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Full text of "Hand book to foreign hall marks on gold and silver plate. (With the exception of those on French plate) Containing 163 stamps"

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rrAY\*'n 



ITRANSFERREO TO 
FINE ARTS LlBRARf 




|t?arbcUti ((ToUcgr Hifararg 

©OUGHT WITH INCOME 

FROM TIIR llEqUEST OF 

HENRY LILUE PIERCE, 

OF BOSTOKi 



Utiftdr a valfl of the President aiid rt^oWBf 
October 34, i9gB^ 



^% 



^^,,^«. 




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fi 



MARKHAM'S 

HAND BOOK TO 

FOREIGN HALL MARKS 

ON 

GOLD AND SILVER PLATE. 



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HAND BOOK TO 
FOREIGN HALL MARKS 

ON 

i GOLD AND SILVER PLATE. 

(WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THOSE ON FRENCH PLATE) 

CONTAINING 163 STAMPS. 



BY 

CHRISTOPHER A. ^lARKHAM, F.S.A^ 

AUTHOR OF 

*'THB church plate of the county of NORTHAMPTON," ETC 
EDITOR OF " HAND BOOK TO HALL MARKS ON GOLD 
AND SILVER PLATE," ETC. 



PUBLISHED FOR 

REEVES AND TURNER 

BY 

GIBBINGS AND CO., LIMITED 

i8 BURY STREET, BLOOMSBURY, LONDON 
1898 

[All rights reserved] 



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T A'^°^'S-i1 




aKrjdifj^. 



Printed by Ballanttne, Hanson to* Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press 



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PREFACE. 

The hall marks and makers' marks impressed on gold and silver 
ware have recently received a large amount of attention from 
antiquaries, and many books have been published on the subject 
in this country during the last few years. These books, how- 
ever, deal almost exclusively with English or French marks, 
leaving out of consideration the many interesting marks used 
abroad. It has therefore been thought that a hand book 
dealing with Continental marks would be both interesting and 
useful to those who possess old foreign silver, or who take 
pleasure in comparing the English with the foreign methods 
of controlling the working of the precious metals. 

The materials for such a hand book are not abundant, scarcely 
anything having been written in English on the subject I have 
therefore personally, as far as possible, investigated the foreign 
plate available. To those whose names appear in this work, 
and who have most kindly exhibited their plate, and especially to 
Messrs. Lambert of London, and to the Master and Fellows of 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, for permission to reproduce their 
Athletic Cup as the frontispiece to this book, I desire to give my 
sincere thanks. The valuable work on goldsmiths' marks by 
Dr. Rosenberg has also been most helpful. 

V 

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VI PREFACE 

This little book has been written as a companion to Chaffers' 

" Hand Book to Hall Marks on Gold and Silver Plate," which 

embraces only those of the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is 

proposed to issue shortly a third hand book descriptive of the 

French hall marks. 

C. A. M. 

Easter Monday^ 1898. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

INTRODUCTION I 

VARIOUS STANDARDS OF GOLD AND SILVER • 2 

AUSTRIA 6 

BELGIUM II 

DENMARK . . . . . . . * . 15 

GERMANY 18 

GREECE 61 

HOLLAND 62 

HUNGARY 69 

ITALY 71 

NORWAY 74 

PORTUGAL 75 

RUSSIA 76 

SPAIN 80 

SWEDEN 81 

SWITZERLAND 83 

TURKEY . . . . . . . .92 

INDEX 93 



Vll 



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Standing Cup (Circa 1605). 

Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 

{See page 70.) 



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■ V •• * 



t.y •d, *-^^p^S^— ^"^^^^^P" 



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INTRODUCTION 



In this book an attempt has been made to give a sketch of the 
various hall marks and makers' marks used throughout the Conti- 
nent, and such a sketch as may prove useful in identifying the 
marks used at any particular time and in any particular country. 

During the Middle Ages the . laws affecting the assay of the 
precious metals appear to have been more strictly enforced, and 
the system of marking all ware by the manufacturers more pre- 
cisely carried out than at a later time. In many of the countries 
and states the succession of the date letters, and, indeed, all 
marks, ceased after the middle or end of the last century until 
quite recently, when they have been revived. 

To those who may wish to further investigate the matter, the 
following list of authorities will be useful : — 

"Gold." Translated from the German by Mrs. Brewer, with 
Notes and Additions by Edwin W. Streeter. London, 1877. 

Dictionnaire des Orfivres Frangais et J^trangerSy par • Ris- 
Paquot. Paris, 1890. 

Der Goldschmiede Merkzeichen^ von Dr. Marc Rosenberg. 
Frankfurt am Main, 1890. 

"Hall Marks on Gold and Silver Plate," by William Chaffers. 
London, 1896. 

In the local histories of Church Plate in England will also 
be found references to individual pieces of foreign plate. 

The following table, which is taken from Chaffers' "Hall 
Marks on Gold and Silver Plate,"* shows the standards used 
in the principal countries for gold and silver ware. The quality 
of the gold is expressed in karats and grains, and of the silver in 
ounces and pennyweights, and for both metals also in thousandths. 

* Published by Messrs. Reeves & Turner, London. 

A 



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FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



0^ 
CO 

Q 
< 

Q 
hJ 
O 
O 

ta 
O 

CO 

Q 
Oi 
< 

Q 

CO 
CO 

D 
O 

> 



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d 


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oiMOooioNON: : moomgoo I 




h ...... e< o : : : : : «^ 

gll.... M 

IIIII^MM !III!m 

N MM M 




'O S xj 5 
O cS O CO 




Of the Old Standard, still used . . 
„ New „ (Dublin only) . 

do. „ 

do. „ 

do. „ 

„ do. „ 

Old Standard 

New do. (Britannia) .... 

Old Standard, with 3 punches . . . 

„ do. Jewellery 

New do. ist 

„ do. 2nd 

do. 3rd 

Old do. 


8 


England 

» 

» ..... 
» ..... 
« 

France 

» ...... 

» 

» 

» 



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55R!»B 



VARIOUS STANDARDS OF GOLD AND SILVER 



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xn O 

ON 00 



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N -^ moo lo O O m 

OsOO t^ m On OnOO t^ 



ON O 
00 00 



OOtOOOQioG GO 

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t^ OnOO 1^ t^ ONOO 00 t^oo 



O O O to 



N O 00 to 
M N M M 



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FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



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VARIOUS STANDARDS OF GOLD AND SILVER 



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i^ttStria 



Formerly the legal regulations for the standards of gold and 
silver varied in the different parts of Austria, which was divided 
into three districts. 

First ScLAVONiA. — Here gold of less weight than 4 ducats 
was exempt from being stamped. The standard used for gold 
ware was 7 carats 10 grains, 13 carats i grain, and 18 carats 5 
grains; and for silver ware, 15 ounces and 13 ounces. 

Second, Lombardo Venetian. — Here, in accordance with 
the Napoleonic law of 1810, all gold and silver wsure was subject 
to control, there being no exemption from this law. The 
standard for gold ware was 22 carats, 21 carats, 20 carats, and 
18 carats; and for silver ware, 15 ounces and 12 ounces. 

Third, Hungarian. — Here there were no laws nor regula- 
tions as to the standards of gold and silver. 

By the law of 1809, the duty mark of old silver plate of 12 
lothiges fine was " 12 "A" in oblong; for silver plate of less than 
12 lothiges "C A" in oblong; and for old pieces of gold and 
silver of small size " A " in diamond. For new work the duty 
mark was to be "T F" linked beneath "A" in ellipse. The 
" A " in this mark, and in the first-mentioned mark, is used for 
the chief office in Vienna; for the other towns the following 
letters are used in similar stamps: Briinn "C," Gratz "G," 
Klagenfurt "I," Kraken "E," Laibach "H," Lemberg «D," 
linz "F," Prague "B,» Salzburg "L," Trieste "K." The free 
stamp for large pieces of old silver in 1809 was "F R" linked 
between "N" and "S" in shaped oblong, and for small pieces 
" F R " linked in a square. 



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AUSTRIA 



EXAMPLE 

Silver gilt communion cup. Date circa 
1810. — Messrs, Lambert^ London, 

As this law of 1809 was not strictly enforced, the lack of 
uniformity became so inconvenient that in 1835 discussions 
took place with a view of assimilating the standards, but nothing 
definite was done. In 1852 the subject was revived, but without 
better success than on the previous occasion. In 1856, however, 
the matter was again taken up, and a conference of delegates was 
held, with the result that some ten years later uniform laws for 
the whole kingdom were passed. These laws were further re- 
vised in 1872. 

. The following are the principal regulations in force for the 
control of this industry in Austria. The standards of manufac- 
tured articles, whether made in the country or imported, are 
subject to control of the office, the officers of which are appointed 
by the Home Secretary. A duty is paid for the control, and the 
standards of gold and silver are expressed in "thousandths." 
All finished gold and silver articles must bear the manufacturer's 
mark, and must be assayed at the control office. 



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FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



Principal Assay Office, Vienna. 

From November 1866, the punches for marking gold and 
silver works were fixed as follows. 

There are four legal standards for gold and four for silver. 



Stan* 
dard. 


lims. 


Kr. Grs. 


ISt 


920 


22 oj 


and 


840 


20 Og 


3rd 


750 


x8 


4th 


580 


13 3i 

oz.dwts. 


ISt 


950 


II 8 


and 


900 


10 16 


Srd 


800 


9 12 


4th 


750 


9 



Description of 
Punch. 



GOLD. 
Head of Apollo 
to left 
do. do. 

do. do. 

do. do. 

SILVER. 

Head of Diana 
to right 
do. do. 

do. do. 

do. do. 



Position of 

Numeral. 



1 in front 

2 at back 

3 nape of 
neck 

4 under chin 

1 in front 

2 at back 

3 nape of 
nedc 

4 under chin 



Form of Punch. 



Pointed top and bottom, 
with convex sides. 

Hexagon of concave 
lines. 

Pentagon, point down- 
wards. 

Quadrangle, concave 
sides. 

Cinquefoil, flat base. 

Hexagon (perfect), 

Cinquefoil (perfect). 

Pentagon, point up- 
wards. 



Gk)ld standard punch. Small size. Goat's head to right. 3 at back. Ir- 
regular hexagon. 

Gold standard punch. Small size. Fox's head to left. 4 at back. Irregular 
hexagon. 

Silver standard punch. Small size. Greyhound's head to right. 3 at back. 
Irregular hexagon. 

Silver standard punch. Small size. Lion's head to left. 4 at back. Irregular 
hexagon. 

Punch for old works of Gold and Silver. VR, monogram. 

Punch for Foreign Gold and Silver. AV. monogram. 

A special letter denoting the provincial Assay Office is stamped 
upon the standard mark, opposite the numeral, on the other side 
of the head. 



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AUSTRIA 



EGER 

In the seventeenth century the mark of a shield fretty^ in €kkf 
a demi eagle, wings expanded, was used. The duty mark in 187 s 
was"C7/' 

OTHER TOWNS 

The hall marks used in this country in the eighteenth century 
were Roman capital letters in fesse in shields, as follows : — 

BrUnn letter "F" 

Gratz „ "H" 

Klagenfurt „ "I" 

Laibach „ "K" 

Lemberg „ "D" 

Linz „ "G" 

Prague . . . . . „ "B" 

Salzburg „ "S" 

Trieste „ "L" 



EXAMPLE 



(C)ii^@)gD. 



Small silver gilt tankard. 
Trieste. Date circa 18 10. — 
Messrs, Lambert, London, 

In 1824 the same letters were used for the respective towns, 
with the standard and date number. 

In 1866 the letters were all changed, and were allotted to the 
different towns in the following order : — 



Briinn 
Gratz 
Klagenfurt 
Laibach . 
Lemberg . 
Linz 
Prague 
Salzburg . 
Trieste . 
Troppau . 



letter 


"D" 


>) 


«G" 


» 


"K" 


» 


«L" 


)) 


«p» 


» 


"B" 


)) 


"C" 


ii 


"B4" 


91 


"M" 


Iff 


"D4" 



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lO FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

PRAGUE 

In this town, in addition to the marks previously given, a 
mark formed by three towers or minarets^ in ellipse^ beneath four 
stars, was used about 1700. This stamp is very similar to that 
used at Copenhagen. 

VIENNA 

This is practically at the present time the only great centre in 
Austria for the workmanship of gold and silver ware, though small 
quantities are manufactured in other parts of the kingdom. 

The first hall mark found here is a cross in circular stamp; 
about 1524, tf cross in plain shield, in outline, surmounted by a 
" W,^' was used. During the next century the shield was enclosed 
in a circular stamp between the four figures showing the date, and 
was still surmounted by a " W," the cross being pat^e. In the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries both the form of the shield 
and of the enclosing line were changed. The shield became 
elliptical per pale, dexter a fesse, sinister three bendlets, beneath 
the figures " 13 " in lieu of " VV," and contained within an irregu- 
lar outline. 

In the nineteenth century very much the same form was 
used, but the shield was placed beneath the letter " A " in lieu 
of the figures " 13 '* or letter " W," and the figures " 13 " were 
placed in the shield. 
. At this city there were some distinguished silversmiths. The 
first name that appears is that of Erhart Effrdinger in 1524. In 
the sixteenth century the initials " L R " linked, "AD" linked, 
and ** F L " are found. In the seventeenth century Hans 
Melchior and Leopold Wilder, who used the initials " L W." 
The letters **AF'' Unked, "CH" linked, "KD" Imked, 
"C N," "L F," "F O," and "G C" over "M" in trefoil, also 
occur. In the eighteenth century "II" over " W,'' " I L " and 
"AC" over "W," for Antonn Carl Wipff, occur. And in the 
nmeteenth century "FR" over "L." 

EXAMPLE 

Small silver box. Date 1702.— /Vv?^ 
T. Clifford A llbutt. 





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Belgtum 



Previous to the commencement of this century,' there was in 
this country no state regulation for gold and silver ware, various 
marks being used by the different cities and towns. 

By a decree of the 14th September 18 14, it was provided 

that gold and silver ware should be of - — ^, -^^> or -^^> and 
^ 1000 1000 1000 

silver of 11 oz. 5 grs., or 10 oz. 

Inasmuch as this standard was considerably higher than the 
standards of France or Germany, the local trade of Belgium 
dwindled very much, and it became necessary to modify the law. 

Accordingly in 1867 a new enactment was made, which came 
into operation July i, 1869, with the following provisions : — 

That compulsory State control should cease, and any standard 
should be legal That purchasers and vendors alike might have 
the wares stamped at the assay office. That gold ware should 

be of — and -^, and silver ware of ^^ and — . That 
1000 iocx>' 1000 1000 

ware of a standard between those specified should receive the 

stamp of the lower quality. That the purchaser should be 

entitled to a statement of the weight, standard, price, and other 

particulars of the vessel purchased by him, to be supplied by the 

vendor. 

There is a slight difference between the stamps used on large 

and small articles, as there is in England at the present day. 

Marks for Gold. 

For vessels 800 fine . I A small black-letter in oblong 

j shield. 

For vessels 7SO fine . . i^ ^f'^ black-letter ® in 
'^ j circle. 



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12 



FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



For vessels 900 fine 
For vessels 800 fine 



Marks for Silver. 

A capital black-letter 31 in irre- 



I' 

j gular shield. 

) A capital black-letter 3 in 

j square. 



ANTWERP 

The official mark of this town in the sixteenth century was : 
An open hand erect beneath a crown^ resembling electoral bonnet in 
spcuie-shaped outline, point upwards. 

In or about the year 1550, the year letter was a capital 
Roman "C" in a plain shield, and in 1581 a capital Roman 
" X " in a shaped shield. 

The only makers' marks known are: Pan pipes in plain 
shield ; spray of leaves in ornamental shield ; cross patt^e, and 
"PR" linked, each in plain shield; and "I" above "M" in 
triangle. 



EXAMPLES 




Silver gilt cup, called 
the Falcon Cup. Date circa 
1550. — Clare College, Cam- 
bridge, 

Magnificent monstrance, 
silver gilt and jewelled. Date 
circa 1600. — Messrs,Lambert, 



BRUGES 

In the sevei^eenth century the mark used was probably A 
liotCs head couped, surmounted by a crown, 

A second mark is also found : A small black letter \\ passing 
through a crown. 



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BELGIUM 13 

There appears to have been several silversmiths at Bruges : 
Michelet Ravary ; Jean Prentin ; Cunin ; Clasquin ; Dome- 
nique; Martin Guisbrecht ; Jean de Miron; Matthieu von 
Hesselbie, about x6o8 ; Jean Crabbe, 161 7 5 and Jean Hermans, 
who died in 1765. 

BRUSSELS 

As early as 1372 an order dealing with the standard stamps 
of the town, and those of the silversmiths, was made. At that 
time the gold-workers had a certain and common sign, and each 
of the gold-workers of the town had his proper sign. 

A further order was made towards the end of the fifteenth 
century, appointing two wardens with one of the magistrates to 
stamp all the smiths' work that was of the proper alloy. 

The hall marks used about 1618 were : A capital Roman B, 
in plain oblong ; a lion rampant contourne^ in ellipse ; and the 
letter O beneath some object^ in shaped shield. With these is 
found the maker's mark : A stag springing^ in plain shield. 

Amongst the workers at Brussels were: Jean Van Acken, 
Gaspart and Henri de Bachere, Jean Elselaire, Jean Van der 
Kelde, Lionis Meert, and Jean Van Berghem. 



GHENT 

The hall marks for this town were apparently often changed, 
and it is not easy to obtain examples. 

Amongst the workers here in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries were : Simon Lachengon ; Baudonim le Prestre ; Jean 
Mainfroy, goldsmith of the Duke of Burgundy, succeeded by 
Gerard Loyet, 1405-76; Corneille de Bont^, who was master in 
1472, and whose mark was a capital "C," or reversed "D,'' 
enclosing an ermine mark; Van Houten; Tiberghien; Vilain; 
De Shoenen ; and Van Ravenscoot. 



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14 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



MONS 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the principal 
silversmiths were : Hugues de la Vigne, Lambert- Gdrard, A. C. J. 
de Bettignies, Henri Beghin, and Jacquemart Festau. 

At Audenarde, Dendennonde, Liege, Lokeren, Oignies, 
Tamise, and Tournai there were also gold and silver smiths, 
whose work may be found in the Museum at Ghent and else- 
where. 



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Denmark 



In this country an ordinance was made by the King on the 
7th November 1685, whereby gold ware was to be either of the 

standard of ^^ or — ^ ; and it was to be marked with the letter 
1000 1000 

"D" for ducat gold, or "C" for crown gold, signifying these 

standards. 

A later ordinance of the 26th August 1778 allowed gold 

ware to be worked of the standards of -^ and -^^, to be 

1000 1000' 

marked respectively ** DUG " and " CRO." By an ordinance of 

the 7th February 1781, small gold ware was exempted from the 

necessity of being stamped ; and any standard was allowed to be 

used, always provided the goldsmith marked the vessels with his 

own mark, and with the standard employed. 

By the before-mentioned ordinance of the 7th November 
1685, it was provided that no silver should be worked of lower 
standard than 13 J lothigs (J ounce), remedium J lothig. All 
the ware was to be marked by the manufacturer, and after being 
assayed by the warden, was to be stamped by him with the 
Copenhagen arms and his initials. Silver ware of a higher 
standard was to be stamped so as to signify the same. 

By an order of 1770 those selling ware deficient in quality 
were to be fined. And by an order of 1892, silversmiths 
working in the provinces were themselves to be responsible for 
stamping the standard employed on their finished ware. 



xs 



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l6 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



COPENHAGEN 

The hall mark of this city has always been : //; an ellipse 
three towers or minarets above the date. The form of the towers 
has constantly varied, but the mark is always easy to recognise. 
The first of these marks known bears the date 1639. 

Together with the hall mark, the warden's mark, control 
mark, and maker's mark are generally found, as in the example 
of 1 701 given on the next page. 

The following are the wardens with then* marks : Peter 
Borreby, from 1677 to 1679, who used the initials "P B" above 
"1688" in ellipse. Conrad Ludolph, from 1679 to 1729, the 
letters "C L" above "M W" in ellipse. Pet. Nicholai, from 
1729 to 1749, the script letters "P N" above "V H" in octagon. 
Christoffer Fabritius, from 1749 to 1787, the script letter "F" 
in irregular outline. Frederick Fabritius, from 1787 to 1823, the 
same letter. Christian Peter Nacboe, from 1823 to 1827, a 
capital Roman " N " in circle. Jacob Greg Graah Fabritius, from 
1827 to 183 1, a capital Roman "F" in ellipse. Christian Olsen 
Moller, from 1831 to 1840, a capital Roman "M" in circle. 
Peter Reimer Hinnerup, from 1840 to 1863, the letters "R H" 
linked in circle. Sim. Chr. Sch. Groth, who was warden in 1863, 
used the monogram " S G " in circle. 

