-toed, 86 


Pyrrhula, 61 


gran V\s, Motaci'la, 92 


Sky, 84 


Erithacus, 276 
erythrina, Loxia, 55 
Pyrrhula, 55 
erythrinus, Carpodacus, 54, 

v I 5 


(insshopper-Warb'.er, 235 
Greenfinch, 31 
griseisticta, Muscicapa, 320 
grisola, Muscicapa, 319, 320 
Ground-Thrush, Siberian, 


White-winged, 82 
Wood,oo 
ledouci, Parus, 137 
leuc^ptera, Loxia, 59 
Mdanocorypha, 82 


Erythrosterna parva, 325 


246 


Pica, 17 


europaea, Pipria, 145 
Clivicola, 330 


guttnus, Stnrnus, 24 
gutturalis, Hirundo, 332 


Lii aria, 42 
linaria, Acanthis, 46 


Pyrrhula, 59, 60 




Cann \bina, 45 


Sitta, 126, 128 


hawaiensis, Corone, 12 


Fringilla, 45 


europeeus, C ; n~lus, 3ro 


Hawfinch, 33 


Linota, 45 


excubitor, Lanius, 162 


hemispila, Nucifriga, 16 


Linnet. 43 




himalayana, Loxi i, 56 


locustella, Locistelli, 235 


famiharis, Aedon, 201 , 203 


hippolais, Phyllopneuste, 


Sibilatrix, 235 


Ce thia, 120 


211 


Sylvia, 235 


fe ruglneus, Scolecophagus, 


hirtcitsis, Anorlhura, 315, 317 


longicaudata, Mecistura, 147 


29 


TrogUaytes, 317 


Long-spur, 77 


Ficedula, 322, 323 


Hirundinida^, 327 


Long-tailed Tit, 147, 149 


atricapilla, 322, 373 
co'laris, 324 


Hirundo, 331 
gutturalis, 332 


Lophophar.es, 142 
luctuosa, Muscicapa, 323 


Fieldfare, 269 


riparia, 329 


lugens, Motacil'a, 52 


Field-Sta lings, 26 


rustica, 331, 332 


lugubris, Motacilla, 93, 97 


Fire-Crest, 157 


urbica, 328 


Lullula, 89 


flava, Budytes, 101 


hi paniolensis, Passer, 49, 50 


luscinia, Daulias, 274 


Motacilla, TCI, 102 
flavirostrs, Acan'his, 42 


holboe'li, Acanth's, 47 
Cannabina, 47 


Erithacus, 274 
Motacilla, 274 


Cannabina, 42 


Linaria, 47 


Piailomela, 274 


Fringilla, 42 


hortensis, Sylvia, 195 


luicinioidas, Acroce halus, 


Lina-ia, 42 


hortu'ana, Emberiza, 71 


238 


Linota, 42 


hortulanus, Serinus, 53 


Locustella, 238 


fluviatilis, Locustella, 237 


House-Martin, 327, 328 


Sylvia, 238 


Flycatchers, 319 


Siberian, 327 




Flycatcher, Collared, 324 


hyp rboreus.PLctrophen t x, 


Macronyx, 103 


Common, 320 


75 


macrurus, ^E^iihalus, 146 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



339 



maculatus, Anthus 104 
maculosus, B.ibo, 319 
maderens : s, Regulus, 154 
nrigna, Stu nella, 29 
Migpie, 17, 18 
maj ;r, Carduelis, 39 

Lanius, 165 

Parus, 130 

m-uimanica. Pica. 18 
maxima M rula, 251 
Mealy Redpill, 45 
melanoc' phJi, Embe iza, 
67 

Euspiza, 67 
Melanocoryphi, 82 
melanogaster. Oincl.is, 313 
melanoleuca, Pica, 18 
melanope, MoUcilla, 97 
Melizjp'iilus, 198 
m -nz icri, Stu nus, 25 
Manila, 249 
merula, Menih, 249 

Turdus, 249 

migrat onus, Turdus, 272 
miliaria, Emberiza, 73 
minor, Garrulus, 20 

Lanius, 160 

Linaria, 47 

Phylloscopus, 211 

Trochilus, 211 
modularis. Accentor, 305 

Motacilla, 305 

Tharrhaleus, 305 
monedula Coloeus, to 

Corvus, 10 

montana, Fringilla, 51 
montanus, Passer, 49, 51 
Monticola, 282 
montifringilla, Fringilla, 37 
Motacilla, 92 

troglodytes, 314 
Motacillidae, 91 
multipunctata, Nucifragi,i6 
muraria, Certhia, 123 

Tichodroma, 123 
murina Pyrrhula, 59 
Muscicapa, 319, 320 

atricapilla, 323 

griseisticta, 320 

grisola, 319, 320 

luctuosa, 323 

parya, 325 
Muscicapinse, 319 
musicus, Turdus, 263 

nasvia Lpcustella, 235, 236 

Motacilla, 235 
naevius. Aorocephalus, 235 
Nectariniidae, 119 
Neocorys, 103 
Nightingale, Common, 974 
nipalensis, Cheli Ion, 328 
nisoria, Mo'acilla, 180 

