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Full text of "The Hand book to Monterey and vicinity: containing a brief resumé of the history of Monterey since its discovery; a general review of the resources and products of Monterey and the county; descriptive sketeches of the town, and the points of interest in the neighborhood ...A complete guide book, for tourists, campers, and vistors"

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THE LIBRARY 

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THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



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MONTEREY 



' In a mantle of old traditions, 
In the rime of a vanished day, 
The shrouded and silent City 
Sits by her crescent Bay." 



Monterey and Salinas Valley 

EAILEOAD. 



Connecting at Salinas City with Southern Pacific 
Railroad for 

San Francisco^ San Jose, Soledad, Paso Robles 

Springs, and all 'Points East, North 

and South. 

At Monterey, with G-. N. <fe P.'s Passenger Steamships 
for 

Santa Cruz, San Simeon, San Luis Olrispo, San 
ta Barbara, Los Angeles, and all Points 
on the Coast South of San Francisco. 

The most desirable route to Santa Cruz, Aptos, Pesca- 
dero, and Soquel; Point Pinos, Moss Beach, Point Cypress, 
Old Carmel Mission, and Pacific Grove Retreat. 

No Staging, Four Steamers Weekly between Monterey 
and Santa Cruz. 

JOHN MARKLEY, 

Gen. Ticket Agent. 
JOSEPH W. NESBITT, 

Superintendent. 



THE H.A.ISTD BOOK 

>- 



MOHTEREY MD YICIHITY 



CO NTAINING 

i 

A BRIEF RESUME OF THE HISTORY OF MONTEREY SINCE ITS DISCOVERY ; 

A GENERAL REVIEW OF THE RESOURCES AND PRODUCTS OF MONTEREY 

AND THE COUNTY ; DESCRIPTIVE SKETCHES OF THE TOWN, 

AND THE POINTS OF INTEREST IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD ; 

CARMEL MISSION AND VALLEY ; PACIFIC GROVE 

RETREAT; POINT CYPRESS, POINT PINOS 

AND THE LIGHT HOUSE ; SALINAS, 

CASTROVILLE, SAN JUAN, 

SAN ANTONIO MISSION, 

AND OTHER PLACES OF INTEREST IN THE COUNTY. 



A COMPLETE GUIDE BOOK, 

For Tourists, Campers and Visitors. 




MONTEREY, 1873. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by WALTON & CURTIS, in the Office of 

the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 
PRICE ... ... FIFTY CENTS. 



AUTHORITIES QUOTED. 



Records of Mission of San Carlos. Junipera Serra, Juan Crespi, 

and others. 

United States Coast Survey. 
Three Years in California. Walter Colton. 
Natural Wealth of California. Cronise. 
U. S. Agricultural Reports: 
Smithsonian Institute Reports. 
Unpublished Memoranda. Dr. C. A. Canfield. 
California Scrap Book. 
Resources of Monterey County. 
Resources of San Benito County. 
Overland Monthly. 
The Californian. 
Monterey Republican. 
Monterey Herald. 
Santa Cruz Sentinel. 
Salinas City Index. 
Salinas City Town Talk. 
Castroville Argus. 
San Francisco Alta, Call, Chronicle, and Examiner. 



CONTENTS. 

FSfeg- 

- 

X 

PjkQK. 

Monterey, Poem, by E. E. Curtis 5 

Historical Sketch . . : G 

Portala's Cross, by Bret Harte 17 

Monterey and Vicinity 19 

Carmel Valley and Mission 25 

Point Cypress 36 

Monterey, Poem, by D. O'Connell 42 

The Whale Fishery 44 

Chinese Colony 49 

Pacific Grove Eetreat 50 

Light House ...... 54 

Monterey, Poem, by Mrs. Annie E. Merritt. ... 55 

^Monterey as a Port 57 

The M. & S. V. R. R 60 

Health and Climate, with Tables , 63 

Increase of Business 71 

Town Officers, etc 72 

Objects, of Historical Intere^ 74 

Our Pioneer Residents 82 

Disinterested Opinions . . . A . 83 

Sea Bathing 85 

Iron Springs 87 



4 CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Coal Mines 89 

Our Wild Flowers 89 

Trades Directory 91 

The County 97 

Salinas City Ill 

Castroville 116 

Moss Landing 120 

Santa Rita 120 

Soledad 120 

Chualar 121 

Gonzales 121 

Natividad 121 

Soledad Mission 122 

San Antonio Mission 123 

San Juan Mission 124 

Hollister 125 

San Juan Township ". 126 

Advertisements. . 128 



Like a maiden musing sadly o'er her suitors turned away, 
Long she sat in lonely beauty close beside her crescent bay. 

Heeding not the world of action that beyond her portals lay ; 

Careless of the strife of nations, living only for to-day. 



Dreaming of a golden future, while the present drifted by, 
As a ship becalmed may linger 'neath the storm-cloud in the sky. 

All her passions wrapped in slumber ; slowly through her languid veins 
Flowed her blood, as in midsummer creeps the stream across the plains. 

Never lover came to woo her, never woke she from her trance, 
Like the mystic Sleeping Beauty in the pages of romance. 

Till the fairy Prince of Progress smiled upon her hidden charms, 
On her ripe lips quickly kissed her, reached and drew her to his arms. 

At his touch she slowly started : Indolence her limbs had bound 
While she lingered, idly dreaming, where the tasseled tree-tops sound ; 

And though heart and soul were eager to accept the proffered love, 
'Neath the tyrant's chain they struggled, as the wings of prisoned dove. 

Not in vain she strives to free them ; for, behold ! the chain is burst ! 
Aided by the arm of Progress soon the last shall be the first. 

Soon a queen among the cities that adorn our golden coast 
Shall she stand, and in her glory, of her noble lover boast. 

EDWIN EMMET CURTIS. 
MONTEREY, July, 1875. 



EistQriesI Sksteh of Mosteny. 



So intimately is the history of Monterey connected and inter 
woven with that of California, and in a lesser degree, with that of 
Mexico and Spain, that to detail it faithfully and accurately would 
require more space than we. have at our command. We propose, 
therefore, to sketch as briefly as possible some of the leading events 
of its history, from the period of its discovery until the present day. 

Early in the spring of 1602, the Viceroy of Mexico, acting under 
instructions from Philip III of Spain, who was anxious to obtain 
possession of California, dispatched Don Sebastian Viscaino, in com 
mand of three small vessels, on a voyage of discovery up the coast. 
Their passage was rendered extremely slow by prevailing head 
winds, and the exploration of the peninsula, now known as Lower 
California, was not completed until the beginning of November. 
On the 10th of that month they arrived at the harbor of San Diego, 
where they remained ten days, and departed highly pleased with 
the climate, soil, and peaceful disposition of the Indians. After 
landing on Santa Catalina Island, and at other places, for the pur 
pose of celebrating Mass, they rounded the Point of Pines, and 
cast anchor in the storm-sheltered waters of our beautiful bay on 
the 10th day of December, 1602. 

Viscaino, who was probably the first white man to place foot upon 
he soil of this town, took possession of the country in the name 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 7 

of the King of Spain. The holy sacrament was then partaken of 
under the spreading branches of an oak tree, at the mouth of a 
small ravine, and the spot named Monterey, in honor of Caspar de 
Zuniga, Count de Monterey, the Viceroy of Mexico, who had fitted 
out the expedition. 

Viscaiao was unprepared to establish a Mission ; so, after a stay 
of eighteen days, he continued on his voyage ; first however taking 
a full description of the country, its productions, and the character 
of the natives. He described the country as being clad in the 
deepest verdure, the soil most productive, the natives extremely 
docile, and, therefore easily converted. Although Viscaino hoped 
soon to return with material for the founding of a Mission, his hopes 
were never realized, and Monterey still remained a wilderness. 

Over 166 years elapsed ere Monterey was again visited by the 
white man. On July 14, 1769, Gaspar de Portala, Governor of 
Lfwer California, at the head of a party of sixty-five persons, set 
out from San Diego to rediscover Monterey. He arrived at Mon 
terey, but failing to identify the place, merely erected a cross and 
proceeded on his way north. 

The third attempt to establish a settlement at Monterey, however, 
proved more successful. The following extract from a letter of 
the leader of the expedition to Father Francisco Palou, gives a 
graphic account of the ceremonies attending the formal founding of 
the Mission of San Carlos de Monterey, by Padre Junipero Serra, 
on that memorable day, June 3rd, 1770. * 

" On the 31st of May, 1770, by favor of God, after rather a 
painful voyage of a month and a half, the packet San Antonio, 



8 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

commanded by Don Juan Perez, arrived and anchored in this 
beautiful port of Monterey, which is unadulterated in any degree 
from what it was when visited by the expedition of Don Sebastian 
Viscaino, in 1602. It gave me great consolation to find that the 
land expedition had arrived eight days before us, and that Father 
Crespi and all others were in good health. On the third of June, 
being the holy day of Pentecost, the whole of the officers of sea and 
land, and all the people, assembled on a bank at the foot of an oak, 
where we caused an altar to be erected, and the bells rang ; we 
then chanted the Veni Creator, blessed the water, erected and 
blessed a grand cross, hoisted the royal standard, and chanted the first 
mass that was ever performed in this place ; we afterwards sung the 
Salve to Our Lady before an image of the illustrious Virgin, which 
occupied the altar ; and at the same time preached a sermon, con 
cluding the whole with , a Te Deum. After this the officers took 
possession of the country in the name of the King, (Charles HE) 
our Lord, whom God preserve. We then all dined together in a 
shady place on the beach ; the whole ceremony being accompanied 
by many vollies and salutes by the troops and vessels." 

Later, on the same day, was solemnized the first funeral, being 
that of a caulker named Alejo Nino, who died on board the San 
Antonio a few -days previous. He was buried with the honors of 
the Church at the foot of the cross they had erected. 
The San Antonio soon sailed for Mexico, leaving behind Father 
Junigero, five priests, Lieutenant Pedro Fages and thirty soldiers. 
The Indians, as Yiscaino had predicted, were ready converts, 
and " seated under those dark Monterey pines, told ghostly stories 



HAND BOOK OF. MONTEREY. 9 

of how brightly the crosses shone that each white man wore on his 
breast the first time they had passed through there, no! knowing 
the place ; and of the great cross that was planted by Portala be 
fore he knew he was at the spot he coveted ; how it would grow at 
night till its point rested among the stars, glistening the while with 
a splendor that outshone the sun ; that when their superstitious 
dread wore off they had approached, planted arrows and feathers 
in the earth around it, and hung strings of sardines, as their 
choicest offering, upon its arms." * 

Monterey was at once selected as the capital of Alta California, 
and Portala appointed as its first governor. Owing to the small 
amount of available agri cultural land within the semicircle of hills 
surrounding Monterey, the Mission was soon removed to the neigh 
boring valley of Carmelo.f The presidio or military establishment, 
however, still remained at Monterey. This consisted of an enclos 
ure about 300 yards square, containing a chapel, storehouses, 
offices, residences and barracks for the soldiers. It was located 
where the Catholic church now stands. A rude fort was built on 
the hill overlooking the bay, and armed with a few small cannon. 
These constituted the nucleus of the future town. 

Calmly the years drifted away, scarcely causing a ripple upon 
the slowly swelling tide of progress. Governor succeeded governor, 
and each was content to render tribute to the Viceroy of Mexico, 
while the fruitful land over which he ruled maintained him in lux 
urious idleness. In 1822, Mexico, becoming tired of Spanish rule, 

* TuthilPs History of California. 

f A more complete account of the Mission is given in another chapter. 
2 



10 HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 

established herself as a separate empire. Upon receiving intelli 
gence of this important event, Governor Pablo Vicente de Sola 
summoned a council of the principal military officials and church 
dignitaries at Monterey, and formally announced the action of their 
mother country. The council unanimously decided that henceforth 
California was subject to Mexico alone. The oaths were changed 
and Sola became the first Mexican governor, or more correctly, 
" Political Chief of the Territory." The apathetic inhabitants 
offered no resistance, and the change was effected without a 
struggle. 

In 1828 the Mexican Congress adopted a plan of colonization, 
which authorized the Governors of dependent territories to grant 
unoccupied lands to all persons who properly petitioned for them, 
and agreed to cultivate and reside upon them a certain portion of 
the time. These grants were subject to the approval of the terri 
torial legislature. Many of the old settlers availed themselves of the 
privilege thus accorded them and obtained a title to vast ranchos, 
then of little value, but destined in after years to render those who 
were fortunate enough to hold them immensely wealthy. 

The harbor of Monterey was visited about this time by numerous 
vessels, which realized an enormous profit by trading their assorted 
cargoes for hides. 

On the 25th of September, 1834, Hijar, Director of Colonization, 
arrived at Monterey on the brig Natalia* for the purpose of 
secularizing the Missions. The Natalia, which was the same ves 
sel in which Napoleon the Great made his memorable escape from 
Elba, was thrown upon the beach by a storm and totally wrecked. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 11 

I 

The remaining timbers of this historical vessel may yet be seen at 
low tide, a few yards east of the railload wharf. The seculariza 
tion scheme was successfully accomplished, and the missions placed 
under the charge of Governor Figueroa. 

Figueroa, who. was the best ruler California had yet seen, died on 
the 29th of September, 1835. Then ensued a series of insurrections 
which were only terminated by the American conquest. A dissen 
sion first arose between Nicholas Gutierrez, who was Governor 
after Figueroa's death, and Juan Bautista Alvarado, Secretary of 
the Territorial Deputation, concerning a question of Custom House 
discipline. Alvarado, who was a native Californian of talent and 
education, insisted so strongly upon his position that Gutierrez 
ordered his arrest. Before the warrant could be served Alvarado 
had escaped, and found refuge in the cabin of Isaac Graham, a 
pioneer of Santa Cruz. Here a plan was laid to seize Monterey 
and declare the independence of California. They organized a 
company of one hundred natives under Jose Castro, and fifty rifle 
men led by Graham ; entered Monterey at night ; imprisoned the 
Governor and his soldiers in the presidio ; and after firing one shot 
from a four-pounder, obtained possession of the town. Alvarado 
was declared Governor, and Guadalupe Vallejo placed at the head 
of the military. 

Early in 1840, Governor Alvarado, who had become exceedingly 
jealous of all foreigners, especially of his former friend Graham, pre 
tended to have received information of a deep-laid plot to overturn 
the government. Castro was ordered to arrest all connected with 
the conspiracy, and by a strategic movement succeeded in surpris- 



12 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

ing and arresting nearly a hundred persons, principally Americans. 
Afterward, about twenty of Ihe supposed ringleaders were trans 
ported in chains to San Bias. In July of the same year, the 
American man-of-war St. Louis and a French ship arrived at 
Monterey for the purpose of demanding satisfaction. Alvarado was 
so badly frightened at their arrival that he fled to the interior, on 
a pretext of business, and did not return to the Capital until the 
coast was again clear. For two years everything remained quiet. 
In July, 1842, the foreigners, so summarily banished, unexpect 
edly returned on board a vessel furnished them by the Mexican 
Government, which had not approved of -Alvarado's uncalled-for 
action. They brought the startling news that General Michel- 
torena had been appointed to both the civil and military command 
of California. He arrived at San Diego in August, and was travel 
ing northward in grand style, when intelligence reached him that 
caused him to suddenly halt at Los Angeles. This was that Com 
mander Jones, in command of the frigate United States and sloop- 
of-war Cyane, had taken possession of the country, and hoisted 
the Stars and Stripes at Monterey. Alvarado surrendered on the 
20th of October, and California was, apparently, a portion of the 
American Union. The next day, however, Jones discovered that 
he had made a blunder that Mexico was not yet at war with the 
United States and therefore he gracefully hauled down the flag 
ajid apologized. Micheltorena now came to Monterey and assumed 
the duties of his office. He ruled until February 1st, 1845, when 
he was ousted by Vallejo, Alvarado and Castro, and Don Pio Pico 
placed in his stead. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 13 

The year 1846 was a notable one in the annals of Monterey. 
On July 7th, of that year, Commodore Sloat, who had arrived in 
the U. S. frigate Savannah a few days previously, dispatched 
Captain Mervine, at the head of 250 men, on shore, with instruc 
tions to hoist the American flag over Monterey. Amid the firing 
of cannon from the shipping in the harbor and the cheers of the 
assembled citizens, the glorious Stars and Stripes were raised, 
and a proclamation read, declaring California henceforth a portion 
of the United States. The people accepted the change with 
characteristic resignation, and Walter Colton was appointed the 
first Alcalde under the new regime. 

Colton, who had previously been Chaplain of the frigate Con. 
gress, held the office of alcalde for three years, during which time 
he figured prominently in the affairs of the town. In connection 
with Semple, a pioneer from Kentucky, he established the first 
newspaper ever published in California. It was called the Calif or- 
nian, and made its first appearance on Saturday, August 15th, 
1846. It was printed on paper originally intended for the manu 
facture of cigaritos, and was a little larger than a sheet of foolscap. 
The office was resurrected from the remains of a small concern 
formerly used for printing Roman Catholic tracts in Spanish. 
There being no W in the Spanish alphabet, they were compelled to 
use two V's (thus, VV) whenever a W occurred. The Calif or- 
nian, it is needless to say, was eagerly welcomed, and soon attained 
quite a circulation. It was finally merged into the Alia California 
when the latter paper was established at San Francisco. 

The first jury summoned in California was empannelled by Col- 

2* 



14 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

ton, on September 4th, 1846. It was composed of one-third Mexi 
cans, one-third Californians, and the other third Americans. This 
new system of trial proved eminently satisfactory, as it always must 
when properly administrated. To Colton also belongs the honor of 
having erected the building, intended for a Town Hall and School 
House, which bears his name. 

On the 29th of May, 1848, intelligence of the discovery of gold 
on the American Fork first reached Monterey. The report was 
scarcely credited, yet it produced so much excitement that the 
Alcalde was induced to dispatch a special messenger to investigate 
its truth. On the 12th of June he returned, bringing specimens of 
gold, and .a story of its lavish abundance more marvelous than an 
Arabian Night's tale. Then commenced the grand rush to the 
mines, which almost depopulated the town, and from which it has 
never fully recovered. 

On the 3d of June, 1849, (the 79th anniversary of the settle 
ment of Monterey) Governor Riley issued a " Proclamation recom 
mending the formation of a State Constitution, or plan of a Terri 
torial Government." In pursuance of this proclamation, the Con 
vention for forming a State Constitution met in Colton Hall (now 
used as a school house) on the first of the following September. 
Monterey was represented by the following delegates : H. W. Hal- 
leek, T. 0. Larkin, C. T. Botts, P. Ord and L. Dent. 

The labors of the Convention were successful beyond its most 
sanguine expectations. A Constitution, remarkable for the wisdom 
and liberality of its provisions, was adopted, and shortly afterward 
ratified by the people. Upon adjournment, a salute of thirty-one 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 15 

guns was fired, which echoed grandly back from the pine-wreathed 
hills, proclaiming that soon a queen would step forth among the 
sisterhood of States. 

Although the convention accomplished such great results, it 
effectually blighted the fair prospects of Monterey by the passage 
of a resolution removing the state capital to San Jose. 

By an Act of the Legislature, passed April 30th, 1851, the 
town was duly incorporated. Philip A. Roach, who was then 
Alcalde, was elected the first Mayor. His administration was un 
marked by any events worthy of special mention. He was suc 
ceeded by Gilbert Murdock, of the firm of Curtis & Murdock, 
merchants, who was followed by W. H. McDowell. 

Monterey did not long remain a city, for by an Act approved 
May llth, 1853, her charter was amended and the control of mu 
nicipal affairs vested in a board of three trustees. 

In 1859 the town found herself so much in debt that it became 
necessary, in order to meet her obligations, to sell the greater por 
tion of the Pueblo grant. Such extravagance brought^the trustees 
into disrepute, and at the next session of the Legislature the char 
ter was again amended in such a manner as to render their powers, 
either for good or for evil, exceedingly limited. 

During the legislative session of 1869-70 an attempt at reincor- 
poration was made ; the bill passed the Assembly, but was defeated 
in the Senate. Another attempt was then made, but in some man 
ner the bill again miscarried. A third effort to obtain the desired 
result proved somewhat more successful. In 1873-74 the " Act 
to Re-incorporate the City of Monterey " was carried through both 



16 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

Houses and reached the Governor, who, it is alleged, failed to re 
turn it within the specified time. Be this as it may, nothing more 
was heard of the bill, and Monterey still remained under the nomin 
al control of its trustees. The board at present consists of S. B. 
Gordon, President ; H. Escolle, Treasurer ; and W. H. Bryan 
Clerk. 

Simultaneously with the growth of Salinas City, which was 
becoming the liveliest town in the county, arose the question of 
county seat removal. Monterey had held this honor ever since the 
organization of the county, and the attempt of her younger rival to 
wrest it from her was bitterly opposed. In spite of her efforts, 
however, a petition signed by the requisite number of voters was 
presented to the Board of Supervisors, who, as in duty bound, 
ordered an election ; this was held on the 6th of November, 1872, 
the day of the presidential election. The result was a victory for 
Salinas City, and on the following February the county seat was re 
moved to its present location. 

From that time until the commencement of the narrow gauge 
railroad in April, 1874, the fortunes of Monterey were at their 
lowest ebb. Business of every description was almost stagnant ; 
enterprise and improvement seemed to have no foothold witm'n her 
quiet precincts, and aptly was she called " The sleepy hollow of 
California." Like Atri in Abbruzo, described by Longfellow as 

" One of those little places that have run 
Half up the hill beneath a blazing sun, 
And then sat down to rest, as if to say, 
'I climb no farther upward, come what may,' " 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 17 

She rested in peaceful somnolence a veritable land of lotus 
eaters where the struggles of the outside world found no abiding 
place. 

The completion of the railroad marked a new era in .the history 
of Monterey. Connected with the fertile Salinas Valley, having 
a safe and commodious harbor, together with ample shipping facili 
ties, there is no fear of a relapse into her former state of lethargy. 
Although no great improvements have as yet been accomplished, 
every day brings increased prosperity, and slowly but surely Mon 
terey is advancing to take her destined place among the cities of 
the coast. 



PORTALA'S CROSS.* 

BY BRET HARTE. 



Pious Portala, journeying by land, 

Reared high a cross upon the heathen strand, 

Then far away 
Dragged his slow caravan to Monterey. 

The mountains whispered to the valleys, " good !" 
The sun, slow sinking in the western flood, 
Baptized in blood 

The holy standard of the Brotherhood. 



*See " Historical Sketch " for the incident referred to in this poem. 



18 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

The timid fog crept in across the sea, 

Drew near, embraced it, and streamed far and free, 

Saying : " ye 

Gentiles and Heathen, this is truly He." 


All this the Heathen saw ; and when once more 

The holy Fathers touched the lonely shore 

Then covered o'er 
With shells and gifts the cross their witness bore. 