The control marks in the seventeenth century were : H in 
oblongs V in oblongs M in oblongs and an anchor inverted in shield. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver spoon and fork, fitting to- 
gether. Date«>tra 1820. — Dr, John Per- 
kins^ Cambridge, 

The principal silversmiths in this city were the following: 
Steen Peterson, of 1620, who used the monogram "S P" in 
ellipse. Dietrich Skillings, the letters " D S K " above " 1 707 " 
in irregular outline. Friedrich Fabritius, the letters " F F " above 
" 1 7 1 9 " in ellipse. Jacob Hoffmann, or J. Hoe, the letters " I H " 




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DENMARK 



17 



above "1723" in ellipse. J. N. Randers, the letters "I N R" 
over "1733" in oblong. Dietrich Hoff, the letters "D H" 
above ** 1747." And Niels Fuchs, who used the letters **N F" 
in oblong. 

EXAMPLE 



Small silver tankard. Date 
1 70 1. — Messrs. Lambert, London, 




ODENSE 

The hall mark used here about the middle of the eighteenth 
century was a kind of fleur-de-lys above, and joined to two 
spreading leaves in ellipse. The date '' 1763" and the maker's 
mark *' R M," each in oblong, are also found. 



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<Btxmanv 



Until quite recently the numerous separate states, which now . 
form the Empire of Germany, possessed no uniform laws for the 
control of the gold and silver smiths' craft. Each of these little 
states was a law unto itself. 

The standard for the Empire has, however, been fixed since 
the 1 6th July 1884, and the trade marks of the occupation 
have also been confirmed. 

The hall mark for gold is: Tk^ Imperial crown of Prussia^ 
within circle. The hall mark for silver is : The Imperial crown of 
Prussia, with a decrescent moon on the left side. 

The follo¥ring are the principal states in which law existed, 
previous to 1884, for the regulation of the gold and silver smiths* 
trade. 

BAVARIA 

In this state the minimum standard for gold was - — , and 

for silver 



1000' 
800 
1000* 

BRUNSWICK 



In this province the name of the manufacturer was to be 
impressed on all gold and silver smiths' ware, together with the 
standard employed. 

HAMBURG 

In this province, silver ware was not to be of a lower standard 
than 1 1 oimces 1 2 grains, and all ware of a higher quality was 
to be impressed with the maker's mark and the standard. 

There was no law affecting the sale of gold ware. 



18 



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GERMANY 19 

HESSE 

All gold and silver smiths were obliged, after 1829, to have 
their ware impressed with the standard, the mark of the manu- 
facturer, and the arms of the Duchy. 

LUBECK 

Silver ware could not be made under the standard of 12 
ounces, but after 1872 any standard was allowed provided the 
wares were stamped. 

MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ 

In this state no laws had been passed since 1572, and even 
the old laws were not enforced. 

OLDENBURG 

In this country a law of 1760 fixed the standard for silver at 
1 2 ounces, and directed that the name of the manufacturer and 
the standard should be stamped on all silver. 

Passing on from the several German states, the individual 
towns, and their local marks, follow in alphabetical order. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE 

The official mark used here in the fifteenth century was: 
An eagle displayed^ in shield rounded below. In the sixteenth 
century the same mark was used within a circle In the seven- 
teenth century the arms of the town were used, with the letters 
"AC H," being the abbreviated form of the name of the town 
in German, Aachen. 

Amongst the makers were: Hans (Jan) von Reutlingen, a 
goldsmith and stamp-cutter under Maximilian I. and Karl V. ; 
probably used the letters "J R" in monogram. The maker's 
mark of an ornamental " A " in oblong, with the comers cut off, 
is found in 1581, and the letters "R D" in plain shield about 
1624. 



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20 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



ANSBACH 

The hall mark of this town in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
eighteenth centuries was: Three bendlets^ sometimes wavy^ in 
plain or shaped shield ; sometimes an annulet was added in the 
sinister chief. 

The following makers' marks are found : The letters " F G " 
above hunting-horn in shaped shield In 1680, a bird sitting on 
an almost upright branch in elliptical outline. In 1706, "I B" 
linked in outline. In 1729, "I F" above **D" in plain shield. 
And in 1742, a six-pointed star between the letters " M M." 



AUGSBURG 

The hall mark of this town has always been A pine apple erect, 
sometimes standing alone, and sometimes contained in outline. 
From the end of the sixteenth century to the eighteenth century 
but little change is found in the form of this mark, and two or 
three examples may serve for all From about 1735 ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
of the eighteenth century the date-letter was placed immediately 
beneath and sometimes touching the pine apple, in the same 
stamp. 

An enormous quantity of silver plate was from early times 
worked in this town, and consequently the names and marks of 
very many of the Augsburg gold and silver smiths are known. 
Indeed, with the exception of Niiremburg, more gold and silver 
plate was probably worked here than in all the other towns of 
Europe put together. 

Conrad de Lindovve in the fourteenth century, Johannes 
Mueller, Heinrich Hofnagel, Petrus Herwarth, Georg Seld and 
Nicol. Seld in the fifteenth century, were gold and silver workers, 
whose names, but not their marks, are known. Elias Grosz and 
Cornelius Grosz, who died respectively in 1572 and 1575, used 
A turnstile in ellipse; and Theophil Glaudich, who died in 1572, 
used a somewhat similar mark Other makers at about the same 
date used the letters " H M " interlaced in circle ; two trumpets 



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GERMANY 21 

in saltire, an annulet in chief, and figure i in base, in circle; 
the letters " H W " linked in circle. The mark used by Ulrich 
Schonmacher, who died in 1585, was A long cross potent supported 
by two stays chevron luise, Hanss Weinodt, who died in 1594, 
used a black-letter " D '* in oval. The letters "MB" linked in 
circle; "W I" interlaced between four pellets in plain shield; 
"E Z" linked in heart-shaped shield; "H S" in square com- 
prised in circle; A daisy in ellipse; and the letters "G P S" 
interlaced in plain shield, are also found. A. Bayer, one of the 
members of the old family of goldsmiths of that name, used a 
capital Roman letter " B " in circle. Anthoni Schweiglin, or 
perhaps Anthoni Sorgt, used the letters "A S " in ellipse. The 
letters **C E," beneath arrow-head in circle, are also found. 
Bemhard Vesenmaier, who flourished in 159^, the letters "B V" 
linked in shield. Bartolme Lotter, who died in 1606, probably 
employed the letters "B L" in circle. Jacob Schaer, who died 
in 1608, the letters **I S" interlaced in shield. Malthaeus 
Wallbaum used A tree in kaf, in plain shield; this silversmith, 
who flourished in 1582, and who was a member of the corpora- 
tion in 1588, was the maker of a large quantity of silver and 
silver gilt plate. Other marks which are found about this time 
are : The letters " I C " in ellipse ; " H H P '' linked in oblong ; 
"I F" in square; "H P" linked beneath a turnstile in circle; 
"HNS" linked in circle ; " D S " in shield ; " M S " in ellipse : 
A fleur de lis in ellipse; "H L" linked in ellipse; "H M L" 
linked in circle ; "DM" interlaced in circle ; Two mill clacks in 
saltire in square; "I F" in circle; "I M" in circle; "I S" 
interlaced above " H W " in circle ; and " B E " in circle. David 
Altenstetter, who was a burgher and probably master in 1573, 
and who died in 16 17, used the letters "D A" or "D A F." 
Georg Siebenburger, who was assay master in 1603, used the 
letters "G S." Christoph Lencker, who was master in 1610 
and died in 16 13, the letters "C L" interlaced in circle. Johannes 
Lencker, who was born in 1573 and died in 1637, probably used 
Two sceptres in saltire^ in outline. Zacharias Lenker, who died 
in 1612, the letters "Z L F." Peter Baumann, from Wurtem- 
burg, who settled in Augsburg about 1563 and died in 1608, 
used A church in circle. 



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22 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

Melchior Bayr, who died in 1634, and Mathias Bregel, who 
died the following year, used the letters "MB" in square, circle, 
or ellipse ; several varieties of marks with these letters appearing 
on Augsburg plate made about 1592. Bartolme Koch about 
1605 used the letters " B K " interlaced in shield. Hans Andreas 
Anthoni, who died about 1650, used A star of six points with 
moon in decrescent on the dexter^ in circle. The following letters 
are also found about this time : " G L " interlaced in circle ; 
** I M " in square ; " B D " interlaced in circle ; capital Roman 
*' G " in circle, " B " in shaped outline, and " L " in circle ; 
" F S " in circle ; and "PL" linked in ellipse. Hans Eberlin 
or Heinr. Eichler, who died respectively in 1643 ^^^ 1708, used 
the letters "HE'' linked in shield. B. Leitenhoffer the elder, 
who died in 1655, or B. Leitenhoffer the younger, who died in 
1675, used the letters " B L" in oblong. Hans Fendl, who died 
in 1 641, or Hans Fux, who died in 1646, used the letters " H F " 
in oblong. Michael Gass the letters " M G " linked in ellipse. 
Nicolas Kolb, master in 1687, the letters "N K" linked in 
square. One of the Augsburg family of Bayr towards the end 
of the seventeenth century used the letters " H B " linked in 
circle. Christof Bantzer, who died in 1653, employed Three 
annulets linked^ in circle. Abraham Riederer, who flourished 
about 1 60 1, the letters "AR" linked in plain shield. Hans 
Kolb, who died in 1640, the letters " H K" in shaped outline. 
The mark of one of the Grill family of goldsmiths was A stork in 
ellipse ; the mark of one of the Gelb family, A pine apple without 
shield; and the mark of one of the Jaeger family, A hunting-horn 
in circle. Andreas Hamburger, who died in 1647, used the 
letters "AH" in ellipse. 

Other makers* marks about 16 15 were : Two swords in saltire^ 
the points upwards and joined by a bar^ in shield ; the letters 
" H S " in ellipse j " I F " in square ; " H b " in circle ; " A V " 
interlaced in plain shield, and also without shield ; " D E " inter- 
laced in shield \ " B D " interlaced in circle ; the letters " G E " 
above battle-axe in shield; the letter "I" between two pellets 
in shield; and the letters "D Z," "G L," "H D," and "C H" 
each in circle or ellipse. Lucas Neisser, who died about 1652, 
used the linked letters " L N " in square. Hans Priester, who 



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GERMANY 23 

died in 1640, probably used the letters "HP** in circle. Georg 
Ernst the letters " G E " in ellipse. 

Other marks were: A sheaf of arrows^ points upwards^ in 
ellipse ; A double-headed arrow in shield; the letters "F R" in 
square; "MS" and "IB" each in ellipse; "H H" linked in 
oblong; and "F" in circle. Abraham Drentwett, who died in 
1666, used the linked letters "AD" in circle. Heinr. Rott, 
who died in 1685, "H R" in ellipse. One of the family of 
goldsmiths named Fetters used A star and moon in pale, in ellipse, 
Johann Baptist Biller, who died in 1683, the letters "BB" 
beneath a star in circle. B. Weinedt, who died in 1648, or 
B. Wentzel, who died in 1704, the letter "B" above "W" in 
circle. Jacob Jager, who died in 1673, probably used the letters 
"II'* above a hunting-horn in circle, and it is possible that he 
also used the letters "II" in plain oblong, or ellipse. Andreas 
Wickhert, who died in 1661, Andreas Wichhert, who died in 
1674, or Abraham Winterstein, who died in 1661, or one or all 
of them, used the linked letters "AW" in ellipse. Georg 
Reischli, who was master in 1669, and died in 1700, the letters 
"G R" in ellipse. Ph. Sailer, who died in 1676, or Paul H. 
Sproeckhoff, who died in 1697, used the linked letters "P H S" 
in ellipse. Other marks were : " I G " in circle ; " I F" in heart- 
shaped shield; "I M" linked in upright ellipse; "SW" in 
ellipse; "M" in circle; A cartwheel; "I P," "S M," A leaf 
"TB," "DS," "HB" linked, "AG," and "I W" each in 
ellipse; "H L" linked above "S" in trefoil; and "D S" in 
ellipse. One of the Griel family of goldsmiths used A stork con- 
tourne in shield, Heinrich Mannlich, who died in 1698, the 
letters "H M" in ellipse. Adam Forster, who died in 1668, 
the linked letters " A F " in ellipse. Wolfgang John, who died 
in 1685, "WI" in ellipse. Peter Winter, who died in 1702, 
"PW" in oblong. Joh. Babtist Ernst, who died in 1697, 
" I B E " in ellipse. It is said that the interlaced letters " I H M " 
in square, were used by Johann Heinrich Mannlich, who died 
in 17 18. The linked letters " H M " alone in square may stand 
for Hans Manhart, who died in 1640. The letters "ID" in 
oblong may be the mark of Joh. Dun, who died in 1690, or Jac. 
Deschler, who died in 1713. The letters "HIS" in oblong 



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24 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

were used either by Hans Jacob Schick, who died in 1661, or 
Hans Jacob Schech, who died in 1692. Abraham Waremberger 
used the linked letters "AW" beneath an owl in triangle. 
Philipp Jacob Drentwett the letters " P I D " in ellipse. Philip 
Kiisel, who was master in 1685 and died in 1700, the letters 
"P K" in ellipse. Christian Schliesser, who died in 17 12, used 
Two keys in saltircy in circle. There were two goldsmiths of the 
name of Albrecht Biller who used the letters " A B " beneath 
star in outline or ellipse. 

Other marks were: the letter "H" between the letters 
"GG" in ellipse; the letter "F" in heart-shaped shield; 
"T B" pellet between letters in ellipse ; the letters "C L"; and 
" I M " above " R " in oval. V. Hueter used the linked letters 
** V H " in circle. Hans Jacob Wildt, who died in 1 733, the letters 
" H W " in ellipse. Georg Wunckler, who died in 1727, the letter 
" G " above " W " in ornamental shield. Simon Wickhart, who 
died in 1708, the letters "S W" in oblong. There were three 
silversmiths of the name of Elias Busch, who died respectively in 
1679, 1689, and 1705, one or all of whom used the letters " E B " 
in quatrefoil. Cornelius Poppe, who was master in 1705, and 
died in 1 723, the letters " C P " in circle. Either Georg Berthold, 
Gottlieb Bauer, or Gabriel Besmann, who died respectively in 
1686, 1735, and 1735, or perhaps all of them, used the letters 
" G B " in ellipse. Gasper Riss von Rissenfels, who was master 
in 1683 and died in 1712, the letters "C R*' in ellipse. One of 
the Heckel family of goldsmiths used Seven pellets in sex/oil, 
Hans Jerg Michael, who died in 1656, or Hans Jacob Miiller, 
who died in 1678, used the letters "HIM" in outline. Johannes 
Lincker, who died in 1708, Johannes Lautterer, who died in 
1 7 19, or Jacob Luz, who died in 1747, or one or all of them, 
used the letters "I L " in ellipse. Samuel Freudenberger, who 
died in 1696, the letters "S F" in oblong. Hans Jacob Ernst, 
who died in 1 703, the letters " H I E " in oblong. Jacob Warm- 
berger, who died in 1690, the letters "I W" beneath an owl in 
square. Joh. Conrad Schnell, who died in 1704, "ICS** in 
ellipse. Seb. Mylius, or Joh. Seb. Milius, who died respectively 
in 1722 and 1727, the linked letters "S M" in circle. Johann 
Zeckel, who was master in 1703 and 1724, and died in 1728, the 



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GERMANY 2$ 

letters " I Z " in ellipse. Ludwig Biller the elder, who died in 
1732, the letters "LB" beneath a star of six points in outline. 
Johann Ludwig Biller, who died in 1732, probably used the 
letters " I L B " beneath star of five points in outline. Johann 
Ludwig Biller the younger, who was master in 1741 and died in 
1746, used almost the same mark. 

Other marks of this period were : " C S " in ellipse ; "LB*' 
beneath star in circle ; "LB" in ellipse ; and "IS" in ellipse. 
Michael Heckel, who died in 1726, the letters "M H" linked, 
beneath trefoil slipped in circle, the whole in outline. Johann 
Andreas Thelot, who was born in f654 and died in 1734, was 
the maker of a large quantity of gold and silver plate ; his mark 
was An anchor erect in outline^ and he frequently used his full 
name, thus : I. A. Thelot inv et fec. One of the family of 
goldsmiths named Drentwett used A squirrel sejant in ornamental 
shield, Peter Rams, who died in 1737, or Peter Rox, who died 
in 1742, used the letters "P R" above star of six points in 
heart-shaped shield. Elias Schiflen, who died in 1737, or Esaias 
Stinglin, who died in 1740, used the letters "ES" in ellipse. 
Philipp Stenglin, who was master in 1717, and died in 1744, the 
letters "PS" in quatrefoil. 

Other marks were : " L R " in ellipse ; " D N " in quatre- 
foil; "S" above "G K" in trefoil; and "H" above "CI" in 
circle. Joh. Sigmund Aberell, who was master in 1699 and 
17 13, and died in 1.733, used the letters "ISA" in ellipse. 
Joh. Christoph Traffler, who died in 1722, the letters "I C" 
above "T" in octagon. Joh. Phil Schuch, who died in 1745, 
the letters "P S" in oblong. Mateus Wolff, who died in 17 16, 
the letter " M " above " W " in ellipse. Michael Mayr, who was 
master in 1699 and died in 17 14, the linked letters "MM" in 
ellipse. One of the family of goldsmiths named Pfeffenhauser, 
A leg couped at the thigh, in ellipse, Nicholaus Ostertag, who was 
master in 1721 and died in 1741, the letters "NO" in oblong. 
Joh. Jac. Kraus, who died in 174 1, the letter "I" above "IK" 
in inverted heart-shaped shield. Johannes Biller, who died in 
1745, the letters "IB" beneath four pellets in trefoil. Daniel 
Schlesinger, the letters " D S " interlaced in circle. Christianus 
Drentwett, who died in 1737, the letters "CD" in ellipse. 

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^6 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

Christianus Mitnacht, who died in 1731, the letter *'C" above 
"M" in triangle. Job. Ekbardt Heuglin, who died in 1757, the 
letters "IE" above **H" in heart-shaped shield. Elias Adam, 
who died in 1745, "E A" in ellipse. 

Other marks at this period were : "I F W in ellipse, and 
" I " above " P D " in trefoil. Johannes Engelbrecht, who died 
in 1748, the letters "IE" beneath star in outline. Joh. Friedr. 
Brauer, who died in 1753, ** I " above " F B " in trefoil. Gottlieb 
Mentzel, who died in 1757, the letters "G M" in oblong. Joh. 
Jac Bruglocher, who died in 1752, "I I B" in ellipse. Franz 
Thaddaeus Lanz, who was master in 1732 and 1748, and died in 
1773, the letters "F T" above "L" in heart-shaped shield. 
Joh. Cristoph Drentwett, who was master in 1749 and died in 
1763, the letters "I C D" in ellipse. Abraham Drentwet the 
younger, who died in 1785, "AD" in ellipse. Salomon Dreyer, 
who was master in 1761 and died in 1762, *'S D" in oblong. 
There were two silversmiths of the name of Joh. Jacob Schoap, 
one of whom died in 1766, the other in 1774, and one or both 
of them used the letters "I S " with a star between, beneath " I " 
in trefoil Jacob Maid, who died in 1763, the letter " I " above 
"M" in ellipse. Joh. Ph. Heckenauer, who was master in 1765, 
the letters "I P H" in oblong. Gaspar Xaver Stipeldey, the 
letters "C X S" in oblong. Bernhard Heinrich Weye, who 
died in 1782, the letter " H " above " B W " in trefoil. Emanuel 
Drentwet, who was master in 1737 and died in 1753, "ED" 
in oblong. Joh. Jac. Biller, who died in 1777, the letters "II" 
beneath star and above " B " in ellipse. Michael Drexel, who 
died in 1773, used his name "M. Drexel fecit." Gottl. Christian 
Drentwet, who died in 1754, the letters "GC D" in oblong. 
Joh. Jacob Adam, who was master in 1762 and died in 1792, 
"I I A" in ellipse. Christianus Drentwett, about 1784, the 
letters " C D " in ellipse or oblong. Georg Ignatius Bauer, who 
was master in 1764 and died in 1790, the letters **G I" above 
"B" in trefoil. Adolph Carl Holm, who died in 1768, the 
letters "AC H" in oblong. Joseph Tobias Hezebik, who died 
in 1788, the letters " I T H " in oblong. Carl Samuel Betkober, 
who was master in 1785 and died in 1787, the letters "C S B" 
in oblong. 



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GERMANY 



27 



EXAMPLES 

Silver diptych. Date circa 1580. — Messrs, 
Harvey and Gore, London, 

Silver gilt ewer and salver. Date circa 16 15. 
— Stjohn^s College, Cambridge, 

Silver gilt oval dish and two jugs. Date 
circa 1650. — Messrs, Lambert, London, 

Silver ewer and salver. Date circa 1650. — 
Duke of Manchester, 




BADEN-BADEN 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
A bend in plain shield, 

A maker's mark ** I C " above " S " in circle is found about 
the year 1684. 

BERLIN 

The hall mark in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth 
centuries was A bear rampant, generally in circle or ellipse : 
sometimes the figures " 13 " or "14'' are also included with the 
animal in the outline to indicate the standard : and later, a capital 
Roman letter as date-letter is added behind the animal in the 
outline. The standard mark was "12" or "13 '* above the 
letters "LO," or simply the figure "12" alone, signifying the 
standard of " 12 " or " 13 " lothigs. The control mark was the 
letter "A," "B,'' or "F" in circle. 

