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Full text of "Hans Holbein the younger; his Old Testament illustrations, Dance of death, and other woodcuts"

GREAT ENGRAVERS : EDITED BY ARTHUR M. HIND 





PLOUGHMAN 



Dance of Death, 38 



HANS HOLBEIN 

THE YOUNGER 

HIS 
OLD TESTAMENT ILLUSTRATIONS 

DANCE OF DEATH 
AND OTHER WOODCUTS 



FREDK. A. STOKES COMPANY 
NEW YORK PUBLISHERS 




CHART 




r A s. 



HANS HOLBEIN 
THE YOUNGER 

Son of Hans Holbein the elder, who was an excellent 
painter, and remarkable for his portrait drawings in 
silver-point: b. 1497, at Augsburg; left Augsburg 
about 1513-1514 with his elder brother Ambrosius 
Holbein; settled in Basle, 1515, as pupil of Hans 
Herbster ; worked at Lucerne between 1517-1519, 
being commissioned to decorate the house of Jakob von 
Hertenstein : the influence of Lombard portraiture on 
his painting suggests a probable visit to Italy about 
1518; returned to Basle and became Master of the 
Guild in 1519, probably taking over the studio of his 
brother Ambrosius, of whom there is no record after 
1518 ; did much designing for glass painting about this 
date, also decorative paintings (of which practically 
nothing remains) for the Council Chamber in the 
Rathaus, 1521-1522; the earliest of his designs for 
woodcut illustrations date about 1519; the famous 
portraits of Erasmus, who was then living at Basle, 
painted at this period (e.g., the pictures at Basle and 
Paris) ; visited France 1524, where acquaintance with 
chalk drawings of the Clouet school may have helped 
to form the later style of his portrait drawings ; in 
1526 travelled in the Netherlands, and settled for a 
time at Antwerp ; paid his first visit to England, 

1527, being introduced by Erasmus to Sir Thomas 
More, his earliest English patron ; returned to Basle 

1528, and in 1529 was again working for Basle pub- 
lishers, designing illustrations for Sebastian Miinster's 
" Cosmography " (published 1534) ; Elizabeth Schmid, 
whom he had married about 1520 (portrayed with 
her two children in a picture of about 1528-9 at 
Basle), remained throughout Holbein's life at Basle ; 
Holbein again in England 1532, doing the famous 
picture of the Ambassadors (National Gallery) about 
this time; entered the Royal service about 1536, 
being given apartments in Whitehall, perhaps over 
the gate called after him, " Holbein's Gate " ; en- 
gaged on wall decoration in the palace, and is said 
to have painted a Dance of Death (but all his work 



GREAT ENGRAVERS 

here was destroyed in the fire of 1698) ; the won- 
derful series of chalk drawings of famous personages 
at the court of Henry N^III (chiefly preserved at 
Windsor, others at British Museum, &c.) done at 
about this period ; also reached the zenith of his power 
as a portrait painter, showing an unsurpassed mastery 
and reserve in naturalistic portrait ; undertook various 
commissions abroad for the King, in Brussels, Bur- 
gundy, Cleves, &c., 1538-1539, painting eligible con- 
sorts for his royal master, i.e., the Duchess of Milan 
and Anne of Cleves; d. in London, 1543, leaving 
unfinished the picture still preserved in the Barber- 
Surgeons' Hall. 

HOLBEIN'S Images of the Old Testament* as they were 
called in the English edition of 1549, are the most wonder- 
ful series of illustration to the Bible in existence. Even 
outside the more limited sphere of book illustration they 
have practically no rivals, except the scriptural prints of Diirer and 
Rembrandt. Inspiration is so much more often found in separate 
works than in a series, that it is all the more remarkable to see so high a 
level of artistic power preserved throughout the ninety-one uniform 
cuts that make up Holbein's Old Testament. 

In some respects Holbein's genius is pedestrian in relation to the 
great masters I have mentioned. He has neither Diirer's intellect 
nor Rembrandt's passion and penetrative insight. But he is more 
purely the painter than either of them. He depicts nature from 
the outside with an unerring vision. His eye for the facts of 
life and the details of physiognomy is so true, that the heart of 
things is communicated even when it may have escaped his own 
understanding. 

It is this ungarnished truth to life, rather than any interpretative 
insight, that chiefly characterises Holbein's woodcuts. In some ways 
it is not a matter for regret that he did not continue his illustrations 
to the New Testament, which had already found a perfect inter- 
preter in Diirer. Holbein's simpler genius was more adapted to the 
heroic narratives of Jewish history, akin to Homer in their direct and 
naive appeal. 

In his second great series, the Dance of Death, one might have 

* The title of the first edition of 1538 was Historiarum Veteris Imtru- 
mentl Icones ad vivum exfressee, Instrumenti being changed to Testamenti in 
the second and later issues. 

6 



HANS HOLBEIN 

expected that success would only be achieved by an artist of the 
highest imaginative power. But even here the directness of his out- 
look on life lends a vigour to his presentation which a more subtly 
imaginative rendering might have lost. 

