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^n ■' 




Patronised by Royalty, NolJility, and Distinguislied Personages 




(Elevation about 3,000 feet) 



Their Majesties the King and Queen of Siam (on several occasions) 

H.I.H. Grand Duke Cyril of Russia 
H.S.H. Prince Adalbert of Prussia 
fl";!.!!. Prince Kania of Japan 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle 

H.E. Sir John Anderson, Iv.C. M.G, 

Sir Frank A. Swettcnham, K.C.M.G. 

Rt. Hon. The Earl of Crawford 

Rt. Hon. The Earl of Dysart 

Lord Cecil 

Lord Braye 

Late Admiral Sir Henry Kejipel 

Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge 

Admiral Sir Henry Seymour 

Admiral Skrydloft 

Admiral Jensen 

Sir Hugh l^arnes 

Lord Dormer 

H. H. Maharajah of Gwahor, G. C.S.L 


H.LH. Prince Iwakura of Japan 
H.R.H. Prince Daiuron of Siam 
H.R.H. Prince Tugala of Siam 

H.H. Maharajah of Kapurtallah 
Maj.-Gen. Sir C.Warren,G.C.M.G., 

Maj.-G«n. Sir H. Collet, K.C.B. 
Brig-Gen. Sir R. Gossit, C.B. 
Brig. -Gen. Sir A. R. F. Dorward, 

K.C.B., D S.O. 
H.H. Sultan Ibrahim of Johore, 

Sir Paul Chator, K.C.M.G. 
Sir Francis Lovell 
Sir Lionel Cos. 
Gen. Baron Oku 
Gen. Stoessel 
Gen. Yamaguchi. 

The Hon. Mr ^yilliam H. Taft, President, U.S.A. 
His Britannic Majesty's Officers of the Army and Navy, etc., etc. 




"The Savoy of the East." — The London Sphere. 

Replete with every modern improvement and 
"" convenience. 

Caters for First-CIass Travel only. 


Telegraphic Address— 




The only First-CIass Hotel in the Island 



Telegraphic Address — 




2,800 feet above tlie sea level 

The Sanatorium of the Straits Settlements 


Telegraphic Address — 








* This sign in the text appended to a natne indicates 
that further inforjnation relating to the subject is to be 
found in the index and directory at the end of the 

Silver Coins — 

The Rupee (sixteen annas) formerly equal to 2s., but now of 
a value of is. 4d. fixed by Government. A pound (English) is now 
accepted everywhere in India as = fifteen rupees. 

Half RuPEE = eight annas. 

Quarter RuPEE = four annas. 

One Eighth of a Rupee = two annas. 

Copper Coins — 

One Anna = four pice = twelve pie= id. 
H.\LF ANNA = two pice = six pie = |d. 
Quarter Anna = one pice == three pie. 

Postage Rates — 

Post Card, \ anna. 
Letter under i tola \ anna. 
„ ,, ID tolas I anna. 

To all British Possessions i anna. 

Telegraph Rates — 

Per unit of Per word 

12 words. additional. 


Urgent ... ... ... ... lo 02 

Ordinary ... ... ... ... 06 01 

To Europe, z//^ Turkey ... ... i 6 per word. 

„ vid Suez or Teheran ... 18 ,, „ 

INDIA J^/ft 





' India and the Golden Chersonese 
And utmost Indian Isle Taprobane, 
Dusk faces with white silken turbants wreathed." 

— MlLTOX, Par. Reg., iv. 74-76. 








191 I 


The complete revision of a Handbook is perhaps a suitable occasion 
for an entirely new preface to it, and for the brief record of the birth 
and growth of the work revised. 

The Handbook of India was originally published by Mr Johii 
Murray in three separate volumes, for the Bombay, Madras, and 
Bengal Presidencies. The first two of these parts appeared in 1859, 
the Bengal volume not till 1882. A fourth volume, dealing with the 
Panjab and North- West India, was added to them in 1883. They 
were all prepared by the late Captain E. B. Eastwick, M.P., who made 
long visits to India, in the fifties, sixties, and seventies, in order to 
collect the material for them on the spot. When it is recollected how 
incomplete the railway communications between the different parts of 
India then were, that the Imperial Gazetteer^ edited by Sir W. W. 
Hunter, had not yet appeared, and that up to the time very few volumes 
of District Gazetteers had been issued, it will readily be conceded that 
Captain Eastwick's task was a difficult and laborious one, and that 
allowance might be fairly claimed for any short-comings in the volumes 
compiled by him. 

These volumes were revised and brought up to date on several 
occasions, and in 1892 the Handbook was issued in a single volume 
of 500 pages, as compared with 1459 pages in the four separate volumes. 
On this occasion the work was largely rewritten and thoroughly revised, 
much assistance in the task being received by the publisher from 
Dr Burgess, CLE., LL.D., Dr Bradshaw, LL.D., Mr H. Beauchamp, 
Major Spratt, R.E., Mr R. Clarke, B.C.S,, Mr T. Westlake, Mr G. 
Marsden, and Mr E. B. Smith. 

The description of Ceylon, with the exception of the account of 
Colombo, was written by Sir Arthur Gordon, G.C.M.G. (now Lord 
Stanmore), and the proofs of the whole Handbook were passed by 
Professor Forrest, CLE., then Keeper of the Records of the Govern- 
ment of India in Calcutta. A second edition of the consolidated 


Handbook was published in 1894, and a third in 1898, the revision on 
the latter occasion being undertaken by Mr Norwood Young, and 
valuable assistance being received from Mr H. Beauchamp, Mr G. 
Marsden, Mr R. E. Acklom, Surgeon Lieut. -Col. Joubert, Mr Playford 
Reynolds, and Mr Basil Lang. The account of Ceylon was revised 
by Lord Stanmore. Much additional information was added to the 
Introduction regarding the people of India and the religions, archi- 
tecture and arts of the country ; and maps of the rainfall, temperature, 
and local products of the country were included for the first time. 
To a brief special account of the Mutiny of 1S57 was added a map 
showing the distribution of the army in India at that crisis, the 
faultiness of this being mainly responsible for the serious proportions 
vvnich that outbreak ultimately assumed. A fourth edition in 1901 
was brought up to date by Dr Burgess, C.I.E., LL.D. 

The present edition has once again undergone a thorough revision. 
The arrangement of the book has been largely recast in accordance 
with recent railway developments, and the account of nearly all the 
principal places in India has been rewritten on the topographical plan, 
which is usually found to be the most convenient by travellers using a 
guide-book on the spot. A special brief sketch has been added of the 
Mohammedan and Hindu Rulers of India ; that of the Sikhs has been 
enlarged, while a new one on the Mahrattas has been included ; and 
brief notices have been inserted of the form of administration of the 
Indian Government, of famine and plague, of the working of the 
railway, postal, and telegraph departments, and of the Christian 
Religion. The section on irrigation has also been greatly extended. 
All this has been again necessitated, to quote the words of the first 
edition of the consolidated Handbook, by the fact that "time and 
events have effected great changes, not only in the country itself, 
but also in the facilities for reaching it from all parts of the world, 
and for travelling throughout the peninsula. The public, moreover, 
are yearly becoming better aware of the glorious field which in India 
is opened up for the enjoyment of travel and sport, and of the 
inexhaustible opportunities afforded them for the study of an 
engrossing history, an interesting nationality, and an unrivalled 
art, as displayed not only in architectural monuments, but also 
in native industries and handicrafts." 

The present volume extends to 640 pages, as compared with 574 
pages in the fourth, and 500 pages in the first edition. 

New maps have been made for this edition, of Benares, Colombo, 
Anuradhapura, and General Wheeler's entrenchment at Cawnpore : 
while better maps have been substituted in the case of Gwalior, 
Lucknow, the Fort and the environs of Delhi, Vijayanagar (Hampi) 
and Bangalore. All maps have been brought up to date. 


The spelling followed is that of the Indian Fostal Guide, which 
has the authority of the administrations of the various provinces. 
It is to be regretted that the older Railways are not required to 
follow strictly this authority. If not altogether satisfactory, yet the 
spelling of names in India is now at last free from the hopeless 
confusion of twenty or twenty-five years ago, and it is hoped that 
all variations of spelling have been eliminated from the present 
edition. No attempt has been made to indicate tours in India, 
as these must depend so much upon the tastes and interests of 
individuals. The list of routes on pages xiii-xv will, it is believed, 
enable travellers readily to form for themselves any tours they 
may wish to make ; and all further details can be obtained from the 
Railway Guides of India, or from Messrs Thomas Cook & Son, who 
have branch offices at Bombay, Calcutta, Rangoon, and Colombo. 

With the exception of those in Baluchistan and Sindh, nearly 
all the places described in the Handbook have been visited by the 
present editor, and all the principal ones on several occasions. He 
desires to acknowledge the information sent him for the Handbook 
by many friends in India, and the facilities accorded him by 
Mr C. Tawney, C.I.E., and Mr F. Thomas, the late and present 
Librarians of the India Office, for consulting publications of the 
Government of India. Mr C. G. Ryan, of St Clair, Talawakelle, has 
been kind enough to revise the Ceylon part. 

.■\s was noted in the third edition of the consolidated Handbook, 
" it is impossible to ensure perfection in any guide-book, however 
carefully prepared. The publisher therefore hopes that where 
inaccuracies are found the indulgent traveller will kindly point them 
out to him, with a view to their correction on the first opportunity. 
Any such acceptable communications may be addressed to Mr Murray, 
50 Albemarle Street, London, W." 

To this the present editor would venture to add^ 

Nota leges qusedam, sed lima rasa recenti : 
Pars nova major erit : lector utrique fave. 

Laie Chief Secretary to the Panjab Govejttment 
and Commissioner of Delhi. 
September 1904. 

The present (seventh) edition is mainly a reprint of the fifth ; but 
all information and plans have been brought up to date, and some 
new information has been included. The plans of the Madura Temple, 
the palace at Mandalay, and the fort at Lahore were added to the 


sixth edition, and that of Hyderabad has been added to the present 
edition. The sections on Burma and Ceylon have been specially 
revised with the assistance of Mr G. E. Marindin and Mr C. G. Ryan. 
Mr Murray desires to acknowledge the valuable aid received from 
many visitors to India, and to express his gratification at the very 
kindly recognition accorded by them to the usefulness and complete- 
ness of the Handbook. The Editor is again under obligations to 
many friends and brother officers in India for much information fur- 
nished by them. 


September 1909. 


The eighth edition of the Handbook is fortunate in making its 
appearance at the time of the proposed visit of His Majesty the King 
Emperor, and of Queen Mary, to India, and of the Coronation Durbar 
which will be held at Delhi in December. The volume, which has 
now been before the public for over fifty years, has been again revised 
throughout, and many of the maps and plans have been redrawn in 
addition to having been brought up to date. The general map of 
India, illustrating the railway systems of the country, has been 
specially prepared for this edition. Mr Murray and the Editor once 
more desire to record their best thanks to many friends and travellers 
who have so kindly assisted them with information for the present 

H. C. Fanshawe. 

September 191 1. 


and Rest- Houses 

List ok Maps and Plans .... 
List of Routes through India, Burma, and Ceylon 
Introductory Information — 
(i.) General Hints — 

English Language 

Season for Visit to India 

Expenses . 

Clotliing . 

Bedding . 

Travelling Servants 

Indian Railways . 

Hotels, Dak Bungalows, 


Health . 


Hints for Camping 


(2.) Voyagk from England to Gibraltar, Marseilles, 
Malta, Port Said, through the Suez Canal, and Red 
Sea to Aden and Bombay . . . . . 

(3.) General Information, Statistical, Ethnological, 
Historical, Arch^ological, and Material — 

The People of India 

The Mohammedans 

Mohammedan Festivals . 

Mohammedan Rule in India 

Some Mohammedan Dates affecting India 

List of Sovereigns who reigned at Delhi from 1193 lo 1S57 A.n. 

The Hindus 

Hindu Gods 

The Mahabharala and Rainayana 

Hindu Festivals . 

Hindu Rule in India 

The Luddhiits 


















Ivii, Iviii 





(3.) General Information, etc. — contitmed. 
Jains ..... 

Buddhist Festivals 

Some Early Hindu and Buddhist Dates . 

The Sikhs .... 

Gurus of the Sikhs 

The Mahrattas .... 

The Parsis .... 

Parsi Months .... 

The Parsi Festivals 

Architecture .... 

The Preservation of Ancient Monuments 
Arts ..... 

Irrigation .... 

Famine ..... 

The Material Condition of the People of India 
Plague ..... 

The Countess of Dufferin's Fund Association 
The Indian Administration 
Area and Population of! India and Naiive Slates (Census 
of 1901) ...... 1 

Distribution of Population according to Religion (Census of 1901 

Christian Population — 

Distribution according to Race and Denomination 

Territorial Distribution according to Race . 
Details of the Working of Certain Imperial Departments — 

Post Office . 

Telegraphs . 


Financial Details 
Native Christians 
The Mutiny of 1857 

Remarkable Events connecting India with Europe 
Glossary of the Principal Native Terms used in this Book 























Agra, and Environs 

To face 170 

„ the Fort 

,, 174 

,, Moti Masjid ..... 


„ Taj Mahal 


To face 172 

,, Fatehpur Sikri . .... 


Ahmedabad ...... 

To face 124 

Ajmer, the Arhai-din-ka-jhompra Mosque 

. 138 

Allahabad ...... 

To face 32 


,, 494 


„ 246 

Badami, No 3 Cave 


Bangalore ........ 

,, 389 

Benares ....... 


Bijapur ....... 

„ 362 

„ Gol Gumbaz 


,, Section of Domes, Jama Masjid . 

'To face 364 



,, including Malabar Hill and Colaba 


,, and Environs .... 

„ 18 

Buddha, Figures of. Plate 2 . 

To follozu 


I, after liv. 

Calcutta ....... 

". .5^ 

Caste Marks. Plate 2 . . . . 

To follow 


I, after liv. 

Cawnpore ....... 


To face 301 

,, General Wheeler's Entrenchment 

,, 302 

Ceylon ....... 

„ 471 

,, 472 



To face 315 

Delhi ' 

„ 186 

,, Palace in Fort 


,, Map of country round 

To face 202 

,, Humayun's Tomb .... 


,, Mosque Kuwat-ul-Islam and the Kutab j 



Ellora, the Mahawara Dherwara Cave 


,, the Kailasa Temple 


Girnar Mountain 

To face 155 

,, Temple of Nemnath 


,, Temple ofTejahpala and Vastupala 


To face 108 

Hindu Gods, some common funiis of 

. Plates I 

and 2 

„ Ht. 




Hyderabad ......... 

India, Average Rainfall, (2) during the wet and dry seasons 

,, Average temperature, (2) during the hot and cold seasons 

,, General Map, showing the Railway Systems 

,, Geological Features of . 

,, Vegetable Products 
Jaunpur, West half of Jama Masjid 
Karachi ..... 
Karli Cave .... 
Kashmir and N.W. Frf)ntier 
Lahore ..... 
,, the Fort .... 
Lucknow ..... 

,, the Residency . 
Madras ..... 

Madura, Plan of Temple and Tirumala"s Choultry 
Mandalay .... 

,, the Palace . 
Matheran ..... 

Murree ..... 

Mussoorie ..... 

Mutiny, showing distribution of troops on May i, 1857 
Naini Tal ..... 

North-West Frontier :uk1 Kashmir 
Ootacamund .... 

Pagan, Burma, the Ananda Temple 
,, ,, the Thapinyu Tempi 

Pattadakal Temple . 
Poona and Kirkee 
Quetta and Baluchistan 
Puri, Jagannath, Temple of 
Railways, sie India, General Map 
Rangoon ...... 

Sanchi, Plan of (ireat Buddhist Tope 

,, Section of Great Buddhist Tope 
Simla ...... 

Somnath Temple .... 

,, Verawal and Patan . 
Srinagar ...... 

Trivalur, Bird's-eye Mew of Temple 
Vijayanagar (Hampi) 


To face 




1 5 


In Pocket 

To face 


,, xxviii 


'To face 




To face 


^ ' 



: ) 


) * 








: J 




















To face 







To face 





To face 






To face 




To face 



[The names of places are printed in black only in those Routes where the 
places themselves are described.] 





1 Bombay and the Environs . i 

2 Bomba}- lo Calcutta b}' 

Kalyan, Nasik, Manmar, 
Jalgaon (Caves of Ajanta}, 
Bhusawal, Khandwa, 

Itarsi, Jubbulpore, Katni, 
Manikpur, Ailababad, 
Mughal-sarai (Benares), 
Patna, Mokamali, Lakiii 
sarai, and Asansol, with 
journeys to PaclimarM, 
the Marble Rocks. Buddh 
Gya, and Parasnath 

3 Caves of Ajanta . 

4 Benares .... 
, 5 Calcutta City and Environs 

e Manmar t<> Daulatabad, The 
Caves of Ellora, Auranga- 
taad, Jalna, and Secun- 
derabad .... 

7 Bhusawal to Calcutta (How- 

rah), by Akola, Wardha 
(expedition toWarora, and 
Chanda). Nagpur, Kampti. 
Raipur, Bilaspur, and 
Sini, and from Sini to (a) 
Purulia and Asansol, and 
{b) Kharagpur . 82 

8 Khandwa to Ajmer by Mhow, 

Indore, Neemuch, Chitor- 
garh. and Nasirataad, with 
expeditions by road to 
Unkarji and Mandu, and 
by rail to Udaipur . . 87 

9 Itarsi Junction lo Jhansi, bv 

Bhopal, Sanchi, and Bina 
(line to Saugor and to 
Baran and Kotah) and 
from Jhan^i to {a) Kalpi 
and Cawnpore; {b) Datia, 
Gwalior, Dholpur, and 
Agra ; (< ) Orclilia, Barwa 
Saugor, Banda and Man- 
ikpur, with excursions to 
Nowgong and Khajurahu 97 
10 Bombay to Delhi by Bassein, 
Surat, Broach, Miyagam, 
Baroda, and thence 
(i) by broad c;auge direct 
to Delhi (863 m.) by 


Rublam, Nagda, Kotah, 
Bharatpur, and Muttra. 
(2) to Ahmedabad and 
thence by metre gauge 
lo Delhi (849 m.) by 
Mehsana, Palanpur, Abu 
Road, Marwar Junction, 
Ajmer, Phalera Junciion, 
Jaipur, Sandikui Junction, 
Alwar and Rewari, with 
excursions by road to 
Mount Abu, and by rail 
to {a) Dabhoi, (/') I>uni 
Junction (branch line to 
Hyderabad Sindh). Jodh- 
pur, Bikaner, and Phalera 
Junction, and (< ) Hissar, 
Bha,tinda, and Ferozepore 115 

11 From Ahmedabad through 

Kathiawar by Viramgam, 
Kharaghoda, Wadhwan. 
Bhaunagar. Junagarh. 
Girnar, Somnath, Por- 
bandar, Rajkot, and b.-tck 
10 Ahm-edabad, with ex- 
pediiion by road lo Pali- 
tana . . . .148 

12 (a) Bandikui Junciion to 

Bharatpur, Achnera Sta- 
tion, and Agra, (/<) Ach- 
nera Station to Muttra, 
Brindaban, and Hathras 
Road, and by road to 
Mahaban, Govardhan, 
and Dig, and (c) Agra to 
Delhi direct route through 
Muttra . . . .162 

13 Agra and Fatehpur-Sikri . 170 

14 Delhi 186 

15 («) Delhi toKasauli(i7i m ), 

and Simla (219 m.) b\- 
Panipat, Thanesar, Um- 
balla and Kalka (162 
m.). {b) Delhi to Lahore 
by Ghaziabad Junction, 
Meerut, Sardhana, Sahar- 
anpur, Umballa. Sirhind, 
Ludhiana, Jullundur. Am- 
ritsar ami Lahore Can- 
tonment (349 m.) . .214 



16 Lahore to Peshawar by 

Gujranwala, Wazirabad 
Junction, Gujrat, Lala 
Uusa Junction, Jhelum, 
Rolitas, Manikyala. 

Rawal Pindi, Golra, 
Attock, and Nowshera. 
with expeditions by rail 
from Wazirabad to Sialkot 
and Jammu, from Lala 
Musa to W. Panjab, from 
Golra to Khushalgarhand 
Eohat, and from Now- 
shera to Hoti Mardan and 
the Malakand 

17 Kashmir and some oi the 

routes into that country . 

18 Lahore to Karachi by Mool- 

tan, Sher Shah Junction, 
Bahawalpur, Samasatta, 
Rohri, Khairpur, Hydera- 
bad and Kotri, with ex- 
pedition by road from 
Jungshahi to Thatta, and 
"from Rohri to SukkuT, 
Ruk Junction, Larkana. 
Sehwan and Kotri by the 
right bank of the Indus . 

19 Ruk Junction to Chaman 

on the frontier of Af- 
S'hanistan by Shikarpiir, 
Jacobabad, Sibi Junction 
and Quetta, returning by 
the Harnai route 

20 [a) Saharanpur by the Oudh 

and Rohilkand Railway 
to Mughal Sarai through 
Lhaksar junction, Mor- 
adabad, Bareilly Junc- 
tion, Lucknow,and thence 
to Benares by (i) Fyza- 
bad and Jaunpur, and (2) 
Rae Bareli. {/>) Lhaksar 
Junction to Hardwar. 
belira Dun, and the hill 
stations of Miissooree 
Landour and Chakrata. 
(V) Ixireilly Junction to 
Naini Tal. Almora, and 

21 Lucknow .... 

22 Delhi to Allahabad by 

Ghaziabad, Aligai-h. 

Hathras Junction, Tundla 
function, Etawah and 


2 so 

= 59 






Cawnpore, and Cawnpore 

to Lucknow . . . 298 

23 (a) Calcutta by the East 

India Railway loop line to 
Lakhisaraiand Mokamah 
by Nalhati Junction Azim- 
ganj, Tinpahar Junction 
(Rajmahal, visit to Malda 
for Gaur and Panduah), 
Bhagalpur and Jamalpur 
for Monghyx. {6) Moka- 
mah to Tirhut. (c) Cal- 
cutta to Plassey and 
Murshidabad by Eastern 
Bengal Railway and on to 
Malda. (d) Calcutta by 
Eastern Bengal Railway to 
Darjeeling by Damukdia, 
SUliguri and Kurseong . 306 
23rt Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
(a) Calcutta to Dacca vm 
Goalundo and Narain- 
ganj. (/>) Calcutta to 
Goalundo and Chandpur 
to (1) Chittagong, and 
(2) Assam . . .317 

24 Calcutta to Madras by Bala- 

sore, Cuttack, Bhuvan- 
eshwar (visit to Udyagiri 
Caves), Purl (visit to 
Black Pagoda), Ga-njam, 
Vizianagram, Waltair for 
Vizagapatam, Bezwada 
and Nellore — Bengal Nag- 
[jur Raihvax' from Howrah 
to Waltair, and Madras 
and S. Mahratta Rail- 
way, N.E. section, from 
Waltair to Madras . . 322 

25 Bombay to Madras by Kalyan 

Junction, the Bore Ghat, 
Sarli, Hotgi Junction, 
Wadi Junction, Raichur, 
Guntakal Junction, Reni- 
gunta Junction, Arkonam 
function, with excursions 
by road to Matheran, the 
Caves of Karli and Bhaja, 
and by rail to Ahmed- 
nagar and Tirupati 336 

26 Poena to Goa. by Wathar, 

Satara, Miraj, Belgaum 
Londa, and Mormugao, 
with excursion by road to 




Mahabaleshwar, and rail 
to Kolhapur . . .352 
27 Hotg-i Junction lo Bijapur, 
Gadag-, HubU. Dliarwar, 
and Londa, with excursion 
to caves and temples of 





28 Wadi Junction to Hyderabad, 

Secunderabad, Wara.ngal, 
and Bezvvada, with ex- 
pedition to Bidar . . 374 

29 Gadag Junction to Hospet 

(for Hampi and Vijayana- 
garl Bellary, and Gun- 
takal Junction, and from 
Giintakal Junction to [a] 
Na.ndyal, Guntur. and 
3e2'wada (expedition b_\- 
road tci Kurnool) and {b) 
Dharmavaxam and Ban- 
galore . . . 37I''' 
3 ' Hubli Junction to Harihar. 
Birur (for SMmoga and the 
Gairsoppa Falls). Bana,var 
(for expedition to the 
temples at Hallabid and 
Belur. also to the hill of 
Indrabetta, near Shra- 
vana Belgola), Arsikere. 
Tumkar, nnd Bangalore . 383 

31 r.angalore to [a] Falls of the 

Cauvery, Seringapatani 
and Mysore, and [h] 
Bowricgpet {for Kolar 
Gold Fields), Jalarpat 
Junction, Vellore, Arcot. 
.^konam Junction, Con- 
jeeveram. and Chintijlc- 
put .... 390 

32 Madras City and Environs . 401 

33 Madras to Salem, Erode, 

Podanur for the Nilgiris, 
Olavakkot, Shoranur (for 
Cocbin), Calicut, Telli- 
cberry, Cannanore, and 
Mangalore, 5^2 m. by 
the S.W. line of the 
Madras and .S. Mahratta 
Railway . , . 409 

34 Madras by South Indian State 

Railway to Cbingleput. 
Porto Novo, Chidam 
baram, Kumbakonam, 
Tanjore, Tricbinopoly. 
Dindigal, Madura, Tinne 

velly, Quilon anrl Tuti- 
corin, for Colombo^ with 
excursions by road to 
Gingee, Kodaikanal, 

Kuttallani and Cape 
Com.orim and Trivan- 
drum, ar.d b\- rail to 
Pondicberry, Negapatam, 
and Ramesvaram . -419 
35 Madras to Mahabalipuram, 
or the Seven Pagodas, by 
canal or rail and road . 436 


Introductory remarks. Gene- 
ral Description, History, 
Climate, etc. . . . 441 

Rangoon .... 449 

1 To Mandalay, Ebamo, and 

the first defile returning 

to Rangoon via Prome . 455 

2 I'rom Rang-Qon to Moulmein, 

with possible extension 

to Tavoy and Mergui . 466 

3 Rangoon to Kyaukpyu and 

Akyab .... 469 

4 From Rangoon Id Bassein 

and back . 470 

5 Up the Chindwin to Kindat . 470 


Introductory Remarks, His- 
tory, Colombo. . » .471 

1 Colombo to Kandy . . 475 

2 Colombo to Nuwara Eliya, 

Badulla, and Eafcticaloa . 479 

3 (\)iomiio to Ratnapura and 

Baiidarawella . . . 4,S4 

4 Colombo to Ratnapura 71,1 

Panadura and Kamba- 
pane .... 4S6 

5 Colombo to Galle. Matara, 

Hambantotta. and Tissa- 
maharama . . . 4S7 

6 Colombo to Triacomalee by 

Negombo, Puttalam, and 
Anuradhapura . . 490 
6a Colombo to Kankesanturai 
7'!,i Polgahawela, Kurune- 
gala, Anuradhapura and 
Jaffna . . . -491 

7 Kandy to Jaffna by Anurad- 

hapura .... 402 

8 Kandy to Trincomales (with 

excursion to Polonnaruwa ) 498 

9 Sporting Tours . . . 500 






English Language 

A TRIP to India is no longer a formidable journey, or one that 
requires very special preparation. Among the difficulties which 
have disappeared of late years is that of the language. English is 
now spoken at all hotels and railway stations, and in all post and 
telegraph offices ; and the leading shops in all large places have 
good articles for ordinary requirements, with attendants who speaic 
English. The same facilities usually exist in those native shops for 
the sale of works of Indian art and manufacture which travellers are 
likely to visit ; and local guides with a knowledge of English more 
or less imperfect are available at all important centres. Visitors will 
also find that a great many of the educated Indians whom they will 
meet are able to hold simple conversations in English, and that many 
speak the language exceedingly well ; while the courteous request 
of a gentleman is sure to meet with a willing response. 

Season for Visit to India 

The season for a pleasant visit to the plains of India lies between 
15th November and the end of March. In the Panjab these dates 
can be slightly extended ; but then the heat may be found trying in 
the Red Sea and at the ports of arrival and departure. Up to 15th 
October and after loth April the weather at the ports may be almost 
as trying as any in the year, much more so than in July, August, and 
September, when constant rain cools the atmosphere. Owing to the 
large numbers of officers of the Indian Service who return to India 
in the autumn, and of annual visitors to the country for " the cold 
season," the best accommodatio'n on the larger and faster steamers, 
and especially on the P. & O. boats, is usually booked months 
ahead — outwards between 15th October and ist December, and 
homewards for March and April ; and this fact must be borne in 
mind by intending travellers to India. For further hints regarding 

i xvii 

xviii Expenses India 

the voyage, see p. xxix. It may be added here that a good and 
strong deck chair is essential to comfort on board ship. 

The rates of fare charged by the principal lines of steamers to 
India are exceedingly high — about ^3 per day, but owing to the 
depreciation of the rupee the traveller will find India a fairly cheap 
country, the ordinary hotel charges outside the Presidency towns, 
and apart from special occasions, being 6 to 8 rupees^ (8s.- us.) a 
day for board and lodging, with usually a small additional charge for 
a hot bath. It is customary also to give a small gratuity to the 
water-carrier {bhisti) and the sweeper. As walking in the heat of the 
day is better avoided even in the cold weather, carriages have to 
be generally used in order to visit the objects of interest. The 
charge for a day varies from 5 to 7 rupees. Taxi-cabs and motors 
can now be hired at some of the principal places. All hotel and 
carriage charges tend to rise slowly. At private houses it is usual 
to give a present to the headservant on behalf of all the attendants. 
This need not exceed 5 rupees for a visit of a week or ten 
days. The railway charges are moderate, being usually i^ annas, 
or i^d., per mile for ist class, half that sum for 2nd class, and less 
for journeys over 300 miles. As elsewhere in the world, the traveller 
will have to constantly supply himself with a sufficiency of small 
change — 2, 4, and 8 anna pieces. 

The use of motor-cars is becoming very general in India, and the 
roads in all large places and the main roads connecting these will 
ordinarily be found good. A small book on motoring in India by 
Watney & Lloyd has been published in England, and the Local 
Governments in India have published, or are publishing, Motor 


Not very long ago it was thought essential to have a special outfit 
prepared for a journey to India. This is scarcely the case now. 

For the Voyage a few warm clothes for the northern part and 
thin ones for the Red Sea and Arabian Sea are required ; otherwise 
ordinary English summer clothing will suffice. As regards the lighter 
clothes, a man will find it convenient to have a very thin suit of tweed 
or grey flannel for day, and a thin dress jacket for dinner. 

A lady cannot do better than provide herself with thin skirts of 

1 The value of the rupee is arbitrarily fixed by Government at is. 4d. English 
sovereigns are accepted at all government offices, at hotels, and railway stations 
at an exchange value of Rs. 15. 

Introd. CLOTHING xix 

tussore silk or some such material, and thin silk or other blouses. 
Shoes with india-rubber soles are the best for the deck. 

As the amount of luggage which can be taken into the traveller's 
cabin is necessarily limited, a careful arrangement beforehand of 
articles needed for different parts of the voyage is of considerable 
importance for comfort. The cabin luggage must contain sufficient 
underlinen and linen for the whole voyage. The arrangements for 
obtaining luggage on the voyage are extremely insufficient, and 
nearly always extremely inconvenient ; this is a direction in which 
the steamship companies need to do much to meet the reasonable 
requirements of passengers. 

For a winter tour in the plains of North and Central India 
generally and in Upper Burma, a traveller requires similar clothing 
to that which he would wear in the late spring or autumn in England, 
but in addition he must take warm winter wraps. A man should 
have a light overcoat in which he can ride, and a warm long ulster 
for night travelling or the early morning. A lady, besides a warm 
jacket and shawl, should have a loose warm cloak to wear in long 
drives before the sun rises or after it sets, or to sleep in on railway 
journeys if it is very cold. Visitors to India must remember that 
while the mid-day is always warm, sometimes very hot, the evening 
dews may be so heavy as to absolutely wet the outer garment, and 
the nights and mornings are often very sharp, so that the secret of 
dressing is to begin the day in things that can be thrown off as the 
heat increases, and can be resumed as the cold returns. In some 
places in North India in the winter months the temperature will fall 
between 4o°-5o° within the two hours on either side of sunset, and the 
risks of serious chills in consequence of such sudden changes are very 
great, if due care is not taken to meet them. Real winter clothing 
will be necessary if it is intended to visit any hill-station. Flannel or 
woollen underclothing and sleeping garments, and a flannel " Kamar- 
band " (a belt of flannel 8 in. to 12 in. wide worn round the waist), are 
strongly recommended for wear at all times. 

Throughout the south ^ of the peninsula, and at times even in 
Bombay and Calcutta, much thinner clothing is required. Cool linen 
suits for men, and very thin dresses for ladies as also khilki riding 
and shooting suits, can be got cheaper and better in India than in 
England, and a native tailor will make a very satisfactory suit from 
an English pattern. 

Linen and underclothing for at least three weeks should be taken 
—with less, the traveller may be inconvenienced on arrival, or even 
detained until his board - ship clothes are washed. The Indian 

1 This may be taken as applying to all places south of Hyderabad, excluding 
the higher plateau of Mysore. 


washermen, though not as bad as they used to be, still destroy things 
rather rapidly. A lady will find a light dust-cloak a great conveni- 
ence for railway travelling. 

The hospitality of India involves a considerable amount of dining 
out, and therefore a lady, unless she intends to eschew society, should 
be provided with several evening dresses. If it is intenued to join 
friends in camp, or make any long expeditions by road, riding-breeches 
for men, and riding-habits for ladies should not be forgotten. 

A good sun-hat is an essential. The Tarai hat (two soft felt hats 
fitting one over the other) will generally sufifice for the cool months, 
but even in them the mid-day sun in India is dangerous, and it is 
therefore advisable to wear a cork or felt helmet, which is lighter and 
better ventilated, and affords more protection from the sun than the 
Tarai, and is indispensable in real hot weather. Many London hatters 
have a large choice of sun-hats and helmets for ladies as well as men ; 
and travellers should be careful to wear such head protection whenever 
they are exposed to the sun during the voyage. A white cover to the 
umbrella is also desirable, especially for a lady ; a straw or other light 
hat will be found convenient for the cool hours of the morning and 
evening. Much larger hats, which can be best obtained in India, 
should be worn for shooting expeditions extending over the whole day. 

A traveller in Ceylon will seldom require any but the lightest of 
clothing, except in the mountains, where the temperature becomes 
proportionately cooler as he ascends. At Kandy a light overcoat, and 
at Nuwara Eliya warm wraps and underclothing, are necessary. 

For further hints, Dr Harford's Hints on Outfit in Tropical 
Countries (Royal Geographical Society) may be consulted. 


Every traveller who contemplates a tour must, on arrival in India, 
provide himself with some bedding, to be taken with him everywhere, 
even when on a visit to friends, and which should always be with 
him in the railway carriage, if he is going to spend a night in the 
train. Except at the best hotels, there is either no bedding or there 
is the chance of its being dirty. The minimum equipment is a pillow 
and two cotton-wadded quilts {Razais), one to sleep on, and one which 
should be larger, as a coverlet ; or a good razai and a couple of warm 
blankets, or still better, an eider-down. The ready-made razais are 
usually thin, but they can be got to order of any thickness. To 
these should be added a pillow- case, cheap calico sheets, and a light 
blanket. A canvas or waterproof cover to wrap the bedding in must 
not be omitted, or the first time it is carried any distance by a coolie 





Ra nfal n nches 


L ondoQ. John Morrf^, AlboiU'Ui'lB StrsBt. 


or taken into camp it may be dirtied. A waterproof sheet is a useful 
addition to the bedding, but cannot be called an absolute necessity 
for an ordinary tour. Without such a modest supply of covering as 
is here indicated, a traveller may at any time have to spend a night 
in very severe cold, especially if travelling by railway, as the windows 
and doors of the carriages seldom fit well enough to keep this out. 
Two or three towels, for use on railway journeys, should also be added 
to the above outfit. 

Travelling Servants 

A native travelling servant, who can speak English, is highly 
desirable, but should not be engaged without a good personal 
character, or the recommendation of a trustworthy Agent. Such a 
servant is almost necessary to wait on his master at hotels, where, with- 
out him, he would be but poorly served ; and will be found very useful 
in a hundred different ways when travelling by rail or otherwise, and 
as an interpreter when dealing with natives. Having ascertained 
beforehand from his Agents or friends the fair wages which such a 
servant ought to be paid (these vary from Rs.25-35 per mensem), 
the master should come to a definite arrangement with him before 
engaging him ; and it is usually advisable to have an agreement with 
him in writing. If the servant proves satisfactory, it is the custom 
to make him a present on parting with him. If the traveller has 
friends " up country," it may be well to write beforehand and ask 
them to engage a servant, and send him to meet his master at the 
port of arrival. " Up-country " servants are often cheaper and more 
reliable than those to be met with on the coast, but their knowledge 
of English is not generally very good. Ladies may travel with an 
accredited man servant without hesitation, and will find him far more 
useful than an dydh in almost all respects. The services of a good 
dydh are more difficult to secure than those of a bearer servant, and 
naturally are more expensive. The best dydhs with a knowledge of 
English come from Madras. During the first two or three days of 
his service, it should be carefully explained to the travelling servant 
exactly what he is expected to do, and it will usually be found that 
he will thereafter do this satisfactorily. It may be added that such 
servants should be quietly kept in their proper places. 

Indian Railways 

The Indian A. B.C. Guide., the Indian Railway Traveller^ Guide., 
and Newman's Indian Bradskaw, with maps, railway routes in India, 
and general information of steamer routes, are the best. For railway 


purposes the hours are counted up to 24, as in Italy: thus 20.12 is 
8.12 P.M., and so on. Railway time throughout India is now Standard 
time, which is 5^ hours in advance of Greenwich time. 

The difference with regard to the local times in India is as 
follows : — 

Standard time in advance of Madras I min, 


Bombay 39 ,, 


Allahabad 2 ,, 


Delhi 22 ,, 


Karachi 61 ,, 


Lahore 37 ,, 



id Calcutta 24 ,, 



Chittagong 37 ,, 

Standard time in Burma is b\ hours in advance of Greenwich, or 
5 minutes in advance of Rangoon time. 

At many of the larger towns there are two stations or more. Where 
there are both the traveller should, as a rule, book, not to the " City," 
but to the "Cantonment" station; but before booking he should 
note which station is mentioned in the Handbook. The Railway 
Companies in India do much for the comfort of ist and 2nd class 
travellers, but might do more, e.g. by supplying electric fans in the 
carriages, and seeing more closely to the management of the 
refreshment rooms. Every ist and 2nd class compartment is pro- 
vided with a lavatory, and the seats, which are unusually deep, are 
so arranged as to form couches at night, but bedding and pillows 
are not furnished. At all terminal stations, and at various large 
roadside stations, berths in the carriages can be booked beforehand. 
It will generally be found convenient to send one's servant ahead to 
the station with the luggage, so that he may book it ; if tickets have 
not been taken beforehand, a slip with the destination of the traveller 
written on it should be given to him to obviate mistakes. The 
payment of coolies (porters— usually 2-4 annas) is best left to one's 

There are refreshment rooms at frequent intervals, and some of 
them are well managed and supplied ; travellers intending to make 
use of them should signify their intention to the guard of the train 
beforehand, and he will telegraph (free of charge) to the station 
indicated ; in Madras tickets for meals are purchased at the same 
time as the railway ticket. Restaurant cars now run on most of the 
express mail trains. The failure of the manager of any refreshment 
room to provide a proper meal or food when ordered beforehand, 
should never be overlooked, but should be invariably reported to the 


Traffic Superintendent of the line. In extreme cases payment of the 
full price demanded for the meal should be refused. 

The Station-masters are particularly civil and obliging, and will 
arrange for ponies, conveyances, or accommodation at out-of-the-way 
stations, if notice is given them beforehand ; they will also receive 
letters addressed to their care, which is often a convenience to 
travellers. For some obscure reason the guards of trains render 
none of the services expected of them in Europe, and are generally 
conspicuous by their absence in the large stations. 

Travellers must be careful to see that their heavy luggage is 
secured by locks and is booked to proceed by the same route as 
themselves ; all small articles in the carriages should be carefully 
placed out of the reach of possible thieves in the night, especially 
if the windows are kept open on account of the heat. At every 
station which the ordinary traveller is likely to visit, conveyances 
of some sort await the arrival of the trains. 

It is a matter for regret that 3rd class passengers are not always 
considerately treated by the railway staff. Travellers in India will 
render a public service by bringing instances of such treatment to 
notice. The comfort of such passengers has been too much over- 
looked in the past. 

Hotels, Dak Bungalows, and Rest-Houses 
Outside the Presidency towns, and a few exceptional places, such 
as Lucknow, Delhi, and Bangalore, there are hardly any hotels in 
India really up to the European standard of excellence. At all the 
chief places fairly large airy rooms will be found in the hotels, but 
the traveller will hardly be well waited upon unless he brings a 
servant with him. As they are often crowded in the tourist season, 
he should give notice beforehand of his intended arrival. Some of 
the clubs admit recommended visitors as honorary members, and a 
club which has sleeping accommodation is generally more comfortable 
than a hotel ; but it is seldom that such accommodation is available 
in the cold weather, unless it is arranged for by a friend beforehand. 
All property should be kept carefully locked in hotels, as there are 
usually many strange servants in them, and the verandahs of most 
are frequented by hawkers and other outsiders. 

At the dak bungalows (travellers' rest-houses established by 
Government in all important places) the keeper in charge will provide 
meals, but it is usually well to give notice of one's intended arrival. 
The bedrooms in these bungalows have an adjoining bath-room, and 
are usually sufficiently if roughly provided with furniture and lights. 
They cannot be retained beforehand — the first comer having the 
preference, and after occupying a room for twenty-four hours, the 


FOOD India 

traveller must give place, if required, to the next comer. In S. India 
the name Travellers' Rest-House is generally used. There is a fixed 
fee for the occupation of the rooms, and usually for each of the simple 
meals to be supplied. In some cases the servant in charge, usually 
called the Kkdnsdma, has been in the service of English officers, and 
will prove to be a good cook. In small and out-of-the-way places it 
is best to confine his efforts to a curry or pilau, which he is sure to 
prepare well ; and when visiting such places it is well to take with 
one small supplies, such as tinned soups and vegetables, tea and sugar, 
biscuits and the like, and one's own whisky or wine. 

In certain places which deserve to be visited by many 
travellers such as Ajanta (Fardapur), Vijayanagar (Kamalapur), 
and Mandu, there is either only very poor and insufficient accom- 
modation or no accommodation at all, and the Governments 
concerned might well see to this. Higher fees might be reasonably 
charged for accommodation specially provided at places seldom visited 
by travellers. 

The Rest-House of Ceylon is more Hke an hotel than the Dak 
Bungalow in India, in that it is more frequently furnished with 
bedding and linen, and food is generally provided. 


As a rule, the food supplied in hotels and railway refreshment 
rooms in India is not very good. Outside the really large places and 
cantonments, the meat, with exception of bullock hump, is often lean 
and tough, the fowls are skinny, and the eggs ridiculously small. 
The sea fish at the sea-ports is excellent, and the river fish supplied 
at table elsewhere is generally fresh ; but it does not always agree 
with persons new to the country, and not even in the case of the 
mahsir does it always commend itself as palatable to them. Game 
is generally abundant at private tables in the cold weather — quail 
(early and late in the season), snipe, teal, duck, partridge, and 
sandgrouse — but hotel-keepers too often neglect to include this in 
their menu. Where there is a good supply of fruit in the market, 
its proper provision at the hotel table should be insisted upon. 
Bread is fairly good, but this cannot be said of the butter, and milk 
is not free from danger. Aerated water should be drunk in preference 
to plain water, even in private houses ; and the water in hotels and 
refreshment rooms should be absolutely avoided. If the traveller 
leaves the beaten track, he should have a tiffin (luncheon) basket, 
containing knives, forks, and other simple fittings and supplies ; and, 
as a matter of fact, whenever any long journey is undertaken, it is 

of Greenwich- 

JoiW Bivrt3u>lniB«w IK CovEoit^ 

B<j4l*k««> A CoOJi.; 


well to be always provided with such a basket of potted meats, soups 
or bovril, biscuits, jam, tea and sugar, some spirit, and soda-water, 
which is good and cheap in India, as this renders one immune 
against the accident of detention, or of failure to obtain an eatable 
meal at a railway refreshment room. Added lo the above, an Etna 
will be found a great convenience. 


It is of great importance to avoid chills in the East, and under- 
clothing should always be changed after the body has been overheated. 
The necessity of using warm clothing until the morning has ceased 
to be cold, and after the sun has set, or even slightly before the sun 
sets, has been insisted on above. Excessive bodily exertion and 
consequent fatigue should be avoided by all who are no longer young, 
and such persons, if unacquainted with the conditions of sub-tropical 
life, will do well to consult some medical man experienced in them 
before undertaking a tour in India. Slight indisposition must not be 
trifled with in India, even though it would be thought nothing of 
elsewhere ; immediate avoidance of all fatigue is necessary upon the 
occurrence of any indisposition, and only light food should be taken 
until it passes away. In cases of fever, or of any ailment with the 
treatment of which the traveller is not practically acquainted, no 
time should be lost in seeking the services of a qualified medical 
man. Such an officer will be found in the Civil Surgeon of all places 
of any size ; private practitioners are usually to be found only in 
the Presidency towns. The ordinary fee for attendance is Rs.i6 or 
a guinea, but per visit are usually charged where a number of 
visits are made. 


No attempt can be made here to give definite advice to sports- 
men, but sporting localities have been incidentally indicated in the 
routes. A number of useful books on sport in India will be found 
among the publications of Messrs Thacker, Spink & Co.^ The 
equipment for these pursuits varies from day to day, and each 
man must best know his own wants. Firearms are subject to a heav>' 
duty when brought into the country, see p. 5. Large-game shooting 
is expensive and takes time ; it should not be attempted except in 
company with a really good shikari and with the assistance of 
persons of local authority, as otherwise it would probably involve a 
mere waste of time and useless trial of patience. 

1 Mr F. G. Aflalo's Sportsman's Manual of India (Horace Marshal! & Sor*), 
recently published, fills a long-felt want. 


Small-game shooting, i.e. wild-fowl, hare, etc., with an occasional 
shot at an antelope, is an easier matter, and will afford excellent 
sport. It can be got from November till February, often at very 
small cost, by spending a night or two at some wayside railway 
station or near some remote spot. In this case also the advice of 
the " man who knows " will be of the greatest assistance. Near 
cantonments the ground is always too much shot over to afford good 

Hints for Camping 

Travellers who leave the beaten track with the intention of shoot- 
ing, or for the purpose of visiting remote or ruined cities, should 
take a small tent or two with them. Transport, in the shape of 
camels, carts, baggage-ponies, or bearers, can be got in any station, 
and in the larger places riding ponies and light native carts or 
perhaps even European traps for driving can be obtained. Those 
who intend to go into camp (as the Anglo-Indian term runs) will 
probably be experienced in organising such expeditions, or will have 
friends who will make arrangements for them, and, in any case, a 
courteous request for assistance made by calling upon the principal 
English or native officer of the place is sure to meet with courteous 
consideration ; but perhaps the following suggestions of requirements 
may prove of some use in the case of a solitary traveller who does not 
mind a certain amount of roughing. In Kashmir, camp equipment 
as below can be hired of the Agents there — elsewhere it would have 
to be purchased, and would cost probably about Rs. 200-250. 

Tent (Cabul tent, 80 lbs. complete) for self, and if cold or likely 
to be wet, a pal tent for servants — a few iron tent pegs (wooden ones 
for soft ground), and a mallet. Camp-bed with side poles of one piece, 
table, chairs, and carpet. India-rubber flat bath, and a board to stand 
on, or one's tubbing can be done by pouring native pots of water over 
head (fresh native pots can be obtained at any village), a screen 
{kandi) to use as a bath - room, a washing basin {chilamchi) 
and stand, hooks to strap on tent-pole for hanging clothes on, etc. 
Aluminium cooking-pots, and fry-pan, an iron dish or two, a few 
knives, forks, and spoons, aluminium plates, cups, and saucers, and 
mustard, pepper, and salt pots. Servants required in camp are — a 
boy to wait, a cook, a water-carrier {bhisti\ and grooms for horses. 
All food for oneself, except milk and fresh meat, must be taken with 
one. Food for servants, milk, and meat (goat or sheep or chickens), 
can be got in any but the poorest villages. For bedding and clothes 
take blankets, sheets (luxury), an Indian shooting suit, rough boots 
and gaiters, a light flannel suit or two, a large sun-hat for shooting in, 

Introd. BOOKS xxvii 

and a second sun-hat and a cap for wear in one's camp. A mosquito- 
net and poles for it will be needed if mosquitoes are likely to give 
trouble at night. 

If white ants are about boxes and carpets should be shifted every 
morning. Persons not accustomed to camping out should always 
have straw put on the ground under the tent carpet. 

For arms — the plainer the better — i central fire D.B. hammer 
i2-bore gun, i C.F.D.B. express rifle, 500 bore. Empty 12 -bore 
cartridges, Curtis and Harvey's No. 6 powder, and shot of all kinds 
can be purchased in any ordinary station. 

For medicine, plenty of quinine in 3- or 5-grain "tabloids" or pills 
(to be taken before or after food whenever a chill or feverishness is 
felt), a bottle or so of chlorodyne, and two boxes of Cockle's pills. If 
not needed by oneself, the pills may be useful to give to servants or 


Readers who desire to obtain the latest and most accurate informa- 
tion on all subjects connected with India cannot do better than 
consult the first four volumes of the new edition of the Imperial 
Gazetteer of India^ 1907 — Descriptive, Historical, Economic, and 
Administrative, each of which can be bought separately for 6s. A full 
bibliography will be found under each section in these volumes. 

A few books are specially mentioned here. 

Sir A. Lyall, Rise and Expansion of the British Dominion in 
India (Murray). 
„ „ Asiatic Studies (Murray). 

Sir W. W. Hunter, Brief History of the htdian Peoples (Clarendon 

„ „ Indian E^npire (Trubner). 

Ruler of India, series, Oxford. 

Sir C. P. Ilbert, Government of India. 

Sir John Strachey, India (1903). 

General Sir G. Chesney, Indian Polity ; Sir Monier Williams 
Indian Wisdom, Buddhism ; Professor T. W. Rhys Davis, Buddhist 
India ; Professor Stanley Lane Poole Medieval India under 
Mohammedan Rule ; Abul Fazl, Ai?i-i-Akbari, by Mr Blochmann 
and Col. Jarrett ; Mr W. Irvine's Storia do Mogor; Mr V. E. Smiih 
Early History of Itidia ; Sir T. H. Holdich, hidia, in the series of the 
" Regions of the World " ; T. Morrison, hnperial Rule in India. 

James Fergusson, History of Indian and Eastern Architcxture 

(Revised edition by Dr Burgess and R. Phen^ Spiers, 1910.) 
(Murray)— Sir H. H. Risley's People of India. 
Sir G. Birdwood, Industrial Arts of India. 


viii BOOKS India 

Sir G. Watt, Commercial Products of India. 

E. B. ViA\&\\Jndian Sculpiureatid FaintingiLXidi Ideals oj Indian Art. 

Maindron, VArt Indien. 

W. Crooke, Things Indian. 

Sir H. Yule and Dr A. C. Burnell, Hobson-Jobson (Murray). 

Mr T. R. E. Holmes, History of the Indian Mutiny; Dr Fitchett's 
Tale of the Great Mutiny; G. W. Forrest, History of the Indian 
Mutiny 2.r\^ Interesting Cities of India; Bernier^s Travels (Constable). 
Tavernier's Travels, edited by Dr V. Ball ; Col. Sleemaris Rambles 
and Diaries (MacMillan) ; Bishop Heber's Diaries. 

Meadows Taylor, Confessions of a Thug. 

A. H. H. Murray, The Highroad of Empire. 

Rousselet, India of the Rajas; W. S. Caine, Picturesque India; 
Miss Scidmore, Winter India; Dr Kurt Boeck, Durch Indien; 
Picturesque Glimpses of India, with some 500 fine photos of 
Messrs Combridge, Bombay. 

F. G. Aflalo, The Sportsman's Book for India. 

Rudyard Kipling, The Jungle Book. 

T. Lockwood Kipling, Beast and Alan in India. 

Sanderson, Thirteen Years among the Wild Beasts in India. 

Col. Kinloch, Large Game Shooting in Thibet and the Himalayas. 

The Ras Mala of Mr Forbes, and the Rajasthan of Colonel Tod 
contain more information of Guzerat, Kathiawar and Rajputana than 
any books ever published on any part of India, but are not light reading. 
Simple guides to the languages are Hindustani, Persian, and Tamil 
Self-Taught (Marlborough's Self-Taught Series), and Hcnv to speak 
Hindustani, by E. Rogers, is. (Allen & Co.). Constable's Hand Atlas 
of India contains a number of excellent maps relating to the country, 
and the Atlas Volume of the Imperial Gazetteer (15s.) is very good. 
Many of the railways have published Guides with capital illustrations, 
which are well worth buying as mementos of a visit to India. 

Modern writers on Kashmir are Dr Neve {Tourist's Guide, — 
Picturesque Kashmir), Lieutenant - Colonel T. Duke, Sir W. R. 
Lawrence, Dr W. T. Elmslie, and Mr Drew. Route maps have 
been published by Mr John CoUett and Captain Montgomerie. 
For books on Burma, see p. 447, and on Ceylon, p. 472. 

Army and Civil Lists, a useful Postal Guide, and the Directory 
of the Province (Thackers ; Times of India; Asylum Press), will be 
found in all Clubs, and at most large hotels. 

Those who desire specially detailed information regarding any 
place in India should turn to the Provincial Gazetteer, in which a 
separate volume exists for each district. Mr Baden Powell's Matiual 
contains a full account of the various systems of land revenue in force 
in the country. 


< ■■•■-•.._ 


I • 81^^^=^^^^ 



=^ n -g I S g2_. 



■ - . . 

i . t I 

'o p3 ? o 





The principal steamer lines running to India are the P. & O.^ 
Mail (weekly) to Bombay, the Bibby, EHerman (City and Hall) 
and Anchor Lines from England, the Messageries Maritimes from 
Marseilles, and the Austrian Lloyd and Rubattino from Trieste and 
Genoa ; while boats of the Orient Pacific and of the Nord Deutscher 
Lloyd Lines run twice a month to Colombo, only 38 hours from Madras. 
For a table of comparative rates of steamer fares see p. 503. 

The comfort of the voyage depends much on the choice of the 
ship, and the cabin. The largest ships, as having less motion and 
more room on deck, are usually preferable to smaller ones. In going 
through the Red Sea to India the outer cabins on the port side are 
the best. On the return voyage the starboard cabins are better, 
but the difference is not material. The P. & O. charge £^\ for each 
electric fan in the cabins, the messageries 12s. 

On going on board, it is well to arrange for one's seat at table 
as soon as possible, as after the first dinner at sea, when seats have 
been assigned, it is difficult to make a change. They are usually 
allotted by the chief steward. 

It is usual to give xos. as a fee to the cabin steward, and los. 
to the one who waits on one at table. Passengers are entitled to 
gratuitous medical attendance by the ship's surgeon ; but all who 
require his services for more than very simple methods will doubtless 
be disposed to offer an honorarium in return for these. 

The timings of the P. & O. mail steamers are at present as 
follows : — 


London Marseilles Brindisi 

Gibraltar ... 4 

Marseilles ... 6 ^23 hours by special 

I train from London. 
Every Thursday at 1 

II A.M. J (2 days by special \ 

Brindisi . . . , ... ... -| train from London, \ 

\ every Frid.^y, 9 l'..M. j 
Port Said ... 11 4 2^' 

Aien 16 9 6V 

Boailjay .... 2o| 13I li| 

1 P. & O. Offices: 122 Leadenhall Street, E.G., Northumberland Avenue, 
W.C. , London. Orient. S. N. Co.: 3 Fenchurch Avenue, Cockspur Street, 
W. Offices of Thos. Cook & Son (General Passage Agents) : Ludgate Circus, 
E.C. , Piccadilly, W., and branches. 




The time occupied from London by the P. & O. intermediate 
steamers running to Calcutta, China, and Japan, is : — 


8 days. 


1 8 days. 


32 days 

Port Said, 

12 ,, 


26 ,, 


39 ., 

The Messageries boats sail from Marseilles, where also the 
P. & O. and the Orient Line Steamers (from London) touch, and 
the Nord Deutscher from Southampton. The last and the Orient 
Pacific call at Naples also. The P. & O. mail steamers start from the 
Tilbury Dock, and the intermediate steamers from the Royal Albert 
Docks, London. In the winter months these outward steamers are 
nearly always in advance of their scheduled time after leaving Port 

Travelling by sea from England, through the Bay of Biscay, 
results in a saving of a few pounds as compared with the expense 
of the overland route via Marseilles, although it adds a few days to 
the voyage ; but good sailors will probably prefer the greater quiet 
of sea life to the scurry of a long overland journey. The first place 
sighted is generally Cape La Hague or Hogue, on the W. coast of 
the Cotentin in France, off which, on the 19th of May 1692, Admiral 
Russell, afterwards Earl of Orford, defeated De Tourville, and sunk 
or burned sixteen French men-of-war. Then Cape Finisterre {finis 
terra), a promontory on the W. coast of Galicia in Spain, and in N. 
lat. 42° 54', and W. long. 9° 20', will probably be seen, off which 
Anson defeated the French fleet in 1747. The next land sighted 
will be, perhaps. Cape Roca, near Lisbon, and then Cape St 
Vincent in N. lat. 37* 3', W. long. 8" 59', at the S.W. corner of the 
Portuguese province Algarve, off which Sir G. Rodney, on the 
i6th January 1780, defeated the Spanish fleet, and Sir J. Jervis 
won his earldom on the 14th of February 1797, and Nelson the Order 
of the Bath, after taking the S. Josef and the S. Nicholas of 112 guns 
each. This cape has a fort upon it, and the white cliffs, 150 feet high, 
are honey-combed by the waves, which break with great violence upon 
them. From the last three capes steamers are signalled to Lloyd's. 
Just before entering the Straits of Gibraltar, Cape Trafalgar will also 
probably be seen in N. lat. 36' 9', W. long. 6" i', immortalised by 
Nelson's victory of the 21st of October 1805. Tarifa is next passed, 
and Gibraltar then comes in sight The table of distances below 
is from the pocket-book, 3rd edition, of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Steam Navigation Company. This little book, costing only 2S. 6d., 
can be highly recommended. 




Table of Distances between the various Ports according to the Routes taken by 
THE Steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. 

London (i/via Plymouth add 50) 































Port Said 
























































Gibraltar. — As the steamers rarely stop for more than a few 
hours, passengers will not find time for anything beyond a walk in the 
town and lower fortifications. The place is a good one to buy tobacco, 
as there is no duty and it is cheap. There are steamers from Gibraltar 
three times a week to Tangier, and a number of times daily to 
Algeciras, the terminus of the Spanish railway. 

Gibraltar was reckoned as one of the Pillars of Hercules, the African 
pillar being Abyla, near Ceuta. It was taken from the Visigoths in 
711 A.D. by Tarik Ibn Zayad, after whom it was called Jabal al Tarik 
= Gibraltar, and retaken 1309, but not finally wrested from the Moors 
till 1503. In 1704 it was taken by the English, and sustained several 
sharp sieges by the French and Spaniards between that date and 1779. 
In the latter year commenced the memorable siege which lasted four 
years, and ended by the repulse of the combined fleets of France and 
Spain by the garrison under General Elliott, Lord Heathfield. Since 
that time it has remained an uncontested possession of the English. 

Rounding Point Carnero, the spacious, but exposed bay, 6 m. 
wide and 10 m. deep, is entered, and a fine view is obtained of the 
vast rocky promontory, which on the N. face rises in a perpendicular 
precipice 1200 ft. high, and ascends in the centre to 1408 ft. It is 
3 m. in length, and from ^ m. to | m. in breadth ; and is joined to 
the mainland by a low sandy isthmus, i^ m. in length. On all 
sides but the W. it is steep and rugged, but on that side there is a 
general slope of from 200 to 300 ft. from the rock down to the sea 

xxxn GIBRALTAR India 

The approach from the W. reveals three high points ; N. is the 
Rock Gun, or Wolf's Crag, 1337 ft. ; in the centre the Upper Signal 
Station, or El Hacho, 1255 ft. high ; and S. is O'Hara's Tower, 
140S ft. Here the rock descends to Windmill Hill Flats, a level 
plateau \ m. long, which ends in a still lower plateau from 100 to 
50 ft. above the sea, called Europa Flats. The new mole, landing- 
place, and dockyard, occupy the west side from opposite O'Hara's 
Tower to the Signal Station, and the town lies above them from 
opposite the latter point to the Rock Gun Peak. The population 
of the place amounts to 27,000, and the garrison to between 5000 
and 6000. The hotels are situated in West Port Street, which, with 
its continuations, forms the main thoroughfare of the place from 
the Land Port to the South Port Gate. 

Passports are exacted on landing from all but British subjects, 
and sketching is strictly prohibited. The hour of evening gun-fire 
varies according to the time of year; a few minutes later all gates 
are shut till sunrise, though up to a later fixed hour entrance is 
permitted with certain police formalities. 

The Main Street may be followed as far as the Alameda, outside 
the South Port; this was the parade-ground until 1814, when Sir 
George Don made a lovely garden of it. A column brought from 
the ruins of Lepida is surmounted by a bust of the Duke of 
Wellington, and there is also a bust of General Elliott, the hero of 
the great siege. Half-way down the street is the Exchange, with the 
Club House to the W. The English Cathedral Church of the Holy 
Trinity, built in the Moorish style in 1832, stands near these, and 
the Governor's residence further on, which once belonged to Francis- 
can friars, is still called "The Convent." On the left, outside the 
South Port Gate, is a small cemetery, in which many who died of 
wounds received at the Battle of Trafalgar are buried ; and further 
south, below the Alameda, is the dockyard. An upper and a lower 
road lead from here to the Windmill Hill and Europa Flats. 
Beyond these, on the E. shore, is the summer residence of the 
Governor, called " The Cottage," built by General Fox. 

Those remaining several days can explore the Heights and 
fortifications of Gibraltar, for which a special order from the 
Military Authorities is necessary. From the Rock Gun there is a 
fine view of the Ronda Mountains and the Sierra Nevada ; the 
Moorish Castle (746 a.d.) is on the way to it, and under a massive 
tower, called the Torre de Omenaga, are some well-constructed 
tanks. Beyond are the wonderful galleries in the north face excavated 
by convict labour. From the Signal House is a noble view, which 
includes the Atlas Mountains, Ceuta, and Barbary, ending with the 
Bay of Tangiers. Between the Rock Gun and O'Hara's Tower live 

Introd. MARSEILLES xxxiil 

a few monkeys, which are jealously protected. S. of the Signal 
Station, and iioo ft. above the sea, is the celebrated St Michael's 
Cave, which can be visited by special permission only ; an entrance 
scarcely 6 ft. wide leads into a hall 200 ft. long and 60 ft. high, 
supported by stalactite pillars like Gothic arches. Beyond are 
smaller caves, which have been traversed to a distance of 288 ft. In 
Windmill Hill are the four Genista caves, where many bones of men 
and animals have been discovered. 

Beyond the Land Port Gate is a causeway leading into Spain, with 
the sea on the left, and the " Inundation," a sheet of water so called, 
on the right. Beyond these is the North Front, where are the ceme- 
tery, the cricket-ground, and the race-course. The eastern beach, 
called " Ramsgate and Margate," is the general afternoon resort. 
Across the isthmus is a line of English sentries, then the Neutral 
Ground, and then the Spanish sentries. Behind the Spanish lines is 
the town of La Linea de la Conception, with a population of 30,000. 

Marseilles (826 m. from London by railway). — Passengers to 
India, joining a P. & O. steamer at Marseilles, and travelling by 
the P. & O. express (ist class tickets ^6, 14s. + ^2, 155.), leave 
London at 11 A.M. on Thursday in each week, and Calais at 
2.55 P.M., and reach Marseilles at 9.45 a.m. Friday, the special train 
proceeding alongside of the steamer. This is berthed at mole C, 
at the western end of the new Basin National, and some 2\ m. distant 
from the ordinary railway station. The Grand Hotel Terminus at 
this is a convenient place to stay at for one night, or the Grand 
Hotel de Louvre near the old harbour. Passengers arriving by 
steamer, who have some hours to spare, should, if possible, drive 
up the main street or Cannabiere to the Museum, with a Picture 
Gallery and Zoological Gardens, and then from the middle of the 
former by the Rue de Rome and the Prado to the coast east of the 
city, and along that back to the Port by the Via Corniche, finally 
visiting the lofty situated church of Notre Dame de la Garde for 
the sake of the splendid view. The same round can be made by 
the electric tramways. 

[BRINDISI (1450 m. from London by railway). — Details of this 
route to Port Said should be obtained from the P. & O. Company, or 
Messrs Cook.] 

Malta.— On the way from Gibraltar to Malta, by steamers which 
do not proceed to Marseilles, Algiers may possibly be seen, its white 
buildings stretching like a triangle with its base on the sea, and the 
apex on higher ground. Cape Fez, and the promontory of the Seven 
Capes, jagged, irregular headlands, are passed on the starboard 
side, also Cape Bon, the most northern point of Africa, and the 
Island of Pantellaria, the ancient Cossyra, between Cape Bon 



MALTA India 

and Sicily. It is 8 m. long, volcanic, and rises to a height of 
more than 2000 ft. There is a town of the same name near the 
seashore, on the western slope, where there is much cultivation. It 
is used by the Italians as a penal settlement, and is rather smaller 
than Gozo. 

The Maltese group of islands consists of Gozo, Comino, and 
Malta, and stretches from N.W. to S.E., the total distance from 
San Dimitri, the most W. point of Gozo, to Ras Benhisa, the most 
S. part of Malta, being about 25 m. From the nearest point of Gozo 
to Sicily is 55 m., and Africa is 187 m. distant from Malta. Malta 
lies in N. lat. 35° 53' 49", E. long. 14° 30' 28". It is 17 m. long and 
8 m. broad. Its area, together with that of Gozo, is 116 sq. m., and 
the population of the three islands is about 150,000, the numbers of the 
garrison being about 10,000. It consists of calcareous rock, the highest 
point being 590 ft. above the sea-level. Towards the S. it ends in 
precipitous cliffs. It has a barren appearance, but there are many 
fertile gardens and fields, enclosed in high walls, where fine oranges, 
grapes, and figs, and other crops, returning from thirty- to sixty-fold, 
are grown. The Maltese language is a mixture of Arabic and 
Italian, but most of the townspeople have sufificient knowledge of 
Italian to transact business in that tongue. The port of Malta is 
situated somewhat to the E. of the centre of the northern shore of 
the island. It consists of two fine harbours, separated by the narrow 
promontory called Mount Xiberras, or Sciberras. The western or 
quarantine harbour, protected by Fort Tigne on the W., is called 
Marsamuschetto ; the other is Valetta, or the great harbour, and 
in it the men-of-war are moored. The entrance to the great 
harbour is protected on the W. by Fort St Elmo at the end of 
Sciberras, and on the E. by Fort Ricasoli, both very formidable. At 
Fort St Elmo is one of the finest lighthouses in the Mediterranean. 
The great harbour runs away into numerous creeks and inlets, in 
which are the dockyard, victualling-yard, and arsenal, all of which 
could be swept by the guns of St Angelo, which is a fort behind 
St Elmo ; on the E. side here is the town called Citta Vittoriosa. 
The mail steamers are moored in the quarantine harbour ; the charge 
for landing is one shilling per head. On landing, a long flight of 
steps is ascended to the Strada San Marco, which leads to the 
principal street, Strada Reale, \ m. long, in the town of Valetta, 
so-called from Jean de la Valette, Grand Master of the Knights 
of St John of Jerusalem, who built it after the Turkish armament 
sent against Malta by Sultan Suleiman II. had been repulsed. The 
foundation stone was laid on the 28th of March 1566, and the whole 
town, designed by one architect, Girolamo Cassar, was completed 
in May 1571. 


Left of the Strada Reale is St John's Cathedral, a remarkable 
church, both historically and architecturally, designed by Cassar. 
The floor is paved with slabs bearing the arms of scores of knights 
who have been interred in this church. In the first chapel on the 
right, the altar-piece represents the beheading of John the Baptist, and 
is by M. Angelo Caravaggio. In the next chapel, which belonged to 
the Portuguese, are the monuments of Manoel Pinto and Grand 
Master Manoel de Vilhena, the latter of bronze. The third, or 
Spanish chapel, has the monuments of Grand Masters Perellos and 
N. Cotoner, and two others. The fourth chapel belonged to the 
Provencals. The fifth chapel is sacred to the Virgin, and here are 
kept the town keys taken from the Turks. On the left of the entrance 
is a bronze monument of Grand Master Marc Antonio Sondadario. 
The first chapel on the left is the sacristy. The second chapel 
belonged to the Austrians, the third to Italians, containing pictures, 
ascribed to Caravaggio, of St Jerome and Mary Magdalene. The 
fourth is the French chapel, and the fifth the Bavarian, and hence a 
staircase descends to the crypt, where are the sarcophagi of the first 
Grand Master who ruled in Malta, L'Isle Adam, and of de La 
Valette and others. 

The Governor's Palace, formerly the Grand Master's, close to the 
Strada Reale, is a noble range of building, containing marble-paved 
corridors and staircase, and many portraits, and armed figures carry- 
ing the shields of all the Governors from the first Grand Master to 
the present day. The armoury is full of interesting relics, including 
the original deed granted to the Knights of St John of Jerusalem by 
Pope Pascal II. in 1126, and the deed when they left Rhodes in 1522. 
The Library, close to the Palace, contains 40,000 volumes, and some 
Phoenician and Roman antiquities. The highest battery commands 
a fine view of both harbours and of the fortifications. There are 
several statues of Grand Masters and Governors in the walk on the 
ramparts. The Opera House, the Bourse, the Courts of Justice, 
once the Auberge d'Auvergne, and the Union Club, once the Auberge 
de Province, and the statues of L'Isle Adam and de La Valette, are 
in the Strada Reale. The Auberge d'ltalie, to the east of the south 
end of this street, is the Royal Engineer's office, and the Auberge de 
Castille, near it, has become the Headquarters of the Artillery ; the 
Auberge de France, in the Strada Mezzodi, is now the house of the 
Comptroller of Military Stores, and the Auberge d'Aragon the 
residence of the General of the Garrison. The Auberge d'Allemagne 
was removed in order to erect St Paul's Church on its site. The 
Anglo- Bavarian Auberge is the Headquarters of the regiment 
stationed at St Elmo. In front of the Auberge de Castille are the 
Piazza Regina and Upper Barracca, affording splendid views of the 

xxxvi MALTA India 

great harbour. The Military Hospital has the largest room in 
Europe, 480 ft. long, erected in 1628 by Grand Master Vasconcelos. 
Below the Military Hospital is the Civil Hospital for Inciirables, 
founded by Caterina Scappi in 1646. 

A mile beyond the Porta Real and the station of the little railway 
to Civita Vecchia is the Governor's country palace of St Antonio, 
with a lovely garden. About \ m. further to the S.W. is Citta 
Vecchia, which stands on a ridge from 200 to 300 ft. high, affording 
a view over nearly the whole island. There is a fine church here, 
St Paul's, and near it are some curious catacombs. St Paul's Bay 
lies at the N.W. extremity of the island ; there is a statue of bronze 
erected on an islet at its mouth. The Carthaginian or Phoenician 
ruins at Hagiar Chem, properly Hajar Kaim, " upright stone," 
near the village of Casal Crendi, can be visited on the way to it. 
These ruins, excavated in 1839, consist of walls of large stones fixed 
upright in the ground, forming small enclosures, connected with one 
another by passages, and all contained within one large enclosure. 
The building is thought to have been a temple of Baal and Astarte. 
The main entrance is on the S.S.E., and a passage leads from it 
into a court, on the left of which is an altar, with the semblance of 
a plant rudely sculptured on it. Similar remains are found in other 
parts of Malta and in Gozo. 

Malta is said to have been occupied by the Phoenicians in 1500 
B.C., and by the Greeks in 750 B.C. The Carthaginians got possession 
of it in 500 B.C., and the Romans took it towards the close of the 
second Punic War. The Goths and Vandals invaded it in 420 a.D. In 
520 A.D. Belisarius made it a province of the Byzantine Empire, the 
Moslems conquered it in 730 A.D., and Count Roger, the Norman, 
captured it in 1 100 A.D. It then passed to Louis IX., to the Count 
of Anjou, and to the Kings of Castile, and then to Charles V., who 
gave it, in 1530, to the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem. 
On l8th May 1565, the Turks attacked St Elmo, St Angelo, and 
Sanglea, but the siege was raised on the 8th of September (see Major 
Whitworth Porter's History of the Knights of Malta, Longmans, 
1858). The Knights had their own mint, fleet, and army, and 
accredited ambassadors to foreign Courts. In the archives are letters 
from Henry VIII., Charles II., and Anne, addressed to them as 
princes. On the 7th of September 1792 the French Directory com- 
manded the Order to be annulled, and seized all its French posses- 
sions. On the 7th of June 1798, Bonaparte arrived with a fleet of 18 
ships of the line, 18 frigates, and 600 transports, and Malta was 
surrendered. A tree of liberty was planted before the Palace, the 
decorations of the Knights were burned, and the churches, palaces, 
and charitable houses at Valetta and Citta Vecchia were pillaged. 

Introd. SUEZ canal xxxvii 

On the 2nd of September 1798, a general revolt took place, and 
Nelson blockaded Valetta ; and on the 5th of September 1800 their 
commander, General Vaubois, surrendered. 

Egypt, Port Said, and the Suez Canal.— The land about 
Port Said is so low, that the approach to the harbour would be difficult 
were it not for a lighthouse 160 ft. high, built of concrete, which 
stands on the sea-shore to the right of the harbour close to the W. 
mole, and shows an electric light flashing every 20 seconds, and 
visible 20 m. off. The harbour is formed by two breakwaters, 1 500 
yards apart, built of concrete, the western 2726 yards long, the eastern 
1962 yards long. The depth of water at the entrance is 30 ft. Since 
the works were begun, the sea has receded \ m., and a bank has 
formed to the N.W. of the entrance, having only 4 to 5 fathoms water 
on it, caused by a current which sets along the shore, and meeting the 
sea rolling in from the N., is forced back, and deposits its silt. Near 
the S. end of the west jetty is a bold statue of Mons. Ferdinand de 
Lesseps, with the motto "Aperire terram gentibus." Port Said town 
is modern, and since 1890 it has been much improved, and is now a 
very important coaling-station. The population is about 25,000. 
Opposite the anchorage on the Marina is the French pilots' office, 
where the draught, breadth, length, and tonnage of each ship entering 
the canal is noted. In it there is a v/ooden plan of the canal, along 
which wooden pegs, with flags, are placed, showing the exact position 
of every vessel passing through this great highway. Further south 
is the fine hospital building. Trains leave for Ismailia, Suez, and 
Cairo twice daily. The line, being of the narrow gauge, carriages 
have to be changed at Ismailia. The principal hotels are the Eastern 
Exchange, Continental, and Metropole. Messrs Cook and the Anglo- 
American Nile Company and the principal Agents in India have 
representatives at Port Said. 

The Canal,' opened in 1870, is in round numbers 100 m. in length, 
and as far as Ismailia, that is for about 42 m., it runs due N. and S. 
It then bends to the E. for about 35 m., and is again almost straight 
for the last 20 m. 

The following are the dimensions of the canal, which are being 
constantly increased : — 

Width at water-line ...... 240 ft. 

360 ,, 


at base 

Depth . 

At depth of 24 ft. 


' For a detailed history of the canal, see Handbook of Egypt, John Murray. 

xxxviii ISMAILIA India 

Every few miles there is a gare, or station, and a siding uifti signal 
posts, by which the trafific is regulated according to the block system. 
Every year the navigation is rendered easier by the construction of 
additional sidings, and traffic at night by electric light ; the average 
duration of transit is now 17 hours. Vessels must not move faster 
than 6 m. an hour except in the Lakes. 

The number of ships which passed through the canal in 1910 
was 4533, with a net tonnage of 16,600,000 ; of this 63 per cent, 
sailed under the British, and 14 per cent, under the German flag. 
The dues paid on ships are ']\ fr. per ton for laden passenger and 
cargo steamers, and 10 fr. for each passenger ; and the gross 
income now earned is 120,000,000 fr. (^^4,7 50,000). Since the latest 
improvements were made, the average size of the vessels using the 
canal has increased from 1500 to 3000 tons. The number of pas- 
sengers carried annually through the canal is nearly 235,000, of 
whom rather over one-third are classed as military. The capital 
of the Company is, in round numbers, ^13,000,000. The cost of 
construction was ;^ 1 6,000,000, the difference between the two sums 
having been paid by the Khedive. Work commenced in 1859, and 
was completed in 1869, under the direction of M. Ferdinand de Lesseps. 
The canal route saves nearly half the length of that by the 
Cape of Good Hope from the principal ports of Europe to Bombay, 
and one quarter of the same to China. 

On the W. of the canal, as far as Al Kantarah (the Bridge), that 
is for about one-fourth of the way, there is a broad expanse of water, 
called Lake Manzalah., and for the rest of the distance to the W., and 
the whole distance to the E., a sandy desert, on which foxes, jackals, 
hyenas, wander at night. 20 m. from Port Said, the old Pelusiac 
branch of the Nile is crossed, and 8 m. to the E. are the ruins of 
the ancient city of Pelusium. At Al Kantarah, 27 m. from Suez, the 
canal intersects the caravan-track between Egypt and Syria, and 
is crossed by a flying bridge. 10 m. to the W. is Tel Dafanah, 
the site of Daphne, the Taphnes of Judith, i. 9. At 2 m. S. 
of Al Kantarah the canal enters the Lake Ballah, and after 12 m. 
reaches the promontory Al Fardanah, which it cuts through. 
Thence, after 4^ m., it reaches Al Gisr, the highest ground in 
the isthmus, 65 ft. above sea-level. There was a great camp here 
when the works were in progress ; and a staircase of 100 steps led 
down to the canal. Beyond this, near the entrance to Lake Timsah, 
just half-way between Port Said and Suez, a small channel joins the 
maritime canal and the Fresh-Water Canal. The difference of level 
is 17 ft., which is overcome by two locks. A steam-launch comes to 
meet steamers in the lake, and land passengers for 

ISMAILIA, population 4000, which once had much of the iuiport- 

Introd. SUEZ xxxix 

ance and traffic that formerly belonged to Suez, as the mails and 
passengers for Egypt were landed here — Hotel Vittoria, Hotel des 
Voyageurs ; but is likely to decline owing to the opening of the 
railway to Port Said. From the landing-place a broad road lined 
with trees traverses the town from E. to W. In the W. quarter are 
the station, the landing-quays of the Fresh-Water Canal, and large 
blocks of warehouses, and beyond them the Arab Village. In the E. 
part are the houses of the employes, the residence of the Khedive, which 
was used as a military hospital during the English occupation of 
Ismailia in 1882, and the works by which water is pumped from the 
Fresh-Water Canal to Port Said. 

The course of the canal through Lake Timsah, or Bahr al Timsah, 
"the Lake of the Crocodile," to which the Red Sea is believed to 
have formerly extended, is about i\ m., and is marked by buoys. 
After 4 m. the canal reaches the higher ground of Tussum, where 
the level of the desert is 20 ft. above the sea, and here the first work- 
ing encampment in the S. half of the isthmus was formed in 1859. 
Three m. to the S. is Serapeum, where the level is from 15 to 25 ft. 
above the sea, so called from some remains of a temple of Serapis, 
lying 4 m. to the W. A mile and a half from this the canal enters 
the Bitter Lakes, where the course is again buoyed. These lakes 
are the ancient Gulf of Heraeopolis, and some authorities hold that 
the passage of the Israelites was through this. At the N. and S. 
ends of the principal lake is an iron lighthouse, 65 ft. high, on a solid 
masonry base. After 86 m. from Port Said the deep cutting of Shaluf 
is reached, in which is a band of sandstone, with layers of limestone 
and conglomerate, in which fossil remains of the shark, hippopotamus, 
tortoise, and whale, have been found. From this to the Suez mouth 
of the canal is 12^ m. 

All the way from Ismailia the banks are fringed with vegetation, 
and the plain on either side is dotted with bushes. There is a little 
fishing in the canal for those who like the amusement, and at Suez 
there is a great variety of fish. 

Suez. — The chief historical interest of Suez is derived from its 
having been long supposed to be the spot near which the Israelites 
crossed the Red Sea under the guidance of Moses, and where the 
Egyptian army was drowned, but modern criticism tends to place 
the scene farther N. In the early years of the i8th century Suez was 
little better than a small fishing-village, galvanised now and then into 
commercial life by the passage of caravans going to and fro between 
Asia and Egypt. But in 1837, owing to the exertions of Lieutenant 
Waghorn, the route through Egypt was adopted for the transit of the 
Indian mail, and a few years after the P. & O. Company began 
running a line of steamers regularly between India and Suez. This 


was followed in 1857 by the completion of a railway line from 
Cairo (since removed), and Suez soon began to increase in size and 
importance. It suffered, however, from the want of fresh water, until 
the completion (1863) of the Fresh- Water Canal to Suez brought an 
abundance of Nile water to the town ; and the various works in 
connection with the Suez Canal, the new quays, the docks, etc., 
raised the population to 15,000. With the completion of the canal, 
the activity of the town decreased, and since the transfer of the mails 
from it, the place has been almost deserted, and the fine quays 
and warehouses are unused, as steamers now usually anchor in the 
Roads. There is a railway line to Ismailia and so to Cairo and 
Port Said. 

The Old Town itself offers few points of interest. To the N. of 
the town are the storehouses of the P. & O. Company, the lock which 
terminates the Fresh-Water Canal and the English Hospital, and, 
on the heights above, is the chalet of the Khedive, from which there 
is a magnificent view ; in the foreground is the town, the harbour, 
the roadstead, and the mouth of the Suez Canal ; to the right the 
range of Gebel Attakah, a most striking and beautiful object, with 
its black-violet heights hemming in the Red Sea ; away to the 
left, though considerably farther S., are the rosy peaks of the 
Mount Sinai range ; and between the two, the deep blue of the 

EXCURSION TO Wells of Moses.— By those landmg for Egypt 
at Suez, a pleasant excursion may be made to the Wells or 
Fountains of Moses, Ain Musa. It will occupy, according to 
the route taken and the time spent at the place, from half a day 
to a day. The shortest way is to take a sailing-boat, or one of 
the small steamers that ply between the town and the harbour, 
as far as the jetty, which has been built out into the sea to 
communicate with the new Quarantine lately established on the shore 
of the gulf for the reception of the pilgrims on their return from Mecca. 
From this point to Ain Musa the distance is not much over a mile ; if 
donkeys are required between the jetty and the Wells, they must be 
sent from Suez. The other plan is to cross over in a boat to the old 
Quarantine jetty, about half a mile from the town, either taking 
donkeys in the boat or sending them on previously, and then to cross 
the Suez Canal by the ferry used for the passage of caravans between 
Arabia and Egypt, and ride along the desert to the Wells. Or the 
boat may be taken down to the entrance to the canal, and then up 
it a short way to the usual starting-point for the Wells. Either of 
these routes will take from three to four hours. The sums to be paid 
for boats and donkeys had better be strictly agreed upon beforehand. 
Visitors who intend spending the day at Ain Musa should take food 

introd. the red sea xli 

with them. This excursion may be combined with a visit to the docks, 
by landing there on returning. 

The " Wells ■' are a sort of oasis, formed by a collection of springs, 
surrounded with tamarisk bushes and pa'm-trees. Since it has 
become, as Dean Stanley calls it, "the Richmond of Suez " — a regular 
picnicking place for the inhabitants of that town — some Arabs and 
Europeans have regularly settled in it, and there are now a few 
houses, and gardens with fruit-trees and vegetables. The water from 
the springs has a brackish taste. Most of them are simply holes dug 
in the soil, which is here composed of earth, sand, and clay : but one 
is built up of massive masonry of great age. Though not mentioned 
in the Bible, its position has always caused it to be associated with 
the passage of the Red Sea by the Israelites, and tradition has fixed 
upon it as the spot where Moses and Miriam and the Children of 
Israel sang their song of triumph. 

The Red Sea.— a fresh breeze from the N. generally prevails for 
two-thirds of the voyage down the Red Sea, and is, during the winter 
months, succeeded by an equally strong wind from the S. for the rest 
of the way. During the summer, the wind from the N. blows through- 
out the sea, but is light in the southern half, and the heat is great. 
The Sinaitic Eange is the first remarkable land viewed to the E., 
but Sinai itself, 37 geographical m. distant, can be seen only for a few 

The Red Sea extends from the head of the Gulf of Suez to the 
Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, about 1300 m., and its greatest width is 
about 200 m. At Ras Mohammed it is split by the peninsula of 
Sinai into two parts ; one, the Gulf of Suez, about 150 m. long, 
and from 10 to 18 wide, and the other, the Gulf of Akabah, about 
ICO m. long, and from 5 to 10 wide. 

Wherever seen from the sea the shores of the Red Sea present an 
appearance of absolute sterility. A broad sandy plain slopes in- 
appreciably to the foot of the mountains, which are in most parts a 
considerable distance inland. The ordinary mail-steamei^'s track, 
however, lies down the centre of the sea, and little more than the 
summits of the distant bare and arid mountains will be seen. 

Throughout the Red Sea enormous coral reefs run along the coasts 
in broken lines parallel to the shores, but not connected with them. 
They usually rise out of deep water to within a few feet of the surface. 
A navigable channel, from 2 to 3 m. wide, extends between them and 
the E. coast, and a narrower one on the W. coast. The whole sea is 
in course of upheaval. The former seaport of Adulis, in Annesley 
Bay, near Massowa, is now 4 m. inland. 

The tides are very uncertain. At Suez, where they are most 
regular, they rise from 7 ft. at spring to 4 ft. at neap tides. 


During the hottest months, July to September, the prevalence of 
northerly winds drives the water out of the Red Sea. The S.W. 
monsoon is then blowing in the Indian Ocean, and the general level 
of the Red Sea is from 2 to 3 ft. lower than during the cooler months, 
when the N.E. monsoon forces water into the Gulf of Aden and thence 
through the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. 

After leaving Suez the lighthouses seen are Zafarana and Ras 
Gharib, both on the W. coast before Tor is reached. Then follows 
the light on Ashrafi, just inside the mouth of the Gulf of Suez, and 
that on Shadwar, just south of it. The light on The Brothers is 
nearly due E. of Kosseir. The Daedalus Reef, small and dangerous, 
lies in mid-channel in latitude 25°, and was a source of dread 
before the light was erected. The last light is on Perim Island in 
the Bab-el-Mandeb. 

Below Kosseir (lat. 26°) — the ancient Leucos Limen (White Harbour) 
and the port of Upper Egypt — and Ras Benas (lat. 24°), near which 
was the port of Berenice, SUAKIN, 900 m. south of Suez, in latitude 
19, is the first town of importance on the Egyptian coast. It was 
the scene of the two English expeditions of 1884, 1885, neither of 
which led to any result, and in 1896 was again held for the Khedive 
of Egypt by our troops, which caused a diversion of Osman Digna's 
forces, thus enabling the Khedive's troops, under Sir Herbert 
Kitchener, the more easily to reconquer the North Soudan. The 
principal tribes in the vicinity are the Hadendowa and Amarar. 

About 120 m. north of Suakin, on the Arabian coast, is Jiddah, 
the seaport of Mecca (Makka), 60 m. E. The population, including 
surrounding villages, is about 40,000. English and other steamers 
call here frequently. The anchorage is '^\ m. from the shore. 
The town is square in shape, enclosed by a wall with towers at 
intervals, and on the sea-face by two forts. There is a good street 
parallel to the sea. The population is most fanatical, and Europeans 
landing must behave in all respects cautiously. There are three 
entrances to the town on the sea side, but the central one at the 
jetty is the only one in ordinary use. The gate on the S. side of the 
town is seldom opened, that on the N. is free to all, but the E. or 
Mecca gate, which formerly was strictly reserved for Mohammedans, 
should be approached with caution. The only sight of the town is 
the so-called Tomb of Eve, which lies to the north. This is a small 
mosque in the centre of two long low walls 140 ft. in length, which 
are supposed to enclose the grave. The antiquity of the tradition is 
unknown. Jiddah was bombarded by the British in 1858 in retri- 
bution for a massacre of the Consul and other British subjects by 
the population. Over 20,000 pilgrims proceed on the Haj every year 
from India. 

Tntrod. PERIM xliii 

HODEIDA, also on the east coast 200 m. N. of the Straits of Bab-el- 
Mandeb, in lat. 14° 40' N., has a population of about 33,000. The 
anchorage is 3^ m. from the shore. European steamers call weekly 
or oftener. Mocha, which this place has supplanted as a commercial 
port, is 100 m. S. Hodeida has well-built houses and an amply- 
supplied market, and its mosques with fine domes and minarets 
give it a handsome appearance. 

The island of Perim occupies the narrowest part of the Strait of 
Bab-el-Mandeb ("the Gate of Tears"). It is distant i^ m. from the 
Arabian coast, and 9 to 10 m. from the African. The average width 
is ij m., the greatest length 3^ m. The formation is purely volcanic, 
and consists of long low hills surrounding a capacious harbour about 
i^ m. long, \ m. in breadth, with a depth of from 4 to 6 fathoms in 
the best anchorages. The highest point of the island is 245 ft. above 
sea-level. All endeavours to find water have failed, and but little is 
procurable from the mainland near. There are water tanks that used 
to be supplied from Aden, but a condensing apparatus is found the 
most convenient means of supply. The British are the only nation 
who have ever permanently occupied Perim. Albuquerque landed 
upon it in 15 13, and erected a high cross on an eminence, and called 
it the island of Vera Cruz, by which name it is shown on old 
Admiralty charts. Afterwards it was occupied by pirates who in vain 
dug for water. In 1799 the East India Company took possession of 
it, and sent a force from Bombay to hold it and prevent the French 
then in Egypt from passing on to India, where it was feared they 
would join Tipu Sultan. The lighthouse on the highest point was 
completed in 1861, and since then two others have been built on the 
shore. The garrison furnished from Aden occupies a small block- 
house for the protection of the lighthouse and coaling-stations. 
Steamers usually pass to the E. of the island near the Government 
boat harbour. The western side of the large inner harbour has been 
assigned to the Perim Coal Company, who have expended ^120,000 
in making the place one of the most perfect coaling and salvage 
stations in the East. The powerful salvage steamers are always 
ready to render assistance to vessels in distress. 

Aden, lat. 12° 46', long. E. 44° 58', situated on the E, promontory 
of a bay 8 m. long and 4 m. deep, was long held by the Turks, 
who captured the port from the Arabs. Marco Polo, the Venetian, 
visited Aden on his return from his travels in China. He records : 
" And it is a fact that when the Soldan of Babylon went against 
the city of Acre" (in A.D. 1291) "this Soldan of Aden sent to 
his assistance 30,000 horsemen and 40,000 camels, to the great help 
of the Saracens and the grievous injury of the Christians. He did 
this a great deal more for the hate he bears the Christians than 

jdiv ADEN India 

for any love he bears the Soldan." This was the Mameluke Sultan of 
Egypt, Malik Ashraf Khalil. On the i8th February 1513, Albuquerque 
sailed from India with twenty ships for the conquest of Aden. In 
the assault on the fortress their ladders broke, and although the 
Portuguese took " a bulwark which guarded the port with thirty- 
nine great pieces of cannon," they were obliged to withdraw after a 
four days' siege. The first English vessel visited Aden in 1619. 

Aden was taken from the Arabs by the British on the i6th of 
January 1839.^ It was attacked by the Abdalis and Fadhlis on the 
nth of November in that year, but they were repulsed with the loss 
of 200 killed and wounded. The united Arab tribes made a second 
attack on the 22nd of May 1840, but failed after losing many men. 
On the 5th of July 1840, a third attack took place, but the assailants, 
Abdalis and Fadhlis, were driven back and lost 300 men. In January 
1846 Saiyad Ismail, after preaching 2l jihad, or religious war, in Mecca, 
attacked this place, but was easily repulsed. In 1858, 'AH bin Muhsin, 
Sultan of the Abdalis, gave so much trouble that Brigadier Coghlan, 
Commandant at Aden, was compelled to march against him, when the 
Arabs were routed with a loss of from thirty to forty men, and with no 
casualties on our side. In December 1865, the Sultan of the Fadhli 
tract, which has a seaboard of 100 m. extending from the boundary 
of the Abdalis, attempted to blockade Aden on the land side, but was 
utterly routed by Lieutenant-Colonel Woolcombe, C.B., at Bir Said, 
15 m. from the Barrier Gate. A force under Brigadier-General 
Raines, C.B., then marched through the Abgar districts, which are 
the lowlands of this tribe, and destroyed several fortified villages. 
Subsequently, in January 1866, an expedition went from Aden by 
sea to Shugrah, the chief port of the Fadhlis, 65 m. from Aden, and 
destroyed the forts there. Since 1867 this tribe, which numbers 6700 
fighting men, have adhered to their engagements. The Abdahs 
inhabit a district 33 m. long and 8 broad to the N.N.W. of Aden, 
and number about 8000 souls. Their territory is called Lahej, and 
the capital is Al-Hautah, 21 m. from the Barrier Gate. 

It is under contemplation to construct two short railways from 
Aden to Sahej and Nobat Dakim, and to Shekh Othman and D'thala. 

Aden is hot, but healthy. The promontory is about 5 m. long and 
3 m. broad, and the highest point on it, the Rock, rises 1700 ft. above 
the sea. The lighthouse on Ras Marshag, the S.E. point, has a fixed 
light visible 20 m. off. The town has a population of 46,000, but 
its trade is slowly decaying. A visit to the bazaar, if the stay 
of the steamer will allow of this, will show wild Arabs from the 
interior of Arabian Yemen, Turks, Egyptians, hideous Swahelis 
from the coast of East Africa, untamed shock-headed Somalis, 

I Aden was the first addition to the Empire in the reign of the late Queen. 

Introd. ADEN xlv 

Jews of various sects, inhabitants of India, Parsis, British soldiers, 
Bombay Mahrattas, and Jack-tars. The Crater used in former days 
to be the fortress of Aden. Now modern science has converted 
"Steamer Point" into a seemingly impregnable position, the penin- 
sula which the "Point" forms to the whole Crater being cut off by 
a fortified line which runs from N. to S. just to the eastward of the 
coal wharfs. The Port is visited yearly by 1650 steamers, with a 
tonnage of 3,000,000 tons : the value of the sea trade is very large, 
over ;^6,ooo,ooo ; the income of the Port Trust is 4J lakhs, and of 
the Municipality 2 lakhs. 

Inside the Light Ship the water shallows to 4 fathoms, and a 
large steamer stirs up the mud with the keel and action of the 
screw. As soon as the vessel stops, scores of canoes, with one 
or two Somali boys in each, paddle off and surround the steamer, 
shouting, " Have a dive — have a dive," and " Good boy — good 
boy," all together, with a very strong accent on the first syllable, 
and dive for small coins flung to them. Owing to a number of 
fatalities from sharks, this is prohibited in the S.W. monsoon 

Steamers seldom stop nowadays for more than a few hours at 
Aden. Notice is always posted on board as to the desirability or 
not of landing. Transhipment takes place each alternate -week in 
the case of the P. & O. mail steamers to the local Aden-Bombay 
Express mail steamer Salsette (6000 tons). 

It takes from twelve to twenty minutes to land at the Post-Office 
Pier, which is broad and sheltered. To the left of it are the hotels 
and shops. At a short distance N. of the hotels is a condenser 
belonging to a private proprietor. There are three such condensers 
belonging to Government, and several the property of private 
companies, and by these and an aqueduct from Sheikh Othman, 
7 m. beyond the Barrier Gate, Aden is supplied with water. 
Condensed water costs about Rs.2 per 100 gallons. 

The tanks under the Peak are worth a visit, but the distance to 
them is about 5 m. Their restoration was undertaken in 1856, 
and they are capable of holding 8,000,000 gallons of water. The 
ravines which intersect the plateau of the crater converge into one 
valley, and a very moderate fall of rain suffices to send a considerable 
torrent down it. This water is partly retained in the tanks which 
were made to receive it, and which are so constructed that the over- 
flow of the upper tank falls into a lower, and so on in succession. 
As the annual rainfall at Aden does not exceed 6 or 7 in., Malik a! 
Mansur, King of Yaman, at the close of the 15th century built an 
aqueduct to bring the water of the Bir Hamid into Aden (see Playfair's 
History of Yanian). 

xlvi SOCOTRA India 

The Salt Pans on the way to Sheikh Othman are curious. The 
sea-water is pumped into shallow pans cut out of the earth, and 
allowed to evaporate, and the salt which remains is collected. It 
belongs to an Italian company, who pay royalty on every ton of salt 
procured. The Keith- Falconer Medical Mission at Sheikh Othman, 
as well as Steamer Point, was established by the Hon. Ion Keith- 
Falconer, Arabic Professor, Cambridge, who died there. His tomb, 
of fine Carrara marble, is in the military cemetery of Aden. The 
Mission under the care of the doctors of the Free Church of Scotland, 
is most popular. At Steamer Point there are three churches for the 
troops, Anglican, Scottish, and Roman. In the Crater there are two 

After leaving Aden the only land usually approached by steamers 
bound for India is the Island of Socotra, which is about 150 m. 
E. of Cape Guardafui, the E. point of the African continent. The 
island is 71 m. long, and 22 broad. Most of the surface is a table- 
land about 800 ft. above sea-level. The capital is Tamarida or Hadibu, 
on the N. coast. The population is only 4000, or 4 to the square 
mile. It is politically a British possession subordinate to Aden, 
but administered in its internal affairs by its own chiefs. 

Four days after passing Socotra, the mainland will be sighted 
behind Bombay, which lies 6° N. of Aden in lat. 18° 58' above 
the Equator, and long. 72° 48' E. of Greenwich. 






The census of 1911 gave the population of British India and Burma 
as follows : — 


Feudatory ..... 

Area in 
Square Miles. 






Of this total of 294,000,000 about 160,000 are British born, of 
whom one-half are soldiers. The army of British India comprises : 

British Troops 




In addition, there are Native Reserves, 35,000 ; Imperial Service 
Troops furnished by Native States, 21,000 ; and European and Anglo- 
Indian Volunteers, 37,000, making altogether 93,000 additional men 
trained by British officers. The Native States have also semi-trained 
troops to the number of 90,000, which are not included in this list. 

The original races in India consisted of the Aborigines, or non- 
Aryans, and the pure Aryans, or twice-born castes. The bulk of 
the population now consists of Hindus, a blend of Aryans and non- 
Aryans, and the great majority of the Mohammedans are sprung 
from converts of the same stock. 

The census of 190 1 gave, in round numbers, the following religious 
statistics : — 

Brahmanic . 


Sikh . 


. 2,200,000 

Animist (non-Aryan) . 




. 1,334,000 






Buddhist . 





Christian . . . 




Mohammed (Muhammad, "the praised") was born at Mecca 
(Makka) in 570 A.D., his father being a poor merchant who died soon 
after the birth of his son. When twenty-five years old he became 
manager or agent to a rich widow, named Khadija, who, although 
fifteen years his senior, offered him marriage. By her he had two 
sons who died young, and four daughters, of whom the best known is 
Fatima. At the age of forty he received the first divine communica- 
tion in the solitude of the mountain Hira, near Mecca, where the 
angel Gabriel appeared, and commanded him to preach the new 
religion. The Meccans persecuted him ; his wife and uncle died ; 
and he became poverty-stricken. On 26th June 622 he fled to Medina, 
where he was accepted as a prophet. From here he made war upon the 
Meccans, and finally succeeded in capturing Mecca, and was recognised 
there. He died on the 8th June 632 in Medina, and is buried there.^ 

The chief tenet of the Mohammedan religion is Islam, which 
means resignation, submission to the will of God. In its dogmatical 
form it is Imam (faith), in its practical Din (religion). The funda- 
mental principle is, " There is no God but God ; and Mohammed is 
God's prophet." (" Ld illdha illd 'llah Muhammadun Rasulu 'lldh.") 
There are four great duties. i. Daily prayers. (These should 
take place five times a day — at sunset, nightfall, daybreak, noon, 
and afternoon.) 2. The giving of alms. 3. The fast of Ramazan. 
4. A pilgrimage to Mecca. In the Koran (much of which 
was dictated by Mohammed), a holy war or jihad is enjoined as a 
religious duty ; but the Mohammedan subjects of a Government 
under which the practices of the Mohammedan religion are freely 
permitted, are bound to obey that Government. The Mohammedans 
believe in resurrection, heaven, and hell. In heaven are all manner 
of sensuous delights. In hell all who deny the unity of God will be 
tortured eternally. There is a separate heaven for women if they 
find their way there. Mohammed enjoined care in ablution of the 
hands, mouth, and nose, before eating or praying. The Koran forbids 
the drinking of wine or the eating of the flesh of swine. Usury, and 
games of chance are prohibited, and the laws against idolatry are 
very stringent. Every man may have four wives, besides concubine 
slaves, but he must not look upon the face of any other woman except 
a near relative. Hope and fear, reward and punishment, with a 
belief in predestination, form the system of faith. It is contrary to 

1 Interesting works on the Mohammedan religion are those of Sir William 
Muir, K.C.S.I., the Life of Mohammed, by Mr Justice Amir Ali, and the 
Dictionary of Islam, by the Rev. Mr Hughes, the last of which is a storehouse of 
information. Sale's Translation of the Koran is still the best for the general reader. 




the religion of Mohammed to make any figure or representation of 
anything living. There are two main Mohammedan sects. Accord- 
ing to the Sunnis the first four KhaHfahs (KhaHfah = representative) 
after Mohammed are Abubakr, Omar, Othman, and Ali in that order. 
The Shias consider that Ali was the first, excluding the other three. 
Eras. — The Mohammedan era of the Hijrah takes its name from 
the "departure" of Mohammed from Mecca, but commences with the 
later date of Friday, the i6th of July 622 a.d., ordered by the Khalifah 
Omar to be used as their era by Mohammedans. Their year consists 
of twelve lunar months, as follows : — 


30 days 

Rajab . 

30 days 

Safar , 

29 „ 


29 „ 

Rabi ul awal 

30 „ 


30 ,. 

Rabi us-sani 

29 ,, 


29 „ 

Jumada ul awal 

30 » 


30 „ 

Jumada us-sani 

29 „ 

Zil Hijjah . 

29 „ 

= 354 days. 

Their year, therefore, is 1 1 days short of the solar year, and their 
New Year's Day is every year 11 days earlier than in the preceding 
year. In every 30 years the month Zil Hijjah is made to consist 11 
times of 30 days instead of 29, which accounts for the 9 hours in the 
lunar year, which is thus 354 days, 9 hours. To bring the Hijrah year 
into accordance with the Christian year, express the former in years 
and decimals of a year, multiply by '970225, add 621 "54, and the 
total will correspond exactly to the Christian year. Or to effect the 
same correspondence roughly, deduct 3 per cent, from the Hijrah year, 
add 62r54, and the result will be the period of the Christian year 
when the Mohammedan year begins. The current Mohammedan 
year, 1329 Hijrah, commenced on the 2nd January 191 1, and the 
following four years Hijrah will commence on the 22nd December 
191 1, nth December 1912, 30th November 1913, and 1333 Hijrah on 
19th November 1914. 

The Tarikh Ilahi or Era of Akbar and the Fasli or Harvest Era. 

These eras begin from the commencement of Akbar's reign on 
Friday the 5th of Rabi us-sani, 963 a.H. = 19th of February 1556 A.D. 

Mohammedan Festivals 

Bakar (Bull) '/c/, or Id-i-Kurban (sacrifice), held on the loth of 
Zil Hijjah in memory of Abraham's offering of Ishmael, which is the 
version of the Koran. Camels, cows, sheep, goats, kids, or lambs are 

Muharram (The Holiest^), a fast in remembrance of the death of 
Hasan and Husain, the sons of 'Ali by Fatima, the daughter of 

^ The name is derived from the corresponding old Arabic month in which it 
was unholy to wage war. 


Mohammed. Hasan was poisoned by the Khalif Yezid in 49 A.H. 
and Husain was murdered at Karbala on the loth of Muharram, 
61 A.H. = 9th October 680 A.D. The fast begins on the ist of 
Muharram and lasts ten days. Moslems of the Shi'ah persuasion 
assemble in the T'aziyah Khana, or house of mourning. On the 
night of the 7th an image of Burak, the animal (vehicle) on which 
Mohammed ascended to heaven, is carried in procession, and on 
the loth Tabuts ^ or Taziyas (biers). These are thrown into the sea, 
or other water, and in the absence of water are buried in the earth. 
The mourners move in a circle, beating their breasts with cries of 
"Ya! Hasan! Ya Husain!" or "Ya AH!" At this time fanatical 
spirit is apt to run high, and serious disturbances sometimes take place 
(see Hobson-Jobson in the Glossary of Anglo-Indian Words and 

Akhir-i-Chahar Skambah, held on the last Wednesday of Safar, 
when Mohammed recovered a little in his last illness and bathed for 
the last time. It is proper to write out seven blessings, wash off the 
ink and drink it, as also to bathe and repeat prayers. 

Bari Wafdt (The Great Death), held on the 13th of Rabi ul awal 
in memory of Mohammed's death, 1 1 A.H. 

Shab-i-bardt (Night of Record), held on the i6th of Sh'aban, when, 
according to Mohammedan tradition, men's actions for next year are 
recorded. The Koran ought to be read all night, and the next day a 
fast should be observed. 

Ratnazan^-ki-Rosah, the month-long fast ot the Mohammedans. 
The night of the 27th is called Lailat-ul-Kadar, "night of power," 
because the Koran came down from heaven on that night. 

'Idu 'l-fiiar, the festival when the fast of the Ramazan is broken. 
The evening is spent in rejoicings. 

Mohammedan Rule in India 

The first connection of the Mohammedans with India in the 7th and 
8th centuries was naturally by the old sea route from the continent of 
Asia, and from the seat of power of the Khalifate at Baghdad. 
When this power grew weak, first the Seljuk kingdom broke away 
from it on the E. and then the kingdoms of Ghazni and Ghor in the 
Afghan mountains split off in turn from that. Early in the nth 
century the N. of India, as far as Benares, Guzerat and Kathiawar, 
was subjected to repeated invasions by the famous Mahmud of 
Ghazni ; and at the close of the 12th century the Prince of Ghor and 

1 The shape of this is intended to simulate the tomb of Ali at Karbala. 

2 The name is derived from ramaz, burning, this month being the middle 
summer month in the first Mohammedan year. 


his lieutenants effected the permanent conquest and occupation of that 
part of the country. For three hundred years the Slave dynasty and 
the other dynasties, chiefly Pathan, which succeeded it, ruled at 
Delhi and extended their authority to Bengal, and Guzerat, and even 
to the Deccan ; but the repeated invasions of the Mughals on the 
N., and probably the failure of robust recruits from the Afghan 
mountains, led to the gradual weakening of the central power, which 
was finally shaken to its very foundations by the invasion of Timur at 
end of the 14th century (p. 207) ; and when a century later Babar 
and his Mughals conquered India, the Imperial authority had been 
reduced to very narrow limits. Meanwhile, one Mohammedan 
dynasty, an off-shoot of the Imperial line, had been established at Gaur, 
in Bengal (p. 308), at an early date, and another, known as the 
Bahmani, rather later at Gulbarga in the Deccan (p. 348), when the 
power of Delhi recoiled from there, and at the close of the 14th century, 
Mohammedan Governors had also become independent in Guzerat 
(p. 123), and Malwa (p. 89), and at Jaunpur (p. 276) : and thus though, 
when Babar became Emperor, the Delhi power was being threatened 
by the revived Hindu forces of Rajputana, N. India generally was 
under Mohammedan rule at that time. It was then, too, that the 
Mohammedan kingdoms of Ahmednager, Bijapur, and Golconda 
(pp. 346, 363, and 378) were founded on the fall of the Bahmani 
dynasty ; and when these kingdoms crushed the only great Hindu 
power in S. India, that of Vijayanagar (p. 380) at the battle of Talikot 
in 1565 A.D., about the time, be it remembered, when Spain attained 
its greatest power, it looked as if Mohammedan sway would be 
permanently extended to Cape Comorin. 

These kingdoms, however, exhausted their energies in internal 
and internecine quarrels ; and when, after subduing the other states 
of India the Mughal Emperors turned to them, they fell one by one, 
but in their fall, and through the consequences of it, dragged down the 
victor to ruin also. While it lasted, the Mughal dynasty was dis- 
tinguished by extraordinary outward splendour, which extorted the 
title of the Great Mughal (o grayo Mogor) from the Europeans who 
witnessed it ; and no dynasty, perhaps, since the world began, ever 
produced six so great princes, take them all in all, as Babar, 
Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb, whose united 
reigns covered a period of two hundred years. But as its splendour 
was unparalleled, so was the suddenness and completeness of the fall 
of the dynasty ; and within sixty years of the death of Aurangzeb, the 
Mahrattas were temporarily masters of Delhi, which was simply rent 
to death by the invasions of the Persian Nadir Shah and the Afghan 
Ahmad Shah in 1739 and 1756. It is almost impossible to realise 
that these invasions, which can be paralleled only by those of Attila 


and Timur, took place at a time when Europe was entering on the 
modern phase in which we still live, and N. America was about to 
become a great separate power. 

Between these two dates the kingdoms of Oudh and Hyderabad 
had become independent of the central Delhi Power ; and if the 
Great Governors of the Panjab did not become so also, this was due 
simply to their position between the invaders and the capital, and to 
the presence of the Sikhs in the Province. Neither of the new 
Mohammedan kingdoms, however, possessed any real vital power ; 
and both of them, and Bengal would have inevitably fallen a prey to 
the Mahrattas, after their extraordinary recovery from the carnage of 
Panipat in 1761, but for the intervention of British power. As it was 
when Delhi was taken from the Mahrattas in 1803, they practically 
dominated India from the Panjab to Hyderabad and Mysore, and 
from Guzerat to Orissa. The resumption of Oudh on account of 
the reckless misgovernment of its rulers, and the conquests of the 
Mysore dynasty of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, and of the Amirs of 
Sindh, have left Hyderabad the sole remaining Mohammedan power 
of first-class importance in India, to which can be added as instances 
of Mohammedan States of recent origin — Khairpur in Sindh (p. 263), 
Junagarh in Kathiawar (p. 152), Bahawalpur in the Panjab (p. 261), 
and Rampur in Rohilkund. 

Some Mohammedan Dates affecting India 


Birth of Mohammed 570 

His departure from Mecca to Medina. The Hijrah era . . . 622 

His death 632 

Arab invasions of Sindh 637-S2S 

Mahmud of Ghazni defeats the Rajputs at Peshawar . . . looi 
Mahmud captures Somnath in Guzerat, and carries off the temple 

gates to Ghazni 1025-7 

The Tajiks of Ghor capture Ghazni ...... 1152 

Mohammed bin Sam, known as Shahabuddin, Ghori, invades the 
Panjab, and his lieutenant, Kutab-ud-din takes Delhi after the 

battle of Thanesar, and Kanauj the next year ... II93'94 
Kutab-ud-din (originally a Turki slave) proclaims himself sovereign 

of India at Delhi 1206 

Altamsh extends the empire of the Slave dynasty . . . • 1229 
Ala-ud-din conquers Southern India ; defeats several Mughal in- 
vasions from Central Asia ....... -1295-1315 

Mohammed Tughlak seeks to establish a southern capital at Deogiri 1330-40 

Timur, or Tamerlane, sacks Delhi ....... 139^ 

Babar the Mughal, sixth in descent from Timur, defeats the Pathan 

(Lodi) Sultans of Delhi at the battle of Panipat .... 1524 

Babar defeats the Rajputs at Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra . • • 1527 

Akbar defeats the Pathans at Panipat 155^ 

Akbar conquers the Rajputs, annexes Bengal, Guzerat, Sindh, Kash- 
mir, and Kandahar 1561-94 





Death of Akbar at Agra ........ 1605 

Reign of Jahangir ......... 1605-27 

Reign of Shah Jahan ......... 1627-58 

Reign of Aurangzeb 1658-1707 

Commencement of the struggle between the Mughal Emperor and 

the Mahrattas 1688 

Aurangzeb captures Sambhaji, the son of the Mahratta chief Sivaji, 

and puts him to death 1689 

Death of Aurangzeb ; decline of the Mughal power . . . 1707 

Rajputana lost to the Mughals 1715 

Defeat and persecution of the Sikhs. The Mughals put their leader 

Banda to death with cruel tortures . . . . . . 17 16 

Kabul severed from the Mughals ....... 1738 

Nadir Shah, King of Persia, sacks Delhi 1739 

The Mahrattas obtain Malwa ; Oudh becomes independent of Delhi 1743 

Hyderabad becomes independent . 1748 

The Mahrattas obtain Southern Orissa, and tribute from Bengal . 1751 
Invasion of the Afghan Ahmad Shah Durani, and cession of Panjab 

to him 1751-2 

Ahmad Shah Durani sacks Delhi . 1756 

The Mahrattas capture Delhi ....... 1759 

Defeat of the Mahrattas by the Afghans at the battle of Panipat . 1761 

General Lake captures Delhi ..... . . 1803 

List of Sovereigns who reigned at Delhi from 1193 to 

1837 A.D. 

The Ghori {Tajik), Turki and Pathan Kings of Hindustan who 

reigned at Delhi. 

Muhammad bin Sam, Ghoii .... 

Kutab-ud-din, \st Dynasty of Slave (Turki) Kings 
Aram Shah ...... 

Shams-ud-din Altamsh .... 

Rukn-ud-u-din Firoz .... 

Sultan Raziyah ..... 

Balban ....... 

Kaikubad ...... 

Jelal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji, 2nd Dynasty, Pathan 
Ala-ud-din Muhammad .... 

Shahab-ud-din 'Umar .... 

Kutab-ud-din Mubarak .... 

Nasir-ud-din Khusru .... 

Ghias-ud-din Tughlak yd Dynasty^ Pathan 
Muhammad bin Tughlak .... 

Firoz Shah Tughlak ..... 

Muhammad Shah ..... 

Khizr Khan Saiyad, i^h Dynasty, Saiyad . 
Mubarak Shah II. .... . 

Muhammad Shah . . . . . 

'Alam Shah 

Bahlol Lodi, ^tk Dynasty, Pathan . 
Sikandar Lodi ...... 

Ibrahim Lodi 
















The Mughal Einperors of Hindustan 

Humayun ' 
Jahangir . 
Shah Jahan 
Bahadur Shah . 
Jahandar Shah 
Muhammad Shah 
'Ahmad Shah . 
Alamgir II. 
Shah Alam 
Akbar II. 

Bahadur Shah . 



1 124 
1 124 
1 162 
1 168 










The first form of the Hindu religion was Vedism, the worship of 
Nature, as represented in the songs and prayers collectively called 
Veda, and in which the chief gods were the triad Indra (rain), Agni 
(fire), and Sur>'a (sun). Then followed Brahmanism, from brih, to 
expand, which introduced the idea of a universal spirit, or essence, 
which permeated everything, men, gods, and the visible world being 
merely its manifestations. Prose works, called Brahmanas, were 
added to the Vedas, to explain the sacrifices, and the duties of the 
Brahmans, or priests. The oldest of these may have been written 
about 1 000- 1 200 B.C. The code of Manu, which is believed to have 
originated several centuries before the Christian era, lays down 
the rules of domestic conduct and ceremony. It divides Hindus 
into four castes.'^ First, the Brahmans ; second, the warriors, called 
Kshattriyas or Rajputs, literally "of the royal stock" ; and third, the 
agriculturists and traders, called Vaisyas. All these being of Aryan 
descent, were honoured by the name of the Twice-born castes. 
Fourth, were the Sudras, or conquered non-Aryan tribes, who had 
become serfs. They were not allowed to be present at the great 
national sacrifices, or at the feasts, and they were given the severest 
toil in the fields, and the dirty work of the village community. The 
priests asserted that they, the Brahmans, came from the mouth of 
Brahma ; the Rajputs or Kshattriyas from his arms ; the Vaisyas from 
his thighs ; and the Sudras from his feet. Caste was originally a 

1 This reign includes the Pathan Interregnum of Sher Shah (1540-45) Sahm 
Shah, and other Sur Kings up to 1555. 

2 Much interesting information regarding the early Hindu peoples of India 
will be found in Mr R. C. Dutt's Ancient India, Mr V. E. Smith's Early History 
0/ India, and vol. ii. of the Imperial Gazetteer (1908). 


Some Common Forms of Hindu Gods 










[To/ace p. liv. 



■:srinu ^1 Mao/a 

Caste Marks. 



1, 2, 3, and 4, Followers of Vishnu. 
5, 6, 7, and 8, Followers of Siva. 



( Teaching) 


(Rertoi^ncimg the World) 

To follow Plate 1 after p. liv. 

Tntrod. HINDU deities Iv 

distinction between priest, soldier, artizan, and menial. Each trade in 
time came to have a separate caste ; and the priests insisted on the 
rules of caste as a means of securing their own special supremacy. 

The modern Hindu religion is a development of Brahmanism. 
There is one impersonal and spiritual Being ^ which pervades every- 
thing — one God, called Brahma. His three personal manifestations 
are as Brahjna^ the Creator ; Vishnu, the Preserver ; and Shiva, the 
Destroyer and Reproducer. Brahna, the Creator, is generally 
represented with four heads and four arms, in which he holds a 
portion of the Veda, a spoon for lustral observations, a rosary, and a 
vessel of lustral water (see Plate i). Saraswati, the wife of Brahma, 
rides on a peacock, and has a musical instrument, the " vina," in her 
arms (see Plate i). She is the goddess of music, speech, the arts, 
and literature. The sin of lying is readily expiated by an offering 
to her. 