Monterey has undoubtedly all the natural advantages for be 
coming one of the leading watering places and summer resorts of 
the State. Her natural beauty of scenery, the crescent-shaped, 
pine-fringed hills, sloping down through park-like groves and 
flowery swards on to the quaint old Spanish town nestling at their 
feet, and on again to the silvery sands and creamy ripple of the 
surf of the broad, beautiful, blue waters of the bay ; the eye at 
length resting on the bold outlines of the lofty Santa Cruz mount 
ains, towering to the sky. On the right we have Fremont's Peak 
and the Gabilan Kange, breaking the long view over the rolling 
plains. The light and shadows create a perpetual change, and the 
variety of scenes is such that the eye never tires of gazing at na 
ture's handiwork. Our sands are without rival one long, bold 
sweep of wide, gently sloping, clean white sands the perfection of 
a bathing beach. Around from the old wharf to the light-house 
there are nooks and alcoves such as the poets love to sing as 
the haunts of the mermaids. The great desideratum of a sea 
side resort is a beach upon which children can with safety play and 
bathe, and such we certainly have. Sea mosses, shells, and pebbles 
we have in great variety, while for the amateur naturalist, geolo 
gist, mineralogist, and several scientists, there are unrivaled oppor- 

[19] 



20 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

tunities for augmenting their information and collections. Tire of 
the town, and you can have a trip to Carmel or Pescadero Bays, 
beautiful in the extreme ; the old Mission of Carmel, full of histori 
cal interest and beauty ; Point Cypress, or the light-house on Point 
Pinos ; the Hot Springs at Tassajara, or go fishing either in the 
bay or the rivers of the neighbouring mountains as they flow 
through the rocky canons ; if of a nautical turn of mind you can 
have sailing or rowing in safe waters. The salubrity of the climate 
is almost proverbial. Let a worn-out invalid, or a man whose 
brains have been racked with toil, come to us the magnetic in 
fluence of the atmo.sphere grants him sleep and restful health. 

From our point of view, also, Monterey has great industrial re 
sources in addition to her claims as a pleasant location and fine 
climate, but these resources are in embryo, and await the hand of 
energy and capital to bring them to the birth. Communication 
with the outside world was the first great desideratum, and that, 
within the past twelve months, has been to a great extent accom 
plished ; the narrow-gauge railroad to Salinas connects us by land 
with San Francisco, the Salinas Valley, and indirectly with all 
points of the State. By sea we have regular and frequent inter 
course with the city and the ports of the coast. The proposed ex 
tension of the railroad to Hollister and a loop-line to C astro ville 
will be the means of bringing to Monterey for direct shipment to 
foreign ports the greater portion of the grain and other pro- 
ductsfof the fertile counties of Monterey and San Benito. It 
is also proposed, we believe, to. connect the M. & S. V. B. 
E., via Soledad, with Santa Barbara in one direction ; and in the 
other with the Watsonville and Santa Cruz Railroad. 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 21 

These communications not only offer a means of carrying away 
the products when made, but indirectly create a demand for them 
by assisting in the subdivision of large ranches into small farms, 
and the consequent settling-up of the country and the increased 
wealth of its inhabitants, the production of the raw article and the 
demand for its manufacture. The industrial contributions to this 
demand which Monterey could make had she the men of enterprise 
and capital to carry them out, are the following, amongst others : 
Tanneries the stock-raisers of the county can supply the hides, 
and the materials for tanning we have at hand cheaper than in 
most parts of the State ; the same remarks apply to wool and 
cloth mills, and shoe factories. San Francisco has had to send to 
the East for bricks, while we have the clay capable of making 
bricks of very good quality, as is shown by those already turned 
out; the pottery clay is good, and ware is already manufactured 
in small quantities. Our sand is considered the best in the State 
for glass-making, and is exported in large quantities to San Fran 
cisco for that purpose. San Jose is making building-blocks out of the 
sands of the Coyote our sands are of purer quality, and as superior 
to theirs for that purpose as it is possible to imagine. Experts 
say that our indications of coal and iron are of the most promising 
character, and no less than six or seven companies are vigorously 
prospecting in this direction. Many other minerals are also found 
in small quantities, but have not yet been thoroughly searched for. 
Lime kilns, flour mills and planing mills are wanted, and there are 
good openings for them. Stock-raising, farming, and dairying are 
sure roads to fortune in this county, and there are yet openings for 



22 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

all. Our fisheries, whale, and edible fish, are increasing in import 
ance. . The great State Camp-meeting location at Pacific Grove, 
close to town, will give ample opportunities for strangers to invest 
in small residential properties, and more than one land-owner has 
announced his intention of dividing his land into building lots this 
year. 

Such are the views of some of our resources, but above all we 
have that priceless boon of heaven, a healthy climate ; no agues 
and fever, no chills or rheumatism, no sickness save that of old 
age. The class of men who will be welcomed here are men of 
energy and capital. As regards our town of Monterey, we have 
enough grocers, saloonists, and mechanics ; what is actually needed, 
is a first-class hotel, or manufactories above all, men who will stay 
with us a year or two and help to build us up, and not fly away 
with the first breeze of disappointment. 

We require two first-class hotels, competent to accommodate 
visitors by the hundreds and not by the score one in the town 
and one on the hill-side, or at Littletown there are two sites 
admirably adapted for the purpose, which will be donated free of 
expense to any one erecting the buildings ; a race course, which 
might be advantageously placed in Toombs' grove, or at the foot of 
the Carmel road ; bathing houses along the beach, and one good 
large etablissement de bains, after the French fashion, in which 
one can take his hot or cold bath, and afterwards find amusement 
for the body and mind, or lounge away the day luxuriously and 
idly. Handsome stores and a thriving town would soon follow as a 
matter of course. It is no idle dream of a sanguine visionary to 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 23 

i 

believe that all these things will come sooner or later, and that 
Monterey will become one of the most fashionable summer resorts 
for the wealthy. Santa Cruz, Aptos, and Santa Barbara have 
already become so. Their natural advantages are, in many re 
spects, inferior to those possessed by Monterey ; but they have 
that which Monterey has not American enterprise, and capital 
to assist it ; a hospitable welcome to the stranger, and the hand of 
friendship extended to all who will cast in their lot with them. 

Monterey dreams idly on, and will so dream until a fresh race of 
men, such men as are now building up our California cities, enters 
her dreamy Eden, and, with the rough but kindly hand of energy, 
arouses her from her lethargy. 

It cannot be long before this change takes place. All down the 
coast, towns, not so well favored as Monterey, are being built up, 
and her turn must come. San Francisco is now too firmly fixed to 
fear the competition of Monterey, and that opposition on the part 
of the press to her advancement, which has done so much to keep 
our town back, will now probably be withdrawn, if we may judge 
from the spirit of fair play exhibited by the Alta, Chronicle, and 
Call, in admitting in their columns lengthy letters from Monterey. 

One very natural thought must arise in the minds of reflective 
readers and it is to such that we address this work and it is 
this : If Monterey is so blessed by Nature as you state it to be, how 
is it that she is so decayed in her glory and sunk in her worth ? 
How is it, that, while San Francisco, Sa^nta Cruz, San Luis, Santa 
Barbara, and many other towns, have sprung from nothingness into 



24 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

position and wealth, Monterey has only retrograded from wealth 
and position into comparative oblivion ? 

To such a thought we would reply : The gold fever caused a 
migration of the people from Monterey ; the establishment of Sac 
ramento and San Francisco, whither congregated all the energy 
and enterprise, and the consequent removal of the capital to 
a more populated spot; the want of communication with the in 
terior farming country, Monterey not having in her immediate 
vicinity resources or population sufficient to support herself by 
herself ; and, lastly, the character of her inhabitants good-tem 
pered, kind and hospitable, easy-going and listless, as are all the 
Spanish-speaking races they lived to enjoy life easily and com 
fortably, not to be harassed with the cares and turmoils attending 
energy and enterprise. Nature was bountiful to them, and they 
lived on Nature's gifts. Mirth, music, and " manana," with just 
sufficient exertion as was absolutely requisite to provide for their 
necessities, constituted their rule of life. They drifted down with 
the stream* The capital went, and then the county seat and no 
great exertion was made to retain either of them. A few men 
looked ahead, and worked, and they are now enjoying their re 
ward ; but the majority adopted the dolce far niente habits of the 
natives, and did nothing but exist. 

There is also another section of residents, whose policy it has 
been to retard, by every means in their power, the growth of the 
place, and consequent entry of competition, 4o be soon followed, as 
they truly thought, by the loss of their influence, prosperity, and 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 25 

position ; fortunately, in the ordinary course of nature their retire 
ment to more congenial realms cannot be far distant. 

Disquieting and prejudicial rumors of bad land titles have also 
been sown broadcast, by interested parties, to prevent the sales of 
property to willing investors. 

The railroad has changed the state of affairs not a little ; and 
events of the past year clearly prove, that, with an American popu 
lation working in harmony with the more enlightened portion of the 
old residents and natives, a great and prosperous city may yet be 
built upon the site of the old capital. It is for our readers to pay 
us a visit and judge for themselves of our prospects. 



Carmel Mission and Valley. 

The Valley of the Carmello River affords attractions to lovers of 
Nature such as few other places in the State can furnish. The 
passing traveler be he artist or antiquary, geologist or 
" grizzly shootist," piscator or pedestrian, " prospector" or pleasure 
seeker may here find something congenial to his taste. The road 
from Monterey passes the old Cuartel, and branches off to the right, 
having on one side a woody ravine and low, flat, level lands, stud 
ded, park-like, with live oaks ; on the other, the well-wooded, pine- 
feathered hills. Half way up the steep hill, we command a mag- 



26 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

nificent view of Monterey, Santa Cruz, and the Oastroville and 
Salinas Valleys, with Fremont Peak and the Gabilan for a back 
ground. Reaching the summit, and looking to the right, through 
a pretty wooded glen, the eye rests upon the broad ocean. A 
shady road, up hill and down dale, with ever-changing views, all 
beautiful, until the hill overlooking the Carmel vale is reached, 
and there we have a sight worthy of Eden in its happiest days. 
On our right, the mountain, which looms before us, heavy and 
massive, gloomy and severe, tapers off into a narrow, pine-fringed, 
sea-girt point, against which the blue waters of the Carmel Bay 
dash with ever varying beauty. This point is named Point Lobos, 
so called from the " lobos del mar " (sea wolves, a species of seal) 
that collect on the point, and can be seen from the shore in large 
numbers. Silvery sands line the Bay, whiter almost than the sea 
foam as it splashes and sprays against the dark green background. 
To our right, the valley winds between the mountains, and at our 
feet the Carmel glistens in the sunlight as it flows through the 
willows to the sea. Descend the hill, turn to the right, and we 
have reached the ruins of the old Mission. Hardly a pleasing 
sight to any one possessing the bump of veneration even in the 
smallest degree. A few ruined, broken-down adobes encircle a 
dreary, desolate, semi-roofless building, beautiful even in decay all 
that is left of the second Mission in California, and one that in its 
day must have been a grand edifice, for it bears unmistakable 
evidence of an accurate knowledge of architecture, blended with a 
bold conception in its detail and skillful workmanship, considering 
the materials at hand. In 1770, a little more than one hundred 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 27 

years ago, the venerable Franciscan, Junipero Serra, wandering 
over mountains and through vales, preaching the gospel of good 
tidings and great joy, hung his bells on a tree in this spot, and 
houted, " Hear, hear, ye gentiles, come to the Holy Church !" 
and thus gathered around him the Indian tribes of the Rumsienes 
or Runsiens, the Escelenes or Eslens, the Eclemaches and Achas- 
tlies. Captivated by the scenery, its proximity to the sea, and, 
above all, the beautiful stream of water and the general fertility of 
the valley, Serra 

" Sought in these mountain solitudes a home ; 
He founded here his convent, and his rule 
Of prayer and work, and counted work as prayer." 

He labored zealously among his native converts, and died in 1784, 
loved by them all. He lies buried in the Mission which he founded. 

Visitors should inspect the curious old 'pictures and relics of 
antiquity in the chapel on the right. 

We climb up into the deserted belfry, where erst the bells have 
pealed, calling the worshipers to mass ; and rouse from his day 
dreams its sole tenant- the traditional old, grey owl, that stares 
.wonderingly at us from its saucer-like eyes. 

As we sit upon one of the fallen roof-beams, and gaze upon the 
shattered font, tho broken-down crosses, the ruined altar, and the 
general scene of devastation and desolation around us, and remem 
ber that this is one of the most ancient and important historical 
monuments of California, the home and the grave of the moral hero 
of the age, the true pioneer of California progress Junipero Serra, 
and the tomb of no less than fifteen Governors of this State, a 



28 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

painful feeling controls us. Carmel Mission is the old Westminster 
Abbey of the State, the mausoleum of the great and the good, and 
the nation rewards the services of the past bj giving up 
the dust of the good and brave to the guardianship of 
gophers and squirrels. Thorns and briars, nettles and loathsome 
weeds, adorn their graves. A few short years, and naught will re 
main of. this holy edifice save an undistinguishable mass of debris. 
A few more years, and it will be too late even now it will be some 
what difficult to restore it. Whatever is done should be done 
quickly, nobly, and generously, for the present state of the Mission 
is a standing reproach to the church which owns it and a disgrace 
to the whole State of California. It is a monument for the preser 
vation of which every Californian, especially the wealthy Pioneers, 
should exert themselves to have the work of renovating the build 
ing commenced as soon as possible. The day will come when his 
tory will mark with contempt the present generation for permitting 
the decay of this, the last resting place of the great and good 
Padre Junipero. 

On the 4th of November of each year the Monterey Padre holds 
a religious festival in honor of San Carlos, the patron saint of Car- 
mello. The ruins are decorated with flowers and evergreens, and' 
mirth and festivity are the order of the day. 

In the Mission soil were raised the first potatoes cultivated in Cal 
ifornia. In 1771, an inventory of stock showed the Mission to be pos 
sessed of 19 head of cattle, 10 mules, and 4 horses. The height 
of its prosperity was reached in 1825. It then owned 87,600 head 
of cattle, 60,000 sheep, 2,300 calves, 1,800 horses, 365 yoke of 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 29 



oxen, a large amount of merchandise, and $40,000 in specie. 
There is a tradition among the natives, that this money was buried 
somewhere, on the report that a vessel, supposed to be a pirate, 
had been seen off the coast. 

Passing down the coast road the geologist may pursue his invest 
igations ; or by obtaining a " permit" from Mr. A. Manuel, the 
obliging secretary of the " Monterey Coal Mine Company," may 
visit that mine and judge for himself of the prospects of our coal 
deposits. 

Still further down the coast, he may find more coal mines, wild 
and romantic scenery, grizzly bears, deer, trout-fishing, and other 
interesting and exciting " kill-times." 

Keturning, he will find a small and pretty bay, forming a splendid 
fishing boat harbor, and occupied by a company of Portuguese 
whalers and Chinese fishermen. Here fresh fish and salmon-spear 
ing may be had. 

Returning to the valley, we pass on the hill-side a substantial 
modern building, Mr. Gregg's house. His ranch is notable on ac 
count of more than one fortunate owner having made a comfortable 
" pile" on potatoes, the quantity and quality of which are very 
good. 

Journeying up the Carmel valley and passing the second dairy 
farm on the Haight Ranch, (Mr. McDonald's) he will see to his 
right, across the river, the mouth of a canon, to the left of which a 
number of small shanties constitute the " rancheria." In one of 
these shanties there lately died an Indian woman who was a " mu- 
chacha" of some twenty-five summers when the Mission was formed. 



30 HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 

The road passing up the canon leads to the Potrero and San 
Francisquito ranches, belonging to ,the Sargent Bros., and one of 
the residences of B. W. Sargent, a gentleman deservedly popular 
throughout the county ; also to the bee and fruit ranch of Messrs. 
Smith & Wright, whose red-cheeked peaches and luscious grapes 
are justly celebrated. There is also a quicksilver mine in their 
neighborhood. 

Continuing our journey along the main Carmel road, we come to 
the James Meadows grant. Mr. Meadows is one of the oldest of 
the Pioneers, he having come to Monterey in 1837. The school- 
house is upon this gentleman's land. 

The next farm is held by Mr. Berwick, an English gentleman, 
whose enterprising experiments in agriculture cannot fail to be pro 
ductive of great benefit to the State, and let us heartily wish it, to 
himself. 

The dairy of the Snively Bros, is the next farm. Their butter 
commands the same price in the San Francisco markets as any of 
the first-class fancy dairies, and upon more than one occasion the- 
price has been higher. 

They planted, four years ago, as an experiment, two almond 
trees, two years old. One of them is now twenty feet high, with a 
spread of twenty feet, and a girth, one foot from the ground, of 
three feet. The tree bears a good quality of fruit. Their vines 
are healthy. There is one little fellow about eighteen inches high, 
which has four large bunches of grapes upon it. The peach, apri 
cot, pear, and nectarine trees are simply loaded with fruit. Cher 
ries and strawberries thrive well. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 31 

Their orange trees have not had a fair trial at present, but 
pomegranates thrive well. 

The ranch of Thomas Bralee is next reached. He came to 
Monterey first in 1844, returning to reside in 1847. The land 
scape here is very beautiful hanging rocks and craggy buttresses. 

The Laurelles ranch adjoins Mr. Bralee's, is one and one-half 
leagues in extent, and is the property of Spaulding & Co. 
Mr. S. is the well known professor of circular saw dentistry in 
San Francisco, and is here engaged in the laudable endeavour to 
make a somewhat wild tract of country " blossom as the rose." 
The road runs through very romantic and picturesque scenery, and 
the traveler may readily recognize the glossy green fragrant foliage 
of the laurel trees (Oreodaphne Calif ornicd) from which the 
ranch derives its name. 

There is some good trout-fishing in the mountain streams, south 
of the Carmelo River, on the Government land abutting on this and 
the next ranch. 

Los Tularcitos, of five and one-fourth leagues in extent, is the 
property of A. J. Ougheltree, a pioneer of '49. This fine tract of 
land situate in Europe might well constitute a ducal domain. In 
California, however, it merely passes as a " fine ranch." 

The first house passed on the road is in what is known as the 
Chupinos Canon, and is occupied by a dairyman ; the next is Mr. 
O.'s dwelling house, charmingly situated near a small lagoon of 
spring water. Presuming our geologist to be also a palaeontologist, 
he may, by inquiring of Mr. 0., have an opportunity of examining 
some mammoth palseontological remains that are visible hereabouts. 



32 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

Leaving the main road, and striking over the hills, south of Mr. 
O.'s house, the Jachagua Valley is reached. Retracing your 
steps to Mr. O.'s house, and again pursuing the main road, we 
pass S. P. Gordon's ranch, Los Conejos, three-fourths league ; 
Government land succeeds to this, occupied by Messrs. Finch, 
Robinson, James, and others. Near Mr* James' house the wagon 
road ends, and some ten miles of trail leads to the last glory of 
Carmel, 



The Tassajara Hot Springs, 

About forty-five miles from Monterey. There are here some dozen 
hot mineral springs reported to be very effective remedial agents. 
" All the ills that flesh is heir to," barring consumption, may here 
find alleviation or cure. The late Dr. C. A. Canfield, our Monte 
rey savant, forwarded some of the water to the Smithsonian Insti 
tute, to be analyzed ; and it was reported the richest spring then 
known in the United States. Thirty-two distinct ingredients were 
found therein. The water reaches the surface of the earth at 140 
to 150 degrees Fahrenheit. Mr. John Borden, the present pro 
prietor, reports some remarkable cures. 

The proprietor is endeavoring to form a joint stock company to 
build a comfortable hotel and bath houses. Visitors can be accom 
modated either with " al fresco " lodgings, in which case they 
should carry their own necessaries, save provisions of all kinds, 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 33 

which can be furnished to them ; or board and lodging can be 
found for a limited number. 

Having completed his course of baths, our traveler may now 
proceed to the Mission of Soledad, twenty-five miles hence, or to 
the Mission of San Antonio, through the Reliz Canon, about the 
same distance. 

Throughout the whole of Carmel the hunter may find sport in 
plenty. Quails, rabbits, and hares are abundant, only too abun 
dant for the farmer's good. Deer are to be found in the hills, and 
bear are in force towards the coast. 

The products of the Valley are beef, butter, cheese, potatoes, and 
pork. Early potatoes are raised on the coast, and last season Mr. 
Gregg shipped 6,000 sacks of late potatoes that were noted in the 
market for their superior quality. 

Whale oil and dried fish are also produced to a great extent. 

For salubrity of climate, Carmel may fairly be considered unex 
celled, possibly unsurpassable in the world. 

Crops rarely fail on well tilled land, and even in years of drouth, 
grasses do not entirely forget to grow. 

The following letter, on the coast lands of this county, we copy 
from the Santa Clara Echo : 

" EDITORS ECHO : Thinking a short communication in regard to 
this county might be acceptable, I send you the following account of 
its advantages as a district wherein settlers may procure desirable 
farming and grazing lands. 

" There is a section of country south of here, (Monterey) lying 
directly on the coast principally Government land many valuable 



34 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

portions of which are still unoccupied, that for climate, soil, and gen 
eral adaptability for grazing purposes, cannot be excelled in the 
United States, which is saying a great deal. There is a steep 
range of mountains, running on a line with the ocean, and not far 
from it. On the slope of this range, facing the ocean, there is 
some of the finest land you ever gazed upon, comprising tables, or 
ridges, and pretty little valleys. In the deep gulches intervening 
there is the greatest abundance of the finest redwood and tan-b*ark 
oak ; and in almost every one of these gulches there is a running 
stream of water the year round, while one or two approach almost 
the proportions of rivers. The grass continues fresh and green the 
entire year. When stock is once driven into this range there is no 
danger of their straying out ; indeed, you may stand in your door 
way and see them easily during the whole day. To add to the 
many other advantages that this beautiful section of country pos 
sesses over other parts of the State, is the fact that there is but one 
Spanish grant between the Carmello and San Luis Obispo, a distance 
of from eighty to one hundred miles. 

" It is a paradise for hunters, or for those who desire to live cheap 
and do but little work ; yet it might not be deemed such by one 
who owned a fine place on the line of your Alameda, but we are not 
all so fortunate as to be possessed of such valuable property. Deer, 
quail, and rabbits abound in abundance, while in the larger streams 
trout are plenty ; then, if you dislike this sport, you can go down 
to the ledges in front of your little cot, and fish in the surf for rock- 
cod, which are very plenty, and easily caught. But the principal 
feature is its remarkable climate, it being entirely free from frost 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 35 

throughout the year at least, none neaft 1 the ocean, although on 
the hills it may be cold enough. To assure you further, I will 
give you a little of my personal experience. During Christmas 
week I was down the coast, some ten miles from here, (Monterey) 
prospecting for coal, (and here let me inform you that fine prospects 
of gold, silver, coal, and other minerals have been found in this 
section) and while camping with some Spaniards, on their " squat," . 
I soon felt the remarkable difference in the climate there and that 
of other sections north, although we were only a short distance 
from them. At night I slept on the mud floor of the barn, with 
only a little hay under me, with a thin blanket and a quilt for cover 
ing ; and although the wind blew pretty fresh from the ocean, and 
you could put your hand anywhere through the crevices in the 
shakes that covered the barn, I had to throw off the quilt during . 
the night, it being uncomfortably warm. In the morning before sun 
rise I could work quite comfortably without coat or vest'; yet it is 
never hot or sultry during the summer season. 

