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" III. THE FUR TRADERS . .... 22 













LANDS .... ... 104 





XIX. JAP IN 166 




XXIII. THE Swiss ON THE ALPS . ., . 198 


XXV. THE BRITISH EMPIRE . . . ^ . . 217 













.Liverpool : PHILIP, SON vSc NEPHEW, Ltd., 20 Church Street 


(All Kinhts Reserved) 


THIS book is intended for children of about the ages oi 
11 or 12.. It covers the whole world in broad outline 
and can be used independently of any other series of books, 
but perhaps most effectively as an introduction to the 
Human Geographies, Secondary Series. These latter 
books deal with the world on a regional basis and in 
considerable detail. The present book gives the frame- 
work into which all other subsequent studies can be fitted, 
This book follows the lines of the Human Geographies, 
Primary Series inasmuch as it lays emphasis everywhere, 
not on* place-names and statistics, but on the interaction 
between man and his environment. It is full of pictures 
of human life, lived under many varying conditions. 

At the same time care has been taken that all essential 
geographical ideas are introduced and that practically al] 
important places and areas are referred to as settings tc 
the pictures. By this means geographical fa^s are seei] 
not only in their proper relations, but in their proper 
perspective. An attempt has been made to introduce 
geographical ideas gradually and in such a way tKafc a 
picture of the world as a whole is eventually built np. 

The authors have a wider aim than the mere teaching oi 
a certain number of geographical facts. They believe that 
only by a^ sympathetic understanding of the conditions 
cinder which other peoples live can the modern demo- 
cracies realise their own position in the scale of things, 
and extend that tolerance towards other peoples which 
they expect other peoples to extend towards themselves. 
And this conception of the world as one big cooperative! 
society canned be taught too early or too often. 





OCCASIONALLY we hear a great deal about 
emigration, and there can be few of us who 
have not some friend who has left the mother- 
land to live in another part of the world. Men 
emigrate for different reasons ; perhaps the 
commonest is the desire to farm. In the 
British Isles farms are few and dear. In 
America, and in some other parts of the world, 
land is plentiful and can be had for little or 
nothing. * So* adrenturous spirits go off to seek 
a life in the open air a hard life, it is true, but 
one where hard work brings a due reward. 

It is fortunate for those of us who stay at 
home that so many of our countrymen wish to 
go abroad, because we do not grow nearly 
enough food for our own use and we require 
abundant supplies from over the seas. The 
most important food-stuff we import in large 
quantities is wheat. And some of the biggest, 
cheapest and most fertile wheat fends are in 


America. Let us "Imagine", then, that one of 
us wishes to go to America to grow wheat. 

America is away to the west, and is separated 
from Britain by miles of ocean, so^we must 
make the journey by ship. Suppose we start 
from Liverpool, 011 the estuary of the Mersey.* 
This estuary is sheltered from all winds except 
the north-west, and is cleaned out twice a day 
"by the rush of a swift tide that rises as much as 
26 feet at the mouth. Dredgers are always at 



work to help the tide to keep a deep clear channel. 
There are 35 miles of quays at the port, and 
there are huge warehouses where the goods that 
go in and out of the port are stored. 

The wheat lands of America lie near the 
centre of the continent,, and before we can 
reach them we must leave the ship and take to 
the railway. There are several sea-routes by 
which we may travel and several points afc 
which we n?ay land. 


Look at a globe and yo*a will see that the 
shortest way of all is round the southern end 
of the ice-clad island of Greenland, through 
Hudson $trait and into Hudson Bay. But we 
cannot go' by this route, for there are few steamers 
to Hudson Bay and no railways from Hudson 
Bay to the wheat lands. Hudson Strait and 
Hudson Bay and the northern seas generally 
are frozen over for the greater part of the year. 
The farther north we go the colder is the climate 



and the longer the period of the year during 
which the sea is frozen. At the North Pole 
there is ice for twelve months. In Hudson 
Strait there is ice for nine months, from 
November to July. 

An easier way is by the River St. Lawrence. 

If we choose this route we pass Newfoundland 

nearly 2000 miles from Liverpool, about five 

; days after we lose sight of the Irish coast. 

Newfoundland lies at the entrance to the Gulf 



of Sfc, Lawrence, wiiere the entrance is so wide 
' that it looks like an arm of the sea. After a 
while, however, the gulf narrows and densely 
wooded hills are seen on either sidp. Little 
white villages with tinned church spires and 
dark woods drive past, and presently the boat is * 
drawn up in the dock at 

The shores of the St. Law- 
rence are also frozen over in 
winter for three months, and 
so we should be more likely 
to sail to a port still farther 
south. But farther south a 
new difficulty appears. It is 
easy enough to land on the 
east coast of America, but it 
is not so easy to get inland, 
for, not far from the coast, 
there is a long stretch of hilly 
land the Appalachian Moun- 
tains. It was these mountains 

,,,. ..-,_ w ^ uw that ke P* the earl ,7 settlers 
THE APPALACHIANS AND from reaching the plains The 

THE MOHAWK GAP. , -. . X --.*iv~> 

land is not really very high, 
but it was densely covered with forests and 
infested with wild animals and wilder Indians. 
The only possible roads were along the valleys 
of the rivers and the smaller streams, and they 
were mostly difficult. But at one point, and ; 
one point oniy, the mountains are cut through 

FIG. 2. 


from north to south by the^rivers* Hudson and 
Richelieu., giving an easy route f*om the St. 
Lawrence to the ice-free sea. And at one 
point on he Hudson, the valley of the Mohawk 
river give's another easy road to the west and 

the western plains. 

At the door of these only easy wavs across 
the Appalachians stands the city of New York, 
and because it is at the 
door, it has become the 
principal city of North 
America ; more than 
half the foreign trade of 
the United States passes 
through it. As we sail 
into the harbour we are 
surrounded by forests of 
masts and steamboat fun- 
nels; steamers are pass- 
ing out laden with grain, 
meat,tolaacco,per6leum, -^ Lower Bay 
and many other things. FlG ' 3 "~ PLAN OF NEW YORK - 
In front of us rise huge buildings called 
" sky scrapers " ; much of New York is built 
at the southern end of Manhattan Island, and 
as the space is small the buildings have to 
climb heavenwards instead of spreading out 
sideways. In the city itself we shall find miles 
of streets of shops, some of them small, but 

some of them big enough to employ several 
hundred clerks and shop-assistants^ The people 


who lire in the ciy have to live in flats, and 
because land is so valuable, there are no froix 
gardens or backyards, and the only playground.! 
for the children are the streets. T^o escape 
the crowded city tens of thousands of mar 
travel ten to forty miles into the country everj 
day. Part of the journey is made upon elevatec 
railways that are raised high over head on iror 

We leave New York by train and pass througl: 
the Hudson-Mohawk gap only to find tb.a.1 
something else is in the direct way a group oJ 
five enormous lakes. To avoid these the train 
may make for the southern end of lake Michigan., 
after which we are free to travel north-west, 
west, or south-west as we please. You can 
see from a map that all the roads from New 
England and from the states round about New 
York must go through this point before they 
can pass round the Great Lakes and away to 
the west. Here then we should expect to find 
another big city, and we find what we expect. 
It is Chicago, the greatest railway centre in 
the world. 

From Chicago we make our way to Winnipeg., 
in the centre of the Canadian wheat fields. 
After leaving the train we go to the Government 
Land Office and are shown a plan like that in. 
Fig. 4. It is divided into blocks, six miles 
square, and is called a township. Each town- 
ship is divided into thirty-six sections, and eacli 


section into quarter-sections, ff a man be. 

over eighteen years of age, lie can* choose any 
even-numbered quarter-section he pleases, and 
it will bq given to him for nothing if he will live 
on it . and farm it for three years. Sections 
11 and 29 are, however, kept to provide money 
for the schools that will be wanted later on, 
and Sections S and 26 belong to the Hudson 
Bay Company. 

We nnd our quarter-section, with the help 









































Township 6 Miles Square 


of a guide, and then the pleasure and the 
trouble begin. The first thing is to build a 
wooden house and put in a stove with which 
to warm it in winter when the weather will be 
very cold. Then we dig the garden and put 
up the fence, after which we set to work upon 
the farm itself. 

Ploughing begins in the autumn and 
"goes on steadily until stopped by frost in 
November or December. In April the land is 



seeded with wheat? after which the ploughing 
is completed and the oats and otlier crops put 
in. Then the farmer waits for the harvest., 
busying himself meanwhile with his dajiry cattle 
and the cultivating of the potatoes and other 
roots, or in breaking up fresh prairie lands. In. 
July the hay is cut, dried in the sun, and stored 
in the barns or in stacks. If many cattle are 
kept, the green Indian corn is cut and stored^ 
to be pressed and used as winter food for the 
milch cows. As the wheat begins to head out, 

ie^...^ . <, -/^ """''WWibWfM 

. tw*lsii--c asi/ A .; 

...... ,,..., i .^sSsSstiS 

' ''*"""" ^ ^Vxi,..,,,,,,.,^,,.,,...^. 


the western farmer casts many -an ..anxious 
glance at the weather probabilities,. ..for occasion- 
ally a late night-frost comes at this season and 
damages his crop. In August the wheat is ripe 
and the harvest begins. The grain is rapidly 
cut and bound into sheaves by machines called 
binders. In the east it is stored in barns to bo 
threshed later, but the crop is too large for this 
in the west, so it is hauled to a stack and piled 
ready for the threshers. Just before cuttino- 
the western ^eat-fields present a lovely picture' 


As far as the eye can reacfe, the "grain waves 
and ripples to the warm summer breeze like a 
sea of gold. 

" As soon as the grain has been cut and 
stacked, domes the threshing a most important 
part of the work. In the west the people live 
far apart, so a threshing gang goes with the 
mill. They sleep in a large conveyance some- 
what, like a car, which is drawn from place to 
place by the traction engine which draws the 
threshing machine and supplies the driving 
power when the mill is at work. As the hum 
of the threshing machine begins the scene is a 
lively one and worth the watching. Every 
man has his appointed place, and the stack of 
grain grows rapidly smaller as the pile of straw 
heaps up and the bags are filled with bright 
clean grain. As soon as threshing is over, the 
farmer hauls the grain to the nearest railway 
station, where it is sold and stored in the 
elevator^ ready, for shipment to the east over 
the Canadian Pacific Railway." * 

It will be seen that we must expect to be 
kept pretty busy throughout the whole year. 
And the women will have to work as hard or 
even harder. They can rarely get domestic 
servants and have to do all their own house 
work cleaning, cooking, and baking. They are 
far from any doctor, and must be nurse and 
, physician. These are no shops, and they must 

* Canada, E. Peacock. * 


be ready tc make their own clothes and make 
fc or repair these of the men as well. And in the 
busiest times they must help on the farm itself, 
tend the chickens, milk the cows, hpe, make 
hay, and even drive the plough. The* wife of a, 
Canadian farmer works a great deal harder 
than any domestic servant in the mother-land. 

As we stand upon the land that is to be 
ours and think that it cost nothing, that we 
are to live a free life in the fresh air, the life of 
the wilderness, and that perhaps in due time 
we shall have made a fortune, it all sounds very 
attractive. But the work is hard, and if we 
are not active, strong, and industrious we shall 
soon be disappointed. The cold of the coming 
winter will be severe. There are no neighbours 
near at hand and we shall suffer loneliness. If 
we want to travel we shall find few roads and 
most of those bad ones. There will be no amuse- 
ments such as we know in towns ; there will be 
little comfort and few friendly calls by visitors. 
But we shall be free men and women, and 
freedom is worth a great deal to some people. 



AT the time when the Spaniards discovered 
America, the continent was inhabited by various 
native tribes from north to south and east to 
west. The natives lived chiefly near to water, 
but many of them roamed over the plains, 
hunting and fighting. Except for a few in the 
north they all belonged to various tribes of 
Red Indians, and these tribes were grouped 
togther into nations. Some were savages, others 
were barbarians. They did not all live alike : 
there were fishermen and hunters, and there 
were a fe^v who had learned to till the ground. 

In the centre of North America where the 
land is flat and w r here the farmers we spoke of 
in the last chapter now raise miles and miles of 
golden grain, there was then nothing but grass 
which varied very much in length. In places 
it was so short that it looked like velvet ; 
elsewhere it might be six or seven feet high. 
On these grassy plains or prairies there were 
S ew trees, except along the watercourses. During 
the winter the land is so cold th$t the rivers 



freeze and snow falls to a considerable depth. 
In the spring the snow melts, the grass covers 
the earth as with a carpet, upon which great 
masses of red, blue, . and yellow flowers weave 
bright and fanciful patterns. The rain ceases 
in the early part of the summer and then the 
flowers wither and the grass turns brown. 

Upon the prairies lived the bison, in such 
numbers that they often made big black patches" 
on the landscape. The bison is a very curious - 
looking animal The shoulders and chest are 


massive and strong, but the hind quarters are 
small and smooth and quite out of proportion 
to the rest of the animal. The hind legs are 
small and stand close together; the forelegs 
are thick, short, and far apart. The head is 
huge, hangs low down, and is covered with long 
shaggy hair matted together .and hiding the 
face. Out of the hair peep the tips of the 
crescent-shaped horns. There is a big hair- 
covered hump at the front end of the body and 
a short tail with a tuft on it at the other 


There were other animals on* the prairie 
besides the bison ; amongst these were the 
antelope, the prairie-dog, and various kinds of 

The Indians who lived on the plains 
depended on these animals for their exist- 
ence. They made their 
clothes from the skins of 
the deer and the mountain 
goat. The skins were 
washed in wood ashes and 
water and the hair scraped 
off. They were then pegged 
out on the ground or on 
a frame and well rubbed 
with* animals' brains. Finally 
they were carefully scraped 
and pressed with a bone knife 
and held for several days in 
the smoke from a w r ood fire. 
At the end of this time they 
were soft and waterproof. 
All this work was done by 

, i 

the women. 

The usual garments were a long coat, long 
leggings reaching from the ankle to the hips, 
and soft shoes or moccasins. They were com- 
monly decorated with beads and porcupine 
quills. If a man had killed any enemies he 
stuck a few tufts of their hair in his leggings 
and his sleeves, and if he were a great warrior 




he painted 4he story of his wonderful deeds 

upon his coat. 

The dress of the women was very much like 

that of the men, but the cloak was longer. 

Both sexks usually 
possessed a big robe 
of bison skin for use 
in cold weather. 

The constant pur- 
suit of animals pre- 
vented the Indians 
from building stone 

or wooden houses. 
They were obliged 
to have a house 
that they could carry with them on their never- 
ending wanderings. This was the wigwam, a 
kind of tent made of poles and skins. The 
poles were spread out at the base, but they met 



and were tied together at the top. The skin 
covering was often ornamented with paintings 
showing the brave deeds of the man who lived 
in the tent and with tufts of hair from the 


scalps of his enemies. There were no roads, and 
carts with wheels could not be used, but when 
the camp was moved, a horse was harnessed 
to the poles of the wigwam ; the skins were 
placed on the poles and the women and children 
sat on top of the bundles. 

The weapons of the Indian were wooden 
clubs, round shields made of bison hide, bows, 
arrows with stone points, and tomahawks or stone 
axes. To-day they have guns and steel knives. 

The chief food was the flesh of animals, 
birds, and fishes. Deer, bears, caribou, bison, 
antelope, fish, oysters, turkeys, grouse, and 
pigeons gave a fairly good choice of animal food. 
Then there were berries at certain seasons- 
raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries and 
such fruits as the wild cherry, small plums and 
walnuts, while the maple provided sweet juice 
and sometimes sugar. 

The flesh of the bison was the commonest 
food and jit was eaten in tender juicy steaks, in 
long dry strips, and as a fatty mess called 
pemmican. Pemmican is made by drying strips 
of bison meat and then pounding it up into a 
solid mass with equal quantities of melted 
fat. The tongue of the bison was the special 
dainty and the animals were slaughtered in 
hundreds simply for the sake of this tit-bit ; 
the rest of the body was left as food for birds of 

Until the Europeans brought tjie horse to 


America that anirpal was unknown ami when 
the Indians wanted to move on land they hud 
to go on foot. On their winter excursions, 
when the ground was covered with snow, 1- un- 
used snow-shoes. A snow-shoe is somethu ig li ko 
a tennis racket but much larger; tho lai^e 
surface supports the wearer and prevents him 
sinking into the snow. 

For journeys on the rivers they had various 
kinds of canoe, ; the chief kind was made of 

A <2ANOE MADE OF BIRC'II - 1 1 A It K . 

birch-bark fastened to a light wooden frame. 
It was lined with thin strips of cedar wood, and 
was both paddled and steered by one oar, 

After the introduction of tin*, // 1 he. 
Indians became clever horsernou and used (his 
animal not only for hunting and riding, hut also 
to drag their wigwams and families from one< 
camp to anQther. 


means of the canoes the Indians travelled 
in many directions and for long distances,, 
because there are many navigable lakes and 
rivers in North America. If waterfalls or rapids 
interfered with the journey, the light canoes 
were carried along the portages or trails that 
led from one safe piece of water to another. 

From the St. Law- 
rence they could get 
to lake Ontario. 
Betweenlakes Ontario 
and Erie are the 
famous Niagara Falls, 
a mile wide and 160 
feet high. These are 
avoided now by a 
canal, but the Indians 
had to make a port- 
age. At the western 
end of lake Erie they 
turned te the north 
and reached lake 
Huron. Another way 
of reaching this lake 
from the St. Lawrence was to go up the Ottawa 
river and make a portage over to a river that 
flowed down to lake Huron. At the north-western 
end of this lake there is a rapid river, but canals 
to-day enable a ship to pass forward and arrive 
in lake Superior, a lake as big as Ireland. From 
lake Michigan, which is really part of lake 





r Huron, a portage ^ould be made to the Illinois 
river which flows to the Mississippi. 

It was possible also to paddle up the Nelson 
river to lake Winnipeg, cross this, lake and 
enter the Red river in the heart of what is 
now the golden wheat country. The river 

gradually gets nar- 
rower and a little 
lake is reached. 
Prom this lake there 
is a stream leading 
to another small lake 
and thence into the 
Minnesota. Men 

could descend the 
Minnesota, carr y 11115 
the canoe past rapids 
and shallow places 
and, in due time. 

near the great trad- 
ing town of St. Pan! 

_ wje^kvwsss, y=g ^^ .(.<<. 


" TH AMERICA * sippi they could sail 
almost anywhere on the vast plains. 

A x-v -r- _ JI _ . 1 ^ . -^ 

At sp 

fl* f ? f Paul 7 we could ^ow travel by a <,,,,(, 
flat-bot-Lomed river-steamer and begin a, iotu'ncv 
do^-n one of the most crooked riverain thoworM 

i^lT the river turns and twist - : ; 

tLatitmakas a journey of 1300 miles bctvvvcn 


two points that are, in a straight line, only 625 
miles apart. The Mississippi receives over fifty 
rivers which are navigable by steamboats, and 
hundreds that are navigable by ordinary boats. 
The area it drains would hold the greater part 
of Europe, and nearly all of it is fertile. The 
river brings 
down millions 
of tons of mud 
and deposits 
it near the 
mouth, where, 
as there is no 
tide to sweep it 
away, it forms 
a delta. 

The water 
through the 
delta are often 
shallow - and 
made danger- 
ous by banks 
of sand and 
mud. Before dredgers were used, sailors avoided 
these dangerous passages and landed 011 an 
arm of the Gulf of Mexico at a point where a 
big bend in the river brings the river and the 
sea quite close together. 

On the bend is New Orleans. The river at 
this point is too wide for a bridge and the 

] S halloa/ Wata 
i ". ] POOD Water 

FIG. G.~ 




, trains are carried r- across on ferries. French 
names to the streets, French houses in the 
town, and the nse of the French language by 
many people remind us that New Orleans was 
once French. The French came in canoes via 
the St. Lawrence and lake Michigan and then 


by the Illinois river to the Mississippi. AH 
Montreal stands at the northern door, and 
JNew lork at the eastern door, so New Orleans 
stands at the southern door to the continent 

Just as the canoe has given place to tho 
steamer and the Indian to the white mar, so to 
bzson has gx.en way to cattle. The cattle arc 


reared on the Great Plains* at the foot of the 
Rocky Mountains, and are sent to the eastern 
parts of the States, there to be eaten or to be 
sent still farther east to Europe, where popula- 
tion is dense and meat much in demand. The 
animals are exported alive or dead, and the 
most central spot for collecting them is Chicago. 
The railways from all the coast ports can reach 
this place more easily than any other, and 
Chicago is the biggest meat market in the world. 
More than 150,000 animals are daily turned 
into beef, mutton, and pork. The stockyards 
contain miles of streets and over fifty miles 
of food troughs. The meat is exported frozen 
or turned into meat extracts. Margarine is 
made from the fat, buttons from the bones, 
combs from the horns and hoofs, and leather 
from the hides. 



WE have seen that North America was peopled 
chiefly by Indians who got their living fox- 
hunting. " Part of the old hunting grounds IK 
now covered with wheat fields and cattlo 
ranches, but the northern half is still the homo 
of the hunter. 

Owing to the intense cold of the winter -tho 
animals that live in Canada have very thick 
skins and a covering of warm fur. White men, 
however, set great value by this fur on account* 
of its beauty and warmth, and there are many 
men, both Indians and whites, who spend their 
lives hunting and trapping the wild f upbearing 
animals of the north. 

The hunting grounds differ in their climate, 
their vegetation, and the animals they produce. 
If we begin in the far north, on the shores of tho 
frozen sea, we find men and animals who depend 
entirely on the sea for their living. The people 
who live in this frozen wilderness are the 
Eskimo, and they get everything they need from 
the sea, for, though it freezes on the surface, 
it does not freeze below, and in the unfrozen 




a/fcer there are always plenty of fish, and plenty . 
"fche little creatures on which fish feed, 
that we think of as living on land 


to the sea. There is the polar bear, for 
3"fca/nce. It can walk, but it can swim much 

The seal is much more at 
in the water than on the 
mcL The whale, wiiich looks like 
fish, is not really a fish at all. 
Tbreathes like a land animal, and 
tiially has legs, though these 
n. "be seen only in the skeleton, 
.most* the only land animal is 
o fox ; but it lives on birds that 
3<3L on fish, so that the fox, too, 
a,lly gets its food from the sea. 
The hunter of the icy wastes 
Eskimo. He eats seal, 
, and whale. From the fat 
-fclxese animals he gets oilf or light ESKIMO HARPOONS. 
d lieat ; from their skins he gets his clothes. 
LO only wood he ever sees is that which is drifted 
from other lands. He husats in canoes 

I ( 





made of whalebone, or driftwood and covered 
with skins. His chief weapon is. the harpoon. 
made of driftwood and fitted with a sharp point 
of bone or stone. The chief fur-bearing animal 


of this region is the seal, though the skins of 
the Arctic fox and the polar bear are also valu- 
able. In summer, when the sea is open, the 
Eskimo goes out in a canoe to hunt the seal, but 


in winter, when the sea is frozen over, ho lies 

by the side of the holes where the seals col up 

to breathe, and kills them with a spear P 

South of the frozen ocean is a district called 


tundra in Europe and Asia^ but known as the 
Barren Grounds in North America. In the 
winter it is frozen into a barren wilderness ; in 
the summer it thaws into a swamp and is then 
alive with flowers and mosquitoes. The chief 
plants are mosses and lichens which do not die 
in winter and are therefore available for any 
animals that can manage to face the icy gales 
of that season. Almost the only land animal 
that can remain on the tundra at all seasons is 
the music-ox, which finds its food by scraping 
away the thin layer of snow. It is stoutly 
built, and is covered with long brown hair that 
reaches nearly to the ground. Beneath this is 
the^ thick layer of fur for which it is hunted. 
The fur is shed in summer, and therefore the 
hunter must set about his business in the 
winter, when the weather and the loneliness of 
the region are at their worst. Only the hardiest, 
the strongest, and the most experienced Indians 
ever go .to the Barren Grounds in the winter, 
and to be a musk-ox hunter is the ambition of 
all those who think themselves possessed of 
unusual courage, skill, and endurance. The 
hunters travel on snow-shoes and take all their 
equipment on dog-drawn sledges. As there are 
no trees on the tundra, there is no wood for 
fuel, and sufficient supplies of either oil or wood 
must be taken if hot food or drink is required. 