The subject of the Danse Macabre* was typically medieval, and 
Holbein's treatment of the theme still partakes of the simple medieval 
spirit. The conventional skeleton is made a thoroughly living, and 
almost sympathetic figure, and terrible less in himself than in the 
occasional fear he inspires in his victims. But Holbein often leaves 
terror on one side, and attempts no more than some common incident 
from daily life, in which Death plays his part unrecognised by the 
actors, and only lends a pathos to the scene in the spectator's eyes. 

Death was never so present in life as in the adventurous times of 
the later Middle Ages in Europe, and it was natural that popular 
poems and miracle plays should have been composed to fire the 
popular imagination, through fear of sudden death, to right living and 
religious devotion. The thirteenth century poem of the Three Dead 
and the Three Living (wherein the three living are accosted by the 
spectres with the words " What you are, that were we ; what we are, 
that you will be "), and Petrarch's Triumph of Death are other 
examples analogous to the miracle plays. It was these miracle plays 
which must have inspired the numerous series of paintings of the 
Dance of Death in cloister and church, f and found their final and 
most typical illustration in Holbein's wonderful cuts. 

In this Dance of^Death^. which was first published by the brothers 
Trechsel of Lyons in the same year as the Old Testament Illustra- 
tions, there is no mention of Holbein as the author. The dedicatory 

* The origin of this title, popularly connected with a mythical poet 
Macaber, is obscure. It is probably the French rendering of the medieval 
Latin Chorea Machab&orum. In this dance, of which there is mention in 
the fifteenth century, the characters apparently fell out one by one as 
Death appeared, and from its title it is likely that the seven Maccabees 
played the chief roles. See Grimm, Deutsche Mythohgie, 1835, p. 495, 
and Du Cange, Glossarium mediae Latinitatis, IV (1845). Douce less 
plausibly suggests derivation from Macairus, the hermit traditionally con- 
nected with the story of the Three Dead and the Three Living (see Vasari, 
on Orcagna and the fresco at Pisa). 

t E.g., Klingenthalkloster, Basle (i4th century), Predigerkloster, Basle, 
Paris (Cloister of the Innocents), Old St. Paul's, London (i5th century). 

J First issued with the title Les Sitnulachres et hiitoric'es faces de la Mori ; 
later as Let Images de la Mart, Imagines or hones Mortis, etc. 

7 



GREAT ENGRAVERS 

epistle by Jean de Vauzelle regrets the death of " celuy qui nous en 
a icy imaging si Elegantes figures," which could only refer to Hans 
Ltitzelburger the woodcutter, who died in 1526. Why Holbein's 
name appears in no edition of this series is a question that has been 
variously answered. Probably Woltmann is right in suggesting that 
the authorship needed to be veiled and the book dedicated to an 
abbess to secure it from the censor in view of its pronounced pro- 
testant and satirical tendencies. In any case in spite of the editor's 
words, Hans Liitzelburger, whose signature appears on the cut of 
the Duchess (36), can only be regarded as the cutter of the designs. 
Apart from tradition, absolute proof is furnished by the presence of 
the first four cuts of the Dance of Death in the separate issues of the 
Old Testament Illustrations. The latter series was also published 
anonymously on its first issue, but in the second and following issues 
(1539, &c.), verses are added in praise of Holbein, as well as a distich 
by Nicolas Bourbon de Vandceuvre directly attributing the authorship. 

Both series must have been designed and, to a large extent, cut in 
the three or four years preceding Liitzelburger's death in 1526. A 
set of contemporary drawings copied from twenty-three cuts of the 
Dance of 'Death, now preserved in Berlin, is dated 1527. From the 
preface to the Dance of Death it would appear that Hans Liitzelburger 
had left various blocks with the designs traced upon them ready for 
cutting, but that the publishers had hitherto failed to find a successor 
worthy of completing the work. We may assume, in consequence, 
that the first edition of 1538 was throughout cut by Liitzelburger. 
It was only for the editions of 1545 and 1562 that the other blocks 
were completed. 

In regard to the Old Testament Illustrations we have no such 
guide as to which of the cuts are by Liitzelburger, for the series was 
already complete in the first edition, and the set of early proofs 
belonging to the Basle Museum also shows the complete series. But 
there is no difficulty in distinguishing the crudeness of such blocks 
as the Zechariah (90) and the Joel (86) from the genius for cutting 
shown in others like the Destruction of Pharaoh's Host (13), with 
its wonderfully subtle rendering of multitudes and aerial perspective 
on so small a scale. Many of the earlier cuts are almost as broad in 
their lineal character as the Zechariah, but the Hannah and Elkanah 
(33) i s enough to show the distinction in expressive power. 
Probably Holbein supplied designs which were to be followed line by 
line by his cutter and in general cutters are forgotten as mere efficient 
craftsmen ; but in this case the work of reproduction is so superlative, 
not only in its perfect delicacy but in its revelation of subtle varieties 
8 



HANS HOLBEIN 

of tone and expression achieved with the fewest lines, that we must 
always think of the work as the most perfect collaboration of two 
artists of genius. 

