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Literary Curiosities. 




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PRiBfARiLY the aim of this Handy-book is to entertain. If it suc- 
ceeds in instructing as well, there is no harm done. But a sugar coat- 
ing of grateful gust has been quite as much an object with the compiler 
as the tonic which it may envelop. 

It is obvious that in so large a field as is afforded by the curiosities 
of literature the embarrassment has been mainly that of riches. No 
single volume nor a dozen volumes of this size could exhaust the 
material. Nevertheless, if the compiler has been even approximately 
successful, if his gleanings from the rich harvest-field have been fairly 
judicious, a gain in interest and even in value has been achieved by 
consulting the limitations of space. 

At one time he had thought of disarming a certain kind of criticism by 
calling this " A Dictionary of Things Not Worth Knowing," the bulk 
of the matter herein contained being either in substance or in detail 
that which is deemed below the dignity of encyclopaedias, dictionaries, 
or literary manuals. However, we are gradually coming to learn that 
there is no great and no small in the achievements of the human in- 
telligence ; that what has ever interested men in the past must preserve 
an interest for the student of human nature at all times ; that the liter- 
ary trifling which pleased the keenest wits at particular periods of 
mental development has a distinct historical value in the retrospect ; 
that the blunders of great minds are worth preserving as successive 
steps towards the altar of Knowledge ; that in proverbs is embodied the 
wisdom of many as well as the wit of one ; and that the vagaries of slang 
are dignified by the fact that slang may become the scholarly language 
of the future, just as the slang of the past is nearly the richest and most 
idiomatic portion of the current speech of to-day. Even the tracing 
of literary analogies, which is held in some disrepute by those who see 
in it merely a low detective cunning, a joy in convicting nobler minds 
of larceny and of discrediting the gifts of Nature's bounty, — even this 
is an exercise which, reverently conducted, is full of instruction and 
profit as well as curious interest. To learn that there is nothing new 
under the sun is to take to heart the lesson that the right direction 
of human achievement is to co-ordinate and harmonize the disjecUi 



membra of the old and ever young, and thus airive at the sum and 
essence — the very heart of things. He is the poet, the creator, the 
mighty man, who does this, just as he is the great sculptor who liber- 
ates from the marble the image of all conceivable beauty that already 
resides therein. And, xd run the analogy to the ground, one might 
trace the history of that block of marble up to its native quarry with 
nothing of invidious reflection on the sculptor. 

A certain proportion of the articles, long and short, which are here 
collected appeared in various periodicals,— in Lippincoffs Magazine 
and the American Notes and Queries of Philadelphia, in the llhti- 
Iraled Amenran and Be/forifs Magazine of New York. This fact is 
mentioned not only as an acknowledgment of courteous permission 
to reproduce them, but also as affording an opportunity to remark 
that, in the last year or so. some of these articles have been pretty 
freely levied upon by makers of literary manuals, whose apparent 
priority of publication might confuse the unwary as to which was the 
follower and which the leader. The point is not worth insisting upon, 
however, for, in a less flagrant way, most of us compilers are indebted 
to our predecessors. As to myself (let us drop all awkward locutions), 
I honestly acknowledge that I have found great assistance in such 
books of reference as Bartlett's " Familiar Quotations," Bent's " Fa- 
mous Short Sayings," and Norton's "Political Americanisms," also 
in such collections of bibelots and curios as Brewer's " Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable." Bombaugh's "Gleanings for the Curious," and 
Wm. T. Dobson's and Davenport Adams's various compilations. 
More than this, I have consulted the English Notes and Queries with 
predatory aim, and have carried on a war of conquest amid the files 
of old periodicals. Where credit was possible, it has been given ; but 
where (as does happen occasionally) a particular article is almost a 
cento made up from a dozen different authorities, it is well-nigh impos- 
sible properly to apportion the credit. This general confession, there- 
fore, must suffice. 

In conclusion, 1 must record my indebtedness to Mr, Stephen Pfeil, 
who contributed ihe articles on "Epigrams," "Impromptus," and 
" Quodlibets," as well as a number of the shorter articles embodying 
political Americanisms, etc. And a special debt of gratitude is due 
to Mr. Joseph McCreery, the scholarly proof-reader In the establishment 
of Messrs. J. B. Lippincott Co., whose corrections and suggestions went 
far beyond the limits of mere proof-reading. 

Wk. S. Walsh. 



Acrostic xo 

Adrertiaing, Quaint and Curious ... 17 

Agony Column a8 

Alliteration 34 

Alphabetic Direniona 40 

Ambiguities 47 

Anagram 5a 

Autographs and Autograph-Hunters . . 71 

Bathos 8x 

Bibles, Curious 90 

Biblioklept 93 

Bibliomania 95 

Binding xoo 

Bookplate 1x2 

BoutS'rim^ XX5 

Bulls, Irish and not Irish X34 

Catch X4X 

Charade 146 

Chronogram X54 

Ciphers or Cryptograms 157 

Claimants, Literary 163 

Coincidences X70 

Collaboration X75 

Compliments x8x 

Criticism, Curiosities of X97 

Dedications aao 

Dictionary 93X 

Echo Verses 36x 

Emblematic, Fignrate or Shaped Poems 970 

Emendation, Conjectural 977 

English as she is spoke 985 

Enigma 999 

Epigrams 303 

Epitaphs, Curiosities of 3x4 

Erron, Vulgar 334 

Etiquette 340 

Forgeries, Literary 383 

French as she is spoke 396 

Handwriting and Writen 442 

History, The Inoredibility of 461 

Hoaxes, Some Famous 467 

Hyperbole 50X 



Ignorance, Humors of 508 

Ignorances, Our Small 5x6 

Impromptus . . . - jae 

Index 543 

Interrupted Sentences 550 

Interview 554 

Irony 56X 

Jesuitical Compositions or Equivoques . 574 

Laconic 598 

Lion-Hunter, The 638 

Lipograms 643 

Literal Sense, In a 646 

Lost Treasures of Literature 658 

Macaronic Literature 670 

Mdosis 696 

Memoria Technica 698 

Metaphors, Mixed 708 

Mistakes of Authon 793 

Monosyllable 735 

Mosaics or Centos 744 

Mystification and Imposture 760 

Names, Curiosities of 778 

Names in Fiction 786 

Nonsense, Verse and Prose 808 

Numbers, Curiosities of 834 

Oaths and Curses 831 

Palindrome 85X 

Paradoxes and Puzxles 855 

Parody 869 

Plagiarism and Plagiarists 89X 

Poetic Prose 903 

Punctuation 994 

Puns and Punning 938 

Quodlibet 938 

Quotation and Misquotation 944 

Real People in Fiction 949 

Reviews, Curiosities of 969 

Rhymes, Eccentricities of 969 

Self-Appreciation 999 

Spelling, Eccentricities of X024 

Translation, Ciuiosities of X057 

Typographical Errors X065 





A, the first letter of the alphabet in all languages which, like English, 
derive their alphabets directly or indirectly from the Phoenician. It corre- 
sponds to the aleph of the Phoenician and old Hebrew and the alpha of the 
Greek. Aleph means an ox, and the character is derived from the Egyp- 
tian hieratic symbol, in which the Phoenicians undoubtedly saw a rude re- 
semblance to the horned head of an ox. As a symbol A denotes the first of an 
actual or possible series : thus, in music it is the name of the first note of the 
relative minor scale, the la of Italian, French, and Spanish musicians ; and in 
the mnemonic words of logic it stands for the universal affirmative proposi- 
tion, — €.g.y all men are mortal ; while I stands for the particular affirmative 
(some men are mortal), E for the universal negative (no men are mortal), 
and O for the particular negative (some men are not mortal). It is some- 
times contended that these symbols were of Greek origin ; but the weight of 
authority makes them date from the thirteenth century, and it is not unlikely 
that they may have been taken from the Latin Afflrmo, I affirm, and nEgO, I 
deny. In the Greek form, a, alpha, this use of the letter as the first of a series 
is even more common. Thus, *' I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and 
the ending, saith the Lord" [^Rev. i. 8). " The o acid is converted by heat into 
the ^ acid" {IVatt^s Fowneis Chemistry). The letter A standing by itself, es- 
pecially as a word, was formerly spelt in oral recitations A per se a, — that is, 
A standing by itself makes the word a, and this oral phrase committed to 
writing was gradually corrupted to A per C, Apersey, Apersie, and frequently 
used as a svnonyme for first, chief, most excellent, — ^.^., " The floure and A 
per se of Troie and Grece" (Henryson : Testanunt of Cresseide^ I475)- 

Al, popular slang, meaning first-rate, excellent, is borrowed from the 
ratings used in Lloyd\ Register of Shipping. The higher classes of vessels 
are styled A, and the figure i following the class letter shows that the equip- 
ment IS complete and emcient. Hence ** I am A i" means " Tm all right," and 
to say of another that ** he or she is A i" is to pay one of the highest compli- 
ments in the slang repertoire. Thus, Shirley Brooks in "The Guardian Knot" 
makes one of his characters say, "She is A i ; in fact, the aye-wunnest girl I 
ever saw." Curiously enough, the French have a similar commendatory ex- 
pression, " He is marked with an A" (" C*est un homme marque i I'A"), the 
money coined in Paris being formerly stamped with an A. 



A ontrance (not h VotitTiaut), a French expression, meaning mucti the 
same as the Engliiih phraM " to the bitter end," originally applied to a contest 
between two antag^inists who weie each determined to conquer ot to die, but 
now more often used in the sense of " to excess," " tu the ulmoat extent," and 
applied to any custum, habit, or fashion irhich is carried to an extravagant 

Ab ovo(liieralljr, "from the egg," hence, from the beginning), an old Roman 
phiase, generally with allusion to the custom of beginning a meal with eggs, 
in this ca->e foruiing the lirst part of the phrase ab avo uiqut ad mala, from the 
egg tu the apples, i.e., from beginning to end ; but sometimes the allusion is to 

the poet mentioned by Horace (" Ais Poelica," 147) who began the histoiv of 
the Trojan war with the stoiy of the egg from whicli Helen was fabled to nave 
been bom. Horace contrasts him untavorably with Homer, who plunged at 

le apples, i.e., from beginning to end ; 

..._ . mentioned by Horace (" Ars Poelica,' _„, _ .„_ _ 

the Trojan war with the story of the egg from whicli Helen was fabled t< 

' ""nm. Horace contrasts him untavora"-'- -"-'- " — ■■- -'-- 

o the midst of things, or in mtdias rt 
Abaoot, a spurious word whick by a remarkable series of blunders has 
gained a foothold in the dictionaries. It is usuallv defined as "a cap of state, 
wrought up into the shape of two crowns, worn formerly by English kings." 
Neither word nor thing has any real existence. In Hafl's " Chronicles" the 
word bueektt [Old Fr. Namiel, a sort of peaked cap or head-dress) happened 
- ' -'- —• -■ "-"^ •- '-■' -^ -"-^ - "ilinshed 

inted aiaceett/. Other writers copied the error. Then Ho) 

ie new word to aieteeiie, and Abraham Fleming to abacot, an 
spun merrily along, a sort of rolling stone of philology, shaping itself by 

improved the new word to alKxxic, and Abraham Fleming to aiaiot, and so it 

' g, a sort of rolling stone of philology, shaping itself by con- 

o something as diflerent in sense as in sound from its first 

original, until Spelman landed the prize in his " Glossarium," giving it tl 
definition quoted above. So through Bailey, Ash, and Tudd it has been handc 
down to our time, — a standing exemplar ot the solidarity of dictionaries, and 
of the ponderous indolence with which philologers repeat without examining 
the errors of their predecessors. Nay, the error has been amusingly accent- 
uated by calling in the aid of a sister art that has provided a rough wood-cut 
of the mythical abacol, which in its turn has been servilely reproduced. 

Abilt,exoea«lt,evaslt,empit, a potent Latin phrase which loses all ita 
virility in any possible English rendition [t.g.. He has fled, retreated, es- 
caped, broken forth). It was used by Ciceio at the beginning of his second 
oration against Catiline to express by the piling up of synonymous words the 
abrupt manner of the conspirator's escape from Konie. 

Abolitionlat, in American politics, specifically a member of the anti- 
slavery party, which dates from 1829, when a handfiil of enthusiasts rallied 
around the stalwart figure of William Lloyd Garrison in a fierce crusade 
against slave-owners as ciiminals. In 1S31, Garrison founded the first Abo- 
litionist paper. The Liberatar. In 1S32 the New England Anti-Slavery Society 
was formed in Boston, and in r833 the growth of abolition sentiment led to the 
formation of the American Anti-Slaveiy Society in Philadelphia, with Beriah 
Green as its president and John G. Whiltter as one of the secretaries In 
1840 the Abolilionisls divided into two wings, one favoring abolition through 
constilulional amendment, the other, with Wendell Phillips as its chief spokes- 
man, denouncing the constitution as a bulwark of slavery. Anti-slavery senti- 
ment grew faster than the party which claimed to be its exponent Before the 
war no large number of citizei^s, even in the North, were avowed Abolitionists, 
though after the war a majority uf Northerners proudly insisted that they had 
always been Abolitionists. And in truth they could pomt back to the fact that 
Abolitionist was & term of contempt which the Democrats usually applied to all 
Republicans, and which the men of the South applied indiscriminately to all 
Northerners who were not Democrats. The word itself, even, in connection 


with slave-emancipation, was not a new one. In England and all her colonies 
it had been familiarly applied to the anti-slavery agitators led by Wilberforce, 
and had been accepted by them. Thus, T. Clarkson says, ** Many looked upon 
the Abolitionists as monsters" (" Slave Trade," it 212, 1790). In America also 
the term had been in use to denote the opponents of slavery who began an 
intermittent protest even before the Revolution ; but as a party name it belongs 
distinctively to the movement of which Garrison was the first apostle. 

Abracadabra, a cabalistic word used in incantations, and supposed to 
possess mystic powers of healing, especially when written in this triangular 
shape \ 





A B R A C A D 

A B R A C A 

A B R A C 

A B R A 

A B R 

A B 


The paper on which this was written was to be folded so as to conceal the 
writing, stitched with white thread, and worn around the neck. It was a sov- 
ereign remedy for fever and ague. Possibly the virtue lay in the syllables 
Abra, which are twice repeated, and which are composed of the first letters of 
the Hebrew words signifying Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, — Ab, Ben, Ranch 
Acadosh. The earliest known occurrence of the word is in a poem of the 
second century, " Praecepta de Medicina," by Q. Serenus Sammonicus. It is 
now often used in the general sense of a spell, or pretended conjuring, jargon, 
or gibberish. 

Absence makes the heart grow fonder. This line occurs in Thomas 

Haynes Bayly's song ** Isle of Beauty." There is proverbial authority for this 

as well as for the contrary statement that absence kills love. But written 

literature is usually on Bayly's side. Charles Hopkins in his lines " To C. C." 


I find that absence still increases love. 

Howel in his *' Familiar Letters" (i. I, No. 6) asserts, " Distance sometimes 
endears friendship, and absence sweeteneth it." Frederick W. Thomas, in a 
short poem, " Absence Conquers Love," boldly traverses the titular statement : 

'Tis said that absence conquers lore, 

But, oh, believe it not I 
I've tried, alas ! its power to prove. 

But thou art not forgot. 

Desdemona, in Otheiio/\. 2, says, "I dote upon his very absence." Charles 
Lamb, in his ** Dissertation on Roast Pig," punningly suggests a method by 
which the absent may keep their memory green : ** Presents, I often say, 
endear absents." Bussy-Rabutin shows how both statements may be recon- 
ciled : 

L'absence est i Tamour ce qu'est au feu le vent : 

II dteint le petit, ii allume le grand. 

La Rochefoucauld says, " Friends agree best at a distance ;" but this was a 
popolar proverb before his day, and a similar moral. is presented in the French 
adages, '* To preserve friendship, a wall must be put between," and ** A little 


■bBcnce doei mnch good ;" the German, " Love jiodt neighbor, bat do not pull 
down (he hedge )" the Spanish, " Go to your biother's house, but not eierj 
day ;" and the Scotch, "The; are aye gude that are in awa." But proverbs 
would not be proverbs if they did not contradict one another. The last quoted 
is directly traversed bjr the French, " The absent are always in the wrong," 
and " Al»cnt, none without fault ; present, none without excuse." And every 
language furnishes examples to support this : c^., the Greek, " Friends living 
far away are no friends ;'' the Latin, " He that is absent will not be the heir;" 
the Spanish. "Absence is ,luve's foe: far fTom the eyes, its from tlie heart," 
and " The dead and the absent have no friends." 

Absoluta Wisdom. A sobriquet given to Sir Matthew Wood, a stanch 
supporter of Queen Caroline in l82t, who, having been reproached (or giving 
foolish advice to that unhappy queen, diffidently admitted that his conduct 
might not be "absolute wisdom," and was unmercifully chaSed in consequence 
tnr ihe wags of the period. He was made a baronet by Queen Victoria shortly 
after her accession, in acknowledgment, it was said, for pecuniary aid given to 
her bthcr, the Duke of Kent, when greatly embarrassed. 

Aooidont of an ooddent, a phrase first used by Lord Thurlow. Dar- 
ing a debate on Lord Sandwich's administration of Greenwich Hospital, the 
Duke of Grafton taunted Thuitow, then Lord Chancellor, on his bumble 
origin. Thurlow rose from the woolsack, and. advancing towards the duke, 
declared be was amazed at his grace's speech. "The noble duke,'' he cried, 
in a burst of oratorical scorn, " cannot look before him, behind him, and on 
either side uf him without seeing some noble peer who owes his seal in this 
House to his successful cierlious in the profession to which I belong. Does 
he not feel that it is as honorable to owe it lo these as to being Ikt acadeitt 

Aoroas lota, in colloquial American, a short cut, as of one who leaves Ihe 

Eublic highway to find a nearer way across private property. The phrase 
as acquired especial prominence through Bngham Young's historic threat, 
" We'll send them [the Oenliles] to hell across Tots." 

Aoroatlo (Gr. iKpoortxiti ^"p", prefix, and arixos, nm, order, line), a once 
favorite lorm of literary legerdemain. In its simplest and most usual form it 
consists of a copy of verses whose initial letters taken in order spell a word, 
a proper name, or a sentence. The following specimen is by Chu'les I^mb i 

A Grntlc Udybidi Ihw apcili ' 

Evoke fr^m Hrl>'n°u Ihkk u Mmuu) 
Joy after joy on G.*ci ioAKH*. 

A bleuiDg pniy. Lons, long ' 

II (he "Good Man'i Puaonkgc." 
Grace Joanna Williams. Bui m 
Sometimes the initials r 


upward instead of downward ; sometimes the final instead of the first letters, 
and sometimes both the final and the first letters, form an acrostic. The latter 
is known as a double acrostic, or, more technically, a telestich. An ingenious 
improvement requires that the double acrostic shall be formed of two words 
of the same letters, yet of opposite meanings, e.g. : 

U>nitc and untie are the same — so say yo-U ; 
N-ot in wedlock, I ween, has the unity bee-N ; 
I-n the drama of marriage, each wandering gou-T 
T-o a new face would fly— all except you and I, 
E-ach seeking to alter the i/e// in their scen-E. 

Here is a bit of monastic verse of curious ingenuity. Not only do the first 
Lnd the final letters, but the middle initials also, form the word lesus. In 
technical words, the lines are at once acrostic, mesostic, and telestic Nor is 
that all. The observant reader will discern that in the centre of the verse is 
a cross formed of the word Jesus, or lesus, read perpendicularly and hori- 
zontally : 

Inter cuncta micans I sniti sidera coell 

Expellit tenebras E toto Phoebus ut orbE 

Sic caecas removet JESUS caliginis umbraS 

ViTificanscfue simul V ero praecordia motU 

Solem jusiitiae S ese ptobat ease beatiS 

Poe has devised a peculiarly complicated form in his 


For her this rhyme is penned, whose luminous eyes. 

Brightly expressive as the twins of Leda. 

Shall find her own sweet name, that nestling lies 

Upon the page, enwrapped from every reader. 

SeEUch narrowly the lines 1— they hold a treasure 

Divine — a talisman— an amulet 

That must be worn at heart. Search well the measure— 

The word»— the syllables ! Do not forget 

The trivialest point, or you may lose your labor ! 

And yet there is in this no Gordian knot 

Whioi one might not undo without a sabre, 

If one could merely comprehend the plot. 

Enwritten u[>on the leaf where now are peering 

Eyes scintillating soul, there lie perdus 

Three eloauent words oft uttered in the hearing 

Of poets, oy poets — as the name b a poet's too. 

Its letters, altnou^h naturally lying 

LUce the knight Pmto^Mendez Ferdinando— 

Still form a synonym for Truth. — Cease trying ! 

You will not read the riddle, though you do the best you can do. 

To translate the address, read the first letter of the first line in connection with the secona 
letter of the second line, the third letter of the third line, the fourth of the fourth, and so on 
to the last line. The name Frances Sargent Osgood will then be formed. 

Although acrostics are now relegated to the nursery, they were anciently 
looked upon with high reverence. A rude form of acrostic may even be 
found in the Scriptures, — e.g., in twelve of the psalms, hence called the abece- 
darian psalms, — the most notable being Psalm cxix. This is composed of 
twenty-two divisions or stanzas, corresponding to the twenty-two letters of 
the Hebrew alphabet. Each stanza consists of eight couplets. The first line 
of each couplet in the first division begins with aleph, a, the first line of each 
couplet in the second division with beth, d, and so on to the end. This pecu- 
liarity is not retained in the translation, but is indicated by the initial letter 
prefixed to each division. The Greeks also cultivated the acrostic, as may be 
seen in the s[>ecimens that survive in the Greek Anthology, and so did their 
intellectual successors, the Latins. Cicero, in his *' De Divinatione,'* tells us 


that " Ihe Tcraes of the Sibyls are distinguished by thai arrangement which 
the GTceks call acrostic ; nhere from the first letters of each verse In order 
words are farmed which express some particular meaning ; as is Ihe case with 
some of Eniiius's verses." [n the year 316, Publius Porphjriiua comiiused a 
poem, still extant, in praise of Cuiiataiitiiie, the lines of which are acrostics. 
The early French poets, from Ihe (hue of Francis I. to thai of Louis XIV., 
were fond of this trifling. But it was carried to its rnost wasteful and ridicu- 
lous excess by Ihe Elizabethan poeta. Sir John Uavics has a series of no less 
Ihaii twenty-six poems under Ihe general heading of " Hymns to Aslraea," 
every one of which is an acrostic on Ihe words Elisabclha Rcgina. Here is a 

Single specimen ; 

Uvely ipring - 
lotly lining do 
Swe« young ■ 
Angry iiged w 

Leave writing pli 

And Addison gives the acrostic a high place among his exam[iles of false wit. 
A fashion that is not quite extinct was introduced by the jewellers of the 
last century, who placed precious stones in such an order that the initials of 
their names fonned Ihe name u( the recipient of the gift. Thus, the Princess of 
Wales, on her marriage, presented her groom with a ring set with the follow- 




The initials. 

it will be seen. 


the word Bertie, the name t 

prefers to call her spouse. 

Rachel, the 

French actress, 


at the hi 

eight of her poputai 

from her adir 

lirers a diadem 


Ihe follo' 

not only spell 1 

licr own name, but present the 

characters : 










One development of the acrostic that is specially vital and electric consists 
in reading the initial letters of the words of a sentence as a single word, or, 
conversely, in flashing in a single word the initials of a whole unuttered sen- 
tence. Thus, when the Italians outside of the Piedmontese states did not dare 
as yet openly to shout for Victor Emmanuel and Italian unity, they managed 
the thing neatly and thrillingly by the short cry of Viva Verdi! Why the 
popular composer had suddenly become so very popular that all Italy should 
m season and out of season be shouting his name did not at first appear, 
except to those who knew that Verdi, letter for letter, stood for Vittorio 
Emanuele R^ d* Italia. Now, this at least was an acrostic with a soul in 
it Similarly the word Nihil was by the Anti-Bonapartists made to typify the 
Napoleon djrnasty of kings in the following strangely prophetic acrostic : 

N-apoleon, the Emperor, 

T-oseph, King of Spain, 

H-ieronymus [Jerome], King of Westphalia, 

I-oachim, King of Naples, 

L-ouis, King of Holland. 

Another acrostic whose augury was justified by future events, in a pleasanter 
manner, however, than was anticipated, is mentioned by Bacon. ** The triviaJ 
prophecy," he says, ** which I heard when I was a child, and Queen Elizabeth 
in the flower of her years, was, — 

When Hempe is spun, 
England's clone ; 

whereby it was generally conceived that after the sovereigns had reigned, 
which had the letters of that word IIempe (which were Henry, Edward, Mary, 
Philip, Elizabeth), England should come to utter confusion ; which, thanks be 
to God, \% verified in the change of the name, fur that the king's style is now 
no more of England, but of Britain." The most noteworthy of this S{>ecies 
of acrostic, however, is the Greek word IxOv^^fish^ — formed from the initials of 
the sentence, l^aouf XpujnX Oew V/of Swtt^^j, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the 
Saviour, — which was used as a veiled symbol for Christ. The figure of a fish 
is frequently found carved on the monuments of the Roman catacombs to 
mark without revealing the burial-place of a Christian. 

Act of Parliament, an English slang term for small beer, now almost 
obsolete. The allusion is to the fact that publicans were by act of Parliament 
forced to supply billeted soldiers, gratis, with five pints of small beer daily. 

There b a story current amon^ the Chelsea veterans that the Duke of Wellington saw a 
soldier warming his weak regulation beer. The duke said, " Damn the belly that won't warm 
Act of Parliament!" The soldier replied, " Damn the Act of Parliament ! it won't warm the 
belly."— BARRibtB AND Leland : Dictionary 0/ Slang. 

Aotion, action, actioii! In his " Lives of the Ten Orators," Plutarch 
tells how Demosthenes when asked what made the {>erfect orator responded, 
** Action !" And the second thing } ** Action !" And the third thing ? " Action !" 
The saving has often been imitated. The Marshal de Trivulce, to the Query 
of Louis XL as to what he needed to make war, promptly replied, "Three 
things : money, more money, always money" (** Trois choses : de Tarsent, 
encore de Targent, et toujours de Targent"). Fifty years later the Impenalist 
General von Schussendi said precisely the same thing : " Sind dreierlei Dinge 
notig : Geld, Geld, Geld." Danton rang another change upon the phrase in 
August, 1792, in a speech made before the National Assembly at the very 
moment when a discharge of cannon announced that the Reign of Terror had 
been inaugurated and the slaughter of royalist prisoners had begun. "The 
cannon which you hear," he cried to his dismayed auditors, *' is not the signal 


of alarm t it ii the pai <U charge upon our enemies. To conquer tliem, to 
crush them, what is necessary i Boldness, more boldness, and always bold- 
ness, and France is saved" (" De I'audace, el encore de I'audace, et toujours 
de I'audace, el la France eat sauvie"). Had Danton read Spenser as well aa 
Plutarch ? In the " Faerie Queene" (iii. 1 1, 54) are the following lines : 

And II ifae loakl aboul riic did betiold 

Hu~ over Ibai umt dore wu Likrwiic aril 
Be boUte, b< boldc, ind EverywhEn Be bold. 

St. -Just, who succeeded Danton in the Reign of Terror, put a similar Mti- 
(imcnl in less epigrammatic form when he eiclaimed in the Convention, 
" Dare [ that is the whole secret of revolutions." Gambetla, however, marked 
the difference between ihe present republic and its predecessor by the follow- 
ii>g iiaraphraae ; " Work, more work, and always work i" (" Du travail, encore 
du travail, el loujours du travail !") — Speech at banquet 10 General Hocbe, 
June 24, 1871. See also Agitate, agitate, agjtatb. 

Actions wpeak loader tban irords. An old saw, found in one form or 
another in all languages. Thus, (he French say, " From sajiing to doing is a 
long stretch," and "Great boasters, small doers;" the Italians, "Deeds are 
male, words are female" (" Faiti maschi, parole ferainc") ; the Danes, "Big 
wurils seldom go with big deeds 1" the Spaniards, " Words witi not do for 
my aunt, for she docs nol trust even deeds," and " A long tongue betokens a 
ihoil hand ;" while our own proverb is varied by the alternatives, " Words show 
the wit of a man, but actions his meaning ;" " Saying and not doing ia cheap ;" 
and the Scotch, " Saying gangs cheap." In another sense the saw may be taken 
as an answer to the question uf the relative value to the world of the man of 
thought and the man of action ; a question which Walton states thus in his 
" Angler," Part i. ch. i. : " In ancient times a debate hath risen. , . . whether 
the happiness of man in this world doth consist more in contemplation or 
action.'' He instances on the one hand the opinion of " many cloisteral men 
of great learning and devotion," who prefer contemplation before action, 
because they hold that " God enjoys himself only by a contemplation of his 
own inliniteness, eternity, power, and goodness, and the like," and on the other, 
the opinions of men of equal "authority and credit" who say that "action is 
doctrinal, and teaches both art and virtue, and is a maintainer of human 
society ; and for these and other like reasons, to be preferred before contem- 
plation." But he decides that the question remains yet unresolveil. In the 
present day the weight of authority is undoubtedly on the side of action, eveD 
the authority represented by the men of thought Kingsley's fine line. 

Do potic iblngK, Dol dnun them all day Iode, 
finds an echo in Emerson, *' An action is the perfection and publication of 
thought" \,Naturi)', in Lowell, "Every man feels instinctively that all the 
beautiful sentiments in Ihe world weigh less than a single lovely action" 
{Kimsstau and lie Smtimfataiisli) ; in Bee che r. " Action is Ihe right outlet of 
emotion" {FrmerAi Jrarn PlymouU Pulpit) ; in Jules Simon, " In the eyes 
of God there is nol a prayer which is worth a good action ;" and in numer- 
ous sayings of Goethe and Carlyle. The other side of the question may be 
summed up in Owen Meredith's phrase, "Thought alone is immortal" [Ltieile), 
and is prettily and poetically presented in Kerner's stanzas, "Two (iraves," 
^Ihe first grave being that of a warrior, who sleeps forgotten and unrecorded, 
Ihe secottd that of a poet, whose songs siiil float in the breezes altove him. 
And this in turn recalls Ihe famous saying of Themistocles, who being asked 
whether the historian were not greater than the hero, because without the 
historian the hero would be forgotten, Vankee-like turned on his questionei 


with another question : '* Which would you rather be, one of the combatants 
in the public games, or the herald who announces them ?" 

Ad eundem (L., " to the same degree*'), an English and American uni- 
versity phrase. A graduate of one university is permitted to enjoy the same 
degree at another, and is said to be admitted cut eundem {gradum understood) 
at the sister university. A coach that used to run between Oxford and Cam- 
bridge was facetiously known to the undergraduates at both universities as the 
ad eundem coach. 

Adam. There is an old English proverbial expression, — 

When Adam delved and Eve span. 
Who was then the gentleman ? 

The couplet is memorable in English history. In Wat Tyler*s insurrection 
during the reign of Richard II., John Ball addressed the mob on Blackheath 
from this text Evidently it was a familiar proverb then. In English litera- 
ture its earliest recorded appearance is in a poem by Richard RolTe de Ham- 
pole (Early English Text Society Reprints, No. 26, p. 79) : 

Whtn Adam dal/e and Eue span*. 

So spire if thou may spede, 
Wkart was then the fride of man 

That now merres his meed ? 

The couplet is also known in Germany. Tradition asserts that it was writ- 
ten up in a conspicuous place in the city of Nuremberg both in Latin and in 


Quo nobilis turn quispiam loco fiilt 
Cum foederat Adam et Eva fila ducent f 

Wo was da der Edelmann 

Da Adam hackt und Eva span ? 

Spbmkr : Optris Heraidici, p. 150. 
(Frankfort, x68o.) 

Another tradition affirms that when Maximilian, presumably the first of the 
name, was prosecuting researches into his own pedigree, a wag posted up or 
the doors of the palace this couplet, which is identical with the English : 

Da Adam hackt und Eva spann, 
Wer war damals der Edelmann ? 

Maximilian promptly retorted, — 

Ich bin ein Mann wie ein ander Mann, 
AUein dass mir Gott der Ehren gan. 

" I am a man like any other man. 
Only that God hath given honor to me." 

Ray, in his collection of proverbs, adds a second couplet which contains ar 

answer to the first, — i.e. 

Upstart [upstarted]^ a churl and gathered good. 
And thence did spring our gentle blood 

This seems to be an after-thought of comparatively recent birth. 

Adam, the old. The unregenerate part of man's nature, in allusion tc 
the doctrine of original sin. This phrase is used in the English Book of 
Common Prayer, — " Grant that the old Adam in these persons may be so 
buried, that the new man may be raised up in them" (Baptism 0/ those of 
Riper Years), Shakespeare says of Henry V., — 

Consideration like an anp^el came 

And whipped the offendmg Adam out of him. 

King Henry V., x. i. 


Adam's ala or wlna, a humorous colloquialism for water, as being Adam'a 
only beverage at the teetotal period «hcn he flourished, occurs as far back as 
Prynne's " Sovereign Power of Pariiaaicni," ii. 32 : " They have been shut up 
in prisons and dunceons, allowed only a poore piltancc or Adam's ale, and 
scarce a penny bread a day to support their lives." 

Adun'H aitnM, a spade. " There is no ancient gentlemen but sudeners, 
ditchers, and giave-makers : Tliey hold up Adam's profession. He was the 
lirsl thai ever bote arms" {Hamlet. Act v., Sc I). The term is recognized 
in heraldry and also in the papular vocabulary. The sign of a spade is much 
affected in England by mar bet -gardeners. 

Adder, Deaf aa an, a proverb common 10 most modern languages, and 
arising from ihe pasaage jii Psalm Iviii. 4, where (he wicked aie compared to 
" (he deaf adder that stoppe(h her ear ; which will not hearken to the voice 
of charmers, charming never so wisely." This is an allusion (o the supersti- 
tion, prevalent in the East from time immemorial, (hat some serpen(s defy 
all the powers of the charmer, pressing one ear in(o the dust, while they 
stop the olher with the (ail. Zooli^ically. this is an absurdi(y, as serpents 
have no external ears. Shakespeare refers to the superstition in Sonnet czii. : 
In K pnfaund abyim I Ihrow >U can 

Addition. Dtvialon, and SUenoa. In 1872, William H. Kemble, then 

.Slate Treasurer of Pennsylvania, was alleged to have written a letter of in- 
stiuclion for G. O. Evans to T, J. Coffey, of Washington, in which these 
words occur : " He understands addition, division, and silence." The New 
York Sun. which first made the all^tion public (March 15. 1873), interpreted 
the words as meaning that Evans joined all the arts of the lobbyist to the 
kind of honor that is proverbially practised even by thieves. Kemble brought 
a liliel suit against the Sun, and, though he asked only six cents damages, the 
jury failed to agree. 

! Admiral of the Had are properly naval 
to an admiral of the third class, who holds the 
rear in an engaEcmeiit, the latlct to one of the second clasEi. who holds the 
centre. In English slang an Admiral of the Blue is a j>ubliC'house keeper, in 
allusion to the blue apron which is, or was, his usual insignia, while Admiral 
of the Red is a term applied to such of his customers as have developed a 
cheery, rubicund complexion, especially on the end of the nose. Admiral of 
the Red, White, and Blue is a term similarly applied (o beadles, hall-porters, 
and other functionaries when spurting the gorgeous liveries of their office. 

AduUan, Cava o£ John Bright, in the course of a s|ieech directed 
a^aioAt Mr. Horsman and other Liberals who disapproved of the Reform 
Bill introduced by Earl Russell's administration in_ 1S66,— a bill that contem- 
plated a sweeping reduction of the elective franchise, — said, "The right hon- 
orable gentleinan is the first of the new party who has retired into what may 
l)e called his political cave of Adullam." The reference was to the discon- 
tented and distressed who gathered around David in the cave of Adullam 
(/. Samuel, xxii. 1. 2). The retort was obvious, and was instantly made by 
l.iird Elcho, who replied that the bat^d in the cave was hourly increasing, and 
would succeed in delivering the House from the tyranny of Saul (Mr. Glad- 
stone) and his armor-bearer (Mr. Bright). Adullamite is now an accepted 
term fur a member of any small cliiiue which tries to obstruct the party with 
which they habitually associate, and has soiik affiliation with the American 
" mugwump." 


Advonltjr. The poets and the philoaopbers are fond of cheerfu! moralii- 
ings on (he advanuges of adversiiy. Firsl and foremost, Shakespeare's lines 
spnng to (he mind ; 

Sweet uv (tw HKfl gf jidvenjiv, 

Which, Ukc Uh load, ugly and venamoui, 

Wa.™ yei a pncioiu itwd in iu held. 

^.>'oi.ia./i',AQlU.,Sc, .. 
Carlyle admiu that "adversity is sometimes hard upon a man, but," he 
adds, " for one man who can stand prosperity, there are a hundred that will 
Eland adversity" {Hereti attd Hero-Worikif : The Hero as Man of Lttleri). 
Hazlitt had already said the same thing in his " Sketches and Essays." 
" Prosperity is a great teacher ; adversity is a greater" (Ott the Camiiriatim 
e/ Lvrds). And the arch -plagiarist Disraeli, in " Endymion." ch. Ijit., gives us 
the aphorism, " There is no education like adversity." " Prosperity," says 
Bacon, "is the blessing of the Old Testament ; adversity is the blessing of 
the New;" and he quotes approving!^ from Seneca a high speech after Ihe 
manner of the Stoics : "The good things that belong to prosperity are to be 
wished, but the good things that belong to adversity are to be admired" 
lEuaju: Of Aiotriity\. Aristotle found jn education "an ornament in pros- 
peritji and a refuge in adversity" (Diogenes Laertius; Udci of Fammti 
PkileiefktTi). Butler, in " Hudibras," finds a reason ' 
adversity which is as wise as it is witty : 

Fan 1,, Canio 
Longfellow finds a refuge in patience and hope : 

Let ui be patinl : Ihue ttvcit affllctloDi 

And Beaumont and Fletcher bid u 

Unleu OUT weiLkDen ■pprthend 
We CU1D01 be morfi Uthlul la in 
Id aoythlDg diat'i mnnly. than t 
lU foftuue u CDDtemptihIe to u« 

1., Sc. (. 

AdvertiBiii^ Qnalnt and CmloiiB. The origin of advertising dales 
back lo the birth of the commercial spirit, when human beings began to feel 
the necessity fur some means of communicating their wants and the business 
they had on hand. The ancient and medieval criers (called praemts in 
Rome) who, besides their public duties, announced the time, the place, and the 
conditions of sales, the hawkers who cried their own goods, the libtlli of the 
Romans (announcing the sales of estates, and giving public notice of things 
lost or found, of absconding; debtors, etc), and the hand-bill or poster, which, 
after the invention of printing, gradually superseded the town or private crier, 
— these are the various steps in Ihe evolution of Ihe modern advertisement. 

The first printed English newspaper, the Ctrtain Nrvits af tkii Pramt 
Witk, issued in London m 1643, contained nothing but news. Not until ten 
years later, in the Mtrcurim PotUkut for January, 1652, do we meet with a 
well -authenticated advertisemenL This relates to a panegyrical poem on 
Cromwell's return from Ireland, and rutis as follows : " Irenodta Gratulaloria, 
l^ an Heioick Poem -. being a congratulatory panegyrick for my Lord General'! 


But limost a cenluty previous, on the continent of Europe, oewspipers 
and newspaper advertise men is had been foreshadowed in small news pam- 
phlets printed at irregular inlervala in Vienna and other parts of Germany. 

verse, and, like its English successor which we have just quoted, is the puff 
of a new publication. 

As newspapers grew apace, the art of advertising developed with them. 
In May, 1657, one Newcombe issued a weekly nevtapaper, Tht Public Adver- 
tiser, which consisted almost wholly of advertisements of a miscellaneous 
characlcr. Siniullaneimsly other papers increased the number and the variety 
of their adverlisenients. Announcements of books still held a prominent 
position ; quack doctors began lo discover the value of puffery ; tradesmen 
praised their wares ; coffee-houses extolled the virtues of those strange new . 
drinks, "cophce" itself, chocolate, and thai "eicelleni and by all Physidans 
approved, China drink, called by the Chtneans icha, by other nations lay, alias 
lee." But the major pari of the advertisements related to fairs and cock- 
lights, bui^laries and highway robberies, the departure of coaches and stages, 
and to what would now be classed together under the heading of "Lost, 
Strayed, or Stolen." The number of runaway apprentices, servants, and 
negro boys is especially noticeable in the advertising literature of the seven- 
teenlh century. And how shall we account for the extraordinary homeliness 
uf the rogues and rascals of that period t Hardly a criminal or a runaway 
but is described as " ugly as sin." They have ill-favored countenances, 
smutty complexions, black, rotten teeth, flat wry noses, a hang-dog expression; 
they a're purblind, or deaf. Or given to slabber in their speech. Our modem 
lough must be a beauly in comparison with these earlier wrongdoers. By 
the eiglileenih century, advertising had become recognited as a means of 
communication, not only for the conveniences of trade, but for political pur- 
poses, for love-making, for for tune -hunting, for swindlmg. and for all the other 
needs and desires uf a large comoiuniiy. By the commencement of the 
present century matters were very nearly as we lind them now. The Lon- 
"""11 Times and the Merniag Post, started modeslly enough jp -■ ' - 

the eighteenth cenlury, were beginning lo m ' ~ ' 

the land. As they grew and developed, th< 
upon the revenues from their advertising coluc 
of adverlising were becoming more and more appreciated by tradesmen and 
the general public. 

American news|iapers proliled by the example of their BrJliah predecessors. 
The first newajiaper ihat succeeded in establishing ilaelf in North America 
was the Boston JVewt letter. In its initial number, dated Monday, April 14, 
1704, it issued a bid for advertising in this ungtammatical form : " All persons 
who have any houses, lands, tenements, farms, ships, vessels, goods, wares, or 
merchandise, etc., to be sold or let, or servants run away, or goods stole 
or lost, may have the same insetted at ihe reasonable rate uf twelve pence 
to five shillings, and not to exceed." The first American daily journal, the 
IndefendtHt Gatetle of New York, in its second year. 17S8. contained as many 
---^---'- -■-— ■- --■•- =-sue. From that lime on the growth 

ihirly-four advertisements in a single issue. From Ihat lime on the growth 
of advertising in America has been even more stupendous than in England. 
Il is inletesting to compare Ihe advertising of Ihe past with that of Ihe 


present. The mind that is accustomed to read between the lines can trace, in 
their various changes and developments, similar changes and developments in 
habits, customs, and methods of thinking ; can estimate the vast augmenta- 
tion in business and in industrial resources, and the mighty evolution of public 
and private enterprise. Let us go back through the columns of the news- 
pai>er press for the last two centuries or so, gleaning those curious and eccen- 
tric advertisements which illustrate in the most amusing fashion the temper 
of their respective periods and the mutations wrought by time. 

The class of advertisements now known as personals m;tde an early appear- 
ance in newspaper literature. 

But there are a candor, a simplicity, and a ndivetl in the earlier specimens 
which are less apparent in their successors of the present day. There is an 
opulence of phrase also which would indicate equal opulence of pocket, were 
personals charged for at the ruinous rates now current 

Leaving out the (question of expense, a jilted suitor of to-day would hardly 
be likely to vent his spleen in the fashion adopted by the Londoner who in-, 
serted this notice in the General Advertiser: 

Whereas, on Sunday, April la, 1750, there was seen in Cheapside, between the hours of 
four and five in the afternoon, a youne gentleman, dressed in a light-colored coat, with a blue 
waistcoat, trimmed with silver lace, along with a young ladv in mourning, going toward St. 
Martin's, near Aldersgate. This is, therefore, to acquaint tne said gentleman (as a fiiend) to 
be as expeditious as possible in the affair, lest otherwise he should unhappily meet with the 
same disappointment, at last, by another stepping in in the mean time, as a younc gentleman 
has been lately served by the aforesaid young lady, who, after a courtship of these four months 
past, and with her approbation, and in the most public manner possible, and with the utmost 
nooor as could possibly become a gentleman. Take this, sir, only as a friendly hint. 

Nor would the modern head of a family deem that it comported with his 
dignity to express hilarity at the disappearance of his wife in the public fashion 
adopted by this advertiser in the Essex (Mass.) Gazette of September 17, 1771 : 

Ran away from losiah Woodbury, Cooper, hb House Plasue for 7 long years, Masury 
Old Moll, alias Trial of Vengeance. He that lost will never seek her ; he that shall keep her, 
I will fpve two Bushels of Beans. I forewarn all Persons in Town and Country firom trusting 
said Trial of Vengeance. 1 have hove all the old Shoes I can find for Joy ; and all my 
neighbors rejoice with me. A good Riddance of bad Ware. Amen. 

JosiAH Woodbury. 

Miss Fisher inserts the following paragraph in the Public Advertiser of 
March 30, 1759: 

To err is a blemish entailed upon mortality ; indiscretions seldom or never escape firom 
censure, the more heavy as the character is more remarkable : and doubled, nay, trebled by the 
world if the progress of that character is marked by success ; then malice shoots against it all 
her stings, the snakes of envy are let loose ; to the humane and generous heart then must the 
injured appeal, and certain relief will be found in impartial honor. Miss Fisher is forced to sue 
to that jurisdiction to protect her from the baseness of little scribblers and scurvy malevo- 
lence ; iJie has been abused in public papers, exposed in print-shops, and to wind up the 
whole, some wretches, mean, wretched, ana venal, would impose upon the public by daring to 
publish her Memoirs. She hopes to prevent the success of their endeavors by thus pubhcly 
declaring that nothing of that sort has the slightest foundation in truth. 

C. Fish BR. 

The above might seem to the hasty thinker curiously characteristic of time 
and place. Yet history re{>eats itself, as it always must There is atavism 
even in advertisements. Characteristics that seem to belong to a past age 
will recur in the present Surely the Miss Fisher of the last century finds 
her legitimate successor, her modern double, in the ElTen Rose of Stamford, 
Connecticut, who in 1890 inserted the following advertisement in all the 
newspapers of her native town : 

To MT Scandalizing Frikni>s.— I hope you do not call yourselves Christians, for you are 
a (ttagrace to the Church. You know nothing about me. I don't care for your lying tongues ; 
I wonder that they don't fall out of your mouths. You act like fence cau and flying serpenu. 

y biuy about mr for (fac lau nine yon Willi your nwddliD^ ; pleut tell 

luldget tired or playing uukc ill ihc lime. If you do 
'" " ' ' ''' MlB ElLIH koU. 

Matrimonial adverlisements ate now often roughly grou|>ed under the head of 
" Personals" by newspaper managers who lacli tiie nicer perceptive qualities. 
In truth, they form a department by themselves. Tbej^ nave a literature of 
their own. In recenl years they have even developed journalistic organs of 

An engaging leatuie uf these wuuld-be husbands and wives has ever been 
their freedom Truni baahfulness ot maituaist konii in the pioclamalion of their 
own charms. They are almost always handsome, oi beautiful, or distingui shell- 
looking, sweet -tempered and aci:uinplished, well boin, well tnannered, and 
well educated. They are often wealthy, or, at least, in possession of a com- 
-forlable income. One wonders how it is they have escaped Hymen so long, 
and still more why they aie obliged to seek alien means u( courting him. 

John Houghton, whu in 1682 stalled a weekly entitled A Colttcliim for Uu 
Improvcmtnt ej Husbattdry and Trade, which proved one uf the chief pro- 
molen of early advertising, was the father of matiimonial announcement!!. 
In his issue of July 19, 1695, he inserted two adveitisemenis of wishful bride- 

Soums. But the public was suspicious of the innuvalioii, and a few weeks 
ter the editor found it necessary to explain that the '■ proposals for matches" 
were genuine, promising, moreover, to manage all necessary negotiations 
*> with the utmi>st secrecie and prudence." After that be seems to have found 
custom. Imitators followed, and in 1775 a marriage bureau was even started 
ill London, but it came to grief through an txpesi of its very questionable 
methods in the Tean and Country Magamne of the neat year. Nevertheless, 
matrimonial advertisements waxed apace. A very cnriuus one appeared in 
BclFs Wakly Meiscngir Q.i May 28, 1797: 

Mutfacw l»»oD, in Bothnll, Cunb«l»d, intindi 10 lie married it Holm a>un:b.0D 
Ihc Tliur»d»y bclbn Whinuntide neii, whenevirihai may bappen, and loteiura 10 tloihwell 
10 dine. Mr. Reid givei a iDikty lo be rouied ; £d Cl'm«i»n gi>u a <al tanib lo be 
roaiied: William Eliiol givei a hen 10 be roaued: Joseph Uib»n givei a fal call lo be 
loaned. And in onlerihai all Ihb loail meal may be veil bailed, da you lee. Mary Pearxia, 
belly HodgKjn, Mary Eu«h1ey, Molly Fuher. Sarah Briicoe, and Belly Ponhouie. giM each 

that he 11 ar prewnl diaengaged ; and ad visci ihem lo con^der thai althoUEh Ihcre be luck In 
leisure, yet in this caie dcTaya are datlgcroui \ tor, with him, il ia delennined it iball be firM 

Humph, what mad folly \ 1 can't find her thu9 ; exptrtut liqusf. Yei with the dying 
rear Ihb final eHon. Dear tribe of nnonhuiTaphical wriien on uniidy paper, (pan Ibronce 
Fiini, who, nol being an elderly getnleman or meaiu, neither could nil you if he would, mtr 
nuldlf becoutd. A llred AlheoianKekinB lomethiiic new. Epicurean in the true, not base 
RBK, far traveMed, much bul 111 read. lDcon%ible Irulhietler; ilbaca botei, the puffing ull 

igh-lmd, reslfiil, yyjaia, delighl lo mind^ pleaanre lo eye, 

Hnoi'muE, Herald Office. 

t^wif, where an Ihou! Alai ' "' ' ' " 

ily. I fe>r, ^ „ 
sensible was the following advertiser in the London TSmtn 


Even the ** Wants" column has its amosmg features. Here is a very credit- 
able specimen from the London Times of the year 1850 : 

Do YOU Want a Sbrvant? Neceisity prompu the question. The advertiser offbrs 
his SKKV1CKS to any lady or gentleman, company, or others, in want of a truly faithful, con- 
lidential servant in any capacity, not menial, where a practical knowledge ot human nature 
in various parts of the world would be available. Could undertake any affair, of small or 
peat importance, where talent, inviolable secrecy, or good address would be necessary. Has 
moved in the best and worst societies, without being contaminated by either ; has never been 
a servant : begs to recommend himself as one who knows his place ; is moral, temperate, 
middle-aged ; no objection to any part of the world. Could advise any capitalist wishing to 
increase nis income and have the control of his own money. Could act as secretary or valet 
to any ladv or gentleman. Can give advice, or hold his tongue, sing, dance, play, fence, 
box, preach a sermon, tell a story, be grave or gay, ridiculous or sublime, or oo anything, 
firom the curling of a peruke to Uie storming of^a ciudel— but never to excel his master. 
Address, etc. 

Does the reader note the nice condescension of this paragon in engaging 
never to excel his master ? He will keep his multiform accomplishments in 
check, so as not to overshadow his employer. 

Here are a few more " Wants'* from various portions of the globe that tell 
their own story and tell it joyously and well : 

From the Clevedon (Eng.) Mercury: 

Wanted— A really plain but experienced and efficient governess for three girls, eldest lO. 
Music, French, and German required. Brilliancy of conversation, fascination of manner, and 
symmetry of form objected to, as the father is much at home and there are grown-up sons. 
Address Mater, Post-Office, Clevedon. 

From the Edinburgh Scotsman : 

Servant— Wanted, by a family living in an Edinburgh flat, a general servant, who will 
andly superintend her mistress in cooking and washing, nursing the babv, etc. She will 
iiave everv Sunday and two nights out in each week, and the use of the diawing-room for 
the reception of her friends. Address A. F., Scotsman Office. 

From the Paris Figaro : 

Wanted — A professor to come twice a week to the house of a noble family in order to 
reform the pronunciation of a parrot. 

The ingenuous reader may have imagined that prize-fightipg and boxing 
were the especial privileges of the stronger half of humanity. A glance at 
the advertising columns of the eighteenth -century papers will convince him 
of his mistake. The following is by no means a solitary instance. It ap- 
peared in the Dculy Post oi July 17, 1728, in the form of a challenge and 
answer : 

Whereas I, Ann Field, of Stoke-Newington, ass-driver, well known for my abilities in box- 
ing in my own defence wherever it happened in my way, having been affronted by Mrs. 
Stokes, styled the European Championess, do fairly invite her to a trial of the best skill in 
boxing, for ten pounds, fair rise and uill ; and question not but to give her such proofs of my 
judgment that shall oblige her to acknowledge me Championess of the Stage, to the entire 
satisbciion of all my friends. 

I. Elizabeth Stokes, of the city of London, have not fought in this way since I fought the 
famous boxing woman of Billingsgate twenty-nine minutes, and gained a complete victory 
(which b six years ago) ; but as the £&mous Stoke-Newington ass- woman dares me to fight her 
ror the ten pounds, I do assure her I will not fail meeting tier for the said sum, and doubt not 
that the blows which I shall present her with will be more difficult for her to digest than she 
ever gave her asses. 

But it seems to have been discovered that even these degraded creatures 
had not lost all the characteristics of their sex. Some challenges provide 
that each woman shall hold half a crown in each hand, " the first woman that 
drops the money to lose the battle." Evidently the feminine temptation to 
use the nails instead of the fists had to be provided against 


The Newcastle Couranl of January 4, 1770, contained this notice, which 
could not have failed tu Cicile curiosity : 

llili li 10 acquaint Ihc public, Ihil on Monday the lini iiuiiiil. being the Lodie (or 
monlhly mectinc) Night of ibe Fne and Acccpied Muoni ol <hc iid ReginKni held al tbc 
l>«w)i, Dcu Newiale (Ncwcaitle), Mis. Bell, ihe ludlady of ibe hDUM,1in>ke open a door 

■djacmi room, made <wo hole* throilgh Ihe wall, and, t^ ihal itrmtmgem, dltcovered the 

tbund out the lecret^ IB witling 10 make It known 10 all her lei. So any lady who ia desinnii 
of learning Ihe ■ecreti o( Freemaionry. hy apj^yiuE lo that well-learned woman (Mn. Bell, 
Ihai lived bheen yean in and about Newgate) may be infttntclediq the vecreu or Haionry. 

Ou[ adverlising ancestors frequently broke into verse. Here is a fair sam- 
ple from the Saletn (Mass.) Register of September 6, iSoi, in which poetry 
and prose, remonstrance and business, are quaintly intermixed : 

The followini linei were wriiien in the ihop of the lubscriber by a Hn of St. CiiapiB, 
viewing with contempt the lyranaii:aL and oppieujve dupouEJoii of a maa who hai Ihnt- 
ened vengeance on hit nei^bor's buiineu beauie the amcte he dealt in la Shod : 
Salem, 9th Mo. tnh, iBoi. 

Oh Shame i that Man a Dog ihould imiuie. 

M?ho"^ereby he did bli ^ 6amy°'' 
O Man, «icb actions from the page eraK, 

J. MA>aniLD,3nl. 
But it is tradesmen, quacks, theatrical managers, etc., people, in thoit, 
who wish to attract the public attention to their own pecuniary prolil, — it is 
this portion of the race who have developed advertising, especially in (he 
latter half of the present century, into an art that taxes all the creative facul- 
ties of the human mind. Their forerunners of past ages trusted merely 10 
the resources of a gorgeous vocabulary. They used up all the laudatory 
adjectives in the language, and there was an end on 'L Their successors of 
to-day know better. They understand such appeals are made only to the ere 
and are imniedialely forgotten. It is neces.<iary to arrest attention, to startle, 
[o pique cuiitisily, to do something odd, bizarre, im/r/, extravagant, — to be 
sensatiimal above everything. Such methods set people to wondering, 
thinking, and talking. The earliest appeals of this sort were made in the 
comparatively conventional direction of literature and art. Wit. poetry, and 
wood-engraving were called into play. At first it was very poor wit, poor 
poetry, poor wood -en graving. When the novelty wore off it ceased to attract 
attention. Then advertisers began to turn themselves into Maecenases. They 
patronized the skilful pen and the cunning pencil. The world would be 
astonished if it kitew how many men now famous have written puffs for 
tradesmen. And two men, one in England and another in America, have won 
lame for Ihemseives in Ihe exclusive service of the advertiser. The first was 
George Robins, the English auctioneer, whose advertisements of estates for 
sale were, half a century ago, conned and studied with as much gusto as Ihe 
latest poem or romance. His description of that terrestrial paradise whose 
only drawback was "the litter of the rose-leaves and Ihe tioise of the night- 
ingales" has become a classic. The second is Mr. Powers, formerly of Wana- 
maker's Bazaar, in Philadelphia, He had a facility of phrase, a virile simplicity 
of style, a directness and on ingenuous candor, that indicated literary abtlitiei 


of a high order. When he wrote them, Wanamaker's advertisements won a 
national reputation. Many people turned to them first when they took up 
the morning papers, sure of finding something fresh and interesting even if 
they had no desire to purchase. 

As to art, Cruikshank was the first well-known man to lend his pencil to 
the advertiser. His capital sketch, made for a blacking-establishment, of the 
cat seeing herself reflected and spitting at the boot, is still in use after half a 
century's service. A London soap-firm recently purchased the right of re- 
producing one of John Rogers's most famous little groups. And you have 
but to turn to the pages of any modern periodical to recognize what excellent 
work, mostly unsigned and unacknowledged, but betraying the well-known 
characteristics of eminent artists, is done for advertising purposes. Famous 
works of art, also, have been pressed into the same service in an indirect way. 
Hotels and bar-rooms attract custom by hanging on their walls the authentic 
works of great masters, old and new. Cigarette-dealers and others reproduce 
uncopyrighted masterpieces in miniature form, and give them away with their 

But as the spirit of journalism has invaded literature and art, so it has 
invaded the advertising business. The sensational methods of editors and 
reporters have been aped by the advertisers in near-by columns. Who does 
not remember the thrilling "reading notices," once so popular, which, after 
holding you breathless with the account of an accident, a love-story, a tale of 
adventure, finally landed you into a box of pills or a bottle of castor oil ? 
Then there was the enigmatical notice, not yet extinct, which arrested atten- 
tion and kept you in wondering suspense, until such time as the advertiser 
deemed ripe to spring the explanation, — the notice which cried, ** In the name 
of the Prophet," and waited until you had pricked up your ears before it 
added, ** Figs." An early example of this occurred in London some thirty 
years ago. One morning the good people woke up to find the interrogation 
•• Who's Blank ?" staring them everywhere in the face, — in the newspapers, on 
the walls and hoardings of the town, even on the pavements. As dav after 
day passed, the reiterated qnerv set evervbody to thinking. ** Who incieed is 
Blank ?" So everylwdy asked, but nobody knew. Presently the words " Fire I 
Fire 1 Thieves ! Thieves I" following the query, deepened the mystery. At 
last the secret was out when the enterprising owner of a newly-i>atented safe 
added his name to the announcement. 

The mysterious statement, in large letters, " 724 More,'* which simulta- 
neously invaded the American press all over the country, carried wonder and 
even uneasiness to many an American household. One can imagine the whole 
family puzzling their brains over it for days. Finally, one morning. Young 
Hopeful bursts out breathlessly, " Pop ! I know what 724 More is I" " What 
is it ?" cries every one, expectantly. " Pancakes !" And then it comes out 
that 724 more pancakes can be made out of Puff 's Baking Powder than out 
of any other. 

Tricks of the type are a lower form of art, and have now lost much of their 
efficacy. It is only the uninventive mind that seeks to attract attention by 
italics, capitals, exclamation marks, and the use of strange and uncouth letters. 
Even the familiar trick of setting up announcements in diagonal form, or 
of inverting the letters, palls upon a sated public. There is still great virtue, 
however, in large capitals and the force of iteration. If day in and day out 
the public have the name of any article pressed conspicuously upon their 
attention, that name is unconsciously fixed in the mind like a household word. 
And the effect is more certain if the name appears in some unlooked-for spot 
and in an unfamiliar environment. The knowledge of these facts has led 
advertisers to drop their lines in other places besides the daily papers. 


And so it came vouml ihat bill-posters stuck up flaring advertisements sn 
walls, on fences, on bill-boards, thai the interiors of cars and omnibuses were 
decorated with si^iis, that pavements were stencilled with trade notices, that 
peripatetic artists swarmed over the country painting the names of quack 
medicines on the palings of fences, the sides of houses and barns, on rocks, 
trees, and river-banks. 

Bill-posdng was first used in connection with the drama. The very name 
indicates this. As far back as i $79, John Northbrooke, in bis treatise against 
theatrical performances, says, "They use tu set up their bills upon posts, 
some cerluD days before, to admonish people to make resort to their thea- 
tres." Later, notices of houses to rent, of sales, auction, etc., were posted. 
Then followed all manner of advertisements. But not until twoscote years 
ago was bill. posting systematized into a business. Anciently the best bill- 
poster was the mighty man of brass and muscle, who, knowing nothing of law 
or license, tote down his rival's placard and set up his own in its stead. Some, 
times the riral would show fighL Sometimes the owner of the property 
would object 10 its desecration, and serve an injunction on the bill. poster. Un- 
daunted, however, the latter would lease out his contract to another man, who 
would slick up his bills before the court could issue a new injunction. At last 
the system of leasing apace sprang up. The owner leased his space to the 
bill-sticker, who could enforce the right aa against his rival. This system 
dales from 1876. It has led to the establishment of large firms, many of whom 
control space throughout the entire Union, and can, at a moment's bidding, 
proclaim the merits of a soap or a patent medicine throughout the land. 

Worst of all, the bill-poster has amalgamated with the peripatetic artist 
of the brush. When the latter first sprang into being, he was a distinct 
individuality and a most offensive one. Nothing in nature was too sacred for 
him, — indeed, the more sacred, the greater the advertisement The most 
magnificent scenery was profaned. The sign-painter often had to stand up lo 
his neck in water, or dimb apparently inaccessible peaks, to reach the most 
striking locality for his "ad." He was hooted by the newspapers, and shot 
at by enraged worshippers of the beautiful. But no danger, no difficulty, 
daunted him. 

The most remarkable of these early pioneers was the owner of a certain 
Plantation Bitters. He devised an enigmatic inscription, "S. T. 1860. X.," 
which shortly appeared in every newspaper and on every available fence, 
rock, tree, bill-board, or barn throughout the country, on w^ons, railroad- 
cars, ships, and steamers. One day all the exposed rocks in the Niagara 
rapids bloomed oul with the mystic sign. Forest-trees along the lines of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad were hewn down lo afford the passengers a glim|)se 
of the same announcement emblaxoned in letters four hundr^ feet high on 
the mountain -side. Then the manufacturer's agents went abroad. Cheops' 
pyramid was not too sacreil for him, nor the place on Mount Ararat where the 
Ark is said to have landed. He even announced that he would discover the 
North Pole for the express purpose of decorating it with the cabalistic words. 
And what did the words mean P Many puzzled their heads over Ihem in 
vain. Not until the proprietor had retired with a fortune did he reveal the 
secret "S. T. i860. X." meant. "Slatted trade in i860 with |icl" 

But we have not yet exhausted all the arts of the advertiser. Something 
should be said about the sad-eyed sandwich-man, braced between two biir 
boards and set adrift In the Crowded streets ; something also of the various 
perambu 1 a tory advertise men 18 which have been gradually evolved from this 
simple germ ; of the negro gentleman exquisitely arrayed, save only for a 
huge standijig collar, on which is printed the name of the firm that employs 
him ; of the army of tall men, all over six feet six inches in height, whom a 


manufiicturer of rubber goods clad in long rubber coats, bearing his name 
and trade-mark, and then cast out on the highways and by-ways of tne metrop* 
olis ; of the countless numbers of men and boys bedecked in fantastic cos- 
tumes and placed in the streets to distribute circulars. 

A quarter of a century ago, a London manager invented a new advertising 
scheme which has been the fruitful parent of many similar devices. A drama 
called " The Dead Heart" was being played at his theatre. He ordered ten 
hundred thousand hearts to be printed in red, inscribed with the words Dead 
Heart, and had them posted everywhere, upon the pavements, upon the walls, 
upon the trees in the parks, upon the seats, and even upon the backs of 
revellers who were returning home in a convivial but oblivious mood. 
Twenty years later, one of his imitators devised a still more startling scheme. 
He was manager of the melodrama " The Mystery of a Hansom Cab." 
Hiring a number of hansoms, he placed in each the dummy figure of a man 
in a dress suit, with blood-bespattered shirt, and had them driven through the 
principal streets. He succeeded even better than he had expected. The 
ghastly s|>ectacle became the talk of all London. The newspapers denounced 
It as an atrocity. It was said that nervous people had fainted, that children had 
screamed, and that ladies had ^one off in hysterics. Finally, the authorities 
gave the lucky manager an additional *'ad." by ordering the hansoms back to 
the stables under pain of arrest. 

Over in Vienna, a theatrical manager advertised for five thousand cats. 
The strange announcement attracted general attention. At the appointed day 
and hour the entrance to the theatre was blocked by a vast crowd of men, 
women, and children with bags, baskets, or coat-pockets stuffed with cats. 
The manager bought them all, fixed labels around their necks announcing 
the first performance of a g^and pantomime in the following week, then 
turned them loose, and let them scamper off in all directions. Of course the 
manager did not depend merely on the labels. He knew that the novelty of 
the scheme would set press and public to talking, and he was right in his 

A story has recently gone the rounds of the press which is quite good 
enough to be true. A poor clergyman wishing to buy hymn-boolcs for his 
congregation at the lowest possible price, a London firm offered to supply 
him gratuitously with a line of books containing certain advertisements. The 
minister complied, thinking to himself that, when the books arrived, the ad- 
vertisements could be removed, but, to his joy and surprise, he found no inter- 
leaved advertisements. On the first Sunday after the new books had been 
distributed, the congregation found themselves singing, — 

Hark I the herald angels sing. 
Beecham's Pills are just the thing ; 
Peace on earth and mercy mild. 
Two for man and one for child." 

Advice. An axiom of proverbial as well as of written philosophy is 
summed up in this phrase of Hazlitt*s : " Our friends are generally ready 
to do everything for us except the very thing we wish them to do. There is 
one thing in particular they are alwavs disix>sed to give us, and which we are 
as unwilling to take, namely, advice. {^Characteristics^ No. 88.) Johnson offers 
an excellent reason both for the willin^ess on one side and the unwillingness 
on the other : " Advice, as it always gives a temporary appearance of superi- 
ority, can never be very grateful, even when it is most necessary or most 
jumcious.*' {Rambler^ No. 87.) If this be true, then it evidently follows, to 
quote his own words again from a letter to Mrs. Piozzi, " The advice that is 
wanted is generally unwelcome, and that which is not wanted is generally im- 
pertinent." Horace Smith, therefore, suggests quite the right attitude towards 


advice, and especially good advice ; " Gomi advice is one of those injuries 
which a good man oughl, if possible, to Torgive, bu! at all events to forget at 
once." {TAt Tin Trumptt: Advi^i.) The ingenuous few thai occasionally 
seem to seek advice really wan) something else ; " We ask advice, but we 
mean B|)|irobation." (Coliwn ; Laean.) Yet Benjamin Franklin has so lillle 
worldly wisdom as lo say in his " Poor Richard's Almanac," "They that will 
not l« counselled will not be helped." To be sure, he adds almost in the 
same breath, " We ma; give advice, but we cannot give conduct," — a thought, 
by the way, which he stole from La Rochefoucauld : " We give advice, but we 
cannot give the wisdom to prolit by it." Saadi, in the " GulistSn," makes a 
sage remark when he says, " Ele who gives advice to a self- conceited man 
stands himself in need uf counsel fiom another." (ch. viii., Ruleifor Conduct in 
U/(.) But he fails to recognize that all men in this sense are self- conceited. 
Yet, on the other hand, if Bailey be right, self-conceit should inchne them to 
hearken : " The worst men often give the best advice." {Feilui. if. A Village 
Ftaii.) \n the face of all this human unwillingness, however, Alphonso the 
Wise of Castile was bold enough to say, " Had 1 been present at the Crea- 
tion, I would have given some useful hints for the belter ordering of the 

A. E. I. O. Ti. These five vowels were stamped by Frederick 111. of Ger- 
many upon coins and medals, and inscribed upon public buildines. They had 
originally been used at the coronation of his predecessor, Albert II., then 
standing for Atbertus Electus Imperator Optimus VivaL At his own coro- 
nation at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1440, Frederick retained (he initials, with this 
altered meaning, Archidui Eleclus Imperator Optime VivaL It became a 
favorite pastime for learned and ingenious men to fit new readings to the 
motto. Frederick himself, in a manuscript referred to by the librarian of 
Leopold L, quoted a flattering German version, Allcr Ehren Ist Oesterreich 
Voll, ('• Austria is crowned with all honor,") but it is recorded that he had 
to remove an equally unflattering inscription in the Burg, Aller Erst Ist 
Oesterreich Verdorben. 

Rasch, organist of the Scholtencloster, discovered no less than two hundred 
possible readings, which he gave to the world about IjSa Three of these are 
especially famous : Austria Erit In Orbe Ultima, "Austria will be the last in 
the world.- and Austriae Est Imperare Orbi Universo, and Alles Erdreich Ist 
Oesterreich Unleithan, the last being a free translation into German of the 
Latin of the second. The initial ingenuity of both is retained in the English 
equivalent : Austria's Empire Is Over all Universal. 

AfDulty. A term made famous by American Free-I-overs, meaning a per- 
son of the opposite sex who is in such perfect harmimy, mentally, spiritually, 
and physically, with one's self, that a hieher law — a law above all mere human 
codes and conventions, and, therefore, above the seventh commandment, which 
was numbered among human ordinances — urged these twain to become one 
flesh. A complete life or destiny could lie fulAlled, not by a single individual, 
but by a couple. Each must have its aflinity. The greater duly of life was 
to discover this alttr fgo. It will be seen that this necessitated numerous ex- 
periments on the way. The Free-Lovers were largely influenced by Goethe's 
"Elective Affinities." in which human beings are likened to chemical sub- 
stances that repel or attract one another by eternal laws. Only Goethe hesi- 
tates to sav eiplicitly that this chemical force thrust upon man by the demoniac 
powers refeascs him from personal responsibility. The Free-Lovers not only 
explicitly stated this, not only asserted that man was excusable, but went fur- 
ther, and taught that it was his sacred duly to break through the traditional 
code and satisfy his higher self. The sect became prominent in 1850, and 


established several communities, the most famous being at Oneida, New York. 
They were a constant target for the humorists. Artemus Ward has an excel- 
lent bit of fooln^g on the community at Berlin Heights, Ohio. He describes 
how he set up his great moral show in the neighborhood, and how the Free- 
Lovers came flocking round the doors, among them "a perfeckly orful-lookin' 
female," whose "gownd was skanderlusly short and her trowsis was shameful 
to behold." 

The ex8«ntric female clutched me frantically by the arm and hollerd : 

" You air mine, O you air mine !" 

" Scarcely," I sed, endeverin to git loose from her. But she cluns to me and sed • 

" You air my Affinerty I" 

" What upon arth is that?" I shouted. 

" Dost thou not know ?" 

" No. I dostcnt !" 

" Listen, man, & I'll tell ye !" sed the strange female : *' for years I hav yearned for thee 
I knowd thou wast in the world, sumwhares, tho I didn't know whare. My hart sed he 
would cum and I took courage. He has cum— he's here— you air him— you air my Affinerty. 

'tis too mutch, too mutch !" and she sobbed agin. 

*' Yes," 1 anseied. " I think it is a dam site too mutch !" 

*• Hast thou not yearned lor me ?" she yelled, ringin' her hands like a femaie play-actor. 
" Not a yearn !" 1 bellered at the top of my voice, throwin' her away from me. — Artemut 
Ward, Hit Bock: Among the Free-Lovers. 

Agatbocles' Pot. Agathocles, the celebrated tyrant of Syracuse, was 
originally a potter : in his greatness he always affected extreme humility, 
having 'an earthen pot placed beside him at table to remind him of his 

A poor relation is the most irrelevant thing in nature, a piece of impertinent correspondency, 
... a death's-head at your banquet, Agathocles' pot, a Mordecai in your gate, a Lazarus at 
your door, a lion in your path, . . . the ounce of sour in a pound of^sweet. — Lamb's Elia : 
l*0or Relations, 

Agitate, agitate, agitate! This advice, which seems a reminiscence of 
Demosthenes's "Action, action, action 1** {q. v\ was given to the Irish people 
by the Marquis of Angleseawhen Lord Lieutenant of Ireland under the Duke 
of Wellington. 0*Connell caught up the phrase and followed the advice it 
inculcated. Hence he was known as " the Irish Agitator." But Parnell deemed 
that a better watchword was '* Organize, organize, organize !" 

Agnostic (Gr. d privative, and yi'wcrrof, knowing, known, kno7uable). One 
who believes that the finite mind can comprehend only the finite world, and 
that God and the infinite and the causes that underlie appearances are neces- 
sarily unknown and unknowable. According to a letter from R. H. Hutton. 
quoted in the New English Dictionary, j«^ Z'<?r^, the word was "suggested by 
Prof. Huxley at a party held previous to the formation of the now defunct 
Metaphysical Society, at Mr. James Knowles*s house on Clapham Common, 
one evening in 1S69, in my hearing. He took it from St. PauPs mention of 
the altar to * the Unknown God.* " 

Since this letter ap|)^ared in print, Prof. Huxley has himself given us the 
hi.story of the word, in the Nineteenth Century for February, 1889. " When 

1 reached intellectual maturity and began to ask myself whether I was an 
atheist, a theist, or a pantheist, a materialist or an idealist, a Christian or a 
free-thinker, I found that the more I learned and reflected, the less ready 
was the answer, until at last I came to the conclusion ihat I had neither art 
nor part with any of these denominations except the last. The one thing in 
which most of these good people agreed was the one thing in wnich I differed 
from them. They were quite sure they had attained a certain 'gnosis,' had 
more or less successfully solved the problem of existence ; while I was quite 
sure I had not, and had a pretty strong conviction that the problem was 
insoluble. . . . This was my situation when I had the good fortune to find a 

j8 handy-book of 

place among the members ol ihat remarkable conlratetnity of antaxoniaU, 
long since deceased, hut of gieen and pious memary. the Hetaphyaical Society. 
Every variety of philosophical and theological opinion waa represented there, 
and expressed itself with entire openness \ most of my colleagues were iilt at 
one sort or another ; and, however kind and friendly they might be, I> the man 
without a rag of a label to i:over himself with, could not fail to have some of 
the uneasy feelings which must have beset the historical fox when, after leaving 
the trap m which his tail remained, he pieaented himself to his normally 
elongated companions. Ha 1 took thought, and invented what I conceived to 
be the appropriate title of 'agnostic' It came into my head as suggestively 
antithetic to the ' Gnoslic' of Church history who professed to know so much 
about the very things of which I was ignorant, and [ louk the earliest oppor- 
tunity of parading it at our society, to show that I, too, had a tail like the 
other foies. To my great satisfaction, the term took ; and when the Spatatm' 
had stood godfather to it, any suspicion in the minds of respectable people 
that a knowledge of its parentage might have awakened was, of course, com- 

Sletely lulled." {Reprinied in Chritlianity and Agncstieism : a Ctmlraverty. 
lew Vork, 1889.) 

Agonj. To pile on the agony, originally an Americanism, is now a 
common locution on both sides of the Atlantic, meaning lo use harrowing 
details for the purpose of intensifying a narrative or a statement. So br back 
as 1S57, Charlotte Bronte writes in a letter, " What climax there is (}ues not 
come on till near the conclusion ; and even then I doubt whether the regular 
novel -reader wilt consider the 'agony piled sufficiently high' (as the Ameri- 
cans say) or the Colors dashed on to the canvas with the proper amount o( 
daring.'' (G ASK ELL 1 Lift of CAarMIt Bnmte. cti, xxv.) 

Agony Column. The name familiarly given to the second column of the 
(trsl page of the London Timet, containing advertisements similar to thoae 
which in American papers are grouped under the head of Personals. But 
they often eihilHl a frantic exuberance of capitals, exclamation -marks, and 
interjections, and make lurid exhibitions of private and personal matters 
which are well-nigh unknown to the advertising columns of cis-Allantic jour- 
nals. Sometimes they are written in cipher, or some mutually-agreed -on 
airangement of words, and many a line that reads like the purest gibberish 

or gladness to the eye that n 
d dangerous. "" 

have been found dangerous. There arc everywhere certain ingenious busy- 
bodies (f>.. bodies who have nothing to busy themselves with) that make a 
Study of this column, and, finding a key to the cipher in which a clandestine 
correspondence is cariied on, insert a marplot advertisement, — sometimes for 
the mere fun of the thing, sometimes to stop an intrigue that is nearly ripe for 
execution. The agony column itself is evidence of this. For you often find 
the teal agents in a correspondence notifying each other that such and such an 
advertisement wa.t not inserted by authority. (See ClPHES.) 

A large number of llie advertisements relate to jirodig^ sons and truant 
husbands. Now, you and 1 have never run away and hid from our families ; 
probably no one in our set of acquaintances ever has. Yet the fact remains 
that there is a certain percentage of the human race lo whom the temptation 
to run away is irresistible. By a more or less happy dispensation, they seem 
tci be blessed with relatives of exceptional clemency, who, instead of leaving 
them alone like Bopeep's sheep, implore them through the Times and other 

Eapers to come home to a steaming banquet of veal. They frequently wind up 
y promising the fugitive that everything will be arranged to his satisbction, — 
which surely ought to prove a tempting bail, for to have everything arranged 
to one's satisfaction is a condition rarely realized. Of courK the promise ii 


▼ague. It is therefore encouraging to run across an advertisement that deals 
with particulars and not with glittering generalities, — t.g.^ as when on October 
2, 1851, a fugitive who is spoken of as "The Minstrel Boy" (probably in a 
fine vein of sarcasm, for among the items of personal description appears 
*' no ear for music") is thus addressed : " Pray return to your disconsolate 
iriends. Ail will be forgiven, and Charlie will give up the front room." 

Another favorite way of luring the victim back is to threaten that all sorts 
•V calamities will visit the family he has left behind. Thus, P. P. P. is im- 
plored for mercy's sake to write again : " If not, your wretched father will be 
a maniac, and your poor unhappy mother will die broken-hearted." Here is 
a still more pathetic appeal, ludicrous, however, in the very midst of its pathos : 
" To A ... . If humanity has not entirely flown from your breast, return, 
oh, return, ere it is too late, to the heart-oroken, distracted wife you have 
forsaken, — ere the expression of those soft eyes that won you be lost in the 
bewildered stare of insanity,— ere they may gaze even on you and know you 
not ; write, tell her, oh ! tell her where you are, that she may follow you— tier 
own, her all — and die. See her once more." Here is an example tnat shifts 
with strange abruptness from entreaty to threats : " I entreat you to keep to 
your word, or it may be fatal. Laws were made to bind the villains of society." 
The neat laconicism of the following has even more merit : 

Philip. Would Philip like to hear of his Mother's Death? 

A sad little history is summed up in the following advertisements, the lasc 
two being, of course, an answer to the first : 

July 15, 18, 22. and 25, 185a 
The Onk-Wingbd Dovb must die unless the Crank returns to be a shield against her 

November 23, 1850. 

Somerset, S. B. The Mate of the Dove must take wing forever unless a material change 
takes place. J. 6. 

November 26, 1850. 

The Mate of the Dove bids a final Farewell. Adieu to the British Isles, although such 
a resolution cannot be accomplished without poignant grief. W. 

Undoubtedly there is a romance also behind these three advertisements, 
which followed one another at considerable intervals ; but the reader will 
have to build one up to suit himself: 

March 24, 1849. 

No Doormat To-Night. 

March 28, 185a 

Doormat and Beans To-Night. 

May 28, 1851. 

Doormat To-Night. 

Was this a love-niessaee ? Was Doormat the agreed-upon symbol for a 
Rrira Paterfamilias, a jealous husband ? Did the mice, anxious for play, ac- 
quaint each other in this fashion that the cat was or was not away ? And 
what connection did Doormat have with Beans ? Idle, idle questions ! As 
well ask " what songs the Sirens sang, or what name Achilles assumed when 
he hid himself among women." 

A curious advertisement, that tells its own story, appears on May 21, 1 538. 
The advertiser, who gives his real name and address, states that some years 
previous he had saved the life of an English nobleman by rescuing him from 
drowning, but that he withdrew himself, "not to receive the unbounded thanks 
and generous reward of an English gentleman." Now, however, he intimates 
that a correspondence with the family might be pleasing to them and a source 


uf iiappjness to himsclF. Of course this ingeiiJQUs gentleman wanted love 

say, tie wanted money pressed on hi 


^ Very likely he deserved it Certainly his 

asking (ur il was very pretty. What tould be more happy than the hin 

raordinarj aeries of advertisements thai ever appeared in 
any paper, a series eilenditig over a period of fifteen years and hinting al all 
sorts of mystery, romance, crime, and even madness, was contributed mainly 
by a gentleman whose real name, E. I. Wilson, is occasionally signed, while 
more fiequently he masquerades untier the initials E. W. or E. J. W., or 
under pKcudiinymes thai would be baffling but Tor the unerring evidence of 
style. Tiiat he was a man who had suffered a good deal, and that his sorrows 
had unhinged his reason, is apparent enough, for the advertisements are 
ixjiirlicd m precisely the language which seems impressive to people of de- 
ranged minds. Moreover, he hax an Insane belief in his own virtues, impor- 
tance, and abilities. " I claim to rank with Cobden, Bright, and Rowland 
Hill," he says in one place, and elsewhere he asserts that he is the author of 
"the decimal system at Her Majesty's Customs which pours pure gold every 
day into the coffers of the nation." How far, therefore, his sorrows are the 
result of hallucination il is not possible lo say. Nor is it possible to make a 
perfectly consistent and coherent whole out of the staccato story of his wrongs 
as revea'icd in these advertisements. But the main outlines seem to be that 
he was a man of fortune with an important position in the British Castonu 
Office, that he married a Hebrew lady, that his family and friends quarrelled 
with him, apparently over some smuggling scheme of which he disapproved 
and in whose spoils he refused to participate, that his wife and his infant 
daughter were spirited away from him (he seems lo hint that the wife eloped 
with a lover, but this she indignantly denies), and that he spent a large portion 
of his life, and lost fortune, place, and position, in the effort to regain the 
daughter. ' So much being premised, a few selections here and there ^om the 
it Mr. Wilson and the rare answers of his wife 

be found interesting, — may pique curiosity, at least, if not satisfy it 
" ' -he first of the s<'-- 

Cudnur would Ihcn isdnd be wnni|td. E. W. 

you alludin° lo? Send vour address. Do it immediatrly. . ..» ...u^u 
disappointed at not receiving it on Saturday, and have been in the greatest 
aijoiiy ever since. You are freely forgiven ; extend your mercy to Alexis." 

continuing the correspondence through the 
Loiuiims ui iiic /iiRci. iin march 19 he explains that he was alluding to 
" the customs," and adds, '• You will only deceive the superficial fools of the 

Aleii^ evidently gets very wroth, and four days later inserts the following : 

E, W., auihor of uonvmciiK comipondcnce, look al home. Conicienct dot* not acciue 

bail hat noi iaken.' H^ve vw ■ asaxmixV I'hli i> douhi^l by ktoc. whiltl otbcn ^nk 
rou ban. bat thai il dWElli &r bueilti >» unul Kal. AKxU bld> you raicwcU. 

Aleiis in evidently the wife. Apparently she flees to Norway or Sweden, 
for a month or two later we find an impassioned appeal "to the pearl of the 
great eastern sea, the blue-eyed maid of Israel, who keeps watch near Ihe 


impassable gate of dreary Scandinavia : You cost one great man his place, and 
will also cost a great many more their place." Does Mr. Wilson refer to 
himself as the great manf Not unlikely. In January his wife, who now 
appears to be in Hammersmith, England, conjures him to call on her. "A 
wilful error,*' she says, " is maintained against justice and truth to oppose my 
right Why not come immediately?" Hut, instead of going, E. J. W. simply 
inserts the word Silence! in the Agony column for January 15, which leads 
to the following interchange of mysteries : 

January 18, 1853. 
Silence, where ? 

January 19, 1853. 

Whbke? Has my visbn been fulfilled, or does vice prevail? That b tbe question. 
E«. J. yf . 

Same date, lower down. 

Silence, where? Why 1 ** Silence in the Metropolis I" Silence on the railway is good, 
but " Silence in the Metropolis" is excessively better ! 

Possibly there is a veiled allusion here to his address. For on the 21st, 
EL J. W., apparently in answer to some communication by letter, inserts the 
word "Incorruptible" with his initials. And on the 25th he celebrates his 
own incorruptibility in song : 

Diogenes his Lantern needs no moke^ 
An honest man is found, the search is o'er. 

Incorruptible £. J. W. 

More nonsense of a similar kind follows. Then, on February 8, the wife 
appears once more to be heard from : " G — Arthur and E. J. W. are inex- 
cusable in absenting themselves from the two indescribables. Do not leave 
under a wilful delusion. . . . All communication is intercepted in England and 
abroad, and our reputations calumniated to render us homeless and friend- 
less. Deceit prevails." The plot has now thickened, and conjecture can 
make only the vaguest surmises. Nothing more appears until March 24, 
when E. J. W. says, ** Fly by night has got the anchor. Corruption wins, 
and England's lost." On March 30 the tables appear to be turned : *' Achil- 
les has GOT the lever. Corruption sinks, and virtue swims. E. J. W." 
Again more nonsense follows, then an interval of silence. At last E. J. W. 
cries out, Je veux voir ma JUle : a little later (June 27, 1854), " I'll not touch 
the money. It's stolen property ;" and exactly a year later, *' I tell you again 
I'll not touch the money. But where's my child ?" It would almost seem 
that he was finally persuaded to reconsider his determination, whatever it was, 
for on September 29, 1855, he writes, — 

Pity— yes. The future of a buried heart and conscience ! It is more than unfeeling to 
seize the unhappy hour of a weak and erring heart to influence it to violate its whole nature, 
abandon the tenderest lies, and make it forever bankrupt of every true and proper feeling. 
Remorse, and one day you will feel it. 

On November i, 1855, he breaks out, — 

By that bitter cup you have giveit. and I drank to the dregs; . . . by promises made to 
those now no more, I will see you. Be true to yourself and to me. Oh, M'y, M'y ! I would 
save you the panp of error,— -God forbid of crime, — and though the passion, jealousy, hate, 
and madness you have excited be scorned and denied, when the serpent you foster is wearied, 
— yea, even then, here is your haven, when all forsake. 

Once more she insists, — 

You are deceived. Those now no*more were deceived. I foster none, but am true to ties 
of happier days. Open to me a communication and a public investigation. Mary. 

There is now a silence of many months. Then in July, 1857, advertise- 
ments again break out, hinting at some mysterious money transactions under 
the headings, "Nicht eine Million," "Genug FttR Alles," etc. They 
seem to have resulted in E. J. W. receiving back his daughter. But he retained 


her only a short tin 
the mail lucid of n 

my moiKj frais ikc day I nobly tlEMil it away : aod 1 did nM icc mji child far five ycui, 
ud ytt 1 np«ud Ibe lawi of bununiiy ^ and you kc ihe return—! haie loil my daushler 

He never saw her again, appatcnlly. Lhough he managed to caUblish a cor- 
respondence wilh her in French Ih rough Ihe Agony culumn. Then this breaks 
off and anolher silence ensues, which is sufficiently explained by this notice, 
dated October iz, 1865: 

Thi Hurt of Stohi. FIAhii ycanof ikoniai dcpmiion. and lon^, >ad hounof 

paiKd inlo a belter life, " H«n al Sum" will relcDi if " Martyr," wiih mcckneu ud tub- 
miuion befitting her •eltadopted title, cauenu to ihe coiuliiign xaUd in a former communi- 
cation (0 Mr. PoJIaky, IVIrau Inquiry Office, i), Padd>II(KHl G[«d: UDlil then na meedns 

i. Heart of Stone tepliei 

the approacbinB annivenaiy o 

actory eipN 


Agreeing to dlllbr. This now familiar phrase dates back to Sidner*! 
"Arcadia." Hook I. : " Between these two persons [Dametas and Miso], who 
never agreed in any biimnr but in disagreeing;, is issued forth Mistress Mopsi, 
a 111 woman lo partake of both their perwctions." Southey, in his " Life of Wes' 
ley," has the ipsissima verl>a "agreed to differ." The more antithetic phrase 
"agreeing to disagree" is now more common. 

So ] have talked with BelMy, and B«My ha> Ulked with Die, 

WiLTcaRLHTOH : F^i^i^ma^j!^ a^ri and I ar, 0ml. 

imuantons applied 10 Byron. It 
. and is an allusion to Ihe noble 
lord's fondness for that people, which he carried to so great an extent »a to 
become their blooJ-irelher by adoption. This fact is made plain by the alter- 
native form Albaneser appearing in a letter from Shelley to his wile, written 
from Venice, August 33, iSiS. Yet critics who are fond of mares' nests have 
spent a deal of ingenious conjecture on the term. Mr. Fotman suggests that 
Albj was formed from Ihe initials L. B. i^ Lord Byron. Another would make 
it an abbreviation of Albemarle Street, whence the poems of Byron were 
issued. And a third, with a subtlety of roundalraut surmise that is worthy of 
all praise. Iinds an explanation in a romance by Mme. Cottin, enlilird " Claire 
d'Albc," which Shelley admired so much that he encouraged his first wife to 
translate it into English. Now, if Byron's Claire was ever dubbed Claire 
d'Albe, Byrnn himself might become Albe ! 

Albion Fwfide (P.. " Perfidious Albion"). This phrase is generally at- 
tributed to Napoleon. But though he undoubtedly used it, the idea long ante- 
dated him. Thus, in Perlin's " Description des Royaulmes d'Angleterre et 
d'Ecosse" (1558) ; " One may say of the English that in war they are rot strong. 


and in peace they are not faithful. As the Spaniard says, Angleterre bonne 
tcrre mala gcnte" (England, good country, bad people). On the other hand, 
Misson, in his "Travels" (1719), says, "I cannot imagine what could occasion 
the notion I have frequently observed in France that the English were treach- 
erous. It is certainly great injustice to reckon treachery among the vices 
familiar to the English." The following lines are said to have l)een composed 
by Philip of Valois on the occasion of Edward III.'s invasion of France : 

Angelus est Anglus cui nunquam fidere fas est : 
Dum ubi dicet ave, sicut ab hoste cave. 

Grozactus ex Gaguino, in Hist, Franc. 

Aldine, a name given to the books that issued from the press of Aldus 
Manutius (Latinized form of Aldo Manuzio) and his family in Venice. These, 
from their historic interest in the annals of printing and their intrinsic ex- 
cellence, have always been held in high repute by book-lovers, — especially 
the publications of Aldus himself. A generous love of classic literature was 
Aldus's main motive when, in 1490, he founded the great house which, after 
revolutionizing the art of printing and book-making, went out of existence in 
1597. The Aldine publications consist oi editiones principes of ancient classics 
and corrected texts of the more modern Italians, with grammars, philologies, 
and other works of erudition. They are even now reckoned with manuscripts 
among the critical apparatus of scholars. Aldus, or rather his engraver, 
Francesco of Bologna, invented what they called cursive types (1.^., italics), 
which were first used in the edition t)f Virgil published m 1501, a volume 
memorable, also, as the first octavo ever issued. Printing now became one of 
the fine arts. The success of the Aldine editions led to piratical counterfeits 
in Lyons and Florence, which even imitated the dolphin twined round an 
anchor, which was the Aldine trade-mark, and the alternative mottoes, " Fes- 
tina lente" or " Sudavit et alsit" Aldus himself complained bitterly of these 
pirates: "The paper of these books is second-rate, and even smells badly." 
They remain to this day a puzzle and a despair to amateur book-collectors, 
but an expert can tell the genuine not only by the superior quality of the 
paper used, but by the fact that the consonants are attached to the vowels as 
in writing, while in the counterfeits they stand apart 

Alexanders at five sous a day. This is a phrase which Voltaire applied 
to soldiers. Is it the origin of the popular American locution for the shadow 
or imitator of a great original : A little Washington (or Blaine, or Cleveland, 
or what not) for a cent ? Certainly in France it has given rise to a similar 
expression. For example, Emile Faguet (" Dix-huiti^me Si^cle," 1890, p. 193) 
says, " Voltaire n*a pas ete artiste pour un obole" (" Voltaire was not an artist 
for a cent"), or, in other words, was not at all an artist. 

Alexander the Corrector, a title assumed by Alexander Cruden (1701- 
1770), the compiler of the famous Concordance of the Bible, who had been 
employed in various printing-offices as corrector of the press, but who used it 
in the higher sense of one divinely appointed to correct the morals of the 
nation, with espedal regard to swearing and the neglect of Sabbatical obser- 
vances. He petitioned Parliament for a formal appointment as a corrector 
for the reformation of the people, and, being confined for a brief period in an 
insane asylum, published an account of his detention in "The Adventures of 
Alexander the Corrector." (See a review in Gentleman's Magazine^ xxiv. 50.) 

Alexandra limp. One of the absurdest fads of toadying imitation. 
Princess Alexandra walks with a slight limp. Immediately after her mar- 
riage with the Prince of Wales (in i86o^ an epidemic of lameness broke out 
among the petticoated hangers-on of royalty, which soon spread through all 
the female world of England, until it was happily laughed out of existence. 


Alive and Uckiiig, a common saying, meaning very much alive. Th« 
allusion is to a child in the womb after quickening. 

All-fired, in English and American slang, inordinate, violent, immoderate. 
Not unlikely it is a euphemislic corruption of " lie II .fired." 
you.-— T^HucME* Tim ^'J^a( ^BrJ. "" " = '"Bi nonewn g. 

All fooTB, To go or ran on, a familiar expression, meaning to go on 
smoothly, succesiirully. Coke quotes it as an ancient saying : *' But no simile 
holds on everything, according to the ancient saying. Nullum similt ^uiUtar 
fitdiiui mrril." The saving is still a common form of comparison with law- 
yers to imply that two things exactly agree. 

AUlteration. The repetition of some letter or sound at the beginning of 
two or more words in close or immediate si 

Api illlieraiioD'i anful aid,— 
ine by Churchill, which illustrates while it characterizes. In the hands of 
master, alliteration becomes a legitimate source of metric effect ; in lhos« 
a bungler, it is a vexation to the spirit. The mere literary triller finds in 
a medium for more or less astonishing yet entirely valueless teurt de fine. 
tileration is the parent of modern rhyme. In Icelandic and Gothic poetry 
a system which soon passed into our tileralure and became 
" example from Piers 

That lhi> iHjrId dolraycih, etc. 

There is here an agreeable repetition of the same inidal at the most em- 
phatic pauses of the verse. As a rule, three such letters were allowed in 
every couplet, — two in the lirst member of the distich, the other in a prominent 
part of the second. Thus the attention was arrested and the structure of 
the verse indicated by a dominant letter which ruled like the key-note of a 
chant. With the modern as with the classical poets, alliteration is only brought 
in as an occasional ornament, — not as a structural part of the verse. Spenser, 
Shakespeare, Milton, Gray, Tennyson, are especially happy in their use of it 
But these great artists are careful to place their allilerallve words at some dis- 
tance, making them answer to one another at the beginning and end of a |>eriod, 
or so arranging them that they mark the metre and become the key-words of 
the line : thus, 

Heard yc the iitdw hunk in the airt 
is fine, but the music would be ruined by a very slight transposition ; 
Hon! yc tht hunllni airof in the air? 

In the former case the ear is satisfied by a repetition of the k sound which 
It had just begun to lose \ in the latter it is annoyed by the too quick suc- 
cession of another aspirant. 

Generally the repeated leller is found at the beginning of words, though 
it may occur in the second or final syllable, but in either case that syllable 
must be the accented part of the word, e.g. ; 

Thai hushed In grim iVk "pecU hii trtBiai frcy.—Grm^. 


e, are some sped- 

Thtir cb«riy chaunl, and rhymo ai nndom Hung.— .^aur. 
The chu.lLmh chJding of >he winter'. ^\T.i.-Skakiiftari. 
In miiden mediutlon, &ncy frte.— .Motf^'niri'. 

The &it btcen blew, the white fbiin flew, 
The lumnr fullowed free— C*>rii^r. 

Mo (ill beyaDd Ihu bluer boon, out btnfa.-A/rM. 
The ttnaa undedip, and that aboTe, 
Lifted with laughter oi abuhed with love. 
Thine anoroul glidle. full of th« and fair. 
And luviod of the Ulia in thine bait.— 5ii>A>JBnw. 
Dip down upon the Noctheni ihore. 

In the eiimple from Swinburne, Ihe aiiunds of/, /, md ab, ind in thai Troni 
Tennjson, the sounds of </, x, a.iid /, are interlinked with wondrotis harmonic 

But harmony 19 not (he only guerdon won by all lie rat ion. The value of 
dissonance in heightening an effecl. in giving force to a figure, tn making Ihe 
Kiund an echo of the sense, has often been proved. In Pope's famous line, — 

Up the high hill he heaved (be huge round Hone, 
effective idea of !< 

But the black blail blowt hard. 
The following, from Alfred Austin's "Season," is less known, but is well 
worth quoting : 

Be dumb, ye dawdlen, whilM bia tpelU conlsund 
The galhered-»eattered-iyinphome. of unnd ; 
CymSali bariuric clang, cowed fluua complain, 

Seared viola ihrielt, that pity tnay prevail, 

It is not only in serious writing, however, that alliteration has been found 
effective. In mock-heroic verse, in burlesque, and even in humorous prose, it 
frequently points a jest and sharpens an epigram. In Pope's line, — 

PuSi, powden, patchea. Bibtei, blUel-doui, 
at once Ihe resemblance and the contrasts are accentuated by the recurrent 
fft and j's. Sydney Smith's humor was greatly assisted by his clever use of 
thin artifice. He thus ridicules Perceval's scheme 10 prevent Ihe introduction 
of medicines into France during a pestilence t "At what peiiod was this 
great plan of conquest and consti|>aIion fully developed ^ In whose mind was 
Ihe idea of deslroving Ihe pride and the plasters of France first engendered ? 
Wilhoitl castor oil they might for some months, to be sure, hnvc carried on 
Ihe war, but can they do without l»rk ? Depend upon it, the aliscocc of Ihe 
materia medica will soon bring Ihem 10 Iheir senses, and the cry of Baurhm 
amd Bolus burst forth from the Hallic lo Ihe Mediterranean." And elsewhere 
he likens ihe |>oorcr clergy lo I-azaru^, "doclored by dogs, and comforted 
wilh crumbs." Curran describes a politician as one wlio, " linoyant by ]iutre. 
bction, rises as be rols." The antithesis and alliteration of the last four words 



have a tremendous effect Voluire's farewell to Holland U a classic : " Adieu, 
canaux, canards, canaiDc." Very gi>od> too, is (he roUowing from Mortimer 
Collins, characterizing a bishop in " The Princess Clarice" as one " who had 
the respect of rectorn, the veneration of vicars, the admiration of archdeacons, 
and the cringing courtesy of curates." Grattan, denouncing the British m ~~ 
■ laid, "Their only meaus;of government are the guii -" --- -"- 

^ . _.. _, „_._ _ „... ;a and the gallows." 

One of Lord Salisbury's happiest phrases was, " The dreary drip of dilatory 
dtclamation." Byron s lines also will recur to the memory : 
Beware, lot blundtrlnf Brouchini ir*v oy Ihc ulc, 
Turn b«b IS bmniwck*, caiiiaowci la kill. 

Bnrlitk Bardi and ixrUt Fninnri. 

The following epigram upon Bishop Pretyman (afterwards known as Bishop 
Tomline) has merit: 

PrimPRicha PrlncEi 
Pembfolte'i «lc pride i 
Thy fiKria iball ill riiiuR heei ku. 
And Prince Iw 1«1 in Puun Praymin. 

That the ear finds a natural comfort in this species of assonance is evidenced 
by the fact that many of out compound words are formed on this principle. 
There is no other ground for saying milkmaid, in lieu of milk-girl, or butcher- 
boy in lieu of butcher-man. Fancy-free, hot-headed, browbeaten, heavy- 
handed, and the like, might also be instanced. Nay, the alliterative tendency is 
continued in our proverbs, which derive therefrom much of their piih and 
point : as, Where there is a will there is a way, Money makes the mare to go, 
Manyamickle makes a muckle. Love me little, love me long, etc The same 
trick is observable in the proverbial literature of other countries. 

But alliteration becomes a defect when excessively and injudiciously em- 
ployed. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it was allowed to run 
rioL Trapp's Commentary on the Bible offers the following gems ; " As 
empty stomachs can hardly sleep, so neither can graceless persons, till gorged 
and glutted with sweetmeats of sin, with murdering morsels of mischiel," and 
" Such a hoof is grown over some men's hearts as neither ministry, nor mir- 
acle, nor mern can possibly mollily." 

About this time, too, books were sent out into the world burdened with such 
curious alliterative titles as "Seven Sobs of a Sorrowful Soul for Sins," vid 
" A Sigh of Sorrow for the Sinners of Zion." But, indeed, even Dr. Johnson 
published a pamphlet under the title of " Taxation no Tyranny." — " a jingling 
alliteration," says Macaulay, " which he ought to have despised." 

It is in ridicule of this alliterative affectation that Shakespeare in " Love's 
Labor's Lost" makes Holofcriics say. — 

The playtii] prinuii pierr^ed anj pm^tKiTa prrlly, plating pricliel. 

Of parody of this sort, however, the most astonishing example may be found 

in a certain poetical skit, anonymous and unacknowledged, yet none the less 

the undoubted handiwork of Swinburne, and therefore all (he more notable, 

because the author parodied is Swinburne himself! 


Frein the depth of the dreamy decline of (he dawn thnxiBb a notable nimbui of oelwlcnu 
Pallid and pink ai (he palm of the Hai'dnwer Itial liicVen with feat of the nia » (hey flou. 

Thicken and uirilL 11 a (heanr (hronged at appeal oC an actor' t appalled agitation, 
Fainter with feu of the firel o( the tatHre lliaa pale with (ke prooilie of piide in (he pi 


Flushed with the furnishing fulness of fever that reddens with radiance of rathe recreation. 
Gaunt as the ghastliest of glimpses that gleam through the gloom of the gloaming when 
ghosts go aghast ? 
Nay, for the nidc of the tick of the time is a tremulous touch on the temples of terror. 
Strained as the sinews yet strenuous with strife of the dead who is dumb as the dust-heaps 
of death : 
Surely no soul is it, sweet as the spasm of erotic, emotional, exquisite error. 
Bathed in the balms of beatified bliss, beatific itself by beatitude's breath. 
Surely no spirit or sense of a soul that was soft to the spirit and soul of our senses 

Sweetens the stress of suspiring suspicion that sobs in the semblance and sound of a sigh ; 
Only this oracle opens Olympian in mystical moods and triangular tenses, — 

" Ufe is the lust of a lamp for the light that is dark till the dawn of the day when we die." 
Mild is the mirk and monotonous music of memory, melodiously mute as it may be. 
While the hope in the heart of a hero is bruised by the breach of men's rapiers, resigned to 
the rod; 
Made meek as a mother whose bosom-beats bound with the bliss-bringing bulk of a balm> 
breathing baby. 
As they grope tnrough the graveyard of creeds under skies glowing green at a groan for the 
grimness of God. 
Blank is the book of his bounty beholden of old, and its binding is blacker than bluer : 
Out of blue into black is the scheme of the skies, and their dews are the wine of the blood- 
shed of things ; 
Till the darkling desire of delight shall be free as a lawn that is freed from the fangs that 
pursue her, 
Till the heart-beats of hell shall be hushed by a hymn from the hunt that has harried the 
kennel of kings. 

And this brings us to all that class of triflers who have used alliteration 
not as an ornament, but as an exercise of more or less misplaced ingenuity. 
Latin literature probably affords the very earliest instance in this line of 
Ennius : 

O Tite, tute Tati dbl tanu tiranne tulisti. 

In more modern times we are told of a monk named Hugbald who wrote an 

"£cJoga de Calvis," every word beginning with e^ and of a certain *' Publium 

Pordum, poetam," who so signed a Latin poem of one hundred lines, — to be 

found in the Nugae Venates,— every word of which begins with a p. Here is 

a single couplet : 

Propterea properans Proconsul, poplite prono^ 
Predpitem Plebem, pro pairum pace proposcit. 

We even hear of a more prodigious effort, extending to one thousand lines, 
each word beginning with r, the " Christus Crucifixus" of Christianus Pierius : 

ConsUebratulse, cunctorum, carmine, certum, etc. 

The famous English couplet on Cardinal Wolsey has somewhat more than 

this mere verbal dexterity to recommend it : 

Begot by butchers, but by bishops bred, 
How high his honor holds his haughty head ! 

Here the very uncouthness in the persistent recurrence of similar sounds 
gives the effect of cumulative scorn and contempt. No such allowance, how- 
ever, can be made for the eccentric traveller Lithgow, who wrote a poem in 
which every word begins with a^. Here are the first two lines : 

Glance glorious Geneve, gospel-guiding gem. 
Great God govern good Geneve's ghostly game. 

A curious little volume called *' Songs of Singularity, by the London Hermit,*' 
published quite recently, contains the following tour deforce: 

A Serenade 

In M flat. Sung by Major Marmaduke Muttinhead to Mademoiselle Madeline Mendota 


Mv Madeline I ray Madeline I 

Mark my melodious midnight moans. 
Much may my melting music mean. 

My modulated monotones. 


Mv nundoUn'i irlld miutnby. 




.■• iDMi m'.i«ili null 
malcKloi Madeline, 

Mankind' > nuU 

Much mclancl 

Muy my mod. 

•oltnB n. 

ay nuke 

Mv nourrfdna 


Ualch-ixaking n»'t may < 


Meli, niDiI mtlllfluoiH mtlody, 

■Mid.1 Murci.'. mUty n»unu ma.) 
Mm n» by .noo>.lishi-n».Ty UK, 

A famous ixample of alliteralive poetry is the following, in which the initial 
tetters of the lines are those of the alphabet in proper sequence, forming a 
sort of acrostic It is positively claimed for Alaric A. Watts by his son. 
Tlicre are other claimants, however : 

Boldly by ballcry bt^ecd Bclandc : 
Caiack conmandcn UDnowtdiDK com*. 
DcallnC dHiruciion'tdcvaBIatingdoom; 

For&me. (^^nvnv, forming hinoui fray; 
Gaum gunntrt giipple, girinH ;a>)i« (ood ; 
Heavci high hii hewi. hen. ic hardihood ; 
Ibrahaai. lilam. lamait, imu in ill, 
lottl. John, Jaro»li.i, J.n.. Jo., J«^k, till. 
Kick klndllnc Kunaofr. kingi' kinun(n VlU . 
Labor low IcKk loTiinr, longot linei ; 
Men marched 'mid moleii, 'mid moundi, 'mid n 
Now nlshllall'* scar, now necdliil naiun nodi, 
OppoKd, nppoiinf.avncomlni oitdi. 
Poor petuanta. panly purchaaed. partly protcd 
<>yr« quaking, Quanerl quancrf quiclcly que 
KeatoB reiurni. recall* mluDdant ragt. 
Saves ^klng aoldicn. aoftena adgnion uae- 
Tnice, Turkey, iruce T ,„,» ,r™,h'r™,. I*.,,. 
UnwiK, unju.!, unn 

Vei Ya.i 

>. Xinilppe, XlneiKi. X>>>erl 

The above has been often imitated. Here, taken almost at random, i 
few specimens that almost equal their great prototype ; 


belli BiiiSi, b 

From fiJihicDtd Giir (urb^rance, bre from iret; 
GivJUEgiH grxluUiiDpi nyly eLvcd, 
Hi>w>cnlding hn 1up^i>a,,Iil£h H»ven 

Kii^i kaabun^ knighu, kidnapping klepicd kid. 
I«ve4orn, Itmcplipft Udy. liPficrmiE. XoA, 
Mming M^uu'i raMHKh ipounilully 
Near n«ddiPK iwv« puipcroualy pish. 
" O opuknt a'eiTuler, owpedj obeyUj 
Briipilimi pioH," Ptiida' princmt pnycd. 
" Quanch quairclljn^i, quii quftking quany'i quel 
Iwc&TC rich niitoin, raviihmcPI reiiii." 
SupremcLy ictfUh, stubborp faveteign toughl 
To tyniDnif* that lUnid trcmbltr'i Ihouahl, 
UnlirUlyUEi, uuHimiycd, UBCowed, 
VlndiniK vcngHncc vtbenuptly vow-- 

Yieldi ytuniwly ye yokciRAte VDUthful yel, 
Zcui-fearipf . Zfui-obeying, Zeui-ixiet. 

SSitld BiiMii £luthlpg1y brought bai:ll. 

Address to thk Aukoka. — An Alliterative Poenw 
(Llpci wiiitcp OP ibipboanl in mid-octuL) 

By brllllaat blaicm bapiifa boml bein. 

Deep darU dtucnding dive deliulve down. 

Entnsccd euh cte furopi'i every eye 

Finp Cied loRVer Cllleiu riilhlUlly, 

Greeu golden guerdon ilorioiitly gnpd: 

How holy HenvcD holdi high bu hollQw hipdl 

Ignoble bponnce. Inipt Ipdtcd, 

Jtera JeBiniJy Juu Jupller'i jerceil : 

Xii»iib KuDKhaiCap., kplghlly KunluncD know, 

topg Llbrjidar'i, light liuln loaipipf low; 

MIdH nyriid mulliiudei mijeilk: might, 

Mosiliire pobler numbin Ntpiune'i night, 

Opal o[ OlIU or old Opbir-i ura. 

Pale pynhic _pyn» priimatlc purple poun,— 

Quleiceat qmveririg, quickly, quaipEly, queer, 

Rich, mv, rMI n\> R~plndtnt rc>r: 

Svange ■hoolmg iiRaratra iReakliiB itart^r iklei 

Tiail then liJiuBphtni mttvi— Itenihring im. 

llDMea, unbDuand Uru, undtrncath, 

Vrfled, vanquiihed— vaiply vying— vanishelh : 

Wild Woden, warning, watchful— whilpcn wan 

Xantblllc Xcru, Xen«, Xepophon, 

Vtt yieldipg yeiiemlghi jrule'i yell ytwM 

Zeniih 1 tebraic zigiaE, Zodiac aonet. 

Bunker Hill Monument Celebration. 

Betide baitalionl bold, briglrl beautiei 'b)cnd 
Chieli. dtrgy, cilireps conKlomeiate,— 
Delealipg lipol..-darin^ deed, debme^ 
Each ^c emblazoned en^ian^ enleriain.— 

GuanU greetipg giurdi grown gmy,— guett greeting giiat 


mfa-miBdnl her» hiiher homennl huw. 


Alma Mater (L, "fostering mother"), originally the title given by the 
Romans to Ceres, Cybele, and other goddesses, but in modern use »pi)lied 
bv students to the college or seminary in which they have been educated. 
The student in his turn is Irequenlly called an adopted son. 

Thtre <a lameihliig in the alTKIion of our Alini Maier wliiiti changi, ihe n""™ «J her 

Almighty OoUtu:. an Americanism fc)r mammon, the love of gold, seenu 
to have lieen lirst used by so classic a writer as Washington I.ving : "The 
Almighty Dollar, that great object of universal devotion throughout our land 
seems to have no genuine devotee in these peculiar villager." ( Welftrfs Reest: 
A Creoie P'Utage^ Vet, after all, as Faimer points out, this is merely an 
old friend with a new face, for Ben Jonson used the term in its modern sense 
when speaking of money: 

Whllil Itul for otaicb >ll vJnuc uow ii lold, 

Alone. Never Imb alone tbau irhen alone. Cicero originated 
this apt and striking paradox in his " Ue Officiis." lib. iii. ch. i. : " Nunquam 
se minus otiosum esse, quam quum otiosus, nee minus solum, quam quum 
solus esset." (" lie is never leas at leisure than when at leisure, nor less 
alone than when he is alone.") Gibbon in his " Memoirs," vol. i., page 117, 
has borrowed the expression : " 1 was never less alone than when by tnyselC" 
And Rogers has versiRed it in " Human Life :" 

Byron has slightly varied the phrase in "ChiMe Harold," st a ma 90: 
In Klliudt, when we mtt lean aloae. 

Epictetus ("Discourses," ch. xiv.) may have had Cicero's words in mind 
when he wrote, " When you have shut your doors, and darkened your room, 
remember never to say thai you are alone ; but God \g within, and yourgenius 
is within, — and what need have they of light to see what you are doin^ }" 

Alphabetlo DiTerHianti. The twenly-six letters of the alphabet may be 
transposed 620,448401,733,239,459,369,000 times. This should be good news 
to all that class of people known as authors, whose business and profit it is to 
transpose these letters with more or leas brilliant ai>d remunerative result 
For all the inhabitants of the globe could not in a thousand million of years 
write out ail the possible tians positions of the twenty-six letters, even sup- 
posing that each wrote forty paces daily, each page containing fiiity different 
transpositions of the letters- Of course the transpositions possible to aiilhoi- 


ship— necessarily limited bjr the laws of grammar, rhetoric, and occasional 
common sense — are not so inexhaustible. Nevertheless, it is quite safe to 
say that so long as language endures it will always be possible for the man of 
genius to say an original thing. Yet it is strange to note how long it took the 
human race to discover that a score or so of orthoepic symbols would suffice 
for all the needs of written speech. Nor was the discovery a sudden one, the 
independent inspiration of any race or period. It was the result of evolution 
taking place in accordance with fixed laws. All the known graphic systems 
originated in a picture-writing as rude as that of the American Indian or the 
African Bushman, and progressed by a slow and painful transition through 
the conventionalized hieroglyphs representing an idea or a word to the sylla- 
bary which denoted the phonetic value of syllables or portions of words, and 
thence to the final perfection of the alphabet, denoting the elementary sounds 
into which all words and syllables could in the last analysis be reduced. And 
from the clearest and simplest of these early alphabets, which minimized the 
necessary symbols to the smallest possible quota, all modern systems of 
writing, — the Northern Runes, the Roman alphabet, which has now finally 
superseded its parent Greek, the square Hebrew of the Jews, the elaborate 
Sanscrit, the Neskhi alphabet, — vehicle of the thoughts of Turk and Persian, 
as well as of all the vast Arabic-speaking world, — ^all these have slowly 
diverged, in accordance with the necessities of various classes of languages. 
Utterly diverse as all these alphabets are in their latest form, scientific 
paleography has succeeded in bridging over the enormous intervals which 
separate them from one another, in explaining the transitions that time and 
space have effected, and in showing that they are all but the manifold develop- 
ments of a single germ. 

And what was that germ ? Greek myth credited the invention of the 
alphabet to Cadmus the Phoenician. The myth has a certain substratum 
of truth. Cadmus may never have lived. Certainly neither he nor any other 
Phoenician ** invented" the alphabet. It is not, indeed, an invention which 
would occur spontaneously to the mind even of the most creative genius. 
And the Phoenicians, though clever intermediaries, were not creative geniuses. 
Nevertheless, they did eive the alphabet to the world. Its verv name may 
be cited in evidence, referring us, as it does, to alpha and betay the names of 
the first two letters of the Greek alphabet, and these in turn to the Phoenician 
aUph 2x\^beth (still the names of the first two letters in Hebrew), which signify 
•* ox" and ** house." We may, therefore, assume that the Phoenicians saw some 
likeness between the letters so named by them and the pictures of an ox and 
a house, and thence we are easily led to the conclusion that they borrowed 
the symbols from some foreign system of writing which was still pictorial at 
the tmie of the borrowing, or else had once been so. Now, the most highly 
civilized nation with whom the Phoenicians came in contact was the Egyptian. 
It was by a system of selection, therefore, among Egyptian symbols that they 
developed the broad generalization of an alphabet No doubt the elegant 
scholars of the Nile, cabined and confined within the traditions of ancient 
learning and the prejudices of early habit, looked down with scorn upon this 
species of short-hand, deeming it all well enough for ignorant merchants, but 
clearly unfit for educated people. Still, the Phoenicians calmly pursued their 
way, using the borrowed alphabet in all their mercantile transactions, and 
carrying it as an instrument of intercourse to all the nations among whom 
they dealt In the end, the universities were swept away, the hieroglyphic 
scribes were out of employment, and mankind was taught to write its lan- 
guage in the A B C of the Phoenician trader, while the hieroglyphic and syl- 
labic writings sank into such black oblivion that it took the life-work of several 
generations of scholars to recover them. 