" On that night, as I learned afterwards, pumps and water-pipes 
froze in other places. After breakfast, while we were walking 
through a field, one of the Spaniards called my attention to some 
weeds under our feet ; and there, exposed to my view, lay the 
tenderest plant that grows in California, it being no less than the 
Chile pepper, and that, too, in full bloom. ' How is that for 
high,' on a New Year's day ? He also pulled up a potato vine, 
with a new potato hanging to it that was as large as a common 
sized hen egg. 

" You will doubtless ask why such a country should remain 



36 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

unsettled to this late day in California. I answer as best I can. 
There is, as yet, but a very sparse population, and the country in 
question has been almost inaccessible till within a few years, mainly 
on account of the bad roads, or rather, the entire lack of them. 
Up to some three years ago there was little more than a horse trail 
below the Carmello ; but now you can go with a wagon for about 
six miles from that stream. Below the present terminus, I am 
told that the country looks splendid, and that the timber through 
that country is heavy and plenty. I have been informed that 
claims can be bought quite cheap, say from $800 to $1,000 ; or 
claims can be taken up. Although the gulches are steep and the 
bends in the road are sharp, you can haul with a good span of 
horses five or six hundred pounds. The population are all males ; 
I hear of only one woman being down there. You will bear in 
mind that new settlers do not always represent the best society. 

" Yours, C. S. 

" MONTEREY, February 7th." 



Cypress Point. 

Cypress Point is the one spot more perfectly adapted than any 
other place in the State for picnics and camping out. 

Start out along the Carmel road, and take the path through the 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 37 

woods ; climb the hill, and, resting on the flower-bedecked turf, 
surrounded by ferns and groves, take in the view. Adown the 
wooded slope, carpeted with a profusion of flowers of all colors 
under the sun, the brown, barren-looking moorlands of the Salinas 
plain rising and falling like an inanimate sea of motionless billows, 
with here and there a bright emerald patch of some small, well- 
tilled farm shining like a rough-set jewel. The stern and sombre 
Gabilan range, with its serrated ridges and dark clusters of pine 
woods, mellowed down with a filmy haze enshrouding its base. On 
our left, the beautifully blue waters of the Bay of Monterey, as 
smooth as a lake, half crescented with the lofty Santa Cruz range, 
its pine-feathered ridges, the white sands upon which the milk- 
white foam creeps and crawls with a sinuous motion like some huge 
leviathan of the deep. The azure heavens flecked with clouds. 
The whole panorama is one which the all-souled artist lives and 
loves to paint. Surely the " NAPLES OF THE NEW WORLD " is the 
Bay of Monterey. 

On once again. We now enter a well shaded road, and catch 
charming glimpses, here and there, of the grand old Carmel range, 
and then suddenly there bursts upon our entranced sight a pano 
rama of sky, ocean, and woods. The broad Pacific is only dis 
tinguishable from the heavens above it , by its glittering sheen as 
the sunlight plays upon its heaving breast. Anon, a little snow- 
flake of foam dances on the molten surface as one billow, more 
playful than the rest, shakes its snowy crest, or the white sails of 
a ship appear, as swan-like she glides along the water. The 
weird forest, with its gaunt, ghoul-like, black pines, moaning in 

4* 



38 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

harmony with the ceaseless roar of the waves as the breeze plays 
through the branches. Cold and uninviting is the distant view of 
this grim protector of the mysterious shades of the melancholy 
cypress. Enter the forest, and as you pass through the flowery 
glades the fragrance of the shrubs and the songs of the birds fall 
pleasantly on the senses. Pass on, and crossing an open space of 
green turf, startling the rabbits and quail, we enter another grove ; 
the sun-flecks through the moss-hung and bearded trees, creating a 
pleasant, subdued light, such as is met with in the ancient minsters 
and Moorish alcazars of. Europe. An involuntary thrill of delight 
runs through one, and from the storehouse of the mind rushes a 
flood of memory of childhood's days with its ancient legends, of en 
chanted groves and fairies. A few steps further, and the mystical 
grove is reached and crossed, and we gaze with rapture on the 
beauty of the sea coast. Surely God's world, beautiful as it is, 
can scarcely show fairer spots. 

Landward the imperturbable cypress grove, silent as the Pyra 
mids, mystical as the Sphinx, the gnarled gray trunks supporting 
the golden green branches a fit haunt for departed spirits, a 
Merlin, or a slumbering cot for a child of Cain. 

" Cain. Cypress ! 'tis a gloomy tree, 

As if it mourned o'er what it shadows ; 
Wherefore didst thou choose it 
For our child's canopy ? 
Adah. Because its branches 

Shut out the sun like night, and therefore seem'd 
Fitting to shadow slumber. 
Cain. Ay, the last and longest." 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 39 

The sierras of the Santa Lucia droop down into the sea, brown, 
barren, and velvety, like some old dust-begrimed tome in the old 
library at home, uninviting on the outside but containing untold 
riches under its gloomy and unforbidding garb. The ill starred 
Moro rock lifts its dome-shaped head with threatening aspect, 
warning mariners of the dangers of a rock-bound coast. The 
craggy rocks jut out into the ocean, and the playful breakers as 
they dash upon them send aloft showers of spray white as driven 
snow, while the sunlight shines through the bright green billows as 
they curl and dash along in their impetuous, neVer-ending race. 
At our feet the silvery crystal sands are sprinkled with glistening 
abelone shells, sea polished, and the varied colors of the beautiful 
sea mosses. Little pools teem with marine life and form a perfect 
aquaria, and the broad Pacific sweeps on in its uncontrollable 
course, bearing upon its bosom the wealth of empires. 

Cross the point through the woody glades towards Point Pinos, 
passing pretty bays with white crystal sands and shelving beaches. 
Here the billows charge in with a greater impetuosity, but well in 
hand they break in a creamy ripple at the foot of the green-patched 
sand dunes. The black pines from which the point was named 
three hundred years ago, almost skirt the water. The mountains 
of Santa Cruz bound the view. The many-plumaged sea birds flit 
by, and the sea lions dive under the foaming billows. Stay and 
watch the setting sun gild the trees and cast a golden haze upon 
the swelling waters, and then ride home through the moonlit groves, 



40 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

and if your trip to Cypress Point has not been a happy one blame 
yourself, for possibly you may have forgotten that 

" He who joy would win, 
Must share it happiness was born a twin. 2 ' 



The Monterey Cypress. 

We extract the following from a letter written by the late Dr. 
Canfield to the " Monterey Republican : " 

" Very few ornamental trees are so easily made to grow in this 
part of California, or are so useful when grown, as the Monterey 
Cypress. Some trees, it is true, are easier raised and grow faster, 
but are good for nothing when grown, and speedily decay. * '* 

" The Monterey Cypress, it is unnecessary for me to say to those 
who have seen it, is a beautiful evergreen, grows rapidly, is thick, 
stout, and graceful, attaining a height of 40 to 60 feet. The 
largest trunk I measured in the grove at Point Cypress, was nine 
teen feet and two inches in circumference at three feet above the 
ground ; or about six feet and four inches in diameter. The tim 
ber is very durable, and makes excellent posts and rails. The 
cones, or globules, are produced every year, and are about the size 
of a large filbert. The seed is, in shape and size, like onion seed, 
and may be sown in the same way and in the same sort of soil. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 41 

The cones do not fall from the trees, and the seed is retained in 
them at Cypress Point, where the trees are kept almost constantly 
damp by the fog that rolls in from the ocean, till it often becomes 
mouldy and worthless. * * * With good seed it is as easy to 
raise Cypress trees as it is to raise onions or parsnips. But great 
care must be taken in transplanting them from the seed bed in the 
nursery, not to let the roots dry. This should be done just so soon 
in the fall as the ground becomes thoroughly moist, and the more 
dirt taken -up with the roots the better. As soon as the ground 
begins to get dry in the spring or summer, the trees should be 
well watered every two or three days, sufficiently to keep the 
ground around their roots moist. And the second year, also, if 
any of the trees look feeble or unthrifty, they should be well 
watered. If planted on dry land, they cannot be injured by plen 
tiful watering. The danger is that they will not have enough. 

" The botanical name of the Monterey cypress is Cupressus 
Macrocarpa, of Hartweg : it was afterwards called O. Macrabiana 
by a Scotch florist, Murray, but this latter name is not used among 
botanists. Besides the large cypress, we have a very interesting 
dwarf species growing on the barren hills near town, and in a few 
other localities along the Coast. The Cupressus G-oveniana, Gor 
don. It is a miniature tree, never more than ten feet high, but 
often loaded with cones, or galbules, when a foot high. Some 
botanists have not been willing to admit that this is anything more 
than a variety of the Macrocarpa, but I have proved by careful ob 
servation, by cultivation, etc., that it is a good species, and that it 
comes true from the seed ; and I believe there is no longer any 



42 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

doubt of its being a distinct species. This, although a dwarf, does 
not grow bushy or straggling, but upright, straight and tree-like, 
and with a thin or sparse foliage, making a very curious and pretty 
ornament for cultivation, with its thick clusters of cones. Like the 
large Monterey Cypress, it is easily raised from seed. * * * 
The Monterey Cypress, though naturally growing in a few very lim 
ited localities along the coast near Monterey, readily grows almost 
anywhere in this State by taking a little care and observing the be 
fore mentioned precautions." 



MONTEREY. 



IN a mantle of old traditions, 
In the rime of a vanished day, 
The shrouded and silent city 
Sits by her crescent bay. 

The ruined fort on the hill-top, 
Where never a bunting streams, 
Looks down, a cannonless fortress, 
On the solemn city of dreams. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 43 

Gardens of wonderful roses, 
Climbing o'er roof, tree and wall, 
Woodbine and crimson geranium, 
Hollyhocks, purple and tall. 

Mingle their odorous breathings 
With the crisp, salt breeze, from the sands, 
Where pebbles and sounding sea shells 
Are gathered by children's hands. 

Women with olive faces, 
And the liquid southern eye, 
Dark as the forest berries 
That grace the woods in July, 

Tenderly train the roses, 
Gathering here and there 
A bud the richest and rarest 
For a place in their long, dark hair. 

Feeble and garrulous old men 

Tell in the Spanish tongue 

Offthe good, grand times at the Mission, 

And the hymns that the Fathers sung ; 

Of the oil and the wine, and the plenty, 
And the dance in the twilight gray 
" Ah, these," and the head shakes sadly, 
" Were good times in Monterey !" 



44 . HAND BO.OK OP MONTEREY. 

Behind in the march of cities 
The last in the eager stride 
Of villages later born 
She dreams by the ocean side. 



The Monterey Whale Fishery. 

The whale fishery, which for the last twenty-five years has con 
stituted one of the most important of our local industries, is likely 
soon to become a thing of the past. The whales are gradually be 
coming scarcer, and now that the tide of commerce is turning this 
way, they will, ere long, give our bay a wide berth. 

Of the various species of whales which frequent the coast of Cal 
ifornia, the most valuable are the Sperm Whale, Right Whale, 
Humpback, Finback, Sulphurbottom and California Gray. Many 
years ago, while California was yet a province of Mexico, the New 
Bedford whale ships caught large numbers of Sperm and Eight 
whales along this coast ; but these species have now almost disap 
peared, and our whalers have to content themselves with the more 
numerous but less valuable California Greys and Humpbacks. 
Occasionally, however, a Sulphurbottom or Right Whale is caught, 
but this is a rare occurence. 

It was for the purpose of catching the Humpbacks, known to be 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 45 

numerous in this bay, that the Monterey Whaling Company was 
organized in 1854. In the fall of that year, Capt. J. P. Daven 
port, an old and experienced whaler, got together a company of 
twelve men, only three or four of whom were regular whalemen, 
the balance being " land lubbers.* 4 They had two boats, and met 
with pretty good success, as the whales were tame and easily 
caught in the old fashioned manner with harpoons and lances. 
Capt. Davenport brought a number of bombs with him from the 
east, but owing to some defect, they proved worthless and were not 
used. The price of oil falling to twenty-five cents per gallon, the 
company was disbanded before the commencement of the next sea 
son. 

The whales, however, were not allowed to rest, for in 1855 the 
company of Portuguese, known as the " Old Company," was or 
ganized with seventeen men and two boats. Although at first they 
used no guns, they succeeded in taking about 800 barrels of 
Humpback oil annually for about three years. 

In the Autumn of 1858, Capt. A very of the schooner Sovereign 
noticed a school of California Greys playing near the surf, about 
three miles from town. He informed the whalers of his discovery 
and they at once proceeded to the spot indicated and caught several 
of the school, besides many others of the same species, before the 
season closed. In the winter of the same year (1858) Capt. Dav 
enport again started in with two boats well manned and equipped 
with bomb and harpoon guns. Both companies whaled in the bay 
with varying success, getting from 600 to 1000 barrels annually 
per company, for several years, when Capt. Davenport withdrew 



46 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

from the business. His company has since been known as the 
" New Company" of Portuguese whalers. During the season of 
1862-63 each company secured about 1700 barrels of oil. This 
was one of their most successful years. 

In 1861 the Carmel Company was organized. At first they 
whaled in this bay, but in the spring of 1862 they moved to their 
present station on Carmel Bay. 

The Humpback season commences about the 10th of August 
and expires about the first of December. The California Grey 
season then commences and continues until the middle of April. 
The first half of the season is called the "going down season," as 
the whales are then descending from their summer haunts in the 
Arctic ocean to the lagoons and bays on the lower coast, for the 
purpose of bringing forth their young. It is during the "coming 
up season," as their return northward is called, that the greater 
number of whales are caught ; for if the whalers can succeed in 
striking the " calf" the "cow" is an easy capture, as she will die 
rather than desert her offspring. 

This brings us to the means of capturing these marine monsters. 
At the first streak of dawn the whalers man their boats, six to a 
boat, and proceed to the whaling "ground" near Point Pinos. 
Here they lay on their oars and carefully scan the water for a 
" spout." Suddenly some one sees the wished-for column of mist 
foam, and cries out " There she blows !" Then all is activity, the 
boat is headed for the whale and the guns are made ready to fire. 
When within a short distance of the animal the oars are " peaked" 
and the boat is propelled by paddles so as not to disturb the wary 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 47 

whale. Having arrived within shooting distance, which is about 
forty yards, the harpoon, connected with a long line, is fired into 
whatever part of the animal is visible. Down goes the whale, the 
line with a turn around the " loggerhead " of the boat being allowed 
to run out for several hundred yards, when it is held fast. The 
whale generally makes a direct course for the open ocean, dragging 
the boat after with almost lightning rapidity. Soon, however, it 
becomes weary and comes to the surface to breathe ; now is the 
golden opportunity; the boat approaches as near as possible and a 
bomb-lance is fired. In case this enters a vital part, the animal 
dies instantly, but oftener it does not, and the same maneuvering 
as before is repeated until two or three bombs have been shot be 
fore the animal is killed. It is then towed to the try works, where 
the " blubber," as the casing of fat with which it is covered is 
called, is removed, cut into small pieces, and boiled out. Some 
times, however, the whale will sink as soon as killed ; should such 
be the case, a buoy is attached to the line, and the animal is left 
until the generation of gases in its body causes it to rise, which us 
ually occurs in from three to nine days. It is then towed in and 
" tried out " as before. 

The usual yield of a California Grey is about forty barrels if a 
female, and twenty-five barrels if a male. That of a Humpback 
about the same. The average size of a California Grey is forty-two 
feet in length, and twenty-eight or thirty feet in circumference. A 
Sulphurbottom is occasionally caught which measures a hundred 
feet from tip to tip. In 1873 the New Company commanded by 
Capt. Pray, captured a Right Whale seventy feet long and fifty feet 



48 HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 

in circumference. It yielded 175 barrels of oil and 1500 pounds 
of bone, and netted the company over $2000. At the close of 
that season the two companies, numbering in all thirty-four men, 
were consolidated into one company of twenty-three men, eleven 
quitting the business entirely. 

The life of a whaler is very exciting and dangerous, as the boat is 
sometimes capsized or swamped, and the men have to swim for their 
lives. Yet such is the force of habit, that they seem to feel no 
more fear when in pursuit of a whale than if they were upon dry 
land. 

A good story is told of a gentleman who upon assuring the 
whalers that he knew not what fear meant, was allowed to go out 
with them in their boat. Soon a whale spouted near by, and the 
Captain, true to his aim, lodged a harpoon in its body. The whale 
made for the mouth of the bay, the boat almost flying in its wake. 
The amateur whaler now began to get excited, not to say scared. 
His teeth chattered, he prayed, and hung on to the boat like grim 
death. Faster and faster went the boat, the water just even with 
the gunwale, and whiter and whiter grew the gentleman's face. At 
length the limit of his endurance was reached. He jumped to his 
feet and yelled out in frantic accents : " Cut the rope ! For 
heaven's sake cut the rope, I'll pay for the whale !" The rope was 
not cut and the whale was secured without much difficulty. All 
who wish to know more of this most interesting division of the ce 
taceans are referred to Capt. C. M. Scammon's excellent work, 
"Marine Mammals of the Pacific Coast." 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 49 



Our Chinese Colony. 

Chinatown is distant from Monterey about" one mile from the 
outskirts of the town, and is situated on one of the numerous small 
bays that line the bay of Monterey. It is admirably selected for 
the business carried on by its enterprising citizens fish-curing and 
abelone shell shipping. Its inhabitants are frugal, industrious, and 
well behaved. Little or no crime occurs among them, and so 
far as our experience goes, they are a sober, honest set of men, and 
compare very favorably with their countrymen throughout the 
State. " Tim," a California-born Chinaman, speaks English and 
Spanish as fluently as a native. The census of Chinatown is as 
follows : Man Lee Company, three men and three women ; Sun 
Sing Lee Company, three men, two wonen, and three children ; Yek 
Lee Company, six men, two women, and one child ; Yee Lee Com 
pany, six men, two women, and three children ; Man Sing Company, 
four men and one woman. In connection with these companies are 
those of Carmel, Pescadero, and Portuguese Bay Sun Choy Lee 
Company, eleven men an'd one woman ; Boo Lee Company, eight 
men, and Dai Lee Company, eight men. There are about twenty 
men and eight women outside of these companies in different em 
ployments in the town and neighborhood. 

The Chinese industries are fishing for rockfish, cod, halibut, flound 
ers, red and blue fish, yellow tail, mackerel, sardines, and shell fish, 
the greater part of which are split open, salted, and dried in the sun 

6* 



50 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

for exportation to San Francisco, whence they find their way to the 
mines throughout the State, and abroad. It may be estimated that 
the amount of dried fish exported from Monterey annually averages 
nearly 100 tons. The Chinese collect also large quantities of 
abelone shells, which find a ready market at $20 a ton. They 
possess about thirty boats, nearly all of which were built by them 
selves. They are sailed in the Chinese fashion. During the past 
month they have commenced shipping fresh fish to Gilroy, San 
Jos6, and other interior towns. Although they import from San 
Francisco the greater portion of their merchandise, they purchase 
very liberally of the merchants in town, and as their trade is always 
for cash, they are very desirable customers in these hard times. 



Pacific Grove Retreat The M. E. Encampment 

Grounds. 

The eastern boundary is about one-half mile west of Chinatown, 
and, following the sea-shore, the tract extends to the line fence of 
the dairy farm this side of the Light House. This last boundary 
is marked by a conspicuous pile of rocks, which, looking as if it 
might be a Druidical monument, is the termination of a promontory 
that breaks the force of the northwesters, and shelters the sea line 
of the tract. Under the lee of the promontory is a beautiful little 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 51 

cove, possessing a smooth beach, and being almost entirely free 
from surf. This is the spot selected for bathing houses. Behind this 
cove are pine woods, interspersed with oaks, covering a surface of 
sufficient extent and smoothness for the accommodation of any con 
gregation of auditors. Here, therefore, as this survey indicates, 
will be placed the stand for the preachers. The site selected for 
the hotel, or hotels, occupies ground centrally located with refer 
ence to the sea, upon which the buildings, therefore, will look out 
directly. A broad avenue traverses the grounds, with side streets, 
separating lots, upon which villas are expected to be erected. 

The general arrangements of the Encampment are based upon the 
principles guiding those of the Eastern States, especially the one 
held at Ocean Grove, in the vicinity of Long Branch, N. J., and 
are under the control of the Board of Trustees. 

One hundred acres are divided into residential lots, a park, a 
pleasure ground, a grand avenue, minor streets and avenues, and 
the town. The lots are divided into sections, ranging from 30x60 
to 30x125. 

The principal buildings -are the preachers' stand an elegant 
structure, carefully and substantially built by Prinz, of Monterey, 
containing a platform for the ministers, and seats for the choir. It 
faces the congregational ground, which is arranged in a perfect 
circle, 200 feet in diameter, with a ring of tents around it, and a 
roadway of seventy-five feet. The aisles range from four to twelve 
feet in width. Benches are provided to accomodate about 5000 
people. The whole is covered by the shade of the pines tall, 



52 HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 

straight, young trees through whose gothic branches the sunlight 
falls subdued. 

The restaurant is a commodious building 33x90 feet, placed but 
a short distance from the congregational ground. It will be run 
on the ticket system, by R. C. Wormes. In close proximity are the 
grocery and provision store, 24x50 feet; the meat market is 
24x50 feet, and the furnishing and clothing store. 

On the opposite side of the street are six dormitories, each 
24x50 feet. There is also a laundry. 

Admirable arrangements are made for conveniences necessary 
to civilization. 

The stable accomodations are a few rods off, on the Monterey 
side, around a large well. 

The water for the use of the camp, in addition to three wells on 
the grounds, is brought 3300 feet in pipes from a tank containing 
6000 gallons, filled from a never-failing stream, and is raised sixty- 
two feet above the level of the grounds ; it flows into another tank, 
with a capacity of 15,000 gallons, having a clear fall to the highest 
point on the grounds, of twenty feet. 'Both tanks will be kept con 
stantly filled, as a large quantity will be consumed in sprinkling 
the roads and grounds. There are also some very valuable sul 
phur and chalybeate springs within a short distance, which can be 
introduced without much trouble. 

New tents can be bought on the grounds at wholesale prices, or 
rented at very low figures. 

Ordinary campers, except during the meeting, will be charged 
fifty cents a head, to include wood, water, and cleaning up. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 53 

The bath-house is 60x24 feet, and contains twenty-two dressing 
rooms. It is conveniently placed in a small ravine on the verge of 
a beautiful little bay, whose sandy floor rivals in whiteness the 
marble of the Romans' bath. The water is transparently clear, 
and is always warm, being sheltered from the wind by picturesque 
rocky cliffs. The view of the numerous baylets and jutting rocks, 
over which the blue waves dash in merry sport, and the Gabilan 
Range in the foreground, is lovely in the extreme. 