From the technical point of view it is interesting to compare the 
copies of the Dance of Death engraved on wood by Thomas Bewick, 
almost entirely in his white-line method, and published under the 
title Emblems of Mortality, London, 1789. Ltitzelburger, like nearly 
all the early cutters, worked in the negative method, clearing away all 
the wood on the white portions of the design, leaving the lines in 
relief to print black. Bewick found that the most direct method for 
the wood-engraver was to treat the surface of the block as a black 
ground, and to engrave * the lines of the design into this to print 
white, the ink being, of course, printed from the surface, not pulled 
out of the incised lines as in line-engraving and etching. The com- 
parison of Bewick's very pedestrian work serves also to show the 
perfection of expressive and subtle line attained by Holbein and his 
original translator. 

The Dance of Death is known in five complete sets of proofs with 
German titles, evidently printed at Basle, and now preserved in Paris, 
Carlsruhe, Basle, Berlin, and the British Museum. They are printed 
in much blacker ink than the Lyons editions, and included everything 
of the first Lyons edition except the Astronomer. On the other hand, 
only one set of proofs of the Old Testament Illustrations is known 
that preserved at Basle. 

Each series was first published by the brothers Trechsel t in small 
quarto form, with one cut on each page ; but the later editions of the 
Dance of Death (though practically no smaller in form) are in octavo. 
They both went through a large number of editions in the twenty 
years or so succeeding first publication. 

The complete set of designs for the Dance of Death did not appear, 
as we have already indicated, before the edition of 1562, but the 
supplementary cuts in both the 1545 and 1562 issues were partly 
subjects alien to the main thesis. Perhaps Holbein may have 
originally intended these gambols and triumphs of children to form a 
part of his scheme in a sort of symbolic reference to the young life 
that has no thought of death. 

Each subject had a verse from Scripture at its head, and a French 
quatrain by Gilles Corozet at the foot, the latter being translated 

* Using the burin (the same tool as the line-engraver's) not the knife of 
the early cutters. 

f The succeeding editions by the brothers Frellon. 

9 



GREAT ENGRAVERS 

for the Latin edition by Luther's brother-in-law, George Oemmel 
(Aemilius). 

Apart from the small quarto editions, the Old Testament cuts 
appeared in various folio Bibles issued by Trechsel and Frellon at 
Lyons (1538, 1544, and 1551). 

In Holbein's treatment of the different subjects there must of 
course have been a considerable element of convention, and a large 
number were directly suggested by the attractive little Venetian cuts 
of the Malermi Bible of 1490, which in its turn had drawn freely 
from the Cologne Bible of 1480. But Holbein's work so far surpasses 
anything in the Malermi Bible, turning shorthand symbols into real life, 
that it has established a permanent appeal to the popular imagination 
while the other remains the more exclusive delight of the antiquarian. 

I have not attempted to give a complete list of Holbein's cuts out- 
side the two famous series. Since Woltmann's book (which is still 
the standard catalogue of Holbein's work) research has brought many 
other illustrations into relation with Holbein. All I will do here is 
to refer the student to the most recent literature, and to give a few 
representative illustrations. 

The small woodcut Initials with the Dance of Death^ which was 
issued with Lutzelburger's name attached, is a tour de force in its 
perfect precision of cutting and in the wonderful adaptation of these 
designs in so small a compass.* The Initials with Illustrations to the 
Old Testament"^ are somewhat larger, but hardly equal in merit to the 
former set. Both are known in proof impressions, and were used in 
numerous books printed at Basle. 

The Portrait of Erasmus is a masterpiece of portraiture in woodcut, 
as well as one of the most perfect examples of Renaissance decorative 
art. DibdinJ states that the second state was issued as frontispiece to 
Erasmus's collected works (Basle, 1540), but Woltmann was unable 
to authenticate this. Its plastic qualities would render it a perfect 
design for a sculpture monument. 

In England Holbein was too occupied with his larger works to 
devote much time to book illustration. The English cutters were 
far inferior to Ltttzelburger and his Basle contemporaries, but the two 
examples given from Cranmer's "Catechism" of 1548,35 well as 
another, the Christ as the Good Shepherd in a " Little Treatise" by 
Urbanus Rhegius (also published byW. Lynne in 1548), show that even 
cruder cutting failed to impair Holbein's vivid and expressive touch. 

* Each initial 25 mm. square ; reduced in our illustrations. 

j' Each initial 44 mm. square. 

j Decameron, i. p. 236. 
10 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 

DIBDIN, T. F. Bibliographical Decameron. London 1817. (Vol. I, p. 

33, etc). 
DOUCE, F. The Dance of Death exhibited in elegant engravings on wood ; 

with a dissertation on the several representations of that subject, but 

more particularly those ascribed to Macaber and Hans Holbein. 