It was a wise though a lazy cleric whom Lulher mentions in hia "Table- 
Talk," — the monk who, instead of recitiiie his bieviary, used to run over Ihe 
alphabet and then say, "O my God, take ihia alphabet, and put it together how 
yoa will." For in the diverse L-ombi nations of which those twenty-four symbols 
arc capable lies all that the human heart and inlellcct have ever conceived or 
ever can conceive of truth and beauty and reverence, — all possible schemes of 
philosophy, all pmaible masterpieces of prose or poetry, all law and science 
and order and religion. In these, and these alone, lie all the records of the 
past and all the |>oatiibilities of the fiiture. An alphabet, one would My, is 
too sacred a thing to be treated other than reverently. Vet there have 
always been tritlers, even in this Holy of Holies. Some miscreants have 
taken the utmost imaginable pains to avoid a particular letter, and have com- 

Eased poems, essays, and treatises without once raising the unmeaning taboo. 
others have made inordinate use of some letter and insisted that it should 
form Ihe initial of every word. The first called their Procrustean method 
lipo^rammatizing ; Ihe latter, alliteration. Each is treated under its proper 
caption. Othem, again, have found still other methods of conjuring with the 
alphabet, — a cunning sleight of hand played upon those magic symbols which 
may l>e made to work miracles at the beck of the true thaumaturgist 

Some ingenious Irifler has discovered that there is one verse in the Bible 
which contains all Ihe lellers in the alphabet : " And I, even I, Artaieraes 
Ihe king, do make a decree to all the treasurers which are beyond the river, 
that whatsoever Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, 
shall require of you, it shall be done speedily." \Eva vii. zi.) Of course it 
will be seen that J is left out i but then J and 1 were originally the same letter. 
It will further be seen that the lellers are duplicated and reduplicaled. Prof. 
De Morgan, who in his lucid moments was a great mathematician, used to 
find an insane pleasure in relieving his severer studies by composing inge- 
nious puzzles. He set himself to improve on Ezra. He would produce a 
sentence which would use all the twenty-six lellers and use each only once. 
Here, however, his wits failed him. Afier many fruitless attempts, he decided 
on a compromise. He would not only admit the license of using ( laxj, but 
Ihe further license of looking on u and f as the same letter. The result came 
out as follows : 

I quani pyi wbg Sing nock bcdi. 
The professor acknowledges that he did not at first grasp the full meaning 
and beauty of this sentence. He long thought that no human being could say 
it under any circumstances. " At last [ happened lo be reading a religious 
writer, as he thought himself, who ihrew aspersions on his opponents thick 
and threefold. Heyday t came into my head, this fellow flings muck beds ; he 
must be a quartz pyx. And then I remembered that a pyx is a sacred vessel, 
and quart! Is a hard stone, as hard as Ihe heart of a religious (be-curser. So 
that the line Is the motto of a ferocious sectarian who turns his religious ves- 
sels into niud-holdets, for the benefit of those who will not see what he sees." 
Thus heartened, he published his sentence in Notii and Quiriei, and boldly 
threw down the gauntlet to all and sundry to do better if they could. The 
gauntlet was taken up by a number of correspondents. These were Ihe best 
of the results arrived at : 

Dumpy quit, whirl b»ck foKi n^xx. 
Get nymph ; quiz ud Inwfl ; (iji Jock. 

The professor magnanimously awards the palm to the last one. "It is 
good advice," he explains, " to a young man, very well eipressed under the 
drcomstances. In more sober English, it would be, 'Marry; be cheerful; 


watch your business.' " It is doubtful, however, whether the young man would 
understand it without the accompanying gloss. 

Since that time many other people have tried their hands at the same kind 
of trifling. But the combined intellect of the world has produced nothing better 
than this : 

Quiz, Jack ; thy frowns vex.— G. D. Plumb. 

Now, at all events, this makes sense. But the arbitrary lugging in of a proper 
name made up for the occasion spoils its symmetry, and the reduplication of 
the letter u throws it entirely out of court. Here is an effort still more in- 
telligible in itself: 

John T. Brady gave me a black walnut box of quite small size. 

Here the name is a very common one, and consequently less offensive to 
the finer instincts. But the continuous reduplication of letters relegates it to 
the class of which the Biblical specimen already quoted remains tlie best 
because unconscious exponent 

Another scholar has discovered that there are only two words in the English 
language which contain all the vowels in their order. They are •• abstemiuus" 
and "facetious." The following words each have them in irregular order : 
authoritative, disadvantageous, encouraging, eflicacious, instantaneous, im- 
portunate, mendacious, nefarious, objectionable, precarious, pertinaciout», sacri- 
legious, simultaneous, tenacious, unintentional, unequivocal, undiscoverabie, 

We all know that ** A was an Archer who shot at a frog," and have had our 
early thirst for knowledge stimulated by the descriptive verses of which this 
is the first line, and the accompanying pictures that showed an archer in the 
earlier stages of intoxication transfixing a cheerful — nay, an hilarious — Irog, 
followed by Butchers and Cows of so alarming an aspect that we have never 
been able to look at the letters B and C without conjuring up the hurrors that 
disturbed our adolescent imaginations. These juvenile alpha'oets have ient 
themselves to numerous parodies. In that ponderous bit of semi-facetiousness, 
**The Doctor," — a book that always reminds one of a light-hearted megathe- 
rium, — Southey essays his hand at what may possibly be the earliest example. 
Speaking of periodical literature, he declares that the Golden Age of Maga- 
zines has passed away : 

** In those days A was an Antiquary, and wrote articles upon Altars and 
Abbeys and Architecture. B made a blunder, which C corrected. D demon- 
strated that E was in error, and that F was wrong in philology, and neither 
Philosopher nor Physician, though he affected to be both. G was a Genealo- 
gist : H was an Herald who helped him. I was an inquisitive inquirer, who 
found reason for suspecting J to be a Jesuit. M was a Mathematician, 
N noted the weather. O observed the stars. P was a Poet who piddled in 
pastorals, and prayed Mr. Urban to print them. Q came in the corner of 
the page with his query. R arrogated to himself the right of reprehending 
every one who differed from him. S sighed and sued in song. T tolti an old 
tale, and when he was wrong U used to set him right. V was a Virtuoso 
W warred against Warburt(m. X excelled in algebra. Y yearned for im- 
mortality in rhyme ; and Z in his zeal was always in a puzzle. 

Probably the best, most consistent, and most coherent of these alphabets is 
by that true genius, C. S. Calverley : 

A is an Angel of blushing eighteen ; 

B is the Ball where the Angel was seen ; 

C is her Chaperon, who cheated at cards ; 

D is the Deuxtemps with Frank of the Guards ; 

E is her Eye, killing slowly but surely ; 

F is the Fan whence it peeped so demurely ; 


G ii Iht Glove of niiKriallve kid ; 
K i> Ihc Hand vhicb il ipiiefully hid ; 
1 El Ihe Ice which the fair one dcDumded ; 

in the JuvcniJe that daEmy who handed ; 
il the Keichief, a nn ooik or ul ; 
L II tbc Lace which composed the chleT pa] 
H l> the old Maid who watched iha cbita di 
N il the Noae (he turned up at each clapce 
O il the Olga ( jait then In iB peine); 
Piithe Partner who vouldo'l keep lime: 

8 in a QuadriJle put loitead of the Lancer* 
the Remontnncei made by the danctn 

t'Ii the Twaddle they talk*! on ibe nain ; 
U il the Uncle who " thought we'd be [oin' 

Vil the Yawning Ht a 

In one of Ihe early numbers of Notts and Queriti, » contributor signing hlm- 
Klf " Eighty-One" published a single rhymed alphabet, and threw out a chal- 
lenge lo (he English -sjieaking world lo prmlnce ajiother equally good. Here 
ia " Eighty-One's" effort : 

A wai an Andy to lellle diiputa ; 

C wai a ChMue, duly drawn upon Conttl, 
D wai King David, with hatpi and with lutei; 
E wai an ^npnor, haUed wiih laluici ; 
F wai a Funeral, rollowed hy muiei : 
C waa a Gallant in WeilinetDn boon ; 

I ™ju«li3«n'lii» iMiltuiMr'" '°™' 
K wai a Keeper, who cammoulv ihoou ; 
L wai a Unon, the Kureet of frulu ; 
M wai a'Uioiiliy-uy Lord Bute'i: 

O ™ an O^MlIa 'h'i^°and h™i ; 
P wai a Pond, full of leechcf and aewtii 

K wai a Seiseani wirh twenty recniiu : 
T wai Ten Toiiea of doubiltJ repuiei ; 
U wai Uucommonly had cheroou : 

Z ii the Zuydcr Zee, dwelt In hy coou. 

The challenge was taken up by a number or teadecs, insomuch that the office 
was flooded (evidently the paper circulates amiiiig people of unbounded leis- 
ure), and only a small proportion of the answers could be published. As good 
aa any was the lollowing by Mortimer Collins ; 

E il plump Ellen 

Fii poor Fanny. 

G [i Grlielda. unfairly diirraced . 

H Ii Ihe Hekn who (lion effaced 

1 il (Ur Ida, that pcli 

iii (he Judy PuAch 
KilydaHiof. by. 
L il Laiurette. In coqi 
M ia p«le Margaret, i 


N is gay Nonh, o'er hilU who has raced ; 
O is sweet Olive, a girl olive-&ced : 
P 's pretty Patty, so daintily paced ; 
Q some faiir Querut, in blue stockings placed ; 
K is frail Rose, from her true stem displaced ; 
S is brisk Sal, who a chicken can baste ; 
T is Theresa, at love who grimaced ; 
U is pure Una, that maid undebased ; 

V is Victoria, an empire who graced ; 
W is Winifred, time who will waste ; 

X is Xantippe, for scolding well braced ; 

Y 's Mrs. Yelverton : ending in haste, 
Z Is Zenobia, in panoply cased. 

Alps. Hills peep o'er hilla, and Alps on Alps arise. The concluding 
line of a famous simile In Pope's " Essay on Criticism," II., 1. 32, which aims to 
illustrate the growing labors of science and learning. Dr. Johnson has praised 
this simile as the most apt, the most proper, the most sublime of any in the 
English language. "The comparison," he says, "of a student's progress in 
the sciences with the journey of a traveller in the Alps is perhaps the best that 
English poetry can show. It has no useless parts, yet affords a striking picture 
by Itself; it makes the foregoing |K)sition better understood, and enables it to 
take faster hold on the attention ; it assists the apprehension and elevates the 
fancy." But Warton points out that the simile and consequently the panegyric 
belong to Drummond : 

All as a pilgrim who the Alps doth pass, 


When he some heaps of hills hath overwent. 
Begins to think on rest, his journey spent. 
Till, mounting some tall mountain, he doth find 
More heightsl>efore him than he left behind. 

Whether Pope's or Drummond's, the " Essay" was hardly published before 
we find the SpecttUor making use of it : " We are complaniing of the short- 
ness of life, and are yet perpetually hurrying over the parts of it, to arrive at 
certain imaginary pomts of rest. Our case is like that of a traveller upon the 
Alps, who should fancy that the top of the next hill must end his journey, 
because it terminates his prospect ; but he no sooner arrives at it than he sees 
new ground and other hills beyond it, and continues to travel on as before." 
No doubt the simile had passed through many more hands before it finally 
reached Rousseau, who, in the fourth book of " £mile," likens successful con- 
querors to " those inexperienced travellers who, finding themselves for the 
nrst time in the Alps, imagine that they can clear them with every mountain, 
and, when they have reached the summit, are discouraged to see higher moun- 
tains in front of them." Few could hope to vie with Jean Jacques in turning 
an affiliated idea to honor and advantage. • Among these few Sir Walter Scott 
cannot be numbered. In his " Life of Napoleon" he compares the great 
Emperor to " the adventurous climber on the Alps, to whom the surmounting 
the most dangerous precipices and ascending to the most towering peaks only 
shows yet dizzier heiehts and higher points of elevation." What with indif- 
ferent English, and the notion misapplied, really the poet of the Pelicans is 
not materially worse : 

Ocean breaking from his black supineness 

Drowned in hb own stupendous uproar all 

The voices of the storm beside : meanwhile, 

A war of mountains raged upon his surface ; 

Mountains each other swallowing, and again 

New Alps and Andes, from unfatnomed valleys 

Upstactmg, joined the battle. 

Quite in another spirit is the use made by Sir John Herschel of the same 


Ace 10 uylhing dc 

t ibr loftkii tumiiuu of an Alpi 

muubed ; but tbe labor ii not Lou. Tbc re 

AltmiBin, from (he Latin ailtr, " another," foriiied on the same basis as ego- 
lism (rom igir, to inilicale unsellishness, benevulence, — in shorl, the vtrj appo- 
site of egotism. The altruist rejoices in his neighbor's wellaTC, and finds hji 
highest joy in advancing il ; the egotist strives only for himself. The word 
was first etnpioyed by Comle. and has been welcomed by modem agnostics as 
oHering the basis for a iiew code of morality, a new im|)eliis lo right action. 
Mr. Frederic Harrison, the leader of the E.iglish Posilivists, even looks upon 
it as an admirable substitute for ihe (Jhrisliaii hope of personal immortality. 
Man will be immorlal not in himself l)ut in his actions, and the consciousness 
of this posthumous activity, this living incorporation with the glorious future 
of his race, " can give a [lalience and happiness equal to thai of any martyr 
of theology." Once make this idea the basis of philosophy, the standard 
of right and wrong, and the centre of religion, and the conversion of the 
masses " will prove, perhaps, an easier (ask than that of leaching Greeks and 
Romans, Syrians and Moors, to look forward lo a life of careless psalmody in 
an immaterial heaven." (jeorge Elint's finest puem — indeed, her only bit of 
verse that is truly poetry, and not merely fine thought thrown into metrical 
lines beginning, " Oh, may 1 join the choir invisible" — gives magnifi- 
' is feeling " 

:o this feeling. 

That puroi h< 

' -jdor, feed purt love, 

:e of a ^ood dJduKd, 

Of course the idea readily lends itself to satire and caricature. In a review of 
this very poem [^//niiAir, xxiiv. loz], Mr, Hiiwells neatly enough characterizes it 
as "the idea tliat wc are lo realiie our inborn longing for immortality in the 
blessed perpetuity of man on earth ; the supreme effort of that craie which, 
having abolished God, asks a man to console himself when he shall be extinct 
with the reflection that somebody else is living on towards the annihilation 
which he has reached." The whole of W. H. Mallock's " New Paul and 
Virginia, or Positivism on an Island," is an admirable bit of fooling, with 
this doctrine of altruism as one of its chief targets. Here is an illustrative 
example, where the castaways — Virginia, Ihe curate, and the agnostic pro- 
fessor — are sitting at lunch on the island : 

" Yo, my dear cunte." said the ptsfcuor, " what I am tnjoring ii Ihe champagnt thai 

your ukc. It is »ibliinE<" hi' Hid, u he tomd off Ihm glaswi. " ]i is li^ificaDil" he 
•aid, as he finished lhr« more, "Tell me. my dear, do 1 look lignilicaDl!" he added, aa he 
luracd lo VLrsinia, aad suddenly tried to crown (he general bliss by liissing her. 

A familiar jest unconsciously embodies the same element of parody, " So 


gild." "So glad y6u'te glad," "So gUd you're gtad I'm glad," and so on 
ad infirutum. But, indeed, no verbal burlesque can exceed the burleique in 
acliun which is afforded by the sad fate of the Allruisl Society of tiu Louis, 
thus recorded by the New Yurk Naiien, April lo, 1890.- 


>ay phav ID the hiilory vf the Alcruiit CammuDity oF Si, Ixmil 
uyi Mr. AtcAadcr Lon^ley, irt l«ic presideitl, in ihv colui 

1, th»^/(fi.u(,-i(. 
vtd bv muiiul conKni of lU 

, .R.titl< 

keepios Iht ncord of Ihe commuDily u Kcreury and in the cl«clion ^ hicnsrlf u president, 
■J1 of whicb [ heitby rctrtcl and 4poli«iK for. Mr, LoDgley and the rcmutilD^ memben 
v( the pentagonal community, except Miw Travii. withdre* when Mr, Wud'i joiinuLiatic 
jkajuniioni weie «boui to l>e graiilicd. 

Ambiplltie*. Words are slippery things. They Trcqucntly refuse lo do 
their master's bidding, to express the meaning that was in his mind. Oceans 
of blood have been spilled over the interpretation of disputed passages in 
tbc Bible. Oceans of ink have been spilled over similar altcmpts to get at 
Ihe iniwr truth of some of Shakespeare's mystic phrases. There is no 
more piquant subject of conjecture than to think what would happen if 
Shakespeare were recalled from his grave and set to reading that excellent 
Variorum Edition of his works which contains all the glosses of all the com- 
mentators. Perhaps he would forget his own meaning. That has often hap- 
pened to authors. We all remember Ihe story of how certain reverent pupils 
came lo Jacob Boehme on bis death-bed, begging that before he died he would 
explain to them a certain difficult passage in his work. "My dear children," 
said the mystic, after puiiling his head lo no purpose, " when I wrote this I 
understootl its meaning, and no doubl the omniscient God did. He may still 

vealed. Klopstock's student admirers were mure worldly wise, yet Ihey too 
were equally doomed to disappoinlmenL They appealed 10 him, not 1 
death-bed, but in his hale and vigorous maturity. At Gdllingen they ha 
found one of his slanzas unintelligible, and they begged for more light. Klop- 
>tock read the stanza, then slowly reread il, while all stared agape, Finallj 

:qually doomed to disappoinlmenL They appealed 10 him, not o 
bed, but in his hale and vigorous maturity. At Gdllingen the 

a stanzas unintelligible, and they begged for more light. klo| 
lowly reread it, while all stared agape. Finally 
recollect what I meant when I wrote it, but I 
do remember it was one of the finest things I ever wrote, and you cannot do 
better than to devote your lives to the discovery of ils meaning." Cardinal 
Newman, in his old age, frankly acknowledged that he couUI no* remember 
what he meant when he penned those famous lines in his hymn " Lead, Kindly 

And with the main ih«e ingel bcea untie 

Which I h»e toved long iId« and Ion awhile; 
At a large reception in London a Mrs, Malaprop in pantaloons fulged hi» 
way up to Robert Browning and incontinently asked him to explain then and 
there a difficull passage in one of his poems. " Upon my word, I don't know 
what il means," said the poet, laughing, as he closed Ihe volume thru»t into 
bis hands. " \ advise yoo to ask the Browning Society ; they'll tell yi>u all 


Hawthorne wrote to Fields on April 13, 1S54, apropos of a new edjlion of 
his " Mosses from an Old Manse," " When I wrote those dreamy sketches, I 
Utile thought that I should preface an edition for the press amidst the bus- 
tling life of a Liverpool consulate. Upon my honor, 1 am iiul quite sure that 
I entirely comprehend my own meaning in some of these blasted allegories; 
but I remember that I always had a meaning, or al least thought I bad." 
When Charaier asked Gi)ldsinilh if he meant tardiness of locomotion by the 
word "slow" in the first line of the "Traveller,"— 

R«qott, unfriended, mtLinthdy, Jow,— 

Goldsmith inconsiderately replied, " Ves." Johnson immediately cried out, 
" No, sir, you do not mean tardiness of locomotion : you mean ihat sluggish- 
ness of mmd which comes upon a man in solitude." 

If such be the experience of the great masters of language and literature, 
why should we wonder thai the smaller men, who have command of a smaller 
vocabulary, and only an imperfect apj)reciation of the laws of rhetoric or 
even of grammar, should often find difficulty in rendering themselves intelligi- 
ble ? That blunder known as neglect of the anlecedenl may lead to the ab- 
sutdest misapprehension. Here is a choice example, selected from the pro- 
ceedings of the New York Common Council, May 12, 1S69 : " Rtsolved, That 
the Comptroller be and is hereby directed to draw a warrant in favor of David 
Sherrad for the sum of $3V>, to be in full compensation for loss sustained by rea- 
son of his horse stepping mtoa hole in the pavement in South Street, at the foot 
of Pine SlteEI,on the i7tTi of February, i869,from the effects of which he died." 
Here are many astonishing statements. That David should have died from the 
effects of his >iorse stepping into a hole is a notable fact in itself. That be 
could tie compensated lor his own death by the paltry sum of three hundred and 
fifty dollars passes belief. Indeed, the very absurdity of the passage is its own 
safeguard We know what the writer meant, because what he said is so 
evidently nonsense. Advertisers are frequent sinners in this respect. Here 
is a sample which appeared in the London Timit in February, 1861 : *' Piano- 
forte, Cottage, 7 Octaves — the property of a Lady leaving England in remark- 
ably elegant walnut case on carved supports. The tone is superb and eminently 
adapted for anyone requiring a first-class instrument." The Saturday Review 
pounced upon this gem of English and commented upon it as follows : " We 
have heard of Arion riding on a dolphin, and of the Wise Men of Gotham who 
went to sea in a bowl ; we have heard of Helle on her ram, and of Europa on 
her bull ; but we never before heard of a lady designing to cross the English 
Channel in a remarkably elegant walnut case with carved supports. Indeed, 
we might go so far as to ask whether the carved supports are those of the 
walnut case or of the lady herselt In either case, they would seem equally 
ill adapted to struggle with the winds and the billows." 

This excellent lady finds a fit parallel in the advertiser who wanted "a 
young man to look after a horse of the Methodist persuasion." the 1'exan who 
applied for "a boss hand over 5000 sheep thai can speak Spanish fluently," 
the boarding- house- keeper who announced thai she had "a collage contam- 
ing eight rooms and an acre of land," the maiden or widow lady, matrimoni- 
ally inclined, who advertised for a husband "with a Roman nose having 
strong religious tendencies" (did she wish those tendencies to be Roman 
also?), or the horse-owner who signified his willingness to sell cheap "a splen- 
did gray horse, calculated for a charger or would carry a lady with a switch 
tail. A lady so favored by nature ^ould certainly make the acquaintance 
of the owner of a certain mail phaeton announced for sale as " the property 
of a gentleman with a movable head as good as new." The latter may have 
been some relation to the boy who produced a fiddle of which his proud 


fiither asserted that " he had made it out of his own head and had wood 
enough left for another," or of the London match-peddler who used to cry, 
" Buy a penny-worth of matches from a poor old man made of foreign 
There was something gruesome in the furrier's announcement that he was 

Prepared to "make up capes, circulars, etc., for ladies out of their own skins." 
!ut he was more than equalled by the proprietor of a bone-mill who assured 
the public that " parties sending their own bones to be ground will be attended 
to with fidelity and despatch. And what shall we say to the druegist's 
printed request that " the gentleman who left his stomach for analysis will 
please call and get it together with the result" ? 

A horrid suspicion of cannibalism hangs about the advertisement of a 
Sl Louis man : *' Wanted a good girl to cook, one who will make a good 
roast or broil and will stew well" Almost as barbarous is a farmer near 
Fulton, New York, who posted this notice in his field : " If any man's or 
woman's cows or oxen gits in these oats, his or her head will be cut off, as 
the case may be." • 

We are moved to gentle and kindly mirth when under the head of Wanted 
we read that '* a respectable youne woman wants washing." But we have 
grown quite used to such journalistic English as *' octagonal men's cassimere 
pantaloons," or "woollen children's milts," or " terra-cotta ladies' gloves," so 
much so that we scarcely pause to smile at the odd images they ought to raise 
in the mind that is grammatically constituted. So also with advertisements 
for such articles as ''a keyless ladies' watch," "a green lady's parasol," or " a 
brown silk gentleman's umbrella." And in hastily running your eye over the 
papers you rarely pause to give its due meed of surprise to the appetite of a 
laoy who wants " to take a gentleman for breakfast and dinner," the benevo- 
lence of a boarding-house-keeper who advertises that ** single gentlemen are 
furnished with pleasant rooms, also one or two gentlemen with wives," or the 
audacity of a merchant who, in a free country, openlv gives notice, ** Wanted, 
a woman to sell on commission." But, indeed, anything is possible in an age 
where the sign ** Families supplied by the quart or gallon" meets you at 
every turn. 

A quaint story is told of a member of the Savage Club in London. Stand- 
ing on the steps of the club-house, he was accosted by a stranger : '* Does a 
Sentleman belong to your club with one eye named Walker ?" " I don't 
now," was the reply. " What is the name of the other eye ?" 

The St James Gatette chronicles the fact that a blind man who perambulates 
the streets of Windsor playing sacred music on an accordion bears upon his 
breast a placard reading, " Blind from inflammation. Assisted by Her Majesty 
the Queen." He had once attracted the compassionate attention of the queen, 
who had given him a small donation. It is said that the public baths in Paris 
originally bore the sign, " Bains k fond de bois pour dames k quatre sous." 
This was objected to because, strictly construed, it would mean " wooden-bot- 
tomed baths for fourpenny ladies." So the sign was changed to " Bains k 
quatre sous pour dames k fond de bois." But the hypercritics hilariously con- 
tended that this was even worse. And this reminas us of the advertisement 
of a school, which appeared in the London Times in March, 1838, and which 
promised that boys would, for twenty-five guineas, receive various benefits, 
and be " fundamentally instructed." This was in the days of Dotheboys Hall. 
There was an ominous sound about the adverb, and it is not to be wondered 
at that about this time several advertisements appeared in the Agony column 
for " youths" and " young gentlemen" who had run away from home. 

A shoemaker hung out a sign, and then wondered why people found it so 
amusing. This is how it read : ** Don't go elsewhere to ble cheated. Walk in 

c d S 


here." He was equ»lled by Ihe London firm which warned everybody againM 
unscrapalous persons " who infringe our title lo deceive the public, and by 
(he Chatham Street establish men I which requested the public " not lo confound 
this shop with thai of anulher swindler who has established himself on the other 
side of Ihe way." The Irish advertiser was more alarmingly frank when he 
inserted a " want" fur "a gentleman to undertake the sale ol'^a PalenI Medi- 
cine. The advertiser guarantees it will be prufilable lo the undertaker." 

A curious instance of the ditiicully of making a few words convey an explicit 
and delinile meaning is furnished by the repealed failures of postal authorities 
who wished to inform the public that they might write anything they chose 
on one side of a postal card, but on the olher side must confine themselves 
to the tnere address of Ihe person. Uncle Sam tried six times, in as many 
difleient issues, before he was saiistied with the result; 

Nothing but the addr«uc«D l»c placed on Ihit tide. 

Nothing but Ibe uddrcu lo be on ihii aide. 

Write only Ihe addrcstoa [his tide. 

Write the Addreu only on ihi« Aide, the meuoge on the olher- 

Wrile the addreit on this lide, the mcsuge on tbe other. 

The first two were evidently rejected for their clumsiness. The third, fourth, 
and fifth seem lu limit the public to writing, and indirectly forbid printing or 
lithographing. The fourth, moreover, is hopelessly ambiguous. Accurately 
construed, it means that the address may be written on one side oniy. Any- 
thing else may be written on thai side. Uut the address must not be repeated 

Canada says : 

The iddreu to be written on thit tide. 
Great Britain : 

Tbe addreu only to be written on thil tide, 

n regard to printing or lithographing the 

Vet Belgium is not satisfied. Apparently it thinks there is tautology in 
"exclusively reserved," and drops the adverb: 
Ce th\t SI rjserv j i. I'ldnoe. 
Zljde voo bet adrc! vootbehouden. 

Luxemburg, in a still more critical mood, holds that the French ought to 
write more correct French than they do, and places "exclusivement" afler the 

Russia is of the same mind ; 

C£ii riiervj excluslnmeDt 1 1'ldreue. 
Italy uses no ambiguous word : 

Chili's wish is stated with equal clearness ; 

Amende Honorable. In modern usage. es|iecially newspaper usage, 
this phrase signifies a manly apology and acknowledgment of a fault, accom- 
panied by such reparation as may be needed. But historiciilly the amenJ^ 
Aimorablt was a very difleient affair. It was in fact in ancient French law a 
disgraceful punishment, inflicted (or the most part on offenders against pulilic 
decency. The offender was stripped to his shirt, when the hangman put a 


rope about his neck and a taper in his hand, and then led him to the court, 
where the culprit asked pardon of God, of the king, and of the court. It 
was abolished in 1791, reintroduced in cises of sacrilege in 1826, and finally 
abrogated in 183a 

Amexican. "Who reads an American book? This fomous query 
was originally propounded by Sydney Smith in a notice of Adam Seybert's 
"Statistical Annals of the United States" {Edinburgh RrvUw, January, 1820), 
included in Sydney Smith's collected Essays. The query created a storm 
of sufficiently humorous indignation on this side of the Atlantic, and was 
quoted and requoted only to be furiously combated in every Yankee-doodle 
article that attempted to olazon forth the literary glories of the New World. 
Of recent years, since our literary men have really begun to be a glory to the 
land of their birth, since the " American Wordsworth" and the " American 
Milton" and the •* American Goldsmith" have been succeeded by American 
writers sufficiently native and original to stand on their feet, and to be them- 
selves, and not the fancied shadows of foreigners, — since that time the query 
has been suffered to go the same road as Father Bouhours's equally memorable 
question, ** Can a German have wit \esprit\ V Here is the full context of the 
question, which occurs at the conclusion of the article. It will be seen that 
not only the literature but also the arts and sciences of our forefathers are 
attacked. But it was chiefly the literary men who raised their voices in indig- 
nant protest : 

'Such is' the land of Jonathan, — and thus has it been governed. In his honest endeavors to 
better his situation, and in his manly purpose of resisting injury and insult, we most cordially 
sympathize. We hope he will always continue to watch and suspect his government as he 
now docs, — remembering that it is the constant tendency of those intrusted with power to con- 
ceive that they enjoy it by their own merits and for theu- own use, and not by delegation and 
for the benefit of others. Thus far we are the friends and admirers of Jonathan. But he must 
not grow vain and ambitious, or allow himself to be dazzled by that galaxy of epithets by which 
his orators and newspaper scribblers endeavor to persuade tneir supporters that they are the 
greatest, the most renned, the most enlightened, and the most moral people upon earth. The 
effect of this is unspeakably ludicrous on this side of the Atlantic, — and even on the other, we 
should imagine, must be rather humiliating to the reasonable part of the population. The 
Americans arc a brave, industrious, and acute people ; but they have hitherto given no indica- 
tions of genius, and made no approaches to the heroic, either in their morality or character. 
They are iMit a recent offset inaeed from England, and should make it their chief boast, for 
many generations to come, that they are sprung from the same race with Bacon and Shake- 
speare and Newton. Considering their numbers, indeed, and the favorable circumstances in 
which they have been placed, they have yet done marvellously little to assert the honor of such 
a descent, or to show tnat their English blood has been exalted or refined by their republican 
training and institutions. Their Franklins, and Washingtons, and all the other sages and heroes 
of their Revolution, were bom and bred subjects of the King of England, — and not among the 
freest or most valued of his subjects. And, since the period of their separation, a far greater 
proportion of their statesmen and artists and political writers have been foreigners than ever 
occurred before in the history of any civilized and educated people. During the thirty or forty 
years of their independence, they have done absolutely notning for the sciences, for the arts, 
for literature, or even for the statesman-like studies of politics or political economy. Confining 
ourselves to our own country, and to the period that has elapsed since they had an inde- 
pendent existence, we would ask. Where are their Foxes, their Burkes, their Sheridans. their 
Windhams. their Homers, their WUberforces ? — where their Arkwrignts, their Watts, their 
Davys? — their Robertsons, Blairs, Smiths, Stewarts. Paleys, and Malthuses ?— their Persons, 
Parrs, Buroeys, or Blomfields ?— <heir Scotts, Campbells, Byrons, Moores, or Crabbes? — their 
Siddonaes, Kembles, Keans, or O'Neils?— their Wilkies, Laurences, Chantiys?— or their 
parallels to the hundred other names that have spread themselves over the world trom our little 
island in the course of the last thirty years, and blest or delighted mankind by their works, 
inventions, or examples? In so far as we know, there is no such parallel to be produced from 
the whole annals kA this self-adulating race. In the four quarters of the globe, who reads an 
Americmn book? or goes to an American play? or looks at an American picture or statue? 
What does the worid yet owe to American physicians or surgeons ? What new substances have 
their chemists discovered ? or what old ones have they analyzed ? What new constellations 
have been discovered by the telescopes of Americans ? What have they done in mathematics ? 
Who drinks out of American glasses ? or eats from American plates ? or wears American coats 


Amloiu Plato, aad magia amioa T«rit«a (L., "Plaio is dear to me, 
but truth is still dearer"). This phrase is a gradual evolution Iruni a passage 
in the " Phaedo" of Plato (ch. 91}, where Socrales is reponed as saying to his 
disciples, " I would ask ifou to be thitikine of ihe Iiuth, and not of Socrates ; 
agree with me if I seem to you to be speaking the truth ; or, if not, withstand 
me might and main, that [ may not deceive yuu as well as myself in my en- 
thusiasm." Paraphrasing this sentiment, Aristotle was wont to say, " Socrates 
is dear to me, bat the truth is still dearer," — this on the authority of his 
biographer Ammonius, who wrote in Lalin.and whose Laliniied version became 
proverbial. Dut in course of time " Plato" was substituted fur '' Si>crates,'' 
and so Ihe phrase comes down 10 us. Cicero does not seem to have accepted 

sson of the inixim, for he expressly says, " Errare malo 
sentire" (" I would rather err with Flat 

Plato than think 

rightly with these"), — i.t., the Pythagoreans. And in this very saying, curi- 
ously enough, he endorsed a Pythagorean rather than a Platonic method. For 
while Plato evidently approved of Socrales's preference of the truth over the 
individual, the disciples of Pythagoras adopted as their motio, "The master 
has said it." Cicero's sentiment was echoed in the modern line, — 

Bcutr 10 m with Pope ihu ihme wiih Pye. 

Amperaand (also ampusand, amperzand, etc), an old name for &. for- 
merly &*, the contracted sign off/ ^ and. The name is a corruption of "and 
per te and," — i.t.. ••& by itself = and," the old way of spelling and naming 
(he character. Similarly, A, I, U, when representing words and not merely 
letters, were read in spelling- lessons, "A per se A," etc These were similarly 
corrupted into apersey, etc The amateur etymologist has done some ea- 
cellent guessing at the derivation of the word Here is an example : " The 
sign & IS said to be properly called EtHfiemr'i hand, from having been Arst 
invented by some imperial personage, but by whom deponent saith not." — 
Thr Monlhly Paiiil, vol. xxx. p. 44S. 

Anaeram {Gr. avafpappa ; ibv, if, or 6at*, and Tpiifpa, a litttr\. A re- 
arrangement of the letters of a name, a word, or a sentence, [n order to be 
perfect, the result should be a word or words reacting upon the original as a 
comment, a sarcasm, a definition, or a revelation. Thus, the pessimist re- 
joices to find that if the component letters of live be committed to the 
smelting-pot of the anagram, they may reissue either as evi! or vile; the non- 
argumentative mind smiles calmly when LOG1CA (l<«ic) yields caiige (dark- 
ness); and the conservative is delighted to find the sinister epithets /aw A) nnii 
wrapped up in REVoi.uTlut* and rare mad froHe in radical KEFOtM. Those 
who attach themselves scrupulously to the rules of Ihe anagram permit no 
change, omission, or addition of letters therein. Others, less timid, take an 
almost poetical license, and, besides occasionally omitling or adding a letter, 
think themselves justified in writing, when they find such a change desirable 
and that the resulting .sense falls aptly, / for a, v for w, 1 for t, c for k, and 
viee versa. Nevertheless, Ihe orthodox anagrammalist frowns upon lliis 
heretical license and characteriies its results as impure. 

Although the anagram has fallen upon evil days, and is now relegated to the 
children's column, along with the riddle, the enigma, and the rebus, it once 
boasted a high estate and taxed the reverence of the wise, the learned, and 
the devout. The Hebrews held that there was something divine in this species 
of word-torture. Nay, some Rabbins assert that the esoteric law given to 
Moses, to be handed down in the posterity of certain seventy men, and 



therefore called Cabbala, or traditional, was largely a volume of alpha- 
betary revolution or anagrammatism. The Greeks, and especially the scho- 
liasts of the Middle Ages, echoed the opinions of the Hebrews, believing that 
there was a mystic correspondence between things and their names, and that 
by the study of names, by the intense consideration and the turning inside-out 
of the M*s and if*s of which they are composed, these correspondences might 
be evolved and nature made to flash out her secrets. Men sought in one 
another's names, and in the names of things of high public import, those pro- 
phetic indications of character, of duty, or of destiny which might possibly 
lark in them. 

Lycophron, the father of the anagram in Greece, and one of the " Pleiads" 
of the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus, is said to have earned high favor with his 
prince by findine the words o»rd fdXiTOf {out of honey) in the name IlToAc^iatof, 
and the words uv "Hpof {violet o/yuno) in *Apaiv6ij, the name of Ptolemy's 
queen. Both these anagrams are exact or pure, and, as such, are the earliest 
examples that have survived to our day. Another famous historical anagram 
refers to the siege of Troy by Alexander. That monarch was about to aban- 
don the enterprise in despair, when he had a dream of a Satyr leaping before 
bim, whom eventually, after many elusions, he caught This dream his 
sages converted into a prophetic anagram : " £un;/x)c" (Satyr), said they, 
"why, certainly, aa Tvpof" (Tyre is thine). This put heart in the king, and 
Tyre was taken. But, though good in its way, this is one of the illegitimate 
forms of anagram, arising not from the rearrangement or transposition of 
letters, but only from their redivision or resyllabification. Another instance 
is that of Constantine III., son of the Emperor Heraclius, who on the eve 
of battle dreamed that he took the way through Thessalonica into Macedonia. 
Relating the dream to one of his courtiers, the latter divided Thessalonica 
into syllables, finding in it, ** Leave the victory to another :" 

OeaaaXovixriv : 9^f lxXX<p vikijv. 

The emperor took no notice of the warning, and was badly beaten by the 
enemy. But this might rather be called a species of paronomasia or pun. 
Patriot resolved into Pat-riot is an even poorer instance. 

The Romans seem to have despised this sort of literary trifling. Latin 
anagrams are generally of modern origin. Yet among these are some of the 
best anagrams ever made, notably that admirable one which discovers in 
Pilate's question. Quid est Veritas ? (What is truth ?) its own answer. Est vir 
qui adest (It is the man before you). A famous cento of Latin anagrams was 
made in honor of young Stanislaus Leczinski, afterwards King of Poland. On 
his return from his travels, all the family of Leczinski assembled at Lissa, to 
celebrate his arrival with appropriate festivities. The most ingenious compli- 
ment of all was paid by the College of Lissa. A heroic dance was presented 
by thirteen ypung warriors, each holding a shield on which was engraved one 
of the thirteen letters in the name Domus Lescinia. The evolutions were so 
arranged that at each turn the row of bucklers formed different anagrams in 
the following order : 

Domus Lescinia. 

Ades incolumis. 

Omnis es lucida. 

Omne sis lucida. 

Mane sidus loci. 

Sis columna dei. 







Seventh. I, scande solium. 

The poet Jean Dorat, sometimes known as the French Lycophron, found two 
nouble anagrams in the Latinized form of his own name, Joannes Auratus : 


Art vh-ftanmiia (My art will live long), and Art en umra vaHi (Behold the new 
art of the luid). 'I he Latin language, indeed, lends itself readily in the ana- 
gram, being free from the ugly assortment of /s. w's, and jk's inal disfigure 
most modern tongues and prove so great a stumbling-block in the way of the 
word-poser. No means so ready for writing up a friend or writing down an 
enemy as thai of turning Smith into Smithius and proving that Smithius is 
the verbal equivalent cither for' spirit of health or goblin damned. Thus, 
Calvin, wroth at the hearty licentiousness of Rabelais, anaBrammatiied the 
Latin form Rabel-csius into Saiie Zdrvi (Bitten -mad). This was rash in 
Calvin, for, of all things on earth, to think of lighting Rabelais with his own 
weapons, ur. for that matter, with any weapons, must needs be the most hope- 
less. And so it proved. All Europe lay still and breathless waiting the sure 
response. Twas the calm before the thuiiderstutm. It i:ame at last. " So J 
am J!aiit, Master John ? And pray what are you f Lei me see ; CAL- 
VIN : IJlin CuI ; yes. that's about it 1" And over Europe rushed the jest, as 
it had been a scavenger in the sky ; and Calvin, we fancy, did not come out 

Perhaps, even in the lime of the Reformation, when the anagram was 
largely laid under conlribuliun for purposes of billingsgate and satire, no 
finer controversial use was ever found for it than in that example which sought 
to turn the very title of the Pope into a denial of his claims, as thus : Supbb- 
Ht;!! PoNTtFKX KuMANttS! O Hon lafer Pttram ^lus (fj \ not founded upon 

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, anagrams were quite in foshion 
at pen-names. Thus, Calvinus {Calvin) became /j/ofinur, FitANgots Rabe- 
lAis, AUofrihas A'aiier, and Acohiino Coltelini, OitUh Cmlaligid. More 
modern examples are Huhace Walpole, Omi^rii^iiniAiiv the very imperfect 
anagram under which he published his " Castle of Utrantn," and the equally 
imperfect Brvan Waller Procier, Barry Cormmiil, Fxl. But the most 
famous case, and one in which the anagram has entirely overshadowed the 
original name, is furnished by Voltaire. This was not the family cognomen of 
the great Frenchman, but simply an anagram of his right name, ARutlsr, with 
the two letters t. j. {ft jeiine, or " the younger") »u|>eradded, — an anagram 
concocted by himself in a freak ur deliberately, and so familiarized by his use 
of it that he was known thereafter universally as Voltaire, and will be ao for- 

One of the most amusing applications of the anagram is that on Lady 
Eleanor Di.vics, wife of Sir John Uaviea, Attorney -General in Ireland to 
King James I. This lady, a fanatic who fancied herself possessed by the pro- 
phetic spirit of Daniel, grounded her lielief on an anagram which she made 
on her name, viz., Eleanor Davibs — Rntal, O Datiidl And though the 
anagram had too much by an / and loo little by an t, yet she found Daniel 
and Reveal in it, and that served her turn. Whereupon she pestered the 
world with her prophecies, gaining great repute among the unlearned by a 
lucky guess here and there, until a prediction of the approaching death of 
Archbishop I^ud caused her arrest. When brought before the Court of 
High Commission, all apiieals to reason and to Scripture proved futile. At 
last one of the deani^ seized a pen and hit upon this excellent anagram : Dauk 
Eleanor Daviks, Never 30 mad a Indie. The unhappy woman, finding her 
own argument tunicd against her, renounced all claims to Supernatural 

This story is related with much gusto by Heylin in his "Cyprianus Angli- 
canus" (1719). Doubtless it is true in all essential features, but, as the device on 
which the lady fbmided her pretensions had been known for years, it seems 
more than likely that the acute lawyer invented the shell which blew up her 


ladyship in the quiet of his own chamber, and chose the most dramatic 
moment for exploding it. 

Though the art of the anagrammatist may be despised as puerile, none can 
deny its difficulty. Where the letters are few the field is indeed circumscribed 
within comparatively easy limits of transposition ; but the possible changes on 
a laree series of letters exceed all but a mathematician's belief. 

A bare dozen of letters, for example, will admit of more than 729,000,000 
transpositions. Literally, it is mind on the one hand against chaotic infinity 
on the other. The patience of Penelope herself would be exhausted in sucn 
assiduous doing and undoing as the process seems to require. The vexation 
of oft-repeated effort and proximate success resulting in fruitless labor is racily 
expressed by Camden : ** Some have been seen to bite their pens, scratch 
their heads, bend their brows, bite their lips, beat their board, tear their 
paper, when they were fair for somewhat and caught nothing herein.'* Ad- 
dison, who numbers anagrams among his examples of false wit, tells with 
unnecessary jubilance the story of a lover who, having retired from the world 
to wrestle anagrammatically with his mistress's name, emerged after several 
months pale and worn, but triumphant His chagrin, however, at finding 
that his lady's name was not what it appeared to be on the surface, not Chum- 
ley, in short, but Chulmondeley, was so great that he went mad on the 
spot, and finished in Bedlam what he had commenced in Bceotia. 

From all which it may readily be understood why it is that after centuries of 
endeavor so few really good anagrams have been rolled down to us. One 
may assert that all the really superb anagrams now extant might be contained 
in a pill-box. Such a pill-oox we shall aim to present to our readers. And 
first we offer an alphabetical group of the aptest anagrams on places, things, 
and persons in general : 

AsrRONOMERS : Moon-Starers, 

Ca rALOGUES : Got as a clue. 

Christian irv : / cry that I sin. 

Congregation ALi ST ; Got scant religion. 

Crinoline : Inner coil. 

DemocraticaL: Comical trade. 

Determination : / mean to rend it. 

Elegant : Neat leg. 

French Revolution : Violence run forth. 

Funeral: RecU fun. 

Gallantries : All great sins. 

Impatient: Tim in a pet. 

Is Pity Love?: Positively, 

La Sainte Alliance: La Sainte Canaille, 

Lawyers : Sly ware. 

Matrimony: Into my arm. 

Melodrama : Made moral. 

Midshipman : Mind his map. 

Misanthrope : Spare him not. 

Old England: Go'den Land. 

Paradise Lost : Reap sad toils. 

Parishioners : / hire parsons. 


pKNlTKKTlAlty : Nay, I refaU it. 
Poor House : O sour kope I 
Potentates; 7™ Tiapetil 
Pkesbvterian : Beil in prayer. 
FuNISHUBK-r : Niru thumfi. 
Soldiers: La! ! drtis. 

Spanish M*rriagbs : Kaih games in Parii. 
Surgeon; Go, Nurit!. 
Sweetheart : There nw sat. 
Tblkgraphs : Great kelpi. 
Universal Suffragb: Cutis a fearful ruin. 
A well-sustained eflbrl in this word -conjuring is ihe following specimen : 

" How much ifcere is in j word 1 MtnasUry, »y> 1 : wh»l, Ihit maka nBilj Rtmt . and 

Why, yo'urown imsge there, ttfu Mary. That, he replied. Im mj tm tiar, ny Stellt Muil) 
my treaiure, myguidel No, said 1, you should nlher say mi, />•»)(>■. IW » arnu, laid 

No, said' he again, those are TnymUnt: and Dan, mj iMaffT will tafllE them. 1 don't 

And here, stil! in alphabetical order, ate some of the best and most famous 

hypochondtiacal patients, — thU physician of curt speech. 

fresence, and blu IT address. "Has any one," asks Southey, "who knows 
ohnny the bear, heard his name thus anagrammatized without a smile ? We 
may be sure he smiled and growled at the same time when he heard it 

Sir Francis Bacon, Lord KEepsR : Is born and elt<l for a rieh Speaker. 
So it is usually given, as an anagram by one Tash, a contemporary of the 
great man, but, on testing it, we can make out only, is torn and etec for a rie 
ipei, — Ihe original being four letters short. This shows the necessity for 
verifying reputed anagrams. It is a sad thought that many may be passing 
unchallenged which are but impostures. In this case, however, deep and sus- 
tained investigation has enabled us to mend the anuram. It must have been 

n forth tTius ; Sir Francis Bacon, thr Lord Keeper : Is bom a 
eletl for riih Speaker. 

John Bunvan j Nu konyin a B. Execrable I one would naturally exclaim, 
but, as it is John's own work, we must be reverently dumb. 

General ; Cenl. real brute, 

Thomas CaRLYLE: Cry shame la all : or, Mercy, lash a lot: or, A lot try, 
"Lash me!" Just after the death of the sage and prior to the publication of 
hia Reminiscences, the anagiam a ealm, holy rest was hailed as admirably 
significant. An enemy hath found in the same letters, clearly to sham. 

Carolus Rex : Cras ero lux (To-morrow 1 shall be light). An auagram 
which Charles II. is said to have left written on one of the windows of King's 
Newton Hall, in Derbyshire. 

Princess Charlotte Auoi;sta of Wales: F. C. Her august race Is 
lost, O fatal news! An anagram in which British regret over the decease of 
the Princess Charlotte enshrined itself. 


IaQUES Clkhent, the assassin of Henry III. of France, Qui tU ei mal 
aft (Who is this ill-born ptrson ?). Very good from the jmint of view of 
the believer in Ihe divine right of kings, but thrown utterly in the shade by 
the superiority of its corollary : FutRE Jacques Clembnt : Ctsl Ftn/tr qui 
n'a crii, (It was hell that created mej, which may be taken as an answer to 
the first. 

DisHAELi r / ieaii, sir. A Tory anagram, of Course. The Whigs resolve 
the name into Ule airi. Bui the latter found their best opportunity in the 
full tide, DlSRAEj.i, Earl uF BeaconsFIBU] : Sel/fooltd, can he tear it? 

John Duvhen : Rhiiu i^ti/o',— which was Glorious John's life-long com- 
plaint, in his own spelling, loo. 

Phinbas Fletchkh : J/a/A Spewtr U/ef A very good anagram, for in 
the age after Spenser's death, Phineas Fletcher bad more of his manner and 
spirit than almost any other poet- 

Gladstone j G Itads not. So cried the exultant Tory in apt opposition to 
the anagram he had coined out of the name of his great rival : Disraeli : 
/ lead, lir. The Whig rather weakly remonstrated that Gladstone dotsift 
lag. But though Ihe whig achieved small success with the family cognomen, 
he reaped vast and varied results with the full name, Wii.liau Ewart 
Gladstone ; A man to taitld great vrills : or. Cn, aamimslriile line latll ; or, 
ril laute wtglad war-am^ : or, C-, a taeird man toe all Iht la : or, filially, 
the dubious and perplexing statement, Allmaing mi T. glad Erin -maits. 

Sir Edmundbi/RV Godfrey: I/yndmurdtrtdbyrBgiui.tnA By Romt'imde 
fingrr die. These anagrams, uncouth and^imperfect as Ihey are, were cir- 
culated shortly after the death of Godfrey, the magistrate who, it will be 
remembered, had taken Titus Oates's deposition in regard to the pretended 
Popish plot, aikd on October 17, 167S, had been found murdered on the south 
side of Primrose Hill. 

Hbkry Hali-am : Rial manly H. H. 

Randlb Holmes: Let men's lierald. This very apt anagram was prefixed 
to Holmes's well-known heraldic work, " The Academy of the Armory," 16S8. 

Srlina, Countess of Hitntinodon : See ! teitnd faith dingi to na nun. 

DoucLAS Jerrold : Sure, a droll dfgl 

Henrv Wadsworth L0NGFELI.0W: IVotihalfthe New tVarld'iglcry. 

Marttn Luther: Lehrt in armutA [He teaches in poveil^). The I^liniied 
form of the name yields even more remarkable results. For example, Mar- 
TiNua LtiTHERUS, Fir multa ilnsent {The man who builds up much), and Tir 
matrii tiulnus (Three wounds to the mother. — church is of course understood). 
D. MartIKUS LirrllERUS: Ul lurrii dai lumen (Like a tower you give light)." 
But most apt of all is the form Doctor Martinus Lutherus : ORvm, Luther 
iit der SihishiH (O Rome, Luther is the Swan), an allusion 10 John Iluss's 
prophecy that a swan should arise from the blood of the goose (Hubs). 

Thomas Babington Macaulav : Ola big mouth, a manly Cantab's. 

Marie AHToiNEriE: Tear it, mm, I atene. 

Thomas Moore : Home amor est (Man is love). 

Napoleon. The anagrams made on or about the great Corsican are num. 
berless. Thus, when he came into power, the words La RtvoLUTiON Fran- 
CAUBwere twisted into Fital mit Corse la firdra. Bui in 1815 paily apiiil 

d ^ 


diacovcred in the same words, Ail La Framiveult sen Rail The best ana- 
gram on Napoleon Bonapartk is the Latin one, Bana rapta Una feiul 
(Vou rascal, return your stolen goods !J. Written in Greek letters, the same 
name affords the very best example ai what is known as the reductive or »ub- 

omAtuii , 

the destroyer. 

Evei^ syllable tells a tale of rapine. 

IloKATLO Nelson ; Honor est a Nilo (Honor is from the Nile). This cele- 
brated anagram, put in circulation when the news of the victory of the Nile 
arrived in England, was the work of a clergyman, the Rev. William Holden, 
rector uf Charteiis. Vecy inferior is the English O a rtatioii'i Htro. 

FlORENCBNinHTINOALK: FUl oit, chteringangel. 

Nol'ES AND QuEKIES : Enquiries on datis ; or, A question- stttder ; or, still 
better, O, sind in a itqaeil. 

William Nov r / moy/ in lavi- This anagram on the laborious Attorney- 
General of Charles I. made a gieat sensation at the time. Howell, in his 
Letters, says, " With infinile ] 
knowledge of the law ; but t ni 

LukU Palherston : So droll, perl man. 

Sib Robert Peel: Terrible prose. 

Edcar Allan Poe: A long pea/., read. 

PiLATRB DU Rosier : Tu ei praie ile I'airiyaa are the prey of the air), pecu- 
liarly appropriate to the unfortunate aeronaut who fell from his balloon, June 
■ Si 1785, but an omitted r and a redundant e rob the anagram of the higher 
meed of praise. The suggested amendment, Tu ei P. R., Roi de Tair ly on a.n 
P. R., King of the Air), is puerile. 

John Ruskin ; No iat-ruih II 

William Shakespeare: I ask me, has Will apeerf Though Shakespeare 
provided against the shaking up of his bones, he uttered no curse upon those 
who should disturb the letters of his name. At the hands of the ruthless 
anagrammatists they have been made ti> yield strange and varied results. As 
good as any is the above, though there is some virtue in I swear he it lite a 
lamp. The alternative spelling William Shakspeare produces We praise 
him, asi alt, which is somewhat forced anil stilted. 

Robert Soitthkv ; Robust hero yet. This is from the pen of an admirer. 
An enemy is responsible for the following : Be thou Sour Tory. 

Maria Steuarta : I'eriOu armata (armed truth), evidently by an admirer 
of the unfortunate Queen of Scots. A more remarkable anagram malic feat is 
Maria SteuaHDA, ScurORtlM Regina; Trusa vi ngnis, morle amara cade 
(Thrust by force from my kingtionis, I fall by a bitter death). 

Charles James Sioart: He asserts a just elaim. This anagram on the 
Pretender was highly popular with the Jacobites, who also found in the same 
ta.mK,tlaims Ar»ur-t seat:atA in Charles, Prince ov '^ k\.«s, AI France 
eras. help us! Taylor, the Water Poet, had already found in Charles 


Stuart (i.r., Charles \.\ caii Inu harts,yi\CK\i iltuslraies the necessity of being 
acquainted with llie unhogiaphic Ikcngcs of the period Id which an anagram 
belongs. Bui 'I'aylor was a clumsy anagiaDiinatist at best. 

jAMbj STUAk'i : A just mai/er; a Tamous anagram by the poet Sylvester in 
dedicating to James I. Iiis Iraiislation of Du Bailas. 

Swedish Nighiingalk; Sing high, mset Linda ! a ralher successful com- 
pliment to Jenny Lind, under het sobriquet. 

Alfred TtNNVSON : Ferny land nelis : ot.FansiiHeUnderly. Slightly better 
is ihis; Aufrbo Tennyson, poci- iaoreate ; A'nit sonnet vr dap tear/ul lay. 

Geougk Thompson: Ogv, the negro's M. P. This eicellent anagram on 
the name of the noled adviicalc ot negro emancipation derives addilional 
inteiesl from Ihe fact that il was made by a friend al a time when Thompson 
was hesitating whether to accept a seat in llie House of Commons, and is said 
10 have decided him lo do so. 

ToucHCT, Marie (mistress of Charles IX.) ; 7(-f;(anw</(>i(/(I charm all). 

United States : !n U Deus ilat (God stands in ihee), and, as a sort of 
corollary to this statement, Indt tntt stai (hence thou standest safely). Other 
Latin anagrams, less excellent because their appiicalion is less immediately 
apparenl, are the folluwing : Denlalus est (he has leeth. — ht evidently meaning 
Uncle Sam). Detiste, nulat (hands off! it shakes), apt enough in 1861, when 
it was made, but not at present. Siite, nudat te (slop I he strips thee). Et iita 
Jattni (those things are also wanting), and A te desistvnt (they keep off from 

VicroKiA, England's Queen : Gatierns a nite quitt land. Her majesty 
herself should be startled out of hei habitual composure at the enigmatic 
result obtained from Her Most Gracious MAjF.s'rv Albxandrina Vic- 
TOEIA : Ah, my extravagant, JocB-itriaus radical minister ! 

Watt, JaUes ; Wail, steam, or A steam viit. 

Arthur Welleslev: Truly he'll see viar; ax. Rules the loar yell : at. Rule 
earthly radi (the latter expressing the opinion of those detractors who, while 
the duke was alive, accused him of being hard and worldly). l)ut best is 
thefollowing: ARTHUR Welleslev, DuKE t>F WELLINoroN : Let well-ftiPd 
Gaul secure thy renawn. 

A numlier of very clever burlesque anagrams were contributed to Afae- 
millan's Magatim in l86z by an anonymous hand. Some of these are worth 
quoting, — as, for example : 

Jbbeuy Benthah : The body of Jeremy Benthain never was buried. By 
his own directions it was kept above ground, a wax fac-simile o( his face and 
head being fitted on lo his skeleton, and his own silver hair, and the hal and 
clothes he usually wore, being placed on the figure, so as to make an exact 
representation of him silting in his chair as when alive. Perhaps his notion 
was that his school would last, and that he should be wheeled in 10 preside at 
their annual meetings in that ghastly form. Al all events, Ihe fiaure was long 
kepi by the late Di. Southwood Smilh, and is now in one of the London 
museums. No one can look al it without disgust at such an exhibition, — the 
too literal fulfilment of Ihe senile whim of an old man. His very name con- 
tains the punishment of the whim : yeer my bent ham. 

Oliver Cromwell : M^e timer, Will. — an anagram beautifully repre- 
senting Oliver's life when he was a quiet farmer and had a servant lad named 
William ; or, Welcomer r~l viol, which expresses the opinion of Oliver's ad- 
herents that he was a better first fiddle than the martyr- monarch. Observe 


how significant is the blank in the word royal. Oliver was not nominally 
king, though really such. 

Sir William Hamilton : The anagram of the name of this great meta- 
physician takes the form of a bit of dramatic dialogue : 

L. L. L. : " I am I, am I not ?" 
H.: " ^ (double ^'^^k), SirP' 

So profound an anagram as this may require a little explanation. L. L. L. is 
the Learned Logic lecturer, Sir William himself. He is interrogating /^., 
one of his hearers, and, to try his powers of thinking, asks him in a personal 
form a question of great metaphysical moment The Hearer is evidently 
puzzled, and cannot grasp the notion of Sir William, I and then I again, or 
two Sir Williams at once. 

James Macpherson : Mi cramp Ossian! ^^/— expressing how James 
laughed to scorn the charge brought against him ; oi M. /*., reach me Ossian^ — 
which was a standing joke against Macpherson in the library of the House of 
Commons when he became a member. 

John Stuart Mill: yust mart an hil^ — i.e.^ not only fair exchange, but 
with all circumstances of publicity ; or, O thrill^ just man, or, O man just 
thrill^ — expressing two opinions of the character of Mr. Mill's philosophy. 

Adam Smith : Admit hamsy — ue.^ supply the principle of free trade first to 
one particular article, and mark the results. 

The Times : Its theme! — />.,the whole planet and all that takes place upon 
it ; Meet this, — a reference chiefly to the advertisements in the second column ; 
and, finally, E, E, T. Smith. This last anagram we could not interpret for 
some time ; but we think we have it now. It seems to mean that the Times 
represents Smith, or general English opinion, and yet not Smith absolutely 
and altogether, but rather Smith when he is well backed by capital. 

Ancestor, I am my OT^rn. When Andoche Junot, who had risen from 
the ranks, became Due d'Abrant^s and an important figure at Napoleon's 
newly-formed court, a nobleman of the old r^gmie asked him what was his 
ancestry. '* Ah, ma foi I" replied the sturdy soldier, " je n'en sais rien ; moi 
je suis mon anc6tre" (" Ah, sir, I know nothing about it ; I am my own ances- 
tor"). Probably he had never heard of the similar remark made by Tiberius 
of Curtius Rufus : " He seems to me to be descended from himself!" (Taci- 
tus, xi. 21, i6.) Napoleon's reply to the Emperor of Austria was in a 
kindred vein. The Austrian, when Napoleon became his prospective son-in- 
law, would fain have traced the Bonaparte lineage to some ]>etty prince of 
Treviso, ** I am my own Rudolph of Hapsburg," said Napoleon. Under 
similar circumstances he silenced a genealogist : " Friend, my patent of no- 
bility dates from Montenotte," — his first great victory. When Iphicrates, 
the Athenian general, had it cast up in his face by a descendant of Harmo- 
dius that he was a shoemaker's son, he calmly replied, " The nobility of my 
family begins with me, yours ends with you." (Plutarch : Life of Iphicrates.) 
Almost the same words were used by Alexander Dumas when asked if he 
were not descended from an ape (a covert sneer at his negro grandmother) : 
"Very likely: my ancestry began where yours ends." General Skobeleflf, in 
answer to a query as to his pedigree, said, *' I make little account of genea- 
logical trees. Mere family never made a man great. Thought and deed, not 
pedigree, are the passports to enduring fame." — Fortnightly Review^ October, 

The thought is, of course, a commonplace in literature. Here are a few 
representative instances : 


Thev that on glorious ancestors enlarge. 
Produce their debt instead of their discharge. 

Young : Lcve of Famt, i. I. 147. 

Le premier qui fut roi Alt un soldat heureux : 
Qui sert bien son pays n'a pas besoin d'aieux. 

VoLTAiRB : Miropt, i. 3. 
(" The first to become king was a successful soldier. He who serves well his country has 
DO need of ancestors ") 

Whoe'er amidst the sons 
Of reason, valor, liberty, and virtue 
Displays distinguished merit, is a noble 
Of Nature's own creating. 

Jamrs Thomson : Coriolantu, iii. 3. 

I What can they see in the longest kingly line in Europe, save that it runs back to a suc- 
cewfiil soldier? The man who has not anything to boast of but his iliustnous ancestors is 
like a pouto,— the only good belonging to him is under ground.— Sik Thomas Ovkrburv : 

Anchor as the Symbol of Hope. Among the ancients the anchor, as 
the hope and resource oi the sailor, came to be called "the sacred anchor," 
and was made the emblem of hope. The early Christians adopted the anchor 
as an emblem of hope, and it is found engraved on rings and depicted on 
monuments and on the walls of cemeteries in the Catacombs. The anchor 
was associated with the fish, the symbol cf the Saviour. The fact that the 
transverse bar of an anchor below the tin^ forms a cross probably helped 
towards the choice of the anchor as a Christian symbol. 

AndreiKT's, St., Cross. The Cross of St. Andrew is always represented 
in the shape of the letter X ; but that this is an error, ecclesiastical historians 
prove by appealing to the cross itself on which he suffered, which St. Stephen 
of Burgundy gave to the convent of St. Victor, near Marseilles, and which, 
like the common cross, is rectangular. The cause of the error is thus ex- 
plained : when the apostle suffered, the cross, instead of being fixed upright, 
rested on its foot and arm, and in this posture he was fastened to it, his hands 
to one arm and the head, his feet to the other arm and the foot, and his head 
in the air. 

Angel, To inrrite like an, ori^nally characterized, not literary style, but 
penmanship. So Disraeli tells us in his "Curiosities of Literature." Angelo 
Vergecio, a learned Greek, emigrated first to Italy, and afterwards, during the 
reign of Francis I., to France. His beautiful penmanship attracted universal 
admiration. Francis I. had a Greek font of type cast, modelled from his 
handwriting. Angelo's name became synonymous with exquisite calligraphy, 
and gave birth to the familiar phrase " to write like an angel," which, by a 
natural extension of meaning, was applied to authors as well as mere pen- 
men : 

Here lies Nolly Goldsmith, for shortness called Noll, 
Who wrote like an angel and talked like poor Poll. 


Angels altogether, a West Indian slang term applied to habitual drunk- 
ards. The sobriquet is said to have taken its rise in the following manner. A 
negro emploved on a sugar-plantation on the East Coast, Demerara, applied 
for a Saturaay holiday. His manager, knowing Quashie*s reputation as a 
hard drinker, chaffed nim as follows: "John, you were drunk on Sunday?" 
" Yes, massa." " Monday, too ?" " Yes, massa." And so on up to Friaay, 
eliciting the same response. " But, John," remonstrated the manager quietly, 
" you know you can't be an angel altogether." The story got abroad and 
paaied into a proverbial phrase. 



AnseU, On the side of tli«. In 1S64, when Darwinism was an aston- 
ishing novelly, Disiaeli neatly expressed the indignant misapprehension of 
the mullitude in a speech before the Uxford Diocesan Society : " What is the 
question which is now placed before society, with the glib assurance which to 
me is most astounding } That question is this : Is man an ape or an angel ? 
I am on the side of the angels. I repudiate, with indignation and abhorrence. 
those new-fangled theories." Carlyle was equally emphatic " I have no 
patience whatever," he cried, "with these goiilla damnilicalions of humanity." 
Disraeli lived to modify his views, Carlyle detested Darwinism tirsi and last. 
The optimistic Emerson saw only hope in the new doctrine. " I would 
rather believe," he said, "thai we shall lise to the stale of the angels than 
that we have fallen from il." 

nc of the most hackn 
" Pleasur. 

This simile was highly praised for il) 
on the English Poets," was the lirst ic 



"Mr. Campbell," adds Mazlitt, ■ 
' Few' and ' lar between' are the sat . 

bell never forgave him this bit of detective work. But Blair himself was not 
original. He borrowed from John Norris of Bemerton (1656-1711), who has 
the following lines in his poem " The Parting :" 

Hdw fkdiD^ %m Ibe jays w« dole upon \ 

Like appvnlionB «cn and gont ; 

Morulitv'* too u> 

Ivi DcitKer do thty mikt Innv i»y ; ' 
They do bui viiii iin<I iwiy. 

Angelna (so named from the opening words of the prayer : " Angelus 
Domini nunliavil Maria:," — " The Angel of the Lord announced unto Mary'^, 
in the Roman Catholic Church, is a devotion in memory of the Annunciation. 
It consists of three of the scriptural texts relating to the mystery, recited 
alternately with the angelic salutation, " Ave Maria," etc, and followed by a 
verside with prayer. The devotion was of gradual growth. So earlv as 1347 
we find the Council of Sens taking up an ordinance already passed by Pope 
John XII. (1316-13U), which recommended the faithful to say the Ave Maria 
three limes at the hour of curfew {ignilegii). The ordinance was approved, 
and its observance was made obligatory. Church-bells should be rung at 
the hum of curfew, and all hearers should %a down on their knees and recite 
■gel's salutation to the glorious Virgin, thus gaining ten days' indul- 
In (369 it was further ordained that at dawn there should be three 
rokes, and whoever at tliat signal said three aves and as many pater- 
s should obtain an indulgence for twenty days. The Angelus, as we 
it, developed out of this beginning, and was substantially the present 
on. when, in 1416, a repetition of the Angelus three times a day was 
at Breslau, the example being followed by Mainz and Cologne 



in 1423. In 1472, Louis XI. obtained a papal decree sanctioning the triple 
Angelus in France, and promising three hundred additional days of indul- 
gence to the suppliant 

^^ boys, a term applied in the seventeenth century to the unruly 

*' bloods*' of the day whose mad frolics nightly made the streets a terror to 
sedate and peaceable citizens. 

G«t thee another nose that will be pulled 
0£f by the angry boys for thy conversion. 

Bbaumont and Flbtchbk: The Scornful Lady. 

Annus Mirabili* (L., ** Wonderful year"). A term that may lie applied 
to any year memorable in public or private history. Thus, one of Coleridge's 
critics called 1797 his annus mirabilis^ as during that year the poet composed 
most of his finest works. And, again, 187 1 has been called the annus mira- 
Mis of the Papacy, as the year in which Pius IX., first among all the succes- 
sors of St. Peter, attained and passed the twenty-five years of rule which are 
credited to Peter. But, specifically, the term is applied in English history to 
the year 1666, which was crowded thick with events, — the great fire of Lon- 
don, the defeat of the Dutch fleet, etc. This specific use of the word has 
been fixed and perpetuated by Dryden's poem " Annus Mirabilis," which cel- 
ebrates these events. | 

AntiqnitaB sadculi javentUB mnndi (L., " The antiquity of ages is the 
youth of the world''). This phrase occurs as a quotation in Bacon's '* Ad- 
vancement of Learning," book i. (1605). Bacon explains it thus: "These 
times are the ancient times, when the world is ancient, and not those which 
we account ancient ordim retrograde^ by computation backward from our- 
selves." Whewell has pointed out that the same thought occurs in Giordano 
Bruno's "Cena di Cenere," published in 1584. Pascal, in the preface to his 
" Treatise on Vacuum," says, " For as old age is that period of life most 
remote from infancy, who does not see that old age in this universal man 
ought not to be sought in the times nearest his birth, but in those most remote 
firom it ?" For a humorous, yet most effective, statement of the same axiom 
by Sydney Smith, see Wisdom of Our Ancestors. Gladstone has taken 
the words Jteventus Mundi as a title for his book on the Homeric period. 

Anjdona Bench, or Anxious Seat, a familiar Americanism, originally 
derived from the terminology of Methodist camp-meetings and other religious 
revivals. The anxious benches are seats set aside for anxious mourners, — />., 
for sinners who are conscious of their sin and desirous of conversion. After the 
ordinary services, an Anxious Meeting is held, where the mourners are exhorted, 
and, after they have brought forth fruit meet for repentance, they are received 
into church membership. By extension, the phrase On the Anxious Bench 
means to be in a state of great difficulty, doubt, or despondency. 

Any other man, a bit of American slang which had a great run in i860. 
When a man became prolix or used alternatives, such as Brown or Jones or 
Robinson, he was promptly called to order by the cry, " or any other man." 
The first use of the phrase in print was by Charles G. Leland, in a comic 
sketch in the New York Vanity Fair. A sort of forerunner has l>een discov- 
ered in ** Waverley :" ** Gif any man or any other man." 

Apartments to let, a colloquial expression, indicating that the person 
referred to as having such apartments is a fool, an idiot, — 1>., that his skull 
has no tenant in the shape of brains. The phrase may have originated with 
the famous mot of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, when his son Thomas jest- 
ingly declared that he had no decided political principles, but would serve 



add 'unfurnished.'" 

r party paid him best, and thai he had a mind la put a pbcard on his 
I, "To let." "AH right, Tom," was the answer, "but don't forget to 
furnished.' " 

Apea. Leading apM In lull This proverbial expression is supposed 
to describe the fate of women who die old maids, or who have otherwise 
avoided (he responsibiiily of bearing children. In this sense it occurs fre- 
quently in Shakespeare and his con temporaries. Thus, in (he "Taming of 
the Shrew," Acl iii. St I : 

And, igr your Idtc La her, lead >pa in hell! 

r, in 

bis "Collection of Poems.' 




has this 

PoorGntia in h 




recent example is in Dibdin 

■s song '■ 

'Tack and Tack:" 

Bui it would seem Ihal Ihe expression had some olher meaning before thi 
Mventeenlh cenlurjr, which il h»s now lost Slanihural, in the dedicalion ti 
his "Description of Ireland," in Holinshed's "Chronicles," vol. ii. (15S6-87) 
says. " Mersiles . . . seemed to stand in no better stead than lo lead a.^. 
■- "■- >-.-..---!- -_ -" ijion quite unconnected with maidenhood o 

Thaddeusi topaz, t , 

s called "St. Stephen 

ApOBtl* spoons. Old-fashionedsilver or silver.gilt spoons, whose handle 
terminated in the figure of one of the apostles. The souvenir spoons of 
today are their legitimate descendants. Apostle spoons were the usual 

E resents of sponsorn at christenings. The rich gave a set of a dozen, those 
■ss wealthy (our, while the poor gave one. In " Henry VIII ," Acl v. Sc 2, 
the king wishes Cranmer lo stand godfather lo the Princess Elizabeth, and 
when the prelate excuses himself, saying, — 

"" r humbU lubject 10 ymafl— 

ly lord, you'd *puT your ipoona. 

ApoatJea, or Tbe Twelve Apoatlee, in Cambridge University slang, 
"the clodhoppers of lileiature who have at last scrambled through the 
Senate House without being plucked, and have obuineil the tille of B.A. by 
a miracle. The last twelve names on ihe list of Bachelor of Arts— those a 
degree lower than the oJ iroUoi — are thus designated" (Gradas ad CanUAri- 
gBim]. The very last on the list was known as St. Paul, punniiigly corrupted into 
St Poll, — an allusion to 1 Cor. xv. 9: "For I am the leasl of (he apostles, 
that am not meet to be called an apostte." In a fine burst of etymological 
inspiration, Holten suggests (hat apostles is derived from /w/ a/™-, — tir., "after 


the others." But the reference to the Twelve Apostles is clear enough in 
itself. In Columbian College, Washington, D.C., the twelve last members of 
the B.A. list receive each the name of one of the apostles. 

Appetite. In Rabelais's " Gargantua," ch. v., occurs the famous phrase 
•• L'app^tit vient en mangeant" (** Appetite comes in eating"). The context 
is worth quoting : " The stone called asbestos is not more inextinguishable 
than is the thirst of which I am the parent Appetite comes with eating, said 
Angeston ; but thirst goes away by drinking. Remedy for thirst ? It is the 
opposite of that for the bite of a dog ; always run after a dog, and he will 
never bite you ; always drink before thirst, and it will never come to you." 
The Angeston referred to is supposed to be Jerome de Hangest, a famous 
doctor of the Sorbonne, who flourished at the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. But where or under what circumstances he used the phrase is unknown. 
Montaigne echoes Rabelais in his essay on " Vanity :" " My appetite comes to 
me while eating." But this is a mere autobiographical detail. The true 
original is probably in Ovid, who, speaking of Erysichthon, condemned by Ceres 
to an inextinguishable hunger, says, ** All food stimulates his desire for other 
food." {Metamorphoses y lib. viii.) The phrase is often used now in a meta- 
phorical sense, as, for example, in Shakespeare's paraphrase : 

Why, she would hang on him. 
As if increase of appetite had grown 
By what it fed on. 

Hamlet f Act i. Sc. 9. 

But even in this sense a classical prototype may be found in Quintus Curtius, 
who makes his Scythians say to Alexander, ** You are the first in whom satiety 
has engendered hunger." 

Apple Jack, in America, a familiar name for whiskey distilled from apples, 

known also as Jersey lightning, from the fact that it is mainly a New Jersey 

product. It may be interesting to recall John Philips's lines in " The Splendid 

Shilling :" 

Thus do I live, from pleasure quite debarred. 
Nor taste the fruits that the sun's genial rays 
Mature, John Apple, nor the downy peach. 

But this is only a curious coincidence. The John Apple, or Apple John (so 
called because it is ripe about St. John's day), is a kind of apple said to keep 
for years, and to be in perfection when shrivelled and withered. Hence 
Washington Irvine's " Poor Jemmy, he is but a withered little apple-john," 
quoted in C. D. Warner's Life, p. 77. 

Apple of DiBCord. Something which causes strife, — an allusion to the 
classical fable of Eris, the goddess of hate, who threw a golden apple among 
her fellow-goddesses, with this inscription, "To the most beautiful.** Here, 
Pallas, and Aphrodite (Juno, Minerva, and Venus) all three claimed the prize, 
and referred their dispute to Paris, who decided in favor of the latter, — a 
decision that led to the Trojan war. 

•'Angry, indeed !" says Juno, gathering up her purple robes and royal raiment. *' Sorry, 
indeed ! cries Minerva, lacing on her corselet again, and scowling under ner helmet. (I imagine 
the well-known Apple case has just been argued and decided.) '* Hurt, forsooth 1 Do you 
suppose we care for the opinion of that hobnailed lout of a Paris? Do you suppose that I, 
the Goddess of Wisdom, can't make allowances for mortal miorance, and am so base as to 
bear malice against a poor creature who knows no better? You little know the goddess nature 
when you dare to insinuate that our divine minds are actuated by motives so base. A love of 
justice influences %is. We are above mean revenge. We are too magnanimous to be angry 
at the award of such a pudge in favor of such a creature." And, rusthng out their skirts, the 
ladies walk away together. This b all very well. You are bound to believe them. They are 
actuated by no hostility ; not they. They bear no malice— of course not. But when the 
Tkojan war occurs presendy, which side will they uke? Many brave souls will be sent to 

€ 6* 



Apple-pie Older, complete, thorough order. Plausibly ronjectured to be 

a corruption of tap-A-fif order (Fr. dt fic<l en cap), with leference to the coni' 
pleic CEjuipmenl of a soldier fully caparisoned from head to foot. The only 
objection to this theory is that no instance of (he laller phrase appears. Per- 
haps (he derivation suggested in Harrire and Leiand's " Slang Dictionary" is 
the true one : "Urder is an old word fur a tow, and a properly-made apple-pie 
had, of old, always an order or row of regularty-cul turrets, or an exactly 
divided border." Pies are rarely now made in this fashion in England, bul 
quite freqnenlly in America. An apple-pie bed, ^miliar to school-boys, is 
a bed in which some practical joker has folded the sheets so that a person 
cannot get his legs down. 

ThE childnn'i girden <i is >i>plc-pie order. Scott, in Laekliarfi Ll/t,-n\. iv. p. iji, «L 

Apples. Hoir we apples swim! A common English phrase, applied to 
the self-gratulation of a pompous and inflalcd person. The reference is to 
the fable of the horse-dung floating down the river with a lot of apples. 

illine among the hjilorjc 
■B?^, vol. m. p. 39. 

■' Ha» ••< appla >winH" Hooahtk: Wirkt{fA 187^, 

ApprentiCBB and Salmon. A curious popular tradition, still current in 
the valley of the Severn, asserts that in ancient indentures masters bound 
themselves not to feed iheir apprentices on salmon more than thrice a week. 
A lively controversy on this sulijccl in Notts and Querits led lo an offer by 
the editor of that periodical of five pounds for the discovery of an indenture 
having this clause. The reward, however, was never claimed. 

Aproii-atarlii^, To be tied to a womao'o. To be under petticoat gov- 
emnienl. To be ruled by a woman. There is an old legal term. Apron-siring 
hold, = a tenure of properly through one's wife, or durmg her lifetime alone. 

The blr K> areiD coDKioui to IhcnuelTci thai they have ruxhing ■□ them vhich can donve 

Apropos de bottes {" apropos of boots"), a French expression which hat 
been adopted into English, and means apropos of nothing. The saying is 
thus accounted for. A certain seigneui. having Inst an important cause, told 
the king, Francois I., thai the court had unbooted him (Favail diboHt). Whal 
he meant to say was thai the court had decided against him \il avail Jli dUeut/) 
cf. med. Lat. deiolare). The king laughed, but reformed Ihe p — "'" ' 

pleading in Latin. The gentlemen of the bar, feeling displeased at ihe change, 
said that it had been made i propos de boltit. Hence the application of the 
phrase to anything that is done without motive, {Noica and Qatrits, si 

is plausible, and. as there is no direct historical 
evidence lo confute it, may be accepted without mental slultilicalion. But it 
fails 10 support the burden of proof that legitimately rests on its shoulders. 

Arcadia, in ancient geography, a pastoral district of Ihe Peloponnesus 
in Greece, is used as a synoiijrme for any Utopia of poetical simplicity and 
innocence. "Auch ich war in Arkadien geboien" ("I too was born in 
Arcadia"), sings Schiller in his poem "Resignation." Goethe adopts this 
famous phrase as the motto of his Italian journeys. In the I jlin form " Et 
^o in Arcadia" it appears in one of Foussin's landscapes in the Lou*re, 


inscribed on a tomb whereon a group of shepherds gaze with mingled curi- 
osity and ai&ight. 

Architect of his own fortune. The familiar proverb, Every man is 
the architect of his own fortune, is found in most modern languages. Accord- 
ing to Sallust, in his first oration (" De Republ. Ordinand.," i. i), the phrase 
originated with Appius Claudius Caecus, who held the office of Censor in 
B.c 312: "Sed res docent id varum esse, quod in carminibus Appius ait: 
Fab > um esse sua q$iem^ue fortunai" ("But the thing teaches us that that is 
true which Caius says m his poems, that every one is the architect of his own 
fortune"). A century later we find Plautus asserting that the wise man is the 
maker of his own fortune, and, unless he is a bungling workman, little can befall 
him which he would wish to change : 

Nam sapiens quidem pol ipse fingit fortunam sibi 

£0 ne multa qiuc nevolt eveniunt, nisi fictor mains siet. 

TrinummuSf ii. 284. 

Publius Syrus has, " His own character is the arbiter of every one's fortune." 
{Maxim 283.) 

Bacon quotes Appius's saying approvingly, putting it in the indicative 
instead of m the infinitive mood, and possibly restoring it thereby to its origi- 
nal form : *' It cannot be denied, but outward accidents conduce much to 
fortune ; favor, opportunity, death of others, occasion-fitting virtue. But 
chiefly the mould of a man's fortune is in his own hands ; Faber est quisque 
fortuna stuty saith the poet." 

In Cervantes the idea is presented in a different form : " Every man is the 
son of his own works" {Don Quixote^ i. 4). Here are some further variations : 

Men at some time are masters of their fates ; 
The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, 
But in ourselves, that we are underlings. 

Shakbspbarb : yulius Casar, i. 3. 

We all do stamp our value on ourselves ; 
The price we challenge for ourselves is given us. 
There does not live on earth the man so stationed 
That I despise myself compared with him. 
Man is made great or little oy his own will. 

Coleridge: trans, of Schiller's WalUnstein* t Death, iv. 8, 77. 

Architeotnre ia frozen mtiaic. Schelling has this phrase twice in his 
" Philosophie der Kunst" At page 576 he says, "It is music in space, as it 
were a frozen music," and again at page 593, ** Architecture in general is 
frozen music" 

Madame de Stael undoubtedly had these phrases in mind when she wrote, 
"The sight of such a monument is like a continuous and stable music" (" La 
vue d*un tel monument est comme une musique continuelle et fixee," Carinne^ 
iv. 3). Emerson, in his essay on "Quotation and Originality," says that 
Madame de Stael " borrowed from Goethe's ' dumb music,' which is Vitru- 
vius's rule that ' the architect must not only understand drawing, but music' " 

a common sobriquet applied to the Cockney "sports" of London, 
being the name Harry spelled as they pronounce it. The 'Arries are Just a 
shade above the roughs ; they are usually good-natured, but vulgar, nashy, 
and loud-mouthed, and on Sunday afternoons and bank holidays are seen with 
their *Arriets in every place of public resort. Mr. Punch takes particular 
pleasure in showing up their harmless eccentricities. 

'Arry smokes a two-penny smoke. 

Oh ! poor 'Arry ! 
'Arry's pipe's enough to choke. 

Bad boy 'Arry 1 


'Arry thinki it very good (Un 

To pulT his cheap cigu 
Inla Ibe fica or every oae 
While doing Uk ln-di-diu 

Cmirl-kallBailad: HmiU.-Arrft 
Mr. Matthew Amo!d muH hdp lu la deHne 'Airy; be muit jead la one oT hii fine old 

tensrs developA LtKlf all round wiihaul mi^vins :" hii exbunce ii"roD&deDt, fn«," Btid 
eaiy. We hII know "Airy when we meet him ; Dm circUDUtulcet have prevented Kience 
Trom purauing him to hil name. For the worid al large 'Arry only cuiita when ht is al large : 

at work, or in hii family circle. - , h la not easy to »e how ibe ancial miioioaary ia to do 
good to "Arry, or bow "Airv is to be got at bjr educaliop. Ueiaso brutally greearioua thai no 
one can findbim alone and play on bis fipcr feelingi ^ heiaao dull thai he wotild not attempt 
VEUmeni. or even banter; he would only howl. Nature baa produced no being an near the 
Yahooaa'Arry, the Aowtrof our carpetlmechinkalciviUutioD. By hit pleaaur«9he ii known, 
on his holiday! he ia to be studied, for then he escapes from tbe yoke of civiliaation, and is 

lislf ned to one van-load of 'Arriea, one hai heard allof tbem^— l^nrc/a* Xtvuvr, August o, 


An est celaie aitem [L., "An lies in concealing ait"), a phrase which 
probiibly rose out of Ovid's line in the " An of Love,'' ii. 313 : " Si latet are 
pnidest (" 1( ihc art is concealed, it succeeds"). The meaning, of course, is 
that true art must always appear natural and spontaneous, and give no evi- 
dence of the labor which perfected it. As Buifee says, " Art can never give 
tbe rules that make an art" ( TAe Sublimt and Btautiftd, Part I., sec 9.) 

The contrary fault is indicated in Collins's lines, — 

Naiiue bi*^ani™ d™t \^l^lJ^ ' 

On Sir Tlummi Aaaawr'i Ediluni ^ Slukit^tri. 

Art U loQc and Unw la fl««tliic. A famous line in Longfellow's " Psalm 
of Life," which merely versifies the Latin saw, " Ars tonga, vita bievis est." 
The original may be traced to the Greek of Hippocrates (" Apothegms," i), 
who reverses the order : " Life is short and the an lone." He is complaining 
that the longest life is only sufficient Co acquire a moderate portion of knowl- 
edge in any art or science. But Seneca, who tells us "(he greatest of doc- 
tors" used losay, "Vilam brevem esse, longam artem," calls this an unjust 
accusation against Nature or Providence, though he allows that not only fools 
bul the wise are too apt so to rail, and, among others, he quoles Aristotle. 
Exactly when Seneca's version of the phrase passed into the neater and more 
logical " Ars longa, vita brevis est," it is impossible to say. Probably the first 
attempt to English it was Chaucer's : 

The lyTe so shon, the crafte so long lo lene, 

Th' assay so hard, so aharpe the conquering. 

Aittmil, ^ Fmli. line 1. 

Goethe, in " Wilhelm Meistcr," has, " Art is long, life short ; judgment 
difficult, opportunity transient" (book vii. ch. in.). Another sense in which 
the proverb may be taken is indicated in these lines of Austin Dobson's : 

The co.n, Tiberius. 

Art praserratlve of all arts. The art of printing. This phrase finds 
its origm in an inscription on the house at Haarlem lormerly occupied by 
Laurent Rosier or Coster, one of the earliest printers In Holland, and, in- 


deed, held by some enthusiastic feilow-countrymen to be the inventor of the 

Memorix Sacrum 

Ars ATtium Omnium 

Hie Pcimum inventa 
Circa Annum M.CCCCXL. 
(" Sacred (o the meroory of Typc^raphy, (he ait conservator of all aits. 
Heie first invented about the year 144a") The exact date when the inscrip- 
tion was put up is uncertain, but it is known to have been in existence about 

A> In iw«MeDtl perfectnm fonnat In avl (L, " As in the present forms 
its perfect in avi"). The first words of that pait of the Eton Latin giamtiiar 
which tieats of the conju^tion of veibs. That which treats of the gendeii 
erf nouns begins, " Propria qua maribus," etc Hence a boy is said 10 be 
beginning his as in firasttiti, oj propria qua maribus, when he is acquiriiig the 
first rudiments of Ihe Latin tongue, by extension, the same teinis are ap- 
plied to beginners in all sorts of knowledge, bookish or worldly. 

Aas fLScenda the ladder, Until the. A favorite expression among the 
Rabbins foi that which can never, or will never, take place, — t.g., " Si ascen- 
deiit asinus per scalas, invenietur scienlia in mulieribus," — a propiisition m 
uncomplimentary to Ihe bettei sex that we leave it in Bnxtorf's Latin. A 

legulis" ("an ass on the house-top"). 
A— iMltnm. Qua mBSBieim lea amamlnacommeaoBnt (Fr,. "Let Ihe 

fol abolili 

(Oaober4. tSgo), M. Jean Aicaid predicted that 

ary monuments of the [iresent century should crumble and disappear, ineie was 
■till something that never would be lusl, that some of the wisdom and the 
wit to which Alphonse Kan had given permanent form, in a language which 
Li at once brilliant and solid, would be dug up again out of Ihe luins in 
lime to come, as we dig up coins and medals in Greek or Roman soil. It 
is curious to note how closely this corresponds with Karr's own estimate of 
himself: "There will remain of me," he said, "only two phrases ; Plus fa 
tkangt, plus c'lsl la mime chose, and On veul abeltr la peine at marl, mil : mats 
que messieurs Us assassins eammenanl." It is still more curious to discover 
that the latter phrase was not of Karr's own writing, but was borrowed, con- 
sciously or unconsciously, from the " Heliolropium" of the German Drexe- 
liui (15S1-1638) : "Quondam faex hominum. et furum, laverniunum, efTracto- 
tum ampla societas libellos suppliccs porrexerunt judicibus, rogaruntque 
patibula et furcas auferrent. . . . His a judicibus responsum est, siquidem 
antiquatum cupiant motem patibulandi aWogari, prius ipsi consneiudinem 
abrogeni furandi, judices in mora non futuros, quod protiiius cntces tnllant et 
patibula, modo ipsi prius cessare jubeani fuila" (book iv., ch. ii.. s. t). 

Atlieiat "By night an atheist hair believes a God." The 177th line in 
Young's " Night Thoughts," V. At the end of Night IV. he had already 

' Ye Aal lo miib I pcniK ih;< par»n'd page, 

And (niM. for once, a pmphel uid ■ prlni : 

Of course there is a reference here to Psalm xiv., "The fool hath said in 


his heari, There is im God." One ai Clough'* moat memorable poems, the 
Spirit's soliloquy in " Dipsychus" (Pitt 1. Sc v.), aflbrds a parallel to Young's 
lines. Here ate the most pregnant stanias : 

'■ TbEK ii no God," Ibe wicked vutli, 

For vhu H^niithi hsH <)ong with u« 

1 pleuani compound appears froi 

filer Mclsim.-iihgltc. 
lire, if dii -a Athol BroK, 
Alhol Boelry mml be !" 

The name "brose" or "broose" is also giver 
dings who shall first reach the bridegtoom's hous 
the prize being a smoking bowl of ipjce broth. I 
Tetred from the jiriie to the race itself. 

hich studcn 

1 Ihal day. Only a limited 
quaniily is now brewed once a year, professors and undergraduates being 
allowed to purchase no mote than a certain number of hollies. At Cambridge 
the custom is at least two hundred years old At other universities it is a 

BvHOH : T^ Aft ef Bretat. 
The uble wu jproid wiita coffee. >udii. devUt, otnrku. ham ple>, and all ihe otbei aRlcle* 
of (he builery.— OuiD* ; Cramilli di Vitm, cr Held in Bsmlagt. 

Andley. To oome Lord Andley over one. = to gull him. The 
origin of the phrase is uncertain. It has been suggested that (he term may 
perpeluale Ihc memory of a Wiltshire nobleman, Mervin, Lord Audlcy, also 
£arl of Casllehaven in Ireland, who was hanged in 1631 for robbery. 

A case occurred recently at the Devires police court, when a travelling actor wu charBed 

the landlady (deceued) of a public hnuie al which he Hemi lohave called far refmbmcni 
"•illioul any premedilalion of ibe impojillon. Hij encuie 10 Ibe magislrale ni Ihat. 
finding (he people ejxiily gulled, he thought be vould come Lord Audley over them. — Sate* 

Andley, John. A purely mythical person, like Dickens's Mrs. Harris or 
the American Tom Collins. When Richardson, the English theatrical show- 
man, tnanager of a troupe of strolling actors, deemed thai his players bad 


worked long enough, and saw fresh audiences ready to rush up the steps, he 
used to put his head between the canvas and call out, '* Is John Audley 
here?" at which the curtain soon fell, and the strollers began to a new 
crowd of hearers. "To John Audley a play," meaning to cut it down, still 
survives in theatrical circles. 

Australian flag. This is humorously said to be a shirt-tail, — an allusion 
to the fact that Australian farmers and ranchers usually wear belts instead of 
braces, with the inevitable result that a great fold of shirt protrudes between 
trousers and waistcoat. 

Aato-da-f(6 (Port., literally, "act of faith") originally meant the sentence 
passed on convicted heretics by the courts of the Spanish Inquisition, but the 
phrase by extension grew to be applied to the public infliction of the penalties 
prescribed, and especially the severer ones of hanging and burning. 

Why. at the last Auto-da-fe, in 1824 or '25, or somewhere there, — ^it's a traveller's story, but a 
inifhty knowing traveller he is, — they had a " heretic" to use up according to the statutes pro- 
vi^d for the cnme of ])rivate opinion. Thev couldn't (juite make up their minds to bum him, 
so they only hung him in a hogshead painted all over with flames I — Hulmbs : Tke Professor 
at tke Breakfast- Table ^ p. 262. 

Autographs and Autograph-Hunters. " The tolerant universe," says 
^r. Andrew Lang, " permits men, women, and children to be mighty auto- 
graph-hunters before the Lord." But the universe would not be so tolerant 
if it were mainly composed of autograph huntees instead of hunters. One of 
the most eminent of the former class, no less a person, indeed, than Alfred 
Tennyson, once told his neighbor, Mrs. Cameron, that he believed every crime 
and every vice in the world was connected with the passion for autographs and 
anecdotes and records (wV^ Taylor's "Autobiography"). Another, Professor 
Huxley, wrote in a private letter, " I look upon autograph-hunters as the 
progeny of Cain, and treat their letters accordingly ; heaven forgive you if 
you are only an unusually ingenuous specimen of the same race." The letter 
containing this passage was recently offered for sale in London, — ^a bit of 
audacity that might have made Cain blush for his progeny. 

Perhaps, in accordance with the larger charity of this age, it might be best 
to treat autograph-hunting as a disease rather than a vice. Once the mania 
has bitten a collector, he is no longer responsible. And the alarming feature 
about the matter is the prevalence of the complaint Sporadic cases are, 
indeed, recorded at a very high antiquity ; but it is only during the last two 
centuries that it has reached the epidemic stage. 

The first case ever recorded was that of a certain Atossa. Little is known 
about her, save that she was not the mother of Darius. But she may have 
been the mother of the autograph-collector. We find her described as the 
first who hrtusrokui^ owrd^cu. Shall we translate this as the first who colUcted 
or who wrote letters ? On the construction of the verb depends her glory or 
her shame. But we really are not on solid ground until we reach the great 
name of Cicero. We know that he had a collection, and a fine one, for he 
speaks of it with gratulation. The fever, even in those early days, was con- 
tagious. It spread to his contemporaries ; it raged with some violence among 
his immediate successors. Pliny mentions one Pompeius Secundus at whose 
house he had seen autographs of Cicero, Augustus, Virgil, and the Gracchi. 
Yet Pliny, who bows to Secundus as his superior, himself possessed a collec- 
tion valued at $15,000. Then came the irruption of the barbarians, and 
good-by to the collector and his collections ! We do not meet him again 
until the beginning of the sixteenth century. Then he reappears in the person 
of a certain Bohemian squire, who, about the year 1 507, began keeping a book 
which recorded his exploits of the chase, and in which, as a further refresher 


of the memory, he collected the signatures of his great hunter friends. This 
he called his Albus Amicorum^ probably in memory of the Roman Album, 
from albus, ** white," a blank tablet for making entries. The custom soon ex- 
tended all over Germany, not merely with hunters, but more especially with 
travellers, who on returning from the grand tour would proudly exhibit their 
alba in proof of the good company they had kept while on the road. By the 
seventeenth century it had reachea France, and evidently it was just beginning 
to l:>e heard of by Englishmen anxious to emulate foreign fashions in 1642, 
when James Howel nicluded in his "Instructions for Foriain Travel" this 
item : " Some do use to have a small leger book fairly bound up table-book- 
will [table-book-wise], wherein when they meet with any person of note and 
eminency, and journey or pension with him any time, they desire him to write 
his name, with some short sentence which they call the mot of remembrance; 
the perusall whereof will fill one with no unpleasing thoughts of dangers an4 
accidents passed." Every one remembers how the peripatetic scholar in 
Goethe's tragedy tells Mephistopheles, masquerading in the professional robes 
of the learned Doctor Faust, '* I cannot leave you without presenting you with 
my album ; deign to honor it with a souvenir from your hand." ** Gladly," 
says the Devil, and on the virgin page he writes, **Thou shalt be like unto 
God, knowing the good and the evil." 

Possibly the first autograph-collector in the modern sense — that is, the first 
person who made it a business to gather together letters and documents not 
for their personal but for their literary or historical associations — was Lom^nie 
de Brienne, ambassador of Henry IV., who died in 1638. His rich collec- 
tion was acquired by Louis XIV., who placed it in the royal library. And 
to-day the names of famous collectors can be counted by the hundreds, and the 
value of each individual collection frequently mounts up well into the thou- 
sands. Autograph-dealers pursue a lucrative business. Their catalogues 
throw a curious insight upon the sliding scale by which such memorials of the 
living and the dead are appraised. In this list or roll-call of fame, this price- 
current of the great, Andrew Johnson is more highly valued than Lincoln, 
Jefferson, or even Washington ; one of the most insignificant of the signers of 
the Declaration is ranked above all his illustrious colleagues ; and Piron lords 
it over kings and conquerors. The inexorable law of supply and demand 
steps in here as elsewhere, and regulates prices according to the scarcity 
which limits the supply, and the interest or eminence of the subject whicn 
incites the demand. The two rarest autographs of all are Shakespeare's and 
Moli^re's. Of course these are the most exi>ensive. Of Molitre's there are 
known to be five in existence. Of Shakespeare's it is claimed that there are 
seven, three to his will, two to conveyances of property, one in a folio edition 
of the plays, possessed by Mr. Gunther, of Chicago, and one in Giovanni 
Florio's translation of Montaigne. The will is in the British Museum, and cost 
$1572. But the folio signature is doubted, and two of the signatures to the will 
are thought to have been filled in by amanuenses. The largest of Moli^re's is 
but six hnes long, and is a receipt for money, very queerly spelt. Of the plays 
of both authors not a fragment is known to exist. 

Legitimate collectors limit their fad to the serious collection of autographs 
that are in the market. They look down with scorn upon the amateurs who 
beg signatures that may be had for the asking. It is the latter, indeed, who 
have brought the autograph-hunter into disrepute. They are a sore trial to 
the patience and the morality of statesmen and men of letters, who are apt to 
become ferociously and even blasphemously contemptuous. Daniel O'Con- 
nell, for example, once took up his pen and wrote as follows : 

Sir, — I'll be damned if I will send you my autograph. 

Yours, Daniel O'Connbix. 


Others, less hibernially hot-blooded, employ a secretary or (most exasper- 
ating of all) use a type- writer, refusing autographs to all but the most cunning 
applicants. Huxley and Ruskin have each been obliged to prepare a printed 
circular, at once a remonstrance and an apology, which they slip into an 
envelope and send off to their begging correspondents. Mark Twain has 
followed their example in this type-written message: 

I hope I shall not offend you ; I shall certainly say nothing with the intention to offend you. 
I must explain myself, however, and I will do it as kindly as I can. What you ask me to do 
I am asked to do as often as one-half dozen times a week. Three hundred letters a year ! 
One's impulse is to freely consent, but one's time and necessary occupations will not permit 
it. There is no way but to decline in ail cases, making no exceptions ; and I wish to call 
your attention to a thing which has probably not occurred to you, and that is this : that no 
man takes pleasure in exercising his trade as a pastime. Writing is my trade, and I exercise 
It only when I am obliged to. You might make your request of a doctor, or a builder, or a 
sculptor, and there would be no impropriety in it, but if you asked either for a specimen of 
his trade, his handiwork, he would be justified in rising to a point of order. It would never be 
fair to ask a doctor for one of his corpses to remember him by. 

A rebuff is not always accepted by its object. Danger and difficulty add 
zest to the sport ; his persistence Ijecomes malignant, his dodges subtle and 
inscrutable. The very fact that an autograph is denied to fair means will 
encourage foul. The hunter drops a note to his victim, asking him in what 

J^ear he wrote his sweet poem of the Ancient Mariner (knowing very well that 
le never wrote it, but will be tickled by the ascription), or what was the 
middle oame of his father, or explains that he is replenishing his library and 
wishes a full chronological list of the works of his favorite author. He knows 
in his heart (the sly dog) that an appeal to personal vanity will fetch an author 
every time. 

Mr. William Black has recorded a few out of his own experience which are 
amusing enough to quote : 

The most persistent correspondent whom the writer of books has to face is the autograph- 
hunting fiend, whose ways are dark and devious beyond description. The dodges to which 
he will resort in order to accomplish his diabolical purpose are as the sand of the sea-shore for 
multitude ; and it is to be feared that many an honest letter is flung into the waste-paper basket 
on the mere hasty and exasperated suspicion that it hails from an autograph-hunter. The most 
deadly stratagem in this direction 1 ever heard of was the invention of a friend of mine, who 
now confesses to it as one of the sins of his youth. He wrote a letter to each of the persons 
whose autograph he coveted, describing himself as a ship-owner and asking permission to 
he allowed to name his next vessel after the particular celebrity he was addressing. It was a 
fatal trap. Nearly every one fell into it. Even poor old Carlyle had no suspicion, and, in 
replying to the bogus ship-owner, expressed the hope that the vessel to be named after him 
might sail into a happier haven than he had ever reached. I remember when I was in America 
receiving a very pretty and charming letter from two sisters living in one of the Southern 

irtates. They described their beautiful home on the banks of the River ; they were, 

they informedf me, living there quite alone, having neither friends nor relatives to occupy their 
time withal ; and it had occurred to them that, as I was certain to form a perfectly false idea 
of American hospitality so long as I remained in the cold and callous North, would I not 

come down for a week or two to this sylvan retreat on the River, that they might show 

me what a real Southern welcome was like ? It was a most innocent and idyllic invitation : 
and 1 was describing it a long time afterwards to Mr. Bret Harte, when he interrupted me. 
" Didn't the letter go on something like this?" He knew the rest. The idyllic inviution had 
been but an autograph-himting lure. 

A good Story is told of the late Prince Albert Victor, eldest son of the 
Prince of Wales. When a small boy at school, finding himself " strapped," 
and knowing, perhaps, that his royal father was also in the same condition, 
he wrote to his grandmother for a loan of five shillings. Back came a letter 
full of grandmotherly reproof and advice, and illustrating precept by thrifty 
example in withholding the five shillings. Prince Albert promptly sold the 
letter to a dealer for the absurdly low figure of thirty shillings. In 1889, at a 
London sale of curios, it brought £\(y. 

But it is French people who excel in this kind oi finesse. In 1856 a clever 


rascal, using various pseudonymes, such as Gabriel Vicaire, Soriano, Ludovic 
Picard, and others, wrote letters to many famous people of the day, asking for 
counsel, assistance, or encouragement Sometimes he was an unhappy wife 
who had determined at all costs to fly from her uncongenial husband, some- 
times an icuyire of the circus, sometimes a young artist, unsuccessful and 
tempted to suicide. The great people responded like men — and women. Some 
were lengthy, some curt, some eloquent, some persuasive, some sarcastic: 
never mind, they all wrote. Then the clever young man hied him to a noted 
collector, and disposed of a lot of valuable autographs from Lacordaire, Heine, 
George Sand, Antonelli, Taglioni, Dickens, Abd-el-Kader, and heaven knows 
how many others. Not until the collector recognized the limited number 
of themes treated in his newly-acquired treasures did the ingenuity of the 
scheme stand revealed. 

But ingenuity has raised up ingenuity to baffle it. The schemes of the 
hunter are met by counter-schemes of the intended victim. A gentleman — 
so described, at least, in the paper ( Tht Bookmart) from which this note is 
cribbed — laid a wager once that he would get an autograph out of Lord Tenny- 
son. He sat down and wrote a polite note, asking the noble lord which, m 
his opinion, was the best dictionary of the English language, — Webster's or 
Ogilvie's. That will fetch him, thought the man who set the trap. Did it.^ 
By the next post came a half-sheet of note-paper, on which was carefully 
pasted the word " Ogilvie,'* cut out of the correspondent's own letter. 

A certain eminent American has a second-cousin, so it is said, of the same 
name as his own. To this accommodating relative he turns over all requests 
for sentiments or signatures. The second-cousin answers the letters and signs 
his own name. Thus all parties to the transaction are satisfied. A refine- 
ment of authorial ingenuity makes the hunter pay for his autograph. Kate 
Field, approached by a fiend, wrote in his album the significant information 
that he could subscril^ for her periodical at four dollars a year. What could 
he do but take the hint ? Jean Ingelow, pestered to death by importunities, 
finally made a number of copies of her favorite poems, dated them, and placed 
them in the hands of her American publishers to be sold at two dollars apiece, 
— the money to be devoted to a charitable purpose. 

Horace Greeley, in his ** Recollections of a Busy Life," records the fact that 
a gushing youth once wrote him to this effect : 

Dear Sir : Among your literary treasures you have doubtless several autographs of oui 
country's late lamented poet, Edgar A. Poe. If so, and you can spare one, please enclose it 
to me and receive the thanks of yours truly. 

Mr. Greeley promptly responded as follows : 

Dkar Sir : Among my literary treasures there happens to be exactly one autograph of our 
country's late lamented poet, Edgar A. Poe. It is his note of hand for $50.00, with my endorse- 
ment across the back. It cost me exactly {^50.75 (including protest), and you can have it for 
half that amount. Yours, respectfully. 

Mr. Greeley feelingly adds, "That autograph, I regret to say, remains on 
my hands, and is for sale at the original price, despite the lapse of time and the 
depreciation of our currency." 

It was on this incident that Bayard Taylor based the admirable parody of 
Poe which appears in his " Diversions of the Echo Club." Here is a speci- 
men stanza : 

'Twas the random runes I wrote 
At the bottom of the note 
nVrote and freely 
Gave to Greeley)^ 
In the middle of the mght. 
In the yellow, moonless night, 
When trie stars were out <n sight. 


When my pulses like a knell 

(Israfel !) 
Danced with dim and dying fays 
O'er the ruin of my days. 
O'er the dimeless, timeless days. 

When the fifty, drawn at thuty. 

Seeming thrifty, yet the dirty 
Lucre of the market, was the most that I could raise I 

Ave Imperator! morituri te salutantl (L, "Hail, O Emperor! we 

who are about to die salute thee !") The cry with which the gladiators in the 

arena acknowledged the presence of the Caesar before beginning their fights. 

" O Caesar ! we who are about to die 
Salute you !" was the gladiators' cry 
In the arena, standing face to face 
With death and with the Roman populace. 

So sings Longfellow in his " Morituri Salutamus," a poem recited at the 
Fiftieth Anniversary of the class of 1825 in Bowdoin College. Suetonius, in 
his life of Claudius, ch. xxi., relates how at a gladiatorial fight on the Fucine 
Lake, the Emperor, instead of the usual valete (" farewell"), replied. Avete vos, 
a customary parting greeting, which the gladiators insisted on taking in its 
literal sense of " Live !" or »' Long life to you !" and refused to fight, liut 
Claudius urged and compelled them to proceed with the show. 

Wellington and Napoleon I It is a wonderAil phenomenon that the human mind can, at the 
same time, think of both these names. There can be no greater contrast than the two, even 
in their external appearance. Wellin^on, the dumb ghost, with an ashy gray soul in a buck- 
ram body, a wooden smile in his freezmg face — and by the side of that think of the figure of 
Napoleon, every inch a god ! That figure never disappears from my memory. I still see him, 
high on his steed, with eternal eyes in his marble-like, imperial face, glancine calm as destiny 
on the guards defiling past — he was then sending them to Russia, and the old grenadiers 
glanced up at him, so terribly devoted, so all -consciously serious, so proud in death, — 

Te, Caesar, morituri salutant. 

Heinb: English Fragments. 

Aze to grind, An. This phrase has frequently been attributed to Benja- 
min Franklin, but it really belongs to Charles Miner (1780-1865), and occurs 
in an essav entitled ** Who'll turn the Grindstone?" originally contributed to 
the IVi/kesiarrg Gieanfr^ a country newspaper in the interior of Pennsylvania, in 
181 1. 'I'he author says that when he was a little l>oy he was accosted one cold 
winter morning bv a man with an axe on his shoulder. ** My pretty boy," said 
he, ** has your father a grindstone ?" ** Yes, sir," said L " You are a fine little 
fellow," said he: "will you let me grind my axe upon it?" Pleased by the 
compliment of " fine little fellow," the gentleman's bidding was done by the 
boy, water being procured for him and the grindstone kept in motion until the 
boy's hands were blistered, the smiling gentleman keeping up his flattery 
meanwhile. Before the grinding was done, the school-bell rang, and after the 
axe had the proper edge on it the man ungraciously exclaimed, ** Now, you 
little rascal, you've plaved the truant ; scud to school, or you'll rue it." The 
author says that he felt very much wounded and never forgot the inci(ient, 
and ever afterward when he saw one person flattering another he said to him- 
self, " That man has an axe to ^rind." 

The essay, it will be seen, is imitated from Franklin's " Don't pay too much 
for your whistle." To make the analogy more complete, the series to which 
it belonged was gathered up into a book under the title of " Essays from the 
Desk of Poor Robert the Scribe," Doylestown, 18 15. 


B, the second letier of the English alphabet, as it was of the Phoenician 
and H in most »i (he alphabets borrowed from the Phcenician, is the baa of 
the Greeks, the belh of the Thcenicians. Beth means a "house." 

Babie* in the eyes, a common locution foe the reflection of one's self in 
another's pupils. Thus, Herricic in "The Kiss:" 

ll il u> nclivc lUine Ifait fli« 

I'icM w ihc Ublei Id Ihi cya. 
Inasmuch as lovers are fond of gazing in one another's eyes, an obvious 
conceit suggested the phrase " to loolT' or " to make babies in the eyes," which 
is sufliciently exemplified in the following passages : 

BuuHOHTANii KLncMU: Tki Lifal Suijrcl 

Looking babia m ilie evca. 

DoKHi: Thi Btitiuf. 
■nuirfply your lavdy »«l"«? 

ir a present of money, a gratuity, a p^ur- 

nphr oflcrs do \tn ihu IhirtHn alternaTivci. Wc have, bomverl the auihorily of ^e 
great Engliah dicUonary now luuing (very dcUberateJy) Jrom ibe Ctanndon pnn, for <Je. 
daring (b>l backihenh it one of ihe lew which mjoy thit privilege. Oiigitwlly of PehIu 

durh of Sluk«peare. for in i6>j we find " IjacfbecK {u they uy in the Arabi^ue longuet, 
ihat ilgrati. freel^''(finic«*3: /"l^r-wj, ii. 1340^ Whether or do Ihe leroi ever raJly 

itgnlliEdiaiiinlung very dlHerenl. In what oiay be called in looit vulgar sod ^ravuing 

lerli« hit every chord, a Boit of ■pecirai diapa- 
^t Magasim, Auguil, 1891. 

s," impudence, the unwarranted retort 

a superior. 

.elly whu I c. 

hand away. " I >ha[l never loarry you. 

" Another word of back-talk like thai," laid the young base-ball umpire, quietly bur firmlj 
passing hi9 arm around her waiit and pulling her head down on hi« Bboulder, "will coti yott 

BackKrard, Iioohlng. The superstition of the ill luck of looking back- 
ward, or returning, is a very ancient one, ori^inatinj: doubtless from the story 
of I^i's wife, who " looked back from behind him" when he was led by an 


angel outside the doomed City of the Plain. In Robert's " Oriental Illustra- 
tions" it is stated to be " considered exceedingly unfortunate in Hindostan for 
men or women to look back when they leave their house. Accordingly, if a 
man goes out and leaves something behind him which his wife knows he will 
want, she does not call him to turn or look back, but takes or sends it after him ; 
and if some great emergency obliges him to look back, he will not then pro- 
ceed on the business he was about to transact." In this connection a curious 
parallel between the Bible and Hesiod may be noted : " No man having put 
his hand to the plough and looking back is nt for the kingdom of God*' {Luke 
ix. 62), and *' He who is intent upon his work, drawing the straight furrow, never 
looks back upon his friends, but keeps his mind upon his work" ( Works and 
Days, ii. 61-62). 

Bacon, To save one's, a proverbial saying, meaning, in Biblical phrase, 
to escape by the skin of one's teeth, to keep one's self from harm by a narrow 
margin. It is not impossible that there is some allusion here to the Dunmow 
flitch (g. v.). A man and his wife who stopped short when on the verge of a 
quarrel mi^ht be said to have just saved their bacon. An equally plausible 
derivation is suggested by a correspondent oi Notes and Queries^ 2d series, iv. 
132 : " When a pig is killed, it is the custom in some of the southern countries 
of Europe, as well as in many parts of England, to remove the bristles from 
the dead pig's hide, not by scalding, but by singeing. This is an operation 
of some nicety ; for too much singeing would spoil the bacon. But practice 
makes perfect ; and by the aid of ignited stubble, straw, or paper the object 
is effected. The bristles are all singed off, and the bacon remains intact. 
This operation is in Portugal called chamuscar." Hence the phrase chtira a 
chamusco (**he smells of singeing"), which by extension was applied to any 
suspected heretic, or to one who was secretly a Jew, that is to say, ** to one who 
deserved to be burnt, and acted in a way that was very likely to lead to it" 
(Moraes). It readily follows that the man might be said to have just saved his 
bacon who had narrowly escaped the penalty of being burned alive. The only 
fault with this ingenious theory is that it lacks illustrative examples to bridge 
over the chasm between a recognized metaphor and a chartered proverbial 
saying. Dr. Murray traces the use of the expression in English as far back 
as 1691 : "No, they'll conclude I do it to save my bacon." — Weesih^ i. 5. 

But here I say the Turks were much mistaken 
Who, hating nogs, yet wished to save their bacon. 

Byron : Don yuan, vii. 4a. 

Bad egs, American slang for a rascal, a black sheep, a person whose 

reputation is odorous. 

There is some philosophy in the remark that a man may be a bad egg, and yet not be a 
nuisance until he is broke. — Sporting Times. 

_ Both as a verb and as a noun this word is put to many strange uses in 
current slang. As a verb it may mean to secure, to obtain (an extension of 
the sporting phrase, meaning to put or enclose game in a bag), and hence to 
steal, to capture. In sailors' and printers' slang, bag as a noun means a pot 
of beer, and to get one's head in a bag is to drink. Other phrases in common 
colloquial use are to give the bag or sack, meaning to dismiss from one's 
service ; to let the cat out of the bag ; to give one the bag to hold, — to 
leave him in the lurch, — and to put one in a bag, which latter phrase Fuller 
thus explains: "They [the Welsh] had a kind of plaie wherein the stronger 
who prevailed put the weaker into a sack ; and hence we have borrowed our 
English by- word, to express such betwixt whom there is apparent odds of 
strength: He is able to put him up in a bagge." — Worthies: Cardigan, ii. 579. 



Bassage-Smaahar, in American $Ung, a name humorouitjr given to a 
railway porler, because ol his reckless wa;^ o( handling lugg^e, also to a 
thief who hangs about railway-stations wailing Tor a chance to steal the 

FmHhionablc people who have ipcDI tbe lummer jil the wjiterinE-pla^cB or ml ihe Ma-sidc. 
but h4vv mjw returned id rbe ciiLei, uxn thai the baGea^e-sniaiiier luu becotne man de- 
Btnidive than ever. 'i1>e bagKajCe-ftiiuther u indeed a Eerrur. In fncl.lEiere an two of them: 
the one who flili from HtHllon to BlatloD and dumps your poor dunjb Tmnk with fune enough 
to drive pilei in a fiovcmmtnl breakwater, and the one who luiLen around the depil walcbing 
for hii chance to «hatier your bangaitc. The dipit baggage-man o tht man culpable of the 
two ipcclca. in bb long and dan career of imaahing Injnka he hai evidently knocked the 
hoop* olT hifl conscience, and there is no remorse brave, foolisti, oi leckiese enough to tackle 
hii hean-slringl and play on them.— Triai ii/lings. November 3. 1888. 

