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HPHE present division of the "Handbook to the 
Cathedrals of England" embraces those of 
Oxford, Peterborough, Ely, Norwich, and Lin- 
coln ; the five Cathedrals which may be broadly 
classed as the "Eastern Division," since Oxford 
and Peterborough were originally included within 
the great diocese of Lincoln. 

The descriptions have been drawn up after 
careful personal survey, and with the assistance 
of the best and most recent works on each 
Cathedral. No one has done more toward 
ascertaining the true history of our Cathedrals 
than Professor Willis, who combines in a remark- 
able degree a knowledge of the theory and 
practice of architecture with the learning neces- 
sary to unravel and understand the documents 
bearing on the history of the buildings them- 
selves. His published works and the most 
trustworthy reports of his lectures have been 



freely used. Acknowledgments of much valu- 
able assistance is also due (amongst others) to 
Mr. J. H. Parker and to the Eev. G. A. Poole. 
A description of the painted ceiling at Ely was 
kindly furnished by Mr. Le Strange, whose death 
has occurred since the volume was in type, 
a loss, at Ely and elsewhere, which will not 
readily be supplied. 

In describing each Cathedral the same plan 
has been followed for the present volumes as 
for those of the Southern Division. Eeference 
to each portion of the description will be made 
easy by a very full Index, which will be given 
at the conclusion of the entire series. 


The much-lamented death of Mr. K. J. King 
has rendered it necessary that the task of revising 
the " Handbook to the Eastern Cathedrals " 
should be entrusted to another Editor, who has 
spared no pains to make the Work both accurate 
and complete. Each of the five Cathedrals has 
been re-visited with an express view to this 
Edition. The descriptions have been compared 

with the actual buildings, and every detail has 
been carefully verified. Necessary corrections 
have been made, omissions supplied, and the 
whole has been, as far as possible, brought down 
to the date of publication. Works of repair and 
adornment, more or less extensive, have taken 
place in all the Cathedrals comprised in this 
volume; but none of them, with the exception 
of Oxford, has undergone such a complete 
restoration as to require any considerable altera- 
tion in the text of the original Edition. At 
Oxford, however, the restoration and re-arrange- 
ment has been so thorough, embracing every 
part of the Church in a greater or less degree, 
and involving the addition of so many new 
features, that it has been found necessary entirely 
to re-cast the architectural description, and to 
re-write a considerable part of it. The late 
Sir Gilbert Scott's valuable Eeport, so far as 
it bears on the history and characteristic features 
of the fabric, by the kind permission of the 
Dean of Christ Church, has been printed as an 
Appendix. In the other Cathedrals notices of 
alterations of arrangement and works of restora- 
tion have been inserted in their proper places 
in the text. The most important of these are 

I 2 

v raa. 

the works carried out at Ely in the completion 
of the stonework of the octagon, which has been 
brought to a happy conclusion as a memorial 
to the late Dean Peacock; and the decoration 
of the interior of the lantern, and of the eastern 
portion of the nave roof, by Mr. Gambier Parry. 
That gentleman has kindly furnished a descrip- 
tion of the pictorial and decorative work carried 
out by him in pursuance of the plan commenced 
by the late Mr. Styleman Le Strange. It now 
only remains for the authorities of that Cathedral 
to undertake the rebuilding of the North- Western 
Transept, and Ely Cathedral, for the grandeur 
and beauty of its architecture, the variety of 
its styles and perfection of its details, as well 
as for the unstinted munificence and admirable 
taste with which its restoration has been carried 
out, may not unjustly claim one of the very 
first places among the Minsters of our land. 

The second Part of each of the separate 
Cathedral Handbooks, containing a short History 
of the See with Biographical Notices of the 
principal Bishops who have filled it, has also 
undergone careful revision. The early annals of 
some of the foundations, especially Peterborough 
and Oxford, have been corrected and expanded ; 


while the Lives of the Bishops have been in 
most instances made fuller and more accurate. 
In this portion of the Work the Editor has 
drawn largely from Mr. Freeman's "History of 
the Norman Conquest," and Dean Hook's " Lives 
of the Archbishops of Canterbury." Dean Goul- 
burn's magnificent folio on the History and 
Architecture of Norwich Cathedral has been a 
storehouse of materials for the annals of that 
See and its Bishops. Professor Stubbs's " Early 
Fasti of Peterborough" has supplied authentic 
information as to that monastic house, freed from 
the forgeries of mediaeval annalists. For the 
early history of St. Frideswide's, Oxford, the 
Editor is indebted to Dr. Bright, the Eegius 
Professor of Ecclesiastical History in that Uni- 
versity, by whom that part of the Work has 
been entirely re-written. Canon Perry's admi- 
rable Biography of St. Hugh of Avalon and his 
predecessors, together with that of Bishop Gros- 
tete, have thrown much new light on the early 
episcopal annals of the See of Lincoln, of which 
advantage has been taken. 

In the revision of the architectural history and 
description the Editor has gratefully to record 
his obligations to many friends who have aided 

viii |jrtfaa. 

him with their counsel and co-operation, and, in 
some instances, looked over the proof-sheets. Of 
these he has pleasure in specifying at Norwich, 
Dean Goulburn, and Mr. Spaull the able and 
intelligent Clerk of the Works at that Cathedral ; 
at Ely, Dean Merivale, Canon Luckcock, and 
Precentor Dickson; at Peterborough, Dr. West- 
cott ; and at Oxford, the Dean of Christ Church 
and Dr. Bright. For the corrections and addi- 
tions in his own cathedral of Lincoln, he alone 
is responsible. 


The Precentory, Lincoln, 
Oct. 29, 1880. 




FKONTISPIECE "Watching-chamber of St. Frides- 

wide's Shrine, from the Latin Chapel ; described . 25 
TITLE-PAGE Door of the Chapter-house . . 36 
PLAN ........ 4 

I. General View from the North-east, from one of the 

Canons' Gardens ...... 7 

IT. The Pulpit before the alterations . . .11 

The plan of the pulpit is remarkable, being not, as 
usual, half an octagon, but five sides of a heptagon. 

III. The Choir ....... 15 

IV. Part of the Eastern Lantern-arch and Eoof of 

Choir ........ 16 

V. Zouch's Monument . . . . .19 

VI. Tomb of Sir George Nowers . . . .22 

VII. The Prior's Tomb, from the Latin Chapel . . 22 

The buttresses, &c., of the tomb are much mutilated, 
but in the drawing they have been restored from the 
same parts still remaining on the opposite side. 

VIII. Monument of Lady Montacute . . .23 

IX. Panel on the West End of Lady Montacute's 
Monument ....... 24 

X. Bosses from the Latin Chapel .... 28 

6 *0r0 continued. 


XI. Monument of Bishop King, in its original place . 33 

The mullions at the back of the recess were destroyed, 
but have been restored from the indications still 
remaining. [Since this view was taken, the monument 
has been removed further West between the aisle and 
St. Lucy's Chapel.] 

XII. Interior of the Tower, with one of the Squinches 

of the Spire .... 35 

XIII. Interior of the Chapter-house . . . 37 
Since this view was taken, the floor of the Chapter- 
house has been lowered to its original level. 

XIV. Roundels of Stained Glass in the Chapter-house. 38 


One of the Windows in the Latin Chapel . . 28 

Poppy-head in the Latin Chapel .... 30 

Capital and Corbels in South Aisle of Choir . . 34 

Spire Light 35 

Boss in the Chapter-house .... 

Window in the Tower ..... 41 

Original Top of the Spire . . . . . . 42 

FRONTISPIECE General View from the North-east . 116 

In this view some of the trees are omitted or lowered 
in order to shew the building. 

TITLE-PAGE The Abbot's Gate-house, now the Gate- 
way of the Bishop's Palace . . . .120 

PLAN 76 

I. The West Front 80 

II. One of the Circular Windows of the Western Gables 81 

ist of fUasirstimts. xi 



III. Wooden Capitals ..... .84 

IV. The Nave, from the West end . . . .87 

V. Portion of the Painted Ceiling of the Nave . . 92 

In this engraving the colours of the figures, &c., are 
marked heraldically. The portion is taken across the 
nave, so that the line across the page is north and south, 
the large lozenges occupying the flat part of the roof, 
and the halves the sloping parts. 

VI. Effigy of one of the early Abbots, in the South 
Aisle of the' Choir ...... 106 

VII. The Ketro-choir, or " New Building " . . 107 

VIII. The so-called Monument of Abbot Hedda and 

his Monks 110 

FRONTISPIECE View from the South-east . . . 179 
TITLE-PAGE St. Ethelbert's Gate . . . .181 
PLAN . . . .140 

I. The Nave, from the West end . . . . 144 

II. Stalls in the Choir 153 

This is the easternmost portion on the north side. 

III. Misereres in the Choir ..... 153 

IV. The Lantern, Presbytery, and Apse . . .156 

The panelling has been removed from the lower arches 
of the apse since the view was taken, and they have 
been thrown open to the aisle. 

V. Windows from the Clerestory of the Presbytery . 157 

VI. The Eagle Lectern 163 

VII. The Prior's Door . 173 

xii Jftsi of Illustrations. 

U r fa it jj continued. 


VIII. The Lavatories in tbe Cloisters . . . 177 

IX. The Erpingham Gateway . . . .181 


Device of Bishop Lyhart ..... 147 

Boss in the Cloisters . . . . . . 176 

Foiled opening in Crypt of Grammar school . . 184 

FRONTISPIECE General View, from the South-east . 285 
TITLE-PAGE The Prior's Door . . . .280 
PLAN 218 

I. Interior of the Galilee Porch . . .222 

II. The Nave, from the West end . ... . 228 

III. The Octagon and Choir, from the South-west . 239 

IV. One Bay of Bishop Hotham's work in the Choir . 252 

V. The East End and Eeredos . . . .257 

VI. Monument of Bishop de Luda . . . .258 

VII. Monument of Bishop Eedman . . . . 262 

VIII. Early Coffin-lid in the South Aisle of the 
Choir 269 

IX. The East End 277 

X. Prior Crawden's Chapel, from the South-east. . 282 
XL Interior of Prior Crawden's Chapel . . . 282 
XII. View of the West end, from the South-west . 285 


Sculpture on Bishop Northwold's Tomb Martyrdom 

of St. Edmund 260 

South Aisle of Choir Exterior .... 278 

Sculpture from the Prior's Door .... 280 

pst of Illustrations, xiii 

FRONTISPIECE South-west View, from Brayford . 398 
TITLE-PAGE The Cloisters, with Fragments of An- 
cient Sculpture . . . . . 385 
PLAN . .326 

I. The West Front 332 

II. The great West Door 334 

III. The Nave, from the West end . . . . 340 

IV. Capitals from the Doorway of the North Choir 
Aisle 351 

V. Circular Window in the North Transept: the 
"Dean's Eye" 352 

VI. Circular Window in the South Transept : the 

"Bishop's Eye" 355 

VII. The Angel-choir, from the South-west . . 360 

VIII. The Easter Sepulchre 367 

IX. Capital, from North Aisle of Angel-choir; do., 

Arcade, North Aisle of Choir . . . .375 

X. Intersecting Arcade, South Aisle of Choir . . 380 

XI. Intersecting Arcade, Choristers' Vestry . . 380 

XII. Lavatory and Fireplace in the Choristers' 
Vestry . . 382 

XIII. Interior of the Chapter-house, looking South- 
west ........ 387 

XIV. The Galilee Porch . . . . .394 

XV. The South-east Porch ..... 395 

XVI. The East End . . . . . . 397 

XVII. The Chapter-house, from the South-east . . 397 

XVIII. Exterior of the Choir Aisle, South side . . 397 

XIX. View from below the Vicar's Court . . .398 



|T i n t a i n continued. 


Arched Kecess 333 

Corbel, North-east Transept .... 370 
Pillar and Section, North-west Angle of East 

Transept 373 

Stone Beam 392 




Architectural History, I.-IT 5-6 

Nave, III .. 6-8 

Arcade and Triforium, IV 8-9 

RoofofNave,V 9-10 

Aisles, Organ-screen, Western Vestibule, VI 10-12 

Windows and Stained-glass in Aisles, VII 12-13 

Lantern Arches, VIII 13-14 

Choir, Vaulting, East-end, Altar, &c., IX 14-18 

North Transept, X 18-20 

North Choir-aisle, XI 20-21 

Lady-chapel, Monuments, XII 21-24 

Watching Chamber of St. Frideswide, XIII 24-27 

Latin Chapel, XIV 28-31 

South Transept, XV 31-32 

St. Lucy's Chapel, XVI 32-33 

South Choir-aisle, XVII 33-34 

Belfry and Spire, XVIII 34-36 

Chapter-house, XIX. 36-39 

Cloister, XX 39-40 

Eefectory, XXI 40 

Tower and Spire, XXII 40-42 

Exterior View, XXIII 42-44 


A Entrance to Chapter-hr/use. 

a Watching Chamber of St. Frideswide. 

b Tomb of Lady Montacute. 

c Tomb of Prior Sution (?). 

d Tomb of Sir George Nowers (?). 

e Tomb of Zouch. 

i Tomb of Bishop Xing. 

m Entrance to Transept. 

n Entrance to Nave. 

o Dean's Entrance. 


Scale, 100 ft. to 1 in. 


J|ist0rij antr 

I. THIS Cathedral was originally the church of St. 
Frideswide's priory, the history of which will be 
found in Part II. In the year 1522 the priory was 
surrendered to Wolsey, who had selected it as the 
site of his new college. Extensive alterations and 
additions were at once commenced by the Cardinal; 
but on his attainder in 1529 the foundation fell into 
the hands of the King, and the works were stopped. 
Three years later (June, 1532), the college was re- 
founded by Henry VIII. It was again surrendered 
in 1545 ; and in 1546 Henry re-established it, and 
transferred to it the see of Oxford from Oseney. It 
has retained the name of Ecclesia Christi Cathedralis 
Oxoniensis given to it in the King's foundation charter ; 
and the ancient church of the priory has ever since 
served both as the cathedral church of the diocese 
and as the chapel of the college. 

II. The nave, choir, central tower, and transepts 
(as far as the roofs) are late Norman, and were 
erected during the priorate of EGBERT OF CRICK- 
LADE or CANUTUS, who succeeded the first prior, Gui- 
mond, in 1141, and of his succesor, PHILIP. At the 

VOL. II. PT. I. B 3 

request of the latter, Feb. 12, 1180, the relies of 
St. Frideswide were ' lifted up ' from her grave below 
the tower of the new church, and translated to 
a shrine above ground by the hands of Richard, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, in the presence of the 
Bishops of Winchester, Ely, and other prelates, a 
papal legate, and a large assemblage of clerks and 
laymen. The new building must at that time have 
been nearly if not quite completed a . The choir, like 
the nave, has north and south aisles of the same 
period. A Lady-chapel, adjoining the north aisle of 
the choir, was added towards the middle of the thir- 
teenth century ; and in the first half of the fourteenth 
the further addition of the so-called ' Latin chapel ' 
was made. The roofs of the nave and choir have 
been commonly ascribed to Cardinal Wolsey, but are 
probably of an earlier date. 

The cathedral thus contains examples of the various 
styles from late Norman to Perpendicular. Of these 
the original Norman work is the most valuable and 
interesting. But it may safely be said that a careful 
examination of the entire building which is the 
smallest of English cathedrals will repay the visitor, 
and will disclose many more points of interest than he 
may at first be prepared to expect. 

III. The only good external view of the cathedral is 

a The translation is recorded in a MS., de Miraculis 8. Frides- 
widse, in the Bodleian, According to this narrative, a light 
issuing from the relics of the Saint was seen shining above the 
tower of her church, eight years before the translation, a proof 
that the tower was completed in 1172. 


obtained from the garden of one of the canons' houses 
[Plate I.], (see xxn.). The west front and nearly- 
half of the nave were destroyed by Wolsey, for the 
sake of his intended collegiate quadrangle ; and the 
church is now usually entered from " Tom Quad " 
by a new western approach of two panelled arches, 
formed through one of the former canonical houses. 
The nave originally extended as far as the fronts of 
the canons' houses in the great quadrangle ; and con- 
sisted apparently of seven bays. Of the original 
nave Wolsey destroyed all but four bays ; a fifth has 
been recently added, and the walls of the church have 
been carried quite up to the eastern wall of the 
quadrangle. The organ-screen has been erected to 
the west of the third bay from the east, the organ 
and its loft filling up the fourth. The fifth is left 
open as a vestibule. The old west window has 
necessarily disappeared. The improvement of the 
general proportions of the interior consequent on 
the change is very great. 

It has been supposed that Wolsey's plan for adapt- 
ing the monastic church to the purposes of his college 
was to form the choir and transepts into a long chapel 
with an ante-chapel, such as those of Magdalen and 
New College ; and to arrange the remaining portion 
of the nave for divinity lectures and such collegiate 
ceremonies as required additional space. The whole 
was to be altered in the style of the age, and deco- 
rated with a magnificence befitting the splendid scale 
of the Cardinal's foundation. This work would be 

8 <D*forb (Cat^bral. 

stopped by his fall in 1529, which put an end to 
his grand collegiate design. Much of this is, how- 
ever, mere speculation, and it is probable that the 
vaulting and other work usually assigned to Wolsey 
is really of earlier date. 

IV. The architectural character of the Norman work 
in both nave and choir is the same ; although there 
are some indications that, as was commonly the case, 
the latter is of slightly the earlier date. Both, how- 
ever, are of late Norman or Transitional date ; and 
may be safely assigned to the thirty years following 
Robert of Cricklade's appointment in 1141 as Prior 
of St. Frideswide's. The massive pillars of the nave 
are alternately circular and octagonal. From their 
capitals, which are large, with square abaci, some 
decorated with very rich volutes and foliage, spring 
circular arches with well-defined mouldings. These 
are, in fact, the arches of the triforium; which is 
here represented by a blind arcade of two arches, 
set in the tympanum between the main arch and 
the sub-arch of the aisle b . The clerestory above 
is decidedly transitional ; and consists of a pointed 
arch with shafts at the angles, and supported on 

b It has been suggested that these arches, set in the tympanum, 
were originally the clerestory openings of a Saxon church, the 
walls of which were raised by the Norman architect. During 
the visit of the Archaeological Institute to Oxford in 1850, how- 
ever, an opening in the roof of the aisle was made under the 
direction of Professor Willis ; and it was then seen that a single 
arch encloses the two at the back, according to the usual 
arrangement of a Norman triforiurn. 

gafr*. 9 

either side by low circular arches, which form the 
openings of a wall-passage. 

The arches of the aisles spring from half-capitals 
set against the inner side of the pillars, and are plain, 
with a roll hood-mould towards the nave. The crown 
of these arches is considerably below the main capitals 
of the pillars, from which spring the upper or triforium 
arches. The half-capitals assist in carrying the vault- 
ing of the aisles. The whole arrangement, rare on 
the Continent, is very unusual in England, where, 
indeed, it would be impossible to point out a second 
example on so grand a scale . It should be remarked 
that much apparent height is given to both nave and 
choir by the lofty pillars and the double row of arches. 
The interchange of circular and octagonal pillars, the 
pointed arches of the clerestory, and the details of the 
capitals and bases, which nearly approach Early 
English, sufficiently prove that the nave was the last 
portion of the Norman church that was completed. 

V. The vaulting-shafts of the roof spring from 
plain conical corbels between the upper arches. The 
corbels and shafts are Norman ; but the brackets which 
they support, and which assist in carrying the existing 
roof, are enriched Perpendicular, and form part of the 
preparations for the vault of stone with which it was 
the evident intention to have covered the nave. This 
plan, however, was never carried out ; and was pro- 

c It occurs in the transept of Eomsey Abbey, Hants, in the 
choir of Jedburgh, and a similar arrangement existed on a far 
more magnificent scale at Glastonbury. 


bably soon exchanged for that of the present timber 
roof, which may be of Wolsey's time, and is an excel- 
lent specimen of its class. It is of low pitch, with 
the beams supported on low semicircular arches, that 
form having evidently been selected in order to adapt 
the roof to the arches of the lantern tower. The 
square panels of the rafters are filled in with a star-like 

VI. The arrangement of the half-capitals will be 
best seen in the aisles of the nave ; the vaulting and 
windows of which are Transitional and almost Early 
English. The mouldings of the vaulting-ribs vary ; 
those in one bay of the south aisle should be noticed 
for their unusual beauty. 

With the exception of the fifth bay which, as has 
been said, is left open as a western vestibule, the whole 
of the nave from the lantern to the organ-screen is 
fitted up with good plain oak benches, ending in carved 
standards with poppy-heads. These are arranged 
chapel-wise, longitudinally from east to west. The 
arches are filled in with open ironwork. 

The organ-screen is a very ornate piece of Jacobean 
work, dating from the time of Dean Duppa (1629 
1638), removed to its present position from the 
eastern lantern arch. The pulpit, at the west angle 
of the south transept, is, however, far more inte- 
resting and remarkable. It is probably of the same 
date as the screen. The grotesque carvings on its 
sides, " strikingly similar to others of about the 
same date in some of the old houses in Holywell," 





are especially worthy of attention. [Plate II.] The 
original canopy, terminating in the symbol of the 
pelican, which had been transferred to the former 
episcopal throne, has been restored to its place. 

Some of the monuments which have been removed 
from the positions they disfigured have been placed in 
the western bay of the nave. On the north wall are 
those of Bishop LLOYD (died 1829) and Dean GAISFORD 
(died 1855) ; on the south wall Dean and Bishop FELL 
(died 1686), with an inscription written by Dean 
Aldrich ; on the west wall, Dr. E. BURTON, Eeg. Pro- 
fessor of Divinity (died 1856), and Dr. NICOLL, Eeg. 
Professor of Hebrew (died 1828). Affixed to the first 
southern pillar of the nave is the monument of 
BISHOP TANNER, the antiquary (died 1735). Oppo- 
site to it is that of GEORGE BERKELEY, the justly 
celebrated Bishop of Cloyne (died 1753, during a 
temporary visit to Oxford). The panegyric on his 
monument is emphatic and appropriate : " Si Christi- 
anus fueris, si amans patrise, utroque nomine gloriari 
potes Berkleium vixisse." On his grave below is 
inscribed Pope's line 

" To Berkeley every virtue under heaven." 

On the wall west of the pulpit is that of Dean 
ALDRICH (died 1711), with a bust and a curious 
emblem of death a crowned skull with wings at 
the back beneath it. Dean Aldrich was a man of 
considerable learning and varied accomplishments, 
and was the author of the "Compendium of Logic," 


now somewhat obsolete. His musical compositions 
have better claims to a protracted life. His anthems 
and cathedral services are well known; and his 
catch, " Hark ! the bonny Christ Church bells," may 
be mentioned with respect within bearing of the bells 
themselves. All Saints' Church, in the High Street, 
attests his architectural powers. 

VII. Early in the seventeenth century the whole of 
the windows of the aisles of the nave and transept 
were altered from three lights to two lights without 
tracery, to receive the coarse and heavy stained glass 
of Abraham Van Linge, presented by the munificent 
but tasteless Dean Duppa. Very recently all, with one 
exception, have been restored back again to their 
previous Perpendicular design, and are in process of 
being filled with memorial glass by Messrs. CLAYTON 
AND BELL. The one unaltered window is that at the 
west end of the north aisle, which retains Van Linge's 
glass, representing Nineveh, with Jonah sitting under 
the shadow of the gourd. Of the north aisle windows 
the first commemorates Cyril E. Page (died 1873) ; the 
second, S. J. Fremantle (died 1874). Those in the 
south aisle commemorate respectively, beginning from 
the east : (1) G. G. M. Dasent, drowned 1872, rotat. 23 ; 
(2) J. B. Walter, drowned 1870, when helping others 
submerged by the breaking of the ice at his father's 
seat at Bearwood; (3) (the one unaltered Norman 
light), G. E. Luke, drowned 1862; (4), above the 
door into the cloisters, G. G. Fortescue, of Boconnoc, 
died at Algiers, 1858, by WAILES. The glass of the 

Central &ote. Crgpt. 13 

west window of this aisle represents Faith, Hope, and 
Charity, by Morris, from a design by Burne Jones. On 
the walls of this aisle are monuments to Dr. EDWARD 
POCOCK, Professor of Arabic and Hebrew, with a 
bust (died 1648), and Dr. GODFREY FAUSSETT, Lady 
Margaret Professor (died 1853). 

VIII. The very fine and lofty arches of the central 
tower are circular towards the nave and choir, but 
pointed towards the transepts. They are all four, 
however, of the same transitional character ; and no 
doubt formed part of the works executed during 
the priorates of Canutus and Philip. The mould- 
ings of the circular arches resemble those of the 
upper arches of the choir ; the transept arches 
spring from piers composed of three nook-shafts 
and have a broader and plainer soffete than those 
leading to the nave and 'choir. The cutting off of the 
lower portions of the vaulting-shafts from the faces 
of the lantern-piers indicates that, as was usual in 
Norman minsters, the ritual choir was placed under 
the tower and extended into the nave. The lantern 
was till recently shut in, just above these arches, by 
a flat panelled ceiling of timber, probably inserted 
when the bells were brought here from Oseney. It 
has now been opened to the base of the belfry-stage. 
The lower stage is surrounded with an arcade of very 
small arches resting on massy shafts, the capitals of 
which spread in an unusual manner, and are much 
enriched. Above is another arcade of taller arches, 
in the angles of which are round-headed windows, 


seen without, on either side of the original roof- 

During the repairs of 1856, a small crypt or subter- 
ranean chamber, 7 ft. long, 7 ft. high, and 5J ft. wide, 
was discovered in the centre of the church, immediately 
under the eastern tower-arch. It was constructed of 
rude stone- work, coated with plaster; and had two 
small recesses or * ambries,' north and south. Its date 
and original purpose are by no means certain. It has 
been conjectured that it may have been a portion of 
an original crypt, as at Ripon and Hexham ; that it 
may have been the first resting-place of St. Frideswide, 
carefully preserved when the Norman church was com- 
menced on the site of the Saxon ; that it may have 
been the secret place with which every monastery was 
provided, and in which the treasures of the house were 
hidden in times of danger ; or that it may have been 
constructed for the keeping of the University chest, 
which, for some time during the thirteenth century, 
was deposited in a ' secret place ' within the church of 
St. Frideswide. 

IX. We now pass into the choir, eastward of the 
tower; the Norman portion of which is of the same 
general character as the nave. Dean Duppa's wood- 
work and the heavy monuments no longer divert the 
eye from the beauty of the roof and the picturesque 
view northward through the chapels. The present 
stalls and benches, occupying a little more than two 
bays, are from Sir G. G. SCOTT'S designs. The aisles 
are screened off by light open iron-work executed 




<|jmr. 15 

by Skidmore, which in the western bays projects 
and forms a curved canopy over the canons' stalls. 
The design and execution are excellent, but the effect 
cannot be said to be pleasing. At the west end the 
stalls of the dean and sub-dean are surmounted by 
lofty wooden canopies, terminating in statues. Below 
the choir steps stands a very gorgeous brass eagle 
supporting a copy of the sacred Scriptures, richly 
bound in velvet with filigree metal-work. 

On the south side, beyond the stalls, stands a very 
elaborate and costly but not very pleasing episcopal 
throne, erected as a memorial to Bishop Wilberforce 
by the clergy and laity of his former diocese. A 
portrait bust of the bishop with mitre and pastoral 
staff, which barely escapes caricature, is a conspicuous 
feature. The canopy consists of carved pediments 
enclosing a kind of imperial crown, and ornamented 
with figures of Our Lord, the Blessed Virgin, and 
St. Frideswide. 

The choir comprises five bays. All the pillars are 
circular ; the capitals, though exhibiting much carving, 
especially on the north side, are less elaborate, and 
the abaci heavier than elsewhere in the church ; the 
mouldings of the upper arches have the simple roll 
throughout. [Plate III.] These features indicate that 
the choir, although of the same late character as the 
rest of the Norman work, was the first part of the 
church completed. The arrangement of the triforium 
and side aisles is the same as in the nave. 

The groined roof of the choir, a magnificent example, 


is usually attributed to Wolsey, but on insufficient 
evidence at variance with that afforded by the archi- 
tecture. Sir G. G. Scott (see APPENDIX I.) calls atten- 
tion to the similarity of the vaulting to that of the Di- 
vinity school which was probably executed about 1478. 
Although not without indications of declining art, this 
rich vault adds greatly to the effect of this part of the 
cathedral. The lantern-like pendants, which occupy 
the place of vaulting-shafts, may be compared with 
those in the choir of Christ Church, Hants, of rather 
earlier date ; and especially with those in the timber roof 
of the college hall, of which they are nearly facsimiles. 
The grotesque heads terminating these pendants imme- 
diately within the choir arch should be noticed. The 
roof itself terminates against this arch with a series 
of figures under rich canopies running round its 
eastern side. [Plate IV.] The vaulting-shafts next to 
the tower, the corbels of which represent the heads of 
a king and of a monk, are entirely Perpendicular. In 
the others the Norman corbels remain, and Perpen- 
dicular capitals have been fitted to the original shafts. 
The alteration includes the whole of the choir above 
the triforium arches, and its commencement is marked 
by a flowered cornice at the base of the clerestory. 
The Norman walls above this cornice, however, were 
not removed ; and the wall-passage of the clerestory is 
the same as that in the nave, although its original 
masonry is hidden beneath the rich panelling of the 
window jambs. Similar panelling appears on each 
side of the windows, and on the roof as far as the 




fet (Snb. 17 

pendants. Its flatness, as well as the ungraceful form 
of the cusps in the rear arches of the windows are 
indications of a somewhat late date, which may also 
be traced in some of the details of the roof itself, 
especially in the foliation of the straight ribs d . 

The east end has been subjected to a complete recon- 
struction by Sir G. G. SCOTT, who has reproduced the 
original Norman fenestration, of which sufficient traces 

d It is traditionally asserted that the materials of Oseney 
Abbey were used for the alteration in the cathedral. But 
Oseney remained in its integrity at the time of Wolsey's fall ; 
and if any portion of its stone or wood-work was used here, it 
must have been during the refitting of the interior in 1630. 
There is evidence (see Gutch's Collectanea Curiosa, vol. ii.) that 
Wolsey's materials were duly paid for. The building accounts 
of " Cardinal College " exist among the Chapter-house Kecords, 
16-19 Henry VIII., and are very curious and interesting. Among 
the entries occur the following : " Paide for workinge and 
kervynge the Halle rouff of the sayde Colleage cij, iij". iiij d . 
New niakinge and carvinge of the vaute of the Churche Kouff of 
the said Colleage cccij ld . x s ." This last entry probably refers not 
as has been supposed to the choir vault of the cathedral, but the 
very magnificent new church Wolsey had commenced, to which a 
subsequent entry, " the vault of the roof of the new Church " refers. 
A curious letter remains from the society of Magdalen College to 
Wolsey (Ellis, 2nd series, vol. ii.), who had asked the use of 
certain quarries belonging to the College for his work at Christ 
Church. "Quorsum enim spectat," runs the reply, "ut tu, 
Princeps maxime, et cujus sapientia jam totuin Christianum 
orbem in stuporem converterit, petas potius quam imperes, ut 
liceat Celsitudini tuse ad opus pientissimum, videl. hoc sacro- 
sanctum Asylum, uti lapidicinis nostris ; qua) haud dubie, si 
omnino aureae essent, quales apud Persas jactitantur montes, 
nunquam tamen vel minimse beneficiorum tuorum parti respon- 
dere valuissent." 

VOL. II. PT. I. 

18 <D*forb 

were discovered in the east wall. The, Early Decorated 
window of five lights, reduced in the seventeenth 
century to three lights, has been removed, and we now 
see two tall richly moulded Norman windows, with an 
intersecting arcade between them. Above is a wheel 
window of ten radiating trefoil-headed lights. The 
whole is filled with excellent stained glass by Messrs. 
CLAYTON AND BELL. On either side of the wheel is a 
short, sturdy Norman shaft, with a richly sculptured 
capital, supporting a very narrow arch. In each side- 
wall of the sacrarium a Norman window formerly 
blocked has been opened. 

The altar of cedar is finely elevated on five steps of 
richly veined marble. A new reredos executed by 
Mr. Brindley, Jun., from Mr. Bod ley's designs, was 
erected in 1880. It represents the Crucifixion, with 
figures of the Blessed Virgin and St. John in the 
centre, with St. Michael and St. Stephen on one side 
and St. Gabriel and St. Augustine on the other. The 
figures are carved in rosso antico. The pavement of 
the sacrarium and choir increases the general effect 
of richness. Incised slabs, representing the Christian 
virtues break the reticulated sacrarium pavement and 
run down the centre of the choir. 

X. For the aisles of the choir, see xm., xvn. 
The transepts, like the nave and choir, are late Norman 
and of the same date. The arrangement of both was 
originally the same ; and both had eastern and western 
aisles. In the south transept, however ( xvi.), the 
west aisle has been removed to make room for the 





cloister walk. The north transept, which we now enter, 
retains both its aisles. The aisle windows have been 
restored to their original design. Each bay of the 
aisle to the east has been broken through to form later 
chapels of larger size. In the transepts the clerestory 
windows are round-headed. 

The transept itself consists of three bays. The 
vaulting of the west aisle is carried from half-capitals, 
as in the nave and choir aisles. Both transepts have 
flat timber roofs ; but it was apparently the intention 
that both should have enriched stone vaults like that 
of the choir. The two northern bays of the clerestory 
in the north transept shew the commencement of the 
work, and have been converted from Norman to late 
Perpendicular, very much in the same manner as the 
clerestory of the choir. The windows, however, are 
unlike those of the choir in being arched, not square- 
headed. Beneath the windows is a horizontal moulding 
enriched with flowers, the soffetes are panelled, and a 
wall-rib indicates the proposed form of the vault. The 
remarkable and not very pleasing stone screens between 
the pillars of the eastern aisle, with circular openings 
formed by the original Norman arch and by the top of 
the screen below, through which the eastern chapels 
were entered, have been removed, and the eye misses 
a unique and curious feature. 

Against the north wall of this transept is the tomb 
of JAMES ZOUCH (died 1503), a monk of the priory, 
whose profession of a scribe is indicated by the pen- 
case and inkhorn on the panels. [Plate V.] He left 

o 2 

20 <D*f0rtr Csifcebral. 

money toward the vaulting of the church ; a proof that 
this alteration had been intended, and probably partly 
completed, before the priory passed into the hands of 
Wolsey. In the western aisle are mural tablets to 
Bishop JAMES, of Calcutta, and Professor ELMSLEY 
(died 1824). The very fine sitting figure of Dean 
CYRIL JACKSON (died 1819), by Chantrey, placed here 
in 1820, has found a much more appropriate place in 
the library. 

The large five-light window with restored Perpen- 
dicular tracery, at the end of this transept, contains 
painted glass by Messrs. CLAYTON AND BELL, given by 
the Marquis of Lothian, in 1875, in memory of his 
brother and predecessor in the title, representing the 
triumph of Michael the Archangel and the celestial 
host over the Evil Angels. The window is undeni- 
ably a very striking one, though the predominance of 
fiery-red is too pronounced. The subject runs across 
the window, neglecting the mullions. 

XL The north choir-aisle, which was entered from 
this transept through one of the screens already men- 
tioned, is Transitional and part of the original church. 
The east window, of three lights with restored tracery, 
contains some very beautiful glass by BURNE JONES, 
representing the story of St. Cecilia in some very 
lovely figures of clear silvery tints. It was erected in 
1873 by Dr. Corfe, the organist of the cathedral. The 
vaulting of the roof should, however, be noticed, and 
compared with that of the nave-aisles. In the latter 
it is pure Early English in its forms, and has pointed 


arches ; in the choir-aisles it is pure Norman, and the 
arches are circular. This is of course another indica- 
tion (see ix.) that the choir was the portion of the 
church which was first completed ; and that the nave- 
aisles were the last. In the north choir-aisle is a 
monument, with a bust, for Dean GOODWIN (died 1620). 

XII. Adjoining the choir-aisle, and entered from 
the central eastern bay of the transept, is the Lady- 
chapel, of Early English architecture, and added towards 
the middle of the thirteenth century. As the city wall 
closely adjoined the east end of the cathedral, it was 
impossible to add the Lady-chapel in that, the most 
usual, direction. The north wall of the choir-aisle 
was therefore broken through, and Early English piers 
and arches constructed in each bay, the Transitional 
vaulting-shafts of the aisle remaining undisturbed. 
The western arch is circular, and was that of the 
eastern transept-aisle. The second bay from the east 
is supposed to have been the place of St. Frideswide's 
shrine. The vaulting shews considerable traces of 
decorative painting. 

The east window of four lights, of restored flam- 
boyant tracery, is filled with stained glass by BURNB 
JONES, in memory of FREDERICK G. VTNEE, who was 
murdered by brigands in Greece, April 21, 1870, 
erected "by his sorrowing contemporaries at Christ 
Church." The figures represented are Samuel, David, 
St. John and Timothy, clad in white robes, as por- 
traying youthful courage and purity. The drawing is 
very beautiful, especially in the figure of David. The 


red nimbi are of doubtful taste. The tracery is 
occupied with foliage of a dull green. 

The monuments which remain in the Lady-chapel 
are, perhaps, more interesting than the architecture 
of the chapel itself. They are arranged under the 
arches on the north side. The first, westward, com- 
monly called that of Sir Henry de Bathe, is more pro- 
bably the tomb of SIR GEORGE NOWERS (de Nodariis) 
(died 1425). [Plate VI.] His very fine effigy affords 
a good example of armour, which is, however, earlier 
in character than 1425. (It may be compared with 
that of the Black Prince at Canterbury.) If the effigy 
be really that of Sir George Nowers, it may have been 
prepared during his lifetime. It is, however, too 
small for the tomb on which it lies. The panels below 
are filled in with shields of arms. The second monu- 
ment, under a very rich early Decorated canopy, is 
said to be that of Prior GUIMOND (died 1141), but can- 
not possibly be of his time. [Plate VII.] Both tomb 
and effigy are of the reign of Edward I. (circ. 1300) ; 
and although the Norman prior under whom the re- 
ligious foundation of St. Frideswide was re-established 
(see Part II.) may have been thus honoured long 
after his death, it is more probable that the monu- 
ment is that of PRIOR SUTTON. The sides of the 
canopy present a front of three pedimented, cinque- 
foiled arches, enriched with a profusion of ball-flower. 
The canopy is groined within from end to end. " The 
prior is represented vested, with the amice about his 
neck with the apparel ; in the alb, the apparels of which 




jajjti, JJIomintenis. 23 

appear at the skirt in front, and round tho close-fitting 
sleeves at tlie wrists ; with the stole, and dalmatic, or 
tunic which it is somewhat difficult to say : these two 
latter are not sculptured, but merely painted on the 
effigy, and are only apparent on a careful examination ; 
over these is worn the chasuble. This vestment is 
very rich, and ornamented with orphreys round the 
borders, over the shoulders, and straight down in front. 
Hanging down from the left arm is the maniple. The 
boots are pointed at the toes, and the feet rest against 
a lion. There is no indication of the pastoral staff ; 
the hands are joined on the breast." M. H. Bloxam. 
The third monument, a rich altar-tomb, its sides 
panelled and furnished with figures, is that of ELIZA- 
BETH, LADY MONTACUTE (died 1353), [Plato VIII.] ; 
who is erroneously said to have built the Latin chapel, 
and who gave to St. Frideswide's the meadow now so 
well known as Christ Church Meadow, for the main- 
tenance of two priests at her chantry in the Lady- 
chapel (see APPENDIX II.). She was the daughter of 
Sir Peter de Montfort, and wife successively of William 
de Montacute and Thomas de Furnival ; by the former 
of whom she had four sons and six daughters. Lady 
Montacute wears a sleeveless robe, red, and flowered 
with yellow and green, fastened in front with a row 
of ornamented buttons. The close-fitting sleeves 
belong to an inner vest, of a different colour and 
pattern. Over the robe is a mantle, fastened in front by 
a large and rich lozenge-shaped morse, raised in high 
relief. " The mantle, of a buff colour, is covered all 

24 *for 

over with rondeaux, or roundels, connected together by 
small bands, whilst in the intermediate spaces are 
fleurs-de-lys. All these are of raised work, and deserve 
minute examination. They are apparently not exe- 
cuted by means of the chisel, but formed in some hard 
paste or composition, laid upon the sculptured stone, 
and impressed with a stamp." M. H. Bloxam. Of 
the small figures at the sides of the tomb, those north 
represent two daughters of Lady Montacute, who were 
successively Abbesses of Barking in Essex. " Sculptured 
effigies of abbesses, especially of this period, are rare ; 
and I know but of one recumbent sepulchral effigy 
of this class, in Polesworth Church, Warwickshire. 
This is a fact which renders these the more interest- 
ing." M. H. B. On the south side is a bishop, no 
doubt Simon of Ely (13371345), a son of Lady 
Montacute. The secular costume of the remaining 
figures, male and female, on both sides, is varied and 
full of interest. At each end of the tomb, east and 
west, is a very beautiful quatrefoiled compartment, 
that at the head containing the Virgin and Child be- 
tween the emblems of the Evangelists St. Matthew and 
St. John [Plate IX.] ; that at the foot a female figure 
in relief, with long flowing hair, probably St. Mary 
Magdalene, between the emblems of St. Mark and 
St. Luke. The shields in the upper angles of the 
panels are those of Montfort, Montacute, and Furnival- 
XIII. The fourth monument on this side is that 
known as the Shrine of St. Frideswide, but which really 
seems to have been, as Professor Willis has suggested, 




Sjjriiw nf St. ^riksfmbe. 25 

the watching chamber which, here as elsewhere, adjoined 
the shrine for the protection of the gold and jewels 
which enriched it e . It consists of four stages ; the 
two lower forming an altar-tomb of stone with a stone 
canopy ; the two upper of wood, enclosing a chamber 
reached by a stair from the Latin chapel. [Frontispiece J] 
It belongs to the end of the fifteenth or beginning of 
the sixteenth century ; and may very possibly, as Dr. 
Ingram suggests, have been erected during the primacy 
and under the patronage of Archbishop Morton (died 
1500), who had been Chancellor of the University, 
and a great benefactor to it. On the altar-tomb are 
the matrices of two brasses, said to have represented 
Didan and Saffrida, the father and mother of St. 
Frideswide; but whether this tomb is of the same 
date as the superstructure is uncertain. The mitred 
head-dress of the lady belongs to the middle of the 
fifteenth century, and is the only portion of costume 
indicated by the outlines of the figures, which alone 
now remain. 

To this chapel on its completion the shrine of St. 
Frideswide was removed and placed in a new and 
more costly receptacle, prepared long before, not far 
from the spot where it formerly stood, Sept. 10, 1289, 
in the presence of the Bishop of Salisbury, the Earl 
of Cornwall, and other distinguished personages, 
Robert of Ewelene being the prior. The saint 

8 This chamber may be compared with the very similar wooden 
erection on the north side of the shrine of the saint at St. Alban's, 
and the fabric known as Bishop Hotham's shrine at Ely. 


herself was regarded as the patroness of Oxford, and 
was popularly called " The Lady," and was occasion- 
ally represented with an ox at her side. An ancient 
tradition, derived from the fiction about her royal 
suitor (see Part II.), asserted that if a king of England 
entered her city he would be unfortunate : in defiance 
of which, Henry III. performed his devotions before 
the shrine in 12 64, and within six weeks was signally 
' unfortunate ' in the battle of Lewes. 

The relics of the saint, although they were, of 
course, removed from their shrine on the visitation 
of Henry the Eighth's commissioners, were neverthe- 
less preserved ; and were again " made accessible to 
the veneration of the faithful" by Cardinal Pole. 
On the accession of Elizabeth they were once more 
interred below the floor on which the shrine had 
originally stood. Peter Martyr, Divinity Professor at 
Christ Church during the reign of Edward VI., had 
brought within the college walls his wife, named 
Catherine Cathie ; who, like the wife of Luther, had 
been a professed nun. She died before Mary's acces- 
sion, and was buried in the cathedral. Cardinal Pole 
directed that her remains, which had been laid near 
the sepulchre of the holy virgin St. Frideswide, should 
be cast out from holy ground ; and they were accord- 
ingly taken from her coffin and flung into a dunghill 
at the back of the deanery. Elizabeth ordered that 
the body should be restored to decent burial. This 
order was obeyed by interring the remains within the 
grave of St. Frideswide herself. " The married nun 

Pmrammt 0f gofrtrf gurion. 27 

and the virgin saint were buried together, and the 
dust of the two still remains under the pavement in- 
inextricably blended f ." The Jesuit Sanders, after ex- 
pressing his indignation at this sacrilege, says, " this 
impious epitaph was added, ' hie jacet religio cum 
superstitione.' " " Although," says Fuller, " the words 
being capable of a favourable sense on his side, he 
need not have been so angry e ." There is a plain 
tref oiled aumbry in the east wall. In the pavement of 
this chapel there is a small monumental brass to 
Edward Courtenay, son of Hugh Courtenay, the son 
of the Earl of Devon, and also one to John Fitzwalter. 
On the pier between the tomb of Sir George Nowers 
and that of the prior is the monument of EOBEKT 
BURTON, author of the well-known "Anatomy of 
Melancholy," who died in 1639. From 1599 he had 
been a student of Christ Church, and held till his 
death the vicarage of St. Thomas, in Oxford. The 
monument displays his bust, which, as seen in profile, 
is certainly marked by the melancholia which is said 
to have destroyed him. At the sides are a sphere and 
a calculation of his nativity. The inscription, written 
by himself, and placed here by his brother William 
Burton, the historian of Leicestershire, runs thus : 

" Faucis notus, paucioribus ignotus 

Hie jacet 

Democritus Junior 

Cui vitam dedit et mortem 


f Fronde, Hist. Eng., vol. vi. p. 468. * Worthies Oxfordshire. 


XIV. The northern, or Latin Chapel (so called 
from the Latin service formerly read in it as the 
daily college prayers), properly St. Catherine's Chapel, 

is Decorated h . The 
western arch was ori- 
ginally that of the 
transept aisle. The 
wall of the Lady- 
chapel has been cut 
through, and some- 
what large masses of 
it worked into the 
piers. The vaulting 
is Decorated, with 
gracefully turned 
arches and bosses 
enriched with foliage, 
among which appears 
that of the water- 
lily, still a native 
of the Cherwell and 
the Isis. [Plate X.] 
The four side windows (north) of three lights, have 

h Professor Willis suggested that the architectural character 
of this chapel indicates too early a date to allow of its having 
been the work of Lady Montacute, and documentary evidence 
satisfactorily proves that Lady Montacute did not erect a new 
building, but founded her chantry in the adjacent chapel of St. 
Mary, or the " Lady Chapel." It is probable that the Courtenay 
family contributed to the erection of this chapel : their device 
appears in one of its windows (see APPENDIX II.). 

One of the Windows in the Latin Chapel. 

JTaim C Impel. 29 

very graceful flowing tracery. Three of them are 
partially filled with excellent stained glass of the 
fourteenth century, which deserves the most careful 
attention. Figures of saints under tabernacles occupy 
each light. This glass was restored to its place by 
Dean Liddell after a long period of banishment. The 
fourth window has stained glass in memory of Arch- 
deacon Clerke. An entirely new east window, with 
very heavy and strangely incongruous Venetian tracery, 
has been inserted as a memorial of Dr. BULL, Canon 
of Christ Church (died 1859). The glass, designed 
by Mr. BURNB JONES, has been executed by Messrs. 
POWELL, and deserves especial notice. The subjects 
are from the legend of St. Frideswide ; who in the first 
light is seen at school ; founding her nunnery with 
the chief of her companions ; and sought in marriage 
by the messengers of the Mercian king : in the last 
subject the king with his forces is approaching to carry 
her on 7 . In the second light she is seen leaving Oxford, 
and descending the river to a place of safety ; the King 
of Mercia is then shewn ravaging the country about 
Oxford : and St. Frideswide appears among the swine. 
In the third light she retreats to Binsey; the king 
finding no trace of her, returns sorrowfully. Her 
companions join her at Binsey; where she becomes 
distinguished by miracles and alms-deeds. In the 
fourth light the king again seeks her ; she flies to 
Oxford ; the battle is shewn between the Mercians and 
the men of Oxford : and the king is struck blind with 
a waving shaft of lightning. The last subject is the 



death of St. Frideswide, whose story will be found 
more at length in Part II. In the tracery above are 
the ship of souls convoyed by angels, and the trees of 
life and of knowledge. The harmonious colouring 
of this glass, the excellent character of the several 
designs, and the beauty of the details, especially of 

the water-plants and 
animals introduced, 
deserve especial no- 
tice and commenda- 

This chapel is fitted 
up with a series of 
side stalls with west- 
ern returns. The 
stalling is unusually 
fine, and affords some 
very good examples. 
It is much later 
than the chapel itself, 
and part of it had 
been apparently pre- 
pared for the choir 
by Wolsey. One of 

Poppy-bead in the Latin Chapel, the poppy-heads TG- 

presents the Cardinal's hat supported by angels. 
The emblems of the Evangelists, and the sacred 
monogram, I.H.S., appear on others. The altar is 
that which stood in the choir until 1872. On the 
south side stands the former throne, now serving 


as the 'Cathedra' of the Eegius Professor of Divi- 
nity, who lectures in this chapel. This last is made 
up of fragments of wood-work of various dates. 

Against the western wall is a monument to Dr. BULL 
(died 1853), below which is a mural brass to Dr. 
MOZLEY, late Eegius Professor of Divinity (died 1878). 
The epitaph dwells on his rare gifts as an apologetic 
theologian. In the pavement are brasses to Dr. 
OGILVIE, Regius Professor of Pastoral Theology (died 
1873) ; Dr. SHIRLEY, Regius Professor of Divinity 
(died 1866); Dr. BAENES (died 1859) ; and Archdeacon 
CLEREE (died 1877). 

XV. Re-crossing the church, we enter the south 
transept. The original arrangements here were pre- 
cisely the same as those of the transept opposite. The 
same rudimentary groining will be noticed in both. 
The western aisle, however, was destroyed, probably 
in order to form the cloisters, before Wolsey's altera- 
tions; and the third, or southern, bay of the entire 
transept was secularized, and long formed a portion of 
the verger's house. This bay has been recovered to 
the church, and forms a groined vestry below and a 
platform above, where are preserved many curious 
architectural relics, including fragments of the shrine 
of St. Frideswide. Here also is a curious piece of 
Norman sculpture, till lately forming a portion of an 
external buttress, which was perhaps the base of the 
Cross of the priory " the Cross of the Lady Frides- 
wide," but certainly never could have formed a portion 
of the altar ' or ' shrine ' of St. Frideswide, as sug- 


gested by Dr. Ingram. The subjects represented are 
the Fall of Man, the Sacrifice of Abraham, the Giving 
of the Law, and a fourth which has not been de- 

The face of this division towards the church is en- 
tirely of modern design ; but every other part is a 
careful restoration of original work. The view of the 
interior from this platform is one of great beauty and 
interest. From no point can the architectural features 
of the church be more comprehensively grasped. In 
the gable of the transept a very beautiful short Deco- 
rated window of five lights, with intersecting mullions, 
has been opened. Below it the Norman wall-passage 
and stumpy columns will be noticed. In the spandrils 
of the arch of the south choir-aisle are two corbels, 
representing an angel and a king, the purpose of which 
is quite uncertain, though it has been conjectured that 
they may have assisted in supporting some kind of 
gallery towards the tower. They are of later date 
(Perpendicular?) than the arch itself. Against the 
west wall is an Ionic monument to Sir EDWARD 
LITTLETON (died 1654), and against the south wall one 
to Viscount BROUNCKER (died 1645), and his lady (see 

XVI. The second bay of the transept-aisle, pro- 
bably the chapel of St. Lucy, formerly serving as a 
vestry, but now thrown into the church, is Norman 
with the exception of its eastern wall, which was 
rebuilt in order to receive a Decorated window of 
very beautiful and unusual character. The tracery 




JB0ttf|j Clxair-aisk 33 

is flamboyant, and commences far below the spring 
of the arch. It is filled with very gorgeous painted 
glass, some of which is ancient, including the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury, whose head has 
been replaced with white glass. 

XVII. The south choir-aisle is entered from this 
transept. It is of the same date and character as the 
aisle opposite. Some indistinct remains of painting 
may be traced against the pillars of the eastern bay. 
This aisle contains some stone coffin-lids. 

The Decorated east window of three lights has been 
restored, and filled with very beautiful stained glass 
as a memorial to EDITH LIDDELL (died 1876). Two o 
the side-windows, restored Norman, contain glass in 
memory of Dr. JELF (died 1871). The third, an un- 
altered Norman opening, contains stained glass (pro- 
bably by Van Linge), representing EGBERT KING, the 
first Bishop of Oxford, fully vested, with the ruins of 
Oseney, of which he had been abbot, in the back- 
ground 1 . The arms are those of King, impaled with 
the abbey of Oseney and the see of Oxford. (Plate XI.) 
The glass was given by Henry King, afterwards Bishop 
of Chichester, and his brother John, both of whom were 
canons of Christ Church in the time of Charles I., and 
were descended from the Bishop's brother William. 
During the Eebellion this window was taken down 
and preserved by a member of the family. 

Near this window, between the aisle and the chapel, 

1 This, it is said, is the only authentic view remaining of this 
great abbey. It represents the condition of its ruins about 1630. 

VOL. II. PT. I. D 


now stands the canopied altar-tomb of Bishop KING 
(died 1557. See Part II.). This monument was ori- 
ginally placed in the choir, and was removed to its 
present situation by the canons Henry and John King ; 
and in fact its unornamented back shews that it was 
intended to stand against a wall. 

In this aisle is a very late Perpendicular piscina, 
with very bold square flowers in the jamb. The 
curious corbels supporting the transverse groining 
ribs should be noticed (see woodcut). 

Capital and Corbels, South Aisle of Choir. 

XVIII. The visitor who desires to ascend the 
tower, the arrangements of which are curious and in- 
teresting, will commence the ascent from the vestry. 
The upper, or belfry-stage, which is Early English, is 




gdfrg aiibr Sfpitt. 


internally octagonal ; the subordinate faces, which 
are much smaller than the cardinal, being formed by 
chamfering off the angular turrets. The * squinches,' 
or small arches above these faces, support the 
spire. [Plate XII.] A wall -passage runs round 
this chamber, piercing the slender piers between the 
window-arches, the corbels supporting which should 
be noticed. The bells 
which formerly hung 
in this chamber were 
those of Oseney Ab- 
bey, where they hung 
in the great western 
tower represented in 
the window above 
Bishop King's monu- 
ment. The fame of 
their melody was 
widely spread before 
their removal to 
Christ Church, and 
their names were thus 
recorded in a rude 
hexameter : 

" Hautclere, Douce, 
Clement, Austyn, Marie, 
Gabriel, et John." 

They are now removed to the new tower erected 
above the hall staircase, from Mr. Bodley's designs. 
A narrow and awkward passage leads upward to 

D 2 

Spire Light. 

36 dteforir Ca%brHl. 

the lower part of the spire, in which the Early 
English spire-lights (see wood- cut, p. 35) deserve 
examination. These have a double plane of tracery ; 
the mullion and quatrefoil in the head being re- 
peated in the inner arch. The outer arches have 
two transoms, which, like the mullions, are square. 
Transoms are rare during the Early English period, 
but occur also in belfry-towers at Bampton and at 
Witney, both in Oxfordshire. 

XIX. The entrance to the chapter-house, on the east 
side of the cloisters, is transition Norman, and appa- 
rently of the same date as the church. [Title-page.'] 
It is an arch of four ' orders ' or divisions, the two 
inner of which are richly ornamented with zigzag 
moulding. The two outer rise from shafts, the 
capitals of which on the south side are plainly 
cushioned ; on the north they are elaborately sculp- 
tured. An ornamented label surrounds the external 
arch. On either side of the doorway is a semi- 
circular-headed window of two lights plain without, 
but within ornamented with the same label as the 
doorway. The vaulting of the cloister roof which 
had been broken off very near this doorway, has been 
restored in wood, at a higher level, so as to clear 
the arch. 

The cliapter-hou&e, which is, as usual in monastic 
buildings, divided from the transept by the Slype, a 
plain barrel-vaulted passage, was rebuilt during the 
very best Early English period, of which it affords 
an excellent example. It may be compared with the 





chapter-house at Lincoln, also Early English, but 
somewhat later in the style k , with the Early English 
chapter-house at Salisbury, both of which, it should 
be remembered, were attached to cathedrals of far 
greater wealth and importance than the priory of 
St. Frideswide, and with the chapter-house at Chester, 
which is nearly of the same date and character. 
[Plate XIII.] The purity of its style, however, and 
the interest of its details entitle this chapter-house 
to a high rank, especially now that it has been re- 
stored to its original condition. The transverse wall 
which divided it has been removed and the ancient 
level restored throughout. The room forms a paral- 
lelogram, divided into four bays, the vaulting of 
which springs from clustered shafts supported on 
brackets. The eastern end is especially beautiful. 
An arcade of five arches fills the entire bay. The 
three central arches are pierced for windows, deeply 
recessed, and are in fact double, the inner arches 
resting on slender clustered shafts with foliaged 
capitals, the outer or window-arches resting on single 
shafts attached to the wall. Of these outer arches 
those north and south are blank. The three central 
ones are pierced, and form a very striking triplet, 
each light of which is crossed by a transom, with a 
later four-centred arch beneath. The foliage and 
ornaments of the clustered shafts and capitals, as 

k It should be remembered that until the reign of Henry VIII. 
Oxford was in the diocese of Lincoln, and that the same company 
of workmen may have been passed from one place to the other. 

Boss in the Chapter-hous 


well as those introduced between the arcade and the 

roof, are most grace- 
ful and deserve all 
possible attention. 
The two eastern 15ays 
on the south side, 
and the eastern bay 
on the north, have 
similar arcades of 
three arches, the cen- 
tre arch of which, 
now blocked up, was 
originally open as a window. The details of these 
arcades are less rich than those of the eastern, but 
should be noticed, as well as the grotesque corbels 
which support the vaulting-shafts, and the bosses 
at the intersection of the vaulting-ribs, which are 
curious and elaborate. One of them represents the 
Virgin, crowned, presenting an apple to the divine 

The chapter-house contains a chest covered with 
rich flamboyant panelling, a finely carved Elizabethan 
table, and some wainscoting of the same period, all 
well deserving of attention. On the roof are some 
remaiDS of ancient painting, St. Peter and St. Paul 
being easily discernible, and the windows contain 
some interesting stained glass. [Plate XIV.] In 
the east wall is the foundation-stone of Wolsey's 
College at Ipswich, bequeathed to the Dean and 
Chapter in 1789 by the Rev. Richard Canning, 

Cloister. 39 

Eector of Harkstead and Freston in Suffolk, who 
found it built into a wall. The inscription (at 
length) runs, "Anno Christi 1528, et Eegni Henrici 
Octavi, Eegis Angliae 20, mensis vero Junii 15, 
positum per Johannem, Episcopum Lidensem." This 
Bishop was John Holt, titular Bishop of Lydda, 
and probably a suffragan of Lincoln. 

XX. The cloister originally formed a square, but 
the west walk and part of the north shared the fate 
of the west front of the church, being removed by 
Wolsey in order to form the staircase leading to the 
hall of his college. The basement of the northern 
part of this walk has been discovered and made good 
during the late restoration. What remained of the 
north walk was converted into a muniment-room. 
But the whole of this side has now been completed 
and restored to its original destination. The fine 
lierne groined roof has been made good throughout. 
On its walls are the monumental tablets ejected from 
the interior. The cloisters and refectory are tra- 
ditionally said to have been built with funds 
bequeathed for the purpose by Lady Montacute, 
but the work is certainly of much later date. The 
vaulting which is peculiar and the windows cannot 
be earlier than the middle of the fifteenth century, 
judging from the character of some of the bosses. 
The panelling of the sides of the windows should 
be compared with that introduced in the clerestory 
of the choir, with which it agrees even to the 
character of the cusps. This cloister quadrangle 


was the scene of Cranmer's degradation ! . In the area 
are the bases of the ancient lavatory. 

XXI. The ancient refectory of the priory rises 
above the south walk of the cloister, but has been 
converted into sets of rooms. On the north side its 
large and handsome Perpendicular windows of three 
lights, remain. On the south side a curious little 
polygonal projection will be noticed once containing 
the reading pulpit. 

From this point the visitor should remark the 
difference of masonry in the wall of the south tran- 
sept. The upper story is of good ashlar work : the 
lower, in which are round-headed window-openings, 
is rudely built of rubble. Some have imagined that 
this lower story belonged to an earlier church, the 
walls of which were raised by the Norman builders. 
But the fact is that this rubble-work was originally 
an inside wall covered by the sloping aisle-roof. The 
windows formed the openings of a triforium space 
above the aisle, as in other Norman cathedrals, such 
as Norwich, Ely, and Peterborough. 

XXII. From the cloister also a good near view is 
obtained of the central tower and spire. The lower 
story of the tower, as high as the belfry-stage, is late 
Norman, of the same date as the nave : the belfry- 
stage itself and the spire which surmounts it are 
Early English. On each side of the lower story the 
line of the ancient high roof may be seen, rising 

1 Hook, Lives of the Archbishops, vol. vii. p. 386. 

Spirt. 41 

nearly to the string below the belfry. On either side 
of the roof-line is a 
round - headed win- 
dow. At each angle 
is a circular turret, 
which is continued 
through the Early 
English belfry-stage, 
but diminished in 
size, and ornamented 
with a slender and 
graceful arcade. Each 
turret terminates 
above the belfry-stage 
in a pinnacle si- 
milarly ornamented. 
These pinnacles are 
modern; but are faith- 
ful, or, more truly, servile imitations of the ancient 
ones; of which not only the original features, but 
those resulting from the wear and tear of six cen- 
turies, have been too exactly copied. An arcade is 
carried round the walls of the belfry-stage, the two 
central arches of which, on each side, are pierced for 

The spire, " an impressive and noble work, though of 
low proportions " (Sir G. G. Scott), if not absolutely 
the most ancient, is one of the earliest in England. It 
is octagonal, with circular ribs at the angles ; and 
of the ' broche ' form (i.e. it rises from the exterior of 

Window in the Tower. 

the tower walls), like most others of that early period. 
Its projecting eaves are supported by a corbel-table of 
pointed arches. In the cardinal faces, near the base, 
is a single range of projecting spire-lights, much re- 
sembling the windows of the belfry-stage. The upper 
I part of the spire, 

above the lights, was 
rebuilt at the same 
time as the pinna- 
cles ; but the beauti- 
ful finial of foliage 
with which it origi- 
nally terminated was 
not reproduced. The 
old spire-point has 
been re-erected in one 
of the canons' gar- 
dens, where it may 
still be seen. (For 
the interior of the 
tower and spire, see 

XXIII. The only 
exterior view of the 
north side and east 
end of the cathedral 
is to be obtained from 

Original top of the Spire. 

the garden of the 

canon's house which adjoins it ; to enter which per- 
mission must, of course, be asked. [Plate I.] The 

dxtmor $iek 43 

best point of view will be found to be the north-east 
corner of the garden, from which the eastern end with 
its gabled chapels, the north transept with its turrets 
and pinnacles, and the central tower and spire, form 
a mass sufficiently varied and picturesque. The tran- 
sept is flanked by square turrets, resembling those at 
the east end, and nearly of the same date. They are 
capped with slender spires, ornamented with shafts 
and having conical terminations. These are tran- 
sitional, and earlier than the terminations of the 
tower turrets, with which they should be compared. 
The transept-turrets have blind arcades, the arches of 
the two lower ranges of which are pointed, the upper 
circular. At the angle of the transept-aisle rises a 
square turret, terminating in a spire having crockets 
at the angles, and in the west face a niche containing 
a statue of St. Frideswide. The upper part of the 
turret, with the figure, is of early Perpendicular 
character. The Latin Chapel here exhibits a very 
fine composition with its dignified gabled buttresses, 
and elegant windows of flowing tracery. This praise 
must be withheld from the unfortunate Venetian 
eastern window, the effect of which is even worse than 
from within. The east end, which is a good example 
of late enriched Norman, consists of a gable, which 
has been lowered, between two square turrets, which 
in all probability terminated originally in slender 
spires, such as still remain at the north transept 
gable. The turrets are enriched with blind arcades, 
the uppermost of which has pointed, the lowest inter- 


secting arches. The eastern elevation, as restored by 
Sir G. Gr. SCOTT, is singularly beautiful. Its chief 
feature is a large Transition Norman wheel-window, 
the spokes being formed of shafts with capitals, the 
blank spaces being relieved by rich paterae. There 
are two tall Norman lights below the wheel and a 
blind arcade above it. 

The square eastern end is perhaps another indi- 
cation of late or transitional work. The earlier 
Norman choirs generally terminated in an apse. 

The alterations commenced in the clerestory of 
the transept ( x.) should here be noticed from the 


(faxticnd from % Report of j$ir dfjeorge $xibjeri Utott, 
JUNE SRD, 1869. 

IT seems certain that the old church of the Nunnery of 
St. Frideswide was burnt at the beginning of the eleventh 
century, and it is said that it was subsequently rebuilt, 
repaired, or enlarged by King Ethelred II. Dr. Ingram 
evinces great anxiety to prove that traces of his work still 
exist, but I need hardly say there is not a shadow of 
foundation for such a supposition. 

The Monastery was granted by the Conqueror to the Abbey 
of Abingdon as a cell, but no new buildings are mentioned, 
though the ruinous condition of the old ones is alluded to. 

After some changes in its constitution, the monastery 
was, in 1111 or 1122, made over to the Canons Regular 
of St. Augustine under Guymond (Chaplain to King 
Henry I.), their first Prior, who ruled the Priory till 1141. 
It is not mentioned that he rebuilt the church, and it is 
more probable that his first attention would be rather 
directed to the monastic buildings, as the transfer from 
secular to regular canons would necessitate wholly new 

It is probable that the doorway to the chapter-house, with 
the wall on either side of the same, is a part of his work. 

The church, being in a style distinctly transitional, rather 
than purely Romanesque or Norman, was probably built by 
his immediate successor. Browne Willis says the two 
succeeding priors finished the church. All we know of 

46 d*f0rb Caijjtbrsl. 

it from documentary evidence is that it was sufficiently 
advanced in 1180 to allow of the translation of the relics of 
St. Frideswide from her sepulchre into the new shrine, at 
which solemnity the Archbishop and many great dignitaries 
were present. 

In 1190 a large part of the city of Oxford was destroyed 
by fire, and the Priory of St. Frideswide did not escape. 
It is clear, however, that the church itself did not materially 
suffer, though in all probability the monastic buildings were 
much injured, and among them I think the chapter-house, 
and the cloister which ran along in front of its entrance, 
must have suffered severely, for the old Norman doorway 
and the adjoining wall are to this day reddened by fire. 

The architecture of the church agrees perfectly with the 
date thus assigned to it. Nor is that architecture merely 
one amongst the many varieties which the ever-changing 
progress of medigeval art produced. It is much more than 
this. It is in some respects the most important of all its 
phases, being the transition between two of the most marked 
styles which architecture has ever assumed. 

Koman architecture, from the reminiscences of which all our 
mediaeval styles have sprung, had overlaid a construction 
essentially arcuated with features borrowed from the trabeated 
buildings of Greece, and it unhappily had been left to periods 
of declining civilization and art to eliminate these incon- 
sistencies and to develop a truly arcuated style. In Western 
Europe it was not till the twelfth century that the style, 
thus generated under unfavourable circumstances, began in 
good earnest to free itself from semi-barbaric details, and to 
take vigorous steps towards asserting its claims to being a 
really refined and artistic form of architecture. It was just 
at this juncture that the building under consideration was 
erected ; and one hardly knows whether to regret or rejoice 
that the prospect at that moment (and only, as it were, for 
a moment) held out of the perfecting of the round-arched 
style into a high and refined form of art was at the very 

$. 47 

same moment threatened with disappointment by the intro- 
duction of another form of arch which was destined to bring 
about the entire transformation of the architecture of Western 

Oxford Cathedral, then, represents the juncture of a douUe 
transformation in architectural art, the earnest strivings of 
a period of revived civilization for a high and refined form 
of art in building, taking the direction of perfecting and 
elevating the existing round-arched style accompanied, 
almost unconsciously, and evidently without an idea of its 
ultimate consequences, by the introduction here and there of 
another form of arch. 

At no previous period of mediaeval architecture had the 
details or the workmanship evinced such rapid advance, nor 
at any subsequent period do we find evidences of more earnest 
determination to perfect the art they had in hand. Every 
detail bears witness to the most careful study ; the profile of 
every moulding shews refined and subtile art. The foliated 
ornament assumes a noble character, evidently evincing a 
study of the ancient Greek, which was effected through 
a Byzantine medium ; and the same, though yet unpurged 
from relics of a barbaric element, may be traced in the figure- 
sculpture ; while the workmanship, even to the tooling of the 
stone, is often so beautiful that our modern masons find it 
impossible to imitate it. 

The church, as at first completed, was of singularly uni- 
form and homogeneous design. It seems to have had a 
nave of eight bays in length, a choir of five bays, and 
transepts of three bays. If so, the proportion of the plan 
seems to have been precisely that which some writers pro- 
nounce to be the best that in which a double equilateral 
triangle of the whole internal length gives by its common 
base the internal length of the transept *. 

a The dimensions given by William of Worcester in his Itinerary 
throw some doubts on these proportions. 


The transepts had western as well as eastern aisles, which 
had not, apparently, been contemplated by the builder of 
the Norman chapter-house, the entrance to which was placed 
in a line with the main wall of the transept, as is the case 
where no western aisle exists. The same is the case at 
Westminster, where the church of the Confessor probably 
had no western transept aisles ; and the result of their sub- 
sequent adoption led to the cloister and the aisle interpene- 
trating one another in a unique manner. At St. Frides- 
wide's it more probably led for a time to the omission (as 
at Wells) of the northern walk of the cloister, and, at a later 
period, to the removal of the difficulty by the destruction of 
the aisle to allow of the completion of the cloister. 

One of the most remarkable features in the design of the 
church is the mode of dealing with the side arcades. The 
small scale of the building would, in the natural course of 
things, render the pillars and arcades low and of stumpy 
proportions. This has been obviated by the ingenious expe- 
dient of dividing the pillars and arches, as it were, into two 
halves in their thickness, the half facing the aisle retaining 
its natural height and proportions, but that facing the central 
space being so raised as to embrace the triforium stage, the 
openings of which appear between the two ranges of arches ; 
the clerestory ranging above. This has been fancied by 
some to be the result of alteration, but it is clearly the ori- 
ginal design. Nor is it without precedent ; for we find the 
same of earlier date, in part of the abbey church at Romsey, 
and also in the choir of Jedburgh ; and the same, of perhaps 
a few years' later date, and on a far more magnificent scale, 
and with pointed arches, existed at Glastonbury. 

The arches are for the most part round, though two of 
those carrying the tower, those of the higher vaulting (so far 
as they can be judged of), and those of some minor features, 
were pointed. Among the latter may be mentioned the 
clerestory windows of the nave which, with the vaults 
of the aisles of the nave, and some other details, seem to 

shew the nave to have been of a slightly later date than 
the choir and transepts. The central tower had a lantern 
story (of two ranges of arcading) open to the church. 

The designs of the ends of the main arms of the cross 
are in great measure lost, excepting the facts that they were 
flanked by turrets, that the east end had a large circular 
window, with other windows below it, and that the south 
transept had a continuation across its end of the clerestory 
stage of arches, etc. 

Only one of the aisle windows now remains, but there are 
two windows of the same range (now walled up) in the 
projecting eastern bay of the choir. These are of excellent, 
though simple, design. One original doorway only exists, 
and that of a very minor class, and is walled up and other- 
wise injured. The two chapels which existed in the eastern 
aisle of each of the transepts appear to have had deep 
recesses for their altars. 

The most prominent among the additions of the thir- 
teenth century is the upper stage of the tower, with 
its spire an impressive and noble work, though of low 

The Norman chapter-house was, in all probability, much 
injured by the fire of 1190. I should imagine that it was 
temporarily repaired, as the present charming structure must 
be of considerably later date, probably towards the middle of 
the thirteenth century. 

Were its proportions not spoiled by its division by a 
modern wall into two parts, it would be one of the most 
elegant rooms of its period and scale. 

During this century a second aisle was added on the north 
side of the choir, including an extension eastward by one 
bay of the north-eastern chapel of the north transept. 

The former of these additions I conceive to have been 
intended as a new position for the shrine of St. Frideswide, 
as we find that in 1289 the shrine was removed to a new 

VOL, II. PT. I. E 


position in a new and more precious shrine, "near to the 
place where the old one stood." 

This must have been long subsequent to the completion of 
the new aisle, but it is expressly stated of the new shrine 
itself that it " had been several years before prepared." 

The prior at the time of this re-translation was Robert 
de Ewelme, who resigned the office two years later, and it 
was in all probability his successor, Alexander de Sutton, 
who chose the arch between this aisle and the addition to 
the north-eastern chapel as his place of sepulture, and whose 
beautiful canopied tomb still occupies that position. 

Many minor alterations were effected during the fourteenth 
century. As, for example : The original east windows were 
removed, and a large Decorated window of five lights substi- 
tuted ; the east windows of the choir aisles were replaced by 
three-light Decorated windows. The east window of the 
second north aisle of the choir was replaced by a four-light 
Decorated window. The great west windows were also 
replaced by a large Decorated window, of which the jambs, 
arch, and mullions still exist, though removed when the 
church was shortened. A Decorated window of five lights 
was also introduced in the upper stage of the south transept 
front, over the roof of the chapter-house (as I have recently 
discovered). The northern chapel at the east of the south 
transept was also rebuilt (as regards its eastern wall) ^in 
the same style, with a very beautiful window of three 

The greatest work, however, of this period was the addi- 
tion of a large chapel to the north of the second north aisle 
of the choir. This was founded by Lady Elizabeth de Mon- 
tacute", whose beautiful effigy occupies the westernmost of 
the two arches of its own date which separate it from the 
aisle which contained St. Frideswide's shrine. 

" See, however, APPENDIX II. 

. 51 

The erection of this chapel obliterated the original north- 
east chapel, which had been enlarged in the previous cen- 
tury, but its history may still be read in the pier, partly of 
the twelfth and partly of the thirteenth century, and the 
arch of the last-named century, which remain towards 
the south-western angle of the present chapel. The chapel 
is of four bays in length, each containing a large three- 
light window with flowing tracery. The eastern window 
was probably of five lights. Like the other chapels, it is 
vaulted. Externally it has a hih gabled roof. 

All the works of this century in the church seem to belong 
to the later division of the style, and to have a certain 
degree of similarity in their detail. 

To the fifteenth century probably belongs the curious 
structure now called the shrine of St. Frideswide, but 
really the watching-chamber to the shrine. It formed, pro- 
bably, the tomb of its donors. A structure somewhat 
similar remains at St. Alban's, and is known as the Watch 

It is not easy to distinguish with certainty between 
what was done late in this century and early in the next ; 
but, between the two, considerable alterations appear to have 
been effected, the general tendency of which was to give to 
certain parts of the church the character of a structure 
of the Perpendicular style. 

These works may be thus enumerated. The re-construction 
of the clerestory of the choir with its vaulting; the com- 
mencement of a somewhat similar alteration of the north 
transept, with the introduction of a large Perpendicular 
window to the same ; the rebuilding of the wall of the north 
aisle of the nave, and the re-modelling, in a great degree, 
of those of the south aisles of nave and choir, and the 
western aisle of the north transept ; and, lastly, the re- 
construction of the cloister, with the removal of the western 
aisle of the south transept. 

E 2 


By these alterations all the side windows of the aisles with 
a single exception, were converted into three-light Perpen- 
dicular windows, as also were such of the end windows 
as had not been already altered. 

It had been customary to attribute the vaulting of the 
choir to Wolsey ; this (apparent) error was, I believe, first 
perceived by the late Dr. Shirley. He pointed out to me 
the evidence he had obtained , at the time of my former 
survey, but I regret that I cannot now recollect it, beyond 
the similarity of the vaulting to that of the Divinity School, 
which was probably executed about 1478 c . 

The bay of re-constructed clerestory and incipient vaulting 

c I have adopted this view, so far as the evidence before me 
has enabled me to form an opinion, though the two entries in the 
Journal of Expenses in building Cardinal College relating to the 
vaulting of the choir may appear to negative it. Mr. Parker, 
in his Oxford Guide, unhesitatingly (and probably on this evi- 
dence) ascribes the vaulting to Cardinal Wolsey, and goes on to 
say that a continuation of the work was commenced in the north 
transept, but was suspended on his fall. 

Now, nothing would appear more natural than that, after the 
choir had been vaulted, the same operation should be continued 
in the transept; and. I quite hold it to have been the case. But 
we gather from Browne Willis that this continuation was not 
commenced by Wolsey, but some thirty years before he took the 
College in hand, by the will of Zouch, a monk of the monastery, 
whose tomb still remains beneath the window of the transept ; 
so that this throws a doubt at once upon the greater work having 
been Wolsey's. 

Had the first entry only existed, which speaks of the " new 
vault of the roof of the quere within the said college," it would 
appear decisive in favour of Wolsey having vaulted the choir of 
St. Frideswide, but the second entry speaks in very similar 
terms of " the vault of the roof of the new church" which leads 
one to suppose that both may refer to the intended church rather 
than to the existing one. It seems on the whole to be an open 
question, which additional evidence may settle either way. 

|. 53 

to the north transept, including probably the great north 
window, was not erected till the beginning of the following 
century, having been paid for by a bequest of one James 
Zouch, a monk of this church, who died in 1503, and was 
buried under the great window. 

Besides the last-named work, it is probable that the flat 
roofs of the nave and transepts are of the sixteenth century, 
as well as the unfortunate shortening of the nave to one- 
half of its original length the only work connected with 
the church with certainty to be attributed to Wolsey, who, 
it would appear, had commenced the erection of an entirely 
new and very magnificent edifice d . 

The cutting off a bay from the south transept was probably 
effected after his time. 

The concealment of the lantern story of the tower may 
belong to this century. 

During the seventeenth century the choir was refitted 
by Dean Duppa, who also with munificent intention pre- 
sented to the church a large quantity of stained glass by 
Van Linge. 

It is much to be deplored that, to suit this glass, which 
was designed in very wide lights, many of the windows 
which received it were so entirely altered that their design 
was quite lost. Such was the case with all the Perpen- 
dicular windows in the aisles, thirteen in number, which 
had each three lights with tracery heads, but were changed 
into two-light windows without tracery. Those to the 
south aisle of the nave had their mullions transferred to the 
inner face of the wall. The Decorated windows of three 
lights which terminated the choir-aisles were similarly 
converted into plain two-light windows ; the beautiful four- 

4 I may mention, however, the fittings of the north chapel, of 
which one stall-end has the Cardinal's hat carved upon it : may 
these have been prepared for his intended new church ? 

54 @xioti flstfctbral. 

light window to the second north aisle of the choir wa* 
similarly treated. The five-light Decorated east window of 
the north chapel was converted into a three-light window. 
The great north transept window was impoverished in its 
tracery, as was probably the case with the great west 
window ; and at the end of this century the same process 
was applied to the great east window, which was reduced 
from five to three lights. 

To this century also belong the rather curious stone 
screens which sever the eastern chapels from the transepts, 
and many monuments, some of which have mutilated the 
old architecture while they add interest to the building. 

The south porch also may belong to this date, and I fancy 

there has been a diminutive porch opposite to it. 


To the architectural and ecclesiastical antiquary, every stage 
in the history of a sacred edifice has its value, and possesses 
an interest of its own, so that the obliteration of the work 
of any one period is like tearing out a leaf in the visible 
history of the structure. Where this historical interest 
ceases it is difficult to judge. One would hardly say that it 
applies to mere mutilations or ill-judged alterations of late 
periods, though some of the works of such times may be 
worthy of respect. 

I have sometimes attempted to lay down a rule that all is 
to be respected which is antecedent to the extinction of our 
national architecture in the sixteenth century ; and this, if 
not taken exclusively, may be in the main right. Yet one 
must admit that some works anterior to that great change 
may be questionable as to their claims for preservation, and 
certainly some works of later date possess such claims. 

It follows that, if we adopt that rule in the main, its 
application must be open to a certain amount of judicious 
eclecticism, while this should rigorously exclude mere indi- 
vidual fancies and preferences. 

I- 55 

The historical sketch which I have above attempted is 
sufficient to show that, while what remains of the original 
fabric of the twelfth century possesses an interest superior to 
any later portions, each addition nevertheless has a share of 
interest belonging to itself, till we arrive at the mere mutila- 
tions of late periods. 