The Executive Committee are the Rev. J. 0. Ash, of Salinas, 
the indefatigable Chairman ; the Rev. J. W. Ross, Geo. Clifford, 
Jas. Allayton, of San Jose ; and Geo. F. Baker. Too much 
praise cannot be awarded to the resident managers, the Revs. Ash 
and Ross, for the pains and labor they have bestowed upon the 
arrangements, carefully considering even the most minute details 
in order that nothing should mar that perfect harmony so necessary 
to insure success ; nor should the liberality and untiring energy of 
Mr. Jacks be unnoticed, for by the aid of this gentleman's purse 
and advice many apparently insurmountable difficulties have been 
surmounted. 

The Encampment commands a splendid view of the Bay of Mon 
terey, and the magnificent scenery surrounding it, with pretty bays 
for bathing places and beautiful groves for rambles. In close 
proximity to the Light House ; within a morning's walk of that 
pearl of beauties, Cypress Point ; with good sea fishing, sailing, or 
boating ; with the opportunities for every kind of outdoor occupa 
tion and enjoyment ; and all within three miles of Monterey, and 
its railroad and steamboat connections with all parts of the State ; 



54 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

with a climate beyond reproach ; a temperature, with one or two 
exceptions, the most equable in the known world, and with a loca 
tion so healthy that doctors scarcely make a living, it bids fair to 
become an unrivaled summer resort. Bishop Peck, now making 
an Episcopal visit on this coast, says : "I have some acquaintance 
with our splendid retreats for camp meetings and health in the 
East, and I have no hesitation in saying that this is fully equal to 
the best I have seen." 



Point Pinos Light House 

Is situated on an eminence and point of land forming the extreme 
western shore of the bay of Monterey, and distant from the town 
about three miles. The building is a dark gray stone structure, 
one and a half stories high, built in the strongest and most sub 
stantial manner. Rising from the center or ridge of the roof is a 
brick tower painted white, on which is firmly placed the iron 
lantern and illuminating apparatus, the exterior of which is painted 
red. This light station was erected by order of the Hon. Thomas 
Corwin, Secretary of the Treasury, in the year 1853. The light 
was first exhibited to mariners on January 20th, 1855, and Mr. 
Charles Layton was the first keeper appointed to take charge of it. 
The light is classed as a third order Fresnel, with catadioptric 
lenses, of immense and powerful magnifying capacity. The light, 



HAND KOOK OP MONTEREY. 55 

in ordinary fair and clear weather, should be discernable from a 
vessel's deck sixteen and one-half nautical miles. The height of 
center of focal plane above high water on sea level is 9l feet. 
The arc illuminated is four-fifths of the entire horizon, or 288 
degrees. The description of the light, as given to mariners in their 
charts, is a third order, fixed white, Fresnel light. 

The following persons have been principal keepers of the light : 
Chas. Layton, Charlotte Layton, Geo. C. Harris, Frank Porter, 
Andrew Wasson, and Capt. Allen L. Luce, the present attentive 
and courteous incumbent, who has held the position from October 
1st, 1871. 

The drive to the Light House is pleasant and pretty, and well 
shaded. The ro%i passes the grounds of the M. E. Encampment. 
The view from the tower well repays the visitor for his pains. 
Capt. Luce and his family are always pleased to welcome visitors 
and to show them every attention. 



MONTEREY. 



BY MES. ANNIE E. MERRITT. 

Where the blue waves kiss the sand, 
As they leap a joyous band ; 
Where the mountains towering high, 
Seem to touch the azure sky ; 



56 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

Where the young vines meekly twine 
Bound the tall, majestic pine ; 
Half enclosed in rocks of gray, 
Gently slumbers Monterey. 

Beautiful as poet's dream, 
When its hills with verdure teem ; 
When the balmy air is filled 
With incense from heaven distilled, 
And sweet Nature seeks repose 
Where the murmuring streamlet flows, 
Like some gem of brightest ray 
There enthroned is Monterey. ^ 

Flowers of the brightest hue, 
Laden with the morning dew ; 
Velvet grass and clinging vine, 
Groves of oak, and stately pine, 
Fleecy clouds that lightly rest 
On the evening's gentle breast ; 
All these hold their quiet sway 
On the shores of Monterey. 

But more beautiful at eve'n * 
In the mystic light of heaven, 
When the moon's pale, silvery sheen 
Lends its beauty to the scene, 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 57 

And a koly calm o'er all 

Settles lightly as a pall, 

And the night seems changed to day 

'Neath the skies of Monterey. 

Talk not of the storied Rhine, 
Nor Italia's sunny clime, 
Nor the Orient's so fair 
With its balmy, perfumed air. 
Crowned with old historic lore 
Well I love this rock-bound shore ; 
'T is to thee I sing my lay 
Queen of Beauty, Monterey. 



Monterey as a Port- 

We copy the following from the Salinas City Index : 
" It requires no great stretch of the imagination to predict that 
the products of a very large area of California, both to the south 
and east of Monterey and Salinas, are ultimately to find their way 
to tide-water across our Valley. In truth, between San Francisco 
and San Pedro, a distance of over four hundred miles, WE HOLD THE 
GATEWAY to the only accessible harbor for general 'commerce with 

6 



58 HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 

the world. It is only a question of time in regard to the centering 
of other railroads to this point. To the doubting ones we say, ex 
amine the profile maps of the country, then scan any map of the 
Atlantic seaboard, and answer us, whether in the light of what 
has come to pass elsewhere, we are extravagant in our predictions 
for the future. 

" We would not give a fig for the judgment of that man who is 
despondent over our future prospects. There were just such in 
San Francisco twenty years ago, and with about as much reason 
and judgment as those who are fearful there is no further room for; 
progress here." 

The Monterey Weekly Herald says : 

4; Only a few years have elapsed since the first ship loaded grain 
at San Francisco for Europe ; and when we compare the great 
fleet of vessels engaged in transporting our cereals to foreign ports 
with the number that were so engaged a few years ago, is it any 
wonder that the Californian's heart swells with pride, -and that he 
dreams of how this great fleet shall be multiplied until it shall as 
tonish the world ? 

" It is well, while the California!! is conjuring up such a brilliant 
future for his State, that he should pause in his reverie and ask 
himself what should be done for the proper protection of such ves 
sels. It is well known that, during the prevalence of rough wea 
ther outside, a vessel cannot enter the harbor of San Francisco, 
and any arriving at such a time must of necessity put to sea, 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 59 

or come to Monterey, where nature has modeled a PORT OF REFUGE, 
with no c bar ' to guard its entrance, and free from all dangerous 
shoals and rocks. The storm of last Fall bears out this assertion, 
for the Bay was filled with all vessels within reach seeking refuge 
there, entering and leaving just as they pleased. 

" But nature has not made our harbor so good that the hand of 
man cannot improve it ; and we believe it to be the duty of those 
interested in the future welfare of our State, to properly represent 
to Congress the great good that would result from the expenditure 
of a small sum of money, compared to the benefits that would ac 
crue to the shipping interests of this coast, in improving the port of 
Monterey. 

" The harbor, properly, is in the shape of a horse-shoe, the 
mouth opening to the north, and it is amply protected from the 
south, east, and west ; and with a breakwater extending half a mile 
into the Bay from the northwestern shore, the harbor would afford 

PERFECT SAFETY FROM WINDS FROM ANY AND ALL POINTS OF 

THE COMPASS. Even now the largest ships in the navies of the 
world can ride with safety through any gale that blows in the Bay 
of Monterey ; but no doubt improvements can be made. 

" There is also a large natural laguna, which could be without dif 
ficulty transformed into a dry or wet dock. In fact, the natural 
position of Monterey is such that she is bound to become, next to 
San Francisco, the most flourishing port on the coast. Her growth 
may be retarded, but it cannot be prevented." 



60 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



The Monterey and Salinas Valley Railroad. 

Whatever may be the fate of this road in the future, it will al 
ways be memorable in the commercial history of California as the 
first narrow-gauge railroad built in the State ; and also as a road 
built by the people for the people, to contend with a great and pow 
erful monopoly, and to save the grain-growers of the district no 
less than $200,000 a year. 

It was commenced in April, and finished in October, 1874. All 
interested in it devoted their time and means without stint, especi 
ally C. S. Abbott, the President ; D. Jacks, the Treasurer ; and 
John Markley, the Secretary. Mr. JJ F. Kidder, now engaged 
on the Nevada narrow-gauge, was the Chief Engineer and Super 
intendent of Construction. The iron came from the Pacific Boil 
ing Mills of San Francisco, and Falkner, Bell & Co.'s, of the 
same place. The locomotives, " C. S. Abbott," and " Monterey," 
from the Baldwin Locomotive Co., in Pennsylvania. The cars, 
which are superior in every respect, were built in Monterey, by 
Thomas iCarter. 

Although the road is a " narrow-gauge," only three feet between 
the rails, the cars are so designed that the passengers hardly real 
ize any difference from those of the broad-gauge, and have ample 
room and accommodation. 

The railroad commenced running October 28th, 1874, too late to 
carry much of the grain of the Valley ; but its early completion 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 61 

had been a fixed fact in August, thereby compelling the S.P.R.R. 
to make a reduction from $5.50 per ton to $4.25 freight on grain 
to San Francisco. The M. & S.V.R.R. carried about 6000 tons 
in 1874 ;' loaded the H. L. Richardson at Monterey (2400 long 
tons). The freight on merchandise from San Francisco to Salinas 
City was $7.20 ; the S.P.R.R. reduced to $6.00. Salinas was 
supplied with redwood lumber from Watsonville and pine from San 
Francisco ; now there are two markets open, and redwood is 
brought from Santa Cruz, and pine from Puget Sound, which 
comes to Monterey as cheap as to San Francisco, and only has to 
be freighted 20 instead of 120 miles. 

The number of stockholders is 72, principally land owners or 
farmers, as may be seen by the following : 

David Jacks has in Monterey Co. about. . .30,000 acres. 

C. S. Abbott 10,000 " 

A. & M. Gonzales 13,000 " 

Robert McKee and Monrass Family, about . . 19,000 " 

A. Wason 1,000 " 

Francis Doud 1,000 " 

P. Zabala 5,000 " 

Jesse D. Carr 45,000 " 

James Bardin 5,000 " 

John Abbott , '400 

J. B. H. Cooper 5,000 " 

C. Laird 2,000 " 

Chas. McFadden. . 500 " 



62 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

Malarin 5,000 acres. 

Geo. Pomeroy 1,000 " 

Judson Parson 300 

Wm. Quintal.. . . 300' " 

Wm. Robson . . . ' 400 

J. M. Soto... 3,500 

B. V. Sargent 13,000 

F. S. Spring 2,000 

Chas. Underwood 400 " 

William, Ford 300 " 

Besides the land owned and occupied by quite a number of small 
farmers. 

The road, warehouses, wharves, cars, engines, etc., everything in 
cluded, cost 1357,000. 

As regards the current year's freight : it costs by S. P. R. R. 
from Salinas City to San Francisco, freight $3.50, weighing and 
loading 25 cents, making f 3*75 from Salinas to S. F. for all grain 
that is not stored in a warehouse ; warehouse charges per season, 
f 1.00 per ton. Weighing, loading, freight, and wharfage from Sa 
linas to San Francisco, by Monterey and S. P.R. R., and G. N. P. 
Steamers, is |3.75 ; by M. & S. V. R. R. to Monterey is $1.75. In 
other words, it costs $3.75 to get the grain (when not stored) to 
deep water shipping, by S. P. R. R. to San Francisco, and $1.75 
to deep water shipping at Monterey ; if the grain is stored for the 
season, $1.00 per season. 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 



63 



Climate. 



Monterey County has one of the most delightful climates in the 
world neither too hot nor too cold. People here wear the same 
clothing winter and summer, there being so little range of tempera 
ture. THE TOWN OF MONTEREY HAS LESS RANGE OF 
TEMPERATURE THAN ANY PLACE ON THE COAST. 
The tables given below are prepared from the records kept at 
Salinas City, and are perfectly reliable in every particular. The 
following table speaks for itself on the subject of temperature, and 
is taken from the daily record kept by Dr. E. K. Abbott, who is a 
regular correspondent of the United States Signal Service : 



MONTH, 

1874. 


Lowest temperature 
for month. 


Highest temperature 
for month. 


Mean temperature 
for month. 


January . . 


30deg 
32 
31 
43 
45 
53 
52 
52 
47 
46 
33 
24 


xees. 


66deg 
66 
70 
70 
82 
79 
75 
76 
76 
79 
75 
73 


rees. 


49deg 
49 
49 
55 
57 
59 
62 
61 
59 
58 
53 
46 


rees. 




March 




May 


June .... . . . 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November . . 





Observations of the thermometer were taken three times daily in 



64 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

the shade and open air. The lowest temperatures all occurred in 
the morning and were noted at 7 o'clock A. M., while the highest 
were noted at 2 p. M.. Our lowest temperatures are simply frosty 
nights, and are never continued during the day ; for instance, our 
coldest night for 1874 is registered at 24 degrees ; at 9 o'clock p. M. 
of the previous day the temperature was 34 degrees ; while at 2 
o'clock P. M. the same day the thermometer registered 62 degrees. 
There was not a day during the entire winter of 1874-75 that a 
person could not gather a nice bouquet, grown in open air, from any 
of the flower yards in Salinas or Monterey. Fuchsias and geraniums 
grow all winter in the open gardens. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



65 



The following table shows the mean temperature of January and 
July in various portions of California and other States and countries, 
taken from reliable sources. Observe how little difference there is 
between January and July at Salinas City and Monterey : 



PLACE. 


January. 


July. 


Difference. 


Latitude. 


MONTEREY 


Deg. 
52 


Deg- 

58 


De g . 


Deg.Min. 
36.36 


Salinas City 1873 


51 


60 


9 


36.36 


Salinas City 1874 


49 


62 


13 


36.36 




49 


57 


8 


37.48 


Los A.n*eles . . 


52 


75 


oo 


34.04 




54 


71 


lY 


34.24 




51 


72 


21 


32.41 


Sacramento . . . 


45 


73 


28 


38.34 




49 


72 


23 


37.56 




45 


66 


21 


38.18 


St Helena 


42 


77 


35 


38.30 




48 


67 


19 


38.05 


Fort Yuma 


56 


92 


36 


32.43 




30 


74 


44 


39.06 


New York 


31 


77 


46 


40.37 


New Orleans . . 


55 


82 


27 


29.57 


Naples . . . 


46 


76 


30 


40 52 




47 


77 


30 


31.47 


Honolulu 


71 


78 


7 


21.16 




52 


65 


13 


19.26 




60 


70 


10 


32.38 




37 


62 


25 


51.29 




33 


70 


37 


47.25 


Bordeaux . . .... 


41 


73 


32 


44 50 




40 


73 


33 


43.71 




43 


75 


32 


43.17 




46 


77 


31 


44.24 


Algiers . . 


52 


75 


23 


36.47 



[" Resources of Monterey County." 



66 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



The following table of comparisons we extract from The Nat 
ural Wealth of California, by Titus Fey Cronise, a work which 
though very valuable in its general information and research, is 
extremely inaccurate in many points relating to Monterey. ' 



Localities. 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 


Winter 


Mean 
Tern, of 
the year 




deg. 
56 5 
56 
56 5 
54 
60 
72 
52 
52 
53 
51 
49 


deg. 
60 
69 5 
67 
59 
71 
90 
57 5 
60 
70 5 
61 5 
63 t) 


deg. 
59 
61 
60 5 
57 
64 5 
75 5 
53 
55 
52 
54 
51 5 


deg. 
51 
46 5 
49 
61 
52 5 
57 
43 5 
47 5 
35 5 
42 5 
39 5 


deg. 
56 6 
58 
58 
55 5 
62 
73 5 
51 5 
53 5 
53 
52 
51 


Sacramento . . > .... 








Fort Yuma. . .. 


Humboldt Bay* 


Port Orford ... 






Fort Steilacoom, W. T 



*The figures for these localities are probably too low. 





o 

H 
H 



m CC 

o o 

is 

a co 

O r-l 



-% 
g 
O3 ^5 

|'^ 



.2 -3 

bD <r> 

| -5 



I 


i 





i : i 





- 





S 


SO 10 1-4 


*J CO 

SO 

o* 


CO 
CO 


o 
^ 


i 


>0 





t- 


m 


CO 


fe 


t- 
t- 


S 


s - 5 


t-l 


CO 


00 


?! 


eo * IH 


i 




SO 

so 


3 


I - s 

CO 


(N 


CO 





(M 


- - - 


si 


S 


8 


g - 


O5 


o 


* 


3 


so >o 


4 

a 


g 


3 


rRJ ! QO 
CO IO 


CO 


eo 


>o 


O} 


CS CO 


1 


S 


3 


s - 


so 


o 


3 


SO 


t- ^ iH 


1 


38. 


g 


8 : 


: 


i 


S 


C5 


t- to co 





SO 

c- 


01 


3 SO 


1-1 


-* 


00 


CO 


CO t- -l 


oi 


SO 

t- 


S 


i 1 




CO 


10 


to 


- s 


"3 


t- 


>-5 
US 







so 


S 


CO 


o> i-( co 


ti 


t- 

t- 


o 


2 


1-1 


1-1 


s 


M 


(M OO CM 


I 


t- 














: : : 






M 












: 1 ": 




Greatest heat at 2 P. M 


Greatest cold 7 A. M. to 9 P. 


Average heat at 2 P. M 
Nights of frost 
Rain in inches and hundredth 


Days without clouds 


Days completely clouded. . . . 


South or southwest winds . . . 


North or northwest winds. . . 


Foggy mornings 
Foggy evenings 
Fog all day 



[67] 



68 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



Extract from Agricultural Report of 1869, by the late Dr. Can- 
field. 











g 





g 


2 


g 


P> 


i? 


9 




U 







& 


| 


i-j_ 


^ 


1 


H 


| 


ID" 


| 


CD 


I 




1 


1 












1 


1 





I 


r 


Maximum Tern . . 


63 


71 


71 


68 


80 


83 


80 


80 


94 


90 


77 


65 


Minimum Tern. . . 


32 


32 


40 


23 


44 


46 


50 


45 


44 


42 


35 


27 


Mean Tarn 


50 3 


49 4 


56 1 


43 1 


58 9 


69 8 


65 7 


61 8 


62 9 


59 5 


55 1 


48 9 


Rain 


3 83 


4 13 


2 69 




1 09 


03 


01 




02 


1 36 


72 


2 42 



The following remarks, among a multitude of others, we extract 
from the different well known journals to which they are credited ; 
being the unsolicited opinions of strangers who have visited Mon 
terey at all seasons of the year, they are entitled to consideration : 

THE CLIMATE IS REMARKABLY EVEN 

And much milder than any place north of here ; oppressively warm 
days are unknown, and it is hardly ever unpleasantly cold. 

For bathing purposes the beach is unequalled ; the slant is so 
gradual, and the tide ebbs and flows so lazily, the water is so 
delightfully warm and beautifully transparent, that a good. bath ac 
commodation would attract thousands every summer. Such an 
establishment would pay handsomely here. 



* HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 69 

The strong south and southwest winds which detract so much 
from Santa Cruz on account of the unpleasantly cold weather they 
ofttimes produce, and so frequently cause the surf to become even 
dangerous for purposes of bathing, amount to but gentle zephyrs 
here. 

I can assert from experience as well as from the testimony of 
many others, that it is the sleepiest spot in the State and the best 
place in California for the tired brain to rest. * * * * 
Men and women can sleep all night and all day, and grow fat and 
rugged and strong. It is a real sleepy hollow, the only one in 
California, so far as known ; and this eminent quality, whether it be 
in the air or earth or sea or surroundings, it matters not, will be a 
fortune to Monterey if properly managed. 

All who labor long and heavily with the brain must in their vo 
cations have sleep, and they will frequent that place most where 
they can sleep best. 



THE CLIMATE IS ALL THAT MAN CAN DESIRE. 

Sheltered by the high pine-covered mountains on the west from 
the breezes of the ocean, the finely tempered wind odorous with the 
resinous pines and sweet scented shrubs comes gently stealing over 
the placid waters of the bay. * * while the sea fog 

lifted high above by the hills scuds towards the great Salinas 
plain, fructifying the land and casting a thin cooling veil across 
the face of the sun. Sacramento Bee. 



70 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



THERE IS NO SPOT ON THE COAST 

Whose natural advantages are at all equal to Monterey. Santa 
Cruz is no comparison nor Santa Barbara either ; but these places 
have the start, and only Yankee energy can bring Monterey up 
with them. * * The first thing needed is a good hotel, 

not in the town, but near to the woods and sea bathing. * * * 
There are many great and wealthy men in Monterey who could, if 
they would, build such a one as is required ; but they are natives, 
and do not care for active life or investments of such a character ; 
they are easy, slow-going people, content to let what they deem 
well enough alone, and take no ventures of that character. Sac 
ramento Bee. 

For many years no town in the State has been less known than 
Monterey. * * A quaint old Spanish town, without 

life or movement, and apparently belonging to some forgotten arcadi 
an age. Yet for eighty years it was the most important town 
in California, the seat of government and the commercial center. 
* The location of the old town is delightful a gentle 
grassy slope at the foot of the hills, of a moderate elevation, cov 
ered with evergreen trees and facing one of the finest harbors in 
the world. 

THE CLIMATE IS THE MOST DELIGHTFUL 

That can be imagined. The only natural cause that brings life to 
a close there is old age. Kern County Courier. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 71 



MONTEREY IN A SANITARY POINT 

Of view has been long known to stand second to no place in the 
world no town of its size can show so many aged people who have 
spent all or the greater part of their lives at any one point, and no 
place where people hold age better. Salinas City Index. 

There is not one of the natural resources so much needed to 
make a successful and enjoyable watering place but can be found 
here. 



Beautiful scenery, admirable facilities for bathing, sailing, riding, 
driving or hunting, with points of interest and beauty in the im 
mediate neighborhood. San Francisco Daily Alta California. 



The Increase. 

Within the past year twenty-five new residences and stores have 
been built in Monterey, and others are going up. Sixty new 
business enterprises have been started, twelve of them have 
collapsed, and several have removed to other portions of the town 
from which they settled in. These may be regarded as very sub 
stantial improvements, considering the unfavorable circumstances 
of the winter and the hard dry season. More than one hundred 



72 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

families have located at this place and in this vicinity during the 
same period. 

That the trade of Monterey is steadily increasing in spite of the 
unfavorable season, is shown by the fact that the express business 
has increased nearly six fold since the opening of the railroad ; that 
fifty new business enterprises can make at least a living for their 
proprietors, while the business of their older rivals has not 
deteriorated ; that buildings of a substantial character are slowly 
but steadily increasing in number. Even the item of fresh fish and 
game shipments to the San Francisco markets through the express 
is of importance, since it embraces 90,000 pounds of fish, 8500 
pounds of quail, 3500 pounds of deer and 3000 pounds of rabbits 
since the opening of the road. 



Monterey Township Officers. 

Town Trustees, S. B. Gordon, President, H. Escolle, Treasurer, 
W. H. Bryan, Clerk ; S. Pardee, W. H. Bryan, Justices of the 
Peace ; A. W. Rapelye, Matias Vargus, Constables ; W. D. 
.Robinson, Road Master ; School Trustees S. B. Gordon, B. V. 
Sargent, W. H. Bryan. 