Vishnu holds a quoit in one hand, a conch shell in another, and 
sometimes a mace or club in another, and a lotus flower in a fourth 
(see Plate i). A common picture shows him with his wife, Lakhshmi, 
sitting on Shesh, the snake (eternity), with Brahma on a lotus 
springing from his navel (see Plate 2). He is said to have come 
down to the earth nine times, and is expected a tenth time. These 
nine incarnations {avatard) were in the form of — (i) a fish ; (2) a 
tortoise ; (3) a boar (Varaha) ; (4) a man lion (Narsingh) ; (5) a dwarf 
(Vamana) ; (6) Parasu rama ; (7) Rama, the hero of the epic poem, 
the Ramayana ; (8) Krishna; and (9) Buddha. 

Rama carries a bow and arrows (see Plate l). He is revered 
throughout India as the model of a son, a brother, and a husband. 
When friends meet it is common for them to salute each other by 
uttering Rama's name twice. No name is more commonly given 
to children, or more commonly invoked at funerals and in the hour 
of death. His ally, Hanimian (p. Iviii.) is represented under a monkey 
form smeared with vermilion (see Plate i). He is worshipped as the 
model of a faithful devoted servant. 

Krishna's biography is given in the epic of the Mahabharata. 
Although himself a powerful chief, he was brought up among peasants, 
and is peculiarly the god of the lower classes. As a boy he killed 
the serpent Kali by trampling upon his head. He lifted the mountain- 
ridge of Govardhan (p. 167) on his finger to shelter the herdsmen's 
wives from the wrath of Indra, the Vedic rain-god. He had countless 
wives and sons, and is painted blue, and stands on a snake, with his 

1 " Principio coelum ac terras, camposque liquentes, 
Lucentemque globum Lunae, Titaniaque astra 
Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus 
Mens agitat molem et magno se corpora miscet." 

Virgil, Aen., VI. 726. 


left hand holding its body, and a lotus in his right (see Plate 2). 
Sometimes he is playing the flute. 

The adoption of Buddha as one of the incarnations was a com- 
promise with Buddhism. On the last occasion Vishnu will descend 
as an armed warrior on a winged white horse, and will dissolve 
the universe at the close of the fourth or Kali age, of 432,000 years, 
when the world has become wholly depraved. 

Devotion to Vishnu in his human incarnations of Rama and 
Krishna (who were real men) is the most popular form of the Hindu 
religion in India. His descents upon earth were for the delivery of 
men from the three-fold miseries of life, viz. (i) from lust, anger, 
avarice, and their evil consequences ; (2) from beasts, snakes, and 
wicked men ; (3) from demons. Vishnu has power to elevate his 
worshippers to eternal bliss in his own heaven. 

Vishnu's wife Lakhshmi^ the goddess of wealth and beauty, sprang 
from the froth of the ocean when churned by gods and demons 
(see Plate i). An image of her is often to be found in the houses of 

Shiva is also called Mahadeva, the great god, and his wife who is 
known by several names and in several characters as Parvati, the 
goddess of beauty (see Plate i), Durga or Kali, the terrible (see 
Plate i), etc., is also called Devi, the goddess (see Plate i). The 
commonest of these is Kali^ who requires to be propitiated by 
sacrifices. Shiva holds in his four hands, a trident, an antelope, a 
noose for binding his enemies, and a kind of drum, and wears a tiger's 
skin about the loins. He is a less human and more mystical god 
than Vishnu, and is worshipped in the form of a symbol, the 
lingam, or a bull {Nandi, the Joyous). As destroyer Shiva haunts 
cemeteries and burning-grounds, but his terrible qualities are 
now more especially associated with his wife Kali. He is the im- 
personation of the reproductive power of nature,^ the word Shiva 
meaning "blessed" or "auspicious." He is also the typical ascetic 
and self-mortifier ; and as a learned philosopher he is the chief god 
of the priests. 

Shiva has two sons Ganesh, or Ganpati, and Kartikkeya. Ganesh 
has a fat body and an elephant's head (see Plate i). He is a great 
favourite, being worshipped for good luck or success, and as a bringer 
of success he is invoked at the beginning of every Indian book, 
Kartikkeya has six heads and twelve arms, and is the god of war, 
the leader of the hosts of good demons (see Plate i). In the south 
of India he is called Skanda or Subrahmanya. 

^ In S. India Durga in this form is generally known as Bhaw^ni (vulg. 

2 Probably two-thirds of the Hindus worship Shiva under this aspect embodied 
in the lingam. 


The Hindu theory of metempsychosis, or transmigration of souls, 
arises from the beUef that evil proceeds from antecedent evil, and 
that the penalty must be suffered in succeeding existences. Accord- 
ing to Hindu belief there are eighty-four lakhs of different species of 
animals through which the soul of a man is liable to pass, and the 
Hindu's object is to get rid of the series of perpetual transmigrations, 
so that he may live in the same heaven with the personal god. To 
this end he makes offerings to the image of a god, Krishna, Ganesh, 
or Kali being the most generally selected ; he abstains from killing 
any animal ; he gives money to the priests ; and does penances 
which sometimes extend to severe bodily torture. His religion 
amounts to little more than the fear of demons, of the loss of caste, 
and of the priests. Demons have to be propitiated, the caste rules 
strictly kept, and the priests presented with gifts. Great care has to 
be taken not to eat food cooked by a man of inferior caste ; food 
cooked in water must not be eaten together by people of different 
castes, and the castes are entirely separated with regard to marriage 
and trades. A sacred thread of cotton is worn by the higher castes. 
Washing in any holy river, particularly the Ganges, and more 
especially at Allahabad, Benares, Hardwar, and other exceptionally 
sacred spots, is of great efficacy in cleansing the soul of impurities. 
Most of these observances, and the worshipping of idols are rejected 
by the Arya Samaj,^ a reformed body founded by Swami Dyanand 
(1827-1853), which is attracting many of the educated Hindus in 
N. India. The Arya Samaj accepts the inspiration of the Vedas 
only ; the chief Brahmo Samajists, mainly confined to Bengal (p. 65), 
reject them as inspired scriptures. 

Travellers should remember that all who are not Hindus are 
outcasts, contact with whom may cause the loss of caste to a Hindu. 
They should not touch any cooking or water-holding utensil belong- 
ing to a Hindu, nor disturb Hindus when at their meals ; and they 
should not seek to approach any holy place if objection is made. The 
most sacred of all animals is the cow ; crocodiles and other animals 
at holy places, and trees, plants, stones, rivers, and tanks are also 
sacred. The eagle (Garuda) is the attendant of Vishnu, the bull 
of Shiva, the goose of Brahma, the elephant of Indra, the tiger of 
Durga, the buffalo of Rama, the rat of Ganesh, the ram of Agni, 
the peacock of Kartikkeya, and the parrot of Kama (the god of love). 

As many references to the Mahabharata and Ramayana occur in 
the Handbook, a brief account of these two famous epics is given here. 

The Mahabharata of Vyasa composed about 500 A.D. but record- 
ing events which may be referred to about 1000 B.C., celebrates 

' The number of Arya Samajists at the late census was 90,000, of Brahmo 
Samajists only 3,000. 


the battle between the Pandava (Pandu) and Kaurava (Kuru) 
princes. The former, five in number, and named Yudisthara, 
Bhima, and Arjan, sons of one mother, and Vakula and Sahadeva, 
sons of another, were the offspring of Pandu, ruler of Hastinapur, 
an ancient city on the Ganges, 60 m. N.W. of Delhi, who ceded 
the kingdom to his elder, but blind brother, Dhrita - rashtra. The 
latter were the sons of Dhrita-rashtra, and compelled him to send 
their cousins into exile, during which the marriage of Draupadi 
took place, and most of the adventures which led to their names 
being attached to so many places all over India. At the end 
of their exile the Pandavas received the southern portion of the 
Hastinapur kingdom, and settled at Indraprastha, now Indrapat 
(p. 204). Having lost this share of their inheritance through gambling 
with their cousins, the Pandavas again went into exile for twelve 
years, after which they returned with an army and claimed five "pats" 
or small towns of their former kingdom (Indrapat, Tilpat, Sonepat, 
Bhagpat, and Panipat). Over this claim the great battle ensued, in 
which, after eighteen days, nearly all the Kauravas were finally killed, 
largely through treacherous acts on the part of the Pandavas. The 
account of the funeral ceremonies of the slain is famous and almost 
Homeric. The five brothers then resumed their residence at 
Indrapat, and Yudisthara celebrated the Aswamedh, or horse 
sacrifice of imperial rule on the bank of the Jumna. Finally, the 
brethren and their wives retired to the Himalayas, and sought to 
reach Mount Meru ; but only the elder brother won through to there, 
and he declined to enter when admittance was refused to his sole 
remaining companion, a faithful dog. 

The Raniayana, ascribed to Valmiki, and also probably com- 
posed about the 5th century B.C., relates the adventures of Rama 
elder son of a king of Oudh, who was postponed in the succession 
to the son of a younger wife, and banished by his father. Rama 
accordingly proceeded into exile with his wife Sita, to the abode of 
the hermit Valmiki ; and, though the younger brother proved loyal 
to him on his father's death, he refused to return to Oudh until the 
term of his banishment had expired. Before this Sita was carried 
off from their forest abode by Ravana, king of Ceylon, inspired by 
his sister, whose love Rama had rejected. She was rescued from 
Ceylon by Rama with the help of Hanuman, the monkey general, and 
proved her chastity by the ordeal of fire ; but (according to a later 
addition) was banished by her husband, and remained sixteen years 
in exile with Valmiki, after which she was finally reconciled to Rama. 
Rama is commonly known in India as Ram Chandra ; his brother 

Lakhshman constantly appears in the local legends which relate to 




The Kali- Yug, or Hindu Era 

According to the Hindus, the world is now in its fourth Yug, or 
Age, the Kali- Yug, which commenced from the Equinox in i8th Feb. 
3102 B.C., and will last 432,000 years. The three preceding ages were 
the Satya, the Treta, and the Dwapara. The Satya, or Age of Truth, 
lasted 1,728,000 years ; the Treta (from tra, "to preserve") lasted 
1,296,000; and the Dwapara (from dwa, "two," and par^ "after") 
864,000 years. 

The Era of Vikramaditya^ Samwat or Samvat 

This era commenced from the first year of ihe legendary King 

Vikramaditya, fabled to have reigned at Ujjain 57 B.C. It is in 

ordinary use in N. India. The present Bikramajit year, as it is 
usually called, is 1967-8, and begins on 23rd October 191 1. 

The Shaka Era or Era of Shalivahana 

Shalivahana [having a shdii (lion) for his vehicle va/ia?ta\ was 
a king who reigned in the S. of India. The Shaka era dates from 
his birth 78 A.D. This is the era in general use in S. India. The 
present year of it, 1834, commenced on 9th March 191 1. 

The Hindu year has six seasons or ritus: Vasanta^ "spring"; 
grishma^ "the hot season"; varsha, "the rains"; sharada, "the 
autumn "(from shri, "to wither"); hemanta, "the winter"; shishira^ 
" the cool season." 

Table of the Seasons and Months in Sanskrit, Hindi, and English. 

1. Vasanta . 

2. Grishma . 

3. Varsha 

4. Sharada . 

5. Hemanta . 

6. Shishira . 

Names of Months. 




rChaitra (Aries). 

\ Vaishakha. 

)'I)'eshtha (Gemini). 


f Sravana (Leo). 

\ Bhadra (Virgo). 

f Ashwina. 


r Margasirsha. 

\ Pausha. 

r Magha. 

\Phalguna (Pisces). 

























^ The Indian months begin about the 15th of the English month ; thus Pus is 
the latter half of January and the first half of February, and so with all the other 


Hindu Festivals 

Makar Sankranti. — On the ist of the month Magh (about 12th 
January) the sun enters the sign Capricorn or Makar. From this day 
till the arrival of the sun at the N. point of the zodiac the period is 
called Uttarayana, and from that time till he returns to Makar is 
Dakshinayana, the former period being lucky and the latter unlucky. 
At this festival the Hindus bathe, and rub themselves with sesamum 
oil. They also invite Brahmans, and give them pots full of sesamum 
seed. They wear new clothes with ornaments, and distribute sesamum 
seed mixed with sugar. 

Vasant Pafichatni is on the 5th day of the light half of Magh, and 
is a festival in honour of Vasanta or Spring. 

Shivarat, the night of Shiva, is held about the middle or end of 
February, when Shiva is worshipped with flowers during the whole 

Holt. — A festival in honour of Krishna, held fifteen days before 
the moon is at its full, in the month Phagun, celebrated with the 
squirting or throwing of red or yellow powder over every one. It is 
a kind of carnival, and all sorts of licence are indulged in. 

Ashadhi Ekadashi, the nth of the month Asarh, sacred to Vishnu, 
when that deity reposes for four months. 

Nag Panchami, held on the 5th of Sawan, when the serpent Kali 
is said to have been killed by Krishna. Ceremonies are performed to 
avert the bite of snakes. 

Janatn Ashtami, held on the 8th of the dark half of Sawan, when 
Krishna is said to have been born at Gokul (p. 166). Rice may not 
be eaten on this day, but fruits and other grains. At night Hindus 
bathe and worship an image of Krishna, adorning it with tulsi or basil. 

Ganesh Chaturthi, held on the 4th of Bhadon, in honour of 
Ganesh, a clay image of the god being worshipped and Brahmans 
entertained. The Hindus are prohibited from looking at the moon 
on this day, and if by accident they should see it, they get them- 
selves abused by their neighbours to remove the curse. 

Dasahara {Dashaha, or ten days, commonly Dusserah), held on the 
loth of Asoj, in honour of Durga, or Devi, the wife of Shiva, whom on 
this day slew the buffalo-headed demon Maheshasur. On this day 
Rama marched against Ravana, and for this reason the Marathas chose 
it for their expeditions. Branches of the Buiea frondosa are offered 
at the temples. This is an auspicious day for sending children 
to school. The nine preceding days are called Navaratra, when 
Brahmans are paid to recite hymns to Durga. The Durga Puja 
holiday is the principal holiday of the year in Bengal. 

Diwalif "feast of lamps," from diwa, "a lamp," and avali, "a 


row," held on the nev/ moon of Kartik, in honour of Kali or Bhawani, 
and more particularly of Lakhshmi, the goddess of prosperity, when 
merchants and bankers count their wealth and worship it. It is 
said that Vishnu killed a giant on that day, and the women went to 
meet him with lighted lamps. In memory of this, lighted lamps are 
displayed from all houses, and are set afloat in rivers and in the sea, 
and auguries are drawn from them according as they shine on or are 

Kartik Ekadashi, held on the nth of Kartik, in honour of Vishnu, 
who is said then to rise from a slumber of four months. 

Hindu Rule in India 

The settlement in N. India of the Aryans, whose creed slowly 
developed into what is now known as Hinduism, took place gradually 
between 2000-800 B.C. The main colonies up to the time of the 
Mohammedan invasions were located along the valleys of the Panjab 
and of the Jumna and Ganges ; and though some were pushed further 
S. into the peninsular, the people and the rulers of that part of the 
country remained mainly aboriginal, and were gradually absorbed 
inside the Hindu pale. Of both the stocks which combine to make 
the mass of the Indian people there were many Ruling Houses, most 
of which from the time of Buddha and Alexander are known to us from 
one source or another, but hardly one of which has left any substantial 
memorials, if the Buddhist relics of antiquity and a few old Hindu 
temples be excepted. Indeed it is one of the curious facts of the East 
that while the people are so immutable, the dynasties are extra- 
ordinarily ephemeral. The mention of only a few of the chief who 
ruled in the fifteen hundred years previous to the Mohammedan 
invasions would include the Nandas and Guptas of the Ganges 
Valley, the Scythian Kanishka and his successors at Peshawar (p. 245), 
Vikramaditya and Salivahana in Malwa (p. 91), the Anhilvara and 
Valabhi kings of Patan and Kathiawar (pp. 131 and 151), the Chalu- 
kyas, who held sway from Guzerat to Mysore (p. 24), the various 
rulers of Orissa (p. 323), the Telanga kings who governed on the 
Godaveri (p.379''^), and the great Andhra, Chola, and Chera kingdoms 
of the S. situated on the Kistna, at Tanjore and in the extreme point 
of the peninsular. Not only all these, but all the Hindu Kingdoms 
which were in existence in 1000 B.C., have passed away ; and now, in 
the 20th century, the oldest Hindu Ruling Houses of India, those of 
Rajputana, can trace the origin of their present States only from the 
time of ♦^^he Mohammedan conquest, while the beautiful capitals of these 
States are nearly all of a much later period, Jodhpur and Udaipur 
dating from the middle of the 15th and i6th centuries, and Jaipur 


from the i8th. Owing partly to the protection afforded by the desert 
country which surrounded them, and partly to their strong feudal 
organisation, the Rajput States maintained a really independent 
position during the first three centuries of Mohammedan Rule, and 
were able to secure one of subordinate independence under the 
Mughal Emperors, while the other Hindu Kingdoms of India were 
being gradually conquered, and the minor Mohammedan States 
absorbed ; and just when this process must have seemed to the 
ruling race to be complete, the harsh and ruthless treatment of the 
Rajputs and Mahrattas by the Emperor Aurangzeb evoked an out- 
break of Hindu feeling which proved the principal cause of the 
downfall of the Mughal Empire. The older fashioned chivalrous 
temperament of the Rajputs was, however, no match for the vigour 
and hardihood of the younger nation ; and when British interference 
practically checked an Imperial Mahratta domination in India, it also 
saved the Rajput States from destruction. Of the other great Hindu 
Ruling Houses of India now existing, Mysore was restored by the 
British Power at the end of the i8th century (p. 3S8), while the State 
of Jammu and Kashmir was created only sixty years ago. The Sikh 
Ruling States (see p. 223), which date from the middle of the 18th 
century, owe their present existence to British protection against 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and the great Mahratta States (p. Ixix.) are of 
but slightly longer pedigree than these. The older States of Travan- 
core and Cochin, protected for so long by their remote position, would 
inevitably have fallen to the Mysore Mohammedan dynasty had that 
survived, or to the Mahrattas, but for the advent of the British power. 
As would be expected, the old-world Hindu customs, apart from mere 
religious observances, have survived to a greater extent in Rajputana 
than in any other part of India ; and the traveller who, by means of 
a special introduction to the Resident or Political Agent, has the 
opportunity of properly observing them for a short time at one of the 
more remote Rajput capitals, will find his interest amply rewarded. 


Gautama, afterwards called Buddha (the Enlightened), was bom in 
the 6th century B.C. His father was a prince of the Sakya tribe, and 
of a Rajput clan located in the N. of the present Gorakhpur District. 
On one occasion Gautama met a man bowed with age ; then a man 
stricken with disease ; then a corpse ; and finally an ascetic walking 
in a calm and dignified manner. Much troubled by the spectacle of 
human suffering, he decided to leave his happy home, his loved wife, and 
the child which had just been born to him ; and cutting off his long 
hair and exchanging his princely raiment for the rags of a passer-by, 


he departed from his palace as a homeless beggar. This is called the 
Great Renunciation. He studied under two Brahman hermits in the 
Patna district, who taught him to mortify the body. For six years he 
inflicted severe austerities upon himself; but no peace of mind or 
divine enlightenment came. He thereupon gave up penance and sat 
in meditation under a tree (the Pipal), at Buddh Gaya (p. y]), where 
he was tempted by Mara, the personification of carnal desire, to return 
to the world, but he resisted, and thus became the Enlightened. He 
died at a great age about 50S B.C. ; part of his ashes have been 
recently discovered at Pipr^wi (p. 313), and Peshawar (p. 247). 

Buddha taught that all life is suffering ; that suffering arises from 
indulging desires, especially the desire for continuity of life ; and that 
the only hope of relief lies in the suppression of desire and the ex- 
tinction of existence. A man's object should be to become enlightened 
by meditation and introspection, so as to earn a cessation of the cycle 
of lives through which he would otherwise be destined to pass, and 
thus finally to reach Nirvana, which puts an end to all re-birth. In 
this task he must depend upon himself alone, and not upon any 
spiritual aid or guidance. All men are capable of attaining Nir- 
vana, without distinction of caste, and neither sacrifices nor bodily 
mortifications are of any avail. The creed is a pessimist and atheist 
one to which, however, excellent moral rules have been attached. 
Buddhism gave some encouragement to education ; it inculcated 
universal benevolence and compassion ; and stimulated exertion 
by declaring that a man's future depended, not upon sacrifices and 
self-torture, but upon his own acts. It is " the embodiment of the 
eternal verity that as a man sows he will reap ; associated with the 
personal duties ef mastery over self and kindness to all men ; and 
quickened into a popular religion by the example of a noble and 
beautiful life" (Sir W. W. Hunter). The real spread of the Buddhist 
religion dates from the reign of Asoka (272-231 B.C.), who ruled over 
all India north of a line drawn west from Nellore, and whose 
work will be found at the Sanchi Tope (p. 98), and Buddh Gaya 
(p. 37), and whose famous rock edicts, inscribed under his title of 
Priyadarsi, exist still at Girnar (p. 155), at Dhauli, near Bhuvaneshvar 
(p. 328), and at Shahbazgarhi, close to Hoti Mardan (p. 246) ; mono- 
lithic columns, lats, erected by him with a portion of the edicts, 
will be seen at Allahabad (p. 32), and Delhi (p. 203-4). These edicts, 
deciphered by the genius of Henry Prinsep, embody for the most 
part the moral rules of Buddhism : they forbid the shedding of 
blood ; inculcate obedience to parents, charity, and rules of conduct ; 
refer to the appointment of censors of morals and missionaries, and 
the creation of hospitals, roads, and wells ; and conclude with prayers 
for the spread of Buddhism. As well remarked by Professor 

Ixiv JAINS , India 

Petersen, the creed of Asoka might be summed up in the beautiful 
lines of the Ancient Mariner — 

" He prayeth best who loveth best 
All things, both great and small; 
For the dear God, who loveth us, 
He made and loveth all." 

The edicts are of great interest as mentioning the Chola, Pandya, 
and Kerala kingdoms of the South ; and the Yavan (Greek) kings, 
Turmayaparni (Ptolemy), Antiyochena (Antiochus), Maka (Magus), 
and Alikasandare. The full number of general edicts is fourteen, but 
there are also additional ones at Dhauli and Shahbazgarhi. Those 
specially interested in the subject will find the edicts in vol. i. of the 
Corpus Inscriptio72um Indicartim. Buddhism, which became divided 
into two great sects, the Hinayana and Mahayana,^ never ousted 
Brahmanism from India, but the two systems existed together from 
about B.C. 500 to A.D. 800, when the former disappeared from the open 
country of the peninsula, but maintained itself in the Himalayas, and 
in Burma, and Ceylon. Ordinary travellers are likely to come across 
Buddhists only in the latter places, and at Darjeeling, and to the 
north of Kashmir. Besides the books named on p. xxvii, the works on 
Buddhism by Bishop Bigandet, Bishop Coplestone, Dr Waddell and 
Professor Rhys Davids' Buddhist India (Story of Nation series), may 
be consulted. The best account of the Buddhist religion as it 
actually affects the lives of the Burmese, will be found in Sir G. 
Scott's book. The Burman : His Life and Notions. 

Buddha is generally represented in one of three attitudes ; he sits 
cross-legged, either with his hands in contact in an attitude of 
profound meditation, or with one hand pointing to the earth, or with 
both hands raised in the preaching posture. His ears sometimes 
reach to his shoulders (see Plate 2). 

The Jains 

The small sect of Jains ( = conquerors [of vice]) still survives in 

India. Their founder was Mahavira, a contemporary of Gautama. 

They are divided into two schools, the Digambara (sky clad or naked) 

and Swetambara (white clad). The Jains consider bodily penance to be 

necessary to salvation ; and believe that even inorganic matter has a 

soul, and that a man's soul may pass into a stone. They carry the 

Buddhist's concern for animal life to an extreme. The figures of their 

Saints or Tirthankars are naked. The chief of these were the first 

Adinath, and the last three Nemnath, Parasnath, and Mahavira. 

Each is known by a symbol, see p. 112. They will be met principally 

in Ahmedabad and elsewhere in the Bombay Presidency. For their 

temples consult p. Ixxiii. 

1 The names mean the Lesser and Greater Vehicle — the latter sect arose 500 
years after Buddha and prevailed in S. India. 


Buddhist Festivals 

The New Year Festival corresponds to the Makar-Sankranti of 
the Hindus (see p. Ix.), but in Burma it often takes place as late as 
April. At a given moment, which is ascertained by the astrologers of 
Mandalay, a cannon is fired ofif, announcing the descent of the King of 
the Naths (genii) upon earth. Then begin the Saturnalia. 

The last birth of Gautama Is celebrated at the end of April by 
the worship of his images, followed by processions. In Ceylon the 
coming of the Buddha to the island is celebrated by a festival in 
March or April, when the pilgrims visit either his footprint on Adam's 
Peak, or the sacred Bo-tree at Anuradhapura. 

Some Early Hindu and Buddhist Dates. 


The Vedas and hymns .... (probably between) 1500-IOOO 

The Mahabharata, an epic poem of the heroic age in Northern India : 
and the Ramayana, an epic poem relating to the Aryan advance 
into South India. Both about ....... 500 

The code of Manu laying down the laws and ceremonies for 

Brahmans, of uncertain age, but perhaps dating from . . . 600-200 
Birth of Gautama Buddha (the Enlightened) . . . (probably) 558 

Death of Buddha : First Great Council of Buddhists . (probably) 487 

Second Great Buddhist Council ....... 378 

Alexander the Great crosses the Indus near Attock ; defeats Porus 
at the passage of the Jhelum (Hydaspes) ; captures Mooltan, 
where he is severely wounded ; and then retires to Persia vid the 
Indus and Baluchistan, leaving Greek garrisons behind him . 322-298 

Chandra Gnpta Mauriya (Sandra Cottus), conquers the Gangetic valley 316 

Chandra Gupta receives the Greek ambassador, Megasthenes . 306 

Asoka, grandson of Chandra Gupta, is converted to Buddhism . 257 

Asoka convenes the third Buddhist Council at Patna, and dissemi- 
nates the principles of the faith ....... 244 

The era of Samwat dates from Vikramaditya, of Ujjain, fabled to 
have withstood the Scythians. The drama of Sakuntala or the 

Lost Ring 57 

Indo-Bactrian Kings 100 B.C.-300 a.d, 

The Northern, Hinayana, form of Buddhism becomes one of the 

State religions of China ........ 65 

The era of Saka dates from Salivahana ...... 78 

The fourth and last Buddhist Council held under King Kanishka (about) 140 
Gupta Dynasty, Invasion of the White Huns .... 320-450 

Pilgrimage of the Chinese Traveller, Fa Hiang, to Buddhist shrines 

in India 406-11 

Similar Pilgrimage of the Chinese Traveller Hiouen Thsang . . 629-45 
Sankaracharya, the great apostle of Saivism in S. India, c. . . 750 

The Vishnuite doctrines embodied in the Vishnu Purana . . 1045 

Sect of Lingayats founded . 1150 

Kabir preaches his doctrine ........ 1400 

Birth of Nanak Shah, a Hindu reformer, who preaches the abolition 

of caste and establishes the Sikh religion 1469 


Ixvi THE SIKHS India 


The Sikhs * are a reformed sect of Hindus who follow a teacher 
named Nanak Shah, born near Lahore in 1469. The word Sikh 
means a " disciple " of the Guru or teacher. Except in denouncing 
idolatry and in welcoming all ranks without distinction of caste, 
Nanak's philosophy was very similar to that of the worshippers of 
Vishnu. Guru Govind finally abolished caste, estabHshed the Sikh 
religion on a political and military basis, stimulated the worship of the 
Granth, or holy book, which is now the principal object of the Sikh 
devotions, and definitely established the Kh^lsa ( = select, and so 
elect), as the Sikh brotherhood is called. (See p. 226.) 

In the middle of the i8th century the Sikhs, who had been 
gradually rising into power, struggled with the Afghans for supremacy 
in the Panjab and finally won it. In 17 16 their last Guru, Banda, had 
been tortured to death by the Mughals ; but in 1763 they avenged his 
fate by destroying Sirhind utterly. The next year, in 1764, they 
fought a long and doubtful battle with the Afghan Ahmad Shah 
Durani in the vicinity of Amritsar, and on his retirement they took 
Lahore, which soon became the centre of their power, Amritsar being 
the religious centre. The government was at first in the hands of a 
number of confederacies, or misls, which were gradually absorbed by 
Ranjit Singh of the Sukarchakia Misl, who finally became Maharaja 
and the head of the Sikhs. Ranjit Singh died in 1839, and his son 
Kharak Singh and his grandson Nao Nehal Singh died in November 
the next year, the latter from injuries received from the fall of a gate- 
way as he was returning from the funeral of his father. After an 
interval Maharaja Sher Singh became ruler of Lahore and was 
murdered in September 1843 by the Sindhanwallia Sirdars, who 
also killed the Prime Minister, Raja Dhian Singh, of Jammu ; and 
upon this Dhalip Singh, a putative son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 
succeeded. His mother Rani Jindan attempted to rule through Hira 
Singh, son of Dhian Singh, Jowahir Singh, her brother, and Lai Singh, 
her lover, but the first two of these were murdered, and the real 
power in the state rested with the army and with Raja Gulab Singh 
of Jammu. To relieve themselves of their embarrassments with the 
former the Rani and her counsellors encouraged a war with the 
British, against whom various causes of complaint were alleged, and 
finally, the army breaking away from all control, crossed the Sutlej at 
Hari ki, early in December 1845, and invaded the Ferozepore terri- 
tory. Upon this followed the first Sikh war, which was ended by the 
battle of Sobraon on loth February 1846 (p. 147), the Jullundur 
Doab being annexed to the British possessions, and Kashmir being 

1 Pronounce like "seeks." 




transferred to Gulab Singh, now Maharaja, upon payment by him 
of the war indemnity. The administration of the rest of the Panjab 
was placed under a council of regency on behalf of the minor 
Maharaja Dhalip Singh, subject to the advice of the Resident in 
Lahore, first Sir Henry Lawrence and then Sir Fred. Currie. 
Matters were progressing as well as could be expected when the 
incident of Multan (p. 260) occurred in May 1848, upon which the 
Sikh soldiery and people rose in defence of their national cause. 
Serious operations against them were not taken till December, when, 
after unsatisfactory skirmishes at Ramnagar and Sadulapur (22nd 
November and 3rd December 1848), the battle of Chillianwalla was 
fought on 13th January 1849 (P- 242), and the victory of Gujrat (p. 241) 
was won on 21st February. Since then the Sikhs have been among 
the most loyal subjects of the Indian Empire, of which they proved the 
main support in 1857, and provide some of the best recruits of the 
Indian army. 

The following is a chronological table of the Sikh Gurus. Guru 
Govind refused to name a successor. He said . — " He who wishes to 
behold the Guru, let him search the Granth." 

Gurus of the Sikhs 

1. Nanak, founder of the Sikh sect, born 1469, died . 

2. Angad ... ...... 

3. Amar Das ......... 

4. Ram Das, builder of the original lake-temple at Amritsar 

5. Arjan Mai, compiler of the -4ia?z' Grfl«M 

6. Har Govind, first war-like leader ..... 

7. Har Rai, his grandson ....... 

8. Har Krishna, died at Delhi ...... 

9. Tegh Bahadur, put to death by Aurangzeb in 1676 
10. Govind Singh remodelled the Sikh Government . 

1 1 Banda, put to death by Bahadar Shah .... 





The twelve principal Misls, each under a Sirdar or chief, were — 

1. Bhangi, called from their fondness for bhang, the extract of hemp. 

2. Nishani, standard-bearers. 

3. Shahid or Nihang, martyrs and zealots. 

4. Ramgarhia from Ramgarh, at Amritsar. 

5. Nakaia, from the tract of country near Lahore so called. 

6. Alhuwalia from the village in which Jassa, head of the Misl, lived. 

7. Ghaneia or Khaneia. 

8. Faizulapuria or Singhpuria. 

9. Sukarchakia, 

10. Dalahwala. 

11. Krora Singhia or Panjgarhiau 

12. Phulkia. 


The Sikhs are known now either as Malwai, which comprises 
those S. and E. of the Sutlej, and Beas, or Manjha, lying N. and W. 
of these, and principally in the Bari Doab between the Beas and 
Sutlej and the Ravi. They are represented among the Ruling Chiefs of 
India, by the three Phulkian houses of which the Maharaja of Pattiala 
and the Rajas of Jind and Nabha are the heads, and by the Rajas of 
Kapurthalla and Faridkot, the first three and the last in the Malwai 
country and the fourth in the Jullundur Doab. The present ruling 
family of the Jammu and Kashmir State, which is Dogra Rajput 
by descent, is no longer Sikh by religion. It should be remembered 
that a Sikh is not born of that religion, but is baptized into it when of 
adult age, and that in consequence some of the sons of Sikhs fall back 
into the Hindu religion by simply not taking the pahal, as the 
initiatory rite, usually performed at the Amritsar temple, is called. 


Another remarkable people in India who deserve brief notice are 
the Mahrattas, who derive their name from the country of Maharashtra 
which they occupied in the early Aryan days. They had been noted 
as a fighting race in the armies of Ahmednagar and Bijapur before 
they came prominently to notice as the opponents of the Mughals in 
the person of their famous leader Shivaji (1627- 1680), who set the 
example of ravaging distant territories by his raid on Surat in 1664 
(p. 117). His son Sambhaji was captured, blinded, and executed by 
the Emperor Aurangzeb ; and his grandson Shahu, who was brought 
up by one of the daughters of that Emperor, proved when released 
to have none of the hardy Mahratta qualities, and abandoned all 
power to his minister, a Konkan Brahmin of the name of Balaji 
Vishvanath (who became the first Peshwa), and sank to the rank of 
Raja of Satara. This house came to an end in 1848, but the Kolhapur 
chief still represents the family of Shivaji, though not in direct 
descent from that great leader. The first Peshwa marched to Delhi in 
1718, and in 1720 obtained the right of "chauth," the famous Mah- 
ratta demand of one-fourth of the revenues of every country which 
they could dominate, over the Deccan. The second Peshwa Baji 
Rao (172 1 -1740) seized Malwa, which was ceded to the Mahrattas 
under his successor Balaji Baji Rao (i 740-1 761), under whom Janoji, 
son of Raghoji Bhonsla, the chief of Nagpur, and then the leading 
Mahratta feudatory, invaded Behar and Bengal, and obtained a cession 
of Orissa, and of the chauth of Bengal from the Murshidabad Viceroy, 
Aii Vardi Khan. During his life, which is believed to have been 
terminated by grief at the crushing defeat of the Mahrattas at 
Panipat by Ahmad Shah, Durani, the Gaekwar and the Holkar 


and Sindhia chiefs came to the front ; and his son Madhu Rao 
(1761-1772) was rather the head of five separate branches of the 
Mahratta people than of the people as a whole. The Gaekwars 
extended their power through Guzerat and the north of Bombay, 
and Sindhia and Holkar established themselves in Malwa, and 
gradually extended their authority over Rajputana and the Ganges 
Doab, with the capitals of Agra and Delhi. The titular emperor of 
India, Shah Alam, placed himself in the hands of the Mahrattas in 
1771, and remained under the control of Sindhia till 1803. The sixth 
Peshwa Madhu Rao Narayan (1774-1795), who succeeded as an infant, 
was practically superseded by his minister Nana Farnavis : it was 
the war of succession between him and his uncle Raghoba which led 
to the first interference by the British in Mahratta affairs, and the 
first Mahratta war in 1 779-1 781. The last Peshwa Baji Rao II. 
nominally ruled from 1795 to 1818. The Mahratta princes forced him 
into war with the English, and in the campaigns which ensued in 
1 803- 1 804 Sindhia and the Bhonsla chief were destroyed in the south 
at Assaye and Argaum, while Sindhia's forces in the north were crushed 
at Delhi and Laswari, and Jaswant Rao Holkar was defeated at 
Dig, and finally compelled to submit. The last general Mahratta 
war took place in 1817-1818, in which the Peshwa was defeated at 
Khirkee, the Bhonsla chief near Nagpur and Holkar at Mahidpur. 
The first was deported to Bithur, near Cawnpore, and died there in 
185 1 ; his adopted son, the Nana Sahib, stands for ever infamous as the 
author of the Cawnpore massacre of 27th June 1857. It will be seen 
from the above brief narrative that when the British commenced to 
acquire inland territories in India, the Mahrattas were the dominant 
people of the country, from the Kistna to Delhi and from Guzerat to 
Orissa ; and there can be no doubt but that for British interposition 
they could have extended their power over Hyderabad and Mysore 
to the extreme south of India, just as they had already occupied 
Tanjore, and over Bengal and Behar in the north. Unlike the Sikhs 
the Mahrattas have lost their warlike qualities, and are now merely 
a race of sturdy agriculturists ; their numbers, according to the last 
census, were about 3,700,000. The Bhonsla House died out in 1853, 
on the death of the successor of Apa Sahib (p. 84), who had been 
deposed. The principal chiefs of the Baroda House have been 
Damaji Gaekvvar, the founder (d. 1721), Damaji II. (1731-1770), 
Sayaji Rao I., Khande Rao (1857), and Mulhar Rao, who was deposed 
in 1876. The present chief is His Highness Maharaja Sir Sayaji 
Rao III., G.C.S.I. Of the Sindhia family the most famous rulers 
have been the founder Ranoji, Mahadaji Sindhia (d. 1794), his grand- 
nephew Daulat Rao Sindhia (d. 1827), and (Battles of Panniar and 
Maharajpur 1843) Jaiaji Rao Sindhia (1857). The present chief is 


Colonel Maharaja Sir Madhu Rao Sindhia, G. C.S.I, The principal 
chiefs of the Holkar House have been the founder, Mulhar Rao, who 
retreated from Panipat, Ahalaya Bai (1765- 1795) (p. 90), Jaswant 
Rao Holkar, Mulhar Rao Holkar (d. 1833), Baiza Bai, regent, and 
Tukaji Rao Holkar (1857). The present chief is Maharaja Tukaji 
Holkar H. The actual Mahratta population in these three States 
is very small — viz. in Baroda 17,000, in Gwalior 12,000, and in Indore 


The Parsis, formerly inhabitants of Persia, are the modern 
followers of Zoroaster, and now form a numerous and influential 
portion of the population of Sural and Bombay. 

When the Sassanide Empire was destroyed by the Mohammedans, 
about 650 A.D., the Zoroastrians were persecuted, and some of them 
fled (c. 717) to Hindustan, where the Ruler of Guzerat became 
their protector. They suffered considerably from Mohammedan 
persecution until the time of the British occupation. The sacred 
fire, which Zoroaster was said to have brought from heaven, 
is kept burning in consecrated spots, and temples are built over 
subterranean fires. The priests tend the fires on the altars, chanting 
hymns and burning incense. A partially successful attempt was 
made in 1852 to restore the creed of Zoroaster, which had become 
corrupted by Hindu practices, to its original purity. In order not to 
pollute the elements, which they adore, the Parsis neither burn nor 
bury their dead, but expose their corpses to be devoured by birds 
(see Towers of Silence,^ Bombay, p. 1 6). There has long been a marked 
desire on the part of the Parsis to adapt themselves to the manners 
and customs of Europeans. The public and private schools of 
Bombay are largely attended by their children. They largely follow 
commercial pursuits, and several of the wealthiest merchants of India 
belong to this community. Their public spirit and charity are well 

Parsi Months. . 

There are twelve months, of thirty days each, to which five days are 
added at the end. They appro.ximate as below to the English months, 

7. Mihr, March. 

1. Farvardin, September. 

2. Ardibihisht, October. 

3. Khurdad, November. 

4. Tir, December. 

5. Amardad, January. 

6. Sharivar, February. 

8. Avan, April. 

9. Adar, May. 

10. Deh, June. 

11. Bahman, July. 

12. Asfandiyar, August 

' The vernacular name of these structures is Dokhma. 


The Parsi Festivals 

Pateti, New Year's Day. The ist of Farvardin. The Parsis 
rise earlier than usual, put on new clothes, and pray at the Fire 
Temples. They then visit friends and join hands, distribute alms and 
give clothes to servants and others. This day is celebrated in honour 
of the accession of Yezdajird to the throne of Persia, 632 A.D. 

Farvardin-Jasan, on the 19th of Farvardin, on which ceremonies 
are performed in honour of the dead, called Frohars, or '* protectors." 
There are eleven other Jasans in honour of various angels. 

Khurdad-sal, the birthday of Zoroaster, who is said to have been 
born 1200 B.C. at the city of Rai or Rhages, near Teheran. 

Jamshidi Nauroz, held on the 21st of Mihr. It dates from the 
time of Jamshid, and the Parsis ought to commence their New Year 
from it. 

Zurtoshte Diso, held on the nth of Deh in remembrance of the 
death of Zartasht or Zoroaster, in Bactria. 

The Muktad, held on the last ten days of the Zoroastrian year, 
including the last five days of the last month, and the five intercalary 
days called the Gatha Gahambars. A clean place in the house is 
adorned with fruits and flowers, and silver or brass vessels filled with 
water are placed there, and ceremonies are performed in honour of 
the souls of the dead. 


Religion has so great an influence upon architecture that the 
different styles in India may be most conveniently classified as 
Buddhist, Jain, Brahman, and Mohammedan. 

Buddhist. — Though Gautama taught in the 6th century B.C., his 
religion made little progress before its adoption by the great Asoka, 
who reigned from 272 to 231 B.C. The palaces, halls, and temples 
which may have existed before the time of Asoka, were made of 
wood, and have perished. There was no stone architecture in India 
before that date, and all the monuments known to us for five or six 
centuries after it are Buddhist. 

Every sanctified Buddhist locality was marked by the erection of 
a tope (stupa) commemorating some holy event or containing relics, 
in which case the tope was called a dagoba. The relics of a dagoba 
were usually contained in a sort of box or case at the summit of it, 
called a tee. Older even than the tope was the memorial pillar, 
called stamba, or Mt if it was carved out of one stone : these pillars 
bore Buddhist emblems, such as lions or wheels, and were afterwards 


converted, in various parts of India, into pedestals for lamps, or 
vehicles of the gods, and the like. Rails are found surrounding 
topes, or enclosing sacred trees, pillars, etc. The Chaityas, assembly 
halls, or temples, correspond to the churches of the Christian 
religion : the Viharas are monasteries — see plans at pp. 339 and 75. 

The best known topes are those at Sanchi and Sarnath, (pp. 98 
and 51). There are also a number of them scattered over the 
ancient province of Gandara, the capital of which was Peshawar 
— especially at Manikyala (p. 243). In Ceylon there are topes or 
dagobas at Anuradhapura and Pollanarua (pp. 494 and 498). The 
lats, or pillars, stood in front of, or beside, each gateway of every tope, 
and in front of each chaitya (pp. 338-9). Many of these were erected 
by Asoka, and two of these are still in existence at Delhi, and a more 
complete specimen at Allahabad. (The Iron Pillar in the mosque 
at Old Delhi is not Buddhist, but seems to be dedicated to Vishnu.) 
The most interesting rails are at Sanchi and Buddh Gaya ; the 
remains of the Bharhut rail are at Calcutta, and of the Amaravati 
(p. 336) rail in the British and Madras Museums. There are fine 
examples of torans, or gateways, with the rail at Sanchi. 

Our knowledge of the Chaitya chapels or temples, and the Viharas 
or monasteries, is derived mainly from the rock-cut examples (but 
see p. 100). This method of working is easier and less expensive 
than the process of building. For a cave nothing but excavation is 
required ; while for a building the stone has to be quarried, trans- 
ported — perhaps a long distance — and then carved and erected. 
According to Mr Fergusson^ the complete excavation of a temple, 
both externally as well as internally, would cost only about one-tenth 
of the expenditure necessary for building ; and the Buddhist caves 
were still cheaper, as the rock was not cut away all round, the 
interior chamber alone being excavated. Examples of Chaityas are 
to be found at Karli, Bhaja and Bedsa (pp. 338-40), Behar (p. 36), Nasik, 
EUora, Ajanta, and Kanhari (p. 22). They usually consist of a long 
excavation separated by two rows of columns into a nave, and two 
narrow side aisles. At the further end of the cave is either a small 
tope or a figure of Buddha, behind which also the colonnade runs ; 
and in the front wall over the entrance-door is a large horse-shoe 
window which allows the light to fall directly on the tope or image. 
A Vihara is usually a large rectangular hall with cells off it round the 
sides, and a shrine chapel in the back wall. The hall is commonly 
borne by columns often richly carved, and is approached by a 
verandah ; and in some cases it had a forecourt in front of this. In 
a few instances these halls consisted of two, and even three, storeys. 
The most notable specimens are at Udayagiri and Khandagiri 
* History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, \, 348. 


(p. 323), Bhaja and Bedsa, Ajanta (p. 40), Nasik, Kanhari, and Ellora, 
and at Jamalgarhi and Takht-i-bahi, near Peshawar. 

Among the most characteristic details of Buddhist sculpture are the 
patterns representing rails and horse-shoe windows, the figures of 
Ndga devotees over-canopied by cobra hoods, and probably intended 
to represent aboriginal residents of India, and scenes of worship (by 
animals as well as by human beings), of topes, sacred trees, and 
emblems of the Buddhist religion — the wheel, trident, swastika cross, 
etc., which also recur in the decoration generally. 

Jain. — The architecture of the Buddhists proper was succeeded 
by that of the /ains, who were great builders. Unlike the Buddhists 
they were not great excavators, though some examples of their cave- 
work exist at Ellora. The characteristic Jain feature is the horizontal 
archway which avoids the strain from the outward thrust of a true 
radiating arch. Indeed, with the exception of some specimens of the 
time of Akbar, no radiating arch exists in any Buddhist, Jain, or 
Hindu temple in India up to the present day. Another Jain feature 
is the carved bracket form of capital, which, springing from the pillars 
at about two-thirds of their height, extends to the architraves, and 
forms a sort of diagonal strut to support them. The leading idea of 
the plan of a Jain temple was a number of columns arranged in squares 
(see p. 156). Their domes, like their arches, were built horizontally, 
on eight pillars forming an octagon, with four external pillars at the 
angles to form a square. The lateral pressure of a dome built on 
the radiating plan by the Roman, Byzantine, or Gothic architects 
prevents the use of elegant pillars, great cylinders with heavy abut- 
ments being necessary. The construction of the Jain domes, being 
horizontal, allows of more variety than can be given to the vertical 
ribs of Roman or Gothic models, and has rendered some of the 
Indian domes the most exquisite specimens of elaborate roofing that 
can anywhere be seen. The Indian dome allows the use of pendents 
from the centre, and these have a lightness and elegance never 
imagined in Gothic art. On the other hand, they are necessarily 
small, and require large stones, while a dome on the radiating 
principle can be built of small bricks. The Jains often built their 
temples in groups, or cities of temples, as at Palitana (p. 149) 
Parasnath (p. 38), Girnar (p. 155), Mount Abu (p. 132), and 
Khajurahu (p. 1 14). Their love of the picturesque led them to construct 
their cities sometimes on hill-tops, as at Mount Abu, and some- 
times in deep and secluded valleys. The two towers of Fame and of 
Victory at Chitor (p. 93) are also examples of Jain work, and splendidly 
carved specimens of their characteristic pillars, dating from the loth- 
I2th centuries, still exist in the great mosques at the Kutab Minar, S. 
of Delhi, and in Ajmer Ahmedabad and Belgaum (P.-358). Of modern 


Jain architecture the most notable specimens are at Sonagir 
(p. 103) and Muktagiri ; the temple of Hathi Singh (a.d. 1848) at 
Ahmedabad ; the temple at Delhi, about one hundred years old ; and 
the temples at Calcutta. 

Brahman architecture is divided by Mr Fergusson into the three 
styles of Dravidian, Chalukyan, and Indo-Aryan. The Dravidian or 
Madras architecture is best seen at Tanjore, Trivalur (p. 424), 
Sri Rangam, Chidambaram, Rameswaram, Madura, Tinnevelly, Con- 
jeeveram, Coimbatore, and Vijayanagar (p, 380). " There is nothing in 
Europe that can be compared with these Dravidian temples for 
grandeur and solemnity, and for parallels to them we must go 
back to ancient Egypt and Assyria " (Sir G. Birdwood). The 
oldest of the Dravidian temples date from about the nth century; 
but in their present form few can go back as far as the 13th, and most 
are of even more modern date. Quite the oldest temples in India 
dating from the 7th-8th centuries, are those at Pattadakal and Aiwalli, 
near Badami (p. 372). The shrine itself, which is called the 
Vimana, is always square in plan, surmounted by a pyramidal roof of 
one or more storeys ; a porch or Mantapam covers the door leading to 
the cell in which the image of the god is placed ; the gate pyramids 
or Gopurams are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures 
which, with numerous other buildings, surround the Vimanas. The 
chief Dravidian rock-cut temples, which, unlike the Buddhist caves, 
are excavated externally as well as internally, are at Mahabalipuram 
(p. 436) and Ellora. The palaces exhibit Mohammedan influence, 
having the Moorish pointed arch. They are to be found at Madura, 
Tanjore, Vijayanagar and Chandragiri (p. 350). 

The Chalukyan style was at its best in the province of Mysore 
during the three centuries A.D. 1000 to 1300, when the Bellalas 
ruled there. They erected groups of temples at Somnathpur (p. 390), 
Belur, and Hallabid (p. 386). Other Chalukyan examples are at 
Warangal and Hanamcondah (p. y]C)b). This style is remarkable 
for elegance of outline and elaboration of detail. The artistic com- 
bination of horizontal with vertical lines, and the play of light and 
shade, especially in the Hallabid example, far surpass anything in 
Gothic art. The animal friezes begin, as is usual in India, with 
elephants in the bottom line, then lions, then horses, and then 
oxen, above which are pigeons or other birds. 

Examples of the Indo-Aryan, or Northern style, exist at 
Bhuvaneshwar (p. 326), the black pagoda at Kanarak, the temple of 
Jagannath at Puri, all dating from the nth and 12th centuries, 
the Garuda pillar at Jajpur (p. 322), Khajurahu, the Teli-Ka- 
Mandir at Gwalior, the temple of Vriji at Chitor, the golden temple 
of Bisheshwar at Benares, the red temple at Brindaban, and the 


modern temple erected by Sindhia's mother at Gwalior. There are 
rock-cut temples of this style near Badami, and at EUora. 

The finest Indo-Aryan palaces, besides the Man Singh Palace at 
Gwalior, are at Udaipur, Datia, Orchha (pp. 103 and 113), Amber 
(p. 142), and Dig (p. 167). The beauty of Hindu architecture is 
greatly enhanced by the use of picturesque sites, either on hills, 
in valleys, or where the aesthetic value of water may be utilised. 
At Rajsamundra, in Udaipur, for example, the band or dam of the 
artificial lake is covered with steps, which are broken by pavilions 
and kiosks, interspersed with fountains, the whole forming a fairy 
scene of architectural beauty. Of Modem Indo-Aryan civil archi- 
tecture the best specimens are the tombs of Sangram Singh and Amar 
Singh at Udaipur, and of Bakhtawar Singh at Alwar. The latter 
shows the foliated arch which is so common in Mughal buildings ; 
and it also shows the Bengali curved cornices, whose origin was the 
bending of bamboos used as a support for the thatch or tiles. 

The chief styles of Mohammedan architecture are the so-called 
Pathan and the Mughal. The early Turk conquerors found in the 
colonnaded courts of the Jain temples nearly all that was required 
for a mosque. They had only to remove the temple in its centre, 
and erect a new wall on the west side, adorned with niches — 
mihrabs — pointing towards Mecca, in front of which they added a 
screen of arches with rich carvings. The best examples are at 
Delhi and Ajmer. Mr Fergusson considers that the carving of the 
screen at the Kutab Mosque, Delhi, is, without exception, the most 
exquisite specimen of its class known to exist anywhere. He also 
considers that the Kutab Minar " both in design and finish far surpasses 
any building of its class in the whole world"; and that Giotto's 
Campanile at Florence, "beautiful though it is, wants that poetry 
of design and exquisite finish of detail which marks every moulding 
of the minar." During the Pathan period the mosques usually had 
neither minarets nor prominent domes. 

No examples exist of the Mughal style in the reigns of Babar 
or Humayun. Akbar was, in architecture as in religion, extremely 
tolerant, and his buildings exhibit marked Hindu features. The chief 
of them still in existence are the tomb of his father Humayun, near 
Delhi, the town of Fatehpur-Sikri, the fort at Allahabad, the palace 
at Lahore, and the red palace in the fort at Agra, which by some 
authorities, in spite of its Hindu features, is ascribed to Jahangir. 
The tomb of Anar Kali at Lahore was built by Jahangir, and the 
tomb of Itimad-ud-daulah at Agra was built during the reign of that 
Emperor. Shah Jahan, under whom the Mughal power was at its 
highest, was the greatest of all Indian builders. There is a great 
contrast between the manly vigour and exuberant originaHty of 


Akbar, and the extreme elegance of his grandson, which rapidly 
tended to become effeminate. Shah Jahan built the palace and 
Jama Masjid at Delhi, the inner Fort and palace at Agra, and the 
famous Taj Mahal, perhaps the most beautiful building in the world. 
His son Aurangzeb was a religious fanatic, who has left little save 
the mosque at Lahore, another small one at Benares, and the tomb 
at Aurangabad. The later examples of Mughal architecture at 
Lucknow show marked deterioration, which is partly attributable 
to European influence. Other notable examples of earlier Moham- 
medan architecture exist at Jaunpur, Gaur, and Panduah 
(pp. 309-10), Mandu (p. 89), Ahmedabad and Sarkhej in the north, 
and at Gulburga (p. 348), Bijapur, and Golconda (p. 378) in the south. 

As mosques in India always face east they should be seen of a 

In other styles should be mentioned the ruins at Martand and 
other places in Kashmir (p. 251), which bear evidence of classical 
influence ; and the modern Golden Temple of the Sikhs at Amritsar. 

The Burfnese pagoda, with its thin spire, has been evolved from 
the solid hemispherical dome of the Buddhists. The best examples 
are at Prome, Pagan, Rangoon, Mandalay, Pegu, and Moulmein. A 
small example may be seen in the Eden Gardens, Calcutta. 

The Preservation of Ancient Monuments 

As the striking architectural monuments of India will specially 
attract the attention of visitors, so the means taken for their pre- 
servation in the past will be a subject of frequent remark. Largely 
under outside pressure, the Indian Government has made various 
attempts at conservation, but as these have for the most part been 
carried out through the engineering staff of the Public Works 
Department, the work of protection has too frequently been seriously 
injurious to the architectural beauties of the monuments repaired. 
What has been wanted is the guidance of the trained architect who 
would strictly confine himself to the work oi conservation, and eschew 
everything of the nature of restoration. The Government of India 
carried on for many years an Archaeological Survey, almost wholly 
dissociated from any conservation of the architectural monuments, 
and rather connected with the identification of ancient sites, coins, 
dates and relics of forgotten times, interesting chiefly to the savant. 
Thirty years ago a change in this respect was begun, and a careful 
survey of the monumental remains at Jaunpur, Ahmedabad, Fatehpur- 
Sikri, etc., was commenced ; but the surveys were again reduced in 
1889, and only one architectural assistant and a few native draughts- 
men were retained in Upper India, where, however, the most excellent 

Introd. ANCIENT monuments Ixxvii 

results have followed the ideal labours at Agra and Fatehpur-Sikri 
of Mr E. W. Smith, who, unhappily, died of cholera at the end of 
1901. Thanks to Lord Curzon's keen interest in the subject, which he 
treated at length in two speeches to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 
1899 and 1900, the Department has been lately placed on a really 
broader footing ; and has been officered by competent architects who 
can authoritatively advise Government on questions of conservation 
under the control of a Director - General, at present Mr J. A. 
Marshall ; and it may be expected that with the new regime the 
safety of all public monuments will be insured, as well as their survey. 
It is much to be hoped, however, that the Department will as a rule 
be less engaged in restoration than is indicated in the reports so far 
published by Mr Marshall. It may be noticed that already the 
Salimgarh Pavilion and the space in front of the Diwan-i-'Am in the 
Agra Fort (pp. 178 and 179), and the principal buildings of the Delhi 
and Lahore Forts (pp. 197 and 234), have been already rescued 
from profane military purposes ; that the unsightly native quarters 
round the gates of the Taj enclosure have been removed ; that a 
requisite traveller's rest-house has been built at Fatehpur-Sikri (p. 181) ; 
and that minor works of conservation have been carried through 
at Ahmedabad, Lucknow, Delhi, Mandu, Bijapur (p. 362), and 
Bhuvaneshwar (p. 326) and Kandrak (p. 332), where excavations of 
the base of the fallen porch have disclosed a magnificent sculpture, 
eight great wheels, each 9 ft. 8 in. in diameter, on its sides. The 
famous caves of Ajanta and EUora, which are situated within the 
limits of the Hyderabad State, are in much need of certain measures 
of conservation, if they are to be preserved for the wonderment of 
future generations. Travellers in India would render a public service 
by invariably inviting public attention to all instances of inept and 
barbarous conservation and restoration of ancient monuments which 
may come under their notice. In justice, however, to the Indian 
Government, it should be recorded that but for what it has done, 
many of the principal monuments of India would be no longer in 
existence ; and that with all its shortcomings in this connection, 
it has not been guilty of the absolute neglect of the memorials of the 
past which prevailed throughout India until its advent. It may also 
be noted here that much has been done in the last twenty years 
under competent artistic advice to produce suitable buildings of 
architectural merit in India, especially in Bombay and Madras, by 
Mr Stephens and Mr Chisholm, by Colonel Sir Samuel S. Jacob in 
Rajputana, and by the late Mr Lockwood Kipling, C.I.E., and Rai 
Bahadur Ganga Ram, in the Panjab. 

Ixxviii INDIAN ART-WORK India 


Mr Fergusson writes of Indian sculpture^ that when it "first dawns 
upon us in the rails at Buddh Gaya and Barhut, 250 to 200 B.C., it is 
thoroughly original, absolutely without a trace of foreign influence, 
but quite capable of expressing its ideas. Some animals, such as 
elephants, deer, and monkeys, are better represented there than in 
any sculptures known in any part of the world ; so, too, are some 
trees, and the architectural details are cut with an elegance and pre- 
cision which are very admirable." The highest perfection was 
attained in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D. Little sculpture of any 
merit has been produced since that time. 

The excellence of Indian art production is to be found in its pottery, 
metal work, carving, jewellery, weaving, dyeing, and embroidery. In 
these directions the Indian artisan is remarkable for his patience, 
accuracy of detail, thoroughness, and artistic sense of both colour and 
form. The elaboration of ornament in the best Indian metal ware, 
or carving, the composition of colours in the best Indian carpets, or 
enamel, and the form of the best Indian pottery, have seldom, if ever, 
been e-vccelled. Much of the skill of the Indian handicraftsman is due to 
the hereditary nature of his occupation. The potter, the carpenter, the 
smith, the weaver, each belongs to a separate caste ; a son inevitably 
follows the trade of his father, and the force of custom, with generally 
a religious basis, impels him to imitate his father's work. The result 
is that the form and workmanship of artizan work is almost exactly 
the same now as it was thousands of years ago, and that the artizan, 
with great technical and imitative skill, has Httle creative power. 
The combined competition and prestige of Europe have created a 
tendency to imitate European methods. The best work used to be 
done, at leisure, to the order of the wealthy princes and nobles of an 
ostentatious native court. Many of these courts have now ceased to 
exist, while others have dechned in purchasing power and in influence. 
The authority of the trade guilds, and of caste, has been relaxed 
under the freedom of British rule, and the importation of British 
goods has materially affected certain crafts. British supremacy, 
having produced peace, has almost destroyed the armourer's trade ; 
the fancy cheap cotton goods of America and Britain have displaced 
the muslins of Dacca ; aniline dyes, and jail work have nearly killed 
the old carpet industry. Whether the Schools of Art which the 
Government has established in India have hastened, or retarded, 
the process of degeneration is a much-disputed point. Some trades 
which were dying out have been resuscitated by their efforts, and the 
mania for imitating European designs is sometimes effectually 

Introd. METAL- WORK Ixxix 

diverted from the worst to the best examples, and in some cases 
native crafts have actually been revived. The effective w^orking of 
these institutions is a task which requires much delicacy of percep- 
tion as well as firmness of touch, as there is always great risk that a 
school which contains principally casts from the antique, and details 
of Italian and Gothic ornament, will affect the purity of indigenous 
ideals, which is much to be deplored. To restrain rather than to 
strengthen the tendency to imitate the designs and methods of the 
dominant race, should be the aim of art education throughout the 

In the very slight sketch of Indian arts* which follows, certain 
places are mentioned as being noted for particular work ; but it 
should be remembered that the small towns are gradually losing their 
specialities, the best workmen drifting steadily towards the larger 
centres. A visit is recommended to the art collections in the Indian 
Museum at S. Kensington, before the visitor to India leaves England. 

Nearly every Indian village has its potter^ who is kept constantly 
at work making domestic utensils of baked clay, for in many 
households no earthen vessels can be used a second time. The 
forms of the utensils which he makes are of great antiquity and 
beauty. The best glazed pottery is made in the Panjab, of blue and 
white, and in Sindh, of turquoise blue, copper green, dark purple, and 
golden brown, under an exquisitely transparent glaze. The usual 
ornament is a conventional flower pattern, pricked in from paper 
and dusted along the pricking. The Madura (Madras) pottery 
deserves mention for the elegance of its form and richness of its 
colour. The Bombay School of Art produces imitations of Sindh 
ware. In the Panjab and Sindh, and especially at Thatta (p. 265) 
and Hyderabad, there are many good specimens of encaustic tiles 
on the old Mohammedan mosques and tombs. One of the finest 
examples is the mosque of Wazir Khan at Lahore. 

The Panjab has long been noted for its gold and silver work, and 
especially for parcel-gilt sarahis, or water-vessels, of elegant shape 
and delicate tracery. The gold and silver ware of Kashmir, Cutch, 
Lucknow, Patna, Bombay, Ahmednagar, Cuttack (p. 323), and 
Tanjore, is worthy of mention. The hammered repousse silver 
work of Cutch is of Dutch origin. The embossed silver work of 
Madras, with Dravidian figures in high relief, is called Swami ware. 

Domestic utensils in brass and copper are made all over India, the 
Hindus using the brass, and the Mohammedans the copper. The 
brass is cleaned by scrubbing with sand or earth and water ; the 
copper periodically receives a lining of tin. The copper bazaar of 

1 Mr N. T. Mukharji's Art Manufactures of India (i888) may be consulted 
for further details. 


Bombay is celebrated, and so is the brass ware of Moradabad 
(p. 273). Benares and Jaipur are famous for cast and sculptured 
mythological images and emblems. Plates, cups, jewellery, etc., of 
Kansha (bell metal) are made at Burdwan (p. 39) and Midnapore 
(p. 322). Other places noted for brass and copper ware are Nagpur, 
Ahmedabad, Nasik, Poona, Murshidabad, and Tanjore. The Kashmir 
and Peshawar ware has marked Persian features. 

The artizans of India were formerly very skilful in the use of iron 
and steel. Mr Fergusson says of the Iron Pillar in the Kutab Mosque 
at Old Delhi, to which he assigns the date of a.d. 400, that "it opens 
our eyes to an unsuspected state of affairs to find the Hindus at that 
age capable of forging a bar of iron larger than any that have been 
forged even in Europe up to a very late date, and not frequently 
even now. It is almost equally startling to find that, after an exposure 
for fourteen centuries, it is unrusted, and the capital and inscription are 
as clear and as sharp as when the pillar was erected." (See p. 332 
also). Sir G. Birdwood^ says: "The blades of Damascus, which 
maintained their pre-eminence even after the blades of Toledo became 
celebrated, were, in fact, of Indian steel." Indian arms are charac- 
terised by their superb, and sometimes excessive, ornamentation. But 
the modern work in iron, steel, and arms is not of much importance. 

Damascening is the art of encrusting one metal upon another. 
The best or true damascening is done by cutting the metal deep, and 
filling it with a thick wire of gold or silver. The more common 
process is to heat the metal to a blue colour, scratch the design upon 
it, lay a thin gold or silver wire along the pattern, and then sink it 
carefully with a copper tool. The art comes from Damascus, hence 
its name. Damascening in gold is carried on chiefly in Kashmir, 
Gujrat, and Sialkot (p. 240), and is called "koft"-work. In silver or 
iron it is called bidri, from Bidar (p. 374), in the Nizam's dominions, 
where such work is still made, though it is now produced principally 
in Lucknow. A cheap imitation of koft-work is made with gold leaf. 

Enafnel is an artificial vitreous mass, ground fine, mixed with 
gum water, applied with a brush, and fixed by fusion. In the 
champlev^ enamelling of Jaipur — the best in India, perhaps in the 
world — the colours are placed in depressions hollowed out of the 
metal, and are made to adhere by fire. The Jaipur artist is re- 
nowned for the purity and brilliance of his colours, and the evenness 
with which they are applied. He is particularly famous for a fiery 
red, which is unique. For enamel on gold — besides Jaipur — Alwar, 
Delhi, and Benares may be mentioned ; on silver, Mooltan, 
Hyderabad (Sindh), Karachi, Abbotabad (p. 245), Bhoj Cutch 
(p. 148), Lahore, Kangra(p. 228), and Kashmir ; on copper, the Panjab 

1 Th£ Industrial ArU 0/ India. 

Introd. CARVING Ixxxi 

and Kashmir. A quasi-enamel, the mode of preparation being kept 
secret, is made of green colour at Pertabghar, and of blue at Rutlam 
(p. 91). Glass was known in India at the time of the Mahabharata; 
glass bangles and other ornaments are made all over the country. 

The splendour of Indian jewellery is due to the free use of 
diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and other gems, some of them mere 
scales so light that they will float on water. A dazzling variety of 
rich and brilliant colours is thus produced by means of gems which 
are valueless except as splashes, points, and sparkles of gorgeousness. 
Rings for the fingers and toes, nose and ears ; bracelets, armlets, 
anklets, nose studs, necklaces made up of chains of pearls and gems ; 
tires, aigrettes, and other ornaments for the head and forehead ; 
chains and zones of gold and silver for the waist — such are the 
personal ornaments in daily use amongst men and women, Mo- 
hammedans and Hindus. One reason for the great popularity of 
gold and silver jewellery is that it is portable wealth, easily preserv^ed. 
The silver filigree work of Cuttack and of Ceylon, generally with 
the design of a leaf, is remarkable for delicacy and finish. For gold 
and silver jewellery, Trichinopoly, Vizagapatam (p. 334), and Ahmeda- 
bad are noted. The best enamelled jewellery comes from Delhi, 
Benares, and Hyderabad (Deccan). The old Delhi work in cut and 
gem-encrusted jade is highly prized. The p'letra. dura, inlaid work oi 
Agra was fully developed in the Taj Mahal by Austin de Bordeaux. 
While Florentine in origin and style, the designs have a thoroughly 
local character. 

The well-known Bombay boxes are a variety of inlaid woodwork 
called pique. Indian lacquer, so-called, is really lac turnery. In it 
the surface is obtained by pressing a stick of hard shellac to a rapidly 
revolving wooden object. The friction develops heat sufficient to 
make it adhere irregularly. Further friction with an oiled rag 
polishes the surface. The lac is obtained from the incrustations 
made by the female of ctn insect (^coccus laced) on the branches of 
certain trees. The numeral lakh, signifying 100,000, is derived from 
the enormous number of these insects found on a small area. The 
chief consumption of lac in Europe is for sealing-wax and varnishes. 
All over India it is used for walking-sticks, mats, bangles, and 
toys. Lac-turned wooden and papier-mache boxes and trays are 
made in Kashmir, Sindh, Panjab, Rajputana, Bareilly (p. 273), and 
Kurnool Madras (p. 383). Of small objects, the mock ornaments 
for the idols, made of paper, should be noted at Ahmedabad and in 
most parts of India. Artificial flowers, and models of the temples, 
are made of the pith of the sola plant, whence the "sola topee," or 
sun-hat of pith. 

Skilful carving is done at Bombay in blackwood, for doors or 



furniture in a style derived from the Dutch. At Ahmedabad the 
blackwood is carved into vases, inkstands, and other small objects. 
Jackwood also is carved in rectangular forms at Bombay. Sandal- 
wood is carved at Bombay, Surat, Ahmedabad, Kanara (p. 418), 
Mysore, and Travancore ; ebony at Nagina (p. 273) and Bijnur ; 
ivory at Amritsar, Delhi, Benares, and Vizagapatam. Sylhet (p. 320) 
is noted for its ivory fans, Rutlam for its ivory bracelets, and 
Vizagapatam for boxes of ivory and stag's horn. Figures of 
animals, and of the gods, are carved in white marble at Ajmer, 
Jaipur, and Rajputana generally. Excellent building stone is found 
in Rajputana, where it is carved for architectural purposes. At 
Fatehpur-Sikri (Agra) models of the ruins are carved in soapstone. 
Models in clay of fruit and figures are admirably made at Lucknow, 
Poona, and Calcutta. In the cities of Guzerat, and wherever the 
houses are made of wood, their fronts are elaborately carved : this 
is especially the case in various cities in the Panjab, notably in 

India was the first of all countries that perfected weaving, sewing 
not being practised until after the Mohammedan invasion. The 
Greek name for cotton fabrics, sindon, is etymologically the same as 
India or Sindh. The word chintz is from the Hindu chhint, or 
variegated, while calico is from the place of its production, Calicut 
(p. 416). In delicacy of texture, in purity and fastness of colour, in 
grace of design, Indian cottons may still hold their own against the 
world — but not in cheapness. The famous Dacca muslin (p. 318), one 
pound weight of which could be made to cover a fabulous extent, 
is now superseded by the machine-made goods of Europe 
and America ; and European chintz now takes the place of the 
palampore (palangposh), a kind of bedcover of printed cotton pro- 
duced at Masulipatam. In the Panjab the weaver's trade still 
flourishes, but large quantities of the cheaper cottons are now 
made in India by machinery. Pure silk fabrics, striped, checked, 
and figured, are made at Lahore, Agra, Benares, Hyderabad, 
(Deccan), and Tanjore. Gold and silver brocaded silks, called 
kincobs (kimkhwab),^ are made at Benares, Murshidabad, and 
Ahmedabad. The printed silks which are worn by the Parsi ladies 
of Bombay are a speciality of Surat. Bahawulpur is noted for its 
damasked silks. Most of the raw silk comes from China. The 
Mohammedans are forbidden by their religion to wear pure silk, but 
may wear it mixed with cotton. Gold and silver wire, thread lace, 
and foil are made all over the country, for trimming shoes and caps, 
for stamping muslin and chintzes, for embroidery and brocades. With 
such skill is the silver wire prepared, that two shillings' worth of silver 
i This word is a hybrid, but is connected with kin, Chinese for gold. 

Jntrod. SHAWLS — carpets Ixxxiii 

can be drawn out to 800 yards. The best embroidery^ remarkable for 
its subdued elegance and harmonious combination of brilliant colours, 
comes from Kashmir, Lahore, and Delhi. The patterns and colours 
diversify plane surfaces without destroying the impression of flatness. 
Much tinsel is used, but the result has not a tinselly appearance. 
The famous Kashmir shawls are made of the fine, flossy, silk-like 
wool obtained from the neck and underpart of the body of the 
goat of Ladak. Originally a speciality of Kashmir, they are now 
made in the Panjab also, especially at Amritsar. They have greatly 
deteriorated since the introduction of French designs and magenta 
dyes. The finest of the woollen stuffs is called patu in Kangra and 
Kashmir. A rough but remarkably durable patu is made from goat's 
hair. The shawls called Rampur chadars are made at Amritsar 
and Ludhiana (p. 224), of Rampur wool. The intrinsic difference 
between Eastern and Western decorative art is revealed in Oriental 
carpets, where the angular line is substituted for the flowing, classical 
"line of beauty." The Oriental carpet is also more artistically dyed, 
and is decorated according to the true principles of conventional 
design. As a rule the pile carpets of India and Persia are of floral 
design, while those of Central Asia, Western Afghanistan, and Balu- 
chistan, are geometric. In Persia and India the source of many 
of the patterns is the tree of life, shown as a beautiful flowering 
plant, or as a simple sprig of flowers. The dari is a carpet of 
cotton made chiefly in Bengal and Northern India ; but the most 
common cotton carpet is the shatranji, made throughout India, but 
especially at Agra. The principal patterns are stripes of blue and 
white, and red and white. In point of texture and workmanship the 
rugs from Ellore (p. 335), Tanjore, and Mysore are the best. Costly 
velvet carpets embroidered with gold are made at Benares, Delhi, 
and Murshidabad. The carpets of Malabar are now the only pile 
woollen carpets made of pure Hindu design. Fine carpets are 
made at Amritsar by the well-known firm of Devi Sahai Chamba 
Mai. Central Asian carpets are best purchased at Amritsar, Peshawar, 
and Quetta. For art manufactures in Burma, see p. 442. 


The history of irrigation in India stretches back into remote 
antiquity, many of the modern works being founded upon old native 
works which have been restored and extended. The storage of water 
in tanks is very common in Southern India. The works are for the 
most part of native origin, but much has been done by the British 
in repairing old tanks and constructing new ones in Madras, the 
Bombay Deccan, and Ajmer. In many places the natives have 

Ixxxiv IRRIGATION India 

made artificial lakes with dams, which are often of great architectural 
beauty. In the more level tracts of the south every declivity is 
dammed up to gather the rain. Innumerable wells cover the whole 
country. And it is very usual for the upland cultivator to make his 
own tiny irrigating stream, carrying it along the brows of mountains, 
round steep declivities, and across yawning gulfs and deep valleys ; 
his primitive aqaeducts being formed of stones and clay, the scooped- 
out trunks of palm trees and hollow bamboos. To lift the water a 
bucket wheel, worked by men and oxen or buffaloes, is employed, 
where the water is more than 40 ft. below the surface, and the 
Persian wheel with a line of earthenware vessels on the ropes which 
run over it where the water is nearer the surface in N. India. A 
good part of the Panjab and the whole of Sindh would be scarcely 
habitable without irrigation ; and it is practically indispensable also 
in the south-east of the Madras Presidency. 

The greatest British engineering works in India have been in 
Canal irrigation, the water being drawn directly from a river or other 
source into either a "perennial" or an intermittent or "inundation" 
canal. A perennial canal is furnished with permanent headworks 
and weirs, and is capable of irrigating large tracts throughout the 
year, independently of rainfall. Canals of this class have now a 
main line mileage of 10,000 m. and a distributary lineage of 28,000 m., 
more than half of the first, and two-thirds of the last being in the 
United Provinces and in the Panjab. The net revenue earned by 
these works amounts to 7 per cent, on the capital outlay, and the 
area irrigated by them was no less than 14,500,000 acres. A notable 
example is the Ganges Canal (p. 273), which has been at work since 
1854, has cost Rs. 30,000,000, comprises 440 miles of main canal, and 
2614 miles of distributaries, and in 1895-96 supplied water to 759,297 
acres. In one place it is carried over a river channel 920 feet broad, 
and thence for nearly 3 miles along an embankment 30 ft. high. The 
Sirhind Canal from the Sutlej (p. 224), completed in 1882, is even larger, 
while the great Chenab Canal (p. 241), supports a colony of 532,000 
souls, settled on Government waste in the Rechna Doab of the Panjab 
during the last ten years,- and irrigates an area of 1,750,000 of 
acres. A similar colony will be established on the Jhelam Canal in 
the Jach Doab, and probably a third in the Sindh Sagar Doab, 
which will be irrigated by a monster canal taken out of the Indus 
at Kalabagh. The area brought under irrigation from waste in the 
Panjab alone, during the last twenty years, has been 3,500,000 of acres. 

Inundation canals are rougher channels without masonry dams 
or sluices, and are supplied with water by the annual rise of the 
river from which they are drawn. The principal works of this class 
are in the Panjab and Sindh on the Sutlej, Chenab and Indus rivers ; 

Introd. FAMINE IxxxV 

and these and other works, classed as minor irrigation works, water 
2,500,000 of acres annually, and bring in a net return of 28 lakhs of 
rupees to Government. The main lines of minor works are 5600 m. 
long, and the line of distributaries 2560 m. 

In years of scanty rainfall the area irrigated by Government works 
is enormously increased ; but in years of almost complete drought 
the supply of water in the rivers has been known to fall short of 
the great demands on it, owing to failure of rains in the mountains. 

Besides the area irrigated by Government works, it is calculated 
that something like 18,000,000 acres are irrigated by means of tanks, 
wells, lakes, and the smaller canal channels. This area is likely to be 
largely increased in the near future, a Commission which has recently 
sat on the subject having recommended that forty-four crores of rupees 
should be spent on irrigation during the next twenty years, largely 
on works indirectly reproductive, and on private irrigation works. 


The importance of irrigation will be fully realised from the figures 
of the last three famines from which the country has suffered. 

In the first of these, in 1896-97, the areas affected were 194,000 
sq. m. in British India and 82,000 sq. m. in the Native States, the 
population of the two areas being 45,000,000 and 7,000,000, of whom 
4,250,000 were on State relief works in June 1896. The second 
famine in 1899-1900 extended to 175,000 sq. m. (population 25,000,000) 
and 300,000 sq. m. (population, 30,000,000) in British India and 
Native States, and no less than 6,500,000 people were in receipt of 
relief in August 1900. The third of 1907-08 affected an area of 
66,000 sq. m. and a population of 30,000,000. The recurrence of 
famine is accepted as a normal feature in the administration of India, 
and due provision is made beforehand for providing relief whenever 
that may be required. A special famine fund is devoted yearly to the 
protection of those areas which are most liable to these visitations by 
the construction of irrigation works and railways and the adoption of 
other measures. 

The Material Condition of the People of India 

It is impossible to enter in detail upon so wide a subject as 
this. Full information will be found at pp. 325-355 of the 
Decennial Material Progress Report for 1892-1902, and in sub- 
sequent reports ; and a perusal of the facts there recorded will 


probably convince any open-minded person that the material con- 
dition of the people in India has greatly improved in the past, and is 
still improving, putting altogether aside the advantages of peace and 
order which now prevail in the country. At the same time, the 
enormous growth of the population is a matter of serious import. It 
may be mentioned here that the Salt Tax has been reduced since 
1903-04 from Rs.2.8 to Rs.i per maund of 82 lbs. This rate came 
into force from 1908 ; and up to the present date the increase in 
consumption has been 22 per cent. This varies now from 9 lbs. in 
Rajputana, the Panjab, and the United Provinces, 12 in Bengal, 
and 13 in Bombay, to 16 in Burma, and 19 in Madras. Though 
called a Salt Tax, the burden on salt is really its selling price fixed 
by Government, all sources of supply, apart from the salt imported 
by sea, being the property of Government, and worked by the State. 
The principal natural sources are the Jhelam mines (p. 242) and the 
Sambhar Lake (p. 136). Details of the cotton duties levied in India 
and the countervailing duties imposed on imported sugar will be 
found on p. 191 of the above Report. 


Plague in India made its recent appearance at Bombay in 1896, 
but it was often widespread during the six centuries of Mohammedan 
rule. The total number of deaths caused by it in the last fourteen 
years has been nearly 7,000,000, of which 2,000,000 have taken place 
in the Panjab. It is not easy to realise the effects of such a loss. 
But beyond a possible examination -at certain railway stations, 
travellers are not likely to see anything connected with plague. 
It has been proved beyond doubt that the rat flea is the vehicle 
of contagion between rats, and that from these the disease spreads 
to man. 

The Countess of Dufferin's Fund Association 

As many visitors to India will naturally be interested in the work of 
the above Association for supplying female medical aid to the women 
of India, a very brief account of it is given here. The Annual Report 
of the Fund can be purchased in the Presidency towns of India. 
Started only in 1895 by the Countess of Dufferin, the Fund has now 
52 lady doctors of the first grade and 87 of the second grade, 
Europeans and natives of India (besides 500 hospital assistants), 
engaged on its work, which yearly brings aid to more than 
2,250,000 women and children. The invested resources of the Fund 


amount to 32 lakhs of rupees, including a sum of 7 lakhs collected by 
the late Lady Curzon for Queen Victoria Memorial Scholarships for 
the training of midwives ; and the annual income is about Rs. 250,000 
which is largely devoted to training and supplying trained medical 
practitioners as well as to the maintaining of female hospitals. It is 
much to be hoped that year by year larger gifts and contributions will 
place the Fund in a position to greatly extend the operations so 
successfully begun. 

Entirely apart from the Dufterin Fund are various provincial 
Associations in India for providing trained nurses for serious cases 
of sickness among Europeans, which are also much deserving of 
general support. There are 8 of these with an annual income of 
Rs. 70,000. The Countess of Minto has taken special interest in 
this work. 

The Indian Administration 

The supreme authority in India, subject to the Secretary of State, 
is vested in the Viceroy and Governor-General, at present the Right 
Hon. Lord Hardinge of Penshurst, and his Council of eight Members, 
viz., the Commander-in-Chief and the Members in charge of the 
Home, Revenue, Public Works, and Irrigation, Finance, Commerce, 
Education, and Legislative Departments, at the heads of which, and of 
the Foreign Department, is a Secretary to the Government of India. 

Under the Home Department are included the subjects of 
Justice, Police, Prisons, Education, Public Health, Local Self-Govern- 
ment, Lunatic Asylums, and the like ; Forests and Mines are 
among the subjects dealt with by the Revenue Department ; while 
Commerce, Excise, and Stamps are subject to the Financial 
Department. The Postal and Telegraph Departments are also 
administered under the direct control of the Supreme Government 
by two Director-Generals. 

The Legislative Council of the Governor-General includes the 
Members of the Executive Council, from which it is entirely distinct 
and a number of additional members, official and non-official, the latter 
for the most part selected. 

The great experiment made in 1909 of largely increasing the 
number of elected members of these councils, and of appointing 
native members to Executive Councils, will be watched with deep 
interest by all persons interested in India. 

The army is under the control of the Commander-in-Chief, at 
present General Sir O'Moore Creagh, K.C.B., CLE., and under the 


direct orders of two Lieutenant-Generals, commanding the Southern 
and Northern Armies with Headquarters at Ootacamand and 
Meerut. Under them the army is distributed into ten Divisions, 
including Burma. In addition to the usual headquarters staff of the 
army there are Inspector-Generals of cavalry and artillery. 

At the head of each province is a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, 
or Chief Commissioner. The two Governors of Bambay and Madras 
have hitherto been assisted by a Council of two members, to which 
an Indian member has now been added, and in these Governments, 
and those of Lower Bengal, the United Provinces of Agra and 
Oudh, the Panjab and Burma is a Provincial Legislative Council. 
In every province the administration is, generally speaking, divided 
into two branches — the Judicial and the Executive. At the head 
of the former is a High Court, Chief Court, or Judicial Commis- 
sioner, and at the head of the latter usually a Board of Revenue 
or a Financial Commissioner. This link in the revenue administra- 
tion is, however, missing in Bombay, as the link of Commissioners is 
lacking in Madras. Next in the official scale come the Commissioners 
of Divisions, exercising control over a number of districts which 
constitute the administrative units of the country. At the head of 
each district is a Collector or Deputy-Commissioner, who is also 
District Magistrate, and is responsible for the administration of 
Criminal Justice, Police, Revenue, and all executive work in his 
jurisdiction. He is assisted by a number of English and Native 
Magistrates and Officers at the headquarters of each district, — in 
some cases by officers in charge of sub-divisions of the district, — and 
in all cases by Native Magistrates and Sub-Collectors in charge of 
portions of the districts, known variously as tehsils, talukas, and the 
like. Much of the petty magisterial work of the country is done by 
honorary magistrates appointed by Government ; while the manage- 
ment of the local concerns of Municipalities and District Boards is 
mainly in the hands of members of the native community selected or 
elected. At the headquarters of Government are the heads of the 
various Departments of Public Works, PoHce, Education, Forests, 
Medical Relief and Sanitation, while under the Financial Com- 
missioner or the Board of Revenue is usually a Director of Land 
Records, responsible for the maintenance of the revenue records of 
the province, and in the first instance for the settlements of Land 
Revenue, and a Commissioner of Excise, Registration, and the like. 





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Introd. POST office and railways xcm 

Details of the Working of Certain Imperial Departments 

The following figures will give some idea of the enormous opera- 
tions to which the Indian Administration extends. 

Post Office 

The number of post offices in the country is in round figures 

18,400, of letter-boxes 43,000, of village postmen 8500, of total 

establishment 96,000. The length of railways and roads over which 

mails are conveyed is 156,000 m., and the mails so conveyed comprise 

in round numbers. 

Letters and Post Cards 767,922,728 

Parcels 50,107,799 

Newspapers ....... 51,084,486 

Packets 6,140,819 

Total, 875,255,832 

Nearly 6,200,000 of parcels were sent under the Value Payable 
System. The number of money orders amounts to 24,000,000, and 
the value to ;^25,ooo,ooo. The amount deposited in the Post Office 
Savings Banks is ^10,000,000 sterling, and the number of depositors 
well over a million. 


The length of telegraph lines open is 70,000 m. (wires 281,000 m.), 
and of cables 390 m. The number of offices open, largely in connec- 
tion with post offices, is 2600, and the number of messages sent 
13,000,000 (one million being foreign messages), of a value of 
^649,000. The Indo-European Telegraph Department which con- 
trols the service between India and England through Persia has 
a land line of 2575 m. and a cable line of 195 1 knots, and a revenue 
of ^i 10,000. 


The number of miles of railway open in 1910 was 32,099, of which 
number nearly one-third were constructed during the last decade. 
This mileage is considerably larger than that of France, nearly as 
large as that of Austro-Hungary, three times larger than that of 
Italy, and about 6000 m. less than that of the Germanic Empire. 
18,000 m. of railway are of the standard gauge (5i ft.) and 12,600 
of the metre gauge (3 ft. 3I in.) or less. 257 m. are included in 
State lines, 900 in guaranteed Companies, 2900 in assisted 
Companies, and 3500 in Native States. The number of passengers 
conveyed in the year was 371,000,000; the average late earnings 
have been 511,422 lakhs, and the net gain 2| millions. The develop- 




ment of Indian railways during the last thirty-five years has been 
phenomenal. The return on capital outlay is now 5-46 per cent. 

The mileage under construction or sanction is 3000 m., the 
principal works being Itarsi to Nagpur 184 m., Nagpur to Chind- 
wara 93 m., Paphaman to Unas 114 m., Kalabagh to Bannu 83 m., 
Shari to Younghwe 100 m., and Sujangarh to Hissar, 133 m. The 
control of Railways and Railway Schemes is now exercised by a 
Government Railway Board, 

Financial Details 
The principal sources of revenue and heads of expenditure are as 
follows, in pounds sterling : — 

Land Revenue 






Other main heads 


Post Office, Mint, Telegraph 



lion £ 








Total, £-j6\ 


Direct demands on revenue 

Interest .... 

Post Office, Mint, Telegrapl 

Civil Departments . 

Other civil charges 

Famine Relief and Insurance 



Other public works 

Army .... 


million £ 






Total, £7Kk 

The total debt of India is ^276,000,000, of which ^147,000,000 
constitute the Home Debt. Against this are more than counter- 
balancing assets in the value of railways ^224,000,000, irrigation 
works ^31,000,000, cash currency 18 millions, loans repayable 15 
millions, etc. The Government cash balance is about ^17,000,000. 


The spread of Christianity^ in India is a matter of deep interest, 
upon which full details will be found in the annual reports of the 
various Missionary Societies at work in the country, and much 
valuable information in the Provincial Census Reports of 1901. 
These show a remarkable increase of Native Christians during the 
previous decade ; but it is noticeable that in many instances this is 
very much more marked in new than in old fields of missionary 
work. In the Madras Presidency Native Christians of all de- 
nominations now number over 1,000,000, showing an increase of 19 
per cent, in the previous decade. The converts are chiefly from the 
lowest Hindu classes : 643,000 belong to the Roman Catholic 
Communion. 140,000 to the Anglican, 119,000 to the Baptist, and 

1 St Francis Xavier began mission work in India in 1542. The first Protestant 
missionaries were the Lutherans at Tranquebar in 1706, the Baptists at Serampore 
in 1793, and the Anglican Church in 1813. 


78,000 to the Lutheran. The districts with the largest Christian 
populations are Tinnewelly, Kistna, Trichinopoly, Tanjore, S. Arcot, 
and Nellore. The Syrian Christians (see page 414) number 2000 
Jacobites and 700 others. In the Bombay Presidency there are now 
216,000 Native Christians, an increase of 29 per cent, in the decade ; 
of these, 107,000 are Roman Catholics, and 36,000 members of the 
Anglican Communion. A remarkable increase of 23,000 occurred in 
the Kaira Districts, including 5000 soldiers of the Salvation Army. 
In Bengal the numbers are slightly greater than in Bombay, half 
being Roman Catholics, 70,000 Lutherans, 58,000 Anglicans, and 
22,000 Baptists. An extraordinary development, from 78,000 in 1881 
to 125,000 in 1901, has taken place in the Ranchi District of Chhota 
Nagpur ; next to this District the largest numbers of Native 
Christians are to be found in the Sonthal Pergannahs. In the 
United Provinces of Agra and Lucknow there are now 69,000 Native 
Christians — against 13,000 twenty years ago — chiefly belonging to 
Methodist Communions : in no one district are there so many as 
10,000 converts. In the Panjab the numbers are now 38,000, which 
include 8000 sweepers ; the largest numbers are in the Sialkot 
District and on the Chenab Colony (p. 241), where their development 
will be a matter of special interest. In 1881 there were only 4000 
Native Christians in this Province. Whatever may be individual 
opinions regarding the work or results of proselytising in India, the 
value of the work done in the mission colleges and schools and 
hospitals is immense, and is becoming very far-reaching in its effects. 
The Protestant missions with the largest numbers of converts are the 
C.M.S., American Baptist Union, Methodist Episcopal Church, 
London Missionary Society, and S.P.G. The number of mission 
Hospitals and Dispensaries is 300, the number of pupils in mission 
colleges and schools 425,000 ; the number of European missionaries 
at work is 4000, and of Indian missionaries, 37,000. 


As the mutiny of the Bengal Army in 1857 forms perhaps the most 
important episode in the whole history of British rule in India, and 
as it is fraught with special memories for all Englishmen, a brief 
sketch of the principal outlines of it is given here. 

From 1764 to 1857 the history of British rule is marked by various 
mutinies among the native troops or sepoys. Ever since the days of 
Dupleix and Clive, sepoys, led by European officers, have formed 
the principal part of European armaments in India, in which the 
fighting races have ever been willing to serve for the sake of two 
kinds of reward, pay and prestige. The first serious mutiny, in 1764, 

xcvi THE INDIAN MUTINY, 1 857 India 

was for an increase of pay. It was promptly suppressed by Major 
Hector Munro, who refused the higher pay, and ordered the twenty- 
four ringleaders to be blown from guns. There was a more extensive 
rising in Madras in ido6. It began at Vellore (p. 396), where a number 
of British officers were murdered, but Colonel Gillespie galloped from 
Arcot, eight miles off, and recaptured the fort, and killed or dispersed 
the mutineers. On this occasion the complaint of the sepoys was 
that orders had been issued forbidding the use of earrings, and caste 
marks, and beards, and that the new hat had a leather cockade made 
from skins which were unclean to them. The dethroned Moham- 
medan princes of Mysore, who lived with numerous attendants in 
the fortress of Vellore, told the sepoys that the new regulations were 
intended to deprive them of their caste, and force them to become 
Christians ; and the report was spread that the British power had been 
extinguished by Napoleon. The mutinous spirit extended nearly 
throughout Madras before it was finally quenched. The Home 
Government declared that the mutinies were due to the fear of being 
Christianised, to the residence of the princes at Vellore, to the 
annexations of Lord Wellesley, which had shaken confidence in 
British moderation and good faith, and to a loss of authority by 
British officers over their men. The analogy between Vellore in 
1806, and Meerut in 1857, is very striking, the chief difference being 
that the sepoys had greater causes of discontent in 1857, and that 
at Meerut there was no Gillespie. At the latter date the religion of 
the sepoys seemed to them to be in greater danger than ever; the 
capital of India, Delhi, was the home of the dethroned descendant 
of the Mughals ; Lord Dalhousie's annexations had far exceeded 
those of Lord Wellesley, and seemed likely to be still further 
pursued ; the discipline of native regiments was disturbed by 
the encouragements held out to their British officers to seek 
employment on the General Staff; and Russia in the Crimea was 
supposed to have destroyed British power more effectively even than 
Napoleon. And yet Vellore had been so completely forgotten, that 
Sir Henry Lawrence was one of the few prominent Englishmen in 
India who foresaw the rising, or understood what it would mean. 
Generally there was on all sides a blind, if touching, faith in the loyalty 
of the sepoys, which in the case of the Officers of native regiments 
was only extinguished by sepoy murderers. 

The eight years from 1848-56, when Lord Dalhousie was Governor- 
General, will long be remembered in India. They form a period of 
large social and material reforms, and are also specially remarkable 
for British annexations of native territory. After a severe struggle 
with the warlike Sikhs the Panjab was conquered and annexed in 
1849. Lower Burma followed in 1852, and Oudh, without conquest, 

Introd, CAUSES OF discontent xcvii 

in 1856. By a doctrine, not generally applied in the past, the territory 
of native princes who died without an heir of the body, was now treated 
as lapsed to the British, an adopted heir not being recognised, and 
under this rule were resumed the principalities of Satara, Jhansi, 
Nagpur, and others. It was also decided that the stipends which 
had been paid to those native princes who had been deprived of 
their territories in former years, should not be continued to their 
successors. Among others, the Nana Sahib, the adopted heir of the 
ex-Peishwa of Poona, Baji Rao II., once the head of the Mahrattas, 
was refused the pension of ^80,000 per annum which his father had 
enjoyed during his life- The descendant of the Mughals, Bahadur 
Shah, had been informed that his successor would not be allowed to live 
at Delhi, or to retain the regal title. And when the territory of the 
loyal king of Oudh was annexed, owing to his persistent misgovern- 
ment, the surplus revenues of the State, after payment of a substantial 
pension to the king, were gathered into the coffers of the British 
Government. All this looked like a policy of unjust and high-handed 
aggression. The natives understood annexation after conquest, and 
the conquered provinces of Panjab and lower Burma remained loyal 
throughout the Mutiny. But now every native prince feared for his 
dominion, as the British seemed to be absorbing all such territory, 
either by conquest, or on the plea of misgovernment, or by the 
new rule excluding adopted heirs ; and this policy seemed to be 
further evidenced by the resumption of pensions, and the confiscation 
of the surplus revenue of Oudh. Of the chiefs directly affected the 
kings of Delhi and Oudh were Mohammedans, who consider them- 
selves the natural rulers of India and likely to profit by the ejection of 
the British ; while the Rani of Jhansi and the Nana Sahib were 
Mahratta Hindus, and the Mahrattas had practically conquered the 
Mohammedans when the British intervened in 1803. The leaders of 
two of the most warlike races in India, and of the two religions, were 
under the belief that they had met with harsh treatment at the hands of 
the British ; and they determined, if possible, to work on the sepoys, 
the greater number of whom were Brahmans, and other high caste men 
from the Oudh country and the Gangetic Doab, and a portion of whom 
were already in an insubordinate condition. 

In 1856 one of the first innovations of the new Governor-General, 
Lord Canning, was the General Service Enlistment Act, by which all 
future recruits in Bengal were made liable for service outside the 
Company's dominions without extra pay. This had always been the 
rule in the Madras and Bombay armies. But the Bengal sepoy 
was a man of high caste, and had enjoyed privileges in the past. 
He was now, he considered, threatened with the loss of caste by 
being taken over the sea (the dreaded kdla pani or " black water ") 


xcviii THE INDIAN MUTINY, 1857 India 

to serve in Burma ; and while he held that he alone had conquered 
India for the Company, he believed that he was now to be used for 
further conquests without any increase of pay in regions far from his 
home. The agitators impressed upon his superstitious and credulous 
mind that the railways and telegraphs which had recently been 
introduced, were a kind of magic designed to oppose him, and that 
the new law, made by Lord Canning, which permitted the re-marriage 
of Hindu widows, and the new zeal for education, were really 
attacks upon his religion. The sepoys knew also that while the 
British troops had been reduced by drafts sent to the Crimea, and to 
Persia, the native army had been increased for the purpose of 
garrisoning the recently acquired territories, and that the British 
force was now only 40,000 to 240,000 sepoys. The prestige of England 
had been shaken by the disasters of the Afghan war ; it was believed 
that the British had been beaten in the Crimea ; and an old prophecy 
was revived which foretold that the Company's reign would end in 
1857, one hundred years after the battle of Plassey. At this critical 
moment, with Mughal and Mahratta, Mohammedan and Hindu, 
Princes seriously disaffected towards the British, with an army of 
high caste soldiers alarmed concerning their pay, their privileges, 
and their religion, and with the British force unduly reduced, there 
occurred the famous cartridge incident. A new type of rifle having 
been issued to the sepoys, the unhappy blunder was perpetrated of 
smearing the cartridge with a composition of the fat of the cow, 
the sacred animal of the Hindus. On complaints being made, the 
British officers declared that no cow's fat had been used for the 
cartridges issued to the men ; but this did not satisfy them, and the 
Commander-in-Chief himself (General Anson) expressed the opinion 
that he was not surprised at their alarm at the appearance of the 
greased cartridges. In these circumstances it was clear that any 
untoward incident might precipitate a general mutiny. 

The first regiment to mutiny was the 34th Native Infantry at 
Barrackpur, near Calcutta, in February 1857, and this was followed 
in March by the 19th at Berhampore, in the same neighbourhood. 
Both these regiments were disbanded, and the 84th (British) was 
brought over from Burma to Barrackpur. But nothing else was 
done. "Allahabad and Delhi, the two chief fortresses, arsenals, and 
strategical positions of the North Western Provinces, were still 
without the protection of British garrisons, and no steps, such as the 
collection of supplies and caiTiage, had been taken anywhere for the 
prompt movement or mobilisation of British troops" (MacLeod 
Innes). On the 3rd May the 7th Oudh Irregulars mutinied at 
Lucknow, and were disarmed by Sir Henry Lawrence. Then on the 
loth came the great outbreak at Meerut, 40 miles from Delhi. The 


r Europeans, 

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Introcl. tHE OUTBREAK ici* 

sepoys, after murdering some of their officers and other Europeans, 
and liberating some of their comrades, who had been imprisoned for 
insubordination, made off for Delhi. On arriving at that place on the 
nth they were joined by the three regiments there, when it was seen 
that no pursuit from Meerut was to be feared ; and after the Arsenal 
had been captured and many officers murdered, and every vestige of 
British authority destroyed, they declared the King of Delhi 
Emperor of India, and his sons placed themselves at their head. 

Probably this forward move of the Mughal party aroused the 
jealousy of the other rival conspirators, and for three weeks there 
was no other mutiny. But when the natives found that days and 
weeks passed without any punishment being inflicted, they began 
to think that the British power was really at an end. On the 30th 
May the 71st Native Infantry mutinied at Lucknow, and from this 
date there was a general rising. In some cases British officers, 
women, and children were all murdered ; in others the men alone 
were killed, and in still others they were all spared, and even escorted 
by the mutineers out of harm's way. As each regiment rose, it made 
for Delhi, Cawnpore, or Lucknow, which became the centres of the 
conflict.^ While Delhi, the historical capital of India, was in the 
hands of the rebels, at Cawnpore, Sir Hugh Wheeler with a mere 
handful of soldiers was surrounded by overwhelming numbers from 
the 6th June, and at Lucknow, a garrison under Sir Henry Lawrence 
was closely invested from 2nd July. 

On the loth of May there were between Calcutta and Meerut, 
only three British regiments — the 14th at Dinapore, the 32nd at 
Lucknow, and a Company's Regt., the 3rd Europeans, at Agra. 
Lord Canning, who was at Calcutta, made energetic efforts to 
obtain reinforcements. The Madras Fusiliers, under Colonel 
Neill, arrived at Calcutta on the 23rd May ; the 64th and 70th 
from Persia early in June ; and other British troops from Burma, 
Ceylon, and Singapore, and loyal sepoys from Madras soon followed. 
A force which was on its way to China was, with the consent of Lord 
Elgin, diverted to Calcutta ; several regiments were despatched from 
the Cape Colony, and urgent requests for additional troops were sent 
to England. But the means of transport for those on the spot were 
sadly insufficient ; the railway from Calcutta had been completed 
only as far as Raniganj, a distance of 120 miles, and there was 
difficulty in procuring country carriage ; and so it happened that the 
troops from Calcutta were only just in time to secure Benares and 
Allahabad, and it was not till the 7th July that General Havelock was 

1 A more detailed account of the events at these important places will be found 
on pp. 189, 301, and 285. The sequence of events throughout India will best be 
s^cn by referring to p. cviii. of the Chronology, 

e THE INDIAN MUTINY, 1857 tndid 

able to advance from the last place with an inadequate force of 2000 
men. General Anso7t, who was at Simla in May, at once collected 
the British and Goorkha regiments which were in the hills, and began 
to move on Delhi ; but his progress was slow owing to lack of 
transport and commissariat, and on the 27th May he died of 
cholera at Karnal. The attack upon Delhi did not begin until the 
8th June, when Sir H. Barnard, with a force amounting to 3800 men, 
defeated a rebel army of 30,000 men at Badli-ki-sarai, and thus 
obtained possession of the famous Ridge overlooking the walls of 
Delhi. General Barnard died of cholera on the 5th July, and was 
succeeded by General Reed, who resigned on the 17th owing to ill- 
health, handing over the command to General Archdale Wilson. 
The mutineers had purposely timed their rising for the beginning of 
the hot weather, knowing how debilitating active operations are at 
that period to all Europeans. For some time the British, while 
affecting to invest Delhi, were themselves closely besieged on the 
ridge. In the Panjab Sir John Lawrence was ably supported by such 
men as Chamberlain, Nicholson, Edwardes, and Montgomery, and 
the local mutinies or threats of mutiny at Peshawar, Nowshera, 
Mooltan, Meean Meer, and Ferozepore were energetically suppressed 
by disarmament, and the important arsenals at Phillour and Ferozepore 
were secured. A movable column was formed under the command 
first of General Chamberlain and afterwards of General Nicholson, 
to suppress any further risings in the Panjab, and then to march on 
Delhi, and the value of the courage and decision of the latter can 
hardly be over-estimated. The Panjab was in a restless condition. 
With his small force, moving from place to place, disarming or 
dispersing the mutineers, General Nicholson kept mutiny from spread- 
ing. But it was not until the 14th August, three months after the 
Meerut outbreak, that he was able to join the British force 
at Delhi. No final move could be made there until on the 6th 
September the siege guns arrived from Ferozepore. These opened on 
the walls on the nth, and prepared the way for the storming of the 
city on the 14th, and the final capture of Delhi on the 20th. It 
came not a day too soon. Sir John Lawrence had emptied his 
province of British troops, sending every possible man to Delhi ; 
and the Sikhs and other Panjabis were becoming uneasy at the 
idea that the British might not regain their position. If these 
troops had not stood by us we should have had to begin again the 
conquest of India. 

Meanwhile, the British between Calcutta and Delhi were in sore 
straits. At Agra the sepoys were disarmed on the 31st May; but 
although the Maharaja Sindhia of Gwalior was himself loyal, his 
fine body of disciplined troops only awaited an opportunity to march 


on Agra. At Cawnpore, Sir H. Wheeler's small garrison capitulated 
on the 26th June, and were massacred next day, most of the women 
and children being made prisoners. At Lucknow a small British 
force was holding out against enormous numbers of the enemy. 
General Havelock advanced to their assistance with 1400 British 
and 600 Sikh troops, leaving Allahabad on the 7th July. The line 
between Calcutta and Allahabad was disturbed and communications 
threatened, and no substantial reinforcements could be sent to him 
till the middle of September. When he had marched for five days 
from Allahabad he defeated a large force of mutineers and Mahrattas 
at Fatehpur, and fought two other successful battles on the 15th of 
July at Aong and Pandu Naddi. On the evening of that day, 
being then 22 miles from Cawnpore, he learned that the British 
women and children of Wheeler's garrison were still aHve, and, 
tired as his men were, he marched them 14 miles that night, defeated 
the Nana Sahib next day in three separate actions, and rested his 
weary troops on the outskirts of Cawnpore on the evening of the 
i6th. The heat was so intense that some of his men died from 
sunstroke or exhaustion. The captives had, however, been murdered 
by the orders of the Nana on the 15th, when General Havelock had 
started on his last desperate effort to save them. On the 17th he 
occupied Cawnpore. On the 20th, leaving 300 men under General 
Neill, he began the crossing of the Ganges with 1500 men. On 
the 29th he defeated the rebels at Unao and Bisirat Ganj, but, 
finding immense numbers of mutineers still between him and 
Lucknow, while his own force had been reduced to 850 effectives, 
he had no alternative but to retire to Cawnpore. On the 4th August 
he marched out of Cawnpore a second time with 1400 men ; on the 
5th he again defeated the rebels at Bisirat Ganj, but his losses 
from disease, as well as battle, had been so great that it was hopeless 
to proceed further, and he fell back once more, reaching Cawnpore 
on the 13th. On the i6th he attacked and defeated 4000 sepoys at 
Bithur. He had now only 1000 effectives. In his front towards 
Lucknow were some 30,000 rebels ; at Farukhabad were probably 
as many more ; he was threatened on both flanks ; and had to face 
on the south the Gwalior contingent, and many other smaller bodies ; 
yet he courageously determined to keep his position at Cawnpore 
instead of falling back upon Allahabad. The relief of Lucknow was, 
however, out of the question until reinforcements arrived. These 
dribbled in during the next month, but there was mischievous 
delay between Calcutta and Allahabad, some 6000 men, who might 
have been sent on to Havelock, being detained to suppress local 
disturbances. On the 15th September Sir James Outram, who had 
been appointed to command the relieving force, arrived at Cawnpore, 

cH THE INDIAN MUTINY, 1 857 India 

but in the most generous and chivalrous manner forebore to supersede 
General Havelock, and thus left the honour of relieving Lucknow to 
the man who had already made such able and gallant efforts to that 
end. At length, on the 19th September, General Havelock crossed 
the Ganges, with 3000 men. He defeated the rebels at Mangalwar 
on the 2 1st, and on the 23rd, 24th, and 25th, gradually fought his 
way into Lucknow, and finally effected a junction with the garrison 
late in the evening of the last date with a loss of 700 out of his 
3000 men. General Outram then took command of the old and the 
new garrisons at Lucknow. Delhi having fallen to the British 
between the 14th and 20th September, many of the mutineers there 
proceeded to Lucknow, and General Outram found it impossible 
to fight his way out taking with him the women, children, and sick of 
the old garrison. He therefore remained on the defensive, closely 
invested, until the final rehef of Lucknow, two months later. 

The dangerous period of the mutiny ended with the capture of 
Delhi and the first relief of Lucknow towards the end of September. 
From this time the British position was assured by the arrival of rein- 
forcements from England. In front of them came Sir Colin Campbell, 
the newly-appointed Commander-in-Chief in India, who reached 
Calcutta on the 17th August. His first care was to arrange that 
regular batches of the reinforcements should be forwarded with all 
speed. Then he started for the seat pf war, and reached Cawnpore 
early in November. Leaving 1000 men under General Windham at 
that place, he moved on Lucknow with 5000 ; reached the Alam Bagh 
on the 1 2th November; left a garrison there ; marched upon the rebels 
with 4200 men on the i6th ; and effected a junction with Outram's 
beleaguered force on the 17th, though with a loss of nearly 500 men. 
The original Lucknow garrison, which had been closely invested 
since the 2nd July, a period of more than four months, was thus 
finally relieved. But Sir Colin found the rebels so numerous, and the 
difficulty of escorting the women, children, and sick safely out of 
Lucknow so great, that he felt unable to hold Lucknow in addition, 
and accordingly evacuated it on the 22nd, leaving General Outram at 
the Alam Bagh with 4000 men to maintain the appearance of British 
authority. General Havelock died of dysentery on the 24th November. 
When Sir Colin reached Cawnpore with his precious human freight, 
he found that General Windham had been defeated by the Mahratta 
Tantia Topi, and had been gradually forced out of the city of Cawn- 
pore into his entrenchments on the banks of the Ganges. On the 3rd 
December the families and sick from Lucknow were sent on to 
Allahabad, and then Sir Colin attacked Tantia Topi and dispersed 
his army. Beyond clearing the Doab, the country between the 
Ganges and Jumna, little was done in the next three months except 


to collect further troops. On the 2nd March Sir Colin joined General 
Outram at the Alam Bagh with a force which the constant streams 
from Calcutta had at last raised to 19,000 men with 120 guns. To 
this was shortly added a brigade under General Franks, and a con- 
tingent of Nepalese under Maharaja Jung Bahadur, which brought 
the army up to a total of 31,000 men and 164 guns. The 
mutineers in Lucknow numbered 90,000 trained men, and a large 
force of irregulars, and they had employed their respite in erecting 
three strong lines of defences around their position. Sir Colin's 
attack began on the 7th March, and he finally drove off the enemy 
and captured Lucknow on the 15th. 

On the 20th Lord Canning issued the Confiscation Proclamation, 
by which the estates of all the important chiefs in Oudh were 
escheated. Most of them, although certainly not loyal, had abstained 
from active participation in the revolt. They now rose, and were 
joined by other leaders who believed that they would be similarly 
treated, and had therefore nothing to lose, but everything to gain by 
opposing the British. Thus it happened that although the sepoys 
were dispersed, only small bands of them still remaining in the field, 
new enemies sprung up who were not subdued until the end of the 
year 1858, by which time there were 100,000 British troops in India. 
Of the various British brigades which operated in different parts of 
the country, the pnncipal was that under Sir Hugh Rose (afterwards 
Lord Strathnairn), in Central India. On the 8th January 1858, 
General Rose left Mhow with a Bombay force, and marching north- 
wards captured the fortresses of Ratgarh on the 28th, and Garrakota 
on the 13th February. After several successful battles he arrived 
before the walls of Jhansi on the 21st March. On the ist April he 
totally defeated Tantia Topi, who was marching to the relief of 
Jhansi with 22,000 men, and stormed and captured Jhansi on the 4th 
April. The Rani fled with her defeated troops towards Kalpi, where 
Tantia Topi was collecting another army. General Rose marched 
out of Jhansi on the 2Sth April, defeated Tantia Topi on the 6th 
May, and captured Kalpi on the 23rd. The Rani then fled to 
Gwalior, where she was joined by the Maharaja's troops, and thus 
obtained possession of the strong fortress. In spite of the great 
heat General Rose marched upon Gwalior, and took it on the 20th 
June, the Rani, dressed as a man, being killed in one of the actions 
which took place round the fortress. The Mahratta leader was 
persistently hunted through Central India and Rajputana during the 
summer and the ensuing cold weather, and covered 3000 miles in his 
flight before he was betrayed ten months later, on the 7th April 1859, 
and was tried, and hanged. He had fought against us gallantly 
for over a year ; but he had also given the signal for the massacre 


on 27th June 1857 at the Sati Chaura Ghat at Cawnpore. Meanwhile 
the rebellion in Oudh and the North West Provinces had been 
gradually suppressed, and the Nana had been driven into the Nepal 
jungle, where he is believed to have died of fever. The prophet who 
had announced that the Company's rule would end in 1857, a 
hundred years after the battle of Plassey, was not far out in his 
reckoning. On the ist November 1858, at a grand darbar at 
Allahabad, Lord Canning announced that the Company's possessions 
in India were transferred to the British Crown. 

Since the mutiny there has been a great change in British poHcy. 
The British troops, in 1857 one-sixth of the native, are now one half. 
All the strong fortresses, magazines, and arsenals, are garrisoned by 
British soldiers ; there are no batteries of native artillery of any 
importance ; and the modern preparations for transport, commissariat, 
and mobilisation combined with the railway system, ensure the 
speedy movement of British troops to any given spot. The high 
caste sepoy has been to a considerable extent replaced by a less exact- 
ing soldier, and the danger of a groundless religious panic thereby 
lessened. The right of adoption, for which many of the chiefs fought, 
has been conceded. The policy of annexation in India has been 
abandoned. The pay of the sepoy has been raised, whether on service 
in his own country or in foreign districts ; and the British officers of 
native regiments — still too few in numbers in spite of a wise recent 
increase — are no longer encouraged to leave their men for the attrac- 
tions of civil or staff employment. Both races have learned their lesson. 
The best proof is that whereas formerly sepoy mutinies were of frequent 
occurrence, no single example has occurred in the space of nearly fifty- 
four years, to revive memories of the great tragedy of 1857. 




Vasco da Gama sails to Calicut round the Cape of Good Hope . . 1498 

The Portuguese Viceroy, Albuquerque, captures Goa .... 1510 
Bassein, Salsette, and Bombay ceded to the Portuguese by the Chief 

of Guzerat 15^4 

Thomas Stephens, of New College, Oxford, becomes rector of the 

Jesuits' College at Salsette 1579 

Charter from Queen Elizabeth to "The Governor and Company of 

Merchants of London trading to the East Indies" . . . 1601 

The Dutch East India Company formed 1602 

The first French East India Company formed ..... 1604 





The Dutch occupy Pulicat (40 m. N. of Madras) .... 

The Emperor Jahangir issues a proclamation permitting the English to 

establish factories at Surat, Ahmedabad, Cambay, and Gogo 
The first Danish East India Company formed .... 
Captain Best defeats the Portuguese squadron at Swally, off Surat 
Sir Thomas Roe, ambassador to Jahangir, obtains favourable 

cessions for English trade. .... 
An English factory founded at Armagaon, Madras 
An English factory founded at Masulipatam 
The English Company allowed to trade in Bengal 
Fort St George founded at Madras by Francis Day 
Gabriel Broughton, surgeon of the Hopewell, obtains from the Emperor 

Shah Jahan, exclusive privileges of trading in Bengal for the English 

Company as a reward for his professional services to the Governor of 

Bengal ............ 

The Dutch take Negapatam from the Portuguese .... 

Bombay ceded to England by the Portuguese as part of the Infanta 

Catherina's dower on her marriage with Charles II. ... 

French settlement established at Pondicherry ..... 

A new English Company formed, with a capital of ^2,000,000 . 
The old Company buys the site of Calcutta ...... 

Death of the Emperor Aurangzeb, and decline of the Mughal power 
Through the arbitration of Lord Godolphin the two English Companies 

are amalgamated .......... 

The Austrian Emperor Charles VI. grants a charter to the Ostend 

Company •■.......,. 

England and France at war in Europe ...... 

A French fleet under La Bourdonnais captures Madras 

A. British fleet under Admiral Boscawen besieges Pondicherry, but is 

repulsed. The treaty of Aix-la- Chapel le restores Madras to the 


Dupleix places nominees of his own on the throne at Hyderabad and 

Arcot. The British support Muhammad Ali in Arcot. War 

between the English and French in the Carnatic 
Capture and subsequent defence of Arcot by Clive 
The French capitulate at Trichinopoly 
Clive returns to England ..... 
Dupleix superseded. Treaty of peace between the British and French 

signed at Pondicherry ...... 

Clive returns to India 

Suraj-ud-daulah, Nawab of Bengal, captures Calcutta 

— The tragedy of the Black Hole .... 
Recapture of Calcutta by Clive. 23rd June, Battle of Plassey. War 

with France renewed in the Carnatic 
Lally arrives with a French fleet. He takes Arcot. Clive is appointed 

the first Governor of the Company's settlements in Bengal 
Clive defeats the Dutch ....... 

Eyre Coote totally defeats Lally at the battle of Wandiwash 
Arcot taken by the British. Clive sails for England . 
Pondicherry capitulates to the British- Fall of the French 

the Deccan ........._. 

Pondicherry restored to the French by the treaty of Paris. The first 

sepoy mutiny is suppressed by Major Hector Munro, who defeats 

the Nawab- Wazir of Oudh at the decisive battle of Buxar. Dupleix 

dies in poverty in Paris 

20th June 

power in 



















Lord Clive arrives at Calcutta as Governor-General. The revenues of 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa granted to the Company by the Emperor 
Shah Alam II 1765 

The N. Circars (Sirkars) ceded to the British. Clive prohibits the 
servants of the Company from engaging in private trade or accepting 
presents, and increases their salaries. Lally is executed at Paris . 1766 

Clive leaves India. The Nizam and Haidar Ali attack the British . 1767 

The Nizam cedes the Carnatic ........ 1768 

Terrible famine in Bengal . . . . . . . . .1770 

Warren Hastings, Governor - General of Bengal. Supreme Court 
established at Calcutta. The Dutch expelled from Negapatam by 
the British. The Rohilla chiefs defeated by the British. Salsette 
and Bassein taken by the Bombay troops. Clive commits suicide 
in England 1774 

The Nawab of Oudh cedes Benares 1775 

Chandernagore, Masulipatam, Karikal, and Pondicherry taken from 

the French ........... 1777 

The first Mahratta War begins. General Goddard's celebrated march 
across India. Convention of Wargaon. Captain Popham captures 
Gwalior ............ 1779 

Haidar Ali takes Arcot. Warren Hastings wounds Sir Philip Francis 

in a duel 1780 

Sir Eyre Coote defeats Haidar Ali at Porto Novo. The British 

capture the Dutch ports of Pulicat and Sadras .... 1781 

Death of Haidar Ali. The French assist Tipu Sultan, his son . . 1782 

The captured French possessions restored to them by the treaty of 

Versailles ........... 1783 

Peace with Tipu Sultan ; the conquests on both sides restored. Pitt's 

Bill establishes a Board of Control. ...... 1784 

13th February. — Warren Hastings impeached by the House of 
Commons, before the House of Lords, for corruption and oppression 1788 

Tipu Sultan ravages part of Travancore ...... 1790 

Lord Cornwallis leads the British army against Tipu Sultan in person. 
Takes Bangalore. Is joined by the Nizam and the Peshwa . . 1791 

The allies storm the redoubts at Seringapatam. Tipu Sultan yields 
one -half of his dominions, to be divided between the Nizam, the 
Peshwa, and the British, and agrees to pay ;^3, 000,000 . . 1792 

Regular Civil Courts established in Bengal. The revenue settlement 
of Lord Cornwallis in Bengal, by which the Zamindars, who had 
been the revenue agents of the Mughal, were declared to be the land- 
owners, is made permanent. Pondicherry taken from the French 
for the third time .......... 1793 

23rd April. — Warren Hastings is acquitted after a trial lasting seven 

years. The Company grant him ;^40oo a year for life ... 1795 

The Dutch settlements in Ceylon, and the Cape, taken . . . 1796 

Seringapatam stormed, and Tipu Sultan slain. His dominions divided 

between the Nizam and the British ...... 1799 

The Nizam gives up his share of Mysore in consideration of British 

protection 1800 

The Nawab of the Carnatic cedes Nellore, North and South 
Arcot, Trichinopoly, and Tinnevelly, The Nawab-Wazir of 
Oudh cedes Rohilkund and the Ganges Doab. Ceylon made a 
Crown Colony 1801 

Treaty of Bassein, by which the foreign relations of the Peshwa are 

supervised by the British ,,,,,,,, 180? 