As any attempt to restore the original design, pure and 
simple, would obviously involve the destruction of parts 
which no one would for a moment hear of losing, it seems to 
follow that where such restoration would, in minor cases, 
cause the loss of parts, which, though of dubious merit, still 
belong to the history of the building during the continuance 
of our national styles of architecture, such restorations should 
not be attempted without serious consideration. 


IT is commonly asserted that the so-called Latin (properly 
St. Catherine's) Chapel was erected by the Lady Elizabeth 
Montacute as her own chantry. This, however, is erroneous. 
In the foundation-deed of her chantry she expressly directs 
the masses and other offices to be said " within the chapel of 
the Blessed Mary," i.e., the adjacent chapel to the south. 
The prior and convent, also, in their " first ordinance " with 
regard to the foundation are still more explicit ; " in Capella 
Beatse Marise juxta feretrum Sanctse Frideswidse." The two 
chaplains were also bound to attend the daily mass "de 
Beata Maria " in " the said chapel " (JRegistr. S. Frideswidas). 
The documents relating to the foundation of this chantry do 
not contain a word about the erection of a new chapel, and, 
in fact, the foundress' bequest before long proved inadequate 
to the maintenance of the two chaplains specified. The 
Courtenay family probably contributed to the building of 
St. Catherine's chapel, and their device appears in one of the 
windows, as it does on Edward Courtenay's brass. St. 
Catherine, it may be mentioned, was regarded as the patroness 
of students in theology, and she is specially named in one of 
the " Lives of St. Frideswide " as having appeared, accom- 
panied by St. Cecilia, to the dying saint. 


THE south transept has a special historical interest from the 
graves and monuments contained in it, which recall the 
period when Christ Church was occupied by Charles T. as 
his royal residence, and the city of Oxford his (almost) last 
remaining stronghold. Within the transept lie several dis- 
tinguished royalists : Viscount Brouncker, chamberlain to 
Charles II. when Prince of Wales, died 1645 ; Viscount Gran- 
dison, who died at Oxford of wounds received in the attack 
on Bristol in 1643; Sir John Smith, who, in the battle of 
Edgehill, " redeemed the banner royal," was knighted on the 
field by King Charles, and died of his wounds in 1644, astat. 
28; Sir W. Pennyman, Governor of Oxford, died 1643 ; Sir 
Edward Littleton, Keeper of the Great Seal, who, during the 
" execrable siege of this city," took up arms for " the royal 
majesty," and whose funeral sermon was preached by Henry 
Hammond, then canon, in 1645. 



ftsiorg of % %tt, forty ^ari $fote of % 
prmdpal isljops. 

HpHE history of St. Frideswide, the site of whose priory is 
* now occupied by the college and cathedral of Christ 
Church, has been involved in so much legend and uncer- 
tainty, that it is scarcely possible to ascertain the amount 
of truth which it may really contain. No life exists which 
is nearly contemporary. William of Malmesbury and Prior 
Philip of Oxford have both told the story of the saint ; the 
first in his Gest. Pont. Aug. (p. 315, Eolls Series), the second 
in a narrative which remains in MS. in the Bodleian. Ex- 
tracts from what seems to have been an earlier life of St. 
Frideswide are preserved in Leland's Collectanea, p. 279. 

Early in the eighth century, according to the legend, 
St. Frideswide or Fritheswyth, was born at Oxford, of 
which city and district her father, Didan, was the ruler. 
Her mother's name was Saffrida. With a zeal then by no 
means unusual among noble Saxon ladies, Frideswide, who 
had been educated by a devout nun named Elgiva, early 
devoted herself to a monastic life, and induced twelve of 
her companions to follow her example. Her father, Didan, 
built a convent for her within the walls of Oxford, which 
he dedicated to St. Mary and All Saints. But Algar, King 
of Mercia, the province within which Oxford was situated, 
demanded Frideswide in marriage ; and as his entreaties 

Jbiorg 0f % |)riorg. 59 

were ineffectual, he determined to carry her off by force. 
She fled to " Benton," probably Bensington, where she and 
two nuns, who accompanied her, found refuge among the 
woods, in a "deserted sheltering-place for swine V By one 
account, Algar pursued her, and she returned " by secret 
paths b ," to Oxford, and when all but overtaken, imprecated 
a judgment upon him, and he was forthwith struck blind. 
By another, he threatened destruction to Oxford, assuming 
that she was concealed within it ; and so, at " the north 
gate c ," incurred this supernatural infliction. 

After a time, Frideswide chose for herself and a few of her 
nuns a place of more entire seclusion at Thornbury, now 
Binsey, a quiet spot " thick-set with trees," near Oxford. 
When her life drew to an end, she returned to her convent, 
and died there on the 19th of October, in 735 or 740, or, 
according to Alban Buller, later in the century d . The legend 
abounds in miracles and visions. Imagination has clearly 
been at work in ante-dating by more than a century the 
importance of Oxford e , and in adding a " King Algar " to 
the Mercian line. But that Frideswide did found a nunnery 
on this spot, and died there after a life of monastic piety, 
may be taken as certain. Nor can we doubt that her founda- 
tion, together with the treasure of her sacred remains, was 
the original and ecclesiastical, as Edward the Elder's castle 
was the later and temporal nucleus, of the rising border 
town. After some time f the nuns were succeeded by 
secular canons, who held the church, when, in 1015, some 
followers of two murdered Danish Earls (Sigeferht and 

* MS. Life of St. Frideswide, and Capgrave, Nova Legenda, 
p. clii. 

b Malmesb., Gest. Pontif., p. 315. 

c Lives of the Saints, Oct. 19, Mabillon gives the date 735. 
(Annal. Benedict, ii. 101.) d Ibid. 

6 Oxford first appears in the Saxon Chronicle A.D. 912. 

f Capgrave says that the church was burnt by Danes (Nova 


Morkere), being worsted in the attempt to avenge their 
lords, fled into its tower, and the pursuers, unable to dis- 
lodge them, set fire to the building and burned them with 
it. Ethelred II., by way of making amends for this sacri- 
lege, repaired and enriched the church. This, at any rate, 
is what William of Malmesbury tells us he had read in 
the archives of St. Frideswide B . In another work he gives 
rather fuller details, and speaks of the fugitives as " Danes 
condemned to death h ," as if he were referring to the massacre 
of St. Brice's day in 1002, with which, indeed, the charter 
ascribed to Ethelred, in the beginning of the Registrum 
SanctcB Frideswide, connects the incident ; and although 
this charter is rejected by Kemble and Freeman, it has been 
suggested that Malmesbury, in the former passage, may 
have mistaken the statement of which he had taken notes '. 
In either case it is quite probable enough that Ethelred 
should have become a benefactor to what the Charter makes 
him describe as "rnyne owen mynster in Oxenford;" and 
it was afterwards said that, in consequence of his enlarge- 
ments, " sepulchrum quod ante fuerat in parte meridionali 
medium ex tune esse contigit k ." The canons of St. Frides- 
wide were registered in Doomsday as holding of the King 
lands which they had held in the time of King Edward : 
which seems to dispose of the story that Edward had com- 
pelled them to make way for monks, and that Harold II. 
reinstated them \ The " Eegi strum," followed by Capgrave, 
certainly says that after Ethelred's time and before the 
Conquest, "a certain king" made over St. Frideswide's to 
the Abbot of Abingdon, but that after some years the 
canons regained their own. If such a transfer and restora- 
tion took place, it was more probably after the compilation 

De Gest. Regum. h De Gest. Pontif. 

1 James Parker, in History of Oxford, p. 24 ; he accepts the 
Charter. k MS. Life. 

1 Leonard Hutten, ap. Hearne's Textus Roffensis, p. 302. 

Ipistorjr of % |JriorjT. 61 

of Doomesday than before the Conquest m . All that we can 
be sure of is, that, according to the account of the contem- 
porary William of Malmesbury, " there were in his time 
very few clerics " at St. Frideswide's, " and they lived as 
they pleased," until " that place was given by Eoger, bishop 
of Salisbury, to Guimond, a canon who was excellent as a 
scholar, and not despicable as a monk n . Bishop Roger, of 
whom the same writer tells us that " by asking, or buying, 
or if need were by seizing," he had drawn many churches 
into his grasp , and who is known, from an extant deed, to 
have exchanged a piece of land "near St. Frideswide's 
church " with the Abbot of Abingdon, for some other pro- 
perty p , was likely enough to have acquired rights over 
the minster itself ; and he made a good use of them when, 
most probably at Henry I.'s request q , he gave the church 
to Guimond or Wimond, who was the King's chaplain, 
an Augustinian canon regular, and a man of energy, of 
zeal for learning, and, according to a story traditional at 
St. Frideswide's, of some humour withal r . On taking 
possession, in 1122 s , he proceeded thereupon to establish 
an Augustinian community in place of the secular canons, 
and became first of a line of priors of " St. Frideswide's, 
Oxon." It is by no means improbable that a monastic 
school established by this " excellent scholar," as Malmes- 

m Tanner (but with little probability) thinks it happened 
twice,- before and after the Conquest (Notit. Mon.). 

De Gest. Pontif., p. 316. Historia Novella, 1. 2. 
p Hist. Monast. Abingdon, ii. 76, Rolls Series. 

q The Registrum, representing the wish to claim an actual 
" royal founder," ascribes the grant to Henry I. Doubtless 
he sanctioned it ; but Malmesbury, followed by Wendover 
(Flores Hist. ii. 188), is explicit in ascribing it to Bishop 

r See it in Dugdale, Monast. ii. 135. 

The date 1122 is given in the Registrum, and is more pro- 
bable than the earlier date given by Wendover. 


bury describes him, became one of the first germs of the 
University *. We are told that he held office for nineteen 
years, Robert de Cricklade, or Camitus, succeeded him, 
and was succeeded, some time before 1180, by Philip. 

The confirmation of the privileges of the priory by 
Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspear, the English Pope) was 
addressed to Prior Robert. The various additions to the 
church, and the history of its greatest treasure, the shrine 
and relics of St. Frideswide, have been noticed at length in 
Part I. The site of the priory was at last fixed upon by 
Wolsey as a suitable one for the foundation of his new 
college ; and accordingly, in the year 1522, Prior Burton was 
induced to surrender the establishment into the hands of the 
King, who transferred it to the Cardinal. A bull for its sup- 
pression was obtained from Clement VIII. in April, 1524, 
who issued further bulls, granting permission to Wolsey to 
suppress about forty-two small religious houses, the revenues 
of which were to be applied to the Cardinal's two colleges 
at Ipswich and Oxford. Henry confirmed the foundation 
of the latter college, July 13, 1525, and four days later the 
foundation-stone was laid by John Longland, Bishop of Lin- 
coln, who preached a Latin sermon in St. Frideswide's 
church, from Proverbs ix. 1, " Sapientia aedificavit sibi 
domum." The alterations commenced in the priory church, 
and the destruction of part of its nave, in order to adapt it 
for the purposes of the new establishment, which was dedi- 
cated to the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St. Frideswide, 
and All Saints, and styled " Collegium Thomas Wolsey Car- 
dinalis Eboracensis," have already been described in Part I. 

Wolsey's complete design embraced a society of one 
hundred and eighty-six persons ; a small portion of whom, 
including a dean and eighteen secular canons, were at once 
settled in temporary lodgings. The new buildings rose 

* Anstey, Introd. to Munimenta Academica, vol. i. p. xxxiv., 
Rolls Series. 


slowly. Many hundred workmen, including artists of all 
kinds, were employed on them. The works were stopped, 
however, on Wolsey's attainder in 1529, and the foundation 
fell into the King's hands by surrender (Henry being 
scrupulously observant of forms in his most despotic acts) 
made " in the Chapel," January 15, 1531. On July 8, 1532, 
it was refounded by Henry himself, under the name of 
King Henry VIII.'s College, but dedicated as before, and a 
dean and twelve secular canons were placed in it. Ten 
years later, in 1542, he formed a new diocese of Oxford, out 
of part of the vast diocese of Lincoln, and fixed the seat of 
the bishop at St. Mary's, Oseney ; but, in the spring of 1545, 
he exacted a surrender from the newly-founded chapter, and 
doomed their glorious church to piecemeal ruin. At the 
same time he suppressed his own college by a like process ; 
but as it was impossible to keep the diocese of Oxford 
without a cathedral church, and scandalous to undo all that 
had been done by his authority for the interests of learning 
at St. Frideswide's, he determined to combine a college with 
a cathedral, and accordingly, on November 4, 1546, the 
church of St. Frideswide, which had been for nearly seven 
years the chapel of " Cardinal College," and afterwards for 
about thirteen years the chapel of " King Henry's College," 
became by letters patent the " cathedral church of Christ 
in Oxford ;" the late dean of Oseney becoming dean, with 
eight canons under him. Bishop King, who had from the 
first been " Bishop of Oxford," did not make his home at 
Christ Church, but at Gloucester Hall. 

The first bishop of Oseney and of Oxford was 
[A.D. 1542 1557.] EGBERT KING, descended from an old 
Devonshire family, which professed to trace itself upwards 
to the stock of the kings of Wessex. Robert King had 
been early admitted as a Cistercian monk at Rewley (Royal- 
lieu), near Oxford. He afterwards became abbot, first of 
Thame and then of Oseney; and 1535 was consecrated 
suffragan of Lincoln, under the title of Bishop of Rheon, 


in the province of Athens. In 1542 he became Bishop of 
Oseney, and in 1545 Bishop of Oxford, as already men- 
tioned. Little or nothing is known of his real character, 
which may not necessarily have been unworthy one be- 
cause, as Strype informs us, " he passed through all the 
changes under King Henry, King Edward, and Queen 
Mary ; " or because " when suffragan he preached at St. 
Mary's in Stamford, where he most fiercely inveighed 
against such as used the New Testament," whilst in Queen 
Mary's reign he was "a persecutor of the Protestants." 
He died in 1557, leaving a considerable personal estate to 
his nephew, Philip King ; " which it seems," says Fuller, 
" was quickly consumed, so that John King, Bishop of 
London (son of Philip), used to say he believed there was 
a fate in abbey money no less than abbey land, which 

seldom proved fortunate, or of continuance to the owners V 
For an example of this branch of the " ancient Devonshire 
family," see the introduction and notes to Bishop Henry 
King's " Poems and Psalms," edited by the Kev. J. Hannah. 
London, 1843. 

Not many of the successors of Bishop King in the see of 
Oxford have been men of celebrity. The see remained 
vacant for ten years after his death, when 

[A.D. 1567 Oct. 1568] HUGH CURWEN was translated to it. 
He had been dean of Hereford and Queen Mary's Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, and Chancellor of Ireland * ; but preferring, 

u Church History. 

x Curwen was a " moderate Papist," according to Fuller, who 
explains the fact that " no person, of what quality soever, in all 
Ireland, did suffer martyrdom " in Queen Mary's days, by the 
following singular, and not very credible story : " About the 
third of the reign of Queen Mary, a pursuivant was sent with 
a commission into Ireland to empower some eminent persons to 
proceed with fire and faggot against poor Protestants. It hap- 
pened, by Divine Providence, this pursuivant at Chester lodged 
in the house of a Protestant inn-keeper, who having got some 
inkling of the matter, secretly stole his commission out of his 

UI mtb r8. 65 

according to Godwin, the " tranquillity and repose " of Ox- 
ford, he procured his translation thither. In the following 
year, " very decrepid, broken with old age and many state 
affairs," says Fuller, he died at Swinbroke, near Burford, 
and was interred in the parish church there. 

For twenty years (15681589) the see of Oxford was 
again vacant. Fuller asserts, what was probably the truth, 
that " the cause that church was so long a widow, was the 
want of a competent estate to prefer her y ." Browne 
Willis says of Elizabeth's arbitrary acts of spoliation, 
"she took away the best of the estates, and kept the 
bishoprick vacant forty-one years of her forty-nine years' 
reign" (i. 417). At length 

[A.D. 1589 1592} JOHN UNDERBILL, Kector of Lincoln College, 
one of Queen Elizabeth's chaplains, and himself a native 
of Oxford, was appointed to it, " being persuaded," writes 
Browne Willis, " to accept it in the way of a better. But 
it proved very much out of his way. For ere the first-fruits 
were paid, he died in great discontent and poverty." He 
was buried in the choir of his cathedral. 

A vacancy of eleven years [1592 1604] again occurs, 
[A.D. 1604 1618] JOHN BRIDGES, Prebendary of Winchester 
and Dean of Salisbury, was appointed on the accession of 
James I. A " competent estate," though by no means a 

cloak-bag, and put the knave of clubs in the room thereof. 
Some weeks after, he appeared before the Lords of the Privy 
Council at Dublin (of whom Bishop Curwen a principal), and 
produced a card for his pretended commission. They caused 
him to be committed to prison for such an affront, as done 
on design to deride them. Here he lay for some months, till 
with much ado he got his enlargement. Then over he returned 
to England, and quickly getting his commission renewed, makes 
with all speed for Ireland again. But before his arrival there, 
he was prevented with the news of Queen Mary's death ; and 
so the lives of many, and the liberties of more poor servants of 
God, were preserved." Worthies Westmoreland. 

' Worthies Oxfordshire. 
VOL. II. PT. I. V 

great one, had by this time been found for the support of 
the see ; and the succession of bishops continues henceforth 

[A.D. 1619, translated to Durham 1628.] JOHN HOWSON, stu- 
dent and canon of Christ Church, was consecrated, says 
Fuller, " on his birthday, in his climacterical, he then 
entering upon the sixty-third year of his age." He was a 
writer of considerable reputation ; his four sermons " against 
the Pope's supremacy," "enjoyned on him by King James 
(to clear his causeless aspersion of favouring Popery), 
and never since replied unto by the Eomish party, have 
made him famous to all posterity," according to Fuller. 
He was one of the original members of Chelsea College, 
founded by James I. for the defence of the Church of Eng- 
land, and " to afford divines leisure and other conveniences 
to spend their time wholly in controversy, and maintain 
the Reformation against Papists and Dissenters." A provost 
and seventeen fellows were established in it, besides two 
historians, " who were to transmit the affairs of Church 
and State to posterity*." The design, however, soon proved 
an entire failure ; and the buildings and endowments were 
afterwards appropriated to their present use the support 
and maintenance of superannuated soldiers. Bishop Howson 
died in 1632. 

[A.D. 1628, translated to Norwich in 1632.] RICHARD CORBET, 
Dean of Christ Church. (See NORWICH CATHEDRAL.) 

A.D. 16321641.] JOHN BANCROFT, Master of University 
College, was the nephew of Richard Bancroft, Archbishop 
of Canterbury. He recovered much land, which had been 
alienated, for his college, and did much for his see, the 
revenues of which were still but scanty. He obtained the 
royalty of Shotover for it, and annexed to it in perpetuity 
the vicarage of Cuddesdon, " where he built a fair palace 
and a chapel, expending on both about three thousand five 

Collier, Church History, pt. ii. bk. 8. 

Skinner 10 C0mptoir. 67 

hundred pounds 1 ." " Cujus munificentias " (said the Oxford 
Orator to the King at Woodstock) " debemus, quod incerti 
laris mitra, surrexerit e pulvere in palatium." The palace 
was burnt during the civil war, but was afterwards rebuilt 
by Bishop Fell, and was restored and enlarged by Bishop 
Wilberforce. Bishop Bancroft was buried in the parish 
church of Cuddesdon. 

[A.D. 1 641, translated to Worcester 1663.] ROBERT SKINNER, 
was translated to Oxford from the see of Bristol. Bishop 
Skinner was imprisoned during the civil war, and expelled 
from his see. He remained in obscurity until the Restora- 
tion, when he was elevated to the see of Worcester. He 
died in 1670 at the age of eighty, the last English Bishop 
who had been consecrated before the Great Rebellion 

[A.D. 16631665.] WILLIAM PAUL, Canon of Chichester and 
Dean of Lichfield ; collected materials for the restoration 
of his palace at Cuddesdon, but died before the work was 
begun. He was buried at Baldwin Brightwell, in Oxford- 
shire, where his monument remains. 

[A.D. 1665, translated to Worcester 1671.] WALTER BLAND- 
FORD, Warden of Wadham College, Oxford, was consecrated 
by the Bishops of London, Gloucester, and Exeter, in the 
chapel of New College. 

[A.D. 1671, translated to Durham 1674.] NATHANAEL CREWE, 
Fellow of Lincoln and Dean of Chichester. For a full 
notice of this bishop, who died in 1721, see DURHAM 

[A.D. 1674, translated to London 1675.] HENRY COMPTON, 
Canon of Christ Church, and Master of St. Cross, near 
Winchester, was the youngest son of the second Earl of 
Northampton, killed fighting on the side of the King at 
Hopton Heath in 1643. As Bishop of London, King 
Charles appointed him guardian of his nieces, the Princesses 
Mary and Anne ; the marriage ceremony for both of whom 

Fuller, Worthies Oxfordshire. 

F 2 

68 (Dsforfc Catljtteal. 

was afterwards performed by Bishop Compton. During 
the reign of Charles, Bishop Compton made himself con- 
spicuous by his endeavours to reconcile the Protestant 
Dissenters to the Church of England, and by his opposition 
to Rome, services which were remembered to his dis- 
advantage on the accession of James. A pretext was soon 
found for suspending him from the discharge of his episcopal 
functions, to which he was not restored until September, 
1688. The Bishop, however, at once joined the party of 
the Prince of Orange ; and was the first, after William's 
arrival in London, to sign the declaration which had been 
set on foot at Exeter. He assisted at the coronation of 
William and Mary ; and, until his death in 1713, laboured, 
but without effect, to bring about the reconciliation of 
Dissenters with the Church. Bishop Compton was one of 
the ten Bishops to whom, in conjunction with twenty 
Anglican divines, a revision of the Book of Common 
Prayer was entrusted by William III. in 1689. This, it 
need hardly be said, was never carried into execution". 
[A.D. 16761686.] JOHN FELL, son of Samuel Fell, Dean of 
Christ Church, was perhaps the best and most liberal pre- 
late by whom the see of Oxford has till recent days been 
filled ; and may almost be regarded as the second founder of 
Christ Church. At the age of eleven he was placed on the 
books of the college as student by his father ; and during 
the siege of Oxford by the Parliamentarian troops, he served 
with the Royalists, devoting himself to the cause of King 
Charles with not less zeal than his father, who died, it is 
said, of grief, at his parsonage at Sunningwell, on the same 
day (Feb. 1) in which he heard the news of the King's 
execution. The future bishop remained in seclusion until 
the Restoration, when he was made Prebendary of Chiches- 
ter and Canon of Christ Church, and in November, 1660, 
succeeded as Dean. He immediately commenced the im-> 

b See the proposed alterations in " Procter's History of the 
Book of Common Prayer," Appendix, Sect. I. 


provement and decoration of his college, towards which he 
contributed very considerable sums. His father, about 
1640, had built the staircase leading to the hall, with its 
very rich fan-tracery ; and had commenced the north side 
of the great quadrangle. This was now completed, as was 
the western gateway, the octagonal tower surmounting 
which was designed by Sir Christopher Wren. In 1680 
the famous bell, Great Tom (still, 1880, the largest in 
England, owing to the failure of the great bell at West- 
minster), which had been brought from Oseney and hung 
in the tower of the cathedral, was recast, and placed in this 
octagon. Parts of the chaplains' quadrangle, and the 
range of rooms looking towards the Long Walk, and known 
as " Fell's buildings," were also the work of the Bishop. 
Many of the best advowsons belonging to the college were 
bought by him ; and by his will he established ten exhibi- 
tions for undergraduate commoners. In order that he 
might superintend the works in the college, he was per- 
mitted to retain his deanery in commendam after his 
elevation to the bishopric, in 1676. He rebuilt the palace 
at Cuddesdon, for which the materials had been collected 
by Bishop Paul. On his death in 1686, he was interred 
in Christ Church Cathedral (which he had restored to order, 
after the troubles of the Rebellion), where his monument 
bears the following inscription, by Dean Aldrich : " Desi- 
deratissimi Patris pietatem non hoc saxum, sed hsec testen- 
tur mcenia; munificentiam,hujus locicedificia ; liberalitatem, 
alumni; quid in moribus potuit reformandis, hsec cedes; 
quid in publicis curis sustentandis, Academia ; quid in 
propaganda religione, Ecclesia; quam feliciter juventutem 
erudierit, Procerum families ; quam prseclare de republica 
meruit, tota Anglia ; quantum de bonis literis, universus 
orbis literatus" This praise was far from being unmerited, 
according to Antony Wood, who declares that Bishop Fell 
was " the most zealous man of his time for the Church of 
England ; a great encourager and promoter of learning in - 


the University, and of all public works belonging there- 
unto ; of great resolution and exemplary charity, of strict 
integrity, a learned divine, and excellently skilled in the 
Latin and Greek languages." He was a great patron of 
Wood, whose " History and Antiquities of Oxford " was 
translated into Latin at the charge of Bishop Fell, and 
partly by the Bishop himself. His own most important 
work is the " Life of Hammond," first printed in 1660. 

[A.D. 1686 1687.] SAMUEL PARKER, a * chamaelion ' Church- 
man, who is only distinguished for his share in James II.'s 
attack on the liberties of Magdalen College. He was 
educated " among the Puritans at Northampton," and 
afterwards at Wadham and Trinity Colleges, Oxford, in the 
latter of which he became alive, after the Restoration, to the 
superior advantages of conformity. In 1663 he took Orders, 
and was afterwards much patronised by Sheldon, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. As a courtier, his servility procured 
him the favour of James II., who in 1686 made him 
Bishop of Oxford, and by a royal mandamus constituted 
him President of Magdalen. (The well-known story of 
this intrusion, which need not be detailed here, will be 
found in Macaulay's " History of England," vol. ii., and in 
Bloxam's " History of Magdalen College.") Bishop Parker 
subsequently declared himself prepared to embrace Roman- 
ism, and wrote in defence of transubstantiation. He never 
openly abandoned the English Church, however, and died 
at Magdalen College, March 20, 1687. He was buried in 
the chapel. 

[A.D. 1688 1690.] TIMOTHY HALL, an obscure person, 
originally a Nonconformist, raised to the episcopate through 
the influence of James II., in October, 1688, whilst the 
Revolution was imminent. He died " miserably poor," in 
April of the following year. 

[A.D. 1690, translated to Lichfield 1699.] JOHN HOUGH, the 
President of Magdalen, chosen by the Fellows of his Col- 
lege in opposition to the wishes of the King, who had 


nominated to the presidency, first Antony Farmer, and 
then Bishop Parker. Hough was in consequence expelled, 
together with twenty-five of the Fellows. From Lichfield 
he was translated to Worcester in 1717. He died in 1743. 

[A.D. 1699, translated to Salisbury in 1715.] WILLIAM TALBOT, 
Dean of Worcester. In 1721 he was translated to Dur- 
ham, and died 1730. 

[A.D. 1715, translated to Canterbury, 1737.] JOHN POTTER. 
He died 1747. (See CANTERBURY.) 

[A.D. 1737, translated to Canterbury 1758.] THOMAS SECKER ; 
was translated to Oxford from Bristol. He died 1768. 

[A.D. 1758, translated to Salisbury 1766.] JOHN HUME, like 
his predecessor, had been consecrated to the see of Bristol. 
He died 1782. 

[A.D. 1766, translated to London 1777.] ROBERT LOWTH, 
translated to Oxford from St. David's, to which he had been 
consecrated in the same year, 1766. 

[A.D. 1777, translated to Hereford 1788.] JOHN BUTLER, 
died 1802. 

[A.D. 17881799.] EDWARD SMALLWELL, translated from 
St. David's. 

[A.D. 1799, translated to Bangor 1807, and thence to London 
1809.] JOHN RANDOLPH, died 1813. 

[A.D. 18071811.] CHARLES Moss. 

[A.D. 18121815.] WILLIAM JACKSON. 

[A.D. 18161827.] EDWARD LEGGE. 

[A.D. 1827 1829.] CHARLES LLOYD. 

[A.D. 1829, translated to Bath and Wells 1845 ; died 1854.] 

[A.D. 1845 1870.] SAMUEL WILBERFORCE, translated to Win- 
chester 1870 ; died 1873. 





History, I.-1 1 77-78 

Gate-house, III 79 

West Front, IV. -VI 79-84 

Western Porch, V 83-84 

Western Transept, VII 85-87 

Nave, VIII 87-91 

Ceiling, IX 92-93 

Nave Aisles, X 93-94 

Scarlett's Picture, XI 94 

Central Tower, XII 94-96 

Transepts, XTII.-XIV 96-100 

Treatment by Cromwell's Troops, XV 100-101 

Choir, XVI 101-105 

South Choir-aisle, XVII 105-107 

New Building, XVIII 107-109 

Monuments, XIX.-XX 110-114 

North Choir-aisle, XXI 114-115 

Exterior, XXIL-XXIII 115-118 

Cloister, Refectory, Infirmary, XX IV 118-120 

Abbot's Gate-house, Bishop's Palace, Deanery, 

Toot Hill, XXV 120-123 



A Portico, or West Front. 

B Western Transept. 

C Nave. 

D Principal Transept, 

E Choir. 

F betrochoir, or "New Build- 

G Music-School. 

* * 


* * 

* c * 

* * 


* + 


1, 2. Closed Doors formerly opertiny into the Lady-chapel. 
. Monument of Abbot Andrew. 
4, 5, 6. Effigies of Abbots. 

7. Monument, Kaid to be that of Abbot Hedd<i and his Monk!. 

8. Monument of Thomas Deacon. 

9. Effigy of an Abbot. 

10. Stone marking the original tomb oj Mary Queen of Scoto. 

11. Tomb of Queen Catherine. 

12. Early English Capitals of wood removed from the Choir. 


2cale. iQO ft. to I in. 



I. THE Cathedral of Peterborough was the conventual 
church of one of the most important Benedictine abbeys 
in England, founded towards the middle of the seventh 
century by Peada, the first Christian King of Mercia. 
On the dissolution the church was spared, owing, it is 
said, to its containing the remains of Queen Catherine 
of Arragon. It became the cathedral of the new dio- 
cese, which embraced the counties of Northampton and 
Rutland. (See Part II. for a full history of these 
changes.) John Chambers, the last abbot, was created 
the first Bishop of Peterborough. 

II. The dates and architectural character of the 
principal portions of the cathedral are as follows : 
Choir and eastern aisles of transept (1118 1133, Ab- 
abbots John of Seez and Martin of Bee), early Norman. 
Transept, and probably a small portion of the nave 

* It is proper to acknowledge the great use which has been 
made in the following account of Mr. Paley's " Remarks on the 
Architecture of Peterborough Cathedral." London, George 
Bell, 1869. 

78 |jeierb0r,ottjglj 

(11551177, Abbot William of Waterville), middle 


Nam (1177 1193, Abbot Benedict), late Norman. 
Western transept (also, in all probability, part of Abbot 

Benedict's work), transition Norman. 
West front and remains of the Lady-chapel, Early 

Eastern aisle, or New building (begun 1488, completed 

14961528, Abbots Ashton and Kirton), Perpen- 

From the apse of the choir to the west front, there- 
fore, the cathedral affords an excellent example of the 
gradual changes in style from early Norman to fully 
developed Early English ; whilst the Perpendicular 
work of the " New building " is of scarcely less value. 
Peterborough takes the highest place among English 
cathedrals of the second class, if it may not justly 
claim a place among those of the first class. It 
certainly possesses one unique feature, the grand 
triple-arched portico of its west front. The entire 
church is built of Barnack stone, a close-grained 
and most durable freestone from the quarries near 
Stamford, known as the " hills and holes of Barnack," 
which had been worked from a very early period, and 
to which Northamptonshire is indebted for the ma- 
terials of the many fine churches which distinguished 
the county b . 

b These quarries became exhausted before the fifteenth cen- 
tury; for in Barnack Church itself, the alterations of that 
period are in a different stone, and not in the old Barnack 
stone of which the rest of the church is built. 

afc-&<rosr. 79 

III. Before entering the Close, the visitor should 
place himself in front of the singularly picturesque 
market-house, and remark the view of the west front 
and the western gateway of the abbey precincts, rising 
just as they did six hundred years ago above the old 
' burgh ' or town, which gradually sprang up under the 
protection of the Benedictines. The buildings group 
well, although it is to be regretted that no good un- 
impeded view of the cathedral is to be obtained at 
this distance. 

The western gate-house was originally the work of 
ABBOT BENEDICT (1177 1193), under whom the nave 
of the cathedral was erected. The Norman vault of the 
gateway is groined with cross-ribs carrying a roll- 
moulding similar to the vaulting of the aisles ; and a 
Norman arcade remains on either side, one of the 
arches of which, north and south, is larger than the 
rest, and is pierced for a door. The west front has 
been faced with Decorated work. A fine pointed 
arch framing the Norman arch behind, and a Per- 
pendicular story above the gate has taken the place of 
Benedict's chapel of St. Nicholas. The window above 
the arch on the east side was part of a shrine, the 
rest of which remains in the cathedral . 

IV. It was at this gateway of "Peterborough the 
Proud," as the abbey was popularly called, that all 
visitors, of whatever rank, put off their shoes before 

e A plate in Bridges' " Northamptonshire " shews the east 
front of this gate with an additional story, both being arcaded, 
and with octagonal corner turrets. 


entering the holy precincts; a pilgrimage to which, 
in certain cases, was regarded as equivalent to a 
visit to Rome. As he passes beneath the arch, a most 
striking view of the west front of the cathedral breaks 
upon the visitor. On the left is the chancel of Becket's 
chapel, founded by Abbot Benedict, and now forming 
a part of the Grammar-school. On the right hand is 
the ancient gateway of the abbot's, lodgings, now that 
of the episcopal palace ( xxv.), and in front, across 
an open space of greensward, rise the three great 
arches of the west front, or, strictly speaking, the 
gigantic west porch, for the two piers are entirely 
detached, and stand several feet in advance of the 
actual wall of the west front. 

This porch, which is of the purest Early English 
architecture, dates, in all probability, between the 
years 1200 and 1222, during which period Acharius 
and Robert of Lindsey were abbots. It is remarkable 
that neither of the local chroniclers has recorded the 
building of it, nor that of the western transept behind 
it. The work, however, "seems about coeval with 
the chapter-house at Lincoln, and the west porch at 
Ely, both of which were built shortly after 1200, and 
have very florid and elaborate details." ..." The 
fineness of the masonry, and the close jointing of the 
deeply-moulded arch-stones, are unsurpassed by any- 
thing of this period in the kingdom 3 ." 

The front [Plate I.] consists of three enormous 

d F. A. Paley, " Kemarks on the Architecture of Peterborough 
Cathedral," p. 33. 







tfftesi <frat. 81 

arches, eighty-one feet in height, that in the centre 
being narrower than the other two. The arches are 
supported by triangular piers, entirely and boldly 
detached from the west wall. They are faced with 
banded shafts; and beyond them, north and south, 
rises a square turret, capped with a spire and pin- 
nacles. The arches themselves support gables, much 
enriched with arcades and niches, and having in 
each a circular or 'rose* window. [Plate II.] A 
turret, terminating in a small spire, rises between 
the gables. The work of arches, gables, and turrets 
is entirely Early English; but the spires and pin- 
nacles which terminate the flanking turrets are late 
Decorated additions. Those of the north turret are 
much the plainer. The height of the southern spire, 
which is the loftier, is 156 feet ; the width of the west 
front being exactly the same. 

All the details of this front deserve the most careful 
examination. The capitals and leaf-ornaments of the 
shafts which line the piers, as well as the mouldings 
of the arches themselves, are of pure Early English 
character, and very graceful. The manner in which 
a clustered shaft ascends in front of the piers and 
between the arches, and terminates below the square 
basement supporting the turrets between the gables, 
should especially be noticed. These turrets are 
octangular, and in two stages ; the upper of which is 
pierced by narrow lights, bordered by a chevron 
moulding. The spires which cap them rise slightly 
above the gables. The gables themselves are of 

VOL. II. PT. I. G 


equal height and width. The very ingenious manner 
in which they are made to correspond, in spite of the 
inequality of the three great arches below them, will 
be seen at once by a comparison of their bases. On 
each gable is an open cross, that in the centre being 
the richest. In a niche in the central gable is a 
mitred figure of St. Peter with the keys. In the cor- 
responding niches north and south are those of St. Paul 
and St. Andrew ; the church having been dedicated to 
these three saints by the bishops of Lincoln and Exeter 
(Grostete and Brewere) in 1237, when the west front 
must have been recently completed e . In the niches 
on either side of the circular windows are six small 
figures, said to be those of the six kings of England 
from the Conquest to the time of the erection of the 
front. Below, and placed in a most graceful arcade 
at the base of each gable, are nine figures of apostles, 
each of which has a circular nimbus. Figures of 
saints and ecclesiastics, which can no longer be iden- 
tified, are placed in the spandrils of the great arches. 
The flanking turrets are enriched with blank arcades, 
of varying size and details. The spire and pinnacles 
which crown the south turret are Decorated (circ. 1360), 

e This consecration took place most probably in obedience to 
a decree of the Council of London (convened in the same year, 
1237, by the Cardinal Otho, Legate of Pope Gregory IX.), which 
ordered that all churches and cathedrals, " not having been con- 
secrated with holy oil, though built of old," should be solemnly 
dedicated within two years. This consecration in obedience to 
a general order, is of course no evidence as to the date of the 
completion of the building ; a remark which applies to many 
other churches consecrated at this period. 

$0rc|j of lilest Jtcmt. 83 

and of extreme beauty. Those of the north turret are 
of less elaborate and much inferior design. 

V. Between the central piers of the front, -rising to 
about half their height and slightly projecting beyond 
them, is a parvise, or porch with an upper chamber, of 
late Decorated character, and apparently added about 
1370. The porch is much enriched, and is in itself 
a fine composition. It decidedly interferes with the 
symmetry of the front ; but its insertion seems to have 
been rather a question of necessity than of taste. It 
was probably erected " as an abutment against the west 
front, which, by a bulging outwards of the pillars or 
a settlement of the foundations, was falling forward 
toward the west. It was, in fact, overweighted by 
the stone spires and pinnacles of the flanking towers, 
which those structures, having no proper buttresses, 
were ill adapted to bear. . . . The construction of 
this elegant little edifice is extremely scientific, espe- 
cially in the manner in which the thrust is distributed 
through the medium of the side turrets, so as to fall 
upon the buttresses in front. These turrets, being 
erected against one side of the triangular columns, 
on the right and the left hand, support them in two 
directions at once, viz. from collapsing towards each 
other, and from falling forward. . . . The latter 
pressure is thrown wholly upon the buttresses in 
front, which project seven feet beyond the base of the 
great pillars V 

The bosses on the vault of the porch should be 
f F. A. Paley. 

G 2 


noticed. On one of them is an unusual representation 
of the Trinity the Father exhibiting the wounded hand 
of the Son, with the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove. 
The room above now serves as the Chapter library. 
The collection, which was mainly formed by Bishop 
Kennet and his registrar the Rev. Joseph Sparke, con- 
tains some valuable examples of early printed books. 

VI. The west wall of the church, within the great 
arches, is enriched with arcades. In the opening of 
each arch is a doorway with a window above it, the 
latter being very late Decorated or Early Perpen- 
dicular insertions. The doorways are unusually 
fine. That in the centre is divided into two arches 
by a shaft, the base displaying a Benedictine tortured 
by demons a perpetual " sermon in stone " for the 
monks. The wooden doors themselves are original, 
as is shown by the dog's-tooth moulding on the in- 
terior framework, and the Early English capital in the 
centre. [Plate III.] An Early English vaulted roof 
connects the faade with the west wall of the church. 

"As a portico," says Mr. Fergusson, "using the 
term in its classical sense, the west front of Peter- 
borough is the grandest and finest in Europe ; though 
wanting in the accompaniments which would enable it 
to rival some of the great fa9ades of Continental cathe- 
drals g ." There is no similar arrangement on an im- 
portant scale in England, although on the Continent 
it is not uncommon, as at Amiens and Chartres h . No- 

* Handbook of Architecture, p. 869. 

h The large and lofty arches in the (Norman) west front of 







where is the triple entrance to the sanctuary typical, 
it is usually considered, of the Holy Trinity grander, 
or more emphatically marked. The effects of light 
and shade produced by the great piers and arches of 
this " majestick front of columel-work," as Fuller calls 
it, are wonderful. The upper portion of the space 
within them is generally in deep shadow, even at sunset, 
when the rest of the front is glowing with rosy light : 
this moment should be watched for by the visitor, 
and the effect of a full moon is still more impressive. 
One arch of the front, which had fallen from the havoc 
of the Parliamentary soldiers in 1643, was rebuilt 
by Bishop Laney, and the entire front was repaired 
and restored before 1830, by Dr. Monk, then Dean of 
Peterborough, afterwards Bishop of Gloucester. 

VII. On entering the cathedral we find ourselves in 
the west transept, extending across the nave, and pro- 
jecting one bay beyond the aisle on either side. This 
transept was an addition to the Norman nave during 
the period of the great transition of styles, and, like 
the nave itself, was probably the work of Abbot 
BENEDICT (11771193; see VIIL). The naves of 

Lincoln may possibly have given the original idea to the archi- 
tect of Peterborough. " I confess that to my eye it has always 
appeared as a glorious conception, though one not often to be 
repeated. Had its flanking towers been completed in the same 
style, the two great towers which backed it up completed with 
their spires, and the odd little chapel which has been thrust 
into its central arch been omitted, I know few points to which it 
would yield in grandeur, and none in originality," Sir G. G. 
Scott, Lectures on Medixval Architecture, vol. i. p. 191. 


the neighbouring cathedrals of Ely and Lincoln ter- 
minate in a similar manner; but the west transept 
of Ely is probably earlier (11741189), and that of 
Lincoln later (12091220) than the west transept 
of Peterborough. The vaulting and arch-mouldings 
are of transition Norman character, and much en- 
riched. Two lofty well proportioned arches on either 
side support towers, of which, except one stage of the 
north tower, no portion above the roofs has been com- 
pleted. The tall transomed windows of three lights 
at the north and south ends of this transept, beyond 
the towers, deserve careful examination. The eastern 
jambs will be found to be Norman, the western Early 
English. The tracery is Decorated, with hanging 
trefoil cusps below the transoms. In the eastern and 
western walls are lancets, filled with Perpendicular 
tracery. The Norman clerestory windows above are 
filled with Perpendicular tracery. The intersecting 
Norman arcade of the nave aisles was continued round 
the east walls and north and south ends of this transept, 
but has been most unhappily chiselled away. The 
bases remain on both sides, and the shadowy form of 
the arcade may still be traced on the walls. The 
western wall is proved to have been a somewhat later 
addition by the Early English arcade, pierced for three 
doorways, which runs along it 1 . Above each door- 
way is a window with Perpendicular tracery. A 
wall-passage runs through their jambs. 

1 This question is fully discussed in Mr. Paley's pamphlet, 
p. 29. 





The bells, which hang in the north-west tower, are 
rung from the floor. The restored Early English 
font is placed under the great south window. In the 
south wall is a lovely little Decorated piscina. The 
view up the nave-aisles, with their long perspective of 
circular vaulting-ribs, is very striking. 

VIII. The nave [Plate IV.J is throughout Norman, 
the work of Abbots WATEEVILLE and BENEDICT (1155 
1193), and a continuation of the choir, which was 
completed in 1133. Peterborough is one of three Nor- 
man cathedrals, the other two being Ely and Norwich, 
which are separated by no great distances, and may 
be advantageously compared. Of these the earliest is 
Norwich (1091 1119), the original design of which 
has been least interfered with, and which still affords 
the most perfect example of an early Norman church 
remaining in England. The nave of Ely, completed in 
1174, is nearly contemporary with that of Peterborough, 
which it greatly resembles. Peterborough, however, re- 
tains its Norman choir and apse ; and its ground-plan is 
only second in interest to that of Norwich. The dimen- 
sions of the actual nave exceed those of either Ely or 
Norwich : 

Peterborough, Ely, Norwich, 

f (from west, transept to (from western 

Length of nave< western piers of ceil- transept to (to the choir screen. 

( tral tower.) octagon.) 

211 ft. 203. 200. 

Width of nave ) ,. 28 

(without aisles). $ J " 34> 

Height. 81 ft. 72-9. 72. 

The choir of Norwich, however, as was the case at 
Peterborough before the alterations of 1830, is ex- 

tended into the nave, which measures 250 ft. to the 
central tower ; and at Ely the grandeur of the later 
additions, the great west tower and the octagon, pro- 
duces an effect to which Peterborough offers no parallel. 
At Peterborough, however, the design has been less 
subjected to alteration than in the other two, and it 
may be pronounced to exhibit the finest Norman 
interior in England. The view eastward at Peter- 
borough is intercepted by the organ, which is placed 
over the choir- screen : the windows of the Norman 
apse, however, are seen beyond it; and the wooden 
ceiling of the nave, which is probably the original 
one, gives an especial interest to the interior of this 

The nave, which consists of ten bays, has massive 
cylindrical piers, with smaller shafts set against them, 
and well moulded circular arches k . The triforium, 
which closely resembles that of Ely, has a wide semi- 
circular arch, with zigzag moulding, embracing two 
smaller ones, divided by a single shaft. The clerestory 
above has three semicircular arches (of which that in 
the centre, higher than the rest, springs from slender 
shafts, set on the capitals of those below), circumscribed 
by a pointed hood-moulding. The nave, "from the 
tower to the west front," is expressly said by the 

k The third pier, counting from the east, however, and that 
in the second bay from the west end, have nook-shafts set 
in angular recesses against the body of the masonry. The 
original plan may have been that they should have ranged 
alternately with the cylindrical, as at Ely. This may have 
been changed by Benedict. 


chroniclers of Peterborough to have been the work of 
Abbot BENEDICT (11771193). It has been suggested, 
however, that his predecessor, Abbot WATERVILLE, who 
built the central tower, must necessarily, in order to its 
safety, have completed some portion of the nave. Mr. 
Paley has accordingly pointed out some differences 
which may mark the point of junction between his 
work and Benedict's. In the third bay from the 
west, the central column of the triforium arch, "as 
well as that of the clerestory above it, has its capitals 
enriched with Early English foliage in place of the 
plain cushion-capital which is elsewhere seen 1 . This 

seems to mark that the Norman work of 

Benedict is assimilated, or imitative, i.e. built in con- 
formity with the rest in a style then becoming obso- 
lete m ." Beginning with the fifth pier from the west 
on the north side, the mouldings of the bases of the 
piers onwards to the west end are Early English, 
the rest being plain Norman. On the south side 
this change is made on the west side of the second 
pier from the west end. In the two easternmost 
bays, on each side, the tympana of the triforium are 
hatched, like those of the transepts, whilst all the 
rest are plain. The courses of stone in the first 
four piers on each side vary from twenty to twenty- 
four; those westward, from twenty-five to twenty- 
seven courses (counted from base to capital exclu- 

1 This change is also to be seen in the jamb shafts of the 
triforium in the eighth and ninth bays from the west. 
m Paley, p. 19. 


sively). The hood-mould of the two eastern arches 
is deeper than the rest ; the capitals of the shafts 
plainer and heavier. The distinction in this direction 
appears to be sufficiently marked. A more evident 
change at the west end, first pointed out by Mr. Paley, 
is thought by him to indicate the termination of 
Abbot Benedict's work in that direction. " The third 
pillar from the west end on each side is considerably 
larger and wider than any others" being really a 
piece of walling rather than a pier " and it also pro- 
jects further into the aisles. The arch also, springing 
from its westward, is of a much greater span. The 
opposite vaulting-shafts, in the aisle-walls, are brought 
forward beyond the line of the rest, to meet the 
pillars in question, so that the arch across the aisles 
is in this part Very much contracted, and instead of 
being a mere groin-rib, like the rest, is a strong 
moulded arch, of considerable depth in the soffete. 
What appears at first sight still more strange, the 
wall of the aisle opposite to the wider nave-arch just 
mentioned is brought forward at least a foot in- 
ternally, but again retires to the old level at the 
last bay; so that in this particular part the whole 
thickness of the aisle- wall is considerably greater n ." 
These peculiarities shew that at this point two Norman 
towers were originally planned. "The wider nave- 
arch, with its massive and complex pillars, was the 
entrance into the tower from each side of the nave. 
The thicker aisle-wall opposite to it was, in fact, the 

n Paley, p. 12. 


tower wall" In the south triforium gallery, also, there 
is the springing of a transverse arch at this point, evi- 
dently the eastern arch of a south-west tower, intended 
to have been erected there. There is, however, no 
satisfactory reason for believing these towers to mark 
the western termination of Abbot Benedict's work. 
The Chroniclers, Robert Swaffham and Abbot John, 
(the former of whom was for some years contemporary 
with Benedict himself), assert expressly that the nave 
("a turre usque ad frontem") was constructed by 
Benedict. The present Early English portico was in 
existence when they wrote, so that their ' front ' can 
be no other than the western wall of the west transept. 
Benedict's original design seems in fact to have been 
changed during the progress of the work. The towers 
were abandoned, and two more bays were added to 
the nave, besides the western transept. This was 
also an afterthought, and is entirely of transitional 
character, distinct from that of the nave, with the 
exception of the one capital and of the bases before 
mentioned, which agree in style with this transept, 
and the two additional west bays, which approach to 
it. The capitals of the triforium-shafts and of the 
main piers in these two bays are worthy of special 

The bases of the piers shew that the south side of 
the nave was built before the north side, to complete 
the cloister area . 

The Rev. G. A. Poole, in a most valuable paper " On the 
Abbey Church of Peterborough "read before the Architectural 


IX. A single shaft rises from the floor to the roof 
between the bays of the nave. These shafts formerly 
supported the rafters of the painted ceiling. When 
the tower-arches were changed from round to pointed, 
this remarkable ceiling, which is clearly of the 
twelfth century, was raised from a flat form to its 
present shape, flat with sloped sides [Plate Y.] 
It is painted in lozenge-shaped divisions, of .which 
the central and alternate lines on each side contain 
figures, most of which are seated and represent royal 
and ecclesiastical personages intermixed with very 
curious grotesques. These are in colours. The 
bordering and smaller lozenges are painted in black 
and white, with narrow red lines. The painting on 
the upper part of the western and eastern walls, 
between the present ceiling and the Norman cornice 
on which it originally rested, is work of the fourteenth 
century, when the tower arches were altered and 
the Norman ceiling was raised to fit them. On 
the western wall there are shields of arms of the 
fourteenth century, and the character of the painting 
is quite distinct from that of the ceiling itself. The 
semicircular shafts which separate the bays of the 
nave (commonly called vaulting-shafts), are all ter- 
minated in the same manner, sloped off at the top 
to the Norman string-moulding, which forms a 

Society of Northampton, in 1855 (and printed in their Transac- 
tions), maintains that Benedict was the builder of the entire 
nave and western transept, in accordance with the statements 
of the chroniclers. Mr. Paley's view will be found in his " Ke- 
marks on the Architecture of Peterborough Cathedral." 



Cnling of $afe. 93 

cornice ; and on each shaft is a sort of tongue, evi- 
dently part of the original design, so that they 
never had, nor were intended to have, capitals; 
nor is there any trace of capitals in the walls above 
the ceiling, as has been rashly asserted; the side- 
walls are in fact not high enough above the ceiling to 
admit of them. The original design was evidently 
intended for a flat painted ceiling, such as was the 
usual covering of an early Norman nave, and indeed 
of any wide central space, whether nave, or chancel, 
or transepts. Examples of this form of ceiling, though 
of much later date, may be seen at St. Alban's and 
Eomsey Abbey. It has been reproduced by Mr. 
Burges with good effect at Waltham Abbey. On the 
Continent there are many examples of flat ceilings of 
the twelfth century, although we are not aware that 
any have retained their ancient painting. This re- 
markably interesting ceiling may therefore be unique. 

X. The vaulting of the side aisles is Norman, with 
bold and massive cross-ribs carrying a bowtel. An 
arcade of intersecting arches runs below the windows, 
which are Early Decorated insertions. They are un- 
usual in form, of five lights, under a segmental arch, 
the lights running up the head of the arch with in- 
cipient tracery, late in the thirteenth century. The 
triforium is now lighted by large Decorated windows 
(circ. 1360), of three lights. It had originally a steep 
roof, sloping outward. 

In the third bay (from the west) of the south aisle, 
is the "Abbot's door," an Early English doorway 

94 Jjtterfiflfimjff CstfcebraL 

opening into the western walk of the ancient cloister, 
and corresponding with another door in the south 
cloister which was that of the Refectory (XXIV.). 
In the ninth bay is another door which opened into 
the eastern walk, corresponding with the entrance to 
the ambulatory which led to the Infirmary. This 
door is a Norman one, of three orders, and much 

XI. On the north side of the great west door hangs 
a portrait of " Old Scarlett," the sexton who interred 
Catherine of Arragon and Queen Mary of Scotland, 
and who died in 1594, aged ninety-eight. The arms 
above are those, of the see of Peterborough. The in- 
scription runs, 

" You see old Scarleit's picture stand on hie, 
But at your feete here doth his body lye. 
His gravestone doth his age and death time show, 
His office by thes tokens you may know. 
Second to none for strenth and sturdye limm, 
A Scarebabe mighty voice with visage grim. 
Hee had interd two Queenes within this place 
And this townes Householders in his lives space 
Twice over ; But at length his own turn came ; 
"What hee for others did for him the same 
Was done : No doubt his soule doth live for aye 
Iii heaven : Tho here his body clad in clay." 

The portrait is curious as an example of costume, 
but is scarcely a fitting ornament for the nave of a 

XII. The central tower, at the intersection of the 
nave and eastern transept, was originally built by 
Abbot WATERVILLE (11351177), and formed a lantern 

Central jote. 95 

of three stages p , beneath which was placed the choir 
of the monks, which extended three bays into the 
nave. It subsequently proved, however, too heavy for 
the central piers to support ; and in order to prevent 
the fall of the tower (which had actually taken place at 
Ely and Winchester), it was taken down nearly as far 
as the crowns of the great arches. The east and west 
arches were altered from semicircular to pointed ; the 
Norman arches, north and south (which have chevron 
mouldings) remain. " The pointed hoods inserted above 
the two round arches mark real arches of construction, 
devised to remove the weight from the crowns of the 
latter. The strong courses of masonry for this pur- 
pose may be seen from below when the sun shines 
brightly on the walls q ." The Norman pillars and 
capitals remain, but have been adapted to the new 
work. The upper portion and capital of the north- 
east pier are Decorated. The lantern is Decorated 
(circ. 1340?), with two lofty windows on each side, 
filled with Decorated tracery. Graceful vaulting-shafts 
of wood, in groups of three, carry the lierne roof, in 
the central boss of which is the Saviour holding a globe. 
The wooden vaulting, as well as the lightness of the 
entire lantern, were no doubt rendered necessary from 
the mischief which the weight of the Norman tower 
had already caused to the south-east pier, which is much 

p Mr. Paley suggests that the type of this tower still exists, 
in the fine central tower at Castor, four miles from Peter- 

" F. A. Palov. 


crippled, and bound with iron. The great pillars on 
the east side have, in fact, " settled very considerably 
on their foundations, dragging down their adjoining tri- 
forium and clerestory arches in a remarkable manner." 

Against the north-east pier of the lantern has been 
erected, from the designs of the late Mr. Edward 
BARRY, a very ornate pulpit in memory of the late 
Dr. James (died 1878), by the members of his 
family. It is of red Mansfield stone, supported on 
polished marble columns, and is much too large 
and self-asserting for its situation. An oaken eagle 
lectern stands in the centre. 

XIII. The eastern side of both transepts, as has 
been already stated, belong, like the choir, to the 
earliest part of the church, built by Abbots JOHN OP 
SEEZ and MARTIN OF BEO (11181133). The rest 
of the transepts is the work of Abbot WATERVILLE 
(1155 1177). The arrangement of both transepts is 
the same. Each consists of three bays. The termina- 
tion of each, north and south, is alike ; both having 
three tiers of semicircular-headed windows (the two 
upper in the lines of the triforium and clerestory), 
with a wall-arcade below the lowest tier. A curious 
bas-relief of very early date, representing two figures 
between palm-trees (?), inserted in the west wall of 
the south transept deserves notice. The western wall 
of both transepts has the same arrangement of windows, 
except that the clerestory tier resembles that of the 
nave in having a high central light with a lower arch 
(forming an arcade passage) on either side. From some 

transepts. 97 

indications, such as that the lowest tier of windows 
have the billet-moulding above them, and that the 
windows show some differences on the two opposite 
sides in their splaying, and other marks Mr. Paley 
infers that the work of the transepts was commenced 
on the south side, where it was at first executed in 
imitation of the older work of the choir and eastern 
transept-aisles, and completed on the north side in 
rather a plainer manner. The windows throughout 
the transepts (except those in the eastern aisles) are 
filled with Perpendicular tracery. Those at each 
end of the transepts have been partially filled with 
modern painted glass by Messrs. HEATON AND BUTLEK, 
and GIBBS, which, though it cannot be highly com- 
mended, is of great value in subduing the light 
which formerly flooded the church. 

The eastern aisles are divided from the transept by 
massive piers, alternately round and octangular, sup- 
porting arches which are slightly stilted. They have 
plain cushioned capitals. A billet-moulding surrounds 
each arch, which has a moulded rib in the soffete. The 
triforium above resembles that in the nave, and has 
some of the tympana partially hatched. The clerestory 
is the same as on the west side : vaulting-shafts rise to 
the roof between the arches : a chevroned stringcourse 
runs at the foot of the triforium ; a plain moulding 
above it. The ' heaviness ' of the masses, and the style 
of ornamentation (the billet, chevron, and indented or 
hatched moulding are alone used), sufficiently indicate 
the early date of these aisles which precisely resemble 

VOL. II. PT. I. H 


the choir in all their details. " It seems to be one 
continuous piece of work throughout." The difference 
between this portion and the rest of the transept will 
be at once recognised by comparing the mouldings of 
the entrance arches of the choir-aisles with those into 
the nave-aisles opposite. 

The ceilings of both transepts are of the same date 
as that of the nave, which they resemble except in 
being plainer: they are painted black and white, in 
lozenges. Unlike the nave ceiling, however, these of 
the transepts remain in their original position, and 
have never been raised. They may therefore lay 
claim to a yet higher antiquity. 

XIV. The eastern aisle of the north transept is 
divided from the transept itself by oaken screen-work, 
of Perpendicular date, but of no very high interest. 
It contained originally the chapels of St. John and 
St. James. Some stalls and canopies removed from 
the choir are placed against the north wall, among 
which three Early English shafts with gilt capitals 
supporting Jacobean canopies should especially be 
noticed [Plate III.]. In Compton Church, Surrey, are 
some small wooden arches of the same date, which 
may be compared. The east wall below the windows 
is hung with tapestry of the sixteenth century, relics 
in all probability of hangings which formerly adorned 
the choir, representing the delivery of St. Peter from 
prison, and the healing of the lame man at the gate of 
the Temple. The windows of this aisle are filled with 
Perpendicular tracery, except that nearest to the 


choir, wliicli is Geometrical. A Norman doorway in 
the north wall opens to a staircase leading to the 
roof. The two closed arches in the northern and 
central bays on the east side, now containing very 
late Perpendicular windows, formed the entrance to 
a very beautiful Lady-chapel of the Early English 
period (1274), which after the Restoration was de- 
molished for the sake of the materials, in order to 
repair the great damage which the cathedral had 
received from Cromwell's troopers r . 

The east aisle of the south transept has three 
Geometrical three-light windows, of the same design 
as the single one in the opposite transept, the tracery 
consisting of foliated circles only. This aisle was 
divided into three chapels, dedicated to St. Oswald, 
St. Benedict, and St. Kyneburga, by stone partitions 

' This Lady-chapel must have been a magnificent structure, 
rivalling that of Ely, which is in the same situation. The lower 
part of the weather-moulding of the gable of the roof can be seen 
against the outer wall of this transept, and shews that the chapel 
was considerably higher than this side wall. A fragment of its 
external doorway is built into the buttress at the north-eastern 
corner. The southern bay of the aisle of the transept on the 
east side has an early Decorated window, like those in the 
south transept aisle, which shews the pattern of those of the 
Lady-chapel. There was the width of one bay between the 
Lady-chapel and the north aisle of the choir, and a groined 
chantry chapel was erected in the eastern part of this space in 
the fifteenth century, of which there are traces in the aisle wall. 
The piscina still exists. Towards the west there was a ves- 
tibule to the Lady-chapel, of which the Decorated arches, now 
built up, remain in the wall of the first and second bay. 
Above the chantry was a female recluse's cell, with a squint 
commanding a view of the altar of the Lady-chapel. 

H 2 


of the same date as the aisle itself, one of which has 
an interesting Norman arcade. Brackets and aumbries 
belonging to the altars remain in the walls. Similar 
divisions for chapels exist in the transepts of Ely 
and Lincoln Cathedrals. 

A Decorated doorway in the west wall of this tran- 
sept opens to a quinquipartite vaulted aisle, of tran- 
sition Norman character, now used as the choristers' 
music school. It was anciently known as the " Chapel 
of the Ostrie," a corruption, according to Mr. Paley, 
of ' hostelry ' or guest-house, but certainly a misnomer. 
It was probably the sacristy, as at Ely. 

XV. Though some has been erected in the last few 
years, the cathedral still suffers from the want of 
stained glass always of great service in increasing 
the effect of Norman architecture. It was richly 
furnished in this respect, and retained the greater part 
of its ancient fittings until long after the Reformation ; 
but in 1643 Peterborough was visited by Cromwell 
himself, on his way to besiege Crowland ; and it is pro- 
bable that no English cathedral was more completely 
" set to rights," or underwent more wanton destruction 
at the hands of the Parliamentarian troopers. In spite 
of special orders to " do no injury to the church," they 
broke open its doors, and proceeded to shatter the win- 
dows, to pull down the fittings of the choir, to destroy 
the organ and the monuments, including those of the 
two queens, Catherine and Mary, and to break in pieces 
the superb reredos of carved stone, painted, gilt, and 
inlaid with plates of silver. The narrative in the 

Cljoir. 101 

Mercurius Rusticus asserts, that " one of tlie soldiers 
having charged his musket to shatter down the four 
Evangelists, in the roof, above the Communion-table, 
by the rebound of his own shot was struck blind." 
The cloisters were then pulled completely down (the 
windows had been filled with stained glass of unusual 
beauty), and, with the exception of the original charter 
of foundation, and the Chronicle known as " Swap- 
ham," the charters and evidences belonging to the 
cathedral were burnt or destroyed. The soldiers 
appropriated such rich church vestments as they could 
find ; and until their departure they were daily exer- 
cised by their officers in the nave of the cathedral. 

XVI. This unusual havoc will account for the pre- 
sent condition of the choir ; all the ancient furniture 
of which has disappeared. Before the restoration set 
on foot by Dean MONK, the ritual choir was under- 
neath the lantern, as at Chichester and Gloucester, and 
formerly at Hereford and Ely, and the organ-screen 
enclosed the first bay of the nave. There was a second 
screen, as at Norwich, one bay further west. The heavy 
organ-screen, of white stone, was executed under the 
direction of Dean Monk, before 1830 ; and the stalls 
and woodwork are also of this date: the whole de- 
signed by the late Mr. BLOEE. If they fail to please, 
allowance should be made for the period when the 
work was done. Much credit is due to Dean Monk 
for originating a movement and forming a school of 
workmen which soon improved, and led the way to 
what has followed in other cathedrals. At the west 


end under the organ there are four box-stalls on either 
side, surmounted with canopies. The three arches to 
the north and south are filled with private box-pews, 
with tabernacle-work above entirely hiding the massive 
piers. In front of these a row of stalls has been 
added. Below these are three tiers of carved pews and 
benches with poppyheads. Above are pewed galleries 
blocking up the arches. The choir, as far as the apse, 
is of four bays ; its massive piers being entirely hidden 
by the tabernacle- work of the stalls. The arrange- 
ment and details of triforium and clerestory resemble 
those of the eastern transept-aisles. The piers, how- 
ever, which alternate with the round ones, are ten and 
twelve-sided instead of octangular. The triforium 
exhibits two sub-arches, supported by a tall slender 
column, within a circumscribing arch of two orders, 
all much enriched. The tympanum of the two first 
bays from the east are pierced with one and four 
circular holes respectively. The tympana of all the 
others, except the easternmost to the south, are hatched. 
The proportions of the triforium are unpleasing, the 
central shaft being too lofty, which causes the sub- 
arches to intrude too much on the tympanum. The 
choir was the recorded work of the two Abbots, JOHN OF 
SEEZ (11181125), and MARTIN OF EEC 1133-1125); 
the intervening Abbot, HENRY OF ANJOU (1127 1133), 
did nothing for it. "He lived," says the Saxon 
Chronicle, " even as a drone in a hive. As the drone 
eateth and draggeth forward to himself all that is 
brought near, even so did he. He did there no good, 

neither did lie leave any there." It is probable that 
little more than the foundations were completed by 
John of Seez. 

The apse, or eastern end of the choir, notwithstand- 
ing the changes which have been made, in order to 
connect it with the New Building beyond, still remains 
a very fine example of a Norman termination. It should 
be compared with the slightly earlier eastern apse of 
Norwich (the work of HERBERT LOSINGA, died 1119). 
A Norman arch, of which only the pillars remain, 
now ending above the capitals in niches, originally 
divided the apse from the choir. A modern screen, 
of Decorated character, richly diapered in gold and 
colour, extends round the apse. Above the level of 
this screen were originally three tiers of Norman 
windows, five in each tier. The three central windows 
of the lowest tier are fringed with flamboyant hanging 
with tracery, c. 1360, and look into the New Building ; 
portions of the roof, and the stained window (to the 
memory of Bishop Davys, by HEATON AND BUTLER) at 
the extreme eastern end being visible through them. 
The whole series is set in rich ogee canopied arches, 
under square hood-moulds. The two side-windows of 
this tier also contain flamboyant tracery, which remains 
perfect, and shews the grooves for the glass which 
once filled them. The triforium openings, in the 
second tier, whilst they retain their circular head- 
ings, are, like the clerestory windows above them, 
filled with tracery of flamboyant character, which 
was no doubt inserted at the same time. An inter- 


secting Norman arcade is seen below the triforium 
window range, at the back of the wall-passage in 
which they are set. All these windows are filled with 
stained glass, most of which is modern and far 
from good ; that in the central window of each tier 
contains ancient fragments collected from different 
parts of the church, by Dean Tarrant, 1764 1791. 
Norman pilasters run up between the windows. The 
slight depression in the arches of the three central 
openings in each tier should be noticed. 

The flat roof of the apse, like the eastern screen, 
has been excellently decorated from the designs of 
the late Sir G. G. SCOTT. In the centre is the Saviour 
in majesty; surrounding Him, in medallions placed 
among the branches of the vine on the pale-blue 
ground of the ceiling, are half-figures of the Apostles. 
The whole bordered by an inscription : " I am the 
Vine," &c. This design reproduces that which origin- 
ally formed the decoration of the ceiling above the 
high altar, which was destroyed by Crom well's soldiers, 
April 22, 1643. 

The roof of the choir dates apparently from the close 
of the fifteenth century. It is of wood, with carved 
bosses. The whole has been coloured, the bosses gilt, 
and medallions containing angels painted between the 
groining-ribs. Whatever may be age of this roof, 
"it seems to indicate that the choir was not covered 
with a flat ceiling, like the nave and transepts, but 
probably with an open timber roof, something like the 
nave of Ely Cathedral. Had there been a flat ceiling, 

Sf0ttt{y Cjjoir-Bisle. 105 

it would surely have been retained for the sake of 
uniformity 3 ." 

MLFKIC (died 1051) and KINSI (died 1060), Arch- 
bishops of York, were buried on the south side of the 
choir. The latter had been a monk of Peterborough. 

XVII. The South choir-aisle, which we enter from 
the transept, is of the same date as the choir itself. 
This aisle, and the corresponding aisle on the north 
side, are much disfigured by the heavy wooden galleries 
above the choir-stalls, with their arched supports stair- 
cases and gangways. The windows are early Decorated, 
of the same date and character as those in the nave. 
An intersecting Norman arcade, plainly moulded, 
lines the wall beneath them. (It may be here re- 
marked, that among the differences to be noted 
between the choir and the transepts is the distinction 
of their wall-arcades; that of the choir-aisles being 
intersecting, that of the transepts single.) The vault- 
ing is the same as that of the eastern transept-aisles. 

At the west end of the aisle, under a heavy Norman 
arch enriched with billet-moulding, is an effigy attri- 
buted to Abbot ANDREW (11931200). He treads on 
a dragon, the mouth of which is pierced by his staff: 
in his left hand he holds a book. Eemark the rich 
' apparel ' ornamenting his outer robe. The book, 
which is usually placed in the hands of Benedictine 
abbots, is supposed to represent the statutes of their 
Order. The difference between an abbatial and episco- 
pal staff should also be noticed. The bishop's is 
F, A. Paley. 


generally mucli enriched, and turned to the right, or 
outwards, indicating an external jurisdiction; the 
abbot's plain, and turned to the left, or inwards, 
denoting a domestic rule. On the wall above the 
effigy are the following lines : 

" Hos tres Abbates quibus est prior Abba Johannes, 
Alter Martimis, Andreas ultimus, unus 
Hie claudit tumulus. Pro clausis ergo rogemus." 

Three more effigies of early Abbots [Plate VI.], said to 
have been brought from the chapter-house, are placed 
under the south wall of this aisle. All hold a book. 
The two easternmost (the last of which is a good ex- 
ample) are of early Decorated character. Another much 
shattered effigy is placed under the wall of the choir. 

A plain black marble slab, without the south door 
of the choir in the last bay, marks the tomb in which 
the remains of Mary Queen of Scots rested until their 
removal to Westminster. The execution of the Queen 
took place on February 8, 158f ; but it was not until 
July 30, 1587, that her body was brought from Fother- 
ingay to Peterborough for interment. It was con- 
veyed by torchlight, in a ' chariot ' covered with black 
cloth, and was met at the entrance of the cathedral by 
Bishop Howland, who conducted it in solemn pro- 
cession to the vault prepared for it, in which it was 
immediately laid. On the following day a funeral 
service was performed, the Countess of Bedford being 
chief mourner. The Bishop of Lincoln preached ; 
and the heralds broke their staves', and cast them 
into the vault. Twenty-five years afterwards the 







0f <$umt Sferg. 107 

body, at the request of James I.*, was removed to 
Westminster, under the care of the Bishop of Coventry 
and Lichfield, and was interred where it now lies, 
Oct. 11, 1612. A lofty herse,' hung with black 
velvet, was erected over Queen Mary's resting-place 
at Peterborough, and was removed, with the body, to 
Westminster. John Chambers, the last abbot and 
first bishop of Peterborough, was interred in this 
aisle, near the grave of Queen Mary. 

The extreme eastern bay of this and of the opposite 
aisle is Early English, and has slender vaulting- 
shafts, with a leafed boss in the centre of the roof. 
In the south wall of each is a good double piscina of 
the same design with that in the south-west transept. 
The two bays thus formed chapels at the ends of 
the choir-aisles ; the original Norman terminations 
of which, according to Mr. Paley, were square, and 
not apsidal. 

XVIII. The so-called New Building [Plate YIL], 
which now forms the eastern end of the cathedral, was 
commenced by Abbot ASHTON in 1438, but not com- 
pleted until the time of Abbot KIKTON (14961528). 
It was formerly shut off from the church and used as 
the library. It is entered from the choir-aisle, through 
an arch with square ornaments, characteristic of Per- 
pendicular work, in the hollow of the moulding. The 
Tudor rose, the pomegranate of Catherine of Arragon, 
the fleur-de-lys, the rebus of Abbot KIETON (a kirk ' 

* The King's autograph letter remains in the possession of the 
Dean and Chapter. 


on a tun), and some armorial bearings, appear among 
these ornaments. 

The New Building itself the view across which, 
beyond the arch, is a fine one is a long parallelogram 
of five bays, and forms, in effect, a third transept, ex- 
tending across the eastern end of the church. A 
similar eastern transept existed at Fountains Abbey, 
and still remains at Durham, where the " Chapel of 
the Nine Altars," as it is called, was the work of 
Bishop POOEE (1228 1241). This transept was pro- 
bably erected to furnish additional altar space. But 
of the altars it contained and of their accessories no 
traces remain. In almost all its details groined roof, 
windows, exterior battlement, and buttresses this 
building so closely resembles King's College Chapel 
at Cambridge, that, it has been suggested, " the same 
master-mind would seem to have conceived both u ." 
The beautiful fan-tracery of the roof should especially 
be noticed. The late Professor Willis considered 
" the workmanship of this vault the most perfect of 
any that he had examined "" [The Vaults of the Middle 
Ages, p. 43]. The arms on the bosses are those of 
England, Edward the Confessor, and Peterborough. 
The windows were orignally filled with very fine 
stained glass, which was destroyed in 1643. The 

u King's College Chapel was in building at the same time as 
this transept, and, as at Peterborough, the work was stopped for 
some time after its commencement. The foundations were laid 
in 1446 : (at Peterborough, in 1438). After a long interval the 
building was recommenced in 1479, and completed about 1532 : 
(Peterborough recommenced in 1496, and was completed in 1528). 

% gcfo gttilbmg. 109 

central east window has been recently filled with glass 
to the memory of Bishop Davys by his son-in-law 
Canon Argles, from the designs of Messrs. HEATON 
AND BUTLER, and the southernmost window to that of 
Dean Butler, by Messrs. CLAYTON AND BELL. 

The manner in which the Norman choir-apse is 
squared, so as to adapt it the New Building, should 
be remarked. The Norman shafts and Norman wall of 
the apse remain ; and at the side of the entrance-arches 
these shafts are fitted with Perpendicular capitals. 
Portions of the Norman stringcourse, much weather- 
worn (for it must be remembered that before the erec- 
tion of the New Building the apse was uninclosed), 
may also be observed as well as the Flamboyant 
tracery still remaining in the two windows, north 
and south. " The body of the aperture in the three 
easternmost is left open, and continued down to the 
ground in the form of lofty archways, though the 
lower parts are now blocked by the modern altar- 
screen, as they were formerly by steps leading from 
the back of the high altar. The marks of these steps 
may yet be seen in the south-eastern archway, withia 
the chapel, as well as the hinges of folding-doors, by 
which the retro-choir, or space behind the high altar, 
was enclosed V 

x Paley. " We have now gradually built up what may well 
be called a noble minster, and a glance at the plan thus com- 
pleted will shew a Latin cross, the feet resting on two steps, and 
the head terminating originally in an apse, to which, however, 
a transept yet farther east has been added. Here, then, we 
have a cross of that form which is commonly found in old re- 

XIX. On entering the New Building from the south 
aisle, a much shattered Jacobean monument will be 
seen in the wall to the left hand. This is that erected 
during his own lifetime by Sir Humphrey Orm for 
himself and his family. Before Sir Humphrey's death 
his monument was reduced by Cromwell's troopers to 
its present condition. Under the first arch at the back 
of the apse is a small monument of considerable in- 
terest. [Plate VIII.] This was long supposed to be 
the stone erected by Godric, Abbot of Crowland, over 
the monks of Medeshamstede (the ancient name of 
Peterborough), who, with their abbot, Hedda, were 
slaughtered by the Danes in 870. They had already 
destroyed Crowland, and were assaulting Medes- 
hamstede, when the brother of the Danish Jarl, 

presentations of the Kood, where the figure of the Crucified is 
attended by the Blessed Virgin and the Beloved Disciple, kneel- 
ing one on either side, ou a step at the foot of the cross, while 
the inscription over the head appears on a scroll crossing the 
upper part of the tree. . . . We have, then, in the ground-plan 
of Peterborough the highest and most completely developed 
symbolism of the doctrine of the Cross, of which a Christian 
Church is capable. ... I would rather suggest than assert, 
that the upper step of the two, which is found in all churches 
with a western transept only, as Wells, for instance, and Peter- 
borough before the addition of the fasade, is fairly to be as- 
signed to the two sainted witnesses of our Lord's death; and 
that the yet lower step is to be assigned to the approach of the 
disciples generally . . , And in the lowest place even, of this 
lower step, is well placed the galilee, the porch of penitents, 
and the court where their penance was to be awarded." Rev. 
G. A. Poole, " On the Abbey Church of Peterborough " (in the 
Transactions of the Architectural Society of the Archdeaconry 
of Northampton). 





Hubba, was killed by a stone thrown from the walls. 
In revenge, after an entrance had been forced, the Jarl, 
with his own hand, slew the Abbot and all the sur- 
viving monks. The abbey was plundered and burnt. 
After the Danes had left the country, a few of the 
Crovvland monks returned to their ruined monastery, 
and chose Godric for their abbot. Having arranged 
his own community as far as possible, he visited 
Medeshamstede, where he collected the mangled bodies 
of the monks, eighty-four in number, says the pseudo- 
Ingulphus and interred them in one large grave, 
over which he raised " a pyramidal stone, three feet 
high, three feet long, and one foot broad, on which 
were cut the images of the deceased abbot and his 
monks." Every remaining year of his life, it is said, 
Godric paid a visit to this stone, and pitched a tent 
over it, in which he said masses during two days, for 
the repose of those buried beneath. 

This story, it should be remarked, rests solely on 
the spurious narrative of Ingulphus, the Chronicler of 
Crowland ; and although the tomb agrees very closely 
with the measurements given above, it was demon- 
strated by Mr. M. H. Bloxam, at the meeting of the 
Archaeological Institute at Peterborough in 1861, that 
it is work of the early part of the twelfth century. It 
is a mass either of Purbeck, or of a somewhat similar 
marble, full of minute shells. Large holes have been 
bored in it, three on one side, and two on the other, 
probably for the purpose of fixing candlesticks. On 
either of the upright sides are six much-worn figures, 

112 IJeterbxmragjj <a%brsl. 

the details of which it is very difficult to distinguish. 
All have the nimbus a plain circular beading round 
the heads of all, except one of the figures on the east 
side, which has the cruciform nimbus distinctive of 
our Lord, indicated by double lines proceeding from 
the head to the exterior beading. The hair of a figure 
on the west side is arrayed in rays, or semicircles. 
The dress of all is alike, a long robe with a shorter 
sleeved vestment over it. The emblems they carry 
seem to vary; most have books ; some bear palm- 
branches. All are under a circular arcade, with a kind 
of double leaf-ornament springing from the intersec- 
tions. The sloping top of the stone is divided into 
four partitions, with rude sculpture of leafage and 
birds, one of which may perhaps represent a peacock, 
a favourite emblem of the Resurrection. Circles and 
knots of intersected lines mark the early character of 
the whole work. The two ends are plain, except that 
on the south side the date 870 has been carved in 
modern Arabic numerals. 

This monument at all events deserves the most 
careful attention. The figures are in all probability 
those of our Saviour and His Apostles, who are usually 
represented as carrying books ; although the dress is 
that of the twelfth century. It is not impossible, 
however, that the monument (which may in reality be 
that of an early abbot) is the actual stone described by 
the pseudo-Ingulphus, whose narrative has been proved 
to be a composition of much later date. 

XX. On the adjoining wall is the monument of 

Jffotrantcnts. 113 

THOMAS DEACON (died 1721), founder of a charity- 
school at Peterborough, and in many other ways a 
benefactor to the city. He reclines on the summit of 
his sarcophagus, attired in a Kamillies wig, and resting 
one hand on a skull, whilst with the other he points 
to the record of his virtues behind him. The effigy of 
an abbot, of Early English date, is placed in the recess 
behind the altar, and on the wall above are tablets 
commemorating Bishops HINCHCLIFFE (died 1794), 
MADAN (died 1813), MARSH (died 1839), and DAVYS 
(died 1864), whose graves below are marked by monu- 
mental slabs. The hanging tracery of the arch above 
exhibits in the centre a concave socket, intended to 
receive the apex of the great crucifix, to keep it in its 
place. On the adjoining wall to the north is the monu- 
ment of Bishop CUMBERLAND (died 1718). Bishop 
Cumberland's volume, De legibus Natures disquisitio 
pJiilosopJiica a refutation of Hobbes is thus referred 
to in the inscription on this monument : 

" Macte, malse fraudis domilor, defensor honesti 
Legum NaturaB, justitiseque pugil. 
O quantum debent, quas laeserat Hobbius, ainbas, 
Recta simul Eatio, Eeligioque, tibi ! " 

The lines are from a poetical address to the Bishop 
by Duport, dean of Peterborough (died 1679), whose 
own monument remains on the wall of the north choir- 
aisle, beneath the second window. The epitaph of 
Dean Duport (who was Eegius Professor of Greek in 
the University of Cambridge) is couched in the most 
exaggerated terms of panegyric: " Graeca poesi si 

VOL. II. FT. I. I 


non supra Homerum, saltern pari incedens gradu . . . 
quern ut alterum plane Homeruin, quatuor vindicant 

Under the north window-opening of the apse is a 
monument formed of fragments of various dates, which 
seem to have been arranged at a very late period as 
a memorial of some unknown person. The Perpen- 
dicular portions belonged to a shrine which contained 
relics of St. Ebba, part of which now serves as a 
window in the gatehouse ( in.). St. Ebba was the 
instructress of St. Etheldreda of Ely and the sister 
of St. Oswald of Northumbria, whose arm was one of 
the greatest treasures of Peterborough. (See Part II.) 

