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Full text of "A handbook to the order Lepidoptera"

uc- 





THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

DAVIS 

GIFT OF 

W. HARRY LANGE 



LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 
EDITED BY R. BOWDLER SHARPE, LL.D., F.L.S., &c. 



A HAND-BOOK 



TO THE 



ORDER 
LEPIDOPTERA 



BY 

W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S., F.ENT.S., 

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY, BRITISH MUSEUM, 

Author of tl A Synonymic Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera" "European 
Butterflies and Moths" "A Text-book of Entomology," etc., etc. 



PART I. 
BUTTERFLIES. VOL. II. 



LONDON : 
EDWARD LLOYD, LIMITED, 

12, SALISBURY SQUARE, FLEET STREET. 
1896. 

LIBRARY 

DIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



PRINTED BY 
VVYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED. 



PREFACE. 



WITH the present volume Mr. Kirby completes his survey of 
the Butterflies, with the exception of the Hesperiidce, which 
will be published in the third volume, where the author will 
commence his review of the Moths. 

Mr. Kirby is especially well-known as an authority on 
entomological bibliography, and it is not surprising to find 
that his recent researches into the nomenclature of Butterflies 
have led him to arrive at conclusions concerning the proper 
names of our British species somewhat different from those 
adopted in most modern works. The confusion of nomencla- 
ture in the Lepidoptera seems to be even greater than that which 
recently existed among the Birds ; but even as Ornithologists 
are gradually progressing towards an uniform system of 
nomenclature, so it may be hoped that Lepidopterists also will 
speedily arrive at definite conclusions as to the names which 
the British species of Butterflies should bear. From this 
point of view, I hope that Mr. Kirby's volume will be found 
to contain some useful conclusions. 

R. BOWDLER SHARPE. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



IN the Preface to the first volume of Lepidoptera I announced 
my intention of completing the Butterflies in two volumes ; 
but the amount of matter which I found it necessary to include 
proved more considerable than I had expected, and the present 
volume includes only Families II. to VI. of the Butterflies, viz., 
Libytheid&i Lemoniidce, Lyccenida, Pierida, and Equitidce ; the 
Hesperiidtz being left over till the third volume. 

As at present arranged, it is proposed to devote three 
volumes to the remainder of the Lepidoptera, making five in 
all, divided as follows : 

Vol. I. BUTTERFLIES : Nymphalidae. 
,, II. Libytheidae to Equitidoe. 

,, III. ,, Hesperiidae. 

MOTHS : Pages, Burnets, Tiger-Moths, &c. 
IV. ,, Hawk-Moths, Emperors, &c. 
,, V. Owl-Moths, Loopers, Clothes Moths, &c. 

The Family Equitidce. (usually called Papilionida), contain- 
ing the true Swallow-Tailed Butterflies, is in a most chaotic 
state, never having been sub-divided into genera like the 
other Families. A thorough revision would have been be- 
yond the scope of the present work ; but I have carefully 
examined all the generic names which have been proposed 
for any portions of this extensive Family, collated them with 



VI AUTHORS PREFACE. 

Felder's groups, and endeavoured as far as possible to fix 
their types and limits, thereby bringing together a considerable 
amount of very scattered information. 

Many interesting observations on habits, &c., will be found 
scattered through the present volume, including those of 
Trogonoptera brookeana^ with which Sir Hugh Low has kindly 
favoured me. 

The uncertainty of nomenclature is much to be regretted. 
Detailed explanations of the principles which have guided me 
will be found in the Prefaces to my Synonymic Catalogues of 
Odonata,) and of Rhopalocera Heterocera, and need not here be 
repeated. I may, however, say that I have long been of 
opinion that 1758, the date of the tenth edition of Linnaeus' 
" Systema Naturae," should be regarded as the logical starting- 
point of our nomenclature, and that I attach more importance 
to the assignation of a, type to a genus, than even to a defi- 
nition. As regards specific names, it is a pity that so old- 
established a name as edusa has no claim to be retained for 
the Clouded Yellow (see pp 214, 215). But it is interesting 
to find that in some cases the Entomologists of the last genera- 
tion had correctly applied Linnaeus' names (e.g., Camilla to the 
White Admiral, and furiformis to the broad-bordered Bee 
Hawk-Moth), whereas contemporary writers have preferred to 
follow erroneous determinations of Continental Entomologists. 
The first step towards arriving at correct conclusions, is to 
eliminate obvious and palpable errors. 

Now that the present work is so far advanced, I hope to 
make arrangements for the speedy issue of the second edition 
of my Catalogue of " Lepidoptera Rhopalocera." 

W. F. KIRBY. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



ORDER LEPIDOPTERA (continued). I 

A. LEPIDOPTERA RHOPALOCERA(aw//;;//*/) < ... i 

FAMILY II. LIBYTHEID/E 1 

Genus LIBYTMEA, Fabiicius. ... ... 2 

L. celtis (Fuessly). 4 

L. bachmanii, Kirtl. ... ... 4 

FAMILY III. LEMONIID/E 6 

SUB-FAMILY I. NEMEOBIIN^E 9 

Genus NEMEOBIUS, Steph. 

N. lucina (L.). ... ll 

SUB-FAMILY II. EUSELASIIN/E IS 

Genus EUSELASIA, Iliibner l6 

E. gelon (Stoll) J 7 

E. eflima (Hew.) J 7 

Genus HELICOPIS, Fabiicius X 9 

II. acis (Fabr.) 2O 

H. cupido (L.) 2I 

SUB-FAMILY III. LEMONIIN/E 22 

Genus MESOSEMIA, Iliibner 2 3 

M. philocles (L.) 2 4 

M. bifasciata (Hew.) 2 4 

Genus EURYBIA, Hubner. 2 5 

E. salome (Cram.) 

Genus ZEONIA, Swains 

Z. faunus (Fabr.) 2 7 

Z. chorineus (Cram.) ' 28 



viii SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

PAGE 

Genus DIORHINA, Morisse. ... 29 

D. periander (Cram.) ... ... 29 

Genus ANCYLURIS, Iliibner 30 

A. meliboeus (Fabr.). ... 31 

Genus ANTEROS, Hiibner. 35 

A. formosus (Cram.). ... ... ... ... ... 35 

A. achceus (Stoll). ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 36 

Genus LEMONIAS, Iliibner. 38 

L. emylius (Cram.). ... 39 

Genus NYMFHIDIUM, Fabr. 40 

N. caricre (L.) 40 

N. ethelinda, Hew. ... ... ... ... ... ... A\ 

Genus CATAGRAMMINA, Eates ... 42 

C. tapaja (Saunders). ... ... ... ... 42 

C. hewitsoni, Kirby. ... ... ... ... 43 

Genus ISAPIS, Westw. ... ... ... ... ... 43 

I. agyrtus (Cram.). ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 43 

SUB-FAMILY IV. STALACHTIN^L 44 

Genus STALACHTIS, Iliibner 44 

S. phlegia (Cram.) ... ... ... 45 

FAMILY IV. LYC^ENIDyE 45 

SUB-FAMILY I. LYC^NIN^l 47 

Genus THECLA, Fabr 48 

T. spini (Den. & Schifferm.) 49 

T. w-album (Knoch). ... ... ... ... 50 

T. pruni (L.) 53 

Genus CALLOPHRYS, Billb. 54 

C. rubi (L.). 54 

Genus PSEUDOLYC^SNA, Wallengr 56 

P. marsyas (L.). ... ... ... 56 

Genus EVENUS, Hiibner 57 

E. regalis (Cram.) 57 

Genus ARCAS, Swains 58 

A. imperialis (Cram.) ... 58 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. ix 

PAGE 

Genus MICANDRA, Schatz. 59 

M. platyptera (Felder) 59 

Genus EUNUEUS Hiibner 6 

E. minyas, Hiibner. 60 

Genus HYPOLYC^ENA, Felder 61 

H. erylus (Godart). 62 

Genus AXIOCERSES, Hiibner 63 

A. perion (Cram.). 64 

Genus ZEPHYRUS, Dalman 64 

Z. betulae (L.) 65 

Z. quercus (L.) 67 

Genus HELIOPHORUS, Geyer 68 

H. epicles (Godart) 69 

Genus IALMENUS, Hiibner 7 

I. evagoras (Donovan) ... 7 

Genus DEUDORIX, Hew 71 

D. epijarbas (Moore) 71 

Genus IOLAUS, Hiibner 73 

I. helius (Fabr.) 73 

Genus SITHON, Hiibner 74 

S. nedymonda (Cram.). ... ... ... ... 74 

Genus MYRINA, Fabr 75 

M. silenus (Fabr.) 76 

Genus LOXURA, Horsf. 77 

L. atymnus (Cram.). 77 

Genus PHASIS, Hiibner 77 

P. there (L.) 78 

Genus APHN/EUS, Hiibner. ... ... .. ... 79 

A. orcas (Drury). ... ... ... ... ... So 

Genus MILETUS, Hiibner. Si 

M. polycletus(L.). Si 

Genus LAMPIDES, Hiibner. 82 

L. boeticus(L.) 82 

Genus CUPIDO, Schrank. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85 

C. argiades (Pall.). 85 



X SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

PAGE 

Genus PLEBEIUS, L. ... 87 

P. argus(L.) 88 

Genus POLYOMMATUS, Latr. 90 

P. corydon (Poda). ... ... 91 

P. thetis(VonRottemb.) 93 

P. icarus (Von Rottemb.). ... ... ... ... ... 96 

P. alexis (Scop.). ... ... ... ... ... 99 

P. salmacis, Steph. ... ... ... ... ... ... 100 

P. artaxerxes (Fabr. ) 102 

Genus CYANIRIS, Dalman. 103 

C. argiolus (L.). ... ... ... ... ... 103 

Genus ZIZERA, Moore ... ... 105 

Z. minima (Fuessly). ... ... ... ,.. 105 

Genus NOMIADES, Hubner 106 

N. semiargus (Von Rottemb.). ... ... ... ... ... 106 

N. arion (L.). ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 108 

N. alcon (Den. Schiffenn.) no 

Genus SCOLITANTIDES, Iliibncr in 

S. orion (Pall.). ... ... ... ... ... . . ... in 

Genus CASTALIUS, Hubner 112 

C. rosimon (Fabr.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 112 

Genus Pi THECOPS, Horsf. 114 

P. hylax (Fabr.). ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 114 

Genus LYC^ENESTHES, Moore 114 

L. bengalensis, Mooro. ... ... ... ... ... ... 114 

Genus LYC.^N A, Fabr 115 

L. virgaurere (L.) 115 

L. dispar, Haworih. ... ... ... ... ... ... 117 

L. rutila (Werneb.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 121 

L. hippothoe (L.). ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 122 

L. phkeas (L.). ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 125 

Genus TOMARES, Rambur. 127 

T. ballus (Fabr.) 128 

Genus FENISECA, Grote. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 128 

F. tarquinius (Fabr.). ,., ... ... 128 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XI 

TM< E 

Genus AMBLYPODIA, Horsf. ... 130 

A. apidanus (Cram.). ... ... 130 

Genus OGYR is, West w 130 

O. abrota (Doubleday & Hew.) 131 

Genus CURETJS, Hubner 131 

C. thetys (Drury) 131 

Genus GERYDUS, Boisd 132 

G. symethus (Cram.). ... ... ... ... 132 

Genus LUCIA, Swains. ..... ... ... . ... ... ... ... 13.3 

L. lucanus ^Fabr.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 133 

SUB-FAMILY II. LIPTENIN/F,. 133 

Genus LIPHYRA, Westw 136 

L. brassolis, Westw. ... ... 136 

FAMILY V. PIERID/E 137 

SUB-FAMILY I. PIERIN/E 139 

Genus APORIA, Iliibner 139 

A. cratoegi(L-) ... ... 140 

Genus PIERIS, Schrank 142 

P. brassicse (L.). ... ... ... 144 

P. chariclea (Steph.) 145 

P. rapce (L.). 146 

P. metra (Steph.) 148 

P. napi, Linn. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 148 

P. sabellicce (Steph.) 150 

Genus PONTIA, Fabr. ... ... ... ... ... 151 

P. daplidice (L.) 152 

Genus MESAPIA, Gray 154 

M. peloria (Hew.). 155 

Genus BALTIA, Moore 156 

B. shawii (Bates) 156 

B. butleri (Moore). 156 

Genus DAVIDINA, Oberthiir 156 

D. armandi, Oberthur 157 

Genus METAPORIA, Butler. 158 

M. agathoh (Gray). 158 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



PAGE 



Genus PERRHYBRIS, Hiibncr 158 

P. pyrrha (Fabr.) 159 

Genus MYLOTHRIS, Htibner iCo 

M. rhodope (Fabr.). 161 

Genus BELENOIS, Hubner t6i 

B. calypso (Drury). ... ... 161 

Genus SCHATZIA, Kirby 162 

S. socialis (Westw.). 162 

Genus ARCHONIAS, Hubner 163 

A. tereas (Godart). ... ... 16'- 

Genus PEREUTE, Herr.-Schaff. 164 

P. leucodrosime (Kollar) 164 

Genus DELIAS, Hubner 165 

D. belisama (Cram.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 166 

D. eucharis (Drury). ... ... ... ... ... ... 167 

D. coeneus (L.) 168 

D. egialea (Cram.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 169 

Genus PRIONERIS, Wall 171 

P. thestylis (Doubleday) 171 

Genus APPIAS, Hubner. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 172 

A. zelmira (Cram.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 173 

Genus MELETE, Swains. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 175 

M. flippantha (Fabr.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 175 

Genus ELODINA, Felder. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 175 

E. egnatia (Godart). ... ... . . ... 176 

Genus LEPTOSIA, Hubner. ... ... ... ... ... ... 176 

L. xiphia (Fabr.). ... . . ... ... ... ... ... 177 

Genus LEUCIDI A, Doubleday 177 

L. elvina (Godart). .. .. ... ... . .. 177 

SUB-FAMILY II. DISMORPHIN/E 177 

Genus LEPTIDIA, Billb 178 

L. sinapis (L.) 178 

Genus DISMORPHIA, Hubner 180 

D. egaena (Bates) ... 183 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. Xlii 

PAGE 

Genus ACMETOPTERON, Godm. & Salv. 183 

A. nemesis (Latr.). ., .. ... 183 

Genus ENANTIA, Hiibner. 184 

E. licinia (Cram.). ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 184 

Genus PSEUDOPIERIS, Godm. & Salv 184 

P. nehemia (Boisd.). 184 

SUB-FAMILY III. ANTHOCHARIN^! 185 

Genus EUCHLOE, Hiibner. 185 

E. cardamines (L.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 186 

E. turritis (Ochsenh. ) 188 

E. hesperidis, Newnh. ... ... ... ... ... ... 189 

Genus PHYLLOCHARIS, Schatz 190 

P. tagis (Hiibner). ... ... ... ... 191 

Genus TERACOLUS, Swains. ... ... ... ... 192 

T. subfasciatus, Swains. ... ... ... ... ... ... 193 

Genus CALLOSUNE, Doubleday 194 

C. danae (Fabr.) ... ... ... 196 

Genus AB/EIS, Hiibner. ... ... ... ... ... 197 

A. cebrenc (Boisd.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 197 

Genus COLOTIS, Hiibner 198 

C. amata (Fabr.) 198 

Genus IDMAIS, Boisd 198 

I. chrysonome (Klug) ... 199 

Genus IXIAS, Hiibner. ... ... ... ... ... 199 

I. pyrene (L.) 200 

Genus HEBOMOIA, Hiibner. ... ... ... ... 200 

H. leucippe (Cram.). ... ... ... ... 202 

Genus ERONIA, Hiibner 202 

E. cleodora (Hiibner). ... ... ... ... ... ... 203 

Genus NEPHERONIA, Butler. ... ... ... ... 205 

N. idotrea (Boisd.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 205 

SUB-FAMILY IV. CALLIDRYIN/E 207 

jenus NATHALIS, Boisd. ... ... ... ... ... 207 

N. iole, Boisd. ... ... ... ... ... 208 



XIV SYSTEMATIC INDEX 

Genus EURYMUS, Swains. 208 

E. hyale (L.) 211 

E. kirbyi (Lewis) 215 

E. philodice (Godart) 217 

Genus MEGANOSTOMA, Reakirt , 219 

M. cesonia (Stoll). ... ... ... ... 220 

Genus COLI AS, Fabr 220 

C. rhamni(L.) 221 

Genus CATOPSILIA, Hubner 225 

C. crocale (Cram.). ... ... ... ... ... 226 

Genus CALLIDRYAS, Boisd. & Lecontc. 226 

C. eubule(L.) 227 

Genus SPILENOGONA, Butler 230 

S. mexicana(Boisd.). n 230 

Genus TERIAS, Swains 232 

T. hecabe(L.) 233 

FAMILY VI. EQUITID/K 234 

SUB-FAMILY I. PARNASSIIN^ 236 

Genus PARNASSIUS, Latr. 236 

P. apollo (L.) 236 

SUB-FAMILY II. THAIDIN/E 242 

Genus THAIS, Fabr 242 

T medesicaste (Fabr.). ... ... ... ... 243 

SUB-FAMILY III. EQUITIN/E 249 

Genus DRURYA, Auriv 250 

D. antimachus (Drury). ... ... ... ... ... ... 250 

Genus TROIDES, Hiibner. ... 251 

T. priamus (L.) 252 

Genus ^THEOPTERA, Rippon. ... ... ... ... 256 

JE. victorise (Gray). ... ... ... ... 256 

Genus SCHCENBERGIA, Pagenst. "... ... ... ... 257 

S. paradisea (Staud.). ... ... ... ... 258 

Genus TROGONOPTERA, Rippon. 259 

T, brookeana (Wall,). .,. , ,. .,, ,.. 259 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XV 

FAGB 

Genus ORNITHOPTERA, Boisd 263 

0. hippolytus (Cram.). ... ... ... ' 266 

Genus PAPILIO, Latr 267. 269 

Sect. IV. Ascanides, Geyer 269 

A. triopas (Godart). 269 

Sect. V. Endopogon, Borsd 270 

E. sesostris (Cram.). 270 

Sed. VI. Hectorides, Hubner 270 

II. ascanius (Cram.). ... ... ... ... ... ... 270 

Sect. VII. Parides, Hubner 271 

P. aeneas (L.) 271 

Sect. VIII. Ithobalus, Hubner 272 

1. polydamas (L.). 272 

Sect. XIV. Eurytides, Hubner 272 

E. dolicaon (Cram.) 272 

Sect. XIX. B. Cosmodesmus, Haase 272 

C. protesilaus (L.). 273 

Sect. XX. Pazala, Moore. 273 

P. glycerion (Gray). ... ... ... ... 273 

Sect. XXI. Pathysa, Reakirt 274 

P. antiphates (Cram.). ... ... 274 

Sect. XXIII.-XXV. Iphiclides, Hubner 274 

I. celadon (Lucas). ... ... ... ... ... ... 274 

I. podalirius (L.). ... ... ... ... ... 275 

Sect. XXVII. B. Dalchina, Moore 277 

D. sarpedon (L.)- ... ... ... ... 277 

Sect. XXVII. C. Zetides, Hubner 277 

Z. eurypylus (L.) 277 

Sect. XXVII. D. Gen. innom 278 

P. agamemnon, L. ... ... ... ... 278 

Sect. XXVII. F. Idaides, Hubner. .:. 278 

I. codrus (Cram.). ... ... ... ... 278 

Sect. XXIX. A. Dabasa, Moore. 278 

D. gyas (Westw.). 278 

b 



X\l SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Sect. XXIX. B. Meandrusa, Moore. ... ... ... 278 

M. evan (Doubleday). ... 278 

Sect. XXX. Gen. innom. ... ... 279 

P. pylades, Fabr. ... ... ... 279 

Sect. XXXI. A. Gen. innom. ... ... ... ... ... ... 279 

P. leonidas, Fabr. ... ... ... ... ... 270 

Sect. XXXIII. Gen. innom 279 

P. idteoides, Gray. ... ... ... ... ... ... 279 

Sect. XXXVI. Paranticopsis, \Vood-Mason and De NiceV 279 

P. macareus (Godart). ... ... ... ... ... ... 279 

Sect. XXXVII. Chilasa, Moore. 279 

C. panope (L.) 279 

Sect. XXXVII. pt. Euplceopsis, De NiceV 280 

E. telearchus, Hew. ... ... ... ... 280 

Sect. XXXVII. pt. Menamopsis, De Nicev 280 

M. tavoyanus (Butler). ... ... ... 280 

Sect. XXXVIII. Cadugoides, Moore 280 

C. agestor (Gray). ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 280 

Sect. XXXIX. Orpheides, Hubner 280 

O. demoleus (L.) 280 

Sect. XLI. Gen. innom. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 282 

P. homerus, Fabr. ... ... ... ... ... 282 

Sect. XLII. Heraclides, Hubner. 282 

H. thoas (L.) 282 

Sect. XLIII. Troilides, Hiibner. 283 

T. torquatus (Cramer). ... ... ... ... 283 

Sect. XLIV. B. Calaides, Hubner 283 

C. androgeos (Cram.). ... ... 283 

Sect. XLV. Priamides, Hubner. 284 

P. pompeius (Fabr.) 284 

Sect. XLVI. Gen. innom. 284 

P. zagieus, Doubleday. ... ... ... 284 

Sect. XLIX. Euphoeades, Hubner 284 

E. glaucus (L.)- 284 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. XV11 

PACK 

Sect. LI. A. Jasoniades, Hiibner. 285 

J, xuthus (L.) 285 

Sect. LI. B. C. Achivus, Barbut 286 

A. machaon (L ). ... ... 286 

Sect. LII. Pterurus, Scop. 289 

P. troilus (L.) 289 

Sect. LIV. Eques, L 290 

E. nireus (L.) 290 

Sect. LV. C. Gen. innom. ... 291 

P. metope, L 291 

Sect. LIX. Araminta, Moore 292 

A. demotion (Cram.) ... ... 292 

Sect. LX. A. Gen. innom. ... ... 293 

P. polytes, L 293 

Sect. LX. B. Charus, Moore 294 

C. helenus, L. ... ... ... ... 294 

Sect. LX. C. Tamera, Moore 295 

T. castor (Westw.). 295 

Sect. LX. E. Nestorides, Hiibner. 295 

N. gambrisius (Cram.). ... ... ... 295 

Sect. LXII. Laertias, Hiibner 296 

L. ulysses (L.) 296 

Sect. LXIII. Harimala, Moore 296 

H. crino (Fabr.) 297 

Sect. LXIV. A. pt. Achillides, Hiibner. 297 

A. paris (L.) 297 

Sect. LXIV. A. pt. Sarbaria, Moore 298 

S. polyctor (Boisd.). ... 298 

Sect. LXV. A. C. Iliadcs, Hiibner , ... 299 

I. agenor (L.) ; 299 

Sect. LXV. D. pt. Saunia, Moore 301 

S. protenor (Cram.) ... ... 301 

Sect. LXV. D. pt. Panosmiopsis, Wood-Mason and De Niccv. ... 301 

P. rhetenor (Westw.) 301 

b 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



TAGS 

Sect. LXV. D. pt. Pangeranopsis, Wood-Mason and De Niccv. ... 302 

P. elephenor (Doubleday). ......... ...... 302 

Sect. LXVI. pt. Pangerana, Moore. ... ............ 302 

P. varuna (White). ............... ... 302 

Sect. LXVI. pt. Atrophaneura, Rcakirt. ............ 302 

A. semperi (Felder). ... ... ...... ... ... 302 

Sect. LXVII. Gen. innom. .................. 303 

P. nox, Swains ................ ...... 303 

Sect. LXIX. pt. Pxnasmia, Moore ............... 303 

P. dasarada, Moore. ... ... ... ...... ... 303 

sect. LXIX. pt. Byasa, Moore ................... 304 

B. philoxenus (Gray) .......... ... ... ... 304 

Sect. LXXIII. Menelaides, Hiibner ................ 304 

M. polydorus (L.). .................. 304 

Sect. LXXIV. Tros, Barbut ................... 305 

T. hector (L.) ...................... 305 

Sect. LXXV. Pharmacophagus, Ilaasc. ... ......... 306 

P. antenor (Drury) .................. 306 

Genus BARONIA, Salvin ............ ......... 307 

B. brevicornis, Salvin .......... ......... 307 

SUB-FAMILY IV. LEPTOCIRCIN/U ............. 307 

Genus LEPTOCIRCUS, Swains ................... 308 

L, meges (Zinken-Sommer) ................ 308 



LIST OF PLATES. 



XXXVIII. Fig. i. 
Fig. 2. 
Figs. 3, 4- 
Figs. 5, 6. 
Fig. 7. 
Figs. 8, 9. 
-Figs. I, 2. 
Fig. 3- 



XXXIX.- 

XL.- 

XLI.- 

XLII.- 

XLIIL- 

XLIV.- 

XLV.- 

XLVI.- 
XLVII.- 

XLVIIL 
XLIX. Fi 
L.- 



Figs. I, 2. 
Fig. 3- 
Figs, i, 2. 
Figs. 3, 4. 
Figs. 5, 6. 
Figs. I, 2. 
Figs. 3. 4. 
-Figs, i, 2. 
Figs. 3, 4. 
Figs. 13. 
Figs. 4 6. 
-Figs. 13. 
Figs. 4 6. 
Figs. 79. 
-Figs. 1-3. 
Figs. 4, 5- 
-Figs, i, 2. 
Figs. 3, 4. 
Figs. 5, 6. 
Figs, i, 2. 
Figs. 3-5. 
Figs. 6, 7. 
Figs. 13. 
Figs. 4, 5. 
Figs. 6, 7. 
Figs. 13. 
Figs. 4, 5. 



Libythea bachmani (p. 4). 
Mesosemia bifa?ciata (p. 24). 
Nemeobius lucina (p. ll). 
Euselasia effima (p. 17). 
Nymphidtum ethelinda (p. 41), 
Lemonias emylius (p. 39). 
Helicopis acis (p. 20). 
Zeonia chorinseus (p. 28). 
Ancyluris melibceus (p. 31). 
Myrina silenus (p. 76). 
Thecla pruni (p. 53). 
Thecla w-album (p. 50). 
Callophrys rubi (p. 54). 
Pseudolycnena marsyas (p. 56). 
Evenus regalis (p. 57). 
Atcas imperialis (p. 58). 
Anteros achoeus (p. 36). 
Zephyrus betulas (p. 65). 
Zephyrus quercus (p. 67). 
Lampides bseticus (p. 82). 
Cupido argiades (p. 85). 
Polyommatus icarus (p. 96). 
Polyommatus thetis (p. 93). 
Plebeius argus (p. 88) 
Nomiades arion (p. 108). 
Nomiades alcon (p no). 
Polyommatus corydon (p. 91). 
Polyommatus alexis (p. 99). 
Polyommatus salmacis (p. 100). 
Polyommatus artaxerxes (p. 102). 
Cyaniris argiolus (p. 103). 
Zizera minima (p. 105). 
Nomiades semiargus (p. 106). 
Lycaena dispar (p. 117). 
Lycaena virgaurea: (p. 115). 



XX 



LIST OF PLATES. 



LI. 



LIL- 
LIII.- 

LIV.- 

LV.- 

LVL- 
'LVIL- 

LVIII.- 

LIX.- 

LX. 

LXT.- 

LXII.- 

LXIIL- 

LXIV.- 

LXV.- 

LXVI.- 

LXVIL- 

LXVIII. 



-Figs, i, 2. 
Figs. 3, 4. 
Figs. 5, 6. 
Figs, i, 2. 
Fig. 3- 
Fig. I. 
Figs. 2, 3. 
Figs. 4, 5. 
-Figs. I, 2. 
Figs. 3-5 
-Fig. i. 
Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3- 
Figs. 4, 5. 
Figs, i, 2. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 



Lycsena hippothoe (p. 122). 

Lycrena rutila (p. 121). 

Lycrena phkeas (p. 125). 

Pieris brassicse (p 144). 

Pieris rapse (p. 146). 

Pie- is chariclea (p. 145). 

Pieris metra (p. 148). 

Pieris sabellicse (p. 150). 

Pieris napi (p. 148). 

Pontia daplidice (p. 152). 

Pereute leucodrosime (p. 164). 

Schatzia socialis (p. 162). 

Dismorphia egacnsis (p. 183). 

Perrhybris pyrrha (p. 159). 

Delias eucharis (p. 167). 

Delias philyra (p. 168). 

Delias belisama (p. 166). 

Callosune danae (p. 196). 

Hebomoia. leucippe (p. 202). 

Euchloe cardamines (p. 186). 

Leptidia sinapis (p. 1/8). 

Sphoenogona mexicana (p. 230). 

Callidryas eubule (p. 227). 

Colias rhamni (p. 221). 

Eurymus hyale (p. 211). 

Eurymus kirbyi (p. 215). 

Eurymus philodice (p. 217). 

Parnassius apollo (p. 236). 

Aporia cratoegi (p. 140). 

Thais medesicaste (p. 243). 

Leptocircus meges (p. 308). 

Troides priarnus (p. 252). 

Ornithoptera remus (p. 266). 

Hectorides ascanius (p. 270). 

Achillides paris (p. 297). 

Iliades agenor (p. 299), 

Parides aeneas (p. 271). 

Achivus machaon (p. 286). 

Iphiclides po^alir'us (p. 275). 
(Frontispiece). Fig. i. Cosmodesmus protesilaus (p. 273). 
Fig. 2. Iphiclides celadon (p 274^. 

* Iphidides on plate. 



3- 
i. 

2. 

_ 3 

-Figs. I 4. 

Fig. 5- 
-Fig. i. 

Figs. 2-4. 
-Fig. i. 

Figs. 2, 3. 
-Figs. I, 2. 

Fig. 3- 
-Fig. 

Fig. 
-Fig. 

Fig. 
-Fig. 

Fig. 
-Fig- 

Fig. 
-Fig. 

Fig. 
-Fig. 

Fig. 



PLATE LXVIII. 




/. Ipkidides protesilaus. 
2. celadon,. 



THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS-ORDER 
LEPIDOPTERA. 

THE BUTTERFLIES LEPIDOPTERA RHOPALOCERA. 

IN our first volume, we dealt with the extensive Family Nym- 
phalida, in which the front legs are always more or less im- 
perfect in both sexes. We have now to consider the remaining 
Families of Butterflies, in all of which the front pair of legs 
are fully developed in the females, and sometimes also in the 
males, though in those which approach nearest to the Nym- 
phalidcZ) the front legs are more or less imperfect in the males, 
and are shorter than the other pairs of legs in the females. 

FAMILY II. LIBYTHEID^E. 

Egg. Ampulliform, ridged, twice as high as broad (Doherty)* 
Regularly elliptic, with sharply-round, prominent longitudinal 
ribs (Scudder). 

Larva. Cylindrical, slightly pubescent, segments with four 
transverse divisions ; head small, rounded. 

Pupa. Rather stout, ridged, suspended by the tail only. 
Imago. Of moderate size, with angulated and dentated wings, 

* Dr. Scudder thinks that this description was taken from distorted 
specimens ; but there is no reason why the eggs of the Indian and American 
species should not differ in shape* 

lo B 



2 LLOVDS NATURAL 

at least in the female ; colour, except in the Austro-Malayan 
species, brown, with markings varying from reddish fulvous to 
pale buff; or blue in some of the Eastern species just men- 
tioned. Palpi very long, about four times as long as the head. 
Front legs in male very small, the tarsi reduced to a single 
joint, without claws ; front legs of the female almost perfectly 
developed, but considerably smaller than the others. 

Eange. " The twelve or fourteen species of this Sub-family, 
which it hardly appears necessary to divide into genera, are 
singularly scattered over all the warmer parts of the globe, 
except, I believe, the continent of Australia, and Polynesia. 
The type of the genus, L. celtis (Fuessly), inhabits Southern 
Europe and Asia Minor; the Ethiopian region has three 
species; India and the Indo- Malayan Islands, three; the 
Austro-Malayan and Australasian Islands, two or three ; two 
are natives of the United States and the West Indies, and one 
is found in Surinam and Brazil. It does not seem improb- 
able that these few and widely-scattered congeners are but the 
surviving members of what was at some former period a numer- 
ous and generally prevalent group" (Trinieri). The same 
opinion is expressed by Dr. Scudder, who mentions the 
discovery of two fossil species in Colorado. 

Habits. The species frequent open places : road-sides, vine- 
yards, forest glades, hedge-sides, &c., especially near water, and 
they have a rather rapid flight. 

We shall notice representatives of three different sections of 
this small family. 

GENUS LIBYTHEA. 

Libythea,) Fabricius, in Illiger's Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 284 (1807); 
Latreille, Enc. Meth. ix. pp. 10, 170 (1819); Westwood, 
Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 412 (1851); Schatz & Rober, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 226 (1892). 

Type, Papilio celtis^ Fuessly. 



LIDYTHEA. 3 

Hypatus, Hiibner, Catal. Franck, p. 85 (1825); Scudder, 
Butterflies of Eastern United States, p. 753 (1889). 
Type, Papilio carineuta, Cramer. 

Dr. Scudder considers the American species of this Sub- 
family to be entitled to generic rank, and retains for them 
Hiibner's name Hypatus, observing : " I have not been able to 
study the Asiatic species, but the European and African are 
certainly distinct from the American forms. I would call 
attention to the abruptly lobate front margin of the hind-wing 
in the European species (Libythea proper), and the close ap- 
proximation of the third and fourth superior sub-costal nervules 
of the fore-wings at their origin, to the gradually incrassating 
antennce, in which the club can scarcely be separately distin- 
guished, but may be said to occupy half the length of the 
antennae, to the coarser, and owing to the comparative brevity 
of the apical joint, the somewhat shorter palpi, and finally to 
the deeply bifid termination of the eighth abdominal segment 
in the male, with the irregular and thorny clasps, which are in 
striking contrast to those of Hypatus. It may also be pointed 
out that the larvce of Libythea are not thickened on the thoracic 
segments, have no thoracic tubercle, and that the chrysalis 
terminates at the anterior extremity in a single and not a 
double protuberance ; in other words, there is no apical notch " 
(Scudder, op. cit. pp. 155, 156). 

But having regard to the very small number of species known, 
and the much greater divergence of the species of the Austro- 
Malayan group, which has not yet been separated as a distinct 
genus, we have preferred to leave Libythea undivided in the 
present work. The characters are therefore those of the 
Family ; but the large Austro-Malayan species differ much in 
shape and appearance from the species of other parts of the 
world, and will probably have to be separated from them as 
belonging to a different genus. 

B 2 



4 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

The type is 

THE NETTLE-TREE BUITERFLY. L1BYTHEA CELTIS. 

Papilio celtts, Fuessly, Arch. Ins. pi. 8, figs. 1-3, and pi. 14 (1782- 
1783); Esper, Schmett. i. (2) p. 168, pi. 87, figs. 2, 3 
( I 7 8 3); P- I0 9) fig 8 - 2 -8 (1800: transf.) ; Hiibner, Eur. 
Schmett. i. pp. 447-449 (1799?). 

LibytheaceltiS) Godart, Enc. Meth. Ins. ix. p. 170, no. i (1819) ; 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 43, pi. 13, fig. 9 
(1879) ; Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 152, pi. 32, fig. 2 (1882 : 
with transf.). 

This Butterfly measures an inch and a half, or an inch and 
three-quarters across the wings, which are brown, with fulvous 
markings, and are strongly angulated ; towards the tips of the 
fore-wings is a white spot on the costa, and a square blotch 
obliquely below it, beyond the more extended tawny colouring 
of the wing. The Butterfly has much of the appearance of a 
small Vanessa, but its very long palpi are amply sufficient to 
prevent it from being mistaken for any other European species. 
It inhabits Southern Europe and Asia Minor. The larva and 
pupa are both green, and the larva feeds on the nettle-tree, 
Celtis australis, but will also eat cherry. It is double-brooded, 
the Butterfly appearing in March and June, and it is not un- 
common where its food-plant grows. 

THE SNOUT BUTTERFLY. LIBYTHEA BACHMANII. 
(Plate XXXVIII. Fig. i.) 

Libythea bachmanii, Kirtland, Amer. Journ. Science (2), xiii. 

p. 336, cum fig. (1852) ; Edwards, Butt. N. Amer. ii. Lib. 

pi. i. (1874); Maynard, Butt. N. England, p. 31, pi. 8, figs. 

36, 360(1886). 
Hypatus bachmanii, Scudder, Butterflies of Eastern United 

States, p. 760 (1889). 



PLATE XXXVIH. 




/. Libythea, bachmaju^. 5.6.Eiiselasicu effimcu. 
2.Mesosemiou bifasciatcu. 7 . ^fymphzdium, e 



LIBYTHEA. 5 

Libythece motya, pt. Boisduval & Leconte, Lepid. Amer. Sept. 
pi. 64, figs. 3, 4 (nee figs, i, 2) (1833). 

This species is about the size of L. celtis^ but the fore-wings 
are longer, the apex projecting in a more produced lobe, with 
a concavity between the two angles, the upper angle being 
nearly as long as the lower one. The hind-wings are less 
denticulated than in L. celtis^ and project in a small rectangle 
in the middle of the hind-margin. The colour is brown, with 
rather brighter tawny markings than in L. celtis. On the fore- 
wings the cell, and the greater part of the space between this 
and the inner-margin is filled up with bright tawny colour, the 
costa, apical region, and hind-margin remaining brown ; on the 
apical region are three large white, or yellowish-white, spots. 
Beneath the fore-wings are coloured as above, but paler. 
The hind-wings are brown, with a curved tawny band a little 
below the costa, and beneath they are of a purplish-grey, with 
a yellowish-grey band running from the base, a little below the 
centre, to the hind-margin. 

The larva is cylindrical, green, with yellow lines and dots ; 
the pupa is also green, sometimes tinged with blue or yellow, 
and sprinkled with yellow dots, especially on the abdomen. 

The larva feeds on sugar-berry or hack-berry (Celtis occi- 
dentalis, L.), and probably on other plants ; and there is a suc- 
cession of broods throughout the summer. It is common in 
many parts of the Southern United States ; in the Northern 
States it becomes rare and local, but touches Canada, having 
been met with as far north as Southern Ontario. It frequents 
gardens, meadows, road-sides, and other open places, and is 
particularly fond of flying about raspberry blossoms. 



The South American L. carinenta (Cramer), the type of the 
genus or sub-genus Hypatus^ is a species very similar to Z. 



6 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

bachmanii) but with the tawny portion of the fore-wings broken 
up, more or less distinctly, into three spots. 



The various species of the Austro-Malayan group inhabit 
several of the Moluccan and Papuan islands, and extend to 
the Philippines, though probably not to any other part of the 
Indo-Malayan region, the Indian species of Libythea more 
resembling the group of L. cettis. The Austro-Malayan 
species are much larger than the others, expanding upwards 
of two inches. In the male the apex of the fore-wings is 
obtusely rounded, hardly lobate, the hind-margin being slightly 
oblique, and nearly straight, or slightly concave, between the 
apex and the anal angle. In the female there is a sl : ght apical 
lobe, truncated, but not concave ; the hind-margin beneath is 
more strongly concave than in the male. The hind-wings are 
rounded, but hardly dentated or angulated, except that they 
are somewhat produced at the anal angle in the female. The 
palpi are much shorter and more hairy than in the more 
typical species of the genus. The colour, too, differs con- 
siderably ; the males are brown above, with more or less of 
the base and centre of the wings filled up with violet-blue, 
more or less cut by the nervures. Sometimes there are some 
whitish spots on the fore-wings, and a reddish stripe on the 
hind-wings. The females are brown with fulvous markings, 
and sometimes with white spots on the fore-wings and a fulvous 
bar on the hind-wings ; but these markings are all at or beyond 
the end of the cell, the basal portion of the fore-wings being 
always brown. 

FAMILY III. LEMONIID.E. 

Egg. "Broader than high, tiarate or oblately spheroidal, more 
or less deeply and densely reticulate, with converging septa 



LEMONIID^E, 7 

extending from the walls of the cells towards their centre " 
(Scudder). 

Larva (newly emerged). " Body with chitinous dorsal and sub- 
stigmatal shields on every segment, to which the haired 
papillae are confined, and only sub-dorsal annul! " (Scudder). 

Larva (full grown). Short and stout, somewhat onisciform, 
without spines or long hairs ; head at least half as broad as the 
middle of the body. 

Pupa. Short and stout, sometimes pilose, and with a few 
long bristly hairs, attached by the tail, and sometimes freely 
suspended, as in the Nyinphalidce, but more frequently re- 
cumbent, being secured by an additional thread across the 
middle. 

Imago. Of small or moderate size, the largest species rarely 
exceeding two inches in expanse, and of delicate structure ; 
hind-wings with a pre-costal nervure ; very rarely with ocel- 
lated spots. Front legs perfectly developed in the female, 
but smaller than the others ; imperfectly developed in the 
male, with the tarsi reduced to one or two joints, without 
spines or claws. 

The present group is generally regarded as of the rank of a 
Family, though Dr. Scudder considers that it is not sufficiently 
distinct from the Lyccenidce. to be considered as more than a 
Sub-family. There are, however, many differences, and even 
in pattern and general appearance the two groups are so dis- 
similar that there are very few species belonging to either of 
them which would be likely to be mistaken for the other, even at 
the first glance, by anyone who was fairly well acquainted with 
the general appearance of the Butterflies. There are, however, 
a few Lemoniidcz which superficially resemble some of the 
smaller Nymphalida. Again, the Lemoniidce and Lyccenidce may 
be taken as in some measure representative of separate Faunas, 



8 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

for the Lemo?iiidce, with the exception of a few somewhat aber- 
rant Old World genera, are almost entirely confined to tropical 
America, whereas the Lycanida are almost entirely an Old 
World group, if we except the tropical American species allied 
to Thecla. These, though numerous, are closely allied, and 
cannot be considered as a set-off against the very numerous 
and varied genera of the Old World. 

To return to the Lemoniidte (or Erycinidce, as the Family is 
often called).* The first attempt at a natural division of the 
genera was made by Bates, in a catalogue of Erycinidce, com- 
municated to the Linnean Society of London on June 20, 1867 
(" Journ. Linn. Soc. Zoology," ix. pp. 367-459). In this paper 
he divided the group into three Sub-families, which have been 
generally accepted by entomologists, with some modifications. 

In 1885 Messrs. Godman and Salvin, in their " Biologia Cen- 
trali- Americana " Lepidoptera Rhopalocera, i. pp. 361, 362, re- 
moved from Bates' first Sub-family, the Ncmeobiina, all the 
New World genera which Bates had placed in it, transferring 
them to Bates' third Sub-family, the Eryrinincz (Lemoniince of 
Kirby), but combining with it Bates' second Sub-family, the 
Eurygonin<z(EuselasiincB of Kirby), thus bringing together all the 
genera in which the basal nervure is absent or rudimentary. 
They remark : " We have not yet discovered satisfactory 
characters whereby to separate the Old from the New World 
genera of this Sub-family." 

It is, however, clearly desirable to separate groups of species 
geographically when this can be done; and, in 1892, Schatz 
and Rober proposed to restrict the Ncmcobiina to the Old 
World genera, and to reinstate Bates' Sub-family Eurygonina 
or Euselasiince. But neither in the Lemoniidce, Lyccenidce, 

* The alteration of the Family name was rendered necessary by the 
rejection of the genus Erycina, Fabr., on account of this name being 
pre-occupied in 



NEMEOBIIN^E. 9 

nor Hesperiidce, do the Sub-families rest on such important 
differences as those which separate the Sub-families of the 
Nymphalida, nor are they nearly so well marked. 

Most of the species prefer to settle on leaves rather than 
on flowers, and the position of the wings in repose varies a 
good deal. 

"The Family is remarkable for the wonderful diversity of 
form and colouring which it presents, and the habits of the 
species are almost equally varied. Some are of very slow, lazy 
flight, whilst others are excessively rapid in their movements. 
It may be stated, however, as an universal rule, that their flight 
is short, never exhibiting the sustained motion which is charac- 
teristic of the Nymphalid(Ki Salyridce, and other superior Families 
of Butterflies. A large number of genera have the habit of set- 
tling on the under side of leaves near the ground, extending 
their wings flat on the leaf. In many genera, on the contrary, 
the position of the wings in repose is vertical; and a few 
species settle on the upper surface of leaves with the wings half 
elevated " (Bates]. 

SUB-FAMILY I. NEMEOBIINME. 

Egg. More or less rounded, smooth, and slightly reticulated 
or granular. 

Larva. Short, somewhat wood-louse-shaped, though longer 
than in the Lyccenida, and set with small hairy warts. 

Pupa. Short, obtuse, rounded, slightly hairy, attached by the 
tail, and a girth round the middle. 

Imago. Wings broad, rather short. The hind-wings some- 
times with an angular projection; brown, with tawny, white, or red 
markings ; fore-wings with the sub-costal nervure five-branched 
(except in Polyccena, Staud. (4), and Simiskina^ Dist. (3) ; cells 



TO LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

closed; hind-wings with no basal nervure,* and with the 
sub-costal nervure and upper discoidal nervule rising from a 
common stalk (except in Sitniskind). 

Range. About a dozen genera are at present admitted as 
belonging to this Sub-family, but they are not numerous in 
species, nor have they a very wide range. Of these, Nemeo- 
bius, Steph., contains the only European species of the Family, 
the well-known "Duke of Burgundy Fritillary"; another genus, 
the few species of which likewise have a superficial resemblance 
to small species of Melitaa, Fabr., is Polycana, Staud., which 
is confined to Thibet and Western China; and all the other 
genera are restricted to the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan 
regions, except that some of the former probably cross the 
southern frontier of the Palaearctic region, and that the genera 
allied to Abisara, Feld., have one or two representatives in Africa 
and Madagascar, as well as in the East Indies. 

HaMts. Woodland insects, of low flight, preferring to settle 
on bushes rather than on flowers. Some of the Indian and 
Chinese species are met with at an elevation of at least 10,000 
feet in the mountains. 

GENUS NEMEOBIUS. 

Nemeobius, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 28 (1827); 
Westwood, Gen. D. Lepid. p. 419 (1851); Schatz & 
Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 230 (1892). 

Antennae distinctly clubbed ; eyes with short hairs ; palpi 
slender, pointed ; fore-wings with the costa nearly straight, 
hardly longer than the hind-wings; hind-margins gradually 
curved and denticulated. 

There is only one species, which is common in Central and 
Southern Europe, and is also found in England. 

* See Lemoniittv. 



NEMEOBIUS. II 

THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY FRITILLARY. NEMEOBIUS 

LUCINA. 
(Plate XXXVIII. Figs. 3, 4.) 

Papilio lurina, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 480, no. 135 (1758) ; 
id. Faun. Suec. p. 280, no. 1061 (1761); Esper, Schmett. 
i. pt. i, p. 206, pi. 16, fig. i (1777). 

Nemeobius lucina, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 29 
(1827); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 44, pi. 13, 
fig. 10 (1879); Newman, Brit. Butt. p. 103 (1881); Lang, 
Eur. Butterflies, p. 150, pi. 33, fig. i (1882); Barrett, 
Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 102, pi. 15, figs, i, \a le (1892); 
Buckler, Larvae Brit. Lepid. i. p. 85, pi. 12, fig. 3 (1886). 

Hamearis lucina, Curtis, Brit. Ent. vii. pi. 316 (1830). 

The Duke of Burgundy Frittillary measures about an inch 
and a quarter across the wings, which are brown, with three 
rows of tawny spots across the fore-wings, the outermost con- 
taining a row of black dots. On the hind-wings there are only 
two rows, that nearest to the base on the fore-wings being 
absent. The fringes are white, chequered with brown. There 
are two rows of white spots on the under side of the hind- 
wings. 

The eggs are laid on either the upper or under side of the 
leaves of the primrose or cowslip. The larva is blackish when 
young, but, when full grown, it is of a dull green, with a dark, 
somewhat macular, dorsal line. The hairs are black above and 
paler beneath ; the head is brown. 

The pupa is rather short, and is of a pale yellow colour, with 
numerous black spots, more or less arranged in rows ; and the 
insect passes the winter in this stage, the Butterfly appearing in 
May and June ; and on the Continent there is a second brood, 
which appears in August. 

The Butterfly is found in sunny places in woods, and is also 



12 

found among bushes in hilly districts throughout Southern and 
Central Europe. Its flight is weak, and it is usually seen in 
open places, such as a sunny drive or a glade, never flying far, 
and apparently restricted to a narrow area, probably in the 
vicinity of the food-plant. 

Exotic genera of Nemeobiince. 

Most of the Asiatic and African species of Nemeobiina, except 
those belonging to the two following genera, are considerably 
larger than our European species. The Central Asian genus 
Polycana most resembles Nemeobius in general appearance, 
and the species are likewise very similar to small species of 
Melitcea. They are brown Butterflies, with more or less con- 
fluent tawny or reddish markings on the fore-wings ; the hind- 
wings have a double row of spots, the sub-marginal row tawny, 
or reddish, and the inner more yellowish. The under side 
is dark brown, with a sub-marginal reddish line, and with 
more or less extensive fulvous or pale yellow markings on the 
fore-wings, and pale yellow or whitish markings on the hind- 
wings. They are not much larger than Nemeobius ; nor is 
Stiboges nymphidia, Butler, a Butterfly very dissimilar to the 
Fritillaries in colour, which is found in Western China, Bhu- 
tan, Penang, &c., and which is remarkable for its superficial 
resemblance to some of the South American Lemoniidce, It is 
dark brown, with a very broad white band covering the hind- 
wings, except at the extreme base, to beyond the middle, and 
extending over the fore- wings nearly to the costa, except at the 
base, and across and beyond the lower part and end of the cell. 

We may mention most of the principal tropical forms of this 
Sub-family, as they are not very numerous. The genus Zemeros, 
Boisduval, contains two or three species, common in the East 
Indies, generally measuring rather less than two inches across 
the wings, which are more p.r less dentated, and sometimes; 



NEMEOBUNifc, 13 

slightly produced at the outer angle of the hind-wings. Zemeros 
flegyas (Cramer), from India, is brown, with many pale yellowish 
spots, adjoining black ones, and arranged in more or less irregu- 
lar transverse rows, on both sides of the wings. In Zemeros 
albipunctata, Butler, from the Malay Peninsula and the adja- 
cent islands, pale spots are present only towards the tips of 
the fore-wings, and towards the hind-margins of the wings be- 
neath. Another species, which inhabits the same localities 
(Zemeros emesioides, Felder), has the wings hardly dentated, 
and is marked with parallel alternate stripes of black and 
fulvous, the latter being broader and paler on the under surface. 

The genus Dodona, Hewitson, includes several North Indian 
species, measuring from an inch and a half to two inches in 
expanse. The fore- wings are broad and rather short, with the 
hind-margin not very oblique, and the hind-wings are very 
long, being gradually produced into a large lobe at the anal 
angle. They are brown above, with transverse tawny bands in 
the male, much resembling very large Butterflies of the Lycsenid 
genus Aphnceus in colour ; the females are reddish-brown, with 
a white oblique band on the fore-wings, beyond which the tip 
is black. 

Dicallaneura,) Butler, is another small but very pretty genus 
containing a few species which are confined to the Papuan 
islands. They are rather smaller than the species of Dodona, 
with the costa of the fore-wings more rounded, and the hind- 
wings shorter, with a broad rounded lobe before the anal angle. 
In one species, D. pulchra (Guer.), from Waigiou, the male is 
black above, with a pale blue transverse band on the fore- 
wings, and the female is reddish-tawny on the hind-wings and 
at the base of the fore-wings \ outwardly, the fore-wings shade 
into yellowish tawny, and more than the apical third of the 
fore-wings is black. On the hind-wings is a sub-marginal row 
of black spots and streaks, 



14 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTOPY. 

In D. decorata (Hewitson), found in the Aru Islands, the male 
is reddish-tawny, with a tawny oblique band on the fore-wings, 
beyond which the apex is black, and the female is uniform 
yellowish-tawny, except the broad black tip of the fore-wings, 
and the sub-marginal black spots of the hind-wings. Both 
species are elegantly marked beneath with pale lines and spots 
on a tawny or reddish-brown ground. 

The genus Tavi/a, Westwood, has the hind-wings rounded 
or slightly dentated, but hardly lobate. The species inhabit 
India and the Indo-Malayan region generally, and measure 
about an inch and a half across the wings. They are brown, 
red or banded, with unicolorous hind-wings, and many of them 
are of a beautiful purplish-red colour, with spots and streaks 
on the under-surface of a dull metallic blue. In some of the 
species there is a large and conspicuous white or pale blue 
spot on the inner-margin of the fore-wings above. 

Abisara, Felder, contains rather large brown species, often 
with broad white or pale bands on the fore-wings at least. On 
the hind-wings some of these have a long tail, and are not 
unlike species of the Satyrid genus Lethe, Hiibner. They are 
found in the East Indies and Africa. Allied to these is a 
rather isolated species, Saribia tepahi (Boisduval), the only 
Butterfly belonging to the I.emoniida, which is found in Mada- 
gascar, while it is remarkable for being the only Old World 
species with three tails, or rather, two, in addition to the lobe at 
the anal angle. It is a brown Butterfly, expanding from i ^ 
to \y inches, and its diverging tails, though not its colour, 
give it something of the appearance of the Tropical American 
genus, Helicopis. 

The Erydnida of the Old World are a small but interesting 
group, and are one of the sections of Butterflies that require a 
thorough revision of the genera and species. The various 
existing genera, most of which we have noticed, are not in all 



EUSELASIINVE. 15 

cases sufficiently well-deQned, and there are some isolated 
forms, such as Abisara gei-ontes (Fabricius), from West Africa (a 
brown white-banded Butterfly, with tails, and with one or two 
ocellated spots, a very unusual character in this Family), for 
which new generic names are certainly required. But the domain 
of entomology is very extensive, and it would be a great mistake 
to imagine that it is anything like worked-out at present, even 
in the case of insects so much studied and sought after as 
Butterflies. The number of new and beautiful forms which 
are discovered every year in almost all parts of the world 
would alone dispel any such an idea. 



The genus Siwiskina, Distant, which is distinguished from 
all the other Nemeobiincz by the three-branched sub-costal 
nervure, is placed by Schatz and Rober in the Eryrinidtz with 
considerable hesitation. It includes only two brown and 
tawny species from Malacca, measuring about an inch and a 
half across the wings. The hind-margin of the hind-wings 
projects at an angle considerably further from the anal angle 
than in Abisara, &c. ; the under side of all the wings is brown 
with darker lines, or yellowish-tawny with reddish lines. One 
of the species was referred by Hewitson to the Lyoenid genus 
Poritia, Moore, and the other was regarded by Distant as the 
type of a new genus of Erycinidcz. 

SUB-FAMILY II. EUSELASIIN^. 

Egg. Undescribed. 

Larva. Onisciform or cylindrical, clothed with a dense pile, 
as well as with longer hairs. 

Pupa. Long or short, pilose or hairy. 

Imago. Wings broad, rather short; fore-wings with tho. 



1 6 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

hind-margin entire, nearly straight, only slightly curved ; hind 
wings generally rather long, sometimes dentated, or with 
several tails, or with the anal angle produced. Prevailing 
colours brown, with blue, tawny, or pale markings. Fore- 
wings with the sub-costal nervure three, four, or five-branched 
(within the limits of the genus Euselasia itself) ; cells closed , 
hind-wings with no basal nervure and with the upper radial 
nervule rising from the upper disco-cellular. On the fore- 
wings the upper disco-cellular nervule is absent, except in 
Perophthalma, Westwood. 

Range. The few genera of this restricted group are confined 
to South and Central America. With the exception of the 
typical genus Euselasia^ the species are not numerous, though 
some of the other genera are interesting. 

GENUS EUSELASIA. 

Euselasia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 24 (1816); Schatz 
& Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 234 (1892). 

Eurygona, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. pi. 21, fig. 3 (1836) ; 
Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 437 (1851). 

An extensive genus of small Butterflies, usually measuring 
from an inch to an inch and a half across the wings. The 
fore-wings are short and broad, and the hind-wings frequently 
show a tendency to assume a somewhat oblong form ; but in a 
few species the hind-wings are considerably drawn out almost 
to a point at the anal angle, though they are never actually 
tailed. In other species the hind-wings are slightly dentated. 

We have already indicated the general coloration of the 
species in our remarks on the Family. Several are striped and 
occasionally imperfectly ocellated on the under surface in such 
a manner as to give them a strong superficial resemblance, in 
some cases, to Satyr ina of the genus Euptychia, and. in other 



EUSELASIA. 1 7 

cases, to some of the numerous South American species of 
Lyccentda allied to Theda. The most remarkable of all, how- 
ever, are one or two tawny species, such as E. opalescens and 
O. pr&clara, of Hewitson, which are shot with a most splendid 
and delicate mother-of-pearl iridescence, for which we may 
seek in vain elsewhere in Butterflies, except in Ornithoptera 
magellamts, Felder, Morpho sulkowskyi, Kollar, and in the 
crimson spots of some of the South American Equiticles. 

According to Messrs. Godman and Salvin, "all the species 
of this genus have the habit of resting on the under surface of 
leaves within a few feet of the ground." 

The type is indicated by Dr. Scudder as 

EUSELASIA GELON. 

Papilio gelon, Stoll, Pap. Exot. Suppl. pi. 5, figs. 2, 2^(1787). 
Erycina gelon t Godart, Enc. Method, ix. p. 568, no. 19 



A rather inconspicuous brown Butterfly, with rounded wings, 
expanding about an inch. There is a fulvous blotch towards 
the anal angle of the hind-wings, both above and below. The 
under surface is pale yellow, with three parallel brown lines. It 
is found in Surinam. Dr. Scudder remarks that the larva "is 
said by Bar to be nocturnal in habits, and processional, the 
caterpillars following one another in a single rank; it is covered 
with pile (velvet), and ' wholly resembles the caterpillar of a 
small Bombyx! The chrysalis somewhat resembles that (/ 
Thecla." This processionary habit has previously only been 
observed in the case of certain Moths (Bombyces). 

As an illustration of this genus we have selected 

EUSELASIA EFF1MA. 

(Plate XXXVIII. Figs. 5, 6.) 

Eurygona effima, Hewitson, Equatorial Lepidoptera, p. 46, 

no. 83 (1869) 
10 n 



1 8 LLOYD'S NATURAL 

The male is dark brown on the upper side, with the anal 
angle of the hind-wings broadly white. 

The under side is pale brown, darker towards the margins. 
All the wings are crossed by three brown bands. The fore- 
wings have also a sub-marginal brown band, marked with a 
black spot in the middle. The hind-wings have a sub-marginal 
row of black spots marked with white, of which the third spot 
from the tip is the largest. 

The insect measures rather less than an inch and a quarter 
across the wings. It was brought from Ecuador by the late 
Mr. Buckley, some years ago, but has not been figured before. 
Mr. Hewitson compared it with a species which he had pre- 
viously described from the Amazons, under the name of E. 
euryone^ but which has no white on the upper side of the 
wings, and with E. phcedica (Boisduval), from Cayenne and the 
Amazons, which, however, has black sub-marginal semi-ocellated 
spots on the under side, almost like a Euptychia. 

The smaller genera of this Sub-family are very easy to 
recognise. 

Perophthalma tenera, Westwood, is an inconspicuous little 
Butterfly, which measures about an inch across the wings, and 
is common throughout South and Central America. It much 
resembles a small Mesosemia, to which genus both Westwood 
and Hewitson referred it. It is of a light reddish-brown colour, 
with a large black eye in the middle of the fore-wings in a yel- 
lowish ring, and bi-pupillated with white. The northern speci- 
mens have a white band across the fore-wings, which is nearly 
obsolete in Brazilian specimens ; and the hind-wings are more 
or less ochraceous, or banded with ochraceous, above. It is a 
gregarious insect, congregating in sunny openings in the forest, 
and resting on the upper side of the leaves. 

Hades noctula, Westwood, is common in cocoa plantations 
in. Central America and Venezuela, settling on the under side 



TlEUCOPtS. I Q 

of the leaves. It is a black Butterfly, measuring about two 
inches in expanse across the rounded wings; and Messrs. God- 
man and Salvin remark on its resemblance to Morpheis ehren- 
bergii, Hiibner, a species belonging to the Nymphalince, which 
inhabits similar localities. On the under surface, H. noctula 
has a red patch at the base of the wings, and there are traces 
of grey radiating lines at and between the extremities of the 
nervures on the hind-margins of all the wings. 

The genus Methonella includes one or two broad-winged 
species, measuring two inches, or rather less, across the wings, 
which are black, with the centre more or less filled up with 
fulvous. The hind-wings are rounded, and strongly dentated. 

GENUS HELICOPIS. 

Ilelicopis, Fabricius in Illiger, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 285 (1807); 
Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 423 (1851). 

The present genus is regarded by Schatz and Rober as some- 
what intermediate in its characters between the Euselasiince and 
the Lemoniince^ though with preponderating affinities towards 
the former. The antennae are long and slender, ringed with black 
and white, and terminating in an oval club, pointed at the end, 
and the front legs are much shorter than the others, and clothed 
with short hair in the male, and with scales in the female. The 
fore-wings are short and broad, and the hind-wings are as long 
as the fore-wings, and throw out long tails at the ends of all the 
nervules, that in the middle median nervule being the longest, 
and curved outwards. The colours are black, fulvous, and 
creamy-white, and the under side of the hind- wings is orna- 
mented with metallic spots. The larva is thickly clothed with 
soft hairs, and the pupa is attached by the tail, and a belt of 
silk round the middle of the body. 

These were among the first Butterflies which attracted the 

c 2 



2O 

notice of Messrs. Bates and Wallace in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Para. The former writes of them as follows, in 
the first chapter of his "Naturalist on the Amazons : " One 
day we made our first acquaintance with two of the most beau- 
tiful productions of Nature in this department, namely, the 
Hdicopis cupido and H. endymion. A little beyond our house 
one of the narrow green lanes which I have already mentioned 
diverged from the Monguba avenue, and led, between enclo- 
sures overrun with a profusion of creeping plants and glorious 
flowers, down to a moist hollow, where there was a public well 
in a picturesque nook, buried in a grove of Mukaja palm-trees. 
On the tree-trunks, walls, and palings, grew a great quantity of 
climbing Pothos plants, with large, glossy, heart-shaped leaves. 
These plants were the resort of these two exquisite species, and 
we captured a great number of specimens. They are of ex- 
tremely delicate texture. The wings are cream-coloured ; the 
hind pair have several tail-like appendages, and are spangled 
beneath as if with silver. Their flight is very slow and feeble ; 
they seek the protected under surface of the leaves, and in 
repose close their wings over the back so as to expose the 
brilliantly spotted under surface." 

THE SILVER-SPOT BUTTERFLY. HELICOPIS ACIS. 
(Plate XXXIX. Figs, i, 2.) 

Papilio acis, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. ii. app. p. 504 (1781). 
Papilio gniduS) Fabricius, Mant. Ins. ii. p. 64, no. 607 (1787). 
Rusticus armatus gnidus, Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. i. pi. 

101 (1816 ?). 
Papilio endymion, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 244, figs. C, F 

(1779); Stoll, Suppl. Cramer, pi. iv. figs. 55, b (1787). 
This is the largest and darkest species of the genus, and is 



PLATE XXXIX. 




\ 



\ 



\ 



1. Z.JIeUcopis ads 
3. ZeonicL cfoorinceu 



HELICOPIS. 21 

widely distributed in Tropical America. It measures about two 
inches across the wings. The fore-wings are of a creamy-white, 
with the base slightly tinged with yellow in the male, and more 
broadly and deeply in the female (which is larger and darker 
than the male) ; and the hind-margin and the outer half of the 
costa are bordered with black. The hind-wings are similar, 
but with a very broad black border, marked with a row of pale 
sub-marginal lunules; the tails are black, the largest being 
tipped with white; the under surface is pale, with silvery 
metallic spots on the hind-wings. 

The larva is white, clothed with long hairs of the same 
colour, the head yellow, surmounted by a tuft of red hairs. It 
feeds on the leaves of the Passion-flower, and changes into a 
brown pupa, with a tuft of red hairs at the head and tail. 

The type of the genus is 

THE GOLDEN-SPOT BUTTERFLY. HELICOPIS CUPIDO. 

Papilio cupidO) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10.), i. p. 482, no. 145 

(1758); id. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 313 (1764); Cramer, Pap. 

Exot. ii. pi. 164, figs. D-G (1777); Stoll, Suppl. Cramer, 

pi. iv. figs. A-C (1787). 
Rusticus armatus cupido^ Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. i. 

pi. 102 (1816?). 

It is a much smaller insect than H. ads, and much paler. It 
is of a creamy-white, with narrow black borders, and the base 
of the fore-wings is yellowish, and the hind-margin of the hind- 
wings is broadly pale yellow. The metallic spots of the under 
side of the hind-wings are of a deep golden-brown. The head 
of the larva is red, but otherwise it is very similar to that of 
H. ads. 

It is a common species in many parts of Tropical America. 



22 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

SUB-FAMILY III. LEMONIIN^E. 

Egg. Deeply reticulated and filamentosed. 

Larva. More or less cylindrical, fasciculate. 

Pupa. Attached by the tail, and sometimes also by a girth 
lound the middle of the body. 

Imago. Wings generally short and rounded; occasionally the 
fore-wings are rather long or pointed, and the hind- wings are 
sometimes dentated, or, if long, are frequently tailed. Wings 
very various in colour (rarely vitreous), and with no characteristic 
patterns except within generic limits. Fore-wings with the sub- 
costal nervure four-branched, except in a few genera, most of 
which used to be classed with the Nemeobiincz (Eurybta, Meso- 
semia,) &c.), and in Isapsis, in which it is three-branched. 
(This character, however, is not constant, for Mesosemia has 
the sub-costal nervure four-branched in some species.) Disco- 
cellular nervules generally more or less imperfectly developed. 
Hind-wings with the basal nervure well developed. 

Kange. This extensive group is entirely confined to Tropical 
America, with the exception of a very few species which are met 
with in the United States, or which extend beyon-d the Tropical 
portions of South America. 

NOTE. The species of this Sub-family have been divided in'.o sub- 
ordinate groups by Schatz and Rober, according to the number and posi- 
tion of the branches of the sub-costal nervure and other characters of minor 
importance. But with the exception of Stalachtis, which seems to be suffi- 
ciently distinct to be reinstated as a Sub-family, into which it was originally 
formed by Bates, we are not inclined to regard these distinctions as of special 
importance. Even the number of sub-costal branches is not always constant 
in the larger genera. 

The Lemoniince are very numerous and dissimilar, and we 
cannot attempt to do more than discuss a limited number of 
the most important ancl characteristic genera. Some of the 



MESOSEMIA. 23 

species are brown or black, but many are adorned with very 
bright colours. 

In the following genera the sub-costal nervure is usually five- 
branched. 

GENUS MESOSEMIA. 

Sftsosemia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 20 (1816); West- 
wood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 453 (1851); Godman and 
Salvin, Biol. Centrali-Amer. Lepid. Rhop. i. p. 378 (1885); 
Schatz and Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 237 (1892). 
This is the largest genus of the whole Family, numbering 
considerably over 100 species. They are of small or moderate 
size, generally measuring from an inch to an inch and a half in 
expanse. They are very numerous in South America, but only 
sixteen are recorded from Central America. The fore-wings 
are hardly longer than the hind-wings. The wings are rounded 
and entire in most of the species, being very rarely pointed or 
angulated, and never tailed. They are generally brown or 
blue, brown banded with white or buff, or white banded with 
brown, and most of the species have a round black eye just 
before the middle of the fore-wings, with two or three white 
pupils. By this character they can generally be recognised at 
a glance ; but many of the white brown-banded species, which 
have no eye spots, or else have a series towards the margins 
of the wings, have much resemblance to various similarly- 
coloured species of Euptychia^ or even Theda. Some species 
have brown fore wings, and white, blue, or tawny hind-wings. 
The sub-costal nervure is five-branched in most of the species, 
but only four-branched in some, showing (as in the case of 
Euselasid) either that this character is not of absolute generic 
importance in the Lemoniidce, or that these genera require 
further sub-division. The palpi, and also the front legs of the 
male, are extremely short in this genus. 
Dr. Scudder has shown that the type is 



24 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

MESOSEMIA PHILOCLES. 

Papilio philodes, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. x. i. p. 483, no. 155 
(1758) ; id. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 351 (1764) ; Clerck, Icones, 
pi. 45, fig. 3 (1764) ; Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 184, figs. 
D, (1779). 

Erycina philocles^ Godart, Encycl. Meth. ix. p. 381, no. 80 



Mesosemia philodes^ Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. ix. 
p. 373 (1868). 

This and several closely-allied local forms or representative 
species, found in different parts of South America, have longer 
and more pointed fore-wings than is usual in the genus ; this 
character is most conspicuous in the males, in which the 
fore-wings are black, with a short bluish-white band between 
the central ocellus and the hind-margin, and the hind-wings 
are also more or less broadly bordered with bluish-white 
(the breadth varying in the different forms), but the base is 
always brown. The female is slaty-grey, with blackish trans- 
verse lines. There is a testaceous ring round the central eye 
o f the fore-wings, and the hind-margin of the hind-wings is 
more or less broadly bordered with white. 

As a representative of this genus we have figured 

MESOSEMIA BIFASCIATA. 

(Plate XXXVIII. Fig. 2.) 

Mesosemia bifasciata^ Hewitson, Equatorial Lepidoptera, p. 94 

(is??)- 

Upper side, Male. Blue-black; both wings crossed beyond the 
middle by two broad parallel bands of indigo-blue. Anterior 
wing with the usual black discal spot bordered with blue, and 
marked by three minute white spots. 

Underside. Dark brown. Anterior wing indigo-blue in 
middle; the discal spot as above, with a short black band 



EURYBIA 25 

between it and the base, two black spots below it, and a longer 
band outside of it, also black, crossed by a sub-marginal band 
of white. Posterior wing irrorate with white, a discal black 
spot marked by two minute white spots, crossed obliquely in 
the middle, from margin to margin, by a band of black ; a 
very indistinct sub-marginal brown band. 

Exp. i T 7 ^- inch. 

Most nearly allied to M. meeda^ Hew., in the colouring of 
the upper side. 

This is a rare and little-known species from Ecuador, which 
has not been figured before, and as the pamphlet in which it is 
described is very scarce, we have thought it well to reprint the 
original notice of the insect as it stands. M. meeda> with which 
Hewitson compares it, is a Brazilian species. 

GENUS EURYBIA. 

Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 17 (1816); Latreille, Enc. 

Meth. ix. p. 458 (1823); Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. 

p. 416 (1851); Godman and Salvin, Biol. Centr.-Amer. 

Lepid. Rhop. i. p. 374 (1885); Schatz and Rober, Exot. 

Schmett. ii. p. 237 (1892). 

The species belonging to this genus are among the largest of 
the Lemoniince, measuring two or two and a half inches across 
the wings, which are brown, more or less spotted with white, 
on the fore-wings at least, and with more or less reddish sub- 
marginal markings on the hind-wings, enclosing one or two 
rows of black spots. In other species the fore-wings have a 
large black eye in the middle, with a blue pupil, and a reddish 
outer ring, and the hind-wings are more or less of a rich blue. 
The wings are broad, the fore-wings not much longer than the 
hind-wings, and the latter are rounded. The Brazilian E. 
Carolina, Godart, differs in shape from the others, the fore- 



26 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

wings being hooked, and the hind-margin of the hind-wings 
almost rectangular. It is brown, with scattered red spots, 
hardly arranged in rows, chiefly towards the base and middle 
of all the wings; at about two-thirds of the length of the 
fore-wings there is an interrupted row of white spots, partly 
interspersed with the outermost red ones. 
The type of Eurybia is 

EURYBIA SALOME. 

Papilio salome, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 12, figs. G II 

(1775). 
Eurybia salome, Godman and Salvin, Biol. Centrali-Amer 

Lepid. Rhop. i. p. 376 (1885). 
Papilio nicceus, Fabricius, Systema Entomologias, p. 482, no. 

175 (i775)- 
Eurybia niceeus, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 459, no. 2 (1823); 

Lucas, Lepid. Exot. p. 144, pi. 79, fig. i (1835). 
This is one of the smaller species, measuring about two 
inches across the wings. It is brown, with an eye on the fore- 
wings, and two white spots beyond the end of the cell ; the 
hind-wings have a reddish marginal band spotted with black. 
It is found from Nicaragua southwards to Ecuador and the 
Amazons. Farther south it is replaced by a very similar, but 
larger species, E. donna, Felder. 



Among other genera with the costal nervure five-branched, is 
Ithomiola, Felder (Compsoteria, Hew.), the species of which 
are transparent, with dark nervures, and resemble small species 
of the genus Ithomia. They have also much resemblance to 
Dioptis, a genus of Moths which likewise resemble Ithomia. 
They are found in Ecuador and other parts of Tropical America. 
Nearly all the remaining genera of Lemoniina have the sub- 
costal nervure of the fore-wings four-branched, and these have 



ZEONIA. 27 

been divided by subordinate characters of neuration and 
structure. Thus, the following genus differs from the others 
in having all the branches of the sub-costal nervure emitted 
from the end of the cell. 

GENUS ZEONIA. 
Zeonia, Swainson, Zoological Illustrations, Ins. ser. ii. vol. 3, 

pi. in (1833); Westvv. Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 431 (1851); 

Godman and Salvin, Biol. Centrali-Amer. Lepid. Rhop. 

i. p. 388 (1885); Schatz and Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. 

p. 239 (1892). 

The species of this genus may be recognised at once by the 
transparent wings with black borders and the transverse stripe, 
which, on the hind-wings, occasionally coalesces with the 
border, and is sometimes separated from it. The long hind- 
wings, of which the lower part is black, striped in the middle, 
or bordered below with bright red or orange, and throwing 
off a long narrow black tail from the outer angle, are charac- 
acteristic. There is generally a shorter tail also (sometimes 
reduced to a mere projection) nearer the anal angle. The 
species, which inhabit various parts of South America, are not 
numerous, and one only (Z. bogota, Saunders) is known to 
extend to Central America, where it was found by Mr. 
Champion frequenting sunny openings in the forest. 

On- account of the shape and general colour of this genus, 
the late Mr. Wilson Saunders has not inaptly compared 
it to the East Indian genus Leptotircus, which belongs to 
the Equitidce. 
The type is 

ZEONIA FAUNUS. 

Papilio faunus, Fabricius, Systema Entomologiae, p. 532, no. 

380 (i775)- 
Papilio ociavius, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii. p. 9, no. 72 (1787). 



28 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Zeonia heliconides. Swains. Zool. 111. Ins. (ii.), 3, pi. in (1833); 
Saunders, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (2), v. p. 99, pi. 10, 
fig. 5 (^59). 

This species, which is found in North Brazil, is the largest 
of the genus, expanding nearly two inches. The black trans- 
verse band is broad, and continued, apart from the border, on 
the hind-wings ; the broad red band on the latter is transverse, 
not extending to the anal angle, and is more orange than usual; 
and the inner tail is very short and slender. 

We have figured the following species : 

ZEONIA CHORINEUS. 
(Plate XXXIX. Fig. 3.) 

Papilio chorineus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 59, fig. A. (1775). 
Papilio octavius, Herbat (nee Fabr.), Naturs. Schmett. iv. pi. 

60, fig. 2 (179)- 

Ery cina octavius^ Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 564, no. 6 (1823); 
Duncan, Nat. Libr. Foreign Butterflies, p. 185, pi. xxiv. 
fig. 3 (1840). 
Zeonia octavius, Morisse, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vi. p. 426 

(1837). 