Bakai, To apolL Ttj atlempt a difficult task. In Ihe old spelling-books 
baker was the first word of two syllables, and seemed an almost insupcraUe 
obstacle to the child wlio had encounleied only words of one syllable. 

If an old man will marry a young wife, why. then — why, then — why, then — he must spell 
baker.— LoNCFHLLOw : Srvi Eifland Tngniui. 

Baker's Dosen. Thirteen. The ]ihrase is often used colloquially for good 
measure running over. In medixvaj limes bakers were kept rigidly under 
the eye of the law, Iheli vocation Ixing one on which the public health and 
prosperity largely depended. From the time of King John, iheir profits were 
regulated by enactment, due allowance being made for labor, cost of fuel and 
raw material, wear and tear of the oven, services of assistants, and expenses 
attending the sale. Stringent penalties, changed by a law of Edward I [. from 
heavy fines to the pillory, were mflicled fur offences against the required weight 
nr quality of loaves. Hence there grew up a precauliortary custom for bakers 
to give a surplus loaf, called the in-bread or the vantage-loaf, to all purchasers 
of a dozen. To a dozen of rolls fourteen were allowed. This cusiom is srill 
kepi up in certain parts of Scotland. And in the wholesale bouk-lrade in 

England to this day a publisher's dozen is thirteen copies. Heniy Hudson, 
when he discovered the bay which bears his name (1610), gave to a cluster of 
thirteen or fourteen islands on the east shore the name of Baker's Dozen : 

these were given in D'Anville's French Atlas under Ihe title " l.,a Douiaine 
du Boulanger." 

How bakers thirteen loaves do give 

All for a shilling, and thrive well and live. 

TavlobtkhWatirPobt^ Trteili -/ r-B^vt Ptnit. 
In this volume there are several feigned stories; also, there are some morals, and soiu 
dialogues, but they are as (he advantaee loaf of bread in the baker's doien. 

MaRdAnirr, tiircHass ot NawtASTi^: Naior'-i Pii-lort (i6j6). 

Magmiiu in the days of Christopher North, is defined by Lockh 
cant njme for asinine paragraphs about monstrous productions of narure ana 
the like, kept standing in type to be used whenever Ihe real news of the 
day leave an awkward space iharmusl be filled up somehow." [Lift ef ScM, 
Ixx. 6zz (1841).) Of course it is an allusion to Numbers xxii. 30, where 
Balaam's ass spoke "with man's voice." A balsam's box was a receptacle 
lor old jokes, anecdotes, and other chestnuts which were editorially used to 
fill up space. It now survives in the sense of a waste-basket for rejected 

An essay for (be Ediitburth Kevievt in "the old unpolluted English language" would 
have been consigned by the editor to his Balaam baikel.— Hall: M^m Engtiili, 

Bald-beaded Row, in America, a humorous colloquialism for the front 
seats of Ihe orchestra or parquet (the English pit) in theatres, so named hj 
the [un-iuakeis of the press, who assume that such scats are always taken bj 


old or middle-aged Teapectabilit^, anrioiu to get as cIom as possible (o the 
fovoriles of the foot-lights. It 11 a part of the assumption that the favorite* 
in their lum reserve their choicest smiles Tor these ancient admirers. Dr. 
Wm. Hammond, in 1 semi-jocose essay, "Will Iho coming man be bald?" 
(Anm, No. 1), makes indirect allusion 10 this popular Fancy : "The principle 
of natural selection, though up to this lime an insignificant influence in causing 
baldness, is beginning to add its great force lo the accomplishment of what 
is evidently an object of nature. Women, who in general, even within the 
knowledge of the present geneialion.did not take kindly (o bald-headed men, 
are gradually overcoming their prejudices, and see in the bare head an element 
of manly beauty. Should this lendency become wide-spread, the days of hair 
on the head uf men are numbered, and a few hundred years will see the end. 
Some nations, however, will reach Ihis stage of development sooner Ihan 
others. If we may judge from present appearances, and from our knowledge 
of his advance in other directions, the American will distance all competitors 
in this race." 

Ballada. Andrew Fletcher of Salloun js remembered in literature by a 
single phrase, and that phrase is not his own. Writing to (he Marquis of 
Montrose, he says, " I knew a very wise man thai believed that if a man 
were permitted to make all the ballads he need not care who should make 
the laws of a nation." Much ingenious conjecture has been wasted upon the 
identity of the wise man. As good a guess as any names John Keldcn, who was 
a friend and contemporary of Fletcher's. 

The French proverb, " France is an absolute monarchy tempered by 
songs." emphasizes the important part which popular poetry may play in 
pohtical matters. And Beaumarchais's phrase. "Tout finit pardes chansons" 
("Everything ends with songs," Maria^ di Figaro), is a reci^nition uf the ixX 
that not only do the French people find subjects for mirth in the most serious 
things, but also that the songs in which they embudy their mirth may have a 
grave significance. The truth of (his was well exemplified when Soubise 
announced his defeat at Rossbach. in 1757, by writing 10 Louis XV., "The 
rout of your army is complete. - t cannot say how many uf your officers have 
been killed, captured, or lost" The letter was greeted with a shout of 
laughter. Here is one of the songs : 

Soubiie dil, li lulonr Ji la nuin, 

Mr I's-I^m priK, ou l-.ur»i..jc igu4c • 

(Soubise, lantern in hand, cries, " I can't find out where the devil my 
army is. Yet it was here yesterday morning. Has it been taken from me, or 
have 1 mislaid it T') 

Duruy, in his comment on this inddeni, says, "The judge most to be feared 
then was not the king, it was the public, upon whom everything began to 
depend, and who punished the incapacity of generals and the mistakes of 
ministers with biting ^iwt^."— History ef FraiKt, \\. 4S^ 

Ballooning, an American slang term of no wide popularity, meaning ex- 
;erating, indulging in buncombe, pulling the long bow. The origin of the 
- " attributed to a Yankee who boasted that he had fought a duel ir - 


balloon and brought down his adversary, balloon and alt. V el just such a duel 
was aaually fought in Paris in 180S. A M. de Grandnr^ and a M, le Pique, 
having quarrelled about a lady,agreed to have it out in balloons, each party 10 
fire al the other's balloon and try lo bring it down. A month was consumed 
in preparing the balloons, exactly similar in size and shape \ and on a fine day 
the principals and their seconds ascended from the Tuileries Garden, armed 


with blundcibussGB. When Ihey were aboul half a mile up, and same eighty 
yards apart, the signal wai given, and M. ic Pique missed. M. dc Graiidpre, 
howevei, made a successlul shut, and his opponent's balloon went down with 
tiemendous rapidity, both principal and second being instantly killed, — much 
Id the salisfaction of (he spectators. 

Banbury aalnt, a rigid, puritanical hypocrite. Even before the Puritan 
era, Banbury aeenu to have been noted for the Phatiseeism of its inhabi- 
tants, so that, according to a popular saying, men were in the habit uf hanging 
their cats on Monday for catching mice on l^unday. In proof of the antiquity 
of the phrase. Dr. Murray cites from a letter addressed by Lalitner lo Henry 
VIII., aboul 1528, the expression, "Their laws, customs, ceremonies, and 
Banbury glosses." Banbury cheese was a poor, Ihin cheese. Thus, Shake- 
speare, in " Merry Wives of Windsor," Act i. Sc 1., makes Bardolph com- 
pare Slender to a Banbury cheese, in ridicule of his eponymic sicndciness. 

Banyan- or Baiiiaii-daya, a nautical phrase applied to those days on which 
sailors are allowed no flesh meat. The Banians are a caste uf Hindoo traders 
who entirely abstain from animal food. But it is alsoauggested that the term 
arises from Ih^iae sanitary arrangements in tropical climates which counsel the 
substitution of l>auyans and other Truit on very hot days. 

mllawan«Df mui. ta& Thai Ih«r mugiT days were called Banyan -days. Ihc reuon of which 

sickly seawia For you iaio lh« bargmla ! — 

Barking up the wrong tree, an American locution applied lo one who 
is at fault in his purpose or in the means to attain it. An allusion to the mistake 
made by dogs when they fancy they have " treed" the game, which has really 
escaped by leaping from one tree to another. 

(nd asli™"hylht pJicednn'idD •oinrihing.°?;'™il5^PrDfcSir"\'ren*w'^'eJrx™S.*0.,Si 
sheritTpairtd us on the tuck and leni ui half a dollar. We are Elie only man in Ibis town wJia 
do«sn'[ turn pak when (he stage comca in, and Tibe only one who donn'i break for die uge- 
btush when tt is announced that the United States Marshal is here. We ain'I rich or pretty, 
but we aie eihkI, and the Frofeuor is barkiiu up the WTDDif Ucc. — Tkt ArizsnA Kiclur.xa 
Dtlr0il tr,, Prtu, October, .888, 

Barl, a slangy abbreviation of the word barrel, meaning a barrel of money. 
In the spring of 1S76, when the Democratic party was selecting its delegates 
to the National Convention which subsequently nominated Samuel J, Tilden 
Ibr the Presidency, the Gloit Democrat of St. Louis alluded tu that gentleman 
M the candidate with a bar'l, meaning Ihal he was able and willing to spend 
large sums lo influence his election. The phrase was caught u 

Baniaole gOOee. a species of maritime gooae. known also as the Solan or 
Brant goose, and aticiently called aves HiberniciC (" Irish birds"), or, in the 
diminulive, Hilierniculie, The dropping of the first syllable of the latter 
■ ■ ■ ) Berniculae, and at this etymological stage their 

isily confounded with that of the bivalves 
, Hence arose tl 

or barnacles. Hence arose the myth that the goosi , „ .. . ._ 

barnacle, an extraordinary inslance of the power of etymology. So early as 
the twelfth century, Giraldus Cambrensis says, in his "Topography of 


Ther mn like nunb-ECCK bul •omtwluit icniller. iDiI productd from fir limber loucd 
nloilg th« kca, jmd tat u nm lilw ^m ; Hflerwardi Ihty luiig down by Ibeir beaks u froni ft 

w*ter or fiy fredy ftWAy Edto [be air. They derive Uieir food uid growth frnm tbe fap i^ ihe 
wood, or the kh, by ■ secret and motl wondeiful proceit of AUmentHlioii^ I hftvc rrequently, 
witb ny own eyet,keel] more thaa a thoiuadd of thcM small bodies of birds haneing down on 

ib uiy foncr ottbe eutb. Hence ^shopt and clergymen in some parts of Iieluid do not 
■crupfe to dine off these birds at lime of fuiing, because they ut noi flesh or Iwra of flesh. 
On this he indulges in a little medixvat speculation ; 

birnacte shell-lish do attach themselve 

wreck or 1(^, and their byssus or beard ) 

Ihruugh the opening of the shell bears a not remote resemblan 

ions of a fledgling bird, while the process by which they attach themselvea to 

the limber suggests a beak. These facts, with the similarity uf tiatnc, su^- 

pFsled their eventual development into the gccse which freqtient the coast in 

incredible numbers, and whose nesta, buill in remote and inaccessible rocks, 

were rarely revealed to huniati acuch. 

Batll. Oo to Bath is a popular locution meaning, You are ciazy, you are 
talking nonsense, — in allusion to the fact that physicians ordered invalids and 
the insane to so to Bath, to drink the medicinal waters there. Bath was a 
famous resort ftam the early part uf the sixteenth century. The miscellaneous 
character of the crowds who flocked there seems to have excited the scorn of 
tbe Eail of Rochester, who thus describes the place i 
There Is • place, adown a gloomy vale. 
Where burdeoed oaiiuc laya her nasty tail -. 

Bath brick, Bath buns, and Bath chairs are all well known. But, strangest 
of all, Bath has provided the vocabulary of French argot with the adjective 
iMlh or bate, = A i, or first-class, used in phrases, " c'est bien bath," etc. 
Towards 1848 note-paper of a superior quality made in Bath was hawked about 
Paris streets at a low price. Hence fiapiir Balk became sytionymous with 
excellent paper. Eventually the quali^mg clause alone remained and received 
a general application. 

Bath of Blood, a name sometimes applied to the massaae of the Hugue- 
nots at Vassy, in France (1561), at the command of the Duke of Guise, and also 
to the murder, in 1530, of seventy iiwediah nobles of Stockholm by commatid 
of Christian II. of Denmark. 

BmthO*. This word, in the sense which has now excluded all others, — that of 
an anliclimai, a ludicrous descent from the elevated to the commonplace, — 
was first made English by Pope, in his Essay on the Art of Sinking in Poetry. 
He informs the reader thai the essay is to be styled ir^ ^oBavf, " Concerning 
Depth," as a foil to Longinus's ittpi ^avt, "Concerning Height,"— i^, the 
Sublime. " For true it is, that while a plain and direct road is paved to their 
biiof or sublime, no track has been yet chalked Out to arrive at our JJMoc or 
profound; wherefore, considering, with no small grief, how many promising 

riniuses of this age are wandering (as I may say) in the dark without a guide, 
have undertaken this arduous but necessary task to lead them as it were by 


d ^ 


the hand, and step by step the gentle down-hill way lo the bathos ; the boltom, 
the end, the central point, the nonplus ultra of true modern poesy !" 

He collected a iiuml)er of amusing instances of the " art of sinking," as 
practised by his contemporaries. These are as good as any : 

And ihou, Dalhousy, the erbI ffod *ji Wftr, 
Li«iM[uiit.iMltKicl to Iht EArl at Mu. 

lien Argua toon might weep himself quite blinds 

I1>e lord< ibove *n hungry ind talk bi£. 

Nat Lbb, 

The last quoted is Nat Lee's figurative description of thunder. It will be 
seen that the first of these is an unmistakable bit of the true bathos. Pope 
gives no credit for either this or the second one, and it is shrewdly suspected 
that he wnrte both of them hiinselt possibly in jest ftir the purpose of using 
them in this burlesque, but more probably in all serious earnest in his juvenile 
epic of ■' Alcander," which he was too wise ever lo publish as a whole. 

Horace Smith, in his "Tin Trumpet," gives two Stories that may appro- 
priately be quoted : 

iBerly joined. I firmly Htlijted in 
-''■ -■- a flitfltfu) huiricuc 

to which »h. 

:r Udyihjp »yi, -' lo I 

Tcipqming upoD deck, jtlihough the tvmpeit tu 

that it wji» not without Ereat difficulty I could 1 

As a. wonhy compaimiD lo thii liltk msrcra 

meul from .London newipapei: "ir thil t 

a^UTed hcTKif lut Wedneidny Trom her ruber's house, she Is Implored Id rrturn, whetl the 
wilt bv received with Ubdidlinished HtTection by her Almost heul.broken pu¥nts. If uolhing 
can penuade her to tialen to Ihcir join! sppcafn — should ihe tie deterniinea to bring ttieir grty 
hain with sorrow to the^ve, — should she never mean to revisit n home where d^ Itsd passed 
so many happy years.— It is at least expetled, if shelienot lolally lost lo all sense of jiropiieiy. 

There is merit in the rapturous exclamation of (he Frenchman, "Superbel 
magniltquc 1 in short, pretty well 1" But of all foreigners the East Indians are 
most given to this form of sinking. The following request for a holiday is 
from a native clerk in India : " Most Exalted Sir, — -It Is with most habitually 
devout expressions of my sensitive respect that I approach the clemency of 
your masterful position with the self-dispraising utterance of my esleeni, and 
the also forgotten -by .myself assurance that in my own mind I shall be freed 
from the a-ssumption that I am asking unpardonable donations if I assert that 
I desire a short respite from my exertions ; indeed, a fortnight's holiday, as I 
am suffering from three boils, as per margin. I have the honorable delight of 
subscribing myself your exalted reverence's servitor. (Signed) Jonabol Pan- 
jamiaub." In addition to the regalement of the ear from the charm of style 
to his communication, the eye ia gratified by a rough but graphic illustration 
of the three boils. 

Courts of law frequently offer excellent examples, especially the inferior 
tribunals, whose magistrates feel most keenly the glory of a liitle brief au- 
thority. A famous iilory is that of the London "beak" who made this tre- 
mendous appeal to a witness about to take the oath ; " Remember that the 
eyes of God and of Her Majesty's police court are upon yon," Equally famoiu 


ii (he exordium of another justice's charge 10 a juiy in a case of larceny: 
" For forty centuries the thundeis of Sinai have echoed through the world, 
Thou shalt not steal. This is also a principle of the common law and a rule 
of equity." Almost ai delightful, though eipressed witliuul the same literary 
skill, is the sentence of a president ul a court-martial : " Prisoner, not only 
have yon committed murder, but you have run a bayonet through the breeches 
of one of Her Majesty's uniforma," Perhaps, however, the best of all such 
judicial utterances Is ttiat ascribed to a rural justice of the peace : " Prisoner, 
a bountiful Providence has endowed you with health and strength, instead of 
which yon go about the country stealing hens." 

BeuiB. In America a fondness for pork and beans Is held to be a distin- 
guishing trait of the New-Englander, and especially the Bustoner. Boston 
baked beans is the name given to a special preparation which is indeed found 
in its highest stage of perfection in the New England Athens. Hence "to 
know beans" — a sly hit at Boston's claims to superior culture— means to be 
very smart, spry, or shrewd Undoubtedly the success of the phrase has been 
influenced by the analogous English expression, "To know how many blue 
beans make five white ones." This is baaed on a familiar catch, put ~ ~' ~ 
form of a question, the at ' ' " "' 

Few BCD who bnicr kn» 

" Three blue beans in a blue bladder" is an absurd phrase of uncertain origin. 
used to characterize a noisy raitlepate. The most probable derivation is from 
a jester's bladder with beans or peas in It ; 

Ti> Ifiiet bRic bui» in a blue bladder. 

Bean, in poker lingo, is aflen used as a synonyme for a chip. It has also 
meant x guinea In England, and a five-doliar gold-piece In America, probably 
from the French bien, used in old cant as a synonyme for property or money. 

Bear and BolL In the terminology of the slock exchange, the former 
means one who speculates on a fall, as [he Utter on a rise, in stocks. The 
commonly accepted derivation used lo be that Ijears claw or pull the stock 
down, while bulls toss it up. But this is a mere guess. It has been shown 
pretty conclusively that bear has an origin very rcniote from its present appli. 
cation. Originally the phrase ran "to sell the before one haa caught 
the bear." and was applied to all transactions on the stuck exchange or else, 
where where there was no immediate transfer of giHwls, but only a payment to be 
made at some future period by one party or the other, according as the goods 
had advanced or receded in price. The separation of the term from the rest of 
the phrase and its eventual application only to that party who profited by a 
bll were very gradual. In 1719 we have from the "Anatomy of 'Change 
Alley," "Those who buy Exchange Alley bargains ate styled buyers of bear- 
skins," and the i778edition of Bailey's Dictionary informs us that "to sell a 
bear" is " to sell what one hath noL" Yet in 1 744 we find an allusion in the 
Lendmt Magatine lo " bulls and bears." and in 1774 these terms are defined 
in their modern sense by George Colman ; 

My youpff nualtr la ihc bull, and Sir Charles u Ibe bear. He agreed for tiock. CK peeling il 
ID be up at Ibnc bundred by Ihia Line ; bui. lackaday.tij, JL ha« been raliuig ever lince. — Man 

Bear-Iaader, one who leads about a dancing bear for public exhibition ; 
hence, in English slang, a facetious term for a discreet person in charge of 
a youth, a tutor or travelling-companion of a young gentleman or nobleman. 


employed by ihe parents (o watch over him. When Johns 

a the Bear-leader's hand, aaying, "Take that, my good r 
sight i>( your bear." 

[ uDdcnook t be«j lo ' 

Thvy pounced upon 1h« smy nobilirVf uid Kiied vouna lorda trAvcllino wLih their btar- 
feuten.— Tkachbray : «»*^5ih#i, ch. vM. 

Beara? Are yon there with your, a common English greeting, ei- 

pressing surprise rather than welcome. Joe Miller explains it as the exclama- 
tion made by a church-goer who, disgusted wiih a sermon on Elisha and the 
bears, went next Sunday to another church, only lo be confronted by the same 
preacher and the same sermon. The expression was very common \» the 
seventeenth century. 

"Marry come up — vt you there with your beanT" mmlcred the dragoo. — Scott: Ttu 

Bears, Bring on jwa, a common American challenge or defiance, the 
story ninning thai a small boy in the wild West, having been much impressed 
. with the sloty of Elisha and the bears, drew a bead on the neiH bald-headed 

Eentleman whu passed the lamily log cabin, and shouted oul, "Go up, thou 
aid head t Now bring on your bears !" 

Beat tbe dog before the lion, an old English proverl), whose exact 
counterpart is found in the French " Batire le chien devant le lion," meaning 
to punish an inferior person in the presence and to the terror of a great one.— 
C^grave's Prtnch Dietiffnary, j. v. Battre. 

And for ID DiAkeD other be war by me, 
Ai by the whelp chuIiMd \% the feouo. 

Ch:>iich : Sq^irt-t T^U. Pun ii. 

Beatl pOBSidenteB (L," Blessed are those in possession"), the popular con- 
densation of an ancient legal maxim, " Beati in jure consenlur possidenles," 
which finds its English equivalent in the familiar proverb, " Possession is nine 
points of the law." buchmann plausibly suggests that the phrase may have 
been developed through a spirit of contradiction from the lines in Horace : 

Non pouldenlem mulla vocaveti* 

Rede bemlum.— Orfei, i». 9, ti. 

(" Not him who possesses many things can you rightly call happy.") 
This phrase was one of Ihe few scraps of Latin known to Frederick the 
Great. Therefore it was all Ihe more eflectivc in the mouth of Bismarck, the 
real successor of Frederick the Greal, when in 1877 he offered himself as the 
mediator between Russia and Turkey, defining his position as "the honest 
broker who really wanted lo do effective business." After Ihe signing oif the 


pieliminarr treaty of San Stefimo, and just before Ihe Congress of Vienna 
Bismaick announced thai apart from Ihe commercial freedom of the Darda- 

nelles, and a humanilaiian solicitude for Ihe lot ol tlie Chiiatians in Turkey, 
" Germany had no maleriat inleresl in the Eastern question, except indeed her 
inleiest in ptevenliiig ihe oulbrealt o( a general quarrel over the dislribulion 
of (he spoil, which Russia might provoke by replying lo Europe with a icali 

workhouse boys, under the conduct of a beadle or other officer, walk through 
the parish from end lo end, striking the boundaries with willow wands which 
they carry in Iheir hands. This is a survival from Ihe period before maps, when 
apprenlices, school-children, and other parish lads were all marched out tu 
learn an objecl-lesson in this way. Il is now abandoned tu tlic workhouse 
boy* here and there, and is looked upon as a holiday occasion, 

Baant7 1b only Bkin-d«ep, a common saying ihal in one form or another 
may be found in (he proverbial lore of all countries. It was a favorite with 
the old Fathers, who loved lo carry out Ihe proposition lo a minutenes* of 
detail that would revolt the squeamish stomach of to-day. Here is one of 
the least unpleasant examples, but even this is slightly Inwdlerized : " When 
tbou secsl a fair and beautiful person, a brave Uonaroba . . . wringing thy 
soul and increasing thy concupiscence, lielhink thee that it is bul earth thou 
lovesl. a mere excrement which so vexeth thce thai thou so admiresl, and thy 
raging soul will be al resL Take her skin from her face, and ihou shall see 
all loathsomeness under il. that beauty is a superficial skin and bones, nerve, 
sinews." (Chhysostoh.) In general literature (he following are early examples 
of ids use. In "The Nosegay," by Thomas Becon (Parker Society Edition, 
pi 303), occars the passage, " And to say the truth, is beauty any other thing 
than, as Ludovicus Vives saith. 'aa [sic] liitle skin well colored? If the in- 
ward parts,' sailh he, ' could be seen, how great lilthiness would there appear, 
even in the most beautiful jierson I' " The passage from Ludovicus Vives is, 
"In Corpore ipso quid forma est? nempe mticuia beiu cotoraia,'^ tic^ (Lod. 
Viris. Valent Op, " Introd. ad Sap," 61, torn. ii. cols. 72-3, Basil., 1555.) Sir 
Thomas Overbury, in his poem "A Wife," says, — 

Aud all (he cunai bauly ct ta] viTc 

\i but ikiQ-deep. 

Similarly Moliire says, — 

Neverlhelesa, modern science rccogniies in this skin-deep beauty one rn 
Ihe raosl valuable motive powers of Nature, bringing into play the principle 
of sexual selection which insures the mating of Ihe fittest Beauty, we are 
told, is one of the gifts which she lavishes on her pels, indicating to those 
whom that beauty all racls that here is a priie worth striving for. Dr. Holmes, 
in " The Professor al the Breakfast Table," p. 39, says, " Beauty is the index 
of a larger fad than wisdom," And again, " Wisdom is the»abstract of the 
past, but beauty is the promise of Ihe future." And Schiller, in his •• Essays. 
£slhetical and Philosophical," " Physical beauty is the sign of an interior 
beauty, which is the basis, the principle, and Ihe unity of the beautiful." 

Btehamal, Sanoe. This simple cream preparation served with Iwiled 
bsh was invented by no less a person than Louis de Wchamel or Bechameil, 

a kick, ii 


Marquis of Noiiitel, who was tainous nol only as a gastronomer but as 1 
financier and a beau. He was mall re- d'hote I, or steward, to Louis XIV., in 
whose reign the glory of Ihe French Litchen began. The noble, the brave, 
and the fair girded on their aprons and stood over stew-pans wiib the air of 
alchemists over alembics. The great Vaiel flourished at this time,— Vatel 
who, like the ancient Roman, fell upon his professional sword because Ihe 
cud had not arrived in time to be dressed for the king who was coming to 
dine with Vatel's master, Condi. IWchamel died in 1703. He was some- 
thing of an eccentric, and one o( his manias was to resemble the Count de 
Gramont, who treated him one day, not as a Turk would a Moor, but as a 
lord would a financier. Saint-Simon relates this circumstance in terms pecu- 
liar to himself. "The Count de Gramont," says he, "seeing Bichameil walk- 
; III the Tuileries, said to his companion, ' Will jrou bet t£at t can give hiui 
:k, and that he will think none the worse of me?'" This was carried out 
le leller. Bechamel, much astonished, turned, and the count made many 
excuses, saying that he tuuk him far his nephew. BJchamel was charmed, 
and the two became more inlimale than ever. Was Napoleon familiar with 
Ibis anecdote when he characleriud Talleyrand as a nian who would preserve 
an unruffled front while you kicked him from behind? 

Bed of Jiutloa. This expression {litdejuidci) literally denoted the seat 
or throne upon which the King of France was accustomed to sit when per- 
sonally present in Parliament 1 and from this original meaning the expression 
came in course of lime to signify Ihe Partiamenl itself. Under the ancient 
monarchy of France a bed of justice denoted a solemn session of the king in 
Pariiamenl. According to the principle of the old French COnstilulion, the 
aulhority of the Pariiamenl, being derived entirely from the crown, ceased 
when the king was present ; consequently all ordinances enrolled at a bed of 
justice were acts of Ihe royal will, and of more authority than decisions of 

The last bed of justice was assembled by Louis XVL, at Versailles, on 
August 6, 173s, at Ihe coinmen cement of ihe French Revolution, and was in- 
tended to enforce upon the Pariiamenl of Paris the adoption of the obnox- 
ious taxes which had previously been proposed by Calonne al the Assembly 

of Noubles. Tiie resistance lo this measure led lo the assembling of the 
Stales .General, and to Ihe Revolution. 

Bedpoat, Id tile twinkling of a, — i.t., immediately, at once. The 
original expression gave bedstaff in lieu of bedpost, a bedataff being (con- 
jecturally] an upright peg fixed into the side of the bedstead after the manner 
of a pin, projecting upward to keep Ihe bedclothes in their place, and used 
also as a weapon of defence against intruders. Hence, " in the twinkling of 
a bedslaff," like the analogous phrase of to-day, " in Ihe twinkling of a pike- 
stafl;" would mean as rapidly as a staff can be tvitinkled or turned. '■ Between 
you and me and the bedpost," or " you and me and Ihe post," is a humorous 
tag to an assertion implying confidence, secrecy. 

Bee, in provincial New England and New York, an assemblage of people 
for a set purpose, and especially a meeting of neighbors lo unite in working 
for an individual or a family. In the form of "spelling -bee," or spelling-match, 
the word has extended iiver the whole country. Quilting-bees are attended 
by young women, who assemble around the frame of a bed-quill and in one 
afternoon accomplish more than one person could in weeks. Refreshments 
and beaux help lr> render Ihe meeting agreeable. Apple-bees are occasions 
where neighbors asseniUe lo gather apples or cut them up for drying. Husk- 
ti^'bees, for husking corn, meet in bams. In some new districts, on the 


arrival of a new settler the neighboring farmers unite with their teams, cut the 
Amber, anil build him a log huuse in a single day ; these are termed raising- 
bees. The name may have come from the likeness of these galhecings to the 
swarming of bulling bees. 

Bee In the Bonoet, a fad, a craze, a hobby, an overruling fanc^ or desire : 
used es|>eciall)f in America in regard to a would-be candidate for the Presi- 
dency : " He has the Presidenlial bee In his bonnet." In the form " a head full 
of bees" the expression can be traced back at least as fat as Uawin Douglas in 
his translation of Virgil (1511-13, published 1553). 

Qu)i*i ban be ihou in bed with bcid full of bcii,— ^w/t, vijl.. Pro), ib. 

An illustration as well as an indirect explanation of the term may be found 
in the " Faerie Qucene," where, describing the human body, Spenser alludes to 
the bees and flics in the chamber of Fantasy : 

Bees were anciently imagined to have some connection with the soul. Ma- 
homet admits them alone of all insects into Paradise. The analogous French 
expression is, " II a des rats dans la tfle." It is well known that the souls of 
the djring frequently escape in the foim ofa rat or a mouse. l>ean Swift says 
that It was the opinion of certain virtuosi that the brain is filled with little 
worms and maggots, and that thought is produced by these worms biting the 
nerves. Hence the expression " When Ihe maggot bites" means when the 
fancy strikes us. 

Beef-eatera, a familiar name for Ihe Yeomen of the Guard, a corps organ- 
ised by Henry VII. for his own protection on the day of his coronation, 
October 30, 1485, and which has served as a body-guard of the English sov- 
eieign ever since. The word is usually derived from bitffHier, but the ety- 
mology is doubtful, as the Veumen never had charge of the royal buffet or 
sidetHiard. Preston (" History of the Veomen of the Guard," isA^) suggests 
that they may have received their name from a bird called beef-cater, wnose 
strong, tnick bill bore some resemblance to their |>artisans. Indeed, Ihe 
Yeomen were often referred to as " billmen," l)ecause they carried a weapon 
with a hook like the beak or bill of a bird. The Tower Wardens, an entirely 
different body of men, are uniformed like them, and popular parlance classifies 
them all as beefeaters. 

Bae-Uue, a . . 

laden with pollen. 'The expression, originally American, i 
cated in England. 

Tht field of Uxin'.™, where Englind uied 
The fuieii colon ihei the ever dyed. 
■ «■ Cone. ■ " * ■ ■ 

Ddd^i tneak thru shun , 

J. R. LowiLLi Bi^m Pafiri. 

Been there, an Americanism, used in the form "Oh, I've been there," or 
" He's been there," to indicate that the person so spoken of is exce])lionally 
•hrewd or experienced. 

Tbe Jupuieie uy. "A miin %t\a ■ drink: then the drink ulici > drink: and ne« the 
drink ukei the man." Evidently the JeDueK have been there .—.^//aalii Ca»4tilHtitm, 
kUy 4. tUS. 


Bmt and Bible, in English politics, a sobriquei applied to that branch 
of Ibe Conservalive party which combaled (he attempt of the moderate 
Liberals in 1S73 to puce certain restciclions upon the sale of intoxicating 
liquors. The brewers and the Licensed Victuallers' Association turned in to 
help their Conservative brethren, and, as the latter were mostly of High-Church 
tendencies, the alliance earned the title of (he Beet and Uible Association, 
their mouth-piece, the Morning AdMrtiirr, being called the Bar and Biilt 
Gatitti. By a singular coincidence, the latter nickname superseded another 
closely similar, the Gin and Gojftl Catitte, which the paper had enjoyed for 
many years previous on account of its close juxtaposition of religious notices 
and Drewers advertisements. 

._. of the upper servants, Reneralty the steward, 

lupply the others with beer, charging the amount to the head of the house, 
while those who do not diink are allowed what is known as beer-money, in 
addition to their wages. The lUiMrattd Amtrkan iclls this story, which shows 
that English servants are inclined to abuse their privilegCE. " Among other 
expense-items presented to him, shortly after his accession to ihe family 
estate, the late Earl of Wicklow discovered 'dishing-up beer,' and, later on, 
'turning-down beer.' It was not in the least difficult for him to guess that 
' dishing-up' applied to the liquid drunk by the cooks and the kitchen- and 
■culleiy- maids when serving dinner, but he was al a loss to understand what 
the ' turning-down' process might mean. In response to his interrogations, 
the steward gravely replied, " It's the beer, my lord, wol Ihe 'ouscniaids 'ave 
when they go hup-staiis to turn down the sheets at night." 

BaliMilii*, GUve a penny to (L. "Date obolum Belisario"). This 
proverb may be roughly paraphrased, " Do not kick a man when he is down." 
Belisarius (A.D. 505-56$), the general-in-chief of the army in Ihe East under 
Justinian, being accused of a conspiracy against his master, fuifeited his rank 
and his fortune. Tradition asserts further that he was deprived of sight and 
reduced to beggary, and, sitting al the gate of Rome, begged pennies of the 
passers-by. This story has been perpetuated by Marmonlel in his historical 
romance of " Belisarius." But modern historians agree with Gibbon, that it 
is "a fiction of later times, which has obtained credit, or rather lavor, as a 
strong example of the vicissitudes of fortune." {Decliru ami FaN, W. aS6, noxt.) 
Bacon, after his fall, said to lames I., " I would live to study, and not study 
to live 1 yet I am prepared tor liafe oia/uM Bdiiario, and I that had borne a 
bag [i.<r., that containing Ihe great seal] can bear a wallet" 

Bell, Book, and Candle. The ancient mode of excommunication prac- 


Out be they taken from the book of life [here the priest closed Ihe book], and 
as this candle is cast from the sighl of men, so be their souls cast from the 
sighl of God into the deepest pit of hell [here the attendant cast to Ihe ground 
alighted candle he had held in his hand). Amen." Then the bells were 
rung in harsh dissonance, to signily the disorder and going oul of grace in 
the souls of the persons excommunicated. 

The cardinal roK with a dignifieii lank, 

He allied far his candle, hii bdl. ud hit book I 

He cuned him m ileeplna. Ihat every Di^t 

Ha ihould dmm of the devil, md nkt id ■ (right ; 


i cuiHd hiiD in catiiu, be cuned bjm in drialt 
i cimed him in couBiing, in ■nMdn^, in mini 

■■ I- lt'''''^'-Vnd..JailiJame/liMmt. 

Bend, AbOT* ona'a, in Ameiican slang, means beyond one's capacity.and 
is the Northern equivalent for "above my huckleberry," or "a huckleberry 
above my persimmon," phrases popular in the Southern Stales. Il is not 
impossible (hat the phrase is an old English survival, bentl being the Anglo- 
Saxon for a bond, letter, or contract : 

For ich Au comcn hjdcr lo-day. 

Above my bend, therefore, might mean more than I am bound or held to do. 

Boncfit of olergy. The word clergy here, like the word clerk (which is 
an abbreviation of citrieui), does not refer exclusively to churchmen, but 
includes all who had any preleiiaions to learning. William Rufus. the second 
of the Norman kings of England, enacted an ordinance [10S7) known by the 
above title, in accordance with which a man could save his life on his proving 
that he was not entirely ignorant of letters. The first verse of the fifty-first 
Pnim was chosen as the reading-test, and hence got the name of "neck- 
verse." Readers of Sir Walter Scutl will remember that William of Delo- 
raine boasts of his inability to read a line even were it his "neck-verse at 
Hanbee," — Haribee being the spot in Carlisle where Scottish moss-troopers 
and thieves were wont to De "justified," — Li., hanged. The statute in favor 
of " clergy" continued nominally in force till Queen Anne's reign, when il was 
repealed (1700], although long before that it had become a dead letter. See 
Neck- Verse. 

Bettor iult, a humorous colloquialism for a wife, makes its first appearance 
in English literature in Sidney's " Arcadia" (1580), iii. 180, where Argalus 
says to Parthenia, " My dearc, my better kalfe, I find I must now leave Ihee." 
Originally my belter half— i.e., the more than half of my being — was said of a 
very dose and inlimalc friend : c£ Shakespeare, — 

WhcD ihou iirt »ll ih» bttler y*rt of me?" 
Whil cu mf own praiK lo mine own KIT bring, 
And V^UII n'1 but mint own when 1 pnise (bee t 

Smnil XXXIX. 
Yet there is a curious anticipation of the phrase in Ihe Oriental story of the 
Bedouin Arab who, having blasphemed <hc name, the beard, and Ihe honor 
of his chief, was sentenced to the bastinado. His wife pleaded in his behalL 
" O great prince," she said to Ihe sheik, " ihe blasphemy is horrible, 1 confess, 
and merits exemplary punishment ; but il is nol my whole husband who has 
thus rendered himself guilty towards thee." " Not ihy whole husband ?" 
echoed the startled aheik. " Nay," she continued, " il is but the half of him 
that has committed the insult; for am I not ihe other half, — I who have never 
ofl"ended thee f Now the guilty half places itself under the proleclion of the 
innocent half, and the latter cannot suffer the former to be punished." The 
sheik saw so much wit in this reply that he pardoned the guilty husband. 
(Percy AnadtUt.) 


Barer or Beaver (Laiin bibtri, thiough the uld French beivreS, an obsolete 
English word for a snack or lancheun, es)>ecially une laken in the afternoon 
between mid'day dinner and su)>per. Hence, a lerm apijlied lo a frugal repast 
of bread and beer served out on summer afternoons in Eton, Wincbesler, and 
Westminster Colleges till a very recent period. 

" It nuy be LniemtJni- for all old Eloniiuii. and {or old Colltgcn in puiJcuUr, id read ibc 

iDiiliuiiim ID the lui number of the Elan Cirlltgt ClimtUU. Tfiough the lonc of i)k uticle 

won! " intereuiDg. ll ii u if aD( ihinild wriu, " ll nuy br inumiing id yuu tu kno* ilia: 

CoDicrvaijve and iSc good Eionian ihould adopt. For four liundied and fifty ye*rt CoElegen 

nuble dinlng'hall for ihat mild EcfEHhrneni. uid have been pruud 10 tniejtain oppidui fiiciKli 

Kominu ninhra (he remoneit*! anihorilieA mighl have pautvd. Indeed, it was ciuelly done. 

lota] spirit of the age. and boi1?d salmon was tubitiiuted in jis place, we should have Icnowo 

bered. that Iht " little syiwmi" of the pious founder had " had their day," and ihenfun bad 
better "«aae to be." " Bever" ii gone, and ve believe the authorilia in lubititutioD intend 
to allow each Colleger a mug of toast .uid-waier on Sundayi thrinighuui the year. It is 

Bible Btatlatioa. The following facts in regard lo the Authorized Version 
of the Bible are given by the indefatigable Dr. Home in his " Introduction to 
the Study of the Scriptures." Their compilation is said to have occupied more 
than ibtee years of the doctor's life : 

Tiilamnl. Triumtni. TrUt. 

Chaptan .'.'.','.'..'.'.. 9>g >6a 1,189 

Woni» »3.«1 i8i.»SJ JT3,J46 

Letters t,;3S,10D Sjl.jSa 3.SW.t^ 


Bui the good doctor's work is entirely cast into Ihe shade by the stalisticil 
exploit of some religious enthusiast (possibly a mylh), who, as the result of 
several years' incarceration for conscience' sake, produced (his astonishing 
monument of misapplied industry; 

The Bible contains 66 hooks, 1189 chapten, 33.173 venea. 773,69a wortjs, and 2,^86.4Btt 
letters. Tbe word "and" DCCtjn 46,117 times, the word " Lon] iSjs limes, "reverend" but 
once, "sirl" but once, in third chapter and third verve of Joel; the words " everlaatine fire" but 
twice, and "everlasting puniahment" but once. Tbe middle line is Second Chronicle* iv. 16. 
llw middle chapter and the shortest is Psalm civil. The middle vene is the eighcb vene i£ 
Paalm civiii. The twenty-lini vene of the seventh chapter at Eira contiint all the letters in 
Ihe alphabet, except Ihe letiet " J." Tbe finest chapter to read is the Iwenty-uath chapter of 
the Acis oT the Apostles. The nineteenth chapter of Second Kings and the thirtv4evenih 
chapter of Itaiah are alike. The longest verse is the ninth verse of Ihe eighth chapter nf 
Either. Theshonest islbelhiny.firih veneof tbeeleventhchapterorSi. John, vii.; "JesiB 
wept." The eighth, fifteenth, twtnly.fint, and thinv-iini verses of the iDjtb Psalm aie 
alihe. Each vene of the i]6di Psalm enda alike. There are no words of more Iban ^ 

It is evident enough that each of these tables is the result of independent 
labor, as they do not agree with each other as lo the number of words and 
letters in Ibe Bible. Probably we shall have lo wail until another enthusiast 
is jugged before the figures are verified. 

Bible*, Ctlllotis. a general term given lo certain editions of Ihe Scrip- 
tures which are distinguished by peculiar errors of the printers, or same 


"Then the eies of them both were opened, and (hey knew that they we 
naked, and they sewed Hgge tree leaves together and made themsel*< 
breeches." — Gen. iii 7. Printed in 1560. In the Authorized Version, pu 
liahed in 1611, this picturesque attire has been changed to "aprons." 

" So thai thou shall not nede to be arraid for any bugzes by nighle, m 
for the arrow Ihal fl^relh by day."— A. ici. 5. Printed in 1561. Bug wi 
originally identical with bogie, and has substantially the same meaning : 
'• terror,'' the word substituted in the Authorized Version. 

" Blessed are the pi ace -makers ; for they shall be called the children of 
God."— Maa. V. 9. Printed in 1561-2. A version that should be in great 
request with practical politicians of all patties. 

D physician there ?" — yirr, viiL 

This extraordinary name has been given to an edition of the Authorized 
Bible, printed in London by Robert Barker and Martin Lucas in 1631. The 
negative was left out of the seventh commaitdmenl, and William Kilburne, 
writing in 1659, says that, owing to the leal of Dr. Usher, the printer was lined 
£vxo or JC3000. 

The same title has been given to the Bible which its publishers called the 
" Pearl Bible," from the size of the type used, which was published in 1653, 
and contained the following among other errata : 

■/ C.1-. Tl 

unrigluewu mhiJl isfaeril (for ihill uol iulicni] ihc kiogdam of GodT 

These errata made the Wicked Bibles very popular among the libertini 
the period, who urged the texts as "pleas of justification" against ih 
proofs of the divines. 

' The Parable of the Vinegar," instead of " The Parable of the Vineyard," 
appears in the chapter -heading to Luke xx. in an Oxford edition of the Au- 
thorized Version which was published in 1717. 

tly name has been won by an edition published in tSoi. from 
: sixteenth verse of the Epistle of Jude, where the word "m 
endeted "murderers." 


" Persecuted him thai was born after the spirit to remain, even so it is now," 

Qai. iv. 19. This ty|}ogiaphical error, which was perpelualed ni the first 8vo 

Bibie printed for the Bible Society, takes its chief impurlance from Ihe curious 
circumstances under which it arose. A lanio Bibie was being printed at 
Cambridge in 1805, and Ihe proof-reader, being in doubt as lo whelhci or 
not he should remove a comma, applied to his superior, and the reply, pen- 
cilled on the margin, " to remain," was transferred lo ihe body of Ihe teit, and 
was repeated in the Hible Society's Svo edition of 1805-6, and also in another 
i3mo edition of 1819. 

"I discharge thee before God."—: Tim. v. »i. Printed in 1806. 

" And it shall come to pass that ihe fishes will stand upon it," eic — Etek. 
iX\. 10. Primed in 1806. 

"Who hath ears loear, let him hear." — Matt. xiii. 43, Printed in i8ia 


me, and hale not his fat 
I. 26. Printed in iSia 

"And Rebekah arose, and her camels."— C™. xxiv. 61- Printed in 1823. 

Though not technically ranked among "Curious Bibles," Ihe most extraor- 
dinary bit of Biblical ccccntriciiy is a New Testameni issued by the Rev. 
Edward Harwood, U.D,, an eighteen ih-cenlury divine, whose happy thought 
it was " lo clothe Ihe genuine ideas and doctrines of the apostles with that 
propriety and perspicuity in which they themselves, I apprehend, would have 
exhibited them, had Ihey now lived and written in our language." The good 
doctor, though pained that "Ihe bald and barbarous language of the old vul' 
gar version" had from long usage "acquired a venerable sacredness," was 
not without a hope that an "attempt to diffuse over the sacied page the ele' 
gance of modern English" might allure "men of cultivated and improved 
minds" to a book " now, alas, too generally neglected." 

Dr. Hatwood, ihetefote, proceeded lo make the New Teslameni an emi- 
nently genteel book. Every word that had dropped oul of vogue in polite 
circles was plucked away, Ihe very plain-spoken warning lo Ihe Laodicean 
Church assuming in his version this form : " Since, therefore, you are now in a 
state of lukewarmnes.-!, a disagreeable medium helween Ihe two extremes, I 
will, in no long lime, eject you from mv heart with fastidious conlcm])!." The 
sentence is certainly delicious ; but when we remcmlicr who the speaker is, 
we find we are laughing at something like blasphemy. We may, however, 
laugh wilh a clear conscience at Ihe descri]>Iion of Nicodemus as "this gen- 
tleman," of .St. Paul's Athenian convert Damaris as "a lady of distinction," 
and of Ihe daughter of Herodtas as "a young lady who danced with inim- 
itable grace and elegance." " Young lady, rise," are the words addres.ied 
to ihe daughter of Jairus. The father of Ihe R-odigal is "a gentleman of 
splendid family ;" St. Peler, on Ihe Mount of Transfiguration, exclaims, " Oh, 
ait I what a delectable residence we mighl fix here," and Sl Paul is raised to 
the standard of Bristolian respeclabjlily by having a " portman lean" conferred 


upon him in place of the mere cloik mentioned by himseir as having been 
leflbyhimatTroBs. The aposlolic sialemcnt, " We shall not all die, but we 
shall all be changed," appears thus : " We shall not all pa; the common debt 
or nature, but we shall, by a soft transition, be changed from mortality to 

Even after reading these prodigious translations ne are hardly prepared for 
a meddling with the Magiitticat and the Nunc Dimittis. Bui Dr. Harirood's 
passion for elegance stuck at nothing, and the "men of cultivated and im- 
proved minds" must have Harwoodian versions of the two great hymua of 
Christendom. Here are the o|)enings of both : 

" My soul with reverence adores my Creator, and all my faculties with 
transport join in cetebraiing (he goodness of God, my Saviour, who hath in 
so signal a manner condescended to regard my poor and humble station. 
Transcendent goodness ! every future age will now conjoin in celebrating my 

"O God! thy promise to me is amply fulnlled ! I now quit the post of 
human life with salisbction and joy, since thou habt indulged mine eyes with 
so divine a spectacle as the great Messiiih." 

To use Dr. Harwood's own words, this edition uf the New Testament 
leaves the most exacting velleity without ground for quiritaliun. 

Biblloklept, a modern euphemism which sodens the ugly word book-thief 
by shrouding it in the mystery of the Greek language. So the French say, 
not voleur, but chipmr de livrfs. The true bibliomaniac cannot help feeling a 
tenderness for his pet fad. even when carried to regrettable excesses. Perhaps 
he has often felt his own fingers tingle in view of a rare de Grolier, a unique 
Elievir, he knows the slrengih of the temptation, he estimates rightly liis 
own weakness ; perhaps, if he carries self-analysis to the unflattering point which 
it rarely reaches, save in the sincerest and linesl spirits, he recognizes that his 
power of resistance is supplied not by virtue, but by fear,— fear of the police 
and of Mrs. Grundy. In his inner soul he admires the daring which rislcs all 
for the sake of a great passion. When a famous book-collectur was exhibiting 
his treasures to the Duke of Sussex, Queen Victoria's uncli:, lie apologized 
lo his royal highness for having to unlock each case. '■ Oh, quite right, quite 
right," was the reassuring reply : '■ to tell the truth, I'm a terrible Ihiet" 
Tnere are not many of us who ate so honest. Nevertheless, the e[Ndemic 
form which biblioklcptomania has assumed is recognized in the motto which 
school-boys affix to Iheir books, warning honest friends not to steal them. 
" Htmesl may, of course, be a fine bit of sarcasm. But one prefers to look 
upon it as indicating a subtle juvenile prescience that the most honest and the 
most friendly will steal books, as the most honest wiU cheat their dearest 
friends in a matter of hotsenesh. 

The toll of book-thieves, if it included all those who have prigged without 
detection or who have borrowed without returning, would doubtless include 
the most illustrious men of alt ages. But strike from the list those whose 
thefts have been active and not ])assive, and admitting [terforce only that 
probably small proportion whose active thieving has Men discovered and 

iiroclaimed, a splendid array of names will still remain. It will include 
Earned men. wise men, good men, — the highest dignitaries of church and 
state, even a pope. And that pope was no less a man than Innocent X. To 
be sure, he was not pope, but plain Monsignnr Pamphilio, when he stole a 
book from Du Moustiet. the painter, — his one detected crime. But who shall 
say it was his only crime } I'd be sure, again, Du Moustier was something of 
a thief himself: he used to brag how he had prigged a book of which he nad 
long been in search from a slall on the Ponl-Neuf Nevertheless, he slrenu- 
ODsTy objected to be stolen from. When, therefore, Monsignor Pamphilio, in 


(he train or Cardinal Barberini, paid a visit to the painter's studio in Pirii 
and quietly slipped into his soutane a copy of "L'Histoire du Concile de 
Trente," M. Du Moustier, catching him in the act, Tutionsly told the cardinal 
(hat a holy tnan should not brine thieves and robliers in his train. With 
these and other words of a tike Itbelluus nature he recovered the History of 
Ihe Council of Trent, and kicked out the future pontiS Historians dale Irom 
(his incident that hatred to the crown and the people of France which distin- 
guished the pontifical reign of Innocent X. 

Among royal personages, Ihe Ptolemies were book-thieves on a large scale 
An enlire department in Ihe Alexandrian Library, significaiitly called " Books 
from the Ships," consisted of rare volumes Uken riom sea-voyasers who 
touched at the port. True, the Ptolemies hail a conscience. They vrere 
careful to have fair Iranscrijils made of these valuibtc manuscripts, which Ihey 
presented to the visitors ; but. as Arislolle says, and. indeed, as is evident 
enough to minds of fat inferior compass, the exchange, being involuntary, 
CoulcT not readily l>e differenliaied from robbery. brant6me tells us thai 
Catherine de Medicis, when Marshal Sirozzi died, seized upon his very valu- 
oinising some day to pay Ihe value to his son, but the promise 

ary, proii 
r kept. 

Perhaps the greatest of biblioklcpts was Don Vincente, a friar of that 
Poblat convent whose library was plundered and dispersed at Ihe pillage of 
the monasteries during the regency of Queen Christina in 1834. Coming to 
Barcelona, he established himself in a gloomy den in the bookselling quarter 
of the town. Here he set up as a dealer, bul fell so in love with liis accu- 
mulated purchases that only want templed him to sell Ihem. Once at an 
auction he was outbid for a copy of Ihe " Ordinacions per los Gloriosos Reys 
de Arago," — a great larily, perhaps a unique. Three days later the house of 
the successful rival was burned to Ihe ground, and his blackened body, pipe 
in hand, was found in the ruins. He had set the house on fire with his pipe,— 
that was Ihe general verdict. A mysterious succession of murders followed. 
One bibliophile after another was found in the streets or the river, with a 
dagger in his heart. The shop of Don Vincenle was searched. The "Or- 
dinacions" was discovered. How had it escaped the flames thai had burnod 
down the purchaser's house? Then the Don confessed not only ihat murder 
bul others. Most of his victims were customers who bad purchased from him 
books he could not bear to part with. At the trial, counsel for the defence 
Hied to discredit the confession, and when it was objected that Ihe " Ordina- 
cions" was a unique copy, they proved there was another in the Louvre, Ihat, 
therefore, there might be still more, and that the defendant's might have been 
honestly procured. At this, Don Vincenle, hitherto callous and silent, uttered 
a low cry. " Aha !" said the alcade, "you are beginning to realize the enor- 
mity of your offence 1" " Ves," sobbed the |>enitent thief, "the copy was 
not a unique, after all." 

vorlhy .successor to this good Friar was Count Guglielmi IJbri Carucci, 
Known by his penultimate name Libri, which, curiously enough, means books. 
He was a memlier of the French Institute, a professor in the College of France, 
a valued contributor to the Revue dts Deux AfonJei, and an inspector-general 
of French libraries under I.ouis Philippe. Vet he succeeded in getting away 
with a large number of valuable books and manuscripts belonging id (he libra- 
Ties he "inspected." His thefts were first brought to the notice of Ihe Paris 
librarians by anonymous letters, and then by atlicles in the Monileur and the 
National. In 1S4S he was prosecuted and condemned by default 10 ten years' 
imprisonment ; but even then his friends did not desert him. Prosper Meri- 
mee, who defended him before Ihe Senate, refused to believe in his guilt. 
When he fled to London, Sir Antonio Paniizi received him with open arms. 


maintaining that he was a persecuted man, and gave him carte blanche to 
wander about the library of the British Museum. Lord Ashburnham bought 
some of the stolen wares for ;f8ooo. M. Delisle tried to negotiate with 
young Lord Ashburnham in 1878, but without success. Finally, in 1890, the 
stolen property was returned to the French library in exchange for Maness^*s 
rare collection of German poetry and the sum of ;£'6ooo. 

Of the lesser fry of biblioklepts there is no space to speak. In Paris alone 
as many as a hundred thieves of this kind have been prosecuted in a single 
year. Vet they are a small percentage of the total detected. Jules Janin 
mentions a fellow-citizen whose first impulse when he saw a book was to put 
it in his pocket. So notorious was this failing that whenever a volume was 
missed at a public sale, the auctioneer duly announced it, and knocked it down 
to the enthusiast for a good price, which he never failed to pay. If he walked 
out before the sale was over, the detectives would crowd around him, asking 
if he did not have an Elzevir or an Aldine in his pocket. He would make a 
careful search. " Yes, yes, here it is," he would finally cry ; " so much obliged 
to you. I am so absent" 

In London it is just as bad. There the book-snatcher is a person well 
known to dealers. Mr. Besant has described him in his story ** In Luck at 
Last :" " First, the book-snatcher marks his prey ; he finds tne shop which 
has a set containing the volume which is missing in his own set ; next he arms 
himself with a volume which closely resembles the one he covets, and then, 
on pretence of turning over the leaves, he watches his opportunity to effect an 
exchange, and goes away rejoicing, his set complete." 

Lockhart mentions, in his "Li^ of Scott," how at Holyrood he had placed 
some lines sent to Sir Walter by Lord Byron, together with the accompanying 
present, in one of the rooms, but the lines mysteriously disappeared. He adds 
that he mentions this circumstance in the hope of depriving the thief of the 
pleasure of displaying his plunder. 

Bibliomania, a mild form of insanity which is obtaining wide prevalence. 
A bibliomaniac must be carefully distinguished from a bibliophile. The latter 
has not yet freed himself from tne idea that books are meant to be read. The 
bibliomaniac has other uses for books : he carries them about with him as 
talismans, he passes his time in the contemplation of their bindings, illustra> 
tions, and title-pages. Some say he even prostrates himself before them in 
silent adoration in that joss-house which he calls his library. Bibliomaniacs 
are not all alike. There are numerous subdivisions. Some care only for 
uncut copies, some only for books printed in black letter or in italics, some 
for first editions, some for curious or famous bindings, while some make col- 
lections on special subjects. But all agree in this, — that the intrinsic merit of 
the book is a secondary consideration in comparison with its market value 
and exceptional scarcity. The Marquis d*Argenson, in his ** Memoirs," has 
given an account of a true specimen. " I remember," he says, " once paying 
a visit to a well-known bibliomaniac who had just purchased an extremely 
scarce volume quoted at a fabulous price. Having been graciously permitted 
by its owner to mspect the treasure, I ventured innocently to remark that he 
had probably bought it with the philanthropic intention of having it reprinted. 
* Heaven foroid !' he exclaimed, in a horrified tone ; * how could vou suppose 
me capable of such an act of folly ? If I were, the book would oe no longer 
scarce, and would have no value whatever. Besides,' he added, * I doubt, 
between ourselves, if it be worth reprinting.' 'In that case,' said I, *its 
rarity appears to be its only attraction.' * Just so,' he complacently replied ; 
'ana that is quite enough for me.*" 

There is a story of a wealthy English collector who long believed that a 
certain rare book in his possession was a unique. One day he received ^ 


bitter blow. H« learned that lher« was another copy in Paris. But he locin 
rallied, and, crossing over the Channel, he made his way 10 the rival's home. 
" You have such and tuch a book in your library ^" he asked. |}luneing at 

antx iamediatrti. "Yes." "Well, I want tobuy it." "But, mydeatsir " 

" I wilt give yuu a thousand francs fur it." " But it isn't for sale ; 1 " " Two 

thousand !" " On my word, I don't care to dispose of iL" " Ten thousand I" 
and so on, till at last twenty-live thousand francs was offered, and the Parisian 
gentleman finally consented to part with his treasure. The Englishman 
counted out iwenty-live thousand franc bills, examined the purchase carefully, 
with satisfaction, and cast the book into the fire. " Are you crazy t" 

cried the Parisian, stooping over to rescue it " Nay," said the tCnglishmi 
delaining his arm, "I am quite in my right mind. I. too, possess a copy 01 
that book. I deemed it a unique. I was mistaken. Now, however, thanki 

to your courtesy, I know it is a unique." The story may n< 
is quite true enough to point a moral with. 

In "Gilbert Gurney" Theodore Hook ha 
bibliomaniac in the person of Thomas Hull (otherwise Tlionias Hill of per- 
ennial memory), who is represented as carrying home in triumph from the 
sale-rooms a black-lcEler tract of t486, with five pages wanting out ol the 
original seventeen, and two others damaged ; a genuine Caxton, however, the 
only copy extant except one in the British Museum, and secured by him for 
the trifling sum of scvcnty-lwo pounds ten shillings. When asked what was 
the subject of the treatise, he ingenuously owned that he didn't "happen to 
know" that, but believed it to be an essay to prove that Edward the Fourth 
never had the toothache. " But." he added, " it is, as you see, in Latin, and I 
don't read Latin." 

" Horace," so rum the spiteful epigram upon some other Thomas Hull, — 

Honn he hu by muv dliTEreiit hands, 
Uui not OIK Honn IhH he undcntindt. 

When a man is first touched with the fever at bibliomania he is bound to 
make mistakes. He collects the wrong things, the things that have gone out 
of fashion, the bargains that are bargains only for him who sells. Probably 
he begins with Aldines, Anything with an anchor is Rood enough for him ; 
it is long before he discovers that there are Aldines and Aldines, — that even 
the genuine works of the Aldi are not equally valuable, and that there are 
Aldines which are not Aldines at all, but merely cunning contemporary 
counterfeits published at Lyons or at Florence. He is in ecstasies when for 
a few shillings he purchases a Juvenal ot a Peisius marked 1501, for the 
text-books all tell him that Aldus Manotius began the publication o( editionts 
frindpet in 1508. He carries his bargain to some bibliophile and exultantly 
proclaims that the text-books are in error. Then the bibliophile proves to 
him that 1501 is a typographical error for Ijli, that the eitor has long ago 
been noted and pointed out, and from the heights of a superior erudition pro- 
claims that the book is worth less than a common Oxford text. Elzevirs have 
snares also for the unwary. An Elzevir Cisar is hailed as a treasure, espe- 
cially if it be perfect in all respects. Yet, ten to one, the same bibliophile 
will point out that this very perfection destroys the value of the Elzevir, for 
the paging is correct, whereas that of the genuine Elzevir is incorrect ; and 
again tbe tyro recognizes that he has the wrong sow by the ears. There Is a 
valueless book called " I.a Comtesse d'Escarbagnas." How can the tyro be 
expected to know that this valueless book is worth J150 in the rare edition 
where Comtesse is misprinted Comteesef Perhaps, alter he has purchased 
all this experience, the amateur grows weary of book-hunting. More likely 
be perseveres and becomes a confirmed bibliomaniac 


Even now there are all sorts of shoals and quicksands. The most expert 
bibliomaniac can only know the present ; he cannot forecast the future. The 
canons which govern the buyers of books are as capricious and incalculable 
as those which govern the buyers of blue china or rococo bric-ii-brac Prob- 
ably the book-hunter himself would be puzzled to say why, at a time when 
the craze for first editions was at its height, certain authors were eagerly 
sought after, and certain others, far their superiors, were comparatively neg- 
lected. No one would think of naming Charles Lever in the same breath 
with Sir Walter Scott. Yet first editions of Lever have brought a great 
deal more than first editions of Scott And, to complete the paradox, it is 
the smaller and less important works of modern novelists thslt lord it over 
their acknowledged masterpieces, — an original "Vanity Fair" or "Charles 
O'Malley** being looked upon as a trifle in comparison with the discovery of 
a "Second Funeral of Napoleon" or "Tales of the Trains." For a year or 
two the so-called Editions de luxe were in high favor ; to-day they are dis- 
credited, being voted too cumbersome for every-day reading. 

Let us take a famous anecdote to show how fashion rules the price of books. 
In 18 1 2, at the dispersal of the Roxburghe Library, — described as the Waterloo 
of book-sales, — a copy of the " Valdarfer" Boccaccio, printed in Venice in 
1741, was put up. Of this rare book only half a dozen copies are known to be 
in existence. The bidding was spirited. Everybody dropped out save Lord 
Spencer and the Duke of Marlborough (then Marquis of Blandford), — two 
peers of the realm, who bid in person against each other, while the crowd 
looked on agape, — and the book was finally knocked down to the latter noble- 
man for ;£'226o, up to that time the largest sum of money ever paid for a 
single volume. Seven years later the library of the marquis himself came into 
the market, and this identical volume l)ecame the property of Lord Spencer 
for ;£'9i8, — a price less than one-half of what his formerly successful rival had 
paid. And in 1890 another copy of the same edition found its way to Eng- 
land, and was knocked down for ^230. To be sure, this copy had some slight 

It is all very well to say that it is the rarity of a particular volume which 
makes it valuable. In a rough and ready way, that is true, of course. But 
rare books, possibly unique copies, may every day be seen in old-book stores, 
tied up with a dozen other books and labelled "This lot for ten cents." It is 
all very well, again, to say that the book should be valuable as well as rare. 
Many valueless books are highly prized by bibliomaniacs. A limited supply 
must be conjoined to an active demand, there must be the pleasure and ex- 
citement of the chase, the subsequent calm satisfaction of possessing an envied 
rarity, or the book would be mere lumber. And the difficult problem to de- 
termme is why, at certain periods, all the hounds are out and all the horsemen 
off for one particular fox. It is certainly not because that fox is better than 
any other fox. It is certainly not because that fox is considered a nobler 
animal than oihtr /era natura which would yield equal pleasure in the chase. 

Of course there are many rare books which are intrinsically interesting, and 
are rendered valuable by the fact that many people, able to pay big prices for 
them, would rejoice to have them. There is the famous letter of Christopher 
Columbus announcing the discovery of the New World. A copy of the origi- 
nal edition in Spanish is in the possession of Mr. E. F. Buonaventure in 
Paris, and is priced in his catalogue at 65,000 francs, or $13,000. Vet it is a 
mere pamphlet of four quarto pages, thirty-four lines to the page. This may 
be a mere "blufiT' on the part of that excellent bibliophile, meant to keep the 
letter at a prohibitive price, so as to obtain the full value of the centennial 
boom given by the Chicago Fair to the memory of the great discoverer. Cer- 
tain it is that another copy of the same edition, or what purported to be such, 

^ g 9 


was disposed ol at the Braylon Ives sale in New York (1891) Tor ^3oa A 
year previous, al (he equally memurable Barlaw sale, a cupy of Ihc Latin 
edition, published in 1493, had been purchased by the Boston Public Library 
for %VjOO. 

At (his same Braylon Ives sale, the sum of $l4,Soo was paid by Mr. W. E. 
Ellsworth, of Chicago, for a Gutenberg Bible, the liisl book ever printed from 
movable types. Here is an account of the purchase as it appeared in the New 
York Sun of March 6, 1891 ; 

Wben the CJuienbeqE Bibl« was renched there wu ft clappiDg fsi fcundt Jind ft gcauiae stir ri 
fljtdirmcni. No fivoritc borx, tiu Hach-blour vase, no treoch piclura, can Kin from ttK 
heart of ft aeDuide book-lover bii ftUectiiHL Tor this Iy]>v^phiair monument, l^be circuio- 

ili iUuiDiniittd IMIOT, h«v"g^™ it ft world-wide lepulalioD. The'jlory of iti.'brirf;' ^t\ 
Btinkr bought it ui Europe. At hii mIf in 1^4 the lite Mr. Hamillon Cole puicliased it for 
fBooo. Mr, Ivei at Ibftt lime being the neil bidder When the Sfitou Park copy, badlv 

the fM%i book printed with type, and is fiom the preu of John Gutenberg ftboui 1450. The 
W. E. EUsworth became the puiUlHUr lor ^4,800. 

lHlhisfi4,tioo the highest price ever paid for abook? The French ^H//irfi« 
di rimprimerie says not. Indeed, it " sees" that sum and goes it better bv 
nearly tjS><X30- And it also claims that a still higher sum was once oScrccI 
for anoiher book, and refused ; 

goyemi^T "Thftr"uok i? ■™i.MUonniri'rpv™bT'l'ope'lirx!To ItST'tieiiryTMl! 
of England, aloqg with ft parchment conferring on thftt totertlgn the right of AtoUming the 
lille of " lieTender of the Faith." b«iic ever flince by Eneliah kings. Cbftrlei 11. mftde ft 
pteieni of ibe uliHftl to the ancnior at the funaui Duke of Hftinilloil, whoK extenaive ftnd 
valuible libniry wai »1d >ome yean ago b^ Mewi. Sotheby, Wi]kin»n & Hodge, of Lon- 
don. The book which secured the higheH oRer wai a Hebrew Bible, U) the PDUeaaion of the 

of ftftno (£10,0001 Though being mucVpreued for money, in order to keep up the " Holy 
League" against KingLoui* XII of France, Julius 11. dedmed to pan with ibe volume. 

Bigot. The amateur etymologist has always had lots of fun with this 
word. First comes old Camden, who relates that when Rollo. l>uke of N< 

maiidy, received Gisia, the daughter of Charles the Foolish, in marriage, he 
would not submit to kiss Charles's foot ; and when his friends urged him by 
all means to complv with that ceremony, he made answer in Ihe English 

coiirliers, deriding him, and corruptly repeating his answer, called him bigt4, 
which was the origin of the term. Culgrave's Pictionary (1611) calls it "an 
old Norman word, sigiii^ng as much as de par Din, or our ' for God's sake I' 
made good French, and signifying an hypocrite, or one that seemeth much 
more holy than he is, also a scrupulous and superstitious person." As we 
come down to Ihe present, guesses come fast and furious. As good as any is 
Archbishop Trench's, who derives the word from the Spanish "Ugole, a 
muslachio. " Hombre de bieote" is indifferently a man with a moustache or 
a man of resolution, " tener bigoles" is to stand tirm, " and we all know that 
Spain is still the land proverbial fur mustachinsand \>i%aliy" (Siudy ^ Wordi). 
Dr. Murray gives up the problem, and the Century I>ictiotiary says, "Under 
this form two 01 more indeijendeni words appear to have been confused, 
involving the etymology in a mass of fable and conjecture." 
BUllugsgate. One of the ancient gates of London and the adjacent fish- 


tnarkei were known as Billing's gale (presumably Irom a [jcrsonal name), 
which, in the modem form, aa above, the market still retains. Ii has been 
celebrated in literature for the extreme foulness of the language used by its 
deniiens, especially the female ones. Hence to this day foul language is ktiown 
as Billingsgate. 

Johuon DDCc made a b« whh B«wdl that he could go inio thr fiih-iDuliei and put ■ Biliingi- 
gate woman in a paHlon wilhoul lajring a word ihal )hi could underxand. The doctor com- 
mcDccd byiilenljyindicaluig with hu dok that her Ash had p*«ted the Hue in which a man'i 
oUactoriet could endiirt ihcir flavor. The BiLlini^sgale lady made a verbal allack. common 

adjective — a conjiinclioo — a prepofidon — an Interjection!" BUddeoly coolinued the doctor, 
■pplyina the baimleH epuhets at proper intervaJi. The nine paru of «pccch complcteJy con- 

lAuB '' bladiguajdcd*' in a Bet of unknown (ermi which, not undeniandiHE, she could not 
aotwcr. — Akvinh: BncysiofadiA 0/ AmKdtUi. 

Bills. This would seem an nnpromlsing subject. Yet a few specimens 
are worth filing among the bricl-brac of literature. The trade-bills of Roger 
Payne, the great English bookbinder, are highly valued by curiosity -hunters 
for the eccentric remarks with which he adorned them. For example, on one 
for binding a copy of Barry's " Wines of the Ancienta" he wrote, — 

Hotner. the bard who sung ui bigbeM iinuDS, 

Had, f«tive gift, a goblet for his pains; 

Falerniao gftvc Homce, Virgil fire^ 

And bailey-wine my Britiih muK uiipire. 

Barley-wine finlfrom tgypi's Icanied ahon. 

Be >hl» the gift 10 me from CaJven'. store. 

An Irish election -bill has decided merits. During a contested election 
in Meath, early in this century. Sir Mark Somerville sent orders to the pro- 

Erietor of the hotel in Trim to board and lod^e all persons who should vote 
>r him. In due course he received the following bill, which lie had framed 
and preserved in Somerville House, Cotinly Meath. A coi>y uf it was found 
in the month of April, 1816, among the papers of the deceased Very Rev, 
Archdeacon O'Connell, Vicai General of the Diocese of Meath. It ran thus: 
My bill Your honour. 

To aiin( 16 frethoiden above Kain for Sir Marks at js. ed. a head is to me . . . £,1 rta 
Tor eatine r6 more helow stain and two PHeitl after luppcr islotne.. .... 3iS9 

To aim beds in one room and four in another at two guioeaa every bed and not more 

For breakfast on tay in the mommg. for every one of them and as many more as 

they brought, ai near as J can guess is to me . . ........ ..... 4 13 o 

To raw whiskey and punch without talking of pipes and tobacco ai well as (or porter, 
and u well as for hreaUasting a lot above stairs and for gtatsel and delf for the 

as lillle aa I can call il and not to be very eaacl it is in all or thereabonU and not 

Fc^r shaving and croppinE of the heada of the 49 freeholders for Sir Marks al 1^. for 

every head of ibcm by my bxoiher who liaa a vole, is 10 me ......... - 3 r^ 1 

was not ejtpecled, is to me Icn bogs. — I don't talk of the Piper or for keeping 

undied by Bryan himself, who and I pray* fo 



The fullowing is given as a true bill, made \n an artist, for repairs and 

tet'jiichings to a gallery of painliiigs of an English lord in the year 1865 

To filling up ihc chink in \*x Red S™ »nd repmiiing tht duDiagM oT Ph»rmoh'i hoM. 
To cleaning ill or the Api»lle< and wldiDg an i:iilin}y new Judu licuiol. 

To u ■llECIIIian in Ihc Belief, mending the Commudmenls. and making a Dca Lord't 

To repairing Nebuchadnevxar's beard. 
To meoding the pitcher of Rebecca. 

To iTnewing the picture of 5ani»u in ibechuacttr of a foi-hiuiie 


. addint 

cattle to Pharaol 



g a ne~ head 

for HolDfenm. 

; ;o 




"heikiof E«o 


apple w 




. hunuD 

lan taking a 


g [«p from Ibe wsib of 

. p'laniii 

inlhel«.dof Nod. 


ig a ihoulder 

of munoD and > 

Ih. rf two of tb. 




ng Solomon's 



iiioB of Noah in 

goenl rcviolng hi. 


'"■fS'SSna N^^d^ 

. with the dove dreued ai an lidi 
ed in an admini'i uniform. 





=g Sam«n n 

.alung a pr«en, 






Binding. A famous tract entitled " De Bibliothecis Antediluvian is" pro- 
fessed 10 give information about the libraries of Setli and Enoch. Setting aside 
this information as not up to the retiuirements of modern historical criticism, it 
is fairly safe to assume (hat the earliest germ of bookbinding was to be found 
among the Assyrians, who wrote their books on terra-colta (ablets, and en- 
closed these tablets in clay receptacles which had to be broken before the 
contents could be reached. Tamil manuscripts of eilreme antiquity are also 
extant, to which a rounded form has been given by the simple expedieni of 
using larger leaves al the centre and adding others gradually shortened at 
each side. The circle is surrounded by a melal band, tightly fastened by a 
hook. How far the Greeks improved upon these primitive methods it is 
difficult to say. as their lileraiurc furnishes no details on the subject, but there 
is a tradidon that the Athenians raised a statue (o Phillatius. who invented a 

f;lue for fastening together leaves of parchment or papyrus. Nay, Suidas, who 
ived in the tenth century, contends thai the Golden Fleece was only a book 
bound in sheepskin which taught the art of making gold. Hid the Komans, 
profiling by the invention of Phillatius, glue (heit papyrus leaves into booksF 
A pretty controversy might be raised over a passage in one of Cicero's letters 
(o Atlicus. He asks lor a couple of librarians to glue {g/ulinare) his books. 
Dibdin translates the word "conglutinale." That first syllable is the bone of 
contention. Did Cicero mean to have his manusctipIS made up in books, or 
did he only require (he sheeU (o be fastened inlo rolls, in (he usual Roman 
manner? Dibdin believes the former. But it is an article of faith with (he 
modern bibliophile that Dilidin made a mistake wherever possible, and that 
mistakes were possible to him where Ihey would have been impossible to any 
one else. Nevertheless, the papyrus rolls were in their way handsome speci- 
mens of the ar( of bookbinding, with their leather covers, gold bosses, gold 
cylinder, "nd perfumed illuminated leaves. Medieval bindings were gener- 


ally of carved ivory, meUl, or wood, ca/^tedwith stamped leather, and 
frequently adorned with bosses of gold, gems, ar.<j precious stones. Of course 
they could not be kept on shelves, like modern voTTimes : they would have 
scratched one another. Elach had its embroidered,^i'%'^ case, or chanise^ and, 
when especially valuable, its casket of gold. BoqU^ fp^ Ijbraries, churches, 
and other public places were protected from theft by Lei:ig chained to shelves 
and reading-desks. When, as often happened, the volume was loo heavy to 
be lifted, the desk upon which it was chained was made to revf)^ve. A print in 
La Croix's ** Le Moyen Age et la Renaissance," representing tlie li'Ardry in the 
University of Leyden, shows that this custom continued down to the reven- 
teenth century. Books so chained were called Catenati. With thfe "liv/ection 
of printing, regular bookbinding, in the modern sense of the worA,'beg?w. 
Wooden covers and stamped pig-skin gradually gave way before the li-gfHtir 
styles introduced by the Italians and perfected by the French. Early in t^*^ 
sixteenth century morocco was introduced, the arts of the printer and tHe 
binder were differentiated, and new decorations testified to the conservation 
of energy thus attained and its direction into the right channel. The bindings 
affected by the great people of the court of France had a distinct individuality. 
Henri II. and Diane de Poictieis displayed the crescent, the bow, and the 
quiver of Diana, and the blended initials H. and D. Francis I. had his sala- 
manders, Marguerite the flower from which she derived her name. The pious 
Henri III. rejoiced in figures of the Crucifixion, in counterfeit tears with long 
curly tails, and in various emblems of mortality. In the reign of Louis XIV. it 
l)ecame fashionable to emboss the owner's arms upon his books. Madame de 
Maintenon had her famous copy of the " De Imitatione Christi" so decorated, 
— the copy which contained the engraving of the lady saying her prayers at 
St-Cyr, when the roof of the chapel opens and a divme voice says, ** This is 
she in whose beauty the king is well pleased." But the engraving was 
thought indiscreet and suppressed. These blazons needed no special skill, 
and they do not improve the beauty of a volume, but they are now valued at 
exorbitant prices if they evidence that the book belonged to some f2.mous 
library or some exalted personage. In the eighteenth century, ornamental 
figures of birds and flowers became common, together with mosaics of various- 
colored leather. The Revolution brought temporary ruin upon the art of 
bookbinding. Morocco was culpable luxury, and coats of arms were an insult 
to the Republic There is an oft-quoted story of the French literary man of 
1794, a great reader, who always stripped off the covers of his books and 
threw them out of his window. What had a citizen to do with morocco bind- 
ings, with the gildings of Le Gascon or Derome, the trappings of an effete 
aristocracy ? Perhaps he was right. A working-man of letters, like a wOrk- 
ing-man of any other guild, cannot use a gorgeously-bound book as one of the 
implements of his trade. He puts an inky pen into the leaves of one volume, 
he lajrs another on its face, he uses the leg of a chair to keep a folio open and 
to mark the pregnant passage. But there is a class of drones, of literary 
voluptuaries and sybarites, who love to see their libraries well clothed. 

Perhaps the most unique binding in the world is in the Albert Memorial 
Exhibition in Exeter, England. It is a Tegg's edition of Milton (1852), and, 
according to an affidavit pasted on the fly-leaf, the binding is part of the skin 
of one C^orge Cudmore, who was executed at Devon March 25, 1 830. The 
skin is dressed white, and looks something like pig-skin in grain and texture. 

Bird. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bnah. Will Somers, 
the celebrated jester to Henry VIII., happened to call on Lord Surrey, whom 
he had often, by a well-timed jest, saved from the king's displeasure, and 
who, consequently, was always glad to see him. He was on this occasion 
ushered into the aviarvt where he found my lord amusing himself with his 



birds. Somers happened tn "ai!iiA-e the plur 

Lady, my prince of nits, I'wtK eive it to you." Will skipped about wilh 
light, and swore by the4>reil Harry he was a moat noble genlleman. Away 
went Will wilh his kwwfiiih^r, lelltng all his acquaintances whom he met that 
his friend Surrey htd^Et preaenled him with it. Now, it so happened Ihal 
Lord Nor[hampt6ii,''v'no had seen this bird [he day previous, arrived at I Jird 
Surrey's jusl-^s Wiif Somers had left, with the intention of asking the bird uf 
Surrey foe a present to a lady friend. Great was his chagrin on finding the 
bird goct. '•Sltrrey. however, consoled him wilh saying that he knew Somers 
wouUI^'.^'toFe it if he (Surrey) promised him two some other day. Away 
weni.a~BieSiienger to the prince of wits, whom he found in raptures with his 
tfirfl. fid to whom he delivered his lord's message. Great was Will'* sur- 
\ pt>e,*bul he was not to be bamboozled by even the monarch himself "Sirrah," 
--'tard Will, " lell your master that I am much obliged for his liberal offer of two 
-for one, but Ihal I preler one bird in hand to Iwo in the bush." This is the 
good old story told about Ihe phrase, but, if true, Somers was quoting rather 
than originating, as the proverb antedates him. The analogous Ficnch saying 
is "Un tiens vaut deux lu I'auras." 

Bixd. A little bird told ma. An almost universal adage, based on Ihe 
popular idea that this apparently ubiquitous wanderer, from the vantage-point 
of the upper air, spied uul all strange and secret things, and revealed them to 
such as cuutd undersland. Thus, in Eccles. x, lo: "Curse not Ihe king, no, 
not in Ihy Ihoughi ; and curse nut the rich in thy bed-chamber : for a bird of 
the air shall carry the voice, and that which halli wings shall lell Ihe matler-" 
The Greek and Konian soollisayers nol only drew auguries Irom the flight of 
birds, but some pretended to a knowledge of their language which made them 
privy lo Ihe secrets they had lo reveal. And how was this knowledge 
attained ? There were various recipes. Pliny recommends a mixture of 
snake's and bird's blood. Mclanipus is more exacting, lie says you must 
have youc ears licked by a dragon i but then few of u '' — ~ ' ' 

Solomon, according . _, ^ ^ 

doing* of the Queen of Sheba. Mahomet himself was inslrucled by a pigeon, 
which whispered in his ear in presence of the multiiude. In the Mahabharata, 
King Nsinara Is taught by a dove, which is Ihe spirit of God. In Ihe old 
wood-cuts of the "Golden Legends" the Popes are diatingnished by a dove 
whispering in their ear. In Ihe Saga of Siegfried Ihe hero understands bird- 
language, and receives advice from his feathered friends. And talking birds, 
as well as other animals, appear in the (oik-lore of every counlry. Proverbial 
and popular literature also abound wilh allusions lo ihe spying habits of birds, 
—from the old Greek saw, " None sees me but the bird that flielh by," to Ihe 
passage in the Nlbelungen Lied, one of many, "No one hears us bul God 
and the forest bird." An eavesdropper is ever a gossip, so il Is an easy tran- 
sition from lislening lo repealing what is heard. 
TheveryIasllinesufShakespeare's"Henry IV., ParlIL"refertooursub}ecl' 

WhoK mutic 10 mr ihEnkiug pleued ihc king. 

t needy who gives 
quickly")- Even a prompt remsal, according to the same authority, should be 

Erompi ; " Pars est bencGcii quod petilur si cito neees" (" A prompt refusal 
as in pan the grace of a favor granted"). And Shakespeare's lines are used 
to urge expeililion in all things, good or evil : 



QuKii Elinbnh w& 

1 tluti tell svlybiidAt guicitad^: if you arut tbem ip«<lUy, It 
KKHKT."— Hacon : A/olii^i, Na.ji. 

BUllop (Gr. MoHHroc "overlooker," "overseer"). A 
word-chanae, as etfecled by the genius of differrnl tong 
the English htiufi and the French Jv/aue. Buih are (i 
furnishing, perhaps, the only example ot iwo words from 

mudifying Ihemselves in hutoricai tima as nol lu have . . _ 

(Of course many words from a far-off Aryan stem are in Ihe same condition.) 
The English strikes off the initial and lerminal syllables, leaving only piscop, 
which the Saxon preference fur (he softer labial and hissing sounds modified 
inlo bishop. £v6quc (formerly evesque) merely softens Ihe / into v and 
drops the last syllable. 

Biter Bit A proverbial phrase meaning (hat one is caught in one's own 
trap, that the tables have been turned. Bi(er is an old word r<ir sharper, and 
may be found with (hat meaning at least as far back as 16S0. But early in the 
eighteenth century the humorous diversion known as a bile was introduced 
into exalted circles. Swift, in a letter to Kev. Dr. Tisdall, December 16, 1703, 
describes it thus : " I'll leach you a way to outwit Mrs. Johtison ; it is a new- 
bihloned way of being willy, and (hey call it a bite. You must ask a banter- 
ing question, or (ell some damned lie in a serious manner, and then she will 
answer or speak as if yon were in earnesl, and then cry you. ' Madam, there's 
a bile !' 1 would not have you undervalue this, for i( is the cons<an( amuse- 
ment in court, and everywhere else among (he erea( people ; and 1 let you 
know it, ill order to have it obtain among you, and teach you a new reluie- 
menL" Now, when (he gudgeon refused to rise to the bait, one can well 
understand that the biter might be said to be bit. Another very plausible 
derivation of the phrase, which, even if nol its actual origin, undoubtedly helped 
to establish i( in popular favor, is thus suggested by a correspondent m Afalei 
and Quirict (sixth series, iv. 544) : "A case came within my own knowledge 
nol long ago, where the severe remedy was tried of biting a child who had 
contracted Ihe habi( of biting others. I have no doubt (hat it will be found 
to be a recogniied part of old-fashioned nursery discipline, which gave rise lo 
the common expression, the biter Ihl" 

n applied 10 the end of a ship's 
ok" explains i( as "that part of 
the cable which is abaft (he Utli," — two main pieces of timber to which a 
cable is fastened when a ship rides at anchor. When a chain or rope is paid 
out (o Ihe biller end, no more remains to Ik let go. It seems, therefore, that 
the phra'^e " to the bitter end" was originally used as equivalent to ihe ex- 
treme end, but the non-naulical mind (misinterpreting Ihe word Htler) gradu- 
ally made it synonymous with to the bitter dregs, to the death, in a severe or 
pitiless manner, from a fancied analogy lo such expressions as a "bitlei foe," 

Bitter Siveet In " As you Like It," Shakespeare makes his Jaqnes speak 
of " chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies" (Act iv., Sc. ^). Some edi- 
Hona would have us read food instead of cud, hul the proverbial use of the 
phrase discards all conjcctHral amendment, — Ihe more so thai in this case it is 
a distinct defilement of sense and sound. The close approximation of pleas- 


Quarlcs comes veiy close to the Shakespearian phrase in the line. 

And here are a few more examples : 

S(U1 i^Kn Kxy plcuun l«di 

S«c Jt kindred grief punuc ; 
Behind ibe itepi thai miicfy (rcadi 

Approaching coodwl view. 
Tbe huet of blin moje brightly gtow 
OuitiKd by uhlo linu oTwoe, 
And, blended, form with utfiil strife 
The URDgth and barmoDy of Ufo. 

Untier pl«B5tm pain Ilea. 

tMBBSOI.: TkiSfianl. 
A nun of pkaHire is a man of paioj. 

Vouhg: Nitltl TlM^ktt. 
Street la pleaaiue aAir pain. 

DiiYnKii : Aliiaitdtr'i Font. 
Tbiu sricf HiJI mada upon the heela of pleaaure. 

Conchbvb: TAiO'dBa4:Ai/rr,Aar.,St.i. 

'm'n and Jmlltl. Act U., Sc. * 

BUok and White, — i.^., black ink and while paper. To put a thing down 
In black and while is lo pieservc it in print or in writing. The phrase is at 
least as old as Ben Jonson's time : 

Iha.eithQt in black and wiavciJ%iU tni Huvamnl^.—Kvtry Mtninkii Htimnr, 

There is a current phrase for a paradoxical or illogical reasoner, " He Would 
try lo prove liiat black is while." Curiously enough, in the etymological sense 
black u white. The word black (Anglo-Saxon bloc, Uaec) is Tunda men tally 
the same as the old German black, now only to be found in two or three com- 
pounds. — t.g., Btaehfild, a level lield. It meant originally level, bare, and was 
used to denote black, bare of color. But the nasalised form of black is blank, 
which also meant originally bate, and was used in the sense of white, because 
while is (apparently) bate of color. 

Black Box. When Chatles II, was king and the Duke of York heir 
presumptive, a large party of the common people wished to have the Duke 
of Monmouth, Charles's putative son, recognized as heir to the crown, and a 
legend was started that there existed somewhere a black box containing a 
written marriage contract between the king and Monmouth's mother, the 
"bold, brown, and beautiful" Lucy Waiters. In " Lorna Doone," John Ridd 
says of his mother, " She often declared that il would be as famous in history 
as the Rye House, or the meal-tub, or Ihe great black box, in which she was 


Black Monday. The name given to a memorable Easter Monday in the 
year 1351, which was very dark and misty. A great deal of hail fell, and the 
cold is said to have been so intense that hundreds died from its effects. The 
name afterwards came to be applied to the Monday after Easter of each 
year. It is also a school-boy term for the Monday on which school reopens 
after vacation. 

Black Watch. The name by which the Forty-Second Highlanders are 
familiarly known in the British army. Among the many deeds of daring per- 
formed by them in recent wars three stand out pre-eminent. They were one 
of the three Highland regiments with which Sir Colin Campbell (afterwards 
Lord Clyde) broke the Russian centre at the Alma, on the 20th of Septem- 
ber, 1854. Thev formed part of the immortal "thin red line tipped with 
steel" against which an overwhelming Russian force shattered itself in the 
memorable attack upon Balaklava five weeks later. In the advance upon 
Coomassie during General Wolseley's Ashantee campaign, in January, 1874, 
the •* Black Watch" bore the brunt of the great fight at Amoaful, suffering 
severe loss in carrying at the point of the bayonet a thick wood held by na- 
tive sharp-shooters. Indeed, they have fully obeyed the injunction with which 
their chief led them up the Alma hillside : "Now, my men, make me proud 
of the Highland Brigade." 

Blarney literally means a little field (Irish blarna^ diminutive of blar^ a 
*' field"). Its popular signification of flattery, palavering rhodomontade, or 
wheedling eloquence may have originated in Lord Clancarty's frequent promises, 
when the prisoner of Sir George Carew, to surrender his strong castle of Blarney 
to the soldiers of the queen, and as often inventing some smooth and plausi- 
ble excuse for exonerating himself from his promise. Blarney Castle, now a 
very imposing ruin, situated in the village of Blarney, some four miles from 
Cork, was built in the early part of the fifteenth century by Cormac McCarthy, 
the Prince of Desmond. No one appears to know the exact origin of the 
famous Blarney Stone, or whence it derived its miraculous power of endowing 
those who kiss it with the gift of "blarney." In some way it found itself one 
day upon the very pinnacle of the castle tower with the date 1703 carved upon 
it. It is now preserved and held in place by two iron girders oetween huge 
merlons of the northern projecting parapet, nearly a hundred feet al>ove the 
ground. To kiss it has been the ambition of many generations, who labori- 
ously climb up to its dangerous eminence. Sir Walter Scott himself did not 
feel degraded by following the general example. Like the famous toe of St. 
Peter*s statue ni Rome, the lip-service of tourists is gradually wearing it 
away. The date has already been obliterated, and the shape and size have 
altered so much that people who visit it at long intervals find it difficult to 
believe it is the same stone. 

I, in English and American slang, a euphemism for the infernal 
regions, from the flames which theologians are wont to describe. This is 
evidently the meaning in expressions like " Go to blazes !*' But in what looks 
at first sight like an identical expression, " Drunk as blazes," another ety- 
mology has been suggested, making it a corruption of Blaisers or Blaizers, — 
!>., the mummers who took part in the processions in honor of the good bishop 
and martyr St Blaise, patron saint of English wool-combers. The uniform 
conviviality on these occasions made the simile an appropriate one. 

Blessing — Curse. Walter Scott makes one of his characters desaibe 
Rob Roy as " o*er bad for blessing, and o'er good for banning." This same 
antithesis had already been put into proverbial verse form : 


Tod Iwd for ■ faletidiig;^ loo rood for a cunc, 
I wijh in my uul you were beueror wane. 

In the same trif Corneille said of Richelieu, after his death, — 

BllndnuD'B Holiday, a hunmrous locution, fotmerly used more widelj' 
than at present, to dcsignale the lime jiisl before the candles or lamps are 
lighted, when it is loo dark to work and one is obliged to rest, or "take a 
holiday." With 'ihe superior readiness of gas and electricity, the holiday now 
need be of infiniiesimal duration. The phrase is foinid as far back as 1599, 
in Nash's " Lenten SiufTe" \.HaH. Mite., vi. 167) : " What will not blind Cuptd 
do in the night, which la his blindman's holiday f" Swift's " Polite Conversa- 
tion," a mine of conlemporary atang, does nol overlook this phrase : " Indeed, 
madam, il is blindman's holiday ; we shall soon be all of a Color." 

Blookm of FITS, a phrase that became famous in American politics during 
the Harrison-Cleveland Presidenlial campaign (1S8S). The Dtmocratic man- 
agers made wide circulation of a letter alleged to have been wriitcii by Colonel 
W. W. Dudley, Treasurer of the Republican National Committee, lis most 
salient feature was a recommendation to secure "floaters in blocks of five." 
This was construed to mean the purchase of voters at wholesale rates. Colonel 
Dudley denied the letter, and instituted suits for libel, which were abandoned 

■'nrill, wc tuvclurc only a modilicaUon oTui old scheme. Say> Suida* uoder 
Ihe w«tl <iifa{f(r0Hi, " Tfaii ptkruc oriaijIHled rrom ihe pnclkr of bntung mer, by lens. 
Uuididdies for office, oc penom wiih a job to carry thrDuah, uied id deni oui iheir bnbes 10 
btocki of len." Anyiiu. Iht accuur of Sncntn. uuially hu the ditcredit of iiiiraduciiiE iha 
lyueoi bito Ibe courts, lad. u a renni commenuiuT leinulis, '' doubileis ■ jucymui would feeJ 

Stholm have always Ijeen in Ihe dark al»UI Ihe details of this scheme, and a monogiaph on 

vtry jpaicfully received.— M. H. Mohuah, Id a letter to N, V. Natiai of NoTemlKr 11. i88q. 

Blood la thiokw than wator,— if., a relation is dearer than a sttani;er. 
This phrase is aometimes ascribed lo Commodore Tatnall, of the United 
Sutes Navy, who assisted the English in Chinese waters, and, in his despatch 
to his government, justified his interference in these words. Somelinies it is 
ascribed lo Scott, who puts it in Ihe mouth oi Kailie Nicol Jarvie in " Guy 
Mannering," ch. »xvii. Bui Tatnall and ScotI were merely Quoting an old 
saw duly recorded in "Ray's Proverbs" (1672!, which was probably in common 
use long before. Blood stands for traceable, admitted consanguinity; water, 
for the chill and colorless fluid thai fluws (hrouch the veins of the rest of 
mankind, homines Aomim lupi, who take but cold interest in the happiness 
of a stranger. Water, loo, m our early wtilets, was symbolic of loo>'enes.'<, 
inattachmeut, falsity. " Unstable as water" is the scriptural phrase. Thicker 
■igniiies greater consistency and substance, — hence closeness of attachment, 
adhesiveness. " As thick as thieves." = as close as bad men when banding fur 
evil enterprise. Blood is always thought binding. Conspirators have signed 
their bonds with their own blood, as martyrs have their attestation of the 
truth. " He cemented the union of the two families by marriage," Is a stock 
phrase with historians. Quitting metaphor for physical fact, we find that Ihe 
blood as well as the hair ai oxen has been used to bind mnrtar together and 
give greater consistency than mere water, as is reported of the White Tower 
of Ijindon. 

The proverb may also allude to the s]iiritual relationship which, according 
lo the Roman Catholic Church, Is created between the sponsor and the child 


B of baptism. The telalionship by blood would 
Ihan one originating in wa.ter. 

Bloody, a vulgar intensive used in a variety of ways, especially by London 
roughs. Ur. Murray rejects all derivations which would imply any profane 
origin, such aa'sblood ur the very absurd Uy'r Lady sueeeslcd by MaxO'Kell. 
He holds that there is good reason to think it was at ffrst a reference to ihe 
habits of the "bloods" or aristocratic rowdies of the end of the seventeenth 
and the beginning of the eiehtceulh century. Bloody drunk must originally have 
meant as drunk as a blood; thence the adjective was extended to kindred ex- 
pressions, its popularity being greatly enhanced by its sanguinary sound and 
Its affiliation with the adjective in bloody murder, bloody butcher, etc 

Bloodj ohaain, To •bake bands aoroMi the. An American phrase 
which sprang up immediately after the civil war, among those peace-lovinfc 
orators, writers, and speakers who were anxious to obliterate all memories of 
the fratricidal struggle. People of an opposite temper were said to " wave the 
bloody shirL" 

Bloody shirt In American political stang, " to wave the bloodv shirt," 
sometimes euphemiied into "the ensanguined garment." means to keep up 
tbe sectional issues of the civil war by appeals to prejudice and passion. 
A probable origin of the phrase may be found in a Corsican custom nearly, 
if not quite, obiiolete. In the days of the fierce vetidelte — the feuds which 
divided Corsion family from family— bloodshed was a common occurrence. 
Before the burial of a murdered man tilt gridaia was celebrated. This word, 
which literally means a crying aloud, may be translated a " wake." The body 
of the victim was laid upon a plank ; his useless fire-arms were place<l near 
bis hand, and his blood-stained shirt was hung above his head. Around the 
rude bier sat a circle of women, wrapped in their black mantles, who rocked 
themselves to and fro with strange waitings. The men, relatives and friends 
of the murdered man, fully armed, stood around the room, mad with thirst 
for revenge. Then one of the women— the wife or mother or sister of the 
dead man — with a sharp scream would snatch the bloody shirt, and, waving 
it aloft, begin the vectn), — the lamentation. This rhythmic discourse was 
made up of alternate expressions of love tor the dead and hatred of his 
enemies ; and its startling images and tremendous curses were echoed in the 
faces and mutlerings of the armed mourners. It was by a not unnatural tran- 
sition that the phrase "bloody shirt" became applied to demagogical uiler- 
ancei concerning the Southern Rebel liorL 

Blua is a favorite adjective for the impossible in popular phrase and fable. 
The Blue Flower of the German romanticists represented the ideal, the 
unattainable; and in France Alphonse Karr has domesticated the similar 
expression "blue roses." " Once in a blue moon" means never. "To blush 
like a blue dog." an expression that is preserved in Swift's " Polite Conver- 
sation," means not to blush at all. More than a century earlier, however, 
Stephen Gosson, in the " Apologie for the -School of Abuse" ( 1579), speaks 
with similar meaning of "blushing like a black dog." Sometimes blue is 
used as an intensive. Thus, school-boys speak of "blue feat" and "blue 
funk," and the phrase to "drink till all is blue" is at least as old as Ford's 
"Lady's Trial" (1639). "Blue ruin" is a popular English epithet for an 
inferior sort of gin, and finds its analogue in the French "vin bleu" applied 
to thin sour wine. In French also, as in English, blue is a syi>onyme for 
despondency. "To be in the blues," "to have a fit of the blue devils," has 
its Gallic equivalent in "en voir des bleues" — a variant of "en voir des 
grists" — and "en ftre bleu," "en rester tout bleu," — all meaning to despair, tu 


meet with buffering or disappointmenL In English slang "to talk blue" ia 
lo talk immodcstl)'. " Blue blues" means hell, — probably from the sulphur 
a^iocialcd with ii. A "blue aptun" is an amateur statesman, from (he blue 
apron once boiiie by tiadesmen generally, — now restricted to butchers, lish' 
mongers, poullerers, etc 

BliM Blood. This term comes from the Spanish ctpieiuiun langre atiil 
applied to the aristocracy of Castile and Aragon. After the Moors were 
driven out of Spain, the aristocracy was held tu consist of those who traced 
their lineage back to the lime before the Moorish conquest, and especially to 
the fair-haired and lighl-complexiuned Guths. Their veins naturally appeared 
through iheit skin of a blue color, while the blood of the masses, contaminated 
by Ihe Moorish infusion and to lesser degree by miscegenation with neetoes 
and Basques, showed dark upon their hands and laces. So the white Span- 
iards of old race came to declare thai (heir blood was blue, while that of^the 
common people was black. Owing to intermarriage, there is very little 
genuine blue blood left in Spain ; but a Spanish family remaining peifeclly fair 
and purely Gothic, and holding position and rank for centuries, is lo be (onnd 
in Yucatan a( (he present day. 

In England, however, it was anciently held that the (hick and dark blood 
was the best. "Thin -blooded" or " pale -blooded" means weak and cowardly. 
Shakes|>eare never loaded words more heavily with significance thati when he 
made Lucio call Angelo, in "Measure for Measure," — 

Blue Hen'a ClUcluiia, a nickname for the inhabitants of Delaware. The 
accepted origin is that one Captain Caldwell, who commanded a Delaware 
regiment, was notorious for his love of cock- fighting. He drilled his men 
admirably, and they were known in the army as "Caldwell's game-cocks." 
The gallant captain held a peculiar theory that nu cock was really game unless 
it came from a blue hen ; and ihis led to the substitution of Blue Hen's 
Chickens as a nickname for his regiment. After the Revolutionary war Ihe 
nickname was applied indiscriminately (o all Uelawareans. 

Bine LiEtata, an American political term. When the British fleet lay off 
New London, Connecticut, during the war of l8i3, blue-lights were frequently 
seen near the shore. These Coinmodi>re Decatur, whose ships lay near by, 
attributed to traitors ; though, indeed, facta go to prove that no American was 
ever discovered burning one. Goodrich, in his " Recollections," says. " Blttt 
Lighli, meaning treason on the part of Connecticut Federalists during Ihe 
war. is a standard word in Ihe flash dictionary of Democracy." Again, " Con- 
necticut Bliu Lights are the K'iiily monster with which the nursing fathers 
and mothers of Democracy frighten their children into obedience — ju^t before 

Blue Noae, a common nickname for a Nova-Scoiian, sometimes explained 
as an allusion to the purple tinge not rarely seen on Ihe noses of Nova-Sco- 
tians, and presumably due lo the coldness of the winters ; sometimes derived 
from the Hlue-nose potato, a great favorite for its delicacy. Il is more prob- 
able that (he name of the potato was based on the sobriquet, and not vice versa. 
Hence Blue-nose potato means a Nova Scotia potato. 

Blae-Stockllit a humorous and rather contemptuous epithet applied to 
an authoress or a lady of any literary pretensions or attainments. With Ihe 
altered standard of judgment as to female education (he term has fallen into 
comparative disuse. In Ihe eighteenth century and (he beginning of the 


present it was very common. The familiar explan^|jon is that the term was 
first applied to a female coterie in Dr. Johnson^s time. But it is a question 
whether it arose at Mrs. Montagu's or at Mrs. Vesey's receptions, or what 
was the exact reason of its adoption. One story states that a Mr. Stillingfleet 
was one of the males admitted to Mrs. Montagu's evening parties, that his 
dress was remarkably plain, even to a pair of blue worsted stockings in lieu 
of silk, but that his conversation was so stimulating that in his absence the 
remark was frequently made, " We can do nothing without the blue stock- 
ings." • And thus by degrees the title was established This version seems to 
be supported by a passage in one of Mrs. Montagu's letters dated 1757, where 
she observes that Mr. Stillingfleet " has left off his old friends and his blue 
stockings, and has taken to frequenting operas and other gay assemblies." 
But in the ** Memoirs" of one of the greatest of all the Blue -stockings, Mrs. 
Elizabeth. Carter herself (published in 1816), it is said of Mrs. Vesey's literary 
parties that *' there was no ceremony, no cards, and no supper. Even dress 
was so little regarded that a foreign gentleman who was to go there with an 
acquaintance was told i4i jest that it was so little necessary that he might 
appear there, if he pleased, in blue stockings. This he understood in the 
literal sense, and, when he spoke of it in French, called it the Bas Bleu meet- 
ing. And this was the origin of the ludicrous appellation of the Blue Stocking 
Club." Hannah More, also, in the "advertisement" to her pleasant little 
poem "The Bas Bleu; or, Conversation," writes, "The following trifle owes 
Its birth and name to the mistake of a foreigner of distinction, who gave the 
literal title of the Bas Bleu to a small party of friends who have often been 
called, by way of pleasantry, the Blue-Stockings." Surely Hannah must have 
known something definite about the derivation of the title of her own beloved 
clique. She, too, states that the society used to meet at Mrs. Vesey's, not at 
Mrs. Montagu's. 

Blue, True. The fancy that blue was the color of truth, as green was of in- 
constancy, is a very anci^^nt one, dating back to the party distinctions in ancient 
Rome. In the factions of the Circus of the Lower Empire the em|>eror Anas- 
tasius secretly favored the 6^r^^n5, Justinian openly protected the Blues: thence 
the former became the emblem of disaffection, and the latter of loyalty. The 
idea appears very early in English literature. Thus, in the " Squiere's Tale" 
of Chaucer, we read, — 

And by hire bedde's hed she made a mew, 

And covered it with velouettes blew. 

In signe of trouthe that is in woman sene. 

So in his " Court of Love," line 246 : 

Loyondir folke (quod she) that knele in blew, 

"Vhty were the color ay and ever shal, 
In signe they were and ever wil be true, 

Withoutin change. 

•* True blue" as the partisan color of the Covenanters, in opposition to the 
scarlet badge of Charles L, was flrst adopted by the soldiers of Lesley and 
Montrose in 1639, partly under the influence of the Mosaical precept, "Speak 
to the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them fringes in the 
borders of thefr garments, throughout their generations, and that they put 
upon the fringe of the borders a riband of blue" {Numbers xv. 38). The 
phrase true blue now has a general application, and means stanch, loyal, firm 
m the faith. 

Boat, To be in the same, a proverbial expression, common to many Ian- 
guases, meanmg to be embarked in the same enterprise, to be in the same 
condition, especially if unfortunate. The words " we are in the same boat" 



were used by Clement I., Bishop of Rome (circa A.n 91 lo 100), in a letter 
lu ihc church of Corinth on ihc occasion of a dissension. The letter, which 
is still eitani, i« prized as an important memorial of the early Church. 

Kdi in oni boKi n both embarked be. 

HuMOH : Jmiith. iii. 1. 35. (.sB4). 

To meddle with other people's 

unshb£°'cW.:*.'V ■77(157;"'™ °" ' *' •P™""'™*''"' — »- 

BobolltloD, BoboUtlonlal^ derisive epithets Tor Abolition, Abolitionist, 
used by the enemies of the emancipaliuii movement in its early days. A cor- 
respondent of the New York Natien reniembered having seen the word bobo- 
lilioii at least as early as t8l4 " on a broadsheet containing what purported lo 
be an account of a boboliiion celebration at Boston, July 14. At the top of 
the bioadsheel was a grotesque procession of negroes. Among the toasts, or 
sentiments, were the following ; 

" Massa Wilberforce, de brack man bery good friend ; may he nebber want 
a bolish to he boot." 

" De Niied State ; de land ob libity, "cepl he keep slave at de South. No 
cheer 1 Shake de head I" 

" I>is year de fourth ob July come on de fifth ; so, ob course, de fourteenth 
come on de fifteenth." 

Book beer, a corruption of " Eimbecker" beer, its original home being 
the little town of Eimbeck, Hanover. So famous was il all through the 
Middle Ages that no other beer, nor even the costliest wine, could compare 
with it in popularity. Attempts were soon made to protluce it in other local- 
ities. Thus the remembrance of the original name was gradually losL " Eim- 
beck" became successively " Eimbock," " ein bock," and finally plain " bock." 
This popular word -transformation is already several hundred years old, for in 
the Land- und Poliieiordnung of 1616 a "bock meet" is reterred lo, which 
"should only be brewed lo meet the necessities of the sick." Pojiular ety- 
mology, of course, insists that bock beer means goal beer, bock being German 
for goat, and this fancy is perpetuated by the picture of a goal rampant, which 
usuSly appears on tavern-signs and other advenisemenls of Ihc beer. Tra- 
dition even furnishes a myth lo explain the phrase. Long ago, il is said, Ihe 
devil appeared in the guise of a goal 10 a love-sick and rejected swain, and 
taught him the secret of making bock beer for the customary jirice of his souL 
The people raved over the new decoction. The brewer prospered and married 
his sweetheart. Al the end of the stipulated lime Ihe devil appeared to claim 
his own, but was skilfully inveigled into a bock beer intoxication, and when be 
awoke from his drunken stupor he was glati lo sneak home without his prize. 
Bock beer, it may lie added, differs from ordinary lager only in that an excess 
uf malt is added to make it sweeter. It will not kee|>as long as lager. Brewed 
in January or February, il is placed on the market in April or May, and is in 
season for about a month. 

Bogtu, American slang for counterfeit, spurious, fictitious, which has now 
passed into general circulation. The amateur elymologist has made many 
interesting guesses as lo the origiu of this word, but none have any philo- 
logical value. Here is the most amusing and the most widely current, 
copied from the Boston Daily Courier of June 13, 1857: 

The ward"bogufl/' wc bdteve, i«a corrupilou of the ume of one 5drrArrf , a very compi 
indlvldiu] who, twenty yean o^o or more, did a irepkendoua tutinese in the way of supplymg 


tbe enat We« and pottioiu of the Soulhweat with ■ VBSt mmouDl of CDuniofeit bills, uid bUh 
dI bctituna buiki which never h»! HDy cxiMcikce dui of Ibe "forgtiive bmin" of him. the 

Mi iUDthc b^i of tbomning thr luliaa TamfX Berihtu lolhc mart hudy one of ^vw, 
ud hu biUt, uid ill other hub of ILke chumcler, were uoivenally ilyled bofui cuirency.'^ 

The earliest use of Lhe word bo far discovered is tecorded in Ihe "New 
English Diclionary" as occurring in Ihe Painesville (O.) Ti/i'^o^* of July 6 
and November z, \%z^. It is there a substantive, applied lo an a|)paralU5 for 
coining f^lse money. Dr. Muiray has a sly hit at the "bogus derivations 
circumstanlially given," but does not commit himself lo any. 

Boiled or Bllod Bhlrt, a white shirt,— especially when newly laundried,— 
a term of mild deiisiun, if not actual reproach, which sprang up among Ihe 
pioneer miners of lhe Western States, a "" '" ""' - 
than in the EasL 

.. _ _ .. „ ^ jward whml Ihey .. ._ .. _ ._ _ _...„.., 

Boodle. Therp are two American slang words spell Ihus, each distinct in 
meaning and apparently of different origin and etymology. The first and 
elder word, which now appears more ftequenlly in the intensified form caboo- 
dle, meaning a crowd, a company, is not impossibly derived from Ihe old 
English biMel. a bundle, and there is reason to believe that it is a survival of a 
former English colloquialism. F. Markham, in his " Book of Honour," iv. 3. 
speaks of "all Ihe buddle and musse" of great men. The later and now 
more common word, meaning money, and especially money gained by gam- 
bling, venaliiy, or ulher dubious methcKis, or employed for corrupt poMlical pur- 
poses, may be a form of the Dutch word biddel, which means " pocket" and 

But they wen rough in IhoK limes [ If * man wantefl ■ fi^t oo 
_ .__ j.i... .11 L. i_ J .^ ^^ wealoappear in piibJic in a irtliie l^ 
fdiiled. For thoK people hsEed uiilocr 




bu i 


.found 1 



grayish old 

.of in.. 


u he begin t. 



llhil hec< 

,Iion'- iu .11 1 

its deuUl ftom 1h 

uld like 1 


>le hoodie of 

D <] nmoDii 

ve no ^let), with 



: Profess 

hi would h> 

rives a 

nd child 




.pLendidly >hey wo. 


iguiiie society 





Book. "The best way to become acquainted with a subject is to write a 
book aboul it." This saying has been attributed both to Beacunsfietd and to 
Archbishop Thomson. But before the time of either. Lord Kames ([696- 
1^3), according 10 Tyller's Life, had advised Sir Gilbeit Elliot, who com- 
plained of a lack of information on a certain branch of political economy, 
" Shall I tell you, my friend, how you will come to understand il ? Go and 
write a book upon il." And over in France one of Lord Kames's contempo- 
raries bad given vent to exactly tbe same idea : " The best way 10 become 
familiar with any given subject is to write a book upon it." But a far safer 
rule is that propounded by the Autocrat of the Break fast -Table (p. 134), as 
applicable to writing as to speaking ; " Don't I read n\i various mailers to 
talk about at Ihis table or elsewhere P— No, that is Ihe last thing I would 
do. I will tell you my rule. Talk aboul those things you have long had in 
your mind, and listen lo what others say aboul subjecls you have sludted 
but recently. Knowledge and limber shouldn't be much used lill they are 

Book, Be-wate of tlie mac of one. A proverbial expression frequently 


quoted in Ihe Lalin rorm, " Cave ab homiiie unius libri." The phrwe is often 
allributed to Terence, but is not to be found in hU extant works. Probably 
it originated in the story of St. Thomas Aquinas, thus related by Jeremy 
Taylor : " Aquinas was once asked with what coni|>eiidiuin a man might beat 
become learned. He answered, By reading of one book ; nieanins that an 
understanding entertained with several objects is intent u])on neither, and 

Suuthey, in "The Doctor," commenting on this passage, says, "The man 
of one book is, indeed, proverbially formidable to alt conversational Agu- 
ranles. Like your sharp -shooter, he knows his piece perfectly and is sure of 
his ihoL" And he quotes the following lines from Lope de Vega: 

Co mo >u> diunXitnu 
Subiui loi bi>iiil>Ri nuu 

Johnson tells how he once met the poet Collins, after the latter became 
deranged, carrying with him an English TeslamenL " I have but one book," 
said tJollins, "but it is the best." This is alluded to in his epitaph in Chich- 
ester Cathedral : 

SiHuht OD one twoll hb 1roul>1c(l miod to real, 

Adq vilely dHmcd th« book of God [be t>«(. 

Sometimes the phrase is used in a derogatory sense. Thus, Edward Everett 

applies it " not only to Ihe man of one book, but also to Ihe man of one idea, 

in whom the sense of proportion is lacking, and who sees only thai for which 

he looks." 

Book-plate. A label bearing a name, ciest, morn^am, or inscription 

pasted in a book to indicate its ownership, as well as its position in a library, 
etc Mr. Leicester Warren, in his treatise on " Book-Plates," complains (hat 
the word is clumsy and ambiguous, inasmuch as it might readily be inter- 
preted plates to illustrate books. Abroad the term used is ex-librh, and he 
reereti that it cannot be domesticated. 

Book-plates are at least as old as Albert Diirer, who engraved several, the 
best-known being a wood cut designed for his friend Wilibald Pirckheimer, the 
NureniberE jurist. Other contemporarv engravers executed them. Beham 
made one tor the Archbishop Albert of Meniz, his patron, atiout 1534- An im- 
pression, believed 10 be unique, is in the Print-Koom at the French Biblio- 
th^que Nationale. In England the custom of using book-plates was of much 
later date, Ihe oldest yet identified bearing Ihe date 166S and the name of 
Francis Hill. The 63 is filled in with a pen. The whole number of book- 
plates ill the seventeenth century is very small, amounting only to those of 
thirteen persons, some of whom, however, had two. As to the name "book- 
plate," that seems to be of still later date, and cannot be traced back farther 
than the year 1791, when it is used of some of Hogarth's eiily engravings 
by his biographer, Ireland; though, twenty years earlier, Horace Walpole 
almost used it, — for he speaks of a " plale to put in Lady Urford's books" 
being engraved by George Virtue. Book-plates of an artistic or non-heraldic 
character are comparatively modern, not to be found, perhaps, before the 
French Revolution. Men fond of boohs were contented then with the 
plain name, if they had no crest or did not care to incur the tax for show- 


The interest of the pitle in communicated to the book, and Ihal of the book 
to the plate. But latterly an unforlunaie fad has sprung up for book-plates 
alone, book-plates dismembered from the books which give them an intelli- 
gibte »alue. and only leaving in the holder's hand a beggarly engraving of a 
coat of arms, such as he might have obtained out of an ordinary peerage. 
True, not ail plates are aimorial. Some bear only a name and an inscription. 
The earliest of these latter is probably Pirckheimcr's " Inicium Sapiencix 
Timor Domini." It is astonishing how many book-motloei are directed 
against the cultivated seekers of wisdom from books not their own. .Says a 
Saturday Reviewer, " We have in our possession a copy of Palev's ' tiothic 
Architecture,' on which the name and the address of ihe pious Mary Anne 
Schimmetpenninck having been given, we find a verse from Psalm xxxvii. : 
'The wicked borroweth and payelh not again,' — a sentence which makes us 
hasten to affirm that we bought and did not borrow the book." The same 
text reappears in Ihe books of other collectors. Another text frequently 
■elected as a motto is from the Parable of Ihe Ten Virgins : •• Go ye rather 
to them that sell, and buy for yourselves." The following lines, of uncertain 
parentage, are also great favorites : 

Si c|uii huiK Librum rapul Kelesnu 

PcTKai Ht temi AcheraDiLS undaa 

These verses remind one of the English distich which schiwl.boys are in 
the habit of scrawling in their text-books, not infrequently illuminated with 
a picture of a man swinging from what appears like a rudimentary conception 
of a gallows : 

Stval not ttiii book, my booot fricDd, 
For Umx Um gaLlowi will be your end. 
And what modern Diogenes was it who used to put in all his books, 

" Stolen from the library of " t In suave and gentlemanly contrast to 

these truculent mottoes is the inscription which one of the famous Groliers 
is said to have inserted on the fly-leaf of his books : "Jo. Gtolierii et Ami- 
corum." — Joseph Grolier and his Friends. Exactly Ihe same story is told of 
Michel Bigon, and il is further related that when that gentleman was cau- 
tioned by his librarian against lending his books, for fear of losing them, he 
replied, " I would rather lose them than seem to distrust any honest man." 
A mild and palatable caution was this one used by Theodore Christopher 
Lilicnthal {ciria 1750), who placed il under a picture of lilies surrounded by 
beet, — probably an allusion to his own name : 

LUii Don oucuiii led modo langii ipii.' 
And this was long before Darwin had promulgated his views as li> the 
ferti Illation of flowers by insects I 

The following macaronic bit of geniality is from the fly.leaf of a copy of 
Vligil. isSa: 

Ad vitam eienum, 10 \dt iever) k«ing«. 