Mahratta War. Battle of Assaye, 23rd September ; General Wellesley 
(afterwards the Duke of Wellington) with 4500 men defeats 50,000 
Mahrattas under Sindhia and the Raja of Nagpur. Lord Lake defeats 
the Mahrattas at Aligarh, Delhi, and Laswari, ant! captures Delhi and 
Agra. Cession of the Northern districts of what are now the United 
Provinces. The Mughal king of Delhi becomes the pensioner of the 
British. Conquest of Cuttack. ....... 1803 

Monson's advance into Holkar's territory, and disastrous retreat . . 1804 
Capture of I ndore. Holkar's attack on Delhi defeated . . . 1804 
Lake abandons the siege of Bharatpur. Holkar cedes Bundelkund . 1805 
Mutiny of sepoys at Vellore suppressed by Colonel Gillespie . . 1806 

Rise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in the Panjab ..... 1807 

War declared against Nepal. Repulse of the British .... 1814 

General Ochterlony defeats the Goorkhas at Malaun .... 1815 

Treaty of Segowlie. Cession of hill stations ..... 1816 

Operations against the Pindari bands of freebooters. Mahratta War. 
Battle of Kirkee : defeat of the Peshwa and capture of Poona. 
Battle of Sitabaldi : defeat of the Raja of Nagpur. Battle of 
Mahidpur : defeat of Holkar. Cession of Ajmer by Sindhia . . 1817 
Defence of Korigaum by 800 sepoys, with 10 British officers, against 
25,000 Mahrattas. Holkar cedes territory. The dominions of the 
Peshwa annexed .......... 1S18 

Burmese War ........... 1824 

Capture of Bharatpur, hitherto deemed impregnable. Treaty of Yan- 

daboo ; cession by the Burmese of Assam, Arrakan, and Tenasserim . 1826 
Sati, or widow-burning, declared "culpable homicide" by Lord 

William Bentinck .......... 1829 

Renewal of the Company's charter, on condition that the Company 
abandons' its monopoly of the China trade, and acknowledges the 
right of Europeans to reside in India and acquire land . . . 1833 
Annexation of Coorg .......... 1834 

Lord William Bentinck, the first Governor-General of India, leaves 
India, having abolished sati, suppressed (with the aid of Sir W. 
Sleeman) Thaggi, reformed the judicial administration, restored the 
use of the vernacular language in all courts, extended education, 
effected the revenue settlement of the United Provinces (with the 
aid of Mr Robert Bird), given the natives a share in the Government, 
restored the finances, and promoted steam communication via Suez . 1835 
Efforts to eradicate female infanticide. The freedom of the Press 
established. Lord Auckland, Governor-General .... 1835 

Dost Muhammad, Amir of Afghanistan, receives a Russian mission. 

Lord Auckland declares war ........ 1838 

Capture of Kandahar and Ghazni, and occupation of Kabul. Shah Shuja 

made Amir. Death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Capture of Aden . 1839 
2nd November. — Murder of Sir A. Burnes at Kabul. 23rd December. 

— Murder of Sir W. Macnaghten 1841 

Retreat of British army of 4500 men from Kabul, of whom one 
only, Dr Brydon, escapes to Jellallabad alive. Lord Ellenborough, 
Governor-General. Pollock forces the Khaibar and joins Sale's 
garrison at Jellallabad. Murder of Shah Shuja at Kabul and 
accession of Akbar Khan. Pollock defeats the Afghans at Tezeen, 
and re-occupies Kabul. Lady Sale and the Kabul prisoners 
ransomed. Return of the British army to India .... 1842 
Sir Charles Napier defeats the Sindh armies at Miani and Hyderabad. 

Apnexalion of Sindh . 1843 



Lord Hardinge, Governor-General . . . . . . . 1844 

First Sikh War. General Gough fights an indecisive action at Mudki. 

Assault on the Sikh entrenchment at Ferozeshah .... 1845 

Sir Harry Smith defeats the Sikhs at Aliwal. General Gough fights a 
desperate battle at Sobraon, which ends in the rout of the Sikh army. 
Jammu and Kashmir transferred to Maharaja Gulab Singh for ^750,000 1S46 
Lord Dalhousie, Governor-General. Second Sikh War. Unsuccessful 

siege of Mooltan _ • 1848 

Mooltan stormed by General \^Tiish. General Gough fights an in- 
decisive action at Chillianwallah. General Gough defeats the Sikhs 
at Gujrat ; they lay down their arms. Annexation of the Panjab. 

Annexation of Satara by lapse 1849 

Burmese War. Annexation of Pegu 1852 

Annexation of Jhansi by lapse .*.•.• ^^53 

Annexation of Nagpur by lapse. Competitive system for civil appoint- 
ments approved • • ^^54 

7th February. — Annexation of Oudh, owing to persistent misrule. 
Lord Dalhousie leaves India, having opened the first railway for 
traffic, formed a department of public works, introduced cheap 
postage, constructed telegraphs, opened the Ganges Canal,_ and 
established an education department with the three universities of 
Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. 29th February.— Lord Canning, 
Governor-GeneraL The General Service Enlistment Act . . 1856 

Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, a philanthropic Parsi, made a Baronet. 
The Indian Mutiny. February. Mutinies at Barrackpore and Ber- 
hampore. The sepoys refuse to use the new cartridges. 3rd May. 
Sir Henry Lawrence suppresses a mutiny of the 7th Oudh Irregulars 
at Lucknow. At Meerut eighty-five sepoys refuse to use even the 
old cartridges, and (9th May) are imprisoned in irons. loth May. 
Rising of the sepoys at Meerut ; they release their comrades from 
jail, burn the cantonment, and make for Delhi, nth May. The 
mutineers reach Delhi, murder the Europeans, and proclaim the 
Mughal king, Bahadur Shah, Ruler of India. 30th May. Mutiny 
in the cantonment near Lucknow. 4th June. Mutinies at Benares 
and Allahabad, and slaughter of Europeans. 5th June. Mutiny at 
Jhansi. Massacre of the Europeans who had surrendered on a promise 
of their lives. Mutiny at Cawnpore. 6th June. Attack upon Sir 
Hugh Wheeler in the entrenchment at Cawnpore. 8th June. Battle 
of Badli-ki-sarai, near Delhi. Defeat of the rebels and occupation of 
the Ridge, nth June. Arrival of Colonel Neill with the Madras 
Fusiliers at Allahabad. 23rd June. This being the anniversary of the 
Battle of Plassey, the mutineers make a determined assault on the 
Ridge at Delhi. 26th June. Capitulation of Sir H. Wheeler, at 
Cawnpore on a promise from the Nana Sahib that the lives of all will 
be spared. 27th June. Massacre of the males of the garrison at 
Cawnpore by order of the Nana. 2nd July. Investment of the 
Residency buildings at Lucknow. Sir H. Lawrence mortally wounded 
by a shell. 7th July. General Havelock advances from Allahabad 
with 2000 men. i6th July. Murder of the British women and children 
at Cawnpore by order of the Nana. 17th July. General Havelock 
retakes Cawnpore. 14th August. Arrival of General Nicholson's 
column at the Ridge, Delhi. 6th September. Battering train arrives 
at the Ridge. 14th to 20th September. Delhi stormed with a loss 
to the British of 1200 men. General Nicholson mortally wounded. 
2Sth September. Generals Havelock and Outram fight their way into 


Lucknow, and are shut in. Death of General Neill. 1 7th November. 
Sir Colin Campbell relieves Lucknow. 22nd November. Lucknow 
evacuated. 24th November. Death of General Havelock. 27lh 
November. General Windham driven into bis entrenchments at 
Cawnpore by the Gwalior rebels, vi\io plunder the city. 6th 
December. Sir Colin Campbell defeats the Gwalior rebels . . 1857 
Sir Colin Campbell reconquers Lucknow. Sir Hugh Rose captures 
Jhansi and Gwalior. Loyalty of Dost Muhammad, Amir of 
Afghanistan, and Jung Bahadur (of Nepal) throughout the Mutiny. 
1st November. The Government of India transferred from the East 
India Company to the British Crown, represented by a Viceroy. 
Lord Canning, first Viceroy and Governor-General . . . 1858 

The income-tax imposed ......... i860 

Legislative Councils established in the three Presidencies. Creation of 

the Order of the Star of India 1861 

Earl of Elgin, Viceroy ........ .1862-3 

.Sir John (I>ord) Lawrence, Viceroy ....... 1864 

Death from famine of a large proportion of the population of Orissa , 1866 
Samarkand taken by the Russians ....... 1S68 

Lord Mayo, Viceroy .... ...... 1869 

Assassination of Lord Mayo, while on a visit to the convict settlement 

in the Andaman Islands. Lord Northbrook, Viceroy . . . 1872 
The Russians, under General Kauffmann, take Kiiiva .... 1873 

Famine in Behar. Government expenditure of ;^7, 000,000 . . . 1874 
Visit of King Edward to India, 9th November 1875 to 13th March 1876. 

Lord Lytton, Viceroy ......... 1875-6 

Famine in S. India. Government expenditure of ;^8,ooo,ooo. Increase 

of 5,000,000 deaths. British subscription of half a million sterling . 1876-8 
1st January. — H.M. the Queen proclaimed Empress of India at Delhi. 
Creation of the Order of the Indian Empire ..... 1877 

Sher Ali, Amir of Afghanistan, receives a Russian mission, but 
refuses to receive a British one. Three British columns move on 
Afghanistan. Capture of Ali Masjid. General Roberts storms the 
Peiwar Kotal. Flight of Sher Ali to Turkestan, and accession of 
his son, Yakub Khan. Despatch of native troops to Malta . . 1878 
Death of Amir Sher Ali. Treaty of Gandamuk. Sir Louis Cavagnari is 
received at Kabul as British representative, but murdered in September 
six weeks later. General Roberts advances from Kurram, carries the 
heights of Charasiah, takes Sherpur, and enters Kabul. Abdication 
of Amir Yakub Khan ......... 1879 

March of General Sir Donald Stewart from Kandahar to Kabul. Ayub 
Khan defeats General Burrows at Maiwand. March of General 
Roberts with 10,000 men to the relief of Kandahar, 313 miles in 
twenty-one days. General Roberts completely routs Ayub Khan. 
The British nominate Abdur Rahman as Amir. The British forces 

return to India. Lord Ripon, Viceroy 18S0 

Skobeleff defeats the Tekke Turkomans and captures Geok Teppe . 18S1 
Further advance of the Russians Death of Skobeleff. Lord Ripon 
extends local self-government with seme powers of election. Aboli- 
tion of customs duties on all articles except intoxicants and arms. 
A contingent of the native army is sent to Egypt . . . 1882 

A bill proposing to " invest native magistrates in the interior with 
powers over European British subjects" gives rise to bitter race 
feelings. Compromise adopted by which Europeans are entitled to 
a jury of which one-half at least are of their own race . . , 1883 

eJt kEMARKABLft lEVENtS India 


Occupation of Merv and Sarakhs by the Russians. Lord Dufferin, 

Viceroy ............ 1884 

Conflict of a Russian force and Afghans at Panjdeh. The Amir meets 

Lord Dufferin at Rawal Pindi 1885 

King Thebaw, of Mandalay, having made overtures to France and 
refused to receive a British envoy, is deposed. Annexation of Upper 
Burma. The National Congress of natives commences its annual 
meetings. Delimitation of the northern boundary of Afghanistan by 
an Anglo-Russian Commission ....... 1886 

16th February. The Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Empress cele- 
brated with great manifestations of native loyalty .... 1887 

Formation of Imperial Service Troops in Native States. Lord 

Lansdownc, Viceroy ......... 1888 

Completion of the Afghan Frontier Railway and Defences. Visit of 

H.R.H. the Duke of Clarence to India 1889 

Murder of British officers at Manipur. Capture and execution of the 
leaders. Visit of H.I.H. the Cesarewitch, now the Czar of Russia, 
to India 1891 

The Indian Councils Act introduces an elective element into the older 

Legislative Councils ......... 1892 

The Mints closed to the free coinage of silver ; the value of the rupee 
fixed, for Government purposes, at is. 4d. Compensation given to 
officials on account of depreciation of rupee ..... 1893 

Lord Elgin, Viceroy. Abolition of Presidential Army commands . 1S94 

Visit of Sirdar Nasrullah Khan, second son of the Amir, to England. 
Final delimitation of the Pamir Boundary. Chitral Campaign. 
Storming of the Malakand Pass, and relief of the British force in 
Chitral. Re-imposition of import duties . ..... 1895 

Plague at Bombay. The political boundaries of Afghanistan partly 
laid down ... 1896 

Burma created a Lieutenant - Governorship. Legislative Councils 

created in the Panjab and Burma 1897 

Plague and Famine. British subscription of more than half a million 
sterling. Severe earthquake in Bengal and Assam. Rising of tribes 
on N.W. frontier. Punitive expeditions, the principal against the 
Afridis in Tirah, lasting till the spring of 1898 

Lord Curzon of Kedlestone appointed Viceroy 1899 

Famine in the C. Provinces and the Panjab, and in tiie N. parts of 

Bombay. Indian troops sent to Pekin under General Sir A. Gaselee 1900 

Deep regret in India at the death of Her Majesty the Queen Empress 
Victoria. Letter of King Edward, dated 26th January, to his Indian 
subjects. Death of Amir Abdur Rahman and succession of his son 
Amir Habibullah Khan. Formation of the new province of the 
N.W. Frontier. Mahsud Wazri blockade 1901 

The old province of the N.W. Provinces renamed the United Provinces 
of Agra and Oudh. Recovery of Indian Finances. Lord Kitchener 
C.-in-C. in India. Tariff Act to countervail bounties on sugar . 1902 

Coronation Durbar of His Majesty, King Edward VII., held at Delhi 
on 1st January by Lord Curzon, in the presence of T.R.H. the Duke 
and Duchess of Connaught. Berars attached to C. Provinces. Visit 
of the Viceroy to the Persian Gulf. Wide spread of plague . . 1903 

Viceroyalty of Lord Curzon extended by two years. E.xpeditionary 

force sent to Lhasa. Mission to Kabul 1904 



Constitution of Province of Eastern Bengal and Assam 

Change of Status of military member of X'iceroy's Council . 

Resignation of Lord Curzon. Lord Minto, Viceroy. 17th November. 
Visit of King George and Queen Marj' to India. 9th November to 
19th March 1906. Expedition to Tibet. Severe plague continues . 1905 

Death of Lady Curzon. Resignation of the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Eastern Bengal. Appointment of Lord Kitchener as C.-in-C. 
continued for two years. Visit of Amir Habibullah Khan to India . 1906 

Unrest in Bengal marked by murderous outrages. Act for prevention 
of seditious meetings. Famine in United Provinces. Continuance 
of plague 1907-8 

Post of military member of the Viceroy's Council abolished . . . 1909 

Lord Morley's Indian Councils Bill passed by Parliament. Indian 
Explosives Act, Newspaper Incitement to Seditious Meetings Act, 
Act for speedy trial of anarchical offences passed in India 

Sir O'Moore Creagh appointed C.-in-C. in India .... 

Lord Hardinge, Viceroy, 23rd November igio 

Re-enactment of Newspapers Act 191 1 





[A. signifies Arabic ; H. Hindustani or Hindi ; K. Kanarese ; Mai. MalaySlam ; M. 
Mahratti; My. Malay; P. Persian; S. Sanscrit; Tel. Telugu ; Tur. Turkish; T. Tamil.] 

AmIr (Ameer), A. "commander," a title of princes and nobles, as the Amirs 

of Sindh or of Kabul. 
AnA (Anna), H. the i6th part of a rupee. 
Anikut, T. weir, dam {annai kutta). 
Anjuman, p. assemblage, society, institute. 

BabCl, a. the Acacia arabica tree, in N. India named the Kfkar. 
BahAdCr, p. " brave," " chivalric," a title of honour among Mohammedans. 
Band, H. an embankment or dyke — commonly Bund. 
Bandar, P. a port or harbour. 

BAoLf, H. a well with steps, galleries and chambers. 
Barahdarri, H. (twelve doors) a mansion — also Barahdari. 
BAzAr, p. a market or market-place ; a street of shops. 
Begam (Begum), Tur. a lady of rank ; a queen or princess. 
BhAtA (Batta), H. additional allowance to soldiers employed on foreign 

Bungalow, H. (bangla), a thatched house ; the name usually applied to the 

houses of the English in India, and to the rest-houses for travellers built 

by Government on the public roads. 
Caste, class ; sect ; corruption of the Portuguese casta or race. 
Catamaran, T. kattu, "to bind," ntaram, "a tree," a log-raft on which the 

natives of Madras paddle through the surf. 
Chabutarah, H. a raised platform, usually of stone or brick ; terrace. 
Chadar, pi. (Chadar) sheet worn by men and women. 
Chaitya, Tel. a Buddhist chapel or church, p. 340. 
Chauri, II, a fly-whisk ; a mark of rank. 
ChAwadi, Tel. a native rest-house for travellers, English corruption 

C ho III try. 
Chhatri, H. (Chattar), umbrella ; insignia of rank. 
Chunam, S. an English corruption of H. chund, lime, a plaster or mortar 

sometimes made of shells of a remarkable whiteness and brilliance. 
Compound, an enclosure, probably a corruption of the Malay word 

Crore (Karor), H. lOO lakhs or 10 millions. 
Dagopa, Dagoba, S. (</(?/%, " the body," gtip, " to hide,") a circular 

structure, supposed to contain ashes or relics of Buddha, or some famous 

Buddhist. Ceylon, Dagoba. 
Dak, H. Post. Dak-Bungalow (or Musafari Bungalow), a rest-house for 

DAkghAri, H. stage-coach for one or two travellers drawn by ponies. 
DarbAr (Durbar), P. a royal court ; an audience or levee ; a hall. 
Dargah, place of burial of a Mohammedan saint. 
Darwazah, p. gateway, door. 

1 Terms relating to religious matters, festivals, etc., which are explained in the Introduc< 
lion, are generally not included here. 

Introd. NATIVE terms cxiii 

DharamsAlA, S. (dkarma, "justice," "piety," and skdld, "a hall"), a place 

of accommodation for travellers and pilgrims. 
Dholi, H. Dhooli (properly doli), a swinging cot or litter suspended from a 

pole carried by bearers. 
DfwAN, P. "a royal court," "a minister," especially the chief financial 

Diwan-i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas, P. hall of public and private audience. 
DOAB, the country between two rivers. 
DwARPAL, H. a door-keeper, commonly sculptured at sides of doors in 

Buddhist shrines and Hindu temples. 
FAKf R, P. a religious Mohammedan who has taken a vow of poverty ; a poor 

Farman, p. a royal order or grant. 
Gaddi, H. seat ; royal seat ; throne of a Hindu Prince. 
Gana, H. Buddhist celestial dwarf. 
GhAt (Ghaut), S. ghatta, "a landing-place," "steps on a river-side"; a 

mountain pass ; any narrow passage. 
GiRjAH (Port), church. 
GOPURAM, H. the gate of a Pagoda. 
GUMBAZ, P. a cupola ; a dome. 
GUSAIN, H. Hindu monk or devotee. 

Hammal, a. a bearer of a/a/i/; in Bombay, an orderly or house-bearer. 
Hammam, p. bath. 

HarIm (Haram), P. a sanctuary ; ladies' apartments. 
Hauz, a. cistern, tank, reservoir. 

HavaU)AR, H. an officer in native regiments corresponding to our sergeant. 
Hukij:ah (Hookah), A. a native pipe. 

HuztJR, A. the royal presence ; a respectful term applied to high officials. 
Idgah, p. the open enclosure where the Id prayers are offered. 
Imambarah, p. a building to which the Shiahs carry the iaziahs or biers 

in the mukarram, often the tomb of the builder. 
Ishwar, S. God, Lx)rd. 
JAgir, p. a tenure by which the public revenues of an estate or district were 

granted to an individual (jagirdar), with powers to collect them, and 

formerly to administer the general affairs of the estate. 
Jam'adak, a. a native officer next to a Subahdar, and corresponding to our 

Jhatka, covered pony cart in S. India. 
Jhil, H. pool, lake, swamp. 

JOGI, S. a Hindu devotee, as Fakir is a Mohammedan. 
Johar (Jauhar), H. sacrifice or immolation practised by Rajputs when about 

to be captured. Scholars will recall the occurrence of such sacrifices at 

SagUKtum and Numantia. 
Kacheri, H., or Kachhar'i, commonly Cutcherry, a court or office for public 

Kalimah, a. (in full, Kalimat-ul-Shahadat, the word of testimony), the 

Mohammedan profession of faith {IntroducHon, p. xlviii. ). 
Kankar, H. nodular limestone, wdth which roads in N. India are metalled. 
Karbala, a. designation of cemetery or place where taziahs are buried, de- 
rived from the city on the Euphrates where the Imam All is buried. 
Khan, A. a Mohammedan title of respectability answering to oar " Esq." 
KiBLAH— see MlHRAB. 

KiLA, KiLADAR, P fort, commandant effort. 
KothI, H. residence, house, mansion. 
KoTWAL, KoTWALi, P, policc officer, police statioa. 
KuBBAH, A. a tomb. 



KuLi (Cooly), T. and Tur. a day labourer ; porter at railway stations and 

Lakh (Lac), S. the number 100,000. By customary use "a lakh" means 

" a lakh of rupees.'^ 
Lat, H. a stone monolithic pillar. 

LiNGAM, S. symbol of Shiva as the God of reproduction. 
Maidan, p. plain, open space, field of battle. 
Makbarah, p. grave of a saint. 

Mamlatdar, subordinate revenue collector in Bombay. 
Man (Maund), H. a weight, varying in different parts of India. In Bombay 

it is 25 lbs. ; in Bengal, since 1883, 82 lbs. 
Mandai'AM, S. an open pavilion or porch in front of a temple ; also 

Masjid, a. mosque (place of prostration, sijdah). Jama Masjid, congrega- 
tional mosque. One prayer in a Jama Masjid is equivalent to 500 

elsewhere, and one at Mecca to 100,000 elsewhere. 
Masnad, p. cushion, throne of a Mohammedan prince. 
Masulah, T. a boat sewed together, used for crossing the surf at Madras. 
Matji, II. Ilindu monastery, of which a Mahant is Abbott. 
Mela, H. a fair. 
MiHRAB, A. the recess in the wall of a mosque on the side nearest Mecca 

to which Mohammedans turn at prayer — usually termed Kiblah in India. 
MiMBAR, P. the pulpit in a mosque ; the preacher stands on the middle step 

of the three while delivering his sermon (Khutba). 
Monsoon, A. a corruption of the A. viausam, "a season"; applied now to the 

periodical rains in India during the S.W. Monsoon, from June to September. 
MUNSHI (Moonshee), A. a writer ; a secretary ; a teacher of languages. 
NAlK, S. an officer in native armies corresponding to a corporal ; an ancient 

Nandi, S. bull ; vehicle of Shiva, often carved in kneeling attitude facing 

Shivite temples. 
Naubat khana, Nakkar khana, a. the chamber over a gateway, where 

a band is stationed. 
Nauch (Nach), S. a dance ; an exhibition of dancing-girls. 
Naw^ab, a. this word means lit. "deputies," being the plural of ntPib, "a 

deputy." It is now a title of governors and other high officials. 
NizAm, a. an arranger ; an administrator ; a title of the prince whose capital 

is Hvderabad in the Deccan. 
Nulla, H. properly Nala, "water-course," or "depression." 
Pagoda, P. an Anglican corruption of the P. word but-kadah, "an idol 

temple" in S. India ; also a coin formerly in use = 3^ rupees, called by 

the natives hun, but deriving the former name from its showing a temple 

on one face. 
Palanqueen, H. an Anglican corruption of the word pdlki, a means of 

conveyance, of the shape of a long box with sliding sides, in which persons 

are carried on men's shoulders ; but little in use nowadays. 
PalegAr (Polygar), T. Tel. a shareholder ; a landed proprietor. A title of 

persons in the Madras Presidency who correspond to Zamindars in other 

parts of India. 
PAn, S. the leaf of the betel creeper. Pan-supari is areca nut rolled in betel 

leaf for chewing. 
Peons, from the Portuguese /i?ao, Spanish /£«?«, "footman." 
PeshwA, p. the Brahman prime ministers of the Rajas of Satara, who after- 
wards became the supreme chiefs of the Mahratia nation. 
Phins, T. the Tuda name for the stone circles on the Ni'lgiri Hills. 
Pice, H, a corruption of the -word paisd, a copper coin, of wiiich 64 go to a 

rupee, and 4 to the anna, and which itself contains 3 pie. 

Inirod. native terms 


PiNDARi, M. (Pendhara), organised bodies of raiders and robbers. 

PlNJRAPOL, H. animal infirmary. 

PiR, P. old, a Mohammedan saint. 

Raja, S. a Hindu king or prince. 

Rani, S, the wife of a Raja ; a queen or princess. 

Rath, S. a chariot formerly, now a superior class of cart. 

Risalahdar, a. a native captain of a troop of horse. 

Roza (Rauza), A. a tomb in an enclosure, originally the garden at Medina 

adjoining the chamber (hujrah) in which Mohammed was buried. 
Ryot, A. an Anglican corruption of the A. word r'aiyat, a subject, a peasant. 
Sadar, a. top, chief, principal, 

Sadar 'Adalat, a. formerly the Supreme Court of Justice in India. 
Sahib, A. lord ; a title applied to English gentlemen in India. 
Saiyad, a. a descendant from the family of Muhammad. 
Samadh, H. cenotaph of a Hindu. 
Sangam, S. junction of two or more rivers — commonly a sacred place of 

Sarai, p. a rest-house for travellers ; a caravanserai. 
Sarhi, H. (commonly Sari), a sheet worn by Hindu women. 
Sati (Suttee), S. a chaste wife, especially one burnt with her deceased 

husband ; the burning of such a wife. 
Shah, P. a king ; a title usually applied to the King of Persia. 
Shaikh, A. old respected ; a class or rank of Mahommedans. 
Shankh, S. a conch shell, large specimens of which are blown as horns by the 

Hindus during religious ceremonies. 
Shikar ; Shikari, P. game, shooting ; native gamekeeper. 
Shola, T. a patch of jungle ; a wooded dell. 
SiKRA, S. spire or finial of Hindu temple. 
SiNHASAN, S. Hindu throne. 

SiPAHi H. (Sepoy), a native soldier, one of a sipdh or army. 
SiJbahdar, a. governor of a province ; a native infantry officer corresponding 

to a captain. 
Tahsil, p. a division of Zilla (see below), equivalent to Taluk. 
Tahsildar, p. a native sub-collector of revenue, who is also a magistrate. 
Taikhana, H. underground room for retreat in summer, P. sarddb. 
Taj, p. a crown. 

T'aluk, p. or more properly taalhtkah, a tract, or division of a district. 
Tappal, H. in Bombay the post ; deliverv of letters ; a relay of horses. 
Tatti, M. matting ; a mat shade. 
Teppa Kulam, South India, a tank surrounded by steps with usually a 

temple in the centre. 
Tiffin, luncheon, word of hyrid origin. 
Tirth, S. place of Hindu pilgrimage. 
Tirthankar, S. Jain saint. 

Tripuliya, H. a gateway, or approach with three arches. 
TuLSl, S. Basil plant — sacred to the Hindus. 
Vahana, S. a sacred vehicle of a Hindu god. 

ViHARA, S. a Buddhist monastery, or an apartment in a monastery or cave. 
Vimanah, S. shrine, and tower over shrine of a Hindu temple. 
Wazir, a. a prime minister. 
ZAMfNDAR, p. a landed proprietor, a landlord. 
Zananah, p. women's quarters — commonly Zenana. 
ZiARAT, A. a burial-place, a place of IMohammedan pilgrimage. 
Zil'a (Zillah), A. a province or tract constituting the jurisdiction of a District 

Magistrate and Collector or Dy-Commissioner. 




The following Abbreviations are used in this Book. 

A.H. Year of Hijrah. 

As. Annas. 

R 1 ^ AT f British India Steam 

I, Navigation Co. 
Cants Cantonments. 

/ Church Missionary 

(^ Society. 

) Dak Bungalow, a rest- 
' ( house for travellers. 



E.I. Company East India Company. 

ft Feet. 

G.T.Road ... Grand Trunk Road. 

in Inch. 

Jn.,Jimc.... Junction. 

ni Mile. 

N. North. 

N.I. Native Infantry. 

/ rage. 

P & () f Peninsular and Oriental 

(_ Steam Navigation Co. 

po/> Population. 

I? Refreshment Room. 

A'.C Roman Catholic. 

jR.I/. Rest-house. 

I's Rupees. 

.S" South. 

f/.P. United Provinces. 

W. West. 

JV.y. Canal.. Western Jumna Canal. 

yds Yards. 

B. B. & C. I. 






j Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India 
I Railway. 

f Bengal and North- 
\ Western Railway. 
. Eastern Bengal Railway. 
East India Railway, 
f Great Indian Peninsular 
' \^ Railway. 
fOudh and Rohilkand 
^ Railway. 
South Indian Railway. 

^ This sign in the text appended to a name indicates that further informa- 
tion relating to the subject is to be found in the Index and Directory at the 



[For Directory including list of hotels, etc. , see Index. ] 


Alfred Sailors' Home . 
Arab Stables 

Art Museum, Prince of Wales 
Castle and Arsenal 
Cemeteries — 

Colaba Cemetery 

European Cemetery, Sewri 

Girgaon Cemeteries . 

Hindu Cremation Ground 
Chamber of Commerce 
Churches — 

All Saints', Malabar Hill 

Cathedral .... 

Christ Church, BycuUa . 

Free Church of Scotland . 

Roman Catholic Cathedral 

St Andrew's (Scotch Presbyterian) 

St John's, Colaba 

St Nicholas' 

St Peter's, Mazagon 
Custom House 
Docks — 

P. & O, . 

Prince's . 

Victoria . 


Sassoon Graving Dock 

Educational Institutions- 
Alexandra College for Parsi Ladies 

Anjuman-i-Islam School . 

Cathedral High School i^x Boys 

Elphinstone College 

Elphinstone High School 

School of Art . 

St Xavier's College 

Victoria Institute 

Wilson College 
Excursion"; — 

Caves of Kanhari 


Jogeshwar Cave 

Montpezir Caves 

Thai and Bore Ghats 

Tansa Reservoir 

Vehar Lake 



















Fountains — 

Frere 7 

Ruttonsee Mouljee .... 8 

Wellington ..... 9 

General Description of Bombay . . 5 

Geographical Position ... 4 

Government Houses, Malabar Point . 16 

,, ,, Parell . . 15 

Harbour ...... 4 

Industrial Arts and Manufactures . 14 

Institutions (Charitable), Hospitals, 

etc. — 

Allbless Obstetric Hospital . . 12 

European General Hospital . . 11 

Gokaldas Tejpal Hospital . . 12 

Grant Medical College ... 15 

Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy Hospital . 15 

King Edward Memorial Hospital . 11 

Motlabai Obstetric Hospital . . 15 

Parsi Almshouse .... 18 

Parsi Hospital, Khamballa . . 16 
Pestonji Kama, Hospital for Women 

and Children .... 12 

Pinjra Pol ..... 14 
Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy's Parsi 

Benevolent Institution. . . 11 

The D. M. Petit Hospital . . 15 

Queen Empress Memorial Orphanage 4 

Institutions (Literary and Scientific) — 

Asiatic Society .... 8 

Mechanics' or Sassoon Institute . 10 

Jama Masjid 15 

Landing ...... 5 

Lighthouse, Prong .... 10 

,, Colaba .... 10 

Markets — 

Cotton Market, Colaba ... 9 

Crawford ,, 12 

Nal ,, 14 

Missions ...... 18 

Municipal Buildings 




Museum 15 

Native Quarter 14 

Observatory at Colaba ... 9 

Princess Street 13 

Public Offices- 
Courts of Justice .... 7 

Mint 8 

Port Trust 8 

Post-Office 7 

Presidential Secretariat ... 7 

Public Works' Secretariat . . 7 

Telegraph Office .... 7 

Town Hall S 

University Library and Clock Tower 6 

University Hall .... 6 

Reclamations — 

Elphinstone, Sewri .... 14 

Colaba ...... 10 

Railway Stations — 

B.B. & C.L , Colaba ... 9 

Church Gate ..... 7 

G.I.P.R., Victoria .... 11 

Statues — 

Queen Victoria .... 7 

Prince Albert . . . . . 15 

King Edward (1875) ... 10 

History.— There is little doubt that 
the W. coast of India had trade rela- 
tions with the Assyrian, Persian, and 
Roman empires ; but the direct con- 
nection of modern Europe with it dates 
only from 1498, when Vasco da Gama 
sailed round the Cape of Good Hope 
to Calicut. Twelve years afterwards 
Albuquerque conquered Goa, and 
twenty-four years later again Sultan 
Bahadur Shah, of Guzerat, ceded 
Bassein, Salsette, and Bombay to the 
Portuguese. It was not till 1608 that 
the English appeared on the scene, or 
till 1616 that they established a factory 
at Suiat. In 1661 Bombay was ceded 
to England as part of the dowry of 
Catherine of Braganza, but the actual 
possession of it was not transferred till 
1665, and three years later it was made 
over to the East India Company by 
King Charles II. One of the terms 
of the transfer was that the English 
should support the Portuguese in India 
against the Dutch, who were rapidly 
supplanting them everywhere. The 
name of the place was then supposed to 
be a corru|)tion of Bon Bahia or Fair 
Bay. In 1672 it was made the seat of 
the Government of the Company by 
Gerald Aungicr, the real founder of 
Bombay ; and two years later it 
possessed a castle which mounted 120 
pieces of various ordnance, and had 












Statues: continued — 

King George . 

Lord Reay 

Sir R. Temple . 

Dr Blaiiey 

Lord Cornwallis 

Marquis of Wellesley 

Mountstuart Elphinstone 

Lord fc-lphinstone 

Sir Bartle Frere 

Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy 

Mr David Sassoon 
Suburbs — 

Breach Candy . 


Malabar Hill . 

Mazagon . 

Tata Hydro Electric Scheme 
Temples — 



Mahalakhshmi . 
Towers of Mlence 
Town Hall . 
Victoria Gardens 

a garrison of 300 English, 400 Portu- 
guese, and 500 militia. In 1708 it 
became the real trading headquarters 
of the Company on the W. coast, 
Surat being no longer a safe place ; 
and before 1720 the town, which had 
grown up outside the castle, contained 
a population of 50,000, and was en- 
closed by a wall. At that time it 
already possessed a mint, and a bank 
was founded shortly afterwards, and 
the port flourished considerably from 
the encouragement given to the China 
trade. About the middle of the 
century the town was refortified, and 
soon came into prominence in connec- 
tion with the suppression of t»ie Sidi 
pirates by Admiral Watson and 
Colonel Clive, a position which was 
ultimately confirmed by the results of 
the struggle of the Company with the 
Mahrattas, who, twenty years before, 
had taken Bassein and Salsette from 
the Portuguesa.. On the Portuguese 
preparmg to recover the latter in 1774, 
it was seized by the Company, and, 
with Broach, was retained after the 
Peace of 1776;^ and though both 
were surrendered by the disgraceful 
Convention of Wargaon, the fulfilment 
of that was saved by the arrival of 

1 1 1 will interest travellers by the Suez Canal 
to be reminded that the first English ship 
from India to Suez reached that port in 177^ 


Colonel Goddard with the Bengal 
troops ; and after Bassein had been 
captured in 1781, the whole of these 
acquisitions remained with the British 
by the Treaty of Salbye in the follow- 
ing year. From that time the develop- 
ment of the port and city has proceeded 
steadily apace, and it is not necessary 
to follow it in detail. The city was 
visited by General Wellesley (the 
Duke of Wellington) in 1804, and to 
his instance was due the first road 
practicable for artillery up the Bore 
Ghat and to Poona ; and it seems 
certain that it must have been visited 
by Lord Nelson' while a midshipman, 
in 1775, ^^ ^^^ Seahorse, on which he 
made his first cruise, was in the 
Persian Gulf and at Bombay in that 
year.''^ The framework of the present 
system of administration of the Presi- 
dency and its capital was shaped by 
Mountstuart Elphinstone in 1820-27. 
The Chamber of Commerce was estab- 
lished in 1836, the Bishopric in 1837, 
and the Bombay Bank in 1S40 ; while 
the University was created in 1857, 
and the Legislative Council in 1861, 
and the Municipal Authority, formed 
in 1872, was converted into a Cor- 
poration in 1888. The Port Trust, 
which now administers an income of 
;^5oo,ooo a year, was created in 
1873, and the Bombay City Improve- 
ment Trust in 1898. The mail service 
with England was undertaken by the 
P. &0. Company in 1855 ; the G. LP. 
Railway had been opened as far as 
Thana two years previously, and was 
extended up the Ghats in 1863, and in 
the same year the Bombay Baroda 
Railway, which had been opened in 
i860, was extended to Ahmedabad. 
During the American Civil War im- 

1 In Lord Nelson's original letter of thanks 
to the East India Cumpany for the gift of 
£,xo,oc,o voted to him after the Battle of the 
Nile, a letter dated jrd July 1797, and written 
on board the Fondroyant at Naples, he says, 
" Having in tny younger days served in the 
East Indies I am no stranger to the muni- 
ficence of the Honble. Company." This 
letter may be seen in the Library of the 
India Office. 

2 See Mr J. Douglas's vols, on Bombay 
and W. India. 1885. _ Mr Malabari's 
Bombay in the Making is an interesting 

mense wealth was poured into Bombay 
in connection with the export of cotton, 
and over-speculation at this period was 
followed by a severe financial collapse. 
It was at this date that the old fort 
was at last removed. The castle 
which guarded the centre of its sea 
front yet stands, and Fort St George, 
which stood at the northern end of 
this front, still gives its name to the 
European General Hospital. On the 
S. side the defences followed the line 
of Rampart Row from the Apollo 
Gate to the S.W. corner, and then 
that of Esplanade Road, passing the 
Church Gate and Hornby Road, to 
the N.W. corner and the Bazar 
Gate, whence they turned E. to Fort 
St George. Outside the W. defences 
was a fine esplanade, and in the 
centre of the fort was the green on 
the site of which Elphinstone Circle 
now stands. The four most remark- 
able developments in Bombay during 
the last half of the 19th century have 
been (l) the reclamation of land ; (2) 
the construction of docks ; (3) the 
development of cotton mills (the first 
founded in 1857), of which there 
are now in Bombay 83, employing 
180,000 hands; and (4) the erection 
of a splendid series of public build- 
ings, many due, as will be seen below, 
to the munificent charity of private 
persons. The Corporation consists of 
seventy-two members, half elected for 
different wards of the city, twenty 
elected by the Chamber of Commerce, 
the University and the Justices of the 
Peace, and sixteen nominated by 
Government. Inside the Corporation, 
which is a deliberative body, is an 
executive committee termed the Town 
Council, consisting of twelve members, 
eight elected by the Corporation and 
four appointed by Government. The 
Municipal Commissioner, appointed 
by Government, exercises supreme 
executive authority in all Municipal 
matters. The annual income of the 
Corporation amounts to 84 lakhs, 
derived principally from a general tax 
(29 lakhs), a water tax (16 lakhs), and 
town duties (12 lakhs). During the 
same period the value of the trade of 



the port has increased from i6 crores 
of rupees to i6o crores, and the 
number of steamers entering it to 
nearly 2500, the great majority being 
ships under the English flag. The 
principal articles of trade are : — Im- 
ports^— Cotton piece goods, metals, 
machinery and railway plant ; and 
exports — cotton, grain, oil seeds, and 
yarns. The value of the imports is 
;^46,ooo,ooo, and of the exports 
;^44, 000,000. 

After 1896 the export trade received 
some check from the prevalence of 
plague, and the consequent imposition 
of quarantine against Bombay by all 
foreign ports, but has since re- 
covered. The number of deaths 
from plague since 1902 has been 
100,000. The expenditure on account 
of plague in Bombay city has been 
nearly ;^500, 000, in addition to which 
over ^2,000,000 have been spent 
by the City Improvement Trust in 
ameliorating conditions favourable to 
plague. The pest is usually worst in 
cold weather and spring. 

According to the census of 191 1, 
the population of Bombay is 972,900. 
The population was classified in 1901 
as below : — 


Mohammedans . 
Jains . 
Christians . 
Jews . 







The growth of the population has 
been somewhat as follows: — latter 
half of i8th century, 150,000; early 
in 19th century, 200,000; 1815, 
240,000; 1849, 550,000; 1872, 
644,000; 1881, 773,000. 

It is intended that the Empress 
Victoria Memorial shall take the 
shape of an Orphanage in the city. 

The principal Governors of Bombay 
since the early days of Sir John 

Oxenden and Mr Gerald Aungier, 
have been Sir John Child (1681-1690), 
Mr William Hornby (1771-1784), Mr 
Jonathan Duncan (1795-1811), the 
Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone(i8i9- 
1827), Sir John Malcolm (1827-1830), 
Lord Elphinstone (1853-1860), Sir 
Bartle Frere (1862-1867), and in 
recent times Sir Richard Temple, 
Lord Reay, Lord Harris and Lord 
Northcote. The present Governor is 
His Excellency Sir George Sydenham 
Clarke, R.E., G.C.M.G., G.C.LE. 

The Island of Bombay is situated 
in lat. 18'' 53' 45", long. 72° 52'. It 
is one of a group of twelve which 
were at one time separated from the 
mainland and from one another by 
very narrow channels, some of which 
have now been filled up, the principal 
being Bassein, Dravi, Salsette, Trom- 
bay (in which the hill called the 
Neat's Tongue, 1000 ft. high, is a 
conspicuous mark), Bombay, and 

Bombay Island is 11^ m. long from 
the S. extremity of Colaba to Sion 
Causeway, over which the G.I.P. 
Railway passes to the island of 
Salsette, and from 3 to 4 m. broad 
in that portion which lies to the N. 
of the Esplanade. It is difficult to 
estimate its area, but it may be put 
down as about 22 sq. m. 

Climate. — The average temperature 
of Bombay is 79-2'' F. It is neither 
so hot in summer nor so cold in 
winter as many places in the interior. 
The coolest months are from Novem- 
ber till March. The S.W. monsoon 
begins about the second week in 
June, and the rains continue till the 
end of September. The average 
rainfall is 70*30 in. 

Bombay Harbour. — As the harboui 
is approached and entered, the scene 
is very picturesque. To the W. the 
shore is crowded with buildings, some 
of them, as the Colaba Church, the 
Tower of the University, and that of 
the Municipal Buildings, very lofty 
and well proportioned. To the N. 




7l . 

OuM. fUu 1t> 

. V- -f 



I i.-^rf *-«, * Statuf I 

::.?.>,* Tm'>ia>.s Sfalur 1 

* Or^'fntol /hit/t/in/js ( 

5 ^phtntitenM 'tr^ft ( 

6 GriiuUm lifrcm * '"'' I 

r rep* * A-,v,. < 

8 AVV /rex.-.* (■*• ( 

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12 Prinff t-rWaU* Sl„tt,r < 

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15 #>*/> .V< ,V4-i^-j /J>9^f ( 

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22 dtien '/7,e4.0-r I 


\ 11 


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I F J&<Ak Taj Mah,,/ ffrit/ 

1 O tK.S A. 'ck'nmlitt^. 



O F 




Z<iru£rv) . '/i'An .Vumat- AHirrT,aft^ S tt *n/. 

W&//»-^ /S'vA* 



and E. are numerous islands, and on 
the mainland hills rising to an altitude 
of from looo to 2000 ft. Pre-eminent 
amongst these is the remarkable hill 
of Bawa Malang, otherwise called 
Mallangarh, on the top of which is 
an enormous mass of rock with per- 
pendicular sides, crowded with a fort, 
now in ruins. (See p. 337.) 

The main defences of the Harbour 
remodelled and armed with the newest 
and heaviest guns, consist of batteries 
on the islands in the harbour, in 
addition to which there are three 
large batteries on the mainland. The 
South Island fort is called the Oyster 
Rock; that on the Middle Ground 
shoal is in the middle of the anchor- 
age ; the third defence is on Cross 
Island, at the N. end of the anchorage, 
the higher part of which has been cut 
down and armed with a battery. 

Landing. — Passengers are landed 
at the Ballard Pier in launches. The 
heavy luggage is sent in advance to 
the Customs House at the pier, and 
passengers can take only hand articles 
with them in the launch. No luggage 
is now examined on board the steamer. 
The hotel authorities and various 
Agents send representatives to meet 
passengers on landing, and it will be 
found most convenient to entrust the 
baggage to one of them, furnishing 
him with a detailed list of the boxes. 
Customs forms, to be filled up with the 
contents of large packages, and with 
all articles liable to Customs duty, are 
usually provided on board the steamer. 
Though the new tariff of 1894 has 
increased the number of articles 
dutiable,^ those which give trouble 
are firearms only. If these have not 
been in India before, or have not been 
in India for a year, a high ad valorem 
duty is levied on them, and they 
cannot be removed from the Customs 
House until the duty is paid, or a 
certificate is given that a full year has 

1 The general duty is 5 per cent, ad va- 
lorem, but arms are subject to a special duty 
of Rs. 50 ptr rifle or gun, Rs. 30 per barrel for 
these, and Rs. 13 per pistol. 

not elapsed since the owner left India. 
The P. & O. steamers, after landing 
the mail and passengers, proceed 
about I m. N. up the harbour to the 
Company's docks. Special limited 
expresses leave Bombay for Calcutta 
(36 hrs.), Delhi (27^ hrs.), and 
Madras (26 hrs.), soon after the 
arrival of the steamer. Places in these 
trains should be secured in London. 

Travellers who have not been in 
the east before will be struck by the 
picturesqueness of the scene on land- 
ing in Bombay. The quaint native 
craft at the quay ; the crowds of 
people dressed in the most brilliant 
and varied costumes ; the Hindus of 
different castes ; the Mohammedans, 
Jews, and Parsis, with a sprinkling 
from other nationalities; the gaily 
painted bullock - carts ; and other 
sights of equal novelty, combine to 
make a lasting impression on the 
stranger's mind. 

General Description of Bombay 
and its Suburbs. — The road from the 
Ballard Pier enters the circuit of the 
old Fort of Bombay just above the 
ancient Castle. From this point 
Bazar Gate Street leads N. to the 
Victoria Station and onwards to the 
main part of the native city — Marine 
Street and Apollo Street lead S. to 
Rampart Row along the S. side or 
the Fort, and the open space W. of 
the Apollo Bandar, the landing- 
place so well known to former 
generations of visitors to India — and 
Church Gate Street leads W. to 
Esplanade Road, which follows the 
landward line of the former defences, 
and to the Back Bay on the western 
side of the Island, beyond which 
most of the unofficial residences of the 
more wealthy classes are situated. 
Between the shore and Esplanade 
Road, which runs parallel to it, is the 
splendid range of Public Offices. S. 
of the open space near which all the 
principal hotels are situated, extends 
the promontory of Colaba ; and 
northwards along the course of the 
Back Bay, Queen's Road leads to 



Malabar Hill, which bends round the 
N.W. side of the bay, and is con- 
tinued to the N. by Khamballa Hill; 
from both of these, beautiful views 
of the Back Bay and of the sea are 
obtained. E. of the two hills and of 
the northern part of Queen's Road 
/ies the native city, with the quarters 
of Byculla and Mazagon along the 
north side of it. Above Byculla 
is the principal location of the 
Bombay mills ; in Mazagon are the 
P. & O. docks, below which, and 
E. of the main city, lie the Prince's 
and Victoria Docks. To the S. of 
the native city and between it and 
the N.W. side of the Fort, are also a 
number of fine new buildings, includ- 
ing many places of business, though 
most of the houses connected with the 
trade of the port are still situated inside 
the old Fort. 

Public Offices. 

The impressive Government build- 
ings already mentioned succeed one 
another in the following order, from 
S. to N. : the Government Secretariat, 
close to Watson's Hotel on the Es- 
planade, University Hall, Library and 
Clock Tower, High Court, Public 
Works' Secretariat, Post-Ofiice and 
Telegraph Office. There is a build- 
ing to the N. E. of the Telegraph 
Office which is used for the accom- 
modation of the employis of the 
telegraph department. 

Tlie Presidential Secretariat is 443 
ft. long, with two wings 81 ft. long. 
In the first floor are the Council 
flail, 50 ft. long. Committee Rooms, 
Private Rooms for the Governor 
and Members of Council, and the 
Offices of the Revenue Department. 
The second floor contains the Offices 
of the Judicial and Military Depart- 
ments. The style is Venetian Gothic, 
and the designer was Colonel Wilkins, 
R.E. The carving is by native 
artists. The staircase is lighted by 
the great window, 90 ft. high, over 
which rises the tower to 170 ft. At 
the entrance are the arms of Sir B. 
Frere (who was Governor when the 

plans were formulated for erecting 
Public Buildings, and to whom Bom- 
bay owes many of its improvements), 
and Sir S. Fitzgerald. 

University Hall. — This fine build- 
ing, in the French Decorated style of 
the 15th century, is 104 ft. long, 44 ft. 
broad, and 63 ft. high to the apex 
of the groined ceiling, with an apse 
separated from the Hall by a grand 
arch, and a gallery, 8 ft. broad, round 
three sides. The painted glass win- 
dows have an excellent effect. The 
Hall, designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, 
R.A., is called after Sir Cowasjee 
Jehangir Readymoney, who contri- 
buted Rs. 100,600 towards the cost of 
erection. It was completed in 1874. 

Tlie University Library and Clock 
Tower form a grand pile, designed by 
Sir Gilbert Scott in the style of 14th- 
century Gothic. The Library is a 
long, low room, adorned with carving, 
and the Great University or Rajabai 
Tower on the W. side forms part of 
it, and is from its height (260 ft.) the 
most conspicuous building in Bombay. 
It was built at the expense of Mr 
Premchand Raichand, in memory of his 
mother, Rajabai, and cost Rs. 300,000. 
He also gave Rs. 100,000 for the 
Library ; and these sums, with accu- 
mulations, more than sufficed to 
complete the two buildings. The 
Tower is divided into six storeys, and 
is surmounted by an octagonal lantern 
spire, with figures in niches at the 
angles. There are twenty-four figures 
in all upon the tower, representing 
the castes of W. India. The first floor 
forms part of the upper room of the 
Library, and the second contains a 
study for the Registrar. There is an 
opening several feet square in the 
centre of each floor, so that one can 
look up 115 ft. to the ceiling of the 
Dial Room. The fourth floor con- 
tains the great clock. Under the 
dials outside are four small galleries, 
with stone balustrades. From the 
top of the tower there is a fine view of 
Bombay. On the E. are the harbour, 
fringed with islands, Modi Bay, and 
the Fort : and to the W. are Malabar 


Hill and Back Bay ; and to the S. 
Colaba Point. 

Tlie Courts of Justice. — This 
immense building, 562 ft. long, with 
a tower 175 ft. high, was designed 
by General J. A. Fuller, R. E. ; it is 
said to have cost ;^ioo,ooo, and was 
opened in 1879. The style is Early 
English. The principal entrance is 
under a large arched porch in the W. 
facade, on either side of which is an 
octagon tower 120 ft. high, with pin- 
nacles of white Porbandar stone, and 
surmounted by statues of Justice and 
Mercy. The main staircase is on the 
E. side, and is approached by a noble 
groined corridor in Porbandar stone, 
which runs through the building. 
The offices of the High Court are on 
the first and third upper floors. The 
Appellate and Original Courts are 
on the second floor. The Criminal 
Court is in the centre of the building, 
above the main corridor, and has a 
carved teak gallery for the public 
running round three sides. The ceil- 
ing is of dark polished teak in panels, 
with a carved centre-piece. The floor 
is Italian mosaic. 

Next to the Courts of Justice, and 
separated from the Post -Office by a 
broad road which leads E. to the Fort 
and W. to the Church Gate Station 
of the B. B. and C.I. Railway, is the 
Public Works' Secretariat, with a 
fafade 288 ft. long, the central part 
having six storeys. 

The Railway, Irrigation, and other 
Engineering Departments are accom- 
modated in this office. 

On the S. side of the arm of the 
road leading to the W. are the 
Statues of two recent Governors of 
Bombay, Sir Richard Temple and 
Lord Reay. The latter faces the fine 
office of the B.B. and C.I. Railway, 
which has a fa9ade 280 ft. long, and a 
tower 160 ft. high. 

The old General Post-Office has 
three floors, and is 242 ft. long, with 
wings on the N. side. It was 
designed in the mediaeval style by 
Mr Trubshawe. It now serves as a 
post-office for the Fort Area only. 

The Telegrapli Office, in modern 
Gothic style, has a fa9ade 182 ft. 
long. The facing of it and of the 
Post-Office is of coursed rubble stone 
from Kurla, in Salsette, and the 
columns are of blue basalt. 

North of the Telegraph Office at 
the junction of the Mayo and Es- 
planade Roads, which flank the above 
buildings on either side, is the Statue 
of Queen Victoria, by Noble, which 
is an object of constant interest to the 
natives. It is of white marble, and 
cost Rs. 182,443, of which the large 
sum of Rs. 165,000 was given by 
H.H. the late Khande Rao Gaekwar 
of Baroda. The statue was un- 
veiled by Lord Northbrook in 1872. 
Her Majesty is represented seated. 
The Royal Arms are in front of the 
pedestal, and in the centre of the 
canopy is the Star of India, and, above, 
the Rose of England and Lotus of 
India, with the mottoes "God and 
my Right," and " Heaven's Light our 
Guide," inscribed in four languages. 

Returning S. firom this point to 
the Frere Fountain, and following 
Church Gate Street into the area of 
the Fort, Elphinstone Circle, occupy- 
ing the site of the old Green, is 
reached. In Esplanade Road running 
S. from the fountain, and in Hornby 
Road running N., and together 
marking the western limits of the 
Fort, are the principal shops in 
Bombay and the principal places of 
business which travellers are likely to 
visit. On the N. side of Church Gate 
Street is the office of the Bombay 
Gazette, and farther back that of the 
Chamber of Commerce, and on the 
S. side is the Cathedral of St Thomas. 
This was built as a garrison church 
in 17 18, and was consecrated in 
181 6 and made a cathedral on the 
establishment of the See of Bombay 
in 1833, on which occasion the low 
belfry was converted into a high 
tower. It is simple in plan, and a 
mixture of the classical and Gothic in 
style. The chancel, added 1S65, is a 
satisfactory specimen of modern Early 
English. Among the monuments is 
one by Bacon to Jonathan Duncan, 
Governor for sixteen years. It re- 



presbflts him receiving the blessings 
of young Hindus with reference to 
his successful efforts in suppressing 
infanticide in certain districts near 
Benares, and afterwards in Kalhiawar, 
through the zealous and able agency 
of Colonel Walker. 

There are also monuments to 
Captain G. N. Hardinge, R.N., who 
died in 1808, in a brilliant engage- 
ment when he took the frigate La 
Piedmontiare ; to Col. Burr, who 
commanded at the battle of Kirkee ; 
and to Major Pottinger, who dis- 
tinguished himself in the defence of 
Hirat. One of the chalices was the 
gift of Gerald Aungier in 1675. The 
fountain in front of the Cathedral was 
erected by Sir Cowasjee Jehangir 
Readymoney, at a cost of Rs.7000. 

The Elphinstone Circle is sur- 
rounded by handsome buildings and 
at the E. side opens on to the Town 
Hall ; in the middle is a well-kept 
garden with statues of Lord Corn- 
wallis and the Marquis of Wellesley. 
From the centre of the S. side on 
which the Bank of Bengal stands, 
Bank Street leads to the Bank of 

The Town Hall, designed by Col. 
T. Cowper, was opened in 1835, and 
cost about ;i^6o,ooo, by far the larger 
portion being defrayed by the E.I. 
Company. The building has a colon- 
nade in front, and the facade is 260 ft. 
long. The pillars in front, and the 
external character of the edifice, are 
Doric ; the interior is Corinthian. 

On the ground floor are : the 
Medical Board offices, the office of 
the Military Auditor-General, and 
some of the weightier curiosities of 
the Asiatic Society. In the upper 
storey is the Grand Assembly Room, 
100 ft. square, in which public meet- 
ings and balls are held ; the Assembly 
Room of the Bombay Asiatic Society ; 
and the Library of this Society, 
founded by Sir James Mackintosh, 
containing about 100,000 volumes. 
The fine organ was presented by Sir 
A. Sassoon. The Levee Rooms of 
the Governor and the Commander-in- 
Chief, the Council Room, etc., ar^ no 

longer used for their original purposes. 
The place of honour in the Grand 
Assembly Room is occupied by a 
statue of the distinguished Governor 
Mountstuart Elphinstone, executed 
by Chantrey, as are also those of Sir 
J. Malcolm and Sir C. Forbes. At 
the head of the staircase, on one side, 
is a fine statue of Lord Elphinstone, 
the Governor during the Mutiny, and 
on the other side is a statue of Sir 
Bartle Frere, an excellent likeness. 
Between the circular flights of stairs 
is the statue of Sir Jamsetjee Jeejee- 

The Council Room contains pic- 
tures by Mr Wales, of Baji Rao 
Peshwa (whose adopted son, Nana 
Dhundu Pant, will be ever infamous 
as the author of the massacre at 
Cawnpore) ; of Baji Rao's celebrated 
minister. Nana Farnavis ; and of 
Mahadaji Sindhia. In the Library of 
the Asiatic Society, instituted in 1804 
for the investigation and encourage- 
ment of Oriental Arts, Sciences, and 
Literature, are busts of Sir James 
Carnac by Chantrey and Sir J. Mac- 
kintosh. The Geographical Room 
contains pictures of Sir A. Eurnes, 
and of Sir J. Malcolm and Captain 
Ross, the two first Presidents of the 
Geographical Society; also a very 
fine collection of maps. These two 
Societies are njw amalgamated. 

The Mint is close to the Town 
Hall, but farther back, having a tank 
in front of it. It is a plain building, 
with an Ionic portico, designed by 
Major J. Hawkins, and completed in 
1829. Authority was granted to the 
Company by the Crown to establish 
a mint so early as 1676. Forty 
specimens of false coins are exhibited, 
one of which has been a good coin, 
but the silver has been scooped out 
of the centre and lead substituted. 

N. of the mint at the E. end of 
the Ballard Road, which leads to the 
Ballard Pier (p. 5), are the imposing 
Offices of the Port Trust. At the 
junction of the W. end of Ballard 
Road with Frere Road, leading to the 
N. past St George's General Hospital, 
is the Ruttonsee Mooljee Fountain. 


Immediately behind the Town Hall 
are the remains of the Castle of the 
Old Fort, now used as an Arsenal. 
Only the walls facing the harbour 
remain. There is a flagstaff here 
from which signals are made to ships, 
and also a clock tower, where a time 
signal-ball, connected by an electric 
wire with the Observatory at Colaba, 
falls at I P.M. 

In the Arsenal, besides the usual 
warlike materials, harness, tents, and 
other such necessaries for army equip- 
ment, is also an interesting collection 
of ancient arms and old native 
weapons of various descriptions. 

The Custom House is a large, ugly, 
old building, a little to the S. of the 
Town Hall. It was a Portuguese 
barrack in 1665, and then a quarter 
for civil servants, and became a 
Custom House in 1802. 

The Dockyard, originally con- 
structed in 1736, extends hence to 
the Apollo Gate, with a sea-face of 
nearly 700 yds., and an area of about 
200 acres. It was here that His 
Majesty King Edward landed on 8th 
November 1875. There are five 
graving docks, three of which together 
make one large dock 648 ft. long, the 
other two graving docks making a 
single dock 582 ft. long. There are 
also four building slips opposite the 
Apollo Pier, and on the S.E. side of 
theenclosure. The dockyard is lighted 
by electricity, so that work can be 
carried on by night if necessary. 
Bombay is the only important place 
near the open sea in India where the 
rise of the tide is sufficient to permit 
docks on a large scale. The highest 
spring tides reach to 17 ft., but the 
usual height is 14 ft. In the dock- 
yard four generations of a Parsi family 
of the name of Lowji gained much 
renown during the i8th century, and 
built a number of British men-of-war. 

From the dockyard Customs 
House Street leads past the Great 
Western Hotel, once the High 
Court building, and St Andrew's 
Church, built in 1818, to the open 

space S. of Rampart Row W. , mark- 
ing the southern side of the Old 
Fort. On the left here is the fine 
building of the Royal Alfred Sailors' 
Home, with accommodation for 100 
inmates. The sculpture in the gable, 
representing Neptune with nymphs 
and sea-horses, was executed by Mr 
Bolton of Cheltenham. His late 
Highness Khande Rao Gaekwar gave 
Rs. 200,000 towards the cost of the 
building to commemorate the Duke 
of Edinburgh's visit, and the founda- 
tion-stone was laid in 1870 by the 
Duke. Opposite the Home will be 
the New Prince of Wales Museum 
of W. India, of which King George 
laid the foundation-stone on nth 
November 1905. It is intended that 
a statue of His Majesty (the gift of 
Sir J. David Sassoon) should flank 
the museum on this side, as that of 
King Edward (p. 10) flanks the site 
on the other side. 

Beyond this Apollo Bandar Road 
leads E. from the Wellington Fountain 
to the Apollo Bandar Pier, officially 
known as the Wellington Pier, pass- 
ing between the Esplanade Annexe 
and the Yacht Club on the left hand, 
and the Bowen Church, Sirdar's 
Mansions, and Yacht Club Chambers 
on the right. The Club has a charm- 
ing terrace garden on the sea-front. 
On either side of the head of the 
Colaba Causeway, running S. from 
the Fountain, are the Y. M.C. In- 
stitute and the Apollo Hotel, and a 
little further S. is the new Tata 
Hotel, known as the Taj Hotel, on 
the sea-shore. The Causeway leads 
past Cotton Green, the Sassoon Dock 
{650 ft. long, and the first wet dock 
made in India), and the B.B. and C.I. 
Railway terminal station to Colaba, 
formerly a separate island, wiih 
St John's Church, the European 
Barracks, the Connaught Hall, and 
the Observatory. The Church, 
erected as a memorial of the first 
Afghan War, and consecrated in 
1858, consists of nave and aisles 138 
ft. long, with a chancel 50 ft. long, 
and a tower and spire 198 ft. high, 
conspicuous for some distance at sea. 
The effect on entering is good, owing 




to the length and height of the build- 
ing, the simplicity of the architecture, 
and the "dim religious light" diffused 
through the stained-glass windows. 
The roof is of teak. The illuminated 
metal screen, light and elegantly 
designed, is surmounted by a gilt 
cross. About ^th of the cost of the 
spire was contributed by Mr Cowasjee 
Jehangir in 1864, a striking instance 
of Parsi liberality and of good feeling 
between Parsis and Europeans. 

At the W. end of the N. aisle is a 
triple window, erected to the memory 
of General David Barr. 

The "memorial marbles" are of 
alternate colours of white, red, yellow, 
and blue ; and beneath them runs the 
following inscription, painted on a 
blue ground : — 

This Church was built in Memory of the 
Officers whose names are written above, and 
of the Non - Commissioned Officers and 
Private Soldiers, too many to be so recorded, 
who fell, mindful of their duty, by sickness 
or by the sword, in the Campaigns of Sind 
and Afghanistan, a.d. 1838-1843. 

At the extremity of the promontory 
is the Old Lighthouse, the European 
Lunatic Asylum, and a well-kept 
European Cemetery. The present 
lighthouse is on Prong Island, \ m. S. 
of Colaba Point, with which it is con- 
nected by a ridge of rock exposed at 
low tides ; it is 150 ft. high, and the 
light which flashes every 10 sees, is 
visible 18 m. off at sea. 

It is under consideration to make 
a great reclamation along the Back 
Bay from Colaba up to the Marine 
Lines, providing a large area for a 
new European residential quarter, a 
park, cantonment, and Government 

Returning to the Wellington 
Fountain, the road along the W. side 
of the open ground leads past a fine 
block of buildings consisting of the 
Elphinstone College, the Sassoon 
Institute, the Army and Navy Stores, 
and the Esplanade Hotel. Opposite 
the last is the equestrian statue of 
King Edward as Prince of Wales, by 
Sir Edgar Boehm, presented to the 

city by Sir A. Sassoon at a cost of 

It is intended that the memorial of 
the King Emperor shall take the 
form of a large general hospital in 
the northern part of the city, a Con- 
valescent Home, and a Consumptive 
Sanatorium in the Ghats. 

The Elphinstone College, removed 
from Byculla in 1890, now occupies 
a large building in the mediseval style, 
which cost ']\ lakhs of rupees. It is 
called after Sir Cowasjee Jehangir 
Readymoney, in recognition of his 
having given 2 lakhs of rupees for the 
purpose of building the original in- 
stitution. The Elphinstone Institution 
was founded as a memorial to the 
Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, the 
Governor of Bombay. In 1856 it 
was divided into a High School (see 
p. II) and this College for the higher 
education of natives, who contributed 
upwards of 2 lakhs to endow pro- 
fessorships in English, and the Arts, 
Sciences, and Literature of Europe. 
The sum accumulated to about 4^ 
lakhs, and Government augments the 
interest on this by an annual grant- 
in-aid of Rs. 22,000. In 1862 Sir 
Alexander Grant, Bart., was Prin- 
cipal of the College, and some dis- 
tinguished scholars have filled Pro- 
fessorships, as, for instance, Mirza 
Hairat, who translated Malcolm's 
History of Persia into Persian. In 
the library is a portrait of Elphinstone 
by Sir T. Lawrence. The State 
Record Office and Patent Office 
occupy the W. wing of the College. 
Amongst the records are preserved 
the oldest document relating to the 
Indian Empire, a letter from Surat, 
1630, and the letter of the Duke of 
Wellington announcing the victory at 

The Mechanics' or Sassoon In- 
stitute was founded originally in 
1S47, but refounded and renamed by 
David Sassoon and his son Sir Albert 
in 1870, and cost ;^i 5,000. Lectures 
are delivered and prize medals 
awarded. Life-members pay Rs. 150, 
and members Rs.6 per quarter. In 



the entrance hall is a statue of Mr 
David Sassoon, by Woolner. There 
is also a good library. 

From here Esplanade Road, with 
the Bombay Club on its W. side 
beyond the University Gardens, leads 
to Church Gate Street and Hornby 
Road. On the W. side of the 
entrance to the latter are the lofty 
Oriental Buildings, and a little 
beyond them on the same side of the 
road are the fine new Chartered Bank 
and Standard buildings, while a little 
back in Outram Road is the Cathedral 
High School for boys. On the right 
is the lofty building of the Jamsetjee 
Jeejeebhoy Institute, founded in 1849 
bySir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, who, with 
Lady Avabai, his wife, set apart for 
the purpose 3 lakhs of rupees and 25 
shares in the Bank of Bengal, to 
which the Farsi Panchayat added 35 
shares more. The Government of 
India are the trustees, and pay 
interest at 6 per cent, on the 3 lakhs, 
and the capital of the Institution now 
amounts to 12 lakhs. The income 
is divided into 400 shares, of which 
180 go for the Boys' and Girls' 
Schools in Bombay. 70 for those in 
Surat, and 150 for charities for the 
poor. Further N. rise two great 
architectural piles, one on either hand 
— the Terminus Station and Offices of 
the G.I. P. Railway to the E., and 
the Municipal Offices on the W. 
Between them, in front of a triangular 
garden plot, is a statue of Dr T. 
Blaney, Coroner of Bombay. 

The Victoria Station is elaborately 
ornamented with sculpture and sur- 
mounted by a large central dome. 
The architect was F. W. Stevens, 
CLE. ; the style is Italian Gothic, 
with certain Oriental modifications 
in the domes. It cost the Railway 
Company ;i{^30o,ooo, and was com- 
pleted in 1888, It is one of the 
handsomest buildings in Bombay 
and finest railway stations in India or 
any country, with the most excellent 
and convenient arrangements in every 
respect. S. of it is the fine large struc- 
ture of the new General Post Office 
in the Bijapur style of architecture (p. 

364). S. E. of the railway station, in 
a well laid-out garden, is St George's 
General Hospital for Europeans, with 
140 beds : it has a convalescent home 
at Khandala (Route 25). 

The Municipal Buildings were also 
designed by Mr Stevens, and were 
opened in 1893. The Oriental feeling 
introduced into the Gothic architecture 
has a pleasing effect. The tower, 
255 feet high, and surmounted by a 
masonry dome, can be seen from all 
parts of Bombay. The central gable 
terminates in a statue 13 ft. high, re- 
presenting " Urbs prima in Indis." 
The grand staircase is also crowned 
by an imposing dome. 

Opposite these buildings Waudby 
Road leads S.W. to the Queen's 
Statue, passing the Gaiety and 
Novelty Theatres, the Scotch Free 
Church, the Masonic Hall, and the 
Alexandra School for Girls, founded 
by Mr Maneckjee Cursetjee, to the 
E. of it, and the open space of the 
Maidan or General Parade Ground 
and the Bombay Gymkhana Club on 

From the Victoria Railway Station 
Hornby Road continues N. up to 
the Crawford Market and the main 
residential quarters of the native 
city, passing on the left the new 
Times of India Office, the Islamia 
School, the Church of the Holy 
Trinity, and the School of Art ; 
while from the station to the N.W. 
runs Cruikshank Road in front 
of the Municipal Oflices, and past 
the Police Courts, the AUbless and 
Cama Hospitals, and the Elphinstone 
High School. On Carnac Street, 
which joins these two roads, and 
forms the third side of a triangle with 
them, is the St Xavier College and 
the Gokaldas Tejpal Native General 

The Anjuman-i-Islam School was 

erected by the co - operation of 
Government, which gave the site, 
valued at Rs. 158,000, with a money- 
grant of Rs. 38,000, the Mahommedans 
themselves subscribing Rs. 160,000, of 
which Rs. 50,000 were set apart as an 




endowment. The building was 
opened by Lord Harris in 1893, and 
the erection of it marks an epoch 
in the history of the Mohammedan 
community. The building, which is 
of most pleasing appearance, and has 
a tower 125 ft. high, was designed by 
Mr J. Willcocks of the Public Works 

The Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeethoy 
School of Art, called after that dis- 
tinguished Parsi gentleman who con- 
tributed Rs. 100,000 towards it, was 
first opened for pupils in 1857. In 1877 
the present handsome building was 
erected for it. Excellent drawings 
and designs are made here, as well as 
good pottery, arms, artistic work in 
silver and copper, and decorative 
carving in wood and stone. The 
buildings in Western India owe much 
of their beauty to students of this in- 
stitution. The latest additions to it 
are the Sir George Clarke Studios and 
Technical Laboratories, which include 
the Art Pottery Works, where some 
beautiful designs purely Indian in form 
and ornament have been carried out. 

The Gokaldas Tejpal Hospital for 

natives can contain 150 patients, 
and is generally full. The annual 
number of out-patients is over 13,000. 
It owes its origin to a gift of ;^i 5,000 
made by Mr Gokaldas Tejpal, and a 
similar gift by Mr Rustomjee Jamsetjee 

St Xavier's CoUege, with an octo- 
gonal tower, is a Jesuit Institution, 
which serves the purpose of school as 
well as college, and grew out of the 
development of St Mary's Institution 
and the European R.C. Orphanage. 
The staff consists of a rector, prin- 
cipal, and 16 professors. Behind it 
is St Xavier's School. The site 
for both was given by Government. 
West of the college at the entrance 
to Kalbadevi Road is the Money 
Institute, started in 1838, now a High 
School under the C.M.S. 

The New Elphinstone High School 
Ls the great public school of Bombay, 

and retained possession of the original 
buildings on this site when the 
College Department was separated to 
form the Elphinstone College. In 
front of it is a fine flight of steps. 

"The object of this school is to 
furnish a high - class and liberal 
education up to the standard of the 
University entrance examination, at 
fees within the reach of the middle- 
class people of Bombay and Mufassil. 
It has classes for the study of English, 
Marathi, Guzerati, Sanscrit, Latin, 
and Persian," and contains 28 class- 
rooms, a hall on the first floor 
measuring 62 by 35 ft., and a Library. 
There are 700 scholars in the school 
under a Principal and 42 masters ; 
there are also coaches in drill and 
cricket. The building, which is 452 
ft. long, was designed by G. T. 
Molecey. Sir A. Sassoon contributed 
\\ lakhs of rupees towards it. 

The Pestonji Kama Hospital, for 

Women and Children, is a Gothic 
building containing 75 beds. It owes 
its existence to the gift of Rs. 164,000 
by Mr Pestonjee Hormusjee Cama, 
as the Allbless Obstetric Hospital 
beyond it does to the munificence of 
Mr Bomanjee Eduljee Allbless. The 
latter contains 30 beds. Both are 
under the Dufferin Fund and the 
sole management of lady doctors, the 
nursing being done by the Sisters 
of All Saints, who also nurse in 
the Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy and St 
George's Hospitals. Further E. and 
adjoining the Municipal Offices, are 
the lofty buildings of the Esplanade 
Police Courts, erected in 18S4-88. 

The Crawford Market was founded 
by Mr Arthur Crawford, C.S., 
Municipal Commissioner from 1865 
to 1 87 1, and cost over 11 lakhs of Rs. 
It consists of a Central Hall, in which 
is a drinking-fountain given by Sir 
Cowasjee Jehangir Readymoney, sur- 
mounted by a Clock Tower, 128 ft. 
high. To the right is a wing, 150 
ft. by 100 ft., in which are fruit and 
flowers, and on the left is another 
wing, 350 ft. by 100 ft., for vege- 
tables, etc. , etc. The whole is covered 



with a double iron roof. The ground 
is paved with flagstones from Caith- 
ness. "In that collection of handsome 
and specious halls . . . fish, flesh, 
vegetables, flowers, fruit, and general 
commodities are vended in separate 
buildings all kept in admirable order 
and cleanliness, and all opening 
upon green and shady gardens" 
(Edwin Arnold). There are many 
kinds of plantains or bananas ; the 
finest are short, thick, and yellow. 
The best oranges are those from 
Nag]3ur, and the best grapes are from 
Aurangabad. The mangoes come in 
in May ; the best are grown about 
Mazagon.-' The Pummelow, the 
Citrus decumana, is particularly fine 
in Bombay. The Fish Market is at 
the end of the Mutton Market. The 
turtles come from Karachi in Sind. 
The oysters are of moderate size and 
well flavoured. The Palla fish, 
generally about 2 ft. long, the salmon 
of India, is excellent, but has many 
troublesome bones. The best fish of 
all is the pomflet, or pomfret, a flat 
fish. The Bombil, called by the 
English Bommelo and Bombay duck, 
is a glutinous fish, much used when 
salted and dried. Near the fountain, 
with its beautiful shrubs, are seats for 
loungers. On the S. side is the 
Poultry Market, where fowls, ducks, 
turkeys, snipe, curlew, teal, and 
occasionally florican may be pur- 
chased when in season. The market 
well deserves a visit early in the 
morning, though the visitor must 
expect to find the crowd dense and 
the hubbub deafening. 

A little N.W. of the market, extend- 
ing to the Back Bay near the Marine 
Lines Station is Princess Street, 
named after and on i6th November 
1905 declared open by Her Majesty 
Queen Mary, opening out one of the 
most congested old quarters of the 
city. This was the first arterial 
thoroughfare opened by the City 

lit was the failure of supplies of Mazagon 
mangoes which specially annoyed the Wazir 
Fazl-ud-din in Lata Rookh. 

Improvement Trust. Another main 
one, Sandhurst Road, runs from the 
Babula Tank to the head of the 
Back Bay. 

N.E. of the market and between 
the main native city and the sea are 
the principal commercial docks of 
Bombay. The Victoria Dock occu- 
pies tlie space formerly taken up 
by the Masjid and Nicol basins. It 
covers 25 acres, and has an entrance 
80 ft. in width. Prince's Dock, lying 
N. of this and connected with it, 
was commenced during the Prince 
of Wales's visit in 1875-76. In 
excavating it the remains of a 
submerged forest were found at a 
depth of about 10 ft. About 100 
trees from 10 to 20 ft. long were 
exhumed, the wood being red and 
very hard. The dock is 1460 ft. 
-m6oo ft., and extends over 30 
acres, and is capable of containing 
twenty ocean steamers. It is fitted 
with a tidal observatory. On the 
N.W. again is the Mere wether Dry 
Dock, and adjacent to the docks 
is a whole street of warehouses and 
oflices, the Church of St Nicholas, 
and the Seamen's Institute, round 
which the Harbour Mission centres. 
South of the Victoria Dock is being 
constructed the Alexandra Dock, of 
which the foundation-stone was laid 
by King George on 13th November 
1905, and which will be the largest 
in India. It will extend S. of the 
Ballard Pier and enclose an area of 
70 acres. The depth of water in it 
will be 45-49 ft., and the dry dock 
will be 1000 ft. long, and have an 
entrance 100 ft. wide. It is expected 
that the dock will be completed by 
the end of 1912. The total cost 
of the works will be 400 lakhs. 
These recent developments have been 
carried out under the professional 
direction of Sir Walter Hughes, 

All these docks were excavated on 
the estate known as the Elphinstone 
Reclamation, which has taken in from 
the sea 276 acres, and has raised and 




improved no acres. This and the 
Moody Bay Reclamation S. of the 
Victoria Dock have transformed the 
eastern foreshore of the island from a 
mud swamp to a busy mercantile quar- 
ter worthy of the capital of Western 
India. A still greater scheme of re- 
clamation is in progress at Sewri N. 
of Mazagon. The largest of all will 
be that of Colaba (p. lo). 

The Dockyard of the P. & 0. Com- 
pany lies I m. N. of Prince's Dock, 
in the suburb of Mazagon. It covers 
12 acres, and there are iron sheds for 
i8,ooo tons of coal. The Ritchie 
Dock is 495 ft. long, and capable of 
receiving vessels of deep draught. 
There is a complete engineering 
establishment at the dock capable of 
carrying out work of all descriptions. 

The Church and School of St Peter 
are situated close to the P. & O. 
Dockyard and the Mazagon Bandar, 
once well known as the point from 
which passengers by the mail steamers 
used to embark. 

In the Native City the streets and 
bazaars are narrow and tortuous, but 
generally clean and bright. Some of 
the houses are remarkably fine as 
works of art, and display undoubted 
Portuguese influence. Their fronts 
are covered with carving, and in some 
cases they have projecting stories sup- 
ported upon elaborately sculptured 
corbels. Here and there are mosques 
and Hindu temples gaudily painted. 
The streets teem with life. Sir 
Edwin Arnold writes of them : " A 
tide of Asiatic humanity ebbs and 
flows up and down the Bhendi bazaar, 
and through the chief mercantile 
thoroughfares. Nowhere could be 
seen a play of livelier hues, a busier 
and brighter city life. Besides the 
endless crowds of Hindu, Guzerati, 
and Mahratta people coming and going 
— some in gay dresses, but most with 
next to none at all — between rows 
of grotesquely painted houses and 
temples, there are to be studied here 
specimens of every race and nation 
of the East; Arabs from Muscat, 

Persians from the Gulf, Afghans from 
the northern frontier, black, shaggy 
Beluchis, negroes of Zanzibar, islanders 
from the Maldives and Laccadives, 
Malagashes, Malays and Chinese 
throng and jostle with Parsis in their 
sloping hats, with Jews, Lascars, 
fishermen Rajpoots, Fakirs, Euro- 
peans, Sepoys and Sahibs." 

There are nearly 3000 jewellers of 
the different Indian nationalities in 
Bombay who find constant and lucra- 
tive employment. One of the most 
active industries is the manufacture 
of brass and copper pots and other 
utensils. "The Copper Bazar, op- 
posite the Mombadevi Tank,^ is the 
busiest and noisiest, and one of the 
most delightful streets."^ The black 
wood -carving is famous, as is the 
sandal- wood and other carving; the 
term "Bombay Boxes" includes 
sandal-wood carving as well as inlay 
work. Tortoise-shell carving is a 
speciality, also lacquered turnery. 
Gold and silver thread is manu- 
factured and used for lace, and Bombay 
embroidery is much prized. '1 he 
Bombay School of Pottery (see above), 
under the guidance of Mr George 
Terry, has developed two original 
varieties of glazed pottery. 

In the Bhendi Bazaar also are the 
Arab Stables, well worth a visit in 
the early morning, not only for the 
sake of viewing some of the finest 
horses in the East, but to see the 
Arabs themselves who bring them to 
Bombay for sale. 

The Nal Market, between Parell 
and Duncan Road, in the N.W. 
quarter of the city, supplies a large 
part of Bombay, and is generally 
immensely crowded. 

A little S. of the Bazar is the 
Pinjra Pol, or Native Infirmary for 
Sick Animals, a curious institution, 
covering several acres. This place is 
in the quarter called Bholeshwar, 
"Lord of the Simple"; and the 

1 Momba itself is a corruption of Maha 
Amnia, Great Mother. 

- Sir G. Bird wood's Industy-ial Arts oj 
India, which see for further particulars. 



temple of the deity so called, a form 
of Shiva, is within the enclosure. 

Near it again, to the S.W., is the 
Roman Catholic Cathedral, N. S. 
da Esperanca, and to the S.E. the 
Mombadevi Tank and Temple from 
which the name of Bombay is believed 
to be derived. S. of the Tank is the 
Jama Masjid, and E. of this is the 
main thoroughfare of the city, Abdul 
Rahman Street, continued N. by 
Parell Street. Near the point where 
the latter crosses Grant Road from 
the W. is the Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy 
Hospital, erected in 1845 at the joint 
expense of that gentleman and the 
E.I. Company, and having accom- 
modation for 500 patients. In the 
hall is a bronze statue of Sir Jam- 
setjee Jeejeebhoy, a copy of one in 
the Town Hall. Attached to it are 
a Hospital for Incurables, the Bai 
Motlabai Obstetric Hospital, and the 
Dinshaw Maneckjee Petit Hospital 
for women and children, erected in 
1889 and 1890. 

Adjoining the Hospital is the Grant 
Medical College, established in 1845, 
in memory of Sir Robert Grant, 
Governor of Bombay. Besides the 
principal and nine professors there are 
twelve demonstrators and tutors in 
the College. The Museum is full of 
curious things. The grounds cover 
2 acres, and are made instructive by 
planting in them all kinds of useful 
trees and shrubs. 

A little to the S.E. of the Hospital 
are the Babula Tank, the Jail, and an 
European Workhouse. N. from the 
Hospital Parell Road leads past Christ 
Church and the Byculla Station to the 
Victoria Technical Institute and the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, and 
finally to the old Government House. 
It is now the Plague Research Labora- 
tory. The Institute occupies the old 
building of the Elphinstone College, 
opposite the Victoria Gardens, built 
from a gift by Sir Cowasjee Jehangir 
Readymoney, and given up in 1890. 
It is under a principal , assisted by eight 
professors, and is intended to provide a 
training in Art and Science in their ap- 
lication to industrialand other purposes. 

The Victoria and Albert Museum 

is a handsome building, standing in 
the gardens about 100 yds. back from 
the road. Until 1857 the collection, 
which is not an important one, was 
kept in the Fort Barracks, but on Sir 
G. Birdwood being appointed curator 
by Lord Elphinstone, he raised a 
subscription of a lakh for building 
this Museum. Sir B. Frere laid the 
first stone in 1862, and Government 
completed the building in 1 87 1. The 
Clock Tower in front of it was erected 
by Sir Albert Sassoon, who also pre- 
sented the fine statue of Prince Albert, 
by Noble. The Victoria Gardens, in 
which the Museum stands, have an 
area of 34 acres, and are prettily laid 
out. To the right of the S. entrance 
to them are the remains of the stone 
elephant which gave the island of 
Elephanta its name ; and on the E. 
side of them are a Menagerie and 
Deer Park. The band plays here twice 
a week, and over two millions visit 
the Gardens yearly, one million 
visiting the Museum. 

Parell Road continues from here 
past the Veterinary College, built on 
a site given by Sir Dinshaw Maneckjee 
Petit, to the Old Government House. 
This was a Portuguese place of wor- 
ship and monastery, confiscated by the 
English Government on account of the 
traitorous conduct of the Jesuits in 
1720. Governor Hornby was the first 
who took up his residence there, 
between 1771-80. To supply the 
required accommodation Mr Elphin- 
stone built the right and left wings. 
The public rooms are in the centre 
facing the W. The drawing-room or 
ballroom above the dining-room oc- 
cupies the place of the old Portuguese 
chapel. On the staircase there is a 
bust, and in the ballroom a portrait, 
of the Duke of Wellington. At the 
end of the ballroom is what is called 
the Darbar Room. From the S. 
corridor steps descend to a platform 
in the garden, where the band plays. 
The garden of Parell is pretty, and 
has at its W. extremity a tank, and on 
its margin a terrace, which rises about 
10 ft. above the water and the grounds. 




The European Cemetery, at Sewri, 
E. of Parell, formerly a Botanical 
Garden, is a sheltered spot under 
Flagstaff Hill. The garden was 
turned into a cemetery about 1867. 

2 m. N. of the Parell, and beyond 
the Dadar Railway Station, is a 
Leper Asylum at Matsonga. 

The drive round the Back Bay to 
Malabar Hill, iSo ft. high, by Queen's 
Road and Malabar Hill Road, is 
extremely beautiful and interesting. 
Beyond the Marine Lines Station 
are an enclosed burning place of the 
Hindus and a closed Mohammedan 
and Christian cemetery, and further 
on is the Wilson College (named after 
Rev. Dr. J. Wilson, F.R.S., Oriental 
scholar and Scottish missionary), for 
the education of young men. a fine 
building which cost a lakh and a 
half of rupees, and is one of the 
largest colleges for natives in Western 
India. The staff consists of a 
principal and nine professors. 

At about 3 m. from the Fort the 
road begins to ascend a spur of 
Malabar Hill. Near the top on the 
left are the entrance gates to the drive 
through the grounds (private) of 
Government House at Malabar Point, 
with a pleasant view across Back Bay 
to the city of Bombay on the farther 
side. Below, at the extreme point is 
a battery, which could sweep the sea 
approach. Not far off to the N. a large 
ship, the Diamond, was wrecked and 
eighty passengers were drowned. Sir 
Evan Nepean was the first Governor 
to reside at Malabar Point. In 
1819-20, Mr Elphinstone added a 
public breakfast -room, and a detached 
sleeping bungalow on a small scale. 
In 1828 Sir John Malcolm con- 
siderably enlarged the residence at 
Malabar Point, and constituted it 
a Government House. Close by is 
the picturesque temple of Walkesh- 
war, the "Sand Lord," built c. 
IGOO A.D. Throngs of Hindus 
will be met coming from it, their 
foreheads newly coloured with the 
sectarial mark. Rama, on his way 
from Ayodhya (Oudh) to Lanka 
(p. Iviii) to recover his bride Sita, 
carried off by Ravana, halted here 

for the night. Lakshman provided 
his brother Rama with a Lingam 
from Benares every night. This 
night he failed to arrive in time, 
and Rama made for himself a Lingam 
of the sand at the spot. On the 
arrival of the Portuguese in after 
ages, this sprang into the sea from 
horror of the barbarians. There is a 
small but very picturesque tank here, 
adorned with flights of steps, sur- 
rounded by Brahmans' houses and 
shrines. When Rama thirsted here, 
he shot an arrow into the earth, and 
forthwith appeared the Vanatirtka, 
" Arrow-Tank." 

The drive from Malabar Point, and 
thence along the sea by Breach 
Candy,^ under the W. side of Kham- 
balla Hill, is one of the most beautiful 
in the island, especially at evening. 
On these hills are situated the prin- 
cipal residences of the European com- 
munity and many wealthy natives, 
surrounded by small but bright 
gardens. On Khamballa Hill is 
the new Bomanji Dinshaw Petit 
Hospital for Parsis, built at a 
cost of 15 lakhs, and with a present 
endowment of 5 lakhs. At the 
N. end of Breach Candy are the 
Mahalakhshmi Temple and Tank on 
the sea. In the centre of Malabar 
Hill, about 180 ft. above the sea, 
are the grounds of the Ladies' 
Gymkhana, and beyond them the 
Hanging Gardens, affording lovely 
views of the Back Bay and of the 
great line of grand buildings rising 
on the farther side of it, and of the 
harbour and islands and mountains 
beyond them. Between the gardens 
is All Saints' Church, and beyond 
them and N. of the head of the curve 
of the bay are the Five Parsi Towers 
of Silence. In order to see them, 
permission must be obtained from the 
secretary to the Parsi Panchayat. Sir 
Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, at his own ex- 
pense, made the road which leads to 
the Towers on the N. side, and gave 
100,000 sq. yds. of land on the N. 
and E. sides of the Towers. Within 
the gateway of an outer enclosure 

1 Breach Candy means the surf-battered 
beach (Twelfth Night, Act ii. Sc. i) of the 
Gap (khind). 


, Pruxce's 


ai s. Ei.ihS^i'ol* ijil.s_fk.-t /^^ > f JBattery 





Marine Lines §,tSL*^ 



oUo Bandar 

JJfijddLe Grouaxd 

r .. . ,. , K'~^'--'^laha.Lig fit House 




Scale of Miles 


London. Johii jVftLrrAy: AHjemarle Street. 



a flight of eighty steps mounts 
up to a gateway in an inner wall. 
From this point the visitor is accom- 
panied by an official of the Panchayat, 
and turning to the right comes to a 
stone building, where, during funerals, 
prayer is offered. At a Parsi funeral 
the bier is carried up the steps by 
four Nasr Salars, or " Carriers of 
the Dead," and followed by two 
bearded men, and a large number of 
Parsi mourners in white robes walking 
two and two in procession. The 
bearded men who come next the 
bier are the only persons who enter 
the Tower. On leaving the Tower, 
after depositing the corpse on the 
grating within, they proceed to the 
purifying place, where they wash and 
leave the clothes they have worn in a 
tower built for that express purpose. 
The general mourners have their 
clothes linked, in which there is a 
mystic meaning. There is a model 
of one of the Towers which was 
exhibited to the Prince of Wales, 
and is produced to visitors. They are 
five in number, cylindrical in shape, 
and whitewashed. The largest (276 
ft. round and 25 ft. high) cost 
;if30,ooo, while the other four on an 
average cost ;^20,ooo each. At 8 ft. 
from the ground is an apertui,; in the 
encircling wall about 5^ ft. sq., to 
which the carriers of the dead ascend 
by a flight of steps. Inside, the plan 
of the building resembles a circular 
gridiron, gradually depressed towards 
the centre, in which is a well 5 ft. in 
diameter. Besides the circular wall 
which encloses this well there are two 
other circular walls between it and the 
outside, with footpaths running upon 
them ; the spaces between them aje 
divided into compartments by radiating 
walls from an imaginary centre. The 
bodies of adult males are laid in the 
outer series of compartments thus 
formed, the women in the middle series, 
and the children in that nearest the 
well. They are placed in these grooves 
quite naked, and in half an hour the 
flesh is so completely devoured by the 
numerous vultures that inhabit the 
trees around that nothing but the 
skeleton remains. This is left to bleach 

in sun and wind till it becomes per- 
fectly dry. Then the carriers of the 
dead, gloved and with tongs, remove 
the bones from the grooves and cast 
them into the well. Here they 
crumble inio dust. The dust in the 
well accumulates so slowly that in 
forty years it rose only 5 ft. This 
method of interment originates from 
the veneration the Parsis pay to the 
elements. Fire is too highly regarded 
by them to allow it to be polluted by 
burning the dead. Water is almost 
equally respected, and so is earth ; 
hence this singular mode of interment 
has been devised. There is, how- 
ever, another reason. Zartasht said 
that rich and poor must meet in 
death ; and this saying has been 
literally interpreted and carried out 
by the contrivance of the well. The 
surroundings of the Towers are 
arranged to foster calm meditation. 
The mourner at once arrives at the 
house of prayer, and around is a 
beautiful garden full of flowers and 
flowering shrubs, where, under the 
shade of fine trees, relatives of the 
deceased can sit and meditate ; and 
the view to the W. and S. over the 
waters, and to the E. and N. over 
the harbour and the distant mountains 
beyond, is enchanting. Even .the 
cypresses, as the Parsis themselves 
say, tapering upwards, point the way 
to heaven. 

At the S.E. foot of the hill is an 
Almshouse for decayed Parsis of both 
sexes, erected by the sons of the late 
Fardonjee Sorabjee Parak, Esq. 

The Parsi Dharmsala, in the Gam 

Devi Road, intended for poor Persian 
Parsis, is passed on the approach to 
the Towers of Silence from the S. 
A similar dharmsala close by was 
erected by Sir Cowasjee Jehangir 
Readymoney, in memory of his 
grandfather in 1812. 

The Tata Hydro Electric Scheme 

for Bombay, inaugurated by Sir 
Dorab Tata, bids fair to become one 





of the most remarkable in the whole 
world. It is proposed to impound 
the monsoon rainfall on the Ghats at 
Lonauli (p. 338), often 500 in., in 
three lakes at Shirawta, Walwhan, 
and Lonauli. These have dams 93, 
58, and 23 in height, and areas of 
3000, 1700, and 720 acres, all 2000 
ft. above sea-level ; and from them a 
stream, equal in volume to the 
Thames, will be led to near the 
Duke's Nose (p. 338), and will take 
its plunge of 1740 ft. to the power 
development house at Khopoli, where 
40,000 horse-power will be generated 
by four great turbines. This power 
will then be conveyed 42 m. to the 
receiving station at Sewri. The 
introduction of electric power will, 
it is hoped, entirely remove the 
present smoke nuisance of Bombay, 
and it is expected that the waste 
water, after accomplishing its generat- 
ing purpose, will irrigate 30,000 to 
40,000 acres of garden and other 
crops round the city. The foundation- 
stone of the Lonauli Lake was laid 
by Sir George Clarke on 9th February 
191 1, and it is believed that part of 
the scheme will come into operation 
by 1913. 


The S.P.G., with Church in Kama- 
tipura Road, has four missionary 
clergy in the town, and a branch of 
the Ladies' Association working in 
the zananas. 

The C.M.S. (established in Bombay 
since 1820) has a Church in Dhanji 
Street, and large Schools for boys and 
girls at Girgaon. 

The Mission Priests of St John the 
Evangelist (Cowley Fathers) serve 
the Church of St Peter's, Mazagon, 
and have a Mission House and Schools 
for boys and girls near it ; also a 
native Mission and Orphanage in 
Babula Tank Road. 

The "All Saints" Sisters (from 
Margaret Street) have been working 
in Bombay since 1878, and nurse in 

the following Hospitals : European 
General, Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, and 
Pestonji Kama. They have two 
High Schools for Girls, in Elphin- 
stone Circle and near St Peter's, 

The American Presbyterian Board 
of Foreign Missions or Maratha Mis- 
sion, BycuUa, has a considerable staff. 
The United Free Church of Scotland 
has a strong body of missionaries 
connected with the Wilson Mission 
College (p. 16) affiliated to the 


1. Elephanta. 

2. Vebar Lake. 

3. Montpezir Caves. 

4. Cave Temples of 


5. Jogeshwar Cave. 

6. The Tansa Water 


7. Thai and Bore 


8. Karli. 

(i) Elephanta is a small island 
about 6 m. from the Fort of Bombay. 
For visiting this remarkable place 
steam launches ' can be hired at the 
Apollo Bandar, and make the passage 
in about i or i^ hrs. ; or a bandar-boat 
may be hired at from Rs.3 to Rs.5, 
in which case the length of the pas- 
sage will depend on wind and tide. 
The boat will pass close to Butcher's 
Island, which is 3 m. nearly due E. 
from Mazagon Dock. Persons coming 
from sea with infectious diseases, such 
as smallpox, are placed in quarantine 
at this island. The view in this part 
of the harbour is very beautiful. To 
the N. is the hill known as the Neat's 
Tongue, on Trombay Island, which 
is '1000 ft. above sea-level. The 
highest point of Elephanta is 568 ft. 
There is another hill 400 ft. high 
to the left of the Caves. 

Elephanta is called by the natives 
Gharapuri {" the town of the rock," 
or " of purification," according to Dr 
Wilson), or Garapuri ("the town of 

1 Consult Messrs T. Cook & Son. Their 
steam launch makes the excursion several 
times a week, and makes other excursions io 
the harbour. 

WtU«r i Crahi 



excavations," according to Dr J. 
Stevenson). The caves are called 
Lenen (Lena) by the natives, a word 
used throughout India and Ceylon for 
these excavations, most probably on 
account of the first of them being 
intended for hermitages of Buddhist 
ascetics. The island is covered with 
low corinda bushes and Tal palms. 
It consists of two long hills, with a 
narrow valley between them. About 
250 yards to the right of the old 
landing-place, at the S. end of the 
island on the rise of one of the hills, 
and not far from the ruins of a Portu- 
guese building, was a mass of rock, 
cut into the shape of an elephant, 
from which the place derives its 
European name. In September 1814 
its head and neck dropped off, and 
in 1864 the half shapeless mass was 
removed to the Victoria Gardens. 

The modern landing-place N.W. of 
the island is not a very convenient 
one, as it consists of a rather slippery 
pier of isolated concrete blocks. 
The caves are distant about \ m. , and 
about 250 ft. above the sea, and are 
approached by easy steps, constructed 
in 1853 by a native merchant at a cost 
of Rs. 12,000. There is a bungalow at 
the entrance, where a fee of 4 annas 
is paid, and tea can be obtained. 
The date of the excavation of these 
caves 1 is now placed about the middle 
of the 8th century, slightly subsequent 
to the corresponding cave at Ellora 
(p. 78). The present main entrance 
is from the S. side, but the ori- 
ginal was from the E., facing the 
Lingam Shrine. Considered from 
that aspect the main hall was en- 
closed by two side colonnades of 
six columns and two centre colon- 
nades of four columns, the recesses 
on the N. and S. sides consisting of 
two aisles separated by two columns, 
and the outer aisle being much shorter 
than the inner ; the length of the 
central hall from the pillars at each 
end is 130 ft., and the breadth from 
the wall of the south recess to the 
pillars on the outer side of the north 
recess is just the same. Of the twenty- 

* See Cave Temples 0/ India, by 
Messrs Fergusson and Burgess. 

six columns, including the sets of two 
at each entrance to the cave, eight 
have fallen ; satisfactory arrangements 
have been recently made to save the 
rest from a like fate. The columns 
are of a special shape, having a square 
base, a fluted neck, and a flat 
cushion capital ; the height of the 
roof varies from 15 ft. to 17 ft. 

The Lingam Shrine, at the W. 
end of the hall, stands 4 ft. above 
the floor of the cave. It is 19I ft. 
square, with four doors facing different 
ways. At the outside of each entrance 
are two large figures representing 
Dwarpals or doorkeepers, who lean 
on dwarfs. The Lingam is a cylin- 
drical stone 3 ft. high, the emblem 
of Shiva and of reproduction, and is 
worshipped on great occasions by 
crowds of devotees. 

The Three-faced Bust, or Tri- 
murti. — The chief of the mural 
figures is the immense three-faced 
bust, 19 ft. in height, at the far end 
of the Great Cave, facing the N. 
entrance. It is the representation of 
Shiva, who is the leading character 
in all the groups of the cave. The 
front face is Shiva in the character 
of Brahma, the creator : the E. face 
(spectator's left) is Shiva in the char- 
acter of Rudra, the destroyer ; and 
the W. face (spectator's right) is con- 
sidered to be Shiva in the character 
of Vishnu, the preserver, holding a 
lotus flower in his hand. On either 
side of the recess is a pilaster with a 
gigantic dwarpal in front of it. 

The Arddhanarishwar, or half- 
male half-female Divinity in the 
first compartment to the E. of the 
central figure (spectator's left) repre- 
sents Shiva, 16 ft. 9 in. high, in 
the above character. The right 
half of the figure is intended to 
be that of a male, and the left that 
of a female, and thus to represent 
Shiva as uniting the two sexes in 
his one person. The bull on which 
two of the hands of the figure lean, 
and on which he is supposed to ride, 
is called Nandi, a constant attendant 
on Shiva. Brahma, on his lotus 
throne, supported by five geese, 
and with his four faces, is exhibited 




on the right of the figure. On the 
left, Vishnu is seen riding on what 
is now a headless Garuda, a fabulous 
creature, half man half eagle. Above 
and in the background are found a 
number of inferior gods and sages of 
the Hindus, among them Indra, 
Lord of the Firmament, mounted 
on an elephant. 

In the compartment to the W. of 
the Trimurti are two gigantic figures 
of Shiva and Parvati, the former 
1 6 ft. high, the latter 12 ft. 4 in. 
Shiva has a high cap, on which the 
crescent and other symbols are 
sculptured, and from the top of it 
rises a cup or shell on which is 
a three-headed figure representing 
the Ganga proper, the Jumna, and 
Saraswati, which three streams are 
fabled to unite at Prayag, or Alla- 
habad, and form the Ganges. Ac- 
cording to a well-known Hindu 
legend, the Ganges flowed from 
the "head of Shiva. The god is 
standing, and has four arms, of 
which the outer left rests on a dwarf. 
In the dwarfs right hand is a cobra, 
in his left a chauri (fly-whisk) ; from 
his neck hangs a necklace, with 
a tortoise ornament. On Shiva's 
right are several attendants, and 
above them Brahma, sculptured 
much as in the compartment on the 
right of the Trimurti. Between 
Brahma and Shiva is Indra on his 

The Marriage of Shiva and Par- 
vati is a sculptured group (greatly 
damaged) at the S.W. corner of the 
hall. The position of Parvati on the 
right of Shiva shows that she is his 
bride ; for to stand on the right of her 
husband, and to eat with him, are 
privileges vouchsafed to a Hindu 
wife only on her wedding-day. In 
the corner, at the right of Parvati, 
is Brahma, known by his four faces, 
sitting and reading, as the priest of 
the gods, the sacred texts suited to 
the marriage ceremony. Above, on 
Shiva's left, is Vishnu. Among the 
attendants on the right of Parvati is 
one bearing a water-pot for the 
ceremony. This is probably Chandra 
the moon-god. Behind the bashful 

goddess is a male figure, probably 
her father Himalaya, who is pushing 
her forward. 

Opposite this in the N.W. corner 
of the hall is a relief of Kapalabhrit 
or Bhairava with skull and cobra on 
head and rosary of skulls round neck ; 
two of his eight hands are devoted 
to the slaughter of a human being, 
and a third holds up a body for 
slaughter. At the W, end of the 
north aisle by which the cave is 
entered is a relief of Shiva perform- 
ing the Tandava dance ; on his left 
is Parvati, and above is a very 
perfect Ganesha. Opposite this at 
the E. end of the aisle is a repre- 
sentation of Shiva as an Ascetic. 
The figure so much resembles 
Buddha that the early describers of 
the cave before Erskine thought it 
to be that personage. The figure 
has the remains of two arms, which 
appear to have rested in his lap. It 
is seated on a lotus, the stalk of 
which is supported by two figures 
below. In the aisle behind the east 
entrance again are two reliefs on the 
N. and S. ends. The first of these 
represents Ravana, the demon king of 
Lanka, or Ceylon, attempting to 
remove Kailas, the heavenly hill of 
Shiva, to his own kingdom, in order 
that he may have his tutelary deity 
always with him, for Ravana was ever 
a worshipper of Shiva. Ravana has 
ten heads and twenty arms, and is 
with his back to the spectator. 
Shiva is seen in Kailas, with Parvati 
on his right, and votaries and Rishis 
in the background. The legend runs 
that Ravana shook Kailas so much 
that Parvati was alarmed, whereupon 
Shiva pressed down the hill with 
one of his toes on the head of 
Ravana, who remained immovable 
for 10,000 years. 

The last relief opposite this shows 
Shiva and Parvati seated together, 
with groups of male and female 
inferior divinities showering down 
flowers from above. The rock is 
cut into various shapes to repre- 
sent the peaks of Kailas, Shiva's 
heaven. Behind Shiva and Parvati 
is a female figure carrying a child on 



her hip, from which it has been 
supposed that the sculpture repre- 
sents the birth of Skanda, the war- 

Beyond the main hall on the E. 
side is the East Wing, consisting of 
an open court 55 ft. wide, in the centre 
of which was a circular platform, 
probably for a Nandi. On the S. 
side of the court is a temple on a 
high terrace, reached by steps with 
lions at the top of them. The 
portico of the temple has a chamber 
at each end, that on the east end with 
figures of Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma 
and of the seven great goddesses or 
divine mothers (p. 77). The shrine 
of the temple measures 14 by 16 ft., 
and has an altar and lingam inside 
it. The West wing of the cave 
has also an open court with a large 
cistern on the S. side, and on the 
W. side a small open chapel with 
a lingam in it. 

Round the hill, a little to the S., 
are two other excavations fronting 
ihe E. These are also Lingam 
shrines, with Dwarpals sculptured 
outside. On a hill opposite to the 
Great Cave is a small cave, and an 
excavation has been commenced but 
without much progress having been 

(2) The Veliax Lake, on the G.I. P. 

Rly., can best be visited from 
Bhandup (17 m.) by arrangement 
beforehand with the station-master at 
Bhandup for a pony. The road turns 
to the right at a signpost, marked 
3 m. to Pawe, and from the gateway 
or Darwazah of Pawe it is 2 m. to 
the lake ; the jungle is very thick 
part of the way. The lake covers 
1400 acres, and measures 2 x 1^ m. ; 
it was made by Mr Conybeare, C.E. 
by damming up the Garpur river. 
It cost ;^373,650 with the connect- 
ing pipes, and can supply 8,000,000 
gallons of water a day. The embank- 
ment is 30 ft. broad and 30 ft. above 
the water. The water is 75 ft. deep, 
of which 50 ft. are available for the 
supply of Bombay and 25 ft. are 
kept for settling. Fish are numerous, 
particularly singara or ' ' cat-fish. " 

There are also many conger-eels, 
some of which are 8 or 9 ft. long. 
There are many teal on the lake, but 
it is very difficult to get within shot, 
except in the very early morning. 
Tigers are scarce now, but many 
have been killed here. One, shot 
by Mr Robertson, C.S., had killed 
sixteen persons. 

The Tulsi Lake, which lies 2 m. 
to the N., was formed in 1872, at a 
cost of ;if40,ooo, and water is carried 
thence to the top of Malabar Hill. 
2 m, N. again are the Kanhari 

(3) Montpezir Caves {Mandapesh- 
war). — B. B. and C.I. Railway to 
Borivli Station, 22^ m. (good clean 
waiting-room), thence i m. by pony. 
At the caves is a ruined Portuguese 
church, with a cross close by. 
Round the N.E. corner of the church 
are three Brahmin caves hewn out of 
the rock, dating from the 8th century. 
The cave on the E. is 5 ft. 8 in. x 
21 ft. Adjoining this cave to the W. 
is a stone basin for water, of which 
there is a good supply, said never to 
fail, and this may be one reason why 
the Portuguese built here. The 
next cave is 27 ft. 3 in. x 14 ft. 9 in. 
In the W. wall is a group of 25 
Gana (celestial dwarfs) figures very 
much mutilated, and a four-armed 
Shiva. In the corner of the out- 
side wall is half a teak door of the 
church, with two saints carved 
on it. The third or W. cave was a 
vihara (monastery hall) cave in which 
ten or twelve hermits lived, but was 
converted into a chapel in 1555 a.d. 
In the N. part of the E. wall, upside 
down, is the stone originally over 
the entrance door, inscribed with the 
date 1555. At the N.W. are pillared 
partitions leading to cells, and on 
the W. side are two pilasters and 
four pillars about 12 ft. high, with 
tapering shafts and angular capitals. 
To the S., on an eminence, is a 
round tower (40 ft. high), which 
the priest calls a Calvarium, with 
a staircase on the outside. There is 
a good view from the top over the 




(4) Ca^e Temples of Kanhari^ 
[Ktnnery). — These caves are all ex- 
cavated in the face of a single hill 
in the centre of the island of Salsette, 
and are about 6 m. from the D.B. at 
Thana (see Route 2). There are one 
hundred and nine Buddhist caves on 
the spot ; but though so numerous few 
of them only are interesting as com- 
pared with those at Ajanta, EUora, or 
Karli. It seems probable that the 
greater part of them were executed 
by a colony of Buddhists, "who may 
have taken refuge here after being ex- 
pelled from the continent, and who 
tried to reproduce the lost Karli in 
their insular retreat." They date 
from the end of the 2nd century a.d. 
to about the middle of the 9th, or 
possibly a little later. The great 
Chaitya is one of the earliest here ; 
those on each side may be two cen- 
turies later : the latest is probably the 
unfinished one, which is the first the 
traveller approaches by the usual 
route, and which dates about the 9th 
or loth century A.D., or is even still 
more recent. However this may be, 
it is at least certain that, to use 
Heber's words, "the beautiful situa- 
tion of these caves, their elaborate 
carving, and their marked connection 
with Buddha and his religion, render 
them every way remarkable." 

From Thana a cart or light 
vehicle can proceed between 3 to 4 m. 
towards the caves to near the shore of 
the Tulsi lake. From here the path 
to them is narrow, and winds along 
the sides of rocks, but it is quite pos- 
sible to proceed along it on horseback. 
Most of the surrounding hills are 
covered with jungle, but the one in 
which the caves are is nearly bare, its 
summit being formed by one large 
rounded mass of compact rock, under 
which a softer stratum has been de- 
nuded by the rains, forming natural 
caves, which, slightly improved by 
art, were appropriated as cells. The 
path runs in a N. direction up to the 
ravine, lying E. and W., round which 

1 Travellers who are able to visit the 
Caves of Karli and Bhaja, or of Nasik, or 
Ajanta, or EUora, need not devote time to 
any of the Excursions (3) to (5). 

the caves are excavated on six ledges 
in the mountain side connected by 
flights of steps. Shortly before the 
end of the ravine is reached, a steep 
ascent leads up to a platform facing 
VV., where the Great Chaitya Cave 
(No. 3) and two other caves are 
situated, and whence steps in the 
rock lead down to the ravine. 

Cave No. 3 entered through a 
forecourt and a verandah, is a close 
copy of that at Karli (p. 338), and 
probably dates from the 6th century. 
It is 86 ft. long and 40 ft. wide, and 
has a colonnade of thirty-four pillars, 
which encircles the dagoba, standing 
16 ft. high, at the back. A number 
of the pillars have bases and capitals 
carved with elephants, dagobas, trees, 
worship of sacred feet, etc. At the 
ends of the great verandah are two 
later figures of Buddha, 21 ft. high, 
and over the door is the great 
arched window, which forms one of 
the principal characteristics of these 
structures. In front of the verandah 
are two pillars, and on the screen of 
the back wall are Buddhist carvings. 
In the forecourt are two attached 
pillars, on which are four lions and 
three squat figures. On the left of 
the court is a round cell with a 
dagoba, and on the right, at the end 
of a long excavation (No. 2), are 
three ruined dagobas, with a Bud- 
dhist litany (p. 41) on the rock round 

At a distance of 150 yds. up the 
ravine N.W. of the Chaitya Cave is 
the Darbar of Maharaja Cave (No. 
10), which was a Dharmsalah or hall 
of assembly, and not an ordinary 
vihara. It is 73 ft. x 32 ft. in size, 
and has two stone benches running 
down its longer axis, and some cells 
on the left and back walls. The 
verandah, which is approached by 
three flights of steps, has eight columns 
along the front of it. Nos. 11, 14, 
and 21 further up the same (left) side 
of the ravine may also be visited. The 
first has a small court in front of it, 
the second has some traces of paint- 
ing, and the third has columns of 
the Elephanta type, a Buddhist litany 
(p. 41), and a figure of Padmapani 



crowned by ten adder-heads in a 
recess on the right of the porch. 
Above No. 10 on the hill-side is 
No. 35, a vihara 40 ft. x 45 ft. with 
benches round it, and four octagonal 
columns in the verandah ; on the 
walls are reliefs of Buddha seated 
upon a lotus, of a disciple spreading 
his cloak for him to walk upon, and 
of another litany. N.W. from these 
are caves 56 and 66. From the front of 
the former is a fine view of the sea — 
in the latter are some fine sculptures 
and another litany. Some 400 yards 
to the south and beyond the Chaitya 
Cave is a terrace with monuments 
over the ashes of Buddhist monks. 
The numbei of cisterns and small 
tanks round the caves and the flights 
of steps connecting them are re- 

(5) The Jogeshwar Cave lies 2 m. 
N.E. of the village of Jogeshwar 
(about I m. from Goregaon Station 
on the B.B. and C.I. line). Mr 
Burgess attributes this Brahmin cave 
to the latter half of the 8th century, 
perhaps a quarter of a century after the 
Elephanta Cave, and half a century 
after the Sitaki Nahani at EUora (p. 
78). Like the former, it has extensive 
wings to the central hall, which has a 
shrine 24 ft. square in the middle, 
with four doors and a large lingam. 
The verandah on the S. side is 120 ft. 
long and has ten columns of the 
Elephanta pattern, while twenty more 
such pillars are arranged in a square 
in the hall. Measured all over, the 
cave is the largest Brahminical ex- 
cavation known after Kailasa (p. 77). 

(6) The Tansa Water Supply (D.B. 
G.I. P. Rly. to Atgaon Station, 59 
m. ).— The increasing population of 
Bombay led the Corporation to con- 
struct a still larger reservoir on the 
Tansa River, about 60 m. N.E. of 
Bombay, which was formally opened 
by H.E. the Viceroy, Lord Lans- 
downe, in March 1892. The Dam 
which encloses the valley of the 
Tansa River, completed 1891, is one 
of the largest pieces of masonry of 
modern times. It is of a uniform 

height of 118 ft. and is 2 m. long, 
103 ft. thick at the base, and 24 ft. 
at the top, where a flagged road 
runs along it. It encloses a lake 
8 sq. m. in area, and is capable of 
supplying 33,000,000 gallons daily 
(Engineer, Mr W. Gierke ; Contrac- 
tors, Mr T. C. Glover, and Messrs 
Walsh, Lovatt, & Co.). 

(7) The Thai and Bore Ghats.— 

The ascent of these Ghats passes 
through some of the prettiest scener)- 
in all India (see pp. 25 and 337) ; 
and those who do not intend to leave 
Bombay by the railway lines which 
pass up thern should make a point of 
visiting them separately. A visit to 
the Karli Cave can be combined with 
the latter expedition. As at present 
timed, the Panjab and Calcutta mails 
westwards travel down the Ghats in 
the daytime. 

(8) Karli. — 85 m. from Bombay ; 
caves 4 m. from railway station (see 
Route 25). 


Kalyan, Nasik, Manmar, Jalgaon 
(Caves of Ajanta), Bhusawal, 
Khandwa, Itarsi, Jubbulpore, 
Katni, Manikpur, Allahabad, 
Mughal-sarai (Benares), Fatna, 
Mokamah, Lakhi-sarai, and As- 
ansol, with journeys to Pachmarhi, 
and Marble Kecks, Buddh Gaya, 
and Parasnath. 

Rail i349in. (G.I.P.R. and E.I.R.); mail 

train 41 hours. 

For service to N. India by this route, 
see p. 97. 

The rule for breaking journeys on 
Indian railways allows the traveller 
to spend sixteen days on the journey 
from Bombay to Calcutta with one 
through ticket. Cost, ist class, 
as. II; 2nd class Rs.49, as. 9, and 




sen'ants Rs. 13, as. 7. Luggage, free, 
120 lbs., 60 lbs., and 30 lbs. — half 
that amount in seers, the Indian 
standard of weight. The 85 m. 
between Bombay and Igatpuri are 
by far the most picturesque on the 
whole line between the western and 
eastern capitals. By the Nagpur and 
Panjab mails passengers now pass 
over this portion of the line in 
daylight ; but the Calcutta mail by 
the E. Indian Railway route traverses 
it at night. 

On leaving Bombay, between Sion 
and Kurla, the railway passes on a 
causeway from the island of Bombay 
to the larger island of Salsette. 

9 m. Etirla station. Close by 
(right) are the once famous cotton- 

17 m. Bbandup station for the 
Vehar Lake (p. 21). 

21 m. Thana station, D.B. An 
early Portuguese settlement, com- 
manding the most frequented passage 
from the mainland to the island of 
Salsette. Marco Polo (1298 a.d.) 
says : ' ' Tana is a great kingdom, 
lying towards the west. . . . There 
is much traffic here, and many ships 
and merchants frequent the place." 
In 1320 four Christian companions of 
Friar Odoricus here suffered martyr- 
dom. Friar Jordanus narrates that 
he baptized about ninety persons ten 
days' journey from Thana, besides 
thirty-five who were baptized between 
Thana and Supara. 