This is one of the smaller species of Zeonia, expanding only 
an inch and a half. It agrees with Z.faunus in the transverse 
band, being continued on the hind-wings, but differs from it 
by the very long and slender tail, and the much longer and 
narrower hind-wings, with a very large red patch occupying the 
whole of the inner marginal region within the tail. It inhabits 
Surinam and the Amazon region. 



The next section includes the genera in which one branch 
of the sub-costal nervure of the fore-wings is thrown off before 
the end of the cell ; and this is again divided into two sub- 
sections, in the first of which the middle disco-cellular nervure 



DIORHINA. 29 

of the fore-wings is perfect. This sub-section includes some 
of the largest and handsomest species of Lemoniincz. Most of 
them are tailed species, and some of these are very like Zeonia 
in shape, though generally with narrow white bands, instead of 
broad transparent ones. These include the types of the old 
genus Erycina^ and therefore some of the most typical forms 
belonging to the Family. The fore-wings are usually short and 
broad, scarcely extending beyond the hind-wings, which are 
long, and often more or less tailed. 

GENUS DIORHINA. 

Diorhina, Morisse, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vi. p. 422 (1837); 
Godman and Salvin, Biol. Centrali-Amer. Lepid. Rhop. 
i. p. 390 (1885); Schatz and Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. 
p. 239 (1892). 

This genus is closely allied to the next, and is chiefly dis- 
tinguished from it by the longer palpi, the usually longer tails, 
which are less curved outwards, and the absence of metallic 
colour on the under side, notwithstanding that the males are 
usually more or less blue above. 

The type is 

DIORHINA PERIANDER. 

Papilio periander, Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 188, fig. C (1777). 
Erycina iphinoe, Godart, Enc. Me'th. ix. p. 565, no. 7 



_ 

Ancyluris iphinoe^ Geyer j Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. iii. 

pi. 46 (1824). 
Diorhina laonome, Morisse, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vi. p. 422, 

pi. 14, figs. 5, 6 (1837). 
Diorhina periander, Staud. Exot. Schmett. i. p. 248, pi. 89 

(1888). 

This specieSj which measures rather less than t v vo inches in 



3 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

expanse, and has short obtuse tails, longer in the female than 
in the male, appears to be common throughout the northern 
part of South America, and it extends as far north as British 
Honduras. The wings are dark brown or blackish, and in the 
male the greater part is filled up with rich blue, bounding 
which, on the fore-wings, is a more or less distinct whitish 
line. Towards the extremity of the inner-margin of the hind- 
wings, and across the base of the tail are some red bands. 
The female is similar, but instead of the blue colour of the 
male, it has two transverse white bands, that nearest the base 
being the broadest. 

GENUS ANCYLURIS. 

AncyluriSj Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 23 (1816); Schatz 

and Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 239 (1885). 
Erycina, Fabricius, in Illiger, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 266 (1807); 

Latreille, Enc. Meth. ix. p. n (1823); Westwood, Gen. 

Diurn. Lepid. p. 428 (1851); Godman and Salvin, Biol. 

Centrali-Amer. Lepid. Rhop. i. p. 392 (1885). 

The name Erycina, having been used by Lamarck for a 
genus of shells in 1805, cannot be retained in Lepidoptera. 

As mentioned under the heading of the genus Diorhina^ 
Ancyluris differs by comparatively slight characters. The 
wings are black above, banded with red, orange, or, more 
rarely, white, and are sometimes adorned with blue markings ; 
while the under surface is usually richly banded and suffused 
with various metallic tints of blue and green. The species 
measure somewhat less than two inches in expanse, and the 
hind-wings are produced into a lobe or tail, turned outwards, 
and usually much longer in the female than in the male. The 
species are most numerous in the northern parts of South 
America. 



PLATE 'XL 




1. 2. Ancyluris mekbceus. 
3. MyrincL silervms. 



ANCYLURIS. J 1 

We have figured the typical species 

ANCYLURIS MELIB^EUS. 
(Plate XL. Figs, i, 2.) 

Papilio melibtzus, Fabricius, Genera Ins. p. 277 (1877). 
Erycina melib<zus> Godart, Enc. Method, ix. p. 565, no. 9 

(1823). 
Papilio pyretus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 144, figs. A, B (1777). 

This species measures about two inches across the wings, 
which are blackish, crossed by an oblique red band, curving 
inwards to the inner margin of the hind-wings. On the latter 
is a large curved red stripe near the base of the short obtuse 
tail, forming the commencement of a second outer band. The 
under side is dark brown, with brilliant broad metallic-blue 
bands, varied with greenish-coppery, especially where the mark- 
ings radiate towards the upper part of the hind-wings. There 
is a red spot about the middle of the inner-margin of the hind- 
wings, and a yellowish-white one lower down towards the anal 
angle. The incisions, at least on the hind-wings, are spotted 
with yellowish-white, both above and below. 

There are several closely-allied species in various parts of 
South America. The females of this group have longer tails, 
more strongly curved inwards than in the males. In some of 
the allied species the bands are broader than in A. welibceus, 
and are replaced with orange. A. melibceus inhabits Surinan 
and the Amazon district. 



There are several other beautiful and interesting genera of 
this sub-section, to some of which we must give a passing 
notice. Necyria^ Westwood, includes species greatly resemb- 
ling Ancyluris in colour and markings, but with broad wings, 
the hind-wings being rounded and denticulated. The species 



32 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

of Lyropterya^ Westwood, have more rounded wings still, with 
whitish or greenish radiating markings or else a broad red band, 
cut into stripes by the nervures and folds, on the hind-margins 
of all the wings. There are also numerous red spots towards 
the base, at least on the under surface of all the wings, and, more 
rarely, above as well. The genus Cartea, Kirby, includes one 
or two Amazonian species, with longer and narrower wings, 
and represents a different class of colouring, which is not 
unlike that found in various South American Bombyces, 
belonging to the Lithosiida, &c. The species of Cartea are 
black, with a broad fulvous band running from the base, and 
covering a considerable portion of each wing. The margins 
and the apical half of the fore-wings are free, and the apex ot 
the fore-wings is crossed by an oblique yellow stripe. Felder 
originally called this genus Orestias in 1862, but as that name 
had been used by Valenciennes for a genus of fishes in 1839, 
it became necessary to change it, and I therefore called it 
after my kind old chief, the late Dr. Alexander Carte, the 
Curator of the Museum of the Royal Dublin Society. But Dr. 
Staudinger goes out of his way to inform his readers that the 
name is derived from Carteia, the classical name of an ancient 
town in Spain ! 

To this sub-section also belongs the curious little genus 
Syrmatici) Hiibner. The fore-wings do not expand much 
more than an inch, and extend much beyond the hind-wings, 
which are very much produced, and terminate in a long tail. 
The wings are entirely black, except a large white spot, cut by 
the nervures, in the middle of the fore-wings ; and sometimes 
there is also a white stripe nearer the base, extending to both 
wings. 



In the next sub-section, the first branch of the sub-costal 
nervure of the fore-wings is emitted before the end of the cell, 



LEMONIINjE. 33 

but the middle disco cellular nervule is obsolete. The Butter- 
flies which belong to it are generally smaller, and much less 
brightly coloured than the majority of the preceding genera, 
and many of them are black, with radiating white or bluish- 
white markings, not unlike those which we meet with in 
many South American Moths, and also in certain genera of 
Hesperiidce. found in the same countries. One genus, Chamcz- 
limnas, Felder, exhibits a still more remarkable resemblance 
to the South American Moths of the genus Cyllopoda, Dai- 
man, having long fore-wings, which are black, with a bright 
yellow transverse band, and often a yellow basal stripe also, and 
bright yellow hind-wings, with broad black borders. 

The genus It hornets, Bates (Ithomiopsis, Felder), includes 
larger species, measuring about two inches across the wings, 
which have derived their name from their resemblance to 
various species of the genus Ithomia, Hiibner (see vol. i. 
p. 30). They are black, with orange-tawny and whitish sub- 
hyaline markings, and some of the species much resemble those 
of Stalachtis, Hiibner, (posted, p. 44), which itself much re- 
sembles the IthomiincR. 

The next section includes the great bulk of tropical Ameri- 
can Lemoniidce, and is characterised by having two branches of 
the sub-costal nervure of the fore-wings thrown off before the 
end of the cell, and the middle disco-cellular nervule of the 
hind-wings not emitted before the upper radial. 

In the first sub-section, the palpi do not extend beyond the 
head, and the antennae are not ringed or spotted with white. 
Here again we meet with some tailed species, the handsomest 
being Every dna calphurnia (Saunders) which expands two 
inches and upwards, and is not unlike some of the species of 
the genus Timetes, Boisd., among the Nymphalincz, in general 
appearance. It is brown, with a white band, edged with light 
blue in the male, running from the costa of the fore-wings to the 

10 D 



34 LLOYD S NATURAL HISTORY. 

middle of the hind-wings. Thence the band turns outwards, 
becoming light blue, and coalesces with a narrow light blue bor- 
der which runs down from the middle of the hind-margin of the 
fore-wings, and borders the lower part of the hind-wings, which 
is gradually produced into a long, but not very pointed tail, 
which is likewise blue, except at the tip, where it is white. 
Within this blue stripe and the brown inner margin is a choco- 
late-coloured stripe, running up to the base of the hind-wings. 
In the female the white band is broader and longer, and is 
separated on its lower end by a red line from a white line which 
runs from the base of the hind-wings to the inner edge of the 
tail ; the latter, as well as the hind-margin of the hind-wings, 
being bordered by a white line. The under side of this hand- 
some Butterfly is bluish-white at the base, separated by a dusky 
band from a whiter space, the outer part of the wings being 
tawny, except for the narrow white edging of the hind-wings. 

The present classification of the Lemoniina is very unsatis- 
factory, and the sub-sections are certainly only tentative and 
provisional. This may ba seen from the dissimilarity of the 
various genera which are included with Huerycina in this group. 
One of these is Barbicornis, Latreille, which differs from 
Euerycina nearly as much as Syrmatia differs from Ancy Juris. 
BarUcornis basalts, Godart, is a Brazilian Butterfly with such 
slender antennae that some authors have regarded it as a Moth. 
It expands about an inch and a half; the fore-wings extend far 
beyond the hind-wings, and are adorned with two fulvous or 
orange bands, one running from the base along the lower part 
of the cell, and then running outwards, nearly parallel to the 
inner-margin; and the other oblique, and sub-apical. The 
hind-wings throw out a straight narrow tail, as long as the hind- 
wings themselves, from the middle of the hind-margin. Several 
genera of this sub-section, like some of those of the last, are 
black, with sub-hyaline stripes ; but the largest and most impor- 



ANTEROS. 35 

tant is Lymnas, Blanchard, which includes about thirty species 
of moderate-sized Butterflies, not generally expanding more 
than an inch and a half across the wings, which are brown, 
generally with large red spots on the under side, and with an 
orange or yellow border to the hind-wings, and an oblique bar 
across the fore-wings. Sometimes the oblique bar is replaced 
by an orange tip to the fore-wings ; or there are no yellow 
markings, but only large red spots towards the base, or perhaps 
a red bar on the costa of the hind-wings. 



The next sub-section only differs from the last in having the 
antennae ringed or spotted with white. It includes a variety of 
small and moderate-sized Butterflies. As an illustration of this 
group we have figured a representative of the following genus. 

GENUS ANTEROS. 
Anteros, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 77 (1816); West wood, 

Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 427 (1851); Schatz & Rober, 

Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 349 (1892). 

In this genus there is a conspicuous tuft of hair on the first 
joint of the tarsi of the four hinder legs, more strongly developed 
in the male than in the female. The hind-wings are generally 
produced into a short obtuse tooth, and have also a short broad 
tuft of hair at the anal angle. In some species the hind-wings 
are produced into several tails, somewhat as in Helicopis (with 
which genus they were formerly classed by some authors), but 
shorter. The hind-wings are frequently adorned with metallic 
silvery or golden spots and stripes. 

The type is 

ANTEROS FORMOSUS. 

Papilio fornwsuS) Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 118, fig. G (1777). 
Papilio crasus, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. ii. p. 117, no. 122 (1781). 

D 2 



36 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Papilio valens, Fabricius, Mant. Ins. ii. p. 67, no. 644 (1787). 
Polyommatus valens, Godart, Enc. Mdth. ix. p. 644, no. 100 

(1823); Perty, Delectus Anim. Artie, p. 153, pi. 30, 

figs. 3, 36(1834?). 

This is a small South American Butterfly, which was first 
described from Surinam ; it measures about an inch across the 
wings, which are brown above, and yellowish, spotted with red 
and golden-green beneath. There is a white spot in the middle 
of the fore-wings above in the male. 

ANTEROS ACH^EUS. 
(Plate XLIII. Figs, 3, 4.) 

Papilio achczus, Stoll, in Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 352, figs. G, 
H (1781) ; Donovan, Ins. Ind. pi. 41, fig. 4 (1800). 

Polyommatus adieus, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 644, no. 99 
(1823). 

This Butterfly, which expands an inch and a half across the 
wings, is found in Surinam and the Amazon district. The 
upper side is brown, with two yellow oval spots on the fore- 
wings, and two transverse curved streaks of the same colour on 
the hind-wings, and at the anal angle a ferruginous spot. The 
under side is yellow, with numerous ferruginous patches, each of 
which is ornamented with several small spots of golden-yellow; 
the hind-margin has a continuous ferruginous band bearing a 
series of golden-yellow elongated spots. The body is brown 
above and yellowish beneath. 

It will be noticed that both the above species were classed 
by Godart with the Lyccenidce. 



The genus Ernests, Fabricius, includes dull-coloured species, 
with more or less pointed brown, or reddish-brown wings, with 



LEMONIIN& 37 

blackish markings, and lighter beneath, with much more 
distinct blackish lines and spots, the lines often zig-zag or 
broken. The pupa of Emesis is suspended by the tail. 
Among the other genera which belong here are many con- 
taining small species, not much exceeding an inch in ex- 
panse, such as Symmachia, Hiibn., Charis, Hiibn., Mesene, 
Westwood, &c. Many of these are dark-coloured Butterflies, 
some with large white spots, and others spotted all over with 
small ones. Others are brown, banded with red, or brown 
with numerous darker spots. But we have not space to notice 
these Butterflies in detail, and must pass on to the next sub- 
section, which includes several of the most interesting and 
typical genera of the Lemoniincz, which are distinguished from 
those which we have just been considering by the palpi being 
longer than the head, especially in the females. We may 
mention one or two of the more important genera in addition 
to Lemonias and Nymphidium, of which we have figured 
examples. One of these is Theope, Westwood, which is re- 
markable for its curious superficial resemblance to Thecla, 
except that the fore-wings are rather broader and more ob- 
tuse, and the hind-wings are rounded and not tailed. The 
upper side is black, with the hind-wings, except the border, 
and more or less of the fore-wings towards the base and the 
inner-margin of some shade of blue or purple. The under 
side is buffy-brown, or yellowish, most frequently without 
any markings. In some cases the upper side is varied with 
orange-tawny instead of blue. 

Pandemus pasiphae, Cramer, is a species resembling Theope 
in shape, but very much larger, expanding about two inches. 
The male is pale blue, with the apical region brown, bordered 
within by two white spots. The female is white, with a yel- 
lowish tinge, and the apex of the fore-wings brown ; the border 
of the hind-wings is also brownish. 



3 s LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

GENUS LEMONIAS. 

Lemonias, Hiibner, Sammlung Exot. Schmett. i. pis. 35-38 
(1805?); Doubl. List Lepid. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 16 (1847); 
Westwood, Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera, p. 457 
(1851); Butler, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, Zoology, ix. 
p. 213 (1867); Godman and Salvin, Biologia Centrali- 
Americana, Lepid. Rhop. i. p. 457 (1886); Schatz & 
Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 253 (1892). 

This is the typical genus of a large number of closely-allied 
forms, many of which have a general resemblance to Lyccenidcz. 
They are small and rather delicately-formed Butterflies, gener- 
ally brown above, more or less varied with red, blue, tawny, or 
yellow, and the under surface is of some paler colour spotted 
with black. The fore-wings are triangular, broad, not much 
longer than the hind-wings, and rarely pointed at the tips ; the 
hind-wings are rounded and entire. 

Hiibner used the name Lemonias for at least three totally 
different genera in successive works, and the dates are doubt- 
ful. It is true that, as Dr. Scudder points out, he indicated 
Melitcza maturna, Linn., as the type in his " Tentamen," with 
a binomial nomenclature ; but the date of this very rare tract 
is doubtful, and is almost certainly later than 1807. But in his 
" Sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge," vol. i,, which was com- 
menced in 1805, he figures four species of the present group as 
"Lemonias maculata" viz., L. m. zygia, L. m. luciana, L, m. 
alph<za> and L. m. epulus. The generic names of the first volume 
of the "Sammlung " (apart from the objection that they are not 
characterised) are often rejected because of their trinomial form, 
" Lemonias maculata" &c. But this objection, if valid, would 
also apply to many, if not most, of the Linnaean genera, and 
would thus shake the very foundations of our nomenclature. In 



LEMONIAS. 39 

the present instance Lemonias has been applied by Doubleday 
and all recent authors to a more or less restricted group, into 
which the second of Hiibnsr's species will fall, even allowing for 
his having figured two closely allied species as sexes. We have 
figured the sexes of a species very closely allied to the types. 

LEMONIAS EMYLIUS. 

(Plate XXX VI IL /%. 8 , 9 ? ) 

Papilio emylius, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 66, figs. G, H 

(1775). 

Erytina emylius^ Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 577, no. 64 

(1819). 
Lemonias emylius, Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 258, pi. 

92 (1888). 
Papilio crispus, Cramer, I.e. pi. 118, figs. D, E (1777). 

This Butterfly measures about an inch or a little more across 
the wings, which are black in the male, with a large red space 
on the inner-margin of the fore-wings, and two small white 
spots towards the tip ; the hind-wings are red, except broadly 
along the costa, and more narrowly along the hind-margin. 
The under side of the fore wings is pale yellow, and speckled 
with black, except along the costa, and more broadly on the 
hind-margin, where there is an irregular row of white spots. 
The hind-wings are whitish, spotted and flecked with black, 
especially towards the hind-margin. The female resembles 
the male on the under side, except that the fore-wings are pale 
yellow on the costa to the middle. On the upper side it is 
black, with a sub-marginal row of white spots, within which are 
numerous yellowish spots, and on the fore-wings is a broad 
curved transverse yellowish bar just within the spots, extending 
from the costa nearly across the wing. It is a common Butterfly 
in South America. 



46 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY, 

GENUS NYMPHIDIUM. 
Nymphidium^ Fabricius, in Iliiger, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 286 

1807); Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 447 (1851); 

Godman and Salvin, Biol. Centrali-Americana, Lepid. 

Rhop. i. p. 470 (1886); Schatz & Rober, Lepid. Exot. 

ii. p. 254 (1892). 

This is a very large genus, comprising nearly 100 species, 
which will, no doubt, be sub divided sooner or later. They 
are stouter insects than Lemonias, with longer and more pointed 
fore-wings, and the hind-wings sometimes produced, and oc- 
casionally even lobate, at the anal angle. The colour, how- 
ever, is very different and characteristic, usually consisting of a 
broad white or yellow band, commencing on the inner-margin 
of the hind- wings, and occupying more or less of the centre of 
the wings, till, towards the middle or apex of the fore-wings it 
tapers and ceases. The borders are brown, often spotted with 
white and orange-tawny. Of course there are variations in the 
arrangement of the colours, but this is a fair sketch of the 
most characteristic pattern. One or two of the larger species 
are remarkably like some species of the genus Adelpha in 
the NymphalintB, the size, markings, and pattern being almost 
identical. In other cases, chiefly among the smaller species, 
the pale colour occupies almost the whole of the wings, except 
a narrow border. 

The type of the genus is 

NYMPHIDIUM CARICjE. 

Papilio cariccz, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), i. p. 484, no. 158 
(1758), id. Mus. Ludov. Ulr. p. 324 (1764); Clerck, 
Icones, pi. 20, fig. 2 (1764); Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 
170, fig. E (1777); Sepp, Pap. Surinam, iii. p. 145, 
pi in (1852). 

Limnas subtilis carictz, Hiibner, Sammlung Exot. Schmett. i. 
pi. 30 (1805?). 



NYMPHIDIUM. 41 

Eryrina carica, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 575, no. 53 
(1823). 

A common South American Butterfly, measuring from i^ to 
i*4 inches in expanse. The wings are blackish, with a white 
band covering the hind-wings from the base to beyond the 
middle, and forming a large triangle, resting on the inner- 
margin nearly to its base, and extending upwards to the middle 
of the fore-wing. The broad dark borders are traversed first by 
an orange-tawny band, and then by a sub-marginal row of large 
black spots, darker than the ground-colour ; on the dark cos- 
tal border above the white portion of. the fore-wings, are four 
large reddish-tawny spots. The sexes differ little, except that 
the female is rather pa^r, with the white portion of the hind- 
wings extending to the base, and the fore-wings less acute at 
the tips than in the male. 

The larva is green, with black dots, a yellow lateral line, 
and a tuft at the head and tail. The pupa is attached to a 
leaf by the tail, and a girth around the body. 

The larva feeds on a species of Inga, and like that of a 
Butterfly allied to Thecla, which feeds on the same plant, is 
always attended by small black ants. The larva and pupa 
figured by Madame Merian as those of N. carica cannot be- 
long to Nymphidium. 

I have figured one of the largest and handsomest species 
of this genus. 

NYMPHIDIUM ETHELINDA. 
(Plate XXX 71 II. Fig. 7). 

Nymphidium ethelinda, Hewitson, Entomologist's Monthly 

Magazine, vii. p. 6 (1870) ; id. Exotic Butterflies, iv. 

Nymphidium, pi. 6, figs. 25, 26 (1871). 

This species, which was brought from the province of Minas 

Geraes in Brazil, measures somewhat less than two inches 

across the wings in the male, and rather more in the female. 



42 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The male has dark brown fore-wings obscurely spotted with 
black. The hind-wings are creamy-white, brown at the base, 
and with a short black band at the apex. The female is white, 
with the base of the wings brown. The costa and hind-margin 
of the fore-wings are rather broadly brown, and the hind-wings 
have a black sub-marginal line, surmounted with seven con- 
nected lunules. 

The following genus belonging to this section is sufficiently 
remarkable to demand a detailed notice. 

GENUS CATAGRAMMINA. 

Catagramminci) Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. ix. p. 411 
(1868) ; Schatz & Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 255 (1892). 

CATAGRAMMINA TAPAJA. 

Necyria tapaja^ Saunders, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (2), v. p. 108, 

pi. n, fig. 17 (1859). 
Catagrammina tapaja^ pt. Bates, I.e. (1868). 

This species derives its generic name from the resemblance of 
the female to the genus Catagramma^ Boisd. ; it expands rather 
less than two inches in the male, and rather more in the female. 
The male is black, with a bright red transverse band, varying 
in width, on the fore-wing^, and sometimes also on the hind- 
wings. The female, however, has the basal two-thirds of the 
fore-wings red or orange, more narrowly towards the costa. There 
is a black stripe on the sub-median nervure, and in the dark 
apical region of the wing is an oblique red or orange-yellow stripe 
followed by a sub-marginal row of white spots, which are con- 
tinued across the hind-wings. In fact, the female much 
resembles Catagramma sinamara, Hewitson, to which we have 
alluded (vol. i. p. 117) as the probable female of C. astarte^ 
Cramer. The resemblance of the male to a Catagramma is 
much less striking. Very little is known of this rare and curious 
mimicking Butterfly, but it is not unlikely that there may be 
more than one species confounded under the name of C. 



is APIS. 43 

tapaja ; in which case the type of the species will be the insect 
procured by Saunders from the Tapajos, with a red patch on the 
hind-wings; and the specimen without this patch, which he 
calls a variety, must be regarded as distinct. Bates gives the 
additional locality of Ega ; and Dr. Staudinger has figured a 
female from Teffe, which is the name of the river on which Ega 
stands. From its larger size I suspect that it will prove to be the 
female of a distinct species, corresponding to Saunder's variety, 
in which case it may stand as follows : 

CATAGRAMMINA HEWITSONI, H. Sp. 

Necyria tapaja, var., Saunders, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (2), v. p. 

108, pi. n, fig. 1 8 (1859). 
Catagrammina tapaja, pt. Bates, /. c. (1868); Staudinger, Exot. 

Schmett. i. p. 262, pi. 92 (1888). 

The male differs from that of C. tapaja, as explained above, 
by the absence of a red blotch or band on the hind-wings ; and 
the female by the black stripe on the sub-median nervure of the 
fore-wings being replaced by a black stripe below the nervure, 
and a corresponding blotch above. 



The next section contains the species in which the sub-costal 
nervure has only three branches. It only includes one genus. 

GENUS ISAPIS. 
Isapis, Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 465 (1851); Schatz 

& Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 258 (1892). 
The type is 

ISAPIS AGYRTUS. 

Papilio agyrtus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 123, figs. B, C (1777). 
Erycina agyrtus, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 590, no. 126 (1823). 
Isapis agyrtus, Doubleday and Hewitson, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. 

pi. 72, fig. 5 (1851) ; Staud. Exot. Schmett. i. p. 246, pi. 89 

(1888). 



44 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

This is an inconspicuous little South American Butterfly, 
measuring about an inch across the wings, which are brown, 
with a broad fulvous bar running obliquely from the middle of 
the costa of the fore-wings to the hind-margin, a little above the 
hinder angle. On the under side of the wings a yellow band 
runs just beyond the base, from the costa of the fore-wings to 
the rounded-off anal angle of the hind-wings. 

/. hera, Godman and Salvin, from Guatemala, is purplish- 
black above, with longer wings ; and the basal band on the 
under surface is fulvous instead of yellow. 

SUB-FAMILY IV. STALACHTIN^E. 
The upper radial of the hind-wings branches beyond the 
middle disco-cellular nervule, thus rising from a common stalk 
with the sub-costal. The lower disco-cellular nervule runs 
into the upper median nervule. The palpi project beyond 
the head, and the antennae are not ringed with white. The 
larva is cylindrical, and the pupa is suspended by the tail, but 
otherwise much resembles that of Nemeobius. There is but 
one genus, containing less than twenty species, all Tropical 
American. 

GENUS STALACHTIS. 
Stalachtis, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett pp. 26, 27 (1816); 

Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 466 (1851); Schatz & 

Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 258 (1892). 
The species of this genus are rather large Butterflies for 
LemoniidcZ) expanding from two to three inches. They have long 
rounded wings, and are reddish-tawny or orange, with black 
markings and white spots, or are black, sometimes flushed 
with purple, and streaked or spotted with hyaline-white or 
bluish-white, and with orange sub-marginal markings. Some 
of the species resemble Ithomiina among the Butterflies, but 



LYOENID^E. 45 

are rather stouter and broader-winged insects, while others re- 
semble large Dioptidcz, among the Moths. The type is S. phlegia 
(Cramer), a black Butterfly, with numerous white spots; it is 
broadly reddish towards the base, and there is also a reddish 
and incomplete sub-marginal band. The body is dotted with 
white. The wings are shorter in this species than in others of 
the genus. 

FAMILY IV, LYC^ENID^E. 

Egg. Thick-shelled, echinoid or semi-echinoid, studded 
with connected elevations, or punctuated, occasionally almost 
smooth. 

Larvae. Onisciform, thickest in the middle, sometimes 
downy, or with short fascicles of hairs ; head small, retractile ; 
legs also small ; habits sluggish ; sometimes carnivorous or 
cannibal. 

Pupa. Short, thick, rounded, very rarely slightly angulated, 
the head and usually the terminal segment on the under sur- 
face of the body. Usually attached by the tail, and by a belt 
round the body ; rarely free, and found on or under the surface 
of the ground. 

Imago. Of small or moderate size, and often of delicate 
structure; wings densely scaled, always opaque; fore-wings 
nearly always short and broad, sub-triangular, with three, four, 
or five sub-costal branches ; hind-wings rounded, frequently 
produced into a long tail, or with one or more slender filiform 
tails, but very rarely dentated ; frequently with pale lines or 
with ocellated spots beneath, those nearest the anal angle 
often more or less metallic. Prevailing colours, red, blue, 
brown, or white, very rarely green or yellow. Front legs in 
both sexes usually smaller than the others, but of equal length 
in both sexes, the front tarsi of the males usually unjointed, 



46 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

and ending in a single claw, always with a row of short spines 
beneath. Occasionally, however, the front legs are fully de- 
veloped, even in the males. 

Range. This Family has numerous representatives in all 
parts of the world, and several genera are both very numerous 
in closely-allied species, and have a very wide range, though 
there are also an unusual number of well-marked smaller 
genera, including only one or two species, and of very limited 
range. In Europe and North America the Family is numer- 
ously represented by the three well-marked and almost cos- 
mopolitan genera, Thccla, Lycczna^ and Polyommatus^ and one 
or two smaller, but allied, genera. In the tropics of the Old 
World the Family reaches its greatest development, both in 
size and in the number of well-marked generic forms, includ- 
ing nearly all those in which the hind-wing is produced into a 
very long tail. Africa is very rich in Lyccznidcz, producing many 
species of genera common to other parts of the world, while 
others, including almost the whole of the Sub-family Lip- 
tenince, are peculiar to the Ethiopian Region. In Tropical 
America we find an immense number of species (in fact, 
several hundreds) closely allied to Theda, and usually placed 
under that genus, as they have not yet been satisfactorily 
sub-divided. There are also a few very distinct and well- 
marked genera, peculiar to Tropical America, of which the 
most notable is Eumczus, Hiibner. 

Habits. The smaller species, the larvae of which feed on 
low plants, flutter about flowers in meadows, and are fre- 
quently very pugnacious, attacking and driving away Butterflies 
much larger than themselves. Some of the larger species, 
however, are capable of very strong and sustained flight. 
Those which feed on trees fly about their food-plants, and 
settle on the leaves in the manner of the Lemoniidce. Different 
species fly at different times of the day, and some, probably, 



47 

even by night. On dull days, or in the evening, some species, 
e.g., Pkbeius argus> may often be found asleep on the stalks 
of grass or rushes. 

NOTE. Attempts have been made to sub-divide this Family, but this 
cannot be satisfactorily accomplished without a much more extensive ac- 
quaintance with the exotic forms than we at present possess. For the same 
reason it is somewhat premature to sub-divide such genera as Thecla and 
rolyommatits to any great extent. In the present work we shall follow 
Schatz and Rober in dividing the Lyccenidce into two Sub-families only, 
Lycanina and Liptenina. 



SUB-FAMILY I. 
Transformations, See those of the Family. 

Imago. See generally those of the Family. Sub-costal ner- 
vure of the fore-wings three-branched, rarely four-branched, 
very rarely five-branched in the male. Upper radial of the 
hind-wings rising from the disco-cellular nervule. Hind- 
wings often tailed, and usually striated or ocellated beneath. 

NOTE. As this section contains the typical Lyccenina, and the other Sub- 
family, the Liptenina, is aberrant, most of our preceding observations may 
be taken as applicable rather to the former group than to the latter. Of 
the numerous genera we have only space to notice those which are most 
important and interesting. Very little has been recorded respecting the 
habits and transformations of the Liptenina. 

Mr. Distant, in his "Rhopalocera Malayana," p. 196, pro- 
poses the following sub-divisions for the Malayan species : 

A. Posterior wings without filamentous tail-like appendages 

near the anal angle: CURETARIA. 

B. Posterior wings with filamentous or prominent tail-like 

appendages near the anal angle. Posterior wings con- 
vex, about as broad as long : CASTALARIA. 

C. Posterior wings more or less elongate, distinctly longer 

than broad : APHNARIA. 



48 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

We may mention some of the characteristic genera of each 
division : 

CURFTARIA : Poritia> Cure/is, Zephyrus, Gerydus, Neopithe- 
cops; also Eumcztis and Trichonis in Tropical America, 
Ogyris in Australia, and the Liptenintz in Africa. 

CASTALARIA : Castalius^ Catochrysops, Lampides, Ly canes- 
thes. 

APHNARIA: Splndasis^ Sithon, Hypolycana> Ambly podia, 
Deudorix, Loxura. 

But this division is only provisional, being founded on the 
Butterflies of a small area, and it brings together forms more 
unlike in some cases than those which it separates. 



I shall now proceed to enumerate the more interesting 
genera of Lyc&nince, in some detail. 

A. Costal nervure three-branched.* 

GENUS THECLA. 

Thecla, Fabricius in Illiger, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 286 (1807); 
Leach, Edinburgh Encycl. ix. p. 129 (1815); Westwood, 
Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 481 (1852); Schatz & Rober, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 264 (1892). 

The original types of Thecla were T. betulce, T. spini, and 
T. quercus; and Dr. Scudder and other recent authors have 
agreed with me in accepting Papilio spini, Denis and Schif- 
fermiiller, as the type. 

This genus includes our smaller tailed Hair-streaks, of 
which there are three species in Britain, and several others 
on the Continent, and in Northern Asia. Most of these are 

* As this character, besides being subject to exceptions, would separat* 
closely-allied genera, I do not regard it ar of Sub-family importance. 



THECLA. 49 

brown, with one or more orange spots towards the anal angle 
of the hind-wings beneath, and with white lines on the under 
side, which has given rise to the name, " Hair-streaks," by 
which they are popularly known. They have also a filiform 
tail on the hind-wings. They are small Butterflies, measuring 
from an inch to nearly an inch and a quarter across the wings. 
The genus obtains its maximum of development in Tropical 
America, but is not represented in the tropics of the Old 
World. 

The antennas are more or less distinctly clubbed, the eyes 
are naked and finely hairy, and the palpi are rather long. 
The fore-wings are short, broad, and triangular, with the sub- 
costal nervure three-branched, the first two branches rising 
before the end of the cell, and the third running to the rather 
pointed tip of the wing. The hind-wings are rounded and 
generally tailed. The Inrvre generally feed on trees and shrubs; 
and the Butterflies are usually to be found flying about their 
food-plants, or frequenting brambles and other flowers growing 
in bushy places. 

I. THE PALE BROWN HAIR-STREAK. THECLA SPINl. 

Papilio spini) Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett 
Wien, p. 186, no. 6 (1776); Fabricius, Mant. Ins. ii. p. 
68, no. 651 (1787); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. fig. 376, 377 
(1803 ?). 

Polyommatus spini) Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 650, no. 116 
(1823). 

Thecla spini, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i. p. 78 (1828); 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 60 (1879); Lang, 
Butterflies Eur. p. 76, pi xvii. fig. 2 (1881). 

Papilio queraiS) var. Esper, Schmett. i, (i), pi. 39, fig. 3 



10 



3 D LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Papilio lynceus, Esper, I.e. p. 356(1777); Hiibner, /. c. figs 
674, 675,692, 693 (1803 ?). 

This species, which is the type of the genus, measures 
father less than an inch and a quarter across the wings, which 
Are brown, generally with one or two orange spots near the 
anal angle of the hind-wings in the male, and more in the 
female ; the hind-wings have a slender filiform tail, tipped with 
white. On the under side a white line runs across all the 
Wings, considerably beyond the middle, which is strongly W- 
shaped towards the inner-margin of the hind^wings There is 
also a white sub-marginal line on the hind-wings, on which 
rests a row of orange spots, marked outside with black, and 
towards the anal angle is a large blue spot, which is the most 
characteristic marking in this species. 

The larva is green, with two yellow lateral lines, and a dark 
dorsal streak, spotted with pink. It is found in June, and 
feeds on black-thorn, from which it derives its name, and also 
on white-thorn. 

The Butterfly is found in June and July in bushy places. It 
is common in many parts of Central and Southern Europe, 
and Northern Asia, but is somewhat local. It has been 
erroneously reputed British. 

II. THE WHITE LETTER HAIR-STREAK. THECLA W-ALBUM. 

(Plate XLL Fig. 3,4-) 
Papilio pruni, (nee L.), Lewin, Ins. Brit. i. pi. 44, figs, i, 2 

(1795); Haworth, Lepid. Brit. p. 38, no. 48 (1803). 
Papilio w-album, Knoch, Beitr. Ins. ii. p. 87, ph 6, figs, i, 2 
(1782) ; Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 380, 381 
(1803?). 
Polyommaius w-album, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 648, no. 1 1 2 

(1823), 

Theda pruni (nee Linn.), Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 77 
(1828). 



TIIECLA. 5 1 

Tliecla w-atbum, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 59 
(1879); Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 77, pi. xvii. fig. 3 (1881); 
Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i, pi. 13, 
fig. i (1886). 

This is a smaller insect than the last, rarely expanding more 
than an inch and a quarter. The upper side is dark brown 
with a silky gloss, the fore-wings having a greyish patch 
near the middle. Hind-wings with an orange spot at 
the anal angle, and a slender tail tipped with white. 
The under side is light brown, with a narrow transverse, 
slightly interrupted, white line, placed towards the hind- 
margin of the fore-wings, but starting rather beyond the 
middle, on the hind-wings, and forming two acute angles 




White-Letter Hair-streak (Thecla tv-almtm] variety. 

posteriorly, in such a manner as to resemble the letter W. 
Behind this is an irregular band of orange-red, widest towards 
the anal angle, and bounded on the inner side by a black line, 
which is sometimes edged internally with white. The hind- 
margin itself is black. The Butterfly appears in July. A 
variety is figured in the above woodcut. 

The larva is green, with oblique yellowish-white lines ; the 
head is black, and the body is clothed with fine hairs. It 
feeds on elm in May and June. The pupa is brown, with a 
white head. 



$2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

This Butterfly is widely distributed both in England, and on 
the continents of Europe and Northern Asia, frequenting elm 
trees and open bushy places. But it is local, and uncertain in 
appearance, and is rarely common, though it occasionally 
appears in amazing abundance, without any apparent reason. 
Stephens' observations on this subject have often been quoted, 
but are sufficiently interesting to be repeated here in full. 

"This species is usually esteemed a scarce insect in the 
neighbourhood of London, and previously to the last season I 
never saw it alive ; but the boundless profusion with which the 
hedges, for miles, in the vicinity of Riplcy, were enlivened by 
the myriads that hovered over every flower and bramble- 
blossom last July [1827], exceeded anything of the kind I have 
ever witnessed ; some notion of their numbers may be formed 
when I mention that I captured, without moving from the spot, 
nearly 200 specimens in less than half-an-hour, as they suc- 
cessively approached the bramble-bush where I had taken up 
my position. How to account for their prodigious numbers I 
am perfectly unable, as the same fields and hedges had been 
carefully explored by me at the same, and different periods of 
the year, for several preceding seasons, without the occurrence 
of a single specimen in either of its stages ; and it is worthy of 
remark, that the hedges to the north and north-east of the 
village were perfectly free, although the brambles, &c., were in 
plenty. A few specimens were also taken near Windsor, and 
in Cambridgeshire, and I believe near Ipswich, during the 
past season. The entomologists of this last town, Mr. Kirby 
informs me, do not esteem it a scarce insect ; its usual time of 
appearance is the end of June, and sometimes till the middle of 
July." 

This species was mistaken by the older British ento- 
mologists for the next, which had not then been taken in 
Britain. 



PLATE XLI. 




I . '2 . ThoLa> priuu.. 
3. 4. w album. 
5. 6. Callophrys rubl. 



THECLA. 53 

III. THE BLACK HAIR-STREAK. TIIECLA PRUNI. 

(Plate XL1 Figs. I, 2.) 

Papilio pruni, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 432, no. 147 

(1758); id. Faun. Suec.p. 283 (1761); Esper, Schmett. i. 

(). P- 259, pi. 19, fig. 3; p. 353, pi. 39 : fig. la (17??); 

Hubner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 386, 387 (1803 ?). 

Polyommatiis fritni, Godart, Enc. Meth. i. p. 647, no. in 

" (1823). 

Theclaprimi, Curtis, Brit. Ent. vi. pi. 264 (1829); Steph. 111. 
Brit. Ent. Haust. iv. p. 382 (1835); Kirby, Eur. Butter- 
flies and Moths, p. 59, pi. 15, figs. $a c (1879); Lang, 
Butterflies Eur. p. 80, pi. 18, fig. i (1881) ; Buckler, 
Larvae Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i. pi. 12, fig. 5 (1886). 

This is another dark brown species, of about the same size 
as the last, which it somewhat resembles; but there is a sub- 
marginal orange band on the hind-wings, and sometimes also 
towards the hinder angle of the fore-wings, especially in the 
female. The under side is lighter brown, with a bluish-white, 
slightly irregular line beyond the middle, which does not form 
a W-mark on the hind-wings. There is a sub-marginal orange 
band on all the wings, bordered with bluish-white, and ac- 
companied on the hind-wing*, on the inner side, with a very 
distinct row of round black dots between the nervures. The 
hind-wings have a slender tail, as in the allied species. The 
Butterfly is found in June. 

The larva (vol. i. pi. 3, fig. 8) is green, with yellow spots and 
stripes ; the head is small, and yellow. It feeds on black-thorn, 
and perhaps on other trees, in May. 

This species is found in Central Europe and the Altai Moun- 
tains, but is an extremely local insect in the midland counties 
of England, the principal locality being Monks' Wood, in 
Huntingdonshire. Newman ("British Butterflies," pp. no, 



54 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

in) states that specimens of this Butterfly, obtained from a 
collector named Seaman, were distributed at a meeting of the 
Entomological Club in September, 1828, under the impression 
that they were T. w-album, then called T. pruni. Newman 
noticed the difference, and succeeded in identifying the insect, 
upon which Seaman gave out that the specimens were from 
Yorkshire, which locality is given by Curtis, Stephens, and 
even Duncan, although Stephens had corrected the error before 
Duncan wrote. 

I have taken this species in Germany, flying round detached 
sloe-bushes, but not frequently, or in great abundance. By 
far the commonest Theda in that country is T. ilicis, Esper, 
which abounds in every oak-wood. This species has generally 
an orange blotch towards the hinder angle of the fore-wings, 
and an orange spot towards the anal angle of the hind-wings. 
It resembles T. pruni, in the white hair-streak of the under 
side not forming a W, but differs from it in wanting the round 
black spots within the sub-marginal orange band on the under 
side of the hind-wings. It has been reputed British, but 
doubtless in error. 

GENUS CALLOPIIRYS. 
CtillopJirys, Billberg, Enum. Ins. p. 80 (1820). 

This genus differs from the other European Thechc by the 
absence of a tail, though there is a slight notch before the anal 
angle of the hind-wings. It is also distinguished at once by 
the green colour of the under side of the wings. 

I. THE GREEN HAIR-STREAK. CALLOPIIRYS RUDI. 

(Plate XLT. Fi's. 5, 6.) 

Papilio rubi, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 483, no 154 
(1758); id. Faun. Suec. p. 284(1761); Esper, Schmett. 
i. (i), p. 279, pi. 2i, fig. 2 (1777); HQbner, Eur. Schmett. 
i. figs. 364, 365 (1803?), fig. 786 (iSrS?). 



CALLOPHRYS. 55 

Polyommatus rttbi, Godart, Enc. Mcth. ix. p. 673, no. 175 

(1823). 

Theda ruli, Stephens, 111 Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 78 (1828); 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 59, pi. 15, fig 3 
(1879); Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. Si, pi. xviii. fig. 3 
(1881); Buckler, Larvae Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i. 
p 89, pi. 13, fig. 3 (1886). 

This Butterfly is the smallest British Hair-Streak, rarely 
measuring much more than an inch across the wings. It 
is of a rather light uniform brown above; the hind-wings 
are not tailed, but slightly notched towards the anal angle. 
The under surface is of a beautiful green ; and instead of a 
white line, we find a more or less distinct and continuous 
series of white dots, especially on the hind-wings. 

The larva is pubescent, light green, or greenish-yellow, with 
a row of triangular yellow spots on each side, and a white line 
above the legs. It feeds on bramble, broom, and many other 
plants in July. The pupa is dark brown, and hairy, and is 
attached by the tail and by a belt round the middle. 

The Green Hair-Streak is common throughout Europe and 
Northern and Western Asia, and a closely-allied Californian 
form (C. dumetorum, Boisduval) may not be truly distinct. 
Our species is found in April and May, flying about the 
brambles which grow in sunny places, on banks, road-sides, 
heaths, &c., with the bright green opening leaves of which its 
green under side harmonises well. In the south it is double- 
brooded, a second brood appearing in August. 



I have figured three of the largest and most beautiful of the 
multifarious South American species placed provisionally 
under Theda* It will be see.i at a glance that they belong to 

* Some of the more ordinary-looking South American species exhibit 



56 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

genera far removed from our European species ; and the 
genera under which they will probably be classed are here 
indicated, but without characters being given. 



GENUS PSEUDOLYC/ENA. 

Pseud olyccena, Wallengren, Kongl. Vetensk. Akad. Forhandl. 
Stockh. xv. p. 89 (1858). 

I. PSEUDOLYCVENA MARSYAS. 
(Plate X LI I. Figs. I, 2.) 

Papilio tnarsyas, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 482, no. 

149 (1758); id. Mus. Ludov. Ulrica?, p. 315(1764); 

Clerck, Icones, pi. 41, fig. i (1764); Cramer, Pap. 

Exot. iv. pi. 332, fig. A, B (1780). 
Polyoinmatus marsyas, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 620, no. n 



Thecla warsyas, Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 285, pi. 97 

(1888).' 

The present species, which is very common in Tropical 
America, is one of the largest species of Lycanidct, found in 
the New World, expanding about two inches and a half, or 
even more. It is greenish-blue on the upper side, changing in 
certain lights into violet, with the cos La of the fore-wings 
narrowly, and the apical region broadly, black. Beneath, the 
colour is glossy lilac, with seven or eight black spots in while 
rings above and beyond the discoidal cell in each wing ; the 
hind-wings have two black lines edged with white beyond the 
spots, the innermost incomplete above ; towards the anal 

curious aberrations of structure and habits ; in one species the front legs 
are perfectly developed in both sexes, while another species has been 
taken at light, 



PLATE XI 



\ 




3 4. Evenus regalia. 



EVENUS. 5 7 

angle are two rather large black spots, which are sometimes 
also visible on the upper side. 

The fore-wings are very long and rather pointed, and the 
hind-margin is very oblique. Towards the anal angle are two 
tails, the innermost much longer than the other. The body is 
blue above, and white beneath, and the antennae are black, 
with pale rings. 

In the female the ground-colour is more greenish, and the 
black border is continued round all the wings, though it is 
narrower towards the apex of the fore-wings. 

GENUS EVENUS. 
Eienus t Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 78 (1816). 

I. EVENUS REGALIS. 
(Plate XLIL Figs. 3, 4.) 

Papillo ngatis, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 72, flgs. E, F (1775). 
Papilio endymion^ Fabiicius, Spec. Ins. p. 115, no. 506 

(1781). 
Polyommatus endymion, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 622, no. 17 

(1823). 
Eudymion regalis, Swainson, Zool. Illustr. Ins. ii. pi. 85 



Thtcla rcgalis, Slaudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 284, pi. 97 
(1888). 

This beautiful Butterfly is found in various parts of South 
America. The male measures rather less than two inches 
across the wings,, and the female rather more. It belongs to 
one of the most gorgeous groups of Tropical American Lyc<znid<T. 
The wings are of a very brilliant blue, with a tinge of green. 
and are bordered with black, rather narrowly in the male, but 
very broadlv in the female, which we fcave figured, and which 



58 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

has more rounded wings than her mate. There is a large 
blood-red spot at the anal angle of the hind-wings, which have 
two moderately long tails of nearly equal length, which are 
black, tipped with white. On the under side the green hue 
predominates, and the whole is thickly powdered over with 
gold-dust, giving it a very rich appearance. All the wings are 
traversed near the middle by a broad black line, bordered out- 
side with pale blue, and forming a W-shaped pattern on the 
hind-wings. Beyond this, on the hind-wings, is a broad deep- 
red, or ferruginous band, paler towards the hinder edge, and 
sprinkled with blue atoms. Towards the hind-margins the 
wings are darker than elsewhere. 

GENUS ARCAS. 
Areas, Swainson, Zool. Illustr. Ins. ii. pi. 88 (1833). 

ARCAS IMPERIALIS. 

(Plate XLIIL Figs. I, 2.) 

Papilio imperialist Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 76, figs. E, F 

(1775). 

Papilio vemis, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. ii. p. 115, no. 507 (1781). 
Polyommatus venus, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 623, no. 20 

(1823). 

Areas imperially Swainson, /. c. (1833). 
Theda imperialis, Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 284, pi. 97 

(1888). 

This species resembles Pseudolycana marsyas in having 
two tails on the hind-wings, of which the innermost is much 
longer than the other, but it differs from it in its much smaller 
size (measuring scarcely an inch and a half across the fore- 
wings), and the wings are much shorter, with the hind-margins 
regularly curved. The upper surface is brilliant blue, with the 



PLATE XLIII. 




1.2. Areas -Lmp&rtodis. 
3.4.Aneros cuchceas. 



MICANDRA. 59 

costa and hind-margin of the fore-wings black, and with two 
black spots in the cell in the male. On the under surface the 
colour is green, richly glossed with golden-yellow, and the 
anterior portion of the hind-wings transversely streaked with 
narrow black marks. The tails are wholly black. 

It is found in Surinam, and in other parts of South and 
Central America. 

There are several other well-marked Tropical American 
genera more distantly allied to T/iec/a, of which I shall only 
mention two. 

GENUS MICANDRA. 

Micandra^ Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 265 (1892). 
An insect of very remarkable form, with the fore-wings very 
short and broad, the costa strongly arched, and the hind- 
margin rounded outwards, so that the hinder angle is actually 
further from the base than the apex. The hind-wings are 
tailless, much rounded, and considerably broader than the 
fore-wings, though about equally long. 

MICANDRA PLATYPTERA. 

Pseudolycana platyptera^ Felder, Reise d. Novara, Lepid. ii. 

p. 246, no 285, pi. 28, figs. 6, 7 (1865). 
Micandra platyptera, Staudinger, Exot Schmett. i. p. 288, pi. 

97 (1886). 

The fore-wings are shining greenish-blue in the male, with a 
black border, narrowing to the hinder angle. In the middle 
is a very large conical patch of dull greyish-blue scales, with the 
pointed end directed towards the base. The hind-wings are of 
the same blue, with the costa, and more narrowly, the hind- 
margin, except towards the anal angle, black. On the under 
side the fore-wings are blue, with the costa and hind-margin 
bordered with black ; the hind-wings are blackish, covered with 
slender white interrupted serpentine lines. 



60 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

This curious species has been found in Venezuela, Colombiaj 
and Peru. 

The following genus diverges still more from Theda, and at 
one time it was proposed to separate it as a distinct Family. 

GENUS EUALEUS. 

Eumceus, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 67 (1816); West- 
wood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 469 (1852) : Schatz & 
Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 266 (1892). 

Eumenia^ Lateille, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 826 (1823). 

These are rather large Butterflies, generally expanding two 
inches or more. They are more robustly formed than in 
Theda, with broad rounded wings, not tailed or dentated. The 
pattern is quite dissimilar from that of Thecla, being black, or 
blue-black, with blue or green markings, consisting of a broad 
band on the fore-wings, and at least one row of large sub-marginal 
spots on the hind-wings ; beneath, the wings are ornamented 
with at least three sub-marginal rows of spots on the hind- 
wings ; and sometimes the whole surface of all the wings is 
spotted. The species inhabit Central America and the West 
Indies. 

The young larva is cylindrical and tuberculate; the full- 
grown larva is much flattened, but longer than usual in larvae of 
this Family ; the pupa is stout, arched, and rounded- 

The type is 

EUM^EUS MINYAS. 

Rusticus adolescent minvas, Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. i. 

pi. 97 (1805?) 
Eumenia toxea, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 826 (1823); Lucas, 

Le'p. Exot. p. 143, pi. 79, fig. 2 (1835). 
This species is blue-black above, more or less broadly greenish- 
blue at the base (the hind-margins being always black), and 



HYPOLYC/ENA. 6 1 

is black beneath. It has three sub-marginal rows of golden- 
green spots on the hind-wings, both above and below, and 
there is an orange blotch on the middle of the hind-margin of 
the hind-wings beneath , the abdomen is also orange beneath, 
except at the base. 

It expands two inches or more, and is found in Mexico and 
Honduias. 



Only four Old-World genera, besides Thecla, are included 
by Schatz and Rober as belonging to the section with the 
sub-costal nervure three-branched. They are rather small and 
delicate Butterflies, generally with two or three long slender 
tails on the hind-wings ; and the wings have sometimes 
metallic markings on the under side. We may notice the 
two most important genera. 

GENUS HYPOLYOENA. 

Ilypolycana^ Felder, Wiener Ent Monatschrift, vi. p. 293 
(1862); Hewitson, Illustr. Diurn. Lepid. p. 48 (1865); 
Schatz & Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii..p. 265 (1892). 

A rather extensive and wide-ranging genus, inhabiting the 
Indo- and Austro-Malayan Regions and Africa. It consists of 
blue or brown insects, not unlike the typical European species 
of Thecla in shape and appearance, and generally measuring 
about an inch and a quarter across the wings, and having two 
tails on the hind-wings, either of considerable length, in which 
case one (usually the innermost) is longest ; or equal, and of 
more moderate length. There are generally two or more 
black spots, frequently ocellated, at the base of the tails. The 
fore-wings are sub-triangular. 

H. lara (Linn.), is a small and somewhat aberrant species 
found in Eas^ Africa, from Abyssinia to the Cape, measuring 



62 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

about an inch across the wings, which are glistening pale 
ferruginous, with a row of large black sub- marginal eyes in 
black rings in the lower part of all the wings. The anal angle 
of the hind-wings is slightly produced, but not tailed. The 
larva is described by Mr. Trimen as very broad and thick, 
slightly narrower and thinner posteriorly; head very small. 
It is green, with a lake-red head and dorsal line, and feeds on 
Cotyledon cuncatum. The pupa is robust, rounded, and rather 
tapering behind ; it is rather darker green than the larva, with 
a faint red line on the hinder half of the back of the abdomen ; 
it is attached to the under side of a leaf, head downwards. 
" Mrs. Barber gave me the name of the larva's food-plant ; 
and it is interesting to observe in her drawing how clearly the 
green red-edged colouring of the insect accords with that of 
the Cotyledon " (Trimen). 

Dr. Scudder appears to have mistaken the type of this 
species (a very unusual error in such a careful and painstaking 
compilation as his " Historical Sketch of the Generic Names 
Proposed for Butterflies "), and quotes only the three species 
described by Felder, without any reference to the preceding 
remarks, commencing : " Diversitatem M. [Myrincc] eryli, 
Godt. et afrinium (sipyli, Feld, atoli, Fabr.)" &c. Felder 
also refers to a preceding note relative to his Myrina thedoides, 
which commences, " Species haec et ejus affines, M, eryhts, 
Godt. et sipyluS) Feld., a Myrinis palporum articulo secundo 
capite breviore, tertio longo aciculari arcuato antennisque 
graciliter dentatis recedunt." I infer from this that Felder 
regarded the following species as the type of his genus. 

HYPOLYC^ENA ERYLUS. 

Polyommatus erylus, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 633, no. 60 (1823). 
Amblypodia erylus, Horsf. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Go's. Mus. p. 1 1 1, 
no. 43 (1829). 



AXtOCERSES. 63 

et'ylus, Hewitson, Illustr. Diurii. Lepid. p. 49, no. 

i, pi, 21, figs, i, 2, 4 (1866) ; Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 

285, pi 20, figs. 5, 6 (1885); Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. 

i. p. 282, pi. 96 (1886). 

This species, which expands from i^ to i^ inches, is 
common throughout the Indo-Malayan Region, from India to 
Celebes. The male is of a deep blue, with rather narrow 
black borders, and a black patch of scales at the end of the 
cell , the fringes of the hind-wings are white ; towards the 
anal angle is a black spot bordered with white. Under side 
greenish-grey, with a double dark line at the end of each cell, 
followed by a common brown stripe, edged on both sides with 
paler brown, and angulated towards the anal angle of the hind- 
wings, where there are two rather long slender tails, on each 
side of the base of which are two black spots, more or less 
surrounded with white and orange. The female is brown 
above, with a sub-marginal row of black spots partly surrounded 
with orange, white, and black towards the anal angle of the 
hind-wings. The under surface is nearly similar to the 
male. 

GENUS AXIOCERSES. 

Axiocerses, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 72 (1816). 
Ckrysorychia, Wallengren, Lepid. Rhop. Caffr. p. 44 (1857); 

Trimen, South African Butteiflies, ii. p. 161 (1887). 
This genus includes a few African Butterflies of small size, 
measuring from an inch to an inch and a quarter a.ross the 
wings. They are rather stout, hairy insects, of a brown or 
black colour, with more or less of the surface of the wings red 
or orange. The fore-wings are sub-triangular, and the anal 
angle of the hind-wings is produced into a lobe. The under 
surface of the wings is more or less varied with small metallic 
golden or silvery spots. 



64 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The type of the genus is 

AXIOCERSES PERION. 

Papilio perion, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 379, figs. B, C 



This is a red Butterfly, expanding an inch and a quarter 
across the fore-wings, and with a rather long slender tail on 
the hind-wings. In the fore-wings the costa and hind-margin 
are broadly black, and there are two black bands across the 
red part of the wing. The hind-wings are narrowly bordered 
with black, and have a third short black band nearer the base 
than the others. The under side is brown, with a sub-mar- 
ginal row of small golden spots, and a similar sub-costal row 
on the fore-wings. There are also three or four irregular rows 
of larger transverse golden spots on ail the wing?. 

The locality given by Cramer is Surinam ; but the Butterfly 
is probably a native of West Africa. 

B. Sub-costal nervure usually four-branched* 
This section includes most of the typical Old-World 
Lyccenida. Most of the genera are tailed, and marked with 
ocellated spots beneath. The section is sparingly represented 
in North America by a few species belonging to, or allied to, 
European genera ; and in Tropical America we meet with only 
a very few species allied to Plebdus ; the Lycccnidcz (except 
so far as regards species allied to Thechi] being almost entirely 
replaced in Tropical America by the allied Famiiy Lemoniida. 

GENUS ZEPIIYRUS. 
Ruralis, Barbut, Gen. Ins. p. 179(1781). 
Zephynts, Dalman, K. Vet. Acad. Handl. Stockh. xxxvii. pp. 62, 
90 (1816); Wallengren, Lepid. Skand. Rhop.p. 171 (1857); 
De Niceville, Butterflies, Ind. iii. p. 299 (1890) ; Schatz& 
Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 267 (1892). 
* Vide suprh> p. 48. 



PLATE XLIV. 




V ^ 



1-3. Zephyr us betuuU&. 
4^6. quercus. 



ZEPHYRUS. 65 

Dipsas, Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lep : d. p. 479 (1852); 

Hewitson, 111. Diurn. Lepid. p. 64 (1868). 
AurotiS) Dalm. /. c. pp. 63, 90(1816). 

The type of Zephyrus is Z. betnlce, and that of Aurotis is 
Z. quercus. Ruralis, used by Barbut for Z. betul<z> is hardly 
admissible as a generic name. 

Antennae with a long, gradually-formed club ; palpi short 
and slender, hairy and scaly ; eyes hairy. Fore-wings with the 
sub-costal nervure four-branched, the two first branches thrown 
off before the end of the cell, the two last forming a small fork 
at the apex; upper radial nervule branching from the sub- 
costal nervure a little beyond the cell j fore-wings often with 
a patch of raised scales in the male. 

This is a Palaearctic genus of limited extent, ranging as 
far as Northern India and California. There are only two 
European species, which are considerably larger and more 
robust than the species of Thecla. The genus attains its 
maximum of development in Northern India, China, and 
Japan. The colours are blue, green, orange, or brown, and 
the sexes generally differ considerably, which is not the case in 
Thecla. 

The pupa of this genus is smooth, and appears not to be 
attached, but to be placed on or under the surface of the 
ground, among leaves. 

The type is 

I. HIE BROWN HAIR-STREAK. ZEPHYRUS BETUUE. 

(Plate XLIV. Figs. i<?, 2?, 3 under- side.} 

Papilio betula, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 482, no. 146 
(1758) ; id. Faun. Suec. p. 282 (1761); Esper, Schmett. i. 
(i)p. 256, pi. 19, fig. i (1777); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. 
i. figs. 383-385(1803?). 

10 F 



66 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. * 

Polyommatus betulce, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 647, no. no 

(1823). 

Theda betulce, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 75 (1828); 
Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 75, pi xvii. fig. i (1881); Bar- 
rett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 43, pi. 7, fig. 2, 2^-^(1892); 
Buckler, Larvae Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i. p. 184, 
pi. 12, fig. 4(1886). 
Zephyrus betulce, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 58, pi. 

15, figs. 5fl, b (1879). 

The Brown Hair-streak measures an inch and a half across 
the wings, which are of a dark silky brown above, with a 
blackish discoidal patch in the male, usually with a faint 
yellowish band beyond it; in the female the latter is replaced 
by a broad curved orange band. The hind-wings in both 
sexes are clothed with fine silky hairs towards the inner-margin, 
and the tail and the slightly projecting anvil angle are marked 
with orange-yellow. The under side is dull orange, with a 
deeper coloured marginal line, most distinctly marked on the 
hind-wings ; and with two narrow transverse undulating white 
lines edged with black, the anterior one abbreviated, and form- 
ing only a dusky streak on the fore-wings, edged with white. 
The antennae are ringed with white, and the club of the antennae 
is tipped with ferruginous. The Butterfly appears about the 
end of July, or the beginning of August. 

The larva is green, with longitudinal white lines and oblique 
yello.vish ones between them. It feeds on birch, blackthorn, 
plum, and other trees, in spring ; the pupa is brown. 

The Brown Hair-streak is a very common Butterfly through- 
out Europe and Northern and Western Asia ; it is widely 
distributed in England and the south of Ireland, but is rarely 
abundant, except in certain localities in the south. It is found 
along hedgerows and about bushes, and is liable to be over- 
looked on the wing amongst a crowd of Epinephele janira and 



ZEPHVRUS. 67 

Hipparchia hyperanthus, which often fly in the same localities, 
and which are still plentiful when it appears. 

II. THE PURPLE HAIR-STREAK. ZEPHYRUS QUERCUS. 

(Plate XLIV. Fig. 4^,5?, 6 under-side.} 
Papilio quercus, Linnoeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 482, no. 

148 (1758); id. Faun. Suec. p. 283 (1761); id. Mus. 

Lud. Ulr. p. 314 (1764); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 262, pi. 

19, fig. 2 (1777); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 368-370 

(1803?). 
Polyommatus quercus^ Godart, Enc. M-eth. ix. p. 651, no. 117 

(1823). 
Thecla betulce, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 76 (1828) ; 

Lang. Butterflies Eur. p. 81, pi. 18, fig. 2 (1881); 

Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i. p. 185, 

pi. 13, fig. 2 (1886); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 51, 

pi. 8, figs. 3, $a-c (1892). 
Zephyrus quercus^ Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 58, 

pi. 15, fig. 6 (1879). 

The Purple Hair-streak is rather smaller than the last 
species, rarely expanding more than an inch and a half across 
the wings. 

The male is purplish-blue above, with a narrow black 
border. The female is brown, with a rich purple blotch 
reaching half across the front part of the fore-wings, and 
beneath nearly to the hinder angle. On the under side the 
wings are of a light silky grey, traversed by a continuous 
undulating white streak, edged with brown anteriorly; be- 
yond this there is a double row of faint whitish crescents, with 
a few dusky dots on the fore-wings, and the hind-wings are 
ornamented with two fulvous spots, one at the anal angle, and 
the other forming an ocellus with a yellow iris and a black 
pupil. The Butterfly appears in July and August. 

F 2 



68 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The larva is brownish-green, with a dark brown head, and 
pinkish dots on the back ; it is sometimes tinged with reddish. 
It feeds on oak, and is full-grown in June. 

The Purple Hair-streak is common throughout Europe and 
Western Asia, and is the only Hair-streak except Callophrys 
rubi which is considered common in the British Islands ; it 
appears, however, to be rare in most parts of Scotland. It 
is always met with flying round oak trees, and sitting on the 
leaves. 

Several other allied species are found on the continent feed- 
ing on oak, besides Zephyrus quercus. One of these is Thecla 
ilicis (Esper), to which we have already alluded (antea, p. 54), 
and another is a much rarer and more local insect, found only 
in Southern Europe, Lcsosopis roboris (Esper), which is about 
the same size as Z. quercus and much resembles it, being 
purplish-brown above in the male, but the hind-wings are tail- 
less, and instead of " hair-streaks " beneath, we find rows of 
sub-marginal orange and white spots, separated by a row of 
black dots. 

We will now consider a series of beautiful and interesting 
genera allied to Thecla and Zephyrus, and mostly including 
tailed species, which inhabit the tropical regions of the Old 
World. 

GENUS HELIOPHORUS. 
HeliophontS) Geyer, in Hiibner, Zutr. Exot. Schmett. iv. p. 40 

(1832). 

Ilerda, Doubleday, List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 25 (1847); 
Hewitson, Illustr. Diurn. Lepid. p. 57 (1865); Schatz & 
Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 267 (1892); De Niceville, Butt. 
Ind. iii. p. 322 (1890). 

A genus of small extent, confined to the Indo-Malayan 
.Region, and mo.t numerous in North India. They are tailed 



HELIOPHORUS. 69 

species, resembling Zephyrus, but recognisable at once by the 
very characteristic colouring of the under side. The males are 
generally blue, green, or coppery above (at least at the base), 
with black borders, and often with a sub-marginal orange-red 
band (or rather a row of connected lunules above black spots) 
on the hind-wings ; and the females are brown, with a short 
transverse orange bar on the fore-wings, and a sub-marginal 
orange band, as in the males ; the fringes are spotted with 
black and white. The under side is of a peculiar greenish- 
yellow, with obsolete (if any) markings, except towards the 
margins. Towards the hinder angle of the fore wings are one or 
two black spots surrounded with white, and sometimes edged 
within with a white line ; the hind-wings have a sub-marginal 
orange-red band bordered within with white, of which there is 
sometimes a trace on the fore-wings also. The species are most 
easily distinguished by the different colours of the upper side 
in the male. 

The type is 

HELIOPHORUS EPICLES. 

Polyommatus epides, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 666, no. 109 

(1823). 
Theda epides, Horsfield, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. p. 92, no. 25, 

pi. i, fig. 3 (1829). 
Ikrda epides, Hewitson, Illustr. Diurn. Lepid. p. 58, no. 4 

(1865); De Niceville, Butterflies, Ind. iii. p. 225 (1890); 

Leech, Butterflies of China, Japan, and Corea, p. ^18, 

pi. 30, fig. 6 (1893). 
Heliophorus belenus, Geyer, in Hiibner, Zutr. Exot. Schmett. 

iv. p. 40, figs. 785, 786 (1832). 

This is one of the commonest species of the genus through- 
out Northern India, Burma, Java, and parts of China, It 
measures rather less than an inch and a half across the wings, 



70 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

which are brown, richly shot with violet in the male, which is 
sometimes marked with an orange spot in the middle of the 
fore-wings. The female is brown, with an orange spot, vary- 
ing considerably in size and shape, on the fore-wings, and a 
reddish-orange border on the hind-wings, also visible in the 
male towards the anal angle. The orange-red border on the 
under side of the hind-wings is variable in breadth. 

GENUS IALMENUS. 

lalf/ienus, Hiibner,Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 75 (1816); Hewitson, 
Illustr. Diurn. Lepid. p. 53 (1865); Schatz & Rober, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 268 (1892). 

The types of this genus are Australian species, somewhat 
resembling Heliophorus, but much larger, and with spots at the 
ends of the cells. The colours are also different. 

The type is 

IALMENUS EVAGORAS. 

Papilio evagoras, Donovan, Ins. New PI oil. pi. 30, fig. i 

(1805). 
lalmenus evagoras, Hiibner, Zutr. Ex. Schmett. i. figs. 175, 

176 (1818); Staudingcr, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 274, pi. 95 

(1886). 
lalmenus evagoras, Anderson and Spry, Victorian Butterflies, 

p. 97 (1894). 
Myrina evagoras, Godart, Enc. Meih. ix. p. 593, no. 3 

(1823). 

This species, which is riot uncommon in Australia, measures 
about an inch and a half across the wings, which are of a 
silvery-green above in the male (paler in the female), with 
broad black borders, and a black spot at the end of the cell of 
the fore-wings, and a black streak at the end of that of the 
hind-wings. Towards the anal angle of the hind-wings, near 



DEUDORIX. 71 

the base of the slender tail, which is longer than in Zephyrus 
or Heliophorus, are two orange spots, separated by a cluster of 
blue atoms. The under side is yellowish-ashy, with some 
blackish spots in and near the cell, and a dusky line beyond, 
forming a W above the two orange spots at the anal angle, 
which are well-marked both above and below. The hind- 
margins are black, preceded by a double reddish line, and the 
tails are black, tipped with white. The antennae are black, ringed 
with grey, and the body is ashy above, and yellowish beneath. 

" The larvae feed gregariously on various species of wattle, 
and are invariably attended by ants ; they seem to prefer young 
or stunted trees. The chrysalides are placed side by side on a 
common web " (Anderson and Spry). According to the figure, 
the larva appears to be furnished with four rows of short fleshy 
spines. 

GENUS DEUDORIX. 

Deudorix, Hewitson, Illustr. Diurn. Lepid. p. 16 (1863); Dis- 
tant, Rhop. Malayana, p. 277 (1885); Schatz & Rober, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 268 (1892). 

A considerable number of species, inhabiting various parts 
of the tropics of the Old World, are referred to this genus, 
which includes moderately-sized species with triangular fore- 
wings, as in Thecla, and a conspicuous lobe at the anal angle 
of the hind-wings, and a short tail near it. The species are of 
various colours : brown, blue, red, or partly white above, and 
brown, green, yellow, &c., below, with no specially character- 
istic markings, except that the lobe at the anal angle of the 
hind-wings is generally marked with a black spot beneath. 

The following species may be regarded as the type : 

DEUDORIX EPIJARBAS. 

Dipsas epijarbas, Moore, Cat. Lepid. Ins. Mus. E. I. C. i. p. 32, 
no. 40 (1857). 



72 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

Deudorix epijarbas^ Hevvitson, Illustr. Diurn. Lcpid. p. 20, 
pi. 7, figs. 1 6-1 8 (1863); Staudinger, Exot. Schmctt. i. p. 
278, pi. 98 (1888). 

This species, which is common in India, and is also said to 
occur as far as Celebes, expands from an inch and a half to 
nearly two inches. The male has dark brown foiv wings, with 
a large triangular coppery-red patch extending fiom the base 
nearly to the hind-margin, and occupying rather more than hall' 
of the lower part of the wing. The hind-wings are of a duller red, 
with a large brown patch at the base of the costa, and covering 
the cell; the female is of a fulvous brown, and has more 
rounded wings. The under side is of a rather dark brown, 
with two whitish undulating lines, and also two short black 
lines at the end of the cell of the fore wings. There are twc 
black spots towards the anal angle of the hind wings, one on 
the lobe, surmounted by a crescent-shaped spot of metallic 
green, and the second above it, enclosed by a yellow ring. 



Another Indian species, Deudjrix isocrates, Fabricius, is 
brown above, blue towards the base in the male, and with t\\e 
black spots at the anal angle of the hind wings, corresponding 
to those below, on a pale ground. The under surface is grey, 
with two short black lines at the ends of the eel's, two median 
lines enclosing a darker space, and one or two more sub mar 
ginal lines. It is remarkable for the unusual habit of the larva-, 
which live gregariously in the interior of the pomegranate. 
\\hen they are full fed, they cut a hole in the shell of the fruit, 
and spin a web attaching it to the lice to prevent it falling off, 
and then return to the interior, where they assume the pupa 
Mate. (See \\Vstwood, Trans. Knt. Soc. London, ii. p. i, pi. i 
(18370 



IOLAUS. 73 

Other larvae of this genus are known, but do not appear to 
exhibit anything unusual in their habits. 

GENUS IOLAUS. 

lolaus, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmctt. p. 81 (r8i6); West- 
wood, Gen. Diurn. Lcpid. p. 480 (1852); Hewitson, 111. 
Diurn. Lepid. p. 40 (1865); Schatz Rober, Exot. 
Schmctt. ii. p. 269 (1892). 

This is a genus common to Africa and the East Indies, 
much resembling Deudorix, but with rather long palpi, and two 
slender tails on the hind wings. The males have frequently a 
tuft of bristles on the inner-margin of the fore-wings beneath, 
and a corresponding round patch of scales on the upper side 
of the hind-wings. The prevailing colours above are blue and 
black ; beneath they are brown or white, more or less banded 
towards the hind-margins, and with two black spots, often 
marked with orange, towards the anal angle. 

The type is 

IOLAUS HEF.IUS. 

Papilio kelius, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. ii. p. 112, no. 489 (1781). 
Polyommatus /ictius, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 618, no. 3 

(1823). 

Papilio eurisus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 221, fig. D (1779). 
lolaus eurisus, Hewitson, Illustr. Diurn. Lepid. Suppl. p. 40, 

pi. 4, figs. 31, 32 (1869). 

! This Butterfly, which is common in West Africa, measures 
about an inch and a half across the wings, which are of a bright 
blue above, with the apex of the fore-wings broadly black. The 
hind \vin-s have three slender tails, tipped with white. The 
unuer side is ashy-grey, with three; brown transverse lines ; the 
spots at tin- anal angle stand in red rings, and the lower eye is 
bordered behind by a cluster of blue atoms. 

A South African species, /. si/(is, Westwood, is blue and black 



74 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

above, with red spots at the anal angle of the hind-wings ; 
beneath, it is white, with a slender incomplete red line. The 
thick rounded pupa is remarkable for being " attached with 
silk, by the tail only, horizontally on the under side of a leaf ' 

( Trimen). 

GENUS SITHON. 

Sithon^ Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 77 (1816); Distant, 
Rhopalocera Malayana, p. 253 (1885); Schatz & Rober, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 269 (1892). 

Myrina, Latr. (nee Fabr.) Enc. Meth. ix. pp. n, 592 (1819- 
1823); Horsf. Cat. Lepid. E. I. C. p. 116 (1829); West- 
wood, Cat. Diurn. Lepid. p, 475 (1852) ; Hewitson, Illustr. 
Diurn. Lepid. p. 27 (1863). 

The types of this genus are confined to the Indo-Malayan 
Region, and may be known from their allies by the sub-costal 
nervure of the fore-wings having only three branches, the 
first impinging on the costal nervure. The wings are rather 
short and broad, and the hind-wings have a slender tail, and 
the anal angle produced into a long lobe. 

With these insects are frequently associated a number of 
East Indian and African Butterflies, sometimes called Sithon 
or Myrina, varying in the number of branches of the sub-costal 
nervure ; most of them are remarkable for having a very long 
tail on the hind-wings, and frequently a much shorter and more 
slender one on each side. The Eastern species of this section 
have been divided into a variety of genera (Biduanda^ Cheritra, 
&c.) by Distant, Moore, and others. Most of these genera 
will doubtless be retained ; but we have not space to discuss 
them in detail here. 

The true type of the genus Sithon is 

SITHON NEDYMONDA. 

Papilio nedymond, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 299, figs. E, F 



MYRINA. 75 

Theda nedymond, Horsf. Cat. Lepid. E. I. C. p. 96, no. 28 

(1829). 

Sithon nedymond, Distant, Rhopalocera Malayana, p. 253, 
pi. 22, fig. i (1885); Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 277, 
pi. 95 (1888). 

$ (?) Theda chitra, Horsf. /. c. p. 97, no. 29, pi. i, fig. 5 
(1829). 

Sithon chitra, Distant, I.e. p. 454, pi. 23, fig. 15 (1885). 