Monterey Post Office, Alvarado Street- 

POST OFFICE HOURS. Mail closes at 8 A. M.; arrives at 5 P. M. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 73 

Office hours 7 A. M. to 7 : 30 p. M. on week days, and 8 to 10 :30 
A. M. and from 4 to 7 P. M. on Sundays. 

EXPRESS OFFICE, corner Pearl and Alvarado streets. Mail closes 
at 8 A. M.; arrives at 5 p. M. Office hours 6 A. M. to 8 : 30 p. M. 
on week days, and 7 A. M. to 12 and 6 p. M. to 8 p. M. on Sundays. 



Church Services. 

CATHOLIC CHURCH. Kev. A. Casanova; morning, 10 A. M., 
Evening 3 p. M.. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL. Kev T. B. Hopkins, in Central Build 
ing. Morning, 10 :30 ; evening 6. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCH. Rev. J. S. McGowan, Washington Hall. 
7 :30 P. M. 

PACIFIC GROVE RETREAT. 10 A. M., 3 p. M., and 7 P. M. 

NEWSPAPER, Weekly Herald. Every Saturday. S. Clevenger, 
Alvarado street. 



Travel. 

MONTEREY AND SALINAS VALLEY RAIL ROAD. 

WEEK DAYS. Leave Monterey 8 :30 ; arrive at Salinas 9 :45. 
Leave Salinas 3 :15 ; arrive at Monterey 4:30. 

7* 



74 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

SUNDAYS Leave Monte 
9 :45 A. M. and 5 :45 p. M. 



SUNDAYS Leave Monterey 8 A. M. and 4 p. M.; leave Salinas 



STEAMERS. 

G. N. & P.'s steamers and opposition steamer, San Vicente, 
leave as advertised at the Railroad depot, Express and Postoffice. 



Objects of Historical Interest in the Town. 

The Cuartel on California street is a two-story, ruinous looking 
adobe building, with a balcony running around it. It was built in 
1840 by J. Abrego, acting under orders from Alvarado, and cost 
811,000, redwood then selling at $50 per 1000 feet, and nails at 
$36 a keg. The books of the Library Society are there, but for 
the present the Library is closed to the public. The Methodist 
Episcopal Church and Sunday School hold their meetings in the 
building. Col. B. C. Whiting is the agent for the government 
property in Monterey. The Cuartel was also used as the school 
house until the school was transferred to the 

COLTON HALL. 

This building stands back off Main street. Since the removal 
of the county seat to Salinas it has been occupied by the school. 
Prior to that time it was used as the court house, and for the county 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 75 

offices. We extract the following in regard to it from the Rev. 
Walter Colton's very interesting work, Three Tears in California : 

184 , March 8th. The Town Hall, on which I have been 

at work for more than a year, is at last finished. It is built of a 
white stone, quarried from a neighboring hill, and which easily 
takes the shape you desire. The lower apartments are for schools ; 
the hall over them seventy feet by thirty is for public assemblies. 
The front is ornamented with a portico, which you enter from the 
hall. It is not an edifice that would attract any attention among 
public buildings in the United States ; but in California it is without 
a rival. It has been erected out of the slender proceeds of town 
lots, the labor of the convicts, taxes on liquor shops, and fines on 
gamblers. The scheme was regarded with incredulity by many ; 
but the building is finished, and the citizens have assembled in it, 
and christened it after .my name, which will go down to posterity 
with the odor of gamblers, convicts, and tipplers." 

THE PRISON 

was first built by Walter Colton adjoining the old calaboose, but in 
1855 a new and more substantial one was erected as the county 
jail, in the school house building. 

Should Monterey ever recover her position as the county seat, 
it would be a great saving to the county, as there need foe but little 
extra cost incurred for buildings. 

THE OLD BLOCK HOUSE AND .FORT 

stand on the hillside overlooking the bay. A weird adobe naturally 



76 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

attracts the attention to the spot. The view from the fort well 
repays, the exertion of the walk. About the year 1843 Gen. 
Micheltorena dug a deep ditch on the site of the present fort ? 
with two or three embrasures for guns which were never mounted. 
When the United States squadron under Commodore Sloat took 
possession of Monterey in July, 1846, the block house was built and 
ship guns mounted. It was first called Fort Stockton, but afterwards 
Fort Mervine. On the arrival of Co. F, U. S. 3rd Art., in January, 
1847, earthworks were thrown up, and it was picketed and guns 
were mounted. It was dismantled in 1852, most of the guns being 
carried to Benicia. A few may still be seen at the corners of some 
of the streets. 

THE OLD CUSTOM HOUSE. 

" Pioneer," writing to the Monterey Republican^ says : " The 
foundation, or rather the central portion of it, was laid when 
the flag of Old Spain waved over California, and after lay 
ing for years in that state, the walls were raised under Mex 
ican rule, and a tiled roof put upon the central part. At the 
end were built two small towers, shingled over ; but the second tow 
er was not built until 1844 or 1845. In the Mexican -time the 
Custom House could boast of a boat and boat's crew, but now Uncle 
Sam is too poor to support one in the third harbor of California, 
though it is the only port where a vessel can lay in safety during 
southeasters, from San Francisco to San Diego. In early days it 
used to support two or three Custom House officers, for Monterey 
was the port where the duties were paid by the vessels trading to 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 77 

the Mexican Department or Territory of California. In the latter 
part of 1844 the Custom House, or central part of it, was turned 
into a ball-room by the officers of the U. S. Frigate Savannah, 
then laying at anchor in the bay of Monterey. * * * On the tak 
ing of Monterey by the U. S. Naval forces July 6th, 1846, the old 
Custom House was occupied by a party of marines, and the head 
quarters of Capt. W. Mervine of the U. S. Navy, who had com 
mand of the forces, was in the north end of the building." 

The learned Dr. Canfield was for some time Collector of Custom 
at this port. He was succeeded by Mr. Ireland. Now, the port is, 
so far as the Customs are concerned, amalagmated with Santa 
Cruz and Moss Landing. 

The building is occupied as a private residence by Capt. T. G. 
Lambert. It is charmingly situated at the end of Alvarado street, 
and seawards almost hangs over the bay. In the summer even 
ings the seats under the portico are occupied by young men and 
maidens, enjoying the balmy breezes, and sentimentalizing upon the 
moonlit wavelets as they break in ripples on the beach. It would be 
an admirable site for a small hotel. 

r- 
THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

Was built in 1794. It was within the Presidio enclosure, and was 
intended merely as a chapel for the accommodation of those who 
were unable to attend the parish church at Carmel. When the 
missions were secularized, the Carmel mission was abandoned and 
the Monterey chapel dedicated as the parish church. The mate- 



78 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

rial used in its construction was a kind of white stone, abundant in 
the neighborhood. Although this stone is quite soft, being easily 
cut with a knife, it has withstood the ravages of time remarkably 
well, and the building may stand for another hundred years. In 
shape, it was originally a parallelogram, 120 feet long by 30 feet 
wide, inside dimensions. In 1858, under the direction of Padre 
Juan Bautista Cormillas, two wings were added, furnishing in 
creased capacity, and transforming the church into the shape of a 
cross. The altar was built at the same time. It is the work of an 
Italian, and is justly regarded as a fine piece of art. The large 
gothic windows are adorned with life-size paintings of various saints. 
The walls are also hung with paintings, many of them being of 
great age and exquisite beauty. They were principally brought 
from the mission of Carmel, and are by unknown artists. The 
church will accommodate five hundred people. It is by far the 
most interesting building in the town, and is an honor to the church 
it represents. The visitor who devotes an hour to examining this 
sacred edifice will be well repaid for his time. The present pastor 
is Rev. A. Cassanova, to whom we are indebted for much valuable 
information. 

THE CEMETERY. 

The Cemetery is situated across the slough or estero, near the 
Catholic church, and is connected with the town by a causeway of 
white stone. In shape it is an irregular triangle, surrounded on two 
sides by water, and on the third by a fence which is sadly in need 
of repairs. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 79 

Passing through the dilapidated portal, we find ourselves in the 
midst of a lovely growth of live oaks. Old and moss-covered pa 
triarchs of the forest, which doubtless were standing long ere the 
Genoese stepped upon the eastern verge of the Continent, are 
grouped around in picturesque confusion. Trees of a younger 
growth, perchance acorns when beheld by Serra, are intermingled 
with these ; while the northern half of the Cemetery is overrun by 
a dense growth of lupins, covered with flowers of a most brilliant 
yellow. As these flowers, typical of jealousy, bloom for a short 
season above the ground, then fade away and merge into unremem- 
bered dust, so it is with the petty jealousies of this life about which 
we fret so much. 

Near the center of the present inclosure are the remains of a 
stone wall that formerly marked the boundaries of the Cemetery as 
laid out by the old Franciscan Fathers. They inclose a space 
about one hundred yards square, and show that the Fathers must 
have believed in cremation, or else overrated the healthfulness of 
Monterey. 

Upon the side nearest the bay are the trenches which surround 
ed a primitive fort erected by Governor Micheltorena, previous to 
the American occupation. 

The graves are scattered here and there, with no regard to order 
some beneath the shade of the giant oaks, others on the open 
grassy plats bathed in perpetual sunshine in fact, wherever the 
friends of the departed deemed most appropriate. This very lack of 
order forms one of the characteristic beauties of the place. Were 



80 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

everything arranged with mathematical precision, the picturesque 
charm of the place would be lost. 

After reclining for a while upon the fragrant grass, listening to 
the mournful dirge wailed by the wind through the trees, and the 
answering moan of the ocean that grand symbol of eternity we 
reverently retrace our steps and are soon once more in the land of 
the living, where too often the Grim Messenger is unthought of un 
til his terrible knocking is heard aA the gate. 

\ 

CALIFORNIA'S FIRST THEATER 

Stands on Pacific Avenue, and is an adobe building, the property 
of Mr. John A. Swan, one of our earliest pioneers, and a gentleman 
possessed of a great fund of information about the earlier days of 
the State, From the Monterey Weekly Herald and the Santa 
Cruz Sentinel, we extract the following information in reference to 
the first Thespian performances in the Golden State, " It was in 
the fall of 1847, that four volunteers, (Matt Gormley, Bill Tindal, 
Jack Moran, and Long Lee) came up from Santa Barbara on mili 
tary duty, consigned to Co. F, 3d Regt. U, S, Artillery. They 
were in the minstrel line, and had given two burnt cork entertain 
ments to the Santa Barbarians, before leaving. In Monterey they 
were joined by Aleck Patterson, Pete Earl, and three local char 
acters designated as " Tips,'' " Taps," and " Tops." With this 
company, the " management " gave two performances in the old 
Cuartel Building, south end, up stairs. This was undoubtedly the 
first effort at minstrelsy on this Coast. " 

" The first theatrical performance ever given in California took 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 81 

place in the old adobe store-house adjacent to Jack Swan's saloon, 
and it came to pass in this way. About the time that Stevenson's 
regiment, New York Volunteers were disbanded, three companies in 
cluding the Colonel came up to Monterey. Soon after, the soldiers 
attempted a theatrical exhibition, which was a success. Encoura ed 
by their liberal patronage, the managers induced Jack to fix seats, 
stage and scenery in the old adobe. The bills were got out in due 
form, posters printed with a blacking-pot and brush, and pro 
grammes written announcing ' Putnam ,' or ' The Lion Son 0/'76,' 
as the first piece to be played. C. E. Bingham personated the '76 
Son, and Mrs. Bingham Mrs. Martha Washington, Charley Clu- 
chester George Washington. Frank Wensell and his wife took part. 
John O'Neal, Mr. Fury and Pete Earl belonged to the company 
also. Damon and Pythias, Box and Cox, The Grolden Far 
mer, Grrand Father White Head, and Nan the Gf-oodfor Nothing, 
were pieces in the repertory of the company. John Harris, Tom 
Beech, Capt. Wingfield, Mrs. .Zfettlebottom, and Lieut. Derby, 
were also among the leading spirits of the troup. 1849 and 1850 
were memorable eras in the Thespian records of Monterey." 



THE CONVENT. 

Another ruined, broken-windowed building on Main Street. It 
was built in 1852, for the Sisters of Charity, and used by them 
till 1858. The Monks resided in two small houses on the hillside. 

8 



82 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



THE OLD CALABOOSE 

Was built in 1832, by Figueroa, and stood where Watson's 
butcher shop, and Sunoneau's saloon are now, at the junction of 
Pearl and California Streets. 



THE OLD COMMISSARIAT 

Was the building now occupied by E. H. Schmidt's store, on Cali 
fornia Street. 



Our Pioneer Residents 



Though death, and the other changes that time brings with his 
wings have sadly thinned the ranks of our pioneers, we still have 
a few left who have remained loyal to their first love, Monterey. 

D. Jose Abrego, James Meadows, Thomas Bralee, Geo. C. Har 
ris, George Oliver, John A. Swan (" Pioneer,") Wm. D. Kobin- 
son, George Austin, Teodoro Gonzalez, Manrico Gonzalez, B. Y. 
Sargent, J. Flynn, then the youngest white boy in San Francisco, 
and D. Jacks, all of whom arrived in the State before, or in 1849. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 83 



Opinions of Disinterested- Parties. 

We extract the following from the speech of the Hon. P. A. 
Roach, last alcalde and first mayor of Monterey, and first senator 
from the County, at the centennial commemoration, on the 3d of 
June, 1870 : 

" Look at this magnificent bay. It stretches from point to point 
twenty-eight miles. It can shelter the navies of the world. Its 
anchorage is secure. No pilot has ever been needed to bring ves 
sels even to its wharf. The largest ships ever constructed can ride 
at anchor within a few hundred yards of the beach. The great 
seaports of the world are obliged to lay heavy charges on shipping 
for inward and outward pilotage. The cost of this service in San 
Francisco for one year, or at the most, two years, would build in 
Monterey Bay a breakwater that would give perfect security in all 
weather ; but the United States Government ought to perform this 
duty. Of late it has been seeking to obtain harbors in various 
sections of the world, which will require immense sums to place 
them in security. 

" Why not devote some of the treasure to improve this harbor ? 
The ports of Monterey and Santa Cruz can soon be made great 
centers of shipment of merchandise. A railroad could be construct 
ed to bring, for shipment hence, immense quantities of grain from 
the San Joaquin region. A railroad even within the county would 
bring produce to fill your grain elevators, and as in the past, Mon 



84 HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 

terey would become again in the markets of the world a place of 
commercial importance. Look at yonder Estero, bridged to lead 
from the Church to the Cemetery. There is a natural dock-yard 
by removing the sand bar that obstructs its mouth. It is deep 
enough to take in the largest ship, and was favorably reported on 
by many of the Naval Commanders. Why not adopted ? Because 
there was a combination on foot in 1849, of high speculators. Our 
people who owned land were made to believe that the convention, 
if called, would continue the Capital at Monterey ; that the Bar 
racks would be used, and that a naval depot would be established 
here. Then your people swapped lots in San Francisco for those 
in Monterey. You remember many of these bargains to your sor 
row. 

" Soon came the change ; the Capital was removed to San Jose ; 
then we saw the naval depot taken from us ; next we heard that 
wooden shanties were to be erected in the healthier climate of Be- 
nicia, for the army. These tinder boxes, and theexpense entailed" 
by the change, cost over a million dollars. I asked Governor Ki 
ley, the last military Governor of the Territory, why this change ? 
why abandon fire-proof quarters for the others ? The gallant sol 
dier, and the honest, scar-marked veteran answered in his stammer 
ing manner, spec-spec-spec-speculation. That is what caused the 
quick blow against your city." 

We extract the following from " Three Years in California," pub 
lished in 1852. 

" The scenery around Monterey, and the locale of the town, ar 
rest the first glance of the stranger. The wild waving background 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 85 

of forest-feathered cliffs, the green slopes, and the glimmering walls 
of the white dwellings ; and the dash of the billows on the spark 
ling sands of the bay, fix and charm the eye.* Nor does the en 
chantment fade by being familiarly approached ; avenues of almost 
endless variety lead off through circling steeps, and winding through 
long shadowy ravines, loose themselves in the vine-clad recesses 
of the distant hills. It is no wonder that 

CALIFORNIA CENTERED HER TASTE, PRIDE AND WEALTH HERE, 

Till the vandal irruption of gold hunters broke into her peaceful do 
main. Now all eyes are turned to San Francisco, with her mud 
bottoms, her sand hills, and her chill winds, wnich cut the stranger 
like hail driven through the summer solstice. Avarice may erect 
its shanty there, but contentment and a love of the wild and beauti 
ful will construct its tabernacle among the flowers, the waving shades 
and the fragrant airs of Monterey. 

The climate on the seaboard is REMARKABLY EQUABLE ; it varies 
at Monterey, the year round, but little from sixty." 



Sea Bathing at Monterey. 

The late Colbert A. Canfield, M. D., whose scientific researches 
have been of immense service to the country, writes as follows : 



86 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

" There is no better place on the coast, within easy access of the 
large towns of California, for a watering place, than Monterey. 
The climate, mild and salubrious ; the beautiful natural scenery, 
landscapes and ' water-scapes,' with the wide, smooth bay in the 
foreground, all combine to make it the most attractive seaside re 
treat that can be found ; for the Bay of Monterey is one of the most 
beautiful in the world. The town is sheltered from the cold north 
east winds by the pine-covered hills on the side towards the ocean, 
and still its atmosphere is scarcely even hot or uncomfortably warm. 
It is, consequently, a very healthy place for all classes of persons, 
but especially for children. Hence it is, I suppose, that the chil 
dren are as numerous in its streets as are the quails in its neighbor 
ing thickets. The summer complaints of children are almost un 
known, and it is a long time since there has prevailed here any 
contagious epidemic disease. The water of the bay has one peculi 
arity, viz : it is much warmer than that of the ocean outside. There 
is a strong current running into the bay on the north side, around 
fort Ano Nuevo, that makes a complete circuit of the bay, along the 
eastern shore, and running thence westward along the south shore 
by the town of Monterey, it runs out around Point Pinos, even 
against the wind, with so strong a current that it is very hard row 
ing against it in a boat. For this reason, the water near the town 
is several degrees warmer than it is on the Santa Cruz side of the 
bay. And also for this reason, I suppose, it is, that there is so 
much beautiful seaweed growing on the southeast side of the bay. 

" Nowhere on the coast is there such a variety of beautiful and 
delicate forms of sea- weed, and such an abundance, as here. Col- 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 87 

lectors of the article for scientific or ornamental purposes are in 
their glory here, and many of the shells are not devoid of beauty 
or variety. 

" The surrounding country contains much beautiful scenery, and 
interesting drives may be had in various directions * * * * with 
the certainty of a few hours of pleasant and healthful recreation. 
Within easy access of the town are plenty of opportunities for fish 
ing or hunting, for those who like these sports." 



Chalybeate Waters, or Iron Springs. 

Dr. Canfield, having examined the springs at the Pescadero and 
Point Cypress, writes : 

" The rocky cape that shelters the town of Monterey from the 
sea, and forms its harbor, is a ridge of granite, coarse and rotten, the 
most of it easily crumbling' to pieces where exposed to the waves or 
air, and in many places colored red with the iron which it contains. 
As the surface water (from rains and fogs) passes through this po 
rous granite, it dissolves out the iron, as may be seen in nearly all 
the springs that flow from this granite ridge towards the sea ; but 
only in a few places is the water sufficiently charged with iron to be 
called chalybeate, and to be serviceable as a remedial agent. 

" The springs containing a noticeable quantity of iron, are near 



88 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

the mouth of the Carmel river, in the ravines that have been cut 
through the sandstone rocks into the granite, running down to the 
sea. There may be seen here cropping out thin strata of iron ore 
(carbonate and hydrated oxyd) sometimes pure, and sometimes 
mixed with sand. This is a few rods south of the farm house at 
the Pescadero. One spring in particular, in a ravine near the sea 
shore, has its water so saturated with iron, that it is deposited in 
abundance around the margin of the pools, and on the sticks and 
stones in the water. There is no sulphur in the water, or next to 
none, and it is quite clear and palatable except for the iron which 
it contains. Here, then, we have a chalybeate water that will 
undoubtedly prove an excellent tonic for people who are debilitated 
and with but little blood in their veins, and it is also accompanied 
by all the other hygienic adjuvants necessary for the renovation of 
the strength of the feeble a pure and healthy atmosphere, mild 
and warm it being on the south side of the promontory of Point 
Pinos C old bathing in the surf, as it rolls in from the ocean, or 
tepid baths in the warm and sheltered nooks among the rocks as 
the state of the health requires, or fancy dictates. The surrounding 
scenery is beautiful. There are wide beaches with beautiful sands, 
shells and curiously water-worn rocks, with caves and natural 
bridges. The little bay of Carmel, in front, is dotted with rocky 
islets covered with the nests of sea birds, and across the bay, Point 
Lobos rears up its granite walls and turrets, resounding with cries 
of seals and sea-lions that make it their habitation. The anlon 
(abelone) shells are very abundant here, and it is a favorite resort 
of the Chinese fishermen. Numbers of handsome agates are found 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



on the Beach, and a mine of silver and gold (?) was once opened 
at the water's edge. This vein contains silver, perhaps, but the 
metalliferous gangue or matrix being crystallized gypsum, 
(sulphate of lime) it would hardly be possible that it could contain 
gold." 



Our Coal Mines. 

The principal mines in the course of development are the " Mon 
terey," B. V. Sargent, President; A. Manuel, Secretary; the 
" Mai Paso," J. W. Miller, President ; A. H. Harris, Secretary. 
There are also the Consolidated Coal Mining Co., whose offi 
ces are in San Francisco : A. J. Griffiths, President ; E. Hayden, 
Secretary : and several others of minor importance. It is quite 
probable that in a few months Monterey will ship away large 
quantities of coal, as the prospects are highly nattering. 



Our Wild Flowers. 

We cull the following from the San Francisco Chronicle, as it 
is so thoroughly applicable to our own hill-sides and canons, teem 



90 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

ing as they are with beautiful flowers, rare and graceful ferns, and 
odorous flowering shroubs. 

" Whosoever has seen a little of California will forgive' us for 
loving our wild flowers. They are so many and so beautiful that 
we cannot withhold the expression of our admiration. We used 
to love, and we love yet, the modest, shy little violet that in the 
East was almost snow-born, and which timidly put forth its azure 
petals on the first touch of May. We loved it for associations 
broken up long ago. But how little is the whole sisterhood of 
flowers at the East compared with the glories of a California 
Spring? We go out upon our hill-sides at that season and find 
miracles of beauty everywhere under our feet not single flowers, 
but a wilderness of sweetness and beauty, never to be forgotten. We 
have counted in one morning twenty-nine varieties within less than the 
area of an acre, and some of them exquisitely pure in color and in 
symmetry. In all the foothills and mountain-sides of California, 
even far into its arid Summery, flowers burst up from among rocks 
which seem hardly able to give a foothold for aught so delicate and 
fragile, challenging your admiration, and almost seeming to rejoice 
that the wandering feet of a stranger have led him where his eyes 
could feast upon their beauties, which else had never been seen by 
man. Our gardens are beautiful with the chosen flowers of every 
clime and country, but the retiring beauties of our hill-sides and 
canons have a charm for us that no tricks of the gardener's skill 
can imitate or approach." 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 91 

MONTEREY TRADES DIRECTORY. 