The country round Thana was 
highly cultivated, and was studded 
with mansions of the Portuguese, 
when, in 1737, it was wrested from 
them by the Mahrattas. In 1774 the 
Portuguese sent a formidable arma- 
ment from Europe for the avowed 
object of recovering their lost posses- 
sions. The Government of Bombay 
determined to anticipate their enter- 
prise, and to seize upon the island for 
the English. A force was prepared 
under General Robert Gordon, and 
Thana was taken after a siege of three 

days. On 6th March 1775 the Peshwa 
Raghobi, by the Treaty of Bassein, 
ceded the island of Salsette in per- 
petuity. In 1 81 6, Trimbakji Danglia, 
the celebrated Minister of Baji Rao, 
the last Peshwa, effected his escape 
from the fort of Thana, though guarded 
by a strong body of European sol- 
diers. The difficulties of this escape 
were greatly exaggerated all over the 
Mahratta country, and it was compared 
to that of Shivaji from the power of 
Aurangzeb. The principal agent in 
this exploit was a Mahratta horse- 
keeper in the service of one of the 
British officers of the garrison, who, 
passing and re-passing Trimbakji's 
cell, as if to exercise his master's 
horse, sang the information he wished 
to convey in a careless manner, which 
disarmed suspicion. Bishop Heber, 
who had seen Irimbakji imprisoned 
in the fort of Chunar, was much in- 
terested in this escape, and writes : 

" The groom's singing was made up 
of verses like the following — 

" Behind the bush the bowmen hide, 
The horse beneath the tree ; 
Where shall 1 find a knight will ride 
The jungle paths with me? 

" There are five-and-fifty coursers theie, 
And four-and -fifty men ; 
When the fifty-fifth shall mount his steed, 
The Deccan thrives again." 

The Englisli Church was being built 
when he arrived, and on loth July 
1825 was consecrated by him. In 
the 1 6th century the Silk Industry 
here employed about six thousand 
persons. It is now confined to a 
few Portuguese families and looms. 

33 m. Kalyan junction station (R.). 
Here the Madras line through Poona 
and Raichur branches off S. K. (Route 
25). This is a very ancient town, 
and was once the capital of the 
Chalukyas. In 1780, the Mahrattas 
having cut off the supplies from 
Bombay and Salsette, the British 
Government determined to occupy 
the Konkan opposite Thana, as far 
as the Ghats. Accordingly several 
posts were seized, and Kalyan amongst 
them ; and here Captain Richard 
Campbell was placed with a garrison. 



Nana Farnavis forthwith assembled a 
large force to recover Kalyan, on 
which he set a high value, and 
attacked the English advanced post 
at the Ghats, and killed or made 
prisoners the whole detachment. He 
then compelled Ensign Fyfe, the only 
surviving officer, to write to Captain 
Campbell that, unless he surrendered 
he would put all his prisoners, twenty- 
six in number, to death, storm Kalyan, 
and put all the garrison to the sword. 
To this Campbell replied that "the 
Nana was welcome to the town if he 
could take it." After a spirited de- 
fence, he was relieved by Colonel 
Hartley, on the 24th May, just as the 
Mahrattas were about to storm. The 
remains of buildings round Kalyan are 
very extensive ; and Fryer, who visited 
the place in 1673, "gazed with as- 
tonishment on ruins of stately fabrics, 
and many traces of departed magnifi- 

Between Kalyan and Igatpuri, the 
railway ascends from the Konkan to 
the Deccan plateau by the mountain 
pass known as the Thai Ghat. 

75 m. Kasara station (R. ). Here a 
special engine is attached, and the 
steeper ascent of the Ghat begins. 
In 9i m. (he line ascends 1050 ft. 

59 m. Atgaon station for Tansa 
(P- 23). 

At 79^ m. is the Reversing station, 
and the ascent terminates at 85 m. 
Igatpuri D.B. (R.), where the special 
engine and brakes are removed. 

The ascent of the Thai Ghat is at 
all seasons interesting ; but it is most 
beautiful in September owing to the 
wild flowers. The leaves are then 
bright green, and the country below 
the Ghats is all streams, pools, and 
inundations, and the Ghats themselves 
all cascades and torrents. Igatpuri, 
properly Wigatpura, " the town of 
difficulties," so called on account of 
the precipitous road that preceded the 
railway, is a pleasant sanatorium and 
summer resort of Europeans fi-om Bom- 
bay. Some large game is to be found 
in the neighbourhood. There are 

several European bungalows belong- 
ing to railway officials. The line 
passes through a comparatively level 
country, with low mountains on either 
side, to 

113 m. Deolali station. A halting- 
place for troops arriving from or pro- 
ceeding to Europe. There are bar- 
racks for 1000 men. 

1 17 m. Nasik Road station ♦ ; D.B. 
The town, the N'asika of Ptolemy, 
1900 ft. above sea-level (population 
35,000), lies 5 J m. N.W. of the station. 

A tramway conveys passengers from 
the station to it. It is one of the most 
holy places of the Hindus, owing to 
its position on the banks of the sacred 
river Godavery, about 19 m. from its 
source at Trimbak, and may be called 
the Western Benares, as the Godavery 
is termed the Ganga — " Ganges." 
Thirteen hundred families of Brahman 
priests are settled here, and all Hindus 
of rank on visiting it leave a record of 
their visit with their Upadhya, or 
" family priest," for each noble family 
has such a priest at each celebrated 
place of pilgrimage. In this record 
are entered the names of the visitor's 
ancestors, and thus the pedigree of 
every Hindu chief is to be found in 
the keeping of these Upadhyas. Even 
Sir Jang Bahadur, the late de facto ruler 
of Nipal, had his Upadhya at Nasik. 
The present Gaekwar owes his seat on 
the throne to this, for when in 1874 the 
Gaekwar, Mulhar Rao, was deposed, 
and an heir sought for, the family 
Upadhya at Nasik supplied proofs of 
the young prince's legitimate descent 
from Pratap Rao, brother of Damaji, 
the third Gaekwar. 

At Nasik the river, here 80 yds. 
broad, is lined on either side for a 
distance of 400 yds. with flights of 
steps, and dotted nnth temples and 
shrines, and, as in most Indian cities 
situated near flowing rivers, the view 
along the banks when hundreds of 
men and women are bathing is ex- 
tremely picturesque. The part ol 
the town which stands on the right 
bank of the river is built upon three 
hills, and is divided into the New 




Town N. and the Old Town S. The 
quarter on the left bank, where are 
the chief objects of interest, is called 
Panchwati. The manufacture of 
brass and copper ware, especially 
of idols, caskets, boxes, chains, 
lamps, etc., flourishes here. Speci- 
mens of the beautiful old work, 
though rare, are still occasionally 
to be found in the * ' old " copper 

The temples at Nasik, though 
picturesque, have no striking archi- 
tectural features. The Sundar 
Narayan Temple, built by one of 
Holkar's Sardars in 1725, stands at 
the head of the Ghats on the W. 
side of the citv, close to the Sati 
gate and ground, and is a miracle of 
art. Below it may be seen the temples 
of Balaji and of the White Rama, 
and the Memorial, erected to the 
Rajah of Kapurthala, who died in 
1870, near Aden, on his way to 
Europe. From it the river is crossed 
by a bridge, completed in 1897, 
which cost Rs. 181,000. 

Haifa mile to the E., on the Panch- 
wati side, is a fine house of the Rastia 
family. From here a walk a few 
hundred yards up a lane leads to five 
very old and large trees of the Fictis 
indica. Under the largest is a small 
building. (None but Hindus may 
pass the vestibule.) It consists of a 
low front room, from which steps 
descend to two apartments 5 ft. 
square and 4 ft. high. In the first 
room are images of Rama, Sita, 
and Lakshman. In the second is an 
image of Mahadeo, 6 in. high, which 
those three personages are said to 
have worshipped ; hence arises the 
extreme sanctity of the place, which 
is quite one of the holiest in Nasik. 
This hole is Sita's Gupha, or Cave, 
where she found an asylum until lured 
away by Havana to Ceylon. Near it 
is the great temple dedicated to Kala 
Rama, or " Black Rama," which cost 
,^70,000. It stands in an oblong 
stone enclosure, with ninety - six 
arches. To the W., up stream, and 
just before reaching the riverside, is 
the oldest temple in the place. 

Kapaleshwar, "God of the Skull," 
a name of Shiva. The ascent to it 
is by fifty stone steps. It is said to 
be six hundred years old, but is quite 
plain and unattractive. Opposite to 
it the river foams and rushes in a 
rocky bed. Rama's Euud is the 
place where the god is said to have 
bathed ; hence it is specially sacred, 
and bones of the dead are taken there 
to be washed away. Opposite to it 
and in the river itself is a stone 
dharmsala, with several arches, roofed 
over, in which ascetics lodge when 
the water is low. Down the stream, 
about 20 yds., are three temples 
erected by Ahalaya Bai (p. 90). 
The first is only a few feet high and 
long, but the next is a large square 
building, with a stone foundation 
and brick superstructure, dedicated 
to Rama ; N. of it is a long dharm- 
sala, and a little down the stream 
is the third temple, all of stone. 
About 200 ft. down the stream is 
Nam Shankar's temple, with an 
elaborately carved portico and a 
large stone enclosure, the last of the 
temples immediately on the water on 
the Panchwati side. At the E. end 
of the city on the S. bank is the hill 
of Sunar 'Ali, and another called 
Junagarh, or Old Fort, on which is 
a square building, in which Aurang- 
zeb's chief officials used to reside. 
They command fine views over the 
city. West of these are the Jama 
Masjid, and the Hingne Wada, an 
old palace of the Peshwa (Chief of 
the IVIahrattas), at present used as a 
school, and worth a visit for its 
beautiful carved woodwork. 

Sharanpur is the seat of the 
mission founded by the Church 
Missionary Society in 1835, in the 
Junawadi part of Nasik, and moved 
by Mr W. S. Price in 1855. There 
was connected with this mission an 
African Asylum for youths rescued 
from slavery, and it was from here 
that Livingstone's Nasik boys were 
drawn. It was closed in 1875, and 
Mr Price took the boys to the E. coast 
of Africa, where a colony is esta- 



blished for redeemed slaves. A new 
church was built here in 1898. 

The group of twenty-three Buddhist 
Caves, which vary in age from the ist 
century B.C. to the 2nd century a.d., 
and some of which were altered in 
the 6th or 7th century of our era, 
lies 5 m. to the S.W. of Nasik. The 
caves include three large Viharas or 
halls, and one fine Chaitya or chapel, 
and are excavated at the back of a 
terrace 350 ft. above the level of the 
plain. The path to the caves, ^ which 
are numbered from W. to E. , reaches 
the terrace about the middle of them. 

Nos. I and 2 are damaged and 
unimportant. No. 3 is a large vihara, 
measuring 41 ft. by 46 ft., and having 
a stone bench and eighteen cells round 
the sides and end walls. In the 
verandah, behind a decorated screen 
rail, are six octagonal pillars, carry- 
ing four elephants, or bullocks, or 
horses on their capitals ; and above 
these is a frieze of rail pattern, with a 
band of animals at the bottom of it. 
The sculptured door leading into the 
cave resembles the gateways of the 
Sanchi tope (p. 98) ; over it are the 
three Buddhist symbols of the Bodhi 
tree (p. 37), the dagoba or tope, and 
the chakra or wheel of the law, and 
on each side of it is a guardian dwarpal. 
In the centre of the end wall of the 
cave is a large relief of a dagoba. 
The details of this cave and of No. 10 
are almost identical, but the latter is 
of much earlier date ; the carved 
screens and rail patterns in both of 
them are specially noticeable. No. 
4 is another damaged cave ; the next 
five are marked only by simple rail or 
other decoration. The Vihara No. 10 
measures 43 ft. by 45 ft. ; it dates 
from shortly after the Karli Cave 
(p.338J,and the carving in it is much 

1 The detailed account of these caves, as 
well as those of Aianta, Ellora, etc., is taken 
mainly from the monumental work on the 
Cave Temples of India, by Mr J. Fergusson 
and Mr J. Burgess, published by order of 
the Secretary of State for India. Those 
who are specially interested in the subject 
will find the original work indispensable for 

more graceful and pleasing than that 
in the copy of it, No. 3. No. 1 1 is 
a small Vihara with six cells off" it ; 
the chambers Nos. 1 2- 14, now form- 
ing a group, were probably once 
separate, each forming a small hermi- 
tage. Nos. 15 and i6 are much 
damaged. No. 17 is a smaller Vihara, 
measuring 23 ft by 32 ft. The 
verandah, which is borne by octagonal 
columns, with elephants and riders, is 
approached by a flight of steps at one 
end of it, and not in the centre ; on 
the wall of the back aisle, separated 
from the cave by similar columns, is 
a large seated image of Buddha. No. 
18 is the Chaitya Cave, the oldest of 
the group, and nearly contemporary 
with that of Karli. The front, which 
is decorated with Buddhist railings, 
dagobas, serpents, and chaitya win- 
dows, is extremely effective ; the 
elaborate carving in the head of the 
doorway under the great window, 
which is finished with a representa- 
tion of wooden beams, simulates the 
wooden frame-work with which such 
windows were once fitted. The in- 
terior measures 39 ft. by 22^ ft. by 
23:1 ft., and is divided by two rows of 
five plain octagonal columns into a 
nave and two aisles ; at the end of 
the nave five more columns run round 
the back of a dagoba 6J ft. high and 
5^ ft. in diameter. No. 20, at a lower 
level, is a small V^ihara with six side 
cells. No. 2 1 is the third largest Vihara, 
measuring from 37^ ft. to 44 ft. across, 
and 61 ft. deep. The verandah is 
carried by four octagonal columns, 
with bell-shaped capitals. On either 
side of the hall are eight cells, and in 
the end wall are three cells and an 
antechamber, from which two more 
cells open ; all three walls are faced 
by a low bench. The antechamber 
to the shrine has two carved columns ; 
the door of the latter is flanked by 
two gigantic dwarpals. Inside it is a 
colossal seated image of Buddha, 10 ft. 
high, attended by two (r,4az<r/-bearers. 
Nos. 22 and 23, at the extreme east 
end of the terrace, are both much 
damaged ; the last and No. 2 are Ma- 
hayana caves, the rest being older 
Hinayana works. In addition to the 




caves there are a number of cisterns 
on the terrace, which affirds beautiful 
views of the country round Nasik. 

On the road to Trimbak from 
Nasik {19 m. by road) are several 
stone-faced wells, and at Nirwadi, on 
the right of the road, is a beautiful 
tank lined with stone, and with stone 
steps and two small pagodas built by 
Ahalaya Bai. Near Wadi two conical 
hills, about 900 ft. high, face each 
other on either side of the road. 
From these the hills run in fantastic 
shapes to Trimbak, where they form 
a gigantic crescent from 1 2 10 to 1500 
ft. high. Below this mountain wall, 
which has near the top a scarp of 
about 100 ft., is the small town of 
about 3000 inhabitants. It derives 
its name from Tri, "three" and 
Ambak, "eye," "the three-eyed" 
being a name of Shiva. The Fort 
stands 1800 ft. above the town, 
and 4248 ft. above the sea. The 
Temple of Trimbakesliwar, which is 
on the E. side of the town, not far 
from where the Nasik road enters, 
was built by Balaji Baji Rao, third 
Peshwa. It cost ;^"90,ooo. It stands 
in a stone enclosure, which has no 
corridor, but a portico, which is the 
irmsic gallery, and is 40 ft. high. 
The ascent is by steps outside, and 
strangers are permitted to mount 
in order to look into the interior of 
the temple, which none but Hindus 
may enter. A flight of six hundred 
and ninety steps up a hill at the 
back of Trimbak leads to the sacred 
source of the river Godavery where 
"the water trickles drop by drop 
from the lips of a carven image 
shrouded by a canopy of stone" into 
a tank below. This is the sacred 
bathing - place of pilgrims, and is 
called the Kushawart. At the S. 
end is a temple to Shiva. 

147 m. Lasalgaon station. From 
this place Chandor, an interesting 
town overhung by a fine hill-fort, is 
14 m. N. by a good road. The 
Maharaja Holkar is hereditary Patel 
of Chandor. The fort was taken by 
the British in 1804, and again in iSiS. 

162 m. Manmar junction station, 
D. B. (R.) This is the junction of 
the Dhond and Manmar Railway, 
which forms a cord line between 
the N.E. and S.E. branches of 
the G.I.P.R., and of the Godavery 
Valley branch of the Hyderabad State 
Railway to Secundrabad (Route 6). 
About 4 m. S. are the Ankai Tankai 
Fort, now in ruins, and seven Budd- 
hist caves of some interest. Between 
the caves and the station rises a 
curious hill called Ram Gulni, sur- 
mounted by a natural obelisk of trap 
rock 80 or 90 feet high. 

204 m. Chalisgaon station, branch 
to 35 m. Dhulia (population 27,400), 
headquarters of the Khandesh District. 

261 m. Jalgaon junction of the 

Tapti Valley Railway (p. 119), and 

the best station to start from for a visit 

to the Ajanta Caves (Route 3), is 

situated in the newly constituted East 

Khandesh District. 

276 m. Bhusawal junction station 

(R.). An important railway colony 
called into existence by the G.I.P. R. 
works. Population 16,363. Junction 
of the Bengal - Nagpur Railway, 
(Route 7.) 

North of Bhusawal the railway 
passes between the Satpura and 
Vindhya ranges on the W., and 
the Mahadeo hills of the former on 
the E. : these ranges constitute the 
geographical divisions between Hindu- 
stan (N. India) and the Deccan or 
south country. 

278^ m. The Tapti Bridge, one of 

the most important works on the line. 
The first bridge built was abandoned 
in consequence of the inferior nature 
of the stone of which it was con- 

310 m. Burhanpur station, D.B. 
The city, which is about 2 m. distant, 
has a population of 33,000. It has 
been a place of much importance, and 
is completely walled in. The neigh- 
bourhood contains some interesting 
Mohammedan ruins, and a curious 
aqueduct still in use. In the town are 



two handsome mosques. The Bad- 
shahi Kila — a ruined citadel and 
palace — is beautifully situated on a 
height overlooking the Tapti river. 
The place was founded in 1400 A.D. 
by Nasir Khan of the Farukhi dynasty 
of Khandesh, and was annexed to the 
Mughal Empire by Akbar in 1600 A. D. 
It was the capital of the Deccan Pro- 
vince of the empire when in 1614 a.d. 
Sir Thomas Roe, ambassador from 
James I. to the great Mogul, passed 
through, and paid his respects to the 
Viceroy Prince Parvez, son of Jahangir, 
and it was here that Shah Jahan's 
wife, the Lady of the Taj, died in 
1629. The place was occupied by 
the army under General Wellesley on 
1 6th October 1803, and given back 
to Sindhia the next year. It is now 
British territory. 

322 m. Chandni station. About 6 
m. by a fair road is Asirgarh, an 
interesting hill -fort on a detached 
rock standing up 850 ft. from the 
surrounding plain. It was surren- 
dered on 2 1 St October 1803, after 
an hour's bombardment, to General 
Wellesley's army, restored to Sindhia, 
and again taken in 181 9, since when 
it has belonged to the British. There 
is a small garrison in the fort, to which 
an exceedingly picturesque approach 
of steps and gates leads ; on the walls 
adjoining the gate to the inner fort are 
several fine native cannon. The only 
means of conveyance is a country cart 
— to be ordered beforehand through 
the station-master. The country 
around is wild and abounds in large 

353 m. Khandwa junction station, 
D.B. (R.). A civil station, the head- 
quarters of the district of Nimar in the 
Central Provinces. From here the 
metre-gauge system of the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central Indian Railway 
runs N. to Mhow, Indore, and through 
Western Malwa to Ajmer, and thence 
to Agra, Delhi, Ferozepore, and the 
Punjab. (See Routes 8 and 10). 

417 m. Harda station, D.B. close 
to station, good (population 16,300). 

Headquarters of a district, and an 
important mart for the export of 
grain and seeds. Here the railway 
enters the great wheat-field of the 
Nerbudda Valley, which extends to 

464 m. Itarsi junction station, 
D.B. (R.) From this the system 
of the Indian Midland Railway runs 
N. to Hoshangabad, Bhopal, Jhansi, 
Gwalior, Agra, and Cawnpore (see 
Route 9). A railway is under con- 
stru>.tion from Itarsi to Amraoti and 
Nagpur (p. 83). 

505 m. Piparia station. There 
is a comfortable D.B. close to the 
station. [A good road leads in 32 
m. S. to PaclimarM,=4f the hill-station 
of the Central Provinces. There are 
many bungalows at Pachmarhi and 
barracks, which are occupied by 
European troops in the hot season. 
The station is nearly 4000 ft. above 
sea-level. There is a D.B. on the 
way at Singhanama ; the ascent from 
here, which is 12 m. long, is very 
pretty. Good large-game shooting 
in the forests below the station.] 

536 m. Gadarwara junction station. 
A railway 12 m. long leads S. to the 
Mohpani coal-mines, worked by the 
Nerbudda Coal Co. 

Between 590 m. Bikrampur and 
597 m. Slialipura the railway crosses 
the Nerbudda river. 

616 m. JUBBULPORE station * (792 
m. from Calcutta by Allahabad route). 
(R. ). An important civil and mili- 
tary station, the meeting-place of the 
G.I. P. and East Indian Railways.^ 

The town (population 100,000) 
and station are well laid out and well 
cared for. The Town Hall has a 
statue of the Queen Empress. 

A mile N.E. of the railway station 
is the Govt, gun-carriage factory. 

In the administration of India by 
the English few subjects have created 

1 A new railway line runs to Nainpur, 
60 m. S. of Jubbulpore, and 70 m. further 
on to Gondia Junction on the Bengal- 
Nac;pui line, 6i m. east of Bhandara Road 
Xp. "85)- 




more interest than the suppression of 
the Thags (Thugs), a fraternity de- 
voted to the murder of human beings 
by strangulation. The principal 
agent in hunting down these criminals 
was Colonel Sleeman,^ and it was at 
Jubbulpore that a number of Thag 
informers and their families were 
formerly confined,^ and the once 
famous "School of Industry" was 
established in 1835. Originally there 
were 2500 of these people in confine- 
ment here. 

Expedition to the Marble Rocks 
gorge of tlie Nerbudda. 

The Marble Rocks, known to 
natives as Bhera Ghat, which are 12 m. 
from Jabalpur, are well worth a visit. 
Tongas can be hired for the trip, and 
the road is generally good. About 
4^ m. to the west is a remarkable 
ancient fortress* of the Gond Kings, 
perched on the summit of a huge 
granite boulder. At 9^ m. a branch 
road turns to the rocks, the last half 
m. being often impracticable for 
vehicles after rain. On the high 
ground above the lower end of the 
right side of the gorge are two small 
D.B.'s and a number of houses, and 
100 yds. beyond the bungalow is a 
flight of 107 stone steps, some of them 
carved, which lead to the Madanptir 
Temple, surrounded by a circular stone 
enclosure. All round it are figures 
of the sixty-four Joginis. Though 
much mutilated, they are well worth 
a visit. Three-quarter m. beyond 
the temple hill the Nerbudda may 
be reached above the gorge at the 
point where its waters plunge down 
the Dhuandhar or Smoke cascade into 
the cauldron at the upper end of the 

1 Colonel Sleeman's Rambles and Recol- 
lections 0/ an Indian Official, and Diaries 
in Oudk are among the most fascinating 
ijooks ever written on India. Me.idows 
Taylor's Confessions of a Thag is the finest 
of all his works. 

2 The Thaggi Reformatory was closed in 

3 Known as the Madan Mahal. 

Marble Rocks. In a recess below the 
bungalow is the embarkation place for 
a trip by boat up the gorge. Two men 
to row and one to steer are enough. 
The white cliffs of magnesian lime- 
stone are only 90 to 105 ft. high, but 
the effect of the gleaming faces and 
rifts is extremely picturesque, especi- 
ally under moonlight ; the water is said 
to be 150 ft. deep in places. Near 
the entrance to the gorge, which is 
about I m. long, is a spot named the 
" Monkey's Leap." Further on is an 
inscription cut on the right side by 
order of Madhu Rao Peshwa, and 
near the end of the gorge are some 
curiously - shaped rocks called the 
Hathi ka Paon or Elephant's Foot. 
The gorge is closed by a cascade 
waterfall over a barrier of rocks. 
There are usually large nests of wild 
bees on the rocks, and care must be 
taken not to excite them by smoking 
or firing guns. Near the landing- 
place is a memorial of a young engineer 
officer who was drowned in seeking 
to escape the attack of infuriated bees. 

673 m. Katni junction station. Line 
S. E. to the coal-fields at Umaria 
37 m., and thence to Bilaspur on the 
Bengal - Nagpur Railway (p. 86), 
Line W. to Saugor (p. 100). 

734 ni. Satna station, D.B. (R.). 
A town and small cantonment in the 
Rewah State, also the headquarters of 
the Baghelkhand Political Agency. 
A main road runs east to Rewah 
30 m. and there joins the Great 
Trunk Road which runs from Jabal- 
pur to Mirzapur. Near Satna were 
found the remains of the Bharhut 
stupa removed to Calcutta Museum 
(p. 58). 

783 m. Manikpur junction station. 
From this place the Indian Midland 
line runs W. to Jhansi, 181 m. (Route 

842 m. Naini station ( R. ). Close by 
is the Jail, one of the largest in India, 



and there is also a Leper Mission and 
Asylum here. 2 m. farther the line 
crosses the Jumna by a fine bridge, 
3235 ft. long, and enters 

844 m. ALLAHABAD station * 
(Lat. 25° 26', Long. 81° 55'). The 
capital of the United Provinces 
(population 166,000) is situated 316 
ft. above sea-level on the left bank of 
the Jumna, on the vk'edge of land 
between it and the Ganges, which the 
Curzon Bridge and new Bengal and 
N.W. Railway bridge cross N. and 
E. of the city. 

The Fort stands near the junction 
of the two rivers. The Civil Station, 
Cantonments, and City stretch W. 
and N.W. from this point 6 m. The 
present Fort and City were founded by 
Akbar in 1575 a.d. , but the Aryans 
possessed a very ancient city here 
called Prayag, which the Hindus now 
call Frag. It is a very sacred place 
with them, as they believe that Brahma 
performed a sacrifice of the horse here, 
in memory of his recovering the four 
Vedas. The town was visited by 
Megasthenes in the 3rd cent. B.C., and 
in the 7th cent. A.D. Hiouen Thsang, 
the Buddhist pilgrim, visited and de- 
scribed it. It was first conquered by 
the Moslems in 11 94 a.d., under 
Shahab-ud-din-Ghori. At the end of 
Akbar's reign Prince Salim, after- 
wards the Emperor Jahangir, governed 
it and lived in the Fort. Jahangir's 
son, Khusru, rebelled against him, 
but was defeated and put under the 
custody of his brother Khurram, after- 
wards the Emperor Shah Jahan. 
Khusru died in 161 5, and the Khusru 
Bagh (see below) contains his mau- 
soleum. In 1736 Allahabad was 
taken by the Mahrattas, who held it 
till 1750, when it was sacked by 
the Pathans of Farukhabad. It 
changed masters several times, and in 
November 1801 it was ceded to the 
British, the Fort having been held by 
them since 1798. 

Allahabad was the seat of the 
government of the N.W. Provinces 
from 1804 to 1835, when that was 
removed to Agra. In 1858, after the 

suppression of the Mutiny, it again 
became the seat of the provincial 
government, of which the title was 
changed to that of the United 
Provinces of Agra and Oudh in 1902. 
The present Lieutenant-Governor is 
the Honourable Sir J. P. Hewett, 
K.C.S.L, CLE. Previous Lieu- 
tenant - Governors have been Mr 
Thomason, Mr Edmonstone, Sir 
Wm. Muir, Sir J. Strachey, Sir A. 
Lyall, and Sir A. MacDonnell, and 
Sir J. La Touche. 

In the spring of 1857 the station, 
with its magnificent Arsenal and 
strong Fort, was garrisoned by a 
single Sepoy regiment, the 6th, to 
which, on 9th May, a wing of the 
Ferozepore regiment of Sikhs was 
added. The officers of the 6th N.L 
were confident in the loyalty of their 
corps, but fortunately a few days 
later sixty British invalid soldiers 
were brought in from Chunar. On 
5th June most of the Europeans in 
the place moved into the Fort, thus 
adding about 100 volunteers to the 
garrison. The next day the 6th N.I. 
mutinied and murdered their officers 
and seven young ensigns who had been 
posted at Allahabad to learn their drilL 
The eighty men of the Regiment on 
duty at the main gate of the Fort were 
at once disarmed by a fine display of 
boldness, the 400 Sikhs remaining 
staunch, under the influence of their 
CO., Captain Brayser, though they 
wavered for a moment. Outside the 
Fort, anarchy reigned in the city — the 
jail was broken open, and the prisoners 
murdered every Christian they met. 
A Mohammedan Maulvi was put up 
as Governor of Allahabad, and took up 
his quarters in the Khusru Bagh. On 
the nth of June General Neill arrived 
in the Fort, and on the morning of 
the 1 2th burned Daraganj and got 
possession of the bridge of boats. On 
the same day Major Stephenson, with 
100 men of the Fusiliers, arrived. 
General Neill then scoured the neigh- 
bouring villages, and produced such a 
terror in the city that the inhabitants 
deserted eti masse, and the Maulvi fled 
to Cawnpore, and on the 17th June 
British authority was re-established in 



ihe city. General Havelock arrived 
at Allahabad on 30th June, and left for 
the relief of Lucknow on 7th July. 

The Khusru Bagh, close to the 
railway station, is entered on the S. 
side by an old archway, nearly 60 ft. 
high and 46 ft. deep, overgrown with 
creepers. Withinthe well-keptgarden 
are three square mausoleums. That 
to the E. is the tomb of Prince Khusru, 
W. of it is the grave of a sister of his, 
and west again that of his mother, a 
Rajput lady. They are shaded by some 
fine tamarind trees. The mausoleum 
of Khusru has been very handsome 
inside, and is ornamented with many 
Persian couplets, and with paintings 
of trees and flowers, which are now 
faded. The cenotaph of white marble 
is on a raised platform, without in- 
scription. To the right and left two 
of Khusru's sons are buried. All 
three mausoleums have recently been 
well restored. 

E. of the gardens is the native city, 
containing some picturesque corners. 
On the other side of the railway lies 
Canning Town, the older European 
quarter, laid out amongst a network 
of wide avenues. The new High 
Court and AH Saints' Cathedral, a 
fine 13th century Gothic structure, 
225 ft. long by 40 ft. broad, built of 
red and white stone, are near the 
railway station. The throne is a 
memorial of Bishop Johnson. There 
are memorial windows of Sir John 
Woodburn, Lady Muir, C. T. Connell, 
and others. Trinity Church lies N. E. 
of the Alfred Park. It contains a 
tablet, which is valuable as a historical 
record of those who perished in the 
Mutiny. The Roman Catholic Cathe- 
dral, in the Italian style, is W. of 
the Alfred Park, and near it are the 
Club and the Mayo Memorial Hall, 
and the New University Buildings. 

In the Park is also the Thomhill 
and Mayne Memorial, with a fine 
public Library and a Museum. 
Beyond the Park is the Government 
House, and to the N. of the Alfred 

Park is the Muir College, a fine 
building in the Saracenic style. Close 
by to the W. is the Mayo Memorial 
Hall, a fine structure, with a tower 
147 ft. high. The Empress Victoria 
memorial statue, also in the Alfred 
Park, is a seated marble figure under 
a stone canopy. It is intended that 
the U.P. memorial of King Edward 
shall take the form of a hospital 
for consumptives in the hills. 

The Fort was built by Akbar in 
1575. It forms a striking object from 
the river, but its " high towers have 
been cut down, and the stone ram- 
parts topped with turfed parapets, and 
fronted with a sloping glacis. The 
changes rendered necessary by modern 
military exigencies have greatly de- 
tracted from its picturesqueness as 
a relic of antiquity. The principal 
gateway is capped with a dome, 
and has a wide vault underneath 
it. It is a noble entrance. The 
walls are from 20 to 25 ft. high : 
below them is a moat which can be 
filled with water at any time. Within 
the enclosure lie the officers' quarters, 
powder magazine, and barracks. 
Access to the Audience Hall of the 
old Palace, though enclosed by the 
Arsenal, is now possible, thanks to 
the care of Lord Curzon, by per- 
mission of the Local Military 
Authority. "It is supported by 
eight rows of eight columns, and 
surrounded by a deep verandah of 
double columns, with groups of four 
at the angles, all surmounted by 
bracket capitals of the richest design " 

Asoka's Pillar. — In front of the 
gateway inside the Fort is the Asoka 
Pillar, which rises 49 ft. 5 in. above 
ground. It is of stone, highly 
polished, and is of much interest on 
account of its great antiquity. On it 
are inscribed the famous Edicts of 
Asoka {circa 240 B.C.), and also a 
record of Samudra Gupta's victories 
in the 2nd cent., and one by Jahan- 
gir, to commemorate his accession to 

Joon.Jlsi-tjiolaiiiA'kV Jt CorZiOU^ 


London. Jolm Jtliii-rAV. AlliciUArlo Sr>eat. 



the throne. There are also minor 
inscriptions, beginning almost from 
the Christian era. According to Mr 
James Prinsep, who deciphered this 
and other Asoka inscriptions in 1838 
(p. 61), the insertion of some of 
these inscriptions shows that the 
pillar was lying on the ground when 
they were cut. 

The Aklishai Bat (Vata) or un- 
dying banyan. — Hiouen Thsang, the 
Chinese pilgrim of the 7th cent., in 
describing Frayag, gives a circum- 
stantial description of the undecaying 
tree. In the midst of the city, he 
says, stood a Brahmanical temple, to 
which the presentation of a single 
piece of money procured as much 
merit as that of a thousand pieces 
elsewhere. Before the principal room 
of the temple was a tree surrounded 
by the bones of pilgrims who had 
sacrificed their lives there. 

The tree is situated under the wall 
of the Palace, and is reached by 
proceeding straight on from the 
Pillar. Close by is a deep octagonal 
well flanked by two vaulted octa- 
gonal chambers. A few steps lead to 
a dark underground passage, which 
goes 35 ft. straight to the E. , then 
S. 30 ft. to the tree. As no tree 
could live in such a situation, the 
stump is no doubt renewed from 
time to time. There are some idols 
ranged along the passage. In the 
centre of the place is a lingam of 
Shiva, over which water is poured by 
pilgrims. General Cunningham, in 
his Ancient Geography of India, gives 
an interesting sketch of the probable 
changes in the locality, and con- 
cludes: "I think there can be little 
doubt that the famous tree here 
described is the well-known Akhshai 
Pat or undecaying banyan tree, 
which is still an object of worship 
at Allahabad." 

The ramparts at the N.E. side of 
the Fort afford a fine view of the 
Confluence of the Ganges, which is 
i| m. broad, flowing from the N. , 
with the Jumna, \ m. broad, flowing 
from the W. The Ganges is of a 

muddy colour, the Jumna is bluer. 
The Magh Mela, a religious fair of 
great antiquity, to which Allahabad 
probably owes its origin, occurs 
every year about the month of 
January, when a million pilgrims 
come to bathe at the confluence of 
the sacred rivers. 

The Akbar Band runs N.E. from 
the Fort to Dara Ganj. Here the 
Bengal and N.W. Railway crosses 
the Ganges by a fine bridge of 40 
spans of 150 ft. each, to Jhusi, and 
runs 73 ni. to Benares. Beyond the 
old cantonment the new railway line 
to Jaunpur, Fyzabad, and Lucknow 
(p. 275) crosses the Ganges by the 
fine Curzon Bridge. 

W. of the Fort is the Minto Park, 
with the memorial (1910) of the 
Royal Proclamation of the assumption 
of the rule of India by the British 
crown on 1st November 1858. It 
consists of a stone Idt, with medallions 
of Queen Victoria and the late King 
Emperor, surmounted by four lions 
bearing the Imperial coronet. Further 
W. up stream of the Jumna Bridge 
is the large Methodist Episcopal 

The trains to Calcutta run back 
across the Jumna to Naini, and 
thence to 

896 m. Mirzapur station. An im- 
portant, well-built city. Population, 
82,500. Before the opening of the 
East India Railway it was the largest 
mart on the Ganges for grain and 
cotton ; but much of the trade is now 
diverted elsewhere. It is still noted 
for carpets and rugs, dyed with old 
native vegetable dyes, which are 
very permanent. There is a hand- 
some river front with fine ghats. 
The civil station is to the N.E. of 
the city. 

915 m. Chunar, with a famous old 
Fort commanding the Ganges. It 
was in this stronghold that the 
Pathan Sher Shah originally 
strengthened himself against the 
Mughal Emperor Humayun, and it 




was to this that Warren Hastings 
retreated from Benares in 1781. 

931 m. Mughal Sarai junction 
station (R.) for Benares Cantonment 
station 10 m. distant (Route 4), 
across the Ganges, crossed by the 
Dufferin steel bridge nearly f m. long. 

[From Mughal Sarai some of the 
express trains to Calcutta now follow 
the Grand Chord route through Gya 
to Asansol. The principal stations 
passed on the Grand Chord line 
are 62 m. Sasseram (p. 37), 77 m. 
Sone-East Bank (branch of 80 m. 
to Daltonganj), 126 m. Gya (p. 36). 
204 m. Hazaribagh Road, 232 m. 
Gomoh junction for the Bengal 
Nagpur Railway, and 287 m. Asan- 
sol (p. 38). The Japla station, 
on the Daltonganj line, is the nearest 
to Rohtasgarh, the famous fortress of 
the Emperor Sher Shah (1540 A. D.), 
which is well worth a visit. From 
Hazaribagh Road the civil station 
of that name is about 35 m. 

983 m. Buxar station D.B. , famous 
for the great battle won on 26th 
October 1764 by Major Hector 
Munro against the Nawab Vazir of 
Oudh, Shuja - ud - daulah, a battle 
which, more than Plassey, secured 
the English possessions in Bengal. 
It was desperately contended, and 
while 850 were killed and wounded 
on the English side, the enemy lost 
over 2000 in killed alone, and 135 
guns, and their whole camp. 

1032 m. Arrah station, D.B. The 
special interest that attaches to this 
spot centres round the defence of the 
"little house at Arrah" against the 
mutinous soldiers of Dinapur. The 
garrison of that place in May and 
June 1857 consisted of the 7th, 
8th, and 40th Regiments of Native 
Infantry, one company of European, 
and one company of Native Artillery, 
and Her Majesty's loth Foot, under 
the divisional command of Major- 
General Lloyd. On 26th July the 
N.I. troops mutinied and made off 
for Arrah, unpursued, as in the case 
of the Meerut mutineers. An un- 
successful attempt was made on the 

27th to send troops up the river, 
and later, on the 29th, a small body 
of three hundred and forty-three 
Europeans and seventy Sikhs was 
despatched to Arrah by steamer, 
under Captain Dunbar, but was 
compelled to fall back the next day 
after having been caught in an 
ambuscade between the river bank 
and that place, only fifty men and 
three officers returning unwounded. 
For heroic conduct in this attempted 
relief the V.C. was conferred upon 
two volunteers of the Bengal Civil 
Service, Mr M'Donell and Mr Ross 
Mangles. Private Dempsy of the 
loth also won the same reward of 
valour by his brave conduct on this 
and on subsequent occasions. Mean- 
while Major Vincent Eyre, of the 
Bengal Artillery, who had previously 
passed up the river to Buxar, had 
also learned of the attack on Arrah, 
and on 30th July advanced with one 
hundred and sixty men of the 5th 
Fusiliers, and forty Artillerymen with 
three guns, to the relief of the place, 
which lay 48 m. from him. On the 
1st August he had a severe engage- 
ment with the enemy at Bibiganj, 
which was only decided by a resolute 
bayonet charge ; and on the morning 
of the 3rd he effected the rescue of 
the Arrah garrison. The little house 
at Arrah, which had been prepared 
and provisioned for defence by Mr 
Vicars Boyle, engineer of the railway 
then under construction, had on 
that date been held for a week by 
twelve Englishmen, supported by fifty 
of Rattray's Sikhs against a body of 
two thousand mutineers and a large 
mob. The attack was commenced 
on 27th July, but the garrison, under 
Mr Boyle and the Collector, Herwald 
Wake, met the assailants with so 
heavy a fire that they speedily fell 
back to the shelter of trees. On the 
28tb and 29th the enemy subjected 
the house to a continuous fire of 
miscellaneous missiles from two old 
guns, one of which was finally placed 
on the top of the larger adjoining 
house. On the 30th an effort was 
made to burn the defenders out, but 
this failed ; and an attempt to mine 



the house was not carried to com- 
pletion before the relief took place. 
Towards the end of the attack the 
provisions of the garrison began to 
fail, and they were obliged to sink 
a well 1 8 ft. deep inside the house 
to provide themselves with water. 
The house, which stands in the com- 
pound of the Judge, has been con- 
verted into an historical monument by 
Lord Curzon. It is nearly a square, 
and has two storeys, with a verandah 
on three sides, supported by arches, 
which the besieged filled up with 
sand-bags. The lower storey, which 
is little over lo ft. high, was held by 
the Sikh soldiers. 

Arrah is on a branch of the Son 
Canal, the great irrigation work of 
South Behar. 

The Son River is now crossed by 
a bridge nearly 2 m. long, but little 
shorter than the Tay Bridge. 

1056 m. Dinapur Cantonment. 

1062 m. Bankipuri junction sta- 
tion,* (R.), D. B., the headquarters 
of the Patna district, and forming 
the western extremity of the city 
of Patna (station 6 m. farther E., 
136,000 inhabitants), which covers 
10 sq. m., and with its suburbs 
extends 9 m. along the S. bank of 
the Ganges. The ancient city of 
Palabrotha (Pataliputra), on this 
site, the capital of Chandra Gupta, 
extended 10 m. along the river, 
and 2 m. inland from the river 
bank. The modern city contains 
nothing of much interest to the 
traveller, except a building called 
the Gola, which was built for a 
granary in 1783, but has never been 
used for that purpose. It is 426 ft. 
round at the base, built of masonry, 
with walls 12 ft. 2 in. in thickness, 
the interior diameter being 109 ft. 
It is about 90 ft. high, and might 
contain 137,000 tons. Inside there 
is a most wonderful echo, the best 

1 See also Note, p. 311. 

place to hear which is in the middle 
of the building. As a whispering 
gallery there is perhaps no such 
building in the world. The faintest 
whisper at one end is heard most 
distinctly at the other. As a curi- 
osity, if for no other reason, the 
building should be kept up. The 
ascent to the top is by steps out- 
side. Sir Jung Bahadur of Nepal 
rode a pony up the steps outside to 
the top. 

East of the Gola is the fine 
building of the Patna College, and 
3 m. E. of it again the Gulzarbagh 
quarter, in which the great opium 
manufactory was situated. The Har- 
mandir is a shrine specially revered 
by the Sikhs as the birthplace of 
Guru Govind Singh. 

In the city proper, 5 m. from 
the Gola, and on the right side of 
the road near the Roman Catholic 
church, is the grave of the sixty 
English captives'^ murdered by Mir 
Kasim and Samru (p. 221) on 6th 
October 1763, a massacre avenged 
by the storm of the place exactly a 
month later. 

Till its recent abolition Patna 
formed with Ghazipur the agency 
by which the Government monopoly 
of Behar and Bengal opium was 
worked. This opium has been 
famous from time almost immemorial, 
and was for many years one of the 
principal sources of income of the 
E.I. Company. The area under 
cultivation in Behar has been 
greatly reduced under the recent 
agreements with China in 1907 and 
191 1 for the abolition of the use 
of the drug in that country. The 
number of chests exported to China 
is now limited to 30,000, and this 
will be gradually reduced until all 
export ceases in 19 17. China can 
claim this consummation by an earlier 
date, if she can show that opium 
cultivation has been effectively stopped 
throughout the country. The culti- 

2 One of these, H. Lushington, aged only 
26, who had already escaped from the Black 
Hole, slew three of his murderers before he 
was overpowered. 




vation was carried out by a system of 
annual engagements and advances. 
The crop is sown in November, and 
matures in February. The following 
details of the cultivation will be 
found interesting. " The best soil 
for growing is loam, so situated that 
it can be highly manured and easily 
irrigated. The seed is sown in 
November. Several waterings and 
weedings are ordinarily necessary 
before the plant reaches maturity in 
February. After the plant has 
flowered, the first process is to re- 
move the petals, which are used as 
coverings for the opium cakes. The 
opium is then collected by scarifying 
the capsules and scraping off the 
exudation next morning." 

Bankipur is the junction for the 
Tirhoot State Railway, N. ; the 
Bengal and N.W. Railway leading 
to Oudh ; and the Patna Gaya 
Railway S. (see p. 311 and below). 

Expedition to Gaya. 

57 m. from Bankipur. 

This journey will chiefly repay 
the archaeologist or the student of 
Buddhism. The district of Gaya 
contains many places of great 
sanctity ; and the rocky hills which 
run out far into the plains of the 
Ganges valley teem with associa- 
tions of the religion of Buddha, 
many of which have been diverted 
to new objects by modern supersti- 
tion. The Barabar Caves, 16 m. 
north of Gaya, are considered to be 
among the oldest Buddhist monu- 
ments in existence. At the present 
day the chief pilgrims to the temple 
and sacred tree at Buddh Gaya 
are Burmese and devout Mahrattas, 
who come to pray for the souls of 
their ancestors in purgatory. The 
Hindu pilgrim, before leaving his 
home, must walk five times round 
his native village, calling upon the 

souls of his ancestors to accompany 
him on his journey. Arrived at 
Gaya, he is forthwith placed in 
charge of a special Brahman guide, 
with whom he makes the pilgrimage 
of the place. 

Gaya '¥ D.B. is a city of 50,000 in- 
habitants. The temple of Bishn Pad 
in the old portion of it is difficult to 
approach except on foot, owing to 
the extreme narrowness of the streets. 
In it is the Footstep of Vishnu, or 
the Bishn Pad, which is 13 in. long 
and 6 in. broad. It is of silver, and 
is enclosed in a vessel of silver 
inserted into the pavement, which 
has a diameter of 4 ft. Flower and 
other offerings are made to it. 

Buddh Gaya is 7 m. S. of Gaya. 
For the first 5 m. the road is good, 
from that point a country road is 
followed. The origin of the Temple 
of Buddii Gaya is of great antiquity 
(543 B.C.), and is closely connected 
with events of the life of Buddha. 
It is built in a hollow, which 
diminishes its apparent height, and 
is also shut in by small houses. 
The figure of Buddha, which, accord- 
ing to Hiouen Thsang, was of per- 
fumed paste, was destroyed centuries 
ago. Other figures of plaster were 
subsequently made and also destroyed. 
To the left is the place where the 
founder of the present College of 
Mahants, about 250 years ago, per- 
formed Tapasya—'CciZX is, sat sur- 
rounded by four fires, with the sun 
overhead. The ashes were preserved 
in a hollow pillar. 

Much of the stone railing, which 
was once supposed to be the work 
of King Asoka, but is now known 
to be of a date 100 years later, has 
been restored to the position which 
it is supposed to have occupied 
round the original structure. It 
has four bars of stone, supported 
by pillars at intervals of 8 ft. 
The top rail is ornamented with 
carvings of mermaids, or females 



with the tails of fish, inserting their 
arms into the mouths of Makaras, 
that is, imaginary crocodiles, with 
large ears like those ot elephants, and 
long hind legs. Below this top bar 
are three others, also of stone, 
ornamented with carvings of lotus 
flowers. The pillars are adorned 
with carvings of various groups, 
such as a woman and child, a man 
with a woman who has the head 
of a horse. Centaurs, and so 
on. Several additional pillars have 
been lately recovered and erected in 
theirplaces. Mr Fergusson pronounces 
this to be "the most ancient sculp- 
tured monument in India." The 
plinth of the temple is 26^ ft. high, 
and at the top of it is a clear space 
13 ft. broad, which allowed a passage 
round the tower. At each corner of 
the platform was a small temple, and 
outside Asoka's rail were many sub- 
ordinate temples. Behind the temple, 
on a raised platform, is the sacred 
Bo-tree (a pipal or Ficus religiosa) 
under which Buddha sat. The 
numerous figures and votive models 
of the temple and of stupas all round 
the shrine are of late date, i.e., about 
800-1000 A.D. 

Mr J. C. Oman says : " Defaced 
by time and the hand of man, trans- 
formed a good deal through well- 
meant restorations, the celebrated 
temple at Buddh Gaya, even in its 
modern disguised condition, with its 
19th-century stucco about it, and its 
brand new gilt finial, is an imposing 
structure, about 180 ft. high and 
50 ft. wide at its base. All things 
considered, it has certainly lasted 
remarkably well, the material of 
which it is constructed being only 
well-burnt brick cemented with mud. 
Stone has been used only in the door 
frames and flooring. The building 
is plastered with lime mortar. It is 
built in the form of a pyramid of nine 
stories, embellished on the outer side 
with niches and mouldings. Facing 
the rising sun is the entrance door- 
way, and above it, at an elevation 
greater than the roof of the porch 
which once adorned the temple, there 
is a triangular opening to admit the 

morning glory to fall upon the image 
in the sanctuary." 

A Burmese inscription records a 
restoration in 1306- 1309. In 1S77 
permission was granted these Budd- 
hists to again restore the temple, but 
Raja Rajendralala Mitra, deputed 
by the Local Government to inspect 
their work, states that " the Burmese 
carried on demolitions and excava- 
tions which in a manner swept 
away most of the old landmarks." 
The remains of the vaulted gateway 
in front of the temple were com- 
pletely demolished, and the place 
cleared out and levelled. The stone 
pavilion over the Buddha Pad was 
dismantled, and its materials cast 
aside on a rubbish mound at a 
distance. The granite plinth beside 
it was removed. The drain-pipe and 
gargoyle which marked the level of 
the granite pavement were destroyed. 
The foundations of the old buildings 
noticed by Hiouen Thsang were 
excavated for bricks and filled with 
rubbish. The revetment wall round 
the sacred tree had been rebuilt 
on a different foundation on the W. 
The plaster ornaments on the 
interior facing of the sanctuary were 
knocked off, and the facing was 
covered with plain stucco, and 
an area of 213 ft. to 250 ft. was 
levelled and surrounded by a new 
wall. For further description of 
the temple, reference may be made 
to Rajendralala Misra's Buddh Gaya, 
Calcutta, 1878; and Cunningham's 
Arch. Surv. , vol. iii. ; and Sir Edwin 
Arnold's most delightful chapter in 
India Revisited, 1886, " The Land 
of the Light of Asia." 

To the N.W. is a small but very 
ancient temple, in which is a figure 
of Buddha standing. The doorway 
is finely carved. 

From Gaya the S. Behar Railway 
runs E. to Lakhisarai (Som.). The 
Grand Chord line as above noted 
runs S.E. to Asansole, and W. to 
Sasseram (D. B.), (population 2400), 
where the grand tomb of the Pathan 
Emperor of Delhi, Sher Shah 
(1540-45), stands in the middle of a 




masonry tank. This tomb is one of 
the finest in all India (see Fergusson's 
Indiajt An'hitectu?-e, ii. 21 5), and 
should be seen by all interested in 
Oriental buildings. 

Iii8m. Mokamah junction station 
(R.). Line to the N., joining the 
Tirhoot State Railway. To the E. 
the loop line of the East Indian 
Railway, which leaves the main line 
at (262 m.) Lakhisarai junction 
station, runs along the banks of the 
Ganges via Jamalpur, Sahibganj, 
and Tinpahar to Khana (see p. 39), 
where it rejoins the main line. 

1217 m. Madhupur junction sta- 
tion (R.) of the Giridih Line. 

[Excursion to Parasnath. 

Parasnath Mountain. ^ — From 
Madhnpur station to Giridih station 
24 m. by rail, from the latter place to 
the foot of mountain 18 m. by hand- 
drawn dak ghari along a good road. 
Bearers at Madhuban for the ascent 
(2% hrs.). The sportsman and the 
lover of mountain scenery will enjoy 
a visit to this far-famed mountain and 
place of pilgrimage. It is 4488 ft. 
above sea-level, and is the Eastern 
metropolis of Jain worship. Accord- 
ing to tradition, Parasnath, who was 
the 23rd Tirthankar of the Jains, was 
born at Benares, lived 100 years, and 
was buried on this mountain. The 
numerous temples, though most 
picturesque, are of no great antiquity. 

At Madhuban, 1230 ft., is a Jain 
convent on a tableland in a clearance 
of the forest — " the appearance of the 
snow-white domes and bannerets of its 
temple, through the fine trees by which 
it is surrounded, is very beautiful." 
The ascent of the mountain is up a 
pathway worn by the feet of in- 
numerable pilgrims from all parts of 
India. Ten thousand still visit the 
place annually. The path leads 

1 See chap. vi. of Mr Bradley Birt's 
Chota Nagpur. 

through woods with large clumps 
of bamboo over slaty rocks of gneiss, 
much inclined and sloping away from 
the mountain. The view from a 
ridge 500 ft. above the village is 
superb. Ascending higher, the path 
traverses a thick forest of sdl ( Vattria 
or Shorea robustd), and other trees 
spanned with cables of Bauhinia 
stems. At 3000 ft. the vegetation 
becomes more luxuriant, and the 
conical hills of the white ants dis- 
appear. At 3500 ft. the vegetation 
again changes, the trees becoming 
gnarled and scattered. The traveller 
emerges from the forest at the foot 
of a great ridge of rocky peaks, 
stretching E. and W. for 3 or 4 m. 
The saddle of the crest (4230 ft.) is 
marked by a small temple, one of 
many which occupy various promi- 
nences of the ridge, with a beautiful 
view. To the N. are ranges of low 
wooded hills, and the Barakar and 
Aji Rivers. To the S. is a flatter 
country, with lower ranges and the 
Damodar River. The situation of the 
principal temple is very fine, below 
the saddle in a hollow facing the S., 
surrounded by groves of plantain and 
Ficus Ittdica. It contains little but 
the sculptured feet of Parasnath and 
some marble cross-legged figures of 
Buddha, with crisp hair, and the 
Brahmanical Cord. Many chapels 
and altars with such reliefs are dotted 
about the crest. A convalescent 
dep6t for European soldiers was 
established in 1858, but was 
abandoned ; the officers' quarters 
are now utilised as D.B.] 

1262 m. Sitarampur junction 
station for Barakar, 5 m., and 
Katrasgarh, 43 m. 

1268 m. Asansol junction station of 
the Bengal and Nagpur Railway (see 
Route 7). Population, 15,000. 

1279 m. RaniganJ station (popula- 
tion 16,000), on the E. edge of the 
great coal-fields of Bengal, which 
stretch out 384 m. to the W., and 



extend under the bed of the Damodar. 
The place was formerly the property 
of the Raja of Burdwan, hence the 
name. More than thirty species of 
fossil plants, chiefly ferns, have been 
found in the coal, of similar species 
to those in the Yorkshire and 
Australian coal. The mines afford 
regular employment to a large number 
of men and women, chiefly of the 
Bauri tribe. A vast number of 
boatmen on the Damodar river are 
employed in carrying coal to Calcutta. 
The coal is piled on the banks of the 
river, and can be carried down only 
while the Damodar is in flood. The 
mines are said to have been acci- 
dentally discovered in 1820 by Mr 
Jones, the architect of Bishop's 
College at Calcutta. 

The following information regard- 
ing the coal-fields of Bengal vkdll be 
of interest. "The coal of Bengal 
is all derived from the rocks of the 
Gondwana system, and is of the 
Permian age, or rather younger than 
the coal of England. The area of 
the Raniganj field is not less than 
500 sq. m., exclusive of its extension 
under the Ganges Alluvium. The 
next most important field at the 
present day is Karharbari, about 
II sq. m. in area, the greater part 
of which is owned by the E.I. 
Railway Company. This coal-field 
yields the best coal in Bengal. A 
third field" (now the most important 
of all) " is the Jheria coal-field, about 
200 sq. m. in area. It is situated 
16 m. to the W. of the Raniganj 
field. The fourth field is Daltonganj, 
with an area of about 200 sq. m." 
The progress of the Bengal coal 
industry can be judged from the 
following figures of the output : — 
1881, 900,000 tons ; 1891, 1,747,000 
tons; 1907, 8,500,000 tons; 1909, 
11,500,000 tons ; numbers employed, 
130,000. Exports of coal from India 
have risen to 660,000 tons, and 
probably twice as much is loaded 
on steamers for consumption. 

1325 m. Khana junction station for 
the loop line (see p. 38). 

1334 m. Burdwan station. (R.) 

(population, 35,000), headquarters of 
a Division and District, and the resi- 
dence of the Maharaja of Burdwan, 
the descendant of a Panjab Khatri, 
who settled at Burdwan soon after 
the place had been conquered by 
Prince Khurram, later the Emperor 
Shah jahan, in 1624. The Maharaja 
possesses a fine palace in the place. 

1376 m. Hooglily junction station 
for the Eastern Bengal Railway. 

1379 m. Chandernagore and 
Serampore stations. 

1400 m. Howrah Calcutta ter- 
minus (see Route 5). 



Jalgaon, 261 m. from Bombay (see 
p. 28) and 15 m. S. of Bhusawal, is 
30 m. by a good road from Fardapur, 
the nearest rest-house to the Caves of 
Ajanta. There are two T.B.'s on the 
road, which can be occupied by per- 
mission of the Collector of Khandesh 
(Dhulia). Practically no supplies 
are obtainable at it. In fair weather 
the journey from Jalgaon to Fardapur 
will be done by a tonga with two 
pairs of ponies (2/ ordered 2-3 days 
previously through the kind assistance 
of the mamlatdar, Jalgaon, cost about 
Rs. 35) in five hours or somewhat 
less. Otherwise the journey must be 
done by country cart, to be ordered 
through the station-master, Jalgaon, 
and will occupy eight to ten hours. 




The Caves of Ajanta, like those of 
Kanhari, but unUke the majority of 
Buddhist caves, are excavated in the 
scarped side of a deep ravine, at the 
head of which is a steep waterfall. 
They lie 3^ m. from the rest-house ; 
and the Warora stream and its affluent 
from the ravine has to be crossed 
several times in order to reach them ; 
the crossing is generally a simple 
matter, but after heavy rain the chan- 
nels may become impassable torrents 
for some hours or longer. The ravine 
is well wooded and pretty, and the 
view of the curved front of the caves, 
from the inner entrance to it is 
extremely picturesque. The caves, 
which are famous among all such 
remains for the paintings with which 
they were once decorated, are twenty- 
nine in number. Of these, four (Nos. 
9, 10, 19, and 26) are Chaitya 
chapels, and the rest are vihara 
halls. Six of them belong to the 
older Hinayana sect, and the rest to 
the Mahayanas. The oldest and the 
lowest in position are Nos. 9 and 8, 
which date from the and century B.C., 
while the latest are referred to the 
7th century A.D. No. 8, the first on 
the left at the end of the path to 
the caves, is a small vihara, measuring 
32 ft. by 17 ft. by 10 ft. It had two 
cells at each side and two at the sides 
of the antechamber of the shrine. 
It is of the same age as the Chaitya 
Cave, No. 9, which is one of the 
oldest of all the Buddhist caves of 
India, and is 45 ft. deep, 22f ft. wide, 
and 23 ft. high. In dimensions and 
in the decoration of its facade it much 
resembles the Nasik Chaitya Cave 
(p. 27), but is rather older in date 
than that. Fourteen plain octagonal 
pillars on each side separate the nave 
and aisles, and eleven more continue 
the colonnade round the dagoba at 
the end of the cave. The vaulted 
roof once carried wooden ribs ; in 
front of it is the great horseshoe win- 
dow, 11^ ft. high, with a terrace and 
rail in front of it, and a second ter- 
race over the porch, with a guardian 
dwarpal at either end. The dagoba 
is 1 1 ft. high to the top of its capital ; 
this is in form of a relic-box, and prob- 

ably once bore a wooden umbrella. 
Remains of paintings are still visible 
on the left and back wails ; on each 
pillar were once painted representa- 
tions of Buddha, and on the roof 
of the aisles was painted a pattern of 
wooden compartments. 

No. 10 is a still larger Chaitya, 
measuring 95 ft. by 41 ft. by 36 ft., 
and was also once fitted with wooden 
ribs, the roofs of the aisles having 
ribs carved in the stone. Its fa9ade 
has fallen. The dagoba resembles 
that in No. 9 and, as in that cave, 
there are considerable remains of the 
paintings which once covered the 
walls. The costumes depicted in these 
resemble those of Sanchi (p. 98). 

No. 11 appears to have been re- 
modelled. The roof of the verandah 
is painted with birds and flowers. 
The hall measures 37 ft. by 28 ft. by 
10 ft., and is carried by four primitive 
columns. There is a bench along the 
right side. There are three cells on 
the left side, and two cells and a shrine 
in the end wall ; in the shrine is a 
free-cut statue of seated Buddha, with 
a fine kneeling figure in front of it. 

No. 12 is a vihara measuring 36 ft. 
square, with four cells on each of the 
three inner sides, and is probably of 
the same age as No. 9. The cells 
have two couches with stone pillars. 
Over their doors are representations 
of Buddhist windows. 

No. 13 is a small hall, 16^ ft. by 
13I ft. by 7 ft., with seven cells, each 
with a stone couch, round it. This 
completes the group of the older 
caves ; and with Nos. 7 and 6 
begins the group of excavations of the 
Mahayana school. The former (7) 
is a vihara of unusual shape, in that 
it has no hall, the verandah, which is 
preceded by two porches borne by 
columns of the Elephanta type, lead- 
ing directly to four cells and to the 
antechamber to the shrine ; both the 
last are profusely decorated with sculp- 
ture. The statue represents Buddha, 



with his legs crossed under him, and 
his right hand raised to bless. 

No. 6 is the only cave here with two 
storeys. The lower stage, of which 
the front has fallen, measures roughly 
54 ft. square. It is borne by sixteen 
plain octagonal columns in four rows, 
but only seven of these now stand. 
They are connected above by beams 
carved on the ceiling. On each side 
and at the back are cells, and in the 
middle of the last an antechamber 
with Elephanta-like columns leads to 
the shrine containing a seated figure 
of Buddha. The stair from this storey 
leads to the verandah of the upper 
storey, once carried by four columns, 
with chapels outside it and rooms at 
the end of it. The hall measures 
rather less than that of the lower 
storey, and is carried by twelve 
columns arranged round a central 
space. There are cells all round this 
hall also, and a shrine with a front 
chamber in the back wall. 

Nos. 5 to 1 form with Nos. 21 
to 29 the latest group at Ajanta, and 
belong to the 6th and 7th centuries 
A.D. No. 5 has been commenced 
only, but has a handsome door at 
the back of the verandah. No. 4 
is the largest of all the viharas, 
measuring 89 ft. square, and being 
supported by twenty-eight pillars. It 
is surrounded by cells as usual, and 
has a large shrine approached by 
an antechamber at the back. The 
verandah was carried by eight oc- 
tagonal columns, and has three doors 
and two windows in the back wall 
leading to the hall, the centre one 
being decorated with elaborate carv- 
ings. Between it and the right 
window is a sculptured relief of the 
Buddhist Litany, in which two figures 
are represented in each compartment 
as fleeing to Buddha from danger, 
from fire, snakes, and wild beasts. 
No. 3 is a small vihara, of which 
again only the verandah is shaped 
out. No. 2 is a vihara hall, 48 ft. 
square, supported by twelve pillars, 
with five cells on either side and 
one chapel room at each side of the 

antechamber and shnne. There are 
also two chapel rooms at each end 
of the verandah, the front of which 
is carried by four pillars with flower- 
shaped capitals ; the roof of the 
verandah projects 7 ft. to the front 
of the columns. Between the hall 
and theverandah are a finely-decorated 
door and two windows opposite to the 
side aisles formed by the columns in 
the hall, which are richly carved. 
At the end of these aisles are two 
chapel rooms, that on the E. side 
with the figures of a king and a 
queen holding a child, with small 
figures of sporting children below 
them ; and that on the W. side 
with two large male figures. A richly 
carved doorway leads to the shrine ; 
in front of the seated figure in it are 
kneeling worshippers. Traces of 
painting exist in this cave on the 
roofs of the verandah, and the hall 
and its aisles, and in the shrine and 
the two side chapels. The scenes 
on the E. wall of the hall represent 
a royal procession with elephants, 
horses, and armed retainers, and a 
sailing boat laden with jars. 

No. 1 is one of the largest and 
most splendidly decorated viharas of 
all. In the front is a verandah borne 
by six columns, once preceded b\' a 
porch borne by two. Outside the 
verandah are three excavations on each 
wing, and inside is one at each end. 
The hall measures nearly 64 ft. square, 
is borne by twenty columns enclosing 
a central space, and has five cells on 
either side. At the back an ante- 
chapel with two columns, flanked by 
two cells on either side, leads to a 
large shrine. All along the front of 
the cave is a sculptured architrave 
with spirited representations of ele- 
phants, hunting scenes, and groups 
of figures. On the west chapel are 
representations of the four scenes of 
sickness, old age, and death, which 
led Buddha to renounce the world. 
In the upper part of the frieze are 
geese under a band of lions' heads. 
Three doors and two windows open 
into the hall from the verandah, the 
centre door being elaborately carved, 




as are the columns of the back row 
in the hall, and the sides of the other 
rows which face inwards. These 
carvings deserve detailed notice, being 
among the richest and most ornate 
known. In the shrine is a colossal 
statue of Buddha, supported on either 
hand by Indra. At the sides of the 
elaborately decorated doorway to it 
are statues of the goddesses of the 
Ganges and Jumna above, and of 
two snake-hooded guardians at the 
bottom. The whole of the cave was 
once covered with paintings, of which 
a certain amount remains. In the 
four corners of the ceiling are interest- 
ing panels which represent groups of 
foreigners — perhaps Persians. On the 
front wall is represented the reception 
of a Persian embassy by a Raja in 
his palace. On the back wall to the 
E. of the antechamber is a mountain 
scene, and between the doors of the 
two cells a Naga Raja and his wife 
in conversation with another person- 
age, while high up on the wall is a 
snake-charming scene ; further on is 
another scene of a Naga Raja and 
ladies ; and between the second and 
third cell doors, on the E. wall, is 
a scene of elephants and soldiers. 
On the back wall of the antechamber 
to the shrine is a painting of the 
Temptation of Buddha by Mara, such 
as is represented in the bas-relief in 
cave No. 26 

Returning to the centre of the 
path, cave No. 14 is reached above 
No. 13, and forms the third of 
the middle group of Mahayana 
works. According to Mr Burgess, 
Nos. 16 and 17 are the finest of 
the whole series of caves, and with 
the Chaitya cave, No. 19, date from 
about 500 A.D. The first of these, 
a vihara, is incomplete. The 
second. No. 15, has a hall 34 ft. 
square without columns, preceded by 
a verandah, and with six cells on 
each side ; in the back wall are two 
cells and a shrine. No. 16 has a 
verandah 65 ft. long and nearly il ft. 
wide, borne by six plain octagonal 
pillars ; from the front of it steps 
descend to a chamber with a repre- 
seutation of a Naga Raja. Here also 

three doors and two windows open 
from the verandah into the hall, 
which is nearly 66 ft. square, and has 
twenty octagonal pillars, the roof of 
the front aisle being carved to 
simulate beams. On each side are 
six cells. The shrine, which is 
entered direct from the hall, and 
has side aisles separated off by two 
columns, contains in the centre a 
huge statue of Buddha in the teach- 
ing attitude. On the left wall of 
the hall are paintings of a death 
scene, and of Buddha with a beggar's 
bowl, and teaching in a vihara. On 
the right wall, left of the door of the 
first cell, are the remains of a 
representation of Prince Siddhartha 
drawing the bow. No. 17 is very 
similar in size and arrangement to 
No. 16, but has an antechamber to 
the shrine, and two cells on either 
side of the former. Over the central 
door to the hall are a row of painted 
Buddhas. There is only one side 
door and three windows. Between 
the verandah and No. 16 is a fine 
cistern. In front of tlie figure of 
Buddha in the shrine stand two 
figures, one with a mendicant's bowl. 
On the ceiling of the N. end of the 
verandah is a much damaged circular 
painting, in the compartments of 
which human beings and animals are 
represented ; and on the back wall 
of the E. half is a painting of three 
females and a male figure flying 
through the air. The paintings on 
the side walls of the hall have been 
ruined by smoke. On the W. por- 
tion of the back wall is a picture 
with scenes in a court of justice, and 
hunting, and others in which a lion 
plays the principal part. On the 
right wall is a scene of the land- 
ing of Vijaya in Ceylon, and of 
female demons devouring victims. 
No. 18 is merely a porch. No. 19 
is the third Chaitya cave, measuring 
46 ft. by 24 ft. by 24 ft. high. It is 
therefore of very similar dimensions 
to No. 9, but, unlike that, is pro- 
fusely decorated throughout. In 
front of it was a large court, most 
of which has fallen ; but the porcb 
at the t>ack of the court under the 



great arched window still stands, 
and, like the whole fa9ade, is covered 
with elaborate ornament. Five pil- 
lars on each side of the nave separate 
the aisles from it, and five more run 
round the dagoba. Outside the first 
two pillars of each colonnade is 
another, thus completing an aisle 
passage all round the cave. The 
columns have square bases and 
rounded shafts with bands of carving, 
and bracket capitals richly decorated. 
Above the columns on the wall 
under the curved roof were painted 
compartments of figures of Buddha, 
divided by floral arabesques. The 
roof has stone ribs carved under it. 
The front of the dagoba bears a 
figure of Buddha. Outside the cave 
to the W. is a relief of a Naga Raja 
with a seven-headed cobra hood, and 
his wife. No. 20 has a verandah, 
of which the roof is carved in 
imitation of rafters, and a hall 28 ft. 
by 25 ft. ; the antechamber here 
projects into the hall. 

The rest of the caves, from 21 to 
29, complete the group of the later 
Mahayana caves, and lie considerably 
further W. The verandah of 21, 
which has fallen, had at each end of 
it a chapel chamber with two pillars 
in front, with the earliest representa- 
tion, as Mr Burgess believes, of the 
leaf falling over the comers of the 
capitals. The jewel or necklace pat- 
tern on the frieze above is character- 
istic of the work of the 7th century. 
The hall measures 51 ft. square, and 
has twelve columns ; the image in the 
shrine is attended by huge chauri 
bearers. No. 22 is a small vihara 
of 16 ft. square ; the image in the 
sanctuary is represented with its feet 
resting on a lotus. No. 23 is another 
vihara hall about 50 ft. square, with 
twelve pillars ; the sanctuary is incom- 
plete, but all four columns of the 
verandah are entire. No. 24 would 
have been the largest vihara of all, 
but was never completed. It shows 
how these caves were excavated by 
means of long galleries, which were 
broken into one another ; the carv- 
ing which exists is very elaborate. 
No. 26 is a small vihara hall 26 ft. 

by 25 ft. ; the verandah, which has 
two pillars, opened on a court in 
front. No. 26 is the fourth Chaitya 
cave, and is very similar to No. 29. 
It is 68 ft. deep, 36 ft. wide, and 31 
ft. high. The verandah, borne by 
four columns, here also opened on to 
a court with sculptures on the sides of 
it, one on the east side representing 
the Buddhist Litany again. Over 
the verandah was a broad balcony in 
front of the great window, 9 ft. high ; 
on each side of this are various sculp- 
tured reliefs of Buddha. A colonnade 
of twenty-six pillars forms the aisles, 
and runs round the dagoba at the 
back of the cave. The frieze above 
the colonnade is richly sculptured, 
and the roof is decorated with stone 
ribs. The walls of the aisles are 
also profusely decorated with sculp- 
ture ; on the left wall near the door 
from the verandah is a colossal image 
of the dead Buddha, and further 
down the wall is the relief of the 
temptation of Buddha by Mara. The 
dagoba has representations of Buddha 
all round it, and is over 20 ft. high. 
No. 27 is an unfinished vihara, which 
would have been 43 ft. wide and 31 
ft. deep. No. 28, difficult of access, 
would have been a fifth Chaitya, of 
which only part of the great window 
has been excavated. No. 29 is in- 
accessible ; only part of the verandah 
of it was ever completed. 



Benares * (p. 34), (lat. 25° 18'. 
long. 83° 3'), originally Varanasi, 
and commonly called Kashi ("The 
Splendid"), to which the suffix Ji 
is added by the Hindus by way of 




respect (population, 209,000 — Hindus, 
151,000, Brahmans, 30,000), has 
been the religious capital of India 
from beyond historical times. The 
most generally accepted derivation of 
the name Varanasi, is from the 
streams Varana {modern Barna) and 
Asi, the former a river of some size 
on the N. and W. of the city, the 
latter a rivulet now embraced within 
its area. 

The site of Benares has often been 
changed, but there is good ground 
for supposing that the first city was 
built at Sarnath. The past history 
of this, one of the most ancient cities 
in India, is involved in obscurity. 
It is, however, certain that it was 
a most flourishing and important 
place six centuries before the Christian 
era, for Sakya Muni, who was born 
about 558 B.C., and died in 4S7 B.C., 
came to it from Gaya to establish his 
religion, which he would not have 
done had it not been then a great 
centre. Many important writers 
of the Hindus are first heard of 
at Benares. Of intermediate events 
little is known, but the place was 
sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni. We 
learn from Husain Nizami's history 
that in 1194 A.D. Jaichand, Raja of 
Benares, " whose army was countless 
as the sand," was defeated and 
killed by Kutab-ud-din, the general 
of Shahab-ud-din Ghori, and the 
Emperor Alla-ud-din destroyed 1000 
temples, and built mosques on their 
sites. From that date Benares was 
governed by the Moslems, and 
became part of the province of 
Allahabad. It is due to the icono- 
clastic spirit of the conquerors that 
hardly a single building can be found 
in Benares which dates beyond the 
time of Akbar, and there are but 
few which in their present form date 
beyond the time of the Mahratta 
supremacy in the latter half of the 
1 8th century. 

In May 1857 the garrison of 
Benares consisted of the 37th 
N.I., known to be disaffected, and 
the Ludhianah Sikh regiment. Upon 
the arrival of Colonel Neill from 
Calcutta an attempt was made on 

4th June to disarm the regiments on 
parade, but this miscarried, and in 
the end it became necessary to turn 
the guns on the Sikhs, who were 
driven off by the fire of the battery 
of Captain William Olpherts, subse- 
quently so distinguished in the first 
relief of Lucknow, 

Benares is still par excellence the 
Holy City of the Hindus, and the 
great northern centre of the worship 
of Shiva, and the annual number of 
pilgrims who visit it is not less than 
1,000,000, while the number of 
Brahmans residing in the place is 
over 30,000. Every pilgrim, besides 
visiting the various holy spots in the 
city, must make the circuit of the 
Panch Kosi round the sacred territory 
of Benares, commencing at the Mani- 
karnika Ghat, proceeding by the Asi 
Ghat and returning by the Barna 
Ghat (see p. 49). The route, which 
is nearly 45 m. in length, and the 
pilgrimage of which occupies six days, 
is picturesquely lined by fine trees 
and small shrines, and is marked by 
several large temples. 

The ornamental Brass-Work which 
is met with all over the world is a 
speciality of Benares ; but the modern 
work is far less carefully executed 
than the old, which is now difficult 
to procure. Small idols and other 
images in brass and other materials 
are made in great quantities in the 
narrow lanes around the Golden 
Temple. Shawls, silks, and em- 
broideries (Kimkhwab), may also be 
purchased here. 

As the finest view of Benares is 
obtained from the river Ganges, the 
banks of which are bordered by 
Ghats, or flights of stone steps, 
descending to the water from the 
most famous buildings in the city, 
the traveller will do well to spend 
most of his lime in a boat, passing 
along the whole river frontage, where, 
in the morning especially, he will see 
crowds of the people coming down to 
bathe and drink the water of the 
sacred river. 

For those who are pressed for time, 
it will be sufficient to see the Monkey 




as a 
is a 
as a 




Xonaon. JoTm Mnrrar, jUbcniarl" Slrppt 



Temple, the Observatory, and the 
Ghats, as far as "the Panchganga 
GHat, disembarking there to see the 
Golden Temple. The hand-books to 
Benares by the Rev. Mr Sherring 
and the Rev. Mr Parker are useful 
little publications, and Mr E. B. 
Havell s Benares the Sacred City is 
well edited and illustrated. 

The river and native town are 
nearly 2 m. from the 

Cantonment, N. of the railway line, 
where a detachment of Europeans 
and a native regiment are stationed. 
Near the Hotels is St Mary's Churcli, 
with some old tombs ; to the N, 
of these are the Civil Station, and 
to the E. the Nandeshwar Kothi, the 
Government College and the garden 
of Madho Das. The Queen's College 
is a building in the Perpendicular 
style. The interesting Buddhist and 
Hindu remains, once here, have been 
retransferred to Sarnath. To the N. 
of it is an ancient monolitli, 31 J ft. 
high, found near Ghazipur. On the 
obelisk there is a Gupta inscription 
and an English record of its removal. 
In the garden of Madho Das, Warren 
Hastings was encamped when he 
attempted to arrest Maharaja Chait 
Singh of Benares (see below), on 
l6th August 1 78 1, and it was from 
here that, five days later, he was 
obliged to fall back upon Chiinar 
after the repulse of the troops at 

The Nandeshwar Kothi, now be- 
longing to the Maharaja of Benares, 
was the house in which Mr Davis, 
Judge and Magistrate of Benares, 
was attacked by the followers of 
Vazir 'Ali, the deposed Nawab of 
Oudh, who had just killed Mr Cherry, 
the British Resident, in the building 
now occupied by the Collector's 
Court, on the 14th of January 1799. 
Mr Davis sent his wife and two 
children on to the roof, and, with a 
spear, placed himself at the top of 
the staircase leading to it, where he 
successfully defended himself until 
he was rescued by the arrival of a 
regiment of cavalry. In the civil 
station is a house in which Warren 

Hastings once lived ; a sundial con- 
structed by him still exists in the 
garden of it. 

From the Kothi a fine road leads 
to the Raj Ghat and Ganj-i-Shahid 
Mosque, passing the Bakariya Kund 
and Bhairon Lat. The first of these, 
on the right side of the road, was a 
famous, and still is a picturesque, tank 
of Buddhist origin ; close to it is a 
Buddhist shrine, known as the Battis 
Khamba, or Thirty-two Pillars, now a 
Mohammedan tomb. The Lat of 
Bhairon, on the left side of the road 
further on, is another Buddhist relic, 
and may possibly be one of the Lats 
erected by King Asoka. The Ganj- 
i-Shahid on the S. side of the open 
space in front of the Raj Ghat Railway 
Station, is an interesting mosque built 
of fine Buddhist remains, erected as a 
memorial of the Mussulmans who fell 
in the early captures of Benares. 

The London Mission is close to the 
Railway Station on the S. side of the 
line ; the Wesleyan Mission is in the 
middle of the Civil Station ; the 
Zenana and Baptist Missions are 
near the Queen's College, while the 
Hospital of the former, and the 
Church Mission are at Sighra, i m. 
S. of the Railway Station. Further 
on is the Viz ay anagram's Palace, 
built by a Maharaja who died at 
Benares in 1845 (see p. 334). The 
house can be visited by permission 
of the Agent. There is a good view 
from the terraced roof over the 
Ganges, in the direction of Aurang- 
zeb's mosque and the Golden Temple. 
Close to the palace on the W. are 
several Jain Temples. 

The Central Hindu College and 
School in the Kamachcha quarter, 
started under the auspices of Mrs 
Annie Besant, has for its object the 
combination of religious and moral 
education, with mental and athletic 
development for Hindu youths. 
Several lakhs of rupees have been 
subscribed towards the College, which 
contains 250 students; the Principal 
and two Professors are Europeans. 
The College was visited by King 
George on igth February 1906. 




Native Town. 

The Durga Temple, sometimes 
called the Monkey Temple by 
Europeans, from the numbers of 
monkeys which inhabit the large 
trees near it, is about three-fifths of a 
mile S. of the Vizayanagram Palace. 
It is stained red with ochre, and 
stands in a quadrangle surrounded 
by high walls. In front of the 
principal entrance is the band room, 
where the priests beat a large drum 
three times a day. The central 
portion is supported by twelve 
curiously carved pillars, on a plat- 
form raised 4 ft. from the ground. 
Through the doors plated with brass 
the image of the goddess may be 
seen ; in the porch are two bells. 
The temple and the fine tank adjoin- 
ing were constructed by a Mahratta 
Rani in the i8th century. As Durga 
is the terrific form of Shiva's wife, 
and is said to delight in destruction, 
bloody sacrifices of goats are offered 
to her here. 

From this temple the traveller may 
proceed to the Gliats, embarking 
either at the upper end of them from 
the Asi Ghat, or more conveniently 
from the central Dasaswamedli or 
Maa Mandir Ghat, and rowing 
slowly past in front of them. In the 
following account the Ghats are given 
in succession from the S., proceeding 
down stream. 

The Asi Ghat is one of the five 
special places of pilgrimage in 
Benares. The channel of the Asi, 
which here falls into the Ganges, 
is dry during the cold weather, but 
is about 40 ft. broad. The steps at 
the Ghat are a good deal broken. 
It is the nearest from which to cross 
to Ramnagar, the palace of the 
Maharaja of Benares. The next 
Ghat is the Lala Misr Ghat, which 
belongs to the Maharaja of Rewah. 
At the N. end of the Tulsi Ghat, which 
follows, huge masses of masonry have 
fallen, and lie on the river's edge ; 
this Ghat is named after Swami Tulsi 
Das, the translator into Hindi of the 
Sanscrit epic of the Ramayana. The 

Janki Ghat is quite new ; at the top of 

the steps are four Shiva temples with 
gilded pinnacles, and behind them 
is the fine Lularik well. At the 
foot of the Ghat is the pumping 
station of the Benares Water Works. 
The Bachhraj Ghat belongs to the 
Jains who have built three temples 
on the bank of the river. Next 
comes the Shivala Ghat, where the 
fort in which Chait Sing resided 
stood. It is a handsome building, 
and appears as fresh as when first 
constructed. In the upper part of 
the N. wall are five small windows 
in a row, from one of which Chait 
Sing made his escape, when he fled 
from Warren Hastings in 178 1. It 
is now called the Khali Mahal, or 
"empty palace," and belongs to 
Government. In this vast building 
two companies of Sepoys and three 
young officers, who were sent by 
Hastings to arrest Chait Sing, were 
massacred by a mob which discovered 
that the soldiers had come without 
ammunition. When fresh troops 
reached the palace, Chait Sing had 
fled. The graves of the three 
officers, distinguished by a memorial 
tablet, lie a short distance to the 
back of the Palace. The Shivala 
Ghat is one of the finest and most 
crowded of all. Part of it is assigned 
to the religious ascetics called 
Gusains. The next is the Dandi 
Ghat, and is devoted to the staff- 
bearing ascetics called Dandi Pants. 
It is also very fine. The Hanuman 
Ghat, which follows, is large and 
generally crowded ; at the head of 
it is a temple of the Monkey God. 
At the Smashan Ghat, which is used 
as a subsidiary cremation ground, 
wooden pyres may be seen being 
built, while bodies wrapt up in white 
or red cloths lie with their feet in 
the Ganges ready to be burned. 

Passing the Lali Ghat, the Kedar 
Ghat, which comes next, deserves 
attention, as one of the finest and 
loftiest of all. According to the 
religious books of the Hindus, the 
city is divided into three great portions 
— Benares, Kashi, from whence the 
popular name, and Kedar. Kedar is 



a name of Shiva, but it also signifies 
a mountain, and especially a part of 
the Himalayan mountains, of which 
Shiva is the lord, hence called 
Kedarnath. His temple, at the head 
of the steps, is much resorted to by 
the Bengali and Tilanga pilgrims 
to the city. It is a spacious building, 
the centre of which is supposed 
to be the place where Kedarnath 
dwells : the interior can be seen 
from the doorway. At the four 
corners are Shivalas, with cupolas. 
There are two brass figures, hidden 
by a cloth, which is removed on 
payment of a fee. The walls and 
pillars are painted red or white. 
There are also two large black 
figures, which represent dwarpah, or 
janitors ; each has four hands hold- 
ing a trident, a flower, a club, and 
the fourth empty, to push away 
intruders. At the bottom of the 
Ghat is a well called the Gauri Kund, 
or " well of Gauri," Shiva's wife, 
the waters of which are considered 
efficacious in curing fevers, dysentery, 
etc. ; on the steps of the Ghat are 
many lingam emblems of Shiva. 
The Mansarovar Ghat (built by Raja 
Man Singh) leads to the Mansarovar 
tank, round which are sixty shrines. 
Manas or Mansarovar is a fabulous 
lake in the Himalayan mountains, 
near Kailas, or Shiva's heaven. 
Near the tank at Benares so-called 
is a stone 4^ ft. high, and \^\ ft. 
in periphery, which is said to grow 
daily to the extent of a sesamum 
seed. In a street to the E. of the 
tank are figures of Balkrishna, or 
the infant Krishna, and Chatarbhuj or 
Vishnu. The head of the Narad 
Ghat, named after the famous Rishi, 
winds up picturesquely under two 
fine pipal trees. At the Chauki 
Ghat, under a pipal tree, are many 
idols and figures of snakes. In a 
street close by, called Kewal, is a 
figure of Duri^a with ten arms. 

The next Ghat, where the stairs 
ascend into a large house or sarai 
built by Amrit Rao for travellers, 
is the Raja Ghat. On leaving it 
the traveller reaches the Someshwar 
Ghat so called from the adjacent 

temple of the moon, Soma being the 
"moon," and Iskwar "lord." At 
this Ghat every kind of disease is 
supposed to be healed. Close by is 
an alley, in which is the shrine of 
Barahan Devi, a female ^Esculapius, 
who is worshipped in the morning, 
and is supposed to cure swollen hands 
and feet. The Chausathi Ghat is 
one of the most ancient at Benares. 
The Rana Ghat, next to it, built by 
the Maha Rana of Udaipur, is 
not much frequented. The Munshi 
Ghat is the most picturesque of all 
the Ghats at Benares. It was built 
by Munshi Shri Dhar, Diwan of the 
Raja of Nagpur, and now belongs to 
the Maharaja of Darbhanga (p. 31 1). 
The fine Ghat between this and the 
Dasaswamedh Ghat was built by 
Ahalaya Bai, the famous Mahratta 
Princess who governed Indore from 
1765 to 1795 (P- 90). 

The Dasaswamedh Ghat is one 

of the five celebrated places of pil- 
grimage in Benares, the other four 
being the junctions (sangam) of the 
Asi and Barna with the Ganges, and 
the Manikarnika and Panch Ganga 
Ghats. It is specially thronged 
during eclipses. Here Brahma is 
said to have offered in sacrifice 
[medh] ten {das) horses {aswe), and to 
have made the place equal in merit 
to Allahabad. 

At the S. end of the Ghat, which 
should be visited on foot, is a low 
whitewashed shrine of Sitia, the god- 
dess of smallpox, and of the presiding 
deity of the Ghat, figured under a 
brass lingam. Further on at the 
Ghat are life-size stone figures in 
niches of the Ganges, Saraswati and 
Jumna rivers, and of Vishnu, the 
Trimurti or Trinity, and the Narsingh 
or lion-man incarnation of Vishnu, 
which are passed on the way to the 
Man Mandir Ghat and the Observa- 
tory. This lofty building gives a 
fine appearance to the Ghat, and 
commands a beautiful view of the 
river. It was erected by Raja Jai 
Singh, the founder of Jaipur in 
Rajputana, (see p. 140) with four 
other observatories — at Delhi, Muttra, 




Ujjain, and Jaipur, On entering 
the Observatory the first instru- 
ment seen is the Bhittiyantra, or 
"mural quadrant." It is a wall II 
ft. high and 9 ft. \\ in. broad, in the 
plane of the meridian ; by this are 
ascertained the sun's altitude and 
zenith distance, and its greatest de- 
clination, and hence the latitude. 
Then come two large circles, one of 
stone and the other of cement, and a 
stone square, used, perhaps, for ascer- 
taining the shadow of the gnomon 
and the degrees of azimuth. The 
Samrat Yantra seen next is a wall 
which is 36 ft. long and 4^ ft. broad, 
and is set in the plane of the meridian. 
One end is 6 ft. a,\ in. high, and the 
other 22 ft. 3^ in., and it slopes 
gradually up, so as to point to the 
North Pole. By this, the distance 
from the meridian, the declination of 
any planet or star and of the sun, and 
the right ascension of a star are cal- 
culated. There are also a double 
mural quadrant, an equinoctial circle 
of stone, and another Samrat Yantra. 
Close by is the Chakrayantra, between 
two walls, used for finding the de- 
clination of a planet or star ; and 
near it a Digamsayantra, to find the 
degrees of azimuth of a planet or star. 
The instruments are fully described in 
a leaflet obtainable at the Observatory 
(see also the account of the Jaipur 
Observatory, p. 140). 

The Mir Ghat leads up to the 
Dharam Kup or Sacred Well, and the 
Lalita Ghat to the Nepalese Temple, 
a picturesque object, but disfigured 
by indecent carvings ; it does not re- 
semble in the least the Hindu temples. 

The famous Golden Temple (see 
p. 49) is between this Ghat and the 
Jal Sain Ghat, or Burning Ghat, 
which lies beyond the Nepalese 
Temple on the down-stream side, and 
is crowned by a mass of temples and 
spires. Numbers of cremations are 
usually in progress on the spot, and 
many sati stones will be noticed all 
round it ; it is naturally regarded by 
the Hindus as one of the most holy 
places in the whole of Benares. 

^. The Manikamika Ghat is con- 
sidered the most sacred of all the 
Ghats, and in November is visited 
by multitudes of pilgrims. Just above 
the flight of steps, which are enclosed 
by piers running out into the river, is 
the Manikarnika Well, and between 
it and the steps is the temple of 
Tarkeshwara. The well has its name 
from Mani, "a jewel," and Kama, 
"the ear," Devi or Mahadeo having 
dropped an ear-ring into it. During 
the eclipse of the sun it is visited by 
great numbers of pilgrims. The well, 
or, more properly, tank, is 35 ft. 
square, and stone steps lead down to 
the water. Offerings of the Bel tree, 
flowers, milk, sandal-wood, sweet- 
meats, and water are thrown into it, 
and the smell arising from it is in 
consequence anything but pleasant. 
Between the well and the Ghat is the 
Charanapaduka, a round slab pro- 
jecting slightly from the pavement, 
on which stands a pedestal of stone : 
on its marble top are two imprints, 
said to have been made by the feet of 
Vishnu. At the second flight of 
steps of this Ghat is a temple to 
Siddha Vinayak, or Ganesh. The 
idol has three eyes, is painted red, 
and has a silver scalp, and an ele- 
phant's trunk covered with a bib. 
At the feet of the image is the figure 
of a rat, which is the Vahana or 
" vehicle " of Ganesh. 

YvThe Sindhia's Ghat was intended to 
have been one of the grandest of the 
whole front, but owing to the great 
weight of the superstructures the 
foundations have sunk several feet, 
and are still gradually sinking. The 
temple on the left of the S. turret is 
rent from top to bottom, as are the 
stairs leading to the curtain between 
the turrets. It was built about 1830 
A.D. by Baiza Bai, widow of Daulat 
Rao Sindhia, who constructed the 
colonnade round the Well of Know- 
ledge. Passing two Ghats, the next 
reached is the Ghosla Ghat, which was 
built by the Nagpur Raja one hundred 
years ago, and is very massive and 
handsome. The following pictur- 
esque Ghat was built by the last of the 



Peshwas. The Earn Ghat, which 
comes next, was built by the Raja 
of Jaipur. 

The next large Ghat is the Panch- 
ganga Ghat, beneath which five 
rivers are supposed to meet ; it was 
built by Raja Man Singh, and 
carries a number of picturesque 
shrines. Above it rises the small 
mosque of Aurangzeb, called in old 
maps "the Minarets." This was 
built for the Emperor by a Hindu of 
the name of Madho Das, and the 
minarets are still called after him. 
It occupies the site of a temple of 
Vishnu, and was erected to emphasise 
the predominance of the Moham- 
medan religion. The view from the 
top of the minarets, which rise nearly 
150 ft. above the platform of the 
mosque, and are slightly out of the 
perpendicular, is extremely fine. 

Four unimportant Ghats lie be- 
tween this and the second Sitala 
Ghat, below which the Gao or Gau 
Ghat, so called from the number of 
cows that resort to it, and also from 
the stone figure of a cow there, stands 
out into the river. 

The Trilochana Ghat, the next 
reached, has two turrets in the river, 
and the water between them posses- 
ses a special sanctity. The pilgrims 
bathe in the Ganges at this Ghat, and 
then proceed to the Panchganga and 
there bathe again. At the head of 
the Ghat is a temple of Trilochan, or 
the Three-Eyed, another form of 
Shiva. The Prahlad Ghat is the last 
of all, and from it a fine view is 
obtained of the whole river front. 
Further down the stream is the site 
of the old Raj Ghat ferry, now 
spanned by the great Dufferin 
Bridge, and beyond that the junction 
of the Barna and Ganges at the Raj 
Ghat near the bridge. Between the 
junction and the bridge is a piece of 
^igh ground which in the Mutiny 
was strongly fortified, and has ever 
since been called the Raj Ghat Fort, 
now dismantled. 

The Golden Temple is dedicated to 

Bisheshwar, or Shiva, as the Poison 
( Vish) God [Ishwar), a name given 
him because he swallowed the poison 
when the gods and demons churned 
the ocean, and is known as the Adi 
(first) Bisheshwar. The temple, 
which is surrounded by very narrow 
crowded streets, is in a roofed quad- 
rangle, above which rises the tower. 
At each corner is a dome, and at the 
S.E. a Shivala. Opposite the en- 
trance, with its finely wrought brass 
doors, is a shop where flowers are 
sold for offerings, from the upper 
storey of which, on a level with the 
three towers of the temple, the in- 
terior may be seen. The red conical ' 
tower (left) is that of Mahadeo's 
temple ; next to it is a gilt dome, and 
on the right is the gilt tower of 
Bisheshwar's temple. The three are 
in a row in the centre of the quad- 
rangle, which they almost fill up. 
They are covered with gold plates, 
over plates of copper which cover the 
stones. The expense of gilding was 
defrayed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh of 
Lahore. The temple of Bisheshwar 
is 51 ft. high. Between it and the 
temple of Mahadeo hang nine bells 
firom a carved stone framework. One 
of these, and the most elegant, was 
presented by the Maharaja of Nepal. 
The temple of Mahadeo was built 
by Ahalaya Bai, Princess of Indore 
(p. 90). Outside the enclosure is the 
Court of Mahadeo, where on a plat- 
form are a number of lingams, and 
many small idols are built into the 
wall. They are thought to have 
belonged to the old temple of Bish- 
eshwar, which stood N.W. of the 
present one, and of which the remains 
are still to be seen, forming part of 
the mosque which Aurangzeb built on 

In the quadrangle between the mos- 
que and the Temple of Bisheshwar is 
the famous Gyan Kup, "Well of Know- 
ledge," where, according to Hindu tra- 
dition, theemblemof Shivatook refuge 

1 These conical towers, almost universal 
in Hindu temples, are called Sikras or 
Vimanas. The origin of their peculiar 
form is unknown. See Fergusson's Indian 
Architecture, i. 322. 




when theoriginal temple wasdestroyed, 
and still is. The well is protected 
by a high stone screen and covered 
by a stone canopy, and the wor- 
shippers, an eager and excited crowd, 
by whom the quadrangle is always 
thronged, are no longer permitted 
to cast offerings of flowers, etc., 
into it. The roof and colonnade of 
the quadrangle were built in 1S28 
by Baiza Bai, widow of Daulat Rao 
Sindhia. On one side of the colonnade 
is a stone Nandi, given by the Raja of 
Nipal, 7 ft. high. On another side 
is an iron railing, within which is a 
shrine of white marble, and one of 
white stone, and a carved stone sup- 
port, from which hangs a bell. Around 
are many richly carved small temples, 
particularly one to the S. of Bishesh- 
war ; the gateways of the courtyard 
are similarly carved, and small gilded 
spires add to the picturesqueness of 
the scene. 

The great Mohammedan Mosque, 
usually ascribed to Aurangzeb, but pro- 
bably built by Jahangir, lies to the 
N.W. side of the Cyan Kup. The 
Hindus claim the courtyard between 
it and the temple wall, and in con- 
sequence it is entered from the side. 
The beautiful columns in the front of 
the mosque belonged to the destroyed 
temple, of which further fine remains 
may be seen at the back of the mosque. 
During the period of nearly three cen- 
turies since the mosque was built not 
a stone has been loosened. A small 
number of the faithful assemble here 
on Fridays ; at other times it is gener- 
ally deserted. 

Just outside the Golden Temple is 
the Shrine of Sanichar, or Shani, the 
planet Saturn or its regent. The 
image is a round silver disc, from 
which hangs an apron, or cloth, which 
prevents one remarking that it is a 
head without a body. A garland 
hangs from either ear, and a canopy 
is spread above. A few steps beyond 
this is the Temple of Annapuma, a 
goddess whose name is compounded 
o'i Anna, " food," and Purna, "who 
is filled." She is supposed to have 
express orders from IBisheshwar to 
feed the inhabitants of Benares, and 

in front of this temple are always a 
number of beggars. It was built 
about 1725 by the Peshwa of that 
date, Baji Rao. There are four 
shrines in this temple dedicated to the 
Sun, Ganesh, Gauri Shankar, and the 
monkey-god Hanuman. Near it again 
is the temple of SakM Vinayak, the 
witnessing deity (p. 48). It was built in 
1770 by a Mahratta, whose name is 
not recorded. Here pilgrims, after 
finishing the Panch Kosi circuit round 
Benares, get a certificate of having 
done so. S. of the temple to Shani is 
that of Shukareshwar, Shukar being 
the planet Venus, where prayers are 
made for handsome sons. Between 
the Temple of Annapuma, and that 
of Sakhi Vinayak is a strange figure 
of Ganesh, squatting on a platform 
raised a little above the path. This 
ugly object is red, with silver hands, 
feet, ears, and elephant's trunk. 

The narrow streets and lanes which 
connect the Ghats with one another, 
and the parts of the city lying more 
remote from the river front, will be 
found exceedingly picturesque and 
interesting ; but they cannot be de- 
scribed as clean and sweet, and they 
must be traversed on foot, though a 
carriage proceeding along the broader 
streets at the back can be rejoined at 

Among the remaining objects of 
interest in Benares may be mentioned 
the Bhaironath, Dandpan, Bridhkal, 
and Kameshwar temples, and the Arhai 
Kangura mosque, all situated on the 
N.W. outskirt of the city. The first, 
built by Baji Rao in 1825, is remark- 
able for a fine tamarind tree. The 
idol in the temple is considered to be 
the Kotwal, or magistrate of the city, 
who rides about on an invisible dog. 
There is an image of a dog close to 
the idol, and the confectioners near 
sell images of dogs, made of sugar, 
which are offered to it. A Brahman 
waves a fan of peacock's feathers over 
visitors to protect them from evil 
spirits, and they in return must drop 
offerings into the cocoa-nut shell he 
holds. The idol is of stone, with a 
face of silver and four hands. The 
Dandpan temple close to this contains 



the staff of Bhairon, a stone shaft 
4^ ft. high, and the famous Kal Kup 
or Well of Fate into which the sunlight 
falls from a hole in the wall above. 
The Bridhkal temple contains a well 
and a small tank renowned for the 
curing of diseases. Near it is the 
Alamgiri mosque, constructed in the 
second year of the reign of Aurangzeb, 
of pillars from an old temple. The 
Arhai Kangura Mosque, which, with 
the Kameshwar temple of the God of 
Love, lies to the N.W, of Bhaironath 
and near the Machadri Tank, is built 
of old Buddhist remains, like the 
Ganj - i - Shahid (p. 45). In the 
Victoria Park is a statue of the Queen- 

The palace of the Maharaja of 
Benares at Ramnagar, on the right 
bank of the Ganges, may be visited 
by permission, to be obtained from 
the Secretary to His Highness. It 
stands above a fine ghat, and affords 
a splendid view of the river front of 
Benares. The Maharaja has been 
recently granted the powers of a 
ruling chief in his domain. 


Samath. — The site of old Benares, 
where Buddha taught, lies about 
4 m. N. of the Civil Station ; it can 
now be reached by the line from 
Benares to Mau junction and Bhatni, 
and also by the Ghazipur road, 
which is left at the third mile-stone. 
Shortly after turning to the left, two 
towers are seen, one, the Chaukandi 
on a hill; the other — § m., farther 
N. — the Buddhist Tope figured in 
Fergusson's Hist, of Arch., which 
has an excellent account of it, and 
a representation of the panelling. 
"The best known as well as the 
best preserved of the Bengal topes, 
is" the Dhamek^ Stupa "at Samath. 
It was carefully explored by General 
Cunningham in 1835-36, and found 
to be a stupa — viz., containing no 
relics, but erected to mark some spot 
sanctified by the presence of Buddha, 

1 Dhamek is a corruption of Dharma 
Desaka, preacher of the Law. 

or by some act of his during his long 
residence there. It is situated in the 
Deer Park, where he took up his 
residence, with his five disciples, 
when he first removed from Gaya 
on attaining Buddhahood, and com- 
mencing his mission as a teacher. 
What act it commemorates we shall 
probably never know, as there are 
several mounds in the neighbourhood, 
and the descriptions of the Chinese 
pilgrims are not sufficiently precise 
to enable us now to discriminate 
between them." 

The building consists of a stone 
basement, 93 ft. in diameter, and 
solidly built, the stones being clamped 
together with iron to the height of 
43 ft. Above that it is in brickwork, 
rising to a height of no ft. above 
the surrounding ruins, and 128 ft. 
above the plain. Externally the 
lower part is relieved by eight pro- 
jecting faces, each 21 ft. 6 in. wide, 
and 15 ft. apart. In each is a small 
niche, intended apparently to contain 
a seated figure of Buddha, and below 
them, encircling the monument, is a 
band of sculptured ornament of the 
most exquisite beauty. The central 
part consists of geometric patterns of 
great intricacy, but combined with 
singular skill ; and above and below 
foliage equally well designed, and so 
much resembling that carved by Plindu 
artists on the earliest Mohammedan 
mosques at Ajmer and Delhi, as to 
make us feel sure that they cannot be 
very distant in date. 

" In his excavations. General Cun- 
ningham found, buried in the solid 
masonry, at the depth of loj ft. firom 
the summit, a large stone, on which 
was engraved the usual Buddhist for- 
mula : 'Yedharmma hetu,' etc., in 
characters belonging to the 7th cen- 
tury." Mr Fergusson writes that he 
is "inclined to adopt the tradition 
preserved by Captain Wilford, to the 
effect that the Sarnath monument was 
erected by the sons of Mahi Pala, and 
interrupted by the Mohammedans in 
loi 7 A. D. , before its completion. The 
form of the monument, the character 
of its sculptured ornaments, the un- 
finished condition in which it is left, 




and indeed the whole circumstances of 
the case," he continues, " render this 
date so much the most probable, that 
I feel inclined to adopt it almost 
without hesitation."! 

Recent excavations have greatly 
added to the knowledge of the various 
buildings at Sarnath. Taking the 
Dhamek stupa, which stands on high 
ground, as a centre, the base of the 
stupa of Jagat Singh (so called after 
its destroyer) will be found 500 ft. 
to the W. ; this is marked by the 
peculiarity of an enclosed ambulatory. 
120 ft. N. of it, with a number of 
small stupas between, is the Main 
Shrine, with a rail on its upper part, 
standing on a large concrete pave- 
ment. W. of this is the broken 
Asoka pillar, once 51 ft. high, 
believed to mark the spot where the 
teacher first preached ; its capital of 
four lions supporting the wheel of the 
law was found beside it. E. of the 
Main Shrine is a stupa of the 7th 
century, with more small stupas on 
its N. side. In the same direction 
are the excavations of various large 
monasteries, one ascribed to the 
nth century having an enclosure over 
700 ft. long. A museum has been 
erected on the spot, and contains all 
important detached finds. 

The Chaukandi tower first men- 
tioned above, and passed on the way 
to the stupa, stands on a very steep 
mound about 100 ft. high, in which 

1_ Fergusson's Indian Architecture, i. 72. 
This conclusion is now challenged on the 
basis of recent excavations, and it is con- 
sidered that the stupa should be referred to 
the Imperial Gupta era, c 350 a.d. 

a Buddhist building with several 
terraces has lately been laid bare. 
The tower was erected by the 
Emperor Akbar to commemorate a 
visit of his father Humayun in 
1588 A.D, 

Sarnath was visited by the Chinese 
Buddhist pilgrims, Fa-Hian in 399 
A.D., and Hiouen Thsang in 629-645 
A.D. The former says: "At 10 li 
(2 m.) to the N.W. of Benares is the 
temple, situated in the Deer Park 
(Mriga dava), of the Immortal." 
Hiouen Thsang states that to the 
N.E. of Benares was a stupa, built 
by Asoka, 100 ft. high, and opposite 
to it a stone column "of blue colour, 
bright as a mirror." He says the 
monastery was divided into eight 
parts, and was surrounded by a wall, 
within which were balustrades, two- 
storeyed palaces, and a Vihara, 
200 ft. high, surmounted by an An- 
molo or mango in embossed gold. 
There were 100 rows of niches round 
the stupa of brick, each holding a 
statue of Buddha in embossed gold. 
To the S.W. of the Vihara was a 
stone stupa raised by Asoka, having 
in front a column 70 ft. high, on the 
spot where Buddha delivered his first 
discourse. W. of the monastery was 
a tank in which Buddha bathed, to 
the W. of that another where he 
washed his monk's water-pot, and to 
the N. a third where he washed his 
garments. Close to the tanks was a 
stupa, then another, and then in the 
midst of a forest a third. To the 
S.W. of the monastery at ^ a m. was 
a stupa, 300 ft. high, resplendent with 
jewels, and surmounted by an arrow. 




"Alipur ...... 6i 

Arsenal 62 

Asiatic Society of Bengal ... 59 

Ballygunge 60 

Bandel 69 

Barrackpur 66 

Belvedere (Lt. -Governor's Residence) 61 

Bishop's College 60 

Black Hole 63 

Brahma Somaj 65 

Budge Budge ..... 70 

Calcutta University Senate House . 65 
Cathedrals — 

St Paul's 59 

Roman Catholic .... 64 

Chandernagore . . . . 68 

Cbinsurah 69 

Churches — 

Armenian 64 

Greek ...... 64 

Old Mission . . . . • 63 

St Andrew's, or Scotch Kirk . . 6} 

St John's (Old Cathedral) . . 63 

St Thomas's (Roman Catholic) . 59 

Synagogue 64 

Dalhousie Institute .... 62 

Diamond Harbour .... 71 

Dum Dum 67 

Empress, All India Memorial Hall . 60 
Engineering (Civil) College . . 66 
Old Fort ...... 62 

William 62 

Garden Reach 61 

Gardens — 

Agri-Horticultural .... 61 

Botanical 65 

Eden _ 55 

Zoological 61 

Government House .... 56 

High Court 56 

Hooghly 68 

Hospitals — 

Medical College Hospital . 64 

Ezra 64 

Campbell 65 

Hospitals— continued. 
Dufferin . 


Military . 


Howrah . . 

Jain Temple . 

Maidan or Esplanade 
Metcalfe Hall 
Mint . 

Mosque of Prince Ghulara Muham 
Museums — 

Economic . 

Imperial . 
Ochterlony Monument 
Post-0 fBce . 
Public Buildings . 
Race-course . 
Railway Stations — 

Howrah (E. I. R. and B.N. Ry.) 

Sealdah (E. Bengal Ry.) 

Mutla and Diamond Harbour 
Secretariat of Bengal Government 
Serampore . 
Statues — 


King Edward . 

Lord Auckland 

SirS. Bayley . 

Lord W. Bentinck 

Lord Canning . 

Lord Dufferin . 

Lord Hardinge 

Lord Landsdowne 

Lord Lawrence 

Lord Mayo 

Lord Napier 

Lord Northbrook 

Sir James Outram 

Sir W. Peel 

Lord Roberts . 
Telegraph Office . 
Town Hall . 












History. — The capital of India ^ is 
of more recent birth than the premier 
cities of the two sister Presidencies 
dating only from 1690, when Hooghly, 
at which a settlement had been estab- 
lished forty-eight years previously, 

1 Busteed's Echoes fro>n Old Calcutta 
contains much information about the place 
at the end of the i8th century. Blechyn- 
deii's Calcutta Past and Present, and Fir- 
minger's Guide to Calcutta are also full of 

being abandoned in favour of the 
present site, on which the three 
villages of Satanati, Kalikata, and 
Govindpur then stood, Mr Job 
Charnock being the leader of the 
merchants who settled here. These 
estates were formally sold to the 
East India Company by the Governor 
of Bengal, Prince Azim, son of the 
Emperor Aurangzeb, in 1700, some 
five years after the construction of the 





Old Fort William (p. 62). Ten years 
later the place, which then had a 
population of 10,000, was formed 
into a separate Presidency ; and it 
continued to flourish, owing to its 
favourable position at the gate of 
the principal waterways of N. India, 
until 1756, when the fort not being 
defensible, it was attacked and taken 
by the Nawab of Murshedabad, 
Suraj-ud-daulah, in return for the 
burning of Hooghly by British 
vessels. Most of the British, in- 
cluding the governor, fell down the 
river in ships to Fulta ; those who 
remained and attempted a defence 
became the victims of the uninten- 
tional tragedy of the Black Hole on 
26th June (see p. 63). Early in 
December Colonel Clive arrived with 
troops from Madras, and the Nawab's 
forces being withdrawn north with- 
out fighting, the British Flag was 
run up by Captain Coote — afterwards 
Sir Eyre Coote — and once more waved 
above Fort William ; and after some 
negotiations, an agreement was 
entered into by which the Nawab 
promised to restore the trading privi- 
leges of the Company and return 
the property plundered in Calcutta. 
Shortly afterwards a conflict en- 
sued between the Dutch and British, 
which ended in the capture of 
Chandernagore by the latter on 
23rd March. Encouraged by the 
French in his service, and by proff"ers 
of support from the Mahratta Chief 
of Nagpur, Suraj-ud-daulah ulti- 
mately refused to accept an exclusive 
alliance with the British, and this 
led in due course to the Battle of 
Plassey, on 23rd June 1757. In 1773 
the present Fort William was com- 
pleted. In 1774 Warren Hastings, 
who had become Governor of Bengal 
two years previously, was made the 
first Governor - General of Bengal, 
and given authority over Bombay 
and Madras, and the Supreme Court 
of Calcutta was established. The 
old Cathedral of St John was built 
between 1783 and 1787, and the 
bishopric of Calcutta was created 
in 1 8 14, the first Bishop being Dr 
Middleton, and the second {1823), 

Reginald Heber. Government House 
was erected between i797 and 1804, 
the Town Hall in the latter year, 
and the Mint between 1824 and 1830, 
while the Botanical Gardens were 
created about 1790. It will thus be 
seen that some of the finest buildings 
in Calcutta are of much earlier date 
than those of Bombay and Madras. 
In 1852 Calcutta was created a Muni- 
cipality, and in the year following 
passed with the rest of Bengal under 
the direct control of a Lieutenant- 
Governor — Sir F. Halliday being the 
first to hold this high office — and in 
1857 it received its University. In 
1 86 1 the Legislative Council of the 
Lieutenant-Governor was created, and 
in 1865 the Corporation in lieu of the 
Municipality. The Chamber of Com- 
merce dates from 1834, and the Port 
Trust Commission, which consists of 
fifteen members, from 1870 ; the 
latter administers an annual income 
of ;^8oo,ooo. 

The population of the city is now 
1,037,000 (with suburbs, 1,216,514). 
In 1 90 1 it was distributed as foljows: — 


Mohammedans . 
Christians . 




Jews . 


The increase has been very large 
since the first census was taken in 
1872, but the area of the city census 
has also changed greatlj'. Early in 
the last century the population was 
about 200,000, and in 1850, 400,000. 
The trade of the Port is valued as 
follows : — 




The former consist mainly of piece- 
goods, iron and steel, machinery and 
railway stores, oil, sugar, and liquors, 
and the latter of jute, tea, opium, oil 
seeds, grain, hides, indigo, raw silk 
and cotton, and coal. The record 
year of trade was 1907-8. There are 
202 factories and mills in and, chiefly, 
round Calcutta, employing over 
250,000 daily operatives. 

The income of the Corporation 
amounts to 71 lakhs, derived chiefly 



from a consolidated rate, a tax on 
trades and professions, and a tax on 
vehicles and animals. There is a 
municipal debt of 350 lakhs in the 
form of municipal loans. 

The Corporation consists now of 
fifty members — twenty-five elected 
and twenty-five appointed by Govern- 
ment, or nominated by certain special 
bodies. The executive duties of the 
Corporation are discharged by a 
general committee of twelve members, 
four chosen by the elected and four by 
the selected and nominated members, 
and four appointed by the Local 
Government. The chairman is also 
appointed by Government, and has 
entire control of the executive opera- 
tions of the Corporation. There is 
every reason to hope that the present 
Corporation will prove as capable 
and go-ahead as the old Corporation 
was incapable and obstructive. 

Calcutta is situated in lat. 22° 34', 
long. 88" 24'. It is the headquarters 
of the Government of the Lower 
Provinces of Bengal, as well as the 
winter headquarters (November to 
April) of the Government of India. 
The principal Lieutenant-Governors 
of Bengal since 1858 have been Sir J. 
P. Grant, Sir R. Temple, Sir Ashley 
Eden, and Sir C. Elliot. The late 
Lieutenant - Governor, Sir John 
Woodburn, died in office in 1902. 
The present Lieutenant - Governor 
is the Hon. Sir E. N. Baker, 

(1). The Maidan and Quarters 
East and South of it. 

The centre of Calcutta is the famous 
Maidan or Esplanade, bounded on the 
W. side by the Hooghly river and the 
Strand Road, and on the E. side by 
Chowringhee Road ; it is nearly 2 m. 
long, and is | m. broad at its head, 
and i^ m. broad at the S. end. 
Government House, the residence of 
the Vice'roy, faces it on the N., 
while Belvedere, where the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Bengal lives, is 
not far removed from the southern 
limit. In the centre of the W. side 

is Fort William, and on or near the 
E. side are the principal hotels, the 
United Service and Bengal Clubs, and 
the Imperial Museum ; in the N.W. 
corner are the Eden Gardens, and in 
the S.E. are the Racecourse, the Presi- 
dency Jail, and the Cathedral. The 
Strand Road above the river bank 
affords fine views of the shipping and 
water traffic ; another main road, 
known as the Red Road, runs down 
the centre of the Maidan from N. to S. 
The Eden Gardens, for which Cal- 
cutta is indebted to the sisters of Lord 
Auckland, are beautifully laid out, 
and were for many years the principal 
evening gathering- place of Calcutta 
society. In them is the Calcutta 
Cricket-ground, and on the side of 
the water is a picturesque Burmese 
Pagoda brought from Prome, and set 
up here in 1856. Close to the S.W. 
gate is the statue of Sir William Peel, 
the famous commander of H.M.S. 
Shannon, who served with his crew 
at Luck now under Sir Colin Campbell 
(p. 305), and died of smallpox at 
Cawnpore after the final relief of the 
Residency ; and on the N. side are 
the statues of Lord Auckland, Lord 
William Bentinck, and Lord North- 
brook. W. of these on the river 
bank is Babu's Ghat, where is a 
swimming-bath and the boat-house 
of the Calcutta Rowing Club, and 
above it the Chandpal Ghat, affording 
a fine view of the river ; it was at this 
Ghat that the members of the Supreme 
Council sent from England, and Sir 
Elijah Impey and the Judges of the 
Supreme Court landed in October 
1774. A little further up stream the 
building of the Bank of Bengal faces 
the Hooghly ; and beyond this are 
the principal jetties extending for 
i m. up to the floating bridge 1500 
ft. long and 48 ft. wide, constructed 
in 1873- 74 ^t a cost of a quarter of a 
million. From Chandpal Ghat the 
broad Esplanade Row leads to the 
E., passing the High Court, the Town 
Hall, and Government House, and 
ending at Dharamtolla Street, from 
which point Chowringhee Road leads 
S. along the E. side of the Maidan, 
and Bentinck Street (in which is the 




Masonic Hall, continued as Chitpur 
Road, leads to the extreme N. point 
of the city on the river bank. 

The High Court, built in 1872, 
after the town hall at Ypres, is a 
fine building with a tower 180 ft. 
high. The Chief Justice's Court is 
in the S.W, corner. The Court of 
First Instance is at the S. E. corner. 
In the E. face is the Barristers' 
Library. The Attorneys' Library is 
in the E. corner ; and here is a por- 
trait of Justice Norman. In other 
public rooms are portraits of Sir Wm. 
Burroughs, by Lawrence, 1818; Sir 
William Macnaughten, by Chinnery, 
1824; Sir Elijah Impey, by Kettle, 
1778 ; and the Honourable Shambu 
Nath Pandit, the first Indian Judge. 
In the Chief Justice's Court are the 
pictures of Sir R. Garth — Sir H. 
Russell, by Chinnery, 1872, robed in 
red ; Sir John Anstruther, 1805 ; and 
Sir E. Impey, by Zofiany, 1782. At 
the head of the Chantrey's staircase is 
a statue of Sir Edward Hyde East, 
1821. In the Judges' Library are six 
pictures of Justices Trevor, H, B. 
Harrington, and John Russell Colvin, 
who died at Agra in 1857 (p. 175), 
and opposite these, of Sir Ed. Ryan, 
Sir Robert Chambers, and Sir 
Lawrence Peel. Among the records 
of the Court is that of the trial of 
Nand Kumar, by Sir Elijah Impey 
and two other judges and a jury. 
There is a garden in the centre 
quadrangle and a fountain. 