This species has been found in Java and Sumatra, as well as 
in the Malay Peninsular, but is considered very rare every- 
where. The wings are rather short and broad, and expand 
about an inch and a quarter. They are black, with a rich 
purplish-blue band covering the whole of the fore-wings, except 
the costa, hind-margin, and the base of the inner-margin; and on 
the hind-wings the outer third is of the same blue as far as the 
tail and lobe, which remain black. The under surface is white, 
with the borders broadly dusky ; towards the anal angle of the 
hind-wings is a large fulvous blotch, spotted with metallic blue ; 
above this a short dusky stripe runs from the band to the 
inner-margin. The supposed female, S. chitra (Horsf.) is 
brown above, with a white space at the anal angle of the hind- 
wings, containing two black spots, the outer one marked with 
blue. The fore-wings, and the upper part of the hind-wings 
are orange, reddish towards the base, and the greater portion of 
the rest of the hind-wings is white, with the spots towards the 
anal angle black, bordered with blue and white. 

GENUS MYRINA. 
Myrina, Fabricius in Illiger, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 286 (1807); 

Trimen, S. African Butterflies, ii. p. 140 (1887); Schatz & 

Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 269 (1892). 
Myrina, sect. C. Lntreille, Enc. Meth. ix. pp. 1 1, 592 (1819- 

1823). 



76 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

A genus, the name of which was formerly used to include 
the series of genera and species which we have discussed under 
Sithon, the true types of Myrina being included with those 
of Loxura. Myrina, as now understood, includes only a few 
African species with very long palpi, gradually thickened 
antennae, not distinctly clubbed, and a long spatulate tail. The 
colours are black and blue above. 

The type is 

MYRINA SILENUS. 
(Plate XL. Fig. 3.) 

Papilio silenus, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 531, no. 378 (1775). 
Papilio alddes, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 96, figs. D, E (1776). 
Myrina alcides, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 594, no. 4 (1823). 

The present species, which expands about an inch and three 
quarters, is dark brown above, with the basal area of the wings 
shining violet-blue, which colour also extends to the borders of 
the hind-wings, and to the tail. Beneath, the colour is brown 
as far as the middle of the wings, where there is a narrow yellow 
line, which is incomplete on the fore-wings. 

This species is closely allied to the South African Myrina 
ficedula, Trimen, in which the blue colouring of the fore-wings 
is much more extended than in M. silenus, and there is a dis- 
tinct ferruginous bar on the hind-margin of the fore-wings. This 
species has been described and figured by many authors as 
identical with the West African M. sihnus. The yellowish- 
green, white-spotted larva of M. ficedula feeds on figs, and the 
short broad pupa is "attached by the tail only, but in a 
horizontal position, to leaves of the food-plant usually on the 
under side, or to its twigs " (Trimen}. Mr. Trimen adds, 
respecting the larvae : " There is no doubt that their peculiar 
colouring is highly protective, agreeing very thoroughly with 
that of the terminal green shoots, the bract and occasional 



LOXURA. 7 7 

withered portions of which are ferruginous; while the con- 
spicuous white spots most completely resemble the drops of 
milk-like sap that exude from the stems and leaves on the 
slightest wound. Moreover, both the larva (when in a slightly 
contracted position) and the pupa bear a very strong resem- 
blance to the small, rough, ashy-varied fruits of their food- 
plant. I found that those pupae which were disclosed at large 
on the plants were much greener and more like the little figs 
than those which resulted from larvae kept captive in a dimly- 
lighted breeding-cage." 

GENUS LOXURA. 

Loxura, Horsfield, Cat. Lepid. E. I. C. p. 119 (1829); 
Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 474 (1852); Distant, 
Rhopalocera Malayana, p. 280 (1885); Schatz & Rober, 
Exot. Schmelt. ii. p. 270 (1888). 

The species of this genus were formerly placed with those of 
Myrina^ which they resemble in general appearance ; but they 
are more slender Butte: flies, with much longer and slenderer 
palpi, and the long tail is pointed and not spatulate at the ex- 
tremity. They, moreover, inhabit India and the adjacent 
islands, not Africa. The wings are fulvous, or ochraceous, 
with brown or black borders, and the type is Loxura atynmus 
(Cramer), which is found almost throughout the southern part 
of the Indo-Malayan region, except, perhaps, in Sumatra. 

GENUS PHASIS. 
Phasis, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 73 (1816). 

) Hiibner, /. c. p. 73 (1816). 

iS) Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. pi. 22, fig. 6 (1836) ; 
Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 500(1852); Trimen, 
S. African Butterflies, ii. p. 167 (1887). 

Cigarftis, Donzel, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (2) v. p. 528 (1847); 
Lucas, Expl. AlgeV. Zool. Hi. p. 362 (1849). 



78 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Axiocerses, pt. Kirby, Cat. Diurn. Lepid. p. 337 (1871); 
Schatz & Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 271 (1892). 

There are a considerable number of African species, usually 
classed under the names Axiocerses or Zcritis, which we may 
notice here. They are stout-bodied insects, and differ from 
true Axiocerses in the sub-costal nervure being four or five- 
branched. Ultimately they will be divided into several genera 
(for although many genera have already been separated, the 
remainder are far from homogeneous), for some of which the 
names quoted above will be available, as their types mostly 
represent different groups. 

In general terms we may say that the species are of rather 
small size, and of a coppery-red, or orange, with broad brown 
borders. There is no tail in this group, but the hind-wings 
are frequently more or less produced at the anal angle. They 
are sometimes flushed with blue towards the base ; and many 
of the species are marked with metallic spots beneath. 

The type of Phasis is P. thero (Linnaeus), the largest species 
of the group, sometimes expanding two inches. It is dark 
brown above, with eight red spots on each of the fore-wings, 
one in the cell, one beyond, a row of five on the disc, and a 
larger one nearer the base towards the inner-margin ; the hind- 
wings are dentated and sub-caudate (somewhat as in Lyccena 
phlaas (Linn.) ), and the fore-wings are strongly emarginate on 
the hind-margin below the middle. In fact, the general 
appearance of the Butterfly is somewhat between a Lyccena 
and a Libythea. The under side of the fore-wings is fulvous, 
with black borders and markings ; the three black spots in the 
cell are centred with silver. The hind-wings are brown, with 
silvery-white spots, one of which (a large curved spot in the 
middle) is very conspicuous. The orange spots of the upper 
side vary in size and number, and some of them are confluent 
in the female. It is a common South African Butterfly. 



APHN^EUS. 79 

The type of Aloeides is A. pierus (Cramer), another South 
African Butterfly, dotted with grey or yellowish grey at the 
base of the wings, and with a red patch near the anal angle 
of the hind-wings, and in the female, also on the fore-wings. 
The under side is brown, with slightly metallic spots, and the 
fore-wings are fulvous in the centre, spotted with black and sil- 
very. The Butterfly has rounded wings, and expands rather 
less than an inch and a half. 

The type of Zeritis is Z. neriene (Boisduval), a Gaboon 
Butterfly, expanding about an inch and a half across the wings. 
The upper side is unfigured ; the under side is tessellated with 
square yellow and red spots, forming irregular alternate 
bands, and partly separated by black lines, much in the fashion 
of a Melitcea. A black zig-zag line runs near the hind-margins, 
enclosing white spots on the fore-wings. The hind-wings are 
rounded, not dentated or tailed. 

The type of Cigar it is is C. zohra, Donzel, a North African 
species very like Lyc&naphkeas. It expands an inch and a quar- 
ter across the wings; the hind wings are sub-caudate in the 
male, and have longer tails in the female. The fore-wings are 
bright coppery-red, with a black hind-margin, two short black 
bands in the cell, and a sub-marginal black band beyond. The 
hind- wings are black, with two or three coppery bands, imper- 
fectly separated, towards the hind-margin. The under side of 
the hind-wings is dull yellowish-green, with irregular white 
markings. These are not all the well-marked forms of this 
heterogeneous African group, but will sufficiently serve to 
illustrate it. 

GENUS APHN^US. 

Aphnaus, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 81 (1816); He wit- 
son, Illustr. Diurn. Lepid. p. 60 (1865); Trimen, S. 
African Butterflies, ii. p. 146(1887); Schatz Rober, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 171 (1892). 



So LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Spindasis, Wallengr. Lepid. Rhop. Caffr. p. 45 (1857). 

This is a genus including several East Indian and African 
species, with triangular fore-wings, and somewhat produced 
and lobate hind-wings, furnished with two slender tails. The 
upper side is more or less extensively marked with blue or 
orange on a dark ground, and the under side is marked with 
transverse bands, more or less silvery in the middle, or with 
parallel lines arranged in pairs, and filled up with silver. Many 
of the species are extremely similar. The larva and pupa are 
more elongate than is usual in the Lycaznida. 

The type is 

APIIN^EUS ORCAS. 

Papilio erects^ Drury, Illustr, Exot. Ent. iii. pi. 34, figs. 2, 3 

(1782). 
Hcsperia pindaruS) Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii. (i) p. 262, no. 15 



Papilio pindarus, Donovan, Ins. India, pi. 38, fig. 2 (1800). 
Polyommatus orcas> Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 645, no. 102 

(1823). 

Aphntzus orcas, Hewitson, Illustr. Diurn. Lepid. p. 60, no. i 
(1865). 

This Butterfly, which measures an inch and a quarter in ex- 
panse, is a native of We.>t Africa. 

In the male the centre of all the wings is of a shining 
greenish-blue, with the costa and hind-margin black. There are 
three black spots in the cell of the fore-wings, and two red 
spots at the anal angle of the hind-wings. The under side is 
of a yellowish-grey, with broad silvery blotches and bands 
bordered with chocolate-brown. On the lobe at the anal angle 
of the hind-wings is a large black spot, bordered above with 
orange. The female is uniform dark brown ; the fore-wings 
with a pale spot at the end of the cell. The under side is 



MILETUS. 8 1 

rufous-yellow, and the spots are silvery-white, bordered with 
pale brown. 

GENUS MILETUS. 

Miletus, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 71 (1816). 

Theda, sect. Hypochrysops, Felder, Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 243 

(1860). 
Hypochrysops, Felder, Reise Novara, Lepid. ii. p. 251 (1865); 

Schatz & Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 272 (1892); 

H, H. Druce, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1891, p. 179. 
This is one of the most characteristic genera of the Austro- 
Malayan Region, and one of the most richly ornamented. On 
the upper side it is generally blue, 01 blue and black, or brown, 
frequently with a white blotch on the fore-wings, and 
occasionally orange-tawny ; but beneath it is decorated with 
red spots and bands bordered with silver, on a brown ground, 
or with metallic blue lines and rows of spots bordered with 
black or tawny, and set off by large masses of white on the 
fore-wings. 

The type is M. polydetus (Linnaeus), from Ceram and 
Amboina, which expands about an inch and a half. The 
male is of a rich blue above, with black borders, and the 
female is black, with more or less of the base greenish-blue. 
The under surface is dark brown, with numerous red bands 
bordered with black, and then. with golden-green. 



We now come to the immense group of small blue Butter- 
flies, which have latterly been divided into numerous genera, 
at least as regards the Indo-Malayan species. These genera 
will be briefly noticed, with reference to those which contain 
European (and especially British) species, and to one or two of 
the more remarkable of the exotic forms. It must be remem- 
bered that such names as Plcbeius^ Cupido, Lyc<zna> and 
10 G 



82 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Cyaniris were originally intended to include all the Blues, 
and sometimes all the Lyccenida, or even the Hesperiida as 
well, 

The European species belonging to this group of Butterflies 
are always of a blue or brown colour, generally with numerous 
dark spots beneath, surrounded with paler colour. They are 
distinguished from the Butterflies allied to Theda by the sub- 
costal nervure of the fore-wings being four-branched, and from 
the genera allied to Lycana, by the presence of the upper 
disco-cellular nervule in the fore-wings. 

GENUS LAMPIDES. 

Lampides, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p 70 (1816). 
Polyommatus^ pt. Latreille, Hist. Nat Crust. Ins. xiv p. 116 
(1805). 

The comparatively large size, tailed hind-wings, and streaked 
under side of the only British species of this genus, will pre- 
vent its being mistaken for any other " Blue." 

The name Lampides has been sufficiently often applied to 
L. bceticus to warrant this species being regarded as the type. 
Several recent authors have treated L. bccticus as the type of 
Polyommatus Latr., but I consider that Latreille indicated 
P c-vydon as the type of Polyommatus by figuring it ; and more- 
over the name Polyommatus is wholly inapplicable to L. bceticus. 

THE LARGE TAILED BLUE. LAMPIDES B^TICUS. 

(Plate XLV. Figs, 1-3.) 

Papilio baticus, Linnaeus, Syst Nat. i. (2) p. 789, no. 226 

(1767); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 319, pi. 27. figs. 30, b 

(1777); i. (2) p. 181, pi. 91, fig. 3 (1784); Hiibner, Eur. 

Schmett. i. figs. 373-375 (1803). 

Polyommatus batica, Godart, Enc. Mdth. ix, p. 653, no. 122 

(1823). 
Lampides baticuSy Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 117 (1881). 



PLATE XLV. 




5. 






6. 



\ / 




V f 




/. 3. Lampides bceticus. 

4^6. CapiAo aryutdes. 

7_ 9. Polyomrnatus icarufi. 



LAMPIDES. 83 

Polyommatus bceticus, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 53 

(1879). 
Lycana fatica, Milliere, Icones, i. p. 245, pi. 4, figs. 1-6 (1861), 

Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 99, pi. 22, fig. 2; pi. 28, fig. 5 

(larva) (1881). 
Lyccena bcetica> Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 65, pi. 10, figs. 

i, la (1892). 

This Butterfly expands about an inch and a quarter across 
the fore-wings, which are violet-blue in the male, with narrow 
brown borders, and grey fringes. There are generally two 
black spots at the anal angle of the hind-wings, near which is 
a slender tail. The female is brown, more or less blue at 
the base of the fore-wings, and towards the inner-margin 
of the hind-wings, and often has some zig-zag whitish 
markings within the black sub-marginal spots, which are more 
numerous than in the male, and are edged with white on the 
inside. The under side is pale brown, with numerous white 
streaks ; most of these are straight, and converge more or less 
towards the inner-margin of the wings ; the dark sub-marginal 
spots are edged within with white crescents, and beyond the 
middle of the hind-wings is a broad, nearly straight, and 
slightly irregular white band. The spots towards the anal 
angle of the hind-wings are black, edged below with metallic 
green, and broadly surrounded with orange. 

The larva is green or reddish-brown, with a dark dorsal line, 
and a white lateral line below the yellow spiracles ; the head is 
black. The eggs are laid on the stems of the bladder-senna 
(Colutea arborescens\ and on other leguminous plants. The 
young larvae hatch in the following summer, when they pierce 
the pods, and feed on the seeds. On reaching their full 
growth they abandon the pods, and the pupa is usually 
attached to a stem, or formed among the dried leaves of the 
food-plant. The pupa is reddish or yellowish, with brown 

o 2 



84 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

dots, and obtuse at both ends, and is attached by a belt 
round the middle. 

The food of the larva varies in different parts of its range ; 
it will feed on the common pea, the field pea, and lupine. 

This species is common throughout Southern Europe, the 
\vhole of Africa, and southern and eastern Asia, as far as China 
and Japan ; and also throughout the eastern islands to 
Australia and the Sandwich Islands. But in Europe it is one of 
those Mediterranean species which have not crossed the Alps, 
but are gradually extending their range northwards along the 
west coast of Europe. In Germany the only recorded locality 
(and that somewhat doubtful) is Aix-la-Chapelle ; but the 




Lampides batica. Upper side of female. 

Butterfly has long been known as at least an occasional visitant 
to the Channel Islands. In 1859, the last of a series of 
unusually fine and hot summers, to which many entomolo- 
gists doubtless still look back with regret, this Butterfly re- 
appeared in the Channel Islands, where it had not been seen 
for twenty years ; and one day Mr. Henry Cooke, of Brighton, 
where I was then living, told me that Mr. McArthur had 
captured " a new Theda " on the Downs. I knew that there 
were tailed Blues, and that it was not a likely locality for a 
Theda, and was not surprised when the insect was identified. 
The few specimens known to have occurred in England have 
all been met with in the southern counties during August. 
There is also a May brood on the continent. Many species, 



CUPIDO. 85 

much resembling this in shape and markings, are found in the 
East Indies. Some of these, such as L. tzlianus, Fabric! is 
(which some authors treat as the type of Lampides, considering 
L. bceticus as generically distinct), are of a very pale blue, 
almost white. 

GENUS CUPIDO. 

CupidO) Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. (i) pp. 153, 209 (1801). 
Everes, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 69 (1815); Moore, 
Lepid. Ceylon, i. p. 85 (1881). 

The type of this genus is a small blue Butterfly, with a 
slender tail on the hind-wings, and spotted, not streaked, on the 
under surface. The only species which Schrank described at 
unusual length under Cupido was C. puer, which subsequently 
proved to include two species, C. argiades and C. alsus, placed 
together as male and female. The large space given to C puer, 
in conjunction with the name, is sufficient to establish the 
male (C. argiades) as the indubitable type of Cupido. 

THE SMALL TAILED BLUE. CUPIDO ARGIADES. 
(Plate XLV. Figs. 4-6.) 

Papilio argiades, Pallas, Reise, i. p. 172, no. 66 (1771). 
Papilio tiresias, Von Rottemburg, Naturforscher, vi. p. 23, 

no. 10 (1775); Esper, Schmett, i. (r) p. 337, pi. 34, figs. 

i, 2 (1777) 
Cupido puer, $. Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. (i) p. 215, no. 1374 

(1801). 
Var. Papilio polysperchon, Bergstrasser, Nomenclator, ii. pi. 44, 

fig 5 - 3~5 ('779); Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. i. (2) p. 61 

(1808), 
Papilio tiresias, var. Esper, /. c. i. (i) p. 384, pi. 49, fig. 2 

(1777); Hiibner, /. c. figs. 319-321 (1803?) 



86 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Var. PapiKo coretas^ Ochsenheimer, Schmelt. Eur. i (2) p 60 

(1808). 
Polyommatus argiades> Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, 

P- 53. P 1 - 14, % ii (1879)- 
Lycczna argiades, Lang, Butterflies Europe, p 101, pi. 22, fig. 5 

(1882), Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl i. p. 68, pi. 10, figs 2, 

2<3, b (1892). 
Papilio amyntas, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p 533, no. 384 (1775); 

Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 322-324 (1803). 
Polyommatus amyntas, Godart, Enc Meth ix. p. 659, no. 146 

(1823) 

This Butterfly measures from four-fifths of an inch to rather 
more than an inch. The male is violet-blue above, with a 
narrow brown border , and the female is brown, more or less 
blue at the base ; the fringes are white. There are some 
brown spots towards the anal angle of the hind-wings, marked 
with orange in the female. The under side is of a pale blue 
or bluish-grey, with a sub-marginal row of black spots, edged 
within by a more or less distinct orange band (obsolete in var. 
coretas), and a row of black spots across the disc of the wing ; 
there is a black lunule at the end of the discoidal cell of the 
fore-wings. 

The larva is pale green, with darker stripes, and brown and 
white spots. It feeds on various species of Lotus, Trifolium, 
&c., in June, and also from autumn to spring- 

This species is widely distributed throughout Southern and 
Central Europe, and the greater part of Asia, and is also said 
to occur in North America and Australia. It frequents open 
flowery places in hilly districts, often in company with Zizera 
minima, of which Schrank supposed it to be the male. But 
it has only recently been discovered to be a British species, 
the first British specimens having been taken by the sons of 



PLEBEIUS. 87 

the Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge, on August i8th and 2oth, 
1885, flying over a grassy place on Bloxworth Heath, Dorset.* 
Two or three other captures of the Butterfly at Bournemouth, 
Blackpool, &c., have also been recorded. 

Mr. Pickard Cambridge has kindly permitted me to publish 
an extract from a letter received from him, dated June 3, 1895 
" We have never again met with L. argiades. I hardly nov, 
think it can be indigenous. Those we found were probably 
from a brood produced by an accidental early-summer immi- 
gration of a few of the first Continental brood. If you re- 
member, it was also taken at Bournemouth, fourteen miles 
distant, within two days of our taking it here. Very likely it 
might have been found at many other places along the south 
coast that year if collectors had had their eyes open for it; and 
probably it will turn up again at some future season in the 
same way " In which case, I may add, it may succeed, sooner 
or later, in establishing itself. 

This species varies much in size, the first brood (var. poly- 
sperchori] being much smaller than the others. The tails are 
very slender, and are sometimes obsolete in small specimens. 
The larger specimens might easily be passed over on the 
wing as Plebeius argus, or Polyommatus icarus, and the smaller 
ones as Zizera minima. 

GENUS PLEBEIUS. 
Plebeius, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed x p. 483(1758); Cuvier. 

Tabl. Elem. d'Hist. Nat. p. 591 (1799). 
Rusticus, Hiibner, Tentamen, p. i (1810?). 
Lycfsides, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 69 (1816). 

The type of this genus, the oldest of the Lycaenide genera, 
was fixed by Cuvier (though he used only the plural form) as 

* See " Entomologist," xviii., pp. 249-252 (October, 1885), and " Pro- 
ceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club," viii. 
PP 79-83 pi. 5 Coloured]. 



88 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

the Silver-Studded Blue. Thus restricted, it includes varioug 
Butterflies, blue in the male, and brown in the female, with 
rounded hind-wings, not tailed, on the under surface of which 
the sub-marginal spots bear distinctly metallic markings. 

THE SILVER-STUDDED BLUE. PLEBEIUS ARGUS. 

(Plate XL VL Figs, 4, 5.) 
Papilio argus, Linnceus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 483, no. 152 

(1758); id. Faun. Suec. p. 283 (1761); Lewin, Ins. Brit. 

i. p. 82, pi. 39, figs. 5-7 (1795). 
Polyommatus agon, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 685, no. 213 

(1823) Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 32 (1879); 

Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p 89, pi. u, figs, i, \a-c 

(1892) ; Buck'er, Larvae of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, 

i. p. 112, pi. 15, fig. 3 (1886). 
Papilio cegon> Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst- Verz. Schmett 

Wien. p. 185, no. 15 (1775); Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. 

i. figs. 313-3*5 (1803?). 
Polyommatus argus, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust i. p. 93 

(1828). 
Lycana argus, Wallengren, Lepid. Scand. Rhop. p. 206, no. 2 

(1853). 

Lycana cegon, Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 119 (1881), Lang, 
Butterflies Eur. p. 103, pi. 23, fig. i (1882), 

The Silver-Studded Blue is common throughout the greater 
part of Europe and the Mediterranean Region, as well as in 
Northern and Western Asia ; and allied species are met with 
in various parts of Asia and North America. It is common 
and widely distributed in England, but appears to be scarce 
and local in Scotland and in the north of Ireland. It fre- 
quents heaths and meadows, and I have often seen it asleep 
in the evening, clinging to heath, rushes, or grass-stems. 



PLEBEIU3. 89 

The male is of a deep violet-blue, with rather broad brown 
borders, and white fringes. The female is brown, more or 
less blue at the base, and with a row of sub-marginal black 
spots, surmounted with orange, on the hind-wings. The 
under side is grey in the female, but tinged with blue, especi- 
ally at the base, in the male. They are marked with numerous 
ocellated spots, and on the hind-margin of the hind-wings is 
an interrupted orange-tawny band, containing six bright silvery- 
blue spots, crowned with a series of black crescents. 

The larva is dull green, with the head and legs blackish, a 
ferruginous line along the back, and oblique ones of the same 
colour, bordered with white, on the sides. It feeds on broom, 




Upper side of female. 

sainfoin, and various kinds of trefoil and vetch. There are 
two broods in the year, as in most of the small " Blues," 
the Butterflies appearing from May to August. The pupa 
is dull green. 

There is a closely-allied species, P. argyrognomon (Berg- 
strasser), to which the Linnean name of argus is applied by 
many authors. It is common on the Continent, but of doubt- 
ful occurrence in England, and may be distinguished from our 
Silver-Studded Blue by having only a very narrow black border 
in the male. Both species are very variable on the Continent, 
or else there are several closely-allied and ill-differentiated 
species. The British form of P. argus does not appear to 
vary. 



90 LLOYD S NATURAL HISTORY. 

GENUS POLYOMMATUS. 
Polyommatus, Latreille, Hist. Nat Crust. Ins. xiv. p. 116 

(1805); id. Enc. Meth, ix. pp. u, 618 (1819-23); 

Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 83 (1828). 
Lycana, p. Fabricius, Illiger's Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 285 (1807); 

Leach, Edinb. Encycl. ix. p. 129 (1815); Westwood 

Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 488 (1852). 

When Latreille established the genus Polyommatus he figured 
P. corydon, and thus, in my opinion, permanently fixed the type. 
Dr. Scudder disallows this, and selects P. baticus as the type 
of Polyommatus, but this, being a streaked, and not primarily 
a spotted species, cannot possibly be regarded as typical of a 
genus deriving its name from its " many eyes." 

As regards Lycana, Dr. Scudder considers that as Oken 
restricted it to the "Blues" in a work published in 1815, L. 
phlceas is not admissible as the type, but Oken's action, I take 
it, is forestalled by Leach, who published an article in the same 
year (1815) in which he divided the genus Lyccena (with Polyom- 
matus as a synonym) into two sections, the first including the 
Coppers and the second the Blues, commencing with P. corydon, 
the type of Polyommatus, and thus restricting Lyccena (true) to 
the Coppers. Subsequently Curtis indicated L. phlaas as the 
type of the genus Lycana. The species which Dr. Scudder 
selects as the type of Lyceena is Papilio endymion, Den. and 
Schiff., a light blue species, with a brown female, with sub- 
marginal spots bordered with white, which is found in many 
parts of Southern and South-Central Europe, and which is 
remarkable for having the hind-wings dentated in the female, 
and slightly so towards the anal angle in the male. 

In the present genus we may include all the British species 
which are tail-less, and destitute of metallic markings beneath, 
and which have well-marked orange sub-marginal spots on the 
under side of the hind-wings. Most of the species belonging 



POLYOMMATUS. Ql 

to it are peculiarly attached to the chalk or lime-stone in Eng- 
land, though of more general distribution on the Continent. 
They may often be all found flying together in favourable 
localities on the South Downs. 

I. THE CHALK-HILL BLUE. POLYOMMATUS CORYDON. 

(Plate XLVII. Figs. 5, 6.) 
Papilio coridon^ Poda, Mus. Graec p. 77 (1761); Scopoli, 

Ent. Cam. p. 179 (1763), 
Papilio corydon, Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 335, pi. 33, fig. 4 

(1777); i. (2) p. 134, pi. 79, fig. 1(1782); Hiibner, Europ. 

Schmett. i. figs. 286-288 (1803?). 

Papilio tiphys, Esper, Schmett. i. (2) p. 6, pi. 51, fig. 4 (1780). 
Polyommatus corydon, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 693, no. 

227 (1823) ; Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 88 (1828) ; 

Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 48, pi. 14, figs. 

%a-c (1879); Barrett, Lep. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 85, pi. 12 

(1892); Buckler, Larvae of -Brit. Lepid. i. p. 191, pi. 14, 

fig 3 (1886). 
Lyccznacorydon, Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 131 (1881) ; Lang, 

Butterflies Eur. p 121, pi. 26, fig. 6 (1882). 
Var. Lyccena corydon, var. albicans^ Boisduval, Gen. et Ind. 

Meth. p. 12, no. 96(1840); Herrich-Schaffer, Schmett. 

Eur. i. App. p. 27, figs. 494, 495 (1851); Lang, Butterflies 

Eur p. 122, pi. 26, fig. 8 (1882). 

The Chalk-Hill Blue is common throughout Southern and 
Central Europe and Western Asia Minor. In England it is 
common in many places, but local, and is most frequently met 
with in the chalky districts of the south, whence it derives its 
name. On the Continent it is double-brooded, like most of 
the allied species ; but it appears to be single-brooded in Eng- 
land, appearing about the middle of July, at the same time that 
the second brood of the other species is beginning to appear. 



92 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The Buttery is slightly larger than its allies, on the average, 
expanding from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half 
across the wings. The male is of a light silvery-blue with a 
fine silky lustre, with a moderately broad dark border, bordered 
on the inside with a row of black spots. The female is brown, 
with a black discoidal spot and a sub-marginal orange band on 
the hind-wings within the black spots. The under side is grey, 
with discoidal lunules, a basal eye on the fore-wings, and a 
sub-marginal row of orange spots. On the hind-wings there 
are three basal spots, separated from the central row, so as 
not to form a regular curve round the discoidal spot. The 
fringes are broadly spotted with black and white, except on 
the under side of the hind-wings, in which the fringes are 
white. 

This species varies very much in Southern Europe and Asia 
Minor, and to a less extent with us. One of its varieties (P. 
albicans] is nearly white above in the male. 

The female is admittedly very difficult to distinguish from 
that of the following species, with the second brood of which 
it is usually found in company. The black spaces of the 
fringes are, however, a little broader, and the orange sub- mar- 
ginal spots are rather larger in P. corydon. Stain ton gives the 
differences as follows: "P. corydon ? . Under side of hind-wings 
with a distinct black spot in a white blotch near the middle, 
faintly visible on the upper side. Besides, in P. corydon we find 
the dark dashes in the white fringes broader and more conspi- 
cuous than in P. adonis. A further point of distinction is that 
the black spots of the under side are more conspicuous in P 
corydon than in P. adonis" 

The larva is green, with yellow dorsal and lateral lines ; it 
feeds on various papilionaceous plants. "Pupa brownish-green, 
unattached, on or under the ground " (Barrett). 

Concerning the colours of the males of this and the follow- 



PLATE XLVI. 



V 




\ 



thetis. 



-. 5 . Plebeius 



POLYOMMATUS. 93 

ing species, Stainton writes: "P. adonis well deserves its name, 
and is the most splendid Blue we have. P. corydon, however, 
has a peculiar beauty of its own ; it reminds one of the soft, 
silvery appearance of moonlight, whilst P. adonis recalls the 
intense blue of the sky on a hot summer day." Mr. Barrett 
also remarks respecting P. corydon : " A very beautiful insect, 
of a colour very difficult to depict or describe, and rarely to be 
seen in nature. I have seen the same colour in the sky in the 
late twilight of a stormy day, on the patches of pale blue visible 
between heavy clouds ; but no flower, and hardly any other 
insect, seems to possess it. No doubt the peculiarity arises 
largely from the presence of the white hairs, already men- 
tioned, on the upper-side of the fore-wings, which this 
species possesses in greater abundance than any other, except 
the very singular P. dolus, a South European species." 

P. dolus, Hiibner, above referred to, is a species found in 
Southern France, which belongs to a different group to P. 
corydon, and has central rows of spots on the under side of 
the wings, but no sub-marginal spots, and a straight white 
stripe running across the hind-wings beneath, from the base, 
towards the middle of the hind-margin. 

II. THE CLIFDEN BLUE BUTTERFLY. POLYOMMATUS 
THETIS. 

(Plate XLVL Figs. I, 3<?, 2?.) 
Papilio thefts^ Von Rottemburg, Naturforscher, vi. p. 24, no. 1 1 

(1775). 

Papilio bellargiiS) Von Rottemburg, /. c. p. 25, no. 12 (1775) ; 

Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 333, pi. 32, fig. 3 (1778); i. (2) 

P 29, pi. 55, figs. 2, 6 (1780). 
Polyommatus beltargus, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p, 

48, pi. 14, fig. 7 (1879). 



94 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

Lyccena beltargus, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 120, pi. 26, fig. 4 

(1882). 
Papilio adonis > Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett 

Wien. p. 184, no. n (1776); Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. 

i. figs. 298-300 (1803 ?). 
Polyommatus adonis , Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 691, no 

223 (1823) , Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 99 

(1828); Barrett, Lepid, of Brit. Isl. i. p. 81, pi. 13, figs, i, 

irt^/"(i885) ; Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. p. 106, pi. 

15, fig. i (1886). 

Lyccena adonis, Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 129 (1881). 
Papilio hyadnthus, Lewin, Ins. Brit. i. pi. 37, figs. 4-6 (1795). 
Var. Pap. ceronus, Esper, /. c i. (2) p 178, pi. 90, fig 2 

(1784); p. 50, pi. 102, fig. i (1791 ?) Hiibner, /. c. figs. 

295, 297 (1803?). 
Lycana bellargus, var. ceronus, Lang, /. c. p. 121, pi. 26, fig. 5 

(1882). 

Var. Pap. rinnus, Hiibner, /. c. figs. 830, 831 (1827?). 
Var. Polyommatus dory las, Stephens, /. c. p. 83 (1828). 

This species is common in many places throughout Southern 
and Central Europe, and the Mediterranean Region; and in the 
southern parts of its range it is much more widely distributed, 
and much more variable than in the north. It is found, 
frequently with P. corydon, chiefly on a chalk or limestone soil, 
and as a British insect, appears to be confined to the south 
of England. It is, I believe, still to be taken abundantly in 
certain localities close to Brighton, where five species of this 
group, Polyommatus corydon. P. thetis, P. icarus, P. alexis, and 
Zizera minima, may all be found flying together. Wherever I 
have been collecting on the Rhine, at the right season, I 
have found P. thetis fairly common in the flowery meadows 
on the banks, where P. corydon, when it occurs at all, is 
scarcer ; but I never saw P. thetis far from the banks of the 



POLVOMMATUS. 95 

river. It is a double-brooded Butterfly, both in England and 
on the Continent, and is met with from May to September. 

The Clifden Blue is a little smaller than P. corydon, the 
largest specimens rarely measuring an inch and a half across 
the wings. The male is of a brilliant sky-blue above, with 
narrow black borders, and the fringes white, spotted with black. 
There is often a sub-marginal row of small black dots on the 
hind-wings. The female is brown above, more or less blue at the 
base, and with a row of sub-marginal orange spots, which border 
the black ones on the hind- wings ; the fringes are black and 
white, as in the male. There is a black discoidal mark on the 
fore-wings only. The under side is grey, with discoidal lunules, 
a row of spots beyond, and a marginal row of orange spots, 
bordered with black ones. The hind-wings have three basal 
spots, forming, with the central row of eyes, nearly a circle 
round the discoidal spot. For the differences between the 
female and that of P. corydon, see that species (p. 92). 

In the variety P cinnus, the spots of the under side are not 
ocellated, and in var P. ceronus, the female is blue above, 
instead of brown The true P. dorylas, of Denis and SchifTer- 
miiller, with which Stephens confounded a variety of P. 
thetis, is a European species which does not occur in the 
north-west ; it resembles P. thetis in the shade of blue in the 
male, but the fringes are white, and unspotted. Stephens' 
description of his P. dory las, which is supposed to apply to a 
variety of P thetis, is as follows : " The male is of a bright 
blue above, and has a slender black marginal line as in P. 
adonis, but the cilia are immaculate ; beneath, the anterior 
wings are pale cinereous, and have a central transverse black 
streak on the disc, followed by a waved row of black dots 
faintly cinctured with whitish ; there is then a delicate inter- 
rupted band of fulvous, terminated with a whitish margin ; 
the posterior-wings resemble these of P. adonis ; but they are 



96 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

without the black streak in the centre of the triangular dis- 
coidal spot ; the ocelli are fewer in number, and the margin 
has a few fulvous spots, and is banded with whitish ; the 
cilia are immaculate. The female is brown above ; in other 
respects she resembles the male " 

The larva is green, with black bristles and numerous yellow 
streaks. It feeds on various low plants (Lotus, Trifolium, &c.). 

III. THE COMMON BLUE. POLYOMMATUS ICARUS 

(Plate XLV. Figs. 7, 9<J, 8?.) 
Papilio teams, Von Rottemburg, Naturforscher, vi. p. 21, no. 8 

(i775); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 333, pi. 32, fig. 4 

(1778 ?) ; i. (2) p. 135, pi. 79, fig. 2 (1782 ?). 
Papilio thetis, Esper, /. c. p. 332, pi. 32, fig. 2 (1778 ?). 
Lyc&na icarus, Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 128 (1881); 

Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 117, pi. 25, fig. 4 (1882). 
Pdlyommatus icarus, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 48 

(1879). 

Papilio alexis, var. 2, Scopoli, Ent. Cam. p. 179 (1763). 
Papilio alexis, Denis & Schiff. Syst. Verz. Schmett. Wien. p. 184, 

no. 12 (1776); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 292-294 

(1803?). 
Polyommatus alexis, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 690, no 222 

(1823); Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 91 (1827); 

Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 77, pi. u, figs. 2, 2a-j t 

(1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. pp. in, 191, 

pi. 15, fig. 2 (1886). 
Papilio polyphemus, Esper, Schmett. i. (i), p. 387, pi. 50, figs 



Var. Papilio icarinus, Scriba, Journ. Ent. iii. p. 216 (1791); 

Meigen, Eur. Schmett. ii. p. 25, pi. 48, figs. 2, b (1830). 
Papilio icarus, var. Esper, /. c. i. (2) p. 29, pi. 55, fig. 5 (1780). 
Lycana alexis, Herrich-Schaffer, Schmett. Eur. i. p. 120, fig. 246 

(1844). 



POLYOMMATUS. 97 

Lycana icams v. icarinus^ Lang, /. c. p. 117, pi. 25, fig. 5 

(1882). 
Var. Polyommatus labienus, Jermyn, Butterfly - Collector's 

Vade-Mecum, p. 58 (1825). 
Var. Polyommatus thestylis, Jermyn, /. c. (1825). 
Var. Polyommatus la: on, Jermyn, /. c. (1825). 
Var. Polyommatus eros, Stephens, /. c. p. 91 (1827). 
Var. Polyommatus icarius, Stephens, /. c. p. 93 (1827). 

The Common Blue is the most widely-distributed and 
abundant of all the species of this group throughout Europe 
and Northern and Western Asia, and varies greatly. There 
are two or more broods in the year, so that it may be found 
throughout the fine season. 

It generally expands rather less than an inch and a half, but 
varies very much in size. The smallest specimen which I 
have ever seen I took on the beach between Hove and Shore- 
ham Harbour on July 18, 1865. It was recorded in the 
"Entomologist's Monthly Magazine" (vol. ii., p. 92), and was 
a male in excellent condition, measuring only 8^ lines across 
the wings. Some years afterwards I lent it to a friend who 
wished to draw it ; but on pressing him for its return, he in- 
formed me that he had put the box aside and forgotten it, and 
on opening it, found that the specimen had been destroyed 
by mites. 

The male is of a lilac-blue, with a narrow black border, and 
white unspotted fringes. The hairs on the body and at the 
base of the wings are likewise whitish. The female is brown, 
more or less blue at the base (sometime^, however, the surface 
is entirely purplish-blue), and ornamented with a row of 
fulvous marginal spots, those on the hind-wings bordered 
below with a row of black spots. On the under side the 
wings are of a brownish-ash colour, with the base more or less 
10 H 



98 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

bluish or greenish, the fore-wings usually having wo ocelli to- 
wards the base (which are absent in the variety P. icarinus) 
within the discoidal lunule, and a curved row of ocelli near the 
middle, succeeded by a continuous row of dusky crescents, 
edged with reddish-yellow externally, and beyond this there is 
a row of small dusky spots on a whitish ground ; a black line 
at the base of the fringes. The hind-wings have generally four 
ocelli near the base ; an angular white spot near the middle, 
frequently having a black streak in its centre; a curved band 
of eight or nine ocelli, succeeded by a series of markings 
similar to those on the fore-wings, but the crescents and 
fulvous spots are larger and more conspicuous. A white 
blotch near the middle unites the band of ocelli with the 
fulvous crescents. 

This species is so variable, not only in colour and markings, 
but even in the form of the wings, that the older entomolo- 
gists described several forms as new species, which are now 
considered to be merely varieties of P. teams ; and others they 
mistook for different Continental species wh'ch do not occur 
in England. Thus, Stephens mistook a variety of P. icarus 
for P. tithonus (Hiibner = P. eros, Ochsenheimer), a pale blue 
species with broad brown borders, found in the Swiss Alps, 
and almost impossible to be found in Britain. Specimens of 
P. icarus are sometimes met with, in which the colouring of 
both sexes are combined, the wings on one side exhibiting t-he 
colours of the male, and on the other those of the female. 
These are called gynandromorphous individuals. Variable as 
this species is, it can yet be easily distinguished, in most cases, 
from any of the allied British species. 

The larva is green, pubescent, with a darker dorsal stripe, 
and with lighter stripes on the sides; the pupa is also green. 
The larva feeds on a variety of low plants. 



PLATE XLVJII 




1.2. Polyonuncutus alexis. 
35 . scdmcLcis. 

6. 7 . artaxerjces. 



POLYOMMATUS. 99 

IV. THE BROWN ARGUS. POLYOMMATUS ALEXIS. 
(Plate XL VIII. Figs. I, 2.) 

Fapilio alexis, Scopoli, Ent. Cam. p. 179 (1763); v n Rot - 

temburg, Nalurforscher, vi. p. 22, no. 9 (1776). 
Papilio medon, Hufnagel, Berl. Mag. ii. p. 78, no. 41 (1786); 

Von Rottemburg, /. c. no. 10 (1776); Espcr, Sclimett. i. 

(1) P- 330, pl- 3 2 , fi S- T (i779); i- (2) p. 29, pi. 55, 

fig. 7 (1780). 

Lyccena medon, Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 121 (1881). 
fapitto agesliS) Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett. 

Wien, p. 184, no. 13 (1776) ; Hiibaer, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 

303-306(1803?). 
Polyommatus agestis, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 689, no. 

220 (1823) ; Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 94 

(1827); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 73, pl. 10, figs. 3, 

3<z, b (1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. p. 116, pi 

1 6, fig. i (1886). 
Papilio astrarche, Bergstrasser, Nomenclator, iii. p. 4, pl. 49, 

figs. 7, 8(i779)- 
Polyommatus astrarche, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 

50, pl. 14, fig. 9 (1879). 
Lyccena astrarche, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 114, pl. 24, fig. 9 

(1882). 
Var. Lyccena astrarche, v. cestiva, Staud. Cat. Lepid. Eur. 

ed. 2, p. n, no. 1556 (1871). 
Var. PapiKo OIL-US^ Hiibner, /. c. figs. 988-992 (1841?). 

The Brown Argus is common throughout the greater part of 
Europe, the Mediterranean Region, and Northern and Western 
Asia. The largest and brightest-coloured specimens come 
from the Mediterranean Region, where the two broods pre- 
sent constant differences in many localities. It is a local 
insect in the south of England, where it is double-brooded, 

II 2 



100 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

occurring in May and August, like the allied " Blues," and it 
is fond of chalky districts, though less exclusively confined to 
them than are P. corydon and P. thetis. The Northern and 
Scotch forms are noticed under separate headings. The variety 
P. allous was figured from a specimen in which the usual red 
sub-marginal spots were wanting. 

The Brown Argus measures an inch or a little more across 
the fore-wings, which are dark brown on the upper side in both 
sexes, with a fine silky gloss, and white fringes. There is a 
sub-marginal row of deep red spots on all the wings, and a 
black discoidal spot on the fore-wings. The under side is greyish- 
brown, with no bluish tinge towards the base, and no basal 
spots on the fore-wings, but three are present on the hind-wings. 
There are discoidal spots, a central row of spots beyond (all 
conspicuously ringed with white), and the sub-marginal reddish 
spots connected into a band, edged within by a black line of 
crescents. Beyond this the wing is white, with a row of black 
dots outside the reddish band, and a black line at the base of 
the fringes ; a white dash runs from the middle of the hind- 
wings to the reddish band. 

The larva is green, with white hairs, a dark dorsal line, and 
a pink line over the spiracles. It feeds on Helianthemum 
vulgare and EroJium cicutarium. The green pink-striped pupa 
is generally found on the ground amongst leaves. 

V. THE DURHAM ARGUS. POLYOMMATUS SALMACIS. 
(Plate XL VIIL Fig. 3 <J , 4, 5 ? ) 

Polyommatus salmaris, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. iii. p. 
235, note (1831); Westwood & Humphreys, Brit. But- 
terflies, p. 115, pi. 37, figs. 1-3 (1841). 

Polyommatus agestis, var. salmacis, Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. 
i. p. 74, pi. 10, figs. 3-- 3 / (1892). 

This is the usual form of Polyommatus akxis found in the 



POLYOMMATUS. IOI 

north of England, where it was first met with at Castle Eden 
Dene, and subsequently in considerable numbers, on the mag- 
nesian limestone district near Newcastle, in July ; it has also 
been found in Yorkshire and Cumberland. 

This insect differs from the typical P. alexis in the orange 
spots of the upper side being more or less obsolete, especially 
in the male, and in the black discoidal spot being edged with 
white. The black spots on the under side are smaller than in 
P. alexis. Stephens' original description is as follows : 

" Alis fusco-nigris,subtus fuscescentibus maculis subocellatis, 
anticis supra in masculis puncto discoidali atro, in fceminis 
albo, posticis utrinque fascia submarginali rubra. (Exp. alar. 
$ i unc. i lin. ; ? i unc. 2 lin.) " 

Duncan's more detailed description may also be quoted : 

"Silky brown above, with a macular posterior band of 
orange-red on all the wings, somewhat obsolete in the male, 
and a white spot on the disk of the primary wings, which, how- 
ever, is occasionally wanting in both sexes, but especially in 
the female. The fringe is white, slightly variegated with brown 
at the base. The colour of the under side is greyish-brown, 
the anterior wings with a discoidal white spot; beyond this is a 
curved band of similar spots, with a minute dusky pupil, suc- 
ceeded by a band of orange spots, bounded on both sides by 
a dusky crescent, surmounted with white, the outer margin 
denned by a dusky line; the hinder wings have a similar mar- 
ginal band, several scattered white spots towards the base, a 
larger one near the centre, and a very irregular row behind the 
middle, with a broad white central patch connecting it with 
the yellow band. Most of these spots have a minute dusky 
pupil in the male, but greatly more conspicuous in the 
female." 

This and the following form appear to be only single- 
brooded. A complete series of transitions has now been 



[02 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

traced from P. alexis through P. sahnaris to P. artaxerxes ; 
and there are no constant differences of larvse and food-plants 
which were at one time expected to separate the extreme 
forms. 

VI. THE ARTAXERXES BUTTERFLY. POLYOMMATUS 

ARTAXERXES. 

(Plate XL VI I I. Figs. 6, 7.) 

Hesperia artaxerxes, Fabricius, Entomologia Systematica, 

iii. (i) p. 297, no. 129 (1783) ; Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. 

%s. 95 T ~954 (1841?). 
Polyominatus artaxerxes, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 68 8, no. 

219 (1823); Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 95 

(1827). 
Polyominatus agestis, var. artaxerxes, Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. 

p. 74, pi. 10, figs. y~Zf ( l %9 2 )'> Buckler, Larvae of 

Brit. Lepid. i. p. 121, pi. 16, fig. i (1886). 
Lyccen i astrarche, var. artaxerxes, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 

115, pi. 24, fig. 10 (1882). 

The present insect was always considered to be a perfectly 
distinct species till recently, when its identity with P. alexis 
and P. salmacis has been fully established by careful and re- 
peated breeding experiments. The true P. ar!axerxes is 
locally abundant in many parts of Scotland, and is single- 
brooded, occurring in July and August. For many years, 
Arthur's Seat, at Edinburgh, was the only known locality, and 
some entomologists even undertook a journey to Edinburgh 
(a most formidable undertaking a century ago) in order to obtain 
specimens, while others had a drawing made of the insect, and 
placed it in a corner of their cabinets, to do duty for the 
original. In fact, the description of the Butterfly was taken by 
Fabricius, as in the case of so many other species, from the 
collection of drawings made by Jones of Chelsea. 



PLATE XLIX. 




/_<3. Cyardris curgwlus 
4. 5. TA^ercu 
6. 7. Nomicuies 



CYANIRIS. 103 

As in the other forms of the insect, P. artaxerxes is a brown 
Butterfly with white fringes, and a sub-marginal band of red 
spots, more or less obsolete in the male. There is a con- 
spicuous white discoidal spot on the fore-wings. On the 
under side, which is light brownish-grey, the discoidal spots, 
the outer band of spots, and the basal spots on the hind-wings, 
are all conspicuously white, without any black centres; the 
sub-marginal band being more orange, pnler, and edged out- 
side with a row of black dots ; beyond, the wings are whitish, 
with a brown line at the base of the fringes. 

There are one or two Alpine Butterflies with large white 
spots on the underside of the wings Agriades orbitulus (De 
Prunner) and A. atys (Hiibner) but they are allied to, if not 
congeneric with, Nomiades semiargus (Von Rottemburg). 

GENUS CYANIRIS. 

CyaniriS) Dalman. K. Vet. Acad. Handl. Stockholm, xxxiii. 
pp. 63, 94 (i 8 1 6) ; Scudder, Syst. Rev. Amer. Butterflies, 
p. 34 (1872) ; Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, i. p. 74(1881). 

Species of this genus are found in almost all parts of the 
world, except South America and Australia. Many are very 
closely allied, and the greater number are of a rather pale blue 
in both sexes, with broad dark borders in the female. The 
under surface is usually bluish-white with numerous black 
spots, and rarely with any traces of a sub-marginal orange 
band. The type is 

THE AZURE BLUE. CYANIRIS ARGIOLUS. 

(Plate XLIX. Figs, i, 3 $ Fig. 2 ? .) 

Papilio argiolus, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 483, no. 153 
(1758); id. Faun. Suec. p. 284(1761); Herbst, Naturs. 
Schmett. xi. pi. 310, figs. 4-6 (1804). 

Papilio cleobis, Sulzer, Gescli. Ins. pi. 18, figs. 13, 14 (1776); 
Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 360, pi. 40, fig. 3 (1778 ?); i. (2) 
p. 27, pi. 54, figs. 4, b (1780). 



104 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

Papilio ads, Fabricius, Mantissa Ins. ii. p. 73, no. 687 (1787); 

Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 272-271 (1803). 
Polyommatus argiolus, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 678, no. 190 

(1823); Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 85 (1827); 

Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 46, pi. 14, figs. 40, b 

(1879); Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 88, pi. 13, figs. 

2, za-e (1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. pp. 94, 

188, pi. 14, fig. i (1886). 
Lycana argiolus, Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 135 (1881); 

Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 127, pi. 31, fig. i (1882). 
The Azure Blue Butterfly is common in many parts of 
England and Ireland, frequenting woods and thickets, where 
its food-plants grow, in early spring / and again in summer and 
autumn. It is also common throughout Europe, North 
Africa, and Northern and Western Asia, as far as the frontiers 
of India ; and closely-allied species are found in North 
America. It varies considerably in size, expanding from 
rather less than an inch to nearly an inch and a half across the 
wings. It is the earliest to appear of all the Blues, sometimes 
being seen in April ; and it is still met with in various localities 
quite close to London. 

The fore-wings are of a light blue, somewhat inclining to lilac 
above, with white fringes, slightly interrupted by the black ner 
vures, and a black border, narrow in the male, but broad in the 
female on the fore-wings ; on the hind-wings it is narrow. The 
under side is of a pale blue, with black discoidal lunules, and 
an outer row of black spots, not ocellated ; towards the base of 
the hind-wings are several more spots. There are no distinct 
sub-marginal spots. 

The larva, which feeds on the flowers of holly, buck-thorn, 
and ivy, is pubescent, of a greenish-yellow colour, deepest on 
the back ; the head and legs are black ; the pupa is yellowish- 
brown. 



ZIZERA. 105 

GENUS ZIZERA. 
Zizera, Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, i. p. 78 (1881). 

This genus includes very small Butterflies, with no sub- 
marginal markings beneath, and no basal spots on the fore- 
wings. 

I. THE BEDFORD BLUE. ZIZERA MINIMA. 

(Plate XLIX. Figs. 4, 5.) 

Papilio minima, Fuessly, Verz. Schweitz. Ins. p. 31, no. 599 
(1775); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 338, pi. 34, fig. 3 
(1778?). 

Papilio alsus, Denis & Schiff. Syst. Verz. Schmett. Wien, p. 184, 
no. 9 (1776); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 278, 279 

(1803?). 

Ciipido ptier, $ Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. (i) p. 215, no. 1374 

(1801). 
Polyommatus alsus, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 704, no. 246 

(1823); Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 86 (1828); 

Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 92, pi. 14, figs, \a-\c 

(1892). 
Polyommatus mit.tm i, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 46, 

pi. 14, fig. 3 (1879). 

Lyccena alsus, Newm. Brit. Butterflies, p. 134 (1881). 
Lycana minima, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 128 (1882). 

The Bedford Blue is the smallest of our British Blues, ex- 
panding from two-thirds of an inch to an inch across the 
wings, which aie brown above, with white fringes, and have a 
faint bluish tint in the male. On the under surface they are 
pearly-grey, slightly bluish or greenish at the base, with dis- 
coidal spots, and a row of black eyes in white rings beyond ; 
on the hind-wings there are several additional spots towards 
the base. It is double-brooded, and is met with from May to 
August. 



IC6 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY- 

The larva is green, with orange and yellow lines, and feeds 
on Anthyllis vulneraria, and other vetches. The pupa is pale 
grey, with black dots and dashes ; it is found on the ground, 
unattached, according to some writers, but others say that it is 
attached by a belt to a stalk of the food-plant. 

The Butterfly is common throughout Europe and Northern 
and Western Asia, but is very local in Britain, preferring a 
chalk or limestone soil. In Switzerland it is frequently found 
in company with Cupido argiades, which led Schrank to regard 
it as the true female of that species. 

GENUS NOMIADES. 

NomiadtS) Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 67 (1816). 
This name may be provisionally applied to a number of 
species of moderate or large size, which are generally blue 
above in the males, and brown in the females. The under 
surface of the wings is marked with discoidal spots, at least on 
the fore-wings, and at least one row of spots beyond, generally 
largest on the fore-wings. There are no marginal markings, 
or at least no red or orange ones, and not always discoidal 
lunules, or basal spots on the hind-wings. Dr. Scudder has 
indicated the type as N. semiargus ; but this species and its 
allies will probably be separated ultimately from the group 
represented by N. arion. The British species of this group 
are on the verge of extinction in England. 

THE MAZARINE BLUE. NOMIADES SEMIARGUS. 

(Plate XLIX. Figs 6, 7.) 

Papilio semiargus, Von Rottemburg, Naturforscher, vi. p. 20, 

fi o- 6 ( J 775); Herbst, Naturs. Schmett. xi. p. 177 (1804). 

Papilio argioluS) Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 277, pi. 21, figs, i, 

a, b (1778); Hubner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 269-271 

(1803). 



NOMIADES. 107 

Papilio acis, Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett. 

Wien, p. 182, no. 5 (1776); Herbst, /. c. pi. 310, figs. 

la-c (1804). 
Polyommatus ads, Gpdirt, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 703, no. 245 

(1823); Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 86 (1828); 

Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 94, pi. 14, figs. 2, 2a, b 

(1881). 
Polyommatus semiargus, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 

46 (1879). 
Lycana semiargus, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 129, pi. 31, fig. 5 

(1882). 
Lyc&na acis, Newm. Brit. Butterflies, p. 133 (iSSi). 

The Mazarine Blue Butterfly is common throughout the 
greater part of Europe and Northern Asia, but has always 
been a scarce and local insect in England Sixty or seventy 
years ago, however, it used to be taken in most of the 
counties of England and Wales, though only occasionally 
common in very restricted localities. Since that time it has 
gradually disappeared from its former haunts, and for many 
years past only single specimens have been taken casually at 
long intervals. Latterly even such captures have become very 
rare, and the insect is supposed to be now almost, if not quite, 
extinct as a British species It frequents dry meadows in June 
and July, being single-brooded, and used to show a certain 
preference for chalky localities, though by no means confined 
to them. I have taken it in Germany among Polyommatus 
t<:arus,but seldom commonly; and I could hardly tell the insects 
apart, except in the net, or from a view of the under side. I 
am therefore of opinion that collectors who would take the 
trouble to net any blues they may notice, especially in out-of- 
the-way parts of the country, may possibly meet with an oc- 
casional specimen of this species. This advice has, I know, 
been given before, and, doubtless, largely acted on without 



io8 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

success ; but still I do not regard it as by any means hope- 
less. 

The Mazarine Blue expands about an inch and a quarter 
across the wings. The male is dark purplish-blue, with a 
moderately broad blackish border, and white fringes ; the 
female is brown. The under side is of a dull ash-colour, 
greenish at the base, with discoidal lunules (very narrow 
on the hind-wings), and a single row of rather small black 
eyes in white rings beyond. 

The larva is covered with fine yellowish-green hair; the 
dorsal and lateral streaks darker. The head, feet, and stig- 
mata are dark brown. It feeds on Anthyllis vulneraria from 
July to September. 

N. cyllarus (Von Rottemburg) is an extremely pretty species 
allied to N. semiargus, and it is not uncommon on the Conti- 
nent, but is absent in the North-west. The male is of a bright 
blue above ; and on the under side the eyes on the fore-wings 
are much larger than those on the hind-wings, and the under 
side of the hind-wings is of a beautiful green, from the base to 
beyond the middle. 

I. THE LARGE BLUE. NOMIADES ARION. 
(Plate XLVIL Figs. I, 2.) 

Papilio arion, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) p. 483, no. 151 (1758), 
id. Faun. Suec. p. 283 (1761); Esper, Schmett. i. p. 266, 
pi. 20, fig. 2 (1777); i- (2) P- 53, pl- 59, ng. 2 (1780); 
Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 254-256 (1803 ?). 

Polyommatus arion> Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 698, no. 235 
(1823) ; Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 87 (1828) ; 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 45 (1879); Bar- 
rett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 96, pl. 14, figs. 3, $a-c 
(1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. pp. 185, 188 
(1886). 



PLATE XLVII. 




s, 



/. 2. Nomicules 
3.4. alcon. 

5.6. PotyoTnmcUus corydon/. 



NOMIAUES. 109 

Lycana arion^ Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 136(1881); Lang, 

Butterflies Eur. p. 133, pi. 32, fig. 5 (1882). 
Var. Folyommatus alcon, Stephens, /. c. p. 88 (1828). 

The Large Blue is common throughout a great part of 
Europe and Northern and Western Ash, and on the Con- 
tinent is frequently found in company with three or four other 
closely-allied species which do not occur in England. One 
of these, N. areas (Von Rottemburg), is a very dark-coloured 
species. Like N. semiargus, it was always very local in Eng- 
land and Wales, the principal locality for many years having 
been Barnwell Wold in Northamptonshire, where it is said to 
have been finally exterminated by a dealer. As, however, it is 
fond of waste ground, the advance of cultivation has been its 
real enemy ; for it appears to have been taken occasionally in 
most counties in the southern half of England. But for many 
years it has been rapidly disappearing, and is apparently on the 
verge of extinction as a British species, though it still lingers 
on in certain restricted localities in Devonshire and Cornwall. 

The Large Blue measures an inch and a half, or rather more, 
across the wings, which are of a purplish-blue, with rather broad 
black hind-margins, and the costa of the hind- wings black. The 
fore-wings have a black discoidal lunule, beyond which is a row 
of rather large black spots. The fringes are white above, but 
spotted with brown on the nervures beneath. The hind-wings 
have a sub-marginal row of black spots, and in some varieties 
of the female are spotted almost as in the fore-wings. The 
under side is greyish-brown, greenish towards the base, with dis- 
coidal lunules, and a central row of black eyes beyond, ringed 
with white, one or two more or less distinct rows of sub-marginal 
spots, and some additional eyes towards the base of the hind- 
wings. The Butterfly appears in July, and is fond of settling 
on the blossoms of wild thyme, on which the larva, which is 
imperfectly known, feeds. 



110 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

The Butterfly called Polyommatus alcon by Stephens is con- 
sidered to be only a variety of N anon, and not the Continental 
species described below. The specimen, which is stated to have 
been taken in Buckinghamshire, is said to have been nearly im- 
maculate above, and to have measured an inch and a half 
across :he wings. " Beneath brownish-ash, the anterior [wings] 
with ocellated black dots as in the preceding, and a series 
towards the hinder-margin, which has not the lunulated spots as 
in P. arion ; the posterior wings also bear ocelli, as in the last- 
named insect, and a series behind, but the hinder margin is 
nearly immaculate. The female is nearly all brown above, 
with some obsolete dots, but resembles the male beneath." 

THE ALCON BLUE. NOMIADES ALCON. 

(Plate XLVIL Figs. 3, 4.) 
Fapilio alcon, Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett. 

Wien, p. 182, no. 4 (1776); Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii. p. 72, 

no. 683 (1787); Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. i. figs. 263- 

265 (1803 ?). 
Papilio areas, Esper (nee. Von Rottemburg), Schmett. i. (i) 

p. 338, pl- 34, %s. 4, 5 (1778?). 
Polyommatus alcon, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 699, no. 236 

(1823); Duncan, Brit. Butterflies, p. 234, pi. 32, fig. 2 

(1835); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 45 (1879). 
Lyc&na alcon, Lang, Eur. Butterflies, p. 132, pi. 32, fig. 3 

(1882). 

As we have mentioned above, the present species was in- 
cluded in the British lists on the strength of a specimen which 
was suspected, even at the time it was described as N. alcon, to 
be only a variety of N. arion. It is a rather scarce and local 
species on the Continent, and I have occasionally taken it on 
heaths in Northern Germany, where no other species of the 
group of N. arion were to be met with. 



SCOLITANTIDES. Ill 

N. a/con measures rather less than an inch and a half in 
expanse. The male is purplish-blue, with a moderately broad 
black border on the hind-margins, and a discoidal spot on the 
fore-wings. The female is blue, with the costa and hind-margin 
of all the wings very broadly brown ; the fore-wings have a 
discoidal lunule, and an obscure curved row of black spots. 
The under side is brownish-ashy, with discoidal spots, an outer 
row of eyes, and some basal spots on the hind-wings. There 
is also a sub-marginal row of eyes ; all the eyes being rather 
small, and uniform in size. The hind-wings are slightly bluish 
towards the base. The transformations are unknown. 



Having now completed the survey of the British "Blues," 
I will add a short notice of some of the more important 
European and exotic genera which are still frequently grouped 
with them under the magazine genus Polyommatus^ or Lyccena. 

GENUS SCOLITANTIDES. 

Scolitantides, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 68 (1816). 
This little group is considered by Ur. Scudder to be con- 
generic with Pkbeius ; but the wings are rather longer and less 
acute, and there are no metallic spots in the sub-marginal 
markings of the hind-wings beneath. It includes a few Euro- 
pean and East Indian species. 

SCOLITANTIDES ORION. 

Papilio orion, Pallas, Reise, i. p. 471 (1771). 

Papilio tekphii, Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 363, pi. 41, fig. 2 

(1778 ?) ; i. (2) p. 6, pi. 94, fig. (1790). 
Papilio bathis, Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 328-330 (1803 ?); 

figs. 801, 802 (1827?). 
Polyommatus orion, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 51 

(.879). 



i i 2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Lycana orion, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 108, pi. 24, fig. i (1882). 
Polyommatus telephii^ Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 686, no. 215 
(1823). 

This is a widely distributed, but local species, inhabiting 
many parts of Europe and Northern and Western Asia, and 
frequenting rocky places in May and June. It is dark brown 
above, with the fringes spotted with white, and the base of the 
wings purplish-blue in the male, most broadly on the fore- 
wings. There is a large black discoidal lunule on the fore- 
wings. The hind-margins of the fore-wings are marked with 
rows of more or less distinct bluish-white spots, and the hind- 
wings are marked with indistinct black spots in bluish-white 
rings. The under side is bluish-white, with large and con- 
spicuous black spots, consisting of basal spots on both fore- and 
hind-wings, discoidal lunules, a row of spots bayond, and a 
double row of sub-marginal spots, separated on the hind-wings 
by a broad orange band. 

The larva is sea-green, with a violet dorsal line, and feeds 
on Telephium. 

GENUS CASTALIUS. 

Castalius, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 70 (1816); Moore, 
Lepid. Ceylon, i. p. 82 (1881); Distant, Rhop. Malayana, 
p. 214 (1884). 

This genus includes a number of rather small East Indian 
and African Butterflies of a white colour, slightly tinted with 
blue, and with blackish borders, and black spots and bands 
on the under side. The hind-wings are provided with a short 
and slender tail. The type is 

CASTALIUS ROSIMON. 

Papilio rosimon, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 523, no. 341 (1775). 
Papilio clyton, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 67, figs. F-G (1775). 



CASTALIUS. 113 

Papilio corldon, Cramer, /. c, iv. pi. 340, figs. C-F (1781). 
Polyommatus rosimon^ Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 658, no. 141 

(1823). 
Castalius rosimon, Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, i. p. 83, pi. 36, fig. 

2 (1881); Distant, Rhop. Malayana, p. 215, pi. 22, fig. 

20 (1884). 

This Butterfly is common in India and the adjacent islands ; 
it measures about an inch and a half across the wings, which 
are white, tinged with pale blue at the base, and with blackish 
borders, broader in the female than in the male, which are 
spotted with white on the hind-wings. There are large black 
lunules at the end of the cell, and some large black spots and 
markings, partly connected with the border. The under side 
is white with some heavy black stripes and spots towards the 
base, and three rows of black sub-marginal spots. It flies near 
the ground, and frequently settles among grass and low 
plants. 

The genera Pepliphorus and Thysonotis, Hiibner, include a 
number of beautiful and closely-allied species, found through- 
out the Austro-Malayan Region ; they are extremely numerous 
in New Guinea and the adjacent islands. These species 
measure about an inch and a half across the wings, which 
are of a light blue in the males, and brown in the females, 
usually with a white band, broadest at the inner margin 
of the hind-wings, and diminishing towards the costa of 
the fore-wings ; on the under surface the borders of the 
wings are broadly black. In the species of Peplipharus^ the 
type of which is Papilio cyanea, Cramer, there is a marginal 
row of eyes on the under side of the hind-wings. In Thyso* 
notis (type, Papilio Jams, Cramer), the black borders of the 
under side are transversed by broad stripes of metallic green or 
blue. 

10 I 



ii4 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

GENUS PITHECOPS. 

Pithecops, Horsfield, Cat Lepid. Mus. E. I. C. p 66 (1828); 
Schatz & Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 272 (1892). 

The type of this genus, P. hylax (Fabricms), is a small Butter- 
fly from Java, with moderately long, rounded wings, hardly ex- 
pand' ng more than three-quarters of an inch. It is dark brown 
above, and whitish below, with no basal or discoidal markings, 
but with a large blackish spot just before the extremity of the 
costa. There are some small sub-marginal black dashes, and 
within them, on the hind-wings, is a yellowish line. The first 
sub-costal nervule anastomoses with the costal nervure, which 
distinguishes this genus from the very similar Neopithecops (the 
types of which are found in Ceylon and Singapore), in which 
the sub -costal and costal nervures are distinctly separated. 

GENUS LYCMINESTHES, 

Lyccznesthes, Moore, Proc. Zool, Soc. Lond. 1865, p. 773; id. 
Lepid. Ceylon, i. p. 87 (1881); Distant, Rhop. Malay, 
p. 232 (1884) ; Hewitson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1874, p. 
343; Schatz & Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 274 (1892). 

The type of this genus is L. bengalensis, Moore, a Butterfly 
which is common throughout India and the Indo-Malayan 
region. It measures about an inch and a half across the 
wings, which are dark purplish-blue above in the male, and 
purplish-brown, with a bluish patch at the base, in the female ; 
towards the anal angle is a small black spot. The under side 
is pale greyish-brown, with irregular white lines partly enclosing 
darker spaces, and a small orange spot with a black pupil 
towards the anal angle of the hind-wings. 

A great number of East Indian and African Butterflies, 
resembling small species of Thecla, Plebeius, &c., have been, 
rightly or wrongly, referred to this genus. Most of them are 



LYC^NA. 115 

remarkable for possessing two, or more often three, small pro 1 
jecting tufts of scales on the hind-margin of the hind-wings. 

GENUS LYC^NA. 
Lycana> Fabricius in Illiger, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 285 (1807) ; 

Leach, Edinb. Encycl. ix. p. 129 (1815); Curtis, Brit. 

Ent. i. pi. 12 (1824); Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. 

p. 79 (1828). 
PolyommatuS) pt. Latreille, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. xiv. p. 116 

(1805). 

Chrysophanus, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 72 (1816); West- 
wood, G'jn. Diurn. Lepid. p. 497 (1852) ; Schatz & 
Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 274 (1892). 
I have already, in my remarks on the genus Folyommatus^ 
explained my reasons for regarding L. phl&as as the type of 
Lyccena. 

The present genus differs from those which we have already 
noticed, in which the sub-costal nervure is four-branched, by the 
absence of the upper disco-cellular nervule on the fore-wings, 
and by the brilliant coppery-red colour of most of the species. 
They are widely distributed in Europe and Asia, and in addi- 
tion to their bright coppery colour, many are flushed with 
purple. Others are slightly tailed ; but these peculiarities are 
but slightly indicated in any of our British species, all of which, 
with one exception, are now excessively rare, if not actually 
extinct in Britain. 

I. THE SCARCE COPPER. LYC^ENA VIRGAURE^E. 

(Plate L. Figs.^ 5.) 

Papilio virgaurece, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 484, no. 
181 (1758) ; id. Faun. Suec. p. 285 (1766) ; Esper, 
Schmett. i. (i) p. 287, pi. 22, figs. 2a, (1777) ; Hiibner, 
Europ. Schmett. i. figs. 359-361 (1803?), figs. 884-887 
(1827?). 

I 2 



n6 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Polyommatus virgaurece, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 669, no. 

166(1823); Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 86, pi. 19, fig. i 

(1881). 
Lycczna virgaurea, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 83, 

pi. 9 (1828); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 56, 

pi. 15, figs, i a-c (1879). 

Chrysophanusvirgaurea, Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 55 (1892). 
The present species is common in many parts of Europe 
and Western Asia, and was stated by Stephens, on the authority 
of older writers, to be found in marshes in Cambridgeshire and 
Huntingdonshire, frequenting the flowers of the Golden Rod 
in August. These localities have long been destroyed, and 
the insect, if it ever existed there, has probably been exter- 
minated, with so many others ; but it must have always been a 
great rarity in this country. One or two British specimens 
have been recorded in more recent times, but Mr. Barrett 
thinks that they were probably accidentally introduced with 
plants, or otherwise, The last recorded specimen was taken 
at Cromer, not a very unlikely locality. On the Continent it 
frequents flowery slopes, open places in woods, &c., where its 
brilliant colour renders it very conspicuous. It may easily be 
distinguished from all other European species by the white 
markings on the under side. 

The Scarce Copper measures about an inch and a quarter 
across the wings, which are in the male of a brilliant copper 
above, slightly inclining to yellow, with a narrow black 
border ; towards the border of the hind-wings are some small 
black dots. The female is dull copper, with discoidal lunules, a 
spot in the cell on the fore-wings, and two rows of large black 
spots on the fore-wings, and three rows on the hind ones, the 
innermost incomplete. On the under side the fore- wings are 
coppery, with two small black spots in the cell within the dis- 
coidal lunule, and a row of small black spots beyond ; the 



PLATE L. 




3. 



\ 



\ 



dispar. 
4. 5. n virgaurece. 



LYC^ENA. TI7 

hind-wings are light brown, often greenish or yellowish, with 
an orange stripe at the anal angle. Across the wings runs an 
irregular white band, generally broken into two large spots, 
and nearer the base are several small black spots. 

The larva is pubescent, and of a dull green, with a yellow 
dorsal line and pale green streaks on the sides. It feeds on 
Golden Rod, Rumex, &c., in June and September, the Butter- 
fly being double-brooded (on the Continent), and appearing 
there from May to August. 

II, THE LARGE COPPER. LYC^ENA DISPAR. 

(Plate L. Figs, i <? ; 2,3?.) 
Papilio hippothoe (nee Linn.), Lewin, Ins. Brit. i. pi. 40 (1795) ; 

Donovan, Nat. Hist. Brit. Ins. vii. p. 3, pi. 217 (1798); 

Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. i. figs. 966-968 (1841 ?). 
Papilio dispar, Haworth, Lepid. Brit. p. 40, no. 51 (1803). 
Lycczna dispar^ Curtis, Brit. Ent. i. pi. 12 (1824); Stephens, 

111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 81 (1828) ; Kirby, Eur. Butter- 
flies and Moths, p. 55 (1879). 
Polyommatus dispar, Boisd. Icones, i. pi. 10, figs. 1-3 (1833) ; 

Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 90, pi. 19, fig. 4 (1881). 
Polyommatus hippothoe^ Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 114 

(1881). 
Chrysophanus dispar, Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 56, pi. 9, 

figs, i, la, b (1892). 

Some difference of opinion exists as to whether the Large 
Copper is a distinct species, or only a local insular form of 
the following. It was probably known to English entomolo- 
gists for some time before the end of the last century, but 
Wilkes does not mention it, writing in 1745; and the first 
notice by an English writer is by Lewin, in 1795, who says 
that his specimens were taken "on a moorish piece of ground 



n8 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

near Cambridge." Haworth, in 1803, who first described the 
British insect as a distinct species, says that it was taken by 
his friends, Mr. W. and Dr. F. Scrimshire, in reedy places in 
Cambridgeshire; and formerly in Wales, by the celebrated 
botanist Hudson. (Apropos of this last, and unconfirmed, state- 
ment, I may say that I have been told that Butterflies some- 
what resembling this species have been seen by persons riding 
through the country on the borders of Wales. Without 
attaching any importance to casual reports of this kind, I 
think it my duty to record them, in case of their giving a clue 
which may possibly be worth following up.) Donovan re- 
corded the insect from Scotland, which Haworth says is an 
error. Curtis sta'es, in 1824, that it was first discovered in 
Wales by Hudson, and was subsequently captured in con- 
siderable abundance by Messrs. Standish, who went to Whittle- 
sea Mere, Huntingdonshire, in expectation of finding it. They 
informed him that the end of July was undoubtedly the right 
season for this insect, although they met with it at the 
beginning of August, flying among reeds ; it was very active, 
and in windy weather concealed itself amongst the highest 
reeds, where they found the Butterfly just emerged from the 
chrysalis, drying its wings. 

At that time the Butterfly was probably generally distributed 
over the fens of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire, but 
Whittlesea Mere and Yaxley Fen (about two miles apart, 
though standing on opposite sides of the boundary between 
the counties just mentioned) continued to be the two chief 
localities for the Butterfly, until they were drained. It was 
also recorded from Holme Fen in the same neighbour- 
hood, as well as from Bardolph Fen in Norfolk, and 
Benacre in Suffolk, but strange to say, never seems to have 
been very common in the two latter counties. It was already 
noted by West wood, in 1841, as getting scarce, owing 



LYCVENA IIQ 

to the immense numbers taken by former collectors, and 
the drainage of the fens having nearly, if not quite, ex- 
terminated the species. Its disappearance has also been 
attributed to a great flood (probably due to the draining 
operations) which drowned all the broods. But whatever the 
cause, it is said to have become practically extinct in Cam- 
bridgeshire after 1845, and in Huntingdonshire after 1847 or 
1848. In Miller and Skertchley's interesting book on " The 
Fenland," we read (p. 594) : " Nearly eighty years ago, Mr. 
J. C. Dale recorded taking a specimen at Bardolph Fen, but 
the whole district has altogether changed since then. In 
1851, the year Whittlesea Mere was drained, Mr. Wagstaff took 
a solitary specimen at Bottisham Fen." How greatly the 
district has been changed, not only for zoology but for 
botany, may be seen in the fact that a plant once so abundant 
everywhere in the fens as the Bog-Myrtle, is now all but 
extinct in Cambridgeshire, the only locality known for it in 
the county at present being near March. Mr. Barrett records 
the occurrence of casual specimens subsequently to 1851 in 
Staffordshire (?), Somersetshire, and Suffolk. The last authen- 
ticated specimen is said to have been picked up dead among 
sedges, at Slapton Lee in Devonshire, in 1865, In the year 
1859 the insect was stated, on unreliable authority, to have 
reappeared in the fens at Ranworth, in Norfolk. The Butter- 
fly is now looked upon as hopelessly extinct ; but I have been 
told by a gentleman who knows the fens well, that he is 
aware of one locality where it may possibly still linger. Its 
re-discovery as a British species, though highly improbable, 
cannot be looked upon as absolutely impossible. Abroad, it 
has been stated to occur in the Pontine Marshes, near Rome ; 
near Moscow; and in Egypt or Nubia. The last record cer- 
tainly requires confirmation; in the other cases, highly-coloured 
specimens of Z. nitila may have Leen mistaken for it. The 



120 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Corcan form of the insect (var. Z. aurata, Leech) appears to be 
quite as near to true Z. dispar (though somewhat smaller) as 
to Z. rutila. 