Hotels. 

Washington, Lockwood & Bryan, Washington street. 
Monterey House, Paulson & Lagoni, Alvarado street. 
Bay View House, Private Lodging House, Main street. 
Boarding House and Restaurant, M. Silvas, Pearl street. 
Furnished Rooms, J. Simoneau, Pearl street. 
Restaurant, R. C. Wornes, Tyler street. 
J. Simoneau's Restaurant, Pearl street. 

Dry Goods, Groceries, Cigars, and General Merchandise. 

Wm. Bardin, Alvarado street. 

H. Escolle & Co., California and Polk streets. 

W. Laporte, Alvarado street. 

L. Little, Washington street. 

J. Abrego, Pearl street. 

B. Mendessolle, Washington street. 

Groceries and Provisions. 

J. B. Snively, Alvarado and Pearl streets. Wells, Fargo & Co.'s 
Agent. 



92 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

E. II. Schmidt, California street. 

F. Gomez, Alvarado street, Post Office. 
M. Silvas, Pearl street. 

W. H. Pjburn, Alvarado street. 



Dry Goods. 



L. Bergstein, Polk street. 
S. Marks, Alvarado street. 



Watchmakers, Jewelers, Gunsmiths, and Hardware 
Dealers. 

McClure Bros., Washington street. 

Silversmith, Engraver, and Draughtsman. 

4 

John Hall, Abrego street. 

Silversmiths and Abelone Jewelers. 

Celestino Truxillo, Alvarado street. 
P. H. Masters, Alvarado street. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 93 

Tinsmith and Hardware Dealer. 
W. W. James, Pearl street. 

Vegetables, Fruits, Tobaccos, Stationery, and Notions. 

L. B. Austin, Alvarado street. 

Porter Long, Pearl street. . . 



Butchers. 



F. Doud, Alvarado street. 
Thos. Watson, Pearl street. 



Bakers. 

Mrs. Bradwick, American Bread, Washington street. 
H. Escolle, French Bakery, California street. 



Lumber Merchants. 

Lambert Bros., the Old Wharf, Railroad Depot. 
9 



94 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

Carpenters and Builders. 

L. Bos well, Polk street. 
G. Oliver, Larkin street. 
H. Prinz. 

E. J. Lewis, Alvarado street. 
A. Guillee, Polk street. 

G. Sullivan, California street. 
C. Herron, Washington street. 
J. Gray, Pacific Grove. 

F. Graham, Pacific Grove. 

House, Sign, and Carriage Painters. 

St. Glair, Roberts & Trascol, Houston street. 

Saddler and Harness Maker. 
J. Cramer, Pearl street. 

* 

Boot and Shoe Makers. 

Chris. Gamber, Pearl street. 
A. Chacon, Pearl street. 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 95 

M. Vargas, Houston street. 
Manuel Bojorges. 

Barber. 

S. Koffle, Pearl street. 

Plasterers. 

P. Corley & F. Folsom. 

Pianos and Organs. 
E. E. Curtis, Main street. 

Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights. 

Dodge & Sanchez, Alvarado street. 
A. B. Reed, Alvarado street. 
A. Toothacher. 



Saloons. 



Wise & Harris, Pearl street. 
J. Simoneau, Pearl street. 



yb HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

4 

The Shades, R. Morey, Alvarado street. 

The Union, D. Ruiz, Pearl street. 

Railroad Exchange, A. Sanchez, Alvarado street. 

Depot Saloon, J. Feraud. 

Monterey Saloon, M. Dutra. 

Railroad House Bowling Alley and Saloon, P. Serrano, Alvarado 

street. 
Monterey Brewery, V. Gigling, California street. 

Livery Stables. 

Bryan & Bonny, Washington street. 
R. Morey, The Shades, Alvarado street. 

Teamsters. 

R. Morey, Alvarado street. 
John Myers, Washington street. 
J. Caldwell, Main street. 



Laundry. 
Qo Tai, California street. 



The following pages in reference to Monterey County we extract 
from the very accurate and valuable work compiled by Mr. A. W. 
Butler, the " Kesources of Monterey County." The work will be 
sent, free of charge, to any one applying to Mr. Butler, or Mr. 
Winham, of Salinas City, California. All persons intending to 
visit or reside in California should read it. 



Monterey County. 

This county lies between parallels 35 degrees and 45 minutes 
and 37 degrees north latitude, and the central portion of the county 
is in longitude 121 degrees and 30 minutes west from Greenwich ; 
is bounded on the north by Santa Cruz County and Monterey Bay, 
on the east by the counties of San Benito, Fresno, and Tulare, on 
the south by San Luis Obispo County, and on the west by the 
Pacific Ocean ; has an area of 3,600 square miles, or 2,304,000 
acres of land, and its northern boundary lies south from San Fran 
cisco about 90 miles by railroad. There is a great diversity of 

9* 

[97] ' 



98 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

soil, climate, and productions, owing to the peculiar manner in 
which the county is divided by mountains, hills, and valleys. The 
territory may be regarded as divided naturally into four sections, 
viz : 

The Santa Lucia Mountains, 

Which extend from Monterey Bay on the north into San Luis 
Obispo County, where the range unites with the Coast Range, and 
from the Pacific Ocean out of which they may be said to rise to 
the Salinas Valley east a distance of some eighteen miles. These 
mountains are in most places very rough and steep, especially in 
the central and western portions of the range, so much so that 
some parts of the country have not been explored. They attain 
in the rougher portions a height of 5,000 feet. In these mount 
ains are many places where water is plentiful and the surface of 
the country such as to furnish a good home. The number of in 
habitants that find places in the little valleys and canons, and on 
the mountain sides of this range, is increasing rapidly every year. 
These mountain homes, sheltered from the winds, possessing a 
delightful climate, have peculiar advantages in the production of 
fruits. Grapes, figs, peaches, apricots, oranges, lemons and semi- 
tropical fruits flourish here. 

Higher up on the mountains are many small stock ranches, 
where there is always plenty of feed. Wood is everywhere abun 
dant, and persons living in this section have quite a trade in this 
article. There are several coal mines eight or ten miles south of 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 99 

Monterey that promise well, though they have not yet any efficient 
means of transportation from the mines to market, but it is said 
that a railroad can be constructed without much difficulty to Mon 
terey. Gold has been discovered in several places in this range, 
but not in paying quantities. These mountains contain immense 
deposits of limestone, from which the very best quality of lime can 
be produced ; and as lime rock is not found very abundantly in the 
State, this county will doubtless build up an immense trade in that 
article. In this district are located the famous Tassajara and 
Pariso and other hot mineral springs. The land is mostly unsur- 
veyed Government land. Game of all descriptions, from the quail 
to the grizzly bear, abounds. The scenery is unsurpassed in eicteut, 
grandeur, or beauty. 



The Great Salinas Valley 

Lies between the Gabilan mountains on the east and the Santa 
Lucia mountains on the west, and opens upon Monterey Bay at 
the north, from which it extends over one hundred miles south, 
with a width of from six to fifteen miles, and contains an area of 
about 1,000 square miles, or 640,000 acres of land. Through the 
valley runs the Salinas River, which has a quicksand bottom, and 
carries a large volume of water in the wet season, but a small 
quantity in the dry part of the year. The principal tributaries of 
the Salinas are the San Lorenzo and Estrayo from the east, and 



100 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

the Arroyo Seco, San Antonio, and Nacimiento from the west. 
The lands of the valley may be divided into three classes : 

First The heavy, rich bottom lands, good for the growth of 
anything. This soil is mostly black adobe, and in many localities 
contains just enough sand to make it work easily, thereby making 
not only one of the richest soils in the world, but also one of the 
pleasantest and easiest worked. These lands sometimes produce 
over one hundred bushels of barley to the acre, and one tract near 
Salinas City, containing six hundred acres, has produced of wheat 
an average of sixty-five bushels per acre. The lands, : commonly 
known here as " sediment lands," belonging to this class, (although 
comprising a small portion of it) do not stand a drouth as well 
as some of the other lands. The average crop of wheat on these 
lands may be set down as about thirty-seven bushels per acre, and 
of barley about sixty-four bushels per acre. 

Second The table lands, good for almost anything, and especi 
ally for wheat and barley. These lands stand dry weather or a 
short supply of rain better than any other in the valley. The 
average yield of these lands is, of wheat about thirty bushels per 
acre, and of barley about fifty bushels per acre. 

Third The upland, good for the production of wheat, barley, 
oats, and rye. These lands lie close along the base of the mountains 
in the lower part of the canons and among the lower hills, and 
differ very much in quality in different localities, some being as 
good land as there is in the valley, while other tracts are not so 
good. Some of this land is the very best fruit land in the State, 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 101 

and will produce oranges, limes, lemons, peaches, apricots, almonds, 
figs, and the other fruits common to this section. 

There were cultivated in this valley in 1874 about eighty thous 
and acres in crops of all kinds ; from this acreage there were ex 
ported thirty-two thousand tons of wheat and twelve thousand tons 
of barley. For other crops we have no data, but immense quanti 
ties of potatoes, beans, hay, and other crops were produced. The 
land in cultivation, in 1875, is about 110,000 acres. The price of 
wheat has ranged for the last three years so as to give an average 
price of about |1.57 per hundred delivered at the depot in Salinas 
City. Barley is now selling at $1.50 per hundred. The Salinas 
Valley, in point of fertility and diversity of soil, has no superior in 
the State, and when this is considered in connection with its mild 
and healthful climate, the amount of tillable land, and its proximity 
to the commercial center of the State, the great advantages pos 
sessed for transportation of produce, and the cheapness of freights 
compared with the more remote sections of the State, it has no 
equal. For every mile a farmer in California places himself from 
1 San Francisco he has to pay for it in two ways first, by the 
amount of extra freight on what he buys ; second, by the amount of 
extra freight deducted from the market price of what he has to sell. 

The use of this valley, as agricultural land, has been confined to 
the past six years ; prior to that time stock-raising was the occupa 
tion of the people, and the land was held in large tracts of from 
three thousand to forty-nine thousand acres, and as a consequence, 
this is a NEW COUNTY AND COUNTRY. As these large tracts of land 



102 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

are now being cut up and sold off, a splendid opportunity is offered 
to any one that wishes to secure a good home. 



The Gabilan Mountains 

Extend from the Pajaro River, at the northern boundary of the 
county, through the entire length of the county. From the Pajaro 
River, going south, the first eighteen miles of the range is a system 
of low mountains, covered almost everywhere with grass and an 
abundance of timber. This part of these mountains is now nearly 
entirely occupied. The next thirty miles of the range is composed 
of high, rough mountains, which extend as far south as the San 
Lorenzo. From the San Lorenzo to the southern boundary of the 
county, these mountains are low, rolling hills, forming the foot-hills 
of the Coast Range, and are about twenty or thirty miles in width. 
In this section are several beautiful little valleys, among which are 
Peach-Tree Valley, Cholamo Valley, Indian Valley, Long Valley, 
Priest Valley, and several others, nearly all of which possess a 
good soil. These valleys have a delightful climate, peculiarly 
adapted to the growth of semi-tropical fruits. The land is nearly 
all unsurveyed Government land, and at present is used chiefly in 
the stock business. The Gabilan Mountains, in their climate and 
adaptability, closely resemble the Santa Lucia. This range con 
tains immense deposits of lime-stone, and quicksilver has been dis 
covered. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 103 



The Pajaro Valley 

Is located along the northern line of Monterey County, and extends 
across the Pajaro River into Santa Cruz County. This valley 
possesses one of the most productive soils in the State. The Pajaro 
River runs westerly through this valley, and finds an outlet in 
Monterey Bay. This section is separated from the Salinas Valley 
by a low range of hills that extend from the Gabilan Mountains to 
Monterey Bay. The climate is similar to that of the Salinas. 

The Assessor's Books for 1874 

Show that the property in the county is worth about $10,000,000. 
The total number of acres of land, aside from town lots, assessed, 
is 764,995 ; this land is valued at 15,733,512, or about $7.49 per 
acre, and the value of the improvements on this land is put at 
$423,737. The personal property is valued at $2,401,275. The 
rate of taxation for 1874 was $1.66 on the hundred dollars ; this, 
however, is much higher than our ordinary rates, and was so fixed 
in order to get the county out of debt, and in this object it suc 
ceeded. 

The Population. 

Although we have no very accurate source of information on this 
subject, the population of the county is about 9,000, and is increas- 



104 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

ing so rapidly that, with no elections of general interest to cause 
voters to register, there have been registered in this county since the 
last general election, 1,740 aditional voters. 

Land Titles 

In this county have long been settled, and there is hardly a case of 
doubtful land title in the county. The Government land is nearly 
all unsurveyed, and where occupied, is held by the right of pos 
session. 

Price of Land. 

Farming lands in this county range in price from $ 3 to $150* 
per acre, owing to quality and location. Bottom lands in the 
Pajaro Valley are worth from $80 to $150 per acre, while the 
rolling and hill lands sell at from $15 to $40 per acre. The low 
hill lands interspersed with small valleys, between the Pajaro and 
Salinas Valley, vary in price from $6 to $25 per acre with im 
provements ; of these lands there are about fifteen or twenty 
thousand acres. The table lands of the Salinas Valley sell at 
from $30 to $60 per acre, while some sell as low as $15. The 
heavy bottom lands range in price from $50 to $100 per acre, and 
in the immediate vicinity of Salinas City sell at $100 to $250 per 
acre, in small tracts of from one to twenty acres. The uplands are 
worth from $3 to $25 per acre, owing to quality and location. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 105 

There is a vast quantity of unsurveyed Government land in the 
hilly and mountainous parts of the county, now held by the right of 
possession ; and these tracts are frequently offered in the market 
for low figures for the right of possession and the improvements. 
This possession gives no fee to the land, but gives to the purchaser 
the right to occupy until surveyed, and then the first right to buy 
at Government prices. To parties unacquainted with our lands 
the prices given above may seem high, but when it is understood 
that these lands are unsurpassed in productiveness, and need no 
irrigation ; that in dry seasons they produce good crops when 
other sections fail ; that in wet seasons our lands yield immensely ; 
that the county has such good facilities for transportation of pro 
duce ; that we possess advantages for harvesting grain not found 
in many localities ; that we have a climate that is delightful and 
especially adapted to the comfort of the farmer ; that good society 
and good schools are found almost everywhere within our borders ; 
and that every farmer who bestows the proper care and labor in 
seed-time upon his land is almost beyond doubt assured of a 
bountiful harvest ; we think the prices will be attributed to the 
merit in the lands and their surroundings. One man may do a 
foolish thing, but many are not apt to invest in lands that are sell 
ing for more than they are worth, yet in this county during 1874 
there was sold $300,000 worth of land to men who had been rent 
ing and farming the lands they bought, and most of them made 
the purchase-money from land. 
10 



106 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



Rent of Farming Land 

Is from $2.50 to 810 per acre. Many of the renters pay a part 
of the crop, say one-third or one-fourth. Of course, the $10 land 
is the very best, and the renter can afford to pay the price. Farm 
ers in Monterey County, paying the prices for land and rent given 
above, on an average have done better in the last five years than 
have the farmers of any other county in the State. 

The Health 

Of the people of this county is as good as in any section of the 
State. We have no chills and fever, no epidemic diseases. We 
possess a climate that in itself does not produce disease of any 
kind, an atmosphere that brings no malaria. There is no night in 
the year but is cool enough to afford a good, refreshing sleep under 
a pair of blankets, and none so cold that a person could not sleep 
comfortably in the open air under the same cover. 

Schools. 

There are now organized about thirty-two school districts in thia 
county, and in these districts schools are maintained for most of 
the time during the year. The wages paid to teachers are such as 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 107 

to command good talent. For instance, several districts situated 
in remote parts of the county have the good judgment to pay their 
teachers from $30 to $ 100 per month, and thereby they secure aa 
good teachers as are found in the towns. In no district in the 
county are low wages paid. The State and county provide ample 
means to give every child a good English education if the parents 
of the districts but see that they get the worth of their money. 
With fifteen children between 'the ages of five and seventeen years 
a new district can be formed. California has a good school 
system, and it is gensrally well administered. There are no private 
schools of any note in the county. 



Stock-raising 

Is still a prominent interest in this county, especially in the mount 
ainous and hilly portions, which are covered with sheep and cattle. 
Horses are raised for the markets by many of the farmers, and the 
better class of horses find a ready sale. Some persons have given 
attention to the raising of hogs, and the number shipped from the 
county every year is very large. The raising of hogs is very profit 
able in connection with farming, dairying, etc. No kind of stock 
requires feeding, except such as are kept up, as they find sufficient 
grazing the entire. year. 

Monterey County is one of the best sheep counties in the State, 
but persons need not come here with the expectation of finding a 
cheap class of land in tracts large enough to feed bands of sheep of 



108 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

10,000 and over. Our lands, as a general thing in valleys, are 
too valuable for sheep pastures, and in the hills it is difficult to find 
pasturage for large bands in one locality. 



Angora Goats. 

The Cashmere or Angora Goat business is of late attracting con 
siderable attention among wide-awake business men, and is thorough 
ly establishing itself as one of the substantial industries of this 
State. In this county the Santa Lucia and Gabilan mountains 
contain many thousand acres of Government land just suited to the 
grazing of goats. 

Dairying 

Receives much attention, and persons engaged in the business 
find it very profitable. One dairy, four miles from Salinas City, 
belonging to C. S. Abbott, produced, in 1874, about two hundred 
thousand pounds of butter, which yielded $70,000. This is the 
largest dairy, but many others are doing proportionally well. 
Butter and cheese always find a ready market. There are many 
small dairies scattered through the hills of this county. The climate 
is peculiarly adapted to this business there is probably no better 
in the State. 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 109 

Flax and Mustard 

Are cultivated to considerable extent in the county. 

Sugar Beets and Mangel- Wurzels 

Are considerably cultivated by persons who have stock to feed and 
have only a small tract of land. The crop is a great success, both 
as to the immense amount of feed produced, and as to the conve 
nience for use. The yield, with proper cultivation in good soil, is 
from seventy-five to one hundred and fifty tons per acre. The 
crop can be left growing all winter, and taken up as' required for 
use, and when the ground is wanted for a new crop, what remains 
of the old crop can be pulled up and thrown into a pile. The 
mangel-wurzel grows to be very large, some of them grown around 
Salinas City weighing from ninety to one hundred and seventy 
pounds. 

Potatoes 

Are extensively cultivated, and make in many localities immense 
yields and are very profitable. Monterey County is one of the 
best potato counties in the State both as to the quantity and 
quality of the crop. 
10* 



110 HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 



Alfalfa 

Does well in almost every locality in this county, and produces 
from three to four crops of hay, of from two to four tons per acre 
every year, where it is used for making hay, and furnishes a per 
petually green pasture, good for #11 kinds of stock, where used for 
the purposes of pasturage. 

Pumpkins 

Are also raised largely for feed on places where there is no outside 
range. One farmer in Pajaro produced one weighing two hundred 
and twelve pounds. 

Beans 

Are extensively cultivated in this county, the profit of the crop 
being large. 

County Officers. 

County Judge, W. M. R. Parker; Sheriff, J. B. Smith; 
County Clerk, John Markley ; Recorder, Herbert Mills ; Treas 
urer, B. T. Nixon ; Assessor, W. V. McGarvey ; School Superin- 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. Ill 

tendent, R. C. McCrosky ; Tax Collector, M. Castro ; District At 
torney, M. Farley; Auditor, J. B. Scott; Surveyor, F. L. Ripley. 

BOARD OP SUPERVISORS. E. St.. John, S. B. Gordon, J. 
Sheehy, E. Breen, J. B. H. Cooper. Regular meetings, first Mon 
day in February, May, August and November. 

THE COURTS. County Court, W. M. R. Parker, Judge ; meets 
on first Monday in March, May, July, September and November. 
District Court, Belden, Judge ; meets on the third Monday in 
March, July and November. Probate Court, Parker, Judge ; in 
chambers at the Court House, in Salinas City, every Saturday, at 
10 o'clock A. M. 



Salinas City 

Is the county seat of Monterey County. It is located on the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, one hundred and eighteen miles from 
San Francisco, ten miles from tide water at Moss Landing, and 
eighteen miles by Monterey and Salinas Valley Railroad from the 
harbor at Monterey. It is a young and thriving town, only seven 
years old : and, situated as it is in the central portion of the rich 
agricultural lands of the Salinas Valley, is one of the finest business 
localities in the State. The population of the city has more than 
doubled in the last two years, and is still increasing as rapidly as 



112 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

ever. Enterprise and prosperity are everywhere visible. Ac 
cording to the annual report of the Mayor for last fiscal year there 
was spent for public improvement about $ 60,000. The city is well 
supplied with gas and water, and a well organized and equipped 
fire department. The school buildings are ample and commodious, 
and the schools of the town employ six teachers at present. There 
are eight church organizations presided over by pastors, viz : 
Methodist Episcopal Church, Methodist Episcopal Church South, 
Presbyterian Church, United Presbyterian Church, Episcopal 
Church, Christian Church, Baptist Church, and Catholic Church. 
Of Lodges, there are the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Free and Accepted Masons, Independent Order of Red Men, the 
Patrons of Husbandry, and the Sons of Temperance. The rate of 
taxation for 187475 was forty cents on the $ 100 of property. 
The assessed value of property for 1875 is about $1,500, 000. 
This is the great central point in Monterey County of trade, 
wealth, and commerce, and from its natural surroundings must of 
necessity continue to be so. It would be a good investment for 
persons acquainted with the business to establish woollen mills here, 
as this county produces large quantities of wool. The annual clip 
of the county is about seven hundred thousand pounds. San 
Benito, formerly a part of Monterey County, also produces large 
quantities of wool. A boot and shoe factory would do well here. 
An establishment for the manufacture of sugar from the beet 
would find this a good location. Machine shops and foundries of 
various kinds would find plenty of business here. We have but 
two flouring mills. Wagon and carriage factories would find a 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 113 

good field at this place. We need a good college here, as there is 
no institution of the kind in the county, and our climate is pecu 
liarly adapted to the wants of pupils. Many of the manufactured 
articles that we have to buy might be procured at home. What 
we especially need is more capital, and we think that there is no 
place on the coast where a man that has money can go and do 
better than he can here ; there are many good investments to be 
made. [Resources of Monterey County. 

SALINAS CITY DIRECTORY. 

Mayor, H. S. Ball ; Common Council, W. D. Reynolds, G. A 
Tolman, S. Cassiday, M. Hughes, C. Hoffman, S. P. Carter ; City 
Marshal, W. W. Elliott ; City Clerk, A. W. Butler ; City Treasurer, 
S. W. Conklin ; City Attorney, N. G. Wyatt ; City Surveyor, St. 
John Cox ; City Assessor, W. L. Carpenter. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCH Corner of Gabilan and California streets ; 
Rev. J. S. McGowan, Rector ; services every Sunday at 11 o'clock 
A. M. ; Sunday School at 10 o'clock A. M. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH Preaching every other Lord's Day at the 
Court House, by Elder Byrarn Lewis, at 11 o'clock, A. M. All 
are invited to. attend. 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Sabbath school and Bible class 
at 10 o'clock A. M. ; services every Sabbath at 11 A. M. and 7 
p. M., at Pacific Hall, in Salinas City. Prayer meetings every 
Tuesday evening alternately at the residences of the different 



114 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

members. Seats free. All are cordially invited to attend. Rev. 
Geo. McCormick, Pastor. 