XXI. The north choir-aisle resembles the south ; 
the first bay forming an Early English chapel, with 
a piscina in the south wall. The two westernmost 
bays, now blocked, opened into the Lady-chapel. In 
the next bay one of the original Norman windows has 
been preserved filled during the present century with 
Perpendicular tracery. It overlooks a slab of blue 
stone, close to the north choir-door, beneath which still 
rest the remains of Queen CATHEEINE OF AEBAGON. We 
may appropriate the words of Mr. Paley, in contem- 
plating " the humble grave of one to whose existence, 
though it maybe but incidentally, this nation owes the 
greatest change that ever was brought about in it, and 
upon the accident of whose burial here depended the 
preservation of this fine abbey and its conversion into 
a cathedral church. There is no monument in England 
that can fairly be called more deeply interesting than 

oi (tttEit Catlmnx. 115 

this one, though few, indeed, of those who daily tram- 
ple on it, and are fast obliterating the simple words, 
'Queen Catherine, A.D. 1536,' appear to entertain a 
thought about it. Not one in five hundred, we dare 
aver, recals her dying words in Shakespeare's ' King 
Henry VIII.:' 

' When lam dead 

Let me be used with honour : strew me o'er 
With maiden flowers, that all the world may know 
I was a chaste wife to my grave : embalm me, 
Then lay me forth : although unqueened, yet still 
A queen, and daughter to a King, inter me.' " 

Many banners, with heraldic devices and royal 
achievements, hung above this tomb; and a lofty 
herse, covered with a black velvet pall marked with 
a cross of silver tissue, and enriched on the sides with 
the arms and badges of Arragon, remained on it until 
the destruction wrought by Cromwell's soldiers. Queen 
Catherine, the closing scene of whose life it is scarcely 
possible to imagine otherwise than as Shakespeare has 
painted it, died at Kimbolton Castle, in Huntingdon- 
shire, Jan. 8, 1535, and was interred in this aisle with 
much of the state befitting " a queen, and daughter to 
a king." 

XXII. Passing out of the cathedral we enter the 
churchyard on its north side ; the gateway into which 
has, close adjoining it, a battlemented arch of entrance 
to the Deanery built by Abbot KIRTON, who completed 
the New Building. The same arms and emblems appear 
on it as on the bosses and ornaments of his work in the 

i 2 

cathedral. His rebus a church on a tun is placed 
over the smaller door. The quiet beauty of the church- 
yard, well kept and judiciously planted, will at once 
attract the visitor. An excellent view of the exterior 
of the cathedral is obtained from it ; the best general 
point being towards the north-east angle [Frontis- 
piece], where the rich Perpendicular New Building, 
the Norman apse towering above it, and the many 
lines of towers and spires group most picturesquely, 
and are well contrasted by the surrounding foliage. 

The group formed by the north-west transept, with 
its tower and gable, and the north spire of the west 
front, should be noticed soon after entering the church- 
yard. The transept-gables are Early English, of the 
same date and character as the west front, and of great 
beauty. The first stage of the north transept tower 
above the roof is transition Norman, of the same date as 
the transept ; the upper stage and pinnacles are Early 
English, but of later date than the west front. It was 
formerly crowned with a spire of timber and lead, the 
work of Abbot RICHAED OF LONDON, while still prior, 
about 1270, which was taken down before 1800. 

The windows of the nave-aisles (Early Decorated, 
x.), triforium (Decorated, xvi.), and clerestory 
(Perpendicular, xvi.), may here be well observed. 
Flat, pilaster-like buttresses run up between each bay 
Norman as high as the stringcourse above the aisle 
windows, and Decorated above. The upper part may 
have been added when the aisle walls were raised. 
In the fourth bay a very rich Norman archway marks 

dfotadbr. 117 

the "Prior's Door." The Norman arcade above the 
aisle windows shews the arrangement of the old tri- 
forium, which is seen more perfectly on the east wall 
of the north transept. The parapet above the clere- 
story is a late Decorated addition. 

The north front of the main transept deserves 
notice, since it contains the original Norman window- 
openings filled with Perpendicular tracery. On the 
eastern side, the door leading into the Lady-chapel 
(now destroyed) remains, and the two arches which 
opened into the space between it and the church 
(see note p. 99), in the wall of the north choir- 
aisle. ( xiv.) 

XXIII. The exterior of the eastern apse is much 
enriched, and very striking. Buttress-turrets, capped 
with spires, rise at its junction with the choir. An 
intersecting arcade passes round below the upper tier 
of windows ; and in the parapet above, which is an 
addition of the early Decorated period, are circular 
medallions, enclosing trefoils, from which half emerge 
figures of kings and ecclesiastics. The manner in 
which the Norman windows were enlarged and altered 
( xvi.) is well seen here. 

The New Building has very massive, plain buttresses 
between each bay, on each of which, as in the apse of 
Norwich, is placed the sitting figure of an apostle, 
with our Lord holding an orb in the centre. A rich 
and graceful parapet fills the space between. This 
has suffered much from time and decay; but the 
initials (R. A. Eichard Ashton, and E. K. Eobert 


Kirton) and devices (an ash-tree on a tun and a church 
on a tun) of the builders, may still be traced on it 
and on the buttresses. On the parapet are also the 
alternate monograms (I.H.C. and M. (Jesus and Mary) ; 
and the stringcourse over the east window has the 
name Karton (Kirton). On that of a window on the 
south side, it is spelt backwards Notrak. 

The central tower., as has already been said, dates 
about 1340. It has two windows on each side, with 
a blind arcade of rich tracery between and beyond 
them. At the angles are octagonal turrets. The 
tower was originally surmounted by a wooden octagon, 
" which perhaps bore, or was intended to bear, a timber 
spire, covered with lead y ." The octagon was removed 
by Dr. Kipling (who became Dean of Peterborough in 
1798). The turrets, which rise above the tower, were 
added at this time, and were evidently imitated from 
those (Norman with a later battlement) at the end of 
the great transept. 

XXIV. A passage leads, west, to the Laurel Court, 
the site of the cloister destroyed, as has already been 
mentioned, by Crom well's troopers in 1643. The 
original Norman cloister was remodelled in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries, the southern and western 
walls being left standing. A Norman arch remains 
in the western wall ; the " cheese moulding " of which 
indicates its very early date. Dedication crosses will 
be observed on its jambs. 

The southern wall of the cloister shews thirteen 
y Paley. 

Jlark Cloister. 119 

divisions. Two of these correspond to the extremities of 
the eastern and western walks, so that there were eleven 
window-spaces opening into the cloister garth. The 
eastern part of the wall is Early English and of excel- 
lent design. The first and last bays contain doorways 
of remarkable beauty. The westernmost, opening 
into the Refectory, has a segmental door-arch with a 
very rich hollow moulding of foliage, under a pointed 
arch, the tympanum between the two containing an open 
quatrefoil set between foliage and lacertine animals. 
The easternmost, giving access to the Dark Cloister, 
has a segmental head under a pointed arch, also with 
a quatrefoil in the tympanum. The Early English 
design, with blank arches, remains in the five eastern- 
most bays ; but in the five further to the west very 
rich Perpendicular lavatories, which may be com- 
pared with those at Gloucester, and deep panelled 
recesses have been built in front of the earlier wall. 

Traces of the Early English refectory, which 
stretched along the whole side of the cloister, mea- 
suring 162 feet by 42 feet, with the arcading and 
aumbries of the north wall, are to be seen in the 
garden of the palace. The site of the chapter-house, 
on the east side of the cloister court is occupied by an 
ugly modern house. Between it and the south transept 
lay the slype and the parlour. Leaving the Laurel 
Court at the south-east corner, the visitor will notice 
the traces of the half columns and vaulting of the 
dark cloister of two dates, running southward to the 
infirmary. To the east (the left hand) was the site 


of the dormitory. Passing along the road further 
eastwards, we reach the remains of the Early English 
infirmary, built by Abbot JOHN DE CALETO (1248-1261). 
This building, which should be compared with those 
of earlier date at Ely and Canterbury and the frag- 
ment existing at Norwich, followed the ordinary type 
of a nave with side aisles, constituting the hall and 
cubicles of the sick monks, and a projecting chancel 
which formed the chapel. This arrangement enabled 
the invalids to hear divine service, and even see the 
sacred mysteries, as they lay on their beds or couches. 
The beautifully-proportioned arches of the nave, ori- 
ginally of ten bays, remain, partly built into modern 
houses. Further east the Infirmary Chapel, dedicated 
to St. Lawrence, is converted into a canonical house. 
The triple chancel arch, now blocked, deserves notice. 
Attached to it, at the north-east corner, is a very 
interesting Early English house, which has been well 
restored. The portion at the west end may have been 
the infirmarer's "table-hall." To the south of the 
Infirmary the north wall of an Early English 
building, now transformed into a canonical house, 
marks the site of what has been variously designated 
as the cellarer's lodgings, or the " Deportum," or 
" Hall of Disport." 

XXV. Returning to the Close, before the west front, 
the abbot's gate-house [Title-page], on the south side, 
leading to what was once the abbot's residence, and is 
now the episcopal palace, should be especially noticed. 
The arrangement of this gate-house is very remarkable. 

's <8ai*-{j<raae. $is|j0p's palace. 121 

It is of three vaulted bays in depth, the inner bay 
being separated from the outer part by a transverse 
wall, containing a large arch of entrance and a postern. 
The external bays are of the whole width. It is of Early 
Decorated character, A.D. 1319 (when a licence was 
granted to crenellate " a gateway and two chambers "), 
with a groined roof springing from clustered shafts ; an 
arcade lines its interior walls ; at the angles are square 
turrets, in each of which is a niche containing a figure ; 
a third figure is placed in the gable. The arrangement 
on either side of this gateway is the same. The 
statues on the north side are those of King Edward II., 
Abbot Godfrey of Crowland, and the prior of the 
abbey, wearing the Benedictine habit. On the south 
side are St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Andrew, the three 
saints to whom the church was originally dedicated. 
Above the gateway is a room called the Knights* 
Chamber, in which guests of distinguished rank were 
lodged : the windows of this room are later than the 
gateway itself. 

The bishop's palace, though chiefly modern, con- 
tains a fine vaulted under-crypt, supported on pillars, 
circ. 1226, and two oriels of the chamber known as 
"Heaven's Gate Chamber," built by Abbot Kirton 
(1496-1528), and bearing his rebus. 

The deanery was the residence of the Prior, and 
retains some considerable portions of a hall of the 
thirteenth century, and an elaborately enriched gate- 
way, also bearing Abbot Kirton's rebus. 

North of the main gateway, leading into the Close, 


is the chancel of a chapel of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 
originally founded by Abbots Wm. Waterville and 
Benedict, the latter of whom had been a monk of 
Canterbury at the time of Becket's murder, of which 
he wrote a narrative z . The nave was pulled down by 
Abbot Genge, to build St. John's Church, 1405. The 
chancel, which now serves as the Grammar-school, is 
very late Decorated. The beautiful reticulated tracery 
of the east window deserves notice, as does the pierced 
cross on the gable above it. Beyond it it to the north 
are the new buildings of the grammar-school, fairly 
appropriate in style. 

On the north side of the cathedral is a singular 
earthen mound, known as the " Toot-hill a ," said to have 

2 After Benedict had been appointed Abbot of Peterborough, 
in 1176, " finding the great establishment almost entirely des- 
titute of relics, he returned to his own cathedral, and carried off 
with him the flag-stones immediately surrounding the sacred spot 
(of Becket's murder) with which he formed two altars in the 
conventual church of his new appointment besides two vases of 
blood, and parts of Becket's clothing." Stanley's Historical 
Memorials of Canterbury ; from Robert of Swaffham. 

* At Caernarvon, an eminence outside the town, commanding 
an extensive view, is known as the " Twt-Hill." " Tote-Hill " is 
a mediaeval word for a beacon or look-out station, derived from 
the verb to " tote " or " tout," to look or peep, connected pro- 
bably with the A.-S. tatian, to project. In * Piers Ploughman's 
Creed,' we read 

" Than toted I in at a taverne, and there I aspyide 
Two frere Cannes." 

A " touter " is one who looks out for custom. Its use in our 
early language is evidenced by the following passages from 
Wycliffe's Bible : Is. xxu 5, "Sett the bord, bihold in a 

iiL" 123 

been the site of a tower built by Turold, the first 
Norman Abbot, for the defence of his monastery. 
Similar mounds are found attached to Norman for- 
tresses (as at Canterbury and Oxford). There is one 
also of a like character adjacent to the great gate 
of Ely Cathedral. The name of that attached to 
Westminster Abbey is still preserved in "Tothill 

toothill," alias, " Biholde thou in to a toting place : " v. 6, Go 
and put a tootere," alias, " Go thou and sette a lookere : " v. 8, 
" Up on the tooihill of the Lord I am stondende contynuelly hi 
day ; " alias, " I stonde contynueli hi dai on the totyng place of 
the Lord ;" Jer. xxxi. 21, " Ordeyne to thee a toting place." 



f istorg of t!jc &, foitfe Sfcirrt gotices of i(r* 

THE great Benedictine monastery of Peterborough, which 
became one of the wealthiest and most important in 
England, was founded, according to the Saxon Chronicle, in 
the year 655, by King Oswi of Northumbria, and Peada, 
son of Penda, King of Mercia. Penda, one of the last and 
fiercest of the Saxon pagan chieftains, was defeated and 
killed in November of the same year in a great battle with 
Oswi, on the river Aire in Yorkshire. Oswi succeeded to 
the power of the Mercian king, but gave the province of 
the Southern Mercians to Peada, son of Penda, who about 
three years before had embraced Christianity, and had 
married Alhflede, daughter of Oswi. Peada was murdered 
during the Easter festival of the following year, (656) ; but 
between that time and the previous November, Diuma, one 
of four Christian priests carried back into Mercia by Peadu 
after his own conversion, had been consecrated Bishop of 
the Middle Anglians and Mercians by Finan, Bishop of 
Lindisfarne ; and the two princes, Oswi and Peada, had, in 
the words of the chronicler, " come together, and said they 
would rear a minster to the glory of Christ, and the honour 
of St. Peter." This was Peterborough, the first monastic 
establishment, and (with the exception perhaps of Lichfield, 
the seat of the Mercian bishopric) the first resting-place of 
Christianity in central England. 

jjhstorg of % g^fog. 125 

The site chosen for the new monastery was at a place 
called Medeshamstede, ' the meadow homestead,' in North 
G-yrvva-land (gyr, A.-S. ' a fen '), one of the many districts 
tributary to the main kingdom of Mercia, and which must 
have been specially dependent on the province of the 
Southern Mercians assigned by Oswi to Peada. The foun- 
dations were laid on a rising ground above the river Nen, 
overlooking a wide extent of fen-country on one side, and 
a rich district of woods and meadows on the other. The 
work was commenced in the presence of Peada and Oswi, 
who, in the words of the Saxon Chronicle, "began the 
ground wall and wrought thereon." It was then entrusted 
to a monk named Saxulf. Three years afterwards, the 
Mercians threw off the rule of Oswi, reasserted their in- 
dependence, and set up Wulfere, brother of Peada, and 
a younger son of Penda, as their king. Wulfere was 
a Christian, and greatly favoured the rising monastery at 
Medeshamstede ; which on its completion is said to have 
been " hallowed in the names of St. Peter, St. Paul, and 
St. Andrew" by Deusdedit, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Itharnar, Bishop of Rochester, and many other bishops, 
in the presence of Wulfere and his brother Ethelred. Of 
its consecration, about 657 A.D., there is no doubt, and it was 
probably performed by Deusdedit, but all the details are 
unhistorical, and rest on authorities not earlier than the 
12th century. Saxulf became the first abbot, and con- 
tinued to preside over the monastery he had built (" Abbas 
et constructor," he is called by Bede), until in 675 he was 
consecrated to the see of Mercia by Archbishop Theodore. 
Wulfere's charter of foundation is an undoubted forgery, 
and the confirmation by Pope Vitalian appended to it has 
no pretensions to genuineness. The pretended bull of 
Pope Agatho is also a shameless forgery. By it the abbot 
of Medeshamstede took precedence of all others north of 
the Thames ; he was constituted legate of Rome over the 
whole of England, and " if any Briton had a desire to visit 


Rome, and could not by reason of its distance," he might 
repair to this monastery, there offer up his vows, and 
receive absolution and the apostolical benediction. 

Medeshamstede was nourishing, and, if the story told in 
the chronicle of the Pseudo-Ingulph contains historical 
elements, sheltered a brotherhood of eighty monks, when it 
was attacked and destroyed by the Danes under Hubba, 
in the year 870, as has already been related. (Pt. I. xix.) 
It remained in ruins until about 966, when Athelwold, 
Bishop of Winchester, as distinguished a ' constructor ' or 
architect under King Edgar, as his successor, William of 
Wykeham, was under Edward III., caused it to be rebuilt, 
together with many other religious houses which had been 
destroyed by the Northmen. It was henceforth probably 
from being surrounded with a wall of defence called 
Burgh, " a similitudine urbis," says William of Malmes- 
bury. The name of ' Gildenburgh ' was sometimes given 
to it, from a part of the minster-roofs having been gilt by 
Abbot Leofric ; but it finally took and kept that by which 
it is at present known, Peterburgh, from the dedication of 
its great church to St. Peter. 

Numerous relics, including the incorruptible arm of 
St. Oswald of Northumbria, some earth from the battle- 
field on which he fell, and the body of St. Florentin, 
brought from Normandy, were acquired for his convent 
by Abbot Elsi, who died in 1055. In 1053 Arnwig re- 
signed the abbacy to Leofric, nephew of the great Earl of 
that name, who stood so high with favour of Edward the 
Confessor and his queen that he was allowed to hold five 
abbeys at once Burton, Coventry, Crowland, Thorney, 
and Peterborough. His influence was equally great with 
Harold, who conferred benefactions on the abbey the 
only instance recorded of gifts made by him to a monastic 
foundation and whom he followed with his monks to the 
field of Senlac, from which he returned to his monastery 
wounded and weary, and died there on the night of All 

fistorg 0f tlje gJbfog. 127 

Hallows. The monks without delay chose their provost, 
Brand, as his successor, and sent him to Edgar the Atheling 
for the confirmation of his appointment. This quiet 
ignoring of his claim to the throne of England awakened 
William's fierce wrath, which was only appeased by 
the gift of forty marks of gold. Brand held his abbacy 
for a very short time, dying November 27th, 1069. The 
vacant post was bestowed on a Norman named Turold, 
once a monk at Fecamp, but recently by William's appoint- 
ment Abbot of Malmesbury. He was, writes the local 
chronicler, " a very stern man," whose rule at Malmesbury 
had been tyrannical, and "the story runs that William 
picked him out as being more of a soldier than a monk, as 
the fittest man to rule the great house of Peterborough, 
now that it was threatened by Hereward and his fellow 
outlaws in the Fens." [Freeman, u. s. t iv. 458.] Before 
the new abbot, who had set out with an hundred and sixty 
armed Frenchmen, could reach Peterborough, the monastery 
had been sacked and burnt by Hereward and his followers, 
in conjunction with Sweyn and his Danes, whom he had 
joined in the Isle of Ely. The rich spoil of the " Golden 
Borough " was carried off by ship to Denmark, the monks 
were dispersed, and Turold, on reaching the place, found 
only one sick monk left in the infirmary, " and the empty 
church standing in the midst of the blackened ruins of the 
monastery." On Turold's death, in 1100, the monks, who 
had given the King three hundred marks to be allowed to 
choose their own abbot, elected Godric, an Englishman, 
brother of their former abbot Brand. He sat in the synod 
held at Westminster in 1102, which denounced the preva- 
lent slave trade as "the wicked merchandize by which 
men were still used to be sold in England like brute 
beasts/' He was soon deposed, however. The abbey re- 
mained in the King's hands for four years ; and from this 
time Churchmen of Norman birth alone were permitted to 
hold the high dignity of Abbot of Peterborough. Those of 

128 Jjtferfarnmgjy Caffyebrai 

especial note were Ernulf, Prior of Christ Church, Can- 
terbury, who became Bishop of Rochester ; John of Seez, 
who commenced the choir of the existing cathedral, after 
a fire in 1116, which consumed the greater part of the 
monastery; Martin of Bee, who completed the choir and 
transept-aisles, and who governed the monastery with great 
prudence during the troubled times of Stephen; William 
de Waterville, and Benedict, who completed the nave, 
(the latter was Creur-de-Lion's Keeper of the Great Seal) ; 
Ilobert de Sutton, who first joined the side of the Barons, 
and then that of Henry III., and was compelled to pay 
heavy fines in consequence ; Richard Ashton, and Ilobert 
Kirton, who built the eastern transept, or New Building ; 
and John Chambers, the last abbot and first bishop. The 
monastery had steadily increased in wealth and importance ; 
and at the time of the dissolution it was one of the richest, 
though scarcely the best-conducted in England. Many of 
the English monarchs had visited it on their way to or from 
the north. Edward III., his queen, and court kept the 
Easter festival at Peterborough in 1327, on which occasion 
the abbot, Adam de Botheby, expended nearly 500. 
Cardinal Wolsey kept the same feast at Peterborough in 
great state in 1528; but although the abbey expended 
enormous sums in entertaining its royal and noble visitors, 
the local rhyme characterizing the great monasteries of the 
ions indicates that it was scarcely so liberal to those of 
lower degree : 

" Ramsay the bounteous of gold and of fee, 
Crowland as courteous as courteous may be, 
Spalding the rich and Peterborough the proud, 
Sawtrey by the way 
That poor abbaye 
Gave more alms in one day 
Than all they." 

John Chambers, the last abbot, Fellow of Merton and 
Dean of St. Stephen's, Westminster* who, in the words of 

dt^amtars 10 Jitambkr. 129 

Guiiton, the historian of Peterborough, * f loved to sleep in 
a whole skin, and desired to die in his nest," resigned the 
abbey to Henry VIII. on the 1st of March, 1540. He was 
then granted an annual pension of 260 ; but in the fol- 
lowing year, letters patent were issued for converting the 
monastic church into the cathedral of a new diocese, which 
was to extend over the counties of Northampton and Kut- 
land, hitherto comprised in the great diocese of Lincoln. 
The church is said by Lord Herbert of Cher bury, on the 
authority of Holinshed, to have been spared as a monu- 
ment to Catherine of Arragon. Henry VIII., according to 
a somewhat apocryphal story, replied to a suggestion, 
" How well it would become his greatness to erect a fair 
monument for her," " Yes ; I will leave her one of the 
goodliest in the kingdom," meaning this church. 

[A.D. 1541 1556.] JOHN CHAMBERS retained the abbot's resi- 
dence as his palace ; and the new diocese was endowed 
with a third part of the property of the abbey, amounting 
to the yearly value of 733, (equal to about 14,660 of 
our money); the other two parts being assigned to the 
King, and to the newly-established chapter, consisting of 
a dean and six canons. Bishop Chambers erected for him- 
self in the cathedral a monument with an effigy, which 
was destroyed in 1643. 

[A.D. 1557, deposed 1559.] DAVID POOLE, Fellow of All 
Souls, chaplain to Henry VIII., Chancellor of Lichfield, 
Archdeacon of Salop and of Derby, Canon of Exeter, and 
Dean of the Arches ; was deprived for denying the supre- 
macy of Queen Mary ; " being esteemed a grave person 
and very quiet subject," says Antony Wood. He was 
committed to custody, but soon liberated, and died on one 
of the farms belonging to the see. He was buried in the 

"A.D. 1560, translated to Norwich 1584.] EDMUND SCAMBLER, 
educated at Peter House, Prebendary of York and West- 
minster, had been chaplain to Archbishop Parker. During 

VOL.n. PT. I. K 


his long episcopate at Peterborough, he alienated much of 
the land belonging to the see ; " As if," says Gunton, 
" King Henry had not taken away enough, and the Bishop 
himself would take away more." The greater part of the 
alienated estates passed into the hands of Cecil, who sur- 
rounded his mansion-house at Burleigh with the spoils of 
the see of Peterborough. At the commencement of the 
Keformation, and during the reigns of Edward VI. and 
Mary, the alienation of Church property had gone so far, 
" that in the beginning of Elizabeth's reign, statutes were 
made disabling ecclesiastical proprietors from granting 
away their lands except on leases for three lives, or twenty- 
one years. But an unfortunate reservation was made in 
favour of the crown. The Queen, therefore, and her cour- 
tiers, who obtained grants from her, continued to prey upon 
their succulent victim ." Cecil, however, was not more 
" mercenary and rapacious " than the rest of Elizabeth's 
courtiers, with the exception of Walsingham, " who spent 
his own estate in her service, and left not sufficient to pay 
his debts." (See ELY, Part II. Bishop Cox.) The Bishop 
of Peterborough was not less active in the work of aliena- 
tion after his translation to Norwich ; and Lord Keeper 
Puckering petitioned the Queen to confer the see of Ely on 
Scambler, when eighty-eight years old, in order that he 
might give him a lease of part of the lands. This second 
translation never took place ; and by an act in the first 
year of James I., conveyances of bishops' lands to the 
crown are made void : " a concession," says Hallam, " much 
to the King's honour.' 

[A.D. 15851600.] RICHAKD ROWLAND, Master of St. John's 
College, Cambridge. In 1594 he was disappointed of the 
archiepiscopal see of York, which he had " much endea- 
voured after." During his episcopate, Mary Queen of 
Scots was buried at Peterborough. The sermon on this 
occasion, however, (from Ps. xxxix. 5, 6, 7,) which " made 
Hallam, Const. Hist., ch. iv. 

JBoht to Ifeiwg. 131 

a great noise among factious people," was preached by 
William Wickham, Bishop of Lincoln. 

[A.D. 16011630.] THOMAS DOVE, Fellow of Pembroke Hall 
and Dean of Norwich, a chaplain of Queen Elizabeth's, 
who was wont to call him " the Dove with silver wings," 
from his excellent preaching and reverend aspect. He 
kept great hospitality during his long episcopate. 

[A.D. 1630, translated to Bath and Wells 1632.] WILLIAM 
PIERS, Dean of Peterborough. (See WELLS CATHEDRAL.) 

[A.D. 1633, translated to Hereford 1634.] AUGUSTINE LIND- 
SELL, Fellow of Clare Hall, Prebendary of Lincoln and 
Durham, Dean of Lichfield. Bishop Lindsell, whose 
learning was considerable, was the editor of " Theophylact 
on St. Paul's Epistles," fol. 1636. 

[A.D. 16341638.] FRANCIS DEE, Fellow of St. John's, 
Cambridge, Chancellor of Salisbury, and Dean of Chi- 

[A.D. 1639 1649.] JOHN TOWERS, Fellow of Queens', 
Cambridge, Prebendary of Westminster and Dean of 
Peterborough. The " great commission for draining the 
fens " was opened at Peterborough soon after this bishop's 
accession. The commissioners sat for some days in the 
great hall of the palace ; and their decisions were hence- 
forth known as "Peterborough law." The troubles of 
the civil war fell heavily on Bishop Towers, whose 
cathedral suffered more than any other in England from 
the fanatic soldiery. (Part I. xv.) He was himself for 
some time in attendance on the King, and having been, 
says Willis, " outed of all by the iniquity of the times," 
died in obscurity, Jan. 10, 164f, " twenty days before his 
great master King Charles." 

). 1660, translated to Lincoln 1663.] BENJAMIN LANEY, 
appointed after twelve years' vacancy of the see, had been 
Master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and Dean of Ro- 
chester. He had attended Charles II. during his exile. 
Dr. Cosin, consecrated to the see of Durham at the same 

K 2 


time as Bishop Laney to that of Peterborough, had been 
Dean of Peterborough before the troubles, and returned to 
his former charge on the Restoration. The cathedral of 
Peterborough, which remained in a ruinous condition for 
many years after the desecration, had been partly restored, 
and was used by the inhabitants as a parish church. He 
rebuilt one of the great western arches which had fallen 
down. Dean Cosin, installed Dean Nov. 7, 1640, "re- 
newed the ancient usage," and " settled the church and 
choir in a proper order." 

[A.D. 16631679.] JOSEPH HENSHAW, Fellow of All Souls, 
Dean of Chichester, author of Horce Succesivce, a book of 
some reputation in its day. " Having lived not very hos- 
pitably in his diocese," writes Brown Willis, he died 
suddenly in London, and was buried near his wife in the 
church of East Lavant, Sussex, which living had been 
bestowed on him by Archbishop Laud. 

[A.D. 1679, translated to Norwich 1685.] WILLIAM LLOYD, 
translated to Peterborough from Llandaff. Bishop Lloyd, 
who died in 1710, was the longest lived of the Nonjuring 
bishops. He was deprived 1690. (See NORWICH.) 

[A.D. 1685, deprived 1690.] THOMAS WHITE, also a Non- 
juror. Educated at St. John's, Cambridge, Chaplain to the 
Princess Anne, and Vicar of Newark. He was one of the 
seven bishops sent to the Tower. He died 1698. 

[A.D. 1691 1718.] RICHARD CUMBERLAND, a native of Lon- 
don, educated at St. Paul's School, and Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, became successively Rector of Bampton, Ox- 
fordshire, Chaplain to the Lord Keeper, Sir 0. Bridgeman, 
1668, and Rector of All Saints, Stamford, 1680. " He had 
no pretension to quick and brilliant talents," writes his 
great grandson, Richard Cumberland, author of "The 
Observer." " His mind was fitted for elaborate and pro- 
found researches, as his works more fully testify." Bishop 
Cumberland was the author of a refutatioa of the ' free 
principles ' of Hobbes, entitled De Legibus Natures Dis- 

f0 Clarxerirrg. 133 

quisitio Philosopliica, a book which, between the years 
1672 (when it first appeared) and 1750, was several times 
reprinted, in Latin and English, both at home and on the 
Continent. Besides some lesser works, Bishop Cumberland 
also wrote Origines Gentium Antiquissimce, or, " Attempts 
for Discovering the Times of the First Planting of Na- 
tions." London, 1724. His monument remains in the New 
Building, with an inscription already noticed. (Part I. xx.) 

[A.D. 1718 1728.] WHITE KENNETT had been eleven years 
Dean of Peterborough, and is perhaps the most distin- 
guished prelate who has ever filled the see. Bishop Ken- 
nett was born at Dover in 1660, was educated at West- 
minster and Oxford, and became successively Vicar of 
Ambrosden, in Oxfordshire, Eector of Shottesbroke, Berk- 
shire, and Dean (1708) and Bishop of Peterborough. 
Bishop Kennett is best remembered, however, for his lite- 
rary labours. Besides many smaller works in which he 
replied to the arguments of Atterbury respecting the 
history and rights of the Convocation, Bishop Kennett 
wrote " Parochial Antiquities : a History of Ambrosden, 
Bicester, and the Neighbourhood." 4to., 1695 : this book 
was republished by Dr. Bandinel, (Oxford, 1818,) and is 
still of considerable interest and value ; " A Complete 
History of England," 3 vols. folio, 1706 (the third volume 
alone is Kennett's, and contains the history from Charles T. 
to William III.) ; and " A Eegister and Chronicle, Eccle- 
siastical and Civil," 2 vols. folio, 1728. (Part I. xx.) 

The chapter library at Peterborough was greatly en- 
riched by the care of Bishop Kennett, and of his registrar, 
the Rev. Joseph Sparke, editor of a collection of chronicles 
which has now become rare, entitled Historice Anglicanw 
Scriptores Varii. London, folio, 1723. The volume con- 
tains many of the chronicles connected with the abbey of 

[A.D. 17291747.] ROBERT CLAVERING was translated to 
Peterborough from Llandaff. 

134 g.etrb0r0ttg|j CaijrebraL 

[A.D. 1747, translated to Salisbury 1757.] JOHN THOMAS, 
tutor to George III. (See SALISBURY.) 

[A.D. 1757, translated to London 1764.] RICHARD TERRICK 
(See ST. PAUL'S.) 

[A.D. 1764 1769.] ROBERT LAMB, previously Dean of Peter- 
borough 1744. 

[A.D. 17691794.] JOHN HINCHCLIFFE, Master of Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; which position he retained after he 
became Bishop of Peterborough, until in 1789 he was 
appointed to the Deanery of Durham, which he held with 
his bishopric until his death. 

[A.D. 1794 1813.] SPENCER MADAN, educated at West- 
minster School, and Trinity College, Cambridge, of which 
he became a Fellow 1750. He was appointed Prebendary 
of Peterborough in 1770, and became Bishop of Bristol in 
1793, from which he was translated the next year. 

[A.D. 18131819.] JOHN PARSONS, born at Oxford 1761, 
educated at the Cathedral School, Christ Church, and at 
Magdalen College, became Fellow of Wadham 1785, and 
was elected Master of Balliol 1798. He afterwards was 
appointed Dean of Bristol, and in 1813 Bishop of Peter- 
borough. He retained the Mastership until his death. He 
died at Oxford, and was buried in the chapel of Balliol 

[A.D. ] 819 1839.] HERBERT MARSH, born in 1757, educated 
-at St. John's College, Cambridge, of which he became a 
Fellow 1782. He resided some years at Gottingen and 
Leipsic, when he became acquainted with German theology, 
which he afterwards introduced into England, in the work 
by which he is chiefly known, his translation of J. D. 
Michaelis' " Introduction to the New Testament." Having 
received a pension from Mr. Pitt for a political pamphlet, 
he returned to England in 1800, and became Lady Mar- 
garet Professor in 1807, which chair he occupied till his 
death. In 1816 he was consecrated Bishop of Llandaff, 
and in 1819 was translated to Peterborough. 

ta tae*. 135 

[A.D. 18391861] GEORGE DAVYS, Preceptor to Queen Vic- 

toria, Dean of Chester 1831-1839. 
[A.D. 18641868.] FRANCIS JEUNE, Master of Pembroke 

College, Oxford, and Canon of Gloucester 1843, Dean of 

Lincoln 1864. 
[A.D. 1868.] WILLIAM CONNOR MAGEE, Dean of Cork 1864, 

Dean of the Vice-Koyal Chapel, Dublin, 1866. 




Architectural History, I.-II 141-143 

West Front, III 143-144 

Nave, IV 144-147 

Nave Vaulting, Y 147-149 

Nave-aisles, VI .. .. 149-151 

Organ-screen and Ante-choir, VII. 151-152 

Choir-stalls, Misereres, VIII 152-155 

Central Tower, IX 155-156 

Presbytery and Apse, Monuments, X.-XI 156-163 

Transepts, XII.-XIII 163-167 

Choir-aisles, X1V.-XVII 167-173 

Jesus Chapel, XV 169-170 

Apse, Bishop's Seat, Lady-chapel, XVI 170-171 

St. Luke's Chapel, Beauchamp Chapel, XVII. .. 171-173 

Cloisters, XVIII 173-178 

Exterior, XIX 178-180 

Bishop's Palace, XX 180-181 

Gateways, XXI 181-183 

Grammar-school, XXII 183-184 

Distant Views, XXIII 184-185 






A Nave. 

B Central Tower. 

CC Transepts. 

D Chapel of St. Osyth(?) 

E Choir. 

F Ap*e. 

G Eastern Aisle, or Retro-choir. 

H Jesus Chapel. 

I <S2. Luke's Chapel. 

K jSt'fe o/ Lady- chapel, destroyed. 

L Beauchamp Chapel. 

M Cloisters. 

N Site o/ Chapter-house, destroyed. 

9 .Door tnio Cfose. 

10 Entrance to Vestry. 

11 Queen Elizabeth's seat. 

12 Tomb of Sir Mm. Boleyn. 

13 Monument of fip. Overall. 

14 Tomb o/ flp. Goldwell. 

15 -Site o/ 7'omb o/ ^ir 2%o*. Erping- 

ham, destroyed. 

16 Entrance to St. Stephen's Chapel, 

It Vault crossing aisle. 

18 Monument of Sir Thos. Windham. 

19 Remains of Bishop's Throne. 

20 Entrance to Lady-chapel, de- 


21 .Font. 

22 Monument of Bp. Wakerirtg. 

GROUND-PLAN, NORWICH CATHEDRAL. Scale, 100 ft. to i in. 

1 l Bp. Nitfs Vha/ntry. 

2 Tomb of Chancellor Spencer. 

3 Tomb of Bp. Parkhurst. 

4 Tomb of Sir John Hobart. 

5 South-west door to Cloister. 

6 South-east, or Prior's door. 

1 1 Ante-choir Chapel of Our 



I. THE changes of the East Anglian see, and its 
history before its removal to Norwich in 1094, will be 
found noticed at length in Part II. The first stone of 
the existing cathedral was laid on a spot of ground 
called the " Cowholme," in the manor of Thorpe, at the 
eastern part of the Lady-chapel, by Bishop HERBERT 
(called LOSINGA, 10911119) in 1096. The building 
itself, with the priory, was so far completed in 1101 
that sixty Benedictine monks were then placed in the 
latter. Bishop Herbert's work comprised the choir 
and its aisles, the transept, and the eastern portion of 
the nave. Bishop EVERAED (1121, deposed 1145) car- 
ried on and completed the nave. In the year 1171 the 
church was much injured by fire, but was restored by 
JOHN OP OXFORD (1175 1200). The Lady-chapel, 
which was destroyed by Dean Gardiner in the reign 
of Elizabeth, was added at the eastern end by Bishop 
WALTER OF SUFFIELD (12151247). In 1272, the last 
year of the reign of Henry III., the church again 
suffered greatly from fire, during a fierce struggle be- 

142 Sforfokfc <a%bral. 

tween the monks and the citizens of Norwich. It was 
restored, and was solemnly consecrated in honour of 
the Holy Trinity on Advent Sunday, 1278 a ; on which 
day also Bishop William Middleton was enthroned. 
The Bishops of London, Hereford, and Waterford, and 
the Archbishop of Seez assisted at the consecration ; 
and the king, Edward I., his queen, and court were 
present. The Beauchamp chapel was added during the 
Decorated period, but its exact date is unknown. The 
clerestory of the choir was rebuilt by Bishop PERCY 
(13561369), after being crushed by the fall of the 
spire in the hurricane of 1362. The vault was added 
by Bishop GOLDWELL (14721499). The west front 
was altered by Bishop ALNWICK (1426, translated 1436), 
partly during his life, and partly by his executors after 
his death in 1449. The vaulting of the nave was the 
work of Bishop WALTER LE HART (14461472), after 
a disastrous fire in 1463. He also rebuilt the spire, 
which had been struck by lightning, and had been the 
cause of the conflagration. To Bishop Gold well, to 
gether with the vault of the presbytery, may be ascribed 
the alteration of its lower range of arches, under one 
of which, on the south side, his tomb stands. Bishop 
NYKKE, or Nix (1501 1536), added the vaulting 
of the transepts, after a fire in 1509, and altered 
two arches of the nave on the south side to form a 
chantry chapel. The cloister, commenced by Bishop 

a "Quo die ecclesiam Norwicensem, nunquam antea dedi- 

catam, dedicavit Ep. Will de Middleton." Cotton, ap. Anyl. 

Sacr. i. p. 441. 

ffifcsi cfrmtt. 143 

Walpole in 1297, was completed by Bishop Alnwick 
in 1430. 

II. -The Norman work of the cathedral, and the 
magnificent series of lierne vaults above the nave, 
choir, and transepts, are its most important features. 
No English cathedral (with the exception, perhaps, of 
Peterborough) has preserved its original Norman 
plan so nearly undisturbed. " Although retaining the 
chevet termination of the continental cathedrals, the 
general plan of this church differs most essentially 
from them. Its great length as compared with its 
breadth is such as is never found on the Continent ; 
and the bold projection of the transepts is also a purely 
English feature, though in this instance hardly carried 
to the extent which the length of the nave required. 
A central and two western spires or towers " (Norwich 
never possessed these latter) " were absolutely in- 
dispensable to complete such a design as this, which 
could never be made to look short by such an addition, 
while they would have the full value of their height 
from the lowness and extreme length of the church V 

III. Leaving for the present the gateways leading 
into the Close (see xxi.), we commence our examina- 
tion of the cathedral with the west front, which, origin- 
ally Norman, was greatly altered by Bishop ALNWICK 
(1426, tr. to Lincoln 1436). The central door was 
completed during the lifetime of the Bishop, and 
displays in its spandrils his own arms and those of 
the see, with the inscription, " Orate pro anima Domini 

Fergusson's Handbook of Arch., p. 857- 

144 gtorfoicfc <Ea%brHl. 

Wilhelmi Alnwyk Epi." On either side are canopied 
niches, from which the figures have disappeared. The 
original Norman west front remains behind Bishop 
Alnwick's additions, which were merely built up 
against the old wall, disturbing it as little as possible. 
The window above was added by the Bishop's executors 
after his death in 1449, in accordance with the direc- 
tion of his will. It is of great, perhaps disproportion- 
ate size, although the tracery with which it is filled is 
good and resembles as nearly as possible that of the 
west window of Westminster Hall. Norman turrets rise 
on either side ; and the fronts of the aisles, with their 
doors and windows, are also Norman. The pinnacles 
which crown the flanking turrets are due to Mr. Blore, 
by whom the front was restored. Owing to deficient 
bonding between the new work and the old, it became 
dangerous two years since, rendering extensive repairs 
necessary, which are not yet completed (1880). 

IV. The nave [Plate I.], which we now enter, is 
throughout Norman, with the exception of its vaulted 
roof and of the chapel constructed by Bishop Nix in 
the south aisle. Its western part is assigned, and with 
probability, to Bishop EVEKARD (1121 1115), who no 
doubt followed the original plan of his predecessor, 
Bishop Herbert. 

The nave, which extends 252 feet from the western 
door, and comprises fourteen bays to the intersection 
of the transepts, is the longest in England, with the 
exception of that of St. Alban's, which extends to 
290 feet. Four bays, however, are included in the 





choir and ante-choir. The great open arches of the 
triforium, which at once attract attention, thus form 
a more peculiar feature in the general view of the 
nave than its unusual length. The arrangement occurs 
in early Norman work on the Continent, but is found 
in no other English cathedral. There are, however, 
examples in some important churches, as at Southwell 
Minster and Waltham Abbey. 

The nave piers are unusually massive, and alternate 
regularly in design as far as the ninth pier from the 
west end. On the east and west faces of the first pier 
are circular half-piers, with cushion capitals. On the 
inner faces of the second are three semi-attached shafts, 
with plain caps. A single shaft set in the angle of 
each pier supports the outer arch, which is decorated 
with the billet-moulding. A second shaft in the alter- 
nate piers runs up to and supports the outer triforium 
arch. The faces of the piers towards the nave have 
alternately four shafts and one ; i.e. two vaulting shafts, 
and one, and two shafts running up to the triforium 
arch and none. The bases of the piers, which had been 
much injured by the burning timbers at the time of 
the great fire of 1463, have undergone a Perpendicular 

The triforium, of which the arches are scarcely less 
in size than those of the nave below them, extends 
over the whole space of the aisles, and is lighted by 
segmental-headed Decorated windows inserted at the 
back, the exterior walls being raised to receive them. 
The original triple Norman arcades remain beneath the 

VOL. II. PT. I. L 

146 gtorfoitjj 

later windows, with double wall-shafts between them in 
the southern triforium, which are destroyed in that to 
the north. The outer wall has been raised to a con- 
siderably greater height in the two easternmost bays, 
and taller windows inserted, the roof being set with 
an inward slope to gain additional light to the choir. 

On the whole north side of the nave, and as far as 
Bishop Nix's chantry on the south side, the outer arch 
of the triforium is eccentric to the sub-arches. The 
alternate courses of darker and lighter stone in the tri- 
forium arches should be noticed. Throughout, the 
triforium arches have triple shafts on their inner sides, 
and a zigzag moulding above them. The clerestory 
is set back within a wall-passage, forming a series of 
triple arches, as at Oxford. The central arch, at the 
back of which is the window, is raised on slender 
shafts, resting on the capitals of those below. A billet- 
moulding surrounds this arch. The clerestory lights 
are Norman. The capitals and bases of piers and 
shafts are throughout plain, except in the western part 
of the wall-arcade of the southern triforium. 

The alteration of the western doorway is at once 
evident from within, the original Norman arch remain- 
ing above Bishop Alnwick's Perpendicular insertion. 
A lofty Norman arcade of two arches remains on either 
side of the doorway. The two northern arches are 
some inches higher than those south ; and following 
the indication thus afforded, it will be seen that through- 
out the nave all the arches on the north side are 
slightly higher than those opposite, a fact for which 


it is difficult to account, but from which we may per- 
haps conclude that one side of the nave was completed 
before the other. 

V. The beautiful lierne-vault of the nave was the 
work of Bishop WALTER LEHART (1446 1472), the 
original Norman roof, which was of wood, having been 
destroyed when the spire of the cathedral was struck by 
lightning in 1463. The vaulting-shafts are of the same 
date as the roof itself. They descend alternately to 
the level of the triforium and clerestory. The latter 
having to meet a pair of Norman vaulting-shafts are 
united by an awkward fork resembling a water-pipe, 
similar to what is seen in the lantern of Gloucester. 
Bishop Lehart's de- 
vice, a hart lying 
in the water ( Wa'ter 
Lie-hart), altern- 
ates with an angel 
bearing a shield 
on the corbels at 
the bases of the 
longer shafts. The bosses of the roof, 225 in number, 
are carved with minute figures, which form a com- 
plete sacred history, beginning at the tower end with 
the Creation, and ending with the Last Judgment. 
All were originally painted and gilt. The vault was 
washed stone-colour in 1806, but was cleaned and the 
colouring partially restored in 1872. The bosses 
have been made the subject of an elaborate de- 
scription, illustrated by photographs, written by Dean 

L 2 

148 gorfoitk <&a%bral. 

Goulburn, and published by Mr. Stacy of Norwich. 
In the centre of this roof, between the west door and 
the choir screen, is a circular opening of some size. 
Similar openings exist in the roofs of Durham and 
Exeter Cathedrals, and in other vaults of the Decorated 
and Perpendicular periods; and it has been con- 
jectured that they served for censing the church on 
great festivals, and for other occasional ceremonies c . 

The great west window is best seen from the upper 
part of the nave. It is filled with stained glass by 
HEDGELAND, as a memorial of Bishop STANLEY, who died 
in 1849. The design is of more pictorial character than 
usual, but the result is very far from pleasing. The 
subjects are the adoration of the Magi, the finding of 
Moses, and the Ascension, after KAFFAELLE ; the brazen 
serpent, after LE BKUN ; and Christ blessing little chil- 
dren, after WEST. In the centre of the nave, over the 

c Harrod, Castles and Convents of Norfolk, p. 270. Mr. 
Harrod quotes the following passage from Lambarde's Topo- 
graphical Dictionary : " I myself, being a child, once was in 
Paule's Church at London, at a feast of Whitsontide, wheare the 
comyng down of the Holy Ghost was set forth by a white pigeon 
that was let to fly out of a hole that is yet to be seen in the 
mydst of the roof of the great ile ; and by a long censer which, 
descending out of the same place almost to the very ground, 
was swinged up and down at such a length that it reached 
at one swepe almost to the west gate of the church, and with 
the other to the queer stairs of the same, breathing out over 
the whole church and companie a most pleasant perfume of such 
swete things as burned therein." A curious account of similar 
ceremonies in the great church at Dunkirk early in the last 
century will be found in the fourth volume of Ellis's Letters 
Illustrative of English History, Fourth Series. 


grave of Bishop Stanley, is a black marble slab, the 
inscription on which should be read. 

VI. The nave-aisles are covered by a plain quadri- 
partite vault, without ribs, springing from shafts set 
against the piers of the nave, and from half-piers with 
semi-attached shafts against the opposite wall. The 
bays are divided by a plain arch, slightly horse-shoed. 
Decorated windows have been inserted ; and a blank 
arcade, of five arches in each bay, fills the wall below 
them. In both aisles some of the original Norman 
window-splays, with shafts at the angles, remain. 

In the north aisle, in the fifth bay stands a mag- 
nificent altar-tomb of Purbeck marble with richly 
panelled sides, removed from the Jesus Chapel. It is 
that of Sir THOMAS WYNDHAM and his four wives, and 
formerly stood in the Lady-chapel. The brasses are 
lost. A mural monument above it, to a lay clerk named 
Parsley, has a quaint inscription that may reward 
perusal. Between the sixth and seventh pillars lies the 
learned Dean PRIDEAUX, author of the " Connection of 
Sacred and Profane History," d. 1724. In the eighth 
bay an Early English door with segmental head and 
curious carving in the spandrils, now blocked up, 
opened to the green-yard of the priory, in which was a 
cross where sermons were occasionally preached. In 
the ninth bay is a memorial window by WASHINGTON, 
for WILLIAM SMITH, d. 1849, for forty years Professor 
of Modern History at Cambridge. In the tenth bay 
is an altar-tomb with a beautiful panelled face, from 
which the brasses have been removed. It is that of 

150 gorfowjj <&a%brHl. 

SIR JOHN HOBART, Attorney-General to Henry VII. 
This monument was enclosed in a chantry. 

In the south aisle the windows of the sixth bay have 
been filled with stained glass as a memorial for mem- 
bers of the family of Hales, by WAILES. The seventh 
and eighth bays were converted into a chantry by 
Bishop Nix (1501 1536). The sides of the piers and 
the vaulting are much enriched with panels and tracery 
of late Perpendicular character. The Bishop's arms 
occur in the spandrils ; and at the east end, forming 
the reredos with a pillar-piscina at the south-east 
corner, are three canopied niches. The iron-work on 
which the ' sacring-bell ' hung, remains ; but the railing 
which surrounded the chapel, together with a stone 
bracket which projected into the nave, were destroyed 
by the Puritans. The windows of this chantry are 
filled with stained glass to Sir SAMUEL BIGNOLD, by 
HABDMAN, with silvery canopies, and to Sir ROBERT 
HARVEY, by O'CONNOR, the colours of which are much 
too glaring. ' In the seventh bay is the tomb of Chan- 
cellor SPENCER, on which the rents of the dean and 
chapter were formerly paid; and in the ninth is the 
plain altar-tomb of Bishop PARKHURST (1560 1575), 
from which the brasses have been removed. Against 
the wall is the monument of Dean GARDINER (1573 
1589), who pulled down the ruined Lady-chapel ; 
and against the pier at the foot of Chancellor Spencer's 
tomb, a mural monument for Dean HENRY FAIRFAX, 
one of the Fellows of Magdalen who resisted James II. 
In the last bay of this aisle toward the east, and in the 


fifth bay from the west, are doors opening to the clois- 
ters. (See xvin.) On the west side of the eleventh 
pier is a painted mural monument to William Inglott, 
organist of the cathedral (died 1621), depicting Art 
and Age crowning him. 

VII. The ninth pier on either side differs from all 
the rest, and is circular, with a spiral ribbed orna- 
ment, like that of the piers at Durham. These piers 
mark the original extent of the choir, which, as usual 
in Norman cathedrals, stretched beyond the central 
tower, and comprised two, and with the western screens 
and chapels four, bays of the nave. The pier now 
incorporated with the organ-screen will prove on 
examination to have been originally of a similar cylin- 
drical form. Beyond this point eastward, the vaulting- 
shafts are cut short about half-way, to prevent their 
interfering with the stalls and the vault of the western 
chapels, and terminate in corbel-heads. A skeleton 
peeps out grimly under the plaster of the wall-arcade 
at the end of the south aisle. 

The organ-screen at present crosses the nave at the 
east end of the eleventh bay. The lower part, which 
is ancient, has been restored, and was no doubt the 
work of Bishop Lehart, whose arms and device appear 
in the spandrils of the entrance. The projecting 
upper part, which was completed in 1833 by Mr. 
Salvin, is heavy and ugly, and its effect is by no means 
improved by the decoration of the organ which stands 
above it. Extending westward, between the piers on 
either side of the screen door, were small chapels with 

152 Jujrfamlj (Catfecbrnl 

altars; that on tlie north dedicated to St. William, a 
boy said to have been crucified by the Jews in 1137 
(see Part II., Bishop EVERAHD, and compare the notice 
of " Little St. Hugh," Lincoln Cathedral), that on the 
south to St. Mary. Both were destroyed during the 
Rebellion. The reredoses of these chapels remain, 
but their character is almost obliterated by restoration. 
The pillar-piscina of that to the north may still be 
seen, as well as the cluster of shafts on either side of 
the entrance which supported the vault that roofed in 
these chapels westward. 

The ante-choir, which fills the space under the organ- 
loft, between two piers, was the chapel of our Lady of 
Pity. Its upper portion is cut off by the floor of the 
organ-loft, which forms a huge gallery, from which, 
till recently, the cathedral service used to be sung. 
Galleries above the stalls still encumber the choir on 
either side. The walls north and south are covered 
with a Perpendicular panelling. Till 1854 the 
side-aisles were blocked by solid walls, broken by 
doors. They are now filled with stone screens, glazed ; 
that to the north having formed part of a screen 
separating the Jesus Chapel from the north-east aisle 
of the choir, from which it was most unwarrantably 

VIII. The choir itself extends beyond the screen to 
the extreme eastern apse, the graceful curve of which, 
seen beyond the Norman arcades of the central tower, 
is very picturesque and striking. Bishop Lehart's roof 
extends to the western piers of the tower. The lower 







JJUscrms. 153 

arches of the choir have now plain mouldings, instead 
of the billet seen in the nave. In other respects the 
two bays west of the tower differ not at all from those 
of the nave. The stalls [Plate II.] are arranged on 
either side of the choir as far as the transept. They 
are sixty-two in number, for the prior, sub-prior, and 
sixty monks. Their carving and details, which are 
Perpendicular and probably of the middle of the 
fifteenth century, are excellent and deserve the closest 
examination. Remark especially the birds serving as 
crockets, and the curious circular heads at the folia- 
tion-cusps of the arches. The paint with which these 
stalls were encrusted at the general " repair and beau- 
tification " in 1806 has been removed, and the broken 
portions carefully restored. 

The misereres below [Plate III.] are still more in- 
teresting than the stalls, and are of two periods : the 
earlier, dating probably from the commencement of 
the fifteenth century, are distinguished by a ledge or 
seat with sharp angles ; the later, which date from the 
end of the same century, have a ledge rounded at the 
sides, and sinking inward at the centre. They have 
been carefully examined and described by Mr. 
Harrod d . All will repay careful notice; but the 
most interesting are as follows : 

South side of choir, beginning west. 

2. A lion and dragon biting each other. The grouping 
very spirited. 

d Castles and Convents of Norfolk. The descriptions which 
follow are Mr Harrod's. 

154 gtorfckfc <&a%bral 

3. A rose-tree. 

6. A man seated, reading. Right, a shepherd, with his 
flock about him. Left, a group of scholars ; two with books, 
two fighting : the master taking cakes from a basket. 

10. A man and a woman, in civil costume ; the lady with 
a rosary, the man with a long girdle. 

12. A crowned head. 

16. Two male figures, preparing to wrestle. 

Corporation-pew, south of choir. 

23. A large human head, supported by foliage. 

28. A schoolmaster scourging a child : his scholars about 

30. A fox running away with a goose, pursued by a woman 
with a distaff ; meanwhile, a pig feeds from a pot, and other 
pots and pans are thrown about in the melee. 

North side of choir, beginning west. 

4. A knight in armour. 

5. A huntsman, with stag and dogs. 

7. A knight and lady. The arms on either side are Wing- 
field (right} and Boville (left). Sir Thomas Wingfield married 
the heiress of Boville in the latter part of the reign of 
Edward III. 

13. A man in armour, sitting on a lion, and tearing open 
its jaws. 

16. A man riding on a boar. 

17. A large owl, with small birds about it. 

18. A man drinking, upset by a boar. 

Corporation-pew, north of choir. 

23. A man riding on a stag. 

28. A castle. 

29. A monkey driving another in a wheelbarrow. 

Central &ote, 155 

The Bishop's throne was erected by Dean Lloyd, 
towards the end of the last century, " in resemblance 
of ancient Gothic workmanship." 

IX. The central tower, the first story of which is 
early Norman, and probably part of Bishop Herbert's 
work, is open to the roof, as a lantern. The upper 
stories are also Norman, but of later date. The tower 
is raised on four very lofty circular arches, having 
semi-attached shafts in front and in the rebates. 
Above, on all four sides, are three arcades, all cir- 
cular-headed, the upper and lower pierced with pas- 
sages leading to the roof. The lower arcade is of six 
arches on each side. That in the centre is narrower 
than either of the others, and merely relieves the 
wall, " except in the extremity of each face, where 
it is pierced by a large circular aperture, which goes 
quite through the wall." The upper arcade of three 
arches is the loftiest, and is pierced for windows. 
Two large shafts support each a group of smaller ones, 
from which the arch springs within which the window 
is set, all the shafts being " admirably proportioned 
to the great height at which they are placed." The 
windows are filled with stained glass, which produces 
a singularly good effect. Above this arcade the lan- 
tern is closed by a flat wooden ceiling of the worst 
possible design, which it is hoped may be speedily 

The transepts ( xn.) which open south and north 
from the tower, were formerly separated from the 
choir, and encumbered by huge galleries. They were 

156 Ifarfoicb <&a%bral, 

thrown into it during the alterations of 1851, and have 
been filled with oaken benches almost to the very end. 

X. The portion of the choir [Plate IV.] which ex- 
tends eastward of the tower has been greatly altered, 
although the original Norman ground-plan remains 
unchanged. The roof and clerestory had been crushed 
in 1362 by the fall of the spire. The clerestory was 
then built by Bishop Percy. The present stone vault 
was erected by Bishop GOLDWELL (1472-1499), who 
also transformed the arches on either side, as far as 
the apse, from Norman to Perpendicular. Bishop 
Percy's roof of finely-moulded oaken timber, originally 
intended to be seen from below, still remains above 
the stone vaulting. 

The original design of the presbytery seems to have 
differed in no respect from that of the nave. The 
Norman arches of the triforium, which are without 
the zigzag ornament of those in the nave, remain un- 
touched; but the shafts running up in front of the 
piers have been cut away, except at the junction of 
the choir with the apse, where the shafts once sup- 
porting the great arch have been altered, but their 
Norman capitals retained. 

The triforium should be ascended for the sake of the 
view ; that from the centre of the apse is remarkably 
grand, commanding the whole length of the church to 
its west window. In the walls at the back of the tri- 
forium, below its segmental-headed Decorated win- 
dows, are the original triple Norman windows, now 
closed, between which are double wall-shafts, once 




supporting the semi-arches of the triforium roof. The 
capitals on the south side are somewhat richly carved, 
though so far removed from the eye. 

Bishop Percy's clerestory is very light and grace- 
ful. Groups of slender shafts, rising in a line with 
the triforium arches, form an arcade in front of the 
lofty four-light windows [Plate V.], between which are 
tall ogee-headed niches. They assist in carrying the 
groined ceiling, eighty-three feet from the pavement, 
which is, however, not so rich as that of Bishops 
Lehart or Nix. The windows of the apse, and on the 
south side of the choir, are flamboyant ; those on the 
north Perpendicular. " The bosses, which are so ela- 
borate and varied in the nave, are here very poor, the 
bishop's rebus (a well, or) forming the subject of the 
majority." (Harrod.) " In the centre of the roof . . . 
is a small round hole, from which, I believe, hung the 
light of the Sacrament, the usual place of which was 
before the altar, and not above it. From hence, at 
Easter, might the light have been let down to fire the 
great sepulchre light. The hole is not a forced one ; 
it was made when the roof was built." (Id.) 

The apse, which, like the eastern part of the choir, 
was originally early Norman, and the work of Bishop 
Herbert, is semicircular as far as the top of the tri- 
forium. The clerestory, added by Bishop Percy, is 
pentagonal ; and the manner in which the change is 
effected deserves notice. The lower part of the apse 
consists of five arches, once closed but now open. 
They have the zigzag ornament, and the shafts of 


their piers are much enriched. They were originally 
closed half-way up, and contained stone benches for the 
clergy. The bishop's throne remains in a shattered 
state in the central arch (see the original arrange- 
ment in the aisle behind, xvi.). This was the most 
ancient position for the episcopal chair at the back 
of the high altar ; a position which it still occupies in 
some Continental churches, as it formerly did at Can- 
terbury. The eastern part of the choir has received 
much well-directed renovation at the cost of Dean 
GOULBURN. The original levels have been restored, 
and the Norman bases laid bare two feet below the 
Perpendicular bases. A fragment of a Norman arch 
(a restoration) will be noticed on the north side. 

The apse and sacrarium are paved with POWELL'S 
glass mosaic, with slabs of porphyry and other rich 
marbles interspersed. Bands of vine-foliage surround 
the Holy Table. 

The inlaid altar-table, designed by Mr. A. W. 
BLOMFIELD, of great richness and appropriateness of 
design, stands in the centre of the chord of the 

The triforium arches of the apse are slightly below 
the level of those in the choir. They are five in 
number ; and their groups of shafts, with the space 
seen at the back of the arches, lighted by windows 
filled with stained glass, produce a very fine effect. 
The capitals here are slightly more enriched than in 
the choir. Two grotesque heads serve as brackets on 
either side of the first pier. The clerestory of the 


apse has the same wall-passage as the rest of the pres- 
bytery. The glass with which its windows are filled 
is entirely modern, by WARRINGTON. The triforium 
window below is a memorial to Canon Thurlow, and 
is tolerably good. 

The view looking westward from the apse should 
be noticed. The unusual height of the choir (83 feet) 
as contrasted with that of the nave (72 feet), and the 
open arcades of the central tower, are the features 
which most attract attention. 

XI. The four lower arches on either side of the 
presbytery, between the apse and the central tower, 
once closed behind and converted into recesses covered 
with florid tracery, were opened about 1875. The 
fronts of the piers between the arches are also covered 
with tracery and tabernacle-work. Above the arches 
are square panels with shields of arms, in all of 
which the bull's head of Boleyn is conspicuous ; and 
the whole is crowned by a pierced parapet which 
rises above the base of the triforium. The small 
turrets in the tabernacle-work perhaps refer to the 
castle which forms the arms of Norwich. The 
shields, which are those of Boleyn with quarterings, 
constitute a "memorial of Sir William Boleyn of 
Blickling, who died 1505, and whose monument was 
in the first arch on the south side; and we may 
therefore conclude that his screen-work was erected 
by the Boleyn family after his death e ." 

" The Norman workmen had built this end of the 

e Harrod, Churches and Convents of Norfolk, p. 289. 

160 gforfoicfe Ca%braL 

choir slightly out of the straight line, so that a line 
drawn through the centre of the nave would strike 
the east end of the presbytery some inches south 
of the actual central point of it. The Perpendicular 
walls have been built so as in some measure to cor- 
rect this deviation ; and the consequence has been, 
that the central shaft of the two eastern arches on 
the south side, would, if it had been left in its place, 
have overhung the parapet; but it has been com- 
pletely removed, and the wall made flat up to the 
spring of the arches. All the shafts in the same 
position on the north side are pared down in a 
similar way f ." 

In the recesses on the north side of the choir, 

1. (beginning from the west) mural tablets for 
Bishop HORNE (died 1792) and Dean LLOYD (died 

2. The monument of Dr. MOORE (died 1779) ; 
whose periwigged head is in grotesque juxtaposition 
with a cherub making a very ugly face, and drying 
his eyes with what seems to be his shirt. On a 
panel in front of the pier is a tablet for the youngest 
son of Bishop HALL, who died in 1642. 

4. The fourth recess on this side is known as 
" Queen Elizabeth's seat," because it was prepared 
for that Queen's occupation on her visit to Norwich, 
as Bishop Freake's guest, in 1578. At the back of 
this recess is a quatrefoiled hagioscope or squint, 

f Harrod, Churches and Convents of Norfolk, pp. 285, 286. 

UTonwnwtts m (Cjjoir. 161 

affording worshippers in the aisle a view of the 
altar before the later work was erected in front of it. 
Another similar hagioscope is said to have existed on 
the opposite side of the presbytery. The Perpen- 
dicular panelling of this recess is modern, and was 
constructed at the time the arches of the apse were 
stopped up (before 1785). Before that time this 
recess was filled in with a plain partition, reaching 
to within a foot of the spring of the arch. The 
Perpendicular bases are on a higher level than those 
of the other recesses, there having been a flight of 
steps leading up to the bridge-chapel, across the 
procession path ( xiv.). Chantrey's statue of Bishop 
Bathurst, originally placed here, has been removed 
to the South Transept. 

On the south side, beginning from the east, the 
tomb in the first recess is shewn as that of Sir 
William Boleyn (died 1505), father of Thomas 
Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire, and great-grandfather of 
Queen Elizabeth. Blickling, about thirteen miles 
from Norwich, was the property of the Boleyns 
before its purchase by the Hobarts ; and is generally 
thought to have been the birth-place of Anne Boleyn, 
who is known to have spent her early years there. 
The tomb is, however, modern, of red-brick plastered 
over, and was set up when the Presbytery arches were 
blocked up. The slab which covered this tomb, now 
in the aisle floor, bears the matrix of a female efligy. 

2. In the second recess is the monument of Bishop 
OVERALL (died 1619), with a quaint coloured bust 

VOL. II. PT. I. M 

162 gorfaicfc 

looking out from a niche above. The monument was 
placed here by his friend and secretary, John Cosin, 
after his own elevation to the see of Durham. 

3. The third recess contains the chantry of Bishop 
GOLDWELL (14721479), the builder of the present 
clerestory and roof of the cljoir. The recess was not 
closed by a wall, like the others, and is now glazed 
at the back. The canopy of the tomb, covered with 
Perpendicular tracery, divides the arch. The trellis- 
work tracery of the vaulting should be remarked. 
The altar-tomb, of which the sides are enriched with 
ornamented panels, is at the south-west corner of the 
recess ; and in the space, east, an altar was placed by 
Bishop Goldwell during his lifetime, dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity, SS. James the Greater and the Less, 
the r credos of which remains. The effigy, which has 
been painted and gilt, is interesting in spite of much 
injury, and is remarkable as being " the only instance 
of the monumental effigy of a bishop, prior to the 
Eeformation, in which the cappa pluvialis, or proces- 
sional cope, is represented as the outward vestment 
instead of the casula, or chesible." (M. H. Bloxam.) 
Beneath the cope is the dalmatic, the ornamental 
border of which runs the whole length of the effigy. 
Beneath the dalmatic is seen the border of the tunicle, 
and beneath this, again, the fringed ends of the stole, 
and finally the skirt of the alb. The amice surrounds 
the neck. The maniple hangs over the left arm. The 
lower part of the pastoral staff has the vexillum, 
or scarf, swathed round it. 





In front of the high altar was the monument of 
Bishop Herbert, founder of the cathedral. It was 
much injured at the Rebellion; and of a new one, 
which was erected in 1682, and taken down by Dean 
Pellew to make room for the communicants, the slab 
alone now remains fixed in the pavement. The very 
beautiful bronze lectern [Plate VI.] of late Decorated 
character, which was for a long time hidden among 
useless lumber in the Jesus Chapel, deserves careful 
attention. A pelican " in her piety," with her claws 
resting on a globe, forms the support. Round the 
base are three small figures, added in 1845 : a bishop 
with pastoral staff, giving his benediction; a priest 
with chalice; and a deacon wearing his stole over 
his right shoulder. 

XII. The transepts, like the choir and the lower 
part of the central tower, are no doubt the work of 
Bishop HERBERT. The general arrangement in both 
is the same as that of the nave and choir ; they vary, 
however, in details. The north and south ends of 
both consist of three stories, in the lower of which 
are two windows with a blind arcade between, and in 
both the upper stories three Norman windows, from 
which Perpendicular tracery has been removed. Be- 
tween the windows rise vaulting-shafts, the upper 
part of which is cut off by Bishop Nix's roof. The 
north and south ends of both transepts have been 
divided from the rest of the church by modern panelled 
screens. Till within a comparatively recent period 
the last bay of the South Transept was cut off by 

M 2 

164 jforfcitjj C a%bral. 

a wall (shown in Britton's ground-plan), and was 
annexed to the prison of the Close. 

In the south transept, the lower part of the walls are 
lined by a Norman arcade ; on the east side an inter- 
secting arcade, with greatly elongated shafts, fills the 
triforium space of the first bay on the east side, 
behind which a staircase ascends to the upper stories 
of the tower. The west wall shows two rows of 
triple Norman windows. A bad stained window, of 
the Ascension, executed by the wife of a former Dean, 
judiciously removed from the apse, has found a place 
here. The monument of Bishop SCAMBLER (1585 
1595) is on the west wall, as well as a memorial brass 
to the officers and men of the 9th (East Norfolk) 
Eegiment of Foot who fell in China and Japan ; and 
on the east wall is a monument to those of the same 
regiment who fell in the Afghan campaign of 1842. 
Here also is placed Chantrey's fine sitting figure of 
Bishop Bathurst (died 1837), the latest work of the 
sculptor, removed from the north side of the choir. 
A clock, with figures of James I.'s time, which struck 
the quarters with their axes, formerly stood here ; 
and was probably the successor of a very curious 
one erected between 1322 and 1325, with elaborate 
machinery, resembling that of the clocks at Wells 
and Exeter g . 

The very rich roof of the transept was the work of 
Bishop Nix (15011536). "Its bosses illustrate 

This clock has been described (from the Norwich Sacrist 
Kolls) by Mr. Way in the Archaeological Journal, vol. xii. 

in ^str. 16 

the early history of Christ, the Presentation, the 
Baptism, the Disputation in the Temple, and some 
of the early miracles." 

The south transept, like the north,- had an apsidal 
chapel projecting from it easterly; which has long 
disappeared. At the south-east angle is the vestry, 
a long vaulted room of the Decorated period, with a 
chamber above it. It has been suggested that the 
vestry was originally the sacristy ; and that the upper 
room was a chapel of St. Edmund h . 

In the vestry was preserved the altar-piece of the 
Jesus Chapel, now in the choir-aisle at the east end 
( xv.) ; a picture, according to Dr. Waagen, " of great 
significance in the history of English painting." " It 
contains, in five compartments, the Scourging, the 
Bearing the Cross, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection, 
and the Ascension ; and judging from the forms of 
art, may have been executed between 1380 and 1400. 
Here that idealistic tendency so often mentioned is still 
throughout adhered to ; the well-arranged drapery is 
of great softness ; the colouring powerful, and in 
many of the heads of great warmth ; finally, the 
treatment in size-colours broad, and in full body. 
Both the figures and the raised elegant patterns of 
the gold ground entirely resemble the indubitable 
English miniatures of the same period ; so that there 
is no question in my mind as to the English origin 
of this picture. Excepting the Bearing of the Cross, 
of which much has fallen off, the preservation may 
h Harrod, p. 301. 


be called good, and a glass over it prevents any 
further mischief 1 ." An engraving from this altar- 
piece will be found in the Norwich volume of the 
Archaeological Institute, together with a paper on 
the subject by Mr. Albert Way, who (as does Mr. 
Digby Wyatt) considers it a work of the Siennese 
school (circa 1370). The heads, he observes, espe- 
cially that of St. John, " recal strikingly the works 
of Simone Memmi. That artist, however, died as 
early as 1345." 

The Norman arch opening from this transept into 
the south choir-aisle, was filled with a screen- work of 
rich late Perpendicular tracery by ROBERT BRONDE, 
of Catton, the last Prior but one, 15041529. A 
doorway opens below the screen-work. The design 
is exceedingly elaborate, but graceful. It may be 
compared with that of the screens (of somewhat later 
date) with which Wolsey filled the Norman arches 
at Oxford. The iron-work of the lock should be 
remarked, with the Prior's initials, E.G., P.N. 
(Robert Catton, Prior Norwicensis). The arch lead- 
ing from this transept into the aisle of the nave 
is filled with stone screen-work, bearing the initials 
of Canons Wodehouse and Sedgwick. 

XIII. In the north transept, over a door at the 
north end, is a Norman wall-arcade, curiously orna- 
mented above with a billet-moulding disposed in 
triangular arches, with a rudely-carved animal's head 
projecting between them. An arcade of semicircular 
Art Treasures in Great Britain, vol. iii. p. 437. 


arches, witli the billet-moulding, against the east 
wall of the transept, marks the position of a stair- 
case leading to the tower, the doorway to which with 
its chequered tympanum, deserves notice. The bosses 
of Bishop Nix's roof relate to the Nativity, and to the 
events immediately succeeding. The eastern apsidal 
chapel (possibly St. Osyth's) remains, but must be 
entered from without; the communication having 
been closed between it and the transept? (see xix.). 
The screen between this transept and the north choir- 
aisle is modern, and its carvings deserve attention. 
To make room for it, however, a, fine Early Eng- 
lish doorway (given in one of Britton's plates) was 

XIV. The aisles, which extend quite round the 
choir, and from which three apsidal chapels pro- 
jected at the east end, were Bishop Herbert's work. 
The details closely resemble those of the nave-aisles. 

On the floor of the north choir-aisle, which we now 
enter, is a "remarkable Purbeck coped coffin-lid," 
discovered in 1781, buried face downward in the 
pavement, . . . . " presenting the very unusual addi- 
tion of a bevilled edge, in which an inscribed brass 
was inserted entirely round it." (Harrod.) The brass 
itself has disappeared, although the nails remain. It 
is possibly the monument of Prior NICHOLAS DE 
BEAMPTON (died 1268) ; " but if so, it must be a very 
early example of the brass fillet." A long raised 
seat along the wall above this coffin-lid marks the 
site of the monument of Sir THOMAS EKPINGHAM, 


the " good Sir Thomas " of Agincourt (see xxi.). 
It has long been destroyed. A chapel (St. Stephen's 
or St. Andrew's) was entered through the arch which 
remains in the opposite wall, and corresponded with 
the Beauchamp chapel in the south choir-aisle. No 
portion of this Chapel now remains. On the wall 
adjoining is the Elizabethan monument of Dame 
Elizabeth Calthropp, died 1582. The procession 
path is spanned by a bridge-chapel, accessible both 
from the altar platform by steps of which traces 
remain, and from the aisle by a newel staircase 
recently restored carried through the vault which 
supports the chapel. This vault, ribs and all, is of 
chalk, of Early Decorated character. It has evi- 
dently been lengthened at both ends. In the eastern 
bay is the quatrefoil hagioscope or squint, already 
noticed ( XL). In common with all mediaeval ar- 
rangements the use of which was not immediately 
obvious, this opening was, in the last century, sup- 
posed to have been made for hearing confessions, 
and the vault bore the name of the " Confessionary." 
An examination of the levels completely disproves 
this hypothesis. Another hagioscope, now destroyed, 
is said to have commanded the altar from the south 
aisle. Ascending the restored spiral staircase it 
will be seen that the quadripartite vaulting of the 
chapel is decorated with painting. To the west, 
the Blessed Virgin, between St. Margaret and St. 
Catherine ; to the east, St. Andrew, St. Peter, and 
St. Paul; to the north, St. Martin, St. Nicholas, 

!ww Cfeapd. 169 

and St. liichard ; to the south, St. Edmund, St. Lau- 
rence, and a bishop wearing a sword, with Our Lord 
surrounded with natural foliage, the Thorn, in the 
centre. There was a reredos, which, with the para- 
pets, had been " recently taken down " in 1735. 

From this chapel there was access to a chamber 
above the destroyed chapel, known as " the Sanctuary 
men's chamber." The gallery over the vaulting in the 
aisle, according to Mr. Harrod, " might contain a 
pair of organs for assisting the service here and in 
Jesus Chapel adjoining V'* 

XV. Immediately beyond this vault, is Jesus 
Chapel; one of the three apsidal chapels which ter- 
minated the Norman cathedral toward the east. It 
is formed by intersecting circles, like the correspond- 
ing chapel in the south aisle; the apse or eastern 
end being a smaller semicircle. Jesus Chapel was 
entirely altered during the Perpendicular period, 
when its present windows were inserted. The 
manner in which the original Norman arcade has 
been converted into a piscina and sedilia, deserves 
notice. An altar-piece formerly in this chapel is 
now preserved in the vestry ( xn.). The original 
fresco painting, of Norman date, has been restored, 
" perhaps with too little reserve " (Dean Goulburn). 
The general effect is crude and staring. The win- 

k Churches and Convents of Norfolk, p. 293. The Easter 
sepulchre at Northwold, in the county of Norfolk, " has an 
arched aperture in a similar position to this quatrefoil, com- 
municating with the sacristy adjoining." 

170 Sforfeitfc (Eatfetbral. 

dows are filled with stained glass by HARDMAN and 
POWELL "to the honour of the Blessed Lord and 
Saviour, and in memory of his good and kind master 
Edward Goulburn, Sergeant-at-law, to whom, under 
God, he owes what he has to offer, by John Bulli- 
vant, of Exeter." The table of the altar deserves 
notice. It consists of a slab of grey Barnack stone, 
with a piece of Purbeck marble inlaid, bearing, as 
well as the slab, five incised crosses, the whole sup- 
ported on twisted marble shafts. The room above the 
Jesus Chapel, on the triforium level, has been con- 
verted into a museum of architectural fragments and 
archaeological curiosities, including some elaborate 
semi-Norman fragments, some rich Renaissance terra- 
cotta bricks from a chimney in the Locutory, the 
doorway of Bishop Wakering's Chapel, &c. 

XVI. The original arrangement of the apse is here 
seen at its back. The arches were filled with a stone 
screen, terminating about half-way up, and forming, 
on the inner side, a series of benches or sedilia for 
the clergy. The central arch had a stone chair or 
throne for the bishop, raised on steps at the back of 
the altar. (Portions of this throne still remain, 
walled up on the western side of the arch.) The 
side screens are ornamented at the back with an 
arcade of intersecting arches. At the back of the 
bishop's throne is a circular- headed recess. It has 
been suggested that Bishop Herbert Losinga, the 
founder, or Roger Bigod, Constable of Norwich 
Castle, whom Bishop Herbert seems to have regarded, 

's tffcspd. 171 

as co-founder with himself, and who was certainly 
interred in the cathedral, may have been buried here. 

The Early English doorway, a double arch, with 
a central shaft and quatrefoil above, recently opened, 
gave admission to the Lady-chapel, built by Bishop 
WALTER or SUFFIELD (1245 1257), and destroyed 
by Dean Gardiner in the reign of Elizabeth. Its 
foundations, proving it to have been of considerable 
size, have been traced ; as well as those of the apsidal 
Norman chapel, destroyed by Bishop Walter, which 
corresponded with those still remaining north-east 
and south-east. 

Nearly opposite St. Luke's Chapel is an arched 
recess, which once contained the effigy of Prior 
Thomas Bozoun (died 1480). Above are painted 
three skulls, representing three ages of life, with 
morieris thrice repeated. 

XVII. St. Luke's Chapel, in the south choir-aisle 5 
resembles the Jesus Chapel opposite. It serves as 
the parish church of St. Mary-in-the-Marsh ; and 
has been "restored," and filled with chairs, and 
contains two painted windows by HAEDMAN. The 
font, of Perpendicular date, is much enriched with 
sculptures of the seven sacraments and the Cruci- 
fixion. These have been much mutilated, and the 
figures are headless. Above St. Luke's Chapel is 
the Treasury and Muniment-room. 

A chapel, incorrectly called the Beauchamp Chapel 
(or St. Mary the Less'), (a corruption of the name of 
the founder, William Bauchun, temp. Edward II., as 

172 jtorfoitfc 

old as Sir Thomas Browne), opens south, next to 
St. Luke's. The south window of this chapel, of 
late Decorated, the Perpendicular canopied niche at 
the east end, which perhaps contained a statue of the 
Virgin to whom the chapel was dedicated, and 
the bosses of the groined roof, which illustrate her 
life, death, and assumption, the gabled piscina on 
the south wall, and the diaper painting of the walls, 
should all be noticed. The Beauchamp Chapel 
has long served as the Consistory Court, and the rich 
groined vault, a century later than the fabric, is said 
to have been put up by one Seckington, an eccle- 
siastical lawyer who practised here. 

Next to this chapel stood that of John Heydon, of 
Baconsthorpe (died temp. Edward IV.), an active 
adherent of the House of Lancaster. 

In the last bay of this aisle was the entrance to 
Bishop Wakering's Chapel, long since entirely de- 
stroyed. It is said to have been used as the Chapter- 
house after the earlier one was pulled down. In 
some ill-advised repairs made about 1841 the entrance 
doorway, a fine Perpendicular design, was removed, 
and the compartment made to correspond with the 
Norman work, to the obliteration of a piece of his-- 
tory. In 1847, to the east of this door, above the 
ground level, a small anchorite's cell in the thick- 
ness of the wall is said to have been discovered, with 
a grated opening commanding the high altar. A 
similar cell was attached to the north choir-aisle at 
Peterborough Cathedral (see p. 114). 