Sylvia. 1 80 
nivalis, Emberiza, 75 

Plectrophanes, 75 

Plectrophenax, 75 
Nncifraga, 16 
Nut-cracker, 16 
Nuthatch, 126 
nuUalli, Pica, 18 



obscura, Alauda, 116 


polyglotta, Hypolais, 220 


obscurus Anthus, 115, 116, 


jomeranus, Lanius, 171 


118 


pratensis, Alauda, 106 


occidentalis, Saxicola 295 


Anthus, 106 


ocularis, Motacilla 92 


Pratincola, 298 


oenanthe. Motacilla, 290 
Saxicola, 200 


provincialis, Melizophilus, 
198 


Oligomyodae, i 


Sylvia, 198 


Oreocichla, 242 


Ptilogonys, 174 


Oreocorys, 103 


pusilla. Emberiza, 65 


orientalis, Corone, 15 


pusillus, Serinuj, 53 


Oriolidae, 27 


Pycnonotidae, 318 


Oriolus, 28 


Pycnonotus, 318, 319 


ornatus, Calcarius, 77 


barbatus, 319 


orphea, Sylvia, 189 


capensis, 318, 319 


orpheus, Sylvia, 189 


pyrrhocorax, Corvus, 23 


Ortolan, 71 


pyrrhula, Loxia 60 


Oscines, 2 
Otocorys, 80 
Ousel-. Black-throated 256 


Pyrrhula, 60, 334 
pytiopsittacus, Loxia, 56, 57 


Ring, 253 


rayi, Budytes, 100 




Motacilla, 100 


palustris, Acrocephalus, 232 
Sylvia, 232 
paluttris, Parus, 139 
Pyrrhulorhyncha, 64 


Raven, 7, 8 
Redbreast, Common, 276 
Red-breasted Flycatcher,32 : 
Redpoll, Holboell's, 47 