London 1833 
RUMOHR, C. F. von. Hans Holbein der jungere in seinem Verhaltniss zum 

deutschen Formschnittwesen. Leipzig 1836 
MASSMANN, H. F. Literatur der Totentanze. Leipzig 1840 
PASSAVANT, J. D. Peintre-graveur. Vol. Ill (1862), p. 353 
WOLTMANN, Alfred. Holbein und seine Zeit. 2 vols. Leipzig 1866-68. 

2nd Ed., 1874-76. (This still remains the standard work on Holbein. 

It contains a catalogue of his woodcut work) 
WORNUM, R. N. Some account of the life and works of Hans Holbein, 

painter of Augsburg. London 1867 
His, E. Hans Liitzelburger le graveur des simulacres de la mort d'Holbein. 

Gazette des "Beaux Arts, 2 e per. IV (1871), 481 
VOGELIN, S. Erganzungen und Nachweisungen zum Holzschnittwerk 

Hans Holbeins des jungeren. Repertorium fur Kunstwisscnschajt, II 

(1877) 162, 312, V. 179 
LOGA, V. von. Der Triumph des Jacobus Castricus. Jahrbuch der Treuss. 

T^unstsammlungen, XV (1894), 58 

GOETTE, A. Holbein's Totentanz und seine Vorbilder. Strassburg 1897 
SCHMIDT, H. A. Holbein's Thatigkeit fur die Baseler Verleger. Jahrbuch 

der Preuss. J^unstsammlungen, XX, 233 

SCHNEELI, G., and HEITZ, P. Initialen von Holbein. Strassburg 1900 
DAVIES, Gerald S. Hans Holbein the younger. London 1903 
DODGSON, Campell. Neues fiber Holbein's Metallschnitte zum Vaterunser. 

Mitteilungen der Geselhch. fur vervielfaltig. T^unst. 1903, p. I, and 1905, 

p. 10 

Das Holzschnitt portrat von N. Borbonius. Mitteilungen, 1908, p. 37 
KOEGLER, Hans. Erganzungen zum Holzschnittwerk des Hans und Ambrosius 

Holbein. Jahrbuch der Preuss. Kunstsamml. XXVIII (1907). Beiheft, 

p. 85. 

Hans Holbein's Holzschnitte fiir Sebastian Miinster's "Instrument 

iiber die zwei Lichter" (Basel 1534). Jahrbuch, XXXI, 254. 

Kleine Beitrage. ZMonatshefte filr Kunstwissenschaft IV (1911), 389 
MAJOR, E. Easier Horologien biicher mit Holzschnitten von Hans Holbein. 

Monatshefte, IV (1911), 77 
GANZ, Paul. HansHolbein. Stuttgart 1911 (Klassiker der Kunst). Contains 

a complete reproduction of Holbein's paintings 

Die Handzeichnungen Hans Holbeins des jungeren. Berlin 191 1, etc. 

II 



LIST OF PLATES 

The Frontispiece is No. 38 from the Dance of Death. 

OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

The order of the original publication, that of the Vulgate, is preserved. 
The cuts are reproduced complete with the exception of seven purely 
decorative subjects of little artistic interest. 



1. The Fall. Genesis, iii. 'This cut 
does not occur in the separately printed 
series of the cuts, but occurs in several 
of the editions of the Old Testament 
published at Basle (e.g. 7 'reck' el, 

1538, and Frelhn, 1551). /// place 
was regularly taken in the series by 
the first four subjects of the Dance of 
Death. 