The Town Hall, standing W. of 
Government House, was built by the 
inhabitants of Calcutta in 1804, and 
cost ;(f70,ooo. The style is Doric, 
with a fine flight of steps leading to a 
portico on the S. The carriage en- 
trance is to the N. under a portico. 
The centre of the building is occupied 
by a saloon 162 ft. long and 65 ft. 
broad. In the S. front is a central 
room, 82 ft. long by 30 ft. broad, and 
two smaller rooms. In the S. vesti- 
bule is a marble statue of Warren 
Hastings, by R. Westmacott, R.A., 

standing between a Mohammedan 
and a Hindu. At the W. end of the 
lower saloon is a marble statue by 
J. Bacon, junr., of the Marquis of 
Cornwallis, who is thus represented 
in all the three presidential capitals 
of India. This statue was erected 
by the British inhabitants of Bengal, 
1803 A.D. In the hall is a statue of 
Maharaja Ramanath Tagore. In the 
vestibules are busts of the Duke of 
Wellington, Sir Proby Cautley, and 
several others ; and portraits of Lord 
Lake, Lord Gough, Sir C. Metcalfe, 
Sir H. Durand, Dwarkanath Thakur, 
Bishop Wilson, Mr Wilberforce Bird, 
Sir Henry Norman, Dr Duff, Bishop 
Wilson, Sir William Grey, Sir Rivers 
Thomson, and Babu Keshab Chandra 
Sen. There are also full-length por- 
traits of Queen Victoria and Prince 
Albert, presented by Her Majesty to 
the city of Calcutta. 

Government House is situated in a 
fine enclosure of 6 acres, standing 
back from the Maidan, which is here 
dignified by the Jubilee statue of the 
Queen - Empress Victoria, unveiled 
in 1902, and the statues of Lord 
Lawrence, Lord Canning, and Lord 
Hardinge. The Queen's statue, the 
work of Mr Frampton, will ultimately 
be transferred to the Queen-Empress 
Memorial Hall ; and the statue of 
King Edward, entrusted to Mr 
Mackennal, will probably be placed 

Government House was begun under 
the Marquis of Wellesley (the architect 
being Captain Wyatt), and finished in 
1804, the design being copied from 
that of Kedlestone Hall, Derbyshire, 
built by Adam. In the breakfast- 
room at the head of the fine staircase 
is a well - executed white marble 
statue of the Marquis of Wellesley, 
with portraits of the same Governor- 
General, and of the Earl of Ellen- 
borough and Marquis of Dalhousie. 
The Diytiiig - room is of white 
chunam, with a floor of veined 
white marble. On either side are six 
well-executed marble busts of the 
Csesars, taken from a French ship at 
the end of the l8th century. The 



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Th-one-room is so called from its 
containing the Throne of Tipu Sultan. 
The pictures are — Queen Charlotte, 
standing ; George III. (both supposed 
to be by Hudson, the master of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds) ; General the Hon. 
Arthur Wellesley, 1803, by Home, 
R.A. (one of the best in the collec- 
tion, and extremely interesting) ; the 
Earl of Amherst ; and the Marquis of 
Hastings. In the curved passage to 
the Council-room in the E. wing are 
portraits of the Earl of Auckland, 
Lord Lawrence, Earl Mayo, the 
Marquis of Dufferin, Earl Canning, 
the Marquis of Ripon, Viscount 
Halifax, and Lord Wm. Bentinck. 

In the Council-room are pictures of 
the Earl of Minto, 1807-13; Marquis 
of Cornwallis, 1786-98-1805; Lord 
Hardinge, 1844-48, a |-length por- 
trait, in blue undress, wearing a Star ; 
Warren Hastings, 1772-85, with a 
motto, "Mens sequa in arduis," at 
the top — a fine picture ; the Earl of 
Elgin ; the Marquis of Wellesley ; 
Lord Clive, |-length, wearing Riband 
of the Bath, by Nathaniel Dance. The 
meetings of the Legislative Council 
of India, as well as of the Supreme 
Council of the Viceroy, are held in 
this chamber. 

On the staircase from this wing to 
the upper storey are portraits of Lord 
Northbrook and Lord Lytton, and 
on the staircase in the S. E. wing are 
pictures of Louis XV. and his Queen, 
by Carle Van Loo ; of the Duke of 
Clarence, the Duke of Wellington, 
and Sir Jang Bahadur of Nepal ; of 
Lady William Bentinck, by Beechy ; 
of the Nawab S'aadat 'Ali Khan, by 
Chinnery ; Fateh Ali, Shah of Persia, 
1798 ; Jaswant Singh, Maharaja of 
Bharatpur, by Anger ; Amir Sher 
Ali Khan, by W. M. White ; and 
the surrender of the sons of Tipu 

Above the dining-room and the 
adjoining rooms is a splendid ball- 
room. The floor is of polished teak, 
and the ceilings are beautifully 
panelled, after designs by Mr H. M. 
Locke. The chandeliers and the por- 
trait of Louis XV. are said to have 

been captured from the French at 
Chandernagore in 1757. 

On the N. side of Government 
House is a fine brass 32-pounder, 
taken at Aliwal, and inscribed in 
Gurmukhi. On either side is a 
6-pounder brass tiger-gun, taken from 
Tipu Sultan. There are also two 
large brass guns inscribed, " Miani, 
17th February," and "Hyderabad, 
30th of March 1843"; and another 
with a carriage representing a dragon, 
which is a trophy of the peace of 
Pekin, 1842. 

Outside the W. gate is a statue 
of Sir Stewart Bayley, Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal. At the N. 
angle of Dharumtolla Road is a 
large mosque erected during the 
Government of Lord Auckland, by 
Prince Ghulam Muhammad,^ son of 
Tipu Sultan, killed 1799, '^ gratitude 
to God, and in commemoration of 
the Honourable Court of Directors 
granting him the arrears of his stipend 
in 1840; and in the N.E. corner of 
the Maidan is the large Dharamtolla 
Tank with the Ochterlony monument 
on the S. side of it. This is a column 
165 ft. high, raised in 1823 in honour 
of Sir David Ochterlony, who brought 
the Nepal war (1814-16) to a success- 
ful conclusion, and was afterwards 
Resident in Malwa and Rajputana. 
From the galleries a fine view over 
Calcutta is obtained. 

Beyond the Royal Theatre and the 
Continental and Grand Hotels in 
Chowringhee Road is the Imperial 
Museum. In front of the former on 
the Maidan are the Monohar Dus 
Tank and the statue of Lord Mayo, 
while to the E. of them lie the 
municipal office, and the large muni- 
cipal markets, and beyond them, on 
Wellesley Road (which with Welling- 
ton, College and Cornwallis Roads 
form the second great thoroughfare 
from S. to N.) rises the Mohammedan 

The Imperial Museum, 27 Chow- 
1 This gentleman died as lately as 1878. 




ringhee Road, is an immense building, 
with a frontage of 300 ft. and depth of 
270 ft., and contains a very fine Geolo- 
logical collection and a Library ; but 
the most important feature is the 
Gallery of Atitiquities, well worth 
inspection, particularly the Buddhist 
remains brought from the tope at 
Bharhut (see Fergusson's Hist, of 
Arc/i.,-pp. 86-90) ; from Buddh Gaya, 
from Muttra and Gandhara (Panjab). 
Unfortunately there is no recent cata- 
logue. Some display exquisite feel- 
ing, and are executed with a vigour 
and grace worthy of the Greeks. 
The Bharhut sculptures are among 
the most interesting in all India ; a 
number of them are inscribed with 
the name of the Jataka or Sacred 
Story which they represent. 

The most interesting objects are 
the carved rails from Bharhut and 
Buddh Gaya ; but among the objects 
from Muttra may be noticed a figure 
of Buddha, 6 ft. high, with a halo 
behind the head, carved with floral 
devices, and in the Gandhara Collec- 
tion a portion of a frieze representing 
six naked boys, quite classic in design, 
and a domestic scene, suggesting the 
Stable at Bethlehem. 

The archaeologist will find here 
selected pieces from the most famous 
ancient buildings in India. There 
are interesting fragments of Buddhist 
art from the caves of Orissa, from 
Sanchi, and Buddh Gaya from 
Muttra, and Sarnath, near Benares ; 
the collection of Greco Buddhist 
and Indo-Scythian sculptures is very 
fine. In the separate Asoka Gallery 
are casts of all the rock edicts of that 

Amongst the Siwalik Fossil 
Remains may be observed the 
Hyjenarctos or Hyjena-Bear ; the 
Amphicyon, a dog-like animal as 
large as the Polar bear ; the 
Machairodus or Sabre-tooth tiger, 
whose canine teeth were 7 in. long ; 
also the Siwalik cat, which was at 
least as large as a tiger. There is 
the skeleton of an elephant 1 1 ft. 
high. Amongst Siwalik birds there 
are the shank-bone and the breast- 

bone of a wading-bird as big as an 
ostrich. This bird has been called 
the Megaloscelornis, and these bones 
are the only ones belonging to this 
species existing in the world. In 
the Upper Paleontological Gallery 
there are many bones of the Dinornis. 
Amongst the reptiles, remark a 
crocodile, from Matlah, 18 ft. long, 
and a snake of the Python species, 
of the same length. The remains of 
the Crocodilus crassidens, are those 
of an extinct species of enormous 
dimensions. There is also a speci- 
men of the Siwalik Colossochelys, a 
gigantic tortoise of prodigious size. 
It will be noticed that whereas all 
the species and many of the genera 
of the Siwalik Mammals and Birds 
are entirely different from those 
inhabiting the earth, all the genera 
of the Reptiles have living representa- 
tives in India. The Collection of the 
Fossil Vertebrata of the Siwaliks is 
the most complete and comprehen- 
sive in the world. 

As to Minerals, it may be said that 
most of the diamonds exhibited are 
Indian, from Bundelkund, S. India, 
and Sambalpur. There are also 
models of the most celebrated 
diamonds, such as the Regent, the 
most perfect brilliant in existence, 
the Koh-i-Nur, the Great Nizam, 
etc., all of which were obtained in 
India. Amongst the Meteorites 
may be remarked the model. No. 16, 
of one which fell on the 23rd of 
January 1870, at Nedagolla, in the 
Madras Presidency. The original 
weighed over 10 lbs. 

The adjoining Economic Museum 
contains fine samples of the products 
of the native manufactures of the 
country. It occupies a quadrangular 
building, in which the Calcutta Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1883-84 was 
held. The two museums are visited 
by over half a million of persons annu- 
ally. Next to the Imperial Museum 
on the S. side is the Bengal School of 
Art, an Institution similar to that 
of Bombay, with 250 pupils. 

At the corner of Chowringhee and 



Park Street is the United Service 
Club House, founded in 1845, and 
just beyond it in the latter street is 
the Bengal Asiatic Society at No. 57. 
This institution was established in 
1784 by Sir William Jones, and led 
to the foundation of the Royal Asiatic 
Society in London by Mr H. T. 
Colebrooke. Visitors can be elected 
members. The Asiatic Researches 
began to be issued in 1788, and con- 
tinued to be published until 1839. 
The. Journal began in 1832, under the 
auspices of Professor H. H. Wilson 
and Mr James Prinsep, who first 
deciphered the famous rock and pillar 
inscriptions of Eng Asoka, and from 
that time to 1839 both publications 
were issued. The library contains 
over 15,000 volumes, and there is a 
large collection of valuable MS., 
coins, copper plates, pictures, and 
busts. The pictures include one of 
Warren Hastings. 

Further down Park Street, in Hare 
Street on the right, is the Doveton 
College for the training of Christian 
students of both sexes. In the S. Park 
Street Cemetery is buried Lander's 
Rose Aylmer, d. 1800 ; the grave is 
marked by a column spirally fluted. 
Here also lie Lucia, the wife of 
Robert Palk, idyllised by Mr Rud- 
yard Kipling, Sir John Clavering, 
Colonel Monson, Sir William Jones, 
and Augustus Cleveland (p. 312). In 
N. Park Street Cemetery opposite is 
the grave of W. M. Thackeray's 
father, d. 18 15. 

In front of the U.S. Club is the 
fine equestrian statue of Sir James 
Outram, and further on, facing the 
E. approaches to Fort William, that 
of Lord Dufferin, N. of which, on 
the Red Road, are the statues of Lord 
Roberts and Lord Lansdovrae. 

Chowringhee Road runs S. from 
Park Street, past the Bengal Club 
(founded 1827, and occupying the 
house in which Lord Macaulay once 
lived), and the residential quarter /ar 
excellence of Calcutta societv, to the 
Cathedral of St Paul's. Off Middle- 
ton Street are St Thomas's Roman 
Catholic Church, a handsome building 

commenced in 1841, and the Convent 
of Our Lady of Loretto. 

St Paul's Cathedral was designed 
by Major W. N. Forbes in 1819 and 
commenced in 1839 : it is 240 ft. 
long and 80 ft. broad, and the spire 
is 200 ft. high. The style is Hindu- 
Gothic, or spurious Gothic modified 
to suit the climate of India. In the 
vestry of the Cathedral is a large 
folio MS. volume entitled " History 
of the Erection of St Paul's 
Cathedral," which contains a plan 
of the Cathedral at p. 265. Over 
the porch is a library, left to the 
public by Bishop Wilson, and here 
is an excellent bust of that Bishop. 
The west window, designed by Sir E. 
Burne Jones, is a memorial to Lord 
Mayo. The original east window 
was given by the Dean and Chapter 
of Windsor, to whom it was pre- 
sented as a gift by George III. 
for St George's Chapel. Beneath 
it are mosaics. The Communion 
Plate was given by Queen Victoria. 
The building cost ;^50,ooo, of which 
the Bishop gave ^20,000, half of 
which, however, went to endow- 

On the left side of the vestibule is 
a black marble tablet to sixteen 
officers of the Bengal Engineers, 
who fell durmg the Indian Mutiny in 
the years 1857-58. It is ornamented 
with sixteen bronze medallions, and 
a relief representing the gallant lalow- 
ing up of the Kashmir Gate, Delhi, 
by Lieutenants Salkeld and Home 
(p. 194). Ne\t are a tablet to fifteen 
ofiicers who fell in the Bhutan cam 
paign and an elaborate monument in 
memory of John Paxton Norman, of 
the Inner Temple, officiating Chief 
Justice of Bengal, who was assassin- 
ated on the steps of the Town Hall 
when entering the High Court on 
20th September 187 1. Beyond is the 
tablet to seven officers of the 6Sth 
Regiment N.I., "who died during 
the Mutiny of the Native Troops, and 
subsequent operations, from 1857 to 
1859, some on the field of battle, some 
by the hands of their own followers, 




others from disease — all doing their 

Then follows a tablet to Mr 
William Ritchie of the Calcutta Bar 
and Inner Temple, a member of 
the Council of the Governor-General, 
the inscription by W. M. Thackeray, 
who was a cousin of Mr Ritchie's. 
On the left is a tablet to Sir H. M. 
Lawrence, adorned with a medallion 
portrait in white marble. In the 
centre of the left wall of the passage 
from the vestibule to the transepts and 
body of the Cathedral is a monument 
to Lord Elgin, who died at Dharm- 
salah in 1863. 

In the S. E. corner of the S. transept 
is the Totnb of Lady Canning, brought 
from Barrackpur. It consists of a base 
of white marble with a sarcophagus, 
on which is inlaid a cross with 
flowers. There is also a good statue 
of Bishop Heber, the second Bishop 
of the Diocese, by Chantrey. 

The upper part of the steeple fell 
during the great earthquake of 12th 
June 1897, but has been restored. 
Among the latest memorials is one 
of Sir John Woodburn, Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal, 1902, and 
another erected by Lord Curzon to 
the members of Lumsden's Horse 
who fell in the S. African War. The 
organ is one of the finest ever made 
by Messrs Willis. 

The main road running S. to the 
E. of the Cathedral leads past the 
suburb of Ballygunge, with the 
residences of many Europeans. On 
the right of the road is the London 
Missionary Society's Institution ; and 
on the Lower Circular road running 
to the E. of it, and leading to Bally- 
gunge, are the Bishop's Collegeand the 
Martiniere Schools, and, considerably 
to the N. , St James' Church, which 
can contain a congregation of 700. 
In the cemetery in the Lower Circular 
Road are buried Sir Wm. Macnaugh- 
ten, murdered in Caubul, James 
Wilson, the Financier, Justice Nor- 
man, and Sir John Woodburn. 

Kalighat, celebrated as the site of 

a temple in honour of the goddess 
Kali, the wife of Shiva, lies about ih 
m. S. of the Cathedral on the bank 
of the Tolly Nullah, an old bed of 
the Ganges. The place, after which 
the present capital of India is named, 
derives sanctity from the legend 
that when the corpse of Shiva's wife 
was cut in pieces by order of the 
Gods, and chopped up by the disc 
[sudarsati chakra) of Vishnu, one of 
her fingers fell on this spot. The 
temple is supposed to have been 
built about three centuries ago. A 
member of the Sabarna Chandhu 
family, who at one time owned 
considerable estates in this part of 
the country, cleared the jungle, built 
the temple, and allotted 194 acres of 
land for its maintenance. A man of 
the name of Chandibar was the first 
priest appointed to manage the affairs 
of the temple. His descendants have 
now taken the title of Haldar, and 
are at present the proprietors of the 
building. The principal religious 
festival of the year is on the second 
day of the Durgapuja, in October, 
when the temple is visited by crowds 
of pilgrims. 

W. of the Cathedral, on the edge 
of the Maidan, is the Presidency Jail, 
near the site of which the All India 
Memorial Hall of the Queen-Empress 
Victoria is being erected : the sub- 
scriptions for the memorial amount to 
fifty lakhs of rupees. It has been 
designed by Sir Wm. Emerson in 
the style of the Italian Renaissance, 
and consists of a magnificent building 
standing on a terrace 6-7 ft. high and 
surmounted by a dome rising 160 ft, 
above the Maidan. The whole struc- 
ture will be cased with white marble. 
Under the dome will be the Central 
Empress Hall ; other principal apart- 
ments will be the Darbar and Princes' 
Halls. The foundations were begun 
in 1905, and the foundation-stone was 
laid by King George on 4th January 
1906 ; and it is hoped the Hall may be 
completed in 1920. On the further 
side of the Lower Circular Road are 
the General and Military Hospitals ; 
and beyond them and opposite the 



Race-course the 'Alipur Road, cross- 
ing Tolly's Nullah, leads to the Zoo- 
logical Gardens and Belvedere, and 
the Agri- Horticultural Gardens. The 
Zoological Gardens were inaugurated 
in 1876, and comprise an area of 36 
acres well laid out, and a fair show 
of animals in houses presented by 
various ruling chiefs and wealthy 
persons. The tigers, leopards, 
crocodiles, and snakes are usually 
the finest. On the S. side of the 
Gardens is the 'Alipur Observatory. 

Belvedere House stands in exten- 
sive and well-kept grounds. In the 
entrance hall are some trophies of 
Indian arms and full-length portraits 
of Sir John Peter Grant and Sir 
William Grey. In the reception room 
are portraits of H.M. the Queen- 
Empress Victoria, Sir Cecil Beadon, 
and Sir Charles and Lady Elliott. At 
a spot W. of the entrance of Belvedere, 
on the 'Alipur Road, was fought the 
duel between Warren Hastings and 
Sir Philip Francis, in which the latter 
was wounded. S. of Belvedere are 
the Agri-Horticultural Gardens com- 
menced here in 1872, and managed 
by that Society, which was founded 
in 1820; and still further S. in 
Judge's Court Road once stood 
Hastings' private residence, and now 
stands the State Guest House in- 
augurated by Lord Curzon. 

The Race-course, which is 2 m. 
long, is one of the most famous in 
India, and the Christmas race meet- 
ing, in which the Viceroy's cup is run 
for, is one of the principal society 
events of the winter season in Calcutta. 
The bridge S.W. of it, across Tolly's 
Nullah, leads to Kidderpur, so called 
after Colonel Kyd, who constructed 
the Government Dockyard, near 
which the Port Trust has excavated 
magnificent new Docks. Between 
1 78 1 and 1 82 1 ships were built at the 
Kidderpur Docks, at a cost of more 
than £2,000,000, and in 1818 the 
Hastings, a 74-gun ship, was launched 

there. The new Wet Docks enclose 
an area of 10 and 30 acres respec- 
tively, in addition to which there are 
two dry docks ; and the sum spent 
over this improvement has exceeded 
two and a half crores of rupees. In 
Kidderpur is St Stephen's Church. 

The last bridge near the river, 
named Hastings Bridge, leads past 
the Government Dockyard, the docks, 
and the P. & O. premises, to Garden 
Reach, once known for its palatial 
suburban residences, and of late years 
as the home of the last of the Kings 
of Oudh, Wajid Ali, who was deposed 
in 1854, and survived his deposition 
by more than thirty years. It was 
considered necessary to place him in- 
side Fort-William during the summer 
of 1857. 

This is the shortest route for visiting 
the Botanical Gardens (p. 65) on the 
other side of the river ; but unless the 
boat by which one crosses is detained 
at the other side, there may be some 
difficulty in regaining the left bank. 

At the W. extremity of Garden 
Reach, or in its vicinity, was situated 
the small fort of 'Aligarh, and opposite 
to it, on the other bank of the river, 
was the Fort of Tanna, both of which 
were taken by Clive in the recapture 
of Calcutta in 1756. 

Turning N. from the Hastings 
Bridge, St George's Gate of Fort 
William (S.W. corner) is reached 
in half a mile. On the way is 
passed Cooly Bazar, near the site of 
which Nand Kumar was hung for 
the offence of forgery on 5th August 
1775. In front of the gate is a statue 
of Lord Napier of Magdala, opposite 
Prinsep's Ghat. This, now some 
distance inland since the reclama- 
tion of the foreshore and the excava- 
tion of the new docks, is marked 
by a pavilion of stone, supported by 
pillars, and inscribed "James Prinsep," 
in memoryof the greatOriental scholar, 
who died from over- devotion to the 
pursuits, in which he so greatly ex- 
celled, in 1840. Further N., and 
opposite the Water Gate of the Fort, 
is the Gwalior Monument, erected 
by Lord EUenborough, in 1844, in 




memory of the officers and men who 
fell in the Gwalior campaign of 1843, 
and designed by Colonel W. H. 
Goodwyn, Beng. Eng. It is of brick 
faced with Jaipur marble, surmounted 
by a metal cupola made from guns 
taken from the enemy. In the centre 
the names of those who fell at the 
battles of Maharajpur and Paniar are 
engraved on a sarcophagus. 

Fort-William originally received its 
name from William III. The site 
was changed in 1757, after the battle 
of Plassey, from that now occupied 
by the Post-Office, to the river bank 
further S., where Clive commenced 
a new and much more formidable 
fortress, which was finished in 1773, 
at a cost of ;^2, 000,000. It is an 
irregular octagon, enclosing an area 
of 2 sq. m., of which five sides look 
landward and three on the river, and 
is surrounded by a fosse 30 ft. deep 
and 50 ft. broad, which can be filled 
from the river. The garrison consists 
of two regiments, one British and 
one N.I., and one company R.G.A. 
There are six gates— Chowringhee, 
Plassey, Calcutta, Water Gate, St 
George's, and Treasury Gate. There 
is also a sallyport between Water 
and St George's Gates. Inside 
the Chowringhee Gate past the 
Governor's residence, now used as 
a Soldiers' Institute and Garrison 
School, is the Fort Church of St 
Peter, built in 1828. The Catholic 
Chapel, St Patrick's, was built in 1857. 
The Military Prison behind this is 
built on a massive storehouse, on 
which is an inscription relating to the 
amount of rice and grain deposited 
there by the authorities in 17S2. 
Over the Treasury Gate are the 
quarters of the Commander-in-Chief 
in India while at Calcutta ; the offices 
of the Array Headquarters now remain 
all the year round in Simla. The 
Arsenal is worth a visit, for which 
permission must be obtained from 
the officer commanding the Fort. 
The sub-marine Mining depot is also 
accommodated in the Fort ; it cannot 
be visited. 

(2) Quarters North of the Maidan 
and Government House. 

To the W. and E. of Government 
House lie the Legislative Council 
Office and the other principal offices 
of the Government of India. N. 
of Government House, Old Court 
House Street on the E., Wellesley 
Place in the centre, and Council 
House Street on the W., lead to 
Dalhousie Square,^ with a fine garden 
and tank in the middle of it, the 
second entering the Square opposite 
the Dalhousie Institute. This was 
built " to contain within its walls 
statues and busts of great men." The 
foundation stone was laid in 1865, but 
the entrance portico preceded it, 
having been built in 1824. The hall 
is lined with marble, and measures 
90 by 45 ft. It contains a statue of 
the Marquis of Hastings, by Flaxman, 
and also statues of the Marquis of 
Dalhousie, and of the Rt. Hon. James 
Wilson, and busts of Edward E. 
Venables, of Brig. -General Neil, C. B. , 
and Sir Henry Havelock, by Noble ; 
and of Sir James Outram and General 
John Nicholson, by Foley. On the 
E. side of the Square is the Currency 
Office, in the S.E. corner is the fine 
Telegraph OfiBce, and on the W. side 
is the large domed building of the 
General Post Office, occupying part 
of the site of the Old Fort. It cost 
Rs. 630, 5 10, and occupies an area of 
103, 100 sq. ft. The dome at the S.E. 
corner is over 220 ft. high. The Old 
Fort- William lay between Bankshall 
Street, now Koilah Ghat Street, on 
the S. , and Fort Ghat Street, now 
Fairhe Place, on the N. Its W. side 
fronted the river. The W. and E. 
walls were 710 ft. long, the N. side 
measuring 340 ft., and the S. side 
485 ft. After it was abandoned as a 
Fort it was used as a Custom-house 
until the river moved away from the 
site. Part of the original arcades 
which served as warehouses on the 
S.W. side of the interior may still 

1 This was formerly known as the Lai 
Bagh, and the tank is still known as the 
Lai (red) Dighi. 



be seen inside the yard of the Post- 
Office, where they are used as a 
waggon-shed ; and where possible the 
outlines of the Fort have been 
indicated on the ground. At the 
N,E. corner of the Post-Office is a 
tablet inside an arch, which indicates 
the actual site of the Black Hole^ of 
1756, which by the care of Lord 
Curzon has been paved with black 
marble. The exact size of the Hole 
was 22 by 14 ft., and its height was 
probably 16 to 18 ft. ; and into it 146 
human beings were forced on the 
night of 20th June, of whom twenty- 
three only survived the next morning. 
The old obelisk memorial of the 
tragedy erected by the principal 
survivor, Mr J. Z. Holwell, was 
renovated in front of the Post-Office, 
at the expense of Lord Curzon in 
1902; the inscription originally borne 
by it has been modified in the restora- 
tion. Mr Holwell, who was on the 
Calcutta Council from 1768-1772, and 
was most unjustly removed from the 
Service by the Directors of the 
E.I. Company, died in England at 
an advanced age in 1798, 

From the N.W. corner of Govern- 
ment House Hastings Street leads to- 
wards the river, past the old Cathedral 
Churcli of St John, in an enclosure 
shaded with trees. Outside the 
church to the N. of the W. entrance 
is a domed pavilion about 50 ft. 
high, with twelve pillars. It is said 
to have been erected in commemora- 
tion of those who fell in the Rohilla 
War, but strangely enough is without 

The church, which was begun in 
1783, and opened in 1787, is 136 ft. 
long and 70 ft. wide. 

The W. vestibule has on the left 
a large picture of the Last Supper, 

1 The so-called Black Hole was merely a 
lock-up for drunken or disorderly soldiers of 
the garrison of the Fort, and was simply a 
portion of a sleeping barrack in the S.E. 
corner of the Fort, enclosed from the rest of 
the building. The barrack was situated just 
to the N. of the S.E- bastion, and the Black 
Hole was therefore between the bastion and 
the barrack. Views of the Old Fort and of 
Holwell's monument are among Daniell's 
drawings of Calcutta. 

painted and presented to the church 
by Sir John Zoffany, in which the 
Apostles are all portraits of certain 
well-known inhabitants of Calcutta. 
In the E. end of the nave is the 
grave of Bishop Middleton, first 
Bishop of Calcutta (died 1822), and 
among the memorials are those of 
Colonel Kirkpatrick, Resident at 
Hyderabad at the end of the i8th 
century, Mr Alexander Colvin, Dr 
James Ward, and others. 

In the N.W. corner of the grave- 
yard is the large octagonal mausoleum 
of Job Charnock, the founder of 
Calcutta, who died in January 1692. 
In this is also now a tablet to 
Surgeon William Hamilton, who in 
1 7 16, having cured the Emperor 
Farrukhsiyar, obtained for the E.I. 
Company the right of importing their 
goods free of duty, and other great 

A few yards to the S. is the 
tomb of Admiral Watson, who with 
Clive retook Calcutta. It has a 
large square base supporting an 
obelisk, inscribed to his memory. 

On the N. side of Dalhousie 
Square are the buildings of the 
Bengal Secretariat, on the site of 
the Old Writer's Buildings, where so 
many illustrious Indian statesmen 
commenced their career. Opposite 
these is the statue of Sir Ashley Eden. 

Just beyond these is the Scotch 
Kirk, St Andrew's, situated in Radha 
Bazaar, and called by the natives 
Lai Girjah or Red Church. It cost 
;i^20,ooo, and was opened in 1818, 
and seats 500 persons. In the vestry 
there is a portrait of Dr James 
Bryce, the first minister, by Sir John 
Watson Gordon, and there are some 
handsome monuments within the 
church. It sends a representative to 
the General Assembly at Edinburgh. 

A little to the E. of the Square in 
Mission Row is the Old Mission 
Church, called the Purana Girjah or 
Old Church by the natives. It is 
125 ft. long from E. to W., and 8i ft. 
10 in. broad, and seats 450 persons. 
It was built by the celebrated mission- 




ary, Johann Zacharias Kiernander, 
who was born at Azted, in Gothland, 
Sweden, in 171 1, and educated at 
the University of Upsala. Being 
offered a post as missionary, he left 
England in 1758, and opened a 
school in Calcutta. His second wife 
on her death left valuable jewels, 
with which he founded a school. 
He called his church Beth Tephillah, 
"House of Prayer." When blind, 
he was deceived into signing a bond 
which ruined him, and the church 
was seized by his creditors, but 
redeemed by Mr Charles Grant for 
Rs. 10,000. Mr Kiernander then 
went to Chinsurah, and died there 
in 1799. There is a window in the 
church presented by his grandson ; 
and there is a good engraving of him 
in the Mission Room, with an inscrip- 
tion in German. There are many 
interesting tablets in the church, 
particularly one to Mr Charles Grant, 
and one to the Rev. Henry Martyn, 
also to Bishop Dealtry of Madras, to 
Bishop Wilson, and to an Arab lady 
of distinction who was converted to 

The steeple was so seriously in- 
jured by the great earthquake of 
1 2th June 1897 that it has been neces- 
sary to rebuild it. 

From the S. W. comer of Dalhousie 
Square, Hare Street leads also 
towards the river, and passing the 
Small Cause Courts to the Metcalfe 
Hall, founded in honour of Sir 
Charles Metcalfe by public subscrip- 
tion, and built 1840- 1844. The 
design is copied from the portico of 
the Temple of the Winds at Athens. 
The building, which formerly con- 
tained a neglected Public Library, 
was in 1903 converted into an 
effective Imperial Library of Refer- 
ence, at the instance of Lord Curzon. 
Tickets of admission to the reading- 
room are freely granted to strangers. 
On the river front, to the N. of this, 
is the Sailors' Home, and to the S. 
the office of the Port Trust. 

N. of Dalhousie Square and S. 
of Harrison Road, a new broad 
thoroughfare, leading from the 

Hooghly Bridge to the Sealdah 
Station of the Eastern Bengal 
Railway, are the Synagogue, the 
Armenian Church, and the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral, and in the same 
neighbourhood are a Greek church 
built in 1780, and a Parsi place of 
worship ; while N. of this road are 
the Mint and Mayo Native Hospital. 
The first Portuguese came to Calcutta 
in 1689, and the English granted 
them a piece of land in Portuguese 
Church Lane, on which the friars of 
the order of St Augustine erected 
a chapel in 1700. Its successor, the 
Roman CatlioUc Cathedral, was 
built in 1797, and is dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary of the Rosary. 

The Mint, at the W. end of Nim- 
tolla Street, was built 1824-1830, the 
architect being Major W. N. Forbes. 
The style is Doric, the central portico 
being copied from the Parthenon at 
Athens. The area of the building 
and grounds is 18^ acres. 

From the N.E. corner of Dalhousie 
Square, Bow Bazaar, one of the 
principal trading centres of the city, 
also leads to the Sealdah Station, 
with the railway station for Mutla 
or Port Canning, and for Diamond 
Harbour, and the Campbell Hospital 
lying to the S. of it. Half-way down 
it College Street leads to the N., 
past the Eden, Ezra, and Medical 
College Hospitals and the Medical 
College to College Square, also with 
a fine tank in the middle of it. 

The Ezra Hospital is for Jews 
only. The Medical College Hos- 
pital, with accommodation for over 
300 patients, was erected in 1853, 
and the Eden Hospital for women 
and children in 1882. The nursing 
here and in some of the other 
hospitals is under the Sisters of St 
John, at Clewer. Behind the Hos- 
pital is the College, with 500 
students, one of the principal institu- 
tions of the kind in India. It is 
intended that the principal memorial 
of King Edward shall take the form 
of an endowment fund for medical 
research, relief, and education. 



The Dufferin Zenana Hospital lies 
considerably to the E., in Upper 
Circular Road. On the W. side of 
College Square are the Calcutta 
University, the Hare School, 
and the Presidency College. The 
University Senate House is a grand 
hall, 120 ft. by 60 ft., in which the 
Convocations for conferring degrees 
take place. It has a portico sup- 
ported by six lofty pillars. Close by 
is the Hare School, which is self- 
supporting. It was erected out of 
the surplus fees of students. Tlie 
Presidency College was developed in 
1855 from the Hindu College founded 
in 1824, and opened in 1S27, at a 
cost of Rs. 170,000. The foundation- 
stone of the new building of this 
College was laid in 1872 by Sir 
George Campbell. 

Somewhat to the E. of College 
Square are the quarters of C.M.S. ; 
and N. in Cornwallis Square are 
those of the Free Church of Scotland 
Mission, begun by Alexander Duff in 
1830. The Scottish church is in 
Wellesley Square. E. of Cornwallis 
Square and N. of the end of Beadon 
Street (abutting on Circular Road, 
which in its upper portion marks the 
line of the Mahratta ditch hastily 
dug in 1742 when these marauders 
invaded Orissa and Behar), is Halsi 
Baghan Road, so- called from the 
gardens of the well-known Omichand 
(Amin Chand) who was tricked by 
Colonel Clive, in a lane off which 
are the marble Jain temples in the 
garden known by the name of Badri 
Das. The temples, dedicated to the 
lOth Tirthankar-Sitalnath Ji and the 
garden form one of the prettiest 
spots in the whole of Calcutta, and 
should be visited by all who have a 
spare half- hour to give to them. 
There is also a Chinese Tern pie 
in Calcutta. 

Missions of the Cliurcli of 

England.— The 0.xJ'oi-d Mission, 42 
Cornwallis Street, works chiefly 
among the high-caste natives, and 
has charge of Bishop's College in 
Circular Road, a Boys' High School, 
and Industrial School. 

S.P.G., headquarters Bishop's Col- 
lege, Lower Circular Road : Mission 
Church, St Saviour's, Wellesley 
Square, with a Boarding School. 

S.P.G. Ladies' Association have 
charge of the Millman Memorial 
School for Girls. 

Sisters of St John (Clewer) have 
charge of the Government General 
Hospital, the Medical Staff Hospital, 
the Eden Hospital, and the Lady 
Canning Home for Nurses. Also of 
native mission work at Peepulpatti 
in the rice-fields 3 m. distant. 

The Brahma SomaJ is the reformed 
Theistic sect of Hindus. It has very 
little hold on the general population, 
the few members being generally men 
of good social position. The church 
was founded by Raja Ram Mohan 
Rai in 1830. In 1858 Keshab 
Chandra Sen joined the Somaj, being 
then twenty years of age. In 1862 
he was ordained minister of the 
Calcutta Brahma Somaj. In October 
1865 he seceded from the original 
church, and next year a new body was 
organised by him, entitled the Brahma 
Somaj of India, and in January 1868 
the first stone was laid of a new 
church for the progressive Brahmas. 
The creed of the church is an elective 
Theism drawn from the religious 
books of the Hindus and Buddhists, 
the Bible and the Koran; inter-caste 
marriages are recognised by it, and in 
1872 a Native Marriage Act 
passed to meet the case of such 
unions. Before the death of Keshab 
Chandra Sen a further separation 
took place in the new church which 
now consists of three communities. 

(3) The W. 

Bank of the Hooghly 

The Royal Botanical Gardens, on 

the W. bank of the river, opposite 
Garden Reach, were founded in 1786, 
on the suggestion of Colonel Kyd, 
who was appointed the first Super- 
intendent. The visitor may drive to 
the Gardens across the liridge and 





through Howrah, or to Garden 
Reach, and cross the river Hooghly 
in a boat. There is also a steamer 
service from Chandpal Ghat to 
Shibpur Ghat, and sometimes from 
the first direct to the Botanical 
Gardens. At Sibpur is the Engineer- 
ing College, with its classes of mining 
instruction. The area of the Gardens 
is 272 acres, with river frontage 
of a mile.^ At the N.W. corner 
is the Howrah Gate, where are 
three fine trees — a Ficus indica in the 
centre, with a Ficus religiosa on either 
side. From here an avenue of almond- 
trees runs along the river front ; while 
an avenue of Palmyra palms to the 
right of the entrance, and one of maho- 
gany trees to the left, lead to the centre 
and the memorial of Colonel Kyd, 
passing the palm plantation which is 
separated off by a canal crossed by 
pretty bridges. From the memorial 
an avenue of palms leads S. to the 
Landing-Place Gate on the river ; and 
close by it are the three conservatories 
for orchids, large plants, and palms. 
Leaving the above avenue to the left, 
the Great Banyan Tree ^ [Ficus 
indica), which covers ground nearly 
1000 ft. in circumference, and has 
nearly 250 aerial roots, will be 
reached, and will be found a 
wonderful sight. 

" The fig-tree at this day to Indians known 
In Malabar or Deccan, spreads her arms, 
Branching so broad and long, that on the 

The bended twigs take root, and daughters 

About the mother tree, a pillar'd shade. 
High over-arched and echoing walks be- 
tween." — Milton, Paradise Lost. 

On the left of an avenue near it is 
a monument to Roxburgh, with a 
Latin epitaph by Heber. Sir J. 
Hooker writes of these gardens in his 
Himalayan Journals that, " they have 
contributed more useful and orna- 
mental tropical plants to the public 

1 An excellent little Guide to the Gardens, 
with a plan of them, can be bought in 

2 The Banyan (which is the Indian Bar or 
Bor tree) derives its name from the fact that 
the Hindu traders (baniyas) used to worship 
under such trees at Gombroon (Ormuz). 

and private gardens of the world 
than any other establishment before 
or since." He says also, "that the 
great Indian Herbarium, chiefly 
formed by the Staff of the Botanic 
Gardens, under the direction of Dr 
Wallich, and distributed in 1829 to 
the principal Museums of Europe, 
was the most valuable contribution 
of the kind ever made to science " ; 
and adds, "that the origin of the 
tea - culture in the Himalayas and 
Assam was almost entirely the work 
of the Superintendent of the Gardens 
at Calcutta and Saharanpur." The 
Superintendent has a house in the 
Gardens. Near it is the Herbarium, 
or collection of dried plants, probably 
the only one in Asia of the first class. 
There are from 30,000 to 40,000 
species represented in it. Attached 
to the Herbarium is a very fine 
Botanic Library. 

(4) Excursions in the Vicinity of 

Barrackpur station is called by the 
natives Charnock, from Job Charnock. 
The journey may be made by rail 
(14 m. ), carriage, or river, if the trav- 
eller can procure a steam launch, or 
can utilise the local river steamer 
services. The trip up the river takes 
three hours, and is interesting and 
picturesque. The river excursion 
may pleasantly be extended to Seram- 
pore, Chandernagore, Chinsurah, and 
Hooghly (see p. 67). 

Just before reaching Barrackpur, 
there are some handsome modern 
temples on the left bank. Then 
comes the beautiful park (right), with 
noble trees and a small pier as 
landing-place, at which the Viceroy's 
yacht very often lies. At 300 yds. 
to the S. of the house, under a fine 
tamarind tree, is a polygonal en- 
closure, within which is a white 
marble monument to Lady Canning ; 
it replaces that removed to the 
Cathedral at Calcutta. A Hall, 
built by the Earl of Minto in 1813, 
stands lOO yds. to the N. of 
the house, within a colonnade of 



Corinthian pillars. Over the outside 
entrance is a black slab, inscribed — 
To the Memory of the Brave. 

On the walls are four Tablets erected 
by different Governors-General to the 
memory of British soldiers who fell in 
Mauritius and Java, 1810-11, in the 
Isle of France,' and at Maharajpur, 
and Paniar, 1843. 

The House, which is the Viceroy's 
country residence, was commenced 
by Lord Minto, and enlarged to its 
present size by the Marquis of 
Hastings. It contains some interest- 
ing pictures of native princes. N. of 
the park is Barracl<pur Cantonment. 
Troops were first stationed here in 
1772, when the place received its 
name. In 1824, during the Burmese 
War, the 47th B.N. I., which was 
ordered on service, mutinied here on 
the 30th October, on which the 
Commander - in - Chief, Sir Edward 
Paget, proceeded to the cantonment 
with two European regiments, a 
battery of European artillery, and 
a troop of the Governor - General's 
Bodyguard. The mutinous regiment 
was drawn up in face of these troops, 
and was ordered to march, or ground 
arms. On the sepoys refusing to 
obey, the guns opened upon them, 
when, throwing away their arms and 
accoutrements, they made for the 
river. Some were shot down, some 
drowned, and many hanged, and the 
regiment was struck out of the 
"Army List." In March 1857 there 
were again mutiny troubles here, and 
though these were checked for the 
moment by the personal bravery of 
General Hearsey^ commanding the 
troops, it became necessary to dis- 
arm all the native troops at the 
station on 14th June. 

Bum Dum station, 4^ m. from Cal- 
cutta. A municipal town and can- 
tonment. It was the headquarters 
of the Bengal Artillery from 1783 till 
1853, when they were removed to 

1 General Hearsey, who as a subaltern had 
taken part in the defence of Sitabaldi (p. 84), 
had previously shared in the suppression of 
a mutiny of Native Troops at Wazirabad in 

Meerut ; and their mess-house is now 
the Soliiiers' Club, and is known as 
the Outram histitide. A bust of 
Sir James Outram stands in the 

In the centre of the Barrack Square 
is a huge gun. Near this is a monu- 
ment to the officers and men killed in 
the Khaibar whilst returning from 
Kabul in 1841. The Treaty, which 
restored the British settlements after 
the recapture of Calcutta ,was signed 
at Dum Dum. Lord Clive had a 
house here, and Fairley Plall was 
occupied by Sir Henry Lawrence, 
when a Lieutenant. There is an 
English Church — St Stephen's — a 
Roman Catholic Chapel, and a 
Wesleyan Chapel. There is a Small 
Arm Ammunition Factory, which is 
guarded by British soldiers. 

Howrah (population 179,000) is a 
large and flourishing city on the right 
bank of the Hooghly, opposite Cal- 
cutta, with over 60 mills employing 
50,000 hands, chiefly from Calcutta. 
It is also at present the terminus of 
the E.I. R., of the Bengal and Nagpur 
Railway. At the end of the i8th 
century it was a small village ; now 
it stands sixteenth among all the cities 
of India. 

The following places maybe visited 
by the E.I. Railway. 

12 m. Serampore station, the 
headquarters of the subdivision of 
the same name, is on the W. bank 
of the Hooghly, opposite Barrackpur 
(44,500 inhabitants). Serampore was 
formerly a Danish settlement, and 
was then called Fredericksnagar. 
The fine mansion of the Danish 
Governor now forms the Courts of 
Justice and administrative offices. 
In 1845 a treaty was made with the 
King of Denmark, by which all 
the Danish possessions in India, 
namely, Tranquebar, Fredericks- 
nagar, and a small piece of ground 
at Balasore were transferred to the 




E.I. Company for £\2^,<Xio. The 
chief claim of Serampore to notice 
arises from its having been from 1800 
onwards the scene of the labours of 
Carey, Marshman, and Ward. The 
zeal and success of the Baptist 
missionaries of Serampore, form one 
of the brightest episodes of Evange- 
listic efforts in India. From its press 
proceeded forty translations of the 

The old Danish Church (1805) cost 
Rs. 18,500 of which 1000 were given 
by the Marquis of Wellesley ; it is 
now Anglican. In it there are tablets 
in memory of the above-mentioned 
Baptist missionaries. Their tombs 
are in the native Christian cemetery, 
on the right hand of the road from 
the railway station. 

The College is a handsome building 
on the banks of the river, and com- 
mands a fine view across it over Bar- 
rackpur Park. On the ground fioor 
are the Lecture-rooms, and on the 
floor above the Great Hall, which 
is 103 ft. long and 66 ft. broad. In 
the Library are portraits of Madame 
Grand( who afterwards married Talley- 
rand) and Dr Marshman, by Zoffany ; 
Frederick VI. of Denmark, and his 
wife. Queen of Denmark ; and the 
Rev. W. Ward, by Penny. The 
library contains first editions of 
Carey and Marshman's forty trans- 
lations of the Bible ; also some 
curious Sanscrit and Thibetan manu- 
scripts, and an account of the Apostles 
drawn up by Xavier's nephew for 
Akbar. In the College compound is 
the house in which Carey lived and 
died, now inhabited by the Principal 
of the College. 

The fine mansion next to the 
chapel, which was the common 
centre of the Serampore brother- 
hood, with all Carey's Park and 
botanic garden, is now the property 
of the India Jute Company. Here, 
from 1835 to 1875, l^he weekly Friend 
of India was edited. 

21. m. Chandemagore ^ station. 
Area, 3 sq. m., population, 25,000. 

1 See p 421. 

The French settled here in 1673, and 
under Dupleix, of whom the place 
has a statue, over 2,000 houses were 
built, and a considerable trade arose. 
In 1757 the town was bombarded by 
the British Fleet under Admiral 
Watson, and captured, and the forti- 
fications were demolished ; but in 
1763 the town was restored to the 
French. In 1 794 it was again captured 
by the British, and held till 1815. 
when it was again restored to the 
French. The railway station is just 
outside the French boundary. A 
church stands on the bank of the 
river, built by Italian missionaries in 

24 m. HoogMy station. At 
Hooghly, the E. I. R. and the Northern 
Bengal Railway are linked across the 
great cantilever, Jubilee Bridge, which 
is 1213 ft. long, and ranks as one of 
the greatest engineering feats in India. 
The linking line, 3 m. long, joins the 
Northern Bengal Railway at Naihati. 
Hooghly and Chinsurah (2 m. from 
Hooghly station, see below), are 
bracketed together as one in the Census 
Report, and together cover an area 
of 6 sq. m. The population is 
29,000. Hooghly town is the adminis- 
trative headquarters of the district of 
the same name. It was founded by 
the Portuguese in 1547 a.d., when the 
royal port of Bengal, Satgaon, began 
to be deserted, owing to the silting up 
of the Saraswati, on which river it was 
situated. They commenced by build- 
ing a fortress at Gholghat, close to the 
present Hooghly jail, some vestiges of 
which are still visible in the bed of 
the river. When Shah Jahan came to 
the throne, complaints were made to 
him of the conduct of the Portuguese 
at Hooghly. The Emperor bore them 
a grudge, as they had refused to assist 
him against his father, and he sent a 
large force .against the fort, which, after 
four and a half months* siege, was 
stormed. More than 1000 Portuguese 
were slain, and 4000 men, women, and 
children were captured. Out of 300 
Portuguese vessels, only three esca])ed. 
The prisoners were sent to .'\gra, and 
forcibly converted to Islam. Satgaon 



was then abandoned for Hooghly, 
which was made the royal port, and 
was also the first settlement of the 
English in Lower Bengal. The E.I. 
Company established a factory there 
in 1642, under b. far?fiati from Sultan 
Shuja', Governor ot Bengal, and 
second son of Shah Jahan. This/ar- 
man was granted, according to tradi- 
tion, to Dr Broughton, who had cured 
a favourite daughter of the Emperor, 
and asked for this reward. In 1669 
the Company received permission to 
bring their ships to Hooghly to load, 
instead of transporting their goods in 
small vessels, and then shipping them 
into large. In 1685, a dispute took 
place between the English at 
Hooghly and the Nawab of Bengal, 
and the Company sent a force to 
protect their Hooghly factories. It 
chanced that a few English soldiers 
were attacked by the Nawab's men in 
the bazaars, and a street fight ensued. 
Colonel Nicholson on this bombarded 
the town, and 500 houses were burnt, 
including the Company's warehouses, 
containing goods to the value of 
;i^3CK),ooo. The chief of the English 
factory was obliged to fly to Satanati,^ 
and take shelter with some native 
merchants. In 1742 Hooghly was 
sacked by the Mahrattas. 

The principal sight at Hooghly is 
the Imambarali, built by Karamat'Ali, 
the friend and companion of Arthur 
Connolly, at a cost of Rs. 300,000 
from funds bequeathed by Muham- 
mad Muhsin, who owned a quarter 
of the great Saiyadpur estate, in 
Jessore district, and died in 1814, 
without heirs, leaving a property 
worth ;^4500 a year for pious pur- 
poses. The trustees quarrelled, and 
Government assumed charge of the 
estate. During the litigation a fund 
of ;^86, no had accumulated, and 
with this the Hooghly College was 
founded in 1836. The fa9ade of the 
Imambarah is 277 ft. x 36 ft. ; and in 
its centre is a gateway flanked by two 
minarets, or towers, 114 ft. high. 
On either side of the door are in- 
scriptions. Within is a quadrangle, 
150 ft. X 80 ft, with rooms all round, 
1 See p. 53. 

and a fine hall paved with marble, 
having a pulpit with sides covered 
with plates of silver, and a verse of 
the Koran inscribed in each plate. 
The library was bequeathed by 
Karamat 'Ali, but a few books have 
since been added by other people. 
Among them are 787 MSS., includ- 
ing a fine folio Koran, in two vols, 
given by Prince Ghulam Muhammad, 
son of Tipu Sultan. On the opposite 
side of the road from this Imambarah 
is the old Imambarah, built in 1776- 
77. In the W. corner lie the remains 
of Karamat 'Ali, and there is a 
white marble tablet placed against 
the wall, with an extract from the 
Koran, but no tomb. 

Cliiiisurah, i m. S. of Hooghly, 
was held by the Dutch for 180 years, 
and ceded by them to the British in 
exchange for Sumatra in 1826. The 
old Dutch Church, of brick, is said 
to have been built by the Governor in 
1678. In it are fourteen escutcheons, 
dating from 1685 to 1770, with in- 
scriptions in Dutch. Between Chin- 
surah and Chandernagore is Biderra, 
where the Brilish obtained a 
decisive victory over the Dutch. It 
is said that the British commander 
was aware that his nation and the 
Dutch were at peace, and wrote 
to Clive for an order in council to 
fight. Clive was playing cards, and 
wrote in pencil: "Dear Forde, — 
Fight them to-day, and I will send 
you an order to-morrow. — Thursday, 
lyth, 1.30 I'.M." 

The Hooghly College is to the S. of 
the church. There are 600 students. 
The cemetery is i m. to the W. of 
the church : the new part is tolerably 
well kept, but not so the part where 
the old tombs are. Many of them 
are of Dutch officials. 

Bandel, .1 m. N. of Hooghly. A 
Portuguese monastery and church were 
built here in 1599, and the keystone 
with the date was erected in the new 
one, which is of brick, and very 
solidly built. It is dedicated to 
Nossa Senhora de Rosario. There 
are fine cloisters on the S., and a 
priory, in which is a noble room 




called St Augustine's Hall. The 
church was founded by the Augus- 
tinian Missionaries, demolished by 
Shah Jahan in 1640, and rebuilt by 
John Gomez de Soto. 

About 6 m. above Hooghly is 
Satgaon, where there is a ruined 
mosque, which, together with a few 
tombs near it, is the only remnant 
of the old capital of Lower Bengal. 
It was built by Saiyad Jamal-ud-din, 
son of Fakhr-ud-din, who, according 
to inscriptions in the mosque, came 
from Amel, a town on the Caspian. 
The river of Satgaon, up to Ak bar's 
time, formed the N. frontier of Orissa, 
and Satgaon flourished for 1500 years. 
Three centuries ago the Hooghly 
flowed by the town. 

Down the Hooghly River from Cal- 
cutta to Saugar Island. 

The Calcutta pilots who number 
fifty-eight, and who are responsible 
for the safety of some 3100 vessels, 
with a tonnage of 6, 500,000 yearly up 
and down the river, occupy a higher 
position than any of their profession. 
Pilotage receipts amount to 14 lakhs 
yearly. The Hooghly is a most 
dangerous and difficult river to navi- 
gate, as, apart from the chance of 
cyclones, which take place in any 
month except P'ebruary, there is the 
normal danger of shoals and tides, 
which is a very real and a very great 
one. New shoals are continually 
forming, and nothing but a daily ex- 
perience of the river can enable a 
pilot to take a vessel up safely. The 
most dangerous shoal, called the 
"James and Mary," is 30 m. S. of 
Calcutta, just above the Rupnarain ; 
but from the Damodar River to 
Hooghly Point, a distance of 6 m., 
the whole river is full of dangers, and 
the crews of passenger steamers are 
generally all mustered on deck during 
the passage of this reach. The name 
of the above shoal dates from the 
wreck of a vessel called the Royal 
James and Mary on that bank in 
1694. It appears first under it in a 
chart dated 171 1. The Hooghly 
cannot be navigated at night, nor 

until the tide makes can it be ascended. 
It is usual; therefore, for vessels pro- 
ceeding up the river to anchor near 
Saugar Island until occasion serves. 
The ordinary fall and rise of the 
river is 16 ft. A special feature of 
the rising tide is the bore, which 
sometimes attains a height of 7 ft., 
and reaches as far up the river as 
Hooghly city. 

The view of the river, crowded 
with ships at anchor many rows 
deep all the way along the Landing- 
place, is very striking ; and the forest 
of masts, the plain of the Esplanade, 
the Fort, and the fine buildings in the 
background, all give the idea of a 
great capital. 

The vista to the N. from between 
Garden Reach and the Botanical 
Gardens is especially fine when the 
atmosphere is clear. Seven miles 
from Calcutta the last sight of the 
capital of India is lost ; 5 m. further 
Budge Budge (Bajbaj ; Railway to 
Calcutta, 16 m.) is passed on the 
left ; at a similar distance further on 
Ulubaria, a small town, is passed on 
the right. Here the main road ftom 
Calcutta to the temple of Jagannath 
at Puri crossed the Hooghly, and 
here begins the Midnapur High- 
Level Canal. The river, which has 
hitherto followed a S.W. course, now 
turns due S. to Hooghly Point. 

At 27. m., a little above the mouth 
of the Damodar, is (left) Falta, the 
site of an old Dutch factory, and the 
place to which the British ships 
sailed on the capture of Calcutta by 
Suraj-ud-daulah, and from which Clive 
advanced to avenge the shedding of 
innocent blood. 

The Damodar is navigable as far 
as Ampta, which is 25 m. from its 
mouth, by boats of from 10 to 20 
tons, and large quantities of coal are 
brought by it from the Raniganj 

Five m. below Falta the Rupnarain 
River enters the Hooghly nearly oppo- 
site Hooghly Point, and from here the 
river turns S. E. to Diamond Harbour, 
and then S. again. 

At 12 m. up the Rupnarain river, 
on the right bank, is Tamluk, a verv 



famous city in ancient times, and a 
maritime port of the Buddliists, where 
the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hian em- 
barked for Ceylon in the beginning 
of the 5th century A.D. Hiouen 
Thsang 220 years later speaks of it as 
an important Buddhist harbour. It 
is now a long way from the ocean, 
but reached by the tide. There is a 
Temple here known in the locality by 
the name of Dargah Bhama or Bhen- 
na, which was originally a Buddhist 
temple. 'Jhe shrine is surrounded by 
a curious triple wall. 

At 41 m. from Calcutta is Diamond 
Harbour (left), marked by a large 
number of trees, where the E.I. 
Company's ships used to anchor. 
There is a Custom House here, and 
the officers board ships proceeding up 
the river. There is also a railway to 
Calcutta (39 m. ) with five or six trains 
daily, in three or four hours. 

At 48 m. is the town of Kalpi (left), 
which contains a large market-place 
for the sale of rice grown in the in- 
terior, and from which there is a road 
to Calcutta. Here the estuary of the 
Hooghly begins, and at 68 m. be- 
tween Kedgeree and Saugar Island it 
is 15 m. broad. At this island where 
the Ganges is considered to join the 
sea a gathering of from 100,000 to 
200,000 pilgrims from all parts of 
India, but principally from the Bengal 
districts, takes place in the early part 
of January, the date of the great 
Bathing Festival of Bengal. The 
bathing cermony, as a rule, lasts for 
three days, though the fair lasts for a 
couple of days longer. 

Sport is abundant. Deer, wild 
boar, and a great variety of sea-birds 
are found throughout the year. 

Tigers are to be met with in the 
jungle ; but this sport is very danger- 
ous, and should not be attempted by 
inexperienced persons. 

The sea is reached at 80 m., where 
there is a lighthouse of iron, 76 ft. 
high, commenced in 1808, on Middle- 
ton Point at the S.W. end of the 
island. The floating light is 30 m. 
below this, and the outermost buoy 
ID m. further on, and 130 m. from 


Manmar to Daulatabad, The Caves 
of Ellora, Aurangabad, Jalna, 
and Secunderabad. 

Manmar (p. 28). — The railway 
passes near the S. side of the great 
rock of Deogiri or Daulatabad, afford- 
ing a fine view of three sides of it. 
Permission to visit the fort must be 
obtained from the First Talukdar, 
Aurangabad, and a tonga for the 
journey from the Daulatabad Station 
to Ellora must be ordered beforehand 
from the Tonga Mail Agent, Auranga- 
bad. The charge for a tonga is Rs. 10, 
and a fee of Rs.2 additional is charged 
for each day's halt. It is impossible 
to see the caves properly in less than 
two days. Travellers who do not 
wish to visit Daulatabad may order 
their tonga for Ellora Road, the 
previous station. 

50m. Daulatabad* (Z'^<?^zW),a 13th- 
century fortress, is built on a huge 
isolated conical rock of granite, about 
500 ft. high, with a perpendicular 
scarp of from 80 to 120 ft. all round. 
On the east side of the fortress were 
two outer lines of defence, and beyond 
these stood the walled city now in 
ruins, and crossed from S. to N. by 
the road to Roza and Ellora. On the 
left of the road stands the entrance to 
the outer line of defence, consisting 
of a hornwork with three gateways 
inside it protected by a bastion 
50 ft. high. Beyond the gate 
are (r) a Hindu temple with a 
lamp tower 13 ft. high ; and (/) a 
small shrine of the Pir-i-Kudas. On 
the latter side a little further on are a 
large masonry tank, now dry, and a 
mosque converted out of a Jain 
temple, which has also served as a 
Hindu place of worship. Opposite 
these the Chand Minar, a minaret of 
Turkish form rises looft, it bears the 
date of 1435 A.D. The inner line of 
defence is now passed by a gate similar 
to that in the outer line, the first gate 




in both cases being defended by iron 
spikes against battering by elephants ; 
and a steep flight of steps leads on- 
wards to a third gate giving access to 
a platform on the edge of the ditch, 
40 ft. wide. On the right here is 
the Chini Mahal, with encaustic 
decoration, in which Abul Hasan, 
Tana Shah, the last king of Golconda 
spent thirteen years of imprisonment ; 
close by on a bastion is a gun 21' 10" 
long called the Kila Shikan, or Fort 
Batterer. The moat is crossed by a 
narrow stone bridge, at the end of 
which the road ascends to the 
Balakot by rock-cut chambers and 
passages, and emerges into the air 
50 ft. higher up. This point was 
formerly covered with an iron shutter, 
20 ft. long and i in. thick, made in 
ribs (part of it is gone), which in case 
of siege was heated red hot, so that if 
assailants could have penetrated so far, 
they would have encountered a fiery roof 
quite unapproachable. To provide 
ventilation for the fire a large hole has 
been tunnelled through the rock close 
by. Passing a gateway and the shrine 
of the Fakir Sukh Sultan, the path 
leads to a Barahdari, or pavilion, 
from which there is a fine view. It 
is believed to have been the residence 
of the Hindu Princess of Doegiri, 
and was a favourite resort 
of the Emperor Shah Jahan ^ 
in 1636. The pavilion has a 
wide verandah, with a precipice of 
from 100 to 2CO ft. in front, and a 
view to Aurangabad on the E. and to 
Roza on the N. One hundred steps 
more must be climbed to reach the 
Citadel itself, on a platform 160 ft. 
by 120 ft. At the W. corner is a 
one-gun battery, 60 ft. by 30 ft. The 
gun is 19 ft. 6 in. long, with a bore 
of 7 in. On a bastion is a large 
gun, on which is a Guzerati inscrip- 
tion, saying that the funds for its 
construction were provided by certain 
Banias, and also a Persian inscription, 
naming the gun " Creator of Storms." 
Tavernier says that the gun on the 
highest platform was raised to its 
place under the directions of a Euro- 

1 The Emperor's historian recorded a 
most exact account of the defences. 

pean artilleryman in the service of 
the Great Mughal, who had been re- 
peatedly refused leave to return to his 
native land, and was promised it if 
he could mount the gun on this spot. 

The place was the capital of the 
Yadava dynasty, after the fall of the 
Western Chalukyas. In the year 
1293 'Ala-ud -din, afterwards Emperor 
of Delhi, took the city. The citadel 
still held out, and he finally raised 
the siege of it on receiving a ransom 
of I5,cx)0 lbs. of pure gold, 175 lbs. 
of pearls, 50 lbs. of diamonds, and 
25,000 lbs. of silver. In 1338 a.d. 
Muhammad Shah Tughlak attempted 
to establish his capital in the Deccan, 
removed the inhabitants of Delhi to 
Deogiri, strengthened the fortifica- 
tions, and changed the name to 
Daulatabad ; but his plans ended in 
complete failure. 

The road from Daulatabad to Roza 
(8 m.) and the caves of Ellora ascends 
the steep hill called Pipal Ghat. It 
was paved by one of Aurangzeb's 
courtiers, as recorded on two pillars 
about half-way up the hill, where 
there are fine views. 

Roza or Khuldabad is a walled 
town (2218 inhabitants), 2000 ft. 
above the sea, and is 2 m. from the 
caves of Ellora. It is the Karbala 
(holy shrine) of the Deccan Mussul- 
mans, and is celebrated as the burial- 
place of many distinguished Moham- 
medans, amongst whom are the Em- 
peror Aurangzeb and his second son, 
Azim Shah ; Asaf Jah, the founder of 
the Hyderabad dynasty ; Nasir Jung, 
his second son ; Malik Ambar, the 
powerful minister of the last of the 
Nizam Shah kings ; Hasan Shah, the 
exiled and imprisoned king of Gol- 
conda ; and a host of minor celebrities. 

Roza once contained a considerable 
population, but fhe place is now in 
great part deserted. It is surrounded 
by a high stone wall (built by Aur- 
angzeb) with battlements and loop- 
holes. Old and ruinous mosques and 
tombs abound in every direction on 
each side of the road. 

Midway between the N. and S. 
gates of the city is the grave of Aur- 
angzeb in the Dargah of Saiyad Zain- 



ud-din on the right side of the road. 
An ascent of 30 yds. leads to a domed 
porch and gateway, erected about 1760 
by a celebrated dancing-girl of Aur- 
angabad, within which is a large quad- 
rangle. Some of the surrounding 
buildings are used as rest-houses for 
travellers, and one as a school. In the 
centre of the S. side is an exquisite 
little Nakar Khana, or music hall, 
from the galleries of which music is 
played when festivals or fairs are cele- 
brated. The W. side is occupied by 
a large mosque, the roof of which is 
supported on scalloped arches. Facing 
the N. end of the mosque is a small 
open gateway leading into an inner 
courtyard, in the S. E. angle of which 
is the door of Aurangzeb's tomb itself. 
Above the door is a semicircular screen 
of carved wood. The grave, which 
is uncovered, lies in the middle of a 
stone platform raised about half a foot 
from the floor. It is overshadowed 
by the branches of a tree (Bukuli) 
which bears sweet-smelling flowers, 
otherwise it is quite open to sun and 
rain, as it should be, according to 
orthodox Mohammedan ideas. This 
emperor, who was a man of austere 
piety, is said before his death to have 
desired that his sepulchre should be 
poor and unpretentious, in accordance 
with the tenets of the Koran, and to 
have expressly " desired in his will 
that his funeral expenses should be 
defrayed from the proceeds of caps 
which he had quilted and sold, an 
amount that did not exceed Rs. 10 ; 
and that the proceeds of the sale of 
his copies of the Koran, Rs.805, 
should be distributed to the poor." 
Fifteen or twenty paces to the E. 
of Aurangzeb's tomb is a small quad- 
rangular enclosure of marble, within 
which are three graves, the one on 
the right being that of the daughter 
of the Mohammedan saint buried close 
by ; the next that of Azim Shall, 
Aurangzeb's second son, attached to 
which is a small marble headstone 
carved with floral devices ; and the 
one beyond the grave of Azim 
Shah's wife. The whole is surrounded 
by a plain screen of white marble. 
Midway between these tombs and 

that of Aurangzeb is the mausoleum 
of Saiyad Zain-tid-din, on the E. side 
of which are inscribed a number of 
verses from the Koran, and the date 
of the Saiyad's death, 1370 A.D. This 
tomb, however, was erected many 
years after that period by one of his 
disciples. The doors of the shrine 
are inlaid with silver plates of some 
thickness ; the steps below it are em- 
bellished with a number of curiously 
cut and polished stones, said to have 
been brought here from time to time 
by fakirs and other religious devotees 
of the shrine. A little distance to 
the rear of this tomb is a small room 
built in an angle of the courtyard wall, 
which is said to contain a robe of 
the Prophet Mohammed. It is care- 
fully preserved under lock and key, 
and is only exhibited to the gaze of 
the faithful once a year, the 12th 

Opposite this dargah, on the left side 
of the road, is that of Saiyad Hazrat 
Burhan-ud-din, with the grave of Niz- 
am-ul Mulk Asaf/ah, the first of the 
Nizams of Hyderabad. The entrance 
is through a large quadrangle, having 
open-fronted buildings on all sides, 
and a Nakar Khana (music gallery), 
at the E. end. The W. end is 
used as a school for instruction in 
the Koran. A door at this end 
gives access to an inner courtyard 
in which are a number of graves. 
Facing the entrance are the tombs 
of Asaf Jah and Nasir Jang, sur- 
rounded by a lattice screen of red 
sandstone, and that of Saiyad 
Hazrat Burhan-ud-din, a saint who 
died at Roza, 1344. He was the 
successor of Muntajib - ud - din sent 
by Nizam - ud - din Aulia (p. 206), 
from Upper India with 700 disciples 
a few years before the first 
invasion of the Deccan by 'Ala- 
nd -din, 1294, and was succeeded 
by Zain-ud-din. Deposited within 
the shrine are some hairs of the 
Prophet's beard, which are said 
to increase yearly in number. The 
shrine, however, boasts of a still more 
remarkable treasure, which is de- 
scribed by the attendants as follows : 
" For some years after its erection, 




the disciples of the Saiyad were with- 
out means to keep it in repair, or to 
provide themselves with the neces- 
saries of life. Supplication to the 
deceased saint, however, produced the 
following remarkable phenomenon. 
During the night small trees of silver 
grew up through the pavement on the 
S. side of the shrine, and were regu- 
larly removed every morning by the 
attendants. They were broken up 
and sold in the bazaars, and with the 
proceeds thus realised the Saiyad's 
disciples were enabled to maintain the 
shrine and themselves. This remark- 
able production of silver is said to 
have continued for a number of years, 
until a small jagir was allotted to the 
shrine, since which time the pave- 
ment has only yielded small buds of 
the precious metal, which appear on 
the surface at night and recede during 
the day." In proof of these assertions 
the visitor is shown a number of small 
lumps of silver on the surface of the 
pavement. The shrine doors are 
covered with plates of white and 
yellow metal wrought into designs of 
trees and flowers. 

Among the tombs between these 
two shrines and the Ellora D.B. are 
those of Saiyad Raju R.attal, Malik 
Ambar, and the last king of Golconda. 
The D.B. is situated above the cliff 
in which the 


are, and the road to them begins to 
descend immediately beyond it. 

The Ellora group of Cave Temples 
is the largest and most varied of all, 
and comprises twelve Buddhist, fifteen 
Brahmin, and five Jain works. The 
road down the Ghat passes the south 
side of the Kailasa Temple, and 
divides the caves into two groups of 
eighteen to the left and fourteen to 
the right of it. The Buddhist caves 
lie at the S. end, and the Jain caves 
at the N. end of the hill face, which 
is nearly i^ m. long, the Brahmin 
caves and Kailasa being situated be- 
tween the two groups. The local 
Brahmins are apt to be rather trouble- 
some in pressing their claims on 

strangers as guides and recipients of 


Buddhist Caves. — The first of these, 
to the S. of the Ghat road, and lying 
beyond three Brahmin caves, is known 
as the Tin Thai (No. 12) or Three- 
Storied, and the furthest group at 
the S. end is named the Dherwara 
or Outcasts' quarter ; the date of the 
latter extends from 350 to 550 a. d. , and 
of the former Irom 650 to 750. No. 1 
is a vihara, measuring 41^ ft. by 42^ 
ft., and having eight cells round it. 
No. 2, which was a hall for worship, 
is approached by a flight of steps, and 
is reached through a verandah carved 
with figures, and having large dwarpal 
guardians at the door to the cave, 
which is flanked by a window on 
either side. The interior measures 
48 ft. square, and has a raised lateral 
gallerj' on each side ; the roof is 
supported by twelve columns ar- 
ranged in a square with high bases 
and cushion capitals, and the two 
galleries have four pillars in front 
of them, all richly decorated. A 
shrine, with huge dwarpals and a 
colossal seated Buddha in the centre 
of it and two standing Buddhas on 
either hand, occupies the middle of the 
back wall, and on each side of the 
shrine is a double cell elaborately 
carved. No. 3 was a vihara or mon- 
astery, measuring 46 ft. square, and 
having twelve cells round it ; the 
twelve columns which support it have 
a drooping leaf or ear over their 
circular necks. In the N. end of the 
verandah is a chapel with a Buddha 
seated on a lotus supported by snake- 
hooded figures, and on the right of this 
is a pictorial litany.^ No. 4 is a much 
ruined vihara, now measuring 35 ft. 
by 39 ft. deep. At the inner end is 
a cross aisle, beyond which a shrine, 
with a statue of Buddha under the 
Bo-tree, and two cells were excavated ; 
the columns are similar to those in 
No. 2. No 5, known as the Maha- 
wara, and formerly as the Dherwara 
cave, is again reached by steps. It 
is the largest single-storeyed vihara 
cave here, measuring 58^ ft. by 1 17 
1 See p. 41. 



ft. deep. The roof is carried by two 
rows of ten columns, similar to those 
in No. 2, with two more between 
them at each end, and two stone 
benches run down the cave parallel 
to the ranges of pillars. On either 
side of the cave is a recess with two 
pillars and a number of cells, and at 
the end is a shrine. From its peculiar 

the goddess Saraswati on the S. wall 
of the antechamber deserves notice. 
Beyond it is yet a third hall measur- 
ing 27 ft. b)- 29 ft., wi;h three cells on 
the E. and N. sides. No. 9 lies in 
the N.W. angle beyond the third 
hall, and is reached from the central 
hall of No. 6 ; it has a well-carved 
fafade. No. 7, to which the stairs in 

The Mahawara Dherwara Cave. 

arrangement it has been conjectured 
that this cave was a Hall of Assembly. 
No. 6, to the N. of No. 5, is reached 
through a lower hall with three cells 
on the E. side ; it measures 26^ ft. 
by 43 ft., and has an antechamber 
and shrine at the back of it, the 
former richly carved and the latter 
containing a large seated Buddha. 
The figure on a stone at the foot of 

The Kailasa Temple. 

the first hall of No. 6 lead, is a large 
vihara, 51^ ft. by 43^ ft., supported 
by four columns only. No. 8 is 
entered from this, and is a hall 
measuring 28 ft. by 25 ft., with three 
cells on the north side, a shrine 
with a passage round it, and a seated 
image of Buddha in it, and a smaller 
hall on the W. side. On the face of 
the rock by this is a group of the 




child Buddha with his mother and 
father. The next excavation, No. 10, 
is the only Chaitya or chapel cave of 
the group, and lies some way to the 
N. It is known as the Viswakama 
or Carpenter's cave, and is considered 
to date from the end of the 7th 
century A.D. In front of it is a large 
court, which is reached by steps, and 
from which a second flight of steps 
leads to the verandah. The galleries 
round the court are borne by elegant 
pillars, and at the foot of each of 
these was a fine stone lion facing 
outwards. At the back of the side 
galleries are two chapels elaborately 
carved, and at the ends of the back 
gallery or verandah are two chapels 
with two columns in front of them 
and two cells. The fine railed terrace 
above the verandah is reached by a 
flight of steps in the N. gallery. The 
facade is surmounted by a bold pro- 
jecting cornice cut in the rock, and 
the great horseshoe window is here 
divided into lights, and loses its 
original shape. The interior measures 
86 X 43 X 34 ft., and the nave 
and aisles, which run round the 
dagoba, are separated by twenty- 
eight columns. The dagoba is 27 ft. 
high, and has a colossal seated Buddha 
in the front of it. The roof is carved 
in imitation of ribs, and the projecting 
wall under it and the above columns 
is carved with two rows of panels, 
the upper with figures of Buddha and 
the lower with representations of 
ganas or dwarfs. Further N. is the 
Do Thai' cave (No. H), which was 
subsequently discovered to have three 
storeys ; it is also preceded by a court. 
The lowest storey consists of a veran- 
dah only, with a shrine and two cells 
at the back of it. The middle storey 
has eight pillars in front and five 
chapels or cells, of which only the 
three richly carved ones in the midiile 
are completed. The centre chapel is 
a small hall with two pillars and a 
statue of Buddha in the shrine. N. 
again of the Do Thai is theTinThal'* 
cave (No. 12), dating probably from 
about 700 A.D. This again has a fine 
fore-court (a feature which adds great 
picturesquencss to the Ellora caves), 

' Do Thai = Two storeys. 
> Tin Tha] = Three storeys. 

but in this instance without side 
galleries. Steps lead from the court 
into a great hall, 115 ft. x 43 ft., 
with three rows of columns ; beyond 
this a second hall, 42 ft. x 35 ft., 
borne by six columns, extends up to 
the shrine, with a seated statue of 
Buddha on either wall. The shrine 
contains a colossal seated Buddha and 
a number of other figures. On the 
walls of the front hall a relief of 
Buddha with attendants and chauri 
bearers is repeated in many places. 

Steps at the S.W. corner of the 
front hall lead to the middle storey, 
borne by two rows of eight pillars. 
The shrine is elaborately carved and 
two fine dwarpah guard its door. 
The topmost floor is carried by five 
rows of eight columns, the hall measur- 
ing 1 1 5 ft. X 70 ft. Along both side 
walls are large figures of Buddha 
seated on a throne, and on the back 
wall are the seven human Buddhas, 
seated under trees at the one side 
and under umbrellas at the other. 
The antechamber, which is very 
large and has two pillars, is sculp- 
tured all round with large figures ; 
in the shrine is a very large squat 

Brahman Caves. — Fifty yds. N. of 
the Tin Thai Cave begins the group of 
fifteen Brahmanical caves, or sixteen, 
including the Temple of Kailasa. The 
first of these is a plain room only ; 
next comes the Ravan ka Khai',and 
then the Das Avatara, between which 
and the Kailasa temple the Ghat road 
reaches the plain. All these were 
probably constructed in the 7 th and 
early part of the 8th century a.d., 
the temple being the latest in date. 
The Ravan ka Khai presents a very 
different arrangement from that of 
any of the Buddhist caves. At the 
entrance were four columns making 
a front aisle ; behind, twelve columns 
enclose the central space of the hall ; 
and beyond these is a shrine standing 
free at the end of the hall. The 
pillared portion measures nearly 55 
ft. sq., and the depth of the cave 
to the back wall behind the shrine 
chapel is 85 ft. The S. wall bears 
1 Ravan ka K hai = Excavation of Ravaa»< 



Saiva sculptures of the slaughter of 
the buffalo demon, Shiva and Parvati 
playing chess, Shiva dancing the 
tandava, Ravana shaking Kailasa 
and Bhairava ; ^ while the N. wall 
has Vaishnava representations of 
Durga, Lakhshmi, wife of Vishnu, 
the Varahani, or boar incarnation of 
Vishnu, a four-armed Vishnu, and 
Vishnu seated with Lakhshmi. 
Inside the shrine is an altar and 
a broken figure of Durga ; in the 
passage outside it on the S. side is 
a group of three Skeleton demon 
gods, Ganesh, and the seven great 
goddesses, each with a child, and her 
cognisance below, viz. Chamundi^ 
and owl, Indrani and elephant, 
Varahani and boar, Lakhshmi and 
Garuda eagle, Kaumari and peacock, 
Maheswari and buffalo, Brahmi and 
bans or goose. The D&,s Avatara' 
Cave is next reached by a consider- 
able flight of steps in the rock. It 
stands at the end of a large court 
hewn in the rock, which in this 
instance has a chapel in the middle 
of it and smaller shrines and cisterns 
round it ; inside the chapel are four 
columns on a platform which perhaps 
once had an image of a bull (Nandi) 
on it. The cave has two storeys, of 
which the lower is carried by two 
rows of eight plain pillars, two more 
standing between four cells in the back 
wall. From the N.W. corner of 
the cave a staircase leads first to a 
landing with eleven reliefs of Hindu 
gods, beginning with Ganesh and 
ending with Durga, and then to the 
upper storey, which measures 95 ft, 
by 109 ft. deep, and is supported 
by seven rows of six columns, those 
in the front row being richly carved. 
The sculptured scenes on the walls 
are mainly similar to those in the 
preceding cave ; among other notice- 
able scenes are Bhairava with a neck- 
lace of skulls, and the marriage of 

1 See pp. ig, 20. 

2 The name of this goddess, a specially 
ferocious form of Durga, is derived from the 
two giants Chanda and Munda whom she 
slew. She wore an elephant hide and a 
necklace of corpses, and used to rejoice in 
human sacrifices. See play of Malati and 
Vladhava in Wilson's Theatre o/tlie Hindus. 

S Das .\vatara = Ten Incarnations. 

Shiva and Parvati on the N. wall ; 
Shiva springing from a lingam and 
Lakhshmi with elephants pouring 
water over her, on the back wall ; 
and Visimu, resting on the five- 
hooded serpent, and incarnated as a 
dwarf and as Narasingha (man-lion) 
on the S. wall. In the shrine behind 
an antechamber with two columns 
was a lingam or emblem of Shiva. 

The Kailasa temple is a marvellous 
structure, shaped and carved wholly 
out of rock in situ, the back wall of 
the court-pit in which it stands being 
over 100 ft. high, while the court 
itself is 276 ft. long and 154 ft. broad. 
A rock screen pierced by a fine 
entrance passage closes the court on 
the W. side ; near it stand two 
gigantic stone elephants. Between 
the screen and the temple, and con- 
nected with both, is a fine Nandi 
shrine, 26 ft. square and two storeys 
high, with a stone flagstaff on either 
side ; and beyond this is the temple 
measuring 164 ft. from front to back, 
and 109 ft. from outside to outside 
of the side porches, and rising 96 ft. 
above the floor of the court. It 
consists of three parts — a porch, a 
central hall measuring 57 ft. x 55 ft., 
and borne by sixteen massive square 
columns arranged in four groups of 
four each, with broad aisles between, 
from W. to E. and from N. to S., 
and a dark shrine, 15 ft. square 
inside, with the Ganges and Jumna 
as guardians at the door. A passage 
leads all round the shrine and to five 
chapels placed at the sides and back 
of it ; these illustrate the shape of 
the cells on the terraces of structural 
Buddhist viharas. The solid base- 
ment on which the temple stands is 
carved with a splendid series of im- 
mense elephants and monsters pro- 
jected from the wall, and forms 
quite one of the finest remains of 
antiquity in the whole of India. At 
the sides of the bridge connecting 
the porch and Nandi chapel, and of 
the staircases leading to the former, 
are large sculptures and reliefs, 
tlie latter representing scenes from 
the Ramayana. On the S. side oi 




the court opposite the porch is a 
rock-cut gallery, borne by two 
columns, with statues of the seven 
great goddesses and Ganesh, and E. 
of this is a plain cave, 55 ft. x 34 ft., 
borne by four pillars, and with a 
verandah also with two columns. 
There is also an upper storey to this 
cave, once connected with the temple 
by a flying bridge, under which on 
the temple wall is a relief of Ravana 
shaking Kailasa. From this point 
the E. half of the court round to the 
N. side porch of the temple is en- 
circled by a corridor cut in the rock, 
with twelve large compartments of 
sculpture on the S. side, nineteen on 
the E., and twelve again on the N., 
representing various Saiva and 
Vaishnava scenes. The view of the 
temple from under the great cliff at 
the E. end is extremely impressive. 
W. of the N. corridor is another, 
but plain, one, under the large 
Lankeshwar cave. This is 108 ft. by 
60 ft., exclusive of a Nandi chapel 
in front of it, and is reached by a 
dark winding staircase from yet a 
fifth corridor W. of the fourth. The 
cave is borne by sixteen pillars 
arranged as in the Kailasa temple, 
and by two rows of five and four more 
columns on the outer edge of the S. 
and W. sides, two in front of the 
shrine completing the whole number 
of twenty-seven ; between the 
columns of the outer lines is a 
sculptured rail, and in the back 
aisle of the cave are a number of 
large sculptured scenes. At the 
sides of the door to the shrine 
are female guardians ; the altar 
inside has been broken. In the 
N.W. corner of the court is a small 
cave shrine with two pillars in the 
front decorated with representations 
of the three river goddesses of the 
Ganges, Jumna, and Saraswati ; 
and above this is a small unfinished 

A footpath near the N. side of 
Kailasa leads up to the plateau past 
a cave with a Trimurti, or Triad 
figure of Shiva in it (p. 19). Further 
N. are four unimportant Brahmin 
caves, beyond which the Rameswara 

cave is reached. This is a Saiva 
temple, once with a porch m front 
of it, borne by three rows of four 
pillars very varied in design ; it 
has but few carved scenes. A 
corridor formerly ran round three 
sides of the forecourt. The next 
important cave is known as the Nila- 
kantha ; it has a small ruined chapel 
in the forecourt, from which thirteen 
steps lead into the cave, measuring 
70 ft. by 44 ft. In the shrine is a 
lingam. The Khumbarwada cave, 
95 ft. by 27 ft. including the smaller 
hall at the back, has a figure of the 
sun god in his seven-horse chariot 
in the vestibule to the shrine. The 
next temple is a large hail with 
several chapels measuring 112 ft. 
by 67 ft., and supported by columns 
of the Elephanta type : at the door 
of the shrine are very large dwarpals. 
The path now reaches a fine ravine, 
over the scarped head of which a 
waterfall descends after rain. On 
the S. side of this is the Vaishnava, 
Milkmaid's, or Gopi cave, and on 
the N. side the cave named Sitabi 
Nah&Jil (or bath), which is the last 
of the Brahmin caves. The verandah 
of the former is ruined, but on the 
back wall of it, pierced by a door 
and four windows, are various carved 
scenes : the inner hall measures 53 ft. 
by 22 ft. The second is an ex- 
tremely picturesque excavation which 
will remind every one of the great cave 
at Elephanta, believed to be slightly 
more modern than this, which dates 
from about 650-725. It consists of 
a principal hall, facing nearly W., 
with a recess on the S. side opening 
on to the ravine, and a larger recess 
of irregular shape on the N. side. 
The central hall measures 149 ft. in 
depth and 95 ft. in breadth, including 
the two side aisles which lead to 
the recesses, and is borne by four 
rows of four columns, the two east- 
ward of the middle rows being 
merged in the walls of the free 
shrine, while two more stand at the 
W. end of these rows and corre- 
spond with those at the sides of the 
entrance. The steps to this are 
guarded by two lions, and in front 



of them is a circular platform for 
a nandi. In the verandah and front 
aisles of the cave are carved reliefs 
much as at Elephanta. The shrine 
is a small square room, approached 
by four doors as in that cave, and 
contains a lingam. From the S. recess 
steps descend to the ravine, of which 
a charming view is obtained at this 
point. The N. recess is also reached 
by steps guarded by lions ; a small 
low cave exists at the E. end of this, 
and from the S.W. corner of the recess 
a passage has been broken into an 
excavation with six pillars ; there is 
usually water in this wing, which 
prevents any close examination of it. 

Jain Caves. — The five Jain caves, 
dating from the 8th to the 13th century, 
lie about 200 yds. beyond the most 
northerly of the Brahmin caves, the 
first being the Cliliota Kailasa, some 
way up the face of the hill and not 
easily found without a local guide. 
This temple is in a pit measuring 130 
ft. by 80 ft., and has a hall 36 ft. 
square borne by sixteen columns, and 
a shrine 14^ ft. by \\\ ft. It was 
imitated from the great Kailasa temple 
and left incomplete. The Indra Sabha 
is entered through a rock screen facing 
S., in front of which to the E. is 
a temple with statues of Parasnath, 
Gotama Swami with creepers round 
his limbs, and the last Tirthankar, 
Mahavira. In the S.E. corner of 
the court is a large elephant, and 
opposite it was a monolithic column, 
in front of a cave with six columns, 
containing reliefs of the same three 
Tirthankars. In the centre of the 
front of the court is a chapel with a 
quadruple image of a Jain saint : at 
the back of the court is an incom- 
plete hall borne by twelve columns, 
with two more between the S. and 
N. colonnades and the verandah and 
shrine. Over this, reached by a 
staircase in the verandah, is a second 
hall with wings to the front of it, each 
with a small temple borne by four 
columns. The hall measuring 55 ft. 
by 65 ft. is supported by twelve pillars, 
in the centre of which was once an 
image ; the walls all round are divided 

into compartments filled with Jain 
saints, and the shrine has a statue of 
Mahavira. The figures at the ends of 
the verandah are noticeable, as is the 
cornice round the shrine door. The 
Jagannath Sabha, a little further on, 
is also a double cave with a court 
in front of it. On the W. wing of 
this is a small hall, and at the side 
of the main cave is a small chapel ; 
the cave is supported by four columns 
in front and by four more inside ; 
the sculptures in it are in an un- 
usually perfect condition. The out- 
side staircase to the upper storey leads 
to another hi 11 55 ft. by 45 ft., the 
ceiling of which was once painted in 
concentric circles, and the walls of 
which are sculptured all over with 
figures of Mahavira and Parasnath. 
This cave connects internally with 
the Indra Sabha, and also with 
another to the W. of it consisting of 
a verandah with two columns and a 
small hall with four. On the top 
of the hill in which the Jain caves 
are excavated is a rock-hewn statue of 
Parasnath 16 ft. high, protected by a 
structural building raised over it some 
200 years ago. 

It will probably be found more 
convenient to proceed by tonga from 
Ellora to Aurangabad, 16 m. (a small 
extra charge is made for this), than to 
go there by railway from Daulatabad. 

63 m. Aurangabad, D.B. This 
thriving city (population 37,000), 
which has a considerable trade in 
cotton and wheat, was first called 
Khirki, and was founded in 1610 by 
Malik Ambar, the head of the Abys- 
sinian faction in the Ahmadnagar State. 
The town lies to the E. of the canton- 
ment. I m. N. E. of it is the grand 
Mausoleum of Rabi'a Durrani,' wife 
of Aurangzeb. The great door at the 
gateway is plated with brass, and along 
the edge is written, " This door of the 
noble mausoleum wasmade in 1089A.H., 

1 The proper name is Rubia ud Daurani. 
By some writers the lady is said to have been 
a daughter of the Emperor. The gravestont 
I is nameless. 




when Atau'Uah was chief architect, 
by Haibat Rai." Near the inscrip- 
tion is an infinitesimally small figure, 
which is said to be a bird, indistinctly 
carved, and there is a similar carving 
on the door of the mausoleum itself. 
It is a common joke amongst natives, 
when any man asserts that he has been 
to this mausoleum, to ask if he saw 
the bird there, and if he answers in 
the negative, to dispute his having 
seen the mausoleum at all. The 
curious roof of the gateway of the 
mausoleum should be observed. In 
the garden is a long narrow basin of 
water, in which fountains used to play 
and on either side of the water is a 
walk and ornamental wall. The main 
fault of this otherwise beautiful build- 
ing, which is compared to the Taj, 
is the want of sufficient height in the 
entrance archway. In the wall of the 
mausoleum is a second but much 
smaller door, only 6 ft. high, plated 
with brass, where the second bird is 
pointed out. The carving of the 
flowers on this door is curious, and 
that of the dragons particularly so. 
The bird is on the edge of the door 
close to the upper central knob. Those 
who wish to enter the tomb are 
expected to take off their shoes. The 
cenotaph is enclosed in an octagonal 
screen of white marble lattice-work 
exquisitely carved, and stands on a 
raised marble platform.' The place 
for the slab is empty, and nothing but 
earth appears. This is much approved 
by Moslems, as showing humility. In 
the gallery above the tomb is a marble 
door exquisitely carved. The Govern- 
ment of the Nizam has gone to great 
expense in restoring this mausoleum. 
Below the right corner of the platform 
is a second tomb, said to contain the 
remains of Rabi'a Durrani's nurse. 
There is no inscription. To the W. of 
the mausoleum is a mosque of brick 
faced with cement {chunam) of a 
dazzling whiteness. The pavement 
is covered with tracings of prayer- 
carpets. The mimbar, or pulpit, is 
of marble. 

1 Tavernier mentionsthistomb in his travels, 
and states that he met carts coming down 
from N. India with white marble for it. 

The Pan ChakM or water-mill, 
the shrine of Baba Shah Muzaffar, a 
Chishti (p. 138), and spiritual pre- 
ceptor of Aurangzeb, is perhaps the 
prettiest and best-kept shrine in this 
part of India. It is situated on the 
right of the road from the canton- 
ment to the Begampura bridge, and 
on the very edge of the Kham, the 
river of Aurangabad. In the garden 
is a brimming tank of clear water, 
full of fish from I ft. to 3 ft. long, 
of a species called Khol. This tank 
overflows into a lower one, and that 
again into a narrow conduit. Beyond 
the first tank and the ornamental 
garden is a second and much larger 
one. It is entirely supported on 
vaults, with two rows of massive 
pillars. Below is a noble hall reached 
by steep steps down to the level of 
the river. On the right of the second 
tank is a fine mosque, the roof of 
which is supported by four rows of 
massive pillars. In two of the rows 
the pillars are of teak, and in two of 
masonry. At the S.W. corner of this 
mosque, in a little garden, is the 
diminutive Tomb of the saint, of beauti- 
ful light-coloured marble. 

\ m. N. from the Pan Chakki, 
is the Mecca Gate of the city and the 
Mecca Bridge, which are probably 
some centuries old. The top of the 
parapet of the gateway is 42 ft. above 
the road which passes over the bridge. 
The flanking towers are surmounted 
by domes. Inside the gate there is 
a black stone mosque built by Malik 
Ambar. In the centre is a niche with 
the Divine Name, and "Victory is 
near." Above that is the Kalirnah, 
and some verses of the Koran written 
in difficult Tughra. Close by is a 
recess with a bell-shaped ornament. 
This is perhaps the oldest mosque 
in the city. 

The Government Offices are two 
m. to the S.E. of the cantonment, 
and in or near the Arkilla or citadel 
built by Aurangzeb. This spot not 
long ago was entirely covered with 
cactus and jungle, the haunt of 
hyenas and other wild animals. It 
was, however, the site of gentlemen'.s 



houses in the reign of Aurangzeb, 
when Aurangabad was the capital of 
the Deccan. Sir Salar Jang ordered 
the site to be cleared, and when this 
was done, numerous reservoirs, foun- 
tains, and other works of interest 
were discovered. These have been 
repaired, and the wilderness has 
literally been changed into a bloom- 
ing garden. Only one archway of 
Aurangzeb's citadel remains, but 
here fifty-three great princes, like the 
Maharajas of Jaipur and Jodhpur, 
attended the court of the Emperor 
with thousands of armed retainers, 
and Aurangabad was then the Delhi 
of the South. As soon as Aurangzeb 
died the princes departed, and 
Aurangabad sank at once into com- 
parative insignificance. The Jama 
Masjid is on the right of the road, 
amid a grove of some of the finest 
trees in India. One immense Ficus 
indica stands close on the road and 
shades some 300 ft. of it. The 
Mosque and minarets are low, but 
the facade is rendered striking by 
an ornamental band of carving 2 ft. 
broad along the whole front. Over 
the central niche are the Kalimah 
and inscriptions in Tughra writing 
as in Malik Ambar's Mosque. This 
mosque is wonderfully well kept, 
and there is, what is not seen any- 
where else, a net covering the entire 
facade, so that no birds or other 
creatures can enter. Malik Ambar 
built half this mosque, and Aurangzeb 
the other half. 

The Caves of Aurangabad are 
beyond the N. outskirts of the city 
near Rabi'a Durrani's mausoleum, 
from which it is necessary to ride 
or walk to the foot of the hills, 
which are here about 700 ft. high. 
The ground at the base of the hill 
is very rough, and intersected with 
deep ravines, and the climb up to 
the caves is over a rough and slippery 
rock for about 250 ft. The nine 
Buddhist caves here are the latest 
of all Buddhisc works in India, and 
date principally from the 7th century : 
there are five in the W. group, 
and four in the other lying \ m. 

further E. No. 1 at the W. end of 
the first group is a vihara, a good 
deal higher up than the other four 
caves adjoining it, and the path to 
it is rather difficult. Only the porch 
and verandah (76^ ft. by 9 ft.) were 
completed, and the former has been 
crushed by the fall of a mass of rock ; 
the hall was intended to be one of 
28 pillars. No. 2 was intended to 
be a hall for worship only. At the 
back of the verandah, 21^ ft. by 13 ft., 
is an aisle, and behind this is a shrine 
with a passage all round it : at the 
sides of the shrine door are two tall 
figures standing on a lotus flower 
and ndga figures, and inside is a 
seated figure of Buddha, 9 ft. high, in 
the teaching attitude. Many reliefs 
of similar figures are on the walls 
of the shrine and the passages. No. 3 
is a vihara hall, 41^ ft. by 42^ ft., 
with twelve columns splendidly 
decorated as in the late caves at 
Ajanta ; there is a decorated recess 
also, and on each side two cells. In 
the front corners of the shrine are 
a number of life - sized worshipping 
figures with garlands and elaborate 
head-dresses. No. 4 is a chaitya or 
chapel cave, much ruined. It was 
only 38 ft. long and 22\ ft. broad, 
and was carried by seventeen plain 
columns : the dagoba was nearly 
6 ft. in diameter. It dates probably 
from the middle of the 4th century. 
Of No. 5 only the shrine remains, 
now dedicated to the Jain Parasnath. 
No. 6, the first of the E. caves is 
again much higher up the hill face 
than the other three caves in that 
group. The hall was borne by four 
columns, and the antechamber of the 
shrine by two more : in the side 
walls are four cells, and in the 
back wall two. The shrine has a 
passage round it, and a smaller 
Buddha with smaller worshippers 
in front. There are traces of paint- 
ing on the roof of the front of the 
cave. No. 7 has a verandah with 
four columns and a chapel at either 
end, and a hall 38 ft. by 28 ft., in 
the centre of which the shrine has 
been placed ; while three cells have 
been excavated in each side wall, and 




two chapels with sculptures in the 
back wall. To the left of the 
entrance to the hall is one of the 
best representations of the Buddhist 
Litany (p. 41) : to the right is a figure 
of Manjusri, patron of the Mahayana 
sect. The front of the shrine has three 
large female figures on either side : 
on the left of the figure of Buddha 
m the, shrine is the representation of 
a dance and of female musicians. 
No. 8 consists of a ruined lower 
storey and an incomplete upper 
storey with a hall 27 ft. by 20 ft. 
No. 9 is also higher up in the cliff. 
It consisted of a long verandah hall 
with three chambers and shrines 
opening from it. On the W. wall 
is a sculpture of the dead Buddha 
16 ft. long. The sculptures and 
arrangements of these caves show 
a distinct approximation to the 
Brahmin caves of Ellora. 

102 m. Jalna D.B., a cantonment 
of the late Hyderabad contingent 
(population 20,000). From this 
place the battle-field of Assaye, 30 m. 
distant, may be visited in the inside 
of a day, if arrangements are made 
beforehand for a tonga and two relays 
of horses on the road, through the 
Tonga Mail Agent of the place. 
Several old forts, such as once covered 
all the Deccan, are passed en route, 
and the two fortified villages of 
Pipalgaon and Waroor on the Kaitna 
river which showed the Duke of 
Wellington where the ford was, still 
stand on either side of the stream. 
A fine view of the field of battle fought 
on 23rd September 1803 is obtained 
from the tower of the fort of the 
village of Assaye, on the bank of 
the Juah, between which and the 
Kaitna the Mahratta army was drawn 
up, after it was compelled by the 
British manoeuvre to cltange front from 
the line of the Kaitna, which it origin- 
ally faced. The forces of Scindia and 
of the Bhonsla Raja of Nagpur con- 
sisted of 16,000 infantry and 20,000 
cavalry, and the British force of 4,500 
men all told : the killed and wounded 
on either side were 12,000 and 1,600. 
North of it lies the spot where the 

British who fell in the battle were 
buried. It is under contemplation 
to erect a memorial here. 
386 m. Secunderabad (p. 379). 


(expedition to Warora, and 
Cbanda), Nagpur, Eampti, Raipur, 
BilaspuT, and Sini, and from Sini 
to (a) Purulia and Asanaol, and (b) 

By this line a new route from 
Bombay to Calcutta (1223 m., or 
about 130 m. shorter than any other) 
is opened up. The fares are Rs.91. i, 
Rs.45.9, and Rs. 13.13 by the mail 
train. The time occupied by this is 
40 hours. 

It taps an immense territory of 
the Central Provinces which has 
hitherto been inaccessible to external 
trade, and provides an outlet for the 
great wheat and seed-producing dis- 
trict of Chattisgarh (the thirty-six 
forts), one of " the granaries of India." 
The scenery in parts of the line, 
notably at Darekassa, Dongargarh, 
and Saranda (p. 87), is very fine. 

The route firom Bombay to 

276 m. Bhusawal junction (R.) is 
described in Route 2. 

Soon after leaving Bhusawal the 
traveller enters the districts of Berar 
(population, 2,754,000), which con- 
tinue almost all the way to Nagpur. 
They belong to H.H. the Nizam, 
but were assigned to the British by a 
treaty, in 1853, for the support of the 
Hyderabad Contingent force. This 
treaty was remodelled in December 
i860, by which, for the Nizam's 
services in the Mutiny of 1857, his 
debt of 50 lakhs was cancelled, the 
districts of Dharaseo and the Raichur 
Doab were restored, and the confiscated 
territory of Sholapur was ceded to 



him. By a recent arrangement made 
with H.H. the Nizam, involving a 
fixed payment of 21 lakhs yearly 
to the Hyderabad State, the per- 
manent administration of the Berar 
districts by the British Government 
has been secured, and they have 
been added to the Government of the 
Central Provinces ; while the Hydera- 
bad Contingent Force has been for- 
mally added to the Indian Army. 

The fertility of the Berar districts, 
which form one of the richest and 
most extensive cotton-fields in India, 
is very striking. The soil is black 
loam overlying basalt. The rainfall 
is regular and abundant, and at 
harvest-time the whole surface is one 
immense waving sheet of crops. The 
districts are Akola, Amraoti, Elichpur, 
Buldana, Wun, and Basim. 

333 m. Jalamb junction station. 

[Branch 8 m. S. to Khamgaon 
station, where there is an important 

363 m. Akola station is the head- 
quarters station of the West Berar 
district of that name. 

[A road from Akola runs S. 72 m. 
to the important town and military 
station of Hingoli. About 30 m. 
from Akola is the town of Alekkar, 
and 15 m. S. of Mehkar is a curious 
soda lake called Lonar, formed in 
the crater of an extinct volcano. The 
salt is used for washing and dyeing 
purposes, and is exported in consider- 
able quantities.] 

413 m. Badnera junction station 
(R.), D.B. 

[Br. 6m.N. to Amraoti station ( R. ), 
D.B. Both places have cotton-marts, 
and there are cotton-gins and ware- 
houses. Amraoti is the headquarters 
of the district of that name, and was 
that of the Revenue Commissioner, 
who was formerly the head of the 
Berar Administration. 

472 m. Wardha junction station 
(R.), D.B. The chief town of the most 
westerly district of the Central Pro- 
vinces. The place is quite modern, 

dating only from 1866, and is a con- 
siderable cotton-mart. Here is a 
Medical Mission of the Free Church of 
Scotland, with fine hospital and leper 

[Branch S. to the Warora coal- 
fields, and Chanda. 

21 m. Hinganghat station, D.B., 
a very important old cotton-market. 

45 m. Warora station, a town in 
the Chanda district of the Central 
Provinces, and a considerable cotton- 
mart. Close to Warora are mines of 
fairly good coal ; the yearly out-turn 
is about 120,000 tons. 

74 m. is Chanda, the headquarters 
of the Chanda district (D.B.), and 
a most attractive spot. The town is 
surrounded by a continuous wall of 
cut stone 5^ m. in circuit. Inside 
the walls are detached villages and 
cultivated fields. The foliage is 
beautiful, and there are extensive 
forest-preserves near. The tombs of 
the Gond kings, and the temples of 
Achaleswar, Maha Kali, and Murli- 
dhar, are all worth a visit. At Lalpet, 
in the town, a large space is covered 
with monolith figures of gigantic size 
which appear to have been prepared 
for some great temple never erected. 
The branch line is to be extended to 
Warangal (p. 379^.)] 

520 m. Nagpur,3^c lat. 21° 9' long. 
71° 31', is the capital of the Central 
Provinces, which have an area of 
100,000 sq. m., and a population of 
10,761,630.^ The present Chief 
Commissioner is the Hon. Mr R. 
Craddock, C.S.I. The district of 
Nagpur itself has an area of 3786 sq. m. 
Among the inhabitants are upwards 
of 2,000,000 of aborigines called 
Gonds ; and of these the hill-tribes 

1 Inclusive of the recently added Berar 




have black skins, flat noses, and thick 
lips. A cloth round the waist is their 
chief garment. The religious belief 
varies from village to village. Nearly 
all v^forship the cholera and the small- 
pox, and there are traces of serpent- 

The ancient history of the Province 
is very obscure. In the 5th century 
A.D. a race of foreigners, Yavanas, 
ruled from the Satpura plateau, and 
between the lOth and 13th centuries, 
Rajputs of the Lunar Race governed 
the country round Jubbulpore, and the 
Pramars of Malwa ruled territory S. 
of the Satpuras. The Chanda dynasty 
of Gonds reigned probably as early 
as the loth or nth century, and the 
Haihayas of Chattisgarh were of more 
ancient date. In 1398 A.D. there 
were princes reigning at Kherla, on 
the Satpura plateau, and Ferishtah 
says "they possessed all the hills of 
Gondwana." In 1467 they were 
conquered by the Bahmani kings. 
The next century the Gonds again 
rose topower, butin 1741 theMahratta 
Bhonslas invaded the country. After 
the events of 1817 the British annexed 
the Saugor and Nerbudda territories, 
and in 1853, on the death of the last 
Raja, Raghoji III., without heir of 
his body, Nagpur and other districts 
were resumed, and in 1861 were 
formed by Lord Canning into the 
Central Provinces. On the 13th of 
June 1857 the native cavalry of the 
Nagpur Irregular force conspired with 
the Mohammedans of the city to rise 
against the British, but the Madras 
infantry continued loyal, and the 
outbreak was suppressed by the firm- 
ness of Mr George Plowden the 
Commissioner. The Sitabaldi Hill 
was prepared as a place of refuge, 
but fortunately the necessity of using 
this did not arise. 

Nagpur, situated on the small stream 
called the Nag (population, 101,000), 
is the headquarters of the Govern- 
ment of the Central Provinces. The 
municipality includes, besides the city, 
the suburb and the civil station of 
Sitabaldi. In the centre, W. of the 
railway station, stands Sitabaldi Hill, 
crowned by a fort, which commands 

a fine view. At Sitabaldi, on the 
26th and 27th of November 1817, the 
Mahratta troops of the Bhonsla Raja, 
Apa Sahib, attacked the Resident, 
Mr, afterwards Sir R. Jenkins, and 
the few troops he had been able to 
assemble. After a desperate engage- 
ment, during which the Mahrattas for 
a time got possession of one of the 
two eminences of the Sitabaldi Hill, 
the British were at length victorious. 
But the disbandment of the army 
was only obtained after a second 
battle, in which the Mahrattas were 
completely routed. Apa Sahib 
escaped and died in exile. A 
child was raised to the throne under 
the title of Raghoji III., and on his 
death, in 1853, the country was 
annexed by the British. 

W. of Sitabaldi Hill is the prettily 
wooded civil station, in which are the 
Victoria Memorial Technical Insti- 
tute, the fine Renaissance Secretariat 
Offices, the New Club House, the 
Courts, the handsome English cathe- 
dral, a large Roman Catholic cathedral 
and school, an important branch of 
the Missions of the Free Church of 
Scotland, two hospitals for men and 
women, and a fine Mahratta church. 
Beyond to the N. are the military 
lines and bazaars, and the suburb of 
Takli, once the headquarters of the 
Nagpur Irregular force. There is a 
fine new Government House on Takli 
Hill ; in the summer the Chief Com- 
missioner resides at Pachmarhi (p. 29). 
Sitabaldi is the suburb S. of the hill 
of that name. Below the glacis is 
the railway station ; beyond is the 
Juma Talao, a large tank ; and more 
to the E. is the city, hidden in foliage. 
Three great roads lead from the civil 
station to the city, one on the N. and 
one on the S. bank of the tank ; the 
third, which is the most N. of all, 
crosses the railway by a bridge to the 
N. of the station. Besides the Juma 
Talao, there are two other fine tanks, 
the Ambajheri and Telinkheri, 3-4 m. 
W. of the city. The chief gardens 
are the Maharaj Bagh, in Sitabaldi, 
the Tulsi Bagh, inside the city, and 


the Paldi, Shakardara, Sonagaon, and 
Telinkheri in the suburbs. 

Nagpur is famous for its delicious 
oranges, quantities of which are ex- 
ported. There are two large spinning 
mills in the place. 

The Bhonsla Palace, in the city, 
built of black basalt, was burned 
down in 1864, and only the Nakkar 
Khana, or music hall, remains. Near 
it are the Morris and Hislop Colleges 
and the Town Hall. 

The Cenotaphs of the Bhonsla Rajas 
are in the Shukrawari quarter, to the 
S. of the city. 

The Great Indian Peninsula Rail- 
way terminates at Nagpur, and from 
this point E. to Calcutta the line 
belongs to the Bengal - Nagpur 

529 m. Kampti, D.B. A large 
town and military cantonment 
(population 39,000) on the right 
bank of the Kanhan river, which is 
spanned by a handsome stone bridge 
that cost ;^90,ooo. Close to it is the 
railway bridge, a fine iron structure 
that cost ;i^ioo,ooo. Kampti dates 
only from the establishment of the 
military station in 1821. The English 
church was built in 1833, and there is 
a highly useful Roman Catholic estab- 
lishment of the Order of St Francis 
de Sales with a church and convent. 
There are five mosques and a number 
of Hindu temples. 

559 m. Bhandara Road station, 
D.B., is about 6J m. from the town, 
which is close to the Wainganga river. 
It is the headquarters of a district of 
the same name, and contains the 
usual public offices, schools, and 
institutions. Population 11,000. 

601 m. Gondia junction. A line runs 
from here north to Nainpur, 74 m., 
and Jubbulpore (p. 29), 70 m. further. 

615 m. Amgaon station (R.). 

From 624 m. Salekasa and 631 
Darekasa to 

647 m. Dongargarh station (R.), 
the line passes through hills and 
heavy bamboo jungles, and through 


a pass with a tunnel at the summit. 
The jungle near this tunnel is famous 
for generally having a man - eating 
tiger in it. During the construction 
of the railway a large number of 
natives were killed here, and victims 
have more recently been carried off. 
Large game of all sorts abounds. 
Dongargarh is an engine - changing 
station, with a considerable Euro- 
pean population connected with the 
railway. The ruins of a fort are on 
the N.E. face of a detached hill, some 
4 m. in circuit. Inside the fortified 
space there are tanks for water supply, 
but no buildings. 

At Amgaon, 95 m. E, of Nagpur, 
the Chattisgarh country is entered 
and continues to Raigarh station, at 
33S m. The people of this country 
still consider themselves a separate 
nationality, and always call themselves 
Chattisgarhias. The Rajas of Ratan- 
pur ruled originally over their thirty-six 
forts, each the chief place of a district ; 
but about 750 A.D., the kingdom was 
divided into two, and a separate raja 
ruled in Raipur. Kalyan Sahi, who 
ruled between 1536 and 1573, went 
to Delhi and made his submission to 
the great Akbar, and this prudent 
conduct resulted in the Haihaya rulers 
retaining their country until the Mah- 
ratta invasion in 1740. 

The tract, which is regarded as 
one of the richest corn-growing coun- 
tries in the world, and is known as 
the "granary of India," is in the 
shape of a vast amphitheatre opening 
to the S. on the plains of Raipur, but 
on every other side surrounded by 
tiers of hills. 

708 m. Raipur station. The chief 
tovra of a district of the same name, 
the headquarters of the commissioner 
of Chattisgarh, and a small military 
cantonment. The population is 
32,000. The town is surrounded by 
tanks and groves of trees, which form 
its attraction. The Fort was built by 
Raja Bhuvaneswar Singh in 1460, and 
in its time was a very strong work. 
Its outer wall is nearly i m. in cir- 
cumference. Large quantities of stone 
were used in its construction, though 




no quarries exist in the neighbour- 
hood. The Burha Tank, on the S., 
the same age as the Fort, covered 
nearly l sq. m. ; but in later improve- 
ments it has been reduced in extent. 
The public gardens are on its E. shore. 
The Maharaj Tank was constructed 
by a revenue farmer in the times of 
the Mahrattas, and close to it is the 
temple of Ramchandra, built in 1775 
by Bhimbaji Bhonsla. There are 
several other reservoirs in the suburbs ; 
and in the centre of the town is the 
Kankali Tank, constructed of stone 
throughout, at the close of the 17th 

776 m. Bllaspur junction station 
(R.). This place is a large engine- 
changing centre. 

[Branch N.W. through a moun- 
tainous district and the coal-fields of 
Umaria to 198 m. Katni junction on 
the E.I. Railway (p. 30). This branch 
passes at Pendra station,^ under the 
Amarkantak plateau (4000 ft.), where 
the Nerbuddai has its source. There 
are several temples and a " Kund " 
or reservoir enclosing the head spring. 
The plateau is frequented by the 
" tirath basis," and other pilgrims.] 

About 15 m. E. of Bilaspur is the 
precipitous hill of Dahla, 2600 ft. 
high, affording a grand view. 

[20 m. N. of Bilaspur is Ratanpur, 
the old capital of the formerly self- 
contained kingdom of Chattisgarh, 
or the Thirty -six Forts, in which is 
included the districts of Raipur and 
Bilaspur. The town lies in a hollow 
surrounded by the Kenda hills. It 
ceased to be the capital in 1787, but 
the crumbling arches of the old fort, 
the broken walls of the ancient palace, 
and the half-filled-up moat which sur- 
rounded the city, recall its former 
condition. The population is under 
6000. The Brahmins of Ratanpur 
are still the leaders of their class all 
over Chattisgarh. The town covers 
an area of 15 sq. m., and contains 
within its limits a forest of mango 
trees, with numerous tanks and 

1 The scenery between Khongsara and 
Khodri, east of Pendra, is of exceptional 

temples scattered amidst their shade. 
Mixed up with temples, great blocks 
of masonry of uniform shape com- 
memorate distinguished satis {suttees). 
The most prominent of these is near 
the old fort, where a large building 
records that there in the middle of 
the 17th century twenty ranis of Raja 
Lakshman Sahi devoutly fulfilled the 
duty of self-immolation. J^ota station 
on the Katni branch is a few miles 
from Ratanpur.] 

Before reaching 

809 m. Champa station the Hasdu 
river is crossed. The stream cuts the 
coalfields of Korba, some 20 m. N. 
of the railway ; and in the jungles 
on its banks are to be found some 
of the few herds of wild elephants 
still roaming through the forests of 
the Central Provinces. 

The line continues E. through a 
thinly-inhabited fiat country to 

858 m. Raigarh. 

S90 m. Belpahar station, on leaving 
which the Eeb river, which flows S. 
into the Mahanadi river, is crossed 
by a considerable bridge. The 
scenery at the crossing is very fine. 

903 m. Jharsuguda junction 

[Branch for the civil and military 
station of Sambalpur, distant 31 m. 
Near here, at different times, dia- 
monds of considerable value have been 
procured. They are said to be found 
in the bed of the Mahanadi up-stream 
from the town, but whether the 
source of supply is the Mahanadi or 
the Eeb river is perhaps not clearly 

From Jharsuguda the railway takes 
a N. E. course, and continuing through 
a well-inhabited plain country to 

916 m. Bagdehi station, it enters 
the hills, in which it continues until 
the plains of Bengal are reached. 

936 m. Garpos station. Hereabouts 

the forests are very dense, and in the 

rainy season they are lartjely resorted 

I to by wild elephants. Between this and 



957 m. Kalunga station, the Brah- 
meni river is crossed. The natives 
here earn a very fair hving by washing 
the river-sands for gold. The view 
up-stream is very grand when the river 
is in flood. 

991 m. Manharpiir station. Here 
the railway enters the Saranda 
forests, which contain some of the 
finest Sal trees {Skorea robusta) in 
India. The line winds round hills, 
passing close under them on both 
sides. The summit of the range is 
reached through a heavy cutting 
leading into a tunnel. During the 
construction ot the Bengal-Nagpur 
Railway through these forests and 
heavy jungles very great difficulty 
was experienced in procuring labour, 
as they have a very bad reputation for 
unhealthiness. The few inhabitants 
of these wilds are nearly all Kols, an 
aboriginal race. 

1029 m. Cliakardarpur station. 
Here the hills recede. The country 
is well cultivated. This is a con- 
siderable railway settlement and 
engine-changing station. 

[Chaibasa, a civil station, is distant 
about 16 m. to the S. E. A great fair is 
held here at Christmas-time, to which 
the people of the country flock. 
Athletic sports, races, and national 
dances take place on the last day of 
the year, and no better opportunity 
can be taken for seeing the people.] 

1052 m. Sini. From here (a) the 
old line of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway 
runs N.E. to Asansol on the E.I.R., 
while (<5) the new direct line runs E. 
to Kharagpur, 1151 m. (p. 322), and 
Howrah (1223 m). On the former 
are the following stations : — 

1068 m. Chandil station. Before 
this place is reached, the hills again 
close in on the line. Dalma Hill, 
3407 ft. above sea-level, is seen 12 
m. E. It is from the country about 
here that the labourers for the tea- 
cultivation in Upper Assam and 
Cachar are mainly recruited. 

1 102 m. Purulia station. The 
headquarters of the Manbhum Dis- 
trict, through which the traveller has 
been passing for many miles. The 
place ha:, nearly 10,000 inhabitants 
and the usual offices of a civil station. 
[From here a branch line runs to 

73 m. Ranchi (D.B., population 
26,000), 2IOO ft. above the sea. This 
place is the headquarters of the Chota- 
Nagpur Division. 

Chota-Nagpur 1 is the seat of a 
Missionary Bishop of the Church of 
England. There are a handsome 
Church, good Schools, and a Native 
Mission in the town of Ranchi ; and 
there are communities of Christian 
Kols, the result of extensive S.P.G. 
missions, conducted by a brotherhood 
from Trinity College, Dublin.] 

1 1 16 m. Adra Junction, junction 
for the E.I.R. Grand Chord, and 

1 126 m. Adra Junction, junction 
for the E.I.R. Grand Chord, and 
Kharagpur (p. 34). 

1 152 m. Asansol junction station. 
About 6 m. before Asansol is 
reached the river Damodar (p. 70) 
is crossed on a very fine bridge. 
From Asansol to Calcutta, a distance 
of 132 m., the traveller proceeds by 
the East Indian Railway (see p. 38), 
this route being 60 m. longer than the 
Kharagpur route. 


KHANDWA to AJMER by Mhow, 
Indore, Neemuch, CMtorgarli, and 
Nasirahad, with expeditions by 
road to Unkarji and Mandu, and 
by rail to Udaipur. 

353 m. Khandwa (p. 29). Here the 
broad gauge is changed for the narrow 
gauge railway, commencing with the 
Iloikar State Railway. At 38 m., 
Mortakka station, the Nerbudda river 
is crossed by a fine bridge, with a cart- 
road under the rails. The only accom- 

1 For this interesting part of India Mr 
Bradley Birt's Chota Nagpur may be 




modation is at the Railway Inspection 
bungalow, for which permission must 
be obtained from the Engineer-in- 
Chlef, Indore State Railway, Mhow. 

This neighbourhood abounds in 
large game of every sort. 

[A good cart-road of 6 m. leads to 
Unkarji, more properly Omkarji, a 
place well worth visiting. 