The Large Copper measures an inch and three-quarters, or 
two inches across the wings. The male is of a brilliant 
coppery-red, with a narrow black border, and well-marked long 
discoidal spots, within which is a black spot in the cell on 
the fore-wings. The female is of a more orange colour above, 
with one, and often two, black spots in the cell of the fore- 
wings, within the discoidal spot ; beyond the cell is a row of 
large black spots. The hind-wings are blackish, with the 
nervures more or less orange, and a broad coppery sub- 
marginal band, indented by black spots resting upon the 
border. On the under side the fore-wings are of a paler 
copper, with the hind-margin greyish, intersected by a black 
line, and preceded by a row of black spots between the 
nervures. All the other spots on the wings are ringed with 
white ; there are two in the cell, and a third at its extremity, 
and a curved row of large spots beyond. The hind-wings are 
blue, with four or five basal eyes, an ocellated discoidal 
streak, a row of large spots beyond, and a broad orange sub- 
marginal band, bordered on both sides with a row of black 
spots, not ocellated. The whitish hind-margin, which is inter- 
sected by a black line at the base of the fringes, is narrower 
than on the fore-wings. 

" The caterpillar is somewhat hairy, bright green, with in- 
numerable white dots ; it feeds upon a kind of dock. {Rumex 
hydrolapathum, the great water-dock, and R. aquaticus 
(Stainton).] The chrysalis is at first green, then pale ash- 
coloured, with a dark dorsal line, and two abbreviated white 
ones on each side; and lastly, sometimes deep brown" 
(Stephens). 

When I se4 to visit the late Mr. Henry Doublcday, a.t 



LYCvENA. 121 

Epping, he showed me the dock-plant still growing, on which 
he used to rear Lycana dispar. It was the nearest connecting 
link with the living insect which ever came in my way. A 
detailed account of the life-history of this insect is given by 
Newman, but is too long to quote here. It is much to be 
regretted that the breed of this interesting Butterfly was not 
kept up, like that of the Gipsy Moth, Porthetria dispar (\^\\-\n\ 
but the entomologists of the time seem to have been quite 
taken by surprise, and wholly unprepared for its sudden and 
utter extinction, though this was foreshadowed as early as 1841 
in Humphrey and Westwood's " British Butterflies." 



III. THE DARK-UNDERWING COPPER. LYC^ENA RUTILA. 
(Plate LI . //^. 3, 4-) 

Papilla hippothoC) Denis & Schiffermiiller (nee. Linn.), Syst. 
Verz. Schmett. Wien. p. 1 8 1, no. 2 (1775); Esper, Schmett. 

i- (0 P- 35> pl- 3 8 > fi S s - i a > b O?? 8 ); Hiibner, Europ. 
Schmett. i. figs. 352-354 (1803?). 
Polyommatus hippothoe^ Godart, Enc. Mcth. ix. p. 668, no. 165 



Lycana hippothoe^ Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 82 

(1828). 

Papilio rutilus t Werneburg, Beitr. Schmett. i. p. 391 (1864). 
Lyccena dispar^ var. rutUus, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, 

P- 55, P 1 - J 4, fig- 12 (1879). 
Polyommatus dispar, var. rutilus^ Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 91, 

pl. 20, fig. i (1881). 

The Dark-Underwing Copper was introduced into the British 
lists by Stephens on the strength of a specimen from Beck- 
with's collection (locality unrecorded), and another, from an 
Old collection called the Kentish Cabinet, from its consisting 



122 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

almost entirely of specimens from that county. Curiously 
enough, no confirmation of the insect being British was forth- 
coming till a year or two ago, when Mr. Bethune-Baker exhi- 
bited a series of Lyccena dispar and L. rutila which had been 
captured together, many years ago, by his late father ; but the 
locality was not recorded. Stephens expressly asserts that no 
specimens agreeing with this species had been met with among 
hundreds taken ^t Whittlesea Mere; and Mr. Bethune-Baker's 
specimens possibly came from some locality which was de- 
stroyed still earlier than the Mere. 

This insect is common through Central and Eastern Europe, 
and Northern and Western Asia in July and August. In 
Western Europe, however, it becomes very local, though it is 
less exclusively confined to marsh-lands than L. dispar. 

The Dark-Underwing Copper is so similar to the Large 
Copper that many entomologists do not consider it to be truly 
distinct. It is of a smaller average size, of a less reddish 
colour in the male, and the spots are all much smaller and 
less numerous, there being generally only one basal spot 
within the discoidal lunule on the fore-wings above. The 
under surface is generally greyish-ashy, sometimes more or 
less tinged with blue at the base, and the hind-wings are black 
in the female, with a sub-marginal orange band, but rarely 
orange along the nervures. The orange sub-marginal band be- 
neath is likewise much narrower in both sexes than in L. dispar. 

Larva green, with a paler lateral stripe. It feeds on various 
species of Rumex and on Polygotium bistortum (Lang). 

IV. THE PURPLE-EDGED COPPER. LYC^ENA HIPPOTHOE. 

(Plate LI. Figs, i, 2.) 

Papilio hippothoe^ Linn. Faun. Suec. p. 274 (1760); Esper, 
Schmett. i. (i) p. 292, pi. 22, fig. 3 (1777); p. 342, 

pi. 35* fi S- 



PLATE LI. 




1. 2. Lyccencu hippothoe. 



5.6. 



LYC^ENA. 123 

Papilio chryseiS) Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett. 

Wien. p. 181, no. 3 (1776); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. 

figs- 337, 33 8 > 355 ( l8 3 ? ) ; Haworth, Lepid. Brit. p. 41, 

no. 53 (1803). 
Papilio euridice. Von Rottemburg, Naturforscher, vi. p. 28, 

no. 17 (i775); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 329, pi. 31, 

fig- 3(i773). 
Lycana hippothoe, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 55, 

pi. 14, fig. 12 (1879). 

Polyommatus hippotlioe, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 92, pi. 20, 

fig. 4 (1881). 
Polyommatus chryseis, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 667, no. 163 

(1823). 

Chrysophanus chryseis, Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 60 (1892). 
Lycana chryseis, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 80 

(1828). 
Var. Papilio eurybia, Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. i. (2) p. 

81 (1808). 
Polyommatus eurybia, Freyer, Neuere Beitr. ii. pi. 163, fig. 4 

" (1836). 
Papilio euridice, Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 339-342 

(1803?); Esper, Schmett. i. (2) p. 120, pi. 116, figs. 6, 

7 (1806?). 
Polyommatus euridice^ Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 668, no. 164 

(1823). 
Polyommatus hippothoe, var. eurybia, Lang, Butterflies Eur. 

p. 92, pi. 20, fig. 5 (1881). 

The Purple-edged Copper Butterfly was recorded by all the 
older writers on entomology as British. It is common in many 
parts of Europe and Northern and Western Asia, frequenting 
flowery meadows near woods and grassy slopes from June to 
August. It appears to have formerly inhabited the south of 
England, but is probably now extinct. Epping Forest, and 



124 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Ashdown Forest in Sussex, are mentioned as its localities in 
Britain. The former is very doubtful, and the latter, though 
said to have produced many varieties in former times, has been 
little visited lately by entomologists. I have also seen a pair 
in the collection of the late Mr. T. Marshall, of Leicester, who 
told me that he picked them out of a quantity of L. dispar 
received from Cambridgeshire at a time when the latter insect 
was selling for threepence a specimen, and I therefore see no 
reason to doubt the British origin of the specimens of L. hip- 
pothoe also. Mr. C. W. Dale has lately called attention to an 
old record of the occurrence of this species near London. 
As regards Ashdown Forest, I may take the present oppor- 
tunity of mentioning that repeated reports have reached the 
Brighton entomologists of the occurrence of " Large Coppers " 
in out-of-the-way parts of Sussex. I heard of such reports 
about 1859, and again in 1892. If there is any truth in them, 
I expect they will be found to relate to the present species 
rather than to L. dispar. 

The Purple-Edged Copper measures about an inch and a 
quarter across the wings, which are of a bright copper-red in 
the male, with slender discoidal lunules, and rather broad 
borders, glossed with purple. On the hind-wings is a narrow 
sub-marginal coppery band. The female varies on the fore- 
wings from brown shot with copper, to rather dull copper, and 
is marked with one or two irregular rows of black spots. The 
hind-wings are brown, with a sub-marginal orange or copper 
streak enclosing black spots. On the centre, which is some- 
times tinged with copper, is generally a row of still darker 
spots. 

The fore-wings are orange beneath, with the hind-margin ashy- 
grey. There are two eyes in the cell before the discoidal one, 
and two rows of eyes beyond, the outer one slightly obsolete. 
The hind-wings are bluish at the base, and marked with 



LYC.ENA. 125 

numerous ocellated spots ; there is also a sub-marginal orange 
band. The fringes are white, with the base brown. 

In the Alpine variety Z. eurybia, the male is of a paler copper, 
with a much narrower black border, riot shot with violet, and 
the female is darker, both above and below, than in typical 
Z. hippothoe. 

The larva is green, with a darker dorsal stripe, and two 
paler lateral lines. It feeds on Rumex acetosa and R. oltusa 
in June. 

V. THE SMALL COPPER. LYC^ENA PHLJEAS. 

(Plate LI. Figs. 5, 6.) 
Papilio phlceas, Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica, p. 285 (1761) ; Esper, 

Schmett. i. (i) p. 287, pi. 22, fig. i (1777); Hiibner, 

Europ. Schmett. i. figs. 362, 363 (1803?). 
Polyommatus phtceas, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 670, no. 167 

(1823); Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 115 (1881); Lang, 

Butterflies Eur. p. 95, pi. 21, fig. 4 (1881). 
Lyccena phlaas, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 79 (1828) ; 

Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 56, pi. 15, figs. 2a, b 

(1879). 
Chrysophanus phlceas, Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. p. 62, pi. 9, figs. 

2, 2a-j (1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. p. 91, 

pi. 13, fig. 4 (1886). 
Var. Polyommatus schmidtii, Gerhard, Mon. Lye. pi. 10, figs. 

3*. b ( l8 53)- 
Papilio phlceas, Esper, Schmett. i. (2) p. 58, pi. 60, fig. 5 (1780) \ 

Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. i. figs. 636, 637 (1818?). 
Polyommatus phlaas^ var. schmidtii^ Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 96, 

pi. 22, fig. i (1881). 
Var. Papilio timeus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 186, E, F 



Hesperia eleus, Fabricius, Ent Syst. Suppl. p. 430 (1798). 



i26 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Polyommatus elens, Gerhard, Mon. Lye. pi. 5, fig. i (1853). 
Polyommatus turdcus^ Guerin, /. c. figs. $a~c (1853). 

This is the only species of the genus which was ever generally 
common in England. It is abundant throughout the British 
islands from April to October (there being a succession of 
broods), as well as throughout Europe, Asia as far as the 
Himalayas, and again in North America. It is found in 
meadows, heaths, gardens, &c., often in company with Poly- 
ommalus icarus. 

The Small Copper is one of the smaller species of the genus, 
generally measuring about an inch across the wings, which are 
similarly coloured in both sexes. The fore-wings are bright 
copper-red, with broad dark brown borders, a black spot at the 
end of the cell, and another nearer the base, and a row of 
black spots beyond. The hind-wings are black, with a sub- 
marginal copper band, spotted with black on the outside. On 
the under side the fore-wings are paler coppery, with greyish 
hind-margins, preceded by a more or less developed row of 
black spots ; the spots as above, but slightly ocellated, and 
with two spots in the cell within the discoidal spot. The hind- 
wings are brownish-grey, with several more or less distinct 
black dots, and an orange sub-marginal band. 

The larva is green, with more or less distinct dorsal and 
lateral lines ; the head is reddish or yellowish. It feeds on 
Rumex acetosa, and on other species of sorrel. The pupa is 
whitish, speckled with black or brown, " suspended by the tail 
and a silken girth to the stem or leaf of its foodplant" 
(Barrett}. 

This is a very variable species, the spots of the upper side 
being sometimes almost absent, and at other times agglomerated 
together into large blotches. Very frequently the copper sub- 
marginal band on the hind- wings is preceded by a row of blue 
spots. 



TOMAkES, 127 

The variety L. schmidtii is an albino form, in which the copper 
colour of the wings is replaced with white ; L. timeus (Cramer) 
is a large dark Southern form with short tails. 



On the Continent, this species is frequently accompanied by 
another species of similar size and habits, but much duller in 
colour Lycana dorilis (Hofnagel) or L. dree (Hiibner). It is 
said to have been once taken at Ilfracombe, but cannot be 
supposed to be indigenous in England. The male is brown 
above, spotted with black, and with traces of a copper band 
towards the anal angle of the hind-wings. The female has the 
centre of the fore-wings filled up with rather pale copper, 
spotted with black, and there is a sub-marginal copper band on 
all the wings, enclosing black spots on the hind-wings. The 
under side is greenish yellow, spotted with black, and there is a 
pale sub-marginal orange band on the hind-wings, 

GENUS TOMARES. 

Tomares, Rambur, Faune Ent. Andalusie, ii. p. 261 (1839). 
Thomares, Rambur, Cat. Lepid. Andal. i. p. 33 (1858). 
Thestor^ Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 73 (1816); Lederer, 

Wien. Ent. Mon. i. p. 26(1857); Schatz & Rober, Exot. 

Schmett. ii. p. 274 (1892). 

This genus is generally called Thestor, but Dr. Scudder has 
shown that Papilio protumnus. Linn., a South African species, 
is the true type of the genus Thestor. 

Tomares includes a number of small brown Butterflies with 
orange rather than coppery markings, which inhabit the Medi- 
terranean Region and Central Asia. They are remarkable for 
their stout femora, and short stout tibiae, with a strong spine at 
the extremity, which led Schatz and Rober to consider them 



ia LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

somewhat intermediate between the Lycanidce and Lemoniida. 
In Lyc&na, &c., the legs are slender, and no such spine is 
present. The type of this genus is T. ballus (Fabricius), which 
inhabits Southern France and Spain in very early spring. The 
male is brown, with traces of a sub-marginal orange band at 
the anal angle of the hind-wings. The female has orange fore- 
wings, with brown borders, and brown hind-wings with a broad 
orange sub-marginal band. The under side of the fore-wings 
is like the upper side of the female, but the base is green, and 
the orange markings are more coppery, and marked with three 
rows of black spots. The hind-wings are green, with a broad 
border of pale brown. The larva is yellowish-white, with a row 
of reddish dorsal spots bordered with brownish-red, and bi- 
sected by a blue line. It feeds on Lotus hispidus in May. 

GENUS FENISECA. 

Feniseca, Grote, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. ii. p. 308 (1869), 
Scudder, Butterflies East. United States, pp. 1009-1014 
(1889); Schatz & Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 275 
(1892). 

The type of this genus is a small black-and-tawny North 
American Butterfly, with long slender pointed palpi, com- 
paratively short and stout antennae, a slightly concave hind- 
margin to the fore-wings, and rounded hind-wings. It is 
mentioned here on account of the peculiar habits of the larva. 
The type is, 

THE WANDERER. FENISECA TARQUINIUS. 

Hesptria tarquinius> Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii. (i) p. 319, 

no. 207 (1793). 
Papilio tarquinius, Donovan, Insects of India, pi. 44, fig. I 

(1800). 
Erycina tarquinius, Godart, Enc. Meth, ix. p. 556, no. 580 



FENISECA. 129 

Polyommatus targuinius, Doubleday & Hewitson, Gen. Diurn. 

Lepid. pi. 77, fig- 8(1852). 
Feniscca tarquinius t Scudder, Butterflies Eastern United 

States, pp. 1009-1026 (1889). 
roJyommatus cratcegi, Boisduval & Leconte, Lepid. Amdr. Sept. 

p. 228, pi. 37, figs. 1-5 (1833). 
Polyommatus por senna, Scudder, Proc. Essex Institute, iii. p. 

163, no. 12 (1862). 

Feniseca tarquinius is widely distributed over North America, 
from Canada to Florida. It measures rather less than an inch 
and a half across the wings. The male is dark brown, with an 
irregular longitudinal tawny band on the fore-wings, marked 
with a dark line interrupted towards the base. There is a 
broad tawny patch in the middle of the hind-margin of the 
hind-wings, marked with a sub marginal row of black dots. 
The fore-wings of the female are tawny, irregularly bordered 
with brown, and crossed by two interrupted longitudinal black 
bands. The hind-wings are bordered with tawny, and marked 
with a double row of black dots. The under side of the tore- 
wings is similar to the upper side, but paler ; the hind-wings are 
reddish-yellow, with darker spots, slightly surrounded with 
white. 

The larva is green, with white longitudinal lines ; it is ex- 
clusively carnivorous, and feeds on aphides. Ants, which are 
in the habit of milking the larvae of other Lycanida, attack 
and destroy these. The pupa is greyish, the back darker and 
tuberculated, the hinder extremity pointed and slightly curved. 
"The chrysalis is an odd-looking object, and the anterior half 
with its bizarre markings bears, when viewed laterally, head 
downward, a curious resemblance to a monkey's face, as 
pointed out by Miss Morton. It is far more irregular in surface 
and form than any other of our Chrysophanides, the abdomen 
being basally hunched, and laterally expanded, and the seg- 

10 K 



130 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

ments provided with transverse series of low tubercules ; besides 
which the last segment, with the preceding, form a separately 
curved, transverse sub-spatulate pad for the cremastral hooks " 
(Scudder). 

A similar strange resemblance to a monkey's face has also 
been pointed out by Dr. Holland in the case of the pupa of an 

African Lycaenid. 

GENUS AMBLYPODIA. 

Amblypodia, Hors field, Cat. Lepid. Mus. E. Ind. Co. p. 98 
(1829); Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 477 (1852); 
Schatz & Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 274 (1892). 
This genus and its allies (among which the most important 
is Arhopald) Boisduval), include a great number of handsome 
species found throughout the Indo-Malayan and Austro- 
Malayan Regions, from India to New Guinea. They are of 
considerable size, usually expanding from an inch and a half 
to considerably over two inches, and are generally of some 
shade of blue above, most frequently inclining to deep purple 
or violet, with black borders, broadest in the females, and the 
hind- wings have usually a strong short tail before the anal angle. 
The under surface is of a darker or lighter brown, with light 
bands enclosing darker spaces, often more or less chain-like, 
and usually forming distinctly ocellated spots towards the base, 
and in the cell of the fore-wings. On the under side of the 
hind-wings there are usually some greenish or bluish mark- 
ings about the base of the tail. The type is Amblypodia 
apidanus (Cramer), a violet-blue species found in Java, with 
the base of the costa marked with red. It is useless to give 
a detailed description of a single species of a group containing 
so many closely-allied forms. 

GENUS OGYRIS. 

iS) Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 472 (1852) ; Schatz 
& Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 275 (1892). 



CURETIS. I3T 

A genus peculiar to Australia, including a few species of 
large and handsome Butterflies, generally measuring nearly two 
inches in expanse, and blue or green above, with broad black 
borders (sometimes wholly brown or black in the females), and 
with the hind-wings shorter than the fore-wings, and not tailed, 
but strongly dentated. The sub-costal region of the fore- 
wings is transversely banded beneath with white, blue, brown, 
or black, and occasionally with red, and the hind-wings are 
generally irregularly banded or spotted with brown, on a bluish- 
grey ground. The type is Ogyris abrota (Doubled. & Hew.), 
a very deep purple species, expanding rather more than an inch 
and a half across the wings. It is bordered with black, and the 
fore-wings are distinctly dentated as well as the hind-wings. The 
wings are nearly black beneath, with only some slight transverse 
bluish-white markings in the cell of the fore-wings. The female 
has black fore-wings, with a large round yellow spot in the 
middle; the base of the fore-wings, and the hind- wings are light 
brown. 

GENUS CURETIS. 

Curetis, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 102 (1816); Schatz 
& Rober, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 276 (1892). 

Anops, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. pi. 23, fig. i (1836); 
Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 473 (1852). 

A curious little genus, including a number of closely-allied 
forms, found throughout the Indo- and Austro-Malayan Regions. 
They expand rather less than two inches across the broad sub- 
triangular fore-wings, which are more or less pointed at the tip ; 
the hind-wings are rounded, or else with a rectangular pro- 
jection in the middle of the hind-margin. The type is an 
Indian species, Curetis thetys (Drury), the male of which is 
coppery-red above, with a rather narrow black border ; the 
female is brown, with a large white blotch on each wing. The 

K 2 



i$ 2 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

hind-wings are almost white beneath. In this species, the 
margins of the wings are regularly curved. The other species 
of the genus differ chiefly in the outline of the wings, and the 
width of the dark border, the females being sometimes marked 
with orange-yellow instead of white ; but in all cases, the under 
surface is white or yellowish-white, with very slight transverse 
darker markings, if any are present. 

GENUS GERYDUS. 

Gerydus, Boisduval, Spec. Ge'n. Lepid. i. pi. 23, fig. 2 (1836) ; 
Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 205 (1884). 

Miletus, pt. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 71 (1816); West- 
wood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 502 (1852); Schatz & Rober, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 276 (1892). 

This genus and several of its allies are dull-coloured brown 
and white species, with slender bodies and rather long wings. 
Most of them are found in the East Indies. In the type of 
Gerydus^ the first joint of all the tarsi is unusually long, com- 
pressed, and spatulate. The type is, 

GERYDUS SYMETHUS. 

Papilio symethus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 149, figs. B, C 

(1777); Stoll. Suppl. Cramer, pi. 37, figs. 3, 3^(1790). 
Polyommatus symethus^ Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 675, no. 180 

(1823). 
Gerydus symethns, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. pi. 23, fig. 2 

(1836); Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 205, pi. 20, fig. 2, 

pi. 22, fig. 14 (1884). 

The present species, which is a native of Java and Malacca, 
has rather long greyish-white fore-wings, with the base, and 
the basal half of the costal area bluish-grey, and all the borders 
of the wings broadly black. The hind-wings are bluish-grey 



LIPTENIN^E. 133 

with an oblique whitish streak in the centre, and the costa 
blackish. The female has longer hind-wings, and the central 
whitish area of the wings more extended. The fore-wings 
beneath are pale brownish, varied with white towards the 
extremity of the inner-margin ; the hind-wings are greyish or 
yellowish-grey, with light brown fasciae bordered with whitish. 

This species has been erroneously stated to inhabit ants' 
nests. I imagine the error to have arisen from the fact that 
the larvse of many Lyccznidce, and possibly of this species too, 
exude a substance which is attractive to ants. 

GENUS LUCIA. 

Lucia, Swainson, Zool. 111. ii. p. 135 (1833); Westwood, 111. 
Diurn. Lepid. p. 501 (1852). 

The type of this species is Lucia lucanus (Fabricius), a small 
Australian Butterfly with rounded wings, which are yellow above, 
with broad black borders, and a black spot in the middle of 
the fore-wings. The latter are yellowish beneath, with square 
brown spots, and the hind-margin brown. The hind-wings are 
red beneath, irrorated with yellow, and marked with some 
square brown spots. 

Schatz and Rober erroneously give Lachnocnema bibulus, 
(Fabricius), a small brown South African Butterfly, as the type 
of this genus. 

SUB-FAMILY II. LIPTENIN^E. 

Under this heading, Schatz and Rober propose to include a 
number of African genera which agree in having the sub-costal 
nervure always five-branched. With them they enumerate the 
abnormal Eastern genus Liphyra. Until recently, very few of 
these aberrant African Lyccenida. were known, but within the 
last twelve years a great number have been described and 



134 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

figured in Grose Smith and Kirby's " Rhopalocera Exotica," 
and several additional species have appeared in the works of 
other authors. In most cases, the wings are rounded and 
entire, or but slightly scalloped. 

Many of these species are tawny, with broad black borders, 
and have much resemblance to species of Acrcein, which they 
evidently mimic. Thus, the species of Mimacrcea, Butler, 
expand considerably over two inches across the wings, which 
are yellowish or reddish beneath, with radiating black and 
yellowish streaks on the outer half of the wings, and with 
numerous black spots towards the base of the hind-wings. 

The typical species of the genus Liptena, Westwood, are 
smaller than Mimacrcea, not attaining two inches in expanse of 
wing. They are red or tawny, with broad black borders, and a 
transverse white or yellow transverse fascia towards the tip of 
the fore-wings, while the border of the hind-wings is spotted 
with white beneath, both above and below. On the under side, 
they are reddish or yellowish, with transverse black and white 
markings towards the costa of all the wings. These Butterflies 
appear to mimic the common African Moths belonging to the 
genus Atetis, Westwood. 

Other genera with black and red, or black and tawny 
markings, but containing smaller species, are Pseuderesia, 
Butler, Alcsna, Boisduval (long included in the Acrccince, not- 
withstanding its very different appearance), and Durbania, 
Trimen. 

There are three genera of blue Butterflies of this group, re- 
placing in Africa the species of Theda, &c., which are so 
numerous in other parts of the world. They vary in size from 
an inch and a half to over two inches in expanse. These 
genera are Phytala and Epitola, Westwood, and Heivitsonia, 
Kirby. Epitola contains a considerable number of rather dis- 
cordant species, and will ultimately require sub-dividing. The 



LIPTENIN^E. 135 

larger species have the fore-wings long and sub-falcate, with 
yellowish or whitish radiating markings on the hind-wings ; but 
in the majority of the smaller species, the fore-wings are rather 
short and broad, with the under side of the wings brown or grey, 
and obscurely marked. 

The genus Vanessula, Dewitz, is rather aberrant. The single 
species, V. milca (Hewitson), has long and slightly angulated 
fore-wings. It expands rather more than an inch and a half, 
and is a native of West Africa. The wings are black, crossed 
by a broad continuous band of pale red, which is narrowed 
and angulated towards the costa of the fore-wings. 

The species of Tingra, Boisduval, are of moderate size, and 
of a white or yellow colour, with broad black borders above, 
and numerous black spots above and below. Those of Pentila^ 
Boisduval, are similarly coloured, but with fewer spots, and 
the under side of the hind-wings is marked with transverse 
lines. 

The species of Teriomima and Citrinophila, Kirby, are small 
white and yellow Butterflies, with broad black borders, and are 
deceptively similar to some of the Pieridce which inhabit the 
same countries; indeed, some of them have actually been 
described as Pieridce. Many dark-coloured species have also 
been included in Teriomima. 

Larinopoda^ Butler, was originally described as a genus of 
Pierida; it includes a number of milky-white Butterflies, with 
black borders, easily recognised by two very conspicuous 
characters, viz., the possession of one or more large round 
black spots on at least the under side of the hind-wings, and 
the tufted tawny legs. 

Deloneura immaculata, Trimen, from the Bashee River, 
South Africa, is a pale ochreous-yellow Butterfly, wholly without 
markings, and measuring rather more than an inch and a half 
across the win:s. 



136 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Aslaugci) Kirby, is a genus including only two species from 
West Africa, A. vininga (Hewitson) and A. marginalis, Kirby. 
The wings are long, thick, somewhat obtuse, and in the first 
species, produced at the tip of the fore-wings, with a very con- 
vex hind-margin, while the hind-margin of the hind-wings is 
rounded and convex in the middle, and triangularly toothed 
below, before the anal angle. A. vininga is dark blue above, 
and dark grey below ; A. marginalis, which some authors 
regard as the female of the former, has regularly rounded oval 
wings, and is tawny-yellow, with broad black borders. 

The only Asiatic species of this group is a very remarkable 
Butterfly. 

GENUS LIPHYRA. 

Liphyra, Westwood, Proc. Ent. Soc. London, 1864, p. 31 ; 

Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 204 (1884); Schatz & Rober, 

Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 282 (1892). 
SterosiS) Felder, Reise Novara, Lepid. ii. p. 219 (1865). 

The single species of this genus has a wide range from India 
to Halmahe'ra. It is a very large stout brown and tawny 
Butterfly, nearly three inches across the wings, much more 
resembling a species of the South American genus Brassolis 
(whence its name), or some large species of Hesptriida than 
any other known Lycanidce. 

LIPHYRA BRASSOLIS. 

Liphyra brassolis, Westwood, Proc. Ent. Soc. London, 1864, 
p. 31 ; Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 204, pi. 22, fig. 18 (1884); 
Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 269, pi. 94 (1886). 

Sterosis robusta^ Felder, Reise Novara, Lepid. ii. p. 219, pi. 27, 
figs. 10, ii (1865). 

This is a Butterfly with a very stout body, short thick 



PIERIDJE. 137 

antennae, and broad densely-scaled wings of a dull ochre- 
yellow colour, with broad brown borders, large black connected 
spots on the fore-wings, and several small brown spots in the 
middle of the hind- wings. The fore-wings are considerably 
longer than the hind-wings. The under side is dull ochreous- 
yellow, rather darker towards the hind-margins, especially on 
the fore-wings, and with some dark spots in the middle of 
the latter, less connected than on the upper side. The 
female has brown fore-wings, with the hind-margin forming a 
rectangle, and a large ochreous-tawny longitudinal irregular 
band running from the base parallel to the inner margin, and 
a tawny spot at the end of the cell. The hind-wings are 
tawny, with brown borders, and black blotches. The under 
side is brown, lighter on the fore-wings except in the centre, 
and on the costal area of the hind-wings. 

FAMILY V. PIERID^. 

Egg. "Very tall and slender, tapering toward a much 
smaller rounded summit, either squarely truncated at the base, 
or appearing as much or nearly as much so at the summit, so 
as to render the egg sub-fusiform, provided with a variable 
number of distinct longitudinal ribs, and crossed by frequent 
transverse finer raised lines " (Scudder). 

Larva. Smooth or downy, cylindrical, slightly tapering at 
the ends, not spiny, nor furnished with retractile tentacles. 

Pupa. Angulated, slender, the head more or less pointed ; 
attached by the tail, and a girth round the body ; sometimes 
boat-shaped. 

Imago. Of moderate size, rarely much less than two inches 
in expanse, and still more rarely exceeding three inches; wings 
rounded, very rarely pointed, sub-dentate or sub-caudate. 



138 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Prevailing colours white and yellow, sometimes black, varied 
with red or yellow, rarely red or blue, over the greater part of 
the wings, often with the apex orange or yellow, never with any 
approach to ocellated spots, except towards the end of the 
cells on the under surface of some of the yellow species. 
Structure moderately robust ; flight rapid, except in some of 
the smaller species, but rarely high. Wings with closed cells, 
sub-median nervure un-branched, sometimes bifid at the base. 
Fore-wings with no internal nervure, but the hind-wings always 
with one, and, in many cases, with streaks resembling nervures 
between the nervures on the under-side of the wings, thus 
giving the appearance of three sub-median nervures. Inner- 
margin of the hind-wings usually forming a gutter to receive 
the abdomen. 

Six perfect legs in both sexes, without spurs, claws bifid. 

Range. The greater number of genera and species of this 
family inhabit the Tropics of the Old World ; but the Alpine 
and Arctic genus Eurymus extends as far to the north and south 
as any Butterflies exist. The small white and yellow Butter- 
flies belonging to Terias and its allies, and the larger ones 
belonging to Catopsilia, &c., inhabit the tropics of both 
Hemispheres. Several remarkable genera are peculiar to 
Tropical America; some of these have longer wings than 
usual, and mimic various species of IthomiincR. "Orange- 
tips " are peculiarly characteristic of Africa, though similarly- 
marked species are found in Europe, Asia, North America, 
and Chili. 

Habits. The Pieridcc inhabit woods and meadows. Their 
flight is often rapid, but not generally very lofty. The more 
delicate species, which have a weak flight, are often very local. 

Classification. Fourteen genera of Pierida were admitted by 
Boisduval in 1836 ; and sixteen by Doubleday in the 



APORIA. 139 

"Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," in 1847. In 1870 Dr. A. 
G. Butler published a revision of the family in the "Cistula 
Entomologica," in which he enumerated forty-eight genera, 
primarily classified according to the number of branches of the 
sub-costal nervure ; and in 1886 Schatz again revised the Family, 
not admitting all Butler's genera, but including Pseudopontia, 
Plotz, which is certainly a Moth. Schatz divides the Pieridce, 
into four families, which appear on the whole to be natural, 
and which will therefore in the main be adopted in the present 
work. 

Schatz, however, places his four groups in the following 
order : Dismorphidce^ Pieridce^ Dryadce, and Charidce. I 
have re-arranged these divisions as Sub-families, in what 
appears to me to be a more natural' sequence : Pieri?ice, JDis- 
morpliince> Anthocharince, and Callidryince. 

SUB-FAMILY I. PIERIN^E. 

Antennae generally with a well-marked club. Palpi gene- 
rally extending beyond the head, and clothed with long stiff 
hairs in front. Terminal joint pointed, as long as or longer 
than the middle joint, rarely smaller. Pre-costal nervure always 
distinctly present. Sub-costal nervure generally with three or 
four branches. 

This is the typical group of the Pierida. The species are 
generally of a white colour, and the hind-wings are rounded, 
more or less dentated only in one or two genera allied to 
Pereute. The sections of the old genus Pieris are mostly 
treated as sub-genera by Schatz, but the more important of 
these will be here enumerated as separate genera. 

GENUS APORIA. 

Aporia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 90 (1816); Schatz, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 60 (1886). 



140 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Pieris, pt. Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. (i) pp. 152, 160 (1801); 

Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 25 (1827); Curtis, Brit. 

Ent. viii. pi. 360 (1831). 
Pontia, pt. Fabricius, Illiger, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 283 (1807); 

Butler, Cist. Ent. i. p. 50 (1870). 
Leuconea^ Donzel, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vi. p. 80 (1837). 

Antennae with an abrupt, obconic, slightly compressed club ; 
palpi short, the basal joint long, recurved, cylindrical ; second 
about half the length of the first, the terminal one slender, 
short, linear, as long as the second. Wings thinly clothed 
with scales, especially in the female, which is almost sub- 
diaphanous ; cells broad, of about equal length on the fore- 
and hind-wings ; sub-costal nervure four-branched, the third and 
fourth branches forming a rather wide fork ; upper discoidal 
nervure emitted about half-way between the cell and the base 
of this fork ; fringes almost absent ; larvae gregarious, feeding 
under a web when young. 

I consider that there is but one species of this genus, for the 
Asiatic species which have been associated with it by various 
authors are much more densely scaled, and have well-developed 
fringes, and appear to me to be much more closely allied to 
the genus Metaporia, 

THE BLACK-VEINED WHITE. APORiA CRAT^EGI. 
(Plate LXIL, Fig. 2.) 

Papilio cratagi, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 467, no. 57 (1758); 

id. Faun. Suec. p. 269 (1761) ; Esper, Schmett, i. p. 47, 

pi. 2, fig. 3 (1777) ; Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. i. figs. 399 

400 (1803 ?). 
Pieris cratczgi, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 154, no. 127 (1819); 

Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Le'pid. i. p. 445 (1836); Steph. 111. 

Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 27 (1827); Curtis, Brit. Ent. viii. 

pi. 360 (1831). 



APORIA. 141 

Aporia cratcegi^ Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 167 (1881), 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 8, pi. 4, figs. 2a-c 
(1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 27, pi. 6, fig. i ; pi. 15, 
fig. i (transf.: 1881); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 18, 
pi. i, figs. 2, 2a-c (1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. 
pi. 2, fig. i (1886) ; Rye, Handb. Brit. Macro. Lepid. p. 
9, pi. 2, fig. 2 (1892). 

This Butterfly is a very common species throughout Europe 
and Northern and Western Asia, but is always more or less 
uncertain in appearance. On the Continent it ranks among 
destructive insects ; and Pallas mentions his having seen it in 
such abundance in Siberia, that it looked like flakes of snow. 
It frequents meadows in the neighbourhood of woods, gardens, 
&c., and has a strong flight. It is very common on the lower 
slopes in Switzerland, where it flies with Parnassius apollo, 
which it much resembles on the wing, at a little distance, when 
the red spots of the latter are inconspicuous. It was always 
considered a local insect in the south of England and Wales 
(it is unknown in Scotland and Ireland), but less than a 
century ago, was common in many localities as near London 
as Chelsea and Muswell Hill. Until recently, it was still 
abundant in the New Forest, and in various parts of Kent, &c. ; 
but within the last quarter of a century, it has disappeared 
almost suddenly from all its old haunts, and is now thought to 
be on the very verge of extinction as a British species. There 
is only one brood, which appears on the wing in early summer, 
and does not last very long. It is supposed that the dis- 
appearance of this Butterfly is due to the multiplication of 
insect-eating birds, in consequence of the Wild Birds' Protec- 
tion Act. It feeds on common trees, and admirably illustrates 
the well-known fact that the range of insects is by no means 
co-extensive with that of the plants on which they feed. A 
fjw years more will probably decide whether the Butterfly will 
actually disappear from England, or recover itself, and again 
become comparatively common with us. 



142 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The Black-veined White Butterfly measures about two 
inches and a half across the wings, which are of a uniform 
white, thinly scaled, and semi-diaphanous in the female, with 
the nervures and the terminal nervures of the wing narrowly 
black, but not incrassated, though the nervules frequently 
terminate in dusky triangles on the hind-margin. The cilia 
are so short as to be almost obsolete. 

The larva (vol. i. pi. 3, fig. 3) feeds on hawthorn, sloe, and 
various fruit-trees. The female lays her eggs on the ends of 
the branches, with a coating of varnish so effectually weather- 
proof, that they remain in security (sometimes, it is said, for 
several years) till circumstances favour the exclusion of the 
larvae. (If this is correct, it goes far to account for the 
periodicity of the insect.) The larvae are black when young, 
and live gregariously under a common white web. Subse- 
quently, they become clothed with short hair, and striped with 
reddish-brown on the sides. The pupa (vol. i. pi. 3, fig. 4) is 
yellow or white, streaked and spotted with black. 

GENUS PIERIS. 

Pieris, Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. (i) pp. 152, 164 (1801); 

Latreille, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. xiv. p. in (1805); id. 

Enc. Meth. ix. pp. n, 119 (1819); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. 

Lepid. i. p. 434 (1836); Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. 

p. 42 (1847) ; Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. pp. 60, 61 (1886). 
Fotitid) pt. Fabricius, Illiger, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 283 (1807); 

Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 14 (1827). 
Manapium, Hiibner, Tentamen, p. i (1810?). 
Catophaga, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 93 (1816). 
Ganoris, Dalman, Vetensk. Acad. Handl. Stockh. xxxvii. pp 

61, 86 (1816). 

Bv!t for the mythological associations of the name Danaus, 



PIERIS. 143 

I should have accepted Pieris brassica (Linn.) as the type of 
that genus (cf. vol. i. pp. 18, 19). It is, however, the type 
of Mancipiwtii Ganoris^ and, I think, Catophaga. I cannot 
follow Dr. Scudder in making the East Indian Appias panlina 
(Cramer) the type of Catophaga^ as the name too obviously 
relates to the destructive habits of our common European 
Cabbage Whites. I think, however, that Dr. Scudder has 
shown that the types of Pieris and Pontia are P. raped (Linn.) 
and P. daplidice (Linn.) respectively, and as I do not propose 
to separate P. brassicce and P. rapa generically in the present 
work, I retain Pieris as the name of the genus in which I place 
them. At the same time I am glad to have the opportunity of 
figuring Pieris chariclea, P. metra, and P. sabellicce (Stephens), 
and I have therefore given them separate places, though I see 
no reason to regard them as anything more than the early 
broods of the common species. 

Characters. Antennae nearly as in Aporia ; palpi short, nearly 
cylindrical, with the terminal joint longer than the second; 
wings opaque, the apex of the anterior wings obtusely angu- 
lated ; cells of the fore-wings longer than those of the hind- 
wings, sub-costal nervure four-branched, the third and fourth 
forming a very sharp fork ; upper discoidal nervule emitted 
much nearer the cell than the base of this fork ; fringes well 
developed. Larvae often gregarious, but not living under a 
web. Pupa pointed above. 

This genus includes our common White Cabbage Butterflies, 
and is fairly well represented in the Northern Hemisphere, 
attaining its maximum of variety and development in Northern 
and Central Asia. The species of this genus are very abund- 
ant, and are often very destructive in gardens to cabbages, 
Indian Cress (generally, but improperly, called Nasturtium), and 
other cruciferous plants. Occasionally these Butterflies cross 
the Channel in vast flights. 



144 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

THE LARGE WHITE CABBAGE BUTTERFLY. PIERIS BRASSICyF. 
(Plate LI L Figs. I<?,2?.) 

Pieris brassic^ Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 467, no. 58 (1758); 

Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 52. pi. 3, fig. i (1777); Hiibner, 

Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 401-403 (1803). 
Pieris brassiccz, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 158, no. 138 (1819); 

Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 521, no. 121 (1836); 

Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 165 (1881); Kirby, Eur. 

Butterflies and Moths, p. 8, pi. 4, figs. 3^, b (1878); 

Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 28, pi. 6, fig. 2, pi. 15, fig. 2 

(transf. 1881); Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 21, pi. i, 

figs, i, \a-c (1892) ; Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. 

p. 148, pi. 2, fig. 2 (1886); Rye, Handb, Brit. Micro. 

Lepid. p. u, pi. 2, figs. 3, 4 (1895). 

Pontia brassiccB) Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 15 (1827). 
It is hardly necessary to say more of this insect than that 
it is generally common throughout the Palaearctic Region, 
frequenting fields and gardens, and that there is a succession 
of broods throughout the year. There is a permanent form in 
the Canary Islands, P. cheiranthi (Hiibner), with larger and 
confluent black spots on the wings ; and forms intermediate 
between this and the ordinary type occur in the Himalayas 
(P. nepalensiS) Gray) and in Madeira (P. wollastoni, Butler). 
It is an insect of fairly strong flight. 

This Butterfly generally measures from two and a half to 
two and three-quarter inches across the wings, which are white 
above, with a black triangular patch, somewhat indented on 
the inner edge, at the tip of the fore-wings. There is also a 
rather large spot on the costa of the hind-wings towards the 
tip, and in the female there are two large spots on the disc of 
the fore- wings, and a black streak about the middle of the 
inner-margin. On the under side both sexes are nearly alike ; 
the colour inclines to yellow, especially on the hind-wings, 



PLATE LII. 




1.2. Pieris brassruxe. 
3. rapcp. 



PLATE LIII. 



4. 




\ 



\ 



/. Pieris diarvd^ew. 
2.3. m.etras. 
4.5. 



PIERIS. 145 

which are also sprinkled with black scales. The two discal 
spots on the fore-wings reappear below in both sexes ; the other 
dark markings are obsolete ; the fringes are yellowish, slightly 
waved with black. The body and antennae are white beneath 
and black above ; the thorax is clothed with hoary pubescence 
above. 

The larva is green, with yellow lines on the back and sides ; 
it is thickly covered with black tubercular points, each with a 
hair in the centre. It feeds on cabbages, Tropceolum^ migno- 
nette, and many other plants, and is very liable to the attacks 
of small Ichneumons, or rather Braconidce. The yellow 
cocoons of one of the most destructive of these parasites 
(Apanteks glomeratus] may often be seen clustered round a 
dead larva. The pupa is greenish, with yellow streaks, and 
numerous black dots. The egg is figured (vol. i. pi. i, fig. 4). 




Pupa of P. brassic<z t 

THE EARLY WHITE CABBAGE BUTTERFLY. PIERIS CHARICLEA. 

(Plate LI I I. Fig. i.) 
Pontia charidea, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 17, 

pi. 3, figs, i, 2. 

This Butterfly, which occurs in May and June, is considered 
to be only the spring brood of P. brassica^ and although th e 
10 it 



I4 6 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

larvae have been said to differ, that of P. brassier is known to 
be variable, and therefore too much importance cannot be 
attached to this statement, even if correct. The perfect insect 
is generally rather smaller than typical P. brassicce, measuring 
from 2 to 2J/2 inches across the wings; it is similarly marked, 
but the apical patch on the fore-wings is of a light brown, 
approaching to ash-colour, especially in the female, and the 
inner edge of the patch is not indented, but regularly concave ; 
the fringe is yellowish-white. On the under side the tips of 
the fore-wings are clear yellow, and the hind-wings are deep 
yellow, very thickly dusted with black. 



THE SMALL WHITE CABBAGE BUTTERFLY. PIERIS 

(Plate LI I. Fig. 3.) 

Papilio rapce, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 488, no. 59 (1758); 
id. Faun. Suec. p. 270 (1761); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 
55, pi. 3, fig. 2 (1777) : Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 
404, 405 (1803?) 

PierisrapcR) Godart, Enc. Me'th. ix. p. 161, no. 144 (1819); 
Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 520, no. 120 (1836); New- 
man, Brit. Butterflies, p. 161 (1881); Kirby, Eur. Butter- 
flies and Moths, p. 8, pi. 4, figs. 4*7, b (1878); Lang, 
Butterflies Eur. p. 30, pi. 6, fig. 4, pi. 15, fig. 3 (1881); 
Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl. i. p. 22, pi. 2, 2a-e (1892); 
Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. pp. 19, 152, pi. 2, fig. 3 
(1886); Rye, Brit. Macro-Lepid. i. p. 12, pi ii. figs. 5-6 
(1895). 
Pontia rapes, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 1 8 (1827). 

This species, like P. brassic^ is found throughout the Palae- 
arctic Region, and is frequently very destructive, although the 
eggs are laid singly and not gregariously. It is probably the 
most abundant of all our Butterflies, and frequents fields and 
gardens. In Southern Europe, and in Northern and Western 



WfcRIS. 147 

Asia, many closely-allied races are met with, some of which are 
probably simply local forms of this Butterfly, while others are 
to be ranked as distinct species. Rather more than thirty 
years ago, this Butterfly was introduced into North America 
(where, however, several closely-allied species are truly indi- 
genous), and has since spread over the country, and become 
very destructive. It has also developed a yellow variety 
(P. novanglice, Scudder), which is very rarely observed in any 
other part of its range. 

The Small White Butterfly measures from ij to nearly 2^ 
inches across the wings, which are coloured nearly as in P. 
brassica. The wings are rather more yellowish than in the last- 




Upper side of female. 

named species, the fore-wings having an ash-coloured blotch 
at the tip, much smaller and paler than in P. brassiccz. The 
male has a black spot on the disc (often wanting), and the 
female has two ; the patch on the inner-margin is less distinct. 
On the hind-wings there is a black spot on the costa towards 
the tip. On the under side, the fore-wings have two black 
spots, the tip is yellow, and the base dusted with blackish. 
The hind-wings are rather bright yellow, dusted with black, 
and there is a narrow orange streak at the base of the costa. 

The larva is pale green, with yellow dots on the sides. It 
feeds on cabbage, mignonette, &c. ; and there is probably a 

L 2 



148 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

succession of broods throughout the year. The pupa is greenish, 
spotted with black. 

HOWARD'S WHITE BUTTERFLY. PIERIS METRA. 

(Plate LI II. Figs. 2, 3.) 

Pontia metra, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 19 (1827). 
Pieris metra, Westwood, Brit. Butterflies, p. 26, pi. 5, figs. 5, 6 
(1841). 

This insect is found in April and June, and is considered to 
be undoubtedly a mere var.'ety of P. rapa, as the pupa does not 
differ. 

The wings are white or cream-colour, the fore-wings being 
much pointed at the tip, with the base black, and the tip more 
or less clouded with dusky. The male has one black spot on 
the fore-wings above, and the female two ; but these are fre- 
quently more or less obsolete. The hind-wings are white, with 
the base black, and a dusky spot towards the end of the costa. 
On the under side the tip of the fore-wings is yellow ; the base 
is blackish, and there are two obsolete spots on the disc ; the 
hind-wings are rather bright yellow, thickly dusted with blackish, 
and there is a pale orange streak at the base of the costa ; the 
fringes are white. 

THE GREEN-VEINED WHITE BUTTERFLY. PIERIS NAPI. 

(Plate LI V. Figs, i, 2.) 
Papilio napi) Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 468, no. 60 (1758) ; 

id. Faun. Suec. p. 271 (1761); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 

57, pi. 3, fig, 3 (1777); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 

406, 407 (1803?). 
Pieris napi, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 161, no. 145 (1819); 

Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 518 (1836); Newman, Brit. 

Butterflies, p. 160 (1881) ; Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and 

Moths, p. 7, pi. 4. fig. 5 (1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur. 

p. 3 1 * P 1 - 7, fig. i, pi. 15, fig. 3 (1881); Barrett, Lepid. 

Brit. Isl. i. p. 24, pi. 3 (1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. 



PLATE LIV. 




\ 






PIERIS. 149 

Lepid. i. pp. 20, 156, pi. ii. fig. 4 (1886); Rye, Brit. 
Macro-Lepid. i. p. 13, pi. iii. figs. 1-5 (1895). 
Pontianapi, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 20 (1827). 

Var. P. bryonice. 

Var. Papilio bryonice, Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. i. (2) p. 

151 (1808). 

Pieris bryonice, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 162, no. 146 (1819). 
Papilio napi, var. Esper, Schmett. i. (2) p. 87, pi. 64, figs. 3-5 

(1783) ; Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. fig. 407* (1803?). 
Pieris napi, var. bryonice, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 32, pi. 7, 

fig. 2 (1881). 

Var. P. napcece. 

Var. Papilio napcece, Esper, Schmett. i. (2) p. 119, pi. 116, fig. 
5 (1800?); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. fig. 664, 665 (1818?). 
Pontia napcece, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 21 (1827). 
The Green-veined White is as widely distributed as the other 
species of Pieris, but is not quite so abundant, and is per- 
haps rather more fond of lanes and clearings in woods. It is 
also very variable, and like the other species, is found through- 
out the summer, being at least double-brooded. 

It is about the size of P. rapce, expanding from an inch 
and a half to nearly two inches. The wings are white, with 
the base blackish, and the tip of the fore-wings and a spot 
towards the end of the costa on the hind-wings brown or 
blackish. The male has a black spot on the disc of ^the fore- 
wings, and the female has two. On the under side the tips of 
the fore-wings, and the hind-wings are sulphur-yellow, with the 
nervures more or less strongly incrassated with dusky-green. 
In the female the two black spots on the disc are reproduced. 

This is an extremely variable insect, and one of its forms (P. 
sabellicce, Stephens) will be considered separately. Another 
form, P. napcece (Esper), is larger than the typical form, the 



T ijo LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

markings are blacker than usual, and on the under side of the 
hind-wings, which are rather pale, only the three first nervures 
are dilated and greenish, the rest being short and blackish. 
P. bryonice, (Ochsenheimer) is of a deep smoky-yellow, much 
irrorated with black, and with the nervures and spots dilated. 
It is an Alpine race, of the female, common in the Swiss Alps ; 




Upper side of male. 

but specimens approaching it are sometimes met with in the 
North of Scotland and in some parts of Ireland. 

The larva is dull green, paler on the sides, and with yellowish 
stigmata. It is covered with white warts, tipped with black, 
and tufted with short hairs. It feeds on various Crucifera, 
and especially on watercress. The pupa is greenish-yellow, 
with prominent angles. 

THE DUSKY-VEINED WHITE BUTTERFLY. FIERIS SAEELLIC^E. 

(Plate LIIL Figs. 4, 5.) 
Pontla saM'tica, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p, 21, pi. 3, 

figs. 3, 4 (1827). 

This is a form of P. napi which occurs in June, and is not 
uncommon, but is no longer supposed to be a distinct species. 
It expands about an inch and three-quarters. The wings are 
shorter and more rounded than in typical P. napi, the fore- 
wings approaching those of Euchloe cardamines in shape. " It 



PONTIA. 151 

has the upper surface of all the wings of a yellowish-white, with 
broad dusky irrorated nervures, broadest towards the hinder 
margin. The male has the base of the anterior wings and a 
single irregular spot in the fourth marginal cell dusky. The 
female has the base and tips of the same wings, a spot in the 
fourth and sixth marginal cells, and the inner edge of the wings 
of the same colour. Both sexes have a similarly- coloured spot 
on the upper margin of the posterior wings above. Beneath, 
all the wings are adorned with very broad dusky nervures, 
. . . varying in different specimens, and the dilated 
nervure on the upper edge of the discoidal cell is destitute of 
the insulated yellow spot which every specimen of P. napi 
that has passed under my examination possesses" (Stephens). 

GENUS PONTIA. 

Politicly Fabricius, in Illi r er, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 283 (1807) ; 

Curtis, Brit. Ent. i. pi. 48 (1824). 
Synchloe, pt. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 94 (1816) ; Kirby, 

List Brit. Rhop. p. i (1858) ; Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 38, 

51 (1870); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 61 (1886). 
Mandpiunit pt. Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 22 (1827); 

Duncan, Brit. Butterflies, p. 124 (1835). 

Antennae with a well-marked club ; sub-costal nervure with 
only three branches ; lower disco-cellular nervules much 
straighter than in Piet is ; wings white, the hind-wings marbled 
with green beneath. 

A small genus, almost confined to Europe and Northern and 
Western Asia. One species, P. callidice (Esper), is a thoroughly 
mountain form, reaching the height of 8,000 feet in the Alps, 
and 16,000 in the Himalayas. It may be known by the dull 
green colour of the hind-wings beneath, with white sagittate 
spots. 



152 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

THE BATH WHITE. PONTIA DAPLIDICE. 

(Plate LIV. Figs. 3<J, 4, 5?-) 
Papilio daplidice. Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) p. 468, no. 62 

(1758); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 62, pi. 3, fig. 5 (1777) 

Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 414, 415 (1803?); figs. 

777, 778 (1825). 
Pieris daplidice, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 128, no. 29 (1829) ; 

Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 544, no. 154 (1836); 

Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 158 (1881) : Kirby, Eur. 

Butterflies and Moths, p. 7, pi. 4, fig. 6 (1878); Lang, 

Butterflies Eur. p. 33, pi. 7, fig. 4 (1881) ; Barrett, Lepid. 

Brit. Isl. i. p. 26, pi. 4, figs, i, i a-d (1892); Buckler, 

Larvse of Brit. Lepid. i. p. 21, pi. 3, fig. i (1886) \ Rye, 

Brit. Macro-Lepid. i. p. 14, pi. iii. figs. 6, 7 (1895). 
Pontia daplidice, Curtis, Brit. Ent. i. pi. 48 (1824) ; Stephens, 

111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 22 (1827). 
Papilio edusa, Fabricius, Gen. Ins. p. 255 (1777). 
Var. Papilio bellidice, Brahm, in Illiger, Mag. Insekt. iv. p. 362 

(1805) ; Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. i. (2) p. 354 (1808). 
Papilio belemida, Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 931, 934 (i 841 ?). 
Pieris daplidice, var. bellidice, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 34, 

pi. 8, fig. i (1881). 

The Bath White is common in many parts of Europe, 
the Mediterranean Region generally, and Northern and Western 
Asia, but it is commonest in the South. Although it has long 
been known as an occasional inhabitant of most of the southern 
counties of England, it has always been of extreme rarity with 
us. It is found in May and August, but the spring brood is 
much less frequently met with in Central Europe than the 
autumn brood. It has a heavier flight than the species of 
Pieris, and is fond of resting on low flowers on waste ground, 
or in stubble fields. It derives its name from a young lady 
having once executed a piece of needlework on which she 



PONTIA. 153 

represented a specimen of the Butterfly which had been taken 
at Bath. In recent times more specimens appear to have 
been captured about Dover than anywhere else in England, 
which lends colour to the. surmise that most of the so-called 
" British " specimens were blown over, or otherwise introduced, 
from the Continent. 

This Butterfly measures about an inch and three-quarters 
across the wings, which are white above, with a marginal black 
band on the fore-wings, spotted with white, running from the 
apex to below the middle of the hind-margin. Near the hinder 
angle is usually a detached black spot, largest in the female, 
and a broad black band, divided by a white line, runs from 





Larva and pupa of P. daplidice. 

the costa just beyond the end of the cell. The hind-wings are 
unspotted in the male, except for the markings of the under 
side showing indistinctly through, but are usually more or less 
heavily bordered with black in the female, with a row of white 
spots between the broad dusky nervures. The fore-wings 
beneath are coloured as above, except that the dark markings 
are greenish. The hind-wings are green beneath, varied with 
yellowish, and dusted with black, with a row of large white 
spots on the hind-margin, an irregular transverse white band, 
and three white basal spots. The spring brood, P. bellidice^ 
has the dark sub-marginal band narrower, and more interrupted 



154 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

with whitish. The spot towards the hinder angle of the fore- 
wings is absent, and the hind-wings are less varied with yellow 
beneath, and consequently greener. 

The larva is dull blue, yellowish on the sides, and dotted 
with black. The head is green, spotted with yellow. It feeds 
on wild mignonette (Reseda lutea) and allied plant?. The pupa 
is at first greenish, but afterwards grey. 

GENUS MESAPIA. 

Mesapia, Gray, LiF.t Lepid. Ins. Brit Mus. i. p. 92 (1856); 
Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 59 (1886); Kirby, Entomo- 
logist, xxvii. p. 101 (1894). 

Here I propose to insert some very aberrant mountain 
genera from the Himalayas and Central Asia, about which 
but little is known at present. Mesapia was for some time 
supposed to be one of the Equitidcz allied to Parnassius ; 
but Schatz referred it provisionally to the Pieridce ; and an 
examination of the essential characters proves it to possess 
bifid claws, and an internal nervure on the hind-wings. 
Mesapia resembles the genera Aporia and Metaporia in neura- 
tion, but the density of the scaling, and the hairy fringes of the 
wings will distinguish it from the former ; and the long hairs 
at the base of the wings, the very long club of the antennse, 
and the peculiarities of neuration will amply separate it from 
.both. I reprint here my description of the genus and species 
in full. " Palpi long, rather pointed ; antennae long, moderately 
stout, with a large but gradually formed pyriform club. Body 
and base of wings clothed with very long slender hairs ; fringes 
with shorter hairs ; claws of front tarsi distinctly bifid ; wings 
short, rounded, densely scaled, the fore-wings very broad, sub- 
triangular ; costal nervure about two-thirds of the length of the 
wing ; sub-costal nervure four-branched, the first branch emitted 



MESAPIA. 155 

at about three fourths of the length cf the cell, and running 
obliquely to the costa, the second emitted at or a little before 
the end of the cell, and slightly arched, the third emitted a 
little beyond the cell, and running to the costa just before the 
apex, the fourth emitted about half-way between the end of the 
cell and the apex, and running to the hind-margin just below 
the latter. Disco-cellular nervules oblique, the discoidal and 
median nervules nearly straight. Hind-wings with the upper 
sub-costal nervule emitted at half the distance between the 
base and the upper disco-cellular nervules, the nervules running 
to the hind margin straight, and at nearly equal distances apart; 
a well-marked basal cell ; two sub-median nervures." 

MESAPIA PELORIA. 

Pieris peloria, Hewitson, Exot. Butterflies, i. pi. 2, figs. 15, 1 6 

(1853). 

Mesapia peloria, Kirby, Entomologist, xxvii. p. 101 (1894). 
Aporia lama, Alpheraky, in Romanoffs Mem. Le*pid. ii. p. 
404 (1887). 

Greenish-white, with the nervures broadly margined with 
grey, and grey spots on the nervures on the hind-margin of the 
hind-wings. Under side of hind-wings yellowish-white, tinged 
with orange, with all the nervures strongly bordered with brown, 
as is also a fold so strongly marked as to look like an additional 
sub-median nervure below the median ; costal area and basal 
cell orange. 

The Butterfly measures an inch and a half across the wings. 
It is found at a great elevation in the mountains of Chinese 
Tartary and N.E. Thibet. 



This is the only known species of the genus. Mesapia shcm'tt, 
Bates, from Yarkand, is also a true Pierid, but it is the 



156 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

type of the genus Baltia, Moore, which differs from all the 
genera allied to Pieris and Aporia by the very large club of the 
antennae, and the short, broad, hind-wing cells, which are almost 
truncated at the end, and scarcely angulated. Mr. Moore has 
described a second species of Baltia from Lahore, under the 
name of Synchloe butleri. The references to these species are 
as follows : 

BALTIA SHAWII. 

Mesapia shawii. Bates, in Henderson and Hume, Lahore to 

Yarkand, p. 305 (1873). 
Baltia shawii, Moore, 2nd Yarkand Exped. Lepid. p. 3, pi. 

i, fig. 5 (1879); Kirby, Entomologist, xxvii. p. 100 

(1894). 
Pieris shawii, Groam-Grshimailo in Romanoff's Mem. Lepid. 

iv. p. 222, pi. 10, figs. 2a, b (1890). 

BALTIA BUTLERI. 

Synchloe butleri^ Moore, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 256, pi. n, figs. 

6, 6a. 

These species are white, with blackish apical markings, and 
have much more superficial resemblance to Pontia than to 
Mesapia. 

GENUS DAVIDINA. 

Davidina, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Ent. iv. pp. 19, 108 (1878); 
Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 59 (1886) ; Leech, Butterflies 
of China, p. 474 (1893). 

The type of this genus is a very remarkable Butterfly, found 
at a great elevation in the mountains of Central China. The 
genus is imperfectly known, and I will therefore only charac- 
terise it here as far as the figures enable me to do so. 

Palpi long ; antennae about one-third as long as the costa of 



DAVIDINA. 157 

the fore-wings, apparently with a long gradually formed fusi- 
form club; wings moderately broad, oval, rounded at the tips, 
with long cells of nearly equal length ; hind-wings nearly as 
long as the fore-wings. Costal nervure about two-thirds of the 
length of the costa ; sub-costal nervure five-branched, the first 
branch emitted just before the end of the cell, the second a 
little beyond, nearly parallel to it, the third emitted a little 
beyond it, and slightly diverging from it, the fourth and fifth 
forming a rather large fork at the extremity of the wing. The 
discoidal nervules both rise from the end of the cell, and from 
the base of the median nervure rises a well-marked nervure in 
the cell, which forks in the middle, the upper branch reaching 
the end of the cell between the discoidal nervures, while the 
lower one is continuous with the upper median nervule. 
Hind-wings with a similar forked nervure in the cell, and ap- 
parently with three sub-median nervures, the two lowest con- 
fluent for a short distance from the base. 

It is not quite clear whether the forked cellular nervure and 
the third sub median nervure are true or false. If perfect, the 
structure is very remarkable ; if false, we meet with a well- 
marked false third sub-median nervure in most of the allied 
genera of Pieridce, and sometimes with obsolete traces of neura- 
tion in the cell. In certain families of Moths (Zeuzerida, &c.) 
the cell is still divided by nervures ; but, with the possible ex- 
ception of Davidina^ this character has become almost obsolete 
in Butterflies. 

DAVIDINA ARMANDI. 

Davidina armandi, Oberthiir, Etudes d'Ent. iv. pp. 19, 108, 
pi. 2. fig. i (1879); Leech, Butterflies of China, p. 474, 
Pi- 33, % 9(1893)- 
The Butterfly measures about two and a quarter inches across 

the wings, which are yellowish-white, suffused with blackish 



158 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

along the black nervures and along the hind-margin; the 
fringes are also black. On the under side the wings are yel- 
lowish-grey, with black nervures. 

This genus, like Mesapia and Baltia, was originally placed 
fa the Equitidce. D. armandi flies among the rocks after 
the manner of Parnassius^ to which these three genera have 
been thought to be allied. 

GENUS METAPORIA. 
Metaporia, Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 38, 51 (1870). 

Front-wings sub-pyriform, second sub-costal nervule not 
so near end of cell as in Aporla ; upper disco-cellular oblique, 
nearly as long as lower, which is perpendicular and feebly 
arched; second and third median branches rather near together. 
Hind-wings sub-pyriform, the cell broader and less pointed, 
disco-cellulars of equal length, the upper oblique, the lower 
less so. Body moderately hairy ; palpi slender, hairy beneath ; 
antennae with distinct flattened club (Butler). 

This genus contains a number of Indian Butterflies, more 
or less pale in the cells of the wings, and broadly dark along 
all the nervures. The type is M. agathon (Gray), from North 
India, a Butterfly of about three inches in expanse, which 
might either be described as white, with black spots widely 
separated by the nervures and a transverse black band beyond 
the cell ; or black, with the cells and intermediate spaces be- 
neath white, and a double series of long spots beyond. 

GENUS PERRHYBRIS. 

PerrhybriS) Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 91 (1816) ; Herr.- 
Schaff. Corresp. Blatt Regensb. xxi. pp. 104, 127 (1867); 
Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 61 (1886). 

Pieris l pt. Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 37, 49 (1870). 



PERRHYBRIS. 159 

A Tropical American genus, with moderately long wings, and 
the sub-costal nervure three-branched (or, rarely, four-branched). 
Sexes dissimilar, the males white above, with black borders, 
and the females resembling species of Heliconius, Lycorea, &c., 
as do also the males to some extent, on the under surface of 
the hind-wings. The type is 

PERRHYBRIS PYRRHA. 
(Plate LV. Figs. 4$, 5?.) 

Papilio pyrrha, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 464, no. 95 (1775); 

Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 63, figs. A, B (1775). 
Papilio iphigenia, Schulzens, Naturforscher, ix. p. 108, pi. 2 

(1776); Fabricius, Gen. Ins. p. 256 (1777); Donovan, 

Nat. Rep. iii. pi. 81 (1825). 
Pieris pyrrha, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 156, no. 129 (1819); 

Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lepid, i. p. 440 (1836). 
Pieris iphigenia, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 156, no. 129 (1819). 
Perrhybris eieidias, Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. ii. (1824), 
Perrhybris pyrrha, Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 36, pi. 20 

(1884). 

Female. 

Papilio pamela, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 319, fig. A (1780). 
Pieris pamela, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 156, no. 131 (1819). 

This is a common Tropical American species, measuring 
about two inches and a half in expanse. In the male the 
wings are white above, with the tip of the fore-wings trian- 
gularly black to below the middle of the hind-margin, above 
which it is deeply indented by the white ground-colour. The 
hind-wings have a rather narrow black band on their lower half. 
The fore-wings are coloured beneath as above ; the hind-wings 
are white, tinted with pale yellowish towards the base, and with 
three black bands running from the base and inner- margin far 



160 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

into the wings ; the first costal narrow, the second and third 
broader, parallel, the second running from the base of the inner- 
margin, and the third parallel to it below, and separated from 
it by a red band; the fourth broader than above, and covering 
the lower half of the hind-margin to the anal angle ; the ner- 
vures above it are also expanded into blackish triangular spots 
on the margin. The female is black, tawny, and yellow. On 
the fore-wings the lower part of the cell is tawny, separated from 
the costa by a black band, expanding at the end, and from 
the tawny lower part of the wing by a black band running from 
the base, and curving round as far as the outer half of the inner- 
margin ; this again is separated from the black apex by a broad 
irregular yellow band, running somewhat obliquely from the 
costa. The hind-wings are tawny, with the costa narrowly, 
and the hind-margin broadly, black ; between them is a short 
black streak. The fore-wings are coloured beneath nearly as 
above, but are paler, and the black markings are less extensive; 
the hind-wings are coloured nearly as in the male, but the pale 
portion of the wing is more strongly tinged with yellow, and 
the hind-margin is broadly bordered with black, as on the 
upper side of the female. 

GENUS MYLOTHRIS. 

Mylothris, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 90 (1816) ; Butler, 
Cist. Ent. i. pp. 34, 42 (1870) ; Schatz, Exot. Schmett. 
ii. p. 61 (1886); Trimen, S. Afr. Butterflies, iii. p. 28 
(1889). 

Antennae moderately long, with flattened club ; palpi long, 
slender, hairy beneath ; sub-costal nervure three-branched, the 
first two branches emitted before the end of the cell. Wings 
ample, delicate, of a silky white or yellow (often more or less 
orange at the base) with round black spots at the ends of the 



BELENOIS. l6 1 

nervures, generally coalescing into a band at the tip of the 
fore-wings. Larva clothed with short hairs. 

Pupa. "Head with frontal process large and curved up- 
wards ; a dorsal series of prominent tubercles (larger on 
thorax) along middle line of back, and two laterally-project- 
ing claw-shaped processes on each side of the basal half of 
abdomen" (Trimen). 

The type of this genus is the West African M. rhodope 
(Fabricius), in which the male has yellow fore- wings and white 
hind-wings; and the female is white, with a reddish spot at the 
base of th? fore-wings. The hind-margins are spotted with 
black on the nervures, and the tip of the fore-wing is narrowly 
bordered with black. 

GENUS BELENOIS. 

Beknois, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 92 (1816); Butler, 
Cist. Ent. i. p. 50(1870) ; Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 61 
(1886). 

Antennae with an oval flattened club; wings shorter, broader, 
more scalloped, and more densely scaled than in the last genus; 
costa straight, and very slightly serrated. Sub-costal nervure 
of the fore-wings four-branched, the fourth branch well marked; 
disco-cellular nervules oblique, the lower one shorter on all the 
wings than the middle one. 

The type is B. calypso, Drury, a common West African 
Butterfly. It measures from 2 to 2^ inches across the 
wings, which are white, with a broad black border, spotted 
with white on the under side of the fore-wings, and a black 
bar running from the base of the costa of the fore-wings, 
which is produced into a transverse bar at the end of the 
ceil. The hind-wings are tinged with yellow beneath, and are 
bordered with a row of connected yellow spots, edged on each 
10 M 



1 62 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

side by a row of black ones. There is also a round black 
spot at the end of the cell, which is sometimes visible above. 
In the male, the black marginal bands of the upper surface are 
incomplete and macular. 

GENUS SCIIATZIA. 

Eucheira (nee Dejean), Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. p. 
44 (1834); Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 34, 42 (1870); Schatz, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 62 (1886).' 

Head and body very hairy, antennae with a gradually-formed 
club ; wings with very long cells ; fore-wings triangular, 
rounded off at the angles ; hind-wings oval, likewise much 
rounded ; fore-wings with the sub-costal nervure four-branched, 
the two first branches emitted before the end of the cell, the 
third and fourth forming a long fork; upper disco-cellular 
nervule (rarely present in the Pieridce) distinct, but short, so 
that the first discoidal nervure rises from the cell, and not 
beyond it. 

The type is a Mexican species, remarkable for the gregarious 
nest-building habits of the larva ; a habit which is somewhat 
uncommon in Butterflies, though more frequent in Moths. 

It is necessary to change the name of the genus, on account 
of the Coleopterous genus Eucheirus, Dejean, and I have there 
fore been glad to name it after the late eminent Lepidopterist, 
Dr. Schatz, whose work on the families and genera of Butter- 
flies is one of the most valuable contributions to systematic 
entomology that has ever appeared. 

SCHATZIA SOCIALIS. 

(Plate LV. Fig. 2.) 

feucheira socialis^ Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, i. p. 
44, pi. 6 (1835); Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 26 
1884). 



ARCHONIAS. 163 

This Butterfly expands about two inches across the wings, 
which are blackish above, with a transverse row of greyish- 
white spots running across the wings, and a row of smaller 
ones between these and the hind-margin ; there is also a large 
white spot at the end of the cell of the fore-wings. On the 
under side the wings are of a more brownish-black, with the 
white spots on the fore -wings much extended and confluent; 
on the hind-wings they are nearly obsolete. 

The larvae and pupae live gregariously in a large bag-like nest 
of very strong silk, which is suspended to the branches of trees, 
and from which the caterpillars must make excursions in search 
of food, as in the case of Moths with similar habits. These 
cases appear more to resemble the nests formed by the 
gregarious larvae of the African genus Anaphe, Walker (one of 
the Bombyces) than any others which have been described. 

GENUS ARCHONIAS. 

ArchonlaSy Hiibner, Zutr. Ex. Schmett. iii. p. 19 (1825); 

Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 63 (1886). 
Euterpe, Swainson, Zool. 111. Ins. ii. p. 74 (1831); Boisduval, 

Spec. Gdn. Ldpid. i. p. 404 (1836) ; Doubleday, Gen 

Diurn. Lepid. p. 33 (1847); Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 34, 

42 (1870). 

Body hairy ; palpi and antennae slender, the latter termi- 
nating in a flattened club ; wings moderately broad and long, 
sub-costal nervure four-branched, the second branch emitted 
beyond the cell ; cells long, rather narrow ; disco-cellular 
nervules nearly straight. 

The species of this genus are not very numerous. They 
inhabit tropical America, and mimic the genus of Equitidce 
called Priamides, by Hiibner, which inhabits the same coun- 
tries. The type is Arckonias tereas (Godart). The species, 

M 2 



164 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

which are very similar to each other, are black, with a white 
blotch on the fore-wings, and a broad scarlet band, more or 
less broken into spots, on the hind-wings, the under surface 
of which is paler, and marked with red spots at the base, and 
greenish-yellow spots on the hind-margin. The red band is 
present, but paler. 

The allied genus Catasticta^ Butler, differs little in structure, 
but has the second branch of the sub-costal nervure emitted 
from the end of the cell. The fore-wings are more pointed 
than in Archonias, the hind-margin being often slightly con- 
cave instead of curved, and the wings are more distinctly 
dentated. The Butterflies differ very much in appearance, 
however, being black, banded and spotted with white, yellow, 
buff, or some other pale colour. 

GENUS PEKEUTE. 

Pereute^ Herrich-Schaffer, Corresp. Blatt. Regensb. xxi. pp. 
105, 138 (1867); Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 34, 40 (1870); 
Schatz, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 63 (1886). 

Antennae long, terminating in a flattened club ; wings ample, 
rounded, with the sub-costal nervure only three-branched, the 
lower disco-cellular nervule angulated. 

The species are black, varied with bluish-grey, and spotted 
with red or yellow. They inhabit various parts of South 
America, and I have figured a species from New Granada, 
which is closely allied to the type of the genus. 

PEREUTE LEUCODROSIME. 

(Plate LV. Fig. i.) 
Euterpe leucodrosime, Kollar, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 

Math. Nat. Cl. i. p. 35 8 > P 1 - 44, figs. 3, 4 (1850), 
Euterpe c<zsarea> Lucas, Rev. Zool. 1854, p. 194. 




/. Pereute Leucedrvsime. 3. DLsmorphicL egacnsis 
2. SchatzicL socialis. 4.5. Perrhwhris nvrrhjcu. 



DELIAS. 165 

This Butterfly measures rather more than two inches and a 
half across the wings, which are black above, with a broad red 
band, slightly cut by the nervures on the fore-wings, running 
from the costa obliquely across the outer part of the cell and 
the disc to the inner-margin, above the hinder angle. The 
basal area of the wings is bluish-grey towards the inner-margin 
of the fore-wings, and over the whole of the hind-wings to 
beyond the middle. There are some red spots at the base 
of the wings beneath. 

P. callinice (Felder), from New Granada and Venezuela, 
which is the type of the genus Pereufe, differs from P. leucodrosime 
in having only the hind-wings grey at the base above, and in 
wanting the red spots on the under side. 

P. charops (Boisduval), from Mexico, has red markings 
only in the female ; the male has diffused bluish markings on 
the fore-wings above ; and beneath a yellow band running from 
the costa of the fore-wings, and then curving broadly across 
the wing to the hind-margin ; and a yellow costal stripe on the 
hind-wings. 

GENUS DELIAS. 

Delias, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. v. pp. 91, 92 (1816) ; 

Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 34, 40 (1870); Schatz, Exot. 