Daniel Manlich, a goldsmith of Berlin, who was born in 1625 
and died in 1701, used the letters **DM" in ellipse. The 
following marks are also found : ** B Q " in oblong with rounded 
comers ; ** T R '* in shield ; ** S G " in ellipse ; " S M " in ellipse j 
"I* A S T" in irregular outline, and also in oblong; "I C L" 



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28 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

in eUipse; "E G N"; "BE L T'' in ellipse; and "G R A F" 
in oblong. Bernhard Weidemann, a goldsmith who lived about 
1668, used his full name "WAIDE" above "MAN" in outline. 
Otto Mannlich simply the letters " O M " in oblong. Christian 
Lieberkiihn, a goldsmith in the eighteenth century, his full name 
"LIEBER" above "KVHN " in outline. Neubauer Georges, 
master in 17 19, the letters "I G N." Johann Christian MUller, 
who was a goldsmith and jeweller living in Berlin in 1757, used 
several marks ; sometimes his name appears as " MUL " above 
"LERS" in outline, sometimes as "MUL" above "LER"in 
square, and sometimes as " I • MUL " above " LER " in ellipse. 
A hall mark found with these later marks is A crowned eagle 
displayed holding a dagger in each claw, in circle, 

EXAMPLE 

Silver nautilus. Date circa 1650. — 
Griine Gewolbe Museum, Dresden. 



BIBERACH 

The hall mark in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 
was A fox or wolf rampant contoume, in upright ellipse. 

With this is found the maker's mark, "ZIEHER," in oblong. 

BRAUNSCHWEIG 

The hall mark at the end of the sixteenth and during the 
seventeenth century was A lion rampant in shield. In the nine- 
teenth century the mark was changed to A lion passant in shield. 

The earliest maker's mark was " I H B " in oblong. Then 
followed the letters "SB" and " B B," each in oblong. 

BRESLAU 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was A capital Roman 
W in circle. In the seventeenth century the same letter was 
used within heart-shaped shield. In the eighteenth century 




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GERMANY 29 

A man's head affrontke in circle was used. A date-letter also 
appears at times in diflferent-shaped outline. 

The following makers' marks were used towards the end of 
the sixteenth century : The letters ** H M " interlaced in circle, 
and "MS" above star in plain shield. Hans Schonow, or Hans 
Strich, about the same time, used the linked letters " H S ** 
between four stars in circle. Georg Hoffmann, " G H " linked 
in circle. Daniel Mohner, " D M " linked in square. Fabian 
Nitsche, " F H '' in ellipse. Caspar Pfister, " G " enclosing " P " 
in circle. Mattheus Jachmann, " M I " in circle. Hans Volg- 
nadt, " H V " linked in ellipse. Fridrich Schonaw, a small " F "' 
over "S" in circle. Fridrich Viecke, "E V" linked in circle. 
Hans Jachmann, about 1640, "HI" in ellipse. Hans Box- 
hammer, or Hans Boy, the letters " H B " linked in ellipse. 
Christian Menzel, a capital "C" enclosing "M" in circle. 
Christof Honsch, between the years 1746 and 1793, used the 
letters " C H " in heart-shaped shield. 

Other marks were : " I Z " in plain shield ; " A " above " V N " 
in trefoil; "CH" in ellipse; "CW" above "M" in oval; 
"GK" in oblong; "I" above "CN" in trefoil; "TS" in 
ellipse ; " C S G " in trefoil slipped ; " A P " in square ; and 
"G K" in oblong. Ferdinand Griesche, who died about 1774, 
the letters " F G " in heart-shaped shield. Thomas Beyl, about 
the same time, used "T B" in two circles joined. Benjamin 
Hentschel, towards the end of the eighteenth century, " B H " 
in circle. 

BRIEG 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
Three anchors conjoined in /esse point, in ornamental shield. 

Two of the makers' marks were : " N K " linked in shield^ 
and " A V " interlaced in circle. 

CARLSRUHE 

The hall mark at the commencement of the present century 
was A bendy in shield or ellipse^ crowned. There were several 
varieties of this stamp. 



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30 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



CASSEL 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was A shield semhe of 
trefoils. At this time the shield was divided per bend^ the next 
century per fesse^ and later per bend sinister. The shape of the 
shield was generally circular or elliptical In the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries the date-letter in base in the same 
shield was added. 

The following makers' marks of the middle of the seventeenth 
century are known : An elliptical shield per fesse, a demi man 
holding a sword in his dexter handy and the letters ^^I B** and 
three pellets ; "IS" in oblong; and "GH" above trefoil in 
ornamental shield Georg Schmidt, between 1703 and 1735, 
the letters "OS" in heart-shaped shield. J. Beauclair, about 
1780, the letters "I B" in ornamental oblong. I. I. Encke, 
master, used "HE"; and J. F. Ubuch a single "U." The 
words Weigel and Proll, each in oblong, are found. 

EXAMPLE 

Carved ivory tankard, mounted with silver. 
Date circa 1 7 50. — Cassel Museum. 



COLOGNE 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was A shield per fesse^ 
in chief three crowns ; sometimes the lower part of the shield was 
per pale, sometimes plain. In the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries the figures "12" or "13 "were added in base to in- 
dicate the standard. 

Gillis Sibricht was a silversmith dwelling here towards the 
end of the sixteenth century. Various forms of turnstiles or 
crossed lines in shields were used; also the letter "M" in 
ornamental shield. In 1633 Conradt Duisbergh used his full 
name. F. Dorn, from 1673 to 1749, the letters " F D" in orna- 
mental shield. J. J. Adelkirchen was also a silversmith here. 




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GERMANY $1 

EXAMPLE 

Two drinking cups, made by Gillis Sibricht Date 
1578. 

COLMAR 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was probably 2\vo 
bendlets sinister ccuped^ a star of six points in f esse pointy in plain 
shield, 

A maker at the same time used the letters " H E H " in 
oblong with corners rounded. 



CONSTANCE 

The hall mark from the middle of the sixteenth to the middle 
of the seventeenth century was A plain shield bearing a cross and 
chief. During the latter part of the seventeenth, the eighteenth, 
and the nineteenth centuries the chief was omitted, and about 
1846 the shield was embattled. 

The makers' marks were : " R M " linked above star in shield ; 
"HE" linked in shield; "B8" in oblong; "HH" linked 
beneath a cross patt^e in outline ; "IF" in shield ; a pheon in 
ornamental shield; "IS" in ellipse; and " R. HOTZ" in 
oblong. 

DANZIG 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and the beginning of the 
seventeenth centuries was A crown and two crosses in pale^ in 
ellipse. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the same 
mark within a long and narrow shield was used. A year letter 
also appears to have been used in varying outline. 

In the seventeenth century the following makers' marks were 
used : a black-letter " C " in ornamental shield ; the letters 
"HE" in square ; " I S " in ellipse ; " N P " linked in outline ; 
the script letter "T" above "EK" in trefoil; "I" above 
" B M " in trefoil slipped and branched ; "PR" in oblong ; 



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32 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

" I M " linked in heart-shaped shield ; " I 6 E D " in oblong ; 
" C H " above " I 6 E D "in outline ; ** S 6," and " C S " each 
in ellipse; "GW" in heart-shaped shield; "P" above "CC 
in trefoil slipped ; " I " above " B H " in trefoil slipped and 
branched; and "N S," "C B S," and "W P," each in outline. 
A. Haidt, about the end of the eighteenth century, used the letters 
** A H " in outline, and "HAIDT " in irregular oblong. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver beaker. Date circa i68o. — The 
Skinners' &* G/overs' Guilds Carlisle. 



DARMSTADT 

The hall mark in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries was A lion rampant^ in shield^ or ellipse. In the nine- 
teenth century the lion appears crowned, and bearing in his 
paw a sword, in lozenge. The standard mark in the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries was the figure "13" in square, or 
" 13 " crowned in shield. 

The maker's marks were: the letter "K" in ornamental 
shield; the letters "N W" and "I N W" each in ellipse; "I" 
above "II" in trefoil slipped ; " L ; » and " I " above " E F " in 
trefoil. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver salver. Date circa \(y/^2nr^Baron 
Lionel de Rothschild, 



DRESDEN 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
was A capital Roman letter D in circle. In the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries a great variety of marks were used, although 
in general character they were very similar. The earlier marks . 
were : Two swords in saltire, points upwards^ the numerals 13, 14, 



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GERMANY 35 

or i^ in chief y and D in base, in shield or ellipse, A little later 
the shield appears crowned, and it is frequently divided per 
/esse. 

The following makers and their marks are known : Valentine 
Geitner, about 1576, used the linked letters "VG" in plain 
shield. Urban Schneeweis, who was born in 1536 and died in 
1600, the linked letters "VS" in ornamental shield. Georg 
Mond, about 1600, the letters "G M" in ellipse. Joachim 
Puttlost, about 1607, the letters "IP" in plain shield. (Hans) 
Johann Kellerthaler, who flourished about 1608, the linked 
letters "K D" or "H K D." The marks towards the middle 
of the seventeenth century were : A reversed " K " and " F '' 
linked in shield; "Z B" in ellipse; "M D" linked in shield; 
a crown in outline ; " E G " in heart-shaped shield ; and " M H *^ 
linked in circle. Friedrich Klemm used the letters "F K" with 
line between in oblong. Michael Botza, the linked letters "MB" 
in plain shield. Paul Ingermann, who flourished in the middle 
of the eighteenth century, used the letters "P I" above star 
in heart-shaped shield. Chr. H. Ingermann, between the years 
1745 and 1766, the script letters "C H" above "I" in irregular 
outline. Samuel Gaudig used " S G " in ellipse. Christian 
Friedrich Haussmann, the letters " C F " above " H " in trefoil. 
Carl David Schrodel, about 1762, the letters "C D S" in oblong, 
or "CD" above "S" in irregular outline, or "CD" above 
" SCHRO *' above " DEL '* in outline. Gebriider Schrodel, about 
1770, used " GEBR" above " S," or " SCHRO " above " DEL '' 
in outline. The names of Faddell and Neuber are also known. 



EXAMPLE 
Silver gilt cup. Date area 1650. 

ELBERFELD 



ID ® IB 



The hall mark in the seventeenth century was A lion rampant 
beneath the figure 13, in upright oblong. 

The mark used by the silversmith Rutters Wurden was A man 
on horseback^ in oblong, 

c 



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34 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

ELBING 

The hall mark in the eighteenth century was A cross clechke, 
in plain shield, beneath a cross pattie in hexagon. 

Daniel Stahlenbrecher in 1705 used the letters "DS" in 
square. 

EMDEN 

The hall mark in 1603 was A black-letter E and capital Roman 
letter C, in oblong. In 1645 the mark was A black letter E between 
ihe numerals 4 4, in oblong with rounded corners, A letter was 
used as a date-letter, as in the first example, or numerals were 
inserted to show the date, as in the second example. 

An early maker's mark was a capital Roman " H " beneath 
two pellets in shield. Isaac de Voghelaer, who was master in 
1585, used the linked letters "DV" in circle. The linked 
letters " T K " in plain shield are also found. 



ERFURT 

The hall mark from the end of the sixteenth to the end of 
the eighteenth century was always A capital Roman letter E. 
The form of the enclosing outline, however, varied much. It 
was at one time an ornamental shield, at another a plain shield, 
then a heart-shaped shield, and lastly a circle. 

The silversmiths were : Georg Berger, who from about 1560 
to 1577 used the letters "G B." Erasmus Wagner, from about 
1613 to 1645, the letters " E W." Christof Pabst, about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, the letters " C P." And a 
fourth maker the letters "C K." 

FRANKFURT ON THE MAIN 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was An eagle displayed, 
in plain shield. The eagle a little later was crowned, and the 
enclosing line became a circle. In the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries the same kind of eagle was used within an ellipse. 



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GERMANY 35 

The following makers' marks occur in the sixteenth century : 
The linked letters "MP" in square ; the linked letters " K H " 
in ornamental shield ; the letter " G " enclosing " H " in orna- 
mental shield ; " A K," also in ornamental shield ; and A demy 
beagle rampant^ in ellipse, Paul Birckenholtz, A tulip in irregular 
outline. 

Other makers' marks in the seventeenth century were : The 
letters "H M L" linked in circle; and "I R H N B" linked 
in oblong. In the [eighteenth century the letters " G W " above 
"S" in trefoil; "ID" above "C" in circle; and "N N" in 
outline. 

EXAMPLE 

Small silver gilt cup. Date circa 1580. — 
Messrs, Lambert^ London, 



FRANKFURT ON THE ODER 

The hall mark in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
was A cock with annulet in sinister base, in circle. In 1772 the 
cock was placed between the four figures showing the date, in 
ellipse. 

Only two makers' marks are known, one the linked letters 
"G L" and the linked letters " H K" in ellipse, the other the 
letters " I C S T " in oblong with rounded corners. 



FREIBERG 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was A capital Roman 
F, in circle or ellipse. The stamp of A cock^s head erased, in plain 
shield, is doubtful. The standard mark in about 1883 was the 
figure " 13 " in square. 

David Winckler about 1625 used the letter " D " above " W" 
in outline. About 1668 Andreas Miiller probably used the 
letters "AM" in ellipse; Christian Bier, the letters "C B" in 
square; Wilhelm Feuersteih, about 1883, the letters "W F" in 
oblong. 



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36 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



GMUND 

The hall mark in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
was An unicorn rampant^ in ellipse. In the eighteenth century 
An unicorn rampant contourne^ in plain shield^ was used. At the 
end of the eighteenth and during the nineteenth century the 
mark was changed to An unicornis heady in circle. The standard 
mark in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was the figure 
"13" or "12 " in circle. 

Amongst the makers* marks were the following in the seven- 
teenth century : A capital Roman " F " in outline ; the letters 
"MS" in ellipse ; " H Z," " V V," and " H N," each in double 
circle joined ; and " I A " in irregular outline. In the eighteenth 
century "ID" above "A" in heart-shaped shield; and "I G" 
in circle. J. Fischer used Two fishes in saltire between the letters 
I Fy and a capital letter G in chiefs in outline. 



GOTHA 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was A capital Roman 
G crowned^ in ellipse. But quite at the end of the seventeenth, 
and the beginning of the eighteenth century the letter "G" 
appears in circle without crown. 

The following marks of the makers during the seventeenth 
century are known : The linked letters "AW" in ellipse, or 
heart-shaped shield; the letters "ICF" in ellipse; and the 
linked letters " A W B" in outline. 



HALBERSTADT 

The hall mark in the eighteenth century was An ornamental 
shield per pale a cramp bendwise, 

A silversmith in same century used his name thus : " SIE '* 
above " BERT " in outline. 



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GERMANY 37 



HALL 




The hall mark in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
was A dexter hand apaumke couped at the wrist^ a Greek cross on 
palm, in circle. The standard stamp of "13" in circle was used 
early in the nineteenth century. 

The following makers' marks are known : Three varieties of 
flowers and leaves in outlines ; the capital Roman letter " F ; " 
Three bendlets wavy couped in ellipse ; " G E " in ellipse ; and 
"FB" in outline. L. H. Beltz about 1769 used the letters 
"L" and "H B" linked in oblong. C. Ruprecht the letters 
" C R " in two circles joined. F. L. Ruprecht the letters 
" F L R " in oblong. And E. Clock, who died in 188 1 or 188?, 
the script letters " E. Glock " in oblong. 

EXAMPLE 

Three silver gilt wine tankards. Date 
circa 1770. — St. MichaePs Church, Hall 



HALLE (SAXONY) 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was A crescent moon 
between two stars of six points each, in upright oblong. A date- 
letter was also used. 

Only four makers* marks are known : The letters " C W ; " 
"A H " in ellipse ; " P " above "I F " in irregular outline ; and 
the letters " M S." 

HAMBURG 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was A castle triple 
towered with port displayed, in ellipse, or plain shield. In the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the date-letter was placed in 
the open port. The form of the castle, of the turrets, and of the 
shield or enclosing line constantly varied; and a great number 
of shapes are met with during these centuries. 



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38 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

The silversmiths' marks in the seventeenth century were: 
An ostrich contourne wings expanded^ in oblongs or plain shield ; 
An eagle wings expanded^ in ellipse; A demi horse forcene^ in 
ellipse; the letters "MTG" interlaced in oblong; "W in 
outline; "NG" and "DO" each in plain shield; the inter- 
laced letters " H D I K " in square ; the linked letters "HDL" 
in ornamental shield ; the linked letters " N K B " in circle ; 
"GL" in shaped outline; "S" in circle; "IB" beneath a 
star of six points in trefoil ; " I R " above trefoil slipped, or four- 
leaved flower in ornamental shield; fleur-de-lys in ornamental 
shield ; the letters " H H " with the letter " E " in chief, and 
acorn in base in circle ; the letters " L R " above fleur-de-lys in 
ornamental shield ; "IS'* in square ; an ostrich wings expanded 
in shaped outline ; " H W " and " F W " each beneath six- 
pointed star in circle ; " T H " above heart flamant between 
letters "I B " in ellipse ; a talbot rampant in ellipse ; the letter 
" W " above the letters " I H " above six-pointed star in outline. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver gilt salver. Date circa 1650. No. 
1 1 53-53. — South Kensington Museum^ London, 



HANAU 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was Three chevronelsy 
in plain shield crowned. In the next century the stamp was Three 
chevronels^ the letter H in sinister chiefs in plain shield. And in 
the nineteenth century it was Two chevronels^ the figure 13 in chiefs 
and the letters N H in base in plain, shield. The capital Roman 
letters "I N " appearing in the nineteenth century were probably 
employed by one of the wardens. The standard mark for modern 
silver is the figure " 13 " crowned in oblong. 

Amongst the makers' marks are found the following : A swan 
rousant^ in elliptical outline; the letters " I H " above a star and 
letter " P " in shield ; and a covered cup in outline. Several of 
the family named Schleissners were gold and silver smiths here. 




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GERMANY 39 



HEIDELBERG 

The hall mark in the seventeenth and early part of the 
eighteenth century was A lion rampant in shield. In the latter 
part of the eighteenth century A lion rampant in circle or octagon. 

The makers' marks were: The letters "M K" over "H" in. 
shield; "FL" in shield; and the letters "FWK" in shield 
parted in three mantle, the whole in outline. 



HEILBRONN 

The hall mark about 1846 was An eagle displayed without 
shield ; and An eagle displayed in oblong. The standard mark 
was the figure " 13 " in square or circle. 

P. Bruckmann & Co. used the letters " P. B. & Co." in oblong, 
and also their full name in oblong. 



INGOLSTADT 

The hall mark in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was 
A male griffin^ in circle. 



KAUFBEUREN 

The hall mark in the eighteenth century was An ellipse per 
pale, dexter an eagle dimidiated per pale, sinister a bend between 
two stars. 

About 1727 a maker used the letters "H C" above "G" in 
trefoil. 

KONIGSBERG 

The hall mark in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
was A Greek cross surmounted by a crown, in ornamental outline. 
The forms of this stamp slightly changed from year to year. A 



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40 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

. single letter was constantly impressed, either as a date-letter or 
as the warden's mark. 

The following makers' marks occur : The linked letters "P H A" 
in circle; the linked letters "LHM" and "H M," each in 
outline ; " P S M " above " 85 " in shaped shield ; " C F " above 
^*88" in shaped shield; "B K'' above "86" in heart-shaped 
shield; "IB" above "94" in oblong; "IB" in plain shield; 
" M C " above " H " in shield ; " I C above " W P " linked in 
shield ; " B K " above " O 7 " in heart-shaped shield ; and 
"** A I " in ellipse. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver gilt tankard. Date circa 1685. — 
Messrs, Lambert^ London, 



LEIPZIG 

The hall mark in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries was A capital Roman Z, in circle or ellipse. This letter 
was sometimes inclosed within a double line. In the eighteenth 
century the stamp was changed to Two swords in saltire points 
upwards, numerals in chief and letter L in base, in ellipse or orna- 
mental outline. From 1588 to 1696 a single letter was always 
used as date-letter or warden's mark. 

Hans Reinhart the elder, who was master in 1547 and died 
in 1 581, used the linked letters "H R" in circle. Manasse 
Steuber, who flourished about 1582, an arrow, point upwards, 
between the letters "XK" in ellipse. Andreas Kauxdorf the 
elder, who was master in 161 8 and died in 1669, or Andreas 
Kauxdorf the younger, who was master in 1646 and died in 
1670, used A turnstile between the linked letters A K, in ellipse, 
Peter Richter, who was master in 1633, used the linked letters 
^* V P R " in ellipse. Melchior Lauch, the elder or the younger, 
who were masters respectively in 1622 and 1665, used the inter- 
laced letters "ML" in circle. Franz Finsinger, who was master 
in 1650, the letters "F F" in shaped outline. Joachim Krump- 
holtz, about 1669, the script letters "I K" in ellipse. Balthaser 



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GERMANY 4I 

Lauch, who was master in 1670, "B L" in shaped outline. 
Joh. Paul Schmidt, master in 1683, the interlaced script letters 
"J PS" in ellipse. 