The Great Temple of Omkar is 
situated in the island of Mandhata in 
the Nerbudda. It is said that the 
island was originally called Baidurya 
Mani Parvat, but its name was changed 
to Mandhata as a boon from Shiva 
to Raja Mandhatri, the seventeenth 
monarch of the Solar Race, who per- 
formed a great sacrifice here to that 

The area of the isle is about five- 
sixths of a sq. m. , and a deep ravine 
cuts it from N. to S. At the N. the 
ground slopes gently, but terminates 
at the S. and E. in precipices 500 ft. 
high. At this point the S. bank of 
the Nerbudda is equally steep, and 
between the cliffs the river is exceed- 
ingly deep, and full of alligators and 
large fish. 

On both sides of the river the 
rocks are of a greenish hue, very 
boldly stratified. It is said that the 
Temple of Omkar and that of 
Amreshwar on the S. bank of the 
river are two of the twelve great 
temples which existed in India when 
Mahmud of Ghazni destroyed Som- 
nath in 1024 a.d. During the wars 
of the 17th and i8th centuries, the 
S. banks were deserted and over- 
grown with jungle, and when the 
Peshwa desired to repair the temple 
it could not be found, so a new one 
was built, with a group of smaller 
ones. Afterwards part of it was 
found, and the late Raja of Mandhata 
built a temple over it ; but its 
sanctity and even its name have been 
appropriated by that which the 
Peshwa built. 

The Raja of Mandhata, who is 
hereditary custodian of the temples, 
is a Bhilala, who claims to be 
the direct descendant of the 
Chauhan Bharat Singh, who took 
Mandhata from Nathu Bhil in 1 165 

A.D. The old temples have suffered 
from the Mohammedans, and every 
dome has been overturned and every 
figure mutilated. The gateways are 
finely carved. The oldest temple is 
that on the Birkhala rocks at the E. 
end, where devotees used to cast 
themselves over the cliffs up till the 
year 1824, when the custom was 
abandoned. The temple consists of 
a courtyard, with a verandah and 
colonnades supported by massive 
pillars boldly carved. On the hill 
are the ruins of a very fine Temple to 
Siddeshvara Mahadeva, which stood 
on a plinth 10 ft. high. Round the 
plinth was a frieze of elephants, 5 ft. 
high, carved in relief with remarkable 
skill, on slabs of yellow sandstone, 
but all but two of the elephants are 

In front of the Temple to Gauri 
Somnath is an immense bull carved 
in a fine green stone, and 100 yds. 
farther is a pillar 20 ft. long. On 
the island itself all the temples are 
Shivite, but on the N. bank of the 
Nerbudda are some old temples to 
Vishnu, and a group of Jain temples. 
Where the river bifurcates are some 
ruined gateways, and a large building 
on which are twenty-four figures of 
Vishnu, well carved in green stone. 
Among them is a large figure of the 
boar Avatar. On a image of Shiva, 
in the same building, is the date 
1346 A.D. Farther down the bank, 
in the Ravana ravine, is a prostrate 
figure 18^ ft. long, with ten arms 
holding clubs and skulls. On its 
chest is a scorpion, and at its right 
side a rat, and one foot rests on a 
prostrate human figure. 

The bed of the ravine is covered 
with huge basalt blocks slightly 
carved. Thtjain Temples stand on 
an eminence a little back from the 
river. The largest is on a plinth of 
basalt, 5 ft. high. The E. wall is 
still complete. On each side of the 
doorway is a figure with Shivite and 
Jain emblems curiously intermixed. 
The hills near these temples, as well 
as the island, are covered with re- 
mains of habitations. 

A great fair is held at the end of 



October, attended by 15,000 persons. 
According to a prophecy, the fulfil- 
ment of which the Brahmans at 
Mandhata anxiously expect, the 
sanctity of the Ganges will expire 
in due course and be transferred to 
the Nerbudda.] 

58 m. Choral station. From this 
point the ascent of the Ghat of the 
Vindhya Range commences and 
continues almost into Mhow. The 
scenery is very fine. On approaching, 

71 m., Fatal Pani station, the 
waterfall of that name is passed. 

74 m. Mhow station (R.), D.B., 
in the territory of the Maharaja 
Holkar, an important military canton- 
ment of British and native troops, 
headquarters of the fifth Army 
Division, 1900 ft. above sea-level, 
population 36,000. Troops are 
stationed here as provided in the 
Treaty of Mandsaur of 1818. Mhow 
has no special interest for a traveller. 
The buildings and institutions are 
those common to all places where 
troops are stationed. 

[From Mhow an expedition of 
55 m. may be made S.W. to the 
ruined city of Mandu, the ancient 
capital of the kingdom of Malwa. 
It is in the territory of the Maharaja 
of Dhar, and the best route is by 
tonga or carriage to the town of 
Dhar (33 m.), D.B. An introduc- 
tion to the Political Agent will be 
found useful in making arrangements 
for the remaining 22 m. of the 
journey. Dhar is a walled town 
of some historical and archfeological 
interest, containing several fine half- 
ruined mosques. In front of one of 
them is an iron pillar, which the 
Emperor Jahangir ordered to be 
removed to Agra. 

Mandu 1 (1944 ft.) occupies 8 m. of 
ground, extending along the crest of 
Vindhyas ; and is separated from the 
tableland, with which it is on a level, 

1 A most interesting account of the ruins 
of Mandu was published by the late Sir James 
Campbell in the Gujerat Volume of the 
Bombay Gazette, 

by a deep valley, above the southern 
side of which the battlemented walls 
and gates of the old city rise very 
finely. The best place in which to 
pass the night is the gateway of the 
Jama Masjid ; supplies of every kind 
must be taken from Dhar, as practi- 
cally none are procurable on the spot. 
Paths have been cut through the 
jungle to all the ruins of interest, 
the chief being the Jama Masjid 
(1431-54 A.D.), less injured than any 
of the others, and said to be the finest 
and largest specimen of Afghan archi- 
tecture extant in India.^ Between it 
and the great arched gateway in the 
northern wall of the city are a number 
of ruined palaces and courts, including 
the Water Palace with a fine tank on 
either side of it and a splendid view of 
the whole city from its roof, and the 
marble Mausoleum of Hoshang Ghori. 
Two miles to the S.E., on the 
edge of the Nerbudda Valley, of 
which there is a splendid view, 
is the Palace of Baz Bahadu7-, 
Bayazid, the last king of Malwa, 
with the pavilion of Rupmati (p. 
211). S.W., near an inner citadel 
in that quarter, is a quaint ravine 
with temples and a small tank, 
specially mentioned in the memoirs 
of the Emperor Jahangir. These 
once magnificent buildings are still, 
in their ruined state, very striking on 
account of their massive proportions. 
The fortifications were constructed 
by Hoshang Ghori, who reigned in 
the beginning of the 15th century, 
and in whose time the city attained 
its greatest splendour. In 1526 
Mandogarh was taken by Bahadur 
Shah, ruler of Guzerat, and annexed 
to his dominions, of which it re- 
mained part until their conquest by 
Akbar in 1570. Of late years 
measures have been taken for the 
preservation of some of the most 
interesting ruins. According to 
Malcolm, Mandu was founded in 
313 A.D. Sir Thomas Rce, the 
Ambassador of James I. of England, 
entered Mandu in the train of 
Jahangir, part of the triumphal pro- 

1 See Fergusson, Indian Architecture. 
ii. •.>47. 




cession of the Great Mughal being 
500 elephants. He complains in his 
Memoirs of the lions which then in- 
fested the country, and killed one of 
his baggage ponies. The Rajas of 
the towns Mandu and Chitor were at 
feud with each other for many years 
(see p. 93.) From June till November 
the locality is very unhealthy. 

87 m. Indore station D.B. This 
place is the capital of the state, and 
the residence of the Maharaja Holkar 
(population 87,000) and of the Agent 
to the Governor-General for Central 
India. The present chief is His 
Highness Maharaja Tukaji Rao 

Indore stands on an elevated and 
healthy site. Of recent years modern 
improvements have been introduced. 
Roads have been metalled, drains 
built, the water supply cared for, and 
the principal streets lighted. Among 
the chief objects of interest are the 
Lai Bagh or garden, the mint, high 
school, market-place, reading-room 
dispensary, and a large cotton-mill. 
There is considerable export trade in 
grain. To the W. of the city is an 
antelope preserve. Adjoining the 
town, on the other side of the railway, 
is the British Residency, an area 
assigned by treaty, and containing 
not only the house and park of the 
Governor -General's Agent and the 
bungalows occupied by his staff and 
other officials, but a bazaar of some 
importance, and the central Opium 
stores and weighing agency. The 
barracks for the escort of the Agent 
of the Governor - General and the 
Rajkumar College * for the education 
of young native chiefs and nobles are 
alsowithin the Residency limits. Here 
too is a Mission of the Presbyterian 
Church of Canada. 

The palace of the Maharaja ( i m. 
from the railway station), with its lofty, 
many-storeyed gateway, is situated 
almost in the centre of the city, and is 

1 The Rajkumar College has been closed, 
and the pupils transferred to the Mayo 
college, Ajmer. 

a conspicuous object from every part 
of it. It faces E. , and is in a small 
square, with the Gopal Mandir to the 
S. , which was built by the Mahorani 
Krishna Bai. The fine King Edward 
Hall was opened by King George on 
17th November 1905. His Majesty's 
visit will be commemorated by the 
new Courts of Justice. To the W. 
of the palace is the Sharafa Street, of 
the Marwari money-lenders. Close 
by is the Haldi Bazaar, where the 
dealers in opium live, and the Itwar, 
or Sunday Street, where a market is 
held on Sundays. H.H. sometimes 
receives guests in the Lai Bagh men- 
tioned above. This is on the banks 
of the Sirsuti river, which is dammed 
up here and which divides the city, 
and contains a handsome villa. At 
one end is a house where several 
lions are kept, and there is also an 

The State troops revolted in 1857 
and attacked the Residency, and also 
the cantonment of Mhow on 1st July. 
The Resident Colonel Durand, who 
had arrived at Indore only on 14th 
May, and the Europeans with him, 
were compelled, after a fight, to retreat 
to Sehore, and Hoshungabad ; but 
Captain Hungerford in Mhow drove 
the mutineers off his guns and remained 
thereuntil a Bombay force reached that 

The old capital of the Holkar family 
was Maheshwarin Nimar,onthe banks 
of the Nerbudda, where is the magni- 
ficent Chliatri of Ahalaya Bai, widow 
of the son of Mulhar Rao Holkar, d. 
1795. Sir John Malcolm says of this 
lady : "The character of her adminis- 
tration was for more than thirty years 
the basis of the prosperity which 
attended the dynasty to which she 
belonged. She sat every day for a con- 
siderable period in open durbar trans- 
acting business. Her first principle 
of government appears to have been 
moderate assessment and an almost 
sacred respect for the native rights of 
village officers and proprietors of land. 
She heard every complaint in person, 
and although she continually referred 
causes to courts of equity and arbi- 
tration, and to her ministers for 



settlement, she was always accessible ; 
and so strong was her sense of duty 
on all points connected with the 
distribution of justice, that she is 
represented as not only patient, but 
unwearied in the investigation of 
the most insignificant causes when 
appeals were made to her decision. 
It appears, above all, extraordinary 
how she had mental and bodily 
powers to go through the labours she 
imposed upon herself, and which 
from the age of thirty to that of 
sixty, when she died, was unremitted. 
The hours gained from the affairs of 
the state were all given to acts of 
devotion and charity, and a deep 
sense of religion appears to have 
strengthened her mind in perfor- 
mance of her worldly duties. Her 
charitable foundations extend all 
over India, from the Himalayas to 
Cape Comorin, and from Somnath 
to the Temple of Jagannath in the 
East." Ahalaya Bai is certainly the 
most distinguished female character 
in Indian history. It is recorded 
of her that she had the courage to 
watch her daughter become sati, 
after vainly seeking to dissuade her 
from this act. 

112 m. Fatehabad junction station 
(R.). From here a short branch line 
of 26 m. runs to 

[Ujjain (D.B.). This famous 
city (the Greek O^-fjVT]) is situated 
on the right bank of the river 
Sipra, which falls into the Chambal 
after a total course of 120 m. 
Ujjain is in the dominions of the 
Maharaja Sindhia of Gwalior in 
Malwa, of which it was once the 
capital. It stands in N. lat. 23° il' 
10", and is the spot which marked 
the first meridian of Hindu geo- 
graphers. It is said to have been 
the seat of the viceroyalty of Asoka, 
during the reign of his father at 
Pataliputra, now Patna, about 263 B.C. 
It is, however, best known as the 
capital of the legendary Vikramaditya 
(Valour's sun), of Jain story, long 
iDelieved to be the founder of the 

Samvat era. He was fabled to 
have driven out the Scythians, and to 
have reigned over almost all N. India, 
and at his court were said to have 
flourished the Nine Gems of Hindu 
literature, viz., Dhanvantari, Ksha- 
panaka, Amarasinha, Sha"ka, Vetala- 
bhatta, Ghata-karpara, Kalidasa, of 
European celebrity, Varanruchi, and 
Varaha-mihira. Ujjain, as well as 
the whole province of Malwa, was 
conquered by Ala-ud-din Khiiji, who 
reigned at Delhi 1295-1317 a.d. In 
1387 A.D. the Mohammedan Viceroy, 
Dilawar Khan Ghori, declared himself 
independent, and ruled from 1387 
to 1405 ; he made Mandu his 
capital. In 1531 Malwa was con- 
quered by Bahadur Shah, King of 
Guzerat, and in 1571 by Akbar. 
In 1658 the decisive battle between 
Aurangzeb and Murad and their 
elder brother Dara, was fought near 
this city. In 1792 Jaswant Rao 
Holkar took Ujjain, and burned 
part of it. It then fell into the 
hands of Sindhia, whose capital it 
was till 1 8 10, when Daulat Rao 
Sindhia removed to Gwalior. 

The ruins of ancient Ujjain are 
situated about I m. to the N. of 
the modern city, which is oblong in 
shape, and 6 m. in circumference, 
surrounded by a stone wall with 
round towers, and on all sides by 
a belt of groves and gardens. The 
principal bazaar is a spacious street, 
flanked by houses of two stories, 
and having also four mosques, many 
Hindu temples, and a palace of 
Maharaja Sindhia. Near the palace 
is an ancient gateway, said to have 
been part of Vikramaditya's fort. To 
the S.W. of this are the picturesque 
ghats and temples on the river ; and 
outside the city to the S. E. are the 
remains of the Observatory, erected 
by Maharaja Jai Singh, of Jaipur (p. 
140). 5 m. to the N. of the town is a 
picturesque Water Palace resembling 
some of those of Mandu.] 

161 m. Rutlam junction station 
(R.), (D.B.— Branch line W. by 
Godhra and Anand to Baroda and 




Ahmedabad (p. 122), E. to Uj- 
jain), is the capital of a native state 
and the residence of the chief. It 
was founded by Ratna, great-grand- 
son of Udai Singh, Maharaja of 
Jodhpur. Ratna was at the battle 
of Fatehabad, near Ujjain, in which 
Jaswant Rao Rathor, with 30,000 
Rajputs,foughtAurangzeband Murad, 
with the whole Mughal army. Tod, 
vol. ii., p. 40, says: " Of all the deeds 
of heroism performed that day, those 
of Ratna of Ratlam by universal 
consent are pre-eminent." The 
palace in which the Prince resides is 
within the walls, and is a fine new 
building, with a handsome reception- 
room. The town is a great emporium 
for opium. There is a Chauk or 
square built by Munshi Shahamat 
'Ali. Beyond this is the Chandni 
Chauk of the bankers which leads to 
the Tripuliya Gate, and the Amrit 
Saugar tank. 

213 m. Mandsaur station. A 
fortified town remarkable as being 
the place where in 1818, at the end 
of the Pindari War, a treaty was 
made between the British Govern- 
ment and Holkar. Severe fighting 
occurred here in 1857 between the 
rebels and a brigade of British 
troops, moving from Mhow to relieve 

[The two short lines from Ujjain 
and Rutlam unite at Nagda, whence 
the most direct route to Delhi and 
the Punjab proceeds N. (p. 122).] 

244 m. Neemuch station. ^ (R.) 
D. B. , is a cantonment of British troops. 
Neemuch was about the most southerly 
place to which the mutiny extended. 
In 1857 the place was garrisoned by a 
brigade of native troops of all arms 
of the Bengal army. This force 
mutinied and marched to Delhi, the 
European officers taking refuge in 
the Fort, where they were besieged 
by a rebel force from Mandsaur, 
and defended themselves gallantly 
until relieved by a brigade from 
Mhow. Some forty-two ladies and 

non - combatants found refuge at 

278 m. Chitorgarh * station. * 
(Branch line to Udaipur, 54 m. ). The 
Gambheri river below the famous fort 
is crossed by a massive old bridge of 
grey limestone, with ten arches all of 
pointed shape, except the sixth from 
the W. bank, which is semi-circular. 
Thegateways and towerswhich existed 
at either end of the bridge have now 
disappeared. The builder is popularly 
said to have been Ajai Singh, son of 
Rana Lakhshman, in whose reign 
Ala-ud-din Khilji besieged Chitor 
(1303 A.D.) on account of the beauti- 
ful Padmani, wife of the Rana's uncle, 
Bhim Singh. The first siege failed, 
though, according to tradition, Bhim 
Singh was treacherously captured for 
a time. When the second was about 
to prove successful in spite of the 
sacrifice of eleven royal princes, each 
made Rana for one day, all the Rajput 
women proceeded to an underground 
cave, Padmani entering last, and were 
there immolated by fire {jokar), and 
Bhim Singh and his clansmen fell 
before the swords of the Moham- 

When Chitor was the capital of 
Mewar, the city was situated in the 
Fort. The modern town of Chitor 
called the Talaiti or Lower Town is 
little more than a walled villajje, with 
narrow, crooked streets, in front ot 
the principal W. entrance to the 
Fortress. It is now sufficient to obtain 
the permission of the local magistrate 
(Hakim) to visit the Fort.^ 

The abrupt rocky hill crowned by 
this magnificent Fort rises 500 ft. 
above the surrounding country, and 
is a very conspicuous object, though 
its great length of 3^- m. makes it 
look lower than it really is. The 
whole of the summit is covered with 
ruins of palaces and temples, and the 
slopes with thick jungle. An ascent 
I m. long, with two zigzags, leads 
to the summit, and is defended at 

1 For a striking account of this wonderful 
Fort, see The Nanlakha and Letters 0/ 
Marque., both by Rudyard Kipling. 



intervals by seven magnificent gate- 
ways, large enough to contain guard- 
rooms and even fine halls. They are 
the Padal Pol, the newly rebuilt 
Bhairon or Tuta (Broken) Pol, the 
Hanuman Pol, the Ganesh Pol, the 
Jorla Pol, the Lakhshman Pol, and 
the Main Gate, or Ram Pol. 

Immediately outside the Padal Pol 
on the left is an erect stone marking 
the spot where Bagh Singh, the chief 
of Deolia Pratapgarh, was killed 
during the siege of Chitor by Baha- 
dur Shah of Guzerat, in 1535. 

Between the "Broken" and the 
Hanuman gates there are on the 
right two chhatris marking the spots 
where the renowned Jaimall of Bed- 
nor and his clansman, Patta of Kailwa, 
were killed in Akbar's siege, in 
1568. Jaimall, though only sixteen 
years of age, succeeded to the 
command of the place, which the 
Maharana Udai Singh had quitted, 
on the fall of the Salombra^ chief; 
and so far was the heroism of the 
defenders carried that his bride 
fought beside him with a lance. He 
was shot by the Emperor Akbar 
himself, and 8000 Rajputs fell before 
the place was carried. The thirty- 
nine memorial stones here are much 
venerated, as if marking the shrine 
of some minor deity. 

Facing the great gate is a pillared 
hall, used as a guard-house, and 
apparently of ancient construction. 
From the top of this hall, on which 
there are two four-pillared chhatris, 
a fine view of the plain is obtained. 

The Ram Pol is a large and hand- 
some gateway, crowned by a Hindu 
horizontal arch, in which the upper 
courses of either side, projecting in- 
wards, overlap each other till they 
meet, or nearly so, and are then 
connected by an overlying slab. 
This is the construction of all the 
gateways on the ascent, except the 
Jorla, though in one, the Lakhshman, 

_ 1 The Salombra chief had the hereditary 
right to lead the van in battle, and to 
command the Surajpol gate of the fortress 
when besieged. On all old grants the sign of 
the Salombra lance precedes the Udaipur 

the lower angles of the projecting 
courses are sloped off, giving the 
whole the outline of a regular pointed 
arch. Inside the gate, on each side, 
is a fine hall, supported on square- 
shaped and slightly tapering antique 

The principal objects of interest 
among the ruins of the old city are 
the two Jain Towers of Fame and 
Victory, known as the two Kirthams. 
The Tower of Fame, which is much 
the older, stands up grandly near 
the E. rampart, and is reached 
by the broad road turning to the left 
inside the Ram Pol and passing the 
Kukreswar Kund and Palace of 
Ratna Singh, or by a path proceeding 
directly to the E. Mr Fergusson thus 
describes it : " One of the most 
interesting Jaina monuments of the 
age (the first or great age of Jaina 
architecture, which extended down 
to about the year 1300, or perhaps 
a little after that) is the Tower of Sri 
Allat (Rana Alluji). It is a singu- 
larly elegant specimen of its class, 
about 80 ft. in height, and adorned 
with sculptures and mouldings from 
the base to the summit. An inscrip- 
tion once existed at its base, which 
gave its date as 896 A.D., and though 
the slab was detached, this is so 
nearly the date we should arrive at 
from the style, that there seems little 
doubt that it was of that age. It 
was dedicated to Adinath, the first of 
the Jaina Tirthankars, and his figure 
is repeated some hundreds of times 
on the face of the tower ; but so far 
as I could perceive, not that of any of 
the other Jaina saints. The temple in 
the foreground, S. side, is of a more 
modern date, being put together, 
principally, of fragments of other 
buildings, which have disappeared." 

The tower consists of seven stones, 
with an internal narrow and cramped 
staircase; the roof of the open top 
storey, which rests on pillars, was 
much damaged by lightning, but has 
been well restored. P'ragments of 
an inscribed stone are on the 
ground under a tree just N. of the 

S. of the Tower of Fame the very 




ancient temple of Nilkanth Mahadeo is 
passed oh the right, and the Suraj 
Pol or Sungate and its tanks on the 
left. A mile further on is the Raj 
Tilla or State hill, the loftiest point 
on the tableland ; the broad road 
passes round this and returns N. by 
the Mori Tank, but walkers will 
probably cross from the E. gate to 
the palace of Rani Padmani, a large 
and beautiful building overlooking a 
tank. From this or from the palace 
of her husband, Bhim Singh, Akbar 
carried off the famous gates now in 
the fort at Agra (p. 176). From near 
this point the road leads past the pictur- 
esque ruined palace of Jaimall to the 
Jai Stambha, or Tower of Victory. Of 
this Mr Fergusson says: "To Kum- 
bo, who reigned from 1418-68, we 
owe this tower, which was erected 
to commemorate his victory over 
Mahmud, king of Malwa, in 1439. 
It is a Pillar of Victory, like that of 
Trajan at Rome, but of infinitely 
better taste as an architectural object. 
It has nine stories, each of which is 
distinctly marked on the outside. A 
stair in the centre leads to each 
storey, the two upper ones being 
open and more ornamented than 
those below. It stands on a base 
47 ft. square and lO ft. high, and is 
30 ft. square rising to a height of 
122 ft., the whole being covered with 
ornaments and sculptures, to such an 
extent as to leave no plain part, 
while this mass of decoration is kept 
so subdued that it in no way inter- 
feres with the outline or general 
effect. The old dome was injured 
by lightning, and a new one was 
substituted by Sarup Singh, 1842-60. 
The stair is much wider and easier 
than that in the Jain tower (the 
small Kirtham), and in the inside 
are carvings of Hindu deities with 
the names below. In the top storey 
are two of the original four slabs 
with long inscriptions. The tower 
took seven to ten years to build, 
from 1458 to 1468. On the road at 
the comer of the lower platform is 
a square pillar recording a sati in 
1468, A.D." 
S.W. of the Tower of Victory is 

the Mahasati, a small wooded terrace, 
the prettiest spot on the hill, which 
was the place of cremation of the 
Ranas before Udaipur was founded. 
Below, on a lower terrace, are the 
Gaumukh springs and reservoir. 
The springs issue from the cliff at 
places carved with a cow's mouth, 
hence the name. To the S.W. is a 
large carved stone temple, built by 
Rana Mukalji. On the back of the 
wall is a huge carved head. 

To the N. of the Tower of Victory 
rises the Temple of Vriji, built by 
Rana Kumbo about 1450, a massive 
building with a Sikra (or tower) of 
unusually large proportions. See 
Fergusson, ii. 151. Hard by is a 
similar temple, built by his wife, the 
famous Mira Bai, of which the chief 
peculiarity is that the procession path 
round the cell is an open colonnade 
with four small pavilions at the corners. 
Between the Tower and the Ram 
Pol are the Nau Katha Magazine and 
Nau Lakha Bhandar, or Treasury, 
and on the wall connecting these is 
a small pavilion in which the Ranas 
of Chitor were formerly enthroned. 
From here the road traverses the old 
Moti Bazar to the western Gate and 
completes the circuit of the Fort. 

A branch line runs from Chitor to 
Udaipur. Dabok, where Colonel 
Tod, the first Resident and author 
of the Annals of Rajasthan lived, 
lies in ruins a few miles S. of Debari, 
8 m. E. of the capital. 

About I m. before reaching the 
capital, the Arh rirer is crossed, with 
the old ruined town of that name 
on its banks. This stream collects 
the whole drainage of the Girwa, 
the natural outlet from which was 
dammed up with an immense 
masonry embankment by Maha Rana 
Udai Singh, and thus forms the Udai 
Saugar Lake, the surplus waters from 
which, escaping, form the Birach 

Udaipur (2034 ft. above sea 
level) is the marvellously picturesque 
capital of the state of Mewar, founded 
in the Christian era. The rulin" 



family, now known as the Sesodia, and 
formerly as the Gehlot, is descended 
from the Suryabansi, or Sun-stock, 
royal dynasty of Oudh, and is the 
premier house of India in point of 
blue blood. The present representa- 
tive is H.H. Maharana Dhiraj Sir 
Fateh Singh, G.C.S.I. The city of 
Udaipur was founded after 1568 by 
Maharana Udai Singh (who had been 
saved from being murdered as a 
baby by the devotion of his nurse, 
who substituted her own child), on 
the capture of Chitorgarh, which 
he left to its fate. The States of 
Udaipur, Jodhpur (Rathor), Jaipur 
(Kachhwaha Chauhan), and Boondi 
(Hara Chauhan) are the four original 
great states of Rajputana. The rest 
are either derived from them or had 
their origin long subsequent to them. 

The City 3 m. distant from the 
railway station (population 46,000) is 
surrounded by a bastioned wall, 
which towards the S. encloses several 
large gardens. The W. side is 
further protected by the beautiful 
Pichola lake, and the N. and E. 
sides by a moat supplied from the 
lake, while on the S. the fortified 
hill of Eklinggarh rises steep and 
rugged. The principal gateways are 
the Hathi Pol or " Elephant Gate," 
to the N. ; the Kishan Gate, to the 
S. ; the Suraj Pol or "Gate of the 
Sun," on the E. ; the Delhi Gate, on 
the N.E. and not far from the Hotel, 
and the Chand Pol, or "Moon 
Gate," on the W., opening on to 
the bridge across the N. end of the 

W. of the Hotel are the Residency 
and the mission houses, E. is the 
Victoria Hall and Museum with a 
statue of the Queen Empress, and 
\\ m. N.E. at x\har, is a fine group 
of royal cenotaphs. At the W. end 
of the bridge is the Sujjangarh hill 
HOC ft. above the lake, with beauti- 
ful views of the lake from it. The 
Sujjangarh Palace is a striking feature 
on the hill. 

The main street of the city leads 
from the Hathi Pol Gate to the 
Maharana's palace, passing a clock 
tower, the great Jagannath temple 
(built c. 1640), approached by a 

fine flight of steps, with an elephant 
on each side at the head, and the 
Walter Hospital for Women, named 
after Colonel Walter, for many years 
Resident at Udaipur. The temple, 
though late in date, is a good 
example of the Indo-Aryan style, 
figured at pp. 142-147, vol. ii., of 
Fergusson's Indian Architecture. 
The porch is covered with a low 
pyramidal roof, placed diagonally 
on the substructure, and rising in 
steps. The tower is ornamented 
by bold figured friezes and other 
architectural decoration. In front 
of the temple is a shrine with a 
brazen image of a Garuda. The 
Royal Palace (visited on application 
to the Private Secretary to the 
Maharana) is an "imposing pile of 
granite and marble, of quadrangular 
shape, rising at least 100 ft. from 
the ground, and flanked with 
octagonal towers, crowned with 
cupolas. Although built at various 
periods, uniformity of design has 
been well preserved ; nor is there 
in the E. a more striking structure. 
It stands upon the very crest of 
a ridge, running parallel to, but 
considerably elevated above the 
margin of the lake. The terrace, 
which is at the E. and chief front 
of the palace, extends throughout 
its length, and is supported by a 
triple row of arches, from the de- 
clivity of the ridge. The height of 
this arcaded wall is full 50 ft., and 
although all is hollow beneath, yet 
so admirably is it constructed, that 
an entire range of stables is built on 
the extreme verge of the terrace, 
on which all the forces of the 
Maharana, elephants, cavalry, and 
infantry, are often assembled. From 
this terrace the city and the valley 
lie before the spectator, whose vision 
is bounded only by the distant hills ; 
while from the summit of the palace 
nothing obstructs the view over lake 
and mountain."^ 

The entrance to the Palace is 
through the Bari Pol (1600 A.D.) 
or Great Gate containing the Royal 

1 Handbook of Mewar^hy Mehta Fateh 
Lai, son of a Prime Minister of the Mewal 




drums, and by the inner Tripulia 
(1725 A.D.); between the two gates 
are eight carved arches or torans, 
under which various Maharanas have 
been weighed in the past against gold 
and silver, afterwards distributed in 
largesse. Beyond the Tripulia the 
Ganesh Dauri gate leads S. to the 
fine old court known as the Rai 
Anganor Royal courtyard (i 571 a.d.), 
adjoined on the E. side by the Jewel 
Room, and from this the visitor 
will be conducted over a number of 
palace enclosures, all picturesque and 
some beautifully decorated. Of these 
the Chhoti Chitra Shall has brilliant 
mosaics of peacocks, the Manak 
(Raby) Mahal is filled wiih figures of 
glass and porcelain, the Moti (Pearl) 
Mahal is decorated with mirrors, and 
the Chini ki Chitra Mahal (1711-34) 
has beautiful ornamentation of inlaid 
mirror work, and fine tiles of Dutch 
and Chinese make ; the Bari Mahal or 
Amar Vilas (i 699-1 711) has a charm- 
ing garden in the centre of it. On 
the W. side of the Tripulia are the 
Karan Vilas (1620-28 a.d.) and 
Khush Mahal buildings, while south- 
wards lies the Shambhu Niwas Palace 
to which the present Maharana has 
added yet another residence. Beyond 
and below the line of palaces is the 
embankment of the lake, reached 
through a series of beautiful gardens, 
now named the Sajjan Niwas ; and 
from these a road runs past the 
Dudh Talai down the E. side of 
the lake to the Odi Khas, built by 
the late Chief at its southern end, and 
from which the expedition by boat on 
the lake is usually made. The feed- 
ing at this place of the wild pig every 
evening affords a very curious sight. 
Beautiful as the lake is when seen 
from the Palace and other points, the 
view on it near the S. end, with the 
the marble capped islands in the 
foreground and the lofty palace and 
city in the distance, is one of still 
greater loveliness. The southern 
island is named the Jagmandar (1640 
A.D.), and is chiefly notable for the 
Gul Mahal, a domed pavilion — most 
of the other buildings date from the 
18th cent. On it Prince Khurram, 
later Shahjahan, lived when in revolt 

against his father, the Emperor 
Jahangir, and the refugee ladies from 
Neemuch were protected in 1857 (p. 
92). Further N. is the Jagniwas 
Palace island (1740 a.d.) with the 
older Dilaram and Bari Mahal palaces, 
in beautiful gardens, and also, un- 
fortunately, with a modern palace 
and villa ; and beyond this again to 
the W. are two small structures in 
the lake. The view of the city and 
ghats and palaces from the bridge 
below the Gangour Ghat is also 
specially effective. N. of the Pichola 
lake is the fine Fateh Sagar con- 
structed by the present Maharana. 
The foundation-stone of the great 
embankment was laid by the Duke 
of Connaught in 1889. 

The Chhatris or cenotaphs of the 
Maharaas at Ahat containing the 
royal ashes stand in what is called 
the Mahasati or royal place of 
cremation, which is enclosed by a 
lofty wall, and is adorned by many 
fine trees. The most remarkable are 
those of Sangi-am Singh 11.^ (1734), 
a large and beautiful structure, and 
of Amar Singh, grandson of Udai 
Singh (1616). Besides the modern 
village of Ahar there are ruined 
temples of an older town. 

Special arrangements are necessary 
to visit the great lake at Kankroli, 
or Rajnagar, called the Rajsamandra,^ 
35 m. to the N. of Udaipur. The 
retaining wall is of massive masonry, 
in many places 40 ft. high. The 
Band or Ghat is 11 15 ft. long, with 
pavilions and torans or ornamental 
arches all of marble ; behind is an 
embankment 35 yds. wide. It was 
erected (1660) as a famine work. 
On the S.E. side of the lake is 
the town of Kankroli, with a beauti- 
ful temple. There is a fair cart- 
track to this place. 14 m. N. of 
Udaipur are the Eklingi lake and 
temple, a beautiful structure of white 
marble, sacred to the family deity 
of the Maharana. Near this, at 
Nagda, are two fine Jain temples, 
called the Sas Bahu, or Mother and 

1 See Fergusson's Indian Architecture, 
ii. 165. 

2 Ibid. 134. 



The route to the Jaisamand lake, 
made at the end of the 17th century, 
and about 25 m. S.E. of Udaipur, 
runs through a wild country ; it is 
about 9 m. by 5 m. , and is one of the 
most beautiful sights in India. The 
dam is 1000 ft. in length and 98 ft in 
height. There is a fair road to it also. 

378 m. Nasirabad station, D.B. 
(population 22,000). The military 
cantonment for Ajmer. The station 
was originally laid out in 181 8 by 
Sir David Ochterlony. Interest is 
attached to Nasirabad from the fact 
that when the mutiny broke out in 
1857, the 1st Bombay Cavalry were 
compelled to remain neutral— though 
loyally inclined— as their families were 
at the mercy of the Bengal regiment, 
which mutinied and marched to Delhi. 

Deoli, a small cantonment of an 
Irregular Force lying 57 m. S.E. 
of Nasirabad, may be reached by 
tonga ordered from the latter place. 
The Kotah contingent stationed at 
Deoli in 1857 marched to Agra, but 
mutinied there. 25 m. beyond Deoli 
is the picturesque city of Boondi, 
D.B. — introduction to Political Agent, 
Kotah and Boondi, necessary. 

393 m. Ajmer junction station (see 
Route 10). 


by Bhopal, SancM, and Bina (line 
to Saugor and Baran) and from 
Jhansi to 

{a) Kalpi and Cawnpore ; 

(b) Datia, Gwalior, Dliolpur, and 
Agra, Muttra and Delhi ; 

(c)Orcli]ia, Barwa Saugor, Banda 
and Manikpur, with excursions 
to Nowgong and Khajuralm. 

Itarsi junction station, 464 m. from 
Bombay on the G.I. P. Railway (see 
p. 29). The line followed by this 
route is that of the Indian Midland, 
which is managed by the G.I. P. Rail- 
way; it formed the speediest route 
between Bombay and the N.W. of 

India until the Rutlum-Nagda-Muttra 
route (p. 122) was opened. Mail 
from Bombay to Cawnpore and to 
Agra, 26 hours, and to Delhi, Lahore, 
and Peshawar, 30, 40, and 53 hours 

Fares to Delhi, Rs.69, Rs.34, and 

II m. Hoshangabad station, D.B., 
named after Hoshang Ghori (p. 89). 
A town with population of 16,000, 
and headquarters of a district. Pass- 
ing this the railway crosses the 
Nerbudda on a fine bridge. About 
4 m. N. of the Nerbudda river the 
well-wooded, picturesque ascent of 
the ghat commences, and at the top 
the line runs on the tableland of 
Malwa, with an average elevation of 
1500 ft. 

57 m. Bliopal station (R.) D.B. 
[Branch to Ujjain]. The town (popu- 
lation 55,000) stands on the N. bank 
of a fine and extensive lake, 4.^ m. 
long and I5 broad, and is enclosed by 
a wall 2 m. in circuit. It is the capital 
of a native state, under the Central 
Indian Agency, with an area of 8200 
sq. m. The dynasty was founded by 
Dost Muhammad, an Afghan chief in 
the service of Aurangzeb, who took 
advantage of the troubles that followed 
the Emperor's death to establish his 
independence. His family have 
always shown their friendship for 
the British. In 177S, when General 
Goddard made his famous march 
across India, Bhopal was the only 
Indian state which showed itself 
friendly. In 1809, when General 
Close commanded another expedition 
in the neighbourhood, the Nawab of 
Bhopal applied to be received under 
British protection, but without success. 
The Nawab then obtained assistance 
from the Pindaris, in the gallant 
struggle he maintained to defend 
himself against Sindhia and Raghoji 
Bhonsla, in the course of which his 
capital underwent a severe but in- 
effectual siege. 

In 1817 the British Government 
intervened and formed an alliance 
with the Nawab, who was, in 




1818, guaranteed his possessions, by 
treaty, on condition of furnishing 600 
horse and 400 infantry, to maintain 
which five districts in Malwa were 
assigned to him. He was soon after- 
wards killed by a pistol accidentally 
discharged by a child. His nephew, 
a boy, was declared his successor, 
and betrothed to his infant daughter, 
but the Nawab's widow, Kudsia 
Begam, endeavoured to keep the 
government in her own hands, and 
the declared heir resigned his claim 
to the throne and to the hand of 
the Nawab's daughter, Sikandar 
Begam, in favour of his brother 
Jahangir Muhammad. After long 
dissensions, Jahangir Muhammad was 
installed as Nawab, in 1837, through 
the mediation of the British. He 
died in 1844, and was succeeded by 
his widow, Sikandar Begam, who 
ruled till her death in 1868. She left 
one daughter, Shah Jahan Begam, 
who ruled till 1900, and was succeeded 
by Nawab, Her Highness Sultan 
Begam, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. The 
State maintains 694 horse, 2200 foot, 
14 field guns, and 43 other guns, with 
291 artillerymen, and pays ^20,000 
to the British Government in lieu of 
a contingent. 

The name of Bhopal is said to be 
derived from that of its founder, Raja 
Bhoj, and the dam by which he 
formed the Tank ; dam being in 
Hindi pal. Thus Bhojpal has been 
corrupted into Bhopal. 

The Palace of the Begatn is not of 
much architectural beauty, but is a 
large and imposing building. The 
Citadel walls atford a fine view of the 
lake and surrounding country. The 
/ama Masjid was built by the late 
Kudsia Begam, and the Moii 
Masjid, which somewhat resembles 
the Mosque at Delhi, by the late 
Sikandar Begam. The Mint and 
Arsenal, and the Gardens of the 
Kudsia and Sikandar Begams also 
deserve a visit. 

The Water- works of the town were 
built by the Kudsia Begam. 

91 m. Bhilsa station. A fortified 
town in the Bhopal state. Population 

7000. In the fort lies an old gun, 
19^ ft. in length, with a bore of 10 in., 
said to have been made by order of the 
Emperor Jahangir. Bhilsa is now 
chiefly noteworthy as a famous place 
of Hindu pilgrimage to the temples, 
picturesquely situated in the bed of the 
Betwa river, and as giving its name 
to the remarkable and interesting series 
of Buddhist Topes found in its neigh - 
bourhood.i The principal of these 
is at 

85 m. Sanclii,2 the station before 
Bhilsa. There is a good D.B. of 
the Bhopal state near the station, 
and fast trains can be stopped here 
by communication beforehand to the 
station-master of Bhopal or Bina. 

The Great Tope at Sanchi, anciently 
called Chaitya giri, the Chapel Hill, 
and the ruined buildings surrounding 
it are situated on a level platform upon 
the top of the hill, which is about 350 
ft. above the plain, and is approached 
by an easy path. The Tope with 
its rail and gateways were care- 
fully and satisfactorily restored in 
1883. They now form one of the 
most picturesque as well as one of 
the most interesting monuments of 
India. The dome, which is 42 ft. 
high and 106 ft. in diameter, rises 
from a pHnth of 14 ft. ; this is sur- 
mounted by a terraced path, reached 
by steps on the S. side, used by 
worshippers for the perambulation of 
the Tope and the relic buried in it. 
The Tope was crowned by an altar 
or pedestal surrounded by a rail, and 
must once have been nearly 100 ft. 
high, but these have not been 
restored ; the pillars of the rail 
will be noticed on the ground at 

1 These are described in General Cunning- 
ham's Bilsa Topes, i vol. 8vo. 1854 ; also 
in Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship. 
One half of this book and forty-five of its 
plates, besides woodcuts, are devoted to the 
illustration of the Great Tope. Casts of 
the E. gateway are in the South Kensington 
and Edinburgh Museum. 
_ 2 General W^aSsfty'^iSanchi and its Remains 
(in 1850-51) published in 1892, and a selection 
of photographs published under the orders 
of Sir Lepel Griffin, K.C.S.I., when Agent 
to the Governor-General for Central India, 
contain full illustratiotis of the tope and its 



the N.E. side of the level platform. 
The Tope was enclosed below at a 
distance of 9^ ft. from it by a great 
railing slightly elliptical in shape, 
the diameter from W. to E. being 


144 ft. and from N. to S. 151 ft. 
The railing is formed of pillars nearly 

structure of three stages of cross- 
beams, surmounted by a wheel and 
other Buddhist emblems ; facing each 
gateway, with its back to the wall of 
the plinth, is a large seated statue, 
probably representing the four last 
Buddhas. The faces of the pillars of 
the gateways and of the cross-beams 
are elaborately carved with a series of 
most interesting scenes, of which the 
following are the principal. 

North Gateway. Pillars sur- 
mounted by elephants and riders. 
Right pillar — front face : Staircase 
and Buddhist railing. Inner face : 
Worship of tope and trees, monkey 
worshippers in one scene. Left 
pillar — front face : Worship of tree, 
procession, scenes at fountain. Inner 
face : Cave temple, procession, tree 
worship. The Architraves bear scenes 
of processions with chariots, tree 
worship, and dagoba worship, and on 
the back of giants' and of hermits' 
huts. The floral patterns on the outer 
sides of these pillars are noticeable. 

East Gateway. — Pillars surmounted 
by elephants and riders. Right 

Section. Great Tope at Sanchi. 

10 ft. high, carrying three bars, 
each 2 ft. 2 in. long, and separated 
by an interval of 3 in., let into them ; 
a rounded coping stone surmounts the 
whole. At each cardinal point the 
railing is broken by a splendidly 
decorated gateway 18 ft. high and 
7 ft. broad, crowned by a super- 

pillar — front face : Palace scenes, 
including dance by women. Inner 
face : Dream of Maya, Prince Sidd- 
hartha, and five disciples. Left 
pillar — front face: Worship of 
symbol of the law (wheel and 
trident), boat scene of mourning, 
Buddha leaving his home. Inner 




face : Kitchen scene, fire worship, 
hermit scene. Architraves — Front : 
Worship ol topes and trees and of 
impression of Buddha's feet — Back : 
worship of trees by human beings, 
various animals, and elephants. 

South Gateway. — Pillars sur- 
mounted by four lions. Left pillar 
— front : Casket scene in palace, 
worship of topes, siege, and relic pro- 
cession. Architraves — Siege of a 
city. The right pillar of this gate 
has not been found. 

Western Gateway. — Pillars sur- 
mounted by four dwarfs. Right 
pillar — front : Trial of the bow, tree 
worship. Back : Worship of trees, 
one under an umbrella. Left 
pillar — front : Love scenes. Back : 
Hermits, tree festival, boat scene. 
Architraves — front : Procession with 
relic-casket, worship of symbol and 
trees. Back : Worship of topes and 
temple, triumphal procession. 

The railing and the Tope in its 
present shape are held to date from 
the time of Asoka, about 250 B.C., and 
the gates from about 50 A.D. The 
statues are the latest of the additions 
made to the Tope, and belong to the 
4th or 5th century of our era. 

Close to the S. gate are the remains 
of a fine pillar nearly 40 ft. high, 
which carried a bell -shaped capital 
of four lions back to back ; another 
stood near the northern gate. On 
the platform will be observed many 
interesting sculptures, and remains, 
including a huge stone bowl. To 
the S. of the Tope are the ruins of 
the only structural chaitya chapel 
known to exist ; the colonnade of 
the nave and apsidal end can be 
clearly recognised. 

To the W. a path descends steeply 
to the smaller Tope near the foot of 
the hill : this also has a very interest- 
ing railing, '}\ ft. high, with carved 
medallions on the pillars, and well- 
sculptured scenes on the gateways, and 
should be visited on the way back to 
the rest-house. In it were found relics 
of Kasyapa and Mogaliputra, well- 
known Buddhist apostles in the 3rd 
century B.C. 

Besides the group at Sanchi, there 
is at Sonari, 6 m. off, a group ot 
eight topes, of which two are im- 
portant structures in square courtyards, 
and in one of these numerous relics 
were found. At Sadhara, 3 m. 
farther, is a tope loi ft. in diameter, 
which yielded no relics, and one 24 
ft. in diameter, in which were found 
relics of Sariputra and others like 
those found at Sanchi. At Besnagar 
near Bhilsa was lately found a column 
referring to the Graco Bactrian King 
Antialkidas, of the date of 140 B.C. 

At Bkojpur, 7 m. from Sanchi, are 
thirty-seven topes, the largest 66 ft, 
in diameter, and in the next to it 
important rehcs were found. At 
Andher, 5 m. W. of Bhojpur, is a 
group of three small but very interest- 
ing topes. "As far as can be at 
present ascertained," says Mr Fer- 
gusson, "there is no reason for 
assuming that any of these topes are 
earlier than the age of Asoka, 250 
B.C., nor later than the ist century 
A.D., though their rails may be later." 

143 m. Bina junction (R.). 

[Hence a line runs N.W. to 73 m. 
Goona, 147 m. Baran, and 188 m. 
Kotah (p. 122), on the new direct 
route between Bombay and Delhi, 
controlled by the Bombay Baroda 
and Central Indian Railway, and 
another 165 m. S.E. to Saugor, 
Damoh, and Katni on the E.I.R. 
(p. 30). 8 m. from Bina, at Eran, 
are some Jain and Buddhist ruins, 
including two lats or monolithic 

IS m. Saugor, D.B. Principal 
town and headquarters of Saugor dis- 
trict. Central Provinces, and a military 
cantonment. Population 42,000. Sau- 
gor stands 1940 ft. above sea-level, on 
the borders of a fine lake, nearly i m. 
broad, from which it derives its name. 
The lake is said to be an ancient 
Banjara work, but the present city 
dales only from the end of the 17th 
century, and owes its rise to a Bundela 
Raja, who built a small fort on the 
site of the present structure in 1660, 
and founded a village called Parkot*, 



now a quarter of the modern town. 
During the mutiny of 1857 the town 
and fort were held by the English 
for eight months, until the arrival of 
Sir Hugh Rose. During that time 
the whole of the surrounding country 
was in possession of the rebels. 

Saugor town is well built, with 
wide streets. The large bathing-ghats 
on the banks of the lake, for the 
most part surrounded with Hindu 
temples, add much to its appearance. 

The existing Fort at Saugor was 
completed by the Mahrattas about 
1780. It stands on a height N.W. 
of the lake, commanding the whole 
of the city and surrounding country, 
and consists of twenty round towers, 
varying from 20 to 40 ft. in height, 
connected by thick curtain walls. It 
encloses a space of 6 acres, for the 
most part covered with old Mahratta 
buildings two storeys high. In 1862 
an unhealthy swamp lying N.E. of 
the lake, which cut off the quarter 
called Gopalganj from the rest of the 
city, was converted into a large garden 
with numerous drives and a piece of 
ornamental water.] 

182 m. Lalitpur station, D.B. The 
headquarters of a district of the same 
name. Population 11,000. 

207 m. Talbahat station. A pictur- 
esque town with a large piece of 
artificial water covering more than 
I sq. m. The water is retained by 
damming the streams that flow through 
a rocky barrier about 800 ft. high. 

238 m. Jliansi junction station (R., 
D.B.) centre of the Indian Midland 
Railway system. The main line runs 
N. to Gwahor and Agra, one branch 
N.E. to Cawnpore, and another E. 
through Banda to the E.I. Ry. at 
Manikpur (p. 30). Jhansi (lat. 25° 27', 
long. 78° 37', population 70,000), is 
one of the main halting - places 
for troops proceeding up country. 
It is well worthy of a visit on 
account of its Fort, which the British 
Government have exchanged with 
Maharaja Sindhia for Gwalior ; and 
on account of the various places of 

interest, Datia, Orchha, Barwa Sau- 
gor, which can be reached from it. 

The Province of Bundelkund, in 

which Jhansi is situated, was for 
ages one of the most turbulent and 
difficult to manage in all India. In 
the early part of the 17th century the 
Orchha state was governed by Bir 
SinghDeOjwhobuilttheFort of Jhansi, 
8 m. to the N. of his capital, which is 
situated on an island in the Betwa 
river. He incurred the heavy dis- 
pleasure of Akbar by the murder of 
Abul Fazl, the Emperor's favourite 
minister and historian, at the instiga- 
tion of Prince Salim, afterwards known 
as the Emperor Jahangir. A force 
was accordingly sent against him in 
1 602 ; the country was ravaged and 
devastated, but Bir Singh himself con- 
trived to escape. On the accession 
of his patron, Salim, in 1605, he was 
naturally pardoned, and rose into 
great favour ; but when, on the death 
of that emperor in 1627, Shah Jahan 
mounted the throne, Bir Sing revolted. 
His rebellion was unsuccessful, and 
although he was permitted to keep 
possession of his dominions, he never 
regained all his former power and 
independence. During the troubled 
times which succeeded, Orchha was 
sometimes in the hands of the Moham- 
medans and sometimes fell under the 
power of Bundela chieftains. In 1732 
Chatar Sal found it expedient to call 
in the aid of the Mahrattas, who were 
then invading the Central ProTinces 
under their first Peshwa, Baji Rao. 
They came to his assistance with their 
accustomed promptitude, and were 
rewarded on the chiefs death, in 
1734, by a bequest of one-third of his 
dominions. The territory so granted 
included portions of the modem 
division of Jhansi, but not the exist- 
ing district itself. In 1742, however, 
the Mahrattas found a pretext for 
attacking the Orchha state, and an- 
nexing that amongst other territories. 
Their general founded the city of 
Jhansi, and peopled it with the 
inhabitants of Orchha. 

The district remained under the 
rule of the Peshwas until 1817, when 




their rights passed to the E. I. Com- 
pany. Under British protection, 
native Rajas ruled until their folly 
and incompetency ruined the country, 
and when the dynasty died out in 
1853 their territories lapsed to the 
British Government. The Jhansi 
state, with Jalaun and Chanderi 
districts, were then formed into a 
Superintendency, while a pension was 
granted to the Rani or widow of the 
late Raja Rao. The Rani, however, 
considered herself aggrieved, both 
because she was not allowed to adopt 
an heir, and because the slaughter of 
cattle was permitted in the Jhansi 

The events of 1857 accordingly 
found Jhansi ripe for rebellion. In 
May it was known that the troops 
were disaffected, and on the 5th of 
June a few men of the 12th Native 
Infantry seized the fort containing 
the treasure and magazine. Many 
European officers were shot the same 
day. The remainder, who had taken 
refuge in a fort, capitulated a few 
days after, and were massacred with 
their families to the number of sixty- 
six persons, in spite of a promise of 
protection sworn on the Koran and 
Ganges water. The Rani then at- 
tempted to seize the supreme authority, 
but the usual anarchic quarrels arose 
between the rebels, during which the 
Orchha leaders laid siege to Jhansi 
and plundered the country mercilessly. 
On the 4th of April 1858 the fort and 
town were captured by Sir Hugh 
Rose, who marched on to Kalpi 
without being able to leave a garrison 
at Jhansi. After his departure, the 
rebellion broke out afresh, only the 
Gursarai chieftain in the N. remaining 
faithful to the British cause. On the 
nth August a flying column under 
Colonel Liddell cleared out the rebels 
from Mau, and after a series of sharp 
contests with various guerilla leaders, 
the work of reorganisation was fairly 
set on foot in November. The Rani 
herself had previously fled with Tantia 
Topi, and finally fell in a battle at the 
foot of the rock fortress of Gwalior. 

The siege of Jhansi occupied Sir 
Hugh Rose's army from 21st March 

till 4th April 1858, and cost 343 in 
killed and wounded, of whom 36 
were officers. The engineers lost 
four officers leading the attacking 
parties at the final escalade. Col. 
Malleson, quoting Sir Hugh Rose, 
gives the following description of 
Jhansi at the time of the invest- 
ment: — 

" The great strength of the Fort of 
Jhansi, natural as well as artificial, 
and its extent, entitle it to a place 
among fortresses. It stands on an 
elevated rock, rising out of a plain, and 
commands the city and surrounding 
country. It is built of excellent and 
most massive masonry. The fort is 
difficult to breach, because composed 
of granite ; its walls vary in thickness 
from 16 to 20 ft. It has extensive and 
elaborate outworks of the same solid 
construction, with front and flanking 
embrasures for artillery-fire, and loop- 
holes, of which in some places there 
were five tiers for musketry. On one 
tower, called the 'white turret,' since 
raised in height, waved in proud 
defiance the standard of the high- 
spirited Rani. The fortress is sur- 
rounded on all sides by the city of 
Jhansi, the W. and part of the S. face 
excepted. The steepness of the rock 
protects the W. ; the fortified city wall 
springs from the centre of its S. face, 
and ends in a high mound or mamelon, 
which protects by a flanking fire its 
S. face. The mound was fortified by a 
strong circular bastion for five guns, 
round part of which was drawn a 
ditch, 12 ft. deep and 15 ft. broad 
of solid masonry. 

" The city of Jhansi is about 4 J m. 
in circumference, and is surrounded 
by a fortified and massive wall, from 
6 to 12 ft. thick, and varying in height 
from 18 to 30 ft., with numerous 
flanking bastions armed as batteries, 
with ordnance and loopholes, and with 
a banquette for infantry. The town 
and fortress were garrisoned by 1 1,000 
men, composed of rebel sepoys, foreign 
mercenaries, and local levies, and they 
were led by a woman who believed 
her cause to be just." 

The Fort has been modernised and 
supplied with strong armament. The 



views from the top and from the road 
round the ramparts are very extensive. 
The old civil station (Jhansi Naua- 
bad) attached to Jhansi before 1861 
remains the headquarters of the dis- 

(l) Jhansi to Cawnpore. 137 m. 

Between Jhansi and Cawnpore the 
country abounds in black buck. Nu- 
merous old fortified villages are seen 
from the railway train. 

308 m. Oral {Urai) station (R.). 
A thriving place of 8000 inhabitants, 
and the headquarters of the Jalaun 

329 m. KaJpi station. The town 
is situated amongst deep rugged 
ravines on the right bank of the 
Jumna, which is here crossed by a fine 
iron girder bridge. 

Tradition says that the town was 
founded by Basdeo or Vasuveda, who 
ruled at Kamba from 330 to 400 a.d. 
During the Mughal period Kalpi played 
so large a part in the annals of this 
part of India that it would be im- 
possible to detail its history at length. 
After the Mahrattas interfered in the 
affairsof Bundelkund, the headquarters 
of theirgovernment were fixed at Kalpi. 
At the time of the British occupation 
of Bundelkund in 1S03, Nana Gobind 
Rao seized upon the town. The British 
besieged it in December of that year, 
and, after a few hours' resistance, it 
surrendered. Kalpi was then included 
in theterritorygrantedtoRaja Himmat 
Bahadur, on whose death, in 1804, it 
once more lapsed to Government. It 
was next handed over to Gobind Rao, 
who exchanged it two years later for 
villages farther to the W. Since that 
time Kalpi has remained a British pos- 
session. After the capture of Jhansi, 
they fell back on Kalpi, which through- 
out the previous operations they had 
made their principal arsenal. Here, 
on 22nd May 1858, Sir Hugh Rose 
(Lord Strathnairn) again defeated a 

force of about 12,000 under the Rani 
of Jhansi, the Rao Sahib, and the 
Nawab of Banda, who then fled to 

Kalpi was formerly a place of far 
greater importance than at the pre- 
sent day. The E.I. Company made 
it one of their principal stations for 
providing their commercial invest- 
ments. The western outskirts of the 
town contain a large number of 
ruins, notably the tomb called the 
84 Domes, and twelve other hand- 
some mausoleums. The buildings of 
the old commercial agency crown high 
ground near the river bank, but are 
now deserted. A ruined fort, situated 
on the steep bank of the Jumna above 
the town overhangs the ghat or ferry, 
which has a picturesque temple, and is 
reached by a long flight of steps. 

374 m- 

(p. 301). 

Cawnpore Jn. station 

{2) Jhansi to Agra via Datia, Gwalior 
and Dholpur. 1 37 m. 

254 m. from Itarsi, 16 m. from 
Jhansi, is Datia station. The town has 
24,000 inhabitants, and is the resid- 
ence of the Chief of the Datia state, 
which contains an area of 836 sq. m. 

It stands on a rocky height sur- 
rounded by a good stone wall, and 
is fuUofpicturesquehousesand palaces. 
The Raja's present residence stands 
within the town surrounded by a pretty 
garden. TotheW.ofthetown, beyond 
the walls, is a very large palace of 
great architectural beauty, now un- 

262 m. Sonagir station. 2 m. oil 
and visible from the railway are a 
number of Jain temples of modern 
date, forming an extremely picturesque 
group well worth a visit 

299 m. Gwalior station. (R.), D.B. 
The capital of Maharaja Sindhia. 
The present chief is Major-General 
Maharaja Sir Madho Rao Sindhia, 
G. C.S.I. ,G.C.V.O.,A.D.C., LL.D. 

1 Fergusson's /«i//a» Architecture., ii. 173, 




Cantab. The area of the Gvvalior 
state is 25,000 sq. m., the population 
3 millions, and the revenue 140 lakhs. 
The place is famous for its fort, one 
of the most ancient and renowned 
strongholds in India. Population 
89,000; Lashkar, 47,000. 

For many years a strong brigade 
of British troops was maintained at 
Morar, a few m. E. of the fort. The 
latter was garrisoned by British troops 
from 1858 to 1886, when it was re- 
stored to the Maharaja's custody, and 
with Morar was made over to him in 
exchange for Jhansi. 


General Cunningham, in vol. ii. of 
the Reports of the Archaological Stir- 
^^y^ gives a most valuable account of 
Gwalior. It is believed to have been 
founded in the 3rd century a. d., when 
Toramana, a tributary prince under 
the Guptas, rebelled, and became 
sovereign of all the territory between 
the Jumna and Nerbudda. In the 
reign of his son, the Sun Temple was 
built and the Suraj Kund excavated ; 
and Gwalior was founded by Suraj Sen, 
a Kachhwaha chief, who was a leper, 
and coming when hunting to the 
Gopagiri hill, on which the fort stands, 
received a drink of water from the 
hermit Gwalipa, which cured him of 
his leprosy. Suraj Sen also received 
a new name, Suhan Pal, from the 
hermit, with a promise that his de- 
scendants should reign as long as 
they were called Pal ; so eighty-three 
reigned, but the eighty-fourth was 
called Tej Karn, and having discarded 
the name of Pal lost his kingdom. 

This Kachhwaha dynasty was 
succeeded by seven Parihara princes, 
who ruled for 103 years till 1232 
A.D., when Gwalior was taken by 
Altamsh, in the 21st year of the 
reign of Sarang Deo. 

The capture of Gwalior by 
Altamsh was commemorated in an 
inscription placed over the gate of the 
Urwahi, and the Emperor Babar states 
that he saw it, and the date was 630 
A.H. = 1232 A.D. From 1232 onwards 
the Emperors of Delhi used Gwalior 

as a state prison. In 1375 A.D. the 
Tomar chief, Bir Sing Deo, declared 
himself independent, and founded 
the Tomar dynasty of Gwalior. 

Early in the 15th century the 
Gwalior chiefs paid tribute to Khizr 
Khan of Delhi, and in 1424 Gwalior, 
being besieged by Hoshang Shah 
of Malwa, was delivered by Mubarak 
Shah of Delhi. In 1425, Dongar 
Sing commenced the great rock 
sculptures at Gwalior, and his son 
Kirti Sing, 1454, completed them. 
In 1465 Husain Shah the Sharki 
king of Jaunpur, besieged Gwalior, 
and obliged it to pay tribute. Man 
Sing acknowledged the supremacy 
of Bahlol Lodi and of Sikandar Lodi 
of Delhi ; the latter in 1505 marched 
against Gwalior, but fell into an 
ambuscade and was repulsed with 
great loss. In 1506, however, he 
captured Himmatgarh, but passed 
by Gwalior, which he despaired of 
reducing. In 15 17 he made great 
preparations at Agra for the conquest 
of Gwalior, but died before he could 
accomplish his purpose. Ibrahim 
Lodi sent an army of 30,000 horse, 
300 elephants, and other troops, 
against Gwalior, and a few days 
after they reached that place Man 
Sing died. He was the greatest of 
the Tomar princes of Gwalior, and 
constructed many useful works, 
amongst others, the great tank to 
the N.W. of Gwalior, called the 
Moti Jhil. His palace in the Fort 
is the noblest specimen of Hindu 
domestic architecture in N. India. 
After Man Sing's death his son 
Vikramaditya, sustained the siege 
for a year, but at last surrendered, 
and was sent to Agra, where he 
became the friend of the Emperor, 
and died fighting at his side against 
Babar on the field of Panipat in 
1526 A.D. His vridows, according 
to tradition, presented the Koh-i-nur 
to Prince Humayun in return for the 
protection accorded by him to them. 

Babar sent Rahimdad with an army 
to Gwalior, which he took by a 
stratagem, suggested by the holy 
Muhammad Ghaus. In 1542 Abul- 
Kasim, Governor of Gwalior, 



surrendered his fortress to Sher 
Shah. In 1545 Salim, son of Sher, 
brought his treasure from Chunar 
to Gwalior, and in 1553 died at the 
latter place. Rana Sah, son of 
Vikram, tried to seize Gwalior, and 
fought a great battle there, which 
lasted for three days, with Akbar's 
troops, but was defeated, and the 
fortress remained in the hands of 
the Mughals till the fall of their 
power. In 1761 Gwalior was taken 
by Bhim Singh, the Jat Rana of 
Gohad, and in 1779 captured by 
Major Popham from the Mahrattas, 
into whose hands it had fallen, and 
restored to the Rana of Gohad. It 
was again taken by the Mahrattas 
under Mahadaji Sindhia^ in 1784, and 
once more captured by the English 
under General White in 1803, and 
restored to the Mahrattas in 1805. 
In 1844, after the battles of Maha- 
rajpur and Paniar, it was a third 
time occupied by the British. 

At the time of the Mutiny Maha- 
raja Sindhia had, besides 10,000 
troops of his own, a contingent 
consisting of two regiments of 
Irregular Cavalry — 1158 men of all 
ranks — seven regiments of Infantry 
aggregating 6412 men, and 26 guns, 
with 748 Artillerymen. This force 
was officered by Englishmen, and the 
men were thoroughly drilled and 
disciplined, and were, in fact, ex- 
cellent soldiers, as they proved by 
defeating and almost driving into 
the river General Windham's brigade 
at Cawnpore. 

The Maharaja and his minister. 
Sir Dinkar Rao, remained loyal to 
their fealty ; but the contingent 
troops mutinied on Sunday, 14th 
June, and murdered their English 
officers, and a number of women 
and children ; and those who escaped, 
or had previously taken refuge in 
the Maharaja's palace, had to be 
removed to Dholpur, and thence to 
Agra. After this Gwalior remained 
quiet for a time ; but later the con- 

1 This prince was wounded at the battle 
of Panipat (p. 215), where one of his brothers 
was killed. Two more brothers fell in other 

tingent troops joined Tantia Topi 
at Cawnpore. 

On the 22nd May 1858 an im- 
portant battle was fought in front 
of Kalpi, in which the mutineers, led 
by Tantia Topi and the Rani of 
Jhansi, were severely defeated by 
Sir Hugh Rose. They retreated in 
the direction of Gwalior ; and on 
the 1st June Sindhia with all his 
army moved out from Gwalior to 
meet them. The engagement took 
place about 2 m. E. of Morar. 
Colonel Malleson thus describes it : — 
"Sindhia had with him 6000 in- 
fantry, about 1500 cavalry, his own 
bodyguard 600 strong, and eight 
guns, ranged in three divisions — 
his guns centre. About 7 o'clock in 
the morning the rebels advanced. As 
they approached, Sindhia's eight guns 
opened on them. But the smoke 
of the discharge had scarcely dis- 
appeared when the rebel skirmishers 
closed to their flanks, and 2000 
horsemen, charging at a gallop, 
carried the guns. Simultaneously 
with their charge, Sindhia's infantry 
and cavalry, his bodyguard alone 
excepted, either joined the rebels 
or took up a position indicative of 
their intention not to fight. . . . The 
rebels then attacked the bodyguard, 
who defended themselves bravely, 
but the contest was too unequal, 
and Sindhia was compelled to fly, 
accompanied by a very few of the 
survivors. He did not draw rein till 
he reached Agra." 

The Rani thereupon seized the 
Fort of Gwalior and proclaimed the 
Nana as Peshwa. On hearing of 
this Sir Hugh Rose immediately 
marched upon Gwalior. As he 
neared it he was joined by Sir 
Robert Napier (Lord Napier of 
Magdala), who took command of 
the 2nd Brigade, and by the 
Hyderabad troops. On i6th June 
he came into touch with the rebels 
at Bahadurpur, near Morar. In 
spite of the long and fatiguing march 
which his force had endured. Sir 
Hugh attacked the enemy at once, 
and drove them from their position. 

"The main body of the enemy, 




driven through the cantonments, fell 
back on a dry nullah with high 
banks, running round a village 
which the}' had also occupied. Here 
they maintained a desperate hand-to- 
hand stru";s;le with the British. The 
71st Highlanders suffered severely, 
Lieutenant Neave, whilst leading his 
men, falling mortally wounded ; nor 
was it till the nullah was nearly 
choked with dead that the village 
was carried. The victory was com- 
pleted by a successful pursuit and 
slaughter of the rebels by the 14th 
Light Dragoons." 

Brigadier-General Smith, marching 
up from Jhansi, reached Kotah-ki- 
sarai, 5 m. to the S.E. of Gwalior, 
without opposition. There he dis- 
covered the enemy in great force, 
and showing a disposition to attack. 
" Reconnoitring the ground in front 
of him, he found it very difficult, 
intersected with nullahs and imprac- 
ticable for cavalry. He discovered, 
moreover, that the enemy's guns 
were in position about 1500 yds. 
from Kotah-ki-sarai, and that their 
line lay under the hills, crossing the 
road to Gwalior. Notwithstanding 
this. General Smith determined to 
attack. First he sent his horse 
artillery to the front, and silenced 
the enemy's guns, which limbered 
up and retired. He then sent his 
infantry across the broken ground, 
under the command of Colonel 
Raines of the 95th. Raines led his 
men, covered by skirmishers, to a 
point about 50 yds. from the enemy's 
works, when the skirmishers made 
a rush, the rebels falling back as 
they did so. Raines then found 
himself stopped by a deep ditch with 
4 ft. of water," but surmounting the 
difficulty he gained the abandoned 
entrenchment. " Whilst he was 
continuing his advance across the 
broken and hilly ground. General 
Smith moved his cavalry across the 
river Umrah, close to Kotah-ki-sarai. 
They had hardly crossed when they 
came under fire of a battery which 
till then had escaped notice. At 
the same time a body of the enemy 

threatened the baggage at Kotah-ki- 
sarai. Matters now became serious. 
But General Smith sent back detach- 
ments to defend the baggage and 
rear, and pushed forward. The 
road, before debouching from the 
hills between his position and 
Gwalior, ran for several hundred 
yards through a defile along which 
a canal had been excavated. It 
was while his troops were pressing 
through this defile that the principal 
fighting took place. Having gained 
the farther end of the defile, where he 
joined Colonel Raines, General Smith 
halted the infantry to guard it, and 
ordered a cavalry charge. This was 
most gallantly executed by a squadron 
of the 8th Hussars, led by Colonel 
Hicks and Captain Heneage. The 
rebels, horse and foot, gave way 
before them. The Hussars captured 
two guns, and continuing the pursuit 
through Sindhia's cantonment, had 
for a moment the rebel camp in 
their possession. 

"Amongst the fugitives in the 
rebel ranks was the resolute woman 
who, alike in counsel and on the 
field, was the soul'of the conspirators. 
Clad in the attire of a man and 
mounted on horseback, the Rani of 
Jhansi might have been seen ani- 
mating her troops throughout the 
day. Wlien inch by inch the British 
troops pressed through the pass, and 
when reaching its summit General 
Smith ordered the Hussars to charge, 
the Rani of Jhansi boldly fronted the 
British horsemen. When her com- 
rades failed her, her horse, in spite 
of her efforts carried her along with 
the others. With them she might 
have escaped, but that her horse, 
crossing the canal near the canton- 
ment, stumbled and fell. A Hussar, 
close upon her track, ignorant of 
her sex and her rank, cut her down. 
She fell to rise no more. That 
night, her devoted followers, deter- 
mined that the English should not 
boast that they had captured her 
even dead, burned her body." 

Following up the operations above 
described late into the night of the 
19th June, Sir Hugh regained the 

ROUTE 9. GWALIOR, 1 858 A.D. 


whole place — Morar, the city, the 
Lashkar— everything but the Fort, 
which was held by a few fanatics, 
who had fired on our advancing 
troops whenever they could through- 
out the day, and recommenced the 
following morning. 

"On the morning of the 20th, 
Lieutenant Rose, 25th Bombay 
Native Infantry, was in command 
with a detachment of his regiment 
at the kotwali, or police-station, not 
far from the main gateway of the 
rock fort. As the guns from its 
ramparts continued to fire, Rose 
proposed to a brother officer, 
Lieutenant Waller, who commanded 
a small party of the same regiment 
near him, that they should attempt 
to capture the fortress with their 
joint parties, urging that if the risk 
was great, the honour would be still 
greater. Waller cheerfully assented, 
and the two officers set off with 
their men and a blacksmith, whom, 
not unwilling, they had engaged for 
the service. They crept up to the 
first gateway unseen. Then the 
blacksmith, a powerful man, forced 
it open ; and so with the other five 
gates that opposed their progress. 
By the time the sixth gate had been 
forced the alarm was given, and 
when the assailants reached the 
archway beyond the last gate, they 
were met by the fire of a gun which 
had been brought to bear on them. 
Dashing onwards, unscathed by the 
fire, they were speedily engaged in 
a hand-to-hand contest with the 
garrison. The fight was desperate, 
and many men fell on both sides. 
The gallantry of Rose and Waller 
and their men carried all before 
them. Rose especially distinguished 
himself. Just in the hour of victory, 
however, as he was inciting his men 
to make the final charge, which 
proved successful, a musket was fired 
at him from behind the wall. The 
man who had fired the shot, a 
mutineer from Bareilly, then rushed 
out and cut him down. Waller 
came up, and despatched the rebel ; 
too late, however, to save his friend. 
But the rock fortress was gained." 

The New City or Lashkax. — 
When Daulat Rao Sindhia obtained 
possession of Gwalior in 1794 and 
1805, he pitched his camp to the S. 
of the fort, and a new city rapidly 
sprung up, which still retains the 
name of Lashkar, or the camp. The 
Sarafa, or merchants' quarter, is one 
of the finest streets in India. In the 
PIml Bagh is the Jai Bilas Palace 
of Maharaja Sindhia^ (not shown to 
visitors). In the centre of Lashkar 
is the Barah, or Old Palace, and 
near it are the houses of the chief 

The new buildings worthy of a 
visit are the Dtifferin Sarai, the 
Jayaji Rao Memorial Hospital, and 
the Victoria College and Market ; the 
foundation-stone of the latter was laid 
by the Duke of Connaught, and it 
and the electrical installation were 
opened by King George in December 
1905. The modern Temple was 
erected by the mother of one of the 
Sindhia chiefs. 

The Old City has been gradually 
decaying, and is now only one-sixth 
as large as the New City. It is a 
crowded mass of small, flat-roofed, 
stone houses, lying along the foot 
of the N.E. and N. end of the rock. 
Flanking the city to the N. stands 
a curious old Pathan archway, the 
remains of a tomb. Outside the 
gate of the fort is the Jama Masjid, 
with its gilt pinnacled domes and 
lofty minarets. Sir W. Sleeman 
says (Rambles, i. 347) : " It is a 
very beautiful mosque, with one end 
built by Muhammad Khan, in 1665 
A.D., of the white sandstone of the 
rock above it. It looks as fresh as 
if it had not been finished a month." 

On the eastern outskirt of the city, 
is the noble tomb of the Muhammad 
Ghaus, a saint venerated in the time 
of Babar and Akbar. It is of stone, 
and is one of the best specimens of 
Mohammedan architecture ' of the 
early Mughal period. It is a square 
of 100 ft., with hexagonal towers at 

1 The public rooms of the Maharaja's 
Palace are shown upon application duly 

2 See Fergusson's Indian Architecturt, 
ii. 292. 




the four corners, attached at the 
angles instead of the sides. The 
tomb is a hall 43 ft. sq., with the 
angles cut off by pointed arches, 
from which springs a lofty Pathan 
dome. The walls are 5^ ft. thick, 
and are surrounded by a lofty 
verandah, with square bays in the 
centre of each side, enclosed by stone 
lattices of the most intricate and 
elaborate patterns. These are pro- 
tected from the weather by very 
bold eaves, supported on long stone 
slabs resting on brackets. The dome 
was once covered with blue glazed tiles. 

The Tomb of Tansen, a famous 
musician, is a small open building 
22 ft. sq., supported on pillars round 
the tombstone, close to the S.W. 
corner of the large tomb. The 
tamarind tree near the grave is much 
visited by musicians, as the chewing 
of the leaves is alleged to impart a 
wonderful sweetness to the voice. 

To see the Gwalior Fort^ an 
order is necessary: it can be ob- 
tained at the Residency Office, or 
from the keeper of the Maharaja's 
bungalow for strangers, who will 
make arrangements for the elephant 
which the Maharaja kindly puts at the 
disposal of visitors, to meet them at 
the foot of the steep ascent to the fort. 

"The great fortress of Gwalior," 
says General Cunningham, "is situ- 
ated on a precipitous, flat-topped, 
and isolated hill of sandstone," 
which rises 300 ft. above the town 
at the N. end, but only 274 ft. at the 
upper gate of the principal entrance. 
The hill is long and narrow ; its 
extreme length from N. to S. is 
if m., while its breadth varies from 
600 ft. to 2800 ft. The walls are 
from 30 to 35 ft. high, and the rock 
immediately below them is steeply but 
irregularly scarped all round the hill. 

The view from the fort is varied 
and extensive, but, except during the 
rainy season, when the hills are 
green, the general appearance of the 

1 Permission is no longer required to visit 
the Gwalior Fort. Visitors sign their names 
in a book at the entrance to the Fort. 

country is brown and arid. To the 
N., on a clear day, may be seen the 
gigantic temple of Suhania, about 
30 m. distant, and still farther in the 
same direction the red hills of 
Dholpur. To the VV. and within 
gunshot lies the long flat-topped 
sandstone hill of Hanuman, with 
a basaltic peak at the N. end, and 
a white-washed temple on its slope, 
whence the hill has its name. Be- 
yond, far as the eye can reach, 
nothing is seen but range after range 
of low sandstone hills. The conical 
peak of the Raipur hill towers over 
the lower ranges in the S., and to the 
E. the level plains, dotted with 
villages, lengthen till they pass out 
of sight. On the plain below lies 
the Old City of Gwalior, encircling 
the N.E. end of the fortress, and to 
the S., upwards of i m. distant is the 
New City of Lashkar. 

The main entrance to the Fort is 
on the N. E. The ascent was formerly 
by many flights of broad steps 
alternating with pieces of paved level 
road, but these have been removed, 
and there is now a continuous road. 
The entrance is protected by six Gates 
which, beginning from below, are — 

The ^Alamgiri Gate, built by 
Mu'tamad Khan, Governor of 
Gwalior, in 1660, and called after 
Aurangzeb, whose title as Emperor 
was 'Alamgir. It is quite plain, and 
the inscription is obliterated. Inside 
is a small courtyard, and an open hall 
in which the Mohammedan Governors 
sat to dispense justice. 

The Badalgarh or Hindola Gate 
has its name from the outwork 
Badalgarh, which was called from 
Badal Singh, the uncle of Man Singh. 
This gate is also called Hindola, 
from hindol "a swing," which existed 
outside. It is a fine specimen of 
Hindu architecture. An inscription 
on an iron plate records its restora- 
tion by the Governor Saiyad 'Alam 
in 1648. 

Close under the rock to the right is 
the stately Gujari Palace, built for 
the Queen of Man Singh. It 
measures 300 ft. by 230 ft., and is 
two storeys high. It is built of hewn 

Loudo.i .Miri Miut;.v,' Srr. 



stone, and was once a very fine 

The Bhairon or Bansur gate 
was the work of one of the earliest 
Kachhwaha Rajas. It was called 
Bansur, from batisur "archer," lit. 
a " bamboo-splitter," from the guard 
which had the charge of it. It has 
now been removed. 

The Ganesh Gate was built by 
Dungar Singh, who reigned 1424 
to 1454. Outside is a small outwork 
called Kabutar Khana, or "pigeon- 
house," in which is a tank called 
Nur Saugar, 60 ft x 39 ft. and 25 ft. 
deep. Here, too, is a Hindu temple 
sacred to the hermit Gwalipa, from 
whom the fort had its name. It is 
a small square open pavilion, with a 
cupola on four pillars. There is also 
a small mosque with a chronogram 
giving a date corresponding to 
1664 A.D. 

Before reaching the Lakhskman 
Gate is a temple hewn out of the 
solid rock and called Chatar-bhuj- 
mandir, "shrine of the four-armed," 
sacred to Vishnu, inside which, on 
the left, is a long inscription, dated 
Samwat 933 = 876 A.D. It is 12 ft. 
sq., with a portico in front 10 ft. by 
9 ft. supported by four pillars. 
There is a tank here, and opposite 
to it the tomb of Taj Nizam, a noble 
of the Court of Ibrahim Lodi, who 
was killed in assaulting this gate in 
1518 A.D. Adjoining is an awkward 
flight of steps leading to the north- 
eastern group of Jain Statues in the 
cliff under the Mohammedan palaces. 
The sculptures are small, and un- 
accompanied by inscriptions, and are, 
therefore, unimportant ; some of the 
caves are large. Farther S. on the 
face of the rock are carvings of 
Mahadeo and his consort, and about 
fifty lingams. There was also a 
colossal group of the Boar incarna- 
tion, 15J ft. high, which was one of 
the oldest sculptures in Gwalior ; but 
it is now quite defaced. A figure of 
an elephant over the statue has been 
cut away to form a canopy. 

The Hathiya Paur, or Elephant 
Gate, was built by Man Singh, and 
forms part of his palace. Here was 

the carving of an elephant, which 
Babar and Abul-Fazl praised. In- 
side the Hathiya Paur and under the 
S. end of the Palace of Man Singh is 
the Hawa Gate ; and the cool 
draught ol air met through the 
passage here after the long hot 
ascent in the morning wUl be found 
to justify the name. 

Turning to the right on reaching 
the level of the fort, the five palaces 
under which the ascent has passed 
may be first visited. The first of 
these is the Man Singh Palace (1486- 
1516, repaired in 1881), also called 
the Chit Mandir, or painted palace, 
as "the walls are covered with a 
profusion of coloured tiles — bands of 
mosaique candelabra, Brahmini ducks, 
elephants, and peacocks — enamelled 
blue, green and gold, giving to this 
massive wall an unsurpassed charm 
and elegance. The tiles of the great 
windowless S. wall possess a bright- 
ness and delicacy of tint unblemished 
by the four centuries which they have 
weathered. Nowhere do I remember 
any architectural design capable of 
imparting similar lightness to a simple 
massive wall." (Rouselet). The 
palace was greatly admired by the 
Emperor Babar also. It is two 
storeys high, with two storeys of 
underground apartments, now unin- 
habitable from the bats. The E. 
face is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. high, 
and has five massive round towers, 
surmounted by open-domed cupolas, 
and connected at top by a battlement 
of singularly beautiful open lattice- 
work. The S. face is 160 ft. long 
and 60 ft. high, with three round 
towers connected by a battlement of 
lattice-work. The N. and W. sides 
are somewhat ruined. The rooms 
are arranged round two courts — 
small but with singularly beautiful 

The Vikram Palace lies between 
the Man and Karan palaces, and is 
connected with them by narrow 

The Karan Palace should be called 
the Kirti Mandir. It is long and 




narrow, and of two storeys. It has 
one room 43 ft. by 28 ft., with a roof 
supported by two rows of pillars. 
There are smaller rooms on either 
side, and bath-rooms below, with 
some fine plaster-work on the domed 
ceilings. Close by to the S. is a hall 
(1516 A.D. ) 36 ft. sq., with a roof in 
the form of a Hindu dome supported 
on eight carved ribs, of which four 
spring from the side pillars and four 
from the angles of the building. 
Internally the top of the dome is a 
flat square formed by the intersection 
of the ribs. The roof is flat, and 
once had a pavilion on it. 

The Mohammedaji Jahangiri and 
Shah Jahan Palaces at the N. end 
of the fort are of rubble plastered, 
and are quite plain and of no archi- 
tectural interest. They are used now 
as magazines for military stores. 

A little to the N.W. of them 
is the Johar tank, so called from 
the immolation of Rajput women, 
which occurred here before the 
fortress was taken by Altamsh. On 
the W. wall slightly to the S., and 
just above the Dhonda Gate, are 
the ruins of the buildings, known as 
the Nauchauki or Nine Cells, which 
constituted the state prison of so many 
Emperors of Delhi. The narrow, 
steep staircases leading to the dungeon 
rooms can still be traversed. 

Passing S. beyond the Hawa gate 
and the guard-house facing it, the next 
object of interest is the ruined Jain 
temple (iioo a.d.) on the E. wall, of 
which but little remains now. Further 
S. on the same side are the two 
Sasbahu temples, and from the walls 
near all three a fine view is obtained 
of the eastern cliff of the fortress. 
The names Sas-bahu or Sakasra- 
bahu mean "mother-in-law and 
daughter-in-law," or " looo-armed" 
temples. The larger temple, said to 
have been built by Raja Mahipal, is 
100 ft. long by 63 ft. broad. The 
entrance is to the N., and the adytum 
to the S. The temple is now 70 ft. 
high, but the top has been broken, 
and General Cunningham thinks it 
was once 100 ft. high. It stands on 

a richly-carved plinth. There is a 
long inscription inside the portico, 
with the date 1093 A.D., and there 
are figures of Vishnu over the main 
entrances. The central hall is 31 ft. 
sq. It is crowded with four massive 
pillars to aid in bearing the enormoug 
weight of its great pyramidal roof. 
The smaller temple is built in the 
shape of a cross, and is open on all 
four sides. The body is 23 ft. sq., 
supported on twelve pillars. The 
plinth is 6 ft. high, and is decorated 
like that of the great temple. The 
pillars are round, with octagonal bases 
and bracketed capitals. The lower 
part of the shafts in both temples are 
ornamented with groups of female 
dancers. They are fine specimens of 
the ornate style of mediaeval Hindu 

From this point it is necessary to 
cross again to the W. side, where the 
Teli-Ka-Mandir stands, passing the 
Suraj Kund tank en route. This 
tank is 350 ft. by 180 ft., and is 
believed to have been constructed 
about 300 A.D., and to be conse- 
quently the oldest reservoir in the 

The Teli-Ka-Mandir ^ (probable 
date, nth century, restored 1881-83) 
is 60 ft. sq., with a portico projecting 
1 1 ft. on the E. side. The sides slope 
upwards to 80 ft., where the building 
ends in a horizontal ridge 30 ft. long. 
It is the loftiest building in Gwalior. 
The doorway is 35 ft. high, and has a 
figure of Garuda over the centre. It 
was originally a Vishnavite temple, 
but since the 15th century it has been 
Shivite. The whole is covered with 
sculptures. The gateway in front of 
it was formed out of fragments found 
in the fort by Major Keith, R.E., 
who was entrusted with the repairs 
and restorations made in 1881-83. 
The interesting archaeological frag- 
ments placed roun'd the temple were 
discovered in various parts of the fort 
during Major Keith's operations. The 
temple is close to the cliff of the western 
1 See Indian Architecture, ii. 139. 



Arwahi ravine, outside the southern 
wall of which General White's breach 
was made, and every one will proceed 
past the round Katora tank and the 
Ek Khamba tank with a pillar in it, 
as far S. as this, and the point, still 
called Faringi Pahar, of Major 
Popham's escalade ; while those who 
proceed to the extreme S. point of 
the fort will not be disappointed by 
the interesting tanks there, and the 
beautiful view of Lashkar. 

Returning from the S. , the Gangola 
tank may be visited, and the route 
may be pursued to the N.W. of the 
Suraj Kund, opposite the Katora tank 
to the fine gate which forms the 
entrance to the Arwahi ravine, on 
the further side of which is the Man- 
sarovar Tank. The S. end of the 
ravine is closed by a wall with a 
double gate, near which are the wells 
which supply the fort with drinking- 
water ; and on either side of it, from 
the bottom of the steep descent from 
the. N. gate, are the Jain statues of 
the Arwahi group. 

"These Kock Sculptures ofGwa- 
lior," writes General Cunningham, 
"are unique in Northern India, as well 
for their number as for their gigantic 
size. They are all excavated in the 
steep cliff, immediately below the walls 
of the fortress, and are most of them 
easily accessible. There are small 
caves and niches in almost every place 
where the face of the rock is tolerably 
smooth and steep, but the more pro- 
minent excavations may be divided 
into five principal groups, which I 
will designate according to their posi- 
tions, as 1st, the Arwahi group ; 2nd, 
the south-western group ; 3rd, the 
north-western group ; 4th, the north- 
eastern group ; 5th, the south-eastern 
group. Of these the first and the last, 
which are by far the most consider- 
able both in number and size, are the 
only sculptures that have attracted 
travellers. Most of them were muti- 
lated, by order of the Emperor Babar, 
1527 A.D., only sixty years after they 
were made. Babar himself records 
the fact in his memoirs : ' They have 
hewn the solid rock of this Arwa, 
and sculptured out of it idols of larger 

and smaller size. On the south part 
of it is a large idol, which may be 
about 40 ft. in height (really 57). 
These figures are perfectly naked. 
Arwa is far from being a mean place ; 
on the contrary, it is extremely pleas- 
ant. The greatest fault consists in the 
idol figures all about it. / directed 
these idols to be destroyed.'" The 
statues, however, were not destroyed, 
but only mutilated, and the broken 
heads have since been repaired by the 
Jains with coloured stucco. 

The Arwahi group consists of 
twenty-two principal figures, which are 
accompanied by six inscriptions, dated 
Samwat, 1497, 1510 = 1440 A.D. and 
I453> during the sway of the Tomar 
Rajas. The chief statues are, No. 
17, a colossal figure of Adinath, the 
first Jain Pontiff, who is known by 
the symbol of a bull on the pedestal. 
This has along inscription, dated 1440 
A.D., in the reign of Dungar Singh. 
The largest figure of this group, and 
of all the Gwalior sculptures, is the 
colossus. No. 20, which is 57 ft. high, 
or six and a half times the length of 
the foot, which is just 9 ft. The ex- 
treme W, figure of this group. No. 
22, is a seated colossus upwards of 30 
ft. high, of Nemnath, 22nd Jain pontiff, 
known by a shell on the pedestal. 

"The south-western group, just 
outside the Arwahi wall, consists of 
five principal Jain figures. No. 2 is 
a sleeping female 8 ft. long, lying on 
her side, with her head to the S. and 
face to the W. No. 3 is a seated 
group of a male and female with a 
child, who are Siddhartha and Trisala, 
the reputed father and mother of the 
infant Mahavira, the last of the twenty- 
four Jain pontiffs. The sleeping 
female also is probably intended for 
Trisala." S. of this group is the 
Ghargharg Gate, at which General 
White's assault of the fortress was 

If it is desired to proceed from here 
to the Jain sculptures on the S.E. face 
of the fortress, the carriage should be 
sent round to this point from the N.E. 
entrance. It is quite impossible, how- 
ever, to see all the interesting sights 
of the Gwalior Fort on a single visit, 




and each visitor must decide for him- 
self what he will see and how he will 
see it. 

The road from the Arwahi ravine to 
the Lashkar, and round to the nearest 
point to the south - eastern group 
which a carriage can reach, is fair ; 
but that N. to the N.W. group of 
statues is bad, and they had better be 
visited by passing round the N. side 
of the city. The figures there are, 
however, insignificant, and few will 
care to visit them. The south-eastern 
group is the most picturesquely situated 
of all, with trees and undergrowth ad- 

joining it below ; it is also the largest 
and most important group, as there 
are eighteen colossal statues from 20 
ft. to 30 ft. high, and as many more 
from 8 ft. to 15 ft, which occupy the 
whole face of the cliff for upwards of 
\ m. They are all of date 146S-1473 
A.D., and are the latest of such works 
in India. In many cases a screen- 
wall has been left in fi-ont of the figure 
as high up as its waist. A few caves 
are occupied by mendicant Byragis, 
and cannot always be visited. The 
following list gives details of each 
statue : — 




Front depth and 












loX loX 10 








4 others 

■ — 




















15 X 10X20 











i6X 7X28 

Male Figure 





loX 7X15 





Chandra Prabha 




2 others 




I3X 8X=5 

Chandra Prabha 










40 X 10X25 


















26 X 16 X 33 






24 X 22 X 34 




80X 8X30 













And 4 others 













12 X 8X20 







[From Gwalior two light lines of 
State Railway run S.W. to Sipri 
(74 m.), not far from which in the 
Narwar jungle the great rebel leader, 
Tantia Topi, was betrayed and 
captured on 7th April 1859, and 
N.E. to Bhind (58 m.).] 

336 m. About 4 m. S. of Dholpur 
there is a very fine bridge over the 
Chambal, built of the famous red 
sandstone of Dholpur, a ridge of 
which, from 560 to 1074 ft. above 
sea-level, runs for 60 m. through 
the territor)', and has many quarries. 



The river Chambal is bordered every- 
where by a labyrinth of ravines, 
some of which are 90 ft. deep, and 
extend to a distance of from 2 to 4 
m. from the river banks. The floods 
of the river are very remarkable. 
The highest recorded flood above 
summer level rose no less than 97 ft. 

340 m. Dholpur station (R. ), the 
chief town of the native state of that 
name. In 1658 Aurangzeb defeated 
his elder brother Dara-Shikoh at 
Ran - ka - Chabutara, 3 m. E. of 
Dholpur, and in 1707 Aurangzeb's 
sons, Azim and Mu'azzim, contend- 
ing for the crown, fought a great 
battle at the village of Barehta, near 
Dholpur, the former being killed, 
and the latter becoming emperor, 
with the title of Bahadur Shah. 

The Palace of Dholpur is a moder- 
ately handsome building. The tank 
of Mach Kund, about 2 m. from the 
capital, is about ^ m. long, and 
contains several islets, on which are 
pavilions. The banks are lined with 
temples, but none of them are 
ancient or remarkable. There are 
alligators in the tank, but though 
crowds of pilgrims bathe in the 
waters, there is no story of any of 
them being carried off. 

373 m. Agra Cantomnent Station, 
where travellers by this route alight 
for the hotels. The M.R. Line runs 
on to the Raja ki Mandi station, and 
so to Muttra and Delhi (p. 169). 

{},) Jhansiio Mattikpur. 181 m. 

Jhansi junction station (see p. 

7 m. Orchha station, at the old 
capital of the Orchha state, the oldest 
and highest in rank of all the Bun- 
dela Principahties, and the only one 
of them that was not held in subjec- 
tion by the Peshwa. It is built on 
both banks of the Betwa. There is 
an imposing fortress, connected by a 
wooden bridge with the rest of the 
town, containing the residence of Bir 
Singh Deo (p. loi) and a palace built 
for the accommodation of the Emperor 

Jahangir. The Chhatri of Bir Singh 
Deo (1605-27) is also fine. 

Tehri {Tekamgarh), the present 
capital, in the S.W. corner of the 
state, is about 40 m. S. from Orchha, 
with which it is connected by road. 

13 m. Barwa-Saugar station, D.B. 
The town is picturesquely situated 
at the foot of a rocky ridge on the 
shore of the Barwa-Saugar Lake, an 
artificial sheet of water formed by 
a masonry embankment f m. in 
length, constructed by Udot Singh, 
P.aja of Orchha, between 1705-37, 
and containing two craggy, wooded 
islets. Below, a tract of land, ex- 
tending over 4 m., is thickly planted 
with mango and other trees, many 
of great age and enormous size. 
N.W. of the town rises a fine old 
castle, also built by Udot Singh, but 
now uninhabited. 3 m. W. stand 
the remains of an old Chandel temple, 
built of solid blocks of stone, carved 
with the figures of Hindu gods, much 
defaced by Mussulmans. 

40 m. Mau station, D.B. (popula- 
tion 23,500). Mau Ranipur is, next 
to Jhansi, the principal commercial 
town of Jhansi district. Its buildings 
are remarkably picturesque, in the 
style peculiar to Bundelkund, with 
deep eaves between the first and 
second stories, and hanging balconies 
of unusual beauty. Trees line many 
of the streets, and handsome temples 
ornament the town, the principal 
being that of the Jains, with two solid 
spires and several cupolas. An old 
j brick-built fort with bastions adjoins 
the bazaar, and contains the public 

53 m. Harpalpur station (R.R.) 
for Nowgong Cantonment, 18 m. 
distant (population 11,500). A rail- 
way is to be made between the two 
places. This cantonment, next to 
that of Jhansi, is the chief military 
station of Bundelkund. In 1857 the 
troops in it mutinied on the loth 
June, and the Europeans who were 
not murdered were compelled to 
leave the place, and made their way 
with numerous losses on the road 





to Kalinjar, and thence to Banda or 

67 m. Jaitpur station. The town 
was formerly the capital of a native 
state. It is picturesquely situated on 
the banks of the Bela Tal, and was 
probably founded in the early part 
of the 1 8th century by Jagatraj, son 
of the famous Bundela Raja, Chatar 
Sal, who built the large fort still in 
existence. There is a handsome 
temple in the town, and there are 
also two forts. 

The Bela Tal, a tank or lake 
dammed up with solid masonry by 
the Chandel rulers of Mahoba in 
the 9th century, extends for 5 m. in 
circumference, but is now very 
shallow, the embankment having 
burst in 1869. 

86 m. Mahoba station, D.B. The 
town, founded about Soo a.d. by 
Raja Chandra Varmma, stands on 
the side of the Madan Saugar Lake, 
constructed by the Chandel Rajas, 
and consists of three d'stinct portions 
— one N. of the central hill known 
as the Old Fort ; one on the top of 
the hill known as the Inner Fort ; 
and one to the S. known as Dariba. 
Architectural antiquities of the 
Chandel period abound throughout 
the neighbourhood. The Ram Kund 
marks the place where Chandra 
Varmma, founder of the dynasty, 
died ; and the tank is believed to be 
a reservoir into which the united 
waters of all holy streams pour them- 
selves. The Fort, now almost entirely 
in ruins, commands a beautiful view 
over the hills and lakes. The temple 
of Munia Devi, partially renovated, 
has in front of its entrance a stone 
pillar inscribed to Madana Varmma. 
Of the lakes, confined by magnificent 
masonry dams, two have greatly 
silted up, but the Kirat and Madan 
Saugars, works of the nth and I2th 
centuries, still remain deep and clear 
sheets of water. The shores of the 
lakes and the islands in their midst 
are thickly covered with ruined 
temples, monstrous figures carved 
out of the solid rock, pillars, broken 
sculpture, and other early remains. 

while on the hills above stand the 
summer-houses of the early Rajas, 
and shrines overhang the edge. 
Relics of Jain templesand Buddhist 
inscriptions also occur. The existing 
monuments of Mohammedan date 
include the tomb of Jalhan Khan, 
constructed from the fragments of a 
Shivite temple, and a mosque also 
built of Chandel materials. 

[34 m. S. of Mahoba is the ancient 
decayed town of Kliajurahu, formerly 
the capital of the old province of 
Jahoti ; it may also be reached from 
No\ygong through Chatarpur and 
Basari, but the distance is 54 m. 
Hiouen Thsang mentions it in the 
7th century, and Genl. Cunningham 
gives the same date to the graceful 
pillared porch of the Ganthai temple. 
A high mound probably covers ruins 
of a Buddhist monastery. Upwards 
of twenty 1 temples still stand in the 
town, and the ruins of at least as 
many more bear witness to its former 
greatness. In one alone General 
Cunningham counted over 800 statues 
half life-size, and eight sculptured 
elephants of like proportions. These 
noble buildings belong mainly to 
the Chandel dynasty, who ruled at 
Khajurahu apparently from 870 to 
1200 A.D. 

119 m. Banda station (R.), D.B., 
is a municipal town and the head- 
quarters of the Banda district. It 
stands on an undulating plain, i m. 
E. of right bank of the Ken river. 

The modern town derived its im- 
portance from the residence of the 
Nawab of Banda, and from its 
position as a cotton mart. After the 
removal of the Nawab in 1858 owing 
to his disloyalty during the Mutiny, 
the town has declined. There are five 
Jain temples, some of which possess 
fair architectural merit. 

35 m. S. of Banda, and 16 m. S. 
of Badausa station, 26 m. E. of 
Banda, is the famous Fort of Kalin- 
jar, at which the Emperor Sher Shah 
met his death (1545). It is necessary 

1 Fergusson's Oriental Architecture, ii. 
49-S4i 95-96> 140- 



to use an ekka or country cart for 
the trip, while that to the Ajaigarh 
Fort, i6 m. further, can be accom- 
plished only on foot or on horseback. 
There are rest-houses at both places. 

162 m. Karwi station (population 
4100). In 1805 the town formed a 
cantonment for British troops, and in 
1829 it became the principal residence 
of the Peshwa's representative, who 
lived in almost regal state, and built 
several beautiful temples and wells. 
Numerous traders from the Deccan 
were thus attracted to Karwi. During 
the Mutiny Narayan Rao assumed 
the government, and retained his in- 
dependence for eight months. The 
accumulations of his family constituted 
the great treasure afterwards so famous 
as the " Kirwee and Banda Prize 
Money." It was kept in a vault of 
the Bara, a large palace. Since the 
Mutiny the prosperity of Karwi also 
has gradually declined. There is a 
fine temple and tank with a masonry 
well attached, known as the Ganesh 
Bagh, built by Vinayak Rao in 1837. 

181 m. Manikpur junction station 
of E.I. Railway Jubbulpore Branch 
(see p. 30). 

ROUTE 10. 

BOMBAY to DELHI by Bassein, 
Surat, Broach, Miyagam, Baroda, 
and thence 

(i) by broad gauge direct to Delhi 

(863 m. ) by Rutlam, Nagda, 

Kotah, Bliaratpur, and Muttra 

(2) to Aliinedabad, and thence by 

metre gauge to Delhi (849 m.) 

by Mehsana, Palanpur, Abu 

Road, Marwar Junction, Ajmer, 

Phalera Junction, Jaipur, Bandi- 

kui Junction, Alwar and Rewari, 

with excursions by road to 

Mount Abu ; and by rail to (a) 

Dabhoi, (b) Luni Junction (branch 

line to Hyderabad Sindh), Jodhpur, 

Bikaner, and Phalera Junction, 

and {/■) Hissar Bhatinda, and 


The journey by the first route is 
the shortest to Delhi, occupying 
28^ hrs. as against 35 hrs. by the 
second route, and 30 hrs. by Route 9, 
G.I. P. and Midland Railways. Fares, 
Rs.66 and Rs.62, Rs.33 and Rs.31, 
Rs.9 and Rs.8. The stations in 
Bombay city where the mail trains 
stop are Colaba,'^ Church Gate, and 
G?-aiti Road, where ample time is 

9 m. Wahim station, where the 
railway crosses a causeway connecting 
the island of Bombay with the island 
of Salsette. The country is flat, and 
studded with villages and cocoanut 
groves. The Mahim band was con- 
structed largely at the expense of the 
first Lady Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy. 

10 m. Bandra station, left, on sea- 
shore, a favourite residence for persons 
who have daily business in Bombay. 
Several chapels built by the Portuguese 
still exist here, notably that of Rloimt 
Mary, held in respect for miles 

18 m. Goregaon station. About 
I m. from the station are the famous 
Hindu caves of Jogeshwar (see p. 23). 

22 m. Borivli station is near the 
Caves of Montpezir (see p. 21) and 
the ruins of a Jesuit monastery of the 
i6th century. The Caves of Kanhari 
(see p. 22), 5 m. distant, are more 
easily visited from Thana. 

22 m. Bhayandar station, on the 
S. edge of the Bassein creek, which 
divides Salsette from the mainland. 
The railway here crosses the river by 
a very long bridge. On the right, 
and for some m.iles up the stream, the 
scenery is most beautiful — the Kaman- 
drug Hills and Ghorbandar, with the 
quiet water between them, forming a 
tropical landscape as charming as can 
be seen anywhere in India. 

33 m. Bassein Road station,^ D.B. 
The ruins are distant about 5 m. 
The first notice of Bassein is in 1532, 

1 It is advisable to secure places in the 
train from the Colaba terminus. 

" Write beforehand to station-master for 




when the Portuguese ravaged the 
neighbourhood. In 1534 they took 
Daman, 1 which they still hold, and 
obliged Sultan Bahadur of Guzerat, 
then hard pressed by the Emperor 
Humayun, to cede Bassein in per- 
petuity. "For more than 200 years 
Bassein remained in the hands of the 
Portuguese, and during this time it 
rose to such prosperity that the city 
came to be called the Court of the 
North, and its nobles were proverbial 
for their wealth and magnificence. 
With plentiful supplies of both timber 
and stone, Bassein was adorned by 
many noble buildings, including a 
cathedral, five convents, thirteen 
churches, and an asylum for orphans. 
The dwellings of the Hidalgos, or 
aristocracy, who alone were allowed 
to live within the city walls, are de- 
scribed (1675) as stately buildings" 
( Hunter). Fryer, describing the town 
in 1675, says : " Here were stately 
dwellings graced with covered bal- 
conies and large windows, two stories 
high, with panes of oyster-shell, which 
is the usual glazing amongst them (the 
Portuguese) in India, or else latticed." 
On the 17th February 1739 the 
Mahrattas invested Bassein, and the 
town surrendered on the i6th of May, 
after a most desperate resistance, in 
which the commandant, Silveira de 
Mineyes, was killed, and 800 of the 
garrison were killed and wounded, 
the Mahrattas' loss being upwards of 
5000. On the 13th of November 
1780 General Goddard arrived before 
Bassein, and on the 28th his first 
battery opened againstit. He had very 
powerful artillery, and one battery of 
twenty mortars, which shortly after 
opened at the distance of 500 yds., 
and did great execution. The place 
surrendered on the nth December, 
on which day Colonel Hartley, with a 
covering army of 2000 men, defeated 
the Mahrattas' relieving army of up- 
wards of 24,000 men, and killed its 
distinguished General, Ramchandra 

The Fort with the ruins stands on 

1 The poet Camoens distinguished himself 
on this occasion. 

the Bassein Creek, a little away from 
the sea ; it is now entered from the N. 
The Old Town, surrounded by walls 
and ramparts, contains the ruins of the 
Cathedral of St Joseph and other 
churches built by Roman Catholic 
missionaries in the 14th and 15th cen- 
turies. Several inscriptions remain, 
the earliest dated 1536. A guide is 
necessary to point out the various 
ruins. Among them are the church 
of St Anthony, the Jesuits' church, 
and the churches and convents of the 
Augustinians and Franciscans. 

108 m. Daman Road station, 2<cD.B. 
Daman (7 m. W.) is a Portuguese 
settlement subordinate to Goa (area 
149 sq. m., population 42,000). It 
was taken by the Portuguese in 1531, 
again in 1535, and finally in 1559. 
The town (population 17,000) is 
situated on the Daman Gunga river, 
with a bad bar, and a roadstead. 
The place in the days of small ships 
had a very considerable trade. It has 
a fort on each bank of the river. In 
the main fort, on the left bank, are 
the ruins of an old monastery and 
two churches, — only Christians may 
reside within the walls. In it are the 
houses of the governor and his staff 
and the public offices. The smaller 
fort of St Jerome opposite is more 
modern. (See also p. 362.) 

114 m. Udvada station. Remark- 
able as containing the oldest Fire 
Temple in India. It is believed that 
the fire kept alive is that which was 
originally brought from Persia by 
the Parsis, and first kindled here in 
700 A.D. 

124 m. Balsar station. This place 
is occasionally used as a rest-camp, 
and near it is the village of Tithal 
on the sea-coast, where many in- 
habitants of Guzerat resort in the hot 
season. There are fine sands and a 
grand rolling sea. 

148 m. Navsari station (population 
21,400). The capital of the Gaekwar's 
southern possessions, and the head- 
quarters, from the earliest days, of the 



Parsi community. Here the Zoro- 
astrian Priesthood receive their initia- 
tion and confirmation. The Town 
Hall is an imposing building. A Parsi 
has established here a manufactory 
of essences and soaps on European 

167 m. Surat station * (R.). The 
name is derived by Sir Henry Elliot 
and others from Saurasti-a, the ancient 
name of the peninsula of Kathiawar 
with which it was the principal port 
of communication. In the 12th cen- 
tury the Parsis, who were driven from 
Persia 500 years before, and had settled 
in Sanjafi, 70 m. from Surat, found 
their way here on the death of the 
Sanjan chief. Amongst Indian cities 
it is not a place of antiquity, but it 
had a large trade at the end of the 
15th century, and in the iSth was one 
of the most populous and important 
mercantile cities in India, the port 
being much frequented by British and 
other European traders. It is the seat 
of a collectorate, is situated on the river 
Tapti, and is surrounded on the land 
side by a wall about 5^ m. in circuit, 
with twelve gates. Except the main 
street running from the station road 
to the castle, the streets in Surat are 
narrow and tortuous, and some of 
them still bear marks of the great fire 
in 1837, which raged for nearly two 
days, when 9373 houses were de- 
stroyed, and many persons perished. 
Again in 1889 a fire broke out which 
raged over twelve hours, and destroyed 
1350 shops and houses. In 1896 Lord 
Elgin inaugurated here the "Rupee 
Railway," a local joint-stock enter- 
prise, to run up the valley of the 
Tapti (see p. 119). 

The population of Surat as late as 
1797 was estimated at 800,000, but as 
Bombay rose Surat declined, until in 
1 84 1 it had only 80,000 inhabitants. 
It now (191 1) numbers 114,000. 
There are three mills, employing 
1200 hands. 

The Portuguese found their way to 
the place soon after their arrival in 
India, and in 1512 sacked the then 
open town. On the 19th January 
1573 it surrendered to Akbar after a 

siege of one month and seventeen 
days. Early in the 17th century the 
English began to visit it, and in 1612 
the Mughal Emperor sent down z.far- 
ma7t, authorising an English minister 
to reside at his court, and opening to 
English subjects the trade ^t Surat. 
In 161 5 Captain Downton, with four 
ships, mounting eighty guns, defeated 
the Portuguese fleet, consisting of four 
galleons, three other large ships, and 
sixty smaller vessels, mounting in all 
134 guns. This victory established 
the reputation of the English for war, 
and their superiority over the Portu- 
guese. The Dutch trade with Surat 
commenced in 161 6, and for some 
years the Dutch Factory competed 
successfully with the English there. 
The French Factory was not founded 
till 1668, when the agents of the 
French E.I. Company, which Colbert 
had established in 1664, settled at 
Surat. On January the 5th of the 
same year the prosperity of Surat re- 
ceived a severe blow from Shivaji, 
the founder of the Mahratta Empire, 
who with 4000 horse surprised the 
city, and plundered it for six days. 
The defenders of the English Factory 
under Sir George Oxenden, who 
described the Mahratta leader as 
" Sevagye ye grand rebell of 
ye Deccan," showed a bold 
front throughout, and recommended 
Shivaji to "save the labour of his 
servants running to and fro on 
messages, and come himself with all 
his army," and in the end were left un- 
assailed. Their courageous defiance 
so pleased Aurangzeb, that he sent Sir 
G. Oxenden a robe of honour, and 
granted the English an exemptionfrom 
customs. The walls of Surat up to this 
time were of mud, but they were now 
ordered to be built of brick. In 1687 
the seat of government was transferred 
by the E.I. Company to Bombay 
from Surat, which was again partially 
pillaged by the Mahrattas in 1670, 
1702, and 1706. About this time 
commenced the disputes of the rival 
London and English Companies ; and 
on the 19th of January 1700 Sir 
Nicholas Waite, consul for the king, 
and president of the New Company, 




arrived at Sural. The struggle of the 
Companies continued till 1708, when 
they were united. This marked a 
new era for the English at Surat, who 
were fast approaching the period when 
they were to acquire political influence 
in the city, then the greatest emporium 
of W. India. 

In 1759 the Nawab signed a treaty 
by which the castle and fleet were 
made over to the British for a yearly 
stipend of Rs. 200,000. This arrange- 
ment was confirmed by the Emperor 
at Delhi, and the British authority 
was firmly established in Surat, which 
was definitely taken over in 1800. 
In 1842 the last titular Nawab died, 
and the flag of Delhi was removed 
from the castle. 

The Castle, so prominent in the 
early annals of the British in W. 
India, stands beyond the city, on the 
banks of the river. It was built by a 
Turkish soldier about 1546, and is a 
brick buildiiig with walls about 8 ft. 
thick, much modernised. There is a 
good view of the city and river from 
the S.W. Bestion. Over the E. gate- 
way is an inscription, and i« front of 
it is the well-kept Victoria Garden, 
of 8 acres. The adjoining church was 
consecrated by Bishop Heber. 

The remains of the English Factory 
are near the way to the Katargaon 
Gate, close to the river, on the N. 
side of the city. The building is now 
a private dwelling. Near it is the 
Portuguese Factory, where some re- 
cords are still kept. A wooden cross 
marks the site of the church. Close 
to this are the vacant site of the 
French Lodge and the Persian Factory. 
There is a fine view of the town from 
the Clock Tower. 

In the English Cemetery, N. of the 
city on the Broach Road, is (on the 
right on entering) the mausoleum of 
Sir George Oxenden (d. 1669), and 
near it the tomb of his brother 
Christopher. There are also a num- 
ber of other large tombs ; the sites of 
the graves of Gerald Aungier (d. 1677) 
and Tom Corryat (d. 161 7) are un- 

The Dtitch Cemetery is also curious 
from the great size of the monuments. 

The most striking is that of Baron 
van Rheede, the author of the valu- 
able work, Hortus Malabaricus, and 
collector of books and curiosities, 
which he sent to Holland. 

The chief Mosques of Surat are — 
I. Khwajah Diwan Sahib's Mosque, 
built about 1530. He is said to have 
come to Surat from Bokhara, and to 
have lived to the age of 1 16. 2. The 
Nau Saiyad Mosque, "Mosque of 
the Nine Saiyads," on the W. bank 
of the Gopi Lake. 3. The Saiyad 
Idrus Mosque, in Saiyadpura, with 
a minaret, one of the most con- 
spicuous objects in Surat ; it was 
built in 1639, in honour of the 
ancestor of the present Kazi of Surat. 
4. The Mirza Sami Mosque, built 
in 1540 by Khudawand Khan, who 
constructed the castle. 

The Tombs of the Bohras deserve 
a visit. There are two chief Parsi 
fire-temples, built in 1823. The 
Hindu sect of the Walabhacharis has 
three temples. The Swami Narayan 
temple, with three white domes, is 
visible all over the city. In the two 
old temples in the Ambaji ward the 
shrines are 15 ft. underground, a 
relic of Mohammedan persecution. 
The Shravaks, or Jains, have forty- 
two temples, ihe chief of which are 
from 150 to 200 years old. There are 
several steam Cotton Mills in Surat ; 
and carved sandalwood and inlaid 
work form important industries. 

Near the Fort the Hope Bridge 
spans the Tapti, and 3 m. across it 
is Rander, built on the site of a very 
ancient Hindu city, destroyed by the 
Mohammedans in the 12th century. 
The Jama Masjid stands on the 
site of the principal Jain temple. 
In the facade the bases of the Jain 
columns are still visible, and the 
great idol is placed head downwards 
as a doorstep for the faithful to tread 
on in entering the mosque. In 
another mosque are the wooden 
columns and domes belonging to a 
Jain temple, which are the only 
wooden remains of the kind in India. 

[The Tapti Valley Railway runs 
from Surat to Amalner (147 m.) 



through Nandurbar ; from Amalner a 
branch of the G.I. P. Railway, 35 m. 
long, runs to Jalgaon (p. 28)]. 

2 m. after leaving Surat the Tapti 
or Tapi river is crossed by a very 
long bridge, and close to Broach the 
Nerbudda or Narmada river is passed 
on the finest Bridge on the railway, 
consisting of 25 spans, with a good 
view on the left of Broach. 

From (193 m.) Ankleswar a branch 
runs 33 m. N.E. to Nandod. 

203 m. Broach {Bharoch) station 
(R.), D.B., is a place of extreme 
antiquity (population 43,000). The 
author of the Periplus, 60-210 a.d., 
mentions Broach under the name of 
Barugaza. It was then ruled by 
a feudatory Gurjjara prince, and sub- 
sequently fell under the rule of the 
Chalukyas. The Moslems appeared 
in the 8th century, and Broach was 
ruled by them from 1297 to 1772. 
In 1613 A.D. it was first visited by 
Aldworth and Withington, English 
merchants, and in 1614 a house was 
hired for a factory, permission to 
establish which was granted to Sir 
Thomas Roe by Jahangir in 1616. 
The Dutch set up a factory in 1617. 
In 1686 the Mahrattas plundered 
Broach. On the i8th of November 
1772 the British troops stormed the 
place with the loss of their com- 
mander. General Wedderbum, whose 
tomb is at the N.W. corner of the 
fort. On the 29th of August 1803 
Broach was again taken by storm by 
the British. 

The Nerbudda here is a noble 
river, i m. in breadth. The city 
with its suburbs covers a strip of land 
2^ m. long and | m. broad, hence 
by its inhabitants it is called Jibh, 
or "the tongue." The Fort stands 
on a hill more than 100 ft. above the 
river, and a massive stone wall lines 
the river bank for about I m. In it 
are the Collector's Office, the Civil 
Courts, the Dutch Factory, the Jail, 
the Civil Hospital, the English Church 
and School, the Municipal Office, and 
the Library. The streets of the city 
are narrow and some of them steep. 
The Jama Masjid, lying at the E. 
foot of the fort, is constructed of 

materials taken from a Jain temple, 
and perhaps on the site of that 

The Dutch tombs are 2 m. W. of 
the fort, and some 100 yds. off the 
road, left. Two of them are from 16 
to 20 ft. high. 

Opposite the Dutch tombs are five 
Towers of Silence, one of them about 
15 ft. high. The second tower is still 
in use. Outside the E. gate on the 
river bank is the Te?nple of Bhrigtt 
Kiski, from whom the town got the 
name of Brigukackha, contracted 
into Bharoch. 

Broach is celebrated for its cotton : 
there are four spinning and weaving 
mills, employing 2000 hands, besides 
ginning and cotton-pressing factories. 

[10 m. to the E. of Broach is the 
celebrated place of Hindu pilgrimage, 
Suklatirth. It is on the N. or 
right bank of the Nerbudda, and here 
Chanakya, king of Ujjain, was 
purified of his sins, having arrived 
at this holy spot by sailing down the 
Nerbudda in a boat with black sails, 
which turned white on his reaching 
Suklatirth. Here, too, Chandra- 
gupta and his minister, Chanakya, 
were cleansed from the guilt of mur- 
dering Chandragupta's eight brothers, 
and here Chamund, king of Anhil- 
wada, in the nth century, ended his 
life as a penitent. There are three 
sacred waters — the Kavi, the Hunka- 
reshwar, and the Shukal ; at the 
second is a temple with an image 
of Vishnu. There is a fair here in 
November, at which 25,000 people 
assemble. Opposite Mangleshwar, 
which is I m. up stream from Sukla- 
tirth, in the Nerbudda, is an island 
in which is the famous Banyan Tree, 
called the Kabir wad, or " the fig-tree 
of Kabir," from whose toothpick it 
is said to have originated. It has 
suffered much from floods. Forbes, 
who visited Broach 1776-83, says in 
his Oriental Memoirs (i. p. 26) it 
enclosed a space within its principal 
stems 2000 ft. in circumference. It 
had 350 large and 3000 small trunks, 
and had been known to shelter 7000 
men. Bishop Heber, in April 1825, 
says though much had been washed 




away, enough remained to make it 
one of the most noble groves in the 
world. A small temple marks the 
spot where the original trunk grew.] 