I, originally the general name given to the larvi of certain 
ill«ecta which feed upon the leaves of books : hence a term for a great reader, 
one who, in metaphorical language, " devours books." Probably this use of the 
word has been influenced bv the directions which the angel gave to St. John 
in handing him the book with Ihe seven seals: "Take it, anil eat it up; and 


tan of duih-wucl: 

1, will 

.pou on iu hud. 



» Klin iuni«"wb 



\\ shall make thy belly bitter, but it shall be in thy mouth sweet ai honey" 
(Ra. I. 9). The Latin form, " Accipe librum et devora ilium," was frequently 
u^cd a» an inscription on medixval book-plates. 

bookwDrmi in now almost ejiduitvcLy known in the HcontUry uid dcrivmive meuui^ oT 

IDiu BS our cocknuches. They would sun «l Iht Ant QT lajn pi^t lUid tunnel circulAT faoki 
ihiougll the volume, *nd were cureed bv Ubnriana ma beilM audAX mA ^s * -' 

1>rown hard ilun ; anulher had a white Iwdy ' 

find'mal Their die«live powers, vfgirou. • 
modem booki. China day. pluld or Paris, 

Boom, ill Ameiican slang, the effcclive launching of anything with idat 
on the market or nn piililic atlentioii. The " New English Diclionary" traces 
this use of the word (irimarily lo a particular application of its meaning of "a 
loud, deep sound willi resonance," with reference not so niuch to the sound 
as to "the suddenness and rush with which it is accompanied.'" But there is 
noted as possibly modifying the me;ming "asaotialion original or subsequent 
with other senses of the word." The St. Louis Globe Demvenil claiini 10 have 
originated the expression in 1S79, when the Grant third-It 

The power of Ihc pr»i has neiEr been more lieiutUully iiluslnted ihan in the recent hiitory 

of ihe word " twom." Il waa always a j;ood. so' '■- — — * '^'- ^— *"— — ' :i.;i:-:— t--.- 

only recenlly been discovered. As applied 

10 human aflairs, and k> especial sigDilkance in a political tense, llie word was first m^ied 
lo (he Giani movement, which, on account of ita Wldden, rushing character, was aptly (enned 

but graidually (he wwd was taken into favur untU all the papers were lalliing about the Gnnt 
l>oom. Its use by the press made il poplar, and the people adnpied il. Then then came Ihe 
Sherman ttooni, Ihe Blaine boom. Ihe lilden Iwom, and many olben. Nearly even public 
man had a boom, or wanted one. From politics the word pasted inio general use, and we had 
the bllsines* Twnni. the wheat boom, the uxm boom, etc. A business-man remark td yesterday. 

WDDdeis how we ever got along without il. AIL this has Iven accimplished by a free and un- 
traiBinelled preu. Crteat as Itie innate capabiliiies of the word are, they might have lain dor- 
mant hundteth of years longer, as ttiey had already iain hundreds of years, if the preai. with 
iti mighty power ta dissemiDatuw, had not taken i( up and sent h iwoming through the land. 
Since the Ohio election one or two Democratic papen have lugKcsied that the word has an 
unpleasant loind, and ought to be done away with, bul it is evideni this auggeuion springs 

boom.— /if^^ll^f/uynraa/, Octo&r, iS;^. 

Borrowed Days. The last three days of March are known as " Ihc bor- 
rowed days." At Ihe firesides of the Scottish peasantry Ihe origin of these 
days is given in this quaint rhyme ; 

March said to Apeiill, 

The BrtlVl^em ^s wind^an "wet , 

The ihree ully hoggs came hirplin' hame. 
Borrowing. Sli3kes|ieare has summed up an immense amount of worldly 
wisdom in Polonius's advice lo Laeries ; 


Add bDrrowinjc dulLi (he edcc ^ hiubudry, 

^rfWrt, Act i..Sc. ill. 
The Old Testament rccogniies that the position of a borTower is humiliat- 
ing ; " The borrower is servant to the lender" (/Vot;. xxii. 7). " He that goes 
■•borrowing goes a- Sorrowing," sars Franklin, in " Poor Richard's Almanac" 
^^ >7S7i — > phrase that he cribbed Trom Thomas Tusset : 
WkD go«h i-boiniwing 
GD«h m-iom>wing. 

/iM Haadrtd Piinlt .■ /•mi. 
But Tusser himself was on); remoulding a proverb familiar long before 

Bosh, staiw for nonsense, fudge ; originally 3^ Turkish word meaning emfitji 
or luelai, it first appeared in England in 1S34, when it was |>opulanzed by 
Morier's Oriental novel " Ayesha." It is probably derived from the Arabic 
m&flih, "there is no such ihing," an expression much used in Yemen and 
Egypt for the single negative not, and in the Maghribi or Egyptian dialect 
corrupted to mtlsk, which by the simple interchange of m and b becomes bdth, 
the Turkish word. 

Battle-holder, the second in a priie-fighi, one of whose duties is to hold 
the watet-botlie, while another assistant sponges the principal between the 
rounds : hence llie term is sometimes extended to one who seconds or advises, 
or backs a person or a cause. In 1851. Lord Palmerslon told a deputation 
who watted npon him to congratulate him on the success of his effort to liber- 
ale Kossuth, thai the past crisis was one which had required much generalship 
and judgment, and that a good deal of judicious boltle-holding was obliged lo 
be brought into play. The London Timts made a furious onslaught on Pal- 
merston for thus using the phraseology of the pugilistic ring, and shortly after- 
wards Piauk appeared with a cartoon representing the noble lord as the 
"Judicious Bottle -Holder," — a nickname that clung tu him. 

Banta-ilm^ (Fr., literally, "rhymed ends"), a form of literary amusement 
in which rhymes being given the participants, they fill up the verses. Accord- 
ing to Menage, the notion of this frivolity was derived from a saying of Ihe 
French poet Dulot, whereby he accidentally let the cat out of (he ba^ or, to 
change the metaphor, let the public in behmd the scenes. Complaining one 
day of the loss of three hundred sonnets, his hearers marvelled at his having 
about him so large a coltectioti of literary wares, whereupon he explained that 
■hey were not completed sonnets, but ihe unaniculaied skeletons, — in other 
words, Iheir prearranged rhyming ends, drawn out in groups of fourteen. All 
Paris was in a roar next day over Dulot's lost sonnets. Bouls-rim^s became 
the fashion in all Ihe salons. Ladies impoaed ibe of making them U|ion 
their lovers ; the biaux-apriu amused their leisure in the same way. Manage 
himself confesses that he had tried and Failed. In vain Satasin attempted to 
ridicule Ihe fad in his " l-t U^faite des Bouts-Rimis." ll flourished apace in 
France ; it crossed the Channel in due course, and eslablished itself in high 
&vor with the more ponderous wils of Albion. 

There were public compelilions of bouls-rim^s at Bath, under (he patronage 
of Ihe blue*stocking Lady Millar, and all the ranli, beauty, and fashion of the 
place — the bcaui and belles, old dandies and reigning toasts — entered into the 
contest, and the successful competitor was crowned with myrtle. Mm. De- 
luiy, too, was addicted to bouis-tim^s, and very different people— Di, Priest- 
ley and Mrs. Barbauld (then Miss A ikin)— worked at them in the spare 
eretungt of their Wartingion Academy life. 


Maciula;, alluding with fine scorn to some of Fanny Burney'a frienrls at the 
time of her first brilliant dibul into literature, numbers among them " Lady 
Miliar, who Iccpt a vase wherein fools were wont to put bad verses, and Jer- 
ningham, who wrote verses fit to be put into the vase of Lady Millar." Let 
as treat more kindly these kinilly affectations of (he past Lady Millar's vase 
has a history thai i» nut unentertainiiig. When on a tour in Italy with her 
husband, Sir John Millar, the excellent, though addle-pated, lady had procured 
the vase at Frascati, It was an admirable bit of antique ware. I.ady Millar 
brought it home with her and placed it in her villa. Every Thursday she 
invited her friends to that temple of (he Muses, where she oflidated as high- 
priestess, and every one was expected to drop in the vase his or her versioti 
of the rhymes given out the preceding Thursday. Only one specimco of these 
effusions has survived, the composition of the then Duchess nf Northumber- 
land. The rhymes given were brandish, staniisk, patten, sa/in, tlic. felie, 
pfffing, muMH, Jeasi on, Batkeiulon. It will be seen that they were not very 
easy to fill m, also that the thymes are a little shaky. After all, making due 
allowances, the result was not so bad : 


I ihauld prefer jt buitcTed oiuffia, — 
A muAiD Jove liiDLieir maghl leaal od. 
ir eii witb MUlu HI fiaiheuiDD. 
In the " Correspondence of Mrs. Delany," the editor. Lady Llanover, refers 
to this amusement, and gives a specimen wiillen by Mrs. Delany in reply to 
words which had been sent her; 

When friendihip <uch u y«in our houn bleu, 
h KKXhet OUT cant, ud nukri nfflli^iion leu -. 
Oppreued by woes. Irom you I'm vat Id find 
' eign cure for my dmtmpered mind j 

-^ ran ^liA AsKtA,, .li>.^,i ../.... 'l.w« 

ABured <A fajihrul Ninny'i lD>e. 

« was afforded by Horace Walpole on 

So prevalent had the amusement become that, in 1814, the "Musomanik 
Society" was established at Anstruther, in Fileshire, Scotland, — the parent of 
numerous similar societies which cultivated this form of literature on a little 
oatmeal. These worthy gentlemen actually went so far as to publish a vol- 
ume made up of (heir improvised stanzas. Here ate three efforts based on 
the words /<W, scufflt, men, rugie. They are neither better nor worse than (be 


One would nippoK t, aiUy pen 

Are daily, houily, in ■ icuffle ; 

Have placid ICQipvn naui^i ca. 

Lul nighl I kfi my dak ud pen 
For in the mm i heud a Kuffl 

Bogarl. His talent for improvisalion seems 
lo jiivc iiccii vciy tciiii.iKduic. On one occasion certain uf liis friends, in- 
cluding Colonel ). B. Van Schaick and Charles Fenno Hoffman, determined lo 
put it to a crucial test Van Schaick took up a copy of "Childe Harold." 
"Now," he said, "the name of Lydia Kane" (a belle of that period) "contains 
the same number oi letters as a aunia of ' Childe Harold' has lines. Suppose 
you write them down in a column." 

Bogart did as he was tuld. 

" Now," continued the colonel, " I will open the poem at random, and will 
dictate lo you the rhymes of any stanza on which niy finger happens to rest 
See if you can, within ten minutes, make an acrostic on Lydia Kane whose 
rhymes will) be identical with those of Byron's slania." 

The stanza happened lo be the following i 

Toiirell one bloaltd chief'i unwholaam'e rtifn ! 

The r^ or npiu uid 'l'£°blTof Spain I 
And dotli the Power thai man adores ordain 
Their doon.nor heed the luppliul'a appeal T 
It all that dnperate valor acti id rain t 

The vnoan^ illi6^V°>"hV<irt. and maohood't hean at neelt 
Bogart cleverly performed his task by producing the following verse within 
the staled time : 

*' ' .'..I. -_---■-» «giii^ (hall rtign. 

31other holtii he 

hould your Tate lo courta your ateps ordi 
I would in vaio to regal JHttnp appeal, 
^nd lordly bishopi kneel to you in vaio, 
"■-- "-■--'i file. Love'* power, nor Churchmi 

Aidure 'galnti Love'i \um^t */) ur 
These are a Ceir specimens of acknowledged bouts-rim<fs. But suppose that 
all poets were as honest aa Dulol, as willing to yield up the secret of their 
inspiration. Do not the best of tliem have to seek tot their rhymes? A 
thought, perchance, having arrived at or about its sonorous harbor from (he 
sea, cannot gel in at first, but has to bob about outside till the tittle pilot-tug 
of some rhyme comes up with the steam up and the flag flying and takes it in 
tow to its moorings. Nay, may it not even occur, after one or two pilot-tugs have 
come up, a bargain cannot be made, or the bar is dangerous for the tonnage, 
and the vessel makes (or another port ? Are there not such things as rhyming 
dictionaries (the ingenious reader will perceive that we have dropped meta- 
phor for plain fact), and have we not the confessions of good poets — Byron, 
for example — Ihal they have used these helps, or that, in their absence, they 


have been giMl lo revert to a kind of mental substitute, chasing out « suitable 

rhyme to the word sanu, for example, by running through the entire a1|)habel, 
aim, blame, came, dame, fame, etc t Have they not even gone further and 
allowed the rhymes tu bring ihe thought into motion from the first? In her 
"Recollections of Literary Characters" (iSU) Mrs. Thomson tells us ex- 
pressly that this was CampTjeH's practice, and that he openly avowed he had 
written " Lochiel's Warning" as a sort of exercise in bouts-timis : ■• The 
rhymes were written (irsl, and the lines filled in afterwards, the jioet singing 
them to a sort of cadence as he recited them to his wondering ftiend." Otte 
can imagine the scene and ^ure to one's self the poet shouting, — 

L<Kh[(l. l,ochkl. Dw-dB-ow-a diy, 

Wdw-6w. OH-aw-«>v, OW-6W. ow urly, 

Leigh Hunt once had an article in the Libtrai wherein he proposed that ali 
poetry should be turned into a sort of bouts-rim^s. A number of words, he 
insists, are so invested with connected clusters of associations that they form 
in themselves a sort of poetical short-hand, and the mere succession of them, 
arranged in rhyming pairs, or as the ends of rhyming stanzas not yet in ex- 
istence, tells the stury almost as well as if the blank couplets or stanzas were 
filled up. Take these words : 

UwD tM«cb tuir Inc play 

Repeat them slowly, with a pause after each, and a longer pause after each 
four. Can you not conjure up before your mind a pastoral love-scene quite 
as effectively a<> if you had the five elegiac stanzas which these ends suggest f 
Here is a short poem which is complete without any exercise of the imagi- 
nation. The rhymes need no precedent clauses: they are heads and tails at 
In their simple way they tell the sad story of a common domestic 

tragedy : 

Joy. Boy 

FuD. Uuit, 

:t built up on the same plan by a modern French poet, M. J. 

Boireiy Boy, the typical New York tough of a -generation or two ago, 
named from the street which he chiefly affected, a well-known thoroughfare 
(Dutch bmairtrij, from iitrtaea, lo "till," to "cultivate," the street having origi- 
nally been cut through Governor Stuyvesant's farm). He rather prided himself 
on his uncoulhness, his ignorance, and his desperado readiness to light, but he 
also loved 10 have alleutiou called to his courage, his gallanlry to women, his 
patriotic enthusiasm, and his innate tenderness of heart. A fire and a thrill- 
mg melodrama called out all his energies and emotions. 

When 1 ftnt kiitw k. both Iht old BowerY TbtMt and ihe old »»-ay boy Hire in their 
Klnry. ll »a> about thai time thai Tha<;kermy. taking •ume notei in t^othim, hwl u to- 
coupler wilh the Boocry boy thai wemt to have liippcS into hitiory. llie cuHic uilriM had 
heard of the Howery boV. — ■■- -■ — — ■-' "■■- — ■— ■- — ■- "- 

...„ -bydnuit, and accoftcdhim with, "My frknd 


Pembroke, who said that Johnson's sayings would not appear so extraor- 
dinary ** were it not for his bow-wow way." Scott, in his Diary (1832), speaking 
of Miss Austen, says, "That young lady has a talent for cicscribing the in- 
volvements of feelings and characters of ordinary life which is to me the most 
wonderful I ever met with. The big bow-wow strain I can do myself like any 
now going ; but the exquisite touch which renders ordinary commonplace 
things and characters interesting from the truth of the description and the 
sentiment is denied to me." The Bow-wow theory is a nickname occasionally 
applied to the theory that human speech originated in the imitation of animal 

Boycott, a word much used by the Irish Land- leaguers, meaning a combi- 
nation that refuses to hold any relations, either public or private, business or 
social, with any person or persons on account of political or other differences. 
It arose in the autumn of 1880. Captain Boycott, of Lough Mask, Conne- 
mara, was agent of Lord Elarne, an Irish land-owner. His severity made him 
unpopular with the tenants, who petitioned for his removal. Lord Earne 
turned a deaf ear to all complaints. Then, in retaliation, the tenants and 
their sympathizers laid a taboo upon Boycott, refusing to work for him or to 
allow any one else to do so. His servants and his farm-hands deserted him, 
and if anybody undertook to assist him in any way, or even deal with him, that 
person was included in the taboo, his old friends cut him as an acquaintance 
and shunned him as a seller or a buyer. Boycott saw temporary ruin staring 
him in the face, when relief came m the shape of certain Ulster men, pro- 
tected by armed troops, who husbanded the crops. But the system grew to 
be a recognized institution for harrying the enemies of the Land-league, and 
so early as December, 1880, the Daily News records, "Already the stoutest- 
hearted are yielding to the fear of being Boycotted." The word, usually spelt 
with a small ^, is now applied to all forms of intimidation by taboo. The thing, 
of course, is not new. Napoleon strove to instjtute a gigantic boycott against 
England on the part of continental Europe. In a pamphlet called "The 
Example of France," by A. Young (1793), loyal Englishmen are advised to 
combine in a resolution "against dealing with any sort of Jacobin tradesmen." 
More primitive instances will be found m the citations below. 

And if it be so that the Kynge do a tresspass, as sla a man or swilke another notable thing, 
he schall be deed therfore. Dot he schall not be slaen with mannez hand, bot they schall for- 
bede that na mpn be so hardy to make him company, ne speke with him, ne come to him, ne 
giffe him mete ne drinke : and so for euen pure need and hunger and thrist and sorow that he 
schall haf in his hen he schall dye. — Maundbvillb : Travels^ ch. xxvii. 

Man cannot be adequately defined as a Boycotting animal. The lower creation also practises 
this art. The herd proverbially Boycotts the stricken deer ; sheep, birds, and even fishes, we 
believe, have the sense and spirit to shun the diseased or unlucky members of their society, 
and behave, to alter BUI Sykes's praise of his dog." quite like Hrish) Christians." In Europe, 
Boycotting flourishes most in Irish and " exclusive" circles ; out it is one of the chief institu- 
tions of primitive men, whose whole life is spent in Boycotting and being Boycotted. The 
part which the institution plays in the Mosaic law is well known, and so strmgent are the rules 
of ** undeanliness" that a great part of the community must have daily found itself marching 
to Coventry. Among contemporary savages a violent and almost excessive dislike of the dul- 
ness of family parties seems to have been uie chief agent, or one of the chief agents, in making 
this exclusiveness fashionable. Most members of the domestic circle Boycott each other 
habitually imder the sanction of terribly severe penal laws. To speak to a mother-in-law or a 
sister at any time, or a father-in-law or many other relations at certain fixed times, is almost a 
capital offence. — Saturday Review^ March xa, 1881. 

Brazil, As hard as. This, the Athtrutum tells us, is a common saying over 
a great part, perhaps the whole, of England, but if you ask what Brazil is you 
commonly receive no satisfactory answer. A Shropshire peasant, it seems, 
can furnish the information needed. There it means iron pyrites. It is well . 
known by barrow-diggers and others interested in the remote pas< that frag- 


..jC of Norden's surveys, made in Ihe reign of James l.,an enlry i>ccuis which 
has puuled more than one accomplished aniic^uarj. The place spoken of lies 
al a point where Ihc oolite formilion " puts in" above ihe lias, and the sur- 
veyor tells us thai at this place there is "one piece of waste lande there lo 
buylde a melting hows, for Iher hath bene sometimes a brass mine, as il 
seemeth." Copper was commonly called brass in (hose days, but it would be 
well-nigh miraculous if copper had been (bund in such a situation, (hough iron 
is al Ihc present time worked in the immediate neighborhood. 

Brio^-brmc. The " New English Dictionary," following Littr^, ascribes (his 
word (o a iouyy^wyaoi de bru el dt brac,yiV\c^ is analogous lo the English 
" by hook or by crook." Like that. i( probably owes its origin to assonance 
alone. Some fanciful etymologists, however, claim ihai brii in old French was 
■n instrument that shot arrows at birds, while int is from the word brecanler, 
to exchange or sell, the root of which is Saxon and enters into the word 
broker. Originally bric-i-brac seems lo have meant second-hand goods, but, 
ai these are usually found in old curiosity shops, the word came to mean odd 
and curious articles prized by collectors. 

Brick, in colloquial English, ajolly good fellow. This bit of slang can be 
traced to an historical origin. Flulaich, in his Life of I.^curgus, gives an 

. „f .K. ..;-;. „c -n ambassador from Epirus (o the cily of Sparta, who 

' ed greatly that Sparia was 

Is lack of defenMve works, 
morning, however, — for the 
Spartans rose at dawn, — the Epirole was awakened and conducted to (he field 
M exercise outside the city, where the army of Sparta was drawn up in battle- 
array- "There," said Lycurgus, "are the walls of Sparta, and every man is 

Which VODd four iqui^ to ill tbe'win'fihai blew. 

A-™ Ysri Wi^-IJ. 
BrldgewBter TreatlaeB. The name of these famous works is derived 
from Sir Francis Henry Egerton, Earl of Bridgewaler, who died in February, 
1839, and left a will ditecling certain trustees to invest eight ihousand pounds 

Ihe dispo! ' ' ■' "■■'■■ " .<.-.. [ 

to the person or persons 

when these persons were so selected they should be appointed lo « 
and publish one (honsand copies of a work "on Ihe Power, Wisdom, ami 
Goodness of God, as manifesied in the creation, illustrating each work by all 
reasonable arguments, as, for instance, ihe variety and formation of God's 
creatures in the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms ; the effects of di. 
gestion, and (hereby of conversion ; the construction of the hand of man, and 
an infinile variety of other arguments ; as also by discoveries, ancient and 
modem, in Arts and Sciences and the whole extent of Lileralure." David 
Gilbert was at (hat lime (he rrcsidein of the Roval Society, and he, with the 
advice of (he Archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, appointed 


the following eight persons, who accordingly wrote the Bridgewater Treatises : 
Dr. Chalmers, John Kidd, Rev. M. Whewcll, Sir Charles Bell, Peter Roget, 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, Rev. Wm. Kirby, and Wm. Prout. 

Brook of millions. A serious obstacle to the development of great in- 
dustries in Switzerland is the scarcity of coal in that country ; but the smaller 
industries, profiting by the streams and natural water-falls that abound, are the 
most numerous and active perhaps in the world. One little stream, the Aa, — 
a brook, indeed, about three yards wide, — supplies the motor force for thirty 
considerable manufactories within a limit of about four and a half miles, its 
entire length. It rises in the Pfaffiger-See, east of Zurich, and flows into the 
Greiflfen-See, and the difference between the level of the two lakes is only 
about three hundred feet. From the amount of wealth it has created, it is 
called Le Ruisseau des Millions . 

Broth of a boy, a phrase much affected by the Irish, yet not unknown 
in England and America. As broth is the essence of beef, a broth of a boy 
is the essence of what a boy should be, the right sort of a boy : 

Juan was quite a broth of a boy. 

Don Juan f viii. 24. 

Buokeye State, an American nickname for the State of Ohio, from its 
abundant supply of horse-chestnut-trees, commonly called buckeyes. 

Bucktail, a political nickname originally given to an order of the Tam- 
many Society, who wore in their hats, upon certain occasions, a portion of the 
tail of a deer. When De Witt Clinton was running his eventually successful 
campaign for the governorship of New York, the members of Tammany were 
generally inimical to him. Hence *' Bucktail" came to be a nickname for all 

Backwheat-oakes are usually supposed to be a New England invention, 
and indeed within the last quarter of a century the American visitors to Paris 
have made the fortune of a spicialiti de buckwheat-cakes. But in very fact the 
cakes are of French origin, and those who like them may eat them to-day in 
their primitive simplicity as galettes de sarrasin at almost any village west of 
the Seine in Normandy. 

Bag-eatem, a term applied derisivelv to the inhabitants of Nebraska by 
travellers on account of the poverty-stricken appearance of many parts of the 
State. If one living there were to refuse to eat bugs, he would, like Polonius, 
soon be ** not where he eats, but where he is eaten." 

Bugaboo, Bagbear, Bogie. When the bigoted royalist Maitland blas- 
phemously asserted that God was but a *' bogie of the nursery," he unwittingly 
showed great philological acumen. To the eye of the etymologist, the bogie 
with which nurses are wont to terrify their intant charges is, when divested of 
its traditional meaning, identical with the Slavonic B6g and the Baga of the 
cuneiform inscriptions, both names for the Supreme Being, which, by gradual 
alterations and corruptions, have given rise to an infinite number of terms 
for supernatural (and usually unpleasant) l^eings. Thus, on the one hand, we 
have the Icelandic /«>(/, or demon, the Gothic puke^ or spectre, the English 
Puck, etc., and, on the other, the familiar bug, bogie, bugbear, bugaboo, etc. 
** Such," says Prof. Fiske, " is the irony of fate towards a deposed deity !" 
From having figured as the unclouded sun and the chief of all the gods, the 
supreme majesty of deity is in English but the name of an ugly ludicrous 
fiend, a scarecrow, or, at the best, a harmless goblin. The Deity has, in ^'ery 
truth, become the bogie of the nursery. 



Very eirly in the history of the r»ce mothers discovered the o 
or frightening (heir offipring into good behavior. Giblioii tells us that 
"Narsca was the formidable sound with which the Syrian mothers were 
accustomed to terrify liieir infants." Speaking of Richard Cceur de Lion, 
the same writer says, 'VThe memory of this lion-hearted prince, at the dis. 
latice of sixty years, wa!i celebrated in proverbial sayings by the grandsons of 
the Turks and Saracens against whom he had fought ; his tremendous name 
was employed by the Syrian mothers to silence their infants ; and if a horse 
iuddenly slarted from the way, his rider was wont to exclaim, ' Dost thou 
think King Richard is in (hat bush T" 

Still another name used for a similar purpose is mentioned by Gibbon, — 
Huniades, titular King of Kungary in the middle of the fifteenth century : 
*' Hy the Turks, who ernptoyed nis name to frighten their perverse children, 
he was corruptly denominated 'Jancus Lain, or The Wicked.'" The intelli- 
gence, or want of intelligence, of English nurses has been productive of in^ 
numerable bogies. To say nothing of the ancient Raw Head and Bloody 
Boiiea (which occurs in " Hudibras"), we may gather from the following extract 
from Reginald Scot's " Uiscoverie of Witchcraft" the names of a few of the 
bogies used to torment little children within the Elizabethan age. 

" I" our childhood," says .Scot, "our mothers' maids have so terrified us 
with an ugly devil having horns on his head, fire in his mouth, and a tail 
at his back, eyes like a Dasin, fangs like a dog. claws like a bear, a skin 
like a negro, and voice roaring like a lion, whereby we start and are afraid 
when we hear one cry, Uuh ) and they have so frayed us with bull-beggars, 
spirits, witches, urchins, elves, hags, fairies, satyrs, pans, faunes, syTvans, 
K.itl-wiih-the-candleMick. tritons. centaurs, dwarfs, giants, imps, calcars, con- 
jurers, nymphs, changelings, incubus, Robin Goodfellow. the spoorn, the 
man- in. I he-oak. the hell-wain, the fire-drake, the puckle, Tom Thumb, Hob- 
goblin. Tom Tumbler, Boneless, and such other bugbears, that we are afraid 

Sir Walter Scott, who quotes [his passage in his " Demonology and 
Witchcraft," explains some of these strange terms, but leaves it to a "belter 
demonologisl than himself" to treat them more fully. In "Hudibras," besides 
Raw Head and Bloody BoncH, another bogie is mentioned as being in common 
use, — namely, Lunsford. This was Colonel Liinsford, or Lunsforl, the gov- 
ernor of the Tower, and a man noted for his sobriety, industry, and courage. 
But Lilburn and others of the same parly gloried in malignine him in every 
possible way. Among other scandalous charges, they led the ignorant popu- 
lace to believe that he ate children. 

The I^iyalists affected to laugh at this accusation, and in the " Collection of 
Loyal Songs" it is alluded to thus; 

So also Cleveland : 

But Lilbuni was so far successful in his aim that, as has been said. Lun*- 
"> name became odious and was added to the long list of nursery 

lanks's " Earl of Essex" (a play ridiculed by Fielding in his 



''Tom Thamb the Great"), that noble lord was also used as a bogie during 
his own lifetime : 

It was enough to say. Here's E^sex come. 
And nunes stilled their children with the fright. 

Fielding substituted the name of Tom Thumb, though, as we have seen, 
Reginald Scot especially mentions Tom Thumb among the bogies of child- 
hood, — a fact which takes the edge off the intended satire. 

Napoleon — or Boney, as he was called in the nursery — has done yeoman's 
service as a bogie in England. Boneyparty is in itself a name with a good 
palpable English meaning attached to it, which can be understanded of the 
people. It seems to have a natural affinity to Raw Head and Bloody Bones, 
Boneless, and such other bugbears. Curiously enough, the Duke of Wel- 
lington has never performed a like service in French nurseries, though he is 
the hero of certain English bogie rhymes. For example : . 

Baby, baby, naughty baby. 

Hush, you squalling thing, I say ; 
Hush this moment, or it may be 

Wellington will pass this way ; 
And he'llbeat you, beat you, beat you. 

And he'll beat you all to pap ; 

And he'll eat you. eat you, eat you I 
Gobble you, gobble you — snap, snap, snap ! 

In another, the same kind-hearted gentleman is represented as being " tall 
and straight as Rouen steeple," and dining and supping upon a never-failing 
supply of "naughty people." 

It is said that Jewish mothers sometimes frighten their children with the 
name of Lilith. According to the Talmudists, Lilith was the wife of Adam 
before he married Eve. She refused to obey her husband, and left Paradise 
for the region of air. The legend is that her sceptre is still to be seen at 
night, and thai she is especially the enemy of young children. 

The "Encyclopaedia Metropolitana" boldly aeclares that our word *' lullaby" 
is derived from " Lilith abi !" (Lilith, avaunt I) But the inexorable Professor 
Skeat, who destroys all the charming old unreasonable and picturesque deriva- 
tions, will have nothing to say to this, and gives an explanation too prosaic to 
be recorded here. Lilith was so bad that it was not unfitting her name should 
be used to frighten little boys and girls. She furnishes one of the few instances 
of a woman being utilized as a bogie. 

Bull, John, a humorous personification of the British people, which origi- 
nated with Arbuthnot He is represented as a bluff, stout, honest, red-faced, 
irascible rustic, in leather breeches and top-boots; carrying a stout oaken 
cudgel in his hand and with a bull-dog at his heels. 

That pestilent personage John Bull has assumed so concrete a form in our imaginations, 
with his top-boots and his broad shoulders and vast circumference, and the emblematic bull- 
dog at hb neels, that for most observers he completely hides the Englishman of real life. The 
id<^ John Bull has hidden us from ourselves as well as from our neighbors, and the race 
which is distinguished above all others for the magnificent wealth of its imaginative literature 
is daily told — and, what is more, tells itself— that it is a mere lump of prosaic flesh and blood, 
with scarcely soul enough to keep it from stagnation. If we were sensible we should bum 
that ridiculous caricature of ourselves along with Guy Fawkes : but meanwhile we can hardly 
complain if foreigners are deceived by our own misrepresentations. — Lkslie Stephen. 

Bullet. Every bullet has its billet, — {.e.^ its resting-place or destination. 
In military parlance billet is an official order requiring the person to whom it 
is addressed to provide board and lodging for the soldier bearing it. Hence 
the proverb means that only those are killed whose death Providence has 
assigned. Napoleon was a firm believer in the superstition embodied in the 


Kfing. Thus, he said once to an officer, "My friend, if that ball were destined 
for jiou, it would be sure to find you, though you were to burrow a hundred 
feet under ground." And again at Montereau, in 1S14, he refused to retire 
from an exposed pusiliaii. saying, " Courage, my friends : the ball which ii to 
kilt me is not yel cast." When Nelson was warned by a lady not to expose 
himself needlessly in battle, he replied, "The bullet which hits roe will have 
on it ' Horatio Nelson, his with speed.' " 

Victor G»lbraiiti 
Hii lume «u noi sumpcd od IboK balli 01 lead. 

Mme. de ii^vign^ wrote, " Who can doubl thai the cannon-ball which could 
distinguish M. de Turenne among a dozen was loaded for that purpose from 
all eternity?" 

BoUa, Iriab and not Iriah. A bull i: 
Smith as "an apparent cnngruity and real 
covered." ('lever, yd not quite so clever as Coleridge : "A bull consists in a 
mental juxta))(isiiion of incongruous ideas, with a sensation, but without the 
sense, of connection." Sydney Smith goes on to point out that a bull is the 
very reverse of wit 1 " for as wit discovers real relations that are not apparent, 
bulls admit apparent relations that are not real." He might have carried the 
idea still further, and shr>irn that, while wit is acutely self-conscious, the bull, on 
the contrary, is born of a native humor, a coloring and dislurling medium ab- 
aolulcly unconscious of itself. Its perpetrator is fully possessed of his own 
meaning, but is uncon.scious of the literal and objective sense of his own 
wortls. When Thomas Cailyle said in his "Oliver Cromwell" that "some 
omissions will also appear in this edition," he knew what he meant, and so do 
we, — the understanding on both sides is identical, — but (he recognition of the 
inadequacy of the words to convey that meaning is with us alone. 

So much for definition. Now, what has etymology to say on the subject ? 
Very little, and that little not much to the purpose. It was once the fashion 
to derive the leim from one Obadiah Bull, an Irish lawyer residing in London 
in the reign of Henry Vll., whose blunders of the sort were notorions. But 
Chaucer uses the word " bole" (in our modern sense of a verbal mistake), and, 
as Chaucer died half a century before Henry VII. was born. Ma/ etymology must 
go by the board. And with it also must go the idea that a bull, either in 
etymology or in essence, has any inevitable connection with the Irish. Mr. 
Edgeworth indeed has written an essay on " Irish Bulls," which almost goes 
the length of asserting, first, that bulls are not Irish ; second, that there is 
no such thing as a bull. Without accompanying him to (his extreme, we 
might readily allow that other nations err in the same delightful manner, and that 
many so-called bulls are really not bulls at all, because they ate conscious and 
often successful efforts to snatch a grate lieyond the reach of art. And even 
the bulls that refuse to be classified under any more complimentary head fre- 
ciucntly result not from dulness but from extreme quickness of apprehension, 
the mind leaping to its conclusion without passing through the intermediate 
stages of the process. 

When Shakespeare speaks of a custom "more honored in the breach than 
the observance," or of making "assurance doubly sure," when Johnson warns 
you not to "sell for gold what gold can never buy," they utter what looks like 
.in absurdity to the purely logical sense, but the higher faculties refuse to 
recognize the absurdity, and gratefully occupy themselves in admiration of 
their audacious ajjlness. The same may be said of these other much quoted 
lines and phrases ; 


Adam, the goodlHW man of ncn lincc bar 

Thbomlu: n, DnUt Fali€kM<l. 
Foughi all hii banls o'er again, 

™' U>ivii"n: Alt Ai^tr-, hail. 

Rvoy moDumTnUl inicriplian shuuld be >□ Lalin; for Ihat being a dead lan)^agc il will 

The last eiamjile is more piiiperly a play upirn words than a bull ; yet il 
cannol lie [clegaled Ici the degraded deep of punning, because there is a play 

On the other hand, when Drydcn made his heroine say,~ 

the phrase is not a bull, because it is a conscious effort at antithetical effect. 
But as it foils short of its aim, as il is a step on the hither side of the sublime, 
we call it merely ridiculous, and feel that Dryden was rightly rebuked when 
the Duke of Buckingham shouted from his box, — 

Then 'ivotUd tK greattf if 'twere none At allr 

In his "Martinus Scribterus" Po|>e supplies an instance of the "art of 

sinkine," which is shrewdly suspected to be taken from his own juvenile epic 

of " Alcander." The poet is speaking of a frightened stag in full chase, who 

Id think) t 


lihited ili 

Bepwilfa (be tide of tublunary aBiin,— Alison : Rrvimi tf Giiiisl. 

I Hw Da cam iiuidiiiE in ticks ; a Ibing I never uw befnte. and would not have bdieved 
il had I not teen il.— Conrrr : Rnral XiSti. 

The auonitbcd Vahoa. •moking. am nil u be could, a cigat, with which he had filled all 
hit pockeu.— Wakkbh : Tti TTi^HianJa Vfar. 

An unmistakable bull [whose glory, however, belongs to the translation and 
not to the original) occurs in Isaiah xxxvii. 36 : " Then the angel of the I^ord 
went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore 
and five thousand : and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they 
were all dead corpses." 

Johnson quotes Goldsmith as complaining, " Whenever I write anything the 

Eblic makes a point to know nothing alraut it." Here is a true Hibernian 
II, which, after all, is the most perfect of its kind. To the right ]ierpeira- 
ticm of the bull there seems to go a kind of innocent and almost rollicking 


«rronghead«dncss, which has no real counierpart out 
Irish animal is lively, rampant, exhilaraling. like the aprighlly hero of a Spanish 
bull-tight, while English and other bulla are mere commonplace calves blan- 
dering along to the shambles. When Sir Richard Steele was asked how it 
happened that his compatriots made so many bulls, he imputed it to the effect 
of climate, and declared that if an Englishman were born in Ireland he would 
make just as many. Undoubtedlf he was right, though, for some unimagina- 
ble reason, the answer has itself been reckoned among llibernidsms. Swift 
was a case in point. Like Wellington, he might have answered that he was 
not a horse because he was born in a stable. Not a horse, undoubtedly, yet 
the influence of the sUble made him the father of many excellent bulls. In 
his lirst Drapier's Letter lie says, "Therefore 1 do most earnestly exhort 
you, as men, as Christians, as parents, and as lovers of your country, to read 
this paper with the utmost allenliun, or to get it read to yim l» others." Vet 
the bull was not new with SwifL It finds analogues both in his native and in 
bis adopted country. 

As Ferriar points out (" Illuslralions of Sterne," i. So), it is the jest-book 
story of the I'einplar over again, who left a note in the key-hole of his duor 
directing the finder, " if unable to read, to carry it to the stationer at the gate, 
now Messrs. Butter worth's, to read it for him. Grose, in his "Olio," relates 
it fur a fact that in May, 171(4, a bill was sent from Ireland for the royal assent 
relating to franking. One clause enacted that any member who, from illness 
or any other cause, should be unable to write, might authorise another to 
frank for him, provided that un the back of the letter so franked tlie member 
gave under his hand a full certificate of his inability to write. 

Let us apply the historical method to other great Hibernian masterpieces. 
Who does not remember the story of the Englishman who wrote in his 
letter, "I would say more, but that there is a d— d tall Irishman looking 
over my shoulder and reading every word of this," whereupon the Hibernian 
exclaimed, "Voii lie, you scoundrel !" Does not this story find its corollary 
in the anecdote of the German lady who, writing to borrow money of her 
sweetheart, added the following ingenuous postscript; "I am so thoroughly 
ashamed of my request that I sent after the l)earer of this note to call him 
back, but he had got already too far on the way," And is there not a kinship 
between both of these and the tale of the English lady who combated George 
Selwyn's assertion thai no woman could write a letter without adding a post- 
script, and next day sought to prove he was wrong by writing a letter and 
adding after her signature, — 

tent writing a letter home after the hour when all lights had been ordered 
out. " Add this postscript," said the terrible martinet : " ' To-morrow morn- 
ing I shall lie taken out and shot for disobedience of orders.' " The aide-de- 
camp wrote it down, and the king kept his word. 

There is a story told of an Irish gentleman who wanted to learn of an emi- 
nent singing-master. He inquired the terms. 

"Two guineas for the first lesson," said the maestro; "and for as many as 
you please afterwards a guinea each." 

"Oh, bother the first lesson I" said the inquirer: "let us begin with the 

Vet this may have l>een wit, — an excellent bit of fooling, not a bull. And, 
even if a bull, it is not a distinctively Irish bull. An analogue may be found 
in the story of the Englishman dining with Furson and others, who, wishing 


to contribute his mite to the conversation, aaked the proressor, " Was Cap- 
lain Cook killed on bis first voyage ¥' 

" t believe he was," said Porson ; " but he did not mind it much, but im- 
mediately entered on a second." 

Mr. John Dillon quite recently made a famous bull in the House of Com- 
miHia, when, speaking of his friends, he said that " they had seen themselves 
filling paujiers' grave*." This was an avatar of the remark made in the Irish 
House almost a century before by his great predecessor, Sir Boyle Roche ; 
" Why, Mr. Speaker, honorable meml>ers never come down to this House 
without expecting to find their mangled remains lying on the table." It 
finds a compatrkilic echo in this familiar story : " India, my boy," said an 
Irish officer to a friend on his arrival at Calcutta, "is the finest climate 
under the sun ; but a lot of young fellows come out here, and they drink 
■nd they eat, and they drink and they die : and then they write home to 
their parents a pack of lies, and say it's the climate that has killed them." 

Vet precisely the same confusion of terms exists in this sentence, quoted 
by the Paris Figan (February, 1890} "from a recent essay on French home- 
life in the last century :" 

We have tp^en of thai sangulnarr year, 1793- In ihcHF Imubfed limn il wu Itul 
Fmch domestici wet ui evHinpIt of ili« ertAleH d«volion. There vat many even who. 

Not entirely dissimilar was the bull contained in this obituary notice In the 
London Ttma: 

On the lU December, u 3, Elgin Creiceni, KentlDgion Pork. Cot, Williim Butney, K.H., 
one of Ibe very few uiivivon of the Penlniuk uid Wmlerloo, in his BSlb yur. 

Here we have the dead man represented as a survivor. He must have 

Nor yet perce» 

Bui Hill fought 

Sit Boyle Roche repeated his own trope in a speech on the dangers of ■ 
French invasion: "The murderous marshal-law men [Marteillaii) would 
break in, cut as to mince-meal, and throw our bleeding heads upon that table 
to stare us in the face." But, again, he was equalled, if not surpassed, by 
the contemporary orator quoted br Taine in his " French devolution," who 
informed a Parisian mob, *' I would take my own head ^ the hair, cut it 
oS, and, presenting it to the despot, would say to him. 'l\|rant, behold the 
act of a free man.'" This surpasses the miracle of SL Denis, for, in the 
original and more authentic form, that holy man merely thrust his head 
under his arm and walked a goodly distance with iL Careful hagjologists 
now reject the more recent elaborations that he kissed it on the way, or 
that he picked it up with his leelh. 

A number of other Irish bulls hold a sort of hilarious wake over the 
subject of death: that of a Hibernian gentleman who told a friend studying for 
the priesthood, " I hope I may live to hear you preach my funeral sermon ;" 
of another who expressed the grateful sentiment. " May you live to eat the 
chicken that scratches over your grave ;" of a physician who said oracularly of 
a murdered man, "This person was so ill, that if he had not been murdered 
he would have died a half an hour before," and of a lady who, in her will, or- 
dered that her body should be opened at her death, for (ear she should be 
buried alive. A parallel to these ghastly jests may be found in the anecdote 
of James Smithson. founder of the Smithsonian Institute. He had five 
doctors, and they had been unable to discover his disease. Being told thai 
)m case was hopeless, he called them around him and said, " My friends, I 


desire [hat jou wtll make a posl-marlem examination of me, and tind out what 
ails me ; for really I am dying to know what my disease is myself." 

When Garrick condoled with an Irish gentleman upon the recent death 
of his father, " It is what we must all come to if we only live long enough," 
said the Irishman. But the idea is no mure Irish than French, for when a 
Frenchman had built his ch&leau and completed the chapel tu it, he called 
together his children and said, *'I ho|>e we shall all be buried there, if God 
grants us life." And the London Sptilator puts in an English claim fur it 
when il quotes from the letter of an English clergyman soliciting a subscrip- 
tion towards the purchase of a burial-ground for his parish, which had grown 
to the dimensions of a small town with 30,000 inhabitants. " It is deplorable 
to think," said this clergyman, " of a parish where there are 30,000 people 
living without Christian uurial." 

It was a Dublin paper which reported in 1890 thai " the health of Mr. Par- 
nell has lately taken a very serious turn, and fears of his recovery are enter- 
tained by his friends." But a number of English pa|iers copied the statement 
without suspicion of the bull. And il was a London paper (the Timet') which 
thus concluded a eulogium on Baron Dowse : " A great Irishman has passed 

away. God grant that many as great, and who shall as wisely 
countty, may follow him." ■ ■ ■ .,.-,, 

which had this dubious 

follow him." And il was another London paper (the Teiegrapk) 

worship at Sidcup, Foot's Cray, and Chiselhutst. Lord Sydney, Anumier, o 
Wednesday, appeared much improved." 

story which has many ramiiicalions until it finally loses itself in 

■ly.' 'Donnelly!' 
Faith, no more is mine Hewins,' says he. .So we looked at each 

Greek root ; " I was going," said an Irishman, " over Westminster Krid] 
well,' says he, 'thank you, Donnelly.' 'Donneflj 

other day, and I met Pal Hewins. ' Hewins,' says I, ' how are you 
' '"' ' " " ' "Connelly 1' says I; 'that 

,' says he. .So we looke 
lylher of us ; and where's the ball 

of ttat, now )■• 

A similar story Is lold of Sheridan Knowles, an Irishman by birth, an Eng- 
lishman by adoplion. 

The names of Mark Lemon and Leman Rede used lo puiile him severely, 
and, as both were frequently Ixfore the public as writers (or the sta^e, he could 
never bring himself to understand which of the two was the subject of con- 
gratulation when adramalic success was achieved by either of them. At length 
he met Leman Rede and Mark Lemon walking arm in arm. "Ah," said 
Knowles, the moment he was close enough to accost them, "now I'm bothered 
entirely. Which of you is ihe other ?" 

Are nut the above identical with the query addressed lo Thomas Sandby 
by Caulfield. a pure-blooded Englishman; "My dear Sandby, I'm glad to 
see you. Fray is it you or your brother i" But Ihe same story had been told 
by Hierodes, the Greek Joe Miller. 

Nevertheless, we cannot take back out assertion that the finest breed of 
bulls arc Ihose produced by the Emerald Isle. Here is a collection of speci- 
mens that have excited the laughter of generations, and will continue la make 
chanticleers of our children ; 

" Has your sister got a son or a daughter I" asked an Irishman of a friend. 
" Upon my life," was Ihe reply, " I don 'I know yet whether I'm an uncle or 

An equivocal compliment was that of the Irish youth who dropped on his 
knees before a new sweetheart, and said, "Darlin', I love ye as well as if I'd 
known ye for seven years — and a great deal belther." 


" My <]«at, come in and go (o bed," said Ihe wife of a jolly son of Erin who 
had jusl returned from Ihe fair in a decidedly how-come- you -so stale ; "you 
mtist be dreadful tired, sure, with your long walk of six miles." " Arrah, get 
away with your nonsense," said Pat ; " it wasn't (he Itngth of Ihe way at all 
that fatigued me : 'Iwas ihe treadtk of iL" 

A poor Irishman offered an old saucepan (or sale. His children gathered 
around him and inquired why he parted with iL " Ah, me honeys," he 
answered, " I would not be aflher parting with it but for a little money to buy 
something to put in it" 

A young Irishman who had married when about nineteen years of age, 
complaining of the difficulties to which his early marriage subjected him, said 
he would never marry so young again if he lived to be a.s ould as Methuselah. 

An invalid, after returning from a southern t^il^ said to a friend, "Oh, 
shure, an' it's done me a wunuld o' good, goin' away. I've come back 
aiathtr man altogether ; in fact, I'm quite matif agen." 

An eccentric lawyer thus questioned a client: "So your uncle, Dennis 
O'Flaherty, had no family f" ■' None at all, yer honor," responded the client. 
The lawyer made a memorandum n( the reply, and then continued; "Very 
good. And your father, Patrick O'Flaherty, dtd he have chick or child }" 

In an Irish provincial paper is the following notice: "Whereas Patrick 
O'Connor lately left his lodgings, this is to give notice that if he does not 
return immediately and pay for the same, he will be advertised." 

Two Irishmen were working in a quarry, when one of them fell into a deep 
quarry-hole. The other, alarmed, came to the margin of the hole and called 
out, "Arrah, Pat. are ye killed iiHirely ? If ye're dead, spake." Pat reas- 
sured him from the bottom by saying in answer, "No, Tim, I'm not dead, but 
I'm spacheless." 

At a crowded concert a young lady, standing at the door of the hall, was 
addressed by an honest Hibernian who was in attendance on the occasion. 
" Indade, miss," said he, " I should be glad to give you a sate, but the empty 
ones ate all full." 

"Gentlemen, is not one man as good as another?" "Uv course he is," 
shouted an excited Irish Chartist, "and a great deal betther." 

"Pat, do you understand French?" 

" Vis. if it's shpoke in Irish." 

An Irish hostler was sent to Ihe stable to bring forth a traveller's horse. 
Not knowing which of the two strange horses in the stalls belonged to the 
traveller, and wishing to avoid Ihe appearance of ignorance in his business, he 
saddled both animals and brought them to the door. The traveller pointed 
out his own horse, saying, "That's my nag." 

"Certainly, yer honor ; I know that ; but I didn't know which one of them 
was the olher gentleman's." 

A domestic, newly engaged, presented to his master, one morning, a pair of 
boots, the leg of one of which was much longer than the other. 

" How comes it thai these boots are not of Ihe same length ?" 

" I raly don't know, sir ; but what bothers me the most is that the pair down> 
stairs are in Ihe same fix." 

An Irishman, having feel of different siies, ordered his boots to be made 
accordingly. His directions were obeyed, but as he tried the smallest boot 
on his largest fool, he exclaimed, petulantly, "Confound that fellow ! I ordered 
him to make one larger than the olher ; and instead of that he has made cat 
smaller than the other." 


Thai was a triumphant appeal or an Irish lover oC anliilllity, who, in aiding 
Ihe superiority of the old architecture over the new, said, " Where will you 
End any modern building that has lasted so long as the ancient ?" 

An Irish magistrate, censuring some boys for loitering in the streets, argued, 
" If everybody were to stand in the street, how could anybody get by ?" 

An Irishman got out of his carriage at a rail way -station Tor refreshments, 
but the bell rang and the train left before he had finished his repasL " Mould 
on I" cried Pat, as he ran like a madman after the car, " hould on, ye murlhei'n 
ould slame injin ; you've got a passenger on board that's left liehind." 

oflhesonsof the Emerald Is 

a great many have died this year that never 
died before." 

An old Dublin woman went to the chandler's for a farthing candle, and, 
being told it was raised to a halfpenny on account of the Russian war, "Bad 
luck to them 1" she exclaimed, " and do they fight by candle-light ?" 

An Irish lover remarks that it is a great comfort to be alone, " especially 
when yer swaleheart is wid ye." 

An eminent spirit- merchant in Dublin announced in one of the Irish paper* 
that he had still a small quantity of Ihe whiskey oi) sale vihuk wat Jmnt fy 
hii latt Afajesty while in Dublin. 

But the great protagonist of all bull -perpetrators was Sir Boyle Roche, who 
was elected member for Tralee in the Irish Parliament of 1775. Here, 
"through his pleasant interference, the most angry debates were frequently 
conclu<fcd with peals of laughter," He was known upon one occasion, after 
a witliering e^iposure or paltiolic denunciation of government, to say, with 
solemn gravity, " Mr. Speaker, it is the duty of every true lover of his country 
to give his last guinea to save the remainder of his fortunes I" Or, if the 
subject of debate was some national calamity, he would deliver himself thus: 
"Sir, single misfortunes never come alone, and the greatest of all national 
calamities is generally followed by one much greater." When some one com- 
plained that the sergeaiit-al-arms should have stopped a man in the rear of 
the house while the sergeant was really engaged in trying to catch him in 
front, Roche considerately asked, " Do you think the sergeant-at-arms can be, 
like a bird, in two places at once ?" Shocked at Ihe Itmfora el morei of Young 
Ireland, he broke out, " The progress of the times, Mr. Speaker, is such that 
liltle children who can neither walk nor Ulk may be seen running about Ihe 
streets cursing iheir Maker J" Arguing, on another occasion, in favor of sus- 
pending the Habeas Corpus Act in Ireland, " It would be better. Mr. Speaker," 
said he, "to give up not only a part, but, if necessary, even Ihe whole of our 
Constitution, to preserve the remainder." One of his most famous mats wis 
the imperious demand, '* Why should we put ourselves out of the way to do 
anything for posterity? for what has posterity done for us?" Supposing, from 
the roar of laughter which greeted this question, that the House had misun- 
derstood him, he explained "that by posterity he did not at all mean our 
ancestors, but those who were to come Immediately after thcni." Upon hear- 
ing this explanation " it was impossible." fiarringion assnres us, " to do any 
serious business for half an hour." A letter supposed to have been written 
by Sir Buyle Roche during the Irish rebellion of '98 gives an amusing collec- 
tion of his various blunders. Perhaps he never put quite so many on paper 
at a lime ; hut his peculiar (urn fur " bulls" is here shown .it one view. The 
letter was first printed in the Kerry Magtaiiu, now out of print: 

UEjm Sm.— Hmvlng nowii lilllc puce wd qnin. 1 lit dmni to i 
KuTiuioD wc jtrt in from the bloodthinty fcbw, piany of whom 


mfld daperted- Wfr AK In ■ pntty mcH ; c4D ^ DoduDg to cu, ud Do vine to drink uceiM 
whiilwy. Wtato wt til down to dinner we m oblig^ ta keep both bandi irmed. While I 
write t£i> letter I have my iword in one hud and niy pijtol in the cHher. I concluded ftnm 
the becuwi°ff tbV t^ll would be the end ; and 1 nm ri^hl, fbr Jl q not half ova- yet. At 
present there en inch goinn-OD that everything ii at d sland-AiU. I ihould butt nnowered 

aafe WLthoul being robbed. No loDeer nga than yealerday the Itiail-coach from ]>ublin wan 
rnhbed nciar thi» town : ihc hugs had beru very judiciDualy left behind, fcv few of accidents, 
and. by ^renl good lucli, there waA nobody in the coacb eitccpl two outside pasaengirta. who 
had nothing fat the ibicves to loltc. Last Thunday, an alarm was ^ven ibal a ^tang of rebda 

colon, nor any dnima eicrpt baifpipe^. Immediately evey man in the place. Including womrn 

half auc party were kliled we began to be all alive. Fonunatdy. the rebels bad no gum Eacepi 
piiloli, culhuKI, and pibs . and we bad plenty of muiketi and ammunliion. U^ pot tbein 

rs lilled with watci, aiid a bundre of 

And now let us conclude wilh a huly summary cif fatnous bulls whici 
It was a German orator 

it felt the truth ai this miehly subject lliundering 

lehly subjec 
nho remark) 

ige of fifty 
g through 

author should always write his own index, let who will h 
Ihe Portuguese mayor of Eslremadura who, in offering a reward for the recovery 
of the remains of a drowned man, enumerated among the recogniiable marks 
(hit Ihe deceased had an impediment in his speech. 

Edgeworth relates the story of an English shopkeeper wbo did pretty well 
in the direction of the bull proper when, to recommend the dm ability of some 
&bric for a lady's dress, he said, " Madam, it will wear forever, and make 

I a petticoat afterwards." This is quite equal 10 lb ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 

I only one end, because the other had been cut 

ming distich by Caulfield on the Highland roads 

If yoM tud accn iheae roada before they were tnade. 

It was Serjeant Arabin, a famous I^ndon justice, who once offered a prisoner 
"a chance of redeeming a character that he had irretrievably lost," and who 
told another culprit, " II is in my power to transport you (or a period very 
considerably beyond the term of your natural life, but the court in its mercy 
will not go %a lac as it lawfully might go." When Payne Knight committed 
suicide, the drug he had recourse to was the strongest prussic acid ; " I under- 
stand," Rogers notes in his diary, "he was dead before it touched his tips." 
The drag must have realized Arlemus Ward's injunction, "immediately if not 
sooner." Sir Boyle Roche himself could not have sarpassed these narlia- 
mentary utterances of certain English legislators: "Mr. Speaker, I boldly 
answer in the affirmative, — No," and, "Mr. Speaker, if I have any prejudice 
against the honorable menil>cr, it is in his fiivor." 

A hull that has won enviable notoriety is this American one, embodied in a 
set of resolutions said to have been passed by the Board of Councilmen in 
Canton, Mississippi : 

I, Resolved, hf Xbit Council, that we build a new jail. 


s. RoolvAJ, rhki (he new jail bebuUl ouiof dte niuerU1&i>f IheoldJ^Q. 
3- Remlvld, IhtU ll« old jail be used UDtU tht new jljl ii finwhed. 

Admirable ! The American eagle must have given a great cry of joy when 
Ireland was thus excelled in its own province. Bui, alas ! wisdom in its 
foolish way destroys the bliss of ignorance by showing that this was originally 
an Irish " chestnut." Grose, in his " Olio," Z04, records that in Ihe ordinance 
for pulling down ihc old Newgate at Dublin,' employing the old materials and 
rebuilding it on the same site, it was enacted (liat, tu avoid useless expense, 
Ihe prisoners should remain in ihe old Newgate till the new one was linishcd. 
A 11(1 this in turn has a lemute affinity 10 the mistake of the parly of Irishmen 
under James II., who, being detailed to fortify a pass against the advance of 
the English troops, discovered, when the work was completed, that they had 
set up the stockades the wrong way abnul, so as to secure the pass against 
themselves, t'erriar, who quotes this story from Ralph's " History of England," 
thinks this the most extraordinary of all blunders. Nevertheless, as a practi- 
than rivalled by Ihe action of the rebelsof 1798. Wishing 

lortence of Ihe Hon. John Ber"'""* "' — ""''" ' ' 

er of the notes issued by his ban 
and gloiificalion. burned them publicly in a bon^re. 
was heard praying fervently in the bank parlor for his enen' 
for him what his best frieiias had never thought of doing. 

And so our last examples are Irish, after all. 

I'his is usually considered 10 be an Americanism. But, like 
many other Americanisms, it is simply a legitimate descendant of an old 
Kiiglish word, bummarce, which may be found in Ihe " English Market By- 
Laws" of over iwo hundred years ago. In Ihe London Publkk IitUlligctKer 
of the vear 1660 it appears in several advertisements. Bummaree meant a 
man who retails lish by peddling outside of ihe regular market. These per- 
sons were looked down upon and regarded as cheats by the established 
dealers, hence the name became one of contempt lor a dishonest person of 
irregolar habits. The word first ap|>eared in Ihe United Stales during Ihe 
'jo's in California, and travelled eastward until duting the civil war it came 
into general use, meaning a camp-follower or straggler, especially as con- 
nected with General Sherman's march from Atlanta to Ihe sea. 

Bumper. One of ihe humors of etymology is the derivation that makes 
Ihe bumper the grace-cup in which good Roman Catholics, during Ihe ascen- 
dency of their religion in England, used to drink the health of the Anr pire. 
Unfortunately, the pope was never known as bon pire, but as saint pire,— holy 
father, rather than gcod falher. Besides, drinking from the grace-cup (a large 
vessel which went the rounds of the company after every repast, the guests 
drinking from it one after another) implied nothing eilraordinary, nor even 
inlinialed that the glass was unusually full. Now, a bumper is above every- 
thing else a mighty draught, brimming over. Indeed, in Ihe days of oar 
giandfalhers a distinction was made between a brimmer and a bumper. If a 
small particle of cork, dropped into the centre of a full wineglass, floats away 
to llie edge of the glass, this is a brimmer. Add a. few drops of wine, and 
the same bit of cork, if dropped in again, will take up a permanent position 
iu the exact centre of the convex circle, standing well up above the level of 
the biim. This is the true bumper. Murray cautiously suggests. " perhaps 
from Bump, with notion of a 'bumping,' i>., large, 'thumping' glass." 

Btuioa-ste«rer, in America, originally a sharper who "roped in" suckers 
for a gambling game called bunco, bul now a generic name for all forms of 
confide nee -men. Their method of procedure is suliiciently well explained in 



B«Mn( and Rice's "The Golden BultcTfly:" "The banco (nV) steercr gentle- 
man will find yuu dill the morning after you land in Chicago ur St. Louis. He 
will accost you — very friendly, wonderfully friendly — when you come out of 
your hotel by your name, and be nill remind you, which ts most surprising, 
- ~ --| eyes on his face before, bow you have dined l< 

gelher in C 
finds out wl 

n Cincii 

>r |)erhaps Francisco, because he 
(im last. And he will shakic hands wilh yuu, and 
d he will pay for Ihat drinlt, and presenlly he will 

and hide your blushes." 

A curious anlicipalion of ihc 
be found in Moliire's " Munsie 
both in league to " do" the hui 
Sbrigani has already scraped 

methods of the American bunco-steerer may 
ir de Pourceaugnac." Sbrigani and Erasteare 
est country genlleman on his arrival in Paris, 
in acquaintance when Erasic arrives on the 

/V-r. Vo, indeed. [ 7i 5»f -«■/.) I cui'ipl.c. him. 
Er^. Vou don'l Rmcmber thu 1 had the plcuure or L 

Piur. Pmy.ticuicme. llo ^Titaii.\ I don'l linow . 
Erat. Whu'ilheuoie or thai iDiikeepet It Limoga wl 
Fbur. Pelil.^anf 

ftl"' Tlic a^vvjiS IlK°)trtoM t" '™'' ' 
Em. Preciiely. Tfau'm where 1 piued luch pli 


««(■*:.] The.. 

rmber. [r.>S»>-ifai»'.) MiylhedevJL 
I hundff d ihiogi like thai which pui 

prighll, u 


'xiaa uf ihe church oT Now, whut't ihe nimH oT ihu churchr 

man I I doD- 
a.i.J He niinl 

And so the wily conspirators have their will. In England, too, some of the 
familiar confidence tricks were practised by sharps long before Ihe present 
era. Mere is corroborative evidence in Ihe " London Guide" of iSlfi^ which 
bpeaks as if the tricks urcre then well-nigh obsolete : 

Moncy-<Iropp«n are no olbcr thuk gunbirr* i 

"■ HV) \\\t dtopptr. " My "iggy 1 it Ibii i 
ja\ have ■ look » Jl." While he uufoli 

cliinu a title ID a ihan. '' Ndi yuu, indeed 1" repliei the finder : " ihii eecilcman i>u neii 

hii prioritv, the hnder declaEei htniieif no churl in the biuineu, oflen lo divide il itiio Lhire 
pans, and p<^n(9 out a puhSichouK at which ihey may ihaie (he conteDU aad dnnk over (heir 

Bunkum, an Americanism fur windy and inflated talk, 
clap'trap. The original phrase is said to have been " speaking for Buncombe," 
and its origin is thus given ; Felix Walker, member of Congress for Bun- 
combe County, North Carolina, was once making a long-wtnded speech, 
when, noticing the impatience of his listeners, he pauseiT long enough to 
inform them that he was not speaking for their benefit, but for Buncomlw. 
Though the story has become a classic, it seems pretty certain that bunkum, in 
the modern sense, was in use almost a century ago in New England, the pos- 
sible derivation Ixing from the Canadian Krencli " II est buncuin sa" (" II est 
bon cumine 9a"), " ll is good as it is." The phrase has crossed Ihe Atlantic, 
and is as tliuroughly accepted in England as in America. 

Bniidan'B Aaa, a famous problem of the medlzval schoolmen, named 
after its reputed author. Dr. John Butidan, rector of the University of Paris 
in 1347. The story runs that Queen Joanna of France was in Ihe habit 
of throwing her lovers into the Seine as a precaution against their blabbing \ 
but she made an exception in Buridan's case, who, in gratitude, invented the 
problem. What it has lo do with the matter has never been explained- The 
problem itself runs as follows. An ass is placed between two equidistant 
bundles of hay. Will he feed of one or the other, or, entranced by their 
opposite attractions, find it impossible lo choose, and so die of starvation ? 
It will be seen thai the whole ijuestion of free-will is involveil, for, if Ihe a»9 
eats at all, he must make a choice between alternatives of equal force. Many 
of the schoolmen, however, were for making him die of indecision. Others 
denied the possibility of Ihe balance. — which was no answer at all. The proUem 
antedates Buridan. Dante thus states ii in the " Divine Comedy :" 


So would ■ lamb bctwHn Ihe nvcnioEl 
Of Iwa ficrcF wolvb lUjid fvuuij[ Coch alike ; 
Aad so would itand a do£ belwccD two doa. 

Faradxu, Cuilo 4, lina i-4, Longfcllaw't tnuladoiL 

Danic died in 1^21. so he could nol have laken the thought from Buridan. 

It is nearly as unlikelv that a copy of the " Commedia" should have reached 

Paris and tieen lead by a scholastic who would have looked down upon la 

lingua mJgare as a mere palois. Both were obviously indebted (o some 

Burnt child feara the Oret A, a proverb common to most niodern lan- 

■£3'l fea^i 

nbblt had taid long bcTore. One bliten by • 

S^iri? ™' \^\ 

But m« no buta. This phrase may be found in Fielding's " Rape upon 
Rape," Act ii., Sc 1, and in Aaron Hill's "Snake in the Grass," Scene t. 
But analc^ous expressions ate frequent among the Elizabethan dramatists. 
Thus, Shakespeare says, "Grace me no grace, nor uncle me no uncle" ^Rich- 
ard II., Act ii., Sc 3), and " Thank me no thanks, nor proud me no prouds" 
KRomto and yulUI. Act iii., Sc 5) ; Ben Jonson, •' O me no O's" {Tht Can is 
AlUrtJ, Act v., Sc I); Beaumont and Fletcher, "Put me no pots" {Tkt 
Knight ef tht Burning Ptttlt, Act ii., Sc 5), and " Vow rac no vows" ( WU 
ailAiml Money, Act iv.. Sc, 4) ; Ford, " From me no fronts" ( Thi Lady's 
Trial, Act ii., Sc I) ; Massinger, " End me no ends" {,A Nnu Way Is Pay Old 
Drtts, Act v., Sc. 1), and "Virgin me no virgins" [IHd.. Act iii., Sc. Z) ; and 
Peele, •' Parish me no parishes" ( Tki Old fVivt^ Tait). Dryden uses a sim- 
ilar expression twice in " The Wild Gallant :" " Midas me .10 Midas" (Act ii.. 
Sc i), and "Madam me no madams" (Act ii., Sc z). Fielding himself was 
fond of the locution. He has " Map me no maps" in the play already quoted 
from (Act i., Sc, 5), and "Petition me no petitions" in "Tom Thumb" (Act i., 
Sc z). Scott, in " Ivanhoe" (chapter xx.), has i( " Clerk me no clerks ;" liul- 

"Elaine," makes 
Launcclol say, — 

Diamond mc 
No dlaolDDdi I for God's lovl, ■ lilUe air I 

Battons. A loul ftbove. a humorous phrase for one who is or fancies him- 

)e!f superior to his actual employment, probably arises from an expression in 
George Coiman's" Sylvester Daggerwood" (1808) : ■ My father was an emi- 
nent button-maker, but 1 had a soul above buttons. I panted for a liberal 


C the third tetter and the secondconsonant in the English alphabet, as in most 
alphaliets derived frum the Phaniciaii. But in the Phcenidan, as in the Greek, 
the value of the characlet was that uf hard g, — the Greek y. The early Laiins 
gave it aUo the k oi Greek ■ sound, represenling both sounds l)y the letter 
■iiig (he K character. When later they readopled the d' "' 

nd iBiioniii 
lunds, Ihej 

\Q the same character (< 
to its original and undiluted sound-sense, became uui G. The Anglo-Saxon 
•oflened the C befme t, i, and y into the sound of (h, the French into that o( i. 
Hence words in our language beginning with the soft sound of c are almost 
invariably of French, and those beginning with (h of Saion, origin. Excep- 
tions like cinder {Saxon sindtr) result from a coiiupled miupelling. 
Ily, ■' thai 

the cause of the American Kevolution when he was' Ihc nlinistcr of the United 
States in Paris, and it subsequently acquired wide celebrity as the refrain of a 
popular song during the Frencli Revolution of 1791 : 

[t will go, it will p>. ii will so, 
Hang Ihe uixocraU ID the Ump-poH. 
ThcKwordtfill. isalllnitpairiotiloveiDtcmfnibcr, rramthelipiiir FnokliDin the Dy- 

ii, Indeed, bad nc«i,->aid he. " bu. fi •"■SfJ''- '' *"' "JL""'"* '^^' !" ''" "■''■" *^''' 

were tAVen up by the aewqpapen, Ihey were remembered by the people, and id the (iark dayi 

■ubject of A vtirnng »De, which, lilj the Muinlkbe hymD appeared, had tio equal lo Fnjicc- 
— McMasiib : Hiilorf o/lhi PiifU s/lk, IMOtdMiUi, toL. ii. 

9^ Wit BMu dire, a familiar French locution, whose English equivalent 
might be "thai is a matter of course," or "that may be raken for granted." 
But recently it has liccome the tendency lo translate il literally, ''that goes 
without saying." and these words, though originally uncouth and almost 
unmeaniiig to the unpractised car, are gradually acquiring the exact mcaninc 
of the French. 

Cabal, a junto, a union of unscrupulous self-seekers to promote their own 
interests in church 01 stale, possibly in allusion lo the esoteric nature of the 
Jewish Cabbala. The name was given as a sobriquet lo the English ministry 
after Ihe Restoration. Thus, December it, 1667, Pepys notes in his Diary, 
"The Archbishop of Canterbury is called no more lo the Cabal, nor. by Ihe 
way, Sir W. Coventry, which [ am sorry for, Ihe Cabal at preaenl being . . . 
the King and Duke of Buckingham, and Lord Keeper, Ihe Duke of Albe- 
marle, and Privy Seale." Three yeats later, in 1670, a new ministry was 
formed, with the following members : Sir Thomas Clifford, Lord Ashley, the 
Duke of .Buckingham, l^rd .Jillngton, and the Duke of Zaudetdale. It will 
' n that the Italicized initials form Ihe acrostic "Cabal," a — ■ ■—■ 

dencc, which led to the bllacy that the word Cabal erew out of tin 
Burnet was the first writer guilly of this etymological blunder, at ' ' 
closely followed by olhet hisloriana, and by nearly all Ihe di 


Cnsai's wife mtut be above auaptcion. I'his phrase, according to 
Suclonius and Plutarch, orisinaled wilh Caesar under the following circum- 
stances. His wife Pompcia nad an inlngue with Publius Clodius. a member 
of one of the noblest families of Rome and a brilliant and handsome profli- 
gate. As he could not easily gain access to her, he took the opportunity, 
while she was celebrating the mysleries of the Buna Dea ("Good Goddess," 
a dryad with whom Ihe god Fauuus had an amour), to enter disguised in a 
woman's habit. Now, these mysteries were celebrated annually by women 
wilh the must profound secrecy at the house of the consul or prsetor. The 
presence of a man was a hideous pollution : even the pictures of male animals 
had lo be veiled in the room where these ceremonies were performed. While 
ClodiuB was waiting in one of the apartments for Pompeia, he was discovered 
by a maid-servant of Caesar's mother, who gave the alarm. He was driven 
oul of the assembly wilh indignation. The news spread 3 general horror 
throughout Ibe city. Pompeia was divorced by Csesar. But when Clodius 
came up for trial, Csesar declared that he knew nothing of the affair, though 
his mother Aurelia and his sislcr Julia gave the court an exact account of 
al! the circumstances. Being asked why, then, he had divorced Pompeia, 
" Because," answered Cjesar. " my family should not only be free from guilt, 
but even jrom the suspicion of il." (Suetonius.) Plutarch gives it, "Because 
I would have (he chastity of my wife clear even from suspicion." This was 
very well ; bul Cxsar had no mind lo exasperate a man like Clodius. who 
might serve his ambitious projects. The judges were tampered with. Clodius 
was acquitted. Cicero was enraged. "The judges," said he. "would not 
give any credit to Clodius, but made him pay his money beforehand." This 
eipressiiHi made an irreparable breach between Clodius and Cicero, lo Iheir 
mutual undoing. Clodius succeeded in having a law passed for Cicero's ban- 
ishment, demolished his house, and petsccaledhis wife and children. Clo<lius, 
on his part, was impeached 'in Milo, the friend of Cicero. The latter was 
DnsQccessful. But Milo and Clodius met, shortly afterwards, on the Appian 
Way. The servants of both engaged in a general fray, and Milo's lactioii 
triumphed. Clodius took shelter in a neighboring tavern, but Mito had the 
house stormed and Clodius dragged oul and slain. 

Caka, To take the, an American cidloquial eipression, applied to one who 
does a thing pre-eminently well, or, sarcastically, and more usually, to one 
who fails conspicuously. It had its origin in the negro cake-walks i-ommon 
in the Southern States, and not unknown in the Northern. The waik usually 
winds up a ball. Couples, drawn by lot, walk around a cake especially pre- 
pared (or the occasion, and the umpires award the priie to the couple who, in 
their opinion, walk most gracefully and are altited wilh the greatest taste. 
Hence Ihey are said " to take the Cake." — an expression which has attained its 
wide currency through the burlesques in the negro minstrel shows. 

Vet the negro cake-walk has respectable ancestry in the niedixval past 
Gerard's " Merball" (1633) informs us that "in the springtime are made with 
the leaves hereof newly sprung up, and with egs, cakes or tansies, which be 
pleasant in tasle. and good for the stomacke 1" and a contemporary, speaking 
of the strictness of the Puritans, says. " All games where there is any hazard 
of loss are strictly forbidden : not so much as a game of football for a tansy." 
According to Brand, in the Easter season foot-courses were run In the 
meadows, Ihe victors carrying off each a cake, given to be run for by some 
better person in the neighborhood. In Ireland, at Easter and Whitsuntide, 
Ihe lower classes used to meet and dance for a cake raised on top of a pike 
(kcoraled with flowers, the prize going to Ihe couple who held oul the longest ; 
and in some parts of England a custom prevailed of riding for the bride-cake. 
" This riding took platx when the bride was brought la her new habitation. A 


pole, three or fuiir feet high, was erected in front of the honae and ihe cake pnt 
on top nf it. On the instant that the bride set out from her old home, a com- 
pany of young men started on horseback, and he who was lortunate enough to 
reach the pule first and knock the cake down with his stick received it from the 
handsbf a damsel. This was called 'taking the cake.' The fortunate winner 
then advanced to meet the btidc and her attendants."— Rev. A. MaCAULAV : 
HhUay aHd Antiqttitits of CtaybTBok ^,\lmY 

Cake, ^Vby don't they «Bt? This i» said to have been the reply made 
by some very young and very ingenuous ^irincesa — variously nominated by 
the aulhorities as Marie Antoinette, the Princess de Lamballe, or some less- 
known persaii — when she was informed that there was a famine among; the 
poor, and that many were dying for want of bread. The American Notts and 
QHtriei (iv. loj) comes to the rescue of the maligned princess — wliom it 
asserts lu be Marie Antoinette — by explaining that what she really said was, 
" I would rather eat pie-crust (croAlims) than starve," And although the 
courtiers giggled, the laughers, says this authority, "are on the side of the 
princess, fur what she said showed her good sense and knowledge of the 
Tyrolese peasantry. In the Tyrol it was customary 10 prepare meat for 
cooking by first rolling it up in a 'breading' composed of sawdust, with a 
small amount of flour to give it coherence. It was placed among the embers 
and left to cook slowly. When the meat was ready to be served, the crust 
was thrown away or fed to swine. Certainly crofltons might not have been 
suitable for a steady diet, but nevertheless the princess was wiser than those 
who tell the story in Ihe ordinary form," 

' Cake, Ton omnnot have yonr oeke and eat it a familiar English 
proverb, of obvious application. It appears in this form in Heywood'l 
" Proverbs;" 

WDuld y<E both «l your cake and hive your cikc t 
And in Herbert's " The Siie :" 

Wuuldu IhDU both eal (hy c*k« ud have lit 

ComeL " It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for 
a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God" {MaU. xix. 24). This phrase 
has occasioned much controversy among commentators, many of whom have 
held that it is hyperbolical, and wanting in that propriety which usually char- 
acteriies Ihe metaphors employed by Jesus Christ Ongen and Theophylact 
leaned to the opinion that cable should be substituted (or camel, claiming that 
among the Hellenistic Jews naiai^a^ meant indifferently a cable or a camel. SL 
Anselm is said lo have explained it thus : " Al Jerusalem there was a certain 
gate, called the needle's eye, through which a camel could not pass but upon 
us bended knees and after its burden had been taken off; and so the rich man 
should not be able to pass along Ihe narrow way [hat leads to life tit! he had put 
off the burden of sin and of riches, — that is, by ceasing to love them." (Glossa 
apud S. Anselm. in Catena Aurta, vol. i. p. 676, Oxt trans., 1841.) St. Anselm 
might have gone fiirlher than this. It seems to be pretty well established that 
Ihe term needle's eye was frequently applied to a small door ur wicket in an 
Eastern town. Nay, such an application does nut seem unknown in the West 
Dante (PurpUsrio, Canto xv. 16) speaks of himself and his conductor Vergil 
crawling Ihroagh a cruna, — i.A, the eye of a needle, meaning a narrow passage. 
Nevertheless the question cannot be considered as settled. Taking the saying 
in its most literal sense, il is scarcely more hyperbolical than that other utter- 
ance of our Lord, "Strain al a gnat and swallow a camel." In any event 
Christ was only making use of a proverbial expression, Ihe comparison of any 
difficulty with that of a camel or an elephant pauing through the eye (rf a 


needle being a familiar simile to Oriental hearers. (See NoUs and Queries^ 
fifth series, ix. 270.) 
Shakespeare construed the passage in St. Anselm*s sense when he said, — 

It is as hard to come as for a camel 
To thread the postern of a needle's eye. 

Richard II., Act v., Sc. 5. 

Canard. This term, as applied to newspaper inventions, arose in the fol- 
lowing manner. Norbert Cornelissen, to try the gullibility of the public, 
reported in the papers that he had twenty ducks, one of which he cut up and 
threw to the nineteen, who devoured it. He then cut up a second, then a third, 
and so on till nineteen were cut up ; and as the nineteenth was eaten by the 
surviving duck, it followed that this one had eaten his nineteen comrades in a 
wonderfully short space of time. This preposterous tale went the round of the 
newspapers in France and elsewhere, and so gave the word canard (*' duck"), 
in the new sense of a hoax, first to the French language, and then to all civil- 
ized tongues. This story may have suggested to W. S. Gilbert his " Yarn of 
the Nancy Bell." 

Cardinal, from the Latin cardo^ a hinge, a name applied in earlier ages to 
priests and deacons in a metropolitan church who acted as a sort of council 
with the bishop. It was never exclusively appropriated to members of the 
Sacred College at Rome until Pius V. so limited its use in 1567, thirty-three 
years after the formal nullification by Parliament of the papal authority in 
Britain. Hence the title still lingers m the English Church, and to this day 
two members of the College of Minor Canons in St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 
are styled " the Senior and Junior Cardinals of the Choir," their duties being 
to preserve order in the services, administer the Eucharist, and officiate at 
funerals. Thanks to the secularization of church properties, other traces still 
exist in various parts of Protestant Europe of the old hierarchical nomencla- 
ture, — thus. Lord Abbot of St. Mary's, at Newry, in Ireland. The nomination 
of one of the sons of George III., while in his cradle, to a Hanoverian bishop- 
ric gave point, it will be remembered, to a passage in one of Burns's most 
characteristic poems. " It once occurred to me," says a newspaper writer, 
** to be presented to the Herr Abt and the Frau Abtin of a secularized abbey 
in the duchy of LUneburg. The Herr Abt was a friend and correspondent 
of Strauss, and the Frau Abtin waltzed remarkably well." 

Cards, On the. Roughly, this common locution may be defined as in the 
future, in order, within the range of probability. Thus, Micawber, in " David 
Copperfield," says, " By way of going in for anything that might be on the 
cards," etc Here the last part of the sentence is equivalent to his favorite 
locution, "anything which may turn up." An earlier use of the same ex- 
pression occurs in Smollett's translation of " Gil Bias" (1749) : " They wanted 
to discern whether I played the villain on principle, or had some little practical 
dexterity, but I showea them tricks which they did not know to be on the 
eardst and yet acknowledged to be better than their own." Here the phrase 
is not yet divorced from its original connection with playing-cards. 

Carpet. This is an old word for table-cloth, as tapis in French means both 
carpet and table-cloth. **On the carpet," therefore, originally meant laid 
on the table for future consideration. In popular English, *' to be carpeted" 
means to be confronted with a person in his own house. 

A ne^hbor was telling me that his son had become engaged to a young woman, and had 
suffered much in the ordeal of " askine papa." He said, '' He was carpeted before the old 
gcnUeman yesterday, and could get no sleep all night aAer it." — C. C. B., in Notes and Queries, 
seventh sencs, vii. 476. 


C&rpet Knight, — in allusion lo the carpel on which mayors, lawyers, and 

olhei civilians kneel wlieii receiving ihe honors of kiiighthotiil, — a |>er9on who 
has been knighted thruugh cuurt favor, and not in recognition of services in 
battle. By exiensiou the phrase is applied lo atl persons who have gained 
distinction without earning it 

tjarpet linLehu hr nicfa ■« hav« MudiedUw, physJC.Dr other utt or tciencF^, whenby tfady 
have become rBmaui, and Kclng Ihai (hey orr lun knighted u soldien, they are not thejcfore 
ta use ttie hDncDtan'B iLtte or spun ; they an only termed wdtply Jwijlff aiHj miiiUt." KDiabt" 
or" Knightiof theCupclry. ur " Knighii of the Grw Cloth." to diiiin|uuh them iram 
those knights that Hre dubbed u sotdien in the field.— Kat^uu HoLMb : AsaJtmy ^ Ar- 

Carry in« ont, an expression of incredulity or contempt, which seems to 
have originated in England about i^ito, but is now less common there than in 
the United Slaleii. It is sometimes elaborated into " Carry me out and bury 
me decently." or, "and leave me in Ihe gutter." An American variant once 
very familiar, " Carry me out when Kirby dies," has a history of its own. 

Gastlea In the aix, a proverbial phrase found throughout English litera- 
ture, Ihe Ursl instance noted being in Sir Philip Sidney's " Defence of Poesy." 
The metaphor is obvious enough. But the French equivalent, "chSteaux en 
Espaene" ("castles in Spain"), requires explanation. M. Quitard tells ns 
that the proverb dates from the latter part of Ihe eleventh century. When 
Henry uf Burgundy crossed Ihe Pyrenees at Ihe head of a great army of 
knights lo win glory and plunder from the Inhdels, Alfonso of Castile re- 
warded Henry's services with Ihe hand of his daughter Theresa, and Ihe 
county of l.usilania, — the latter becoming, under the issue of this marriage, 
Alfonso Henriquez. the kingdom of Portugal. So brilliant a success excited 
the emulation of oilier warlike French nobles, and set them lo dreaming of 
fiefs won and castles built in Spain. In further explanation, it may be added 
that previous to the eleventh century few caslles had been built in Spain, 
and the new adventurers had to build for themselves. 

lick, the saying, as it stands, is 

Cat The oat Iovoe Sah, but ahe la loath to «ret har feet This ii 

the proverb that Lady Macbeth alludes to when she upbraids her husband for 
irresolution : 

Another old English proverb reminds yon thai " If you would have the hen's 
egg you must bear with her cackling," while Ihe Puttuguese say, "There's no 
catching trout with dry breeches." Of the same kind was the good woman's 
answer to her husband when he complained of the exciseman's gallantry : 
"Such things must be if we sell ale." 

Cat, To bell the. To thwart or destroy a common enemy al great per- 
sonal risk. The phrase originated in .i^soji's fable of Ihe colony of mice. who. 
having suffered greatly from the stealthy strategy of a cat, met together lo 
devise a remedy. A young mouse suggested that a bell should be hung from 


Grimalkin's neck. Thus due notice of her approach would always be given. 
Great applause greeled the suggestion, until an olil mouse put the pertinent 
[question, " Who will bell the cat V The phrase has acquired additional 
significance thrnugh an incident in Scotch liistury. James III. had greatly 
iiritaled the old nubility by his friendship for artists, especially fur one Coch- 
ran, an architect, whom he had created Earl of Mar. At a secret meeting of 
the nobles ii was proposed to get rid of the favurite. Lord Gray, fearing that 
no practical result would be achieved, related the above fable. But when he 
asked, " Who will bell the cat ?" Archibald, V.3.i\ of Angus, sprang up and 
cried, " I will bell the cat" He was as good as his word. He captured 
Cochran and had him hanged over the bridge of Lauder, Afterwards he 
was always known as Bell-the-Cat. 

Cat, To ^blp the, an old English synonyme for practical joking, which 
takes its rise, by a species of metonyme, Ironi a certain practical joke formerly 
practised on country louts. Gtose (1785) describes it as "the laying of a 
wager with them that they may be pulled through a pond by 3 cat ; the bet 
being made, a rope is fijted round the waist of the party to be catted, and the 
end thrown across the pond, to which the cat is also fastened by a pack- 
thread, and three or four sturdy fellows are appointed to lead ana whip the 
cat ; these, on a signal given, seiie the end of the cord, and, pretending to 
whip the cat, haul the astonished booby through the water." 

Gat, Touch not tlio oat, but the glovs. This is the motto of the Clan 
McPherson (formerly and, it may be, yet in the Highlands, known as the Clan 
Chatlan), and is borne on the coat of arms of its chief, Cluny McPherson. 
The badge of the clan is the wildcat, formerly common in the savage moun- 
tain country amid which the clan has its home, where it is yet sometimes to 
be met with, and the mollo is meant to indicate that it \» as dangerous to 
meddle with the cat as with the Clan Chattan. The Scotch badge, the thistle, 
with its motto. Nemo mf impum lacissit, gives the same warning. 

Catch. This word is usually applied to what was formerly called a bite 
(see under BlTBR Bit) and now fretjuently known as a sell, and aliio to any 
other form of verbal trickery or jugglery whereby an unsophisticated person 
is brought to the blush or taken at an advantage. A very ancient form of the 
catch in action is afforded by the story of Dido's bargain with the aboriginal 
Africans, whereby she engaged for a sli|)ulated sum to purchase as much land 
as could be compassed by a bull's hide, and, cutting the hide into thin strips, 
the wily queen secured enough ground to build thereon the great city of 
Carthage. A similar story is told of William the Conqueror just before the 
battle of Hastings, and therefore, to be strictly accurate, before he had become 
the Conqueror and when he was simply William the Shyster. He, too, under 
exactly the same conditions, made a bull's hide encircle several miles of land, — 
namely, from Bulvcrhyihe (which the cunning etymologist would make .lynony' 
mous with Bull-hide) to Come-Hide-in-Ballel, for thither (says the same au- 
thority) (ami the kidt. The Bull Inn at Bulverhylhe is CManl to this day to 
corroborate the story. Therefore deny il at your peril. 

Catches of this sort have been familiarized to us by the swindling adver- 
tiser. For example, there is the story of the shrewd Englishman who offered 
to explain, for a very small consideration, how a good deal of money might be 
saved; and when the unwary had transmitted the fee he received the reply, 
" Never pay a boy to look after your shadow while you climb a tree to look 
into the middle of next week. Excellent advice, to be sure, but hardly 
applicable to every-day requirements. Another advertiser told his clients 
more succinctly, " Never answer an advertisement of this kind." If coun»el 


of this sort had been laken by the irorid at large, the eager agricniturist who 
enclosed a Tee fur informalion as to " How to raise beets" would have been 
spared the chagrin of receiving in relurn Ihe recipe, "Take hold of the lops 
and pull." 

A well-known story is that of Ihe showman who had a big placard on his 
tent, announcing that he was exhibiting a horse with his tail where his head 
ought to be. The inquisitive paid their money, were admitted within, beheld 
a horse turned around so that his tail was in the oat-bin, laughed shame- 
lacedly, and theu lingered outside the tent to watch their fellow -creatures get 
viclimiied in Ihe same way. 

The story of another genius is thus summed up in the Chie-igo Tribtim: 

" His history is lirielly told. After several days of thought he discovered a 

sure way of making money, and, like other men, he was in a hurry to try iL 

He made haste to insert an advertisement something like the following in 

several country weeklies : 

"Then he hired a dray to bring his mail from the post-office, and had 10,000 
of his recipes printed. Inside of two weeks something like 6000 or 7000 
farmers had contributed twenty two cent stamps each for the printed recipes. 
Then several hundred of them bought clubs and railroad tickets and started 
out to interview the advertiser. At his office they were informed that he had 
left lo attend to some business in Europe, and he was not expected bacL All 
he had left was a package of 3000 or 4000 slips of paper, on which was 
printed the following ; 

" Put your bug OD I ibisglt. Thru hil il wilh uKUhcr shinglE." 

In Ihe reign of Queen Anne Ihe "bile" became a regular institution, and is 
frequently alluded 10 in contemporary authors. 

Many of these " bites" were eniremely coarse, if not actually indecent. A 
verj bmous one was known as "selling a bargain." Ii is described at full 
length by Swift, and the curious are also referred to a sufficiently ample ac- 
count in Farmer's "Slang and its Analogues," tub vtci "Bargain." The 
modem catch, familiar lu bar-room loafers, is often a descendant of the gayer 
tort of bite. A lew examples of its more harmless kin may be admitted 
within the chaste pages of this compilation. 

Query : " How do you pronounce Casloria V When the victim has glibly 
given what he holds to be Ihe true answer and is looking round for applause, 
you quietly lake the Conceit out of him by saying, "Physicians pronounce il 

The point of this 

„ „ , . J>osing he be Caught 

young enough) looks upon il as a purely grammatical question, and lows sight 
of the malhemalical aspect Bui the wary questioner of, knowing that 
an innocent young enough lo be sold in this way is a great rarity, usually 
mystilies the unwary by giving the true amount and gleefully noting the efforts 
of^ the victim to correct Ihe mathematics ralher than the grammar. In the 
same way the questioner has a string in reserve when he twangs his bow to 
this effect : " I lost a ring in the river, A week afterwards 1 caught a big 
salmon, and when it was served up lo me what do you suppose I found on 
opening il ?" If the victim is forewarned and answers, " Bones," you quietly 


tire t-w^>?" Both qaeslions are answered corredlj. Now is your chancel 
"And how do you pronounce ihe second day of ihe week V There are a few 
people still lell who will unwarily reply, "Tuesday." A pendani lo ihis is 
only capable of oral delivery, for reasons ihal will be apparent at once. Ask 
a man to write down Ihe sentence " It is two miles lo Ijindon." He does so 
readily enough. Then confound him by asking him to write down this sen' 
tence, — which can no more be printed than it can be written, and must there- 
fore be phonetically indicated, — " There are two Ai's in that sentence." 

But enough of these puerilities. A task belter befitting the masculine 
intellect is that of learning the current "catches." whereby a man may inge- 
niously obtain a drink wilboul paying for iL Two very common ones must 
sulEcc The thirsty but impecunluus soul a])proaches the l>ai-lender with a 
request for brandy, or what not. He takes a sip, pronounces it detestable, 
and ofiers to change it for a glass of whiskey. The obliging bar-lender sub- 
stitutes the whiskey. The customer drinks, smacks his lips, and prepares tci 
depart. " Here," says the bar-tender, "you haven't paid for your whiskey." 
"No," is the innocent response ; "1 gave you Ihe hrandy in exchange for il." 
" But Tou didn't pay for the brandy." " But 1 didn't drink it" And while 
the publican intellect is vainly struggling with the mathematical puzzle involved, 
the punier makes good his escape. Another method is said to lie common 
with a thirsty but moneyless crowd in Western bar-roums. The spokesman 
hails a passer-by and asks him, "Do you know any German?" "Very little," 
is Ihe modest reply. "Well, can you translate Wat ■wolUn tie hal^nr' 
" Why, what will you have ?" " Thanks ; make it a whiskey straight," bursts 
simultaneously from a dozen parched throats. And the nian of polyglot 
information, it he have any sense of shame, will promptly acknowledge that 
the drinks are on him. 

A good instance of a common form of newspaper catch is chronicled In Ihe 
following gleeful manner bv the New York CemmerHal Aiti/irtiser (May 18, 
1SS9), under the heading ** the Sun Ceases to Shine :" 

riftHM Ynmi'wllhmlTwlt':"*'™ 

" TIkh w« • very old imn from Mirlwether in ■nenduicr « Pike Supcrioi Court lull 
week. He wti feeble in jippeannce, and, indeed, tome of hi* old acquainiancei uked him 

Dld.*^*notber'iemuluble fici coonectcTwiUi my r^^HnTciion iT^^ 

bom that way. WoDderful a il Duiy appoir. my youngett ton and e1d< 

DouMeu when Ihe }i« of Fetmiary comn 

It is not unusual with editorial wags to confound a literary aspirant by Idl- 
ing him that they have read every word of his poem, or what nut. " Where \" 
cries the indignant tyro. " In the dictionary." In the same way Barnum 
used to bring consternation into the hearts of his grocers by complaining that 
their pepper was half peas. When they protested, he would quietly ask, " How 
do you spell pepper Y and Ihe catch stood revealed. 

A number of catches have descended to us from an immemorial antiquity 
in the form of question and answer. Probably the best-known are "Where 
was Moms when his candle went out T' and " Who was the father of Zebedee's 
children r We will not insult our readers' intelligence by printing Ihe 
answers. (To be sure, in the second case it might tie objected that there 
is a auite unwarranted presumption that Zebedee^ children were more than 
" ... r ... hestnuls," whos* 


II last > Make the Irousers and 

What is that from which ;ou majr take away the whole and yd have 

Which would you ralhec, look a greater fool than you are, or be a greater 
tool than you look .' (Let the person choose, then say,) Thai's imposHible. 

Which would you laihec, that a lion ate you or a lieer ") Undoubtedly, the 
Eupposililious "yuu" would rather that the lion ate the liger. But he does 
not always "catch on." 

How do you spell blind pig in two letters ? P G without an I. 

When can donkey be spelt with one letter 1 When it's U. 

ir I saw you riding on a donkey, what fruit should I be reminded of? A 

What comes after cheese? Rats 1 

What question Is that to which you [xisiltvely must answer yes? What 
Joes y-e-s spell ? 

Catchpenny. A now recognized term for anything brought out for sale 
with a view lo entrap unwary purchasers. It originated in the year |SZ4, just 
after (he execution of Thurleil for the murder of Weare, a murder that cre- 
ated a gieat sensation. Catnach, (he celebrated printer of Uevcn Dials, in 
London, made a large sum by the publication of Thurtell's " last dying speech." 
When (he sale of (his speech began lo fall off, Catnach brought out a second 
edition, wilh the heading " WE ARE alive again !" (he words "wt are" being 
jirinted with a very narrow space between them. These two words the people 
took for the name of the murdered man, reading it " WEARE alive again ;" 
and a large edition was rapidly cleared oFf. Some one called it a " catch- 
))enny," and the wnrd rapidly spread, until Calnach's productions were usu- 
ally so styled, and the word was adopted into the language. 

Catbeilna, St. " Elle a coiffie Sainte- Catherine" (" She has dressed the 
hair of SL Catherine") is a familiar French piuverb applied to an old maid. 
There is a superstition in some of the provinces of France that the maiden 
who dresses the bride's hair on her wedding-day will surely become a bride 
herself at some future lime. Kut, inasmuch as Saint Catherine was the palton 
saint of virgins, (he maiden who waited /our loifftr Saintt-Catherini ntvtj had 
the opportunity ; she was destined lo die an old maid. 

A second and simpler explanation is to be found in (he custom of decorating 
the heads of the statues in churches. And inasmuch as only virgins would be 
selected (o decora(e the head of the giatroness of virgins, it was natural to 
consider ihis ofhce as in a measure the function of those who had grown (o an 
age when marriage was no longer a possibility. A witty Frenchman says, in 

; this period, " II y a certanies vieilles filles (|ui ont pasi 

e pas 

Cats and Doga. To raia. To rain profusely, to rain pitchforks. This 
slang phrase first occurs in Dean Swift's " Polite Conversation" (1738I r '* I 
know Sir John will f;o. though he was sure it would rain cats and dogs" [Dia- 
legvt II.). Is he quoting a proverbial phrase ? Or is (his an allusion to the 
Dean's own lines written in 1710? 


Now from all parts the Bwelling kennels flow. 
And bear their trophies with them as they so ; 
Drowned puppies, stinking sprats all drencned in mud. 
Dead cats, and turnip-tops, come tumbling down the flood. 

DttcHptum e^a City SJwTvtr. 

Cancns, an American political term, meaning a secret conference of the 
leaders or legislators of any political party in regard to measures or candi- 
dates. The conclusions arrived at by the caucus are considered binding on 
the members in all the public matters to which they refer. The usual etymon 
refers the term to a political club founded about 1724 by Henry Adams and 
his friends, — most of whom were shipwrights, sea-captains, and persons other- 
wise connected with the shipping interest. Hence the institution was known 
as the Calkers' Club. As its avowed object was to lay plans for introducing 
certain persons into places of trust and power, the word caucus may have 

frown out of a corruption of the name. Another less obvious but still plaiisi- 
le derivation is suggested by Dr. Trumbull ('* Transactions of the American 
Philological Association," 1872), who says its origin is the Indian cau-cau-as'n, 
which he defines as " one who advises, urges, encourages, etc." 

Catue, Thou Great Firat There is a line in Pope*s ** Universal Prayer"— 

Thou Great First Cause, least understood — 
which is persistently attributed to Milton. Even Charles Lamb seems to have 
fallen into this mistake, if Crabb Robinson be right, who records in his Diary 
that when he received his first brief he called upon Lamb to tell him of it 
'* I suppose," said Lamb, " you addressed to it that line of Miltoji, — 

Thou ^nax first cause, least understood." 

Caveat emptor (L., " Let the purchaser beware," or " take care of him- 
self"), an ancient legal phrase. It was formerly held that a buyer must be 
bound by a bargain under all circumstances. Chief-Justice Tindal, in giv- 
ing judgment in the case Brown vs, Edgington (2 Scott, N. R., 504), modified 
this ancient rule. He said, " If a man purchases goods of a tradesman with- 
out in any way relying upon the skill and judgment of the vendor, the latter 
is not responsible for their turning out contrary to his expectation ; but if the 
tradesman be informed, at the time the order is given, of the purpose for 
which the article is wanted, the buyer relying upon the seller's judgment, 
the latter impliedly warrants that the things furnished shall be reasonably 
fit and proper for tne purposes for which it is required." 

Caviare to the general, something above the intellectual reach of the 
crowd. Shakespeare makes Hamlet use the phrase : ** The play I remembered 
pleased not the million ; 'twas caviare to the general" (Act ii., Sc 2). Caviare, 
a preparation of sturgeons* roes, originated in Russia, and was at one time a 
considerable article of commerce between that country and England. In 
Shakespeare's time it was a new and fashionable delicacy, relished only by 
connoisseurs, hence the allusion. 

Celestial XSmpire, a title frequently given to China. It is derived from 
the Chinese words Tien Chan, — 1>., Heavenly Dynasty, meaning the kingdom 
which the dynasty appointed by heaven rules over. The term Celestials is a 
nickname of foreig^ manufacture, and S. Wells Williams, in **The Middle 
Kingdom," informs us that " the language could with difficulty be made to 
express such a patronymic" 

Cent, Not worth a. From a very early period the names of small coins 
have been used in popular speech and in literature to set a low estimate on 
some person or thing. Thus, in the old epic "Huon de Bordeaux" the 
•* amirsU" tells the hero, — 

G i 13 


which, translaled into good American, would read, "All the Karoe, I won't do 
il, nor do I caie Cor your god woilh a cent." The expression is continually 
met with both in 'I'rouvirc and in Troubadour literature. The Germans say, 
" 1 wouldn't give a red heller Tor it" {" Ich gabe keincn rothen Heller daftir"), a 
curious analogue to our "red cent." Englishmen say, "not worth a far- 
thing," and use "twopenny" as an adjective of extreme contempt. The still 
more common phrase "not worth a dam" is in all probability of analogous 
origin. It was fiisl used by Englishmen trading in the East, and is held to 
be an allusion to the d&m. a small brass coin current in Persia and in India, 
equivaleiil in value to one-fortieth of a rupee, or about a cent. In England, 
owing lu igniitance of its origin and meaning, it suRcied orthographical pro- 
fanation, and came to signify a thing of so small account as not to be worth 
the waste of breath involved in damning it The American phrase "Not 
worth a continental dam" would be nonsense unless we rec<%nlied that at 
the time when lirst used some faint memory of its original meaning still 
clung to the word dilm, 

Certnm eat quia Impooaibile (1., " It is certain because it is impossi- 
ble"). This paradoxical declaration of an overruling faith occurs in Terlul- 
lian's treatise " De Carne Chrisli," § 4. The content is as follows : " Natns 
est Dei Alius: non pudel, quia pudendum est. Et mortuus est Dei filius; 
prorsus credibile est, quia ineptum est. Et sepultus, resurtexil : etrtum tsl, 
quia impBisibUi. Sed hsec quomodo in illo vera etunt si ipsi non fuit verus, 
— c habuit in se quod ligeretur, quod moreretut, quod sepeliretur et 

resuscitarelur." Sir Thomas Browne was fond of quoting this expression 
Thus, in " Reiigio Medici," Part i., § 9, " I learned of Tertullian cerium est quiL 
impossibile est 1 learned to exercise my faith in the difflcultest point ; lor 
to credit ordinary and visible objects is not faith, but persuasion." But Til- 
lotsim (Sermons, cxl.) expressly disagrees with Sir Thomas; "I know not what 
some men may find in themselves 1 but I must freely acknowledge that I could 
never yet attain to that bold and hardy degree of faith as to believe anything 
for this reason, because it was impossible. So that 1 am very far from being 
of his mind, that wanted, not only more difficulties, but even impossibilities, 
in the Christian religion, to exercise his faith upon." Naturally the entire 
school of eipeiimental philosophers, to whom faith is synonymous with cre- 
dulity, condemn the saying. "When one thinks," says Huxley, "ihal such 
delicate questions as those involved fell into the hands of men like Papias 
(who believed in the famous millenarian giape atoty) ; of Irenaeus with his 
'reasons' fur the existence of only four gospels ; and of such calm and dis- 
passionate judges as Tertullian, with his Creiio quia imposdHU, the marvel is 
that the selection which constitutes our New Tesiament is as free as it is from 
obvious objectionable maiter." It will be seen that Huxley substitutes crtde 
for ctrhim tsl. The misquotation is very common. Even Sir Thomas 
Browne, who knew better, falls into il at leasl once. Another familiar error 
is the fathering of the saying on St. Augusline. 

Chacon A bod gollt (Fr., *' Every one to his taste"), a familiar proverb 
embodying the Gallic equivalent for the old l.atin maxim, " De gustibus non 
est disputandum" ("There is no disputing about tastes"). 

Il !> Hid ihu ihc Jevn ue ihr chosen peopleof Cud. VlnW.chitcunAimgalil. They 

One would be ule In wagering ihal »njF given public idea ii erroneom, for ii hu b«n 
yicldnl 10 the clAioor of (he mHjoriiy ; and thii Hiricily philotopbical, nlihough lonewbHt 
French, atftenion hu eipecia] baring upon the whole race of wrut are LentiedniAVLnit and 
popular proverbi, nine-lenlhi of whkh an the quiatevence of iblly. One at the mou de- 

Ik DD i^putibs about UAlc. Here tbe idea deaJBDi 


Chalka. To iralk 

one's stick." The orioii 
be faond in Ihe 
rshal ind 

prerogative once iccorded lo Iraveliing royalty, whereby the 

eeaiil chanilierlain designated by a chaSk-mark the houses to 

be occupied by the — ■ — — ■* "■- ■ ■" ■ — - - 

b1y suggested Ihal it 

to CI 

e MMids came to England, Sicur dc Labal was ii 
sirucled "to mark afl sorts of houses commodious to the retinue in Colchester." 
The apparently analogous phrase " to walk the chalk" has a totally different 
origin and application. It is a reference to the ordeal on shipboard by which 
men suspected of drunkenness were tried, — a straight line being drawn, along 
which they were to walk. 

Charade, a form of amusement which consists in taking some word whose 
every component syllable forms a word in itself, then descritnng each syllable 
by a synonyme or a definition, reuniting the whole, describing that too in the 
same way, and asking the reader or listener to guess what the word is. An 
example is the following ; 

My fiisi Qulici coDpuiyj 



A leM IrequenI form of charade treated the component letters in a similar 
way. Here is one from the French, and another a native English production : 

Quurc menibres fom lout Plan bicn. 
IFvoj membcn t cad tileu myielf witbal ; 

ardonable It 



be hurried off to eieculion, and be cut off in the middle of his dulness, 
out being allowed to explain to the execulioner why his tirst is like his second, 
or what is the resemblance between his fourth and his ninth. Yet some very 
clever men have condescended to this trumpery, among them Winthrop Mack- 
worlh Fraed, C. S. CaWerley, R. H. Barham, and others. Here is Fraed't 
best, a really line poem in itself: 

Come frDin my Fint, »y, ccHDC ; 

Lask B uugbl, (by khmid ia wrought ; 

Fling high tl 




1 ™ my Wholt, go can 







> llghi the AniiK dT a •oldio'i liiiit 



have established themselves 
B, and my whole is 

Here are a number of charades which seem 
in popular favoi ; 

My first begins wilh a B, my second begins with 
generally said of a Ba-By.— Hum-bug ! 

When you stole my first, I lost my second, and you are the only pei 
give me my whole. — Heait's-ease ! 

My 111 - ■ ■ ■ 

■ Udyi 

is substantially a 

The form of riddle s 
charade. A very few e: 

Take away otie letter from me, and I murder ; take away two, and I probabiy 
-■--"'■ ■' ■ ■ -* - ■ le.— Kill— ill— skill. 

shall die, if my whole does not 

Om» , 

Unwonhy of belief; 
Curtailed UAin, you i 

Cut off my head. And tin^ 
ClU olT my tail, and plu 

Cut off my head and uul, 
Although my mtddle'i li 

What ii my head "" "Tt 
What b Diy t 


utofft J 

HI depth. I fuHi 
Cod. (The™t"h^^^ 
There is a word of seven letters, take away live, 
Ibur, a female, take away three, you have a brave 
brave woman. — He, her, hero, heroine. 


I am neilher fish, fleah, nor fowl, yet I frequentlj stand upon one leg, and 
if you behead me I sland upon two; what 11 more strange, if you again de- 
capitate me I stand upon four, and I shall think you are related to Die if you 
"" il now recognize me. — Glass — lasr — 

The last-quoted example reminds one of the famous stoty of Professor 
lames S. Blackie, of Glasgow University. He had posted up a notice, " Pro- 
Rssor Blackie will meet his classes to-morrow." A humorous dog among the 
■tndenU rubbed out the c in classes. Then Professor Blackie got even by 
nibbing out the /. 

ChatlVBil (a French word of uncertain origin), the name given to a custom 
frequenlly observed in the south of France, and traceable lo a very high an- 
tiquity. A terrific uproar is produced by kettles, frying-pans, and horns, 
accompanied by shouts and Cries, and the singing of rather low songs, under 
the windows of Ibe newly married, especially if they are advanced in yeara 
01 have been married before. Disapproval of unjtopular persons is also ex- 
pfesscd In the same way, and by extension the name is now applied to anv 
inroaltuous discord. The custom was brought over to America by the French 
Mttlers of Louisiana, Alabama, and the Canadian piovinces, and through 
them has been pretty generally diffused over the United States, where it slill . 
retains its hold in various rural communities under the name of siiivaree. 

TwmlT jMra •go, il may bt laffly Mid, Ihcr* wtre vfry fr« hamltu or niral connDunilia 
el any ■», from ftiiii.ylyii.Li wnl through tht ccniml btll oFSlile., whtre Ihc cuitomwu 
not known, and moR DC leu frfquenily pracIiKd. Whcibei il ever gained miicli hold in 
Uidiigui, WiKDIuin. ud the Norlhem Slatei of the We><, 1 cinnot uy, bul i do kDt» ihu 

trici' 1 could bring abuudanl evidence. The ".hivm[ee"ii described a1 lenglh in Eggtcuon'i 
ple«KanI Tulguiry into dramnUc effect- It wu ■ camplimenl eviended to every manied 
tag'li™,J^n'iing''M°l»ll,|pl..i'^rorie.fiddJe!^, cii«*a'^l^b^ 

irr^oruplUlbebiidegTOOin made hit appearance and " Treated" the ctvwd. It was of no lue 
wou u .toon an re^an^j- 

-mony perlbmied enHiei in the 

B- WDuld and did keep, and wi .... - 

■n Id tjudolieraled miUneta. iminediAUly upon their return. Of course the acton in the 

pfoteated agalDal it, and ail leapectable womeauttoiy loatbedit. The decadence ot thii rough 
Itjnn of won ma.y be aacribed Rrat to the genernl dmuaion of education and civiiixed customs 
that faaa becD going on of late yean^ and, aecDudly^ lo the greal UDdency of population towAfdi 
ditea. lliia uiter &ct bat acted in Iwo wayt : it bu taken ihe nngleacTeTr away Irom the 
nnl comtuunilies, uuaittg the cuttoDi iberc to die a natural death^ aiid Ibete characlen bave 
not been able to mnapLanl their amutement to their new abotlea, since there ibey come unds 
tbc supervision of poyice officert, whoae bnainew it la lo interiere with iticb infrtcdont of the 
peace. The " shivaree" custom wat tmquettjonably a turvivalof lemi-turbariG times; tbe 

die piaent day.— Auci C. Chui : Amirican Nelti amd Qurritt, vol. i. p. 96] (iSBg). 

In Ihe good old city which hat been immonaliied in itory u Rivermouth il chanced thai 
acouplewbodidnot move in the most exalted society circles, and Iromwboiq the most refined 
■enllmcnn might not have been expecied, were united in the holy bonds of nrtauimony upon 
ibe day which followed the funenl of the first wile of the groom, live convtnlionaL sense of 
propriely in tbe neighborhood was shocked by this hatte in lumiahiiig forth the marringe 

ti biaqna and pans and guns. 

The cburivari was al in bciabi, and nil Ihe region was arouaed by Ihe hideous noise, wheu 
the bride appeared darlcly u the window above the riotous crowd, and with supreme feeling 
appealed 10 thdr tldicacr. 

'* Ain't you aahamed, she cried, In hot indignation, "to come bete making a disturbance 
ttkt thii, when wc had a imenl only yttlerday V—BMlim Ctmriir. 


Chartered Idbertine. This phrase originated with Shakespeare, " Henr^ 

v.," Act i., Sc I : 

when he speaks. 
The air, a chartered libertine, is still. 

The application of the term to the press, the connection in which it is now 
most frequently used, was made by the Earl of Chatham. When Mr. Gran- 
ville in 1757 called his attention to the furious onslaughts made upon him in 
pamphlets and journals, Pitt smiled, and only said, " The press is, like the air, 
a chartered libertine." The equally famous term '*the ribald press" was 
used by Lord John Russell, February 8, 188$, in a defence of Lord Raglan 
during the Crimean war. The London Times thundered very effectively 
against this opprobrious epithet. 

Chauvin, ChauviniBm. The word " chauvinism," meaning a blatant thirst 
for militarv glory, is of comparatively recent origin in France. Chauvin is a 
character m ** I^ Cocarde Tricolore," a comedy by two brothers, Theodore 
and HippoMe Cogniard, first produced at the Folies Dramatiques on March 
19, 183 1. The plot is laid in Africa, and treats of the conquest of Algiers. 
Chauvin is a young recruit, who talks a great deal, displays considerable cour- 
age, and is made to sing couplets with the refrain, — 


*suis Fran^ais, i'suis Chauvin, — 
'tape sur le Bedouin I 

The comedy was a great success in its day, and it is not unlikely that the word 
chauvinisnu originated in the above couplet. Nevertheless, a contributor to 
the Paris Figaro^ well known under the pseudonyme of Vieux Parisien, claimed 
that the dramatists were not the authors of the name. He himself was per- 
sonally acquainted with one Nicholas Chauvin, an old Napoleonic soldier 
with a pension of two hundred francs, who, notwithstanding the many hard- 
ships he underwent while in active service, — he was wounded seventeen 
times, — talked of nothing but the glory of his Emperor. It was from him 
that the authors of " I^ Cocarde Tricolore'* gave the name of Chauvin to 
their young recruit. The word chawnnisme is not to be found in the edition 
of Molin's Dictiunnaire, published in 1842 ; but that it had by this time en- 
tered into common parlance is evidenced from Hayard and Dumanoir's play 
" Les Aides-de-Camp," produced April i, 1842, in which one of the charac- 
ters says, " You have left finance, but singe your marriage you have entered 
into chauvinism, as they say,^^ 

Cheese, That's the, a slang phrase both in England and America, has 
been variously explained as a rough-and-ready translation of the French C^est 
la chosey as an appropriation of the Romany or gypsy word cheese^ meaning 
"thing" (cf. Hindostani cheez^chiz^ also meanmg "thing"), or, more probably, 
as a corruption from the Anglo-Saxon word ceosan, to "choose." In the latter 
case. " that's the cheese'* would mean " that's what I would choose.*' By way 
of illustration might be quoted Langland, "Now thou might cheese how thou 
countest to call me" (Visioti 0/ Piers Plowman)^ or Chaucer, "To chese 
whether she would marry or no." A story that is told to explain how the 
phrase arose is worth quoting, because it is sufficiently amusing in itself, but 
it has no philological value. It is said that an old woman in the north of 
Ireland had a grandson of voracious appetite. Once she had purchased a 
cake of brown soap, and laid it on the window-sill. A few hours afterwards 
she asked, " Paddy, where's the soap ?" " Soap ?— what soap ?" " Why, the 
soap that was on the window-sill." "Oh, granny," said he, "that was the 
cheese." This was a standing joke on Paddy, and became a popular by- 
word ever after, so much so that the eminent comedian David Rees intro* 


duMd it u a gag into the |ilay of "The Evil Eye," and made it famous 
throughout England. 

"To pet the cheese" means to teeeive a check or disap|)oinlment. And 
this is the story thereanenl. Beau Mrummel, preauining on hU ijitimacy with 
the Prince Regent (afterwards George IV.), used tu take Ihe libeity of tirriving 
late at formal dinners, and always expected that llic party would avail his 
arrival. But the Marquis of Latisduwiie refused lu humor this whim, and 
at a banquet given by that nobleman the Beau was urestrallen to find when 
he appeared that the company were already fai advanced with the dinner. 
His discomfiture was completed when the host blandly asked him if he 
would have some cheese, — a late course. 

Ch«l«ea, Dead aa, signifies only dead so far as action and usefulness are 
concerned. Chelsea is the seal of the famous hospital fur superannuated sol- 
diers built by Sir Christopher Wren in the leign of Charles II. A |)eraon 
who "gets Chelsea" — in other words, obtains the benel^l of the institution — is 
virtually dead 10 Ihe service and to the world at large. The expression " dead 
as Chelsea" is said to have been first made use of by a grenadier at Foolenoy 
on having his leg carried away by a cannon-ball. 