Schmett. ii. p. 63 (1886). 
Thyca, Wallengren, Oefv. Vet. Akad. Forh. Stockh. 1858, p. 

76; Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) iv. p. 344 (1867). 
General structure as in Pereute; wings generally longer ; sub- 
costal nervure three-branched, the first branch emitted before 
the end of the cell ; the cells long and narrow, the lower disco- 
cellular nervule on both pairs of wings straight and oblique ; 
pre-costal nervule of the hind-wings curved outwards instead of 
inwards, as is the case in Pereute. 

The larvae are clothed with long detached hairs, and the 



1 66 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

pupae are armed with a row of strong spines on the ventral 
surface. 

This is one of the most extensive and characteristic genera 
among those inhabiting the Indo- and Austro- Malayan Regions, 
to which it is exclusively confined. Notwithstanding its close 
structural affinity to Pereute, there is little outward resemblance 
between the genera ; for Delias^ notwithstanding the many 
forms which it assumes, has always the unmistakable appear- 
ance of a true Pierid. Most of the species are black above, 
varied with bluish-grey, and often marked with red or yellow 
at the base or on the hind-wings beneath ; or they are white, 
more or less bordered with black, and with the hind-wings 
bordered beneath with a row of red, orange, or yellow spots, 
or banded with red. They have a weaker flight than would be 
supposed from their appearance, and are easily captured. 

I will first discuss the species which I have figured to illustrate 
the genus, and will then proceed to notice some of the more 
interesting forms which are not figured in the present work. 

DELIAS BELISAMA. 
(Plate LVII. Fig. I.) 

Papiliolelisama, Cramer, Pap.Exot. iii. pi. 258, figs. A-D(i779). 
Pieris belisama, Godart, Enc. Me'th. ix. p. 147, no. 104 (1819); 
Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Ldpid. i. p. 464 (1836). 

This species, which is common in Java and Sumatra, 
measures about two inches and a half across the wings. The 
male is yellowish-white above, with the costa and apex of the 
fore-wings, and the hind-margin of the hind-wings rather broadly 
black. The female is ochreous-yellow, with very broad black 
borders. The under side of the fore-wings is black, with a 
whitish streak at the end of the cell, and a row of four or Eve 
white or yellow spots towards the tip. The hind-wings are 
orange-yellow beneath, with a red streak, bifid at the end, at 



PLATE LVII. 




Deltas 

2 . 

3 . Hebonwia 



PLATE LVI. 



3. 




1.2. Delias eucharis. 
3. 



DELIAS. 167 

the base, and a black border, serrated on the inner side, and 
containing a row of rounded spots of the same shade as the 
ground-colour. The body is whitish or yellowish; antennae 
black. The larva, which feeds on a species of Discorea during 
the rainy season in Java, from December to February, is green 
and yellow, with very long separate hairs ; pupa brown, with 
a row of black hooks on the ventral surface. 

DELIAS EUCHARIS. 

(Plate L VI. Figs, i, 2.) 

Papilio eucharis, Drury,Ill. Exot. Ent. ii. pi. 10, figs. 5, 6 (1773) j 

Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii. pis. 201, figs. B C ; p. 202, fig. C 

(1782). 

Papilio hypareie, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 474, no. 136 (1775). 
Pieris epicharis, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 153, no. 122 (1819) j 

Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 456 (1836). 
Mandpium vorax Hyparete^ Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. 

i. pi. 136(1824?). 

This species, which must be well known to everyone who 
has seen a case of Butterflies from India, measures about 
three inches across the wings. The latter are of a slightly bluish- 
white tint in the male, and yellowish-white in the female, with 
the nervures broadly black, except on the upper side of the 
hind-wings in the male. The marginal area is marked off by 
a transverse black line, outside which is a series of large oval 
spots, separated by the nervures. On the fore-wings these are 
of the ground-colour in the male, but tinged with yellow 
towards the tip in the female ; on the hind-wings they are 
pink. The under side of the fore-wings is similar to the upper, 
except that the sub-marginal spots are more decidedly yellow, 
especially in the female ; the hind-wings are yellow beneath, 
nearly to the sub-marginal line ; and the sub-marginal spots 
are of a brighter red than above, and bordered with whitish. 
The body is white. 



1 68 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

The larva is reddish-brown, with long black detached hair 
(but shorter than in D. belisama\ and a white collar, behind 
which is a black blotch dotted with white. The pupa is 
yellowish-green, with black markings on the dorsal surface, and 
strong black teeth on the ventral surface. The larva feeds on 
lime (citrus) and guava. 

DELIAS C/ENEUS.* 
(Plate L VI. Fig. 3.) 

Papilio ceneus, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 271 (1764). 
Papilio hyparete, var. (?), Linn. I.e. p. 247 (1764); Clerck, 
Icones, pi. 38, fig. 3 (1764); Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 
216, figs. A, B (1779); iv. pi. 339, figs. E, F (1781). 
Papilio plexariS) Donovan, Ins. New Holl. pi. 18, fig. 2 (1805). 
Pieris plexariS) Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 149, no. 110(1819). 
Pieris philyra, Godart, I.e. p. 150, no. 113(1819); Boisduval, 
Spec. Ge'n. Lepid. p. 462 (1836). 

This Butterfly, which measures rather more than two inches 
and a half across the wings, is common in Australia, Papua, 
Amboina, and Ceram. It is the type of Hiibner's genus, 
Cathamia^ which he regarded as distinct from true Delias. 

The male is bluish-white above, with a black border, broadest 
at the tip of the fore-wings, which are crossed by a curved row 
of oval white spots. The female is nearly black above, but 
dull white towards the base, and with a series of white apical 
spots on the fore-wings, as in the male. The under side is 
black, with the base broadly yellow, dusted with black. On 
die fore-wings there is a white spot at the end of the cell, 
and a sub-marginal row of large yellow spots, largest towards 
the tip. The hind-wings have seven long reddish-brown spots 
beyond the middle, becoming lighter on the outer side. These 
are sometimes so extensive as to make the hinder part of the 

* Delias pkilyra on plate. 



DELIAS. 169 

wing from the middle of the discoidal cell appear almost 
entirely reddish-brown, with broad black nervures, and a black 
border. 

The type of the genus Delias is 

DELIAS EGIALEA. 

Papilio cgialea, Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 189, figs. D, E (1777); 

iii.pl. 256, figs. E, F(i779> 

Pieris egialea, Boisduval, Spec. Gdn. Le'pid. p. 450 (1836). 
Delias egialea, Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 34, pi. 20 



This Butterfly, which is common in Java and Sumatra, 
measures two inches and a half across the wings, or a little 
more. The male is bluish-white, dusted with blackish at the 
base ; the costa and apical half of the fore-wings (narrowing to 
the hinder angle), and a broad border to the hind-wings, are 
black ; the inner- margin of the hind-wings is tinged with 
yellow, especially towards the anal angle. On the under side, 
the fore-wings are brown, with a white band, narrower and 
whiter than above ; the hind- wings are red at the base, beyond 
which they are yellow, partly divided into spots by broad black 
incrassated nervures, and bordered with black. The female 
has black fore-wings, with a broad orange central band above 
and below ; the hind-wings are white above, shading into yel- 
low on the basal half, and black beyond ; on the under side 
they resemble the male, except that the yellow portion is re- 
placed by orange. 

AUSTRO-MALAYAN SPECIES OF DELIAS. 

Some of these species are remarkably handsome. One of 
the most beautiful is D. aruna (Boisduval), which inhabits 
Papua and the Moluccas. It has broad wings, measuring up- 



1 70 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

wards of three inches in expanse. The male is of a rich 
orange above, with the hind-margins, the costa, and apical 
region of the fore- wings black; the under side is black, the fore- 
wings with a yellow sub-costal line from the base, a grey spot 
at the end of the cell, and a whitish dash on the inner-margin; 
the hind-wings have a broad red band near the base, interrupted 
along the sub-costal nervure. The female is black above, pale 
yellow towards the base, with the outer half of the cell of the 
fore-wings filled up with white both above and below. The fore- 
wings are coloured beneath as in the male, but are marked with 
a sub-apical row of white spots, represented by one or two de- 
tached spots on the hind-wings, which otherwise differ from the 
colour of the upper surface chiefly by possessing a red patch 
near the base of the costa. 

Two very pretty, but rather smaller, species with black under 
sides, inhabit Australia. One of these is D. nigrina (Fabricius), 
which measures about 2 ^ inches across the wings. The male 
is white, with the tip of the fore-wings black, crossed by a row 
of white spots ; the female has black fore-wings, with a row of 
grey sub-apical spots, and bluish towards the base on the inner- 
marginal area ; the hind-wings are bluish, with a broad black 
border. The under side is black ; the fore-wings with a sub- 
apical macular yellow band, and the hind-wings with a red streak 
near the base of the costa, and a narrow curved red stripe run- 
ning across the middle of the wing. 

Delias aganippe (Donovan) is a larger insect ; white, with 
broad black borders, marked with large greyish-white blotches; 
on the fore-wings of the female are two large black spots. The 
under side is black and white, with blotches of orange and 
crimson. The larva is brown, with white spots and hairs, and 
feeds on the native cherry (Exocarpus). 

Delias dorimene (Cramer) represents a different section of 
the genus. It is found in Ceram and Amboina, and measures. 



PRIONERIS. 171 

about two inches across the wings. The fore-wings are black- 
ish, with some sub-apical white spots, most distinctly seen be- 
neath, where they are tinged with yellow, and the hind-wings 
are white above, with a black border, and yellow below, with a 
narrow and incomplete black border, spotted with yellow. 

GENUS PRIONERIS. 

PrioneriS) Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) iv. p. 383 (1867); 
Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 33, 39 (1870) ; Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett. ii. p. 64 (1886). 

The Butterflies of this genus resemble Delias^ but the sub- 
costal nervure is four-branched, with the two first nervules 
emitted before the end of the cell. The wings are generally 
more pointed than in Delias^ and the costa is strongly serrated 
in the males. Apart from other differences, Prioneris may be 
distinguished from Appias by the absence of an anal tuft. 

The species are large and conspicuous, though not numerous, 
and are confined to India and the Indo-Malayan Islands. The 
type is, 

PRIONERIS THESTYLIS. 

Pieris thestylis, Doubleday, in Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 76 (1842); 

id. Gen. Diurn. Lepid. pi. 6, fig. 2 (1847). 
Prioneris thestylis, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) iv. p. 

194, no. i (1867); Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 35, 

pi. 20 (1884). 

Female. 

Pieris seta, Moore, Cat. Lepid. Ins. Mus. E. I. Co. i. p. 78 
(1857); id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1857, p. 102, pi. 44, 
% 3- 

A large and handsome Butterfly, with rather pointed wings, 
expanding from three to four inches ; it inhabits North India. 



172 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The male is white above, with the costa, apical third, and hind- 
margin of the fore-wings black, marked with long white spots 
and streaks between the nervures. The hind-wings are white, 
with a narrower black border, containing round white spots, very 
narrowly separated from the ground-colour. On the under side 
of the fore-wings, the white portion is broken up into spots by 
the strongly incrassated black nervures, and the spots towards 
the apex are tinged with yellow. The hind-wings are black, 
with the inner-margin and the base of the costa broadly yellow, 
the cell filled up with yellow, and two rows of yellow spots be- 
yond, one discal, and the other marginal. 

We quote Mr; Moore's original description of the female, as 
it has been confounded with some of the allied species : 

" Upper side blackish-brown ; fore-wings with two rows of 
narrowish white marks ; two lengthened marks between median 
and sub-median veinlets, and four small spots within discoidal 
cell ; hind-wings with a marginal row of whitish spots ; another 
row from anterior margin widening towards the anal angle ; 
abdominal margin broadly whitish, the latter tinged with yellow; 
also white linear mark in discoidal cell. Under side as in the 
upper side, but with all the markings on the hind-wings 
yellow." 

GENUS APPIAS. 
Appias, Hubner,Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 91 (1816); Butler, Cist. 

Ent. i. pp. 37, 49 (1870); Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 310 

(1885). 
Tachyris, Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) iv. p. 361 (1867); 

Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 64 (1886). 

This genus includes a considerable number of Indo-Malayan 

and Austro-Malayan species, distinguished by having the anal 

valves of the male elongated and provided with a tuft of long 

and stiff hairs at each side of the base beneath. " The species 



APPIAS. 173 

are of moderate size, and are, generally speaking, of uniform 
colours. The fore-wings are sub-triangular and rather pointed, 
with the sub-costal nervure four-branched ; the hind-wings are 
oval, and rather produced towards the anal angle ; larva hairy, 
and with four or six longitudinal rows of spines ; pupa with two 
lateral spines " ( Wallace}. 

This large genus includes several sections, which many 
writers are inclined to treat as of generic rank. The following 
species is the true type of the genus, 

APPIAS ZELMIRA. 

Papilio zelmirci) Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 320, figs. C-D (1780). 

This is an Indian Butterfly, measuring about two inches 
across the wings. The male is white, with the nervures, 
especially the branches of the sub-costal nervure, broadly black 
towards the hind-margin, or expanding into black triangular 
spots ; on the under side of the hind-wings nearly all the 
nervures are black. The costa of the fore-wings is dusted with 
bluish-grey, especially beneath, and the base of the costa of 
the hind-wings is yellow beneath. The female is brown, with 
sub-marginal white spots, and two large white spaces on the 
fore-wings, and one on the hind-wings. On the under side, 
the nervures are not black as in the male. The fore-wings are 
greenish in the cell and towards the tips, with a black streak 
from the end of the cell meeting a black oblique sub-apical 
streak. On the hind-wings, the base of the costa is stained 
with orange, the hind-margin is yellowish-green, and a yellowish- 
green band runs from the sub-median nervure near the base to 
the border, a little below the tip. 

The type of the genus Tachyris, Wallace, is T. nero (Fab- 
ricius), from the Malay Peninsula and the adjacent islands. 
It measures about three inches across the wings, which are 



174 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

rather pointed, and are of a bright red, varying in tint above 
in different specimens of the male sex. On the under side they 
are more of an orange-red, inclining to greenish-yellow on the 
costa of the fore-wings, and along the inner-margin and nervures 
of the hind-wings. The female is of a darker red above, with 
narrow irregular black borders, and an oblique black streak 
running outwards from the middle of the costa of the fore-wings ; 
there are also some irregular blackish marks opposite the hind- 
margin on the fore-wings. Beneath, the fore-wings are tawny, 
with the costa greenish-yellow, and the apical region black, 
crossed by a whitish band; there are also some blackish mark- 
ings towards the hinder angle; the hind-wings are reddish-grey, 
with an irrregular dusky band. 

There are several allied species, in which the upper side is 
red, blue, or brown, at least in the males. The female of T. 
zarinda (Boisduval), a Celebesian species, is dark brown, with 
a row of yellowish-white sub-marginal spots, and a broad white 
band within, crossing the lower part of the fore-wings and the 
upper part of the hind-wings. The male of these species is 
red, like that of T. nero, but the wings are still more 
acute. 

In most species, the fore-wings are less pointed than in T. 
nero and its allies. They are frequently white, with black 
borders, and often with the hind-wings yellow beneath. These 
average about two inches in expanse. In some species, with 
pointed wings, the sub-costal nervure is only three-branched, 
either in both sexes, or in the female, the male being four- 
branched, as in true Appias. These form the genus Saletara> 
Distant, the type of which is S. nathalia (Felder), from Malacca, 
Sumatra, Celebes, &c. Other species, in which the fore-wings 
are less acute, and the hind-wings are varied, at least beneath, 
with yellow, orange, or green markings, form the genus 
Huphina> Moore. 



ELODINA. 175 

GENUS MELETE. 

Me/efe, Swainson, Zool. 111. Ins. ii, pi. 79 (1833). 

Daftonura t Butler, Cat. Fabr. Diurn. Lepid. p. 209 (1869); 

id. Cist. Ent. i. pp. 37,50(1870); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. 

ii. p. 64 (1886). 

Palpi and antennae long and slender, the latter with a 
gradually formed club; abdomen not tufted, but with a pair of 
strong anal hooks in the male ; wings broad, the fore-wings 
somewhat produced at the tip, but not longer than the hind- 
wings ; hind-margin slightly concave ; hind-wings somewhat 
oval. Sub-costal nervure four-branched, the two first branches 
emitted before the end of the cell ; disco-cellulars of nearly 
equal length, the upper ones oblique, the lower straight. 

This is a Tropical American genus much resembling some of 
the smaller species of Appias in size and shape, but with a 
peculiar facies which renders it easily recognisable. The 
Butterflies measure about two inches or a little more across 
the wings, which are of a white or yellow colour, with the hind- 
margins narrowly black. The costa is also narrowly black to 
the middle, and sends off a black bar across the end of the 
cell, at least on the under surface. There are several closely- 
allied species ; in the type, M. flippantha (Fabricius), which is 
a Brazilian Butterfly, the fore-wings are white, and the hind- 
wings are yellow. 

GENUS ELODINA. 

Elodina, Felder, Reise d. Novara, ii. p. 215 (1865); Butler, 
Cist. Ent. i. pp. 34, 40 (1870); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. 
p. 65 (1886). 

Antennae short, with a flattened club ; fore-wings short, 
rather pointed ; sub-costal nervure three-branched, the first 
branch emitted before the end of the cell ; only the lowest 



176 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

disco-cellular nervule present on the fore-wings, the second 
discoidal nervule rising from the end of the cell ; hind-wings 
rounded. 

This genus is confined to Australia and the Indo-Australian 
Region generally, and includes a few silky-white species, more 
or less bordered with black (often only at the tips of the fore- 
wings), and measuring about an inch and a half across the 
wings. The type is E. egnatia (Godart), from Australia and 
the Moluccas. 

GENUS LEPTOSIA. 

Leptosia^ Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 95 (1816); Distant, 

Rhop. Malay, p. 287 (1885). 
Pontia, Boisduval (nee Fabricius), Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 430 

(1836); Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 40 (1847); 

Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 65 (1886). 
Nychitona, Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 34, 41 (1870). 

Antennae long, with a compressed spindle-shaped club; 
palpi very short ; wings rounded at the tips ; sub-costal ner- 
vure three-branched, with two branches emitted before the 
end of the cell, the second discoidal nervule rising from or 
close to the end of the cell. 

A small but very well-marked genus, confined to the tropics 
of the Old World. The species measure about an inch and 
a half across the wings, which are white, with the tip of the 
fore-wings black, and generally a round black spot on the disc, 
opposite the middle of the inner-margin. The under surface 
of the hind-wings is more or less mottled with green. The 
insects have a very weak flight, and resemble Leplidia sinapis in 
their habits. They have a superficial likeness to the latter species, 
except for the broader wings, and as in the Wood White, too, 
spotless forms of the species of Leptosia are sometimes met 



DISMORPHIN^E. 177 

with. The type is L. xiphia (Fabricius), a common East 
Indian species. 

GENUS LEUCIUIA. 

Leucidici) Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 77 (1847); 
Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 35, 43 (1870); Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett. ii. p. 66 (1886). 

Antennae with the club gradually formed ; palpi very short, 
scaly, and bristly ; wings rounded ; sub-costal nervure four- 
branched, the first joint emitted much before the end of the 
cell, the second a little beyond; sub-costal nervures of the 
hind-wings stalked. 

This genus contains a few South American species. They 
are the smallest of the Pieridcs^ scarcely measuring an inch 
across the wings. They are small white Butterflies, the type, 
Z. elvina (Godart), being white or yellow, with the fore-wings 
narrowly bordered with black another species, Z. brephos 
(Hiibner), is almost pure white. 

On account of the resemblance presented by Leptidia to 
Dismorphia on the one hand, and to Euchloe on the other, we 
place here Schatz's Sub-family Dismorphince. 

SUB-FAMILY II. DISMORPHIN^E. 

Antennae slender, with a gradually-thickened, spindle-shaped, 
or a suddenly-formed, distinct club. Palpi short, not reaching 
beyond the head, with short scales above and on the sides, and 
hairy in front. The middle and terminal joints are very small. 
The sub-costal nervure five-branched, the branches very short, 
and placed at equal distances. A pre-costal nervure present. 

The species of this group are delicate Butterflies, with long 
wings. Most of the South American forms mimic species 
of Ithomiincz. 

JQ N 



iy3 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

GENUS LEPTIDIA. 



idici) Billberg, Enum. Ins. p. 76 (1820). 
Leptosia^ pt. Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 95 (1816) ; West 

wood, Butterflies of Great Britain, p. 28 (1855); Butler 

Cist. Ent. i. pp. 39, 54 (1870). 
Leucophasia, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust i. p. 24 (1827) ; 

Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Le'pid. i. p. 428 (1836); Double- 

day, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 38 (1847); Schatz, Exot. 

Schmett. ii. p. 57 (1886). 
Leptorici) Westwood, Brit. Butterflies, p. 41 (1841). 

Cells of the wings very short ; sub-costal nervure five- 
branched, all the branches emitted beyond the end of the 
cell ; first discoidal nervule emitted from the end of the cell ; 
antennae short, slender, with a well-marked flattened club. 

Wings narrow, elongate-oval, thickly clothed with scales. 

This genus only includes a few species, much resembling 
each other, and is confined to Europe and Northern and 
Western Asia. It has a slight superficial resemblance to the 
African and Indian genus to which Dr. Scudder correctly re- 
stricts the name Leptosia, but this has much broader, shorter, 
and rounder wings. 

THE WOOD WHITE. LEPTIDIA SINAPIS. 
(Plate LVIIT. Fig. 5.) 

Papilio sinapls, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 468, no. 61 (1758); id. 

Faun. Suec. p. 271 (1761); Esper, Schmett. i. (i) p. 59, 

pi. 3, fig. 4 (1777); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 410- 

411 (1803?). 
Papilla candidus, Retzius, Gen. Spec. Ins. p. 30, no. 4 

(1789). 
Pier Is sinapis, Godart, Enc, Meth. ix. p. 155, no. 148 

(1819) 



LEPTIDIA 179 

Lcucophasia sinapis, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust i. p. 24 
(1827); Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lepid, p. 429 (1836); New- 
man, Brit. Butterflies, p. 154 (1881); Kirby, Eur. Butter- 
flies and Moths, p. 5, pi. 4, figs. la-c (1878); Lang, 
Butterflies Eur. p. 45, pi. 10, fig. 4 ; pi. 16, fig. i (transf. 
iSSi); Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 30, pi. 5, figs, i, 
la-c (1892) ; Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. p. 25, 
pi. 3, fig. 3 (1886). 
Leptoria Candida, Westw. Brit. Butterflies, p. 32, pi. 6, figs. 

11-13 (1841). 
Var. Papilio lathy ri^ Hiibner, Eur. Schmelt. i. figs. 797, 798 

(1818?). 

Var. Leucophasia sinapis, var. diniensis, Boisduval, Gen. Ind. 
Meth. p. 6, no. 33 (1840); Lang, ut supra, p. 46, pi. 10, 
fig. 5(188 r ). 
Var. Papilio erysimi, Borkhausen, Eur. Schmett. i. p. 132 

(1788). 

The Wood White Butterfly is common throughout a great part 
of Northern and Western Asia, and is in many localities very 
abundant; but in North-western Europe, including England, 
Wales, and Ireland, it is extremely local, and has disappeared 
from many localities where it was formerly found ; in Scotland 
it is unknown. It has a low weak flight about bushes and 
open places in woods, but rarely strays far from the shelter of 
the trees. It is double-brooded, appearing from May to 
August. 

It measures about an inch and a half across its long and 
narrow wings, which, together with its slender body, have been 
thought to give it somewhat the appearance of a Dragon-fly. 
The wings are of a milky-white above, with an ash-coloured 
blotch at the tip of the fore-wings ; on the under surface, the tip of 
the fore-wings and the under side of the hind-wings are greenish, 
mixed with scattered black scales. The whitest specimens are 

N 3 



i So LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY 

called Z. diniensis, the greenest Z. lathyri, and those in which 
the dark apical blotch is wanting, are called Z. erysimi. 

The larva is green, with a deep yellow lateral line. It feeds 
on Lotus corniculatus, Lathyrus pratensis, &c. The pupa is 




Upper side of var. L. erj-sim?. 




Under side or L. sinapis. 

fusiform, of a greenish colour, with a yellow streak on the 
sides, and with white spots on the stigmata. 

GENUS DISMORPHIA. 

Dismorphia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 10 (1816) ; Butler, 

Cist. Ent. i. pp. 39, 54 (1870); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. 

p. 57 (1886). 
Leptalis, Dalman, Anal. Ent. p. 40 (1823); Boisduval, Spec. 

Gen. Lepid. i. p. 412 (1836); Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. 

Lepid. p. 35 (1847). 

Palpi very short ; antennae long and slender, very gradually 
thickening into a spindle-shaped club. Fore-wings generally 
long, rather narrow, and sometimes pointed ; hind-wings long, 
sometimes very largely developed in the male, being not only 



181 

much broader, but longer than the fore-wings. Cells long ; 
sub-costal nervure five-branched ; the first sub-costal nervure 
emitted before, at, or beyond the end of the cell, the others 
always beyond ; the first discoidal nervure emitted from the 
end of the cell. Many of the species resemble various species 
of IthomiincRi or of the genus Actinote in the Acraina ; but 
they vary much in form, and may easily be divided into several 
genera. Under the generic name Moschoneura, Dr. Butler 
has separated some small species with oval wings, in which all 
the sub-costal nervules are emitted beyond the end of the cell, 
and the first discoidal nervule is emitted much beyond the 
end of the cell. 

The type of Moschoneura is M. methymna (Godart), a 
Brazilian species, measuring nearly two inches across the wings, 
which are long, narrow, and rounded. They are yellow, with 
very broad, smoky black borders; on the inner side of the 
dark apical area is a broad oblique greyish band, whiter be- 
neath. On the under side of the hind-wings the dark border 
bears an inner tawny and an outer stone-coloured marginal 
stripe. 

More recently, Messrs. Godman and Salvin have given the 
following table of the genera into which they divide the Central 
American species : 

A- First sub-costal branch of the primaries tin! ted ivith the 
costal. 

a. First sub-costal branch of the primaries emitted beyond 
the end of the cell. 

A. Sub-costal branch of the secondaries in the <? 
emitted far beyond the end of the cell. (Type, 
Papillo ai/ip/iio^Cj Cramer.) 

DlSMORPHIA 



l32 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

U. Sub-costal branch of the secondaries in the <? 
emitted at the end of the cell. (Type, Picris 
nemesis, Latr.) 

ACMETOPTERON. 

b. First sub-costal branch of the primaries emitted at the 
end of the cell. (Type Papilio indite, L.) 

ENANTIA. 

D. First sub-costal branch of the Primaries free. (Type, 
Pier is nehemia, Boisd.) 

PSEUDOPIERIS. 

The type of Dismorphia is Z>, lais (Cramer), a rather scarce 
Butterfly from Surinam, which measures about two and one- 
third inches across the wings. The fore-wings are black, with 
a red bar from the base running along the upper part of the 
cell, and curving downwards at its extremity. There is another 
red band on the inner-margin, and a large red spot towards 
the hinder angle ; there is also a yellow sub-apical band. On 
the hind-wings, the costal area is white, the middle of the wing 
red, and the marginal area black, 

D. amphione (Cramer), which many authors regard as the 
type of Dismorphia, is very like the last species, and also occurs 
in Surinam ; but the fore-wings are broadly streaked with red 
at the base, and they have a yellow band at the end of the cell, 
and some yellow sub-apical spots. 

L. astynome, Dalman, the type of the genus Leptalis, re- 
sembles D. amphione, but has much longer and narrower wings, 
expanding from 2^ to 2^4 inches. The fore-wings are black 
with a short sub-costal fulvous stripe, and a longer broad fulvous 
band towards the inner-margin ; beyond is an oblique yellow 
band, and two yellow spots at the tip. The hind-wings are 
yellow in the middle, shading into fulvous, bordered with black 



DISMORP1IIA. 183 

above, below, and on the hind-margin ; the costa is pale yellow, 
and the lower border rusty-brown. It is a native of Brazil. 
We have figured the following species of this genus : 

DISMORPHIA EGAENA.* 

(Plate LV. Fig. 3.) 

Leptalis egaena, Bates, Journ. Ent. i. p. 230, no. 2 (1861); id. 
Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. xxiii. p. 566, pi. 57, fig. 7 
(1862). 

This species was brought by the late Mr. Bates from Ega, 
on the river Ega or Tefie, a tributary of the Upper Amazon. 
It is remarkable for the close resemblance of the female to 
Mechanitis egaensis, Bates, a Butterfly found in the same 
locality. JD. egaena measures from 2 to 2^ inches across the 
wings, which are long and narrow, except the hind-wings in the 
male. The fore-wings are black, with red longitudinal streaks 
towards the base, a large black discoidal spot, bordered within 
with red, and outwardly by the first of two oblique bands of 
yellow spots ; the hind-wings are dull black, streaked with red 
on both sides of the median nervure and its branches in the 
female, but in the male only below it. In the male, the wing 
is light brown above the median nervure, and marked with a 
very large white space, extending to the costa, but not to the 
hind-margin. 

The type of Acmetopteron, Godman and Salvin, is A. 
nemesis (Latreille), a common species from Mexico to Bolivia 
and Venezuela, which measures from 2 to 2^/2. inches across 
the wings. The fore-wings are longer than the hind-wings, 
and are drawn out into a sharp point ; the hind-wings 
are nearly rectangular in the female. In the male, the fore- 
wings are black, with the nervures yellowish at the base, and 
two oblique rows of greenish-yellow spots on the disc. The 

* D. egaensis on plate, 



184 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

hind-wings have the costal area and cell silvery-grey, and the 
lower part of the wing yellow, edged above with black towards 
the base. In the female, the fore-wings are black on the costal 
area, and over the cell and beneath it creamy-yellow ; an ob 
lique creamy-yellow band crosses the wing beyond the cell, 
and there are two small yellow spots near the top ; the hind- 
wings are yellow, narrowly bordered with black. 

The type of Enantia, Hiibner, is E. lidnia (Cramer), which 
is found in Surinam and on the Upper Amazon. The wings 
expand about two inches, and are somewhat oval. They are 
white, with narrow black borders in the male, and broad black 
borders in the female, and the hind-wings are yellow beneath, 
with two longitudinal dusky stripes. In the male the fore- wings 
are narrow, but in the female they are as broad as the hind-wings. 

E. melite (Linn.), which Messrs. Godman and Salvin have 
taken as the type of Enantia, has rather narrow fore-wings, 
especially in the female ; it measures two inches in expanse. 
In the male the fore-wings are orange, with a black band 
running from the base through the middle of the wing to the 
lower end of the black apical border ; there are two yellow 
spots near the tip, and a black bar at the end of the cell. The 
hind-wings have a pale costa, and a black border. The female 
is yellow, with black borders to the fore-wings and sometimes 
to the hind-wings, and a black bar at the end of the cell on 
the fore-wings. The under side of the hind-wings is yellow, 
with two dusky stripes. It is common in South America. 

The type of Pseudopieris^ Godm. & Salv. is P. nehemia 
(Boisduval), a common species in Mexico and South America. 
It measures about an inch and a half across the wings, and much 
resembles an immaculate Pieris rape?, both in size, shape, and 
colour, being of a greenish-white, very narrowly bordered with 
brown at the tips of the fore-wings. On the under side, the 
hind-wings and tip of the fore-wings are buff. 



EUCHLOE. 185 

SUB-FAMILY III. ANTHOCHARINME. 

Antennae with a distinct club, rarely with a gradually-formed 
one. Palpi projecting beyond the head, with long, stiff hairs 
in front, but rarely scaly. Terminal joint pointed, generally 
shorter than the middle joint ; in a few cases rounded. Sub- 
costal nervure four- or five-branched. Pre-costal nervure al- 
ways present. 

Schatz calls this group "Chariden," but this is doubtless 
only an abbreviation of Anthocharis, and is the more objection- 
able because there is a genus Charts in the Lemoniidce. 

This Sub-family is less numerous in species than the typical 
PierincE, and the species are of moderate size, rarely large, 
and are mostly of a white or yellow colour, with a band at the 
tip of the fore-wings of an orange, yellow, red, blue, or white 
colour, more or less edged with black outside, and sometimes 
inside. It is represented in England by one of our prettiest 
and most familiar spring Butterflies, the Orange-Tip. 

GENUS EUCHLOE. 

Euchloe, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 94 (1866) ; West- 
wood, Brit. Butterflies, p. 30(1841); Butler, Cist. Ent. 
i- PP- 39, 53 (1870). 

Anthocharis, pt. Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lpid. i. p. 555 (1836); 
Doubl. Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 55 (1847); Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett. ii. p. 70 (1886). 
Antennae short, with a distinct club. Wings white or yellow, 

tipped with orange in the male. Sub-costal nervure five 

branched, the two first branches emitted before the end of the 

cell, the upper radial thrown off a little beyond the cell, the 

middle disco-cellular nervule well marked. 

Larva pubescent, green, cylindrical, tapering at the ends ; 

pupa boat-shaped. 



iS6 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

This genus is confined to the Palrcarctic Region. Most of 
the species are more or less similar to our own, but in some of 
the Central Asian species the orange colour of the male extends 
over nearly the whole of the fore-wings. 

THE ORANGE-TIP BUTTERFLY. EUCHLOE CARDAMINES. 

(Plate LVIIL Figs. I, 2 <?, 3, 4 ?.) 
Papilio cardamineS) Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) p. 468, no. 63 

(1758) ; ed. Faun. Suec. p. 271 (1761) ; Esper, Schmett. 

i. (i) p. 64, pi. 4, fig. i (1777); p. 318, pi. 27, fig. 2 

(1778); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 419, 420, 424, 

425 (1803?); figs. 791, 792 (1824?). 
Pleris cardamineS) Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 125, no. 22 

(1819). 

Pontia cardamines, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 23 (1827). 
Anthocharis cardamines, Boisduval, Spec. Gc'n. Lepid. i. p. 

564 (1836); Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 156 (1881); 

Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 28, pi. 4, figs. 2, 2a-l> 

(1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i. 

p. 159, pi. 3, fig. 2 (1886). 
Euchloe cardamines^ Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 6, 

no. 4, pi. 4, figs. 70, b (1878) ; Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 

39, pi. 20, fig. i, pi. 15, fig. 5 (transf.) (iSSi); Rye, 

Handb. Brit. Macro-Lepid. p. 16, pi. iv. (1895). 
The Orange-Tip Butterfly is common throughout Europe and 
Northern and Western Asia. It appears in April, May, and 
June, and is said to be occasionally double-brooded. It has 
a fluttering but sustained flight, though not very strong or 
lofty, and is found most abundantly in meadows, especially if 
somewhat damp, but may also be seen in lanes, open places ir. 
woods, and gardens. It is fond of perching on flowering 
umbelliferous plants, with the wings raised, when the orange 
patch is drawn down under the hind-wings, and only the 



PLATE LVin 




/. 2. EtLchloe cardcLmui&s 6 
3, 4. g 

5, LepticbLo; sinapis. 



fcUCHLOE. 187 

extreme mottled green tip of the fore-wings is left visible 
beyond the mottled green hind-wings ; thus the Butterfly is 
lost to view among the similarly-coloured leaves and flowers 
of the plant. This habit was first recorded about thirty years 
ago by the late Mr. T. W. Wood. Accidental varieties are 
not uncommon; the ground-colour of the wings is some- 
times white, and sometimes more or less tinged with yellow. 
Gynandromorphous specimens have also been met with, ex- 
hibiting the male colouring with the orange spot on one 
side of the wings, and the ordinary plainer colour of the 




Tupa of Euchloe cardamines* 

female, without the spot, on the other. Specimens are met 
with in some localities and during certain seasons, which are 
much smaller than the usual individuals ; and according to my 
own experience I am inclined to think that the female varies 
in size more than the male. 

The Orange-Tip measures from one and a quarter to nearly 
two inches across the wings. The wings are white above, some- 
times slightly tinged with yellow. The fore-wings are blackish 
at the base, and brown, spotted with white on the margin, at the 
apex ; there is a black spot at the end of the discoidal cell, and 
the male has a bright orange patch over the outer half of the fore- 



1 83 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORV. 

wing. According to the late Mr. Jenner Weir, the orange spot 
extends to the hinder angle in Continental, but not in British, 
specimens. On the hind-wings the markings of the under sur- 
face show indistinctly through. On the under surface the orange 
spot of the male is smaller, and the tip of the fore-wings, and 
the whole of the hind-wings are of a bright green, dusted with 
yellow and mottled with white. The antenna are white, ringed 
with dusky. 

The larva is green, slightly pubescent, very finely dusted with 
black, and with a white lateral stripe. It feeds on Cardamine 
impatiens and various other cruciferous plants in July. The 
pupa is greenish-yellow, and is remarkable for its curious 
boat-shaped form, thick in the middle, and pointed at both 
ends. 

I append full particulars of one or two forms generally re- 
garded as mere varieties of E. cardamines, but which some 
authors consider to be distinct species. 

EUCHLOE TURRITIS. 

Pontia turritis, Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. iv. p. 156 

(1816). 
Euchloe turritiS) Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 6, no. 

5 (1878); Newnham, Ent. Record, v. pp. 97, 146 (1894). 
Euchloe cardamineS) var. turritis, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 89 

(1882). 

Ochsenheimer remarks, respecting this insect: "A very small 
aberration, from Italy, is distinguished by having the central 
spot on the edge of the orange-coloured spot, whereas in 
P. cardamines it is placed within it. I have seen both sexes 
under the name P. turritis in the collection of the Abbe 
Mazzola." 

In the first edition of my "European Butterflies and Moths" 
I treated this insect as a distinct species, on the strength of in- 



EUCHLOE. 189 

formation received from the late Mr. J. Watson, that it had a 
different plumule. But after Mr. Watson's death, his intimate 
friend, Mr. B. B. Labrey, told me that he believed that Mr. 
Watson had wrongly identified the Butterfly which he called 
E. turritis, and I therefore withdrew the insect as a species 
from later editions of my work. Within the last year or two, 
however, the question has been revived, and is still sub judice. 

EUCHLOE HESPERIDIS. 

Euchloe hesperidis, Newnham, Ent. Record, v. pp. 97, 219 
(1894); cf. torn. tit. pp. 146, 172. 

Mr. Barrett, writing of E. cardammes, says (Lepid. of Brit. 
Isl. i. p. 29): "There is also a recurrent small variety, a quarter 
of an inch less in expanse in both sexes ; and in Surrey this 
variety occurred year after year, a day or two earlier in the 
spring than the ordinary form, with great regularity. It is not 
certain, however, that this is the rule." 

Mr. Newnham has lately proposed the name E. hesperidis for 
this small form, considering it as a distinct species ; and there 
has been some correspondence respecting this and other forms 
allied to E. cardamines^ in the Journal quoted above. I abstract 
Mr. Newnham's observations on the subject. 

"E. hesperidis varies in expanse from i-^- inches to i-f$ 
inches, whereas E. cardamines varies from i T 7 to iff. It 
differs from E. cardamines in having the discoidal spot of the 
fore-wings at the junction of the white and orange spaces 
instead of well within the orange space. It differs from the true 
E. turritis by its smaller size, and by having the costa dotted 
with black. The females resemble small females of E. car- 
damines, and expand from i-^ ff to i T 6 g-. Both sexes appear 
much more slender than E. cardamines, even allowing for 
difference of size. Under a powerful microscope the plumules 



IQO LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

of E. hesperidis are narrower and proportionately much longer 
than those of E. cardamines, while the whole appearance of the 
wing is much more even, and not nearly so rou^h as is the case 
in the latter species." 

This form occurs in Surrey; Sussex; Church Stretton, Salop 
(where Mr. Newnham finds it much rarer than E. cardainines 
and apparently restricted to a small area), Llandago (common 
and generally distributed : A. Nesbitt), Glamorganshire, Hasle- 
mere, Pembroke, &c. 

Further observations are much needed to determine whether 
tins insect has any real claim to be regarded as distinct from E. 
cardamines or not. One point must not be overlooked. That 
E. cardamines sometimes appears in a dwarf form in some 
localities is certain ; and yet it is quite possible that E. hes- 
peridis may be a distinct species, normally smaller than E. car- 
damines. It would therefore be necessary, before attempting to 
decide the point, to make sure that our specimens are really what 
are called E. hesperidis^ and not simply dwarfed E. cardamines. 



Dr. Scudder proposes to restrict the name Anthocharis, 
Boisduval, to the small American and Japanese group impro- 
per y called Midea by Herrich-Schaffer. The two principal 
species are A. genutia (Fabricius), from North America (the 
type), and A. scolymus, Butler, from Japan. They are white 
species, with an orange sub-apical spot on the fore-wings of the 
male above, and the hind-wings marbled with green and white 
beneath ; b it they differ from Euchloe in the longer fore-wings, 
which are strongly po'nted at the tips. 

GENUS PIIYLLOCHARIS. 

Phyllo:haris, Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 71 (1886). 
This genus is intended to include some European species 
which have hitherto been inclu Jed in Euchloe, but which differ 



PIIYLLOCIIARIS, ICJI 

from that genus in various ^trjctural characters, as well as 
in the want of any " orange t p " to the fore-wings ; con- 
sequently both sexes resemble females of Euchloe. They 
are while above, with similar markings, and on the under 
surface they are green, sometimes varied with yellow, and 
with silvery-white markings. The sub-costal nervure of 
the fore-wings is five-branched, only the first branch being 
thrown off before the end of the cell, and the second 
at or beyond the end of the latter. The first radial nervule 
only separates from the sub-costal at about one-third of its 
length, and the middle disco-cellular nervule is either very short 
or wanting, whereas it is well marked in Euchloe. On the hind- 
wings the lower radial is almost straight. The type is Phyl- 
locharis tagis (Hiibner), a small species, not measuring more 
than about an inch and a quarter across the wings. It is white 
above, with the tip of the fore-wings black, spotted with white, 
and a black streak at the end of the cell, narrower than in the 
allied species, in which it more resembles Pontia daplidice. 
The under side is green, or greeaish-yellow, with white, rarely 
silvery, spots. 

The larva is green, pubescent, with a white lateral band, bor- 
dered above with a red one. The pupa is pale flesh-colour, 
darker at the hinder end. The ends are pointed, but it is 
more blender than the pupa of Euchloe. 

The Butterfly is found in Southern France, Spain, and 
Portugal, Corsica, and Sardinia, and in each country it ex- 
hibits slight local variations. 



There is a small genus, Zegris, Rambur, confined to the ex- 
treme South of Europe, and Western Asia, in which the orange 
in the apical area is reduced to a long oval patch, surrounded 
with black, and with the tip of the wing pale greenish. The 



192 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

hind-wings are yellowish beneath, more or less varied with 
white, and crossed by a broad green band curving from the 
base towards the hind-margin across the middle of the wing ; 
there are also green patches branching from or more or less 
connected with it. 

Another " Orange-Tip " which deserves a passing notice is 
Eroessa chiknsis (Guerin). It is the only true Orange-Tip in 
South America, and it is a Chilian species of great rarity, being 
remarkable for its resemblance to the African genus Callosune. 
It measures nearly two inches across the fore-wings, which are 
white, with the apical half of the fore-wings black, closed by a 
broad orange band, and the hind-wings are spotted with black 
at the ends of the nervures. On the under side the hind-mar- 
gin of the fore-wings is spotted with white, and the hind-wings 
are of a greenish or yellowish-white, with irregular transverse 
black markings. Structurally it is distinguished from Callosune 
by the five-branched sub-costal nervure of the fore-wings. 

GENUS TERACOLUS. 

Teracotus, Swainson, Zool. 111. ii. pi. 115 (1823); Butler, Cist. 

Ent.i. pp. 36, 47 (1870); Trimen, South African Butterflies, 

iii. p. 80 (1889); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 72 (1892). 
PtychopteryX) Wallengren, Lepid. Rhop. Caffr. p. 17 (1857); 

Butler, Lepid. Exot. i. p. 45 (1870) ; id. Cist. Ent. i. pp. 

36, 47 (1870). 
Thespia, Wallengren, CEfv.Vet. Acad. Forh. Stockh. 1858, p. 77. 

This and the following genera, Callosune, Abais, and Colotis, 
form a little group peculiar to Africa and South-western Asia 
as far as India, where they represent the Palsearctic g nus 
Euchloe. They are very numerous in species, which, though 
differing very much in outward appearance, present few tan- 
gible characters by which they can be satisfactorily separated 



TERACOLUS. 1 93 

into genera ; and hence they have been united into a single 
genus by Dr. Butler, in which he has been followed by Mr. 
Trimen, who formerly treated Idmais as distinct. Schatz, how- 
ever, though admitting the absence of well-marked generic 
characters, keeps the three genera provisionally separate, be- 
cause most of the species belonging to each can readily be 
separated at a glance by their colour and pattern ; and he 
thinks it probable that these differences may be correlated in 
their earlier stages. Mr. Trimen, while including all the species 
under the single genus Teracolus^ divides them into nineteen 
sections ; and although it is not likely that all these will ulti- 
mately be raised to generic rank, yet the mass of species which 
they include will certainly be sub-divided sooner or later, and 
therefore I prefer to treat the three best known genera sepa- 
rately, giving the generic characters, which mostly apply to all 
three, under the genus Callosune. The characters of Mr. Tri- 
men's first division, in which he includes only the type of Tera- 
cohis, are given by him as follows : 

"General structure robust; wings thick. Antennae rather 
short and thick, with broad blunt club. Fore-wings acute in 
both sexes ; hind-wings with a fringe of hairs on costa near base.* 
First and second sub-costal nervules of fore-wings closely ap- 
proximate ; hind-wings with discoidal cell rather more than 
half their length ; costa and costal nervure strongly arched ; 
second sub-costal nervule originating some distance before ex- 
tremity of discoidal cell." 

Teracolus subfasriatus, Swain son (Ptychopteryx bohemani, 
Wallengren), though widely distributed in Southern Africa, 



* Mr. Trimen remarks in a note : " This fringe of hairs (which occurs 
in both sexes) is quite peculiar to T. siibfasciatns, no other species in the 
same genus possessing it. This character occurs, however, in Eronia leda." 
Ought it not to be considered generic, as Wallengren, who first discovered it> 
thought it to be ? 

10 n 



194 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

where it flies very swiftly in March and April, appears to be a 
local insect, and is generally scarce in European collections. 

It measures from 2 to 2^ inches across the fore-wings, 
which are of a sulphur-yellow colour above in the male, the 
tip of the fore-wings being narrowly black, between which 
and the end of the cell, which is marked by a small black dot, 
is a short black band running from the costa ; the under side 
of the wings is greenish -white. The female varies from pale 
yellow to nearly white, and the apical spot of the fore wings 
is orange. 

GENUS CALLOSUNE. 

Anthocharis, sect. 3, Callosune, Djubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. 

p. 57 (1847). 

Callosune, Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 72 (1886). 
Anthopsyche> Wallengren, Lep. Rhop. Caffr. p. 10 (1857). 

Antennae with an oval flattened club ; palpi rather short, 
bristly beneath ; fore-wings triangular, with the tip slightly 
rounded off; hind-wings rounded; fore-wings with the sub- 
costal nervure four branched, the two first branches emitted 
near together before the end of the cell, the upper discoidal 
nervule rising from the end of the cell, the upper disco-cellular 
nervule being thus rendered obsolete, as is also the case on 
the hind-wings. 

Pupa less boat-shaped than in Euchloe, and with prominent 
wing-covers. 

This genus is met with throughout Africa, the Mediterranean 
district excepted,* but in Asia Minor it is not found, though it 
extends through Arabia to India and Ceylon, where, however, 
the species are far less numerous than throughout Africa south 
of the Sahara. 

* The single Algerian species of the group belongs rather to Abccis> 



CALLOSUNE. 1 95 

In Callosune, the wings are broader and shorter than in 
Euchloe> the hind-wings are frequently bordered or spotted with 
black on the hind-margin above, but are not tesselated with 
green beneath, being generally uniformly coloured, with but 
little pattern. They are white or yellow, sometimes merely 
with an orange apical spot on the fore-wings, narrowly bordered 
outside with black, but more frequently, the apical region is 
black, with more or less of its centre filled up or spotted with 
red, orange, violet, blue, or (in the females sometimes) white. 
Some species are more or less heavily marked with black at the 
junction of the wings, and are also barred with black on the 
hind-wings, and one or two of the females have extensive dusky 
markings, leaving very little of the white ground-colour visible. 
Thus C. achine (Cramer), the type of Wallengren's genus 
Anthopsyche? is one of these orange-tipped species, with dark 
markings towards the junction of the wings, and a black 
bar on the hind- wings in both sexes, broadest in the female. 
The under side is white, with an orange streak on the hind- 
wings. It is common and widely distributed throughout a 
large part of Eastern and Southern Africa. A dwarf form, 
sometimes measuring as little as i^ inches across the wings, 
has been taken by Mr. Trimen in the Knysna district, and it 
is interesting to note that the females, which otherwise vary in 
this species more than the males, are likewise most variable in 
size. According to Mr. Trimen's measurements, he has met with 
females both smaller and larger than any males, though the 
average size seems to be about the same. These observations 
may be compared with our remarks on Euchloe cardamines 
(antea^ p. 187). 

The Indian species are far less numerous and varied than 
the African ones, and have all red or orange tips. One of 

* This group is closely allied to, if not idcnticcal with, Abais. 

O 2 



196 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

these was selected by Dr. Scudder as the type of the genus 
Callosune. 

CALLOSUNE DANAE. 

(Plate LVIL Fig. 2.) 

Papilio danae, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 476, no. 144 (1775); 

Donovan, Ins. Ind. pi. 26, fig. 2 (1800). 
Papilio eborea, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 352, figs C-F 

(1781). 

Picris danae, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 124, no. 20 (1819). 
Anthocharis danae, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. p. 570 

(1836). 
Callosune danae, Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, i. p. 129 (1880). 

This species, which is not uncommon in India and Ceylon, 
measures about i^ inches across the wings, which are white 
above, with the apical half of the fore-wings of a deep red, 
bordered with black, narrowly outside, but broadly inside. 
The black colouring extends to the hinder angle ; and there is 
also a row of more or less connected black marginal spots on 
the hind-wings. On the under side an irregular row of black 
spots crosses the disc of all the wings, which is more or less 
visible on the upper side in the female. 

This species was formerly confounded with its African 
representative (C. anna (Wallengren); C. dnerascens (Butler)) ; 
but this is a larger insect, much more shaded with grey at the 
base of the wings, especially in the female, which is very dark. 
This insect furnishes an instance of a fact that is very notice- 
able in looking through the localities given by Mr. Trimen for 
South African Butterflies, namely, that the South African 
Fauna is a continuation of that of the East Coast, and not 
of the West Coast. Thus in the present instance, C. anna is 
not recorded from any locality on the West Coast further north 
than Damara Land ; but on the East Coast it has been met 
with as far north as Zanzibar 



AB^IS. 197 

Its range, therefore, coincides with that of many birds which 
mark the South African Region as defined by Dr. Bovvdler 
Sharpe. 

GENUS AB^IS. 
Ab(cis t Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 97 (1816). 

The type of this genus (with which Anthopsyche, Wallengren, 
referred to under Callosune, is probably synonymous) is a 
female Butterfly figured by Cramer, from Sierra Leone. It 
may be a variety of a common West African Orange-Tip 
figured by Drury as Papilo arethusa (Drury, 111. Exot. Ent. ii. 
pi. 19, figs. 5, 6), but does not quite agree with any specimen 
at present in the British Museum. 

AB^EIS CEBRENE. 

Anthocharis cebrene^ Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 583 

(1836). 
Papilio arethusa (nee Drury), Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 210, 

figs. E,F (1779). 

This Butterfly measures i^ inches across the wings, which are 
dull white, stained with ferruginous towards the base. The fore- 
wings have a rather broad umber-brown border, a small black 
discoidal spot, and some large black spots on the inner-margin, 
which are continued on the hind-wings in an irregular row 
on the disc. The border of the hind-wings is composed of 
rather large contiguous spots. The under side of the fore-wings 
is orange at the base, and rufous towards the hind-margin ; the 
intermediate white space is marked with a black spot towards 
the inner-margin. The hind-wings are brown, slightly tinged 
with pink, paler in the middle, and reddish on the costa. The 
discoidal spot is black and red, a short black line runs perpen- 
dicularly from the costa, while below the middle of the wing 
is a straight black transverse bar. The male will be white, 



TgS f.LOYD's NATURAL HISTORY. 

with a black discoidal spot, and a bright red tip on the fore- 
wings, bordered with black on both sides ; the hind-wings 
probably with a marginal row of black spots. 

GENUS COLOTIS. 
Colotis, Htibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 97 (1816). 

GENUS IDMAIS. 

IdmaiS) Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 584(1836); Double- 
day, Gen. Ditirn. Lepid. p. 59 (1847); Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett. ii. p. 73 (1886). 

Under these names are included a number of African, 
Arabian, and Indian Butterflies, which present no very salient 
characters to distinguish them from Callosune^ except their 
general colour and markings. Instead of " Orange Tips," we 
have here moderate sized or rather small Butterflies, with more 
delicate and rounded wings than in Eurymus, and of a paler 
orange or yellow colour, generally with much slighter dark 
borders. Several of Mr. Trimen's sections of Teracolus will 
fall under this genus, which is used to include various dis- 
cordant groups of species, differing almost as much from each 
other as they do from Callosune. Those which most nearly 
approach the latter genus are Pontia en's, Klug, and its allies. 
This is a white species found in Africa and Arabia, with broad 
black bands covering the junction of the wings, and coalescing 
with the lower end of the black sub-marginal band, which is 
spotted with pinkish-white towards the tips ; the female is 
yellower, and the dark markings are much less extended. 

The type of Colotis is C. amata (Fabricius), a common Indian 
Butterfly, measuring about an inch and a half across the wings. 
This Butterfly is not unlike a small Eurymus above, being of 
a. brick-red colour in the male, and yellow in the female, with 



IXIAS. 19*; 

broad black borders, bearing a double row of pale spots of the 
ground-colour. 

The type of Idmais, Boisduval, is an Arabian Butterfly (/. 
chrysonome (Klug), which measures about an inch and a half 
across the wings. It is orange, rather lighter on the hind-wings 
than on the fore-wings, and dusted with bluish-grey at the base 
in the male. The fore-wings have the costa and nervures dis- 
tinctly black, a black spot at the end of the cell, and a row of 
connected black spots beyond. The hind-wings are unspotted 
in the middle. There is a black border, better defined on the 
fore-wings than on the hind-wings, and marked between the 
nervures with semi-detached orange or yellow spots. The 
under side of the fore-wings is orange, with the costa and hind- 
margin greenish-yellow ; the hind-wings are greenish-yellow, 
with three transverse rows of rather indistinct reddish spots. 
It is allied to one of the most beautiful species of this group, 
and the only one which extends to the Palaearctic Region, /.. 
fausta (Olivier), which is common in Western Asia, including 
Asia Minor and Northern India. It measures about an inch 
and three-quarters across the wings, which are of a peculiar 
reddish-orange colour, hardly like that of any other Butterfly ; 
the under surface is much paler. The fore-wings have a black 
discoidal spot, and an incomplete double row of marginal 
spots, sometimes forming a border ; there are also traces of 
marginal spots on the hind-wings. 

GENUS IXIAS. 

Ixias, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett.p. 95 (1816); Butler, Cist. 
Ent. i. pp. 37, 48 (1870) ; Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 309 
(1885); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 73 (1886). 

Thestias, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 590 (1836); Double- 
day, Gen, Piurn. Lepid. p, 60 (1847). 



2oo LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

This is - genus of " Orange-Tips " which, with Hebomoia, 
practically replaces Callosune in the Indo-Malayan Region, 
and extends to some of the Austro-Malayan Islands, though in 
India and Ceylon the ranges of these three genera overlap. 
There are no African species, though Wallengren erroneously 
referred Callosune annce to this genus. 

The body and palpi are rather hairy, the antennae slender, 
with a pear-shaped club. The wings are broad, more robust 
than in Callosune, yellow or white, with the apical half of the 
fore-wings black, filled up with a large orange or yellow band 
(sometimes white in the females), and the" hind-wings are bor- 
dered with black. Beneath, the wings are generally yellow, 
more or less flushed with brown, and frequently with traces of 
rust-coloured eyes with silvery pupils. They are generally 
larger insects than Callosune, averaging about two inches in 
expanse. The sub-costal nervure of the fore-wings is four- 
branched, with two branches emitted before the end of the 
cell, and the third and fourth forming a larger fork than in 
Callosune ; but the most important character is that the first 
discoidal nervule is thrown off from the sub-costal nervure 
distinctly beyond the cell, instead of rising from the cell, as 
in the last-named genus. 

The type is Ixias pyrene (Linn.), one of the largest yellow 
species, which is common in India and South China. 

GENUS HEBOMOIA. 

Hebomoia> Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. pp. 95, 96 (1816); 

Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 62 (1847); Butler, 

Cist. Ent. ii. pp. 37, 48 (1870) ; Schatz, Exot. Schmett. 

ii. p. 73 (1886). 

This genus not only includes the largest " Orange-Tips," but 

alsp the largest species of the Pieridce. They average about 



IIEBOMOIA. 201 

four inches across the wings, which are white or yellow, and 
more or less reddish or orange towards the tip of the fore-wings, 
the orange tip, however, being absent in the females of some 
of the species. They are not very numerous ; the type, H, 
glaurippe, Linn., a white "Orange-Tipped" species, being 
found throughout India, Malacca, South China, Java, &c. 
The hind-wings are white above, and the under side is yellow- 
ish-grey, with dusky mottlings, giving it somewhat of the ap- 
pearance of a dead leaf when at rest. It is an insect of very 
rapid flight. The female is yellower, with a row of marginal 
and sub-marginal black spots on the hind-wings. Other species 
inhabit the Indo-Malayan and several of the Austro-Malayan 
Islands, as far as the Moluccas and Bouru. 

The body is stout, hairy, and rather short ; the palpi are 
short, scaly, clothed with long and stiff hairs beneath, and the 
terminal joint is very sun 11. The antennae are long, not clubbed, 
as in all the other genera of this group, but only very gradually 
thickened towards the end. The sub costal nervure of the fore- 
wings is four-branched, the two first branches being thrown off 
close together before the cell, while the first almost touches the 
costal nervure ; the third and fourth form a fork towards the 
tip of the wing. The cell of the fore-wings is rather broad, and 
the upper discoidal nervule is thrown off from the cell, the 
upper disco cellular nervule being distinctly present ; the cell 
of the hind-wings is narrower and more pointed. 

The larva of H. glaurippe is stout, tapering at both ends. It 
is green, with a pale red-dotted stripe on the sides, and is 
shagreened on the upper surface. It feeds on a species of 
Capparis in Java and Ceylon. The pupa, which is likewise 
green, is boat-shaped, like that of Euchloe ; it is much arched, 
and is produced into a long point at both ends. 

I have 'figured one of the handscmest species of this genus, 
which is founcj in Amboina and Ceram, 



2C2 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

HEBOMOIA LEUCIPPE. 
\PlateLVII. Fig. 3.) 

Papilio kncippe, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 36, figs. A-C (1775). 
Pieris kudppe, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 118, no. i (1819). 
Iphias kucippe, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 596 (1836); 
Doubleday & Hewitson, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. pi. 8, fig. 2 
(1847). 
Hebomoia kudppe^ Doubleday & Hewitson, /. c. p. 63 (1847). 

This is a rather larger Butterfly than H. glandppe^ measuring 
more than four inches across the wings. The fore-wings are 
of a deep red colour, clouded with greenish-yellow at the base, 
and with the nervures and margins black ; the female has a 
detached row of red sub-marginal spots. The hind-wings are 
citron-yellow, with a dentated or macular black border in the 
female, usually preceded by a curved row of black spots ; but 
in the male, the hind-wings are only marked with one or two 
sub-marginal spots towards the costa. The under side is deep 
fulvous in both sexes, sprinkled with black points, and marked 
with short transverse dusky lines, most numerous in the female. 
The head and thorax are brown, the abdomen yellow. The 
antennee are black, tipped with reddish. 

Although this Butterfly has been well known to entomolo- 
gists for more than a century, it is still rather sea ce in collec- 
tions. 

GENUS ERONIA. 

Eronia, Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. ii. pi. 127 (1824?); 
Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 604 (1836); Double- 
day, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 64 (1847); Butler, Cist. Ent. 
i. pp. 38, 72 (1870); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 74 
(1886); Trimen, S. African Butterflies, iii. p. 169 (1889). 

The genus Eronia is typical of a group of Butterflies of 



ERONIA. 203 

moderate extent, which is confined to the tropics of the Old 
World. The African species are extremely dissimilar, and evi- 
dently belong to several genera, while the Eastern group is more 
compact. The costa of the fore-wings is arched, and the sub- 
costal nervure is five-branched, the two first branches rising near 
together before the end of the cell, and the others separating 
towards the tip of the wing. Three of the African groups have 
received names : Eronia (type E. ckodora^ Hiibner) ; Dryas- 
Boisduval (pre-occupied), proposed for Eronia leda^ Double- 
day, which Butler and Trimen both include in Eronia ; and 
Nepheronia, Butler, intended to include the remaining African 
and Eastern species. Mr. Trimen has lately proposed to in- 
clude the African species in Eroma, and to leave the name 
Nepheronia to the Eastern species, but this is impossible, for 
Dr. Butler expressly indicated N. idotaa, Boisduval, as the type 
of his genus. I therefore propose to employ these two genera 
in the sense in which they were used by Dr. Butler, quot- 
ing the characters, which he gives for them, and noticing 
the types and some of the principal forms which they 
include. 

Dr. Butler characterises Eronia as follows, specifying 
E. deodora, Hiibner, as the type, but including E. teda, 
Doubleday, in the genus : 

"Front wings broad, sub-triangular, with strongly arched 
costa ; first and second sub-costals emitted near together at 
some distance before end of cell, the third at a great distance 
beyond end of cell, the fourth and fifth forming a short fork 
to the apex ; upper [the second, the first being obsolete] disco- 
cellular about one-third the length of lower, both arched, and 
forming a nearly perpendicular line ; median branches at 
nearly equal distances apart. 

" Hind-wings : Upper disco-cellular about one-quarter the 
length of lower, oblique ; the lower disco-cellular also oblique, 



204 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

strongly angulated and curved ; second and third median 
branches rather near together. 

" Body robust ; metathorax clothed with long silky hairs ; 
palpi short, densely hairy; antennae moderately long, rather 
thick, with gradually formed club." 

The type of this genus, Eronia deodora, Hiibner, is a widely- 
distributed species in Southern and Eastern Africa. It is a 
Butterfly expanding from two to nearly three inches across the 
wings, which are short, broad, and slightly dentated, the tip of 
the fore-wings being slightly pointed. The wings are white or 
yellowish-white, with a rather broad black border, broadest in 
the female, somewhat irregular on the inner edge, and widened 
at the tip of the fore-wings, where it is marked with one or 
two small white spots. On the under side the borders are 
silvery-grey, more or less bordered with black, especially on the 
inner edge, and sometimes dusted with ferruginous ; the fore- 
wings are white, and there is a yellow spot on the border to- 
wards the tip ; the hind-wings are bright yellow, with variable 
scattered brown and silvery-grey markings, the largest and most 
constant being on the costa. 

Mr. Trimen mentions that Mrs. Barber and Mr. Mansel 
Weale have found the larva on Camparis zeyheri. It resembles 
that of a Callosune, and is difficult to find, the reddish-yellow 
lateral stripe matching in tint the edge of the leaves. 

The other species, Dryas leda, included by Dr. Butler in 
typical Erottia, is a very different-looking Butterfly, inhabiting 
East Africa, and the warm districts of South Africa. The wings 
are rather more regularly rounded, and less denticulated than in 
E. chodora, and the tip of the fore-wings is less pointed. The 
wings are sulphur-yellow, with a large " orange-tip " on the 
fore-wings, slightly edged with black on the outside. On the 
under side the fore-wings are white, with the tip and hind-wings 
of a deeper yellow than above, flecked with brown and ferru- 



NEPHERONIA. 20j 

ginous, the larger spots sometimes having silvery centres. 
The female is p.iler, with the " orange-tip " much smaller, or 
obsolete. 

As Mr. Trimen remarks, this Butterfly much resembles 
another form inhabiting portions of South Africa, a true 
" Orange-Tip," Callosune auxo, Lucas, but this is generally an 
inch smaller, and may be distinguished at once by the sub- 
costal nervure being only four-branched. 

The Eronia group seems largely to take the place of the 
Butterflies of the East Indian and South American Callidryas 
group, which has only one or two representatives in Africa, 
just as Callosune replaces the genus Euchloe of the Palsearctic 
Region. 

GENUS NEPHERONIA. 

Nepheronia t Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 38, 53 (1870); Distant, 
Rhop. Malay, p. 319 (1885). 

Dr. Butler proposed this genus to include the African N. 
idotcea (Boisduval), which he indicated as the type, N. thalassina 
(Boisduval), A r . argia (Fabricius), N. buque'ii (Boisduval), N. 
pharis (Boisduval), and N. chione (Doubleday), and the Asiatic 
N. hippia (Fabricius), N. iobcta (Boisduval), N. bcebera (Esch- 
scholtz), and allies. The characters given for Nepheronia are 
as follows : 

"Front wings occasionally sub-pyriform (N. pharis and 
N. chione) ; upper disco-cellular strongly excavated, more than 
half the length of lower, which is oblique and slightly angu- 
lated. 

"Hind-wings: Upper disco- cellular more than half the 
length of the lower, very oblique ; lower disco-cellular rather 
less oblique and waved ; second and third median branches 
wide apart. 

" Body moderately robust, slightly hairy ; palpi and antennae 



206 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

short, the latter slender with gradually formed compressed club, 
sometimes flattened." 

The genus Nepheronia^ as thus constituted, includes at least 
three well-marked groups of almost generic value. 

In the typical group the species are of considerable size, 
measuring about three inches across the wings, which are 
broad and only slightly denticulated, with the hind-margin of 
the fore-wings slightly concave, and therefore the tip some- 
what prominent. The colour is white, greenish-white, or 
yellow, with more or less extensive black borders. The type is 
N. argia (Fabricius), in which the male is greenish- white, with a 
moderately broad black border at the tip of the fore-wings, 
gradually diminishing, and not extending to the hinder angle, 
The females are white or yellow, with broad black borders, 
greatly indented on the inner side, and on the hind-wings al- 
most macular. The yellow form of the female is N. idotaa 
(Boisduval) ; the type of Nepheronia. N. argia is a common 
West African species, but there are several allied species found 
in various parts of Africa. 

The next group is represented by N, pharis, Boisduval, and 
N. chione, Doubleday. These are much smaller Butterflies, 
only measuring about two inches across the wings, which are 
of a pure white, very slightly bordered with black towards 
the tips of the fore-wings. The wings are entire, broad, and 
rounded, and the Butterflies are delicately formed, and re- 
semble those of the genus Leptosia. The outer half of the 
hind-wings is mottled with greenish beneath. These Butter- 
flies are found in West Africa, and are rather scarce in col- 
lections. 

In the Eastern species of Nepheronia we again meet with 
larger Butterflies, measuring two and a half or three inches and 
more in expanse. The wings are longer than in the African 
species, and in the fore- wings the costa is less arched, and the 



NATHAL1S. 207 

hind-margin more oblique ; the hind-wings, too, are distinctly 
narrower. These Butterflies are green, with black borders and 
black nervures. The females are greenish-white, with the 
nervures so broadly black as to break up the ground-colour 
into long rays, thus mimicking the Danaince of the genus Tiru- 
mala and its allies, which inhabit the same countries. 



SUB-FAMILY IV. CALLIDRYIN.E. 



Antennae short, gradually thickened towards the extremity, 
rarely with a distinct club. Palpi not extending much beyond 
the head, and clothed with large depressed scales ; the middle 
and terminal joints short, the last joint thickened, or slightly 
pointed. Sub-costal nervure with three- or four-branched. Pre- 
costal nervure absent, or else but slightly developed. Body 
generally rather short and stout, and clothed with hair. 

This group includes the Brimstones and Clouded Yellows, 
which are characteristic of the Northern Hemisphere, though 
one species of the latter is found in South Africa, and others 
have reached the extreme south of South America, apparently 
along the chain of the Andes. Two other groups, represented 
respectively by Eurema and Catopsilia of Hiibner, abound in 
most tropical countries, while the remaining genera are con- 
fined to limited areas, chiefly in the tropics. 

GENUS NATHALIS. 

NathaliS) Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 589 (1856); 
Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 54 (1847); Butler, 
Cist. Ent. i. pp. 34, 41 (1870); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. 
p. 69 (1886). 

This is a small and very isolated little genus peculiar to 
North America and the northern parts of South America. 



208 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The antennae are short, with a well-marked club (an unusual 
character in this Family), and the palpi are long, pointed, and 
hairy rather than scaly. The claws of the tarsi are without 
appendages, as in Euryimis. 

The fore-wings are rather long and somewhat narrow ; the 
hind-wings are somewhat rounded. The sub-costal nervure of 
the fore-wings is three-branched (not four-branched, as Dr. 
Butler states), the second branch being emitted close to the 
end of the cell ; the upper discoidal nervule separating from 
the sub-costal some distance beyond the cell. The lower disco- 
cellular nervule is strongly angulated outwards in both the fore- 
and hind-wings, the upper median nervule being strongly 
arched. The pre-costal nervure of the hind-wings is rudi- 
mentary. 

The type, Nathalis u>/e, Boisduval, which inhabits the 
Southern United States, is a small Butterfly, expanding about 
an inch across the wings. It is of a sulphur-yellow colour 
above, with the fore-wings black at the tip, and with a black 
spot towards the hinder-angle ; the hind-wings are also some- 
times marked with black marginal spots. The under side is 
greenish, dusted with black. The larva is at present undes- 
cribed. 

GENUS EURYMUS. 

Eurymus, Swainson; Horsfield, Cat. Lepid. E. Ind. Mus. 
pp. 129, 134 (1829); Swainson, Zool. 111. (2) ii. pi. 60 
(1831?); Scudder, Butterflies of East. U. S. p. 1096 
(1889). 

Colias, pt. Fabricius, in Illiger, Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 284(1807); 
Latreille, Enc. Meth. ix. pp. 10, 89 (1819); Boisduval, 
Spec. Gen. Meth. i. p. 634 (1836); Doubleday, Gen. 
Diurn. Lepid. p. 72 (1847); Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 35, 
43 (1870); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 68 (1866). 



EURYMUS. 209 

Eriocolias, Watson, Entomologist, xxviii. p. 167 (1895). 

Antennae short, red, with a large but gradually-formed club. 
Palpi long, compressed, scaly, and somewhat bristly, the terminal 
joint short. Tarsi without appendages. Wings rather short and 
broad; the hind-wings rounded, the fore-wings with the cell 
rather short and broad, the hind-wings with the cell rather long 
and narrow. Fore-wings with the apex slightly rounded off, the 
sub-costal nervure four-branched, the first branch emitted before 
the end of the cell, the second emitted at or beyond the end of 
the cell, the third and fourth forming a small fork at the tip of 
the wing. The upper radial is thrown off from the sub -costal 
considerably beyond the cell. Middle disco cellular short, 
straight ; lower one long, slightly curved on the fore-wings, 
oblique, and somewhat angulated. 

The Clouded Yellows form a very distinct group, and are 
very numerous in species, especially in Central Asia. The 
males are generally of a yellow colour, varying from light 
sulphur-yellow to deep orange, the latter being sometimes 
flushed with purple, so deep, in one or two instances, as to ap- 
pear almost black. Some species are of a dull green. Some 
of the females are coloured like the males, and others are 
white; and in many cases the same species exhibits two 
constant forms of the female, one yellow and one white. 
There is always a black central spot on the fore-wings, and 
generally a large reddish spot on the hind-wings; on the under 
side these are replaced by a rusty ring with a silver pupil, or by 
two similar contiguous markings, one smaller than the other. 
The wings are almost always more or less bordered with black, 
the border being often veined or spotted with the ground- 
colour, or with some paler colour; it is often veined in the male 
and spotted in the female. 

The larvae are green, smooth, pubescent, and feed on Legu- 
ininosce. The pupa is pointed in front 

IP p 



210 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

Mr. Watson's new genus, Eriocolias^ is intended to include 
the group of E. hyale, in which the border is often streaked, 
but never spotted in the male. The principal character is that 
the males have, on the upper side of the hind-wings, " between 
the costal and sub-costal nervures, a patch of modified scales 
of a smaller size, and much more numerous than the sur- 
rounding ones, usually of the same ground-colour." In the old 
genus Colias (our Eurymus\ Mr. Watson proposes to retain 
the orange species in which these scales are wanting (E. 
chrysothcme [Esper], &c.,) and the sub-groups represented by 
Evrymus phicomone, Esper (improperly indicated as the type, 
as it is not even one of the species mentioned in Illiger's Maga- 
zine) ; C. kirbyi, Lewis, and C. palceno, Linn. 

Pending a critical examination of the numerous species of this 
genus, which might probably reveal other characters of greater 
importance among them, we content ourselves here with call- 
ing attention to Mr. Watson's new genus, without adopting at 
present a sub-division which would separate species so much 
resembling each other as E. hyale and E. chrysotheme, solely on 
a secondary sexual character, however well-marked or constant. 

The Clouded Yellows are found throughout the Northern 
Hemisphere, as far as the Himalayas. Isolated species are 
found in the Nilghiris ; South Africa, and in the mountains or 
in the southern part of South America ; but they appear to be 
entirely absent from the insular portion of the Indo-Malayan 
Region, and from the whole of the Austro-Malayan Region, 
the reputed occurrence of a species of Eurymus in the Sandwich 
Islands being now regarded as an error. 

Dr. Butler's genus Scalidoncura , which includes some small 
species found in the Andes of South America, is chiefly 
characterised by the shortness of the upper radial nervule on 
the fore-wings, which only separates from the sub-costal nervure 
near its extremity. 



EURYMUS. 2 I 1 

These Butterflies have strong wings, and though they do not 
rise to a great distance from the ground, the flight of E. hyak 
is stronger, more rapid, and more sustained than that of any 
other British Butterfly. Alpheraky has recorded that one of 
his Cossacks galloped two miles after E. aurora, Esper, one of 
the largest of the orange Siberian species, measuring over two 
inches across the wings, before he could capture it. The 
largest and handsomest species of this genus inhabit Central 
and Western Asia. 

THE CLOUDED YELLOW. EURYMUS HYALE. 
(Plate LX. Figs. 2, 3.) 

Papilio hyak, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 469 (1758); 
id. Faun. Suec. (ed. ii.) p. 272 (1764); Scopoli, Ent. 
Cam. p. 173 (1763); Denis & Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. 
Schmett. Wien. p. 165, no. 3 (1776) ; Esper, Schmett. i. p. 
71, pi. 4, fig. 3; p. 317, pi. 26, fig. 3 (i777); Hubner, 
Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 329-331 (1803?). 

Papilio croceus, Fourcroy, Ent. Paris, ii. p. 250 (1785). 

Papilio edusa, Fabricius, Mant. Ins. ii. p. 23, no. 240 (1787); 
Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur. i, (2) p. 173 (1.808). 

Fapilio ekctra, Lewin (nee Linn.), Ins. Brit. i. pi. 31 (1795). 

Colias edusa, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 101, no. 38 (1819); 
Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Ldpid. i. p. 638 (1836) ; Stephens, 
111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 12 (1827) ; Kirby, Eur. Butter- 
flies and Moths, p. 10, pi. 3, figs, ^a-d (1878) ; Newman, 
Brit. Butterflies, p. 143 (1881); Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 
61, pi. 14, fig. ij pi. 16, fig. 2 (larva) (1881); Barrett, 
Butterflies of Brit. Isl. i. p. 35, pi. 6 (1892); Buckler 
Larv?e of Brit. Lepid. p. 9, pi. i, fig. 3 (1886). 