Cloisius. Jlrior's J10or. 173 

At the back of the choir, opposite this chapel, is 
a long stone seat, with panelled front, and small 
figures. It formed part of the monument of Bishop 
WAKEBING (1416 1462), which was shattered during 
the rebellion. 

XVIII. Crossing the south transept, which has been 
already described, we pass into the cloisters through 
a door at the north-east angle. They are among the 
most beautiful, and with the exception of Salisbury, 
are the largest in England. The roof, the bosses of 
which are covered with elaborate carvings, deserves 
the most careful examination. 

The Norman cloister was destroyed in the fire of 
1272 ; and the present structure was commenced by 
Bishop EALPH WALPOLE in 1297. It was continued, 
according to William of Worcester, by Bishop SALMON 
and others, between the years 1299 and 1325 ; and 
completed, by different benefactors, between the years 
1403 and 1425. Mr. Harrod, however, seems to be 
perfectly justified in asserting that the cloisters were 
begun and completed during the Decorated period, 
and that the portions said by Worcester to have been 
built between 1403 and 1425 were in reality only 
repaired and altered at that period. 

The eastern and southern walks are those assigned 
by William of Worcester to Bishops Walpole and 
Salmon, and said to have been built between 1297 
and 1325. The Prior's door through which we pass 
into the cloister, is of this date, and of very unusual 
character [Plate VII.]. Under radiating canopies 

174 Jbrtoub (f utbcbrul. 

which cross the mouldings of the arch, are sculptured 
at the apex the Saviour in majesty, with an angel 
in the niche immediately below on either side; in 
the two lower niches on the west side, St. John the 
Baptist and Aaron (?) (this figure may perhaps re- 
present an Archbishop with the pall and high mitre ; 
smaller figures are placed under the feet of each) ; in 
those on the east side Moses and David. The Law 
and the Gospel, or the priesthood and the 'regale,' 
seem to be thus typified. 

The large and beautiful windows of the east walk 
are all early Decorated, and, like the others in the 
cloister, were originally glazed in their upper por- 
tions. The bosses of the roof contain subjects from 
the four Gospels, together with some very beautiful 
knots of foliage. Three niches or sedilia, with cano- 
pies resting on four heads, of a peasant, a bishop, 
a king, and a priest, are now built up in the east 
wall, close without the prior's door. Their original 
use is unknown 1 . In the sixth bay a door of very rich 
design, ornamented with crockets finials and cusps, 
now walled up, led into the 'slype,' or passage be- 
tween the transept and chapter-house, destroyed when 
the south front of the transept was restored. The open 
arches beyond led into the chapter-house itself, which 

1 u A recess in the same position at Wenlock, having three 
lofty arches toward the cloister, was pointed out, at the visit 
paid to that priory by the Institute in 1854, as a specimen of the 
Trisanticz of Ducange. Whether these were sedilia appro- 
priated to a similar purpose or not, I am unable to say."- 
Harrod, Churches and Convents of Norfolk, p. 308. 

Cloiste, Soafy an* ftfest ffilalhs. 175 

has long been destroyed. The walled-up door beyond, 
with a well-worn entrance-step, was probably that 
leading to the staircase of the dormitory. The so- 
called " dark entry," a vault at the south end of this 
walk, formed an approach to the Infirmary, which 
stood southward of the cloister. Three bays of the 
southern arcade of this building are still standing, 
of Transition Norman. The Infirmary was turned 
into a workhouse for the poor in 1744. In 1804 it 
was pulled down, with the exception of the fragment 
still standing. 

The south walk, built by Bishop SALMON (1299 
1325), has a slight difference in the tracery of its 
windows, which are of more advanced Decorated 
character. The greater part of the bosses of the 
roof illustrate the Revelation of St. John. Other 
subjects are added, from sacred and legendary his- 
tory. That engraved overleaf evidently represents 
the dedication of a church. At the angle of the 
south and west walks a very fine view of the cathe- 
dral and its spire is obtained. Here also the original 
disposition of the triforium may be seen. The roof 
sloped from close under the clerestory to the two 
worn Norman arcades in the exterior wall. All above 
these arcades is Decorated work. 

The ivest walk is said by William of Worcester to 
have been built early in the fifteenth century; but 

m A curious error in the transcripts of William of Worcester 
led to much antiquarian discussion until it was recently cleared 
up by Mr. Harrod. Worcester was made to say that the walk 




Cloisters. 177 

wall of the Refectory remains perfect, with the range 
of Norman windows which originally lighted it on this 
side. The south wall has been destroyed above the 
height of nine feet. At the east end of the Refectory 
are some interesting Norman chambers preserving traces 
of decorative colours. These till recently, formed part 
of a prebendal house. The ancient lavatories [Plate 
VIII.], in the first two bays, have Perpendicular arches 
and niches at the back. In the next bay but one is 
a door which led into the Guesten hall, pulled down 
by Dean Gardiner ; of which an Early English porch 
covered with ivy, and a fragment of an Early English 
window, remain in the adjoining garden. A door in 
the last bay next the nave opens into the locutory or 
Parlour, now the choristers' schoolroom, but till re- 
cently the kitchen of a prebendal house. It is a fine 
room of four bays, barrel-vaulted, divided by broad 
flat ribs. The eastern part is Norman, the western 
Early English, with windows in that style at the 

The subjects from the Revelation are continued in 
the roof-bosses of this walk. The external face of 
this side of the cloister, towards the Close, is pierced 
with six rude circular windows with double splays, 
formed of flint ; they are evidently of the same date 
as the wall, and are supposed by the Rev. J. Gunn 
to be of Saxon date. The interlacing Norman 
arcade on the eastern side of the wall, in the room 
above the cloister, has been evidently built on to an 
earlier wall. 

VOL. II. PT. I. N 


The nor^ walk of the cloister contains eight Per- 
dicular windows, set in Decorated frames ; one early 
Decorated at the east end, and two late Decorated at 
the west. The bosses represent the legends of dif- 
ferent saints, together with a few subjects from the 
New Testament. In the westernmost bay is the 
Monks' entrance into the church, a door of elaborate 
Perpendicular character, with tabernacles and statues 
carried up the jambs and over the head. 

All the walks have an upper story, lighted by small 
windows looking into the quadrangle. That above 
the north walk is a mere wall, but the space behind 
it had formerly a lead roof. 

XIX. The exterior of the central tower and spire 
may be well seen either from the south walk of the 
cloisters, or from the Lower close. The tower was 
gradually refaced 1845 1856; but iW Norman arcades 
and ornamentation have been carefully preserved. The 
flanking turrets, with their reed-like shafts, are Nor- 
man as high as the foot of the spires which crown 
them. These spires are Perpendicular ; as is the para- 
pet of the tower itself. The arcades and circular 
openings of the tower may be compared with those of 
the Norman transeptal towers at Exeter, which are, 
however, of somewhat later date. The spire, which 
rises gracefully between the pinnacles of the turrets, 
replaces one probably of wood covered with lead, 
which had been burnt by lightning in 1463, and was 
rebuilt by Bp. Lehart. Its height, from the battle- 
ments of the tower, is 169 feet. The entire height 

(Ssimor. Cljmr. (East nir, 179 

from the ground is 313 feet, exceeding that of the 
spire of Chichester (271 feet), and of Lichfield (258 
feet), but falling much short of Salisbury (404 

The face of the south transept has been re-cased by 
Salvin, a pror-ess which has deprived it of much of its 
antique character. The conical spires which terminate 
the square Norman flanking turrets are modern. At 
the same time the groined slype leading from the 
cloister eastwards and the picturesque Singing-school 
above it, were destroyed, a new south door opened, and 
the history of the building so far falsified. 

The exterior of the choir is well seen from the Lower 
close. Flying buttresses, added at a later period, car- 
ried from the wall of the triforium, connect it with 
Bishop Percy's noble clerestory above (see x.). Seated 
figures of the apostles form the pinnacles of the but- 
tresses ; and the clerestory itself, which is flat-roofed, 
is surrounded by a battlemented parapet. At the 
south-east and north-east angles of the choir project 
the Norman apsidal chapels formed of intersecting seg- 
ments of circles, rising in two stories. A blind arcade 
passes round below the upper story, which has a second 
arcade of large and separated arches. Each chapel 
has three windows below ; one at the east end, one to 
the west, and one looking respectively north and south. 
The general view of the cathedral from the south- 
east [see Frontispiece] comprehends all these details. 
That from the north-east should be looked out for 
toward sunset, when a very fine effect is occasionally 

N 2 


produced. The visitor should pass beyond the Lower 
close, to the portion of the Precincts known as " Life's 
Green," and place himself as near as possible to 
the north wall of it. The various lines of the choir 
and transept, with trees clustering between them, and 
the tower and spire rising in the background, form a 
composition of unusual grace and beauty. 

From the east end of the north transept projects a 
chapel in a ruinous condition, probably that of St. 
Osyth. It has long been used as a storehouse. It ap- 
parently resembled in every respect the eastern chapels 
of the choir. The vaulting, filled in with flints, and 
carried on even with the large Norman arch formerly 
opening from the transept, should be noticed. The 
east window was altered in the late Decorated period. 

The north transept retains its ancient front. In a 
niche over the door is a statue said to represent the 
founder, Bishop Herbert. 

XX. The Bishop's palace, which was formerly con- 
nected with the north transept by a vaulted passage, 
was founded by Bishop Herbert, but almost entirely 
rebuilt by Bishop SALMON (1299 1325). It has been 
much altered and added to at different times ; but still 
contains some portions which may have belonged to 
Bishop Herbert's work. The vaulted cellars are 
curious. Bishop Salmon's great hall was destroyed 
after the Rebellion; at which time it was used by 
the Puritans as a " preaching-house." The entrance 
gatehouse, standing as an ivy-clad ruin in the garden, 
is the only portion remaining. The Bishop's chapel 





la ^rennets. 181 

was built by Bishop Keynolds in 1662, across the 
south end of Bishop Salmon's hall. It contains the 
monuments of Bishop EEYNOLDS himself (1661 
1676), and of his successor, Bishop SPARROW (1676 
1685), both of whom are buried in it. 

XXI. The principal entrance to the palace is through 
a fine Perpendicular gateway, built by Bishop Alnwick 
about 1430. Its wooden doors bear the rebus of Bishop 
Le Hart. Far more interesting, however, are the two 
gateways leading into the Precincts ; both of which 
deserve especial notice. The earliest is St. EtJielberf s 
Gate [Title-page], at the south end of the close ; built 
by the citizens of Norwich as part of the fine for the 
disturbances of 1272, to replace the gatehouse then 
burnt by them. The lower part is accordingly good 
early Decorated. The upper portion, of intermixed 
flint and stone, was restored early in the present cen- 
tury. The chamber above the archway was, as a 
chapel, dedicated to St. Ethelbert. In the last cen- 
tury, it was used as the concert room of a tavern, to 
which use the gatehouse had been converted. In the 
spandrils of the principal arch are figures of a man 
with a sword and round shield, attacking a dragon. 
On the side towards the Close is a Decorated window, 
and some ancient flint panelling. The entire gateway 
is a good example of the period. 

The second, or ErpingJiam Gate [Plate IX.], stands 
opposite the west front of the cathedral, and it is said 
by Blomefield to have been built by Sir Thomas 
Erpingham (Shakespeare's "white-headed" knight, 

182 $orfoicfc 

who fought at Agincourt), as a penance imposed on 
him by Bishop Spencer, on account of his former 
patronage of Wickliffe and the Lollards. The truth of 
this story, however, has been entirely disproved by Mr. 
Harrod. It seems to have arisen from the misreading 
of the word " yenk," think answering to the " have 
mynde " or prayer for remembrance which appears on 
many brasses , which is placed on labels in front of 
the gate. This word was read by Blomefield as 
" pena," and on this slender foundation, together with 
the fact that Sir Thomas's statue above is "on his 
knees, as if begging pardon for his offence," the story 
of the penance was constructed. The arms of Sir 
Thomas and of his two wives appear on the gate ; 
which therefore could not have been erected until 
after his second marriage, which took place about 
1411. Bishop Spencer, who is said to have imposed 
the penance, had died in 1406. 

The gatehouse itself " consists of a noble, well-pro- 
portioned arch, supported on each side by a semi-hex- 
agonal buttress; arch, spandrils, and buttresses being 
covered with sculpture. The arch-mouldings are di- 
vided into two parts ; the outer one containing a series 
of fourteen female saints, the inner one twelve male 
saints, admirably executed, with a light and elegant 
canopy over each. Four labels with the word * yenk ' 
are placed between the bases of the shafts of the main 

n The same motto, "yenk," "is placed several times in 
brass labels on a stone commemorating a Curzoun in Bylaugh 
Church." Harrod. 

Grammar- stljool anb Crgpl. 183 

archway, across clusters of oak-leaves and acorns, from 
which the pedestals of the lower figures emerge. The 
canopies are masses of luxuriant foliage, designed 
with the most exquisite skill. The spandrils contain 
the device of the Trinity on the left, the arms of Erp- 
ingham on the right. The buttresses are covered with 
shields and devices of the families of Erpingham, 
Clopton, and Walton (those of Sir Thomas Erping- 
ham's wives), and bear on the top two figures of 

ecclesiastics The upper part of the gate is 

much plainer than the rest, and is of flint with stone 
dressings. In the centre, under a canopy of the same 
period as the other sculptured decorations, is a kneel- 
ing figure of Sir Thomas Erpingham ." 

XXII. The open space west and north of the cathe- 
dral served as a general cemetery ; and in it, on the 
left hand, between the Erpingham gate and the west 
door of the church, Bishop Salmon, about 1316, built 
a charnel-house, with a chapel of St. John the Evan- 
gelist above it. The chapel now serves as the Gram- 
mar-school ; and the crypt, in which all bones fit for 
removal were " to be reserved till the day of resurrec- 
tion," now serves, partly, as a playing place for the 
boys. In this crypt were two altars, of which traces 
remain. At one of them a mass was said daily for the 
souls of the founder and his family, for all bishops 
of the see, and for the souls of all those whose bones 
were carried thither. The porch by which the gram- 
mar-school is entered was added by Bishop Lehart, 
Harrod, p. 264. 


(1446 1472), and deserves notice for its unusual 
character. Kemark also the foiled openings (see 

woodcut) giving 
light to the crypt. 
On the lawn op- 
posite the school 
is a statue of Lord 
Nelson, who for 
a short time was 
a pupil here. 

scanty remains of 
the monastic build- 
ings which adjoin 
the cloisters have 
already been noticed ( xvni.). The present deanery, 
a little east of the south-east angle of the cloister, 
contains some Early English portions, which pro- 
bably belonged to the prior's apartments. On the 
north side is the Prior's Hall, lighted by two fine 
two-light windows of late thirteenth- century work, 
now used as the kitchen. A noble wide Perpendicular 
arch forms the entrance to a broad stone staircase 
leading to the principal apartments. 

The Chapter library, which comprises a good col- 
lection of books (although without any that call for 
especial notice), is preserved in one of the buildings 
in the Precincts. 

XXIV. The best distant views of the cathedral 
which, however, are none of them very satisfactory 

Distant $ufos. 185 

are to be gained from the castle hill, from the new 
church at Thorpe, and from Household-heath. Mouse- 
hold forms the high ground east of the city, and was 
the spot on which Kett, the " tanner of Wymond- 
ham," fixed his camp during the rising of the Norfolk 
peasantry in the reign of Edward VI. 



f istmcg 0f % Sw, foitfe ^jwrt Jfrto 0f 
fyt principal Htsbflijs. 

A FTER the death, in the year 616, of Ethelbert of Kent, 
** who had received and been baptized by St. Augustine, 
and partly in consequence, according to Bede, of the tem- 
porary apostacy of his son Eadbald, the Bretwaldaship, or 
predominating influence among the Anglo-Saxon princes, 
passed into the hands of Rsedwald, King of the East 
Anglians. Rsedwald, during a visit to Kent, had adopted 
Christianity, and had been baptized: but he afterwards 
relapsed into paganism, and gave a place in the same 
temple to the altar of Christ and to that of his ancient 
gods*. It was whilst an exile at the court of Rsedwald 
that Eadwin of Northumbria received the mysterious visit 
which prepared the way for his conversion by Paulinus 
after his restoration to the throne b . This event belongs to 
the early history of the see of York ; but it was not without 
influence on the kingdom of East Anglia. Eorpwald, the 
son of Rsedbert, was converted by Christian missionaries 

a "Atque in eodem fano et altare haberet ad sacrificium 
Christi, et arulara ad victimas daemonionim ; quod videlicet fanum, 
rex ejusdem provinciae Alduulf, qui nostra aatate fuit, usque ad 
suum tempus perdurasse et se in pueritia vidisse testabatur." 
Bede, H. E., lib. ii. c. 15. 
b See the narrative in Bede, H. E., ii. 12. 

H*e tstablis^b at Jmtfoitjj. 187 

(possibly by Paulinus himself) sent into his kingdom by 
Eadwin. On the death of Eorpwald, East Anglia became 
once more heathen ; but Christianity was finally established 
by Sigeberht, brother of Eorpwald, who had been converted 
whilst an exile in Burgundy. About the year 630, FELIX, 
a Burgundian missionary to whom Sigeberht may have 
owed his own conversion, was duly appointed by Honorius, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, to the see of the East Anglians, 
among whom his labours seem to have been eminently 
successful. St. Augustine had landed on the coast of 
Thanet in 597; and East Anglia thus "assumes a regular 
place in the ecclesiastical scheme of England" little more 
than a quarter of a century later. 

[AJ>. 630647.] EELIX established his see at Dummoc, or 
Dummoc-ceastre, now Dunwich, a seaport on the coast of 
Suffolk. Dummoc had been a Roman station, as is suffi- 
ciently proved by the remains which from time to time 
have been discovered there ; and besides the advantage of 
its port, its walls may still have been strong enough to 
afford some protection. It was, moreover, connected with 
the interior by ancient, perhaps British, roads, which led in 
one direction toward Bury St. Edmunds, and in another 
toward Norwich. At Dummoc, Sigeberht built a palace 
for himself, and a church for Eelix: but soon after the 
establishment of the see he resigned his crown in favour of 
his kinsman Egric, and retired to a monastery which he had 
himself founded. In 635, during an invasion of East Anglia 
by the Mercians, under Penda, Sigeberht was dragged un- 
willingly from his cloister, and compelled to be present on 
the battle-field ; where, however, professionis suce non imme- 
mor, he refused to carry weapons, and was only distinguished 
by a rod (virga) which he held in his hand. Sigeberht fell in 
this battle. In his kingdom, says Bede, " desiring to imitate 
those things which he had seen well arranged in Gaul, he 
founded a school in which boys might be taught letters, 
with the aid of Felix, the bishop whom he had received 


from Kent, and who furnished them with pedagogues 
and masters, after the Kentish fashion." Bede gives 110 
locality for this school; yet the passage, without the 
slightest reason, has been looked upon as recording the 
foundation of the University of Cambridge, a place which, 
at that period, was not even within the limits of Sige- 
berht's kingdom. 

Sige"berht was succeeded by Anna, father of EtJieldreda, 
the sainted foundress of Ely (see that Cathedral), and of 
three other daughters, Sexburga, Ethelburga, and Wiht- 
burga, all of whom, at different periods, embraced the 
monastic life. 

The successor of Felix in the see of Dummoc was 

[A.D. 647 652.] THOMAS, who had been his deacon, and who 
was a " Gyrwian," or inhabitant of the fenland. 

[A.D. 652 669.] BERCTGILS, surnamed Bonifacius, a Kentish- 
man, appointed by Abp. Honorius, and 

[A.D. 669 673.] BISI, succeeded. Bisi was present at the 
council of Hertford, held under Abp. Theodore in 673, at 
which it was proposed to " increase the number of bishops 
as the number of the faithful increases." No determina- 
tion was come to by the synod : but Bisi soon afterwards 
became incapable, from a severe illness, of discharging his 
episcopal functions, and Abp. Theodore proceeded accord- 
ingly to divide his diocese. A new see was established at 
Mmham in Norfolk, to which BADUWINI was appointed. 
Bisi was deposed, and the see of Dummoc was filled by 

[A.D. 673870.] Erom the division of the East Anglian 
diocese to the year 870, in which occurred the great irrup- 
tion of the Northmen and the martyrdom of St. Edmund, 
the sees of Dummoc and of Elmham seem to have been 
duly filled, although it is scarcely possible to establish the 
exact years of succession. Little more than the names of 
the bishops has been recorded. HUMBERT, Bp. of Elmham, 
is said to have fallen by the side of St. Edmund in battle with 

S*je at dEImjjam aito &Ijetor&. 189 

the Danes (870). " Nor was there another bishop of East 
Anglia for more than eighty years, when JEthelwulf was 
consecrated by Archbishop Oda, and the two sees united in 
one. In fact, the compelled Christianity of Guthorm and 
his followers, whom Alfred suffered to take possession of 
the country, did not hold out any very secure prospects to 
a bishop ; and till some time after 921, paganism was very 
probably the profession of a majority in East Anglia c ." 

[A.D. 9561070.] From the consecration of JSthelwulf to 
that of Herfast, the first Norman bishop, East Anglia con- 
tained but a single see that of Elmham. The will of Bp. 
THEODRED, who died about 975, has been printed by 
Kemble, and is a document of considerable interest ; but 
of the remaining bishops we have little more than the 
names : and even of these the true arrangement is uncer- 
tain. EGELMAR, the last Bishop of Elmham, was the brother 
of Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, and was deposed, 
together with him, in a synod held at Winchester in the 
year 1070. (See CANTERBURY ABP. STIGAND). Stigand 
liad himself held the East Anglian see for a short time, 
before the accession of Egelmar. 

[A.D. 1070 1086.] HERFAST, one of the Conqueror's chap- 
lains, partly in obedience to the decree of the council of 
London (1075), which ordered the removal of bishops' sees 
from villages (villulai) to more important towns, transferred 
the East Anglian see from Elmham to Thetford, the Eoman 
Sitomagus, and one of the principal towns of East Anglia 
before, and for some time after, the Norman Conquest. 
Malmesbury, however, who " gives Herfast but a moderate 
character, either for learning or hospitality," asserts that 
he made the change " ne nihil facere videretur (ut sunt 
Normanni famse in futurum studiosissimi d .") Heriast had 

o J. M. Kemble, The Bishop of East Anglia, "in the Norwich 
volume of the Archaeological Institute. 

d De Pontii, lib, u. There is reason to believe that the transfer 

190 gorfokk Catfetbral. 

been a monk of Bee, and had obtained a considerable repu- 
tation for learning there, before the arrival of Lan franc. 
Lanfranc exposed his entire ignorance, and drew upon 
himself in consequence the resentment not only of Herfast 
but of William of Normandy, which was not appeased with- 
out difficulty. Herfast seems to have retained the favour 
of William after the Conquest, since it was the King him- 
self who placed him in the East Anglian see. 

[A.D. 10861091.] WILLIAM DE BEAUFEU, one of the 
"King's Clerks," succeeded. 

[A.D. 1091 1119.] HERBERT LOSINGA was the bishop who 
removed the see from Thetford, and fixed it permanently 
at Norwich, in accordance, apparently, with the original 
intention of the Conqueror. 

The place of Bishop Herbert's birth is doubtful, but 
there is strong reason for believing him to have been 
born at a manor called Esham, in the hundred of Hoxne, in 
Suffolk. Educated probably as a Benedictine, he became 
Prior of Fecamp, in Normandy, and was brought thence 
to England by William Kufus, who appointed him his 
sewer, and made him Abbot of Ramsey. The chroniclers, 
with Malmesbury at their head, declare that he bought 
his bishopric for a sum of 1900, and that he pur- 
chased at the same time the abbacy of Winchester for his 
father. Verses recording the simoniacal dealings of the pre- 
late have been preserved : 

" Proh dolor ! Ecclesise nummis venduntur et aere ; 
Filius est Praesul, Pater Abbas, Simon uterque. 
Quid non speremus si nummos possideamus ?" 

But Malmesbury adds, that if Bishop Herbert sinned in his 

of the see to Thetford was only a temporary arrangement, and 
that the Conqueror from the first intended to fix it at Norwich. 
The Doomsday Survey records at Norwich, " In the proper 
court of the bishop, 14 mansurae which King William gave to 
Arfast for the principal seat of the bishopric" The reason for the 
temporary transfer to Thetford is quite uncertain. 

ce at Jforfoit|f. fjarbtrt f csmga. 191 

earlier days, he amply redeemed his errors by his subsequent 
virtuous life and good deeds, " pras se semper, ut aiunt, 
ferens Hieronymi dictum, ' Erravimus juvenes, emendemus 

Herbert removed his see from Thetford to Norwich in 
the year 1094; and two years afterwards laid the first 
stone of the existing cathedral. (See Pt. I. i.) Norwich, 
the ancient Yenta Icenorum, was then, as it still is, by 
far the most populous and important place in the east- 
ern counties ; and the site of the new cathedral was over- 
looked by the great Norman stronghold which Rufus had 
but just constructed on the highest ground within the city. 
A letter of Herbert's to his overseers, or appares, seems 
to describe the progress of the structure, and "delineates 
a lively picture of the hive of workmen at the cathedral:" 
"Languet opus, et in apparandis materiis nullus vestcr 
apparet fervor. Ecce regis et mei ministri fervent in 
operibus suis ; lapides colligunt, collectos afferunt, campos 
et plateas, domos et curias implent ; et vos torpetis." The 
church, however, was not entirely completed during Her- 
bert's episcopate. (See Pt. I. i.) "Many passages in 
his epistles shew him to have laboured under infirm health 
during, at least, his latter years He appears, notwith- 
standing, to have been always ready to obey his Sovereign's 
call, or that of the church ; and there are, I think, intima- 
tions that, with more vigour of constitution, he would have 
been the successor of Anselm at Canterbury. This mental 
activity led him, in 11] 6, to embark with Radulfus de Tur- 
bine, the new Archbishop, in an embassy to Rome, with 
a view of arranging the long-disputed points respecting 
investitures, and the legislative authority in England ; but 
the exertion seems to have been fatal to him. On his 
return he fell sick at Placentia ; and although he became, 
after some time, sufficiently convalescent to admit of his 
return by easy stages to Norwich .... yet nature yielded 
on the 22nd of July, either of 1119 or of 1120 (for it is 


uncertain which,) and he was buried before the high altar 
in his cathedral church." (Harrod, p. 241.) 

The epithet Losinga, l Flatterer,' was perhaps not applied 
to Bishop Herbert until after his death. His ' Epistles,' 
which are curious and interesting, although they throw 
little or no light on his own life, were recently discovered 
in a MS. belonging to the Burgundian Library at Brussels, 
and have been published (Bruxelles, 1845). The whole 
of the letters of Bishop Herbert have also been given to 
the world in an English dress, together with his Latin 
sermons, and a carefully prepared biography by Dean 
Goulburn, and the Eev. H. Symonds, the late Precentor of 
Norwich (Parker, 1878). They sufficiently prove that 
Herbert was a man of high literary attainments, and, for 
the most part, shew us a kind-hearted and benevolent 
prelate. One among them, however, addressed to the 
brethren at Thetford, in which he excommunicates " cer- 
tain malicious persons who during last week have broken 
into my park at Humersfield, and killed in the night the 
only deer which I had there," indicates that Bishop Herbert 
could be fierce on occasion : " May the flesh of those," he 
writes, " who eat my stag's flesh rot away as the flesh of 
Herod rotted, who shed innocent blood for Christ. . . Let 
them have the anathema maranatha unless they quickly 
repent and give satisfaction. Fiat ! Fiat ! Fiat ! This 
excommunication I ordain, my beloved brethren, not be* 
cause I pay much regard to one stag, but because I would 
have them repent and confess, and be corrected for such 
an offence e ." 

In addition to the cathedral of Norwich, and its adjoin- 
ing priory, Herbert is said to have built five other churches ; 
two at Norwich, one at Elmham, one at Lynn, and one at 

[A.D. 1121 ; deposed 1145.] EVERARD, Archdeacon of Salis- 
bury, succeeded. He was the son by a second marriage of 
e Harrod, jx 326 


Robert of Montgomery, first Earl of Arundel. Previously 
to becoming bishop he had been chaplain to his predecessor, 
and to the king. Little is known of him, beyond the fact 
that in the year 1145 he retired from Norwich. Accord- 
ing to Henry of Huntingdon he was deposed on account of 
his cruelty: "Vir crudelissimus, et ob hoc jam depo- 
situsV The more probable account, given in the Regis* 
trum Primum of Norwich, is that, being greatly harassed 
by the civil war then going on, he presented to two 
powerful lords the towns of Blickling and Cressingham, 
belonging to his see, with the view of securing the re- 
mainder, and with the full intention of reclaiming them as 
soon as he could ; and that for this act of sacrilege he had 
to quit his bishopric. The confession of his crime, made 
to Pope Eugenius IV. (1145-53), is printed by Dean Groul- 
burn (" History of the See of Norwich," p. 88), 

From Norwich, Bishop Everard retired to Fontenay, near 
Mont Bard, Cote d'Or, where he had built an abbey, the 
foundations of which were laid in 1139. " He fixed his 
retreat upon a mountain in the neighbourhood of the newly 
erected abbey, on the south side of which he caused a 
modest palace to be built, of which numerous ruins remain 
in a wood, with a walled-in park, and roads fenced by 
thick thorns." Everard died in 1150, and was buried 
under the great altar of the abbey church, where a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory. The original stone with 
its inscription disappeared at a very early period, and it is 
believed to have been replaced soon after by another, with 
the following inscription : " Hie jacet Dominus Ebrardus 
Norvicencis Episcopus, qui edificavit Templum istud 6 . " 

Bishop Everard had the true Norman instinct for build- 
ing ; and the nave of Norwich Cathedral is attributed to 
him. (Pt. I. iv.) It was during his episcopate that the 

f H. Huntingdon, De Contemptu Mundi, quoted by Wharton, 
Anylia Sacra, i. p. 408, (note). 

6 Harrod, from Norfolk Archaeology, vol. v. 

VOL. II. PT. I. 


boy " St. William " was said to have been crucified by the 
Jews (March 22, 1144). His shrine formerly stood on the 
north side of the choir-screen. (Pt. I. vn.) A similar 
story is localised in many other towns, both in England 
and on the Continent ; some remarks on the amount of 
historical truth contained in the accusation against the 
Jews will be found in LINCOLN CATHEDRAL (Pt. II., 
BISHOP LEXINGTON), in whose time the murder of " sweet 
Hugh of Lincoln " took place according to Matthew Paris. 
[A.D. 1146 1174.] WILLIAM DE TURBE, a monk of the priory 
attached to the cathedral, was elected on the deposition of 
Everard. During his episcopate the church suffered much 
from fire. (Pt. I. i.) 

He was an intimate friend of the warlike Bishop Nigel 
of Ely, their confidential intercourse only ceasing with the 
death of the latter in 1174. In 1150, by royal command, 
the two prelates assembled in the palace gardens, with the 
abbots of St. Edrnundsbury and Holm, and most of the 
East Anglian barons, for the purpose of trying Sir Hobert 
Fitzgilbert, and others, for a conspiracy. The abbot of 
St. Edmund's pleaded their exemption from jurisdiction as 
knights of his. This plea was- allowed, and the knights 
subsequently received the royal pardon. De Turbe was a 
warm partizan of Becket, at whose command, in 1167, he 
excommunicated Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, in de- 
fiance of the king's officers, who had been sent to prevent 
him. The Earl's lands were put under an interdict ; and 
when, shortly after, some of the clerks in his retinue 
ventured to celebrate mass, they too were placed under 
excommunication. Tidings of these proceedings having 
reached the ears of Henry II. at Oxford, he was greatly 
incensed, and through his legates obtained an order from 
the Pope for immediate absolution the following year. 
Bishop De Turbe complied, but the next year (1169) he 
was summoned to answer before the king for the excom- 
munication, together with Gilbert, Bishop of London, when 

lojnt 0f *forb. 195 

both received the royal pardon. Misfortunes clouded the 
Bishop's latter years. In 1172 the cathedral and con- 
ventual buildings were devastated by fire. Two years 
later (1174) Norwich was pillaged by Hugh Bigod and the 
Earl of Leicester ; shortly after, Jan. 17, 1175, he died. 
" De Turbe's character," writes Dean Goulburn, " seems to 
have been a combination of extremes : at one time weak, 
at another determined ; now indolent, now zealous ; often 
cautious and calculating, but more frequently impulsive, 
and even fool-hardy a weakness, however, which made it 
more loveable, because more human h ." 
[A.D. 1175-1200.] JOHN OF OXFORD. He restored and com- 
pleted the cathedral. (Pt. I. I.) John of Oxford (so 
called from his native place, where his father was a 
burgess) belonged to the class of statesman-bishops, and 
took a leading part in the political and ecclesiastical events 
of his day, especially in the controversy between Henry II. 
and Becket, in which he was the archbishop's most 
vigorous opponent. In this character he presided at the 
Council of Clarendon (1164), and was sent on an embassy 
to Pope Alexander III. at Sens, and to the Council of 
Wurtzburg. In 1165 he was made Dean of Salisbury, 
contrary to the injunction of Becket, by whom he was 
excommunicated. At the patching up of a reconciliation 
between Henry and Becket, 1166, he was sent to escort 
the archbishop to England. When the King of Scotland 
had fallen into Henry's power at the battle of Alnwick, 
John negotiated the treaty of Falaise (1175), by which 
Scotland became dependent on the English crown. As a 
reward for his services, he was made Bishop of Norwich, 
Dec. 14 of the same year. In 1176, the year following his 
elevation to the see of Norwich, he conducted the Princess 
Joanna, daughter of Henry II., to Sicily, where she mar- 
ried the King, William the Good. In 1179 the Bishop of 

11 Goulburn, History of the See of Norwich, p. 174. 

o 2 

196 Jtortoitfc 

Norwicli was appointed one of the Itinerant Justices for 
deciding civil and criminal pleas within the eastern coun- 
ties, first appointed by Henry II. 1 In 1179 he was one of 
the English representatives at the third Lateran Council. 
In 1186 he assisted at the marriage of William of Scotland, 
and in the same year was present at the Council of Marl- 
borough, and at that of Pipewell in 1189, after having 
taken part in the coronation of Richard I. In the general 
crusading fervour he took the cross and started with 
Richard for Palestine, 1190, but obtained exemption from 
the Pope. In 1191 he was present at the Council of 
Reading, when Longchamp was impeached; and in 1197 
sat as Judge in the Court of Exchequer. He died June 2, 
1200. He was a learned and a pious writer ; and a list of 
his works, which were chiefly historical, is given by Bale. 
[A.D. 1200 1214.] JOHN DE GRAY, was one of three bishops 
(the other two were Peter de Roches of Winchester and 
Philip of Durham) who, in spite of all the insults and 
oppressions heaped by King John on the Church and coun- 
try, continued his firm partizans and the instruments 
of his exactions. John de G-ray, who had been Arch- 
deacon of Cleveland, and subsequently of Gloucester, and, 
in 1189, one of Henry the Second's Justices Itinerant, be- 
came Bishop of Norwich in the year 1202 ; and in 1206, on 
the death of Hubert Walter, was, by the King's influence, 
elected to the primacy. The monks of Canterbury, how- 
ever, who had been divided into two parties, one of which 
had chosen their sub-prior, Reginald, appealed to Rome. 
Innocent III. annulled both elections, and appointed Ste- 
phen Langton. (See CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL, Pt. II. 
ARCHBISHOP LANGTON.) The long quarrel between King 
John and the Pope, which produced the famous Interdict, 
and which terminated in the King's resignation of his crown 
to Pandulf, was the result. 

* See Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. ii. p. 337 (ed. 1855). 

gantalf glasta. 197 

In 1211 Bishop de Gray was appointed Grand Justiciary 
of Ireland. In 1214 he died at St. Jean d'Angely, in 
Poitou, on his return from Kome. His body was brought 
to England, and interred in the cathedral at Norwich. 
The Interdict had ceased in the same year. 
[A.D. 12221226.] PANDULF MASCA, the legate of Pope 
Innocent III., who had received King John's submis- 
sion in the church of the Templars, and who had subse- 
quently raised the Interdict, was the next Bishop of 
Norwich. The see, however, had remained vacant for 
seven years (1214 1222), during the struggle between 
King John and his barons, and the commencement of the 
reign of Henry III. Pandulph, after his election, proceeded 
to Kome, where he was consecrated by Pope Honorius III. 
The " practice of purchasing the support of Eome by en- 
riching her Italian clergy" had been commenced by John ; 
but it attained its highest pitch during the long reign of 
Henry III., and after causing many popular outbreaks, 
was at last one of the grievances set forth by the revolted 
barons, under Simon de Montfort. " Pope Honorius writes 
to Pandulf, not merely authorizing, but urging him to 
provide a benefice or benefices in his diocese of Norwich 
for his own (the Bishop's) brother, that brother (a singular 
plurality) being Archdeacon of Thessalonica. These 
foreigners were of course more and more odious to the 
whole realm ; to the laity as draining away their wealth 
without discharging any duties ; still more to the clergy 
as usurping their benefices ; though ignorant of the lan- 
guage, affecting superiority in attainments; from their 
uncongenial manners, and, if they are not belied, unchecked 
vices. They were blood-suckers, drawing out the life, 
or drones fattening on the spoil of the land. All existing 
documents show that the jealousy and animosity of the 
English did not exaggerate the evil j ." 

> Milman's Latin Christianity, vol. iv. p. 308. 

198 jtarfoxcfc Caifctfcral 

As Bishop of Norwich, Pandulf procured the grant to 
himself of the first-fruits (primitice) from all the eccle- 
siastical benefices in his diocese. His successors continued 
the same exaction until the accession of Bishop Ralph of 
Walpole in 1289. Pandulf died at Borne, Sept. 16, 1226, 
and was buried at Norwich. 

[A.D. 12261236.] THOMAS BLUNVILLE, nephew of Hubert 
de Burgh, Lord Chief Justiciary, Clerk of the Koyal Ex- 
chequer. After his death the see remained vacant for three 
years ; when 

[A.D. 12391244.] WILLIAM OF HALEY, Treasurer of Exeter 
and Prebendary of Lichfield, was appointed. In 1228 he 
was made a Justiciary, and (1231' 1235) was one of the 
Justices in Eyre. In 1244 he became bishop-elect of 
Winchester, and died at Tours in 1250. (See WINCHESTER 

[A.D. 1245 1257.] WALTER SUFFIELD, whose reputation in 
the University of Paris was considerable, succeeded. He 
is said to have been totius divini ac humani juris peritis- 
simus, and was chosen accordingly by Pope Innocent to 
conduct a valuation of ecclesiastical revenues throughout 
England. " This valuation was entered upon record, called 
the Norwich tax, and was afterwards made use of upon the 
grant of subsidies and assessments of the clergy V Bishop 
Walter built the hospital of St. Giles at Norwich, and 
added the Lady-chapel at the east end of his cathedral, 
pulled down by Dean Gardiner in the reign of Elizabeth. 
(See Pt. I. i.) During a great dearth, the Bishop sold 
much of the silver plate he possessed, and distributed the 
proceeds to the poor ; among whom the reputation of his 
charity and great virtue became widely spread, and 
miracles were said to be wrought at his tomb in the Lady- 
chapel. He died at Colchester in 1257. 
[A.D. 12581266.] SIMON OF WALTON. One of the King's 

k Collier, Church History. 

isfnrp Sfcirngrrg. 199 

chaplains, but more of a lawyer than an ecclesiastic. He 
acted as one of the Justices Itinerant or in Eyre, 1246 
1250, and in 1253 and 1255 was placed at the head of his 
Commission. In 1259, the year after his consecration, he 
was summoned to attend the King at Shrewsbury, for his 
Welsh campaign. He lived to see the battles of Lewes 
and Evesham, but died before the sack of Norwich by 
the outlawed barons in 1266, in the first few months 
of the episcopate of his successor, 

[A.D. 1266 1278.] KOGEB SKIBNYNG, a monk of the house. 
During his episcopate much of the priory and portions of 
the cathedral church were greatly damaged by fire, which 
broke out during an attack on the priory by the citizens. 
Constant disputes between the monks and the men of 
Norwich concerning the right of the former to a toll on the 
merchandize brought to the great fair, held annually at 
the time of the festival of the Holy Trinity, at last broke 
into violence. Two accounts of this tumult have been 
preserved : the first by Bartholomew Cotton, a monk of 
the priory 1 which is, of course, the monastic history 
of it ; the second in the Liber de Antiquis Leyibus of the 
Corporation of London m , probably obtained from commu- 
nication with the Corporation of Norwich, and giving 
the version of the citizens. The two accounts differ much 
as to the causes which led to the fire, but nearly agree 
as to the amount of damage done by it. "Certain of 
them " (the citizens), says Cotton, " without the tower 
of St. George, with catapults, threw fire into the great 
belfry which was above the choir, arid by this fire they 
burned the whole church, except the chapel of the Blessed 
Mary, which was miraculously preserved. The dormi- 
tory, refectory, strangers' hall, infirmary, with the chapel, 

1 See it in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 399. 

m This very curious account is given at length by Mr. Harrod, 
Castles and Convents of Norfolk, pp. 250-253. 


and almost all the edifices of the court, were consumed 
by fire." " As the fire waxed stronger," says the London 
account, " the belfry was burned, and all the houses 
of the monks, and also, as some say, the cathedral church ; 
so that all which could be burned was reduced to ashes 
except a certain chapel, which remained uninjured." The 
roofs and ceilings, which were no doubt of wood, were at 
this time entirely destroyed; the Norman stone-work of 
the nave suffered little ; that of the choir was probably 
more injured. 

The year of this attack on the priory (1272) was the last 
year of the long reign of Henry III., who came to Norwich 
to investigate the affair, and who died at St. Edmundsbury 
after leaving the city. After long disputes, during which 
Norwich was placed under an interdict by the Bishop, 
Edward I. in 1275 decided that the citizens should, within 
three years, pay 3000 marks to the prior and convent, for 
the restoration of the church and other buildings ; that the 
Corporation should give a golden pyx (? " Unum vas au- 
reum ... ad tenendum Corpus Christi super altare ") of ten 
pounds' weight for the high altar, and that the interdict 
should be at once removed n . St Ethelbert's gate, usually 
said to have been built by the citizens in expiation of their 
attack on the priory, was probably built with the money 
thus paid. The King's decision permits the prior and con- 
vent to make their new entrance wherever they pleased . 
[A.D. 1278 1288.] WILLIAM MIDDLETON in 1273 Vicar- 
General of Archbishop Kilwardby, and Dean of the Arches 
and Prebendary of St. Paul's, and in 1276 Archdeacon of 
Canterbury dedicated the cathedral in the name of the 
Holy Trinity on the day of his enthronizaticn, Edward I. 

n Cotton, ap. Angl Sac., i. 400. 

" Dicimus insuper et ordinamus ; quod dicti Prior et Conventus 
faciant ex quacunque parte voluerint introitum dicti Prioratus, 
absque damno vel praejudicio alieno." Cotton, p. 401. 

SMpoLe, Salmon, anb gtgermht. 201 

and his queen being present, with the Bishops of London, 
Hereford, and Waterford, and a large concourse of nobility. 
The roofs had by this time been restored. Bishop Middleton, 
who was distinguished as a canonist and civilian, was for 
some time Edward the First's Seneschal at Bordeaux ; " qui 
in esculentis et poculentis aliis prse cseteris magnatibus 
Anglias ibi moram trahentibus, se exhibuit recommen- 
datum p ." He died at Terling, in Essex, and was buried 
in the Lady-chapel of the cathedral. 

[A.D. 1289, trans, to Ely 1299.] RALPH WALPOLE, Arch- 
deacon of Ely. (See ELY.) According to Blomefield, his 
election displeased the whole diocese, and his unpopularity 
was so great that everybody cursed the convent in general 
and the electors in particular. In 1298 he attended the 
marriage of the King's daughter Elizabeth to John Earl of 
Holland at Ipswich. The eastern walk of the cloister is 
attributed to Bishop Walpole. 

[A.D. 12991325.] JOHN SALMON, Prior of Ely ; Lord Chan- 
cellor from 1319 to 1323. " His career was more that of 
a counsellor in political affairs than that of an ecclesiastical 
administrator" (Goulburn). Bishop Salmon was one of 
the envoys sent to the Court of France to arrange the mar- 
riage of Edward II. with Isabella, " she-wolf of France." 
He proved a thorougly loyal counsellor to his ill-fated 
King, and attended on him in his campaign against the 
Scots, 1311-12. In 1325 he went on an embassage to 
France, the fatigue and anxiety of which proved fatal to 
him. He died soon after landing from his voyage across 
the channel, at Folkestone Priory, July 6, 1325. Bishop 
Salmon built a hall and chapel for his palace at Norwich, 
together with the south walk of the cloister, and the 
chancel chapel, now the Grammar-school. 

[A.D. 1325 1336.] WILLIAM AYERMIN ; a most scandalous 
example of the time-serving, unprincipled Churchman, 

P Cotton. 


greedy of preferment, true only to his own selfish and 
ambitious objects, destitute of principle, and incapable of 
gratitude. Few prelates have ever basked so long in royal 
favour, or obtained so many preferments in succession " 
(Goulburn}. In early life we find him a junior clerk in 
the Chancery. In 1316 he became Master of the Rolls, 
and in 13'J4 Keeper of the Privy Seal. He held no less 
than twelve prebends in different cathedrals and collegiate 
churches. In 1319 he was taken prisoner by the Scots, 
and in 1324 was sent to treat with Robert Bruce. In 
1825, while in Rome as ambassador, he was made Bishop 
of Norwich by papal bnll in place of Robert Baldock, the 
elect of the monks. On the waning of Edward the 
Second's fortunes, in 1326, he transferred his allegiance to 
Isabella, and openly espoused her cause, receiving fresh 
honours and emoluments as the price of his treachery. In 
that same year he became Chancellor, and in 1331 Trea- 
surer. He ended his disgraceful life in 1336. 

[A.D. 13371343.] ANTONY BEK, nephew of Antony Bek, 
the powerful Bishop of Durham, and Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem, Dean of Lincoln, and a retainer of the Pontifical 
Court ; appointed, like Ayermin, by papal bull, against the 
wishes of the convent. "His reckless and imperious 
demeanour irritated all with whom he was officially con- 
nected. Not only his inferiors, but even those set over 
him, not excepting even the Primate himself, he treated 
with contempt" (Goulburn, p. 433). He resisted the 
Archbishop's claim to visit the cathedral, and raised the 
citizens against him. By his arrogant and despotic con- 
duct he incurred the hatred of his monks, at whose 
instigation, it is said, his servants administered poison to 

[A.D. 1344 1355.] WILLIAM BATEMAN, a native of Norwich, 
of which his father was a distinguished citizen, educated 
at Cambridge ; in 1328 he was made Archdeacon of Nor- 
wich by Ayermin, and in 1343 became Dean of Lincoln ; 

gasman, $teg, anfc Spjenm. 203 

and about the same time went as ambassador of the Kings 
both of England and France to the Court of Rome. He 
was chosen Bishop of Norwich at the same time, both by 
his own convent and by the Pope. He proved a vigorous 
defender of the rights of his see, compelled Eobert, Baron of 
Morley, who had broken into certain of the Bishop's parks, 
to perform public penance, in spite of the King's threaten- 
ing letters. Bishop Bateinan died at Avignon, where, with 
Henry Duke of Lancaster and other nobles, he had gone 
on an embassy from Edward III., to arrange, under the pre- 
sidency of Pope Innocent VI., the English claims to certain 
portions of French territory. During his episcopate more 
than fifty-seven thousand persons are said to have perished 
in Norwich alone, from the plague called the " Black Death." 
Following the examples of Walter de Merton (see ROCHES- 
TER CATHEDRAL, Pt. II.,) at Oxford, and of Hugh de 
Balsham, Bishop of Ely, at Cambridge (see ELY CATHE- 
DRAL, Pt. II.), Bishop Bateman founded Trinity Hall at 
Cambridge, for the study of civil and canon law. 

[A.D. 13561369.] THOMAS PERCY, brother of the Earl of 
Northumberland, intruded by the Pope at the instance 
of Henry Duke of Lancaster, though only twenty -two 
years of age. During his episcopate the spire of the cathe- 
dral was struck by lightning, and the masses of stone 
which fell from it did serious mischief to the choir, of 
which the clerestory was rebuilt in its present graceful 
form by him. 

[A.D. 13701406.] HENRY SPENSER, grandson of the favour- 
ite of Edward II., had been, with an elder brother, in the 
pay of the Pope, Hadrian V., during his war with Bernabo 
Visconti of Milan. By the Pope he was named Bishop of 
Norwich ; and he brought with him to England the love of 
arms, and the skill in the use of them, which had in effect 
procured him his bishopric. During the insurrections of 
1381, whilst Wat Tyler and his followers advanced on 
London, the men of Norfolk and Suffolk rose in great force, 


and made Litster, a dyer of Norwich, their captain. " Spen- 
ser, the young and martial Bishop of Norwich ... at the 
head of eight lances and a few archers, boldly arrested one 
of the ringleaders. A few knights gathered round him. 
Armed from head to foot, with a huge two-handed sword, 
he attacked an immense rabble, hewed them down, put the 
rest to flight, seized the captain, a dyer of Norwich, and 
reduced his diocese to peace by these victories, and by 
remorseless executions' 1 ." " A a later period, when the 
Lollards, by preaching against pilgrimages, endangered the 
interests of Our Lady of Walsingham, Bishop Spenser 
swore that if any of WyclifTs preachers came into his 
diocese, he would burn or behead him. ' Faith and religion,' 
says Walsingham, 'remained inviolate in the diocese of 

In 1315, the ninth year of Kichard II., " just at the time 
when the schism had shaken the Papacy to its base, and 
Wycliif had denounced both popes alike as Antichrist, 
and had found strong sympathy in the hearts and minds of 
men ... for the first time a holy civil war is proclaimed in 
Christendom, especially in England, the seat of these new 
opinions a war of pope against pope. The Pontiff of Home 
promulgates a crusade against the Pontiff of Avignon." 
The Papal schism had commenced in 1375, when Robert of 
Geneva, by the influence of France, was elected pope in 
opposition to Urban VI. : Robert took the name of Clement 
VII. France and Scotland were at first the only adherents 
of Clement. In the autumn and winter of 1382, however, 
Flanders had been invaded by the young King of France, 
Philip Van Artevelde had fallen at Roosebecque, and the 
country had been compelled to submit to Charles VI., who 
obliged all the conquered towns to recognise Clement VII. 
as Pope. Accordingly, the Bishop of Norwich directed his 
crusade against Flanders, as being then in effect French 

i Milman, Latin Christianity, vol. vi. p. 133. 
* Id. vi. 134 (note). 


territory*. "Public prayers are put up, by order of the 
Primate (William Courtenay), in every church of the realm, 
for the success of the expedition into Flanders. The bishops 
and the clergy are called on by the Archbishop to enforce 
on their flocks the duty of contribution to this sacred pur- 
pose. Money, jewels, property of all kinds, are lavishly 
brought in, or rigidly extorted ; it is declared meritorious 
to fight for the faith, glorious to combat for the Lord. The 
same indulgences are ganted as to crusaders in the Holy 

" But, after all, the issue of the expedition, at first suc- 
cessful, was in the end as shameful and disastrous as it was 
insulting to all sound religious feeling. The Crusaders 
took Gravelines ; they took Dunkirk ; and this army of the 
Pope, headed by a Christian bishop, in a war so-called re- 
ligious, surpassed the ordinary inhumanity of the times. 
Men, women, and children were hewn to pieces in one vast 
massacre. After these first successes, the London appren- 
tices, and the villains throughout the kingdom, were seized 
with a crusading ardour. They mounted white cloaks, with 
red crosses on their shoulders, red scabbards to their swords, 
and marched off defying their masters. Many religious, 
monks and friars, followed their example. The Crusaders 

1 A very full and interesting account of the crusade will be 
found in M. Kervyn de Lettenhove's Histoire de Flandre, vol. ii. 
(ed. 1853). 

* Milman, Lat. Christ., vi. 132. The form of absolution is thus 
given by Collier (Eccles. Hist., bk. vi. cent. 14), from Knighton. 
" By apostolical authority committed to me for this purpose, I 
absolve thee, A.B., from all thy sins confessed, and for which thou 
art contrite ; and from all those which thou wouldest confess, 
provided they occurred to thy memory. And, together with the 
full remission of thy sins, I grant thee the assurance of the reward 
of just persons in the life to come. I grant thee, moreover, all 
the privileges of those who undertake an expedition to the Holy 
Land, and the benefit of the prayers of the Universal Church, 
either met in synod or elsewhere." 

206 $oxfaritb 

had neither the pride nor consolation of permanent suc- 
cess. The army of Spenser returned as ingloriously as it 
had conducted itself atrociously. He had 60,000 men y 
besides auxiliaries from Ghent. Before Ypres he failed 
shamefully. At the first approach of the French army he 
withdrew to Gravelines, and was glad to buy a safe retreat 
by the surrender of the town V 

It need hardly be said that the crusade of Bishop Spen- 
ser was more an affair of policy than of religion, and that it 
was mainly the result of hostility between France and 
England. On the failure of the expedition, the young King, 
Kichard II., in a frenzy of rage, ordered the temporalities 
of the see of Norwich to be seized, on pretence that the 
crusade had been countermanded by the King's writ when 
it was on the point of sailing, and that the Bishop had taken 
no notice of the writ. The temporalities were soon re- 
stored ; but a few years later a suit was preferred against 
him in the Court of Chancery, in which the Bishop came 
off victorious. On the accession of Henry IV., Bishop 
Spenser, with other enemies of the Duke of Lancaster, was 
thrown into prison ; but in 1401 " his ability, his services, 
and his manifest popularity with the people, made it 
convenient to Henry to grant him his pardon " (Goulburn, 
p. 454). In the same year the statute " de hseretico 
comburendo " was passed, which Spenser declared he would 
put in force with the utmost rigour against any Lollards 
who might be found within his jurisdiction ; he would 
"make them either hop headless, or fry a faggot." He 
was taken ill suddenly while performing matins, and died 
Aug. 23, 1406. 

[A.D. 14071413.] ALEXANDER TOTTINGTON, Prior of the 
convent, whose election was opposed by the King, was at 
last consecrated at Gloucester, Oct. 23, 1407. 

[A.D. 1413 1415.] KICHARD COURTENAY, second son of 

u Milman, Latin Christianity. 

t0 Jftrkke. 207 

Philip Cotirtenay, son of Hugh, Earl of Devon, and nephew 
of Archbishop Courtenay. Preferments fell thickly upon 
him. In 1402 he was made Dean of St. Asaph ; 1403, 
Canon of York; 1408, Canon of Wells; 1409, Dean of 
that cathedral ; and in 1407, Chancellor of Oxford. He 
accompanied Henry V. on his expedition to France, and 
died at the siege of Harflenr. He was brought to West- 
minster Abbey for interment. 

[A.D. 1416 1425.] JOHN WAKERING, Archdeacon of Can- 
terbury, Master of the Rolls, and Keeper of the Privy 
Real : was present at the Council of Constance, 1414. 

[A.D. 1426, trans, to Lincoln 1436.] WILLIAM ALNWICK, 
Keeper of. the Privy Seal, and Archdeacon of Salisbury. 
His works in the cathedral have been noticed, Pt. I. in. 

[A.D. 14361445.] THOMAS BROWN, Dean of Salisbury, was 
translated to Norwich from Rochester, during his absence 
at the Council of Basle. He stood firmly for the liberties 
of his Church against the citizens of Norwich. 

[A.D. 1445 1472.] WALTER HART, or LE HART, Provost of 
Oriel College, Oxford, confessor to Margaret of Anjou, was 
sent by Henry VI. to Savoy, on a mission to the Antipope 
Felix, and had some share in inducing him to abdicate, 
by which act the long papal schism was at last closed. 
Bishop Walter's work in the cathedral has been noticed 
(Pt. I. v.). 

[A.D. 14721498.] JAMES GOLDWELL, ambassador of Ed- 
ward IV. at the Papal Court, Archdeacon of Essex, and 
Dean of Salisbury. Little is recorded of him beyond his 
great work in the choir of his cathedral, noticed at Pt. I. 
x. His tomb, with effigy, remains on the south side of 
the choir (Pt. I. XL). 

[A.D. 14991500.] THOMAS JANE, Fellow of New College, 

[A.D. 1501 1536.] RICHARD NYKKE, or Nix, " a person of 
very slender character," in Collier's words, succeeded ; who, 
says Godwin, " in spite of his name, had little of snow in 

208 ibrbitb Cstfctbral. 

his breast." Bishop Nykke had been Archdeacon of Exeter 
and Canon of Windsor. He took the oath of supremacy, 
and, according to Fox, five persons suffered in his diocese 
on this account, and on the question of transubstantiation. 
Toward the end of his life Nykke became blind, and was 
said " to have offended the King (Hen. VIII.) signally by 
some correspondence with Rome, and was kept long in the 
Marshalsea, and convicted, and cast in a prsemunire 1 ." " But 
this relation," says Collier, " goes only upon conjecture, and 
looks improbable, even from Nix's age and behaviour, for 
he was a very old man, and had been blind for many years ; 
and as he could have no prospect of advantage from such 
a correspondence, so neither did he manage like one that 
would risk his fortune for any religion. . . . The true cause 
of his conviction and imprisonment was this : the town of 
Thetford, in Norfolk, made a presentment upon oath, before 
the King's judges, in proof of their liberties ... The Bishop 
taking this as a check upon his jurisdiction, cited Richard 
Cockerell, Mayor of Thetford, and some others, into his 
court, and enjoined them, under penalty of excommunica- 
tion, to summon a jury of their town, and cancel the former 
presentment. For this the Bishop was prosecuted in the 
King's Bench, cast in a praemunire, and had judgment exe- 
cuted upon his person and estate, pursuant to the statute. 
This was done in the beginning of the year 1534. The King 
afterwards, upon his submission, discharged him out of 
prison ; however he was not pardoned without a fine, with 
part of which it is said the glass windows of King's College 
Chapel in Cambridge were purchased 7 ." 

In his own cathedral Bishop Nykke constructed the 
existing roofs of the transept (Pt. I. xn.) ; and arranged 
his own chantry in the nave (Pt. I. vi.). 
[A.D. 1506, resigned 1550.] WILLIAM RUGG, or REPPS, Abbot 
of St. Bennet of Holm, which abbacy he retained with the 
bishopric. During the vacancy of the see " the King took 

x Burnet. * Eccles. Hist., Pt. n. bk. ii. 

fugg 10 &tambl*r. 209 

into his own hands all the manors of the bishopric. For 
the seizing this large endowment there was nothing given 
in exchange but the Abbey of St. Benet's in the Holm, the 
Priory of Hickling in Norfolk, and a prebend in the colle- 
giate church of St. Stephen's, Westminster. This exchange 
was confirmed in Parliament *." 

The Bishop of Norwich, in right of this exchange, is still 
titular Abbot of Holm. 

Bishop Rugg alienated much of the diminished property 
of the see, no doubt to his personal advantage ; but on 
complaints made to the King (Edward VI.) he was com- 
pelled to resign the bishopric, paying a fine of 900, and 
retaining a pension of 200 for life. Leland the anti- 
quary, who was intimately acquainted with him, describes 
Bishop Rugg as " a spotless man, and a most accomplished 
theologian." The Norwich priory was finally suppressed 
after his accession, and the Dean and Chapter duly in- 
stalled in its place. 

[A.D. 1550, trans, to Ely 1554.] THOMAS THIRLBY, the first 
and last Bishop of Westminster. (See ELY.) 

[A.D. 15541558.] JOHN HOPTON, Chaplain to Queen Mary : 
at whose death he is said to have died of grief. Many Pro- 
testants suffered in his diocese during his episcopate. 

[A.D. 1560 1575.] JOHN PARKBURST, born at Guildford in 
Surrey ; the tutor of Bishop Jewel, and an exile with him. 
He is said to have " repaired and beautified " his palace at 
Norwich, where he died. His tomb without the brasses, 
remains in the nave. (Pt. I. vi.) 

[A.D. 1575, translated to Worcester 1584.] EDMUND FREAK, 
translated to Norwich from Rochester. 

[A.D. 1585 1594.] EDMUND SCAMBLER, translated from Pe- 
terborough. Bishop Scambler alienated much at Peter- 
borough (see that Cathedral, Pt II.) ; and did the same 
at Norwich. His monument was destroyed by the Puritans. 

Eccles. Hist. Pt. n. bk. ii. 
VOL. n. PT. i. p 

210 gorfoitk Cs%brsl. 

[A.D. 1594 1602.] WILLIAM REDMAN, Archdeacon of Can- 

[A.D. 16021617.] JOHN JEGON, Master of Bene't College, 

[A.D. 1618 1619.] JOHN OVERALL, translated from Lich- 
field ; " a discreet presser of conformity in his diocese," 
says Fuller ; and one of the most learned of English con- 
troversialists. He had the character, according to Antony 
Wood, of being the " best scholastic divine in the English 
nation." He was the correspondent of Grotius and Gerard 
Vossius ; but it is best known in England by his so-called 
"Convocation Book," written, says Bishop Burnet, "on 
the subject of Government, the divine institution of which 
was very positively asserted." The treatise, which con- 
sists partly of canons and partly of introductory and ex- 
planatory dissertations on the matter of the canons, was 
duly sanctioned in the Convocation of 1610 ; but it " did 
not see the light until many years after it was composed, 
when it was published by Archbishop Bancroft, to justify 
the principles of the Nonjuring party. It was, however, 
a strange oversight in Bancroft's party to publish the book, 
as there are several canons in it which clearly lay down 
that a de facto government is, when completely established, 
to be held in the light of a de jure government ; and it was 
upon the very grounds set forth in this book, that Dr. 
Sherlock took the oaths to King William 4 ." 

The composition of the latter part of the Catechism 
(containing an explanation of the Sacraments) is generally 
attributed to Bishop Overall. " It was added (in 1604) by 
royal authority, * by way of explanation,' in compliance 
with the wish which the Puritans had expressed at the 
Conference at Hampton Court ; and with two emendations 
was afterwards confirmed by Convocation and Parliament 
m 1661V 

" Perry's History of the Church of England, vol. i. p. 178. 
* Procter on the Book of Common Prayer, p. 391. 

gisfcops derail to tfwbtt. 211 

The monument for Bishop Overall, erected by his secre- 
tary, Dr. Cosin, Bishop of Durham, has been already 
noticed (Pt. I. XL). In the inscription he is declared to 
be " Vir undequaque doctissimus, et omni encomio major." 

[A.D. 1619, translated to York 1628.] SAMUEL HARSNET. 

[A.D. 1628, translated to Ely 1631.] FRANCIS WHITE. 

[A.D. 1632 1635.] EICHARD CORBET, born at Ewell in Surrey, 
was translated to Norwich from Oxford. Corbet was a 
distinguished wit ; and although one of the bishops who 
carried out the Laudian discipline with a high hand, was 
scarcely himself an example of religious living. He could 
not restrain his facetiousness even on the most solemn 
occasions. " One time, as he was confirming," says Aubrey % 
" the country people pressing in to see the ceremony, said 
he, * Bear off there, or I will confirm ye with my staff.' 
Another time, being to lay his hand on the head of a man 
very bald, he turns to his chaplain, and said, { Some dust, 
Lushington,' to keep his hand from slipping. The Bishop 
sometimes would take the key of the wine-cellar, and he 
and his chaplain would go and lock themselves in and be 
merry. Then, first he lays down his episcopal hat ' There 
lies the Doctor.' Then he puts off his gown ' There lies 
the Bishop.' Then 'twas, ' There's to thee, Corbet,' and 
* Here's to thee, Lushington.' " 

A more favourable character is given of Bishop Corbet 
by Fuller, who calls him " an high wit and most excellent 
poet, of a courteous carriage, and no destructive nature to 
any who offended him, counting himself plentifully repaired 
with a jest upon him d ." His poems, which are noticeable 
as illustrations of the period, were published after his death, 
under the title of Poetica Stromata, 1648. 

[A.D. 1635, translated to Ely 1638.] MATTHEW WREN. (See 

c Lives, ii. 203, quoted in Perry's History of the Church of 
d Worthies Surrey. 

212 gorfoul} <Ea%braI. 

[A.D. 1638 1641.] BICHARD MONTAGUE, translated from 
Chichester. For a sketch of Bishop Montague's life, which, 
happily for himself, ended before the breaking out of the 

[A.D. 1641 died 1656.] JOSEPH HALL, translated to Norwich 
from Exeter. A short life of this excellent bishop will be 
found in EXETER CATHEDRAL, Part II. To the notices 
there quoted may be added " the eloquent tribute of the 
venerable Bishop Morton to the merits of his friend : ' God's 
visible, eminent, and resplendent graces of illumination, 
zeal, piety, and eloquence, have made him truly honour- 
able and glorious in the Church of Christ 6 .' " 

In December, 1641, Bishop Hall, with the Archbishop 
of York and eleven other prelates, was committed to the 
Tower, for protesting against the validity of laws passed 
during the enforced absence of bishops from Parliament. 
He was soon afterwards released on giving security for 
five thousand pounds, and returned to Norwich, where he 
remained unmolested until April 1643. His property was 
then sequestered as that of a " notorious delinquent." He 
was expelled from his palace, and treated with all possible 
insult, till he withdrew to the parish of Heigham, where 
he was permitted to remain in comparative security until 
his death, in 1656. The present " Dolphin Inn " at Heigham 
a house with the date 1615 on its front was the resi- 
dence of Bishop Hall ; who was buried in the adjoining 
church. His monument with a " cadaver," an emblem 
then greatly affected, still remains. 

In his " Hard Measure " Bishop Hall has given the 
story of his sufferings ; and from it the following picture 
of the desecration of the cathedral is extracted: "It is 
tragical to relate the furious sacrilege committed under 
the authority of Linsey, Toffs the sheriff, and Greenwood : 

Quoted in Perry's History of the Church of England, vol. i. 
p. 629. 

fall to Jlogb. 213 

what clattering of glasses, what beating down of walls, 
what tearing down of monuments, what pulling down of 
seats, and wresting out of irons and brass from the win- 
dows and graves ; what defacing of arms, what demolish- 
ing of curious stone-work, that had not any representation 
in the world but of the cost of the founder and skill of the 
mason; what piping on the destroyed organ-pipes; vest- 
ments, both copes and surplices, together with the leaden 
cross which had been newly sawed down from over the 
greenyard pulpit, and the singing-books and service-books, 
were carried to the fire in the public market-place ; a lewd 
wretch walking before the train in his cope trailing in the 
dirt, with a service-book in his hand, imitating in an im- 
pious scorn the tune, and usurping the words of the litany. 
The ordnance being discharged on the guild-day, the cathe- 
dral was filled with musketeers, drinking and tobacconing 
as freely as if it had turned ale-house." 

[A.D. 16611676.] EDWARD KEYNOLDS, who had joined the 
Presbyterian party during the Civil War ; afterwards be- 
came Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and Bishop of Nor- 
wich. He was accused of deserting his party for prefer- 
ment ; but Blomefield (Hist, of Norfolk) gives him a high 
character ; and his works have often been reprinted. He 
was interred in the chapel of his palace at Norwich. 

[A.D. 16761685.] ANTONY SPARROW, was translated from 
Exeter. Bishop Sparrow, the well-known author of the 
" Eationale upon the book of Common Prayer," was born 
at Depden, in Suffolk. At Norwich, according to Blome- 
field, he obtained the* 'praise and commendation of all 
men." Little is recorded of his public life, either here or 
at Exeter. 

[A.D. 1685, deposed 1691.] WILLIAM LLOYD, had been suc- 
cessively Bishop of Llandaff and Peterborough. He was 
deposed as a Nonjuror, and lived at Hammersmith until 
his death in 1710. 

[A.D. 1691, translated to Ely 1707.] JOHN MOOEB. 

214 gforfoicfc Caifcebral. 

[A.D. 1708, translated to Winchester 1721.] CHARLES TRIM- 


[A.D. 1721, translated to Ely 1723.] THOMAS GREEN. 

[A.D. 17231727.] JOHN LENG. 

[A.D. 1727 1732.] WILLIAM BAKER, translated from Bangor. 

[A.D. 1733, translated to Ely 1738.] ROBERT BUTTS. 

[A.D. 1738, translated to Ely 1748.] SIR THOMAS GOOCH, 

translated to Norwich from Bristol. 

[A.D. 1748 1749.] SAMUEL LISLE, translated from St. Asaph. 
[A.D. 1749, translated to London 1761.] THOMAS HAYTER, 

Preceptor to George III. 

[A.D. 1761 1783.] PHILIP YOUNG, translated from Bristol. 
[A.D. 1783, translated to St. Asaph 1790.] LEWIS BAGOT, 

translated from Bristol. 
[A.D. 1791 1792. j GEORGE HORNE, President of Magdalen 

College, Oxford, 1768, Dean of Canterbury 1781, author of 

" A Commentary on the Psalms," and Sermons which 

obtained great celebrity ; also of " Letters on Infidelity." 
[A.D. 1792, translated to Canterbury 1805.] CHARLES MAN- 


[A.D. 1805 1837.] HENRY BATHURST. 
[A.D. 1837 1849.] EDWARD STANLEY. A Memoir of Bishop 

Stanley has been published by his son, A. P. Stanley, D.D., 

Dean of Westminster. Second Edition, 1880. 
[A.D. 1849, resigned 1857.] SAMUEL HINDS, Dean of Car- 

lisle 1848-1849. 




Architectural History, 1 219221 

Dimensions, II 221222 

Galilee, III 222-224 

West Tower, IV 224226 

South-western Transept, V 226228 

Nave, VI 228229 

Nave Ceiling, VII 229233 

Nave-aisles, VIII 233234 

Windows of Nave-aisles, IX 234237 

Transepts, X , 237239 

Octagon, XI.-XIV 239247 

Choir, XV 247250 

Presbytery, XVI 250252 

Western Bays of Choir, Stalls, &c., XVII 252256 

Reredos, XVIII 256258 

Monuments in Choir, South side, XIX., North 

side, XX 258262 

North Choir-aisle, XXI 262264 

Retro-choir, XXII 264265 

Bishop Alcock's Chapel, XXIII 265266 

Bishop West's Chapel, XXIV 266269 

South Choir-aisle, Monuments, XXV.-XXVI. .. 269272 

Chapter Library, XXVII 272 

Lady-chapel, XXVIII 272275 

Upper parts, XXIX 275 

Exterior, XXX.-XXXI 276279 

Cloisters, Monks' and Prior's Doors, XXXII. .. 279281 
Infirmary, Deanery, Prior's Lodge, Prior Crawden's 

Chapel, &c., XXXIII 281283 

Bishop's Palace, XXXIV 283284 

General Views, XXXV 284285 





Jjistavn anb Details. 

I. THE foundations of the existing Cathedral of 
Ely were laid by SIMEON, the first Norman abbot 
(1082 1094) of the great Benedictine monastery 
established about the year 970 by Athelwold, Bishop 
of Winchester, on the site of the convent of St. Ethel- 
dreda, which had been destroyed by the Northmen. 
(See Pt. II.) Simeon, who was by birth related to 
the Conqueror, had been Prior of Winchester, and 
was the brother of Walkelin, first Norman bishop of 
that see, who also re-built his cathedral. 

The church thus commenced was so far completed 
by Simeon's successor, Abbot RICHARD (1100 1107), 
that he was able to translate into it from the Saxon 
church the bodies of St. Etheldreda (to whom, con- 
jointly with St. Peter, the building was dedicated"), 
and of the other three sainted abbesses, her sisters 

" Ecclesiam suara a prtedecessore suo inceptam aodificavit." 
Thomas Eliensis, Anglia Sacra, torn. i. p. 613. This may either 
mean that he completed the church (which was subsequently 
enlarged and altered); or which is more probable that he 
only completed the choir and transepts. It is certain that the 
nave is of much later date tlmn the time of Abbot Richard. 

220 {Bi 

St. Sexburga and Withburga, and her niece St. 
Ermenilda. No further record exists of the progress 
of the work until Bishop GEOFFRY RIDEL (11741189) 
is mentioned as having " completed the new work to 
its western end (usque occidentem), together with the 
tower nearly to the summit." Bishop EUSTACE (1198 
1215) built a Galilee (or western porch). Bishop 
HUGH OF NORTHWOLD (1229 1254) pulled down the 
Norman presbytery, and extended it six bays east- 
wards in seventeen years, 1235 1252. In the year 
1322, during the episcopate of JOHN HOTHAM (1316 
1337), Abbot Simeon's central tower fell; as his 
brother Wakelin's at Winchester had fallen in 1107. 
The octagon, by which the tower was replaced, was com- 
menced in the same year (1322), and completed in 1328 : 
the lantern above it, begun in 1328, was finished in 
1342. The western portion of Bishop Hugh's choir, 
which had been ruined by the fall of the tower, was 
rebuilt, chiefly at the expense of Bishop Hotham, who, 
at his death, left money for the purpose. The work 
was commenced in 1338. The Lady-chapel, the erec- 
tion of which was mainly due to JOHN OF WISBECH, a 
brother of the monastery, was commenced in 1321, 
and completed in 1349. Chantries at the eastern ends 
of the choir-aisles were built by Bishop ALOOCK (1485 
1500) and Bishop WEST (15151553). 

From these dates it will be seen that the cathedral 
contains examples of the different periods of Gothic 
architecture, from early Norman to late Perpendicular. 
The chroniclers of the abbey have recorded the exact 

glaimsk 221 

date of nearly every portion of the building ; which 
thus acquires the highest possible value and interest 
for the student of architecture. Nor are the examples 
which it affords anywhere exceeded in beauty or im- 
portance. The Galilee and eastern portion of the choir 
take rank among the very best works of the Early 
English period ; whilst the octagon, the western choir, 
and the Lady-chapel are probably the finest examples 
of pure Decorated to be found in England. It should 
also be mentioned here, that the restoration of the 
cathedral, commenced by the late Dean PEACOCK, and 
carried on by his successors, Deans GOODWIN (the pre- 
sent Bishop of Carlisle) and MEKIVALE, is one of the 
most perfect and elaborate that has anywhere been 
attempted. The whole was under the direction of 
the late Sir G. G. SCOTT. 

The church is built throughout of stone from Bar- 
nack in Northamptonshire. Purbeck marble is used 
extensively for decorative shafts and capitals ; and 
some of the interior mouldings and ornaments are 
worked in a soft white stone, called " clunch," found 
in the neighbourhood of Ely. 

II. Ely Cathedral, which measures 537 feet from 
the exterior of the west porch to the exterior eastern 
buttresses, is one of the longest Gothic churches in 
Europe ; although others (as for example the cathedral 
of Milan) cover much more ground. Owing probably 
to its situation, no very important town ever rose up 
about the monastery. The houses which line the streets 
are unusually small and low ; and the long ridge of 

222 <{ 

the cathedral roofs with, their towers and pinnacles 
lifts itself above them on every side. Other English 
cathedrals form only part of the cities in which they 
stand : here the cathedral is in fact the town ; and 
nowhere else perhaps in England is there so complete 
and suggestive a picture of what a great monastery 
such as Glastonbury or Melrose must have resembled 
whilst its buildings were yet entire, and its church 
formed a landmark for all the surrounding district. 

III. Leaving the exterior and the best general points 
of view ( xxxv.) for the present, we enter the cathedral 
by the Galilee or western porch. [Plate I.]. Mr. Essex, 
the architect employed by the Dean and Chapter 
in the extensive repairs of the cathedral carried on 
in the latter half of the last century, advised the de- 
molition of the Galilee and south-western transept as 
" neither useful nor ornamental, and not worth pre- 
serving b ." Happily his advice was not taken in either 
instance. The Galilee is usually attributed to Bishop 
Eustace (1198 1215), but though there is no doubt 
that this prelate did erect a "Galilee" at the west 
end c , the character of the architecture forbids us to 
regard the present Galilee as his work. It certainly 
exhibits a fuller development of the Early English 
style than the work of Bishop Northwold, which was 
not commenced till nearly twenty years after Bishop 
Eustace's death. The thickness of the walls and other 

b Report, MSS. Essex, ii. 261, Add. MSS. British Museum. 
c " Ipse construxit a fundamento novam galileam ecclesise 
Eliensis versus occidentem sumptibus suis." Angl. Sacr. i. 634. 




Galilee. 223 

marks, more evident in Bentham's day than now, ren- 
der it not improbable that the present Galilee was a 
transformation, in a later and more highly ornamental 
style, of the plainer work of the earlier prelate. The 
main arch of entrance circumscribes two smaller 
foliated ones, which spring from a central group of 
shafts, the intermediate space being filled with tracery. 
Above the entrance is a triplet window, originally 
lighting a room above the porch. The high-pitched 
roof was lowered by Essex. The outer walls, north 
and south, are lined by four tiers of arcades, the two 
uppermost of which have foliated arches. 

Within, the porch, which is 43 feet in length, consists 
of two bays, simply vaulted. The wall of each bay is 
divided into two stories by arcades, very gracefully 
disposed. Eemark especially the excellent effect given 
to the lower arcade by its divisions of outer and inner 
arches, and by the effective manner in which the front 
shafts intersect the arches of the arcade behind them 
in somewhat the same manner as in the wall-arcades 
of St. Hugh's choir at Lincoln. The same idea is 
also more fully carried out in the tabernacle-work 
of the Lady-chapel. The outer arches are enriched 
with the dog-tooth moulding. The arch through 
which the cathedral is entered, is divided, like the 
arch of entrance to the porch, into two, by a group of 
shafts. The rich exterior mouldings and the leafage 
of the capitals of the shafts should all be noticed. The 
whole has been restored, with the addition of columns 
of polished serpentine and oaken doors, with iron scroll 

224 <5J 

work, at the cost of Mrs. Waddington, of Twyford, 

The name Galilcea, ' Galilee,' applied to this western 
porch by the chroniclers of Ely, is used elsewhere, as 
at Lincoln and Durham, to denote additions of some- 
what less sacred character than the rest of the building ; 
perhaps in allusion to " Galilee of the Gentiles." The 
Galilee at Durham forms a large chapel at the west 
end of the nave, and was appropriated to the use of 
women, who were not permitted to advance into the 
actual church of the stern St. Cuthbert. 

IV. Entering the cathedral, the visitor finds himself 
within the great west tower, through the eastern arch 
of which a superb view is commanded up the nave 
[Plate II.], past the arches and graceful tracery and 
rich hues of the lantern, and beyond the elaborate 
screen, to the coloured roof of the choir and the stained 
glass of the distant eastern windows. 

The tower, originally the work of Bishop GEOFFEY 
RIDEL (1174 1189 d ), was much altered and strength- 
ened during the Perpendicular period ; when the tran- 
sition Norman arches were contracted by those which 
now exist. The zigzag moulding above marks the 
extent of the original arches. The work, after the 

d The extent of Bishop Ridel's work is uncertain. " Novum 
opus usque occidentem cum turre usque ad cumulum fere per- 
fecit." Monach. Eliensis, ap. Wharton, Anglia Sacra, i. p. 631. 
The " novum opus " may possibly refer to the nave as well as 
the west transept. The upper portions of the tower and western 
transept are Early English, and may belong to the episcopate of 
Bishop Eidel's successor, William Longchamp (11891198). 

Ceiling of % fate. 225 

erection of the upper or Decorated story of the tower, 
(see xxxi.), had probably shown signs of weakness ; 
and the fall of the central tower in the preceding cen- 
tury no doubt led the monks to apply a remedy to this 
one in due time. Two tiers of arcaded galleries, the 
arches of which have trefoil headings, run round above 
the pier- arches ; and above, again, are three pointed 
windows in each side. On the west side, the lower 
arcade is pierced for light as well as the upper. The 
window over the entrance, filled with modern stained 
glass, was inserted early in the present century. 

The interior of the tower was begun to be restored 
in 1846 ; when a floor above the lower arches was re- 
moved. The present painted roof, 115 feet from the 
pavement, was designed and executed by the late Mr. 
H. L. Styleman Le Strange in 1855, the work taking 
him twelve weeks. 