Other marks were : A black-letter " G " in circle ; "IP" in 
outline; "SH" interlaced, script letters "FR," "BVL" 
linked, "GS," "HCB" linked, and "IS," each in ellipse; 
"GS" in two circles joined, the letter "C" inclosing "M," 
"C" inclosing "W," capital "W," and "GK," each in circle ; 
" C F R " and " C K " each in oblong with rounded corners. 

EXAMPLE 

Two silver gilt drinking vessels. Date circa 
1600. — Griiner Gewolbe Museum, Dresden, 



LUDWIGSBURG 

The hall mark in the nineteenth century was A banner bearing 
an eagle displayed on staffs in outline. The standard mark was 
"13" in ellipse. The date in oblong was also sometimes im- 
pressed. 

The silversmith Buhrer about 1845 used his full name in 
oblong. 

LUBECK 

The hall mark in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries was An eagle displayed with two heads, in circle or ellipse. 
The form of the bird varied slightly, the wings being sometimes 
overture and sometimes inverted ; the shape of the enclosing line 
also varied. The standard mark in the eighteenth century was 
the number "12" above " L " in outline. 

The following makers' marks are known : A shield divided 
tierce in mantle, in outline ; a shell in circle ; two clubs in saltire 
in outline ; " V A " interlaced in shield ; " K " in shield ; " M F " 
linked in ellipse; "T" in shield; heart in the same shaped 
outline ; " H M " linked in ellipse ; " D K " interlaced in shield ; 
" F D " in oblong ; and " I M S " in ellipse. 



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42 



FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 




EXAMPLE 

Silver gilt plate. 
Lambert^ London, 



Date 1658. — Messrs, 



LUNEBURG 

The hall mark used here was always a lion, the early stamps 
being somewhat rude in character. In the fifteenth century 
A lion rampant contourne^ with or without shield^ and in the 
next century A lion passant^ in circle^ square^ or ellipse, was 
employed. The same figures were used until the end of the 
sixteenth century, though they were constantly changed in slight 
particulars. An increscent moon with the figures "12" in circle 
as a standard mark, and a date-letter, seem also to have been 
occasionally impressed. 

A silversmith named Hermann Kolmann about 1501 used a 
black-letter "K" in outline. Herman Griveswold, about 1560, 
a black-letter " G " in circle. One of the Liineburg family of 
Martens used A wyvern contourne^ in plain shield. 

Other makers' marks of this period were : A black-letter " L " 
in circle ; Two swords in saltire, points downwards, a star in chief 
in circle or shield; a black-letter "S" in plain shield; a heart 
flamant in shield ; " H R " linked in ornamental shield ; " C H " 
linked in shield ; a flower and leaves in circle ; A chatloup passant 
in circle; **N M" linked in circle; and "NO" above "K" in 
outline ; " T & C^ " in oblong. J. H. Klencker, who died in 
1825, used the letters " I H K " in oblong ; and G. G. Krumshoh 
the script letters " G G K " in oblong. 



EXAMPLE 




Silver spoons and 
forks. Date circa 1820. 
— Mr, A, Long, North- 
ampton, 



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GERMANY 43 

MAGDEBURG 

The hall marks of this town are somewhat uncertain, but 
the following were probably those used. In the sixteenth and 
the beginning of the seventeenth century The interlaced letters 
B M G in outline^ and A castle with maiden between two towers, 
in ellipse or shaped shield, 

P. Oberdieck about 1667 used a snake crowned between the 
letters " P O " in outline. Gerhardt Oberdieck, the letters 
"GO" in shaped shield. 

Other marks were " W L " in circle, and "IK" in ellipse. 
Johann Friedrich Cornelius was also a Magdeburg silversmith. 



MAINZ 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was A cart-wheel in 
plain shield. In the seventeenth century A cart-wheel above 13, 
in outline. During the next century A cart-wheel^ in circle. And 
in the nineteenth century Two cart-wheels in bend sinister^ in plain 
shield, A date-letter was sometimes added in oblong, and the 
figures " 13 " to indicate the standard. 

Amongst the early makers' marks will be found : " P " above 
" V " in outline ; two clubs in saltire pellet in base, in oblong. 
Quirinus Rotenberg about 1690 used the letters "QR" in 
oblong. Johann Ledent, who died in 1735, "I L" beneath 
some object in plain shield. In the nineteenth century the 
makers Itzstein and Forschinger used their full names in oblong. 



EXAMPLE 

Silver tankard. Date circa 1620. 
(Loan Cat 6324.) — E, Waterton, Esq, 



® e^cE 



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44 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



MANNHEIM 

The hall mark in the eighteenth century was The figure 13 
above the small script letter /, in outline, A somewhat similar 
mark was used in the next century. A year letter was also 
employed, and the small figure " 13 " in square or circle. 

A maker in the eighteenth century used A hound courant in 
ellipse. The name of Gebhard-in oblong is found in the nine- 
teenth century. 

MEMMINGEN 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
A shield per pale^ dexter an eagle dimidiated per pale^ sinister a 
cross. 

An early maker used the letters "IN" beneath a cross in 
plain shield ; and another on anchor inverted between the letters 
"C L" in circle. Johann Georg Werner, who flourished about 
1578, the letters "I W.*' 

MULHAUSEN 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was A cart wheel 
in circle. In the next century the circumference of the wheel 
was potentke. 

Only two makers' marks are known, one the linked letters 
" A W I " in ellipse, the other "AM" in oblong. 



MUNSTER 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was Afesse in shield, 
A capital Roman letter " S " in shield is also found in the 
middle of the same century. 



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GERMANY 45 



MUNICH 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was A maidetCs head 
cauped at the neck, in circle. In the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries the stamp was changed to The figure of a maiden with 
flowing robes, a halo round head and both arms extended, in outline 
or circle. After the middle of the eighteenth century, the numerals 
showing the date were added within the outline. 

A maker's mark in the fifteenth century was a capital " V '' 
in outline, and another, the letters " H R " linked in circle. 
Hans Reimer, who belonged to the guild in 1555, was master 
in 1578 and died in 1605, the numbers and letters " i • 5 • H R - 
F • 63 " and " I • 5 • H • R • F • 7 • 2." A turnstile in shield is found 
in 1592. Hans Schleich, who flourished in 1582 and died in 
1 61 6; Jacob Wilhelm, who died in 1639; ^ind Heinr. Albertin, 
who flourished in 1599, probably all used fleur-de-lys in circle. 
Ferd. Zschokle, about 16 10, the letters " F Z" in shield. Bemhard 
Peter, who died in 1648, "B P" in shield. Gottfried Lang, who 
was master in 161 7 and died in 1632, the linked letters "G L** 
in shield. 

Other makers' marks were: "A S" interlaced in shield; 
«'M H I" linked below "Y,'' and "H S" interlaced, each in 
square; "FK" in oblong; and "I" above "GV" in trefoil. 
Franz Oxner, who belonged to the guild in 1647, used the letters 
"FO"in ellipse. Sebastian Wendl, from about 1662 to 1688, 
the linked letters ** S W " in outline. Franz Kessler, who be- 
longed to the guild in 1664 and died in 171 7, the letters " F K'' 
iQ ellipse; and Joh. Gg. Oxner, who belonged to the guild in 
1678 and died in 171 7, the letters " I G O " in oblong. Valentin 
Schlickh, who belonged to the guild in 1692, the letters ^* V S" 
in outline. A. Draxler, about 1716, "AD" in oblong. Both 
J. C. Steinbacher the elder and the younger used the letters " I C " 
above " S " in trefoil-shaped shield. J. B. Ganzler, who died in 
1773, the letter "I" above "B C" in trefoil. Max Dauman, 
about 1765, the letters "MD'' in outline. Xav. Leissmiller, 
about the same time, the letters "XL" in oblong. 

Other marks were : ** I " above " G B " in trefoil -shaped 



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46 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

shield; "I" above "MM'' in outline; "I" above "IF" in 
trefoil ; and " L R " in oblong. C. Winterhalter used A battle- 
axe between C W in plain shield. 




EXAMPLE 

Silver gilt mounting of a cocoanut cup. 
Date 1 7 15. — National Museum^ Munich. 



NEUSTADT 

It is not known what the hall mark of this town was ; but 
the standard mark in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 
was The figure 13 in ellipse or square. 

The maker's mark "L K" in outline is found in the eighteenth 
century. Philip Nossel, who died in j86o, used "P N" beneath 
star of five points and above " 13 " in ellipse. "AW" between 
two stars in lozenge is also found. 



NORDLINGEN 

In the seventeenth century the hall mark was An eagle dis- 
played in plain shield. 

The only maker's mark known is " I Z " in circle. 




EXAMPLE 

Small silver lamp. Date circa 1639. — 
Messrs. Lambert^ London. 



NORDEN 

The hall mark in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was 
Three stars of six points each^ one and two in trefoil. 



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GERMANY 47 



NURNBERG 

This town was second only to Augsburg as a manufacturing 
city of gold and silver plate ; and from the beginning of the 
sixteenth century to the present time a very large trade in the 
precious metals was carried on here. 

The hall mark was always the letter N. In the sixteenth, 
seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries it was A capital Roman 
letter N in circle. In the nineteenth century the form of the 
letter was changed to A capital script letter N in circle, A single 
date-letter also appears to have been used from about 1760. 

The following were the principal Nurnberg gold and silver 
smiths: Wentzel Jamnitzer, who was born in Vienna in 1508, 
became a member of the guild in Niirnberg in 1534, and died 
ii^ 1585, used the mark of a leopard's head in plain shield 
beneath the letter "W." Albrecht Jamnitzer, who was master 
in 1550 and died in 1590, a leopard's head in plain shield. 
Hans Jamnitzer, who was master in 1561 and died in 1603, 
a cross above four pellets in plain shield beneath letter "H." 
Bartl. Jamnitzer, master in 1575, a five-leaved flower in heart- 
shaped outline beneath letter "I." Abraham Jamnitzer, master 
^^ iS79> a leopard's head in plain shield beneath letters **AI." 
Christoph Jamnitzer, who was born in 1563, was master in 1585 
and died in 16 18, a leopard's head in plain shield beneath letter 
" C" Kaspar Bauch, who was master in 1541 and died in 1583, 
the letters "KB" in ellipse. Hannss Braband, who was master 
in 1535 and died in 1569, two cramps in saltire in circle. 
Christoph Lindenberger, who was master in 1546 and died 
about 1573, a fleur-de-lys in outline. Wolff Christoflf Ritter 
was master in 161 7 and died about 1660. Gregorius Tiirck, 
who was master in 1547 and died in 1569, the interlaced letters 
" G T " in outline. 

Other marks were : " G P " in circle ; " H B " linked beneath 
" 4 " in outline ; and four leaves slipped and stalked in outline. 
Hannss Koppel, master in 1549, a cross beneath "4" in ellipse. 
Hans Lencker, the elder, who was master in 1550 and died in 
1585, the linked letters "H L" beneath cross in ellipse. Paulus 



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48 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

Dulner, who was master in 1552 and died in 1596, the mono- 
gram "PD" in shield. Jaspar Widmann, master in 1554, a 
hunting-horn in plain shield. Jacob Frohlich, master in 1555, 
an ewer in shield. Erhard Scherl, master in 1556, the interlaced 
letters "SE" in shield. Hannss Mulholtzer, master in 1560, 
a pale couped between the letters " H M " in circle. Elias 
Lencker, who was master in 1562 and died in 1591, "EL" 
in heart-shaped shield. Martin Rehlein, who was master in 
1566 and died in 1613, the linked letters "MR" in ellipse. 
Sebald Buhel, who was master in 1566 and died about 1583, 
the interlaced letters "SB" in outline. Hannss Straub, who 
was master in 1568 and died in 1610, the interlaced letters 
"HS" in plain shield. Wolf Loscher, master in 1568, the 
linked letters " W L " in outline. Adam Vischer, master in 
157 1, the linked letters "AV" in ornamental shield. Jonas 
Silber, master in 1572, used the letters "IS" in square, and 
also his full name thus, " lonas silber Nurmberga 1589." Gallus 
Werule, master in 1572, the letter "W" above "G" in outline. 
Either Christoflf Straub, who was, master in 1594, or Wolff Straub, 
who was master in 1618, used a kind of Cross patriarchal in plain 
shield, Melchior Bayer, who was master in 1525 and died in 

1577, the letters "MB" linked in ellipse. Eberwein Kossmann, 
who was master in 1575 and died about 1600, " E K"; Dieterich 
Holdermann, who was master in 1576 ; or David Hollmann, used 
the linked letters " D H " in circle or heart-shaped shield. Hans 
Petzolt, who was born in 1551, was master in 1578 and died in 
1663, a ram*s head in plain shield. Wolff Wolffart, master in 

1578, a single **W" in plain shield. Friedrich Hillebrand, who 
was master in 1580 and died in ;6o8, the letters "FH" in 
oblong. Heinrich Jonas, master in 1580, the letter "K" in 
shield. Nicolaus Schmidt, master in 1582, a kind of Mill pick 
in circle, Hans Keller, master in 1582, a sceptre or mace in 
pale in plain shield. Nicolaus Emmerling, the letters " N E " 
in shaped outline. David Lauer, master in 1582, A f esse between 
three stars of six points each, Lucas Hillebrand, master in 1582 
or 1586, the letters "LH" in ellipse. Hannss Zeier, master in 
1583, the letters "HZ" in ellipse. Jobst Hamman, master in 
1585, the interlaced letters "IH" in shaped outline. Caspar 



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GERMANY 49 

Beutmiiller the elder, who was master in 1585 and died in 161S, 
Three biirs cauped in plain shield. Urban Wolff, master in 1 585, 
the interlaced letters "V W" in outline. Eustachius Hohmann, 
master in 1587, the linked letters "EH" in shield. Christoff 
Ritterlein the younger, who was master in 1577, ^ bend between 
three stars cf five points each in plain shield Hannss Weber, 
who was master in 1588 and died in 1634, the letter "O" in 
outline. Hannss Beutmiiller, master in 1588, A shield per pale, 
dexter a cart wheel dimidiated per pale, sinister three bars couped 
Hannss Anthony Lind, master in 1589, the linked letters "H T L" 
in circle. Hannss Winckler, master in 1591, the linked letters 
" H W " in shaped outline. Adam ProU, master in 1591, " A P " 
in ellipse. Franz Dotte, master in 1592, "FT" linked in ellipse. 
Jeronjonus Behaim, master in 1593, the letter "H" intersected 
by an arrow in pale, in outline. Peter Schutzing, or Peter Sig- 
mund, masters in 1593 and 1608 respectively, "PS" in ellipse. 
Joachim Seitzmair, master in 1594, "IS" in plain shield. Martin 
Malfeit, master in 1595, the linked letters "MM" in oblong. 
Thomas Stoer, master in 1597, the interlaced letters "TS" in 
plain shield. Hannss auf der Burg, master in 1598, "HA" 
above " D B " in circle or square. Adam Rosa, master in 1599, 
or Adam Rosner, used the letters "A R" above a five-leaved 
flower in ellipse. Abraham Tittecke, the linked letters "AT" in 
circle. Martin Dumling, master in 1599, the linked letters 
"MD" in ellipse. 

The following marks are also found : The letters " I R " in 
outline ; and " H R " linked in circle. Franz Fischer or Vischer, 
who was master in 1600 and died about 1660, a fish in ellipse. 
Hannss Bertolt, master in 1601, a hatchet in ellipse. Michael 
Haussner, master in 1601, the linked letters "M H" in oblong. 
Paulus Flind the younger, who was master in 1601, "PF" in 
shield. Wolff Rotenbeck, master in 1602, probably used A 
shield bearing three lozenges in pale between two pallets, Stephen 
Gressel, master in 1602, "SG" in oblong. Balthasar Holweck, 
master in 1602, the linked letters "BH" in shield. Peter 
Wibers, master in 1603, the linked letters "P W" in outline 
Christof Kunad, master in 1603, Three acorns on stalks, in shield, 
or Three leagues in ellipse, Tobias Wolff, master in 1604, the letter 

D 

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50 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

"T" above ** W" in circle. Jeremias Ritter, who was master in 
1605 and died in 1646, An arm embowed resting on the elbow, 
holding in the hand a sword between three stars of six points each, 
in shield, Heinrich Straub, who was master in 1608 and died 
about 1636, a star of six points in plain shield or circle. Esaias 
Zur Linden, master in 1609, a pine-apple slipped in ellipse. 
Miched Miiller, master in 161 2, the letters "MM" in heart- 
shaped shield. Heinrich Mack, master in 1612, probably used 
the linked letters "HM" above lozenge in shield. Caspar 
Beutmiiller, master in 161 2, the linked lettess "CB" in circle. 
Andreas Lobenschrot, master in 1612, the letters "AL" in 
ellipse or oblong. Paulus Bair, master in 16 13, a boar's head 
in circle. Alexander Treghart, master in 16 14, the linked letters 
"AT" in square. Andreas Michel, master in 161 5, the mono- 
gram "AM" in circle. Georg Koler, who was master in 161 7 
and died about 1660, two bird bolts in saltire in plain shield. 
There were also the marks : Three pallets couped beneath some 
object in chief in plain shield ; a sickle in triangular shield ; the 
linked letters " H B " in outline. Friedrich Hirsch-Vogel, master 
in 16 1 9, the linked letters "FH" above "V" in outline. 
Hanss Endres or Andreas, master in 1620, "HA" in oblong. 
Johann Kartenbusch, master in 1 621, "IK" in oblong. Thomas 
Banner, master in 1621, "TD" in circle. Hans Kindsvater, 
master in 1622, the letters " H K " linked in oblong with corners 
rounded. Leonhard Vorchamer, master in 1623, "LV" in 
ellipse. Georg Miiller, master in 1624, "G" inclosing "M" 
in circle. Jacob Kraer, who was master in 1625 and died in 
1669, a water bird in ornamental shield. Gg. Pfeilstricker, master 
in 1626, "G" inclosing "P" in outline. Johannes Clauss, 
master in 1627, the letters " I C " above pellet in shield. Georg 
Barst, master in 1627, the letter "G" inclosing "B" in circle. 
Emanuel Diersch probably used " E M " above " D " in heart- 
shaped shield. Reinhold Riel, master about 1641, the letters 
"R R" in ellipse. Joh. Kellerdaller used two arrows in saltire 
between the letters " I K." 

Other makers' marks at this period were : A talbot rampant, 
the linked letters "AR," and A lion rampant, each in shield; 
"M S" in heart-shaped outline; an unicorn rampant beneath 



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GERMANY 5 1 

Star in shield; two pear-shaped objects and pellets in circle; 
three apples stalked in ellipse ; " H B " linked in circle ; " M K " 
linked above pellet in outline ; a tree in outline ; a fleur-de-lys in 
plain shield; some animal passant and tree in ellipse; and a 
knife in pale point downward, in outline. Conrad Kerstner, who 
was master in 1645 and died about 1699, the letters "C K" in 
oblong. Gottfried Mink probably used the letters " G M " above 
star in outline. Hans Hirtz, a stag springing. Johann Jacob 
Wolrab, who was born in Regensburg in 1633, became master 
in Niimberg in 1662 and died in 1690, used a fesse between 
two stars and a bird. Hermann Lang in 1693 used the 
linked letters " H L " in quatrefoil. One of the Ferm family 
of goldsmiths, the letters "SB" above "F" in heart-shaped 
shield. Wolfgang Rossler, master in 1675, a six-leaved flower in 
shield. E. Hufnagel, master, used the letters " E H." 

Other makers used the following marks : A woman couped at 
the knees, bearing some object in her right hand, beneath the 
letters "ABM "or " I B M " in shield ; " I H " above " M " in 
outline ; " C W " above level and plumb rule in outline ; a knight's 
helm beneath two stars in shield ; " F P " linked in plain shield ; 
a dog courant contourne in ellipse ; a fesse between " G W M " 
and three stars in outline ; " I R " in circle ; " I H " and "HI" 
each in ellipse ; " H C " in plain shield ; " T S " linked in shaped 
shield; "PB" above star in plain shield; "LK"in square; a 
wheel toothed in circle ; a windmill in outline ; "IP" above star 
in shaped shield; "BP" above star in plain shield; "HC" 
linked in outline; fleur-de-lys beneath two stars in outline; a 
pig contourne in ellipse ; " H H " linked beneath star in circle ; 
" S L " linked and " H N " linked, each in ellipse ; a female figure, 
hands resting on hips, in outline ; an ostrich in plain shield ; and 
a cart-wheel in circle. Joh. Berckmann, master about 1688, "IB" 
in square. Johann Samuel Sporl, three daisies in shaped shield. 
Johann Philipp Hofler, " I P H " in heart-shaped outline. Johann 
Leonhard Eyssler, a horse-shoe intersected by an arrow between 
the letters " L E " in oval. Johann Jacob Fern, the letters "II" 
and star above "F" in heart-shaped shield, about 1729. Georg 
Leonhard Fern, the letters "G L" above "L" in heart-shaped 
shield. Georg Nicolaus Bierfreund, "GN" above "B" in out- 

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® m 




52 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

line. Johann Nicolaus WoUenberg, the letters "IN" above 
" W " in outline. Johann Friedrich Ehe, who died in 1 808, "IF" 
above "E" in trefoil. 