ChMtnnt. A familiar Americanism for an old story, a twice-told tale. Where 
an Englishman would cry, "Joe Miller !"or a Frenchman, "Connu !" an Ameri- 
can says, " Chestnut I" All are rude but eflective melhoda of pievenline a con- 
versation from degenerating into its anecdolage. The American word arose 
some lime in iSSj \ bul it Sid not sweep the country till a year or two later. 
So when elymolugisls came to trace its history they found themselves utterly 
at sea. Many conjeclutes were offered, — the most amazing being that it was 
a corrupiion of Ihc words "jest not." A less rococo eiplanatiun was that the 
dead chestnuts of last year, like Villon's snows of ye»Ier-year, suggested its 
origin. Any one who has prowled in the forests in spring-lime knows how 
often a chestnut may be picked up which is fair 10 view, bul which on exami- 
nation proves (o be about as valuable as a Dead-Sea apple. Again, there was 
actually said 10 be a repeater of outworn jokes named Chestnut who had been 
indicted by the grand jury as a nuisance, " liecause nobody could stand his 
■toties." But the most plausible theory was that advanced by Jne JcfTerson, 
who attributed the introduction of the word to William Warren, the famous 
Boston comedian : 

" Mr. JiffsHU Hid 10 a nporKrof the Phtlldclphia 

up cact 


reckon beforehand on a 
o'build unfounded anticipations. Vet the expression 
r's time, and may be a reminiscence of .lisop's fahle 


ai the milkmaid. Speculating what she would do with the money for which 
she Bold her milk, she decidea to put il into eggs, which, when hatched, would 
lead up by alow gradations to fortune. But a sudden jar toppled the milk- 
pail off hei head, and away went her dream of raising chickens. 

Child !■ &th«r of tli« man. Wordsworth, in his exquisite little lyric 
" Mj Heart Leaps Up," has these lines : 

The cbild It fmihs of tbt rau ; 
Bound «Ach 10 each by uuur*! pLeiy. 

The sentiment is a commonplace. But the epi^mmaiic force of the lines 
makes them Wotdswonh's own. They are still his own, thoi^h Dryden had 
already said, — 

Men are but cblldRn of a Uirger growlb, 

//iW xmd PanOur; 

f\M DHjcDiuK uiuwi tbv day, 

Ptrmditt Ripuiud, Book it., I. bo; 

though Pope bad said,— 
though Lloyd had said, — 

and though in France for two centuries the sentiment had been ttxx^axixA,— 

antum,"l. 149: 

CbUd. Tla a wlaa oliild that knowu hia o 
crb, one of the many ways in which the popular v 

nism. The Latin form is well known : " Sapiens esi onus gut novii patrem," 
and, though these words cannot be traced back to any classic source, the idea 
is found as far back as Homer's Odyssey, i. Z15 : "My mother tells me that 
I am his son, but I know not, for no one knows hia own father." Shake- 
speare retains the meaning of the proverb, with a slight change in the order 
of the words, when he makes his Lancelot say, " Tis a wise father that knows 
his own child" {Merchant of Vtiatf, ii. 2). Other forms of Ihe same idea are, 
"The mother knows best if Ihe child be like the father" (English), and "The 
child names the father, (he mother knows him" (Uvonian). The French 
have a cheerful maxim for children who are not wise : " One is always some- 
body's child, and that is a comfort." 


Deep versed in books, and shallow in himself. 
Crude or intoxicate, collecting toys 
And trifles for choice matters, worth a sponge, — 
As children gathering pebbles on the shore. 

"Paradise Regained" was published in 1671. Sir David Brewster, in his 
•* Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton," vol. ii. p. 407, records that a few days before 
his death Newton uttered this memorable sentiment : " I do not know what I 
may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy 
playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a 
smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary; while the great ocean of 
truth lay all undiscovered before me." Precisely the same simile may be found 
in Justus Upsius {%^^ NoUs and Queries^ fourth series, viii. 321). May they 
not all be referred to the old story of St. Augustine and the boy on the sea- 
shore? Seeing the latter trying to confine a little pool of sea-water within a 
mud-bank that was continually being washed away by the ocean, the holy man 
found in this an object-lesson teaching that the finite intellect can never compass 
the infinite ocean of truth. 

Chlltem HttndrecU, a range of chalk eminences separating the counties 
of Bedford and Hertford, and passing through the middle of Bucks, to Henley 
in Oxfordshire. They comprise the Hundreds of Burnham, Desborough, and 
Stoke. They were formerly much infested by robbers. To protect the 
inhabitants from these marauders, an ofiicer of the crown was appointed, 
under the name of the * Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds.' The duties have 
long ceased, but the office — a sinecure with a nominal pay — is still retained. 
A member of the House of Commons cannot resign, but acceptance of office 
under the crown vacates his seat Whenever, therefore, an M.P. wishes to 
retire, he applies for this office, which being granted as a matter of course, his 
seat in Parliament becomes vacant He then immediately resigns the steward- 
ship, so that it may be vacant for the next applicant In case of need the 
stewardship of the manors of East Hundred, Northshead, and Hempholme 
may be made to serve the same purpose. The custom dates from about the 
middle of the eighteenth century. Its strict legality has been called in ques- 
tion, on the ground that it is not an office of the kind requisite to vacate a 
seat ; but the custom is legitimated by a long line of precedence. Only once 
has the application for the Chiltern Hundreds been refused. This was in 
1S42. Awkward disclosures had been made before an investigating committee 
of the House of Commons in regard to corrupt compromises made with the 
object of avoiding inquiry into briberies practised in the elections at Reading 
and other borouehs. The member from Reading at once applied for the 
Chiltern Hundreds. But the Chancellor refused, on the ground that he would 
be making himself a party to the questionable transactions. 

Chln-muBio (American slang), talk, conversation, especially of the tedious 
and boring variety. 

" You see, one of the boys has passed in his checks, and we want to give him a good send- 
oflT. and so the thing I'm on now is to roust out somebody to jerk a little chin-music for us and 
waltz him through handsome." — Mark Twain : Roughing It^ p. 332. 

Chip of the old block, one who reproduces his father^s peculiarities or 
characteristics. The phrase may be found as far back as 1626, in a play called 
•• Dick of Devonshire," reproduced in Bullen*s " Old Plays" (ii. 60) : ** Your 
father used to come home to my mother, and why may not I be a chippe of 
the same blocke, out of which you two were cutte ?" 

Chouse, To, colloquial English, to cheat, to get the best oC The term 
first occurs in Ben Jonson, as a noun : 


D. Whu do you ihink a( met thmi I us * chluiH' 

Pact. Wlui-ilhll' 

D. The Turii [who] «< facrc. Ai oh would uy, doe you Ihloke I am i TlitlicT 

The early editors of Ben Jonaon note ihe likeness of ihia term to the Turkish 
word ikiam, a " messenger." Bui it WM not till 1814 that Gifford. tn hb edi- 
tion of Ben Jonson, inserted a note to Ihe effect that in 1609 Sir Robert Shir- 
\ty sent a messenger, or a rkiaus, to England "as liis agent from the Grand 
Signior and the Sophy to transact some preparatory business," and thai the 
agent turned out to be a rascal, who cheated the Turkish and Persian mer' 
chants in London out of some four thousand pounds and then fled before Sir 
Robert's arrival. Hence, " to chiaus" became synonymous with " to cheat." 
But Dr. Murray states that no trace of this incident has been found outside of 
GifFord's note, and he looks upon the etymon with suspicion. 

Ctulatlaii oon die, Hoiv a. Shortly before his death Addison summoned 
his rakish step-son. Lord Warwick, to his sick-bed. " I have sent for you," 
said Ihe invalid, " that you may see how a Christian can die." Tickell alludes 
to this incident in Ihe famous fines, — 

Then lauihi 111 how 10 live ; ud (oh. 100 high 
The price Tor knowledge I) tui^t in bow id die. 

On llu Dtmtk rfAddaim. 

When Marshal Key rallied a few of his followers for the last despairing 
charge at Waterloo, he cried out, " Come and see how a -marshal of France 
can die I" (" Venez voir comment meurl un marichal de France !"t The Cin- 
cinnati CDinmirdal fiirnished another curious parallel in a story told by one 
Mrs. Wilcox, an eye-witness to the death of General Andrew Jackson (1845). 
She describes it as a scene never to be forgotten. He bade Ihem all adieu in 
the lenderesl terms, and enjoined them, old and young, while and black, to 
meet htm in heaven. All were in tears, and when he had biealhed his last 
the outburst of grief was irrepressible. The congregation al Ihe little Pres- 
byterian church on the plantation, which the general had built to gratify his 
deceased wife, the morning service over, came flocking to the mansion as his 

Xs were closing and added Iheir bewailment to the general sorrow. Shortly 
:r this mournmt event, Mrs. Wilcox encountered an old servant in the kitchen 
who was sobbing as though her heart would break. "Ole missus is gone," 
she brokenly said to the child, " and now ole massa's gone, dey's all gone, and 
dey was out best frens. An' ole massa, not satisfied teachin' us how lo live, 
has now teached us how to die." The poor, unlettered creature did not know 
that she was paraphrasing one of the most beautiful passages in Tickell's 
elegy upon the " Dcaih of Addison." 

duonogTBin. A species of literary trifling, which consists in an insorip* 
tion whose numeral letters (printed or engraved in larger type than the others, 
in order to distinguish them) will form a date. Boohs, buildings, medals, etc., 
were formerly dated in this manner. Examples will render the process more 
clear. In Albury church is the following inscription : 

kesVrgen'I- kX Isro PVLVere qVI IbI sepVLtI DokMlVtrr. 
Mere Ihe larger letters are all Roman numerals, and, added together, the 
result is 1646. This is Ihe commonest and easiest form of chronogram. The 
only limitation is that every letter which has a numerical value must be counted. 
In Hebrew and Greek, however, where every letlei of the alphabet has a 
numerical value, even this timilalian disapjieats, and the chronogrammatist may 
arbitrarily select and print in larger type the letters he needs Kir his purpose. 
A mote diflicult form of Latin chronogram is exemplified in Ihe following on 
■ medal of Gustavus Adolphus : 

Literary curiosities. 155 

ChrIstVs DVX ergo trIVMphans. 

Here, if the numerals are arranged in the order of their relative importance, 
we have MDCXVyVII, which is a clumsy indication of the date 1627, being 
the year in which Gustavus won the victory so commemorated. Far neater is 
this on Queen Elizabeth's death : 

My Day Closed Is In Immortality. 
This, indeed, is a rare example of what is known as a perfect chronogram. 
Its special features are that only initials are used, and that these initials, taken 
in their order, make the date MDCIII, the exact Roman equivalent for 1603, 
the year in which Queen Elizabeth died. To be sure, a carping critic might 
object that there are other letters in the sentence whose numerical value is 
ignored. But if we didn't make believe a little bit, such a thing as a chrono- 
gram couldn't exist at all. An even greater curiosity is this example, at once 
a chronogram and an acrostic, in which the initial letters of each line taken in 
their order make 1805, the date of the victory at Austerlitz : 

^ars de nos bataillons secondant la valeur, 
Z)ans les champs d'Austerlitz exer^a sa fureur 
Contre nos amis ga^^s par 1' Angleterre ; 
Clel, qui futes temoin de I'ardeur des Fran^ais, 
Couronnez leur victoire en nous donnant la paix, 
^nez nous consoler des malheurs de la guerre. 

But, at the best, chronograms are a puerile form of amusement Historical 
students have a constant dread of them. They crop up in the most awkward 
places. You have a sort of feeling, when you are looking for a date and find 
only a chronogram, that it is something which will go off unexpectedly with a 
loud report. And, however kindly your nature, you cannot help rejoicmg over 
the fate which overtook a certain offender, — Michael Stifelius, a Lutheran 
minister at Wiirtemberg. He thus chronogrammatized a passage in John xix. 
37, "VIDebVnt In oVeM transflXerVnt" (" They shall look on him whom 
they pierced"), and, drawing therefrom the augury that the world would be 
destroyed in the year 1533, added quite arbitrarily and of his own motion 
the further information that this would happen on the 3d of October, at ten 
o'clock in the morning. But when the appointed time came and passed, the 
excited parishioners pulled the prophet from his pulpit, dragged him through 
the mire, and then soundly thrashed him. 

The earliest known chronogram is a Hebrew one occurring in the ancient 
scriptural manuscript known as the "Codex Kennicott 89," which was written 
by Jacob Halevy. Here the Hebrew letters of the word •* Law" yield the date 
1208. Another old codex, known as " De Rossi 826," is dated with the words 
"The Redeemer for ever," which give a.d. 1280. In the East chronograms 
have, ever since the invention of the art, been assiduously cultivated, and even 
to this day they are largely and commonly used by Persian and Arabic scribes. 
On the tomb of the poet Yamini there is a verse from Hafiz chronogrammati- 
cally giving the date of his death. This has been cleverly translated by Mr. 
Bichnell so as to retain the chronogram : 

I halL thee, halL thee : Into gLory CoMe. 

This yields 1254 (year of the Hegira), equal to Anno Domini 1876. Of the 
Latin chronogram authentic instances do not date from earlier than the 
fifteenth century, which we may take to be about the time when the chrono- 
gram was imported from the East to the West. It flourished apace, especially 
among the German Reformers, who dated most of their tracts in this way, and 
the Jesuits, to whose peculiar idiosyncrasy it commended itself. Perhaps the 
greatest of all chronogrammatists, however, was a certain Andrea del Sobre, 
one of the order of Friars Preachers, who published in 1686 an extraordinary 


Imir Jf farce, x book of Latin verses containing gixleen hundred and ninety 
different anagrams on the words " Silvator, Gencirii, Joseph," and the same 
number of chronograms, with heaven knows how many other ingenuities in 
the way of acrostics, word -squares, etc 

Mr. James Hilton, an enthusiastic Enalishman, who has constituted himself 
the historian of chronograms in two bulky volumes issued respectively in tSSl 
and i885,speaksfeelinglyof " the limited extent of chronogram making in this 
country at (he time when scholars on the continent were much devoted to the 
art and carried it lo such a state of excellence as was never reached in the 
universities or elsewhere in England." Perhaps Englishmen had something 
belter lo do. Mr. Hilton goes on to express an awful hope that his tomes 
will stimulate the art, and "make it as popular in our time as it was in 
time pasL" And, what is worse, he gives us reasons for the hope. Since the 
appearance of his first volume, he lells us in the second, there has been a 
revival. Buildings have been dated in (his way. Cue clergyman, who had 
erected a fernery out of (he profits of his tracts on (he deceased wile's sister 
ouestion, dated that fernery m the following manner (it should be premised 
that the gentleman was a bachelor, and his initials were J, E. V.) : 
Mv Latb VVIfh's sIsteh bVILt thIs VVaLL 
bVt I In trVim 
neVer VVkD anv wife at all, 

SAlTK J. E. V. 

Readers who will talie the trouble to extract (he Roman numerals out nf (he 
above, and add them together, will find they amount lo 18S4, which is the 
desired date. 

Cbnrch alM, also known as Holy or Whilsun ales, were merry-meetings 
held in mediaeval England, generally at Whitsuntide and under the shadow of 
(he church, for the purpose of raising church funds. Some weeks prior to the 
festival the church -ward ens brewed a large quantity of aie. On (he appointed 
day atl the people of Ihe neighborhood gathered together. The village squire 
and his lady, sometimes accompanied by (heir jester, took par( in the proceed- 
ings. Bull'baiting, bcar-baidng, moriis- dancing, games, and songs were in- 
digged in. In "Pericles," Shakespeare says of a song, — 

h faith b«n lunc >1 feitlvih, 
On Eoiber tvo, and holy ■!», 
Chnrch — Ood. There is a proverb common to most modern languages 
which is found in these words in Heywood ; 

Thcnecrto the church, Iherunfaerrroir Cod. 

Prsvirbt. cti, in. 

The French say, "Qui est pris de I'iglise est souvent loin de Dieu" ("He 
who is near the church is often far from God"). Analogous expressions are 
the Scotch "They're no a" saints that get holy waler," the Italian "All are 
not saints who go (o church," and (he Spanish " The devil lurks behind the 
cross." Still another form of the same root idea is found in the proverb which 
Defoe has versified in the familiar lines. — 


in Martin Luther : 

For where God built a church, there the devil would also build a chapel, — Tahit'Tmik, 
Kvii. ; 

and in Barton, Herbert, and many others. It is curious how the homely 
sense of the proverb finds its echo in the mystic lines of Emerson, where 
Brahma is represented as saying, — 

But thou, meek lover of the good. 
Find me, and turn thy back on heaven. 


Cider, All talk and no. An American colloquialism which finds its 
English equivalents in the proverbs "Much cry and little wool," "Much ado 
about nothing." Scheie de Vere suggests that it originated at a party in 
Bucks County, Pennsylvania, which had assembled to drink a barrel of supe- 
rior dder ; but, politics being introduced, speeches were made, and discussion 
ensued, till some malcontents withdrew on the plea that it was a trap into 
which they had been lured, politics and not pleasure being the purpose of 
the meeting, or, as they adied it, "all talk and no cider." (Americanisms, 
p. 591.) 

Cigar. Uttre derives this word from cigarra, the Spanish name fur grass- 
hopper. When the Spaniards first introduced tubacco into Spain from the 
island of Cuba, in the sixteenth century, they cultivated the plant in their 
gardens, which in Spanish are called cigarrcdes. Each grew his tubacco in his 
cigarral, and rolled it up for smoking, as he had learned from the Indians in 
the West Indies. When one offered a smoke to a friend, he could say, " Els 
de mi cigarral" (" It is from mv garden"). Soon the expression came to be, 
" Este cigarro es de mi cigarral ("This cigar is from my garden"). And from 
this the word cigar spread over the world. The name cigarral for garden conies 
from cigarra, a grasshopper, that insect being very common in Spain, and 
cigarral meaning the place where the cigarra sings. In this way the wurd 
cigar comes from cigarra, the insect, not because it resembles the body of the 
grasshopper, but because it was grown in the place it frequents. 

Cipbera, or CryptOf;rams. The art of secret correspondence was prac- 
tised from a remote antiquity. But the earliest efforts were directed rather 
to concealing the message itself than to veiling its meaning. Among the 
ancients, for example, a manuscript message was applied to a sore leg instead 
of a bandage ; thin leaves of lead after being written upon were rolled up 
and used as ear-rings ; a bladder inscribed with a message was placed in a 
bottle of oil so as to fill the bottle. Sometimes a slave was used both as 
writing-material and courier. His head was shaved, the message seared on 
his head with a hot iron, and after the hair had grown again he was sent on 
his destination. There the head was shaved once more, and the message 
became legible. The latter method had its advantages. Intelligence might 
thus be conveyed upon a skull too thick for it to penetrate, and under cir- 
cumstances not very rare the absolute guarantee against penetration afforded 
by the medium would be recognized as its greatest merit. But its objections 
are obvious. The chief point to be considered in a competitive examination 
for the post of courier would be the speedy growth of hair, and the test would 
necessarily be tedious for the examining board. Then, again, when a State is 
trembling in the political balance, and wire-pullers are anxiou.sIy awaiting 
information as to the disposal of the "sinews of politics," it would be, to 
say the least, dangerous to the seizing of a golden opportunity to call in the 
barber, force the growth of the hirsute bush, despatch the bristling Mercury, 
and then literally read his bumps with the aid of a second barber. 

The scyUle of the Lacedaemonians, so called from the staff employed in 



consiructing and deciphering the mesaige, aeems lo have been the earliest 
apiiroach loour modern cipher despatches. When the Spartan ephori wished 
to forwaid Iheir orders lo their commanders abroad, Ihey wound slantwise 
H strip of parchment upon the scylale so that the edges met close 

together, and the message was then added in such a way II 

the line of writing was on the edges of the parchmenL When uiiwuunu, im 

scroll consisted of broken letters, and in that condition il was despatched li 

its deslination, the general to whose hands it came deciphering it 
of a scylale exactly corresponding to that used by the ephors. 

Other melhods were gradually invented. By the fourth cenlury before 
Christ. £neas Tacticus, a Greek writer on military tactics, is said by Folybiux 
to have collected some twenty different modes of writing, understood only by 
those in the secret Among the Konian's Julius Caesar made use of a cipher 
(still resorted to occasionally) which consists merely in Ihc transposition u( 
the ordinary tetters of the alphabet, — writing d (or a, e for i, and so on. But 
the plan was not original wilh him. Il had already been in use, not only 
among the Romans, but by the Greeks, the Syracusaiis, the Carthaginians, 
and ihe Jews. Traces of it may even be found in the Scriptures. 'I hus, in 
Jeremiah xxv. 36, the prophet, lo conceal the meaning of his prediction ftoni 
all but the initiated, writes ^heshach instead of Babel (Babylon); that is, 
instead of using the second and twelfth letters of the Hebrew alphabet from 
the beginning, B, i, I, he uses the second and twelfth from the end, Si, 

[n the Middle Ages the art of secret writing had developed to such an extent 
thai almost every sovereign kepi by him an expert lo transmit his correspond- 
ence and to decipher the inletcepled despatches of his enemies. In ijoo Ihe 
first important b(>ok on cryptography was published by John Trithemius. Il 
is entitled " Polygraphia," and was undertaken at the desire of the Duke of ' 
Bavaria. It was not originally intended for publication, Trithemius deeming 
that it would be contrary to the public interests lo have the an generally 
understood. His objections were subsequently overruled. Cryptography by 
this time did not consist merely of transposed letters : these were early found 
too easy of solution. Figures and olher characters were used as letters, and 
wilh ihem ranges of numerals were Combined as Ihe representatives of sylla- 
bles, parts of words, words themselves, and complete phrases. Under this 
head must be placed the despatches of Giovanni Micheli, Ihe Venetian am- 
bassador to England in the reign of Queen Mary, — documents which have 
only of lale years been deciphered. Many of the private letters and papers 
from Ihe pen of Charles I. and his queen, who were adepts in the use of 
ciphers, are of the same description. A favorite system of that monarch, used 
by him during the year 1646. was made up of an alphabet of Iwenty-four 
letters, which were represented by four simple strokes, varied in length, slope, 
and position. An Interest attaches to this cipher from the fact thai il was 
employed in the well-known tetter addressed by the king to lt)e Earl of Gla- 
morgan, in which Ihe former made concessions to Ihe Roman Catholics of 
Ireland. Much of Charles's cipher correspondence fell into Ihe hands a( Ihe 
Roundheads at Naseby, and Dr. John Wallis, the famous malhemaltcian, was 
employed to decipher it 

Bui it was with the Revolution of 16SS thai Ihe art of cipher- writing was 
developed along the lines which have brought it to its presenf utate of perfec- 

After Ihe expulsion of James II.. the Jacobites racked their brains inces- 
santly in contriving the means of secret communication. They resorted to 
sympathetic inks, by the use of which the real writing remained invisible, 
while a complex cipher, written between the lines in black ink, but which bad 


really no signification, was made use of to perplex the decipherers. It was a 
device of this description that was made use of by Mary of Modena, in be- 
half of James, in 1690, when she despatched her treasonable papers sewn up 
in the buttons of her two spies, Fuller and Crone. Fuller, a traitor to the 
Jacobites, carried his letters at once to Willianf at Kensington. Ostensibly 
they contained nothing of importance ; but on the application of a testing 
liquid, words of the gravest import became legible. Crone was sought out, 
arrested, tried, and condemned to death. He only saved his life by a confes- 
sion which inculpated the guilty parties. 

Another device was that of writing in parables. This was playing the game 
of treason at a cheap rate ; because, though the purport of such letters might 
be easily guessed, the crime of the writer remained incapable of legal proof. 
Macaulay, in his History, gives some samples of this kind of correspondence. 
One of the letters, couched in the " cant of the law," ran thus : 

There is hope that Mr. Jackson will soon recover his estate. The new landlord is a hard 
man, and has set the freeholders against him. A little matter would redeem the whole prop- 
erty. The opinions of the best counsel were in Mr. Tackson's favor. All that was necessary 
was that he snould himself appear in Westminster Hall. The final hearing ought to be before 
the close of Easter Term. 

The real significance of this is too obvious to escape recognition by the 
simplest reader ; yet it is not actionable in law. Mr. Jackson, of course, is 

iames H. ; his estate is the kingdom ; the new landlord is William ; the free- 
olders are the men of property, and so on, the whole being an invitation to 
iames to make a descent on the coast with a French army (" a little matter") 
efore the end of Easter. 

Another device of that time was one which confined the signification of 
a missive to certain letters, which could be discovered only by the person 
who had the ke^. Thus, if it was required to inform a prisoner that his ac- 
complice, on bemg tried in court, had not betrayed him, it mi&^ht be done by 
the following lines, inserted as the second or third paragraph, according to 
agreement beforehand : 

I have but time for a few words. Rejoicing that you are so well treated, I hope to hear 
that you are better. Can you not write soon ? even a word will be welcome to your poor wife. 
So soon as I hear from you I shall communicate with your friends. If Sarah comes to Lon- 
don, I may accompany her to see you. This is not certain, and may not take place. I know 
little news, thoush much is stirring ; but I live much secluded. If Harry were here, he, I 
warrant, would know al . Venn came last night, and desired to be remembered to you ; if 
good wishes could set you free, you would soon be at liberty. 

The secret information contained in the above paragraph is far more secure 
from discovery than anything written in cipher. The governor of the jail, 
who had read it, would in most cases unhesitatingly pass it to his prisoner 
without suspicion ; but the prisoner, who knew the key, would also in a few 
minutes know, by simply reading and putting together every third letter after 
a stop, that his accomplice, ^^(^ff^j, .roiii/ m^Mm^ on his trial that could impli- 
cate him, — a piece of information which the governor of the jail would, in case 
of treason, be the last person to impart. 

Then came the invention of the cipher, which its originators proudly termed 
the chiffre indichiffrabUy — the indecipherable cipher. It was an extension of 
the prmciple of substituting one letter of the alphabet by another. A new 
element was introduced in the shape of a key-word that was known only to 
the sender and the recipient. When the latter received the message he 
wrote the key-word over the ciphers, and thus introduced new and bewildering 

But as the improvement in armor plates always led to new improvements in 
guns, so the cryptographical armor invariably met with more and more highly 
perfected ordnance to riddle it The indecipherable cipher was deciphered as 


„ t facl 
occurred in America if 
■ages transmilted by Mr. TTldcn's agents to the disputed Stale uf Oregon fell 
into the hands of the New York TVibunt. Mi. John G. R. Hassard set him- 
self to master the problem. He discovered that the messages contained 
overtures of bribery and coiruption. The TrilnaK published the explanation, 
and though the messages could not be traced directly to Mr. Tilden, but only 
to his nephew, Mr. Pelton, their result was to reduce Mr, Tilden himself to a 

Another evidence of the dangers of cipher- writing is found in the Agony 
column of the London Tima. Ingenious spoil-spoits, or parties having some 
personal interest at stake, are continually emplojring their leisure time in dis- 
covering the best-laid plans and in making them go agley. 

To talie a single instance ; On February 1 1, 1S53, the following mad-looking 
advertisement appeared in the Titnei: 

uiKTDLA. J*yng rd miryry nx Xnhp mCa} ywnji ^1 kwiij b )cugf tynis Kwi dt" giy 
Xngiilij ni ibjiynk yoif yw^ hfinj ni ny iiiujhyji^ nk ny h Igg lyiwoji hnjuj 

Mad as this looks, the solution is easy, once the key is discovered, and the 
key is veiy simple. Indeed, it is only the old system of CKsar, substituting/' 
(oi a,g for i, and so on in sequence. That the key was found by an interested 
third party is evidenced by the fallowing advertisement which appeared three 
days later in the same column ; 

Do you nmnabrr our «ni>in'i Bm propoiiiUm t "niiiik of il. N p»b Dti. 

Now, this is simply a full translation of the tirst advertisement (correcting 
obvious printers' errors), and the cryptogram at the close, unlocked by the 
same key, reveals " I know you." A bomb-shell in the camp this must have 
proved! The originals were silenced forever, so far as the Timti column 

Soes, though the curtain is not rung down there until the third party has this 
nal shot, February 19 ; 

' cllymliRtdboili panin,— a ihingwhidiiileiic* 

Ciphers have their humors, as have all other lines of human efTorL A 
famous eiamplc was the mystification practised by George Canning in l8a6 
upon Sir Charles Bagot, English minister lo King William I. of Holland. Can- 
ning was then Premier. A treaty of commerce with Great Britain was pend- 
ing. Sir Charles received a despatch one day at the Foreign Office while he 
was with the king and the Dutch minister Falk. He begged leave to open it. 
Leave was immediately granted, but he found that the letter was in cipher. As 
he had not the key wii^ him, he could do nothing else than ask permission to 
retire. Going home, he made out the despatch as follows : 

(A. Clflur.) 


I— Well dap OD Dulch boKonujuRtwtiiiy percent.; 

iiDdt (mm Hi! Mijtily lo convey to Your Excellency lo-day. I am 
peel, lir. Voiir Eicdlency'a mat obedient bombte serruit. 

Cbohci Cahhihc. 

Utterly unable lo make out whal this coiil<l possibly mean, poor Sir Charles 
Bagot and his secretary uf legation worried over it for days, and got inio a 
correspondence with Mr. Canning, who calmly refused lo give ihctn any light, 
until in a happy moment it dawned upon Sir Charles that the liveliest of Pre- 
miera had tossed ofT a grave piece of fiscal diplomacy into [acile verse of the 
■ott which had made the "Anti-Jacobin" famous. 

But the greatest of all Jokes, great becauseso sublimely unconscious, is the 
" Great Cryptogram" which Ignatius Donnelly claimed lo have discovered in 
the works of Shakespeare, proving that Shakespeare djit not write Shake- 
speare, and that the real author had laboriously woven into the text, through 
a complicated cipher, the true facts of the case in good nine tee nlh -century 
Ei^liili modified by a sufficient sprinkling of recent Americanisms. 

The game was much like that which used to be played with Ihc number of 
the Beast, of which Macaulay said, " If I leave out T in Thomas, B in Bab- 
ington, and' M in Macaulay, and then spell my name in Arabic, I have not 
the slightest douht that I can prove myself conclusively to be the Beast." It 
finds another parallel in the fifth fit of the " Hunting of the Snatk," where the 
Batcher, even before Mr. Donnelly had published his book, described to the 
Beavei the chief features of the Donnelly system in the following lines ; 
Taking Three u the Hibject (o reuDD iboui,— 

We wi& Seven and Ten, ind Ibcn multiply out 

By One TboBHnd dimuiiihed by Eig&i. 
The result we proceed to divide, u you fee. 

By Nine Hundred uid Nitiely ud Two, 
Thea mubtnct Seventeen, ud the Ulwer mui be 

Exactly end peifeclly true. 

Among the many good sVita to which " The Great Cryptogram" gave 
the best was produced by J. 0. Pyle, author of a pamphlet called " The L 
Cryptogram," who, by the application of Donnelly's own system, discovered 

the best was produced by J. 0. Pyle, author of a pamphlet called " The Little 
Cryptogram," who, by the application of Donnelly's own 
in the play of " Hamlet" the following prophetic words : 

To conclude. Here is a puule which was inscribed over the tables of Ihe 

Decalogue in a counlty church and is said to have remained undiscovered for 

two hundred years. But any reader, who feels that he can consdeniioDsly 

eipend time on such an object, may solve it at his leisure. It runs thus : 

PnvrypffctmnvritptlupTcptstn . 

We will only drop the ftiendly hint that a vowel, and the same vowel in 
every case, is to be inserted between every consonanL 

CtronmBtanoAS ovsr vrhloh I have no controL According lo George 
Augustus Sala ('• Echoes of Ihe Week," Lottdm lUuilraltd Nnvi, August aj, 
1SS4), this phrase, "one of Ihe moat familiar in modern Enfilish," was first 
used by the Duke of Wellington " with reference to some business complica- 
tions in which his son was mixed up, about 1S39 or 1840 : ' F. M. Ihe Duke 

of Wellington presents his compliments to Mr. . and declines lo interfere 

in circumstances over which he has no control.'" Charles Dickens nave 
greater cnirency to the expression by putting it into the moatb of Wilkini 


ciablc time, eHecled a severance of that intimacy," etc. — David Cofperfield, 
ch. XX. (1849). 

CltLsen of tlie irorld, — i.i., a cosmopoliie, one who says with William 
Lloyd Garrison, " My counliy is the world ; my countrymen are mankind." 
The term, which Goldsniilh has taken as the title of a famous series of i)a]>ers 
feigned to be written by an imaginary traveller of cosmopolitan views, dales 
back to Socrates, who claimed that " lie was not an Athenian or a Greek, but 
a citiien of llie world" (Plutarch : Oh Banishmtni). Diogenes Laerlius 
itlributes the same phrase 10 his namesake Diogenes. 1'homas Paine, in 
" Rights of Man," chap, v., anticipated Garrison's phrase. " My country," he 
•ays, "is the world, and my religion is to do good." The history of man 
thaws the gradual evolution of society from the family lo the tribe, the tribe 
to the city, the city lo the nation, ana with the growth of man's sympathies 
and intellectual range he may eventually realize the dream of Tennyson : 
For I dipt iDto ihi FuluR, far u hmniin tye coutd Kt. 
Snw theVi^on of the world, ud .11 the wonder (fa« would be ; 

Till Ihe W(r.dnini throbbed tio longer, ind the butle-fljici wen lUrled 
In the Pulianieni of mm. th< Fedetation of the world. 

Ltchiliy Halt. 

CItIs Romaniis EUm (L, " I am a Roman citizen"). The proud boast of 
lhi> enfranchised citiiens of Rome. Caracalla in A.IX 213 destroyed its special 
m.'aning by extending the privileges of citizenship to all the subjects of Rome. 
There is a famons pa.ssagc in Cicero's sixth oration against Verres, where he 
instances the case of Puliliuii Gavius, whom Verres had caused to be beaten 
with rods in the forum of Messina : " No groan was heard, no cry amid all his 
pain and between the sound of the blows, except the words, ' I am a Roman 
citizen.' " A memorable application of the phrase in modern times was made 
by LcYd Palnierston in the House of Commons, June 85, 1850. The foreign 
policy of Lord John Russell's administration was under discussion. Palmer- 
Bton, then Secretary of Foreign Affairs, upheld that ]io1icy, especially in re- 
gard to the protection afToided to British subjects abroad, and challenged the 
verdict of the House on the question "whether, as the Roman in days of old 
held himself free from indignity when he could say, Civis Jfomamii lam, so 
also a British subject, in whatever land he may be. shall feel confident that 
the watchful eye and strong arm of England will protect him against injustice 
and wronfe " 

ClaJmauts, Iilteroiy. Every now and then the world is entertained at 
perplexed by a controversy over the authorship of some literary performance. 
It may be a single poem or a novel that has shot into prominence and is 
fought li)r by a dozen claimants in the presetit, or it may be a great literary 
reputation of the past that is assailed by hardy eiploieis who imagine they 
have discovered that the owner of that reputation was an impostor or even a 
myth. Homer has been assailed as 3 myth, Shakesjieare as an impostor. 
But the controversies on these two siibjccis arc loo well known 10 need more 
than the merest reference. One cannot even do more than call passing atten- 
tion to the very clever skits in which, by reasoning closely analogous lo that of 
the Baconisls, Swinburne proved that Darwin was the real author o( Tenny- 
son's poems, and an anonymous contributor lo Blaciiavd'i Magatiite demon- 
Etraled that Herbert S|>encer wrote the novels attributed to Dickens. 

In the year 1S56 a now-forgotlen controversy on the origin of the Waveiley 
Novels occupied the attention of the literary world. A certain Mr. William 
John Fill- Patrick contributed Ko A'eUs and Qutriti, and afterwards republished 


in pamphlet furm, a labored aitempl to prove that not Sir Walter Scoii but 
his brother Thomas (assisted by Mts. Thomas) was the author of tlie major 
part or them, and that Walter's task had been mainly to lick them into 

He based his theory on tlie following facts. Thai the rapidity with which 
these novels were issued from the press, especially taken in connection with 
Ihe fact that Sir Walter was contemporaneously engaged in oihcr literary 
work, is destructive of the hypothesis that they were written by Scott alone ; 
that " Guy Mannering," for example, could never have been written, though 
it might have been tianscribed, in a fortnight ; that Thomas's comrades in the 
army (he was paymaslei of (he Seventieth Regiment, then stationed in Canada) 
agreed that they had often seen the writing-desks of both Mr. and Mrs. Thomas 
Scoll littered with manuscripts of their own composition ; that the mjnds of 
both were stored with old Scotch traditions, anecdotes, and historical remi- 
niscences ; and (hat the Quebec Herald of July 15, iSlo, published selections 
from the correspondence uf a literary gentleman in Canada (unnamed), among 
which appeared the following paragraph ; " With respect to these new pul>li- 
cations, ' Rob Rot,' etc, I have no hesitation in saying I believe ihem to be 
Ihe production of the Scotts. 1 say the Scotts, because Mr, 1'homaa Scott 
(who wrote the principal part of them) was often assisted by Mrs. Scott ; and 
the works were generally revised by his brother Walter before goinj ' 
"" ■ -' iry* I can an ' _ .. -. 

'% flimsy inough. Bu^WilMam John 
, ^ he following passage in 1 lei" ' 

Sir Walter Scott to his brother, written during Ihe autumn of 1814 : 

Send DK ■ Dovd, jmemiiKing your exubcrvDI and nitural humor with any iocidenu and 
docriplioDt of iccncry you may vx, — panicularly wLlh characlen maA rrails of manncrt, 

not (he low doubt l( will be wor(h jf^oo; and, (o encourage you, you may, when you send 
Ibe mulucripl. drav on me for fios u lidy daya' llghl.ulhll ytHU labi>n will « any rate 

Keep Ihii nuuer « dead Kcret, 

But, after all, the evidence of Ihe tetter amounts to this : that Sir Waller 
had pressed his brother to wiite a novel. Indeed, he says as much in the 
general preface to his works, where he takes note of this very rumor "as- 
cribing a great part, or the whole, of these novels to the lale I'homas Scolt," 
characterizes it as one that was as unfounded as various other rumors, yet 
which "had, nevertheless, some alliance to probability, and indeed might 
have proved in some degree true." He then tells how he proposed that his 
brother should write a novel, and how the latter had even sent him a ske(ch 
of Ihe plot, but had been forced by ill health to abandon Ihe enterpiise. 
" He never, I believe, wrote a single line of the projected work." 

This statement oughl lo be conclusive. Indeed, the world has accepted it 
as such. Mr. William John Fill, Pa trick's attempt lo calumniate the memory 
of one of the most fi-ank and genuine men who ever breathed proved a nine 
days' wonder, and was forgotten in a fortnight. 

A preposterous claim was made by George Cruikshank that he was Ihe real 
originatorof'Oliver Twist," that he had worked out the main plol in a series 
of etchings, and that Dickens had illustrated him, and not he Dickens, This 
story first appeared in print in R. Sheltan Mackeniie's " Ijfe of Dickens," a 
catchpenny work published in Philadelphia, and was alluded loin the first 
volume of Forster's biography as "a wonderful story originally promulg.ited 
in America with a minute conscieni ions n ess and particularity of detail thai 


might have ru'sed the repatation of Sir Benjamin Backbite. . . . The dis- 
tiiieuished artist whom it calumniiles tiy fathering its invention upon him, 
either not conscious of it or not cuing to defend himself, has been left unde- 
fended from the slander," Then CruiKshank rose in his wrath, and came lo 
the defence of Dr. Mackenzie in a letter to the London Tivui, avowing that 
ever since the publication of " Oliver Twist," and even when it was in progress, 
he had, in private society when conversing upon such matters, always explained 
that the original ideas and characters emanated from him. Vet, after all, his 
whole statement was simply that he had described the character of Fagin to 
Dickens, who took it up and made what we see of i(. But the whole merit of 
the character, no matter where the hint was received, depends upon the way in 
which it was made to move, and talk, and act, by the novelist. It is not the 
mere outline, which would have done equally well in any hands, but the filling 
u]! of the outline, which gives to it all that is really interesting. The theme 
might have been treated by a hundred different writers, and the result would 
have varied in merit from the merest lay -iigure up to the most complete and 
admirable embodiment of genius. Bui, in fact, the excellent Cruikshank 

nated the paltem of a military hat worn by the Russian soldier 

described hU own model, he adds, "The Russian soldiers, I find, wear a hat 

something of this shape now ; and no doubt they saw my pattern and stole 

A more plausible claim to (he real authorship of Dumas's most famous 
works, including " Monle-Cristo" and ''The Three Guardsmen," was put 
forward by one M. Auguale Maquct, who was avowedly one of Dumas's assist- 
ants, and undoubtedly had a share in their composition. But, like the other 
assistants, he simply worked under the direction of the creative and governing 
mind. When any of these underline attempted original woik ihey produced 
only the most mediocre of novels. It is monstrous to pretend that men dull 
in their own works, and brilliant only in his, have a right to share in the fame 
of the great slory-leller, however much they may have helped him or con- 
tributed to his success. It is inconceivable that the deprivation of all personal 
honor or reward should have inspired or elevated genius which slackened its 
wings at once when the question became personal. But this question is con- 
udered more al length under Ihe head of Collaboration. 

While Ihe " Scenes of Clerical Life" were passing through Bladhmmfi 
Ma^aatu a.aA drawing attention to the fact that in "George Eliot'' a new 
gentus had arisen, [he inhabitants of Nuneaton and its neighborhood were 
perplexed and astonished to find unmistakable portraits of their own town- 
people in Amos Barton, in Mr. Pilgrim, and in other characters. Clearly, none 
out a native could have hit off these likenesses. A table-rapper, being appealed 
to, spelt out the name of the great unknown as Liggers. There was no Liggers 
in the town, but there was a Liggins, a broken-down gentleman of some small 
literary pretensions. Though at first he was somewhat coy, he did not reject 
the honors thrust upon him. At last he boldly accepted them. With the 
appearance of " Adam Bedc" his fame waxed greater than ever. A deputation 
of dissenting parsons went out to see him, and found him washing his slop- 
basin at Ihe pump. To explain his indigent circumstances in the very hour 
of his prosperity, he declared that he got no profit out of his works, but freely 
gave them to Biackwxd. This was voted a shame. He was lionized in the 
town, ffted at parties ; a subscription was started for him. Then the teal 
George Eliot deemed it was time to interfere, and sent a tetter to the TSma 
denying Mr. Liggins's authorship. But it was some time before the myth was 
killetL There are several telerences lo Mr. Liggins in George Eliot's Life 


by Co 

ss. H 


s one of the most 


Ihat it refers to a 


we hi 

already broached 

"I dare say 

ome ' 

nvealigator' of the 


ridge o 


will arise after I 

am dead and re 

ive Ihe 

stoiv, and perhapii 

... , . ill", nol by 

Waller Scott, but by Thomas Scolt and his wife Eiiubelh,— Ihe main evi- 
dence beitig Ihat several people thought Thomas cleverer than Waller, and 
that in the list of the Canadian regiment of Scots to which Thomas belonged 
many of the nanus of Ihe Waverley Novels occurred, — among the rest Monk, 
— and in ' Woodstock' there is a Gtmfral Mankr 

A more successful impersonator, because she remained undiscovered until 
her death by the neighbuthood on which she had imposed, was a certain Mrs. 
S. S. Harris (auspiciouB liame !), who in ig;; established herself in [he litlle 
luwn of Hudsion, Wisconsin. She claimed lo have come from New York, and 
to be the Mrs. Sidney Harris who had written " Rulledge," " Sut her lands," and 
other novels. She was very eccentric, affected sportmg tastes, and liked to 
drive ^t horses ; but these trails were probably looked upon as Ihe natural 
accompaniments of genius, and she easily established fur herself a good social 
standing, and in fact was lioniied as a lileraiy celebrity. One day when 
out driving with some friends she suddenly died of hearl-discase, and (he 
publication of her obituary in the local paper exposed Ihe fraud. 

The woutd-be filchers of oiheis' laurels seem, indeed, to flourish apace in 
America. Whenever a new poem achieves any great popularity in this 
country it raises a host of claimants, especially if it be published anony- 
mously. Mrs. Alters Allen's "Rock me to Sleep, Mother," William Allen 
BullerS " Nothing lo Wear," Dr. Muhlenberg's "I would not Live Alway," 
J. U McCreery's "There U no Dealh," Will Catleton's " Betsey and I are 
onl," Homer Greene's " What my Lover said," and J. W. Watson's " Beauti- 
ful Snow," have all been the subjects of fierce controversy. The last-named 
was fought for, either in person or vicariously, by a doien people. The friends 
or admirers of Eliiabelh Akers Allen, Dora Thome, and Henty Faxon per- 
sistently brought forward (heit names as claimants, in spile of their equal 
persistence in denial. Nay, an unknown dead woman, evidently a suicide, 
whose body was found in the Ohio River with a copy of the poem printed but 
unsigned upon her person, was promptly baptized "The Beautiful Floalci in 
the Ohio" and heralded throughout the country as Ihe real author of " Hcau- 
tiful Snow." Of the active claimants the most energetic and irrepressible was 
one Richard H. Chandler, whose story ran that Mr. Watson had filched the 
poem from him in revenge for a practical joke, and had published it in Har- 
per's Wakly. (ll did, in i»a, make its first known appearance in that paper 
on November 8, 1858.) He naively added Ihat Ihe reason he had never pub- 
lished any other poem akin to " Beautiful Snow" was because " ihe publishers 
sent 'em all back to him." A certain William Allen Silloway insisted that he 
had published the poem in a New England journal four years prior to its 
appearance in Harfttfs Wtfkly, but thai Ihe files of thai paper were inacces- 
sible. He had been inspired lo its composition by the degradation through 
drink of his wife, who was " a niece of Millard Fillmore," and who was found 
dead bv a policeman in a snow-drift in Leonard Street in the winter of 1S54. 

William Cullen Bryant, who made a careful examination into all Ihe evidence 
altainable, came to the conclusion that Mr. Watson was the true author, and 
Ihe world has generally abided by his verdict 

The most eager of the claimants who disputed with Mrs. Allen the author- 
ship of -Rock me to Sleep, Mother," was one Aleiander M. W. Ball. "" 
Keteniions were summed up in " ""'"" " — """ — "" — *""" " 
orse, of Cherry Valley, New ^ 


pamphlet was reviewed with much humor by W. D. Hawells in the Allaniu 
for August of that year : 

" It appears froin this and other sources," says the reviewer, " that Mr. Ball 
is a person of iiidejiendcnt property, and a member of the New Jersey Legis- 
lature, who hu written a great quantity of verses tirsi and last, but has become 
all but ' proverbial' in his native Stale for his carelessness of his own ]>oetry : 
so that we suppose people say there of a negligent parent, ' His children are 
as unkempt as the Hon. Alexander M. W. Ball's poeniEi,' oi of a heartless 
husband, • His wife is about as well provided for as Mr. Ball's muse.' Still, 
Mr. Ball is not altogether lost to natural feeling, and he has not thrown away 
all his poetry, but has even so far shown himself alive to its claims upon him 
as to read it now and then to friends, who have iccenly reproached him with 
his indifference to fame. To such accidents we owe the preservation ii 
" ' jeveral Christmas carols and other lyrics - '■ - ■ - - 
d .have written ' Rock me to Sleep' if I 
much more important letters declaring that he did w 
scribers of the letters heard him read it nearly three years before its publica- 
tion by Mrs. Akers. . . . We do not think that the writers of these letters 
intend deceit ; but we know the rapture with which people listen la poets 
' ^ and we s - -"- ----- ■' 

who read their own verses aloud, and we suspect that these listeners 
" ill were carried too far away by their feelings ever to get back to the 

liey are good folks, but not critical, we judge, and might easily mistake Mr. 

all's iHTsinti-nl asipTtiiin fur an ai-Iual recollection of iheir own. We think 

n of their own. We think 

them one and all in error, and wc do not believe that any living soul heard 
Mr. Ball read the disputed poem before i36o, for two reasons : Mrs. AkerH 
did not write it before that time, and Mr. Ball could never have written It 
after any number of trials. . . . The verses given in this pamphlet would 
invalidate Mr. Bait's claim to the authorship of Mrs. Akers's poem, even though 
the Seven Sleepers swore that he rocked them to sleep with it in the time of 
the Ueciaii persecution." 

ClamBUT de Haro, an old Norman custom which still survives in the 
English island □( Jersey, Haro is held to be the abbreviation of the words 
" Ah Rollo," and the custom is Said to have been instituted by Duke Kollo 
of Normandy, who gave to his people a personal appeal to himself and his 
successors in certain cases of wrong. William the Conqueror brought the 
custom over to England. To this day in Jersey if there l» a question of en- 
croachment on the rights of properly, the injured person may make his appeal 
on the spot by falling on his knees in the presence of witnesses and exclaim- 
ing, "Harol Haro! i I'aidc, mon prince, on me fait tort." The alleged 
trespassers must immediately cease and await the judgment of the court. If 
the person thus appealing is found to have been in the wrong, he is fined i^ 
the court for having without just cause called on the name of Kotlo. 

A DOIibl* cut of thh a«nnir de Haro cwcurrcd in NormaDdy at the Funeral oT WilliwD 
the Conqueror, and iccounu for the icenc u> graphicallir told !» Mr. Fminan, ihough he 
doCB oot connecl the incident *ith the peculiar cuttDin or right of appeal. Inonia to pro- 
vide > liic for ihe great abbey of St. Sicphin u Ca«n, the Conqiicror had talicn Ibe pnwcny 
ijT leverai periona, one of whom cvBlplatned thai he had not been compentALcd for hii Loler- 
t%r. Tlie Hon of ihli pervon, Atceliii, otncrving that Ihe grave of Williain wai dug on the 
very ipot where hii lalher'n heme bad been liiiiaied, mnl boldly into the aucmbly collecied 
al Ihe grave luihe funenl, aiid, makine hit appeal to RoUa, liHbade (iinher proceeding! uniil 
hii cl«m of right wa> decided. He addiem-.d the company in iheH word, i "He who hu 

Kow he ii dead. Ihe groDnd wherein you are (alng to lay ibli'nian1>"niine: aD?i"alGra 
Ihar none may in future bury iheir deacf in ground which betongi id anolher. If after he it 
gone, larce and violence are ttlll utcd ID detain my riaht from me, 1 appeal to Rollo, the 


Fllvend ii 

ICC Eleniy, ^ficTwardt Hrory I., wrDuEl 

„ A — I™ iu_ .u- — f.j^ gf ^p ^jround occupied by Ibv^ve, 

CleaollneBB is next to godllneas. John Westey seemB to have intro- 
duced this phrase to literaluie. In his sermon on " Dresii," and again in his 
Journal (February \3, 1772), he has the words, "Cleanliness is indeed next to 
godliness," ill quotatiun- marks. Evidently he is quoting a curcent proverb. 
Long before Wesley, Bacon had pui much the same idea into other words : 
"Cleanliness of body was ever deemed to proceed from a due reverence to 
GfHi," But a closer parallel is found still farther back, in Aristotle ; " Clean- 
liness is a half virtue ;" and before Arislotle, in the Jewish Talmud ! " The 
doctrines of religion ate resolved into carefulness ; carefulness into vigorous- 
ness : vigorousness into guiltlessness ; guiltlessness into alstemiousness ; ab- 
stemiousness into cleanlmess 1 cleanliness into godliness." A mote literal 
translation would substitute " next to" fur " resolved into," and so obtain the 
exact letter with only slight violation of the spirit. 

The passion for cleanliness is a comparatively recent one with the Anglo- 
Saxon lace. In linies aa near to the present as Queen Elizabeth's, Spenser 
has the line, — 

Her silver f«(, Gur wajhed H^tunkl the day, 

FatrU Quant, BddIi it.,Canio li., v. 47; 
i^., for a special day of rejoicing. 

We may all devoutly echo Thackeray's thanksgiving: "Of all the ad- 
lances towards civiliiation which our nation has made, and of most of which 
Mr. Macaulay treats so eloquently in his lately-published History, there Is 
none which ought 10 give a philanihroi>isi more pleasure than to remark the 
great and increasing demand for bath-tubs at the ironmongers': zinc institu- 
tions, of which out ancestors bad a lamentable ignorance. And I hope that 

untry before long, i 
n of^thi " 

decent man in England will be a Companion of^the Most Honourable Order 
of the Bath."— JAffefcj and Travfh in London. 

Cloud. Every cloud has a silver lining, — a familiar proverb, mean- 
ing that the worst misfortunes have their cotnpensation or their promise of 
amelioration in the future. It tnay be a reminiscence of the lines (Z21, 213) 
in Milton's " Comus," — 

Wa> I deceived, or did a uUe cloud 

Turn fonl, her silver Lining ID the night f . 

La Rochefoucauld says (Maxim 49), " We are never so happy or so un- 
happy as we think ourselves." 

n open w l^jy^^i^j^'^^^yg^^^^^^^^. 

See also Darkest Hour bkfore the Dawn. 

Clover, Four-Leaved. This plant derived its significance from the tact 
that its four leaves are arranged in the form of a cross. Moreover, its com- 
parative rarity and its very abnormality (if one may so express it) made it seem 
noteworthy or remarkable. If a person shall wear a bit of this plant he can 
detect the preseiiLe of evil spirits. It also brings a good rnrlune. 

With ■ fburJeaved clover, a double -leaved luh. ud m. greeD-iopped leaie [nub]. 


A Awr-leaved clover enables a maid to tee ber future lover. The four' 
leaved grass (irue-love, one-berry, herb-pans, or leopard's bane] is another 
mystical cross-leaved plant concerning which much might be said. The 
quaint St. Andrew's cross {Attyrum erux-Aiuirr*] is a very interesting plant 
of our own country, with cross-like flowers. Strangely enough, it appears to 
have no folk-lore attached to it. 

Coala of Bxo. The expression, to heap coals of fire on somebody's head, 
meaning to relurn good for evil, is an Old Testament expression, as the lat- 
ter is a New, and marks the diflerence in spirit between Old and New, for it 
flallers the immanent vindictiveness that frequently underlies forgiveness by 
suggesting that you will make the enemy vastly uncomfortable. To be sure, 
the phrase occurs in Romans xii. lO, as well as in Proverbs xxv. 21, 33, but in the 
former case it appears as a quotation from the Proverbs. The context, which 
is slightly condensed in the New Testament version, appears thus in the Old : 
" If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread (o eat ; and if he be thirsty, give 
him water to drink .- for thou shalt heap coals of fire upon bit head, and the 
Lord shall reward thee." 

If lo fomv. be hemping roil, of fin^ 
Ai God Bas tpoken — on the hcftdi of foa. 
Mine thould be a volcano uid Hae higher 
Than d'et the Titani cnilheil Olympui [nK, 

Tnie. they who ttune were creeping ihingi : hul what 
Than Kipenu' uelh inflicu wiiti deadlier iliroei t 
The LioD may be goaded by Ihe Gnat, 
XhoKiclu the ■lum&erer'i blood t The Eagle t— No, the Bat. 

According to a note in Murray's edition of the " Poetical Works of Lord 
Byron," this stania was originally intended to go between stanzas cixxv. and 
cxxxvL of the fourth canto of "Childe Harold," It was suppressed in proof 
by John Wilson Croker, who saw the book through the press and may have 
thought the stanza blasphemous. Evidently Croker's appetite for gnats had 
been ruined by a bellyful of camels. 

Coat. Cat your coat accoidlng to your olotb, — i.i., let your expen- 
diture be proportioned to your means. An old English proverb, which is 
probably a survival from the old sumptuary laws. One of its earliest appear- 
ances in literature is In Heywood's " Proverbs," ch. ii. ; 

The Spanish say, " Let every one stretch his leg according to his coverlet ;" 
and the French, " According to the arm be the bloodletting." 

Cook and Bull Btoiy. The most probable explanation of this term as 
applied to preposterous tales related in private life is that which refers it lo 
the old fables in which cocks, bulls, and other animals are represented as 
endowed with speech. Matthew Prior's " Riddle on Beauty" closes with 
these tines : 

Of lacir md fmllt, and aulei and iiddlei. 
Of iilit laUi and fooliih riddla. 

One of Cowper's fables commences as follows; 

I ihall not adi lean Jacqnei Rouneau 

If binb conlabiilate or no : 

'Til clear thai they vert alwayi aUe 

Ttian lo itJterpnl hy the letter 
A ilnyrf^a cock and t»ll 


Cockade, The Black (a star-like piece of black leather, usually sur- 
mounted by a fan, which is often seen on the hats of liveried servants), was 
unknown in Britain until the accession of the house of Hanover, and was 
then introduced by George I. from his German dominions. It seems to be 
understood that the right to use it belongs to naval and military officers, and 
the holders of some offices of dignity under the crown, such as privy coun- 
cillors, officers of state, supreme judges, etc. But it is somewhat difficult to 
draw the line, as the privilege is one of which the law takes no cognizance. 
Naval cockades have no fan-shaped appendage, and do not project above the 
top of the hat 

Cocker, According to, and According to Onnter, are slang expres- 
sions current in England and to a less extent in America, meaning ** according 
to the best authority or highest standard." Edward Cocker, who died about 
1675, had a great fame as a mathematician ; but the celebrated " Cocker's 
Arithmetic" was a forgery. It has been proved that Cocker had nothing 
whatever to do with this once vastly popular text-book which was published in 
his name. Edmund Gunter (i 581-1626) was also a noted English mathema- 
tician. He invented Gunter's chain, still used for measuring land ; Gunter's 
scale (called by mariners ** the Gunter"), much used in navigation ; Gunter's 
line, a sort of mechanical logarithmic table, a quadrant, etc. 

Cockles of the heart, a colloquialism found in such expressions as 
"that will warm the very cockles of your heart," and supposed to have taken 
its rise from an expression made use of by Lower, the anatomist, who in his 
"Tractatus de Corde" (1669) refers to the muscular fibres of the ventricles as 
cochlea. The ventricles of the heart, therefore, would be cochlea cordis^ which 
might have been facetiously Englished into "cockles of the heart" But the 
derivation is very dubious. 

Cockney, a common sobriquet for a native of London. The "New 
English Dictionary" is at great pains to trace the history of this word. It 
quotes from Minsheu's " Ductor," published in 161 7, the memorable "chestnut" 
on the subject : "The tearme came first out of this tale : That a cittizen's sonne 
riding with his father . . . into the country . . . asked, when he heard a 
horse neigh, what the horse did ; his father answered, The horse doth neigh ; 
riding farther, he heard a cocke crow, and said, Doth the cocke neigh too } 
and therefore Cockney or Cocknie, by inversion thus : incocky q. incoctus — 1>., 
raw or unripe in Country-men's affaires." This does not satisfy Dr. Murray 
and his assistants. A cockney was originally a cockered child, one suckled 
too long,* a mother's darling, one tenderly brought up, — ^hence a squeamish or 
effeminate fellow, a milksop. The word is often used in the last sense by 
Elizabethan and earlier writers. On Childermas-Day (December 28) the 
students of Lincoln's Inn chose a " King of Cockneys' to be Master of the 
Revels. The word came to be applied derisively to a townsman, as the type 
of effeminacy, in contrast to the hardier inhabitants of the country. Then it 
was localized to mean one born in the city of London, "particularly to 
connote the characteristics in which the born Londoner is supposed to 
be inferior to other Englishmen." The townsman had his revenge by the use 
he made of "clown." The original of "clown" in the Teutonic languages 
means a clod, clump, clot, — hence a clumsy lout, a lumpish fellow. Then it 
was applied to a countryman as the clown par excellence^ the man without 
refinement or culture, the ignorant, rude, uncouth, ill-bred man. 

Cogito, ergo sum (L,**I think, therefore I am"), the famous proposition 
upon which Descartes founded his philosophical scheme. He starts from the 
basis of universal scepticism. He recognizes that the philosophic mind may 

H 15 


doubt (be exisience of the external world, of God, even of itself. Mind, n»t 
ter, science, eiperieiice, all is ur maybe delusiun ; nothing remains but doubL 
" How. then, can we find a fresh si art ing- point t Evidently in the fact of 
doubl alone. What U douin? A stale or tondition, — in fact, a judgment; 
and how can there be a iudgmcnl without some one to judge? Doubt, then, 
is an act of thinking. Thinking is inconceivable wilhoul a uersun lo think. 
Thus, doubt im|ilic3 the menial eaiatence of a doubter. Cagito, crgv jmw." 
(Maiiaffv .- DtsearUs.) Though the application of the phrase is Descarlcs's, 
it has some verbal kindred with St, Augustine in " De Civitate Dei:" "Si 
enim fallor, sum ; nam qui non est. ulique iiec talli potest, ac ]>er hoc sum si 

Coheaive poivei of pabllo plnnder. This excellent phrase is a popu- 
lar misquotation thai adds force and conciseness lo Ihe original, which runs 


ColDoidences. We are losing our picturesque superstitions. The coinci- 
dences in which our ancestors would have detected a miraculous intervention 
now only amuse and interest us. We reason sagely about ihem. We recog- 
nize with Mr. Proctor that although some coincidences appear extraordinaty. 
yet it would l>e still more exiraortlinary if in the whirl and toss of events such 
coincidences did not occasionally happen. Take Ihe case of a lottery with a 
thousand tickets and but one prize. It is exceedingly unlikely thai any par- 
ticular ticket-holder will obtain the prize ; the odds are, in fact, 999 to 1 
against him. Hut sup[M)se he had one ticket in each of a million different 
lotteries all giving the same chance o( success. Then it would not be sur- 
prising for him lo draw a priie ; on the contrary, it would be a most remark- 
able coincidence if he did not draw one. The same event — the drawing of a 
prize — which in one case must be regarded as highly improbable becomes 
in the other case highly probable. So il is with coincidences which appear 
utterly improbable. It would be a most wonderful thing if such coincidences 
did not occur, and occur pretty frequently, in the experience of every man, 
since the opportuniliea for their occurrence enormously outnumber the chances 
against the occurrence of any particular instance. 

Mr. Proctor cites the of Dr. Thomas Voung as surpassing in strange- 
neis all the coincidences he had ever beard of. Dr. Young was busily 
engaged in Ihe allempted deciphering of the Rosetla Stone. He had> obtained 
a parcel of ancient manuscripts brought from Egypt by a man named Casali, 
among others a jiapyrus containing amid its baffling hieroglyphics three names 
In Greek letters, Apollonius, Antigonua, and Aniimachus. A few days later 
a friend had placed in his hands several fine specimens of wriling in papyrus 
which he had purchased from an Arab at Thebes in i8ja Dr. Young turned 
with a sense of relief from his Egyptian puiiles 10 a plain Greek manuscript 
of Mr. Grey's, He Could scarcely believe that he was alive and in his sober 
senses when the words Aniimachus Aniigenis [ik-j struck his eyes, and, a 
few lines farther back, Porlis Apollonii. Il was a Greek translation of the 
very manuscript he had been poring over ! " A most extraordinary chance," 
says Dr. Young, " had brought inlo my possession a document which was no! 
very bkely, in Ihe first place, ever lo have existed, still less to have been pre- 
served unmjured, for my intormalion, Ihrough a period of near two thousand 
years ; but that this very extraordinary translation should have been brought 
MJely to Europe, to England, and the very moment when il was most 


of all desirable to me to possess it, as the illustration of an original which I 
was then studying, but without any other reasonable hope of comprehending 
it, — this combniation would, in other times, have been considered as affording 
ample evidence of my having become an Egyptian sorcerer." 

Indeed, the author of "The Ruins of Sacred and Historic Lands," who 
probably credits himself with a reflective mind, is goud enough to say that " it 
seems to the reflective mind that the appointed time had at length arrived 
when the secrets of Egyptian history were at length to be revealed, and to cast 
their reflective light on the darker pages of sacred and profane history. The 
incident in the labors of Dr. Young might be deemed providential, if not 

Professor De Morgan has a budget of curious coincidences to exploit. One 
was an event in his own life. "In August, 1861," he says, "M. Senarmont, 
of the French Institute, wrote to me to the effect that Fresnel had sent to 
England in, or shortly after, 1824 a paper for translation and insertion in the 
European Review^ wnich shortly after expired. The question was what had 
become of the paper. I examined the Review at the Museum, found no trace 
of the paper, and wrote back to that effect, at the Museum, adding that every- 
thing now depended on ascertaining the name of the editor and tracing his 
papers : of this I thought there was no chance. I posted the letter on my 
way home, at a post-ofnce in the Hampstead Road, at the junction with Eel- 
ward Street, on the opposite side of which is a bookstall. Lounging for a 
moment over the exposed books, x/Vm/ metis est tnos^ I saw, within a few minutes 
of the posting of the letter, a little catchpenny book of anecdotes of Macaulay, 
which I bought, and ran over for a minute. My eye was soon caught by this 
sentence : * One of the young fellows immediately wrote to the editor (Mr. 
Walker) of the European Review.'* I thus got the clue by which I ascertained 
that there was no chance of recovering FresnePs paper. Of the mention of 
current Reviews not one in a thousand names the editor." It will be noticed 
that there was a double coincidence in this case. It was sufficiently remark- 
able that the first mention of a Review, after the difficulty had been recognized, 
should relate to the European^ and give the name of the editor ; but it was 
even more remarkable that the occurrence should be timed so strangely as 
was actually the case. 

The following curious coincidences have been collated from history by 
patient investigators. 

Among many superstitions peculiar to the Napoleons is that of regarding 
the letter M as ominous of good or evil. The following catalogue of men, 
things, and events, the names of which begin with M, shows that the two 
emperors of France have had some cause for considering this letter a red or 
a black one, according to circumstances. Marbceuf was the first to recognize 
the genius of the great Napoleon at the Military College. Marengo was the 
first great battle won by General Bonaparte, and Melas made room for him in 
Italy. Mortier was one of his best generals, Moreau betrayed him, and Murat 
was the first martyr to his cause. Marie Louise shared his highest fortunes. 
Moscow was the abyss of ruin into which he fell. Metternich vanquished him 
in the field of diplomacy. Six marshals (Mass^na, Mortier, Marmont, Mac- 
donald, Murat, Moncey) and twenty-six generals of division under Napoleon 
L had the letter M for their initial. Maret, Duke of Bassano, was his most 
trusted counsellor. His first battle was that of Montenotte, his last Mont St. 
Jean, as the French term Waterloo ; he won the battles of Millesimo, Mon- 
devi, Montmirail, and Montereau ; then came the storming of Montmarlre. 
Milan was the first enemy's capital, and Moscow the last, into which he 
marched victorious. He lost Egypt through Menou, and employed Miollis 
to take Pius VII. prisoner. Mallet conspired against him ; Murat was the 


first to desert him, then Mrnnont. Three of his ministers were Haret, Mon 
taltvel, and Mollien ; his first chamberlain was Montesquieu. His last halting- 
]ilace in France was Malmaiaon. He surrendered to Captain Maitiand of the 
Helletophon, and his companions in Sl Helena were Montholon and his valet 
Harchand. If wc turn to the career of his nephew, Napoleon III., we find 
the same letter no less prominent He was born April 10, iSoS, which in 
Corsica is the last day of the feast-week of Machreal. His earljf militarjr 
instructions were given him by Mnrcith of Mont^limar. His empress was the 
Countess Moiilijo ) his greatest friend was Morny. The taking of the Mala- 
koff and the Mamelon-vert were the greatest teats of the French aims in the 
Crimean war. He planned his first battle of the Italian campaign at Marengo, 
although it was not fought until after the engagement of Montebcllo; at 
Magenta, MacMahon. for his im[>ortanl services in this battle, was named Duke 
of Magenta, as P^lissier had for a similar merit received the title of Uuke of 
MalakofL Napoleon HI. then made his entry into Milan, and drove the 
Auslrians out of Marignano. After the great victory of Solferino, fought on 
the banks and in the waters of the Mincio, he turned back before the walls of 
Mantua. Thus up to i860, after which the letter M would seem to have been 
ominous of evil. Passing over Mexico and Maximilian, we sec how vain 
were his hopes founded on the three M's of the Franco- Pru.isi an war, — Mar- 
shal MacMabon, Count Montauban, and Mitrailleuse I Maycnce was to have 
been the basis for the further operations of the French army, but, pushed 
back first to the Moselle, its doom was sealed on the Maas, at Sedan. Then 
followed the capitulation of Metz ; and all the subsequent disasters were due 
to the superior skill and slialegy of another M,— Moltlte. Another strange 
coincidence noted in regard to the Third Najioleon was that he died at Chisel- 
hurst at ia4S A.M., — precisely the hour when the great clock of the Tuileries 
■topped after the palace was set on fire by the Commune. 

Numbers as well as letters have plaved strange tricks with the Napoleonic 
dynasty. As thus : Napoleon I. was born in i;^S. He abolished the Direc- 
tory and took the supreme power in 1799. Now add these dales together in 

the following m 


and the sum represents the date of his death. Try the s. 
poteon III., bom 1808, became emperor iSjz: 

which, though not absolutely the date when he was dethroned. Is the dale of 
the last year of his reign, and anvhow completes the cycle of ant hundred 
years from the birth of the First >Iapoleon. 

A still more extraordinary drcutnstance is that if you add in the same way 

tn rhf> dalp n( tVif- Thirfl Mnm-tl^nn^a r-nm-nslinn t'hat i\f kia unU'a KiriK ltH'^f.\ 

to the dale of the Third Napoleon's coronation that of his 

the date of the Third Napoleon's coronation that of his wife's birth (l8i6), 
of their marriage (185]), the mystic result is still 1869. Then, again. 


Louis Philippe began to reign in i8m Add to this in the old familiar manner 
either 1773, the date of his own birth, 1782, the date of Queen Am^Iie's birth, 
or 1809, the date of their marriage, and the result in each case is 1848, the 
year in which Napoleon III. superseded him. 

Another noteworthy coincidence is the following. Here are the figures of 
the plebiscite : 


The line divides the majority on the right from the minority on the left. Now 
copy this, omitting the three noughts and slightly humoring the figures, and 
hold the result with its face to the light : the reverse will read very much like 
the word empereur. Of course not every one^s handwriting will exactly com- 
pass this. The tail of the 9's must be shortened and curved, the 7's made 
angular. Then the final 9 will represent the initial ^, the next three figures 
make a not impossible m, the dividing line and the 6 together a fairly good /, 
the 9 next to it an e again, the 7 an inebriate r, the 9 an /again, the next two 
figures a plausible m, and the final 7 a boon companion of the other. 

It is said that during the infancy of Louis XVI. some astrologer had predicted 
that the number 21 would prove fatal to him. Hence he always had a dread of 
any date wherein that number appeared. He would never hold a royal sitting 
on the 2ist of a. month. His dread seems to have been justified by events, for 
many of the disasters of his reign occurred on that day. His marriage, which 
might be looked upon as one chief cause of his eventual troubles, took place 
on the 2ist of April, 1770, and on the same day a violent storm arose and 
raged with devastating violence. His entry into Paris was made on the suc- 
ceeding 2ist of June, when a panic occurred in the crowd and fifteen hundred 
people were trampled to death ; the flight to Varennes was on June 21, 1791 ; 
royalty was abolished September 21, 1792; Louis himself was condemned 
to death by twenty-one votes (the authority for this statement, however, is 
confessedly meagre), and on the 21st of January, 1793, he was guillotined. 

In the royal family of Belgium January has always been looked upon as an 
unlucky month. When, on January i, 1890, the palace of Laeken, with all 
its magnificent treasures, was destroyed by fire, the Queen of the Belgians 
exclaimed, ** All our disasters come in January !" It was in January that her 
sister-in-law, Carlotta of Mexico, had lost her reason ; in January, 1869, that 
her son died, leaving the heirship to her nephew, Prince Baldwui, who also 
died in January (i8i9i) ; in Tanuarv (1881) that the palace of the Empress 
Charlotte was consumed by nre, ana in January (1889) that Archduke Rudolph, 
her son-in-law, committed suicide. 

A German statistician has discovered that the number 3 has played an 
important part in Prince Bismarck's life. The family coat of arms bears over 
the motto, " In Trinitate Robur," three clover and three oak leaves. Carica- 
turists of the ex-Chancellor have for years represented him with three hairs 
on his head. He has three children and three estates ; he fought in three 
wars, and signed three treaties of peace. He arranged the meeting of the 
three Emperors, and originated the Triple Alliance. He had under him the 
three great political parties (Conservatives, National Liberals, and Ultramon- 
tanes), and served three German emperors. 

The death, in 1892, of the Duke of Clarence, eldest son of the Prince of 
Wales, called renewed attention to the old sui>erstition as to the unluckiness 
of that title. Five dukes have borne it in English history. None transmitted 
it to his heir. The first duke died in 1368, leaving no male issue. The title 
was revived in 141 1, when Henry IV. conferred it on his second son, Thomas 
Plantagenet, who was killed ten years later at the battle of Beang^, leaving 
no issue. In 1461, Edward IV. conferred it on his brother George, who was 
murdered in 1477 and his title attainted. He was the only Duke of Clarence 


(o leave a male heir, and Chat heir, known as Edward, Earl of Warwick, ira 
liehearied in the Tower in 1499. where, fifty years laler, Ihe only daughter 
ur the house, (he aged and unfonunate Margaret, Couiiless of Salisbury, suf- 
fered the same (lenalty as her brother, [n 171(9 a fourth effort was made to 
resuscitate the title in the person of the third son of George III., afterwards 
William IV., who died without legitimate i.tsue. In iiJ90, one hundred years 
later, Ihe title was renewed for the last time in the person of the young prince, 
who died two years later, on the very eve of his marriage. 

But the superstitious noled that the death of Prince Albert Victor on a 
Thursday broke a remarkable spell or curse which had hung over the present 
royal family of England for more than a century and three-quarters, — bringing 
atK)ut Ihe rfeath of all the prominent meraliers of that family on Saturdays. 
William III. died Saturday, March 18, 1702; Queen Anne died Saturday, 
August I, 17(4; George I. died Saturday, June 10, 1727; George II. di«i 
Saturday, October 25, 1760; George III. died Saturday, January 29, 182O; 
George IV. died Saturday. June 16, 1830 ; the Duchess of Kent died Satur- 
day, March 16. l36i ; the Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria and 
grandfather of the recent deceased Prince Albert Victor, died Saturday, De- 
cember 14. [S61 ; Princess Alice of II esse -Darmstadt, Victoria's second 
daughter, and sister of Albert, died Saturday, December 14, 1878. The 
shadows which overhung the late prince's life are said to have been dark- 
ened by a superstitious fear which caused him to keep close in-doors on 

There is not a more curious coincidence than that concerning Richard 
Wagner, the composer, ami his bmous ll's. To begin with, it takes 13 let- 
ters to spell Richard Wagner. He was born in 1813. Add the figures to- 
gether, thus. :-8-i-3, and you have another 13, The letters in his name and 
the sum of the figures in the year of his birth equal twice 13. He composed 
exactly 13 great wotk^, and always declared that he "set his head" on his 
after-career on the 13th of the month. " Tanhauser" was completed on April 
(3, 184s ; it was first performed at Paris. March 13. 1861. lie left Bavreuth 
September 13, 1861. September is the ninth month ; write 9-13 and add the 
three figures together, thus, 9-1-3, and you have 13. Finally, he died on Feb- 
ruarv 13, 1883- 

The attention of many earnest students has been directed towards collecting 
instances of famous men having died on the anniversary of their birth. First 
of all comes Moses, who. according to the Talmud, " died on the seventh day of 
Adar, the same day of the same month on which he was bum, his age being ex- 
actly one hundred and twenty years." Shakes|>care was born April 33, 1564, 
and died April 13, 1616. Raphael, the artist, was born on Good Friday, 1483, 
and died on Good Friday. 1530, aged thirty-seven. As Good Friday is a mov- 
able teast, it does not follow thai the day of the month was identical in each 
case, but the coincidence has excited much astonishment Sir Thomas Browne, 
author of " Religio Medici," was born October 19, 1605; died October 19,1681. 

Timothy Swan, composer, was born July y. 1 758 ; died July 23. 1841. Gener 
McLean Taylor, a nephew of President Taylor, was born Novemb ' ' 

died November 21, 1875. St. John of God, one of the 

Portuguese saints, and founder of the Order of Charity, was born March 8, 
1495 ) died March 8, 1550. John Sobieski, the king of Poland who delivered 
Vienna from the Turks, was born June 17, 1629 ; died June 17, 1696. 

Attention has been drawn to the fact that M, which is the lirsl tetter of 
Melody and Music, is also the initial in the names of a great number of com- 
posers, ancient and modern : Marcello, Monsigny, Mehul. MoEarl, Martini, 
Mercadante, Meyerbeer, Malibran, Mayseder, Mine, Musard, Mendelssohn. 
Moscheles, etc 


Cold Day. The humorous bit of self 

when I gel left," meaning much the sirae I „ .. - - „ r—t 

early in the morning to gel ihe beal of me," — ihis recent Americanism prob- 
ably sprang from ihe game uf " Iteeze-uul" poker. Each plajier buys a certain 
stipulated amount of chips, and when he loses them can buy no more, but is 
" frozen," or, more idiomatically, " froze out," and so Ihe game continues till 
one man has all the chips. The "froze-outa" would naturally be the subject 
of facetious inquiry as to the slate of the thermometer, and the winner's glee 
would take some such form as this : " It may be a cold day for you fellows, out 
it would have to be a good deal colder before I get lefL A coriespondeul 
of the AmeritaH Notes and Queriet, vol. ii. p. 111, strives, however, lu give 
the phrase an old English origin. In the ballad of "Gil Morlcc" he finds 
thCK lines ; 

Vs I will g« your bl>ckc emod, 

This is ingenious, but has no other merlL 

ul e«.tt™ Sd'b^omt dcpro^ i'^c"— Bill N^Ki Rmark,. " "" ''™' '^""' " 
Cold Shoulder, To torn tha, to treat one with hanttur, to cut. The 
phrase seems lu have been first used in " The Antiquary" (1S16), ch. xiiili. : 
"The countess's dislike didna gang farther at first than Just showing o' the 
cauld shoulder." In the glossary Scott explains it as meaning " to appear cold 
and reserved." In an appreciative article on this subject the Saturday RcvUa 
says, "The graceful use of the cold shoulder fairly deserves to be ranked among 
the fine arts ; while, on the contrary, nothing could be more ungainly than its 
awkward application. When a tactless man meets the object of his detesta- 
tion he looks nervously self-cnnacious, and seems undecitied whether to cut 
or merely slight his enemy. After blushing in a foolish manner, he gives an 
awkward bow, which, intended to be graceml, is in reality ludicrously clumsy. 
A casual observer might attribute his singular behavior to shyness rather than 
hatred. The most successful hand at cold- shouldering is the heartless and list- 
less man, who can put his victim completely out of his mind, and forget his pres- 
ence, if not his existence, as soon as he has accorded him the coldest of recog- 
nitions. Without insinuating that women are more heartless and listless than 
men, we may observe that they are far greater adepts in this art Ihan Ihe opposite 
sex. Most men seem more or less ill at ease when they know that they arc 
giving pain to others, but this is by no means invariably the case with women. 
We might even go su far as to say that ladies sometimes too evidently derive 
satisfaction from the annoyance of others. They understand the secret of 
■reeling others while preserving their own caloric ; but men cannot obtain a 
like result without first becoming icicles themselves. The lords of the creation, 
moreover, when wishing to appear dignified, are apt to assume an air of vacant 
stupidity. They are, in fad, had actors, and when a man would like to knock 
another down, he finds it an effort to treat him with cold politeness." — November 

CollaboratloD, partnership in literature, the coming together of two or 
more minds in the production of a single work. The thing is at least as old 
as the Elizabethan drama, when nearly all the leaders worked more or less 
in partnership, and Shakespeare himself did not disdain lo revamp the work 
of an inferior hand lo fit it for the stage. Racine, Coiiieille, and Moliire 
in France, Cervantes, Calderon, and Lope de Vega in Spain, all had partners 


in some one or more of their numerous produdions. Beaumont suid Flelcher'i 
is llie earliest instance of a partnership that endured (or a lengthy period 
and during all that period produced notable work. One cannot say (hal con- 
glomerate authorship has usually been a success. It might, indeed, appear 
thai a richer orchestration would result from an harmonious union lA several 
good instruments ; but ex!>erience seems to teach that the French journalist 
was rishl who said that collaboration was never successful save when it wax 
nut coTlaboralion. What he meant was that one of the collaborators should 
do all the work, the other only listen and adviw. Two friends live together 
and pass iheii evenings side by side in front of a common hearth, a cup of 
coffee beside them, a cigar between tlieir teeth. One has a fertile imagina- 
tion, the other has made a study of the stage and Stage business. Conversa- 
tion (alls upon the subject of a drama. One composes and writes, the other 
commends or blames, corrects, gives ideas, throws new light on the subject. 
That is the ideal collaboialion. 

Talie the case of Labiche. lie is a farmer who takes more pride in his 
carefully -husbanded crops than in the wild oats he has sown on the stage. 
His happiest hours are spent on his (arm at La Solange, where he practises 
patriarchal hospitality. When he determines to write a vaudeville, his col- 
laborator is summoned to this rural paradise. For several evenings the plot 
of the proposed play is discussed at table. The art of the collaborator con- 
sists in making I^biche talk, in exciting him, in goading him on. Occasion- 
ally, of course, he must edge in a reply. Furnish a metaphurical spring-board 
for his wit, his invention, his isprit. Labiche abandons himscK to his natural 
genius. He invents scenes and incidents ; he makes hons-moli. Scene first 
is complete before the appearance of the intrits. When the cheese arrives 
the act is finished. The collaborator goes up-staits to his room, writes down 
all he has heard, and arranges it in orderly sequence. Neit day, just belbre 
dinner, perhaps with the preparatory glass of absinthe, he reads it all over. 
Labiche suggests improvements. After soup has been served, he begins 
again. In a few days the vaudeville is practically finished : (he authors leave 
to the (riction of rehearsals the smoothing of all rough edges. 

Or there is Alexandre Dumas _^r. He has no ostensible collaborator. 
But it is said of him thai in very fact he has as many collaborators as he has 
friends. When a comedy is on the slocks, he takes twenty or thirty people 
into his confidence, makes them familiar with the scene that embarrasses him, 
the situation which seems inextricable, leads everybody he meets to talk about 
it. listens to fresh ideas, and turns them to account. 

Not unlike this method is the one proposed by Mr. Besant, the surviving 
partner of the famous firm of Besant and Rice. He recommends it very 
strongly to every young literary workman. 

ihetic, and quick : ji girl who will lend him hci 
ten. She fthouid tie a girl of quick imaginiiii 

they have 10 play all in Ihe rough, he may mkon on picjenily gelling all tiack again, tiul 
■dnnced, Wornin does nol create , but ihe receivea, mould.', and dlvclopl. The fipini 

and aiwied for the llage. Merely by talking wiih ihis giiH, LeiyiSing ihal was chaotic hat 
fallen into order; the charactcn.dim aqd shapelen, bave iKcome alive, full-ErowD, arlKulale. 
At in every-day life, aa Id imaginative work, woman it man'i best pdnner,— Ihe most Bener- 

It is noteworthy that Bulwer Lytton recommends substantially Ihe same 
plan, only he advises that the woman should be several years older than the 
man, to preclude Ihe possibility of their falling in love. Love he evidently 
looks upon as the death of collaboration. 

nt, tittera — a girl, inieiligent, tympa- 


Now, as Mr. Besant was himself a member of a successful partnership, his 
opinions are worth listening to. Let us hear further from him. He believes 
that the presentment of the story must seem to be by one man. No one 
would listen to two men telling it together. " We must hear, or think we hear, 
one voice." Therefore one man must finally revise, or even write, the whole 
work. And he conceives that the rock on which literary partnership gets 
wrecked is that each member conceives he must write as much as the other. 

For instance, there was sent to me the other day a manuscript novel written in partner- 
ship, with the usual request that 1 would read it and give an opinion on it, — in other words 
sacrifice a whole day to the task of making two life-long enemies. The auUiors of this worlc 
(which has not yet seen the light) had arranged their fable and their characters. But unfor- 
tunately they made the great misUke of writing it in alternate chapters. Now, the style of 
one was not in the least Tike the style of the other ; the effect was that of two men uking turns 
to tell the same story, each in his own way and from his own point of view. Nothing could 
have been more grotesque, nothing more ineffective. Any one of the characters talked with 
two voices and two brains ; the thing was a horrid nightmare. 

One of the two. then, I repeat,— not necessarily always the same one,— must have the 
revision of the work or the writing of the work. 

Can, then, the other man, who has contributed only rough draughts here and 
there, or even perhaps nothing at all in writing, oe called a collaborator ? 
Most certainly he can. Indeed, Mr. Besant explodes into hearty laughter at 
the general notion of collaboration, — that it is carried on by each man con- 
tributing every other word, every other page, or every other chapter. 

Doctors disagree, why not literary men ? Mr. Justin McCarthy and Mrs. 
Campbell Praed use precisely the method scorned by Mr. Besant. Mrs. Praed 
has herself told how this is done : ** We talk the matter over first, and make 
a scheme. Then we sketch out chapter by chapter. I write the bones of the 
chapters I think I can do the most easily, and Mr. McCarthy does the same. 
Every sentence is joint work. I really donU know which is which, and now 
I wouldn't work in any other way. You see, our lives are so entirely different 
that we look at things differently." Mr. McCarthy has always l)elieved that 
two heads were better than one in novel-writing, provided the two heads 
represented the two sexes. There's a man's ponit of view and a woman's 
point of view, and, in studying humanity, he contends that, to get at nature, 
both views should be taken. 

Scribe's method, as explained to Herr von Pulitz in an interview, was a 
combination of all the others. Here is how a partnership vaudeville is pro* 
duced : " One author brings the idea, and the scaffolding of the piece (charpente) 
is then built up by the authors in common, after which the various scenes are 
distributed among them according to their special qualifications. Often the 
whole play is written by one author, who afterwards makes alterations in it 
according to the suggestions of his collaborator. It also frequently happens 
that the songs in the piece are written by a third man, who has nothing to do 
with the plot or the dialogue." It is much more difficult, Scribe went on to 
explain, for two or more authors to join in writing a longer piece. In such 
cases they have to consult together about the whole of the play, down to the 
smallest details. When an agreement is arrived at, the execution of the idea 
is comparatively easy, although it often happens that in the writing uf a play 
things occur which render it necessary to alter the whole plan of the piece. 
This was the case in writing the " Contes de la Reine de Navarre." "My 
idea was to make the piece a graceful comedy ; but my assistant, I^gouve, 
took up a very serious tone in the second act, and in writing the fifth act he 
gave the play a tragical catastrophe, which was quite contrary to our agree- 
ment I protested, but we could not agree. We then decided each to write 
a fifth act and read them to the actors, who would determine by a majority of 
votes which of the two should be accepted. The actors votea almost unani- 




monsly in mf favor, and my friend Legouve, far ^m showing any ill humoi 
a( the decision, readily assisted mc in completine the piece." 

Scrilw was reproached iinfiirly— for most of his best plays were written 
alone — with an inability lo slard without help, atiil when he was received into 
the French Academy a malicious wit suggested, when he took his seat, thai 
the thirty-nine other chairs ought to be given up to his collaborators. Bat 
Scribe was proud of hia partnerships, and dedicated the collected edition of 
his plays lo bis collaborators. 

Among Fiench novelists the most successful instance of a long- continued 
partnership is that between Erckmann and Chalrian, — a partnership which 

' -• 'eath of M. Chatrian, 

^ ^ , , n the plan advocated 

by Mr. Besanl. An outline was arranged. Each was permitted to write all 
thai he thuughl or fell ; but his companion afterwards struck out and rewrote 
at will. Althoi^h the first collaborator was then given an opportunity for 
further correction or change, he was to some extent bound not lo introdutx 
again those things which had been rejecled from the first draught 

The most successful single novel ever produced by collaboration was "La 
Croix de Berny," in which Madame de Girardin, Gaulier, Sandeau, and Joseph 
M^ty all took a hand. Their plan was one which, instead of merging the 
individuality of each, called for its distinct exprcssinii. For the story is cast 
in the form of letters between the four characters. E^ch character was 
assumed by some one writer. Gautler and Madame de Girardin, as might be 
expected, bore off the honors, but the other rSlts were well carried out, and 
the whole atfair. while unfolding a situation of strong interest and passion, 
never loses the engaging element of personality. A similar experiment made 
in England by nine Englishwomen, including Charlotte M. Vonge, Frances M. 
PeattC and Christabel Roe Coleridge, proved a liiiluTe. Here, also, the novel 
was cast in epistolary tbrm, and the nineteen characters were divided among 
the nine authors. But the lesult is only that we meet with nineteen very dull 

In placing the Erckmann-Chatrian (irm at the head of all French partner- 
ships for the production of fiction, we have not forgollen the Gonconrts, who 
were almost their equals, nor the great establishment founded by Alexander 
Dumas the elder. But Dumas's shop was, properly speaking, not a firm. He 
had no partners, but only ckrks and assistants. He might not have been able 
lo carry on the immense business he transacted without the aid of these auxili- 
aries, but the creative hand and brain are always his, Jules Janin, a severe 
Clitic on other points, acknowledges so much. " Dumas's books," says Janin, 
"show the mark of the lion's paw, and, good, bad, and indifTerent. bear 
unmistakable evidences of having issued from the smoky flame of Alexander 
Dumas." Who does not remember Thackeray's charming defence of his 
favorite novelist ? — 

Thty uy ihii all thcworki bearing DumaVi nanw are not will len by him. Well? Dos 
Had not Lnorence aulilanu (or hii badcgmundi T FnrmyKll, being i!ao du wUlirr, 1 toD- 
of my noveli; ind on hii im»al, a eleyEB o'clock, would Hy." Mr, Jonei. if you plejK, 

Group hii diuRhteri, phyiiciao'^, aiMJ chaplains round him. In Walc&'i * LondDii,' letier B, 
Ihiid ihelf, you will find an accouni or Lambeih. .nd idiiit prinu o[ ihe place. Color in wilh 

b«h luin/^etc, etc. Jon« (an initlllaeiii young mini riainintt the medioiiyhleiorical, 
(opueraphical booki ncceuary ; hia chief p«iiu oui to him in Jeremy Taylor (fol,, Londoii, 

•OKI ncceuary ; hia 

lij^hi befit a dear oidarchbi 

:r, lh« Aichblahop is dead 1 

topography, theology, all right; andjoncahai gone home tohiitaotily 

n my uUe in five pugei ; m 
tohiifaiailyKnKlwun. S 


topher is che architect of St. Paul's. Ht has not laid the stones or carried up the mortar. 
Tnere is a great deal of carpenter's and joiner's work in novels which surely a smart profes- 
sional hand might supply. A smart professional hand ! I give you my word, there seem to 
me parts of novels — let us say the love-making, the *' business/' the villain in the cupboard, 
and so forth — ^which I should like to order John Footman to take in hand, as I desire him to 
bring the coak and polish the boots. Ask mt indeed to pop a robber under a bed ; to hide a 
will which shall be forthcoming in due season ; or at my time of life to write a namby-pamby 
love-conversation between Emily and Lord Arthur 1 I feet a»hamed of myself, and espe- 
cially when my business obliges me to do the love-passages, I blush so, though quite alone in 
my study, that you would fiuicy I was going off in an apoplexy. 

This is all very good. Yet it is doubtful if Thackeray could have worked 
with either an assistant or a collaborator. His genius was too individual, his 
personality too marked. The modern An^lo-Saxon, moreover, is too shy, too 
reticent, to unbosom himself even to a smgle confidant with the unreserve 
which collaboration calls for. Hence in England we have not many instances 
of successful collaboration since the time of Queen Elizabeth. 

There are, however, a few notable ones in dramatic literature, besides the 
one afforded by Besant and Rice in fiction. The first successful English bur- 
lesque, and the longest-lived of its tribe, was "The Rehearsal," written by 
the Duke of Buckingham, with more or less assistance from Sprat, afterwards 
Bishop of Rochester, Martin Clifford, and Hudibras Butler. Colman and 
Garrick combined to produce one of the most popular of English plays, 
*'The Clandestine Marriage." Each, however, claimed almost the entire 
credit of the production. Colman*s story was that " Garrick composed two 
acts, which he sent to me, desiring me to put them together, or do what I 
would with them. I did put them together, for I put them in the fire, and 
wrote the play myself." Garrick, however, was able to produce the first 
draught of the comedy, showing that the plot was almost entirely his own, and 
he forced Colman to acknowledge that the character of Lord Ogleby was 
Garrick*s, as well as the levee scene and the whole of the fifth act 

Pope, in his "Essay on Man," is reported by Lord Bathurst, apud Hugh 
Blair, to have merely turned into verse a prose essay furnished him by Boling- 
broke. The latter is further said to have openly laughed at the poet for 
adopting and advocating principles at variance with his known convictions. 
When Pope's " Iliad" came up, an epigram found its way into print, — 

Pope came off clean with Homer, but they say 
Broome went before and kindly swept the way. 

But this is not true of the ** Iliad ;" what Broome did for that work was 
merely to supply a portion of the notes. With the " Odyssey" it was differ- 
ent Pope, encouraged by the overwhelming success of the former work, 
determined to take fortune at the flood. Learning that Broome and Fenton 
were at work on a version of the " Odyssey," he prevailed on them to join 
him, and the town was informed that Mr. Pope had undertaken a translation, 
and had engaged the two friends to help him. His " mercenaries," as Johnson 
rudely calls them, had a much larger share in the performance than " Mr. 
Pope the undertaker" allowed the world to suspect 

The literary partnership of Addi.son and Steele was hardly more than a 
joint editorship of the first of weekly journals, save in the character of Sir 
Koger de Coverley, a production whose genesis has been thus summed up : 
"The outlines were imagined and partly traced by Steele ; the coloring and 
more prominent lineaments elaboratea by Joseph Addison ; some of the 
background put in by Eustace Budgell ; and the portrait defaced by either 
Steele or Tickell with a deformity which Addison repudiated." 

Come early and avoid the rush, an American colloquialism, first used 
in all seriousness by advertisers who wished to impress the public with the 


popuUril; of Iheit wares and Ihe consequent extent of Iheir business, subse- 
quently caught up and applied humorous I y, aii in the extract, — 

A harfc-jack«v id Arooitooli ConDiy, MhIiw, npenlvd of his sharp practices, joiacd iIm 
churth, ftbd ■DODUncrd ihM if be hud Ukea unFur advantage of any one in a hDne-truir he 
would be glad 10 Bquare ihingi by paying the dilTvrencc in cash. Ii was scarceiy dnyJicht the 
neai morning when a nei|£ht>or, who considered tliat he had been "roaatcd" io a swap with 
the newly-cDDvened jockey, made his appeanDcc at the laiier's doof, ttnarldng that he bad 

Com* off! This bit of American slang, used imperatively and meaning 
" Desist [" or " Cease !" is relatively new t<i miHletii use. It is startling, there- 
fore, to find that it occurs in Chaucer's " Parliament of Fowles" (v. 494) in 
exactly the modern sense. The birds grow tired of listening to a long dis- 
cussion among the young eagles 1 and so at last, — 

" Come of t" ihey ctyde, " alksT you wih usshende!" 

Coming events oaat their stiadovra befora. Tliii, line in " Lochiel's 
Warning," by Thomas Campbell, has some kinship with a sentiment in 
Schillei% " Wallenstein," thus translated by Coleridge : 

And Id already wallu to-motro^k', 

Shetley in his " Defence of Poetry" also has a very similar thought : " Poets 
are the nierophants of an unappiehended inspiration ; the mirrors of the 
gigantic shadows which futurity ca&ts upon the presenL" Cicero in his 
" Divinatio" had already said. " Thus, in the beginning the world was so 
made that certain signs come before certain events" (lib. i. cap. 52). Mr. H. H. 
Breen in his "Modern English Literature" thinks that Campbell had in mtnd 
Leibnitz's remark, " Le present est gros de I'avenir," and the comments made 
thereupon by Isaac D'laraeli. The tatter, referring to Leibnitz's words, says, 
"The multitude live only among the shadows of things in the appearances of 
the present." And in another passage he couples the word shadow with the 
word precursor in such a manner (so thinks Mr. Breen) as to express in the 
clearest language the whole thought attributed lo Campbell. The ordinaiy 
relation of a shadow to the substance by which it is formed is that of a fol- 

Envy will merit aa a iliade purwe. 

whereas, in the language of l>'Israeli, the shadow is made to firaede the 
substance. These are his words : "This volume of Reynolds seems lo have 
been the shadow and precursor of one of the most substantial of literatT 
monsters, the ' H istrio-Mastix, or Player's Scourge,' of Prynne, in 1633." A 
very ingenious bit of reasoning, but it does more ctedit to Mr. Breen's casu- 
istical powers than to his critical integrity. Campbell, in short, with the tine 
alchemy of genius, touched a commonplace and turned it into poetry. 

Company. A mao is known by tbe company be keepa. a familiar 
English proverb which linds its analogue in must other languages. Its prob- 
able original is in Euripides : " Every man is like the com|>any be is wont 
lo keep" [PAaaiii.. Fragment 809). Cervantes has it in this form : -Tell mc 
th^ company, and t will tell thee what thou art" IDim Quixote, Part ii., ch. 
zxiii.). Goethe says, " Tell me your companions, and 1 will tell you what you 
are ; tell me what you busy yourself about, I will tell you what may be ex- 
pected of you" {Reimer ; Twlf- Talk). The French proverb is, " Dis-moi qui 
tu hantes, je te dirai qui tu es." And the German, — 

So Kh*uaei» Gesellschafl ao. 


The effects of association are pointed out in the familiar proverb, "Evil 
communications corrupt gooti manners," and its Euripidean corollary, * The 
company of just and righteous men is belter than wealth and a rich estate." 

(^^^TK/, Fragment 7.) 

r as Lvly'B "Euphues" (1579), although il is evident it w 
ing bemre Lyly's time, since Sir John Forlescue (who d 
is " Ue Laudibus Legum Angliae" (fol. 41, ed. 1616), comi 

long before Lyly's time, since Sir John Forlescue (who died about 1485), in 
'-'-. " Ue Lauditnis Legum Angliae" [fol. 41, ed. 1616), comparing the common 
. i the dvil law of the realm, says, " Compataiiones vero, Princeps, ut le 
aliquando dixisse recolo odiosae reputantur. John Lydgate (1375-1461), in 

his " Bochai" (Book iii- ch. viii.), says, " ConipaHsons do ufltime grei 
ance." Cervantes, ill "Don tjuixote" (Part ii, ch. x»iii.l, says, " Ya s 
toda compaiacion es odiusa." The second part of " Don (Quixote" was 

published till fifteen years aflei " Much Ado About Nothing," but Cervantes 
seems to be quoting a well-knonn proverb ; and, in fact, the " Dictionary of 
Proverbs" of the Spanish Academy (1S03I gives "Toda compatacion es odi- 
osa" as a proverb quoted by Cervantes, and " probably not original with him." 
The Italians and the French have similar sayings. The antiquity of the 
Spanish and Italian proverbs is unknown, but the French undoubtedly goes 
back as far as the thirteenth century, (or Leroux de Lincy, in " Le Livre des 
Proverbes Fianfais" (vol. i. p. 276), sa^ that in a manuscript collection of 
that dale he found these 1 " Cumparaisons sont haineuses," "Comparaison 

CompllmMita. Vanity rules the world, and the value of that subtle titil- 
lation uf vanity which we call a compliment has been recoeniied by all men 
of the world. We are told that Canute rebuked his courtiers for their flat- 
tery, but il is not written that he punished them. Probably he secretly re- 
warded Ihose who pictured him as an anticipatory Mrs. Parlnigton, and who, 
in spile of the evidence, held on to their belief that he was more than a match 
for the Atlaniic Ocean. The stomach of kings has never proved queasy under 
any load of flattery, however indigestible it might appear to his rivals. 
Bacon, indeed, held thai princes ought in courtesy to be praised without 
t^ard to their deservings, since by investing them with all possible virtues 
their panegyrists showed them what they should be. But, alas t we should 
be flatterina the flatterers did we attribute to them motives so noble. 

To look back upon the compliments showered upon Elizabeth, James I., 
and Charles II, — the most berhymed and bepraiscd of English sovereigns — 
is to be filled with nausea. It is humiliating to find even Spenser and Shake- 
speare bending their lordly knees to that terrible virago known as Good Queen 
Bess. Spenser applied the epithet "angel face" to her strong, macculiiie, 
but unattractive face." Shakespeare praised her chastity, — the chastity uf 
one whose reputation had at least been questioned, — and spoke of her who 
was always having some little affair with a man as walking 
In maiden midiuilon fancy Tth. 

Both were outdone by Drayton : 


Tvo lips wrought out of rubr ra^ 
Like Luva to ihui And to uiUDck ; 
A> porul door lo phcurat' chiuiibn', 

Hs cytt, God wM, wksi Muff they arc I 

1 dunt be iwora each u a UKr» 

At cleu and bright u wont to guide 

and by Sir John Davies, who tang the changes upon his queen's beauty. wi» 
dom, wit, virtue, justice, and magnaniniity in sii- and- twenty spedmcns of 
acrostic verse, declaring in one of his hymns to Asliaea, — 

Right glad am I itut I now Uvi. 
E'en lit ihoK day* wbcmo you give 

If JiH you^^hould" be b<™'. 

Admiring your laeet Hory 1 

James I. was infarmed that he was as upright as David, ai wise as Solomon, 
and as godly is Joaiah. When he returned on a short visit to Scotland, the 
depuly-dcrk of Edinburgh assured him that (he very hills and groves, accus- 
tomed to be refreshed with the dew of his presence, had, in his absence, re- 
fused to put on their wonted apparel, and with pale looks bespoke their 
misery at his departure from tiie land. But the " wisest fool in Christen- 
dom" was not always caught by this sort of chaff. In a Shrewsbury address 
to James I., his loyal suhjecls expressed a wish that he might reign over (hem 
as long as sun, moon, and stars should endure. " I suppose, then," observed 
the monarch, "(hey mean my successor to reign by candle-light" 

Ben Jonson allileralively styled the First Charles (he best of monarchs, mas- 
ters, and men. That seems (o go pretty far. But it was nothing lo the 
compliments which (he courtiers and flatterers of the Restoration paid to 
Charles II. That Merrv Monarch vxi frequently informed that he was 
God's pattern to mankind, — indeed, so excellent an undctstudy (or the Deity 
that while he blessed the earth there was small need of the great Prolago- 
nisL There is an exquisite but unconscious satire in some verses by a 
gentleman named Duke, written when this paragon had flown to heaven, to be 

Wh^t^'lheniK]y« in'filil, and ih^on irkeoeu love I 

Here is another gem from the same poem; 

Good TitiM could, but Chirtei could ne»er uy, 
Of all hii tsyil life he loi 

very clergy played (he sycophantic 
holy profession were not ashamed 

courtier. From the pulpit members of that holy prof! 

to load then ' "' - -' —-'--- ■^' - - ■ - 

their hearers 

of protest when the most godlike qualities were attributed to the Grand 
Monarque, when he was described as the one object upon whi(;h the eyes of 
the visible and invisible world were alike bent with approving wonder. Not 
only (he universe, bul heaven and the angels were assumed (o be mainly 
occupied in wa(ching Ihe (riuinphs and magnanimi(yof Louis and his generals. 
We have all of us laughed al the story of Baton Th^nard, who, while giving 
a chemical lecture before Charles X., said, "These gases are going to have 
the honor of combining before your majesty." A still more snobbish phrase 
occurs In one of De 6 ussy- Ra but in 's letters. St.-Aignan had lost one of his 
sons. To console him, Louis XIV. granted him some favor. Thereupon 
De Bussy.Rabutin wrote, "The favors accorded you by the king show me that 
■■ ' majesty is worthy of the service of all the earth. It is only near him that a 
"" ' Heasurt [qarlgitt doucfur] in losing his childteiL" 

parent can find iimu fUat 


From the cradle to the grave, indeed, Louis XIV. was surrounded by flat- 
terers. In the Imperial Library of St Petersburg there is a sheet of paper, 
on which as a boy he had transcribed some half a dozen times, in a laree 
unformed hand, a lesson set by his master, *' Homage is due to kings ; they do 
what they like." And in his old age, complaining at dinner of the incon- 
venience of having no teeth, ** Teeth ?" cried the Cardinal d'Estrees : •* who 
has any ?" When he asked Mignard, who was painting his portrait for the 
tenth time, whether he did not look older, the artist adroitly said, '* Sire, it is 
true that I see some more victories on the forehead of your majesty." 

Then there is the sublime mot of the Abb^ de Polignac, when the king 
kindly expressed his fears that the courtier was being soaked through. ** Sire," 
replied the abb^, " the rain of Marly does not wet !" But the story is some- 
times told in another way, and the phrase put into the mouth of the king him- 
self as a rebuke to a cardinal who followed him grudgingly through a shower. 

Madame de R^musat tells us in her M^moires that though she found no one 
sufficiently courtier-like to maintain that it did not rain when Napoleon pre- 
sented the eagles at the Champ de Mars, shortly after his coronation, she 
met innumerable people who declared that they had not been wetted. She 
neglects, however, to record Napoleon*s philosophic comment to his Minister 
of Finance, as the rain came pouring down in barrels, reducing silks and 
velvets to pulp : ** There's work for the weavers of Lyons !" 

When the Grand Monarque asked what time it was (** Quelle heure est-il ?"), 
he was answered, ** Whatever time your majesty desires" (** II est Theure que 
Votre Majesty desire"). 

A very curious modern parallel to this famous phrase occurs, by the way, in 

Jager*s "Travels in the Philippines" (1875) •* 

. If a traveller gets on good terms with the priests, he seldom meets with anv annoyances. 
Upon one occasion I wished to make a little excursion directly after lunch, and at a quarter- 

Est eleven everything was ready for a start; when I happened to say that it was a piiy to 
ve to wait three-quarters of an hour for the meal. In a minute or two twelve o'clock struck ; 
all work in the vill.ige ceased, and we sat down to table ; it was noon. A message had been 
Mot to the village bell-ringer that the Sefior Padre thought he must be asleep, and that it 
must be long past, as the Sefior Padre was htxngry. " II est Thcure que votre 
majesty desire. ' — P. 1x7. 

Even children adopted the language of the courts. What could be better 
than the answer of the young Due de Maine, the son of Louis, when his royal 
father chid him for not making better progress in his studies } " Sire, I do not 
learn more because my tutor gives me a holiday for each victory of your 
msnesty 1" 

Louis himself, the much-complimented, knew how to compliment. " Sire, I 
crave jrour majesty's pardon if I keep you waiting," said the gouty old warrior 
the Prince de Conde. "My cousin, replied Louis, "do not hurry. It is 
impossible to move quickly when one is loaded with laurels." 

Of famous compliments paid to the fair sex, the supply is so large and daz- 
zling that it is a matter of no small difficulty to pick out the brightest gems ; 
but if the following one was unlooked for, it certainly deserves a place among 
the best Fontenelle, when ninety years old, passed by Madame Helvetius 
without perceiving her. " Ah !" cried the lady, " is that your gallantry ? 
To pass before me without even looking at me ! Now, that was a very neat 
way of reminding him of her presence without alluding to the semi-blindness 
that afflicted him. But he proved himself more than her match. " If I had 
looked at you, madame," replied the old beau, " I could never have passed 
you at all." As neat a m^/ was uttered by General Romaine. Meeting 
Lady de Brientz, whom he had known and admired in the loveliness of her 
youth, he commenced complimenting her. " You forget that I am an old 
woman/* she said at length. " Madame," returned the gallant soldier, " when 


uur eyes ire <laulcd by a diamond, it never occur? to us to ask a roineTalogist 
for its hislory." Il is an old reproach against Orientals thai Ibey are unable 
to tav ptetly things to ladies ; but a daughter of Louis XIV., the Princess de 
Conti, Inspired a Moorish ambassador niiih as gracefully turned a cam pi i men t 
as can be imagined. She had railed against the Mohammedan custom of 
polygamy, when the Moor thus defended the practice. " Madame," he said, 
"a plurality of iri*ea is allowed among us because, in our country, we most 
seeli in several women the charming qualities which ate here tu be found in 
one." The poet Moore, who never lei slip an opportunity of complimenting 
the bir sex, was in the present instance hardly kind lo the husband. Being 
one day in the company of a beautiful woman, who wore on her bosom a 
miniature likeness of^her spouse, who was the reverse of handsome, he was 
asked by her "whom he thought (he portrait resembled." "I ih ink," said 
(he poel. " it is like the Saracen's [lead on Snowhill." 

A bold stroke Id obtain liberty by means of a compliment was that made 
by M. de Maapertuis. A prisoner in Austria during (he Seven Years' War, 
he was presented to the Empress, who said to him, " Vou know the Queen 
of Sweden, sister (o the King of Prussia?" " Ves. madame." " I am told 
that she is (he most beautiful princess in (he world." " Madame," rejilied 
the cunning prisoner, " I always (bought so until to-day." This was as diplo- 
matic as the words and action of the Marquis Medina, a Spanish nobleman. 
Queen Elizabeth, admiring his elegance, and complimenting him thereon, 
begged to know who possessed the hear( of so accomplished a cavalier. 
"Madame," said he. "a lover risks too much on such an occasion ; but youl 
majesty's will is law. Excuse me, however, if I tear to name her, but re- 
quest your majesty's acceptance of her porltail." l-Ie sent her a looking .glass. 

Talleyrand was a master of the art of gallantry. He knew how In extrica(c 
himself very gracefully from the most cnibarrassmg dilemmas. Once Madame 
de Slael, wild with jealousy at (he dominion which his future wife, Madame 
Grant, was establishing over his mind, flew at him, overwhelmed him wilh 
reproaches, and concluded with, " So you don't love me any more *" '■ But," 
he insisted, " 1 do love you." " Non I non 1" she cried, and (hen, as if (o 
test the Iruth of the assertion, suddenly exclaimed, " Vou love ine \ Come, 
now : if Madame Grant and I both fell into the water, which would you 
save?" "Ah, madame, nw know how to svrim," was the wily answer. 

In England, few men have ever surpassed Sydney Smith in (he art of deli- 
cate flattery. On meedng two preHy women, Mrs. Tighe and Mrs. Cuffe, he 
gallandy exclaimed, " Ah, (here you are, — the fw^that every one would wear, 
the tU that no one would loose. A beautiful girl walking in his garden ex- 
claimed, on noticing a plant which was in some way injured, " Oh. Mr. Smith, 
(his pea will never come (o perfection !" " Permit me, (hen," said (he host, 
taking her hand, " to lead Petlection to (he pea." 

Very graceful, (oo, was his acceptance of an invitation from Dickens : 

Mt dkak Uickbns.^I iccFpt joai abliging iniiuiioii condiiuxutly. If I am iD>lKit tiy 
iDtcToud, 1 olll Ffpudiaic you, il^'iUiK wilblh/im^pi^did plKii«iUDon'"i?lhe"(^. ' * 

Bu( (his leder finds t(s parallel in the compliment paid by Lord Clarendon 
to Sir Matthew Hale. Handing lo Sir Matthew (he commission for the chief- 
justiceship. Clarendon very gracefully told him that "if the king could have 
iound out an honesler and filter man for that employment, he would not have 
advanced him to it." 

A sarcasm may ohen wear Ihe garb of a compliment, and be taken for one 
by the simple -wiKed. The Ab1>^ Voiscnon once made a complainl that he 
was unduly charged with the al>surd sayings of others. " Monsieur I'Abbe," 
replied D'Alembeit, "on ne prfte qu'iuz riches." 


Louis XIV., who, like many humbler rhymesters, somewhat overrated his 
poetical powers, showed a copy of verses to Boileau, and asked his candid 
opinion of them. ** Ah, sire," said the poet, "I am more convinced than ever 
that nothine is impossible to your majesty : you desired to write some poor 
rhymes, and you have succeeded in making them positively detestable !'* 

But the sarcasm is often unintentional, as in the case of the gentleman who 
was complimenting Madame Denis on her acting as Ygaire. " Nay," said the 
lady, ** an actress, to play the part well, should be young and l)eautiful." *' Oh, 
no ; you are a proof to the contrary." Equally awkward and equally well 
meant was the remark of M. Lalande when seated at dinner between Madame 
R^camier and Madame de Stacl. " How happy I am to find myself seated 
between wit and beauty !" " And without possessing either," was the StaePs 
smart rejoinder, A similar remark under similar circumstances is attributed 
to the Due de Laval, but in this story the retort from Corinne is said to have 
been, "That is the first compliment ever paid to nay face !" 

The following story is told in illustration of East- Indian politeness. A 
judge, who was a very bad shot, had been out for a day's sport, and on his 
return the man who went with him was asked, " Well, how did the judge 
shoot to-day ?" " Oh," he replied, ** the judge shoot beautifully, but heaven 
was very merciful to the birds !" 

The interchanged compliments between the members of mutual admiration 
societies have frequently pointed the pens of the satirists. One does not know 
whether the old fratricidal strife among authors was not preferable to the 
present more or less hypocritical log-rolling. A single instance must suffice; 
When Bulwer and Dickens, on Jul3r 29, 186^, celebrated at Knebworth the 
establishment of the short-lived Guild of Literature and Art, the Saturday 
Review characterized the proceedings as "a wonderful match of mutual 
admiration and laudation." Bulwer called Dickens *' a resplendent ornament 
of literature." Dickens replied that Bulwer was ** the brightest ornament of 
the literary class." Bulwer congratulated the county of Herts on the honor 
of entertaming so distinguished a visitor. Dickens congratulated himself on 
being in the house of so great a man, and averred that the county was " already 
the envy of every other county in England" in possessing that man. The 
author of " Pelham" eulogized the author of " Pickwick" as one ** who has 
united an unrivalled mastery over the laughter and the tears of millions with 
as genial and sweet a philosophy as ever made the passions move at the com- 
mand of virtue." But the author of " Pickwick" would not be distanced in 
the noble and dignified contest. " Ladies and gentlemen, you know very 
well that when the health, life, and beauty now overflowing these halls shall 
have fled, crowds of people will come to see the place where our distinguished 
host lived and wrote." The comment of the Saturday Review is a very sen- 
sible one. "This," it says, "is what comes of 'bringing men of letters 
more familiarly together.' One writer actually reports that Mr. Dickens made 
a few graceful and dignified remarks. How a man is to be envied who can 
find only grace and dignity in such an outpouring of rancid adulation ! And 
no doubt the minnows make a few graceful and dignified remarks to one 
another, just as the Tritons do. So that a Guild of Literature and Art 
means an institution where, on paying your sul^cription punctually, you are 
entitled to be called l)y the others who have also paid their subscriptions *a 
resplendent ornament, or any other complimentary name to which you have 
a mind." 

Concatenation, or chain TerBe, a form of poetic ingenuity in which the 
last word or phrase in each line forms the opening of the succeeding line. 
Its invention is ascribed to the French poet Lasphrise. The following is from 
his pen: 



.-«Df gun long ill doth Iry, 

WhETcfm, CDme, Ueuh, and [« mc die. 

The mciricr mind doih ihousht mvade ; 
Shon Ifltj in tnith, Ihia thing Jolh try, 
Wlurerart, coDt, Dcuh, ud Id mE die. 
Come, fiende Death, the ehb oT on ; 

The Ah of cue, iIk Sood c^ life '. 
The Sood oflife, the joyfiiL ftie ; 

The joyAil fut, the end t^f slnfe : 
The end of alrire. Ihni thing with I, 
Wherefure, come, Dalh, and let ne die. 

In German, Koemer's ma^i(icent " Sword Song" makes a modified use ot 
concalenation al the beginning and end of eveiy Blanza. 

ConHdenca Oame, Trick, Dodge, or Back, a ^miliar expression for a 
common Itick whercliy a clevec sharper gains the confidence of a greenhorn 
in order to cheat him. One of the earliest forms of the trick, and probably 
the ime from which ii got its name, is that of inviting the victim, a perfect 
stranger, to come and have a drink, over which the swindler waxes eloquent 
in praise of his new-found frietid. expresses the utmost confidetice in him, and, 
to prove his sincerity, intrusts him with pretended valuables, claiming in re- 
turn a similar mark of confidence. Of course in the end the sharper wallu 
off with the real valuables of his new-fotind friend, and the old ones he leaves 
behind turn out to be bogus. The term confidence-man applied to one who 
played this game has now been largely superseded by the kindred term 
Buncu-sleerer {g. v.). 

and a Utile lower down in Ihe same speech.— 

It is only in Colley Gibber's altered version that Richard, regaining hU 
manhood, ciiee out. — 

Coauience avium I Rlchard-i faimulf agiuD I 
In " Hamlet," Shakespeare says, — 


people cowards," or of Publius Syrus*s maxim (617), "A guilty conscience 
never feels secure," which are echoed also in the popular proverbs " A guilty 
conscience needs no accuser," and "Touch a galled horse and heMl wince 
(cf " Hamlet," " Let the galled jade wince, our withers are unstrung"). Sub- 
stantially the same idea is expressed in the Biblical words, "The wicked flee 
when no man pursueth : but the righteous are bold as a lion" [Proverbs xxviii. i). 
** A clear conscience is a sure card," says Lyly, in " Euphues and his England," 
p. 207 ; and Shakespeare calls it, — 

A peace above all earthly dignities, 
A still and quiet conscience. 