The style of decoration is that which prevailed in 
England about the close of the twelfth century, when 
this part of the tower was completed. The subject, 
placed appropriately at the entrance of the church, is 
the Creation of the Universe. Stems and branches of 
foliage embrace and sustain five circles placed cross- 
ways. In the upper circle toward the east, is depicted 
the Dextra Domini, the "Eight Hand of the Lord," 
as the emblem of the Almighty Father. The central 
circle contains our Saviour in an aureole, in the act of 
exercising creative power. In His left hand He holds 
the globe of the world : and He is surrounded by the 
sun, moon, and stars. Above Him is written the text, 

VOL. II. PT. I. Q 


" I am before all things, and by Me all things consist." 
In the circle beneath is the Holy Dove, brooding over 
the waters of the newly created earth. Rays of light 
proceed from the Dextra Domini in a threefold manner, 
and embrace within their influence the other two per- 
sons of the Godhead. In the other circles are figures 
of cherubim and seraphim holding scrolls, on which 
are the words, "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of 
Sabaoth." Round the whole is the text from Reve- 
lation, iv. 11, " Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive 
glory and honour and power ; for Thou hast created 
all things, and for Thy pleasure they are, and were 

It was while this work was in progress in 1845 that 
Mr. Basevi, the architect of the Fitzwilliam Museum 
at Cambridge, fell from the upper roof, and was killed 
on the spot. He was buried in the north choir-aisle, 
where a brass commemorates him. 

V. Bishop Ridel's original plan embraced a western 
transept opening from the tower, and flanked by octa- 
gonal turrets at the angles. The north-west transept 
fell (at what time is uncertain), and was never re- 
built, though a happily unsuccessful attempt to do so 
seems to have been made in the Decorated period. 
The south wing, till a few years since shut off from 
the church by a plaster wall, and used as a workshop 
and lumber-room, has been thoroughly restored and 
thrown open ; and although Essex advised the Dean and 
Chapter to pull it down, no part of the cathedral more 
deservedly challenges attention for the elaborate rich- 

of St. Canitt. 227 

ness of its architectural decoration. The whole is 
probably the work of Bishop Ridel, and affords in its 
successive stories a very instructive example of the 
progress from the Norman to the Early English style. 
The lower stories are covered with tiers of blind 
arcades, of which that in the centre has interlaced 
arches. The second tier from the top consists of a 
low arcade with trefoiled heads, above which are 
windows with pointed arches carried by banded 
clustered shafts, and other characteristics of the Early 
English period. The square abacus, however, is used 
throughout. On the east side are two circular arches, 
much enriched with zigzag; one of which opens to 
the nave-aisle, the other to the apsidal Chapel of St. 
Catherine, which, long in ruins, was rebuilt in 1848, 
and is now used for early morning prayer. The walls 
are lined with an arcade in two tiers. The stained 
glass of the windows is by WILMSHURST ; the Baptism 
of our Lord after a picture by Bassano, the Saviour 
with little children, from a well-known design of 
Overbeck's. The deep hues of the Bassano have a 
striking effect, but the colours are much too vivid to 
be pleasing. The glass of the other windows is by 

The floors of transept and chapel have been laid 
with diapers of stone and Purbeck marble, with an 
incised border filled with coloured cement. The mas- 
sive square font of Transitional character, standing on 
polished marble shafts, was one of the many gifts 
of the late Professor Selwyn. The ceiling of the 


228 ' I 

transept is coloured in square panels of red and 
green, with angels displaying the red cross and 
sacred monogram, appropriate to its destination as 
a Baptistery. 

VI. The naie [Plate II.], which we now enter, is a 
good specimen of later Norman ; and may be compared 
with the neighbouring Norman nave of Peterborough, 
which must have been in building at the same time. The 
nave of Ely, begun and partly built by Abbot Eichard, 
must have been fully completed before 1174, the date 
of the succession of Bishop Eidel. The work is plain 
throughout ; the eastern end, the part first built, being 
slightly the plainest, but the height of the arches, which 
are slightly stilted, as well as the slender shafts of the 
triforium and clerestory, sufficiently indicate its late 
character. It consists of twelve bays, alternating in 
design, as at Norwich ; the early Norman nave of which 
cathedral should be compared with the later Norman of 
Ely and Peterborough. The arrangement of the piers 
at Norwich is much simpler and ruder than at Ely, 
where the semi-attached shafts of the mo-re complex 
piers already approach the Transition. The arches are 
recessed in three orders, with plain roll- mouldings. 
In the triforium above, a wide and lofty circular arch, 
of the same character and nearly the same height as 
the pier-arch, comprises two smaller arches, carried by 
a tall slender shaft with a cushion capital. The tri- 
forium extends over the aisles, the walls of which 
were raised and Perpendicular windows inserted, in 
1469. The clerestory in each bay is formed by an 




arcade of three semicircular arches, that in the centre 
being a little higher than the other two. At the back 
is a round-headed window. A stringcourse with the 
billet-moulding passes along at the base of the tri- 
forium, and a plain roll above and below the clerestory. 
Slight differences may be noticed between the two 
sides of the nave. Vaulting-shafts, in groups of three, 
rise between each bay on the south side, except the 
easternmost ; on the north side, a single circular shaft 
is set on a square pilaster. A marble cherub under 
the soffete of the third arch from the west till lately 
marked the position of the font, the canopy of which 
it was supposed to support. 

The dimensions of this nave are given as follows 
length, 230 feet ; breadth (with aisles), 77 feet 3 inches ; 
height, 87 feet. 

VII. The roof of the nave as originally constructed 
was probably finished internally with a horizonal 
ceiling from wall to wall, as in the transepts of Peter- 
borough and at St. Alban's and the choir of Eomsey. 
This was the most usual mode in Norman times, where 
no stone vault existed. The external form, as well as 
that of the transept roofs, appears, from the weather- 
ings still existing, to have been truncated. In con- 
sequence, however, of the deviation from the original 
plans made by Alan de Walsingham when he erected 
the central lantern, it became necessary to re-construct 
the roof over this portion of the building ; and the 
result was the high-pitched form which exists at the 
present day, internally braced with a series of inter- 

230 (Ei 

lacing timbers iu such a manner as to form an irregu- 
lar polygonal roof sufficiently high to surmount the 
newly inserted lantern-arch. This roof seems to have 
received no kind of finish until, after the painting of 
the tower ceiling, it was determined to extend the 
decoration to that of the nave, the roof of which was 
accordingly coated with boards about 86 feet from the 
pavement. The paintings on the roofs of the six 
westernmost bays, like those of the tower ceiling, 
are the work of Mr. Le Strange, who had spared 
no labour in the examination of manuscript au- 
thorities for Norman ornamentation, and of existing 
remains of Norman painting in English and foreign 
churches. The work was commenced by Mr. Le 
Strange in 1858, and carried on to the close of 1861, 
by which time the six western bays were completed. 
At his death in July, 1862, the design and painting of 
the remaining six bays were committed to Mr. Gambier 
Parry, of Highnam, in Gloucestershire, and completed 
by him at Christmas, 1864. The general design of 
Mr. Le Strange's work was cast upon the model of the 
Jesse tree, which was itself to be incorporated into 
the work as the latter part of the history. But as the 
painting advanced, the introduction of large sacred 
subjects seemed far more desirable on so enormous 
a surface, each of the twelve bays containing nearly 
1000 superficial feet of painting ; and the thread of 
the design has been thus carried on, the subjects in- 
creasing in richness of colour and interest of design 
as they progress eastwards, culminating, as Mr. Le 

gaofs of fafo gags. 231 

Strange had originally intended, in a " Majesty," or 
the glorified manhood of Christ, the object of uni- 
versal adoration. 

The scheme of the design is the illustration, both 
in its divine and its human aspects, of one great 
subject " an epitome of the sacred history of man as 
recorded in the Scriptures" from his creation by 
" the Word of God " to the Lord's return in glory. 

The twelve subjects thus completed, beginning at 
the west end of the nave, are in the 

1st bay. The Creation of Man. 

2nd. The Fall of Man. 

3rd. The Sacrifice of Noah. 

4th. The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

5th. The Vision of Jacob. 

6th. The Marriage of Boaz and Buth, from whom springs 
Obed the father of Jesse. 

7th. Jesse ; represented in the ancient manner, as lying asleep ; 
" There shall come forth a Kod out of the stem of Jesse, 
and a Branch shall grow out of his roots." 

8th. David, and musicians, angels, &c., attendant on him. 

9th. The Annunciation. 

10th. The Nativity of Christ. 

llth. The Adoration of the Incarnate Word by the world, 
represented by Jewish Shepherds and Gentile Kings. 

12th. The Majesty. The Adoration of all the Heavens. The 
Lord seated in the centre on a Throne, encircled by a 
rainbow, and with the sea of glass before it, has above His 
Head the Seraphim. The Twelve Apostles are seated to 
the right and left. To the north stand the Archangels 
Gabriel arid Raphael, with the blessed rising at their feet. 
To the south are Uriel and Michael, the latter thrusting 
his spear into the dragon's mouth, typical of the final 

232 <$l 

victory over evil. The principal figures throughout the 
series are from 9 to 10 feet high. 

These central subjects are supported by full-length 
figures of the Patriarchs and Prophets, carrying 
scrolls bearing words of their own, predictive of the 
coming and work of the Messiah. The arrangement 
in the first nine bays is as follows : 

North Side. South Side. 

1. Jacob. 1. Abraham. 

2. Balaam. 2. Job. 

3. Nathan. 3. Moses. 

4. Joel. 4. Jonah. 

5. Hosea. 5. Amos. 

6. Isaiah. 6. Micah. 

7. Haggai. 7. Daniel. 

8. Ezekiel. 8. Jeremiah. 

( Nahum . j Zechariah. 

9 ' IZephaniah. 9> (Malachi. 

Evangelists, two on each side, are the supporters 
in the tenth bay. The eleventh and twelfth bays, 
properly speaking, have no supporters. In the 
eleventh bay Magi (S.) and shepherds (N.) are so 
arranged as to carry on the effect of lateral figures. 
In the twelfth bay the picture extends entirely across 
the ceiling. 

Along either side of the ceiling is a border of busts, 
exhibiting the generations of our Lord up to Adam, 
as successive links in a chain, according to the ge- 
nealogy given by St. Luke. The series begins at 
the east end with the head of Joseph, round which is 


written " which was the son of Heli," and continues 
crossing the nave in alternate groups of three, till it 
reaches the west end, where the figure of Adam is 
contained in the central medallion of the first bay, 
round which is inscribed, " which was the Son of 

The whole of this gigantic work was executed in 
itu, on deal-boards nailed upon the rafters of the roof. 
The artists had to paint lying on their backs, with 
the scaffolding impeding their view, and never able 
to see their work uninterruptedly at a sufficient dis- 
tance to enable them to judge of it in the various 
stages of its progress. 

VIII. The vaulting of the nave-aisles springs, as 
at Norwich and Peterborough, from triple wall-shafts 
between the windows, and semicircular shafts, alter- 
nately single and in groups of three, at the back of 
the piers. A wall-arcade runs below the windows of 
both aisles. A stringcourse ornamented with zigzags 
runs above this arcade the whole length of the south 
aisle, but is only seen in the easternmost bay of the 
north aisle. In the south aisle, the door in the fifth bay 
(counting from the west) opened into the west walk 
of the cloisters. The wall-arcade west of this door 
is lower than that east of it. The door itself was the 
prior's entrance, and is much enriched on the exterior 
(See xxxn.) The monks' entrance from the eastern 
walk of the cloisters is in the eleventh bay. In the 
sixth bay is a pedestal supporting the fragment of a 
stone cross, which in all probability is a relic of the 

234 <I g 

age of St. Etheldreda. It long served as a horse-block 
at Haddenham, in the Isle of Ely ; and was removed 
to its present position by the care of Mr. Bentham, the 
historian of the Cathedral. On the pedestal is the 
inscription, in Eoman capitals, "Lucem tuam Ovino 
da Dens, et requiem. Amen." " Ovini," or " Wini," 
was, as Bede tells us 6 , the name of the steward and 
principal " house-thegn " of Etheldreda; whom he 
had accompanied from East Anglia about the year 
652, on her first marriage with Tondberct, chief of 
the South Gyrvians. [See Pt. II.] Winford, a manor 
near Haddenham, may not impossibly retain the name 
of Wini, who embraced the monastic life under St. 
Chad at Lichfield f . The cross may perhaps have been 
erected by Wini himself, on land granted him by 
Etheldreda, or by Tondberct. At any rate, the almost 
pure Roman lettering may very well be of his time. 
The view from this point down the aisle into the west 
transept, the elaborate wall-arcades of which are alone 
visible, is a singular one. The break in the wall- 
arcade of the north aisle in the sixth bay marks the 
site of the entrance to the former parish church of 
St. Cross, destroyed in the reign of Elizabeth, when 
the Lady-chapel was assigned to the parishioners 
instead of it. 

IX. The first bay of the north aisle toward the west 

e Hist. Eccles. lib. iv. c. 3. 

f The music of the angels, who came to warn St. Chad of his 
approaching death, was heard only by Wini. See the very 
curious narrative in Bede, H. E. iv. 3. 


has been enclosed, apparently as a chapel ; a pointed 
arch of Early English character having been built 
within the original Norman arch of the nave. 

The windows of the north aisle are Perpendicular 
insertions. Those in the south aisle have nearly all 
been restored to their original Norman form. There 
are no windows in the first two bays, but the very 
rich wall-arcading of the north-west transept is con- 
tinued. Nearly all the windows in both aisles are 
filled with modern stained glass, by different artists, 
and of various degrees of merit. In the south aisle, 
beginning at the west end, the subjects and artists are 
as follows : 

1. The Creation. The Expulsion from Eden. The Offerings 

of Cain and Abel. (HENRI and ALFRED G-ERENTE.) 

2. The Ark. The Flood. Noah's Sacrifice. (ALFRED GE- 


3. The Annunciation. The Salutation. The Nativity. 


4. Babel and the Confusion of Tongues. (HOWES.) 

5. Abraham with the Angels. Expulsion of Hagar. Bless- 

ing Of Jacob. (GlBBS.) 

6. Passover. Death of the First-born. Departure of Israel- 

ites. (HOWES.) 

7. Fall of Jericho. Passage of Jordan. Eeturn of Spies. 


8. The Story of Samson. (ALFRED GERENTE.) 

9. The Story of the Venerable Bede. (WAILES.) 

10. David Anointed ; playing before Saul ; chosen King ; 
and reproved by Nathan. (HARDMAN.) 

11. Judgment of Solomon. Building and Dedication of the 
Temple. Visit of the Queen of Sheba. (MooRE.) 

236 I 

In tlie north aisle the subjects are : 

1. Adam Tilling the Ground. Cain Ploughing. Abel with 

Sheep. Adam and Eve discovering the body of Abel. 


2. The History of Lot. (PREEDY.) 

3. The Death of Sarah. Purchase of the Cave of Macpelah. 

Burial of Abraham. (PKEEDY,) 

4. Gideon. The Flight of the Midianites. (WARD.) 

5. The History of Samuel. (WARD and NIXON.) 

6. David and the Minstrels. (OLIPHANT, from designs by 

DYCE, E.A.) 

7. History of Elijah. (WAILES.) 

8. Do. do. ( Do. ) 

9. History of Elisha ( Do. ) 

10. History of Hezekiah ( Do. ) 

11. History of Jonah. (HEDGELAND.) 

12. History of Daniel. (LussoN of Paris.) 

Of these windows, many were the gifts of the artists, 
and others were designed as memorials for different 
persons connected with the cathedral. 

A tablet towards the eastern end of the north re- 
cords the paving of the nave in 1676 by Koger Clop- 
ton, Eector of Downham. The present pavement, of 
pleasing but unobtrusive design, exhibiting bands, 
zigzags, and circles of different coloured stone, was 
laid down in 1869, from a legacy of Bishop Turton, 
aided by other contributions. The cost of the pave- 
ment of the aisles, in black and white chequers with 
reddish central bands the whole length, was defrayed 
in 1873 by Bishop Harold Browne and Mr. William 

fransepts. 237 

A niche of elaborate workmanship attached to the 
eleventh pier on either side, towards the aisle, marks 
the position of the screen of the original Norman choir, 
which remained in situ till Essex's rearrangement of 
the interior in 1770. 

X. The great or principal transepts are the only 
portions of the church which contain any remains of 
the original Norman work of Abbot Simeon and his 
successor. Both transepts, which are three bays deep, 
have east and west aisles ; and the lower story in both 
is early Norman (10821107). The arches of this 
story are much ruder than those of the nave, and have 
plain, square-edged soffetes carried on equally plain 
piers, one of which on each side is a huge cylinder. 
In the north transept, the capitals of the piers on the 
east side are enriched with small volutes. These 
eastern aisles were originally built to form chapels. 
The walls dividing them still exist in the northern 
wing, and the separate bays serve as vestries. The 
walls were removed in the southern wing in 1814, and 
the whole space forms the Chapter Library, the arches 
towards the transept being walled up. On the walls 
of the central chapel of the north wing remains of 
Norman painting may still be seen. At the N.E. 
angle is the modern entrance to the Lady-chapel 
( xxix.). The triforium and clerestory on the east 
and west sides are late Norman, of the same general 
design as in the nave. 

Both transepts originally had the aisle carried 
across the end wall, precisely like those still existing 

238 <lg 

at Winchester, built by Simeon's brother, Walkelin, 
forming a continuous gallery on the triforium level. 
These terminal aisles were taken down at some later 
period and replaced by galleries of semicircular 
moulded arches of much less projection, behind which 
may be seen the central semi-pier or respond of the 
aisle-vault. In the north transept this arcade is pierced 
by two round-headed windows ; there are two more on 
the triforium range, and above, two tall transomed 
three-light Perpendicular windows. In the south tran- 
sept the arcade is lower, and the wall above it is lined 
with a blank arcade of intersecting arches. Above, 
again, are two ranges of round-headed windows, and 
in the gable a broad, low, segmental-headed late Per- 
pendicular window, of seven lights. 

Both sides of the south transept are enclosed. The 
eastern aisle (as we have said) now serves as the 
Chapter Library. (See xxvm.) On these arches 
the Norman scroll-work has been restored in modern 
colours. The west aisle, which serves as a vestry, 
is shut off by a low wall lined with an intersecting 
Norman arcade, in which is a richly-carved oak door, 
brought originally from Landbeach, with the cock and 
other devices resembling those in Bishop Alcock's 
chapel ( xxiv.). The Norman colouring has been 
restored in this aisle with good effect. This transept 
is used for Diocesan Conferences, meetings for Church 
societies and other kindred purposes. It contains a 
curious piece of tessellated pavement, discovered be- 
tween the choir and the Lady-chapel. 





The transept roofs are open and are somewhat plain 
examples of the hammer-beam. The projecting brackets 
have figures of angels with expanded wings. The whole 
of the roofs have been repainted, the angel-brackets, 
the main beams, and the bosses, in red, gold, and 
green ; the boarding of the roof itself in a very effective 
pattern of black and white. 

The whole of the windows at the north and south 
ends of the transepts, as well as those in the west aisle 
of the north transept, have been filled with stained 
glass. It would be tedious to particularize their 
artists and subjects. Those in the south transept are 
chiefly by the brothers Gerente : those in the north 
transept by M. Lusson and WAILES of Newcastle. 

XI. We have been describing the cathedral in due 
order ; but the attention of the visitor will from the first 
have been withdrawn with difficulty from the central 
octagon [Plate III.], "perhaps the most beautiful and 
original design to be found in the whole range of Gothic 
architecture." The first impression here is almost be- 
wildering, so great is the mass of details pressing for 
notice, so varied and unusual the many lines and levels 
of piers, windows, and roofs, all glowing with colour, 
and intersected with the most graceful and delicate 
tracery. There is perhaps no architectural view in 
Europe more striking when seen under a good effect 
of light, on which all such views so greatly depend 
than that across the octagon of Ely from the angle of 
the nave-aisles. 

The Norman tower erected by Abbot Simeon had long 

240 ${ g 

been threatening ruin, and the monks had not ventured 
for some time to sing their Offices in the choir, when, 
on the eve of St. Ermenilda (Feb. 12, 1322), as the bre- 
thren were returning to their dormitory after attending 
matins in St. Catherine's Chapel, to which the services 
had been transferred, it fell, " with such a shock and 
so great a tumult that it was thought an earthquake 
had taken place." The great mass of the tower seems 
to have fallen eastward, crushing the three bays of the 
Norman choir, but doing little damage to the nave. 
No one was hurt, and the Chronicler of Ely remarks, 
as an especial proof of the Divine protection, that the 
shrines of the three sainted abbesses, Etheldreda, 
Sexburga, and Withburga, which stood at the eastern 
end of the choir, escaped without the slightest injury. 
The prior, at this crisis in the history of the cathedral, 
was John of Crawden (now Croydon, a village in the 
south of the county), a man of great " administrative 
skill, who met with promptness and judgment the emer- 
gencies of his position." Rev. D. J. Stewart. He had, 
as sub-prior, elected on the same day as himself, May 
20, 1321, Alan of Walsingham, who succeeded him as 
prior in 1341. After holding the office of sub-prior 
for a few months he was chosen sacrist, in which 
capacity his name has become inseparably connected 
with the architectural history of Ely Cathedral. (Ibid.) 
Under his care the ruins were cleared away, and the 
work of the octagon begun. This was completed, as 
high as the upper stringcourse, in 1328. The vault and 
lantern were then commenced ; but these are entirely 

(Ddagon. 241 

of wood, and as it was difficult to find timber of 
sufficient strength, the work advanced more slowly. 
It was finished in 1342. The cost of the entire struc- 
ture was 2,400 6s. lid. ; a sum of which it is diffi- 
cult to estimate the proportional value, but which was 
perhaps equal to about 60,000 of our money. 

Alan of Walsingham alone, " of all the architects of 
Northern Europe, seems to have conceived the idea of 
getting rid of what in fact was the bathos of the style 
the narrow tall opening of the central tower, which, 
though possessing exaggerated height, gave neither 
space nor dignity to the principal feature. Accord- 
ingly, he took for his base the whole breadth of the 
church, north and south, including the aisles by that of 
the transepts, with their aisles in the opposite direction. 
Then, cutting off the angles of this large square, he 
obtained an octagon more than three times as large as 
the square upon which the central tower would have 
stood by the usual English arrangement g ." The octagon 
is thus formed by four larger and four smaller arches. 
The larger open to the nave, choir, and transepts ; the 
smaller to the aisles of all four. At the pier-angles 
are groups of slender shafts, from which springs a ribbed 
vaulting of wood. This supports the lantern, likewise 
octagonal in shape, but set in such a manner as to have 
its angles opposite the faces of the stone octagon below, 
and consisting of a series of enriched panels, with 
eight windows above them, small shafts at the angles 
of which support a richly groined and bossed roof. The 
* Fergusson, Handbook of Architecture. 

VOL. II. PT. I. E 

242 d&{ 

entire roof, above the piers of the octagon, forms " the 
only Gothic dome in existence, though Italian archi- 
tects had done the same thing, and the method was in 
common use with the Byzantines V 

XII. The great eastern arch of the octagon rises 
above the vault of the choir ; the space between which 
and the arch is filled with open tracery. Above the 
crown of each of the great arches, in the space 
between it and the vaulting, is a trefoil containing 
the seated figure of a saint. 

The details of the four smaller sides of the octagon 
are admirable, and demand especial notice. The 
hood-mouldings of the principal arches rest on sculp- 
tured heads; of which those north-east probably 
represent Edward III. and his queen, Philippa, 
during whose reign the work was completed; those 
south-east, Bishop Hotham and Prior Crawden, who 
presided over the see and the monastery at the time ; 

h Fergusson. The exact place of Alan of Walsingham's 
interment is unknown. His epitaph has been preserved, and 
ran thus : 

" Flos operatorum, dum vixit corpore sanus 

Hie jacet ante chorum Prior en tumulatus, Alanus. 

Annis bis denis vivens fuit ipse Sacrista, 

Plus tribus his plenis Prior ens perfecit et iata, 

Sacristariam quasi funditus aedificavit ; 

Mephale, Brame, etiam, huic ecclesiae cumuiavit. 

Pro veteri turre, qua) quadam nocte cadebat, 

Hanc turrim proprie quam cernitis hie faciebat ; 

Et plures sedes quia fecerat ipse Prioris, 

Detur ei sedes coeli, pro fine laboris." 

He died apparently in the year 1364. 

. Wttbofos. 243 

and those north-west are supposed to represent Alan 
of Walsingham, the sacrist and architect, and his 
master of the works. The heads on the south-west 
arch cannot now be identified. In the angle of each 
pier is a projecting niche, once containing a statue. 
These niches rise from large brackets supported by 
a group of slender shafts, the capitals of which are 
sculptured with the story of St. Etheldreda. (See 
xui.) The wall above and between the niches is 
panelled with tabernacle- work in three divisions, each 
of which contains a bracket enriched with foliage, 
bearing statues of the Apostles by Kedfern. Some 
carved heads here, and in the corbel-table above, re- 
presenting the sixteen prophets, should be noticed. 
Above, again, is a window of four lights, the arrange- 
ment of which is especially beautiful and ingenious. 
The window itself fills the whole bay of the vault, and 
is necessarily sharp pointed and narrowed toward the 
top. At the height of the four great octagon arches, 
however, an inner arch is thrown across, the space 
between which and the crown of the vault is filled 
with open tracery, corresponding to the blind tracery 
which covers the wall above the greater arches. A 
passage along the base of these windows communi- 
cates with the clerestories of nave and choir. 

These windows have been filled with stained glass, 
by WAILES. Those south-east and north-east repre- 
sent the principal persons belonging to the story of 
St. Etheldreda, including her parents, her two hus- 
bands, St. Wilfrid, St. Dunstan, &c, That north- 


244 fcl 

west contains eight representative figures, William 
the Conqueror, Henry I., Henry III., Edward II. ; 
Abbot Simeon, the founder of the church; Hervey, 
the first bishop ; Bishop Northwold, and Alan of 
Walsingham, the builders of the presbytery and 
octagon respectively. That south-west displays 
Edward III., Queen Philippa, Bishop Hotham, and 
Prior Crawden, in whose time the octagon was 
first constructed ; and Queen Victoria, the late Prince 
Consort (in his robes as Chancellor of the University of 
Cambridge), Dr. Turton, Bishop, and Dr. Peacock, then 
Dean, of Ely, who represent its modern restoration. 

XIII. The story of St. Etheldreda will be found 
at length in Part II. The subjects of the sculptures 
below the niches in the octagon, beginning from the 
north-west corner of the north transept arch, and 
proceeding to the right, are as follows : 

1. The marriage of Etheldreda with Egfrid of 
Northumbria. The figures supporting Etheldreda 
are apparently those of her uncle, Ethelwold, King 
of East Anglia, and her elder sister, Sexburga, after- 
wards Abbess of Ely. (Her father and mother, 
Anna and Hereswitha, were dead at the time of this 
her second marriage.) Wilfrid, the famous Bishop 
of Northumbria, is celebrating the marriage. The 
Bishop's cross and aspersorium, or holy-water sprink- 
ler, are borne by attendant monks. 

2. The dedication of St. Efcheldreda in the convent 
of Coldingham. The abbess, St. Ebba, aunt of King 
Egfrid, is supporting her veil. Bishop Wilfrid is 

giorg of St. $%teba. 245 

blessing Etheldreda, who kneels before an altar, 011 
which is her crown. At the back of the Abbess are 
attendant nuns, one of whom carries her pastoral staff. 

3. North angle of choir-arch. St. Etheldreda's 
staff bursts into leaf. [See Part II.] She is asleep, 
watched by her companions. Behind is her staff, in 
full leaf and bearing fruit. The sculptor has repre- 
sented a medlar rather than an ash, the mystic tree 
of the old Saxons, into which, according to the 
legend, the staff developed. 

4. South angle of choir - arch. The miracle at 
Coldeburch's Head. [See Part II.] On the rock, 
round which the sea is flowing, are St. Etheldreda 
and her two companions, Sewenna and Sevara. Eg- 
frid and his attendants are riding round the rock, 
amazed at the miracle. 

5. East corner of south transept-arch. The in- 
stallation of St. Etheldreda as Abbess of Ely by 
Bishop Wilfrid. Remark the distinction between the 
pastoral staff of an abbot and a bishop ; one turned 
inward, the other outward, marking internal and 
external jurisdiction. 

6. West corner of south transept-arch. The death 
and " chesting " of St. Etheldreda. The first divi- 
sion represents the last moments of the saint; who 
supports her pastoral staff in one hand, whilst Huna, 
her priest, lifts the consecrated host at her side. In 
the second division she is placed in her coffin, which 
Bishop Wilfrid is blessing. Weeping nuns fill the 

7. South corner of nave-arch. Ymma loosed from 
his fetters by the masses of Tunna and the interces- 
sion of St. Etheldreda. [See Part II.] The Ab- 
besses Sexburga and Withburga also appear, and two 
angels attend them. 

8. North corner of nave-arch. The translation of 
St. Etheldreda. [See Part II.] Her sister, the 
Abbess Sexburga, is lifting the body, which is found 
uncorrupted and flexible. Bishop Wilfrid, and Kine- 
frid, the physician, are describing the events to three 
royal personages. 

The costume of all these figures, it need hardly be 
said, is that of the reign of Edward III. The expres- 
sions and attitudes are good and characteristic; but 
the work is scarcely so refined or so imaginative 
as that of the earlier sculptures at Wells and 

Against the north-east pier of the choir-arch stands 
a richly-carved pulpit of Caen stone, resting on a 
cluster of detached Purbeck marble columns, from 
a design by Sir G. G. SCOTT, erected from a legacy 
by Miss Allen, daughter of Bishop Allen. 

XIY. The vaulted roof of the octagon has been 
very effectively coloured; and the whole, including 
the lantern and the pinnacles and external stone- 
work, has been restored as a memorial of the late 
Dean Peacock, who was the first to set on foot the 
general repair and decoration of the cathedral. The 
internal decoration of the octagon is due to the 
voluntarily bestowed labour and artistic taste of Mr. 

flagon. 247 

Gambier Parry. The motive of the design is taken 
from the 150th Psalm. Surrounding the central boss, 
a grand piece of fourteenth-century oak carving, 
representing Our Lord in Majesty, is painted a 
galaxy of seraphim on a grey-blue ground. Below 
the eight windows, which are filled with coloured 
glass, are thirty-two richly traceried panels, in 
groups of four, on each of which is painted a stand- 
ing angel, playing on a musical instrument of the 
date of the lantern, on backgrounds alternately of 
chocolate and blue. Below these is a series of smaller 
panels bearing the sacred monogram, the Cross and 
the Crown. The long spandrils of the groining are 
decorated with flowers, leaves, and golden fruit, with, 
in Mr. Parry's own words, " all those suggestions 
of adoring Nature that medieval art could apply." 
The space between the great eastern arch and the 
vault of the choir is filled in with rich tracery, 
the central panel of which contains the Crucifixion, 
with angels on either side. The whole has been 
well described as " the result of cultivated genius 
and religious fervour, studiously striving to make art 
a teacher of Divine truth." The total expense of this 
internal decoration has been about 2500. 

The architectural views from the octagon are su- 
perb. That down the nave should be especially 
noticed, for the grandeur produced by its great 
length, extending beyond the tower into the west 

XV. As in Norwich Cathedral, and in many other 

248 <$l 

conventual churches, the choir of the monks at Ely ex- 
tended beyond the central tower, and after that had 
fallen,, beyond the octagon, to the second pier of the 
nave. So it continued until 1770, when it was re- 
moved to the six eastern bays of the cathedral. At 
the commencement of the present restoration the 
arrangement of the choir was again altered; and it 
now begins at the eastern arch of the octagon, and 
embraces seven bays ; the two easternmost, beyond 
them, forming the retro-choir. 

The choir is divided from the octagon by a very 
beautiful oaken screen, with gates of brass. This is 
entirely modern, and designed by Sir G. G. SCOTT. 
An excellent effect is produced by the double planes 
of tracery in the upper divisions of the screen; the 
cresting of which, with its coronals of leafage, should 
be especially remarked. Lofty pinnacles of tabernacle- 
work rise on either side, above the stalls of the bishop 
and dean. The screen, notwithstanding its great elabo- 
ration, is sufficiently light and open to permit the use 
of the octagon as well as of the choir, during service. 

Of the seven bays of which the choir consists, the 
four easternmost (as well as the two beyond, which 
form the retro-choir) are the work of Bishop HUGH OF 
NORTH WOLD*, whose building was dedicated Sept. 17, 
1252, in the presence of Henry III. and his son, after- 

1 Bishop Hugh's work embraced the whole of the eastern limb, 
excluding the three western bays afterwards destroyed by the 
fall of the tower. It was seventeen years in building, and 
cost, according to the Hist. Eliensis {Aug. Sac.)., i. p. 636), 
5040 18s. 8d.; a sum equalling about 120,000 at present 

C^oir. gags. 249 

wards Edward I., then about thirteen years old. The 
three western bays, in which the stalls are placed, 
were commenced in 1338, the year after the death of 
Bishop Hotham, who left money toward the work; 
and were completed during the episcopate of THOMAS 
DE LISLE (1345 1362). The division between the 
two portions is very sharply marked, not only by the 
difference of style, but by an ascent of two steps, and 
by broad shafts of stone which rise to the roof, and 
are in fact the original Norman shafts which stood at 
the turn of Abbot Simeon's apse j , which, carried by 
him little above the foundations, was converted into 
a square-ended presbytery, as at Komsey, St. Cross, 
and Oxford, by Abbot Richard, to receive the shrines 
of the four sainted abbesses. Their capitals, which 
are Early English, were added when the presbytery 
was lengthened. 

The continuity of the leading horizontal lines 
throughout the building deserves notice. Professor 
Willis has called attention to the fact that the relative 
altitudes of the three divisions of the elevation, the 
pier-arch, the triforium space, and clerestory, remain 
the same from the west end of the nave, through the 
transepts, to the extreme east end, the floors of the 
triforium and clerestory galleries maintaining one and 
the same level. The spacing of the piers is also about 
the same. In fact, the distribution and proportion of 

j The foundations of this apse supporting those of the square- 
ended presbytery, have been traced below the pavement of the 
present choir. 

250 <BIg 

the parts laid down by the Norman designers has 
been rigorously adhered to in all subsequent altera- 
tions of the fabric. 

XVI. The eastern portion of the choir the Early 
English work of Bishop Hugh of Northwold should 
first be examined. The piers are of Purbeck marble, 
cylindrical, with eight attached ringed shafts, the 
capitals of which are enriched with leafage of late 
Early English character. Knots of similar foliage 
are placed between the bases of the shafts. The hood- 
moulding has the dog-tooth ornament. At the inter- 
sections are bosses of foliage, and there are large 
open trefoils in the spandrils. Long corbels of leafage 
descending to the intersections of the arches carry the 
triple vaulting-shafts, ringed at the springing of the 
triforium arches (in a line with the capitals of the tri- 
forium shafts) and rising to the level of the clerestory, 
where they terminate in rich capitals of leafage. Cor- 
bels, shafts, and capitals are of Purbeck marble. 
, The triforium arches greatly resemble those below 
in mouldings and ornaments ; and are subdivided by 
a central group of shafts. In the tympanum above is 
an open quatrefoil, with bunches of leafage on either 
side. Pointed quatrefoils also appear in the spandrils. 
The triforium extends backwards over the choir-aisles. 
In the latter half of the fourteenth century the exterior 
walls were raised, and large windows with Decorated 
tracery inserted by Bishop Barnet (13661373), 
with the view of lessening the gloom of the low- 
windowed Early English triforium. In the two 

Cjjorr. (Eastern portion. 251 

westernmost bays of Bishop Hugh's work, however, 
the roof of the triforium gallery was removed alto- 
gether; and the inner arcade replaced by glazed 
windows, of late Decorated character, feeble and want- 
ing in depth, similar to those of the triforium east- 
ward. A flood of light was thus poured down upon 
the most sacred portion of the church the choir-altar, 
the shrines of St. Etheldreda and the other abbesses, 
as well as on the tomb of Bishop Barnet himself, 
' standing in the second of these bays on the south side. 
These windows are now filled with stained glass by 
WAILES. The original arrangement may still be seen 
outside the cathedral on the south side, where Bishop 
Hugh's exterior walls and window-openings remain 
(see xxxi.). 

The clerestory windows are triplets, set flush with 
the outer wall. An inner, open arcade rises above the 
triforium, thus forming a gallery. The arches toward 
the choir are supported by shafts of Purbeck. The 
roof of this Early English portion of the cathedral is 
of simple quadripartite vaulting. The vaulting-ribs 
are arranged in groups of seven. The bosses at the 
intersections are carved in foliage, with the exception 
of two toward the west, which represent a bishop 
seated, with crozier and mitre, and the coronation of 
the Virgin. 

The foliage of all Bishop Hugh's work deserves 
careful examination. The arrangement in the corbels 
of the vaulting-shafts varies, and should be remarked. 
The bunches in the tympana of the triforium approach 

252 gig Catbbral 

to a decided imitation of nature, and should be com- 
pared with the foliage in Walsingham's work to the 
west of it, where the naturalism is fully developed. 
The juxtaposition of the two works is through- 
out very instructive ; and the visitor should proceed 
at once to examine the three western bays of the choir, 
before turning to the modern reredos, or to the various 
monuments, which will be afterwards noticed. 

XVII. The three western bays were completed, by 
Bishop Hotham, between the years 1345 and 1362. 
[Plate IV.] The arrangement on either side is pre- 
cisely that of Bishop Hugh's work, as that reproduces 
the Norman arrangement; but the superior beauty 
will at once be recognized. The lower arches, and 
those of the triforium, have square bosses of foliage 
attached to their mouldings in a very striking manner. 
The trefoils in the spandrils differ in form from Bishop 
Hugh's, and the long corbels are carved with natural 
oak-leaves. A low, open parapet runs along at the 
base of the triforium and clerestory ; which latter is 
set back within a rear arch, as in Bishop Hugh's work ; 
but this arch is foiled, and extends over the whole 
space. The tracery of the triforium and of the clere- 
story windows is exquisitely rich and graceful, but 
somewhat wanting in vigour and too widely spaced. 
The work was begun on the south side, and the tracery 
in the head of the triforium arch in the first compart- 
ment on that side differs from the quadruple loop seen 
in the five remaining bays. A large canopied niche 
will be noticed between the first and second bays of the 



w^^j^aw { ^^^^,^^?-^^'-'^f ,,, Au,!,.^t;.c-Kj,;.;.'_ >.. 

F^Jr^ : y^V--i^prf- r T *? *- - ^' - ^- r r& *" r^Sr- r- -S*- i 


ajrs. 253 

triforium to the soutli. The lierne- vaulting of the 
roof should be compared with the earlier and simpler 
vault east of it. Its bosses have been gilt, and the ribs 
coloured red and green. The corbels of the vaulting- 
shafts, which are of " clunch " stone, are blue, with white 
and gold-tipped leafage : the trefoils in the spandrils 
deep-blue, powdered with golden stars. The roofs of 
the triforium, seen through its arches, are coloured 
in patterns of black, white, and red. All the clerestory 
windows have been filled with stained glass by WAILES, 
displaying figures of doctors and martyrs. 

The arms of the see k , and of Bishop Hothain 1 , the 
principal contributor toward the work, are placed in 
the spandrils of the first bay on the south side. A 
figure of St. Etheldreda may possibly have stood 
beneath the canopy which still remains between the 
first and second bays on the same side. 

It is probable that these three western bays form the 
best example of the pure Decorated period to be found 
in England ; and we may safely adopt Mr. Fergusson's 
assertion, that their details " are equal to anything in 
Europe for elegance and appropriateness m ." 

k Gules, 3 ducal coronets, or. 

1 Barry of ten, az. and arg. ; on a canton, or, a martlet sable. 

m Handbook of Architecture. The architectural student will 
find a comparison of the following portions of Ely and Lincoln 
Cathedrals, which form an almost complete series, ranging from 
the commencement of Early English to the perfect development 
of Decorated, full of interest and instruction : 

Choir of Lincoln, 11921200. 

Nave of Lincoln, 12001220. [Eastern 

254 (Bi 

The organ, which has been entirely rebuilt by Hill, 
occupies a position differing from that of any other 
in England, and projects from the triforium of the 
third bay on the north side. Its hanging case, a 
superb mass of carving, coloured and gilt, but with 
much of the oakwork judiciously left in its natural 
tint, is entirely modern, and deserves especial 

The stalls extend throughout this portion of the 
choir. All those at the back formed part of the 
original fittings, begun in 1338, and have been care- 
fully restored. They are constructed in two stages, 
the lower of which is recessed; over the seats and 
from the front rises a series of panels, with over- 
hanging canopies. These panels are filled with 
modern sculpture in wood by M. Abeloos, of Louvain, 
with the exception of the Nativity, which is by Philip ; 
the south side with subjects from the Old Testament, 
the north from the New. All the panels, both on 
the south side and on the north, have been com- 
pleted. These represent south, beginning from the 
west, (1) Creation of Man ; (2) Creation of Woman ; 
(3) Adam in Paradise ; (4) The Fall of Man ; (5) The 
Expulsion; (6) Adam and Eve at work; (7) Cain 
killing Abel ; (8) Noah building the Ark ; (9) The 
Deluge ; (10) Noah's Sacrifice ; (11) Promise to 
Abraham; (12) Isaac carrying the Wood; (13) 

Eastern portion of Ely choir, 1229 1252. 
Presbytery, or "Angel choir" of Lincoln, 1256 1283. 
Western bays of Ely choir, 13451362. 

fffcoir-stslb. 255 

Abraham's Sacrifice ; (14) Isaac blessing Jacob ; (15) 
Jacob's Dream; (16) The Burning Bush; (17) The 
Passover ; (18) Moses striking the Eock ; (19) The 
Brazen Serpent; (20) Keturn of the Spies; (21) 
David anointed by Samuel ; (22) Queen of Sheba's 
Visit ; (23) Jonah ; (24) Elijah's Ascent to Heaven. 
On the north side are (1) The Annunciation; (2) 
The Salutation ; (3) The Nativity ; (4) The Presenta- 
tion in the Temple ; (5) The Offering of the Kings ; 
(6) The Flight into Egypt ; (7) The Murder of the 
Innocents ; (8) Our Lord Disputing with the Doctors ; 
(9) The Baptism; (10) The Temptation; (11) The 
Miracle at Cana; (12) The Transfiguration; (13) 
Mary anointing our Lord's Feet ; (14) The Betrayal ; 
(15) Our Lord before Caiaphas ; (16) The Mocking ; 
(17) Pilate washing his Hands ; (18) The Scourging ; 
(19) "Behold the Man!" (20) The Crucifixion; (21) 
The Burial; (22) The Eesurrection ; (23) Our Lord 
at Emmaus ; (24) The Unbelief of Thomas ; (25) The 
Ascension. All are excellent in execution, but some- 
what deficient in expression ; those on the south side 
are the best. The details in other portions of these 
upper stalls, the exquisite leafage, the designs in the 
spandrils, and the figures at the foils of the canopies 
deserve the most careful notice. The colour of the 
whole is unusually pleasing. 

The sub-stalls are new. The finials display angels 
holding musical instruments ; and at their ends in the 
upper range is a series of small figures representing 
the builders of the various portions of the cathedral, 

256 <gl 

from St. Etheldreda, who holds the model of a Saxon 
church, to Bishop Alcock, who exhibits his chapel. 
All were designed by Mr. J. Philip, and are not un- 
worthy of the ancient work with which they are 

The brass lectern in the centre of the choir is a gift 
of the late Canon E. B. Sparke, in memory of the late 
Mr. Styleman Le Strange. 

On the floor which has been paved with polished 
marble combined with encaustic tiles is a memorial 
brass for Bishop HOTHAM, entirely new ; and that of 
Prior CRAWDEN (or Croyden), died 1341, which has 
been restored. This brass has a hollow floriated cross, 
with a small figure of the Prior at the foot. The 
inscription runs, 

" Hanc aram decorat de Crauden tumba Johannis 
Qui fuit hie Prior, ad bona pluria, pluribus annis. 
Presulis hunc sedes elegit pontificari, 
Presulis ante pedes ideo meruit tumulari." 

The last two lines allude to the fact that, on the 
death of Bishop Hotham, Prior Crawden was unani- 
mously elected by the monks as his successor; that 
the election was annulled by the Pope, who appointed 
Simon de Montacute ; and that he was buried at the 
feet of Bishop Hotham. 

XVIII. We may now return to the eastern portion 
of the choir, where the altar and the reredos first claim 
attention. The altar is raised on five low steps, the tiles, 
mosaics, and inlaid marbles of which deserve notice. 
The altar-cloth, embroidered by the Misses Blencowe, 





is among the best modern works of the kind. In 
the centre is a figure of the Saviour. The inscription 
runs, " Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi dona nobis 
pacem. Agnus Dei miserere nobis." 

The altar-screen or reredos [Plate V.], designed by 
Sir G. G. SCOTT, was the gift of John Dunn Gardner, 
Esq., of Chatteris in Cambridgeshire, as a memorial 
to his first wife. Immediately over the altar are five 
compartments filled with sculpture ; above which rises 
a mass of rich tabernacle- work. The sculptures, which 
are in alabaster, represent Christ's Entry into Jeru- 
salem ; Washing the Disciples' feet ; the Last Supper ; 
the Agony in the Garden ; Bearing the Cross. Shafts 
of alabaster, round which a spiral belt is twisted in- 
laid with agates and crystals on a gold ground, divide 
these compartments, and support the arches above. 
The tabernacle-work is crowded with figures of angels 
bearing the instruments of the Passion, and with me- 
dallion heads in relief: those on the north represent 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel ; those south, the 
four Doctors of the Latin Church Jerome, Ambrose, 
Augustine, and Gregory. Each compartment termi- 
nates in a gable, of which that in the centre is highest. 
In this gable is the Saviour with Moses and Elias on 
either side ; above is a medallion of the Annuncia- 
tion ; and on the highest point a figure of our Lord in 
Majesty. On the side gables are figures of the four 
Evangelists, with their emblems on the crockets. In 
trefoils, set in the gables, are projecting busts ; those 
north representing Mary Magdalene and Mary the 

VOL. II. PT. I. S 

258 Ig CH%braI. 

mother of James ; those south St. John the Baptist 
and St. John the Divine. On spiral pillars between 
the gables are figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
north ; and of Justice, Prudence, and Fortitude, south. 
All the details of this very important work of modern 
art in which the spirit rather than the letter of ancient 
examples has been followed deserve the most careful 
observation. Much gold and colour has been applied 
to the figures, and to other portions of the sculpture, 
under the direction of Mr. Hudson. 

XIX. Beginning on the south side of the choir, the 
first monument in the fourth bay from the west (the 
first of Bishop Northwold's work), is that of WILLIAM 
OF LOUTH (de Luda, 12901298 ; see Part II.) 
[Plate VI.], a fine and unusual design. It consists of 
a lofty central arch, with smaller openings at the sides. 
The arches are crowned with gables, much enriched, 
and terminating in pinnacles and finials of leafage. 
On the floor beneath the central canopy is a slab with 
the figure of the bishop, from which the brass has dis- 
appeared. In the bases of the east and west arches 
are figures of the four Evangelists ; in the tympanum 
of the central gable is the Saviour in Majesty. The 
original colouring has been restored, but the effect is 
not pleasing. The shrine of St. Etheldreda, the patron 
saint of the monastery, stood in the'centre of the pres- 
bytery, a little beyond De Luda's monument, in a line 
with the second pair of piers of Northwold's work. 
The high altar was placed a little to the west, in a 
line with the first pair of these piers. 



in <ft|joir. 259 

In the fifth bay is the Purbeck marble altar-tomb of 
Bishop BARNET (13661373), with good quatrefoils 
at the sides and ends. The brass has been destroyed. 
In the sixth bay is the tomb of JOHN TIPTOFT, EARL 
OF WORCESTER, the most accomplished nobleman of 
his time, and one of the Englishmen mentioned 
by Leland (another was William Gray, Bishop of 
Ely), who travelled to Italy in order to become dis- 
ciples of the younger Guarini, at Ferrara. The Earl, 
who had been Edward the Fourth's Constable of 
England, was an ardent Yorkist : and after the suc- 
cess of Warwick's expedition in 1470, he was found 
concealed in a tree in the forest of Weybridge, was 
tried before the Earl of Oxford, beheaded, and buried 
in the Tower. His two wives, whose effigies rest on 
either side of the Earl's, were alone buried in Ely. 
The monument is a fine example of late Perpendicular. 
It is a high altar-tomb, with a canopy of three arches 
and a screen of open-work in two stages rising above 
it. The pendants between the arches are noticeable ; 
as are the patterns of leafage, for the most part ivy 
and oak. The Earl is in armour, but wears a coronet. 

In the seventh bay on this side has been placed the 
tomb of Bishop HOTHAM (1317 1334) ; originally sur- 
mounted by the so-called " shrine," which in the recent 
restoration has been placed in the sixth bay on the 
north side. Before Essex's alterations, the whole 
structure stood in the centre of Bishop Hotham's 
magnificent fabric. That architect removed it to the 
north side of the presbytery. In front is a graceful 




arcade. The six iron rings inserted in the upper 
slab of Purbeck possibly supported the herse. 

XX. On the north side, the altar- tomb in the 
seventh bay, opposite Bishop Hotham's, is that of 
HUGH OF NOETHWOLD, the builder of the presbytery 
(12291254), much dilapidated, but of high interest. 
The base is modern. On it rests the effigy of the 

Sculpture on Bishop Nortbwold's Tomb. 

bishop fully vested, with smaller figures and sculp- 
tures at the sides and foot. At the foot is represented 
the story of St. Edmund, of whose great monastery 
at Bury Bishop Hugh had been abbot. The King is 
seen tied to a tree and shot at with arrows by the 
Danes ; on one side he is beheaded, on the other is 
the wolf of the legend, which protected the head of the 
royal martyr". On one side of the principal effigy are 

" This is the usual interpretation of the figures : but it seems 
more probable that the figure holding a short sword, above the 

Stort|y C^oir-gitsU. 261 

the figures of a king (St. Edmund), and of Bishop 
Hugh as abbot and monk : on the other three repre- 
sentations of St. Etheldreda, as queen, abbess, and 
nun. The two great monasteries over which Bishop 
Hugh had presided were thus commemorated. The 
shafts supporting the canopy are curiously enriched 
with foliage. 

In the sixth bay stands the so-called shrine of Bishop 
HOTHAM, which, as we have said, formerly stood cen- 
trally in the lower part of the choir, just behind the 
reredos of the choir-altar, in the midst of his own 
glorious fabric. The shrine consists of two stories, 
the lower of which has open arches, groined within ; 
the upper is enclosed. At the intersections of the 
upper arches are monastic heads ; and in front, those 
of a king and queen. The work is very good, and 
should be remarked. The exquisite foliage on the 
spandrils deserves close attention. The tomb of 
Bishop Hotham, now on the south side of the choir, 
formerly stood within the arches of the lower story. 
The upper arches were originally filled with sculpture ; 
and on the top was a lofty ' branch ' for seven great 
tapers. It is not impossible that the upper portion of 
this tomb may have served as the watching-chamber 
for the shrine of St. Etheldreda. It resembles in its 
arrangements the watching-chamber of St. Frideswide's 
at Oxford. (See that Cathedral.) 

king, is that of a protecting or avenging angel ; and that the 
so-called wolf is the evil spirit in animal form, inciting the 
Danes to the murder. It is distinctly hoofed. 

262 <B 

In the fifth bay is the effigy of Bishop WILLIAM 
KILKENNY (1255 1257), who died in Spain (see 
Part II.), but whose heart was brought to Ely for 
interment. The effigy is a very fine and perfect speci- 
men of Early English, with censing angels at the 
head. The vestments and morse which fastens them 
should be remarked. 

The last monument in the fourth bay is the chantry 
of Bishop EEDMAN (15011506) [Plate VII.], with a 
very elaborate Perpendicular canopy. There is a space 
for the altar at the foot of the tomb, and a reredos 
above. The arms of the Bishop and See, and the em- 
blems of the Passion, are placed on shields in various 
parts of the tomb. 

XXI. We now pass into the north choir-aisle; the 
first three bays of which, westward, are Decorated, 
and of the same period as the western choir ; the re- 
maining portion is Early English, and part of Bishop 
Hugh's work. The distinction between the two por- 
tions is evident in the roof, which is rich lierne in 
the Decorated work, and plainly vaulted, with bosses, 
in the Early English and in the Purbeck capitals of 
the shafts of the main piers, of which the Early 
English are enriched with leafage, the Decorated 
being plain. 

The broad aisle-windows are late Decorated, devoid 
of originality, copied, with slight variations, from one 
of Bishop Hotham's windows. Those in the eastern 
bays were put in by Bishop Gray, opposite to his 
monument under the last arch. The whole are filled 



Jtorilj Cljoir-aislc. gjoramttnis. 263 

with modern stained glass. The screen-work at the 
back of the stalls, and the stone staircase to the organ- 
loft are modern. Opposite this staircase is a very 
rich Decorated doorway, with huge niches in the 
jambs, much mutilated, formerly obscured by Dean 
Caesar's monument, through which the Lady-chapel 
was approached. ( xxvu.) On the wall at the back of 
the stalls are the monuments of Bishop FLEETWOOD, 
1723, and his son Archdeacon Fleetwood, 1737. 

On the floor of this aisle is the brass of the architect 
BASEVI, who was killed by a fall from the western 
tower in 1845. Under the window in the sixth bay is 
the monument of Bishop SIMON PATRICK (1691-1707), 
displaying marble drapery with gilt fringe and tassels, 
cherubs, urns, and pyramids. " Pientissimus senex," 
runs the inscription, " placide animam Deo reddidit, 
31 Maii, 1707 ; a. rotat. 81." In the seventh bay is 
that of Bishop MAWSON (1754-1771), and in the eighth 
that of Bishop LANET (1667-1675), " facundia ama- 
bilis ; acumine terribilis ; eruditione auctissimus .... 
Hunc monarchic et hierarchies ruinae feriebant impa- 
vidum ; hunc earundum instauratio ad thronum Petro- 
burgensem, Lincolniensem, Eliensem, extulit hor- 
rentem." The window above Bishop Laney's tomb 
is filled with stained glass by WARD, as a memorial 
for Canon Fardell (died 1854). The subject is the 
Parable of the Wise and Foolish Yirgins. 

At the west end of this aisle, between it and the 
eastern aisle of the transept, is the monument of Dean 
(died 1636), happily removed from the blocked 

264 til 

entrance of the Lady-chapel. It has been restored, 
and is a good example of the time. 

XXII. The retro-choir, behind the altar, is part of 
Bishop Hugh's work, as has already been mentioned. 
The eastern end is filled with two tiers of windows ; 
the lower consisting of three very long lancets, with 
groups of Purbeck shafts at the angles, very rich 
mouldings, and elongated quatrefoils in the spandrils ; 
the upper, of five lancets, diminishing from the centre, 
and set back, as in the clerestory, within an arcade 
supported by shafts. The manner in which this arcade 
is made to fill the eastern end, and the consequent 
form of its arches, are equally noticeable. The gold 
and colour of the roof-bosses have been carried into it 
with excellent effect. The windows are filled with 
stained glass by WAILES; representing, in the lower 
lights, the history of our Lord, in a series of me- 
dallions, commencing from the figure of Jesse at 
the bottom of the south lancet. The upper windows 
contain figures of the Apostles, with the Saviour in 
Majesty at the top of the central light, and beneath, 
four events which occurred after the Crucifixion. 
These windows were put in from a bequest of Bishop 
SPAEKB, died 1836, whose kneeling figure is seen at 
the bottom of the north lancet. 

Immediately at the back of the altar-screen is a 
slab of rich Alexandrine mosaic, a memorial of Bishop 
ALLEN, died 1845. The work, which is very elaborate, 
but scarcely very beautiful, cost 1000. Here is also 
a monument, designed by Scott and executed by 

Mnkrfos. glmrammt of gr. glill. 265 

Philip, to the memory of Dr. MILL, died 1853, Fellow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, Canon of Ely, and 
once Principal of Bishop's College, Calcutta. The 
monument consists of an altar-tomb, of alabaster and 
serpentine, garnished with marble mosaic and hard 
stones polished, bearing a recumbent effigy of Dr. 
Mill in his doctor's robes. The figure is in copper, 
and was formed by the electrotype process. At the 
feet are two kneeling figures one an Oriental, the 
other a Cambridge student. Between the retro-choir 
and the north aisle is the tomb-stone of Bishop GRAY 
(1454-1478), stripped of its brasses. This monu- 
ment occupied the last bay on the north side. Its 
stone canopy was destroyed when the stalls were re- 
moved to the presbytery in 1770. A curious memorial 
of the position of the tomb exists in an early example 
of block-printing representing Bishop Gray's arms, 
pasted to one of the marble shafts. 

On the opposite side, flanking Bishop West's chapel, 
is the lofty and elaborate monument of Bishop LEWIS 
OF LUXEMBURG, Archbishop of Kouen and Bishop 
of Ely (1431-1443), long hidden by Essex's screen 
and altar arrangements. The effigy is mutilated and 
headless. The three-arched canopy is of excellent 
design and exceedingly rich. 

XXIII. At the end of the north aisle is the chapel 
of Bishop ALCOCK (14161501 ; see Part II.), de- 
signed in all probability by himself, since he was 
" Controller of the royal works and buildings " under 
Henry VII. The walls are fretted with a mass of 

266 (gi 

tabernacle- work, very elaborate, but heavy and clumsy. 
It must have been wonderfully rich when crowded 
with figures, all of which have now disappeared. The 
details, however, hardly bear comparison with the 
better Decorated work of the choir. The roof is 
richly groined in fan-tracery, with a central dependent 
boss. The windows, which are early Decorated, seem 
to have been retained by Bishop Alcock from the 
original termination of the aisle. The chapel is 
entered by doors west and south. On the north side 
is the Bishop's tomb, with a window at the back con- 
taining some remains of ancient stained glass. A 
door opens to the small space behind the tomb, pro- 
bably the Bishop's chantry, forming an arrangement 
very unusual and beautiful. Upon the tomb itself, 
and in the glass of the east window, is the Bishop's 
rebus or device a cock on a globe. His shield of 
arms (three cocks' heads) is over the south door. The 
original stone altar remains at the east end, but raised 
on modern supports. Remark the curious bosses under 
the brackets on either side, representing ammonites 
projecting from their shells and biting each other. 
Above is placed a stone found in opening a grave 
near the chapel, and bearing the inscription " Johannes 
Alcock, Eps. Elien. hanc fabricam fieri fecit 1488." 
The chapel has been partly restored, and the floor laid 
with encaustic tiles. 

XXIV. Opposite, at the end of the south choir- 
aisle, is the chapel of Bishop WEST (1515 1534), the 
walls of which are panelled with tabernacle-work, and 

gis^op ftllesi's Cjmpel. 267 

crowded with figures, though not to such an extent as 
Bishop Alcock's. The design and ornamentation are 
much lighter and more elegant than in that chapel. 
In this chapel the influence of the " renaissance " is 
at once evident. Italian ornamentation is especially 
noticeable in the brackets of the lower tier of niches, 
and in the lower part of that over the door, which 
displays a figure in the costume of Francis I. The 
ceiling, too, is a good example of the conversion of 
Gothic fan-tracery into the later panelled roof, having 
deeply moulded ribs with pendent bosses, and panels 
painted with arabesques and figures of cherubs. Round 
the lower brackets runs the Bishop's motto, " Gracia 
Dei sum quod sum," which also appears over the 
door, on the exterior. The ornament round this door 
should be noticed, as well as the remains of colour. 
The ornaments have been white, on a blue ground. 
The original iron-work of the doors should also be 
remarked. The tomb of Bishop West is on the south 
side of the chapel, under a window which contains 
some fragments of old glass. The sculptured figures 
and ornaments have been terribly shattered, possibly in 
obedience to the injunctions of the Protector Somerset 
in 1547, for the " general purification of the churches," 
which ordered that " from wall and window every 
picture, every image commemorate of saint or pro- 
phet or apostle, was to be extirpated and put away 
' so that there should remain no memory of the same .' " 
These orders were no doubt perfectly obeyed ; but 
Froude, Hist, Eng., vol. v. p. 37. 

268 &{ 

works so recently completed as this chapel, still 
fresh in colour and gilding, would at once attract 
attention, and were probably the first to suffer. The 
chapel here may be compared with that built by 
Bishop West in the parish church of Putney, Surrey, 
his birth-place. 

Over Bishop West's tomb is a range of seven small 
pedimented arches, of Alan of Walsingham's exquisite 
Decorated work, fitted in under a late segmental arch, 
below which is an inscription recording the removal 
to this chapel, in 1771, of the bones of seven bene- 
factors of the church of Ely, whose names are 
recorded in small arches beneath : Wulstan, Arch- 
bishop of York, died 1023 ; Osmund, a Swedish 
bishop, died about 1067 ; Alwin, bishop of Elmham, 
died 1029 ; ^Ifgar, bishop of Elmham, died 1029 ; 
Ednoth, bishop of Dorchester, killed by the Danes in 
1016 ; Athelstan, bishop of Elmham, died about 996 ; 
and Brithnoth, duke of Northumbria, killed in battle 
by the Danes 991. Bishop Osmund, who came to 
England from Sweden when a very aged man, remained 
for some time attached to the household of Edward 
the Confessor ; and then ended his days at Ely. Duke 
Brithnoth had visited the monastery before setting 
out to attack the Northmen on the coast of Essex, and 
bestowed many manors on the monks, on condition 
that, if he fell in battle, they should bring his body 
to Ely for interment, which they did. The remains 
of these seven benefactors were first interred in the 
Saxon church; and were removed to the Norman 




feoir-aisle. 269 

cathedral in 1154. The small coffers which contained 
them were afterwards placed in the north wall of 
Alan of Walsingham's choir ; where they were found 
when the choir was altered (see xv.) in 1770. They 
were then re-interred in the chapel. 

At the end of the chapel, under a window filled with 
very heavy dark stained glass by Evans (representing 
the four Evangelists, with St. John the Baptist in the 
centre), is a high canopied altar-tomb for Bishop 
SPARKE, died 1836. 

XXV. In its architecture the south choir-aisle 
generally resembles the north ; but with marked 
differences between the plan of the vaults of the two 
aisles, the mouldings of the ribs, and the irregularities 
in the masonry, shewing conclusively that the work 
was begun on the south side. The window adjoining 
Bishop West's chapel is a memorial for ASHLEY 
SPARKE, " qui obiit in armis Balaclava, Oct. 25, 1854." 

On the floor under this window is a remark- 
able fragment of a monument displaying very early 
sculpture, found in 1829 in St. Mary's Church, 
Ely, beneath the flooring of the nave. [Plate VIII.] 
An angel with wings raised above the head, bears in 
the folding of his robe a small naked figure (the soul) 
apparently of a bishop, since a crozier projects at the 
side. The hands of this small figure are spread open 
in front, thumb touching thumb. The angel wears a 
kind of cope, ornamented at the sides. Eound his 
head is a large circular nimbus with a jewelled rim ; 
and the wings are thrown up grandly at the back, 

270 <&I 

filling nearly all the upper part of the arch under the 
canopy. This is raised on long shafts, and shews a 
mass of buildings with circular arches above the head. 
On the inside rim is the inscription, " Sc S. Michael 
oret p' me." The slab, the lower part of which is 
gone, is of Purbeck marble. The work is no doubt 
very early Norman, and of the highest interest. The 
seventh bay, from the west, exhibits a large blocked 
arch, in which has been placed the marble recumbent 
effigy of the late Professor SELWTN (died 1875) by 
Mr. Nicholls. 

XXVI. Against the south wall the monument in 
the sixth bay is of Bishop GUNNING (16751684), a 
reclining figure leaning his mitred head on his left 
elbow: "Vitam egit caelibem, angelicam," says the 
inscription. In the fourth bay is the very striking 
alabaster effigy of Bishop HEATON (16001609). He 
wears a scull-cap, his raised hands are clasped in 
prayer, and he is attired in a richly figured cope, a 
very late example of this vestment ; in the third bay 
that of Eobert STEWARD, Esq. (died 1570), in a richly 
coloured heraldic tabard, reclining uncomfortably with 
his left elbow supported by a helmet ; in the second 
that of Sir Mark STEWARD (died 1603), with an 
effigy clad in complete armour, of which it is a good 
example, reposing under a Doric temple; in the 
first bay the white marble effigy of Bishop ALLEN, in 
his episcopal robes, rising and looking around with 
wonder, by Ternoult, not too good. 

On the other side of the aisle at the back of the 

grass 0f Sisfeop tobricjj. 271 

stalls are the monuments of Bishop MOORE (1707 
1714), an amateur physician as the inscription in- 
dicates : 

" Jam licet improba mors satiet se corpore Moori 
Pragsulis et Medici ; sed nee inultus obit ; " 

blubbering cherubs watch on either side of the monu- 
ment; of Bishop BUTTS (1738 1747), with bust; 
and of Bishop GREENE (1723 1738), with an urn 
between composite columns. 

On the floor are the matrices of many brasses which 
have disappeared ; and two good perfect ones, the first 
for Dean TTNDALL, Master of Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge, died 1614, who is represented in his robe, with 
a square-cut beard. The inscription runs 

" Usquequo, Domine, Usquequo. The body of the worthy 
and reverende prelate, Umphry Tyndall, doth here expect 
the coming of our Saviour. 

" In presence, government, good actions, and in birth, 
Grave, wise, courageous, noble was this earth. 
The poore, the Church, the College, say here lies 
A Friend, a Dean, a Master, true, good, wise." 

On a small brass plate was a curious inscription, 
which appears to have been restored away, recording 

( Tyndall by birth, 
" Ursula < Coxee by choice, 

lllpcher in age and for comfort." 

The other brass is that of Bishop GOODRICH (1534 
1554), very interesting as an example of the episcopal 
vestments worn after the early Eeformation. In his 
right hand he holds the Bible ; and the great seal of 

272 <{ 

England hangs below. Goodrich was made Lord 
Chancellor in 1561. "Magnus tandem Angliee factus 
Cancellarius " runs the inscription, " charior ne Prin- 
cipi propter singularem prudentiam, an amabilior 
populo propter integritatem et abstinentiam fuerat 
ad judicandum est perquam difficile." Observe the 
renaissance character of the ornaments on the chasuble 
and other vestments. The iron gates of the choir- 
aisles are modern, by Skidmore: that of the south 
aisle being a gift of G. Alan Lowndes, of Barrington 
Hall, Essex, that of the north aisle, of the late Dean 
Peacock; very rich and excellent in design. The 
flowers and corn in the upper part of that leading into 
the south aisle, coloured and gilt, should be specially 

XXVII. The Chapter Library is arranged in the 
east aisle of the south transept, which was long since 
enclosed for the purpose. The collection is principally 
historical and theological; but it contains nothing 
calling for especial notice. 

XXVIII. Through a passage opening from the 
north-east corner of the north transept we enter the 
Lady-chapel, which was formerly approached through 
the canopied arch already noticed in the north 
choir aisle. When perfect, it was one of the most 
beautiful and elaborate examples of the Decorated 
period to be found in England ; and it will still amply 
repay the most careful study, as "a perfect store- 
house of statuary and elaborate tabernacle- work " 
(Stewart). But the proportions are not pleasing. 


It is decidedly too broad for its height, and it suffers 
from excess of decoration. On the destruction of the 
church of St. Cross this chapel was assigned to the 
parishioners of Holy Trinity as their parish church. 
In this character this beautiful building was allowed 
to sink to the lowest depths of degradation. The 
interior was filled with square pews of the rudest 
make. The rich sculpture was coated with successive 
layers of whitewash. Damp and decay seemed to claim 
Walsingham's lovely creation as their own. The last 
few years, however, have witnessed a favourable 
change. The interior has been fitted with open oak 
benches, the whitewash has been cleared away, and the 
whole building has received repair and restoration. 

The first stone of the Lady-chapel was laid on the 
Festival of the Annunciation, 1321, by Alan of Wal- 
singham, architect of the octagon, who was at the time 
sub-prior of the monastery. The work was continued 
for twenty-eight years under the superintendence of 
John of Wisbech, one of the monks, and finished in 
the time of Bishop de L'Isle, 1349, when Alan of 
Walsingham had become prior, in which year John of 
Wisbech is recorded to have died of the plague. John, 
whilst digging the foundations, is said to have found a 
brass pot full of money, with which he paid the work- 
men as long as it lasted p . He received contributions 
also from different quarters; and the Bishop, Simon 
de Montacute, gave largely toward the work, "like 
Simon the high-priest, the son of Onias," says the 

p Monach. Ellens., ap. Wharton, Anglia Sacra, i. p. 651. 
VOL. II. PT. I. T 

274 (gig Catjycbral 

Monk of Ely, " who in his life repaired the house 
again, and in his days fortified the temples' 1 ." 

Although John of Wisbech superintended the work, 
the architect was in all probability Alan of Walsing- 
ham. The chapel is a long parallelogram of five bays, 
with five windows on either side, the tracery in which 
is alike. The east end is nearly filled by a large 
window of seven lights, the design of which is un- 
usual, and suggests the approaching change from 
Decorated to Perpendicular. At the west end is 
another large window, differing in tracery, inserted 
by the executors of Bishop Barnet in 1374. Both 
east and west windows have transoms. The roof 
is an elaborate lierne-vault, resembling that of the 
Decorated portion of the choir. Between all the side 
windows is rich tabernacle-work with canopies, from 
which the figures have disappeared; and along the 
wall beneath runs a series of niches and complex 
tabernacle- work, upon which every possible decoration 
of architecture sculpture and painting has been un- 
sparingly bestowed. This is formed by three arches 
in each bay, with projecting canopies, and spandrils 
above filled with sculpture. This arcade, with its 
brackets and canopies, deserves especial notice. The 
reredos below the east window was probably the work 
of Bishop Fordham, 1390. "The masonry of the 
middle pair of mullions of the window, which are 
of unusual solidity, shews that the reredos and east 
window were originally combined with some decorative 
* Ecclus. 1. 1. 

fabg-tljapel. 275 

structure which stood on a solid platform extending 
across the chapel, considerably raised above the level 
of the floor. A large figure of the Virgin, often men- 
tioned in the chapel-keeper's rolls, probably obstructed 
the middle light from the sill of the transom " (Rev. 
D. J. Stewart, p. 141). The whole has been terribly 
shattered. The Protector's injunctions were obeyed 
but too well; yet much of the foliage and lesser 
details has remained uninjured beneath the succes- 
sive coats of whitewash, now happily removed. 

The position of this Lady-chapel is unusual. The 
Lady-chapel at Peterborough, of earlier date (1278), 
but now destroyed, was, however, similarly placed. 
Other examples of Lady-chapels added elsewhere than 
at the eastern end, occur at Oxford, Rochester, Durham, 
and Bristol. In nearly all these cases, the most honour- 
able position, at the eastern end of the church, was 
reserved for the shrine of the local saint, as St. 
Cuthbert at Durham, and St. Etheldreda at Ely. 

XXIX. A staircase in the north transept leads to 
the upper parts of the cathedral ; the most interesting 
portion of which is the timber bracing of the roof of 
the octagon, added some time after its completion, in 
order to strengthen the entire work. A fine interior 
view, looking westward, is obtained from the passage 
at the base of the upper tier of windows at the east 
end ; and a vast panorama of the fens and lowlands of 
Cambridgeshire, with the Ouse winding through them, 
is gained from the summit of the western tower, which 
is ascended from the south-west transept. 

T 2 

276 tfig CstfcefcsL 

XXX. Passing out of the cathedral by the western 
porch, we proceed to notice the exterior. Beyond the 
ruined north-west transept, the fall of which has 
already ( v.) been noticed, a view is obtained of the 
great western tower -, the greater part of which was the 
work of Bishop EIDEL (1174 1189). The gradual 
development of the Early English style may be traced 
in its successive stories. The octagon itself, with its 
buttressing turrets, was added during the Decorated 
period; and was originally crowned with a slender 
spire of wood, which was removed at the end of the 
last century. The pierced openings in the parapet 
of the tower and in the upper part of the buttress 
turrets occasionally produce beautiful and unusual 
effects of light. 

The Perpendicular windows inserted in the triforium 
of the nave in 1469 may here be remarked ; as well as 
the buttressing turrets, with their spire-like termina- 
tions, at the end of the great transept. A portion of 
the north-west corner of this north transept fell in 
1699 ; but was rebuilt, and the original stone-work 
carefully replaced, under the care of Sir Christopher 
Wren. The part rebuilt may, however, be readily 
traced on the exterior, though scarcely within. The 
east wall of the north transept, being partially hidden 
by the Lady-chapel, was happily allowed to remain 
unaltered, and deserves attention as the only part of 
the exterior where the original design of the Norman 
triforium and clerestory can be seen, the triforium wall 
preserving its ancient height. 



faxtmor. 277 

The central Octagon, from whatever part it is ob- 
served, groups well with the lines of the transept 
and nave, and with the transept turrets. The wide 
under portion is flat roofed, with turrets at the angles : 
between which runs a pierced parapet. The very 
beautiful tracery of the windows in the smaller sides 
of the octagon should here be noticed from the ex- 
terior ; as well as the arcade above, pierced with lights 
for the inner roof, six in the larger sides, three in 
the smaller. The lantern rises in two stories, with 
slender buttresses at the angles. The upper story 
was originally designed for bells, which remained 
there till 1669, when the chapter accounts shew a 
charge for removing them. The bell-frames existed 
till the repairs by Essex. The groovings worked by 
the bell-ropes are still to be seen in the timber-work 
within. The whole has very recently sustained a 
complete restoration, including the completion of the 
spirelets crowning the octagonal angular turrets 
which were left unfinished circa 1330 as a memorial 
of the late Dean Peacock. 

XXXI. Buttresses with high pinnacles rise between 
the bays of the Lady-chapel ; above the .east window 
of which is a series of niches, once filled with figures. 

The East End of the cathedral itself (Bishop Hugh's 
work) is a grand example of Early English [Plate IX.]; 
and rises in fine contrast with the short green turf 
which closes quite up round it. Buttresses with 
niches and canopies rise on either side of the three 
tiers of windows (the uppermost of which lights the 

278 1; 

roof), the clustered shafts dividing which, with all 
their mouldings and details, will amply repay notice. 
One of the principal buttresses has been crowned with 
a crocketed pinnacle from the designs of Mr. Salvin, 
at the cost of Mr. Beresford Hope. It can hardly be 
called successful. Eemark also the varied forms of 
the foiled ornaments in the spandrils and in the gable. 
The alterations made by Bishops Alcock and West 
at the extremities of the aisles may also be here 

Passing to the south side of the choir, remark the 

South Aisle of Choir Exterior 

Clnstaf. 279 

flying buttresses with their lofty pinnacles which 
unite the wall of the triforium with the clerestory. 
These are of Decorated character, and were no doubt 
added when the triforium itself was altered, early in 
the fourteenth century. (See xvi.) The original 
form of the triforium windows may be seen in the two 
bays of the choir between the Decorated work and 
Bishop Hugh's. The change made here has already 
been pointed out from within. ( xvi.) The southern 
wall and coupled lancets of Bishop Hugh's triforium, 
with the cornice of trefoiled arches, still remain in 
these two bays. 

The windows of the eastern aisle of the south tran- 
sept, now lighting the Library, are very pure examples 
of late Early English two-light with cinquefoiled 
circles in the head. 

The recessed Perpendicular window in the upper 
part of the south transept is curious, and should be 

XXXII. Traces of the slype, or passage to the ceme- 
tery, may be seen at the south end of this transept. 
The Cloisters themselves lay as usual under the south 
side of the nave. Their extent can be accurately traced 
by walls and foundations, but of the actual cloister 
very little is left, beyond a fragment of the east walk 
which forms a covered entrance to the south aisle of 
the nave, and a portion of the north walk, preserved, 
we are told, to make a wall for the Dean's garden. 
Part of this walk has been roofed over to serve as 
a choristers' vestry and library. These remains of the 

280 <l 

cloister are of the latest Perpendicular, erected in 
1509, and are of little interest. Two Norman door- 
ways, much enriched, open into the nave on this side 
of the church. That at the eastern end of the nave- 
aisle was the Monks' entrance, and has a trefoiled 
heading, with figures holding pastoral staves in the 
spandrils, and twisted dra- 
gons above. The foliage and 
mouldings, which are very rich 
and involved, indicate, like the 
heading of the doorway, its late 
or transitional character. The 
lower entrance, at the south- 
west angle of the cloisters, was 
the Prior's door [Title-page], 
and is far more elaborate than 
that of the monks. In the tym- 
panum is the Saviour within 

Sculpture from ttaa Prior's Door. an elongated aureole, SUp- 

ported by angels. The curious grotesques and orna- 
ments deserve careful notice. Both doorways may be 
compared with the Norman work in the lower part 
of the west front of Lincoln Cathedral, which is of 
similar character, and nearly of the same date. The 
Chapter-house, which stood in the open space to the 
south of the south transept, has entirely disappeared. 

The exterior of the south-west transept indicates 
the different dates which have already been pointed 
out from within. ( v.) The upper portion of the 
transept walls, and of the lofty octangular flanking 

guilbings. 281 

turrets, are Early English, the lower part late Norman. 
Buttresses, flat in the under story, and passing first 
into double shafts and then into a single one, run up 
in the centre of each side, and divide the tiers of 
windows and blind arcades. 

XXXIII. The remains of the Conventual Buildings 
are extensive and interesting. The most ancient por- 
tions are a Norman crypt under part of the Prior's 
Lodge, and some Norman fragments in the long build- 
ing stretching north of " Ely Porta " the great gate 
of the monastery. This range of buildings was built 
on vaults, and consisted of a series of long narrow 
rooms, which may have been used for the accommoda- 
tion of guests. It now serves as the Free School of the 
College and the houses of the Head Master and of the 
Precentor. The whole mass of the buildings, gray and 
picturesque, with their ivied walls, their green courts 
and gardens, covers a considerable space, and suggests 
the great size and importance of the ancient monastery. 

A short distance east of the south transept are the 
piers and arches of the Infirmary, of late Norman date, 
built into the walls of the canons' houses, to which its 
central aisle forms a passage of entrance. The mould- 
ings of the arches and all the details deserve notice. 

The Infirmary was built on the usual model. Its 
plan was that of a church with nave, side-aisles, and 
chancel, the former serving as the common hall, the 
beds being placed in the aisles, and the chancel form- 
ing the chapel of the sick brethren. The nave is of 
nine bays ; the chancel of four bays, with a projecting 

282 0l 

sacrarium, wliicli preserves its vaulting, being incor- 
porated in one of the canonical residences. The 
roofless nave is still crossed by the chancel arch of 
Transition-Norman character. On the north side was 
the "Gent-hall," built by Alan of Walsingham, as 
a hall for those who were recovering from sickness. 
It now forms a canonical house, and is little altered. 
The basement retains three vaulted bays. At the 
west end are five Early English arches, each of which 
incloses a double arch, which is again subdivided into 
two, belonging to the " dark cloister " leading into the 
Infirmary from the vaults under the dormitory, which 
ran southwards from the wall of the south transept. 
A fragment of this vault exists in the offices of one of 
the canons' houses, now blocked up. 

The Deanery has been constructed from the ancient 
Guesten Hall, dating from the thirteenth century, and 
still retains its long roof, with a foiled opening in 
the upper part of the west wall. The Priors Lodge 
extended beyond it, south; and was built round a 
small quadrangle. The high windows of the prior's 
great hall remain in a house adjoining Prior Crawden's 
Chapel [Plate X.], a small but very interesting ex- 
ample of a domestic chapel, of Decorated date, founded 
by Prior John of Crawden, who died in 1441, and pro- 
bably designed by Alan of Walsingham. The window- 
tracery, the niches, and the ancient tiles at the altar 
should all be noticed. [Plate XI.] The chapel, which 
had been converted into bed-rooms, has been restored. 

The adjoining house, occupied as a canonical resi- 




gmwrg. 283 

dence, also formed part of the Prior's Lodge. The 
vaulted basement is the oldest part of the monastery 
existing, and may have been built in Abbot Simeon's 
time. A magnificent hall was erected over it in the 
reign of Edward III., of which there still remain 
traces of a large window which lighted it from the 
south, a door arch, and a fireplace, which is " perhaps 
the most magnificent example of a fourteenth-century 
fireplace in England. Its detail is very elaborate, and 
it has four beautiful brackets, which appear to have 
been intended for candlesticks r ." 

At some distance south is " Ely Porta," the prin- 
cipal entrance to the monastery, begun in the year of 
Prior Buckton's death, 1396. The room above the 
archway is appropriated to the use of the King's 
Grammar-school, founded in 1541 by Henry VIII., 
and placed under the control of the Dean and Chapter. 

On the north side of the monastery an entrance 
remains beneath a tower opposite the Lady-chapel. 
The residences of the Sacrist and Elemosynarius were 
in this range of building, abutting on the street. The 
canonical residence which forms the eastern portion 
of this range, was the old almonry. Like most mo- 
nastic offices, it consisted of a long narrow building, 
with a vaulted basement. This last still exists, and 
is divided by a row of octagonal columns down the 
centre. There are traces of a triplet in the east gable. 

XXXIV. The Bishops Palace, west of the cathedral, 

r Parker's Domestic Architecture (Fourteenth Century), 
p. 277. 