EXAMPLES 

Silver communion cup. Date area 1566. 
— Brougham Churchy Carlisle, 

Silver standing cup. Date circa 1650. — 
Her Majesty the Queen, 

Silver gilt tankard. Date circa 1660. — 
No. 3637-56. South Kensington Museum, 



OETTINGEN 

The hall mark in the eighteenth century was A mastiff^s head 
couped at the neck and collared contourne, in ellipse, 

A maker's mark was " C " above "I K " in trefoil slipped. 



PASSAU 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was A lion passant in 
circle^ the lion being somewhat attenuated. 



PFORZHEIM 

The hall mark in the nineteenth century for gold was An orna- 
fnental shield per pale^ dexter a bend, sinister two bendlets arched. 
For silver the same mark in a plain shield was used. The standard 
mark was " 18 K " in oblong for gold, and " 13 " in heart-shaped 
shield for silver. 

A maker's mark was the linked letters " W V " in oblong, and 
another was *^* D " in square. 



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GERMANY 53 

PRUS^A 

The duty mark at the beginning of the present century was 
A crowned eagle displayed^ wings inverted, bearing in the dexter claw 
a sceptre and in the sinister an orb in ellipse. The duty mark 
about 1809 was the script letters "F W" in oblong. The state 
stamp was An eagle displayed holding a sword in each daw^ in 
ellipse. 

REGENSBURG 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and the beginning of the 
seventeenth century was Two keys crossed in saltire, in circle ; and 
in the end of the seventeenth century the capital letter " G " was 
added in chief. 

The following are the makers' marks : For Hans Strobe or 
Hans Schmaller the linked letters " H S " in circle ; the linked 
letters "L B," "M H" above "H"; "H K" linked, "B Z," 
" P D " linked, " V " above " W," " A P " linked, " P R," " A K " 
between two pellets, "E" above "S S," "D" above "M B," 
" M F " Unked, " I " and " M F " linked, and " I " above " C S," 
each in circle or ellipse, and *' L K " with pellet between in orna- 
mental shield. Hans Federer probably used the linked letters 
" H F " in circle, and Simon Pissinger " S P " also in circle. 



STETTIN 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
probably A cocks headcouped at the neck and with protruding tongue^ 
in circle. 

Johannes Korven, a goldsmith who died in 1607, used his 
initials as his trade-mark. Another mark was a " W " above a 
dagger in jMile in plain shield. 



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54 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



STRASBURG 

The very early hall mark found in the fifteenth and the early 
part of the sixteenth century was Three shields^ two and one^ in 
plain shield; towards the end of the sixteenth century the shield 
was crowned with a plume. From about 1567 to 1616 the hall 
mark was A bend or two bendlets in shaped shield^ crowned with a 
plume of ostrich feathers^ several varieties of this stamp being 
used. From 16 16 to 1639 An inner shield with the bend overall 
was used, then An inner shield with three bendlets over all. From 
about 1640 to 1750 the figures "13" were generally added, 
and were frequently placed between two bends. In every case 
the shield is crowned with a plume. The standard stamp about 
1690 was Within an ornamental shield crowned with a plume, 
^^X Id^* above "12 ^." In the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the mark was the figures ** 13 " beneath crown or a plume in 
shaped outline. A date-letter beneath an imperial crown or plume 
appears to have been constantly employed. 

The following were the Strasburg silversmiths : Abraham 
Berner, master in 1547, used the linked letters ** A B" beneath 
cross in ornamental shield. George Kobenhaupt, master in 
1540, a cross potent double fitched above pellet in plain shield. 
Linhard Bawer, master in 1555, a kind of cart-wheel in plain 
shield. Paul Graseck, master in 1559^ the linked letters "P G" 
in shield. Caspar Geiger, also master in 1559, a capital "C" 
in ornamental shield. Reinhard Dietmar, master in 1582, a 
capital "R" in shield. Hans Diebolt Vogell, master in 1605, a 
bird in shield. Nicolaus Riedinger, master in 1609, the linked 
letters " N R '* in shield. Paul CElinger, master in 1612, " P CE " 
in quatrefoiL Hans Jacob Erhart was master in 1634. Daniel 
Harnischter, master in 1651, the linked letters " D H" in shield. 
The mark of an unknown maker was the letter " O " above " M " 
in ellipse. Cornelius Linck, master in 1656, a hand erect in 
circle. Daniel Hammerer, master in 1659, a hammer in pale 
between the letters " D H " in ellipse. Jacob Oberlin, master in 
1665, the single letter "I" in circle or ellipse. Johann Georg 
Burger, master in 1682, the letters "I G" above " B** in outline. 



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GERMANY 55 

Johann Ludwig Imlin, master in 1689, a bee in outline. Johann 
Christoph Roth, master in 1694, the letters " I C " above " R " in 
ellipse. Johann Peter Strehle, also master in 1694, the letters 
"PS" above an unicorn rampant. Daniel Wiirtz, master in 1 708, 
a capital "W" between two stars in ellipse, or the word "Wirz" 
in oblong. Johann Stahl used his full name "Stahl" in oblong. 
Johann Ludwig Imlin, master in 1730, the letters **IM" above 
"LIN" in shaped shield. Ludwig Zentel, master in 1732, 
" L Z " in ornamental outline. Johann Ludwig Strauss, master 
in 1737, used his name "Stravs" in oblong. Tobias Ludwig 
Krug, master in 1738, also used his name "Krug" in oblong. 
Joh. Friedr. Krug, master in 1739, "I F" above "K"in heart- 
shaped shield, or a jug in outline. Joh. Georg Pik, master in 1 739, 
a capital " P " above a saltire potent in outline. Johann Fridrich 
Bittner, master in 1746, the letters "IF" above "B" and be- 
neath crown in outline. Joh. Jac. Kirschenstein, master in 1760, 
the shortened form of his name " Kirstein " in oblong. Alberti, 
who flourished between 1763-80, used his full name in oblong. 

EXAMPLE 

Mounting of an elfin-legged tankard. Date 
circa 165 1. — Griiner Gewblbe Museum^ 
Dresden, 



STRAUBING 

The hall mark used at the commencement of the seventeenth 
century was An old-fashioned plough bend-wise^ in plain shield. 



STUTTGART 

The hall mark during the greater part of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries was A horse forcene, in shield or circle. In 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centimes the date-letter was added 
in base, the horse sometimes appeared courant^ and the inclosing 
line was a circle or ellipse. In the nineteenth century the 
standard stamp of " 13 " was added in square. 




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56 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

The followiDg makers' marks are known : A crass in drcky 
about 1588; "AV" interlaced in outline; "HS" interlaced 
in ellipse ; and "CHE"' linked in outline. Jeremias Pefih- 
hauser, about 1654, used the letters "I P" between three pellets 
in ellipse. Joh. Christian Sick, towards the end of the seventeenth 
century, the letter " I " above ** C S " in trefoil. 

Other marks were: "C" inclosing "P" in outline, and 
"H C K" linked in outline, both about 1683; and "C T" in 
shield in 1697 and 17 10. Joh. Dan. Bauer, who died in 1721, 
his full name. Eberhard Sick, in the eighteenth century, " E S " 
in ellipse. 

Other marks about the same time were : the letters " I C " 
above **S'* in shield, about 1729; "II" above "S" in shield; 
"NT" above "H," and "I L" above "W," both in trefoil; 
and " HvL " in oblong. 



STYRIA 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
Three towers joined, without shield. 

Two makers' marks were : The letters " G S " in outline, and 
the letter " C " inclosing " B " in circle. 



TORGAU 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
A capital Roman 7] in circle. 

The following makers' marks occur: The letters "A K" 
linked in circle, about 1559; "E B" above star in plain shield; 
**SL" interlaced in square; "AL" in circle; "IHS" in 
oblong ; and " H C B " linked in outline. Andr. Klette, about 
1600, used the letters " A K" in oblong. 

Other marks were : "EL" linked, " E E," and " C L,'' each 
in oblong ; a star between the letters " I I," and the letters 
*' C L," each in quatrefoil ; and '* C " above *' I B " in trefoil. 



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GERMANY 57 

TUBINGEN 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
Three pallets couped and joined by a bar fesu^ three crescents in 
chiefs in outline. 

The linked letters «* H M " in shield form the only maker's 
mark known. 



TUTTLINGEN 

The hall mark about 1660 was Three attires in bend sinister^ 
in plain shield, A date-letter seems to have been used. 

The only maker's mark extant is a fish's head couped erect 
in shield. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver beaker, with landscapes and 
figures. Date circa 1660. (Loan Cat. 
6394- )-^ ^' Gardner^ Esq, 



UBERLINGER 

The hall mark in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries was An eagle displayed^ in shield or outline. Sometimes 
the eagle was charged with a shield of pretence. 

The following makers' marks are found : A cross issuantfrom 
star of six points in shield; an arrow double fitched between " I " 
and " V " in shield ; " H R " linked above star in shield ; "IAS' 
beneath star in outline; "LF" above "H" in shield; and 
arrowhead and circle, without shield. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver standing cup and cover, parcel gilt 
T>zX^ circa 1625. — Dr,John Perkins^ Cambridge, 




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58 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



ULM 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was A shield with 
chief chequy^ beneath the capital Roman F, in circle. In the seven- 
teenth century Afesse chequy was used. In the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries the chief or fesse was generally lozengy. 

The following are the makers' marks : A capital black-letter 
** C " intersected by arrow in fesse point to dexter in shield ; a 
leaf in plain shield j " H " beneath " 4 " in shield j two cramps 
in saltire in plain shield; two sceptres in saltire in ornamental 
shield ; an arrow point to base between two pellets in outline ; 
the letter ** Z " within circle of pellets ; ** H B " linked in shield ; 
" M " beneath a bird in plain shield ; and two pellets and capital 
letter " N " without shield. Malhaus Hofherr, who was born in 
1524 and died in 1600, used the linked letters "M H" beneath 
cross in circle. Hans Ludw. Kienlen, who was born in 1572 
and died in 1635, the linked letters " H L *' and " K " with pellet 
between in oblong. Johann Bartholome Miiller, master in 167 1, 
the letters " B M " within two circles joined 

Other marks were : "ILK" in ellipse ; an acorn slipped 
and leaved in shield; "IB," "GP," "GM,» and "H K" 
linked, each in ellipse ; " H P " in oblong ; " H T " above " N " 
in ornamental shield ; " F M " in oblong ; capital " W " beneath 
some object, capital " K," capital " V," and capital " B," each in 
ornamental shield; a tulip in ellipse; and "G L" above "A" 
in trefoil. 

EXAMPLE 



e :N 



Silver salt cellar. Sixteenth century. Ber- 
nal Collection. — South Kensington Museum, 



VILLINGEN 



The hall mark in the eighteenth century was An eagle displayed, 
in ellipse; and the standard stamp was " 13 " in outline. 

The only maker's mark known was the letter " I " between 
"00" in outline. 



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GERMANY 59 

WARBURG 

The only silversmith of whom there is any record at this 
place was Anton Eisenhoidt, who was bom in 1554. He was 
accustomed to engrave his full name thus, Anton Eifenhoidt 
Warburgenfis fecit 

WARENDORF 

Barthel Kernitz, who was born in Weissenfels, and about 
1693 became a burgher in Warendorf, used the letters "B K"; 
and F. Heising the letters "F H." 



WERTHEIM 

The hall mark used here about 1660 was A shield per fesse^ a 
demi eagle displayed^ and three four-leaved flowers. The standard 
stamp in the nineteenth century was the figure "13" in square. 

A maker's mark in 1661 was a capital "B" in shield. L. 
Jan, a silversmith in the nineteenth century, used his initials 
"LI" in square. 

WISMAR 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was A plain shield 
per pale^ dexter a demy bulVs head cabossed per pale^ sinister two 
bars. 

A silversmith about 1694 used the letters "SB" in plain 
shield. 

WITTENBERG 

The hallmark in the seventeenth century was A castle triple- 
towered port displayed^ in ellipse. 



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6o FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



WORMS 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was A key per bend^ in 
plain shield, 

A maker's mark about 157 1 was a shield per pale, two hunt- 
ing-horns. 

WURTEMBERG 

The hall mark in the nineteenth century was A shield tierce in 
mantle^ a f esse wavy, capital IV and 13. 



ZWEIBRUCKEN 

The hall mark in the eighteenth century was A circle per pale, 
dexter some animal rampant, sinister chequy, over all on a crowned 
shield of pretence the numeral 14 above some object, 

A silversmith in the eighteenth century used A lamb passant 
in oblong, 

ZWICKAU 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
was A swan, in circle. 

Only two makers' marks are known, one the intersecting 
letters ** M W " in ellipse, the other "IS" in circle. 



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(t^reece 



There is no law in this country regulating the standard of gold 
\ and silver ware. The smiths, however, are required, in accordance 

with a police order, to deposit their names and stamps at the 
mayoralty, and enter in the police reference-book a memorandum 
of the vessels of precious metal bought or sold by them. 



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In this country the standards for the precious metals were 

fixed by the law of i8th September 1852. 

For gold of the quality of -^^ fine the hall mark is A lion 
° * ' loop 

rampant^ holding in his dexter paw a sword ^ and in his sinister a 
cupy and the numeral i in ellipse. For gold of -^ fine, A lion 
rampant^ and the numeral 2, in oblongs with corners cut off. For gold 
of - — fine, A lion passant^ holding in his dexter paw a sword 
erect, and the numeral 3 in oblongs with corners cut off. And for 
gold of -^ fine, A leaf in ellipse. The mark for small pieces 

of gold of ^^ or ^^ fine,. is A lion's head couped in outline, 
° 1000 1000 -^ 

And for small pieces of gold of ^—^ fine, the same mark as for 

large pieces of a similar standard. The mark for gold of a lower 

quality than -^-^, or silver of a lower quality than -^, is A 
^ ' 1000 ^ ' 1000 

dolphin in outline. The office mark for gold is A liorCs head 

erased and letter A in circle. 

For silver of the quality of ^^ fine, the hall mark is A lion 

1000 

rampant contourne^ and the numeral i, in plain shield For silver 
of the quality of -^^ fine, A lion p assant contoume, and tj e^ 

numeral 2, in hexagon. For small pieces of silver of — ^ or 
i— ^ *^ 1000 

--^- fine, the mark is A short Roman sword in its scabbard^ in 



6a 



J 



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HOLLAND 63 

cutline. The office mark for silver is The head of Perseus^ with 
the letter A on his cap^ in circle. 

All finished ware must be marked by the maker with his own 
mark, and must also bear the stamp denoting the payment of the 
duty. 

EXAMPLE 



x^ Silver box. Dated7>r« 1800.- 
Frofessor Allbutt^ Cambridge, 



AMSTERDAM 

The hall mark for this city was A narrow shield^ charged with 
three saltires in pale^ and surmounted by an arched crown. From 
1566 to the eighteenth century this mark varies a good deal in 
character ; sometimes the saltires are quite small and distinct, at 
others much larger and connected. The crown also is generally 
comprised in the same outline as the shield, but occasionally it 
is distinct. 

The date-letter was generally shown by a capital Roman letter 
in circle. 

About the year 1700 a lion rampant in plain shield surmounted 
by a coronet was also used. 

But few of the Amsterdam makers are known to us; the 
following makers' marks are, however, found on plate made here. 
About 1566 ^ small inverted leaf in shield; andla little later a 
similar leaf of larger size. At the commencement of the seven- 
teenth century the letters " G L " linked, in outline. Jacques 
Bogert, a silversmith who flourished about 1608, used A beacon 
in shield, Johanna Lutma, who died at Amsterdam in 1669, 
used some species of bird in circle. The letters " P L N " in 
oblong ; "LP" in ellipse ; and "AD" in ellipse are also found 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A maker in the 
eighteenth century used the letter " S " above the letter " H." 



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64 



FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



i LP E 



EXAMPLES 

Oval silver box and cover, with large 
repouss^ flowers. Date circa 1650. 

Silver paten. Date circa 1715. — 
Walfield Churchy Suffolk. 



Very small silver box. Date circa 
\^Zo, — The Lady Henley, Watford 
Court, 

BREDA 



The hall mark used during the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies was Three saltires, two and one, in plain shield. In the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries a similar mark surmounted 
by a tall crown was used. A date-letter was also impressed. 

The only two makers' marks known were : A hunting-horn in 
irregular outline, and a mystic pentagon in ornamental shield. 




DOKKUM 

The only marks that appear to be known in connection with 
this town are the hall mark, the date-letter, and the maker's 
mark given below : 



R Bl 



EXAMPLE 

Silver beaker covered with engraved 
figures. Date 1648. — South Kensington 
Museum, (No. 3636.) 



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HOLLAND 65 

THE HAGUE 

The hall mark used in the seventeenth century was A stork, 
holding a fish in his beak, beneath a crown in shield. The date- 
letter also appeared beneath a similar crown in plain shield. The 
State control mark was A lion rampant beneath a crown. 

The only makers* marks known here are the letters " P K " 
in oblong, and A bird in plain shield. 

EXAMPLE 

Pair of silver candlesticks. 
'DbXq circa 1700. — Dublin Exhi- 
bition. 

HAARLEM 

The hall mark about 1700 was A Roman sword erect, between 
four saltires and fleur-de-lys, and beneath a crown, in ellipse. A 
capital Roman letter was used as a date-letter. The State control 
marks were : The letter O crowned, and A lion rampant, in plain 
shield, crowned. 

Jacob Alckema, who was a silversmith here about 1604, used 
a capital Roman A 

Another maker's mark was A stag springing contourne, in circle. 

EXAMPLE 

Oviform tea - canister, silver. 
Date circa 1700. — South Kensing- 
ton Museum. 

HERTOGENBOSCH 



G 



The hall mark in the seventeenth century was A tree^^in leaf 
crowned in irregular outline. A date-letter in plain shield was 
also used. 

Peter van Sichtelen was master here in 1624; his mark was 
Three fieur-de-lys, two and one, in heart-shaped shield. 

s 



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66 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



LEEUWARDEN 

The hall mark in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
was Two lions passant^ in pale, in plain shield, crowned, A date- 
letter was also employed. The State control marks in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were : A lion rampant, in 
plain shield, crowned, and The letter O crowned in outline, 

Johannes Lelij flourished here at the end of the seventeenth 
century ; his mark was A fleur-de-lys crowned in outline. Garbijnus 
V. d. Lelij, who lived about 1731, used for his mark A lily slipped 
and leaved, in ellipse, ornamented at base and crowned. 



EXAMPLE 

Silver candlestick. Date circa 
1750. — Messrs, Harvey 6^ Gore, 
London, 



ROTTERDAM 

The hall mark used in the eighteenth century was A shield 
quarterly, bearing a lion in each quarter, crowned, in outline; 
sometimes the shield was Quarterly of six, bearing in the first, 
second, fourth, and fifth the script Utter Z. A date-letter in 
irregular outline was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries. The State control mark in the eighteenth century 
was A lion rampant in plain shield, and in the nineteenth century 
A lion rampant, crowned. 

The makers' marks were : The letters ** A I " beneath two 
stars in irregular outline; the letters "IV" beneath "V'in 
trefoil ; the letters " H V B " above an urn or cauldron in plain 
shield; and the letters "V L" above a star in irregular outline. 




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HOLLAND 67 



UTRECHT 

The hall mark of about the year 16 14 was A shield per bend, 
plain and fretty, in circle, A little later both portions of the 
shield, which was still per bend, were plain, and were still en- 
closed in circle. About 17 10 the shield was Per bend, plain and 
paly of two or five, crowned^ and enclosed in shield-shaped outline. 
From about 1614 a Roman capital letter in plain or ornamental 
shield has been used. 

Several of the silversmiths of Utrecht are known. Adam 
van Vianen, who was born in 1570 and who became master in 
Utrecht in 1627, used as his mark, about the year 16 14, the 
letters " A V " interlaced in ornamental shield. Another maker 
used his full name thus, A- D- VI ANA- F- 162 1, as his mark. 
Paul van Vianen, who was born in Utrecht in 1596, who belonged 
to the corporation of silversmiths, and worked^ also at Rome 
and Prague, appears to have used a variety of marks. We find 

"PV P 

VIANEN; "P V 1606"; "y 1607"; **P V" linked, with or 

1604" 
without the date 1610 ; and other variations. In the seventeenth 
century the mark of A cup and saucer in circle is found. Nicolaes 
Verhaer, who was master in 17 10, used as his mark Three lozenges, 
two and one, in plain shield, crowned. In the eighteenth century 
we find the marks of A hind springing contourne, above some small 
object and a tree to dexter, in circle ; and the mark of script letters 
" C S " in oblong, with comers cut off. 

EXAMPLES 

Large silver-gilt chalice. Date 
circa 16 10. — Messrs, Lambert, London, 

Silver beaker with bells and Dutch 
inscription. Seventeenth century. 




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68 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



FLUSHING 

The hall marks used here in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries were : An ewer in irregular outline^ and An ewer crowned 
in plain shield, 

ZWOLLE 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century was A shield 
quarterly in plain outline. About 1721 a similar shield, beneath 
an arched crown, was used, and a few years later the same shield, 
beneath the capital Roman letters " R D." A year-letter in circle 
or shield was also used. 