Htnty VIII., Act Hi., Sc. a. 
And again, — 

What stronger breastplate than a heart untainted ! 
Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just. 
And he but naked, though locked up in steel. 
Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted. 

Htnry VI., Part II., Act iii., Sc. a. 
Evidently imitated from Marlowe, — 

I'm armed with more than complete steel, — 
The justice of my quarrel. 

Lusfs Dominion, Act iii., Sc. 4. 

And in its turn imitated by Pope : 

He's armed without that's innocent within. 

Epistles, I., Book i. 

** Trust that man in nothing," says Sterne, "who has not a conscience in 
everything" {Sermon XX VI I). George Washington in one of his school-boy 
copy-books wrote or transcribed the commonplace, hence become famous, 
'* Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire — con- 
science." Numerous citations from poetry and prose would support the gen- 
eral view that conscience is the voice of nature or of God speaking to the 
heart, so long as it is not utterly corrupt. Montaigne, however, asserts that 
" the laws of conscience, which we pretend to be derived from nature, pro- 
ceed from custom" (^woyj; Of Custom)', perhaps the first assertion of the 
doctrine of the experimental philosophers, which in its latest form assumes 
that conscience represents the accumulated experiences of the race inherited 
in the form of an instinct 

CoDBOious w^ater saw^ its Qod and blushed. There is a story, told 
sometimes of Dryden when a school -boy at Westminster, sometimes of an 
anonymous " school-boy at Eton," that, being required to make a verse on the 
miracle of Cana, he handed up the single line, — 

The conscious water saw its God and blushed. 

But the story has no foundation. The author of the sentiment was Richard 
Crashaw in his Latin epigram on the miracle. Here are the Latin lines and 
a translation by Aaron Hill : 

Unde rubor vestris, et non sua purpura, lymphis ? 

Suae rosa mirantes tarn nova mutat aquas? 
umen (convivac) praesens agnoscite Numcn ; 
Nympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit. 

When Christ, at Cana's feast, by power divine. 
Inspired cold water with the warmth of wine, 
" See," cried they, while in reddening tide it sushed. 
" The bashful stream hath seen its God, and blusheo." 

It will be seen that HilPs line differs from the familiar quotation, and does 
not diflFer for the better. The line in its present form may be found in one of 
Heber*s poems, without either credit or acknowledgment, and he may have 
first Englished it in this way. A somewhat similar metaphor is used in an 


It be attributed to 

iny particular author. The proverbial and wrilleti literature of all countries 
is lull of comparisons between virtue and jewels. In Shakespeare aluiie wc 
find the following among other ir 



In 1867 some wag attempted to impose on the public the inforination that 
this line was from a ballad called Jolly Robin Roughead, in - Murlagh's • Col- 
lection of Ballads' (1754)." The poet bewails the extravagance of drcu, 
which be considers the enormity of the day, and makes Rubin say to his wife, — 

Tiuh, lush, my Uut, lUch ihougtill raigD, 

But both the ballad and the book turned out 10 be ingenious figments. 

ConspicuDOS by Ita abaence, a phrase made popular in England by 
Lord lolin Russell. In his " Address to the Electors of the City of London/' 

C'llished April 6, 1859, he said of I^rd I>erby's Reform Hill, which had just 
n defeated, " Among the detects of the bill, which are numerous, one pro- 
vision is conspicuous Dy its presence, and another by its absence." i'he 
expression was sharply criticised, and nine days later, in a .speech at l.oiidon 
Tavern, he justified it thus ; " It has been thought that by a misnomer, or a 
'' " ' n my part, I alluded to a provision as conspicuous by its absence 


Tacitus. In his " Annates," lib. iii. cap. 76, describing the funeral of Junia, 
he thus alludes I0 the absence of the images of her famous kinsmen Brutus 
and Caasius ; " Sed praerulitebant Cassius alque Brutus eo ipso, quod effigies 
eorum non videbanlur" ('' But Cassius and Brutus were the mail conspicuous, 
for the very reason that their etHgies were not seen"). 

J. Ch^nier, in his tragedy of "Tiberius" (Act i. Scene i). translating the 
expression into French, gave it the form which is familiar in English, — 

Hcutus CI CiBlui brlllaieni plr Icur nl>KD«.— 
but which had already become familiar in France through ita use \vj the Jan- 
senists when their enemies had succeeded in securing the omission of the 
names of Pascal and Arnauld from Perrault's " History of Illustrious Men." It 
was revived, loo, in Talleyrand's observation when some one called his atten- 
tion to (he fact that Lord Castlereagh at the Congress of Vienna wore no 
decorations: "Ma foi, c'est bien distingurf." The latter story, however, in 
doubled by historians, and the late Prince Paul Galliliin received from his 
uncle, a member of the Congress, quite auolbet version, — namely, that Gallitun 


and Castlereagh entered the council-chamber together, and the latter, noticing 
a gentleman in plain dress, inquired who he was, and, on being told, "An 
attach^ of the Russian embassjr, just arrived from St. Petersburg," exclaimed, 
** Comment! un Russe sans decorations! II doit €tre un homme bien dis- 
tingue !" 

Constant in nothing but inconstancy. The context is as follows : 

To give the sex their due. 
They scarcely are to their own wishes true ; 
They love, they hate, and yet they know not why ; 
Constant in nothing but inconstancy. 

The antithesis is a very familiar one, both in prose and in verse. Here arc 
a few parallel examples : 

Fickle in everythh^ else, the French have been faithful in one thing only,— their love of 
change. — Alison's Htiicry 0/ Europt. 

Naught may endure but mutability. 

Shkllev: Mutability. 
Constancy in love is a perpetual inconstancy which makes our heart attach itself succes- 
sively to all the qualities of the loved one. This consuncy is but an inconstancy arrested and 
fixed on a single object.— La Rochefoucauld: Maxims, 175. 

Le temps, cette image mobile 
De I'immobile Etemit6. 

J. B. Rousseau. 

Et rien, afin que tout dure, 
Ne dure 6temellement. 

Malhsrbb: Odii. 

Since 'tis Nature's law to change. 
Constancy alone is strange. 


The world's a scene of changes, and to be 
Constant in Nature were inconstancy. 


Short is the uncertain reign of pomp and mortal pride : 

New ttims and changes every day 

Are of inconstant chance the constant arts. 

Earl of Surrey. 

That which was fixt is fled away, 

And what was ever sliding, that aoth onely stay. 

E. Benlowes : translation from Janus Vitalis. 

Cool of the evening. A nickname given to Richard Monckton Milnes, 
afterwards Lord Houghton. The story of its origin is told in various ways, 
and the inventor of the nickname is sometimes Sydney Smith, sometimes Bar- 
ham, and sometimes Count D'Orsay. The most usual story refers it to the 
latter wag, and runs as follows. Young Milnes was at his club late one after- 
noon in company with the count, when some one proposed a call on I^dy 
Blessington. " Oh, yes, let's call," chimed in the poet. " I'll go with you. ' 
"Indeed," responded Count D'Orsay, loftily : "are you acquainted with her 
ladyship.?" "No, but that's of nr) consequence. I'll accompany you, my 
dear fellow." " So you shall, so yf)U shall," retorted D'Orsay, " and I'll intro- 
duce you as the Cool of the Evening." 

In a letter to Lord Houghton from Sydney Smith, quoted below, the latter 
expressly denies having ever used the phrase, and the fact that Houghton 
had addressed a remonstrance to the clerical wit shows the falsity of all the 
stories which represent him as having received the rebuke in person : 

Dear Milnbs, — Never lose your good temper, which is one of your best qualities, and 
which has carried you hitherto safely through your startling eccentricities. If you turn 
cross and touchy, you are a lost man. No man can combine the defects of opposite charac- 
ters. The names of " Cool of the Evening," " London Assurance," and " In-I-go Jones" 
are, 1 give you my word, not mine. They are of no sort of importance ; they are safety- 


duld, wiib > verr good hvart, uuinpr^jchaht? in all iht tcIjeldiu cif UFe, and Ihal von *mptf 
d«CTve to be reUil^ed in the place la which you had IDO baicilj clevale({ youTaelf by man- 
nen iiDknowD \a our cold and phlegmatic people- 1 tbanW you for what you lay of my 
goal naluTC. Lord Dudley, when ] tooli leave of him, aald id me^" Vou have bccD laughitlE 

plea«d u.e. vb J-^^^^ ^^^^^ 

Coon, a common abbrevi'alion for raccoon, b also a slan^ term for a ncgio, 
owing, perhaps, to his fiindncss for ihe animal. In American politics, coon 
was a nickname fbr a Wliig, tirsl applied during the Frcsidetitial campaign 
of 1836. Martin Van Bnrcn had been styled an old foi by the Whigs. The 
Democrats retaliated by calling Henry Clay " thai same eld coon." and face- 
tiously insinuated that he had been treed by the old foi. The Whigs caught 
up the epithet and adopted the raccoon as their emblem, painting its picture 
on their banners and carrying live specimens in their processions. 

Coon, A gone. Unc who is utterly ruined, exhatisted, ur done fur ; one 
who is placed in a hopeless difhcully. Captain Marryal records the folluwing 
explanation in his " Diary" (1839), which was gravely told him by a Yankee 
acquaintance. "There is a Captain Martin Scott in the United Stales army 
who is a remarkable shot with his rifle. He was raised in Vermont. His 
fame was so considerable throughout the Slate that even the animals were 
aware of iL He went out one morning with hU rifle, and, spying a raccoon 
upon the upper branches of a high tree, brought his gun up 10 his shoulder, 
when the raccoon, perceiving it, raised his paw up for a parley. ' I beg your 
pardon, mister,' saia the raccoon, very politely, 'but may I ask if your name 
IS Scott?' ' Ves,' replied the capuin. 'AfartiH Scott?' continued the rac- 
coon. 'Yes,' replied the captain. 'Captain Martin Scott?' still continued 
the animal. ' Yes,' replied the captain ; ' Captain Martin Scott.' ' Oh. then,' 
says the animal, ' I may just as well come down, for I'm a gotu cam.' " 

Another explaiiation gives the phrase a Revolutionary origin. An American 
scout dressed himself in a raccoon-skin and ascended a tree to reconnoitre 
the enemy. White thus engaged, he was surprised by a British soldier, out 
hunting, and the latter, mistaking him for a genuine coon, levelled bis gun 10 
fire. " Hold on t" cried the startled spy ; " if you won't shoot. I'll come down. 
I am a gone coon!" The Englishman, however, was so terrified that he 
dropped his gun and fled. 

I muat think oT aomelhiug else aa I lie awake, or, hke that lagacioua animal in the United 
RipriHUjnr°^Lxin^A'^akr. " ° "" "" * ' " ' »"°'r««"«— icnam. 

Coon, Oo the whole, an American equivalent for " go the whole hog." 
Coon'e age, a long period of lime, the coon being popularly supposed to 
be very long-lived. "I haven't seen you in a coen'i agt" is a common locu- 
tion in rural America. 

Cop or Copper (from the slang verb ta cop or seize. Latin capis, or Heb. 

7. a "hand" or "palm"), a slang word for a policeman. The term copper, 
course, has nothing to do with the metal, nevertheless "the professors of 
olang, having coined the word, associate that with the metal, and as they pass 
a policeman they will, to annoy him, exhibit a capper coin, which is equiva- 
lent to calling the officer capper." (Manchester Courier, June 13, 1864.) 

Copperhead, the popular name for the TrigotuKephcUui contortrix, a 
venomous American serpent abounding especially in Florida, Unlike Ihe 


rattlesnake, it gives no warning of its approach. Hence it is often known as 
the dumb rattlesnake. The word has been caught up as a nickname for noi- 
some and noiseless enemies, and applied first to the Indians, next to the Dutch 
colonists (see Irving's ** Knickerbocker"), and lastly and more permanently to 
the anti-war Democrats who resided in the North and sympathized more or 
less secretly with the South during the civil war. 

He lived to cast a dving vote for General Jacluon, and his son, the fir»t Dr. Mulbridge, 
survived to illustrate tne nutgnanimity of his fellow-townsmen during the first year of the 
civil war, as a tolerated copperhead.— W. D. Howblls : Dr. Brttn's Prttctict, ch. ix. 

Copyright. Under the existing law of the United States, copyright is 
eranted for twenty -eight years, with the ri^ht of extension for fourteen more ; 
m all, forty-two years. The term of copyright in other countries is as follows s 

Mexico, Guatemala, and Venezuela, in perpetuity. 

Colombia, author's life and eighty years after. 

Spain, author*s life and eighty years after. 

Belgium, author's life and fifty years after. 

Ecuador, author's life and fifty years after. 

Norway, author's life and fifty years after. 

Peru, author's life and fifty years after. 

Russia, author's life and fifty years after. 

Tunis, author's life and fifty years after. 

Italy, author's life and forty years after ; the full term to be eighty years in 
any event 

France, author's life and thirty years after. 

Germany, author's life and thirty years after. 

Austria, author's life and thirty years after. 

Switzerland, author's life and thirty years after. 

Hayti, author's life, widow's life, children's lives, and twenty years after the 
close of the latest period. 

Brazil, author's life and ten years after. 

Sweden, author's life and ten years after. 

Roumania, author's life and ten yeai's after. 

Great Britain, author's life and seven years after his decease ; to be forty- 
two years in any event 

Bolivia, full term of author's life. 

Denmark and Holland, fifty years. 

Japan, author's life and five years after. 

South Africa, author's life ; nfty years in any event 

Cordon bleu. Henry IH. of France was elected King of Poland on 
the day of the Pentecost, and upon the same day, by the death of Charles IX., 
he succeeded to the throne of France. In token of his gratitude he instituted 
the order of the Saint-Esprit, limiting the number of knights to a hundred, 
exclusive of the officers of the order. The collar worn by members of the 
order upon state occasions was formed of fleur-de-lis in gold, and suspended 
to it was a cross of eight points, with a dove in the centre ; upon the reverse 
of the cross was a design representing St Michael slaying the dragon. When 
the collar was not donned, the cross was worn suspended to a piece of blue 
silk, called the cordon bleu. As time went on, it became the custom to call 
any one who had achieved eminence in his profession a cordott bleu. Finally 
it came to be applied only to cooks. M. Littre remarks that the blue apron 
formerly worn by cooks may have helped to earn for them this flattering 

Porker. This slang phrase is in use in the theatres as a synonyme for a 


duffer, one who corks or bottles up another actor's effecta, and in the world 
at large for something or somebody unusually large, remarkable, or excellent, 
something that closes up or settles a question. 

lie proud fatlm'i va[« u he addt«u«! the 

■ iht Muwererf loflly. the rich blood nunlJIniF htr chnk and brtmr. 
. ...v< told him," r^oined the rather, " that I ihall inlcrpoK no obilaclia in his my. If 
he can win your a^cliom, he ha« my Tuli and fr« cantent. 1 Buy lay id you, further, my 
daughter," be ctrntibued, " that in |[aillil>g the love of a young man like Harold Bilimore yoa 

Trilmnt. ' ' "' " ' '^'" "' '"" 

Corn, I acknoirledga tha, a colloquial Americanism, meaning " I give 
in," " I retract," tisnally ill regard to some special point not involving the 

faeturcd, have been given as to the origin of the phrase. The following, how- 
ever, has an air of plausibility and maybe authentic In 1828, .Andrew Stewart, 
a [oember of Congress, said in a speech that Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana 
sent their hajr-stacks, cornfields, and fodder to New York and Philadelphia 
fiiT sale. Wickliffe. of Kentucky, called him to order, declaring that those 
.States did uol send hay-stacks or cornfields to New York for sale. " Well, 
what do you send )" asked Stewart. " Why, horses, mules, cattle, and hogs." 
" Well, what makes your horses, mules, cattle, and hogs } You feed one hun- 
dred dollars' worth of hay to a horse. Vou just animate and get upon the top 
of your hay-stack and ride off to market. How is it with your cattle I You 
make one of them carry fifty dollars' worth of bay and grass to the Eastern 
market. How much coin does it take, at thirty-three cents a bushel, to 
fatten a hog?" "Why, thirty bushels." "Then you put that ihirly bushels 
into the shape of a hog, and make it walk off to the Eastern market" Then 
Mr. Wickliffe juini>ed up and said, " Mr, Speaker, I acknowledge the corn." 

CoiporatioQB have no ■otlla. This legal maxim was first laid down by 
"' "" ' ■'-■■- .L- ---J yf Hulton's Hospital (lO Rep. 32); "They 
- ' ' — ■■ - >r excommunicate. 

Scorporations] cannot commit treason, nor be outlawed n 
jr they have no souU." Lord Thurlow subsequently paraj: 

CoiTuptio optlml pesalma (L, "Corrupliun in the best is the worst cor- 
ruption"), a phrase much used by the early Latin Fathers of the Church. 
They applied it originally 10 bad priests 1 afterwards it was extended to de- 
scribe the sins of all who had received grace and were offending against the 
light ; and now it is a general expression, meaning, the better Ine thing the 
worse its abuse. And the most curious part of the whole matter is, that in 
BO broadening its application it has really gone round the circle and come 
back to its slarting- point. For there is little doubt that the phrase of the 
Fathers originated with Aristotle in his "Ethics of Nicomachus" (Uook viii., 
ch. X.), where, in speaking of governments, he says that "Tyranny being the 
corruinion of the best form [i.i., of kingly government) is therefore the worsL" 
Elsewhere he uses the same expression in other connections. The idea, of 
course, is a comnouptace that appears in many other forms in literature, — i^. : 


For fairest things grow foulest by foul deeds ; 
Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds. 

Shakbspearb : Sennet XCIV., xj. 


Would it were I had been false, not you ! 

I that am nothing, not you that are all ; 
I, never the worse for a touch or two 

On mv speckled hide ; not you, the pride 
Of the day, my swan, that a nrst fleck s fall 

On her wonder of white must unswan, undo ! 

Browning: TfU Worst 0/ It. 

Cotton to, meaning to like, to take to, to agree with, is often looked upon 
as a vulgarism, sometimes even as a modern Americanism. Bartlett includes 
it in his Dictionary. But this common colloquialism, still in use on both 
sides of the Atlantic, is a survival of a respectable English word. It is 
found occasionally in the Elizabethan writers, but the earliest example in 
literature is probably the following, from Thomas Drant*s translation of 
Horace (1567) : 

So feyneth he, things true and false 

So always mingleth he. 
That first with midst, and midst with last. 

May cotton and agree. 

Cotton is King. This famous ante-bellum cry, with which the Southern 
slave-holders answered the arguments of the At>oIitionists, originated with 
David Christy as the title of his book ** Cotton is King ; or, Slavery in the 
Light of Political Economy" (1855). James Henry Hammond quoted the 
phrase in the United States Senate, March, 1858, and it at once became a 
popular by-word. 

Country, Love o£ Dr. Johnson, as reported by Boswell, held that patri- 
otism was the last refuge of a scoundrel. Some of the advanced thinkers of 
to-day (as may be seen x. v. Citizkn of the World) are inclined to look 
upon it as a provincial virtue, now rightly obsolescent in the larger sympathies 
that crave to enclose the world. Nevertheless, none deny that in the past 
it has been an effective factor in civilization, and has inspired the true 
heroic in thought and deed. Goldsmith, in his story of Assan, draws an ideal 
lubberland where there are no vices, and consequently where the love of 
country is stigmatized on account of its correlative hatred or contempt of the 
stranger. But he describes it only to condemn. Ht saw no mere narrowness 
in the patriot's boast, — 

Such is the patriot's boast, where'er we roam, — 
His first, bat country ever is at home. 

The Traveller ^ 1. 73. 

Nor did Shakespeare, who makes his Coriolanus say, — 

Had I a dozen sons, each in my love alike and none less dear than thine and my good 
Marcius, I had rather eleven die nobly for their country than one voluptuously surfeit out of 
action, — Coriolanus ^ Act i., Sc. 3, 

and puts in Wolsey's mouth the advice, — 

Let all the ends thou aim'st at be thy country's. 

Thy God's, and truth's ; then if thou fall'st, O Cromwell, 

Thou fall'st a blessed martyr I 

Henry Vlll., Act iii., Sc. a. 

Probably here is a reminiscence of Horace's 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, — 

which in its turn was a reminiscence of Homer, thus rendered by Pope i 

And for otur country 'tis a bliss to die. 

niad. Book xv., 1. 583. 



So Addison's Cato : 

Wbu > p[ty ii h 

Though the cvo1ulioni9( looks forward to the lime when love of country 
■hall have been merged in -a world-love, the United States has been fuund 
in the present lime as large an entity as the average citiien could compass. 
Indeed, the dteam of llie enlhusiaat of a country which shall know no North, 
no South, no West, no East, is still little more than a dreanv Utterances 
tike the two fullowing, from Robert C. Winlhrop, represent rather Ihe un- 
attained ideal than the actual practice of the majority : 

Our Counuy, — whether bouqded by Ih« S(, John'* and the Sabine, or however otherwate 
bounded or described, and be the ineuureineDU mote or leu, — atLll our C«intjy, to be cher. 
»hed in all our heuu, to be defended by all our handt.— Toml at Fa<HUil HaU im Uu 

f^.flh ^J*ly, lS4S- 

There are no poinla of the compau on the chin of me paliiaiiim.— /^/(fr It BiUm 
CtmmircM Claim liji), 

A famous patriotic sentiment, embodying a principle whose virtue might be 
casuistically questioned, was the following, given at Norfolk, Virginia, April, 
1816, by Stephen Uecalur : 
Our counlry I In her uiiercounc with foreicn nationa may ihe alwaya be in the rifht : bat 

There may be a reminiscence here of Cowper : 

England, with all thy fauiu I love thee HiU, 
y counoy ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^ _ ^^ rimifinf. I. »S. 
as in Cowper there is an undoubted reminiscence of Churchill : 

With hIJ her £kulta, she ia my country Hill. 

riu Farnill, 1. 1;. 

ConntrT. We left onr oonDtrr for oor oaaatTj'u good. When 
Young's tragedy of "The Revenge" was acted by convicts at Sydney, New - 
South Wales, in 1796, George Sarrington, himself a convict, penned a pro- 
logue in which occur the famous lines, — 

liiouih DOI with miich fclat or beat of dniin ; 
Tnw purion in, for, be it undentood. 
We Im our country for our counlry'B good. 
No private vjewi dllEraced our generoua leal, 
What ur^ed our travela wu our country"* weal ; 

jl uieful to Ihe I 

The idea was anticipated by George Farquhar in "The Beaux' Stratagem," 
written some ninety years before Harrington's prologue. Gibbet, the high- 
wayman, in answer to Aimwell's question, "Vou have served abroad, sir?" 
says, " Yes, sir, in the plantations ; 'twas my lot to be sent into the worst of 
T ij 1---J quilled it, indeed, but a man of honor, you knom 

IS for Ihe good of my counlry that 1 should be abroad. Anything 

of one's country ; I'm a Roman for thai." Bolh Farquhar and 

BarringTon, il will be seen, have euphemistic reference to (tansportation, but 

for the good of one's ( 

o frequently applied (o any deparlu 
land, whether voluntary or involuntary, thai it may be doubled whether ihe 
original meaning has not been as completely superseded as Ihe form of pun- 
ishment lo whidi it obliquely refers. In a complimentary sense the phrase 
had already been applied lo Sir Francis Drake by Charles FiCzgeSfry,i:frcii 1596 


CoTontry, To send one to, to taboo, to ostradze, to boycott, — ^a colloquial 
phrase used mainly bv English school-boys. Coventry may be a corruption 
of Quarantine through Cointrie, the ancient form for Coventry. The expres- 
sion " To send to Quarantine" is found in Swift, but no earlier exemplar of the 
modern phrase is to be found than 1785, in Grose's " Dictionary of the Vulgar 

Cow "With the iron tail, a humorous colloquialism for a pump, in allu- 
sion to the current jest thus alluded to by Dr. Holmes in "The Professor at 
the Breakfast-Table :" " It is a common saying of a jockey that he is all 
horse, and I have often fancied that milkmen get a stiff upper carriage and 
an angular movement that reminds one of a pump and the workine of a 

Cradla The hand that rocke the cradle rules the world. This 
English expression is anticipated in the story told by Plutarch of Themistocles, 
who called his son the most powerful person in Greece. " For the Athenians 
govern Greece, I the Athenians, my wife me, and my son my wife." In the 
" Percy Anecdotes" the same story is modernized. A nobleman accosted a 
lame school-master and asked him his name. ** I am R. T.," was the answer, 
"and the master of this parish." "Why, how so?" "I am the master of 
the children of the parish, the children are masters of the mothers, the mothers 
are the rulers of the fathers, and consequently I am the master of the whole 
parish." There is another sense, of course, in which the proverb may be 
taken, — a sense beautifully expressed in the Spanish analogue, " What is 
sucked in with the mother's milk runs out with the shroud." 

Cradles rock ua nearer to the tomb. In his " Night Thoughts," 
v., line 718, Young has the lines, — 

And cradles rock us nearer to the tomb. 
Our birth is nothing but our death begim. 

Long before Young Bishop Hale had said, — 

Death borders upon our birth, and our cradle stands in the grave.— £/!>///«, Dec. iii, 
Ep. a. 

John Dyer*8 lines are only faintly parallel : 

A little rule, a little sway, 
A sunbeam in a winter's day. 
Is all the proud and mighty have 
Between the cradle and the grave. 

Grongar Hill. 

Crank. It is said that Donn Piatt claimed to have invented this familiar 
Americanism, and to have applied it originally to Horace Greeley, — the com- 
parison being to the crank of a hand-organ, which is continually engaged in 
grinding out the same old tunes. At present the word has a much wider 
application, and means not merely a man with a hobby, but more especially an 
eccentric character just hovering on the border-line between sanity and in- 
sanity. The word was brought into newspaper prominence at the trial of 
Guiteau, Garfield's assassin, the most terrible instance of the crank in modern 
history. A good second was Henry L. Norcross, who, in 1891, killed himself 
and wrecked Russell Sage*s office with a bomb. 

The case of dangerous delusion which received more attention in the newspapers than any 
within the past ten years, except Guiteau, was that of James M. Dougherty, who loved the 
actress Mary Anderson, and believed that she loved him. 

He annoyed her for a long time before he was taken care of by the authorities. His was 
the same old crank trouble of persecution and exalted ideas. He assured me that he could 
have married ladies of rank and fortune. He wrote a long treatise to explain all natural phe- 
nomena, the creation and all the sciences. He sent President Cleveland a long congratulatory 
tdcgram on bis election. 



pmuDDft wen C4jniDii>D» Dougherty's affeciion fi 
disuni And romAnlic wonhap Bad o^nit hud 

■FTHrcd, cvvniDcd, and KDt id the plathush Jhunc AsYlum. he decided tukdl nfuen penous 
wha kud croued hi> path, and on hifl Liat waa my name. By a perverted lo^ic he led himielf lo 
belJvve Ihift whoLcHle killmewouJd bcjiuttfied. He escaped Irolh the umillltion^you renem- 
ba, in the fall uf laal vear.liul returned end ihot an<l kilFed Dr. George W. Lloyd, the aaaiil- 

for Inune Ctlnlnaii, aftir bavliig been Kntenced for liTe to tiiaiePriion. 

Dougherty wu only a cnnk,but,accordlD£ id the verdict dF a commiailon which eaaihioed 
him. hevaaEheoiDBlfiangerDutluiuiicilwaicvctiheir pleuureto tee. — MatthbwD. F]Btj>, 
M.D., in .Vftff Yark Wtrld, December », iSgi. 

Credat Jndaua Apella (L., " The Jew A^lla may believe this"), a 
famous plirase in Horace's " Satires," i. ^. 96), still in fiequeiil use aa an expres- 
sion of mcTedulity. Horace is describing a journey. " At Gnatia," he says, 
" they strove to persuade us that incense would meli upon the sacted threshold 
without the aid of Are. The Jew Apella may believe (his, nut I, for I hare 
learned that the gods live in tranquillity, and if any wonderful thing happens 
it is not sent by tnem from the lofty vault of heaven." Apelta was a common 
name among the Jews, whom the Romans regarded as a credulous and supersti- 
tious race. Renan, however, explains that it is not credulity which is most 
strilting in theTalmudisi lew: "The credulous Jew, the lover of the marvellous, 
known to the Latin satirists, is not the Jew of Jerusalem ; it is the Helleniied 
Jew, at the same time very religious and very ill informed. Consequently very 
superstitious. Neither the hali-sceplical Sadducec nor the rigorous Pharisee 
could have been much impressed by the theurgy which vas so popular in the 
apostolic circle. But the Judxus Apella, at whom the Epicurean Horace 
smiled, was there Co believe." {Lis Apitres, ch. vi.) 

Echnf i&dlirauon, ■amethinE, 1 rather Ihink. above lenilalive cDntpelence, Ihal ia, thai then 
b no diRerence in value between metallic money and tiiiii aiilgnaii. lliit waa a good. Moul 

Crtdat who wUl-iertainly not y^rf^J Af^lla.—TivtitiK : R(/Urliimi a> 

Crichton, tbe Admirable, a name given to James Crichton, a youthful 
prodigy who was the wmidei of his contemporaries. Born in Scotland in 1 j6o, 
he took the degiee of Bachelor of Arts when he was only twelve, and of 
Master of Arts when he was fourteen. At the age of seventeen ve find him 
in Paris, challenging all the must famous scholars and philuaophers to a public 
discussion, at which he held himself ready to answer any question in theology, 
jurisprudence, medicine, logic, mathematics, or any other science, in any one 
of the following twelve languages, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Syrian, 
Slavonic, French, English, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, ur Flemish, either in verse 
or in prose as might oe desired. He succeeded in carrying out his boast, to 
the astonishment of every one, and it was then that the title of Admirable was 
bestowed upon him. In Rome, in Venice, and in Padua he earned similar 
triumphs. Nor was he simply distinguished as a scholar ; he was an accom- 
plished dancer, fencer, rider, musician, painter, and actor, was handsome in 


person, engaging in his manners, and a thorough man of the world. This 
prodigy was, in 1582, secured by the Duke of Mantua as a tutor for his son, a 
dissipated and worthless young man. In the year 1 583, Crichton, one carni- 
val night, was assailed by three masked men. He succeeded in disarming and 
unmasking the principal one among them, when, finding that it was his pupil, 
the duke*s son, he knelt down and presented him with his own sword. The 
unmanly prince at once ran it through Crichton's body. 

Crime, — Blunder. " It is worse than a crime,— it is a blunder" (" C'est 
plus qu'un crime, — c'est une faute"), a phrase attributed to Talleyrand, and 
characterizing the political murder of the Due d'Enghien, who was shot by 
Napoleon*s order, March, 1804. But Jacob Fouche, m his Memoires, claims 
the phrase for himself in the form, " It is more than a crime, — it is a political 
fault." There is a certain appositeness in the fact that phrases should be 
interchangeably attributed to Fouche and Talleyrand, inasmuch as Napoleon 
found a great likeness between them. " Fouch^," said the dethroned monarch 
at St Helena, " was the Talleyrand of the clubs, and Talleyrand was the 
Fouche of the drawing-rooms." 

CritioiBiii, CuriositieB o£ If the world at large and if critics themselves 
would only accept Mr. Andrew Lang*s definition of criticism as a more or less 
agreeable way of airing one's personal preferences, there might be less heart- 
burning in the literary guild. Criticism has never been an exact art, and can 
never become so. The critics have their say, and then we turn round and 
criticise the critics. One age reverses the verdict of its predecessor. Nay, 
even these temporary verdicts are but the clash of opposing opinions. The 
strongest hand carries the day for the moment, and then night comes and a 
new day brings in new conditions. The critic by profession has always been 
an object of authorial hatred. The envy of the unsuccessful against the suc- 
cessful has been described as the motive power of criticism from the days of 
the Greek Callimachus to the English Disraeli. Yet when the author tries his 
hand at amateur criticism he makes no better fist of it than the professional. 
If Quintilian fell foul of Seneca, if Athenaeus treated Socrates as illiterate, if 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus picked flaws in the style of Xenophon, let us not 
forget that poets and historians have also misprized and reviled each other, 
that Horace had no relish for the coarse humor of Plautus, that if the critics 
of Callimachus were unjust, he too was a critic accused of injustice. Indeed, 
in Greece the quarrels between poets themselves had become proverbial, and 
when Plato quotes the lines about " poets hating poets, and potters, potters," 
he lifts the curtain on a scene of internecine strife. 

Take the greatest figure in modern literature. The civilization of the 
Western world has by a majority vote conferred that distinction upon Shake- 
speare. But there is still a small but respectable minority who refuse to yield 
to his spell. In the past there was frequently a respectable majority arrayed 
against him. And whether a majority or mmority, the list was manily com- 
posed of fellow-poets, or at least of authors who were not professional critics. 

The earliest voice raised against Shakespeare was that of his contemporary 
Robert Greene, a dramatist like himself: *' Here is an upstart crow, l>eautified 
with our feathers, that supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank 
verse as the rest of you, and being an al)solute Johannes factotum, is, in his 
own conceit, the only shake-scene in the country." But it may be urged that 
Greene was poor and old when he penned this, and so had turned critic for 
the nonce under the rasping influence of jealousy. Well, then, there is Dry- 
den. Shakespeare had been dead too long to be considered as a dangerous 
rival. Dryden himself, though he wrote criticisms, was only secondarily a 
critic ; he had not failed in literature, but had made a most brilliant and en- 



daring lucccss. Vet he finds in every page of Shakespeare "eilher some 

solecism of speech, or sume notorious &w in sense." He denounces Ihe 
lameness of nis plutd, " made up of some ridiculous incoherent slory. ... I 
suppose I need not name ' Pericles, Prince of Tyre,' or the historical playi of 
Shakespeare; Iwsides many of the rest, as the 'Winter's Tale,' 'Love's 
Labor's Lost,' 'Measure for Measure,' which were eilher grounded on im- 
possibilities, or al least so meanly written that the comedy neither caused your 
mirth, nor the serious pari your concernment." These gems of thought may 
be fuund in his " Defence of the Epilogue," a postscript to his tragedy of the 
" Conquest of Granada." Elsewhere he says (hat Shakespeare " writes in many 
places below the dullest writers of our or ut any precedent age. Never did 
any author precipitate himself from such heights of thought to so low expres- 
sions as he often does. He is ihe very Janus of poets ; he wears almost 
everywhere Iwo faces ; and you have scarce begun to admire the one ere you 
despise Ihe other." Of the Elizabethan audiences he writes "They knew no 
belter, and therefore were satisfied with what they brought. Those who called 
theirs the Gulden Age of Poetry have only this reason for it : that they 
were then content with acorns before they knew the use of bread." 
The " majestic Uenham" placed Fletcher above both Jonson and Shake- 

Thdr ^!*e,t% both mppor. 

That indefatigable play-goer, Samuel Pepys, accounted " Ronien and Juliet" 
the worst play that ever he heard ; "Othello," a mean thing in comparison 
with Tuke's " Adventures of Five Hours :"' "Twelfth Night," a silly play, not 
at all relating to the name or day. while with " A Midsummer Night's Dream" 
he was so dissatisfied that he would never see it again, " for it is the must 
insipid, ridiculous play that ever I saw in my life." Evidently he deemed it 
even worse than " Romeo and Juliet." 

But Pepys only reflected the taste of his time. The critical authority of 
that epoch. Mr. Thomas Ryiiier, thought that " in the neighing of a horse or in 
the growling of a mastiff there is a meaning, there is a lively eipression, and 
I may say more humanity, than in the tragical flights of Shakespeare." Of 
thai great scene between Brutus and Cassius which aroused Macaulay's enthu- 
siasm, Rymer says, " They are put there to play the bully and (he buffoon, to 
show their activity of face and muscles. They are to ptay for a priie, a trial 
of skill and huggmg and swaggering, like two drunken Hectors for a two- 
penny reckoning." And his successor on the critical throne, Mr. John Dennis, 
says that Shakespeare " is utterly void of celestial fire," and his verses are 
(requenlly harsh and unmusical. These, of course, were the opinions of mere 
critics. But Shaftesbury echoes Ihem when he speaks of Shakespeare's " rude, 
unpolished style, and antiquated form of wit." And Pope, in spite of his 
hatred for Dennis, evidently agrees with these verdicts when he sneers at 

Slyle Ihe divine, the malclileM. wLl you will), 

and protests against the extravagance of his worshippers : 

On Avon'i bank, when Honen ElEtTul blow. 

Addison, too. must have shared that opinion, al least in his early days, lor 
he left Shakespeare unnamed in his " Account of Ihe Greatest English Poets'^ 
which he addressed to Sacheverell. Hume called Shakespeare " a dispropoi- 
tioned and misshapen giant," and though he is willing tn allow that "as a man 
born in a rude age and educated in the lowest manner" he might be accounted 


a prodigy, yet ** if represented as a poet, capable of furnishing a proper en- 
tertainment to a refined or intelligent audience, we must abate much of this 
eulogy." It is said that Hume's attack was originally much more vigorous 
than in its printed form. Lord Karnes persuaded him to tone it down, fearing, 
so boswell tells us, that the historian ** would have been disgraced by confess- 
ing total insensibility to what the £nglish nation has so long and so justly 

Voltaire, however, was fettered by no such fears. He unhesitatingly styles 
Shakespeare **a drunken savage," and *' Hamlet" a piece so gross and oarbar- 
ous that it would not be endured by the vilest population in France and Italy. 
A country bumpkin at a fair, he observed, would express himself with more 
decency and in nobler language than Hamlet in the famous soliloquy begin- 


Oh that this too, too solid flesh would melt. 

Goldsmith attacked another famous soliloquy, that beginning. 

To be or not to be, ay, there's the question, — 

and, after a good deal of foolish hypercriticism, scores one good point where 
he shows the al)surdity of the phrase, " that bourn from which no traveller 
returns," in the mouth of Hamlet just after an interview with his father's 
ghost come piping hot from hell. 

** Shakespeare and Milton," said Byron, " have had their rise, and they will 
have their decline." Again, he sneers at 

One Shakespeare and his plays so doting, 
Which many people pass for wits by quoting. 

Samuel Rogers, the veteran poet, was well known to have had little real 
admiration for Shakespeare. He would frequently read aloud from Ben 
Jonson's " Discoveries" the passage referring to the players who boasted that 
the poet never ** blotted out a line," and on the concluding sentence of Jon- 
son's, " Would he had blotted out a thousand !" he always laid a strong em- 
phasis. He one morning challenged the company to produce a passage from 
Shakespeare which would not have been improved by blotting, and he was 
with difficulty silenced, after picking many beautiful specimens to pieces, by 
the one commencing, — 

How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank. 

The roost notable of recent Shakespeare traducers is Sardou. He directs 
all the thunders of his artillery against Hamlet, " an empty wind-bag hero," 
whom Shakespeare has clothed m a dramatic fog, and whom the German 
critics have stuffed with all their cloudy concepts, with all their uncertain 
dissertations, with all the smoke in their pipes, with all the besotted obscu- 
rity of their beer-cellars. The Ghost is simply ridiculous. He appears to 
everybody save his wife. Why is he visible to Horatio, to Bernardo, to a lot 
of indifferent people, and never to the wife who murdered him ? What a 
comic scene is that of the oath ! Horatio and Marcellus swear never to 
reveal what they have seen. Why doesn't Bernardo swear too ? Or, rather, 
what is the use of any one swearing ? The doting old ghost has forgotten 
his posthumous visits to the sentinels of the castle. ** As to the philosophy, 
I find it no better than the plot People go into ecstasies over the famous 
soliloquy 'To be or not to be.' I cannot myself know if our souls arc anni- 
hilated after death or not. But if any one is well informed upon that point, 
it is Hamlet, who talks every day with his defunct father. I declare, and I 
repeat, that there is nothing gooa in the play, in my opinion, except the scene 
with the actors, the idea of causing to be played before the king and queen a 
murder similar to that which they had committed, in order \.^^ surprise their 
secret As to the duel at the end, and the exchange of foils which brings 


about the calaslrophe, (he weakest playwright of to-day 
employ such a method to end hia piece.' 

would not dare to 

Milton as well as Shakespeafe has found his detractors among many of 
the most eminent of his conlemporaries antt successors. Waller contemptu- 
ously wrote of his greatest work, " The blind old school-master hath published 
a tedious poem on the fall of man ; if its length be not considered a merit it 
halh no other." Wiiistanley, who wrote the "Lives of the Most Famous 
English Poets," nolea that "his fame is gone out like a candle in a snuff, and 
his memory will always stink ■" truly a pleasant and genial figure of speech. 
Johnson abused the sonnets, and declared that he would hang a dog who should 
read "Lycidas" twice. So Boswell tells us. What Ursa Major said in print 
was to (he same effect. He declared thai no man could have fancied that he 
read " Lycidas" with pleasure had he not knowji the author ; " The diction is 
harsh, the rhymes uncertain, and the numbers onpleasing. ... Its form is 
that of a pastoral, easy, vulgar, and therefore disgusting ; whatever images 
... — " ipply are long ago cahausled, and its inherent improbability always 
— '--'■- ihe mind." Pupe wrote,— 

forces dissatisfaction 

Now, Krpcm^ike, in proK he tw^pVlh^giuund \ 
AiSAiaOtu'Sliba tmit A Khrwi'd'ivine. 

But, as Coleridge said. Pope was hardly the man to criticise Milton. Nor 
was Voltaire, who in " Candide" calls Milton " the barbarian who constructed 
a long commentary on the first chapter uf Genesis in ten books of harsh 
verse," and winds up his diatritw b^ declaring, "This obscure, eccentric, and 
disgusting poem was despised at its birth : and 1 treat it lo-day as it was 
tieate3 in its own country by its contemporaries." Perhaps it may be objected 
that Voltaire is only speaking dramatically in the person of Pocucuranle, 
That the sentiments, however, were generally considered his own is evident 
from Madame du Deffand's congratulations on this very passage. " I hate 
devils mortally," she writes to Voltaire, "and I cannot tell you the pleasure 1 
have experienced in finding in 'Candide' all the evil you have spoken of 
Milton. It seemed to me that the whole was my own thought, for 1 always 
detested him." 

Coleridge saw no good in Sir Walter Scott " Wretched abortions" is the 
phrase he flung at " Ivanhoe" and "'The Bride of Ravcnsmuir,' or whatever 
Its name may be." The poems as well as the novels supply, he thinks. " both 
instance and solution of the present conditions and components of popularity, 
viz., to amuse without requiring any effort of thought and without eitciting 
any emotion." Does this explain why, a little later, he said that when he 
was very ill indeed, Scott's novels were almost the only books that he could 
read ? Or is there evidence here of a change of heart ? Towards the poetry 
he never relaned. Not twenty lines of it, he said, would ever reach posterity, 
for it had relation to nothing. This opinion was heartily shared by Landor, 
who called Scott an ale-house writer, and said of his verse, " It is not to Iw 
sung or danced, it is to be jumped." Thomas I_ Peacock compared the 
Waverley series to the pantomimes of the stage, with this difference, that the 
latter were told in music and action, the other in the worst dialects of the 
English language. " As to any sentence worth remembering, any moral or 
political truth, anything having a tendency, however remote, to make men 
It better, to make them think, to make them even think of thinking, — 

in ills \ 

i never see anything in Gray. He attacked him in prin 
iiiversation. "A dull fellow," he said t>. Boswell; and 
nstrated, — " he might be dull in company, but surely hi 


not dull in poetry," — ^Johnson continued, " Sir, he was dull in company, dull 
in his closet, dull everywhere. He was dull in a new way, and that made 
many people call him great." Of Churchill heremarked, ** I called the fellow 
a blockhead at first, and I call hint a blockhead still." Fielding also was a 
** blockhead," and upon Bozzy's venturing to express ** astonishment at so 
strange an assertion," Johnson was good enough to explain, ** What I mean 
by his being a blockhead is, that he is a barren rascal." Over and over again 
he showed his contempt of Swift Dining once in the company of some 
friends, the doctor said, dogmatically, " Swift was a shallow fellow, a very shal- 
low fellow." Sheridan, with whom Swift was a favorite, dissented : " Pardon 
me for differing from you, but I have always thought the Dean a very clear 
writer." Said Johnson, triumphantly, '* All shallows are clear." 

Horace Walpole, an acute man and fond of books, was as bitter and preju- 
diced as Johnson himself. Perhaps that was one reason why he hated John- 
son and found nothing better to say of him than that he was a babbling old 
woman. ** Prejudice and bigotry, and pride and presumption, and arrogance 
and pedantry, are the hags that brew his ink, though wages alone supply 
his bread." BoswelTs book he curtly dismisses as the story of a mountebank 
and his zany. Of Horace Walpole in his turn, and of his ''Mysterious 
Mother," — which Byron praised so extravagantly as "a tragedy of the 
highest order, and not a puling love-play," — Coleridge remarked that it 
is "the most disgusting, vile, detestable composition that ever came 
from the hand of man. No one with a spark of true manliness, of which 
Horace Walpole had none, could have written it." Coleridge accused 
Gibbon of "sacrificing all truth and reality," called his style detestable, 
and added, " His style is not the worst thing about him. His history has 
proved an effectual oar to all real familiarity with the temper and habits of 
imperial Rome." In Landor*s view Gibbon was an old dres.sed-up fop, 
keeping up the same sneering grin from one end of his history to the other 
with incredible fixity. Of Coleridge's '* Ancient Mariner," even his friend 
Southey said, *' It is the clumsiest attempt at German simplicity I ever saw." 
Mrs. Barbauld rather grotesquely found fault with the same poem, because it 
was " improbable and had no moral." Coleridge thought it had too much 
moral. Byron called Spenser a dull fellow, Chaucer obscene and contemptible, 
and scornfully characterized Wordsworth's masterpiece as 

A clumsy, frowzy poem called The Excursion, 

Writ in a manner that is my aversion. 

But Wordsworth could be equally unjust Dryden's " Ode on St. Cecilia's 
Day" seemed to him a "drunken song," and Burns's " Scots wha hae wi' Wal- 
lace bled" was "trash! stuff! miserable inanity! without a thought, without 
an image !" 

Horace Walpole called Dante "extravagant, absurd, disgusting: in short, 
a Methodist parson in Bedlam." Voltaire characterized the " Divina Com- 
media" as stupidly extravagant and barbarous," and said of its author that 
"his reputation will now continually be growing greater and greater, because 
there is now nobody who reads him." That is, indeed, the fate of all the 
immortals, to become classics, or, in other words, books which are much 
praised and little read because the people who praise them find them unread- 

In his " Philosophy of the Human Mind" Dr. Thomas Brown has some 
shrewd remarks about the number of people who willingly join in expressing 
veneration for works which they would think it a heavy burden to read from 
beginning to end. 

"What will you say," writes Lord Chesterfield, "when I tell you that I 
cannot possibly read our countryman, Milton, through ?" He seems to be in 


something of a funk about it. " Keep the secrel for me," he begs, " for if it 
should be known, I should be abused by every lasleleas pedant and every 
solid divine in Europe." Kven ihe great A. K. H. B. candidly acknowledges 
ihat he would rather read Mr. Helps ihan -Milton. 

Tom Moore declared thai he found Chaucer unreadable. Lord Lansdowne 
acknowledged thai he was secretly of ibe satne opinion, but did not dare to 
speak of il. Charlotte Bronte in her list of Itgtnda notes, "For history, 
read Hume, Rolliii, and the * Universal l-Iistory,' if you can : I never did." 
l^rd Ellenborough, after prolonged and conscientious effort, gave up the 
"Wealth of Katjons" as "impossible tu read." "Can you revi Voltaire's 
' Henriade' I" asked Mr. Senior ol M. de Tocqueville. >' No, nor can any 
one else," was (he prompt reply. Once at Abbotsford some one remarked in 
Scott's presence thai he had never known any one who had read the " Henri- 
ade" through. " I have read it and live," replied Sir Waller ; " but, indeed, 
in my youth I read everything." 

Professor Massun, lecturing on Sidney's " Arcadia," acknowledges that no- 
body not absolutely Sid ney-smi lien could possibly read it through, and in 
another lecture on boyle s " Parthenissa" he boldly and caniUdly owns 
thai he had not been able to penetrate more than a few pages beyond the 
introductory sentence, and anon, referring to various old-world worthies who 
are brought in|u the story, he adds, "how they Came into the story, or what 
the story is, I cannot tell you, nor will any mortal know, any more Ihan I do, 
between this and doomsday." Macautay was an omnivorous reader. Yet 
Macaulay finds in the " Faerie Queene" one unpardonable fault, the fault of 
lediousness. " Very few and very weary are ihose who are in at the death of 
the Blatant Beast." Macaulay himself was not of those few. or he would have 
known Ihal the Blatant Beait does not die al all, though lamed for the time by 
Calydure. The last stanza tells us that 

Now he raiingFIh throilgh the worid ■goine, 
And r4gc(h ton ID each degree and Biau, 

l,essing's epigram is worth quoting ; 

AH prain iGe bmd, but will ihey md him!— No, 
U> caminaD men oho »alk wilhoul ■ HiU on, 
ir you Till read, »e'll let your pniiu (O. 

As the great of the past are often overrated, so the great of the present are 
as often underrated. 

Heine, in his " Essay on the German Romantic School," points Out the error 
of supposing that Goethe's early fame bore any due comparison with his 
deserts. He was indeed praised for " Werler" and " Goetz von Berlichingen," 
but the romances of August Ijfontaine were in equal demand, and the latlei, 
being a voluminous author, was much more in men's mouths. The poets of 
the period were Wieiand and Ramler, and Kiitiebue and Iffland ruled the 
stage. And when Goethe had established himself in his own country, it was 
a much harder fight lo obtain recognition abroad. In England, Jeffrey thought 
that he was no gentleman, atid denounced " Wilhelm Meisler" in the Edinbm^ 
Revinv. Coleridge called "Faust" a series of magic-lantern pictures, and said 
thai much of it "is vulgar, licentious, and blasphemous." De Quincey was 
even more emphatic : " Not the basest of Egyptian superstition, not Tilania 
under enchantment, not Caliban in drunkenness, ever shaped to themselves 
weak or hollow Ihan modern Germany has set up for its worship 

„(r-^,i.-" ...w:ii..._ u.i ... jj ..3 p^ fjjijrt^ of baby 

" and abounding with "over- 


powering abominations.'' In France, Victor Hugo fought tooth and nail 
against the master to whom indirectly he owed so much. ** He is a monster, 
a brute ; he never wrote anything worth reading except * The Robbers,' " cried 
Hugo one day to a crowa of admirers. Somebody murmured that " The 
Robbers" was written not by Goethe but by Schiller. " And even that is 
Schiller's," continued the poet, without any apparent notice of the interruption. 

" It is *asy," says Colonel Higginson, " for older men to recall when Thack- 
eray and Dickens were in some measure obscured by now-forgotten contem* 
porancs, like Harrison Ainsworth and G. P. R. James, and when one was 
gravely asked whether he preferred Tennyson to Milnes or Sterling or Trench 
or Alford or Faber. It is to me one of the most vivid reminiscences of my 
college graduation that, having rashly ventufbd upon a commencement oration 
whose theme was 'Poetry in an Unpoetical Age,' I closed with an urgent 
appeal to young poets to * lay down their Soenser and Tennyson' and look 
into life for themselves. Professor Edward^T. Channing, then the highest 
literary authority in New England, paused in amazement, with uplifted p>encil, 
over this combmation of names. * You mean,' he said, ' that they should 
neither defer to the highest authority nor be influenced by the lowest V When 
I persisted, with the zeal of seventeen, that I had no such meaning, but 
regarded them both as among the gods, he said, good-naturedly, * Ah ! that is 
a different thing. I wish you to say what you think. I regard Tennyson as a 
great calf; but you arc entitled to your own opinion.' The oration met with 
much applause at certain passages, including this one ; and the applause was 
just, for these passages were written by my eldest sister, who had indeed 
suggested the subject of the whole address. But I fear that its only value to 
posterity will consist in the remark it elicited from the worthy professor ; this 
comment affording certainly an excellent milestone for Tennyson's early 

Carlyle was denounced as a mountebank, and his style characterized as a 
travesty of English. Ruskin is now looked upon as one of the great masters 
of English style, yet he, too, was at first greeted with unmeasured ridicule. 
"When Browning published his first poem, * Pauline,'" so Archdeacon Farrar 
savs, "some critic or other called him 'verbose.' Unfortunately, — as he has 
told us, — he paid too much attention to the remark, and, in his desire to use no 
superfluous word, studied an elliptic concentration of style which told fatally 
against the ready intelligibility of * Sordello' and other later poems." And the 
archdeacon concludes that ** as a general rule an author of any merit or serious- 
ness could not possibly do a more foolish thing than take their advice." Yet 
one would like to advise him to drop such a pleonasm as ** a general rule." 

The praise of the critics is frequently as amusing as their blame. "There 
are," says Gautier, in the preface to "Les Grotesques," "strange fluctuations 
in reputations, and aureoles change heads. After death, illuminated foreheads 
are extinguished and obscure brows grow bright." Who, he asks, would 
to-day believe that the now-forgotten Chapelain passed for lone years as the 
greatest poet not alone of France but of the whole world, and that nobody 
less potent than the Duchesse de Longueville would have dared to go to sleep 
over his poem of " La Pucelle" ? Yet this was in the time of Corneille, Ra- 
cine, Moliire, and La Fontaine. Locke endorsed the opinion of his friend 
Molyneux, that, Milton excepted, all English poets were mere ballad-makers 
beside "everlasting Blackmore." Rimer set Crowley's forgotten epic above 
Tasso's " lerusalem." Goldsmith says that the work he would select as the 
most perfect example of English genius would be the " Rape of the Lock." 
Hobbes told Sir William Davenant that his poem "Gondiberi" would last as 
long as the Iliad. Yet "Gondibert" is as obsolete as Darwin's * Botanic 
Garden," which Walpole thought the most delicious poem upon earth. Dr. 


liat a descri|}lion of a 

_..,.._ ... __ J, . __ „ i I he knew, — liner than 

anything in Sliakespearc. -Gurick prowsled in vain. The doctur was not 

Horace Walpolc Ihoughl thai Mason was a poet "if ever (here was une," 
and eipTC9sed a desire for his acquaintance and that of Christopher Ansley, 
author of " The New Bath Guide." He had no thirst, he added, to know the 
rest of his contempuraries, "from the absurd bombast of [>r. Johnson down 
to the silly Dr. Goldsmith ; though the latter changeling has had bright 
gleams of parts, and the (ormer had sense till he changed it for words and 
sold it for a pension." Hyron crowned Scott as the monarch of the contem- 
porary Parnassus, which was nat%o very far out of the way, but the pyramid 
of poets whereof Scott was the apex was oddly enough constructed. Directly 
below came R^^ers, then Moore and Campbell together, and last of all at the 
widened base " Southey and Wordsworth and Coleridge, the rest at traUoi." 
His respect for Rogers was inordinate. He called him the "Tithonus of 
Poetry, immortal already," and condemned himself and all the revolutionary 
school in comparison with that very faded Tithonus. and (he much stronger, 
but scarcely immortal, Crabbe. And he thought that tlorace Walpole was 
"surely worthy of a higher place than any living author, be he who he may." 
Hannah More wrote of John Langhorne, — 

And another literary blue, the once famous Anna Seward, predicted that 
'■ Madoc" would outlive " Paradise Lost." 

We may laugh at all (he examples, both of praise and of blame, that are 
here collected. Yet, at least, they are infinitely more valuable than the par- 
rot-like judgments of what are known as cultivated people, — mere echoes of 
the accepted opinions of the day. The jirofound and often . . _ 

sincerity of the people who admire whatever they are (old to admi 

of the stumbling-blocks in the way of lightly estimating the value of any 

fjTcat man's work in the world. Shakespeare has delighted many high intef- 
igences, he has offended others. The crowd at various times has thought it 
was oRended or delighted, [s Shakespeare really a great man, or a mighty 
imposition thrust upon the world \ It is not the scholar to whom we can 
ap|ieal. His books have biassed him. The unfeigned delight of the god in 
the gallery is more valuable, because more geiiunie. Vet even that is not 
final. The god puts "Othello" and " Hamlet" on a pAr with "Spartacus," 
and is as much pleased with the last burlesque as with " The Tempest." (See, 
also, SELr-A . . - 

CrildCB. Lord Aldegonde, in Disraeli's " Loth 
question and answer, "You know who the critics 
ftiled in Literature and Art I" The phrase was hailed with public rejoicing, 
for critics never were a popular class. Hut the critics had their revenge. 
They showed (hat the saying was a plagiarism, that it had been anticipated by 
a shoal of writers. The closest and most recent parallel was found in Balzac's 
"Cousin Betle." 1S46 : "Enlin il passa critique, comme tous les impuissanrs 
qui manquent i leurs debuts" ("At last he became a critic, like all impotenis 
who fail at their d^but"). The earliest was in Dryden ; " 111 writers are 
usually the sharpest censors, for they (as the best poet and the best patron 

Whtn in ihE full Kffection of decav, 


Thus the corruption of a poet is the veneration pf a critic." {Miscellany 
Poems^ '693, vol. iii., preface.) A few of the connecting links between Dryden 
and Balzac may be quoted : 

Some have at first for Wits, then Poets past. 
Turned Critics next, and proved plain Fools at last. 

i'opb: Essay on Criticism (1711). 

Reviewers are usuallv people who would have been poets, historians, biographers, if they 
could ; they have tried their talents at one or the other, and have failed ; therefore they turn 
critics — CoLEKiDGR : Lectures on Shakespeare and Milton. 

Reviewers, with some rare exceptions, are a most stupid and malignant race. As a bank- 
rupt thief turns thief-taker in despair, so an unsuccessful author turns critic. — Shelley : Frag- 
tments cf Ad4mais, 

Crocodile's tears. Sham tears or hypocritical sorrow, — ^an allusion to the 
old superstition that the crocodile, to allure travellers within its reach, sighs 
and moans like a person in distress. In point of fact, crocodiles do emit loud 
and plaintive cries, not unlike the mournful howling of dogs. Early and 
credulous travellers would naturally associate tears with these cries, and, once 
begun, the superstition would be readily propagated. Both in l^tin and in 
Greek the expression was a common one in proverbial literature. Polydore 
Virgil, in his " Adagiorum Liber'* (i49S)« says that the crocodile '*wept at the 
sight of a man,'* and, causing him in this way to approach, devoured him. 
Hence the proverb, crocodile's tears {Icuryma crocodtli)^ applied to those who 
falsely arouse the pity and charity of men. Erasmus, in his "Adagia," 
quotes both the Latin and the Greek form of the proverb, and in his " Col- 
loquy on Friendship" gives a story from ^Elian's " De Animalium Natura** 
(early part of the third century) to the effect that the crocodile fills his mouth 
with water and ejects it in order to make the path slippery for his expected 
prev. In the ** Adagia" he explains that the crocodile macerates the skulls 
of nis victims with his tears that he may soften them before eating. Sir John 
Maundeville, in his ** Voiage" (1356), among other wonderful things, relates 
that ** in a certain countree'* long serpents called crocodiles slew men and 
ate them, weeping. The same fable is repeated in the account of Sir John 
Hawkins's voyage (1565), and malodorous comparisons are there made between 
the tears of the crocodile and the tears of women. 

Spenser, in his " Faerie Queene," says, — 

As when a wearie traveller, that strayes 

By muddy shore of broad seven-mouthed Nile, 

Unweeting of the perillous wandring wayes. 

Doth meete a crucll craftie crocodile. 

Which, in false griefe hyding his harmefull guile, 

Doth weepe full sore and sheddeth tender teares. 

The foolbh man, that pities all this while 

His moumefull plight, is swallowed up unwares. 

Forgetful! of his owne that mindes an others cares. 

Book i.. Canto v.. Stanza x8. 

And Shakespeare, — 

Gloster's show 
Beguiles him, as the mournful crocodile 
With sorrow snares relenting passengers. 

Henry VI., Part II., Act iii., Sc. x. 

Cross-mark, which persons who cannot write are required to make in lieu 
of their signatures, was not always a sign of illiteracy. Among the Saxons 
the mark of the cross as an attestation of the good faith of the person sign- 
ing was required to be attached to the signature of those who could write, as 
well as to take the place of the signature of those who could not It was, in 
C&ct, the symbol of an oath from its holy associations, and was generally 
known as the mark. " God save the mark !" an expression that may oe found 



e, was originally a form of ejaculation 

Ti oalh. 

Croaa row or Crisa-oroes row, the name popularly given to ihe alphabet, 
because in the ancient hornbooks a rude picture uf a cioss preceded the telter 
A. The explanation that the alphaljcl used lo be arranged in the form of a 
c[oss 19 now derided. 

Tbc UHTiion Ihal the alphabet wu ■rriticn er printed in bonbocilii in the ram of a 

word " row" beini of na CMUcquencc whtn ll iio[h a thcotv,— IhcicrotE the nlpbibet vu 
in a cmcifDTtn ihape. Iina(inalion fanbet aiki, H»v eoufd ibii be doDet The aBWel 
coma readily, even (nini one of the tncaHeK capauiiy; the coauBanti tamed the per. 

Cdknlar, the vowtli the ibsner iianmne. Q. E D. Yet all it imailnatioa, and the 
that the cnna cwnmeDced the alph<ibelic row i« wboily igqorcd. I tiy " ima^naiion/' 
lor I, like aome of your corrdHpondcntij 'loubt exrremely whriber siich an ccceptiic an-aD|c- 
ment ma a cnjdlonn one can M found in any liombook. Our BDcaion bad variouB faulti, 
but they vera praciicaL. and noi bddimi ; ibcy aeidoin, too, moved out of a groove, tn 
addition to the eaamnlea of horDbooka uuoted or rrpretcnutioiii that I have aeeo. I would 
^Te Ibeie: Miiuheu, letj. hu " The aiTiue-<:rDH (and Chri^t'i crou) Row. or ABC;" 
CotEtave, " La cmi. de par Dieu, The Chri.l'.-ttM. row, or Ibe hornbook wheiein a child 
leuna i( ; while Sherwood lynanyatiiei Ihe croH-ro* with " La croix." etc., and with 
" rAlpbabet." Ihii laal word being omitted by Cotgnve. Again, Th. Ulopir, IJ74, and 
HolyDke'i "Rider" (peak under ''Alphabelun" aod " AbeceJariiu" not of the "crou 

Th™a2ua, .M<Aay™Tbecn>BrD«,VABC."— il'o^r/aarf^'i*!. '' 

Crow, Battng. Crow is an unpalatable Urd, and "eating crow" is one of 
(he popular phrases to in<licate the enforced doing of some unpleasant thing, 
especially the enfurced confession of error, and is analogous to "eating ^ur 
own words," "eating humble-pie," "eating dirt," etc [ndeed,some wiseacres 
would derive it from Ihe French " tnanger la crott" (eating dirt or refuse), crott 
(pronounced rrv) being Ihe old spelling, thus: "The dirt and crMal Paris 
may be smelt miles off" (Howel'a " Londinopolis," 1657). But (he Amer- 
ican phrase is sufficienlly intelligible as it stands, without any br-fetched foreign 

Two stories, good enough to become classic, have enlwincd themselves 
around this phrase and profess to give its origin. Both arc probably apoc- 
ryphal, but both are worth preserving. 

The first appeared in the Knickerbocker Magatine half a cenlury ago, and 
concerns a thrifty boarding-house-keeper on Ihe Hudson and an indigent 
patron. Whenever the latter remonstrated al the food he was lotd he was 
"too partikler." "/ kin eat anything," asserted (he autocrat of the (able. 
with a proud consciousness of superiority ; " I kin eat crow." The constant 
repetition of these words weaned (he boarder. Finally he resolved lo test Ihe 
old man. Taking his gun with him, he succeeded in bagging a fine, &t old 
crow. By dim of soft words and filthy lucre he induced the cook to prepare 
that crow for the table. The cook was a Scotchwoman, and used snuft He 
borrowed all she had, and sprinkled it liberally over the crow, gave iI an 
eida turn, and brought it before Ihe host, saying, as he set it down, "Now, 
my dear sir, you have said a thousand times, if ynu have said il once, that you 
can eat crow ; here is one very carefully cooked." The old man turned pale 
Cot a moment, but, bracing himself against Ihe back of his chair, and wi(h, " I 
kin eal ctow." he began cutting a good mouthful. He swallowed it, and, pre- 
paring for a second oiislanghl, looked his boarder straighl in the eye, and 
ejaculated, '• I've eat ctow," and took a second porlion. He lifted his hands 
mechanically, as if for a (hird attack, but dropped Ihem quickly over the 
region of his stomach, and, rising hurriedly and unsteadily, reireaicd for tb« 
door, mullering, as he went, "but dang me if I banker artcr it." 


The other itory, which is even better, hu been told in i variety of ways, 
but this is the most finished version: 

A Massachusetts regiment during the civil war was encamped near the estate 
of a wealthy planter. A city-bred private, having shot a tame crow on the 
planter's ground, was discovered by the owner with the bird in his possession. 
Seizing the private's musket, which iay on the ground, the irate planter cried, 
" As you've killed my crow, you've got to eat it." There was no escape, and 
the private had to eat. After a few mouthfuls, the planter asked, with a grin, — 

" How do you like ciow ?" 
■"Well," was the reply, "I kin cat it, but I don't hanker arter it." 

"AH right," said the planter 1 "you've done pretty well. Here, take your 
gun and get o£" 

But no sooner was the gun in the soldier's hands than he pointed it at the 
planter, saying, "Now you've got to eat your share of crow," 

And the planter, swearing and spluttering, was forced lo obey. Next day 
the planter came into camp and reported lo the colonel that he had been 
insulted by a Federal soldier. Strict orders had been issued against insulting 
or injuring residents. The planter's description served to bring the soldier 
before the impromptu tribunal. 

" Did you ever see this gentleman before f" asked the colonel. 

"Oh, ya-as," drawled the soldier ; "we — ah — we dined together yesterday." 

Crovr, To plnck, poll, or pick a. This English phrase, standing alone, 

for nothing, a crow being a valueless bird. To pluck a crow with one— «>., 
lo have a quarrel with him — seems to be a natural outgrowth of the older 
phrase, equivalent to " I have a little affair lo settle with him." The unpopular 
character of the bird would add to the force of the threat. An attempt has 
been unsuccessfully made to prove that the word crow is a corruption of crec, 
pronounced <TV, a French word sometimes used for whiskers. So the phrase 
would mean, " I will pull whiskers with him." From the strictly humorous 
point of view this etymon has merit. In Ireland, aS well as in some parts of 
America, it seems the proper thing for the threatened party to answer, " And 
I've got a bag to hold the feathers," 

That you ud I muit pull a crow. 

We'll phick A crow IDgetho'. 

Cmidty Is olemenoy. Hamlet was not the first person who said,— 
I must b< Qtiel ODiy 10 be kind. 

The Italians have a proverb. " Sometimes clemency is cruelty and cruelty 
is clemency." which has been made memorable over all similar allocutions 
because Catherine de M^dicis quoted it lo still the scruples of her son and 
nerve him for the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 

Crrlng Rt Birth. In the Wisdom of Solomon, vii. 3, occurs this well- 
known verse : " When I was born, I drew in the common air, and fell upon 
tbe earth, which is of like nature, and the first voice which I uttered was 
crying, as all others do." Lacretius has a parallel passage which may thus 
be translated : 

The iD&nl, u lociii u Nitun irith erU pangs < 
of iu motba iUD tlH n(liiu of liglit. llct, bke > ■ 

tlH n(liiu of liglit. Tio, !Uk 1 -ilor cut OUI from ih. wn.cj. naktd uj 


Shakespeare may have had Lucretius in mind when he wroie. — 

Tbov mutt be padcQC w« came cryins hither: 

When we ore bom, we cry, Ihdl wc w came 
To ibil gttai ittge of fooU. 

Among the parallels between Shakespeare and Bacon dwelt on with special 
' * ■ - by the Baconians is the following, as compared with the above: 

WhU, llicn, icmaini but thai we iliil ibotlld cry 

both in Druminond and in Bishop King. Sir William Jtines has translated 
from the Persian a fine quotation in which the same thought is made to point 

a noble moral : 

On pannt kikee*. a naked new-barn child^ 

So Uve, that, liaking in thy but long >]«p. 

Calm thou may'w tmile, while all around ihee weep. 
On the other hand, Sir Thomas Browne, quoting from Aristotle on "Animals" 
in his commonplace books, has the query, — 

Why, Ihoogh »me children hive been heard id cry In the womb, yet >d Eew cry at tlieir 

In the same connection he notes that children, according to the same 
authority. " though they cry, weep not till after tbrty days, or, as Scaliger 
expresselh it, vagiunt sed octilis siccis." 

Cnlbono? This I^atin phrase, which really means "Who gains by it?" 
" To whose advantace is it ?" is constantly misapplied in the sense of " What's 
the good of it T' and in this sense has become authorized by the us^e of the 
best writers and speakers. The origin of the exptession was as foltows, 
When Lucius Caasius. a man of stern severity, sat as quzstnr judicii in a 
murder trial, he always instructed the judices, or jurymen, to seek lor a motive 
bjr asking, Cui bono f (U.. Cui bono fuerit ?) " Who was benefited ?" by the 
crime. The maxim |>3ssed into a proverb, and was immortalized by Cicero, who 
quoted it in the Second Philippic and in the orations for Milo and Rosdus. 

Cup. There's manj a allp twlxt the t;np and tbe lip. In one form 
or other this proverb is fotiiid in the folk-savings of most European coun. 
tries, and it was current among the Latins and the Greeks. Lycophron tells 
this story of its origin. Ancxus, son of Poseidon and Alia, was a king of the 
Leieges In Samos, who took esi>ecial pleasure in the cultivation of the eta|>e 
and prided himself upon his numerous vineyards. In his eagerness he un' 
mercifully overtaxed the slaves who worked there. A seer announced that 
for his cruelty he would not live to taste the wine from his grapes. The 
harvest passed safely, and then the wine-making, and Ancxus, holding in his 
hand a cup containing the first tuby drops, mocked at the seer's prophecy. 
But the prophet replied. " Many things happen between the cup and the lip." 
lust then a cry was raised that a wild boar had liroken into the vineyard, and 
the king, setting down his untasted cup, hurried off to direct the chase, but 
was himself slain by the boar. 


CSapar. There is a ^miliar Scotch saying, " He that will to Cupar maun 
to Cupar" (quoted in Scott's " Antiquary ), equivalent to " A wiirul man will 
have his way." Cupar being the head -quarters of all the judicial business of 
Fife County, all disputes were caixied there to 1>e settled, and the proverb was 
applied to Ihc headstrong who would go to law against the advice of ciders. 
There is a story of two men convicted of hiirse- or sheep-stealing ; one was 
caught and condemned to death ; the other escaped arrest till his curiosity ted 
farm Co go to Cupar lo see his friend executed, where he was identified and 
shared the same fate. The above proverb ma^ have arisen from this incident. 
Cupar had an eiccsBive number of lawyers in proportion to its population, 
and litigation seems to have been its chief industry. "Cupar justice" was 
sometimes used as synonymous with Jeddart justice (;. v.). 

Cupa thttt obeor bat not inebriate, — usually misquoted in the ungular. 
The phrase occurs in Cowper's " Task :" 

And while the bubbling ind loud-hiniDg iirti 

Hirowv up ft MHuny column, uid Ihe cuh 

So let ui wvlconte peacetuL evcnipf in. 

nuU'.nl.r Evtniiv. Book i»., I. 34, 
Bishop Berkeley had already applied the epithet to his favorite tat-waler, 
which be describes as "of a nature so mild and benign and proportioned to 
Ihe human constitution as to warm without heating, to cheer but nut inebriate." 

Whll a deUcMe ipeculMtion il b. ifler driukinc ohole goblEU a( le*,— 
Tbc cupt thai cheer bol not loebrialej 
■nd tfittinc the fiuno auend inio Ihe brain, to til considering whu we th«ll have for lappcr,^ 
wi and a ruher, or rabbit unoibered in ddidu, or «i excclleni veml cudet [ — Haiutt : On 
Gttnc* y^mnuy, 

Coifew. It seems Utile short of heresy to question the tradition that 
curfew [Fr. convre-feu) came into England with William the Conqueror, or to 
combat the good old definition sanctioned by so many authorities, "The 
ringing of an evening bell, originally a signal to the inhabitants lo cover lires, 
extinguish lights, and retire to rest, instituted by William the Conqueror." 

The nursery historian has waxed sentimental over the wrongs of the con- 
quered Saxon, and has conjured up pictures that must be baltn 10 the down- 
trodden CelL Even Thomson tells us,— 

The ihiverin^ wrctchci at the curfew toiind 
Dejected ujnk iDlo ibelr tordid beds. 

But the tPtnrrr-feu was known before William's time, both in England and 
on the Continent He did, indeed, issue an edict on the subject ; and although 
this edict may incidentally have helped lo put down the Saion beer-clubs, which 
were hotbeds of political conspiracies, its primary aim was as a precaution 
against fire. That danger was an ever-present one in days of chimneyless 
wooden houses. The ancient city ordinances of London abound in stringent 
fire regulations. None of Ihem, however, were more effective than the " cover- 
fire" bell, which as far back as Ihe lime of King Alfred was rung in certain 
placevin England. William's edict rendered compulsory an ancient custom. 
But it was a wise legislative act, and not a bit of arbitrary tyranny- We find 
plenty of early traces of Ihe custom or its equivalent, as, for instance, the 
blowing of a horn at Ihe, in Continental Europe. 

Il is a curious instance of the conservative tendency of the rural mind in 
England that the custom of ringing the curfew should have so long survived 
its original significance. 

Coriew is still religiously tolled in many hundreds of towns and villages, 


either all the year round, or — which is atill more usual — from September to 
April. No part of the limgdom can claim it as a suecial proof of its adhe- 
rence to a primitive simplicit]^. Geographically considered, its survivals are by 
no means uiiinslructive. It tnlls froni the Isk of Wight in the south, through 
Kent and Surrey, Middlesex, Suffolk, NorTolk, Lincoln, York, Durham, and 
Northumberland, and even across the border, in the Scotch lowlands. And 
it can be traced again through Cumberland and Lancashire, Cheshire, Derby- 
shire, Staifurd, Nous, Leicestershire, Worcestershire, Shropshire, Hertford- 
shire, Monmouthshire, down to Devon and DorscL It is, in short, perpetu- 
ated all over the kingdom. Here and there it has become identified with 
local customs. At Newcastle, until it was discontinued, it was the signal for 
shutting the shops. At Durham, again (where it is tolled at nine o'clock), it 
heralds the closing uf the college gales ; while in many Cheshire and York- 
shire villages it has fur centuries warned farmers to lock up their cattle lor the 
night. The almost universal hour at which it is lolled is eight o'clock in the 
evening, although here and there it is rung instead at seven and nine o'docL 
In some places, too, there is a morning curfew, a curious variation. At Slow, 
for instance, it is, or was lately, rung as early as four A.M., and »t Tamworth 
at the more reasonable hour of six. At Waltham in the Wolds, again, a 
grateful farmer, who was lost in the snow and found his way home by its 
sound, left a field to endow a five-o'clock curfew forever. 

The facts, indeed, plainly show that the custom has kept its hold on the 

Eopular sympathies through all the ages. The Pilgrims and the Puritans 
rought it over with them to New England, where the curfew bell is still rung 
in many towns and villages. In the *' Bells of Lynn," Longfellow appeals to 
the "curfew of the selling sun" as heard at Nahant ; and other allusions are 
freely found in our native poets. 

Cuspidor. It has been suggested that this word was invented by the 
manufacturers of a new style of spittoon who are credited with a classic wit. 
The Latin verb cuspido means to sharpen, to point, and seems to give no clue 
to cuspidor. But there is a noun cuipis from the same root, which means a 
sharp-pointed weapon, a lance, a spit ; and here we find the punning origin 
of Ihe word ; thus, cuspis, a spit ) cnspido, the thing which points the spit 
This seems rather farfetched, the more so that there is a Portuguese verb 
riupir, to spit, and the nouns from the Same root are cuspe, spittle ; cuspidor, a 
spitler, a spitting man ; and iusfidtira, spitting-bux. The Spanish equivalent 
k ticupidor, a spitting man. But both the Spunish and the Portuguese words 
must be referred to the Latin coiispurre, to spit. 

Cut one's stick, to make aft, to leave, lo escape. This c . 
pression is thought to refer lo the cutting of a staff from a hedge o' 
the occasion of a journev. A Latin equivalent is the " CoDige sarcmulas" 
("Collect the ba^s") of Juvenal, while a curious though accidental parallel 
iicciirs in Zechariah xi, lo, where the cutting of a stick is described as Ihe 
symbol of breaking a friendly covenant. The phrase is sometimes humor- 
ously elaborated into "lo amputate one's mahogany." 
" Cm down the bloody horde I" 
Cried Mcagber of the iwocd, 

Bui the be« uk 1 onmy made 

Wu lo cut bii own Hick traa Ihe Slumum ifaon. 

Thmiiiwav: SallU t/ Limirick. 
In the days of American slavery Ihe advertisements of runaway negroes 
were emiKllished with pictures of the fugitives carrying a stick and a bundle 
over their shoulders. 


D. -' 

D, the fourth letter of the English, as of the Latin, Greek, and Phoenician 
alphabets, — the delta of the Greeks, the daleth, " door," of the Phoenicians. As 
the initial of the Latin denarius, the original name also of the English penny, d, 
(lower-case and almost invariably in italic) is used as the sign for penny or 
pence ; />., £ s. </., = pounds, shillings, and pence. The triangular shape 
of the Greek capital A gained the name of delta for many triangular spaces 
or surfaces, and especially for triangular islands or alluvial tracts enclosed 
within the diverging branches of a river, as the Delta of the Nile, etc 

Dagger Scene in the House of Commona. During the French Revo- 
lution, Burke created a dire sensation by suddenly throwing a dagger upon 
the floor of the House of Commons, vociferating, " There is French frater- 
nity for you ! Such is the poniard which French Jacobins would plunge in 
the heart of our sovereign." This theatrical exhibition startled the House 
for a moment, then raised a titter, which expanded into a roar when Sheridan 
said, "The gentleman has brought his knife with him ; but whtre's thefork?'^ 
Twiss, in his " Life of Lord Eldon," says that ** The dagger had been sent to 
a manufacturer at Birmingham as a pattern, with an order to make a large 
quantity like it. At that time the order seemed so suspicious that, instead 
of executing it, he came to London and called on my father at the Secretary 
of State's office to inform him of it and ask his advice, and he left the pat- 
tern with him. Just after, Mr. Burke called, on his way to the House of 
Commons, and upon my father mentioning the subject to him, he borrowed 
the dagger to show in the House. They walked down to the House together, 
and when Mr. Burke had made his speech, my father took the dagger again 
and kept it as a curiosity." 

Dago. This word, now generally applied to Italians all over the United 
States, originated in Louisiana, where it at first denoted people of Spanish 
birth or parentage, but was gradually extended so as to apply to Italians and 
Portuguese also. It is undoubtedly a corruption of Diego (James), a common 
name among Spaniards, San Diego being their patron saint. 

Daisy, in American slang, a humorous and sometimes a sarcastic term of 
endearment or admiration. It may have had its origin in Dickens's '* David 
Copperfield," where Steerforth says to young Copperfield. " David, my daisy, 
you are so innocent of the worm. Let me call you my daisy, as it is so 
refreshing to find one in these corrupt days so innocent and unsophisticated. 
My dear Copperfield, the daisies of the field are not fresher than you." 

Damn 'with faint praise. This expressive phrase occurs in Pope's 
famous characterization of Addison as Atticus : 

Should such a man, too fond to rule alone. 
Bear, like the Turk, no brother near the throne. 

Damn with faint praise, assent with civil leer, 
And without sneering, teach the rest to sneer, 
Willing to wound, and yet afraid to strike, 
Just hmt a fault, and hesitate dislike. 

Prologu* to the Satires. 

There is a faint anticipation in Wycherley*s ** Double Dealer," " and libels 
everybody with dull praise." But a closer parallel is in Phineas Fletcher,--* 


So muTOh wlut he makct, imd pnvmg mosF, dupTuscA. 

Tilt Pur/It Island, CulD vii. 

DamiuUoD, DiatlUcd. Robert Hall, according to his biogtapher, Gr«e- 
oty, being once asked for a glass of brandy and water, indignantly replied, 
■' Call things by their right names ! Glass of brandy and water I That is the 
current, but not the appropriale name ; ask iur a glass of liquid fire and dis- 
tilled damnation I" Was he thinking of Pythagoras, of whom Diogenes Laer- 
tius said, " He calls drunkenness an expression identical with ruin" F Or trf 
Cyril Tourneur in " The Revenger's Tragedy" ? 

fell, damned id evcRuiiDg fjaoi 

The third line is taken from Cowper's rendition of a lin< 
ChimRl wiiti ihafoelisli whiKliog of ■ ui 

It may also be found in Savage : 

And ^lotify vrhnl cIk il diicnned lo ^mc. 

Dance. To danoe attendance, to wail upon another, lo be at his beck 
and call, tu be icrvile or unduly obsequious. The reference is lo the ancient 
custom at marriages when the bride was forced to dance with all who asked 
her : "Then must ihe poore brydc kepe foote with all dauncers, and refuse 
none, how scabbed, foule, droncken, rude, and shameless soever he be" 
(CURIsn-BN ; Slaa a/ Malrimony, 1543). 

■ id ihouglB 

They hud puud so much booeaty amoDg ihem 
(A( Icui. EDod maooen) u Dal ihui to sufTer 
A^nun d* ail pUce. uid m doot our tHvor. 

-To lead one 
wife, to make one enjoy what is known as " a parrot anif monkey ti 
allusion being to the complicated dances of the past, when all followed the 
leader Ihrou^ a maze of evolutions. To make another dance Ic 

or at one's bidding, meaning to have him '■"■!- • ■».■.■">> " - 

Ihe myths and legends of magic rods or mi 
bystanders or listeners to dancing whether they wished it or noL It is said 
that shortly before Bismarck's retirement, Ihe Emperor William II. found him 
in the royal nursery fiddling with great glee, while the little princes and prin- 
cesses were dancing. " That is the fourth generation of Hohenzollerns whom 
you have made dance to your music," was William's dry commenL 

Danoa of Torches, a dance performed at Ihe royal palace in Berlin on all 
weddings in the royal family of Prussia, the torch-bearers being Ihe ministers 
oi stiile and Ihe highest court ckargta. Here is a description of Ihe dance as 


peribnned at (he marri^e festivities or the Prince of Prussia with Ihe Prin- 
cess of Bavaria. December 3, iSzi. The musicians having first been placed on 
the stage of solid silver, in tlie White Halt, Ihe tie wly- married pair, preceded by 
sii tieulcn ant-generals and six niiniiters of stale, two by two, all holding white 
lorches, made the tour of Ihe hall, saluting the company as they went The 
princess then gave her hand to the king or emperor, the prince to the queen, 
Ihe iting to the queen-mother, and Ihe reigning queen to Prince Henry, and 
• ihe princes and princesses following, led up the dance in like professional 
manner. Then followed another curious ceremony, the distribution among 
the guests of the bride's garter. Of course the real garter is usually not 
uifficient 10 give more than a ahred of a fibre of the materia) composing 
the garter, and instead of il, piece* of silk, three inches long, woven m the 
colors of the bride's hose, stamped with her monogram and a crown and 
bingcd with silver, are diBtribuled. 

DftDoiiig dttyB aie ov«r. A popular locution, meaning that youth and its 
lollies and pleasures are over. It occurs in Beaumont and Fletcher and in 
Shakespeare : 

Date not do an 111 thing. Plutarch, in his essay " Of Bashfulness," tells 
m that Xenophanes said, " I confess my.ielf ihe greatest coward in Ihe world, 
£» I dare not do an ill thing." Was this in Hacbelh's mind when he said 
(Act i., Sc. ;),— 

Who tk^ do monu none t' 
and again, in Act iii., Sc 4. addressing Banquo's Ghost,— 
What mm dart, 1 dare : 

AppriHch ihou like the ni^«t Ruuiu bear, 

Thmnned rtiinoceros, or ifii Hyrcu dgti. 

Take mbv mhape but ihat, and my tinn Dcrvct 

Sbdl never trimble. 

Pope has a fine line in his translation of Ihe " Odyssey" (Bk. ii., 1. 30S).— 

And wh«hegr™iiy ihoughl, he nobly dered ; 

which Lowell has imitated : 

Andwhal Ihey due 10 dieim of, due 10 do. 

Daxet To take a. A colloquial expression, meaning to receive a challenge 
without accepting it, slill surviving in the Middle States, and locally in other 
parts of the United Slates and in England. It has good literary authority at 
Its back, as the verb to dare, or to give the date, in the sense of to challenge, 
to provoke to action, especially by implying a lack of courage to accept a chal- 
lenge, is fbund in Shakespeare and his contemporaries. 

iI4 UANt>V-BO0k OF 

Daik Age*, a vague and misleading title ap^ied to those ages of which 
Coleridge hapiiily says that we are in the dark. Thongh the degree of intelli- 
gence was diffetent at difternrt' points of the Middle Agea, no one who has 
studied that epoch with any attention couIiT assert that there was thioughout 
Western Europe a dead level either of intellectual life or of the absence of 
intellectual life in any given century. 

indiiuucnt whcnb^ we yd live u dvilLzed meawnr Driginated or MillcDnJum of • 
DuHumi on ih« failh di certain long u« Pedanlt, who rtckooed everyihbiB bumi bccnute 
ChrVKilDrM had nol y« conw, ud no Greek roon grew Ehere,— C^tKLVU. on Ta/ZsT'i Sarvtf 
^GtrmaK PailTy,Bn%\t,a.\\y publiihcd in iSji. 

Dark hone, an unforeEiecn or cornprumisc candidate in a political contesL 
The term is borrowed from Ihe lurt There ia a custom among racing-men 
of training a horse in secret, or " keeping him dark," so that his powers may 
be unknown lo Ihe belling world until the very day of Ihe race. Hence 
jockeys freq^uenlly say that "the dark horse will win the race." It is nol a 
hr cry from jockeydoni (o the world of politics. 

The lir« favonle wu never benrd of; [be lecond favorite wu ntver letn after the du- 
tboughl of mahed pui the grandstand m iweeping triumph. — DisitAKU : Tkt Youmg Dmkt. 

Darkeat hotir ts just before dawn, an old English proverb which ei 
presses more poetically ihe homelier adages, " When things are at the won 
they soonest mend," " When bale ii highest, boot is nighest," "The longei 
day will have an end," "After a storm comes a calm," and finds an equivi. 
lent in other languages, as in French, " By dint of going wrong all will come 
righl;" in Italian, ■•Til is the eve of well j'' in Persian, " It is at the narrowest 
pari of the defile lliat the valley begins to open," and in Hebrew, " When the 
tale of bricks is doubled, MoEics comes." That the nights, as a rule, are 
darkest jusi before dawn is doubtless true, for the moon has then reached far 
on to Ihe western hortiuii, while the sun is still below iha eastern horiion. 

Be«»ie of dopenwe itepi ; the darken day, 

o morrow, w ve (*"j^^;^j_,^^ Almrm. 
And Shakespeare,— 

Mi^ih, An \i, 5c. 3. 
e abound in literature. 


Yu rrom lb»e flimei 
No ligbi, but rmtlier daikncH vjtiUc. 
This has been ollen imitated, nolably by Browning: 

The evil ii null, ii naught, ii tilence impiyLiiE >aund, 
Th^ophile de Viau, a contemporary of Milton, has the line. — 

("One hears nothing but silence, one see 
close a parallel to the Milloiilc phrase tl 
Daob It ! This expletive, which looks as if it might be a fellow-euphemism 

with blank tl, or a substitute far it, literally means Confound it I from the 

now obsolescent sense of 10 dash = to coiifuuiid, 10 abash. The inteijecijon 


comes to us immediately through the Fren'ch deshait^ dehaity deket^ affliction, 
misfortune, and in old English appears in the form datheit or dahet : 

Dahct habbe that ilkc fatsK 
That futeth his own nest. 

Th* Otui and tht Nightingale, 

The verb was still used in this sense in the time of Pope : 

Dash the proud gamester in his gilded car. 

Imitations qf Horace , II., i. X07. 

Dauphin of France. This title was given to the eldest son of the King 
of France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The Counts of Albon 
and Grenoble assumed the title of Counts of Vienne, of whom Guy VIII. is 
said to have been surnamed Le Dauphin^ because he wore a dolphin as an 
emblem on his helmet or shield. The surname remained to his descendants, 
who were styled Dauphins, and the country which thev governed was called 
Dauphin^. Humbert II. de la Tour de Pisa, the last ot the Dauphin dynasty, 
gave UD his sovereignty by treaty to King Philippe de Valois in 1349. From 
that time the eldest son of the king of France was styled Dauphin. Since 
the dethronement of the elder branch of the Bourbons in 1830 the title of 
Dauphin has been disused. The last who bore it was the Duke of Angou- 
l€me, son of Charles X. 

Day after the fEdr, an English proverbial expression (recorded by Hey- 
wood, " Proverbs," Part I., ch. viii.), meaning too late. Collins, the poet, was 
once in love, and as the lady was a day older than himself, he used to say, 
jestingly, that ** he came into the world a day after the fair." 

Day. Better the day better the deed, an English proverb, finding its 
analogue in the French ** Bon jour, bon ceuvre," or less concisely, " Aux bons 
jours les bonnes oeuvres." The evident meaning is that the goodness of a 
eood deed is enhanced by its being done on a good day, — f'.tf., a Sunday or 
holy day. But it is often jestingly perverted to mean that a bad or question- 
able action is sanctified by being done on a Sunday. Chief Justice Holt made 
use of the expression in Sir William Moore's case (2 Raymond ^s Reports^ 1028) 
on application for discharge out of custody of a prisoner taken on a Sunday : 
*'The judges of the Common Pleas are of another opinion, but I cannot 
satisfy myself with their reasons. I think the better day the better deed." 
Matthew Henry, a pronounced Sabbatarian, paraphrases the proverb, *' The 
better day, the worse deed," in his Commentaries : Genesis iii. 

Day, I have lost a (L., ** Diem perdidi 1"). This was the exclamation of 
the Emperor Titus (known to his admirers as the " Delight of Mankind"), 
which, Suetonius tells us, was made one night at supper, on reflecting that he 
had done nothing for any one that day. 

" I've lost a day," — the prince who nobly cried. 
Had been an emperor without his crown. 

Young : Night Thoughts ^ II., 1. 99. 

In the preface to NichoFs work on " Autographs," among other albums 
noticed by him as being in the British Museum is that of David Krieg, with 
Jacob BoDart*s autograph and the verses, — 

Virtus sua gloria. 
** Think that day lost whose descending sun 
Views from thy hand no noble action done." 

Bobart died about 1726. He was a son of the celebrated botanist of that 
name. But the quotation-marks in which the lines arc enclosed indicate that 
they were copitd and not original. In Suniford*s " Art of Reading," third 


edilion, p. 37 (BoElon, 1803), the lines occur in the more familiir and more 
rhythmical form, — 

Couni tlii(4*]r Imi who K loK -dncendiiig tuD 

The precept of Pliny, " Nulla dies sine linea"("No day without a line"), 
appiiea the uine senliment 10 literary workers. Chamfort says, "The most 
completely lost of all days is that on which one haa not laughed." 

DOBd man, or Dead nuMlne, a colloquialism for an empty bottle, pos- 
sibly in humorous recoKnition of the lict that the spirits have departed. But 
the French alao have the same phrase, un corps morl, a dead body, for which 
there can be no punning pretext A famous old drinking-song has this 

William IV., when Duke of Clarence, once inadveitently used the phrase, 
"Remove the dead marines," in the presence of an olficer of that corps. 
"What does your Highness mean by marine F" was the aligblly indignant 
query. " I mean by marine," replied the prince, with ready tact and courtesy, 
"a good fellow who has done his duty and is prepared to do it again." 

Daad ihmi'b ahoes, a common locution for property which can only be 
claimed after the present owner's death. Wailing for dead men's shoes mean* 
looking forward for an inheritance. 

And 'ds a £«Dcnl Ibooffbt Uut mcvt men u*e, 

Bui yd 'lii tedioas miting dead meo'* thoea. 

Dead-Sea frni^ a common metaphor for hollow and unsatisfactory 
pleasures. The reference is to the apple of Sodnm, (he familiar name of a 
species of yellow fruit which grows on the borders of the Dead Sea. It is 
extremely bcauliful to the eye, but bitter to the taste and full of small black 
grains, not unlike ashes. Hence a wide-spread, (hough erroneous, belief Ihat 
nothing can flourish in the neighborhood of the Dead Sea, a belief at least as 
ancient as Tacitus : " Whatever the earth produces, whether by the prolific 
vigor of nature or the cultivation of man, nothing ripens to perfection. The 
herbage may shoot up and the trees may put forth their blossoms ; they may 
even attain Ihe usual appearance of maturity, but, with this florid outside, all 
within turns black and moulders into dust" (Hutary, v. 7.) 

GiMdiJy they plucked 

Near Ibatl^iumhioiutilH when Sadom bmcd; 
Thi> mon delusive nu Ihe touch, but lute 
Deceived -. Ifaey fondly thinking 10 (1^^ 
Their appelile with gusl. iDilead of fruit 
Cbewtd Uiler uhei, wbich th' offended (Ule 
With •pitiering noige rejecled. 

Miltoh: Parailiu L*iI. 
Like to Ibe applei on the Dead.Sea iboie, 

BvROH : CkiltU HtrnU, iii. 34. 
Like Dead.Sea fiviu Ibai tempi the eye 

"""'°^ooh: l*S'^«i*. Tlu Fir,.W.rikip^m. 
Dear me I a collirauial expression of mild surprise or pily, is plausibly de- 
rived from theltalianDwiBw/ My God I or from Che less obvious French Z)i« 
mr/(anit,)GodheIpineI Butfor neither etymon is there any external evidence. 
The negro expression which spelled phonetically would be deah-me-sni and 


is frequently prononunced as a single word is merely the darky equivalent for 
Dear me, sirs I. 

Ammi CkUe. — Yes, Rastus. it were a sad case ; oneV de saddes' dat I come across. De 
bov was jes' mnnin' across de railroad track, bringin' home a watahmillion from mahket. 
When he crossed de track he sot down, absent-minded like, to plug de million ter see if it were 
ripe, an' a train come along and cut oft both his legs. 

l/mcle Rattut. — Deah me, suz; ain't dat tarriblef Did you heah if de million was 
ripe t — America. 

Death. An interesting collection might be made of the euphemisms which 
poets and philosophers have invented to cover up the ugly fact of death. 
"Jam vixisse" (" He has lived"), said Cicero. And another favorite Roman 
phrase of unknown parentage was ** Abiit ad plures" or "ad majores" (" He 
has gone to the majority"). (See Majority.) •• Not lost, but gone before," 
was Seneca's phrase, which has been transferred literally by Matthew Henry 
to his " Commentaries : Matthew ii.," and adopted with slight change by 
Samuel Rogers : 

Those that he loved so long and sees no more. 
Loved and still loves, — not dead, but gone before,— 
He gathers round him. 

Human Life. 

So Thackeray in the " Roundabout Papers :** 

Those who are gone, you have. Those who departed loving you, love you still : and you 
love them always. They are not really gone, those dear hearts and true : they are onlv gone 
into the next room ; and you will presently get up and follow them, and yonder door will close 
upon you, and you will be no more seen. 

So Charles Lamb in his poem of " Hester" (stanza 7) : 

Gone before 
To that unknown and silent shore. 

Nancy Priest Wakefield has, — 

Over the river they beckon to me. 

Loved ones who've gone to the further side. 

The idea of a river is, of course, a survival of the pagan myth of the river 
Styx, which divided the dead from the living, — " He has crossed the Styx" 
bemg another famous classical euphemism. Bunyan adapts the old myth to 
Christian uses when he makes his Pilgrim cross the river. Horace calls 
death the supreme journey, "supremum iter" {^Carmina^ H., xvii.); and the 
general idea of journeying hence is expressed in the following locutions from 
various sources, sacred and profane : 

To depart.— />Ai/«^. i. 33. 

To go hence and be no more. — Psalm xxxix. 13. 

I shall go the way whence I shall not return.— ^49^ xvi. aa. 

That undiscovered country from whose bourn no traveller returns. — Shakbspbarb: 

Their going hence. — Shakbspbarb : King Lear. 

Illic unde regant redire quenquam. — Catullus. 

"Slept with his fathers" occurs thirty-five times in the Old Testament. 

The comparison of sleep with death is, m fact, a universal one from its very 

obviousness. "To fall asleep," "to fall on sleep," is frequently met with in 

the New Testament " Longa quies et ferreus somnus," says Virgil. Here 

are a handful of similar examples from the moderns : 

Death is an eternal sleep. — Inscription which Joseph Fouchi caused to be placed on all the 
Parisian cemeteries. 

To die, to sleep. — Shakbspbarb : Hamlet. 
After life's fitful fever he sleeps well. — Shakbspbarb : Macbeth. 
That sweet sleep which medicines all pain.— Shbllst : Julian and MmddaU. 
K 19 


And here, grouped [<^ether, are a few miscellaneous euphemiims i 

Put off ihii tabenucle. — 3 Ptt. i. 14. 

Shufflnl off thli motuJ coU.— SmwE^ruii: Hamtit. 

The ufe port, the pemcefu], lilebl ^wrc. — SoAHB jEmrrOr 
Into ifae lilait lud.~J. G. vox Sous. 
Fl«th u a ghidow.— /,>4 ijv. 9. 

Dwhiitlicsliuloworlife.— Tknhvhh: Lrd and DimIIi. 
Fugcn Bub umbru [lu flee uikdet tbe ihadovi] — ViiiGiL- 

The idea of Ihe eqtialjty of death, it may here be interjected, is commo* 
property. A few instaticea will suffice ; 

Dentil nuikeg equal tbe high or low.— HivwooD : St Mtrrj, Frintdt. 
A> mea we m ill equali in the pnKDce of death.— Puiuus Svhus: Mtxim I. 
Death caU< ye to the crowd of cotDmon men.— Jahd Shulkt : Cufid ^iJ DnUA. 
The palbi of glory lead but to tbe grave, — Gaav 1 Elegy- 

Spubu : FmrrU Qmrm, II., Culo 1,, 5^ 

lut to go on with our • 

cum pies : 

That dark inn, the grave 

.-Si»tt: Ltrd 


ULAV : £h«i. 

The long home.— £(<■/. ill. %. 

Gave up the gho» -Mm xi.. 30. 

Tbe way of ill tbt earth. ->i<l. iiiil. 14. 

Popular proverbs of this sort usually have a grotesque flippancy about 

To Mrelch (be leg. 

To yck the huckel. 

To go to kingdom come. 

To bop the urig. 

To pnu hi your checka (a poker tenn). 

It would seem thai the Homeric phrase ^ n na%. which, with various 
inflectiors, occurs both in the " Iliad" atid in ihe "Odyssey," is exactly' equiva- 
lent to the English euphemistn "if anything should happen lo him," used 
daily hy people who have no idea they are quoting Homer. 

Mark Twain, in " Roughing It," has collected a number of Western equiv- 

" Up the AuDie, — tbroved tip the ipongc, you unden 
" Thrown up the sponge f" 

'pedhim V 

Death, Call no man happy until hia. This sentence is said to have 
been uiiered by Solon to Crcesus, King of L^dia (Herodotus; Clio, 32), 
which Crcesus repeated when he was on the funeral pyre (S7). and Iherel^ 

Literary curiosities. 

Death, One of the neiv temrs o£ Arbuthnc 

o Swift, under 

dale January 13, 1733, apropos of (he death of (heir mulual Triend Gay, sa, 
"Curll (who is une of the new terrors of death) has been wri(ing leKers (o 
CTcrybody for memoirs of his life." Curll was hi the habit of issuing catch- 
penny " Lives" or " Remains" on the decease of any eminent person. Th« 
phrase was resurrected or hit upon independently by Sir Charles Wetherell at 
■ banquet given by the Benchers of the Inner Temple to the King of Holland. 
In describing the guests, he said of I^ird Campbell, author of "The Ijves of 
the Chancellors," "Then there is our noble and biographical friend who has 
added a new terror lu death" (so quoted in l^rd St. Leonard's printed cor- 
rections to Campbell's " Lives." iE6q). Curiously enough, Campbell (vol. viL 
p. 163) ascribes the phrase to Brougham : " Brougham delivered a very warm 
panegyric upon the ex 'Chancel lor. and expressed a hope that he would make 
i _ . J _..!. 1 expiring chancellor death was now armed with a 

ust have been plagiarizing, for he himself ascribed 

are complimentary phrase is allribuled to Erskine. 

Erskine. whose conversation had delighted him. 

■an to write your epitaph." " Dr. Parr," was the 
o commit suicide." 

a good end, although I 
iww terror." Brougham ir 
the mot to Wetherell. A m 
" My lord." said Dr. Parr 1 
"should you die first, I m< 
reply, "it is a temptation l( 

Death or Qlcny, the motto of an English regiment, the Seventeenth Lan- 
cers. On the saddle-cloths and sabre-laches of us officers is borne the pirat- 
ical symbol of a skull and cross-bones, with the words " or glory" beneath i(. 
During une of the German campaigns of the Duke of Marlborough this regi- 
ment was surprised by a sudden attack of French cavalry. It was early morn- 
ing, and the men were engaged in arooming their horses. There was no time 
to saddle them. Mounting bareoack at a moment's notice, the regiment 
charged and repulsed the enemy, the colonel leading the onset v«ith the cry, 
" Death or glory !" Then it was they assumed the motio and symbol. The 
regiment took part in the charge of the Light Brigade at Kalaklava, and on 
their colors are the names " Alma," " Balaklava," " liikerman," " Sevastopol." 

Death, There is an. One of Longfellow's most popular poems is " Resig- 
nation," whose most popular stanza runs as follows : 

Tben li no dulh I Whai i«nu w ij iTiTHUioD : 

Ii bui 1 lubuib of ihr life clyiiu 
Whot* poiu] wt call Death. 

The last line is a reminiscence of the I^lin phrase " Mora ianua vttx" 
(" Ijre is the gate of Death"). A poem pcrsisicutly attributed to Bulwer 
Lytlon, but really written by J. L. McCreery and lirsl published in Atlhut'i 
Home Magaiini for July, 1863. begins as follows : 

There ;< no D«>h I Th* tun go down 

In these extracts we have the Christian view of death as the beginning of 
immortality. The mure subtle and mystic view of the Oriental dreamers is 
bithtully mirrored in Emerson's " Brahma :" 

Orir Iheilain tfalDkhcii^rp. 

liey know doi wdl Ifae suIhIc wiyi 
1 Lccp, and paw, and mm agaiii. 


Thai WIS a very camlbrlable phase of mind into which Thales, one of the 
Seven Wise Men of Greece, had argued himself. He held that there was no 
difference between life and death. " Why, then," said a friend, "do you not 
die?" " Because it dots make no difierence." 
Deaths, A tlionsand. Young, in " Night Thoughts," Night III., has the 

fcdt > ihoiuand d«thi in 
of Shakespeare : 

imitated from the m 

Beaumont and Fletcher are more modest even than Massinger : 
Demih biih « many d<K.n ID let QUI lifr. 

CtuUmn/lkt GmKlty, Act u., Sc i. 

Debt to ITature. This euphemism for Heath is very common on the tomb- 
stones of the early part of this century. An early appearance in literature is 
in Francis Quarlcs : 

"" ^Sfmi*. BewkJi. 

Puller has words nearly similar in his sermon " Life out of Death ;" " What 
is thy disease, — a consumption? indeed a certain messeneer of death ; but 
r, that of all the bailiffs sent to arrest us for the delit of n. 

Ditchar^ed, perctutno 

uselh his prisoners with more civility and courtesie." Gay caught a faint echo 
of [he sentiment, and annexed it to Macheath's song before the noble captain 
was about to go to Tyburn ; 

IliQ cbane i> pnparcd, ihv lawycrt are cncl. 
The judga all ranged, a ttnible ihow I 

A dtbt' n^^cmwd,-^ uUc whal'l owe I 

Dedlofttiona. The practice of dedicating books is obsolescent It has 
now little meaning : at best it is only a tribute of respect or affection either to 
a private fi'iend or a public character. In Its origin it meant far mure than 
this. When readers were few, writers trusted to the patronage of some great 
person, and the dedication was the means of recommending a book to liis 
protection, or of expressing that gratitude which was a lively sense of favors 
to come. Antoine Furetiirc, the French lexicographer, said that the inventor 
of dedications must certainly have been a beggar ; and Young agrees with 


That inventor's name, however, is lost in the twilight of antiquity. The old 
Romans — Horace, Virgil, Cicero, Lucretius — all dedicated their works to 
some friend or patron. He, in return, was expected to render some equivalent 
in coin or kind. The practice of Augustus Naturally a very frequent dedi- 
catee) was sometimes a little less~than kind. If he thought the verses good, 
he rewarded the writer ; if not, he returned the compliment made him with 
some verses of his own. He must have rated his poetical powers very low ! 
With the revival of learning the practice of dedications was revived. But 
at first it does not seem that any interested motives underlay them. The 
dedications of the great Aldus, for example, in his editioms prindpes of the 
classics, are models of simplicity, dignity, and self-respect. Caxton's are more 
florid and eulogistic Thus, he addresses the Duchess of Somerset as " right 
noble puyssant and excellent pryncesse my redoubted lady my lady Margarete 
duchesse of Somercete, moder unto our naturel and soverayn lord and most 
crysten Kynge henry ye seuenth." 

But those were the days when royalty and nobility commanded adulation, 
which was given and received with a simple and touching faith on both sides. 
Many authors, especially in Spain and in Italy, showed that they were not in 
search of treasures, this side of heaven at least, by dedicating their books to 
the Almighty or some special member of the Trinity, or to the Virgin Mary 
or a patron saint This example was sparingly imitated in England, the most 
notable instance being that of James I., who dedicated a book (his answer to 
Conrad Vorstius*s treatise on the nature and attributes of God) to our Saviour 
in the following terms : 

To the Honour of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ the Eternal Sonne of the Eternal 
Father the onelv eEANOPOIIOS, Mediatour and Reconciler of Mankind. In siene of 
Thankefulness, His most humble and most obliged Servant, James, by the Gn^e of God, 
King of Greate Britaine, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Doeth dedicate and 
consecrate this his Declaration. 

There is an odd story that the printer, knowing the chronic impecuniosity 
of the monarch, refused to print his book unless he first got his money down. 
He had been less cautious, perhaps, if some opulent earthly magnate had been 
chosen as the patron. 

Gradually the advantages to be gained by persistent flattery of the great 
and the wealthy appealed to the business side of the great poetic heart 
Rich and titled fools were pleased to earn the fame of a Maecenas, and will- 
ingly paid the trumpeter of their virtues, though rather according to the loud- 
nes8 of his notes than with any nice critical appreciation as to whether his 
instrument were gold or brass. Not always, however. For when Ariosto 
rang a blast in honor of Cardinal Ippolite of Este on the same horn which 
had produced the golden melodies of his '* Orlando Furioso," and hastened 
to lay the book and the dedication at his patron's feet, the only reward he got 
was the slighting query, " Dove diavolo, Messer Ludovico, avete pigliato tante 
cogloniere r" (" Where in the devil, Messer Ludovico, did you pick up so 
much rubbish ?") Ariosto had his revenge, indeed. The cardinal's query 
has survived, its winged words have borne his name down to the contempt of 
posterity as a mean and stingy soul who had no relish for the good, the true, 
and the beautiful. Perhaps he saw the great truth which Bishop Hurd after- 
wards emphasized when he likened authors to the architect of the tower of 
Pharos, who inscribed his name on the marble, but had it encrusted over with 
stucco, and on that stucco placed the name qf the reigning prince. 

Sometimes patrons became active seekers for dedicatory taffy in lieu of 
passive recipients. Erasmus, in his *' Praise of Folly," is not unduly severe 
upon certain "seemingly great and wise men, who, with a new-fashioned 
modesty, employ some paltry orator or scribbling poet to flatter them with 



lies uid shams, and y«t the persons thus extolled shall bristle up and pea- 
cock-like bespiead iheir plumes, while the impudent parasite magnifies the 
poor wietch to the skies, and proposes him as complete pattern of all virtues, 
hum each of which he is yet xsitx distant as heaven itself from hell." 

Uldmiion, complaining uf the same thing, notes as a further reason for 
annoyance that this practice led to a strange choice of patrons, without regard 
to their character or capacity. 'I'hus, "we often find a Discourse of Politicks 
addressed to a Fox-hunter, a Treatise of Gardening to a Citiien of London, a 
piece of Divinity to a General of the Army, a Poem to a Judge, and a Play 
to a Stockjobber." James I., according to his own account in the dedication 
of his "Meditation on the Ixird's Prayer," made a great point of the appro- 
prialeneiis ol his choice. For this present work he can And no one more lit 
than the Duke of Buckingham : " For it is made upon a very short and plaine 
prayer, and therefore the fitter for a courtier ; Fur courtiers, for the must 
pan, are thought netthci to have list nor teesute to say long prayers, liking 
best courtr messe and teng dUtur, But to confess the truth now in earnest, it 
is the litter for yuu that it is both short and plaine." 

So Erasmus ingeniously found something apposite in dedicating his 
" Praise of Folly" to Sir Thomas More : " How \ what maggot, say you, put 
this in your head ? Why. the first hint, sir, was your own surname of Mure, 
which comes as near the literal sound of the word {fiH™! >s you yourself 
are distant from the «gnificatioii of it, and that, in all men's judgments, is 
vastly wide." 

In spite of protest and example, however, the slavish adulation of seven- 
teenth-cenlury dedications, especially after the period of the Restoration, 
cannot be looked back upon without shame and astonishment. Even so 
line a gej|lleman as John Evelyn, dedicating a translation of Freart'a book on 
architecture to Charles If. (1664), indulges in a stream of outrageous rhap- 
sody, in the course of which he likens the Merry Monarch to "the Divine 
Architect," informs him thai he was "designed of God lor a blessing to 
this nation," and predicts that his name "will be famous to posterity, and 
when those materials fail, the benefits that are engraven in our hearts will 
outlast those of marble." 

Then there is John Dryden. who has been rightly taken to task by Samuel 
Johnson. While acknowledging that he did imt want examples among bis 
predecessors or companions among his contemporaries, the sturdy old moralist 
insists that "in the meatmess and servility of hyperbolical adulation I know 
not whether since the days in which the Roman emperors were deified he has 
ever been equalled, except by Aphra Behn in an address to Eleanor Gwyn." 

Here is the concluding portion of the dedication to " The Indian Emperor" 
addressed to Anne, Duchess of Monmouth ; 

Vour Grace luts not only a UmK limc of youfh in which ro flourifth, but you have tikewiK 
round the way by mn unlunted pmervjilion of youj honour (o make lh*( perubable good DaoR 

of Iheir own fltEUr«. then your Gr4Cc'l would be immortal, lince no pAjl of Europe can 
afford a parallel id your noble lord in masculine beautyand in goodlineu of ihape. To nccive 

conclude inal you area pair of aagela sent below to make virtue amiable in vourpowintor to 
Kl 10 poetl wlien they would pleasantly innnlcl the age by drawing goodneb ID ibe moat 

And here is a portion of that address to Nell Gwyn which Mrs. Aphra 
Behn prefixed to her " Feign'd. Curliians" (1679), and which Dr. Johnson 
deemed more than a match for Dryden at his worst : 

ibe offerinp made to jou oughl to be worthy of you. whilal they accept the will alone. . . . 


nesse of that minde. which has subdu'd the most powerful and glorious monarch of the world ; 
and so well you bear the honours you were bom for, with a greatness so unaffected, an affa- 
bility so easie, an humour so soft, so far from pride or vanity, that the most envious and most 
disaffected can linde no cause or reason to wish you less. 

It was in ridicule of this and shntlar adulations of the king's mistress that 

Wycherley dedicated his " Plain Dealer" to one Mother B , a famous (or 

infamous) woman of the town. 

The author was often put to strange shifts if he quarrelled with his 
patron, or, especially, if that patron came to public grief while the work was 
passing through the press. The squally times of the Revolution made it an 
especially difficult task for the time-server to trim his sails. Samuel Pepys 
has a delightful passage in his Diary where he pictures himself making his 
way with all haste to St Paul's Church-yard, " to cause the title of my Eng- 
lish * Mare Clausum' to be changed, and the new title, dedicated to the king, 
to be put to it, because I am ashamed to have the other seen dedicated to 
the Commonwealth." Bishop Walton was equally astute, but, as befitted his 
exalted rank in the Church, was betrayed into no unseemly or undignified 
haste. His Polyglot Bible had been dedicated to Cromwell. When Charles 
II. ascended the throne, the praises of the grateful author were calmly and 
quietly transferred to the ruling; sovereign. 

As authors grew more slavish, they exacted a higher price for selling them- 
selves into bondage. Whereas literary men of the Elizabethan era had been 
glad to get two pounds for a dedication, the bookmen of the Restoration 
expected and received from twenty to fifty guineas, and the dramatists from 
five to twenty guineas, according to the rank and liberality of the patron. 
Nay, cunning plans were resorted to for multiplying patrons and fees alike, 
by affixing a different dedication to every division of the work. So Thomson's 
** Seasons" has a dedication for each Season. A strange lack of business 
acumen, to divide the year into seasons instead of months or days I Almost 
one might suspect that he lived in the epoch celebrated by Emerson : 

Or ever the wild Time coined itself 
Into calendar months and days. 

Young's " Night Thoughts," again, had a dedication for seven out of the 
nine Nights. This was piling it on. Nevertheless it was aboveboard. What 
shall we say of one Thomas Jordan, who prefixed high-flown dedications to 
his books with blanks for the name, the blanks being separately and sur. 
reptitiously filled in by a hand-press, so that there was a special dedicatee for 
every copy and multitudinous fees for the whole edition ? Nay, it is recorded 
that Mr. Jordan found an avatar in very recent years, — that a decade or so 
ago a Berlin sharper dedicated two thousand copies of an historical compila- 
tion to as many different tradesmen, sent each his special copy, and had no 
trouble in collecting a small sum from each. 

Pope has the credit of having put an end to the old abject dedication and 
inaugurated a better reign ; but it should not be forgotten that Pope had 
found a more profitable system of patronage, by getting lordly and wealthy 
subscribers for his books, who helped him to build up his Twickenham House 
and his Grotto, to lay out his Quincunx and plant his vines, — from which 
palatial retirement he ever afterwards sneered at literary hacks and learned 
want. Were the subscriptions always voluntary ? We all remember Rogers's 
joke when asked if he were reading the table of contents of a volume he held 
In his hand : " No ; the table of discontents," showing the list of subscribers. 
Nevertheless, the independence of literature begins from Pope's time. Otway 
had formerly boasted that he was the first to make an epistle dedicatory to his 
bookseller, — adding that it was just, "for he paid honestly for the copy." 
Johnson subsequently gave his tribute to booksellers as "generous, liberal 


men," and Boswell, in an oft-ijuoled passage, adds thai "he considered (hein 
as the trje patrons of lileralurc," — only a half-truth, after all, for they can 
claim, and Ihey pretend to claim, no more than Olway's bookseller, — "to pay 
hones lljf for 1 he copy." The "flTiancial paoner in an enterprise need not be 
made ridiculous by the title of patron. 