228 m. Miyagam junction station. 
This is a junction of a system of 
narrow gauge railways (2' 6") owned 
by the Gaekwar of Baroda and 
worked by the B.B. and C.I. Rail- 

[Dabhoi, 20 m. from Mayagam, is a 
town belonging to the state of Baroda 
(population 15,000). The ancient 
hindu architecture of this place is 
most interesting, but is little known. 
A full account of it by Mr Burgess 
will be found in a volume of the 
Archce. Survey of W. India. The 
fort is said to have been built by the 
Vaghela king of Patan in the 13th 
century. The Baroda Gate is 31 ft. 
high, with elaborately carved pilasters 
on either side. The carvings repre- 
sent the incarnations of Vishnu, and 
nymphs sporting with makras or 
alligators. Near this are interest- 
ing interior colonnades in the fort 
walls affording shelter to the garrison. 
The S. or Nandod Gate is 29 ft. 
high and 16 ft. 4 in. wide. Trees 
have grown in the walls and fractured 
them with their thick roots. The 
Hira Gate in the E. face of the town 
is 37 ft. high, and a marvel of 
minute carving. About 10 ft. up in 
the N. face of the centre, a man and 
woman are carved 4 ft. high, stand- 
ing with a tree between them, like 
the old representations of Adam and 
Eve. To the left is the tall figure 
of a devil, with a ghastly leer. High 
in the centre face is an elephant, 
under which the builder of the gate 
is said to have been interred. On 
the N. side of the town is what 
was the palace, in which the law 
courts now sit. On this side there is 
a fine tank and the Mori Gate. On 
the left, looking out from inside the 
tower, is the temple of Maha Kali, 
and on the right beyond the gate and 
inside it is a smaller temple, now 
quite ruined. The former is a 
wondrous example of carving, which 
when new must have been very 

beautiful, but is now much worn by 
the weather. 

From Dabhoi a branch railway runs 
10 m, S. to Chandod station, a cele- 
brated place of Hindu pilgrimage, 
owing to its situation at the confluence 
of the Nerbudda and the Or. Thou- 
sands flock there every full moon. 

Another line runs 22 m. E. to 
Bodeli, and a third connects again 
with the main line of the B.B. and 
C.I. Railway at Vishvamitri, 245 m. 
from Bombay. 15 m. N.E. of 
Bahadarpur on the Bodeli line is the 
fortified mountain of Pawangarh, and 
the ruined city of Champanir. 

An interesting expedition may be 
made to these, but arrangements must 
be completed beforehand for the trip. 
Champanir was long the fortress-city of 
local Rajput kings. After many vicissi- 
tudes it was taken in 1484 by Mahmud 
Bigara of Ahmedabad, who made it his 
capital, and in 1535 it was besieged 
by Humayun, Emperor of Delhi. 
With others he scaled the precipices 
of the fort by the aid of iron spikes 
driven into the rock, and opened the 
gate to admit his army. There are 
remains of many mosques, tombs, and 
tanks in the lower city ; and in the 
forest for miles around may be found 
the ruins of massive wells, minarets, 
and palaces, which testify to the 
former greatness of Champanir.^] 

247 m. BARODA* (R. ) is the capital 
of the very important Mahratta state 
of the Gaekwar, which with its de- 
pendencies covers an area of 8570 
sq. m. , with a population of 2,000,000. 

The state was founded by Damaji 
Gaekwar early in the i8th century; 
the present chief is H.H. Maharaja 
Sir Sayaji Rao Gaekwar, G. C.S.I. 

W. of the railway station are situated 
the principal offices of the state and 
the residences of many high officials, 
and the State Rest- House for guests 
of H.H. E. of the station is the 
city (population 99,000), with the 
fine College, the Marchioness of 
Bufferings Hospital, the State Offices 

i For the architecture of Champanir, Meh- 
madabad, etc., see 'Rxirge^.&'s Mohamtnedan 
Archtiecture 0/ Gujarat (1896). 



and Library, by the Juna Kot, the 
Central Jail, etc. The Vishwamitri 
river flows W. of the town, and is 
spanned by four stone bridges, which 
exhibit great contrasts of style. The 
city proper is intersected at right 
angles by two wide thoroughfares, 
which meet in a market-place, where 
there is a fine pavilion of Moham- 
medan architecture, a clock tower, 
and the old Nazar Bagh Palace. 
Adjoining it is the guard-house, where 
the gold and silver cannon of the State 
are kept. They contain 280 lbs. 
weight each of solid gold, and are 
drawn bysplendid milk-white bullocks, 
stabled hard by. The new Lakhshmi 
Villas Palace cost 27 lakhs of rupees. 
Passes to view it must be obtained 
from the Resident. 

N. of the city are the Cantonment 
and Residency, well laid out with open 
well- planted roads. The English 
Church was consecrated by Bishop 
Heber 1824, and in 1838 was almost 
entirely rebuilt. There is a good 
public garden between the Canton- 
ments and the city on the banks of 
the river. 

The palace at Makarpura is 4 m. 

S. of the city. The Naulakhi Well, 
50 yds. N., is a fine structure of the 
Baoli class, described below. 

Baroda is supplied with water from 
the artificiaL^ywa Za/^ij, 18 m. distant, 
completed in 1892 at a cost of 35 lakhs. 

The Baolis, in Guzerat, are large 
wells. The following account of these 
is given by Mr A. Forbes in his 
interesting work on Guzerat, the Ras 
Mala: "There remain in different 
parts of the country examples of two 
kinds. Some are large circular wells 
containing galleried apartments ; 
others are more properly described as 
' wads ' or ' baolis. ' 1 The wao is a large 
edifice, of a picturesque and stately, as 
well as peculiar, character. Above the 
level of the ground a row of four or 
five open pavilions, at regular distances 
from each other, usually square in the 

1 A fine model of a l^ao Baoli at Adalaj 
(p. 130) may be seen in the Bodleian at 

interior, but sometimes, in the larger 
examples, passing into the octagonal 
form within, is alone visible ; the roofs 
are supported on columns, and are, 
in the structures of the Hindu times, 
pyramidal in form. The entrance to 
the wao is by one of the end pavilions ; 
thence a flight of steps descends to a 
landing immediately under the second 
dome, which is now seen to be sup- 
ported by two rows of columns, one 
over the other. A second flight of 
steps continues the descent to a similar 
landing under the third pavilion, 
where the screen is found to be three 
columns in height. In this manner 
the descent continues stage by stage, 
the number of the columns increasing 
at each pavilion, until the level of the 
water is at last reached. The last 
flight of steps conducts to the most 
adorned portion of the wao, an octa- 
gonal structure, in this position neces- 
sarily several storeys high, with a 
gallery at each storey, and covered 
by a dome. The structure, which is 
sometimes 80 yds. in length, in- 
variably terminates in a circular well." 

(i) Route from Barodah by broad 
gauge direct route to Delhi. 

This service of the B.B. and C.I. 
Railway diverges N.W. to 292 m. 
Godlira, 337 m. Dohad, 408 m. 
Rutlam (p. 91), and 434 m. Nagda. 
Godhra (pop, 21,000) is the head- 
quarters of the Panch Mahals. Dt. 
Dohad (pop. 14,000) was of note 
under the Gujerat kings. 

From Nagda the hne turns N. and 
runs to 521 m. Sri Chatrapur, 17 m. 
from Jhalra Patan, 574 m. Kotah Jn. , 
754 m. Bharatpur Jn. (p. 162), and 
775 m. Muttra Jn. (p. 169), and 
thence to 864 m. Delhi. At 545 m. 
Darrali it passes through the famous 
Mokand-darrah Pass, from which 
Colonel Monsoon made his disastrous 
retreat in the summer of 1804 before 
Jaswant Rao Holkar ; the scenery 
here is striking, and the engineering 
of the line is very remarkable. 
Kotah (population 35,000) is the 
capital of the Kotah State, separated 
from Boondi (p. 97) in 1625, and of 
which the chief is Raja Umed Singh, 




G.C.I.E., K. C.S.I. It is a walled 
city, picturesquely situated on the 
light bank of the Chambal ; the fine 
old palace and the royal cenotaphs lie 
S. of it. The new palace is called 
the Umed Bhawan. There is a 
Hospital for women named after 
the Queen Empress. N. of Kotah 
the railway passes 641 m. Siwai 
Madhopux (population 11,000; branch 
line to Sanganer, p. 143), 681 m. 
Gangapur, and 708 m. Hrndaim, all 
in the Jaipur State, and the last once 
a place of importance, but devastated 
by the Mahrattas, and Bayana (Biana) 
(p. 185) on the bank of the Gambhir. 

(2) Route to Ahmedabad and by 
metre gauge to Delhi. 

269 m. Anand junction station. 

[(a) One branch line from here 
runs N.E. to Godhra, 49 m. At 

18 m. Dakor station is a large 
lake, and a temple with an image 
much venerated by the Hindus. As 
many as 100,000 pilgrims assemble in 
October and November. 

About 20 m. N. of Dakor is the 
walled town of 

Kapadvanj, D. B., noted for its 
industry in soap, glass, and leather 
jars for ^^ ghee." 

Midway between the two places 
are the hot springs of Lassundra, the 
highest temperature being 115°. The 
water is slightly sulphurous, and is 
efficacious in skin diseases. 

[(i5) Another line runs S.W. 15 m. 
to Petlad (population 15,528), and 32 
m. to Cambay, the capital of the 
Native State of that name (population 
32,090). The town and port are of 
great antiquity. In A.D. 913 Cambay 
is described by the Arab traveller 
Masudi as standing on the shores of 
a deep bay surrounded by towns, 
villages, farms, cultivated fields, trees, 
and gardens. It was governed by 
the kings of Anhilvara (the modern 
Patan), up to the end of the 13th 
century. Mohammedan writers of the 
period call it the "first city in Hind." 
The beauty and wealth of the country 
led to its invasion by the Mohammedan 
Emperor Ala-ud-din in 1304, when 
the city was plundered and its temples 

Cambay reached the height of its 
glory under the Mohammedans at 
the latter end of the 15th and be- 
ginning of the 1 6th centuries, and in 
1583 letters carried by Fitch, Leedes, 
and Newberry from Queen Elizabeth, 
were addressed to Akbar, as king of 
Cambay. The Portuguese and Dutch 
had already established factories here ; 
in 161 3 when the English appeared 
it was still a flourishing city, but 
commenced to decline as Surat in- 
creased in importance. In the i8th 
century it was plundered more than 
once by the Mahrattas ; at the same 
time the entrance to the harbour 
began to silt up, and it is now an 
unimportant place. 

Cambay was formerly a stronghold 
of the Jains, and still possesses some 
of their MSS. , second only to those 
at Patan. The Jama Masjid (12,2^) 
was built with fragments of Jain 
and Hindu temples. 

The town is celebrated for the 
manufacture of agate, cornelian, and 
onyx ornaments.] 

291 m. Mehmadabad station. 
Picturesque view of river from rail- 
way station. In the morning and 
evening troops of grey monkeys play 
near the line. Mehmadabad was 
founded by Mahmud Bigara in 
1479. There is a fine tomb i\ m. 
E. of the town, built in 1484 in 
honour of Mubarak Saiyad, a 
minister of Mahmud. For "simplicity 
about its plan, and solidity and 
balance of parts in the design, it 
has rarely if ever been surpassed in 
any tomb in India." ^ Bigara also 
constructed the Bhamara Baoli well, 
passed on the way to the tomb. It 
has two stone arches, on which it 
was said the king's swing was hung. 
It is 74 ft. long by 24 ft. broad, is 
entered by four winding stairs, and 
has eight underground chambers. 

Eaira, 7 m. from Mehmadabad, 
by a gooa road shaded by fine trees 
(population 10.400), is the largest 
town in the district of that name. 
It consists of two parts, the town 

1 See Fergusson's Indian Architecture, 
ii. 244. 



proper and the suburbs. Kaira is 
said to be as old as 1400 B.C. 
Copper-plate grants show that the 
city was in existence in the 5^^^^ 
century. The chief industry is 
printing cloth for saris and other 
native garments. In the centre of 
the town is the Court House, a build- 
ing with pillars of a Greek order. 
Near it is a Jain temple, with 
beautiful dark wood carving. Out- 
side the E. gate is the new Jail. 
It was once a military canton- 
ment, but proved so unhealthy for 
Europeans that the troops were 
withdrawn. The large church was 
consecrated by Bishop Heber in 
1822, and has a beautiful bell. 

Wild hog may still be found in 
the district and the Nilgai {Portax 
pictus), antelope (Antilope bezoartica), 
and Indian gazelle ( Gazella Bennettii), 
are common. The Sartis {Ardea 
Antigone) is a tall grey crane with a 
crimson head. Wild-fowl, bustard 
{Eupodotis Edwardsii), and florican 
{Sypheotides auritus), partridges and 
quails, sand-grouse, plovers and 
bitterns, pea-fowl and green pigeon, 
are found everywhere. The Mahsir 
(Barbus Mosul) is found in the 
Mahi, Vatrak, Meshwa, and Sabar- 
mati, and afford excellent sport with 
the rod and fly, 

310 m. Ahmedabad 1 Jn. * 

Change to metre gauge railway for 
Delhi and stations on C.I. line. 

This most beautiful city, covering 
an area of 2 sq. m. (215,000 in- 
habitants), stands on the left bank 
of the Sabarmati river, in Lat. 23° 2 ', 
Long. 72° 38'. The remains of an 
old wall, with twelve gateways, 
surround it. 

Ahmedabad, once the greatest city 
in Western India, is said to have 
been from 1573 to 1600 the 
"handsomest town in Hindustan, 
perhaps in the world." In Sir 
Thomas Roe's time, 1615, we are 

1 No one should pass this ancient capital, 
the stronghold of the Northern Jains, with- 
out pausing long enough (four hours) to visit 
the Jama Masjid, the Tombs of the Queens. 
and the Rani Sepree Mosque. The chief 
objects of interest are marked ^. 

told, "it was a goodly city as large 
as London." It was founded in 
141 1 by Sultan Ahmad I., who 
made Asaval, the old Hindu town 
now included in the S. part of the 
city, his capital. It passed through 
two periods of greatness, two of 
decay, and one of revival. From 
1411 to 1511 it grew in size and 
wealth; from 1512 to 1572 it de- 
clined with the decay of the dynasty 
of Guzerat ; from 1572 to 1709 it 
recovered under the Mughals ; from 
1709 to 1809 it dwindled with 
them ; and from 1818 it has again 
increased under British rule. There 
are 34 mills in it, employing 20,000 

It is supplied with filtered water 
obtained from wells sunk in the bed 
of the river. 

The Cantonment lies 3^ m. N.E. 
of the city, and is reached by a good 
road lined by an avenue of trees, the 
haunt of thousands of parrots. Here 
there is an English Church, and 
there is another, Ctirist Clmrch, in 
the Idaria Quarter, 500 yds. S. of 
the Delhi Gate. 

It is hard to account for Ahmeda- 
bad being so little known to modern 
travellers from Europe. It certainly 
ranks next to Delhi and Agra for 
the beauty and the extent of its 
architectural remains.^ Its architec- 
ture is an interesting and striking 
example of the combination of Hindu 
and Mohammedan forms. "No- 
where did the inhabitants of Ahmeda- 
bad show how essentially they were 
an architectural people as in their 
utilitarian works (wells \^Baolis\ and 
inlets to water reservoirs). It was 
a necessity of their nature that every 
object should be made ornamental, 
and their success was as great in 
these as in their mosques or palaces " 
(see Fergusson's Indian Architecture). 

The Jain feeding-places for birds, 
which at the first glance look like 
pigeon-houses, may be seen in many 
of the streets, and are a peculiar feature 

1 The amplest details of the architecture 
of Ahmedabad will be fouad in a recent 
volume of the A rcJuFological Survey 0/ N. 
India, by Mr Burgess. 




of Ahmedabad : they are extremely 
picturesque, ornamented with carving, 
and often gaily painted. Many of 
the houses in the streets have fronts 
beautifully ornamented with wood 

The old parts of the city are 
divided into quarters wholly separated 
off from one another. 

The buildings in the city may be 
seen in the following order: — ■ 

The Jama Masjid and Tombs 
of Ahmad Shah, and his wives ; the 
Rani Sepree Tomb and Mosque ; 
Dastur Khan's Mosque ; the Tin 
Darwazah ; the Bhadr Azam Khan's 
palace ; Sidi Said's Mosque ; Ahmad 
Shah's Mosque ; Shaikh Hasan's 
Mosque ; the Rani (or Queen's) 
Mosque in Mirzapur ; Muhafiz 
Khan's Mosque. 

With a second morning to spare, 
he should start early and see Sarkhej, 
across the river to the S.W., giving 
himself at least four hours for the 
trip. A second afternoon could be 
devoted to the Kankariya Tank and 
Shah 'Alam, S. of the city, and 
perhaps the modern Jain Temple 
of Hathisingh, outside the Delhi 

Near the railway station are the 
handsome lofty minarets and arched 
central gateway, which are all that 
remain of a mosque^ (l) destroyed 
in the struggle with the Mahrattas 

in 1753- 

The Jama Masjid (3),* or 
principal mosque, stands near the 
centre of the city, on the S. side 
of the main street (Manik Chauk), 
a little E. of the Three Gateways. 
It was built by Sultan Ahmad I. 
(Ahmad Shah) in 1424. Mr Fer- 
gusson says : " Though not remark- 
able for its size, it is one of the 
most beautiful mosques in the East." 
The mosque is entered from the 
N. by a flight of steps. On the 
S. is another porch leading into 
the street, and on the E. is the 
enclosure, in which is the tomb of 
the founder. The court is surrounded 

1 These numbers in brackets refer to the 
numbers on the accompanying plan. 

by a cloister. To the W. is the 
mosque proper. On the threshold 
of the main arch, embedded in the 
pavement, lies a black slab brought 
from Chintaman's Temple, which, 
according to Mr Hope, is a Jain idol 
turned upside down for the faithful 
to tread on ; and touching it on the 
E. is a white marble crescent, where 
the Imam stands to pray. In the 
right-hand corner on entering is a 
gallery, which was probably used 
by the members of the royal family. 
The roof, supported by 260 columns, 
has fifteen cupolas with galleries 
round the three in front. The centre 
cupola is larger and much higher 
than the others. The two minarets 
lost half their height in the earth- 
quake of 16th June 1 81 9. They 
are now 43 ft. high.^ On the marble 
slab above the centre of the three 
kiblahs or prayer-niches are these 
words in Arabic: "This high and 
far-stretching mosque was raised by 
the slave who trusts in the mercy of 
God, the compassionate, the alone 
to be worshipped." The Koran 
says, "Truly mosques belong to 
God, worship no one else with 
Him." "The slave who trusts in 
God, the Aider, Nasir-ud-dunya wa- 
ud-din Abu'l Fath Ahmad Shah, son 
of Muhammad Shah, son of Sultan 
Muzafifar. " 

Through the E. gate is the Tomb 
of Ahmad Shall (2), (repaired 1587). 
This domed building has a portico 
to the S. with eighteen pillars. The 
windows are of perforated stonework. 
The central chamber is 36 ft. square. 
It is paved with marble of different 
colours. The centre cenotaph is that 
of Ahmad Shah, the one to the W. 
is that of his son, Muhammad Shah,' 
and that on the E. is that of his 
grandson, Kutab Shah, died 1441, 
1451, and 1459 A.D. 

50 yds. to the E. across the street 
are the Tombs of the queens of 

1 In 1781 Mr Forbes, in his Oriental 
Memoirs, said of them: "A circular flight 
of steps led to a gallery near the top of 
each. A little force at the arch of the upper 
gallery made both minarets shake, though 
the roof of the mosque remained unmoved." 



Ruined MosQue near 
the Rai/wny Station 
Tnmbs of Ahmad Shah 
and his wues 
i/umma Musjid 
Rani St^prpe\ Mosque 
Dastur Khan's Mosque 
Haibat Khan's Mosque 
7 Fhe Triple Gatewaif 

8. The Bhadr 

9. Azam Khan's Palace 

10. Ahmad Shah's /f.' Mosque 

11 The Manih Burj 

12 Sidi Said's Mosque 

13 Shah Wa/ihuddin's Tomb 

11. Said Aiam's Mosque 
15. The Rani's Mosque in Murzepur 
X^. Mosque of the Shaikh Hasan 
n. Muhafiz Khan's Mosque . Qi 
IB.Sivami Narayan's r^mp/c'-; 

Suburbs : ^ 

19. Hathi Sings Temple 1 

20 Darya Khan's Tomb '. 

21 Achut Bibi's Mosque \ 

22 Miyan Khan ChisH's \ 

23. Dada Hnri's Well ; 

24 Mata Bhawam's Well \ / 

25 Chintaman's Temple \/ 
in Saraspur '*^ 

26. Hankariya Lake '• 

27. Ranchhod Lai Chbota Laf 
Technical Institute 

28. H.C.Hnjh School ^ 

29. \i^ictoria Gardens 

30. Guzerat College ^^i 




} The Cqmp 

♦ / 









Acfiut B'tS''^' Mosqus 

■Khan sU': 
."' Tomb M '. 




'19 HuJhi Sing's , 
Oarynptir Gate- 

•2^ ^ 
23 ivells..-- 


Ch«cngr«Epur f 1 
-.; B/ia(^r\\Gatr 

j.ate ,•"■ 



— '' Chudawur M)' 

■y. Kochrub/ #; 


Rakbeal ^| 

Upnr ly 

.Azam and Mozum 
■ Khans' Tomb 

Juniulpiif Cafe 

^Baba Luluec 
^Aboo Toorab 






Kimkari ua/ 
I * f 

i! W 


'Muhk Alum 


^ .- 

■ Meeteepur 

A • 

Kokra Vl' ! 



Shah'. Alum 









[To /ace p. 124. 



Ahmad Shah (2).* The houses are 
so close that they quite shut out 
the fa9ade of the mausoleum, which 
is raised on a platform. In the 
fa9ade are thirteen highly ornamented 
carved recesses. Inside is a rect- 
angular court, with a corridor running 
round it. In the centre are eight 
large cenotaphs and several small 
ones. The centre tombstone is 
fmely carved, and is the tomb of 
Mughlai Bibi. It is of black stone 
or marble, inlaid with white. This 
building is one of the finest in 
Ahmedabad, but much out of repair 

Rani Sepree's Mosque and Tomb 

(4) * are almost the most beautiful 
monuments in Ahmedabad. Rani 
Asni, by whom the mosque and tomb 
were really built, was one of the 
wives of Mahmud Bigara, and they 
were completed in 1514. "They 
are the first of a series of buildings 
more delicately ornate than any 
that preceded."^ The mosque has 
two minarets, about 50 ft. high, 
having four compartments tapering 
up to the top. The roof is supported 
by a row of six coupled pillars 
with single ones behind. The roza, 
or tomb, is 36 ft. sq. 

Dastiir Khan's Mosque (5), built 
in i486 by one of Mahmud Bigara's 
ministers. The open stone screen- 
work that shuts in the cloister round 
the courtyard is very fine. In the gate- 
way the marks of shot may be seen. 
A few yds. to the E. of Dastur 
Khan's Mosque is Asa Bhits Mound, 
the site of the fort of the Bhil chief, 
from whom the town of Asaval had 
its name. 

A little to the N.E. of the Jamal- 
pur Gate is Haibat Khan's Mosque 
(6), which is interesting as one of 
the earliest attempts to combine 
Mohammedan and Hindu elements. 
Haibat Khan was one of the noble- 
men of Ahmad Shah's court. The 
mosque is very plain. The front 
wall is pierced by three small 
1 Mr. T. Hope's Ahmedabad. 

pointed arches some distance apart. 
The minarets are small and without 
ornament, and rise like chimneys 
from the roof. The central dome, 
of Hindu workmanship and of great 
beauty, is barely raised above the 
others. The pillars, taken from 
difierent temples, display every 
variety of rich ornament. Except 
for the form of its dome, the outer 
porch would suit a Hindu temple. 

The Tin Darwazah, or Three 
Gateways (7), built by Sultan 
Ahmad I., is of stone richly carved. 
It crosses the main street a little 
to the N. of the Jama Masjid. 
This gateway led into the outer 
court of the Bhadr, kno%vn as the 
Royal Square, and was surrounded, 
in 1638, by two rows of palm trees 
and tamarinds (J. A. de Mandelso's 
Voyages, 1662, p. 76). Facing the 
Bhadr Gate is a municipal garden. 
N. of the garden is the High School, 
and to the W. the Hemabhai 
Institute, with a good library and 
newspapers and periodicals. Near 
it is the Mosque of Malik Sha'ban, 
with an inscription that says it was 
built in the reign of Kutab-ud-din, 
by Sh'aban, son of 'Imad-ul-mulk, 
in 856 A. H. = 1452 A.D. 

The Bhadr (8), (pronounced Bhad- 
dar), an ancient enclosure or citadel, 
built by Ahmad Shah, 141 1, and 
named after the goddess Bhadra, a 
propitious form of Kali, is occupied 
by public offices. In the E. face 
is the Palace, built by 'Azam Khan 
(9), the 23rd Viceroy (1635-42), who 
was called Udai, "the white ant," 
from his love of building. It is 
now the Post Office. Over the gate 
is a Persian chronogram, giving the 
date 1636 A.D. The N. entrance to 
the Bhadr is very handsome. The 
gate under an archway is 18 ft. high, 
and opens into a regular octagonal 
hall of great elegance, containing, in 
the upper story, an arched gallery, 
having in front a low wall of open- 
cut stone, and each gallery sur- 
mounted by a cupola. Underneath 
this hall is a fine vaulted chamber. 




entered by a flight of steps at each 
side, with a reservoir and fountain 
in the middle. Close to the Jail is 
a temple to Bhadra Kali Mata. At 
the N.E. corner is Sidi Said's Mosque 
(12),* which forms part of the wall, 
and was till lately the Mamlatdar's 
office. Two of its windows are 
filled with deUcate stone tracery of 
tree-stems and branches beautifully 
wrought. Mr Fergusson, who gives 
an illustration of one of the windows, 
says in his History of Architecture : 
" It would be difilicult to excel the 
skill with which the vegetable forms 
are conventionalised just to the extent 
required for the purpose. The equal 
spacing also of the subject by the 
three ordinary trees and four palms 
takes it out of the category of direct 
imitation of nature, and renders it 
sufficiently structural for its situa- 
tion ; but perhaps the greatest skill 
is shown in the even manner in 
which the pattern is spread over 
the whole surface. There are some 
exquisite specimens of tracery in 
precious marbles at Agra and Delhi, 
but none quite equal to this." 

In the S.W. corner of the Bhadr 
is Ahmad Shah's Mosque (10), built 
by him in 1414, twenty years before 
the Jama Masjid, being perhaps 
the oldest here. It is said to have 
been used as the king's private 
chapel. Left on advancing towards 
the mosque, was once the Ganj i- 
Shahid or Store of Martyrs, where 
were buried the Moslems killed in 
storming the town. The fa9ade is 
almost bare of ornament, with ill- 
designed pointed arches. The two 
minarets are evidently unfinished. 
The niimbar, or pulpit, is adorned 
with what looks like laurel leaves. 
The architecture shows the first 
attempts at building a Moslem 
edifice in what had been a Hindu 
city. The pillars still bear Hindu 
figures and emblems. The N. porch, 
leading into the latticed ladies' 
gallery, is Hindu throughout, and 
may be part of a temple in situ. 

W. of this mosque is the Manik 

Burj (11) or Ruby Bastion, built 
round the foundation-stone of the 
city. There is a small round tomb 
in the yard near the collector's office, 
which is said to be that of Ibrahim 
Kuli Khan, a Persian warrior. 

Shah Wajihud-din's Tomb (13), 
built by Saiyad Murtaza Khan 
Bokhari, iith Viceroy, 1606- 1609, 
is a very beautiful monument. 

Said 'Alam's Mosque (14), was built 
about 1420 by Abubakr Husaini. 
The inner details are as rich as 
Hindu art could make them. S. of 
this 170 yds. is 

The Rani Masjid (Queen's Mosque) 
(15) in Mirzapitr, a few yds. to the 
S. of the D.B., built probably in 
Sultan Ahmad I.'s reign. There are 
two minarets, unfinished or partly 
destroyed by an earthquake, and 
now only 33 ft. high. The roof has 
three domes, and is supported by 
thirty-six plain pillars. To the N.E. 
of the mosque is the roza or tomb 
(restored). Under the dome are 
two cenotaphs of white marble ; 
the central one is the tomb of 
Rupvati, a princess of Dhar. It is 
in good preservation, while that on 
the W. side is much injured ; both 
are ornamented with the chain 
and censer, a Hindu device. Mr 
Fergusson has given a plan of this 
mosque, and says : " The lower part 
of the minaret is of pure Hindu 
architecture. We can follow the 
progress of the development of this 
form from the first rude attempt in 
the Jama Masjid, through all its 
stages to the exquisite patterns of 
the Queen's Mosque at Mirzapur." 

The Mosque of Shaikh Hasan Mu- 
hammad Chishti in Shahpur (16) is 
in the N.VV. angle of the city, not 
far from the Sabarmati, 1565 A.D. 
The minarets are unfinished. "The 
tracery in the niches of their bases 
is perhaps superior to any other in 
the city." On the S. or left side of 
the central arch is a Persian quatrain. 



This chronogram gives the date 
1566 A.D. 

East of the Rani's Masjid the 
Mosque of Muhaflz Klian (17) 
was built in 1465 by Jamal-ud-din 
Muhafiz Khan, governor of the city in 
1471 under Mahmud Bigara. It is 
the best preserved of all the mosques. 
According to Mr Hope, "its details 
are exquisite," and the minarets of 
the mosque and those of Rani Sepree 
"surpass those of Cairo in beauty." 

S. of this mosque is the modern 
Swami Narayan's Temple (18), fin- 
ished in 1850. It has an octagonal 
dome, supported on twelve pillars, 
and is a fine building. 

Close to it is the Pinjrapol or 

Asylum for Animals. The enclosure 
is surrounded by sheds where about 
800 animals are lodged. There is 
also a room where insects are fed. 
Close to the S. of it are nine tombs, 
each 18 ft. 3 in. long, called the Nau 
Gaz Pirs, "the Nine Yard Saints." 
They are most likely the tombs of a 
number of men killed in some battle. 

The Mosque, Tomb, and ^College 
of Shuja'at Klian. This mosque, 
which stands 400 yds. N. E. of the 
Lai Gate of the Bhadr, has two slender 
minarets, and is divided by piers into 
five bays, and over the kiblah are 
written the creed and date = 1695. 
The walls, up to 6 ft., are lined with 
marble. The tomb is of brick, with 
a marble floor, much destroyed. It 
is called both the Marble and the 
Ivory Mosque. 

Ahmedabad is celebrated for its 
Handicraftsmen — goldsmiths, jewel- 
lers, etc., who carry the chopped form 
of jewellery (the finest archaic jewel- 
lery in India) to the highest perfection ; 
copper and brass-workers, as instanced 
particularly in the very graceful and 
delicate brass - screens and pandans 
(betel -boxes) ; carpenters, who have 
long been famous for their superior 
carving in shisham, or mongrel black- 
wood, of which the finest specimens 

are to be found here ; stone-masons, 
lacquer-workers, carvers in ivory, — 
also for the manufacture of "Bom- 
bay boxes " ; mock ornaments for 
idols ; leather shields ; cotton cloth 
(four monster steam-factories) ; calico- 
printing, gold-figured silks, and gold 
and silver tissues ; Kimkhwab 
(kinkab), or brocades (the noblest 
produced in India) ; gold and silver 
lace and thread, and all manner of 
tinsel ornaments. 

Its industrial importance is shown 
by the fact that " the Nagar-Seth" or 
city lord, of Ahmedabad is the titular 
head of all the Guilds and one of the 
highest personages in the city. 

Carpets\\'3.\Q. also become a speciality 
of Ahmedabad, and the manufactories 
as well as the workshops of the other 
crafts are well worth visiting. 

ENVIRONS. — For 12 m. round 
Ahmedabad the country is full of 
interesting ruins ; but here only the 
principal can be mentioned. Just 
outside the Delhi Gate, on the N., 
is the modern HatM Singh Temple 
(19),* built of white marble and sur- 
mounted by fifty-three domes. This 
and a rest-house and family mansion 
close by were finished in 1848, at a 
cost of Rs. 1 ,000,000. The dimensions 
of this temple are of the first order ; 
its style the pure Jain ; and it stands a 
convincing proof that the native archi- 
tecture has not been extinguished by 
centuries of repression. In its sculp- 
tures may be seen representations of 
the twenty-four holy men, or Tir- 
thankars, and hundreds of other 
images, all similar, but each labelled 
on the base with the emblem of some 
distinct Jain. The entrance is from 
a courtyard surrounded by a corridor, 
where woollen slippers are provided 
before ascending a portico richly 
carved and supported by pillars The 
temple consists of an outer and an 
inner chamber, both paved with 
coloured marbles chiefly from Mak- 
ran in Rajputana : in the latter is the 
image of Dharmnath, who is repre- 
sented as a beautiful youth, with a 
sparkling tiara of imitation diamonds. 
Mr Fergusson says: "Each part in- 




creases in dignity to the sanctuary. 
The exterior expresses the interior 
more completely than even a Gothic 
design, and, whether looked at from 
its courts or from the outside, it 
possesses variety without confusion, 
and an appropriateness of every part 
to the purpose intended." N.W. of 
this is the ruined Tomb of Darya 
Khan (20), 1453, chief minister of 
Mahmud Bigara. The dome is 9 ft. 
thick, and the largest in Guzerat. 
Not far beyond it is the Chhota or 
small Slialii Bagb, of no architectural 
interest, now a private house, where 
it is said the ladies of the royal harem 
lived. Across the railway line is the 
Shahi Bagh, a very fine garden-house, 
now the residence of the Commissioner 
of the N. Division. A subterranean 
passage is said to communicate be- 
tween the two places. The building 
was erected in 1622 by Shah Jahan, 
when Viceroy of Ahmedabad, to give 
work to the poor during a season of 
scarcity. In the i6th century this 
was the great resort for the people of 
the city. The Shahi Bagh is close to 
the railway bridge over the Sabarmati, 
which river it overlooks. Half a m. 
S.W. of the Shahi Bagh is Miyan 
Khan Chlshti's Mosque (22), built in 
1465 by Malik Maksud Vazir ; and \ 
m. more to the S.W. is Achut Bibi's 
Mosque (21), built in 1469 by 'Imadu'l 
mulk, one of Bigara's ministers, for 
his wife Bibi Achut Kuki, whose 
tomb is close by. There were seven 
minarets here, all of which were 
thrown down in the earthquake of 
1819. Returning from this point, 
the drive may be continued to the N. E. 
side of the city, to Asarva, about \ m. 
N. E. of the Daryapur Gate, where 
are the Baolis or Wells of Dada Hari 
(23) * and Mata Bbawani. The real 
name of Dada is said by the local 
people to have been Halim, "mild," 
and they call him Dada Hari. He is 
said to have been the husband of the 
Dai, or nurse of one of the kings. 
There is an ascent from the road to 
the platform which surrounds the 
well's mouth. A domed portico, 
supported by twelve pillars, gives 
entrance to three tiers of finely con- 

structed galleries below ground, which 
lead to the octagonal well, with in- 
scriptions in Sanscrit and Arabic. 
The well beyond the octagonal one 
has pillars round it and a fence wall. 
Beyond this is a circular well for 
irrigation. A very narrow staircase 
leads to the level ground, where by 
the side of the well are two stone 
kiosks. About 50 yds. to the W. 
is Dada Hurl's Mosque, one of the 
best decorated buildings at Ahme- 
dabad, though no marble is employed. 
The stone is of a dull reddish-grey 
colour. The bases of the two minarets 
are richly carved ; a portion of them 
was thrown down by the earthquake 
of 1 8 19. To the N. is the Roza of 
Dada Hari or Halim. The N. door 
is exquisitely carved, but the inside is 
quite plain. 

Mata Bbawani (24). — This well is 
about 100 yrds. N. of Dada Hari's, 
but is much older, and is thought to 
be of the time of Karan, when Ahme- 
dabad was called Karanavati. The 
descent to the water from the platform 
is by fifty-two steps and pillared gal- 
leries as at Dada Hari. The porticoes 
are quite plain, and the well is alto- 
gether inferior to that of Dada Hari. 

Most of the houses in the Madhav- 
pura suburb are warehouses, and it is 
the great business quarter. Saraspur, 
E. of the railway station, is a distinct 
walled town, the largest of the 
suburbs. In this suburb is the Jain 
Temple of Chintaman (25), restored 
in 1868 by Shantidas, a rich merchant, 
at a cost of Rs. 900,000. Aurangzeb 
defiled it and changed it into a mosque. 
The Jains petitioned the Emperor 
Shah Jahan, who ordered his son to 
repair and restore the temple. But 
in 1666 Thevonet speaks of it as a 
mosque ( Voyages, v. p. 28). 

f m. S.E. of the Rajpur Gate is 
the Hauz-i-Kutab, generally called the 
Kankariya Lake (26), or Pebble Lake. 
This reservoir, one of the largest of its 
kind in this part of India, is a regular 
polygon of thirty-four sides, each side 
190 ft. long, the whole being more 
than I m. round. The area is 72 
acres. It was constructed by Sultan 



Kutab-ud-din in 145 1, and was then 
surrounded by many tiers of cut-stone 
steps, with six sloping approaches, 
flanked by cupolas and an exquisitely 
carved water-sluice. In the centre 
was an island, with a garden called 
Nagina or the Gem, and a pavilion 
called Ghattamandal. In 1872 Mr 
Borrodaile, the Collector, repaired the 
building, and made a road from the 
Rajpur Gate. On the E. bank of the 
lake are some Dutch and Armenian 
tombs, Saracenic in style, with domes 
and pillars a good deal ruined. The 
dates range from 1 641 to 1689. 

This expedition may be continued 
to Batwa, which is almost 5 m. due 
S. of the Rajpur Gate. Here Burhan- 
ud-din Kutab-ul-Alam, the grandson of 
a famous saint buried at Uch on the 
Sutlej, is interred. He came to the 
court of Sultan Ahmad I., settled at 
Batwa, and died there in 1452. A 
vast mausoleum of fine design and 
proportions was erected to his memory. 
It resembles the buildings at Sarkhej, 
but the aisles are ^.rched and vaulted, 
and the dome is raised by a second 
tier of arches. The workmanship is 
most elaborate, but the building is 
unfortunately much out of repair. 
Adjoining it are a mosque and 

The tomb of Shah 'Alam, the son 
of the saint buried at Batwa, is 2 m. 
S.E. of the town on the Batwa road. 
Before reaching the tomb the road 
passes under two plain gateways, and 
then through one with a Nakar Khana 
(music gallery) above the archway, 
and so into a vast court. To the W. 
is the mosque, which has two minarets 
of seven stories, handsomely carved 
and about 90 ft. high. The tomb 
of Shah 'Alam is to the E., and 
is protected by metal lattices : he 
was a spiritual guide of Mahmud 
Bigara and died in 1475. To the 
S. is an assembly hall, built by 
Muzaffar III. (1561-72) and partly 
destroyed by the British in 1780 to 
furnish materials for the siege of the 
city. The tomb is said to have been 
built by Taj Khan Nariali, one of 
Mahmud's courtiers. Early in the 

17th century Asaf Khan (p. 238), 
brother of the Empress Nur Jahan, 
adorned the dome with gold and 
precious stones. The floor of the 
tomb is inlaid with black and white 
marble, the doors are of open brass- 
work, and the frame in which they 
set, as well as what shows between 
the door-frame and the two stone 
pillars to the right and left, is of pure 
white marble beautifully carved and 
pierced. The tomb itself is enclosed 
by an inner wall of pierced stone. 
The outer wall in the N. is of stone 
trellis-work of the most varied design, 
and here Shaikh Kabir, renowned 
for his learning, who died in 161S, is 
buried. The mosque was built by 
Muhammad Salih Badakhshi. The 
minarets were much damaged by the 
earthquake of 1819, but have been re- 
paired, and are now in good order. To 
the S. of the mosque is a tomb like 
that of the chief mausoleum where the 
family of Shah 'Alam are buried. Out- 
side the wall to the W. is a reservoir, 
built by the wife of Taj Khan Nariali. 

Sarkhej is 6 m. to the S.W. of the 
Jamalpore Gate, whence a good car- 
riage will take two people comfortably 
in about an hour. Sarkhej is served 
by the railway line to Dholka (p. 130), 
but the service is not likely to be suit- 
able to visitors. The road crosses the 
Sabarmati river, the channel of which 
is about i m. broad, but the water in 
the dry weather is only 2 ft. deep. 
On the left bank is the Victoria 
Garden, of which the site was given 
by Govt, to the city, with a marble 
seated statue of the Queen Empress 
by Mr G. A. Mhatre. The river-bed 
is dotted with enclosures for the culti- 
vation of melons, potatoes, and other 
vegetables, and the running water is 
lined with gaily-dressed women wash- 
ing their clothes. Garments of every 
shape and of the brightest colours are 
laid out to dry. These persons are 
not professional washerwomen, but 
belong to many classes of society. 
The remains of a bridge will be seen 
near the crossing ; both it and the 
railway bridge were carried away by 
the great flood in 1875, but the latter 




was at once restored. Near the 
bridge the city wall is from 40 to 60 
ft. high. The road from the river's 
bank is good, with rich fields on 
either side, and at if m. right is the 
massive brick. 

Mausoleum of Azam and Mu'azzam, 

built probablyin 1457. These brothers 
are said to have been the architects of 
Sarkhej, and to have come from Khor- 
asan. The immense structure which 
contains their tombs is raised on a 
platform. About 300 yds. from the 
principal buildings at Sarkhej there 
are two brick towers about 30 ft. 
high, the bases of which, close to the 
ground, have been so dug away that 
it seems a miracle they do not fall. 
After another 200 yds., the road passes 
under two arches, leading into the 
courtyard of Sarkhej. To the left on 
entering is the fine mausoleum of Mah- 
mud Bigara^ and his sons, and con- 
nected with it by a beautiful portico 
another equally magnificent tomb on 
the border of the tank for his queen 
Rajabai. To the right is the Tomb of 
the Saint Shaikh Ahmad KhaltiL Ganj 
Bakhsh, called also Maghrabi. Ganj 
Bakhsh lived at Anhalvvara, and was 
the spiritual guide of Sultan Ahmad I. , 
and a renowned Mohammedan saint ; 
he retired to Sarkhej, and died there 
in 1445 ^^ the age of in, and this 
magnificent tomb and mosque were 
erected to his memor)'. The tomb is 
the largest of its kind in Guzerat, and 
has a great central dome and many 
smaller ones. Over the central door 
of the tomb is a Persian quatrain. It 
gives the date 1473 a.d. The shrine 
inside is octagonal, surrounded by 
finely-worked brass lattice-windows. 
The pavement is of coloured marbles, 
and the dome inside richly gilt ; from 
it hangs a long silver chain which once 
reached to the ground. The vast ad- 
joining Mosque is the perfection of 
elegant simplicity : it has ten cupolas 
supported on eighteen rows of pillars. 
The whole of these buildings, says Mr 
Fergusson, "are constructed without 
a single arch ; all the pillars have the 

1 Reigned 1459-1513 a.d. Bigara means 
with horn-like moustaches. 

usual bracket capitals of the Hindus, 
and all the domes are on the hori- 
zontal principle." S. of the saint's 
tomb is that of his disciple Shaikh 

Mahmud Bigara excavated the 
great tank of 17^ acres, surrounded it 
by flights of stone steps, constructed 
a richly-decorated supply-sluice, and 
built at its S.W. corner a splendid 
palace and harem (now in ruins). 

With the lake, the Sarkhej build- 
ings form the most beautiful group in 
Ahmedabad, They belong to the 
best period of the style, and have the 
special interest of being almost purely 
Hindu, with only the faintest trace of 
the Mohammedan style. Numbers of 
people bathe in the tank in spite of the 
alligators. A little S. of the lake is 
the tomb of Baba Ali Sher, a saint 
even more venerated than Ganj Bakhsh. 
It is small, ugly, and white-washed. 
Close by arethe rema ns ofMirza Khan 
Khanan's Garden of Victory, laid out 
in 1584 after his defeat of Muzaffar 
III., the last Ahmedabad king. In 
the 17th century .Sarkhej was so 
famous for indigo that in 1620 the 
Dutch established a factory there. 

Leaving Ahmedabad, the metre 
gauge railway crosses the Sabarmati 
river quite close to the Shahi-bagh on a 
fine bridge which carries the rails for 
both gauges and a footway on one side. 

At 314 m. Sabarmati junction 
station the narrow gauge continues 
N. to Delhi, whilst the broad gauge 
turns \V. for Wadhwanand Kathiawar 
(Rte. 11). There are also branch lines 
to the S.W. to Dholka {-i-;^ m.) pass- 
ing Sarkhej (above), and to the N.E. 
to Parantij (41 m.) and Idar (55 m.). 
The chief of Idar is Major-General 
M aharaja Sir Partab Singh, G. C. S. I. , 
K.C.B., A.D.C., uncle of the late 
Maharaja of Jodhpur. 

The country going N. is flat and 
well cultivated. The beautiful and 
celebrated well at Adalaj is in this 
direction, but can perhaps be more 
easily visited by road. 

353 m. Mebsana junction station. 
This is one of the most important 


railway centres in Guzerat, as it is the 
junction for three branch lines con- 
structed by the Gaekwar of Baroda. 
They are : (i) a line passing through 
Visnagax, Vadnagar, and Kheralu, 
total distance 27 m., general direction 
N.E. ; (2) a line to Patan, the his- 
toric capital of Guzerat, distance 24 
m. N.W. ; (3) a line to Viramgam, 
40 m. S.W., made to connect the 
Rajputana and Kathiawar metre-gauge 
lines of railway. (For Viramgam see 
p. 148). 

On these branch lines two places 
only need be noticed here. 

[Vadnagar, 21 m. N.E. (popula- 
tion 13,700). This place, once very 
important as the site of Anandpura, 
is stated to have been conquered 
by a Rajput prince from Ayodhya 
in 145 A.D. There are some 
interesting ruins, including a very 
iine Kirti Stambha gateway, and the 
Temple of Hatkeshvar Mahadeo is 
worth a visit. It is now the religious 
capital of the Nagar Brahmans, a most 
influential class of men in Guzerat and 
Kathiawar. It was long the chartered 
refuge of the Dhinoj Brahmans, a class 
of robbers who were protected and 
taxed by successive native govern- 
ments down to quite a recent date. 

Patan, 24 m. N.W. of Mehsana 
(population 31,500). The city stands 
on the site of the ancient Anhilvara, 
capital of the Hindu kings of Guzerat, 
which was taken by Mahmud of Ghazni 
on his way to attack the temple of 
Somnath in 1024 a.d. The site for 
generations has been a quarry whence 
beautiful carved stones have been 
carried to other places. It is still 
famous for its libraries of Jain MSS. 
There are no less than 108 Jain 
temples here.] 

366 m. Unjha station. A town in 
the Baroda territory, and the head- 
quarters of the Kadwakanbis, a pecu- 
liar caste of agriculturists. Marriages 
among them take place but once in 
eleven years, when every girl over forty 
days old must be married on one or 
other of the days fixed. Should no 
husband be found, a proxy bridegroom 

is sometimes set up and married to 
a number of girls who immediately 
enter a state of nominal widowhood 
until an eligible suitor presents himself, 
when a second marriage takes place. 

374 m. Sidlipur station (popula- 
tion 16,224). It stands on the steep 
northern bank of the Sarasvati river, 
and the scene in the bed of the stream 
during the day in the dry weather is 
specially gay. The place is of extreme 
antiquity, and contains the ruins of 
Rudra Mala, one of the most famous 
ancient temples in W. India. It was 
wrecked by Ala-ud-din Khilji in 1297 ; 
and much of it has been carried off 
since for building purposes. The stones 
are gigantic, and the carving superb, 
but very little of it remains. A row of 
small temples has been converted into 
a mosque. The more modern temples 
are very numerous. Kadi, the N. 
division of Baroda, in which Sidhpur 
is situated, is the only part of the whole 
of the Bombay Presidency in which 
poppies are allowed to be grown. 
The opium is manufactured in Sidhpur 
at the State Sto7'es. 

390 m. Palanpur station (R.), 
D.B. The chief town of a native 
state of that name, the residence of a 
Political Agent. [Railway N.W. to 
the military station of Deesa on the 
R. Banas 20 m. distant.] 

425 m. Abu Road station "*(■ (R.), 
D.B. This is a well-built, attractive- 
looking place. Mount Abu looks 
down on it from the N.W. 

[The excursion to Mount Abu is 
one of the most interesting in India, 
on account of the Jain temples. The 
ascent to it, 16^ m., is by a good road, 
now practicable for tongas — (cost 
Rs. 10, per seat Rs. 4), which should 
be ordered beforehand by telegram. 
An ekka for luggage costs Rs. 4.8 as. 
Rooms should be secured before- 
hand at the small Rajputana Hotel. 
The Dilwarra temples can be visited 
only in the afternoon — pass necessary 
from the Magt., Mount Abu. 
Though part of the Aravalli range, 
which runs up to Delhi, Abu is 
detached from that chain by a valley 




about 15 m. wide. The plateau at 
the top is about 14 m. by 4 m., and 
varies in height from 4000 to 5600 ft. 

Mount Abu '¥ is the headquarters 
of the Rajputana administration, and 
the residence of vakils or agents from 
a large number of native states. It 
is also a sanatorium for European 
troops and a hot-weather resort in the 
summer season. 

At it are the Residency, Church, 
Lawrence Asylum Schools for 
children of soldiers, Barracks, Cliih, 
Bazaar of shops, and a con- 
siderable number of private houses 
on the margin of the Gem Lake, 
a most charming piece of artificial 
water studded with islands, and over- 
hung by a curious rock that looks like 
a gigantic toad about to spring into 
the water. The Railway Schools for 
children are outside the station on the 
plateau. The surface of Mount Abu 
is very much broken up, so that the 
carriage roads are very few, but there 
are many bridle-roads and picturesque 
footpaths. The views over the plains 
from various points are exceedingly 
fine. An attack was made on the 
place on 21st August 1857 by muti- 
neers from the Erinpura force, but 
was beaten off. 

The DUwarra Temples, the great 
attraction of Mount Abu, are reached 
by a good bridle-path (2 m.). A pass 
to visit them is necessary. 

In spite of ill-usage and some very 
bad restoration in parts, the Dilwarra 
temples are very beautiful, and find a 
fitting framework in their nest of 
mango trees, with green fields of barley 
waving at their feet, and high hills 
surrounding them on all sides. 

" The more modem of the two 
temples was built by the samebrothers, 
Tejahpala and Vastupala, who erected 
the triple temple at Girnar.^ This one, 
we learn from inscriptions, was erected 
between I197 and 1247, andforminute 
delicacyof carving and beauty of detail 
stands almost unrivalled, even in the 
land of patient and lavish labour. It 
Is said to have taken fourteen years to 
build, and to have cost Rs. 18,000,000, 
» See p. 156. 

besides a large sum spent in levelling 
the hill on which it stands. 

" The other, built by another mer- 
chant prince, Vimala Sah, apparently 
about 1032 A. D. , is simpler and bolder, 
though still as elaborate as good taste 
would allow in any purely architec- 
tural object. Being one of the oldest 
as well as one of the most complete 
examples known of a Jain temple, its 
peculiarities form a convenient intro- 
duction to the style, and serve to illus- 
trate how complete and perfect it had 
already become when we first meet 
with it in India. 

" The principal object here, as else- 
where, is a cell lighted only from the 
door, containing a cross-legged seated 
figure of the saint to whom the temple 
is dedicated, in this instance Pars- 
wanatha. The cell terminates upwards 
in a sikra, or pyramidal spire-like 
roof, which is common to all Hindu 
and Jain temples of the age in the 
north of India. To this is attached a 
portico composed of forty-eight free- 
standing pillars; and the whole is 
enclosed in an oblong courtyard, about 
140 ft. by 90 ft., surrounded by a 
double colonnade of smaller pillars, 
forming porticoes to a range of fifty- 
five cells, which enclose it on all sides, 
exactly as they do in Buddhist viharas. 
In this case, however, each cell, in- 
stead of being the residence of a monk, 
is occupied by one of those cross- 
legged images which belong alike to 
Buddhism and Jainism. Here they 
are, according to the Jain practice, 
all repetitions of the same image of 
Parswanatha, and over the door of 
each cell, or on its jambs, are sculp- 
tured scenes from his life. The long 
beams, stretching from pillar to pillar, 
supporting the roof, are relieved by 
curious angular struts of white marble, 
springing from the middle of the pillar 
up to the middle of the beam " 
(Fergusson, ii. 36-) 

Achilghax is reached by following 
the bridle-path past Dilwarra forabout 
4 m. to the village of Uria, where 
there is a bungalow. From this a bad 
track turns right for another i m. to 
the first temple. It is surrounded by 



a wall, approached by a flight of steps, 
and beautifully ornamented. S.E. of 
this are other temples on higher ground 
overlooking the valley. The view is 
magnificent. These are the buildings 
seen on the right during the ascent 
from Abu Road. S. of the first 
temple is the Agni Kund, a tank 
famous in Hindu mythology. On the 
bank is a marble image of Pramar 
with his bow, and near him three 
large stone buffaloes. This figure is 
superior in style and treatment to 
most ; and the same may be said of 
the statues in other temples around 
the Hill of Abu, specially of the brass 
figure at Gaumukh alluded to below. 
The Achilghar group is perhaps as 
attractive as the more renowned 
temples at Dilwarra, though not com- 
parable in size or finish ; but the 
absence of modern work, and an air 
of antiquity, solidity, and repose, 
make them worthy of all admiration. 

Other paths lead to the following 
sites ; the beaten way should not be 
left without a guide or person who 
knows the country intimately. 

Gaumrikk, a beautifully situated 
temple 500 ft. down the S.E. slope, 
and 3 m. from the church. There is 
a brass figure facing the temple. 

Gautatna, on S. side of the hill, W. 
of Gaumukh ; 5 m. firom station. 
Lovely view. 

Rishi Krishna, at the foot of the 
hill, S.E. side, 14 m. from the Civil 
Station, is easily visited from Abu 
Road railway station. 

476 m. Erinpura Road for the 
cantonment of the Erinpura Irregular 
Force, lying 6 m. W. The Jodhpur 
legion there, in 1857, mutinied on 23rd 
August, but spared its officers. Two 
weeks later it defeated the troops of 
the Jodhpur State sent against them, 
and finally started for Delhi. It was 
intercepted on i6th Octoberat Narnaul 
(p. 145), and defeated by Colonel 
Gerrard, who lost his life in the 

25 m. S.E. of the railway station 
is the famous marble temple of Sadri, 
which is really at Rampura, 5 m. S. 
of Sadri, built by the Kumbo Rana 

(p. 94), and considered by Mr 
Fergusson to be the finest Jain temple 
in all India {Indian Architecture, p. 
240). It can be visited only by riding 
and with the assistance of the officer 
commanding at Erinpura. 

528 m. Marwax Railway junction 

Route to Hyderabad Sindh and 
excursion to Jodhpur. 

From this point the Jodhpur-Bikanir 
Railway branches E. to (44 m. ) Ltini 
Jn. , and then continues in a northerly 
direction. From Luni Junction a line 
310 m. long runs to Balotra Junction 
for the salt-works at Pachbad7-a 
{60 m.), and on through a desolate 
country to Hyderabad Sindh, in 15^ 
hours, and to (420 m. ) Korachi in 29^ 
hours — through journey from Bombay 
in 43 hours. A refreshment car is 
now attached to the trains on this 
line, which forms the most direct 
route between Bombay and Korachi. 

Many miles before reaching Jodhpur 
the Fort can be distinguished rising 
abruptly out of the bare plain. 

64 m. JODHPUR station, D.B., the 
capital of the Rajput state of that 
name, and of the country known as 
Marwar, is the residence of the chief 
and of a Resident, from whom it is 
necessary to ask permission to see the 

The State of Jodhpur or Marwar 
covers an area of 35,000 sq. m., with 
a population of 2,000,000; the revenue 
of the state amounts to 49 lakhs. The 
present chief is H.II. Maharaja Dhiraj 
Summair Singh. The state was foun- 
ded from Kanauj, after the defeat of the 
Rathors there in 1211. The City was 
built by Rao Jodha in 1459, and from 
that time has been the seat of govern- 
ment. Maharaja Udai Singh, of the 
Jodhpur House, and his grandson, 
Maharaja Gaj Singh, were leading 
nobles at the Court of the Emperors 
Akbar and Jahangir ; and Maharaja 
Jaswant Singh commanded the armies 
of Shah Jahan and Dara Shikoh against 
the forces of Princes Aurangzeb and 




Muradin 1658, anddied in Kabul, com- 
manding the Imperial Forces there. 

The city (population 79,000) stands 
on the S. end of a range of sandstone 
hills running E. and W., and is sur- 
rounded by a strong wall nearly 6 m. 
in extent, with seven gates, each bear- 
ing the name of the town to which it 
leads. Some of the houses and temples 
in the city are of stone richly carved. 
Amongst the most important buildings 
are the Temple in the Dhan Mandi 
(wheat market), and the Talaiti Mai, 
an old palace now used as the Jaswant 
Female Hospital. 

The Fort stands up boldly some 
400 ft. above the city and the plain, 
and presents a magnificent appear- 
ance. The rock is on every side 
scarped, but especially at the N. end, 
where the palace is built on the edge 
of a perpendicular cliff at least 120 
ft. high. Strong walls and numerous 
round and square towers encircle 
the crest of the hill. A modern 
engineered road winds up the neigh- 
bouring slopes to a massive gateway. 
Here is the first of seven barriers 
thrown across the zigzag ascent, having 
immense portals with separate guards 
at each. On the wall of the last are 
represented the hands of fifteen w ives 
of the Maharajas who underwent sail 
at their deaths. 

At the top of the rock are the 
highly interesting Old Palaces. There 
are courtyards within courtyards, all 
solidly built and surrounded by lattice 
windows of the most delicate and 
beautiful designs. Here in the 
Treasttry are the Maharaja's jewels, 
a wonderful collection, and well worth 
seeing. Some of the pearls, emeralds, 
and diamonds are unusually fine. 
The silver trappings for elephants 
and horses should also be noticed. 
The view from the palace windows 
is most interesting and extensive, 
and shows the town nestling under 
the huge rock. 

There was formerly great scarcity 
of water in the fort, and the women 
had daily to walk all the way to 
Mandor (see p. 135) to fetch it, but 
now it is brought up to the top of 
the fort in pipes. There is a well 

in the fort 450 ft. deep. The 
principal Tants ^ are— The Padam 
Sangar Tank in the N.W. part of 
the city, excavated out of the rock, 
but of small size. In the same quarter 
is the Rani Saugar, at the foot of the 
W. entrance into the fort with which 
it is connected by outworks, and is 
chiefly reserved for the garrison and 
ladies residing in the fort. The Culab 
Saiigar, to the E. , is handsomely built 
of stone, and is capacious, with a 
smaller one adjoining it. The Baiji 
ka Talao, S. of the city, is extensive, 
but not capable of holding water long. 
I m. W. is a lake called Akherajji 
ka Talao, which is a fine sheetof water, 
clear, deep, and extensive, resembling 
rather a natural lake than an artificial 
tank. 3 m. N. of the city is the 
Bal-Samand, a pretty tank, with a 
palace on the embankment and garden 
below, used by the Maharaja as a 
summer residence. The Canal from 
it to the city is a work of much 

The chief Sport near Jodhpur is 
pig-sticking, the pigs being preserved 
by the Maharaja. 

S.E. of the city are the Raikabagh 
Palace, where the late Chief resided, 
and the Jubilee Buildings or public 
ofiices near it, designed by Colonel Sir 
S. Jacob in the native style. They are 
extensive and beautiful, and deserve 

The Palace of the present chief is 
further S. at Ratanada. 

The Public Gardens, and fine stone 
houses of the officials, have now re- 
placed the barren tract that formerly 
bounded the city in the S. side. These, 
and many other improvements, are due 
to the late Prime Minister, Sir Partab 
Singh, now Maharaja of Idar. 

At about i^ m. outside the N.E. 
angle of the city is a suburb of 800 
houses called the Mabandir, or 
"great temple." The roof of the 
temple is supported by 100 pillars, 
and the interior is richly decorated. 

1 The Kalyan reservoir, 3 m. W. of the 
town, is the largest of all. 



This suburb is defended by a stone 
wall, with a few bastions. In it are 
two palaces, in one of which the 
spiritual adviser of the late Maharaja 
lives. The other is reserved for the 
spirit of his predecessor, whose bed 
is laid out in a state chamber, with 
a golden canopy over the pillow ; 
and has no living occupant. The 
priests, called Naths, have lost nearly 
all their former prestige. 

Mandor. This was the capital of 
Marwar before the foundation of 
Jodhpur. It is situated about 3 m. 
to the N. of Jodhpur. Here are 
the Chhatris or cenotaphs (much 
neglected) of the former rulers, 
erected on the spots where the 
funeral pyres consumed their remains. 
Some are fine massive buildings, — 
that dedicated to A jit Sitigh, d. 1724, 
being the largest and finest. These 
"proud monuments," as Colonel Tod 
calls them,^ aie built of "a close- 
grained freestone of a dark brown 
or red tint, with sufficient hardness 
to allow the sculptor to indulge his 
fancy. The style of architecture here 
is mixed, partaking both of the 
Shivite and the Buddhist, but the 
details are decidedly Jain, more 
especially the columns." Across a 
little stream not many yards from 
here is a pantheon called the Shrine 
of the joo,ooo,ooo gods containing a 
row of gigantic painted figures of 
divinities and heroes. At the end 
of the long building where these 
figures are arranged is a curious 
fresco of a sea-piece. Near this is 
the stone palace of Abhay Singh, 
who succeeded Ajit Singh in 1724. 
It is now quite deserted and given 
over to the bats. There are some 
fine bits of trellis screen- work -in 
the garden. 

125 m. W. of Jodhpur lies 
Jaisalmer, the capital of the Bhati 
Rajputs of the western desert, founded 
by Jaisal in 1156 a.d. It is famous 
for buildings constructed of yellow- 
brown stone, and for its handsome 
Jain temples. 

1 For full details see Colonel Tod's Rajas- 

128 m. Merta Road junction for 
Bikaner and Bhatinda. Merta, a 
fortified Marwar town of some im- 
portance, is some miles from the 
railway. Near this town was fought 
a decisive Dattlebet\\'eenthe Mahrattas 
and Rajputs, in which the former, 
with the treacherous assistance of a 
large body of Pindaris under Amir 
Khan, inflicted a crushing defeat 
upon the latter. 

Excursion to Bikaner. 

35 m. Nagaur. A fortified town of 
importance in Marwar, pop. 56,000. 
The crenellated wall, houses, and 
groups of temples make an agreeable 
break in the monotonous desert. 

103 m. Bikaner, the capital of the 
state of that name. It was founded 
by Bika, sixth in descent from Jodha 
of the royal house of Jodhpur. The 
state has an area of upwards of 22,300 
sq. m., and a population of about 
584,000. The ruling chief is H.H. 
Maharaja Sir Ganga Sin^h, G.C. I.E., 
K.C.S.I., A.D.C. A^arge part of 
the state is desert, and the great depth 
(150 ft. to 300 ft.) at which water is 
found renders irrigation impossible, 
and the country is much subject to 
famines, which have been very 
frequent and severe during late years. 
The chief wealth of the people is 
their flocks and herds, which feed 
on the bushes and scanty herbage. 

For a visit to Bikaner the Private 
Secretary to the Maharaja must be 
addressed. The Maharaja's old palace 
itself is picturesque and imposing, 
viewed from a distance. But, like 
most Hindu palaces, its interior 
consists for the most part of a 
mass of small irregular suites of 
rooms, due to the custom which 
forbids a chief to live in the apart- 
ments of his predecessor, though the 
Ganga Nawas built by the present 
Maharaja is a fine structure. Some 
of the rooms are lined with willow- 
pattern plates and tiles set inlhe walls ; 
there is a fine collection of arms and 
jewels in it. The modern Lalghar 




palace lies 2 m. from the city. The 
town is surrounded by a wall, and con- 
tains several houses with handsome 
fronts of carved stonework, belonging 
to wealthy Jain merchants. Outside 
the town are a number of very deep 
wells constructed as works of charity. 
One of these should be seen and 
its depth viewed by a beam of light 
reflected from a mirror. At Devi 
Kund on the E. side are the chhatris 
(cenotaphs) of the Bikaner chiefs. 

From Bikaner a branch line now 
runs on 200 m. to Bhatinda (201 m.) 
(see p. 146), through (113 m.) Surat- 
garh, and (144 m.) Hanumangarh. 

201 m. Kuchaman Road. From 
here a branch of the C.I, Railway 
runs on 20 m. to Phalera. 

216 m. Sambliar station. 

The Sambhar Lake lies on the 
border of the Jaipur and Jodhpur 
states. The surrounding country is 
arid and sterile, being composed of 
rocks abounding in salt, and belong- 
ing to the Permian system ; and the 
salt of the lake comes from the 
washing of these rocks. The bottom 
is tenacious black mud resting on 
loose sand. The lake is 21 m. long 
from E. to W. after the rains, and 
the average breadth at that time is 
5 m. from N. to S., and the depth, 
I m. from the shore, is only z\ ft. 
The water dries up from October to 
June, and leaves about an inch of 
salt in the enclosures, which are con- 
structed only where the black mud 
is of considerable thickness. 

From the 17th century the salt 
was worked by the Jaipur and 
Jodhpur Governments conjointly till 
1870, when the British Government 
became lessee of both states. The 
works are on the E. and N. edges 
of the lake. The average yearly out- 
turn is from 300,000 to 400,000 
tons of salt, and the cost of storage 
and extraction is fd. for every 82^ 
lbs. Wlien the salt is formed men 
and women of the Barrar caste wade 
through the mud and lift it in large 

cakes into baskets, in which it is 
brought to the dep6ts on the lake 

221 m. Phalera station N. junction 
of C.I. and J.B. railways (p. 139).] 

Proceeding from Marwar junction 
(p. 133) towards Ajmer, after leaving, 

561 m. Haripur station, D.B., the 
line engages in a rocky ascent which 
continues to close to 

582 m. Beawar station, D.B., an 
important town, and reaches 

615 m. AJMER junction station, * 
D.B. Lat. 26° 87' Long. 74° 44'. [From 
this place a line runs S. to Nasirabad, 
Chitorgarh, Neemuch,Ruilam, Indore, 
Mhow, and Khandwa (see Route 8).] 

Ajmer, the key to Rajputana 
(population 86,000), is the capital 
of an isolated British district in the 
Rajput states. The district com- 
prises two tracts known as Ajmer 
and Merwara (population 447,000). 
The Agent of the Governor- General ^ 
for Rajputana, whose headquarters 
are at Abu, is ex-officio Chief Com- 
missioner of Ajmer. The city is of 
great antiquity and celebrity, and is 
situated in a valley, or rather basin, 
at the foot of the rocky and 
picturesque Taragarh Hill (3000 ft. 
above the sea). It is surrounded 
by a stone wall with five gateways, 
and is well built, containing many 
fine houses of stone with ornamental 
fa9ades. Ajmer was founded in 
145 A.D. by Ajaypal, one of the 
Chauhan kings. It was sacked in 
1024, by Mahmud of Ghazni, on 
his way to Somnath in Kathiawar, 
taken again by the Mohammedans 
in 1200, and finally conquered by 
Akbar in 1556. 

The memory of the Ajmer Chishti 
was held in particular respect by 
the great Akbar, who was accustomed 
to pay a yearly visit to his shrine. 
Several of these pilgrimages were 
made on foot from Agra and other 

1 At present the Hon. E. G.CoIvin, C.S.I. 



places. The road from Fatehpur- 
Sikri to Ajmer was so much used 
by Akbar that he caused " Kos 
Minars" (masonry columns answer- 
ing to our milestones) to be erected 
along the route. Several of these 
minars can still be seen from the 

Thomas Coryat, in the 17th 
century, walked from Jerusalem to 
Ajmer, and spent £2, los. on the 
journey. Sir Thomas Roe, the 
Ambassador of James I., gives an 
account of the city in 1615-16. In 
about 1720 Ajit Singh Rathor seized 
the city, which was recovered by 
Muhammad Shah, and made over 
by him to Abhay Singh. His son, 
Ram Sing, called in the Mahrattas, 
under Jay Apa Sindhia, who, how- 
ever, was murdered, and in 1756 
Ajmer was made over to Bijai 
Singh, cousin of Ram Singh. In 
1787 the Rathors recovered Ajmer, 
but after their defeat at Patan had 
to surrender it again to Sindhia. 
On the 2Sth of June 1818 Daulat 
Rao Sindhia made it over by treaty 
to the English. 

Ajmer is the headquarters of 
about 1800 miles of metre-gauge 
railway worked by the B.B. and C.I. 
Railway Company. Near the railway 
station are very extensive workshops 
employing many thousand Hindu and 
Mohammedan workmen, who accom- 
plish their tasks with a wonderfully 
small amount of European super- 

The Residency is on the brink of 
the beautiful artificial lake called 
the Ana Saugar, constructed by 
Raja Ana in the middle of the 
nth century, and lying N. of the 
city and railway station. It forms 
the source of the river Luni, which 
finally unites with the Delta of the 
Indus. The Emperor Shah Jahan 
erected a noble range of marble 
pavilions on the embankment. They 
were long the only public offices in 
Ajmer, and the chief one in which 
the emperor often reposed was used 
as the official residence of the Com- 
missioner. They have now all been 

restored by direction of Lord Curzon. 
The walk along the band or embank- 
ment (which is public) is very delight- 
ful. To the N. is the broad expanse 
of the lake., and to the S. under the 
band is the Public Garden. The 
city is supplied with water from the 
new lake, the Foy Saugar, formed 
by an embankment thrown across 
the valley 5 m. higher up. 

Akbar's Palace is outside the city 
proper, to the E., not far from 
the railway station. The entrance 
gate is very fine. It was once an 
arsenal, and then used as a tehsil build- 
ing, and is now being restored. 

The mosque, called the Arhai-dm- 
ka-jhompra, or ' ' The Hut of two 
and a half Days," is just outside 
the S. city gate beyond the Dargah. 
It was built by Altamsh or Kutab- 
ud-din about 1200 from the materials 
of a Jain temple. The name is de- 
rived from a tradition that it was 
built supernaturally in two and a 
half days. Modern archaeologists 
assert that it was probably erected 
by the same architect who built the 
Kutab Mosque near Delhi. It is un- 
certain whether any of the un- 
doubtedly Jain pillars of which the 
mosque is built were left in situ. 
Their ornamentation is very complex, 
no two being alike. The mosque is 
sadly ruined, and only the screen 
of arches (200 ft. long), and part 
of the mosque proper behind them, 
now remains, the whole of the other 
three sides of the enclosure having 
disappeared. The mosque was very 
much larger than that at the Kutab 
near Delhi (p. 208), the measure- 
ments of the exterior being 272 x 
264 ft., and of the interior quad- 
rangle 200 ft. X 175 ft. The 
mosque proper measures 259 ft. x 
57 ft., and has ten domes in the roof 
borne by one hundred and twenty-four 
columns. The screen in front of it 
is a work well deserving attention ; 
it is the glory of the mosque, and 
consists of seven arches very similar 
to those with which Altamsh adorned 




the courtyard of the Kutab. In the 
centre the screen rises to a height 
of 56 ft. and at tlie corners above 
this arch rise two short minarets with 
Tughra inscriptions. Nothing can 
exceed the taste with which the 
Kufic and Tughra inscriptions are 
interwoven with the more purely 
architectural decorations and the con- 
structive lines of the design. 

The bridle-path to Taragarh passes 
this mosque, and by a steep ascent 
reaches the summit in 2 m. The 

burial-place of Khwajah Muin-ud-din 
Chislui, who was called Aftab-i- 
Mulk-i-Hind, the Sun of the Realm 
of India. He died in 633 a.h. = 
1235 A.D. He was the son of Khwajah 
'Usman, and was called Chishti from 
a quarter in the city of Sanjar in 
Persia. Of this family of saints and 
courtiers, Farid-ud-din is buried at 
Pak-patan, in the Panjab ; Nizam- 
ud-din, Kutab-ud-din, and Nasir-ud- 
din at or near Delhi ; Shaik Salim 
at Fatehpur-Sikri near Agra ; and 

The Arhai-din-ka-jhompra Mosque at Ajmer. 

view from the top is very fine ; 
but the ascent is somewhat trying 
and had better be made in the 
early morning. There is also an 
interesting graveyard of Moham- 
medan martyrs, who fell in the 
assault of the fort on the top. 

One of the principal points of in- 
terest in Ajmer is the Dargah, which 
was commenced by the Emperor Alt- 
amsh and completed by Humayun. 
It is venerated alike by Moham- 
medans and Hindus, and derives 
its extreme sanctity from being the 

Bandah Nawaz at Gulbargah in the 

Woollen socks are supplied to 
be worn over one's boots before 
entering the Dargah. Passing 
through a lofty gateway, a court- 
yard is entered in which are two 
very large iron cauldrons. Rich 
pilgrims occasionally pay for a 
feast of rice, ghi, sugar, almonds, 
raisins, and spices to be cooked 
in one of these, the contents 
being ladled out and finally 
scrambled for by the attendants of 



the shrine and various families 
connected with it. On the right 
of the courtyard is a mosque 
built by Akbar, with drums and 
candlesticks from Chitor presented 
by that Emperor ; and further on 
in the inner court is a white marble 
mosque, lOO ft. long, and with 
eleven arches to the front, built 
by Shah Jahan; a Persian inscrip- 
tion runs along the whole front 
under the eaves. In the centre of 
the second court and opposite the 
marble mosque is the Tomb of the 
Saint, a square building of white 
marble surmounted by a dome. It has 
two entrances, one of which is spanned 
by a silver arch. S. of it in a small 
enclosure with well-cut marble lattices 
is the Mazar or ' ' grave " of Hafiz 
Jamal, daughter of the saint, and W. 
of it, close by her tomb, is that of 
Chimmi Begam, daughter of Shah 
Jahan. All these are considered too 
sacred to be approached by any one 
except Mohammedans. There are 
some very fine trees in the enclosure. 

At the S. end of the Dargah 
enclosure is the Jhalra, a deep tank 
partly cut out of the rock and lined 
by steep flights of irregular steps. 
As at Fatehpur Sikri, the doors of 
the shrine are covered with votive 

S.E. of the city is the Mayo College 
for the education of young Rajput 
princes, opened by Lord Northbrook 
in 1875. Il^ contains about a hundred 
and seventy boys, between the ages of 
eight and twenty-one years. The 
central building is a handsome white 
marble pile : in front of it is a statue 
of Lord Mayo. The subsidiary build- 
ings have been erected by various 
States as hostels for the pupils from 
each state. Perhaps nowhere else in 
India is so much good modern 
native architecture to be seen as 
here. The park round the buildings 
comprises 200 acres. 

[The sacred Lake of Puslikar lies 
about 7 m. W. of Ajmer. 

The road skirts the W. shore of 
the Ana Saugar, and at 3 m. passes 
the village of Nausar, in a gap in 

the hills which divide the Ana Saugar 
from the Pushkar Lake. This 
striking pass through the hills is 
I m. long. Pushkar, the most sacred 
lake in India, lies in a narrow 
valley overshadowed by fine rocky 
hills, and is said to be of miraculous 
origin, marking the spot hallowed 
by the great sacrifice of Brahma. 
Early in the Middle Ages it became 
one of the most frequented objects 
of pilgrimage, and is still visited 
during the great Mela (fair) of 
October and November by about 
100,000 pilgrims. On this occasion 
is also held a great mart for horses, 
camels, and bullocks. 

Although the ancient temples were 
destroyed by Aurangzeb, the five 
modern ones with their ghats on the 
margin of the lake are highly pictur- 
esque. That to Brahma is usually 
said to be the only one in India ; 
but there are smaller shrines to 
Brahma at several old temples. 
Over the gateway is the figure of 
the hans, or "goose," of Brahma. 
The D.B. is in a native house on 
the lake, from which there is a good 

658 m. Naraina station. The 
village with a large tank is seen 
from the railway. It is the head- 
quarters of the Dadupanthi sect of 
reformers. Their religion, ethics, 
and teaching are embodied in a mass 
of poetry written by one Dadu and 
his disciples. A division of the sect 
is composed of military monks, who 
serve in the armies of the Jaipur and 
neighbouring states. 

664 m. Plialera junction (p. 136). 

A direct chord line, 133 m. long, now 
runs from Phalera to Rewari (p. 145). 

1* 699 m. JAIPUR station * 
(population, 136,000). Amber is the 
ancient capital, Jaipur the modern ; 
it is the residence of the Maharaja, 
whose state covers nearly 15,600 sq. 
m., with a population of 2,800,000, 
and yields a revenue of 66 lacs, and 
the headquarters of the Resident. 
The present chief, who is head of 
the Kachhwaha clan of Rajputs, 




is H.H. Maharaja Dhiraj Sawai Sir 
Madho Singh, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., 
Jaipur derives its name from the 
famous Maharaja Sawai ^ Jai Singh 
II. (1699- 1 743), who founded it in 
1728. This chief stood by the son 
of Prince Azim Shah in the struggle 
for the Empire on the death of 
Aurangzeb, and drove the Mughals out 
of Jaipur ; he died in 1743 after a very 
long reign. The town is surrounded 
on all sides except the S. by rugged 
hills, crowned with forts. That at 
the end of the ridge overhanging the 
city on the N.W. is the Nahargarh, 
or "Tiger fort." The face of the 
ridge is scarped and inaccessible on 
the S. or city side, while on the N. 
it slopes towards Amber. 

A masonry, crenellated wall, with 
seven gateways, encloses the whole 
city, which is the pleasant healthy 
capital of one of the most prosperous 
independent states of Rajputana, and 
is a very busy and important com- 
mercial town, with large banks and 
other trading establishments. It is 
a centre of native manufactures, 
especially those of many kinds of 
jewellery and of coloured printed 
cloths and muslins. The enamel- 
work done here is the best in India, 
and the cutting and setting of garnets 
and other stones found in the state is 
an important industry. The crowded 
streets and bazaars are most lively 
and picturesque. The city is re- 
markable for the width and regularity 
of its streets. It is laid out in rect- 
angular blocks, and is divided by 
cross streets into six equal portions. 
The main streets are 1 1 1 ft. wide, 
and are paved, and the city is lighted 
by gas." 

Passes to view the Maharaja's 
Palace and stables and the old 
Palace of Amber must be obtained 
from the Secretary to His High- 

The Maharaja's Palace, with its 
and pleasure 

beautiful gardens 

1 Sawai means i}, and was a compli- 
mentary title given to Jai Singh by the 
Emperor of Delhi. 

2 See Letters 0/ Marque by Rudyard 

grounds \ m. long, adorned with 
fountains, fine trees, and flowering 
shrubs, occupies the centre of the 
city and covers \ of its area. The 
whole is surrounded by a high em- 
battled wall, built by Jai Singh, but 
many of the buildings included in it 
are of a later date. The Chandra 
Mahal, which forms the centre of the 
great palace, is a lofty and striking 
building, seven stories high, looking 
over the gardens. On the ground- 
floor is the Diwan-i-Khas, or private 
hall of audience, built partly of white 
marble, and remarkable even in 
India for its noble simplicity. On 
the top story there is a magnificent 
view over the centre city. To the 
left are the gaudily-furnished modern 
buildings containing the apartments 
of the Maharaja and his courtiers and 
the zenana. 

E. of the Chandra Mahal is the 
famous Jantra or Observatory, the 
largest of the five built by the 
celebrated royal astronomer, Jai 
Singh, at Benares, Muttra, Delhi, 
Ujjain, and here. It is not under 
cover, but is an open courtyard full 
of curious and fantastic instruments 
invented and designed by him. It 
was constructed between 1718-1734 
A.D., and has been recently restored 
by the Maharaja of Jaipur through 
the agency of Lieutenant A. Garret, 
R.E., and Pandit Chandradhar Guleri, 
who have published a most interest- 
ing monograph upon it. The principal 
instruments are first on the W., the 
two circular Ram Yantras for read- 
ing altitudes and azimuths, with 
twelve horizontal sectors of stone 
radiating from a round vertical rod ; 
then E. of these, the twelve Rashiva- 
layas for determining celestial latitudes 
and longitudes ; and next, the great 
Samrat Yantra or gnomon, 90 feet 
high, situated between two graduated 
quadrants, with sextants in a chamber 
outside them. The gnomon's shadow 
thrown by the sun touches the W. 
quadrant at 6 A.M., gradually de- 
scends this at the rate of 13 ft. per 
hour till noon, and finally ascends the 
E. quadrant. To the N. of this is a 
Dakhshina Bhitti Yantra or meridional 



wall, near which is a large raised 
platform known as Jai Singh's seat, 
and near it two brass circles, one of 
which is a map of the celestial sphere. 
Between these and the Ram Yantras 
are a number of other instruments 
known as the Krand Yantra, the 
Kapali, and the Chakra Yantra, the 
last being a graduated brass circle 
corresponding to the modern equa- 
torial. For further details regarding 
the Observatory, reference must be 
made to the above publication. 

Adjoining the Observatory are the 
royal Stables, built round large court- 
yards ; and beyond them is the Hawa 
Mahal, or Hall Of the Winds, built 
by Madho Singh I., a fantastic and 
elaborate building, decorated with 
stucco, and overlooking one of the 
chief streets of the town. 

In the central court of the palace 
are the Raj Printing Office, the Clock 
Tower, and the Armoury. To the 
E. of the Diwan-i-'Am is the Parade 
Ground, girt with open colonnades, 
behind which are the Law Courts. 

Near the chief entrance rises the 
Ishwari Minar Swarga Sul, the 
"Minaret piercing heaven," built by 
Raja Ishwari Singh to overlook the 

The Public Garden, outside the 
city wall, is one of the finest in 
India, 36 acres in extent, and was 
laid out by Dr de Fabeck at a cost 
of about Rs. 400, 000. Attached to 
it are a fine menagerie and aviary. 
These gardens cost the Maharaja 
Rs. 16,000 a year to keep up. There 
is a fine statue of Lord Mayo in 
them, and in the centre is the 
Albert Hall, a sumptuous modern 
building, of which the Prince of 
Wales laid the first stone in 1876. 
It contains a large Darbar Hall and 
a beautiful museum — an Oriental 
South Kensington, suitably housed. 
The collections of modern works of art 
and industry, and also of antiquities, 
from every part of India, are very 
complete and highly interesting. 
There is a fine view from the top. 

The Mayo Hospital beyond the 

gardens is of rough white stone, 
with a clock tower. It can house 
150 patients. 

The Church is on the way to the 
railway station, a little to the W. of 
the road. 

At the School of Art, a handsome 
modern building, are first-rate techni- 
cal and industrial classes for teaching 
and reviving various branches of 
native artistic industry, such as metal 
and enamel-work, embroidery, weav- 
ing, etc. 

The Maharaja's College. — In Jai- 
pur public instruction has made 
greater progress than in the other 
states of Rajputana. The College, 
opened in 1844 with about 40 pupils, 
had in 1902 and 1903 a daily class 
attendance of 1200, and compares 
favourably with similar institutions of 
the kind in British India. It is affi- 
liated to the Allahabad University. 

The Chhatris, or cenotaphs of the 
Maharajas at Gethur are just outside 
the N. E. city wall. They are in 
well-planted gardens, the trees of 
which are full of solemn-looking, 
grey-headed monkeys. The first 
seen on entering is Jai Singh's 
Chhatri, the finest of all. It is a 
dome of the purest white marble, 
supported on twenty beautifully 
carved pillars rising from a sub- 
stantial square platform, and pro- 
fusely ornamented with scenes from 
Hindu mythology. S.E. of Jai 
Singh's Chhatri is that of his son 
Madho Singh, a dome rising from the 
octagon on arches reversed. The 
only ornaments are carved peacocks. 
W. of this chhatri is that of Pratap 
Singh, his son, completed by the late 
ruler Ram Singh. It is of white 
marble brought from Alwar. 

The water which supplies Jaipur 
is drawn from a stream on the W. of 
the city, running into the Chambal. 
The pumping-station and high-level 
reservoirs are nearly opposite the 
Chandpol Gate. 

An expedition for the sake of the 
view may be made by elephant or on 




foot to the Shrine of the Sun God at 
Galta, an uninteresting building 
350 ft. above the plain, and built on 
a jutting rocky platform, on the 
summit of a range of hills, about 
i^ m. to the E. of Jeypore, of which 
by far the finest view is obtained 
from this point. The way the sandy 
desert is encroaching on the town 
should be noticed. It has caused one 
large suburb to be deserted, and other 
houses and gardens are going to ruin. 

The excursion to Amber (5 m.), 
founded in the ilth century, and the 
capital of Jaipur till 1728, now 
ruined and deserted, is most interest- 
ing, and will occupy a whole morning. 
A refreshment room has now been 
opened here. 

On the left uf the road a line 
of fortified hills is passed ; these 
culminate in the great Fort 400 ft. 
above the old palace, connected with 
it and built for its defence. The 
picturesque situation of Amber at 
the mouth of a rocky mountain 
gorge, in which nestles a pretty lake, 
has attracted the admiration of all 
travellers, including Jacquemont and 
Heber. It was founded by the Minas, 
and was flourishing in 967. In 1037 
it was taken by the Rajputs, who held 
it till it was deserted. 

The old Palace, begun by Man 
Singh,' 1600, ranks architecturally 
second only to Gwalior, though 
instead of standing on a rocky 
pedestal it lies low on the slope of 
the hill, picturesquely rooted on its 
rocky base and reflected in the lake 
below. The interior arrangements 
are excellent. The suites of rooms 
form vistas opening upon striking 
views. It is a grand pile, and 
though it lacks the fresh and vigorous 
stamp of Hindu originality which 
characterises earlier buildings, the 
ornamentation and technical details 
are free from feebleness. 

1 Man Singh was the nephew of Raja 
Bhagwan Das, the friend of Akbar, and the 
first among the great Rajput chiefs to give a 
daughter in marriage to the Mughal Imperial 
House. (See p. 183.) 

Entered by a fine staircase from a 
great courtyard is the Diwan-i-'Am, 
a noble specimen of Rajput art, with 
a double row of columns supporting a 
massive entablature, above which are 
latticed galleries. Its magnificence 
attracted the envy of Jahangir, and 
Mirza Raja,' to save his great work 
from destruction covered it with 

To the right of the Diwan-i-'Am 
steps is a small temple where a goat 
offered each morning to Kali preserves 
the tradition of a daily human sacrifice 
in pre-historic times. 

On a higher terrace are the Raja's 
own apartments, entered by a splendid 
gateway covered with mosaics and 
sculptures, erected by Jai Singh, over 
which is the Sohag Matidtr, a small 
pavilion with beautiful latticed win- 
dows. Through this are further 
marvels — a green and cool garden 
with fountains, surrounded by palaces, 
brilliant with mosaics and marbles. 
That on the left is the /ai Mandir, or 
Hall of Victory, adorned by panels 
of alabaster, some of which are inlaid, 
and others are adorned with flowers 
in alto-relievo, "the roof glittering 
with the mirrored and spangled work 
for which Jaipur is renowned." 
Near the Jai Mandir a narrow passage 
leads down to the bathing- rooms, all 
of pale creamy marble. Above is the 
Jas Mandir, "which literally glows 
with bright and tender colours and 
exquisite inlaid work, and looks 
through arches of carved alabaster 
and clusters of slender columns upon 
the sleeping lake and the silent 
mountains. " 

At the N.E. angle is a balcony, 
whence there is a fine view over the 
town of Amb^r and the plain beyond 
to the hill which overlooks Ramgarh. 
Some chhatris outside the wall are 
those of chieftains who died before 
Jai Singh II. In the palace to the 
right is a chamber on the right wall 
of which are views of Ujjain, and on 
the left views of Benares and Muttra. 
That opposite the Jai Mandir is 
called the Sukh Niwas, "Hall of 

y Raja Jai Singh I., nephew of Man 
Singh, was known Dy this title. 



Pleasure." In the centre of the 
narrow dark room is an opening for 
a stream to flow down into the groove 
or channel which runs through the 
hall. The doors are of sandal-wood 
inlaid with ivory. 

A steep path leads down to the 
IChizri Gate, beyond which, as it leads 
to one of the forts, Kantalgarh, no 
one is allowed to pass without an 
order. At the bottom of this path 
there is a temple to Thakurji, or 
Vishnu. It is white and beautifully 
carved, and just outside the door 
is a lovely square pavilion ex- 
quisitely carved with figures represent- 
ing Krishna sporting with the Gopi 

Amber formerly contained many 
fine temples, but most are now in 

[Sanganer, about 7 m. to the S. of 
Jaipur, also deserves a visit, and may 
be reached by a nice drive past the 
Residency and the Moti Dongari, or 
by the railway from Jaipur to Siwai 
Madhopur (p. 122). 

The road into the town is through 
two ruined Tripuliyas, or triple gate- 
ways of three storeys, about 66 ft. 
high. The second story has an 
open stone verandah, supported by 
four pillars on either side of the 
archway. On the right, ascending 
the street, is a small temple sacred 
to Kalyanji or Krishna, the door 
of which is handsomely carved. 
Opposite is a temple to Sitaram, 
with a pillar, 6 ft. high, of white 
Makrana marble called a Kirti 
Khambh. On the four sides are 
Brahma with four faces, Vishnu, 
cross-legged, holding the lotus, Shiva 
holding a cobra in his right hand 
and a trident in his left, with Par- 
vati beside him and Ganesh. 

Higher up, on the left, are the 
ruins of the Old Palace, which must 
once have been a vast building. N. 
by E. from this is the Sanganer 
Jain Temple with three courts, and 
finely-carved marble work. Visitors 
are not allowed to enter the 

755 m. Bandikui junction station(R.) 
Here are railway workshops, church 
institute, and a considerable station 
for railway employes. The line for 
Bharatpur Jttnction, Miittra Junction 
and .4^r« branches off E. (seeRoutei2). 

792 m. ALWAR (Ulwar) station,* 
D.B., is the capital of the native 
state of that name, founded only in 
177 1, and known formerly as Macheri. 
The present chief, by race a Naruka 
Rajput, is H.H. Maharaja Siwai 
Jai Singh. It has an area of 3024 
sq. m., a population of 828,000, 
and a revenue of about 27^ lakhs. 
The dress of the people is highly 
picturesque. The men often carry 
long matchlocks or staves, and the 
sarhis of the women are embroidered 
and of bright colours. 

The City {58,000 inhabitants) is 
the residence of the Chief and of a 
Political Agent. It is beautifully 
situated on rising ground, dominated 
by the fort, which crowns a conical 
rock 900 ft. high, and is backed by 
a range of rugged mountains. A 
shady road between fields and native 
houses, and passing left the small 
Roman Catholic Church, and then the 
pretty Scottish Mission Church, and 
the Company Bagh, leads in i m. 
from the railway station to the chief 
of five vaulted gateways which pierce 
the city wall. At the gate is a 
formidable-looking brass gun. In- 
side an irregular whitewashed street 
stretches to the high fort at the end. 
About half-way along it, at the 
junction of four ways, the streets 
are spanned by a four-sided vaulted 
archway called theTripuliya, support- 
ing the tomb of Tarang Sultan, d. 
1350, brother of Feroz Shah. 

At the end of the street is a temple 
of Jagannath, and leaving it (left) and 
passing round and up a slight incline 
the Royal Palace is reached. Per- 
mission to visit it must be ob- 
tained from one of the members 
of Council, or through the Political 
Agent. It is a group of buildings 
partly detached, and built in a 
variety of styles, separated from the 




base of the mountains by a Tank. 
In the centre of the wall of the 
large court of the palace is an elegant 
building called an Aftabi, and two 
chhatris or cenotaphs of marble, 
adorned with carved lattice-work. 
The darbar-room is 70 ft. long, with 
marble pillars. The handsome Shish 
Mahal overlooks the tank. Besides 
other state rooms, the palace contains 
a valuable Library, kept in excellent 
order, and rich in Oriental manu- 
scripts. The chief ornament of the 
collection is a matchless Gulistan, 
which cost about ;,^i 0,000 to pro- 
duce ; it is beautifully illustrated with 
miniature paintings, the joint work 
of three men. The MS. was written 
by Agha Sahib, the miniatures were 
painted by a native of Delhi, and 
the scrolls are by a Panjabi ; it was 
finished in 1848 by order of Maharao 
Raja Bani Singh. Another beautiful 
book is the Dah Pand, written by 
Rahim 'ullah, in 1864. 

The Toskah Khana,ot Jewel House, 
is rich in magnificent jewels, shown 
only when both the Prime Minister 
and the Political Agent are present. 
There is an emerald cup of large size, 
and also one said to be a ruby, some 
curious cameos, and massive silver 
trappings for horses and elephants. 

The Armoury contains a splendid 
cellection of sabres and other weapons 
finely wrought and finished and 
studded with jewels ; also fifty hand- 
some swords with hilts of gold. One 
or two are from Persia, but most of 
them were made at Alwar, and the 
imitation of the Ispahan steel is 
excellent. The arms of Bani Singh ^ 
could only be worn by a man of 
great stature. His coat of mail 
weighs 16^ lbs., and his sword 5 lbs. 
They are studded with large diamonds. 
A Persian helmet and cuirass of the 
1 6th century, and large enough for 
a man 7 ft. high, are both perforated 
with small bullets. The Maharaja 
resides at the Moti Dongari, I m. to 
the S. of Alwar, surrounded by fine 
gardens, and fitted with every kind of 
electrical appliance. 

The Palace Tank, with the buildings 
1 Ruled, X81S-1857. 

that surround it, and the fort in the 
background, forms one of the most 
picturesque spots in India. To the 
E. are the palace and zenana ; on 
the W. are a number of temples to 
Vishnu ; on the N. are smaller 
temples and shrines, shrouded by 
trees ; and raised upon the centre 
of a platform on the S. is the 
cenotaph or mausoleum of Bakh- 
tawar Singh,^ a pavilion with white 
marble pillars. In the centre of 
the pavement are four small feet cut 
out in the marble, and at one corner 
is a gun, at the next a dagger, and 
at the third a sword and shield. 
Visitors who care to enter are re- 
quired to take off their shoes. 

Myriads of rock-pigeons fly about 
these sacred precincts, making the 
ground blue when they alight, and 
numbers of stately peacocks strut un- 
molested about the marble pavements. 
The State Statoles are well worth 
a visit. There are 500 horses, some 
of them very fine. 

In the city the house may be 
visited in which the Elephant 
Carriage is kept. It was built by 
Bani Singh, and is used by the Raja 
at the Festival of the Dasahra, It is 
a car two storeys high, and will 
carry fifty persons. It is usually 
drawn by four elephants. 

There is nothing to see in the 
Fort, but if the visitor desires to 
ascend for the purpose of enjoying 
the magnificent view over the valley 
and adjoining hills, he should do so 
in the early morning. This ascent 
is steep and is paved with slippery 
and rugged stones. At about 150 ft. 
up there is a fine Ficus indica and a 
hut, and here the steepest part of 
the ascent begins. It is called the 
llathi Mora, "Elephant's turn," 
liecause those animals cannot go 
beyond this point. There is another 
hut further up at a place called 
Ghazi Mard. It takes about thirty- 
eight minutes to walk from that place 
to the gate of the fort. The scarp 
of the rock is 27 ft. high. Inside 
the fort is a large ruined mansion 

1 See Fergusson's Indimn Architecture, 
ii. 168. This chief ruled ^^81-1815. 


of Raghunath, formerly governor of 
the place. On the left hand is a 
cannon 12 ft. long. Thence to the 
inner fort is icx) yds. further up. 

The Tomb of Fateh Jang, a 

minister of Shah Jahan, near the 
station on the Bharatpur road, is 
a conspicuous object with an immense 
dome, and bears the date, in Nagri, 
1547 ; the outside is poor in design 
compared with the interior, which is 
good. The building possesses a con- 
siderable amount of fine plasler-work 
in relief, with flat surface patterns and 
rectangular mouldings. 

I m. N. of the city is the Jail, 
and 2 m. to the S. is the Artillery 
Ground and Top Khana, "artillery 
arsenal." On returning, a visit may 
be paid to a ravine, where at the 
distance of i m. is the chhatri of 
Pratap Singh, and a spring of water, 
as also temples to Shiva, Sitaram, 
and Karanji, and a small monument 
to the Queen of Pratap Singh, who 
became sati. 

Ahvar and the neighbourhood are 
supplied with water from the artificial 
Lake of Siliserh, 6 m. S.W. of the 
city, a charming spot. There is a 
palace of Bani Singh on the hill and an 
unfinished water palace on the lake. 

There is a great deal of game, 
including tigers, in the neighbour- 
hood of Alwar, but the tigers are 
strictly preserved. 

20 m. E. of Alwar, and adjoin- 
ing the Mewati hills, is the battle- 
field of Laswari, where Lord Lake 
annihilated the Deccan battalions 
of Daulat Rao Sindhia's European 
trained army on 1st November 1803, 
the British losses being 172 killed 
and 652 wounded, and the Mahratta 
losses 5000-7000. Later events have 
unduly obscured the achievements of 
this great British leader, who within 
a space of two months, and with a 
force never exceeding 8000 men, 
crushed 31 battalions of Sindhia's 
troops in four pitched battles, captured 
426 guns, took two fortresses (Aligarh 
and Agra), and entered the capital of 
India (Delhi) as a conqueror. 


junction station 

838 m. 
(R.), D.B. 

Rewari was founded in 1000 a.d. 
by Raja Rawat. There are the 
ruins of a still older town E. of the 
modern walls. The Rajas of Rewari 
were partially independent, even 
under the Mughals. They built the 
mud fort of Gokulgarh, near the 
town, which is now in ruins, but 
was once very strong. They coined 
their own money, and their currency 
was called Gokul Sikkah. Rewari 
is a place of considerable trade, 
particularly in iron and salt. The 
Town Hall is handsome, as are the 
Jain Temples, close to the town. 

[30 m. S.W. of Rewari lies Nax- 
naul, the principal town of the pos- 
sessions of the Patiala State in this 
quarter, made over to the State for 
loyal services rendered in 1857. This 
is on the Chord line lately constructed 
from here to Phalera (p. 139). 

From Rewari a branch of the 
narrow gauge line runs N.W. to 
Hissar and Ferozepore, and so to 
Lahore, passing the following places. 

52 m. BMwanl station with 30,000 
people, chiefly Hindus, formerly a 
great market for all North Rajputana, 

74 m. Hansi station, D.B., a 
modern town of 14,000 inhabitants, 
on the W. Jumna Canal. It is said 
to have been founded by Anangpal 
Tomar, king of Delhi, and was long 
the capital of Hariana. There are 
ruins of an ancient Citadel and some 
remains of gateways, and a high brick 
wall, with bastions and loop-holes. 
In 1795 the famous sailor adventurer, 
George Thomas, fixed his head- 
quarters at Ilansi, which forthwith 
began to revive. In 1802 British rule 
was established, and a local levy was 
stationed here, and Colonel Skinner, 
C.B., settled in 1829. In 1857 the 
troops of this town mutinied, follow- 
ing the mutineers at Hissar. 

At Tosham, 23 m. S.W., are some 
ancient inscriptions. They are cut 
in the rock half the way up the hill 
near a tank much visited by pilgrims. 




who come from great distances to the 
yearly fair there. 

89 m. Hissar station (R.), D.B. 
(population, 17,700). The Hissar 
branch of the W. Ium7ia Canal, 
made originally by the Emperor 
Firoz Shah, to irrigate his hunting- 
seat at this place, terminates here. 
In 1826 it was restored by the 
British. In this place also the local 
levies revolted during the Mutiny of 
1857, and murdered the Collector 
and fourteen Christians, to whom a 
monument is erected beside the little 
church ; but before Delhi was taken, 
a body of Sikh levies, aided by con- 
tingents from Platiala and Bikaner, 
under General Van Cortlandt, had 
restored order. 

The city and the fort on the W. 
side of it were founded in 1354 A.D. 
by the Emperor Firoz Shah, who 
made it his favourite hunting-seat. 
Lying on the main track from 
Mooltan to Delhi it became a place 
of importance, of which there are 
only buried remains now besides the 
old walls and gates. In the fort are 
the ruins of a Mohammedan building 
constructed of Jain remains ; and E. 
of the city is a fine stone building 
called the Jahaz or Ship from its 
shape, now used as a workshop of the 
W. Jumna Canal. A large cattle 
fair is held at Hissar twice a year. 
S. and W. of the city there is 
a Government cattle - farm {Bir), 
managed by a European super- 
intendent, and attached to it is an 
estate of 43,287 acres for pasturage. 

The District of Hissar borders on 
the Raj pu tana Desert, and in parts is 
itself little better than a waste, 
scattered over with low bushes. The 
water supply is inadequate, the 
average rainfall being only 10 in., 
and the country is sadly subject to 
famines. The Gkaggar, with scant 
verdure along its banks, winds 
through the N. of the district like a 
green riband. 

140 m. Sirsa station (population 
15,8^0). The town and fort are sup- 
posed to have been founded by one 

Raja Saras, about the middle of the 
6th century. It was formerly well 
known as Sarsuti. A great cattle 
fair is held here in August and 
September, at which 30,000 head 
of cattle are exposed for sale. 

187 m. Bhatinda junction station. 
From this place lines run E. to Patiala, 
Rajpura, and Umballa, and W. to 
Samasatta (Bahawalpur), Hyderabad 
and Karachi, S.E. to Rohtak and 
Delhi, and S. to Bikaner. There is 
a very high picturesque fort seen well 
from the railway, but the modern town 
contains nothing of special interest. 

213 m. Kot-Kapura junction sta- 
tion (R.). From here a branch line 
of 50 m. runs W. to Fazilka on tht 
Sutlej river. 

221 m. Faridkot station, capital 
of the Sikh State of that name. The 
chief is of a different Jat family from 
those of the Phulkian States (p. 223). 

241 m. Ferozepore^ station (R.), 
D.B. (population 49,000). The fort 
with an arsenal and the cantonment lie 
2 m. to the S. The city was founded 
in the time of Firoz Shah, Emperor 
of Delhi, 1351-87 A.D. When it 
lapsed to the British in 1835 it was in a 
declining state, but through the exer- 
tions of Sir Henry Lawrence and his 
successors it has increased to its pre- 
sent importance as a market of raw 
produce, much of which is due to the 
Sirhind canal, extended to the district 
in 1882, and the Grey inundation 
canals along the Sutlej, inaugurated 
by Colonel Grey, C.S.I., in the years 
1874-78. The main streets are wdde 
and well paved, while a circular road 
which girdles the wall is lined by the 
gardens of wealthy residents. 

It was at Ferozepore that the 
Governor - General, Lord Auckland, 
met Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 
December 1839, only six months 
before his death, to make arrange- 

1 A memorial has been recently erected at 
Ferozepore to the Sikh garrison of Saraghari 
on the Orakzai Samana range (p. 245), which 
fell to a man defending the post in 1897. 



ments for the advance of the British 
army on Kabul ; and it was here also 
that, just three years later, Lord 
Ellenborough received the so-called 
victorious army on its return to British 
India, General Sale and the Jelalabad 
garrison crossing the bridge over the 
Sutlej at the head of the force. 

On the loth of December 1845 the 
Sikhs invaded the district, but, after 
desperate fighting, were driven back 
across the Sutlej. Since then peace 
has prevailed, except during the 
Mutiny of 1857. In May of that 
year one of the two Sepoy regiments, 
stationed at Ferozepore, revolted, and 
in spite of the presence of a British 
regiment and some British artillery, 
partly destroyed the cantonment. 

The Fort, which contains the prin- 
cipal arsenal in the Panjab, was re- 
built in 1858, and greatly strengthened 
in 18S7. The railway and the trunk 
road to Lahore separate it and the 
town from the cantonment. 

The Memorial Church, in honour of 
those who fell in the Sutlej campaign 
of 1845-46, was destroyed in the 
Mutiny, but was subsequently re- 
stored. In the cemetery on the G. 
Trunk Road to Ludhianah lie many 
distinguished soldiers, amongst them 
Major George Broadfoot, C.B., 
Governor - General's Agent, N.W. 
Frontier, General Sale, and General 

The three great battlefields of the 
First Sikh War, fought by Lord 
Gough, can best be visited from this 
point. Mudki (i8th December 1845) 
lies 22 m. to the S.E. ; Ferozeshah 
(21st and 22nd December) 16 m. E. , 
and on the railway to Ludhianah 
and 8 m. from Mudki ; and Sobraon 
(loth February 1846) 20 m. N. It 
was at the Hariki Ford, near Sobraon, 
that the Sikh army entered British 
territories, and in this last battle they 
lost 10,000 men killed or drowned 
in attempting to escape across the 
river. The losses of the British in 
killed and wounded in these battles,^ 

' See The Sikhs and the Sikh Wars, by 
General Sir H. Gough, V.C., and A. D. 
Innes; also Life and Catnpaigns 0/ Hugh, 
1st Viscount Gough, Field- Marshal, by 
R. S. Rait. 

in which they met in the Sikhs a 
foeman worthy of their steel, were 
terrible, viz., at Mudki, 872 killed and 
wounded ; at Ferozeshah (where the 
troops failed in the first attack on the 
entrenchments, which were carried 
the next day), 2415; and at Sobraon, 
2299. Generals Sale and M'Caskill 
were killed at Mudki, Major Broad- 
foot at Ferozeshah, and General Dick 
at Sobraon. The Governor-General, 
Lord Hardinge, was present at the 
battles of Mudki and Ferozeshah. A 
plain obelisk has been erected on each 
of the battlefields. 

Beyond Ferozepore the railway 
crosses the Sutlej river by a fine 
bridge, and proceeds past Kasur 
(257 m.), an old Pathan stronghold, 
to (274 m.) Raiwind, on the N.W. 
Railway (Route 18).] Kasur is con- 
nected on the N. with Patli, Taran 
Taran and Amritsar (p. 228), and on 
the S. with Lodhran and Bhawalpur 
(p. 261). 

Beyond Rewari the railway passes 

870 m. Gurgaon, the headquarters 
of the south-easternmost district of the 
Panjab, and then W. of the Kutab 
Minar and the tombs and ruins S. of 
Delhi, shut off from view by the line 
of hills, and when near the city turns 
E. to it. (Here the Delhi, Umballa, 
and Kalka Railway turns N. and the 
S. Panjab Railway to Rohtak (44 m.) 
and Bhatinda ( 1 68 m. ) W. ). The line 
passes through the W. wall of the city 
near the Ajmer Gate, meeting in a fine 
central station the E.I. Railway and 
N.W. Railway, which enter the city 
over the Jumna river bridge from 
the E. The new direct line of the 
Midland Railway from Agra (p. 169) 
also joins the station from the S. 

890 m. DELHI junction station. ♦ 


of the S. W. monsoon in May, the salt 
water of the Gulf of Cutch invades 
the Runn, and later in the season the 
rivers from Rajputana pour fresh water 
into it. The sea is now encroaching 
rapidly on the Runn at its junction 
with the Gulf of Cutch, and there is 
reason to suppose that serious changes 
of level are taking place. The centre 
of the Runn is slightly higher than the 
borders, and dries first. The railway 
has many sidings extending into the 
Runn, to facilitate the collection of the 
salt, which is stacked at the station 
in very large quantities under the 
custody of the Salt Customs Depart- 
ment. Originally, it was considered 
necessary to erect expensive roofs over 
the salt stacks, but experience has 
shown that this can be dispensed with. 
The salt is evaporated by the heat of 
the sun from brine brought up in 
buckets from depths of 15 to 30 ft. 
Wonderful mirages are seen in the 
Ran, and in the winter season the 
flights of flamingoes and other birds 
are extraordinarily large. There are 
sand grouse to be had round about. 

ROUTE 11. 

From AHMEDABAD through KA.- 
THIAWAR by Viramgam, Khara- 
ghoda, Wadhwan, Bhaunagar, 
Jtinagarh, Girnar, Somuath, Por- 
bandar, Rajkot, and back to 
Ahmedabad, with expedition by 
road to Palitana. 

Leaving Ahmedabad (Route 10), 
310 m. from Bombay the Sabarmati is 
crossed on a fine bridge, with a foot- 
way for passengers alongside, and 
carrying the rails for both broad and 
narrow gauges. From 4 m. , Sabar- 
mati (junction station), on the N. bank 
of the river of that name, the narrow 
gauge continues N. to Delhi and Agra, 
whilst the broad gauge turns W., 
and passing through a well-cultivated 
country, reaches 40 m. Viramgam 
junction station,5(' — a walled town, 
population 19,000. The Mansar tank 
dates from the end of the eleventh 
century. It is shaped like a shell, and 
surrounded by flights of stone steps ; 
round the tops of the steps runs a row 
of small temples. The inlet is much 
ornamented. The neighbourhood 
abounds in black buck, grouse, and 
all manner of water-fowl. From this 
place a branch line runs N. W. , passing 
at 19 m. Patri, D.B., a small walled 
town with a Citadel ; and, at 29 m., 
reaches Kharaghoda, where there 
are very extensive salt-pans on the 
edge of the Little (Runn) Ran of 
Cutch.^ In thedry season the Runn pre- 
sents the appearance of a hard, smooth 
bed of dried mud, and may be ridden 
over at any place. There is absolutely 
no vegetation except on some small 
islands which rise above the level of 
the salt inundation ; the only living 
creatures that inhabit it are some 
herds of wild asses, which feed on 
the lands near its shores at night, 
and retreat far into the desert in the 
daytime. With the commencement 

1 Bhoj, the principal town of Cutch, 
renowned for the work of its silversmiths, 
lies on the N. side of the Ran, and is at 
present difficult of access. Ran means a 
desert. The Great Ran lies N.W. of Bhoj. 

80 m. Wadhwan junction station 
D. B. To the W. runs the Morvi State 
Railway, the exclusive property of the 
Morvi State, constructed on 2^ ft. 
gauge to maintain communication with 
Morvi, but now being converted to 
the standard narrow gauge, Jetalsar 
and Rajkot. To the S. the line is 
continued by means of the Bhaunagar 
Gondal Railway, a portion of the 
metre-gauge system, which opens up 
a large number of places in South 
Kathiawar. These railways are under 
a central administration, but are the 
property of the State through which 
they pass. 

The Civil Station of Wadhwan, on 
which the railway station is built, is a 
plot of land rented by Government in 
perpetuity from the Wadhwan State, 
for the location of the establishments 
necessary for the administration of 
the N.E. portion of Kathiawar. A 
small town has sprung up close to the 
railway station. 

The only institution of special 
interest in the place is the Talukdari 



School, where the sons of Girassias, 
or land-owners, are educated when 
cheir parents are unable to afford 
the heavy cost of sending them to 
the Rajkumar or Princes' College at 
Rajkot. In many cases elder brothers 
are placed at the Rajkumar College, 
and the younger at the Talukdari 

The Province of Kathiawar which 
is now entered, exists under circum- 
stances quite exceptional. It consists 
of 187 separate states, ranging in 
extent from considerable tracts of 
country, with chiefs enjoying great 
executive freedom, to mere village 
lands, which are states only in name. 
Almost without exception the capitals 
of these states are places of interest 
which will repay a visit. 

For purposes of administration the 
Province is divided into four Prants, 
or divisions. The arduous task of 
administering it is entrusted to a 
Political Agent who resides at Raj- 
kot, and has assistants distributed 
through the country. 

Everywhere in Kathiawar the 
traveller will remark long lines of 
palias, or memorial stones, peculiar 
to this Province, on which men are 
usually represented as riding on a 
very large horse, whilst women have 
a wheel below them to indicate that 
they used a carriage. A woman's 
arm and hand indicate here, as in 
other parts of India, a monument to 
a lady who became sati. 

Proceeding S. by the Bhaunagar 
Gondal Railway, the river is crossed 
close to the station. 

At 83 m. Wadhwan City station is 
reached. The town wall is of stone 
and in good order. Towards the 
centre, on the N. wall, is the ancient 
temple of Ranik Devi. She was a 
beautiful girl, born in the Junagarh 
territory when Sidh Raja was reigning 
at Patan, and was betrothed to him. 
But Ra Khengar, who then ruled 
Junagarh, carried her off and married 
her, which caused a deadly feud be- 
tween him and Sidh Raja, whose 
troops marched to Junagarth. Khen- 
gar was betrayed by two of his 

kinsmen, and was slain by Sidh Raja 
and his fortress taken. The conqueror 
wanted to marry Ranik Devi, but she 
performed sati, and Sidh Raja raised 
this temple to her memory. It 
bears marks of extreme old age, 
the stone being much worn and 
corroded, and all but the tower 
is gone. Inside is a stone with the 
effigy in relief of Ranik Devi, and a 
smaller one with a representation of 
Ambaji. N. of this temple, and close 
to the city wall, is a sati stone dated 
15 19. Near the Lakhupol Gate is 
a well with steps, ascribed to one 
Madhava, who lived in 1294 a.d. 

The Palace is the centre of the 
town, has four stories, and is 72 ft. 
high. It stands in a court facing the 
entrance, on the right of which is a 
building called the Mandwa, where 
assemblies take place at marriages. 

96 m. Limbdi station. Chief town 
of the cotton-producing state of that 
name. Population 13,000, A well- 
cared-for place, with a very handsome 

126 m. Botad station, 
the Bhaunagar State. 

Frontier of 

152 m. Dhola junction station (R.) 
Here the line turns W. to Dhoraji 
and Porbandar, and E. to Bhaunagar, 
passing at 

165 m., a Httle N. of Songad, ♦ the 
residence of the Assistant Political 
Agent for the eastern portion of the 

[Excursion to Palitana and the 
Satrunjaya Hills. 

(Arrangements for a conveyance 
can be made, by applying to the 
Deputy Assistant Political Agent at 
Songad. No public conveyances can 
be depended upon.) 

Palitana, * about 15 m. S. ol 
Songad, the latter part of the road 
over a barren country between low 
rocky hills, is the residence of the 


chief, and is much enriched by the 
pilgrims who reside in it during their 
visit to the Holy Mountain, and its 
famous Jain temples. 

The distance from Palitana to the 
foot of Satrunjaya, or the Holy 
Mountain, 1977 ft. above sea-level, 
is i^ m. The road is level, with 
a good water supply, and shaded 
by trees. The ascent begins vnth 
a wide flight of steps, guarded 
on either side by a statue of an 
elephant. The hillside is in many 
places excessively steep, and the 
mode of conveyance is a dkoli, a 
seat or tray 18 in. square, slung from 
two poles and carried by four men. 
Few of the higher-class pilgrims are 
able to make the ascent on foot, so 
there is an ample supply of dkoHs 
and bearers. 

The Satrunjaya hill is truly a city 
of temples, for, except a few tanks, 
there is nothing else within the gates, 
and there is a cleanliness withal 
about every square and passage, 
porch and hall, that is itself no mean 
source of pleasure. The silence too 
is striking. Now and then in the 
mornings you hear a bell for a few 
seconds, or the beating of a drum for 
as short a time, and on holidays 
chants from the larger temples meet 
your ear ; but generally during the 
after-part of the day the only sounds 
are those of vast flocks of pigeons 
that fly about spasmodically from the 
roof of one temple to that of another. 
Paroquets and squirrels, doves and 
ringdoves abound, and peacocks are 
occasionally met with on the outer 
walls. The top of the hill consists of 
two ridges, each about 350 yds. long, 
with a valley between. Each of 
these ridges, and the two large 
enclosures that fill the valley, are 
surrounded by massive battlemented 
walls fitted for defence. The build- 
ings on both ridges again are divided 
into separate enclosures called ttiks, 
generally containing one principal 
temple, with varying numbers of 
smaller ones. Each of these en- 
closures is protected by strong gates 
and walls, and all gates are carefully 
closed at sundown. 

No attempt is made to describe the 
shrines in detail ; their general char- 
acter is so often repeated that it 
would only be possible to do so with 
the aid of profuse illustrations. The 
area enclosed on the top is small 
enough for any one of ordinary 
activity to see all over it in the course 
of a two hours' visit. Mr Burgess' 
little book on the place is excellent. 

There is one gate leading into the 
enclosure, but there are nineteen 
gates within, leading to the nineteen 
chief Temples. Not far from the 
Ram-pol (pol means gate) is a resting- 
place used by persons of distinction, 
with a tolerable room surrounded by 
open arches. 

Mr James Fergusson says : — 

"The grouping together of these 
temples into what may be called 
' Cities of Temples,' is a peculiarity 
which the Jains practised to a greater 
extent than the followers of any other 
religion in India. The Buddhists 
grouped their stupas and viharas 
near and around sacred spots, as at 
Sanchi, Manikyala, or in Peshawur, 
and elsewhere ; but they were scat- 
tered, and each was supposed to have 
a special meaning, or to mark some 
sacred spot. The Hindus also 
grouped their temples, as at Bhuvan- 
eshwar or Benares, in great numbers 
together ; but in all cases because, so 
far as we know, these were the centres 
of a population who believed in the 
gods to whom the temples were 
dedicated, and wanted them for the 
purposes of their worship. Neither 
of these religions, however, possesses 
such a group of temples, for instance, 
as that at Satrunjaya, in Guzerat. 
It covers a very large space of ground, 
and its shrines are scattered by hun- 
dreds over the summits of two exten- 
sive hills and in the valley between 
them. The larger ones are situated 
in tuks, or separate enclosures, sur- 
rounded by high fortified walls ; the 
smaller ones line the silent streets. 
It is a city of the gods, and meant 
for them only, and not intended for 
the use of mortals. 

"All the peculiarities of Jain archi- 
tecture are found in a more marked 



degree at Palitana than at almost any 
other known place, and, fortunately 
for the student of the style, extending 
through all the ages during which it 
flourished. Some of the temples are 
as old as the eleventh century, and 
they are spread pretty evenly over 
all the intervening time to the present 

Mr James Burgess in his report 
gives the following general descrip- 
tion : — 

' ' At the foot of the ascent there are 
some steps with many little canopies 
or cells, 1 1 ft. or 3 ft. square, open 
only in front, and each having in its 
floor a marble slab carved with the 
representation of the soles of two feet 
(ckaran), very flat ones, and generally 
with the toes all of one length. A 
little behind, where the ball of the 
great toe ought to be, there is a 
diamond-shaped mark divided into 
four smaller figures by two cross 
lines, from the end of one of which a 
curved line is drawn to the front of 
the foot. 