In the seventeenth century a maker's mark of a black-letter 
" C " above some small animal passant in upright oblong occurs. 
The single letter "K" was used about 1678 by Jean Knynder, 

a silversmith. A swan in circle^ and the letter j, ^'^ j^ „ in oblong, 

with rounded corners, and A tree in upright oblongs with 
rounded comers, also occur. 



EXAMPLE 

Small silver-mounted tankard. 
Date circa 1735. — Messrs, Lam- 
bert^ London, 




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J^ungarp 



BUDAPESTH 

The hall mark in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was 
A castle with central tower ^ above the numeral 13, in irregular 
outline^ or ellipse. The form of the castle varied slightly year 
by year. In 1818 and 1836 the castle was placed between 
the four figures signifying the date. About 1836 the word 
"PESTH" in oblong was used, and about 1866 the letter 
"P" in a modern stamp. A capital Roman letter was used 
as a date mark. 

The earliest maker's mark known was " S R " in two distinct 
inverted shields; then followed the letters " I P " in double shield ; 
and somewhat later "IT" script letters in ellipse. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver gilt monstrance. Date circa 
1650. — A Church, Budapesth, 



HERMANNSTADT 

An ordinance appointed that from the commencement of the 
sixteenth century no master should be allowed to sell any worked 
ware unless it was impressed with his private mark, and with 
the official stamp by the master of the craft and two of his 
fellows, after it had been tested. 

Then followed a period in which, besides the master's mark, 

the mark of the town arms of Hermannstadt, or the warden's 

mark, was used. 

69 




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yo FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

^ By a goldsmiths' order of 1539, every master was in future 
to leave his mark to be copied, and every manufactured vessel 
was to be taken into the office. 

The hall mark used during the present century was A capital 
Roman U and figure 4 in modern stamp. 

Only the following makers are known: Daniel BulkescK, 
who about 1589 used the linked letters "DB" in ornamental 
shield; Hans Friedrich Benedikt, who about 1680 used the 
linked letters " H F B " in ornamental shield ; and Sebastian 
Hann der Aeltere, who was bom in 1644, who became master 
in 1675, Principal of the Guild in 1689, and who died in 1713, 
used as his mark the letters " S H " in ellipse. 

MEDIASCH 

The only maker in this town of whom there is any record 
is Servatius Heltner, whose mark about 1559 was **SH" in 
monogram in ornamental shield. 

SCHEMNITZ 

The hall mark of this town in the seventeenth century was 
Two mallets in saltire, beneath S^ in circle. In the next century 
the same mark was used in ornamental shield, in some cases the 
figures "13" being placed beneath the mallets in the shield. 

The makers* marks in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies were : The letters " T K " linked in outline ; the letters 

Yf, in heart-shaped shield; the letters "HS" in outline or 

plain shield ; and the letters " F K " also in outline. 

EXAMPLE 

Beautiful standing cup, silver 
gilt. Date circa 1 605. — Emmanuel 
College^ Cambridge, See Frontis- 
piece. /^ 

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3(tal? 



Previous to the consolidation of the several small Italian States 
into the Kingdom of Italy, each had a separate standard for the 
precious metals. 

In Naples the standards for gold were: ^i^, —^, -132^ 
'^ ° looo' looo' looo' 

6661^ iM, and -^i and for silver, ^ili and Bzi, 

looo' lOOO* lOOO ' ' lOOO lOOO 

In Parma the standards for gold were : ^^ and -^^ : and 

° lOOO lOOO 

for silver, -^^ and -^??-. 

' lOOO lOOO 

In the States of the Church the standards for gold were: 
9i6f and -Ti^ ; and for silver, ^^ and -^. 

lOOO lOOO' lOOO lOOO 

In Sardinia the standards fof gold were : — ^ and -^^ : and 

° looo looo' 

for silver, -252. and — --. 

' lOOO lOOO 

And in Tuscany the standards for gold were : -^ and -^ : 

^ ° lOOO lOOO^ 

.»ifo, silver, S,aa. and tg. 

In December 1872 a decree was passed, of which the follow- 
ing are the principal provisions : Six standard stamps were 
appointed. The first stamp for gold was A Jupiter head^ the 
second A Minerva profile^ the third A horses head ; for silver 
the three stamps were An Italian turret^ with the distinguishing 

numbers i, 2, 3. An alloy of — ^ was allowed for gold and 

silver ware. The testing was to be completed on the same day 

that the article was delivered to the assay officer. The article 

71 



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72 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

was to be stamped on the principal part, and if it consisted of 
several parts, each part was to be stamped. 

A general law for the kingdom was passed, which came into 
operation in May 1873, and which was shortly as follows: The 
working of gold and silver was permitted in all standards. The 
standards could be confirmed, if desired, and stamped for these 

standards — gold ware, -5^, ^^, and -5^ : and silver ware, -^^, 
^ ' 1000* 1000' 1000^ ' 1000' 

^^,and— ^ Vessels of an alloy between two standards were 
1000' 1000 ^ 

to receive the stamp of the lower value. Royal testing offices 

were to be established where required, provided the cost of their 

maintenance was guaranteed. False stamping was to be punished. 

And if a manufacturer filled gold or silver ware with other 

material, he was to be imprisoned for one year. 



NAPLES 

The hall mark in the seventeenth century consisted of the 
capital Roman letters ^^ N A P^^ beneath a crown in octagon. In 
the eighteenth century the numbers "702," "716," or "720" 
appeared below the letters, and the outline assumed the form of 
a shield. Sometimes the crown was placed in a distinct outline. 

In the seventeenth century the makers' mark "ET" was 
used; a little later the letters **M-A-C" in oblong; the letters 

"B A" in cross-shaped outline; the letters "PD" in oblong; 

"N^A" in heart-shaped shield; «D^B» in octagon; "FT" 

with cinquefoil between letters in oblong; and the letters *^^" 
in outline are also known. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver spoon and fork. Date 
drca 1740. — Professor Church, 




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ITALY 



73 



ROME 

The hall mark for gold in the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries was Two keys in saltire, beneath a tiara in small ellipse.. 
At the end of the seventeenth century the hall mark for silver 
was Two keys in saltire, beneath a mitre, in outline, A little 
later Two keys in saltire, beneath a pavillion d*Eglise, was used. 

A maker in the seventeenth century used the mark oiAfish in 
ellipse; and about 1790 the letters "L V" between three fleurs- 
de-lys probably indicated the mark of L. Valadini. 



EXAMPLE 

Silver ewer of the late Cardinal York, 
made by L. Valadini. Date 1 790. — Duke 
of Hamilton, 



+ LV+ 



VENICE 

It is supposed that the hall mark used here was A winged 
lion^s head affrontie. 



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IBortoa? 



In this country gold ware must have a standard of from ^^ to 
^-^ at the lowest All articles must bear the maker's mark 

lOOO 

and the standard stamp. 



BERGEN 

The hall mark used towards the end of the eighteenth 
century was A mosque^ or domed buildings above seven pellets^ 
in outline. Early in the nineteenth century the same mark 
was used in ellipse. Figures in a square were also used: the 
numerals "99" for 1699, "87" for 1787, "12" for 1812, and 
" 20 " for 1820. A monthly mark of uncertain form also appears 
to have been used. 

The following makers' marks have been found : About 1699, 
the letters "MP" in ellipse, and " A L" in outline; about 1787, 
the letters " D K " in oblong, and " A L " ; about 18 1 2, the letters 
"PGA" in oblong, and "P" in ellipse; and about 1820, the 

letters " A B " linked, m octagon, and ^ „ in ellipse. 



EXAMPLE 




Silver coffee-pot. Date 
1787. 



/^^ wtrri A7/f/f// Fc/^ 74 



Portugal 



The standard after the assay was for both |gold and silver ware, 
-^-. Now the standard for gold is -^, and for silver ?^- 

lOOO ° lOOO lOOO 

A lower quality is allowed for bijouterie. 

The hall mark for this country appears to have been A 
capital Roman P beneath pellet^ in arched outline, 

EXAMPLE 

Silver salver. Date circa 1725. No. 7-66. — South 
Kensington Museum, 

LISBON 

The hall mark used here in the last century was probably A 
capital Roman L beneath crown, in irregular outline. Early in 
the nineteenth century the same letter crowned was placed 
between two pellets, and the inclosing line assumed the form 
of an ellipse. 

The following makers' marks occur with this hall mark: 
The letter "C" above the letters "AG" in triangle, about 1780; 
"N" above "IT," and "II" above "N," each in irregular 
outline, about 1800; and "JJC" and "S & V," each in a 
scroll, and "C ASR" in oblong, about 1830. 

EXAMPLES 

Silver fork. Date circa 1780. — T. Shep- 
ard^ Esq.<i Northampton, 

Butter knife. Date circa 1830. — T, Shep- 
ardj Esq., Northampton, 

75 




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iatt00ia 



The following are the regulations in force in this country for 
workers in gold and silver. All gold and silver circulating, 
whether as bars or ware, must be legally stamped. Officers of the 
assay office are not allowed to carry on any trade connected with 

gold or silver smiths or jewellers. The standards for gold are 1^, 

90 

g, % and 2i; and for silver, ?*, % and 5i. Gold and 
96' 96' 96' '96' 96' 96 

silver smiths* trade must be conducted in open shops, not in 

little huts or stalls in the market-place. Those who desire to 

work in the gold or silver trade must obtain a permit, which 

must be renewed every year. Workers in gold and silver must 

give notice, and obtain permission to move, before changing 

their address. 

KALUGA 

The hall mark at the end of the eighteenth century was 
TAree bars wavy a crown in chiefs in plain shield. 



KAMINIETZ-PODOLSKI 

The hall mark used about the middle of the present century 
was A castle within bordure, in shield. 



KAZAN 

The hall mark at the end of the last century was A wyvem 
crowned^ in square. 

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\ 



RUSSIA 77 



KIOW 



The hall mark about 1794 was A demi-angel couped at the 
waistf in oblong. During the nineteenth century the mark was 
An eagle displayed with wings inverted^ sans legs within bordure^ 
in shield; or the letters " KIOV" in ellipse. 

KOSTROMA 

The hall mark about 1781 was A two-masted vessel^ in arched 
outline, 

MOSCOW 

The hall mark about 1740 was A double-headed eagle dis- 
playedy holding in his dexter claw a sword^ and in his sinister a 
ball, above the letters ''MOCK,'' above '' B A^' in outline. 
From about 1600 to 1780 the mark was St George and the 
dragon contourne above the date, in square or outline. The date 
was either placed in the same stamp with the figure of St 
George, or in a separate oblong stamp. 



EXAMPLE 

Small silver-gilt chalice. Date 
drca 1600. — Messrs, Lambert, Lon- 
don, 




©A IST^ 



NOVGOROD 

The hall mark about 1770 was l\uo lions combatant, each 
holding in his paw an arrow point downwards, beneath a coronet, 
in oblong. 



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78 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



RIGA 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
Two keys in saltire^ a Greek cross in chiefs in plain shield. 
Towards the end of the eighteenth century the form of the 
inclosing line changed and became an ellipse. The handles 
of the keys varied slightly; at first they were elliptical, then 
square, and lastly trefoil. A date-letter appears to have been 
used in the early part of the eighteenth century without in- 
closing line, but during the later part of the century the letter 
was placed in a square. 

The following makers and their marks are known : Hannss 
Unna, who flourished in 1553, used an Arrow in bend sinister 
intersected by a line^ in ornamental shield, Thomas Smollde, 
about 1596, used the interlaced letters "TS" in ornamental 
shield. Other marks were: Three apples slipped and leaved 
in shield; "KH" linked in square; a turnstile in shaped 
shield ; " M K " above swan in ellipse ; and " H M " linked in 
shield. Jiirgen Linden, who was master in 1674, used a tree 
between the letters " I L " in ellipse. Heinrich von Coin, 
master in 1676, the letter "V" above "H K" m shaped shield. 
Andreas Becker, master in 1683, the linked letters "ABK" 
in ellipse. Johann Behrend, about 1699, used a tree between 
the letters «* I B " in shield. Joh. Georg Eben, who was master 
in 1703 and died in 1712, the letters "IGE" in oblong with 
rounded comers, and also the inscription "I -G' EBEN ME 
FECIT." 

At this time other marks were : A crescent moon above two 
crescents in circle ; " C " inclosing " M " in plain shield ; "ID" 
above "R" in shield; "CH" in oblong; and "DVH" and 
"IR," each in ellipse. Jacob Stabenau, master in 17 12, the 
letters "1ST" in outline. Joh. Lamoureux, who was master 
in 1719 and died in 1744, "IL" above pear pendant in out- 
line. ChristofFer Dey, who was master in 1729 and died in 
1748, "C. DEY" in oblong. Joh. Dietr. Rehwald, who was 
master in 1738 and died in 1781, the letters ^I D" above "R" 
and beneath crown in outline. Joh. Christian Henck, master 



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RUSSIA- 79 

in 1750, the letters "ICH" in oblong. M. Kresner, master 
in 1758, "MK" in oblong. And Job. Christoph Barrowsky, 
about 1771, used the letters "I G" above "B" in trefoil 
slipped. 

EXAMPLE 
Silver medal- 
lion plaque. Date ^—^ _ 

1705. No. 3633- ItVll OZea lI^a^EBJEJr ME FECm 

55. — South Ken- 
sington Museum, 

ST. PETERSBURG 

The hall mark about 1736 was A double-headed eagle dis- 
played^ holding in his dexter claw a dagger^ and in his sinister an 
orb, in outline. About 1746 the mark was An anchor and hedge 
in saltire^ intersected by a sceptre in pale, in square^ or in arched 
outline, or in ellipse. This mark within a circle is used at the 
present time. The date is generally added below, either within 
the stamp ©r in separate outline. 



EXAMPLES 



fMl®(M)^ 



841 [y^ QMlfc* 



Silver cup. Date 1829. 
Formerly belonging to W, 
Chaffers, Esq, 

Silver-gilt box. Date 
1835. — Messrs. Lambert, 
London, 



REVAL 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was A cross couped, 
in plain shield, 

YAROSLAVL 

The hall mark about 1767 was A bear rampant in irregular 
outline. 



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The standard after the assay for gold was -5^ ; it is now ^— i, 
^33*^ and 15?.. Por silver the standard was 1^: it is now 

lOOO lOOO lOOO^ 

lOOO lOOO 

The hall marks and makers' marks used in this country appear 
to be but little known, and the only marks that the writer has 
met with are the following. About 1480 the letters *' 1 1 " above 
" S B O " in outline ; about 1540 the letters "HON" beneath a 
saltire, in outline, together with some other letters also in out- 
line; and about 1580 the linked letters "TF" beneath three 
nails in plain shield. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver parcel gilt bowl. Date circa 1580. No. 
165-79. — South Kensington Museum^ London. 




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t^toeDen 



In this country there are three standards for gold ware : Ducat 
gold, 23 carats 5 grains; pistolen gold, 20 carats 4 grains; and 
crown gold, 18 carats 4 grains. And all ware of any size must be 
marked. 

CHRISTIANIA 

The hall mark used here in 1647 was A capital Roman C 
inclosing the numeral 47 beneath a crown, in ellipse. An identical 
mark inclosing the numerals "84" was used in 1684. In the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a very similar mark was 
used, but the capital "C" inclosed only the figure "4." About 
1724 the Roman capital letter "B" took the place of the figure 
within the capital "C." And about 1782 no letter appeared 
within the capital ** C," but the small letters " v d " were placed 
beneath the " C." 

The State control mark, since about 1759, has been the arms 
of Sweden, Three croivns, two and one, in ellipse or inverted ire- ^p^XT^ 
foil. 

A yearly date-letter was also apparently used, but we have 
not access to sufficient examples to enable us to allocate them to 
their proper years. 

The names of the earliest silversmiths are not known, but the 
following marks occur on Swedish silver : The letters " B P " in 
ellipse, about 1647. The letters "A L" above saltire in heart- 
shaped shield. The letters "KH" in ellipse, in 1684. Cross 
keys, in saltire-shaped outline, about 1700. The letters "Ah" 
about 1727, in circle. And "E. Lemon," in oblong, about 
1776. 

F 



8z 



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82 



FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



EXAMPLES 




et/^ten nS'^ 



(§l@l 



Large peg tankard, parcel 
gilt. Date 1684.— 2?r. /oAn 
Perkins^ Cambridge, 

Beaker, parcel gilt. Date 
circa 1*100, — Prof. T, Clifford 
Allbutty Cambridge, 



STOCKHOLM 






The hall mark used here in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries was A maiden*s head crowned affronthe^ in irregular 
shield. And here also a date-letter appears to have been used. 

The makers' marks during the seventeenth century were: 
The letter " W " above " R K " in circle, and also in irregular 
shield; the letters "VK" linked in plain shield; the letters 
^* P B " in square ; and the letters "IN" in shield. 



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S)tDit5erlattD 



A LAW of the 23rd December 1880, for the confederated states of 
Switzerland, made provision for the control of gold and silver 
ware. Under this statute two standards were appointed for 
gold and two for silver. The State control mark for gold of 

-^— fine is A Juno head in profile^ couped at the necky in ellipse ; 

and for gold of ^^ fine, A squirrel sejant contourne^ in ellipse. 

The State control mark for silver of — ^ fine is A bear rampant. 

1000 ^ ' 

800 
in ellipse, and for silver of - — fine, A hen contourne, in ellipse, 
•^ 1000 ^ 



BADEN 

In the sixteenth century the hall mark used was A tau cross 
between three pellets^ in plain shield. In the next century the form 
slightly changed and became A tau cross ^ in plain shield. 

The only makers' marks known are : Three pellets^ between two 
bendlets coupedy in plain shield^ and A cross pattie between two 
stars in plain shield within border, 

CANTON BASLE 

In this province it was enacted as follows : That all gold 
and silver smiths were to provide that the standard of their gold 

ware was ^-, and of theii silver ware 12 oz. 9 grs. ; that all 

articles were impressed with the smith's name ; and that every 

master was to be responsible for all articles bearing his name. 

83 

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84 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



BASLE 

The hall mark in the sixteenth century was like A bear's 
gamb erased^ in circle^ or Crosier case ^ in circle. In the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries the same mark was generally com- 
bined with the capital Roman letter " B," sometimes in ellipse, 
sometimes in octagon, and sometimes in a heart-shaped shield. 
The control stamp in the seventeenth century was either the 
letters "IS" in shield, or " G T " in two circles joined. 

Many of the old makers of Basle and their marks are known. 
Friedrich Bildtschnitzer, who was master in 1526, probably used 
the letters " F B." Jacob Birmann the elder, who was master 
in 1625 and died in 1672, used the letters **I B " in circle, or in 
square with the corners rounded. Sebastian Fechter the elder, 
who was master in 1633 and who died in 1692, and his son, 
Sebastian Fechter the younger, who was master in 1673 and 
who died in 1687, both used the same mark. Two swords in 
saltire^ points downwards^ between the letters S F in circle, 
Peter Birmann, who was master in 1669, the letters "P B" in 
ellipse. Adam Fechter the younger, master in 1670, the letters 
"A F." Johann Brandmiiller, master in 1677, the letters "IB" 
with pellet between in circle. Ernst Ludwig Meyer, master in 
1698, the letters "LM" linked in irregular outline. Hans 
Heinrich Schrotberger, master in 1698, the letters "HS" in 
oblong. Johann Ulrich Fechter the elder, who was master 
in 1702 and who died in 1747, used Two swords in saltire^ 
points upwards^ between the letters V F, and with a crown in chief, 
Johannes Fechter, master in 1735, ^sed the same mark with 
the letters "IF" in lieu of " V F." And Joh. Fechter the 
younger, who was master in 1741 and died in 1766, used a 
similar mark to that of Ulrich Fechter, who was master in 1702. 
And Hans Jacob Fasch, who was master in 1732, used the 
letters " H F " linked in circle. 



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SWITZERLAND 



85 



EXAMPLE 

Drinking vessel in the form of a lion. Date 
1637. — Basle. 




BERNE 

Several varieties of the town arms, a bear, were used in the 
sixteenth century. The bear is always passant, sometimes passant 
contoume, sometimes inclosed in a circle, and sometimes in an 
ellipse. 

The following are the Berne silversmiths' marks : The letters 
" M Z," " M N," and " D W " each in oblong ; the letters " H F " 
linked, surrounded by pellets in oblong; a cross between the 
letters "B G" in ellipse; and the letters "EI," a star of five 
points in chief and moon in base, in ellipse. 



EXAMPLE 

Large lion cup given by William III. 
to the city of Berne. Date 1690. — Baron 
M, de Rothschild, 



BIEL 

The hall mark in the eighteenth century was Two broad axes 
in saltire, in shaped outline, 

A maker's mark found with this is the letters *' A M," with 
arrow-head between, in shaped outline. 

CHUR 

' The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
A goat rampant in shield, 

A maker's mark was A gerb in plain shield. 



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86 



FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



EINSIEDELN 

In the eighteenth century the hall mark was probably Two 
birds volant^ in ellipse, 

Joseph Anton Curiger, who was born in 1750, used the 

t< T A » 

letters ^ in outline, and another silversmith the letters 
"I BC" in ellipse. 