284 $I 

dates for the most part from the time of Henry VII., 
of which it is a good example. The turreted wings 
were built by Bishop ALCOCK (1486 1501), whose 
arms are on the front of the eastern wing. The 
gallery adjoining the western wing was the work 
of Bishop GOODRICH (15341554), temp. Edward VI. 
A gallery formerly crossed the road, leading from 
the north-east wing of the palace to the south-west 
transept of the cathedral. 

In the palace is preserved the very curious " Tabula 
Eliensis;" a copy (which cannot be earlier than the 
time of Henry VII.) of one which formerly hung in 
the great hall of the monastery. The "Tabula" 
represents forty Norman knights, each in company 
with a monk, and each having his shield of arms above 
him, with his name and office. The knights are said to 
have been placed by the Conqueror in the monastery, 
after the taking of the Isle of Ely : they became so 
friendly with the monks, that on their departure the 
brethren " brought them as far as Haddenham in pro- 
cession, with singing;" and afterwards placed the 
"Tabula" in their hall for a perpetual memory of 
their guests. The meaning and true history of the 
"Tabula" are quite uncertain, and can scarcely be 
even guessed at. None of the monastic historians of 
Ely refer to it. It will be found engraved in Bent- 
ham's "History of Ely," and in Fuller's "Church 

XXXV. The best general view of the west front 
will be obtained either from the end of the lawn 





fronting the Bishop's Palace, or from a point at the 
side of the lawn, about halfway down. [Plate XII.] 
From the north-east corner of the Market-place there 
is a good view of the east end of the cathedral ; and 
the south front of the west tower and transept rises 
very grandly above the road by which Ely is ap- 
proached from the railway station. A striking view 
of the nave and western tower may be gained from the 
end of the lane of houses in which are the arches of 
the Infirmary. ( xxxm.) From this point the open 
spaces between the buttress-turrets, and the great 
western tower, as well as the open lancets of the 
turrets themselves, produce very striking effects. 

Of the entire cathedral, the best general views are 
from a bridge over the railway not far from the station, 
on the east side [Frontispiece], and that from the 
mound in the park on the south side near the Ely 
Porta, now known as Cherry Hill. The enormous 
length of the vast structure is well seen from here. 
There is an excellent distant view from Stuntney-hill, 
a slight rise on the Newmarket-road about two miles 
from Ely. The cathedral is as completely a landmark 
to the whole of the Fen country as is the great tower 
of Mechlin to the lowlands of Brabant ; and its glories, 
thus recorded in monastic verse, are still the pride of 
the entire district : 

" Hsec sunt Elyse, Lanterna, Capella Marise, 
Atque Molendinum, multum dans Yinea vinum. 
Continet insontes, quos valiant nndique pontes : 
Hos ditant montes ; nee desunt flumina, fontes. 
Nomen ab anguilla ducit Insula nobilis ilia." 



Bly by St-merea 

stro yed durmg fte pe at ^ cf winclies ter 

970 was refoundedbj **ffi&J*l*j* 
for Benedictme monks, to U o{ ^ great 

the seat of a new >, taken Cambridges hire. 
and r^n , the w bo 

King" of tue *-, border-land between 


^n</iia -Sacra, vol. u 

St. <B%lbreba. 287 

beret the Isle of Ely as her dower ; and on her husband's 
death, three years after her marriage, she retired there, in- 
duced as much by the solitude as by the protection afforded 
by the surrounding marshes. Her widowhood continued 
for five years, when she was again sought in marriage 
by Egfrid of Northumbria. Etheldreda is said to have 
made a vow of perpetual virginity, which was respected by 
both her husbands, and in the twelfth year of her marriage 
with Egfrid she obtained his leave to put into execution 
a long-formed project, and received the veil from the hands 
of Bishop Wilfrid, at Coldingham in Berwickshire, where 
St. Ebba, aunt of King Egfrid, had founded a monastery b . 
Egfrid, however, soon repented of his permission, and set 
out for Coldingham with a band of followers, intending to 
take his Queen from the monastery by violence. By the 
advice of the Abbess, Etheldreda fled, to take refuge in her 
old home at Ely ; and immediately on leaving the monastery, 
with her two attendant nuns, Sevenna and Severa, she 
climbed a hill named Colbert's Head, on which she was 
seen by Egbert and his followers. A miracle, however, was, 
according to the legend, wrought in her favour. The sea 
swept inland, and surrounded the hill, on which the three 
consecrated virgins remained in prayer for seven days, 
until Egbert, who had tried in vain to approach them, 
retired in despair. A spring of fresh water broke forth 
from the rock at the prayer of Etheldreda ; and the ascend- 

b Dr. Hook's judgment of St. Etheldreda, although without 
doubt true in itself, seems hardly to make sufficient allowance for 
the difference between the seventh century and the nineteenth. 
" Her fanaticism had in it a tinge of insanity. In defiance of 
Scripture, of decency, and of common sense, she repudiated her 
marriage vow, and encouraged in her folly by the less excusable 
folly, if not worse, of Wilfred, she determined to separate from 
her husband and become a nun. Egfrid, with whom the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (Theodorus) agreed, regarded the separa- 
tion in the light of a divorce, and married again." Lives of the 
Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. i. p. 150. 


ing and descending footprints of the three nuns, "impressed 
on the hill side as on melted wax," were long afterwards 
appealed to in proof of the miracle. Continuing her flight 
to Ely, Etheldreda halted for some days at Alfham, near 
Wintringham, where she founded a church; and near this 
place occurred the " miracle of her staff." Wearied with 
her journey, she one day slept by the wayside, having fixed 
her staff in the ground at her head. On waking she found 
the dry staff had burst into leaf; it became an ash tree, the 
"greatest tree in all that country;" and the place of her 
rest, where a church was afterwards built, became known 
as 'Etheldredestow.' 

On her arrival at Ely, Etheldreda commenced (A.D. 673) 
the foundation of a monastery for both sexes, as was then 
not uncommon ; the site of which she fixed at Cradendune, 
about a mile south of the existing cathedral, where, accord- 
ing to a later tradition, a church had been founded by St. 
Augustine. Erom this place, however, the building was 
almost at once removed to the high ground where the 
cathedral now stands, from which the original church of 
St. Etheldreda was placed a short distance westward. St. 
Wilfrid, the famous Bishop of Northumbria, installed 
Etheldreda as abbess of the new community, which, with 
the exception of Peterborough, and perhaps of Thorney, 
was the earliest of the great monasteries of the fens . 
Etheldreda ruled it until 679, when her deathbed was 
attended by her " priest," Huna, who buried her in the 
churchyard of her monastery, and himself spent the rest of 
his life as a hermit, on one of the islands of the marshes d . 

c The dates of the foundations of the principal fen-land mo- 
nasteries are as follows : Peterborough (Medeshamstede), A.D. 
664 ; Thorney (Ancarig ?) circa 665 (?) if the charter inserted in 
the Bodleian MS. of the Saxon Chron. is to be trusted ; Ely, 673 ; 
Crowland, 719 ; Ramsey, 974. 

d Now known as * Honey" (Huna's) Island, not far from 

: of % Pimaslerg. 289 

A remarkable miracle is recorded by Bede as having oc- 
curred in the year of her death. A youth named Ymma, 
who had been one of Etheldreda's house-thegns, was des- 
perately wounded in a battle on the Trent, between Egfrid 
of Northumbria and Ethelred of Mercia. He lay senseless 
for a day and a night, and then, recovering, managed to 
drag himself from the battle-field, when he was taken 
prisoner by the Mercians. But no chains could bind him. 
They fell off perpetually at the " third hour of the day," 
when his brother Tunna, the abbot of a monastery, who 
thought him dead, used to say a mass for his soul. He 
was at last set free, and the merits of his former mistress, 
St. Etheldreda, were thought to have assisted in loosing the 
chains of the captive. Sexburga, sister of St. Etheldreda, 
who had married Erconbert of Kent, and on his death had 
founded a monastery in the Isle of Sheppey, had withdrawn 
to Ely during Etheldreda's lifetime, and became abbess on 
her death. Sixteen years later she determined to translate 
the body of her sister into the church, and for this purpose 
sent out certain of the brethren to seek a block of stone 
from which a shrine might be made. They found a coffin 
of white marble among the ruins of Roman Grantchester, 
close to Cambridge), and in this the body of the Saint, 
which was found entire and incorrupt, was duly laid, and 
removed into the church*. Sexburga was afterwards 
herself interred near it, as was her daughter Ermenilda, 
the third abbess. The bodies of Sexburga and Ermenilda, 
both of whom were reverenced as saints, were afterwards 
enshrined, and were removed, together with that of St. 
Etheldreda, into the existing cathedral. The three abbesses, 

" Invenerunt juxta muros civitatis locellum de marmore albo 
pulcherrime factum, operculo quoque similis lapidis aptissime 

tectum Mirum vero in modum ita aptum corpori virginis 

sarcophagum inventum est, ac si ei specialiter prseparatum fuisset ; 
et locus quoque capitis seorsum fabrefactus ad mensuram capitis 
illius aptissime figuratus apparuit." eda, If, E., lib. iv. ch. xix 



together with St. Withburga, another sister of St. Ethel- 
dreda, who founded a monastery at Dereham in Norfolk, 
but whose relics were afterwards removed to Ely, were 
regarded as the especial patronesses of the Isle of Ely; 
and such was the sanctity conferred upon the soil by the 
holiness of their lives, and by the possession of their relics, 
that Thomas of Ely, who wrote the history of his monastery 
in the twelfth century, suggests, as a more fitting etymo- 
logy than "eel's island," the Hebrew words El, 'God/ and 
ge y ' earth,' as though the island had been marked out from 
the beginning for God's especial service f . The translation 
of St. Etheldreda, or St. Awdrey, as she was generally 
called, was celebrated on the 17th of October, when pil- 
grims nocked to her shrine from all quarters. A great 
fair was then held adjoining the monastery, at which silken 
chains or laces, called ' Etheldred's chains/ were sold, and 
displayed as 'signs* of pilgrimage. The word 'tawdry* 
(St. Awdrey) is said to be derived from these chains, and 
from similar 'flimsy and trivial' objects, sold at this fair. 

St. Werburga, the fourth abbess, daughter of Ermen- 
ilda by King Wulfere of Mercia, was buried at Hanbury in 
Staffordshire, and was afterwards translated to Chester, of 
which church and monastery she became the great pa- 
troness. (See CHESTER CATHEDRAL.) She is the last abbess 
whose name is recorded. The monastery was destroyed 
during the Danish invasion of the year 870, when Crow- 
land and Peterborough also perished ; and although a body 
of secular clergy was soon afterwards established on its 
site, Ely had entirely lost its ancient importance, when the 
monastery was refounded in 970, by Athelwold, Bishop 
of Winchester, who was also the restorer of Peterborough. 
Athelwold purchased the whole district of the Isle of Ely 
from King Eadgar, and settled it on his monastery, which he 

f " Digne quidem Insula tali onomate signatur ; quse ab initio 
Christianitatis et fidei in Anglia Dominum Jesum Christum mox 
credere caepit et colere." Thomas Eliensis, i. 33. 

pbtorg of % Hlonaetag. 291 

filled with Benedictines, over whom he placed Brythnoth, 
Prior of Winchester, as abbot. Among the king's gifts 
to the monastery were a golden cross filled with relics, 
which had been part of the Bishop's "purchase money," 
and his own royal mantle, of purple embroidered with 
gold e. 

From the year of this second foundation until the Con- 
quest, Ely continued to increase in wealth and importance, 
and its abbots were among the most powerful Churchmen 
of their time. From the reign of Ethelredto the Conquest 
they were Chancellors of the King's Court alternately 
with the abbots of Glastonbury, and of St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury, each holding the office for four months. It 
was when approaching Ely at the Feast of the Purification, 
when the abbot entered on his office, that Knut is said to 
have composed the famous verse, which, however, in its 
present form is at least two centuries later : 

"Merie sungen the binnen Ely 
Tha Cnut ching rew ther by. 
Howe ye cnites noer the lant, 
And here we thes Muneches sseng." 

The Atheling Alfred, son of Ethelred, after his seizure 
at Guildford in the year 1036, was conveyed to Ely, where 
his eyes were put out, and where he died. Some of the 
earlier years of the Confessor's life were spent in the 
Saxon monastery, on the altar of which he had been 
solemnly presented when an infant. 

The history of the monastery, at the time of the Con- 
quest, belongs to that of England. Thurstan, the abbot, 
was born at Wichford, near Ely, and had been brought up 
in the monastery from a child. He espoused the cause of 
Edgar Atheling ; and from 1066, the year of the Conquest, 
to 1071, the island formed a Saxon stronghold, which was 
only taken at last with considerable difficulty. Hereward, 
the English champion, escaped at this time; but nearly 
8 "De qua Infula [a mitre] facta est." 

292 (gig <f a%bral 

all those who had taken refuge in the island fell into 
the hands of the Norman king. The Abbot had already 
become weary of the long resistance, and had visited 
William secretly at Warwick, in the hope of making his 
peace with him. He was condemned, however, to pay a 
fine of a thousand marks, and hardly escaped deposition 
at the council of Winchester. He died in 1072, the last 
Saxon abbot of Ely. Theodwin, a monk of Jumieges, and 
Godfrey, who had come to England with Theodwin, ruled 
the monastery in succession from 1072 to 1081 (the first 
alone with the title of abbot), but without receiving the 
benediction and investiture. During Godfrey's govern- 
ment of the monastery, its ancient rights and privileges 
were judicially examined by a court held at Kentford on 
the Suffolk border, and all were restored to it entire, as 
in the year of King Edward's death. In 1081 Godfrey 
became Abbot -of Malmesbury ; and 

[A.D. 10811093.] SIMEON, Prior of Winchester, brother of 
Walkelin, Bishop of that see, and a relative of the Con- 
queror, was appointed Abbot 01 Ely, who had been brought 
up as a monk at St. Ouen, when already in his eighty- 
seventh year. He recovered for his monastery the lands 
which had been allotted to the Normans during the siege 
of the island, and, like his brother Walkelin at Win- 
chester, he laid the foundations of a new church. (Pt. I. 
i.) He died at the age of one hundred. On his death 
the abbey lands were seized by Ealph Flambard, the 
minister of Rufus, and no abbot was appointed until the 
accession of Henry I. in 1100; when 

[A.D. 11001107.] RICHARD, son of Richard Earl of Clare, 
succeeded. He had been educated in the Abbey of Bee, 
in which he spent thirty years of his life, obtaining cele- 
brity for his knowledge of philosophy and divinity. He 
completed the eastern portion of the new church (Pt. I. 
i.), and removed into it (Oct. 17, 1106) the bodies of the 
sainted Abbesses, St. Etheldreda, Sexburga, Ermenilda, 

i&jjHr&. fetiion of ijrt Sisjjaprb. 293 

and Withbnrga. According to Thomas of Ely, Abbot 
Richard's church was one of the noblest in the kingdom. 
"Ut ad perficiendum idem opus (Ric. Abbas) studiosius 
insisteret, et huic operi solum vacaret, totum studium 
specialiter admovit ; tamque decenti forma et quantitate 
quantum potuit, quoad vixit, ecclesiam a predecessore suo 
inceptam edificavit ; ut si fama non invideat, et merito et 
veritatis titulo (utpote mendax veritatem non detrahat) in 
eodem Regno cunctis ecclesiis vel antiquitus constructis, 
vel nostro tempore renovatis, jure quodam compositionis et 
subtilis artificii privilegio et gratia ab intuentibus merito 
videatur preferenda." (Lib. Eliensis, ii. cap. 143.) The 
conversion of the abbey into an episcopal see was first 
suggested by Abbot Richard, and was only prevented by 
his death. He was, however, the last abbot. Hervey le 
Breton, Bishop of Bangor, who had fled from the dangers 
of Wales to the court of Henry, was appointed " Adminis- 
trator " of the abbey, until the election of a new abbot. 
He found the monks not unfavourable to the proposed 
change, which the King also approved. The consent of 
the Bishop of Lincoln was procured by the grant to his see 
of the manor of Spaldwick, belonging to the abbey ; and 
in 1108, the Council of London, presided over by Arch- 
bishop Anselm, consented to the creation of the new 
bishopric. Hervey himself proceeded to Rome for the 
Papal confirmation of the see, with which he returned in 
1109 ; and on June 27, in that year, he was himself 
transported from Bangor, as the first Bishop of Ely. Con- 
stant disputes with the Bishop of Lincoln, concerning his 
rights over the monastery, were perhaps the earliest in- 
ducements to the creation of the new see ; but the great 
size of the diocese of Lincoln is expressly mentioned in the 
letters of the King and of Anselm to the Pope, Paschal II. ; 
and it is also said that the King (Henry I.), aware how 
strongly the Isle of Ely was fortified by nature, was 
anxious to divide the great revenues of the abbey, and 

294 l 

thereby to render it less powerful in case of insurrection, 
by placing a bishop at its head. 

The constitution of Ely, after its erection into a bishop- 
ric, resembled that of the other conventual cathedrals 
of England, Canterbury, Winchester, Worcester, Bath, 
Rochester, Norwich, and Durham ; in all which sees the 
bishops were also regarded as, in effect, abbots of the con- 
ventual establishments attached to them h . The immediate 
government of the monks, however, devolved on the prior, 
whose place in the choir was the first stall on the left 
hand. The bishop retained that on the right hand, which 
he had already occupied as abbot. The full number of 
monks in the abbey was seventy, but this was rarely com- 
plete. The election of the bishop lay, nominally, with the 
prior and the monks, but was in fact constantly interfered 
with by king and pope, as elsewhere '. 
[A.D. 11091131.] HEBVEY LE BRETON, the first Bishop of 
Ely, was greatly occupied in arranging the government of 
this see, which he left " possessed of much greater privi- 
leges, rights, and immunities than most others in the king- 
dom k ." He divided the lands and revenues of the mona- 
stery between himself and the monks, not altogether to 
the satisfaction of the latter ; and " discharged himself and 
his successors from any obligation to support, build, or 
repair the fabric of the church, or any part thereof, leaving 
it entirely to the care of the monks V Succeeding bishops, 

h " In Anglia sunt hodie xvii Episcopatus : in octo eorum sunt 
Monachi in sedibus Episcopalibus. Hoc in aliis provinces aut 
nusquam aut raro invenies ; sed ideo in Anglia hoc reperitur, quia 
primi prsedicatores Anglorum S. Augustinus, Mellitus, Justus, 
Laurentius Monachi fuerant. In aliis novem Episcopalibus sedi- 
bus, Canonici seculares." AnnaL Waverleienses, ad ann. 1152. 

1 " The custom of this convent was for the whole body to elect 
seven as their proctors ; after which these seven proceeded to the 
election of the bishop." Bentham's Ely, p. 149. 

k Bentham's Ely. ' Id. 

gisjjfljjf fjgel. 295 

however, as we have seen (Pt. I.), notwithstanding this 
"discharge," contributed largely toward the repair and 
rebuilding of their cathedral. 

[A.D. 1133 1169.] NIGEL, Treasurer of Henry I., and nephew 
of the powerful Bishop Roger of Salisbury (see that Cathe- 
dral, Pt. II.), was consecrated to the see of Ely after it had 
been vacant for nearly two years. Like Bishop Roger, 
Nigel was immersed in the troubles and intrigues of the 
reign of Stephen, whom he at first supported. He emptied 
the monastic treasury to supply his personal wants, and 
stript oif the silver from the shrine of Etheldreda to defray 
the pecuniary obligations his extravagance had incurred. 
At the council of Oxford in 1139, however, when Stephen, 
who seems to have feared their joining the side of Matilda, 
seized the bishops of Sarum and Lincoln, he would also 
have seized Bishop Nigel of Ely, had he not managed to 
escape to the castle of Devizes, then belonging to the 
Bishop of Sarum. Stephen laid siege to the castle, and 
threatened Nigel with the deaths of Bishop Roger and his 
son, if it were not at once surrendered. Nigel consented to 
the surrender on condition of his own liberty, and he with- 
drew to Ely, where he was joined by some of Matilda's 
adherents, and prepared to defend the place. But Stephen 
followed so rapidly that the Isle was surprised before Nigel 
could make any resistance. He himself escaped and joined 
the Empress Matilda at Gloucester. On Stephen's capture 
at Lincoln, Nigel recovered his see, and contrived to retain 
it until the King's death, in 1154. Henry II. made him 
one of his Barons of the Exchequer, " as he was judged to 
have most exact knowledge and skill in the forms and pro- 
ceedings of that court," which he restored from the confu- 
sion into which it had fallen during the previous reign. 
At Ely Bishop Nigel built a castle, of which no traces 
remain ; and at Cambridge he founded a hospital in honour 
of St. John the Evangelist, which continued under the care 
of his successors until 1510, when the lands and site of 

296 I 

it were surrendered to the executors of Margaret, Countess 
of Kichmond, who established on this foundation the pre- 
sent College of St. John. 

[A.D. 11741189.] GEOFFEY RIDEL, Archdeacon of Can- 
terbury, a royal chaplain and one of the Barons of the 
Exchequer, succeeded after a vacancy of four years. His 
adherence to the King's side during the struggle with 
Becket, and his excommunication by the Archbishop, who 
writes of him as " archidiabolus noster, haud archidiaco- 
nus," rendered it necessary for him, on his election, to 
take an oath that he had "in no way contributed to the 
death of the Archbishop." Bishop Geoffry continued in 
high favour with the King, Henry II., after his elevation 
to the see of Ely. In 1179 he was made Chief of the 
King's Itinerant Justices in Cambridgeshire and seven 
adjoining counties. He was one of the executors of King 
Henry's will ; and died at Winchester, whilst waiting there 
to receive the new King, Richard Coeur de Lion, on his 
arrival in England. At Ely, Bishop Geoffry carried on the 
" new work," and the western tower. (Pt. I. 4.) 

A.D. 11891197.] WILLIAM LONGCHAMP, a Norman of 
low birth, became Chancellor and Grand Justiciary of 
Richard I., who procured from the Pope Bishop William's 
nomination as Papal Legate, but not before he had paid a 
thousand marks for the dignity. On Richard's departure 
for the East, the Bishops of Ely and Durham were en- 
trusted with the government of the kingdom south and 
north of the Trent. Longchamp, however, soon after the 
King's departure, arrested his colleague; and "assuming 
the utmost pomp and state, treated the kingdom as if it 
were his own, bestowing all places in Church and State on 
his relations and dependents." After a struggle with 
Prince John, the Bishop shut himself up in the Tower of 
London (which he had surrounded with a deep foss, to be 
flooded from the Thames), but was compelled to fly thence 
to Dover, where, as he was waiting on the beach, disguised as 

JTongtjjamp. instate. 297 

a woman, for the ship in which he was to cross the channel, 
he was discovered, and imprisoned in the castle. On the 
intercession of other English bishops, however, he was 
released, and passed to Normandy, where he remained 
until Eichard's return. In spite of the character given by 
most of the chroniclers to William Longchanip, he found 
able defenders in his own time, amongst whom were Peter 
of Blois, and Nigel Wireker, the monk of Canterbury, 
both of whom praise his justice and his gentleness. It is, 
moreover, not a little in his favour that Kichard at 
once restored him to his confidence, and re-appointed 
him Chancellor, which office he held until his death at 
Poictiers in 1197, whilst proceeding on an embassy to 
the Pope. He was buried in a Cistercian abbey named 
Pinu (?) : but his heart was brought to Ely, and en- 
tombed before the altar of St. Martin. 
A.D. 11891215.] EUSTACE, Treasurer of York and Dean 
of Salisbury, an especial favourite of King Eichard, who 
made him his Chancellor on the death of William Long- 
champ, was elected Bishop of Ely, at Walderoil, in Nor- 
mandy, by the Prior and Convent, summoned thither for 
this purpose by the King. He was one of the three bishops 
who (March 24, 1208) published the famous Interdict of 
Pope Innocent III. With the Bishops of London and 
Worcester, Eustace at once fled the kingdom, but returned 
with Stephen Langton in the following year, at John's 
request, in order to attempt an arrangement, which failed, 
and the Bishop of Ely again left England. He returned 
with the other bishops, after John's submission, on St. 
Margaret's Day (July 20, 1212). Two years afterwards 
(Feb. 1215) Bishop Eustace died at Reading, and was in- 
terred in his own cathedral. The Galilee, " Nova Galilea," 
was his work. (Part I. in.) 

On the death of Eustace, the monks elected Geoffry of 
Burgh, Archdeacon of Norwich, but revoked his election 
before it was published, and chose EGBERT OF YORK, 

298 61g dat^bral 

whom the King (John) refused to confirm. Eobert, how- 
ever, held the see, without consecration, for nearly five 
years, assuming to himself all the rights which belonged 
to it. He was a partizan of Lewis of France, and on the 
death of John crossed the channel, and " published false 
rumours of the King's death, to raise disturbances in this 
kingdom, and promote an invasion." A letter was accord- 
ingly despatched in the name of the young King, to the 
Pope, entreating him to annul Robert's election, and to 
provide a proper person for the see, since the Isle of Ely 
was the strongest place in the kingdom, and there was 
danger that Robert would give it into the hands of Lewis m . 

[A.D. 12231225.] JOHN PHERD (John de Fontibus), Abbot 
of Fountains, was preferred to the see by Papal authority. 

[A.D. 1225 1228.] GEOFFRY OF BURGH, Archdeacon of 
Norwich, who had been elected five years before, suc- 
ceeded. He was brother of the famous Hubert of Burgh, 
Earl of Kent, and is said to have been a man of consider- 
able learning. 

[A.D. 12291254.] HUGH OF NORTH WOLD, Abbot of St. 
Edmundsbury, had been one of the King's Itinerant 
Justices for Norfolk, in 1227 ; and in 1235, after he be- 
came bishop of Ely, was sent ambassador, with others, to 
Raymond of Provence, to conclude a contract of marriage 
between his daughter Eleanor and the young King, 
Henry III. Matthew Paris, his contemporary, especially 
praises the piety, hospitality, and liberality to the poor, 
of Bishop Hugh, who did much for his see, and for the 
convent. The presbytery or eastern portion of the cathe- 
dral was his work. (Pt. I. xvi.) At the dedication 
feast (Sept. 1252) he entertained magnificently the King, 

m " Certum est enim, quod civitas Elyensis est optima munitio 
regni nostri ; et quod dictus Robertus ibi extitit preintrusus, ut, 
sicut res se habuit, reciperetur ibi Dominus Ludovicus." Rymer, 
Foedera, I p. 229. 

of Jffltoftg. fitgfe of al^am. 299 

Prince Edward his son, and a great company of nobles 
and prelates. The shrines and relics of the sainted ab- 
besses were solemnly translated into Bishop Hugh's new 
building, and he was himself buried behind the high 
altar, at the feet of Etheldreda. His remarkable monu- 
ment has been already described. (Part I. xx.) 

[A.D. 1255 1256.] WILLIAM OF KILKENNY, Archdeacon of 
Coventry and Chancellor, was consecrated at Belley, in 
Savoy, by Boniface Archbishop of Canterbury. He re- 
signed the office of Chancellor on becoming Bishop of Ely. 
Bishop William was highly distinguished as a canonist 
and civilian ; and in 1256 was sent to negociate a treaty 
between Henry III. and Alfonso of Castile, which he lived 
just long enough to complete. He died on the 22nd of 
September in that year, at Segovia, where he was buried. 
His heart was brought to Ely, and deposited on the north 
side of the presbytery, where his cenotaph, with effigy, 
remains. (Pt. I. xx.) 

[A.D. 12571286.] HUGH OF BALSHAM, sub-prior of Ely, 
was chosen by the monks in opposition to the wishes of the 
King, who had recommended Henry of Wingham, his 
Chancellor. The King accordingly refused to confirm the 
election, although the Chancellor consented to withdraw his 
pretensions. The King then endeavoured to get Adam de 
Marisco elected, a Franciscan whose learning had brought 
him into great repute at Oxford. Hugh, however, appealed 
to Rome, and obtained the confirmation of his election from 
the Pope, Alexander IV., by whom he was consecrated. 

Hugh of Balsham is best remembered for his foundation 
of the first endowed college in Cambridge; in direct 
imitation of that which his contemporary, Walter of Mer- 
ton, Bishop of Rochester, had just founded at Oxford. (See 
The statutes of Merton College, Oxford, were ratified by 
the founder and the King in 1274. In 1280 Bishop Hugh 
obtained a licence from Edward I., for founding a college 

300 Ig Ca%bral. 

of students in Cambridge, " secundum regulam scholar mm 
Oxon. qui de Merton cognominantur." He at first in- 
tended to have converted the hospital of St. John, founded 
by his predecessor, Bishop Nigel, into a college ; but 
changing his plan, he placed his scholars in "hostels," 
near St. Peter's Church, which he assigned to their use. 
The college subsequently became known as St. Peter's 
College, or "Peter House." The University celebrated 
annually a solemn commemoration of Bishop Hugh's 
death, which occurred in 1286. He was buried in his own 
cathedral, before the high altar. 

[A.D. 1286 1290.] JOHN OF KIKKBY, Canon of Wells and 
of York, Archdeacon of Coventry and Wimborne, also 
Treasurer of Edward I., was only in deacon's order when 
elected. He was ordained priest by Archbishop Peckham 
at Feversham (Sept. 21), and consecrated the day after at 
Canterbury. As Treasurer, John of Kirkby was arbitrary 
and exacting, and in 1289, when the Parliament refused 
to grant an aid in discharge of the King's expenses in 
France, until Edward himself returned, the Treasurer 
levied heavy contributions throughout the kingdom, on 
his own authority. Such exactions were afterward ren- 
dered unlawful by the statute 25 Edw. I. (1297), which 
renounced as precedents the "aids, tasks, and prises" 
before taken, and decreed that they should be no more 
taken " but by the common assent of the realm V Bishop 
John died at Ely, and was interred in his own cathedral. 

[A.D. 12901298.] WILLIAM DE LUDA (of Louth), although 
Archdeacon of Durham, was not in deacon's orders when 
elected. After his ordination as deacon and priest, by 
Archbishop Peckham, he was consecrated bishop by the 
Primate, assisted by seven of his suffragan bishops, in St. 
Mary's Church in Ely, where a provincial council was 
being held, concerning a subsidy to be granted to the King 

Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. iii. p. 3. (ed. 1855.) 

falpb of BKalpok. $okrt ol (ixforft. 301 

by the clergy. Bishop William was Treasurer of the King's 
Wardrobe, and is called by T. Wikes, a contemporary 
historian, " vir magnificus et eminentis scientise." In 1296 
the Bishop of Ely was one of the commissioners appointed 
to settle the conditions of a truce between France and 
England ; and in 1297, after the King (Edw. I.) had ordered 
the temporalities of the clergy to be seized (see CANTER- 
Bishop William was one of the chief mediators between 
the clergy and the King (who was himself at Ely in 
that year), and is said to have arranged the payment of 
the fifths by the former. The Bishop died on March 27, 
1298. His beautiful tomb remains in the cathedral. (Pt. I. 

[A.D. 12991302.] KALPH OF WALPOLE was translated to 
Ely from Norwich, by the authority of the Pope, after the 
convent had been unable to agree in their election. As 
Bishop of Norwich, Bishop Ealph had enjoyed a high 
reputation for learning and piety, and at Ely he reformed 
many abuses, corrected the discipline of the monks, and 
revised the statutes of the convent, making some addi- 
tions of his own. He was buried in the cathedral. 

[A.D. 13021310.] ROBERT OF ORFORD, Prior of the Convent, 
having been elected by way of compromise, Archbishop 
Winchelsea refused to confirm the election on the ground 
of his being illiterate. He appealed to Pope Boniface, who 
confirmed the election and consecrated him bishop. He 
refused to be installed by the Archdeacon of Canterbury, 
but took his seat by virtue of Papal authority. He was 
buried in his cathedral. 

[A.D. 13101316.] JOHN OF KETENE (Ketton), had been 
Almoner of Ely. During his episcopate the Bishop of 
Glasgow, who had been sent to Rome to answer for his 
disloyalty to Edward II., was sent back to England by the 
Pope to be " kept in safe custody " until peace should be 
restored between England and Scotland. He was retained 

302 di 

for some time at Ely. Bishop John was interred in the 

[A.D. 13161337.] JOHN HOTHAM, one of the most dis- 
tinguished benefactors of the church of Ely, had been 
much employed in public business, and on foreign em- 
bassies, before he became Bishop of Ely, and took a leading 
part in most of the public transactions of the feeble reign 
of Edward II. In 1317, the year after his consecration, he 
was made Treasurer of the Exchequer, and in the fol- 
lowing year Lord Chancellor. At the fight of Myton-upon- 

- Swale (Oct. 1319), when the English were routed by the 
Scots, under Robert Bruce, the Bishop narrowly escaped 
being taken prisoner. He was afterwards appointed one of 
the commissioners who arranged a truce with the Scots for 
two years; and in 1323 received the King's commission 
for settling the affairs of Gascony, then in great disorder. 
Bishop Hotham joined Queen Isabella on her landing (Sept. 
1326) at Orwell in Suffolk ; and in January 1327, after 
the abdication of Edward II., the Great Seal was again 
delivered to the Bishop of Ely, who "caused to be en- 
graven on the lower part of it, two flowers of the arms 
of France ." 

During his first chancellorship, Bishop Hotham obtained 
from Edward II. a confirnation of all the former rights 
and liberties of the church of Ely ; and in 1329 he procured 
a grant from the Crown to the prior and convent, entitling 
them to the custody of the see on every vacancy, during 
which time they were to receive the profits. He bought 
for the see much land adjoining the manor of Holborn, 
which had been given to the see by Bishop John of 
Kirkeby, and which from this time became one of the 
chief palaces of the bishop of Ely. During his episcopate 
the beautiful Lady-chapel was begun (1321) at Ely (Pt. I. 
xxvu.) ; and the lower part of the octagon was com- 

m Bentham, from Rymer, Feed., iv. p. 243. 

JSimon of $p0ttiaute. 303 

pleted, together with much of the woodwork of the lantern. 
(Pt. I. xi.) The cost of these great works was chiefly 
defrayed by the convent; but Bishop Hotham, at his 
death, left money for the rebuilding of the first three bays 
of the choir, which had been ruined by the fall of the 
tower. (Pt. I. xv.) 

Bishop Hotham died at Somersham, January 14, 1337, 
and was interred in his cathedral, behind the altar of the 
choir (" ad partem orientalem altaris in choro, versus mag- 
num altare "). The shrines of St. Etheldreda and the three 
Abbesses were placed between two altars the high altar 
at the extreme east end of the cathedral, and the " altar of 
the choir," which stood nearly at the junction of Bishop 
Hugh's work and Bishop Hotham' s. It has already (Pt. I. 
xx.) been suggested that the upper part of Bishop 
Hotham 's monument may have served as a watching- 
chamber for the shrines. It has been stripped of its orna- 
ments and figures, which are thus described : " Ipse autem 
sepultus est . . . . sub quadam pulchra structura lapidea, 
cum imagine Episcopi de alabastro, super tumulum ipsius 
erecta, cum 7 candelabris ex uno stipide decentissime pro- 
cedentibus ; et circa siquidem imagines de creatione hominis 
et ejectione ejusdem de Paradiso ; quatuor etiam imagines 
regum armatorum, et 4 dracones [banners] ad 4 partes 
ejusdem structural p ." 

[A.D. 1337 1345.] SIMON OF MONTACUTE was translated 
from Worcester. The convent had elected their prior, 
John of Crawden, a man of great worth, whose brass has 
already been noticed (Pt. I. xvii.); but their proceedings 
were set aside by the bull of Pope Benedict XII., which 
directed the translation to Ely of the Bishop of Worcester. 
Bishop Simon was a younger brother of William Lord 
Montacute, the first Earl of Salisbury of that creation, 
who was advanced to his new dignity in the same year 

p Hist. Eliensis, ap. Angl Sacr., i. 648. 

304 I 

(1337) in which, his brother was translated to Ely. During 
this bishop's episcopate the lantern of the octagon and the 
new portion of the choir were completed, and the Lady- 
chapel was in progress. This, however, was not completed 
until 1349. Toward this work the Bishop gave large sums, 
and was buried before the altar of the new chapel. 
[A.D. 1345 1361.] THOMAS DE LISLE, intruded by the 
Pope, Clement VI., in place of Allan of Walsingham, Prior 
of the Convent, and architect of the octagon, whom the 
monks had elected. He had been Prior of the Dominicans, 
at Winchester, and was at Avignon on a mission to the 
Pope from Edward III., when the vacancy of the see 
of Ely was announced. In accordance with the policy of 
STRATFORD), Bishop de Lisle was compelled, on his return 
to England, to " make a formal renunciation of all words 
contained in the Pope's bull of provision that were prejudi- 
cial to the King and the rights of his crown, and to declare 
that the holding the temporalities of the see proceeded of 
the King's grace and favour, and not by any authority from 
the Pope q ." Bishop de Lisle was a haughty and magnificent 
prelate, little in favour either with his convent or with the 
King. He is said, however, to have been an able preacher, 
and to have been zealous in discharging this duty of his 
office throughout his diocese : " Egregius namque praadi- 
cator extitit ; et per varia loca suae diceceseos discurrens, 
velut fidelis dispensator et prudens, familise Dominicaa men- 
suram tritici distribuendo, verbum Dei in populo sibi com- 
misso ferventi animo disseminavit r ." At Bishop de Lisle's 
consecration a glass vessel full of wine which stood on the 
altar broke suddenly, "sine tangentis manu;" an omen, 
according to the chronicler, of the troubles he was to endure 
as bishop. For the greater part of his episcopate he was 

Bentham, p. 160. 

r Hist. Eliensis, ap. AngL Sacr., i. 655. 

$is|jop g)e fhle anb garnet. 305 

engaged in constant disputes with Blanche Lady Wake, a 
daughter of Henry Earl of Lancaster, and a powerful ad- 
versary. Her estates in Huntingdonshire adjoined the 
Bishop's manors ; and questions of " limits and boundaries " 
led at last to manslaughter, to the loss of the King's 
favour, and to the Bishop's summons to the bar of the 
King's Bench. Bishop de Lisle, dreading imprisonment, 
fled to the Pope at Avignon, where, whilst the questions 
were still in debate, he died (June 1361), and was buried 
in a house of Dominican nuns there. 

On his death the Pope appointed Reginald Brian, Bishop 
of Worcester, to the see of Ely, who died of the plague 
before his translation. The convent then elected, by royal 
licence, John Bockingham, Keeper of the Privy Seal ; but 
the Pope by another provision appointed 
[A.D. 1632, translated to Canterbury 1366.] SIMON LANGHAM, 
Abbot of Westminster, and Treasurer of England. It was 
on his translation to Canterbury, in 1366, that the monastic 
rhymes appeared : 

" Exultant coeli quia Simon venit ab Ely 
Cujus in adventum flent in Kent millia centum.'* 

[A.D. 13661373.] JOHN BARNET, Archdeacon of London 
1359, Bishop of Worcester in 1362, Treasurer of England, 
and translated to Bath in the following year, was, when 
very old and infirm, translated to Ely, by papal provision. 
During his episcopate the King replaced the stock and 
"implementa episcopatus," on the ten chief manors or 
palaces belonging to the see of Ely ", which had been made 
away with in the last five years of Bishop de Lisle's life, 
whilst he was at Avignon and the temporalites were in the 

* These were the palace at Ely ; Ely-house, Holborn ; Bishop's 
Hatfield and Hadham, in Hertfordshire ; Somersham, in Hunt- 
ingdonshire; Balsham and Ditton, in Cambridgeshire ; Downham, 
Wisbech Castle, and Doddington, in the Isle of Ely. 

VOL. II. PT. I. X 

306 0i 

King's hands. The bishops were, henceforth, compelled to 
take an oath, at the west door of their cathedral, on the 
day of enthronization, to leave this stock entire, or its 
value, to their successors. 

Bishop Barnet died at Hatfield in 1373, and was buried 
at Ely, where his monument remains. (Pt. I. xix.) 

[A.D. 1374., translated to York 1388.] THOMAS FITZ-ALAN 
OF ARUNDEL. In 1836, whilst still Bishop of Ely, Arundel 
was made Lord Chancellor. During his holding of the see, 
he nearly rebuilt the palace in Holborn. In 1388 he was 
translated to York, and thence, in 1396, to Canterbury. 
(See that Cathedral, Pt. II.) As archbishop, Arundel is 
chiefly memorable for his persecution of the Lollards. He 
died Feb. 1414. 

[A.D. 13881425.] JOHN FORDHAM, Dean of Wells, and 
Keeper of the King's Privy Seal, a favourite of Richard II., 
and by him made Lord Treasurer 1386, was translated by 
Urban VI. to Ely, from Durham, to which he had been 
appointed by the Pope in 1381. The translation was not 
to the Bishop's advantage, since Durham was a see of far 
more wealth and importance than Ely. Little is recorded 
of this Bishop during his long episcopate of thirty-seven 

[A.D. 1426 1435.] PHILIP MORGAN was translated by papal 
provision from Worcester. He was an eminent civilian, 
and had been chaplain to Henry V., who had employed 
him on many embassies. On the death of Archbishop 
Bowet, 1423, Morgan was put forward by the party of the 
Duke of Gloucester, and elected his successor in the see 
of York. Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln, was the favourite of 
tf'j Beaufort party, and on Morgan's applying to the Pope 
Martin V. for the confirmation of his election, he refused, 
saying he had nominated Fleming to the vacant throne. 
The Royal Council threatened Fleming with a prgemunire, 
and he found it convenient to allow the Pope to translate 
him back to Lincoln, the Council meanwhile accepting 

3&rais he Utombarg. 307 

Kemp, Bishop of London, for York, and requiring the 
papal sanction to Morgan's translation to Ely. During his 
episcopate the University of Cambridge claimed entire 
freedom from the bishop's jurisdiction, on the authority 
of two bulls, of Honorius I. (A.D. 624) and of Sergius I. 
(A.D. 689) ; of which they judiciously professed to have 
only copies. The University appealed to Pope Martin V., 
who appointed the Prior of Barnwell, and John Deping, 
Canon of Lincoln, to determine the matter. Their sen- 
tence, afterwards confirmed by Pope Eugenius IV., was in 
favour of the University. 

[A.D. 14381443.] Louis DE LUXEMBTJBG, Archbishop of 
Rouen, who had long supported the English interests in 
France, was, at the recommendation of Henry VI., ap- 
pointed by the Pope " perpetual administrator " of the see 
of Ely, after the convent had elected Thomas Bourchier, 
Bishop of Worcester ; whose election (although the Pope 
had at first confirmed it) was annulled. Louis de Luxem- 
burg was the brother of the Count of St. Paul ; and had 
been Chancellor of France and of Normandy, for Henry VI., 
under the Regent Bedford. The Regent, on the death of 
his first wife, married Jaquette, daughter of the Count of 
St. Paul, and niece of the Bishop *, who in 1436 was elected 
Archbishop of Rouen. From this see, however, he probably 
had little benefit ; since, on the decline of the English in- 
fluence in France, he withdrew from the latter country, 
and established himself in England; where in 1438 he 
was placed in full possession of the " temporalities and 
spiritualities" belonging to the see of Ely. "He could 
not be elected Bishop of Ely without a violation of the 
institutions of the Church of England, or without exposing 
the electors to the penalties of a prasmunire. Nevertheless 

* After the death of the Regent Bedford, his widow married 
Sir Richard Wodevile (Earl of Rivers), by whom she was the 
mother of Elizabeth, Queen of Edward IV. 

x 2 

308 til 

he could be appointed administrator of the see ; and not- 
withstanding the opposition of Archbishop Chicheley, who 
for a while resisted this aggression upon the liberties of the 
Church, the Archbishop of Rouen was put into full pos- 
session of the see of Ely by the King, the Pope and Bishop 
Bourchier concurring in the arrangement u ." In 1439 he 
was created cardinal-priest by the Pope, Eugenius IV. ; 
and in 1442 cardinal-bishop. He was hardly ever resident 
in his diocese, the affairs of which he regulated by his 

Cardinal de Luxemburg died at Hatfield, Sept. 1443. 
His bowels were interred in the church there ; his heart 
was deposited in his metropolitan church at Rouen ; and 
his body at Ely, on the south side of the presbytery, " near 
the altar of relics," where his monument remains. (Pt. I. 

[A.D. 1443, translated to Canterbury 1454.] THOMAS BOUR- 
CHIER, whom the monks had before elected, was now trans- 
lated to Ely from Worcester. The convent, however, 
seems to have repented of its choice. " We only gathered 
from him flowers instead of fruit," says the monk who 
writes his life," as from a useless tree. Except on the day 
of his installation he would never celebrate mass or solemn 
service in his cathedral *." For his life as Archbishop, see 
CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL, Pt. II. His death occurred in 
1486. His episcopate of fifty-one years, as Bishop of 
Worcester and Ely, and as Archbishop, was one of the 
longest on record in the English Church y . 

u Dean Hook, Archbishops, vol. v. p. 280. 

x Ang. Sac. i. 671. 

y In the notice of Archhishop Bourchier (CANTERBURY CATHE- 
DRAL, Pt. II.) his episcopate is said to have been the longest on 
record in the English Church. This is an error. It was the 
longest up to that time ; but has since been exceeded in length 
by those of John Hough (1690-1743), Bishop successively of 
Winosarely ; of Oxford, Lichfield, and Worcester 35, Thomas 

drag ab gTorton. 309 

[A.D. 1454 1478.] WILLIAM GRAY, the King's Procurator 
at Rome, was appointed by Pope Nicholas V., on the 
recommendation of Henry VI. Bishop Gray was educated 
at Balliol College, Oxford, to which he was afterwards a 
considerable benefactor (the library was partly built by 
him, and furnished with books); and in 1440 he was 
Chancellor of the University. On his return from Rome 
he was made Treasurer of England. In 1467 he was 
p]dward the Fourth's commissioner for arranging a peace 
between that king and Henry of Castile; and in 1471, 
1472 and 1473, he was the chief English commissioner for 
treating of peace with James III. of Scotland. Bishop 
Gray died at Downharn in 1478, and was interred in his 
cathedral, where his monument, stripped of its effigy and 
brasses, remains. (Pt. I. xxn.) 

The strengthening of the western tower (Pt. I. iv. 
xxx.) was effected during the episcopate of this Bishop, 
who gave largely towards the work. 

[A.D. 1479, translated to Canterbury I486.] JOHN MORTON ; 
who was made in the same year (1479) Lord Chancellor. 
His learning as a civilian early brought him into notice ; 
and he was especially patronized by Archbishop Bourchier, 
whom he succeeded. It was this bishop who was sent to 
the Tower by Richard III. when Protector ; and his sub- 
sequent services to Henry VII., when still Earl of Rich- 
mond, procured his nomination to the primacy. A longer 
notice of Archbishop Morton will be found in CANTERBURY 

As Bishop of Ely, Morton attempted one of the first 
works on a large scale with a view to a thorough drainage 

Bishop of Sodor and Man (Jan. 1698-March 1755) 57 years ; 
of Shute Harrington, Bishop of Llandaff, Salisbury, and Durham 
(Oct. 1769-March 1826) 56 years and 6 months ; and of E. V. 
Vernon Harcourt, Bishop of Carlisle and Archbishop of York 
(November 1791-November 1847) 56 years. Bishop Wilson's 
is therefore the longest English episcopate. 

310 4Bi 

of that part of the fens called the North Level. The canal 
or cut which he caused to be dug, for a distance of forty 
miles, from near Peterborough to the sea, by Guyhirne and 
"VVisbech, is still called by his name, "Morton's Seam." 
" He had a lofty brick tower built at Guyhirne, where the 
waters met, and * up into that tower he would often go to 
oversee and set out the works.' This Bishop was the first 
to introduce into the district the practice of making 
straight cuts and artificial rivers for the purpose of more 
rapidly voiding the waters of the fens -a practice which 
has been extensively adopted by the engineers of the 
present dayV 

A curious account of Morton's installation as Bishop of 
Ely, when he walked barefoot for two miles from his palace 
at Downham to his cathedral, " in rochetto, cum bediis in 
manu sua, dicendo orationes Dominicas per viam," and of 
the subsequent feast at the palace, will be found in 
Bentham's History of Ely (Appendix, xxix. xxx). 
[A.D. I486 1500.] JOHN ALCOCK, one of the best architects 
of his time, and Controller of the royal works and buildings 
under Henry VII., was translated to Ely from Worcester. 
He was born at Beverley in Yorkshire, and educated 
at Cambridge. In 1462 he was appointed Master of the 
Rolls ; and after serving on different embassies, was created 
Bishop of Rochester in 1472. Thence in 1746 he was 
translated to Worcester ; and in 1486 became Bishop of 
Ely. By Edward IV. he had been appointed "preecep- 
tor " to the young prince, afterwards Edward V. ; but was 
removed from his office by the Protector Richard. 

At Cambridge Bishop Alcock procured the suppression 
of the nunnery of St. Radegund, which had become con- 
spicuous for its irregularities ; and founded in its stead the 
college now known as Jesus College. He built much at 
all his manors ; and constructed a great hall and gallery 

Smiles' Lives of the Engineers, vol. i. p. 29. 

gisjjflps gUimtan mtb jSiardeg. 311 

(now destroyed) in his palace at Ely. His beautiful chapel 
has been described (Pt. I. xxxm.). 

Bishop Alcock died at Wisbech Castle, Oct. 1, 1500. 

[A.D. 1501 1505.] KICHARD REDMAN had been Abbot of 
Shap, in Westmoreland, and in 1471 was made Bishop of 
St. Asaph, where he rebuilt the cathedral, which had been 
burnt by Owen Glendower about 1404 (see ST. ASAPH). 
Bishop Redman became entangled in the affairs of Lambert 
Simnell in 1487 ; but seems to have acquitted himself to 
the satisfaction of Henry VII., who made him one of the 
commissioners of the peace with Scotland in 1492, and in 
1495 translated him to Exeter ; thence in 1501 he passed 
to Ely. 

Through whatever towns Bishop Redman passed on his 
journeys, if he remained so long as one hour, he caused a 
bell to be rung that the poor might come and partake of 
his charity, which he distributed largely. His monument 
remains in the cathedral. (Pt. I. xx.) 

[A.D. 1506 1515.] JAMES STANLEY was the third son of 
Thomas Stanley, created Earl of Derby in 1485. The 
powerful interest of his stepmother, Margaret, Countess of 
Richmond and Derby, was probably the cause of his pro- 
motion ; " the worst thing she ever did," writes Baker : 
" armis quam libris peritior." He died, according to God- 
win, " without performing any one thing deserving to be 
remembered ; " arid it is true that his moral conduct, in 
Bentham's words, "will by no means bear the strictest 
scrutiny." He built a manor-house at Somersham, how- 
ever, for the see, and did much for the collegiate church 
at Manchester (see MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL), where he 
died (March 1515) and was buried. A MS. history of 
the house of Derby, quoted by Bentham, thus concludes 
the life of Bishop Stanley : 

" Hee did end his life at merrie Manchester, 
And right honourable lies buried there, 

312 {gig Ca%bral. 

In his chappell, which he began of free stone. 
Sir John Standeley made it out, when he was gone. 
God send his soul to the heavenlie companie ! 
Farewell, godlie James, Bishoppe of Elie 1 " 

[A.D. 1515 1533.] NICHOLAS WEST, son of a baker at 
Putney, educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, 
Archdeacon of Derby 1501, Dean of Windsor 1510, early 
became distinguished for his knowledge of civil and canon 
law, and was patronized by Bishop Fisher and Sir Thomas 
More. He was throughout his life much employed in 
public affairs and on embassies, under Henry VII. and 
Henry VIII. ; the latter of whom he attended at the 
" Camp Drap d'Or." In 1515 he was made Bishop of Ely, 
and is said to have lived in greater splendour than any 
other prelate of his time, having more than one hundred 
servants. Two hundred poor were daily relieved at his 
gate. His learning and acquirements were very consider- 
able, and are especially praised by Bishop Fisher. He was 
a zealous advocate on the side of Queen Catherine ; and 
the loss of the King's favour on that account is said to 
have hastened his death, which occurred April 28, 1533. 

At Putney, his native place, he built a chantry adjoining 
the parish church, which still remains. His superb chapel 
in the cathedral has been noticed (Pt. I. xxiv.)- 

[A.D. 1534 1554. J THOMAS GOODRICH, son of Edward Good- 
rich, of East Kirby in Lincolnshire, was educated at 
Cambridge, where he soon became eminent as a canonist 
and civilian. In 1529 he was appointed one of the Uni- 
versity syndics, to report concerning the lawfulness of the 
King's divorce, which he supported ; and after more than 
one lesser preferment, was by the King's favour (whose 
chaplain he had become) advanced to the see of Ely. 

Bishop Goodrich was a zealous supporter of the Re- 
formation; and the general injunctions (1541) for the 
removal of images, relics, and shrines, were executed with 
great speed and decision in his cathedral and throughout 

k aitb i^irlbg. 313 

his diocese. The great shrines of St. Etheldreda, and of 
the three other sainted abbesses, were at this time removed 
and destroyed. In 1540 the Bishop of Ely was appointed 
by Convocation one of the revisers of the New Testament ; 
and the Gospel of St. John fell to his share. In 1548 he 
was one of the "notable learned men" associated with 
Cranmer about the " Order of Communion " the first form 
of the English Office in the Book of Common Prayer*. 
He was a member of the Privy Council under Henry VIII, 
and Edward VI., and was employed on several embassies, 
and on much state business. In 1551 he was made Lord 
Chancellor ; an office which he held until the accession 
of Mary in 1553, when the seals were taken from him, 
although he was allowed to retain his bishopric. His arms 
remain in the oriel of the gallery in the palace, which he 
largely repaired and adorned. His brass a very in- 
teresting example of the episcopal vestments of this period 
remains in the cathedral. (Pt. I. xxvi.) 
[A.D. 1554 1570.] THOMAS THIRLBY, Archdeacon of Ely 
1534, and Dean of the Chapel Koyal, was appointed by 
Henry VIII. to the bishopric of Westminster, wheo, in 
1540, on the dissolution of the abbey, it had been erected 
into an episcopal see. On the accession of Edward VI., in 
1550, the new bishopric was dissolved, and Thirlby was 
translated to Norwich ; thence he was removed to Ely, by 
Queen Mary, on the death of Goodrich, and was soon after- 
wards sent ambassador to Home, to represent the state of 
the kingdom, and promise obedience to the Apostolic See. 
The ceremony of degrading Archbishop Cranmer was per- 
formed by Thirlby, who was observed to weep during it. 
" He cannot be followed," says Fuller, " as some other of 
his order, by the light of the faggots kindled by him to 

Procter on the Book of Common Prayer, pp. 20-23. " This 
was not a full Communion Office, but an addition of an English 
form of communion for the people to the Latin Mass." 

314: I 

burn poor martyrs, seeing he was given rather to prodi- 
gality than cruelty V But although he is said to have 
alienated much of the land which had been assigned to the 
Westminster bishopric, he did much for the see of Ely, 
since he procured from the Crown the advowson of eight 
prebends attached to it. Bishop Thirlby continued in 
favour for a short time after the accession of Elizabeth, 
but on refusing the oath of supremacy he was committed 
to the Tower, whence he was removed to Lambeth, where 
he lived for ten years under the guardianship of Arch- 
bishop Parker. He died at Lambeth in 1570, and was 
buried in the parish church there. 

[A.D. 15591581.] RICHARD Cox, born at Whaddon, Bucks, 
was educated at Eton, and at Cambridge ; in which Univer- 
sity he was, according to Fuller, one of the " most hope- 
full plants." Wolsey removed him to his new college 
at Oxford ; and he afterwards became Master of Eton, 
chaplain to the King, and tutor to the Prince, afterwards 
Edward VI. He received various preferments from the 
Crown, and was the first dean of the cathedral church of 
Oxford first at Osney, and then at Christ Church ; with 
which deanery he held that of Westminster in com^ 
mendam. Throughout the reign of Edward, Cox was an 
ardent reformer, and found it necessary to take refuge at 
Frankfort during the Marian persecution. He returned on 
the accession of Elizabeth, and took an active part in the 
settlement of religion during the first years of her reign. 
He was a coadjutor of Archbishop Parker in the prepara- 
tion of the "Bishops' Bible," and urged the adoption of 
" usual words " and the avoidance of " inkhorn terms." He 
also assisted Parker in drawing up the " Thirty-nine Arti- 
cles," being regarded by him as one on whose principles and 
good sense he could entirely rely. In 1559, on the depriva- 
tion of Bishop Thirlby, he was consecrated to the see of Ely, 

b Worthies Cambridgeshire. 

gisjjap fe. 315 

from which, under the pressure of the Queen and cour- 
tiers, he was compelled to alienate many of the best 
manors. As bishop-elect, Cox, in conjunction with. 
Parker, then archbishop elect of Canterbury, and some 
other bishops, petitioned the Queen that she would 
forbear exchanging lands for tenths and impropriate rec- 
tories, on the vacancy of the different sees, which, by an 
act passed in her first parliament she was entitled to do. 
The petition was without effect, and fourteen manors be- 
longing to the see of Ely were at this time exchanged for 
tenths and impropropriations of much less value. The 
Lord Keeper Hatton subsequently procured the alienation 
of a portion of the Bishop's property at Holborn ; and it 
was on making resistance to this spoliation that Cox 
received the celebrated letter from the Queen : 

"Proud Prelate, You know what you were before I 
made you what you are ; if you do not immediately 
comply with my request, by God I will unfrock you, 

" The names of Hatton Garden and Ely Place ( Mantua 
va3 miseras nimium vicina Cremome ') still bear witness to 
the encroaching Lord Keeper and the elbowed Bishop ." 
In consequence of this and many similar vexations, the 
Bishop, now of great age, was desirous of resigning his see, 
and in February, 1580, he seems to have obtained the 
Queen's consent to his doing so. He died, however, July 
1581, still Bishop of Ely, and was interred in his cathedral, 
near the tomb of Bishop Goodrich. His monument, a brass, 
no longer exists. 

The see continued vacant for more than eighteen years 
after the death of Bishop Cox, during which, time the 
Queen received the whole profits. The administration in 
"spirituals" was under commissioners appointed by the 
Archbishop. At last 


Hallam, Const. Hist., vol. i. p. 224. (ed. 1855). 

316 &l 

[A.D. 16001609.] MARTIN BEATON, Canon of Christchurch, 
1582, Dean of Winchester, 1589, was appointed. Like his 
predecessor, he was compelled to alienate much of the pro- 
perty of his see. His tomb, with effigy, remains in the 
cathedral. (Pt. I. xxvi.) 

[A.D. 1609, translated to Winchester 1619.] LANCELOT 
ANDREWES. (For the life of this bishop, who whilst at 
Ely spent large sums in repairing the residences attached 
to the see, see WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL, Pt. II.) 

[A.D. 16191626.] NICHOLAS FELTON, Master of Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, 1616, translated from Bristol. He was 
one of those employed by James I. on the translation of 
the Bible. 

[A.D. 1628 1631.] JOHN BUCKERIDGE was appointed, after a 
vacancy of a year and a-half. He had been Fellow, and 
afterwards President, of St. John's, Oxford, where he was 
tutor to the future Primate, William Laud. Buckeridge 
"was devoted to the cause of the Eeformed Church of 
England," and wielded with ability " the two-edged sword 
of Holy Scripture" against the Papists on the one side, 
and against the Puritans on the other. A treatise written 
by him, entitled "De Potestate Papas in Temporalibus," 
was very highly esteemed, and was unanswered by the 
Romanists. He was one of four divines appointed by King 
James the others being Bishops Andrewes and Barlow, 
and Dr. King, afterwards Bishop of London to preach be- 
fore him at Hampton Court, with the object of bringing the 
Presbyterian Scots to a right understanding of the Church 
of England d ." In 1611 he became Bishop of Rochester, 
whence in 1628 he was translated to Ely, through the 
interest of his former pupil, Laud, then Bishop of Bath and 
Wells. " In this case, and by every means in his power, 
Laud endeavoured to show his gratitude for the great 
benefit he had derived from the instruction and example 
of this good man, equally distinguished for his orthodoxy 

d Hook, Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. xi. p. 5. 


and his learning e ." His reputation for learning and as a 
preacher was considerable. 

[A.D. 16311638.] FRANCIS WHITE, translated from Norwich, 
Dean of Carlisle 1622, Bishop of Carlisle 1626, and Bishop 
of Norwich 1629, translated to Ely 1631. He was buried 
in St. Paul's Cathedral. He was regarded as " a man of 
learning, a good preacher, and an excellent disputant and 
polemical writer." 

[A.D. 16381667.] MATTHEW WEEN, eldest son of Francis 
Wren, citizen and mercer of London, had been chaplain to 
Lancelot Andrewes when Bishop of Ely, and was afterwards 
made chaplain to James I., by whose appointment he was 
sent, with Dr. Maw, to attend Prince Charles during his 
expedition to Spain, "with all the requirements for a 
comely celebration of the worship of the Church of Eng- 
land." He subsequently accompanied King Charles to 
Scotland, in ] 633. Wren was an excellent hater of Puri- 
tans, an unflinching adherent of Laud, a strong supporter 
of the royal authority, and so highly in favour with the 
King, that Laud was said to be jealous of him. After 
many lesser preferments, he was made Bishop of Hereford 
in 1635 ; in the same year he was translated to Norwich, 
and in 1638 to Ely. 

As Bishop of Norwich, Wren, " a man of a sour, severe, 
nature," according to Lord Clarendon,- a " wren mounted 
on the wings of an eagle," in Bishop Williams' words, 
carried out the Laudian discipline with a high hand. The 
Puritans declared it was the greatest persecution on record. 
" In all Queen Mary's time," said Burton, " there was not 
so great a havoc made, in so short a time, of the faithful 
ministers of God." Eight hundred and ninety-seven ques- 
tions were distributed throughout the diocese for the unfor- 
tunate churchwardens to answer ; prayers before sermons 
were silenced ; and at length Bishop Wren was able to 
report something like uniformity in his diocese, although 

6 Hook, Archbishops of Canterbury, u. s. 

318 6I 

in the midst of deep-seated discontent. In the diocese of 
Ely the Bishop found less occupation : but he had dis- 
covered sundry abuses in Cambridge and the adjoining 
district, before, in 1641, after protesting with other bishops 
against their exclusion from the House of Lords, he was 
sent with them to the Tower. He was set at liberty for 
a short time in 1642, but was again arrested before the 
close of the year, and remained in confinement for eighteen 
years, "displaying great patience, resolution, and firm- 
ness of mind." He outlived the Rebellion, was set free in 
March 1660, and after the King's return, in May of the 
same year, was replaced in the see of Ely. As a thank- 
offering he built the chapel at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 
where he had been educated, and was interred therein in 
1667. His diary, and other notices of this Bishop, whom 
Hallam contemptuously dismisses as "one Wren, the 
worst on the bench," will be found in Wren's Parentalia. 
Ely Cathedral remained unprofaned, and the service was 
duly performed in it, until January 1641 ; when Cromwell 
as Governor of Ely, made, says Carlyle, " a transient ap- 
pearance in the cathedral one day, memorable to the 
Eeverend Mr. Hitch and us." He had already written to 
Mr. Hitch, requiring him " to forbear altogether the choir 
service, so unedifying and offensive, lest the soldiers should 
in any tumultuary or disorderly way attempt the reforma- 
tion of the cathedral church." Mr. Hitch paid no attention, 
and Cromwell accordingly appeared in time of service, 
" with a rabble at his heels, and with his hat on," and 
ordered the " assembly " to leave the cathedral. Mr. Hitch 
paused for a moment, but soon recommenced : when 
" ' Leave off your fooling, and come down, Sir,' said Oliver, 
in a voice still audible to this editor ; which Mr. Hitch did 
now instantaneously give ear to d ." 
[A.D. 16671675.] BENJAMIN LANEY, Master of Pembroke 

t Carlyle's Cromwell, vol. i, pp. 145, 146 (ed. 1857). 

$aneg to Stonier. 319 

College, Cambridge, 1630, Prebendary of Winchester 1631, 
Prebendary of Westminster 1639, lost all his preferments, 
and was ejected from his Mastership, 1644, for refusing the 
Covenant. He was one of Charles the First's chaplains, 
and attended him at the Treaty of Uxbridge, and after- 
wards shared the exile of Charles II., by whom on the 
restoration he was made Bishop of Peterborough : thence 
translated to Lincoln in 1663, and thence to Ely in 1667. 
He rebuilt part of the episcopal palace, and was interred 
in the cathedral. (Pt. I. xxi.) 

[A.D. 16751684.] PETER GUNNING, a preacher of consider- 
able celebrity, and a vigorous defender of the principles of 
the Church of England during Cromwell's Protectorate, 
was born at Hoo in Kent, and educated at the King's 
School, Canterbury. After the Eestoration he was ap- 
pointed to the Mastership of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, and to the Margaret Professorship, from which he 
was transferred to the Mastership of St. John's, and the 
Regius Professorship of Divinity. In 1670 he became 
Bishop of Chichester, and was thence translated to Ely. 
His monument, with effigy, has been noticed (Pt. L 

[A.D. 1684, deprived 1691.] FRANCIS TURNER, son of the 
Dean of Canterbury, was educated at Winchester (where 
his name remains on the wall of the cloisters, near that of 
his friend Ken), and at New College, Oxford. In 1670 he 
became Master of St. John's College, Cambridge ; in 1683 
Dean of Windsor ; in the same year Bishop of Rochester; 
and in 1684 was translated to Ely. He was one of the 
seven bishops who were sent to the Tower, and was de- 
prived, as a Nonjuror, in 1691. The rest of his life was 
passed in complete retirement. He died in 1700, at Ther- 
field, in Hertfordshire, where he had been Rector, and was 
buried in the chancel there, which he had "decorated," 
re paved, and wainscoted, at his own expense. His only 
memorial is the word Expergi&car on the stone which 

320 <BI 

covers his vault. He had erected a monument to his wife 
in the same church. 

Bishop Turner is best remembered for his intimate 
friendship with the excellent Bishop Ken, who was asso- 
ciated with him in the principal events of his life. Both 
bishops were present at the death-bed of Charles II. 

[A.D. 1691 1707.] SIMON PATRICK was perhaps the most 
distinguished bishop who has filled the see of Ely since the 
Reformation. He was born at Gainsborough, in Lincoln- 
shire, in 1626, and was educated at Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge. In 1662 he became Rector of St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden, "where by his excellent instructions and example 
he gained the entire love and esteem of his parishioners, 
and more especially by continuing with them all the time 
of the great plague in 1665." Charles II., to whom he 
was chaplain, made him Dean of Peterborough in 1672. 

i Under James II. he was an active defender of the Church of 
England, and in 1686 Patrick and Dr. Jane had a con- 
ference with two Roman priests, in the presence of the 
King and of the Earl of Rochester, whom James was 
desirous of converting to Romanism. On this occasion the 
King declared that " he never heard a bad cause so well, or 
a good one so ill, maintained." Soon after the Revolution 
(Oct. 1689), Patrick, who had been much employed in 
settling the affairs of the Church, was promoted to the see 
of Chichester, vacant by the death of Bishop Lake ; and in 
July 1691, on Bishop Turner's refusing to take the oaths 
of allegiance to William and Mary, he was translated to 
Ely. Bishop Patrick died in the palace there in May 1707, 
and was interred in the cathedral, where his monument 
remains. (Pt. I. xxi.) 

Simon Patrick is highly praised by Bishop Burnet, and 
his learning and unblemished character have been duly 
appreciated by writers of all parties. His " Paraphrases 
and Commentaries on the Scriptures " are of great value, 
and his sermons and lesser tracts, many of which have 

giskags fairick to Jieent. 321 

lately been reprinted, take good rank among the works of 
English Churchmen of that period. Whilst Dean of Peter- 
borough he completed and published a History of that 
Church, which had been compiled by Simon Gunton, a 
prebendary of Peterborough. 

[A.D. 17071714.] JOHN MOORE, Fellow of Clare Hall, and 
Rector of St. Andrew's, Holborn, who became Bishop of 
Norwich in 1691, on the deprivation of Bishop Lloyd, was 
on the death of Patrick translated to Ely. An important 
collection of books and MSS., made by him, was after his 
death bought by George L, and given to the University of 

[A.D. 1714 1723.] WILLIAM FLEETWOOD was translated 
from St. Asaph, to which see he was consecrated in 1708. 
In 1712 Bishop Fleetwood published four sermons, with 
a preface, in which he strongly defended the principles of 
the Revolution, endangered, as was then generally believed, 
by the Jacobite intrigues of the Ministers. The book was 
ordered to be burnt by a ministerial majority of the Com- 
mons, but its author was rewarded on the accession of 
George I. by his translation to Ely. 

[A.D. 1723 1738.] THOMAS GREENE, Master of Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, and Archdeacon of Canter- 
bury, was translated to Ely from Norwich. 

[A.D. 17831748.] ROBERT BUTTS, also translated from 
Norwich, was a descendant of Sir William Butts, physician 
to Henry VIII. 

[A.D. 17481754.] SIR THOMAS GOOCH, Bart., Archdeacon 
of Essex, and Master of Caius College, Cambridge, 1716, 
became Bishop of Bristol in 1737, whence he was trans- 
lated to Norwich in 1738, and thence to Ely in 1748. 

[A.D. 1754 1770.] MATTHIAS MAWSON, Master of Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, 1724, Bishop successively of 
Llandaff (1730) and Chichester (1740), whence he was 
translated to Ely. 

[A.D. 1771 1.781.] EDMUND KEENE, translated from Chester. 

VOL. II. PT. I. Y 

322 <EJ 

[A.D. 17811808.] JAMES YORKE, Bishop successively of 
St. David's and Gloucester. 

[A.D. 18031812.] THOMAS DAMPIER, translated from Ro- 

[A.D. 18121836.] BOWYER EDWARD SPARKE, translated 
from Chester. 

[A.D. 1836 1845.] JOSEPH ALLEN, translated from Bristol. 

[A.D. 18451861] THOMAS TURTON, Fellow of Catherine 
Hall, Regius Professor of Divinity, Cambridge, 18271843 , 
Dean of Peterborough 18301842, Dean of Westminster 

[A.D. 1864 1873.] EDWARD HAROLD BROWNE, translated 
to Winchester, Fellow of Emmanuel, Vice Principal of 
Lampeter 1843, Canon Residentiary of Exeter 1857 
Norrisian Professor of Divinity, Cambridge, 1854 1864. 



Y 2 



Architectural History, 1 327-329 

General Description, II 329-332 

West Front, III.-IV. .. 332-338 

Western Entrance, V 338-340 

Nave, VI 340-343 

Aisles of Nave, VII 344-346 

Western Chapels, VIII 346-347 

Central Tower, IX 347-348 

Great Transept, Chapels, Rose-windows, X 349-356 

Organ-screen, XI 356 

Choir, XII-XIII 356-360 

Angel Choir, Sculptures, XIV 360-367 

Easter Sepulchre, Tombs, Altar-screen, XV. .. 367-369 

North Choir-aisle, XVI 369-370 

North-east Transept, XVII 370-374 

North Aisle of Angel Choir, XVIII 374-376 

East Window, XIX 376-377 

Eetro-choir, Monuments, XX.-XXI 377-379 

Bishop Russell's Chapel, XXII 379-380 

South-east Transept, Vestries, XXIII 380-382 

South Choir-aisle, Little St. Hugh's Shrine, XXIV. 382-384 

Cloister, XXV 384-385 

View of Central Tower, Great Tom, XXVI. .. 385-387 

Chapter-house, XXVII 387-389 

Library, XXVIII 389-390 

Ascent of West Front, Sir Joseph Banks's View, 

Stone-beam, XXIX 390-393 

Exterior, XXX.-XXXI 393-395 

Old Palace, Deanery, Chancery, Vicars' Court, &c., 

XXXII. 395-400 



A A A .Norman Recesses and Doorways in 

West Front. 
B Western Porch. { Over it is the Stone 

Beam, crossing from C to D.) 
C North Tower, (St. Mary's). 
D South Tower, (St. Hugh's]. 
E E Chapels in the Wings of the West 

Front. F Nave. G Morning Chapel. 
H Consistory Court. K Central Tower. 
L North Transept. M South Transept. 
N Galilee Porch. O Choir. 

P North Choir-aisle. 
Q South Choir-aisle. 
It North-eastern Transept. 
S South-eastern Transept. 
T Retro-r.hoir, (Angel Choir). 
U Bp. Fleming's Chantry. 
V #;>. Russell's Chantry. 
W South-eastern Porch. 
X .Bp. Longland's Chantrt 
Y Cloister. 7, Chapter -house. 

1 Chapel of Si. Thomai. 

2 Chapel of St. John the Evang. 

3 St. Anne's Chapel, re-dedi- 

cated to St. Edward. 

4 Chapel of St. James. 

5 Chapel of St. Denis. 

6 Chapel of St. Nicholas. 

7 Chapel of St. Hugh. 

8 Chanel of St. John Baptist, 

9 Dean's Chapel. 

1 North-east Entrance. 

1 1 Bishop* leming's Monument. 

12 Mon-uin. of Lord Burghersh. 


13 Monum.ofRob.deBurghersh. 

14 MonumentofBp. Burghersh. 

15 Mmument of Sir Nicholas 

de Cantilupe. 

16 Monument of Prior Wim- 


17 Cantilupe Chantry. 

18 Memorial of St. Hugh. 

19 Tomft o/ J>. Fuller. 
iu Gardiner Monuments. 
21 Easter Sepulchre. 

'."'2 Monument of the Duchess of 


23 Monument of the Co 

of Westmoreland. 

24 Chapel of St. Paul. 

25 Chapel of M.Peter. 
26,27 Ancient Choristers' Vf 

28 Principal Vestry. 

29 Mrme of Little St.Hui 
SO, 31, 32 Anciently one t 

the ' Camera Comtnt, 
33 Vestibule to Chapter-h 
S4 Staircase to Library. 
36 WeW. 37 Jtont. 
33 Remigius' Tomb. 

Scale. 100 ft. to 1 in 




I. The see of Dorchester (see Pt. II.) was removed 
to Lincoln by BEMIGIUS OP FESCAMP, the first bishop 
after the Conquest, about the year 1075. Eemigius at 
once commenced the erection of a cathedral, which 
was sufficiently far advanced in 1092 to admit of its 
consecration. Four days before that chosen for the 
purpose, however, Bishop Eemigius died, and the 
church was consecrated during the episcopate of his 
successor, EGBERT BLOET (1094 1123). In the year 
1141 a great fire occurred, after which Bishop ALEX- 
ANDER (1123 1148) replaced the wooden roof of the 
nave with a vault of stone. In 1185 this Norman 
cathedral, according to Eoger of Hoveden, was " cleft 
from top to bottom by an earthquake." Its rebuilding 
was commenced by Bishop HUGH OP GRENOBLE (1186 
1200), better known as " St. Hugh of Lincoln." The 
existing choir, the eastern transept, the first bay of the 
eastern side of the great transept, north and south, 
are unquestionably the work of St. Hugh. The Chap- 
ter-house has also been attributed to him, in corse- 

328 f intoltt 

quence of a misprint in Wharton's "Anglia Sacra," 
but this building is certainly of a later date. The 
completion of the great transept, may perhaps be 
assigned to the episcopate of this successor, WILLIAM 
OF BLOIS (1203 1209). The nave was carried on dur- 
ing the time of Bishop HUGH of Wells, 12091235, 
and completed in the episcopate of Bishop EGBERT 
GKOST&TE (12351253). To Grostete may be attri- 
buted the Early English portion of the west front, and 
the two lower stories of the central tower. It should 
be remarked, however, that the distribution of these 
several portions is somewhat arbitrary. All that 
is certainly known is that the cathedral was not 
finished by St. Hugh; since in 1205 a royal letter 
was issued, appealing to the faithful throughout the 
diocese for funds towards the completion of so 
noble a work (" tarn nobile opus." In the same let- 
ter it is called " egregia structura a "). The character 
of the work itself, however, proves that it must 
have been continued until its completion with but 
little interruption. The plans of the architect 
employed by St. Hugh named Geoffry de Noiers b , 

* The letter will be found at length in the Eev. J. Hunter's 
volume of Chapter-house documents (Rotuli selecti ex Capit. 
Domo, &c.). 

b Of what country Geoffry de Noiers was a native remains 
uncertain. A long discussion on the subject will be found in the 
" Gentleman's Magazine," from Feb. to June, 1861. No less 
than thirteen places called Noiers have been pointed out in 
different parts of Fiance. Mr. Dimmock, however (Gent. Mag., 
June 1861), proves that u de Noiers " was an hereditary English 
name (with a Northamptonshire family) in St. Hugh's time. 

Character of its arlg (ghtglisjj ^rajjitecte. 329 

were in the main carried out during the succeeding 
episcopates c . 

The presbytery, or 'Angel choir,' begun in 1255, 
when the city wall was removed by royal licence for 
the lengthening of the choir, was completed before 
the year 1280, when the shrine of St. Hugh was 
removed into it. The cloisters were the work of 
Bishop BUTTON (12801300), and the upper part 
of the central tower of Bishop JOHN OF DALDERBY 
(13001320). The south end of the great transept, 
with its circular window, probably dates from the 
episcopate of HENRY OF BURGHERSH (1320 1340); 
and the upper part of the western towers is Per- 
pendicular work of about 1400. 

II. By far the greater part of Lincoln Cathedral 
is accordingly of Early English date : and although 
Salisbury (begun 1220, completed 1258) and West- 
minster (begun 1245, completed 1269) are in some 
respects grander and more complete examples, Lincoln 
has an especial interest from the fact of its having been 
commenced so long before either. Although it has 
been frequently asserted that the architecture of this 
cathedral displays French influence, M. Viollet-le-Duc, 
whose authority on this point scarcely admits of dis- 

Hence the architect of Lincoln may have been a born and 
thoroughbred Englishman. 

The Metrical Life of St. Hugh, written during the lifetime 
of his successor, Bishop Hugh of Wells (and admirably edited 
by the Kev. J. F. Dimock, Lincoln, 1860), contains a very curious 
and interesting description of St. Hugh's cathedral. It will be 
found printed at length in the APPENDIX, Part III. 

330 fincoln 

pute, has declared that, after the most careful examina- 
tion, he could not find " in any part of the cathedral 
of Lincoln, either in the general design, or in any 
part of the system of architecture adopted, or in the 
details of ornament, any trace of the French school of 
the twelfth century (the lay school from 1170 to 1220), 
so plainly characteristic of the cathedrals of Paris, 
Noyon, Senlis, Chartres, Sens, and even KouenV This 
fact, which greatly increases the probability that the 
architect Geoffry de Noiers was an Englishman, gives 
us good reason to claim for St. Hugh the distinction 
of having been " the first effectual promoter, if not the 
actual inventor, of our national and most excellent 
Early English style of architecture 6 ;" and in point 
of interest, renders it difficult for any other church to 
exceed Lincoln Cathedral. In size and importance it 
may be regarded as the third great church of the Early 
English period in England, the whole of the interior, 
except the presbytery, being of this age ; " and this 
part follows so immediately after the rest as not to 
produce any want of harmony, but merely a degree of 
enrichment suitable to the increased sanctity of the 
altar, and the localities surrounding it*." 

In grandeur of situation, Lincoln has no rival among 
English cathedrals. It rises on its " sovereign hill," 
a conspicuous landmark from every part of the sur- 

d M. Viollet-le-Duc's letter appeared in the " Gentleman's 
Magazine" for May 1861. It is, however, so interesting and 
important that it will be found nearly at length in the AP- 

e J. F. Dimock. f Fergusson. 

Starw. fflfesi Jroni. 331 

rounding country [see Frontispiece] ; and its towers 
are in full view as the traveller ascends the steep 
" New Koad " towards the Close. On passing under 
the archway of the gatehouse known as " Pottergate," 
the east end of the building, and the Chapter-house 
with its flying buttresses, first appear. The road then 
proceeds close under the south side of the cathedral, 
the lines of which are varied by projecting chapels 
and porches to an unusual extent. An entire new 
church seems to open after passing the Galilee porch, 
and finally the west front appears, with the towers 
rising behind it. No other cathedral is richer or more 
varied in its outlines, and few can be exceeded in the 
interests of its details. This unrivalled effect results 
entirely from the grandeur of the building itself, and 
from that of its situation. The eastern end rises above 
a level plot of greensward, but the grey stone of the 
building is not relieved by trees or gardens, and the 
houses which line the Close are scarcely picturesque. 

The cathedral is built throughout of stone from the 
oolite beds in the immediate neighbourhood, which, 
although it blackens on exposure to the air, is almost 
indestructible, and completely retains the sharpness of 
its sculpture. The marks of the toothed chisels, with 
which it was worked, are visible on many parts of the 
interior. The Purbeck marble, used for shafts and 
capitals, is by no means so durable, and much of it has 
completely decayed. 