2. Noah's Ark. Genesis, vii 

3. The Building of the Tower of 
Babel. Genesis, xi 

4. Abraham and the Three Angels. 
Genesis, xviii 

5. Abraham's Sacrifice. Genesis, 
xxii 

6. Isaac Blessing Jacob. Genesis, 
xxvii 

7. Joseph in the Pit. Genesis, 
xxxvii 

8. Pharaoh's Dreams. Genesis, xli 

9. Jacob Blessing Ephraim and 
Manasseh. Genesis, xlviii 

10. The Burial of Joseph. Exodus, i 

11. Moses and the Burning Bush. 
Exodus, iii 

12. Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh. 
Kxodus, v 

13. The Destruction of Pharaoh's 
Host. Exodus, xiv and xv 

14. The Gathering of the Manna. 
Exodus, xv i 

15. Moses on Mount Sinai. Exodus, 
xix 

17. Moses Receiving the Tables of 

the Law. Exodus, xxxiv 
12 



1 8. Moses Receiving God's Law of 
the Burnt Offerings. Leviticus, i 

19. Moses Receiving God's Law of 
the Consecration of Priests. Levi- 
ticus, viii 

20. Nadab and Abihu, for Offering 
Strange Sacrifices, are Burnt by 
Fire. Leviticus, x 

21. Moses Receiving God's Law of 
the Harvest and Gleanings. Levi- 
ticus, xix 

22. Moses and Aaron Numbering 
the People. Numbers, i 

24. The Destruction of Korah and 
his Followers. Numbers, xvi 

25. The Brazen Serpent. Numbers, 
xxi 

26. Moses and the Midianite Wo- 
men and Children. Numbers, 
xxxi 

27. Moses Addressing the People of 
Israel. Deuteronomy, i 

28. Moses Exhorting the People to 
Obedience. Deuteronomy, iv 

29. Moses Addressing the Levites. 
Deuteronomy, xviii 

30. Joshua and the Kings that he 
had Smitten. Joshua, xii 

31. Adoni-BezekMutilated. Judges, 
i 

32. Ruth Gleaning in the Fields of 
Boaz. Ruth, ii 

33. Hannah and Elkanah. I Sam- 
uel, i 

34. Samuel Anointing Saul. I 
Samuel, x 



35. David and Goliath. I Samuel, 
xvii 

36. David Hearing of the Philistines 
Fighting Against Keilah. I 
Samuel, xxiii 

37. David Hearing of Saul's Death. 
2 Samuel, i 

38. David Subduing His Enemies. 
2 Samuel, viii 

39. David and Uriah. 2 Samuel, 
xi 

40. Nathan before David. 2 Samuel, 
xii 

41. David and the Woman of 
Tekoah. 2 Samuel, xiv 

42. The Murder of Amasa. 2 
Samuel, xx 

43. David and Abishag. I Kings, i 

44. Hiram's Messenger before Solo- 
mon. I Kings, v 

45. The Prophet Ahijah and Jero- 
boam's Wife. I Kings, xiv 

46. Elijah's Sacrifice. i Kings, 
xviii 

47. The Children Mocking Elisha. 
2 Kings, ii 

48. Jehoiada, the Priest, Com- 
manding Athaliah's Death. 2 
Kings, xi 

49. Ahaz's Offering. 2 Kings, xvi 

50. Josiah Causing the Book of the 
Law to be Read in a Solemn As- 
sembly. 2 Kings, xxiii 

51. Rehearsing the Genealogy of 
Israel. I Chronicles, i 

52. Saul's Head and Armour Brought 
into the Temple of the Philis- 
tines. I Chronicles, x 

53. The Levites Playing Before the 
Ark. i Chronicles, xvi 

54. Solomon's Prayer. 2 Chroni- 
cles, i 

55. Solomon Blesses the People. 2 
Chronicles, vi 



HANS HOLBEIN 

56. Shishak Carrying Away the 
Treasures of the Temple. 2 
Chronicles, xii 

57. The Destruction of Sen- 
nacherib's Host. 2 Chronicles, 
xxx ii 

58. The Return of the Jews from 
Captivity. Ezra, i 

59. Nehemiah's Prayer. Nehe- 
miah, i 

60. Josiah Keeps the Passover. 
Apocrypha : i Esdras, i (also 2 
Chronicles, xxxv) 

61. The Blindness of Tobit. Apo- 
crypha : Tobit, i and ii 

62. Job in his Mourning Blesses 
God. Job, i 

63. Job and Eliphaz. Job. xv 

64. God Answers Job. Job, xxxviii 
and xlii 

65. Esther Before Ahasuerus. Esther, 
i and ii 

66. Judith Sets Forth From the 
City. Apocrypha : Judith, x 

67. Judith with the Head of Holo- 
fernes. Apocrypha : Judith, xiii 

68. David Writing the Psalms. 
Psalms, i 

69. The Fool. Psalms, liii 

70. The Lord said unto my Lord, 
Sit thou at my right hand. 
Psalms, ex 

71. The Lovers. Song of Solomon, i 

72. Isaiah Lamenting over Jerusa- 
lem. Isaiah, i 

73. Isaiah and the Vision of the 
Lord. Isaiah, vi 

75. Ezekiel's Vision. Ezekiel, i 

79. The Fiery Furnace. Daniel, 
iii (and Apocrypha : The Song 
of the Three Holy Children) 

80. Daniel's Vision of the Four 
Beasts. Daniel, vii 

81. Gabriel Interprets the Vision of 

13 



GREAT ENGRAVERS 

the Ram and the Goat. Daniel, 
viii 

83. Daniel, Susanna and the Elders. 
Apocrypha : Susanna 

84. Daniel in the Lion's Den. 
(Daniel, vi, and Apocrypha : Bel 
and the Dragon) 

85. Hosea and his Wife. Hosea, i 

86. Joel. Joel, i 

87. Amos Teaching. Amos, i 



88. Jonah and Nineveh. Jonah, i, 
ii and iii 

89. Habakkuk about to take Dinner 
to the Reapers, is commanded by 
the Angel to carry it to Daniel. 
Aprocrypha: Bel and the Dragon, 

33? 34 

90. Zechariah. Zechariah, i 

91. The Vision of the Horseman 
over Jerusalem. 2 Maccabees, v 



DANCE OF DEATH 

The order followed is that of the edition of 1562. The reproductions 
are numbered according to this order, but their arrangement on the plates 
after No. 44 has been slightly altered to bring kindred subjects together. 
In the original book only one cut occurs on each page. The first edition 
of 1538 (probably Liitzelburger's work in its entirety) contained Nos. 1-39 
and 56 and 57. To the edition of 1545 were added Nos. 40-45, and 48- 
53, and to that of 1562 Nos. 46, 47, 54, 55 and 58. 