The rcvolulion started by Pope was a gradual one. Traces of the old 
system slill lingered in Sterne's time, to add point to the dedicatory jest in 
his " Tristram Shandy." where the accustomed page was left blanlc but for 
the inscription " To be let or sold for fifty guineas." Indeed, so recently as 
iSi; a Perthshire author, Co a book that passed through at least three editions. 
prefixed a dedication as grovelling and abject as the worst example in the very 
worst periods of authorial servility : 

K Eul of BmtUlbuK. 

r ihe mini praTDUiid huinilitv I pAnlAte jBymXt at ) 
<rdshjp'i high cnniidenLlion inoK very feeble ailempii 
able Wuiieiof your Irrrdabip'i driicious m '^'-' 

oniiedgrThe'hiinoM h.v/lo Jcrvt v. nobk > mitur. and thi 

\t and inelTiiblc Wuliei of your Irrrdabip'i driicious csuie of Rumple. With 
''' ul^diblending pride, and with ferVdceDl tccUDgMtr^mHrude. I bq( leave 

r meniali. eDj^ froill Ibe exubemnce i4 your pnn 
I tbine whh nfulgeat brilLiancy in tbe culled tO 

liberaliiy. That your lordship may long tbine with nfuteeat brilLiancy in 
to wbicD Providenf:e haf raned you, and thai your noble '" ~ "' "^ ' ~ ' 
id glory ibrough (he hi^ »pb< 

Providenf:e hu raned you, and [)wl your Bobk &llUly. like a bright c 

In losing Iheir grossnesa dedications have lost 
inleresL It is not often that a modern dedication 

a few exceptions may be cited, either for their intrinsic value or their associa- 
tions. Byron's " Hours of Idleness" was inscribed to the Earl of Carlisle 
from "his obliged ward and affectionate kinsman, the author." This is the 
gentleman who in Ihe first edition of " English Bards and Scotch Reviewers" 
IS thus alluded to: 

On ont alone Apollo deigni to iiqite, 

But. alas! between the first and the second edition the affectionate kinsmen 
had lallen ouL The new Roscommon was deposed from his pedestal and put 
in the pillory : 

Tbe paralytic puJing of CarUale. 

The inscription of " The Corsair" to Thomas Moore, of " The Prophecy of 
Dante" to the Countess of Guiccioli, and of " Sardanapalus" Co Goethe, are 
especially noteworthy among Byron's dedications for gallantry or dignified 
courtesy. But the seventeen stanzas dedicating " Don Juati to Soulhey. 
stanzas originally suppressed, but now restored to a place in Byron's works, 
are thoroughly discreditable to his taste and his judgment. 

Shelley's poetical dedication of "The Revolt of Islam" Co his second wife, 
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, is a noble bit of verse, and ranks with Brown- 
ing's dedication of his " Men and Women" (" One Word More"), and Tenny- 
son's inscription to the Queen, prefixed to his " Idylls," as the finest eflorts of 
*.his kind in the language. 

Uiclcetis was somelimes very happy, as in the dedication of " Master 
Humphrey's Clock" lo the poet Rogers : 

Mv bSAH Sir, — Let the have my pleaium of nemary in amncction with Ibji book, by 
dedicating it Loa poet *bovc«mtibgft all the world knowtjre replete with gen^rouijindaAnicsi 
fcelinff, andtoa nun whoK daily life fai all the world doei not klHW) Is one of active nympalhy 
with (he poor and humblest of bit kipd. 

Bui there is something more than a mere well-turned compliment in Ihe 
few lines which Sir Willtam Napier prefines lo hi» " History of Ihe Peninsular 


To FicM-Muihul tlic Duki or Wiluhgtoh. Thb biHory 1 dcdicuc to vour Giacc 
becuue 1 hive KrTed lanji enough under your cammMDcl lo feel why Ifae »ldien cf Ihe Tenth 
L^ioD wen aiuchcd lo Cssif. 

There a a deep palhos in Sir William Stirling Maxwell's dedication of the 
"Annals of the Artists of Spain :" ~" These pages, which I had hoped to dedi- 
cate to my father, are now inscribed in affectionate hoin^e tO;his memoiy." 

Equa)ly palhetic, but loo Ions to quote entire, is J. Sluait Mill's dedica- 
tion of his " Liberty :" " To the beloved and deplored memory of her who was 
the inspirer and in part Ihe author of all that is best in my writings, — the 
friend and wife whoso exalted sense of truth and right was my ^troiigEst incite- 
ment, and whose approbation was my chief reward." 

Coventry Patmore's dedication of his " Angel in Ihe House" b the best 
Ihing in the book : 

By wbom uid (or vhocn 1 became a poei. 

Thackeray dedicated his " Paris Sketch-Book" to a tailor who had lent him 
money, and " Pendennis" to Dr. John Etiiotson, the Dr. Goodenough of Ihe 
novel \\3s\t, who during ils composition had saved Ihe author Irom a serious 
sckness, and " would take no other fee but thanks." 

A notable dedication was that of Laiidor's " Hellenics" to Pope Pius IX. 
in 1S47, inspired by the liberal and progressive attitude of that sovereign 
during the first years of his reign. But Landor in succeeding years tost his 
admiration for Pius. 

Hmry Vllf., Act iii„ Sc a. 

Plutarch credits lo Democritus Ihe saying, " Words are but the shadows of 
actions" (Of tkt Training of Childrm). In closing a sermon on "Good 
Works V!. Good Words" m the parish church of St Andrews, on August 15. 
\%^^, Dean Stanley Quoted the following tines, explaining that il was doubtful 
if they were written by one of the earliest deans of Wesltninster or by one of 
ttie earliest Scotch Reformers : 

S»y wt.: b Bood, but do well ia beller : 

Do well Kemslhe iptrit, »y wtll ia fbe letter; 

S*y well a godly and hdpa to plemae. 

But (or lack of do well it often lea.cj. 

ir uy well Md do well were hound in one rnme. 

See, also. Actions sfeak ioiider than Words. 

D«UbentM. Tha womcui tbat delibervtM Is lost. This line ocean 
in Addison's "Cato," Act iv., Sc i ; 

When love once plead, admiuion to our heart 

(Dr. Kotmes humorously paraphrases this, "The woman who eaU'latti a 


lost." — expUiiiing ihat the italiciud word is " a vulgarism of language which, 
I grieve lo say, is sometimes heard even froi ' -'■'-■•■ "--■- -j-"-- 
had in mind the French proverb, "ChSleau qi 
pr*ls Jk s« reiidre" (" The casile that paiiei's 
r«ady lo surrender"). 

Another change on the same idea is thus rui 
tagu in hcj poem "The Lady's Resolve," » 
after her marriage, in 1713 ; 

And think they're virtuoiu if not groaaly lewd, 
L« ihij pe»l niiiim be my vinue^i guide.— 

He curna ion near thai eomei to be denied. 

This, however, is a bald plagiarism from Sir Thomas Overbury: 

The line 

She half conienu >bo tllenlly dcnia, 
which occurs in Drydeo and Mulgrave's translation of Ovid's "Helen to 
Paris," seems also 10 be a reminiscence of Overbury. 

Dalla Crnacana, or Delia Ciuaca Bchool, the sobriquet given to a 
certain school of English (welasters which, during the poetical inleitegnum 
at the end of the einhteenlh century, persuaded the world for a brief period 
that it had a divine right lo rule. The school originated in 1784 in Florence. 
An English bachelor of thirty, Kobeit Merry by name, whose pretensions to 
literature had secured his admission into the Italian Accademia della Crusca 
(Academy of (he ^ieve), started a sort of mutual admiration society among 
the English residents of Florence. They styled themselves the " Oiiosi 
(colloquially, the Laiyboiics), and did their little best to earn the title. The 
leading spirits, besides Merry himself, were Mrs, Piuui, who had been driven 
from England by the impertinent and unmerited obloquy that followed her 
second marriage, and Messrs. William Parsons and Ileitie Cireathead, one a 
Hirtatious bachelor, the other the recently -wedded husband of a beautiful 
wife. They all wrote verses, largely consisting of an interchange of compli- 
ments, and kept an album in which the verses were preserved. A selection 
baptized the " Arno Miscellany," and printed for private distribution, was 
within the circle of that privacy received so rapturously that a subsequent col- 
lection called "The Florence Miscellany" was kindly given 10 the world at 
large in 17S5. Here is a sample from a poem contributed by Mr. Merry as 
his essay in a friendly competition to produce something " that should excite 
horror by description :" 

While slow he irod thh de»>laled coul, 

Wh<He Rgure. all confiued. was dire to view. ' 

And Is^K )ii< manilc flowed of ihiftinE hue : 

He thed a luitre rotind, and ladly pretled 

What xeined hl> hand upon what leemed his brea>i, 

In famjabed truups rotmd Ureas' alespy flhore, 
and so on. Such as it was, however, the book proved a success. Readers 
shuddered, laughed, or thrilled as they were bidden, the leading magazines 
copied the gems of the collection, the eyes of literary England were turned 
upon Florence. A year or two later the society broke u[>, and its members 



murned la their native shores. Here Mr. Merry continued his literary labors 
by publishing, June, 1787, a poem called " The Adieu and Recall to Love" in 
the columns of Tht World. 'I'he poem was sigii^'" Delia Crusca," partly as a 
proud reminder of bis connection wilh Ihe Morentine Academy, partly, per- 
haps, as a gentle hint that he strove to make his verses all wheat and no cha£ 
This poem, which arter all was not so very bad, but only strained and arti- 
ficial, alliacled the attention of Mrs. Hannah Cowley, lamuus as Ibe author 
of " The Belle's Stratagem," a play that deservedly retains its hold upon the 
"' : shall tell the story herself : "The beautiful lines nf the ■ Adieu 
to Love' struck hei so forcibly that, without rising ftom the table 

-. ..X read, she answered them [the answer, it may be tnlerjected, was 

printed in Tkt World under the signature Anna Malilda]. Delia Crusca's 
elegant reply surprised her into another, and thus the correspondence most 
unexpectedly became settled. Anna Matilda's share in it had little to boast; 
but she has one claim of which she is proud, that of having been the first to 
point out the excellence of Delia Crusca.^ — if there can be merit in discerning 
what ii so very obvious." 'i'his explanation appears in the preface to her 
collected poems. Now let us summon a witness on the other side. Mr. 
William Gifford, of whom more anon, thus succinctly gives the story of Delia 
Crusca's poetical liaison with Laura Malilda. "While the epidemic malady 
was spreading from fool to fool, Uella Crusca came over and immediately 
announced himself by a sonnet to Love [it was not a sonnet, by the way], 
Anna Matilda wrote an incomparable piece of nonsense in praise of it ; and 
the two great luminaries of the age, as Mr. Bell calls them, fell desper- 
ately in love with each other. From that period not a day passed without an 
amatory epistle, fraught with lightning and thunder, il quicpiid haheni tda- 
ruM armametttaria cali. The fever turned to frenzy, Laura, Maria, Carios, 
Orlando, Adelaide, and a thousand nameless names, caught the infection, and 
from one end of the kingdom to another all was nonsense and Delia Crusca." 
The Mr. Bell alluded to was the publisher whom these authors mainly affected, 
and who also issued a selection, entitled first "The Poetry of Ihe World," 
and afterwards "The British Album," which tan through several editions. 
Here is the publisher's advertisement : 

D^Lb CriuCH BEid Anna Malilda, cnKraved in a Yrry tupcrior maiiner fix^n faiihful plcuu«t, 

tnpeciivc mthm, of the celebrated ineini of Delia Cruica' Anna Mitildi. Alley, Laun, 
Benedict, ud Ihe el^aoi CxuiD, ■• the African Boy :" and oihan. lign^d The Kird, by 
" ' ' ' n : General Conoay'i el»y on Mix C. Campbell ; Maiqui> uf Townihend ■ 
G>rdj«ri Lord Derby'iTineion Miu Fauen'i poniaii. 

The only pseudonyme in the list which it is of much interest to decipher 
still remains a mystery. It is to " Atley" that we owe the admittedly excellent 
ballad of "Wapping Old Stairs," which first appeared in The World for 
November 29, 1 787, and shines, a solitary pearl, in the pages of the " British 

The reviews, magazines, and newspapers all greeted the book with wild ap- 
plause. One critic said that Anaslasia's poem on the " Nightingale" was 
superior tu Milton. Grealhead equalled Shakespeare. Cesario outdid Pope. 
Este was " incomparable." — Ihe comparisons having all been exhausted by Ihe 
others. Vet Ihe very titles of many of the poems were enough to condemn 
them. A certain Mr. Vaughan, under the alluring name of " Edwin," wrolc 
melancholy poems on the death of a bug, the flight uf an earwig, the mis- 
fortunes of a cockchafer. Another expended pathos and fancy in celebrating 
the demise of a tame mouse, " which belonged to a lady who s.ived its life, 
constantly fed it, and wept at iu approaching death. The mouse's eyes dropped 


use I the Axj before it died." And here to how the 

RevMt ID Mdve cl»y. 

While the Delia Craican mania was at its height, William Uiffurd, then a 
young and unlinown man, came out with a satire upon it called "The Baviad." 
It had some sarcastic vigor and mure Billingsgate raciness. At all events it 
captured the (own, and with itsauccessor," The Mieviad," proved aheavy bloi 

a the delinquents. Ferha[}s GiSijid, with a not unnatural vanity, believed 
IIS eflect was greater than it really was. He notes that Belt, the printer, 
accused him of bespattering nearly all the poetical eminence of the day. 
"But on the whole," he continues, "the clamor against me was not loud, and 
was lost by insensible degrees in the applause of such as I was truly ambitious 
to please. Thus supported, the good effects of the satire {^aritue loquffr t) 
were not long in manifesting themselves. Delia Crusca appeared no more in 
*The Oracle^ and if any othia followers ventured to treat the (own with a 
soft sonnet, ii was not, as before, introduced by a pompous preEace. Pope and 
Millon resumed their superiority, and Este and his coadjutors silently acqui- 
esced in the growing opinion of their incompelentnr and showed some sense 
of shame." Gifford s judgment has been accepted by posterity. Yet it is not 
quite in accordance with contemporary testimony. Seven years after the pub- 
lication of the " Baviad," Malhias remarks that '■ even the Bavian drops from 
Mr. Giiford'a pen have fallen off like oils from the plumage of the Florence 
and Cruscan geese. I am told that Mr. Greathead and Mr. Merry yet write 
and speak, and Mr. Jerningham (poor man !) still continues 'sillier than his 
sheep.'" Indeed, Laura Matilda's dirge in the " Rejected Addresses" is a 
standing monument of the vitality of Delia Cruscaiiiam more than twenty 
years after its supposed death-blow. The serpen! was scotched, not killed ; 
It finally died a natural but lingering death. 

DelngA, After us the ;Fr., "Aptis noualedtiluge"). This nonchalant ex- 
pression, which has become historical partly from its truth, partly from its vivid 
expression of the selfishness and tecklessneas of the epoch when it was uttered, 
vi atiriliutcd to Madame de Pompadour. " In the midst of the contemptible 
deceptions and frivolities of the court of Louis XV.," says Sainte-Beuve, "a 
vague and sinister foreboding haunted the king, lilce anticipated remorse. 
'After na (he deluge,' said the marquise. 'Things will last our lime.' rejoined 
the careless king.' A very similar expression, " After me (he deluge," has 
been ascribed to Prince Melternich, but here there is a notable distinction of 
meaning, the Austrian diplomat making a moarnful, if egotistic, prophecy of 
eicat political and social evils, against which he considered his own policy lo 
be the only possible barrier; while the Pompadour meant "Let us make the 
most of our chances, for an awful reaction is at hand," The French Rcvolulion 
was the answer to Madame. Horace's "Carpe diem" ("Enjoy the present 
day," Odet, L, li. 8), and Isaiah's scornful "Let us eat and drink, for lo-mor- 
row we shall die" (xxiL 13), ate phnses of (he same order ; but a much closer 


analogy may be found in the line of an unknown Greek poet frequently quoted 
by Tiberius : " After my death, perish the world by fire." " Nay," said his 
successor, Nero, 'Met it happen in my lifetime ;!! and he laid Rome in ashes. 

Dence. This term, in the expression " the Deuce !" i>., the Devil, comes, 
like the latter word, from the same root as the Latin Deus^ God (see Bugaboo), 
and as the synonyme for two, in cards and other games, from the Latin duo^ 
through the French deux (old Fr. deus). It is doubly strange that the com- 
mon superstition should imagine there is luck under a deuce, not only because 
of the modern association with the fiend which has overridden the root-meaning, 
but because two has always been looked upon as an unlucky number, as the 
first of the series of even numbers. The Pythagoreans regarded the unit as 
the good principle, the duad as the evil one. 

God hates the duall number^ bdng known 

The luckless number of division : 
And when He blessed each sevirall day, whereon 

He did His curious operation. 
'Tis never read there, as the fathers say, 
God blest His work clone on the second day. 

Hbrrick : Noblt Numbtrx, 

Devil, A candle to the. The French have the familiar phrase, ** A can- 
die to Grod [or to St. Michael] and another to the devil." Did it spring from 
or did it suegest that famous picture executed, as Brantdme tells us, by order 
of Robert de la Marck, which represented St Michael triumphing over Satan, 
with Robert himself kneeling before them, a candle in each hand, and a 
scroll issuing from his mouth, " If God will not aid me, the devil surely will 
not fail me" ? More likely the proverb is older than the picture, as it is a 
Christian recrudescence of Virgil's line, — 

Flectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo, — 
ue,^ " If I cannot bend the celestials to my purpose. I will move hell." On 
the same principle a discreet gentleman in the early days of Christianity 
always took care to salute the statue of Jupiter, never knowing, as he ex- 
plained, when he might come into power again. So, also, the Spaniard on 
his death-bed, when his confessor spoke of the torments wherewith the devil 
afflicted the lost, feebly remonstrated, " I trust his lordship is not so cruel." 
The holy man was shocked. ** Excuse me," said the penitent, ** but I know 
not into what hands I may fall ; and if I happen into his, I hope he will use 
me the better for giving him good words." The Scotch say, " Il*s gude to 
hae friends in heaven and hell." The Scotch and the Irish alike are careful 
to call the fairies, even the malignant ones, ** the good people," or " the men of 
peace," so as to conciliate their good will. The ancients also avoided any 
expressions which might prove obnoxious to the unseen powers of evil. Thus, 
they spoke of the Furies as £u men ides, or benien goddesses, and the stormy 
Black Sea was called the Euxine, or the hospitaole. 

Devil and the deep eea, Between the, a sort of roueh-and-readv 
equivalent for the old classic saying, " Between Scylla and Charybdis," whicn 
is at least as old as the early part of the seventeenth century. It is used, for 
example, by Colonel Munro in his *' Expedition with Mackay's Regiment" 
(1637). In an engagement at Werben, between the forces of Gustavus Adol- 
phus and the Austrians, Munro, serving on the Swedish side, found his men 
exposed to the fire of Swedish gunners who had not given their pieces the 
proper elevation. In his own phrase, they were ** betwixt the devil and the 
deep sea," — Le.^ exposed to danger from friends as well as foes. So an officer 
was sent to the batteries with a request that the guns should be raised. 
There is a passage in Shakespeare which seems to have reference to sonoe 
earlier form of the same phrase : 



Thnu'dil >huD > bar : 
I'diro^oH (he beari' the mouu. 

There is just a possibility ihat ilie cipreasioti may originally have been a 
nautical one (cf. Devil to Pay, infra\ in which case a citoice between "the 
devil" and the deep sea might indeed be an awkward one. 

Devil can clt« Bcilptare for tUs puipoae, often incorrectly given with 
the subslilution of ■' quote" for " cite," is from " The Merchant of Venice" (Acl 

Wb>t dimntd error, but »ine^X;'r brow 
Will bleu il iuid approve it with 1 1««, 
Htdina the Rounnt with fur onuoenlt 

JUtTTAMnl nf ^Vfifrr, Alt ui., Sc. ». 

Devil luu all the good tune*. When, in 1740, Charles Wesley wanted 
airs for some of his peculiar metres, he perlinenlly asked, " Why should the 
devil have all the good 1unes^"and straightway appropriated a number for 
hymnal purposes. Bui at that titiie the divergence between sacred and secu- 
lar music was not so great as it is now. The most popular airs were in a 
minor key ; sung slowly, they had a lugubrious and even funereal sound. 
Therein lay their great charm. Set to words of merriment, or buffoonery, or 
even downright obscenity, they added the spice of Contrast, to which the grave 
^ces and tones of the singers pungenlly contributed. 

I familiar English proverb of uncertain 

itic or backbiter. 

lately did overlook Lincoln CoU«lge. Tnie;y the architect intended It no funhs- than for an 
ordinary Antick, though behc'-' — *- — -■ — — "--■ "^ -' - '--■-- -- — ■ — 

thereof liehtcd not unhappiiy, a 

Devil's Own, the nickname of the Temple Company, a London militia 

GeOTCe 111. mu in taigh health and excellent i[»rit>. When the " Temple Cmnpaniea" had 

colonel, whiii wai the coiBpoftitJon eJ that CDTpi. "lliey ateall lawyen, tire," laid Enkine. 
"What I whall"eicluin«] the King, ■-all fawyent all lawyerm! Cafi them ' The Devil'. 
Own.'— call ihem ' The Devil'i Own? " And " llie Devil'i Uwn" they wen calkd accord- 
ingly. Even al the present day thia appeilalion ha* not wholly died away. Vei, notwiih- 
■tandinic the ro^ynl parentage of this pleaaanlry, I inuat own that I Ereatly prefer lo it anoihcr 

of the legal companiei. " Retained (or (he Defence. —Kakl Stanhomi : Li/i t/Pill. 

Devil to pay and no pitch hot, a slang phrase for a condition of great 
embarrassment and confusion, an emergency for which no preparation has 
been made, appears to be a corruption ofthe nautical expression, ■' Hell's to 
pay," etc., hill being in this case a portion of the hold of a smack left partly 
free of access to sea-water, in which freshly-caught fish are thrown and thus 
kept alive. It is, of course, highly important that the bulkheads, etc, about 
" hell" should be kept water-tight, and this is done by Calking with oakum 
and "paying" with hot pitch, as in the outer seams of the vessel. 

Devil woa eick. There is a bmous distich frequently held to be a trans- 
lation of Rabelais. — 

The devil wai veU, the devil a monk wu be. 


Though it does occur in Urquhart and Motteux's translation of " Gargantua" 
(Book iv , ch. xxiv.). it is an interpolation. All that Rabelais does is to quote 
the Italian proverb ** Passato il perij^lo, gabbatonl santo" (** When the danger 
is passed the saint is mocked"). Tfie English lines have been dubiously traced 
to an anonymous Latin couplet, — 

/Egrotat daemon, monachus tunc esse volebat ; 
Dzmon convaloit, dxmon ut ante fiiit : 

which is not half so pithy as the English, and therefore suggests a translation 
rather than an original. The same moral is enforced in Clough*s lines quoted 
under Atheism ; in the English proverb "The chamber of sickness is the 
chapel of devotion ;" and in the anonymous quatrain, — 

God and the Doctor we alike adore. 
But only when in danger, not before ; 
The danger o'er, both are alike re<}uited. 
God is forgotten and the Doctor slighted. 

This is a free rendering of the Latin epigram, — 

Intrantis medici facies tres esse videntur 

iEgrotanti : hominis, Dzmonis, atque Dei. 
Cum primum accessit medicus dixitque salutem, 

" En Deus" aut " custos angelus" ar^er ait. 
Cum morbum medicina fugaverit, ** Ecce homo." clamat : 

Cum poscit medicus praemia. " Vade Satan !* 

John Owkn of Oxford (quoted) : 

which has been imitated also by Quarles : 

Our God and soldier we alike adore 

E'en at the brink of ruin, not before ; 

Afler deliverance both alike requited. 

Our God's forgotten and our soldier's slighted. 

Dictionary. Bailey, a dictionary-maker himself, tells as that Julius Scali- 
ger, in certain fits of princely contempt for his calling as a philologer, was used 
to thank God that he had put it into the hearts of some men to make diction- 
aries. This was what Artemus Ward would call sarkkasm. What Scaliger 
really thought, or what he really thought he thought, is shown bv those well- 
known lines wherein he declares that when any particularly atroaous criminal 
was to be disposed of he should be set at worlc to make dictionaries : 

Lexica contexat ; nam (caetera quid memors ?) omnes 
Poenarum fiicies hie labor unus nabet. 

Yet Scaliger*s thanksgiving is a thoroughly reasonable one if taken seriously. 
Indeed, words of a similar import were written in all good faith over the 
dictionaries in Oxford in the sixteenth century, when lexicons were chained in 
the school-houses as Bibles were in the churches, by reason of their costliness 
and rarity. And most of us would re-echo the thanksgiving with equal good 

The history of dictionaries may seem an unprofitable subject Yet it is full 
of gladsome mterest and of the vitalizing spirit of humor. Before dictionaries 
were, letters had their small diffusion viva voce, Saul, come to grief over a 
verbal stumbling-block in a manuscript, asked Gamaliel for the short interpre- 
tation that should clear the way. By the lip was solved the mystery proceed- 
ing from the lip ; for within the portico or academe, in the cloister or under 
the shade of the hill, sat Pedagogus amid his disciples, and the lip was near. 
At length some scholastic of broader mind than common bethought him, 
during the absence of his flock, of lightening the labors of both. Gomg care- 
fully over his treasured manuscript, probably of his own copying, he would 
single out the hard words and write above them the meaning, the exposition, 
the gloss. At the very first word which this pioneer of the old world so 
glossed the seed was sown of the new-world dictionaries ; and there has been 


no slop to the groirlh of this seed lil) the tree frotii it has spread its thick and 

wide branches »s fir as they hive spread and are still spreading to this very day. 

But such glosses, even when traced in beautiful ted ink over the difficult 
words, defaced the skilled beauty of goodly manuscripts. Gradually it srew 
to be a habit to place the glossed words in a separate list at (he end. boon 
the glosses of this or that man grew to have special value, and were re-copied 
on a special manuscript. Then, as rival glosses had Iheir separate and distinct 
charm, a number of glosses were pieced together, adding the glory and the 
occasional bewilderment of variety. The glosses now became known as glos- 
saries, or lexicons, and, like the Glossary of Varro, dedicated to his contempo- 
rary Cicero, or the Lexicon of Apollonius the Sophist, in the first century, 
elucidating the Iliad and the Odyssey, represented the labors of many pred- 
ecessors reduced to order by one master-mind. Here was Ihc manner and 
form of the modem dictionary. Taking great leaps, and making 'no note of 
the intermediate progress, we come to the Leiicon of Suidas, compiled in the 
tenth century, where Ihc plan was first used of giving eitracla from the poets 
and historians it explained to explain them still further, and next to the Dic- 
tionary of Johannes Crestonus, in Greek and Latin, printed in 1483, a further 
development And now the subject becomes so large and varied that we must 
confine ourselves to gne branch, — the history of the English dictionary. 

The first English dictionary proper was a thick folio volume published by 
Kichard Hutoet in 1553. Other dictionaries had been issued before, but they 
were of the Latin, French, or other alien tongues. This was the first diction- 
ary to give English definitions to English words, though it added thereto the 
Latin and French synonymes, unless, indeed, the French is not in good 
Richard's knowledge, when it is incontinently omitted. Here is his manner : 
" Pickers or thieves that go by into chambers, making as though they sought 
something. Diaetarii. Ulpian. Larrons qui montent jusques aui chambres, 
faisant sembiant de chcrcher quelque chose." 

A similar plan was followed in the first edition of John Baret's " Alvearie, 
or Triple Dictionarie in Englyshe, Latin and French," first issued in 1573, and 
seven years later reprinled, with the addition of Greek, as a Quadruple Dic- 
tionarie. The title of this second edition stated, quaintly enough, that it was 
" newlie enriched with vatielie of Wordes, Phrases, Proverbs, and diuers light- 
■ome obseruations of Grammar," In the Greek portion, hovrever, the book 
labored under some disadvantages, thus naively set forth by Baret himself: 
" As for Greeke, I could not ioyne it with every Ldtin word, for lacke of fit 
Greeke letters, the printer not having teasure to provide the same." 

It was probably this dictionary which was alluded to in the records of the 
Boston (England) Corporation, under date 157S: "Thata dictionarye shall be 
bought tor the scollers of the Free Scoole, and the same boke to be tyed in a 
cheyne, and set upon a deske in the scoole, whereunto any scalier may have 
accesse, as occasion shall serve." 

The first dictionary confined entirely to the English language wa.s Robert 
Cawdrey's "Tabic Alphabetical!, conteyning and teaching the true writing and 
understanding of hard usuall English Wordes." It is a thin little volume 
because confined tn one language, and limited, as indeed were all its prede- 
cessors, to hard words. Cawdrey evidently had little faith in the intelligence of 
his reader, for he thus innocently instructs him in the use of his book : " If 
thou be desirous (gentle reader) rightly and readily to understand and to 
profit by this table, and such like, then thou must learn the alphabet, to 
wit, the order of the letters as they stand, perfediy without book, and where 
every letter standelh : as (i) neere the beginning, («} aboilt the middesl, and 
(/) toward the end." 

Coigrave's "French and English Dictionary," published in i6ji,madc manj 



notable strides over all predecessors. Its definitions were fuller, and its author 
added illustrations from current proverbs and sayings. " A Bundle of Words" 
he calls it, in a fatherly, fondling fashion, amM'ells his reader, '* I (who am 
no God or angel) have caused sucli overslips as have yet occurred to mine 
eye or understanding to be placed neere the forhead of this Verball Creature.*' 
See how his fertile brain worked : Alter is defined as "To goe, walke, wende, 
march, pace, tread, proceed, journey, travel!, depart," with twoscore picturesque 
illustrations, as " Aller i S. Bezet, To rest in no place ; continually to trot, gad, 
wander up and down." " Tout le monde s'en va k la moustarde, — *Tis common, 
vulgar, Divulged all the world over (said of a book). Wast paper is made of it. 
Mustard-pots are stopped with it (so much the world esteems it)." 

Henry Cockeram's " English Dictionaric," 1623, is full of fun. It is primarily 
a dictionary of current vernacular, and the author somewhat apologetically ex- 
plains that he imagined " Ladies and Gentlewomen, young schollers, clarkes, 
merchants," etc, desirous of a refined and elegant speech, would like an ex- 
positor of " vulgar words, mocke words, fustian termes ridiculously used in 
our language," so as to gather therefrom " the exact and ample word" which 
would nt them to shine. So he tells them that rude is vulgar, and allows them 
the alternative of agresticall, rusticall, or immorigerous ; that To weede is 
vulgar, the choice word being To sarculate, To diruncinate, or To averuncate ; 
that the phrase To knock one's legs together is vulgar, and should be called, 
choicely, To interfeere. 

Among the successors of Cockeram may be briefly mentioned Blount's 
" Glossographie," 1656; Edward Phillips's "New World of Words," 1658 
(Phillips, by the way, was a nephew of John Milton) ; Bailey's " Universal 
£t3rmological English Dictionary," 1721, notable as the first attempt to present 
all words, easy as well as " hard," slang as well as euphemistic, current as well 
as obsolete ; the anonymous " (xazophylacium Anglicanum," in 1689 ; Thomas 
Dyche's Dictionary, in 1723 ; and John Wesley's little Dictionary, in 1753. 

Though John Wesley modestly informed the reader on his title-page that 
he considered he had produced " the best English Dictionary in the world," 
and adds, " many are the mistakes in all the other English dictionaries which 
1 have yet seen, whereas I can truly say I know of none in this," — nevertheless, 
it was only two years later, in 1755, that the first really valuable lexicon of the 
language appeared, in Dr. Samuel Johnson's famous Dictionary, and threw all 
its predecessors and riva!s into the shade. 

Of course, even Dr. Johnson's work is valueless in these days, save as a 
landmark in English literature. Its definitions are often inadequate, and some- 
times erroneous. They have no present use as philology, though the massive 
individuality which informs them keeps them alive as art The etymology is 
absurd. That science has only thrown off its swaddling-clothes within the 
last few years. Coleridge says that more knowledge of more value might 
sometimes be learned from tne history of a word than from the history of a 
campaign. But the history must be genuine history. Even in Coleridge s day 
it was the wildest guess-work. The value of the historical method in philo- 
logical research is a recent discovery. The ancient lexicographers used 
cUmly to jump at the conclusion that any word or words in a foreign language 
which remotely suggested an English word was the parent of the latter. 

Thus, the author of the " Gazophylacium Anglicanum" derives hassock from 
"the Teutonic hase^ an hare, and socks^t because hare-skins are sometimes 
woven into socks, to keep the feet warm in winter." " Haslenut," with equal 
acumen, is derived from the word hasUy "because it is ripe before wall-nuts 
and chestnuts." The author says of his work that " the chief reason why I 
busied myself herein, was to save my time from being worse employed." 

Johnson himself was fond of similar exploits. He derives motley from 



molh-like, "or, of various colors resembling a moth," and spider [rom spf- 
dor, — the insect thai watches the dor or Tiumblcbee. Vou remember the 
famous story about the deri^aUnn of cutojudgFun } Johnson received from 
some unknown source a letter deriving the word from caur mkkani, at wicked 
heart, — a wild enough guess, which pleased the dnctur so much that he 
adopted it, giving due credit to "unknown correspondent." Twenty years 
later. Dr. Ash, preparing a dictionary of his own, was struck by this gem, and 
transferred it to his own pages. But. wishing all the glory of the discovery 
for himselF. he gave no credit to Johnson, and informed a wondering world 
that curmudgeon was formed from laur, "unknown." and mhhani, "corre- 

The Rev. Frederick Barlow, in his " Complete English Dictionary," pub- 
lished in two volumes in 1773, suggests that "pageant" is derived from 
"fayin giant, Fr., a pagan giant, a representation of triumph used at the 
return from holy wars ; of which the Saracen's head seems to be a retiqup." 
In the same book "sash" is sagely derived from "ifoveir, Fr., to know, be 
cause worn for the sake of distinction." 

But Rev. G. W. Lemon, master of Norwich Grammar- School, who in 1783 
published " A Derivative Dictionary of the English Language," carries oflT the 
honors as a philological humorist. He referred everything to the Greek, even 
such common,every-day words as " scratch -can die," " link-boy," and "crutched 
friars." A story that was current in the mouths of contemporary jesters is 
hardly a burlesque. Alderman Beasley, of Norwich, was a ponderous gentle- 
man whom Mr. Lemon worried unsuccessfully for a subscription : so in revenge 
he coined the following etymology for obesitv : " The exclamation of people who 

see a certain N ■ *" rt. ..- . 

The story added 

an injunction against its publication, and so the sheet was cancelled. 

A very wise man was Rev. Thomas Dyche. who eschews all etymologies, 
because, in the tirsi place, they are very often so uncertain, and, secondly, they 
are useless to "those iiersons that these sort of books are most useful ta" 

There is much humorous interest of a quiet and ruminative sort to be 
gleaned from the definitions as well as the etymologies of the early dictionaries. 

Henry Cockeram defines " pole" as " the end S[ the axle-tree whereon the 
heavens do move ■" "an idiote'* is "an unlearned asse ;" a "labourer" is a 
"swinkcr :" and "a herelick" is sketched more roundai>oully, but with a 
clear assertion of the right of private opinion, as **he which maketh choice 
of himselfe what poynts of religion he will believe and what be will not" 
Then, from clasfiic lime", the "Olympic games" are "solemn games of activ- 
ity," and " Amphitrite" is not, as usual, the goddess of the sea, but the "sea" 

Still funnier are the natural history definitions. A baboon is said to be "a 
Ijeast like an ape, but farre bigger ; a lynx is " a spotted beast — it bath a 
most perfect sight, insomuch as it is said that it can see Ihorow a wall." The 
account of the salamander reads like an elaborate joke : " A small, venomous 
beast, with foure feel and a short tailc ; it lives in the (ire, and at length, liy 
his extreme cold, puts out the fire.' An ignarus is a still quiinlet zoological 
curiosity, inasmuch as at night-time "it singeth six kinds of notes, one after 

. ... - .. es, indeed, embody many curious superstitions abont animals. 
Richard Huloet gravely describes the cockatrice as " a serpent, called the 
Kynge of Serpentes, whose nature is to kyll wylh hvssynge only." "The 
Barbie," says Henry Cockeram, is " a Fish that will not meddle with the 
baite untill with her taile she have unhooked it from the hooke," Bullokar, 
after a column and a half descriptive of the crocodile, ventures the further 


mformation that " he will weepe over a man's head when he hath devoured 
the body, and then will eat up the head toa ... I saw once one of these 
beasts in London, brought thither dead, but in perfect forme, of about 2 yards 
long," a detail of personal experience which shows what was toleratea and 
even expected in a dictionary at that time. Bailey continues his predecessor's 
natural history with the same delightful simplicity. The Unicorn Whale is 
"a fish eighteen foot long, having a head like a horse and scales as big as a 
crown piece, six large fins like the end of a galley oar, and a horn issuing out 
of the forehead nine feet long, so sharpe as to pierce the hardest bodies," and 
the Loriot or Golden Oriole ** a bird that, being looked upon by one wl 1 
has the yellow jaundice, cures the person and dies himself." Penning, who is 
more conservative, defines Loriot merely as " a kind of bird," which is only an 
example among many of the eminently satisfying nature of the information 
these old dictionaries often supply. 

In many cases the explanations given by our dictionary-makers are pure 
blunders. Edward Phillips defines a gallon as **a measure containing two 
quarts ;" and again, a quaver is stated to l:>e " a measure of time in musick, 
being the half of a crotchet, as a crotchet the half of quaver." Dr. Johnson's 
original definition oi pastern as "the knee of a horse" was a remarkable 
blunder. When questioned on the point, he candidly attributed it to the 
right cause, — ^ignorance. It was corrected in subsequent editions. Dr. Ash, 
in his Dictionary of 1775, under "esoteric" explains it as merely an incor- 
rect spelling for " exoteric" But Johnson had neither exoteric nor esoteric 
Another of Ash's amazing entries was " Bihovac, rather an incorrect spell- 
ing for bivoac," while the right word. Bivouac, is left out altogether. His 
geography also was weak, for he states that " Aghrim is a town in Ireland, 
m the County of Wicklow, and Province of Leinster." Todd's edition of, 
Johnson, excellent work as it is, is not entirely free from blunders. He oddly 
explains ** coaxation" as " the art of coaxing." instead of the croaking of 
frogs. Webster, in his first issue, has some curious mistakes in cricketing 
terms. The wicket-keeper, he says, is " the player in cricket who stands with 
a bat to protect the wicket from the ball," ana a long-stop is " one who is 
sent to stop balls sent a long distance." 

Remarkable also is the personal animus which is apparent in most of these 
old dictionaries. Their authors rejoiced if they could belabor an adversary 
or laud their own fods or ridicule some pet aversion while pretending to 
define a word. 

Thus, Wesley defines Methodist as " one that lives according to the method 
laid down in the Bible ;" and a " Swaddler is a nickname given by the Papists 
in Ireland to true Protestants." And who are true Protestants } Methodists, 
a^ain, of course. Southey, in his " Life of Wesley," tells us that this curious 
nickname was first appliea to a Methodist preacher by a Catholic, who, l)eing 
unfamiliar with the gospel, thought the words "swaddling-clothes" extremely 
ridiculous, and so coined the epithet "swaddler" for the preacher. 

Richelet, author of an early French dictionary (1698) which also has much 
of this enriching flavor of personality, remarks under the head of ^picitr, or 
grocer, that "these people wrap some of their merchandise in gray paper, or 
in a few sheets of wretched books, which one sells to them because one has 
been unable to sell them to others. The translation of Tacitus by the little 
man d'Ablancourt has had this misfortune." Richelet is cautious enough to 
express this lexicographic remark as follows: "Z> Tac, du petit A. a eu ce 

Dr. Johnson defines oats as " a grain which in England is generally given 
to horses, but in Scotland supports the people." A Puritan is "a sectary 
pretending to eminent purity of religion." A Whig is "the name of a fac- 


tion," but a Tory is " one who adheres to ihe iniieni coiutitnlion of the staK 
ind the apostolical hierarchy of the Chutch of England, opposed lo a Whig." 
Pensioner is " a slave of slat*, hired by a stipend to obey his master" (this 
definition was recalled with much glee by the doctor's enemies when he him- 
self became a pensioner of the stale). An exdse is "a hateful lax levied 
upon commodities, and adjudged not by the common judges of property, but 
by wretches hired by those to whom excise is paid." 

The commissioners of excise were very indignant at being charaderiied as 
wretches, and consulted with the attorney -general whether an action for libel 
would lie. He decided it would, but deemed il advisable thai they should let 

After all. Dr. Johnson, who in the same dictionary defined lexict^raphcr as 
" a writer of dictionnries ; a harmless drudge that busies himself in tracing 
the origin and detailing the signification of words," — Dr. Johnson was t^uite 
willing to turn Ihe tables against himself. But why dictionories ? the captious 
might ask. Only another error, — one of thousands, misprints, misatalementa, 
slips of Ihe pen and of the memory, which Johnson with all his patience and 
learning could not avoid, and some of which, such is the solidarily of diction- 
aries, have been copied with rare patience and pertinadty by his successors. 
Thus, down to 1390, at least, almost every dictionary repeated Johnson's 
amusing misprint of adventine for adventive. 

Some of his deSnitions aie remarkable for the Johnsonian ponder'eily with 
which he obscures a subject while attempting to elucidate it. The champion 
instance is nel-work. which runs a.t follows ; " Anything reticulated or decus- 
sated at equal distances, with interstices Ijetween the intersections." 

Definitions that sound equally humorous 10 the layman abound, of course, 
in technical works. When one learns that a boil is "a circumscribed subcu- 
taneous inflammation, suppurating, with a central cpre, a furunculus," one is 
either amused or alarmed 1 and when one find out that a kiss is "the anatomi- 
cal juxtaposition of two orbicularis oris muscles in a state of contraction," one 
realties with the New Paul of Mr. Mallock the solemnity of human pleasures. 

But the most famous definition in philological histoiy (lo be HihernianI is 
one that never appeared. When the Forty Immortals were engaged upon 
the Dictionary of the French Academy Ihe word crab [or, as some authorities 
fssert, lobster) came up for a gloss. The fotlowin? was offered by one of the 
number: "A little retl tish that walkEi backward. Fuietitre, a dictionary- 
maker himself, objected. "Gentlemen." he said, "the definition is no doubt 
a very clever one. But it is open to three objections. In the first place, (he 
animal is not a fish 1 in the second place, it is not red until boiled : in the 
third place, il does not walk backward." The objection was sustained. An 
ingenious but ralher casuistical effort, however, has been made to rehabilitate 
it in public esteem. The climax of the crab's life. It has been urged, is only 
reached when he is red. — for only after cooking do most of our race know 
him ; he is purified and made whole by £re. Theologians recogniie him as a 
fish, and he is eaten as such, on Fridays, by the devoutest Catholics. Even 
the ichthyologically learned must admit that if he is not scientifically a fish, a 
scale-fish, with the flesh outside and the liones inside, he is a sort of fish, a 
" variation," as science terms him, 3 shell-fish which, in his eccentric but kindly 
nature, prefers (o wear the hones outside and keep the flesh nicely packed 
away for Ihe convenience of the epicure. And as lo his mode of progression, 
so great and fishy an authority as the melancholy Dane says, " If, like a crab, 
you could walk backward," 

A joke might appear to be Ihe last thing one would seek in a dictionary. 
Yet Johnson's definition of lexicographer, already given, might be classed as 
such. And his skit at his Aieiid, whose real name was Malloch, but who 


desired to be known as Mallet, had a wicked spice of humor in it. Defining 
alias^ he says, " A Latin word, signifying otherwise ; as Mallet, alias Malloch 
— that is, otherwise Malloch," ■ ' 

Even puns, and very bad puns, have found their way into the most ponder- 
ous lexicons. Nothing could be worse than the entry in Adam Littleton*s 
Latin Dictionary; **Concurro, to run with others; to run together; . . to 
con-o^r, Qon-dog.^^ But this has sometimes been explained as a clerical 
blunder. Littleton was dictating the definition to his secretary, who, a little 
hard of hearing, stopped to ask, ** Con — what ?" " Con-cur," said the doctor, 
testily, adding ** con-dog" as a further explanation, and the secretary, scared, 
perhaps, by the tempest he had raised, meekly put down both the word and 
the pun by which its meaning was emphasizecl. Even the ponderous Liddell 
and Scott run Mr. Littleton a hard race when they say, under sycophant 
(literally, an informer against those who exported yf^), "The literal sense is 
not found in any ancient writer, and is perhaps a mere figment." 

To the credit of Liddell and Scott, this ghastly attempt at a joke appeared 
only in four editions, when, yielding to the pressure of public opinion, the 
word figment was changed to mvention. 

An unconscious joke of a better quality occurs in the Century Dictionary, 
under the heading "Question, to pop the. See Pop," which has the additional 
merit of being excellent advice. 

Die in the last ditch. When William, Prince of Orange (afterwards 
William IIL of England), was elected Stadtholder of the United Netherlands 
in 1672, and found himself in the midst of a war with England and France, 
he was asked by the Duke of Buckingham whether he did not see ruin im- 
pending over his country. " Nay," he answered, " there is one certain means 
oy which I can be sure never to see my country*s ruin. I will die in the last 
ditch." (Hume, ch. Ixv.) And, rejecting all terms of peace, he checked the 
invasion of the French by opening the sluices and flooding large tracts of 
land, drove them from Holland in 1674, made honorable terms with England, 
and finally, after varying fortunes, brought the war to a successful close by a 
treaty with France in 1678. 

Digito monstrari (L., "To be pointed out by the finger"), a familiar 
phrase from Persius*s " Satires," i. 28, the context being, " It is a fine thing 
to be pointed out with the finger, and hear it said, That is he !" Hazlitt, in 
his essay *' On the Disadvantages of Intellectual Superiority," after telling 
how some of his friends failed to relish his very best things and other people 
condemned him altogether, goes on to ask, " Shall I confess a weakness > 
The only set-off I know to these rebuff and mortifications is sometimes in 
an accidental notice or involuntary mark of distinction from a stranger. I feel 
the force of Horace's digito monstrari^ — I like to be pointed out in the street, 
or to hear people ask in Mr. Powell's court. Which is Mr. Hazlitt ? This is 
to me a pleasing extension of one's personal identity. Your name so re- 
peated leaves an echo like music on the ear : it stirs the blood like the sound 
of a trumpet." Was he wrong in his reference (the context seems to indicate 
this), or was he thinking of that passage in Horace's " Ode to Melpomene," 
"That I am pointed out by the fingers of passers-by [Quod monstror digito 
praetereuntium] as the stringer of the Roman lyre is entirely thy gift : that I 
breathe and give pleasure, ifl do give pleasure, is thine" ? — ^a sentiment which 
Thomas Moore has paraphrased : 

If the pulse of the patriot, soldier, or lover 
Have throbbed at our lay, 'tis thv glory alone : 

I was but as the wind passing heedlessly over. 
And all the wild sweetness 1 waked was thy own. 

IH^r Har^ *f*ty CoMntry, 


Dlner-ont of the hlgtiest luatre. This epigiamnialical description 

{frequently misquoted " of the first water"), which has been turned against 
Sydney Smith himscKi was ijpjjhed by the willy divine to George Canning, 
who was at the time secretary of stale for foreign af&lrs. " Providence has 
made him a light, jesting. |)aragraph- writing man, and that he will remain lo 
his dying day. When he is jocular he is strung ; when he is serious he is like 
Samson in a wig. — any ordinary [wrson is a match for him. Call him a legis- 
lator, a reasoner, and the conductor of the affairs of a great nation, and it 
seems to me as absurd as if a butterfly were to teach bees to make honey. 
That he is an extraordinary writer uf small poetry and a diner-out of the 
highest lustre, I do must readily admiL Uul you may as well feed me with 
decayed potatoes as console me for the miseries of Ireland by tKe resources 
of his imsi and his ditiretUm. It is only the public situation which this gen- 
tleman holds which entitles me or induces me to say so much about him. 
He is a fly in amber ; nobody cares about the fly, the only question is, Huw 
the devil did it get there ?"— Svdnkv SmltH : Pftcr Plymleys Utitrs. 

1 luw ocvo- for^DtlcD whal happened when Sydney SmLlh — who, u everybody knows, 
wu ma excHdiDEly vntible iTun. and h ecnllcDLan. every Inch or him — veniuicd id preach a 
Krmon 00 the ■' Dutici of Roymily." The Q.arlrrlj', " to lavage and lartiriy,- came do-n 
upon him in the moit conlenipmoua ityle, u " 1 joker of jokei," a " dinc^ul of ihe lint 
water," in one of hii own phrooei : inming at him, iniulling him, as nolhinff but a toady of 
the coim, ineaklng behind Lhe anonymoui, woldd ever have been neua enougn 10 do to a man 

DilUier-belL A sobriquet which hix fellow -parliamentarians bestowed on 
Burke, whose eloquence on great occasions was hardly more extraordinary 
than his indefatigable energy and interest in all matters before the House. In 
the days when he wearied everybody with details, and, as Goldsmith happily 

a large number of the members actually did betake themselves to that occu- 

Bition, which circumstance earned for the ^real orator the title of "The 
inner-Bell." A member, who was just gomg into the House on one of 
these occastiins. meeting Selwyn and some others coming out, inquired, >*,b 
the House up?" "No," replied Setwyn ; "but Burke is." 

Ditty llnan. In a furious speech made to the Chamber of Deputies 
during the crisis which followed the disasters of 1S14, Napoleon said, " If yon 
have complaints lo make, take another occasion, when, with my counsellors 
and mj^elf, we may discuss your grievances and sec if they have any founda- 
tion. But this explanation must be in private; for dirty linen should be 
washed at home, not in public" ("car c'est en famille, ce n'cst pas en public, 
qu'on lave son linge sale"). These very words, however, had been addresseil 
by Voltaire to the Encyclopedists. An equally famous use of the I 

dirty linen," though with another applicanon, tKCurred in a letter (1752) 
om Voltaire to General Manstein, who had asked him to revise some papers 
he had written on Russia: "The king [Frederick] has sent me some of his 

dirty linen lo wash ; I will wash yours another time" ("Vuillt le roi qui 
m'envoit son linge k blanchir ; ie bianchirals le vdtre une autre fois"). The 
reference was to some poems which Frederick had submitted lo Voliaii 

iim. Frederick used to excuse all his t>wn mistakes of gram- 
mar and rhetoric by saying, " We must leave him the pleasure of finding 
some fault." But he was not magnanimous enough to forgive the cruel phrase 
of Viiltaire. lis repetition at court was one of the main causes which threw 
the French philosopher into disfavor. Napoleon's phrase is identical in spirit 


with the English proverb " It's an ill bird that fouls its own nest," a proverb 
that was old even in the time of old John Skelton : 

Old provo'be says^ ' 
That byrd ys not honest 
That fyleth his owne nest. 

Poems againti Garneskt. 

Discord, a harmony not undemtood. This definition occurs in Pope's 
"Essay on Man/' and embodies a very familiar thought. In one form or 
another it may be found in all literature, ancient as well as modern. Here 
are a few illustrative examples : 

Quid veiit et possit rerum concordia discors. 

(What the discordant harmony of circumstances would and could effect.) 

Horace : Epistle /, xii. 19. 
Discord oft in music makes the sweeter lay. — Spenser. 

The world is kept in order by discord, and every part of it is a more particular composed 
jar. And in all these it makes greatly for the Master's glory that such an admirable harmony 
should be produced out of such an infinite discord — Feltham : Resolves. 

For discords make the sweetest airs, 
And curses are a kind of prayers. 

Bittlkr: Hudibras. 

Wiselv she knew the harmony of things, 

As well as that of sounds, from discord springs. 

Dbnham : Cooper's Hill, 

Till jarring interests of themselves create 
Th' according music of a well-mixed state. 
Such is the world's great harmony that springs 
From order, union, full consent of things. 

Pope : Essay oh Man, Ep. iii., 1. 993. 

It is from contraries that the harmony of the world results — Saint-Pikrrb : Etudes de la 

You had that action and counteraction which, in the natural and the political world, from 
the reciprocal struggle of discordant powers, draws out the harmony of the universe. — 
Burke : Reflections on the French Revolution. 

Apropos of the quotation from Burke, Henry H. Breen, in his ** Modern 
English Literature, says, *'This remarkable thought Alison, the historian, 
has turned to good account ; it occurs so often in his disquisitions that he 
seems to have made it the staple of all wisdom and the basis of every truth." 
He might have said substantially the same of Carlyle. 

Discretion is the better part of valor. This proverbial phrase is 
merely a misquotation of Falstaifs phrase, " The better part of valor is dis- 
cretion" {Henry /K, Part /, Act iv., Sc. 2). The first edition of this play was 
published in 1598. Beaumont and Fletcher, in *' A King and No King" (161 1), 
Act iv., Sc 3, have, ** It showed discretion, the best part of valor." But they 
were arrant plagiarists and frequently stole from Shakespeare. The conclu- 
sion of Bacon's essay on " Boldness" may be taken in illustration of the senti- 
ment in its better form : " Boldness is ever blind, for it seeth not dangers and 
inconveniences ; therefore it is ill in counsel, good in execution," etc. In its 
more questionable form take the familiar quatrain, — 

He that fights and runs away 
May turn and fight another day ; 
But he that is in battle slain 
Will never rise to fight again. 

A carious story anent the above quotation is told in Collet's ** Relics of 
Literature" (1820) : "These lines are almost universally supposed to form a 
part of * Hudibras ;' and so confident have even scholars been on the sub- 
ject that in 1784 a wager was made at Bootle's of twenty to one that they 
were to be found in that inimitable poem. Dodsley was referred to as the 


arbilrator, when he ridiculed the idea of consulting him on the subject, say- 
ing. ' Every fool knows they aie in " Hudibras." ' George Selwyn. <rho was 
present, said to Dodsley, ' PrVi *''i *'" yo" ^ B*"^ enough, then, to inlbrm 
an old fool, who is at the same time your wise worship's very humble servant, 
in what canto they are to be found ?' Uodsley took down the volume, but 
be could not find the passage ; the next day came, with no belter success ; 
and the sage bibliopole was obliged to confess ' thai a man might be ignorant 
of the author of this well-known couplet without being absolutely a fool >'" 
Indeed, the nearest approach to the couplet in " Hudibras" is in Book iii., 
Canto 3 : 

For thoK Uu< fly may fighi Hgain, 
Which hE can senr do ihal't lUuii. 
The sense, of course, is embodied here. But then the sense is not Butler's 
alone, but is shared by a long series of predecessors, dating all the way back 
to the Greek, 'Ai^p o ftvyim mH iru^ jiaxJiarrai (" He who flees will fight 
again"), which is ascribed to Menander. In its Latin I'orm, " Qui fugiebat, 
rursus proeliabitur," it is quoted by Tertullian in hia book on " Persecution" 
(ch. X.), which contains an answer in the negative to the question of his friend 
Fabiua, " Is it right to avoid persecution by flight or bribery ?" A paraphrase 
of this imputed saying of Mcnandcr's is found in Archilochus, Fragment 6, 
quoted by Plutarch in "Cuatoms of [he Lacedxmonians." It has been thus 
translated : 

Let who will boul Ihcir cnunge la the fitld, 

1 And hul liulc lafo^ (rom my ihield. 

ThU mAde oie caH vy «rt1e»i ihitid away. 
And by apmdcDt flight aDr/^uoninEUve 
A life, which TnJor could aor, frajn uie gnw. 

In one form or another the idea constanlly reappears in' Jjteralure, — vii. : 

Hale agaiD tighl an olher dale. '^ 

"- - ■ ^/Blkigmi, i^a (IraniUl«f\>y Udall), 

Ell cauK Ke a 


Peut comhaltn 

M reuaiu li ibe cauac of hit 


Ray, m his " History of the Rebellion" [1753), and Goldsmith, in "The Art 
of Poetry on a New Plan" (1761), quote the quatrain, the first as it is tanti 
above, the second in the slightly different form,— 

But the authorship is unknown. 

DisUnoe Unda enohaiitmetit to the vlow. This familiar expression 
occurs at the opening of Campbell's ■• Pleasures of Hope :" 
Why ID yen mounlain lumi the miulng eye 
Whooe Bunbtighl Himmit minglci wirh Ihc lltyF 



It was Byron who first asked whether the origin of this couplet was not to be 
found in Dyer's " Grongar Hill :" 

As yon summits, soft and wbr. 
Clad in colors 0/ the air. 
Which, to those who journey near. 
Barren, brown, and rough appear. 

But, indeed, the idea may be traced through a succession of poets all the way 
back to Diogenes Laertius : " The mountains, too, at a distance appear airy 
masses and smooth, but when beheld close they are rough" {Pyrrho)» Here 
are a few of the intermediate links : 

As distant prospects please us. but when near 
We find but desert rocks and fleeting air. 

Garth : Tht Dispensatory ^ Canto iiL 

We're charmed with distant views of happiness. 
But near approaches make the prospect less. 

Yaldsn : Against Enjoyment. 

Love is like a landscape, which doth stand 
Smooth at a distance, rough at hand. 

RoBBBT Hbcgb : On Leve. 

A goodly prospect, tempting to the view ; 
The height delights us, and the mountain- top 
Looks beautiful because 'tis nigh to heaven. 

Otway : Venie* Prtservtd. 

There is also a passage in Collins's " Ode to the Passions'* which ascribes to 
sound the effect attributed by Campbell to sight : 

Pale Melancholy sat apart. 

And from her wild sequestered seat. 

In notes by distance made more sweet. 

Poured through the mellow horn her pensive soul. 

Divide et impera (L., " Divide and rule," — i.e.^ create dissensions among 
your subjects, set one against the other, and you assure yourself the sovereignty). 
This was the motto of Louis XL 

When it was demanded by the lords and commons what might be a principal motive for 
them to have good success in Parliament, it was answered, " tritis insuperabiles, si fueritis 
inseparabiles. Ezplosum est illud diverbium : divide et impera, cum radix et vertex imperii in 
obeaientium consensu rata sunt' ' V ' You will be insuperable if you are inseparable. That maxim 
is exploded^ divide and rule, for the very root and essence of government lies in the consent 
of the obedient"] — Cokb : Institutes, iv. 35. 

Divide and rule, the politician cries ; 
Unite and lead, is watchword of the wise. 

Gobthb: SprUchwdrtiick. 

Divine right of kingB, specifically, the doctrine of the Stuarts and their 
legal or clerical advisers, that the king was such by special dispensation of 
Providence, and that treason or disloyalty was consequently an offence not 
only against him but against God Almighty. This, of course, is merely a 
survival of the primeval superstition that kings were gods. The principle 
as enunciated by the Stuarts was never generally acknowledged by English- 
men. James L found it a useful argument to supplement a notorious defect 
of hereditary title, which he was unwilling to strengthen by an acknowledg- 
ment that he owed his throne to election by the nation. He found the Tory 
or conservative element eager to endorse him in his most extravagant claims. 
Indeed, the Tudors had already found the loyalty of this class quite willing 
to tolerate the fiction that they were the Lord's anointed. But there had 
always been a robust undercurrent of feeling, ift the middle classes especially, 

L ^ 21 

d. ^ 


which resisted the encroachments of royalty and upheld the right of revolD> 
tion in eilreme cases. The PlanUgenets had never gone so &r as the Tudor*, 
and the Tudots had never gott so lii is the Stuarts. The extreme doctrine 
of divine right which Shalcespeare puts into the mouth of Richard 11. is an 
anachronism : 

Not lU the nlcn m iht vidr rouih k* 

T^e br^Lh of worldly mtD CHDnot drpoH 
The deputy eleclcd by tin Lonj, 


-B J— - -'i»leenlh a. 

.. .9 noticeable also that it is the mere fact of kingship, and not bereditaiT 
right, which is insisted upon. So, in " Hamlet," the usurper and murderer, 
Claudius, holds himself secure, for that 

There'i «ich divinlly dolh hed(t a lilii[, 

IiMKMium u p«p w a ™ii..,Sc. J. 

Shakespeare, writing in these instances as a politician rather than as a poet, 
could not identify divine right wilh hereditary title, in which both Elizabeth 
and James 1. were lacking. The revolutions against Charles I. and James II. 
were the practical answer to their claims, and wilh the final expulsion of (he 
Stuarts, and (he establishmeni of a Whig king in William IIL, the doctrine 
died a natural death. In (he reign of Queen Anne «e find it turned into 
ridicule by Pope in the well-known line, which sums up all ils absurdly with 
rare epigrammatic force, — 

Thi nghi divine of luDn to coveni wrans. 

Duncuui, Book Iv., 1. iBB. 

ThE lic^Dniiigi of Ihli ddin 10 Divine Riglit go back agti beyond ihe " Zcui'Durtond 

klDfi" of Homer, and ipring almost undoublcdly from the well-nifh unircrul cuttoin of 

anceator-wonbip- Modeni HDtbiopDlogy hai made il quite clrvr lo HI that all over Uw 

world, whatever gtcat godi may be wonhipped PI well, the inaJter godi of every tribe aibl 

predeceuon,— the houK-laihcr offenpg up gifts 00 behalf of the hotuehold to hi* uwu faifaer 
and lemoter pro^niton^ — Ihe tribe u a whale bacriUce* to the ghotu of ita dcceaaed kingi - 
and Che livino klJi£, their deacendaut and leprfKatalive, becomea accordinfflv (he naRinl 
priest of thia common tribal woiahip. ... 'Ihe belief Id 

t not deitroyed. The Kinr of 

Obbo, who caili hia people together in Timet of drought, and 

BoaAuel dared diatinctly lo aay, " Kioga are gooa, ar 
peikdfbce." Thcte aie Dot mere tcrapa aiMitap ol 

that they pre aciuaLly lurvtvali of thooght and Teelini 
rcaUly the living god, aod the god wai ID reaJliy the d* 

Doctors dlsAgre*. Pope's lines are well 

In the first line Pope is simply versifying a common proverb. CulhbertBede 
writes (o Nela and Quiritt \ylajcii lo, 1883), "In a manuscript on a theologi- 
cal subject, apparently written about a centur; ago, I came upnn ano(her ver- 


sion of this proverbial saying. The writer was treating of the various views 
of commentators on a certain subject, and then says, * This is a case 

When Doctors disagree 
Then are Disciples free.' 

Perhaps this variation may be worth noting." 

Dog. Give a dog an ill name and hang him. This seems to be a 
more modern version of the proverb given by Ray in the form, ** He that 
would hang his dog gives out nrst that he is mad/* and explained thus : '* He 
that is about to do anvthing disingenuous, unworthy, and of evil fame first 
bethinks him of some plausible pretence." The Spanish proverb corresponds 
exactly with Ray*s, " Quien a su perro quiere matar rabia le ha de levantar ;" 
and so does the Italian *' Qui vuol ammazar il suo cane, basta che dica ch' k 
arrabbiato," and the French *' Qui veut noyer son chien, Taccuse de la rage." 
The German *' Wenn man den Hund schlagen will, findet man bald ein 
Stecken" has its exact equivalent in that other English proverb, " It is easy 
to find a stick if you want to beat a dog." But the saying which heads this 
article has modified its meaning into ** As well hang a aog as give him a bad 
name," and, indeed, is not unknown in that verbal dress. The same sentiment 
reappears in the English ** He that hath an ill name is half hanged," and the 
more daring French *' Rumor hangs the man" (" Le bruit pend Thomme"). 

Dog; The wider. The phrase " The under dog in the fight" seems to 
be a modern one, and may have been derived from the once well-known song 
by David Barker, which ran a& follows : 

The Under Dog in the Fight. 

1 know that the world, that the great big world. 

From the peasant up to the kins, 
Has a different tale from the taleltell. 

And a different song to sing. 

But for me,— and I care not a single fig 

If they say I am wrong or am right, — 
I shall always go in for the weaker dog. 

For the under dog in the fight. 

I know that the world, that the great big world. 

Will never a moment stop 
To see which doe may be m the fauU, 

But will shout Tor the dog on top.^ 

But for me, I shall never pause to ask 

Which dog mav be in the ri^ht. 
For my heart will beat, while it beats at all. 

For the under dog in the fight. 

Perchance what I've said I had better not said. 

Or 'twere better I'd said it incog. ; 
But with heart and with glass filled chock to the brim. 

Here b luck to the uncwr dog ! 

The song, it will be seen, thoug^h excellent in sentiment, is hardly what one 
would call a poetical gem. Yet it is worth saving as a curiosity and as the 
presumable original of a common phrase. Of course the song might have 
Deen written to fit the phrase. An edition of Mr. Barker*s poems was pub- 
lished in 1876 by Samuel S. Smith & Son, of Bangor, Maine. 

Doloe fBX niente. This phrase, frequent enough in English literature, 
does not seem to occur in any Italian author uf note. Howells says that he 
found it current among Neapolitan lazzaroni, but it is not included in any col- 


from which it may b 

lUud jucunduiii nil accrt (" Thu plEiunI coDditioD of daug noUuDg").— Pliny's LtUtrt, 
ihikeoi deiipen in loca (" li iiigiceibli lanvd oni lil occuioo").— Homtci: OJn. 
A writet in ihe English Nolri and Queriii (fiflh series, vol. t p. 448) suggests 
ihat th« phrase is an incoirecl Tiitm for " II dolce non far iiienle," — ur, " The 
amiable man docs nothing," — which, though nut convincing, is possible. The 
proverbial literature of every country is full oT sayings in which amiability is 
rightly classed among the vices. 

Dollar and DoUar-maxk. Dollar, the word and the thing, was officially 
adopted into the coinage of Ihe United Stales by Ihe resolution of Congress 
pansed on July 6. 1785, which provided thai the rooney unit of the United 
Slates shall be a dollar. But Uncle Sam may coin Ihe thing, he did not coin 
the name. Il is not a distinctive American word. One may find il dulv 
entered in Bailey's Dictionary of 174S- Nay, it may be traced farther back 
than Bailey's time. Shakespeare uses il repeatedly. In " Macbelh," lor 

Tin IhnuHiid ioVnn id our gentn! uk. 

In Shakespeare's time there was no English coin known as a dollar. 
Numismatists are aware that an English dollar was struck off for the first and 
Ihe last time in 1804. It is known as Ifae BanE of England dollar. Where, 
th«n, did Shakespeare find the word dollar? It is merely a corruption of ihe 
Orman Ihaltr. That, in its turn, originally meant something belonging to or 
coming from a vale or valley, — the lirst thalers having been coined abuul 14S6 
in the Bohemian valley of Joachimsthal. They corresponded quite closely 
to Ihe modern American dollar. Under Charles V., Emperor of Germany, 
King of Spain, and Lord of Spanish America, Ihe German thaler became Ihe 
coin of Ihe world. 

The origin of the dollar-mark is not quite so easy of solution. Indeed, il 
cannot be said that it has yet been satisfactorily solved. Many explanations 
have been ol&ted. All are plausible, none are convincing. The most usual 
one claims Ihat Ihe mark comes from the lellers U. S.. which used to be pre- 
fixed lo the Federal currency, and which afterwards in Ihe hurry of writing 
were run into each other. *Anolher eiplanalion makes il a corrupted form 
of (he notation 1, denoting a piece of eight reals, or, as Ihe dollar was formerly 
called, a piece of eight. A more learned and ingenious eiplanalion traces the 
dollar.mark all Ihe way back lo primeval antiquity. From prehistoric limes 
pillars have been used to signify strength and sovereignty. In ancieni Tyre 
Ihey were reverenced as sacred symbols. Tyrian coins liore Iwo pillars as 
supporters of Ihe general device. When Meleanlhus, the Tyrian explorer, 
founded the city known in modem limes as Cadiz, he planted there the Tyriai 

symbols of sovereignty, and bull! over them a lemple 10 Hercules. In due 
-ourse as Cadii gained power and wealih the pillars of Hercules became her 
nclropolitan emblem, and Ihe name acquired further fame from being given to 

o mountains that stand at the entrance 10 the Mediterranean. 
When Charles V. was crowned Emperor of Germany he incorporated Ihe 
Imperial and Spanish arms, the pillars of Hercules being made supporters of 
the device. The standard piastre coined in the Imperial mint at Seville gained 
the name of " colonnato," or " pillar piece," from the pillars prominent in its 
device, which were entwined with a scroll. The representation of Ihe pillars 
■o entwined grew in lime lo be the accepted symbol of the coin. Thus th* 


dollar-mark is a resuscitation of an old Spanish symbol, and that in its 
turn was the revival of an older custom. For though the Tyrians were not 
the first to coin money, they were foremost in giving it general circulation ; 
their coinage was the currency of the world, and its device the recognized 
money symbol. The pillar pieces of Charles V. were the legitimate descend- 
ants of the pillar pieces of the Tyrians. Another curious, though accidental, 
analogy between the Spanish and the American dollar is suggested by the 
name which the former gave to their coin,— /f^r/r^. Now, this means a plaster, 
and the word plaster or shinplaster is a well-known slang term for a paper 
dollar, used especially during the Revolutionary and civil wars. 

Dollar w^oiild go farther in those days. When William M. Evarts 
was Secretary of State he accompanied Lord Coleridge on an excursion to 
Mount Vernon. Coleridge remarked that he had heard it said that Washing- 
ton, standing on the lawn, could throw a dollar clear across the Potomac Mr. 
Evarts explained that a dollar would go further in those days than now. 
Shirley Brooks, however, had anticipated Evarts, in the following^ir» d'^esprit: 

It seems that the Scots 
Turn out much better shots 
At long distance than most of the Englishmen are : 
But this we all knew 
That a Scotchman could do, — 
Make a small piece of metal go awfully far. 

Shir LBV Brooks : Homng* to the Scotch RiJUs^ by a 
spiteful Competitor. 

But substantially the same jest was made almost one hundred years before by 
Foote. Garrick and Foote were leaving the Bedford coffee-house together, 
when Garrick dropped a guinea. " Where can it have gone ?" said Foote, 
after they had hunted for it awhile. '* Gone to the devil, I think/' said Gar- 
rick, impatiently. " Well said, David I" cried Foote ; " let you alone for 
making a guinea go further than anybody else !" Foote was continually gird- 
ing at Garrick for his parsimony, — unjustly, as Johnson insisted. " Garrick," 
said Foote, "walked out with the intention of doing a generous action, but, 
turning the corner of a street, he met the ghost of a halfpenny, which 
frightened him." When once asked how he could place Garrick's bust on 
bis bureau, Foote replied, ** I allow him to be so near my gold because he has 
no hands.** 

Dont see it. In Stone's " Life of Sir Willikm Johnson," ii. 337, it is 
stated that a distinguished Mohawk Indian, Abraham, at the treaty at Fort 
Stanwix, in 1770, said to Sir William, "You told us that we should pass our 
time in peace, and travel in securitv ; that trade should flourish, and goods 
abound, and that they should be sold to us cheap. This would have endeared 
all the English to us ; but w€ do not see ii" This is apparently the first use of 
this now familiar phrase. 

Doable entendre, a word or phrase with a double meaning, one of which 
is indelicate or at least obscure. The expression has been coined out of two 
French words, double^ " double,** and entendre^ "to hear.** But it is not French, 
for it is unknown in France, and sounds as absurd to a French ear as the literal 
"double to hear*' would to an English ear. The nearest Gallic eouivalent 
would be un mot h double entente^ " a word with a double meaning ;*' but even 
that would not have the ulterior sense which we have read into the manu- 
factured phrase. And although the expression has been domesticated in 
English, has been used by good writers, and may be found in good dictionaries, 
it is so gross a blunder that one cannot help hoping the common usage which 
has sanctioned it so far will eventually yield to reason and common sense. 



Doubt Theodore Parker used b 
the ^mtgo or dvbite o( a man." The 

Then livca more tnjtfa m hoDai doubt, 
Bdkve mc, Ibim in lulf the incdi. 

Donghfaoes. A term of contempt applied by the Aboliiioniats to the 
Noiihern Democrats who sympalhiied with slavery. It was afterwards 
merged into the more expressive term "Copperheads." In the "Memoirs of 
Thurlow Weed," ti. 427, it is stated that this term was originally applied to 
that branch of the Ucmocracc who lived in the North and yet approved 
of the caucus measure passed in 183S which reauired all bills pertaining to 
the holding of slaves to be laid on the table without debate. This measure 
idenlilied the party as il then existed with the slave-holding interesL 

John Randolph is also quoted as having called the " baser sort of Northern 
demagogues" doughfaces. Randolph, however, spelled the word d'O-e, in 
allusion lo the limid animal that shrinks from seeing its own fac« in the 
water. {Memorial ef Geirrgt Bradlmrn, Boston, 1883.) 

Doimlng atrest, famous in London as the street whereon stands the official 
residence of the First Lord of Ihc Treasury, was, strangely enough, named 
after a native American, George Downing, bom in Boston, Massachusetts, in 
■624, graduated at Harvard College in 1641, and soon after went to England 
and became chaplain to Okey's regiment of the Parliamentary army. Oliver 
Cromwell, taking a fancy lu the young man, made him resident minister at the 
Hague, where he ingratiated himself with the exiled Stuarts. After the 
Restoration, he was made a baronet in 1661, and in 1667 Secretary to the 
Treasury, building himself a fine house in what Strype calls a "pretty open 

filce, having a pleasant prospect into St. James's Park, with a Tar ras- walk." 
e subsequently built other houses there, and thus made the street, which is 
only a New York "block" in length. In 16S4 he died, and his baronetcy 
expired with his grandson in 1764. Lee, Lord Lichfield, bought one of 
Downing's houses, and forfeited it lo the crown when he fled from England 
with James II. in 16SS. George I. gave it lo the Hanoverian minister. Baron 
Bothmar, for life, and on Ihc latler's death George II. offered it lo Sir Robert 
Walpole, who would accept it only as an olficial residence, to be forever 
attached 10 the office of First Lord of the Treasury. As the First Lord of 
the Treasury has usually been Prime Minister as well. Downing Street is 
often figuratively spoken of as the English government. Thus, Htllard says, 
" Let but a hand of violence be laid upon an English subject, and the great 
British lion which lies couchant in Downing Street begins to utter menadi^ 
growls and shake his invisible locks." 

Drair. This word, from its multiplicity of mcanines, has Iwen a boon to 
the punster. Thus, when Charles Mathews was asked what he was going to 
dn with bis son, who had been destined for an architect, " Why," answered 
the comedian, " he is going to draw houses, like his father." A similar joke, 
credited to various wags, represents each as asked, when informed that some 
one drew very well, " Can he draw an inference ^" Below a few more instances 
are collated : 

load of tumln over i wooden bridge. The peopli of the villue noticed me. I drew ibeir 
utestioD.-C. F. BiowHi: Arlrm-a Wa^i Ltclun. 

To A Rich Ladv. 

I will not uli if ihDU CUM touch 

The tuneful ivorr kw : 
Thoie silent noleft of Ihitie ere Hidi 


rn make no question if thy skill 

The pencil comprehends : 
Enough for me, love, if (hou still 

Canst draw — thy oividends. 


** You didn't know I drew ? I learnt at school." 

•* Perhaps you only learnt to draw your sword?" 

** Why, that I can, of course — and also corics — 

And covers — haw J haw ! haw I But what I mean. 

Fortification — haw ! in Indian ink. 

That sort of thing — and though I draw it mild. 

Yet that — ^haw I haw I — that may be. called my forte" 

** Oh fie I for shame I where do you think you'll go 

For making such a heap of foolish puns?" 

" Why, to the Punjaub, I should think — haw ! haw ! 

That sort fd job, you know, would suit me best." 

C. J. Caylbt: Lm* Alforgut, 

Droit de grenonille. When the lord in France bad a son and heir bom, 
the peasants were obliged to watch all night beating the ponds, so that the 
frogs should not disturb the baby ; this was called droit de silence des grenouilles, 
Dickens makes mention of it in his " Tale of Two Cities," where the dying 
peasant-boy denounces the nobles : ** You know, doctor, that it is among the 
rights of these nobles to harness us common dogs to carts and drive us. . . . 
You know that it is among their rights to keep us in their grounds all night, 
quieting the frogs, in order that their noble sleep may not be disturbed. They 
kept him out in the unwholesome mists at night, and ordered him back into his 
harness in the day." 

Docks and drakes is, in the words of an old author quoted by Brand, 
" a kind of sport or play with an oister-shell or stone thrown into the water, 
and making circles yer it sinke." If the stone emerges once it is a duck, and 
increases in the following order : 

I, a, A duck and a drake, 

3 And a halfpenny cake, 

4 And a penny to pay the old baker ; 

5 A hop and a scotch 
Is another notch, 

6 Slitherum, slatherum, take her. 

From this game probably originated the phrase '* making ducks and drakes 
with one's money," — 1>., throwing it away heedlessly. An earlv instance of 
the use of the phrase may be found in Strode's '* Floating Island," Sig. C. iv. 
Butler, in *' Hudibras" (Canto iii. line 30), makes it one of the important quali- 
fications of his conjurer to tell 

What figured slates are best to make 
On wat'ry surface dock or drake. 

A somewhat similar game was known among the Romans, and is alluded to . 
by Minucius Felix and other ancient writers. 

I remember in Queen Elizabeth's time a wealthy citizen of London left his son a mighty 
estate in money, who, imagining he should never be able to spend it, would usually make 
" ducks and drakes" in the Thames with twelve-pences, as boys are wont to do with tile- 
sherds and oyster-shells. And in the end he grew to that extreme want that he was fain to beg 
or borrow sixpence ; having many times no more shoes than feet, and sometimes " more feet 
than shoes," as the beggar said in the comedy.— Henry Pbacham : Th* Worth of a Penny: 
or, A Caution to Keep Money , London, 1647. 

Dnde. (feminine, Dudine or Dudette), in American slang, a swell or 
masher, the personification of clothes and nothing else. The term probably 
arose from the colloquial English duds or dudes (Scotch duddies), meaning 
clothes. Thus, Thackeray says, " Her dresses were wonderful, her bonnets 
marvellous. Few women could boast such dudes." Shakespeare, in *' The 


bucket -shaped basket , „ , 

e New York Evening Pcit humorously suggests a still more ancieiil origin : 

In the 'Eunuchus' of Terence, Act iv,, Sc. 4, I. 15, it ia writlen, — 

because he was decked out in a vest of many colors.'" In sober fact, the 
earliest litetarf appearance of the word dud or dude an applied to a person is 
in Putnam's Magatiiu for February, 1876: "Think of her? I think she is 
dressed like a di^ 1 can't aay how she would look in the costume of the pres- 
ent century." This would seem to dispose of the claims put forward by the 
friends of Mr. Hermann Oelrichs, of New York, that one day sitting at the 
Union Club window he saw a much overdressed youth with a mincing gait 
parading alone Fifth Avenue, whereupon one of the clubmen in concert with 
Mr. Oelrichs Dcgan humming an accompaniment to the step, thus : " Du da, 
de, du-du, du, de, du." " That's good !" said Mi. Oelrichs ; " it ought to be 
called a dude." And dude it has been called ever »nce. 

Okih Caurwriifar.— Have yau uy childrm T 

OlVpiaiH^n.—'^'ciiha^c^oi^ 'mi They're t»>)i dudn. -CI(ov> Litkl. 

Dumb Ox, or SloUifui Ox, or Oreat Dumb Sioiliaii Ox, a nickname 
given to St. Thomas Aquinas by his companionH in the monastery at Cologne, 
because of his Pythagorean taciturnity, his sleek corpulence, and his plodding 
industry. His master, Alberlus Magnus, not knowing himself what to think. 

>e day before a large assemblage to mterrogate him on very 
proioana quesiions, to which the disciple replied with so penetrating a sagacity 
that Albert turned towards the youths who surrounded his chair, and said. 

lU call brother Thomas a ' dumb 01,' but be assured that one day the n 
ni his doctrines will be heard all over the world." 

Thai old PclTT LoDibird ihnihed wiih hii hnin. 
To hmve it uught up knd («Kd aeiUD 
On the hortu of the Dumb Ox of Cologne. 

Longfellow: GolatM Lrgtnd. 
More complimentary titles which the saint won in later days, or posthumously, 
were Doctor Angelicus ("Angelic Doctor"). Doctor Mirabilis ("Wonderful 
Doctor"), the Father of Moral Philosophy, the Fifth Doctor of the Church, 
and the Second Augustine, — all tributes to his learning, eloquence, and Ic^c 
line is known to every one who understands 
e beginning of the century a constable in 
e celebrated as a tiist-class collector of bad 
accounts. When others would (ail to collect a bad debt, Dun would be sure 
to get it out of the debtor. It soon passed into a current phrase that when a 
person owed money and did not pay when aiiked, he would have to be 
" Dunned." Hence it soon became common in such cases to say, " You wilt 
have to Dun So-and-so if yon wish to collect your money." 

Dnnmow FUtotl. At the church of Dunmow, in Essex County, England, 
a flitch of bacon used to be given to any married couple who after a tvrelvc- 
month of matrimony would come forward and make oath that during that 
time they had lived m perfect harmony and fidelity. The origin of the custom 
is lost in the mists of antiquity. By some it ia dubiously referred to Robert 


Fitzwalter, a favorite of King John, who revived the Dunmow Priory at the 
beginning of the thirteenth century ; but it seems quite as likely that the 
good fathers themselves, rejoidne in their celibacy, instituted the custom as 
a jest upon their less fortunate fellows. The earliest recorded case of the 
awarding of the flitch is in 144^, when Richard Wright, of Badbury, Norfolk, 
a laborer, claimed and obtained it. But that there had been earlier cases of 
similar success is clearly evidenced by this couplet in Chaucer*s '* Wife of 
Bath :" 

The bacon was not fet for them, I trow. 

That tome men have in Essex at Dunmow. 

The custom seems to have lapsed and been revived from time to time at con- 
siderable intervals until 1763, when the lord of the manor discountenanced it, 
and removed what were known as the " swearing-stones," upon which the 
couple knelt to take the requisite oaths. In 1855, however, Harrison Ains- 
worth, the novelist, himself the author of a story called "The Dunmow 
Flitch," resolved to revive the custom, and a couple of flitches were in that 
year given away with much burlesque ceremony. But the popular interest 
could not be reawakened, and though in 1877 ^"d i" i^^ the flitch was again 
contested for, the contemporary reports tells us that '* the attendance was 
poor and the true joyous spirit was absent." The custom of awarding a prize 
of this sort for wedaed faithfulness is not peculiar to Dunmow. For a cen- 
tury the abbots of St. Meleine, in Bretagne, gave the flitch ; and a like trophy, 
with a gift of meal or corn, was enjoined to be given by the charter of the 
manor of Whichenouvre, in Stafford, granted in the time of Edward III. 
The manors of Whichenouvre, Scirescot, Redware, Netherton, and Cowler 
were held of the earls of Lancaster by Sir Philip de Somerville on condition 
that he should maintain and sustain one bacon flyke to be given to every man 
or woman after the day and year of their marriage were past, provided they 
could subscribe to certain conditions too long to reprint. Addison sets forth 
the whole charter in the Spectator^ No. 607, October 15, 1714. 

At Dunmow the form of the oath as it has come down to us, evidently re* 
cast by a comparatively modem hand, is as follows : 

You shall swear by the custom of your confession 

That you never made any nuptial transgression. 

Since you were married to your wife. 

By household brawl or contentious strife ; 

Or since the parish clerk said amen 

Wished yourself unmarried again ; 

Or for a twelvemonth and a day 

Repented not. in thought, anjr way ; 

Dot continuea true and in desire 

As when you joined hands in holy choir ; 

If to those conditions, without any (ear. 

Of your own accord, you will freely swear, 

A gammon of bacon you shall receive. 

And bear it home witn love and good leave, 

For this is our custom at Dunmow well known. 

The sport is ours, the bacon's your own. 

It is said that at the conclusion of the first year of Queen Victoria's reign 
the flitch was sent her in recognition of her rightful claims, but was returned 
on the grounds that it " was not an article in use in her majesty's kitchen." — 
Notes and Queries, seventh series, x. 234. 

Durance vile. This phrase is to be found in Burns's '* Epistle from Esopus 
to Maria :" 

In durance vile here must I wake and weep. 
And all my frowzy couch in sorrow steep I 

But the same expression was used by W. Kenrick in his " Falutaff 's Wed- 


ding," publiihed in 1766. Il is ilso to be foand in Burke's "Thoughts on 
the Cause of the Recent Discontents," published in 1773 : " Il will not be 
amiss to take a view of the effects of Ibis royal seivitude and durance vile." 
Before either of these, however, Shakespeare, in the " Second Part of King 
Henry IV.," Act v., Sc. 4, makes ^lol My, " In base durance and conla- 
gious prison j" and in " King John," Act til., Sc 4, occurs the phiaae " In the 
vile prison." 

Dnflt. A slang tetm fur money, possibly because made of gold-dust, though 
the term may have been influenced by the essential wonhlessness of what 
philosophers call dross. " Down with the dust" is an old equivalent for " Hand 
out your money." Dean Swift, so the story runs, once preached a charity 
sermon at St Patrick's, Dublin, the length of which disgusted many of his 
auditors ; which coming to his knowledge, and il falling to bis lot soon after 
to preach another sermon of the like kind in the same place, he took special 
care (o avoid falling into (he former error. His text on the second occasion 
was, " He that hath pity upon the poor lendcth unto the Lord, and thai which 
he hath given will he pay him again." The Dean, after repeating his text in 
a more than commonly emphalical tone, added, " Now, my beloved brethren, 
you hear the terms of this loan ; if you like the security, down with your 

Diwt in the ejreB, To ^aom, to bewilder, to confuse with specious argu- 
ment The metaphor is 90 obvious that it might seem futile to trace it to any 
particular source. Vet it is not improbable that it was first used with special 
reference to the common military expedient resorted to among others by 
Epaminondas. Wishing (o steal a march upon the Lacedemonians near 
Tegea and seise the heights behind Ihem, he made sixteen hundred of his 
cavalry move on in front and ride about in such manner as to raise a great 
cloud of dust, which the wind carried into the eyes oF the enemy, under cover 
whereof he executed a successful flank movement and carried his point 
(PolvjCnus: Slratagtms,a. 3, 14). The si . .. ™ 

wrested Uyriachium from Pompey in a sim 
the stratagem to Sertorius. 

Dutch ooorage, artificial courage inspired by intoxicating drink, the ad- 
jective Dutch being a play upon the name "hoi lands," or Hmland gin. 

Putt ftwav 11 fhe luquFbaugh, mAn, and twillow Dutcli cooruc, liiKC thbH EiielBh ii 
DO«d .wa^.-KlBOSl-av : WatvmrdmiA .i. 

" Dutch defence" is a sham defence, probably influenced by the bet that 
Dutch courage is - -' 

aawithotit duly ivei£binK his ailegiani 

Dntob uncle. To talk lik« a. a proverbial phrase, meaning to talk 
severely, to reprove sharply. The Dutch were held to be unusually severe 
in their military discipline, and an uncle, from the time of the Roman /diysiu, 
like a stepfather, has always been held to be a sorry substitute for a dead 
father. Horace, in his third Ode, xii. 3, has the phrase " dreading the castiga- 
lions of an uncle's tongue" ("metuentes palruz verbera linguz"). But there 
may also be some etymological connection with the phrase " Dutch cooun," a 
humorous perversion of "cousin-german." 


is mainly used to indicate an impossible contingency. It is thas explained by 
Luke the miller to Maggie Tulliver in "The Mill on the Floss" : " Nay, miss, 
I'n no opinion o* Dutchmen. My old master, as war a knowin' man, used to 
say, says he, * if e'er I sow my wheat wi*out brinin', Tm a Dutchman,' says he ; 
and that war as much as to say as a Dutchman war a fool, or next door." 

I hereby give notice that I shall strike for wages. You pay more to others, I find, than to 
me ; and so I intend to make some fresh conditions about Yellowplush. I shall write no more 
of that gentleman's remarks except at the rate of twelve guineas a sheet, and with a drawing 
fur each number in which hu story appears, — the drawing two guineas. Pray do not be angry 
at this decision on my part ; it is simply a bargain, which it is my duty to make. Bad as he 
is, Mr. Yellowplush b the most popular contributor to your magazine, and ought to be paid 
accordingly; it he does not deserve more than the monthly nurse, or the Blue Friars. I am 
a Dutchman.— Wm. M. Thackeray : Letter to James Fraser^ proprietor ^ Freuer't 
Magax ' 


B, the fifth letter and second vowel in the English alphabet In Phoenician 
the name of the sign was ht (doubtfully explained as meaning ** window"), and 
it was used simply as an aspirate ; in Greek it was first utilized for a vowel 
sound, originally as either long or short. Later the double value was aban- 
doned, and e was restricted to denoting the short sound, as in English met 
The double value was restored in Latin, and has been retained in most modern 
alphabets. In English the letter does duty for a larger variety of sounds 
than in any other language, and is, moreover, used as an orthograpnic auxiliary 
to modify other sounds while its own value is suppressed, — ^.^., in such words 
as lik/, mut/, etc, where it governs the sound of 1 and », and as manag^ble, 
where it preserves the soft sound of the^, etc. It is,*consequently, the most 
overworked letter in the alphabet. Decipherers of cryptograms, for instance, 
have discovered that when the cryptogram is a simple one, the first step is to 
look upon the sign or symbol which makes its appearance most frequently as 
standing for e, 

B plnribiiB anam (" One from many"), the Latin motto on American coins 
and on the obverse of the great seal of the United States. The motto was 
originally proposed on August 10, 1776, by the committee of three — Benjamin 
Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson — who had been appointed to 
prepare a device for the seal. But the device itself being rejected, it was not 
until June 20, 1782, that the motto was adopted as part of the second and suc- 
cessful device submitted by Charles Thomson, Secretary of Congress. (See 
Seau) In 1796, Congress further ordained that the legend should appear on 
one side of certain specified coins. Both on the seal and on the coins it is in- 
scribed upon a scroll issuing from an eaglets mouth. The phrase ** E pluribus 
una" or "unus" is found in various classical authors. In "Moretum," a 
poem ascribed to Virgil, the species of pottage which forms at once the title 
and the subject is described as being made of various materials which the 
peasant grinds up in a pestle. Then, says the poet, — 

It manus in gyrum : paullatim singula vires 
Deperdunt proprias ; color est e piuribus unum. 

Horace asks (Epistle ii. 2, 212), "Quid te exempta juvat spinis de pluribus 
una r* Ihuvenal has a like locution. For nearly half a century before our 
Union, English magazines had carried the motto *' E pluribus unum" or 
*' una," by way of noting that the new publication was the work of many 

25a HANDY-BOOk Of 

Ilwuu eiriy ud favDriM idea (hat mmiiy uid vtriiHU Hmou had 6cii><d iniothe alembic, 
rrciiD which the heal oT war dlHilJed B nuuchlcu Unioo. E pturibu? unum— TALCart 
WiLUAHS. Id Amrriian Ntltl ami Qmriri, i. vaf. 

E plnribimmuiD. One from many. Thai is, ope Siaieor NaiioB— one Federal Republic 
—Tram many Repnblio, ^italei. or NaiiDDI.—ALEXjtHDUt H. SrarHENi: War M««,n IIh 

B par •! maove (I1., " Nevertheless il ilocs move"}. This famous phrase, 
put inlo Ihe muuth of Galileo, is an utiduubted fabrication. The good old 
story, in its inlegtity, ran, that Galileo was Ihrown into the dungeons of the 
Inquisition for teacliiiig that "the sun is the centre of the world, and im- 
movable, and that the earth moves, and also with a diurnal moliou," that he 
was tortured and his eyes put out, and that he was forced to recant in a hair 
shirt, but as he rose from the kneeling posture in which he had signed his 
recantation he whis]iered to a friend, "E pur li ihhoiv." The facts in the 
case as now generally accepted are, that Galileo was held in detention in the 
palace of the Inquisition for doctrines uttered in 1633, that though he justly 
resented the curtailment of his liberty he was handsomely lodged and treated 
with the utmost consideration, that in 1633 the council decided that Galileo be 
absolved from all the penalties due to his heresies provided he first solemnly 
abjured them, that but seven of the ten cardinals composing the council 
signed this sentence, and that Galileo humbly professed his recantation, where- 
upon Urban VIII. exchanged imprisonment for temporary banishment near 
Rome, and afterwards to Siena. The famous phrase "E pur si muuve" wa* 
never uRered, — though it may very well be as.<^umed to be a representation in 
words of what must nave been Galileo's ihouahls at the time. Its lirst ap- 
pearance in print has been traced to the "Lehrbuch dcr philosophischen 
Geschichte," published at Wurzburg in 1774 : "Galileo was neither sufficiently 
in earnest nor steadfast with his recantation ; fur the moment he rose up, when 
his conscience told him that he had sworn falsely, he cast his eyes on the ground, 
stamped with his fool, and exclaimed, ' E pur si muove.' " 

In conclusion, it may be added that Catholics claim, with Bergier, that 
Galileo was not persecuted as a good astronomer, but as a bad theologian : 
"il ne ful point persecute crmime bon aslronome, mais cumine mauvais 
thiologien" (^'■'"'"™™ Thfologiqiit, 1789). Protestants, however, and others 
who are loath 10 lose such polemical capital as is still afforded by the story, 
claim that the sentence on Galileo included a statement that his views were 
philosophically false. Into the merits of this controversy it would be useless 
to enter. 

Eagle as an emblem. From anc 

has been looked upon as the symbol of royal or imperial power. 
ensign of the Babylonish, Persian, and Etruscan kings, as well as of the 
Ptolemies and the Seleucides. Il was also adopted by the Roman Republic in 
B.C. 87, when a silver eagle poised on a spear, wilh a thunder-bolt in its claws, 
was placed on the military standards borne at the head of the legions. The 
emperors retained the symliol, H.idrian charging the metal from silver to 

Eold. An eagle was always let fly from the funeral pyre of ?n emperor, to 
ear his soul up to Olympus. Hence the eagle has become especially associ- 
ated wilh imperialism, and when Napoleon dreamed of universal conquest he 
revivetl the golden eagle 0/ his Roman predecessors on his standard. Dis- 
continued under the Bourbons, it was restored by a decree of Louis Napoleon 
in 1852. A two-headed eagle, as a sign of double empire, was first used by 
the Byzantine Cnsars to denote their control both of the East and of the 
West. The double eagle of Russia came into being wilh the marriage of 
Ivan I. to a Greek princess of the Eastern Empire, and that of Austria whan 


the Emperor of Germany took the title of Roman Emperor. Prussia and 
Poland also have each an eagle, the one black, the other white. 

The American eagle is the native bald eagle, and was first adopted on the 
seal of the United States (see Seal) on June 20, 1782, against the bitter op- 
position of Franklin. The latter looked upon it as a Caesarean emblem, and 
wanted to know what was the matter with the wild turkey, as being more dis- 
tinctly American and a bird sui generis. Nevertheless, the eagle was accepted 
not only on the seal but on the first coin issued by the United States in 1795, 
and on a majority of the subsequent coins. He usually looks inebriated but 
defiant, often wears a shield for a chest-protector, and sometimes shakes in 
his beak what looks like a ring of nice country sausages. Franklin was 
always fond of poking fun at this ornithological monstrosity, as in the following 
extract, referring to the eagle borne on a badge which had been presented to 
the Society of the Cincinnati : 

Others object to the bald eagle as looking too much like the dindon, or turkey. For my 

Eft, I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen as the representative of our country : he is a 
d of bad moral character ; he does not get his livine honestly ; you may have seen him 
gerched on some dead tree, where, too lazy to fish for nimself, he watches the labor of the 
shing hawk, and when that diligent bird has at length taken a fish and is bearing it to his 
nest the bald eagle pursues him and takes it from him. Besides, he is a rank coward : the 
little king-bird atiacks him boldly. He Is therefore by no means a proper emblem for the 
brave and honest Cincinnati of America, who have driven all the king-birds from our country. 
I am on this account not displeased that the figure is not known as a bald eagle, but looks 
more like a turkey. For, in truth, the turkey is in comparison a much more re»pectable bird, 
and withal a true native of America He is, besides (though a little vain and billy, it \i true, 
but not the worse emblem for that), a bird of courage, and would not hesitate to attack a gren- 
adier of the British guards who should presume to enter hii farm-yard with a red coat on. 

Nevertheless, the eagle had things all its own way, and is still rapturously 
hailed as the "national bird" and '*the bird of freedom" by the school of ora- 
tors who indulge in what is familiarly known as spread-eagleism or buncombe. 

In Christian iconography the eagle is the symbol of St John the Evangelist, 
who is often represented on its back soaring up to heaven and gazing unblink- 
ingly at the sun. We find the eagle grouped with the ox, the symbol of St. 
Luke, the lion of St Mark, and the angel, or human form, of St Matthew, in 
frescos, illuminations, carving, and sculpture, from the fifth century onward. 
St Jerome, in the fourth century, in his commentary on the vision of the 
prophet Ezekiel (i. 5), declares the four winged creatures mentioned by the 
prophet, and also by St. John in Revelation (iv. 7), to be the symbols of the 
four evangelists. By the seventh century their use as Christian symbols had 
become universal in East and West 

It became the custom quite early to represent the four symbols of the evan- 
gelists supporting the ambofiy from which the deacon reads the gospels, the acts 
of the martyrs, etc, and later the pulpit and lecturn, which developed out of 
the ambon. In many cases the place of honor, immediately under the desk, 
was given to the eagle, the emblem of St John, soaring above all others, 
according to the old Latin verse, — 

Quatuor hsec Dominum sisnant animalia Christum ; 
Est Homo nascendo, VituTusque sacer moriendo, 
£t Leo surgendo, coelos Aquilaque petendo. 

The outspread wings of the eagle naturally supported the reading-desk : 
thus, when the lecturn took the place of the ambouy there was room for the 
eagle only, and he retains his place on the lecturns in Catholic and Anglican 

Bagle, 80 the struck. The eagle struck with the dart winded with his 
own feathers is a familiar figure in literature. Kyron has it, m '* English 
Bards and Scotch Reviewers," in the lines commemorative of Kirke White : 



No mon thi^Ufh rQllIng ctuudi ro vur Ag 
Viewed faift own featber on the fal*] cUjl, 
And wiaged tht ibon IhW qiuvsctl in hi> 

He tluned the piDiov whif h impelled Ihe 
Wbile tlie ume pluma^ that bad wumei 
Dnnk the Ihsi lifc-drup of hit bleeding bf 

a Lady singing a Song of his o 

Mouce uses the sj 

The cute ■ fale uid mine ue one 
Whicb on Uk shaft Ibu mule b 


Tkt MjrmiiUni. Fngmeni iij. Plumpne'i inniUtioD. 

Julian the Apostate adopted as his arms the figure of an eagle struck with 
an arrow feathered with his own plumes \ptoprm ctmj^mur tuii). 

Bai, la «t on«, and oat of the oth«r, a colloquial saying, denoting 
inattention, heedlessness of good advice, in which sense it is most virulently 
applied in the speech of older people to younger who have lailed to profit by 
their admonitions ; children patlicularly ire suppn-ed to have a vacuum be- 
tween the ears, permitting the free paasagc of a great deal of useful knowledge 
and wise counsel, without creating the desired impression, in which cases the 
phrase vents the chagrin of the tutor or counsellor. Nevertheless, after the 
manner of proverbs and wise saws, which ever hunt in couples for their victim, 
the couples being generally of opposite, often of flatly contradictory, nature, 
even so the feebleness of the retentive faculty of the very young person is, 
proverbially speaking, made up (or by the acuteness and capacity of the re- 
ceptive, as the spring is, " Little pitchers have big ears," or " Small pitchers 
have wyde eares, as in Heywood's " Proverbs." 

Charlet Lamb tal next ra some dutiteriog womui mt dinner. Observing tlut be did not 

saying lo vcu." '^ No, ma'am," he jinswved : " Uit this gentlenun mx ihe other hde of me 
mngt. for it all came in at one ear and venl out at the olher.'T_f jKAirn^i^ of Wit. 

Ear, VFrong BOir by the. This forcible if inelegant met has a venerable 
intiiiuity. It is in the " Proverbs" of John Htywood, 1^)46, from which we 
can infer this "eflectuall proverbc" was then long familiar lo the English 
tongue. Ben Jonson uses it in " Every Man in his Humor," Act ii., Sc i, 
"He has the wrong sow by the ear," in the sense of "he reckons without his 
host," which is the accepted and ordinary significance of the phrase. They 
have the same phrase in Spain. When the valiant Don Quixote makes his 
ferocious charge into what he believes to be a mighty army with neighing 
horses and blaring trumpets, but which Sancho Panza clearly enough per- 
ceives to be only a flock of bleating sheep, the latter calls to the knight in the 
mitlst of his furious onset, — 


Are you mad, sir ? there are no giants, no knights, no cats, no asparagus, no golden quarters 
nor what-d'ye-call>thems. Does the devil possess you ? You are leaping over the hedge before 
vou come to the stile. You are taking the wrong sow by the ear. — Part I., Book iii., ch. iv., 
Mottenx transl. 

While all England was discussing the effort of King Henry VIII. to induce 
Clement VII. to grant him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, 
Thomas Cranmer, who was then a doctor of divinity at Cambridge, suggested 
that the question of the legality of a marriage with a deceased brother*s wife 
should be submitted to the universities of Europe. When the king heard of 
the suggestion he is said to have exclaimed, " He has got the right sow by the 
ear !" and caused him to be sent for and made his emissary to the universities. 

The Romans had a proverbial expression somewhat similar in form, which 
occurs in Terence : 

As the saying is, 1 have got a wolf by the ears. 

PkormiOf Act iii., Sc. 3. 

Its meaning, however, as is apparent, was entirely different, it being a proverb 
for a position of extreme danger or difficulty, like our *' catchine a Tartar ;" 
accordingly, as Suetonius relates, it was usea by Tiberius, who, n-om the fear 
of the dangers threatening him at all hands, affected to refuse the imperial 
power, ana when urged thereto would reply, "I have got a wolf by the 


Early to bed, early to rise. Proverbial philosophy is full of the benefits 
and advantages to be derived from early rising. One of the best-known forms 
which this proverbial wisdom has taken is the couplet, — 

(' E^rly to bed and early to rise. 

Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. 

Franklin : Poor Richard for 1735, 

who may have got it from Clarke, ** Paroemiologia" (1639). 

The Muses love the morning, as does the goddess Copia, and "To rise 
with the lark" at "the breezy call of incense-breathing morn," "sweet with 
charm of earliest birds," is coupled with all manner of benefits, material and 
intellectual (thus, "The early bird catches the worm") ; on the contrary, rising 
late is followed by disadvantages innumerable, — €.g. : 

He that rises late must trot all Day, and shall scarce overtake his Business at night. — Poor 
Richard ior 1758. 

Or, according to the saying of Archbishop Whately, — 
Lose an hour in the morning, and you will be all day hunting for it. 

The " serving-man" is not quite so sure of all this wisdom, who declares,- 

My hour is eight o'clock, though it is an infallible rule, " Sanat, sanctificat, et diut, surgere 
mane" (" That he may be healthy, happy, and wise, let him rise early"). — A Health to the 
Gontie Pro/estion ofS«rving-Menf 1598 (reprinted in the Roxburgh* Library) ^ p. X2i. 

And Sancho Panza is quite sure the philosophers are wrong : 
Heaven's help b better than early rising. — Don Quixote^ Part II., ch. xxxiv. 

A father exhortins his son to rise early in the morning reminded him of the old adage, " It's 
the cariy bird that picks up the worm." " Ah," replied the son, " but the worm gets up earlier 
than the XAxA*'— Jest- Book. 

bomins. In his "Vulgar Errors" Sir Thomas Browne tells us, 

" When our cheek burneth or ear tingleth, we usually say that somebody is 
talking of us, which is an ancient conceit, and ranked amone superstitious 
opinions by Pliny." He supposes it to have proceeded from the notion of a 
" signifying genius or universal Mercury that conducted sounds to their distant 


aubjecis, vaA taughl ua to heat by touch." According to an old English 
proverb, whose second line is slightly ambiguous, the sign is, — 

LcA for love ud right for ipile ; 

In caae t( be Itie right ear, the sufieier id this day is advised to pinch it, when 
the person speaking despitefuliy will immediately bite his or her tongue. In 
WiHshire it is customary to cross the ear with the forefinger, and to say, — 

Bui if you'n kpnklng Ul of me 
I wiib you'll hilt your longue. 

Allusjons to the superstition are cotnmon in English literature : 
I luppoic iliHi tUy her cnn nughl wtU glow, 
For all the (own ulkn] of her.liicti uJlow. 

Tlu CatliU^ OmrUiit, ish. 

Miuk Ai» Abtm f/tlkimg. An lU., Sc. i. 
One ear tmgia : wuno there ht 

*""""*'""* H™iiiCii: Mri>»rirf«. 

As to the third example, the eiclaraalion uttered by Beatrice after overhearing 
the conversation in the bower between Hero and Ursula, there is a dispute 
among the authorities, Schmidt and a few others holding that no allusion is 

tended to the proverbial saying, but that Beatrice simply means, " What fire 

itended to the proverbial saying, but il 
eivadcs me by what 1 have heard !" 

Earth. Of the sarth, earthy. From St. Paul's First Epistle to the 
Corinthians ; 

For u in Adam ail die, even lo in Chriu iliall all lie nude llivt. (i Orr. xt. ».l The 
fitit nan b of the evih. eanhy : ihe tecond man i* the Lord Irom bcmven. Ai is the eanhy, 
■uch are they nlM> thai are earthy ; and u ii the heavenly, nich arc ihey pbo thai art heavenly. 
And ai wt nave bomt Iht iou^ of the eanhy, wt ihall al» bear the ima^e of the heavenly. 
(/*u«. 4T-«9 "ci.) 

Alva, when asked by Charles V. about an eclipse of the sun which occurred 
in tuy, during the battle of Miihiberg, replied, " I had too much to do on 
earth to trouble myself with the heavens." The phrase has come to be used 
adjectively to denote grossness, or want of refinement, but it is also used in its 
literal sense : 

My heart vould hear her and Deal, 
Were it earth in an eanhy lied. 

Tihhvsoh: Mnu/.XXII-.Slaniaa. 

Baith a hell, Uaklng, or Bell on eBitta, a life or condition of extreme 

Shakespeare has, — 

""* AoL""«tr J/i*C) />••<«., Art i„ Se. 1. 

jT/., /^>rt/., Aei».,5 


Burns writes, — 

Curved be the man, the poorest wretch in life. 
The crouching vassal to the tyrant wife, 
Who has no will but by her high permission ; 
Who has not sixpence out in her possession ; 
Who must to her his dear friend's secrets tell ; 
Who dreads a curtain lecture worse than hell. 

The Henpeeked Husband. 

Byron uses the phrase to describe the joyless life of self-deprivation of the 
ascetic or hermit : 

Deep in yon cave Honorius long did dwell. 
In hope to merit heaven by making earth a hell. 

Childe Harold^ Canto i., Stanza xx. 

The dialoeue between Faustus and Mephistopheles is an early illustration 
of the use of the term hell to describe a condition rather than a place : 

Faust. Where are you dambed ? 

Meph. In hell. 

Faust. How comes it, then, that thou art out of hell ? 

Meph. Wliy this is hell, nor am I out of it ; 

Think'st thou that I, who saw the face of God, 

Am not tormented with ten thousand hells 

In being deprived of everiasting bliss ? 

Marlowb: Famstm*. 

Moore has almost the identical thought : 

Let the damn'd one dwell 

Full in sight of Paradise. 
Beholding heaven and feeling hell ! 

LaliaRiwkk: The Fire-Worshippers 

And SO has Milton : 

Nor from hell 
One steps no more than from himself can fly 
By change of place. 

Paradise Lost, Book iv., 1. 2X. 

The mind is its own place, and in itself 
Can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven. 

Jbid.t Book i.,1. 354. 

The last with reminiscences of Sir Edward Dyer's " My mind to me a king- 
dom is." 
A place of vice is called a hell, — €.g,t gambling-hell. 

Earth, He wants the, a slangy colloquialism, applied to one making 
unreasonable or impertinent demands ; also, as an adjective, denoting intense 
greed or selfishness. 

'* Want something, sir ?" the grinning steward cried 
To one who moaned and toned upon his berth. 

** Oh, Lord," the sea-sick passenger replied, 
" 1 only want the earth. 

Texas Sif tings. 

At the last even the most arrogant must content themselves with the al- 
lotted six feet, even though they be not driven to the extremity of craving it 
as a boon, like Wolsey, who. 

An old man, broken with the storms of state. 
Is come to lay his weary bones among ye : 
Give him a little earth for charity I 

Henry K///., Act. iv., Sc. 2. 

Ill-weaved amlMtion, how much art thou shrunk ! 
When that this body did contain a spirit, 
A kingdom for it was too small a bound ; 
But now, two paces of the vilest earth 
Is room enough. 

Henry IV., Part /., Act v., Sc. 4. 




And these quotations faring to mind the curious verbal analogy between the 

Americanism and the old sayine, still locally extant in England, when ati 

unburied corpse becomes offensive, that it is "calling out loudly for the 

earth." The phrase was evidently in Shakespeare's mind when he wrote, — 

Tbal thii foul deed ilull tmell abon Ibe eulb 

EaM In writing, except it be understood as thai e 
which is the peTfection of art, is probably a pleasant lictic 
of folly or alfectalion. 

D b«r the (oil of wrilinc \ I mevi of « 
Me vai ft bAppi< 
ririf a/RtMdirt, in lb 

Me vu 11 bippit imiutor of Ndun 
received Tram him 11 blot In bii upe 


w uythiog worthy of bciiig 

For Ihourii the Po«-i nmiicr. Nilun bt. 
Kis Alt dolh give ih> fuhion. And Uul be, 

(Such u thine ue) uid nnke (lie lecsBd heat 
UpDD the HuHi tnvile : torn Ibe Hve, 

. ... ..., .,„, ,„ (hint-- - *- 


(And biniKire viih it) thii he thinkei to taste ; 

prefived 10 the folio Shakespeare o^ 


iudIh: ClufiPrfirit 

Charles Lamb was shown by Richman one of Chatterton's forgeries. In 
the manuscript there were seventeen difTerent kinds of r's, " Oh," said Lamb, 
"that must have been written by one of the 

- Mob of gentlemen who wrote with «».' " 

East. About an American colloonialism, used originail)^ by natives of the 
Eastern Stales who had emigrated West, to express satisfaction with iheir new 
surroundings. The emigrant dubs the men and things that he approves of 
" about east," — i.t., " about light," — and looks upon that as the higheal term of 
approval. Major Jack Downing's famous phrase, " I'd go east 01 su'niise any 
day to see sich a place." has frequently been cited as an evidence of the 
enthusiastic (though qiiainlly exaggerated) love borne the East by its sons. 

The late Mr. Motact M;inn, in one of hii public iddreisei, comnienlcd at loinr kngib on 
Ibe beiuty and moral •rgnlficance of the French phme I'tr-ntltr. and called nn bll 
young (ncndi 10 praciiM upon ii in life. There wu not a Yankee In hii audience whote 


Basy accession, a once famous phrase in American politics, based on the 
custom observed in the early history of the country for a newly-elected Presi- 
dent to hand the portfolio of State to the next most prominent man in his 
party. Hence the Secretary of State came to be looked upon as in some sort 
the heir-apparent to the Presidency. Nominating conventions respected this 
tacit claim. It was in this way that Madison succeeded Jefferson, and Monroe 
Madison, and Tohn Quincy Adams Monroe. But after a quarter of a century 
the people and the politicians began to murmur at what had come to be known 
as the **easy accession." One of the evidences of this discontent was the 
charge made against Henr^ Clay that he had obtained the office of Secretary 
of State under John Qumcy Adams, by bargain and corruption. Instead, 
therefore, of findmg the position a stepping-stone to the Presidency, it proved 
a stumbling-block to Clay. Though he received the nomination, he was 
defeated by Andrew Jackson, and the practice dubbed the easy accession came 
to a natural end. 

ISat to live; live to eat. " Meal, please your majesty, is half a penny a 
peck at Athens, and water I can get for nothms," replied Socrates to Kmg 
Archelaus*s invitation to leave the dirty streets of his native city and come live 
with him at his sumptuous court 

" We eat to live : not live to eat.*' This last remark is attributed to Socrates 
by Diogenes Laertius and Athenaeus, both of whqpi quote it. According to 
Plutarch, what Socrates said was, ** Bad men live that they may eat and drink, 
whereas good men eat and drink that they may live." 

Moli^re has the same expression in ** UAvare :" " According to the saying 
of the philosopher of old, il faut manger pour vivre, et non pas vivre pour 
manger" (Act lii., Sc 5). 

Socrates, however, is not with the majority. 

Fielding, in " The Miser," Act iii., Sc 3, renders the phrase from " L*Avarc" 
incorrectly, and probably with malice prepense, — 

We must eat to live and live to eat. • 

The Scripture sometimes leans to the side of the sybarites : 

I commended mirth, because a man hath no better thing under the sun than to eat, and to 
drink, and to be merry. — EccUtiastes viii. 15. 

This material enjoyment, however, is at the cost of the spiritual : 

To be in both worids full 
Is more than God was, who was hungry here ; 
Wouldst thou His Uws of fasting disannul ? 
Enact p;ood cheer? 
Lay out thy joy, vet hope to save it ? 
Wouldst thou both eat tny cake and have it ? 

Gborgb Hbkbbrt : The Temple : The Size. 

Byron, following Arrian, gives this version of a supposed inscription of the 
Assyrian king : 

The kinz, and son of Anacyndaraxes, 
In one oay built Anchialus and Tarsus. 
Eat, drink, and love ; the rest's not worth a fillip. 

Sardanapalus, Act i., Sc. a. 

We conclude with an extract from Burns and one from Owen Meredith : 

Some hae meat and canna eat. 

And some wad eat that want it ; 
But we hae meat, and we can eat. 

And sae the Lord be thanket. 

Burns : The Selkirk Grace. 


We miy live wilhout poHiy, muilc, (nd ut | 

Bui d'SiiHTuBB cunM live'wlihoui cooks." 

He Buy live wUhool books,— •hulij knowltdge bul grievingt 

Bui when li the mu Ihai cu live wiiboui dlningr 

OwKH Mhidith : LiaUi, Pul 1., Cute ii.. Sunn i*. 

Bating one'a hear^ a strong but anpteasant expression for the self-cor- 
rnding menljl and moral djaqaiel which seeks no relief in disburdening itseIC 
Bacon, in his essay " Of Friendship," refers Ihe phrase to Pythagoras : *' The 
parable of Pythagoras is dark, but true : Cor ne tdilo, — eat not the heart. 
Certainly, if a man wuuld give it a hard phrase, those that want friends to 
open themselves unto are cannibals of their own hearts." Bacon's authority 
is prubalily Plutarch, who, in " De Educatione Fueroruin," 17, ascribes the 
" parable" to Pythagoras, explaining it as a prohibition " to afflict our souls 
and waste them with vexatious cares." 

Spenser, in " Mother Hubberds Tale," has the lines, 

Whu beU ii ii In MUini long 10 bide : 

To tMi Ihy bcule wi:b comibrtltue dispuret ; 
and Bryant in bis "Iliad," Book i., 1. 319, — 

The humorous phrases "to eat one'a hat" and " to eat one's head" have 
no leal analogy with the sterner phrase, but are mere modes of instancing 
something impossible of achievemenL 

or doesn't waih." etc., " t'lt *at my kai" Add ihen. afterwards, if kbe conplhilKd of a 
■lafl H bbuEhl, I uved to tay, " Oh, d^ eo knd tell him be was wrong; 1 should to like \o 
lee bim eftt his liat!" h was iiDpRued on me as being one of my earfibi leasDiu in die 
doable meaDing of " »yitigt," for my imponuniiiet al last brouabt tbe reteiaiion, " Non- 
Kmel be doesn't mean be would really emt it; it ia ju4t bccaiae ne cmutdWl eat it thai be 
midemebeliEve the ituff would wash.''— R. H. Bush, in AWuaiu/^rw.tevenib loiea, 

" I'll eat my hud." This was the haadaame offer wiib which Mr. Grimwli backed and con- 
id so thai the last syllable or 
re by an echo, fbrm a reply to 
if his very amusing papers on 
" False Wit," Addison has some hard words for this form of literarjr trifling. 
" I find likewise," he says, " in ancient limes the conceit of making an Echo 
talk sensibly and give rational answers. If this could be excusable in any 
writer, il would be in Ovid, where he introduces the echo as a nymph, before 
she was worn awav into nothing but a voice {Metamorphoset. ili. 379}. The 
learned Erasmus, though a man of wit and genius, has composed a dialogue 
upon this silly kind of device, and made use of an echo who seems to have been 
an extraordinary linguist, for she answets the person she talks with in Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew, according as she found the syllables which she was to 
repeat in any of those learned languages. Hudibras, in ridicule of this false 


kind of wit, has described Bruin bewailing the loss of his bear to a solitary 
echo, who is of great use to the poet in several distichs, as she does not only 
repeat after him, but helps out his verse and furnishes him with rhymes." 
The verses alluded to as in ** Hudibras" run as follows : 

He beat his breast and tore his hair. 

For loss of hb dear crony bear. 