Another animal of the tundra is the caribou, 
a kind of reindeer. But the carifyou, like most 


of the other land inhabitants of the tundra, 
' leaves in the winter, as it is unable to $tand the 

South of the tundra is a belt of pine forest 
stretching from Newfoundland and Labrador to 
Alaska. It is 600 miles broad and over 3000 
miles wide, and is one of the biggest forests in 



MLJ 'Coniferous Forests Jv'-X| Tundra. 


the world. In aU this area there are only 
about eight different kinds of trees, most of 
which are coniferous trees with needle-shaped 
leaves. The soil is poor, the winters cold, and 
the supply of moisture small. But as the coni- 
ferous trees grow slowly the poor soil does not 
matter much.. The water taken in at the roots 


cannot easily escape on account of the small 
thick-skilled leaves, so that the small amount 
of moisture also does not matter much, and 
during the winter no moisture is needed, for the 
tree then* stops growing. This forest is the 
home of thousands of valuable animals and is 
the real home of the man who traps for his 

The animals of the far north obtain their 
food from the sea ; the animals of the forest 
live on plants and, fortunately, the trees of 
the Canadian forest keep their leaves all the 
year round, so that there is always food. No 
matter how deep the snow, the branches are 
never quite covered and their berries, nuts, and 
twigs are available all the winter. The forest, 
too, gives shelter, and it is therefore sought by a 
number of animals that live in other places in 
the summer. The caribou goes to the tundra 
in the summer but is at home in the forest in 
the winter. It cannot go into dense thickets, as 
it must have room, for its broad antlers ; it 
lives therefore in the more open spaces. It 
cats mosses and lichens and does not depend 
on grass, of which there is practically none in 
the forest. It can live either on the tundra or 
in the forest, for in both places it can find its food. 

Then there are the bears, brown, black, and 
grizzly, which can climb trees and eat large 
amounts of vegetable food. Some of them are 
particularly fond of pine seeds, but will eat fish 


and even insects. Bears, like caribou, are 
usually shot. 

The animals specially hunted for their fur 
are the ermine, sable, fox, mink, and beaver. 
The beaver is the most interesting of them all. 
It lives in the numerous streams that thread 
the forest, and it fells trees and dams up rivers. 
The trapper goes alone or with a few friends, 
and when he arrives at the hunting grounds he 
carefully examines the creeks and the streams. 
He puts Ms traps in the runs, hiding them under 
water and attaching them by stout chains to 
bushes on the banks. A float is fastened to 
each trap to show where it is if the beaver 
manages to carry it away. Early in the morning 
the captured animals are killed and skinned, 
and the skins are dried and packed in bundles 
of ten or twenty. If the water is frozen over 
the homes of the beaver are destroyed and dogs 
are sent to discover the retreats of the frightened 
animals. At a spot indicated by the^dog, the 
hunter cuts a hole in the ice and pokes about 
with a stick to see if the beaver is there. If it is, 
the man thrusts his bare arm into the hole, 
drags the beaver out on to the ice and kills 
it with a spear. 

The life of the trapper is a hard and dangerous 
one. It is true that most of the creatures he 
hunts are small, but even some of these small 
creatures can be fierce when irritated, and the 
bear and the lynx are big and powerful enough 


to be quite formidable enemies. In summer big 
black clouds of mosquitoes attack him ; animals 
like the wolverine steal his bait and his prey ; 
in winter the cold is intense and food is scarce. 
Houses are few and far between, and in time of 
trouble there is no one at hand to help. To lose 
the way or become benighted in the lonely forest 
is almost certain death. Very often the trapper 
has no shelter but the shanty that he erects for 
himself out of a number of poles and pieces of 
bark. One side of the shanty is left open, and 
in front of the opening the fire is built that 
keeps him warm. 

The trapper, whether Indian or white, sets 
his traps in a long line perhaps ten to fifteen miles 
in length, and must visit them regularly to bring 
home the catch and re-set the traps with fresh 
bait. The Indian trapper wears, to protect 
himself from the cold, a large leather coat, a 
rat-skin cap, blue cloth leggings, large moccasins, 
two or tl^ree pairs of blanket socks, and deer- 
skin mittens. 

He carries in his belt an axe and a large 
hunting knife, and over his shoulder his gun or 
rifle. He walks on snow-shoes and drags a small 
hand sledge behind him. This sledge is a flat 
slip of wood from five to six feet long and one 
foot broad, and is turned up at one end. It is 
extraordinarily light, and Indians invariably 
use it when visiting their traps for the purpose 
of dragging home the animals or .game they 




have caught. The trapper walks over the deep 
snow with long, regular firm steps, winds his 
way through the steins of the surrounding trees 
or pushes aside the smaller bushes. Tiiongh 
there be no track he goes swiftly forward as sure 
of his way as if a broad road lay before him. lie 


moves on for miles examining the newlv mado 
tracks of the animals ; suddenly a noiso attract 
his attention and a smile passes over his faro 
for the noise comes from one of his tr.ap.s, and 
he knows that something has been kuhf, 
He enters the bushes, finds perhaps a ba,,5r,,I 
black fox m the snare, hits it over the ncwo will 


the handle of his axe and ties the dead body 
to his sledge. In a few minutes more the trap 
is re-set, and so covered with snow that it is 
almost impossible to tell that anything is there. 

During the winter and early spring the 
trapper stores his furs, but when the ice begins 
to melt he sets oS to carry his goods to one of 
the stations belonging to the Hudson Bay 
Company. From trapping ground to trading 
post is often a hundred miles or more. Some- 
times five or six men travel together and pick 
up their wives and children en route. Then the 
women help to draw the sledge, and the babies 
are cradled on the bundles of furs. 

When they arrive at the station the trapper 
exchanges the skins. All the bartering is done 
by reckoning in beaver skins ; so many martens, 
so many foxes, etc., are equal to one beaver. 
For each " beaver " the Indian gets a brass 
token which he carries to the store. There, for 
one * c beaver " he can get two fish-hooks or 
one pound of shot ; five " beavers " will pur- 
chase an axe or one pound of gunpowder, while 
a pistol costs ten, a blanket twelve, and a gun 

At the post there is a house for the manager 
with a well-kept yard and fence, a huge gate, 
a small garden, and some outbuildings for cows 
and chickens. At the store there is everything 
from pork and fish-hooks to sewing machines 
and gramophones. 


It *ome centra^ point stands the tall flag- 
-faff from which the Hudson Bay flag is flown 
^enever a visitor arrives or departs. The 
f'oippanv controls a number of posts, each usually 
near the mouth of a river. At every station 
there are a manager, foreman and from two to 
twenty servants. Most people are to be met 
with in the summer, when the Indians come in 
to barter the furs. During the winter the 
place is almost deserted. 

The managers are usually chosen when quite 
young men and are sent out on the annual ship. 
They"get no holiday for eight years, and not 
always then. Twenty-five years' service with- 
out leave is not at all uncommon. The .pay 
is small, but most of it can be saved, for the 
Company provides houses, food, and servants, * 
and there is little on which to spend money in 
these out-of -the- world stations. 

The emigrant who grows wheat in the 
prairies or tends cattle on the drier plains 
farther west may have a hard and lonely life, 
but the emigrant who seeks his living trapping 
the fur-bearing animals of the cold north, has a 
much lonelier and harder life than either of the 



WHEN our supposed emigrant wanted to enter 
North America he found on the eastern side a 
highland barrier, the Appalachian Mountains. 
Had he tried to enter North America from the 
western side, he would have found a highland 
barrier very much longer and higher than 
anything in the east, and without any easy 
way from one side to the other. It is an 
enormous plateau more than a mile high and 
a thousand miles wide. The eastern edge of 
the plateau is the Rocky Mountains., and it 
stretches from the cold lands of the far north 
to the .hot lands of Central America. The 
western edge of the plateau is also composed 
of high mountains the Sierra Nevada and the 
Cascade Mountains. Between the mountains 
on the east and those on the west is the plateau, 
broadest in that part known as the Or eat 

What a person sees who crosses the Rockies 
depends very much on whereabouts he tries to 
get across. If he begins the ascent at some 
point in the United States, he smarts from a 




grassy plain. A little higher up ho conies to 
forests of trees that have broad. J oaves, such 
as the oak. Higher still would ho the forests 
of trees having needle-shaped leaves like t lu- 
pines and firs; then there would eoine small 
bushes, and, finally, nothing but snow and ice. 

Having got to 
the top of the 
Hookies he would 
descend into the 
Groat Basin, so 
called because it is 
shut in by ridges 
on all sides. The 
word /WA'msuggvst s 
a hollow, but. this 
basin is really a 
high plateau 
crossed as well as 
bordered by moun- 
tains. Tiro ( Jreat 
Basin is a very 
dry region. Most 

FlQ. 8. MAP TO SHOW THE HIGH GROUND of t,1 \ P W 1 I H 1 ^ t>t \ m I * 

from the land and 

are dry to begin with, and any winds, no 
matter from which direction they come, must 
first cross the mountain edges. In crossing 
they are cooled and deposit their moisture 
as rain before they get over. There are 
vast stretchos of the Great Basin where one 


can ride for miles and ne^er see a busli or 

On the farther side the traveller would 
descend the steep slopes of the Sierra Nevada 
and enter a deep valley, the Calif omian valley. 
On the other side _, _____ % 

of this valley and / 

close to the sea are 
the Coast Ranges. 

If, instead of 
climbing the 
mountains, a man 
travelled north 
from the prairies 
he . would pass 
through belts of 
plants very much 
like those he had 
reached by going 
up the sides of the 
mountains. North 
of the grasslands 
he would find 
forests, and still 
farther north the 
wildernessof snow. MOTOT SI * DCWALD ' 
But he would have to travel many hundred 
miles along the earth to get from the prairies 
to the snows, whereas by going up the side 
of the mountains he can reach the snows in 
a few miles. * 



The west is certainly not a place where 
we should expect "to find many people living. 
In the north there are a few hunters, and in 
the dry south there are a few Indians who 
are quite different from the Indians who used 
to lire on the plains. 

Here rain seldom falls, and the Indians 
live in houses made of stones and sun-dried 
bricks. The houses are called Tiogans and the 
bricks adobe. There is only one room in the 
hogan, but it is fairly comfortable, for it is 
wind-proof and cold-proof, and a fire can be 
lit in the middle. The adobe houses are, if 
possible, built near to good pasturage and 
water supply. The building of a new house 
is an easy matter, and the people can move 
about as they need, perhaps almost as easily 
as the dwellers in tents. This particular tribe 
of Indians raises sheep and goats and a small 
amount of agricultural produce. Their real 
wealth is sheep. From sheep they get food 
and wool, and the wool they make into beautiful 
blankets, which they exchange with the white 
man for many other things that they need. 

The most important part of the western 
region is, however, the valley of California. It is 
filled with soil washed down from the mountains 
and is very fertile. The northern part of the 
Western Highlands is in the belt of westerly 
winds and gets rain all the year round ; but 
in the valley of California rain falls only in 

the winter The summer is dry, warm, and 
sunny This ls the kind o! climate that is 
suitable for fruit, and the valley is one 
ot the greatest fruit-growing districts in the 

There are acres and acres of orange and 
lemon groves, peach, plum, and olive orchards, 
and millions of grape vines. There are also 

.- . .^ 



vast fields filled with almonds, walnuts, figs, 
apricots and many other varieties of fruit, 
Fields, hundreds of acres in extent, are covered 
with trays filled with apricots, peaches, and 
figs drying in the sun, plums changing into 
prunes and grapes into raisins. Because the 
air is hot and dry the fruit dries without de 
caying. Thousands of pounds of juried fruit 


including great quantities of raisins, are 
every year to other parts of the world. 

Only a few years ago these fertile farms* 
were desert wastes. The soil was rich enough.* 
but there was no water. By canals and ditcher 
streams have been led from the mountains and 
the desert has given way to a land of plenty 
dotted with prosperous homes. 

We saw that there was only one easy way 
through the eastern highlands, and that at th.o 
entrance to it stood the port of New York* 
On the west there is also only one break in 
the Coast Range all the way from Vancouver 
to the end of the peninsula of Lower California,- 
Everywhere else roads would have to, crosss 
these mountains to get to the sea ; here they need 
not do so. The railways from the north, south, 
and east come to this place to get to the Pacific, 
and here is San Francisco. It has a magnificent/ 
harbour called the Golden Gate. 

Not many people live among the western 
highlands, for the land is high, dry, and far 
from the markets of Europe. The California** 
valley is the largest area fit for settlement, and 
its biggest city is San Francisco. Wherever lifo 
is difficult, few people will care to live, and that, 
is why the north and the west of America have * 
such a small population. But in the east and 
the south-east, where men can "live well," aro 
most of the inhabitants of North America. 



THE emigrants who wish to cross the Atlantic 
to-day, whether to trap animals, to grow wheat, 
or to rear cattle, find no difficulty in making 
the journey. But this was not always the 
case ; there was a time when the ocean was 
looked upon with fear, and the sailor or fisher- 
man who found himself so far from land that 
he could see nothing but sea and sky was apt 
to fancy that he was lost. There were even 
people who said that if a man went far enough 
across the water he would come to the edge 
of the world and fall off. The first sailors who 
chose to go so far from land that they could 
no longer see it were men of real courage. 

One of these was Columbus. For many 
years men had gone, partly by land and partly 
by water, to seek the riches of the Indies and 
bring them back to trade with in Europe. But 
much of this trade was interfered with by the 
Arabs, and men. set their minds to work to 
discover new ways to the East. Columbus 
believed what no one else did, that the world was 
round, and that if ships sailed to the west they 
would, in time, come to the lands of the east,, 




to the Indies, so called because they were Hear- 
to India. 

As Columbus was not a rich man he was not> 
able to hire a vessel or crew with which to 
make the attempt to find the new route. HO 
went to the King of Portugal, but got no help 
from him ; then he went to the King of Spam,, 
and this king promised to find ships and money* 

for the expedition on. 
^" ^ condition that all new 

\.^ lands that might be dis- 
covered should belong to 
him. Columbus agreed 
and got three ships with, 
their crews, provisions., 
and tackle. 

He set sail from the 
south of Spain in 1492 
and crossed the ocean 
in a direction that Is 
best understood by 
reference to the map in. 
Fig. 9. This shows the route he took and. 
the winds he met with. He first sailed south 
because the winds from the south of Spain 
blow in that direction. Then the vessels wero 
headed towards the south-west because the 
wind_s were from the north-east. The steady 
winds carried him quickly and smoothly west- 
wards, very much to the distress of the crew, 
who begapi to fear that they would never bo 



able to sail home again against such constant 
winds. The men tried to persuade him to 
turn back, but he soothed their fears, and, in 
two months, he reached the other side of the 
Atlantic, where no one had ever been before. 

The ships of Columbus were sailing ships, 
and whether they went fast or slow, or whether 
they went backwards or forwards, all depended 
on the wind. The winds from the north-east, 


that blew him swiftly across the Atlantic, are 
steady winds that blow all the year round and 
almost seem to tread out a path for themselves ; 
hence they are called the Trade Winds. There 
are two such belts of Trade Winds the North- 
East Trades on the north side of the equator, 
and the South-East Trades on the south side 
of the equator. 

The first land reached by Columbus was one 
of that group of islands that we now call the 


Bahamas. When he landed he knelt and re- 
turned thanks to God for his safe journey? 
and took possession of the island in the name 
of the King of Spain. The natives came down. 
to the shore to look in astonishment at theso 
wonderful men with white skins and beautiful 
clothes and at their strange boats with white 
sails. They thought the ships were some kind 
of monstrous bird and that the visitors had 
come from another world. The natives were 
big and strong. They had coarse black hair ; 
they wore no clothes, but their bodies were 
painted in brilliant colours. They had spears 
tipped with fishbone, and canoes made out of 
a single tree trunk and capable of holding from 
forty to fifty men. 

From the Bahamas Columbus sailed south. 
and came to the large island of Cuba, of which 
he wrote : " It is very fertile, as in truth all 
the other islands are. One sees many high 
mountains covered with trees of great size. 
These trees are green in all seasons', for when 
I saw them they were as beautiful as the trees 
of Spain in May. Some of the trees were in 
blossom, while others were bearing fruit. Birds 
were singing in the forests in countless numbers, 
even though it was the month of November! 
The palm trees, of which there are seven or 
eight different kinds, are higher and more 
beautiful than any I have ever seen before." 
Columbus was surprised at the size and 


beauty of the trees. He was used to colder 
countries where, during the Winter season, the 
trees leave oS growing. He had now reached 
a land where it is always hot, and where the 
rains brought by the damp trade winds make 
the climate always wet. And where there is 
a constant supply of heat and rain the trees 
do not stop growing at any season, but grow 


all the yeftr round, produce fruit and blossom 
at all seasons, and reach a great size. 

It is not difficult to picture to ourselves the 
appearance of these islands as Columbus saw 
them, for there are many stretches of the ancient 
forest left and many of the trees and flowers 
are of the same kind to-day coco-nut, cala- 
bash, prickly pear, arrowroot, the papaw with 
its straight stem and fruits like pumpkins 
hanging just beneath the crown of leaves, and 


masses of yellow, blue, pink, scarlet, and orange 

From Cuba Columbus went south again and 
discovered Haiti. Then he turned back. But 
he knew, from the outward journey, that 
if lie tried to return by the waj r he came he 
would have the winds against him all the way. 
The belief of Columbus that the world was 
round held led him to cross the Atlantic. 
Ar.ot her belief led him to find the proper way 
home. He felt sure that as there was one belt 
of wind blowing westwards all the time, there 
would probably be another belt blowing east- 
wards all the time, and, with this idea in his 
mind, he sailed a little way to the north and 
found what he expected, a belt of westerly 
winds. These are stormier than the steady 
trade winds, and Columbus had a more tem- 
pestuous voyage, but the west winds brought 
him back to Europe again in about the same 
time as it took the east winds to send him across 
the Atlantic. 

Columbus had not found & new way to the 
riches of the Indies : he had found something 
more important, a new land of which Europeans 
had never heard. But lie, himself, had no idea 
that this new land was part of a new continent. 
He thought he had really arrived at those very 
Indies that he set out to reach by a westerly 
route. And when the mistake was discovered 
the islands^ on the other side of the Atlantic 


were called the West Indies to distinguish 
them from the East Indies. 

Once Columbus had shown the way there 
were plenty of people who were brave enough 
to follow his example. They did not all sail 
in the same direction, but whether they went 
to the west, the north-west, or the south-west, 
they always reached land, so that in time men 
came to believe that all these different lands 
were only parts of one big continent the 
continent we call America. 



RUBBER, or india-rubber as it is 
is important not only for reiru 
marks but also in the manufactr 
for bicycles and motor-cars and In 
with much electrical work. It is 
a tree, and as such large quantiti 
are used the tree must grow wb 
plenty of moisture. We have se 
trees in the West Indies are big ax 
because of the heat and the w 
south, in the valley of the Amazo- 
warmer and wetter and the forest 
and denser. The valley of the A 
huge flat plain covered with a: 
forest called the selvas. This is the 
rubber tree. 

In this forest the trees grow 
like thousands of pillars. Over 
the pillars is spread a green roof f c 
topmost branches and their leaves. 
an aeroplane, this would look like a 
sea, dotted here and there with, 
beautiful flowers like so many coloi 
Underneath the thick green roof t>] 



light, and from tree to tree pass creepers, 
as thick as ropes, that seem *to tie the whole 
forest up into a big, thick mass of wood that 
one cannot get through. In this gloomy place 
it is always hot, moist, stuffy, and dark. There 
are hundreds of different kinds of trees. This 
is quite different from the Canadian forest, 
where there are only eight different kinds of 


: orest3 


trees, and where it is possible to travel for miles 
and miles and see only one kind. 

Many kinds of trees provide the Juice from 
which rubber is made : the most important has 
leaves and bark something like those of the ash 
and grows to a great height before throwing 
off branches. The man who collects the sap 
goes to a tree and makes cuts in the bark. 


The juice oozes put and is collected in cups ol 
tin or clay. The next day the juice is heated 
and so hardened. 

The life of the rubber collector is a very 
hard one. He lives alone, or with one com- 
panion, in a rough hut made with pieces of 
palixi wood and roofed with leaves and fibres. 
When he finds the trees he 
^ ^ ? cuts paths from one to tlie 

"~ v ' ~ other. He begins his work 

at four in the morning. 
When he gets up he drinks 
a cup of coffee, shoulders 
his rifle, and, taking his 
small axe and some little 
tin cups, he starts out oil 
his morning round, visiting 
each tree in turn, making 
cuts in the bark, and fixing 
one of the cups underneath, 
to catch the white milk. 
After all his trees have been 
visited, he returns to his 
hut, cooks and eats his mid- 
day meal of dried meat and beans, and at once, 
if he is alone, starts out to collect the milk from 
each of the little cups. Returning home, ho 
lights the furnace in the rubber hut, the atmo- 
sphere of which, after five minutes, is stifling 9 
pours the milk into a large pan, and slowly 
heats it ; r when hot enough he smoke-dries it 




on to his rubber ball, which js mounted on a 
long pole or stick, by pouring it over the ball, 
which is held in the smoke of the furnace, and 
must be kept revolving. 

He needs a special kind of fuel for 
work, and he must collect it beforehand. 
the time he has dried the sap, it is dark ; he 
eats his supper and goes to bed. He "gets 
fever and rheumatism, and is often poisoned bv 
bad food. He 
can have no 
fresh meat un- 
less he kills it 
for himself, and 
that is not easy. 

The animals 
that live in such 
a forest as we 
have been de- 
scribing must be 
specially suited 
to live in such a 
home. First of all on the damp, messy ground 
there are all kinds of " creepy crawly 5J things 
like snakes and leeches. They can live in the 
mud and wriggle in and out amongst the trees. 
There are ant s every where, black, white, yellow, 
and red. Some of them are one and a half inches 
long, and have a bite like the touch of a hot iron. 
All kinds of stinging things are found, and there 
are hairy spiders whose bite is poisoctous. 




Next there aie the animals that can live in 
the trees. There are the birds that fly about 
in the more open spaces and live in the tops of 
the trees. Nothing can live above the ground 
unless it can fly, or climb and hang on to 
trees. There is the sloth. It sleeps in the 

daytime, hanging down- 
wards from a branch 
which it clasps with 
claws that are fashioned 
like hooks. It wakes 
up in the evening and 
then moves quickly 
from tree to tree, catch- 
ing hold of each branch 
with its twisted feet and 
using its long arms to 
tear off tender shoots, 
which it stuffs into its 
mouth. If it has to 
walk on the* ground it 
finds its claws of little 
use, and is as awkward 
as a man would be who 
was forced to live in its place. 

Then there is the jaguar, a kind of tiger., 
It cannot run well like the true, long-legged 
tiger, but it moves quietly and secretly from 
tree to tree, and drops on its prey from the 
overhanging branches. And there are monkeys 
that use their tails as well as their hands and 



feet when they move about, 3tnd can hang on 
to a branch with the tail and so swing easily 
from one tree to the next. 

The only way to get from one part of the 
country to another is by the rivers, and of 
these there are a great many. The trade 
winds are always bringing plenty of moisture, 
and rain falls every day. As it is always 
raining a great deal of water is always draining 
off and the rivers are always full. 

The longest river is the Amazon ; it is 
longer than the distance across the Atlantic. 


It has many tributaries flowing into it on both 
sides, and the basin, that is, the land drained 
by the river and its tributaries, is as big as the 
whole of Canada. The estuary is big enough 
to hold almost the whole of Scotland. When 
the tide rushes up the river it raises a wall of 
water from five to twelve feet in height, which 
moves forward at the rate of about ten miles 
an hour. Since it is so long the Amazon |svth 
main road of the forest and ships cant get ^ it 
for a distance of 3000 miles, and rubber cak be 
loaded on them a long distance from tl|e|Ba; 
A map of South America shows jtftat" the 


greater part of the basin of the Amazon is in 
the lowland, but that the beginnings of the 
main stream and of its tributaries are in the 
mountains. The part of the basin in the 
mountains seems very small, if compared with 
the part in the lowlands ; but it is really very 
large, as may be seen ~by measuring its length 
by means of the scale on the map. 

The western highland of South America is 
called the Andes. It runs north and south 
through the continent from the Isthmus of 
Panama to Cape Horn. Towards the southern 
end the range gets lower and lower and much 
closer to the sea, and in the far south it rises 
steeply from the shore. The passes are. at a 
great height, some of them at 15,000 feet, and 
the journey across the mountains is everywhere 
difficult and dangerous. Often there is 110 
proper road, not even a mule-track. 

Up the side of the mountains we get the 
usual belts of different lands of plants accord- 
ing to the height. If we begin the ascent 
somewhere near the equator, we first pass 
through forest so dense that. we can see only 
a little way into it. In these forests grow 
bananas, india-rubber, cocoa, and palm trees. 
Farther up the air is cooler, and tobacco, 
cotton, and maize are grown. Higher still it is 
cool enough to grow wheat and most European 
fruits and vegetables. Then it becomes too 
cold for farming, though there is a good deal 


of coarse grass, and then, higher still, are the ice 
and the everlasting snows. The highest parts of 
the Andes rise everywhere above the snow-line. 
The passes are so high that animals like 
the horse and the mule cannot breathe. Their 



place is taken by the llama, and the alpaca. 
The llama is a dwarf camel. Its body 1= 
covered with a soft grey wool that protects 
it from the cold, and can be used for making 
clothes. The bodies of the young are good 


to eat, and the milk is good to drink. Llamas 
can live on almost anything, and thrive on 
the coarse grass that grows everywhere on 
the Andes, right up to the snow-line. Llamas 
can carry a load of 100 Ibs., and are said to 
be so cunning that, if over-loaded, they will 
lie down and refuse to move till the proper 
weight is reached. 