The most direct way of approaching the Cathedral 
from the city below, is by the High Street, which 

332 f itttolu 

climbs the hill in a straight line, following the old 
Ermine Street. The Close or Minster Yard is entered 
by the Exchequer Gate, a lofty Edwardian gatehouse 
of three stories, forming part of the fortifications of 
the close erected by royal licence in 1319. Both the 
centre and side archways are groined in brick. The 
corbel-heads deserve notice. The east front is broken 
by octagonal staircase turrets. A second gatehouse of 
equal dimensions stood a few yards further to the 
west, but was pulled down in 1816. 

III. On passing under the archway of the gate we 
have immediately before us the west front [Plate I.], 
which, notwithstanding its flatness, its want of win- 
dows, and its striking mixture of styles, is grand and 
impressive, and deservedly ranks high among the 
fagades of English cathedrals. Its effect is no doubt 
greatly increased by the western towers, which rise 
immediately behind it ; but it well deserves examina- 
tion for its own sake, and for the interest of its details. 
The distinction between the earlier and later Norman 
and Early English work is at once evident. The 
central portion, containing the five archways, belonged 
to the Norman cathedral of Eemigius, of which it pre- 
sents the only external trace remaining. The inter- 
secting arcade above the two principal circular arches, 
like the doorways within the recesses, belongs to the 
later Norman of Bishop ALEXANDER. The rest of the 
front itself is entirely Early English, and was proba- 
bly the work of Bishop GROSTETE (12351253). The 
windows above the three principal doorways are very 




SSEest Jrffttt. JJtorman |JQrtimt. 


early Perpendicular, and were probably inserted by 
Treasurer JOHN OF WELBOURNE, circ. 1370. 

The Norman portion of the front consists of three 
lofty recesses, of which that in the centre is the 
highest and widest. 
At the foot of each 
of these recesses is a 
round - headed door- 
way, and beyond the 
side recesses are two 
lower arches enshrin- 
ing niches semicir- 
cular in plan. The 
masonry and capitals 
of these recesses de- 
serve especial notice. 
The capitals are 
thoroughly charac- 
teristic of early Nor- 
man work; and the 
masonry is one of 
the best examples of 
"wide jointed." The three principal recesses were 
originally terminated by gables, similar to those still 
existing on the north and south flanks. The weather- 
mouldings of the gables of the two side recesses may 
be seen within, behind the Early English wall. The 
whole arrangement resembled, on a smaller scale and 
in an earlier style, that of the west front of Peter- 
borough. On the incorporation of this Norman front 

Arched Recess. 


with the Early English work, the gables were removed, 
the central recess was heightened, and the circular arch 
was changed to pointed. The spring of the Norman 
arch is evident, immediately below the " trellis " work 
(usually ascribed to Grostete) which lines the wall. 
Its original height was 75 ft. The present Early Eng- 
lish arch rises to more than 80 ft. 

The three doorways, within the recesses, were pro- 
bably inserted by Bishop ALEXANDER (1123 1148). 
They are late Norman in character, and a careful ex- 
amination of the masonry will shew that the walls in 
which they are set are of earlier date. The central 
doorway [Plate II.] is the earliest and by far the 
richest, and though it has unhappily been subjected 
to restoration, and some parts are modern, its orna- 
ments and mouldings deserve notice. On the shafts 
are grotesque figures, arranged in pairs and entangled 
in rings of leafage, one of which is attacked by ser- 
pents; another bites his thumb: birds and animals, 
the dove, the lion, the lamb, &c., placed back to back, 
fill the interspaces in other shafts. The Corinth- 
ianesque capitals of the southern jamb of the north 
door also merit attention. They are scarcely to be 
equalled for freedom and elegance by any in England. 
These three entrances may be compared with those 
at Kilpeck Church, Herefordshire. These are much 
ruder, and probably earlier than the Lincoln doorways, 
but the general character of ornament is the same. 

Above the two exterior recesses, and stretching at 
intervals across the Norman portion of the front, is 

Sojlgtes. 335 

a band of remarkable sculptures which must have 
been removed from some earlier building and ap- 
plied to the decoration of his new front by Remigius. 
Beginning at the left hand, north, we have above 
the smaller side recess (1) The torments of the 
Lost ; (2) Our Lord's descent into the jaws of Hades. 
Within the recess (left) (3) Six full-length figures 
of Saints in converse; (4) Our Lord surrounded by 
the Evangelistic symbols, bearing a sheet containing 
souls; (right) (5) The Supper at Emmaus; (6) a 
double subject (above) Angels receiving the soul of 
a dying Man ; (7) (below) A Fiend casting lost Souls 
into the mouth of the Abyss ; (within the central 
recess, right) (8) The Expulsion of Adam and Eve 
from Paradise. (Between the central and southern 
recess) (9) Man condemned to Labour. (Within the 
southern recess, left) ; doubtful, perhaps the Conse- 
quences of the Curse of the Fall ; (10) Childbirth (?) ; 

(11) A Woman spinning (?) or Samuel and Eli (?) ; 
(right) Our Lord instructing a Disciple. Above the 
smaller recess (11) Noah and his Son building the Ark ; 

(12) Daniel in the Lions' Den; (13) Noah and his 
Family in the Ark ; the animals below; (14) The going 
out of the Ark; (15) God's communing with Noah, 
or His Covenant with Abraham. (Within the ringers' 
chapel, on the old outside south wall) (16) The Deluge. 

The three large windows in the recesses are later 
insertions. The great west window is attributed, by 
Leland, but erroneously, to Bishop WILLIAM ALNWICK 
(1436 1450), who commenced the rebuilding of the 


west front of Norwich, and whose executors erected the 
great west window of that cathedral. (See NORWICH.) 
The two side windows are of the same style and date. 
All are certainly considerably earlier than Alnwick, 
and are probably to be assigned to Treasurer Wei- 
bourne. The cinquef oiled opening at the head of 
the central recess is Early English, like the arch 
in which it is set. Over the central doorway are the 
figures of eleven kings, under enriched canopies, 
" placed there under the active, but tasteless, superin- 
tendence of the Treasurer, John of Welbourn, about 
1370. The costume and details may possibly contain 
some archa3ological interest, but so wretched are the 
design and workmanship of these carvings, that they 
furnish matter of painful edification in tracing the 
rapid decline which may be effected upon the sen- 
sitive existence of fine art during one century only."- 
C. H. Cockerell. These indifferent sculptures are not 
to be compared with the admirable figures of the 
Angel choir ( xiv.), which are just one century 
earlier. The figures in the round-headed niches on 
either side of the central recess were placed there 
in one of the repairs of the last century. Clumsy 
modern mitres have converted them into bishops. 

IV. Beyond and above the Norman work the whole 
of the front is Early English, and was probably 
completed by Bishop GROSTETE (12351253). The 
breadth of the Norman portion (100 feet) is that of the 
nave. The Early English wings have at their angles 
octagonal turrets, capped with spires, and a gable, much 

cfront. 6arlg dEnglisfj fioriiojr. 337 

enriched, rises in the centre of the front , immediately 
above the principal recess. The flanking turrets project 
unusually, and cast deep shadows. The front is covered 
with a series of arcades and ornaments, and was once 
crowded with figures, brackets for supporting which 
still remain. The bosses sculptured with human heads 
in the upper stringcourses, angl at the intersection of 
the arcades, are admirable, and deserve careful notice. 
The central gable, however, and the upper part of the 
arch beneath, are the best and richest portions of 
the front. The arrangements and minute details of the 
gable, with the small statues which remain in its niches, 
are excellent examples of the purest Early English. 
The raised " trellis-work" of the masonry, which occurs 
also on the interior and exterior of the central tower, 
should be noticed: it is the general characteristic 
of Grostete's work. The cinquefoiled window in 
the head of the arch was regarded by Rickman as 
" nearly unique, from the exquisite workmanship of 
its mouldings, which consist of openwork bands of 
flowers." The ' foliage in the cusps is especially 
admirable. On the central boss of the vaulting 
in the recess is carved the Expulsion from Paradise. 

The parapet, which extends on either side between 
the gable and the turrets, is an addition of the four- 
teenth century. The spires which cap the turrets are 
crowned by statues ; of which that south represents 
St. Hugh, that north is known as the " Swineherd of 
Stow," a porcarius who, according to the local legend, 
gave a peck of silver pennies toward the building of the 

VOL. II. PT. I. Z 

338 fmtoltt (ffatfeebraL 

cathedral. The swineherd is in the act of blowing 
a horn, and the figure has sometimes been regarded as 
the rebus of Bishop Bloet (Blow it), a pun which, 
although perfectly in accordance with the taste of 
the fifteenth century, hardly agrees with that of the 
thirteenth. The existing figure dates only from 1850 ; 
but is a fac-simile of the original " Swineherd," 
preserved in the cloisters (see xxv., and Title- 

The entire breadth of the west front is 173 ft. ; its 
height (below the gable) 83 ft. 

V. The western porch, which we now enter, and the 
porches on either side, beneath the towers, were much 
altered by Treasurer WELBOUENE circa 1370, and their 
vaulting is of his time, as is the panelling and arcade 
which line the walls. The modern arches, which en- 
cumber and destroy the effect of these porches, were 
added about 1727, in order to provide additional support 
for the west towers, the Norman bases of which have 
been seriously crushed by the lofty belfries added in the 
fifteenth century, which have also forced out the whole 
west front. It has been recently found necessary to 
take down and rebuild a considerable portion of the 
south-west or St. Hugh's Tower, with its newel stair- 
case, and to tie the fa9ade to the fabric behind with iron 
bars, which it is hoped will have arrested all further 
mischief. On the north side of the central porch is a 
tablet for the officers and men of the 10th (or North 
Lincolnshire) Eegiment who fell in the campaign of 
1845-6 on the Sutlej, and in that of 1848-9 in the 

jjottfces. 339 

Punjab ; below which another tablet commemorates 
those of the same regiment who lost their lives in the 
Indian Mutiny, 1857-58 ; and to the south, erected in 
1775, is a tablet for Bishop WILLIAM SMITH (1496 
1514), the founder of Brasenose College, Oxford, who 
was buried at the entrance of the nave, and whose brass, 
as the present inscription records, was destroyed by 
the " Cromwellii flagitiosus grex." This vestibule is 
divided from the nave by a light Gothic arch, erected 
by Essex towards the latter part of the last century ; on 
either side, north and south, may be seen one of the 
Norman clerestory windows of the earlier church, with 
Grostete's lattice-work filling the wall above. 

On either side of the north and south porches are 
chapels, forming the wings of the west front, and pro- 
jecting beyond the aisles. That to the north is ap- 
proached through a dark narrow passage, above which 
is a chamber inaccessible except by a ladder, which 
has been regarded as a prison, but was more probably 
a strong-room for the treasures of the church in times 
of war or civil troubles. In the north-west angle of 
the chapel beyond it (lighted by a circular window 
seen in the west front) is a recess, resembling one of 
those in the Norman front, of which this wall formed 
the north return. Both the chapels have an entrance 
doorway to the west, which, after having been built 
up almost from their erection, have not long since 
been opened. The chapel beyond the south tower is 
known as St. Hugh's. The walls (which retain some 
original thirteenth - century border - painting) are in- 

z 2 

340 fincoln Catfetbral. 

scribed with the " names of the Company of Ringers 
of our blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln ;" the earliest 
dating from 1614. Both chapels have wall-arcades, 
and both have Early English groined vaults. 

VL Leaving for the present the ascent of the western 
towers, which is made from these chapels (see xxrx.), 
we enter the nave. [Plate III.] The first impression 
here, on a visitor fresh from Ely or Peterborough, is 
perhaps slightly disappointing. Lincoln wants the 
colossal strength of those great naves ; and the wide 
spacing of the piers, with their apparent want of 
solidity, allowing the eye to embrace almost the whole 
area at once, lessens the overpowering effect of the nave, 
though very far from rendering it, as Mr. Fergusson 
has styled it, " almost a failure." It is much to be 
regretted that the Purbeck marble shafts being covered 
with yellow wash, the interior has lost one of its dis- 
tinctive features. The coldness of the vaulted roof, 
which is white, without colour or gilding on the bosses, 
and the position of the organ, which intercepts the 
view eastward, otherwise a very fine one, also assist in 
lessening the general effect. The wonderful improve- 
ment exhibited in the north transept, where the marble 
has been made good, and the colouring and gilding of 
the roof restored, and in the Angel choir, where the 
Purbeck marble shafts have been refreshed, increases 
the desire for the extension of the same measures to the 
rest of the edifice. 

A remarkable irregularity of plan is seen at the west 
end of the nave, and should here be noticed, " The 





mi of lafo. 341 

axis of the choir is continued in a straight line nearly 
to the end of the nave, and then breaks off suddenly to 
the north, and falls into the axis of the Norman west 
front." Mr. Penrose, who has pointed out this peculi- 
arity, suggests as an explanation, that the architect who 
built the choir intended to have given the axis of the 
nave an obliquity with respect to that of the choir, 
such as is found in many English and foreign cathedrals, 
(Peterborough and Norwich for example), " otherwise 
there was no occasion for him to have built that part of 
the church out of paTallel with the axis of the Norman 
work." The builders of the nave, however, no doubt 
intending to clear away all the Norman work, and to 
build an entirely new west front, carried out the axis of 
the new work in a continuous straight line. " Eeckoning 
from the central tower, five of the seven architectural 
bays of the nave are about 26 by 6 ft. in extent from 
east to west ; the sixth and seventh are 21 by 3 ft. 
We may suppose that at the time the building arrived 
at the sixth arch, economical reasons suggested the 
incorporation of the Norman work in the clumsy way 
in which we see it ; and the contraction of the span of 
the last two arches, and a sudden lowering of the vault 
by about 2 ft. (over the sixth arch from the east), are 
the signs of the sacrifice of architectural propriety 
at which this saving was effected. Had seven bays 
been carried out, of the same breadth as the first five, 
and with a deep porch, perhaps similar to that of 
Peterborough externally, the whole of the consecrated 
area [that of the Norman church] might have been 

342 f hrarlrt 

covered by a uniform structure of simple proportions. 
We, indeed, may be thankful for the archaeological 
interest which this circumstance has preserved to us 
in the remains of Bishop Eemigius's west front, and 
admire in the exterior the skill and beauty with which 
the Early English front is composed around the Nor- 
man nucleus ; it nevertheless cannot be denied that the 
interior suffers greatly from this irregularity, which, it 
may be safely affirmed, formed no part of the original 
intention of the architect 8 ." 

The details of the nave and its aisles, however, are 
of the utmost beauty, as would be at once evident if 
the wash were removed with which they are at present 
covered. The entire nave is generally assigned to 
the episcopate of Bishop HUGH OF WELLS (1209 
1235), and is throughout, of course, Early English. 
It consists of seven bays, from the west towers to the 
transepts ; the slender piers are set at unusual dis- 
tances, and give an impression of greater space than 
that which is afforded by the actual width of the nave, 
(42 ft.) which, however, exceeds that of the naves of 
Ely (30 ft.) or Peterborough (35 ft.). The details of 
the piers vary: some exhibit eight ringed Purbeck 
marble detached shafts, set round a central core of 
Lincoln stone, while others are solid clusters. Of the 
former plan there are three on the north side and four 
on the south. The piers on the opposite sides of the 

g F. C. Penrose, An Inquiry into the system of Proportions 
which prevail in the Nave of Lincoln Cathedral. (Lincoln Vol. 
of the Archaeological Institute.) 

* mtb Visits. 343 

nave only partially correspond. The bases on the north 
are somewhat higher from the pavement than on the 
south. The capitals on the south side also differ 
from those north, and are perhaps somewhat earlier. 
The leafage of all deserves careful examination. Over 
all the arches are hood-mouldings, springing from 
small heads. 

The triforium is arranged in groups of three arches, 
circumscribed by a larger one (two groups in each 
bay), with foiled openings in the tympana, and a trefoil 
in the spandril between the two circumscribing arches. 
The two westernmost bays being narrower, there are 
only two instead of three sub-arches under each 
circumscribing arch. The clerestory in the upper 
mouldings of which the dog-tooth ornament appears 
is in groups of three arches. The capitals of the trifo- 
rium and clerestory are the same on both sides of the 
nave. Slender triple vaulting-shafts rise from corbels 
of foliage at the spring of the lower arches ; and the 
vault itself spreads in groups of seven ribs, with bosses 
of foliage at the intersections with the central rib. 
The names of different persons who were concerned in 
the building or decoration of this part of the church 
were formerly to be seen, painted on the vaulting^ 
These have all been concealed by the whitewash, 
with the exception of the name of " Wilhelmus Paris," 
which is still visible in the centre of the nave, not 
far from the great tower h . 

h The other names were Helias Pictor, Walterus Brand, 
Wilhelmus Baldwin, Kicardus de Ponte, and Eobertus Saris. 

344 fhwoiit 

VII. The aisles of the nave vary in detail, although 
there is probably little difference in their dates. The 
quinquipartite vaulting of both springs from wall- 
shafts set between the windows, alternately single 
and in groups of five, with vertical bands of dog- 
tooth running up between the shafts. The wall of 
the north aisle is lined by a continuous arcade of tre- 
f oiled arches, set on shafts, detached from the wall, 
in groups of three. There are four arches in each 
bay, and every fifth arch is intersected by the 
vaulting-shaft, detached, and raised on a base pro- 
jecting beyond the bench of the arcade. In each 
bay are two lancet-lights, and the detached vault- 
ing-shaft between them reaches to the stringcourse 
above the arcade. If the whole of these shafts 
were properly cleaned, the effect would be ex- 
quisitely light and graceful. There are probably 
few more interesting examples of an Early English 

In the south aisle the wall-arcade is not continuous. 
There are five arches in each bay ; and the vaulting- 
shafts, none of which are detached, are set against 
the wall between them. The abacus of the capitals 
is continued along the wall as a horizontal string- 
course. The dog-tooth occurs in the mouldings of 
the arcade (which is not the case in the north aisle) ; 
there are bosses of foliage at the spring of the 
arches ; and the corbels at the bases of the shafts 
between the windows and the capitals of the 
shafts are all carved with foliage, while many of 

SSinbofos of % Aisles. 345 

those opposite are quite plain. It is scarcely pos- 
sible to say which aisle is the earlier, although the 
north partakes more of the character of St. Hugh's 
work in the choir-aisles. Beneath the second arch 
on the south stands a vast square Norman font, of 
black basalt, which, after having been long placed in 
the Morning Chapel, has been brought back to its 
former position and used for its original purpose. 
The bowl is raised on a central pillar, with four 
shafts at the angles. Winged lions and monsters are 
sculptured on the sides, and a broad leaf-ornament in 
the four upper corners. This font should be com- 
pared with those at Winchester and St. Michael's, 

All the windows in the north aisle, and in the 
south, are filled with memorial stained glass. Those 
in the north are entirely by Messrs. WARD and 
HUGHES. Those to the south are by different glass- 
stainers, and, with the exception of the first four to 
the west, which are by the Revs. A. and F. SUTTON, 
cannot be considered good. The high tombs and 
brasses in this part of the church were destroyed by 
the " Cromwellii flagitiosus grex " during the Civil 
War. Close within the great western door were 
those of Bishop GYNWELL (died 1363), Bishop AT- 
WATER (died 1521), Bishop ALNWICK (died 1450), and 
Bishop SMITH (died 1514). The society of Brasenose 
College placed a tablet to the memory of their founder 
(Bishop Smith) on the wall of the west porch in 
1775. Beneath the last arch on the north side of 


the nave was placed in 1872 a curiously carved 
coffin-lid, identified by the Rev. G. Ayliffe Poole with 
that of Remigius, removed to the cloisters with the 
other monumental slabs, in the repaving of the nave 
in 1782. It is carved with a kind of genealogical 
tree of Christ, forming three vesicas, containing 
David, the Virgin Mary and Our Lord, with Adam 
and Eve standing at the foot, and Moses and Elias 
and other subsidiary figures at the sides. It bears an 
inscription by Bishop Wordsworth. 

VIII. Opening into the aisles of the nave, at its 
western extremity, are two Early English chapels of 
somewhat later character than the nave itself. The 
walls of each are lined with arcades of pointed 
arches. They are divided from the aisles by low 
walls, ornamented with an arcade of trefoil-headed 
arches rising from triple shafts, slightly varied on 
the two sides. That to the north is pierced with 
two Decorated quatrefoiled circles, commanding a 
view of the altar. The southern wall has two low- 
arched openings, protected by shutters. The chapel 
to the south is said to have been dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity, and now serves as the Consistory 
court. The vaulting is sexpartite, without a central 
column. On the south wall there is a double 
piscina, the circular basins of which have stone 
lids. The north, or morning chapel (used for early 
Morning Prayer), has four bays of quadripartite 
vaulting, supported by a central group of eight 
keel-shaped Purbeck marble shafts, bound with 

Central Cote. 347 

pointed fillets and deserving special attention for 
their grace and beauty, which have recently been 
polished. In the east wall is a double piscina, the 
shafts of which have square abaci, the only example 
in this cathedral. The altar-pace is elevated two 
steps. A corbel -head in either wall marks the 
position of a rood-beam. 

IX. The central, or rood-tower, now, from a cor- 
ruption of the latter word known as the Broad tower, 
is partly open as a lantern, and is supported by 
four enormously massive piers, composed of twenty- 
four alternate shafts of Lincoln and Purbeck stone, 
with rich capitals of Early English leafage. Four 
lofty arches, with the dog-tooth ornament in their 
mouldings, rise above these piers ; their spandrils are 
hatched with trellis-work. Above is an arcade of six 
arches on either side, arranged in groups of three ; 
vaulting-shafts, springing from enriched corbels, di- 
vide each group. A second arcade, of eight arches 
on either side, arranged in groups of four, and having 
two arches on either side pierced for windows, rises 
above. The vaulting of the roof is of later date 
than the rest of the work, having been erected by 
Treasurer Welbourn, circa 1375. The first story 
(above the roof) is attributed to Bishop Grostete, 
(1235 1253). The piers may perhaps belong to the 
work either of St. Hugh or of Bishop Hugh of Wells, 
although they must have been greatly strengthened 
and enlarged by Grostete. The upper part of the 
tower was added by Bishop DALDEBBY (1300 1320), 


who, about tlie year 1306, issued an indulgence of 
forty days to all who assisted in its completion. The 
first Early English tower fell about the year 1240 
"propter artificii insolentiam * " after which the 
rebuilding was commenced by Bishop Grostete. 
According to Matthew Paris, the fall occurred 
during a sermon preached by one of the canons 
in denunciation of this famous bishop, who was 
at variance with his Chapter. " If we should hold 
our peace," exclaimed the canon, "the very stones 
would cry out" "etsi nos taceamus, lapides re- 
clamabunt ; " at which words the stonework of the 
tower fell. 

The view westward from beneath the central tower 
is a very striking one, owing to the depth of the 
western porch, in which the great window is set. 
This window is filled with modern glass, the work 
and gift, like so much of that which now decorates 
the cathedral, of the Eevs. A. and F. SUTTON. Some 
ancient glass, of a silvery hue, remains at the apex 
of the window. The spandrils of the arch, as well as 
the splays of the window itself, are covered with a 
trellised ornament. Above is the rose-window, with 
a small arcade at its sides. The very graceful form 
of this opening is well seen from this point; and 
its effect is much aided by the stained glass a figure 
of Bishop Kemigius placed in it by Mr. Tennyson 

1 Bened. Abbas, who says the tower fell in 1237. 1240 is the 
date given by Matthew Paris. 

6rcat fens*f. 349 

X. The great transept, opening north and south 
from the central tower, was commenced by St. Hugh, 
who, however, only laid the foundations, and com- 
pleted the first bay on either side. The details of 
these portions resemble those of the choir; and a 
comparison with the nave will at once shew the 
difference. Both transepts have eastern aisles; and 
the arrangement of the piers, triforium, and clere- 
story is much the same as that of the choir. The 
difference of the treatment of the bay next the tower 
on either side will be noticed. The design corre- 
sponds to that of the first bays of the choir, which, 
like these, were re-constructed after the fall of the 
tower in 1237. The west side of both transepts has 
five lancets, corresponding to those of the aisles of the 
nave, and a pointed wall-arcade below. The triforium 
space is occupied by a continuous arcade pierced for 
windows. Each bay of the clerestory has two lancets. 
The vaulting is sexpartite. The vaulting-shafts run 
up alternately from the ground and from the string- 
course below the triforium. The north transept has 
been well and carefully restored by Mr. Pearson. 
The yellow wash has been removed, the marble shafts 
restored, the bosses of the vaults gilt, and its deco- 
rative colour reproduced with excellent effect. 

The eastern portion of the aisle in both transepts 
is raised on two steps and divided into three bays 
or chapels by projecting stone screens of the same 
date as the aisle itself. The sides and ends of the 
screens are ornamented with arcades. In the north 

350 fincoln flatfctbral. 

transept tkey retain their original gabled capping, with 
a finial at the end, and leafage in the front gables. 

In the south transept the most southerly of these 
chapels was dedicated to St. Giles (or St. Thomas), 
and has a large late Decorated bracket against the 
south wall. The Perpendicular tomb below is that of 
Sir George Taylboys. In it is the grave of Dean Ward 
(died 1860), with an Aberdeen granite cross on its 
coffin-slab. The two lancets of the chapel above are 
filled with feeble coloured glass to his memory. The 
central chapel was St. Andrew's (or St. John the 
Evangelist's), and shews against its east wall an arcade 
of pointed arches, on double shafts, standing one behind 
the other. In the third chapel, originally dedicated 
to St. Anne, a chantry of four chaplains was founded 
by Henry Duke of Lancaster, who caused the chapel 
to be re-dedicated in honour of St. Edward the 
Martyr. At the back is St. Hugh's double wall- 
arcade, resembling those in the choir-aisles ; and on 
a screen in front is a shield bearing the arms of 
England and France quarterly. Under the arch 
of the screen, which is of stone, the others being of 
wood, is the inscription, "Oremus pro benefactori- 
bus istius ecclesise," with the figures of the four 
chantry priests, now headless. 

In the south-west angle of this transept are the 
doors of the Galilee porch (see xxx.). Against the 
west wall of the transept are the basement and sup- 
ports of the silver shrine of ST. JOHN OF DALDEEBT, 
Bishop of Lincoln (13001320 : see Part II.). It 




Jloorfcrag of (ftljoir-aisl*. . $frrilj femttpt. 351 

was no doubt with the object of doing especial 
honour to this shrine that the south end of this 
transept was altered, and the beautiful rose-window 
inserted (see post). " At the very same time," 
observes Mr. Poole, " the authorities of Chichester 
were paying the like homage to the memory of 
St. Kichard, their local saint j ." 

The doorways [Plate IV.] opening from this tran- 
sept into the choir-aisles should be especially noticed. 
They belong to the last period of Early English, 
ranging between that style in its purity and the first 
Decorated, or " Geometrical." The doorways recede 
in four orders, with shafts of Purbeck at the angles. 
The spaces between the shafts are filled with the 
dog-tooth and rose ornaments ; the capitals are en- 
riched with leafage, among which are sculptured 
dragons, owls (two on the south door are especially 
quaint), and small human figures : above is a very 
rich open band of leafage. The blank trefoils in 
the spandrils, and the cresting, are additions of the 
last century. 

In the north transept the southernmost chapel 
was dedicated to St. Thomas the Apostle, the next 
to St. Denis, and the third to St. Nicholas (or 
St. Michael). The double wall-arcade in the first 
chapel extends partly into the central one, and is 
there exchanged for a single arcade of trefoiled 
arches. The visitor should notice the stone with 
nine holes for playing at a game (Peg Merrill), of 

j Transactions of Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society. 

352 ^hrtolw Ca%bral. 

which many examples are to be seen in the cloisters 
of Westminster Abbey and Canterbury ; the monu- 
mental trefoiled stone of Simon of Barton, Arch- 
deacon of Stow, 1280 ; and that of Dean William of 
Lessington, 1272. The doorways into both the choir- 
aisles are of the same date and character, but differ 
in some of their ornamentation. 

The most remarkable portions of both transepts, 
however, are the windows in their south and north 
terminations. The end of the north transept has a 
door opening towards the Deanery. This is protected 
on the outside by a deeply recessed porch under 
three gables, which deserves attention from the 
singularity of its design. The central column and 
horizontal lintels of the double archway are very 
unusual. On either side of the door is a lancet 
window, filled with very admirable old glass, which 
deserves notice. That to the west contains angels 
with musical instruments. An arcade of seven 
pointed arches, five pierced for windows containing 
old silvery glass, covers the wall above ; and above, 
again, is a large " rose " or " wheel " window, 
[Plate V.], retaining its original stained glass, 
" One of the most splendid, and in its present state 
one of the most perfect works of the thirteenth cen- 
tury." C. Winston. The window itself, which is 
probably part of St. Hugh's design, and may date 
soon after 1200, is filled with plate tracery, and on 
the exterior is delicately ornamented. The lightness 
and grace of the small open flowers and grotesque 




in ^orilj transept. 35tt 

heads between and at the sides of the different circles, 
are admirable. The stone-work on the interior is 
"in a condition of great rudeness, owing to the 
repairs which have been made from time to time " 
for the preservation of the glazing. The subject of 
the glass is, " The Church on earth and the Church 
in heaven." " The central part of the window " (the 
central quatrefoil, and the four large spaces round it) 
"is occupied with a representation of the blessed 
in heaven, with Christ sitting in the midst." Each 
of the four trefoils in the angles between the large 
spaces contains the figure of an angel, tossing a thu- 
rible. The eight small circles at their sides contain 
four-leaved ornaments. " The sixteen circles which 
form the outer part of the window set forth the 
mysterious scheme of man's redemption, and the effi- 
cacy of the Church. In the topmost circle is repre- 
sented our Saviour seated on a rainbow, and display- 
ing the Five Wounds. The two next circles on each 
side the window contain angels supporting the cross, 
and other instruments of the Passion. In the next 
circle on each side are holy persons in the act of 
being conducted to heaven by St. Peter and other 
saints. The two next circles on each side are, or 
have been, occupied with a representation of the 
general resurrection; and each of the lowest five 
circles is filled either with the figure of an arch- 
bishop, or of a bishop in Eucharistic vestments k ." 

k C. Winston, Painted Glass in Lincoln Cathedral. (Lincoln 
Vol. of the Archseol. Institute.) 

VOL. II. PT. I. 2 A 

354 jphuofo <EH%brsI. 

" The extraordinary intensity and vividness of the 
colours, tho strength and boldness of the outline, the 
tallness of the figures, their vigorous and spirited atti- 
tudes, and classical air of their heads, also the con- 
ventional character of the foliaged ornaments, as dis- 
played in the borders and white patterns, and which 
resemble the ornaments of the contemporary sculp- 
tures," are all characteristics of the Early English 
style of glass-painting, and are all traceable in this 
window, which "also exhibits the general principles 
of composition common to any Early English window 
that contains a number of pictures. Each picture, the 
design of which is always very simple, is placed in a 
panel having a stiff-coloured ground, and well-defined 
border. The panels are also embedded in a stiff- 
coloured ground. Very little white glass is used, so 
that the window consists of a mass of rich and varie- 
gated colouring, of which the predominant tints are 
those of the grounds. The design, owing to the 
smallness of its parts, is confused when seen from the 
floor of the transept." C. Winston. The best position 
for examining it is from the gallery of the triforium 
or clerestory. 

The end of the south transept has three wide Early 
English arches below; above which are four lancet 
windows, filled with ancient stained glass brought 
from other parts of the cathedral. In the lowest 
panel of the second window from the west is depicted 
Herodias' daughter dancing before Herod, whose ban- 
quet is represented in the panel above. The lady is 




ftrsnstpi. 355 

turning a somersault and vibrating her red-stockinged 
legs in the air. Above is the Last Supper, St. John 
reclining on our Lord's bosom. Above, again, is our 
Lord's Apprehension and the Kiss of Judas. In the 
uppermost panel is our Lord bearing a redeemed 
soul in the fold of His robe. In the next window, 
our Lord and St. Peter walking on the water, and 
the ship of St. Nicholas, may be identified; above 
is a rose-window of extreme richness [Plate VI.], 
the date of which is about 1330, and which is quite 
as remarkable as an example of the pure Deco- 
rated period as the window in the opposite transept 
is of the Early English. Pugin has compared the 
tracery to the fibres of a leaf. The window is set 
back within a foiled arch, the jambs of which are 
filled with a hollow ornament of very unusual cha- 
racter, and of somewhat doubtful effect. The stained 
glass in the window consists of fragments collected 
from different parts of the cathedral, and for the most 
part Early English. The great richness of the 
colouring is quite as noticeable here as in the window 

According to the symbolism of the different parts 
of the church, in the " Metrical Life of St. Hugh," 
(written between the years 1220 1295), these win- 
dows typified the Bishop and the Dean " Ecclesise 
duo sunt oculi 1 ;" the Bishop looked toward the south, 
the quarter of the Holy Spirit, as though inviting His 
influence ; the Dean toward the north, the region of 
1 See the entire passage in Part III. 

2 A 2 

356 Lincoln Ca%braL 

Lucifer (Is. xiv. 13), in order to watch against his 

XI. The organ-screen through which we enter the 
choir, is a very beautiful work of the early Decorated 
period, and deserves careful attention. It comprises 
four recessed tabernacles on either side of the central 
doorway, with very rich, ogee canopied arches, sepa- 
rated by detached buttressed piers. The tabernacles 
are groined continuously behind. Each division is 
subdivided by a shelf, enriched with leafage below. 
The tabernacle-work in the upper part, the grotes- 
ques at the angles of the arches and on the brackets 
on either side of the door, and the frieze of leafage 
over all, are alike exquisite in design and execution, 
belonging to the very best period of Gothic art. The 
diaper, once richly coloured, is partly modern. 

The organ, which is placed upon the screen, is by 
Allen (1826). 

XII. The choir, from the organ-screen to the altar, 
now consists of seven bays. Of these, the first five 
are St. HUGH'S work (1186 1200), and were pro- 
bably the earliest part of his cathedral. It is here 
that we may conceive him labouring with his own 
hands, according to the description in the " Metrical 
Life " : 

"Non solum concedit opes, operamque suorum, 
Sed proprii sudoris opein ; lapidesque frequenter 
Excises fert in calatho, calcemque tenacem m ." 

The eastern transept (also St. Hugh's work) opens 
m Life, p. 32. (See Part III.) 

C^oir. 357 

on either side of the fifth bay. The two easternmost 
bays of the choir belong to the later work (1255 
1282) ; and together with the three bays at the back 
of the altar-screen, form the presbytery, generally 
known as the " Angel-choir" from the sculptures in 
the spandrils of the arches. The enlargement of the 
church was rendered necessary by the thronging of 
pilgrims to the shrine of St. Hugh, who had been 
canonised in 1220, and whose remains were solemnly 
translated into the new building, Oct. 6, 1280, at the 
cost of Bishop Thomas Bek, who was consecrated to 
the see of St. David's on the same day (see Part II. 

The piers of the first four bays of the choir (as far 
as the opening of the transept) originally consisted of 
cylindrical shafts of Purbeck marble surrounding a pier 
of Lincoln stone. After the fall of the central tower, 
several of these piers were more or less cased, for 
the sake of strength, to the great detriment of their 
beauty. The classical character of the capitals 
showing Corinthian forms with Early English foliage, 
[Plate IX.] should be especially noticed, as one of the 
indications of a style earlier than that of the nave. 
The triforium is in double groups of two arches, cir- 
cumscribed by a larger one. The tympana are pierced 
with foiled ornaments of various forms, which on the 
south side are singularly distorted, and the capitals of 
the shafts greatly resemble those of the piers below. 
The clerestory is disposed in triplets, with small 
trefoiled openings carried on shafts, in the thickness 

358 Jiwcote (Katytfcrsl. 

of the wall between them and the groining of the 
roof. The greater part of these are filled with modern 
stained glass by the Eevs. A. and F. BUTTON, which, 
being too heavy in its hues, darkens the choir to an 
undesirable extent. Vaulting-shafts spring from late 
corbels between the piers. Before the introduction of 
the stalls they descended to the ground. The lower 
part and the bases may still be seen beneath the 
floor of the stalls, where also a portion of the curved 
wall of the apse of Kemigius' cathedral remains in situ. 
The vault itself has groups of four ribs, passing to a 
central rib, with bosses of foliage. By a singular 
eccentricity the vaulting-cells are not, as is usually 
the case, opposite to each other, nor do the circum- 
scribing ribs meet on the ridge-line. The effect is 
not pleasing. 

The first bay within the choir has some peculiarities 
which deserve notice. Between the shafts of the 
triforium is a four-leaved ornament, so raised and 
exaggerated as to suggest the Norman zigzag. The 
shafts themselves are clumsy clusters of cylinders, 
forming a solid mass without capitals, too large for 
the arch they support. The vaulting is sexpartite, 
the clerestory containing two lancets, the vaulting-rib 
being carried between them. The main arches are 
ornamented with the dog-tooth. The arches have a 
hood-moulding, which ends abruptly on each side to 
the east; and on the south side, together with the 
mouldings of the arch, is singularly ringed. These 
two bays evidently underwent a reconstruction after 

<%ir. Stalls. 359 

the fall of the tower, by which they must have been 
seriously damaged. 

The comparison afforded between this portion of 
the choir and the later Early English work of the nave 
and the early Decorated of the Angel-choir, is very 
interesting and instructive. The leafage especially 
is much more antique in its forms and arrangements 
than that which appears in the nave. 

The stalls are arranged between the organ-screen 
and the opening of the eastern transept. They are of 
the late Decorated period, the work of Treasurer Wei- 
bourn (13591380), and are "executed in the most 
perfect manner, not only as regards variety and beauty 
of ornamental design, but in accuracy of workmanship, 
which is frequently deficient in ancient examples of 
woodwork." A. W. Pugin. The light and graceful 
canopies are carried quite round the choir. The 
carving of the misereres, which display the usual 
foliage, animals, and figures, is especially admirable. 
The two monkeys churning and afterwards hanging a 
third, who had stolen their butter, on the poppy-head 
of the Precentor's stall, deserve notice. The bishop's 
throne is modern (1778). The richly carved pulpit 
was erected from the designs of Sir G. G. SCOTT, in 
1866, as a testimonial to the exertions of the present 
Bishop of Nottingham (then Prebendary Trollope) in 
the cause of Ecclesiastical architecture. It is orna- 
mented with statuettes of the Evangelists, St. John 
Baptist, and St. Paul ; and with reliefs of the preaching 
of Moses, the Baptist, St. James, and St. Paul. An 

360 fxntoln <Ta%braI. 

ancient stone in the pavement, inscribed " Cantate 
Hie," marks the position of the litany desk. In the 
centre of the choir is a brass eagle, with the date 1667. 

XIII. The piers of the arches opening to the 
eastern transept belong to St. Hugh's work. They 
were strengthened and altered, however, when the 
Decorated work was added eastward, and the capitals 
of the shafts were at the same time entirely changed 
on the north side of the choir ; on the south side 
those of the vaulting-shafts on the south-west angle 
remain of the Early English design. The difference 
between St. Hugh's work and the Decorated, and the 
manner in which the two are here made to combine 
are worthy of careful attention. 

Two oaken beams pass across each transept opening 
at the spring of the lower arches, and at the level of 
the triforium. The piers had given way to a con- 
siderable extent before they were thus strengthened, 
owing, it has been suggested, to insecurity in the 
foundations : since the fosse of the Eoman city crossed 
the cathedral at this place, and its continuations north 
and south are still visible. The beams are now con- 
cealed by a wretched ornamentation of pasteboard 
Gothic, constructed in the latter part of the last 
century. The iron fencing and gates which separate 
the choir from the transept are ancient, and very 
good, with the exception of their cresting, which is 
modern and not too good. 

XIV. The arrangement of the Decorated work 
of the Angel-choir [Plate VII.] closely resembles that of 




jjrtsbjfcrj, 0r g^igel -choir. 361 

St. Hugh's work, but differs, of course, in details and 
enrichment. The Angel-choir, which must have been 
completed in the year 1280, and commenced about 
1255, consists altogether of five bays, two of which 
extend westward of the altar-screen. The piers have 
banded shafts, with rich capitals. A line of the dog- 
tooth ornament surrounds the arches. In the spandrils 
are blank trefoils. The triforium has two arches in 
each bay, each arch subdivided into two, with quatre- 
foils in the tympana. Clusters of shafts with very rich 
capitals, and leafed ornaments between the shafts, 
divide and support the arches, the mouldings above 
which are much enriched. The Purbeck marble shafts 
throughout the Angel-choir have been cleansed from 
yellow wash and renovated, to the great improvement 
of the general effect. In the spandrils are the figures 
of angels, which give the choir its popular name. The 
large clerestory windows above are of four lights, 
with quatrefoils in the headings, and a double plane 
of tracery. The vaulting-shafts spring from corbels 
between the arches enriched with foliage and small 
flowers. Below the corbels, and at the termination of 
the hood-mouldings of the lower arches, are small 
heads of kings, ladies, monks, and peasants, which 
deserve notice. The grotesque below the second cor- 
bel on the north side (counting from the east it is in 
the retro-choir) represents an elf with large ears, and 
may perhaps be regarded as illustrating the mediaeval 
folk-lore. The groining of the roof, which springs in 
groups of five ribs, has bosses of excellent foliage. 

362 |Tht0ltt 

The vaulting has been denuded of its original plaster 
covering, which has imparted a rude unfinished air to 
an otherwise exquisite design. Throughout this work, 
however, the foliage is still somewhat conventional, 
and wants much of the naturalism of that decorating 
the Easter sepulchre ( xv.), with which it should be 
compared : it is in fact intermediate between that and 
the Early English foliage of St. Hugh's work and of 
the nave. A comparison of the four periods will shew 
the gradual but steady progress of Gothic art. The 
Early English portion of the choir of Ely (see that 
Cathedral), dating between 1229 and 1254, and the 
superb Decorated portion of the same choir, com- 
menced in 1338, may also be advantageously compared 
with the choir of Lincoln. 

The sculptured figures of angels which fill the 
spandrils of the triforium arches, rank among the 
very best examples of Early English art, and will 
reward a very careful study. With few exceptions, 
the style of design and execution might be applied 
to works of the present day ; " and ample compensa- 
tion for all defects will be found in the vigour, fresh- 
ness, and originality of idea which abound in them. 
They betray no trace whatever of the stiff Byzantine 
style so frequent in the English sculpture of the pre- 
ceding century, and which was still adhered to in the 
works of the contemporary Italians Cimabue, Gaddi, 
Duccio, and others; no formal constraint or super- 
stitious enthusisiasm, nor any undue employment of 
allegory (with which they are reproached) offend us in 

in % Spanbrils. 3G3 

the sculptures of Lincoln ; all the freedom and natu- 
ralness attributed subsequently to Giotto, who was but 
an infant when these works were executed, are here 
anticipated, and strike us in every instance. Complete 
emancipation from any known prototype or prevailing 
manner is apparent ; the artist dealt with his subject 
and material with all the originality and freedom of a 
master 11 ." All are carved in the same stone (the 
Lincoln oolite) employed- in the architecture of the 
cathedral. They were wrought in the sculptor's 
workshop, and subsequently placed in their positions 
a fact which is plainly shewn in the wings of the 
angel with a hawk on his wrist, on the south side of 
the choir ; across these wings the joints of the stone 
were not adjusted in the building exactly as they had 
been wrought in the workshop. 

In Mr. Cockerell' s estimate of the value and great 
beauty of these sculptures all will agree ; but there 
seems by no means sufficient ground for the elaborate 
explanation which he has given of the series. The 
arrangement of the triforium admits of three spaces 
between the arches, a smaller one at either end, and 
a third, of double size, in the centre. The five bays of 
the choir thus contain fifteen spaces on either side ; the 
sculptures in which are thus explained by Mr. Cockerell : 

First bay on the south side, beginning at the south-east 

1. Angel of the Day-spring. 

" C. K. Cockerell, Ancient Sculpture in Lincoln Cathedral. 
(Lincoln Vol. of the Archseol. Institute.) 

364 y main Catferimd. 

2. Angel of the Patriarch David. 

3. Angel with scroll, alluding to the prophecies in the 

Second bay. 

4. Angel with trumpet, sounding the fame of David. 

5. Angel of Solomon. 

6. Angel with scroll : " possibly alluding to the prophecy 
of Ahijah." (1 Kings xi. 31.) 

Third "bay. 

7. Angel with double trumpet : (the prophecy verified, and 
the kingdom divided). 

8. Angel with pipe and tabret : representing the fallen 
state of Israel. " The pipe and tabret are in their feasts/' 

9. Angel of Daniel, with sealed book. (Dan. xii. 9.) 

Fourth bay. 

10. Angel of Isaiah. An abortion under his feet. " The 
children are come to the birth." (Isaiah xxxvii. 3.) 

11. Angel of Ezekiel, with hawk. (Ezek. xvii. 3, 4.) 

12. Angel of Jeremiah, " penetrated with grief and 

Fifth bay. 

13. Angel of the twelve minor prophets. 

14. Angel holding a small figure (the human soul) towards 

15. The Virgin, with the Holy Child. An angel censes 
them. "A surpassing composition which may serve to 
celebrate a school." 

North side of choir, beginning at the north-west angle. 
First bay. 

16. Angel holding the crown of thorns. 

17. Angel of Expulsion : he holds the sword with his right 
hand, and drives forth Adam and Eve with the other. 

18. Angel holding the spear, and the sponge on a reed. 

gtngds in % Spnbrils. 365 

Second bay. 

19. The Saviour, crowned with thorns, displays the wound 
in His side, and holds His hand (one finger of which is open) 
towards Adam and Eve, in the first bay. On the other side 
an angel holds towards Him a soul, with hands raised in 

20. Angel of the Judgment, with balance. 

21. Angel swinging a thurible. 

Third bay. 

22. Angel with palm-branch : the reward of the righteous. 

23. Angel holding crowns : " the crown of glory which 
fadeth not away." 

24. Angel of the Kevelation, searching a scroll (the book 
of life). 

Fourth bay. 

25. Angel with stringed instruments, and 

26. Angel with violin, representing " the joys of Heaven, 
the reign of peace." 

27. Angel with palm and scroll : " the everlasting Gospel." 

Fifth bay. 

28. Angel with harp. 

29. Angel with the sun and moon. (The Church appears 
in the moon in the form of a female head, and thence a scroll 
depending, and containing the doctrines of which she is the 
sacred depository.) 

30. Angel with scroll. (Angel of the last chapter of 
the Revelation : " I am Alpha and Omega.") 

It is due to Mr. Cockerell, who has most carefully 
examined these sculptures, and who has published 
engravings from the whole series, that his explana- 


tions should here be given. They are drawn out 
and illustrated at considerable length in his paper 
on the subject : but the indications afforded by the 
figures themselves are, in fact, by far too slight to 
admit of more than a very general interpretation. 
It is not impossible that the angels in each bay 
refer to one of the orders of the celestial hierarchy, 
but even this is questionable. The small figures of 
angels in the south-east transept (see xxm.), which, 
although of earlier date, have a certain resemblance 
to these, deserve especial notice and comparison. 
The scrolls carried by the greater number of the 
choir angels once perhaps contained inscriptions, 
explaining the design of the entire work: all are 
now blank. 

Mr. Cockerell has pointed out that " two hands, of 
very different merit, are plainly exhibited in these 
works. Of these the best are (the numbers are 
identical with those used in the description given 
above) those which range between 4 and 18, including 
those two numbers. " The remainder, though often 
of excellent design, are of inferior execution." The 
purity and dignity of the heads are throughout 
admirable, and many of the sculptures are of signal 
merit as compositions. Such is No. 15, in which 
the figures of the Virgin and Infant Saviour are not 
unworthy of Giotto. No. 17 is grand in action and 
expression ; No. 23 is especially graceful. " The 
grand symmetry of the attitude, so entirely relieved 
from all dryness by variety in the lines of the 


*. 367 

drapery, and the quiet indications of expression, all 
display the great master." C. E. Cocker ell. Finally, 
No. 29 is dignified and impressive. 

XV. On the north side of the choir, and in the 
first bay beyond the eastern transept, is a very ela- 
borate tomb, divided into two portions; the eastern 
part having evidently served as the Easter sepulchre. 
[Plate VIII.] The whole erection is of the very 
best Decorated period; and the western portion was 
probably the tomb of its founder, whose name, how- 
ever, has not been recorded. The whole consists of 
six bays, divided by a wall in the middle. Pedi- 
mented canopies rise in front from small buttressing 
shafts, crowned with pinnacles. Each bay is vaulted, 
and the wall ends (in the centre, and at the sides) are 
covered with foliage of oak, vine, and fig, admirably 
rendered, and examples of the very best naturalism. 
Eemark the swine crunching the acorns beneath the 
oak, also the manner in which the leaf sprays are 
laid on the capitals of the shafts, and into the mould- 
ings of the blank arcades at the sides. From the 
ridge-roof at the back of the canopies, itself crested 
by a line of leafage, rise large finials of leaves, 
sharply cut. In front of the panels of the eastern 
portion are three soldiers, armed, and sleeping (the 
Roman guards of the sepulchre. They are found also 
on the Easter sepulchres at Heckington, Hawton and 
Pattrington-on-Humber). "They are admirably com- 
posed and executed ; the heads, however, have been 
sadly defaced. They will repay the artist in their 

368 f mcoln <a%bral, 

sentiment and expression, in their well-contrived 
groupings, and in the artistic arrangement of their 
accessories." C. W. Gockerell. The leafage at the 
angles is especially good ; and, owing to the hardness 
of the stone, the carving of the entire monument is 
for the most part as fresh as when first executed. 

The western part of this tomb is known as that of 
Bishop Eemigius, but it was only so appropriated 
after the Eestoration by Bishop Fuller, who placed 
an inscription in memory of Kemigius within it. 

In the opposite bay, on the south side of the choir, 
are the tombs of CATHERINE SWTNFOED (Duchess of 
Lancaster), last wife of John of Gaunt; and of her 
tombs were originally side by side, but on the repair- 
ing of the church by Bishop Fuller were placed end 
to end, to the great damage of the Duchess's tomb, 
which had a fine canopy, now replaced by a very 
ugly one of debased character. The face of the 
tomb has been inverted, and the brasses and coats of 
arms have entirely disappeared. At the east end is a 
beautiful diapered pattern of open flowers of earlier 

The altar-screen, which retains a considerable por- 
tion of original work, was repaired by Essex in the 
latter part of the last century. The same architect 
designed the central pedimented canopy, copied from 
the tomb of Bishop de Luda at Ely. The wall behind 
was formerly solid, but it was pierced by Mr. Buckler 
after the erection of the new east window, to obtain 

&|j0ir- aisle. 369 

a less interrupted view of the painted glass. The 
brass altar-rail and tall gas-standards (the latter de- 
signed by Mr. Pearson) deserve notice. The pave- 
ment of the eastern bay is richly inlaid with marbles 
and encaustic tiles. 

XVI. The north choir-aisle, which we enter from 
the great transept, is part of St. Hugh's work. The 
wall at the back of the stalls in the first three bays 
is of Grostete's time, built to strengthen the fabric 
after the fall of the tower. It is decorated with an 
arcade on triple shafts, and having the dog-tooth 
ornament, and bosses resembling twisted rope, at the 
springing of the arches. Observe a corbel-head of 
Purbeck marble once carrying an image, on the west 
face of the third pier. This had been built up when 
Grostete's walls were erected, and has only recently 
been revealed. The arcade in the last bay eastward 
belongs to a later period, and was perhaps the work 
of the constructors of the Angel-choir. 

The windows in this aisle are double lancets, with 
shafts at the angles, and a group of three in the 
centre between each two lancets. This group springs 
from a richly carved bracket, which curiously over- 
hangs the arcade below. The arcade itself is of 
double intersecting arches, the inner arches pointed, 
the outer trefoiled. The dog's-tooth occurs in the 
inner mouldings. In both arcades the capitals of 
the shafts are richly foliated: and in the spandrils 
are small projecting figures of angels and saints. 

The vaulting is quinquipartite, with pointed arches, 
VOL. n. PT. i. 2s 

370 linwrht <fa%bral 

and is carried from the piers of the choir, and from 
clustered shafts standing detached in front of the 
wall arcade. 

XVII. The north-east transept, opening from the 
choir-aisle is, like that, part of St. Hugh's work. 
It terminates, eastward, in two apsidal chapels. The 
eastern termination of St. Hugh's cathedral was also 
apsidal, and extended nearly as far as the present 
altar, where its foundations have been traced. The 
central apse was removed when the Decorated pres- 
bytery was erected. The transept consists of three 
bays. The northern end is cut off by a transverse 
arch and wall, along which the triforium and clere- 
story are carried. The bay thus separated is vaulted 

at the level of the tri- 
forium. The lancets 
behind this wall are 
filled with Peckitt's 
glass, removed from 
the east window. This 
singular arrangement 
is accounted for by 
the original intention 
of the builders having 
been to terminate the 
transept with towers, 
something as at Ex- 
eter and at Ottery. 
A door opens here into 
The triforium through- 

Corbel, North-East Transept. 

the vestibule of the cloisters. 


out is much the same as in the choir. The first two 
bays on the east side, with their unperforated tym- 
panum, when compared with the adjacent bays, afford 
an instructive lesson in the history of tracery. The 
clerestory is in single lancets, each set in a bay of the 
sexpartite vaulting. 

The first apsidal chapel was dedicated to St. Hugh, 
and has a pointed arcade below the two windows. 
The north apse, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, was 
the first resting-place of the body of St. Hugh, by the 
side of the altar of his patron saint, at which he 
had been in the habit of saying mass. Soon after 
his interment the chapel was enlarged to a long 
parallelogram, to accommodate the worshippers who 
flocked to his tomb before the body was translated 
to the Angel-choir. It was " restored " to its original 
shape in 1772. The foundations may be seen outside 
An enriched doorway, blocked in Grostete's time 
and ornamented with his trellis-work, opened from 
this chapel, north, into the " camera communis," or 
common-room of the canons. This chapel contains 
the monument of Dean Honywood, the remains of the 
canopy of the Burghersh monuments, and of Grostete's 
tomb, and a remarkably fine effigy of a priest fully 
vested, dug up in the vicinity of the cathedral. Both 
apses are enclosed by wooden screens of Perpendicular 

At the north-west angle of the transept is a very 
remarkable pier, with detached shafts, the fellow of 

2 B 2 

372 f intoln 

which occupies a corresponding position in the oppo- 
site transept, where it stands quite free, and is conse- 
quently better seen than this in the northern transept, 
which has been partly built into the transept wall. 
The pier itself is of Lincoln stone, and octagonal. 
From four of its sides spring leaves, ascending verti- 
cally. Detached shafts of Purbeck, four circular, 
and four (placed slightly within the others) hexagons, 
with hollow sides, surround the pier, which is banded 
lialf-way up, and terminates in capitals of rich leafage. 
The effect is very striking and peculiar. A similar 
arrangement occurs on the west front of Wells, a 
few years later than Lincoln. It seems confined to 
England. According to M. Viollet - le - Due, the 
crockets between the shafts, and the shafts with 
hexagonal concave sections, are nowhere found in 
France . It is to these shafts that the description 
in the " Metrical Life of St. Hugh " applies ; the 
Purbeck marble of which they are composed is there 
said to have been softened with vinegar before it 
was worked : 

"... nulloque domari 

Dignatur ferro, nisi quando domatur ab arte ; 
Quando superficies nimiis laxatur arenas 
Pulsibus, et solidum forti penetratur aceto. 
Inspectus lapis iste potest suspeudere mentes, 
Ambiguas utrum jaspis marmorve sit ; at si 
Jaspis, hebes jaspis ; si marmor, nobile marmor. 
Inde columnellse, quse sic cinxere columnas 
Ut videantur ibi quamdam celebrare cboream." 

See M. Viollet-le-Duc's letter in Part III. 

Jjiera at frsnflepi Angles. 373 

According to the symbolism, tlie Purbeck marble 
figures the spouse : 

" simplex, morosa, laborans. 
Recte nimirum design at simplicitatein 
Planities, splendor mores, nigredo laborem." 

(See the whole passage in Part III.) The banding 
and ornaments of the second pier (supporting the 
vaulting) of the transept should also be noticed. 

In the west wall a door opens to an ancient vestry, 

374 fintoln <a%bral. 

known as the Dean's Chapel. It was originally open 
like the corresponding vestry on the south side, but 
was blocked off and divided into two stories very soon 
after its erection. At the same time small windows 
to light the lower apartment were opened in the 
wall-arcade on the west side. The shutters of these 
windows should be noticed. They are work of the 
thirteenth century. The upper story is said to have 
served as the "pharmacy" of the cathedral, the 
aumbries in the walls having been constructed to con- 
tain the drugs. The floor dividing the two has been 
long since removed. On the same part of the transept 
wall are paintings of four bishops, Bloet, Alexander, 
Chesney, and De Blois, interred in this part of the 
church. The paintings, which are so much decayed 
as to be scarcely decipherable, were the work of a 
Venetian, named Damini, in 1723 P . In the north 
wall a door opens to the cloisters ( xxv.) 

XVIII. The choir-aisle, east of the transept, is 
Decorated (12701282), like this portion of the 
choir itself, and the great difference between it 
and St. Hugh's work is at once apparent. The win- 
dows are filled with pure geometrical tracery, of one 

P In this transept formerly stood what a survey of 1641 calls 
the " watching-ch amber," " a chamber of timber where the 
searchers of the church used to lie; under which, every night, 
they had an allowance of bread and beer. At the shutting of 
the church doors the custom was to toll the greatest of Our 
Lady's bells forty tolls, and after to go to that place and eat and 
drink, and then to walk round and search the church." Is it 
possible that this " chamber of timber " can have been originally 
the watching-chamber attached to St. Hugh's shrine ? 

Cljoir-Htsle. Jisjjop Jlemimf's Cjjaitirg. 375 

design. The wall space on either side of the windows 
is ornamented by two blank arches, the spandrils of 
which are filled with rich tracery having enwreathed 
leafage with lizards, at the angles, A leaf-ornament 
fills the hollow between the window - shafts ; and 
the hood - mouldings of the windows terminate in 
small heads. Vaulting-shafts, with enriched capitals, 
[Plate IX.], rise between the windows ; and beneath 
runs a blind arcade, the ornaments in the quatrefoils 
of which, and the small heads of the angles of the 
trefoils in the tympana, should be noticed. The 
whole effect of this part of the church is very rich, 
but, unusually, the ornament is the same throughout. 
The bosses of the roof, carved in leafage, with birds 
and grotesques, are admirable, and deserve all pos- 
sible attention. A double doorway in the central bay 
of the aisle forms the north-east entrance to the 
cathedral. The central shaft dividing the door- 
ways is of later insertion, and bears the shield of 
Edward IV. One of the mouldings of the external 
arch is, singularly enough, of wood. 

Opening from the next bay is the chantry of Bishop 
FLEMING, founder of Lincoln College, Oxford, see 
Pt. II., (1420 1431), desolate and ruined. Within 
the chantry is the Bishop's effigy. Beneath an altar- 
tomb on the south side, and seen from the aisle, is a 
"cadaver" wrapt in a shroud a figure of frequent 
occurrence in monuments of this period. 

In the last bay of this aisle is the monument of 

376 f hrarfn 

brother of Bishop Henry of Burghersh, whose tomb 
is opposite. Lord Burghersh served in the wars of 
Edward II. in France and Scotland, was afterwards 
present at Cressy, and has obtained the distinction of 
an honourable notice from the pen of Froissart. His 
effigy, of later date than his tomb, has the head resting 
on the helmet, from which projects his crest. At the 
head is the armorial bearing of Burghersh, a lion 
rampant, double queued, supported by two angels. 
Above is a rich canopy. The shields of arms on the 
side are those of families with whom Lord Burghersh 
was immediately allied or connected. 

In the east window of this and of the corresponding 
aisle are some excellent examples of ancient glass of 
different dates, brought together from various parts of 
the cathedral. They are in striking contrast with two 
modern windows in the aisle, one by CLAYTON AND 
BELL to the memory of Lord Yarborough, and one 
by WAED AND HUGHES, in memory of Chancellor 

XIX. The fine east window of the choir is of the 
same date as those of the aisles, which it resembles in 
its mouldings. The same arcade runs below it. It is 
filled with modern stained glass by Messrs. WARD AND 
HUGHES, the leading subject being the Eedemption of 
Mankind by the Incarnation, Death, and Resurrection 
of Christ. Twenty-eight roundels, sixteen arranged 
vertically in the centre and six horizontally, so as to 
form a cross, illustrate the Life and Death of Christ, 
commencing with the Annunciation. Twenty medal- 

Somb-s in fto-t^tr. 377 

lions, six in each row, form an external square of Old 
Testament subjects typical of the work of Redemp- 
tion, commencing with the Fall and the Expulsion 
from Paradise. The sixteen remaining spaces are filled 
with medallions, each bearing the figure of a Prophet. 
The window cannot be pronounced to be bad either 
in design or execution, but compared with the ancient 
examples on either side of it, the glass is thin and 
poor ; and it cannot but be wished that so important 
a window were more worthily filled. 

XX. Projecting from the east wall of the cathe- 
dral, between the north aisle and the choir, are the 
tombs of SIB ROBERT OF BUBGHERSH (i.e. Burwash in 
Sussex) (the father of the Bishop), and of Bishop 
HENRY OF BURGHEESH (13201342). The first is 
plain ; on the second is the Bishop's richly vested 
effigy. The tombs are placed in a line, with short 
buttresses between them. On the north side is a 
series of very rich canopied niches, containing a very 
interesting series of figures of royal and noble person- 
ages seated or standing, all mutilated and headless. 
Those on the bishop's tomb represent Edward III. and 
his four sons, and Thomas Earl of Leicester and Lincoln. 
All these personages, according to the custom of the 
day, had been admitted in 1343 into the confraternity 
of the cathedral, and were specially commemorated at 
the chantry altar of St. Catherine, founded by the 
Burghersh family at the east end of the north aisle. 
In spandrils between the canopies are various armo- 
rial bearings connected with the house of Burghersh. 

378 f intoht 

At the west end of the tombs projects the stone base 
of a feretory, or portable shrine, once containing 
relics, having on the north and west sides very rich 
canopied kneeling - recesses, with emblems of the 
Passion in the spandrils. A stone in the pavement, 
immediately in front of the shrine, is much indented, 
it is said by the knees and feet of the worshippers. 
At the back of the altar-screen are the tombs of 
Bishop GABDINER (1695 1705), with a long string 
of commendatory Sapphics : 

" Vera si cordi est pietae, fidesque 
Si pudor priscus, placidusque mentis 
Candor ; antiques imitare mores 
Gardinerumque ;" 

and of some members of his family; of Bishop 
FULLER (1667 1675) ; and a memorial placed here 
by Bishop Fuller for St. Hugh, whose golden shrine 
(see Pt. II.) was removed into this part of the cathe- 
dral in 1282. 

XXI. On the south side of the altar, opposite the 
Burghersh tombs, are two monuments beneath lofty 
arches, with Decorated canopies. The eastern tomb, 
which supports the effigy of a knight, much shattered, 
is that of SIR NICHOLAS DE CANTILUPE (died 1355); 
on the western is the effigy of Prior Wymbysh, of 
Nocton, subdean of the cathedral, duly vested as a 
canon, whose arms appear on the side of the tomb. 
To the north of the Cantilupe tomb is a modern ceno- 
taph, designed by Blore, to the two celebrated painters, 
Hilton (died 1839) and De Wint (died 1849), both 

C|j0ir-atsk 379 

natives of Lincoln, decorated with copies in relief of 
some of their chief pictures. 

At the east end of the south choir-aisle was a chantry 
founded by Sir Nicholas de Cantilupe, dedicated to 
St. Nicholas. The bowels of Queen Eleanor, wife of 
Edward I., who died at Harby, between Lincoln and 
Newark, were interred on the south side of the Burg- 
hersh tombs, beneath a monument on which was her 
effigy in brass, resembling that in Westminster Abbey. 
The first of the series of Queen Eleanor's crosses was 
erected at Lincoln. The window of the first bay of 
the south aisle has been filled with very gaudy glass 
by a Nuremberg artist, to the memory of Chancellor 
C. S. Bird. 

XXII. Opening from the second bay of the north 
choir-aisle is the chantry of Bishop KUSSELL (1480 
1496), the altar in which was dedicated to St. Blaize. 
The frieze and ornaments deserve notice. 

In the next bay is the entrance to the cathedral from 
the south-east porch. (See xxxi.) Stained glass has 
been introduced in the headings of the doors with good 
effect. The window below contains the names of the 
chancellors of the diocese of Lincoln, beginning with 
Hugh (1092), and ending with Edward White Benson 
(Bishop of Truro), 1872. Under this window is the 
entrance to Bishop LONGLAND'S chantry (1521 1547), 
whose name is referred to in the inscription on the 
screen facing the aisle, " Longa terra mensura 
ejus, Dominus dedit." Between the words ' ejus ' and 
' Dominus ' are the arms of Henry VIII. The windows 

380 f main 

and roof of this small but very rich chantry have been 
carefully restored. At the west end are a series of 
niches in the renaissance style, which were apparently 
never finished. The bases were filled with minute 
sculpture, now mutilated. 

The arcade [Plate X.] and enrichments of this aisle, 
as far as the opening of the eastern transept, are the 
same as those of the aisle opposite. 

XXIII. The south-east transept differs in its detail 
from the north-east. Like that, it is part of St. Hugh's 
work, and the southern end was originally divided off 
by a transverse wall. That has been removed, and 
the windows and arches altered, apparently about the 
middle of the thirteenth century. The transept is 
of two bays, terminating eastward in apsidal chapels. 
On the west side a vestry opens, corresponding to 
that now closed in the north-east transept. 

The first or northern bay of the transept, and the 
lower story of the second, belong to the original 
building of St. Hugh. The upper stories of the 
latter are still Early English, but the later and far 
more enriched character of the work is at once 
evident. The south end of the transept (which is 
open throughout, and not vaulted above the pier- 
arches, as in the north-east) has three tiers of windows, 
below which the wall is covered with St. Hugh's 
double arcade [Plate XI.], with its plain and tre- 
foiled arches. (See xvi.) Here the outer arcade 
has small figures of winged angels projecting from 
its spandrils; similar figures, holding scrolls, open 







t franaept 381 

volumes, and musical instruments, occur in the same 
positions in the arcade which runs round the west 
chapel of the transept. All are terribly shattered; 
but they have an especial interest, since they are 
evidently the prototypes of the grand angelic figures, 
already described, in the spandrils of the choir. 

The south windows of the transept are filled with 
modern stained glass by HEDGELAND : the upper tier 
containing figures from the Old Testament ; the 
middle tier, subjects from the Gospels ; and the 
lowest, from the Acts of the Apostles. The glass is 
much too fiery when seen near, but the effect of these 
windows, seen across the church, is very good. 

The north apse, dedicated to St. Paul, is used as 
a vestry. The windows are filled with the Messrs. 
SUTTON'S glass. The leaf-ornament in the filleting of 
the Purbeck shafts should be noticed. The south 
apse, dedicated to St. Peter, contains a memorial of 
Bishop KAYE (died 1853). On an altar-tomb reposes 
a marble effigy of the bishop, by WESTMACOTT, fully 
vested, holding the Bible and dropping the pastoral 
staff. The light falls on the figure from three win- 
dows, filled with simply diapered glass. The effigy 
is striking, but the upraised hands of the older figures 
are far more impressive. 

On the floor of the transept are stones marked with 
the names of Bishop GROSTETE (died 1254) ; Bishop 
RICHARD OF GRAVESEND (died 1280) ; Bishop REPING- 
DON (died, 1420); and Bishop LEXINGTON (died 1258) ; 
all of whom were buried in this part of the church. 

382 Jpintoln Caifcebrsl. 

Their monuments were destroyed during the Civil 
War. In the choir-aisle, under the tomb of the 
Duchess of Lancaster, is a stone bearing the name of 
the chronicler HENRY OF HUNTINGDON, (died 1149), 
Archdeacon of Liocoln. 

The ancient choristers' vestry opens on the west side 
of the transept. The double arcade round the walls, 
and the angels in the spandrils, have already been 
noticed. In the west wall is a stone chimney, with 
a hood; and the vestry is separated from the choir- 
aisle by a stone screen (of Decorated character), 
covered on both sides with a rich diaper of large open 
lilies. On the north, facing to the aisle, a bird's nest 
with fledglings, and the parent birds flying to and 
from the nest, should be noted. Below the screen is 
a plain stone lavatory. [Plate XII.] 

The sexpartite vaulting of the transept, with its 
bosses, is of the same date as the south bay (circa 
(1250). The pier at the north-west angle resembles 
that in the north-east transept ( xvn.), but is better 

A door in the south-west angle leads through a 
passage to the principal vestry, a late Early English 
building of three stories, the upper of which is used 
as a song-school, and the lowest, forming a crypt 
approached by a trap-door, was probably a treasury. 
The vestry proper is a fine vaulted apartment. 

XXIV. The aisle west of the transept is St. Hugh's 
work, like that opposite. St. Hugh's double arcade, 
with figures of angels and saints projecting from the 

Sfcrhw of f title Si. fttgb. 383 

spandrils, lines the south wall. The choir-wall had 
an arcade of plain arches of Grostete's time, which 
has been removed in the westernmost bay to accom- 
modate a staircase in the wall leading to the timber 
chamber of the Constable of the close, once built aloft 
in the aisle, and in the third bay, for the richly 
panelled back of the shrine of LITTLE ST. HUGH, the 
Christian boy said to have been crucified by the Jews 
in the year 1255. (For the story, which is told at 
great length by Matthew Paris, and which is the 
subject of the well-known ballad of "St. Hugh of 
Lincoln," see Part II. Bishop LEXINGTON.) After 
his body had been miraculously discovered, it was in- 
terred in the cathedral, and a rich shrine was erected 
over it. The base of this shrine remains. The 
central boss of the groining of the canopy is also pre- 
served. The back of the choir-wall has an arcade 
with geometrical tracery and canopied headings, en- 
riched with the ball-flower, and with large-leaved 
finials, almost exactly corresponding to the wall- 
arcade of the aisles of the nave of York Minster r . As 
that nave was built by Archbishop John Le Eomeyn, 
who had been previously Chancellor and Precentor of 
Lincoln, the two may have had the same designer. 
The base of the shrine (which is in fact the covering 
of the tomb) was removed during the repaving of the 
cathedral in 1790, when a stone coffin was found close 
below it, lying level with the pavement. The coffin 

r A drawing of this shrine, before its destruction, will be 
found in Stukeley's Itinerarium Curiosum. 

384 Jhttote Caifctbrsl. 

contained the complete skeleton of a boy, 3 feet 
3 inches long. " St. Hugh of Lincoln, Martyr," still 
keeps his place in the Roman Calendar on June 29. 

XXV. Returning into the north-east transept, we 
enter the cloister through a doorway in the north 
wall. The cloister (which, it may be remarked, is 
unusually placed, extending from the eastern tran- 
sept to the northern front of the great transept) was 
the work of Bishop OLIVER BUTTON (12801300); 
and its early Decorated windows deserve attention, 
as do the carved bosses of its oaken roof, which are 
full of beauty and variety. Three sides of Bishop 
Button's cloister remain, but the fourth, or northern 
walk, having been demolished (it is said by Dean Mack- 
worth in the fifteenth century to build his stables) and 
lying in ruins, was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, 
together with the library, which ranges above it. 

Under the staircase of the library, at the north-east 
angle of the cloister, are preserved some fragments of 
Roman altars and sepulchral inscriptions, amphorae, 
mosaic pavements, &c. In the cloister, among other 
architectural fragments, is a fragment of early Nor- 
man sculpture disinterred from the Cathedral Close, 
which is of still higher interest. It represents an 
apostle, perhaps St. John, holding a book, and 
crowned with a circular disc, or nimbus. At the 
Bide is a remarkable ornament, which seems to have 
formed part of an oval figure (a rainbow or vesica 
piscis ?), in which was probably the Saviour. Part of 
the robe is visible, together with the emblems of St. 

Central ote. 385 

Mark and St. John, the lion and the eagle. Here 
are also the original " Swineherd of Stow," removed 
from the southern turret of the west front in 1850 ; 
several stone coffins, one curiously decorated with 
interlacing circles ; another singularly jointed ; some 
of the carved shafts needlessly removed from the 
western doorways when under restoration, and other 
architectural fragments [see Title-page]. In 1879 a 
Roman mile -stone was placed here, discovered in the 
centre of the Roman city, opposite the Lion and 
Snake Inn, in the Bail. It bears the name of Marcus 
Piavonius Victorinus, one of the thirty tyrants, A.D. 
268, and marks the distance, fourteen miles, from 
Segelocum, now Littleborough-on-Trent. 

In the open square of the cloister a Roman tesse- 
lated pavement was discovered in 1793. A portion 
of it, together with other fragments of similar pave- 
ment, discovered in 1879, to the west of the Exchequer 
arch, is placed at the foot of the library staircase. 
The wall of the Roman city stretched across the site 
of the cathedral nearly in a line with the eastern 
wall of the cloister. 

XXVI. The view of the central tower from the 
north-east angle of the cloisters is fine. To the top 
of the first story .above the roof the tower ip Early 
English, and the work most probably of Bishop 
Grostete. (See ix.) The shafts in this story are 
crocketed, somewhat in the manner of the remarkable 
piers at the angles of the transept ( xxn., xxin.). 
The upper or Decorated portion of the tower is very 

VOL. II. PT. I. 2 C 

386 fintolw 

fine and massive, and seems to have been completed 
during the episcopate of St. John of Dalderby, about 
the year 1306. 

In this tower is hung the famous bell known as 
"Great Tom of Lincoln," first cast in 1610 at a tem- 
porary foundry set up in the Minster-yard, but broken 
up in consequence of a fissure in 1834, and sent to 
London to be recast. In April, 1835, the new bell was 
hung in the great tower. Its weight is 5 tons 8 cwt., 
exactly a ton heavier than its predecessor ; and it is 
7 inches more in diameter at the mouth, measuring 
6 ft. 10 J inches, instead of 6 ft. 3J. Its larger dimen- 
sions are due to its having absorbed the metal of a 
charming little peal of six bells which formerly hung 
in the central tower, and were rung daily by the choris- 
ters for prayers. They were known as the " Lady 
Bells." On every ground their sacrifice is deeply to be 
lamented. Round the crown of this bell is the follow- 
ing inscription, repeated from the old bell : " Spiritus 
Sanctus a Patre et Filio procedens, suaviter sonans ad 
salutem." Eound the lips are the names of the Chap- 
ter at the time of the recasting. Great Tom of Lin- 
coln 8 ranks third in size among English bells. It is 

s The hours are struck on it by a hammer. " We ascended 
one of the other towers to see Great Tom," writes Southey, 
(Espriella's Letter). " At first it disappointed me, but the dis- 
appointment wore off, and we became satisfied that it was as 
great a thing as it was said to be. A tall man might stand in 
it upright ; the mouth measures one-and-twenty English feet in 
circumference ; and it would be a large tree of which the girth 
equalled the size of the middle." 






exceeded by Great Tom of Oxford and by Great Peter 
of Exeter. 

The buttresses of the great transept run to the top 
of the clerestory, and terminate in lofty pinnacles 
higher than the roof. Each pinnacle contains a niche 
for a statue. There are pinnacles at the angles of the 
north front ; and a group of five lancets, lighting the 
roof, are here seen above the rose-window. The ex- 
terior of this window, already mentioned ( x.), may 
be examined from this point. 

XXVII. The chapter-house [Plate XIII.], which is 
of much earlier date than the cloisters, opens from the 
eastern walk. Its west front is best seen from the 
north walk, and shews a circular window-opening, 
without tracery, above which are three gables. Those 
at the side cover staircase turrets. A pointed arcade 
runs along the base of all three, below three lancet- 
lights in the centre gable, and a single lancet in each 
of the others. 

It has been usual to attribute the chapter-house to 
St. Hugh, on the strength of a miscopied passage in 
Giraldus Cambrensis' " Lives of the Bishops of Lin- 
coln ; " but a careful examination proves that it is 
considerably later, and that it cannot date much before 
the middle of the thirteenth century*. Mr. Dimock 
has shewn that the word " capitulum " is an error of 

1 The author of the "Metrical Life" implies that it was 
begun by St. Hugh, but that it remained unfinished at his 
death, to be completed by Bishop Hugh of Wells : J- 
" Si quorum vero perfectio restat, Hugonis 
Perficietur opus primi sub Hugone secundo." 

2 c 2 

388 Jmtoln Ca%haL 

Wharton or his transcriber, for " capicium," the eastern 
limb or " chevet " of a church, and that therefore the 
architectural and documentary evidence, instead of 
being at variance, are in perfect accordance. The 
doorway in the cloister, much enriched, is formed by 
two pointed arches, circumscribed with a larger one, 
with a pierced quatrefoil in the tympanum ; on either 
side is a blank arch. Beyond the doorway is a vesti- 
bule, lighted by four windows, below which runs a 
blank arcade. The circular window at the west end, 
with the shafts at its sides, should here be noticed from 
within. The chapter-house itself is a decagon. In 
each bay are two lancet windows, between which rise 
clustered vaulting-shafts of Purbeck. These shafts 
spring from corbels, which resemble those in the Deco- 
rated work of the choir, and cannot be much earlier. 
An arcade lines the walls below the windows. The 
central pillar is surrounded by ten Purbeck shafts, 
hexagons, hollowed at the sides. Fronting the east, 
above the filleting, is a bracket sculptured with oak- 
leaves and acorns, upon which once probably stood a 
figure of the Virgin. A hole in the floor beneath is 
said to have been used for supporting the silver pro- 
cessional cross. The bosses of the groined roof should 
be noticed. Under the auspices of the Bishop of 
Nottingham (better known as Archdeacon Trollope) a 
scheme was inaugurated a few years since for filling 
the windows of the chapter-house with stained glass, 
illustrative of the history of the cathedral and its 
bishops. Up to the present time, five of the lancets 

fibrarg. 389 

have been thus treated. The first two on the left of 
the entrance are memorials of the Chancellor Massing- 
berd, the third to Prebendary Gilbert, the fourth to 
the Eev. Humphry Sibthorp, and the fifth to the late 
Bishop Mackenzie, suffragan of Nottingham, subdean 
of the cathedral. The series, beginning with Eemi- 
gius, comes down to Bishop Oliver Sutton. All the 
windows are by the Messrs. CLAYTON AND BELL. 

This fine and impressive chapter-house is earlier 
than the chapter-house of Salisbury (circa 1280), or 
than that of Wells (circa 1300); and consequently 
forms an interesting example in the series. 

XXVIII. The ancient Library, which ran northwards 
from the chapter-house over the cloisters, was partly 
destroyed by fire, together with the greater part of the ; 
volumes it contained, in 1609. It was rebuilt as we 
see it at present, after the Eestoration, chiefly at the 
cost of Dr. Michael Honywood, the then dean, who 
refurnished the library, and placed in it a most valu- 
able collection of MSS. and early printed books. 
These last are arranged in lock-up cases at the west 
end of the Library. Some of the MSS. are of much 
interest, though several have been shamefully mutilated 
for the sake of the illuminations. The most impor- 
tant MS. is a volume of old English Eomances, dating 
about 1430-40, and collected by Eobert of Thornton, 
Archdeacon of Bedford in 1450, who was buried in 
Lincoln Cathedral. There is also one volume of a 
copy of the Vulgate, the first book possessed by the 
Chapter of Lincoln, presented by Nicholas, Arch- 

390 ITmtoIn Ca%bral. 

deacon of Lincoln 1106. The printed books, about 
4500 volumes, are placed in the principal library, ex- 
tending over the whole length of the north walk. The 
collection is still valuable, containing early Bibles 
and Liturgies, with Caxton's and other early printed 
books, but the most remarkable volumes, including 
seven specimens of Caxton, were all sold after the 
visit of Dr. Dibdin to the library, who became himself 
the purchaser of " certaine bokes," the glories of which 
he duly set before the world in a tract entitled " The 
Lincolne Nosegay." A glass case exhibits the most 
perfect of the four extant contemporaneous copies of 
the Magna Charta. In another are preserved episcopal 
rings, chalices, patens, &c., from the rifled tombs of 
the bishops, opened when the new pavement was laid 
down in the last century, portions of Grostete's pastoral 
staff, and other archaeological curiosities. Some Eo- 
man urns, and other antiquities, are preserved in the 
ante-library, together with a curious leaden plate, 
bearing an inscription to the memory of William 
D'Eyncourt, a relative of Bishop Eemigius. On the 
wall hangs a fine portrait of Dean Honywood, by 
CORNELIUS JANSEN, and one of his grandmother, Dame 
Mary Honywood, celebrated for her longevity and t^& 
number of descendants she lived to see. 