Colias croceus, Kirby, Cat. Diurn. Lepid. p. 490, no. i (1871). 

Colias hyak, Kirby, Cat. Diurn. Lepid. Suppl. p. 799, no. i 
(1877). 

P 2 



212 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

Var. Eurymus helice. 

Var. Papitio helice^ Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 440, 441 

(1803?); Haworth, Lepid. Brit. p. 12, no. n (1803). 
Colias edusa, var. helice, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 

13, pi. 2*, fig. 3 (1827); Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 62, pi. 

14, fig. 2 (1881). 

Var. Colias clirysotheme, Stephens (ncc E<pcr), /. c. p. n, pi. 2*, 

figs, i, 2 (1827). 
Var. Colias myrmidone^ Westwood and Humphreys (nee Esper), 

Brit. Butterflies, p. 139, pi. 42, figs. 1-3 (1841). 

The Clouded Yellow Butterfly measures from i J/z to upwards 
of 2 inches across the wings, which are of a rich chrome-yellow 
above, sometimes nearly orange, and occasionally with a slight 
purple flush. There is a broad black border (broadest at the 
tip of the fore-wings), which is veined in the male and spotted 
in the female with sulphur-yellow ; at the end of the cell is a 
round black spot. The hind-wings are sometimes more or less 
dusky, especially in the female; there is a large red dish -yellow 
spot at the end of the cell, and in the female, the black border, 
which hardly extends to the anal angle, is more or less spotted 
on the inner side with yellow. The fringes of the wings, as 
well as the antennae, are rose-colour. On the under side, the 
fore-wings are paler, with the black spot reproduced, and a more 
or less distinct row of black spots on the disc ; the tip is greenish. 
The hind-wings are green, with a central silvery spot, surrounded 
with rusty red, and a smaller one adjoining; there is also a 
row of rose-coloured dots on the disc. 

This inject is extremely variable, and some of its numerous 
varieties have been mistaken for the East European species, 
E. chrysotheme and E. myrmidone (Esper), which could not 
reasonably be expected to be found in England at all. There 
js a pale greenish-white form of the female, which is sometimes 



EURYMUS. 



2I 3 



taken in England, but is much commoner in Southern Europe ; 
it is known as var. E. helice. 

The larva is deep green, with a white line on the sides, 
spotted with yellow. The pupa is greenish, striped with 
yellow. The larva feeds on clover in summer. The Butterfly is 





E. kyale ? , and var. E. helice. 

double-brooded on the Continent, but is rarely seen in England 
except in autumn. It is a very common species throughout 
Europe, Northern Africa, and a great part of Asia ; in Southern 
and Eastern Africa it is replaced by a closely-allied species, 
E. electra (Linn.) ; and it is not impossible that the two species 



214 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

may occur together at the limits of their respective ranges, in 
East Central Africa. E. electra is a more reddish insect than 
E. hyale, with a strong pink lustre in certain lights; and Mr. 
Trimen states that the larva is more distinctly striped with dark 
and light green, and has no orange spots on the white lateral 
line. 

E. hyak is chiefly found in clover fields and along railway 
banks ; and we have already spoken of its extremely rapid 
flight. 

The confusion in the names of our two well-known species 
of Clouded Yellow is much to be regretted. When Fabricius 
discriminated between these and E. palano (Linnaeus), he 
applied the Linnean name hyale to the wrong species, using 
edusa (a discarded synonym of his own for Pontia daplidice) 
in its place. But even if the Clouded Yellow were not the true 
E. hyak (Linn.), Fourcroy's name of croceus would have to be 
adopted instead of the later edusa, Fabr. The original Linnean 
description of C. hyale runs as follows : 

" P.D. alis integerrimis rotundatis flavis ; posticis macula 
fulva, subtus puncto sesquiahero argenteo " (" Hab. in Europci, 
Africa "). 

It is clear from the last locality, that Linnaeus confounded 
E. electra with it, though he afterwards separated the latter as a 
distinct species, calling it "fulvous," not yellow, which the much 
deeper colour of E. electra will readily account for. E, electra is, 
however, so like our Clouded Yellow, that some authors have 
been inclined to regard it as the same species as E. hyak. 

Both our Clouded Yellows are very rare in Scandinavia, 
where E. palceno, Linnaeus, a sulphur-yellow or greenish-yellow 
Butterfly with moderately broad black borders, and other 
species of the genus occur ; but Linnaeus includes E. hyak in 
his " Fauna Suecica," and describes it as follows : 

" Similimus Pal&noni^ sed Alae magis flavse. Alae primores 



PLATE LXI. 




L 2. Eurymus kirbyi . 
3. philodice. 



EURYMUS. 215 

flavse, apice nigrse, nigredine fascia quasi lutea in duas partes 
dissecta. Secundariae supra in mediopuncto s. macula ferruginea, 
cui subtus opposita puncta duo argentea approximata, annulo 
ferrugineo cincta ; altero puncto valde parvo. Antennae et 
margo ciliaris alarum rubra ut in sequente " (Palseno). 

I regard this description as undoubtedly referable to the 
female of our Clouded Yellow, in which the spotting of the 
border is often divided into two patches, and which is much 
yellower than either E. palccno or the Pale Clouded Yellow. 
All the figures originally quoted by Linnaeus (Petiver's and 
RcesePs) represent the female of the Clouded Yellow, to which 
I have ventured to restore the original name of hyale ; and it 
was recognised as that species by most of Linnaeus' contem- 
poraries, though Geoffroy and Scopoli confounded the Pale 
Clouded Yellow with it as a variety, or as the female, while 
others mistook it for E. palceno (Linn.). 

THE PALE CLOUDED YELLOW. EURYMUS KIRBYI. 
(Plate LX 7. Fi's. I, 2.) 

Papilio hyale ?, Scopoli, Ent. Cam. p. 173, no. 455 (1763) ; 
Fabricius, Mant. Ins. ii. p. 13, no. 243 (1787); Ochsen- 
heimer, Schmett. Eur. i. (2) p. 181 (1808). 

Papilio palano, Denis & Schiffermiiller (nee Linn.), Syst. 
Verz. Schmett. Wien. p. 165, no. 2 (1776); Esper, Schmett. 
i. (i) p. 68, pi. 4, fig. 2 (1777) ; Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. 
figs. 438, 439 (1803?). 

Colias /tya/e, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 99, no. 33 (1819) ; Bois- 
duval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 650 (1836); Stephens, 111. 
Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 13 (1827) ; Curtis, Brit. Ent. vi. p. 
642 (1829) ; Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 9, pi. 5, 
figs. 3, b (1878); Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 141 (1881); 
Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 5 3, pi. 12, fig. 3; pi. 16, fig. 2 (larva) 
(1881) ; Barretr, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 32, pi. 5, figs. 2, 
2(7-^(1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. p. 16(1886). 



216 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Colias sareptensis, var. Kirbyi t Lewis, Discussion on the Law of 
Priority, p. 34 (1872). 

The Pale Clouded Yellow is a Butterfly of rather smaller ave- 
rage size than the last species. The wings are of a sufficiently 
bright yellow on the upper side, but with no tendency towards 
orange, and the females are often whitish. There is a broad 
black border on the fore-wings, irregularly spotted with yellow, 
which is incomplete at the hinder angle ; on the hind-wings it 
is narrow, often incomplete, and there is frequently a second 
narrow macular line within it. The fore-wings are marked with 
a black discoidal spot, and the hind-wings with a large orange 
one. The under side is of a deeper yellow than the upper, espe- 
cially on the hind-wings ; there is a sub -marginal row of rusty- 
brown spots, a black discoidal spot on the fore-wings, and two 
contiguous silvery spots surrounded with ferruginous on the 
hind-wings. The antennas and fringes are reddish. 

The larva (vol. i. pi. 3, fig. 2) is velvety-green, with two yellow 
lateral lines, and black dots on each segment. It feeds on 
clover, trefoil, &c. The pupa is also green, with a yellow line 
on the sides. The Butterfly is double-brooded in many places, 
but is rarely seen in England till the autumn. 

The Pale Clouded Yellow is found throughout a large part 
of the Palaearctic Region, but not beyond it, unless its reported, 
but doubtful, occurrence in South Africa should be confirmed. 
It is a rather scarce insect with us, and is found chiefly in clover 
and lucerne fields in the south of England, and is uncertain in 
appearance, though commoner than formerly. In many parts 
of Germany it is a much commoner insect than E. hyate, and 
much more regular in appearance ; and in ordinary years it is 
one of the commonest autumn Butterflies, not much less com- 
mon, sometimes, than the White Cabbage Butterflies. My own 
experience is that its flight is much less rapid than that of E. 
hyale, though in England it is said to fly with equal or greater 



EURYMUS. 2 t 7 

rapidity, perhaps because, being a much rarer insect, it is more 
hotly pursued. 

In Eastern Europe, and throughout Northern and Central 
Asia as far as the Himalayas and Japan, there are a cluster of 
species or varieties closely allied to this, which some authors 
associate with it, and others regard as distinct. Among these 
is E. era/e, Esper, in which the black border of the fore-wings 
is continued to the hinder angle ; another is the form known as 
E. sareptensiS) Staudinger, which is thus described: "Alls an- 
ticis margine postico lato nigro ; $ saturatius flavus." 

It is much to be regretted that this species has always been 
confounded either with E. hyak or E. palano, two Linnean 
species about the identification of which there never ought to 
have been any doubt. There is consequently no old name that 
belongs to it at all, and I have therefore no alternative but 
either to adopt for it the name of E. sareptensis (as I once pro- 
posed to do), or of some other allied Eastern form with which 
it may not after all be truly identical; or to adopt the name of 
E. kirbyi, given to it in jest by the late Mr. Arnold Lewis. 

THE SCARCE CLOUDED YELLOW. EURYMUS PIIILODICE. 

(Plate LX I. Fig. 3.) 
Piipilio palcenO) Cramer (nee Linn.), Pap. Exot. i. pi. 14, figs. 

F,G(i775)- 

Colias dorippe, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 101, no. 36 (1819). 

Zerene anthyale, Hiibner, Zutr. Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 21, figs, 
307, 308 (1823). 

Colias europome, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 10, pi. i 
(1827). 

Eurymus philodice, Swainson, Zool. 111. ii. (2) pi. 60 (1831 ?). 

Colias philodice, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 100, no. 55 (1819); 
Boisduval & Leconte, Lepid. Amer. Sept. p. 64, pi. 21, 
figs. 1-3 (1833); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 647 
(1836); Scuddcr, Butterflies East. U.S c p. nn (1889). 



218 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The present species, which is very common in North 
America, measures two inches and upwards across the wings. 
As regards our two British Clouded Yellows it may be regarded 
as somewhat intermediate between them, being of a sulphur- 
yellow colour, like the male of E. kirbyi, but with a continuous 
black border, lined with yellow in the male, and spotted with 
yellow in the female, like that of E. hyale. There is a black 
discoidal spot on the fore-wings, and a rather broad rust- 
coloured spot on the hind-wings ; the antennae and fringes are 
reddish. Beneath, the discoidal spots are all pupilled with 
silvery, that on the hind-wings being double, and there is a row 
of ferruginous spots on the disc. 

This Butterfly has the habit of congregating in great numbers 
on damp mire. I have not heard of our European species 
of Eiirymus acting thus. 

The larva is green, more or less varied with rosy, and feeds 
on a variety of leguminous plants. The pupa is green, irrorated 
with yellowish-white. 

This Butterfly was confounded by many of the older ento- 
mologists, both in England and on the Continent, with the 
European E. palceno (Linn.) ; but this insect is of a greener 
yellow in the male, and whiter in the female. The American 
species was originally introduced into our British lists on the 
strength of specimens in the cabinets of Francillon and Swain- 
son, both of whom were in close correspondence with Abbot, 
the famous Georgian entomologist, from whom their specimens 
were almost certainly received. 

Hiibner figured E. palceno under the name of europome^ 
which Haworth adopted, and gave an unsatisfactory descrip- 
tion, taken, as Haworth admits, from a German specimen. 

Stephens' figures, derived from specimens obtained from the 
collections of Francillon and Marsham, undoubtedly represent 
the American insect; and between 1820 and 1840 various 



MEGANOSTOMA. 2IQ 

accounts were published of its having been taken in company 
with E. hyale and E. kirbyi between Brighton and Lewes ; 
near York ; near Ipswich ; and in the West of England, near 
the confluence of the Avon and the Severn, in August and 
September. Dr. Scudder thinks that the Butterfly might have 
been introduced into England, maintained itself for a few 
years, and then died out again ; but it is more probable that 
the first reputed British specimens were American, and that 
when attention was called to the subject, specimens of one or 
other of our British species were mistaken for it. Similar 
errors constantly occur even at the present day, (an instance is 
mentioned in the " Entomologist's Monthly Magazine " for 
July, 1895, of a specimen of Pontia daplidice being found in 
an old Staffordshire collection labelled " sinapis,") and such 
errors must have been far more common fifty or sixty years 
ago when there were hardly any books on Natural History, 
even on British Butterflies, than now, when they are plentiful. 
It is not likely that a Butterfly, said fifty or sixty years ago to 
have been taken in all parts of the country, should have dis- 
appeared so utterly that not a single specimen has been heard 
of since. Besides, it is positively asserted by the Rev. W. T. 
Bree, in " Loudon's Magazine of Natural History " for May, 
1832 (vol. v. p. 333, note), that the so-called specimens of 
E. europome, said to have been taken between Brighton and 
Lewes, were only E. kirbyi. 

GENUS MEGANOSTOMA. 

Meganostoma^ Reakirt, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, ii. p. 356 
(1863); Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 36, 46 (1870); Schatz, 
Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 69(1886). 

Antennae short, with the club gradually formed ; palpi 
moderately long. Fore-wings pointed, the cell rather short ; 



220 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

sub-costal nervure four-branched, the second branch rising at 
or a little before the end of the cell, the fourth running to the 
tip or to the costa just before it, the upper radial nervule sepa- 
rating from the sub-costal a little less than half way between the 
cell and the tip. On the hind-wings, which are rounded, the 
cell is longer and very pointed; and the pre-costal nervule 
is rudimentary. The claws are without appendages, but the 
middle and hind tarsi in the females are said to possess two 
delicate membranous three-jointed structures, which Reakirt 
terms "Eupronychia." They are very delicate and easily lost, 
and are therefore difficult to find except in very fresh specimens. 
This is a purely American genus, and differs considerably 
from Eurymus both in shape and pattern. The commonest 
species is M. cesonia (Stoll) which inhabits the Southern United 
States. It is a yellow species, shading more or less into orange, 
but on the fore-wings the base is black, and the hind-margin 
likewise, the centre of the wing being crossed by a broad 
yellow band, on which the black discoidal spot is pi iced. The 
inner side of the border is very irregular; on the costa it extends 
narrowly to the black at the base, and on the inner-margin in- 
wards for half its length ; but between, it forms a series of rect- 
angles, the yellow colouring extending squarely into it in the 
middle half way to the hind-margin. Another species, J\L 
eiirydice, Boisduval, which is found in California, resembles 
this, but is more of an orange -yellow; the fore-wings are beauti- 
fully flushed with purple, and the hind-wings have no black 
border. The female much resembles that of Colias rhamni, 
except in shape. Other species are found in Venezuela, Bolivia 
&c. 

GENUS COLIAS. 

Colias, Fabricius, in Illiger, Mag. f. Insckt. vi. p. 284 (1807); 
Latreille, Consid. Generates, p. 440 (1810) ; id. Enc. 
Mcth. ix. pp. 10, 89 (1819). 



PLATE LX 




\ 



\ 



/. Colias 
2.3. Eurymua hyale. 



COLT AS. 221 

Gonepieryx, Leach, Edinb. Encycl. ix. p. 128 (1815); Doubl. 

Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 69 (1847) ; Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 

35> 45 ( l8 7); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 68 (1886). 
Rhodocera, Boisduval & Leconte, Lepid. Amer. Sept. p. 70 

(1833); Boisd. Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 597 (1836). 
Body stout, hairy ; palpi and antennae short, the latter thick, 
with the club gradually formed. Fore-wings with the costa 
strongly arched, and ending in a projecting point ; hind-wings 
with a short projection at the end of the second median ner- 
vule ; the lower disco cellular nervule much curved on all the 
wings. Fore-wings with the sub costal nervure four-branched, 
the second branch emitted some distance before the end of the 
cell ; the upper radial a little beyond. The fourth sub-costal 
nervule runs to the costa just above the projecting tip. The 
pulvillus between the claws of the tarsi is long and narrow. 

This genus is common throughout the Palaearctic Region, 
but does not extend beyond it. It attains its maximum of 
development in the south-west in C. deopaira (Linn.), with a 
fiery-orange centre to the fore-wings of the male; and in the 
more subdued, but more generally diffused rich orange of the 
Canarian C. ck-.intk (Hiibner). 

THE BRIMSTONE BUTTERFLY. COLIAS RHAMNI. 

(Plate LX. Fi. I.) 
Papilio rhawni) Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 470, no. 73 

(1758); id. Faun. Suec. (ed. ii.) p. 272 (1764); Esper, 

Schmett i. (i) p. 73, pi. 4, fig. 4 (1777); Hiibner, Eur. 

Schme't. i. figs. 442-444 (1803 ?). 

Colias rhamni, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 89, no. 2 (1819). 
Gonepterya rhamni, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 8 

(1827); Curtis, Brit. Ent. iv. pi. 173 (1827) ; Kirby, Eur. 

Butterflies and Moths, p. n, pi. 4, tig. 9 (1878); Lang, 



222 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

Butterflies Eur. p. 65, pi. 14, fig. 4, pi. 16, fig. 4 (transf.) 
(1881) ; Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 40, pi. 7, figs, i, 
\ci-d (1892); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lep.J. i. p. 145, 

pi. I, fig 2 (l886). 

Rhodocera rhamni, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 602, 
pi. 6, fig. 7 (1836); Newman, Brit. Butterflies, p. 147 
(1881). 

The Brimstone Butterfly, which measures two and a quarter 
or two and a half inches across the wings, may at once be 
recognised by its arched and pointed fore-wings and its slightly 
tailed hind-wings. They are of a bright sulphur-yellow in the 
male, and greenish-yellow in the female, with a small orange 
spot at the end of the cell in all the wings, and with small 
ferruginous spots at the ends of the nervules. The under side 
is of a somewhat glaucous-greenish. The antennae are red, 
and the thorax is clothed with long white silky hairs. (A 
side view of the bifid claws will be found in vol. i. pi. i, 

% 13)- 

The following account of its transformations is given by 
Stephens. "The caterpillar io green, with a paler line on each 
side of the belly, and very small scale-like black dots on the 
back, which give that part a bluish aspect ; the fore part of the 
body is thick and rounded, the hind part compressed. It feeds 
upon the Rhamnus catharticus (or buck-thorn) and the Rh. 
frangulus (berry-bearing alder) ; and is said to occupy three 
or four days in changing to the pupa state ; the pupa or 
chrysalis is very gibbous in the middle, acuminated before, and 
green with a clearer line on each side, and a reddish or fulvous 
spot in the middle ; it is vertically suspended on a perpendicular 
branch, with a loose silken streak round its middle. The perfect 
insect is produced in about fifteen days." 

The Brimstone miy be considered as the typical Butterfly 
par excellence % for it must have been this species rather than the 



COLIAS. 223 

species of Eurymus, as Dr. Scudder suggests,* which gave rise 
to the idea of "the butter-coloured fly." Common everywhere 
throughout the greater part of the Palaearctic Region, in open 
woods and lanes, almost all the year round, it could hardly 
have failed to attract general attention. It is not, however, an 
inhabitant of the extreme north of Europe, and in the British 
Islands it scarcely reaches Scotland. In Ireland it is found at 
Killarney, and has been reputed to occur in Wicklovv. It varies 
little in size and colour, though, very rarely, individuals exhibit 
a slight trace of orange-red on the fore-wings which is perhaps the 
reason that some authors still persist in regarding the splendid 
Mediterranean C. deopatra (Linn.), to which we have already 
alluded, as a variety. It is double -brooded, and owing to the 
strong texture and thick scaling of its wing^, it is comparatively 
rare to meet with rubbed or broken specimens. 

Exotic genera allied to Colias. 

The first of these which we have to mention, is Amynthia, 
Swainson, which greatly resembles Colias^ which it replaces in 
Tropical America (including the West Indies), but is very much 
larger, the species measuring from three to four inches across the 
wings. The type, A. mcerula (Fabricius), is almost the counter- 
part of Colias rhamni, except that the discoidal spot on the 
fore-wings is black, and that on the hind-wings pale orange, 
speckled with black. Another species, A. clorinda (Godart), is 
greenish-white, with a sulphur-yellow blotch extending from the 
costa over the outer half of the cell in the male ; at the end of 
the cell is an orange spot. On the fore-wings, the second 
branch of the sub-costal nervure is emitted before the end of 
the cell, and on the hind-wings, the short tooth on the hind- 

* In forrr.er times, C. rhamni would have been more abundant than at 
present ; but when there were no clover- fields, Euryinus would have been 
much scarcer. 



924 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

margin is placed at the upper, instead of the middle, median 
nervule, and the space between this and the anal angle is 
slightly dentated. 

Recent authors have proposed to restrict the use of Bois- 
duvaPs name Rhodocera to one of the largest of the Pieridce, R. 
menippe (Hiibner), which is not an uncommon species in South 
America. It expands about 3^ inches across the wings, 
which are of a yellowish-green, with a black spot at the end of 
the cell on the fore-wings, and an orange spot on the hind- 
wings. The fore-wings have a conspicuous orange-"tip," the 
inner edge of which extends obliquely beyond the cell ; it is 
narrowly bordered with black at the apex, along the upper half 
of the hind-margin, and as far as it extends. The fore-wings 
are strongly arched, and are slightly pointed, not from the 
extreme apex being acute, but from the hind-margin being 
somewhat concave below the tip ; the hind-wings are regularly 
rounded, and scalloped, but with no short tail. The antennae 
are red, as in most of the allied genera. 

Kricogonia^ Reakirt, is another small genus of the group 
found in the Southern States of America, Mexico, and the 
West Indies. The antennae are distinctly clubbed, the palpi 
are rather long, and the fourth branch of the sub-costal nervure 
runs to the tip of the fore-wings, which are nearly rectangular 
at the tip, while the hind-wings are rounded. The type, K. 
lyside (Godart), measures about two inches across the wings, 
which are white above, with the base and, more faintly, the 
tip of the fore-wings tinged with sulphur-yellow. On the under 
side the hind-wings are greenish- white. 

Dercas, Uoubleday, is a small genus characteristic of the 
Indian Region. The wings are unusually short and broad, as 
are also the wing-cells; the fore-wings have a short, but 
prominent hook at the tip, and the hind-wings, which are 
almost square, have a projecting tooth at the end of the upper 



CATOi>SILlA. 225 

median nervule, as in Amynthia. The type, D. verhuelli, 
Van der Hoeven, which inhabits North India and South China, 
measures about 2^ inches across the wings, which are sulphur- 
yellow above,. with the tip and hind-margin of the fore- wings 
rather narrowly blackish ; a short ferruginous stripe on the 
disco cellular nervules of the fore-wings, and a slightly oblique 
yellowish line, most distinct below, running from the apical 
blotch on the fore-wings to beyond the middle of the hind- 
wings. 

GENUS CATOPSILIA. 

Catopsilia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 98 (1816) ; Butler, 
Lepid. Exot. p. 154 (1873) ; Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 295 
(1885); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 67 (1886). 

Antennae moderately stout, longer than in Colias and its 
allies, but shorter and thicker than in typical Pieris, &c. : 
gradually thickened into a club, truncated at the tip. Wings 
moderately long and broad, the fore-wings with the costa arched, 
and the apex more or less distinctly rectangular, the hind- 
margin slightly oblique ; hind-wings rounded. Sub-costal 
nervure four-branched, the first branch emitted about the middle 
of the cell, the second near the end of the cell, the third and 
fourth forming a rather large fork ; the fourth running to the 
hind-margin a little below the tip, the upper radial nervule 
separating at about one-third of the distance beyond the cell. 
Hind-wings with the pre-costal nervure obsolete. The males 
have a tuft of silky hairs near the base of the inner-margin of 
the fore-wings, and a patch of raised scales above the sub- 
costal nervure of the hind-wings. 

The larvae are slender, cylindrical, and granulated. They aro 
green or grey, with black spots, and feed on Cassia. The pupa 
is moderately stout, pointed at both ends, but not curved, and 
with a conical hump on the back. 

These Butterflies are confined to the tropics of the Old 
10 Q 



226 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

World, where they are extremely abundant. They are grega- 
rious, sometimes assembling in large numbers on damp sand 
(cf. vol. i. p. Ixiv.). They have a very rapid and powerful 
flight, and frequently migrate in large flocks. The Butterflies 
are of a white or yellow colour, and some of them very closely 
resemble American species of allied genera. They are prob- 
ably not all strictly speaking, congeneric; thus the Malayan 
and Australian C. scylla (Linn.), a conspicuous Butterfly with 
white fore-wings narrowly bordered with black, and orange 
hind-wings, has a much stouter larva, and a stouter and more 
regularly-formed pupa, with the thoracic hump rounded off. 

The type of the genus is C. crocale (Cramer), another very 
abundant Indo-Malayan and Australian species, which measures 
about 2^ or 3 inches across the wings. The male is greenish- 
white, with the greater part of the costa and hind-margin 
narrowly bordered with black ; the base of all the wings is 
broadly sulphur-yellow, the outer limits of this colour being 
very irregular, and narrowly produced for some distance below 
the black edging of the costa of the fore-wings, and along the 
inner-margin of the hind-wings. The female is of a more 
creamy white, tinged with ochreous towards the base, and with 
the costa of the fore-wings and the hind-margins of all the wings 
more broadly edged with black. From the costa of the fore- 
wings an irregular black mark descends over the disco-cellular 
nervules, and towards the tip the black markings are broader, 
forming the commencement of a spotted band. 

GENUS CALLIDRYAS. 

Callidryas, Boisduval & Leconte, Ldpid. Amer. Sept. p. 73 
(1833); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 605 (1836); 
Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 66 (1847); Butler, 
Cist. Ent. i. pp. 36, 46 (1870); id. Lepid. Exot. pp. 22, 
155 (1870-1873). 



CALLIDRYAS. 227 

This genus nearly resembles Catopsilia, but there is no brush 
of hairs on the wings of the male, though there is a patch of 
raised scales towards the base of the hind-wings, and the upper 
radial nervure rises at only one-fourth of the distance beyond 
the cell. The species inhabit Tropical America, one or two 
extending as far north as the Southern United States. They 
are all of a yellow, orange, or red colour, some of them, such as 
C. solstitia, Butler, from Chili, and C. avellaneda, Herrich- 
Schaffer, from Cuba, being blotched with red and yellow in 
such an extraordinary manner as to look more like clumsily- 
executed daubs than natural Butterflies. The type of the 
genus is 

CALLIDRYAS EUBULE. 
(Plate LIX. Figs. 2 (imago), 3 (lawa), 4 (pupa).) 

Papilio eubule^ Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. xii.) i. (2) p. 743, no. 
102 (1767); Abbot & Smith, Lepid. Georgia, i. pi. 5 

(1797)- 

Callidryas eubuh, Boisduval & Leconte, Lepid. Amer. Sept. p. 
74, pi. 24 (1833) ; Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 613, 
pi. 6, fig. 6 (1836); Butler, Lepid. Exot. i. p. 58, pi. 22, 
figs. 7-10 (1871). 

This is a common Butterfly in the United States. It measures 
about three inches across the wings, which are of a fine sulphur- 
yellow above, unspotted, or with a linear brown border to part 
of the costa and hind-margin of the fore-wings, and brown dots 
on the ends of the nervures on the hind-wings. Beneath, there 
is a brown spot centred with silvery at the end of the cell of the 
fore- wings, and two larger contiguous silvery spots, in ferruginous 
rings, on the hind-wings; there are also some irregular brown or 
ferruginous lines or dots scattered over the under side of the 
wings. The female is of a somewhat deeper yellow both above 
and below, with the dark edging of the fore-wings rather broader, 

Q 2 



223 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

and a rather large black spot at the end of the cell ; on the 
under side a ferruginous line runs round all the wings, and 
there are two silvery discoidal spots in ferruginous rings on the 
fore-wings as well as on the hind-wings. The body is yellow, 
with greenish hairs on the thorax, the antennae and terminal 
joint of the palpi are rose-colour, varied with brown. 

The larva is green, with a yellow line on each side, sur- 
mounted by a blue one. It is covered with small black 
granules, and feeds on different species of Cassia. The 
pupa is also green, changing to brown before the emergence 
of the Butterfly. As will be seen by the figure, the anterior 
projection is very conspicuous, and the ventral surface is 
much rounded, but the upper surface of the body is slightly 
concave, without the hump on the thorax, which is so con- 
spicuous in the pupa of Catopsilia. 



The remaining genera of this group all belong to Tropical 
America. Aphrissa, Butler, differs from Callidryas chiefly by 
its longer palpi, especially in the female. The type, A. statira 
(Cramer), a South American species, is rather smaller, and of a 
paler yellow than Callidryas eubnle ; towards the hind-margins, 
which are narrowly bordered with black, the colour shades into 
whitish ; the under side is marked only with a silvery discal 
spot on the hind-wings, ringed with brown. In the female, the 
border is rather broader, and there is a black discoidal spot on 
the fore-wings above, and a corresponding spot beneath, centred 
with silvery \ there is also a series of slight disconnected brown 
sagittate spots on the disc, following a short zig-zag line run- 
ning from the inner edge of the brown apex of the fore- 
wings. 

The next genus, Phabis, Hiibner, has a tuft of silky hairs in 



CALLIDRYAS. 229 

the male above the sub-costal nervure, near the base of the hind- 
wings, instead of on the inner-margin of the fore-wings, as in 
Catopsilia ; the wings are rounded, and the fore-wings are rather 
longer than the hind-wings, with the apex generally rounded off, 
and the hind-margin regularly curved and slightly oblique ; the 
type is P. hersilia (Cramer), which is common in South and 
Central America. In this genus the males of most of the species 
are of an orange-yellow above, and the females are slightly 
bordered or spotted towards the margins with brown, and are 
marked with a black or brown discoidal spot on the fore-wings. 
On the under surface both sexes present the characteristic 
silvery discoidal spots, bordered with ferruginous, and are more 
or less varied with incomplete ferruginous zig-zag lines and 
mottlings. 

Another small genus, allied to P/uebis, is Rhabdodryas, God- 
man & Salvin, which differs from Phcebis in having an additional 
patch of closely-packed scales between the costal and sub- costal 
nervures of the hind-wings. The type is R. statira (Cramer), a 
yellow species, easily distinguished from any other Butterfly of 
this group by having a straight black line running across all the 
wings beneath. It is found in South America. 

The last genus of this group has been called Metura by Dr. 
Butler, but this name had been previously used by Walker for 
a genus of Moths belonging to the family Psychidce., and I there- 
fore prefer to substitute the name Parura^ at Dr. Butler's sug- 
gestion, for the present genus. The type will be P. tipris (Fab- 
ricius). The males have a tuft of hair above the sub-costal 
nervure of the hind wings near the base, as in Phabis, but the 
fore-wings are shorter and broader in proportion, the costa 
being much more strongly arched, and the hind-margin much 
straighter and scarcely oblique ; the hind-wings are produced 
into a short broad pointed tail at the anal angle. The Butter- 
flies are qf considerable size, frequently exceeding three inches 



230 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

in expanse, and are yellow or orange, with very large discoidal 
spots on the fore-wings, at least in the females, in which sex 
the hind-wings are sometimes bordered with red. The type, 
P. ripris (Fabricius), is sulphur-yellow in both sexes. They are 
all Tropical American species. 

GENUS SPH^NOGONA. 
Sphcenogona, Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 35, 44 (1870). 

The present genus, which is confined to the warmer parts 
of America, chiefly differs from the succeeding ones in having 
the hind-wings produced into an angle or short tail about 
the middle median nervule. The sub-costal branch on the 
hind-wings is emitted beyond the cell. 

Dr. Butler (/. c. p. 44) indicated S. ectriva as the type of the 
genus, in which Dr. Scudder has followed him ; but previously 
(/. c. p. 35) he had stated simply, that the genus "includes 
6". ectriva, bogotana, and allies." The true type would appear 
not to be S. ectriva, but S. bogotana, Felder ; for not only 
was S. ectriva, in 1870, only a manuscript name of Double- 
day's ; but when Dr. Butler described the species shortly after- 
wards, he only did so by briefly comparing it with S. salome, 
Felder, also an unfigured species at that time (which Felder, 
when describing it, compared with his own S. bogotana\ and 
this, again, Dr. Butler had already compared with S. bogstana, 
Felder. The species of Sphcenogona are generally yellow or 
white, with broad black borders, deeply indented on the fore- 
wings with the ground-colour. As a representative of this 
genus we have figured 

SPH^NOGONA MEXICANA. 

(Plate LIX. Fig. I.) 

Terias meocicana, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 655, no. 3, 
pi. 19, fig. i (1836); Godman & Salvln, Biol. Centr.-Amer. 
I^epid. Rhop. ii. p. 157 (1889). 



PLATE LIX. 




/ . Sphcenogona 

2. CcJUdryas eubiiLe 



larvcu. 



SPH^ENOGONA. 231 

Abais mexicana, Geyer; Hiibner, Zutr. Exot. Schmett. v. p. 29, 
figs. 917, 918 (1837). 

This species, which inhabits Mexico, as its name denotes, 
measures about i^ inches across the wings, which are white, 
with a broad black border ; the latter is very irregular, and is 
deeply indented by the ground-colour in the middle on the 
fore-wings. In the male the hind-wings are broadly yellow 
along the costal area. This species is closely allied to S. bogo- 
tana, Felder, the type of the genus ; but in S. bogotana the 
deep white indentation on the middle of the band of the fore- 
wings is much narrower, and the costa of the hind-wings is not 
yellow in the male. 

As the male of his S. mexicana^ Boisduval described a yel- 
low species, which has since been named S. boisduvaliana 
by Reakirt. 

American genera allied to Sphcznogona. 

In Pyrisitia, Butler, the fore-wings are slightly pointed, and 
the hind-wings are sub-quadrate, the hind-wings showing a 
slight tendency to form a rectangle on the hind-margin, but 
with no projecting tooth. The type is P. proterpia (Cramer), 
a South American species, remarkable for its bright orange 
colour and for the broad black costal area of the fore-wings. 

Another genus, Xanthidia, Boisduval, differs from all the 
other American genera by the male possessing a patch of felted 
scales on the under side of the hind-wings between the median 
and sub-median nervures. It includes several rather large yel- 
low and orange species, with broad black borders and broad 
rounded wings. The type is X. nicippe (Cramer), which is com- 
mon in many parts of North America. It measures about two 
inches across the wings, which are of a bright orange colour, 
with broad black regular borders, and a black streak at the end 
of the cell of the fore-wings. The female is of a much palqr 



232 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

yellow, and the border is much narrower and more incomplete. 
The larva is green, with a darker dorsal stripe and a white 
band on the sides, marked with five yellow dots. It feeds on 
Ononis and Trifolium, The pupa is green, slightly arched, 
and sprinkled with ferruginous points. 

Eurema, Hiibner, is another American genus, including 
smaller species, rarely attaining the expanse of an inch and a 
half. They are yellow or white, with rather narrow fore-wings 
and broad rounded hind-wings. In several species the fore-wings 
are yellow and the hind-wings white. They are more or less 
bordered with black, and the males have always a black stripe 
towards the inner-margin of the fore-wings, which band is not 
unfrequently edged with a narrower orange stripe. The type is 
E. delta (Cramer), a North American species. It is yellow, 
marked as described, but there is a large black triangular mar- 
ginal blotch towards the tip of the hind-wings above instead of 
a border; on the under side the hind-wings and the tip of the 
fore-wings are of a dull greyish-red. The larva is green, with a 
white lateral stripe, and feeds on Trifolium, &c. The pupa is 
also green. 

GENUS TERIAS. 

Terias, Swainson, Zool. 111. i. pi. 21 (1822); Horsfield, Cat. 
Lepid. E. I. Co. p. 134 (1829); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. 
Lepid. i. p. 651 (1836); Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 
76 (1847); Butler, Cist. Ent. i. pp. 35, 44 (1870); Dis- 
tant, Rhop. Malay, p. 302 (1886). 

Body slender, rather hairy; palpi short, compressed; antennae 
short, slender, with a gradually formed club. Wings rather short 
and broad, cells broad, lower disco-cellular nervules arched; 
fore-wings rounded, or more or less pointed at the tips ; hind- 
wings rounded. Fore-wings with the sub-costal nervure four- 
branched, the first branch emitted a,t about a quarter of an inch 



1ERIAS. 233 

before the end of the cell, the second near the end of the cell, 
the third and fourth forming a rather long fork; upper discoidal 
nervule thrown off at about one-third of the distance between 
the cell and the tip of the wings. Hind-wings with the pre-costal 
nervule more or less obsolete ; sub-costal nervure bifurcating 
about the end of the cell. 

The larva is moderately slender, cylindrical, and pubescent ; 
the pupa is straight, pointed at the ends, and very convex on 
the back. 

This genus includes an immense number of small white and 
yellow Butterflies, which inhabit the warmer parts of Asia and 
Africa. There are several well-marked groups among them, 
which must ultimately be divided into genera like their 
American allies. Many species have a wide distribution, and 
are very variable. They are all of a white or yellow colour, 
sometimes with only the tip of the fore-wings black, at other 
times with black borders varying in shape and width. On the 
under side they are generally more or less flecked with brown 
or ferruginous. The type, Terias hecabe (Linnaeus), is a widely- 
distributed East Indian Butterfly, with broad black borders, 
which are broader towards the tip of the fore-wings, but below 
the middle of the border it is deeply and squarely indented by 
the yellow ground-colour in the manner of Sphceiwgona mexi- 
cana (cf. plate lix. fig. i). The border of the hind-wings is 
narrower and regular. This is a very variable species. On 
the under side it is distinctly spotted, but in the closely-allied 
T. san, Horsfield, and in some allied species, there is a large 
square reddish-brown blotch at the tip of the fore-wings 
beneath. The larva of T. hecabe is green, with a pale yellow 
lateral stripe. It feeds on various species of /Eschynomene, 
especially ^. sesban. 

In another specie?, representing a different group, T. Candida 
(Cramer), the wings are yellow above and below in the male, 



234 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

and white above in the female, with a broad regular black 
border, not indented, which is continued narrowly along the 
costa of the fore-wings, and is represented by a brown shade 
along the inner-margin of the hind-wings. Other species have 
a black band, varying in width, on the inner-margin of the 
fore-wings, resembling what we find in the genera Nathalis 
and Eurema. 

FAMILY VI. EQUITID.E. 

Egg, Dome-shaped, flattened at the base, slightly rugose, 
more ovate in the Parnassiincc, and reticulate. 

Larva. Cylindrical, with a Y-shaped retractile tentacle behind 
the head;* smooth or granulated, sometimes humped towards 
the head, not hairy or bristly, but occasionally furnished with 
rows of fleshy tubercles. 

Pupa. Attached by the tail, generally in an upright position, 
and secured by a girth round the middle of the body. 

Imago. Of large or moderate size ; wings strong, often tailed ; 
pattern generally simple and uniform, not variegated, and very 
rarely with well-marked ocellated spots ; sub-costal nervure of 
fore-wings four-branched (rarely five-branched) ; lower radial 
nervure appearing like a fourth branch of the median; median 
and sub-median nervures connected by a short cross- nervule 
near the base ; sub-median nervure throwing off a short fork 
near the base to the inner-margin ; hind-wings with but one 
sub-median nervure, the lower sub-median, or internal ner- 
vure, so conspicuous in the Pieridce, being always absent. 
Six perfect legs in both sexes, the tibiae furnished with a leaf- 
like projection ; the claws always simple, except in Leptorircus, 
in which they are sometimes bifid. 

* This is technically called an osrnaterium, and always emits a strong 
odour. 



EQUITID7E 235 

Range. The species formerly included in the genus Papilio 
and its immediate allies are sparingly represented all over the 
world, but attain their maximum of size, beauty, and variety in 
the Indo- and Austro-Malayan Regions. The genera which 
most nearly resemble the Pieridce,, on the other hand, are 
mountain insects, and, with the exception of Parnassius, which 
extends to the Rocky Mountains, are almost entirely confined 
to Europe and Northern and Western Asia. 

Habits. Most of the larger and more typical species of this 
family feed on trees, and others on Umbellifera. They frequent 
woods and gardens, and have a lofty, sailing flight, but as they 
frequently rest on tall flowers or flowering shrubs, they are less 
difficult to capture than might be supposed. As already men- 
tioned, the white species which resemble Pieridce frequent 
mountain slopes, and their larvae feed on saxifrages and other 
low plants. 



I believe that Dr. Scudder is right in regarding the Camber- 
well Beauty, Vanessa antiopa of our first volume (p. 92), as the 
true type of the genus Papilio^ Linn., for Schrank assigned that 
name to the Nymphalidtz before Latreille restricted it to the 
Linnean Equites. But the genus need not carry the Family 
name with it, and the Nymphalidte may retain that title. The 
present Family may be called Eqiiitidcc^ which course I have 
decided to adopt in the present volume, pending the final sub- 
division of the great genus Papilio, Latreille (nee Schrank), into 
natural genera. 

The Equitidce, form several very distinct groups, which may 
be treated as Sub-families. Schatz defines three, but they are 
more readily separable by their general appearance than by the 
characters which he assigns to thern, 



236 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

SUB-FAMILY PARNASSIIN^. 

Palpi moderately long, not extending beyond the head ; 
wings rounded, white or yellow, often with red spots ; fore- 
wings with the sub-costal nervure four or five-branched, with 
no transverse nervule connecting the median and sub-median 
nervures at the base ; hind-wings with no transverse nervule 
connecting the costal and sub-costal nervures. These Butterflies 
frequent mountains and steppes ; the pubescent larvae feed on 
saxifrages and similar plants, and the pupa is enclosed in a 
rough cocoon on the surface of the ground, or is subterranean. 
Several authors have remarked on the Moth-like characteristics 
of this group of Butterflies. 

GENUS PARNASSIUS. 

Parnassius, Latreille, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. xiv. p. no (1805); 

id. Enc. Meth. ix. pp. 9, 79 (1819); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. 

Lepid. i. p. 394 (1836); Doubl. Gen. Diurn. Lepid. i. p. 

26 (1847); Elwes, P. Z. S. 1886, pp. 6-53, pis. i.-iv. ; 

Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 48 (1886). 
Body hairy ; antennae short ; club variable in form ; wings 
rounded, often semi-transparent towards the tips, from the 
presence of hair-like scales ; fore-wings with the sub-costal 
nervure four-branched, the upper radial nervule rising con- 
siderably beyond the cell; hind-wings with the inner-margin 
considerably concave. Female with a horny pouch at the ex- 
tremity of the abdomen. 

THE APOLLO BUTTERFLY. PARNASSIUS APOLLO. 

(Plate LXIL Fig. i.) 

Papilio apollo, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 461, no. 41 
(1758); id. Faun. Suec. p. 268 (1761); Esper, Schmett. 
i. (i) p. 41, pi. 2, fig. i (1777); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett 
i. figs. 396, 397 (1803?), figs. 730, 731 (1818?) 



PLATE LXII 




apollc, 
cratcecft. 



PARNASSiUS. 237 

Parnassius apollo, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 79, no. i (1819); 
Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 395 (1836); Newman, 
Brit. Butterflies, pp. 175, 176 (1881); Kirby, Eur. But- 
terflies and Moths, p. 4, pi. 3, figs. 1^-^(1878); Lang, 
Butterflies Eur. p. 16, pi. 2, fig. i, pi. 4, fig. i (pouch) ; 
pi. 5, fig. 6 (transf.) (1881); Austaut, Les Parnassiens, pp. 
86, 193 (1889). 

Ordinary European specimens of this well-known Butterfly 
measure from 2^ to 3^ inches across the wings, which 
are white, slightly tinged with yellow. The fore-wings are 
marked with five black spots, one in the cell, one at its ex- 
tremity, two or three beyond, and a larger one just beyond 
the middle of the inner-margin. The base is thickly dusted 
with black; the hind-margin is semi-transparent, as if var- 
nished, being covered with fine hair-like scales ; within this 
is a moderately broad dusky line, more or less distinct. The 
hind-wings are white, with the inner-margin thickly dusted 
with black, and clothed with long white hair, and there are 
two dusky zig-zag sub-marginal stripes. There are also two 
very conspicuous large red spots in black rings, and generally 
with whitish centres : one below the costa, towards the base, 
and one beyond the cell ; towards the latter, a black bar, 
sometimes marked with red, at least on the under side, runs 
from the inner margin. On the under side there is an addi- 
tional row of red spots, bordered with black externally, at the 
base. The body is black with white hairs above, and yellowish 
beneath ; the antennae are black, ringed with white, with a black 
ovoid club. 

The larva is velvety-black, with two rows of deep orange 
spots on each side; the incisions are glossed with blue, and 
the whole body is clothed with short black hair. It feeds on 
the Orpine (Seduui telephiuui] and on various other species of 
saxifrages, &c. 



238 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The pupa is spun up between leaves, thus being placed in a 
slight cocoon. 

This Butterfly is found throughout the greater part of 
Europe and Northern and Central Asia, in summer and 
autumn, in mountainous regions. In Scandinavia it occurs in 
the plains, but in the Alps it is one of the commoner Butter- 
flies on the lower slopes, from about 1,000 to 5,000 feet above 
sea-level. In Spain it is found at a great elevation in the 
Sierra Nevada, in Andalusia; and the spots of these indi- 
viduals are of a yellowish-white instead of red colour. In 
West Central Europe it becomes rare; in the Vosges it is 
very scarce and local, if it occurs at all. It is absent from 
North Germany, and in Western Germany it is only met with 
in a few localities near Coblenz, between the Mosel and the Ahr. 
Many reports have been published of its having been taken in 
England and Scotland, but it could hardly occur in some of 
them (such as Dover) except by direct importation with plants 
or otherwise, and several of the principal Scotch reports are 
now known to have been erroneous. At present there is no 
justification for including it in the British lists. The largest 
European specimens have been said to come from Silesia, 
where, however, it is now almost, if not quite, extinct. The 
great Siberian Parnassius hesebolus, Nordmann, which is 
generally considered to be a variety of P. apollo, sometimes 
expands nearly four inches. 

The other two European species are much more local in the 
Alps. P. delius (Esper) is smaller on an average than P. apollo^ 
and flies in damper places at a higher elevation; it may be distin- 
guished by having the sub-costal spots beyond the cell marked 
with red. P. mnenwsyne (Linnaeus) is also a local Butterfly, and 
in Prussia Proper it is found on the plains, though elsewhere in 
Central Europe it is a mountain Butterfly. It has no red spots, 
but only two black ones, in and at the end of the cell of the fore- 



PARNASSIUS. 239 

wings, and some blackish markings towards the inner margin of 
the hind-wings. The club of the antennae is very long, and 
gradually formed, and this species and its allies will certainly be 
separated as a distinct genus by future entomologists. 

The foreign species of Parnassius are usually very similar to 
the red-spotted European ones ; and, as already mentioned, one 
or two are found in the Rocky Mountains and California. At 
the other end of their range they do not cross the Mediterranean 
though they are found in Spain, Italy, Greece, and Armenia ; 
but in Central Asia they are very numerous. Some species, 
such as P. stubbendorfii, Menetries, which is found in the Altai, 
are almost entirely white, without red, and even without black 
spots; others, such as P. eversmanni, Menetries, from East 
Siberia and Alaska, are yellow, at least in the male ; for the white 
P. wosnesenskit, Menetries, is believed to be the female. Most 
of the species, however, resemble P. apollo and P. delius so 
much, that one description, unless detailed, would fit them all ; 
some, however, such as P. apollonius, Eversmann, which 
frequents salt-marshes in Central Asia, have a row of three 
or more red or yellow spots on each wing. Two of the 
Indian species may be noticed : P. charltonius. Gray, a scarce 
species, as large as P. apollo, found at a great elevation, which 
has a row of sub-marginal black spots, with blue pupils, on the 
hind-wings beyond the two large red eyes : and P. hardwickii, 
Gray, a much smaller and commoner species, hardly reaching 
two inches in expanse, which is similarly marked, but the red 
spots are smaller in proportion, and there are, moreover, red 
spots on the fore-wings as well. 

There are two other small genera of this Sub-family besides 
Parnassius. Doritis, Fabricius, is distinguished by the five- 
branched sub-costal nervure of the fore-wings. D. apollina 
(Herbst) measures about two inches across the wings, which 
are semi-transparent yellowish-grey (whiter on the fore-wings in 



246 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

the male), with two very large black spots on the fore-wings, 
one in, and one at the end of the cell, and the hind- wings have 
a sub-marginal row of black eyes with blue pupils, marked 
within by a row of red spots. The larva feeds on Aristolochia, 
and the pupa is found under moss and stones. The Butterfly 
appears from January to March in Asia Minor and Syria. It 
has also been reported to occur in European Turkey and in 
some of the Greek Islands. 

Hyptrmntstra, Heydenreich, has the sub-costal nervure of 
the fore-wings four-branched, as in Parnassius^ but the upper 
disco cellular nervule is well marked, the upper radial nervule 
rising from the discoidal cell, and not from the sub-costal, as 
in the preceding genera. The type, H. helios (Nickerl) is com- 
mon on the steppes of Turkestan and North Persia, and the pupa 
is said to bury itself deep in the ground. The Butterfly measures 
about one and a half inches across the wings, which are of a yel- 
lowish-white, with black spots arranged nearly as in Parnassius^ 
the two beyond the cell on the fore-wings marked with red; the 
hind-wings are marbled with green beneath, which gives the 
insect somewhat the appearance of a Pontia. 

These two genera have no horny pouch in the female, as in 
Parnassius ; but we may notice two outlying genera which pos- 
sess it, though Schatz includes them in the Equitina^ because 
they have a crbss-nervule near the base on the fore-wings be- 
tween the median and sub-median nervures, and one on the 
hind-wings between the costal and sub-costal nervures. The 
sub-costal nervure of the fore-wings is five-branched in both 
genera. 

Eurycus, Boisduval, is a small genus, including one or two 
species from Australia and New Guinea. The type, E. cressida 
(Fabricius), is common in Australia, and is remarkable for the 
dissimilarity of the sexes. It averages about three inches in 
expanse, the female being rather smaller than the male. This 



EURYAfcES. 241 

is exceptional in Butterflies, though it is the case in Drurya 
antimachus (Drury), and in some other Butterflies. The male 
has longer and narrower wings than the female. The fore- 
wings are smoky-hyaline, broadly black at the base, and more 
narrowly round the margins, with two very large roundish black 
spots, one in, and one at the end of, the cell. The hind-wings 
are slightly dentated, and are black, with a transverse white 
band, divided by the nervures across the middle ; about its 
centre is a black spot, of moderate size, at the end of the cell. 
On the black space beyond the white band is a row of sub- 
marginal red spots, and there is a row of marginal yellowish- 
white spots. The female is really very similar in markings, but 
has a very different appearance, being of a yellowish smoky- 
hyaline, more strongly yellowish towards the base, where it is 
black in the male. On the fore-wings the apex is broadly 
dusky, and the black spots in and at the end of the cell are 
very small. On the hind-wings the white band is hardly dif- 
ferentiated from the general colouring of the wing, and the 
sub-marginal spots are yellow instead of red. The female has 
some resemblance to the common Australian Acrcea andro- 
macha (Fabricius), which it is thought to mimic. 

The genus Euryades, Felder, which is confined to the 
Argentine Republic and the neighbouring countries of South 
America, is intermediate between Eurycus and some of the 
more typical groups of South American Equitina, but it may be 
distinguished by its peculiar neuration, the upper disco-cellular 
nervule of the fore-wings being, instead of all the disco-cellu- 
lars, very short, and the fourth sub-costal nervule rising from 
the third beyond the cell, and the fourth and fifth forming a 
rather short fork. The horny pouch of the female, too, is 
peculiar. The fore-wings are triangular, and the hind-wings 
are dentated, and, in some of the species, tailed. The type 
is E. corethrus (Boisduval). 

10 R 



$42 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

SUB-FAMILY THAIDIN^. 

Palpi long, projecting beyond the head ; antennae short ; 
uings dentated or tailed; sub-costal nervure of the fore-wings 
five-branched; median and sub-median nervures of the fore- 
wings not connected by a short cross-nervure near the base, 
except in Teinopalpus, but the hind-wings with the costal and 
sub-costal nervures thus connected. 

A very small, but interesting group, confined to the Mediter- 
ranean Region, Bhutan, China, and Japan. They are so well 
marked that it is hardly necessary to distinguish them here by 
more than their outward characters. 

GENUS THAIS. 

Thais, Fabricius in Illiger's Mag. Insekt. vi. p. 283 (1807); 

Latreille, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 9 (1819); Boisduval, Spec. 

Gdn. Lepid. i. p. 382 (1836); Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. 

Lepid. p. 30 (1847); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 50 

(1886.) 

Moderate-sized Butterflies, expanding about two inches 
across the wings, which are broad, and not very long. They 
vary from yellowish-white to ochreous, and are ornamented 
with festooned markings on the hind-margins, somewhat like 
those on the under surface of the genus Cethosia in the 
NymphalidcR (cf. vol. i. p. 48). The fore-wings are banded or 
spotted with black, chiefly towards the costa, and are often 
more or less spotted with red ; the hind-wings are more or less 
clouded or spotted with black, chiefly towards the base and 
inner-margin, and have always a sub-marginal row of red spots. 
The hind-wings are always dentated, and sometimes sub- 
caudate. 

The larvae are cylindrical, rather short, and covered with 
fleshy spines and short hairs. They feed on different species 



PLATE LXIII. 




/ 



L Thcus medesiccuste. 
Z.Leptocircus mzges. 



I 









f" 



THAIS. 243 

of Aristolochia, either singly, or in small companies. The 
pupa is cylindrico-conical, somewhat angular in front. 

The species are all found in spring and early summer in 
the Mediterranean Region. The type is T. polyxena (Denis 
and Schiffermiiller), which is found in South France, Italy, 
Austria, and South-eastern Europe and Western Asia generally. 
It is a longer-winged insect than the species figured, and has 
only one red spot (if any) on the costa of the fore-wings. The 
larva is yellowish, with a brown dorsal band, six rows of 
reddish-yellow spines tipped with black, and black dots on the 
sides. It feeds on Aristolochia dematidis in August, and the 
Butterfly appears in early spring. 

THAIS MEDESICASTE. 
(Plate LXIII. Fig. I.) 

Papilio medesicaste, Fabricius in Illiger's Mag. Insekt. ii. p. 181 

(1803); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. fig. 632 (1818). 
Thais medesicaste, Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 84 (1819); Bois- 

duval, Spec. G6i. Lepid. i. p. 388 (1836); Kirby, Eur. 

Butterflies and Moths, p. 3 (1878). 
Papilio rumina^ Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 394, 395 

(1803?). 
Papilio rumina Europcc australis^ Esper, Schmett. i. (2) p. 

115, pi. 72, fig. 4 (1782?). 
Thais rumina^ var. mcdesicaste, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 24, 

pi. 3, ng. 4(1881). 

Var. Thais honnorafii. 
Var. Thais honnoratii, Boisduval, Icones, p. 18, pi. 3, figs. 3-5, 

(183*). 

Thais medesicaste, var. honnoratii^ Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid, 
i, p. 389, pi. 5, fig. 4 (1836). 

R 2 



244 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Thais rumina^ var. honnoratii, Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 24, 
pi. 3, % 5 (1881). 

This species, which is common in Southern France in May, 
is the smallest of the genus, expanding an inch and a half or 
an inch and three-quarters. It is of a yellowish-white or pale 
ochreous-yellow ; the fore-wings with a series of five broad black 
bands running from the cosla, the first, third, and fifth marked 
A ith red ; the base is also more or less black. The second and 
fifth bands are narrower, and converge with the first, to the 
inner-margin, the outermost of these bands being again marked 
with red. Towards the hind-margin are two continuous fes- 
tooned black bands, the ends of the outermost touching the 
margin. The hind-wings are more or less black at the base, 
close to which a red spot is generally visible, and there are some 
small black spots on the disc. Beyond is a row of red spots, 
bordered within with black, and there are two sub-marginal 
lines which form crescents, but not the abrupt festoons of those 
on the fore-wings. Towards the tip of the fore-wings is a 
transparent spot. The under side is similar, but paler, and the 
light portions of the hind-wings have a peculiar white glazed 
appearance. The body is black, with yellow spots on the 
abdomen. 

The larva, which feeds on various species of Aristo?ochia t is 
variable in colour, being reddish-yellow, brown, or dull reddish- 
green, with rows of interrupted black lines. It has six rows of 
fleshy orange-yellow spines, tufted with black at the end. 

This Butterfly is frequently considered to be a local form 
of the Spanish Thais rumina (Linn.), which differs by its 
larger size and deep ochreous colour. The Rev. Douglas 
C. Timins, who observed T. medesicaste in South France, 
writes : " It is less sluggish than some of the other species 
of the genus, but seldom flies after two or three o'clock, 
and prefers localities where the beautiful rose-coloured cistua 



THAIS. 245 

grows." He adds : " There is a variety of this species figured 
under the name of Thais honnoratii, by Boisduval, which 
appears to be only found in the neighbourhood of Digne ; it is 
smaller than the type ; the crimson spots are much enlarged 
upon the lower wings, and upon the upper wings are much 
more numerous and also larger than in the type ; the second 
and third costal bands are very small. This variety is exceed- 
ingly rare, and specimens fetch about i each in the Paris 
dealers' shops. I have been told, however, by an old French 
entomologist, that they have been known to fabricate this 
variety by selecting small individuals of T. medesicaste and dex- 
terously colouring them by means of crimson scales borrowed 
from other specimens, the black scales of the second and 
third costal bands being neatly removed, and their place sup- 
plied by yellow scales. I have followed most authors in giv- 
ing T. honnoratii as a variety of T. medesicaste ; if, however, 
this is the case, it is rather curious that it should only have 
appeared in one locality out of several in which T. medesicasle 
abounds. The statement, moreover, that it has been reared 
from a larva identical with that of T. medesicaste must be 
received with caution. I knew a French collector who had at 
one time two thousand larvae of T. medesicaste^ and not one 
produced T. honnoratii." (Proc. Ent. Soc. London, 1867, p. 

103.) 

Digne, although one of the most famous localities for Lepi- 
doptera in France, appears, for some reason or other, to be 
but little visited by English entomologists. 



The remaining genera of this Sub-family are rare in col- 
lections, being mostly confined to localities more or less diffi- 
cult of access, and may be dealt with briefly. 



246 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Litehdorfict) Criiger, may be structurally distinguished from 
Thais by the presence of a short upper disco-cellular nervule 
(which is absent in Thais) on the fore-wings, and the much 
shorter middle disco-cellular. The species are confined to North 
China, including the Amur district and Japan, and are larger 
than Thais, usually expanding more than two inches across 
the wings. The fore-wings are more triangular, and the hind- 
wings sub-caudate. The species are of an ochreous-yellow, with 
alternating longer or shorter bands running from the costa of 
the fore-wings, some of the longer ones extending to the costal 
region of the hind-wings. The latter have a row of red spots 
towards the hind-margins beneath, though on the upper surface 
there is sometimes only a large red blotch towards the anal 
angle. Outside this is a black band, marked with a row of 
blue spots, beyond which is a sub-marginal row of ochreous 
spots, sometimes tinged with reddish, the incisions being also 
marked with ochreous. At the end of the upper median 
nervule is a short tail. The larva is black, with yellow spots 
and incisions, and the pupa more resembles that of Achivus 
machaon in form than that of Thais. 

The genus Sericinus, Westwood, inhabits the same localities 
as Luehdorfia^ but its range is less extensive, as it is unknown 
in Japan. There are a cluster of closely-allied forms, which 
some writers consider to be distinct, while others consider 
them all to be varieties of S. telamon (Donovan). They are 
white or yellowish-white Butterflies, measuring from two to two 
and a half inches across the wings. The latter are more or 
less banded, and spotted with black, and are sometimes 
marked with one or more small red spots. Towards the anal 
angle of the hind-wings is a red band, narrowly edged inside 
with black, and outside broadly with black, spotted with blue. 
In the female the black bands often expand and anastomose 
to such an extent as to cover a large portion of the wings, 



DHUTANITIS. 247 

and the red and black, blue-spotted band towards the anal 
angle is extended sub-marginally nearly to the costa of the 
hind-wings ; nearer the base is a red spot on the costa in the 
female. The hind-wings are very slightly dentated, but are 
produced into a single long tail at the end of the upper median 
nervule. The larva, which feeds on Aristolochia, is black, with 
hair-bearing warts, and resembles that of a Thais. There are 
two hairy projections on the sides of the neck, besides the 
retractile fork which we find on the back of the neck of the 
larvae of all this Family. The pupa has a row of spines down 
the back ; the head is bifid, and the opposite extremity is 
obtuse. 

Armandia thaidina, Blanchard, is a large Butterfly, with 
long and rather narrow wings, found in Western China. It 
was first brought from Mou-pin by the French missionary, Abbe 
David, who was the first to make known the natural history 
treasures of the far interior of China. It measures rather more 
than three inches across the wings, which are black, crossed 
by slightly undulated thread-like white transverse lines. The 
hind-wings are black towards the anal angle, with a broad red 
bar, some blue flecks beyond it, and a few deep orange sub- 
marginal dashes outside. The hind-wings are dentated, and the 
median nervules terminate in three long tails, that at the end 
of the upper median nervule being the longest (half as Ion' 
as the length of the rest of the wing), and spatulate. 

Bhutanitis UdderdaHi, Atkinson, much resembles Armandit 
thaidina, and is placed by some authors in the same genus 
The structural characters appear to be slight, and the colour is 
much the same, but A. Udder da Hi is a considerably larger 
Butterfly, measuring nearer four inches than three across the 
wings, which are much broader, and of a much deeper black 
with whiter striae. On the hind-wings the orange-ochreous sub- 
marginal dashes are replaced by large spots of the same colour. 



24* 

the long tail is not spatulate, but linear, and is preceded by 
two short tails at the ends of the lower sub costal and the dis- 
coidal nervules, making five tails in all. In A. thaidina they 
are merely indicated by notches. B. lidderdalii was first taken 
by the celebrated hunter and naturalist, Lidderdale, in Bhutan, 
at a height of 5,000 feet above the sea. It has since been taken 
by others, but is still very scarce in collections. Nothing seems 
to be yet recorded concerning the early stages of these two re- 
markable Butterflies. 

To this Sub-family I add another very beautiful species 
from North India and South China, which Schatz places in 
the next Sub-family. It seems to me, however (pending a 
thorough revision of the Equit'idce^ which cannot be much 
longer delayed), to have considerable affinity to Armandia and 
Bhutanitis, and hence I place it near them. It is true that the 
fore-wings are broad, sub-triangular, and rather pointed, instead 
of forming a long rounded oval; but the hind- wings are very 
similar in shape, and, what is of more consequence, the short 
upper disco-cellular nervule on the fore-wings, and the very 
long incurved middle one are almost precisely of the same form. 

The sexes of Teinopalpus impenalis, Hope, differ very con- 
siderably. The species measures from three and a quarter to four 
and a half inches across the wings. In the male the wings are 
of a silky green, with some darker, rather ill-defined stripes on 
the fore-wings ; the hind-wings have a large orange band, 
bordered with black, running from the costa for half the length 
of the wing ; on the outside the black colour extends nearly to 
the tip ; it is bordered externally by a suffused lilac-white 
stripe, which, beyond the orange band, runs obliquely to the 
inner-margin, being edged internally with black. On the 
under side the wings are green towards the base, but the outer 
two-thirds of the fore-wings are suffused with a rich orange; 
the orange band of the hind-wings is more extended, and 



EQUITIN/E. 249 

the lower and outer part of the wing is varied with lilac- 
white. At the end of the upper median nervule is a long, 
slender tail, and a shorter one at the end of the lowest. The 
female is much larger than the male, and is broadly banded 
with green and lilac ; and the orange band on the hind-wings 
is wanting. There are three long tails on the hind-wings, the 
shortest in the middle, and the longest nearest to the anal 
angle. 

This splendid Butterfly is found in the forests at Sikkim, at 
a height of from 6,000 to 10,000 feet, and has also been met 
with in Central China. The male flies, in the morning, about 
high trees, but may be attracted by ordure, or may descend to 
water, like Apatura iris. The female is very rarely taken, as is 
the case with many other Butterflies, of which the habits of the 
males are well known. The pupa has been found attached to 
the leaves of Daphne nipaknsis^ on which the larva no doubt 
feeds. It is a shrub resembling the mezereon, which grows at 
a height of from 7,000 to 9,000 feet in the mountain forests, 
and is used for paper making. 

SUB-FAMILY III. EQUITIN.-E. 

Palpi short; antennae generally long and slender, with the 
club more or less gradually formed. Fore-wings with the 
costal nervure nearly always five-branched, and with the upper 
disco cellular nervule well developed. Median nervure with a 
short cross-nervule near the base, which rarely extends as far as 
the sub-median; hind-wings, with the pre-costal nervure bifid (as 
is also the case in the genera Seridnus^ Westwood, and Teino- 
palpus, Hope, but not in any other genera placed in the pre- 
ceding Sub-families ; and with a cross-nervule connecting the 
costal and sub-costal nervures near the base) Hind-wings often 
dentated and tailed. 



250 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

This Sub-family, as above restricted, corresponds exactly 
to the genus Papilio^ as understood by Felder. 

Three genera are now recognised by most Continental and 
English writers, but the real number is much larger. 

GENUS DRURYA. 

Drurya, Aurivillius, Entomol. Tidskrift, ii. p. 44 (1881); 
Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 40 (1886); Rippon, Icones 
Ornith. p. iv.* (1892). 

Club of the antennae gradually formed; collar well developed; 
fore-wings very long, the hind-margin gradually concave ; sub- 
costal nervure five-branched, the third rising just before the cell; 
hind-wings short, rounded, slightly dentated, the inner-margin 
straight, not concave or folded ; abdomen extending beyond 
the hind-wings. 

The type of this genus is the famous Papilio antimachus, 
Drury, a specimen of which was brought to Europe by Smeath- 
man from Sierra Leone, and figured by Drury in 1782, and sub- 
sequently by Donovan in his " Naturalist's Repository." This 
specimen is now in the Sydney Museum, and no other was 
brought to Europe till 1864, though it is now known to occur, 
though always sparingly, over a large portion of Tropical West 
Africa, even as far inland as Stanley Falls on the Congo. The 
wings are very long and narrow (less so in the female, which is 
smaller than the male), expanding from seven to nine inches. 
The fore-wings are black, with large tawny spots and markings 
towards the base, and the hind-wings are tawny, with a row of 
black sub-marginal spots. It has been supposed to mimic 
some unknown, and probably extinct species of the Sub-family 
Acraina. Its nearest ally is a West African Butterfly, which 
has been described as Papilio ridleyanus, White, and which 
both in size, shape, and colour, much resembles Gnesia zete* 

(Linn.).* 

* /. vol. i. p. 38. 



TROIDES. 251 

GENUS TROIDES. 

Troides, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 88 (1816). 
Ornithoptera, Rippon, Icones Ornithopterorum, p. i (1891). 

With this genus we commence the series of Butterflies usually 
included in Boisduval's genus Ornithoptera^ or Bird-winged But- 
terflies, which Mr. Rippon is now engaged in illustrating in his 
" Icones Ornithopterorum." They include many of the largest 
and most beautiful Butterflies in the world, and their range ex- 
tends from China and India to North Australia. But only the 
genera Ornithoptera, Boisduval, and Trogonoptera^ Rippon, are 
found in the Indo-Malayan Region ; the others belong exclu- 
sively to the Austro-Malayan Region. I have published a paper 
on this group in Nature for January 10, 1894, from which 
the accompanying figures have been taken, with the kind per- 
mission of the editor. I have not attempted here to reproduce 
all the information contained in that paper, though I have added 
some new matter which did not appear in it. 

Here I may emphasise the fact that in dividing the Linnean 
Equites into genera, Hiibner usually employed classical patro- 
nymics. In my determination of the types of these genera I 
have taken into consideration two points to which previous 
authors seem to have paid but little attention. Firstly, the 
applicability (if any) of the name itself, which cannot be ignored 
in cases where there is a direct connection between the names 
of genera and species j and secondly (though this is of much 
less consequence), the species figured under these names 
by Hiibner himself. If, therefore, I ignore the types which 
some previous authors have affixed to Hiibner's genera, it is 
usually on these grounds. 

So far as is known, most of the species of this group agree 
in the large anal claspcrs of the males, the large collar, the 
long and rather pointed fore-wings, and the generally rounded 
and scalloped hind-wings, the tuberculate larvae, &c. 



252 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

The genus Troides may be briefly defined as follows. Antenna; 
with a large, but gradually-formed club ; fore-wings black, with 
green, blue, or orange bands in the male, and the hind-wings 
greenish, blue, or orange. Female black, more or less marked 
with large white or yellowish-white spots. On the fore-wings of 
the male is a large patch of raised scales. The third sub-costal 
nervule of the fore-wings rises considerably before the cell in 
both sexes, and the fourth and fifth sub-costals rise from a very 
short stalk just beyond the cell. Sides of the thorax red, abdo- 
men yellow in male, yellowish- white in female. 

TROIDES PRIAMUS. 

(Plate LXIV. Fig. i.) 

Papillo priamttSj Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p; 458, no, i 

(1758) ; id. Mus. Ulr. p. 182 (1764); Clerck, Icones, pi. 

17, fig. i (1764); Cram. Pap. Exot. i. pi. 23, figs. A, B 

( J 775); Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 25, no. i (1819). 
Troides prianms, Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. ii. taf. 116, 

117 (1824). 
Ornithoptera priamus, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 173 

(1836); Rippon, Icones Ornith. p. 4, pi. la, \b (1891). 
? Papilla panthous, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 461, no. 

16 (1758); Clerck, Icones, pi. 19 (1764); Cramer, Pap. 

Exot. ii. pi. 123, fig. A; pi. 124, fig. A (1777); Godart, 

Enc. Me'th. ix. p. 25, no. 2 (1819). 

This species, which appears to be confined to the islands of 
Amboina and Ceram, is not only one of the largest of the 
present group, but one of the largest Butterflies known. It 
measures from eight to ten inches across the wings. The 
male has velvety black fore-wings, with a bright green or 
bluish-green sub-costal band running from the base nearly 
to the tip. A narrower green band, just above the inner- 
margin, runs from the base, and curves round opposite the 




i. Troides 



PLATE LX1V 




2 . Orwthoptt-rit, r&nus 



TROIDES. 



253 



hind-margin for about two-thirds of its length. Above this 
is a large patch of raised scales opposite the inner-margin. 
The hind-wings are green, with a narrow black border, 
waved on the inner side, and a row of large round black 
dots on the disc, near which are sometimes some small 
orange ones. On the under side the fore-wings have the end 




Troides richmondia> 



of the cell, and a great part of the disc between the broad 
black nervures, green, crossed on the outer side by a broad 
black bar. On the hind-wings the marginal black band is 
broader, and the inner-margin is black; the sub-marginal spots 
curve round to the costa, and within them is a large orange 
spot above the cell. The head and thorax are black, the latter 
spotted with red below the win^s, and with a green longitudinal 



254 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY* 

line above ; the abdomen is yellow, with small black dots on 
the sides. The female is dark brown, with a row of long white 
spots on the disc ; on the fore-wings many of these are inter- 
rupted, and on the hind-wings they are divided by a row of 
black spots, beyond which the white of the inner portion of 
these long spots is replaced by buff. Head and body as in the 
male, but the stripe on the thorax above is of a much paler 




Troides richmondia, tf Var. 

green, and the abdomen is of a much paler yellow, often shaded 
into grey above. 

The larva of T. priamus has not been described ; but as the 
Butterfly has been seen flying about Mangifora indica, it has 
been thought likely that it may feed on that tree. 

There are a great number of species closely allied to this y 
but locally constant, chiefly differing in size, and in the different 
arrangement of the green bands in the male, and of the white 
spots in the female. The smallest species is T. richmondia, 



TROIDES. 255 

(Gray), which is common in Queensland and New South 
Wales. 

From the green species (in some of which the green sub- 
costal band is shot with coppery-red in certain lights) we pass 
on to T. urvillianus (Boisduval), in which the green is replaced 
by rich deep blue, showing a green or coppery iridescence on 
the band in certain lights. It has lately been found in New 
Guinea, New Ireland, Duke of York Island, and the Solomon 
Islands. The larva, which feeds on Arisfolochia, the favourite 




Troides Hchwondia, <$. 

food of so many tropical and sub-tropical Butterflies, is black, 
with carmine tentacles, and fleshy spines, the latter tipped with 
black. 

Another remarkable species is T. crotsus (Wallace), from the 
island of Batchian, one of the Northern Moluccas. Here the 
green or blue of the species we have already mentioned is 
replaced by a brilliant golden orange, shading into green in 
certain lights. Mr. Rippon proposes the name Priamoptera 



256 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

for T. urvillianus and T. crossus. T. lydius (Felder), which 
inhabits Gilolo or Halmahera, an island not far from Batchian, 
has the sub-costal band of the male of a very deep coppery- 
red, but both in this species and in T. croesus, the only other 
mark on the fore-wings, except a short dash at the base of the 
inner-margin, is the very large oval blotch of scales. The hind- 
wings are paler than the band of the fore-wings, and varied 
with yellow. The female of T. cmsus does not differ much 
from the ordinary females of this genus ; but that of T. lydius 
is black, with the cell and two complete rows of long spots, 
concave at the extremity, and the inner row very large, between 
the nervures beyond the cell. The hind-wings are yellowish- 
brown, with the base, nervures, a sub-marginal band of nearly 
connected spots, and another on the hind-margin, black. 

GENUS ^THEOPTERA. 
&theoptera, Rippon, Icones Ornith. p. 4 (1891). 

Fore-wings of the male very long, narrow, and pointed. 
Hind-wings very long in both sexes ; in the male, with the fold 
of the inner-margin enclosing scent-scales. Fore-wings with 
the third sub-costal nervule rising from the end of the cell in 
both sexes ; the fourth and fifth sub-costals separating at about 
one-third of the distance from the cell to their extremity in the 
male, and at a quarter of the distance in the female. 

^E. victoria (Gray), the type of this genus, is found in 
Guadalcanar, one of the Solomon Islands. The male measures 
six inches across the fore-wings, which are black, with the basal 
third of the wings green and yellow, except on the costa ; and 
another blotch of the same colour near the costa before the 
apex, divided by the nervures. The hind-wings are green, 
bordered ^utside by a yellow band, on which stand three 
orange spots (also visible below, where they have black spots 



SCHCENBERGIA. 257 

beneath and beyond them) ; and beyond these is a narrow 
bJack border. The female is black, with much broader wings; 
it measures seven inches in expanse. 

There is a row of large white central spots, and another of 
sub-marginal spots on all the wings ; on the fore-wings a yellow 
band, white at the extremity, runs along the cell, and another 
along the inner-margin ; on the costa of the hind-wings is a 
yellow band. The larva is dark brown, with long carmine 
fleshy spines ; the retractile fork is yellow. 

The closely-allied & regime (Salvin), which is found in the 
neighbouring island of Malayta is larger ; the male has more 
black on the hind-wings, and the yellow band is replaced by 
three orange spots surrounded with green in the dark part of 
the wing. 