The alpaca is another animal of the same 
kind and is almost as useful. Without these 
two animals there could have been no trade 
and no travelling over the passes of the Andes. 

The western highlands of South America 
are interesting to write and read about, but 
we must not give them too much importance. 
For, after all, by far the greater part of the 
continent is not highland but lowland. And 
through this lowland flow long rivers like the 
Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Parana, with 
numerous tributaries, also of great length. 
Owing to the lowness of the land thepe are few- 
waterfalls or rapids, and boats can make their 
way very far inland. Of the forest-covered low- 
land through which the Amazon flows we have 
just learned; of the lowland through which the 
Parana flows we shall learn in the next chapter. 



CATTLE feed on grass ; therefore the big cattle- 
rearing lands are the grass lands. Imagine, for 
a moment, that a piece of country where it is 
hot and where there is plenty of rain is left to 
itself. At first, both grass and trees will grow, 
but, after a time, owing to the heat and the 
moisture, the trees will be much taller than 
the grass, the branches will shut out the sun- 
light and the grass will wither. Hence we have 
to look for grass where it is fairly dry. But 
this is a condition required for growing wheat, 
and it follows that wheat lands and grass 
lands are usually close together, though grass 
will grow in places where there is not enough 
rain for wheat. 

In the north of North America we have 
seen wheat-growing in the central plains and 
cattle-rearing in the drier plains farther west, 
at the foot of the Kockies. In the south of 
South America we have a similar region the 
open plains of Argentine and Uruguay. These 
plains lie in the west wind belt, but as the west 
winds have to come over the Andss, they lose 




most of their mo^ture on the way and the 
plains are rather dry. 

The great plains of South America, those 
which correspond to the prairies of North 
America, are called pampas. In most places 
the grass grows to a height of three or four 
feet, and remains of a deep green colour all 
the year round; it crowds out most of the 

other plants, and 
flowers are few. On 
the moist clayey parts 
flourishes the stately 
pampas grass, which 
often attains a height 
of eight or nine feet. 
It is possible to ride 
for miles and miles 
with the feathery 
spikes of the grass 
reaching to the rider's 
head or even higher. 
"It would/' says the 
naturalist Hudson, 
" be impossible for me to give anything like an 
adequate idea of the exquisite loveliness, at 
certain times and seasons, of this queen of 
grasses, the chief glory of the solitary pampas. 
In some places, where scarcely any other 
kind exists, it covers large areas with a sea of 
fleecy white plumes ; in late summer and in 
autumn the tints are seen, varying from the 

,//. W. Winds 
fteauy Rain 



most delicate rose, tender as the blush on the 
white under-plumage of some gulls, to purple 
and violaceous. At no time does it. look so 
perfect as in the evening, before and after 
sunset, when the softened light- imparts a 
mistiness to the crowning plumes, and the 
traveller cannot help fancying that the tints. 
which then seem 
richest, are caught 
from the level rays of 
the sun, or reflected 
from the coloured ray 
of the after-glow." 

The plains are not 
equally dry in all 
parts, and on the 

eastern side there is 

a moderate rainfall 

in the spring. Spring 

rain, fertile soil, and 

a dry summer make 

wheat a paying crop. 

But we have seen Fi& 

something of the 

work of the wheat farmer when studying the 

prairies of North America; on the pampas of 

South America we can turn our attention to the 

cattle. ., 

The ranches vary in size, but are ail ex- 
tremely large. The days of unenclosed land, 
when the cattle wandered where .they wou,a, 



are now over, and the ranches are surrounded 
by stockades. A*G the farms there are no 
barns or stables as there are at home with us. 
There is just the simple house of the owner 
of the ranch, one or two open sheds to shield 
the riding horses from the sun in summer, and 
a few miserable cottages where the peons or 
labourers live. These cottages have numerous 
holes in the roof, but nobody troubles, for it 


seldom rains. In front of the ranch is the 
corral or enclosure, made by driving strong 
posts into the ground; some of the enclosures 
are big enough to hold 5000 head of cattle at 
the same time. It is to these corrals that the 
cattle are driven when they are to be branded 
or sold. 

The cowboys are called gauchos. They wear 
big wide-brimmed hats, wide trousers, tight 


boots, and brightly coloured ponchos. The 
poncho is practically a blanket," and is very 
commonly worn in the form of a robe-like 

The work of collecting and bringing in the 
herds of half -wild cattle is a work that requires 
a life-long training and the highest skill in the 
management of the lasso, the bolas, and the 

The lasso is a very strong, thin, well-plaited 
rope, made of raw hide. One end is fastened 
to the saddle, the other terminates in a noose. 
The gaucho whirls it round and round his head, 
and can cause it to fall on any particular spot 
he chooses. 

The bolas consists of three round stones 
covered with leather and joined, by thin plaited 
thongs about eight feet long, to a common 
centre. The gaucho holds the smallest of the 
three balls in his hand, whirls the other two 
round his head, takes aim and hits the mark. 
As soon as the balls strike an object they wind 
round it, cross each other, and become firmly 

The education of the gaucho begins at a 
very early age. When quite a little boy he 
may be seen pursuing the chickens, a lasso 
revolving round his head. As he gets older 
he tries his hand on the dogs. " He then, 55 
says ChristisorLj, " ascends to colts and calves, 
and at last the glorious day arrives when, 


from horseback, he can arrest the most savage 
bull in its mad course, or lasso on foot the 
swiftest horse as it gallops from the corral by 
whatever leg he chooses. Meanwhile he has 
learned to kill, cut up, and cook sheep and 
cattle, to make horse gear from raw hide, and 
his education is complete." 

The gaucho practically spends his life on 
horseback. He rests on two legs and travels 
on four. On the fence in front of the farm 
there is always a number of saddles ready 
for use, for no one ever walks if he can help 
it. A man springs on a horse to go a hundred 
yards, and even the beggars do their begging 
on horseback. The horse is not a mere luxury ; 
it is a necessity, for the ranches are so large 
and the distances from place to place are 
so great, that travelling on foot would be 
quite impossible ; and the animals, whether 
cattle or the beasts of the chase, are so fleet 
of foot that they could never be caught 
except by men mounted on the" swiftest 

For months together the gauchos eat nothing 
but beef, but they eat a very large proportion 
of fat. It is perhaps due to the meat diet that 
they can go so long without food. It is said 
that some gaucho soldiers once, voluntarily, 
pursued a party of Indians for three days 
without eating or drinking. 

From time to time the cattle must be 


collected in order to mark, the calves and 
select the fat ones for sale and for other pur- 
poses. The gauchos gallop off in different 
directions and first collect the animals in small 
groups on the open plains. If they tried to 
drive them directly forward, the animals would 
bolt in all directions, so the riders circle round 
and round and cause the group also to move 
round and round and, at the same time, to go 
gently forwards in the desired direction. When 
the herd is within a hundred yards of the corral 


it begins to get suspicious, but its fears are 
quietened by the sight of a few old cart oxen 
lazily chewing the cud. When the herd is 
within fifty yards, a man on horseback urges 
the three old bullocks towards the mouth of 
the corral and then slips away. The three 
traitors trot off to the corral and the wild cattle 
follow at a canter. The animals press upon 
each other and, as the entrance is narrow, the 
crush soon becomes quite terrifying ; some of 
the cattle break loose, and they a:&e pursued 



and either driven back or towed back by the 
lasso. Some, with their feet hopelessly en- 
tangled by the bolas, are just left till the 
gauchos have time to come to recapture 

In the morning the cattle are let out and 
then caught again, and this goes on, over and 
over again, till the animals are quite tame and 
will allow themselves to be driven into the 
corral by a man and a few boys. The process 
of taming is to allow the animals to get fat, 
which they rarely do as long as they are in a 
state of continual terror. 

At one time it was impossible to send the 
flesh of the cattle to Europe, as it would have 
gone bad on the way. The animals were 
valued only for their hides and for the tallow 
that was made from their fat. The cattle 
were driven to the coast and there killed and 
boiled down, but the sheep could not be driven 
such long distances, and they were slaughtered 
and boiled down on the farms of the interior. 
A big farm would deal with as many as 8000 
to 10,000 sheep in a year. The fleshy parts, 
those that are best to eat, were thrown 
away, and it was no uncommon sight to see 
thousands of legs of mutton lying rotting on 
the plains. 

To-day the carcasses can be frozen and sent 
to Europe on ships fitted with refrigerating 
chambers. When they arrive in our markets 


the flesh is quite fresh and,, fit for food. In 
1830, when the process of freezing meat to 
preserve it was introduced into South America, 
only 17,000 sheep were exported. Less than 
twenty years later the refrigerating chambers 
were stocked with no fewer than 120,000 cattle 
and 3,000,000 sheep in one year. 

The flesh is also exported in other forms 
"jerked" or dried beef, corned beef, tinned 
tongue and various extracts. The factories 
where this kind of work is carried on are called 
saladerps* The biggest are at Fray Bentos, 
where Liebig's extract and Oxo are made, and 
at Paysandu, where the celebrated tongues are 

Near to Fray Bentos there are large corrals 
with long lanes bordered with posts, leading to 
the slaughtering yard. The cattle are driven 
to the yard and, as they enter, they are lassoed 
by a man standing on the stockade. One end 
of the lasso is fastened to a steam ^yinch and 
the animal is dragged along to a spot where 
it is killed instantaneously by a blow from a 
special kind of knife. The body drops on to 
a small iron truck and is drawn to a shed. 
Then the carcase is skinned and cut up, and the 
parts sorted out and taken in different direc- 
tions. The meat is hung on rails, the skins put 
into brine baths, and the blood saved for 
manure. The meat is stewed in tanks, and a 
thin liquid strained off and skimmed -to remove. 



all the grease. Tfeis thin liquid passes through 
other processes until it will turn to a jelly when 
cooled. The jelly, which is Liebig's extract 
of meat, is then ' sent to Antwerp in large tins 
each holding about 110 IBs. It is examined 
by chemists to see if it is pure, packed 
up in the smaller bottles with which we are 

. . ... HaiTiuayjS 

all so familiar, and sent to almost every market 
in the world. 

In lands like the Argentine and Uruguay, 
lands of wide plains and no roads, the rivers 
are of the greatest use, especially as the crops 
and animals produced for export are bulky to 
carry and land carriage is expensive. The 
biggest rivers of the lowlands run into a wide 
estuary called the Plate, and on its banks are 


the two chief ports, Buenos Ayres and Monte- 
video. The words " Buenos Ayres " mean 
"good air." This port was founded by the 
Spaniards, who placed it as far inland as 
possible, in order that they might travel far 
into the interior in their ships. The estuary 
is shallow, but this did not matter to the 
Spaniards, for their ships were small. As ocean 
steamers are now very large, it has been found 
necessary to deepen the harbour. This has 
cost a great deal of money, but if it had not 
been spent the trade of the port would have 
gone. Owing to the flatness of the land it has 
been an easy matter to connect Buenos Ayres 
by rail with other parts of the country, and 
railways radiate from the port, in all directions, 
like the spokes of a wheel. 

The plains of the Argentine and Uruguay 
are then very different from the plains of the 
Amazon, and there are good reasons why they 
should be.different. 



AT the equator it is warm and damp, as we have 
seen in the valley of the Amazon. Farther 
north and farther south it is cooler and drier, 
and there we find the wheat and cattle lands 
prairies in North America and pampas in South 
America. Farther north still in North America 
it is cold and damp and there live the Eskimos ; 
farther south still in South America it is also 
cold and damp and there live various tribes of 

The district south of the Rio Negro is known 
as Patagonia ; it varies very much in character 
from east to west. On the east coast there is a 
narrow strip of grassy land now inhabited by a 
few settlers, chiefly Europeans, who rear sheep 
and cattle. West of this is a higher region which 
is practically a desert of sand and shingle, but 
the thin soil bears a scanty crop of grass on which 
feed the guanaco and the rhea. 

The guanaco is something like the llama, 
half sheep and half camel. It lives where the 
herbage is- thin and thorny and it provides 




the Indians of this area with most of what they 
need. The flesh gives them meat, the skin 
is made into a poncho, and the hoof, with part 
of the skin attached, is made into a boot. These 

A T L A N T / C 
; . o c A /V 


<o Euator , 


Much Rain 

Less Ram 

Little Rain 

:::::: Hardly any Rain 


boots leave very big footprints, so that when the 
Spaniards first visited the country and saw, on 
the sands of the beach, a number of huge foot- 
prints, they said that they must have been made 




of the sight of man. 

by the feet of giants and they called the country 
" Patagonia/ 3 which means " big feet." 

The rhea is a kind of ostrich ; it lives nearer 
to the mountains, where 
there is tall grass and 
lakes of water. Like 
most of the birds of the 
steppe and the desert, it 
can run swiftly, but it 
has no power of flight. 
In such districts there 
are no trees and there- 
fore no safe places upon 
which birds can rest, out 
Their flesh and eggs are 
eaten and their feathers are used for ornaments 
and worn in .the hair. 

As the Patagonians had 
no sheep and cattle and no 
land fit for farming, they 
were obliged , to hunt 
animals for a living, and it 
was they who invented the. 
bolas as a weapon, using 
the pebbles of the desert 
for ammunition and a thin 
strip of guanaco hide for a 
sling. At the time when 
fchese people were discovered by the Spaniards, 
they used bows and arrows, and they had to get 
very near to their prey before they could shoot 


It. They did not invent the^ bolas until they 
had learned the use of the horse. 

In September and October the Indians gather 
the eggs of the rhea. These are laid in holes 
scooped out of the ground, and as usually several 
females use the same nest, forty or fifty eggs may 
be found in a single spot. From November to 
February the young guanaco is hunted for the 
sake of the tender skin. Only the animals under 
two months old are taken and the best bedding 
and clothing are made from the skins of these 
very young animals. The killing and skinning 
are the work of the men ; the women dry and 
cure the skins and make the garments. 

The Patagonian Indian is a wanderer, ever 
in search of prey, and therefore, like other 
wandering tribes, he needs a movable home a 
kind of wigwam. His tent is called a toldo and 
it is made of a number of guanaco skins sewn 
together and fitted over a framework of poles. 
As the wind is almost always from the west the 
tent is pitched with the open end to the east. 
In front of the wide open doorway several 
stakes are driven into the ground, and to these 
skins are fastened to form a kind of screen which 
keeps out any winds that may come, from time 
to time, from the east. 

Farther south, in Tierra del Fuego, there is 
another tribe of Indians who, like the other 
Indians of Patagonia, depend for their food and 
clothing upon the guanaco. When the white 



men settled on the plains of the islands and 
brought sheep with them, the natives thought 
that the sheep were " white guanaco/ 5 and 
because these new guanaco w r ere easier to catch 
and nicer to eat than those which had usually 
been hunted, the Indians began to kill and eat 
them. The white man grew angry and a war 
commenced which ended in the death of most 
of the native people ; the few that escaped fled 


into the mountainous forested country at the 
southern end of the island, and there some of 
their descendants are still to be found. 

In the islands that lie farthest south of all 
there is yet another tribe of Indians who may 
be compared, in many ways, to the Eskimo of 
'the farthest north. The climate is cold because 
the islands lie far south, and wet because they 
lie right in the track of the westerly winds. 


Gale succeeds gale, with rain, hail, and sleet 
day after day. At least three hundred days 
in each year are cloudy. It is not easy to 
live for ever under a dull sky, in a land where 
the tops of the mountains are crowned with snow 
and their sides are drenched with rain, and where 
the winds wail and the surf beats violently OD 
the shore from month's end to month's end. 

The islanders have no leisure, for it takes 
them all their time to obtain food ; this food 
consists chiefly of shell-fish. As soon as they 
have consumed all the shell-fish on one part of 
the shore they must move to another in search 
of the next meal. From time to time they 
return to the old spots and then add to the piles 
of old shells, so that in time these piles may 
amount to many tons in weight. Very often they 
suffer from famine. Darwin, in that interesting 
book of travel, The Voyage of the " Beagle" tells a 
story of one hundred and fifty natives who lived 
on the wast coast who were very thin and in 
great distress. There had been a succession 
of gales that had prevented the women from 
getting shell-fish on the rocks and they could 
not go out in their canoes to catch seals. A 
small party of them set out on a four days' 
journey for food, and when they returned, their 
harvest was a great square piece of rotten whale 
blubber with a hole in the middle through which 
they put their heads as through a hole in a 


In summer they get a few berries; and in 
winter they may perhaps add a few roots to their 
scanty diet. They have baskets and water 
vessels made from bark, but they have no kitchen 
utensils; or pottery. As food in anyone place 
is very scarce, there are never many people living 
together; their groups hardly ever exceed 
twenty or thirty persons in number. 

Because they move often, they build no houses 
of wood or stone. Their tent or wigwam is 
something like a haycock in shape. It consists 
of a few broken branches stuck in the ground 
and very badly thatched on one side with 
tufts of grass and rushes. It takes only about 
an hour to build this wretched habitation, but 
it is only used for a few days, and sometimes 
the people, almost or completely naked, actually 
have to sleep in the rain and the snow, out in 
the cold and the wet, and on the sodden ground 
with no shelter at all. 

Clothing must be made of skins. On the 
east coast guanaco cloaks are worn ; on the west, 
sealskin is obtainable. But in the centre the 
only clothing is a small otter skin or some small 
scrap about as large as a pocket-handkerchief. 
It is laced across the breast and is shifted from 
side to side according to the wind. For orna- 
ments- and most people, however savage, like 
to "dress up" the native make necklaces of 
bone and shells and they stick a few feathers in 
the hair. 


The greater part of the time is spent in small 
narrow canoes made of birch-bark or wood; 
there is plenty of these materials in the forests' 
Travel by land is difficult and the canoe is the 
common means of communication. Tn these 
canoes the natives hunt the sea-lion and catch 
large fish, using harpoons and spears of wood 
fitted with sharp pointed heads of bone or stone. 



In the centre of each boat there is a clay fire- 
place where the fire is always kept burning if 
possible, for it is very difficult to light a new fire 
in a land where the wood is all damp and there 
are no matches. It was the sight of these fires 
burning in the boats that caused Magellan, the 
discoverer of this part of the world, to call it 
Ticrra del Fuego, that is, "Land of Fire." 
Though shell-fish are usually eaten raw and no 


cooking is needed, the fires are useful for stewi 
or frying the other kinds of fish. 

One wonders what it is that tempts tl 
people to stay where they do. They live abo 
the most miserable life of any race on eart 
Yet they do not decrease in numbers, and thei 
fore, says Darwin, "we must suppose that tli< 
enjoy a sufficient share of happiness, of whatev 
kind it may be, to render life worth having/ 7 



FOUR hundred years ago the use of root crops 
for feeding cattle during the winter months was 
unknown. The farmers, therefore, were in the 
habit of killing most of their cattle and pigs in 
the autumn and preserving the meat by salting 
and drying it. People got very tired of dry 
and tough salt meat, day after day, for break- 
fast, dinner, and supper, and in order to make it 
a little pleasanter to the taste they added, if they 
could get them, different kinds of spices, particu- 
larly pepper. The spices came from the Indies 
and the trade in them was a very important one. 
This trade was chiefly in the hands of the 
Arabs. They carried their precious cargoes from 
India through the Red Sea or the Persian Gulf, 
unloaded the boats, and took the goods across 
land to the Mediterranean, where the Venetians 
and Gonooso put them on boats again and finally 
landed thorn at some European port, chiefly 
at Venice. When Columbus went off across the 
Atlantic he discovered America, as we have seen, 
by accident. He was not looking for a new 
continent, but for a new way to the Indies so 



that the " riches of the Indies " might be brought 
to Europe without having to depend on the 
Arabs. One way had already partly been found, 
the one that goes east past Africa. But that had 
been discovered by the Portuguese, who looked 
upon it as their own. Had Columbus, on behalf 
of Spain, tried to go by the Portuguese route 
there would have been trouble. 

The Portuguese were not the first people to 
sail south along the coast of Africa, but they were 
the first to reach the southern end of it. There 
was a very wise and brave Portuguese prince, 
known as Prince Henry the Navigator, and it 
was the great desire of his life to find a road 
round Africa to the Indies. So he collected 
together map-drawers, ship-builders, sea-captains 
and sailers, and, year by year, he sent ships to 
explore the coast. Each one, on its return., had 
some story to tell of new islands, new lands, and 
new peoples, but none of them got far enough 
south to find the road they were looking for, 
and Prince Henry died before the road was 

A year or two before Columbus crossed the 
Atlantic, Bartholomew Diaz sailed away to the 
south to see if he could write another page in 
the book of African discovery. He kept the 
land in sight, on his left hand, and came to the 
barren coast where the Sahara desert reaches 
the sea. In this part of the world the north- 
east trades sweep on over wide stretches of 


land, losing moisture as they go till at last they 
reach the sea with no moisture left, Nothing 
is to be seen but brown stretches of sand and 
rock bathed in the fierce rays of a sun that dries 
and bakes the ground. Next he came to Cape 
Verde, or the " Green Cape/' so called by an 
earlier explorer because here green trees greeted 
his eyes after the wearisome brown of the 
desert. This fertile cape is at the beginning 
of land like an English park where grass and 
trees are both to be found. 

Some time afterwards Diaz was near the 
equator. The heat was intense and there was 
rain day after day ; here were found forests 
like those in the valley of the Amazon. Diaz 
kept on, always with the land on his left hand, 
and after a while it began to get cooler again, 
for he was going away from the equator, and it 
began to get stormier, for he was reaching that 
belt of westerly winds that brings so much rain 
and so majjy gales to the southern part of South 
America. He kept out to sea because he did not 
wish to be driven on the rocky shore. But he 
sailed on southwards, and because he had had 
land always to the east of him he thought that 
it must still be to the east of him, and by- and- by 
he sailed eastwards to look for it. Going east 
was easy enough as there were strong winds 
behind him, but he sailed on and on and found no 
land to the east, so he turned once more to the 
north. After a time he reached the land, stiE 


on his left hand. But he was now sailing north, 
whereas he had before been sailing south. There- 
fore he must have turned round a corner, round 
some big cape. He -went back to look for it, 
found it, and called it the " Cape of Storms/ 5 
but when the king heard all the news he changed 
the name to the " Cape of Good Hope" because 
there was now every good hope that a sea-way 
to the Indies would be found. 

Six years later Columbus discovered what he 
called the "Indies, 55 but they were not the Indies 
where the spices came from. Still, nobody 
knew that America stretched from the north to 
the south, and the Portuguese were very much 
afraid that if they were not quick, the Spaniards, 
with Columbus as a leader, would get to the spice 
lands by a westerly route before they could 
reach them by the easterly route that they had 
already partly explored. And, of course, the 
trade would belong to those who arrived first. 

So, in 1497, the King of Portugal gave Vasco 
da Gama three ships and a store-ship and sent 
him off to complete, if possible, the work of 
Bartholomew Diaz. In an earlier chapter we 
have pointed out how the winds helped or 
hindered Columbus during his journey. It is 
interesting to see how they also helped or 
hindered Vasco da Gama. He left Lisbon at 
the beginning of July and, with the help of the 
north-east trades, he reached the Cape Verde 
Islands by the end of the month. 


Shortly after that he met the south-east trades 
and they were against him, so'that he was three 
months before he reached the coast of Africa, near 
to^the Cape of Good Hope. Here he turned east, 
sailed first along the south coast and then 
turned northwards and eastwards along the 

JULYS 1497 

Outward journey - 

Homeward journey (K; 

' UI NOV. 2 MAR.2CKH) 


east coast of Africa, past a pleasant land of 
woods and meadows. On Christmas Day (1497), 
Christ's natal day or birthday, he landed at a 
spot to which he gave the name of Port Natal 
Going northwards he began to notice fine park - 
lands again with fine big trees, and on March 1, 


1498 ? lie reach eel Ifozambique, the most southerly 
of the Arab trading towns on that coast. 

Here the Portuguese landed. They were, 
at first, treated in a friendly manner, but when 
the chief man of the town found that they were 
Portuguese he refused to give them provisions 
or to find them, a pilot to show them the way to 
India. Moreover, he attacked a party of sailors 
that had landed to get water. Da Gama left, 
but kept still to the north, calling first at one 

spot and then at another 

, . . 

and always meeting with 
hostility. He and his crew 
were hated because they 
were Christians and per- 
haps even more because 
the Arabs could see that if 
the Portuguese found the 
. way to get to the riches 

FlG. 16. - MAP TO SHOW HOW r ,-, ? T 

THE W2XDS BLOW IX SUMMER. OI the InGlCS, til OH til 6 

Arab control of this rich 

trade would be for ever over. Hatred and 
hostility had no power to stop da Gama, and he 
went as far north as Zanzibar and beyond to 
Mombasa. This northerly journey was leadino 1 
towards the equator again and the weather 
once more became unpleasantly hot. When 
they were near the equator, they managed to 
get an Indian pilot, and then they turned east 
and sailed to India. 