That Echo, from the hollow ground, 

His doleful wailings did resound 

More wistfully, by many times. 

Than in small poets' splay-foot rhymes. 

Quoth he, " O whither, wicked bruin. 

Art thou fled? to my"— Echo ** Ruin." 

** I thought thou 'adst scomea to buc^ a step 

For fear." Quoth Echo, ** Marty guep." 

" Am I not here to take thy partf 

Then what has quailed thy stubborn heart 

Have these bones rattled, and this head 

So often in thy quarrel bled ? 

Nor did I ever wince or trudge it 

For thy dear sake." Quoth she, **MHm budget." 

" To nm from those thou hadst o'ercome 

Thus cowardly." Quoth Echo, "Mum /" 

" Yet shame and honor might prevail 

To keep thee thus from turning tail ; 

For who would grudge to spend his blood in 

His honor's cause ?" Quoth she, "A puddin' f* 

In spite of Butler, however, in spite of Addison (who himself, by the way, 
composed an Echo song of indifferent merit), the practice is not unamusing, 
and it has had the sanction of many great names in the past. It is even said 
that in the lost tragedy of '* Andromeda" the great Euripides condescended 
to trifling of this kind. Certainly the Greek Anthology reveals some speci- 
mens, notably an epigram of Leonidas (Book iii. 6) and a short poem com- 
mencing, — 

a *Axw ^tAo, |uoi ^vyicaraivcirov ri. — /i ri : 
("Echo ! I love : advise me somewhat.— What ?") 

Martial has an epigram on the practice, which shows it was known among 

the Romans, though the extant Latin examples are all of modern date, as, for 

instance, the noted Latin distich made in England after the meeting of the 

Synod of Dort, in 1618 : 

Dordrechti synodus, nodus ; chorus integer, sger ; 
Conventus, ventus ; sessio stramen, — amen. 

In France, from the time of Joachim Dubellav to that of Victor Hugo, 

echo verses have been written by men of light anci leading. Here are a few 

lines from the famous dialogue between Echo and a lover, written by the 

former, which has been the model for numerous similar efforts in other 

languages : 

'>ui est I'auteur de ces maux advenus ? — Venus. 

^u'^tois-je avant d'entrer en ce passage?— Sase. 

)u'est-ce qu'aimer et se plaindre sou vent ? — Vent. 

>is-moi Quelle est celle pour qui j'endure? — Dure. 
Sent-elle oien la douleur qui me point ? — Point. 

As to Victor Hugo, he has written a ballad, " The Burgrave's Hunt," which 
consists of two hundred echo verses like the following : 

Daigne prot^ger notre chasse, 

De monseigneur saint Godefiroi, 

Si tu fais ce que je desire, 

Nous t'^firons un tombeau 




. wui ihi 






£t*B— N™ 



'"""^ "^^I^™! 






.yt Impmn th=mj«=r - 

Art \><Ay lave 

• Ihc 




iUhmt .lapremt delighit 

££*..— Light. 

Light 1 

*liiu ihill il» will «joy 

Light, iDV, BDd Icinn I butthiil they pcnevert 

Th« following dialogue may not be a belter poem Ihan Herbert's, but it Is 
far more apt and ingenious as Question and answer. It is taken from a 
curious ™lume enlitled "Hygiasticon : or the Right Course of Preserving 
Lite and Health unto exlream old Age : together with Soundnesse and 
Inlegritie of the Senses, Judgement, and Memorie. Written in Laline bj 
l^onard Lessius, and now done into Englishc. l4mo, Cambridge, 1634." 

3 Echo. 




A Glutton 



1 do deilie. 







CI. Ida 



Gl Uy 


■ ftui 

., ipy wish 


Gl. Miy 1 nol. Echo, ut my fill r 
Ec»r. I 

a. Will'i hun mi if 1 drink too c 

£c4s. I 

•;/. Thou mock-n nw, Dymph; 1' 

Gl I>'tihi>wbic 

Gl. Whithn vill'I bring my loul I 
£c*B. T 

CI, DoH thou DO gluttou YlltUOlU 


Gl, Shall I therein finde ease and pleasure ? 
Echo. V ea, sure. 

Gl. But is't a thing which profit brings? 
Echo. It brings. 

Gi. To mind or body? or to both ? 
Echo. To both. 

Gl. Will it my life on earth prolons ? 
Echo. Oh long I 

Gl. Will't make me vigcMrous until death ? 
Echo. TUl death. 

Gl. Will't bring me to eternal blisse? 
Echo. Yes. 

Gl. Then, sweetest Temperance, I'll love thee. 
Echo. I love thee. 

Gl, Then, swinish Gluttonie, I'll lea\e thee. 
Echo. I'll leave thee. 

Gl. I'll be a belly-god no more. 
Echo, No more, 

Gl. If all be true which thou dost tell, 
They who fare sparingly fare well. 
Echo, Farewell. 

Here is a Royalist effort to make Echo throw her voice on the side of 
Charles I. during his struggle with the Parliamentarians : 

What wantest thou, that thou art in thb sad taking ? 

Echo— A. king. 
What made him first remove hence nis residing ? 

Did any here deny him satisfaction ? 

Tell me wherein the strength of faction lies? 

On lies. 
What didst thou when the king left his Parliament? 

What terms wouldst give to gain his company ? 

What wouldst thou do if here thou mightst behold him ? 

Hold him. 
But wouldst thou save him with thy best endeavor ? 

But if he comes not, what becomes of London ? 


Echo shows herself even more fiercely anti-Puritan in the following, which 
D* Israeli tells us was recited at the end of a comedy played by the scholars of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in March, 1641 : 

Now, Exho, on what's religion grounded ? 

Roundhead I 
Whose its professors most considerable? 

Rabble ! 
How do these prove themselves to be the godly ? 

But they in life are known to be the holy. 

Who are these preachers, men or women-common ? 

Common ! 
Come they from any universitie? 

Do they not learning from their doctrine sever? 

Yet they pretend that they do edifie : 

What do you call it, then, to fructify ? 

What church have they, and what pulpits ? 

But now in chambers the Conventicle ; 

Tickle 1 


The (OcUv liun thnwdly in belied. 
Bfllied I 
The godly number ihm will lomi miuci 

Ai for ihe templa, tliey wiih leal emhn 

WhM do they dihIh of biihope' hiermrch; 

CTOBO, un»ga, OTMinen^^^ eir km. 

Nor will tbey lave u> many cxremmiei, 
even n wn or p^^«^™. 

id (bey mffected to ibe cDvemm 

I Stale from Ukk ume 

1 than Dean Sw[ft : 
o ON Woman. 


Bui to Ibe kins >'"!' •■ 
Then God keep king u 

[ are from no less a har 
A Gentle Eci 

Shifktrd. Echo. 1 ween 

,,... "■■"""" 

Slut. Whllaiutwedo 

Ski*. HowiluU Ipleueher whone'ei loved before T 
EtL Be foie. 

SXtf. Wh»l ino.1 move« women when we tbem addnssT 

S«<*. S«y, whal cu keep her chule whom J »doret 

^itf. Then leach De, Echo, how ihall I come by bert 
Eike- Buy her. 

SkH. When boughl, no queHion 1 ihtll be ber deu. 
Etiu. Her deer. 

Ski*. Bui deei have hotiu : how mnu I keep her undert 
Eclu. Keep her un 

Ltmr. Say. wbai will mm that friiking coney 


A tragic Slory is connected with the neil eminplc on our list. It fDrmCi] a 
part of that "treasonable" pamphlet, " Germany in its Deepest Humiliation," 
which the Nuremberg bookseller Palm published in the spring of 1806. The 
treason consisted in criticisms on the policy of Napoleon, then at the height 
of his power. Palm was arrested, conveyed to Brunau, tried by courl-maitial 
on August 26, condemned without being allowed the privilege of pleading his 
own cause either in person or by allorney, sentenced to dealh, and shot on the 
day of his trial. Subsequently, at Si. Helena, Napoleon sought to palliate 


this high-handed outrage and throw the blame on other shoulders : ** All that 
I recollect is, that Palm was arrested, by order of Davoust, I believe, tried, 
condemned, and shot, for having, while the country was in possession qf the 
French and under military occupation, not only excited rebellion among the 
inhabitants, and urged them to rise and massacre the soldiers, but also at* 
tempted to instigate the soldiers themselves to refuse obedience to their 
orders, and to mutiny against their generals. / believe that he met with a fair 
trial." ( Voice from St. Helena^ vol. i. p. 432.) 
Here is a translation of the Echo poem : 

Bonaparte and the Echo. 

BsnaparU. Alone, I am in this sequestered spot not overheard. 

Echo, Heard ! 

Bon. 'Sdeath i Who answers me ? What being is there nigh T 

Echo. I. 

Bon. Now I guess I To report my accents Echo has made her task. 

Echo. Ask. 

Bon. Knowest thou whether London will henceforth continue to resist? 

Echo. Resist. 

Bon. Whether Vienna and other courts will oppose me always ? 

Echo. Always. 

Bon. O Heaven ! what must I expect after so many reverses ? 

Echo. Reverses. 

Bon. What ! should I, like a coward vile, to compound be reduced? 

Echo Reduced. 

Bon. After so many bright exploits be forced to restitution f 

Echo. Restitution. 

Bon. Restitution of what I've got by true heroic featt and martial address? 

Echo. Yes. 

Bon. What will be the fate of so much toil and trouble ? 

Echo. Trouble. 

Bon. What will become of my people, already too unhappy? 

Echo. Happy. 

Bon. What should I then be, that I think myself immortal? 

Echo. Mortal. 

Bon. The whole world is filled with the glo^ of my name, you know ? 

Echo. No. 

Bon. Formerly its &me struck this vast globe with terror. 

Echo. Error. 

Bon. Sad Echo, begone I I grow infuriate I I die i 

Echo. Die I 

The following verses, of uncertain date and authorship, are not altogether 
without merit : 

If I address the Echo yonder. 
What will its answer b«, I wonder ? 

Echo— I wonder. 

O wondrous Echo, tell me, bUsti, 
Am I for marriage or celibacy ? 

Echo — Silly Bessy. 

If then to win the maid I try. 
Shall I find her a property? 

Echo— A proper tie. 

If neither being grave nor fiinny 
Will win the maid to matrimony ? 

Echo— Try money. 

If 1 should try to gain her heart. 
Shall I go plain, or rather smart ? 


She mayn't love dress, and 1. again, then 
May come too plain, and she'll complain then ? 

Echo— Com* plain, then. 

m 23 



ijr ihai khould pi 


Wheo CTDU uv good wordi can AppemK he^^ 
Wlul i( lucb luiichiy whimi ilioiild xiu htrt 

mymous, but obviously of later date thaa 

Eoo At 

ID Echo. 


WhoK wordi »re few ud oftea 
Whmi to a qutnion >he ihould u) 


"a'o- 1 

Wham ihouM I m 



Quoih Echo, »h«rply, " Nury Bin." 

Quuh Echo, wi 
But If »inc nulden > 

4Jlunh Echo, very coolly, " Let Ih 

Wbllt if, in wie oT her dildun. 

With Cupid'l dear, delicioui chain 
So cloHly IhU I un'I gtl out ? 

Quoth Echo, luighJDgly, " Get 00 

ill ^u!!^"y Ui 


We will close our list with a handful oijmx d^ esprit. The first appeared 
in the Sunday Times in 1836, when the Orpheus of Music was charming all 
London at exorbitant rates : 

What are they who pay three guineas 
To hear a tune of Paganini's? 

Euio— Pack o' ninnies. 

The second, which appeared in 1886, is attributed to an echo that haunts the 
Sultan's palace at Constantinople. Abdul Hamid is supposed to question it 
to the intentions of the European powers and his own resources : 




Mes principaut^? 

Mes cuirass^? 

Mes Pashas? 

Et Suleiman f 


The other two tell their own story : 

I'd fain praise yourpocm, but tell me, how is it, 
When I cry out, " Exquisite," Echo cries, " Quiz it I" 

What must be done to conduct a newspaper right ? — Write. 
What is necessary for a farmer to assist him ? — Systeln. 
What would give a blind man the greatest delieht ? — Light. 
* What is the l^t counsel given by a justice of we peace ? — Peace. 

Who commit the greatest abominations ? — Nations 
What cry is the greatest terrifier?— Fire. 
What are some women's chief exercise ? — Sighs. 

Eclipse first; the rest nowhere, the famous declaration made by Captain 
0*KelIey at Epsom, May 3, 1769, when the horse Eclipse distanced the field. 
It has passed mto a familiar illustration. 

Homer is not more decidedly the first of heroic poets, Shakespeare is not more decidedly 
the first of dramatists, Demosthenes u not more decidedly the nrst of orators, than Boswefl 
b the first of biographers. He has distanced all competitors so decidedly that it is not worth 
while to place them. EUmpse is first, and the rest nowhere. — Macaulay : Rexne^v of Croker^s 
Botwelft Johnson, 

dorases TiiififiUne ! (" Crush the infamous thing !") the motto adopted by 
Voltaire : 

1 end all my letters with " Crush the infamous thing," just as Cato always said, " Such is 
my opinion, et delenda est Carthago." — Letter to lyAiemhertf June 93, 1760. 

Explaining the meaning of his term more definitely, — 

I want you to crush the infamous thing, that is the main point. It is necessary to reduce it 
to the state in which it is in £lngland ; and you can succeed in this if you will. — Ibid. 

Furthermore he writes, — 

By the in/Ame you will understand that I mean superstition ; as for reli^on, I love and 
*j respect it as you do (" Vous pensez bien que je ne parle que de la superstition ; car pour la 

religion, je t'aime et la respecte comme vous"). 

A quotation from a letter of D'Alembert to Voltaire, May 4, 1762, shows 
that infdme was understood by them to be of the feminine gender, agreeing 
with chose understood : 


fccKHi I'lDame. ne riptwi-voiu un« ceue. Ah. mon ban Dieu. la 

. - - . .hlng » 
jt of ctmhingf And why ih^> accvii of zeal, Ea the decli _ .., 

never befoR enjoyed, iiill Te»iwi>n,bva poelT This qiteition li one which tkmancU ui ex- 
plicit wuwer. The /-/*"' or Volute was ntx religion, i»r Ihe Uuiltiiui ] ■' ' 

Ronui Caibolic Church. It faat ril^in cUtimint tHptrnalaral attlheritt 

. ilic Church. /( iMt Ttl^m cUtimint tHpnnalaral attlheTXtv.aiid eii/arti 

m ty l-aini and ttHatli/i, , . . It wu ihemcnt uciemuidppwerl'ularall ■Ilbnci 

Ihai of the fnedidne-tiun and the chief, with tnodem meant and apt 
pAiiroN: ii//«^(W/fl.>^, vol. ii. p. »B7- 

DtUnda est Carthage ("Carthage musi lie destroyed"), the words referred lo 
above by Voltaire, are the words with which Ihe elder Cato always ended hix 
speeches, whatever the subject might be, and thus incited the Romans to the 
third Punic war. 

EdelireiBB means " noble whiteness" or " noble parity ;" its lender star- 
shaped flowers are ramiliar lo all Alpine tourists. Tlie plant is scarce and 
very partial. It IS found in the Engadine, seldom in the Bernese Obetland, 
and has particular corners and mountains that it aflfecls. This scarcity and 
partiality gave lo Ihe edelweiss a somewhat unhealthy notoriely. Th^ rarer 
It becarne. the more ambitious was tbe tourist to possess it. Every cockney 
hal was adorned with ihe curious bloom, purchased, not by laborious and 
perilous enternrise, but for a few centimes. Edelweiss was sold by the hand- 
iul at Inlerlaken, Chamouni, and Giindelwald. Guides, porters, and boys 
were templed to riHe the mountain of its peerless Howers. When Ihe rage 
for "art greens" broke out in England, esthetic young ladies crowned them- 
selves with wreaths of these soft petals, or even appeared al fancy lulls in 
the character of 7»i^//»j, smolhered in edelweiss. At last the Swiss gov- 
ernment determined lo put down by law the wholesale destruction of this 
popular flower. It was rapidly disappearing Uanx Ihe coanlry, when an en- 
aclmeni made it penal lo lake a plant up by the roots. The dignity and im- 
portance of legialalioii gave a new impetus lo Ihe inleiCSI that was allached 
lo the plant, and going in search of Ihe edelweiss has ^ain become as attrac- 
tive a source of danger as any to be found iit Switzerland. 

Edge-tools, There's no jeettng irith. The tine is from Reaumont and 
Fletcher's "The LJttle French Lawyer," Act iv., Sc 7. Tennyson has a 
similar phrase : 

The wisdom thus embodied has found other modes of expression, — e.g., Don'l 
monkey wilh the buzz-saw, a rather slangy btit forcible American collo- 

^oUtA, a sobriquet popularly given to Philip, Duke of Orleans, father of 
Louis Philippe, because he sided with the revolutionary parly and was fond 
of quoting their motto, " Ljberty, Equality, Erateruity. Nevertheless Ihe 


republicans doubted the sincerity of a princess conversion, and sent him to 
meet the great leveller Death on the guillotine (1793). 

Dr. De Morgan holds that the proverb *• As sure as eggs is eggs" 
(always quoted in this ungrammatical form) is a corruption of the logician's 
announcement of identity, " X is Jf." " From the sublime to the ridiculous 
is but a step, from X to eggs hardly so much." {Notes and Queries^ third series, 
vi. 203.) 

Egypt; a sobriquet applied to the southern portion of the State of Illinois, 
— a figurative allusion to the Egyptian darkness of ignorance and immorality 
that was anciently credited to this section. But a more honorable explanation 
is that the extreme fertility of the soil made it the only portion of Illinois to 
escape the corn-famine of 1835, whence inhabitants of neighboring regions 
went down, as of old they went down into Egypt, to buy and carry back corn. 

Elephant, To see the, American slang, to see life, to see the world, 
especially the underside of life and the world. There is at least a very inter- 
esting connection between this phrase and an East Indian custom mentioned 
by Montaigne. Quoting from Arrian's " History of India," ch. xvii., he tells 
us that, though chastity was held in high esteem in India, a married woman 
was allowed to part with her honor in exchange for an elephant, and indeed 
gloried in the tact that she was so highly estimated. Barr^re and Leland 
mention as another possible origin for the phrase an old ballad of a farmer, 
who while driving his mare alonp the highway met with a showman's elephant, 
which knocked him over, spilt his milk, and destroyed his eggs. The farmer 
consoled himself for his loss by reflecting that he had at least seen the 
elephant. And he said, — 

Now in future no one can declare 

That I've not seen the elephant, — neither the mare. 

EXzevirs, the general name given to the productions of the famous printing- 
house founded by Lewis Elzevir in Leyden, his first publication bearing date 
1583. By an interesting coincidence, the last of the Aldines is dated 1583. 
Thus the new house obscurely arose just when their great predecessor was 
declining. Aldines and Elzevirs are always linked together as the two chiefest 
glories of the bibliophile. Vet there are notable contrasts in the histories of 
the two great houses and in their publications. Aldus was a meml>er of a 
great family, with a princely love of learning for its own sake. The Elzevirs 
were merely successful tradesmen, — crafty money-grabbers, who pilfered and 
pirated whenever they had a chance. And even Heinsius, the scholar who 
supplied what Aldus had and the Elzevirs lacked, a knowledge of letters, was 
a distinctly unlovable character, full of malice and all uncharitableness. The 
Dutch house, therefore, has none of the picturesque interest of the Venetian. 
Nevertheless their editions are typographically as well as intrinsically beautiful. 
They have always run a very close race with the Aldines, and at certain 
moments have even distanced them in the favor of bibliomaniacs. 

There were fourteen Elzevirs in all. The first was Lewis. His sixth son, 
Bonaventure, struck out in the line which has given the Elzevirs their p>eculiar 
eminence when, in 1629, he commenced the publication of cheap and neat 
editions of the classics in duodecimo. After the death of Daniel Elzevir, in 
1680, at Amsterdam, the firm rapidly degenerated in the hands of Abraham 
(the second), great-grandson of the founder of the house, and came to an 
inglorious end at his death, in 1712. 

There are Elzevirs and Elzevirs, as the beginner in bibliography soon 
learns to his cost And then there are Elzevirs which are not Elzevirs. Not 



only are many of the genuine publicalions of ihe house practically worthies* 
(the "good dates" range only from itxiul i6l6 lo 1680, and not all Ihe "good 
dates" are borne by valuable ejiani])1es), but it comfbrleth the soul to know 
that these pirales were themselves pirated. Spurious Elzevirs are as thick a:, 
blackberries. More than one hundred and fifty are known to experts. There 
■re many little niceties also about the editions which no one could intuitively 
know unless he were afflicted with gome form of hereditary bibliomania. Thus, 
Ihe most desirable iif all Elzevir rarities is the Czsar of 1635, the acknowl- 
edged masterpiece of the house. Bookmen grow rapturous over the type, 
the oinameiits, the paper, the printing, the purity of the texL Now, there 
were three impressions of this masterpiece issued in the one year, 1635. 
The last two correct the only imperfection in the first issue, where pages 149, 
335. and 475 are by mistake printed as 153, 345, and 37<l respectively. These 
are worth comparatively little. The rignt Cxsai with Ihe wrong pages is 
worth anywhere from twenty to fifty pounds. Another anomaly : the Csesat 
is Ihe acknowledged masterpiece of the Elzevirs, therefore it is the most highly 
prized ? Not a bit of it : at least not by bibliomaniacs. An entirely valueless 
cookery-book, " Le Pitissier Francois, printed by Lewis and Uaniel Elzevir 
in 1665, sold some years ago for four hundred pounds. Yet it is <>nly a rare 
book in the sense thai it is extremely scarce in Ihe market. At least forty 
copies are known to exist. 

Bmber-day* (in Latin. J^ana quatuirr ttrnpura. " the four fasting sea- 
sons"), the English name for the periods of fasting and prayer which the Catholic 
and other liturgical Churches have appointed to be observed respectively in 
Ihe four seasons of the year. They are Ihc Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday 
after Ihe firs! Sunday in Lent, after Whit-Sunday, afler September 14, and after 
December 13. The weeks in which these days fall are called Ember-weeks. 
Never was a term better contrived fur an etymological pitfall than this. Bailey, 
rushing in with that cheerful alacrity which affords its quota of merriment 10 
the more fearsome philological angel of to-day. derives it " from a custom 
anciently of putting Asha on their heads on those Days, in Token of Hu- 
mility." But no such custom ever existed. It is a pure invention lo account 
lot the name. Others assert thai the Ember-days are so called because they 
occur in DeC'Cmber and Sept-ember, forgetting that they occur also in months 
that have no such convenient ending. A still mote ancient authority, Tarlton, 
in "Newes oat of Puigatorie." describes how in his imaginary place of 
torture "One pope sal with a smock sleeve about his necke, and that was he 
that made the imbering weekes, in honour of his faire and 1>eautiful curtizen 
Imbra" (p. 64 in Shakespeare Society reprint). Dr. Murray, who thinks it 
not wholly impossible that the word may have been due to popular etymology 
working upon some vulgar Latin corruption of qaatuer taapora (cf German 
Qiiatember, F.mber-tide|, prefers the derivation from the Old English jffiAryfu, 
period, revolution of time. No doubt a fancied connection with dust and 
ashes has influenced the modern form. 

Bmblematic. Flgurate, or Shaped Poenu. There is pity, or even 
rorgiveness, for all forms of human folly, imbecility, error, and crime. Vet Ihe 
makers of what are known by any one of the above titles strain the divinity 
of forgiveness lo an almost diabolic tension. A famous saint, variously spea- 
fied by various hagiologists, used to say, "There, but for the grace of God, 
goes Anthony of Padua." or what not, when he saw a thief, a murderer, or 
other malefactor brought lo the bar of Justice. Hut no one has ever said. 
" There, but for the grace of God, goes Brown." or Jones, or Robinson, when 
some addle-paled versifier has been caught red-handed in the act of "shaping" 
a poem. No one, save a hardened criminal of this type, has ever been willing 


to admit that his heart, however unregenerate, however unaided from above, 

would stray naturally into these devious paths of dulness. Though one*s 

better self may revolt at the grotesque horrors of the mediaeval hell, one feels 

that not even the theological mind has ever conceived of a punishment severe 

enough to castigate these trespassers on our patience. And as we must 

long m vain for a new Dante to consign them to some as yet unimagined 

deep of deeps, one rejoices at the castigation, severe in itself, yet mild in 

comparison, which the critics have occasionally inflicted. Our heart goes out 

with a great leap of joy to honest Samuel Butler when he takes Edward 

Benlowes, formerly known as ** the excellently learned," places him across his 

paternal knee, and trounces him in the following fashion : "There is no feat 

of activity, nor gambol of wit, that ever was performed by man, from him that 

vaults on Pegasus to him that tumbles through the hoop of an anagram, but 

Benlowes has got the mastery of it, whether it be high-rope wit or low-rope 

wit He has all sorts of echoes, rebuses, chronograms, etc As for altars and 

pyramids in poetry, he has outdone all men that way ; for he has made a 

gridiron and a frying-pan in verse, that besides the likeness in shape, the very 

tone and sound of the words did perfectly represent the noise that is made by 

these utensils. When he was a captain, he made all the furniture of his horse, 

from the bit to the crupper, in the beaten poetry, every verse being fitted to 

the proportion of the thing ; as the MdU of moderation^ the saddle of content^ 

and the crupper of constancy ; so that the same thing was both epigram and 

emblem, even as the mule is both horse and ass." {Character of a Small Poet.) 

Rare Ben Jonson too has his fling at these pattern-cutting poets, who he 

says could fashion 

A pair of scissors and a comb in verse. 

Dryden has scoffed at them, and Addison has gibbeted them above all other 
offenders on the pillory which he constructed for the manufacturers of false 
wit But what is the method of this offence ? It consists in pieces of verse 
so constructed, by due arrangements of short and long lines, as to exhibit the 
shapes of certain physical objects, such as bottles, glasses, axes, fans, hearts, 
eggs, saddles, a pair of gloves, a pair of pot-hooks, a pair of spectacles. And, 
alas that we must acknowledge it, in spite of the degradation of the offence, 
great names in the past, great names even in the immediate present, must be 
grouped among the offenders. Indeed, so highly was it thought of at one time 
that the very name of the reputed inventor has been preserved to us. Let 
us hasten to place it beside that of the rash youth who fired the Ephesian 
dome. Simmias of Rhodes (flourished about B.C. 324), — how does that look 
on the same line as Erostratus ? 

He has left us three good-sized poems cast in these Procrustean moulds, 
|*The Wings," "The Egg," and "The Hatchet" The shape of every stania 
in each poem corresponds with its title. So greatly were these esteemed in 
the seventeenth century that an Italian named Fortunio Liceti compiled an 
encyclopaedia (published in Paris, 1635) whose contents were entirely devoted 
to the exploitation of their beauties. 

Classic antiquity has left us other evidences of the fact that these outrages 
had a certain vogue even at the most flourishing period of Greek poetry. To 
the honor of the Augustan age of the Romans it should be added that the 
Latin specimens that have come down to us belong to the decadence of the 
Empire or to mediaeval times. The only portion of the globe where em- 
blematic verses still survive is in the East, especially in China and Japan, 
where we are told that they are still held in high esteem, so that poems are 
still fashioned in the form of men's faces or the bodies of cows or other 
animals. The following curious specimen is given by Mr. W. R. Alger as an 
effort of Hindoo ingenuity. The lines of this erotic triplet are so arranged 



e V 

I ""' 

s ^' 

Thnte dumu to win, wlib nil my cmplK I woold gfmiOj put. 
The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were the golden age of emblem- 
atical poetry in Europe. And heading the list of English word-torlurera 
stands so good and great a man as George Herbert We quote two speci- 
mens, and then pass on with our eyes veiled, to avoid gaiing too intently on 
a good man's shame : 

The Altar. 

'I WhoK puu an u Thy hi 

WhcRTcne each put 
or my haid heut 
UHb id thii frmnWt 
To praiK Thy uame : 



The next is quaint enough, but one has to make believe a good deal in order 
to detect the emblematic resemblance : 



The following anonymous effort explains itself to the eye at once : 

The Cross. 

Blest they who seek. 

While in their youth. 

With spirit meek. 

The way of truth; 
To them the sacred Scriptures now disjrfay 
Christ as the onlv true and living way. 
His precious blood on Calvary was given 
To make them heirs of endless bliss in heaven ; 
And e'en on earth the child of God can trace 
The glorious blessings of his Saviour's grace. 

For them He bore 

His Father's frown ; 

For them He wore 

The thorny Crown; 

Nailed to the Cross, 

Endured its pain. 

That His life's loss 

Might be their gain. 

Then haste to choose 

That better part. 

Nor dare reftue 

The Lord thv heart. 

Lest He declare. 

•* I know you not,' 

And deep despair 

Should be your lot. 

Now look to Jesus, who on Calvary died. 

And trust on Him alone who there was cradaed. 



The rollowing appears to us, on the whole, the beat in the langiuge t 

Ode to an Old Vioun. 

Tom, — 



With gay And briltUnr »uiids 
He Hweel though (ran^eni foLocc lend. 
Thy polithcd DECk in close cmbncc 
I citup while joy illumu my bca. 
When a'er Ihy itrtagi I dnwmy bow, 

S lively Unin I touch,— ud lot 

Oblivioug all! 1 feel my woei no mon; 
But >klp o-et Ihc slrlagi. 

"Cheerily, O mciriiy gol' 

You'^very well "ES^' 

1 will find mutic, 

IfycM will And bow, 

FroiB I up in alio, to c down below." 

Fatigued, I pauie to change the lime 

For tome aaa^io wlemn and lublime. 

My heaft, reaponsive In the flDothing charm. 
Throbs equal ly.vrhilsi evtry heallh-corradlDgcaTC 
Lle« proitrate, vanquished, by the melMAiUtui air. 

Reedy Hauiboy may iqueak. >aili"E Flauio may u]uill,' 

Bui Ihoul'n^'olT'FiJdre, an princt of Swm all.' 

Could e'en Dryden return thy pralM lo rehearM, 

Hit Ode to Cecilia would Kem nigged vcrK. 

Now to thy cax. in flannel warm to lie. 

Till called again to pipe thy mailer'a 

Here, as an o&et, ne give a Bpecimen where ail the rules of the gam«, 
such as the}' are, are violated. The sole ingenuity in this form of literary 
trilling consists in so adjusting Che length of poetical lines that the printer by 
merely following "copy will produce the desired emblem or figure. But the 
sulijnined e^iample is simply prnse arbitrarily broken up into appropriate 
lengths, the whole ingenuity being on the part of the printer. Vet such 
specimens are not uncommon in England. 






The Wineglass. 

Who hath woe? Who hath sorrow ? Who 

hath contentions ? Who hath wounds 

without cause? Who hath redness 

fA eyes? lliey that tarry long 

at the wine I they that 

go to seek mixed wine I 

Look not thou upon the 

wine when it is red, 

when it giveth 

its colour 

in the 

when it 

moveth itself 


the last it 

biteth like a serpent, 

and stingeth like an adder I 

The French rarely offend in this fashion. Pannard, who was an expert, 
has given us an emblematic wineglass which is a. wineglass, for it could be 
printed in no other shape without violating its poetical integrity : 

Nous ne pouvons rien trouver sur la tore 

Qui soit si bon ni si beau que le verre. 

Du tendre amour berceau charmant, 

C'est toi, champ^tre fou^ize, 

C'est toi qui sers A fiure 

L'heureux instrument 

Oil souvent pitille. 

Mousse, et brille 

Lejus qui rend 

&&i, riant. 


Quelle doucetur 

ll porte au coeur I 




'on m'en donne 

^te et comme il faut. 




?u*on m'en donne 
ite et comme il faut. 
L'on y Yoit sur ses flots ch^ris 
Nager I'all^gresse et les ris. 



A rhomboidal dirge, by George Wither, is good enough of its kind : 

Sweet lEToves, to you 
You hills that highest dwell. 
And all you humble vales, adieu! 
You wanton brooks and solitary rocks. 
My dear companions ail. and vou, my tended flocks! 
Farewell, my pipe I and all tnose pleasing songs whose strains 
Delighted once the fairest dancing nymphs upon the plaint. 
You discontents, whose deep and over-deadly smart 
Have without pity broke the truest heart. 
Sighs, tears, and every sad annoy. 
That erst did with me dwell. 
And others joy. ' 



The last example on our lUt U this remarkable triumph of ingenaitjr on the 
subject of the Crucifiiion. Mr. Bombaugh eives it in his "Gleanings for the 
Curious," and calls it a curious piece of antiquilji. But the structure of the 
verse, the metre, and the rhythm indicate that it is not earlier-than the laM 
half of the seventeenth century, and may be much more recent ; 

MyGodI My God! 

Lei nol, O God I 
And numbcrtcH, b« 
And my poor tout tw t 

1, I Urdl remember I oi 

And lb 

O L«iil my 


And BI the d( 

hi. ™/ 

nwbla'' " 
unu. wKb 

af«ml,lhe U 

!, ir Ihou beat l>c» 





1 1 

middle cross represents our Saviour ; those on either side, 
the two thieves. On the top and down the middle cross is our Saviour's 
expression, " My God \ My God 1 why hast thou forsaken me ?" and on the 
top of the cross is the Latin inscnption " INRI,"— Jesus Naxarenos Rei 
Judxorum, — i.e., Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. Upon the cross on 
the right hand is the prayer of one of the thieves. — "Ijjrd I remember me 
when thou Comesi into thy kingdom." On the left-hand cross is the saying, 
or reproach, of the other,—" If thou beesl the Christ, save thyself and us. 
The versification begins at the top of the middle cross,— "My God! My 
God 1 In rivers of my tears." The whole is a piece of tolerable veme, which 
is to be read across all the columns, making as many tines as there are lettert 
in the alphabet. The authorship it uDknown. 


Emendation, Conjeotnral. The ways of the critic, especially when 
commenting on a difficult passage in his favorite author, are full of instruction 
to the learned, of gladsome delight to the curious. Sometimes he insists on 
reading all sorts of subtle meanings into this or that line, and then stands 
aghast with admiration at the greatness of the mind that could think the 
things he himself has invented for it Sometimes he gives it up in despair, 
and decides that the author never did say what has been attributed to him, 
but that the mistake of an amanuensis or a printer has been allowed to go 
forth to the world unchallenged. Then he sets himself the task of discover- 
ing what it was that the author did say. Occasionally, it must be owned, he 
suggests a felicitous alteration. The author may or may not have said this, 
but the alternative proposed is what the author ought to have said. There is 
no finer instance than the passage *' 'a babbled of green fields" in the descrip- 
tion of Falstaff's death (Henry K, Act ii., Sc 3). The folio has "a Uble 
of green fields," which is mere nonsense in spite of ail efforts to elucidate it 
Pope conjectured that this was a stage direction addressed to a property-man 
named Greenfields which had somehow got mixed up with the text. This is 
not a joke ; indeed, it imposed upon Johnson. It was Theobald who made 
sense and poetry out of the passage by turning "a table*' into **'a babbled." 

But more frequently the shoe has shifted, — the commentator has put his 
foot into it A note in BelTs edition of Dryden*s ** Absalom and Achitophel," 
Part I., supplies an instance. The editor's ear is offended by the line 

By natural instinct they change their lord. 

This, he says, is the only line in which the melody is flattened into prose. 
He suggests that a slight alteration would redeem the metre : 

How they by natural instinct change their lord. 

The silliness of this note is equalled only by its impertinence. The line 
is metrically perfect as it stands. Natural has its three full syllables, and in- 
stinct is accented on its second syllable, the usual method in Dryden*s time, as 
in Shakespeare's. 

The champion instance, however, is supplied by Dr. Bentley's famous (or 
infamous) edition of Milton. It was issued in 1732, and contained no less 
than a thousand conjectural emendations of the text. The word emendations 
should be pronounced with a distinct sarcastic emphasis which can be only 
faintly indicated by italics. Bentley's premiss, his original proposition, was as 
follows. Milton, as every one knows, was blind when he produced the ** Para- 
dise Lost." He dictated it to an amanuensis. Now, it is obvious that through 
mistake or inadvertence the amanuensis might frequently have set down a 
word similar in sound to that dictated by the poet, but of very different sig- 
nification. So far we can follow the argument with a clear conscience. But 
when the doctor goes on to urge further that the amanuensis may have inter- 
polated whole verses of his own composition into the poem without the poet's 
being any the wiser, we can only reply that the bare fact is a possibility, but 
that there is no evidence, intrinsic or extrinsic, to support it And when, 
accepting this wild possibility as a fact, he goes on to imagine what it was that 
Milton really did say, and substitutes those imaginings in lieu of the lines as 
they stand in the book, we cry out at this marvellous exhibition of editorial 
vanity and impertinence. And the trouble is increased when we find the 
doctor putting his clumsy hoof into the very choicest parterre of Miltonic 
£incy and trampling the flowers into a tangled mess of absurdity. Nor are our 
outraged feelings soothed by the extraordinary mixture of effrontery and 
vanity in the statement that, in the absence of manuscripts to collate, he must 
rely on his own ** sagacity" and ** happy conjecture." 


To take a few examples. Milton is describing how Satan's speecli was 
received by the fallen angels : 

He gpakt ; ud, to conlinn big wonli, oul-lew 
or mighw chmbmTuie ludden'bUtt ' ' 

AninsI Ih« Higher ; and Aercc wiih enspAd uiib 

CLuhcd DD thrir fouiidiDg ihitid* tbf din of war. 

Hurling dtJuD« lowbrd the vault of Heaven. 
A forcible and splendid passage. Not a ward but carries ciactlv tbe right 
sound and the right sense. Not an epilbel cuuld be changed without Itns. 
The doctor, however, thinks otherwise. In the second line be substitutes 
ilfdti for tmords, in the fifth ruiordi for armi, in the sixth ttuZ/r for vaidl. The 
first and second emendations ate bad enough, the third utterly ruins a noble 

But worse remains behind. One of the finest lines in Milton is this : 

No light, but rather dajkneu vuible. 
This expression shocks the doctor, who brings his sagacity to bear upon it 
and produces this happy conjecture : 

The seventy-fourth line of the same book o9ends the nice critical taste of 

this iconoclast : 

His ear rebels at what he considers a " vicious 

One other instance must suffice. It is as flagran 
by a curious bit of reasoning which should be c 
attention of all emendators. 

At the conclusion of Adam's interview with the angel, Millon says, — 

So paned they, the angel up to huven 

From the thick ihade ; mni Adam to Iiii bower. 

Now for the doctor's argument ; " After the conversation between Adam 
and the angel in the bower, it may be well presumed that our first parent 
waited on his heavenly guest at his departure to some lillle distance from 
it, till he began lo take hjs flight towards heaven." Thtrefort the poet could 
not with propriety say that the angel parted from the thick shade — i'.^., the 
bower — to go lo heaven. And if, on the other hand, Adam attended the 
angel no farther than the door or entrance of the bower, then "how could 
Adam return lo his bower if he never left it?" By a happy conjecture the 
doctor succeeds not only in vindicating the grand old gardener's respect 
for the sodal amenities, but in securing the logical integrity of the verse, 
as Ihiis : 

So parted they, the ajlgel up to heaven, 

It is pleasant to know that this edition of Milton was received with a chorus 
of derision in its own day, and was forthwith cast into the limbo of oblivion, 



where only the del vers in forgotten curios have disturbed it. The following 
epigram was of contemporary origin : 

On Milton's Executioner. 

Did Milton's prose, O Charles! thy death defend? 

A furiuus foe, unconscious proves a friend ; 

On Milton's verse does Bentley comment? know 

A weak, officious friend becomes a foe. 

While he would seem his author's fame to further. 

The murtherous critic has avenged thy murther. 

Pope's lines are better known : 

Bentley, lone to wrangling schools confined. 
And but by books acquainted with mankind. 
To Milton lending sense, to Horace wit. 
He makes them write what never poet writ. 

Bentley was not the only person who sought to amend Milton. Atterbury 
was congratulated on " a happy reading which vindicated Milton from degrading 
his style by a very vile pun :" 

And brought into this world (a worid of woe) ; 

the happy reading consisting in the parentheses, which utterly destroy the 
meaning of the line. What German critic was it who amended Shakespeare 
as follows ? — 

Finds tongues in trees, stones in the running brooks. 

Sermons in books, and good in everything. 

One of the finest hymns in the English language is Cardinal Newman's 
** I^ad, Kindly Light." But comparatively few people know it in its integrity. 
Properly, it consists of three verses. A fourth, which may be found in most 
Protestant Episcopal hymnals, was added by Dr. Bickersteth, the author of 
" Ye.sterday, To-Day, and Forever." The genuine verses, moreover, have in 
various American compilations been tinkered out of shape and harmony. 
Below will be found the correct and the incorrect versions, the incorrect 
being printed in italics : 

Lead, kindly Lieht, amid the encircling gloom, 
^nd kindly iigkt amtd the encir cling gloatn. 

Lead Thou me on ; 

And Uad me on / 
The ni^ht is dark, and I am far from home. 
The ntg^t is dark, and I am far from home 

Lead Thou me on. 

Lead Thou me on I 
Keep Thou my feet ; I do not ask to see 
Keep Thou my feet ; / do not euk to see 
The distant scene ; one step enough for me. 
The distant scene : one step's enough for me. 

I was not ever thus, nor prayed that Thou 
1 was not ever thus, nor prayed that Then 

Shouldst lead me on ; 

Shouldst lead me on I 
I loved to choose and see my path ; but now 
/ loved to choose and see my path ; but now 

Lead Thou me on. 

Lead Thou me on I 
I loved the garish day ; and, spite of fears, 
y loved day's daMMiing light, and spite of/ears 
Pride ruled my will : remember not past years. 
Fride ruled my will: remember not past years. 

So long Thy power has blest me. sure it still 

So lon£ Thy power hath blessed me, surely still 

Will lead me on 




or-ji liail anfllfmiii imllt 

Dr. Charles S. Robinson, who Gist ptinted Ibe incorcect version in his col- 
lection originally (1862) known as "Songa of the Church," but since re- 
baptized " Songs of the Sanctuary," has been blamed for all the emendalions. 
But in a letter to the Cengregatienaiiit shortly aflet Newman's death. Dr. 
Robinson pleads guilly only to the change of the first line : " Who changed 
that second line to 'And lead me on ;' who put 'day's dauiine light' in the 
place of 'the ^rish day;' who left off the two commas before and after 
'light,* so beginning the word without a capital to personify it; who con- 
cluded (hat ' surely still 'Twill' was any belter than ' sure it slill Will ;' who 
ingeniously got rid of 'moor and fen,' or 'crag and torrent,' and smoothed 
down everything lo the traditional 'dreary doubt' and the ordinary ' pain and 
sorrow,' — 1 am sure I cannot conjecture. None of that 'tinkcrine' was done 
in our shop." The copy of the hymn aa it first came into his hands contained 
all these changes. I1 had been sent to him with a package of other clippings 
by "one of the highest authorities in the Church," who invited his special 
attention to this above all the others, but could give him no information as lo 
the authorship. Dr. Robinson's friend then went on lo remark that when he 
found it the piece had evidently been much obscured by a printer's mistake 
concerning one word in what must have been sent to him in manuscript. " I 
recall his look as, in his characteristic and fastidiously tasteful way," says Dr. 
Robinson in the Coitgrtgatiinniliii, "he proceeded lo point Out that in writing 
the letter L many persons formed it very much like an S ; then also the 
letter n when closed up at the top resembled an a ; so the compositor bad 
most likely missed the significance, for as a bet the line began with what 
destroyed the whole meaning,—* Lead, kindly Liaht, amid.' This would have 
to be corrected so that it might read, ' Send kindly light amid the encircling 
gloom ;' then something might be made of it for a hymn, and it could be put 
in the portion of the book for the choir to set to music. I thought the piece 
was very beautiful ; nobody over this side of the water had ever told us who 
composed the poetry. This was nearly a whole generation ago, I put It joy- 
ously into my booii, and eventually, doing the best I could with a very awkward 
metre, had it set to a simple chant, and it became popular with the leading 
singers around town. All this time the Rev, John Henry Newman, who put 
it into Lyra ApOStolica, was living in Birmingham at peace, in ignorance of 
my blunder. Very likely he died in utter obliviousness of any 'impertinence' 
- American compiler who took his three verses wandering around name- 

The mistake made by Dr. Robinson and his friend was, after all, a pardon- 
able one. For in the version as they received it the first line made nonsense 
in connection with the second ; 

But in the true reading, and especially under the original title, "The Pillar 
of the Cloud." it would have been mere dulness to misunderstand it. New 
Testament eiposition has taught that it was the second person of the Trinity 
who led Israel through the wilderness in the form of a pillar of cloud by day 
and a pillar of fire by night That by Ught Cardinal Newman meant Christ 
is further evidenced by the stanzas in anouer of his hymns : 




Now that the sun is gleaming bright. 

Implore we, bending low. 
That He, the uncreated Light, 

May guide us as we go. 

And while the hours in order flow, 

O Christ, securely fence 
Our gates, beleaguered by the foe. 

The gate of every sense. 

An excellent satire on critical emendation is contained in Franklin's story of 
how he was applied to for an inscription by one John Thompson, just setting 
up in business as a hatter. Franklin composed the following sign : ** John 
Thompson, hatter, makes and sells hats for ready money." But one friend 
said, ** It is too long ; nobody will stop to read it ; besides, it is tautology, because 
a i>erson wtio makes a hat is a hatter." Out came the word fuUUr, The next 
friend appealed to objected, ** If you say for ready money, very few people will 
enter your shop." The objection was sustained and the offending words elided. 
'* Nay," cried a third critic, ** nobody will care a farthing who makes the hats, 
so long as they are good." So the words makes and were crossed out. ** John 
Thompson sells hats" remained. The last friend said, ** It is ridiculous to tell 
people you sell hats, for nobody will think vou such a fool as to give them 
away." Finally nothing was left but "John Thompson." In conclusion, 
Franklin remarks that this experience decided him never again to write any- 
thing that would be subjected to the revision of others. 

** Who was that silly body," asked the Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table, 
** that wanted Burns to alter * Scots wha hae,' so as to lengthen the last line, 

'Edward f chains and slavery." 

And in his humorous way he goes on to invent an appropriate anecdote. He 
had been applied to for a poem to be read at a certain celebration. Under- 
standing that it was to be a festive and convivial occasion, he had ordered 
himself accordingly. But it seems that the president for the occasion was 
what is called a teetotaler. So back came the poem, corrected and amended, 
with the following letter : 

Dbak Sik, — Your poem gives good satis&ction to the committee. The sentiments expressed 
with rderence to Uauor are not, nowever, those generally entertained by this community. I 
have therefore conmilted the clergyman of this place, who has made some slight changes, which 
he thinks will remove all objections, and keep the valuable portions of the poem. Please to 
inform me of your charge for said poem. Otir means are limited, etc., etc.. 

Yours with respect. 

Here it is, with the slight alterations : 

Ceme I fill a fresh bumper,- 

wliy should we go 

While the ■»eia> still reddens our cupe as they flow ! 


Pour out the ri ch ju i o ee still bright with the sua, 


jni o'er the brimmed crystal the 

shall run. 


half-ripened apples 

pMpple glebed almiers their life-dews have bled : 
taste sugar of lead 

b the h^t ii of the iwi t w MH >*>»*y ■» » •<» 
rank poisons nthut I Hi 

lie hid fai the 

stable-boys smoking long-nines 


Dow n, cfow d »iih ihc 

In the recent editions of the " Autocrat" Dr. Holmes mentions a British 
Reviewer who was quite indignant at the treatment this "convivial song" had 
received. No committee, he thought, would dare to treat a Scotch author in 
that way. " I could not help being reminded of Sydney Smith, and of the 
surgical operation he proposed in order to put a pleasantry into the head of a 
North Biiton." 

Enwrold lale. This epithet was first applied to Ireland by Dr. William 
Drennan, in the following lines : 

Wben Erin lieu n»e from ihc duV-iwelling 000(1, 
G(»d bifued Ibc ereen iitand -, he uw h «u food. 
Vue Emerald or^urope. il ipuiled. i> ihooe, 
Iv the ring of Ibn woHd Ibe cnou pncioiu none. 

Aim of EjiD, prove tuoDK ; bui be g^lle %% bnTe, 

Tht cAuse w ilie men of ihe EmQiUd l*le. 

Suau on Erin in Clm^llxk, and ttktr Ptmt. 
The allusion is to the brilliant green of the herbage and foliage of Ireland. 
Bmtnenos, Bad. The term is first used by Milton, who has, — 

:e that while Satan by i 

CeoHTC If tbe tu ft nuoi pAyt to (be p 

Empire State. This popular i 
not, as has been fancied, assumed by its citizens out of State pride or va: ^ 
It was inftrentiallv given to it by General Washington. In his reply to the 
address of the Common Council of New York City, signed by "James 
Duanc, Mayor," and bearing dale December 2, 1784, he says, "I pray that 
Heaven bestow its choicest blessings on your city ; that a well-regulated and 
beneficial commerce may enrich your ciliiens, and that youi Stale {at present 
tbe seat of Empire) may set such examples of wisdom and liberality as shall 
' a tendency to strengthen and give a permanency to the Union at home, 

Empire iilale ii shaking 
L DC tbnducB From her hand ; 
Wiib the runed .Nnrtb ii waiting 
Then-Ke "'""|,"'^V«ITr,.,.. 

Bud, Tbe begliming of the, the answer ascribed to Talleyrand when 
asked by Napoleon, after the battle of Leipsic, what was his opmiun of the 
•tate of things. " It Memt to me, Sire, that this is the beginning uf the end" 


(** II me parait, Sire» que c'est 1e commencement de la fin*'). Those who are 
not disposed to believe that this cynical remark was made to his sovereign, 
whose fortunes were beginning to wane» may be inclined to think that a cur- 
rent opinion during the Hundred Days was fastened on Talleyrand, who, 
on his part, while often astonished at tnese compliments to his genius, never 
refused the paternity of a ban-mot when it was found apt and just — after the 
event The phrase, however, has been attributed also to Lally-Tollendal and 
to Marshal Augereau, who is said to have used it when the French army 
started from Moscow on that disastrous retreat in which he bore himself so 
gallantly. Shakespeare has a curious coincidence of expression, though not 

of thought : 

That is the true beginning of our end. 

Midsummtr Nigkfs Dream ^ Act v., Sc i. 

" End," here, seems to l)e used in the sense of " aim." But as the line occurs 
in the burlesque prologue, whose humor consists in its intentional mispunctua- 
tion, scholars are not c^uite at one as to the precise reading of the passage. 
Here is the context, mispunctuation and all : 

If we offend it is with our good will. 

That you should think, we come not to offend. 
But with good will. To show our simple skill. 

That is the true beginning of our end. 
Consider then we come but in despite. 

We do not come as minding to content you. 

Some critics woultl do away even with the verbal resemblance to Talleyrand 
by punctuating thus : 

To show our simple skill. 
That is the true beginning. Of our end 
Consider — Chen. We pome, but in despite 
We do not come, etc. 

The very commencement of our finite life, according to Bacon, is the begin- 
ning of the end (see, also. Cradle) : 

So much of our life, as we have discovered, is already dead ; and all those hours which 
we share, even from the breasts of our mothers, until we return to our grandmother thie 
earth, are part of our dying days, whereof even this is one, and those that succeed it are of 
the same nature, for we die daily.— c>n Death. 

Bnds well, A11*b well that, a proverb common to all languages, which 

has been made especially famous as the title of one of Shakespeare*s plays. 

Probably its first appearance is the Latin " Si finis bonus est, totum bonum 

erit" ("If the end be well, all is well") of the "Gesta Romanorum," first 

printed about 1463. In Hey wood's ** Proverbs" (1546) we have the modern 

form, — 

All is well that endes well, 

besides two contradictory phrases, which, taken together, at least emphasize 
the fact that the beginning is a small matter in comparison with the end : 

A hard beginning maketh a good ending, 


Of a good beginning cometh a good ending. 

Gower had previously endorsed the latter saying : 

He that well his warke beginneth 
The rather a good ende he winneth. 

Confess io A mantis. 

Bnemy. " Nobody's enemy but his own," or " Himself his worst enemy," 
is a phrase now generally used to describe an amiabte but not impressive 
personality, — the kindly ne'er-do-well who never willingly injures his neighbor, 
but whose faults react partly on himself and more largely upon his family. 
He often degenerates into that still lower type known as "everybody's friend," 


who hy endeavoiing to please every one pleases no one. The phrase seems 
to have originated with Anacharsis the Scythian, who gave it a very wide 
application. Being asked what animal he esteemed most hostile tfr man, he 
replied that he thought every man his own worst enemy. Anacharsis, a 
brother of King Saulius of Thrace, was a wise and learned prince, who came 
to.Athens while Solon was framing his laws, and acquired such repute fur 
sagacity that he is sometimes enumerated among the seven sages o( Greece. 
He it was who, being asked why he had no children, replied that he loved 
children too much, and who being reviled as a barbarian said, "By race, per- 
haps, but not by breeding." 

Eurr (0 get, bin not to Imp, the pcir, 

A Mend la all mankind— cjiccpl hipuelf. 

Jahbs WoiQDAi.1 : EfiUfh v > kimtrl/. 

The history of this word is a philological curiosity. From Greek 

g^ , ._ beget," and Latin rngfuium, " engine meant, in medixval English, 

and occasionally^ indeed down tu the eighteenth century, simply mother-wit or 
native talent. Thus Chaucer, " If man hath sapiences thre, meninrie, engin, 
and intellect also" (15S9) ; Fultenham, "Such . . . made most of their works 
by translation . . . few or none of their own engine." Then it meant natural 
disposition, temper, as in Fairfaji's Tasso, "His fell ingine his erauer age did 
somewhat mitigate." It had contemporaneously the sense of skill in contro- 
versy, ingenuity ; also, in a bad sense, artfulness, cunning, trickery. From this 
it came to mean the product of ingenuity, an artifice, contrivance, device ; and 
the transition thence to a mechanical contrivance, machine, implement, tool, 
was easy. The original engine, as a machine, was usually something used in 
warlare or in torture, as the rack, ur in hunting, as a snare, net, trap, etc 
The invention of the steam-engine has apecialiud the word and rendered 
obsolete all previous uacii. 

BngUuid expoctB eveiy man to do hi* duty, Nelson's signal to the 
fleet before the bailie of Trafalgar. October zi. 1803. The story has been 
told in various ways, Pasco's version may be accepted as the truest He 
was Nelson's flag-lieutenant on the Victory. Nelson came to him on the 
poop, and, after ordering certain signals to be flown, gave these further direc- 
tions : " Mr. Pasco, 1 wish to say to the fleet, ' England confides that every 
man will do his duty.' " And he added, " You must be quick, for I have one 
more to make, which is for close action." Pasco replied. "If your lordship 
will permit me to substitute ixptttt for amfiJti, the signal will soon be com- 
pleted, because the word exfeett is in the vocabulary and imtfida must be 
spelt" Nelson, hastily, but with an air of satisfaction, said, " That will do, 
Pasco; make it directly." James, however, in his " Naval History," 
■■''■■■ ■ first ordered by Nelson was, "*' ' 
e quotes Captain Blackwood, v 
ilus during the engagement. As it stands, the sentimcnl is a pretty enough 
bit of patriotic bombast. Dickens's humorous comnienl was, that i(^ England 
expects every man to do his duty "she is the most sanguine and most disap. 
pointed country in the world." 

Sogland 1b tli« paiadlae of iromen. the purgatorr of Bsrvant*, 
and the Iiell of noraea, an ancient Italian proverb. S»metimes the 
further epithet "a prison for men" is added. Grose, in the collection of 
proverbs added to the iSll edition of his " Provincial Glossary," thus dis- 
courses on the saw : " The liberty allowed 10 women in England, the portion 
assigned by law to widows out of their husbands' goods and chattels, and the 
politeness with which all denonuitatioiis of that sez are in general treated 


join to establish the truth of this part of the proverb. The farious manner 
in which people ride on the road, horse-racing, hunting, the cruelties of pos- 
tilions, stage-coachmen, and car-men, with the absurd mutilations practised 
on that noble and useful animal, all but too much prove the truth of this part 
of the adage. But that this country is the purgatory of servants I deny ; at 
least, if it ever was it is not so at present ; I fear they are rather the cause of 
bringing many a man to that legal purgatory, the gaol." 

England. The air of Bngland is too pure for a slave, words at- 
tributed to Lord Mansfield by Lord Campbell in his *' Lives of the Chief 
Justices :" '* Lord Mansfield first established the grand doctrine that the air of 
England is too pure to be breathed by a slave" (vol. ii. p. 418). He refers to 
Lord Mansfield s decision in the case of James Somerset, a negro slave from 
Jamaica, who, coming to England in the company of his master, claimed his 
freedom, and was brought into court on a writ of habeas corpus. It was 
decided in that case that a slave could not exist in England, and that the 
moment he touched English soil he was a free man, and the negro was set at 
liberty. No words such as those attributed, however, occur in the report of 
the decision in the case (see Lofft's Reports, p. 2). 

In the account of the hearing given in the " State Trials," Mansfield is 
made to say, — 

Every man who comes into England is entitled to the protection of the Enslbh law, what* 
ever oppression he may heretofore have suffered, and whatever may be the color of his 

Quamvis ille niger, quamvis tu Candidas. 

SttUt TriaUf vol. xx. p. i. 

It was Hargrave who, in his argument in the case, May 14, 1772, spoke of 

England as ''a soil whose air is deemed too pure for slaves to breathe in." 

Cowper has versified the phrase in his lines, — 

Slaves cannot breathe in England ; if their lungs 
Receive our air, that moment they are free I 
They touch our country and their shackles fall. 

Tkt Task, Book ii. : Tkr TimtpUc^t 1. 40. 

The same legal doctrine was applied to France by Bodinus, a French jurist 

bom in the first years of the sixteenth century : 

Servi peregrini, ut primum Galliae fines penetraverunt eodem momento liberi sunt. 

(" Foreign slaves, as soon as they come within the limits of France, are free.") 

BoDiNira, lib. i., cap. 5. 

In the celebrated case of Dred Scott, however, a negro slave who had been 
carried by his master from Missouri into Illinois, thence to the Territory of 
Wisconsin, and back again to Missouri, and ta whose case it was endeavored 
to apply the same legal maxim, Chief-Justice Taney, of the Supreme Court 
of the united States, asserted that 

For more than a century before the Declaration of Independence the negroes had been 
regarded as beings of an inferior order, and altogether unlit to associate with the white race, 
either in social or political relations, and so far inferior that they had no rights which the 
white man was bound to respect. 

•ppgliah as she is spoke. In the vear 1882 there was published in 
England a little book under this title, whicn contained selections from a certain 
gem of literature, originally published at Paris in 1862 as " O Novo Guia em 
Portaguez e Inglez" C'The New Guide to Portuguese and English'*). Simul- 
taneously Mark Twain republished in America a new edition of the complete 
work, with prefatory notes. The book had long been out of print, though 
known to book-collectors and frequently referred to in magazines. Its many 
and obvious merits were now for the first time made known to the public at 


large, which eagerly acknowledged (hem and clamorouiljp sought (o posieu 
itself of the volume, (o gloat over them at leisure. 

The unique character of the work consists in the fact that its author, who 
openly proclaimed himself as Joie de Fonseca. had manufactured it by securing 
a book of French dialogues, which, with the aid of a dictionary, he put word by 
word into English. Ul that tongue he knew nothing, and, what is more aston- 
ishing, learned nothing, even during the progress of his labors. There resulted 
a farrago of mistakes, a jumble of English and Portuguese constructions, over 
which the beaming self-conceit of the author spreads, to borrow from Carlyle, 
" like sunshine on the deep sea." Never was linguist in better humor with 
himself. In his very preface he begins by comparing his book, to Its own 
great advantage, with all Its predecessors in the same line: "The Wtrkt 
which we were confeiing for this labour, find use us for nothing ; but those 
what were publishing to Portugal, or out. They were almost all composed for 
some foreiBn, or for some national little acquainted in the spirit of both lan- 
guages. U was resulting from that corelessness lo rest these Workt fill of 
imperfections and anomalies of style ; in spile of the infinite typographical 
faults which sometimes invert the sense of the periods. It increase not to 
contain any of those Work> the figured pronunciation of the english words, 
nor the proaodical accent in the Portugese ; indispensable object whom wish 
lo speak the english and Portuguese languages correctly." 

Consequently the author fell that " A choice of familiar dialogues, clean of 
gallicisms and despoiled phrases, it was missing yet to studious ponuguese 
and brazilian Youth ; and also to persons u( other nations that wish to know 
the Portuguese language." 

And having set himself the task of filling this long-felt want, having 
avoided all the distressing faults and imperfections of his predecessors, he 
confidently anticipates the approbation of the public : " We expect then who 
the little book (for the care what we wrote him, and for her typographical 
collection) that may be worth the acceptance of the studious persons, and 
especially of (he Youth, at which we dedicate him particularly." 

To begin with the vocabulary, among the " Defects of the Body" are enu- 
merated " a blind," " a lame," " a squint-eyed," and so on. The process here 
is intelligible, however. The professor of languages has simply followed the 
French idiom, and used nouns as adjectives. But such " Degrees of Kin- 
dred" as "gossip mistress," "the quarter -grandfather," and "quarter-grand- 
mother" require elucidation, as also do such nice diflerentialions of meaning 
as are implied in the terms "a relation, an relation, a guardian, an guardian. 
We give up the first batch ; in the second Seohor Fonseca possibly reads a as 
the masculine, an as the feminine, of the indefinite article. Under the head 
of " Eatings," one's appetite is scarcely stimulated by such a menu as *'same 
wigs," "some marchpanes," "a little mine," "an ame let," even with su^ 
" Reasonings" as "some pinions," "some verjuice," or "some ht^'s lard," and 
wriHhed down with such " Drinkings" as " some paltry wine." A deroul Cath- 
olic would be shocked to find himself set down to a iHaigrt diet of such " Fishes 
and Shellfishes" as " Hedgehog," " Snail." " Wolf," and " Torpedo." 

Pass we on now to the Familiar Phrases. Almost at the outset we are met 
witli the pertinent query, " Have you understand that be says ?" and when, a 
line or two farther down, we meet the mysterious direction, ".Sing an area," 
we confess that we have not understand. A few more examples must suffice : 

This ^ have a hiauiy edge. 

Probably not. The conversationalist is evidently one of the unhappies, fbt 


elsewhere we are told, " He laughs at my nose, he jest by me," and then 
follow in quick succession the alarming statements, — 

He has ipit in my coat. 

He has me take out my hairs. 

He does me some kiclu. 

He has scratch the face with hers nails. 

Then, thanks be to heaven, the tables are turned, and the very next entry 
informs us, — 

He bums one's self the brains ; 

which is reassuring when you reflect that it is a literal rendition of " II se 
br^le la cervelle.** Yet the slain knows not that he is slain. A little lower 
down the tale of bloodshed and sudden death is resumed : 

He was fighted in dnel. 

They fight one's selfs again (lis se battent ensemble). 

He do want to fall HI manaue de tomber). 

He was wanting to oe killea. 

Evidently he was. Is it to this truculent gentleman that a little lower down 
the advice is given, — 
Take attention to cut you self? 

One is glad to know that the conversationalist survives all these dangers. In 
the ** Familiar Dialogues" one accompanies him on **The walk." He is some- 
thing of a poet, a lover of nature. " You hear the birds gurgling ?" he asks, 
and then rapturously exclaims, '* Which pleasure ! which charm ! The Held 
has to me a thousand charms." He visits his tailor and jauntily asks, " Will 
you do me a coat ?" The tailor, not a bit taken aback, replies in the Socratic 
fashion, *' What cloth will you do to?" That little matter is arranged. The 
tailor engages to bring the coat "the rather that be possible." But evidentiv 
he procrastinates. For when at last it is delivered the messenger is met witn 
the stern rebuke, ** You have me done to expect too," a bold version of " Vous 
m*ave2 fait trop attendre." The tailor makes excuse, " I did can't to come 
rather." When the conversationalist goes " For to ride a horse" we detect 
in him the same carping spirit " Here is a horse who have a bad looks. He 
not sail know to marsh, he is pursy, he is foundered. Don't vou are ashamed 
to give me a jade like this ? He is undshoed, he is with nails up ; it want to 
lead to the farrier.*' Nevertheless he mounts. And then trouble begins. 
** Never," screams the rider, ** never I was seen a so bad beast ; she will not 
nor to bring forward, neither put back." The stableman, evidently agitated, 
begins a running fire of advice. ** Strek him the bridle," he cries. " Hold him 
the reins sharters. Pique stron giy, make to marsh him." " I have pricked 
him enough. But I can't make him to marsh," replies the indignant client. 
'* Go down, I shall make marsh," says the dealer scornfullv, and the incensed 
equestrian rejoins, "Take care that he not ^ive you a foot kicks." For aught 
we know, the stableman may hide some devilish sarcasm under the incoherent 
surrejoinder, ** Then he kicks for that I look ? Sook here if I knew to tame 
hix," which brings to an inglorious end our conversationalist's attempt for to 
ride a horse. 

The pupil, having by this time acquired a choice stock of phrases, with a 
select and well-weeded vocabulary, is next taught to practise the epistolary 
style after the best models. And who are these models ? Madam of Sevign^ 
and Madam of Maintenon. One specimen from the former lady must suffice : 

Madam of Sevign* at their Daughtkr. 

I write you every day : it is a jay which give me most favourable at all who beg me some 
letters. They will to have them for to appear before you, and me i don't ask better. That 

shall be given by M. D . I don't know as he is called ; but at last it is a honest man, what 

M^ms n^e to have sprint, and that me have seen herie together. 


Next comes a fbnd of entertaining anecdotes, bo ingeniously worded that 
ullly be used to set the table on a roar. 
as we all know, do not always follow their own pretcriptions. 

they might readily be used to set the table 

Physicians, as we all know, do not always follow their own pretcri, 

I this head the Portuguese compiler has a good story to tell, and he tells it 

n his own idiomatic way 

A phyaidan eiahty yean of UR tud eiUDl«d of * beftllh 

wu uiwend Ihem : " ud 1 eihon you in (kidf time %i lo follow my tuimplc. ] U¥« of 
the product of my ordering, without Imkc any remnly who I command 10 mj »cki/' 

Where all are good it seems a work of supererogation to select But space 
it limited, and we must confine ourselves to a few ; 

Oae eyed wu laid tnlnit > nun which hid good cyei that he uw betlet thao him. The 
party waj accepted. "1 have gain orei," aaid the oiie eyed ; " why 1 »ec you two eyea, and 

Cscur >ee]pg one day to Roma, tome atrangeTi, very richea, whkh Ixire betwee^i hcT amu 
many peat deal rtaion, whether the women of her country don't had loine childrtn T 

A lady, which waa 10 dine, chid to her aervant that ihe had not uaed buiter enough. Thij 

take him In the cHme, fioiihing to eal the two pouodi fism bul'ier who remain. The ladr 
took Immediately the cat, waa put into the bilancea, it had not weighed iheat one an half 

Two frienda who ftnm long they not were acen meet DDe*a advea for hauid. " How da it 
thenf" told coie of the two. " No very well,'* told the other, *'andi am married from thai ] 
" od newi." " Not miit, becauie I had married with a bad woman." •■ So 

that confort." " Not abaolutely, irtiy i had^ emplored thii auin lor w boy 

lawlhee." "Good 

It It indeed 
e taring me above the price of the muttona." 
UK m^ houae when i waa diapoved my moa^, 
, here it a great miafonune I" " Not to gttU 
re biuned together J" 

The whole concludes a|ipropriately with a choice collection of "Idiotisms 

:d by Ibt flam 

and Proverlw." Again wc can only cull at random: 

The imlll have heataay. 

Spoken of the woV, one teet the tail. 

TlierT ia not any ruler without a except 

He i^not lo devil ai he ia black. 
Wbai come ill to OK (or an ear yet out 

Help thy that God will aid th«. 

>t Senhor Fonseca alone who has subjected the English langu^e 
to rough treatment 

■' Here they spike Ihe English," an announcement that actually appeared in 
■ Paris shop-window, might be taken as an appropriate motto for many strange 
and murderous onslaughts on the English tongue. English was badly spiked 
by the baker in the Palais Royal who announced, "Maccaroni not baked 
sooner ready," and by Ihe barber in the Rue St.-Honur^ ivho made an 
attempt lo atlracf foreign custom by the statement, " Hear to cut off hare, 
in English Taahion." M. Oliver, a French conjurer, was another desperate 
offender. In his programme he offers " lo perform an infinity of Legerde- 
mains," Such as "the cut and burnt bandkcrcbieve who shall take up their 



primitive forms ; the watch thrown et nailed against the wall by a pistol shot, 
the enchanted glass wine, the handsome Elsina in her trunck, some low 
automatons who will dance upon a rope and sail do all the most difficul 
tricks/' the whole to conclude with *' a Phantasmagory disposed in a manner 
as not to frighten the ladies." 

'* Articulation without swip>e" is the puzzling commendation that accom- 
panies the description of a weighing-machine, and of a bathins-girdle the 
awful statement is made that ** the person, the bathing-tub, and the machine 
are forming one inseparable piece." 

A certain M. Hercelle-Leruste recently put forth a hiehly mysterious circu- 
lar. It aims to describe the virtues of the *' unparalleled bathing-room, dress- 
ing-rooms and of showers-baths, united system Hercelle-Leruste." Despite 
the assistance of a rudimentary illustration of the improved bath-room, it is 
doubtful whether the full merits of the system will ever be comprehended 
from the circular. However, it is dimly apparent that the invention is in the 
nature of what is known here as a geyser, or instantaneous water-heater, and 
that improved ventilation is a special feature. So much being premised, 
we can follow the sense, though withholding our approval from the literary 
form of the sentence promising ** a foot-bath, sitting-bath, and any one else 
bith, heating itself in a minute, without which smoke spread itself over 
room, thing which has never existed." Still intelligible, though still weak in 
accidence, is M. Hercelle-Leruste's explanation of how " persons having some 
bathing-rooms" may alter said rooms for the reception of his apparatus, even 
in the case of a person *' residing in house which be not the property of her." 
** I will construct this room," the inventor continues, ** to make remove when 
she will wish all the objects same the invisible pipes and reservoirs, all to 
make remove." 

One is tempted to ask, why this partiality for the feminine sex ? Why, oh, 
why docs not this benefactor of his kind offer his services also to the poor 
male householder residing in house which be not the property of him ? why 
may not he too enjoy a foot-bath, sitting-bath, or any one else bath ? But 
then we remember that /^r/^^if «^ in the chivalrous French tongue is feminine, 
and that the good Hercelle-Leruste, with nice grammatical discernment, is 
gallantly attempting to make the English pronominal adjective agree with its 
antecedent And now follows a financial paragraph, from whose obscurity we 
can see no escap>e by conjectural emendation or otherwise : *' All is foreteen 
it and cheaply, because this elegant room can do it from seven hundred francs 
including reservoirs, as much as ten thousand francs if one desire it, since one 
eat now a daysmake, all seenes and to bay there he desired draperies." 

Many and curious are the personal advantages and the comforts that attach 
to a bath filled by this water-heater. For example, '* We undress ones self 
afresh without to be seen of some persons that are in this room," and we can 
" be served in this room egally without be seen." Best of all, it is a sort of 
enchanted room, where everything comes of itself. " Being there for bath or 
something else, beine undressed and having forgotten of linen or any one 
else, you ask them without any inconvenience with a speaking-trumpet, these 
objects come to you you take them and nobody seen jou." 

Be there any sceptics ? M. Hercelle-Leruste invites verification. ** Gone 
at my residence," — this is the engaging form in which he issues his invitation, 
— " There you will can see work it" 

Baths and bathing-establishments seem indeed to prompt to tortuous Eng- 
lish. The card of an old inn at Paris announces, ** Salines baths at every 
o'clock," and a bath-keeper at Basle informs his English visitors that " in his 
newly-erected establishment, which the ouner recommends best to all for- 
eigners, are to have ordinary and artful baths, Russia and sulphury bagnois, 




pumpingi, artrul mineral waters, goue lemanades rurniahed apartments foi 

It seem* to be inevitable that whenever a foreign wuid has a double mean- 
ing the foreigner seeking its English equivalent will stumble un the wrong 
alternative and thus giroducc delicious confusion. It is siaggering ai first to 
find an English advertisement in a French paper which reads, "Castle to 
praise presenlly," and yuu do not recover from your surprise until you re- 
member that the French verb lour means either to praise or to leL The 
literal rendition ol cidieaH, by "castle," and the substitution of presenlly for 
immediately, are minor errors that lend an artistic and fully-rounded complete- 
ness to the whole sentence. In a similar way, when an Amsterdam refresh- 
ment'house announces " upright ginger beer," you read the adjective back 
into the original Dutch and find thai e^e^ means genuine as well as upright. 

A dentist at Honfleur "renders himself to the habitations of these wich 
honor him with their confidence and executes all wich concerns his profes- 
sion with skill and vivacity " A vivacious dentist would not necessaiily invite 
the confidence of his patients. 

The '' Proliferous 1 op," whatever that may be, is accompanied by this set 

Iv^med ptiyiician wha hu travelled in vatIoiu Gouniiiu, aod bji br a lon^ LJDK iDEdiUlvd 
on ihe CAUaa uad cffecu whidi haTt thr inoti iaflueiKe od haman CiAtliluiioD with rtgvda 

An English "Guide to Amsterdam," published in Holland, claims to be 

Erepated by an Englishman. Here is how this pseudo- Englishman handles 
is own language. He is speaking of the customs of the inhabitants on Sun- 
days and holidays ; 

Thly go la wallt oulside ihe lovn cilei ; liter ihit walk ttiey haittn ID fm public pUf 
gaideiu, where «rinc, thea, eic, ia luld. Neiihcr the tnabilKy remaiiu idle at incae enter- 
Ummentl. Every one inrilei his danuel, and joyoiuly they enler play gArdeom of a Utile 
leu brilliancy than the fonncr. lliere at the crying KHind of an iiuiruniept Ihal rcnti the 
ear, acct>mpaDicd by tlie deJighlful handie^orEan) and the malic Lrianale, their devoir* arc 
paid lo TerpiKhore, Everywhere a similitude of talenu: the daocini ouldoei not the 

In a hotel at the top of (he Rigi the following announcement gives great 
satisfaction ; " Misters the venerable voyagers are advertised that when the 
sun him rise a horn will be blowed." That announcement sufficiently pre- 
pares the visitor for Ihe following entry in the wine list: "In Ihis hotel Ihe 
wines leave the traveller nothing lo hope for." The style of Ihe following is 
legal in its precision : " It is clearly understood thai the combustion of every 
kind of wooden work which belongs lo the entity of the shelter is Strongly 
forbidden, so that if it happened to be caused damage of any kind from the 
pari of the travellers or guides, the latter one will be made responsible. At 
this purpose every one is requested to notiftr those eventual damages made on 
the shelter huts and in the same time if il is possible." As Polonius says, 
"entity of the shelter" and " eventual damages" are good. 

The following is copied from a card for English visitors prepared by the 
host of an establishment in the neighborhood of Pompeii. It will reveal the 
secret of its meaning lo no casual reader : 


c thithH ihe Mlubrily oT ibe lir. Tblt Olibl 

.1 will u 


hiinm Ibal id 

The darkest portion of the ibove is that which rereis lo the tardy and ex- 
pensive contour of the Iron way. The mystery is partly cleared up, however, 
when one discovers that the iron way is literal English for chtmin dt fer, (he 

Japan and China yield same remarkable specimens. The following are as 
good as any : 

~ ~ ~ ' ~ , and beuEi kkiliog. uid cowt and honq letiing oo Im at the 

(SlgKdl Os*KA Fu. 
r, named Yetk Chee, published the accompanying no- 

■i(K<Mn ihe Bo.1 quilliy of S»«iDiei», V,oy. tie 

ShHibd beloDgldg lO IIk (Dvei 

|Oodifraiii LnaDqui.itirill lunly not coiicemiilE of KinglooDg. KlIK^LnOHa (SilDtdJ. The 

lie English is surely India. The 
ax exuberant rhetoric, which when 
E meaning of words leads to Ihe 

esided at Bhur 




ored EiToimity. 

lo write an ew 

tay 1 

ipon the horse, 

' The horse is a 

r noble 


■Progress and 


erty" was thus 

in welters on cr 

in velv. 

:t, while 

lb school-miste 


lo give. 

1 us this 

But Ihe garden-spot of the world for ex 
natives of that country have a natural love 
conjoined with imperfect knowledge of t 
most amazing results. 

Lady Dufferin tells us that when she 
gentleman addressed her by letter as " Ho 

One man during an examination was tol 
which he did in Inie following brief item ; 
but when irritated he ceases to do so." 
outlined by another essayist : "The rich tr 
the poor man snorts on Hint." It is a Punjab sc 
sample of epistolary English : 

ptavd, and I iha]! be thuikful id you, 

A very amusing petition was once addressed to Ihe English I tuuse of Com. 
mons by K. D. P. Komobandra Rae, manager of the Pesbws Charitable Iiisti- 
lulion at Nayeghal, Benares. It is too long to quote entire, but we can make 
room for the reasons which actuated him lu appeal lo Iheir ** lordships" of Ihe 
House of Commons as follows ; 

liied by I^DvidnKe Aod to have funher proof which can be uBivenallymckODwledEedii that 
' ' .0 p*lp*bk and nDUmhiDg a diel. The applicinl would 

,11 ihii <: 



■en cwloi lO i 

called ihe 

mother c 


»d nor 

>bc produ 



.ould never 1 



d, allbouah nc 


s and blessings of a 
A nonce posted in a Lahore holei has a veiy Iruculent sound : 

ind if ihcy ihouLd uy bcfoirhind that they itf going am lo bieaktui gr dlnDcr ore if thcT 
uy ihal tficy DOI have uylhlog to eat. they will \it chaittd, and if Dot u, icxy will b* 

it 10 Ibv notice of the maiuget. tbcy will be charged For the Icait thinn «ccordui( to hotel 

or candle-liEht from the public room*, they muit pay Tor w without qny ditputt iti cbartea. 

they abaent day in the Diooth. ihey will not bv allowed 10 deduct uiylhiag otit of it, became 
I take from Ihem leu nac than niy uiual rate of monitaly chacgei. 

But (he finest specimen of Hindoo English — unsurpassed and unsurpass- 
able — is the memoir of Onoocool Chunder Mooikerjee, judge of the High 
Court of India, which his nephew published in Calcutu shortly after the death 
of the biographee in 1871. It is only to be regretted that it« length precludes 
our copying it entire. 

At the very start we sc«nt the rich treat that is in store for us. Our hearts 
warm within us as we read that this admirable man, "by dint of wide energy 
and perseverance, erected a vant^e ground above the common level of his 
countrymen, — nay, stood with the rare, barring few on the same level with 
hiin, and sat arrayed in majestic ^lory, viewing with unparalleled and mute 
rapture his friends and admirers lifting up their nauds with heartfelt glee and 
laudation for his success in life." 

His father died when Onoocool was very young, and " unfortunate blind 
bargains and speculations" by an elder brother soon reduced the family to 
so low an ebb that "it was threatened with Barmecide feasts." Thereupon 
"Onoocool Chunder was pressed by his mother to search for an employmenL 
'All love the womb that their first beings bred,' and Justice Moorkeriee was 
not out of the pale of it. There cannot tie a greater instance of self-denial 
than a mother endures during the whole existence of her oStpring. Nothing 
in the world can make her facetious when her child is not so, and nothing in 
the world can make hei lugubrious when her child is not so. Ergo, on the 
contrary, a mother is loved and respected in every age." 

Ergo, on the contraiy, the filial Onoocool determined to obey his mother. 
He was successful in finding employment He was eventually admitted to 
the bar. His power of arguing a question with "capacious, strong, and laud- 
able ratiocination and eloquence" soon brought him in an income, which he 
used " to extricate his family from the difficulties in which it had lately been 
enwrapped, and to restore happiness and sunshine to those sweet and well- 
beloved faces on which he had not seen the soft and fascinating beams of a 
simper for many a grim-visagcd year." 

It is pleasant to billow this brilliant career. In 1870, Choonder accepted a 
seat in the Legislative Council of Bengal, his selection for this honor being 
characleriaed as " most judicious and tip-top." Within the year he resisnea 
from the council to accept a judgeship. "Mis elevation created a catholic 
ravisbtnent throughout the dominion under the benign and fostering sceptre 
of great Albion," But, alas I he did not live long to enjoy bis success. Eight 
months later, while delivering a judicial opinion, he fell a slight headache, 
" which gradually aggravated and became so uncontrollable that he felt like a 
toad under a harrow." "All the well known doctors of Calcutta did what 
they could, with their puissance and knack of medical knowledge, but it 
pruved after alt as if to milk the rami His wife and children had not the 
mournful consolation to hear his last words, he remained tetto veet for a few 
hours and then went to God at about 6 F.u." With one graphic stroke the 


biographer pictures the despair of the family: "The house presented a 
second Babel or a pretty kettle of fish." Nor was the mourning confined to 
the house. " All wept for him, and whole Bengal was in lachrymation — and 
more I shall say, that even the learned judges of the High Court heaved 
sighs and closed it on its Appellate and Original Sides." 

Here is a pleasing description of the judge s personal appearance : ** When 
a boy he was filamentous ; but gradually he became plump as a partridge. 
His dress was unaffected — he used to wear Dhotee and Chadur on all occa- 
sions except when going to court, office, or to see any European gentleman, 
or attending any European party. And even on going to t^ee a Nautch or 
something of the like I have never seen him in a dress fine as a carrot fresh 
scraped, but esto ^erpetuum in Pantaloon and in satin or broad-cloth Chapkan, 
with a Toopee well quadrate to the dress." He was a faithful Hindoo, and 
chariuble withal, but judicious in his charities. '* The Hon'ble Mookerjee 
did bleed freely, but he was not a leviathan on the ocean of liberality ; the 
mode of assignment of his charities was to such men as we truly wish, and 
recomn^end, and exsuscitate enthusiastically. He used to give monthly 
something to many relicts who had no hobbardy-hoy even to support them, 
and had no other source of sustenance left to them by their consort." 

BngHnh, The BZing's, or Queen's, an epithet first used in connection with 
some verb, as to abuse, deface, or murder the king's English, and apparently 
suggested by phrases like ** to deface the king's coin." The term has been 
traced no further back than "The Merry Wives of Windsor" (1598), where it 
is put in the mouth of mistress Quickly : 

I pray thee go to the casement and lee if you can see my master. Doctor Caius, coming ; 
u he do, V faith, and find anybody in the house, here will be an old abusing of God's patience 
and the king's English. — Act i., Sc. 4. 

Dr. Caius, the Frenchman in the play, and Evans the Welshman, '* Gallia 
et Guallia," succeed pretty well in their efforts to murder the language. In 
** Love's Labor's Lost," Costard comments on the wonderful linguistic feats 
of Holofernes and Sir Nathaniel, the pedantic school-master and preacher, and 
the fantastic Spaniard Armado : 

They have been at a great feast of languages and stolen the scraps. — Act v., Sc. i. 

Ptr cofi/ra, Spenser speaks of 

Dan Chaucer, well of English undefyled, 

Aurie Qm*en, Book iv.. Canto il., St 33; 

and of his friend Goldsmith, Dr. Johnson says, — 

A Poet, Naturalist, and Historian, 

Who left scarcely any style of writing untouched, 

And touched nothing that he did not adorn. 

[Nihil tetigit quod non omavit.] 

Epitaph on GoldsmitK 

Bnlgma (Gr. dLviy^a^ a " riddle** or " dark saying ;** from qLvq^^ a " fable,** 
a ** saying"), the earliest form of the riddle, whicn has since burgeoned out so 
luxuriantly into the cognate forms of charades, rebuses, conundrums, etc The 
enigma has been differentiated from these other flora of the recondite by the 
definition which makes it a description, perfectly true in itself, but so ingeniously 
couched in metaphorical language that the sense is not obvious, so tnat when 
put in the form of a question it shall stimulate the curiosity and yet baffle the 
would-be interpreter. In the great majority of cases it might in fact be 
called a metaphor or a poetical similitude reversed. Primeval poetry, — 
the sagas in the North, Hesiod's epics in the South,— poetry in which it was 
a point of honor to call nothing by its right name, illustrates this premiss 
most effectively. The ship, for example, is the sea-horse. Now, reverse the 



pruceis. Instead oi falling Ihe »hip the sea-horBe, ask what U the hone that 
carries men over Ihe sea. There you have an enigma. Nay, in many primi- 
tive poems Ihe two processes ace wedded, and the metaphor is put in the 
form of an enigma, which is immediately answered. A beautiful eumple is 
furnished in the opening of Ihe Servian " Hassan Aga," which Goethe has 
resuscitated : 

Wbal «rhil« form b tbimincring on yoo Lea T 

Mahgah :' TrmiuUtidfnm CMtit. 

Aeain, Ihere is a familiar enigma which is coromon, in one form or another, 
to all primitive nations : " What runs faster than a horse, crosses water, and is 
not wei T' The sun. Now, this is identical with one of the mosi famous 
metaphors in literature, a metaphor whose many avatars in the p>^es of 
poets, philosophers, and divines will be found duly chronicled under SuH. 
To repeat a single instance, it is thus expressed by Bacon : " The sun, which 
passeth through pollutions, and itself remains as pure as before." 

Samson's riddle was an enigma : so was that of the Sphinx. Though Sam- 
son afterwards became a judge, one caiinol hold that his riddle was a fair 
one: "Out of the eater came forth meal, and out of Ihe strong came forlh 

mouth certain bees had made their honey. Now, it required for iis solution 
too large a knowledge of antecedent circumstances. No wonder his wife's 
people could nol in three days expound the riddle. The Sphinx really played 
fairer : " What is that animal which in Ihe mommg goes on four feet, at noon 
on two, and in Ihe evening on three?" Answer, Man. Here morning, noon, 
and evening ace metaphors of infancy, manhood, and age, and Ihere is a 
further metaphorical use of the word feet, which is applied in one place to 
the hands, and in another to a staff, used for support and progress. 

The ancient Greeks were very fond of riddles of this sort One Clesbu- 
lina, nicknamed Eumelis, the wise woman, was especially famous in her day, 
insomuch that a comedy was named after her, "The Clesbulinas." One can- 
not help breathing a sigh over the disappearance of what musl have been a 
magnificent collection of classical chestnuts, Clesbulina's enigma about the 
cupping-glass, or rather cupping-brass, won her especial renown : 

Tugtlhtr grew 
One bTwl\ert Ihey. 
Now c«d my riddle if you cui. 
Another ancient riddle is credited to Cleobolus, one of the Seven Wise 
Men of Greece; "A father had twelve children, and each child had thirty sons 
and daughters, the sons being white and the daughters black, and one u( these 
died every day, and yel became immortal," is not this identical with Ihe 
riddle which Necbalano, King of Egypt, proposed to Lyceriis, King of Baby. 
Ion, in that war of riddles which Planudes has celebrated f The Kabyloniah 
monarch had always been a winner in these contests, because he had j^op at 
his court, and Mso-p was more than a match for his adversary. But at last 
Necbatanu conceived he had a clincher. "There is a grand temple," he said, 
"which rests upon a single column, which column is encircled by twelve 
ery city has against its walls thirty flying buttresses, and each buttress 


nut : " The temple is the world, the column is the year, the twelve cities are the 
months, the thirty buttresses are the days, the two women are light and dark- 

In " The Booke of Merry Riddles" which Shakespeare mentions in " The 
Merry Wives of Windsor," we meet our old friend in another form : 

I have a tree of great honour. 
Which tree beareth both fruit and flower ; 
Twelve branches this tree hath nake. 
Fifty-two nests therein he make, 
And every nest hath birds seven, 
Thanked be the King of Heaven ; 
And every bird hath a divers name : 
How may all this together frame ? 

And in a more recent ** Recueil de Calembours" published in France, the same 
recondite jest makes once more its perennial appearance : 

Un pire a douze fils, chacun d'eux en a trente, 
Moiti^ blancs, moiti^ noirs ? 

L'an, les mois, les jours, les nuits. 

The Abbe Hoilat has described some engaging traits of the Wolofs, a simple 
but jocular race who inhabit Senegal. It is their nightly custom to sit in the 
moonlight or fire-light, propounding aboriginal enigmas to one another, amid 
peals of laughter. If a riddle is guessed a shout goes up, " He has told the 
truth !" If not, the Wolof method of giving it up is to grasp the chin and 
cry, " In the name of the God of truth." And this is the style of riddle pro- 
pounded : " What runs long in the sun and casts no shadow ?" Does the 
reader grasp his chin ? Do we hear an appeal to the eternal verities ? We 
leap to his assistance with the answer, — The road. Again, ** Who are the 
comrades that fight all day and never hurt each other ?" The tongue and the 
teeth. One cannot help envying the capacity for merriment which can extort 
laughter out of such elementary epigrams. Yet the country-folk everywhere, 
the young barbarians in our nurseries, nay, our polished ancestors, and the 
classical ancients, have or had an equally rudimentary sense of humor. Many 
of the riddles still current are just as primitive as any we have quoted. No 
doubt our arboreal ancestors shook their sides and wagged their prehistoric 
tails over precisely the same jests, — after the megatherium and the dodo had 
done with them. Indeed, some of Shakespeare's quibbles belong to the same 
class. (Does not Ruskin wistfully marvel at the readiness of Elizabethan 
audiences to be amused ?) All seem to proceed from the wondering child- 
like intellect, just awakened to recognition of the fact that there are analogies 
in nature, and giving the ready guerdon of admiration or laughter to the more 
spacious intellects among them who had shown that human relations might 
bKC predicated of inanimate things, either in jest or earnest. The mind with 
a humorous bias made enigmas, the serious mind made metaphors, — that is to 
say, poems. There is a legend that the Father of Poetry was done to death 
bv an enigma, — a further illustration of the close connection between the two 
classes of literature. Asking some fishers of los what luck they had had, the 
wandering minstrel was told, " What we caught we threw away, what we could 
not catch we kept." Fleas, not fishes, had l^en the quest of these merry men 
on that particular day. Homer puzzled himself into some classic form of 
paresis, and finally gave up both the riddle and the ghost. But the riddle 
survived to puzzle posterity. Symposius, in the seventh century, put it 
into Latin verse. Pierre Grognet did it into old French : 

Ce que je prens, je pers et tiens, 
Ce qui s'enfuyt ay et retiens. 

It has spread over the world. One of its latest avatars is the following : " He 


loves her ; she has > repi^nance to him, and yet she trie* to catch him 
if she succeeds, she will be the death of him.' 

Aulus Gellias, in his twelfth book of " Noctes Alticx," goes into eca 
over a Ktrpm, or what the Greeks call an mtigma, " which I lately found ; 
ancient, by Hercules I and exceedingly crafty, composed in three iambic verso." 
It is really worth quoting for its utter inanity : 

t'l knowBgi wh«htr liwuonolat, or twice leu, «- both Uk Una (dded uwetlia, who, 
DDU heud. wu unwilling id yield even id King Jave binuelT.") 
" I leave (his unanswered," says Gellius, " to sharpen the conjectures of mjr 
readers in their in vesii Rations," — probably the earliest instance of a fashion 
now much in vogue in journals and magazines of leaTina the solution to the 
next number. But Gellius is merciful. " He who is tired of iiwestigating," he 
adds, " may find the answer in the second book of M. Varro to Marcellus on 
(he Latin language." 

The answer is Terminus {ler-minus). Ovid declares that all the crowd of 
gods gave place to Jove, except Terminus, who held his ground. So the 
author of the riddle doubts whether it was once less, or twice less, or thrice 
less (ler-minus, — i.t., the two latter added togclber). who, as he once heard, 
was unwilling (o yield to King Jove himselt The force of bathos could DO 
further go. 

There have been epochs when enigmas and other forms of riddles were 
especially in vogue. Always these epochs marked a recurring season of 
intellectual awakening. Such an epoch there was at the first glimmering of 
new dawn towards ihe close of the seventh century and the beginning of the 
eighth. This was probably the age of Symposius, author of a collection of Latin 
riddles, as it certainly was of Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, and of Talwine, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, both of whom followed in the foolsleps of Sym- 

One example shall suffice from each. Here is Symposius on the bookworm : 

I have fed upDD lireniiure, yel know ddi a leiier; I hare lived HiDDng twDkj, uid I udddih 
the more itudiDUi for It ; I have devoured Ibe Muse*, yet up id Ihe pretent lime 1 have mada 

Aldhelm yields this upon the alphabet : 

We ere KveDleen ^ilen VDiceteu bom - vi otberi, hlUf.«iKen, wt Kcludt from our let ; 
children of iton, by iron wc die, but children idd of the kurd's wing that fllee » high ; ibrcc 

Thai is to say, seventeen consonants and six vowels : made with iron style 
and erased with Ihe same, or else made with a bird's quill ; whatever Uie 
insitument. three fingers are the agents ; and we can convey answer without 
delay even in situations where it would be inconvenient to apeak. 

And lastly, here is Tatwine on an " Eagle.lecturn," — in almost literal Irant- 

Angetic food lo folic I oft ditpenie, 

Vei neiihef voice have I nor looguc for tpeecb. 

It is probably to this epoch also (though some would claim a much higher 
antiquitv) that Ihe most famous of all enigmas is to be referred, the "£lia I^lia 
CrisDiit.'' an in^criotinn nreaerved al HnltHrna. whirli ha« niizvl^H th^ wie^nF 

X.l.\\ LiCUA Ckispis, 

n. DtDuc pyrtmidum, neqiK Hpukhnui, 

n Kpulchfum tiii. 
Which may be rendered as follows ; 

MuK Laua Crispis, 


DeHTOycd neither by hunger, nor twoni, nor polKni i 

Bui by all of ihem : 
UdDeitbo- in haven, nor in ihe waler^ nor in the ground ; 

But everywhere. 

Luctu Antfao Priunu, 
Nrilher hiubud, nor lover, oor kiumu ; 
Neither tm^, nor gUtd. nor weeping ; 

Tbi>, neiihei funeral pile, dot pynmid, dot tomb. 

He know> indVnowi DDI what tie hu erKled.' 

Vwioai inlerpretatLons hive been offered, some belter ihan others, but 
none good. It has even been shrewdly suspecied that there is no inlerpieta- 
[ion, — that the puzzle is a mere hoai. Rain-water, [he so-called materia 
medica, the philosopher's stone, a dissected person, a shadow, an embryo, — 
these and other sugsested explanations all fall to the ground. There seems 
to be some color of reason lo Prolessor Schwartz's suggestion that the 
Christian lelieion is the true answer, referring, in proof) to Galilians iii. z8 : 
"There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is 
neither male nor female ; for we are all one in Christ Jesns." But after the 
luperGcial likeitess to the text has been acknowledged, it is hard work to find 
the other analogies. 

Belter remember the fate of Homer, and desist from any further cndgelling 
of the brain. 

The period of the Renaissance was a great era (or the enigma. Numerous 
collections of all forms of riddles were put forth in the siilcenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. Some were eclectic, some ostensibly original. Among the 
latter the efforts of the Abb^ Cotin are especially famous. In England, at a later 
period, Swift and others followed Colin's example in acknowledging their 
bantlings. The majority of riddles before Cotin's lime had been anonymous. 

Among these animyma, however, are some that have won for themselves 
the glory of perennial quotation. Sometimes they are only fair, sometimes 
they are very bad. Never mind ; they are classics, and not the most cursory 
history of the enigma would be complete without them. 

Let ua dip into that celebrated book of riddles already mentioned as spoken 



of by Shakespeare in "The Merrjr Wives of Windsor" (Act 1., Sc \\. It is 
called, with that bUlanI boastfulness which is such an amusing characteristic 
or antique titles, "The Biioke of Merry Riddles, together with proper Ques- 
linns and Witty Proverbs to make pleasant pastime ; no less useful than be- 
hoovcfull for any yong man or child, to know if he be quickwitted or no." 
Do you want to find out it you be quick-witted F Thfn unriddle me this, 

Two Ltg* uL upon IhrH legs and had one leg in her bBsd ; (ben [n cmme foun legi uid 
The answer is full of picturesque detail, and runs as follows : 

lie shall be gratified: 
He weDi to the wood uid caiiflit it. 
He »a1 him down nnd Bought it; 
BecauK he could Dot findc h» 
Home with him he btoDghl iu 
SaiMlion : " TKnt b n thon? ; for m naui went Id the wood Bad cftDgfat ■ Ihotikv in hb Toote, 
mid theD he lUe him downe, and toughl lo have ll pulled out, uid becHuie be could not &ae 
it out, h< muit oeedA bfing tt home-" 

Ah there, old truegienny 1 You see it has turned up once more, — the same 
old jest that worried Homer into a premature grave. 

Here are some famous bits of inanity preserved in Halliwell'a "Nursen 
Rhymes of England :" 

LiltS hu^.^u^ DO ey'ei. ' 

(A pnir of tongl.) 
TliErty while hortet apon a red hill. 
Now Ihey champ, now they mmp, ogw they itnod Mill. 

(Teetb nud fUfbl.) 

(A needle uid thread.) 

Whii'i thm iriiLcb ill love more ihu life. 

The poor p«ieu, the rich require. 
The miter ipeuda, the tpeodlbriA uvea. 
And all men carry to their graves T 

In a speech on the embargo which John Adams delivered in Congreu in 
1806, he made apt use of " an old riddle on a coffin, which t presume we ill 
learned when we were boys ;" 

man hespolte a tbinff, 

™ Ihit i^ke fo7bt"did not nae U, 
le who had it did not hDOV 


5 perfect a representation of the origin, priw- 
hiiig called noil -inlet course as it is possible 
10 be conceived." True, if iion .intercourse be established, the similitude 
would fail in one particular. The tenant of the coffin did not know his state. 
"But the people of the United States will be lile rally buried alive in non- 
intercourse, and realize the crave closing on themselves and on their hopes, 
with a full and cruel consciousness of all the horrors of their condition." 

The constituents of the alphabet have supplied an inexhaustible fund of 
material for enigma-composers. An early instance is this \ef Swift on the 

Two £imaus examples, — masterpieces in their kind, — each depending on 
the power of a single tetter in the construction of syllables and words, were 
attributed in a vague way to Lord Byron, — a well-deserved tribute to Ibeir 
elegance and skill in versification. Both were anerwards shown lo be the 
composition of Miss Catherine Fanshawe. She penned them in an album 
scHne time in the year 1S14, while visiting at Deepdene, the beautiful seat of 
"Anastasius" Hope, where Disraeli wrote "Coningsby." The Erst is on the 
letter H : 

ADd"cho'^^l£intl/lhCK™d'^ilfell;"' " ' 
Od ihc confina of earth 'twu pumiucd 10 r», 

'Twill bt ioanA in Iht tphcte nlicn 'lis lirin uundo-, 
B« Kcn in ihe lightning, and hurd in Ihc Ihundrr. 
'Twu allDiHd ID man '•Hlh hit cuHeii bnaib, 
h (Hitu ai liii l»nh and aitcndi him in death, 
Prewd« o'er bii happinoa, honor, and tieahh, 
I« the prop of hi* houu and ih« end of hie wealth 
In ifav heapi of the miter ii hoarded wiih i»n, 
Btil ig lute id be iou in hit prodi^ heir. 
It beipni Every hope, every wbh n muiI tioiuid. 
It prayt whh thchermji. wiifa monarcbt ii crowned; 

diatinguiahed on hiilory't pagv. 



'- wLtdoni I eqiully rcien, 

Yd ] lu-athJl'biriiwidbr^'io 
There is a famous enigma, which is attributed sometimes to Lord Chester- 
field, and sometimes to Miss Anna Seward, the once famous Swan of Lich- 
field. It is even added that the latter lady left by will the sum of one thou- 
sand pounds to any who should guess iL One form of it is in twenty-two 
lines, another in fourteen. The longer runs thus: 
The noblcH objeci in Ihc w«k> of an. 
The wiIl.koawQ ligTuI in the lime of pern. 
The ujmer's comfort ai he drives the plough. 


ikh prudence s^dom ixn retrkve- 
The deuh of ^udu, uid ihe fill of Eve: 

A wih'« ambiiloD imd a pufton'i duo, 
A mber'i idol, and the badge of Jewa, 

By'^fhTfi^l™' pi'ainl "ma JTe foniBl 

Three or four attempted solutions of this are extant, but none is quite Mtls- 
Here is a rather pretty fancy by no less a man than Schiller : 

A bridjEe wenvea iti arch with peaHt 
High over the iran<juil aea \ 

The bJl^t ihipi wilh ^welli'n^ h 

} grave and dignified a gentlenv 

m laivful, unlawful, a duly, a fault : 
m often »ld dear, good f<x- nothing vhcD htni^t ; 
extraoidinaty twon.anda matler of coune, 
yW edw, pLea«ire wh«. taken ''(AuU.) 


with an occasional bit of nonsense. Here is one of the riddles that have 

been ascribed to him : 

.f« Formed lone ago. yet made to-day. 

Employed wniie others sleep ; 
What none would like to give away, 
And none would like to keep. 


And Canning, too, who indulged in all sorts of freaks of verse, did not omit 
the riddle. Here is an excellent one on the word " caress :" 

A word there is of plural number, 
Foe to ease and tranquil slumber ; 
Any other word you take 
And add an t wiU plural make. 
But if you add an x to this. 
So strange the metamorphosis. 
Plural is plural now no more. 
And sweet what bitter was before. 

Entangling Allianoes. This phrase originated with Thomas Jefferson. 
The anxioas avoidance of "entangling alliances" has been the characteristic 
of the foreign policy of the United States throughout their political history. 

Equal and exact justice to all men. of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political ; 
peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, — enungling alliances with none; 
the support of Sute governments in all their rights, as the most competent administradons 
for our domestic concerns, and the surest bulwarks against ami -republican tendencies; the 
preservation of the general government in its whole constitutional vigor, as the sheet-aadior 
of our peace at home and safety abroad : . . . freedom o( religion ; freedom of the press ; 
fi«edom of person under the protection of the habeas corpus : and trial by juries impartially 
selected, — tnese principles furm the bright constellation which nas gone before us, and guided 
our steps through an age of revolution and reformation. — Jsffbkson : First InangurtU Aa- 
drtMgf March 4, 1801. 

^Entente Cordiale (Fr., " A frien'dly or cordial understanding ;" but the 
French phrase is not only neater but heartier in its meaning), an expression 
which seems to have been coined by Louis Philippe, or at least was first made 
proverbial by his use of it in a speech from the throne in January, 1843, ^^ 
express the friendly relations existing between France and England. A com- 
pliment was implied to Guizot, who had been sent as ambassador to England 
m 1840, and was now minister of foreign affairs. Douglas Jerrold's comment 
on the phrase was, ** The best thing I know between France and England is 
the sea." {^The A ngio- French Alliance.) 

There was not only no originality but no desire for it— perhaps even a dread of it, as some- 
thing that would break the #ii/oi/# ctfr</ta/r of placid mutual assurance.— Lowell : Amat^ 
my Books t first series, p. 339. 

Envelopes. Before Sir Rowland Hill introduced the penny-post, enve- 
lopes were sparingly used in England, as double postage was charged for one 
piece of paper enclosed in another, however thin each might be, and however 
light the letter. Even the smallest clipping from a newspaper, enclosed in a 
letter, implied a double charge. So soon as this rule came into operation, 
and so Ions as it continued in force, only franked letters were enveloped, 
although it nad formerly been regarded as a mark of respect to use an enve- 
lope, and a mark of etiquette in writing to a superior. 

The penny-post was established January 10, 1840, and the use of envelopes 
became common after May 6 of that year, when stamped and adhesive en- 
velopes were issued by the post-office. The first envelope-making machine 
was invented by Edwin Hill, brother of Rowland. His and De la Rue*s 
machine for foldmg enve1op>es was patented March 17, 184^. 

So fitr as is known, the idea of post-paid envelopes orig^inated early in the 
reign of Louis XIV. of France, with M. de Valfyer, who, in 1653, established 



. e filled 

up by pell with such speciaf matlcr as the writer desired. One sucb billtt has, 
by a foKunate misapplication, been pieserved to our lime. Pilisson, the 
friend of Madame de Sevigne (and o( whom she Said that "be abused man's 
privilege of being uely"), was tickled by this skelelou form of correspondencre, 
and tilled up Ilie blanks uf such a formt wilh a letter to Mademoiselle de 

Scudery, addressing her, according lu the |iedanlic fashiu 
"' " ppno," and si ■ ■-- -.i- ....•-..-" —l ■..•... ■ 

ibly the olt 

e English Stale Papef OHice is a letter 'addressed to the Right Hon. 

" Sappho," and signing himself " Pisandre." This billet is still extant, and 
is probably the oldest existing example of a prepaid enve' 

In the English Stale Paper OHice is a letter addressei 
Sir William Trumbull, Secretary of State, by Sir James Ogilvie, and dated 
May 16, 1696. It is now attached to its envelope, 4j X 3 inches, cut nearly 
ihe same as our modern ones. I'he next known example is an autograph 
letter (in an envelope) of Louis XIV. 10 hit son by Madame de Montespan, 
the Comte de Toulouse, Admiral of the Fleet at the siege of Barcelona. It 
is dated Versailles, April 39, 1706, and written, sealed, and atldressed by 
the royal hand. Le Sage, in his "Gil Bias" (book iv.,ch. v.), published 1715, 
in describing the epistolary correspondence uf Aurora de Guzman, makes 
one of his characters say that, after taking two billets, "elle les (^cheta tuus 
deux, y mit une niiv/i>^. et me donna le paquet." In the British Museum 
there is an envelope, exactly like those now in use, with an ornamental bor- 
der, bearing date 1760, from Madame de Pompadour to the Duchesse d'Aigui- 
Ilon. ind a leltcr from Frederick of Prussia, addressed to an English general 
in his service, dated at Potsdam, 1766, folded in an envelope of coarse Ger- 
man paper similar in form lo modern ones, except thai it opens at the end, 
like those used by lawyers for deeds, instead of at the top. 

An early allusion to envelopes in English literature is to be found in Swill's 
"Advice to Grub Slreel Verse-Writers," 17*6. wherein he playfully twits 
Pope for his small economies, which betimes led him to write his verses on 
bits of paper left blank or written on only one side. He tells them to have 
their verses printed with -wide margins, and then 

It has, however, been conjectured that this did not refer to anything resem- 
bling our modern envelope, which could have been of little use lo Pope, but 
to a half'Shcet of paper used as a cover. Be thai as it may, an old family in 
Yorkshire preserves an envelope exactly like the square modern pattern, sent 
from Geneva in 1750. In the GtHlitman's Magtaint, May, 1811. is a copy of 
a letter from Father O'Leary. of which it is said, "the envelope being losi, 
the exact address cannot he ascertained ;'' and Charles Lamb writes to Ber- 
nard Barton. March 20, lSz6, " When I write to a great man al the Court 
End, he opens with surprise a naked note such as Whitechapel people inter- 
change, wilh no sweel degrees of envelope. I never enclosed one bit of 
paper in another, nur understood the rationale of il. Once only 1 sealed 
wilh a borrowed seal, to set Waller Scott a-wondering, signed with the im- 
perial quarlered arms uf England, which my friend Field bears in compliment 
to his descent in the female line from Oliver Cromwell. It must have set his 


ard's "Ufe and Literary Remaina of L. E. L." (died iStS). Ihe poetei* asks 
to have sent her " slate-pencils, a quire or 10 of small c<uored note-paper, and 
■ pasteboard pattern of letter envelopes." 

Bpignuna. To devise a definition wide enough to include the vast multi- 
tude of little poems which at one time or another have been honored with 
the title of epigram, and precise enough to exclude all others, would be hope- 
less. In strict accordance with its Greek elvmology from ttny^a^ta/, "to in- 
scribe," it originallv was a commemorative allusion to some remarkable event 
or individual, or the accompaniment to votive offerings. Such compositions 
were termed epigrams, — i.e., insciiptions, Indicating simply the purpose for 
which thev were intended, — viz., to be inscribed or engraved on monument, 
statue, or building ; they were generally (loetically worded. Such a composi- 
tion, from the very nature of the material on which the eulogy was to be 
engraved, most necessarily be brieC ai>d the restraints attendant upon its 
publication concurred with the simplicity of Creek taste in prescribing con- 
dseness of expression, pregnancy of meaning, purity of diction, and single- 
ness of thought, as the indispensable conditions of excellence in ihe epigram- 
matic style. The transition in the use of the term was easy from this, its 
original application, to verses never intended for such a purpose, but assuming 
for artistic reasons llie epigraphical form, and giving utterance to thoughts 
which might have served as inscriptions. Thence to verses expressing, with 
f the te 

higenious thought, was but another step. 

rription, a striking, delicate, 01 

Of epigrams in Ihe first sense the lines of Simonides, commemorative of 
Lconidas and his army, engraved on the pillars set up at Thermopylae at the 
command of the Amphictyonic Council, are a famous example, with their 
union of chaste simplicity and perfect beauty; 

Go ull tht Spunm. tliou ihu puiai by, 

Thul here, otujienl In Irtr lawi, we lie. 

Here is one upon Ladas, a famous runner, of whose swiftness the moat 
extravagant accounts were given : 

:ntal epigrammatic poems, here ai 

Ahohthous: Ok a Staiut •>/ HMt. 
And this \rj Anlipater of Sidon on the Messenian Aristomene^ a brave 
and determined enemy of Sparta, whose life, it is said, was saved by an eagle 
when the Spartans had thrown him into a pit. The opening lines are ad- 
dressed to the eagle, who replies, — 


" Mkjmic bin] I w pnnd vid 5crct, 

Wbr Umr'lt ihou a cr thU wmiriur'i bcuwT" 

Sttpram e [be lordly ca^o lult, 

GmU AriMamoKl pnrmili. 

Let timid dova, with pLunlive ot, 

'Tb o'er Ibe dunllcM bero'i bieut 
Tbc kingly e>(le lore, to reu." 

Lt^itn-t TrtmMua. 
But, having gone ihus far, further classification of what the andenls would 
admit as epigrams i% as hopeless an eflurt as the attempt at a defini- 
tion. With Inem it \% one of the most catholic of literary forou. Given 
the essentials of brevity and unity of idea, it lends itself to the expression of 
almost any feeling or thougbL It may net be an idyl, yet may be descriptive, 
as is this of Paulus Silentiariua describing the gardens of Justinian on tbe 
banks of the Propontis : 

Hen strive lor empire o'a tbe beppy fcene 

The pcpwei of gncr end beauy boldg tbe priie 
Sidpended eveo, to ber votwica, 
And findi nDund, where'er ihe cull ber eye, 
TtleiT CDDIeu IbrlDi the malchlcH humony 

DnoD : Tkr EfifTMwammiUU ; 

which is markedly distinct from an idyl in the coherence of the several parts, 
and In a singular converging of all to a common point, the eipression of the 
idea of harmony in apparent contention. Here is one by an unknovm hand, 
descriptive of the statue of a dancing Bacchante : 

Slop rhjii Bacduptt I See, ihougl] ronned of Btone, 

The epigram maybe an elegy, a satire, or a love-poem in miniature j an 
embodiment of the wisdom of the ages, or a bon-motat.\. off with a couple e& 

Tbe cool, low-bibblliiE iirani. 
Bring OD foft ileep. 
Fftlr muble, tell lo lutun deya 
Whole life emplayecl each tongue in pniH 

Together u they grew they Bhooe, 
So much ntike, so mucb the Hme, 

Thu dntb mlHook them both For one. 

Saturday Ktvim, vol. u. p saj. 
My fur uyi, tbe no ipouie but me 
Would wtd, though Jove himtelf were be: 

She uyi It, but I deem 

J* guUnd! 



O Bruscus, cease our aching ears to vex 
With thy loud railing at the softer sex ; 
No accusation worse than this could be, 
.^ That once a woman did give birth to thee. 


The broad highway to poverty and need 
Is, much to build and many mouths to feed ; 

or this, which suggests Ben Jonson's song, " Drink to me only with thine 

The wine-cup is glad I Dear Zenophil6's lip 
It boasts to have touched when she stooped down to sip. 
Happy wine-cup ! I wish that, with lips joined to mine. 
All my soul at a draught she would drink up like wine ; 

or a little gem like this, than which there is nothing more perfect of its kind 
in any literature ; the translation is by Lord Nugent : 

I loved thee beautiful and kind. 

And plighted an eternal vow ; 
So altered are thy face and mind, 

'Twere perjury to love thee now ; 

or this, by the Syrian, Meleager of Gada, which has been often imitated : 

A hue and crv for Love ! The wild one's fled ! 
Just now at (fawn he left his rosy bed. 
Glib is his tongue ; the lad sheds pretty tears ; 
Fleet is his foot, his heart unknown to fears. 
Around his smile a dash of scorn he flings ; 
His quiver-bearing back is girt with wings. 
I cannot name his sire, for earth and sky 
And sea the bold brat's parentage deny. 
Nowhere is he a favorite. Yet beware ! 
Perchance e'en here for hearts he lays his snare. 
Yes ; there's his ambush I Mark him where he lies 1 
Archer, I spy thee in yon maiden's eyes ! 

All of these exquisite thoughts, expressed in such chaste and elegant lan- 
guage, would have to be covered by any definition of the epigram as under- 
sto<xl by the collectors of that string of gems — literallv, that posy of flowers— 
which has come down to us known as the Greek Anthology, from which, indeed, 
most of the preceding are culled. 

Its catholicity included even anagrams, and probably would find a place for 
this ingenious curiosity, a parody on the noted grammatical line Bifrons atque 
Custos, Bos, Fur, Sus, cUque Sacerdos. The author, curiously enough, was a 
Canterbury clergyman : 

BiPRONS ever when he preaches ; 
CusTOS of what in hb reach is ; 
Bos among his nei^bors' wives ; 
Fur in gauering of his tithes ; 
Sus at every parish feast ; 
On Sundays, Sacerdos, a priest. 

No less would it for the following lines from the Arabic : 

Two parts of life ; and weH the theme 

Mav mournful Uioughts inspire ; 
For an ! the past is but a dream. 

The future — a desire ! 

and no less for these from the Persian, by Sir William Jones : 

On parent knees, a naked new-bom child. 
Weeping thou sat'st, whilst all around thee smiled ; 
So live, that, sinking in thy last long sleep. 
Calm thou may'st smile, while all around thee weep, — 

one of the oldest epigrams in existence, as it is also one of the most 
u 20* 


beButifaL It is true that thej do not agree in all points with the well-known 
definition, — 

Sbocl, Hmpk, polbUdg keen, uid brigfal,— 
Like WHip with uper bnly, bound 

But thit is a modern definition, according )o which an epigram must be a little 
poem whose hum, charming as it does (he ear, must, like 

Tbe b<» oT TnUioDd, 

Thu from tb* funnieit Bowaa which gkul 

With tbor pUR smile fhe gMrden round, 

l>n« venom forth Ihft driva men xnaA, 

end with that peculiar sting which is now looked foi in a French or English 

epigram ; the want of this in the old Greek compositions doubtless has caused 

them lo be looked upon as lame or tisleleas. The true or the best form of ^ 

the earlv Greek epigram does not aim at wit ot seek lo jiroduce surprise, and 

although this element is present in some, it was not, as now, deemed an essen- 

Their simplicity is perhaps their most striking Teal 

In Roman bands the epigram excelled in puiigencv ; it is the Roman satirists 
to whom we are indebted ior the idea that it should have a spice of malice. 

■, ul «l carporin ex^ul, — 
chants the Latin poet, or, as be has been felicitously tendered into English, — 

Tbtce thlBgi muiI tpigrmmi. like b«i, have nil,— 

But, though men of hish literal? genius, the great Latin epigrammatists 
Catullus and Martial could not easily divest themselves, in this kind of verse, 
of the old Roman sybustris animui, and forget the freedom of the early Fes- 
cennine license, and hence too much of what they have left behind is vitiated 
Iw brutality and obscenity. On the subsequent history of the epigram, indeed. 
Martial has exercised an influence as baneful as it is extensive, and he may be 
counted as the far-off progenitor of a host of verses the scnriility of which 
would put himself to blush. Nevertheless, among much that is simply coarse 
and brutal, there may be found in Martial many epigrams which for polish and 
rapier -pmn ted, if malicious, pungency are unsurpassed : 

Pall Gemdliu nupliu MvonillE, 

The effect of this ep