M. E. CHURCH Rev. Geo. 0. Ash, Pastor ; services in new 
church on Gabilan street, at 11 o'clock A. M. and 7:30 o'clock P. M. ; 
class meeting at 12 M. ; Sabbath school at 2:30 P. M. ; prayer 
meeting every Thursday evening at 7:30. 

M. E. CHURCH SOUTH Preaching every Sunday at 11 o'clock 
A. M,, and 7:30 P. M. ; Sunday school at 10 o'clock ; prayer 
meeting Wednesday evening at 7:30 o'clock. Rev. Mr. Renfro, 
Pastor. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Central Avenue ; Sabbath school at 
9:45 o'clock A. M. ; Dr. W. H. Davies, Superintendent ; services 
at 11 o'clock A. M. and 8:30 p. M. Seats free. All are cordially 
invited to attend. Rev. W. H. Wilson, Pastor. 

SALINAS LODGE No. 204, F & A. M. Stated meetings on 
Saturday, on or before the full moon in each month. Sojourning 
brothers invited to attend. W. V. McGarvey, W. M. ; E. K. 
Abbott, Secretary. 

ALISAL LODGE No. 163,1. 0. OF 0. F. Meets every Wednesday 
evening at 7 o'clock, in Odd Fellows' Hall, Main Street, Salinas 
City. Members of the order in good standing invited to attend. 
G. A. Tolman, N. G. ; H. W. Mills, R. S. ; Jas. McDougall, P. S. 

IMPROVED ORDER OF RED MEN. Gabilan Tribe, No. 44, meets 
every Tuesday evening at Grangers' Hall. Visiting and sojourning 
brothers in good standing invited to attend. A. Bullene, S. ; L. 
Auker, C. R. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. Until further notice, Salinas Grange 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 115 

* 

No. 24, Patrons of Husbandry, will meet at Grangers' Hall, over 
Vanderhursfc, Sanborn & Go's store, on the 1st and 3d Saturdays 
of each month, at 2 o'clock p. x., for business. J. R. Hebbron, 
Master ; Wm. Quentill, Overseer ; F. Johnson, Lecturer ; Geo. 
Abbott, Chaplain ; Peter Matthews, Steward ; S. D. Triplett, 
Assistant Steward ; Mrs. Killburn, Ceres ; Mrs. Cony, Pomona ; 
Mrs. Ida Hebbron, Flora ; Mrs. P. Matthews, L. A. S ; Clara 
Westlake, Secretary. 

THE MAILS. For Castroville, Watsonville, and all points north 
of Salinas City, mails close at 11 A. M. ; for New Republic, 
Natividad, Monterey, and all points south of Salinas City, at 
2:30 P. M. 

POST OFFICE. Closed on Sunday from 10:30 A. M. to 3 p. M. 

Southern Pacific R. R. passenger train leaves Salinas depot 
going north 11:15 A. M., going south, 2:45 P. M. M. & S. V. R. 
R. for Monterey, 3:15 P. M. On Sundays, 9:45 A. M., 5:45 p. M. 
Excursion tickets good from Saturday night to Monday morning. 

Salinas City Fire Department. Chief Engineer, J. B. Langford ; 
First Assistant, J. D. Brower ; Second Assistant, R. L. Robbins ; 
Secretary, L. H. Garrigus. Engine Co. No. 1 ; Foreman, Jas. 
Swasey. Alert Hook & Ladder Co. No. 1 ; Foreman, W. L. 
Carpenter. Excelsior Hose Co. No. 1 ; Foreman, J. C. Kelly. 



116 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



Castroville. 

This thriving town was started in 1863, by Juan B. Castro, one of 
the owners of the Castro Grant. Mr. Castro, -through his skillful 
management and business energy, has succeeded in making Castro- 
ville, from a wayside station, a town of about 800 to 900 inhabit 
ants. 

The business establishments of this place are, two good hotels, 
two livery stables, five stores, one tin shop, one millinery shop, three 
saloons, one brewery, one flour mill, two blacksmith shops, one 
newspaper, post office, express, W. U. and A. & P. telegraph of 
fices, drug store, tailor shop, shoe-maker, two churches and a fine 
school house. 

Castroville being within three miles of the shipping point for 
much of the country back of it, and a great part of the traffic una 
voidably passing through it, commands a large share of trade far up 
the valley, while in its immediate vicinity are the immense Moro 
Cojo, Bolsa Nueva, Santa Rita and Escarpinos ranches, containing 
some 39,000 acres of most excellent agricultural, grazing and wood 
land, which are being rapidly sold off in small farms, besides the 
Cooper and other large ranches that are rented to substantial 
tenants. 

Castroville is a growing town, located on the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, two and one-half miles from Moss Landing, fifteen miles 
northwest of Monterey and nine miles north of Salinas City. The 



HAND BOOK 'OF MONTEREY. . 117 

trade of the town commands a good population. School facilities 
are excellent, and there are two churches in the place. The town 
is immediately surrounded by fine agricultural land, well watered, 
while to the east of Castroville, about three miles distant, there are 
large tracts of grazing and timbered land, a considerable area of 
table lands and rolling hills, the soil of these being sandy and well 
adapted to the raising of stock and the growing of fruits, vegetables, 
oats, rye, etc. Water is attainable in the town and vicinity at 
from six to fifteen feet. The average yield of adjacent lands is of 
wheat thirty bushels per acre, and of barley fifty bushels ; one hun 
dred bushels of barley per acre have been raised in some cases. 
The agricultural lands around Castroville are well suited to the 
growing, not only of wheat and barley, but to the successful culti 
vation of oats, corn, beets, potatoes and vegetables. The health of 
the town is exceptionally good, and the climate equable. Re 
sources of Monterey County. 



Castroville Directory, 

Wm. Childs, Justice of the Peace ; J. W. Mitchell, Justice of 
the Peace ; G. Alderman, Constable ; P. Ojeda, Constable ; Juan 
Pomber, Roadmaster. 
11 



118 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



POST OFFICE. 

Mails close, going north, at 11 o'clock A. M. Going south, at 2 
p. M. Israel Johnson, P. M. 



SOUTHERN PACIFIC R. R. 

PASSENGER TRAIN leaves Castroville Depot, going north, at 
11:40 A. M. Going south, at 2:25 p. M. 

FREIGHT TRAIN leaves, going north, at 12 M. Going south, at 

5 P. M. 



M. AND S. V. R. R. 

Castroville Crossing. To Salinas, 9:30 A. M.; Monterey, 3:30 
p. M. Sundays, to Salinas, 9 A. M. and 5 p. M.; Monterey, 10 A. M. 
and 6 p. M. 

F. AND A. M. 

CONFIDENCE LODGE, No. 203, F. & A. M. Stated communi 
cations on the Saturday evening preceding each full moon, in Tol- 
man's Hall, Castroville. A. P. Potter, W. M.;'L. Wollinberg, 
Secretary. 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 119 



I. 0. 0. F. 

CASTROVILLE ENCAMPMENT, No. 37, I. 0. 0. F. Meets first 
and third Tuesdays of each month, at Odd Fellows' Hall, Castro- 
ville. J. M. Pomber, C. P.; M. M. Speegle, Scribe. 

SALINAS LODGE, No. 163, 1. 0. 0. F. Meets every Saturday 
evening, in Odd Fellows' Hall, Castroville. M. M. Speegle, N. G.; 
F. L. Whitcher, R. S. 

P. OP H. 

MORNING STAR GRANGE, No. 188, P. of H. Meets in Tol- 
man's Hall, every two weeks, commencing April 3d, 1875. F. 
Brown, M.; Miss M. Paton, Sec. 



CHURCH SERVICES. 

Rev. 0. D. Kelly, of Watsonville, will preach in the Union 
Church every Sunday at 3^ o'clock P. M. Sunday-school at 2 
p. M. 

The Catholic Church, Rev. Father Kern, services at 10 o'clock 
A. M. on Sundays. 

Newspaper The Argus, published every Saturday. 



120 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 



.Moss Landing 



Is located on the Bay of Monterey at the mouth of the Salinas 
river, about three miles from Castroville, and has three extensive 
and commodious warehouses for the storage of grain, and a substan 
tial wharf running out into the bay about 1000 feet, where vessels 
lie to take in grain. A regular line of steamers call twice a week. 



Santa Rita 

Is a small town situated about three miles from Salinas City. The 
County Alms House, under the charge of Dr. S. M. Archer, is lo 
cated here. The town also boasts of a fine Catholic church. Al 
though situated too near Salinas City ever to become a large place, 
it must always remain a thriving little village. 

Soledad 

Is a thriving little town started in 1874, and is the present terminus 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad: Situated in the midst of a 
splendid agricultural country, perfectly level up to the fertile 
foothills, with crops that never fail, well watered by the river, and 
having water within twenty feet of the surface, it is bound to become 



HAND BOOK OF MONTJptEY. 121 

a town of some importance. A fine school house is now being 
erected. The coast line of stages to the South connects with the 
Southern Pacific Railroad. 



Chualar 

Is a rising agricultural town on the Southern Pacific Railroad, 
situated in a beautiful valley, well watered, and with good lowlands 
and foothills. The climate and crops are equal to the best portions 
of the Salinas Valley. It is distant about ten miles southeast of 
Salinas, and will probably become a town of some importance. 



Gonzales 

Is another new town about twenty miles southeast of Salinas, in 
the heart of the Salinas Valley. With good lands, well watered, a 
good season would make town lots very valuable. 

Natividad 



Is a pretty little town at the foot of the- Gabilan Range, about six 
miles northeast of Salinas City. 
11* 



122 HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 



The Mission of Soledad 

Was founded October 9th, 1791, and is situated fifteen leagues 
southwest of Monterey on the left bank of the Salinas river, in a 
fertile plain known by the name of the " Llano del Rey." The 
priest was an indefatigable agriculturist. To obviate the summer 
drought, he constructed, through the labor of his Indians, an 
aqueduct extending 15 miles, by which he could water twenty 
thousand acres. In 1826 the mission owned about 36,000 head of 
cattle, and a greater number of horses and mares than any other 
mission in the country. So great was the reproduction of these ani 
mals that they were not only given away but also driven in bands 
into the bay of Monterey in order to preserve the pasturage for the 
cattle. It had about 70,000 sheep and 300 yoke of tame oxen. 
In 1819 the Major domo of this mission gathered 3400 bushels of 
wheat from 38 bushels sown. Its secularization has been followed 
by decay and ruin. Walter Cotton. 

The mission possessed a fine orchard of a thousand trees, but 
very few were left in 1849. There was also a vineyard about six 
miles from the mission in a gorge of the mountains. 

It is 18 miles from Monterey to Buena Vista, and 25 from there 
to Soledad : the road could be shortened by bridging some of the 
gulches. The road passes through some beautiful oak groves, af 
fording perfect shelter from the sun and wind ; it is like traveling 
through a fine park. The left bank of the Salinas river should be 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 123 

followed, as it is superior in beautiful scenery and shelter from sun 
and wind to the right or main bank, and commands charming views 
of the Santa Lucia range, whose foothills are covered with mosaics 
of acres of flowers of the most brilliant hues, and of -gentle slopes 
covered with gnarled and curiously shaped oaks. From Soledad 
to San Antonio by the Relese cation is 30 miles, or by the stage 
road about 45 miles ; for campers and lovers of nature's beauties 
the horse trail through the canon is by far the pleasantest, as there 
is an abundance of wood and water on the road, and finer and 
grander scenery for those who can enjoy it. 



The Mission of San Antonio 

Was founded by Padre Junipero Serra, July 14th, 1771, and is 
situated about twelve leagues south of Soledad on the border of an 
inland stream upon which it has conferred its name. The build 
ings were inclosed in a square, twelve hundred feet on each side, 
and walled with adobes. Its lands were forty-eight leagues in cir 
cumference, including seven farms, with a convenient house and 
chapel attached to each. ' The stream was conducted in paved 
trenches twenty miles for purposes of irrigation ; large crops re 
warded the husbandry of the Padres. In 1822 this mission owned 
52,800 head of cattle, 1800 tame horses, 3000 mares, 500 yoke 



124 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

of working oxen, 600 mules, 48,000 sheep and 1000 swine. The 
climate here is cold in winter and intensely hot in summer. This 
mission on its secularization fell into the hands of an administrator 
who neglected its farms, drove off its cattle, and left its poor 
Indians to starve. Walter Coltorfs Three Years in California. 

The mission grapes were very sweet ; wine and aguardiente were 
made from them in early days, and the grapes were brought to 
Monterey for sale. The vineyard and garden walls are now gone, 
and the cattle have destroyed the vines ; many of the buildings are 
down, and the tiles have been removed to roof houses on some of the 
adjoining ranches. The church is still in good repair. There was 
formerly a good grist mill at the Mission, but that also, like the Mis 
sion, is a thing of the past. Pioneer M. 8. 



Mission of San Juan Bautista. 

x 

This Mission looms over a rich valley ten leagues from Monterey 
founded 1794. Its lands swept the broad interval and adjacent 
hills. In 1820 it owned 43,870 head of cattle, 1360 tame horses, 
4870 mares, colts and fillies. It had seven sheep farms, contain 
ing 69,530 sheep ; while the Indians attached to the Mission drove 
321 yoke of working oxen. Its storehouse contained $75,000 in 
goods and $20,000 in specie. This miss-ion was secularized in 



HAND BOOK OP MONTEREY. 125 

1834 ; its cattle slaughtered for the hides and tallow, its sheep 
left to the wolves, its horses taken by the dandies, its Indians left 
to hunt acorns, while the wind sighs over the grave of its last 
Padre. Walter Cotton. 



Hollister. 

Hollister is the county seat of San Benito county ; it contains a 
population of aj)out 2000, and is one of the most thriving and 
prosperous towns of the State. It is pleasantly located in the 
center of one of the most beautiful and fertile valleys on the Pacific 
Coast. 

It is situated on one branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad, of 
which it is the practical terminus 94 miles, or about five hours' 
ride from San Francisco. This road passes through the finest and 
most picturesque section of the State ; the intermediate stations 
embracing the following prominent towns and cities, to wit : San 
Mateo, Belmont, Redwood City, Menlo Park, Mayfield, Mountain 
View, Santa Clara, San Jose and Gilroy. The celebrated Gilroy 
Mineral Springs, resorted to by invalids and visitors from all parts 
of the world, are about 20 miles distant, and the noted Paso Robles 
Springs of San Luis Obispo are located 180 miles southwest from 
Hollister. 



126 HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 

Some of the most celebrated watering places of the coast can be 
reached by rail or vehicle in a few hours. Santa Cruz, known all 
over the world for its" grand scenery and beautiful beaches, is 40 
miles distant ; and Aptos, a new rival as a pleasure-seeking resort, 
is nine miles this side. Watsonville, a cool, shady and delightful 
place to spend a few days of the hot season, has a nice beach five 
miles from town,- reached by a fine gravelly road is 23 miles from 
Hollister. Last, though not least, is the " CITY BY THE SEA" the 
ancient capital of the State, Monterey, which is about 44 miles dis 
tant. Its natural charms and advantages as a watering place have 
been embalmed in song and told in story so often that we need not 
here descant upon them. Resources of San Benito County. 



San Juan Township. 

The above township, in which is situated the old and once flour 
ishing town of San Juan, adjoins Hollister Township on the ^west. 
It is delightfully located, and contains beside its beautiful and fer 
tile lands, many objects of interest not the least among which is 
the antiquated Mission of San Juan Bautista, with its tile roof. 

San Juan Township lies in the northeast part of San Benito 
County, and contains an area of about 60,000 acres. The San 
Benito river passes through it near its northern boundary from east 



HAND BOOK OF MONTEREY. 127 

to west, and unites with the Pajaro river at the county line. 
There are about 9000 acres of rich bottom and valley land, about 
4000 or 5000 acres of rolling land suitable to cultivation; the 
balance grazing land some timber, but small, being used prin 
cipally for fuel. 

Fine flowing wells of pure water are obtained in the bottom 
lands at the depth of 100 feet ; but good water can be had nearer 
the surface say from 15 to 20 feet. The hill lands are well 
watered. 

The Mission of San Juan Bautista was founded about the year 
1775, and the church was built soon afterward, together with the 
adjoining buildings. 

This place was once occupied as a military station, and was for 
tified during the Mexican Revolution in 1822. The location of 
the town, is excellent, being situated on the bluff on the southwest 
side of the valley. It contains a population of about 500 inhabi 
tants . 

The nearest depot on the railroad is Sargent's Station, six miles ; 
the next nearest is Hollister, nine miles. Stages run daily, carry 
ing the mails each way. Resources of San Benito County. 



ERRATUM. 

Page 15, after McDowell, read : 

Although McDowell was the duly elected Mayor, he never 
served as such, the duties of the office being discharged by Mr. 
Charles Herron. 



G-0 TO 

WM. B^R 

ALV^RADO ST., MONTEREY, 

For your CHOICE GROCERIES! 



Clothing, Dry Goods, Hardware, Boots and 
Shoes, Crockery, Glassware, 

Tobacco., Cigars, "Wines and Liquors. 

FANCY ARTICLES, 

ALL AT LOWEST PRICE FOR CASH. 

Two Sewing Machines for sale. Goods delivered to any part of the City 
free of charge. 

]STe:w Store ! 

]STew Goods! 

CALL AND SEE 

B. MENDESSOLLE'S 

NEW STOCK OF 

Dry Goods, Groceries, Crockery, Hardware, Wines and 
Liquors, etc., etc. 

At the cor. Pearl and Alvarado Sts., Monterey. 

[128] 



Monterey and Salinas Valley 

RAILROAD. 



Connecting at Salinas City with Southern Pacific 
Railroad for 

San Francisco, San Jose, Soledad, Paso Robles 

Springs, and all Points East, NortJi 

and Soulh. 

At Monterey, with Gr. N. & P.'s Passenger Steamships 
for 

Santa Cruz, Sun Simeon, San Luis Obispo, San 
ta Barbara, Los Angeles, and all Points 
on the Coast South of San Francisco. 

The most desirable route to Santa Cruz, Aptos, Pesca- 
dero, and Soquel; Point Pinos, Moss Beach, Point Cypress, 
Old Carmel Mission, and Pacific Grove Retreat. 

No Staging, Four Steamers Weekly between Monterey 
and Santa Cruz. 

JOHN MARKLEY, 

Gen. Ticket Agent. 
JOSEPH W. NESBITT, 

Superintendent. 

iV, 



SHOULD GO TO 

J. B. SNIVELY'S 

CORNER OF PEARL AND ALVARADO STS. 

FOR THEIR 

GROCERIES AND PROVISIONS, 

CIGARS AND TOBACCOS, 

CONFECTIONERY, BREAD, 

FRESH AND DRIED FRUITS,. 

Tho Best Stock of Candles in Town! 

LAMP SHADES, ETC. 

GLASS AND CROCKERY WARE, 
TOTS AND STATIONERY, 

Fishing Lines, Poles, Flies and Tackle, 
Cutlery, 

Abalone Shell Jewelry, 
Shell Work, and 

Yankee Notions. 

Agency of the SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE, only 15 cts. 
per week, or $6.00 a year, including " Sunday Chronicle." 

OFFICE OF WELLS, FARGO & C(TS EXPRESS. 

Special low rates on Shipments of Fish, Game, Butter, Poultry, and Farm 
Produce delivered in the City. 

[2] 



CHARLEY'S 

RESTAURANT, 

Oyster and Ice Cream Saloon, 

TYLER STREET, Back of Washington Hotel 

Meals at all hours. Ball Suppers and Dinners made a' specialty. 
Board $5.00 a week and upwards. Fresh Eastern Oysters and Ice 
Cream always on hand. 

PRIVATE ROOMS FOR FAMILIES. 
Fresh Bread, Pies and Cakes every day. Three tickets for 25 cts. 

R. C. WORNES, (late of Salinas City) Proprietor. 

Families supplied with Fresh Eastern Oysters. 
Orders by IVIail Promptly Attended to. 



LAMBERT & 

DEALERS IX 

ii\}*, lending, Suildjr^ 
And all kinds of Dressed and Rough Lumber, 

Mouldings, Doors, Windows, Lath and Lime, Hair, etc. 

ALVARADO STREET, MONTEREY, CAL. 

Lumber Furnished &?/ the Cargo. 

Having supplied oiirselves with a new improved Shingle Mill, we are prepared to supply 
shinglfs at a lower rate than can be done by others. 

Lambert Bros. h;ive purchased and thoroughly repaired the Old North Pacific Transporta 
tion CO'B Wharf, at Monterey, aad are prepared to do 

Wharfage, Storage and Commission Business. 

Agents for the opposition Steamer " SAN VICENTE," leaving Pacific Street Wharf, San 
Francisco, arriving at Monterey on Friday Evenings. 



HL 

CARPENTER, CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER, 

Cabinet Making, Upholstering and Jobbing promptly executed. 
Spring Mattresses Made and Repaired. Coffins made to order. 

First Floor, Cuartel Building, California Street. 



-A. :e* v -a. ;E* A x> os 

F. DOUD, - - PROPRIETOR. 
The best Quality, Beef, Mutton, Pork, Ham, Bacon and Lard 

Always on hand and for sale at the most reasonable prices. 

RAILftOAB EXCHANGE. 

The Railroad Exchange Saloon is now open to the public, and the Proprietor 
guarantees to furnish his patrons with the best of 

Wines, Liquors, Ales, Porters, Sardines and Oysters. 

The Exchange shall always be a neat, quiet, orderly retreat to all customers. Call and 
judge for yourselves. 

ADOLPH SANCHEZ, Alvarado Street, near the Post Office. 



IPOST OmOE STORE 1 

ALVARADO STREET, FELIPE GOMEZ, PROPRIETOR. 

Groceries and Provisions, Candies, Nuts, Cigars, To 

bacco, Dried Fruits, Jellies, Sardines, Crackers, 

Stationery, Yankee Notions. 

Jgjf" Grain and all kinds of Produce taken in exchange for Groceries.. 



J". IR,. 

Resident Physician, and Dealer in Drugs and Medicines, 

BOOKS, STATIONERY A^D TOYS, 
New York and San Francisco Newspapers Daily. 

Store and Office on Alvarado St. 



LINFORTH, KELLOGG & CO. 

HARDWARE 

And Agricultural ImplemQnts. 

SOLE ^GKEOXTTS FOR * 

PITTS' CHICAGO THRESHER, 

MANSFIELD STEAM ENGINES, 
WOOD'S EAGLE MOWERS, 

RUSSELL'S PEERLESS MOWER and REAPER, 
GARDEN CITY PLOWS, 

MYER'S EXCELSIOR GANG PLOW, 
NAPA GANG PLOW, 

FRIEDEMAN HARROW, 
FURST & BRADLEY'S SULKY RAKES, 
TIFFIN -HORSE RAKES, 
GENEVA DO. 