These Butterflies, as well as Troides urvillianus^ are found 
flying about the sweet-smelling white flowers of Cerbera 
odollam, a plant which is allied to the oleander, and is 
common in the East Indies. 

GENUS SCHCENBERGIA. 
Schoenbtrgia, Pagenstecher, Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. xlvi. p. 35 

(1893)- 

The fore-wings of the male of this very curious genus 
resemble those of the last as regards neuration, but are broader, 
and the hinder angle, which is completely rounded off in 
sEtheoptem^ is more distinct. The hind-wings, however, have 
a very short costa, and very long hind- and inner-margins. 
They are almost rectangular at the apex, and thence fall almost 
straight to the base of a very long and slender tail. The cell 
reaches almost to the hind-margin, the nervures beyond being 
so short as almost to suggest the idea that the wings have been 
trimmed with a pair of scissors. The females are not specially 
remarkable. 

10 s 



258 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The only known species is Schcenlergia paradisea^ Staudinger, 
which is found in the Finisterre Mountains of New Guinea 




at a height of about 1,500 feet. The male, which measures 
five inches in expanse, has black fore-wings, with two broad 



TROGONOPTERA. 259 

green bands glossed with golden-yellow, one below the costa, 
and the other between the cell and the sub-median nervure, 
curving upwards opposite the hind-margin. There is also a 
short green band on the inner-margin The hind-wings are 
green, more suffused with orange-yellow than the fore-wings, 
and narrowly bordered outside with black, the base and inner- 
margin being very broadly bordered with black. 

The females are larger, and are black, with two rows of 
white spots on the fore-wings, decreasing in size, and converg- 
ing towards the hinder angle. Hind-wings with a pale sub- 
marginal band, extending across the lower half of the wing, but 
much incurved towards the costa ; the outer part is yellow, 
shading within to bluish-grey and whitish ; across it runs a row 
of black spots. 

GENUS TROGONOPTERA. 
Trogonoptera, Rippon, Icones Ornith. part ii. (1890). 

Fore-wings longer and narrower than in Sthotnbergia, the 
apex rounded off, the hinder angle well-marked; cell very long 
and narrow ; third sub-costal thrown off in both sexes at the 
end of the cell ; fourth and fifth forking at about one-fifth of 
the distance from the cell to their extremities. Hind-wings 
slightly oval, dentated, and in the male slightly projecting at 
the anal angle. No patch of raised scales on the fore-wings of 
the male, but the abdominal fold on the hind-wings is very 
large, enclosing scent-scales. 

TROGONOPTERA BROOKEANA. 

Ornithoptera brooJdana^ Wallace, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. (2) iii. 

p. 104 (1855); Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. i. p. 42, pi. 2, 

(1886). 
Ornithoptera brookeana, Hewitson, Exot. Butterflies, i. pi. i, 

fig. i (1855); Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 330, pi. 27 A, fig. 

4, pi. 270, fig. i (1885). 

s 2 



260 



LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 



Papilio trogon, Snellen Van Vollenhoveu, Tidschr. v, Ent. iii. 

p. 69, pi. 6 (1860). 
Ornithoptera (Trogonoptera) brookeana, Rippon, Icones Ornith. 

part ii. (1890). 

This splendid Butterfly is not only the single green species of 
the group found on the continent of Asia, but the only known 
green Indo-Malayan species, except T. trojana. It was first 




Trogonoptera drookcana, <?. 

discovered by Dr. A. R. Wallace, near the coal-mines of Simun- 
jon, in Sarawak, and named by him after Rajah Brooke. It has 
since been met with in Sumatra as well as in Borneo, and in 
Perak and Malacca in the Malay Peninsula. It measures from 
six to eight inches across the fore-wings, which are black, with a 



TROGONOPTERA. 26 1 

row of large green sub-marginal triangles, each intersected by a 
nervure ; on the hind-wings the whole centre is green, In the 
female, which is very rare indeed in comparison to the male, the 
green is much more glossed with brassy, and is bordered within 
with blue, which is seldom the case in the male, and the green 
markings which disappear towards the costa in the male, are, in 
the female, replaced by long bifid grey streaks between the 
nervures. The body is black, with a broad crimson collar, and 
with crimson spots on the sides of the thorax below the wings. 
The names given to this species by Van Vollenhoven, and to 
the genus by Mr. Rippon, were suggested by the resemblance 
in colour to the beautiful black and green tropical American 
birds called Trogons. 

The only other species of this genus, T. trojana, Staudin- 
ger, has shorter and squarer green spots. It is found in the 
Island of Palawan, and is at present very rare in collections. 

Nothing appearstobe known of the early stages QiT.brookeana. 
Various interesting notes on its habits may be found in the 
works of my friends Messrs. Distant and Rippon, which I do 
not draw upon, as Sir Hugh Low has very kindly favoured me 
with the following account of its habits as observed by himself 
in Perak, &c. : 

" I first met with Ornithoptera brookeana on the Island of 
Labuan, about the time that it was first collected by Wallace, 
but I only saw one specimen of it. It was in an open space in 
a magnificent forest, and I was not able to capture it, though 
I saw it in the same place on two different days. The fine 
jungle which at that time covered the island has since been 
utterly destroyed, so that I imagine the insect is no longer to 
be found there. I never met with it in the neighbouring 
islands of Kuraman or on Pulo Daat, where I collected many 
other fine species. I saw one specimen fly rapidly past me on 
the mainland in the neighbourhood of Kina Balu, in an open 



262 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

country, and as those are the only occasions on which 1 came 
upon it during my long residence in Borneo, and as my nume- 
rous native collectors never brought me specimens of it, I 
imagine it must be a rare insect in the country in which Wal- 
lace first discovered and captured it. 

"In 1878, on visiting 'Gopeng,' a village of miners in the 
' Kinta ' district of the State of Perak, in the Malay Peninsula, 
I was very much delighted, as I descended from my elephant, 
to see a fine specimen of this Butterfly settle in the most 
leisurely and confident manner on a patch of black mud in 
the middle of the village street, and quite close to me On the 
following morning, as I walked through the valley in which the 
open pits of the tin miners were excavated, the beautiful 
creatures were flying about in all directions, as many as six or 
seven being visible at a time. Their flight was straight, rather 
slow, and heavy, very different from that I had seen on Kina 
Balu. It flew generally about ten feet above the ground, to 
which it frequently descended, resting on damp spots. It was 
easily caught, and at my request my people secured a great 
many specimens for the museum at Singapore, by knocking 
them over with their cotton jackets and waist-cloths taken off for 
the purpose. At one place I noticed a great number of the 
wings of the Ornithoptera lying round a saturated piece of plank 
close to a little rill of water near a Chinese gardener's hut, and, 
passing the spot shortly afterwards, I saw a cat of the ' knotted 
tailed ' race peculiar to Malaya watching for the Butterflies as 
they settled on the end of the plank nearest to the water, and 
catching them most deftly with its paws. It ate the body of 
the one I saw it catch, leaving the beautiful wings to be strewn 
by the wind on the surface of the ground around its breakfast 
table. I ascertained that the plank was used by the Chinese 
occupants of the hut for cutting up and cleaning their fish and 
pork, and as it was saturated with moisture and the juices of 



ORNITHOPTERA. 263 

the chopped food, its attraction for the Butterflies was ac- 
counted for. I again visited Gopeng five years ago, but the 
beautiful Butterfly was no longer to be seen in the valley, 
which had been entirely altered in character by the extension 
of the works of the miners. 

" The only other place in which I met with the insect in 
Perak was at another mining centre called * Chandariang,' in the 
Betang Padang district, about ten miles from Gopeng. There 
were a good many specimens flying, like those at Gopeng, about 
ten feet or less from the surface of the ground in the neigh- 
bourhood of a pool of water; all the specimens observed in 
both places were males, with one exception. The female was 
resting on the flowers of a beautiful Taxonia, on the edge of the 
jungle, about fifteen feet from the ground. 

"Mr. Leonard Wray, who is the curator of the excellent 
Museum of the State of Perak, and a most zealous and scien- 
tific naturalist, lately sent me two specimens from Perak, but 
did not mention the district in which they had been collected. 
Mr. Kiinsller was in charge of the Singapore Museum when 
I took the specimens from Perak to it, and he subsequently 
visited the State and revelled in collecting and sending home 
large quantities of insects for sale, and he was also a very 
successful botanical collector for Dr. King, the director of the 
Royal Botanical Gardens at Calcutta." 

GENUS ORNITHOPTERA. 

Ornithoptera, Boisduval, Voy. Astrolabe, Lepid. p. 33 (1832) ; 
id. Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 173 (1836) ; Doubleday, Gen. 
Diurn. Lepid. p. 3 (1846); Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 
40 (1886). 

Fore-wings long, sub-triangular, the apex rather pointed ; 
hind-wings rounded and dentated. Fore-wings with the third 
branch of the sub-costal nervure generally rising at the cell. 



264 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

rarely before or after it, the third and fourth nervurcs rising 
beyond the cell from a longer or shorter stalk. There is no 
patch of raised scales on the fore-wings of the males, but scent- 
producing scales are concealed in the fluffy abdominal fold ; 
colours black and yellow. 

The species of this group are characteristic of the Indo- 
Malayan Region, though some of them extend to the Moluccas, 
&c. The type is O. Helena (Linn.), which inhabits the Moluccas 
and the Papuan Islands. It is a large species, with black fore- 
wings in the male, and yellow hind-wings, very broadly black 
at the base, and on the hind-margin. The female is of a 




Ornilhoplera po in pens, larva. 

lighter brown, with a large buff or yellowish spot, divided by 
the nervures, in the middle of the hind-wings. 

Many species have black or brown fore-wings, more or less 
rayed with grey along the nervures, especially in the females ; 
and golden-yellow hind-wings, with a narrow black border, fes- 
tooned on the inner side ; and, in the females, there is a row of 
large black spots, sometimes touching the incurves of the bor- 
der, and sometimes perfectly distinct. Among these is O. 
pompeus (Cramer), found in Java and Borneo. We have figured 
the larva and pupa ; the former feeds on Aristolcchia, and is 
yellowish, with a broad whitish dorsal stripe, dilated to a band 
on the sixth segment, and with eight rows of fleshy spines; the 



ORNITHOPTERA. 



265 



pupa is yellowish. Another and very similar species of this 
group is O. rhadamanihus, Boisduval, which is fotind all over 
India, South China, and Indo-China. For this species and its 
allies, the name Fachlioptera, Reakirt, may be retained, if they 
are generically distinct from Ornithoptera, the type of which is 
O. Helena (Linn.). Other yellow species, such as O. ruficollis, 
Butler, from the Malay Peninsula, have a red collar ; others, 
like O. amphrysus (Cramer), have the fore-wings more or less 




pupa. 



rayed with yellow in the males ; and the male of one species, 
O. magellanus^ Felder, from the Philippines, exhibits a won- 
derful iridescence of the most delicate pale silvery blue or 
green over the golden-yellow hind-wings. This is quite unique 
in the group, though something resembling it is seen in some 
South American Butterflies belonging to the genus Priamides 
in the Equitin^ and to the genus Enselasia in the Lemoniidae. 
Even Morpho sulkowskyi will not compare with Ornithoptera 
wagellanus for metallic beauty. 



266 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

We have figured one of the largest and finest species of Orni- 
thoptera, which differs somewhat from the other species of the 
genus. It is a native of the Moluccas, and was first brought 
from the island of Amboina, which has always been famous for 
its splendid Butterflies, and from which nearly all the Moluccan 
Butterflies known to the entomologists of the last century were 
obtained. 

ORNITHOPTERA HIPPOLYTUS.* 

(Plate LXIV. Fig. 2.) 

Paptiio panthouS) ?, Clerck (nee Linn.), Icones, pi. 18 (1764). 
Papilio hippolytus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 10, figs. A, B ; 

pi. u, figs. A, B (1775). 
Papilio remus, Fabricius, Gen. Ins. p. 250 (1777); Cramer, /. c. 

ii. pi. 135, fig. A; pi. 136, fig. A (1777); iv. pi. 386, figs. 

A, B (1782); Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 26, no. 3 (1819). 
Ornithoptera remits, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. p. 176, no. 3 

(1836). 
Ornithoptera (Pompeoptera) hippolytus, Rippon, Icones Ornith. 

part i. (1890). 

This is one of the largest species of the group, sometimes 
measuring nearly eight inches across the wings in the female. 
The fore-wings are black, with a slight greenish reflection, and 
with greyish-white rays bordering the nervures on each side 
(best marked in the females), and extending into the outer part 
of the cell. In the male, the hind-wings are black, dusted with 
grey, and bordered with a row of large yellow spots, running 
from the base of the costa round to the anal angle. On the 
under side the hind-wings are white, except the marginal black 
and yellow markings. In the female, the yellow spots are en- 
larged and lengthened so as to form a band, separated into 
spots by the nervures, and extending from just beyond the cell 

* 0. remits on plate. 



PAPILIO. 267 

to the narrow, irregular, and partly macular border ; the inci- 
sions are pale yellow. This yellow band is marked with a row 
of large black spots between the nervures ; and, nearest the 
anal angle, the pale spots are longest, and are mostly white with- 
in the black spots. On the under side, which we have figured, 
the white is more extended, and invades the outer part of the 
cell. 

This fine Butterfly has been met with in Amboina, Ceram, 
Ternate, Celebes, the Sula Islands, Morty Island, and Halma- 
hera. 



There is one African Butterfly which is now considered to 
belong to Ornithoptera, or to an allied genus. This is Papilio 
zalmoxis, Hewitson, which measures about seven inches across 
the wings, which are broader and more rounded than in the 
typical Eastern Butterflies of this group. The male is of a 
rather pale blue, with black borders, slightly spotted with blue 
on the hind-wings, and with black lines between the nervures 
towards the margins, and a black costa on the fore-wings. The 
male is now fairly common in collections from West Africa, but 
the female, which is of a yellowish-grey instead of blue, is still 
very rare in our Museums. 



THE GENUS PAPILIO, LATREILLE. 

We have already mentioned that Linnaeus originally included 
all the Lepidoptera^ and afterwards all the Butterflies under the 
genus Papilio* dividing it into various sub-genera, &c., among 
which were Eques&b&Nyniphalis. In 1801 Schrank restricted 
Papilio to Nymphalis ; but in 1805, Latreille, who set aside 

* Cf. vol. i. p. 3, et seq. 



268 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

Schrank's work in the most capricious manner, even while 
quoting it, arbitrarily transferred the name Papilio to Eques ; 
and in this sense Papilio (the real type of which Dr. Scudder, 
with apparent reason, argues to be Vanessa antiopd)* has since 
been used. for the bulk of the Linnean Equites. Boisduval 
shrank from sub-dividing this vast mass of species into genera, 
and contented himself with dividing it into groups ; and in this 
he has been followed by Felder, Oberthiir, Distant, Godman 
and Salvin, Schatz, and other writers. Hiibner, however, divided 
the few species known to him into genera, and among recent 
authors, Moore and Scudder have done the same for Indian 
and North American species ; and in this they have been fol- 
lowed by some few writers who have dealt with the Lepidop- 
tera of those countries. Under these circumstances, I think 
it will be most useful to enumerate the principal groups of 
Latreille's genus Papilio under the names which have been as- 
signed to any of them, with a brief sketch of their most obvious 
characteristics. It must be noted that although Boisduval did 
not indicate any characters for his groups of Papilio, definite 
characters were assigned by Felder to the various sections into 
which he divided the genus, and his essay still remains the 
most comprehensive summary of the whole series of species.f 
We commence by giving the most important references to 
Papilio as used by Latreille and his followers. 

* See Scudder's '-'Historical Sketch of the Names Proposed for Butter- 
flies," pp. 238-240. It is true that in his "Butterflies of the Eastern United 
States " he has accepted Papilio in the usual sense, and has proposed the 
new genus E^lvanessa for Papilio anliopa, Linn. ; but he does so under 
protest, and apparently in ignorance of Barbut's genus, Achivus. 

f Since the above remarks were written, the Hon. W. Rothschild has 
published " A Revision of the Papilios of the Eastern Hemisphere, exclusive 
of Africa" (" Novitates Zoologicae," ii. pp. 167-463) Here he divides the 
genus into groups, but does not give generic names. Although convinced 
that the various sections recognised in the present volume, in addition to 
many others not specified, should have generic titles, I have refrained from 
naming the new genera, as Mr. Rothschild is working out the group. 



ASCANIDES. 269 

GENUS TAriLIO, LATREILLE (NEC SCHRANK). 
Papitto, pt. Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 458 (1858); 
Latreille, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. iii. p. 387 (1803); xiv. 
p. 108 (1805) ; id. Enc. Meth. ix. pp. 9, 25 .(1819) ; Bois- 
duval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 9 (1836) ; Doubleday, Gen. 
Diurn. Lepid. p. 5 (1846); Felder, Verz. Zool. Bot. Ges. 
Wien. xiv. p. 289 (1864); Kirby, Cat. Diurn. Lepid. pp. 
517, 6 37> 8 9> 86 ( l8 7 I ~ l8 77) > Oberthiir, Etudes 
d'Ent. iv. (1879) Schatz, Exot. Schmett. ii. p. 42 
(1886) ; Rothschild, Nov. Zool. ii. pp. 167-463 (1895). 
The multifarious species included in the old genus Papilio 
have short palpi, and long antennae, with a gradually-formed 
club. On the fore-wings the third branch of the sub-costal 
nervure rises from the end of the cell, and the fourth and 
fifth form a long fork, generally separating further beyond the 
cell than in the preceding genera. The upper disco-cellular 
nervule is rather shorter than the others. The fore-wings are 
generally triangular or produced towards the tip; the hind- 
wings are often dentated or tailed. 

It would be useless to go much into detail ; the shape of 
the wings and the structure of the larva differ very much in 
the different sections. 

In the following sketch I have followed Felder's grouping, 
with his numbers, referring to later authors for species discovered 
since, and supplying generic names, so far as they exist. I 
have not, however, attempted to include the whole of Felder's 
seventy-five sections, and some of them, among which are the 
three first, include Ornithoptera, &c., which I have already 
discussed. This will explain the omission of several numbers in 
the series. All the named genera are, however, included. 

[iv.] AscanideS) Geyer. The type, A. triopas (Godart) is a 
small black Butterfly, from Guiana and the lower Amazons, 
not expanding much more than two inches across the long and 



270 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

narrow fore-wings ; the hind-wings are short, oval, and dentated, 
with white incisions. There are two yellowish-white patches, 
more or less divided into spots by the nervures, one towards 
the tip, and one about the middle of the fore-wings ; and the 
centre of the hind-wings is pale yellow. The collar and pectus 
are dotted with red. 

[v.] Endopogon, Boisduval (apud Felder). Includes a large 
number of Tropical American Butterflies, with triangular fore- 
wings, with the hind-margin more or less oblique, and the hind- 
wings somewhat produced, and strongly dentated, with white 
incisions. They are black, and the males generally have a dull 
green mark, sometimes enclosing a white spot ; and the hind- 
wings have a large red spot or band in the middle, often show- 
ing a beautiful violet iridescence. In the female, there is 
generally a white spot on the fore-wings, and the red spot of the 
hind-wings is paler; sometimes the hind-wings are spotted with 
red at the base beneath. The type is indicated by Dr. Scudder 
as E. scsostris (Cramer), a species nearly four inches in expanse, 
with a large green spot on the fore-wings of the male, but no 
red spot on the hind-wings. It is common in South America. 

[vi.] Hectorides, Hiibner. A handsome group of Tropical 
American Butterflies, with rather long, but not pointed, fore- 
wings, and shorter hind-wings, produced towards the anal 
angle; strongly dentated, and with a rather long tail ; they are 
black with red and white markings. 

We have figured the type 

HECTORIDES AgCANIUS. 

(Plate LXV. Fig. I.) 

Papilio ascanius, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 140 (1775); Drury, 
111. Exot. Ent. iii. pi. 9, fig. i (1782) ; Godart, Enc. Mdth. 
ix. p. 73, no. 137 (1819); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Ldpid, i. 
p. 306 (1836), 



PLATE LXV 




/. Kectorid&s ascanius. 
pcuris. 



PA RIDES. 271 

Hcdorides ascanius> Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. ii. pi. 
105 (1824). 

This is a Brazilian Butterfly, measuring four inches across 
the wings, which are black, crossed by a broad white band, 
shading into red on the outside on the hind-wings, which are 
also marked with a row of sub-marginal red lunules ; the 
incisions are white. The pectus, and under side of the abdomen 
are spotted with red. 

[viz.] Parities, Hiibner. A tropical American group, much 
resembling Endopogon (q.v.), but with pink instead of white 
incisions. 

We have figured a representative species. 

PARIDES .ENEAS. 
(Plate LXVL Fig 2.) 

Pafilio ccneas, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 461, no. 15 
(1758); id. Mus. Ulr. p. 197 (1754) ; Cramer, Pap, Exot. 
iii. pi. 279, figs. C, D (1780); Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. 
p. 33, no. 24 (1819); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 
286 (1836). 
Papilla <zneides, ?, Esper, Ausland. Schmett. pi. 15, fig. 4 

(1785?)- 
? Princeps dominans marcius^ Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett. 

i. pi. 122 (1816?). 
Papilio martins, Boisduval, /. c. p. 286 (1836). 

This Butterfly is common in Guiana and on the Lower 
Amazons, and measures over three inches across the wings. The 
fore-wings are rather pointed, with the hind-margin very 
oblique ; and the hind-wings are rounded and dentated. The 
colour is black, with a nearly square green spot on the inner- 
margin of the fore-wings, and with three white spots obliquely 
above and beyond it. The hind-wings are red from the base 
to beyond the middle, and the incisions are also red. On the 
under-side, the hind-wings are marked with five red spots, and 



2J2 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

the pectus is spotted with red. The female is black, with a 
large white spot, divided by the nervures, in the middle of the 
fore-wings, and a row of bright crimson sub-marginal spots on 
the hind-wings. 

[VIIL] Ithobalus, Hiibner. This is another genus peculiar 
to America, but very unlike the foregoing. The species much 
resemble each other ; the type is /. polydamas (Linn.), which 
is common throughout the warmer parts of America. The 
fore-wings are broad with the costa arched, the tip produced, 
but rounded off, and the hind margin very oblique, The hind- 
wings are ample, rounded, and strongly dentated, but not 
tailed. The colour is a greenish-black, with pale yellow 
incisions ; and a row of greenish-yellow spots, smallest towards 
the tip of the fore-wings, runs parallel with the hind-margin of 
the fore-wings, and curves across the disc of the hind wings. 
On the under-side there are some larger yellow sub-marginal 
spots on the lower half of the fore-wings, and a row of sub- 
marginal red lunules on the hind- wings ; the pectus and 
abdomen are also marked with red. The larva is stout, slug- 
shaped, of a dirty yellow, with long, pointed, fleshy spines of a 
pale pink ; it feeds on Aristolochia. The pupa is green, 
with a long, conical protuberance on the back of the thorax. 

[xiv.] Eury tides, Hiibner. The type of this genus, E. 
dolicaon (Cramer), is a fine South American Butterfly, nearly 
four inches in expanse. The fore-wings are creamy-white, 
with broad black borders, with an oblique row of creamy 
spots towards the apex of the fore-wings, and a double sub- 
marginal row of spots on the hind-wings. The fore-wings are 
broad, with the hind-margin concave below the tip, and a 
broad black band at the base of the costa, and then curving 
across the middle of the cell ; the hind-wings are furnished 
with a long slender tail on the upper median nervule. 

[xix. B.] Cosmodesmus^ Haase. We may, perhaps, restrict 



PAZALA. 273 

this name, used by Haase with a very wide extension, to the 
following species and its allies. 

COSMODESMUS PROTESILAUS.* 

(Plate LX VI II. Fig. I (Frontispiece}.} 

Pafilio prolesilaus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 463, 

no. 29 (1758); id. Mus. Ludov. Ulr. p. 209 (1764); 

Clerck, Icones, pi. 27, fig. 2 (1764); Cramer, Pap. Exot. 

iii. pi. 202, figs. A, B (1779); Godart, Enc. Meth, ix. 

p. 50, no. 73 (1819); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. 

p. 262 (1836). 

This species, and those related to it, are fine swallow-tailed 
Butterflies of Tropical America, measuring four inches across 
the wings. The fore-wings are broad, but not very long, and 
the hind-margin is not very oblique. They are white, shading 
into greenish at the base, and on the costa of the fore-wings 
there are a number of black bars, some short and some long, 
running from the costa of the fore-wings ; the hind-margin is 
black, and a stripe, bifid above, runs obliquely to meet it at 
the hinder angle. The hind-wings are imperfectly bordered 
with incomplete black bands and lines ; at the anal angle is a 
long spot, black below and red above, and beyond it the lower 
part of the wing projects in a lobe, throwing off a very long tail 
from the upper median nervule. There are several closely- 
allied species (or varieties of the same) in South America. The 
larva of C. protcsilaus is said much to resemble that of Iphi- 
clidcs podaliriitS) and to feed on a tree like a Magnolia. 

[xx.] Pazala, Moore. The type of this genus is the North 
Indian P. glycerion (Gray). It measures about 2^ inches 
across the wings, which are white, with ten narrow black 
stripes, partly coalescing, running from the costa of the fore- 
wings ; stripes 3-6 crossing the cell, the rest longer, reaching. 
or nearly reaching the inner-margin. The hind-wings have 
* Itliiclidcs protesilaus on plate. 

10 T 



274 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

two or three sub-marginal black lines, meeting in a broad black 
space at the base of the long slender tail. On this space are 
two or three blue lunules, and on its inner side, close to the 
anal angle, is a yellow lunule, surmounting a smaller black one. 

[XXL] Pathysa, Reakirt. The type of this genus is T. anli- 
phates (Cramer). It is a common and variable species through- 
out the Indo-Malayan Region. It is a creamy-white Butterfly, 
rather less than three inches in expanse, with black bars across 
the cell of the fore-wings, which are greenish towards the base ; 
and a black border, separated from two broad black bands 
from the costa by greenish streaks. The hind-wings have a 
festooned black marginal line, and a long slender black tail, 
edged with yellow ; at the end of the inner margin is a black 
spot, marked with blue on the under side. On the latter the 
hind-wings are green towards the base, streaked and spotted 
with black, and yellow beyond ; the tail is streaked with white. 
The larva, which feeds (in Java) on a species of Uvaria, is 
cylindrical with a bifid tail ; yellow, with reddish-brown trans- 
verste stripes,and reticulated with brown ; it has two separated 
lateral stripes, the upper greenish, and the lower reddish. The 
pupa is dull green, with brown and yellowish markings. 

[xxni.-xxv.] Iphidides, Hiibner. Under this genus we 
may provisionally place several of Felder's sections, in which 
the fore-wings are broad, rather pointed, with the hind-margin 
more or less oblique, while the hind-wings are strongly den- 
tated towards the anal angle, but not so distinctly lobate as in 
Cosmodesmus, and terminating in a long sender tail. We 
have figured two species, the second of which is the type of 
the genus. 

irillCLTDFS CELADON. 
(Plate LXV1II. Fig. 2 (Frontispiece].'] 

Papilio sinotij Cramer (nee FaLricius), Pap. Exot. iii. pi 317 
figs. E, F (1780). 



1PIIICLIDES. 275 

Papilio celadon, Lucas, Rev. Zool. 1852, p. 130. 

This Butterfly, which inhabits Jamaica and Cuba, measures 
a little more than three inches across the wings. It is black, with 
a row of green sub-marginal spots running round all the wings, 
and five green bands running from the costa of the fore-wings ; 
the first three extend to the hind-wings ; the first is narrow and 
basal ; the second is also narrow ; the third is very broad, and 
bifid above ; and beyond are two short bands, one just before, 
and the other just after, the end of the cell. There is a con- 
spicuous red spot on the middle of the inner-margin of the 
hind-wings ; on the under side the second green stripe is 
bordered outside with red. 

There are several black and green species, much resembling 
this, both in America and Africa. The breadth of the third 
green band will distinguish /. celadon from any of the others. 

THE SCARCE SWALLOW-TAIL. IPHICLIDES PODALIRIUS. 
(Plate LXVIL Fig. 2.) 

Papilio podalirius, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 463, no. 29 
(1758); id. Mus. Ludov. Ulr. p. 208 (1764); Esper, 
Schmett. i. (i) p. 36, pi. i, fig. 2 (1777); Hiibner, 
Exot. Schmett. i. figs. 388, 389 (1803?) ; Godart, Enc. 
Meth. ix. p. 50, no. 74 (1819); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. 
Lepid. i. p. 245 (1836); Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. 
p. 6 (1827); Curtis, Biit. Ent. xiii. pi. 578 (1836); New- 
man, Brit. Butterflies, p. 3 (1881); Kirby, Eur. Butter- 
flies and Moths, p. 2, pi. 2, figs, i, 1^-^(1878); Lang, 
Butterflies Eur. p. i, pi. i, fig. i, pi. 5, fig. i (transf.) 
(1881); Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. Isl. i. p. 16 (1892). 

Papilio podalirius, Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 152, fig. B (1777). 

Var. Papilio feisthamelii^ Duponchel, Lepid. France, Suppl. i. 
p. 7, pi. i, fig. i ; pi. 2, fig. i (1832); Kcrrich-Schaffer 
Schmett. Eur. i. Nachtrag, p. 34, figs. 414-416 (1848). 

T 2 



276 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

This Butterfly measures from 2*4 to 3^ inches across the 
wings. It is yellowish-white, with seven black streaks running 
from the costa of the fore-wings, the first basal divided by a 
pale line, the third and fifth short, the rest crossing the wing, 
or nearly so, the two last being close together, and the last 
marginal. The hind-wings are dentated and tailed, the inner- 
margin is dusky, and there is a black streak from the costa to 
the eye-spot, which is situated on the inner-margin towards the 
anal angle, and is black, with a large blue pupil, and is sur- 
mounted by an orange stripe, bordered above with yellow. 
There is a festooned black marginal line, enclosing blue lunules, 
and the space between this and the eye-spot is also blackish, 
except a patch of yellow below the eye ; the incisions, and 
tip of the slender tail, are also yellow. On the under side, the 
hind-wings are lighter, and the principal black streak is double, 
and intersected by a yellowish line. 

The larva is thickest just before the middle, tapering most 
behind. It is smooth and green, dotted with red, with yel- 
lowish-white lines and intermediate oblique streaks. It feeds 
on almond, sloe, plum, apple, pear, and oak in June and Sep- 
tember, but seems to prefer the sloe. The pupa is pale yellow. 

The Butterfly is double-brooded, being found from May to 
August. It is far less widely distributed than Achiviis viachaon, 
inhabiting Central and Southern Europe, North Africa, and 
Western Asia as far as Persia and the Altai. Spanish speci- 
mens are whiter, with broader dark markings, and are called /. 
feisthamelii. In France it is known as "Le Flambe," from the 
flame-like shape of its markings, and in Germany as the " Segel- 
falter" or Sail-Butterfly, either from its sail-like wings, or from 
its sailing flight. In Holland, North-Western Germany, and 
on the north coast of Germany it is either absent or extremely 
rare ; and although it is traditionally a British insect, it seems 
to have disappeared about the time that entomology began to 



2ETIDES. 277 

be studied in England. It is most often found in woods and 
bushy places in hilly districts, but does not extend very high up 
the mountains, and it shuns the neighbourhood of towns, being 
easily exterminated or driven away by clearing and cultivation. 

[xxvn. B.] Dalchina, Moore. The type of this genus is 
D. sarpedon (Linn.), a common Indian species, widely dis- 
tributed in the Indo-Mahyan and Austro-Malayan Regions. 
There are also a number of closely-allied forms, which may or 
may not be distinct species. It measures about three inches 
across the wings ; the fore-wings are considerably produced, 
the hind-margin being very oblique ; and the hind-wings are 
also considerably produced towards the anal angle, but not 
tailed. The wings are black, with a broad glaucous green 
band running obliquely from near the tip of the fore-wings, 
where it is macular, to below the middle of the hind- wings, 
where it tapers downwards ; there is a sub-marginal row of five 
green spots on the hind-wings. On the under side the green 
is mixed with whitish, and there are several red spots marked 
with black on the hind-wings. 

The larva is smooth, rather short and stout; dark green, 
with paler incisions. The pupa is strongly ridged ; grass- 
green, striped with yellow. The larva feeds on cinnamon and 
soursop. 

This is a Butterfly of lofty and rapid flight, not always easy 
to catch, as it flies about the tops of the trees. 

[xxvn. c.] Zetides, Hiibner. The type of this genus is Z. 
eurypylus (Linn.). This species and its allies are black, with 
the hind-wings less produced than in Dalchina, and tail less. 
These Butterflies, which are found throughout the Indo- 
Malayan and Austro-Malayan Regions, expand about three 
inches across the wings, and are black, with a common green 
band, more or less macular on the hind-wings, a row of sub- 
marginal green spots, and green transverse streaks in the cell 



278 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

of the fore wings. Here, too, the hind-wings are spotted with 
red beneath as in Dalchin.t. 

[xxvii. D.] Another East Indian genus allied to the last, 
but which has not yet received a generic name, is represented 
by Papilio agamemnon, Linn., in which the wings are black, 
thickly spotted with green, the green band being entirely broken 
up into spots, and the hind-wings are sub-caudate. 

[xxvii. F.] Idaides, Htibner. The type of this genus, /. 
codrus (Cramer), is a large Butterfly measuring about five 
inches in expanse, which is found in Amboina and Ceram. 
The fore wings are rather pointed, the hind-margin being 
oblique, and the hind-wings are regularly scalloped, with a 
moderately long broad tail. It is blackish, with the hind-wings 
broadly grey towards the base, and with a curved row of round 
green spots running from the tip to the middle of the inner- 
margin of the fore- wings. 

[xxix. A.] The type of Dabasa, Moore, is D. gyas, West- 
wood, a rare North Indian Butterfly. - It is very dark brown, 
with indistinct, sub-marginal, ferruginous lunules, rather pointed 
fore-wings, and a moderately long tail on the hind-wings. The 
female has a broad white band from the end of the cell of the 
fore-wings to the inner-margin ot the hind-wings, and a row of 
sub-marginal yellow spots. The white band is edged above 
with yellow spots, and there are also some on the costa of the 
fore-wings above it. 

[xxix. B.] Meandrusci) Moore, is another peculiar Indo- 
Malayan genus, the type of which is M. evan, Doubleday. It 
is a large tawny Butterfly, five inches in expanse, with broad 
black borders spotted with tawny ; the fore-wings are extremely 
falcate, and the hind-wings have a long tail. The under side 
is of a dirty yellow. 

[xxx.] (Unnamed.) Includes some white African species, 
with broad black white-spotted borders, and dentated hind 



CHILASA. 279 

wings , on the under side of the wings are some red spots. 
This genus is represented by Papilio py lades, Fabricius, and its 
allies. 

[xxxi. A.] Includes another African Butterfly, Papilio 
famidas, Fabricius, with less strongly dentated hind-wings. 
The wings are black, with large green spots on the fore-wings, 
and the middle of the hind-wings green, followed by one or 
two rows of sub-marginal spots. It has some resemblance to 
the genus Tirumala among the Danaincc. 

[xxxi. B. AND xxxii.] These include Papilio ridleyanus, 
White, and Drurya antimachus (Drury), of which we have 
already spoken (antea, p. 250). 

[XXXIIL] Includes Papilio idceoides, Gray, a rare Philippine 
Butterfly, measuring nearly six inches in expanse. It has 
greyish-white rounded wings, with black marginal and sub- 
marginal spots, and larger spots towards the base. It is very 
similar to Hestia idea (Linn.) among the Danaina. 

[XXXVL] Paranticopsis, Wood-Mason and De Niceville. The 
type of this genus is P. macareus, Godart, a Butterfly about 
three inches in expanse, with black wings, slightly dentated, 
but not tailed, and with longitudinal greenish-white stripes. It 
is found in North India, Java, and Borneo, and much re- 
sembles some of the green Danain(s y which inhabit the same 
countries. 

[xxxvn.] Chilasa, Moore. The type ot this genus is 
C.panope (Linnaeus), an Indian Butterfly, measuring nearly four 
inches across the wings, which are brown, with sub-marginal rows 
of white spots, which are rather long towards the tip of the 
fore-wings. The hind-margin of the hind-wings is dull yellowish 
beneath. Nearly all the Equitina which mimic Danaince have 
more or less dentated hind-wings; but much easier and more 
certain tests to distinguish them are the apparently four- 
branched median neivure on all the wings, and the fully 



280 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

developed front legs in the Equitidcz. An allied species is C. 
dissimilis (Linn.), which is covered with pale buff spots and 
markings on a blackish ground. 

[xxxvn. PT.] Enplaiopsis, De Niceville (Isamiopsis, Moore). 
This genus includes a number of Indo-Malayan Butter- 
flies, generally very rare in collections, which mimic the 
brown, blue-flushed Danaince allied to Euplota. The type is 
the North Indian P. tekarchus (Hewitson), one of the largest 
species, expanding 4^ inches. The fore-wings are of a rich 
purple, triangular, and pointed at the tip, with a blue spot in 
the cell, a row of long blue spots beyond, and a sub-marginal 
row of white ones ; the hind-wings are brown. 

[xxxvu. PT.] Menamopsis, De Niceville. This genus, like 
the last, includes a few North Indian species resembling 
Danaina of the Euplaa group. The type is M. tavoyanus 
(Butler), from Tenasserim, which measures 3^ inches across 
the fore-wings, which are much longer than the hind-wings, 
and rounded. It is brown, with blue streaks on the fore-wings 
in and beyond the cell, and between the nervures on the disc. 
The hind wings have an inner sub- marginal row of white 
streaks, and an outer row of yellow ones, the largest at tha 
anal angle surmounted by a black crescent. 

[xxxvin.] Cadugoides, Moore. This is another Indo-Malayan 
genus, resembling species of the Danaincz. The type, C. agestor 
(Gray), which is found in Sumatra, and also in the South- 
western Himalayas, measures 3^ inches across the wings. It 
is grey, with black nervures, and black borders dotted with 
grey ; the hind-wings are more or less reddish. 

[xxxix.] Orpheides, Hiibner. The two principal species of 
this genus, O. demoleus (Linn.) and O. erithonius (Cram.) 
inhabit Africa and India respectively, and are among the most 
abundant Butterflies of their respective countries. O. demokus, 
found throughout Africa, except in the north (for its alleged 



ORPHEIDES. 281 

occurrence in Egypt probably means Upper Egypt or Nubia) 
measures from 3 to 4% inches across the wings, which are 
black, with the fore-wings rather short and broad, and the hind- 
margin slightly oblique; the hind-wings are rather long, and 
strongly dentated, but not tailed. There is a row of pale 
yellow sub-marginal spots on all the wings ; the incisions are 
yellow, and a row of rather large yellow spots runs obliquely 
across the fore-wings, coalescing into a band on the hind- 
wings, where it reaches the middle of the inner-margin. On 
the fore-wings there are two large spots towards the end of the 
cell, and also two short oblique rows of small spots between 
the cell and the sub-marginal spots, the main band rising 
below the interspace ; the base is dusted with yellow towards 
the base. On the hind-wings there is a large black eye-spot 
beyond the band, on the costa, enclosing red and blue lunules; 
beyond the band on the inner-margin a blue crescent sur- 
mounts a black space bordered below with reddish. On the 
under-side the yellow markings are larger, and more extended, 
the base being streaked with yellow, and there are several blue 
and black lunules on the hind-wings bordering the dark space 
between the two large eye-spots. 

Mr. Trimen describes the larva as dark-coloured when 
young, and clothed with short spines ; when larger, it is pale 
yellowish-green, with purplish markings, and a white line on 
the sides. There are two small tubercles on each side of the 
retractile fork, which is crimson, and emits a very strong odour; 
and two similar tubercles on the anal segment; it feeds on 
Umbtllifera, as well as on a great variety of trees. The pupa 
is rather long, with the head bifid; there are four rows of 
tubercles on the abdomen, and many tubercles elsewhere. 
The colour of the pupa assimilates itself to its surroundings.* 

* For detailed particulars, cf. Trimen, "South African Butterflies," iii. 
r,p. 225, 226. 



282 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

The East Indian species, O. erithonius (Cramer), has the 
central band much broader and more irregular, especially on 
the hind-wings, where the eye-spot on the costa is very slightly 
marked, and that on the inner-margin has become a large red 
spot. 

[XLI.] This genus has not yet received a name. It includes 
some handsome West Indian tailed Butterflies, among which is 
Papilio ho/nerus, Fabricius, a very local Butterfly in Jamaica, and 
one of the largest of all the American Equitida, expanding 5 } 
or 6 inches. It is black, with a very broad yellow band on all 
the wings, bifid towards the costa of the fore-wings. The 
fore-wings have two or three yellow spots towards the tip ; and 
beyond the yellow band on the hind-wings is an outer row of 
blue dusting, and some orange-red sub-marginal lunules. 

[XLII.] Heradides, Hiibner. This is another genus peculiar 
to America. It includes large and handsome Butterflies, 
measuring from four to six inches across the wings. The type is 
H. thoas (Linn.). The fore-wings are rather long and pointed, 
the hind-margin being slightly concave, as well as oblique, and 
the hind-wings are strongly dentated, with a broad spatulate 
tail. The wings are black, with a broad yellow band, more or 
less macular, at least on the fore-wings, where it often bifurcates 
towards the costa, and broadest on the inner-margin of the 
hind-wings. The hind-wings have a curved row of yellow 
lunules on the disc, followed by a more or less distinct black, 
blue, and red eye-spot towards the inner-margin; the tail is 
often streaked with yellow. On the under side the yellow 
markings are more extended, and the principal black band on 
the hind-wings is marked with blue and reddish crescents. 
The larva of H. cresphontes (Cramer), the common North 
American species, in which the yellow band is narrower and 
more broken into spots than in the Southern species of the 
genus, fee Js on orange, like so many of the American Equitidce. 



CALAIDES. 283 

It is brown, with large white blotches on the back, irregularly 
marked with brown. The pupa is light brown, dotted with 
blackish. 

[XLIII.] Troilides, Hiibner. The type of this genus is T. tor- 
quatus (Cramer), a common South American Butterfly, 
measuring from two and a half to three inches in expanse. In 
the male the fore-wings are much shorter and broader than in 
the last genus, and much less pointed, the hind-margin being 
only slightly oblique. The hind-wings are much more strongly 
dentated, the tail is shorter and more distinctly spatulate, and 
the two projections between this and the anal angle are longer 
than in Heraclides, more like two short tails. There is a very 
broad pale yellow band running obliquely from the upper 
median nervule of the fore-wings ; on the hind-wings it extends 
nearly to the base. There is also a broad oblique sub-apical 
pale yellow band on the fore-wings, and a row of sub-marginal 
yellow lunules on the hind-wings ; the incisions are also yellow. 
On the under side of the hind-wings there are rows of blue 
lunules and red spots within the yellow lunules. The female is 
brown, with a large white spot covering the basal half of the 
lower median nervule. The hind-wings are strongly dentated 
and tailed, with pink incisions, and a red band on the disc, 
divided into spots by the nervures. 

[XLIV. B.] CalaidcS) Hiibner. The type is C. androgeus 
(Cramer), a fine Butterfly common in Tropical America, which 
measures over five inches in expanse. The fore wings are 
long, but rounded off at the tip, and the hind-margin is oblique 
and concave. The hind-wings are strongly dentated, and 
have a moderately long tail, pointed (not spatulate) at the end 
of the upper median nervule; and the other nervures on each 
side of the tail exhibit well-marked, but shorter, projections. 
A broad yellow band, commencing beyond the cell of the fore- 
wings, runs obliquely across the wings, and on the hind-wings 



284 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

extends nearly to the base. The hind-wings have a double 
row of yellow crescents, and towards the anal angle is an 
orange lunule. The female is bluish-black, with or without 
an oblique yellow transverse band on the fore-wings, and 
with a double row of greenish sub-marginal lunules on the 
hind-wings. The middle tail is hardly longer than the others. 
The larva is brown, with pinkish-white markings, and feeds on 
a species of Malva. The pupa is brown and grey. 

[XLV.] Priainides, Hiibner. This is another South American 
genus, much resembling Parides in appearance, but much 
larger and more robust ; the type is P. pompeius (Fabricius). 
The wings expand from three to five and a half inches ; the 
fore-wings are produced at the tip, with the hind-margin more 
or less concave, and the hind- wings are strongly dentated, but 
not tailed. The wings are black, the fore-wings often with one 
or two large whitish spots toward the inner-margins ; the hind- 
wings with a rather broad sub-marginal band, more or less 
divided into spots, at least towards the anal angle. Sometimes 
the outer part of the fore-wings is paler. The larva is brown, 
with white longitudinal dashes, and short fleshy spines ; head 
and legs yellow. The pupa is brown, with a bifid head. The 
larva feeds on the lime tree ( Citrus). 

[XLVI.] This genus has not yet received a name. It includes 
Papilio zagreus, Doubleday, and one or two other rare South 
American species, measuring about four inches in expanse. 
They have broad rounded wings, the hind-wings being very 
slightly scalloped, and are black, with tawny markings ar- 
ranged in the same way as in the genus Lycorea, Doubleday, 
in the Danaina (see vol. i. p. 29). 

[XLIX.] Euphceades, Hiibner. The type of this genus is the 
fine North American species, E. gfauais (Linn.), a yellow 
Swallow-tail, three or four inches in expanse, with black bjixbrs 



JASONIADES. 285 

crossed by a row of yellow spots on the fore-wings, and yellow 
lunules on the hind-wings, the black space within the latter 
dusted with blue. Four black bands run from the costa 
of the fore-wings, the two outermost short, the basal one and 
the next long, uniting above the black border of the hind- 
wings ; between this and the border is an orange mark on the 
inner-margin. The hind-wings are strongly dentated, and the 
tail is rather long and slender. This typical form is often called 
Papilio t urmis, Linn. The true E.gtaucus is a large dimorphic 
and melanic form of the female, most frequently found along 
with the type in the Southern United States. The larva, which 
feeds on Prunus t has the thoracic segments much thickened. 
It is green above, and whitish below, with seven oblique 
greenish stripes on the sides, and an interrupted red lateral 
line. Between the fourth and fifth segments is a transverse 
band, yellow before, and black behind ; on the third segment 
is a lateral yellow eye-spot, pupilled with blue. The head is 
flesh-colour, with a yellow collar. The pupa is varied with 
brown. 

[LI. A.] Jasoniades, Hiibner. The type of this genus is 
f. xuthus (Linn.), a Butterfly found in Siberia and Northern 
Asia generally, which has been erroneously reputed European. 
It measures three or four inches across the wings, and re- 
sembles a large pale Achivus machaon, but all the nervures 
are broadly black, leaving only long or triangular cream- 
coloured spots between, and there is a row of sub-marginal 
lunules of the same colour. There is a small orange eye-spot 
at the anal angle of the hind-wings, yellow beneath, and en- 
closing a black pupil. The spring brood is smaller and paler. 
The larva, which feeds on Umbellifcra^ is green, with broken 
black transverse bands, ending in hooks or spots below. The 
retractile fork is yellow. 



286 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

[LI. R, C.] GENUS ACIIIVUS. 

Achivus, Barbut, Genera Insectorum, p. 169 (1781). 
Princeps, Hiibner, Tentamcn, p. i (iSic?). 
AmaryssiiS) Dalman, CEf. K. Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockh. xxxvii. 
pp. 60, 85 (1816). 

The type of this genus is regarded by most authors as the 
type of PapiliO) Linnaeus. It is a well-known European and 
Mediterranean insect, and is represented by various closely- 
allied forms as far as the Himalayas, and throughout Central 
and Northern Asia, to Alaska and California. A closely-allied 
species, but darker, and with shorter tails (A. hospiton, Gene) 
is confined to Corsica and Sardinia. The largest and hand- 
somest of this cluster of imperfectly segregated species is the 
Japanese A. hippocrates (Felder). 

THE SWALLOW-TAIL. ACHIVUS MACHAON. 

(Plate LXVIL Fig. I.) 
Papilio machaon, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i. p. 462, no. 27 

(1758); id. Faun. Suec. p. 267 (1761); Esper, Schmett. 

i. (i) p. 31, pi. i, fig. i (1777); Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. 

i. figs. 390, 391 (1803?); Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 57, 

no. 89 (1819); Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 328 

(1836); Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. p. 6 (1827); 

Newir.an, Brit. Butterflies, p. 150 (1881); Kirby, Eur. 

Butterflies and Moths, p. 2, pi. 2, figs. 3, $a-d (1878); 

Lang, Butterflies Eur. p. 7, pi. i, fig. 4, pi. 5, fig. 3 

(transf. 1881); Barrett, Butterflies of Brit. Isl. p. n, pi. 

i, \a-c (1892) ; Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Lepid. i. p. i, pi. 

i, fig. i (1886). 

The Swallow-tail Butterfly, our only undoubted British repre- 
sentative of the great Family of the Equitida^ measures from 
three to five inches in expanse, and is our largest Butterfly, if 



PLATE LXVII. 




\ 



\ 



\ 



1 . Achivus 
2. IphicHcLes podalzrius 



ACHIVUS. 287 

we except the Purple Emperor, which sometimes equals small 
specimens of A. machaon in size. The wings areyellow and black, 
dusted with yellow ; the fore-wings are strongly arched, rather 
pointed at the tip, with the hind-margin oblique, and the hind- 
wings are not very strongly dentated, but have a long pointed tail 
at the end of the upper median nervule. On the fore-wings, 
the base and hind-margin are broadly black, dusted with yellow, 
the latter divided by a row of long yellow spots. The nervures 
are broadly black, especially towards the costa, and there are 
transverse black streaks in and at the end of the cell. The hind- 
wings are black along the inner-margin for the greater part of 
its length, and have a black curve at the end of the cell ; the 
border is broadly black with the incisions yellow, and a sub-mar- 
ginal row of yellow lunules, within which is a row of ill-defined 
spots of blue dusting. At the anal angle is a large round red 
spot, with a blue crescent above, and a triangular blue spot 
below, and enclosed by a black ring incomplete below. 

The full-grown larva (vol. i. pi. 3, fig. i) has the front seg- 
ments somewhat thickened; it is of a yellowish-green, with 
black incisions and a black band, spotted with orange, on each 
segment ; the sides are also streaked and spotted with black, 
and the spinacles are yellow ; the head is yellow, with black 
markings, and the retractile fork on the neck is red. The early 
stages are extremely interesting, as they much resemble those 
of the adult larva in Ornithoptera, &c. The newly-hatched 
larva is black, with the incisions dark green, and the seventh 
and eighth segments creamy-white. It has two rows of pale 
pink tubercles on each side, which afterwards turn black. 
After the first moult, the tubercles on the white patch become 
tipped with black, and after the second moult the orange spots 
begin to appear ; but the fleshy tubercles are not lost till after 
the fourth moult. The pupa is green, with a streak of yellow 
along each side, and an irregular row of yellow spots on the 



2 88 



LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 



back. It is straight, with somewhat projecting wing-cases, and 
a pointed projection on the thorax.* 

The larva feeds on a variety of umbelliferous plants, and is 
often found in gardens on the Continent, feeding on the com- 
mon carrot, but its favourite food in England is Pcucedamtm 
palustre. The Butterfly is found from May to August, and 
the insect may be met with in all stages during the summer 
months. 

Fifty or a hundred years ago this Butterfly appears to have 
been fairly common in many parts of the South of England, 
though it is doubtful if it extended further north than York- 
shire. But drainage and cultivnt'on have driven it away almost 




Achivus mac ha on, pupa. 

everywhere, and it is now practically confined to the undrained 
fens of the Eastern counties, being most abundant and gene- 
rally distributed in Norfolk, though it is also found in some 
parts of the adjoining counties. In the fen district proper it 
is now very local. It is found in meadows and on the edges of 
woods, and though not a mountain Butterfly, is fond of career- 
ing about hill-sides. The tails are very fragile, and a large pro- 
portion of netted specimens have them damaged, though the 
Butterflies themselves may be otherwise uninjured. 

* Cf. the long and interesting account ot the transformations of this 
insect given by Buckler. 



$89 

[LII.] Ptenirus, Scopoli. Dr. Scudder formerly selected 
Papilla troilus, Linn , as the type of this "magazine" genus ; 
but he afterwards withdrew it, and suggested P. troilus as the 
type of E'.tphwadeS) in which we do not follow him. P. troilus 
may be taken as typical of a small group of North American 
Butterflies, measuring about four inches across the wings. The 
fore- wings are narrower and more produced than in Achivus, 
the hind-margin being much more oblique ; and the hind-wings 
are more rounded, with a broader, but not spatulate tail. The 
wings are black, often more or less suffused with blue, and are 
frequently marked with rows of yellow spots, or narrow yellow 
bands, and there is a red eye-spot at the anal angle. On the 
under side the outer half of the hind-wings is marked with 
red and blue spots and streaks. The typical P. troilus (Linn.) 
measures 3^ inches across the wings, which are black, with 
small greenish-yellow sub-marginal lunules ; the hind-wings 
are dusted with bluish-grey on the disc, and there is a small 
orange eye-spot at the anal angle. The under side of the 
fore-wings has a yellow spot at the end of the cell and 
two rows of yellow sub-marginal spots ; the hind-wings are 
brown, with two rows of orange-red spots (the innermost row 
large and nearly round), the space between the bands being 
dusted with bluish-grey. It inhabits the Southern United 
States. A closely allied, and much more widely diffused species 
is P. ilioneus, Smith and Abbot, in which the spots are yellower, 
and the blue dusting more extended, sometimes as far as the 
lower half of the fore-wings ; towards the tip of the costa of 
the hind-wings is a large orange spot above. The larva is 
green above and reddish below, the colours being separated 
by a yellow lateral line ; there is a black collar, and on the 
third segment two pink spots containing black spots marked 
with a blue ring ; and on the fourth segment are two smaller 
pink spots pupilled with white. The hinder segments are 

V 



290 ' LLOYD'S NATURAL Hisrok?. 

marked with transverse rows of black spots (about four on 
each). The Jarvce feed on sassafras, and are called "mellow 
worms " from their peculiar odour. 

[LIV.] Equcs, Linnaeus. I propose to restrict this name to 
Eques nirens (Linn.), the representative of a very distinct 
African group, and almost the only species originally placed in 
Eques by Linnaeus which has not yet been made the type of a 
genus. In these Butterflies the fore-wings are moderately 
broad, with the costa arched, and the hind-margin oblique, 
and the hind-wings are contracted in a series of obtuse pro- 
jections to the anal angle, which is lobate or sub-caudate. 
The wings are black, with a green or bluish-green band, vary- 
ing in width, running obliquely from beyond the middle of the 
costa of the fore-wings to above the anal angle of the hind- 
wings. There are also frequently some green spots towards 
the tip of the fore-wings, and the inner-margin of the hind- 
wings. The under surface is sometimes obscurely marked, 
while in other species there is a narrow white or yellowish- 
white band or row of spots towards the hind-margin of the 
hind-wings ; the body is dotted with white. The larva of the 
South African E. lyccus (Doubleday), as described and figured 
by Mr. Trimen, is green, with the thoracic segments very 
much enlarged, and the "widest portion of the back on the 
third thoracic and first abdominal segment is occupied by a 
sub-ovate patch or shield of pale bluish-green, crossed mesially 
by a thin whitish line, closely irrorated generally with white 
dots, and bearing near its posterior edge a transverse row of 
four small pinkish-lilac spots." The projections on the first 
thoracic segment are short ; but there are two rather long 
yellow projections on the anal segment. It feeds on orange 
as \vell as on various native trees. The pupa is green, with 
two projections on the head, and the wing-cases are very pro- 
minent. 



EQUES. 291 

[LV. & LVI. c.] This unnamed genus includes the remarkable 
group of Papilio me rope, Cramer. They are large Butterflies, 
measuring from 3^ to nearly 5 inches across the wings, and 
are confined to Africa and Madagascar. In the males the 
upper side is pale sulphur-yellow, the fore-wings with the costa 
narrowly and the hind-margin more broadly black, with a pale 
yellow spot near the tip; on the hind-wings there are some 
black spots towards the hind-margin, and three large black 
spots, one near the end of the costa, one above the anal angle, 
and one beyond the cell ; sometimes these are united into a 
continuous border. The under side of the hind-wings is of a 
rather shining yellowish-grey. The fore-wings are rather short 
and broad, the costa being strongly arched, and the hind- 
margin not very oblique, and slightly concave ; the hind-wings 
are almost rectangular at the outer angle, where there is a long, 
slightly spatulate tail. The females, however, have rounded and 
scalloped hind-wings, without a tail, and are black, with white, 
buff, red, or orange markings, corresponding with those of various 
species of Danaina of the genera Limnas and Amauris^ which 
abound in the same localities. This is one of the most inter- 
esting cases known of the phenomenon called " mimicry," 
more especially as the Madagascar representative of the group 
(Papilio meriones, Felder), which is distinguished by having 
a broad black band on the costa, and also one or two East 
African forms, have black and pale yellow tailed females almost 
identical with the males in shape, colour, and pattern. 

Respecting the habits of the West African Papilio merope, 
Surgeon-Captain Clements writes ("On a Collection of 
Sierra Leone Lepidoptera," by W. Schaus, F.Z.S., and W. 
G. Clements, Surgeon-Captain A.M.S., p. 6): " Of the females 
of P. merope I obtained but one variety. This is indistinguish- 
able on the wing from Amauris niavius ; the male keeps with- 
in the shady parts of the forest, and has a bold, lofty, and sailing 

u 2 



292 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

flight. Selecting an open glade it will fly rapidly up and do\Vil 
for a space of some 300 yards, coming fearlessly near to one's 
net, which it generally manages to evade by a quick double, 
and finally approaching a tuft of grass, or the projecting 
branch of a tree, disappears. It almost invariably selects a 
broad bladed grass, striped with brown and yellow, and hang- 
ing pendent from its extremity with the wings folded, the 
upper ones being covered over and concealed by the lower, it 
cannot be seen until it is again startled into flight." 

The larva of the South African Fapilio cenea, Stoll, is slug- 
shaped, bluish-green, with short tubercles (white, and longer in 
the young larva) on the second and anal segments ; the retrac- 
tile fork crimson-lake, tipped with greenish-white. The pupa is 
also green, slender in front, with the two usual processes con- 
tiguous, and meeting in a point; it is wide in the middle and 
pointed again at the hinder end. The larva feeds on Vepris 
lanceolata. 

Although the females of these Butterflies resemble highly- 
protected insects, yet they themselves are well protected other- 
wise, the green pupa resembling a leaf, and the under side of 
the Butterfly resembling in colour the shrubs among which it 
perches. 

[LIX.] Araminta, Moore. The type of this genus is A. 
demotion (Cramer), which is met with throughout the greater 
part of the Indo-Malayan Region. It measures nearly five 
inches across the wings. The fore-wings are considerably 
produced, the hind-margin being very oblique, and the hind- 
wings are rounded and scalloped, with a long and somewhat 
spatulate tail. A pale green band runs obliquely from near 
the base of the inner-margin of the hind-wings nearly to the 
tip of the fore-wings, where it grows much narrower, and 
becomes broken into spots. On the hind-wings are some sub- 
marginal green lunules, and at the anal angle is a round black 



ARAM INT A. 293 

spot in a red ring. The presence of this red and black eye- 
spot at the anal angle on the upper side sufficiently distin- 
guishes this group from any other black and green East Indian 
Butterflies. The larva is green, with the thoracic segments 
somewhat thickened behind, and two short whitish horns on 
the first and last segments ; segment seven has a whitish trans- 
verse band, dotted with reddish, and surmounted by two 
small white horns; the fourth, fifth, and ninth have similar 
transverse bands; the belly is white, varied with red. The 
pupa is grey, much arched, with a bifid head, a long spine on 
the pectus, and the lateral ridges of the abdomen strongly 
serrated beneath. The larva feeds on a species of Fagara 
called " Sampang " in Java. 

[LX. A.] This genus includes a number of East Indian 
Butterflies of moderate size, to which some authors have 
improperly proposed to restrict the generic name Laertias, 
Hiibner. One of the commonest species is Papilio polytes, 
Linn. The sexes are very dissimilar. The male, which 
Linnaeus called Papilio pammon, has broad and rather short 
fore-wings, the hind-margin being oblique to the level of the 
hind-wings, which are ample, dentated, and furnished with a 
spatulate tail. The wings are black, the fore-wings with a row 
of white marginal spots, and the hind-wings with a t'ansverse 
and slightly curved white band, divided into spots by the 
nervures ; sometimes the anal angle is marked with orange 
above, but always on the under side, where there is also a sub- 
marginal row of orange lunules. The female (the true P. 
polytes, Linn.), instead of the white band on the hind-wings, 
has a large white spot in the middle of the latter, below which 
is a red spot at the anal angle and a row of rather large red 
sub-marginal spots. The nervures of the fore-wings are bordered 
with white on the disc. There is a second form of the female 
(Papilio romulus^ Cramer), with extensive red markings on the 



294 LLOYDS NATURAL HISTORY. 

hind-wings instead of the large white spot. Many forms closely 
allied to P. polytes, differing chiefly in the extent of the mark- 
ings, are found in the East. Some are tailed, and others tail- 
less ; they measure rather more than three inches across the 
wings. 

The larva of P. polytes is green above, with cream-coloured 
bands and markings on several segments ; the anterior seg- 
ments are inflated. Beneath, it is cream-coloured. It feeds 
on different species of Citrus. The pupa is green or brown. 

[LX. B.] Chants, Moore. This genus, the type of which is 
C. helenus (Linn.), much resembles the last in shape, and 
is also tailed, but the species are considerably larger, often 
measuring four or five inches across the wings, and are dif- 
ferently coloured. They inhabit various parts of the Indo- and 
Austro-Malayan Regions, and are black above, with a very large 
creamy-white spot on the hind-wings, which is narrow above, 
and extends from the costa over the upper and outer half of the 
wings, but without reaching the hind-margin. On the under 
side there are one or two black spots, more or less completely 
bordered with red towards the anal angle, with some blue 
lunules between these and the white patch ; these markings are 
sometimes partially reproduced above, while in other species 
they are very much reduced. Sometimes the red markings 
are replaced by yellow. The larva of C. helenus is dark green 
above, and flesh-coloured below ; the hinder part of the thora- 
cic segments is much thickened. In front of the inflation is a 
flesh-coloured spot, with two black pupils on each side of the 
upper surface ; and behind the inflation is a flesh-coloured 
band. Beyond the middle is a broad oblique pinkish-white 
band, and another transverse band of the same colour between 
this and the end of the body. The food-plant is probably 
Citrus, but has not been recorded. The pupa is brown, much 
curved, with a bind head- 



NESTORIDES, 295 

[LX. c.] Tamera t Moore. The type of this genus, T. castor 
(Westwood), is a North Indian species remarkable for the dis- 
similarity of the sexes. It measures about 3^ inches across the 
wings, which are black, with the incisions spotted with white. 
The hind-wings are dentated, but not tailed, and in the male, 
are ornamented with a large quadrifid creamy-white spot 
towards the tip. The female is brown, with sub-marginal 
white spots. The fore-wings have a rather large white spot at 
the end of the cell, and are dusted with grey on the lower half 
of the disc. The hind-wings are strongly dusted with greenish- 
grey in the cell, and between the nervures, except towards the 
hind-margin. 

[LX. E.] Nestor ides ) Hiibner. This genus includes a num- 
ber of very large and handsome species which are confined to 
the Austro-Malayan Region. The type, N. gambrisius (Cram.), 
is found in Amboina and Ceram. It is a fine Butterfly, 
measuring six inches in expanse. The male is black, with 
yellow incisions, and three or four yellow spots towards the 
tip of the fore-wings ; beyond these, the wing is dusted with 
yellow. The hind-wings are strongly dentated, with a broad 
yellow band over the end of the cell, and coppery dusting 
beyond. The female is black ; on the fore-wings, the end of 
the cell, and the spaces between the nervures on the disc are 
white, shading into buff; the hind-wings have a rather narrow 
tawny band across the end of the cell, and are dusted with 
blue beyond. 

The only species of this genus which is really common in 
collections is N. tzgeus (Donovan), from Australia. It 
measures upwards of four inches across the wings, which are 
broad, but the fore-wings are not produced, the hind-margin 
being only slightly oblique ; the hind-wings are ample, strongly 
dentated, but not tailed. The male is bhck, with an oblique 
row of spots across the tip of the fore-wings, and the hind 



296 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

wings have a curved creamy-white band running from the 
costa nearly to the anal angle, which is marked with a red 
spot. On the under side, the white band of the hind-wings 
has disappeared, but there is a row of large red sub-marginal 
spots, followed within by a row of blue lunules. In the female, 
the outer part of the fore-wings is grey (whiter beneath), with a 
dark blotch at the end of the cell, and shading into brown on 
the margins ; the hind-wings are coloured on both sides 
nearly as on the under side of the male ; but the whole centre 
of the wing is rilled up with a large irregular sub-triangular 
space, extending both to the costa and to the inner-margin. 
" When young, the larvae are brown, with patches of white, and 
covered with spines ; but when full-fed, they are dull green, 
with blotches of brown, edged with white on both sides, and 
the spines much reduced in size. The fourth and fifth seg- 
ments are considerably thickened, and the caterpillar is soft 
and flabby to the touch. The chrysalis is green, speckled with 
black, and is attached to the food-plant " (Anderson and Spry, 
"Victorian Butterflies," p. 16). The lame feed on orange, 
and are sometimes very destructive, and the long rose- 
coloured retractile tentacles emit a disagreeable odour of 
putrid oranges. 

[LXII.] LaertiaS) Hiibner. We now come to one of the 
most splendid genera of Austro-Malayan Equitidce, represented 
by L. ulysses (Linn.), from Amboina. They measure four 
inches and upwards across the wings ; the fore-wings are not 
very long, but rather pointed, the hind margin being regularly 
oblique ; the hind-wings are long towards the lower part, and 
strongly dentated, with a long spatulate tail. The wings are 
black, with a rich cobalt-blue patch covering at least the basal 
half of the wings ; in the female, the blue is much duller, 
and less extended. 

[LXIII.] Harimala, Moore. With this genus, we commence 






ACHILLIDES. 297 

the beautiful group of Equitidcz in which the wings are pow- 
dered with metallic green. Harimala is represented both 
in the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan Regions, but the 
type, H. crino (Fabricius), is found in India, Ceylon, and 
Cochin China. It is a comparatively small species, not 
measuring more than about 3^ inches across the wings, 
which are slightly falcate, the hind-margin being concave as well 
as oblique ; the hind-wings are dentated and tailed. The wings 
are black, dusted with golden-green, and are crossed by a blue 
band, running from the costa of the fore-wings beyond the cell, 
where it is narrowest, and curving round to the inner-margin 
on the hind-wings; below it there is a black spot in a red 
ring, and a row of green lunules between it and the spatulate 
tail. On the under side the wings are brown, with sub-mar- 
ginal rows of red, bluish, and grey lunules. The larva is slug- 
shaped, with the anterior segments convexly scutellated, and a 
pair of short fleshy tubercles on the anterior and anal seg- 
ments. The pupa is curved, and the head is broad in front. 
The larva feeds on the satin-wood tree. 

[LXIV. A, PT.] GENUS AC1IILLIDES. 
AchillideS) Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. p. 85 (1816). 

ACHILLIDES PARIS. 
(Plate LXV. Fig. 2.) 

Fapilio paris, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 459, no. 3 (1758); id. 
Mus. Ludov. Ulr. p. 184 (1764); Clerck, Icones, pi. 13, 
fig. i (1764); Drury, 111. Ex. Ent. i. pi. 12, figs, i, 2 
(i773); Cramer, Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 103, figs. A, B (1777); 
Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 67, no. 116 (1819); Boisduval, 
Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 208 (1836). 
The genus Achillide$ is remarkably like Charts in the dis- 



298 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY, 

tribution of colours, though the colours themselves are very 
different ; and unlike Chants, the species are restricted to the 
Indo-Malayan Region, being particularly numerous in India 
and Java. The commonest and most anciently known species 
is A. pans (Linn.), which is found in India and China, and 
measures about four inches across the wings, which are shaped 
nearly as in Harimala^ but the fore-wings are longer, with the 
costa more strongly arched, the tips more produced, and the 
hind-margin more oblique ; the hind-wings are more narrowed 
behind than in Harimala^ but strongly dentated, and furnished 
with a long spatulate tail. The wings are black, dusted with 
golden-green, coalescing to form traces of a sub-marginal band 
towards the inner-margin of the fore-wings ; the hind-wings have 
a large bluish-green patch on the costa, extending over the 
upper half of the wing, but not reaching to the hind-margin, 
opposite to which they exhibit several concavities; on its lower 
and inner edge it is connected with the inner-margin by a 
golden-green stripe, below which is a round black eye-spot in a 
red ring, surmounted by a blue crescent. The under side is black, 
with a broad whitish suffused sub-marginal band, intersected by 
the black nervures on the fore-wings. On the hind-wings, there 
is a sub-marginal row of red lunules, bordered with blue ones ; 
the incisions are white. In the Javanese A. arjuna (Horsf.), 
the patch on the hind-wings is of a more greenish-blue, and 
extends in a point towards the anal angle. The larva of A. 
arjuna is green, with slender oblique and transverse white lines, 
and the thoracic segment but slightly raised ; the pupa is yel- 
lowish-green. The larva feeds on a species of Citrus. 

[LXIV. A., PT.] Sarbaria, Moore. The type of this genus, 
which forms part of the same sub-section as the last in Felder's 
arrangement, and which most authors would not consider 
generically distinct, is S. polyctor (Boisduval), a well-known 
North Indian species, measuring 3^ inches across the wings. 



PLATE LXVI. 




ag 



enor. 



ILIADES. 299 

It is bronzy-green, with a broad sub-marginal band of green 
streaks on the fore-wings ; the hind-wings have a large blue 
patch, dentated on the outer side, before the tip, and two large 
red sub-marginal crescents on each side of the base of the tail. 
[LXV. A-C.] Iliades, Hiibner. This genus includes a number 
of large and handsome Butterflies, most of which measure five 
inches in expanse of wing. They are extremely characteristic 
of the Indo- and Austro-Malayan Regions. I have figured the 
female of one of the commonest species. 

ILIADES AGENOR. 
(Plate LXV. Fig. 2.) 

Papilio agenor, Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) p. 460, no. 13 (1758) ; 
id. Mus. Ludov. Ulr. p. 194 (1764); Clerck, Icones, pi. 15 
(1764); Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. 32, figs. A, B (1775); 
Godart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 28, no. 9 (1819); Distant, Rhop. 
Malay, p. 339, pi. 29, fig. i (1885). 

This species belongs to a small group of closely- allied forms 
in which the males are almost all alike, and the females differ 
greatly. Boisduval united them all under one species, to 
which he applied the name of Papilio memnon ; but Dr. 
Wallace ("Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond." xxv. pp. 46, 47) recognised 
two species, with polymorphic females. More recent authors 
(Messrs. Butler and Distant, for example) are inclined to 
recognise a larger number of species, thinking that it will be 
found possible ultimately to separate the males into species as 
well as the females. It is a parallel case to that of Papilio 
merope^ Cramer, which we have already noticed (anteci, p. 291). 
The present species belongs to the group of forms which are 
peculiar to continental India, and to which Dr. Wallace applied 
the name of Papilio androgeos, Cramer. They differ from the 
forms found in Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Lombock, in 



300 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

having red markings towards the anal angle of the hind-wings 
beneath. 

The fore-wings are much produced and rather narrow, the 
hind-margin being very oblique, and slightly concave ; the 
hind-wings are ample, rounded, and scalloped. There are 
always large red (or more rarely, yellow) spots at the base of 
the wings beneath, and in the females, at the base of the fore- 
wings above. 

The male is black, thickly dusted with blue on the nervures 
towards the hind-margins ; on the under side of the hind- 
wings there is a sub-marginal row of large round black spots 
bordered inside with red lunules, and a large red blotch enclos- 
ing two or three black spots towards the anal angle. The 
female has brown fore-wings, with the nervures broadly 
bordered with grey, and a large red spot in the cell at the base ; 
the hind-wings are black at the base, to the end of the cell, 
with the disc white ; there is a row of sub-marginal black spots, 
outside which, and towards the anal angle, the white is strongly 
stained with yellow. The under side of the wings is marked 
with large red spots at the base, as in the male, and the anal 
angle is stained with yellow instead of red. 

The cluster of forms which Dr. Wallace places together under 
the name of Papilio memnon have no red spots at the anal 
angle, though Wallace figures a female from Java hardly dif- 
fering from typical /. agenor. The females generally have 
the greater part of the hind-wings white on the upper side, 
and some of the forms are furnished in addition with long 
spatulate tails. /. memnon (Cramer) is the type of the genus, 
but when its true female has been accurately determined, it 
will have to take its name (most of these doubtful forms 
having been figured under different names by Cramer and 
others) ; for the description and locality assigned by Linnaeus 
to his Pafilio m$mnon^ as well ^s Petiver's figure, which he 



t>ANOSMIOPSI3, 361 

quotes, show that it is a species peculiar to the Philippine 
Islands, being generally known by the name of /. euialthion, 
Hiibner. The male differs from /. agenor and its allies in 
having the black sub-marginal spots on the hind-wings broadly 
surrounded with red ; the female is black, veined with grey, 
with a transverse red band, varied with white, towards the 
base of the wings. 

The larva of /. memnon (Cramer) is daik green and 
smooth, with the thoracic segments dilated. There is a green 
or buff band (the first marked with a black spot on each 
side) before and behind the inflation ; an oblique white band 
just beyond the middle, and a transverse one between this 
and the extremity of the body. The pupa is green, with 
three yellow lines on the abdomen ; the head is produced 
and bifid. 

The food plant is not recorded. 

[LXV. D., PT.] Saunia, Moore. This is another small genus, 
which is almost confined to India, China, and Japan. The 
type is S. protenor (Cramer), one of the commonest and most 
widely-distributed species ; it expands from four to six inches 
across the wings. The fore-wings are shaped as in Iliades, 
but the hind-wings are longer, not tailed, and the hind-margin 
regularly waved. The wings are blue-black, the fore-wings 
ve : ned with black, and the hind-wings have a black spot towards 
the anal angle, surrounded with reddish. The female, which is 
much larger than the male, has browner fore-wings, and the 
hind-wings have a large red patch at the anal angle, enclosing 
a black spot ; and a second red ring below it. In the male, 
these markings appear on the under side only. 

[LXV. D., PT.] Panosmiopsis, Wood-Mason and De Niceville, 
P. rhetcnor (Westwood), the type of this genus, much resembles 
Saunia protenor (Cramer). It measures four inches across the 
wings, whidi are of a dark brown, the fore-wings striated with 



32 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

black nemires, and the hind-wings dusted with blue. In the 
male, the costa of the hind-wings has a short greenish-yellow 
stripe at the base, and a black spot in a red or peach-coloured 
rim at the anal angle ; in the female there is a cluster of similar 
spots at the anal angle. 

[LXV. D., PT.] Pangeranopsis, Wood-Mason and De Niceville, 
is a generic name that has been proposed for another North 
Indian species, P. elephenor (Doubleday), which much resem- 
bles Panosmiopsis prote?ior, but the fore-wings are lorge:, 
greenish-black rather than blue-black, and the blue-black hind- 
wings are narrower and more produced, with a red and black 
eye-spot at the anal angle. Beneath, the hind-wings have two 
very large red patches towards the anal angle, and some large 
red sub-marginal lunules on the hind-margin. 