We have seen that in America, and on the 


west coast of Africa, there are certain belts of 
steady winds, and we might have expected that 
on the east coast of Africa we should have found 
the same arrangements. South of the equator 
the arrangement of the winds is pretty much 
the same in the Atlantic, Pacific, and" Indian 
Oceans, but in the Indian Ocean, north of the 
equator, there is a great difference. There, 
from May to October, the south-east trade 
crosses the equator, turns round and blows 
from the south-west. It 
was this south-west mon- 
soon that took da Gama 
across the Indian Ocean 
in less than a month. 

When the Portuguese 
arrived in India they 
tried to make friends with 
the natives and to get / / 


some cinnamon, cloves, THE WINDS BLOW ^ WEsrTEIfc . 
and other. kinds of spices 

to take back with them to Portugal in order 
to prove to the king that they really had been to 
India. Later on there was quarrelling with 
the natives and da Gama nearly lost his life, 
but the ships got away safely and steered for 
the coast of Africa. The south-west monsoon 
was now against them and it took them three 
months to reach Africa again. 

At last they arrived at the Cape of Good Hope. 
Once they were round the corner the south-east 


Ships were built which would sail faster. 
The vessels of the older sailors were short and 
" tubby," and the wind could not push them 
quickly through the water. Now a special kind 
of long narrow vessel called a clipper was built 
to go to India quickly to bring home tea. The 
clippers made the journey once a year and sailed 
with considerable speed. They set off, as 


Columbus did, with the north-east trades and 
crossed the Atlantic towards South America, 
There they picked up the south-east winds and, 
with these " on their beam/' they sailed almost 
along the east coast of South America till they 
reached the southerly belt of westerly winds. 
These carried them, as they had carried Diaz, 
beyond Africa. Then the clippers caught the 
south-west monsoon as did Vasco da Gama, and 




so got to India. This outward journey was made 
in the summer, when winds are blowing towards 
India from the sea. 

The return jour- 
ney was made in the 
winter months, when 
the wind blows in the 
wind is 



called the 
north-east monsoon. 
A monsoon is a wind 
that blows for six 
months in one direction and then for the 
next six months in the opposite direction. 
Monsoon winds are found in other parts of the 
world, but nowhere 
are they of such 
strength and import- 
ance as in the Indian 

Coming home, the 
clippers sailed first 
with the winter mon- 
soon behind them till 
they got to the FlG< 
south-east trades. 
This wind was now " on the beam," but 5 
beyond the Cape of Good Hope, it was be- 
hind, and so gave a speedy voyage across the 
Atlantic in a northerly and westerly direction 

_> > 



After a time they reached the belt of north-east 
trades and had them on their beam, but finally 
they reached the belt of westerly winds and these 
blew them home. On the map the way looks 
a very long one, but it was really much quicker 
than the shorter route followed by the Portu- 

Every year there were " tea races " home, 
each ship trying to get back first. On one 
occasion five such vessels left China on the same 
day, and though they lost sight of one another 
on the voyage, they all arrived in the Thames 
within a few hours of each other. Some of the 
fastest clippers, taking advantage of the winds, 
could do 330 miles a day, and at that time fast 
steamers could not go more quickly. 



WE have seen that the spices of India came, 
long years ago, partly by land and partly by 
water, and that the tea, in later years, was 
brought all the way by sea round the southern 
end of Africa. Tea and spices still come to us 
from the Far East, but they do not come by either 
of the routes that we have already described. 
And, to-day, the ships bring us not only spices 
and tea, but also rice, wheat, timber, and many 
other useful and valuable things. 

The Arab trade was partly over the land, 
and the great difficulty was to carry the goods. 
It would have cost a great deal of money and 
trouble to have carried, say, timber overland 
on the backs of animals, and therefore bulky 
stuff like timber was not carried at all. Spices 
and precious stones were smaller, lighter, worth 
more, and more easily carried, and the cost of 
carriage was nob so very great when compared 
with the value of the things carried. Hence 
the early trade was in goods that were Kght but 
worth a great deal of money. It was for this 



reason that people thought " the Indies 5? were 

When a sea route between India and Europe 
was discovered it was possible to bring goods all 
the way by ship, and that made a great deal of 
difference in the things that could be carried. 
In the first place it is much easier to move goods 
on the water than on the land ; one horse, for 
instance, can pull more coal in a barge on a 
canal than many horses can pull in carts on the 
land. Then, too, the surface of the water 
does not wear out like the surface of the land and 
there is no road-repairing to pay for at sea. And 
so it happens that, for both these reasons, 
carriage by water is much cheaper than carriage 
by land. When the cost of carriage became so 
much smaller it was possible to bring the bulky 
things like wheat and timber, and sell them at a 
profit, and yet at prices which ordinary people 
could afford to pay. 

How do the bulky things come to p.s ? First 
of all they are mostly brought to us by steam- 
ships, and steamships are not affected very much 
by the wind belts. They can take the shortest 
routes and are not greatly hindered by the 
winds. And, secondly, the shortest routes from 
India all pass through the Red Sea and the Suez 
Canal. There was no Suez Canal in the days 
when Vasco da Gama set sail from Portugal. 

As water carriage is cheaper than land carri- 
age it pays best to carry goods, as far as possible, 


all the way they have to go by water. So tea, 
wheat, rice, timber or whatever conies to us from 
India is loaded up at the big Indian ports 
Calcutta, Madras, Colombo, or Karachi, which- 
ever is the most convenient and then sent by 
the route we shall presently describe straight 
to the ports of Europe. 

Travelling on the sea is slow, and if a man has 
to come from India to London he does not usually 
wish to spend a long while sailing, say, from 


Calcutta right to the south of India to get round 
the corner of the peninsula into the sea road to 
Europe. He goes straight across India to 
Bombay by railway. This makes the cost of 
travelling greater but the time taken is shorter, 
and time is money to many a business man. 
Letters also have to go as quickly as possible, 
and so it is usually from Bombay that Indian 
passengers travel and letters are shipped. 

But, whether the steamship brings goods or 



passengers, it will, sooner or later, pass into the 
Gulf of Aden, near whose western end is the little 
British settlement of Aden, in one of the most 
barren districts on earth. There are no trees or 
grass and the heat is intense. Rain only falls once 
in about three years, and nearly all the drinking 
water is obtained by distilling sea-water. In 
the market the women will, for a few cents, 


Notice the flat roofs. 

provide the thirsty with a drink of water from 
skins which they carry on their backs. Outside 
the town there are huge water tanks hewn out of 
the solid rock, one of which can hold 4,500,000 
gallons, but there is very seldom any water in 
them. Aden is a coaling station, that is, a place 
where the steamers go to get fresh supplies of 
coal. There are no coal mines in or near to 


Aden and the coal has to be taken there from 
Britain in ships that carry little or nothing else. 
All round the world there is a chain of these 
coaling stations, and most of them belong to 
the British. 

After leaving Aden the ship passes through 
the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, the "Gate of 
Tears/ 5 so called because of the many ship- 
wrecks that have occurred there, and enters 
the Eed Sea. The journey through the Red Sea 
is a most uncomfortable one. The land is out 
of sight most of the way, and overhead is the 
fierce sun pouring out blinding burning rays that 
make the decks too hot for one to walk about 
with bare feet and the brass work of the vessel 
too hot to be touched by the hand. And if, 
in addition to the heat, there be a sandstorm 
blowing across from the desert, then the air 
is filled with a mist of fine hot particles of sand 
that blind and choke you at one and the same 

At the' north-western end of the sea is the 
Gulf of Suez, Here the land comes into view 
again, but the view is not pleasant, for whether 
we look to the right, to the peninsula of Sinai, 
or to the left, to the coast of Egypt., we see nothing 
but rusty-red rocks and sand. At the northern 
end of the Gulf of Suez is the little town of 
Suez. The journey from Aden to Suez is over 
1500 miles just a little less than the distance 
from Ireland to Newfoundland. 


At Suez we enter the Suez Canal, a big ditch 
du<* to connect the Mediterranean and the Red 
Seas. The canal is only about 100 miles long, 
and of this about 24 miles is merely a deepened 
channel made through a number of shallow lakes. 
It varies in width from 240 to 360 feet and, in 
places, is not wide enough to allow two vessels 
to pass each other, so that very often one vessel 


has to draw up at a wider spot in order that 
any vessel that is in a narrower part can go by. 
The waiting is very tiresome as there is little to 
see but sand, and as soon as the ship stops the 
breeze made by its motion stops also. On 
either side there is, however, a slight border of 
trees and other vegetation where the water has 
brought life to the thirsty land. Elsewhere 


everything is red-brown at midday but grey, 
pink, or gold in the evening when the snn gets 
low in the west. If there is no delay the passage 
through the canal from Suez to Port Said takes 
about seventeen hours. The ships are obliged 
to go slowly or the wash would destroy the 
banks. At night the way is illuminated by big 
electric lights, so that traffic goes on by night and 

Port Said is another coaling station, and more 
than a million tons of coal are taken there every 
year. Coaling never stops. There are always 
crowds of men, women, and even little children 
filling baskets with coal and passing them on 
to the barges to be taken to the steamer. No 
matter what time the vessel arrives at Port 
Said the passengers go ashore, for the ship is 
soon black with fine coal dust, and, as every door 
and porthole is closed to prevent the dust getting 
into the cabins, the vessel is most unpleasantly 
hot and dir,ty. 

The next stage of the journey is through the 
Mediterranean Sea, a journey of about 2000 
miles. The vessel makes for Malta, where, 
at the capital Valetta, there is a strongly fortified 
harbour for the use of the British navy in these 
waters. Malta lies south of Sicily, and the island 
of Sicily together with the peninsula of Italy 
divides the Mediterranean into two basins. 
Hence, when we leave Malta we have to go either 
between Sicily and Italy or between Sicily and the 



northern coast of Africa. At the western end of 
the Mediterranean Sea is the Strait of Gibraltar, 
another British fortified naval station. The 
strait is only a few miles wide and it used to be 
said that the fort " commanded " the strait, 
but the guns never really prevented the passage 
of hostile ships and they were quite unable, 
during the Great War, to prevent submarines 
passing in or out of the Mediterranean, deep 
down under the surface. 

Once we have passed through the Strait 
of Gibraltar, a more or less northerly journey 
round Spain and through the Bay of Biscay 
brings us to Cornwall, where the sea roads divide. 
Turn to the right for Falmouth, Plymouth, 
Southampton, and London and to the left for 
Bristol, Liverpool, and Glasgow. 

We see that there have been three ways to 
India : there will be two more one by railway 
and one by the air. 



PEOPLE were so anxious to get to the Indies 
that, for a long time, they did not trouble to 
find out anything about the land they had to sail 
round and past, and yet in Africa there were 
and are to be found a number of very inter- 
esting people. Some of them have been known 
for a long time, while of others we have learned 
only in recent years, and there are most likely 
others of whom we yet know nothing at all. In 
this chapter we have to learn about the pygmies 
who live in the forest. 

This forest is just like the big forest in South 
America which was described in Chapter VI. 
In this part of the world, as in South America, 
there is great heat and great moisture, and here 
too we find majestic trees rising 200 feet up into 
the air and so interlacing their leaves and 
branches that the rays of the sun are shut out, 
while the whole is linked together with creepers 
from two inches to a foot in diameter. The 
ground is strewn with dead leaves, branches, and 
rotting trunks. 

The continual rain makes the ground sloppy, 



and the only creatures that can live here are 
monkeys, birds, and " crawlies " of all descrip- 
tions that make their homes in the mud or on 
the branches deadly snakes hang from the 
branches of the trees, "huge black adders, pythons,, 
bright green snakes with wicked red eyes, and 
whipcord snakes that look like green twigs." 

lli forest 

There are crocodiles, hippopotamuses, and water- 
snakes in the rivers, and there are birds of every 
description and hue, amongst which the parrots 
make the brightest splashes of colour. 

Insects drop from above, crawl on the earth 
and fly in the open spaces. Every stick has 
insects on it ; every tree has beetles and ants. 
Cockroaches, centipedes, and crickets abound. 


But there are also big animals,, such as the 
elephant, that are not found In the forests of 
America. They are so strong that they can 
smash their way through the trees. 

The trees are of great value, some of them for 
medicine, some for timber for houses and boats, 
others for food, 
indiarubber and 
other things. And 
yet there are but 
few people in the 
forest, for though 
the land is full of 
riches it is hard to 
reach them. The 
paths are few and 
narrow and when 
left for a short 
while are rapidly 
overgrown and 
lost. Even the 
wild animals come 
and go by paths 
which they keep 
open by travelling along them time after 

Both the forests, American and African, are 
just where the equator is, halfway between the 
North and South Poles, and both forests have 
big rivers that drain off the tremendous amount 
of rain that falls. The inhabitants of the 



African forests are the pygmies dwarfs, or little 

Because the heat is so great they wear but 
little clothing. The men have a strip of cloth 
and the women a bunch of leaves. They wear 
no ornaments, not even flowers and feathers, 
but they are particularly fond of " dressing up " 
in any fragments of European clothing if only 
they can obtain them. 

Food, of a kind, is always at hand. Nothing 
is cultivated, but there are animals and fish. 
Roots are grubbed up, trees are climbed for 
fruits and berries, mushrooms are hunted for, 
and the 'honey of the wild bees is a great delight. 
In hunting animals the chief weapons are bows 
and arrows, made from the wood that is so 
plentiful. The pygmies are very clever with the 
bow and arrow and it is said that they can shoot 
four arrows, one after the other, so quickly 
that the last arrow has left the bow before the 
first hits the mark. If the archer ipisses that 
at which he aims he loses his temper and smashes 
both bow and arrows. With their tiny arrows 
they kill the biggest animals, even elephants. 
They first shoot the animal in the eye to blind 
it and then follow it with spear and arrow till 
it dies. They hunt only for the flesh, and if they 
kill an elephant, they usually throw away the 
tusks that we think so valuable. Besides 
arrows they have short light spears, but no 
shields. They catch fish without fish hooks, 


merely using a bit of meat and a piece of string. 
They dig large pits in the forest and cover them 
with leaves, and into these pits large animals fall 
and are killed. They have little idea of cooking 
and both flesh and vegetable foods are usually 
eaten raw, though they occasionally roast o"r 
smoke their meat over a wood fire in the open. 

They are particularly fond of bananas and 
occasionally make a kind of small village near 
the home of some tribe that lives on the edge of 
the forest and cultivates the ground. There they 
know there will be plenty of bananas. When they 
want any of the fruit they cut up one of the ani- 
mals they have killed and tie the pieces of flesh 
to the tree. This they call paying for the 
bananas, and they then take as many as they 
want. At times they shoot an arrow into an 
unripe banana tree to say that they want the 
bananas on that particular tree as soon as ever 
they are ripe. The owners of the tree are so 
afraid of the little men that they leave the tree 
undisturbed till the fruit is ripe, when the 
pygmies come to remove both it and the arrow. 

During eight months of the year the forest 
is a swamp, for the rain falls every day. It is 
then very hard to get food at all, and the pygmies 
eat anything they can find, rats, mice, and 

They do no work except hunting and making 
arrows, nets, and traps. If they want fruit, 
roots, tobacco, knives, or weapons they buy them 



from other tribes with the meat, skins, ivory, or 
feathers that they have 'obtained in the forest. 
As they grow nothing to eat and as they are 
always killing animals or frightening them away, 
they are always on the move to somewhere else. 
Seldom do they stay in one spot for more than 

three or four months. So 
they do not build strong 
houses. Instead they 
make a kind of shelter 
like a large beehive. 
Thin branches are first 
stuck in the ground and 
then bent over at the top 
and fastened together. 
This framework is covered 
with creepers and plan- 
tains and plastered with 
mud. There is plenty of 
both leaves and mud in 
the great damp forest 
where they live. 

In each hut there are 
about eight or nine 
people who obey one whom they call their chief. 
It is his business to settle quarrels and to say, 
when the next move is made, where the new 
camp shall be pitched. There is nothing in 
the way of furniture in the huts. Men who 
move often and carry all they possess do not 
want to be bothered with much property, and 





all they own is a few pots of clay, a few gourds 
in which to hold water, and the weapons with 
which they hunt. They carry most of their 
small possessions in a string bag made of fibres. 

The pygmies are very tiny people, only about 
four feet high, but they are strong and" brave. 
In fact they have to be strong and brave to live 
at all. They spend their time wandering about 
on land and so have never learned to swim, 
although there are plenty of streams and rivers. 
They get so much water from the rain that 
they want no more of it, if they can help it, and 
they neither use it for washing nor drinking 
Because they are always in danger they have 
keen eyes and quick ears and are wonderful 
trackers of wild animals. 

" They give their opinion as to age of tracks, 
fresh or otherwise, in a low whisper, and follow 
on with almost catlike stealth, careful to make no 
sudden movement, peering in front but missing 
nothing on the ground. They are alert for the 
least sound ahead. . . . When two are working 
together the pace is quicker than with one. If 
the leader is at fault the smallest gesture tells the 
man behind in which direction to look. The 
front man from the corner of his eye tells instantly 
if the second man finds the track and he follows 
in that direction, and so on, first one leading, 
and then the other. If both are at fault one 
man trots ahead along the most likely spaces 
in the undergrowth, while the second man makes 


a sort of cast round where the tracks ceased, 
working like a ferret, with nose to the ground, 
turning over a leaf here or feeling with the 
flat hand there for any depression made by 
hoofs, all the while on the alert and watching 
for any sign from the man in front if he can see 
him. If nothing is found, on he goes, pretty 
sure that the other one has picked up the tracks. 
If out of sight of each other they communicate 
by low whistles, short low notes, imitating those 
of a bird common in the forest. 

" When close to one another they beckon 
with the fingers over the shoulder, or if it is 
more urgent will make a sharp tap or two on 
their chest or a little slap on the thigh to attract 
attention. If one of them has to look back it 
is pretty to see how carefully he first takes stock 
of everything in front before he slowly turns his 
head to see what is happening, feeling his foot- 
steps so as not to break sticks or catch his feet 
in creepers, and doing his utmost not to knock 
against anything which would bring down a 
shower of drops on the dead leaves below with 
noise enough to be heard by every animal 
within a hundred yards. If a stick is cracked 
or a noise made the little fellows instantly stop, 
standing on one leg if the other foot is not down, 
knowing that any animal within hearing is 
listening intently in the same manner for some 
explanation of the noise." 

Life is so very hard for the pygmies that they 


do not live long, and a man of forty years of age 
is very old indeed. They have many habits 
which we do not like and they live in ways which 
do not seem very pleasant to us ? "but they do their 
best with the conditions in which they live, and 
though they are very uncivilised we cannot blame 
them. In their places we should do no better, 
perhaps not so well 



THE pygmies live in the great forest. North and 
south of this forest there are lands of quite 
another kind where people live far differently 
from the pygmies. Forests only grow where 
there is rain all the year round. Where there is 
not rain all the year round there are either no 
trees or else trees that do not grow well in the 
dry season. 

North of the big African forest there is a 
region called the Sudan ; it stretches from the 
Atlantic on the west to the Red Sea on the 
east. Here it is always hot, but it is not always 
wet. The year is divided not into winter and 
summer seasons, but into wet and dry seasons, 
and, during the dry season, the trees cease 
growing and the leaves drop off. In colder 
countries, such as England, it is during the cold 
season that growth ceases and leaves fall. 
Instead of forest the Sudan has grass lands with 
trees scattered here and there. This kind of 
grass land is called savana and is something 



like a huge park, but the grass is as high as a 
man and grows in tufts. 

The Sudan is the land of the civilised negroes. 
People often make the mistake of thinking of 
all black people as either barbarians or savages. 
In the forest to the south there are negroes who 
are not civilised, but even these men are not 



savages, and the negroes of the Sudan, as we 
shall see presently, are in many ways a com- 
paratively civilised race. 

There are many tribes of negroes differing 
from each other in their ways of dressing and 
living, and it is not possible, in this chapter, to 
deal with all of them. Most of the following 
account refers to tribes of negroes living in 

100 WORLD 

Nigeria, the land through which flows another of 
the great African rivers, the Niger. 

As there is an abundance of grass, herds of 
cattle, sheep, goats, horses, asses, and camels are 
reared. Some of the negroes are cattle-raisers. 
Owing to the presence of the lion and other 
beasts of prey in the savana the animals cannot 
be left out at night, as they are on the prairies 
of America. They are driven home every evening 
to be penned in an enclosure surrounded by a 
high wooden fence. 

As the trees are scattered it is possible to 
break up the ground in between, to make fields, 
and to cultivate them. Hence some of the 
negroes are farmers. They grow chiefly rice, 
maize, wheat, bananas and other kinds of fruit, 
vegetables, cotton, and tobacco. The monkey 
is the chief enemy of the crops, and many of the 
children are employed to bang drums and make 
other fearful noises in order to drive away the 

In the Sudan there is no lack of good food. 
A man can have 'beef and mutton, though cattle 
are not often killed for food. Eice is eaten 
boiled, in cakes and in many other ways. 
Porridge made from maize is a favourite dish and 
milk is a common drink. 

Very little clothing is worn on account of 
the heat. Most of it is home made and of 
cotton. When the cotton plant is ripe, it is 
brought to the huts in bundles and the seeds 


are picked out of the white fluffy part by the 

women and children. The cotton is then woven 

on hand looms into long narrow strips which are 

finally made into such clothing as is worn or 

else sent away to be sold elsewhere. The 

commonest ornaments 

are necklaces of beads, 

or anklets and bracelets 

of brass or iron. The 

negroes possess iron and 

a number of other 

metals and they are 

good blacksmiths. They 

use hammers and anvils and blow up their fires 

with big bellows. Out of the iron they make 

swords, daggers, scissors, knives, spears, hoes, 

rings, and ornaments for wear. From the skins 

of their flocks and herds they get leather, and 

from this they make bridles, sandals, and 



harness. They also make leather jars in which 
they keep fat, melted butter, honey, and bees- 
wax. From clay they make earthenware vessels. 
We can say, therefore, that the negro is a manu- 

Further, he is a trader. Through the savana 




r .~~ long caravans carrying things from the 
forests of the south to the lands much farther 
north. Where the caravan roads meet men 
settle to trade and we have towns. One of 
these, Kano, is surrounded by a high wall of 
clay fifteen miles in circumference. It is pro- 
vided with gates of wood plated with iron ; these 


are closed every evening at sunset and not re- 
opened till the dawn. In the markets of Kano 
only one kind of thing is sold in one place. 
Here yon can buy leather goods, sandals, 
slippers, straps, and dyed sheep-skins ; there 
you can purchase manufactured goods from 
Europe. Buying and selling may be carried on 
by barter and not by the exchange of money. 


If money Is used at all it may be thin flat pieces 
of iron shaped like a T or even nothing but a 
handful of cowrie shells. 

It is easy to understand that the negro does 
not wander about like the Eskimo or the pygmy. 
His farms, his markets, and his blacksmith's 
forges keep him at home. He can, therefore, 
have a house to live in and not a tent. The 
house is of grass and the bark of trees and is 
roofed with leaves. There are two doors but 
no windows, so that the interior is dark ; if there 
were windows they would let in the sun's rays 
and the house would be very hot. On the wall 
hang a number of baskets ; on the floor is a 
stone on which grain can be ground. The beds 
are of poles and the spoons and dishes of 
wood. The negro cleverly uses the things 
that Nature has given him in abundance, in 
order to make himself comfortable. He even 
chews a bit of soft wood to get a toothbrush 
and he sleeps the floor with a bundle of 

When man builds a house and settles down he 
gathers around him a number of things that he 
would not bo bothered with if he had to be 
continually on the move. He has more furniture, 
more comforts, more of the things he calls " his 
own," that is, he has more property. And 
because he lives in a place where there are many 
people he can talk to them and learn from them, 
and so he has more ideas. He becomes more 


civilised. It is clear then that the negroes we 
have been describing are civilised. 

Now south of the big wet forest there is 
another grass land very much like the Sudan, 
and there live other dark-coloured people, 
among them the Zulus. Some of them have 
cattle, while others cultivate crops maize, 
tobacco, and millet. The men look after the 
cattle and the women work in the fields. Few 


clothes are worn, but bead ornaments and 
bronze rings and bangles are common. Houses 
are made of pointed laths, stuck in a circle in 
the ground, bound together at the top, and 
covered with grass or reeds so that they resemble 
beehives. Again, there are no windows ; the 
entrance is a small opening, so narrow that one 
has to crawl through it on hands and knees, 
and closed at night with a door of basket work. 
The huts are built in a circle and a collection 


of huts forms a village or Jcraal. This is sur- 
rounded by a strong circular hedge of thorns 
provided with one gate which is closed at night. 
The Zulus live under conditions much the 
same as those in the Sudan. Both climate and 
vegetation resemble each other. And there- 
fore, though negro and Zulu are hundreds of 
miles apart and separated by the big forest 
through which neither of them can pass, they 
both live in very much the same kind of way* 
But the Zulus are not quite so civilised as the 
negroes. They have no big towns and they are 
not manufacturers. Still, because they stay at 
home and till the ground they can have houses, 
they can make certain things, and they are 
more civilised than those of their African 
brethren who are for ever wandering in the 
mazes of the forest. 