"The path is paved with rough 
stones all the way up, only inter- 
rupted here and there by regular 
flights of steps. At frequent intervals 
also there are rest-houses, more 
pretty at a distance than convenient 
for actual use, but still deserving of 
attention. High up we come to a 
small temple of the Hindu monkey 
god, Hanuman, the image bedaubed 
with vermilion in ultra-barbaric style. 
At this point the path bifurcates to 
the right leading to the northern 
peak, and to the left to the valley 
between, and through it to the 
southern summit. A little higher up, 
on the former route, is the shrine of 
Aengar, a Mussulman pir, so that 
Hindu and Moslem alike contend for 
the representation of their creeds on 
this sacred hill of the Jains. 

"On reaching the summit of the 
mountain, the view that presents 
itself from the top of the walls is 
magnificent in extent ; a splendid 
setting for the unique picture. To 
the E. the prospect extends to the 
Gulf of Cambay near Gogo and 
Bhaunagar ; to the N. it is bounded 

by the granite range of Sihor and the 
Chamardi peak; to the N.W. and 
W. the plain extends as far as the 
eye can reach. From W. to E. , like 
a silver nbbon across the foreground 
to the S., winds the Satrunjaya river, 
which the eye follows until it is lost 
between the Talaia and Khokara 
Hills in the S.W."J 

[Ezcursion to Valabbipur. 

The antiquarian who is not pressed 
for time may care from Songad to 
visit the site of the ancient city of 
VaJabhipur, which is nearly identical 
with the modern town of Walah, and 
is 12 m. distant by road. The 
authorities at Songad will arrange 
for the journey. Valabhipur was 
perhaps as old as Rome, and 
was the capital of all this part of 
India. The present town (under 
5000 inhabitants) is the capital of one 
of the small Kathiawar states. It has 
been very much neglected. There are 
scarcely any architectural remains at 
Walah, but old foundations are dis- 
covered, and sometimes coins, copper 
plates, mud seals, beads, and house- 
hold images have been found in some 
abundance. The ruins can be traced 
over a large area of jungle.] 

Resuming the journey from Songad 
to Bhaunagar, the railway passes 
90 m. Silior station D. B. This was 
at one time the capital of this state. 
The town, well situated i^ m. S. of 
the railway, has some interesting 
Hindu temples. 

103 m. Bhaunagar. ^* The city of 
56,400 inhabitants, founded 1 723, 
stands on a tidal creek that runs into 
the Gulf of Cambay. The head of 
the gulf above this creek is silting up 
so rapidly that it is very difficult to 
maintain the necessary depth of water 
for native trading vessels and coasting 
steamers. The Bhaunagar State has 
from its first connection with the 
British Government been adminis- 
tered by men of intelligence, and the 
town will be found a most pleasing 


sample of the results of native Indian 
goverament going hand in hand with 
European progress. The staple ex- 
port is cotton. There are no inter- 
esting ruins, but abundance of very 
handsome modern buildings on Indian 
models, water works, reservoirs, and 
gardens ; and at the port will be seen 
an intelligent adoption of modern 
mechanical improvements. 

To visit Junagarh, Somnath, Por- 
bandar, or any places in the VJ., it 
is necessary to return to Dhola junc- 
tion and change there. 

Jetalsar junction station (R.), 152 
m. from Wadhwan, is the residence 
of the Assistant Political Agent for 
the S. or Sorath division of the 
Province of Kathiawar. Here the 
line branches (l) S. to Verawal for 
Somnath, (2) W. to Porbandar (p. 
161), and (3) N. to Rajkot, Vankaner 
and Wadhwan (p. 162), 

(l) Jetalsar to Junagarh and 

16 m. from Jetalsar is Junagarh 
station,* (D.B. \V. of the town, 
opposite a modern gate-way, called 
the Reay Gate), the capital of the 
state, and the residence of the Nawab. 
The name means Old Fort. Popula- 
tion, 34,000. 

Situated as it is under the Girnar 
and DatarH. Us, Junagarh isoneof ihe 
most picturesque towns in India, while 
in antiquity and historical interest it 
yields to few. The scenery from the 
hills around is most pleasing, and the 
place has attractions wanting in most 
ancient Indian towns, which, as a 
rule, are situated in uninteresting 
plains. There is a great deal of 
game in Kathiawar, and specially in 
the Gir, the large uncultivated tract 
to the S.E. of Junagarh ; but the 
Gir is very unhealthy in the early part 
of the autumn, and again at the 
beginning of the rains. The few 
remaining lions are now strictly pro- 

The fortifications of the present 
town were all built by the Mohamme- 

dans after the capture of the place 
by Sultan Mahmud Bigara, of 
Guzerat, about 1472. The NawaVs 
Palace is a fine modernised building. 
In front of it is a good circle of shops 
called 'the Mahabat Circle. The Arts 
College was designed and built by a 
local architect, and was opened by 
Lord Curzon in November 1900. 

The Tombs of the Nawabs are 
highly finished buildings. Mr Fer- 
gusson says : — " There is a cemetery 
at Junagarh where there exists a 
group of tombs all erected within this 
century, some within the last twenty 
or thirty years, which exhibit, more 
nearly than any others I am ac- 
quainted with, the forms towards 
which the style was tending^ The 
style is not without a certain amount 
of elegance in detail. The tracery of 
the windows is executed with precision 
and appropriateness." Entering the 
enclosure by the N. gate, the tomb 
of Bahadur Khan II. is in front on 
the left, next to it the tomb of flamed 
Khan II., and on its left that of Ladli 
Bu, a lady whose marriage, and the 
influence she gained, caused no slight 
difficulty to this state, and no little 
trouble in the Political Agency. 
Beside these is the tomb of Nawab 
Mahabat Khan, in Saracenic style, 
and finely carved. \ m. beyond the 
N. gate of the town is the Sakar 
Bagh, a well-laid-out garden that 
belongs to the Vazir. There is a 
two-storied villa, surrounded by a 
moat full of water. About 50 yds. 
from the house is a menagerie, in 
which are lions, panthers, deer, etc. 
In a still liner garien at the S- of the 
town, the Sardar Bagh, are kept a 
number of lions and lionesses from 
the Gir forest. There are no tigers 
in the Kathiawar peninsula, but up to 
the middle of the present century 
lions inhabited all the large jungles, 
and were shot in the Choteyla Hills 
E. of Rajkot. Now the animal is 
confined to the Gir. The lion is in 
no way inferior to the African species, 
although the mane is not so large. 
The Gir lion is not a man-eater 
usually, but Col. J. W. Watson has 



heard of one or two well-authenti- 
cated instances of his killing men. 

The soft sandstone which every- 
where underlies Junagarh is an inter- 
esting study. Formed apparently in 
very shallow water, it shows on all 
sides complicated lines of stratifica- 
tion. The facility \vith which it is 
worked may be one reason why it 
has been largely excavated into cave- 
dwellings in Buddhist times. 

The Caves — In the N. part of tho 
town enclosure, near the old tele- 
graph office, is the group called the 
Khapra Khodia. These caves appear 
to have been a monastery, and bear 
the cognizance of the then ruling 
race, a winged griffin or lion. They 
appear to have been two or three 
storeys high. They are, however, 
excavated in good building stone, 
and the modern quarrymen have 
been allowed to encroach and injure 
them ; the lower ones have never 
been systematically cleared out. The 
most interesting caves of all in the 
Uparkot (see below) about 50 yds. 
N. of the great mosque. They 
are now protected by an iron gate. 
They consist of two storeys, the 
lower chambers being 11 ft. high. 
The upper storey consists of a tank 
surrounded by a corridor, and of a 
room 36 ft. by 28 ft., supported by 
six columns, beyond which is a small 
kitchen. From here a winding stair- 
case leads to the lower storey, meas- 
uring 39 ft. by 31 ft. with broad 
recesses all round it, and over them a 
frieze of chaitya windows. Of the 
columns, Mr Burgess says: — "Few 
bases could be found anywhere to 
excel in beauty of design and richness 
of carving those of the six principal 
pillars." Inside the Wagheshwari 
Gate, through which the Girnar 
Mount is reached, are the caves 
known by the name of Bawa Piara, 
a comparatively modern Hindu ascetic 
who is said to have resided in them. 
These caves date from about the time 
of Asoka (263-225 B.C.), are among 
the very oldest in all India, and are 
nearly all small and plain. They are 
situated in the scarp of a circular 

detached mass of rock and face S. 
and E., a third line to the N. also 
facing S. being excavated on a higher 
level than the S. line. The most 
interesting group is that facing E., 
where a number of caves were dug 
round a central space. 

The Uparkot, on the E. side of the 

city, used as a jail until 1858, is 
now practically deserted. It was the 
citadel of the old Hindu princes, and 
is probably the spot from whence 
Junagarh derives its name. Per- 
mission to visit it must be asked. 
Without presenting any very special 
features to describe, the Uparkot is 
one of the most interesting of old forts. 
The parapets on the E., where the 
place is commanded by higher ground, 
have been raised at least three times 
to give cover against the increasingly 
long range of projectiles. The views 
from the walls are delightful. Here 
were quartered the lieutenants of the 
great Asoka, Buddhist king, and, 
later, of the Gupta kings. The en- 
trance is beyond the town in the W. 
wall, and consists of three gateways, 
one inside the other. The fort walls 
here are from 60 to 70 ft. high, 
forming a massive cluster of buildings. 
The inner gateway, a beautiful speci- 
men of the Hindu Toran, has been 
topped by more recent Mohammedan 
work, but the general effect is still 
good and, with the approach cut 
through the solid rock, impressive. 
On the rampart above the gate is an 
inscription of Mandalika V., dated 
1450. About 150 yds. to the left, 
through a grove of siiaphal (custard 
apples) may be seen a huge lo-in. 
bore cannon of bell-metal, 17 ft. long 
and 4 ft. 8 in. round at the mouth. 
This gun was brought from Diu, 
where it was left by the Turks. 
There is an Arabic inscription at the 
muzzle, which may be translated : 
"The order to make this cannon, to 
be used in the service of the Almighty, 
was given by the Sultan of Arabia 
and Persia, Sultan Sulaiman, son of 
Salim Khan. May his triumph be 
glorified, to punish the enemies of the 
State and of the Faith, in the capital 


of Egypt, 1 53 1." At the breech is 
inscribed: "The work of Muham- 
man, the son of Hamzah." Another 
large cannon called Chudanal, also 
from Diu, in the southern portion of 
the fort, is 13 ft. long, and has a 

terraced roof is by a good staircase 

The Tomb of Nuri Shah, close to 
the mosque, is ornamented with fluted 
cupolas, and a most peculiar carving 

Temple of Nemnath, Girnar. 

muzrle 4 ft. in diameter. Near this is 
the Jajna Masjid, evidently con- 
structed from the materials of a 
Hindu temple built by Mahmud 
Bigara. One plain slim minaret 
remains standing, but the mosque is 
much ruined. The ascent to the 

over the door. There are two Wells 
in the Uparkot — the Adi Ckadi, said 
to have been built in ancient times by 
the slave girls of the Chudasama 
rulers, is descended by a long flight 
of steps (the sides of the descent 
show the most remarkable overlap- 


Scale of Miles 

2 3 

Stan/irdjr Ctxj^^EsCaJf 

1. Wagheshwari Gate. 

2. Asoka's Stone. 

3. Bridge. 

4. Temple of Damodar. 

5. ,, ,, Savaiiatli. 

6. „ „ Bhavanath. 

7. Chada-ni-wao Well. 

8. Wagheshwari Temple. 

9. Bhairo-Tlmmpa. 

10. Gaomukhi Temple. 

11. Amba Deva Temple. 

12. Maliparab Khinid. 

13. Datatari. 

14. Hathi pagla Klniiid. 

15. Se.sawaii Temple. 

16. Hanmandhara Khund and Temple. 

17. Kamaiidal Temple. 
IS. Sakri ambli. 

19. Malbela. 

20. Suraj Khund. 

21. Sarkharia. 

22. Bawaha Madhi. 

[To face p. 155. 



pings and changes of lie in the strata, 
for which alone it is worth a visit to 
any one with geological tastes) ; and 
the Naughan, cut to a great depth 
in the soft rock, and with a wonder- 
ful circular staircase. 

There is a fine dharmsala belonging 
to the goldsmiths near the Waghesh- 
wari Gate. 

The mountain Gimar is the great 
feature of Junagarh, and the Jain 
temples upon it are amongst the 
most ancient in the country. It is 
3666 ft. high, and is one of the most 
remarkable mountains in India. From 
the city of Junagarh only the top of 
it can be seen, as it has in front of it 
lower hills, of which Jogniya, or Laso 
Pawadi, 2527 ft., LakhshmanTekri, 
Bensla, 2290 ft. high, and Datar, 
2779 ft. high, are the principal. 
Girnar was anciently called Raivata 
or Ujjayanta, sacred amongst the 
Jains to Nemnath, the 22d Tirthan- 
kar, and doubtless a place of pilgrim- 
age before the days of Asoka, 250 B. c. 

The traveller, in order to reach 
Girnar, will pass through the Wag- 
heshwari Gate, which is close to the 
Uparkot. At about 200 yds. from 
the gate, to the right of the road, is 
the Temple of Wagheshwari, which 
is joined to the road by a causeway 
about 150 yds. long. In front of it 
is a modern temple, three stories 
high, very ugly, flat roofed, and 
quite plain. About a furlong beyond 
this is a stone bridge, and just beyond 
it on the right is the famous Asoka 
Stone, a round boulder of granite, 
measuring roughly 20 ft, x 30 ft., 
and covered with inscriptions, which 
prove on examination to be 14 Edicts 
of Asoka {250 B.C.)' Nearly identical 
inscriptions have been found at 
Dhauli, and Shahbazgarhi (pp. 328 
and pp. 246), and elsewhere. The 
character is Pali. 

On leaving Asoka's Stone, the 
route crosses the handsome bridge 
over the Sonarekha, which here forms 
a fine sheet of water, then passes a 

1 See Life of John Wilson, F.R.S., by 
Dr. G. Smith, for picture and account of 
the stone ; or Mr Burgess, Second Archaol. 

number of temples, at first on the 
left bank of the river and then on the 
right, where Jogis go about entirely 
naked, to the largest of the temples 
dedicated to Damodar, a name of 
Krishna, from Dam, a rope, because 
by tradition his mother in vain at- 
tempted to confine him with a rope 
when a child. The reservoir at this 
place is accounted very sacred. The 
path is now through a wooded valley, 
with some fine Indian fig-trees. Near 
a cluster of them is an old shrine 
called Bhavanath, a name of Shiva, 
and round it are a number of large 
monkeys, who come on being called. 
Most persons who are not active 
climbers will probably proceed up the 
mountain in a swing dkoli (p. 150), for 
which Rs. 4 or 5 will be paid according 
to tarifif. A long ridge runs up from 
the W., and culminates in a rugged 
scarped rock, on the top of which are 
the temples. Close to the old shrine 
is a well called the Chadani-wao. 
The paved way begins just beyond 
this and continues for two-thirds of the 
ascent ; the first resthouse, Chodia- 
paraba, is reached, 480 ft, above the 
plain, and the second halting-place 
at Dholi-deri, 1000 ft. above the 
plain. From here the ascent becomes 
more difficult, winding under the face 
of the precipice to the third rest- 
house, 1400 ft. up. So far there is 
nothing very trying to any one with 
an ordinarily steady brain. But from 
this point the path turns to the right 
along the edge of a precipice, which, 
though improved of late, is still very 
narrow, so that the dko/i almost grazes 
the scarp, which rises perpendicularly 
200 ft. above the traveller. On the 
right is seen the lofty mountain of 
Datar, covered with low jungle. At 
about 1500 ft. there is a stone dharm- 
sala, and from this there is a fine 
view of the rock called the Bhairav- 
Thampa, " the terrific leap," because 
devotees used to cast themselves 
from its top, falling looo ft. or more. 
At 2370 ft. above Junagarh the 
gate of the enclosure known as the 
Deva Kota, or Ra Khengar's Palace, 
is reached. On entering the gate, 
the large enclosure of the temples ie 


on the left, while to the right is the 
old granite temple of Alan Singh, 
Bhoja Raja of Cutch, and farther 
on the much larger one of Vastiipala 
(see below). Built into the wall on 
the left of the entrance is an inscrip- 
tion in Sanscrit. Some 16 Jain 
temples here form a sort of fort on 
the ledge at the top of the great 
cliff, but still 600 ft. below the 
summit. The largest temple is that 
of Noimath (see plan, p. 1 54) stand- 
ing in a cjuadrangular court 195 x 

porch overhanging the perpendicular 
scarp. On two of the pillars of the 
mandapam are inscriptions dated 
1275, 1 281, and 1278— dates of re- 
storation, when Mr Burgess says it 
was covered with a coating of chunam, 
and "adorned with coats of white- 
wash " within. The enclosure is 
nearly surrounded inside by 70 cells, 
each enshrining a marble image, with 
a covered passage in front of them 
lighted by a perforated stone screen. 
The principal entrance was originally 

Temple of Tejahpala and Vastupala, Girnar. 

130 ft. It consists of two halls (with 
two porches, called by the Hindus 
mandapams), and a shrine, which 
contains a large black image of 
Ncmnalh, the 22d Tirthankar, with 
massive gold ornaments and jewels. 
Round the shrine is a passage with 
many images in white marble. Be- 
tween the outer and inner halls are 
two shrines. The outer hall has two 
small raised platforms paved with 
slabs of yellow stone, covered with 
representations of feet in pairs, which 
represent the 2452 feet of the first 
disciples. On the W. of this is a 

on the E. side of the court ; but it is 
now closed, and the entrance from 
the court in Khengar's Palace is that 
now used. There is a passage lead- 
ing into a low dark temple, with 
granite pillars in lines. Opposite the 
entrance is a recess contaming two 
large black images ; in the back of 
the recess is a lion rampant, and 
over it a crocodile in bas-relief. Be- 
hind these figures is a room from 
which is a descent into a cave, with 
a large white marble image, an object 
of the most superstitious veneration 
by the Jains, which the priests usually 



try to conceal. It has a slight hollow 
in the shoulder, said to be caused by 
water dropping from the ear, whence 
it was called Amijhera, "nectar drop." 
In the N. porch are inscriptions 
which state that in Samwat 12 15 
certain Thakurs completed the shrine, 
and built the Temple of Ambika. 
After leaving this there are three 
temples to the left. That on the S. 
side contains a colossal image of 
Rishabha Deva, the 1st Tirthankar, 
exactly like that at Satrunjaya, called 
Bhim-Padam. On the throne of this 
image is a slab of yellow stone carved 
in X442, with figures of the 24 Tir- 
thankars. Opposite this temple is a 
modern one to Panchabai. W, of it 
is a large temple called Malakavisi, 
sacred to Parasnath. N. again of 
this is another temple of Parasnath, 
which contains a large white marble 
image canopied by a cobra, whence 
it is called Sheshphani, "an arrange- 
ment not unfrequently found in the 
S. but rare in the N."^ It bears a 
date = 1803. The last temple to 
the N. is Eumarapala's, which has a 
long open portico on the W., and 
appears to have been destroyed by 
the Mohammedans, and restored in 
1824 by Hansraja Jetha. These 
temples are along the W. face of the 
hill, and are all enclosed. Outside 
to the N. is the Bhima Kunda, a 
tank 70 ft. by 50 ft., in which Hindus 
bathe. " Immediately behind the 
temple of Nemnath is the triple one 
erected by the brothers Tejahpala 
and Vastupala (built 11 77)." The 
plan is that of 3 temples joined 
together. The shrine has an image 
of Mallinath, the 19th Tirthankar. 
Farther N. is the temple of Samprati 
Raja, This temple is probably one 
of the oldest on the hill, date 11 58. 
Samprati is said to have ruled at 
Ujjain in the end of the third century 
B.C., and to have been the son of 
Kunala, Asoka's third son. .S. of 
this, and 200 ft. above the Jain 
temples, is the Gaumukhi Shrine, 
near a plentiful spring of water. 
From it the crest of the mountain 

1 Fergusson's Indian Architecture, 
ii- 34- 

(3330 ft. ) is reached by a steep flight 
of stairs. Here is an ancient temple 
of Amba Mata, which is much re- 
sorted to by newly-married couples 
of the Brahman caste. The bride 
and bridegroom have their clothes 
tied together, and attended by their 
male and female relations, adore the 
goddess and present cocoa-nuts and 
other offerings. This pilgrimage is 
supposed to procure for the couple a 
long continuance of wedded bliss. 
To the E. not far off, are the 3 rocky 
spires of the Gorakhnath, the Nem- 
nath or Giiru-dattaraya, and the 
Kalika Peaks, 

S.E. of the Verawal Gate of Juna- 
gadh is the Shrine of Jamal Shah or 
Datar. After passing under a low 
arch near the city, the house of the 
Mujawir or attendant of the shrine 
is seen in front. To the right is a 
stone platform surrounding an un- 
usually fine mango tree, with a tank 
just beyond, and the shrine of Datar, 
a building 30 ft. high with a fluted 
cone at top. Here it is necessary 
to take off one's shoes. The shrine 
and the whole place are very attrac- 

There is a Leper ABylum near the 
Datar Temple for loo lepers of both 
sexes, built at the expense of the 
Vazir Sahib Bahu-ud-din. H. R.H. 
Prince Albert Victor laid the founda- 
tion stone in 1890. Above it, 4 m. 
in S.E. direction, is the Datar Peak 
(2779 ft.). On the summit of the hill 
is a small shrine, and from it a very 
beautiful view. The hill is held 
sacred by Mohammedans and Hindus 
alike, and is supposed to have a 
beneficial effect on lepers, who repair 
to it in considerable numbers. 

61 m. from Jetalsar is Verawal 
station. The railway terminus is on 
the W. side of the city (popula- 
tion, 17,000), close to the walls, 
and about \ m. from the light- 
house at the landing-place. This is 
a very ancient seaport, and probably 
owes its existence to its more cele- 
brated neighbour Patan Somnath. 
It rose into notice during the time of 
the Guzerat sultans, and in their 


reigns became, until superseded by 
Sural, the principal port of embarka- 
tion for Mohammedan pilgrims to 
Mecca. It is still a flourishing little 
seaport. In the Temple Harsad 
Jl/ata is a celebrated inscription 
(1264), recording that a mosque was 
endowed in that year, and bearing 
dates in four different eras. It was 
from this inscription that it was dis- 
covered that the Valabhi era com- 
menced in 319 A.D., and the Shri 
Singh era from 1 1 13 A. D. The river 
Devka flows to the N. of Verawal, 
and joins the sea at a place called 
Dani Baru. The yaleshvar Temple, 

account for the undoubted fact that 
from the earliest times they carried 
on a trade with the Red Sea, Persian 
Gulf, and African coast. The place 
is renowned in Hindu mythology. 
It was here the Jadavs slew each 
other, and here Krishna, the late 
legends of whom are connected with 
Kathiawar as the earlier ones are with 
Wuttra (p. 166), was shot by the 
Bhil. In the Gir Forest, inland 
from Patau, is the only place in 
India where there are one or two 
separate communities of African 
negroes. Mahmud of Ghazni con- 
quered the town in 1025 A, D., and it 

Scale of Miles 

Sttutfor^ls Geoy' £stai' 

Verawal and Patan. 

about 2 m. N.W. from the town, at 
the mouth on the right bank, is of 
great antiquity. Half way to it on 
the sand dunes is the Rest-House of 
the Junagarh State. On the S.W. 
face of Verawal there is a modern 
sea-wall and an unfinished stone pier 
with a lighthouse at the end of it. 
A large Custom House has been built 
on the sea face, and near it is a dock 
established on reclaimed land. 

On the sea-shore, nearly 3 m. to 
the S.E., is Patan Somnatli, also 
known as Prabhas P;itan, or Deva 
Patan, the Semenat of Marco Polo. 
The anchorages at Verawal and 
Patan are so bad that it is hard to 

appears that he left behind a Moham- 
medan Governor. Subsequently the 
Hindus recovered their power, but it 
was again cast down by Alauddin 
circa 1300 A.D., and the coast belt or 
Nagher kingdom conquered. From 
this date Mohammedan supremacy 
prevailed throughout the belt, and 
from the reign of Muhammad 
Tughlak governors were regularly 
appointed. Through the gallantry 
and statesmanship of Diwan Amarji, 
it was conquered by the Nawab of 
Junagarh in whose hands it remains. 
Proceeding from Verawal to Patan 
(population 8,500), to the right is a 
vast burial ground, with thousands of 



tombs, and palias. There are also 
buildings which well deserve examina- 
tion after the traveller has seen the city. 
The Junagarh or W. Gate, by which 
Patan is entered, is a triple gate of 
Hindu architecture. The centre part 
of the first division of the gateway is 
very ancient, and has a carving of 
two elephants on either side pouring 
water over Lakshmi, whose figure is 
almost obliterated. 

After passing the second gate the 
W. wall of a mosque of the time of 
Mahmud is seen on the left. There is 
no inscription in it, but its antiquity is 
so credited that the Nawab has 
assigned the revenue of three villages 
for keeping it in order. After passing 
the third portal of the Junagarh 
Gateway, there are four stones on 
the right hand, of which two have 
Guzerati, and two Sanscrit inscrip- 
tions. Driving on straight through 
the bazaar, which is very narrow, and 
has quaint old houses on either side, 
the Jama Masjid is reached. The 
entrance is by a porch, which has 
been a mandir in front of a Hindu 
temple. The most interesting part 
of this very ancient building is, that 
in each of the four corners is a carving 
of two human figures with the Bo 
tree between them. A low door in 
the W. side of the porch leads into 
the court of the Mosque, which was 
deserted for 25 years, and inhabited 
by Moslem fishermen, who dried their 
fish in it, but is now used again. 

To reach the Old Temple of Som- 
nath it is necessary to drive to the 
end of the bazaar of Patan and turn 
to the right. The structure is close 
to the sea. Mr Fergusson considers 
that it was probably never a large 
temple, but adds that the dome of its 
porch, which measures 33 ft. across, 
is as large as any we know of its age. 
The interior of the porch is even now 
in its ruins very striking. "From 
what fragments of its sculptured 
decorations remain, they must have 
been of great beauty, quite equal to 
anything we know of this class of 
their age." It was, no doubt, like 
the temple of Nemnath, on Girnar, 
surrounded by an enclosure which 

would make it a strong place. Now 
the temple stands alone, stripped 
even of its marble, like, but superior 

Plan of Temple of Somnath, by 
Mr J. Burgess. 

to, the temples of Dabhoi and Lak- 
kundi. There are three entrances to 
the porch, and a corridor round the 
central octagonal spice, which was 
covered by the great dome. There 
are four smaller domes. The dome 
in the centre is supported by eight 
pillars and eight arches. The pillar 
on the right hand, looking from the 
E. , next but one before reaching the 
adytum, has an inscription, which is 
illegible except the date, Samwat 
1697 = 1640 A.D. The walls on the 
N., S., and W. sides have each two 
handsomely carved niches, in which 
there have been idols. 

The temple is said to have been 
first built of gold by Somraj, then of 
silver by Ravana, then of wood by 
Krishna, and then of stone by Bhim- 
deva. Though three times destroyed 
by the Mohammedans, it was never- 
theless three times rebuilt, and so late 
as 1700 A.D. was still a place of great 
sanctity. But in 1706 Aurangzeb 


ordered its destruction, and there 
leems every reason to believe that 
this order was carried out. 

The celebrated expedition of 
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni to Som- 
nath took place in 1025 a.d. He 
marched with such rapidity, by way 
of Guzerat, that the Hindu rajas 
were unable to collect their forces 
for its defence, and after a sharp 
fight for two days conquered both 
the city and the temple. Immense 
spoil was found in the temple, and 
after a short stay Mahmud returned 
to Ghazni. It was on this occasion 
that hecarriedoff the famous "Gates 
of Somnath," of which the so-called 
representatives are now in the fort at 
Agra. Sir Henry Elliot records that 
10,000 populated villages were held 
by the temple as an endowment, and 
that 300 musicians and 500 dancing- 
girls were attached to it. There 
were also 300 barbers to shave the 
heads of the pilgrims. 

The confluence of the Three rivers, 
or Triveni, to the E. of the town, has 
been, no doubt, a sacred spot from 
times of remote antiquity. It was 
near this that, according to tradition, 
Krishna sleeping under a deer skin 
was accidentally shot by a Bhil and 
killed. The road to it passes through 
the E. gate, called the Nana, or 
"small," also the Sangam, or "con- 
fluence gate." It has pilasters on 
either side, and on the capitals figures 
are represented issuing out of the 
mouths of Makaras, a fabulous croco- 
dile, which in Hindu mythology is 
the emblem of the God of Love. 
About a I m. outside the gate is a 
pool on the right hand, called the 
Kund, and a small building on the 
left called the Adi Tirth, and next to 
these is a temple and the Tirth of 
Triveni, where pe^iple are always 
bathing. The stream here is from 
ICO to 200 yds. broad, and runs into 
the sea. N. of this, about 200 yds. 
off, is the Suraj Mandir, or temple 
to the Sun, half broken down by 
Mahmud, standing on high ground, 
and wondrously old and curious. 
Over the door of the adytum are 
groups of figures, with a tree between 

each two. Inside the adytum is a 
round red mark for the sun, not 
ancient ; and below is a figure of a 
goddess, also coloured red. On the 
W. and S. outer walls are masses of 
carving much worn. At the bottom 
there is a frieze of Keshan lions, that 
is, lions with elephants' trunks. This 
temple is probably of the same age as 
that of Somnath. About 250 yds. to 
the VV. is a vast tomb, quite plain ; 
and below, in a sort of quarry, is a 
subterraneous temple, which is called 
Ahdi Shah's. The same name is 
given to a mosque with six cupolas 
to the N., which has been a Hindu 

200 yds. to the N.W., inside the 
Nana Gate, will be found the temple 
built by Ahalaya Bai, to replace 
the ancient Somnath. Below it is 
another, reached by descending 22 
steps. The dome of this subter- 
raneous building is supported by 16 
pillars. The temple itself is 13 ft. 
square. It is of no interest except on 
account of its builder, Ahalaya Bai 
(p. 90). 

Returning towards Verawal, about 
\ m. outside the Junagarh Gate is 
the Mai Puri. which in ancient times 
was a temple of the sun. The carv- 
ing of this building is exquisite, and 
in better preservation than that of 
the temple of Somnath. In the centre 
of the building is an enclosure 6 ft. 
square, in which Mai Puri, "the 
Perfect Mother, " is buried. A legend 
is told about her, which states that 
she brough t about the siege of Somnath 
by Mahmud. The temple (or mos- 
que, as the Moslems have made it) 
contains a mass of old Hindu carving, 
still beautiful though mutilated. Not 
far from the Mai Puri is the tomb of 
Silah Shah. There is a curious stand 
for lamps here carved in stone, in the 
shape of a crown. To the S.E., 
about 50 yds., is the tomb of Man- 
groii Shah, which has been restored. 
Before reaching the shrine you pass 
through the porch of an ancient 
Hindu temple. 

Not far from this spot is the Bhid 
Bhaujan Pagoda on the sea-shore, 
locally known as Bhidiyo, very old. 



perhaps of the 14th century. It is 
60 ft. high, and forms a good mark 
for sailors. To the E. of the Pagoda 
is a clear space, where Englishmen 
coming from Rajkot pitch their tents. 
Various coasting steamers call at 
Verawal regularly, and a traveller 
can go by sea to Bombay or to Por- 
bandar, Cutch, or Karachi. 

{2) Jetahar to Porbandar. 

9 m. Dhoraji, an important com- 
mercial town. 

79 m. Porbandar terminal station, 
D.B. (population, 26,420), E. of the 
town, the capital of the state of that 
name, and a place of some interest. 
It is identified with the ancient city 
of Sudampuri, known to the readers 
of the Bhagavata. Near this is an 
old temple of Sudama. The line is 
continued for goods traffic along the 
shore to the creek W. of the town, 
where it terminates in a wharf. 
The place is a very old-world corner, 
not recommended to visitors in a 
hurry, but very interesting to those 
who have leisure, or to sportsmen. 
The coasting steamers between Bom- 
bay and Karachi touch at Porbandar. 

[The places of interest in the neigh- 
bourhood are — 

{a) Shrinagar, 9 m. N.W. of Por- 
bandar, believed to have been the 
first capital of the Jethwa Rajputs. 
There are remains of an ancient 
temple of the sun. 

{b) Miani, a very ancient seaport 
18 m. N.W. of Porbandar. To the 
extreme N.W. in the district of 
Okhamandal, directly under the Gaek- 
war of Baroda are some of the most 
sacred Hitidic Temples in India, viz. , 
those at Dwarka ("door") and Bet 
(" island "). The original possessors 
of the place were a war-like tribe of 
Rajputs, called " Whagire,'" who 
were notorious pirates up to the early 
part of the 19th century, and though 
reduced at that time by the British 
Government, still clinging to their 
former traditions by which each man 

believes that he is a prince in his own 

(f) Chaya, a village 2 m. S. E. of 
Porbandar, was once the capital. 
The old p'llace is still there. 

{d) Bileshwar, 8 m. N. of Ranawao 
station, a small village E. of the 
Barda Hills. There is here a fine 
temple of considerable antiquity, and 
in good preservation. 

(<?) Ghumli or Bhumli, is about 12 
m. N. of Bileshwar, or 24 m. from 
Porbandar by the road passing W. 
of the Barda Hills. This place is 
now absolutely ruined and deserted ; 
it was the capital of the Jethwas 
when at the zenith of their power. 
It lies in a gorge of the Barda 
Hills; the ruins are of the xith or 
I2th century. The most interest- 
ing remains are the Lakhota, the 
Ganesh Dehra, the Rampol, the Jeta 
Wao, and the group of temples near 
the Son Kansari Tank, and some 
ruins on the summit of the Abapura 
Hill. It is about 4 m. S. of Bhan- 
war, a fort belonging to the Jam of 

40 m. S.E. from Porbandar, at 
Madhavapur, Krishna is said to have 
been married. There is an important 
temple dedicated to him there.] 

(3) Jetalsar to Rajkot, Vankaner 
and Wadhwan. 

23 m. Gondal is the capital of the 
state of that name, and the residence 
of the chief. It is a cheerful, well- 
cared-for town, with many handsome 
temples. The public offices are 
situated outside the town on open 
sites surrounded by gardens. The 
courtyard of the palace is very hand- 

46 m. Rajkot station, a civil and 
military station, the residence of the 
Political Agent, and the headquarters 
of the administration (population, 

1 Ghumli is illustrated in Mr Burgess's 
Second A rchacl. Re/. 

1 62 


The most important public work 
in Rajkot is the Kaisar-i- Hind Bridge 
over the Aji river, built by Mr R.B. 
Booth, whose name is connected with 
nearly every important modern build- 
ing in the Province. The total cost of 
the bridge was Rs. 117,500, of which 
the Chief of Bhaunagar paid all but 
Rs. 7500. The munificent donor of 
this bridge was educated at Rajkumar 
College, on which he bestowed 
Rs. 100,000, to build a wing and a 
residence for the Principal, and 
further contributed Rs. 50,000 to the 
Endowment Fund. 

The Rajkumar College deserves a 
visit, as the place where the young 
princes of Kathiawar are educated. 
It was opened in 1870. On the 
ground floor is a fine hall, which 
gives access to the class-rooms. Some 
good portraits hang on the walls. 
Along both fronts is a massive veran- 
dah, and over the E. entrance a 
rectangular tower 55 ft. high. The 
entrance is on the W., and is flanked 
by two circular towers. The N. and 
S. wings contain 32 suites of bed- 
rooms and sitting-rooms, bath-rooms 
and lavatories. To the W. of the 
N. wing is a chemical laboratory, and 
on the opposite side a gymnasium 
and racquet-court. N. of the labora- 
tory are extensive stables. The 
young princes, beside playing all 
manly games, are drilled as a troop 
of cavalry. W. of the quadrangle 
are the houses of the Principal 
and Vice-Principal, with extensive 
gardens. S. of the buildings is the 
cricket-field of 19 acres. The college 
was founded by Colonel Keatinge. 

The High School was opened in 
January, 1875. ^^ ^^^ \)vi\\\. at the 
expense of the Nawab of Junagarh 
and cost Rs. 70,000. In the centre 
is a fine hall. 

N.E. of Rajkot are the Jubilee 
Water Works, which supply the town. 

A branch line runs to (54 m. ) 
Nawanagar or Jamnagar, capital 
of the state of that name, of which 
the famous cricketer, H. H. Jam Shri 
Ranjitsinghji, is chief. Hence Maiidzi 
can be reached by native craft, but is 
best reached by steamer direct from 

Bombay about twice a week. Small 
steamers occasionally ply between 
Beoi, near Nawanagar, and Bombay. 
From Rajkot the Morvi State 
Railway (a narrow gauge (2 '5) line) 
runs N. E. toWadhwan, vid Vankaner 
junction station (25 m.). This is the 
capital of a small state and the resi- 
dence of the chief. The country 
around is undulating, rising into hills 
W. and S. of the town. From Van- 
kaner the line runs E. to (51 m.) 
Wadhwan, and (91 m.) Viramgam 
(see p. 148). From this point a line 
runs to Mehsana (see p. 130) for 
Ajmer, Delhi, etc. 

ROUTE 12. 

BHARATPUR Junction, 
Achnera Station, and Agra, 

{b) Achnera Station to Muttra, 
Brindaban, and Hathras Road, 
and by road to Mahahan, 
Govardhan and Dig. 

(c) Agra to Delhi, direct route by 
Midland Railway, through 

61 m. Bharatpur Junction, D. B. 
Here the C.I. Railway is joined by 
the B.B. Railway broad gauge route 
from Rutlam and Kotah to Muttra 
and Delhi (p. 1 21). Bharatpur is the 
capital of a Jat State (33,000 inhab. ) ; 
the Maharaja, however, usually re- 
sides at Sawari, 3 m. from Bharatpur. 
The ruling family is descended from 
a Jat Zamindar named Churaman, 
who harassed the rear of Aurangzeb's 
army during his expedition to the 
Deccan. He was succeeded by his 
brother, and after him by bis nephew, 
Suraj Mai, who fixed his capital at 
Bharatpur (i733)j ^"^ subsequently 
(1761) drove out the Mahratta 
governor from Agra, and made it his 
own residence. 

In 1765 the Jats were repulsed 
before Delhi and driven out of Agra. 

In 17S2 Sindhia seized Bharatpur 
ind its territory ; but restored 14 



districts, and when he got into 
difficulties he made an alliance with 
the Jat chief Ranjit Singh.^ The 
Jats, however, were defeated by 
Ghulam Kadir at Fatehpur-Sikri, 
and were driven back on Bharatpur, 
but being reinforced at the end of 
the same year, 1788, they raised 
the blockade of Agra, and Sindhia 
recovered it. In 1803 the British 
Government made treaty with Ranjit 
Singh, who joined General Lake at 
Agra with 5000 horse, and received 
territory in return. Upon Ranjit 
Singh intriguing with Jaswant Rao 
Holkar, Bharatpur was besieged 
by General Lake, but four assaults 
on the fort were repulsed with a 
loss of 3000 men. The chief then 
made overtures for peace, which were 
accepted on the 4th of May 1805. 
On troubles breaking out regarding 
the succession, Bharatpur was again 
besieged by General Lord Comber- 
mere, and on the i8th of January 
1S29, after a siege of six weeks, the 
place was stormed. The loss of the 
besieged was estimated at 6000 men 
killed and wounded. The British 
had 103 killed, and 477 wounded 
and missing. On this occasion again 
the British artillery was unable to 
make any real impression on the mud 
defences of the fort, and the breach 
was made by the explosion of mines. 

The WaUed City of Bharatpur is an 
irregular oblong, lying N.E. and S.W. 
The Inner Fort, surrounded by a ditch 
and a lofty mud wall, is contained 
in the N.E. half of the outer fort. 
Three palaces run right across the 
centre of the inner fort from E to W. , 
that to the E. being the Raja's Palace. 
Next is an old palace built by Badan 
Singh. To the W. is a palace which 
is generally styled the Kamra ; it is 
furnished in semi-European style. 

There are only two gates to the 
inner fort, the Chau Burj Gate on 
the S., and the Assaldati on the N. 
The fine bastion at the N.W. corner 
of the inner fort is called the Jowahar 
Bwj, and is worth ascending for the 

1 Ruled 1763-1805. The Jats had success- 
fully defended their mud forts on previous 

view. N. of the Kamra Palace is 
the Court of Justice, the Jewel Office, 
and the Jail. On the road between 
the Chau Burj Gate of the inner fort 
and the Anah Gate of the outer fort 
are the Gangaka Mandir, a market- 
place, a new mosque, and the 
Lakhshmanji temple. 

78 m. Achnera junction station 
(R.), of the line of railway passing 
through Muttra to Bindraban and 
to Hathras on the East Indian 
Railway and to Farukhabad, Fateh- 
garh, and Cawnpore. (See p. 3C».) 

93 m. AGRA Idgah Station, 

junction of the Indian Midland Rail- 
way from Gwalior and Jhansi, likely 
to be abolished when the B.B. Rail- 
way broad gauge is continued from 
Bayana to Agra Cantonment Station. 
The direct route of that line to Delhi 
(p. 169) crosses our line W. of the 
station. Travellers for the hotels 
alight at 

94 m. AGRA Fort Station (R.), 
just outside the Delhi Gate of the 

{b) Achnera Station to Hathras 

23 m. MUTTRA (or Mathura) 
junction station, D.B. , in the can- 
tonments S. of the city (the town 
station is on the branch line to 
Brindaban). Population 60,000. The 
city, the MoSoupa ^ tG>v QeQf of 
Ptolemy, stretches for about i^ m. 
along the right bank of the Jumna. 
Fa Hian, in the beginning of the 5th 
century A.D., found that there were 
20 Buddhist monasteries with 3000 
monks at Muttra ; but when Kiouen 
Thsang visited the place in 634 A. D. 
the number had declined to 2000. 
The Buddhists had disappeared when 
Mahmud of Ghazni came to Muttra 
in 1017 A.D. He remained there 20 
days, pillaged and burned the city, 
and carried off five golden idols, 
whose eyes were of rubies, worth 
50,000 dinars— ;^2 5, 000. A sixth idol 




of gold weighed 1120 lbs., and was 
decorated with a sapphire weighing 
300 Mishkals, or 3^1bs. There were 
also ICX3 idols of silver, each of which 
loaded a camel. The idols together 
were worth not less than ;i^3, 000,000. 
The Brahman temple of Kesava Rao 
was built on the very site where 
the great Buddhist monastery Yasa 
Vihara stood. 

The Fort, rebuilt in Akbar's time, is 
in the centre, but only the substruc- 
ture now remains. In May, i857> 
the troops on the Treasury at Muttra 
mutinied and carried off the money 
which was about to be sent to Agra. 
The Europeans of the place retreated 
north to Hodal, to which place some 
troops of the Bharatpur State had 
passed on, and upon these proving 
faithless took refuge elsewhere. The 
Magt. of the District, Mr Mark 
Thornhill, remained at Muttra till 
14th June, but as Agra was unable 
to send him any assistance he was 
finally compelled to fall back there. 

The Jail and Collector's Office are 
if m. to the S. beyond the town. 
1 m. to the W. of the Katra (see 
below) is a Jain temple and a large 
mound of bricks called Chaurasi Tila, 
and about \ m. to the S. is another 
mound called Kankali, while to the 
S. W., at distances varying from \ m. 
to I m., are five mounds called the 
Cliaubarali mounds.^ There are three 
Churclies — the Anglican " Christ 
Church," the Roman Catholic Church, 
and a Presbyterian Church. The 
first contains several interesting 

The city is entered by the Hardinge 
Gate, also called HoH Gate, built 
by the municipality. The finely- 
carved stonework fagades of the 
better class of houses are well worthy 
of inspection, and are one of the 
peculiarities of the city. 

The Kiverand Ghats. — The Jumna 
is about 300 yds. broad. There is 
a paved street the whole way along 

1 All these places will be found men- 
lioned by General Cunningham in vol. iii. 
of his Arch. Survey Reports, p. 13, and 
also in vol. i. p. 933. 

it, with bathing ghats, descending 
to the water, and ornamental chabu- 
tarahs, or platforms, and small but 
well-proportioned pavilions. 

The river is full of turtles, some 
of them very large, poking their 
long necks and heads out to be fed. 
About 80 yds. N. of the bridge is 
the fine House of the Gviru Parsliot- 
amdas. Then comes another lie- 
longing to a Guzerati merchant 
Ballamdas. Opposite to this, on 
the farther bank of the river, is the 
flourishing village of Hans Ganj, or 
"Swan borough." N. again is a 
stone tower, 55 ft. high, called the 
Sati Bnrj, because when Hans was 
killed by Krishna, his widow be- 
came sati here. M. Growse, to 
whose instance Muttra owes much of 
its best modern architectural work, 
says it was the wife of Raja Bhar 
Mai, of Amb6r, mother of Bhagwan- 
das (p. 142), who built it in 1570 A.D. 
The traveller now descends several 
steps to the Bisraut Ghat, a little N, 
of the Sati Burj, and so to a sort of 
square, where Rajas are weighed 
against gold. There is a small white 
marble arch here, close to the river. 
Beyond this is a ghat built by Jai 
Singh, of Jaipur, and the enormous 
house and temple belonging to the 
well-known late Seth Lakshman Das, 
son of Seth Govind Das. 

Close by in the centre of the town, 
on an isolated site, rises the Jama 
Masjid, once covered with encaustic 
tiles ; its court is 14 ft. above the 
level of the street. On either side 
of the fa9ade of the gateway are 
Persian lines. The chronogram 
gives the date 1660-61. Over the 
facade of the mosque proper are the 
99 names of God. At the sides are 
two pavilions roofed in the Hindu 
manner. There are four minarets, 
which are 132 ft. high. At the 
entrance to the \V. of the town is the 
Idgah (the glazed tiles should be 
observed), and about \ m. beyond 
is the Katra, which is an enclosure 
like that of a sarai, 804 ft. long by 
653 ft. broad. Upon a terrace 30 ft. 
high stands a great red stone mosqne, 
built by Aurangzeb, and the most con- 


spicuous object in a distant view of 
Muttra. There is another terrace 5 
ft. lower, where are votive tablets in 
the Nagri character, dated Samwat 
1 713-20. On this site stood the great 
temple of Kesava Rao. which Ta vernier 
saw in the beginning of Aurangzeb's 
reign, apparently about 1659 A.D. , 
and which he describes as very 
magnificent, adding that it ranked 
next after the temples of Jagannath 
and Benares {^Travels, pt. ii. , book 
iii.jCh. 12, French ed., and Cunning- 
ham, Reports, vol. iii. p. 15). In the 
Katra mound a number of Buddhistic 
remains have been found by General 
Cunningham and others, including 
a broken Buddhist railing pillar, 
with the figure of Maya Devi stand- 
ing under the Sal tree, and also a 
stone on which was inscribed the 
well-known genealogy of the Gupta 
dynasty, from Shri Gupta, the 
founder, down to Samudra Gupta, 
where the stone was broken off. 
At the back of the Katra is a m.odern 
temple to Kesava, and close by is 
the Potara-Kund, a tank in which 
Krishna's baby linen was washed. 
This tank is faced throughout with 
stone, and has flights of stone steps 
down to the water. There is also a 
very steep ramp for horses and cattle. 

To the S. of the city is the Museum, 
erected by public subscription, at 
the suggestion of Mr Mark Thornhill, 
decorated by stone carving which 
Mr Growse calls "the most re- 
fined and delicate work of the 
kind ever executed." It contains a 
number of interesting Buddhist 
remains found in Muttra, but the 
finest of these are now in the 
Imperial Museum, Calcutta, and 
the Museum at Lucknow. 

Immediately opposite are the 
Putlic Gardens, and a little farther 
on is the Jail, between which and 
the Collector's Office and Magis- 
trates' Courts, extensive discoveries 
were made. It appears that on this 
site stood two Buddhist monas- 
teries, the Huvishka and the Kunda- 
Suka Vihara— the latter the place 
where the famous monkey which 
made an offering to Buddha jumped 


into the tank and was killed. At 
this mound statues of all sizes, bas- 
reliefs, pillars, Buddhist rails, votive 
stupas, stone umbrellas, and in- 
scriptions have been found, one 
inscription being of the ist century 

The most important discoveries at 
Muttra were made by Dr Fiihrer 
during his excavations at the Kankali 
Tila or mound, which he looks upon as 
the site of the Upagupta monastery 
mentioned by Hiouen Thsang. The 
remains of one Vaishnava and two 
Jain temples, and a Jain stupa, some 
49 ft. 8 in. in diameter, were brought 
to light, and besides some hundreds 
of most valuable sculptures, stupa 
railings, panels, etc., on many of 
which are inscriptions dating back 
before the Christian era. The 
discoveries prove that the national 
Indian arts of architecture and sculp- flourished in a high degree at 
Muttra, and have led to the con- 
clusion that play-acting was practised 
very early in the city of the gods. 
All the objects discovered have been 
deposited in the Lucknow Museum,'* 
where they can be examined by 

[Mahaban is about 6 m. S.E. c£ 
Muttra, on the left bank of the Jumna, 
and is reached by a good road. It 
is a very ancient town and place of 
pilgrimage, and first emerges into 
modern history in the year 1017 A.D., 
when it shared the fate of Muttra, 
and was sacked by Mahmud of 
Ghazni. The Hindu prince is said, 
when the fall of the town became 
inevitable, to have solemnly slain his 
wife and children, and then com- 
mitted suicide. In 1234 a contem- 
porary writer mentions Mahaban 
as one of the gathering places of the 
army sent by Shams-ud-din Altamsh 
against Kalinjar. It is incidentally 

1 For the many other discoveries made in 
diflferent mounds near Muttra reference 
must be made to General Cunningham's 
Report, vol. i. of the Archaelogical Survey, 
where they are detailed at ^reat length. 

2 See Illustrated description in Proceed- 
ingi o/the Archatl. Dept. c/ the N.W.P. 





referred to by the Emperor Babar 
in 1526. 

The country round about it, 
although now bare of woods, appears 
to have once been literally Mahaban, 
"a great forest." Even as late as 
1634, the Emperor Shah Jahan held 
a hunt here, and killed four tigers. 
This ancient woodland country 
fringing the sacred Jumna is the 
scene of very early religious legends. 
In Sanscrit literature it is closely 
associated with Gokul, about a mile 
off, overhanging the Jumna. Indeed, 
the scenes of the youthful adventures 
of Krishna, actually shown at Ma- 
haban, about a mile from the river, 
are ascribed in the Puranas to Gokul. 
Gokul seems to have been originally 
the common name for the whole, 
although it is now restricted to what 
must have been the waterside suburb 
of the ancient town. 

The ruins of Mahaban, which rise 
as a hill of brick and mud, covering 
about 30 acres, are on the site of the 
old fort. The architectural remains 
combine Buddhist and Hindu forms. 

The most interesting relic at Maha- 
ban is the so-called Palace of Nanda, 
the foster-father of the changeling 
Krishna. It consists of a covered 
court, re-erected by the Moham- 
medans in the time of Aurangzeb 
from ancient Hindu and Buddhist 
materials to serve as a mosque, and 
is divided into 4 aisles by 5 rows of 
16 pillars, 80 in all, from which it 
takes its popular name of Assi 
Khamba, or the "Eighty Pillars." 
Many of the capitals are curiously 
carved with grotesque heads and 
squat figures. Four of them are 
supposed to represent by their 
sculptures the four ages of the 
vrorld. The pillar known as the 
Surya Yug, or "Golden Age," is 
covered with rich and beautiful 
carving ; that known as the Treta 
Yug, or "Second Age" of the world, 
is adorned with almost equal pro- 
fusion. The Dwapar Yug, or " Third 
Age," is more scantily carved ; while 
the Kali Yug, or present " Iron Age " 
of the world is represented by a crude 
unsculptured pillar. 

In the Palace of Nanda are laid 
the scenes of Krishna's infancy. His 
cradle, a coarse structure covered 
with red calico and tinsel, still stands 
in the pillared hall, while a blue- 
black image of the sacred child looks 
out from under a canopy against the 
wall. The churn in which Krishna's 
foster-mother made butter for the 
household is shown, and consists of 
a long bamboo sticking out of a 
carved stone. A spot in the wall is 
pointed out as the place where the 
sportive milkmaids hid Krishna's 
flute. One pillar is said to have 
been polished by his foster-mother's 
hand, as she leant against it when 
churning, and others have been 
equally polished by the hands of 
generations of pilgrims. From the 
top of the roof there is a view over 
mounds of ruins, with the Jumna 
beyond showing its waters, at in- 
tervals, amid an expanse of sand, 
high grasses, and rugged ravines. 
Mahaban is still a very popular place 
of pilgrimage among the Hindus. 
Thousands of Vishnu worshippers, 
with yellow-stained clothes, yearly 
visit the scenes of the infancy of the 
child-god. The anniversary of 
Krishna's birth is celebrated during 
several days in the month of Bhadon 
(August) by a vast concourse of 

The riverside village of Gokul, 
where Vishnu first appeared as 
Krishna, has few relics of antiquity. 
Its shrines and temples are quite 
modern. It is approached, however, 
by a lofty and beautiful flight of steps 
(ghat) from the river, and for more 
than three centuries it has been the 
headquarters of the Vallabhacharya 
sect, or Gokulastha Gusains, whose 
founder preached here. Many thou- 
sands of pilgrims, chiefly from 
Guzerat and Bombay, yearly resort 
to this centre of their faith, and have 
built numerous temples of a rather 
tasteless type.] 

[From Muttra an expedition may 
he made to Dig (D.B. ), a town in 
the territory of the Raja of Bharat- 
pur, 24 m. West of Agra. It is well 



to intimate an intended visit to the 
Political Agent, Bharatpur. The 
journey may be continued to the 
latter place, 22 m. from Dig, or the 
whole journey may be made the 
reverse way from it to Muttra. At 
Govardhan, about 14 m. from Muttra, 
is the celebrated hill which was upheld 
by Krishna on one finger to shelter 
the cowherds from a storm excited by 
Indra as a test of Krishna's divinity. 
Here, on the right, are the "chhatris" 
of the Bharatpur Rajas, a striking 
group of tombs, temples, and ghats 
built on the margin of two vast tanks, 
one of which, called the Munusa 
Ganga, is the resort of thousands of 
pilgrims during the annual autumn 
fair. The chief chhatris are those 
of Buldeo Singh, and of Suraj Mai, 
the founder of the dynasty, and his 
wives, of Randhir Singh ^ and Bela 
Diva Singh. Most of them show 
good carving. Mr Fergusson says 
of the temple of Ilardeo-ji, built in 
Akbar's reign : " It is a plain edifice, 
135 ft. long by 35 ft. wide, exter- 
nally, and both in plan and design 
singularly like those Early Romance 
churches that are constantly met with 
in the S. of France, belonging to the 
lith and 12th centuries." 

For 3 m. before reaching Dig, the 
road forms a sort of causeway above 
a very low flat country, which was 
once a morass and formed the princi- 
pal defence of the Fort. 

At Dig (or Deeg) the chief object 
of interest is the splendid Palace, or 
rather group of palaces, built by Suraj 
Mai of Bharatpur. Though his great 
design was never completed, it sur- 
passes all the other modern palaces 
for grandeur of conception and beauty 
of detail. Mr Fergusson greatly 
admired this palace, and says of it : 
"The glory of Deeg consists in the 
cornices, which are generally double, 
a peculiarity not seen elsewhere, and 
which for extent of shadow and rich- 
ness of detail surpass any similar 
ornaments in India, either in ancient 
or modern buildings. The lower 
cornice is the usual sloping entablature 
almost universal in such buildings. . . . 
' Ruled 1823-1858. 

The upper cornice, which was hori- 
zontal, is peculiar to Deeg, and seems 
designed to furnish an extension of 
the flat roof which in Eastern palaces 
is usually considered the best apart- 
ment of the house ; but whether 
designed for this or any other purpose, 
it adds singularly to the richness of 
the eft'ect, and by the double shadow 
affords a relief and character seldom 
exceeded even in the East." The 
palace enclosure is 475 ft. by 350 ft., 
and has two pavilions on each side 
and one at each end. Several of 
these are figured in vol. ii. p. 82 of 
the Rambles of Sir Wm. Sleeman, 
who was much struck with them. 
The chief pavilions are the Gopal 
Bhawan (1763), flanked by two 
smaller pavilions and faced by an arch 
for a swing and two marble thrones, 
which stands E. of the fine unlined 
Tank; the Nand Bhawan, N.E. of 
this, a fine hall, 150 x 80 x 20 ft. ; the 
Siiraj Bhawan and the Harde 
Bhawan, S. ; and the Kishan Bhawan,^ 
E. again of these. All are highly 
decorated, and between them are 
lovely gardens surrounding a small 
tank. Beyond and adjoining the 
gardens is the large Rup Saugax 
Lake, and beyond it the N. gate of 
the Fort. This has 12 bastions, and 
a ditch 50 ft. broad. Beyond this is 
a natural mound, about 70 ft. high, 
and a building which serves as a 
prison. The walls are very massive 
and lofty. There are 72 bastions in 
all ; and on the N.W. bastion, about 
80 ft. high, is a very long cannon. 

Dig is celebrated for the battle 
fought on the 13th November 1804, 
in which General Frazer defeated 
Jaswant Rao Holkar's army. The 
British took 87 pieces of ordnance 
in this battle, and lost in killed and 
wounded about 350 men. The 
remains of Holkar's army took 
shelter in the Fort of Dig. On 
the 1st December following. Lord 
Lake joined the army before this 
place, and immediately commenced 

1 The Suraj Bhawan is built of white 
marble and mosaic work ; the other halls 
are of cream-coloured sandstone. 




operations to reduce it. On the 
night of the 23rd his troops captured 
an eminence which commanded the 
city, but not without considerable 
loss. The enemy then evacuated 
Dig on the following day and the 
fort on the succeeding night, and 
fled to Bharatpur.] 

6 m. from Muttra by railway is 
Brindaban (properly Vrindaban, mean- 
ing a forest of basil plants), the place to 
which Krishna removed from Gokul. 

There is no reason to believe that 
Brindaban was ever a great seat of 
Buddhism. Its most ancient temples, 
four in number, date only from the 
i6th century, "while the space 
now occupied by a series of the 
largest and most magnificent shrines 
ever erected in Upper India was 
500 years ago belt of woodland " (see 
Growse's Muttra, p. 174). The 
four chief temples are those of 
Gobind Deo-ji, Gopi Nath, Jugal 
Kishor, and Madan Mohan. Brin- 
daban is famous as the place where 
Krishna sported with the Gopis (milk- 
maids), and stole their clothes when 
they were bathing. The Jumna 
bounds the town to the E., and 
winds pleasantly round it. At the 
entrance to the town, on the left, is 
the large red temple, dating from 
1590, sacred to Gobind Deo-ji, which 
was almost destroyed by Aurangzeb, 
but has been somewhat restored by 
the British Government. " It is one 
of the most interesting and elegant 
temples in India, and the only one, 
perhaps, from which an European 
architect might borrow a few hints. 
The temple consists of a cruciform 
porch, internally nearly quite perfect, 
though externally it is not quite clear 
how it was intended to be finished. 
The cell, too, is perfect internally — 
it is used for worship — but the sikra is 
gone ; possibly it may never have been 
completed. Though not large, its 
dimensions are respectable, the porch 
measuring 1 17 ft. E. and W. by 105 
ft. N. and S., and is covered by a 
true vault, built with radiating archet 
— the only instance, except one,' 
known to exist in a Hindu temple 
1 I.e. the temple of Hardeo-ji at Govardhan. 

in the N. of India. Over the four 
arms of the cross the vault is plain, 
and only 20 ft. span, but in the 
centre it expands to 35 ft. and is 
quite equal in design to the best 
Gothic vaulting known. It is the 
external design of this temple, how- 
ever, which is the most remarkable. 
The angles are accentuated with 
singular force and decision, and the 
openings, which are more than suffi- 
cient for that climate, are pictur- 
esquely arranged and pleasingly 
divided. It is, however, the com- 
bination of vertical with horizontal 
lines, covering the whole surface, 
that forms the great merit of the 
design." 1 

E. is a modern Temple, built by 
Seth Radha Krishna and Seth 
Govind Das in the Dravidian style. 
Europeans are not allowed to enter, 
but above the W. gate is a terrace, 
commanding a view of the temple, 
which consists of a vast enclosing 
wall, with three gopurams, which are 
80 to 90 ft. high, while the gates are 
about 55 ft. It is dedicated to Sri 
Ranga, a name of Vishnu (pp. 391,429); 
and figures of Garuda, the man-bird 
of Vishnu, are very conspicuous. In 
the great court are two white marble 
pavilions, one E. and W. of the tank, 
and a stone pavilion with a flat roof, 
supported by sixteen pillars, opposite 
the E. gopuram. 

At the back of the red temple on 
the W., are, at two corners, two 
other temples which resemble each 
other. There is a new temple ad- 
ioining this to the W., built by a 
Bengali Babu. It is not tasteful, 
hut has a finely carved door. 

The Madan Mohan Temple stands 
above a ghat on a branch of the 
river. Under two fine trees, a 
Ficus indica and a Naticlea orientalis, 
is a pavilion, in which many cobras' 
heads are represented. Shiva is said 
to have struck Devi with a stick here, 
when she jumped ofl" this ghat, and 
made it a place for curing snake- 
biles. On the ghat is a Salagram (a 
species of Ammonite worshipped as 
a type of Vishnu), with two footprints, 
1 Fergusson, Architecture of India, ri. 157 



2j in. long. This temple is 65 ft. 
high, and is in the shape of a cone. 

The Temple of Gopi Nath is 

thought by Mr Growse to be the 
earliest of the series. It was built 
by Raesil Ji, who distinguished him- 
self under Akbar. It resembles that 
of Madan Mohan, but is in a ruinous 
condition. Its special feature is an 
arcade of three bracket arches. 

The Temple of Jugal Kishor is at 
the lower end of the town, near the 
Kesi Ghat. It is said to have been 
built by Neo - Karan, a Chauhan 
chief, in 1627 a.d. The choir has 
pierced tracery in the head of the 
arch, and above it a representation 
of Krishna supporting the hill of 

The Temple of Radha Ballahh, of 

which the shrine was demolished by 
Aurangzeb, is also a picturesque ruin. 

47 m. HatJiras City (population 

52 m. Hatliras Road, Station, 
Junction of E. I. Railway (p. 300). 

(c) Agra Cantonment Station to 
Delhi, direct route by Midland Rail- 
way through Mutlra. The route 
between these places was formerly by 
E.I. Railway through Tundla (Route 
22), Aligarh and Ghaziabad Junction, 
and the journey occupied 5-7 hours. 
The direct route, occupying 3^ - 6 
hours, runs through — 

34 m. Muttra (see above). 

59 m. Kosi. 

85 m. Palwal, and 

no m. Tughlakabad to 

123 m. Delhi. (957 m. from Bombay 
by this route, and 864 m. by the B. B. 
and C.I. direct broad gauge route.) 

From Tughlakabad onwards the 
line passes through the ruins of old 
places S. of Delhi (p. 187), the 
Kutab Minar, 7 m. to the W., being 
at first in full sight. 






AGRA. + There are a number of 
railway stations at Agra, but visitors 
are concerned only with the Fort 
Station (p. 300) and the (new) Can- 
tonment Station (p. 113), lying W. 
of the Cantonment (p. 169), wher^ 
conveyances will always be found. 

The city was renamed Akbarabad 
in the i6th century, but the old name 
has prevailed over the new one. 
In size and importance it is the 
third in the United Provinces, and 
has a population of 182,000. It 
stands on the right bank of the 
Jumna, in lat. 27° 10' and long. 78° 5'. 
It is 842 m. distant from Calcutta by 
rail, 849 m. from Bombay, 142 m. 
from Delhi, and 779 m. from Pesha- 

Though a week might very plea- 
santly be spent in visiting the sights 
in and around Agra, they can be seen 
in shorter time, and for those persons 
who have not so many days at their 
disposal the following Itinerary may 
be of service : — 

1st Day, Morning. — Fort and 
Palace. AfteTnoo7i. — Drive to the 
Jama Masjid and on to the Taj. 

2nd Day, Morning. — Drive to Sik- 
andara. Afternoon. — To Itimad-ud- 
daulah, and Chini ka Roza on the 
left bank of the Jumna. 

Most people will like to visit some 
of these places more than once. A full 
day, or, better still, 24 hours should 
be devoted to the excursion to Fateh- 

The hotels are situ9.ted at the N. W. 
corner of the Cantonment, below the 
S.W. corner of the city. Near them 
are the post-ofhce, banks, and club, 
the last at the W. end of the Mall, 
which bounds the principal part of 

the Cantonment on the N. and 
leads E. to the Taj Road and the 
Macdonnell Park, laid out between 
the Taj and the Fort, and enclosing 
at its N. end the memorial statue 
of tlie Queen Empress. S. of the 
telegraph office are the fine public 
gardens. N. of the hotels and 
on the S.W. and N.W. side of the 
city are the District Courts and 
the Agra College, and l| m. beyond 
the latter the City Jail. To the E. 
of this and on the N. side of the 
city are the R.C. Cathedral, College, 
and Convent, and i m. to the N. are 
the Courts of the Commissioner and 
Judge and the R.C. Cemetery. The 
road to Sikandara, which is the main 
road to Muttra, runs N.W. from 
Agra past the District Jail, and the 
road to Fatehpur-Sikri runs S.W. 
No one should miss the last, as the 
buildings of the Emperor Akbar's 
palace are unique, and afford one of 
the most interesting sights in all 
India. The Jumna flows past the 
city in a direction from N. to 
S., but opposite the Fort it turns 
on a great elbow, and in consequence 
the Taj is nearly due E. of the S. 
end of the Fort. It is desirable to 
visit the Agra Fort before Delhi, as 
otherwise it is difficult to understand 
the exact relation of the more isolated 
buildings of the latter palace. 

The old Native City covered about 
II sq. m. , half of which area is still 
inhabited. It is clean, and has a 
fine bazaar. The chief Articles 
of Native Manufacture are gold 
and silver embroidery, carving in 
soapstone, and imitation of the old 
inlay work (pictra dura) on white 

History. — Nothing certain is known 
of Agra before the Mohammedan 


Londou John Mottav, iVlbonijiplr Sirviii 



period. The house of Lodi was the first 
Mohammedan dynasty which chose 
Agra for a settled residence. Before 
their time Agra was a district of Biana. 
Sikandar Lodi died at Agra in 151 5 
A.D., but was buried at Delhi; he built 
the Barahdari Palace, near Sikandara, 
which suburb received its name from 
him. Babar is said to have had a 
garden-palace on the E. bank of the 
Jumna, nearly opposite the Taj, and 
there is a mosque near the spot, with 
an inscription which shows that it 
was built by Babar's son, Humayan, 
in 1530 A.D. 

The Emperor Akbar resided at Agra 
in the early years of his reign, and 
removed there from Fatehpur-Sikri 
about 1568. The only buildings that 
can now be attributed to him are the 
walls and the red palace in the Fort. 
He died at Agra in 1605. Jahangir 
left Agra in 1618, and never returned. 
Shah Jahan resided at Agra from 1632 
to 1637, and built much of the Fort and 
constructed the principal buildings of 
the Palace and the Taj. Between 1638 
and 1650 he caused the Palace at 
Delhi and the Jama Masjid to be 
erected, and he doubtless intended to 
remove the capital to that place. 
Before this was finally done he was 
deposed by his son Aurangzeb in 1658, 
but lived as a State prisoner seven 
years longer at Agra. Aurangzeb 
removed the seat of Government per- 
manently to Delhi. In 1764 Agra 
was taken by Suraj Mai, of Bharat- 
pur and Samru, with an army of 
Jats, who did much damage to the 
town. In 1770 the Mahrattas captured 
it, and were expelled by Najaf Khan in 
1774. In 1784 when Muhammad Beg 
was Governor, Agra was besieged and 
taken by Mahadaji Sindhia, and the 
Mahrattas held it till it was captured 
by Lord Lake, 17th October 1803, 
Colonel Hessing, who commanded, 
surrendering after a brief bombard- 
ment. Between 1835 and 1858 the 
seat of government of the N.W. 
Provinces was at Agra. 

When the mutiny broke out at 
Meerut and Delhi on loth and nth 
May 1857 there were in Agra one 
British Regiment and some British 

Artillery, and two N.I. Regiments, 
the 44th and 77th. The Fort was at 
once secured by the Europeans, and 
after the two companies of the 44th, 
which had been sent to Muttra to bring 
the treasure there into Agra, mutinied 
and marched off to Delhi, their com- 
rades in Agra were ordered to pile 
their arms on 31st May, and did so. 
On 4th July the Kotah contingent 
mutinied, and went off to join the 
Neemuch mutineers, consisting of a 
strong brigade of all arms, 2 ra. from 
Agra. On 5th July, Brigadier Pol- 
whele moved out with 816 men to 
attack them. The battle began with 
artillery, but the enemy were so well 
posted, sheltered by low trees and 
walls and natural earthworks, that 
the British guns were able to do them 
but Httle damage. At 4 P.M. the 
British ammunition was expended ; 
Colonel Riddell advanced with the 
English soldiers, and captured the 
village of Shahganj, but with such 
heavy loss that they were unable to 
hold their ground, and were obliged to 
retreat into the Fort of Agra.^ The 
rebels burnt the cantonments, mur- 
dered all Europeans who were found 
outside the Fort, and then marched 
to Delhi. 

There were now 6000 men, women, 
and children, including 1500 natives 
in the Fort which was put in a 
thorough state of defence, Colonel 
Cotton assuming command. On the 
20th of August he sent cut Major 
Montgomery with a small column, 
which on the 24th defeated the rebels 
at Aligarh, and took that place. On 
the 7th September MrColvin, Lieut. - 
Governor of N.W. Provinces, died. 
When Delhi was captured by the 
British in September, the fugitive 
rebels, together with those of Central 
India, advanced, on 6th October, 
upon Agra. At this very lime Colonel 
Greathed's force from Delhi arrived 
without their knowledge, and when 
they attacked the place, they were 

1 An appalling picture of confusion, in- 
subordination, and insanitstion in the Fort 
is given in Mr M. Thornhill's Personal 
Adventures and Experiences 0/ a Magis- 
trate in the Indian Mutiny. 




completely routed on loth October, 
and Agra was finally relieved from all 

The Taj Mahal should be seen re- 
peatedly. The best time for a first 
visit is late in the aftern»on. The 
building is properly named Tajbibi ka 
Koza, or " The Crown Lady's 
Tomb." It was commenced in 1040 
A.H., or 1630 A.D., by the Emperor 
Shah Jahan, as a tomb for his 
favourite queen, Arjmand Banu, en- 
titled Mumtaz-i- Mahal, the " Chosen 
of the Palace," or more freely, "Pride 
of the Palace. " She was the daughter 
of Asaf Khan, brother of Nurjahan, 
the famous empress-wife of Jahangir. 
Their father was Mirza Ghiyas, a 
Persian, who came from Teheran to 
seek his fortune in India, and rose to 
power under the title of Itimad-ud 
daulah. (See p. 17!^) Mumtaz-i- Ma- 
hal married Shah Jahan in 1615 A.D., 
had by him seven children, and died 
in child-bed of the eighth in 1629, at 
Burhanpur, in the Deccan. Her 
body was brought to Agra, and laid 
in the garden where the Taj stands 
until the mausoleum was built. The 
Taj cost, according to some accounts, 
Rs. 18,465,186, and according to 
others, Rs. 31,748,026, and took up- 
wardsof twenty-twoyearsto build, ac- 
cording to Tavernier, who records that 
he saw both its commencement and 
completion, and that the scaffolding 
used was constructed of brick. There 
were originally two silver doors at the 
entrance, but these were taken away 
and melted by Suraj Mai and his 
Jats. Austin of Bordeaux was then 
in the Emperor's service, probably 
took part in the decoration, and 
especially in the inlaid work, of the 

Before reaching the Taj the recently 
built State Circuit House will be seen 
on the left. The surroundings outside 
the enclosure have been well restored 
of recent years, and both the tomb 
and the Fattehpuri mosque of red 
sandstone in front of the approach 
from the Fort now form extremely 
picturesque features in the scene. 
The approach to the Taj is by the 

Taj Ganj Gate, which opens into an 
outer court 880 ft. long and 440 ft. 
wide. Inside the court are two 
tombs, and in the N.W. corner a 
small caravanserai — all of which have 
been satisfactorily repaired. On the 
right is a gate which leads into 
the quarter S. of the Taj, and on 
the left is the Great Gateway of the 
garden-court, built 1648, which 
Mr Fergusson calls "a worthy 
pendant to the Taj itself." It 
is indeed a superb gateway of 
red sandstone, inlaid with orna- 
ments and inscriptions from the 
Koran in white marble, and 
surmounted by 26 white marble 

Inside is the beautiful Taj garden. 
This is laid out in formal style, 
the whole to the S. of the plat- 
form of the Taj and the build- 
ings which support it architecturally 
being divided by two main thorough- 
fares into four portions, which are 
again subdivided into four. The 
principal vista, which has a marble 
water-course all down it interrupted 
in the middle by a marble platform, 
leads directly to the Taj, which rises 
in all its peerless beauty at the end, 
and is mirrored in the water below. 
The cypresses which lined the vista 
have been lately removed, as the size 
to which they had grown obstructed 
the view of the Taj, but others have 
been planted, and will take their 
place in the scene in due course. The 
trees of the garden generally have 
also been wisely thinned, and now 
admit of endless beautiful views and 
peeps of the marble dome, the marble 
walls and the marble minarets, 
which can be enjoyed at leisure from 
the seats placed about the gardens. 
Very fine views are also obtained from 
the top of the great gate and from the 
halls in the centre of the side walls. 
Along the S. wall on either side of 
the great gate is an extremely fine 
pillared gallery of red sandstone. The 
beauty of the Taj is perhaps most 
perfect immediately after sunset, or 
under the moonlight ; but every 
change of light seems to lend new 
graces to it. Those who linger for 

Section and Plan of tlie Taj Mahal. 



[To face p. 172. 



evening or night effects must take 
precautions against a possible chill 
in such damp surroundings. 

The cerrtral marble platform on 
which the tomb stands is 22 ft. 
high and 313 ft. sq. At each corner 
is a minaret of white marble picked 
out by black lines, 137 ft. high. The 
tomb itself measures 186 ft. on each 
side, the corners being bevelled off 
and recessed into a bay. On either 
side of each angle corner is another 
small bay, and in the centre of each 
side is a splendid deep bay 63 ft. high. 
The height of the walls and parapet 
over them is 108 ft. ; at each corner 
above them rise smaller marble domes, 
and in the centre soars the great 
central dome, which rises to a height 
of 187 ft., the metal pinnacle adding 
yet 30 ft. to the whole : the height of 
the top of the dome above the level 
of the garden is just 2? ft. less than 
that of the Kutab Minar, and of the 
top of the pinnacle a few ft. higher 
than that. "The building," writes Mr 
Fergusson, "isanexquisite example of 
that system of inlaying with precious 
stones which became the great charac- 
teristic of the style of the Mughals after 
the death of Akbar." All the span- 
drels of the Taj, all the angles and 
moreimportant details, are heightened 
by being inlaid with precious stones. 
These are combined in wreaths, 
scrolls, and frets as exquisite in design 
as beautiful in colour. They form the 
most beautiful and precious style of 
ornament everadopted in architecture. 
Though of course not to be compared 
with the beauty of Greek ornament, 
it certainly stands first among the 
purely decorative forms of architec- 
tural design. The judgment with 
which this style of ornament is 
apportioned to the various parts is 
almost as remarkable as the ornament 
itself, and conveys a high idea of the 
taste and skill of the Indian architects 
of the age. 

The delicately sculptured orna- 
mentation, in low relief, to be found 
on all^ exterior walls and the re- 
cesses of the building, is in its way 
as beautiful as the pietra dura work 

In the centre of the tomb is 
an octagonal chamber surrounded by 
a series of other rooms. Each side of 
the central room measures 24 ft. The 
dome rises So ft. above the pavement, 
and is 58 ft. in diameter. Under the 
centre of the dome, enclosed by a 
trellis-work screen of white marble, 
which Mr Fergusson considers "a chef 
(fceuvre of e\ega.nce in Indian art," but 
which most people will rate less highly 
— it probably dates from the reign 
of Aurangzeb — are the tombs of 
Mumtaz-i-Mahal and Shah Jahan ; 
the simple inlay work on these and 
the more elaborate work on the 
screen deserve special examination. 
" These, however, as is usual in 
Indian sepulchres, are not the true 
tombs — the bodies rest in a vault, 
level with the surface of the ground, 
beneath plainer tombstones placed 
exactly below those in the hall above." 
Over the two tombs hangs a 
fine Cairene lamp, the graceful gift 
of Lord Curzon. The inscriptions 
on them are " Markad-i-Munawwar i 
Arimand Banu Begam, Mukhatib 
ba Mumtaz-i-Mahal, taufiyat san 
1040" (the resplendent grave of 
Arjmand Banu Begam, called 
Mumtaz-i-Mahal, deceased in 1040), 
and " Markad i Mutahhar i Ali i 
Hazrat i Fardausashyani Sahib Kiran 
i Sani, Shah Jahan Badshah, Taba 
Sarrahu " (the famous grave of his 
Imperial Highness, the resident of 
Paradise, the second Alexander 
(Lord of the two horns). King Shah 
jahan. May his grave be fragrant). 
The Queen's tomb bears the 99 
names of God. " The light in the 
apartment where the tombs are," 
says Mr Fergusson, "is admitted 
only through double screens of 
white marble trellis - work of the 
most exquisite design, one on the 
outer and one on the inner face of the 
walls. In our climate this would 
produce nearly complete darkness ; 
but in India, and in a building 
wholly composed of white marble, 
this was required to temper the 
glare that otherwise would have 
been intolerable. As it is, no words 
can express the chastened beauty 




of that central chamber, seen in the 
soft gloom of the subdued light that 
reaches it through the distant and 
half-closed openings that surround 
it.^ When used as a Barahdari, or 
pleasure-palace, it must always have 
been the coolest and the loveliest of 
garden retreats, and now that it is 
sacred to the dead, it is the most 
graceful and the most impressive of 
sepulchres in the world." There is 
a most wonderful echo in the dome. 
It was seriously proposed by a 
Governor-General of India to de- 
molish the Taj and sell the marbles ; 
but that was many years ago, and 
the mausoleum and its surroundings 
now receive far more loving care than 
would ever have been the case under 
a Mohammedan Emperor. For the 
excellent work done in this connec- 
tion at Agra and at Fatehpur-Sikri 
and Sikandarah of late years, the 
public have to thank, in the first 
place, Sir John Strachey, and next. 
Sir Antony, now Lord MacDonnell, 
and his able assistant, the late Mr 
E. W. Smith. 

On a lower level at either side of 
the mausoleum are two fine buildings 
of red sandstone, that on the W. side 
being a mosque, and that on the E. 
side forming a jawab or complement, 
a hall. On the pavement in front of 
the former, which bears the unusual 
decoration of flowers, is a represen- 
tation of the finial of the Taj. The 
Taj was intended to be seen balanced 
between these two buildings, and 
every one should cross the river by 
the ferry boat, which will be found at 
the end of the road which runs outside 
the W. wall from the entrance to the 
outer court, in order to realise this 
beautiful view. From the further side 
various paths lead to the E. end of the 
Jumna Bridge, if it is desired to 
return by that route. 

The Fort. — Most of the magnifi- 
cent Mughal buildings which render 

1 The light in the interior is hardly 
sufficient now that the marble grilles 
are fitted with glass. It is not probable 
that the Taj was ever used as a pleasure 

Agra so interesting in the eye of the 
traveller are situated within the Fort, 
which has a circuit of over a mile. 
The walls and flanking defences are of 
red sandstone, and have an imposing 
appearance, being nearly 70 ft. high ; 
tlie finest portion of them is along the 
N. side and to the S. of the N.E. 
bastion. The ditch is 30 ft. wide and 
35 ft. deep. The Water Gate on the 
E. is closed, but there are still two 
entrances — the Amar Singh Gate on 
the S., the Delhi Gate on the W. 
Outside the latter and connecting it 
with the Jama Masjid was the fine 
Tripulya court, removed after 1857 ; 
in it was the Nakkar Khana music 
gallery. Crossing the draw-bridge 
to the Delhi ' Gate, and passing 
the outer and inner archways, the 
latter with a date of 1600 A.D., a 
somewhat steep slope between red 
sandstone walls will be found to lead 
to another gateway called the Hathi 
Pol, or ' ' Elephant Gate. " There used 
to be two stone elephants here with 
figures of Patta and Jaimall (p. 93), 
the two famous Rajputs of Chitor- 
garh, said to have been removed to 
Delhi (p. 199), and the marks where 
their feet were fixed may still be traced 
on the platforms on either side of the 
archway. This is flanked by two 
octagonal towers of red sandstone, 
relieved with designs in white plaster. 
The domed interior of the gateway, 
with a raised platform for the guard 
on either side, is very striking. 

Inside the gate one broad road 
sweeps to the left, and, passing the 
magazine, turns to the front of the 
Moti Masjid and the N. gate of the 
court in front of the Diwan-i-'Am, 
while another, passing to the right 
as far • as the head of the descent 
to the Amar Singh Gate, then turns 
to the S. gate of that court. A short 
way down the latter on the left a 
road, not always open, leads to the 
Mina Bazaar, between the mosque 
and court. 

The Moti Masjid, the "Pearl 
Mosque," is described by Mr Fergus- 
son as "one of the purest and most 
elegant buildings of its class to be 





Jama j stat. 

1. Northern Tower. 

2. Descent to Water Gate. 

3. NaginahMasjid and ladies' private Bazaar. 

4. Small Courts and ruins of Baths. 

5. Open Terrace with Diwan-i-KhasonS.side. 

6. Recess where the Emperor's Throne 


7. Diwau-i-'Am (Hall of Public Audience). 

8. Machchi Bhawan. 

9. Mr Colvin's Grave. 

10. Mina Mosque. 

11. The Anguri Bagh (Grape Garden). 

Stan/ordj Oecg'- £sCaif 

12. Saman Burj (Octagon Tower). At N. 

angle is an outlet by secret passage. 

13. Khas Mahal. 

14. Shish Mahal (Mirror Palace). 

15. Well. 

16. Palace of .Jahangir (or Akbar). 

17. Tower. At the base is an entrance to 

a secret passage. 

18. Incline from Amar Sing's Gate 

19. Court of Amar Sing's Gate. 

20. Elephant Gate. 

21. Kiosk of Salimgarh. 

[To face p. 174. 



found anywliere. " It was commenced 
1056 A.H. = 1648 A.D., and finished 
1063 A.H. = 1655 A. D., and is said to 
have cost Rs. 300,000. It was built 
by Shah Jahan on ground sloping 

Moti Masjid. 

from W. to E., and the fine entrance 
gateway of red sandstone makes a 
trihedral projection from the centre 
of the E. face : it is approached by a 
double staircase with a restored rail- 
ing. The exterior is faced with slabs 
of red sandstone, the interior built 
of marble — white, blue, and grey 
veined. "The moment you enter 
the effect of its courtyard is surpass- 
ingly beautiful." 

In the centre there is a marble 
tank, 37 ft. 7 in. sq., for ablutions, 
and between it and the S.E. inner 
corner of the mosque there is an 
ancient sundial, consisting of an 
octagonal marble pillar, 4 ft. high, 
with no gnomon, but simply two 
crossed lines and an arc. A marble 
cloister runs round the E., N., and 
S. sides of the court, which measures 

234 and 183 ft., interrupted by arch- 
ways, of which those in the N. and 
S. sides are closed. The' mosque 
proper, or liwan, measures 149 ft. 
by 56 ft., and consists of three aisles 
of seven bays opening on to the court- 
yard, and surmounted by three domes. 
On the entablature over the front 
row of supporting pillars, i.e. on 
the E. face, there is an inscription 
running the whole length, the letters 
being of black marble inlaid into 
the white. The inscription says that 
the mosque may be likened to a 
precious pearl, for no other mosque 
is lined throughout with marble like 
this. Narrow flights of steps lead 
to the top of the gateway and to 
the roof of the mosque, from which 
there is a fine view. During the 
Mutiny this mosque was used as an 

Beyond the Mina Bazaar on the 
right and the descent to the closed 
Water Gate on the left, is the 
entrance to the fine court of the 
Diwan-i-'Am, with colonnades lately 
restored. In front of the Durbar 
Hall is the tomb of Mr Colvin, 
Lieut. -Governor of the N.W. Pro- 
vinces, who died in the fort on 7th 
September 1857. The Diwan-i-'Am, 
or Hall of Public Audience, is 208 ft. 
long by 76 ft. deep, and consists of 
three aisles of nine bays open on three 
sides. The roof is supported by 
graceful columns of red sandstone, 
which have been subjected to judicious 
restoration. Along its back wall are 
grilles, through which fair faces could 
watch what was going forward in 
the hall below, and in its centre is 
a raised alcove of white marble 
richly decorated with pietra dura 
work and low reliefs, which bear 
evident traces of Italian design. It 
is probably the work of Shah 
Jahan, though lacking the elegance 
of most of the buildings of that 

The entrance to the inner courts of 
the palace from this side is by a pass- 
age and steps to the N. of the Diwan- 
i-'Am ; it was within these courts and 
the Diwan-i-'Am that the scenes which 




Captain Hawkins so graphically de- 
scribes in connection with the Em- 
peror Jahangir took place. The first 
enclosure entered is the MadicM 
Bhawan, or "Fish Square," which 
formerly possessed a large tank. A 
two-storied cloister runs all round it, 
except on the side which fronts the 
Junma, where the upper storey gives 
place to an open terrace. In the N. 
side are two very fine bronze gates 
taken by Akbar from Chitorgarh 
(page 94), and at the N.W. corner 
is a beautiful little three - domed 
mosque of white marble, called the 
Naginah Masjid, or " Gem Mosque." 
This was the private mosque of the 
royal ladies of the court, and was built 
by Shah Jahan, who was afterwards 
imprisoned there by his successor 
Aurangzeb. Beneath, in a small court- 
yard, was a bazaar where the mer- 
chants used to display their goods to 
the ladies of the court. On the 
terrace on the river side is a black 
throne with a white seat opposite it. 
The former has a long fissure, which 
is said to have appeared when the 
throne was usurped by the Jat chief 
of Bharatpur. There is a reddish stain 
in one spot which the natives pretend 
is blood. An inscription runs round the 
four sides, stating that, "when Salim 
became heir to the crown his name was 
changed to Jahangir, and for the light 
of his justice he was called Nur-ud-din. 
His sword cut his enemies' heads into 
two halves like the Gemini." The 
date given is ion A. H. = 1603 A.D. 
Beneath this terrace is a wide en- 
closure within the outer walls where 
contests between elephants and tigers 
used to take place. On the N. of the 
terrace is the site of a hall of green 
marble, and of various rooms of the 
Bath or Hammam, now in a ruinous 
condition, and on the S. is the 
Diwan-i-Khaa, or Hall of Private 
Audience. The hall, which 'con- 
sists of an open colonnade in front 
and an enclosed room at the back, 
measures 65 ft. by 34 ft. by 22 ft. high, 
and is a miracle of beauty. The 
carving is exquisite, and the flowers 
inlaid on the while marble with red 
cornelian, and other valuable stones. 

are introduced with better because 
more sparing effect than in the Diwan- 
i-Khas of Delhi. The date of the 
building is 1046 A. H. = 1 637 A. D. It 
is contained in the title Sa'adat Sarai 
wa Humayun Asas, the Abode of 
Joy and .Auspicious Home. A stair- 
case leads from the Diwan-i-Khas 
to the Saman BurJ, a few steps on the 
right conducting to the tiny Mina 
Masjid, or private mosque of the Em- 
peror, probably the smallest mosque 
in existence. The proper name of 
the Saman Burj is Musamman or Oc- 
tagon, but it is generally known by a 
corruption of its name as the Jesamine 
(Yasmin) Burj ; the chief Sultan.a 
lived in the beautiful pavilion, with a 
fountain and retiring-room, over the 
river. The lovely marble lattice-work 
seems to have been broken by cannon- 
shot in some places. Part of the 
marble pavement in front of it is made 
to represent a Pachisi or chess-board. 

Opposite the Saman Burj, but 
usually entered from the next court, 
is the Shish Mahal, literally " Mirror 
Palace." It consists of two dark 
chambers furnished with fountains and 
an artificial cascade arranged to fall 
over lighted lamps. The walls and 
ceilings are decorated with pounded 
talc, and with innumerable small 
mirrors, which were restored in 1875. 

Above the buildings at this spot and 
approached by steps above the Mina 
Masjid are the remains of reservoirs 
and waterducts, and arrangements for 
theraisingof water from below. From 
the roof a fine view is also obtained 
of the courts on either side of it, of the 
Moti Masjid and the Taj. Of the 
the latter, many fine views and peeps 
are obtained along the river from the 
terrace of the Machchi Bhawan to the 
palace of Akbar. 

The Anguri Bagh or " Grape Gar- 
den," now entered is a fine square 
of 280 ft., now planted with grass. 
In the centre of the E. side is a 
lovely hall called the Khas Mahal, 
the gilding and colouring of which 
were in part restored in 1875. In 
front are small tanks and fountains. 
The Khas Mahal undoubtedly fornoed 



the model upon which the Diwan-i- 
Khas at Delhi was built : it measures 
70 ft. by 40 ft. In the platform under 
it are subterranean apartments for 
use in the summer heats, from 
which passages lead to still cooler 
rooms round the baoli in the S.E. 
corner of the Fort. On either hand 
also facing the river are the Golden 
Pavilions, so called from their 
curved roofs being covered with 
gilded plates of copper. In them 
are bedrooms for ladies, with holes 
in the wall, 14 in. deep, into 
which they used to slip their jewels. 
These holes are so narrow that only a 
woman's arm could draw the contents 
out. In the S.E. corner of the 
Anguri Bagh will be found three 
rooms, beautifully decorated in fresco, 
which were the private apartments of 
Shah Jahan. The room nearest the 
river is an octagonal pavilion, and 
very beautiful. In it, according to 
tradition, Shah Jahan died, gazing 
upon the Taj. To the W. of the 
rooms is another in which stand 
the so-called Gates of Somnath, 12 ft. 
high, and finely carved : they are 
of Deodar, not sandal, wood, and of 
Mohammedan work. There is a 
Kufic inscription running round them 
in which the name of Sabuktagin has 
been read. They were captured by 
General Nott at Ghazni and brought 
here in 1842. 

The Jahan^ Mahal, a beautiful 
red sandstone palace now entered 
was built either by Jahangir or Akbar. 
It stands in the S.E. part of the Fort, 
between the palace of Shah Jahan 
and the Bangali bastion, the principal 
fa9ade being on the E. This is 
handsomely decorated with bright 
tiles in the upper portion, and is 
pierced in the centre by a fine en- 
trance gateway. This leads through 
a vestibule into a beautiful domed 
hall, 18 ft. sq., the ceiHng of which is 
elaborately carved, and from which a 
corridor leads into the grand central 
court, which is 72 ft. sq. The design 
of this court, its pillars, the carving 
and ornamentation, are all pure 
Hindu, and for minute and exquisite 

ornamental carving in stone it is 

" On the N. side of the court is a 
grand open pillared hall, 62 ft. long 
and 37 ft. broad. The pillars support 
bracket capitals, richly carved and 
ornamented with pendants. The front 
brackets support broad sloping eaves 
of thin stone slabs. But the stone 
roof or ceiling of this pillared hall is 
the most remarkable feature about it. 
It is supported most curiously by stone 
cross-beams, which are ornamented 
with the quaint device of a great 
serpent or dragon carved on them 
lengthways. A covered passage or 
corridor runs round the top of this 
hall, from which one can look down 
into it. The other pillared hall on 
the opposite or S. side of the grand 
court is somewhat less in size." 

From the grand court, a large 
chamber to the E. leads to a recessed 
portico in the centre of a quadrangle 
which faces the river, supported by 
two lofty pillars and two half pillars 
of the more slender and graceful 
Hindu kind. Some of the chambers 
are lined with stucco, which has been 
painted, and has lasted better than 
the stone-work. The palace ends 
on the side facing the river with 
a retaining wall and two corner 
bastions, each surmounted by an 
ornamental tower with a domed 
cupola. There are many vaulted 
chambers underneath the palace, used 
as places of retreat during the summer 
heats. The palace has lately been 
most successfully restored, a process 
rendered necessary by the bad quality 
of the red sandstone originally used. 
This process is being extended to the 
building S. of it, which contains a 
court 140 ft. square. 

In the space in front of the palace 
is the Hauz of Jahangir, an enormous 
monolithic cistern of light-coloured 
porphyry, externally nearly 5 ft- high, 
and internally 4 ft. deep, and 8 ft. in 
diameter at top; and at the N.W. 
corner is the head of the descent to 
the Amar Singh Gate, so called from 
the elder brother of Maharaja Jaswant 
Singh of Jodhpur, who was dis- 
inherited by his father for his 





turbulence, and was killed here in 
1648 with all his followers after a 
fatal brawl within the royal precincts. 
Outside the Gate is the half-buried 
figure of a horse in red sandstone, 
and on rising ground to the S.W. 
are the cemeteries in which many 
who died in the Fort during the 
summer of 1857 were buried. Near 
it is the N. end of the Macdonnell 
Park, and the fine memorial of the 
QiTeen Empress, by Thorneycroft. 
The bronze statue, which is of a 
standing figure on a high base, was 
unveiled by ICing George on i8th 
December 1905. It was the S.W. 
bastion which was battered by Lord 
Lake in 1803 so successfully that 
the Mahratta garrison at once sur- 
rendered. Before descending to the 
Gate, the beautiful little Hindu 
Pavilion, situated on high ground, 
outside the S.W. corner of the 
Diwan-i-'Am court, should be visited. 
It is perhaps the most ornamental 
structure of all in that style at Agra, 
and is probably the work of Salim 
Shah, son of the Emperor Sher Shah. 

The Jama Masjid faces the Delhi 
gate of the Fort, close to the Fort 
railway station, and a fine view of 
it is obtained from the footbridge to 
the station. It stands upon a raised 
platform, 11 ft. high, reached by 
flights of steps on the S. and E. 
sides. The mosque proper measures 
130 ft. by 100 ft., and is divided 
into five compartments, each of 
which opens on the courtyard by a 
fine archway. The inscription over 
the main archway sets forth that 
the mosque was constructed by the 
Emperor Shah Jahan in 1644 in the 
name of his daughter, Jahanara, who 
afterwards shared her father's captivity 
(p. 206). The great peculiarity of this 
Masjid consists in its three great full- 
bottomed domes without necks, built 
of red sandstone, with zigzag bands of 
white marble circling round them. 

On the W. side of the city is the 
Agra College, which owes its origin to 
the Gwalior State, of which the ftlaha- 
raja at the end of the 1 8th century 
made over certain villages in the 

districts of Muttra and Aligarh to a 
learned Brahman for the twofold pur- 
pose of keeping up a Sanscrit School, 
and of supplying the wants of pilgrims 
visiting the shrines around Muttra. 
In 1 81 8 the original grantee left his 
lands in trust to the E. India Co., who 
devoted two-thirds of the proceeds to 
the establishment of this college, and 
one-third to hospitals at Muttra and 
Aligarh. The College, opened 1835, 
consists of a high school, with 700 
pupils, and a college proper with 175 
undergraduates and 7 professors, be- 
sides 45 law students. It is managed 
by a board of trustees. E. of the 
College and situated in the western 
outskirts of the city are the Medical 
School, the Kalan Masjid, and St 
John's College, the centre of the 
C.M.S. Mission, nearly as large as 
the Govt. College. The mosque was 
probably built by Sikandar Lodi, and 
is the oldest building in Agra. 

E. of the Central Jail are the 
Romau Catliolic Cathedral, Convent, 
and Schools, dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, the first with a tower about 
150 ft. high. The buildings are large, 
but not architecturally interesting. 
The Mission was founded in the time 
of Akbar, and has long been celebrated 
for its school, where the children of 
soldiers and others are educated. 
The earliest tombs connected with 
the settlement of Christians at Agra 
are in the R.C. cemetery, which lies 
I m. to the N. The most ancient 
epitaphs are in the Armenian 
character. Among the tombs are 
those of John Hessing, and John Mil- 
denhall (died 1614), and the notorious 
Samru, Walter Reinhardt (see p. 221). 
N.W. of the Cathedral is the Kanda- 
hari Bagh, where Shah Jahan's first 
Persian wife was buried, now Bharat- 
pur House, and N. of it again the 
Seth's Garden, once containing the 
graves of Faiziand Abul Fazl (p. 185), 
and their sister, Ladli Begam. 

The Tomb of I'timad-ud-daulah 

lies about 250 yds. to the N. from 
the E. end of the new E. I.R. bridge. 
It is the mausoleum of Ghiyas Beg, a 
Persian, who was the father of Nur 



Jahan, and her brother, Asaf Khan, 
and a grandfather of the lady of the 
Taj, and who became high treasurer 
of Jahangir. The tomb stands in a 
beautiful garden, which receives much 
attention, on a platform 4 ft. high, and 
measuring 150 ft., and is itself 69 ft. 
square. At each corner is an octagonal 
tower 40 ft. high, and on the terrace 
of the roof is a pavilion 25 ft. square ; 
and the design of the mausoleum 
clearly served for that of the Emperor 
Jahangir also built by Nur Jahan at 
Shahdara, near Lahore (p. 238). The 
centre room below, measuring 22 ft., 
contains the two tombs of Ttimad-ud- 
daulah and his wife, made of yellow 
coloured marble; the side rooms round 
it display paintings of flower vases, 
fruits, etc., which were also repro- 
duced in the Shahdara mausoleum. 
The marble lattice work of the 
passages admitting light to the in- 
terior is extremely fine. The pavilion 
on the terrace of the tomb has a 
curved roof and broad sloping eaves, 
and contains two marble cenotaphs 
corresponding to those below. The 
whole of the exterior and much of 
the interior is of white marble with 
beautiful inlay work. The inlay work 
here is the earliest known in India 
(1628 A.D.), and will appear to many 
more pleasing than the less simple 
work in the buildings of the Emperor 
Shah Jahan. 

Half-a-mile N. of this is the Chlni 
ka Roza, or china tomb. It has one 
great dome resting on an octagonal 
base. In the centre of the octagonal 
domed chamber, much ruined, are 
two tombs of brick, which have re- 
placed marble tombs. Externally it 
is decorated with glazed work, such 
as was so successfully used on the 
public buildings at Lahore ; the 
flower patterns of many of the panels 
are very effective, and must once 
have been very beautiful. The tomb 
was probably erected in the reign 
of Aurangzeb. 

Further up the left bank of the 
river again is the Ram Bagh, where 
the Emperor Babar was buried pend- 
ing the erection of his mausoleum at 

Kabul. The river terrace of this 
garden is extremely picturesque, 
and a very pleasant return journey 
may be made from it by boat to the 

The mausoleum of the Emperor 
Akbar at Sikandarah, so named from 
Sikandar Lodi, who reigned from 
1489 A.D., is 5^ m. from the canton- 
ment at Agra. There are many 
tombs on the way, and on the left 
side of the road, about 4 m. from 
Agra, and nearly opposite the lofty 
arched gateway of an ancient building 
called the Kachi ki Sarai, there is a 
poorly sculptured horse. At ^ m. 
farther on, a little back from the 
road on the E. side, is a tank of red 
sandstone, with ornamental octagonal 
towers, called Guru ka Tal. On 
the S. side are three flights of steps, 
and E. of them is a long and broad 
channel of masonry, which brought 
water to the tank. ^ m. beyond the 
mausoleum is a red sandstone two- 
storeyed building, called the Barah- 
dari, and built by Sikandar Lodi in 
1495 A. D. The ground floor contains 
forty chambers. Each corner of the 
building is surmounted by a short 
octagonal tower. It was made the 
tomb of Mariam uz Zamani, wife of 
the Emperor Akbar, whom tradition 
has converted into a Christian (p. 183), 
and is now occupied by a part of the 
establishment of the Agra Orphan 

A fine gateway leads to the great 
garden enclosure in which the mauso- 
leum of the Emperor Akbar is situ- 
ated : on either side of it in flanking 
walls are boldly pierced sandstone 
grilles. It is of red sandstone, inlaid 
with white marble in various poly- 
gonal patterns, very massive, and 
with a splendid scroll of Tughra 
writing a foot broad adorning it. On 
the top of the gateway, at each 
corner, rises a white minaret of two 
storeys ; the cupolas destroyed over 
120 years ago have been restored. 
There is a fine view from the plat- 
form at the top. A broad paved 
path leads to the mausoleum. It is 
a pyramidal building, 74 ft. high, of 




four storeys, three of which are of red 
sandstone, the fourth, enclosing the 
cenotaph, being of white marble. 
The basement measures 320 ft. each 
way, and the top storeys, 157 it. 
Mr Fergusson was of opinicm that 
the idea of the arrangement was taken 
from that of a structural Buddhist 
monastery, but this hardly seems 
probable- A massive cloister runs 
round the lower storey, broken S. and 
N. by high central arches, that on the 
S. forming the entrance to the tomb 
chamber. The vaulted ceiling of 
the vestibule was elaborately frescoed 
in gold and blue, and a section of this 
has been restored. TheSurah-i-Mulk 
runs under the cornice in a scroll i ft. 
broad. A gentle incline leads to the 
dark vaulted chamber in which the 
great Akbar rests. On either side of 
the main arch some bays of the cloister 
are screened off and contain tombs, 
with inscriptions in beautiful charac- 
ters. In a niche in the side of the 
room, farthest from the entrance, is 
an alabaster tablet inscribed with the 
99 divine names. 

Narrow staircases lead to the plat- 
forms and terraces above. The 
fourth is surrounded by a beautiful 
cloister of white marble, carved on 
the outer side into lattice-work in 
squares of 2 ft., every square of a 
different pattern. In the centre is the 
splendid white monolith cenotaph of 
the Emperor, engraved with the 99 
glorious names of the Deity, just 
over the place where his dust rests in 
the vaulted chamber below. On the N. 
side of the cenotaph is inscribed the 
motto of the sect he founded, " Allahu 
Akbar," "God is greatest" ; and on 
the S. side " Jalla Jalalahu," "May 
His glory shine." To the N. of 
it, at the distance of 4 ft., is a 
handsome white marble pillar 2^ ft. 
high, which, according to tradition, 
was once covered with gold and con- 
tained the Koh-i-Nur. The wind 
sighing through the pierced screens 
maintains a perpetual solemn requiem 
•over the great Emperor. The gate- 
way recesses in N., E. and W. walls 
of the garden are also decorated with 
1 A Chapter of the Koran. 

marble mosaics. The cost of the 
tomb was 15 lakhs. 

A good shady road — the one used 
by the great Akbar himself — leads 
S.W. from Agra to 22| m. 


for the trip can be hired in Agra). 
The B.B. Railway broad gauge system 
is about to be extended from Agra 
Cantonment Station to Bayana (p. 
122) through Fatehpur-Sikri. — At the 
entrance to Shahganj are the ruins of 
a mosque, with an inscription saying 
it was built in 1 62 1. It marks the 
site of the old Ajmer Gate. Farther 
on is a Moslem cemetery, with a tomb 
said to be that of Mirza Hindal, son 
of Babar, father of Akbar's chief wife. 
At the foot of the tomb is a monolith 
7 ft. high, with the date 1570. 

The royal but long deserted city of 
Fatehpur-Sikri, standing on a low 
sandstone ridge, was the creation of 
Akbar, who built every structure in 
it, but abandoned it for Agra. 
Owing to this fact and on account 
of its very perfect preservation it 
forms an unique specimen of a city 
in the exact condition in which it was 
occupied by the Great Mughal and 
his court. The alleged reason for its 
construction was the presence on the 
spot of the Chishti Saint, Shaikh 
Salim ; and the undoubted reason of 
its desertion was the difficulty of 
obtaining good water in the place 
and the unhealthiness of its sur- 

From the arrangement of the 
buildings it is evident that Akbar had 
the whole carefully planned out. This 
will be seen by the position of 
the Khwabgah, Akbar's private 
room, which commands the Daftar 
Khana, Record Office, and the whole 
of the principal buildings, and from 
which he could reach, without being 
observed, the "Jodh Bai " Palace — 
by a covered way pulled down during 
nineteenth century restorations — 
Miriam's House, Bir Bal's House, 
the Panch Mahal, Turkish Sultana's 
House, Council Chamber, etc., etc. 
Inside the old walls of the city and 
about i^ m. from Fatehpur and 



Sikri the road divides, that to the 
left passing under the ridge, and to 
the village at the foot of the steps 
below the Buland Darwazah, and 
that going straight on gradually 
ascending the ridge to the palace. 
This passes beneath the Naubat 
Khana, from the upper rooms of 
which musicians played as Akbar 
entered the city. Farther left are the 
remains of the Treasury, and opposite 

some 366 ft. from N. to S. by 181 ft. 
from E. to W. , and surrounded by a 
flat-roofed cloister. On the W. side 
is the Audience Hall, with a deep 
verandah in front, and an isolated 
space for the Emperor between two 
pierced stone screens of fine geometric 
design. The room behind has a 
peculiar roof, which was painted. 
The road leads through the courtyard 
to the Daftar Khana, or Record Office, 




Shaik Salim Chishti's Dargali 
Panch Mahal 
Jodh Bai's Palace 
Birbal's House 
Miriam's House 
Camel and Horse Stable 
Sultana's Apartment 
Large Octagonal Baoli 
Gate of Victory or Buland 

it what is known traditionally as the 
Mint, a large quadrangular building. 
Near the mint a new Traveller's Rest 
House has been built. Beyond this 
the road enters the inner enceinte 
of the palace! and the court in 
front of the Diwan-i'-Am, measuring 
1 The four vols, published by the late 
Mr W. E. Smith upon Fatehpur-Sikri are 
the_ finest ever produced by the Archjeo- 
logical Survey of the Government of India, 
and show exactly how the work of that 
Department should be done. 

IValktr Or Boutali sc. 

once t he D. B. On the back is a 
staircase leading to the roof, from 
which there is a fine view of the city. 
The inner stone partition walls are 
modern. In front, facing N., is 
Akbar's Ktiwabgah, or Sleeping 
Apartment, literally " House of 
Dreams." Written on the internal 
walls over the architraves of the 
doors are some Persian complimen- 
tary verses (much defaced). The 
remains of the paintings which once 

1 82 



decorated it are now very slight. 
Below is a room, and at the E. end 
of it a platform supported by two 
splendid red sandstone shafts beauti- 
fully carved. Probably a Hindu 
priest lived here. The space to the 
N. formed the Khas Mahal. 

At the S.E. corner of this court- 
yard is the ' ' Turkish Queen's " Housef 
which many may consider the most 
interesting apartment of all. As it 
now stands it consists of only one 
small chamber, 15 by 15 ft. Every 
square inch is carved, including the 
soffits of the cornices. The ceiling 
and decoration of the verandah pillars 
and pilasters are exceptionally fine. 
Inside is a most elaborate dado about 
4 ft. high, consisting of 8 sculptured 
panels representing forest views, 
animal life, etc. Above, the wall 
takes the form of a stone lattice 
screen, the divisions of which were 
used as shelves. Much of the carv- 
ing is curiously like Chinese work, 
and reminds one of what Abul Fazl 
says of the local red sandstone — 
" Clever workmen chisel it so skilfully 
as no turner could do with wood, and 
their works vie with the picture- 
books of Mani (a legendary Persian 

W. is the Girls' School, a small 
plain building carried on square stone 
piers. Upon the paving stones of 
the open space in front (E. ) is the 
Pachisi-board, or chess-board, with 
the Emperor's stone seat in the 
centre, in the form of a cross laid 
out in coloured pavement, and it is 
said the game was played with slave 
girls as pieces to take the moves. 

Just to the N. ot this is the Panch 
Mahal, a building of five storeys 
borne by open colonnades, each tier 
being smaller than the one below, 
till nothing but a small kiosque 
remains a-top. It was probably 
erected for the ladies of the court as 
a pleasure resort, as the sides were 
oritjinally enclosed with stone screens. 
The first floor is remarkable on 
account of the variety of the 56 
columns which support the storey 
1 Rami Sultana. 

above, no two being alike in design. 
Many of the shafts are similar, but 
the caps vary : at the angles of one 
are elephants' heads with interlaced 
trunks, on another is a man gathering 
fruit. On the N. W. angle is a group 
of four columns which should be 
examined. From the topmost floor 
there is a splendid view. 

At the N. of the quadrangle is the 
Diwan-i-Khas, or •' Private Hall," 
or Council Chamber. From the out- 
side it appears to be two storeys high, 
but on entering it is found to consist 
of one only, with a central pillar 
crowned by an immense circular 
corbelled capital, radiating from 
which to the four corners of the 
building are four stone causeways 
enclosed by open trellis stone balus- 
trades (restored). Tradition says 
that in the centre of this capital the 
Emperor sat whilst the corners were 
occupied by his four ministers. The 
shaft is beautifully carved, and 
deserves careful study. On the E. 
and W. sides are stone staircases 
communicating with the roof. The 
open screen-work in the windows is 
modern. A few feet to the W. is 
the building known as the Ankh 
Michauli ; the story told is that the 
Emperor here played hide-and-seek 
with the ladies of the Court, but it 
was most likely used for records. It 
consists of three large lofty rooms, 
surrounded by narrow passages, 
lighted by stone screen windows. 
The ceilings of two of the rooms are 
coved, but the third is flat and sup- 
ported on struts ornamented with 
grotesque carving. In front of the 
S.E. corner is a small canopied 
structure used by the astrologer, who 
probably was a Hindu Guru, or 
"teacher." It is in the style of 
architecture used by the Hindus 
during the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. Under the architraves 
are curiously carved struts issuing 
from the mouths of monsters dowelled 
into the shafts at the comers. The 
under side of the dome was painted. 
Adjoining these buildings to the W. 
is the Hospital with some of the stone 



partitions forming the wards still 
extant. The ceilings are of solid 
slabs of stone, carved on the exterior 
to represent tiles. 

k- Outside the west side of the Khas 
'^ Mahal enclosure is the House of 
Miriam (traditionally a Portuguese 
Christian, but really the Jaipur 
princess, who bore the title jMariam 
uz Zamani, and was mother of Prince 
Salim, afterwards the Emperor Jahan- 
gir), a small building with defaced 
frescoes in the niches and upon the 
walls, and piers of verandah. One, in 
which the wings of angels are dis- 
tinctly visible, has been thought to 
suggest the Annunciation. At one 
time the whole house was painted in- 
side and out. The original name 
Sonahra Makan, or " Golden House, " 
was given it on account of the profuse 
gilding with which its walls were 
adorned. On the N.W. is Miriam's 
Garden, and at S.E. angle her bath, 
with a large column in the centre. 
On the W. side is the Naginah, or 
Ladies' Mosque, and the remains of 
a small Turkish bath. At the S. end 
of the garden is a small fish tank, 
which, together with the stone pave- 
ment of the garden, was brought to 
light by Mr E. W. Smith. 

To the N.W. a road leads to the 
HatM Pol (Elephant Gate) on the N. 
of the city. Over the W. archway, 
20 ft. from the ground, are two life- 
sized elephants much mutilated, 
probably by Aurangzeb. To the left 
is the Sangln Burj, a groined bastion 
or keep, said to have been the com- 
mencement of the fortifications 
planned by Akbar, but abandoned 
on account of objections raised by 
Shaikh Salim Chishti. Down the old 
slone paved road on the left is the 
Karawan Sarai (caravanserai). It 
consists of a large court 272 by 246 
ft., surrounded by the merchants' 
hostels. Formerly the S.E. side was 
three storeys high. At the N. end, 
beyond the Sarai, stands the Hiran 
Minar (Deer Minaret), a circular 
tower some 70 ft. high studded with 
protruding elephant.s' tusks of stone. 

Trndition says that it is erected over 
the grave of Akbar's favourite 
elephant, and that from the lantern 
in the top the Emperor shot antelope 
and other game driven under it by 
beaters. The land to the N. and 
W. was a large lake in Akbar's time. 
On the left of the road returning 
to the Hathi Pol is a very fine stone 
well surrounded by rooms and stair- 
cases which formed a part of the 
waterworks. The water was lifted 
from this level by a series of Persian 
wheels and a system of reservoirs 
to the arched gate on the N.W. 
comer of Bir Bal's House, and 
thence dispensed throughout the 

The palace of Blrbal stands to the /" 
S.W. of Miriam's Garden, near the ^ 
N.W. corner of the Jodh Bai palace. 
It is the finest in Fatehpur-Sikri, and 
is said to have been built by Raja 
Bir Bal for his daughter, who, how- 
ever, was not one of the wives of 
Akbar. It is a two-storeyed building 
of red sandstone standing on a 
raised platform, and consists of 
four rooms 15 ft. square, and two 
entrance porches on the ground 
floor and two above with small 
terraces in front of them, en- 
closed by stone screens, forming a 
ladies' promenade. Over the upper 
rooms are flat-ribbed cupolas, carried 
on octagonal drums and supported 
on richly ornamented corbel brackets 
stretching across the angles of the 
rooms ; and the stone panelled walls 
and niches are covered with intricate 
patterns. The ceilings of the lower 
rooms are supported on a fine and 
unique frieze, and the whole of the 
interior, pilasters, recesses, walls, 
and cusp-arched doorways are elabor- 
ately and beautifully carved with 
geometrical patterns. The exterior 
walls are almost as profusely orna- 
mented No wood has been used 
in the construction of this extra- 
ordinary building, to which the 
words of Victor Hugo have been 
applied: "If it were not the most 
minute of palaces, it was the most 
gigantic of jewel-cases.'" Raja 

1 84 



Birbal was celebrated for his wit and 
learning, and was the only Hindu 
of eminence who embraced the 
new religion of Akbar, whose 
favourite courtier he was. He 
perished with the whole of the army 
he was commanding in the Yusafzai 
country to the N.E. of Peshawar 
in 1586. 

S. of Bir Bal's house are the Stables 
for 102 horses and nearly as many 
camels. In some of the mangers 
stone rings for the horses' halters 
still remain, and on the N.W. side 
one of the old doors. The camel 
stables are lighted by openings in the 

The Palace of Jodh Bai is prob- 
ably erroneously so called, as it is 
more likely that it was used by the 
Emperor or by his chief wife Sultana 
Rakiyah, his first cousin. The 
entrance is on the E. from the 
open space in front of the Record- 
Office. It is a quadrangular build- 
ing, 232 by 215 ft. The courtyard 
within has reception rooms on the 
N., S., and W. sides connected by 
a flat-roofed corridor partly closed 
by stone walls. The room on the 
W. is more ornate than the others, 
and in the rear wall is a fireplace. 
There are chambers above, and 
those on the N. and S. sides rise 
to two storeys : they are gable- 
roofed and ornamented with blue 
enamelled tiling, recalling the Man- 
mandir Palace of Gwalior (p. 109). 
At the angles the chambers are 
surmounted by cupolas, originally 
painted. Overlooking iMiriam's garden 
is a small projecting room, the walls 
of which are entirely composed of 
beautiful stone lattice-work. From 
the mezzanine floor on the N. 
side a closed passage leads to a 
garden abutting on the waterworks, 
beside which a gallery passed to the 
N. side of the Sarai near the Hiran 
Minar. It is now in ruins, and not 
easy of identification. In the pass- 
age, and just before the garden is 
reached, is a very fine stone screen 
beneath a small cupola. 

The Dargah Mosque lies S.W. of 
the Jodh Bai palace. The E. gate, 
called the Badshahi, or " royal " gate, 
opens into the quadrangle, which 
measures 433 ft. x 366 ft. To the 
right is the Tomb or^ar^ah^of Shaikh /i 
SalimChishtij^randson of the Shakkar 
Ganj Pir, who is buried at Pak 
Patan {see pp. 138 and 259). It is 
surrounded by beautiful white marble 
lattice-work screens, and has doors 
of solid ebony, ornamented with 
brass. The canopy over the tomb 
of the saint is inlaid with mother-of- 
pearl, hung with the usual display 
of ostrich eggs. On the cenotaph 
is written the date of the saint's 
death and the date of the completion 
of the building, 1580, " May God 
hallow his tomb ! The beloved 
helper of the sect and its saint. 
Shaikh Salim, whose miraculous gifts 
and propinquity to the Divine Being 
are celebrated, and by whom the lamp 
of the family of Chishti is illumin- 
ated. Be not double-sighted, look- 
ing to the transitory self, as well as 
to the everlasting Deity. The year 
of his decease is known throughout 
the world. "^ The brackets which 
support the drip-stone or eaves of 
the tomb are copies of those in the 
old mosque^ of the stone-masons. 
Childless women, both Hindu and 
Mohammedan, resort to the tomb 
and pray the saint to intercede in 
their favour. On the N. of the 
quadrangle is also the tomb of Islam 
Khan, surmounted with a cupola ; 
he was the grandson of the saint, 
and Governor of Bengal. 

The Mosque proper (liwan), to the 
W., is said to be a copy of the one at 
Mecca. It is about 70 ft. high, and 
very beautiful. It consists of three 
interior square chambers surrounded 
by rows of lofty pillars of Hindu 
type. At the N. and S. ends are 

i All the inscriptions here may he found 
in the Miftah ■ ul- Tawarikh, by John 
Ellis, printed at Agra. 

2 This is outside the quadrangle and W. 
of the mosque, where Shaik Saliin lived 
his hermit life in a cave now covered by a 
room. In a portico on the right of the old 
mosque the saint taught his disciples 
before the place had attracted the notice 
of royalty. 



zenana chambers. Going out by a