1. The Creation 23, 

2. The Fall 2j. 

3. Adam and Eve driven from the 25. 
Garden of Eden 26. 

4. Adam Tilling the Ground 27. 

5. The Trumpeters of Death 28. 

6. Pope 29. 

7. Emperor 30. 

8. King 31. 

9. Cardinal 32. 

10. Empress 33. 

1 1. Queen 34. 

12. Bishop 35. 

13. Duke 36. 

14. Abbot 37. 

15. Abbess 38. 

16. Nobleman 39. 

17. Canon 40. 

18. Judge 41. 

19. Advocate 42. 

20. Councillor 43. 

21. Preacher 44. 

22. Pastor 45. 



Monk 

Nun 

Old Woman 

Doctor 

Astronomer 

Miser 

Merchant 

Sailor 

Knight 

Earl 

Old Man 

Countess 

Noblewoman 

Duchess 

Pedlar 

Ploughman. Frontispiece 

Child 

Soldier 

Robber 

Drinkers 

Fool 

Gamblers 

Children's Triumph: The Victor 



46. Young Wife 

47. Young Husband 

48. Children's Triumph : The 
Standard-bearer 

49. Blind Man 

50. Carter 

5 i . Sick Beggar 

52. Child with Shield and Arrow 



HANS HOLBEIN 

53. Children, one carrying a Hare 

54. Children with Grapes and Vine 
Leaves 

55. Children with a Suit of Armour 

56. The Last Judgement 

57. The Coat of Arms of Death 

58. Children with Trumpets and 
Drum 



MISCELLANEOUS CUTS 



1. St. Paul. From the New Testa- 
ment in Greek, Basle (T. Platter), 
1540. Woltmann, 192 

Two cuts from Cranmer's Catechism. 
London (W. Lynne) 1548. Wolt- 
mann, 198 and 199 

2. The Pharisee and the Publican 
(p. 6) 

3. Christ Healing the Man Possessed 
of a Devil (p. 102) 

4. Portrait of Erasmus. Woltmann, 
206. Second state. The first state 
hadan inscription of two lines only. 



5. Title-page Border to the German 
New Testament, Basle (Adam 
Petri), 1522-3. Woltmann, 215 

6. The Alphabet with the Dance of 
of Death. Woltmann, 252. a The 
Trumpeters of Death, b Pope. 
c Emperor, d King, e Cardinal. 

^Empress, g Queen, h Bishop. 
i Duke, k Earl. /Canon, m Doctor. 
Rich man. o Monk, p Soldier. 
q Nun. rFool. .rMaid. /Drunkard. 
v Rider, w Hermit, x Gamblers. 
y Infant, z Last Judgement. 

Basle 



The title-page border was first used in TSreve Leonis X ad Erasmum. 
1515. Woltmann, 234. 

The decorative piece at the back of the title-page is the printer's mark 
of R. Wolfe, London. Woltmann, 249. 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

1. THE FALL. Genesis, iii 

This cut does not occur in the separately printed series of the cuts, but 
occurs in several of the editions of the Old Testament published at Basle 
(e.g., Trechsel, 1538, and Frellon, 1551) 

2. NOAH'S ARK. Genesis, vii 





H I 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

3. THE BUILDING OF THE TOWER OF BABEL. Genesis, xi 

4. ABRAHAM AND THE THREE ANGELS. Genesis, xviii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

5. ABRAHAM'S SACRIFICE. Genesis, xxii 

6. ISAAC BLESSING JACOB. Genesis, xxvii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

7. JOSEPH IN THE PIT. Genesis, xxxvii 

8. PHARAOH'S DREAMS. Genesis, xli 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

9. JACOB BLESSING EPHRAIM AND MANASSEH. Genesis, xlviii 
10. THE BURIAL OF JOSEPH. Exodus, i 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

11. MOSES AND THE BURNING BUSH. Exodus, iii 

12. MOSES AND AARON BEFORE PHARAOH. Exodus, v 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

13. THE DESTRUCTION OF PHARAOH'S HOST. Exodus, xiv and xv 

14. THE GATHERING OF THE MANNA. Exodus, xvi 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 
15. MOSES ON MOUNT SINAI. Exodus, xix 
17. MOSES RECEIVING THE TABLES OF THE LAW. Exodus, xxxir 




/ 

_ '<'' _: 




OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

18. MOSES RECEIVING GOD'S LAW OF THE BURNT OFFERINGS. 

Leviticus, i 

19. MOSES RECEIVING GOD'S LAW OF THE CONSECRATION OF 

PRIESTS. Leviticus, viii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

20. NADAB AND ABIHU, FOR OFFERING STRANGE SACRIFICES, 

ARE BURNT BY FIRE. Leviticus, x 

21. MOSES RECEIVING GOD'S LAW OF THE HARVEST AND 

GLEANINGS. Leviticus, xix 







^SL^^>" Afcfell^F^fel/ ^ 




OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 
22. MOSES AND AARON NUMBERING THE PEOPLE. Numbers, i 