As we come north from the forest where It is 
always wet, less and less rain falls and there are 
fewer and fewer trees, but it still keeps hot. 

WM. Forest 
!. , ''Grasslands 

EZ3 Desert 


First the trees f ail altogether and there is nothing 
left but grass, and at last there is no rain at all 
and we reach the desert. As we go south from 
the equator the same kind of thing happens and 



in time we reach another desert. The desert 
of North Africa the Saharais very large; 
the desert of South Africa the Kalahari is 
much smaller. In this chapter we deal with the 
Sahara desert and its inhabitants, the Arabs. 

The Sahara is a broad tract of country covered 
with sand grey, golden, or whitish and not 
all of one colour like that on the sea-shore of 


England. It is not flat, but rises and falls in 
little hills. The heat at midday is intense, and 
at that time men often rest and sleep, -For 
miles and miles nothing is to be seen but sand 
and rocks. Sometimes a sand-storm blows and 
the air is hot like fire. The sand sweeps onwards 
like a burning mist, filling the eyes and ears with 
hot, stinging grains. The only way to escape 


death is to cover the head with some part of 
one's clothing and fall flat on the ground. Even 
the camel learns to bury its head in the sand at 
such times. 

There are very few plants in the desert, but 
there are prickly acacias, thorny plants and coarse 
grasses, that prevent the loss of any moisture 
they contain by means of their thick skins, and 
there are other plants that store up moisture in 
bulbous roots. But all these plants are few 
and hardly any of them are of much use to man. 

As no one can grow things in the desert and 
as there is no grass or enough of any other kind 
of vegetation on which animals can be reared, 
the land is, as its name explains, deserted. Here 
and there in the lower-lying parts of the desert 
water is to be found. Rain falls in the countries 
far to the south and the west ; some of this 
flows a long way underground and leaks out in 
these lower spots. Here there are gardens and 
fields, for the desert is fertile eixough when 
water is obtainable. A great part of the c c sand 5 ' 
is not really sand at all, but dust, in which 
plants grow well if the soil is kept wet. The 
fertile spots in the desert are called oases, and 
if it were not for the oases, it would be utterly 
impossible for man ever to cross the wide sandy 

Two kinds of life can be lived in the desert, 
one by the people who make their homes at the 
oasis, and another by those who spend their 


time in the desert itself. At the oasis sheep and 
cattle and goats are reared ; the Arab is a stock- 
raiser. Fruit, rice, and millet are grown ; he 
is a small farmer. The chief tree at the oasis 
is the date palm. It is a tall straight tree whose 
stem can be used for timber and whose leaves 
can be used for making huts. 
The dates grow in bunches at 
the top and are used for food. 
The Arabs eat them fresh, 
dried, and cooked in many 
different ways. A handful 
of dates is a meal in itself, 
and dates are among the 
most important things that 
are sold in the little markets. 

The Arab is also a trader ; 
he sells to the people who 
pass through the oases as 
they make their way across 
the desert ^ and buys from 
them. Besides growing grain 
and rearing animals, the 
dwellers at the oasis dry 
dates, make leather out of goat-skins, pottery- 
out of clay, and blankets and carpets out of 
the hair and wool of the animals they rear. 

The houses are of stone or clay, without 
windows, to keep out the heat. They have flat 
roofs where the inhabitants sleep in order to be 
cool. The poorest people of all live in huts 



made of palm leaves. An oasis is not always 
the small place shown in some pictures, with 
two palm trees and a camel. It is often thirty 
miles across and may contain many small towns 
or villages. 

The Bedouin Arabs who wander about in 
the desert live a very different kind of life. They 
have flocks and herds, and because there is little 
water and grass at any one place, and what there 
is is soon used up, they are always moving from 
one spot to another. Their chief animal is the 
camel, which is called the Ship of the Desert. 
The camel can carry a load of 400 Ibs. and 
travel 30 miles a day. It has a long neck, so 
that it can reach the grass as it goes along ; 
it has a hard mouth, so that it can eat the 
prickly plants that grow here and there amongst 
the sand. It can close its nostrils when a 
sand-storm comes, and it has long eyelashes 
to shade its eyes from the glare of the sun. 
It must kneel to be loaded, and has hard 
pads on its knees. It can store up* fat in its 
hump and water in its stomach, and so can 
go several days without anything to eat or 
drink. All that happens is that its hump 
gets smaller and smaller. Without the camel, 
trade and travel in the desert would be 

The camel provides its owner with milk 
to drink, hair for making ropes, cloth, and rugs, 
and sometimes flesh to eat. 


In order to live his wandering life the Arab 
must have a tent. This is made of cloth woven 
from the hair of the goats and it has a large 
number of poles. The ends of the cloth are 
fastened into the ground with pegs. Across 
the inside of the tent, cloth is stretched to divide 
it into two parts, one for the women and another 
for the men. The floor is of clean sand, but 
at night rugs and carpets are put down on which 
to sleep. Inside the tent are the saddle-bags, 
boxes of clothes, beautiful mats, rugs and 


When it is time to move to another well or 
oasis, the tent is taken down in a few minutes, 
the tent poles are tied together, the covers are 
rolled up, and the pegs and rugs are made into 
bundles. One camel kneels in the sand and is 
loaded with the tent and the poles ; another is 
loaded with mats, cushions, and bags of dates. 
A third carries water in bags made of camel- 
skin, and milk in smaller bags made of goat- 
skin. The women and the children ride on the 
camels, the servants walk, and the masters go 
on horses. 

The Arab horse is a fine animal, brave, 


swift, gentle, and beautiful An Arab will part 
with anything rather than with his horse ; and 
at noon, when all must stop because of the heat, 
the horse is taken into the tent to be shielded 
from the scorching raj^s of the sun. 

Because the supply of water and grass is 
small, men often fight for water at the wells ; 
the wandering Arab is a fighter and very often, 
out in the lonely desert, where there is no 
policeman to see him or to catch him, he often 
attacks and robs some other wanderer less strong 
than himself ; he is a thief. 

There is no change in the desert ; it is to-day 
as it was thousands of years ago, and the Arab 
is like the land in which he lives. He does not 
alter ; he learns nothing new. There is no one 
to learn from. He is brave, strong, and proud. 
He is clever enough to be able to live in a land 
where you and I would die. He can find his 
way for days where we should be lost in a very- 
short time. He can see things afar off and hear 
sounds at a great distance that we should not 
notice. He loves his wild, free, hard life, and 
looks down with contempt on the men who live 
in the small towns that grow up round the 

The desert gives him little, and to satisfy 
his wants he becomes a trader. He parts with 
his young horses and he sells butter and also 
salt, of which there are supplies in the desert. 
In exchange for these things he gets flour, 


coffee, and clothes for himself and barley for Ms 

A Bedouin Arab can get Ms living also by 
acting as a guide and by driving camels. When 
people have to cross the desert they fear to lose 
the way and so miss the wells, and they are 
equally afraid to meet with robbers and so lose 
their lives. Because of the robbers they travel 
together, and long strings of camels may some- 
times be seen marching across the sands. These 


parties of men and beasts are called caravans. 
The leader of the caravan, the Arab guide, has 
to be able to find his way swiftly and surely, 
and he is well paid for his work. If he misses 
the way all die. When he sets out, he is king of 
the caravan, and when he has brought it safely- 
home men thank him as one who has saved their 

We see, then, that it is necessary to settle 
down in one place if man is to produce anything, 


but that it is necessary to move from place to 
place if man is to trade. The negro settles to 
produce things : the Arab moves from place to 
place to take things that are produced from 
one place to another. 

We have now taken a look at a large part of 
Africa and we find that there is a big forest in 
the centre round the equator ; that north and 
south and east of this there are grass lands ; 
and that north and south of the grass lands there 
are deserts. Also we have noticed that forest, 
grass land, and desert have different kinds of 
people in them eating different food, wearing 
different clothes, living in different houses, and, 
when you are older, you will know and under- 
stand that they even think differently. 



WE have seen that the north of Africa is largely 
a desert where man cannot live except in certain 
favoured spots called oases. Now Egypt is a 
country that is really nothing else but a long 
narrow oasis stretching across the desert from 
south to north. Only because water comes to 
it in a curious way can anything be grown 
there. If it were not for this regular supply 
of water Egypt would just be desert like the land 
on either side of it. But water has always been 
brought to the Nile and, therefore, for thousands 
of years p,eople have been able to settle and raise 
crops and Egypt has long been civilised. 

There is always some water in the Nile because 
the river begins in Victoria Nyanza, a big lake 
lying on the equator, in that part of the world 
where it is wet at all times. Hence the Nile 
flows steadily all the year round, although part 
of its course lies through a waterless region. 
In its upper course it is joined by two rivers from 
the mountains of Abyssinia, the Blue Nile and 
the Afbara. Abyssinia, like the Sudan, receives 




rain in summer, and when the snows on the high 
mountains have melted and the heavy rains 
have fallen the Blue Nile becomes a rushing 
torrent. It pours down what were dry courses 
in winter and causes the floods that do duty for 
rain in Egypt in bringing water to the fields. 
But the flood water has such a long distance to 
go that it takes several weeks to travel from the 
mountains of Abyssinia to 
the plains of Egypt. 

From Khartum to the sea, 
during the winter, the amount 
of water in the Nile steadily 
1 decreases. Much is lost by 
|r] evaporation owing to the 
j|S heat, for of course it is still 
jfefi: hot in winter, and immense 
litlf quantities are pumped up to 
be distributed, by means of 
hundreds of canals, to the 
thirsty fields. The floods begin 

Fia. 24. MAP TO SHOW . ^ -11 r . . 

WHERE BAIN PALLS IN in J une ana trie river rises 

than this rise takes place there is a shortage of 
water and scanty or no crops. If the rise be 
greater, then the homes which are built on the 
slightly raised parts are flooded and whole 
hamlets may suffer serious damage. From the 
Atbara to the sea there is no tributary at all, 
for from that place to the sea the river flows 
through a land where there is no rain. The 



valley of the Nile is simply a big trough first 
cut in the rocks by the river itself and then 
filled with the fertile soil alluvium brought 
from the mountains of Abyssinia. 

This oasis is 700 miles long and from 5 to 10 
miles wide. Like all oases, it is below the level 
of the rest of the ground. Tall cliffs come fairly 
close on either side and the native boats have 
high sails to catch whatever 
breezes blow. Crops can be 
grown where the land has 
been wet by the Nile, and if 
we could look down upon 
the landscape from an aero- 
plane, we should see in the 
centre of the picture the long 
thin line of the chocolate- 
coloured Nile glistening like 
a mirror in the sun, on either 
side of it a narrow strip of 
green where the water has 

& * FIG. 25. MAP TO snow 

brought life llltO the Waste. WHERE BAIN FALLS IN 

and then, as far as the eye WINTEB - 

could reach, nothing but the parched yellow soil 

of the barren desert. 

It is clear that the Egyptians must, for the 
most part, get their living by farming, and so 
there is not much need for towns. Egypt 
possesses two large cities Cairo, the modern 
capital, and Alexandria, the chief port but the 
number of towns is very few. The fellaheen, as 



the peasants are called, live in villages near to 
the river but usually on ground high enough, to 
escape the floods. Occasionally the villages are 
built on flat land and protected from the rising 
water by thick walls. In the centre of the 
village is an open space with the house of the 
sheikh or chief on one side of it. 

The houses are mere huts one story high, and 
built of bricks made of the mud of the Nile and 
dried in the sun. Such bricks could only be 


used in a country where it does not rain, for a 
few heavy showers would soften the walls and 
cause them to fall. The roofs are flat and covered 
with a pile of cotton-stalks and other litter. 
There are no windows, but light and air are 
sometimes admitted through a few small holes. 
The only furniture consists of one or two mats, 
water-pots and cooking utensils. 

When the Nile overflows its banks it brings 
not only water to fill the canals and reservoirs, 



but also a supply of rich fertile mud in which 
seeds are afterwards sown. In this soil two and 
even three crops a year can be raised. No land 
is wasted on either grass or wild flowers, but all 
is under cultivation. The plants largely grown 
are those common to many hot countries cotton, 
rice, and palms, and, in the cooler season, maize, 
barley, flax, and wheat. The inhabitants of the 


valley are clever farmers and work hard from 
morning to night. They have a soil and a 
climate well suited to agriculture ; their only 
need is water. This is obtained from the river, 
and from the very earliest times Egypt has 
understood and practised the art of irrigation. 
There are canals in all directions and the banks 
of the canals are the roads. The Nile floods do 
not cover the whole of the land and big canals 




have been made throughout the country. These' 
have smaller branches that carry the water 
wherever it is wanted and take the place of 
hedges as boundaries to many of the fields. 
To raise the water to the higher levels shaduf s 
and water-wheels or sakias are employed. 

The shaduf consists of a 
long pole with a leather 
bucket at one end and a 
heavy lump of mud at the 
other. It is balanced on a 
short beam supported on two 
pillars about four or five feet 
high. The bucket hangs over 
a small pool that is connected 
with the river by a narrow 
channel. The fellah pulls on 
a rope or pole, lowers the 
bucket into the pool and fills 
it. He then lets go and the 
mud weight lifts the bucket ; 
this is then emptied into the 
canal. When the level of 
the river has fallen some 
distance it cannot supply the little pool, and 
another shaduf is built below the first one to 
lift the water into the pool and keep it full. 
Sometimes there may be as many as four of these 
shadufs. one above the other lifting the water 
step by step to the higher drier land above. 
The work is exceedingly hard, the heat is 



excessively great, and the toilers wear little or no 
clothing while they perform their task. 

The water-wheels or sakias are of two kinds, 
but each consists of a horizontal wheel turned 
by bullocks. The spokes stick out like cogs and 
so turn another wheel placed at right angles 
below it. The wheel used in the fields has a 
hollow rim ^divided up into little boxes that pick 
up the water when the rim is in the water and 
discharge it into a narrow ditch when they 
reach the top. " Those used on the river bank, 
however, are too far from the water for such 
a wheel to be of use, so in place of the hollow 
rim the second wheel has also cogs, on which 
revolves an endless chain of rope to which 
earthen pots are attached, and whose length may 
be altered to suit the varying levels of the river. 53 

The ancient Egyptians did not know what it 
was that caused the river to rise every year and 
bring them soil and water. To them this annual 
gift of a new life to the fields was a very wonderful 
thing, and *they worshipped the river that was 
so kind to them ; the Nile was regarded as a god. 
We, in our times, understand quite well w^hat 
causes the river to rise, but it is none the less 
wonderful because we know how it happens. 



IN previous chapters we have shown how the 
Portuguese brought spices from India, how tea 
was and is still brought, and how, to-day, wheat 
is an important export. In another chapter we 
have found out that wheat grows best where 
the climate is warm but not too hot and where 
the summer is dry. We may now inquire what 
are the conditions best suited for growing tea. 

A glance inside a tea-pot shows us a mass 
of tea-Zeaves. When the tea is obtained from 
the. grocer, in a packet, it does not look much like 
leaves, and it is only when we have poured hot 
water on it that we can see plainly r that what 
we are dealing with is leaves, and sometimes 
stalks. The chief part of the tea plant, then, 
is leaves, and the great idea of a tea-planter is 
to get as many of them as he can. 

But the forests of the Congo and the Amazon, 
where the trees are in leaf all the year round, 
teach us that plenty of rain and plenty of heat 
are required in order to obtain plenty of leaves. 
At the same time, the tea-plant does not thrive 
if water is allowed to stand about its roots, so 



it cannot be grown in these hot wet plains. 
To get the water away from the roots it must 
be grown on a hill-side in order that the water 
can drain away. Hence the places where tea 
grows best are hot, wet, and hilly. Wheat is 
grown in places where it is dry, warm, flat. If,. 
then, both tea and wheat come in large quantities 
from India, India must be a country where 

A T L 


India is supposed to be lifted up and placed in the Atlantic. It 
stretches from Ireland to Newfoundland. 

there are very different kinds of climate and 
different kinds of surface. 

India is a very big country indeed. If it 
were placed in the Atlantic between America 
and Europe, the Himalayas, that form its 
northern boundary, would stretch almost from 
Ireland to Newfoundland. In a land of this 
size there are many different kinds of country. 



A map of India shaded to show the high land 
is fairly simple to understand. In the north 
there is a belt of very high land, the Hima- 
layas ; south of this, and running across the 
land from east to west, is a low plain consisting 
of the basins of the two big rivers, the Indus 



and the Ganges. In the southern triangular 
part of the peninsula there is a high tableland, 
the DekJcan, whose steep western edge forms the 
Western Ghats. 

If we look for the wheat lands we look for 
the warm, dry, level lands. Now, all India is 


warm at sea-level, and there are no really cold 
parts except high, up on the summits of the 
mountains. The level lands are in the plains and 
on the plateau, and wheat is grown in many 
places in these regions, but the chief wheat 
district is in the north-west, in the Punjab 
and the North-West Frontier Province, Here 
the land is level enough, and the temperature 

WT7\ Little 


in February or March, when the wheat ripens, 
is only about as hot as the summer temperature 
in some of the wheat lands of the United States 
of America. Moreover, the north-west is fairly 
dry. In fact, it is so dry at times that rain 
fails when it is most needed, and the land has 
to be irrigated. 

Rain is brought to India chiefly in the 
summer and by the south-west monsoon. From 



May onwards to December the air is damp, 
and heavy rains often fall, but they are heaviest 
from June to October. The wind crosses the 
Arabian Sea and meets the hills of Ceylon and 
the Western Ghats, where the yearly rainfali 
is very heavy. By the time the winds have 
crossed the mountains they have lost a great 


deal of their moisture, and the rainfall is only 
about a quarter of what it is on the west. 

From the Bay of Bengal the air current 
reaches the Khasia Hills in Assam and brings 
tremendous downpours. This current of air is 
then turned to the west ; it meets the Himalayas 
and heavy rains fall on the plain of the Ganges. 


One part of India is low and sandy and 
therefore very hot in the summer. The wind 
reaches it from the west, and is a dry wind, 
not a damp one. Hence there is little or no 
rain, and we have the Thar or Indian Desert. 

If we look for the tea plantations we must 
look for them on the warm, 
wet hill-sides, and we find 
them chiefly in the Western 
Ghats, the hills of Assam, 
other parts of the Hima- 
layas, and in Ceylon. The 
tea plantations are situated 
on the sides of those hills 
from which the forest has 
been cleared, and they vary 
in size from a few score to 
many hundreds of acres in 
extent. They usually have 
railway connections with the 
larger towns, good roads and 
drains, and well-equipped 
factories for the manufacture 
of tea. 

The tea shrub is planted in long, neat rows, 
and each shrub is so pruned as to keep it broad, 
flat, and under four feet in height, in order that 
the leaves may easily be plucked. Amongst 
the bushes coolies or labourers, both men and 
women, are always hard at work. There is 
much work to be done, not only in gathering 




the leaves but also in weeding,, for in jhis land 
of sun and rain weeds spring up rapidly and, 
if they were allowed to flourish, they would 
interfere with the growth of the shrubs. The 
coolies are thin, weak-looking people, for the 
heat is trying and fever is common. Some- 
times, after heavy 
rains, the coolies may 
be seen working al- 
most knee-deep in 
water and mud with 
a scorching sun over- 

Only the buds and 
the smallest leaves 
are used, and they are 
picked, one, at a time, 
chiefly by women and 
children ; neat quick 
fingers are necessary 
for this kiQ.d of work. 
As the leaves are 
taken from the shrubs 
they are put into 
baskets and carried to the factory. Here the 
baskets are weighed, for the coolie is paid 
according to the amount he has gathered. 
Then they are taken to the withering-room and 
the leaves are left to wither, all the night, on 
shallow canvas trays. The next morning they 
are rolled for half an hour in a rolling machine 



and converted into a huge wet- mass. This 
mass is broken up, spread on trays, and left 
to ferment. It must be carefully watched and 
the fermentation stopped at just the right 
moment or the aroma of the tea will be spoiled. 
The tea is then thrown into a machine and 
dried by hot air. It is next sorted, by means 
of sieves, into tea 
of different quali- 
ties. The best kind 
consists of nothing 
but the little leaf 
buds, the next 
variety includes 
some of the young 
leaves, and the 
cheapest quality of 
all includes coarse 
leaves. In Ceylon 
practically every- 
thing is done by 
machinery from 

the time the tea TEA CTJ]LTIJBE : TURNING THE 

reaches the factory till it is shipped to the 
foreign markets, but in the Himalayas the 
sieves merely sift the tea roughly into large 
and small leaves, and the final sorting is by 
hand ; nimble fingers pick out quickly the 
finest sorts of tea. The tea is dried yet once 
more, then taken to the warehouse, packed 
in lead-lined boxes and sent to Britain. 


What with planting, weeding, picking, wither- 
ing, fermenting, drying, sorting and packing there 
is plenty to be done before we can get a pound 
of tea for half a crown. And we only get it for 
half a crown because labour in India is very- 
cheap. If the workers in the tea plantations 
received as high wages as the ordinary British , 
working man, tea would be so dear that only 
rich people could afford to drink it. 



IN the last chapter we showed how big India 
Is ; it is really very much like a " small con- 
tinent/ 5 for it includes a number of countries 
whose peoples differ from each other in race, 
language, customs, and religion. India is as 
big as Europe without Kussia, or, to put it in 
another way, it is fourteen times as big as the 
British Isles. 

At least 150 different languages are spoken 
by the 315 million people who inhabit the land, 
and a native who goes very far from home 
would find it impossible to speak to or under- 
stand the speech of the people among whom 
he had arrived. A native of Madras, visiting, 
say, Bombay, would be, so far as language is 
concerned, as much a foreigner as an English- 
man would be if he went to Turkey. 

To understand why there should be so 
much variety and such great differences it 
is only necessary to think a little more of what 
India is like. In the first place, the different 
districts are more or less completely separated 



from each other, and in the second place these 
different districts vary a great deal in climate 
and surface. On the western side of India 
are the steep, forested Western Ghats. These, 
in the days before the railways were built, 
made it almost impossible for people of the 
coast strip " to travel inland, and hence these 
people differ in language and custom from the 
other peoples of India. The Eastern Ghats are 
not so high as the Western Ghats, but travel 
inland is difficult, and the rivers, that look such 
good highways on the map, are of no use to 
travellers, as they are unnavigable. Here, 
then, on the eastern coast is another set of 

The Eastern and the Western Ghats are 
merely the steep edges of the high plateau of 
the Dekkan. It is separated from the coast 
strips in the way already described : on the 
north are the Vindhya and Satpura Moun- 
tains, which again are difficult to cross. The 
Dekkan, then, is another isolated area, for 
when travel is difficult, men usually stay at 

In the north of India the Himalayas shut 
off India, as a whole, from the rest of Asia. 
It is true that there are one or two difficult 
ways over the lower parts of the Himalayas 
and, by means of these, various invaders have 
made their way into the country from time to 
time. But each body of newcomers drove 


away the people whom they displaced, and 
forced them to take refuge in the mountains 


and the forests ; thus both the old inhabitants 
and the new were separated; they kept them- 


selves to themselves and preserved their own 

Differences of temperature have added to 
the differences caused Tby the surface of the 
country. India is, everywhere, a hot land at 
sea-level, but it has climates as different as 
those of a hot-house and an ice-field. There 
are perpetual snows on the Himalayas. At 
Lahore there are, during the cool season, frosts 
in the early morning, and people have fires 
in the houses in the evening. In Colombo 
there are no fireplaces at all, except for cook- 
ing, and the punkah or fan that cools the air of 
the rooms is kept going from Christmas to 

Differences of rainfall are equally important. 
Where rain is abundant, as in the valley of the 
lower Ganges, we have swamps and jungle ; 
where there is little or no rain, as in the lower 
part of the Indus valley, we have the Thar 
desert, where not only people cannot live, but 
on which they cannot move. 

All these differences mean differences in the 
way of living. Some of the people of India 
live in great cities like Calcutta and Bombay 
and Madras and Delhi, where you may meet 
people as civilised as Europeans, while some 
forest dwellers are little better than the pygmies ; 
and so it happens that India, isolated from the 
rest of the world by seas and mountains, and 
divided up into compartments by river and 



forest, mountain and desert, with different 
climates and soils and vegetation in different 
parts, has people with different customs in 
eveiy different area, and that these governed 
themselves in their own way, kept their own 
manner of living, and hated foreigners ; and 
everybody was a foreigner even if he lived in 
India, provided he lived in a different area. 
And yet on all the flat lands, that is, on the 
plains of the Indus and the Ganges and on the 
higher plain or 
plateau of the 
Dekkan, men 
are alike in one 
thing: they are 
farmers, and life 
is centred in 
villages, not 
towns. Nine- 
tenths of the 
people of India live on the crops they them- 
selves raise/ Their methods of cultivation are 
not very scientific and the implements they 
use are very old-fashioned. The ryot or farmer 
uses a wooden plough and merely scratches the 
surface of the soil ; he cuts his grain with a 
sickle, threshes it by hand or under the feet 
of his animals, and his women-folk grind the 
grain by hand as they have done for centuries. 
In this fertile country the farmer is everywhere 
a poor man. 