Full Supply FORKS, HOES, SHOVELS, RAKES, 
AXES, HATCHETS, Etc. 

Pumps, Hydraulic Rams, Rubber Hose, Belting, etc. 

Church, School, and Farm Bells, Lawn Mowers. 



Please send for Illustrated Catalogue and Price List. 

3 & 5 Front St., San Francisco. 

12 [ 129 ] 



HALLET, DAVIS & CO.'S 

Celebrated Pianos. 

The Leading Instruments of the World ! 

Endorsed by 
LISZT, STRAUSS, LEUTNER AND BENDEL ! 

GEO. WOOD & CO.'S 

PARLOR and YE5TRY ORGAIS. 

W. G. BADGER, Sole Agent, Nos. 7 and 13 Sansome St., S. F. 

E. E. CURTIS, Agent for Monterey. 



Contractor, Carpenter and House Builder 

Has opened Shop in 



And is prepared to take Contracts for 

Building, Moving, Raising and all kinds of 
Carpentering. 

[130] 



THE BEST POLICY 

Is to 

Insure in the oldest, soundest arid wealthiest Companies. 
THE LONDON ASSURANCE CO. 

(Established 1720.) 

Assets, $14,251,686.41 ! 

Net Surplus (over all Liabilities) $2,409,000. 



INSURANCE CO, OF HARTFORD, 

OO3ST3ST. 

Cash Assets, - - - #6,046,268.73 



. THE PACIFIC MUTUAL 
LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA. 



W. H. P. WALTON, Agent, Monterey. 

(With J. B. Sniveley, cor. Pearl and Alvarado Streets.) 

Jti^ Orders promptly filled for Books, in all Lan 
guages, at San Francisco Prices. 



COPIES OF HIS 

Hand Book of Monterey ! 

Sent free by mail on receipt of 50 cents. 

[131] 




FLOWERS, 

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 




r>_ 

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE STORE, 

Main Street, Salinas City, 

Receives fresh supplies of Fruit and Vegetables from San Jose 

daily. 

John C. Morrison, Jr. 

Importer and Wholesale Dealer in 

FINE WINES AND LIQUORS, 

316 Sacramento Street, 

And 32 L Commercial Street, bet. Front and Battery, 
SA.IST 



[132] 



MANUEL DUTRA'S 
MONTEREY SALOON, 

PEARL STREET, MONTEREY. 

tfCS 2 * B est Brands Wines, Liquors and Cigars ^^^[ 



Gk 3S. "WELLS, HUH. ID. 

Monterey City, - Cal. 

Graduate of Medical College of Virginia, and Medical College N. Y. 
Special attention given to Surgery and Diseases of Women. 

DR. LEMON'S DENTAL ROOMS, 

Up Stairs, in Ball & Frank's Building, Main Street, SALINAS CITY. 

Beautiful gold filling for $1.00 and upward, and warranted for life. Beauti 
ful and substantial Sets of Artificial Teeth on any kind of base desired. 

Terms moderate. All work freely guaranteed to give satisfaction. 

I will be in Salinas from the 1st to the 15th of each month ; after that time 
can be found at my Office in Monterey City. Calls by mail promptly attended 
to. G. B. LEMON, M. D., Dentist. 



Lyon's Ale Depot. Monterey. 

Bohemian Club Rendezvous. The Best Liquors and Cigars. 

FRENCH RESTAURANT. MEALS AT ALL HOURS 

Good Cheer and Good Reception. 

IFOIR 

Dry Goods, Clothing, Boots and Shoes, Hats and 
Caps, and all kinds of Furnishing Goods, 

Go to S. MARKS. 

He has just received a NEW- STOCK, which he will sell cheap for Cash. 

S. MARKS, Alvarado Street , Monterey. 
12* [ 133 ] 



THE CHOICEST GOODS 

FOR THE 

LEAST SUM OF MONEY 

CAN BE FOUND AT 

Schmidt's Cheap Cash. Store, 

California Street, Monterey, 

(Opposite old Cuartel.) 



Remember that EPOSSt H. Schmidt keeps constantly 
On hand the Finest Stock of 

Groceries, Provisions, Wines, Liquors, Cigars, 
Boots, Shoes, Clothing, Hats, Crockeries, 

And a Full Line of 

Can and Bottle Kitchen Goods, Wooden Ware, Hard 
ware, Glass Ware, etc., which he sells 

IFOR 



[134] 



"Washington Hotel, 



LOCKWOOD & BRYAN", Proprietors. 



This Commodious Three Story Hotel affords Superior 

Accommodations to the traveling public, being adapted to the com 
fort and convenience of 

TOURISTS AND PLEASURE SEEKERS. 

The Rooms are Large, Comfortable and Well-Furnished. The 
Table is supplied with 

THE BEST THE MARKET AFFORDS. 

Charges are very Moderate and suited to the 

times. 

A good Ball Room is connected with the Hotel. 

LOCKWOOD & BRYAN. 

[135] 



THE CASTROVILLE ARGUS : 



BY J. MEKRITT. 

Office, cor. Merritt and Poole Sts., Castroville, 

Monterey Co. 



TERMS, in advance : One year, $4.00 ; Six months, $2.00 ; One month, 50c. 
Single Copies, lOc. 



RATES OF ADVERTISING? 

One Square (ten lines or less), $1.50 for the first insertion, and $1.00 for each 
Subsequent insertion. 

A Liberal deduction made to yearly and regular Advertisers. 

COLLECTION OFFICE. 



The undersigned would respectfully inform the public that he will 



Collect Bills of Every Description, 

on reasonable terms. 

Bills from abroad sent to me will be promptly collected. 

Office at the Post Office in Monterey. 

Give me a trial. 

M. R. MERRITT, 
Agent for the Phoenix, and Home Ins. Cos. of Hartford. 

[136] 



Homesteads for All ! 



DESIRABLE LOTS 

IN THE EAPIDLY GROWING 

TOWN OF CASTROVILLE, 

For Sale at Moderate Prices ! 



Possessing varied advantages of beauty of location, convenience to business, 
fertility of soil, and all the requisites for a profitable, comfortable and beautiful 
Homestead. Size, 50 feet front by 130 feet depth. An alley 40 feet wide runs 
through each block. Most excellent water from 10 to 16 feet deep. 

Sickness is almost unknown, so healthy is the town. 

Being within three miles of the shipping point for much of the country 
back of it, and a great part of the traffic unavoidably passing through it, 
Castroville commands a large share of trade for up the valley, while in its 
immediate vicinity lie the immense Moro Cojo, Bolsa Nueva, Santa Bita and 
Escarpines Banchos, containing some 39,000 acres of most excellent agricultu 
ral, grazing and wooded lands, which are being rapidly sold off in small farms; 
besides the famous Cooper, and other large ranches that are rented. 

The advantages above enumerated, and many others, will be apparent to any 
who will come and see for themselves. 

JUAN B. CASTRO, 

Castroville. 

[137] 



LAND FOR SALE! 



2OO Acres of Land 
FOB. SALE, 

On the Bolsa Nueva y Moro Cojo Rancho, 

Distant 8 miles from Castroville, 8 miles from Salinas City, and 4 miles 
from Santa Rita and Natividad. 

The Land contains about 

Two Thousand Cords of Wood, 

Several Springs, and is suitable for Grazing, or the 
Growing of Fruit and Vegetables. 

For further particulars inquire of 

J. D. CASTRO, 

CASTROVILLE. 

[138] 



W. H. WEBB. JAS. A. WALL. 

Webb & Wall, 

ATTORNEYS AT LAW, 
Salinas City. 



Office Wall's New Building, Front Room, 
Second Floor. 

W. M. R. Parker, 

Conveyancer and Searcher of Records, 

Haying had ten years' experience in the Clerk and Recorder's Office in Mon 
terey County, is prepared to make 

Correct Abstracts of Title, 

Of Various Ranches, etc., on reasonable terms. 

REVENUE STAMPS KEPT. ON HAND. 
[139] 



SE3STJD :FO:R 

RESOURCES 

OF 

MONTEREY COUNTY, 

GAL IFORNI A, 

Including the Great Salinas Valley. 



COMPILED BT A. W. BUTLEE. 



Published by the Mayor and Common Council of 
Salinas City, for FREE DISTRIBUTION. 

[140] 



M. & S. V. RAILROAD. 



TIME TABLE. 



Train No. 1. 



A. M. 



Leave Monterey 8 30 

" Bardin's 9 15 

" Castro ville Crossing 9 30 

Arrive Salinas City 9 45 



Train No. 2. 



P. M. 



Leave Salinas City 3 15 

" Castro ville Crossing 3 30 

" Bardin's 3 45 

Arrive Monterey 4 30 



Sunday Excursion Trains. 



Train No. 1. 



A. M. 



Leave Monterey 8 00 

" Bardin's 8 45 

" Castro ville Crossing 9 00 

Arrive Salinas City 9 15 



Train No. 2. 



A. M. 



Leave Salinas City 9 45 

*' Castro ville Crossing 10 00 

" Bardin's 10 15 

Arrive Monterey 11 00 



Train No. 3. 



P. M. 



Leave Monterey 4 00 

" Bardin's , 4 45 

" Castro ville Crossing 5 00 

Arrive Salinas City 5 15 



Train No. 4. 



P. M. 



Leave Salinas City 5 45 

' ' Castro ville Crossing 6 00 

" Bardin's 6 15 

Arrive Monterey 7 00 



Through tickets from San Francisco to Monterey and from Monterey to San 
Francisco, via the Southern Pacific Railroad, including omnibus transfer 
through Salinas City, for sale at S. P. R. R Ticket Office, San Francisco, and 
the Company's Office in Monterey. 

JOSEPH W. NESBITT, 

Superintendent. 



13 



[141] 



Courts. 

DISTRICT COURT Belden, Judge. Terms of Court Third Mon 
day in March, July and November. 

COUNTY COURT Parker, Judge. Terms (five) First Monday 
in March, May, July, September and November. 

PROBATE COURT Parker, Judge. In perpetual session. 

Board of Supervisors. 

E. St. John, S. B. Gordon, J. Sheehy, E. Breen. 

J. B. H. Cooper. 

Regular Meetings First Monday in February, May, August 
and November. 

County Officers. 

Wm. M. R. Parker County Judge. 

M. Farley District Attorney. 

J. B. Smith Sheriff. 

John Mar^l ey County Clerk. 

B. T. Nixon Treasurer. 

H. N. Mills Recorder. 

J. B. Scott Auditor. 

M. A. Castro Tax Collector. 

R. C. McCroskey School Superintendent. 

Dr. H. P. Tuttle, Coroner, and ex-officio Public Admin 
istrator. 

Newspapers. 

1 Salinas City" Index," " Democrat,''' " Town Talk." 
Monterey " Weekly Herald." 
Castroville " Argus." 

[142] 



DEPOT OF THE 

NEW YORK BREWERY BEER 

At the Old Brewery, California Street, Monterey. 

Saloons and Families supplied in quantities to suit. The Bar is well stocked 
with the choicest Brands of "Wines and Liquors. 

GMGJLING. 



CHRIS- O--A-DVCBEPI., 

BOOT 



PEARL STREET, MONTEREY. 

Boots and Shoes manufactured to order and a fit guaranteed. Particular 
attention given to REPAIRING. 



Lagoni & Paulson, Proprietors, Alvarado Street, Monterey, 

The above house having lately changed hands, has been refitted and fixed up 
for the reception of guests. The hotel is conveniently situated on the main 
thoroughfare, and the reduced rates and improvements inaugurated by the new 
management commend it to the traveling public. Good Wines, Liquors and 
Cigars at the Bar. LAGONI & PAULSON. 



Dealer in Stoves, Pumps, Pipes, and all kinds of Tinware, 

ETC. 

Particular attention paid to Tin Roofing and Job "Work. Give me a call. 
and see for yourselves. 

Pearl Street, near Wise & Harris's Saloon, Monterey. 



SADDLE AND HARNESS MAKER, 

PEARL STREET. 

Repairs neatly and expeditiously done. Saddle Trees, Whips, Collars, Bits, 

Punches, etc., always on hand. 

[143] 



A.. ROM^N & CO. 

Publishers, Importers, Booksellers anil Stationers, 

WHOLESALE AND KETAIL. 

NO. 11 MONTGOMERY STREET, 

LICK HOUSE BLOCK, SAN FRANCISCO. 



JOHN G. HODGE & CO. 
Importers and Wholesale Stationers, 

327, 329 and 331 Sansome St., cor. Sacramento, 
New York Office, 59 John St. SAN FRANCISCO. 

Daniel Bigley. Geo. Bigley. 

BIG-LEY BROTHERS, 

Dealers in Groceries, Provisions, Etc. 

N. E, Corner Clay and Davis Streets, San Francisco. 

E. P. Fellows & Co. - 

Importers & Dealers in Druggists' Glassware & Sundries, 

318 CLAY STREET, BELOW BATTERY, 

P. O. Box, 1792. SAN FRANCISCO. 

Agents for Fritzche, Scliimmel & Co's (Leipzig) Essential Oils and Flavoring Extracts. 

Theo. Bagge. Joseph Brook. Chas. Jas. King. 

C. JAS. KING OF WM. & CO. 

of Hermetically Sealed ( 

N. W. COR. BROADWAY AND SANSOME STREETS, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

[144] 



L. B. A.TJSTHST, 

ALVARADO STREET, MONTEREY, Next to the Express Office, 
CIGARS, TOBACCO, ETC. 

Candies , Nuts, Etc., Stationery, BlanJe EooJcs, Show-Case Goods, Veg 
etables and Fruits. 

TASSAJARA SPRINGS now Open to VISITORS 

The undersigned gives notice that the Tassajara Springs are now open for Visitors. 
These Springs were noted centuries ago among the old aborigines for the Medicinal Virtues 
of the waters, and the pale faces are now adding their praises to that of the red man to the 
Great Spirit for the gift. Parties ^isiting the Springs can be furnished with meals, or, if 
camping, with provisions. Also, parties wishing to be taken to or from the Springs can be 
accommodated. Apply to J. B. BORDEN. 



HE. 

Keeps a First-Class Stock of 

Groceries arid Provisions, Wines, Liquors, Tobaccos, 

Fruits, Candies, Glass and Crockery Ware. 

The W. 17. Telegraph Office. Hides, Game and Farm, Produce Shipped. 
ALVARADO STREET. 



Ornamental Trees at the Cypress Nursery. 

Cypress Trees, Australian Gums, and Pine Trees in large quan 
tities at Low Rates. 

\ 
All orders promptly attended to by PAUL ROMIE, Monterey. 

Sriri T f""** T> .A. ' L<" TTi ~C 
JL JL C_J i~* ^CTL. _kS. Jzj : 



MRS. BRADWICK, 

Fresh American Bread, Cakes, Pies and Confectionery, 

WASHING-TON STREET, NEXT TO THE HOTEL. 
13* [ 145 ] 



THE CONSOLIDATED TOBACCO COMPANY 



OIF 



PLANTATION AT SAN FELIPE. FACTORIES AT GILROY, 



MANUFACTURE 



CIGARS ^TOBACCOS 

Of California Grown Leaf; 

Cured by the Gulp Process, and Guarantee them SUPERIOR 

to anything Manufactured in the United States, 

OF AMERICAN GROWN TOBACCOS. 



Office and Salesroom, 207 Front St., San Francisco. 



EDGAR BRIGGS, Agent. 

[146] 



SHADES SALOON. 

MAIN STREET, 

Near its Junction with Alvarado Street, MONTEREY, CAL. 



Choice Liquors, Wines, Cigars, etc. 



The Saloon is supplied with everything necessary to the comfort of visitors. 
{^"Connected with the Saloon is a commodious 



FEED AND BOARDING STABLE, 

Where parties from a distance can be sure to have their horses properly attefl< 
to. JgipHorses taken in charge for training. 

R. MOREY, Proprietor. 
THE NEW 

CITY HA.LL 



Traveling Troupes desirous of performing in Monterey 
will find this Hall 

Commodious, Convenient and Cheap. 

For terms address the Secretary, 

CITY HALL CO., Monterey, Cal. 

[147] 



- IF. BA.SSETT <3z OCX 

Produce Commission Merchants, 

No. 219 Washington Street, San Francisco. 
BRITTAN, HOLBROOK & CO. 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

77/7 /Yflfes, S/000S, Sheet Iron, Copper, Iron and Copper Wire 

And General House Furnishing Hardware, 
Nos. Ill and 113 California and 17 and 19 Davis St., San Francisco. 



JA.COB STIFIAJEIILE <3z CO- 

CALIFOBNIA STANDARD BILLIARD TABLES 
Sole Agents for Delaney's Patent Steel Wire Cushion, the best in use, 

A Large Stock of Billiard Goods, Ten Pins and Balls, 
533 MARKET STREET, .......................... SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

I. Lohman. T. B. Coghill. James 0. Rountree, 

Late of Rountree & McMullen. 

LOHMAN, COGHILL & ROUNTREE, 

Importers, Wholesale Grocers and Commission Merchants, 

313 and 315 Front Street, cor. Commercial, San Francisco. 
ST. GLAIR ROBERTS, 

House, Sign and Carriage Painter, 

Graining, Gilding, Marbling, and Paper Hanging. 

Charges Moderate. HOUSTON STREET. 

[148] 



George C. Harris. E. H. Wise. 

BII^LIA.E,ID S .A. HL, O O IsT 3 

By HARRIS fc WISE. 

Only the Finest Brands of Liquors and Cigars Kept on Hand. 

TWO GOOD BILLIARD TABLES. DAILY JOURNALS. 
CORNER PEARL AND TYLER STREETS. 

J. E. McClure, J. P. McClure, 

WATCHMAKER AND JEWELER. MACHINIST AND GUNSMITH. 



McCI/CTRE BROTHERS, 

Jewelry, Watches and Clocks, Tools, Etc., Light 
Hardware, Etc. 

WASHING-TON STREET. 

CEO. OLIVER, 

Builder and Contractor, and General Carpentering 
attended to. 

Monterey Shell Work Always on Hand. VAN BUREN STREET. 

P. Corby. F. Folsom. 

CORBY & FOLSOM, 

MASONS AND PLASTERERS, 

LARKIN AND FRANKLIN STREETS. 

CITY MARKET. 

IF.A.T T E 1ST ID E DEI 3UE E .A. T S 1 
T. WATSON, 

IPE-A-IEim, STREET. 

Prices Low. Meats warranted the best that can be procured. 
[149] 



Averill Chemical Paint, 

Manufactured by the 

California Chemical Paint Company. 



This Paint is prepared in liquid form READY FOR 
APPLICATION, requiring no Thinner or Dryer, and 
will not spoil by standing any length of time. 

PURE WHITE, OR ANY SHADE OR COLOR 
DESIRED. 

It is CHEAPER, more ELASTIC, and produces a more BEAU- 
TIFUL FINISH than the best of any other Paint. 

It will not FADE, CHALK, CRACK or PEEL OFF, and 
will last twice as long as any other Paint. 



Put up in ^, J, i, 2, and 5 Gallon Packages, and in Barrels. 
Sold by the Gallon, and not by the Pound. 

Send for Sample Card of Colors, and Price List, before ordering 
any other. 

Office and Depot, 117 Pine Street, San Francisco. 

[150] 



^^ 

Astonishment 
has often been expressed 
at the low rates charged by 
(/ / BACON & COMPANY for the beautiful 
1 nnting executed at their office; but 
this is no longer a matter of surprise to 
those who visit the office, where the fast 
est machines and best appliances are in 
the hands of skilled and active workmen. 



Promptness of delivery is a prominent 
characteristic in our business. Orders 
from the interior filled at city prices. 
Paper Ruling Blank Backs 

'^fndinf { 1 nmnufacTd 

jS8toS ^ ** to order - 



Cor. Clay and Sansome 

Streets, 
San Francisco. 



STOVES and RANGES 



A Large Variety of Cooking, Parlor, Box and Office 

STOVES! 



Over 100 different Kinds and Styles 

to select from, including the Old Favorites 



Diamond Rock and 
Chief Cook, 



Eureka, Mariposa 
and Bismark 



} STOVES. 
} RANGES. 



LOCKE & MONTAGUE, 

112 and 114 BATTERY ST. 



San Francisco. 



MANUFACTURERS OF THE IMPROVED FRENCH RANGES. 

[152] 



DR. ABORN, 

THE WELL-KNOWN SUCCESSFUL SPECIALIST, 

Until he retires from active practice in a short time, will receive a limited number of 
patients daily, from 10:30 A. M. to 3 P. M., and from 6 to 7:30 P. M. 

CONSUMPTION, 

ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS, OZENA AND CATARRH, 

A. F IS" E S S ,.s=^ 



AND ALL DISEASES OF THE EYE AND EAR, 

And Obstinate Chronic Diseases generally, embracing also 

Heart, Liver, Stomach. Nervous Diseases & Broken-Down Constitutions 

Are the class of maladies which are successfully treated by DR. ABORN, 

OOIRHXTEIR OF FOST AUXTID KE-AJEJJNTY STIRJBEXS, 

After the ordinary methods have failed. 



RETIREMENT FROM ACTIVE PRACTICE. 

DR. ABORN will retire in the course of a few months from active practice for a while. 

MUTUALLY DESIRABLE. 

It would be more agreeable to the Doctor if persons who desire to consult him would 
satisfy themselves as to his skill and successful mode of treatment before calling. This 
would tend to remove misapprehension and all necessity for explanations. 

SEVERAL HUNDREDS 

Of Testimonials from well-known citizens have been published in behalf of the suffering; 
also, a list of References, embracing some of our most prominent residents, whose names 
have been given so that the most skeptical may with all others have every opportunity of 
satisfying themselves that the peculiarly successful scientific method of treatment adopted 
by DR. ABORN is everything that it is represented to be. Evidences have accumulated in 
proof of this, grateful testimonials of remarkable cures being daily received by him. Many 
of these are contained in the pamphlets and papers published by him for gratuitous 
circulation. 



From San Francisco, 

By Southern Pacific Railroad to Salinas City. De- 
I pot, corner Fourth and Townsend Streets. Train 
| leaves at 8.30 A.M. 

From Salinas City to Monterey, by M. & S. V. R. R. 
Train leaves Salinas at 3.15 P.M., on week days, and 
| 9.45 A.M. and 5.45 P.M.", on Sundays. 

OIR, 

By Steamers leaving Washington Street Wharf every 
Tuesday and Saturday. 

From L,o$ Anyeles, San Dteyo, and other Points 

South. 

By Goodall, Nelson & Perkins' Steamers, sailing as 
advertised. 

OJR,, 

By Coast Line of Stages to Soledad ; thence by S. P. 
R. R. to Salinas City; thence by M. & S. V. R. R. to 
Monterey. 



Through Tickets for sale at S. P. R. R. Depot, cor. Fourth 
and Townsend ; and at Office of G. N. & P. S. S. Co., 238 Montgom 
ery Street, San Francisco.