24. THE DESTRUCTION OF KORAH AND HIS FOLLOWERS. 

Numbers, xvi. 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

25. THE BRAZEN SERPENT. Numbers, xxi 

26. MOSES AND THE MIDIANITE WOMEN AND CHILDREN. 

Numbers, xxxi 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

27. MOSES ADDRESSING THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL. Deuteronomy, i 

28. MOSES EXHORTING THE PEOPLE TO OBEDIENCE. Deutero- 

nomy, iv 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

29. MOSES ADDRESSING THE LEVITES. Deuteronomy, xyiii 

30. JOSHUA AND THE KINGS THAT HE HAD SMITTEN. Joshua, xii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

31. ADONI-BEZEK MUTILATED. Judges, i 

32. RUTH GLEANING IN THE FIELDS OF BOAZ. Ruth, ii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 
33 HANNAH AND ELKANAH. i Samuel, i 
34. SAMUEL ANOINTING SAUL, i Samuel, x 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

35. DAVID AND GOLIATH. I Samuel, xvii 

36. DAVID HEARING OF THE PHILISTINES FIGHTING AGAINST 

KEILAH. i Samuel, xxiii 





H 3 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

37. DAVID HEARING OF SAUL'S DEATH. 2 Samuel, I 

38. DAVID SUBDUING HIS ENEMIES. 2 Samuel, viii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

39. DAVID AND URIAH. 2 Samuel, xi 

40. NATHAN BEFORE DAVID. 2 Samuel, xii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

41 DAVID AND THE WOMAN OF TEKOAH. 2 Samuel, xiv 
42. THE MURDER OF AMASA. 2 Samuel, xx 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

43. DAVID AND ABISHAG. i Kings, i 

44. HIRAM'S MESSENGER BEFORE SOLOMON* i Kings, v 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

45. THE PROPHET AHIJAH AND JEROBOAM'S WIFE, i Kings, xiv 

46. ELIJAH'S SACRIFICE, i Kings, xviii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 
17. THE CHILDREN MOCKING ELISHA. 2 Kings, ii 

48. JEHOIADA, THE PRIEST, COMMANDING ATHALIAH'S 
DEATH. 2 Kings, xi 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

49. AHAZ'S OFFERING. 2 Kings, xvi 

50. JOSIAH CAUSING THE BOOK OF THE LAW TO BE READ IN 

A SOLEMN ASSEMBLY. 2 Kings, xxiii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

51. REHEARSING THE GENEALOGY OF ISRAEL, i Chronicles,! 

52. SAUL'S HEAD AND ARMOUR BROUGHT INTO THE TEMPLE 

OF THE PHILISTINES, i Chronicles, x 





H 4 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

53. THE LEVITES PLAYING BEFORE THE ARK. i Chronicles, xvi 

54. SOLOMON'S PRAYER. 2 Chronicles, i 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

55. SOLOMON BLESSES THE PEOPLE. 2 Chronicles, vi 

56. SHISHAK CARRYING AWAY THE TREASURES OF THE 

TEMPLE. 2 Chronicles, xii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

57. THE DESTRUCTION OF SENNACHERIB'S HOST. 2 Chronicles, 

xxxii 

58. THE RETURN OF THE JEWS FROM CAPTIVITY. Ezra, i 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

59. NEHEMIAH'S PRAYER. Nehemiah, i 

60. JOSIAH KEEPS THE PASSOVER. Apocrypha : I Esdras, i (also 

2 Chronicles, xxxv) 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

61. THE BLINDNESS OF TOBIT. Apocrypha : Tobit, i and ii 

62. JOB IN HIS MOURNING BLESSES GOD. Job, i 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

63. JOB AND ELIPHAZ. Job, xv 

64. GOD ANSWERS JOB. Job, xxxviii and xlii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

65. ESTHER BEFORE AHASUERUS. Esther, i and ii 

66. JUDITH SETS FORTH FROM THE CITY. Apocrypha : Judith, x 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

67. JUDITH WITH THE HEAD OF HOLOFERNES. Apocrypha: 

Judith, xiii 

68. DAVID WRITING THE PSALMS. Psalms, i 





H 5 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

69. THE FOOL. Psalms, liii 

70. THE LORD SAID UNTO MY LORD, SIT THOU AT MY 

RIGHT HAND. Psalms, ex 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

71. THE LOVERS. Song of Solomon, i 

72. ISAIAH LAMENTING OVER JERUSALEM. Isaiah, i 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

73. ISAIAH AND THE VISION OF THE LORD. Isaiah, vi 
75. EZEKIEL'S VISION. Ezekiel, i 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

79. THE FIERY FURNACE. Daniel, iii (and Apocrypha : The Song of 
the Three Holy Children) 

So. DANIEL'S VISION OF THE FOUR BEASTS. Daniel, vii 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