But though most of the people are farmers 
they do not all grow the same kinds of things. 
In the plain of the lower Ganges, for instance, 
where the rainfall is heavy, the chief food crop 
is nee, but in the Punjab it is wheat, and on the 
Dekkan it is millet. Neither do they use the 
same kinds of animals when they travel or for 

work on the fields. 
In the dry plains 
one sees the camel 
and the horse; in 
the North-West 
Provinces the bul- 
lock is common ; 
in the plain of the 
lower Ganges it is 
the buffalo ; and in 
the high moun- 
. tains, where none 
of these are of an}? 
use, there is the 

Owing to the 
heat little clothing is worn. Three long 
strips of cotton with a blanket of coarse 
wool where the rain is heavy or the cold 
severe, suffice for both sexes. Food is of the 
plainest and is all home grown; millions of 
people never eat meat at all. The houses are 
built for convenience and not for beauty. 
Where the rainfall is heavy and wood and 




grass and leaves are abundant., the walls are of 
wood and the roofs of leaves and grass. In 
the drier plains the walls are of mud for want 
of other materials. Life is lived in the open 
air except when cold or rain forces the people 
to go indoors. There is little furniture except 
a few rough bedsteads, and even these are not 
to be found in the homes of the poor. During 
the hot part of the year, and that 
means most of the year, people 
sleep outside their houses on the 
verandahs if they possess them, 
and if not, then anywhere, even 
by the roadside. 

Nearly three-quarters of the 
people are Hindus, a darkish- 
brown race that once lived in 
Central Asia. They invaded India 
from the north-west and drove 
the natives into the hills and 
forests. To keep themselves 
separate from those whom they 
had conquered and whom they 
despised, they forbade marriage between the 
races. Further, they divided themselves into 
four classes or castes. Of these the Brahman 
or priest was the highest of all Then, in de- 
scending order of merit, came the warrior, the 
trader or farmer, and the servant. Everybody 
who was not a member of one of these four 
castes was a pariah. To-day there are between 



two and three thousand different castes, and 
every Hindu, except the very lowest, belongs 
to one or other of them. Each caste is shut 
off from all the rest as "by an insurmountable 
wall A man can take food from another of 
higher caste but not from one of a lower caste. 
People from one caste cannot marry any one 
belonging to another caste. Each trade is a 
separate caste and, therefore, a man has to 
keep to the trade to which he is born. If a 

grocer's son wanted to 
be a fishmonger or a 
shoemaker his friends 
would hold up their 
hands in horror and 

The caste system is 
bound up with religion, 
and religion in India 
not only says what a 
man shall believe but also how he shall eat, 
drink, and sleep, and what his trade shall be. 
But it has little to do with how he acts, for no 
matter how many sins he commits, he can 
wash them all away by bathing in the Ganges. 

Just as there are different races and lan- 
guages, so there are several religions. The 
Hindus believe in some form of Brahmanism. 
According to this religion there are three chief 
gods Brahma, the creator of the universe; 
Siva, the destroyer ; and Vishnu, the preserver 



of all things and many little gods like the 
Elephant God and the Monkey God. The 
sacred books are the Vedas, perhaps the oldest 
books in the world. When a man dies he is 
born again, and this will happen time after 
time, for thousands of years, unless he becomes 
pure in word, thought, and deed, after which 
he will rest for ever, and be born 
no more on earth. When a man is 
reborn he may come back as a man 
or an animal. It all depends on 
what kind of life he has lived. If 
he has been very wicked he may 
reappear as a slave or a beetle ; if 
he has been very good, perhaps he 
will be a prince. As a man sows so 
must he also reap. To become good 
one can do good deeds pray, fast, 
and inflict torture on one's self. 
There is no forgiveness. 

In the Punjab most of the NATIVE INDIAN 
people are Mohammedans, and there WOMAN WITH 


are altogether about 60,000,000 
Mohammedans in India. These pray with their 
faces towards Mecca and swear by the 
beard of their prophet. Their chief article 
of belief is " There is no God but God, and 
Mohammed is His prophet. ' ' Mohammed taught 
that the Creator rules the universe with love 
and mercy, and is alone to be worshipped ; 
bhat in times of adversity there must be no 



murmuring against His decrees ; that He must 
always be looked upon with trustfulness and 
love. A Mohammedan also believes in eternal 
punishment for those who worship idols, or 
who do not believe in the prophet. He makes 
frequent ablutions, prays five times a day, 
goes on a pilgrimage to Mecca if he can find the 
time and the money, fasts often, does not touch 
wine or pork, and gives alms as a 
duty. His sacred book is the 
|[i Koran, and his day of rest is our 

Buddhism is the third of the 
great religions. It was founded by 
Buddha, the son of an Indian 
prince. He was born about the 
fifth or sixth century before Christ. 
He was so shocked by the wicked- 
ness and misery of the world 
around him that he became a 
hermit and thought out what he 
considered the best means of 
escape from the troubles of life. The aim of 
his religion is to reach a state called Nirvana, 
where both pleasure and pain cease for ever. 
Until a man reaches Nirvana he will be born 
again and again. 

Then there are the Parsees, who worship 
the sun, the Sikhs, who hold services where 
they say prayers, sing hymns and listen to 
sermons much as we do, and yet others who 




think that every hill and stream is the abode 
of a spirit. 

Even on the Great Trunk Koad that runs 
through the Ganges Plain you may see many 
different kinds of things and people. As the 
road stretches, shimmering in the heat, away 
into the distance, there passes along it much 
that we think about when India comes into 
our minds. 

Here is the Kabuli trader, hook-nosed, 
beady-eyed, tall and gaunt with his high 
turban, long robes and shoes with 
turned up points, on the look-out 
to lend money to the needy or to 
recover it from those who are 
already in his debt. There is a 
wild-looking, long-haired Akali 
with blue-checked clothes and blue 
turban. That almost naked, clay- 
smeared person with his hair coiled 
on his head, and bearing a trident 
in his hand is a fakir ; that one, 
saffron-robed and spotlessly clean 
is a Hindu priest. Those flat- 
footed, strong-limbed women in 
the blue petticoats are changars 
who help to build embankments. Numerous 
women, dressed in a strip of common cloth 
draped gracefully about them and carrying 
earthenware pitchers on their heads or supported 
on their hips, move by with queenly step. 




Now and then, a baby takes the place of the 
pitcher on the hip. 

The most familiar sight is the bullock cart 
churning up the dust ; the bullock, guided by 
reins of string threaded through its nostrils and 
urged forward by the twisting of its tail and the 
jabs of a short-handled whip, zig-zags along the 
highway. A Brahmini bull, fat, slow and lazy, 
feeds where it will and on what it pleases, for 
it is a sacred beast. An occasional camel, its 
approach heralded by the slow, regular, clear 
and beautiful sound of the bell that hangs over 
its shoulder, makes its appearance. Some- 
times there may 
be a line of 
camels tied 
head to tail, and 
sometimes one 
will be seen 
harnessed to a 
cartel cart 
double - decked, 
dirty and 
crowded with a whole family and its belongings. 
The camel is a stately beast, when the road is 
dry ; when it is wet its soft padded feet slither 
north, south, east and west. 

Everywhere there is colour blue, red, 
yellow, brown and saffron ; everywhere there 
is noise the harsh cry of the bullock driver, 
the laughter of children, the bleating of goats, 



the clucking of half-starved chickens, the snap- 
ping bark of the mangy pariah dog, the buzzing 
of millions of mosquitoes, the chirping of 
crickets, the music of a wedding party and the 
never-ending chatter of a never-ending proces- 

To tell of all the different races, religions, 
and customs of India would fill many books, 
and here we have only one short chapter in 
which to touch upon the fringes of the subject. 
But perhaps it is long enough to make you 
understand that " India " is not a country 
with one or two races, but a great medley of 
all kinds of people who do not understand each 
other's speech or believe in the same gods, 
and who do not even love one another as 
members of one common country. 

All this makes it difficult to govern India 



" WILL you take China tea or Indian ? " is a 
question asked of guests in many houses. 
And such a question tells us, even if we did not 
know it before, that India and Ceylon are not 
the only countries that produce tea and that 
in China also this precious leaf is grown. 

In Chapter XVI. we learned that tea grows 
on warm wet hill-sides. Therefore there must 
be some parts of China that are mountainous 
and that possess a damp, hot climate. But 
China, like India, is an enormous country with 
millions of people, mostly farmers, living in it. 
It contains more people than the, whole of 
Europe; in fact it contains a quarter of all 
the people living on the surface of the earth. 
And because the country is so large it must 
possess many different kinds of climate ; it 
will probably then possess many different kinds 
of soil and surface, and we can, therefore, guess 
that the same kinds of crops will not be grown 
everywhere and that only in certain parts of 
this extensive country will the tea shrub 
flourish. Let us see if this is so. 




Firsfc, we know that tea grows best In a 
hilly country. What kind of surface has China ? 
China is divided chiefly between the basins of 
three enormous rivers. In the north is the 
Hwang-Ho, a river that rises in the dry and 
dusty highlands of Tibet. The west winds 



that blow in winter across this part of the 
earth have been driving the dust of the table- 
land before them for so many centuries that 
hills and valleys are, in some places, hundreds 
of feet below the level of the surface of the 
deposits of dust. Such deposits are called 
loess, a word which means loose. Through the 

152 WORLD 

loess the Hwang-Ho and its tributaries have 
carved, their way, making in the course of time 
a number of steep-sided ravines. Millions of 
people live on the floors of these valleys, for 
the soil is very fertile where there is water. 
Many of the people live in caves which they 
have dug out in the steep sides of the valleys, 
and even where it is known that there are 
thousands of dwellers it may be almost im- 
possible to find a single house. The loess is a 
crumbling yellow kind of earth which stains 
everything that it touches. The soil is yellow, 
the houses are yellow, the roads are yellow, 
Hwang-Ho means Yellow River, and the national 
colour of China is yellow. 

As the river comes out of the mountains it 
bears a heavy load of fine silt, and with this 
it has built up the Great Plain of China, per- 
haps the most thickly peopled plain in the 
world. At its northern end stands PeJcin, the 
capital of China. The city is divided into two 
oblong towns, one for the people and one for 
the government, and each is surrounded by 
high thick walls that were built to keep out 
robbers. The two towns are again enclosed by 
a wall and a moat. Pekin is a dirty city and 
is troubled, from time to time, by the dust- 
laden winds from the west. 

Much of the silt which is brought down by 
the Hwang-Ho is, every year, deposited on the 
bed of the river itself, which is thus raised so 

CHINA 153 

high that when the floods come, the water 
overflows the banks. To prevent this, as far 
as possible, embankments have been built and 
millions of trees planted on them, but, at 
times, the embankments give way, terrible 
floods follow, and the river changes its course. 
Until 1852 the mouth of the river was on the 
south side of the Shantung peninsula. In that 
year the banks broke down, the river took 
another path and flowed into the Gulf of 
Pechili, that is, the river mouth moved 300 
miles to the north. In 1887 there was another 
big flood ; a thousand villages were destroyed 
and a million people drowned. On account of 
these disastrous floods the Hwang-Ho is called 
" China's Sorrow," and there are no large 
towns near the banks of the river in its lower 

As tea grows on the sides of mountains we 
shall not expect, for that reason alone, to find 
farmers cultivating the tea shrub on the Great 
Plain of Ctina. 

In South China there are long ranges of 
mountains running roughly east and west. 
In their valleys there are a number of big 
rivers, the chief of which is the Yang-tse- 
Kiang. It rises in Tibet, but little is known 
about it till it reaches the province of Yunnan. 
At Ichang it cuts its way through a mountain 
range, becomes a foaming torrent, and prevents 
steamers from getting further up the stream. 


But small boats are often hauled through the 
rapids, as many as 200 men being harnessed 
at the same time to a single boat. As the 
waters rush through the narrow passage they 
wear away the sides of the cliffs, dash the 
boulders from side to side, grind the loose 
rocks into fine mud, and carry this, with their 
other loads, from the mountains, to be dropped 
lower down where the speed of the current is 
slower. The plain that surrounds the lower 
part of the Yang-tse-Kiang is made up of the 
mud brought down by the river. There are, 
however, rarely any floods like those of the 
Hwang-Ho, for the Yang-tse-Kiang is con- 
nected, by means of short tributaries, with a 
number of lakes, and these lakes have to be 
filled up first before the river can rise high 
enough to overflow its banks. 

South of the Yang-tse-Kiang are more 
ranges of mountains, and then comes the basin 
of the third of the big rivers, the Si-Kiang. 
This rises in the high lands of Yunnan and 
flows eastwards. At its mouth it forms a large 
delta and in its course there are a number of 
rapids ; but it is, all the same, a fairly useful 

If tea grows on the sides of mountains it 
will probably grow in one or both of the valleys 
of the two rivers last mentioned. But, secondly, 
tea requires warmth and moisture. The north 
of China is farther north than London ; the 



south of China Is farther south than Cairo. 
There must then be great differences of tempera- 
ture due to this fact alone, that China stretches 
so far north and south. The summers, how- 

c/? Rain 

^H Moderate Rain 
]:->:| Little Rain 


ever, are everywhere warm ; the winters, which 
are mild in the south, are very cold in the 
north ; the northern plain is so cold in winter 
that lakes and rivers sometimes freeze. That 



is not the land for tea. Even at Shanghai, 
near the mouth of the Yang-tse, it can be so 
cold in winter that one is glad of a thick over- 


, English Miles . 
o 500 1000 

. Prevailing Winds 
Much Rain 
Moderate Rain 
_ 3 Little Rain 

Because Asia is such a big mass of land it 
loses heat very quickly in the winter. Just 
as in India, winds in winter blow from the 
interior outwards towards the sea. These winds 



are cold and dry and bring bitter gales in the 
north, and sometimes frosts as far south as 
Hong Kong. These cold winds are a good 
thing for the people of southern China, for they 
brace the people . up and prevent them losing 
energy, as they might do if the climate were 
always hot. 


In summer the land absorbs heat quickly 
and the temperature of all parts of China rises. 
The winds, again, as in the case of India, now 
blow from the sea to the land, and, wherever 
there are mountains, these winds rise and are 
cooled and bring heavy downpours of rain. 
In southern China then we can find places 


158 WORLD 

something like those we have seen in India 
mountainous, wet, warm. It is in the moun- 
tainous district especially near the coast between 
the valleys of the Yang-tse and the Si-Kiang 
that tea is grown just where we should expect 
to find it. 

But though tea cannot be grown every- 
where, other things are grown cotton, rice, 
millet, oranges, mulberries and even palms, 
bananas, and pineapples on the warm lowlands 
of the south. The Chinese, like the people of 
India, are mostly farmers, and there are so 
many of them that no land can be wasted. 
The farms are small and without hedges, and 
the farmers and their families are models of 
industry. During the busy season everybody 
men, women, and children works from early 
dawn till dark, Sundays and weekdays alike. 
Grain is cut by hand ; the roots are pulled up 
to be dried and used as fuel. In the autumn 
even the grass roots and the stray leaves and 
flower-stems by the roadside are collected for 
the same purpose. The methods of farming 
may be simple and old-fashioned, but the 
industry, cleverness, and patience of the people 
make up for this, and grain enough for all the 
millions who inhabit the country is produced. 

There are few sheep or cattle, for the land 
is too valuable to be set apart to grow food 
for them. The Chinese can seldom afford to 
eat meat, though the poorest occasionally make 

CHINA 159 

a meal of cat, dog, rat, or mouse. The chief 
food animal is the pig, because it can live on 
refuse, and so can be reared without taking 
up too much room. 

But the chief grain and the chief food of 
China is rice, which grows in the valleys of all 
the three rivers, for it grows rapidly, and can 
be grown wherever there is plenty of rain and 
heat, and, as we have already seen, the rain 
comes to China in summer when all the land 


is hot. Rice is sown in wet ground and sprouts 
in about a 'week. Three or four weeks later 
the young plants are transplanted into the 
"paddy fields." The fields are completely 
under water and are simply masses of mud. 
They require very careful weeding, and this is 
an unhealthy and difficult task, as the labourers 
are, at all times, knee-deep in the water. They 
get rheumatism, and that is the reason why 
they smoke opium to deaden the pain. As 
water is so important in the cultivation of 




rice, the plant can only be grown In the low- 
lying deltas, or in the plains that are flooded 
after the rains, or else in places where the land 
can be irrigated. And in China men can be 
seen watering the fields in much the same ways 
as in Egypt. " By a system of buckets fastened 
to an endless chain and passing over an axle, 
which is turned either by the feet of men or 
by a connecting wheel worked by oxen, the 
water is raised from the river or canal to the 


level of the fields, where it is discharged into 
the troughs at the rate of sometimes 300 tons 
a day. This is the sakiah of the Egyptians ; 
and should any traveller from the banks of 
the Nile visit the plains of China he might 
recognise in the method adopted" for raising 
water from wells the shaduf of the land of the 
Pharaohs. A long horizontal pole, at one end 
of which is a bucket, and on the other a certain 
weight, is fixed on an upright in such a position 
that on raising the loaded end the bucket 

CHINA 161 

descends Into the well, and with the help of 
the counterbalancing weight can be raised full 
of water with ease and rapidity. If the level 
of the river or canal be only triflingly lower 
than the field to be irrigated, two men standing 
on the bank, and holding a bucket between them 
by ropes, draw water very quickly by dipping 
the bucket into the stream and by swinging 
it up to the bank, where its contents are emptied 
into the trough prepared to receive them." 

On the banks of the rivers and by the open 
sea men catch fish in enormous quantities. 
There are 40,000,000 people in China who get 
their living by catching fish. Because rice is 
rather tasteless the fish that is eaten with it 
is often kept till it has a nice strong flavour. 
For the same reason pungent spices and hot- 
sauces are much appreciated. 

In building houses wood is not much used. 
The houses are often roofed with rice straw, 
especially in the rice-growing districts, and 
.even the sides of the houses may be thatched 
with the same material, as such a covering 
tends to keep the interiors cool in summer and 
warm in winter, but it does not last long and 
has to be replaced every three to five years. 
When the old straw is pulled off it is either 
burned for fuel or used for manure in the fields, 
and even if it be burned for fuel the ashes will 
be taken to help to feed the new crops. The 
commonest building material is clay, of which 



there is plenty. Wherever there is an abund- 
ance of fuel the clay is baked, but in the 
northern plains,, where fuel is scarce, the bricks 
are just dried in the sun and, sometimes, they 
crumble away in a heavy rain and let the roof 

Chinese tea, rice, silk and other things come 


it is built of clay and thatched with straw. The storage pits 
hold manure for the ground. 

to Britain by much the same route as they 
do from India, but the journey is longer. The 
ships are loaded up at one or more of the ports 
that act as collecting stations for the different 
valleys. There is one at the entrance to the 
Yang-tse-Kiang on the north of the mountains, 
and one at the entrance to the Si-Kiang on the 

CHINA 163 

south of the mountains. For the Si-Kiang 
valley the port is Canton. The Chinese will not 
allow the foreigner to buy and sell wherever 
he pleases. He can only trade in those places 
agreed to by treaty ; such ports are called 
Treaty Ports. Canton was the first of these 
ports to be opened to the foreigner. It is 
really three towns : (i) The native town on 
land, surrounded by a high wall for purposes 
of defence. The streets are narrow and covered 
in with matting, so that they are stuffy and 
smelly, but, on the other hand, they are warm 
in winter. There are no cabs, but persons are 
carried about in sedan chairs. 

(ii) The second part of the native city is on 
the water. About a quarter of a million people 
live in boats, because the river provides a fine 
highway for trade and an abundance of food 
in the form of fish, and, further, the use of the 
river in this way sets free more land for farms. 
Thousands of people are born in the boats, 
brought up in boats, and never set foot on 
land during the whole of their lives. They rear 
chickens and even pigs in cages hung over the 
sides of the boats. There are floating houses, 
floating markets, floating theatres, floating jails, 
and floating policemen. 

(iii) The third city at Canton belongs to the 
foreigner. He could not live in the narrow, 
crowded, dirty, stuffy streets, so he has a little 
town of his own with broad clean streets and 

164 WORLD 

well-built houses. He can go into the Chinese 
town if lie wishes, but no Chinaman is allowed 
in the white man's city without a pass. 

As trade increased and ships grew bigger 
the ships required good harbours for shelter, 
strong places for defence, and means of storing 
coal. Near to the entrance to the Si-Kiang 
valley there was a rocky island with a magnifi- 
cent harbour, and here is the British trading 
centre of Hong Kong. It is well placed as a 
port for southern China, and it is one of the 
most important ports in the world, collecting 
and distributing goods in many directions. 

The Yang-tse-Kiang valley is even more 
important, and the trader sought for an entrance 
to it, but there were two difficulties : in the 
first place the Chinese would not give him a 
treaty port, and in the second the estuary is 
so low and marshy that there was no suitable 
ground on which to build a big town. In 1843 
the Chinese agreed to open the Yaixg-tse-Kiang 
valley to foreign trade, and the place chosen 
for the port and market was the first spot 
south of the marshy estuary where one could 
be built. This is Shanghai, not on the Yang- 
tse-Kiang itself, but on a small river that flows 
into the same delta. It is over fifty miles from 
the sea and nearly twelve miles from the 
junction of its own river with the main stream. 

We can imagine, then, that our ship has 
been loaded up at one of these or at some other 

CHINA 185 

port and is making the journey to England- 
It will have to go a long way south in order 
to get round the end of the mountainous, 
forested Malay peninsula. At the southern end 
of this peninsula is the British coaling station 
and port Singapore. Like Chicago, at the end 
of a lake where many routes meet, so Singapore 
is at the end of a peninsula where many sea 
roads converge. From Singapore the vessel 
crosses the southern end of the Bay of Bengal 
and makes for Colombo, where again the British 
flag is seen flying, and where stores of coal are 
kept for passing ships. Then the southern part 
of the Arabian Sea is traversed, and the vessel 
arrives at Aden. There we can leave it, for 
from there we have already traced the way 
home. But if our journey from Singapore to 
Aden has been made in fine calm weather when 
the ocean is like a plain of oil by day, and the 
sky a palpitating flame of summer lightning 
at night, it will leave memories that will linger 
long after all the rice has "been eaten and all 
the silk been worn to rags. 



A COMMON Japanese fan is, In its way, a tiny 
geography book of the country, and so much 
information is not often given in such a little 
space. There are, of course, many different kinds 
of fans from Japan, but there is one so common 
that it is familiar to everybody. It is made of 
split bamboo and covered with 
paper. On the paper there are 
pictures of flowers and fir trees and 
of a mountain. The mountain is 
conical in shape and has a white 
cap on the summit. What does 
all this tell us ? 

The conical shape of the 
mountain indicates that it is a vol- 
cano : the snow on the top that it 
The fir-trees say that the country 
is cold and damp, for these are the trees we have 
seen in the Canadian forests. The bamboo tells 
a different story and says that the country is 
warm and damp. Then the paper is rice paper, 
and that means that Japan is very warm and 
damp. If both fir trees and bamboos and rice 



is very high. 



grow in Japan, then the country must stretch 
a long way from a cold north to a much warmer 

After the fan comes the map, to help us to 
find out whether the story we have read out of 
the fan is correct or not. And the map shows 
first that Japan is a mountainous country, so 




mountainous that there are but few plains and 
therefore but little land for growing crops. 
Amongst the mountains there are a number of 
volcanoes which sometimes pour out streams of 
molten rock or lava and clouds of steam and of 
red hot dust. The most beautiful of all the 
volcanoes is Fuji-yama. It is so beautiful 
that if you approach Yokohama from the sea, 


soon after dawn, when the distant blue mountain 
melts Into the deep blue of the sky and the 
snow-capped summit seems to hang in the 
heavens, all by itself, you do not wonder that 
the Japanese put it on their fans and pictures 
and even make pilgrimages to worship at the 
white altar up above them. It is covered with 
snow only in the winter, but it is always covered 
with snow in the pictures and on the fans, 
sometimes white and sometimes tinged with 
pink and purple as it is seen in the glow of the 
sun at eventide. 

Where there are volcanoes there are usually 
earthquakes, and scarcely a week passes with- 
out a small one somewhere. Most of them are 
too small to do any damage, but occasionally 
the land shakes violently, huge cracks appear 
in the ground, houses are thrown down, and 
much destruction is caused. In 1923 a dis- 
astrous earthquake killed about 150,000 people 
and did 250,000,000 worth of damage. 

The north of Japan is as far north as the 
north of England ; the south of Japan is as far 
south as the south of Morocco. Also a cold 
current from the Arctic washes the northern end 
of the country and a warm current from the 
south washes the southern end of the country, 
Hence we get temperatures suitable both to the 
fir tree and the bamboo. And it is everywhere 
wet. As mentioned in the last chapter, the winds 
from Asia blow outwards in the winter when the 



interior of the continent is bitterly cold. They 
cross the sea and bring some rain with them to 
Japan. The summer winds blow inwards from 
the sea and are therefore wet ; they bring much 
rain to Japan. There is rain enough in ever} 7 
part of the country to support the growth of 
trees, but the kind of forest depends on the 


temperature and the most luxuriant forests 
are in the warmer south. 