CANTON OF GENEVA 

Assay Office established September 22, 1815 

The punches for marking gold and silver were fixed as 
follows : — 

I St. That of the Maker. 
2nd. That of the Assay. 
3rd. That of the Guarantee. 

There is only one legal standard for gold and three for 
silver. 



Standard. 



One only 

ist . . 
2nd . . 
3rd . . 



Millims. 



750 

950 
87s 
800 



kar. grs. 



18 o 

oz. dwts. 
II 8 

10 10 

9 12 



Description of Punch of 
Assay. 



GOLD. 

The bow of a key, G in- 
closed ....... 

SILVER. 
Head of an eagle in profile 

A horse's head .... 

A lion's head, full face . . 



Guarantee Punch. 



The shank of the 
key, G above. 



A crown for the 3 
I standards. 



There is also a fourth punch for verification (recense)^ 
changeable. 

The remedy (tolerance) of standards is for gold 3 millims, 
for silver 5 millims. 

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SWITZERLAND 8/ 

Each punch has a different form, as determined by the 
Council. 

Works in copper gilt to be stamped cuivre ; if of silver gilt, 

ARGENT. 

CANTON GLARUS 

In 1 761 a law was passed fixing the standard for silver ware 
at 12 ounces, but not making any regulation for gold ware. 



CANTON LUCERNE 



In this province the sale of gold ware under -^^, and silver 

imder 13 ounces, was forbidden by a law passed in 1804. Vessels 
sent out unstamped with the name of the manufacturer and 
the arms of the canton were to be confiscated to the State, 
and the manufacturers fined. And wardens were appointed to 
inspect the workshops and yearly markets. 



LUCERNE 

The hall mark used here in the nineteenth century was A 
shield per pale^ dexter barry offive^ sinister plain, 

J. Bossard, the goldsmith, used a species of lyre as his 
mark. 

CANTON NEUCHATEL 

The oldest laws in this province affecting the manufacture 
of gold and silver ware date from September 1754. By these 

laws the working of gold ware under ^^, and silver ware under 



13 ounces, was forbidden. 



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88 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



Assay Office reorganised December 14, 1852 

(Abrogating the Laws of 1839, 1841, and 1846.) 

The punches for marking gold and silver are of two 
sorts, viz. : — 

I St. That of the Maker. 
2nd. That of the Standard or Assay. 
There is only one legal standard for gold, and only one for 
silver. 

For Gold 750 millims or 18 karats fine. 
For Silver 800 millims or 9 ounces 1 2 dwts. fine. 
The punch of assay is as heretofore, for gold and silver the 
THREE CHEVRONS. No remedy or tolerance is allowed. 

All watch cases to be marked with an ordinal letter by the 
maker. Copper or silver gilt works are to be stamped cuivre or 
ARGENT as the case may be. 

NEUCHATEL 

The hall mark in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
was An eagle displayed^ charged with a shield bearing on a pale 
three chevronels, in octagon. 

In the seventeenth century Wawre or Wittnauer, a silversmith, 
used the interlaced letters " A W " in outline. Jonas Thiebaud, 
a goldsmith, who flourished about 1640, used the letters "CD" 
in square, and as a second mark Two hammers in saltire, in up- 
right oblong, N. Matthey, who lived about 1663, the letters 
NM above two sprigs in saltire, in ellipse, G. Tavargier, about 
1699, used A passion cross supported on two stays chevronwise^ 
between the letters G F^ in ellipse, J. J. Matthey, the letters 
1 1 M with star of five points in chief and leaf in base, 

EXAMPLE 

Salt-cellar. Date circa 1650^ Na 86-1891. — 
South Kensington Museum^ London, 




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SWITZERLAND 89 



RUPPERSWYL 

The hall mark in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
was Two daisies or pinks stalked and leaved^ in ellipse or plain 
shield. In the eighteenth century a somewhat larger mark of 
the same character was used. 

A maker in the sixteenth century used the letters " G D " 
interlaced in ellipse. In the next century other marks were : A 
dagger point upwards and hunting-horn in chiefs in plain shield^ 
SLiid A fleur-de-lys, in plain shield. In the next century, the letters 
"CD" above a leaf in plain shield were employed. 

SCHAFFHAUSEN 

The hall mark in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries was A ram^s head cabossed^ in plain shield or ellipse. 

An early maker's mark was a kind of black-letter " C " in out- 
line. H. J. Laublin, about 1700, used the interlaced letters 
"HL" in plain shield. 

CANTON SOLEURE 

There were no laws in this province affecting the sale of 
gold and silver ware. 

PAYS DE VAUD 

In December 1848 a decree was passed to the following 

effect : That the standard should be fixed for gold ware at -^^— ' 

° 1000 

000 800 

and for silver ware at -^^^ and — , and that all articles sold 
locx) 1000 

should be of the correct standard. That all articles should be 
stamped with the name of the manufacturer and with the 
standard. That the Chamber of Commerce should be ap- 
pointed to watch over the standard. That every gold and 



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90 FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON PLATE 

silver smith should deposit his stamp with the Chamber, and 
that it should be broken when the smith died or gave up 
business. That strangers buying at this market should give 
notice to the Chamber in order that the ware should be tested. 
And that testers before acting should take the prescribed oath 
before a commissioner. 

By a further decree of November 1873 the law was relaxed, 
and manufacturers were to be at liberty to adopt any standard 
they chose. 

But another decree was passed the next year whereby the 



800 
fine or imprisonment was to follow any false stamping. 



standard for gold was fixed at -^^ and for silver at : and 

^ 1000 1000^ 



WINTERTHUR 

The hall mark in the eighteenth century was A cat-a-mountain 
saliant^ above the capital Roman letter W^ in ornamental shield, 

A maker's mark used with this hall mark was A caduceus 
above the letter V, in ornamental shield, 

CANTON ZURICH 

In this province the standard for gold was -^^, and for silver 
13 ounces 6 deniers. 

ZURICH 

The hall mark here from 1526 to the end of the seventeenth 
century was always A capital Roman Z in plain shield^ though 
the form slightly varied at different times. 

The following are amongst the makers' marks: A Catherine 
wheel in heart-shaped shield^ either for Hans Gr. Miiller or Hans 
Miiller aus Ulm, about 1524. A mark used about 1563 was A 
stag at gaze in plain shield, Diethelm Holzhalb, in 1608, used A 
shield per fesse, a demi man^ and three lozenges, Hans Heinrich 
Riva, in 162 1, used A shield per fesse^ an eagle displayed^ and an 
arm embowed resting on the elbow, in the hand a sword, A maker 



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SWITZERLAND 9I 

about 1627, the letters "0 0" interlaced in shield. Jacob 
Holzhalb, in 1629, the letters "I H" in square. Steffan Aberli, 
who was master in 1630 and died in 1663, the letters "S A" in 
plain shield. Johann Heinrich Miiller, who flourished in 1632, 
used A Catherine wheel supporting a cross croslet Peter Oeri, 
who was born in 1637 and died in 1692, used a kind of Turnpike 
above the letter G in shield. Hans Jacob BuUinger, who died in 
1725, used the letter "X" in square. 



EXAMPLE 

Small silver-gilt chalice. Date circa 1627. 
-Messrs. Lambert^ London, 



ZUG 



^m 



The hall mark in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries was A fesse fretty in plain or ornamental shield. 

Alexander Landwing, who was master in 1603 and died in 1630, 
used A passion cross in shield ; and H. G. Onsorg, in the seven- 

teenth century, used the letters q„ in trefoil. 



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Cutfee|> 



In this country the standard for gold ware is not enforced The 

gold ware, however, is for the most part of the fineness of ^^. 

Previous to 1844, silver ware was to be of the minimum 

standard of fine, and since that year, of -§^ fine. All silver 

1000 ' ^ ' 1000 

ware is marked with the city stamp. 

The hall mark is the same as the hieroglyphic used on the 

Turkish coins. 

EXAMPLE 

Silver frame for looking-glass. Date circa 1800. 
— Messrs, Lambert^ London, 




93 



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INDEX 



A . 

AB 

A B linked 

A B K linked 

ABM . 

ACH . 

AC 

w • • 

AD . . 
A D linked 
AF . . 
A F linked 
AG . . 



PAGB 

6, lo, 19, 27, 65 

. 24 

54.74 
. 78 
. 51 

19, 26 



26. 45. 63 

• 10, 23 
. . 84 
. 10, 23 

• • 23 
. 81 

22. 32. 37 
40, 47, 66 
40, 53. 55 
. • 55 
55. 74. 81 
44. 50. 85 

• 29,49 
. • 53 
. . 49 
. 22, 50 
. . 21 
. . 45 
. 49. 50 
. . 7 

22, 29, 48, 

56.67 

A 
VN ^9 

AW 46 

A W linked 23, 24, 36, 88 
A WB linked ... 36 
A WI linked ... 44 
Aberell, J. S. . . .25 
Aberli, S 91 



Ah . 
AH . . 
AI . , 

AK . . : 

A K linked . 

AL . . . 

AM . . < 

AP . . . 

AP linked . 

AR . . . 

A R linked . 

AS . . . 

AS linked . 

AT linked . 
ATFUnked 

A V linked . 



PAGB 

Acken, J. von ... 13 

Adam, E 26 

J.J 26 

Adelkirchen, J. J. . . 30 

Aix-la-Chapelle . . 19 

Alberti 55 

Albertin, H. ... 45 

Alckema, J. ... 65 

Altenstetter, D. . . 21 

Amsterdam. ... 63 

Andreas, H. ... 50 

Ansbach 20 

Anthoni, H. A. . . 22 

Antwerp 12 

Ast, J 27 

Audenarde .... 14 

Augsburg .... 20 



B . 6, 9, 12, 13, 21, 22, 
27. 58. 59. 81, 84 

BqA 72 

B B 23, 28 

BC 45 

BD 22 

B D interlaced ... 22 

BE 21 

BELT 28 

BG 8s 

BGM linked ... 43 

BH 29 

BH linked .... 49 

B H 32 

B K 40, 59 

BK linked .... 22 
93 



PAGB 

B L . . . 21, 22, 41 

BM 58 

BMG 43 

I 

BM 31 

BP . . . 45.51.81 

BQ 27 

BVUnked .... 21 

BVL linked ... 41 
B 

W 74 

BW 2^ 

BZ 53 

Bachere, G. de . . . 13 

H. de . . . .13 

Baden 83 

Baden-Baden ... 27 

Bair, P 50 

Bantzer, C 22 

Barrowsky, J. C. . . 79 

Barst, G 50 

Basle 83, 84 

Bauch, K. .... 47 

Bauer, G 24 

G. 1 26 

J.D 56 

Baumann, P. ... 21 

Bavaria 18 

Bawer, L 54 

Bayer, A 21 

M 48 

Bayr 22 

M 22 

Beauclair, J. ... 30 

Becker, A .... 78 

Beghin, H 14 

Behaim, J 49 



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94 

PAGE 

Behrend, J 78 

Beltz, L. H. ... 37 
Benedikt, H. F. . . 70 
51 
74 
34 
13 
27 
85 
54 



Berckmann, J. 
Bergen . . . 
Berger, G. . . 
Berghem, J. van 
Berlin . . . 
Beme. . . . 
Berner, A. . . 

Berthold, G. ... 24 

Bertolt, H 49 

Besmann, G. ... 24 

Betfcober, C. S. . . 26 

Bettignies, A. C. J. de 14 

Beutmtiller, C. . . 50 

G 49 

H 49 

Beyl, T 29 

Biberach 28 

Biel 85 

Bier, C 35 

Bierfreiind, G. N. . 51 
Bildtschnitzer, F. . .84 

Biller, A. .... 24 

J 25 

J. B 23 

J.J 26 

J. L. .... 25 

L. ..... 25 

Birckenholte, P. . . 35 

Birmann, J 84 

P 84 

Bittner, J. F. . . .55 

Bogert, J 63 

Bont^, C. de . . .13 

Borreby, P 16 

Bossard, J 87 

Botza, M 33 

Boxhammer, H. . . 29 

Boy, H 29 

Braband, H. ... 47 

Brandmiiller, J. . . 84 
Brauer, J. F. . . .26 

Braunschweig ... 28 

Breda 64 

Bregel, M 22 

Breslau 28 

Brieg 29 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Bnickmann & Co. . 39 

Bruges 12 

Bruglocher, J. J. . .26 

Briinn 9 

Brunswick .... 18 

Brussels 13 

Budapesth .... 69 

Buhel, S 48 

Buhrer 41 

Bulkesch, D. ... 70 

BuUinger, H. J. . . 91 
Burger, J. G. . . .54 

Busch, E 24 



C . 6. 9, 12, 13, 14. 31, 

34. 47, 54. 58. 68, 

81,89 

A^b 75 

CB 35 

C B linked ... 50. 56 

CBS 32 

CD . . 25, 26, 88, 89 
CDS ...'.. 33 

^S° 33 

CE 21 

CF 40 

H 33 

CFR 41 

C S 5.6 

C^G 3^ 

C H . . . 22, 29, 78 

C H linked . . . 10, 42 

CHE linked ... 56 

CH 
I 33 

CI *5 

C K .... 34. 41. SI 
C L . . 21, 24, 44, 56 

MW ^^ 

C M linked . . 29, 41, 78 
CN 10 

C N 29 



PAGE 

C P 24, 34 

CP linked .... 56 

C R 24. 37 

CRO 15 

C S ... 25, 32, 67 

C S B 26 

CSG 29 

Js S3. 56 

CT 56 

CV 40 

cw . . 37.41.46,51 

"m^ =9 

CXS 26 

Canzler, J. B. . . .45 
Carlsruhe .... 29 

CASR 75 

Cassel 30 

Christiania . . . . 8i 

Chur 85 

Clasquin 13 

Clauss, J 50 

Coin, H. von . . . 78 

Cologne 30 

Colmar 31 

Constance .... 31 
Copenhagen . . 10, 16 
Cornelius, J. F. . . 43 

Crabbe, J 13 

Cunin 13 

Curiger, J. A. . . .86 



D 6, 9, 15, 21, 32, 33, 52 

DA 21 

DAF 21 

D Blinked .... 70 

D^B 72 

D E interlaced ... 22 

DG 38 

DH 17.54 

D H linked . . . 48, 54 

DK 74 

D K linked .... 41 

DM 21, 27 

D M linked .... 29 

DN 25 

D S . . 21, 23, 25, 34 



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PAGE 

D^SK 16 

DUG IS 

DV linked .... 34 

DVH 78 

DW 8s 

DZ 22 

Danner, T $0 

Danzig 31 

Darmstadt .... 32 

Dauman, M. ... 4s 

Dendermonde ... 14 

Deschler, J 23 

Dey, C 78 

Diersch, E 50 

Dietmar, R. ... 54 

Dokkum 64 

Domenique .... 13 

Dorn, F 30 

Dotte, F 49 

Draxler, A 45 

Drentwet, A. ... 26 

E 26 

G. C 26 

Drentwett, A. . , .23 

C 25, 26 

J. C 26 

P.J 24 

Dresden 32 

Drexel, M 26 

Dreyer, S 26 

Duisberg, C. ... 30 

Dulner, P 48 

Dum, J 23 

Dumling, M. ... 49 

E 6, 34 

EA 26 

EB . . '. . . 24, s6 

EC 34 

ED 26 

EE S6 

EG 33 

EGN 28 

E F 32 

EH SI 

E H linked .... 49 

EI 8s 

EK 48 



INDEX 

PAGE 

T 

EK 31 

EL 48 

EL linked . . . . s^ 
EM 

D SO 

ES 25,56 

ET 72 

EV linked .... 29 

EW 34 

EZ linked .... 21 

Eben, J. G 78 

Eberlin, H 22 

Effrdinger, E. . . .10 

Eger 9 

Ehe, J. F 52 

Eichler, H 22 

Einsiedeln .... 86 
Eisenhoidt, A. . . .59 

Elberfeld .... 33 

Elbing 34 

Elselaire, J. ... 13 

Emden 34 

Eramerling, N. . . 48 

Encke, I. I. ... 30 

Endres, H 50 

Engelbrecht, J. . . 26 

Erfurt 34 

Erhart, H. J. . . .54 

Ernst, G 23 

H.J 24 

J. B 23 

Eyssler, J. L. . . .51 

F . 6, 9, 16, 23, 24, 27, 

35, 36, 37 
F B 37, 84 

F B ^ 

F D 30, 41 

F F 16, 40 

F G 20, 29 

FH . . . .29,48,59 

%« so 

FK . . . .33,45,70 

F L 10, 39 

FLR 37 

FM 58 

F O 10, 45 



95 

PAGE 

FP linked .... 51 

FR ..... . 23,41 

F R linked . . . 6, 10 

PR 
L 7, 10 

FS linked .... 29 

FT 72 

FT linked .... 49 

L ^^ 

FW 38,53 

K 39 

FZ 45 

Fabritius, C. ... 16 

F .16 

J. G. G. . . . 16 

Faddell 33 

Fasch, H. J. ... 84 

Fechter, A 84 

J 84 

J. U 84 

S 84 

Federer, H. ... 53 

Fendl, H 22 

Fern, G. L 51 

J.J 51 

Ferrn 51 

Festau, J 14 

Feuerstein, W, . , 35 

Finsinger, F. ... 40 

Fischer, F 49 

J 36 

Flind, P 49 

Flushing 68 

Forschinger .... 43 

Forster, A. .... 23 

Frankfurt on the Main 34 

on the Oder . . 35 

Freiberg 35 

Freudenberger, S. . 24 

Frohlich, J 48 

Fuchs, N 17 

Fux, H 22 

G . 6, 9, 22, 36, 41, 42, 

53.91 
G B . . . . 24, 34, so 

GB ^^ 



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mm 



96 



PAGE 

c 72 

GCD 26 

M ^° 

GD linked .... 89 

G E . . . . 22, 23, 37 
GEBR 

S 33 

GF 88 

GGK 42 

GH 30 

GH linked .... 35 

GHG 24 

V »^ 

G K 29, 41 

G K 'S 

G L 22, 38 

G L linked . . .45, 63 

°a" 58 

°l" sx 

GLHKHnked . . 35 
G M . . 26, 33, 51, 58 
G M linked .... 50 
GN 

B 51 

GO 43 

GP 47.58 

G P linked . . .29, 50 

GPS 21 

GR 23 

GRAF ..... 28 
G S . . 21, 30, 41, 56 

GT 84 

GT linked .... 47 

GV 45 

GW 32 

GWM 51 

GW 
S -35 

Gass, M 22 

Gaudig, S 33 

Gebhard 44 

Geiger, C 54 

Geitner, V 33 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Gelb 22 

Geneva 86 

Georges, N. ... 28 

Gerard, L 14 

Ghent . . . . 13, 14 

Glarus 87 

Glaudich, T. ... 20 

Glock, E 37 

Gmiind 36 

Gotha 36 

Graseck, P. ... 54 

Gressel, S 49 

Griel 23 

Griesche, F. ... 29 

Grill 22 

Griveswold, H. . . 42 

Gratz 9 

Grosz, C 20 

E 20 

Groth, S. C. S. . . 16 

Guisbrecht, M. . . . 13 



H . . 6, 9, 16, 34, 38, 

47, 49, 58 

HA 50 

HA 

DB 49 

H B linked 22, 23, 29, 

47, 50, 51, 58 

Hb 22 

HC ...... 51 

Relinked .... 51 

H C B linked . . 41, 56 
HC ,^i 

G 39 I 

HCKUnked . . .56 

HD 22 

HDL linked ... 38 
HDIK linked . . 38 

HE 31 

H E linked . . .22, 31 

HEH 31 

HF 22 

H F linked . 53, 84, 85 

HFB 70 

HG 

o 91 

H H linked . 23, 31, 51 



PAGE 

HHPlinked ... 21 

HH 38 

HI 29, 51 

HIE 24 

HIM 24 

HIS 23 

H K 22 

H K linked . . .50, 53 
HKD linked . ... 33 

HK .78 

H L linked 21, 47, 51, 89 
HLK linked ... 58 
HL 
S ^3 

H M . . . 20, 23, 48 
H M linked . 29, 40, 41, 

50. 57. 78 
H M L linked . . 21, 35 

HN 36 

H N linked .... 51 
HNS linked ... 21 

HON 80 

HP... 21, 23, 58 

HR 23 

H R linked . . 40, 42, 

45. 49. 57 

HRF 45 

H S .21, 22, 29, 70, 84 
H S linked 45, 48, 53, 56 



H T L Unked 
HV linked 
HVB . 
HVL . 
HW . . 
H W linked 
HZ . . 
Haarlem . 
Hague . 
Haidt. . 
Halberstadt 
Hall . . 
Halle . . 
Hamburg 
Hamburger, A 
Hamman, J. 
Hammerer, D. 
Hammon, J. 



• 49 
. 29 
. 66 
. 56 

24.38 
21,49 

36.48 
. 65 
. 65 
. 32 
. 36 

• 37 

• 37 
18,37 

. 22 



54 
70 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Hanau . 
Hann, S. 
Hannss auf der Burg 
Hamischter, D. 
Haussmann, C. F. 
Haussner, M. . 
Heckel . . . 