Panuridae, 150 


Coues', 333 


Panurus, 150 


Greenland, 334 


paradoxa, Motacilla, 92 


Lesser, 47 


Paridae, 129 


Mealy, 45 


Parus, 129 


Redstart, 285 


parva, Erythrosterna, 325 
Muscicapa, 325 


Black, 287 
Redwing, 259 


Siphia, 325, 326 
parvulus, Troglodytes, 314 


Reed-Bunting, 63 
Reedling, Bearded, 151 


Passer, 48 


Reed-Warbler, 230 


Passeres, Non-singing, i 


Great, 227 


Singing, i 
South American, i 
Passeriformes, i 


Regulidae, 153 
regulus, Motacilla, 154 
religiosa, Gracula, 29 


Pastor, a6 


Remiza, 145 


pekinensis, Parus, 137 


richardi, Anthus, no 


Perching Birds, i 
persica, Motacilla, 92 


Ring-Ousel, 253 
riparia, Clivicola, 379 


Petrophila, 283 


Cotile, 330 


phaenicura, Motacilla, 787 


Hirundo, 329 


Phainoptila, 174 
philomela. Daulias, 274 


Robin, 276 
American, 272 


phosniceus, Ageloeus 29 
phoenicurus, Motacilla, 285 


Rock-Pipit, 116 
Scandinavian, 118 


Ruticilla, 285 


Rock-Thrush, 282 


phragmitis, Acrocephalus, 


rosea, Acredula, 147 


224 


Mecistura, 147 


Calamoherpe, 224 


r.seus, Pastor, 26 


Sylvia, 224 


Turdus, 26 


Phylloscopus, 204 


rostrata, Cannabina, 46 


pica, 17 


rubecula, Erithacus, 277 


Corvus, 1 8 


Motacilla, 277 


Pica, 1 8 


rubetra, Fruticicola, 299 


pictus, Calcarius, 77 


Motaciila, 298 


pileata, Pyrrhula, 60 
pilaris, Turdus, 269 
Pinicola. 61 


Pratincola, 298, 299 
Saxicola, 299 
rubicola, Fruticicola, joi 


Pipit, Red-throated, 108 


Motacilla, 301 


Richard's, no 


Pratincola, 301 


Rock. 1,6 


Saxicola, 302 


Scandinavian Rock, 118 


Ruby-Crest, 159 


Tree, 103 


rufa, Saxicola, 295 


Tawny, in 


Sylvia, 183, 211 


Water, 114 


rufV-scens, Acanthis, 47 


Plectrophenax, 75 


Cannabina, 47 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



rufescens, Frinp!l i, 47 


Starling, Intermediate, 25 


True Bulbuls, 318 


Linaria, 47 


Red-winged, 29 


Trypanocorax, 4 


I.inota, 47 


Rose-coloured, 26 


Turdidae, 241 


rufus, Lanius, 171 

Phj HoSCOpUS, 211 


strepera, Sylvia, 230 
strepe-us, Acrocephalus, 


turdoides, Acrocephalus, 227 
Turdus, 259 


rumicis, Aphis, 50 


230, 232 


capensis, 318 


rupestris, Anthus, 118 
rustica Emberiza 66 


strophiata, 4Jphia, 324 
Sturnida^, 23 


undata, Motacilla, 198 


Hirundo, 331, 332 


S.urnus, 24 


Sylvia, 198 


Pica, 18 


cinclus, 313 


undatus, Melizophilus, 198 


Ruticilla, 285 


vulgar is, 24 


urbica, Chelidon, 327, 328 


rutilns, Lanius, 171 


suecica, Cyanecula, 280 


Hirundo, 328 


* 


Erithacus, 280 




S. Kilda Wren, 315, 317 
salica ia, Motacilla, 195 


Motacilla, 280 
Ruticilla, 280 


vagans, Acredula, T 45 
./Egithalus, 146, 147 


Sylvia, 195 


sulphurea, Motacilla, 98 


Mecistura, 147 


Sa'pornis, 119 


superbus, Erithacus, 278 


varia, Geocichla, 243 


Sand-Martin, 329 


superciliosa, Motacilla, 2f4 


Oreocichla, 243 


sardus, Melizophilus, 198 


superciliosus, Phylloscoyus, 


varius, Turdus, 243 


Savi's Warbler, 238 


214 


viscivorus, Turdus, 267 


saxatilis, Monticola, 283 


Swallows, The, 327 


vulgaris, Coccothraustes, 33 


Turdus, 283 


sylvia, 179 


Sturnus, 24 


Saxicola, 289 


Motacilla, 182 




schaeniclus, Emberiza, 63 


Sylvia, 182 


Wagtail, Blue-headed. 101 


schasnobanus, Acrocepha- 


sylvicola, Phyllopneuste, 205 


Grey, 97 


lus, 224 


Sylviidae, 178 


Pied. 93 


Serinus, 52 




White, 95 


serinus, Serinus, 53 


Tarsiger, 277 


Warbler, Aquatic, 222 


Fringilla, 53 


teneriffae, Regulus, 154 


Barred, 180 


sharpii, Corone, 12, 13 
Shore-Lark, 80 


Tharrhaleus, 305 
Thrush, American, 272 


Blackcap, 192 
Blue-throated, 279 


Shrike, Great Grey, 161 
Lesser Grey, 160 


Golden, 242 
Gold-vented, 319 


Common Tree, 218 
Dartford, 198 


Pallas's Great Grey, 165 


Ground, 245 


Furze, 198 


Red-backed, 167 


Mistle, 267 


Garden, 195 


Siberian House- Martin, 327 


Rock, 282 


Grasshopper, 235 


Siphia, 324 


Song, 263 


Great Reed, 227 


albicilla, 326 


White's, 243 


Marsh, 233 


parva 325, 326 
strophiata, 324 


Tichodroma, 123 
Tit, Bearded, 151 


Orphean, 189 
Reed, 230 


sibilator, Phylloscopus, 205 


Blue, 133 


Rufous, 201, 202 


sibilatrix, Phylloscopus, 205 
sibirica, Alauda, 82 


Coal, 1^6 
Crested, 142 


Savi's? 238 
Sedge, 224 


Geocichla, 246 


Great, 130 


Sub-alpine, 335 


Melanocorypha, 82 
sibiricus, Lanius, 165 


Long-tailed, 149 
Marsh, 139 


Willow, 204 
Wood, 205 


Panurus, 151 


White-headedLong-tailed, 


Yellow-browedWiilow,2i4 


sibiricus, Tmdus, 246 
simplex, Sylvia, 195 


149 
tithys, Ruticilla, 287 


Wafer-Crow, 312 
Water-Ouzels, 310, 312 


Siphia, 324 


titys, Ruticilla, 287, 288 . 


Waxwing, 175 


Siskin, 40, 41 


torquata, Merula, 253 


Wheatear, 289, 290 


Sitta, 126 


torquatus, Turdus, 253 


Black-throated, 295 


Sittidae, 126 


Tracheophona;, i 


Desert, 296 


Sky-Lark, 84 


Tree- Pipit, 103 


Isabelline, 293 


Snow-Bunting, 75 
Song-Thrush, 263 


Tree-Sparrow, 51 
Tree- Warbler, Common, 218 


Whinchat, 298 
whiteheadi, Sitta, 126 


Sparrow, 48 


trivialis, Alauda, 103 


Whitethroat, 182 


Tree, 51 


Anthus, 103 


Lesser, 186 


spinoletta, Alauda, 114 
Anthus, 114 


trivirgatus, .(Egithalus, 146 
trochilus, Motacilla, 208 


White-winged Lark, 82 
Willow- Wa. bier, Yeilow- 


spinus, Carduelis, 41 


Phyllopneuste, 208 


browed, 214 


Chrysomitris, 41 
Fringilla, 41 
spipoletta, Anthus, 114 


Phylloscopus, 208 
Troglodytes 314 
Anorthura, 314, 317, 318 


Woodchat, 171 
Wren, Common, 314 
Wren, S. Kilda, 315, 317 


Spotted Flycatcher, 321 


hirtensis, 317 




stapazina, Saxicola, 295 


parvulus, 314 


Xanthocorys, 103 


Starling, 24 
Field, 26 


troglodytes, Motacilla, 314 
Troglodytidae, 314 


yarrelli, Motacilla 97 



^ ;^7' " > 





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