The mountains occupy so much of the surface 
of Japan that there is little room left where men 
can work and live. Only about one-sixth of 
the country is suitable for farming, and yet 
farming is the chief industry. The Japanese 
have made the very best possible use of all the 

170 WORLD 

land that can be cultivated and they are perhaps 
the cleverest farmers in the world. They work 
hard and long ; they dig with the spade and do 
not plough, because in this way they get better 
crops. They weed the fields as we weed the 
garden, and they grow many varieties of food, 
the chief of which is rice. 

Plants from which paper can be made are 
also important. Paper is used for almost every- 
thing. The Japanese have paper walls to their 
houses, paper caps on their heads, paper string, 
paper pocket-handkerchiefs, and even paper 
cloaks and shoes. Some of this paper is so 
strong that it is almost impossible to tear it 
and some of it is so water-proof that the rain 
cannot get through it. 

Another common plant is the bamboo, a 
kind of grass. Its hollow stem is used for 
every purpose from building houses to making 
fans. It is used for screens, hats, sails for shif>s, 
paper, and even for water and gas pipes. 

As there is so little flat land and so many 
people to feed, the fields cannot be given up to 
grow food for sheep and cattle. Therefore, 
there is no wool for clothes and no butter or 
cheese for food. There is no leather for shoes, 
and these are therefore of wood, so that the 
carpenter is the shoe-maker. And as there are 
few horses, except in the north where there 
is a little grass, and few people, the Japanese ride 
in jinrickshaws a kind of big perambulator 



with shafts. These are pulled by men who 
travel long distances at a good speed and for 
very little pay. There is not much animal food 
except fish, but of this there is an abundance in 
the streams and the sea. The silkworm produces 
material for clothing, and there happens what 
seems to us a curious thing, and that Is that silk 
clothing is cheap and woollen clothing is dear. 


Tokio is the capital of Japan. Notice the jinrickshaw. 

Poor people wear silk ; only those who are better 
off can afford wool. 

Many Japanese houses are not built of stone 
or brick on account of the earthquakes. These 
houses are very simple. The roof is of tiles or 
thatch and is very heavy in order not to be 
blown off in the strong gales that come during 
the winter season. The roof is supported by four 
poles at the corners and these are commonly 



of bamboo. It slopes steeply in order to throw 
off the rain and it projects well beyond the walls 
to give shelter from the sun. Japanese hats are 
shaped like Japanese roofs and for the same 
reason. The walls are made of thick oiled paper 
and at night shutters of wood are put up all the 

way round. The insides 
can be divided up by 
paper screens into as 
many rooms as the 
family requires. There 
are no chairs or beds, for 
people sit and sleep on 
thick rice-straw mats on 
the floor. The size of a 
room is usually given in 
the number of mats it 
takes to cover the floor, 
thus one room is a four- 
mat room, another an 
eight-mat room and so 
on. There are no tables, 
though a small stool may 
be used as a kind of 

Such flimsy houses are very liable to be 
destroyed by fire, and if a man possesses 
valuable pictures or pottery he stores them in 
a safer place and only has one or two of them 
at home at a time. In this way he has plenty 
of time to look at them and admire them, and it 




is partly due to this that the people are so fond 
of beautiful things. Houses such as we have 
described do little damage if an earthquake 
brings them to the ground, and they cost but little 
to repair or rebuild. 

The houses can be opened not only at the 
front but all the way round by the removal of 
the paper screens that form the walls. It is 
quite a common custom to take out these walls 


Nagasaki is the port on the west of Japan. 

and so allow everybody in the street to see 
everything that is going on inside. It is a good 
thing to have open houses of this kind because 
the heavy rains come when the heat is greatest 
and, at that time, the air is unpleasantly stuffy. 
The Japanese are fond of fresh air and sunshine 
and have their houses open to keep them 

The seas between Japan and Asia are stormy, 
and this helped, in days gone by, to shut off the 


174 WORLD 

Japanese people from the people of the main- 
land. In the winter, when the winds blow from 
Asia to Japan and when people might have 
come across the narrow waters, there were 
terrible snow-storms and fogs that kept them 
at home. In the summer, when the weather 
is fine the winds blow strongly from Japan to 
the continent and tend to keep out visitors. 
In this way the Japanese formed a nation, 
away from other people, and grew up fond of 
their own land, proud of its beauties and 
intensely loyal and patriotic. 

Perhaps the suddenness of the earthquakes 
and the volcanic outbursts taught the Japanese 
to meet sudden danger and even death without 
shouting or weeping. Certainly they can keep 
their heads in times of peril and face danger 
without fear. 

Perhaps the open houses, where all life is 
seen by everybody, have had something to do 
with the politeness of this nation. \ It is no use 
pretending what a " sweet " person you are 
when you are in some one else's house if you are 
really bad tempered in your own. Everybody 
knows exactly what you are like when you are 
in the bosom of your family. . And if one is 
rude to a Japanese he does not get angry and 
say nasty things back again, but preserves a calm 
and dignified behaviour, perhaps the greatest 
possible rebuke to a person who has lost his 
temper and exhibited his bad manners. 



have seen tow tea comes to Britain from 
a by sea. But part of the tea which is 

out of China to be sold in Europe can be 
ed overland to Russia. Formerly it was 
ed by camels and it was therefore necessary 
ick it in as small a space as possible. The 
5S were ground, steamed, and then com- 
jed into flat blocks something like small 
tiles. In this form it was and is exported 

brick tea " and is used in some parts of 
'al Asia as money. The caravan is rapidly 
oaing a thing of the past and the tea is now 
ed chiefly by the Trans-Siberian Railway. 
a the course of its journey the railway 
srses the north of Asia from east to west 
Ly through the Russian territory of Siberia, 
gh the first part of the journey lies through 
Chinese territory of Manchuria. The first 
astern half of the journey is through a 
itainous country that forms part of that 
Lerful system of highlands that fills up 
al and eastern Asia ; the second or western 
of the journey is across a part of the great 




plain that fills the northern parts of both Europe 
and Asia. 

We will board the train at Vladivostok, the 
Pacific terminus of the line. It has a splendid 
harbour, but this is frozen over in winter. At 
first we cross the plains of Manchuria, but we 
presently reach those mountains of which we 
have spoken above. In places they are thickly 
forested. Amongst the mountains there are 


many tunnels, one of which is a mile long. No- 
where do we find great towns or thickly peopled 
areas, but here and there are settlements of 
miners who extract silver and* other valuable 
minerals from the ground. 

The most mountainous part of the journey 
comes to an end in the neighbourhood of Lake 
Baikal. This lake is long and narrow and is the 
deepest freshwater lake known. It is surrounded 


at the southern end by huge granite cliffs which 
rise precipitously from the water, and the work 
of constructing the railway along these shores 
was so difficult that for a long time there was a 
break in the communication. The gap was 
filled up by steamer connection across the lake, 
or, in the winter, when the lake was frozen over, 


by ice-breaking steamer. But in 1904 a road 
was blasted out of the cliffs and the railway 
linked up east and west. 

Near the .western shore of the lake is Irkutsk, 
a curious mixture of wooden houses and stone 
public buildings. It has been called the " Paris 
of the East/ 5 but it is not a very comfortable 
place in which to live, for in summer it is hot 



and In winter the cold is so severe that the 
mercury freezes in the thermometer. A number 
of caravan routes west, east, north-east meet 
at Irkutsk, but as the railway is .extended and 
branch lines are made the caravan routes tend 
to disappear. At Irkutsk there is a great trade 
in furs obtained from the forests and tea which 
is brought from China. 

West of Irkutsk we enter a forest belt like 

Coniferous Forest J 

that of Canada and get a glimpse of the wonderful 
wealth in timber that Siberia possesses. The 
forests are so extensive that parts of them have 
never been visited by man. Even the boldest 
of the fur hunters have never gone much farther 
than perhaps fifty or sixty miles into the 
interior of these gloomy woodlands. The j ourney 
is monotonous, for the trees are often all alike 
for mile after mile. Wood from the forests 

supplies the train with fuel, and blocks of wood 
are stored at the railway stations in the same 

JSL * T store coaL Handlin g wood is 

lighter and cleaner work than handling coal and 
many women are employed in this kind of work. 
Once we have crossed the Ob we enter the 
part of Siberia that really counts the rich 
agricultural land where men can farm and make 
a good living. It is a land of black earth and 
is bordered on the north by the forest and on 


tlie south by the barren and waterless steppe. 
Here are found five-sixths of the population of 
Siberia. They are mostly Eussians who have 
settled down and who have been given grants 
of land. They are supplied also with agricul- 
tural implements and with cattle and seed in 
order that they may successfully establish 

The peasants live almost entirely in villages or 
hamlets and in houses made of wooden logs with 
the chinks between them filled up with moss or 



mud. The soil is so rich that it yields most 
fruitful crops and there is an abundance of live 
stock, especially horses. In the centre of the 
steppe region is Omsk, the " capital of the 
steppes." In the neighbour- 
hood of Omsk thousands of 
cattle are reared and a 
flourishing trade in butter is 
carried on. 

Between Europe and Asia 
the Ural mountains must be 
crossed, but they are so low 
that they present no diffi- 
culties to the engineer. 
Once on the other side we 
are in the plain of European 
Russia. The European ter- 
minus of the line is Moscow, 
and the distance from Vladi- 
vostok to Moscow is between 
4000 and 5000 miles. The long journey shows 
us a hilly forested region at one end and a flat 
fertile land at the other with a flattish forested 
region in the centre. 




THE Trans-Siberian railway crosses the Great 
Plain of Siberia. This is tlie biggest plain in 
the world and contains much more land than 
the whole of Europe; it is shaped something 
like a triangle with high land on two sides and a 
frozen sea on the other. Like the plain of 
North America, it has tundra in the cold north, 
then forest and then wheat lands, but whereas 
the North American plain leads south to the 
warm wet shores of the Gulf of Mexico, this 
Siberian plain leads south to land that is so dry 
that part of it is desert. 

The hot desert is in Western Turkistan 
in the south of the plain. Except near the 
oases nothing grows but a few prickly plants, 
and there can be no people living except where 
the land can be watered. Through the Sahara 
desert flows the Nile, on whose banks men 
live and farm. On account of the never-failing 
wat'er supply in Victoria Lake the Nile never 
dries up. Through the desert of Western 
Turkistan flow two rivers, the Amu Daria and 
the Syr Daria, but neither of these is so useful 




as the Nile. They get their water from the 
snows that melt on the mountains and they 
are not very full except for a few months. As 
long as the Syr Daria is receiving water from 
other streams in the mountains it is 20 to 40 

FIG. 38.: 


feet deep and, in some places, a -third of a 
mile wide. But farther westward it is a shallow 
stream that sends out branches which lose them- 
selves in the sands. On the edges of the desert 
are the high mountains and from their sides 


flow streams that never quite fail The conse- 
quence is that the upper valleys have plenty 
of water, and cotton, maize, wheat, and fruit can 
be grown. In such oasis-like valleys there are 
settlements, and a map of this part of the world 
shows a ring of towns Tashkent, KhoJcan, Sa- 
markand, and Bokhara, all flourishing amongst 
the fields and orchards that are fed by the waters 
that flow from the melting snows. 

The tundra on the north of the plain is much 
like the tundra of North America and needs 
no further description, but we must note that 
no Eskimo live there. The Eskimo are a fishing 
race,, a seafaring people, and they would be 
very unhappy in northern Asia. The poor 
tribes of the Asiatic tundra depend on the land 
and not on the sea, and are not nearly so well 
off as the Eskimo. They hunt and fish, move 
constantly, and, therefore, use tents. These are 
made of birch-bark or skins fastened over poles 
with a hole left in the top for a chimney. Beds 
are made of skins and dried moss ; clothes are 
made of reindeer skin, food is reindeer flesh or 
fish. The reindeer is to these people what 
the dog is to the Eskimo and the camel to the 
Arab. It is the ship of the frozen desert ; it 
also supplies milk, meat, and clothes. 

South of the tundra is the forest that we have 
learned about in our railway journey, and south 
of this is the wide grass land or steppe, part of 
which we have also crossed in the train. These 



grass lands are very much like the American 
prairies, not flat but undulating and without 
trees except in the broad deep valleys of some of 
the rivers. In the winter the land is extremely 
cold ; in the summer extremely hot. It is too 
far from the sea to feel the tempering effect of 
the sea-breezes. 

On the steppes of Russian Central Asia live 
the Kirghis. At first it would seem as though 
the Kirghis and the Red Indian should lead the 
same kind of life, for both are dwellers on grassy 


plains. But the Red Indian had no sheep or 
horses ; he had to be a hunter and chase wild 
animals. The Kirghis, on the other hand, had 
great herds of sheep, goats, camels, asses and 
horses ; they are shepherds, not hunters. But 
both are wanderers and dwell in tents. The 
Kirghis must follow his flocks and he cannot 
remain long in one place, because so many 
animals would soon eat up all the grass. The 
Kirghis 5 tents have walls of lattice-work which 
can be made to open or shut to alter the size 
oi the tent at the convenience of the owner. 


Wooden poles are fixed to the top of the wall 
and meet together to form a framework for the 
roof. The whole is covered with sheets of felt 
held in place by cords and ropes. The felt, 
cord, and ropes are made of the hair or wool 
obtained from the flocks. The women put up 
and take down the tents, while the men look 
after the animals. Inside the tents are beautiful 
rugs and carpets made of wool, and dishes of 
wood and leather. 

When the family moves on to a fresh place 
the horses go first to get the richest grass. The 
cattle go next, and when they have had enough 
to eat, the sheep follow, and with their tiny 
mouths manage to get a good feed off grass 
that would have been too short for the big- 
mouthed animals. The horse is the most useful 
animal to the Kirghis, as, without it, it would 
be impossible to keep the flocks and herds from 
straying all over the plain and getting lost. 

As there are so many animals, and as the 
grass often dries up in the hot summer, the 
different tribes each have certain parts of the 
country where they may take their flocks to 
feed. They can wander where they like as long 
as they keep to their own part of the country, 
but if one tribe wanders into the land belonging 
to another, there is fighting ; the Khirgis is 
warrior as well as shepherd. 

Each tribe needs a wide stretch of country 
to feed its many animals, and over this it 


travels at a rate of from five to ten miles every 
few weeks. The road taken leads from one 
water supply to another,, for though water is 
scarce in this thirsty land, 'every spot where it 
is obtainable is well known to the dwellers 
therein. In the height of summer the tribes 
go up into the mountains to feed their flocks 
on the pastures that have been freed from the 
snows, but they return to the plains again 
when the winter comes. 

If a man's flocks increase very much he may 
need more grass and water for them than his 
own part of the country can supply. In such 
a case he wanders into land that does not belong 
to him and steals some other's grass and water. 
He becomes a robber, which is the meaning of 
the word Kirghis. 

The Kirghis are also traders. Every year, 
caravans cross the grass lands as they do the 
deserts and savannas of Africa. When the 
shepherds meet the merchants they exchange 
horses and sheep and woollen rugs for grain, 
better clothes, wooden dishes and flour, and for 
some of that brick tea that has come overland 
from China. 

The food of the Kirghis is chiefly the flesh of 
the animals they tend. Beef is not thought 
much of, but mutton and especially horse-flesh 
are favourite dishes. Horse-flesh is always 
served at big feasts. There is no bread, but a 
kind of porridge is made out of millet or some 


other grain that has been obtained from the 
caravans. The common drink is milk either 
fresh or sour. A particular kind of sour milk 
is called koomis. There is always plenty of 
butter and cheese. 

The Kirghis are fond of big families. A 
man's riches 1 are measured by the size of his 
flocks and herds. But large 
numbers of ( animals need large 
numbers of people to take care 
of them. A man with only one 
son or servant would have to be 
a poor man ; a man with a dozen 
children would stand a good 
chance of becoming rich. 

The clothes are a long loose 
garment called a kaftan made of 
fur, felt, or linen, high boots of 
soft leather, and a cap of sheep- 
skin. A rich man will have a 
velvet robe^ and perhaps a belt, A KIRGHIS WEARING 
bridle and saddle, studded with SHEEPS^ N CA^ D 
gold and silver and precious 
stones. The women dress much like the men, 
but they cover the head with pieces of 
white cotton cloth and not with a sheepskin 

Though the Kirghis have many difficulties 
to fight against, they contrive to make them- 
selves pretty comfortable. 



A SHIP coming to Britain from India or China 
passes through the Mediterranean Sea. This 
sea is surrounded by a number of important 
countries like Egypt, Greece, Italy, France, and 
Spain. In other chapters we have learned how 
different things that we eat and drink are grown 
wheat and meat, rice and tea. And in Chapter 
IV. we saw that the dry sunny valley of California 
was one of the places where fruit is grown. But 
the greatest of all the fruit-growing countries 
are those countries just mentioned about the 
Mediterranean Sea. It is from these lands 
that many of the ingredients of the Christmas 
pudding come. 

Now if the lands of the Mediterranean are 
orchard countries, that will give us some clue to 
the kind of climate, for in the first place trees 
cannot grow without plenty of water, so we know 
there must be a fairly heavy rainfall, and fruits 
of the kind we have mentioned will not ripen 
unless the summer be both warm and dry, so 
we also know the rain falls chiefly in the spring 
and winter and the summer is a time of drought. 



In China, India, and the savanna lands of Africa 
we have seen that just the opposite happens ; 
there the rain falls in the summer and the winter 
is the dry season of the year. 

Let us see what kinds of lands these are in 
which fruit is grown. 

Greece is very mountainous: among many 
of the mountains the sea runs in and out 
in all directions. Between the mountains and 
near the sea are a number of small fertile 


plains where good crops can be grown. 
Round the coast there are hundreds of islands 
of all shapes and sizes, far apart from each 
other on the west, crowded together on the 
cast, necklaces of green stones set in an azure 
sea. Greece is a patchwork quilt made up 
of the dark blue of the sea, the silver of 
the -snowy mountain tops, the green of the 
plains, the bluish green of the olive trees, 
and the purple of the grape. There is plenty 



of sunshine and the summer is hot, though not 
as hot as it is in the desert or the savanna. There 
is "not enough fertile land to feed all the people, 
so some of them had to find other ways of 
getting a living. The mountains pushed them 
into the sea and they became sailors. It was 
easy to build boats, for there were then plenty 
of trees in the forests ; to-day there are not so 
many forests, for the trees have been carelessly 


destroyed. The Greek sailors wandered to the 
eastern end of the Mediterranean where there 
were people with things to sell, and these things 
they carried away to other countries. They 
began as carriers, but soon they bought and sold 
for themselves and became keen traders, as they 
are to this day. 

The two chief things exported from the 
country are olives and currants. From the 



fruit of the olive the Greek gets oil which is of 
great value to him, for the dry hot summer 
withers the grass and prevents the keeping of 
many cattle. Thus there is an absence of 
butter or cheese, and olive oil is used instead of 
butter. The currant is a small grape that has 
been dried. The cultivation of this grape 
provides a great deal of work ; the ground must 
be prepared, the trees pruned, the fruit picked 
and then packed to be sent all over the world. 
Packing cases must be made from timber and 
labels must be printed. Wine is also made from 
the same small grapes. 

Italy is a long narrow peninsula. In the 
north are the high mountains, the Alps. On 
the high ground of course there are no fruit 

But the descent from the Alps into Italy 
is steep. The snow is soon left behind and the 
road winds through rocky gorges and forests 
of pine and fir. Below these are the forests of 
walnut and sweet chestnut, then the vine and, 
as the air gets milder and warmer, oranges, 
myrtle, and olive. At the foot of the Alps 
is the plain of Lombardy, the richest part of 
Italy. It has been built up of soil brought from 
the mountains and is fertile and level. Hence 
it is densely peopled. Through it runs the river 
Po and numerous tributaries ; easily made 
canals add other roads and means of irrigating 
the fields. The plain is so hot in summer that 


even rice can be grown in the flooded fields ; 
in winter it is open to cold winds. On the plain 
are grown olives, mulberries on which silkworms 
are fed, and grapes from which wine is made. 
In other parts of the plain there are grass lands 
on which are reared cattle and, from the milk of 
these, several well-known kinds of cheese are 

The Lombard peasant works hard and lives 


sparely. He makes his breakfast of maize 
porridge and water and his dinner of soup 
thickened with cabbages and turnips and 
flavoured with a little lard. He eats raw vege- 
tables with oil and vinegar, and on special 
occasions he adds cheese, eggs, and dried fish. 
He rarely touches meat but he will eat frogs, 
snails, and hedgehogs. He is a busy person, 
always in the fields looking after his crops, and 
the men of the towns are clever business men, 


who also work hard and seem to be successful 
in everything ihey undertake. 

The port of the plain is Venice. In the 
fifth century a number of people, fleeing from 
barbarian invaders, sought somewhere to take 
refuge. They found a place that had marshes 
and swamps at the back of it and sandbanks 
and lagoons in front of it. Here they were 
safe. They got both salt and fish from the 
sea and traded these for other things. They 
were in a good position for trade as they could 
send ships to Egypt and Greece and then 
forward the cargoes over the Alps into Central 
Europe. When the Cape route to India was 
discovered Venice lost much of her trade, but 
when the Suez Canal was cut some of the trade 
came back again. 

South of the plain the Apennines fill the 
greater part of the peninsula, though there are 
narrow lowlands along the coast and a wider 
plain in the south-east. On the steep slopes 
mountain chestnuts are grown. These are 
ground into flour and form the chief food of the 
dwellers on the hillsides. As the summers are 
dry there is little grass, few cows, and no butter. 
Sheep and goats can be kept and they provide 
a little milk- and some wool for clothing. 

The capital of Italy is Home, built on seven 
hills for defence against foes and floods ; it was 
on a navigable river, where there was an island 
that made it easy to build a bridge, and it was 


far enough, from the sea to be safe from 

The peninsula of Spain and Portugal is at 
the south-western corner of Europe. It is shut 
off from the rest of the continent, for it is sur- 
rounded by sea except where the steep Pyrenees 
divide it from Trance. Three-fourths of it 
form a high plateau which descends steeply 
on all sides to the very narrow lowlands on the 
coast, or in some places right into the sea itself. 

Spain is a very dry land, for, like the rest of 
the Mediterranean lands, it has little or no rain 
in summer, and in the winter, when the winds 
blow in from the w r est, the high mountain edge 
of the plateau receives all the rain brought by 
the Atlantic winds. Very few sea breezes ever 
reach the interior of Spain. 

What we have said about the plants of Italy 
and Greece is also true for Spain ; only plants 
that can withstand drought will live through 
the dry summer, and of these the chief are olive 
and vine. But Spain has also an important 
plant in the cork oak. This is an oak tree 
that has surrounded itself with a thick bark 
to prevent loss of moisture during the hot 
summer. The thick bark is cork. The first 
crop is taken when the tree is about twenty 
years old and is so coarse as to be of little, use. 
After that, strippings are made at intervals of 
ten years each, for a period of perhaps eighty 
or ninety years. Care has to be taken that when 


the outer bark is removed the inner one is* un- 
injured or the usefulness of the tree will be 


Then in all these countries there is little 

grass and few cattle. Sheep can, however, be 

sustained on scantier and shorter grass than 

cattle, and therefore sheep are not so un- 


common. And the merino sheep of Spain is 
world famed. But the most hardy of the 
domestic food-supplying animals is the goat, 
which will .eat almost anything from withered 
shrubs to old boots. The goat gives milk from 
which cheese is made and hair which is turned 
into coats, ropes, and other things. The horse, 
like the cow, needs rich grass and is therefore 



comparatively scarce in all these countries. 
Its place is taken by the ass, which is much 
less particular about its food, and the mule, which 
is hardier and more sure-footed than the ass. 
Its greater strength makes it particularly suitable 
for travel in a hilly country, but it has a most 
disagreeable temper. On the level plains oxen 
are used to pull both ploughs and carts. 


Almost in the centre of Spain is the 
capital, Madrid, about the worst- situated capital 
in Europe. The climate is hot in summer and 
very cold in winter, and the surrounding country 
is a barren sandy plain. Its river is a torrent 
in winter and a thread of water in summer ,and 
the subject of many jokes, such as " We know 
there is a river because there are bridges over 
it," or " Why doesn't the government sell the 


bridges and buy some water to put in the 
river ? " 

But there is enough water, if caref ully used, 
to irrigate the fields, and to grow the fruits we 
prize. Seville oranges, Barcelona nuts, Valencia 
raisins all grow in Spain. 

If it had not been for the products of these 
lands we might never have known the delights 
of a really good rich Christmas pudding with its 
wealth of currants, sultanas, valencias, almonds, 
and orange peel. All these come from the 
Mediterranean countries. Currants get their 
name from Corinth, the port in Greece from which 
they are shipped, and valencias are named after 
one of the provinces of Spain. Oranges grow 
in Spain, Sicily, and round Smyrna, and there are 
many other fruits from these regions such as figs, 
lemons, olives, grapes, prunes, and nuts and, in 
the oases of the Sahara, dates. 