81. GABRIEL INTERPRETS THE VISION OF THE RAM AND 
THE GOAT. Daniel, viii 

83. DANIEL, SUSANNA AND THE ELDERS. Apocrypha : Susanna 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

84. DANIEL IN THE LION'S DEN. (Daniel, vi, and Apocrypha : Bel 

and the Dragon) 

85. HOSEA AND HIS WIFE. Hosea, i 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

86. JOEL. Joel, i 

87. AMOS TEACHING. Amos, i 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

88. JONAH AND NINEVEH. Jonah, i, ii and iii 

89. HABAKKUK, ABOUT TO TAKE DINNER TO THE REAPERS, 

IS COMMANDED BY THE ANGEL TO CARRY IT TO 
DANIEL. Apocrypha : Bel and the Dragon, verses 33-34 





H6 



OLD TESTAMENT CUTS 

90. ZECHARIAH. Zechariah, i 

91. THE VISION OF THE HORSEMEN OVER JERUSALEM. 

2 Maccabees, v 



DANCE OF DEATH 
i. THE CREATION 2. THE FALL 

3. ADAM AND EVE DRIVEN 4. ADAM TILLING THE 

FROM THE GARDEN OF GROUND 

EDEN 



DANCE OF DEATH 

5. THE TRUMPETERS OF 6. POPE 

DEATH 

7. EMPEROR b. KING 



DANCE OF DEATH 

9. CARDINAL 10. EMPRESS 

ii. QUEEN 12. BISHOP 



DANCE OF DEATH 

13. DUKE i 4 . ABBOT 

15. ABBESS 16. NOBLEMAN 



DANCE OF DEATH 

17. CANON 1 8. JUDGE 

19. ADVOCATE 20. COUNCILLOR 



DANCE OF DEATH 

21. PREACHER 22. PASTOR 

23. MONK 24. NUN 



DANCE OF DEATH 

'25. OLD \YOMAN 26. DOCTOR 

27. ASTRONOMER 28 MISER 







H 7 



DANCE OF DEATH 

29. MERCHANT 30. SAILOR 

31. KNIGHT 32. EARL 



DANCE OF DEATH 

33. OLD MAN 34- COUNTESS 

35. NOBLEWOMAN 36. DUCHESS 



DANCE OF DEATH 
37. PEDLAR 39- CHILD 



DANCE OF DEATH 

40. SOLDIER 41. ROBBER 

42. DRINKERS 43. FOOL 






9 




DANCE OF DEATH 

44. GAMBLERS 49- BLIND MAN 

50. CARTER 51. SICK BEGGAR 



DANCE OF DEATH 
46. YOUNG WIFE 47. YOUNG HUSBAND 



DANCE OF DEATH 

45. CHILDREN'S TRIUMPH : 48. CHILDREN'S TRIUMPH- 

THE VICTOR THE STANDARD-BEARER 

52. CHILD WITH SHIELD 53. CHILDREN, ONECARRY- 

AND ARROW ING A HARE 



DANCE OF DEATH 
58. CHILDREN WITH TRUMPETS AND DRUM 

54. CHILDREN WITH GRAPES 55. CHILDREN WITH A SUIT 

AND VINE LEAVES OF ARMOUR 






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DANCE OF DEATH 

56. THE LAST JUDGEMENT 

57. THE COAT OF ARMS OF DEATH 



MISCELLANEOUS CUTS 

I. ST. PAUL. From the New Testament in Greek, Basle (T. Platter), 1540. 
Woltmann, 192 



MISCELLANEOUS CUTS 

TWO CUTS FROM CRANMER'S CATECHISM. London (W. Lynne) 
1548. Woltmann, 198 and 199 

2. THE PHARISEE AND THE PUBLICAN (p. 6) 

3. CHRIST HEALING THE MAN POSSESSED OF A DEVIL (p. 102) 



MISCELLANEOUS CUTS 

4. PORTRAIT OF ERASMUS. Woltmann, 206 

Second state. The first had an inscription of two lines only. 



MISCELLANEOUS CUTS 

5. TITLE-PAGE BORDER TO THE GERMAN NEW TESTAMENT, 
Basle (Adam Petri), 1522-3. Woltmann, 215 



MISCELLANEOUS CUTS 
6. THE ALPHABET WITH THE DANCE OF DEATH. Woltmann, 252 

A. The Trumpeters of Death G. Queen 

B. Pope H. Bishop 

C. Emperor I. Duke 

D. King K. Earl 

E. Cardinal L. Canon. 

F. Empress M. Doctor 



MISCELLANEOUS CUTS 

6. THE ALPHABET WITH THE DANCE OF DEATH (continued). 
Woltman, 252 

N. Rich man T. Drunkard 

O. Monk V. Rider 

P. Soldier W. Hermit 

Q. Nun X. Gamblers 

R. Fool Y. Infant 

S Maid Z. Last Judgement. 



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