XXIX. Eeturning into the cathedral, the architec- 
tural student may ascend the west front, and inspect 
the remarkabable " stone beam " which crosses the space 
between the western towers. The ascent is made from 
either of the buttress-turrets of the west front ; from 

ram. 391 

wliicli galleries lighted by loopholes, extend along the 
front at different levels. In these galleries the junc- 
tion of the Norman wall with the Early English may be 
readily traced ; and the difference between the dressings 
of the stone- work should be observed : the lines of the 
Norman chisel run diagonally across the stone, while 
the other shews the peculiar mark of what is called 
the "toothed-chisel." From one of these galleries 
access is obtained to a platform between the head of 
the great west window and the rose-window above it, 
known as " Sir Joseph Banks' view" commanding a 
very striking view of the whole length of the church 
to the great east window. In the chambers in the 
upper part of the screen the gables formerly surmount- 
ing the Norman front may be traced. The view over 
the Wolds from the roof of the front is striking. From 
the roof a door opens into the north-west tower ; and 
thence, through the belfry chamber, upon the vaulting 
of the nave, just above which is the so-called " stone 
beam." This is an arch, composed of twenty-three 
stones of unequal lengths, but uniformly 11 inches in 
depth and 1 ft. 9f in. in breadth. For what purpose, 
or at what exact period it was constructed, cannot 
readily be determined ; but it seems most probable that 
the arch was erected before the upper portions of the 
towers were built, in order to ascertain whether the 
great additional weight could be safely borne. " The 
arch is constructed of stone from the Lincoln quarries. 
. . . The exposed surfaces are wrought with the toothed 
chisel in a careless and imperfect manner, and the 


joints, contrary to what might have been expected, are 
decidedly ill-formed, and have beds of mortar full half 
an inch in thickness within them. There is no trace of 
iron being used in the construction of the arch, either 

in dowels or other form. . .The arch vibrates per- 
ceptibly when jumped upon ; and I am of opinion that 
the constant practice of visitors thus to prove its elastic 
properties has a tendency to impair its stability V 

The western towers, close under which the visitor 
finds himself when on the west front, are Norman to 
the top of the arcades, and from that point rich late 
Decorated. The graceful windows in the four sides 
of the towers, and the parapets above, deserve notice. 
Each tower was formerly surmounted by a spire of 

u W. A. Nicholson, Transactions of Institute of British Archi- 
tects. Mr. Nicholson has given an elevation, plan, and section 
of the arch, in illustration of his paper. 


timber and lead. These were removed in 1807 ; no 
doubt to the injury of the general outline. The north 
tower is known as St. Mary's. In it the famous bell 
" Great Tom " hung before it was recast. The south 
tower is St. Hugh's. 

The descent from the west front may be made by 
a staircase leading into the south-west wing. In 
descending one of the series of ancient sculptures 
already described ( in.), on the south side of the 
Norman front, and consequently sheltered by the ex- 
tended Early English wing, may be inspected. Its 
subject is the Deluge. It should be observed also, that 
the large recesses which form so marked a feature in 
the Norman portion of the west front are continued 
on the south side, though now concealed by the Early 
English wing. Some of the capitals must have been 
covered soon after they were erected ; they are as 
fresh as if newly executed ; whereas the corresponding 
capitals in the west front are much weather-worn. 

XXX. Passing out of the cathedral, we proceed to 
an examination of its exterior, beginning on the south 
side. We first remark the much enriched Norman 
gable attached to the flank of the south-west, or St. 
Hugh's, tower. Three such originally surmounted the 
recesses of the west front. Beyond the south-west 
chapels the line of the nave is well seen, each bay 
marked by its flying buttress. An arcade of pointed 
arches is carried quite along the clerestory wall ; and 
from the parapet above (which is an addition of the 
Decorated period) project six remarkable canopied 

394 f main 

niches, with brackets ; an unusual degree of richness 
and variety is thus gained for the roof-line. 

The massive buttresses rising to the top of the 
transept, capped by later pinnacles, should here be 
noticed, as well as the Norman gable and arcading at 
the side of the south-west tower. Observe, also, three 
grotesque figures in the blank arches of the gable 
which forms the eastern end of St. Hugh's chapel (in 
a line with the south-west wing of the west front x ). 

The Galilee porch [Plate XIV.] forms an approach 
to the cathedral at the south-west corner of the great 
transept. It is throughout Early English, but is no 
doubt later than St. Hugh's, or the first Early English 
portion of the cathedral. It is cruciform in plan. 
The eastern limb is lined by an arcade of five arches, 
with capitals of leafage. The ribs of the groined 
roof are covered with dog-tooth moulding. The door- 
way into the church is divided by a central shaft, and 
has a diamond-shaped opening in the tympanum. The 
arches are encrusted with leafage. At the base of 
the central shaft are three lizard-like monsters with 

x One of these is popularly said to represent the "Devil look- 
ing over Lincoln." " The devil," says Fuller (Worthies, Lin- 
colnshire), " is the map of malice, and his envy (as God's mercy) 
is over all his works. It grieves him whatever is given to God, 
crying out with that flesh-devil, ' Ut quid perditio hsec ?' ' What 
needs this waste ?' On which account he is supposed to have 
overlooked this church, when first finished, with a torve and 
tetrick countenance, as maligning men's costly devotion, and 
that they should be so expensive in God's service. But it is 
suspicious, that some who account themselves saints, behold 
such fabrics with little better looks." 







Jottfc. 395 

human heads distinguished by long hair and tufted 
beards : all three look upwards, in the act of climbing 
the shaft. The transept opens south and north, with 
three pointed arches, all highly enriched with the dog- 
tooth. The " Curia vocata le Galilee " is frequently 
referred to in the archives of the cathedral, the Chap- 
ter of which possessed the right of holding a court in 
the chamber above this porch, now used as the Muni- 
ment Eoom of the Dean and Chapter. 

XXXI. The Decorated rose-window in the south 
wall of the great transept should be remarked ( x.) ; 
and, beyond the transept, the Early English buttresses 
of the choir (St. Hugh's work), with their ornaments 
of shafts and enriched capitals. Their heavy trian- 
gular headings, which rise above the parapet, con- 
stitute the first approach to true pinnacles in Early 
English work. The slender intermediate buttresses, 
between the windows, are later additions, intended to 
resist the thrust of the groining. It will be noticed that 
they conceal one of the shafts of the hood-mould of 
the windows adjacent to them. [See Plate XVIII.] 

Passing the eastern transept, the outline of which 
with its apsidal chapels deserves notice for the grace 
of its composition, we reach the south-east entrance, or 
porch of the presbytery. [Plate XV.] A porch in 
this position is frequent in French cathedrals, but no 
other example occurs in England. It is formed by a 
deeply-recessed arch, lined with canopied niches. The 
doorway is divided by a central shaft, and in the tym- 
panum is the figure of the Saviour in an elongated 


quatrefoil, with kneeling angels on either side. On 
one side the good are breaking from their tombs, and 
are carried upward by angels ; on the other, goat-like 
demons are dragging the wicked downward to the 
mouth of hell, which is seen below the principal figure. 
The inner and outer door-mouldings have been filled 
with small figures of saints, many of which remain. 
They are set in a hollow fretwork of leafage, very 
gracefully arranged, which may be compared with that 
surrounding the rose-window of the south transept, 
within the cathedral. The central shaft has a bracket 
and a canopy for a figure. Within the arch, and under 
canopies, are the remains of four figures, which are too 
completely shattered to be identified. The two outer 
are barefooted, and probably represented women : the 
two inner have their feet covered by long robes. Of 
these statues, and of the composition representing the 
Last Judgment, Flaxman thought very highly, and 
has referred to them in one of his lectures. Mr. Cock- 
erell, on the other hand, thinks that, " though of the 
prosperous period of art, the merit of the ' Judgment * 
as compared with the angels of the choir, may well be 
questioned : at all events, it is clearly (as are also the 
four statues in the porch) by another hand y ." 

On either side of this porch are the rich monu- 
mental chapels of Bishop Eussell ( xxn.) and Bishop 
Longland ( xxn.) The buttresses and upper win- 
dows of the presbytery should here be remarked, 

y 0. E. Cockerell, Ancient Sculpture in Lincoln Cathedral. 
(Lincoln Vol. of the Arcliseol. Institute.) 








and compared with those of the earlier choir and 
nave. "Against the south-east buttress is a group 
of the King and Queen, Edward I. and Eleanor, of 
consummate grandeur and interest. The King bears 
his shield, and tramples on the enemy; the beloved 
wife of his youth follows him closely. There is a 
freedom and energy of style in these figures which 
are rarely seen in any period. Both have unhappily 
lost their heads (subsequently restored). In the next 
pier is the statue of a queen, who may possibly be 
designed for Edward's second spouse, the French 
princess Margaret." C. E. Cockerell. 

The fine composition of the eastern end of the ca- 
thedral [Plate XVI.] with its deep buttresses, its 
arcades, the noble east window, and the enriched gable 
above it is well seen from the greensward above 
which it rises. Near the north-east buttress is a 
small building which covers an ancient well; and 
beyond, again, the eight flying buttresses of the chap- 
ter-house at once attract attention. [Plate XVII.] 
The effect of this building, surmounted by its " high and 
bold roof," was pronounced " truly grand " by Pugin. 
The addition of the buttresses may have been rendered 
necessary to resist the thrust of the original groining. 

On the north side of the cathedral the principal 
points to be noticed are the Early English rose- 
window of the transept ( x.) and the Norman gable 
against the north face of the western tower. The 
buttresses here resemble those on the south side. 
[Plate XVIII.] 

398 Jmtaln 

XXXII. The Episcopal Palace, originally founded, 
it seems probable, by Bishop Bloet, and added to by 
many of his successors, stood on the south side of the 
cathedral, on the edge of the hill overlooking a wide 
extent of country. The principal remains are those 
of the great hall, begun by St. Hugh and completed 
by Bishop Hugh of Wells ; the kitchen, the gateway- 
tower restored by Bishop Wordsworth, to supply 
lecture-rooms for the students of the Chancellor's 
Theological-school and some apartments added by 
Bishop Alnwick. The palace, which was very stately 
and extensive, was much neglected after the Keforma- 
tion, and was stripped of its lead and fell into a 
ruined state during the Civil War. A most careful 
and excellent account of it, by Mr. E. J. Willson, will 
be found in the Lincoln volume of the Archaeological 
Institute. The view of the cathedral from the palace 
is one of the best to be obtained. A very striking 
view of the central tower [Plate XIX.] occurs below 
the Vicars' Court. That from the river below is 
unusually picturesque [Frontispiece], and shews the 
great length of the building to advantage. 

The Deanery, on the north side of the cathedral, 
like the palace, suffered much during the Civil War. 
The present deanery was built by Mr. Burn of Edin- 
burgh, in 1847 ; and the only remains of the old 
buildings still in their original situation are the walls 
towards Eastgate. An ancient chimney and some 
fragments of sculpture are preserved on the garden- 
side of this wall, and in the conservatory. 




(% Cjmnarg. Cantifop* Cjjantrg. 399 

The Chancery, which has been the residence of the 
Chancellors since 1316, when it was built by Antony 
Bek, afterwards Bishop of Norwich, is the only one 
of the residentiary houses which preserves archi- 
tectural features of much interest. The red-brick 
front and stone oriel were added by Bishop Russell, 
circa 1490. Within are the three arches of Bek's 
work at the end of the dining-hall, demolished in 
1714, the centre one leading upstairs to the private 
chapel, the carved screen of which still exists at the 
west end, and to the solar, in the wall of which are 
two squints commanding the chapel-altar. The Sub- 
deanery retains a late but well-proportioned stone 
oriel, but has been completely modernised, as has 
been the Precentory, beneath which is a Eoman hypo- 
caust, discovered in 1739, and figured in the Vetusta 

The Vicars' Court to the south of the cathedral was 
begun by Bishop Oliver Sutton, 1299, and finished 
by Bishop Buckingham and Bishop Alnwick, whose 
escutcheons are to be seen on the walls. The house 
on the southern side of the Court is an admirable 
example of the architecture of Edward I. 

The Cantilupe Chantry house, though much mo- 
dernised, retains some old features, especially a fine 
oriel in the north gable, supported by a monstrous 
corbel. The residentiary house, known as the Priory 
(an obvious misnomer, there never having been any 
monastic foundation in the close of Lincoln), deserves 
notice. The tower, built against the Close wall, is 


Edwardian, and of the same date is a very fine side- 
board, at the end of what was originally the dining- 
hall. Portions of the crenellated close wall, with 
its towers, remain in the garden of this house, as 
well as in those of the Chancery and the Choristers' 



pstorg 0f ijj* &zz t forty J&ljort $friias of % 

rpHE great diocese of Lincoln, which until it was dis- 
membered in the reign of Henry VIII. was by far the 
most extensive in England', grew out of the union of 
three Saxon bishoprics, those of lAndsey or Sidnacester, 
(Stow in Lincolnshire); Leicester; and Dorchester in Ox- 

After Paulinus (A.D. 627) had converted and baptized 
Edwin of Northumbria (see YORK, Pt. II.), he proceeded 
to preach Christianity throughout Lindsey, (Lindisse,) the 
northern portion of Lincolnshire, of which Lincoln, the 
Roman lAndum Colonia, was the chief place. Here he 
converted Blaecca, the " prsefect" of the city, with all his 
household; and here he built a church of stone, which 
Bede calls " opus egregium," in which he consecrated Ho- 
norius to the archbishopric of Canterbury. The existing 
church of St. Paul (Paulinus), a little north-west of the 
cathedral, and on higher ground, is said to occupy the site 
of this, the first resting-place of the faith in Lincoln. It 
stands not far from a blackened Roman arch, one of the 

From the Conquest to the middle of the sixteenth century 
it stretched from the Thames to the Humber, embracing the 
counties of Oxford, Buckingham, Northampton, Bedford, Hun- 
tingdon, Leicester, Rutland, and Lincoln. In 1541 the see of 
Peterborough, presiding over Northamptonshire and Rutland- 
ehire, and in 1542 that of Oxford, for the whole of that county, 
were founded by Henry VIII. Cambridgeshire had been pre- 
viously taken out of it in 1109, to form the diocese of Ely. 
VOL. II. PT. I. 2 1> 

402 Jhicoto CatfcebraL 

ancient gates of the city, which twelve hundred years ago 
must have flung its shadow on the figure of the Christian 
Apostle, "vir longse staturse, paululum incurvus, nigro 
capillo, facie macilenta, naso adunco pertenui, venerabilis 
simul et terribilis aspectuV* 

[A.D. 678 958. SEE OP LINDSEY.] The province of Lindsey, 
like the rest of Lincolnshire, was either at this time de- 
pendent on Mercia, or soon afterwards became so. After 
the establishment of the Mercian bishopric at Lichfield (see 
that Cathedral) in the year 656, Lindsey formed a part of 
the wide district presided over by that see ; until, in 678, 
Egfrid of Northumbria defeated the Mercian King Wulfere, 
and making good his power over Lindsey, erected it into 
a separate diocese, the seat of which he fixed at Sidnacester, 
now represented in all probability by Stow, a village 
between Lincoln and Gainsborough, famous for its fine 
Norman church. A succession of bishops of Lindsey (the 
" Lindisfarorum provincia" of Bede) can be traced from 
EADHED, who was consecrated to the see in 678, to 
BERHTRED, whose last signature occurs in 869. For 
nearly a century from this date the see seems to have 
remained unfilled, owing no doubt to the ravages of the 
Northmen, who in this interval established themselves in 
Mercia and Northumbria. In 953 occurs the signature of 
LEOFWIN as bishop of Lindsey. Before 958 he had re- 
moved the see to Dorchester, in Oxfordshire, probably for 
greater security. One later bishop of Lindsey is, however, 
recorded, SIGEFERTH, whose signatures occur between 
the years 9971004. 

[A.D. 680869. SEE OF LEICESTER.] Eadhed was consecrated 
to the see of Lindsey (or Sidnacester) by Archbishop 
Theodorus, one of whose main objects was to increase the 
number of bishoprics in the different Saxon kingdoms. 
(See CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL, Pt. II.) It was probably 
at his suggestion, and no doubt with his co-operation, that 
b Beda, H. E., lib. ii. c. xvi. 

Sta 0f y jeittsto snfc goj%sier. 403 

the see was established by Egfrid after his conquest of 
Lindsey in 678. Two years later (680) Theodoras divided 
the great Mercian bishopric, and erected a new see at 
Leicester, to which he consecrated CUTHWEN. After 
Cuthwin's death, in 691, the see of Leicester was adminis- 
tered by the famous Wilfrid of York, until the year 705, 
when it was re-united to the original Mercian see of Lich- 
field. So it continued until 737, in which year the see of 
Leicester again appears, with TORTHELM as its bishop. 
From this time until the year 869, there is a regular succes- 
sion of bishops of Leicester, the last of whom was CEOLRED, 
(840869). At his death the see was removed to Dor- 
chester, in Oxfordshire. The Northmen had already com- 
menced their attacks on Mercia, in which they soon made 
good their settlements, and Leicester became one of the 
five great Danish burghs. As in East Anglia (see NOR- 
WICH CATHEDRAL, Pt. II.), it is probable that the Mercian 
Danes were, as the Saxon Chronicle represents them, 
" heathen men," although they may have embraced a no- 
minal Christianity. At all events, no bishop appears 
within the bounds of the Danelagh. 

[A.D. 8701067. SEE OP DORCHESTER.] Dorchester, to 
which place the see of Leicester was removed, had been 
(A.D. 634676) the seat of the West Saxon bishopric, 
until Headda (676705) removed it to Winchester, as had 
been originally intended. (See WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL, 
Pt. II.) The district in which Dorchester is situated seems 
about this time to have passed under the control of Mercia, 
and it was probably within the bounds of that kingdom 
when the see of Leicester was removed to it, about the 
year 870. But the ravages of the Northmen soon broke 
up the ancient limits, and ALHEARD, the first bishop of 
Dorchester, who died of the plague in 897, is recorded in 
the Saxon Chronicle as one of King Alfred's "most ex- 
cellent thanes c ." From Alheard to WULFWY, who died 

6 Sax. Cbron., ad aim. 897. 

2 D 2 


in 1067, we have the names (and little besides) of eleven 
bishops of Dorchester. Of these, the fourth from Alheard 
is LEOFWIN, who, a little before 958, removed the see of 
Lindsey to Dorchester. Kemigius, the successor of Wulfwy, 
removed the chief place of the three sees which had thus 
become united, to Lincoln. 

SEE OF LINCOLN. [A.D. 1067 1092.] EEMIGIUS, or Remi, a 
Benedictine of Fescamp, had accompanied the Conqueror 
on his expedition, to which he is said to have contributed 
a ship and twenty armed men. According to Giraldus he 
was the leader (decurio) of the ten knights sent as the con- 
tingent of the Abbot of Feacamp. A leaden plate preserved 
hi the Chapter Library at Lincoln, seems to prove that 
Remigius was related to the powerful house of Deincourt, 
and thus allied to the Conqueror" 1 , who promised him an 
English bishopric if the expedition should be successful. 
On the death of Wulfwy in 1067 Remigius was accord- 
ingly consecrated to the see of Dorchester. 

The Norman bishop found his vast diocese in a state of 
utter disorganization ; and at once " perambulated the whole 
of it, so that by his sermons and instructions he wrought 
a happy reformation in every part." The lofty mind and 
excellent disposition (beatissimum ingenium) of Remigius 
are contrasted by William of Malmesbury with his dwarfish 
stature: "Ipse pro exiguitate corporis pene portentum 
hominis videbatur; luctabatur excellere et foris eminere 
animus, eratque 'gratior exiguo veniens e corpore vir- 
tus.*" " Statura parvus, sed corde magnus," says Henry of 
Huntingdon, "colore fuscus sed operibus venustus." In 
the year 1071 he accompanied Archbishop Lanfranc and 

* The inscription runs as follows (the letters in italics are sup- 
plied conjecturally) : "Hie jacet Willm Filius Walter! Aiencuri- 
ensiB consanguine! Remigii Episcopi Lincolniensis qui hanc ecclesiam 
fecit. Praefatus Willm regia styrpe progenitus dura in curia regis 
Will! Filii Magni regis Willi qui Angliam conquismt aleretur II. 
Kal. Novembris obiit." 

0f Lincoln, gemighrs. 405 

Thomas, Archbishop of York, to Rome, where the Pope, 
Alexander II., deposed from their sees both Archbishop 
Thomas and Remigius, the former as being the son of 
a priest, the latter on account of the bargain he had made 
with the Conqueror. Both were restored, however, by the 
interest of Lanfranc. 

Remigius, like most of the Norman bishops, had a 
passion for building. The Council of London, in 1075, 
ordered the removal of episcopal sees from " vills " to cities ; 
but it was before the promulgation of this decree that 
the see of Dorchester was removed to Lincoln for the 
charter of the Conqueror confirming the change, dated that 
year, speaks of it as already made. Lincoln was at the 
extreme end of the diocese ; but the site was at least 
not more inconvenient than that of Dorchester ; and 
the strength of the position on high ground, and close 
under the walls of the great royal fortress then in the 
course of erection was probably a main consideration 
here, as it was in fixing the sites of the other sees removed 
at this time. Accordingly, Remigius, in the words of 
Henry of Huntingdon, himself Archdeacon of Lincoln, 
" built in a place strong and fair, a strong and fair church 
to the Virgin of virgins ; which was both pleasant to God's 
servants, and, as the time required, invincible to their 

The cathedral thus built by Remigius occupied the 
south-east quarter of the original Roman city, the castle 
taking up the south-west quarter. The exact site, "on 
the brow of the hill beyond the river Witham, had," says 
Giraldus Cambrensis, "been presignified by certain visions, 
miracles, signs, and wonders." Remigius lived to com- 
plete it, "after the manner of the church of Rouen, which 
he had set before him as his pattern in all things e ," and 
placed twenty-one canons in it. He died, however, four 



day before that fixed for the consecration (May 8, 1092) ; 
and was buried in the new church, before the altar of the 
Holy Cross. He was never canonized; but numerous 
miracles were said to have taken place at his tomb ; and 
his episcopal ring dipped in water was held to produce an 
excellent febrifuge. 

All that remains of the church of Remigius is a portion 
of the west front (Pt. I. in.) and the portion of the 
apse below the stalls. The cathedral of Rouen, which 
Remigius copied, was destroyed by fire in 1200 f . 
[A.D. 1094 1123.] ROBEKT BLOET, after the see had been 
vacant two years, was consecrated by Archbishop Anselm 
and seven other bishops, at Hastings the day after Battle 
Abbey was consecrated (Feb. 11). Bishop Robert was 
Chancellor to William Rufus, and his appointment to the 
see of Lincoln was made after that King's illness at Glou- 
cester, when " he promised many promises to God, to lead 
his own life righteously, and never more for money again 
to sell God's churches 8 ." The nomination was not con- 
firmed by the King, who had secretly stirred up Thomas 
Archbishop of York, who claimed Lincoln as belonging 
to his province, to protest against his consecration, until 
he had received a large bribe from the bishop expectant. 
The new cathedral was consecrated during Bishop Robert's 
episcopate ; and he removed (against their will) the monks 
from Stow, in Lincolnshire, to Eynsham, a newly restored 
monastery in Oxfordshire, in order to appropriate the 
manor of Stow for the use of the bishops of Lincoln, 

f For a very interesting conjectural "restoration" of the church 
built by Remigius, see a paper by the Rev. G. A. Poole, in the 
Transactions of the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society. 
"Where, says Mr. Poole, "it may be presumed that Rouen 
retains its original dimensions (for as to the actual fabric, not a 
stone which Remigius beheld remains on another) it agrees re- 
markably with the Lincoln which we have recovered." 

* Sax. Chron. 

snb giterttor. 407 

Bishop Robert died suddenly in the Park at Woodstock, 
Jan. 10, 1123. "It befell," says the Saxon Chronicle, 
" on a Wednesday that the King (Henry I.) was riding in 
his deer-fold, and the Bishop Roger of Salisbury on one 
side of him, and the Bishop Robert Bloet of Lincoln on the 
other side of him ; and they were there riding and talking. 
Then the Bishop of Lincoln sank down, and said to the 
King, 'Lord King, I am dying!' And the King alighted 
from his horse, and lifted him betwixt his arms, and 
caused him to be borne to his inn ; and he was then forth- 
with dead ; and he was conveyed to Lincoln with great 
worship, and buried before St. Mary's altar." Bishop 
Robert enjoyed no good reputation in his own time ; and 
Brompton and Knighton assert that the " church keepers " 
(at Lincoln) "were sore annoyed (they saye) with his 
sowle and other walking spretes till that place was purged 
by prayers." 

[A.D. 1123 1148.] ALEXANDER, Archdeacon of Salisbury, 
and Chief Justice, was nephew of Roger, the powerful 
Bishop of Salisbury (see that Cathedral, Pt. II.), by whose 
influence he was raised to the episcopate. As in the case 
of his brother Nigel, Bishop of Ely (see ELY, Pt. II.), 
Alexander's fortunes were involved in those of his uncle 
Bishop Roger ; and with him he was seized and imprisoned 
during the Council of Oxford, 1139. On this occasion 
Bishop Alexander was compelled to resign to the King 
his two castles of Sleaford and Newark, which he had 
himself built. He had built another castle at Banbury, 
and four monasteries, at Dorchester, Haverholme, Thame, 
and Louth Park. Alexander was far more of the secular 
potentate than of the bishop. The author of the Gesta 
Stephani says of him, " he was called a bishop, but he 
was a man of vast pomp, and great boldness and audacity, 
neglecting the pure and simple way of life belonging to the 
Christian religion, he gave himself up to military affairs 
and secular pomp, shewing whenever he appeared at Court 

408 Sftrcoltt Ctftfjtfcral 

so vast a band of followers that all men marvelled." The 
testimony of Henry of Huntingdon is of the same tenour : 
" He was brought up in the greatest luxury by his uncle, 
the Bishop of Salisbury, and hence he acquired a spirit 
too high to be good for his people. Desirous to excel 
other nobles in the magnificence of his gifts and the splen- 
dour of his works, when his own resources did not suffice 
for this, he was in the habit of plucking most eagerly the 
goods of his people to make his own smaller resources 
equal to their greater ones. But yet he could not succeed 
in this, inasmuch as he was ever squandering more and 
more. Yet a wise man he was, and liberal to such a degree 
that he was called by the Court of Rome the magnificent.' " 
A great fire occurred at Lincoln in June 1123, shortly 
before Alexander's consecration, which burnt nearly the 
whole of the city; and in 1141 occurred a second fire, 
which did great mischief to the cathedral, and destroyed 
the whole of the wooden roofs. Bishop Alexander vaulted 
it with stone, and so repaired and adorned it, according to 
Henry of Huntingdon, that it was " more beautiful than 
before." The doorways in the west front are assigned 
with great probability, to this bishop (Ft. I. in.) ; who 
was buried in his own cathedral. 

[A.D. 1148 1167.] ROBERT DE CflESNEY, Archdeacon of 
Leicester, by birth an Englishman. His name " de 
Querceto," says Henry of Huntingdon, " is from the oak 
copse." This bishop began the episcopal palace at Lincoln, 
on the site of the old bishop's residence, "ubi sitae 
f uerant," Giraldus, vii. 84, " at a great price ; " and 
pledged the ornaments of his church in order to do so, to 
" Aaron the Jew " in the sum of 300. He was a quiet 
and unambitious man, described by de Diceto as a " man of 
great simplicity and humility," and by G-ervase of Canter- 
bury as " a simple man but not over wise." Giraldus Cam- 
brensis calls him "a generous man, but a dilapidator of the 
property of the see," alienating estates to give his nieces 

to Cswje. Walter of teimTas. 409 

marriage-portions. He endured a long struggle with the 
Abbot of St. Alban's, then within the limits of his diocese, 
which ended in the establishment of the independence of 
the abbey from diocesan supervision, the bishop receiving 
in exchange the manor of Tynghurst. St. Alban's thus 
became the first of the mitred abbeys. 

The death of Bishop ROBEBT occurred in the height of 
the controversy between the King and Archbishop Becket ; 
and the see of Lincoln remained vacant nearly seventeen 
years ; a certain monk of Thame, one of the many pro- 
phets of the time, predicting that it would never be filled 
again. In the year 1173, however, GEOFFRY PLANTA- 
GENET, natural son of Henry II., under twenty-one years 
of age, only in deacon's orders, was appointed to the see, 
under a dispensation from the Pope, Alexander III., on 
account of his being under age. He paid off the debt to 
Aaron the Jew, incurred by his predecessor, and, among 
other costly gifts, bestowed on the cathedral two magni- 
cent bells, " campanas egregias atque sonoras." But 
Geoffry was never consecrated although for seven years 
he retained the temporalities ; and he resigned Lincoln h 

[A.D. 11831184.] When WALTER OF COUTANCES, Arch- 
deacon of Oxford, was appointed by the King. After 
seventeen years' cessation, mass was sung at the high 
altar of the cathedral by a bishop of Lincoln. The year 
afterwards he was translated to Eouen. 

From 1184 1186 the see was again vacant. In the 
year 1185 occurred that great earthquake " such as there 
had not been in England since the beginning of the world," 
says Hoveden, which shattered the cathedral of Lincoln 
and " split it in two from top to bottom. 1 " 

h In 1191 he was consecrated Archbishop of York. 

1 " Terras motus magnus auditus est fere per totam Angliam, 
qualis ab initio mundi in terra ilia non erat auditus. Petrae 
enim scissae sunt, domus lapidese ceciderunt, ecclesia Lincoln- 


[A.D. 1186 1200.] HUGH OP AVALON, or OF BURGUNDY ; 
best known as ST. HUGH OF LINCOLN, the founder of the 
existing cathedral, which was far advanced during his life- 
time, and on which he laboured with his own hands. There 
were many lives of St. Hugh, of which the longest and most 
important, written by a Benedictine monk who was the 
Bishop's chaplain and constant associate, has been pub- 
lished in the Master of the Bolls' series, under the editor- 
ship of the late Prebendary Dimock. A very curious and 
interesting metrical life, written to all appearance imme- 
diately upon the canonization of Hugh (A.D. 1220), was 
previously edited by him (Lincoln, 1860), whose brief 
sketch of St. Hugh's life is here given j . 

" St. Hugh was born about the year 1140, of a knightly 
Burgundian family, which took its name from Avalon, 
a place about three miles distant from Grenoble. At an 
early age he lost his mother, and soon afterwards entered 
a priory of Regular Canons established in the neighbour- 
hood of his father's castle. To this step he was led by the 
precepts and example of his widowed father ; who at the 
same time retired from the world, and became an inmate 
of the same priory. At this time Hugh was a mere child ; 
according to the best authority not quite eight, but ac- 
cording to others, ten years old. 

" At the age of eighteen he was ordained deacon. And 
some time afterwards, probably when about twenty-four 
years old, was made prior of a neighbouring cell, a de- 
pendency of his convent. Within two or three years, it 
would seem, he deserted his post, and betook himself to 

iensis metropolitana scissa est a summo deorsum. Contigit enim 
terras mot us iste in crastino diei dominicse in ramis palmarum, 
viz. xvii. Kal. Mali." ffoveden, ad ann. 1185. 

j An admirable biography of St. Hugh has recently been 
published by Canon Perry (Murray, 1879), which deserves 
careful perusal. It includes lives of St. Hugh's predecessors in 
the see. 


the Great Chartreuse, near Grenoble, then in the zenith of 
its fame, for the rigid austerity of its rules, and the earnest 
piety of its members. 

" After ten years spent in the most exemplary devotion 
to his duties as a Carthusian monk, he was advanced to the 
office of procurator, a post second only to that of the prior 
of the house. This post he can have held but a year or 
two. Had he held it a short time longer, he would have 
succeeded, with little doubt, to the priory of the Great 
Chartreuse, then one of the proudest pre-eminences in the 
religious world. Such, however, was not to be his destiny. 
Henry the Second of England was founding a Carthusian 
convent at Witham, in Somersetshire, the first of the Order 
in this country. Difficulties and disorders obstructed the 
royal purpose. At length, hearing of the fame of Hugh, 
and assured certainly that he was the man of all others 
who would succeed in carrying his designs into full and 
good effect, Henry managed, with difficulty, to procure his 
removal for this purpose into England. This was probably 
in A.D. 1175 or 1176. 

" Hugh did not disappoint the expectations formed of 
him. All difficulties soon vanished, upon his taking the 
rule of Witham .... of which establishment, which soon 
became the admiration of all .... he was prior about ten 
years. He became an especial favourite of Henry II. In 
the year 1186, mainly through the royal influence, and 
that of Archbishop Baldwin, of Canterbury, he was made 
Bishop of Lincoln. 

" Sorely had he striven against this removal from the 
religious calm of his beloved Carthusian cell to so dif- 
ferent a sphere of action. But, once compelled to ac- 
quiesce, he brought all his determined earnestness and 
untiring energy to the duties of his new station. It may 
be safely said that a more zealous and indefatigable prelate 
than was Bishop Hugh of Lincoln seldom, if ever, pre- 
sided over a see of our own or any other Christian land 

412 fmtoln Cafytbral. 

He was Bishop of Lincoln for little more than fourteen 
years, dying in the autumn of A.D. 1200 k ." 

Several remarkable anecdotes, principally from the prose 
lives, illustrating the character of St. Hugh, his " resolute 
unbending firmness of purpose in what he believed to be 
right," his " cool and excellent judgment," his " singular 
and exquisite tact," and his mixture .of cheerfulness with 
asceticism, will be found in Mr. Dimock's Introduction. 
His great work at Lincoln was the rebuilding of his cathe- 
dral ; which, as we have seen, had been ruined by an earth- 
quake the year before his consecration. The remarkable 
description of this work, contained in the " Metrical Life," 
will be found in Part III. 

St. Hugh was canonized by the Pope, Honorius III., in 
1220; and in 1280 his body was translated, with great 
ceremony, into the newly-built eastern part of the cathe- 
dral the so-called " Angel-choir." This translation took 
place at the cost of Thomas Bek, who on the same day was 
consecrated to the see of St. David's. (See post, Bp. OLIVER 
SUTTON.) Numerous miracles were said to be worked at his 
shrine. " Up to the time of the Keformation, no such saint 
in the English calendar, with one exception, had his fame 
more widely spread, or received more earnest reverence. 
The one exception is, of course, St. Thomas Becket ; with 
whom, however, Hugh of Lincoln has no cause to fear 
comparison. With fully as stern a resolution to defend 
the rights of the Church against the encroachments of 
the State, in many other points the character of Hugh 
was a far finer one, and his consistent life more saint- 
like, than can ever be truly predicated of Becket. .... 
So long as his cathedral stands, in its grand beauty, the 
name of Bishop Hugh of Lincoln cannot altogether be 

forgotten He only wants now to be rightly known, 

in order to be more rightly appreciated. We can still, I 

k J. F. Dimock, Introd., i.-iii. 

MUtam of glob, gogfe of fflblfe. 413 

hope, admire the upright, honest, fearless man; we can 
still revere the earnest, holy, Christian bishop V 

The emblem which generally accompanies representations 
of St. Hugh is his pet swan, which is said to have taken 
up its abode at Stow,' the episcopal manor-house, on the 
day of the Bishop's installation at Lincoln. It formed 
an especial attachment to St. Hugh; and displayed ex- 
treme grief on his last visit to Stow, before going to 
London, where he died. " Hsec avis," says the " Metrical 

" in vita candens, in funere cantans, 

Sancti pontificis vitam mortemque figurat : 
Candens dum vivit, notat hunc vixisse pudicum, 
Cantans dum moritur, notat hunc decedere tutum." 

Bishop Hugh died in London, and was brought to 
Lincoln for interment, the journey taking up six days. 
King John and his nobles, then holding a council in the 
city, assisted in conveying the bier into the cathedral. 
Three archbishops, nine bishops, " populus abbatum, turba 
priorum," were also present. 

[A.D. 1203 1206.] WILLIAM OP BLOIS. After the death of 
St. Hugh there was for some time a dispute between the 
King and the Chapter as to the right of election to the 
vacant see. William of Blois, Prebendary and Precentor 
of Lincoln, was elected by the Chapter in 1201 ; but was 
not consecrated until 1203. 

From 1206, in which year William of Blois died, to 
1209, the see was again vacant. In that year 

[A.D. 12091235.] HUGH OF WELLS, of which cathedral 
he had been Archdeacon, and Canon of Lincoln, was ap- 
pointed. The interdict pronounced by Pope Innocent was 
still in force ; and Hugh was ordered by King John to 
proceed for consecration to the Archbishop ot Eouen, 
rather than to Stephen Langton, the exiled Archbishop of 

1 Dimock, Introd., xii. xiii. 

414 $woln (fcafyebrsl 

Canterbury. The bishop elect, however, found Archbishop 
Stephen at Melun, and was there consecrated by him: 
John accordingly seized the temporalities of Lincoln, which 
he retained until after his submission to Pandulf, in 1213. 

Little is recorded of Bishop Hugh's long episcopate. It 
is probable that the cathedral commenced by St. Hugh was 
far advanced, if not completed, by him ; as the great hall 
of the episcopal palace certainly was. In 1220, after an 
examination by Archbishop Stephen Langton, and John, 
Abbot of Fountains, of the miracles said to have been per- 
formed at the tomb of St. Hugh of Avalon, his canon- 
ization was solemnly decreed by the Pope, Honorius III. 

Bishop Hugh of Wells was buried in his own cathedral, 
at Lincoln. 

[A.D. 1235 1253.] EGBERT G-ROSTETE ; a worthy successor 
of St. Hugh, and one of the most remarkable men of the 
thirteenth century. 

" Kobert Grostgte was of humble birth : at Oxford his 
profound learning won the admiration of Roger Bacon. 
He translated the book called the * Testament of the 
Twelve Patriarchs.' He went to France to make him- 
self master of that language. He became Archdeacon of 
Leicester, and Bishop of Lincoln. As Bishop of that vast 
diocese he began to act with holy rigour unprecedented in 
his times. With him Christian morals were inseparable 
from Christian faith. He endeavoured to bring back the 
festivals of the Church, which had grown into days of idle- 
ness and debauchery, to their sacred character ; he would 
put down the Feast of Fools, held on New Year's day. But 
it was against the clergy, as on them altogether depended 
the holiness of the people, that he acted with the most im- 
partial severity. He was a Churchman of the highest 
hierarchical notions. Becket himself did not assert the 
immunities and privileges of the Church with greater 
intrepidity ; . . . . but those immunities, those privileges, 
implied heavier responsibility; that authority belonged 

justly only to a holy, exemplary, unworldly clergy. Every- 
where he was encountered with sullen, stubborn, or open 
resistance. He was condemned as restless, harsh, pas- 
sionate The dean and chapter of Lincoln were his 

foremost and most obstinate opponents; the clergy as- 
serted their privileges, the monasteries their papal exemp- 
tions : the nobles complained of his interference with their 
rights of patronage ; the King himself that he sternly pro- 
hibited the clergy from all secular offices ; they must not 
act as the King's justiciaries, or sit to adjudge capital 
offences. His allies were the new Orders, the Preachers 
and Mendicants. He addressed letters of confidence to the 
generals of both Orders. He resolutely took his stand on 
his right of refusing institution to unworthy clergy. He 
absolutely refused to admit to benefices pluralist??, boys, 
those employed in the King's secular service, in the courts 
of judicature, or the collection of the revenue ; in many 
cases foreigners ; he resisted alike Churchmen, the Chan- 
cellor of Exeter ; nobles, he would not admit a son of the 
Earl of Ferrars, as under age ; the King, whose indigna- 
tion knew no bounds; he resisted the Cardinal Legates, 
the Pope himself m ." 

The Pope whom Robert Grostete thus resisted was In- 
nocent IV., the last opponent of the great Emperor, 
Frederick II., than whom no Eoman pontiff carried the 
papal claims farther. " Grostete received command, through 
his Nuncio, to confer a canonry of Lincoln on the nephew 
of Innocent, a boy, Frederick of Louvain. Grostete was 
not daunted by the ascendant power of the Pope. His 
answer was a firm, resolute, argumentative refusal : * I am 
bound by filial reverence to obey all commands of the 
Apostolic See ; but those are not apostolic commands which 
are not consonant to the doctrine of the Apostles, and the 
Master of the Apostles, Christ Jesus You cannot in 

m Milman's Latin Christianity, vol. iv. pp. 468, 469. 

416 fxnorltt 

your discretion enact any penalty against me, for my re- 
sistance is neither strife nor rebellion, but filial affection to 
my father, and veneration for my mother the Church V 

The passion of Innocent, on receiving this letter, is said 
to have been extreme ; but he listened at last to the more 
moderate counsels of his cardinals, and "acknowledged, 
almost in apologetic tone, that he had been driven by the 
difficulties of the times, and the irresistible urgency of 
partisans, to measures which he did not altogether ap- 

" On Grostete's death it was believed that music was 
heard in the air, bells of distant churches tolled of their 
own accord, miracles were wrought at his grave and in his 
church at Lincoln. But it was said, likewise, that the in- 
exorable Pontiff entertained the design of having his body 
disinterred and his bones scattered. But Robert GrostSte 
himself appeared in a vision, dressed in his pontifical robes, 
before the Pope. ' Is it thou, Sinibald, thou miserable Pope, 
who wilt cast my bones out of their cemetery, to thy disgrace 
and that of the church of Lincoln ? . . . . Woe to thee who 
hast despised, thou shalt be despised in thy turn ! ' The 
Pope felt as if each word pierced him like a spear. From 
that night he was wasted by a slow fever. The hand of 
God was upon him. All his schemes failed; his armies 
were defeated ; he passed neither day nor night undisturbed. 
Such was believed by a large part of Christendom to have 
been the end of Pope Innocent IV. " 

Bishop Robert was the correspondent and friend of 
Adam Marsh (de Marisco), the learned Franciscan friar, 
whose letters have been printed in the Monumenta Francis- 
cana, edited by the Rev. J. S. Brewer ; and was, according 
to Matthew Paris, the special adviser and confessor of the 
great Earl Simon de Montfort. He died, however, long 
before the Barons' War. His character can only fairly be 

m Milman's Latin Christianity, rol. iv. pp. 468, 469. Id. 


understood in connection with the history of his time, 
when England lay more completely than ever, before, or 
since, under the control of the Pope. Matthew Paris, little 
as he admired him while living, was not sparing of pane- 
gyric after his death. " Fuit Domini Papse et Regis re- 
dargutor manifestus, Praalatorum correptor, Monachorum 
corrector, Presbyterorum director, Clericorum instructor, 
scholarium sustentator, populi preedicator, incontinentium 
persecutor, Scriptuarum sedttlus perscrutator diversarum, 
Romanorum malleus et contemptor. In mensa refectionis 
corporalis dapsilis, copiosus et civilis, hilaris et affabilis : 
in mensa vero spiritual! devotus, lachrymosus et contritus : 
in officio Pontifical! sedulus, venerabilis, et infatigabilis p ." 

Unlike St. Hugh, or his contemporary, Edmund Rich, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert GrostSte was never 
solemnly canonized. Like Waltheof, who was interred at 
Crowland, however, and like Simon de Montfort, Bishop 
Robert was canonized by the voice of the English people. 
His tomb, in the south-east transept of his cathedral, was 
especially reverenced ; and, as direct proof of his sanctity, 
an oil was said to distil from it. No direct record exists 
of his works in the cathedral ; but the stone lattice- work, 
which, on good grounds, is believed to mark his building, 
is seen on- the west front, the central tower, and other 
parts of the fabric. There was a tradition that the frag- 
ments of a magic head, constructed by Bishop Robert, 
were preserved in the vaulting : 

" Fabricat sere caput .... 
Dum caput erigitur corruit ima petens. 

Scinditur in cineres .... 
Dicunt rulgares, quod adhuc Lincolnia mater 

In volta capitis fragmina servat ea<i." 

Robert GrostSte died at Buckden, Oct. 10, 1253. He 

P M. Paris, p. 754 (ed. Watts). 

q Ric. Mon. Bardeniensis, de Vita R. Grosthead Anglia Sacra, 
vol. ii. p. 326. 

VOL. II. PT. I. 2K 


was buried at Lincoln, Oct. 13, the Archbishop Boniface 
officiating, assisted by the Bishop of London, the Bishop 
of Worcester, in the presence of " a countless multitude 
of clergy and people, who nocked from all quarters to 
do honour to one who, in maintaining the rights of the 
Church and realm of England, had bearded the King upon 
his throne, and contemned even the maledictions of the 
Pope r ." His letters have been edited, with a most valuable 
Introduction, by H. R. Luard (Longmans, 1861).' 
[A.D. 1254 1258.] HENRY LEXINGTON, Treasurer of Salis- 
bury 1245, Dean of Lincoln, was elected by the Chapter 
in opposition to the wishes of the King, who had named 
Peter de Aquablanca, Bishop of Hereford. The most 
remarkable event of his episcopate was the persecution 
of the Jews of Lincoln on account of the death of " Little 
St. Hugh," or St. Hugh the Less, a child who was 
found dead in a well, and who was said to have been 
sacrificed at the Passover, in contempt of our Lord, by the 
Jews. A process was commenced against the Jews by 
the authorities and clergy of Lincoln; and thirty-two 
of them were in consequence put to death : some of whom 
were tied to the feet of wild horses, dragged out of the 
city till they were dead, and then hanged on gibbets 
at the common place of execution. A long account of 
the whole proceeding will be found in Matthew Paris. 
The ballad of " St. Hugh of Lincoln " records the popular 
version of it ; and Chaucer thus alludes to it at the end of 
the " Prioress' Tale : " 

" younge Hew of Lincolne slain also, 
With cursed Jewes, as it is notable, 
For it n'is but a litel while ago, 
Pray eke for us, we sinful folk unstable, 
That of his mercie God so merciable 
On us His grete mercie multiplie, 
For reverence of His Mother Marie." 

r Dean Hook, Lives of the Archbishops, vol. iii. p. 276. 
8 See also " The Life and Times of Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of 
Lincoln," by Canon Perry, published by the S.P.C.K., 1871. 

10 alhrb. 419 

Eighteen Jews had been put to death at Norwich twenty 
years before, on a similar accusation. (See NORWICH 

- CATHEDRAL, Pt. II.) The shrine of St. Hugh has been 
noticed, Pt. I. xxiv. It was opened in 1790, when the 
skeleton of a child was found in the coffin. 

[A.D. 1258 1279.] RICHARD OF G-RAVESEND, Dean of Lin- 
coln 1254. With the Bishops of London, Winchester, and 
Chichester, he adhered to the party of the Barons ; and, 
like those Bishops, was excommunicated by the Papal 
Legate, Cardinal Ottoboni. 

[A.D. 1280 1299.] OLIVER SUTTON, Dean of Lincoln 1275. 
During his episcopate the cloister, to which he contributed 
fifty marks, was built ; the cathedral precinct was enclosed 
with a wall, " because of the homicides and other atrocities 
perpetrated by thieves and malefactors;" and houses for 
the Yicars Choral were built at the Bishop's own expense. 
But the great event of Bishop Oliver's episcopate was 
the translation of the body of St. Hugh, which, on the 
octave of St. Michael, 1280, was solemnly deposited within 
its shrine in the new presbyter^, or " Angel-choir." Edward 
the First and his Queen ; Edmund " the King's brother," 
and the Queen of Navarre, his wife ; the Archbishops of 
Canterbury (John Peckham) and Edessa * ; many bishops, 
and 230 knights, were present. Two conduits outside the 
gate of the Bishop's manor ran with wine. The whole cost 
of the translation was defrayed by Thomas Bek, who on 
the same day was consecrated to the bishopric of St. David's. 
He was brother of Antony, the powerful Bishop of Durham 
and Patriarch of Jerusalem, who at his own consecration, 
three years and a-half afterwards, translated the remains of 
St. William of York at his own expense. 

[A.D. 13001320.] JOHN of DALDERBY, Chancellor of Lin- 
coln. The upper part of the central tower dates from his 

* The Crusaders had identified Edessa with Rages in Media. 
This Archbishop was an Englishman (Rishanger's Chron., p. 54). 
His see had been for many years in the hands of the infidels. 

2 E 2 


episcopate. He had been prebendary of St. David's, and 
in 1293 became Chancellor of Lincoln. Letters of indul- 
gence exist, dated March 9, 1307, granting a relaxation of 
forty days, " de injuncta" sibi penitential" to any one who 
should assist in building the tower. In 1310 the bowels 
of Queen Eleanor, who died at Harby, were interred in the 
cathedral. During his episcopate (1308) he was appointed 
by the Pope one of the Commissioners to hear and try the 
charges against the unhappy Knights Templars. The 
accused from many of the Midland Counties were brought 
together at Lincoln, and confined in the Clasket gate. 
The process was heard in the chapter-house. Being satis- 
fied in his own mind that there was " no case " against the 
Templars, Dalderby withdrew from the inquiry, which 
resulted in the perpetual imprisonment of those who 
refused to confess, in certain monasteries, their property 
being confiscated. Fourpence a day was allowed for their 
maintenance. (Pt. I. xxi.) Little is recorded of the 
personal life of Bishop Dalderby, who died at Stow in 
1320, and was buried in the south transept, where his 
remains were afterwards placed in a silver shrine. He 
left behind him a reputation for singular piety and upright- 
ness. " Tanquam sanctus colebatur," says Godwin ; and 
numerous attempts were made, but in vain, to procure his 
canonization during the subsequent episcopate of Bishop 
Burghersh. Many miracles were said to have been wrought 
at his tomb. 

Anthony Bek, Chancellor of Lincoln, was elected by the 
Chapter on Bishop Dalderby's death. His election was, 
however, annulled by the Pope, who appointed 
[A.D. 1320 1340.] HENRY BURGHERSH, Treasurer 1327, and 
Chancellor of England 1328 ; grandson of Bartholomew 
de Badlesmere, the great Baron of Leeds Castle, by whose 
influence he obtained his bishopric, when only in his thir- 
tieth year. He was the son of Sir Robert of Burghersh, 
and brother of Bartholomew, Lord Burghersh. In 1329 he 

gi&jjojjs |torxjljer8|r 10 IJokjmlmm. 421 

accompanied Edward III', to France, and was frequently 
employed by him in diplomatic services. Not long be- 
fore his death, which occurred at Ghent, Bishop Burghersh 
had enclosed a park or deer chase, at Tinghurst, and in 
order to do so effectually had seized on certain lands held 
by some of his poorer neighbours. Their imprecations on 
the Bishop were loud and deep ; and Walsingham asserts 
that after his death he appeared to one of his friends, 
dressed in a short coat of Lincoln green, with a horn slung 
round his neck, and carrying a bow and arrows. As a 
punishment for his wrongs against the poor, he declared 
that he had been made keeper of the chase at Tinghurst ; 
and that he was condemned to wander about until the 
fences should be again thrown down and the lands restored 
to their former owners. The Canons of Lincoln accord- 
ingly, having been duly informed of the Bishop's distress, 
proceeded to relieve him 'in the way he had pointed out. 
Bishop Burghersh's tomb remains at the end of the retro- 
choir. (Pt. I. xvm.) 

[A.D. 13421347.] THOMAS BEK, nephew of the great 
Bishop of Durham, and brother of Anthony B^k, Bishop 
of Norwich. 

[A.D. 1347 1362.] JOHN GYNWELL, Prebendary of Lincoln, 
Salisbury, and York ; Archdeacon of Northampton 1346. 
He was engaged in vexatious controversies with Arch- 
bishop Islip with regard to metropolitical visitation, and 
his power over the University of Oxford. In both the 
Archbishop proved victorious. The exemption from visita- 
tion, which Gynwell had purchased at an enormous cost 
from Clement VI., was nullified, and he was declared, by 
the papal authorities, obliged to confirm the Chancellor of 
the University, duly appointed, at the first requirement. 

[A.D. 1363 1398.] JOHN BOKYNGHAM, Archdeacon of North- 
ampton. Dean of Lichfield, and Keeper of the Privy Seal. 
During his episcopate the head of St. Hugh, in its golden 
reliquary, was stolen from the cathedral. The thieves, 


after stripping away the gold and jewels, flung the head 
into a field ; where, says Knighton, it was watched by a 
crow until recovered by the confession of the thieves them- 
selves, and brought back to Lincoln". Bishop Bokyngham 
was, much against his will, translated to Lichfield by the 
Pope, in 1398. He refused, however, to accept a bishopric 
the revenues of which were so much less than those of 
Lincoln, and retired to Canterbury, where he died a 

John of Welbourn was treasurer of Lincoln from 1350 
to 1380, and was a great benefactor to the cathedral. 
Among others of his benefactions enumerated in a volume 
preserved in the Chapter Record-room are, " Qui eciam 
ut Gustos Sancti Hugonis fecit reparari ii. costas superiores 
feretri ejusdem, cum uno tabernaculo et i. ymagine Sancti 
Pauli stantis in eodem ex parte boriali, cum plato de auro 
puro, quse fuerant pro antea depicts ; et eciam canopeum 
novum de ligno pro eodem. Qui eciam, post furacionem 
et spoliacionem capitis Sancti Hugonis, de novo fecit cum 
auro et argento et lapidibus preciosis ornari et reparari. 
Qui eciam existens magister fabrics, fuit principalis causa 
movens de factura duarum voltarum campanilium in fine 
occidentali monasterii, et eciam voltas altioris campanilis. 
Ac eciam fecit fieri lieges in fine occidentali predicta ; ac 
eciam facturam horilogii quod vocatur Clok. Et inceptor 
et consultor incepcionis facturse stallorum novorum in 
ecclesia cathedrali Lincoln." 

[A.D. 1398, translated to Winchester 1405.] HENRY BEAU- 
FORT, son of John of Gaunt by Catherine Swynford, who 
was buried at Lincoln during his episcopate. Her tomb 
remains in the cathedral. (Pt. I. xv.) For a long notice 
of Cardinal Beaufort, whose death-bed has been so wonder- 
fully and so unfairly painted by Shakespeare, see WINCHES- 

u Knighton, ap. Twysden, Decem Scriptores. The same 
chronicler asserts that many similar robberies of shrines and 
relics took place about this time. 

anb- Jtohtg. 423 

TER CATHEDRAL, Part II. He died in 1447, and was "buried 
at Winchester, where his superb chantry still remains. 

[A.D. 1405 1419.] PHILIP OF REPINGDON (i.e. Repton, in 
Derbyshire, where he was born) was for some time 
before his elevation to the episcopate a vigorous Wickliffite, 
and in 1382 preached a violent sermon in defence of 
Wickliffe's doctrines before the archiepiscopal commissary, 
Dr. Stokes, at St. Frideswide's. He was suspended by the 
University, on which he appealed to John of Gaunt and 
Archbishop Courtenay. The latter appointed Repingdon 
and his companions a hearing before a court of inquiry at 
the Black Friars, London. Their answers were pronounced 
heretical, but ulterior proceedings were stopped by recanta- 
tion at Paul's Cross. Honours were then poured thick 
upon him. He became Abbot of Leicester (1400), and 
Chancellor of Oxford (1400). Pope Innocent VII. intruded 
him into the see of Lincoln ; and in 1408 Gregory XII. 
made him a cardinal. Having, by accepting the car- 
dinalate, transgressed the law, and incurred the penalties 
of a prasmunire, Repingdon resigned his bishopric, Oct. 14, 
1419. He died in obscurity, about the year 1434, and 
was interred in Lincoln Cathedral, near the grave of his 
great predecessor Robert Groste'te. 

[A.D. 14201431.] RICHARD FLEMING, Canon of York, 
was nominated by the Pope (and consecrated at Florence) 
on the resignation of Repingdon. In 1426 Bishop Fleming 
was translated by Papal authority to the vacant see of 
York ; but his translation was resisted by Henry V., who 
refused to restore the temporalities. Bishop Fleming was 
accordingly compelled to be translated back to Lincoln ; as 
bishop of which see he had executed the sentence of the 
Council of Constance in 1425, which ordered the body of 
Wickliffe to be exhumed, as that of a heretic, the bones 
to be burnt, and the ashes thrown into the nearest river. 
(The church of Lutterworth, in which Wickliffe had been 
buried, was in the diocese of Lincoln.) Bishop Fleming 

424 Jpnxoltt <a%bral. 

was buried in the chapel erected by himself on the north 
side of the choir. (Pt. I. xvm.) He was the founder 
(1430) of Lincoln College, Oxford ; the buildings of which 
were further advanced by Thomas Beckington (1443 
1464), Bishop of Bath and Wells, and completed by 
Thomas Scott, or Kotherham, translated (1480) to the see 
of York from. Lincoln (see post}. 

[A.D. 14311436.] WILLIAM GRAY, of Baliol College, 
Oxford, Dean of York, Bishop of London, translated to 
Lincoln from London (see LONDON). 

[A.D. 1436 1349.] WILLIAM ALNWICK, Confessor to Henry 
VI., was translated to Lincoln from Norwich. At Nor- 
wich Bishop Alnwick almost rebuilt the west front of his 
cathedral (see NORWICH) ; and the west windows at Lincoln 
are erroneously said to be his work. (Pt. I. in.) He was 
a great benefactor to the Philosophy Schools at Cambridge. 

[A.D. 1450, died the same year.] MARMADUKE LUMLEY, 
Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Archdeacon of North- 
umberland, Precentor of Lincoln (1424), translated by papal 
provision from Carlisle, of which see he had been bishop 
for twenty years. He gave 200 toward the building of 
Queens' College, Cambridge ; and supplied the library with 
many books. 

[A.D. 1452 1271.] JOHN CHEDWORTH, Canon of Lincoln, 
Archdeacon of Wilts, and second Provost of Queens' Col- 
lege, Cambridge, was elected after the see had been vacant 
for more than twelve months. In 1554 Bishop Ched- 
worth, and Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, were ap- 
pointed by Henry VI. to revise the statutes of his two 
royal colleges at Eton and Cambridge. 

[A.D. 14721480.] THOMAS SCOTT, or KOTHERHAM, Master 
of Pembroke College, Cambridge, and Chancellor of that 
University, translated to Lincoln from Rochester, was 
elevated to the see of York in 1840. He died in 1500, 
having for some time been Chancellor of England. Lin- 
coln College, Oxford, was completed by him. (See YORK.) 


[A.D. 14801494.] JOHN RUSSELL, translated to Lincoln 
from Rochester. He was the first Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford who retained the office for life, his pre- 
decessors having been elected by year. He was educated 
at Winchester and New College, became Prebendary 
of St. Paul's 1474, and Archdeacon of Berks 1468. He 
was much employed in diplomatic service at the Court of 
Burgundy. He became Keeper of the Privy Seal 1474, 
and Chancellor 1483. He was consecrated Bishop of 
Rochester 1476, and was appointed by Edward IV. tutor 
to the infant Prince of Wales, and one of the executors of 
his will. " There is a mystery about Bishop Russell's 
conduct in the reigns of Edward V. and Richard III. There 
can be but little doubt that he was in correspondence with 
the Earl of Richmond, although he continued in office 
under Richard III. ; and it is certain that Richmond, who 
had trusted him at first, required him in 1485 to deliver 
up the Great Seal. During the remainder of his life, 
after the accession of Henry VII., he remained in retire- 
ment x ; his piety, learning, and general knowledge of 
affairs being greatly prized by Sir Thomas More. Buck- 
den Palace was almost rebuilt by him, as well as the 
Chancery at Lincoln. He died at Nettleham. He was 
buried in the chapel which he had. built during his life, 
on the south side of the retro-choir at -Lincoln. (Pt. I. 

[A.D. 1496 1514.] WILLIAM SMITH. Margaret Countess 
of Richmond was his patroness, and he was probably 
educated in the household of Thomas Earl of Derby. He 
graduated in law at Oxford, though his college is uncertain, 
but removed to Cambridge, where he became a Fellow 
of Pembroke. In 1485 he became Clerk of the Hanaper, 
and soon after a Privy Councillor and Archdeacon of 
Surrey. He was consecrated to the see of Lichfield 

1 Hook, Lives of the Archbishops, vol. v. p. 421. 

426 f meofo 

February 3, 1493, and was translated to Lincoln 1495. 
" ' A good name,' observes Fuller, ' is an ointment poured 
out,' saith Solomon ; and this man, wheresoever he went, 
may be followed by the perfumes of cnarity he left behind 
him." At Lichfield he founded a hospital and a school ; 
and at Oxford he commenced the rebuilding of Brasenose 
College on the site of the ancient hall of that name. That 
college accordingly retains his arms (Argent, a chevron 
sable between three roses gules), and he is regarded as its 
founder. Bishop Smith was Chancellor of Oxford ; and 
was appointed the first President of Wales by Henry VII. ; 
" that politick Prince," says Fuller, " having, to ease 
and honour his native country of Wales, erected a court 
of Presidency, conformable to the Parliaments of France, 
in the Marches thereof." The Bishop was buried in his 
own cathedral at Lincoln. 

[A.D. 1514.] THOMAS WOLSEY was Bishop of Lincoln for 
nearly twelve months, before his elevation to York. 

[A.D. 1514 20.] WILLIAM ATWATEB, Fellow of Magdalen, 
Oxford, Prebendary of Lincoln, St. David's, Wells, and 
Windsor, Fellow of Eton, Dean of Salisbury, Archdeacon 
of Huntingdon and of Lewes, Dean of the Chapel Royal. 
He died at Wooburn Palace, Bucks. 

[A.D. 1321 1547.J JOHN LONGLAND, Dean of Salisbury, 
Prebendary of Lincoln, Canon of Windsor, and Con- 
fessor of Henry VIII. For the greater part of his epis- 
copate during which the bishoprics of Oxford and Peter- 
borough were erected out of portions of his vast diocese 
he was Chancellor of Oxford. His chantry has been 
noticed, Pt. I. xxii. He died at Wooburn Palace, and 
his body was buried at Eton, his heart alone being in- 
terred in the chantry he had erected at Lincoln. 

[A.D. 1547 1551.] HENEY HOLBEACH, alias BANDS; had 
been consecrated Suffragan Bishop of Bristol in 1538 ; in 
1544 he was appointed Bishop of "Rochester ; and was 
thence translated to Lincoln. The temporalities were 

f olbrnfe to garlofa. 427 

restored to Bishop Holbeach in 1547 ; and in the follow- 
ing September he resigned to the Crown (Edw. VI.) a 
large proportion of the manors belonging to the see ; 
and " in short," Browne Willis says, " gave up what- 
ever was asked of him, leaving his successors not so 
much as one palace except that of Lincoln." In 1551 
Buckden was restored to the see. 

[A.D. 15521554.] JOHN TAYLOR, Master of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and Dean of Lincoln 1548. On the 
accession of Mary, Bishop Taylor refused to be present at 
the celebration of Mass, and was accordingly deprived ; 
escaping further penalties by his death, which occurred at 
Ankerwyke, in Buckinghamshire. 

[A.D. 1554 ; translated to Winchester 1556.] JOHN WHITE. 

[A.D. 15571559.] THOMAS WATSON, Master of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and Dean of Durham, a decided 
opponent of the Reformation, was deprived on the ac- 
cession of Elizabeth. He was consigned to the care 
of the Bishops of Ely and Rochester, successively, and 
was finally imprisoned in Wisbech Castle, where he 
died in 1584, and was buried in the parish church of 

[A.D. 1560 ; translated to Worcester 1570.] NICHOLAS 
BULLINGHAM, Archdeacon and Prebendary of Lincoln 

[A.D. 1571 ; translated to Winchester 1584.] THOMAS 
COOPER, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford (see WINCHESTER). 

[A.D. 1584 ; translated to Winchester 1594.] WILLIAM 
WICKHAM, Dean and Prebendary of Lincoln, Westminster, 
and Windsor, and Fellow of Eton (see WINCHESTER). 

[A.D. 1595 1608.] WILLIAM CHADERTON, President of 
Queens' College, Cambridge, Warden of Manchester, was 
consecrated Bishop of Chester in 1579 ; and in 1594 was 
translated to Lincoln. . 

[A..D. 16081613.] WILLIAM BARLOW, Dean of Chester, 
Prebendary of St. Paul's, Westminster, and Canterbury; 

428 f hitoln Csifcebrsl. 

translated to Lincoln from Rochester. Bishop Barlow 
was a great benefactor to St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and was " esteemed by all a very learned and pious 

[A.D. 1614; translated to Durham 1617.] RICHARD NEILE, 
passed successively through the sees of Rochester, Lich- 
field, Lincoln, Durham, and Winchester, to the archi- 
episcopal see of York (see that Cathedral), where he died 
in 1640 (see YORK). 

[A.D. 1617; translated to London 1621.] GEORGE MON- 
TEIGNE. He passed from London to Durham, and thence 
to York (see YORK). 

[A.D. 1621; translated to York 1641.] JOHN WILLIAMS, 
the well-known opponent of Laud, was a native of Car- 
narvonshire, and educated at Cambridge. On the 
removal of Lord Chancellor Bacon in 1621, Williams 
was made Keeper of the Great Seal ; and, in the same 
month, Bishop of Lincoln: with which see he held the 
deanery of Westminster and the rectory of Waldgrave 
in commendam. A full notice of Archbishop Williams, 
whose life belongs to the history of his time, will be 
found in the Handbook to YORK CATHEDRAL, Pt. II. 

[A.D. 1642, died 1654.] THOMAS WINKIFFE, born at Sher- 
borne in Dorset, Dean successively of Gloucester and 
London, was expelled from his see during the Civil War, 
and retired to Lamborne in Essex ; of which place, says 
Fuller, he had been for some time the " painful minister." 
He died there in 1654, and was buried in the parish 

[A.D. 1660 1663.] RORERT SANDERSON, the most eminent 
casuist of the English Church, who descended from an 
ancient family, and born at Rotherham, in Yorkshire, in 
1587. He was educated at Lincoln College, Oxford, and 
became rector successively of Wybberton and of Boothby 
Pagnel, both in Lincolnshire ; and in 1629 Prebendary of 
Lincoln. He was recommended by Laud as one of the 

Santeum anfr Jailer. 429 

King's chaplains ; and Charles I. used to say that " he 
carried his ears to hear other preachers, but his conscience 
to hear Mr. Sanderson." In 1642 Sanderson was by the 
King appointed Professor of Divinity at Oxford ; and he 
was concerned in many of the discussions during the Civil 
War, before, in 1647 and 1648, he obtained leave to attend 
Charles I. during his retention at Hampton Court and 
in the Isle of Wight. In the latter year he was deprived 
of his Professorship by the Parliamentary Visitors, and 
retired to Boothby Pagnel, where he was permitted to 
remain, not altogether undisturbed, until the Restoration. 
During his retirement he wrote, at the request of Robert 
Boyle, his book De Conscientid. 

On the Restoration, Sanderson was elevated to the see 
of Lincoln. He nearly rebuilt the palace at Buckden, 
which had been ruined by the Puritans, and was buried in 
the chancel of the parish church there, after having held 
the bishopric for not quite two years. The reputation of 
Bishop Sanderson was great during his lifetime. " That 
staid and well weighed man, Dr. Sanderson," says 
Hammond, " conceives ajl things deliberately, dwells 
upon them discreetly, discerns things that differ exactly, 
passeth his judgment rationally, and expresses it aptly, 
clearly, and honestly." His life is one of those written 
by Izaak Walton. His works have been frequently re- 
printed ; the most important being " Sermons," " Cases of 
Conscience," " De Juramenti Olligatione" " De Obliga- 
tions Conscientice" 

[A.D. 1663 ; translated to Ely 1667.] BENJAMIN LANEY, 
Master of Pembroke, Cambridge, Prebendary of West- 
minster and Winchester, and Dean of Rochester, translated 
to Lincoln from Peterborough (see ELY.) 

[A.D. 1667 1675.] WILLIAM FULLER, Dean of St. Patrick's ; 
( translated from Limerick. Bishop Fuller bestowed much 
cost and labour, but little correct taste, in adorning his 
cathedral. The memorial on the site of the shrine of St. 


Hugh and the misplaced epitaph to Remigius w er e set up 
by him. 

[A.D. 16751691.] THOMAS BARLOW, Archdeacon of Ox- 
ford. Browne Willis calls him " A thorney and paced 
Calvinist," and Godwin asserts that he never held a 
visitation within his diocese, and, what is more incredible, 
that he never saw his cathedral at Lincoln. He de- 
fended the strongest measures of James II., but was 
equally ready to do homage to William III. Bishop 
Barlow's learning was considerable, and he has been 
especially praised by Clarendon, who applied to him the 
words of Cicero, " Non unum in multis, sed unum inter 
omnes prope singularem." 

[A.D. 1692 ; translated to Canterbury 1694.] THOMAS 

[A.D. 1695 1704.] JAMES GARDINER. Bishop Gardiner 
was educated at Emanuel College, Cambridge. He be- 
came Chaplain to the Duke of Monmouth, Sub-dean 
and Prebendary of Lincoln, and Prebendary of Salis- 

[A.D. 1705 ; translated to Canterbury 1715.] WILLIAM 

[A.D. 1716 ; translated to London 1723.] EDMUND GIBSON. 

[A.D. 1723 1744.] KICHARD KEYNOLDS; translated from 
Bangor. Bishop Reynolds was Chancellor of the Diocese 
of Peterborough, and Prebendary and Dean of the same 
cathedral ; consecrated Bishop of Bangor 1721. 

[A.D. 1744 ; translated to Salisbury 1761.] JOHN THOMAS. 

[A.D. 17611779.] JOHN GREEN. 

[A.D. 1779; translated to Durham 1787.] THOMAS THUR- 

[A.D. 1787 ; translated to Winchester 1820.] GEORGE 

[A.D. 1820 1827.] GEORGE PELHAM ; translated from 

[A.D. 1827 1853.] JOHN KAYE; translated from Bristol. 


Master of Christ's College, Cambridge, 1814, Bishop of 

Bristol 1820. 
[A.D. 18531869.] JOHN JACKSON, Eector of St. James's, 

Piccadilly, 1846, Canon of Bristol 1852; translated to 

[A.D. 1869.] CHRISTOPHER WORDSWORTH, Head Master of 

Harrow School 1836, Canon (1844) and Archdeacon of 

Westminster 1865. 





PONTIFICIS vero pontern facit ad Paradisum 
Provida religio, provisio religiosa; 
^dificare Sion in simplicitate laborans, 
Non in sanguinibus. Et mira construit arto 
Ecclesiae cathedralis opus : quod in sedificando 
Non solum concedit opes, operamque suorura, 
Sed proprii sudoris opem ; lapidesque frequenter 
Excisos fert in calatho, calcenique tenacem. 
Debilitas claudi, baculis suffulta duobus, 
Illius officium calathi sortitur, inesse 
Omen ei credens; successiveque duorum 
Indignatur opem baculorum. Rectificatqne 
Curvum, quaa rectos solet incurvare diffita. 

O gregis egregius, non mercenarius immo 
Pastor ! Ut ecclesi perhibet structura novella. 
Mater namque Sion dejecta jacebat et arcta, 
Errans, ignara, languens, anus, acris, egena, 
Vilis, turpis : Hugo dejectam sublevat, arctam 
Ampliat, errantem regit, ignaram docet, segram 
Sanat, anum renovat, acrem dulcorat, egenam 
Fecuudat, vilem decorat, turpemque decorat. 

gnilbing of Catfetbral bg St. $$. 433 

Funditus obruitur moles vetus, et nova surgit ; 
Surgentisque status formam crucis exprimit aptam. 
Tres integrales partes labor arduus unit : 
Nam fundament! moles solidissima surgit 
A centro, paries supportat in aera tectum : 
Sic fundamentum terras sepelitur in alvo 
Sed paries tectumque patent, ausuque superbo 
Evolat ad nubes paries, ad sidera tectum. 
Materiss pretio studium bene competit artis. 
Nam quasi pennatis avibus testudo locuta, 
Latas expandens alas, similisque volanti, 
Nubes offendit, solidis innisa columnis. 
Viscosusque liquor lapides conglutinat albos, 
Quos manus artificis omnes excidit ad unguem 
Et paries ex congerie constructus eorum, 
Hoc quasi dedignans, mentitur continuare 
Contiguas partes ; non esse videtur ab arte 
Quin a natura ; non res unita, sed una. 
Altera fulcit opus lapidum pretiosa nigrorum 
Materies, non sic uno contenta colore, 
Non tot laxa poris, sed crebro sidere fulgens, 
Et rigido compacta sinu : nulloque domari 
Dignatur ferro, nisi quando domatur ab arte ; 
Quando superficies nimiis laxatur arena 
Pulsibus, et solidum forti penetratur aceto. 
Inspectus lapis iste potest suspendere mentes, 
Ambiguas utrum jaspis marmorve sit ; at si 
Jaspis, hebes jaspis ; si manner, nobile marmor. 
Inde columnellse, quse sic cinxere columnas, 
Ut videantur ibi quamdam celebrare choream. 
Exterior facies, nascente politior ungue, 
Clara repercussis opponit visibus astra : 
Nam tot ibi pinxit varias fortuna figuras, 
Ut si picturam similem simulare laboret 
Ars conata diu, naturam vix imitetur. 
Sic junctura decens serie disponit honesta 
Mille columnellas ibi : quse rigidse, pretiosse, 
VOL. II. PT. I. 2 F 

434 Jmcoln <f a%bral. 

Fulgentes, opus ecclesiae totale rigore 
Perpetuant, pretio ditant, fulgore serenant. 
Ipsarum siquidem status est procerus et altus, 
Cultus sincerus et splendidus, ordo venustus 
Et geometricus, decor aptus et utilis, usus 
Gratus et eximius, rigor inconsumptus et acer. 

[Defenestris vitreis.~\ 

Splendida prsetendit oculis senigmata duplex 
Pompa fenestrarum ; cives inscripta supernss 
Urbis, et arma quibus Stygium domuere tyrannum. 
Majoresque duse, tamquam duo lumina ; quorum 
Orbiculare jubar, fines aquilonis et austri 
Kespiciens, gemina premit omnes luce fenestras. 
Illse conferri possunt vulgaribus astris ; 
Hsec duo sunt, unum quasi sol, aliud quasi luna. 
Sic caput ecclesise duo candelabra serenant, 
Vivis et variis imitata coloribus irim ; 
Non imitata quid em, sed praecellentia ; nam sol, 
Quando repercutitur in nubibus, efficit irim ; 
Ilia duo sine sole micant, sine nube coruscant. 

\_De allegoria singulorum.] 

Hsec, descripta quasi pueriliter, allegorise 
Pondus habent. Foris apparet quasi testa, sed intus 
Consistit nucleus ; foris est quasi cera, sed intus 
Est favus ; et lucet jucundior ignis in umbra. 
Nam fundamentum, paries, tectum, lapis albus 
Excisus, marmor planum, spectabile, nigrum, 
Ordo fenestrarum duplex, geminaeque fenestrse, 
Quse quasi despiciunt fines aquilonis et austri, 
In se magna quidem sunt, sed majora figurant. 

[De partilus ecclesice integrce.'] 

Est fundamentum corpus, paries homo, tectum 
Spiritus ; ecclesise triplex divisio. Corpus 
Terrain sortitur, homo nubes, spiritus astra. 

ife 0f St. fngfe. ftfee Catfeehal 435 

[De a/fo's lapidibus.~\ 

Albus et excisus castos lapis et sapientes 
Exprimit : albedo pudor est, excisio dogma. 

[De marmoribus.] 

Marmoris effigie, plana, splendente, nigella, 
Sponsa figuratur, simplex, morosa, laborans. 
Recte nimirum designat simplicitatem 
Planities, splendor mores, nigredo laborem. 

[De vitreis fenestris J\ 

Tllustrans mimdum divino lumine, cleri 
Est prseclara cohors, claris expressa fenestris. 
Ordo subalternus utrobique potestque notari ; 
Ordine canonicus exstante, vicarius imo. 
Et quia, canonico tractante negotia mundi, 
Jugis et assiduus divina vicarius implet, 
Sumnia fenestrarum series nitet inclita florum 
Involucro, mundi varium signante decorem ; 
Inferior perhibet sanctorum uomina patrum. 

\JDe duabus orbicularibus fenestris.] 

Prsebentes geminse jubar orbiculare fenestrae 
Ecclesise duo sunt oculi ; recteque videtur 
Major in his esse prsesul, minor esse decanus. 
Est aquilo zabulus, esst Sanctus Spiritus auster ; 
Quos oculi duo respiciunt. Nam respicit austrum 
Praesul, ut invitet ; aquilonem vero decanus, 
Ut vitet ; videt hie ut salvetur, videt ille 
Ne pereat. Frons ecclesise candelabra cceli, 
Et teuebras lethes, oculis circumspicit istis. 

\_Consummatio totius attegorice.~\ 

Sic insensibiles lapides mysteria claudunt 
Vivorum lapidum, manualis spiritualem 
Fabrica designat fabricam ; duplexque refulget 
Ecclesise facies, duplici decorata paratu. 


\_De crucifixo, et tabula aurea in introitu choriJ} 

Introitumque chori majestas aurea pingit : 
Et proprie propria crucifixus imagine Christus 
Exprimitur, vitaeque suse progressus ad iinguem 
Insinuatur ibi. Nee solum crux vel imago, 
Immo columnarum sex, lignorumque duorum 
Ampla superficies, obrizo fulgurat auro. 

[De Capitulo.'] 

Astant ecclesiae capitolia, qualia nunquam 
Eomanus possedit apex : spectabile quorum 
Vix opus inciperet nummosa pecunia Oroesi. 
Scilicet introitus ipsorum sunt quasi quadra 
Portions ; interius spatium patet orbiculare, 
Materia tentans templum Salomonis et arte. 
Si quorum vero perfectio rostat, Hugonis 
Perficietur opus primi sub Hugone secundo. 
Sic igitur tanto Lincolnia patre superbit, 
Qui tot earn titulis ex omni parte beavit. 


The following letter from M. Viollet-le-Duc appeared in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine " for May, 1861 : 

" I expected from what I had heard in England to find at 
Lincoln the French style of architecture ; i.e. some construc- 
tions of the end of the twelfth century and the beginning of the 
thirteenth which would shew the evident influence of a French 
architect. But after the most careful examination, I could not 
find in any part of the cathedral of Lincoln, neither in the 
general design, nor in any part of the system of architecture 
adopted, nor in any details of ornament, any trace of the French 
school of the twelfth century (the lay school from 1170 to 1220) 
so plainly characteristic of the cathedrals of Paris, Noyon, Senlis, 
Chartres, Sens, and even Kouen. The part of the cathedral of 

of p. tftolto-le-jpttc. 437 

Lincoln in which the influence of the French school has been 
supposed to be found, has no resemblance to this. I mean the 
choir. On the exterior, the choir of the cathedral of Lincoln is 
thoroughly English, or Norman, if you will. One can perceive 
all the Norman influence : arches acutely pointed ; blank win- 
dows in the clerestory, reminding one of the basilica covered with 
a wooden roof ; a low triforium ; each bay of the aisles divided 
into two by a small buttress ; shafts banded. In the interior, 
vaults which have not at all the same construction as the French 
vaults of the end of the twelfth century ; arch-mouldings slender, 
and deeply undercut ; the abacus round ; the tooth-ornament ; 
which do not at all resemble the ornaments we find at Paris, 
Sens, St. Denis," &c. . . . 

The rose window of the north transept, without disputing the 
date assigned to it, cannot be considered a French composition. 
" I do not know a rose window of that period in France which is 
divided into four compartments ; the centre of this window does 
not resemble the arrangement adopted in France ; and as to the 
decoration with small roses which cover the mouldings, they are 
a very characteristic English ornament." 

" Nowhere in France do we find, between 1190 and 1200, 
pillars similar to those at Lincoln, with the crockets placed be- 
tween the shafts ; nowhere in France do we find crockets carved 
like these ; nowhere shafts with hexagonal concave section ; no- 
where capitals or abacus similar to those of these pillars." 

M. Le-Duc observes that he cannot readily believe the date 
usually assigned to the choir of Lincoln to be the true one. (Of 
this, however, there cannot be the slightest doubt.) The date of 
1220, he thinks, or that of 1210 at earliest, agrees better with 
its architectural character. " We have in Normandy, especially 
in the cathedral at Rouen, and the church of Eu, architecture of 
the date of 1190. It is purely French ; i.e. it corresponds 
exactly with the architecture of the Isle de France, except in 
certain details. At Eu, in the cathedral of Le Mans, at Seez, 
we have architecture which resembles that of the choir of Lincoln : 
but that architecture is from 1210 to 1220 ; it is the Norman 
school of the thirteenth century. There is indeed at Lincoln an 
effort at a tendency to originality ; a style of ornament which 

VOL. II. FT. I. 2 G 

438 pmoln 

attempts to emancipate itself: nevertheless, the character is 
purely Anglo-Norman. 

" The construction is English ; the profiles of the mouldings 
are English ; the ornaments are English, the execution of the 
work belongs to the English school of workmen of the beginning 
of the thirteenth century."