[LXVI., PT.] Pangerana, Moore. The type of this genus is P. 
varuna (White), which is found in North India and also at 
Penang. This Butterfly measures from four to five inches across 
the wings, the female being larger and paler than the male, and 
with broader wings. The hind-wings are, however, narrower 
than in the preceding genera, and less strongly scalloped. They 
are blue-black, with grey rays between the nervures towards the 
hinder angle of the fore-wings, especially on the under side. In 
the female the fore-wings are greyer, with the nervures and 
black lines on the interspace showing more distinctly than in 
the male. The collar, a tuft between the eyes, the pleura, and 
the abdomen beneath, are scarlet, and the abdomen is spotted 
with black. 

[LXVI., PT.] Atrophaneura, Reakirt. The type of this genus is 
A. semperi (Felder), a curious Butterfly, confined to the Philip- 
pine Islands, which measures about four inches across the wings. 
The body is red, and the wings are black ; the fore-wings are 
long and narrow, and considerably produced at the tips, the 
hind-margin being very oblique ; the hind-wings are much ex- 



303 

ponded below, nncl are dentated and sub caudate, 'o'r furnished 
with a strong tooth at the outer angle ; the inner half of the 
wing is brown at the base, and dirty white beyond. On the 
under side of the hind-wings is a large red blotch at the 
outer angle, with some black spots in the middle and on the 
hind-margin ; and there are several more red spots towards 
the margins above the large patch. In the female, the white 
inner marginal space is absent, and the red markings of the 
under surface are at least faintly visible above, but frequently 
there are two rows of sub-marginal pink spots. This very 
curious Butterfly is still scarce in collections. 

[LXVIL] The type of this still un-named genus is Papilio nox, 
Swainson. This, and the few allied species, are peculiar to the 
Malay peninsula and the adjacent islands of Borneo and Suma- 
tra, and are remarkable for their dark colour, very long fore- 
wings, rounded at the tips, and long narrow rounded hind- 
wings. 

[LXIX., FT.] Pccnasmia, Moore. We now come to two pecu- 
liarly-shaped genera which are restricted to North India. 
Ptznasinia dasarada (Moore) is the type of one genus. It ex- 
pands 5% inches across the wings; the fore-wings are long, 
narrow, and rounded at the tips, and the hind-wings are very 
long and narrow, forming three large lobes on the hind-margin, 
and then expanding into a very broad tail, slightly constricted 
at the base ; within this are two more lobes, one at the inner- 
margin, and one between this and the tail. The fore-wings are 
dark grey, with the nervures, intermediate lines, and a series of 
longitudinal lines in the cell, black ; there are several large 
square white spots on the hind-wings, which are scarcely marked 
with red on the upper side ; but on the under side the three 
on the hind-margin are white, that on the tail is red, and the 
three at the anal angle and on each side of it are red, more or 
less marked with white on the inner side. 



364 LLOYD'S NATURAL 

[LXIX., PT.] Byasa, Moore. B. philoxenus (Gray), the type of 
this genus, much resembles Pcenasmia dasarada, but the wings 
are broader and shorter, expanding only 4^ inches. The 
body is red ; the fore-wings are coloured as in Pcenasmia 
dasarada ; and on the hind-wings, the tail is short, almost 
round, and much constricted at the base. Towards the tip is 
a large white spot, divided in two by a line at its lower end ; 
there is a red spot on the tail, one on the inner lobe, one at 
the anal angle, and one on the inner-margin, one on the 
hind-margin between the white spot and the outer lobe at the 
base of the tail, and one between the curve beyond this and 
the spot at the anal angle. 

The larva of B. philoxenus is pale purplish-brown, with 
several short tubercles on each segment, and a short, broad, 
white oblique band on the side of the seventh and eighth. 
The pupa is broad, reddish ochreous in colour, with the head 
bifid in front, the thorax curved above and beneath, the wing- 
cases expanded laterally ; and the dorsal segments with folia- 
ceous lateral appendages. The larva has been found feeding 
on a creeping pitcher-plant, at an elevation of about 6,200 
feet ; and the pupa is said to squeak when touched, an un- 
usual habit in Butterflies, though well known in Manduca 
atropos, and several other Sphingida. The pupa has not 
been described. 

[LXXIIL] Menelaides, Hiibner. This genus includes a num- 
ber of Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan Butterflies, most of 
which are smaller and less peculiarly shaped than those which 
we have just been considering ; several of them much re- 
semble the female of Papilio polytes, Linn The type is M. 
polydorus (Linn.), which is found in the Moluccas and Australia. 
It has broad, black wings, three or four inches in expanse, and 
the fore-wings are rayed with greyish-white, the rays towards 
the hinder angle coalescing into a large blotch. The hind' 



TROS. 305 

wings have a broad white patch crossing the end of the cell, 
and a row of large red sub-marginal spots. The hind-wings 
are long, with the hind-margin much waved, and sub-caudate. 
The larva feeds on Aristolochia, and much resembles that of a 
Thais. It is dark red, with several rows of short carmine 
fleshy spines; about the middle is a transverse white band 
slightly tinted with rose-colour. The pupa resembles that of 
Tros hector. 

[LXXIV.] Tros, Barbut. The type of this genus is T. hector 
(Linn.), a handsome and rather isolated Butterfly, which is 
common in India and Ceylon. It measures about four inches 
across the wings, which are rather long and narrow ; the tip of 
the fore-wings is rather pointed, and the hind-margin oblique. 
The hind-wings are long, dentated, and with a moderately long 
and rather broad, but hardly spatulate, tail. The wings are 
black, the fore-wings with two rows of long and mostly bifid 
white spots, one near the tip, and the other running from 
before the middle of the costa to the hinder angle ; the aind- 
wings have two rows of large round red sub-marginal spots, 
the innermost turning inwards at a right angle to the inner 
margin at the end of the fold. The head, the body beneath, 
and the greater part of the abdomen are red. 

The larva is smooth and green, with the hinder thoracic seg- 
ments slightly thickened. The lower part of the body is brown 
in front and white behind. On the upper surface there is a 
narrow greyish band on the third segment, a transverse brown 
band on the fourth, and an oblique white band, varied with 
brown, on the seventh, which rises to the eighth ; the extremity 
of the ninth segment is also whitish. The pupa is pale grey, 
reticulated with brownish, with a bifid head, a projection on 
the pectus, and the ventral surface of the abdomen serrated. 
The larva feeds on the lime, and also on another species of 
Citrus^ called " Jurok " in Java. 

<o X 



306 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORV. 

[LXXV.] PharmacophaguS) Haase. I propose to restrict this 
generic name, used by Haase in a very wide sense, to P. 
anterior (Drury), the largest and handsomest Butterfly found in 
Madagascar. It measures six or seven inches across the wings ; 
the fore-wings are long, with the costa not much arched, the tip 
rounded off, and the hind-margin very oblique, and slightly 
concave. The hind-wings are half as long again as broad, 
and very strongly scalloped, with a long, broad, slightly 
spatulate tail. The antennae have a stout but gradually-formed 
club. The thorax and antennae are black above, the head 
and most of the under surface of the body red ; the abdomen 
red and white. The wings are black, the fore-wings with 
three large pure white spots in the cell, and two rows of large 
white spots on the disc. On the hind wings there are two large 
white spots in the cell, two small ones above, and a curved 
row of small ones below ; there is also a row of large red sub- 
marginal lunules running from the tip to the anal angle ; and 
on the inner-mnrgin, opposite the end of the abdomen, 
which only extends two-thirds of the length of the hind-wings, 
is a red spot, marked above and below with white. 



Among the recently discovered species, which were un- 
known to Felder, Papilio laglaizii, Depuiset, from New 
Guinea and the Aru Islands, deserves special mention from 
its curious resemblance to Alcidis metaurus (Hopffer), a Moth 
belonging to the Nyctahmoniidce. It measures about 3^ 
inches across the wings, which are greenish-black, with a pale 
bluish-green band on all the wings, much wider on the hind- 
wings than on the fore-wings. The fore-wings have a short 
subapical band of the same colour, and on the hind-wings, 
the incisions and the short tail are white. 



LEPTOCIRCIN^E. 307 

GENUS BARONIA. 

Baronia, Salvin, Trans. Ent. Soc. London. 1893, p. 331. 

Under the name of Baronia brevicornis, Mr. Salvin has 
described a new form of Butterfly from Western Mexico (Sierra 
Madre del Sur, near Chilpancingo, at an altitude of about 4,500 
feet), which is remarkable for its very short antennae, with a 
long club, and the long hair-like frontal scales, which are drawn 
down between the eyes. The sub-costal nervure of the fore-wings 
is three-branched, " the first branch arising at a distance from 
the end of the cell about equal to its width, and the second 
the same distance beyond; the usual third branch from the 
end of the cell is wanting, as well as either the first or second 
before the end of the cell ; the upper disco-cellular nervule is 
short, and the middle disco-cellular about twice as long as the 
lower." The wings are brown, the fore-wings with rows of 
ochreous spots, those towards the tip whitish in the female, 
and the hind-wings with the upper part of the cell and the 
space above nearly to the costa yellowish-ochreous, and with 
several additional spots of the same colour. 

SUB-FAMILY IV. LEPTOCIRCIN^E. 

I have ventured to separate the anomalous genus, Lepto- 
circus, Swainson, as a distinct Sub-family. The head and body 
are very thick, the abdomen short, the eyes large and pro- 
minent, the palpi very short and thick, with long stiff hairs in 
front, and the antennae thickening into a club, which is slightly 
curved upwards. In one species only, L. curius (Fabricius), 
the claws of the tarsi are bifid, as in the Pierida ; in the others 
they are simple. The fore-wings are short, sub-triangular, with 
the tip rather pointed, and the hind-margin oblique ; the outer 
part is hyaline, except at the edges. The hind-wings are long, 
folded, and produced into a very long tail. On the fore-wings 

x 2 



308 LLOYD'S NATURAL HISTORY. 

thesub-costal nervure is five-branched, with two branches thrown 
off near together before the end of the cell ; the third and fourth 
fork half way between the rather pointed cell and the tip, 
while the fifth forks just beyond the cell. The upper disco- 
cellular nervule is present, the first discoidal nervule being 
emitted from the cell. There is a short internal nervure and 
an oblique cross-nervule connecting the median and sub- 
median nervures near the base. On the hind-wings the pre- 
costal nervule is present, and curved, and there is a cross- 
nervure connecting the costal and sub-costal nervures at the 
base ; the second sub-costal nervule is absent ; the cell is very 
small, and all the remaining nervures are very long, the upper 
median nervule running down to the extremity of the tail. 

GENUS LEPTOCIRCUS. 

Leptocircus, Swainson, Zool. 111. Ins. ii. p. 106 (1832 ?) ; 
Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 380 (1836); Double- 
day, Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 22 (1847); Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett. ii. p. 47 (1886). 

This genus includes only a few species, very similar to each 
other, which have a wide range over the Indo-Malayan Region, 
but do not appear to extend beyond it, except to Celebes. I 
have figured the type, which is also one of the commonest 
species ; it is found in India, Malacca, Java, &c. The species 
of Leptocircus are said to hover over water in company with 
Dragonflies, which some observers say they resemble on the 
wing. 

LEPTOCIRCUS MEGES. 
(Plate LXIIL Fig. 2.) 
Erydna curius> Godart (nee Fabricius), Enc. Moth, ix. p. 827 

(1823). 

Papilio meges, Zinken-Sommer, Nova Acta Acad. Nat. Cur 
xv. p. 161, pi. 15, fig. 8 (1831). 



LEPTOCIRCIN^E. 309 

Lamproptera curius. Gray, in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, xv. 

pi. 102, fig. 4 (1832). 
Leptocircus curlus, Swainson, Zool. 111. Ins. ii. pi. 106 (1833); 

Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid. i. p. 381, pi. 7, fig. i ; pi. 

17, fig. i (1836). 
Leptocircus meges, Doubleday, Zoologist, i. pp. 1 10, 1 1 1, cum. fig. 

(1843) ; Distant, Rhop. Malay, p. 385, pi. 32, fig. 3 (1886). 
Leptocircus virescenS) Butler, Cat. Lep. Fabr. p. 259 (1870). 

This species measures rather less than two inches across the 
wings, which are black. The fore-wings are hyaline on the 
outer half, traversed by the black nervures, and a green band 
runs straight from the costa of the fore-wings, at about one- 
third of their length, to the middle of the hind-wings. 

The earliest known species of the genus, L. curius (Fabr.) is 
smaller, with shorter tails, and a white transverse band instead 
of a green one ; it inhabits Java and Siam. 



With this genus we conclude our second volume, and our 
account of the more typical Butterflies. Our next volume will 
commence with the Hesperiidcz, or Skippers, which may be 
regarded as intermediate between Butterflies and Moths ; fol- 
lowed by an account of those families of Moths which appear 
to be most nearly allied to the Butterflies. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Aboeis. 192, 194, 195, 197. 

cebrene. 197. 

mexicana. 231. 
Abisara. 10, 14, 15. 

gerontes. 15. 
abrota, Ogyris. 131. 
achceus, Anteros. 36. 

Papilio. 36. 

Polyommatus. 36. 
Achillides. 297. 

arjuna. 298. 

paris. 297, 298. 
achine, Anthopsyche. 195. 

Callosune. 195. 
Achivus. 268, 289. 

hippocrates. 286. 

hospiton. 286. 

machaon. 276,285,286,287,289. 
acis, Helicopis. 20, 21. 

Lycrena. 107. 

Papilio. 20, 104, 107. 

Polyommatus. 107. 
Acmetopteron. 182, 183. 

nemesis. 182, 183. 
Acroea andromachu. 241. 
Acrreinoe. 134, 181, 250. 
Actinote. 181. 
Adelpha. 48. 
adonis, Lycrcna. 94. 

Papilio. 94. 

Polyommatus. 92, 93, 94, 95. 
cegcus, Nestorides. 295. 
oegon, Lycoena. 88. 

Papilio. 88. 

Polyommatus. 88. 



aelianus, Lampides. 85. 
seneas, Papilio, 271. 
ceneides, Papilio. 271. 
restiva, Lycrena. 99. 
^theoptera. 256, 257. 

victorire. 256. 
agamemnon, Papilio. 278. 
aganippe, Delias. 170. 
agathon, Metaporia. 158. 
agenor, Iliades. 299, 300, 301. 

Papilio. 299. 
agcstis, Papilio. 99. 

Polyommatus. 99, 101, 102. 
agestor, Caclugoides. 280. 
Agriades atys. 103. 

orbitulus. 103. 
agyrtus, Erycina. 43. 

Isapis. 43. 

Papilio. 43. 
AkTena. 134. 

albicans, Lycnena. 91, 92. 
albipunctata, Zemeros. 13. 
alcides, Myrina. 76. 

Papilio. 76. 
Alcidis metaurus. 306. 
Alcon Blue. no. 
alcon, Lycrena. no. 

Nomiades. no. 

Papilio, no. 

Polyommatus. IOO, HO. 
Aletis. 134. 
alexis, Lycsena. 96. 
Papilio. 96, 99, 105. 

Polyommatus. 94, 96, 99, 100 
IOI, 102. 



312 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



allous, Papilio. 99. 

Polyommatus, loo. 
Aloeides. 77, 79. 
Aloeides pierus. 79. 
alphcea, Lemonias maculata. 38. 
alsus, Cupido. 85. 

Lycaena. 105. 

Polyommatus. 105. 
Amaryssus. 286. 
amata, Colotis. 190. 
Amauris, 291. 
Amauris niavius. 291. 
Amblypodia. 48, 130. 

apidanus. 130. 

erylus. 62. 
amphione, Dismorphia. 181, 182. 

Papilio. 181. 

amphrysus, Ornithoptcra. 265. 
amyntas, Papilio. 86. 

Polyommatus. 86. 
Amynthia. 223, 225. 

clorinda. 223. 

maerula. 223. 
Anaphe. 163. 
Ancyluris. 30, 31, 3 \. 

iphinoe. 29. 

melibceus. 31. 
androgeos, Papilio. 299. 
androgeus, Calaidcs. 283. 
andromacha, Acraea. 241. 
annse, Callosune. 196, 200. 
Anops. 131. 

antenor, Pharmacophagus. 306. 
Anteros. 35. 

achaeus. 36. 

formosus. 35. 
Anthocharinae. 139, 185. 
Anthocharis. 185, 190, 194. 

cardamines. 186. 

cebrene. 197. 

danae. 196. 

genutia. 190. 

scolymus. 190. 
Anthopsyche. 194, 19$, 197. 

achine. 195. 
anthyale, Zerene. 217. 
antimachus, Drurya. 240, 241, 
250, 279- 

Papilio. 250. 



antiopa, Papilio. 235, 268. 

Vanessa. 235, 268. 
antiphates, Pathysa. 274. 
Apatura iris. 249. 
Aphnaeus. 13, 79. 

orcas, 80. 

Aphnaria. 47, 48. 
Aphrissa. 228. 

statira. 228. 

apidanus, Amblypodia. 130, 
apollina, Doritis. 239 
Apollo Butterfly. 236. 
apollo, Papilio. 236. 

Parnassius. 141, 236, 237, 238, 

239- 

apollonius, Parnassius. 239. 
Aporia. ^139, 143, 154, 156. 

crataegi. 140, 141. 

Lama. 155. 
Annas. 171, 172, 174, 175. 

paulina. 143. 

zelmira. 173. 
Araminta. 292. 

dcmolion. 292. 
Areas. 58. 

imperialis. 58- 
areas, Nomiades. 109. 

Papilio. no. 
Archonias. 163, 164. 

tereas. 163. 
arethusa, Papilio. 197. 
argia, Nepheronia. 205, 206. 
argiades, Cupido. 85, 106. 

Lycaena. 86, 87. 

Papilio. 85. 

Polyommatus. 86. 
argiolus, Cyaniris. 103. 

Lycaena. 104. 

Papilio. 103, 106. 

Polyommatus. 104. 
Argus, Brown. 99, 100. 

Durham. 100. 
argus, Lyccena. 88. 

Papilio. 88. 

Plebeius. 47, 87, 88, 89. 

Polyommatus. 88, 89. 
Arhopala. 130. 
aiion, Lycaena. 109. 

Nomiades. 106, 108, no. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



arion, Papilio. 108. 

Polyommatus. 108, HO. 
arjuna, Achillides. 298. 
armandi, Davidina. 157, 158. 
Armandia. 247, 248. 

thaidina. 247, 248. 
Artaxerxes Butterfly. 102. 
artaxerxes, Hesperia. 102. 

Lycrena. 102. 

Polyommatus. 102, 103. 
aruna, Delias. 169. 
Ascanides. 269. 

triopas. 269. 
ascanius, Hectorides. 270, 271, 

Papilio. 270. 
Asian ga. 136. 

marginalis. 136. 

vininga. 136. 
astarte, Catagramma. 42. 
astrarche, Lycxna. 99, 102. 

Papilio. 99. 

Polyommatus. 99. 
astynome, Leptalis. 182. 
Atrophaneura. 302. 

semperi. 302. 
atropos, Manduca. 304. 
atymnus, Loxura. 77. 
atys, Agriades. 103. 
aurata, Lycoena. 120. 
aurora, Eriocolias. 21 1. 
Aurotis. 65. 
auxo, Callosune. 205. 
avellaneda, Catopsilia. 227. 
Axiocerses. 63, 78. 

perion. 64. 
Azure Blue. 103, 104. 

bachmanii, Hypatus. 4. 

Libythea. 4. 
oyetica, Lampides. 84. 

Lyccena. 83. 
bceticus, Lampides. 82, 85. 

Papilio. 82. 

Polyommatus. 83, 90. 
ballus, Thestor. 128. 

Tomares. 128. 
Baltia. 159, 158. 

butleri. 156. 

shawii. 156, 



Barbicornis. 34 

basalis. 34. 
Baronia. 307. 

brevicornis. 307. 
basalis, Barbicornis. 3|. 
Bath White. 152. 
Bedford Blue. 105. 
belemida, Papilio. 152. 
Belenois. 161. 

calypso. 161. 
belenus, Heliophorus. 69. 
belisama, Delias. 166, 168. 

Papilio. 1 66. 

Pieris. 1 66. 
bellargus, Lycoena. 94. 

Papilio. 93. 

Polyommatus. 93. 
bellidice, Papilio. 152. 

Pieris. 152. 

Pontia. 153. 

bengalensis, Lycoenesthes. 114. 
betulie, Papilio. 66. 

Polyommatus. 66. 

Thecla. 48, 66. 

Zephyrus. 66. 
Bhutanitis. 247, 248. 

lidderdalii. 247, 248. 
bibulus, Lachnocnema. 133. 
Biduanda. 74. 
bifasciata, Mesosemia. 24. 
Black Hair-streak. 53. 
Black-veined White. 140, 142. 
Blue, Alcon. no. 

Azure. 103, 104. 

Bedford. 105. 

Chalk-hill. 91. 

Common. 96, 97. 

Large. 108, 109. 

Large Tailed. 82. 

Mazarine. 106, 107, 108. 

Silver-studded. 88. 

Small Tailed. 85. 
bcebera, Nepheronia. 205. 
bohemani, Ptychopteryx. 193. 
boisduvaliana, Sphrenogona. 231. 
Bombyces. 17, 32, 163. 
bogota, Zeonia. 27. 
bogotana, Sphrenogona, 230, 231, 
brassicpe, Papilio. 144. 



3 T 4 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



brassicce, Pieris. 143, 144, 145, 
146, 147. ( 

Pontia. 144. 
Brassolis. 136. 
brassolis, Liphyra. 136. 
brephos, Leucidia. 177. 
brevicornis, Baronia. 307. 
Brimstone Butterfly. 221, 222. 
brookeana, Ornithoptera. 259, 260, 
261. 

Trogonoptera. 259, 260, 261. 
Brown Argus. 90, 100. 

Hair-streak. 65. 
bryonice, Papilio. 149. 

Pieris. 149, 150. 
buquetii, Nepheronia. 205. 
butleri, Baltia. 156. 

Synchloe. 156. 
Byasa. 304. 

philoxenus. 304. 

Cabbage Butterflies. 143. 
Cadugoides. 280. 

agestor. 280. 
cceneus, Delias. 168. 
ceesarea, Euterpe. 164. 
Calaides. 283. 

androgeus. 283. 
callidice, Pontia. 151. 
Callidryas. 205, 226, 228. 

eubule. 207, 228. 
Callidryinse, 139, 207. 
callinice, Pereute. 165. 
Callophrys. 54. 

dumetorum. 55. 

rubi. 54, 68. 

Callosune. 192, 194, 196, 200, 
204, 205. 

achine. 195. 

annoe. 196, 200. 

auxo. 205. 

cinerascens. 196. 
calphurnia, Euerycina. 33. 
calypso, Belenois. 161. 
Camberwell Beauty. 235. 
Candida, Leptoria. 179. 

Terias. 233. 
candidus, Papilio. 178. 
cardamines, Anthocharis. 186. 



cardamines, Euchloe. 150, 186, 
187, 188, 189, 190, 195. 

Papilio. 1 86. 

Pieris. 186. 

Pontia. 1 86. 
caricse, Erycina. 41. 

Limnas subtilis. 40. 

Nymphidium. 40, 41. 

Papilio. 40. 
carinenta, Papilio. 3. 

Libythea. 5. 
Carolina, Eurybia. 25. 
Cartea. 32. 
Castalaria. 47, 48. 
Castalius. 48, II2J 

rosimon. 112, 113. 
castor, Tamera. 294. 
Catagramma astarte. 42. 

sinamara. 42. 
Catagrammina. 42. 

hevvitsoni, 43. 

tapaja. 42. 
Catasticta. 164. 
Catochrysops. 48. 
Catophaga. 142, 143, 228. 
Catopsilia. 139, 207, 225, 227 
229. 

avellaneda. 227. 

crocale. 226. 

scylla. 226. 

solstitia. 227. 
cebrene, Aboeis. 197. 

Anthocharis. 197. 
celadon, Iphiclides. 274, 275. 

Papilio. 275. 
celtis, Libythea. 2, 4, 6. 

Papilio. 2, 4. 
cenea, Papilio. 292. 
ceneus, Papilio. 168. 
ccronus, Lyccena. 94. 

Papilio. 94, 95. 

Polyommatus. 95. 
cesonia, Meganostoma. 220. 
Cethosia. 242. 
Chalk-hill Blue. 91. 
Chamaelimnas, 33. 
Charidae. 139. 

Charis. 37, 185, 294, 297, 
298 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



3*5 



chariclea, Pieris. 143, 145. 

Fontia. 145. 

charltonius, Parnassius. 239. 
charops, Pereute. 165. 
Charus helenus. 294. 
cheiranthi, Pieris. 144. 
Cheritra. 74. 
Chilasa, 279. 

dissimilis. 280. 

panope. 279. ; 

chilensis, Eroessa. 192. 
chione, Nepheronia, 205, 2o5. 
chitra, Sithon, 75. 

Thecla. 75. 
chorineus, Papilio, 28. 

Zeonia. 28. 
chryseis, Chrysophanus. 123. 

Lyoena. 123. 

Papilio. 123. 

Polyommatus. 123. 
chrysonome, Idmais. 199. 
Chrysophanidi. 129. 
Chrysophanus. 115* 

chryseis. 123. 

dispar. 117. 

phlceas. 125. 

virgaureoe. 1 16. 
Chrysorychia. 63. 
chrysotheme, Colias. 212. 

Eurymus. 210, 212. 
Cigaritis. 77, 79. 

zohra. 79- 

:inerascens, Callosunc, 19$. 
cinnus, Papilio. 94, 95. 

Polyommatus. 95. 
cipris, Parura. 229, 230. 
circe, Lycyena. 127. 
Citrinophila. 135. 
cleobis, Papilio. 103. 
cleobule, Colias. 221. 
cleodora, Eronia. 203, 204. 
cleopatra, Colias. 221, 223. 
Clifden Blue Butterfly. 93, 95. 
clorinda, Amynthia. 223. 
Clouded Yellows. 207, 209, 210, 

211, 212, 214, 215, 217, 218. 
clyton, Papilio. 112. 
codrus, Idaides. 278. 
Colias. 208, 210, 220, 223, 225. 



Colias chrysotheme. 212. 

cleopatra. 221, 223. 

croceus. 211, 214. 

dorippe. 217. 

edusa. 21 1, 212. 

europome. 217, 218. 

helice. 212. 

hyale. 21 1, 215. 

kirbyi. 210, 216. 

myrmidone. 212. 

palseno. 210. 

philodice. 217. 

rhamni. 220, 221, 223. 

sareptensis. 216. 
Colotis. 192, 198. 

amata, 198. 

Common Blue. 96, 97. 
Compsoteria. 26. 
Copper, Dark-undervving. 121,122 

Large. 117, 120, 122, 124. 

Purple-edged, 122, 123, 124. 

Scarce. 115, 116. 

Small. 125, 126. 
coretas, Papilio. 86. 
corethrus, Euryades. 241. 
coridon, Papilio. 113. 
corydon, Lyaiena. 91. 

Papilio. 91. 

Polyommatus. 82, 91, 92, 94, 

95, 100. 
Cosmodesmus. 272, 274. 

protesilaus. 273. 
cratoegi, Aporia. 140, 141. 

Papilio. 140. 

Pieris. 140. 

Polyommatus. 129. 
cresphontes, Heraclides. 282. 
cressida, Eurycus. 240. 
crino, ITarimala. 297. 
crispus, Papilio. 39. 
crocale, Catopsilia. 226. 
croceus, Colias. 211,214, 

Eurymus. 214. 

Papilio. 211. 
croesus, Papilio. 35. 

Troides. 255, 256. 
Cupido. 81, 85. 

alsus. 85; 

argiades. 85, 106. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Cupido puer. 85, 105. 
cupido, Helicopis. 20, 21. 

Papilio. 21. 
Curetaria. 47> 48. 
Curetis. 48, 131. 

thetys. 131. 
curius, Erycina. 308. 

Lamproptera. 309. 

Leptocircus. 307, 309. 
cyanea, Papilio. 113. 

Pepliphorus. 113. 
Cyaniris. 82, 103, 

argiolus. 103. 
Cyllopoda. 33. 
cyllarus, Nomiades. 108 

Dabasa. 278. 

gyas. 278. 
Dalchina. 277, 278. 

sarpedon. 277. 
danae, Anthocharis. 196. 

Callosune. 196. 

Pieris. 196. 

Danaime. 207, 279, 280, 284, 291. 
danis, Papilio. 113, 196. 

Thysonotis. 113. 
daplidice, Pontia. 143, 152, 153, 

191, 214, 219. 
Daptonura. 175. 
Dark-underwing Copper. 121, 

122. 

dasarada, Paenasmia. 303, 304. 
Davidina. 156, 157. 

armandi. 157, 158. 
decorata, Dicallaneura. 14. 
delia, Eurema. 232. 
Delias. 165, 168, 169, 171. 

ag-anippe. 170. 

aruna. 169. 

belisama. 166, 168. 

caeneus. 168. 

dorimene. 170. 

eucharis. 167. 

egialea. 169. 

nigrina. 170. 

philyra, 168. 

delius, Parnassius. 238, 239. 
Deloneura immaculata. 135. 
(Jemoleus, Orpheides. 280. 



demolion, Araminta. 292. 
Dercas. 224. 

verhuelli. 225. 
Deudorix. 48, 71, 73. 

epijarbas. 71, 72. 

isocrates. 72. 
Dicallaneura. 13. 

decorata. 14. 

pulchra. 13. 
diniensis, Leptidia. 180. 

Leucophasia. 179, 180. 
Dioptidae. 45. 
Dioptis. 26. 
Diorhina. 29, 30. 

laonome. 29. 

periander. 29. 
Dipsas. 65. 

epijarbas. 71. 
Dismorphia. 177, 180, iSl, 182. 

amphione. 181, 182. 

egaena. 183. 

lais. 182. 
Dismorphidae. 139. 
dispar, Chrysophanus. 117. 

Lycaena. 117, 120, 121, 122, 
124. 

Papilio. 117. 

Polyommatus. 117. 

Porthetria. 12 1. 
dissimilis, Chilasa. 280. 
Dodona. 13. 
dolicaon, Eurytides. 272. 
dolus, Polyommatus, 93. 
donna, Eurybia. 26. 
dorilis, Lycaena. 127. 
dorimene, Delias. 170. 
dorippe, Colias. 217. 
Doritis. 239. 

apollina. 239. 

dorylas, Polyommatus. 94, 95. 
Drurya. 250. 

antimachus. 240, 241, 250, 

279. 

Dryadoe. 139. 
Dryas. 203. 

leda. 203, 204. 
dumetorum, Callophrys. 55. 
Durbania. 134. 
Durham Argus. 100, 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



317 



Dusky-veined White Butterfly. 
150. 

Early White Cabbage Butterfly. 

145- 

eborea, Papilio. 196. 
ectriva, Sphoenogona. 230. 
edusa, Colias. 211, 212. 

Eurymus, 214. 

Papilio. 152, 211. 
cffima, Eurygona. 17. 

Euselasia. 17. 
cgacna, Dismorphia. 183. 

Leptalis. 183. 
egaensis, Dismorphia. 183. 

Mechanitis. 183. 
egialea, Delias. 169. 

Papilio. 169. 

Pieris. 169. 
egnatia, Elodina. 176. 
ehrenbergii, Morpheis. 19. 
eieiclias, Perrhybris. 159. 
electra, Eurymus. 213, 214. 

Papilio. 211. 

elephenor, Pangcranopsis. 302. 
eleus, Hesperia. 125. 

Pplyommatus. 126. 
Elodina. 175. 

egnatia. 176. 
elvina, Leucidia. 177. 
emalthion, Thaclcs. 301. 
emesioides, Zemeros. 13. 
Emesis. 36, 37. 
emylius, Erycina. 39. 

Lemonias. 39. 

Papilio. 39. 
Enantia. 182, 184. 

licinia. 184. 

melite. 182, 184. 
Endopogon, 270, 271. 

sesostris. 270. 
endymion, Ilelicopis. 20. 

Papilio. 20, 57, 90. 

Polyommatus. 57. 
epicharis, Pieris. 167. 
epicles, Heliophorus. 69. 

Ilerda. 69, 71. 

Polyommatus. 69. 

Thecla. 69. 



epijarbas, Deudorix. 71, 72. 

Dipsas. 71. 
Epinephele janita. 66. 
Epitola. 134. 

epulus, Lemonias maculata. 38. 
Eques. 267, 288, 290. 

lyoeus. 290. 

nireus. 290. 
Equites. 235, 251, 268. 
Equilidae. 17, 27, 154, 158, 163, 
234, 235, 240, 241, 242, 248, 
279, 280, 282, 285, 296, 
297. 

Equitinae. 265. 
crate, Eurymus. 217. 
Eriocolias. 209, 210. 

hyale. 210. 
eris, Pontia 198. 
erithonius, Orpheides. 280, 282. 
Eroessa chilensis. 192. 
Eronia. 202, 203, 205. 

cleodora. 203, 204. 

leda. 203. 

eros, Polyommatus. 97, 98. 
Erycina. 8, 29, 30. 

agyrtus. 43. 

caricxj. 41. 

curius. 308. 

emylius. 39. 

gelon. 17. 

iphinoe. 29, 

meliboeus. 31. 

octavius. 28. 

philocles. 24. 

tarquinius. 128. 
Erycinidoe. 8, 14, 15. 
erylus, Amblypodia. 62. 

Hypolyccena. 62, 63. 

Myrina. 62. 
erysimi, Leptidia. 180. 

Leucophasia. 188. 

Papilio. 179. 

ethelinda, Nymphidiurn. 41. 
eubule, Callidryas. 227, 228. 

Papilio. 227. 
cucharis, Delias. 167. 

Papilio. 167. 
Eucheira. 162. 

socialis. 162. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Euchloe. 177, 185, 190, 191, 194, 
195, 201, 205. 

cardamines. 150, 186, 187, 188, 
189, 190, 195. 

hesperidis. 189. 190. 

turritis. 188, 189. 
Eudymion regalis. 57. 
Euerycina. 34. 

calphurnia. 33. 
Eumceus. 46, 48, 160. 

minyas. 60. 
Eumenia. 46, 60. 

toxea. 60. 
Euphceades, 284. 

glaucus. 283, 284. 
Euplcea. 280. 
Euplceopsis. 280, 289. 

glaucus. 284, 285. 

telearchus. 280. 
Euptychia. 16, 18, 23. 
Eurema. 207, 232, 234, 

delia. 232. 
euridice, Papilio. 123. 

Polyommatus. 123. 
eurisus, lolaus. 73. 

Papilio. 73. 
europome, Colias. 217, 218. 

Eurymus. 218, 219. 
Euryades. 241. 

corethrus. 241. 
Eurybia. 22, 25. 

Carolina. 25. 

donna. 26. 

nicaeus. 26. 

salome. 26. 
eurybia, Papilio. 123, 125. 

Polyommatus. 123. 
Eurycus. 240, 241. 

cressida. 240. 

euryclice, Meganosloma. 220. 
Eurygona. 16. 

effima. 17. 
Eurygoninee. 8. 

Eurymus. 138, 198, 208, 210, 218, 
220, 233. 

aurora, 211 

chrysotheme. 210, 212. 

croceus. 214 

edusa. 214. 



Eurymus electra. 213, 214. 

erate. 217. 

europome. 218, 219. 

helice. 212, 213. 

hyale. 210, 211, 214, 216, 217, 
218, 219. 

kirbyi. 211, 215, 218, 219. 

myrmidone. 212. 

paloeno. 214, 215, 217. 

phicomone. 210. 

philodice. 217. 

sareptensis. 217. 
euryone, Euselasia. 18. 
eurypylus, Zetides. 277. 
Eurytides. 272. 

dolicaon. 272. 
Euselasia. 16, 23, 265. 

effima. 17. 

euryone. 18. 

gelon. 17. 

opalescens. 17. 

phoedica. 18. 

prceclara. 17. 
Euselasiinre. 8, 15, 19. 
Euterpe. 163. 

ccesarea. 164. 

leucodrosime. 164. 
Euvanessa. 268 note, 
evagoras, lalmenus. 70, 

Myrina. 7- 

Papilio. 70. 
evan, Meandrusa. 278. 
Evenus. 57. 

regalis. 57. 
Everes. 85. 
eversmanni, Parnassius. 239. 

faunus, Papilio. 27. 

Zeonia. 27, 28. 
fausta. Idmais. 199. 
feisthamelii, Iphiclides. 276. 

Papilio. 275. 
Feniseca. 128. 

tarquinius. 128, 129. 
ficedula, Myrina. 76. 
flegyas, Zemeros. 13. 
fiippantha, Melete. 175. 
formosus, Anteros. 35. 

Papilio. 35. 



ALriiAtSEf ICAL INDEX. 



gambrisius, Nestoridcs. 295. 
Ganoris. 142, 143. 
gelon, Erycina. 17. 

Euselasia. 17. 

Papilio. 17. 

genutia, Anthocharis. iO. 
gerontes, Abisara. 15. 
Gerydus. 48, 132. 

symethus. 132. 
Gipsy Moth. 121. 
glaucippe, Hebomoia. 201, 202. 
glaucus, Euphceades. 284, 285. 
glycerion, Pazala. 273. 
Gnesia zetes. 250. 
gnidus, Papilio. 20. 
Golden-Spot Butterfly. 20. 
Gonepteryx. 221. 

rhamni. 221. 
Green Hair-streak. 54. 
Green-veined White Butterfly. 148, 

149. 
gyas, Dabasa. 278. 

Hades noctula. 18, 19. 
Hair-streaks. 48, 49. 

Black. 53. 

Brown. 65. 

Green. 54. 

Pale Brown. 49. 

Purple. 67, 68. 

White-letter. 50, 51. 
Hamearis lucina. n. 
hardwickii, Parnassius. 239. 
Harimala. 296, 297, 298. 

crino. 297. 
Ilebomoia. 200. 

glaucippe. 201, 202. 

leucippe. 202. 
hecabe, Terias. 233. 
hector, Thais. 305. 

Tros. 305. 
Hectorides. 270. 

ascanius. 270, 271. 
helena, Ornithoptera. 264, 265. 
helenus, Charus. 294. 
helice, Colias. 212. 

Eurymus. 212, 213. 

Papilio. 212. 
heliconides, Zeonia. 28. 



II el i con i us. 159. 
Helicopis. 14, 19, 35. 

acis. 20, 21. 

cupido. 20, 21. 

endymion. 20. 
Heliophorus. 68, 70. 

belenus. 69. 

epicles. 69. 

helios, Hypermnestra. 240. 
helius, lolaus. 73. 

Papilio. 73. 

Polyommatus. 73. 
hera, Isapis. 44. 
Ileraclides. 282, 183. 

cresphontes. 282. 

thoas. 282. 
hersilia, Phcebis. 229. 
hesebolus, Parnassius. 238. 
Ilesperia artaxerxes. 102. 

eleus. 125. 

pindarus. 80. 

tarquinius. 128 
hesperidis, Euchloe. 189, 190. 
Hesperiidae. 33, 82, 136, 309. 
Ilestia idea, 279. 
hewitsoni, Catagrammina. 43. 
Ilewitsonia. 134. 
Hipparchia hyperanthus. 67. 
hippia, Nepheronia. 205. 
hippocrates, Achivus. 286. 
hippolytus, Ornithoptera 266. 

Pompeoptera. 266. 
hippothoe, Lycocna. 121-125. 

Papilio. 117, 121, 122, 266. 

Polyommatus. 117, 121, 123, 

124. 

homerus, Papilio. 282. 
honnoratii, Thais. 243, 244, 245. 
hospiton, Achivus. 286. 
Howard's White Butterfly. 148. 
Huphina. 174. 
hyacinthus, Papilio. 94. 
hyale, Colias, 211, 215. 

Eriocolias. 210. 

Eurymus. 210, 211, 213, 214, 
216. 

Papilio. 211, 215. 
hylax, Pithecops. 114. 
hyparete, Mancipium. 167. 



320 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



hyparete, Papilio. 167, 168. 
Hypatus. 3, 5. 

bachmanii. 4. 

hyperanthus, Ilipparcliia. 67. 
Hypermnestra. 240. 

helios. 240. 
Hypochrysops. 81. 
Hypolyoena. 48, 6 1. 

erylus. 62, 63. 

lara. 6l. 

lal menus. 70. 

evagoras. 70. 
icarinus, Papiiio. 96. 
icarus, Lycaena. 96, 97. 

Papilio. 96, 98. 

Polyommatus, 87, 94, 96, 97, 

98, 107, 126. 
idoeoides, Papilio. 279. 
Idaides. 278. 

codrus. 278. 
idea, Hestia. 279. 
Idmais. 193, 198, 199. 

chrysonome. 199. 

fausta. 199. 

idotaea, Nepheronia. 203, 205, 206. 
Ilerda. 68. 

epicles. 69. 
Iliades. 299, 301. 

agenor. 299, 300, 301. 

memnon. 300, 301. 
ilicis, Thecla. 54, 68. 
ilioneus, Pterurus. 289. 
immaculata, Deloneura. 135. 
imperialis, Areas. 58. 

Papilio. 58. 

Teinopalpus. 248. 

Thecla. 58. 

iobsea, Nepheronia. 2o3. 
lolaus. 73. 

eurisus. 73. 

helius. 73. 

silas. 73. 

iole, Nathalis. 208. 
Iphias leucippe. 202. 
Iphiclides. 274. 

celadon. 274, 275. 

feisthamelii. 276. 

podalirius, 273, 275. 



Iphiclides protesilaus. 273. 
iphigenia, Papilio. 159. 

Pieris. 159. 
iphinoe, Ancyluris. 29. 

Erycina. 29. 
iris, Apatura. 249. 
Isamiopsis. 280. 
Isapis. 22, 43. 

agyrtus. 43. 

hera. 44. 

isocrates, Deudorix. 72. 
Ithobalus. 272. 

polydamas. 272. 
Ithomeis. 33. 
Ithomia. 26. 

Ithomiinje. 33, 44, 138, 177, 181. 
Ithomiopsis. 33. 
Ixias. 199. 

pyrene. 200. 

janira, Epinephelc. 66. 
Jasoniades. 285. 
xuthus. 285. 

kirbyi, Colias. 210, 216. 

Eurymus. 215, 217, 218, 219. 
Kricogonia. 224. 

lyside. 224. 

labienus, Polyommatus. 97. 
Lachnocnema bibulus. 133. 
lacon, Polyommatus. 97. 
Lceosopis roboris. 68. 
Laertias. 293, 296. 

ulysses. 296. 
laglaizii, Papilio. 306. 
lais, Dismorphia. 182. 
lama, Aporia. 155. 
Lampides. 48, 82, 85. 

oelianus. 85. 

bseticus. 82, 84, 85. 
Lamproptera curius. 309. 
laonome, Diorhina. 29. 
lara, Hypolycoena. 61. 
Large Blue. 108, 109. 
Large Copper. 117, 120, 122, 124. 
Large Tailed Blue. 82. 
Large White. 144. 
Larinopoda. 135. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



,21 



lathyri, Lcptidia. 180. 

Leucophasia. 180. 

Papilio. 179. 
leda, Dry as. 203, 204. 

Eronia. 203. 
Lemonias. 38, 39, 40. 

alphoea. 38. 

emylius. 39. 

epulus. 38. 

luciana. 38. 
Lemoniidce. 6, 8, 12, 14, 23, 33, 

34, 44, 128, 185, 265. 
Lemoniinse. 21. 
leonidas, Papilio. 279. 
Leptalis. 180, 182. 

astynome. 182. 

egaena. 183. 
Leptidia^ 177, 178. 

diniensis. 180. 

erysimi. 180. 

lathyri. 180. 

sinapis. 178, 219. 
Leptocircus. 27, 234, 307, 309. 

meges. 308, 309. 

virescens. 309. 
Leptoria. 178. 

Candida. 179- 
Leptosia. 176, 178, 2o5. 

xiphia. 177. 
Leucidia. 177. 

brephos. 177. 

elvina. 177. 
leucippe, Hebomoia. 2O2. 

Iphias. 202. 

Papilio. 202. 

Pieris. 202. 
leucodrosime, Euterpe. 164* 

Pereute. 164, 165. 
Leuconea. 140. 
Leucophasia. 178. 

diniensis. 179, iSo. 

erysimi. 1 80. 

lathyri. 180. 

sinapis. 179. 
Lethe. 14. 
Libythea. 2, 3, 6, 78. 

bachmanii. 4. 

carinenta. 5. 

celtis. 2, 4, 5, 6. 

10 



Libythea motya. 5. 
Libytheidye. I. 
licinia, Enantia. 184. 
lidderdalii, Bhutanitis. 247, 248. 
Limnas. 291. 
caries. 40. 
Liphyra. 133, 136. 

brassolis. 1 36. 
Liptena. 134. 
Lipteninse. 46, 47, 48, 133. 
Lithosiidae. 32. 
Loxura. 48, 74, 77. 

atymnus. 77. 
lucanus, Lucia. 133. 
Lucia. 133. 

lucanus. 133. 
luciana. Lemonias. 38. 
lucina, Ilamearis. u. 

Nemeobius. n. 

Papilio. u. 
Luehdorfia. 246. 
lyceus, Eques. 290. 
Lyoeides. 87. 

Lyoena. 46, 78, 81, 82, 90, 115, 
128, 159, 284. 

acis. 107. 

adonis. 94. 

segon. 88. 

zestiva. 99. 

albicans. 91, 92. 

alcon. i [o. 

alexis. 96. 

alsus. 105. 

argiades. 86, 87, 104. 

argus. 88. 

arion. 109. 

artaxerxes. 102. 

astrarche. 99, 102. 

aurata. 120. 

bsetica. 83. 

bellargus. 94. 

ceronus. 94. 

chryseis. 123. 

circe. 127. 

corydon. 91. 

dispar. 117, 120, 121, 122, 124 

hippothoe. 12 1, 123, 124, 125. 

icarinus. 97. 

icarus. 96, 97. 



322 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Lycacna medon. 99. 

minima. 105. 

orion. 1 12. 

phkeas. 78, 79, 90, 115, 125. 

rutila. 119, 120, 121, 122. 

semiargus. 107. 

schmidtii. 127. 

timeus. 127. 

virgaureoe. 115, 116. 
Lycsenesthes. 48, 114. 

bengalensis. 114. 
Lycoenidoe. 45, 128. 
lydius, Troides. 256. 
Lymnas. 35. 
lynceus, Papilio. 50. 
Lyropteryx, 32. _ 
lyside, Kricogonia. 224. 

macareus, Paranticopsis. 279. 
machaon, Achivus. 246, 276, 286. 

Papilio. 286. 
maerula, Arnynthia. 223. 
magellanus, Ornithoptera. 17,265. 
Mancipium. 142, 143, 151- 

vorax hyparete, 167. 
Manduca atropos. 304. 
marcius, Papilio. 271. 
marginalis, Aslauga. 136. 
marsyas, Papilio. 56. 

Polyommatus. 56. 

Pseudolyccena. 56, 58. 

Thecla. 56. 
maturna, Melitaea. 38. 
Mazarine Blue. 106, 107, 108. 
Meandrusa. 278. 

evan. 278. 

Mechanitis egaensis. 183. 
medesicaste, Papilio. 243. 

Thais. 243, 244, 245. 
medon, Lycxna. 99. 

Papilio. 99. 
meeda, Mesosemia. 25. 
Meganostoma. 219. 

cesonia. 220. 

eurydice. 220. 
meges, Leptocircus. 308, 309. 

Papilio. 308. 
Melete- 175. 

flippantha. 175. 



melibocus, Ancyluris. 31. 

Erycina. 31. 

Papilio. 31. 
Melitoea. 10, 12, 79. 

maturna. 38. 
melite, Enantia. 182, 184. 

Papilio. 182. 
memnon, Iliades. 300, 301. 

Papilio. 299, 300, 301. 
Menamopsis, 280. 

tavoyanus. 280. 
Menelaides. 304. 

polydorus. 304. 
menippe, Rhodocera. 224. 
meriones, Papilio. 291. 
merope, Papilio. 291, 299. 
Mesapia. 154, 156, 158. 

peloria. 155. 

shawii. 155, 156. 
Mesene. 37. 
Mesosemia. 18, 22, 23. 

bifasciata, 24. 

meeda. 25. 

philocles. 24. 
Metaporia. 140, 154, 158. 

agathon. 158. 
metaurus, Alcidis. 306. 
Methonella. 19. 
methymna, Moschoneura. i8l, 
metra, Pieris. 143, 148. 

Pontia. 148. 
Metura. 229. 
mexicana, Aboeis. 231. 

Sphsenogona. 230, 231, 233. 

Terias. 230. 
Micandra. 59. 

platyptera. 59. 
Midea. 190. 
milca, Vanessula. 135, 
Miletus. 132. 

polycletus. 81. 
Mimacrzea. 134. 
minima, Lycoena. 105. 

Papilio. 105. 

Polyommatus. 105. 

Zizera. 86, 87, 94, 105. 
minyas, Eumceus. 60. 
mnemosyne, Parnassius. 238. 
Morpheis ehrenbergii. 19. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



323 



Morpho sulkowskyi. 17, 265. 
Moschoneura. iSr. 

methymna. 181. 
motya, Libythea. 5> 
Mylothris. 160. 

rhodope. 161. 
Myrina. 74, 75. 

alcides. j6. 

erylus. 62. 

evagoras. 70. 

ficedula. 76. 

silenus. 76. 

thecloides. 62. 
myrmidone, Colias. 212. 

Eurymus. 212. 

napseoe, Papilio. 149. 

Pieris. 149. 

Pontia. 149. 
napi, Papilio. 148, 149. 

Pieris. 148, 151. 

Pontia. 149. 
nathalia, Saletara. 174. 
Nathalis. 207, 234. 

iole. 208. 
Necyria. 31. 

tapaja. 42, 43. 
nedymond, Papilio. 74. 

Thecla. 75. 

nedymonda, Sithon. 74, 75. 
nehemia, Pieris. 182. 

Pseudopieris. 182, 184. 
Nemeobiinoe. 8, 9, 12, 15, 22. 
Nemeobius. 10, 12, 44. 

lucina. 1 1. 
nemesis, Acmetopteron. 182, 183. 

Pieris. 182. 
Neopithecops. 48, 114. 
nepalensis, Pieris. 144. 
Nepheronia. 203, 205, 2o5. 

argia. 205, 206. 

boebera. 205. 

buquetii. 205. 

chione. 205, 206. 

hippia. 205. 

idotcea. 203, 205, 206. 

iobcea. 205. 

pharis. 205, 206. 

thalassina. 205. 



neriene, Zeritis. 79. 
nero, Tachyris. 173, 174. 
Nestorides. 295. 

Eegeus. 295. 

gambrisius. 295. 
Nettle-tree Butterfly. 4. 
niaivius, Amauris. 291. 
niciieus, Eurybia. 26. 

Papilio. 26. 
nicippe, Xanthidia. 231. 
nigrina, Delias. 170. 
nireus, Eques. 290. 
noctula, Hades. 18, 19. 
Nomiades. 106. 

alcon. no, in. 

areas. 109. 

arion. 106, 108, no. 

cyllarus. 108. 

semiargus. 103, 106, 108, 109. 
novangliae, Pieris. 147. 
nox, Papilio. 303. 
Nychitona. 176. 
Nyctalemoniidoe, 306. 
Nymphalidre. I, 7, 9, 12, 235, 

242. 

Nymphalinre. 19, 33, 40. 
Nymphalis. 267. 
nymphidia, Stiboges. 12. 
Nymphidium, 37, 40. 
Nymphidium caricee. 40, 41. 

ethelinda. 41. 

octavius, Erycina. 28. 

Papilio. 27, 28. 

Zeonia. 28. 
Ogyris. 48, 130. 

abrota. 131. 

opalesccns, Euselasia. 17. 
Orange-Tip Butterfly. 185, 186, 

IS/, 192, 2OO, 2OI, 205. 

orbitulus, Agriades. 103. 
orcas, Aphiucus. 80. 

Papilio. So. 

Polyommatus. 80. 
Orestias. 32. 
orion, Lyci-ena. 112. 

Papilio. in. 

Polyommatus. 1 1 1 . 

Scolitantides. 1 1 1 



324 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Ornithoptera. 251, 265, 267, 269, 
287. 

amphrysus. 265. 

brookeana. 259, 260, 261. 

helena. 264, 265. 

hippolytus, 266. 

magellanus. 17,265. 

pompeus. 264, 265. 

priamus. 252. 

remus. 266. 

rhadamanthus. 265. 

ruficollis. 265. 
Orpheides. 280. 

demoleus. 280. 

erithonius 280, 2^2. 



Pachlioptera. 265. 
Poenasmia, 303. 

dasarada. 303, 304. 
pabeno, Colias. 210. 

Eurymus. 214, 215, 217. 

Papilio. 215, 217, 218. 
Pale Brown Hair-streak. 49. 
Pale Clouded Yellow. 215, 216. 
pamela, Pieris. 159. 
pammon, Papilio. 293. 
Pandemus pasiphae. 37. 
Pangerana. 302. 

varuna. 302. 
Pangeranopsis. 302. 

elephenor. 302. 
panope, Chilasa. 279. 
Panosmiopsis. 301. 

rhetenor. 301. 
panthous, Papilio. 252, 266. 
Papilio. 235, 250, 267, 268, 269, 
286. 

achseus. 36. 

acis. 20, 104, 107. 

adonis. 94. 

segon. 88. 

reneas. 271. 

seneides. 271. 

agamemnon. 278. 

agenor. 299. 

agestis. 99. 

agyrtus. 43- 

alcides. 76. 



Papilio alcon. 1 10. 
alexis. 96, 99. 
allous. 99. 
alsus. 105. 
amphione. 181. 
amyntas. 86. 
anclrogeos. 299. 
antimachus. 250. 
antiopa. 235, 268. 
apollo. 236. 
areas. I IO. 
arethusa. 197. 
argiades. 85. 
argiolus. 103, 106. 
argus. 88. 
arion. 108. 
ascanius. 270. 
astrarche. 99. 
boeticus. 82. 
bathis. ill. 
belemida. 152. 
belisama. 166. 
bellargus. 93. 
bellidice. 152. 
betuloe. 65. 
brassicce. 144. 
bryonice. 149. 
candidus. 178. 
cardamines. 186. 
caricce. 40. 
carinenta. 3. 
celadon. 275. 
celtis. 2, 4. 
cenea. 292. 
ceneus. 168. 
ceronus. 94, 95. 
chorineus. 28. 
chryseis. 123. 
cinnus. 94, 95. 
cleobis. 103. 
clyton. 112. 
coretas. 86. 
coridon. 113. 
corydon. 91. 
cratregi. 140. 
crispus. 39. 
croceus. 211, 
croesus. 35. 
cupido. 21. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



3 2 5 



Papilio cyanea. 113. 
danae. 196. 
danais. 113. 
daplidice. 152. 
dispar. 117. 
eborea. 196. 
edusa. 152, 211. 
egialea. 169. 
elcctra. 21 1. 
emylius. 39. 
endymion. 20, 57, 90 
crysimi. 179. 
eubule. 227. 
cucharis. 167. 
euridice. 123. 
eurisus. 73- 
eurybia. 123, 125. 
evagoras. 70. 
faunus. 27. 
feisthamelii. 275. 
formosus. 35. 
gelon. 17. 
gnidus. 20. 
hclice. 212. 
helius. 73. 

hippothoe. 117, 121, 122, 
homerus. 282. 
hyacinthus. 94. 
hyale. 21 1, 215. 
hyparete. 167, 168. 
icarus. 96, 98. 
idreoides. 279. 
imperialis. 58. 
iphigenia. 159. 
laglaizii. 306. 
lathyri. 179. 
leonidas. 279. 
leucippe. 202. 
lucina. n. 
lynceus. 50. 
marcius, 271. 
marsyas. 56. 
medesicaste. 243. 
medon. 99. 
meges. 308. 
meliboeus. 31. 
melite. 182. 
mcmnon. 299, 300, 301. 
meriones. 291. 



Papilio merope. 291, 299. 
minima. 105. 
napreoe. 149. 
napi. 148, 149. 
nedymond. 74. 
nicoeus. 26. 
nox. 303. 
octavius. 27, 28. 
orcas. 80. 
orion. in. 
palaeno. 215, 217, 218. 
pamela. 1 59. 
pammon. 293. 
panthous. 252, 266. 
paris. 297. 
periander. 29. 
perion. 64. 
philocles. 24. 
phlreas. 125. 
pindarus. 80. 
plexaris. 168. 
podalirus. 275. 
polyphemus. 96. 
polysperchon. 85. 
polytes. 293, 294, 304. 
priamus. 252. 
protesilaus. 273. 
protumnus. 127. 
pruni. 50, 53. 
pylades; 279. 
pyretus. 31. 
pyrrha. 159. 
quercus. 49, 67. 
rapre. 146. 
regal is. 57. 
remus. 266. 
rhamni. 221. 
ridleyanus. 240, 279. 
romulus. 295. 
rosimon. 1 12. 
rubi. 54. 
rumina. 243. 
rutilus. 121. 
salome. 26. 
scmiargus. 106. 
silenus. 76. 
sinapis. 178. 
sinon. 274. 
spini. 48, 49. 






326 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Papilio symethus. 1 32. 
tarquinius. 128. 
telephii. in. 
thetis. 93, 96. 
timeus. 125. 
tiphys. 91. 
tiresias. 85. 
trogon. 260. 
troilus. 289. 
turnus. 285. 
valens. 36. 
venus. 58. 
virgaurese. 115. 



w-album. 50. 
zagreus. 284. 



zalmoxis. 267. 

zelmira. 1 73. 

paradisea, Schcenbergia. 258. 
Paranticopsis. 279. 

macareus. 279. 
Parides. 271, 284. 
paris, Achillides. 297, 298. 

Papilio. 297. 
Parnassiinse. 234, 236. 
Parnassius. 154, 158, 236, 239, 
240. 

apollo. 141, 236, 237, 238, 

239. . 

apollonius. 239. 

charltonius. 239. 

delius. 238, 239. 

eversmanni. 239. 

hardwickii. 239. 

hesebolus. 238. 

mnemosyne. 238. 

stubbendorfi. 239. 

wosnesenskii. 232. 
Parura. 229. 

cipris. 229, 230. 
pasiphae, Pandemus. 37 
Pathysa. 274. 

antiphates. 274. 
paulina, Appias. 143. 
Pazala. 273. 

glycerion. 273. 
peloria, Mesapia. 155. 

Pieris. 155. 
Pentila. 135. 
Pepliphorus. 113. 



Pepliphorus cyanea. 113. 
Pereute. 139, 164, 165, 166. 

callinice. 165. 

charops. 165. 

leucodrosime. 164, 165. 
periander, Diorhina. 29. 

Papilio. 29. 
perion, Axiocerscs. 64. 

Papilio. 64. 

Perophthalma tenera. 18. 
Perrhybris. 158. 

eieidias. 159. 

pyrrha. 159. 
phsedica, Euselasia. 18. 
pharis, Nepheronia. 205, 206. 
Pharmacophagus. 306. 

antenor. 306. 
Phasis. 77, 78. 

thero. 78. 

phicomone, Eurymus. 210. 
philocles, Erycina. 24. 

Mesosc .nia. 24. 

Papilio. 24. 
philodice, Colias. 217. 

Eurymus. 217. 
philoxenus, Byasa. 304. 
philyra, Delias. 168. 

Pieris. 168. 
phlccas, Chrysophanus. 125. 

Lycnena. 78, 79, 90, 115, 
125. 

Papilio. 125. 

Polyommatus. 125. 
phlegia, Stalactis. 45. 
Phoebis. 228. 

hersilia. 229. 
Phyllocharis. 190. 

tagis. 191. 
Phytala. 134. 

PieridEE. 135, 137, 138, 139, 154, 
157, 162, 177, 185, 200, 224, 
234, 235, 307. 
Pierinre, 139 

Pieris. 139, 140, 142, 143, 151, 
156, 158, 225. 

belisama. 166. 

bellidice. 152. 

brassiere. 143, 141, 145, 146, 
147. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



3 2 7 



Pieris bryonice. 149, 150. 

cardamines. 186. 

chariclea. 145. 

cheiranthi. 144. 

cratoegi. 140. 

danae. 196. 

daplidice. 152. 

egialca. 169. 

epicharis. 167. 

iphigenia. 159. 

leucippe. 202. 

metra. 143, 148. 

napceoe. 149. 

napi. ^48, 149, 150, 151. 

nehemia. 182. 

nemesis. 182. 

nepalensis. 144. 

novanglire. 147. 

pamela. 159. 

peloria. 155. 

philyra. 168. 

plexaris. 168. 

pyrrha. 159. 

rapre. 143, 146, 148, 149, 
184. 

sabellicoe. 143, 149, 150. 

shawii. 156. 

sinapis. 178. 

thestylis. 171. 

wollastoni. 144. 
pierus, Aloeides. 79. 
pindarus, Ilesperia. So. 

Papilio. 80. 
Fithecops. 1 14. 

hylax. 114. 
platyptera, Micandra. 59. 

Pseudolyccena. 59. 
Plebeius. 81, 87, ill, 114. 

argus. 47, 87, 88, 89. 

argyrognomon. 88. 
plexaris, Papilio. 168. 

Pieris. 1 68. 
podalirius, Iphiclides. 273, 274. 

Papilio. 275. 
Polycrena. 9, 10, 12. 
polycletus, Miletus. Si. 
polyctor, Sarbaria. 298. 
polydamas, Ithobalus. 272. 
polydorus, Menelaides. 304. 



Polyommatus. 46, 47,82, 90, III, 

US- 

achceus. 36. 

acis. 107. 

adonis. 92, 93, 94, 95. 

regon. 88. 

agestis. 99, 100, 102. 

alcon. 109, no. 

alexis. 94, 96, 99, 100, 101, 

102. 

allous. 100. 
amyntas. 86. 
argiades. 86. 
argiolus. 104. 
argus. 88, 89. 
arion. 108, no. 
artaxerxes, 102, 103. 
astrarche. 99. 
bretica. 82. 
bseticus. 83, 90. 
bellargus. 93. 
betulre. 66. 
ceronus. 95. 
chryseis. 123. 
cinnus. 95. 
corydon. 82, 85, 91, 92, 04, 95, 

100. 

cratoegi. 129. 

clispar. 117, 121. 

dolus. 93. 

dorylas. 94, 95. 

eleus. 126. 

endymion. 57. 

epicles. 69. 

eros. 97, 98. 

euridice. 123. 

eurybia. 123. 

belius. 73. 

hippothoe. 117, 121, 123, 124. 

icarus. 87, 94, 96, 97, 98, 107, 

126. 

labienus. 97. 
lacon. 97. 
marsyas. 56. 
minima. 105. 
orcas. 80. 
orion. HI. 
phlceas. 125. 
porsenna. 129, 



328 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Polyommatus pruni. 53. 

quercus. 67. 

rosimon. 113. 

rubi. 55. 

rutilus. 121. 

salmacis. 100, 102. 

schmidtii. 125. 

semiargus. 107. 

spini. 49. 

symethus. 132. 

tarquinius. 129. 

telephii. 112. 

thestylis. 97. 

thetis. 93, 94, 95, loo. 

tithonus. 98. 

turcicus. 126. 

valens. 36. 

venus. 58. 

virgaurese. 116. 

w-album. 50. 
polyphemus, Papilio. 96. 
polysperchon, Papilio. 85, 87. 
polytes, Papilio. 293, 294, 304. 
polyxena, Thais. 243. 
pompeius, Priamides. 284 
Pompeoptera hippolytus. 266. 
pompeus, Ornithoptera. 264, 265. 
Pontia. 140, 142, 143, 151, 156, 
176, 240. 

bellidice. 153. 

brassicae. 144. 

callidice. 151. 

cardamines. 186. 

chariclea. 145. 

daplidice. 143, 152, 153, 191, 
214. 

eris. 198. 

metra. 148. 

napoese. 149. 

napi. 149. 

rapoe. 146. 

sabellicse. 1 50. 

turritis. 188. 
Poritia. 15, 18. 
porsenna, Polyommatus. 129. 
Porthetria dispar. 121. 
prreclara, Eusclasia. 17. 
Priamides. 163, 265, 284. 

pompeius. 284. 



priamus, Ornithoptera. 252. 

Papilio. 252. 

Troides. 252, 254. 
Priamoptera. 255. 
Princeps. 286. 
Prioneris. 171. 
Prioneris thestylis. 171. 
protenor, Saunia. 301, 302. 
proterpia, Pyrisitia. 231. 
protesilaus, Cosmodesmrs. 273. 

Iphiclides. 273. 

Papilio. 273. 
protumnus, Papilio. 127. 

Thestor. 127. 
pruni, Papilio. 50. 53. 

Polyommatus. 53. 

Thecla. 50, 53, 54. 
Pseuderesia. 134. 
Pseud olycaena. 56. 

marsyas, 56, 58. 

platyptera. 56. 
Pseudopieris. 182, 184. 

nehemia. 182, 184. 
Pseudopontia. 139. 
Psychidoe. 229. 
Pterurus. 289. 

ilioneus. 289. 

troilus. 289. 
Ptychopteryx. 192. 

bohemani. 193. 
puer, Cupido. 85, 105. 
pulchra, Dicallaneura. 13. 
Purple-edged Copper. 122, 123. 
Purple Emperor. 287. 
Purple Hair-streak, 67, 68. 
pylades, Papilio. 279. 
pyrene, Ixias. 200. 
pyretus, Papilio. 31. 
Pyrisitia. 231. 

proterpia. 231. 
pyrrha, Papilio. 159. 

Perrhybris. 159. 

Pieris, 159. 



quercus, Papilio. 49, 67. 
Polyommalus. 67. 
Thecla. 48. 
Zephyrus. 65, 67, 98. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



329 



raprc, Papilio. 146. 

Pieris. 143, 146, 148, 149, 

184. 
regalis, Endymion. 57. 

Evenus. 57. 

Papilio. 57. 

Thecla. 57. 

reginre, ^theoptera. 257. 
remus, Ornithoptera. 266. 

Papilio. 266. 
Rhabdodryas. 229. 

statira. 229. 

rhadamanthus, Ornithoptera. 265. 
rhamni, Colias. 220, 221, 223. 

Gonepteryx. 221. 

Papilio. 221. 

Rhodocera. 222. 
rhetenor, Panosmiopsis. 301. 
Rhodocera. 221, 224. 

menippe. 224. 

rhamni. 223. 
rhodope, Mylothris. 161. 
richmondia, Troides. 253, 254. 
ridleyanus, Papilio. 250,279. 
roboris, Lceosopis. 68. 
robusta, Sterosis. 136. 
romulus, Papilio. 293. 
rosimon, Castalius. 112, 113. 

Papilio. 112. 

Polyommatus. 113. 
rubi, Callophrys, 54, 68. 

Papilio. 54. 

Polyommatus. 55. 

Thecla. 55. 

ruficollis, Ornithoptera. 265. 
rumina, Papilio. 243. 

Thais. 243, 244. 
Ruralis, 64, 65. 
Rusticus, 87. 
rutila, Lycoena. 119, 120, 121, 

122. 

rutilus, Lycoena. 121. 
Papilio. 121. 
Polyommatus. 121. 



sabellic^, Pieris. 143, 149, 150. 

Pontia. 150. 
Saletara. 174. 



Saletara nathalia. 174- 

salmacis, Polyommatus. loo, IO2. 

salome, Eurybia. 26. 

Papilio. 26. 
Sarbaria. 298. 

polyctor. 298. 
sareptensis, Colias. 216. 

Eurymus. 217. 
Saribia tepahi. 14. 
sarpedon, Dalchina. 277. 
Satyridte. 9, 1 6. 
Saunia protenor. 301, 302. 
Scalidoneura. 210. 
Scarce Clouded Yellow. 217. 
Scarce Copper, 115, 116. 
Scarce Swallow-Tail. 275. 
Schatzia. 162. 

socialis. 162. 
Schoenbergia. 257, 259. 

paradisea. 258. 
schmidtii, LyoEiia. 127. 

Polyommatus. 125. 
Scolitantides. in. 

orion. 1 1 1 . 

scolymus, Anthocharis. 190. 
scylla, Catopsilia. 226. 
semiargus, Lycaena. 107. 

Nomiades. 103, 106, 108 
109. 

Papilio. 106. 

Polyommatus. 107. 
semperi, Atrophaneura. 302. 
Sericinus. 246, 249. 

telamon. 246. 
sesostris, Endopogon. 270. 
seta, Pieris. 171. 
shawii, Baltia. 156. 

Mesapia. 155, 156. 

Pieris. 156. 
silas, lolaus. 73. 
silenus, Myrina. 76. 

Papilio. 76. 

Silver-spot Butterfly. 20. 
Silver-studded Blue. 88. 
Simiskina. 9, 10, 15. 
sinamara, Catagramma. 42. 
sinapis, Leptidia. 176, 178, 219 

Leucophasia. 179. 

Papilio. 178. 



330 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



sinapis, Pieris. 173. 
sinon, Papilio. 274. 
Sithon. 48, 74, 76. 

chitra. 75. 

nedymonda. 74, 75. 
Skippers. 309. 
Small Copper. 125, 126. 
Small Tailed Blue. 85. 
Small White Cabbage Butterfly. 

146. 

Snout Butterfly. 4. 
socialis, Schatzia. 162. 
solstitia, Catopsilia. 227. 
Sphrenogona. 204, 230, 321. 

bogotana. 230, 231. 

boisduvaliana. 231. 

ectriva. 230. 

mexicana. 230, 231, 233. 
Spindasis. 80. 
spini, Papilio. 48, 49. 

Polyommatus. 49. 

Thecla. 48, 49. 
Stalachtinre. 44. 
Stalachtis. 22, 33, 4 j. 

phlegia. 45. 
statira, Aphrissa. 228. 

Rhabdodryas. 229. 
Sterosis. 136. 

robusta. 136. 
Stiboges nymphidia. 12. 
stubbendorfi, Parnassius. 2^9. 
subfasciatus, Teracolus. 193. 
sulkowskyi, Morpho. 17, 205. 
symethus, Gerydus. 132. 

Papilio. 132. 

Polyommatus. 132. 
Symmachia. 37. 
Synchloe. 151. 

butleri. 156. 
Syrmatia. 32, 34. 

Tachyris. 172, 173. 

nero. 173, 174. 

zarinda. 174- 
Tamera. 295. 

castor. 295. 
tapaja, Catagrammina. 42, 43. 

Necyria. 42, 43. 
tarquinius, Erycina. 128. 



tarquinius, Feniscca. 128, 129 

Hesperia. 128. 

Papilio. 128. 

Polyommatus. 129. 
Taxila. 14. 

tavoyanus, Menamopsis. 280. 
Teinopalpus. 242, 248, 249. 

imperialis. 243. 
telamon, Sericinus. 246. 
telearchus, Euplceopsis. 280. 
telephii, Papilio. ill. 

Polyommatus. 112. 
tenera, Perophthalma. 18. 
tepahi, Saribia. 14. 
Teracolus. 192, 193, 198. 

subfasciatus. 193. 
tereas, Archonias. 163. 
Terias. 138, 232. 

Candida. 233. 

hecabe. 233. 

mexicana, 230. 

sari. 233. 
Teriomima. 135. 
Thaidince. 242. 
thaidina, Armandia. 247, 248 
Thais. 242, 246, 247, 305. 

hector. 305. 

honnoratii. 243, 244, 245. 

medesicaste. 243, 244, 245. 

polyxena. 243. 

rumina. 243, 244. 
Thecla. 8, 17, 23, 37, 41, 46, 47 
48, 55, 59, 66, 61, 64, 65, 68, 
71, 75, 81,82, 114, 134. 

bctulie. 48, 66. 

epicles. 69. 

ilicis. 54, 68. 

imperialis. 58. 

marsyas. 56. x 

nedymond. 75. 

pruni. 50, 53, 54. 

quercus. 48. 

regalis. 57. 

rubi. 55. 

spini. 49. 

w-album. 50, 51, 54. 
thecloides, Myrina. 62. 
Theope. 37. 
thero, Phasis. 78. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



33 1 



Thespia. 192. 
Thestias. 199. 
Thestor. 127. 

protumnus. 127. 
thestylis, Pieris. 171. 

Polyommatus. 97. 

Prioneris. 171. 
thetis, Papilio. 93, 96. 

Polyommatus. 93, 95, ICO. 
thetys, Curetis. 131. 
thoas, Heraclides. 2o2. 
Thomares. 127. 
Thyca. 165. 
Thysonotis. 113. 

danis. 113. 
Timetes. 33. 
timeus, Lyccena. 127. 

Papilio. 125. 
Tingra. 135. 
tiphys, Papilio. 91. 
tircsias, Papilio. 85. 
Tirumala. 207, 279. 
tithonus, Polyommatus. 98. 
Tomares. 127. 

ballus. 128. 

torquatus, Troilides. 283. 
toxea, Eumenia. 60. 
turcicus, Polyommatus. 125. 
turnus, Papilio. 285. 
turritis, Euchloe. 188, 189. 

Pontia. 188. 
Trichonis. 48. 
triopas, Ascanides. 269. 
trogon, Papilio. 260. 
Trogonoptera. 251, 259. 

brookeana. 259, 260, 261. 

trojana. 260, 261. 
Troides. 251, 252. 

croesus. 255, 256. 

lydius. 256. 

priamus. 252, 254. 

richmondia. 253, 254, 255. 

urvillianus. 255, 256, 257. 
Troilides. 283. 

torquatus. 283. 
troilus, Papilio. 289. 

Pterurus. 289. 

trojana, Trogonoptera. 260, 261. 
Tros. 305. 



Tros hector. 305. 

ulysses, Laertias. 296. 
urvillianus, Troides. 255, 256, 
257. 

valens, Papilio. 36. 

Polyommatus. 36. 
Vanessa. 4. 

antiopa. 235, 268. 
Vanessula. 135. 

milca. 135. 

varuna, Pangerana. 302. 
venus, Papilio. 58. 

Polyommatus. 58. 
verhuelli, Dercas. 225. 
victorias, yEtheoptera. 256. 
vfninga, Aslauga. 136. 
virescens, Leptocircus. 309. 
virgaurere, Chrysophanus. 116. 

Lycoena. 115, 116. 

Papilio. 115. 

Polyommatus. II 6. 

W-album, Papilio. 50. 

Polyommatus. 50. 

Thecla. 50, 51, 54. 
Wanderer. 128. 
White Cabbage Butterflies. 143. 
White-letter Hair-streak. 50, 51. 
wollastoni, Pieris. 144. 
Wood- White. 178, 179. 
wosnesenskii, Parnassius. 239. 

Xanthidia. 231. 
nicippe. 231. 
xiphia, Leptosia. 177. 
xuthus, Jasoniades. 285. 

zagreus, Papilio. 284. 
zalmoxis, Papilio. 267. 
zarinda, Tachyris. 174. 
Zegris. 191. 
zelmira, Appias. 173. 

Papilio. 173. 
Zemeros; 13. 

albipunctata. 13. 

emesioides. 13. 

flegyas. 13. 



332 ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 

Zeonia. 27, 29. Zeritis. 77, 78, 79. 

bogota. 27. neriene. 79. 

chorineus. 28. zetes, Gnesia. 25. 

faunus. 27, 28. Zeticles. 277. 

heliconides. 28. curypylus. 277. 

octavius. 28. Zeuzeridre. 157. 

Zephyrus. 48, 64. 68, 69, 71 Zizera. 105. 

betulse. 65, 66. minima. 85, 87, 94, 105. 

quercus. 65, 67, 68. zohra, Cigaritis. 79. 

Zerene anthyale. 217. zygia, Lemonias maculata. 38. 



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