M. . . . 

Heckenauer, J. P. 
Heidelberg . . 
Heilbronn . . 
Heltner, S. . . 
Henck, J. C. . 
Hentschel, B, . 
Hermannstadt . 
Hermans, J. 
Hertogenbosch 
Herwarth, P. . 
Hesse . . . 
Hesselbie, M. van 
Heuglin, J. E. . 
Hezebik, J. T. . 
Hillebrand, L. . 

F. . . . 

Hinnenip, P. R. 
Hirsch-Vogel, F. 
Hirtz, H. . 
Hoe,J. . . 
Hoff, D. . . 
Hoffmann/ G. 

— J. • • 

Hofherr, M, 
Hofler, J. P. 
Hofhagel, H. 
Hohmann, E. 
Holdermann, D. 
Hollmann, D. 
Holm, A. C. 
Holweck, B. 
Holzhalb, D. 

Hdnsch, C. . 
Hotz, R. . . 
Houten, van 
Hueter, V. . 
Hofhagel, E. 



PAGE 

38 
70 

49 
54 
33 
49 
24 
25 
26 

39 
39 
70 
78 
29 
69 
13 
65 
20 

19 
13 
26 
26 
48 
48 
16 
50 
51 
16 

17 
29 
16 
58 
51 
20 

49 
48 
48 
26 

49 
90 

91 
29 

31 
13 
24 
51 



I . .6,9,22,44,47,54 
lA 36 



INDEX 

PAGB 

'^ 86 

IAS ...... 57 

IB. . 9, 23, 25, 30, 38. 

40, 51. 58, 78, 84 

I Blinked .... 20 

IBC 86 

1% 56 

I B E 23 

IBM 51 

IB 38 

I C 21, 50 

B 79 

ICD 26 

ICF 36 

I C H 79 

ICL 27 

R 55 

S^. . . . 27,45,56 

ICS 24 

ICST 35 

^^ 2.: 

wp 40 

ID 23 

A 36 

C 35 

R 78 

IE 26 

'h^ -^ 

I F 21, 22, 23, 31, 36, 84 
IF 

B 52, 55 

IF 
D ^ 

E 52 

IF 
H •••••• S7 

iV 46 



97 

PAGB 

K 55 

P 
IF 37 

IFW 26 

I G 23, 36 

'i M 

IGE 78 

IGN 28 

I GO 45 

V^ 70 

I H . . 16, 48, 51, 91 

IHB 28 

IHK 42 

I H M interlaced . . 23 

M 51 

III oa 

P 38 

I H S 56 

I^ -38 

II 23.56 

IIA 26 

IIB 26 

B ^ 

HE 30 

y s. 

'^ 75 

h 3a 

I I M 88 

II 8« 

SBO ^ 

y 56 

i^ - 

IK . . 40,43.50.53 
C 
IK 52 

IK «5 

I L . . 10, 24, 43, 78 

ILB 25 

ILK 58 

G 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



98 

PAGE 

w 56 

I M 21, 22 

M "-'^ 

I M linked . . . 23, 32 
IMF linked ... S3 

R ^ 

IMS 41 

IN . . 38, 44, SI, 82 

INR 17 

INW 32 

w . . . • • • 51 

10 ED linked. . . 32 

I O E D 32 

I P 23, 33, 41. Sh S6, 69 

I P H 26, SI 

I R . . 38, 49. SI. 78 

IRHNB . . . . 35 

IS . 2S, 31. 38. 41. 48. 

49, 60, 84 

IS 

HW ^' 

ISA 2S 

IS • ^ 

1ST 78 

IT .... \ . 69 
ITH 26 

N 58 

IV .57 

rv ^ 

I W . . . 23, 24, 44 
I Z . . . 2S, 29, 46 
Imlin, J. L. » - - S5 
Ingermann, C. H. . 33 

P 33 

Ingolstadt .... 39 
Itzstein 43 

JJC 75 

JPSlinked. ... 41 

JR t9 

jGiclimann^ H. . . .29 
M.. ..... 29 



. 68 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Jager. J 23 

Jamnitzer, A. . . .47 

B 47 

C 47 

H 47 

W 47 

Jan, L S9 

John, W 23 

Jonas, H 48 

K . 6, 9, 32, 41, 42, 48, 
52, S8. 68 

KB 47 

KD linked . . . 10, 33 
KGR 
KEUR • 
KF linked .... 33 
K H Unked . . . 3S. 78 

K>l .81 

KIOV 77 

Kaluga 76 

Kaminietz-Podolski . 76 
Kartenbusch, J. . i so 
Kaufbeuren • . • 39 
Kauxdorf, A. . . .40 

Kazan 76 

Kelde, J. van der . . 13 

Keller, H 48 

Kellerdaller, J. . . $0 
Kellerthaler, H. J. .33 

Kernitz, B S9 

Kerstner, C. . . . si 
Kessler, F. . . . , 4s 

Keur, G 68 

Kienlen, H. L. . . s8 
Kindsvater, H. . , $0 

Kiow 77 

Kirschenstein, J. J. . s^ 
Kirstein . . . ^ . SS 
Klagenfurt .... 9 

Klemm, F 33 

Klencker, J. H. . . 42 
Klette, A. . . . . s6 
Knynder, J. ... 68 
Kobenhaupt, G. . . S4 

Koch, B 22 

Kolb, H 22 

N 22 

Koler, G so 



PAGE 

Kolmann, H. . . .42 
Konigsberg. ... 39 

Koppel, H 47 

Korver, J S3 

Kossmann, E. . . .48 
Kostroma .... 77 

Kraer, J so 

Kraus, J. J. ... 2s 
Kresner, M. ... 79 

Krug.J. F 55 

T. L 55 

Krumpholtz, J. . . 40 
Krumsboh, G. G. .42 

Kiisel, P 24 

Kunad, C 49 

L . 6, 9, 22, 32, 40, 41, 

42, 66, 75 

LB ...... 25 

L B linked .... S3 

LE ...... 51 

LF 10 

LH 48 

LH Blinked . . . 37 
LHMHnked ... 40 

LI S9 

IM 

LIN 5S 

LK . . . .46. SI. S3 
L M linked .... 84 
L N linked .... 22 

LO 27 

LP 63 

L R . . . . 25, 38, 46 

LV 50,73 

LW 10 

LZ 55 

Lachengon, S. . . .13 
Laibach ..... 9 
Lamoureux, J. . . 78 
Landwing, A. . . .91 

Lang, G 45 

H SI 

Lanz, F. T. ... 26 
Laublin, H. J. . . . 89 
Lauch, B. . . . .41 

M 40 

Lauer, D. .... 48 
Lautterer, J. ... 24 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX 



99 



PAGE 

Ledent, J 43 

Leeuwarden ... 66 

Leipzig 40 

I^ssmiller, X. . . 45 
LeitenhofTer, B., the 

elder 22 

B. , the younger . 22 

Lelij, G. V. d. . . . 66 

Lelij, J 66 

Lemberg 9 

Lemon, £. . . . .81 

Lendker, C 21 

E 48 

H 47 

J 21 

Lenker, Z 21 

Lieberktihn, C. . . 28 

Liege 14 

Linck, C 54 

Lincker, J 24 

Lind, H. A. ... 49 

Linden, E. zur . . 50 

Linden, J 78 

Lindenberger, C. . 47 

Lindowe, C. de . . 20 

Linz 9 

Lisbon 75 

Lobenschrot, A, . .50 

Loscher, W, ... 48 

Lokeren 14 

Letter, B 21 

Loyet, G 13 

Liibeck . . . . 19, 41 

Lucerne 87 

Ludolph, C. ... 16 

Ludwigsburg ... 41 

Liineburg .... 42 

Lutma,J. . ... 63 

Luz, J 24 

M . . 9, 16, 23, 30, 58 

MAC 72 

MB 22 

M B linked . ai, 33, 48 

MB 53 

M ^6 



MC 

H ' • 
MD . . 
MD linked 
MF linked 
M G linked 
M H linked 
MH 

H • • 
MI . . 

I 

M • • • 
MK . . 
M K linked 
MK 

H • • 
M L Unked 
MM . . 
M M linked 

I 
MM • • 

MN . . 

O 

M • • • 

MOCK 

BA 
MP . . 
M P linked 
M R linked 
M S 21, 23, 29, 
MTG linked 
MW linked 
MZ . . . 
Mack, H. . 
Magdeburg 
Mainfroy, J. 
Mainz . . . 
Maid, J. . . 
Malfeit, M. . 
Manhart, H. 
Manlich, D. 
Mannheim . 
Mannlich, D. 

O. . . 

Mannlich, H. 

J.H. . 

Martens . . 
Matthey, J. J. 

N. . . 

Mayr, M. . 



PAGE 

. 40 

• 45 
33.49 
41.53 

. 22 

25. 49, 58 
. 53 
. 29 
. 12 

78,79 

• 51 

. 39 



36, 



. 40 
20, 50 
25.49 
46 

85 
54 

77 



74 
35 
48 
, 37, 50 
38 
60 

85 
50 
43 
13 
43 
26 

49 
23 
27 
44 
27 
28 
23 
23 
42 



PAGE 

Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 19 
Mediasch .... 70 

Meert, L 13 

Melchior, H. ... 10 
Memmingen ... 44 
Mentzel, G. . . . .26 

Menzel, C 29 

Meyer, E. L. . . .84 
Michael, H. J. . . .24 
Michel, A. .... 50 
Milius, J. S. ... 24 

Mink, G 51 

Miron, J. de . . .13 
Mitnacht, C. ... 26 

Mohner, D 29 

MoUer, CO.. . .16 

I Mond, G 33 

Mons 14 

Moscow 77 

Mueller, J 20 

Mulholtzer, H. . . 48 
Mulhausen .... 44 

MiUler, A 35 

G. 50 

H 90 

H. G 90 

H.J 24 

J. B 58 

J. C 28 

J.H 91 

M so 

Munich 45 

Miinster 44 

Mylius, S 24 



25 



N . . . 
NA 

c • • 

NAP 72 

NE 48 

NF 17 

NFRS 6 

NG . . 
NG 

K • ' 
NH . . 

N 

IT • • 
N K linked . . .22, 29 
NKB ..... 38 



16, 47. 58 
. . . 72 



38 

42 
38 
75 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



100 



INDEX 



NM . . . 






. 88 


NMlinked 






42 


NN . . . 






35 


NO . . . 






25 


NP linked . 






31 


NRKnked . 






54 


NS . . . . 






32 


NT 








H • • • 






5<> 


NW. . . 






32 


Nacboe, C. P. 






16 


Naples . . 






72 


Neisser, L. . 






22 


Neuber, J. C. 






33 


Neuchatel . 




8 


7,88 


Neustadt . 






46 


Nicholai, P. 






16 


Nitsche, F. . 






29 


Norden . . 






. 46 


Nordlingen . 






46 


Nossel, P. . 






46 


Novgorod . 






TJ 


Ntimberg . 






47 


O . . . 13,49.65,66 


010 58 


OM . . . 






28 


00 linked . 






91 


Oberdieck, G. 






43 


P. . . 






43 


Oberlin, J. . 






54 


Odense . . 






17 


CElinger, P. 






54 


Oettingen . 






■ 52 


Oeri. P. . . 






91 


Oignies . . 






14 


Oldenburg . 






. 19 


Onsorg, H. G. 






91 


Ostertag, N. 






. 25 


Oxner, F. . 






45 


J.G. . 






45 


P . . . 55,69,74.75 


P B . . 16, 51, 82, 84 


P. B. & Co 39 


p D 4.8. 72 


PD linked .... 53 


I 
PD • • • 






26 



PF . . 
PG . . 
PGA 
PH . . 
PHAlinkec 
PHSlinked 
PI . . 
PID . . 
PK . . 
P L linked 
PLN . 
PN . . 
PN 

VH • • 
PO . . 
P E Unked 
PR . . 
PS . . 
PS Unked 
PSM . 
PV . . 
PV linked 
PW . . 
PW Unked 
Pabst, C. 
Passau . 
Peffiihauser, 
Peter, B. 
Petersburg, 
Petersen, S. 
Petters . 
Petzolt, H. 
PfefTenhause 
Pfcilstricker, 
Pfister, C. 
Pforzheim 
Pik. J. G. 


i . 

I . 

I . \ 
12, 25 

• 2f 

St' \ 

r . 
G. 


PAGB 
. 49 

• 54 

• 74 
. 58 
. 40 

• 23 
. 33 
. 24 

24.65 
. 22 
. 63 
. 46 
. 16 

. 43 
. 54 
. 31. 53 
., 49, 55 
. 64 
. 40 
. 67 
. 67 
. 23 

• 49 
. 34 

• 52 
. 56 

• 45 
. 79 
. 16 
. 23 
. 48 
. 25 
. 50 
. 29 
. 52 


Pissinger, S. 
Poppe, C. 
Prague . 
Prentin, J. 
Prestre, B. V 
Priester, H. 
Proll, A. . 
Proll . . 
Prussia . 
Puttlost, J. 

QR . . 




. 53 
. 24 
9, 10 

• 13 
. 13 
. 22 

• 49 
. 30 

• 53 
. 33 

. 43 



von 



R . . . . 
RD . . . 
R H Unked . 
RK . . . 
RM . . . 
R M linked . 
RR . . . 
Rams, P. . 
Randers, J. N. 
Ravary, M. . 
Ravenscoot, van 
Regensburg . 
Rehlein, M. 
Rehwald, J. D. 
Reimer, H. . 
Reinhart, H. 
Reischli, G. . 
Reutlingen, H. 
Reval. . . 
Richter, P. . 
Riederer, A. 
Riedinger, N. 
Riel, R. . . 
Riga . . . 
RissenfelSjG. Riss 
Ritter, J. 

■ W. C. . 
Ritterlein, C. 
Riva. H. H. 
Rome . . 
Rosa, A. 
Rosner, A. . 
Rossler, W. 
Rotenbeck, W. 
Rotenberg, Q. 
Roth, J. C. . 
Rott, H. . . 
Rotterdam . 
Rox, P. . . 
Rupperswyl 
Ruprecht, C. 

■ F. L. . 



PAGB 

• 54 

19,68 

16 



S . . 9, 38, 42, 44, 70 

SA 91 

SB 28, 59 

SB linked .... 48 
SB 
F 51 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX 



lOl 



SD . . 
S E Unked 
SF . . 
SG . . 

S 

H • • • 
SH . . 
S L linked 
SM . . 
S M Hnked 
SO . . 



16, 



SP . . . 
SR . . . 
E 

ss • • • 

ST . . . 
S&V . . 
SW . . . 
SW linked . 
Schafifhausen 
Sailer, P. . 
Salzburg . . 
Schaer, J. . 
Schech, H. J. 
Schemnitz . 
Scherl, E. . 
Schick, H. J. 
Schiflen, E. 
Schleich, H. 
Schlesinger, D. 
Schleissner . 
SchUckh, V. 
Schliesser, C. 
Schmaller, H. 
Schmidt, G. 

J. P. . 

N. . . 

Schneeweis, U. 
Schnell, J. C. 
Schoap, J. J. 
Schonaw, F. 
Schonmacher, U. 
Schonow, H. 
Schrodel, C. D, 

G. . 

Schrotberger, H. H. 
Schuch, J. P. 
Schutzing, P. 
Schweiglin, A. 



PAGB 

. . 26 

. . 48 

. 24, 84 

27, 32. 49 

. 63 
41,70 

SI 
27 
24 
32 
16, S3 



79 
75 
23.24 
45 
89 

23 

9 

21 

24 
70 



Seitzmair, J. 
Seld, G. . . 

N. . , 

Shoenen, de 
Sibricht, G. 
Sichtelen, P. von 
Sick, E. . 

J.C. 

Siebenbiirger, G. 
Siebert . . 
Sigmund, P. 
Silber, J. . 
Skillings, D. 
Smollde, T. 
Soleure . . 
Sorg, A. . . 
Spbrl, J. S. . 
Sproeckhofif, P, 
Stabenau, J. 
Stahl, J. . . 
Stahlenbrecher, 
Standards . 
Steinbacher, J. 
Stenglin, P. . 
Stettin . . 
Steuber, M. . 
Stinglin, E. . 
Stipeldey, C X. 
Stockholm . 
Stoer, T. . 
Strasburg . 
Straub, C. . 

H. . . 

W. . . 

Straubing . 
Strauss, J. L, 
Stravs . . 
Strehle, J. P. 
Strick, H. . 
Strobe, H. . 
Stuttgart . . 
Styria . . . 



T . . . 
T. & Co. 
TB . . 
TD . . 
TF . . 
T K linked 



H, 



23 



49 
20 
20 
13 
30 
65 
56 
56 
21 
36 
49 
48 
16 
78 
89 
21 
SI 
23 
78 
55 
34 
3 
45 
25 
53 
40 

25 
26 
82 
49 
54 
48 
48.50 
48 
55 
55 
55 
55 
29 
53 
55 
56 



41 
42 

24,29 
50 
80 

34.70 



PAGB 

TR 27 

TS 29 

TS linked . . . 49,78 

Tamise 14 

Tavargier, G. ... 88 
Thelot, J. A. . . .25 
Thiebaud, J. ... 88 
Tiberghein .... 13 
Tittecke, A. ... 49 

Torgau 56 

Toumay 14 

Traffler, J. C. . . .25 
Treghart, A. ... 50 

Trieste 9 

Troppau .... 9 
Tiibingen .... 57 

Tiirck, G 47 

Tuttlingen .... 57 

U 30, 70 

Uberlinger .... 57 
Ubuch, J. F. . . .30 

Ulm 58 

Unna, H 78 

Utrecht 67 



V . . . 16, 


45, 58, 90 


VA . . . 


. . . 41 


VF . . . 


. . . 84 


VG linked . 


. • 33 


VH linked . 


. . . 24 


VK linked . 


. . . 82 


VL . . . 


. . . 66 


A 




VN • • • 


. . 29 


P 

V . . . . 


. 43. 67 


VPR linked 


. . 40 


VS . . . 


. . 45 


VS Unked . 


. . 33 


VV . . . 


. . 36 


VW . . . 


. . 79 


VW Unked. 


. . 49 




• • 73 


Vaud . . . 


. . 89 


Venice . . 


. . 73 


Verhaer, N. . 


. . 67 


Vesenmaier, B. 


. . 21 


Viana, A. D. 


. . 67 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



102 



INDEX 



Viancn, A. van 
— P. van 
Vianen, P. de 
Viecke, F. . 
Vienna , . 
Vigne, H. de la 
Vilain . . 
Villingen 
Vischer, A. . 

F. . . 

VogeU, H. D. 
Voghelaer, I. de 
Volgnadt, H. . 
Vorchamer, L. 



PAGE 

. 67 
. 67 
. 67 
• 29 
. 10 



14' 
13 

581 
48 I 

49) 

S4| 
34 
29 
50 



W. 10, 38, 41, 47, 48, 52, 

S3. 55. 60, 90 

W »3 

W 35 

WF 35 

W ^ 

G ^^ 

WI 23 

W I linked .... 21 

^- •• - 

WIRZ 55 

WL 43 

WL linked. ... 48 

W ^5 

WP 32 

RK ^^ 



T 

w • • • 

V 

w • • • 

WVUnked. 
Wagner, E. 
Wallbaum, M. 
Warburg 
Warembcrger, 
Warendorf . 
Warmberger, J. 
Wawre . 
Weber, H. , 
Weidemann, B. 
Weigel . . 
Weinedt, a 
Weinodt, H. 
Wendl, S. . 
Wentzel, B. 
Werner, J. G. 
Werule, G. . 
Wertheim . 
Weye, B. H. 
Wiber, P. . 
Wickhart, S. 
Wickhert, A. 
Widmann, G. 
wader, L. . 
Wildt, H. J. 
Wilhelm, J. 
Winckler, D. 

H. . . 

Winter, P. . 
Winterhalter, C, 
Winterthur , 
Winterstein, A. 
Wipff, A. C. 
Wirtz, D. . 



PAGE 
50 

53 

52 

34 
21 

59 
24 

59 
24 
88 

49 
28 
30 
23 
21 

45 
23 
44 
48 

59 
26 

49 
24 
23 
48 
10 
24 
45 
35 
49 
23 
46 

90 
23 
10 

55 



PAGB 

Wismar 59 

Wittenberg .... 59 

Wittnauer .... 88 

Wolflf.M 25 

T. 49 

U 49 

WoIffert,W. ... 48 

Wollenberg. J. N. . 51 

Wolrab, J. J. ... 51 

Worms 60 

Wiirtz, D 55 

Wunckler, G. ... 24 

Wurden, Rutters . . 33 

Wurtemberg ... 60 

X 12, 91 

XK 40 

Xld 54 

XL 45 

Y 

MHI 45 

Yaroslavl .... 79 

Z 58 

ZB 33 

ZLF 21 

Zeckel, J 24 

Zeier, H 48 

Zentd, L 55 

Zieher 28 

Zschokke, F. ... 45 

Zug 91 

Zurich 90 

ZweibrUcken ... 60 

Zwickau ..... 60 

ZwoUe 68 



Printed by Ballantynb, Hanson &* Ca 
EUlinburffh 6f* London 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



VBM 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



FA998.17 

wnQ POOH lo fvfwyi ' 



ALM7M 




3 2044 033 470 592 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



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QUE AUG 3 74 



Digil