THE great highlands of America run north and 
south ; the great highlands of Asia run east and 
west with a plain to the north of them and three 
mountainous peninsulas to the south: Europe 
is something like Asia in the arrangement 
of high and low ground. More than half the 
continent is a plain extending from the west 
of France to the east of Russia, where, except 
for the low Urals, it joins the great plain of 
Siberia. South of the plain there is a belt of 
plateaus, while south of the plateaus we have the 
great highlands running east and west from the 
Pyrenees to the Caucasus mountains, and then 
extending right across Asia. The greatest of 
the highlands are the Alps to the north of Italy. 
The Alps stretch in a big curve from the 
shores of the Gulf of Genoa, round the north of 
Italy. They are twice as long as England and 
they cover almost as much land as England, 
Scotland, and Wales put together and in places 
are nearly a hundred miles broad. The highest 
peaks are nearly three miles high and are 



crowned with snow and the upper valleys are 
filled with glaciers. 

Different peoples live in one part or another 
of the Alps. In this chapter we deal only with 
the Swiss. 

Switzerland is a country of great mountains 
where there are green valleys, high rocky peaks, 
miles of snow and ice, torrents of falling water, 
and laughing, rushing streams that flash in 


the sunlight. At the foot of the mountains, 
where it is warmer, grapes can be grown, but 
upon the tops of the peaks there is nothing 
but white shining deserts of snow and ice. The 
higher you* go, the poorer the soil, the colder 
the^air and the worse the roads. 

There are villages in the valleys, and towns 
like Berne out on the lower land to the north, 
but a great many Swiss are farmers. In 


the fewest valleys In Switzerland it is warm 
enough to permit the growth of some grapes 
and other fruit, but in most places it is too cold. 
In the higher valleys are fields of oats, barley, 
and rye, the grains that can stand much 
cold and wet. Higher still there are no trees 
or fields and here we find grassy slopes where 
cattle can be reared. At last we come to the 
ice and snow where nothing grows at all. 

It is difficult for the Swiss farmers to grow 
enough food : there is so little flat ground. On 
the hillsides, as soon as the soil is ploughed it 
gets loose and the next heavy rains tend to wash 
it away and leave nothing but bare rock. To 
stop this, walls are built along the hillside and 
the space between the wall and the hillside is 
filled with earth which the peasant has to carry 
to the spot in baskets. He has first to make a 
field with his own hands before he can begin to 
grow food. And when the field has been made, 
he has often to bring fresh soil, and lie has to 
pay continual care to his walls, for if they fall 
down, the field will be washed away into the 
valley below. 

On the high grass lands animals are reared. 
These high meadows are called alps y a word 
which has been applied as a name to the whole 
of the mountain ranges in this part of the world. 
The chief animals reared are cattle, goats, and 
sheep. The grass on the alps is short but rich, 
and the cows that are fed on it give better milk 


than those fed in the valleys : it is of these Gattle 
that we think most when we hear of Switzerland. 
Dotted about the alpine fields are little wooden 
houses called chalets, where the shepherds live 
all through the summer. Here the men and 
animals stay till the cold voice of winter calls 
them all home again. The day of departure 
from the village for the high pastures is a public 
holiday. Everybody gets up before dawn and 
even the animals themselves seem to be infected 


with the spirit of merriment, for they are glad 
to get out of the sheds and stables where they 
have been kept all the winter and to regain their 
liberty and a suppty of fresh grass. They caper 
with joy, and careful watch must be kept over 
any animal that it is desired to retain in the 
valley, for if it once gets loose it will bolt after 
its companions. 

The milk cannot be brought into the valley 
every day, so it is made into cheese which is 
brought down, in great loads, in the autumn. 



Some of the milk is condensed and sold to us in 
tins as " Swiss milk/' some again is used in the 
manufacture of milk chocolate, 

It is only during the summer that the 
animals can be fed in the open. During the 
winter they must be kept in sheds and fed on 
hay and grain. And so while one set of people 
is tending the herds in the mountains another 
is busy in the valley growing the winter food of 
hay and grain. Twigs and leaves are also stored 
up for the goats. The amount of grass in Swit- 
zerland is so small that it is impossible to allow 
any of it to be wasted. Hence it is cut when it 
is only three inches high ; in this way three 
crops of short hay may be obtained in a good 
season. Scarcely a blade of grass escapes, and in 
places where even the sheep and the goats 
cannot go, the peasant climbs with iron hooks 
on his boots to cut grass a handful at a time. 
Later on in the year he brings it all down on a 

Amongst mountains there are often cloudy 
days, much rain, and heavy dews and it is not 
always easy to dry the grass. When the peasant 
thinks the day is going to be fine, he cuts a small 
quantity of grass, and, during the day, his wife 
and children toss it over and over in order to 
dry it quickly. In the evening they tie it into 
bundles and carry it to the barns. Quite 'fre- 
quently grass can be seen drying on poles, hung 
on the sunny side of the house. 


Between the fields and the meadows there 
are forests of firs and pines, the wood from 
which is used in the manufacture of furniture 
and houses, and for the supply of winter fuel. 

The homes of the Swiss are large and com- 
fortable. They are broad and long but not too 
high, and they are so built that they can stand 
against the wildest 
storms that come 
from the mountain 
heights. The lower 
part is of stone 
from the mountains ; 
the upper part is 
of wood from the 
forests. In the stone 
part are the cellars ; 
at the back are 
the stables and cow- 
houses ; in the upper 
part are the rooms 
where the " people 
live. The roofs, 


Japanese houses, are weighted with stones to 
prevent them being blown off by the winds, and 
they project over the sides to give protection 
from rain and shelter from sun. The doors 
and 'windows are often placed at some height 
above the ground in order that they may not 
be blocked by snowdrifts. The furniture inside 



the fcouses Is strong but simple and Is made at 
home or by the village carpenter and chiefly 
during the winter, when the deep snows put an 
end to all farming operations. 

Little meat is eaten, except on Sundays, but 
there is always plenty of milk, butter, cheese 
and bread Clothes are often made of wool 


obtained from the peasant's own flocks and spun 
and woven and made into garments at home. 

As the soil and the weather do so little to 
help man in a country like this, he has to do 
all the more for himself. In the summer the 
farm, the forest, and the meadow take up all his 
time and he is busy enough, but during the long 
winter there is not much work except feeding 


the cattle, and that does not take very tang. 
A great deal of the time that is to spare is given 
up to wood carving, the making of furniture, of implements and so on. Much of 
the beautiful wood carving is sold to the thou- 
sands of tourists who visit the land in summer. 

These tourists, who are attracted by the 
beauty of the mountain scenery, have provided 
the Swiss with new occupations in comparatively 
recent years. In, numerous hotels the Swiss 
supply tourists with excellent food and shelter ; 
in order to get from, one place to another motor 
cars and Qther vehicles are lent out on hire and, 
for the adventurous who wish to scale the up- 
lifted summits, there is a specially trained set 
of guides. These guides know all the safe and 
dangerous routes to the peaks to which they act 
as guides, and are noted as much for their pre- 
sence of mind, and their resourcefulness in times 
of peril, as they are for their skill and pluck. 

There conies a time when there is no longer 
room enough in the valley for the people who have 
grown up in it ; many are compelled to go to 
other countries to earn their living, and there is 
perhaps no land in the world where Swiss are 
not to be found at work. Even those who stay 
at home in the summer frequently go to other 
lands in the winter when there is so little to do 
on tjie farms. But even if they leave home for 
some months or years they always look forward 
to returning at last to their narrow valleys and 
snow-capped mountains. 




PEOPLE are always interested-in sailors and there 
lias been a good deal in this book about them. 
There were the Arabs who long ago brought the 
spices from India. Sailors from Venice and 
Genoa voyaged in the Mediterranean Sea and 
carried the pepper and other spices which they 
obtained from, the Arabs so that people all over 
Europe could get them. Then the Portuguese 
and the Spaniards, taught by the Mediterranean 
sailors, found their way to America and the 
Indies in their desire to obtain the valuable 
things which were to be brought from those 
distant lands. 

But so far w r e have said very little about some 
people who were far better sailors than the 
Spaniards or the Portuguese, and in this chapter 
w^e are going to tell of the Norwegians and the 
Dutch and, of course, the British. 

In the north-west of Europe it is never very 
cold and it is never very hot. It is never so 
cold in winter as it is in Canada or in the east of 
Europe. In all the northern part of North America 



the ground is frozen every winter for a long Mine. 
The same is true of Eastern Europe. The 
north-eastern coast of North America is frozen 
and no ships can approach the land for months. 
Yet none of the harbours of Britain have ever 
had enough ice in them to prevent ships entering. 
The lands on the other side of the English 
Channel and North Sea are also open to ships 
all the year round and ev.en the coasts of Norway 

IBelQw 32F in January 



are usually free of ice. This is one very great 
advantage possessed by those countries. 

Another advantage is that it is not too hot 
to work in summer : it is not like India or most 
of South America and Africa or parts of North 
America. Over a great portion of the world 
people are not able to do much ^hard work in 
the 'hot hours of the summer days ; but in 
Britain, Norway, Holland, and France people 
are able to work hard all the year round. 



A third advantage is that the seas round the 
north-west of Europe, though deep enough to 
float the largest vessel, are shallow enough to 
allow fishermen to catch the fish with trawl and 
net and line. It was one of the advantages of 


Venice that the Adriatic Sea was shallow and the 
early settlers there could catch fish. 

Fish that swim near the surface, like the 
mackerel and ^herring, are caught with a drift- 
net. This is let down into the sea and forms a 
kind of wall or fence. Heavy weights keep the 
bottom down and big corks at the top keep it 


floating upright. The fish swim up to the* net, 
try to get through, and are caught by the gills 
in the meshes of the net. 

Fish that live at the bottom of the sea, like 
soles and plaice, are caught in a net shaped like 
a bag. The net is dragged along by a boat 
called a trawler. Some trawlers are sailing 


vessels and send their fish to market by swift 
steamers that come to them to collect what they 
have caught. . Others are themselves steam- 
boats, and .bring their own fish to market. 

Codfish are caught on a line ^vhich may be 
as inuch as nine or ten miles long. The line 
has hooks some feet apart and a long one might 
have as ina as 5000 hooks on it. 



Mi those ways of fishing can be used best 
when the water is not very deep. The seas 
round North- West Europe are really very 
shallow, the North Sea especially so : in the 
centre is an area even shallower than the rest, 
called the Dogger Bank, where great numbers 
of fish are caught. 


Very many Norwegians are sailors. The 
Vikings were Norwegians who lived round the 
long narrow viks or wicks or fior-ds. These 
fiords have steep rocky mountains all round them 
and there is little fiat land that can be used for 
fields, so the Vikings tried to catch some of the 
fish which lived in the quiet waters of the fiord. 


They could make boats from the wood "feo be 
had from the forests and they learned how to 
manage them, so that by-and-by they ventured 
out into the open ocean and sailed across to 
Britain and the coasts of the Continent and 
perhaps even crossed the Atlantic and reached 
the shores of America long before Columbus. 

many fish are 
caught off the 
Norwegian coast. 
Cod from which 
cod-liver-K)il is 
made are 
caught off the 
Lofoten Islands, 
and Bergen is a 
great fish market 
for all kinds of 
fish. If you go 
to Bergen you 
see many fTstdng 
boats in the har- 
bour, fish barrels on the quays, and buildings 
where fish are preserved before they are 
exported. You may even buy live fish from 
the stalls in" the market place. The fishmonger 
lifts the one the customer wishes to purchase 
out' of the tank where it is swimming with 
many others, so that it is quite certain to be 



A little oats and barley and rye and potatoes 
may be grown in Norway and some cattle and 
horses and goats may feed on the grass, which 
is cut and dried quite as carefully by the 
Norwegian peasants as by the Swiss. But the 
only things that are sold abroad are timber and 
fish, so many Norwegians are sailors and use 
their ships to carry goods for other nations, and 
brave sailors they are too. 

Holland is very different from Norway. 
Holland is very flat, Norway is mountainous. 
Norway is rocky, w T hile in Holland scarcely 
a stone is to be seen. But Holland is v6ry small ; 
a great part of it is below the level of the sea and 
the rivers, and is only kept free of water by the 
aid of dykes and by pumps worked by windmills 
which lift the w^ater from drains or canals into 
the rivers. Though the Dutch make the most 
of their small land and grow large crops by means 
of spade culture, yet the land cannot grow 
enough for all the people and many Dutchmen 
are sailors. They, too, learned of 'the sea by 
fishing, first in the South Sea or Zuider Zee and 
then in the shallow waters of the North Sea. 
They too became explorers and sailed all over 
the world. Sailors from Holland first sailed 
round Cape Horn and gave it its najne. They 
sailed round the Cape of Good Hope and 
founded thriving settlements in the East Indies. 
From Java they still bring back india-rubber 
and coffee and sugar. 


They are not only fishermen and sailors^who 
bring goods to their own country ; they carry 
goods for other nations. Holland is better 
situated than Norway for trade because it is 
convenient to land many things in Holland that 
are really being sent to places in the interior of 
the continent. By means of the Rhine, boats 
can sail far inland, so that the ports of Amsterdam 


and Rotterdam are much larger than the ports 
of Norway. 

And then there is Britain. There was a time 
when no sailors lived in Britain, but that was 
a long time ago. In Britain, though there 
are a great many people who are neither fisher- 
men nor sailors, nearly every one has at any 
rate seen the sea at one time or another. The 


coasts of the west of Scotland are like those of 
Norway : there are long narrow bays and there 
is little land which may be cultivated. Men 
there became fishermen as did the Norwegians. 
Stomoway, in the north of the Island of .Lewis, 
is still a fishing town. The east of Britain is 
near the shallow seas that were open to the 
Dutch ; there, as near the Uogger Bank as 
possible, are Yarmouth and Lowestoft, while 
farther north are Grimsby 'and Aberdeen and 
Peterhead and Wick. 

Fishermen are " trained from boyhood to 
6 scour 3 the sea, familiar with, the s&a bottom 
and all the intermediate levels as no other 
seamen are, trained to achieve the impossible, 
gamblers all knowing the game backward 
imperturbable, coolheaded, fearless. Such were 
the men who singed the Spaniard's beard and 
harried the French under letters of marque- 
And now that the days of sail are almost over 
there is left no school of seamanship to compare 
with our deep-sea fishing fleets. 3 * 3 '* So again 
it was in fishing that British sailors learned their 
trade. They learned how to cross the ocean, 
they came to know how the winds blew, westerlies 
and trade winds and monsoons. . They followed 
the Spaniards to America, the Portuguese and 
Dutch to the .East. The Pilgrim Fathers sailed 
for New England, the East India Company 

United Empire, March 1919, p. 97. 


traded with. India. Ships were improved in siiape 
so that they could sail more swiftly : the fast 
clippers brought tea from India, and now oil all 
the seas of all the world are found British ships 
and British sailors. 

But "the clays of sail are almost over." 
Nowadays ships are moved by steam, even 
fishing vessels. " To drive vessels by steam coal 
and oil are used, and i is another advantage 
possessed by some* of the lands of North- West 
Europe, France and Germany and Britain, that 
coal is found in them. All along the northern 
edge of the highlands in the centre of Europe 
coal is mined and along the edges of the highlands 
of Britain it is also mined. 

And' not only is coal used to drive vessels : 
it is used to make more things than can be used 
at home, things of cotton and woollen and iron. 
These are carried by our ships to other lands. 
These ships require harbours and docks and the 
various appliances for loading and unloading, 
so that British ports have become as large as 
any in the world. From London and Liverpool, 
Hull and Glasgow are sent away the manufactures 
of Britain, and to those ports are brought in 
return the products of lands all over the globe. 
The ships can sail far inland, because the tides 
keep the estuaries clear of mud as they do also 
the estuaries of France and to a less* extent those 
of Holland and Germany. 

There are many French fishermen and sailors 

216 WORLD 

too.* The fishermen sail even to the banks of 
Newfoundland. There are French colonies In 
Asia and Africa and South America, and French 
vessels bring their products back to Europe, 

No sea in the world has so many ships on ib 
as the seas round North- West Europe. They 
come together from all parts of the world and 
depart again to North America and South 
America, to Africa and Asia and the isles of the 
Pacific, as well as countries fiearer home. The 
lands would be all separate were it not for sailors, 
and especially for the sailors of North- West 



WE have now seen something of the world and of 
how people live in different parts, and among 
.the things which y r e have noticed is that there 
are very many different ways of living, of finding 
one's food, clothes and happiness. 

In thi last chapter we are going to speak 
of the* British 'Empire. British sailors have 
taken their ships " swift shuttles of an Empire's 
loom " to all -parts of the world that can be 
reached by sea. In all kinds of places, scattered 
all over the world, there are bits of the British 
Empire. Some of them are great regions, almost 
continents, others are only a few square miles 
in area, but between them they include an almost 
endless variety of conditions and manner of life. 

Already something has been said of Canada 
and of India. We have seen how wheat-farmers 
and fur-traders live in the centre and north of 
Canada, and a little thought will show that wheat- 
farming and fur- trading are only two occupations 
out of hundreds possible on the great area of 
Canada. In India we have also seen that there 
are not only people with different occupations 
but there is a medley of races who wish to* live 




in Different 'ways. In Australia and South 
Africa there are also people who live differently 
from each other and from those in other lands. 

Let us first compare Australia and Canada. 
They are about the same size, so enormous that 

each of them is only a little less than the wiiole 

of Europe. In almost everything else but size 
they differ. A great part of CaiTada is too cold 
for many people to live, but it is nowhere very 




dry ; a great part of Australia is too dry for 
people to live, but it is nowhere very cold. When 
it is winter in Canada and very cold, Australia 
is having a hot summer. In Canada there are 
great forests ; in Australia there are few trees 
and these are mostly gum trees which give little 
shade and which look as if they were all branches ; 
they have few leaves and these hang straight 
downwards. Tlte native animals of Australia 


fcoo are not only different from 'the fur-bearing 
animals of Canada, but are different from ^he 
animals of the rest of the world. Elsewhere 
there is nothing like the kangaroo and the duck- 
billed platypus, an animal that lays eggs like a 

Much more important is the fact that Canada 
is little more thn a week's journey from Britain ; 
people can easily come home for a holiday, 
while Australia is o far-away that there is no 
time during ordinary holidays to come back to 
" the old country." New Zealand, of course, 
has the "disadvantage of being still farther away. 

Australia Is so large that while some parts 
are dry others are wet, while some are very 
hot" some are moderately cool. The north of 
Australia is wet and hot, like the Indies, and few 
white people like to live there, while in the south, 
in Tasmania, there is a delightful climate some- 
thing like that of the south of England. Some 
parts of Western Australia are so dry and hot 
as to be almost a desert, though they are not so 
hot and dry as the Sahara ; elsewhere the land 
is rather like the steppe. It is natural that 
comparatively little of Australia is cultivated ; 
it is t6o dry. It is, however, wet enough over 
a large area -to* grow grass, and a great number 
of Australian farmers are sheep-farmers. The 
runs or farms are of great area, s$me of them of 
the size of some of the smaller English counties. 
The sheep came originally from Spain, where we 

220 . WORLD 

have seen it 'is* also dry and hot; the wool of 
tlie^e sheep is much finer than the wool of 
English sheep. 

The dwellings of the settlers and especially 
of the early settlers were lonely and far from 
pretty. The post might come once a week and 
even then the letters might have to be fetched 
fifteen to twenty miles. The houses would have 
plain boards for sides and roofs of corrugated 
iron ; they were shaded by a no trees and had- 
no gardens. The life was hard and only brave 
men and women could stand it. The food 
of the settlers consisted of mutton &ncl home- 
baked bread washed down by tea &t evefy meal. 

Shearing time supplies the great variety in 
the yearly round. On a large station ^erKaps 
a quarter of a million sheep may have their wool 
clipped and this may take seventy or eighty 
shearers working hard for six weeks. It is not 
easy work ; the hand is strained with constantly 
working the shears, and as the work has to be 
done in a stooping attitude, the jaien become 
very tired after each day's work. 

The shearing shed is a busy scene with the 
sheep, some thousands of them, awaiting their 
turns, and the shearers and their assistants who 
pick up the fleeces, fold them, put 'them into bales 
and send them off to reach, eventually, the mills 
of Yorkshire.* 

Many men who afterwards became sheep- 
fariners first went to Australia to dig for gold 


which was found " in Victoria ; the houses of 
the mining 'towns were of the same unlovely 
kind. They were perhaps even worse, for the 
roads were thick with dust in summer and 
almost impassable in the wet winter. 

Along the east coast, where there is more 
rain brought by the south-east trade winds 
and ' where people have bsen living longest 
the farms are much surlier and fanners are 
"now producing other things besides wool and 
mutton, sugar in the wet north and fruit in the 
south, \vhere the climate is more like that of 
the Mediterranean lands where fruit is grown. 
Here the villages have now a water supply, the 
ugly shanties are giving place to trim houses, 
the streets have avenues of eucalyptus and other 
trees. Here too there are the great cities of Sydney 
and Melbourne, each on a magnificent natural 
harbour. That on the shores of which Sydney 
is built is probably the finest in the world. 

And what can we say of the portion of South 
Africa which* is included in the British Empire? 
It is not nearly so large as either Canada or 
Australia, being only about a quarter of the size 
of either of them, but even so it is as big as 
eight United Kingdoms, so it cannot be called 
small, and m there are opportunities for many 
different ways of living. It is more like Australia 
than. Canada. The land of the ^ west is very 
dry, so dry as to be called a desert, the Kalahari 
Desert. There are also wide stretches of grassy 


222 WORLD 

stope land, also like Australia,, though it is 
called by a special name, u the veldt" There 
are, too, much smaller areas like English park- 
land; while trees like the cork and oak, and fruits 
like the vine are grown in the very south. Such 
forest land as exists is along the east coast where 
rain is brought by the south-ejist trade winds. 
Oh ! 55 yon say, " that is just like Australia ; 
then there will be steep-farms and the other 
things which we hear of in Australia. " That is 
partly true, but there are many ways in which 
South Africa differs from Australia. Tke sheep* 
farms are certainly there and % go'od^defal of 
wool is sent across the sea to Britain. There" are 
great gold mines near Johannesburg too,^nd.t&at 
reminds us of Australia. 

But in Australia the people though they live 
differently are almost all British, while in South 
Africa for every European there are four people 
who are not Europeans. Most of these are like 
the dark-coloured Zulus we read of in Chap. XIII., 
but they speak so many different languages and 
dialects that the country is more like India 
than Australia in the mixture of peoples. Even 
in India the white people are British,, but in 
South Africa only half of the. Europeans are 
British ; the other half are of Dutch descent, 
and these nqt only speak a different language 
but have different customs and habits. 

..There are Zulu kraals or villages of huts and 
Tonely houses of the Boer or JDutch farmers : 


jet there are cities' like Cape Town or Johannes* 
burg which are much like cities inhabited by 
Europeans in other parts of the world, while 
even in Sbuthern Rhodesia, where there are 
twenty-five natives to every white person, there 
are towns with public supplies of water and 
electric light, with, telephones, libraries, museums, 
hospitals, theatres, churches, and schools. 
Through South Africa <reat railways run, but 
-trek carts drawn 'by eighteen or twenty oxen 
or mules or -donkeys are used to .cross the steppe 


lands, and in some forest districts there are no 
roads but only native paths a foot wide along 
which there" wind lines of native porters carrying 
goods on their heads in bundles that weigh fifty 
or sixty pounds. 

Peo>ple live in many different ways in South 

There are many other parts of the Empire, 
some large like Nigeria where the jiegroes of the 
Suclan live (see Chap. XIII.), or tiny pieces of 
land like Gibraltar or Aden, or small islsCo4s ^ 
the ocean like j3t. Helena or Malta, 

224 - WORLD 

In each of them-, there are^people who think 

of where they live as" " home "and think with 
affection of the things they know best.- The 
Englishman thinks of roses in the hedgerows and 
trim gardens, the Scotsman of heather OR Tbfeak 
moorlands, the Irishman of the scent of bog 
plants. The Canadian takes the. maple leaf as 
his emblem, the Australian chooses the wattibC 
New Zealanders and South Africans,, negroes and 
Hindus., each have certain familiar sights anc 
sounds which make them feel at home and to 
which they return with -a feeling of relief and 
satisfaction. * e * ^^'^ 

We sometimes hear it said that Canada, "61' 
New Zealand or some other country is " ouEgJ! 
or that it " belongs " to Britain. This is 
not true even if we are thinking of the land 
called Canada, and it is even less true if we under- 
stand that the Empire is not made up of land but 
of people. It is made up of the people of Britain 
and of Canada and India and Australia and the 
rest. The Empire is not " ours Jf ' but "us." 
And what keeps us together ? Good \vill and 
knowledge. That is one reason why we learn 

" Far and far our homes are set round the Seven Seas; 
Woe for us if we forget, we that hold by these f 
Unto each his mother-beach, bloom and bird and land 
Musters of th^SJeveri Seas, oh, love and understand."